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Abenaki chief pretends to prophetic inspira- 
tion, v. 112. 

Abenakis of Maine desire missionaries, i. 27, 
iii. 135; labors of Druillettes among them, 
136; of other .Icsuits, 178; their inroads 
upon the English settlements, 181; cruel- 
ties practised by them, 187, 212; locality 
where found, 238; resist the encroachments 
of the English on their lands, 333 ; attack 
the settlements in Maine, 335 ; Rakes, their 
missionary, slain, 335; iv. 194, 210, 260. 

Abercrombie, General James, sails for New 
York, iv. 235; arrives at Albany, 236; 
refuses promotion to provincial officers, 
236 ; quarters his soldiers in private houses, 
and neglects his duties, 236 ; his dilatory 
proceedings, 236; made commander-in- 
chief, 294; his shameful incapacity at 
Tieonderoga, 300-304; his defeat, 303; is 
recalled, 306. 

Abercrombie, James, lieutenant-colonel, mor- 
tally wounded on Bunker Hill, viii. 26. 

Abingdon, Earl of, stigmatizes the war with 
America, ix. 324. 

Aborigines of Virginia, their numbers, i. 180; 
are taught the use of fire-arms, 181; their 
treachery, 182; massacre the whites, 182. 

of America, absurd tales respecting, 

iii. 236; their general character similar, 
237; their languages, 237, et seq.; esti- 
mated population, 253; aboriginal lan- 
guages (see Lanffuaf/es); manners and 
customs, 266; political institutions, 275; 
religion, 285; natural endowments, 300; 
origin, 306. 

of Massachusetts, labors of Eliot 

among them, ii. 95. 

Aca.lia, or Nova Scotia, its first settlement, 
i. 26; by charter includes all New Eng- 
land, 26; granted to Sir William Alex- 
ander, 332; restored to France, 335; con- 
quered by Cromwell, 445; restored to 
France, ii. 70 ; conquered by English, iii. 
184; surrenders to the French arms, 180; 
final conquest of Acadia, 218; secured to 
England by treaty, 234; what were its 
limits, 234; its boundaries, iv. 30; part of 
it claimed by the French, 43 ; French col- 
onies in, 44; removal of its inhabitants 

proposed, 44; emigrants from England, 
45; French neutrals there, 46; violent pro- 
ceedings of a French officer, 67, et seq. ; 
England and France contend for it, 182, et 
seq. ; brief history of Acadia, 193 ; social 
condition of its people, 194; the French 
neutrals virtuous and contented, 195; their 
numbers, 195; haughtiness of the British 
officers, 196 ; oppression of the people, 196, 
197 ; disaffection to British rule, 196 ; dis- 
arming of the people 197; their removal 
determined upon, 199 ; and effected, 202, 
et seq. ; extreme cruelty of the proceeding, 
203: sufferings of the people, 203-206; 
Belcher, chief justice, approves it, 201; 
Winslow, of Boston, assists in the affair, 

Acadians in Louisiana, v. 242. 

Accomac Indians, iii. 239. 

Acland's speech in the house of commons, 
viii. 161. 

Ackland, Major, in the battle of Bemis's 
Heights, ix. 415; is wounded, 416. 

"Acteon," British frigate, in the attack on 
Charleston, viii. 406; runs aground, 410; 
is burned, 411. 

Acton, in Massachusetts, news of the approach 
of a British force reaches it, vii. 290; the 
minute men answer the call to arms, 290, 
298, 299; they take part in the battle of 
Concord, 302, 303; and in the pursuit of 
the enemy, 302, 303. 

Adair, James, his speech in the House of 
Commons against the war with America, 
viii. 162. 

Adame, Abigail, wife of John Adams, her 
patriotic anticipation, vii. 137; her afflicted 
condition, viii. 135 ; her brave letter to her 
husband on reading the king's savage 
proclamation, 135, 136. 

Adams, Hannah, of Cambridge, her suffer- 
ings from British soldiers, vii. 308. 

Adams, John, teacher of the town school at 
Worcester, his musings at twenty, iv. 215; 
wishes to break off all connection with 
Great Britain, 269; his reasonings against 
the stamp act, and against oppressive 
government, v. 323-326, 376; leads the 
town of Braintree in its utterance against 
courts of admiralty, 329; scorns the ser- 
vice of the king, vi. 266; is counsel for 

T- A 



Captain Preston and the soldiers, -150, 373 ; 
retires from the service of the people, 403; 
is active in the cause of liberty, 453, 4(il ; 
negatived by Gage as a councillor, vii. 
48; chosen a delegate to the congress of 
1774, G4; enters public life in earnest, G5; 
chosen moderator of a meeting in Faneuil 
Hall, G4, 05; a member of the first conti- 
nental congress, 127 ; he persuades this 
body to accept the British colonial system, 
140"; is anxious to see New England pre- 
pared for resistance, 151; his Novanglus, 
232-239; a member of the second conti- 
nental congress, 353; nominates, Washing- 
ton as commander-in-chief, 390; measures 
advised by him in congress in July, 1775, 
viii. 37; his indignation at apathy of con- 
gress, 56; Dickinson treats him with inci- 
vility, 109; advocates the beginning of an 
American navy, 114; favors independence 
and a form of government directly derived 
from the people, 141 ; advises General Lee 
to go to New York, 277; his great con- 
fidence in Lee, 281; resumes his seat in 
congress, 308 ; his character, 308 ; the Mar- 
tin Luther of the American revolution, 311; 
the ablest debater in congress, 312 ; in favor 
of enlisting men for the war, 317; moves 
that the people institute governments, 367; 
reports a preamble to this resolution, 367; 
his views on government, 370; supports 
the veto power, 370; points out the dif- 
ference between ancient and modern re- 
publics, 371; necessity of two branches in 
the legislature, 371; the education of the 
people of vital importance, 372; seconds 
the resolution for independence, 389: one 
of the committee to prepare a declara- 
tion of independence, 392; one of the 
committee on treaties with foreign powers, 
393; one of the board of war, 393; invokes 
the blessing of heaven upon the new-born 
republic, 448; his great speech in favor of 
a declaration of independence, 4ol ; reply 
of Dickinson, 452. et seq.; congress declares 
the united colonies free and indepen- 
dent states, 459 ; his state of mind at 
the close of the day, 459; his triumphant 
joy, 460; ix. 40, 51; his speech on repre- 
sentation. 53, 54; his imperfect knowledge 
of war, 78; his relations witli Lee and 
Gates, 78; his distrust of Washington, 78; 
his contempt for Sullivan, 110; is chosen 
one of a committee to meet Lord Howe, 
112; the interview, 116; member of the 
committee on spies, 135 ; goes home when 
most wanted in congress, 173, 174; objects 
to power conferred on Washington, 255; 
argues for two branches in the legislature, 
265, 266; his incautious language concern- 
ing Washington, 391 ; unreasonably blames 
Washington, 402; his jealousy of Wash- 
ington, 431; votes for limiting his powers, 
433; appointed commissioner to France, 
467; minister to negotiate a peace, x. 221, 
261, 262; his views on the armed neutral- 
ity, 281; arrives in Paris, 442; offends 
Vergenues by his republican sentiments, 

443; Vergenues complains of him, 452; 
sees the spirit of liberty spreading in 
Europe, 453 ; Adams in Holland, 527 ; 
solicits the United Provinces, separately, 
to acknowledge the independence of. the 
revolted British colonies and succeeds, 
527; comes to Paris to assist Franklin, 
584; secures to the United States their 
northern boundary. 585; obtains further 
concessions, 585; his firm conduct respect- 
ing the fisheries, 590. 
Adams, Samuel, of Massachusetts, his early 
history, v. 194; his religious character, 
194,195; his political creed, 195; his pov- 
erty and public spirit, 195, 196; instruc- 
tions of Boston to its representatives 
written by him, 197; these gave the key- 
note to the revolution, 19S; disapproves 
violent proceedings, 313 ; guides the ut- 
terances of Boston, 329; elected its repre- 
sentative, 331 ; author of the reply of the 
legislature to Governor Bernard, 349; 
his opposition to the speeches of Governor 
Bernard, vi. 11; his advice to De Berdt, 
the province agent in Lngland, 42; his 
letter to Gadsden, of South Carolina, con- 
demning the billeting act, 42; his ruling 
passion — the preservation of the distinc- 
tive character of New England, 118; author 
of a petition from the province to the king, 
123 ; author of a circular letter addressed 
by the province to the other colonies, 125 ; 
advises the repeal of the revenue acts, 
151; his enthusiasm, 105; he aims at 
independence, 192,253; Hutchinson wishes 
him " taken off," 193; his unsullied purity 
admitted by his enemies, 193; elected to 
a convention of the province, 198; unawed 
by threats of being '' taken off" and sent 
to England for trial, continues his efforts 
in the cause of liberty, 247, 253; Hutchin- 
son collects evidence against him, 251; 
Adams exhibits the weakness of England 
and the strength of America, 267; repre- 
sentative in the general court, 284; he 
writes Boston's "Appeal to the World," 
312; his memorable conduct in the pro- 
ceedings which followed the Boston mas- 
sacre, 341, et seq. ; overawes Governor 
Hutchinson, 344, 345; meditates on the 
last appeal, 407; again elected represent- 
ative of Boston, 419; proposes commit- 
tees of correspondence, 425, et seq. ; the 
plan formed by him and by' none other, 
428, note ; the end aimed at, 429 ; prepares 
a statement of the rights of the colonies, 
431; is consulted by Khode Island, 441; 
his earnest reply, 441, 443; his prophetic 
declaration, 443; his masterly argument 
against the supremacy of parliament, 448; 
urges a plan of union between the colo- 
nies, 466; his letter to Hawley, 467, 468; 
his strong will sways the feebler politicians 
and the entire province, 469; Franklin 
concurs with him, 469 ; his share in the 
affair of the Boston tea party. 473. el seq. ; 
head of Boston committee, 482 ; ultimatum 
of America as expressed by him, 508, 509; 



the British ministry select him for sacrifice 
as the chief of revolution, 523; highly 
esteemed in America and in England, 5.24 ; 
presides at a meeting at Faneuil Hall, vii. 
35, 37; makes a touching appeal to the 
other colonies, 37 ; proscribed by the British 
ministry, 38; inculcates patience, 39; sup- 
presses the people's murmurs, 47; con- 
trasted with George III., 59; his patriotic 
utterances, 59, 60; proposes immediate 
assembling of a continental Congress, 64; 
chosen a delegate to this Congress, 64; 
Hutchinson's representation of him to the 
king, 72: a member of the first conti- 
nental Congress, 127; nominates Jacob 
Duche" for chaplain, 131; character as 
given by the traitor Galloway, 134; his 
great influence in Congress, 134 ; urges his 
friends to study the art of war and to per- 
sist in the struggle for liberty, 151; his 
piety, 251, 252; Gage sends a force to 
seize him at Lexington, 288; he escapes 
to Woburn, 292; his exultation at the 
progress of the strife, 296; a member of 
the second continental Congress, 353; he 
seconds the nomination of Washington as 
commander-in-chief, 390; is proscribed by 
Gage, 391 ; delegate in Congress from Mas- 
sachusetts, viii. 233; denounces George 
III. as a tyrant, 242; his zealous efforts for 
independence, 242, 243; speaks on the 
subject of short enlistments, 316; supports 
John Adams in the struggle for entire 
separation from Britain, 368, 369 ; one of 
the committee for drawing up articles of 
confederation, 392; is unwilling to guar- 
antee the eventual payment of the conti- 
nental currency, ix. 173 ; one of a com- 
mittee on terms of peace, 213; his decision 
of character, 40,41; signs the declaration 
of independence, 59; his indomitable reso- 
lution, 214, 237; wishes to place Gates in 
command of the northern army, 336: his 
impatience, 255, 343, 353; votes for limit- 
ing Washington's powers. 433. 

Addison in Vermont, occupied by the French, 
iii. 370. 

Administration, F.nglish, (see Jfinistry). 

Administration of Henry Pelham, iv. 3-126; 
of the Duke of Newcastle, 127-250; Eng- 
land without a ministry, 251-271; first 
administration of William Pitt, 248-250: 
his second administration. 272-410; ad- 
ministration of the Earl of Egremont, 412- 
438; of the Earl of Bute, 438-462, v. 3- 
96; the triumvirate ministry, v. 97-142; 
ministry of George Grenville, 146-300; 
of the Marquis of Rockingham, v. 301-vi. 
16: third administration of Pitt, 17-61. 

Admiralty, Courts of, for America, v. 161. 

court in Boston, hateful to Americans, 

and why, iv. 420. 

courts established in the colonies, vi. 

167, 450; complained of as a grievance, 

Admiralty, court instituted by Massachusetts, 

viii. 136. 
African slave-trade (see Slaves and Slavery), 

how conducted, iii. 402; sources of supplv, 

Agnew, General, in the marauding expedi- 
lion to Danbury, ix. 340; at Braudywme, 

Aguesseau, chancellor of France, iii. 357. 

Aiguillon, Duchess d', endows a hospital at 
Quebec, iii. 126. 

Aix la Chapelle, congress of, unsatisfactory 
results, iii. 466. 

Alabama traversed bv De Soto, i. 48; occu- 
pied by the French^ iii. 205, 348, 352, 365. 

Alatamaha, an English fort on its banks, iii. 

Albania, East New Jer-ey so called, ii. 317. 

Albany first visited by white men, ii. 269; 
fort Nassau built in 1615, 276; fort Oranire 
in 1623, 279, 281; surrendered to the Eng- 
lish, 315; whence the name, 315; Milborne 
takes possession of it, iii. 53. 

Congress at, iv. 28, 29; congress of 

commissioners there in 1754, iv. 121; its 
purpose, 121, 145; a plan of union of all 
the colonies proposed, 123; its details, 124; 
the plan not ratified by the colonies, 125; 
not accepted by luigland, 120. 

Albemarle, Duke of (see Monk, George). 

Albemarle, part of Carolina, ii. 152, 156, 158. 

Albemarle county in Virginia, the residence 
of Thomas Jefferson, vii. 107, 385; its peo- 
ple deny the power of parliament to make 
laws for America, 107. 

" Alcide" and "Lvs" captured by an Eng- 
lish fleet, iv. 183'. 

Alexander, James, of New York, favors a 
tax on tbe colonies, iv. 116, 179. 

Alexander, Sir William, obtains a patent of 
Acadia or Nova Scotia, i. 332; a new 
patent, 333. 

Alexander, William Earl of Stirling (see 
Stirling, Earl of). 

Algonquins, a partv of, massacred by the 
Dutch, ii. 289, 290; their revenge, 290, 
3S3: Jesuit missions among them, iii. 127, 
128,' 129, 132, 145, 146, 155; at peace with 
the French, 135, 153, 177; their language 
and race widely diffused, 237; found in 
Carolina, 239; and in Texas, 238; on Lake 
Superior, 242; estimated population, 253. 

Alleglianies, effects of the conflicts at Lex- 
ington and Concord beyond them, vii. 312. 

Alleghany Mountains, all the territory be- 
yond claimed by Spain, x. 191, 210; the 
claim disconcerted, 203. 

Allegiance, question of, whether due to the 
United States or to a particular state, ix. 
253, 254. 

Allen, Andrew, had been a member of con- 
gress, submits to the king, ix. 199. 

Allen, Ethan, of Bennington, Vermont, en- 
gages the support of the Green Mountain. 
Boys in the cause of liberty, vii. 271 a; he 
leads the successful expedition against 
Ticonderoga, 339, 340; his scheme to capt- 
ure St. John's in Canada. 364; raises a 
corps of Canadians, viii 183; his rashness 
183; attempts to surprise Montreal, 183; 
is attacked by a superior force and obliged 



to surrender, 184; receives severe treat- 
ment, and is sent to England, 184. * 

Allen, James, pastor of first church in Bos- 
ton, deficient in patriotism, ii. 432. 

Allen, Rev. Moses, an American chaplain, 
drowned, ix. 280 

Allen. Samuel, purchases Mason's claim on 
New Hampshire, iii. 82. 

Allen, William, of Philadelphia, resigns his 
commission in the army, ix. 171. 

Alliance with France, 117; brings the Amer- 
ican question into Europe, x. 35. 

"Alliance" frigate, 271. 

Alliances, new, in Europe, iv. 278. 

Allerton. Isaac, obtains a patent for the Plym- 
outh Pilgrims, i. 320. 

Alloiier, Claude, his mission to the Indians 
on Lake Superior, iii. 149, 150; his dis- 
coveries in the regions adjacent, 151 : visits 
the Kickapoos and Miamis, 155, 15G; mis- 
sionary in the region of Illinois, 195. 

Amedas," Philip, his voyage for Raleigh to 
North Carolina, i. 92. 

America, British dominion in, v. 59 ; extent 
of this dominion in 1763, after the peace of 
Paris, 78; America to be brought more 
fully under British rule, 79, et seq. ; taxa- 
tion by parliament proposed, 87, 88; loyal- 
ty of America. 90, 223 ; inquiries of Lord 
Egremont as to the best mode of taxing 
America, 107, 108, note; British posses- 
sions beyond the Alleghanies, 110; taxa- 
tion of America eagerh' pursued by the 
treasury board. 13G; stamp tax proposed, 
137 (see Taxation and Stamp Act); feudal 
system proposed, 162; all the territory 
beyond the Alleghanies shut by proclama- 
tion against the emigrant, 163; but in vain, 
165; Grenville's affected tenderness to- 
wards Ameiica, 189 ; the French ministry 
foresee the independence of America, 193; 
alarm of the colonies at the proposed 
stamp act, 194, et seq. ; views of Otis, 
201-205; of Hutchinson, 200-209; the 
ministry continue their oppressive meas- 
ures, 211, 214; protest of New York, 215; 
of Rhode Island and Pennsylvania, 217- 
220; Franklin sent to England to remon- 
strate. 220; American loyalists urge the 
ministry to further oppressions, 224. etseq. ; 
the ministry confident of their power over 
America, 229; the stamp act introduced 
into parliament. 236; speeches for and 
against it, 236-246; the stamp act passed. 
247 ; America at the feet of England, 265 ; 
danger to the liberties of mankind, 269; 
America slow to anger, 270; voice of New 
York, of Massachusetts, and other colonies, 
270, tt seq. ; patriotic resolutions of Vir- 
ginia, 275, 276; an American congress 
proposed, 279; opinions of the American 
people, 285, et seq. ; a wide-spread dis- 
satisfaction, 287-290; domestic manufact- 
ures encouraged. 288; associated action 
against the s'amp act. 291; the people 
resolve not to submit to it, 309, et seq., 323, 
etseq. ; towns and legislatures publish 
declarations of rights, 328 ; plan of a con- 

gress accepfed in several colonies, 328, "29; 
the first American congress meets, 334; 
its proceedings, 335, 342-340; America 
annuls the stamp act, 347, et seq., 352-361; 
union of the colonies, 346; no stamp officer 
remains, 351; the people adhere to the 
action of congress, 358; plan lor a per- 
manent union, 360; America is sustained 
by the spirit of liberty in England, 364- 
366 ; progress of resistance, 374, et seq. ; 
union resolved on, 377, 378; America de- 
fended in parliament by the Great Com- 
moner. 383-395; parliament affirm their 
right to tax America, 417; nothing but the 
repeal of the stamp act will sati.-ty Amer- 
ica, 427; Franklin's examination before 
the House of Commons, 428, et seq. ; the 
act repealed, 436 ; its joy transient, vi. 3, 5 ; 
approach to a wholesale denial of the power 
ol the British parliament over it, 6; its great 
resources reported to Choiseul, 26; false 
representations made in England, 31; dis- 
content and dissatisfaction, 31; troubles in 
North Carolina, 34, et teq. ; kind spirit of 
Lord Shelburne towards the colonies, 39, 
43; his conciliatory policy, b-3-55; the 
king determined to enforce obedience, 56; 
time from which Hutchinw.ii dates the 
revolt of the colonies, 41; America loses 
friends in England, 64; enumeration of the 
points in dispute between England and her 
co cnies, 69-72; Americans desire only the 
rights of Englishmen, 73; conciliation still 
possible in 1767, 69-73; rash and fatal 
measures proposed and carried by Charles 
Townshend, 76, etseq. ; independence pre- 
dicted, 95; the ministry intend to annul 
the colony charters, 111, 116; America 
resists, but passively, 121, etseq.,12d; pros- 
perity of America, 132 ; love to the mother 
country, 133; gross misrepresentations of 
American affairs, 134; importunities of 
Bernard and others for troops, 135, 136, 
143; England cannot conquer America, 
140; increased oppression, 144; the French 
statesmen watch with interest the progress 
of the controversy, 169; disturbances at 
Boston, 155, el seq. ; European philosophy 
and French policy assist American emanci- 
pation, 170; prime minister of France 
seeks information on American affairs, 180; 
Spain hopes that England will subdue 
America, 182; England is determined to 
tread America under foot, 207, 211, 216; 
the republic of New Orleans, 219: its 
overthrow, 293, et seq. ; every Ameri- 
can ussembly denies the right of par- 
liament to tax them, 234; American peti- 
tions rejected by the king, 234, 236; 
firmness of the patriots, 266 ; a tendency 
to conciliation, 317; the issue with Eng- 
land confined to the single question of 
a duty on tea, 318; the Boston massa- 
cre (see Boston); proposals for sending 
American patriots to England for trial 
and punishment, 246, 250, 258; French 
statesmen foresee the independence of 
America, 96, 244. 255; the claims of Eng- 



land denied everywhere, 247, 272; even in 
the English parliament, 2">7; the revenue 
acts re[» aled, except the duty on tea, 276 ; 
Virginia accords with Massachusetts, 280; 
the spirit of republicanism spreads in the 
East and in the West, 283, et seq. ; non- 
importation of British goods (see Non-im- 
portation), the country placed under mili- 
tary power, 367, et seq. ; England will not 
abolish the slave-trade, 413 ; committees of 
co, respondence, 428, et seq. ; rights claimed 
by America, 432; grievances endured from 
England, 432, 433; America joins issue 
with king and parliament, 433; discovery 
of the secret letters written by Hutchinson 
and Oliver, 435 ; they are sent to Massa- 
chusetts and published, 436, 461; traitors 
unmasked, 461, 462 ; the consequences, 463 ; 
the people unite against the oppressive 
measures of Great Britain, 437, et seq., 446, 
et seq. ; the Boston tea-party, 472-487 ; 
the ultimatum of America, 508, 509; strin- 
gent measures adopted by parliament for 
curbing the spirit of liberty in America, 
511-527; in 1774 instinct with the spirit of 
freedom, vii. 22; determination of the king 
and people to coerce it, 24; the colonies 
prepare for resistance, 42, 55; a general 
congress resolved on, and delegates chosen 
bv Massachusetts, 64; by Rhode Island, 
65; by Maryland, 66; by New York, 78, 
83; bv South Carolina, 81; by Pennsyl- 
vania, 82, 83; by New Jersey, 83; by New 
Hampshire, 83; by Virginia, 84, 85; the 
question between America and Great Brit- 
ain changed by the regulating act, 97 ; the 
savages to be let loose upon the Ameri- 
cans, 117, 118; the first American general 
congress, 127; population of English 
America, 128 ; congress will vote by colo- 
nies, 130; Franklin, in England, states 
what terms will satisfy America, 180: Lord 
Chatham thinks the terms reasonable and 
proper. 191,192; but they are rejected by 
the British cabinet, 193; all commerce with 
America inte-dicted, 193; Chatham's eulo- 
gy on the American people, 197. 198; firm 
union of the continent, 205; the ministry 
think to subdue America by fear, 222 ; they 
give orders to Gage to call out the savages, 
and to excite a servile insurrection, 222; 
Americans to be excluded from the New- 
foundland fisheries, 240; additional forces 
to be sent to America, 244; scurrilous lan- 
guage of Dr. Johnson towards the Ameri- 
cans, 259; Sandwich accuses the Ameri- 
cans of cowardice, 262; Burke's noble 
eulogium on them, 266, 267; city of Lon- 
don ineffectually intercedes for America, 
282; conflicts at Lexington and Concord, 
291, et seq. ; the alarm spreads over the 
country, 311, 312; meeting of the second 
continental congress, 353; difficulties in 
its way, 354; too early to declare indepen- 
dence. 354; American law the growth of 
necessity, 354: a heterogeneous population, 
355; differences of opinion, 355: a deeply 
seated love of the mother country, 356; 

the revolution emanated from the people, 
361-373; the "continental army," 391; 
the "twelve united colonies," 391; ap- 
pointment of Washington as commander- 
in-chief, 393; Bunker Hill battle ensures 
the union and the final triumph of America, 
435; sympathy of Ireland for, viii. 54; 
the bond between America and England 
hard to break, 56; congress hopes to 
avert war, 57 ; its hesitation, 57 (see Con- 
tinental Congress) ; condition of the New 
England colonies, 60, et seq. ; of the Mid- 
dle and southern colonies, 71, et seq. ; 
troops to be procured from continental 
Europe to subdue America, 100, 101, 107, 
147, et seq. ; France sends an emissary to 
America, 103, 104; American affairs dis- 
cussed at the court of Catherine II. , 104; 
question at issue between Britain and 
America, 116-129 (see Question at Issue) ; 
British writers have not found it easy to 
treat impartially of America, 121; the 
reason why, 121; Americans can more 
easily be impartial, and why, 121, 122; the 
Americans entered most reluctantly on a 
war with Britain, 122; the king's irrevoca- 
ble proclamation against Americans and 
their friends in England, 132; feelings 
excited by it in America, 134, et seq. ; 
energetic measures for defence, 142; the 
king is disappointed in his effort to obtain 
Russian troops to be employed in Ameri- 
ca, 150-156 ; the war to be transferred to 
New York and the southern colonies, 158; 
the king's speech, at the opening of parlia- 
m nt, declaring the Americans rebels, 160; 
these sentiments approved by the two 
houses, 161-163; the Irish parliament votes 
a supply of troops, 170; Lord North's bill lor 
prohibiting the whole commerce of all the 
colonies, 170; this atrocious bill passes par- 
liament, 171; the king prefers to renounce 
the colonies rather than give up the point 
at issue, 171; opinions of England's must 
distinguished philosophers and writers on 
this point, 172-175; the king and his in- 
sulting policy the cause of American inde- 
pendence, 175; invasion of Canada, 1£2, 
et seq. (see Montgomery): the people con- 
tinually verjre towards independence. 247, 
248; England tries to rally her partisans 
in America, 272, 283, et seq. ; the effort 
fails, 287, 288; debate on opening the 
ports, 313, 314. 320; the measure passed, 
323; the country divided into military 
departments, 317; a virtual declaration of 
independence is issued by throwing open 
the commerce of the country to the whole 
world, 323 ; report of Bon vouloir respecting 
America, 330; considerations founded on 
it submitted by Vergennes to the king of 
France 331, et seq. ; new flag of the navy, 
345, 346; the question of independence, 
350-356; virtually decided. 367, et seq., 
376, et seq.; the' final decision, 384-393, 
434, et seq. ; the united colonies declared to 
be free and independent states, 449,459; 
the declaration itself, and its principles, 



465-475, immediate effects of the declara- 
tion of independence, ix. 31; independence 
the act of the people, 37; dangers which 
threatened America, 40; articles of con- 
federation proposed, 47; objections to it, 
51-50; the affair postponed, 57; need of 
foreign alliances. 01 ; implication to France, 
03; partisans of America in France, 09, 70; 
Lafayette, 70; the United States cannot be 
conquered, 73; military operations on Long 
Island, 82-90 ; capture of New York city, 
118-121 ; the States form new governments, 
107, et seq. ; the American cause regarded 
in Europe as hopeless, 220; the gloom dis- 
appears at Trenton, 235 ; and at Princeton, 
247-252; question of allegiance, whether 
due to the United States or to some particu- 
lar state, 253, 254 ; constitutions of civil gov- 
ernment, 257, el seq. tsee Constitutions, etc. ) ; 
no hatred of England long retained, 208 ; 
the system of civil government based on 
that of England, 258, 271, 282; America 
prepares the way for universal progress 
and reform, 283; enlistment of loyalists in 
the British service, 320; employment of 
savages. 321 ; finances of the United States, 
323; futile attempts at a pacification made 
by Charles Lee with the concurrence of 
Howe, 328, et seq. ; a crowd of foreign ad- 
venturers, 337; Kosciusko, 337; Ger- 
main's implacable spirit, 349; advance of 
Burgoyne from Canada, &Q1, et seq.; his 
surrender, 420; Sir William Howe takes 
Philadelphia, 394-404; articles of confed- 
eration adopted, 430, et seq. (sen Confedera- 
tion); a free people of the United States, 
406, et seq. ; unparalleled patience of the 
armv, 471; America in fact independent, 
473;" policy of Russia towards America. 
473; of Erederic of Prussia, 473; treaty 
between France and the United States, 
481 ; America will be satisfied with nothing 
short of absolute independence, 497, 498; 
emigration to, promoted by persecutions in 
Europe, 84; peace of Utrecht favorable to, 
x. £5; its rising glories seen by Herder, 
89 ; and by Pownal, 235, et seq. ; friendship 
of Frederic II. for, 88, 99, 108, 114; Kant, 
Klopstock, Goethe, Schiller, and Niebuhr 
rejoice in its victories, 88, 90, 91, 92; had 
substantially achieved independence pre- 
viously to the French alliance, 139 ; its 
great need was a strong government pos- 
sessing the power of coercion, 178, 206, 
207 ; for want of such a government, Amer- 
ica during the war was often on the brink 
of destruction, 180; the conquest of Amer- 
ica fully resolved on by George III. 240, 
et seq. ; America finds a friend in Marie 
Antoinette, 111. 
American army, enlisted under the authority 
of individual states, ix 57; short enlist- 
ments, 57 ; dissensions among the officers, 
58; positions in it sought by foreigners, 70, 
71; condition of the army in August, 
1776, 77; the Americans on Long Island 
overpowered by a greatly superior force, 
87-94; their sufferings, 97, 98; sadness pre- 

vails in the camp, 98; inadequate supply 
of provisions 98 ; a retreat becomes neces- 
sary, 102; skilful measures taken, 103; a 
sea-fog screens them from the enemy, 
104; the retreat happily effected, 104 (see 
Long Island); shameful panic and Might 
from New York, 119; army regulations 
adopted, 135; condition of the army, 135, 
136; measures of congress for enlisting an 
army, 136; Washington condemns the 
practice of trusting to militia, 137; need 
of a permanent army, 137 ; want of good 
officers, 136, 138; Washington's sugges- 
tions unheeded, 138; evils of short enlist- 
ments, 183, 184, 221; the army melting 
away, 195; on the point of dissolution, 
220," 221; congress interferes in military 
operations, 78, 111, 185; neglects to pro- 
vide a suitable army, 138; militia not to 
be depended on, 221; Washington desires 
an army of the United States, 223 ; asks 
for authority to enlist men, 220-223 ; is n>.t 
seconded by his generals, 187; some of 
them disobevhis orders, 187, 188, 194, 190, 
203, 228 (see Lee, Charles, and Gates); 
the battle of Trenton, 230-235 (see Tren- 
ton); sufferings of the American troops, 225, 
229, 236, 239; the army on the point of 
dissolution, 220, 221; Washington asks 
for power to enlist men, 220; which is 
given him, 238; exhaustion of the army 
from a winter campaign, 251; operations 
in New Jersey, 240-250; the army en- 
camps at Morristown, 252; its weakness, 
3',i; unworthy officers, 337; the army at 
Middlebrook, 351; men blame Washington 
for his cauton; but this caution saves the 
country, 352-354 ; the British army evac- 
uates New Jersey, 356; approaches on 
the opposite side, 393, et seq. ; battle of 
Brandywine, 396-398; Philadelphia in 
possession of the enemy, 404; news of the 
surrender of Burgoyne, 429; Gates refuses 
reinforcements to Washington, 432; the 
armj' at Whitemarsh, 453. 454; winter- 
qua' ters at Valley Forge, 458; sufferings 
of the troops. 458, 459, 465; great merit of 
the soldiers, 471, 472; its feebleness, x. 371 , 
its sufferings, 403, 406, 565; unpaid, 402; 
its deplorable condition, 177, 234; its 
patriotism, 573. (See Continental army.) 

American banner, tricolored, unfurled over 
the new continental armv around Boston, 
viii. 232; at Charleston. 403. 

American cause, Louis XVI. has no sym- 
pathy for it, x 42, 46. 

American civil list, plan for, iv. 84; postponed 
by divisions in the cabinet, £6; the 
design resumed, 92. 

American colonies claim legislative indepen- 
dence of England, iv. 3, et seq. ; their heroic 
resistance applauded in Europe, 14; re'a- 
tion of the colonies to the mother-country, 
15, 17; little regarded by the metropolis, 
15, 17; peculiarities of colonial civil life, 
10 . nvre popular power there than in Eng- 
land, 16; bounds set to the royal preroga- 
tive, 17; whence arose their power, 19; 



their governors dependent for their salaries 
on the colonial assemblies, 19; the colonies 
tend to independence, 38; restrictions on 
American manufactures, 63; tendency 
towards union, 74, 75; the colonies' disre- 
gard arbitrary instructions, 31, 32, 175, 
255 ; take measures for self-defence against 
French encroachment, 112, et seq. ; popula- 
tion in 1754, 127, el seq. ; plan of union 
propo-ed by Franklin, 122; by Halifax, 
165, 106; by Shirley, 172; taxation bro- 
posed (see Taxation); the colonies disre- 
gard requisitions for military supplies, 
120, 175; want of concert among them, 
29, 175; united under military rule, 207, 
et seq. ; rapid growth of the colonies, 213, 
214; measures of coercion proposed, 29, 32, 
56, 57 ; the colonies reject a central power, 
125; an act to quarter soldiers on the in- 
habitants, 230; foreign officers employed, 
231, independence of the colonies pre- 
dicted, 232 (see Independence); spread 
of infidelity in America, 257; the colonies 
humiliated and their borders contracted, 
267; general discontent, 269; the genius 
and zeal of Pitt rouses the colonies to 
active exertion, 292; great exultation at 
the capture of Quebec, 338; decision 
reached to tax America, 381 ; acts of trade 
resisted in Boston, 414; discontent and 
commotion in all the colonies, 430; a 
large standing army to hold them in sub- 
jection, 454; enlightened policy pursued 
by the colonists, 459 ; necessary result of 
the overthrow of the French power in 
America, 460, 461. 

American conflict sprang from the develop- 
ment of British institutions, x. 37; strong 
reluctance of French statesmen to enter 
into it, 42; English people feel it to be 
hopeless, 529. 

American eagle, what its import, x. 572. 

American finances, their disordered state, 

American flag established by congress, ix. 
352; first salute paid to it abroad, 292, 

American independence decided in part by 
the sympathies of foreign states, ix. 35 ; 
virtually achieved previous to the French 
alliance, 139; consented to by the king, 
534; and by the English cabinet, 546. 

American letters, those of Bernard laid before 
parliament, vi. 271; letters of Thomas 
Hutchinson, aiming at the subversion of 
American liberty, 305, note, 306, note; these 
letters, and similar ones, suggested oppres- 
sive measures of the British government, 
435; Franklin's opinion of them, 436, 437; 
published in America, 461, 464; their con- 
tents and spirit, 462: the consequences, 
463 ; the discovery and publication of these 
letters falsely represented in England, 491, 

American navy, origin of, viii. 114; author- 
ized by congress, 215; flag of the navy 
described, 345, 346; measures taken to 
create one, ix. 134 ; a naval force equipped 

on T.ake Champlain, 152; the frigates and 
smaller vessels in the Delaware, 422; the 
frigate "Randolph" sunk, 467. 

American overtures to the Netherlands at 
first disregarded, x. 261. 

American people determined on independ- 
ence, 139, 177, 220; for it they trust in 
God, 150. 

American prisoners insulted and cruelly 
treated, ix. 97; confined in prison-ships, 

American privateers, their great success, ix. 
134, 467, 473. 

American question, its influence on the ideas 
and public policy of the nations of Europe, 
x. 35. 

American representation in parliament utterly 
impracticable, vi. 123, 126. 

American revolution, progress of; epoch the 
first: overthrow of the European colonial 
system, iv. 3, et seq. ; objects of the au- 
thors, 5 ; epoch the second : how Great 
Britain estranged America, v. 3, et seq. ; 
origin of the revolution, iv. 12; what did 
its authors intend? 5: its character and 
extent, 12, 13; it introduced new modes of 
thought and action, 13 ; hailed with delight 
in Europe, 14; great qualities of mind and 
heart elicited by it, 14; was inevitable, vii. 
22; the hour for it had come, 22; it natu- 
rally arose from the past, 23; why should it 
have been opposed V 23 ; Britain should have 
offered independence, 23; it had glorious 
forerunners, 23; the revolution inaugu- 
rated, 42, 54 : it became a matter of neces- 
sity at Concord, 301 ; its success ensured at 
Bunker Hill, 435; arose from ideas im- 
movably fixed in the English mind, x. 
39; jus'ified by Frederic of Prussia, and 
its success predicted by him, 102, 106. 

American slavery, how left at the close of 
the war, x. 591. 

Americans, liberty their peculiar inheritance, 
vii. 22 ; as a people, they have immense 
resources, 22; liberty was to them a neces- 
sity, 22; various skirmishes with the Brit- 
ish near Boston, viii. 47-49; no compro- 
mise possible, 127, 128; Carleton proclaims 
them traitors, 176; they invade Canada, 
182, et seq. ; their unsuccessful attack on 
Quebec, 206-210 ; their loss, 210 : compelled 
to retreat, 425 ; defeated at Three Rivers, 
429, 430: their evacuation of Canada, 432; 
their sufferings and great losses, 426, 431, 
433 (see Northern Army); become more 
respected in England, ix. 141. 

Amherst, Sir Jeffrey, sent with an army to 
capture Louisburgh, iv. 294; reaches Hali- 
fax, 294; besieges and takes Louisburg, 
295, 296; comes to Boston with troops, 
306; appointed commander-in-chief, 306; 
his character, 322, 324; occupies Crowa 
Point, 323; wastes time and labor there, 
323, 329; sends an expedition into the 
Cherokee country, 351; his slowness, 358, 
360; proceeds by way of Oswego to Mon- 
treal, 360; receives the capitulation of 
Montreal and of all Canada, 361; sends an 



expedition into the Valley of the Ten- 
nessee, 423; his letters quoted, v. Ill, 
125, 129, 132; offers a reward for the assas- 
sination of Pontiae, 132; declines the com- 
mand of the army in America, vii. 244; 
advises the king to withdraw his troops 
from the American continent, x. 141, 168. 

Amnesty and indemnity for the loyalists 
demanded and refused, x. 555, 580, 586; 
the matter tinally disposed of, and how, 

Amsterdam, its commercial greatness, ii. 294; 
purchases of the West India Company ; the 
present state of Delaware, 298 ; disastrous 
result, 299. 

Anabaptists. Jeremy Taylor's opinion of 
them, i. 432 ; their legal status in Massa- 
chusetts, 432 (see Baptists); advocates for 
thorough social reform, ii. 459. 

Anderson, Captain, his attack on a Hessian 
post at Trenton, ix. 231. 

Andover, the people of, remonstrate against 
the trials for witchcraft, iii. 95, 96. 

Andre, Major John, his position in the British 
army, x. 379 ; the medium of a correspond- 
ence between Arnold and Clinton, 379 ; pre- 
tends private business in a letter to Colonel 
Sheldon, 380 ; comes up the river to meet Ar- 
nold, 383 ; negotiations between the two for 
the surrender of West Point, 384; disguise 
of Andre, 385; he attempts to return, 386; 
his arrest, 387; the circumstances related, 
388; avows himself a British officer, 3b9; 
is treated with delicacy, 3S9 ; his trial by 
a board of general officers, 390 ; their gen- 
erous behavior, 390 ; is sentenced to death 
as a spy, 390; Clinton in vain tries to save 
him, 391 ; Andre entreats that he may not 
die on the gibbet, 392; why the request 
could not be granted, 392; the execution, 
392; the respect paid to his memory, 393 ; 
Clinton's disappointment at the result of 
Arnold's treason, 394; authorities used in 
the relation of the affair, 395, note. 

Andi'os, Edmund, makes peace with the In- 
dians of Maine, ii. Ill; as governor of New 
York, claims jurisdiction over New Jersey 
and Delaware, 358 ; and over part of Con- 
necticut, 404; baffled in his attempt on 
Saybrook, 404; claims authority over New 
Jersey, 408; governor of all New England, 
425; lands at Boston, 425; his oppressive 
administration, 426; demands and uses 
the Old South meeting-house for episcopal 
worship, 427 : levies taxes at discretion, 
427; suspends the habeas corpus, 427; his 
opinion of Indian deeds, 428; seizes the 
government of Rhode Island, 429 ; and of 
Connecticut, 430; the whole seaboard from 
Maryland under his sway, 431; deposed 
from office, 447; governor of Virginia, iii. 
25 ; preserves the earl}' papers of that pro- 
vince from destruction, 25. 

Angel, Colonel, his good conduct, x. 375. 

Anglo-Saxon race, the pioneers of a worthy 
civilization, iv. 5, 459. 

Anhalt-Zerbst, the prince of. offers a regiment 
to George III., vi.i. 267, ix 319; his 

strange conduct, 319; his bargain for 
troops, 474; a bad bargain, 474. 

Annapolis, convention at. viii. 78; its spirit 
and measures, 78. 

Annapolis, in Maryland, made the capital, 
iii. 31; sympathizes with Boston, vii. 50; 
the brig "Peggy Stewart," with more than 
a ton of tea, consumed, 143; patriotic zeal, 

Annapolis, in Nova Scotia, formerly Port 
Royal, iii. 218. 

Anne, Queen, war of, iii. 206 ; gives audience 
to five Iroquois sachems, 219. 

Anson, Lord George, circumnavigates the 
globe, iii. 439; takes a French fleet, 463; 
first lord of the admiralty, iv. 274; dies, 

Anspach, Margrave of, furnishes recruits for 
the British army, ix. 315; his zeal in urging 
their departure, 317; furnishes troops lo 
England, x. 114; two battalions taken 
prisoners at Yorktown, 523. 

Antagonism between the North and the 
South on the question of slavery, x. 347 ; 
this antagonism apparent in the old con- 
gress, 348, note. 

Antagonisms in the world of action are veiy 
few, and may always be accounted for and 
reconciled, viii. 118; antagonisms of right 
and fact, and their conciliation, 119. 

Antonio de Ulloa, his arbitrary and oppres- 
sive conduct at New Orleans, vi. 218, 219. 

Appeal made to France for money to carry on 
the war, x. 417. 

Aranda, Count de, ambassador of Spain at 
Paris, ix. 288; his character, 288; his 
hatred of England, 289 ; the American 
commissioners have interview's with him, 

"Arbella," ship, whence the name, i. 354; 
arrives at Salem, 357; at Boston, 358. 

Arbuthnot, Admiral, arrives in New York 
with re-enforcements, x. 301 ; sails into 
Charleston harbor, 304; he and Clinton 
summon the town, 304; Chesapeake, x. 
498; encounter with the French fleet, 515. 

Archdale, John, Governor of South Carolina, 
iii. 16 ; his discreet and beneticent admin- 
istration, 17. 

Archer, John, a faithful minister with the 
emigrants to Massachusetts, i. 354. 

Argall, Sir Samuel, gets possession of Poca- 
hontas, i. 146 ; drives the French from 
Mount Desert and from Acadia, 148; Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, 151; a tyrant, 152; dies, 

Aristocracy of England paralyzes all its en- 
ergies, iv. 278; its privilege and power, v. 
50, et seq. ; its absolute control, 38-40, 59; 
the king and Pitt combine to humble 
them, vi. 25; they combine to overthrow 
his ministry, 59; and succeed, 60; they 
reduce their own burden of taxation by 
throwing part of it on America, 60, 61. 

Aristocracy of Europe, state of, in 1774; vii. 
26, 27. 

Aristocratic rule in Gre:it Britain, x. 117; 
constitution for Eastern Maine, 368. 



Aristotle taught that the earth is a sphere, 
i. 6. 

Arkansas, Valley of, traversed by Spaniards, 
i. 40w, 51; by French Jesuits, ill- 160. 

Arlington, Earl of (Henry Bennet), receives 
a grant of Virginia, ii. 209. 

Armand, Colonel, in Washington's army, ix. 
393; his misconduct at Camden, x. 320. 

Armed neutrality of 1780. Freedom of the 
seas unknown "to barbarous powers, x. 255 ; 
how understood in the middle ages, 255; 
rights of neutrals first maintained by the 
Dutch, 255; introduced into the law of 
nations, 256; first proposal for an armed 
neutrality, 260; hesitation of the Dutch, 
262; arrogant claims of England, 264; the 
northern powers demand explanations of 
her for the violations of their respective 
flags, 264; they propose convoy for their 
trading vessels, 265 ; Russia at first demurs, 
257, 266 ; Holland hesitates and delays, 26 1 ; 
the Dutch fear England, 264; they suffer 
her insolence, 270; they refuse to give up 
Paul Jones and his prizes, 272; a British 
squadron attacks a Dutch convoy, 275; 
Kussia joins the other northern powers in 
remonstrance, 277; the "armed neutral- 
ity" fully proclaimed, 281; its principles 
distinctly announced, 281; its justice and 
wisdom, 281; parties to it, 428, 429; action 
taken by England, 427. 

Arming the slaves, the question considered, 
ix. 291 ; congress advise it, 292. 

Arms prohibited to the Catholics of Ireland, 
v. 72. 

Armstrong, John, with a body of troops, 
de-troys a town of the Delawares, iv. 241, 
242; in the campaign against fort Du- 
quesne, 308; raises the British flag over 
that fortress, 311. 

Armstrong. General, of Pennsylvania, takes 
command of the continental troops in South 
Carolina, viii. 354; takes part in the defence 
of Charleston, 396, 399, 403; commands 
the Pennsylvania militia, ix. 395, 424, 427; 
his inefficiency, 427, 428 

Army, standing, for the colonies, v. 83, 86. 

Army of America. (See Continental Army 
and Northern Army). 

Army of France, subservient to the will oi 
the monarch, vii. 28. 

Arm 'Id, Benedict, of New Haven, Conn , 
marches with a volunteer company to the 
scene of conflict near Boston, vii. 316; joins 
at Castleton the expedition against Ticon- 
deroga, 339; his skirmish on Lake Cham- 
plain, 364; commands the expedition to 
Quebec by way of Kennebec river, viii. 
190; his person and character, 190; amount 
of his force, 190; encounters great diffi- 
culties, 193, et seq. ; reaches Point Levi, 
opposite Quebec, 196; too weak to attack 
Quebec, 197 ; retires to Point aux Trembles, 
198; is joined there by Montgomery, 201; 
leads a party in the assault on the city, 
208: is wounded and carried off, 209; 
appointed brigadier-general, 245; retires 
to Montreal, 420; attempts to recover cap- 

tives by force, 428 ; retreats from Montreal, 
432; commands a naval force on Lake 
Champlain, ix. 152; his naval operations, 
154; is blockaded by British ships, 154; 
his audacity, 154; defeat of his squadron, 
155 ; in the night passes unobserved through 
the British fleet. 156 ; is pursued and over- 
taken, 156 ; destroys his own fleet, 156 ; his 
fame for courage, 156 ; testimony of Wash- 
ington to his merit, 335 ; he is slighted by 
congress, 335; his combat with the enemy 
at Kidgeneld, Conn., 347; made a major- 
general, 348 ; commands on the Delaware, 
352; is sent to the aid of the northern 
army, 374; insubordinate, 407; not in the 
battle of Stillwater, 410; his good advice, 
411; Gates rejects it, 412; Arnold and 
Gates quarrel, 412; a volunteer on the field 
of battle, 417; his impetuous valor, 417; is 
wounded, 417 ; congress allows him the 
rank he claims, 418; his discontent, x. 
377; his misconduct, 378; lenient censure 
on him by a court-martial, 378; receives 
money from Clinton, 378; appointed to 
command at West Point, 379; determines 
to surrender that post, 379; vainly tries to 
involve Washington in the snare, 382; goes 
down the river to meet Andre, 380; plan 
agreed on for the surrender, 380 ; escapes 
down the river in the "Vulture," 389; his 
threatening letter to Washington, 391; is 
scorned and hated even by British officers. 
394; his effrontery, 394; malignant state- 
ments of the affair. 394; the plot approved 
by Germain and Clinton, 378; Arnold in- 
vades Virginia, 497; burns Richmond, 497; 
writes a letter to Lafayette, which the latter 
returns with scorn, 498 ; is ordered back to 
New York, 498; plunders and burns New 
London, 499; murders Colonel Ledyard, 
and massacres the garrison of fort Gris- 
wold, 500. 

Arrogance of England, x. 430. 

Artaguette, leader of a French force against 
theChickasaws, iii. 365; falls in battle, 367. 

Articles of confederation agreed on, ix. 144. 

Ashburton, Lord [John Dunning], consulted, 
x. 578. 

Ashby, Captain, hanged, ix. 334. 

Ashe, General, his incapacity, ix. 289. 

Ashe, John, of North Carolina, he and others 
burn fort Johnston, viii. 95; member of 
the provincial congress, 98; joins Colonel 
Moore with a re-enforcement, 285. 

Ashley, John, proposes to abate the duty on 
molasses, iv. 86. 

"Asia," British man-of-war, supplied with 
provisions from New York, vii. 359. 

" Assiento." the, its provisions, iii. 231, 232; 
benefit of it assigned to the South Sea com- 
pany, 401; number of African slaves im- 
ported during its continuance, 411. 

Atlee. of Pennsylvania, on Long Island, ix. 
86, 89. 

Attakulla-kulla, or the Little Carpenter, a 
Cherokee chief, iv. 348. et seq. ; his fidelity 
to his friend James Stuart, 356; comes to 
ask for peace, 423, 425. 



Attorneys excluded from Virginia, i. 229. 

Attucks", Crispus, one of the victims at the 
Boston massacre, vi. 337, 340. 

Aubry defeats Grant near fort Duquesne, iv. 
309; marches to the relief of Niagara, and 
is defeated with great slaughter, 321; at 
New Orleans, vi. 220, 293, 294, 296. 

Auchmuty, Robert, vi 200, 283; counsel for 
Preston at his trial. 348, 373. 

Auckland, Lord, sent to America. (See Eden, 

Augusta, princess-dowager of Wales, mother 
of George III. ; iv. 98, 244; unjustly accused 
of loose connections, 245, not?. 

Augusta, Ga., founded, iii. 425; taken by 
the British, x. 286 ; British deleated there, 
333; surrenders, 489. 

"Augusta," British ship of the line, blown 
up, ix. 431. 

Augusta County, in Virginia, sends relief to 
the suffering people of Boston, vii. 75; in- 
structions to its delegates in convention, 
viii. 376. 

Augustine of Hippo, in Africa, his influence 
on humanity, iv. 151. 

Augustine, St., settlement of, i. 69; oldest 
town in the United States, 69. 

Austria, her alliance courted by England, 
iv. 277, 433; and France put aside their 
ancient rivalry, 279 ; England otters to her 
acquisitions in Italy, 433 ; under the em- 
peror Joseph II., v. 10; inflexibly opposed 
to America, 11 ; aims at supremacy in Ger- 
many, x. 52, 105, 110, 242; its vain pre- 
tensions, 53; pride of the archducal house, 
53; its firm alliance with France, 53; un- 
friendly to America, 53; decline of the 
Austrian power, 53; Austria accedes to the 
northern league, 430; favors American in- 
dependence, 449. 

Austrian emperor proclaims religious free- 
dom, x. 528. 

Austrian succession, war of the, iii. 449, et seq. 

Avalon, name of Lord Baltimore's settlement 
on Newfoundland, i. 239, 242. 

Aver, Captain Samuel, of Haverhill, his in- 
trepid conduct, iii. 216. 

Ayllon, his voyage to South Carolina, i. 36; 
carries off many of the natives as slaves, 
36. (See Vasqaez). 


Bacon, Francis, Viscount St. Albans, his 
liberal sentiments and illiberal conduct, i. 
304. 305; a strange mistake of his, 319; 
inclined to materialism, ii. 329. 

Bacon, Nathaniel, his character, ii. 217; 
elected a burgess, 219; appointed com- 
mander-in-chief, 220; marches against the 
Indians, 224; takes possession of James- 
town, and burns it, 227, 228; disperses the 
royalists, 228: dies, 229; his partisans dis- 
franchised, 246. 

Backwoodsmen described, vii. 163; they are 
exposed to constant danger from the In- 
dians, 164; murders by the Indians, 164; 

the backwoodsmen take revenge, 165; their 
settlement in Kentucky, 366, et seq. 

Backwoodsmen of North Carolina and Vir- 
ginia rise in arms, x 335; they defeat a 
strong British force, 339; stop the advance 
of Cornwallis, 340; and determine the pos- 
session of the country beyond the Alle- 
ghanies, 340. 

"Balance of power" between the South and 
the North, x. 352. 

Balfour, Andrew, an American patriot, suffers 
cruel treatment, x. 560. 

Balfour, a British colonel, takes part in the 
execution of Hayne, x. 492. 

Ballot, origin of its use, i. 348; unknown in 
England, v. 39. 

Baltimore, first lord (Sir George Calvert) his 
early history, i. 23S; his character, 23S; 
his settlement in Newfoundland lails, 239; 
goes to Virginia, 197, 240; rinds no quiet 
there, 197, 240; obtains a grant of Mary- 
land, 241; wise and benevolent provisions 
of the charter, 244; death of Lord Balti- 
more, 244. 

Baltimore, second lord (Cecil Calvert), i. 245; 
charter of Maryland issued to him, 241, 
245; his mild government, 252; gratitude 
of the people, 252, 258 ; his authority super- 
seded by Clayborne, 260; confirmed by 
Cromwell, 261; appoints Fendall his lieu- 
tenant, 263; his authority restored, ii 230; 
his tolerant and mild government, 238; his 
death, 238; and character, 239. 

Baltimore, third lord (Charles Calvert), re- 
sides in Maryland, ii 237; visits England, 
240; returns to the province, 241; his 
authority resisted, 242, et seq. ; visits the 
region on the Delaware, 309 ; controversy 
with William Pennon boundaries, 385, 386. 

Baltimore, Lord (see Calvert, Frederic). 

Baltimore, its inviting situation, vii. 49; its 
recent origin, 49; spirited conduct of its 
people, 50; recommends a continental 
congress, 50; sympathizes with Boston, 
50; its example" kindles new life in New 
York, 50; congress adjourns to that place, 
ix 213. 

Bancroft, Edward, an adventurer in England 
from Connecticut, ix. 62; his bad character, 
62, 63; he betrays confidence, 64. 

Bancroft, Richard, archbishop of Canterbury, 
an unrelenting persecutor of the Puritans, 
i. 296, 297. 

Bank of England chartered, iii. 191. 

Bank of John Law becomes the bank of 
France, iii- 354. 

Bank of the United States, its origin, x. 405. 

Baptists punished in Massachusetts, i. 450; 

in Virginia, ii. 202. 
Barbadoes, a colony from it settle in North 

Carolina, ii. 137. 
Barbarity, Indian, instances of, iii. 133, 134, 
138-141, 145. 179, 180, 182, 183, 187, 188; 
justified bv Jesuit historians, 187; other 
'instances, 212. 213. 215, 320, 327. 
Barbarity of the British, x. 198. et seq., 307, 
327, 328, 339, 395, note, 489, 457, 458, 560, 



Barbarity of the Indians, v. 123. 

Barclay," Robert, governor of New Jersey, ii. 

Barentsen, William, the peer of Columbus, 
ii. 261; his attempt to discover a north- 
east passage to China, 262; his death, 

Barlow, Arthur, his voyage for Raleigh to 
North Carolina, i. 92. 

Barnwell, Colonel, defeats the Tuscaroras, 
iii. 321. 

Barre\ Isaac, major, afterwards colonel, in 
the expedition against Louisborg, iv. 294; 
his good conduct, 296; adjutant-general 
to Wolfe, 325; is wounded, 335; dismissed 
from the army for his votes, v. 169; his 
great speech in parliament against the 
stamp act, 240, 241; contends against the 
power of parliament to tax America, 415; 
his eloquent speech in behalf of America, 
vi. 254; befriends Boston, 271; his invec- 
tive against ministerial despotism, 322; 
would not have troops sent to Boston, 361; 
does not oppose coercion of America, 510 ; 
or the Boston port bill, 512; eulogizes 
Montgomery in the British parliament, 
viii. 212. 

Barrett, Colonel James, commands al Con- 
cord, vii. 298, 302. 

Barrington, Lord, secretary at war. iv. 386, 
412, 413; denounces the Americans, vi. 
232. 210 ; proposes a change in the charter 
of Massachusetts, 361; confesses the weak- 
ness of his department, vii. 186, 187; re- 
monstrates against war with America, 187; 
his hesitation about sending troops to 
America, viii. 100; his admonitions un- 
heeded, 158, 159; votes in parliament to 
please the king, in opposition to his own 
judgment and conscience, ix. 75; thinks 
the ministry not equal to the times, x. 

Barrington, lieutenant, taken prisoner with 
Prescott on Rhode Island, ix. 358. 

Barrow, Henry, hanged at Tyburn for not 
going to church, i. 290. 

Bartlett. Josiah, delegate in congress from 
New Hampshire, viii. 438. 

Barton, Colonel William, takes General Pres- 
c 'tt prisoner, ix. 358. 

Bass, Henrv, of Boston, a " Son of Liberty " 
in 1765, v. 310. 

Bath, earl of (see Pulteney). 

Baton Rouge taken by the Spaniards, x. 

Baum, a Brunswick lieutenant-colonel, sent 
to Bennington, ix. 383; amount of his 
force. 383; his orders, 383 ; is attacked by 
militia on every side, 385; falls mortally 
wounded, 385; surrender of his troops, 
Bavaria, Elector of, offers troops to George 
III., viii. 268; the offer not accepted, 268; 
threatened by Austria, x. 52, 105, 111, 
Baxter, Richard, suffers abuse from Jeffries, 
ii 439; the head of the dissenters, 440; 
his political influence, 441. 

Baxter, Colonel, at fort Washington, ix. 190; 
his death, 191. 

Bayard, John, of Philadelphia, his character 
viii. 385. 

Baylor, Colonel, at Trenton, ix. 234. 

Baylor's cavalry, while begging for quarter, 
cut to pieces, x. 152. 

" Bav Psalm Book," printed, i. 415. 

Beatty, Captain, killed, x. 487. 

Beauchamp, Lord, a friend of America and of 
liberty, vi. 240, 274, 360. 

Beaujeu, naval commander in La Salle's last 
voyage, iii. 169. 

Beaujeu, De, leads the attack on Braddock's 
force, iv. 187 ; is slain, 188. 

Beaumarchais, Peter Augustin Caron de, 
his utter want of principle, vii. 32, 33; a 
French emissary in London, viii. 146; 

, hastens to Paris, 146 ; his secret memorial 
to the king in favor of taking part with 
the Americans, 146; receives a new com- 
mission, 146; is employed by the French 
ministry in furnishing aid to America, 343, 
344; promises this aid to Arthur Lee, 344; 
offers supplies on credit to the United 
States, ix. 64; a friend to that country, 
69; warlike supplies are furnished by him, 
291; the author of "Figaro," 294; his 
letter to Maurepas, 294; he proposes to 
him three objects, one of which is an alli- 
ance with America, 294. 

Beau Sejour taken by the English, iv. 198. 

Ueckford, William, member of parliament 
from London, v. 145; denies the power of 
that body to tax America, 238, 242; his 
good counsel rejected, vi. 78, 79, 232 ; his 
efforts in behalf of America, 239, 257, 274, 
360; moves for a repeal of the dutv on tea, 

Bedel, Colonel, of New Hampshire, stationed 
at the Cedars, Canada, viii. 425, 426; his 
cowardice. 427. 

Bedford, Duke of, first lord of the admiralty 
in 1746, iv. 87, 291; succeeds the Duke of 
Newcastle as minister for the colonies in 
1748,21; his excellent character, 21, 22; 
contrasted with Newcastle, 22; head of 
the conservative whigs, 55; earnest for 
depriving the colonies of liberty, 57 ; dis- 
agrees with Halifax, 70; at variance with 
the Pelhams, 70, 71; wishes to maintain 
p^ace with France, 86, 87; resigns his 
office, 87; distrusts the colonists, 291; 
desires peace with France, 400; opposes 
Pitt, 401; with aid from Newcastle, com- 
pels the resignation of Pitt, 408, 409 ; be- 
comes Lord Privy Seal, 412; ambassador 
to France, 439, 442; concludes a treaty of 
peace. 452. 
Bedford, fourth duke of (John Russell), 
lord privy seal, v. 80; description of, by 
Lord Egremont, 81; Bute wishes him for 
president of the council, 95; refuses to act 
under the triumvirate ministry, 103; ad- 
vises the king to send for Pitt, 103; he is 
irritated against Pitt, 147; becomes presi- 
dent of the council, under the Grenville 
administration, 147; his wishes in relatios 



to a regency, 253, 255 ; favors freedom of 
trade, 257; his life in danger from silk- 
weavers, 258; his interview with the king, 
260; remains in office, 265 ; wishes to re- 
tire, 295; his interview with the king, 290; 
solicits the aid of Bute, 427.428; protests, 
with his friends, against the repeal of the 
stamp act, 451; denounces Massachusetts, 
vi. 61; proposed coalition with Rocking- 
ham, 89 ; insists on maintaining the su- 
premacy of parliament over the colonies, 
91; the proposed coalition fails, 92; he 
and his party coalesce with the ministry, 
108; he and they wish to crush the spirit 
of liberty in Boston, 175; he seconds Hills- 
borough ; resolutions condemning Massa- 
chusetts to punishment, 246. 

Beers, Richard, slain by the Indians at North- 
field, ii 104. 

Behring, Vitus, discovers North-west Amer- 
ica, iii. 453. 

Belcher, Jonathan, governor of Massachu- 
setts, iii. 392; governor of New Jersey, iv. 

Belcher, Jonathan, son of the preceding, 
chief justice of Nova Scotia, justified the 
removal of the Acadians, iv. 201. 

Belle Isle taken by the English, iv. 400. 

Bellingham, Richard, his jealousy of Win- 
throp, i. 437; governor of Massachusetts, 
ii. 88; his death, 92. 

Bellomont. Earl of [Richard Coote], governor 
of New York, iii. 59; his pacific adminis- 
tration, 59; his popularity, 60; a partner 
of William Kidd, 60; governor of Massa- 
chusetts and New Hampshire, 82; endeav- 
ors to obtain an acknowledgment of the 
supremacy of England over the Five Na- 
tions, 193; his death, 60. 

Bemis's Heights, near Stillwater,N.Y., battle 
of, ix. 409 ; Morgan begins the attack, 409 ; 
Fraser, Philips, Riedesel, 409; obstinate 
courage of the Americans, 410; neither 
Gates, Arnold, nor Lincoln on the field, 
410; defeat of the British, 411; their great 
loss. 411; second battle, 415, 416; Bur- 
goyne surrenders, 420. 

Bennett, Richard, governor of Virginia, i. 

Bennington, Vermont, settled, v. 291; its 
territory granted twice over, 292. 

Bergen in New Jersey, its early settlement, 
ii. 316. 

Berkeley, George, bishop of Cloyne, iii. 
372; his character, 372; his philosophy, 
372 ; his residence in America, 373 ; endows 
American colleges, 374; his prophecy of 
American greatness, 374. 

Berkeley, Lord John, a proprietary of Caro- 
lina, ii. 129; and of New Jersey, 315; sells 
West New Jersey to the Quakers, 355. 

Berkeley, Sir William, proprietary governor 
of Virginia, i. £02; severe instructions 
given to him, 203; hates Puritanism, 207; 
elected by the people, 228; his selfishness, 
ii. 69; one of the proprietaries of North 
Carolina, 129 ; thanks God that there are no 
free schools, 192 ; appointed agent of the 

colony, 197; unfaithful to the trust, 198; 
dissatisfied with his salary, 203; his in- 
ventory, 212; his conduct during the in- 
surrection, 217, et geq. ; proclaims Bacon a 
traitor, 222 ; his severities towards the 
malcontents, 230, et seq. ; returns to Eng- 
land, 233. 
Bernard, Francis, governor of New Jersey 
iv. 372; made governor of Massachusetts, 
377; talksof "subjection to Great Britain," 
378; appoints Thomas Hutchinson chief 
justice, 379; his alarm at the ferment 
caused by the speech of Otis, 421 ; a con- 
spirator against liberty, 421; recommends 
divers aggressions on the liberties of New 
England, v. 148; shares in 'the avails of 
the contraband trade, 158, note; his 
scheme of colonial policy, 200; his coun- 
sel to the ministry, 200; his pusillanimity, 
201; proposes a reconstruction of New 
England, 225; counsels submission to the 
oppressive measures of parliament, 278; 
cannot repress the patriotic spirit of the 
people, 310; retires to the castle, 312: his 
cowardice, 315 ; tries to frighten the prov- 
ince legislature, 329, 330; opposes all con- 
cession and calls for an army, 379, 380; 
his pride and vanity, vi. 7; negatives the 
choice of Otis as speaker, 8; and of six 
members of the council, 8; threatens the 
province with the loss of its charter, 11; 
solicits the interposition of parliament and 
the revocation of the charter, 16; complains 
of illicit trade, 31; the taxing of America 
due to his advice, 41; causes the billeting 
act to be printed as if it were a province 
law, 41; insists on a negative to the choice 
of province agent, 69; wishes to control 
the election of councillors, 70; advises to 
alter the charter, 70; predicts a civil war, 
97; advises to send troops to Boston, 101; 
his infatuation, 104. 151; grossly misrepre- 
sents to the ministry the proceedings of 
Massachusetts, 131; is defeated in an ac- 
tion for libel, 131, 132; prorogues the 
legislature and denounces its leading mem- 
bers, 131 ; he wishes troops to be sent over, 
133 ; his false representations of a day of 
rejoicing, 134; his multiplied falsehoods, 
135 ; his correspondence with Hillsborough, 
150, 151; asks to become an informer, with 
promise of secrecy, 150; his falsehoods, 
152; his shameful duplicity, 160, 171; ad- 
vises against repeal of the revenue act, 171 ; 
is panic-struck at the firm front presented 
by Massachusetts, 164; is made a baronet, 
172; denounces Samuel Adams, 192; for- 
bids the meeting of the general court, 198; 
is frightened at sm empty barrel, 196: pro- 
tends to be in danger, 200; the most un- 
happy man in Boston, 200 ; his demand of 
quarters for troops denied, 201 ; his mis- 
representations of this matter, 202; urges 
the forfeiture of the charter, 212: is recalled, 
268; his duplicity unmasked by the publi- 
cation of letters, 271; his disappointments, 
285: his altercation with the legislature of 
Massachusetts, 285, et seq.; adjourns it to 



Cambridge, 287; the members unanimously 
petition tor his removal, 287; he lc^es 
Boston for Europe, 290; his had character, 
291; great rejoicing at his departure, 291. 

Bernstorff, Count, prime minister of Hen- 
mark, unfriendly to America, x. 56.272; 
accepts the armed neutrality, 429; but 
enters into a separate treaty at variance 
with it, 430. 

Beverly, Robert, suppresses the insurrection 
in Virginia, ii. 229. 

Bible, English, never printed in America till 
the revolution, v. 266 ; Bible for freedom, 
289 ; some of its prophecies supposed to 
apply to New England, vi. 168. 

Biddlelj Nicholas, captain in the American 
navy, ix. 134; captain of the frigate " Ran- 
dolph," engages the "Yarmouth," of supe- 
rior force, ix. 467 ; the " Randolph " is 
sunk, 467. 

Bienville, brother of Iberville, iii. 179, 200; 
explores western Louisiana, 204; at Mo- 
bile, 209 ; at New Orleans, 358, 364, 367 ; 
in Mississippi, 367. 

Bienville, Celeron de, conducts a French 
colony into the Ohio valley, iv. 42, 43. 

Bigelow, Timothy, major under Arnold in the 
expedition against Quebec, viii. 191. 

Bigot, James, missionary to the Penobscot 
Indians, iii. 178; stimulates them to great 
cruelty, 187. 

Billeting act obnoxious to New York, vi. 15, 
43; its clauses renewed, 17; Governor 
Bernard causes it to be printed with the 
province laws, 41 ; Samuel Adams's opinion 
of it, 42; resisted in New York, 44; Shel- 
burne disapproves of it, 55 ; a fruitful 
source of difficulty with the colonies, 71 ; 
resisted in South Carolina, 309. 

Billingsport on the Delaware evacuated, ix. 
423 ; the consequences, 423. 

Bills of credit issued by Massachusetts, viii. 
48; by congress, 57, 61; by New Jersey, 
72; by Pennsylvania, 75; by Maryland, 
78; by Virginia, 82; by North Carolina, 
96; by the continental congress, 318; by 
Pennsylvania, 326; by South Carolina, 
346, 347. 

Bishop, Bridget, accused of witchcraft, iii. 
88; hanged, 88. 

Bishop and king stand or fall together, iv. 
370 ; public opinion against bishops, 430. 

Black men, their enlistment opposed, x. 350; 
how far carried into effect, 350. 

Blackstone, William, settles at Boston, i. 341. 

Blackstone, Sir William, contends for the 
supremacy of England over her colonies, 
v. 417, 440. t 

Blake, Joseph, brother of the admiral, con- 
ducts emigrants to South Carolina, ii. 172. 

Blanchard, Luther, fifer in the Acton com- 
pany, wounded at Concord, vii. 302. 

Bland, Richard, of Virginia, points to inde- 
pendence as a remedy, v. 442; appeals to 
the law of nature. 443; reports resolutions 
denying the power of parliament to tax 
America, vi. 146; one of the committee of 
correspondence, 455; a member of the 

first continental congress, vii. 130; hi? 
conciliatory speech, 130; he opposes the 
measures of resistance advocated by Wash- 
ington and Patrick Henry, 273; elected to 
congress, viii. 80 ; is excused on account of 
age, 81; his high character, 81; in the 
convention of Virginia, 378. 

Blaspheni} - punished, i. 450. 

Bleiswick, Peter, pensionary of Holland, x. 
260, et seq. 

Bliss, Theodore, a witness of the Boston 
massacre, vi. 339, 347. 

Block, Adriaen, the Dutch navigator, ii. 275; 
sails through Long Island Sound, 275. 

Blockade, law of, as interpreted by an Eng- 
lish judge, x. 426, 427. 

Blockade of Boston, its effects there and 
elsewhere, vii. 56, 57; the measure univer- 
sally condemned in America, 57, 58; the 
king and the ministry exult, 59. 

Bloody Brook, sanguinary battle there, u. 

Blouin, Daniel, agent for the people of Illi- 
nois, vi. 472. 

Bohemia invaded bj' Frederic II., iv. 282 ; re- 
action in, x. 82. 

Board of trade, its relations to the colonies, 
iv. 17; Halifax becomes head of it, 36; 
they apply to Parliament for absolute 
power over the colonies, 48, 49 ; Charles 
Townshend becomes a member, 54; they 
renew their efforts to crush American lib- 
erty, 83, 84; new powers given to this 
board, 92; thev try in vain to reduce New 
York, 103, 104"; advise taxation, 100; and 
a military dictatorship, 227 ; their secret 
designs against the colonies, 292, 297 ; their 
S3 r stem matured, 379; the decision fully 
settled in 1760, 381; board of trade report 
against the tenure of good behavior, 428. 

" Body of Liberties " established in Massa- 
chusetts, i. 416 ; its provisions, 417, et seq. 

Bolingbroke, Lord (see St. John). 

Bollan, William, agent in England for Mas- 
sachusetts, iv. 63, 84; dismissed, 430. 

Boone, Daniel, his birth-place, vi. 298, note ; 
is allured to the West by reports of the 
richness of its soil, 298; traverses Ken- 
tucky, 299; built the first cottage on that 
territory, 299; his love of nature, 301: 
returns to his home in North Carolina, 
302; determined to make Kentucky his 
future home, 302; his eldest son killed by 
the Indians, vii. 164; the pioneer settler 
of Kentucky, 366; his further career, 369. 
370; dies far up the Missouri, 370. 

Boone, Thomas, governor of South Carolina, 
assumes to be sole judge of elections, v. 

Boonesborough in Kentucky, its origin, vii. 

Borough, an English, the French minister 
purchases one, vii. 174, 175. 

Boscawen, Admiral, takes the French ships 
"Alcide" and "Lys," iv. 183; in Nova 
Scotia, 201, 202; commands the fleet sent 
with Amherst's army to Louisburg, 294 



Bossuet justifies slavery, x. 346. 

Boston, founded, i. 358; first church formed, 
i. 359; its fundamental principles, 359; 
the town incorporated, 35'J ; equips priva- 
teers against the French, ii. 89: generous 
contributions for sufferers in Philip's war, 
109; merchants of Boston trade with < aro- 
lina. 157; this trade heavily taxed, 158; the 
Antinomian controversy, 388: the Episco- 
pal service introduced by Andros, 426; he 
demands a meeting-house for it, 427; Bos- 
ton throws off his government, 445, 446; 
Boston noted for liberality, ii. 109; witch- 
craft in Boston, iii. 97 ; flourishing condi- 
tion of, 369; the "Boston News-Letter," 
374; the town applauds the refusal of a 
fixed salary to the governor, 392; its popu- 
lation in 1761, iv. 418; writs of assistance 
tried there, 414, et seq. ; elects James Otis 
one of its representatives, 420; denies the 
right of Parliament to tax America, v. 197 ; 
the stamp act denounced, 309 ; Oliver hung 
in effigy, 310; the chief actors in the scene, 
310; bonfire on Fort Hill. 312; another in 
King Street, 313. Hutchinson's furniture 
and papers destroyed, 313; officers of the 
crown terror-stricken, 313; the town elects 
Samuel Adams representative, 831; their 
confidence in him, 350; memorial to Gov- 
ernor Bernard for opening the courts, 
375, 376; chooses Hancock its representa- 
tive, vi. 7; proposes union as a means of 
security, 6; a board of customs estab- 
lished, vi. 85; the people exasperated at 
the passage of Townshend's revenue act, 
96; hostile feelings excited, 97; patriotic 
utterances of the press, 97, 98, 102; in- 
timate correspondence with New York, 
98; the inhabitants distressed and divided 
between fear and hope, 101; revolution 
rapidly advancing, 103; non-importation 
resolved on in town meeting, 103; the 
measure fails in part, 117; the people 
complain of having to maintain syco- 
phants and court parasites, 117; the mer- 
chants renounce commerce with Eng- 
land. 132; false representations made of 
the state of things in Boston by the gov- 
ernor, 134, 135 ; and by the commissioners 
of the customs, 136; the true state of 
things, 136, 137; Boston thanks Dickinson 
for the "Farmers' Letters," 139; things 
hastening to a crisis, 145; riot of the tenth 
of June, 1768, 156. 157; a town meeting 
in consequence, 158; its address to Gov- 
ernor Bernard and his answer, 159, 160; it 
protests against the introduction of troops, 
and asserts its determination to maintain 
its liberties at every hazard, 162; the min- 
istry incensed, 173; and determine on vig- 
orous measures, 174; memorials for and 
against Boston, 174; popular enthusiasm, 
179: non-importation again resolved on, 
179 ; Boston and vicinity ready for extreme 
measures, 194; town meeting to consider 
what should be done, a report and re- 
solves, 197; convention proposed, 198; the 
town vote to be provided with fire-arms, 

199; the militia under arms, 201; a de- 
mand tor quarters of troops denied, 201; 
false representations of Boston made by 
Gage, 200, 203; a convention at Fan- 
euil Hall, 203; the troops arrive, 207; dif- 
ficulty of finding quarters for them, 208, 
et seq.; Gage comes to Boston and in per- 
son demands quarters, but is refused, 210; 
many soldiers desert, 213; as there was 
no rebellion in Boston, the troops there 
could do nothing, 234; Parliament re- 
solves to chastise Boston, 240; character 
of Boston; its political and social sys- 
tem and capacity for self-government, 
240-243; Boston's petition to the king, 
271; asks for the removal of the troops, 
271; the town demands their removal, 284; 
the merchants unanimously vote the par- 
tial repeal of the revenue acts unsatislac- 
tory, and adhere to the non-importation 
covenant, 290; Bernard leaves Boston for 
Europe, 290; great rejoicings thereon, 291 ; 
meeting of merchants in Faneuil Hall, 
the liberty song, 309; celebration of the 
fourteenth of August, 309; Boston firm in 
the non-importation agreement, 311 ; Bos- 
ton's "Appeal to the World," 312; tar 
and feathers used on an informer, 313 ; 
inactivity of the troops, 314; they are 
"of no sort of use," 314; are despised 
by the towns-people, 333 ; the women re- 
nounce the use of tea, 333; the affray at 
Ebenezer Richardson's house, 333, 334; 
the affray at Gray's ropewalk, 334, 335; 
disputes between the soldiers and the 
townsmen, 334, et seq. ; the Boston massa- 
cre, 336, et seq. ; the town meeting on the 
day after, 341 ; the demand for the instant 
removal of the troops, 342; Hutchinson 
tries to evade the demand, 343; is over- 
awed by Samuel Adams, 344; the council 
advise the removal, 345 ; Hutchinson com- 
plies, 346 ; extreme chagrin of the British 
officers, 346; Boston's instructions to its 
representatives, 363; the king orders all 
ships stationed in North America to ren- 
dezvous in Boston harbor, and castle Wil- 
liam to be garrisoned by the regular troops, 
369; a powerful British fleet in Boston 
harbor in 1771, 406; the ministers refuse 
to read Hutchinson's proclamation for 
thanksgiving in November, 1771, 408; the 
governor refuses to answer the inquiries of 
the town, 427 ; the town claims a right to 
discuss public affairs, 428; a committee of 
correspondence proposed by Samuel Ad- 
ams, and voted by the town, 428. 429: 
Boston is seconded by other towns, 431 ; by 
a public act joins issue with king and Par- 
liament, 432, 433 ; the proceedings of Bos- 
ton sent to Virginia, 455; public meeting 
to consider the subject of the landing ol 
the tea, 473; extreme excitement, 474, et 
seq. ; another town meeting, 475 ; arrival 
of a tea ship, 477; an immense meeting at 
the Old South Church, 478; two more tea 
ships arrive, 480; the tea thrown over- 
board, 486, 487 ; parcels of tea picked up 



and publicly destroyed, 493; a man tarred 
and feathered, 493; the Boston port bill, 
511; other stringent measures adopted for 
curbing the spirit of liberty in Boston, 512- 
526 ; Gage sent to Boston with four regi- 
ments,523; closing of its port by the British 
ministry, vii. 34; patriotism of its citizens, 
vii. 34; meeting in Faneuil Hall, 35; decides 
that the tea shall not be paid for, 3G; cir- 
cular letter to the colonies, 36; General 
Gage arrives as governor, 37 ; effect of the 
port act upon the people, 42; Parliament 
allows their lives to be taken with impu- 
nity, 43; address to Hutchinson on his 
departure, 46; a majority of merchants 
engage to import nothing from England, 
47; the letter from Philadelphia received 
■with impatience, 47; the people do not 
regret being singled out for ministerial 
vengeance, 48; they receive S3 r mpathy 
from Baltimore, New Jersey, and South 
Carolina 50,51; especially from Virginia, 
53, 54; the cause of Boston becomes the 
cause of all the colonies, 55; blockade of 
Boston begins, 5 ; its melancholy effects, 
56 ; business of all kinds :it an end, 57 ; more 
troops arrive, 62, 63 ; firmness of the peo- 
ple, 64, 65; at a great meeting the royalist 
party exert themselves to the utmost, 68; 
the town, by an immense majority, sanction 
the proceedings of the committee of cor- 
respondence, 69; Gage's foolish and futile 
proclamation excites only indignation, 70; 
arrival of two more regiments and a 64- 
gun ship, 70; Gage, with all this force, 
dreads the town meetings, 70, 71 ; Boston 
is supplied with needful articles of provi- 
sion by both the Carolinas, 72, 73; by 
Connecticut, 73; by the French inhabitants 
of Quebec, 74; by Delaware, Maryland, 
and Virginia, 74," 75; the "regulating 
act" requires Boston to pay for the tea 
thrown overboard, 96; firmness of Boston, 
98; its earnest appeal to the other towns, 
98; cheering answer of Pepperell, 99; 
military review at Boston, 101; the cadets 
return the king's standard, 101; delegates 
from three counties meet in Boston, 109; 
this convention denounces the recent acts 
of Parliament, 110; the supreme court not 
a'lowed to proceed under the regulating 
act, 111; seizure of powder at Somerville, 
114; thousands of men in arms start for 
the relief of Boston. 115, 120, 122 ; the 
wealthy royalists collect there, 122; Gage 
erects fortifications on Boston Neck, 122; 
the selectmen remonstrate, but in vain, 
122; the carpenters, notwithstanding they 
share the general suffering, refuse to con- 
struct barracks for the army, 124; Gage 
seizes private military stores, 142 ; outra- 
geous conduct of the soldiery, 142; the 
citizens apply to congress for advice, 142; 
their magnanimity, 142, 185; Lord Chat- 
ham moves in parliament for the removal 
of the forces from Boston, 196 ; the motion 
rejected, 203; the army in Boston to be 
increased, 244 ; contributions for the relief 

VOL. X. 

of Boston from all the colonies, 251; some 
relief from England, 251; commemoration 
of the Boston massacre, 253, et seq. ; ora- 
tion of Warren, 254, 255 ; British officers 
present, 254; their outrageous conduct, 
256 ; British troops sent from Boston to 
Concord, 288; their shameful repulse, 304; 
the British army besieged in Boston, 310; 
many of the people permitted to leave 
Boston, 320 ; this permission withdrawn, 
321; great sufferings of those who remain, 
321; affair at Grape Island, 362; more 
troops arrive, 362; skirmish near Noddle's 
Island, 363; the light-house burned, 363; 
Boston is strictly beleaguered, 363 (see 
Bunker Hill); positions of the British 
army in July, 1775, viii. 42; of the Amer- 
ican army, 42, 43; number of the British, 
42; of the Americans, 44; number and con- 
dition of the inhabitants, 42 ; Boston town 
meeting held in Concord, 48; British suf- 
fer from inaction and sickness, 67 ; Gage 
cuts down the liberty tree, 68; the Old 
South turned into a riding-school, 292 ; 
Faneuil Hall a playhouse, 292 ; occupations 
of the besieged army, 292; Boston can- 
nonaded, 293; aspect of the town, 295; the 
British army compelled to evacuate it, 
298; despair of the loyalists and refugees, 
298; the British army leave behind ample 
supplies, 302; American army enters Bos- 
ton, 303; joy of the inhabitants, 303, 304; 
condition of the place, 303; its present 
prosperity, 307. 

Boston committee of correspondence, their 
secret journals still exist, vi. 428, note ; 
their pledge of secrecy, 430; the}' send 
letters to the other towns of the colony, 
433; the towns respond, 437, et seq., 446; 
the committee urge union, 466 ; they are 
joined by the committees of five adjoining 
towns, 475, 477 ; the matter of the disposal 
of the tea is left in their hands, 475; the 
tea-ships, and their cargoes and consignees, 
in the hands of this committee, 475; the 
tea thrown overboard, 486, 487 ; the com- 
mittee in active correspondence with the 
other colonies, 488 ; they prepare the way 
for a congress of all the colonies, 507, 508; 
their circular letter, 508. 

" Boston Gazette," its bold utterances against 
the revenue act, vi. 97, 98, 194, 199, 210, 
230, 232,235,247,249, 252; denounced in 
the British parliament, 107; quoted 309, 
310, 329; Samuel Adams, in this paper, 
solemnly contemplates a resort to the last 
appeai, 407; contemplates independence, 
426, 427; urges resistance, 466, vote; calls 
for union, 489 ; and for a general congress 
of the states, 489. 

Boston light-house burned, viii. 48; repaired, 
49 ; skirmish there, 49. 

Boston massacre commemorated, vii. 253, 
et seq. ; shameful behavior of British offi- 
cers, 256. 

Boston port bill arrives, vii. 34; is widely 
circulated, 42; its influence in Boston, 34; 
in Salem and Newburyport, 38; in New 




York, 40, 41; in Rhode Island and Con- 
necticut, 42; in Philadelphia, 43. 

Botetourt, Lord, appointed governor of Vir- 
ginia, vi. 177; a wise choice, 177; arrives 
in his province, 228; is pleased with its 
condition and the people are pleased with 
him, 228, 22!) ; meets the Legislature of 
Virginia, 279; resolves of that legislature, 
280 ; the governor is displeased and dis- 
solves the assembly, 281 ; he promises a 
partial repeal of the obnoxious acts, 315; 
his death, 378. 

Bougainville assists in the defence of 
Quebec, iv. 331, 334, 336. 

Boundaries between the English and French 
colonies, iii. 339, et seq. 

Boundaries, new, of Massachusetts, v. 103. 

Boundaries, discussions respecting, x. 576, 
579,584; the matter settled, 587 : marked 
on the map, 591. 

Bouquet, Colonel Henry, in Carolina, iv. 
250, 270; in the expedition against fort 
Duquesne, 309; his toilsome march to 
relieve fort Pitt, v. 129 ; attacked by Ind- 
ians, 130; repels the attack, and relieves 
Pittsburgh, 131 ; his expedition to the 
Ohio country, 221. 

Bourlamarque, a French colonel, iv. 238; 
wounded at Ticonderoga, 303; abandons 
Fort Carillon, 323 ; in the battle of Sillery, 
near Quebec, 359. 

Bonvouloir, (see Be Bonvouloir.) 

Bowdoin, James, a loyal man, vi. 202, 212; 
his statement touching the Boston mas- 
sacre, 347; advises the appointment of 
Franklin, 374; drafts the reply of the 
council to Hutchinson. 448 ; proves parlia- 
mentary taxation to be unconstitutional, 
453; negatived as a councillor, vii. 48; 
chosen to congress, but cannot attend, 64; 
letter of General Lee to him, ix. 204, 205. 

Bowler, Metcalf, of Rhode Island, comes to 
Boston with good news, vii. 35; writes 
good news to Massachusetts, 316. 

Bowman, Joseph, a captain of backwoods- 
men, x. 195, 196. 

Bracket. Anne, her escape from the Indians, 
ii. 110. 

Braddock, Edward, major-general and com- 
mander-in-chief, his character, iv. 170; 
arrives in the Chesapeake, 177; holds a 
congress of American governors, 177; 
recommends taxation by parliament, 178; 
his contempt of American troops, 184, 
185; his delays, 184, 185, 186; insults the 
country, 185, praises Franklin, 184; sur- 
prised, utterly defeated and killed, 187- 
191; his grave, 192; consternation which 
followed, 192. 
Bradford, William, the pilgrim, i. 311; gov- 
ernor of Plymouth colon}', 314; Winthrop 
visits him, 364. 
Bradstreet, colonel John, provisions Oswego, 
iv. 236; his good conduct at Ticonderoga, 
301; marches against fort Frontenac, 305; 
captures that fort, 306; his expedition, v. 
210; makes peace with the Indians, 211. 
Bradstreet, Simon, sent to England, in be- 

half of Massachusetts, ii. 75; counsels sub- 
mission to the king, 88; governor of Mas- 
sachusetts, 446. 
Braintree, Mr., denounces the courts of 

admiralty, v. 329. 
Brandenburg, embraces the system of Calvin, 
x. 81; its elector becomes king of Prussia, 
Brandywine, Washington on the north side 
of it, ix. 394; he sends his baggage to 
Chester, 394 ; prepares to dispute the pas- 
sage, 395; duty assigned to Sullivan, 395 
3!J0 ; Sullivan disobeys and commits seri- 
ous blunders, resulting in the defeat of the 
American army, 396, 397; Washington 
arrests the pursuit of the right wing, 398 ; 
gallant bearing of Stirling, 397 ; of Wayne, 
398; of Maxwell, 399; Howe's plan ot 
battle fails, 400; he cannot pursue the 
American army, 400; loss of the Amer- 
icans, 399; of the British, 400. 
Brant, Joseph, the Mohawk chief, his inter- 
view with lord George Germain, viii. 301; 
rouses the fury of his countrymen against 
the Americans, ix. 321; urges them to 
remove farther west, 359. 
Brattleborough in Vermont, settled from 

Massachusetts, iii. 370. 
Braxton, Carter, his scheme of a constitution 

for Virginia, viii. 435. 
Bray, Thomas, commissar}', procures the 
establishment by law in Maryland of the 
church of England, iii. 31, 32. 
Brebeuf, Jean de, his toilsome journey from 
Quebec to the Huron country, iii- 122; 
his self-inflicted penances, 124; his visions, 
124; his labors, 125;, visits the neutral 
nation, 129; his martyrdom, 140. 
Breed's Hill, Colonel Prescott has orders to 

occupy it, vii. 409 (see Bunker Hill). 
Bressani, Joseph, a prisoner among the 

Iroquois, and cruelly tortured, iii. 134. 
Breton, Cape, settled by the French, iii. 235 

(see Louisburff). 
Breton colony in Acadia, iv. 193. 
Brevard, Ephraim, a leading patriot in North 
Carolina, vii. 371, 373; his honorable 
character, 371. 
Brewer, Jonathan, of Waltham, in Massa- 
chusetts, proposes to invade Canada by 
way of the upper Kennebec, vii. 323; part 
of his regiment fight on Bunker Hill, 418. 
Brewster, William, the pilgrim, i. 300, 302; 

embarks for America, 306. 
Breymann, a Brunswick lieutenant-colonel, 
sent to the support of Baum, ix. 384; con- 
flict at Bennington, 385; his hasty retreat, 
385; in the battle of Bemis's Heights, 417 ; 
is mortally wounded, 417; his troops sur- 
render, 418. 
Brickett, James, lieutenant-colonel in Fryc's 
regiment, in Bunker Hill battle, vii. 411. ■ 
Bridge, Colonel Ebenezer, with part of his 
regiment, went on Bunker Hill with Pres- 
cott, vii. 408. 
Brigadiers elected by congress, viii. 30, 31. 
Bristol m England, elects Edmund Burke to 
parliament, vii. 176. 



Britain ruled by an aristocracy, x. 117. 

British army in America in 1774, no longer 
amenable' to the civil law, vii. 43; shut 
up in Boston wit!! inadequate supplies, 
318; mortification of the officers, 318; they 
calumniate the Americans, 318, 319. 

British colony planted in Nova Scotia, iv. 

British constitution, solidity of the, v. 97. 

British fleet attack Gloucester, viii. 65; de- 
stroys Portland, 113; reduces Norfolk to 
ashe"s, 230,231; cannot remain in Boston 
harbor, 297; sails out of it, 302; at anchor 
several days in Nantasket road, 302, 350 ; 
a fleet from Cork arrives in Cape Fear 
river, 357 ; unsuccessful attack on Charles- 
ton, 404-410; its severe losses, 411; sails 
for New York, 412; a fleet arrives before 
Quebec, 424, 425; fleet of Lord Howe 
arrives at Sandy Hook, 458. 

British institutions developed in America, 
x. 37; British commissioners sent to Amer- 
ica, 122; their mission wholly deceptive, 
123; their false representations, 125; they 
exceed their powers, 125 ; a British officer 
leads the savage Indians in scenes of mas- 
sacre, 137, 152; the British government 
justifies and praises Indian butcheries, 
138; approves and justifies treachery, 378; 
•threatens "the extremes of war" to the 
Americans. 151; these threats fulfilled, 
152, 223, 220, 227, 231, 307, 327, 328, 339, 
343, 395, 457, 458, 489, 500, 504, 505, 500, 
502; the ancient affection for the mother 
country washed out in blood, 140. 

British officers, their cruelty, x. 152, 198, 
307, 311, 328, 334,343,457", 500; a marked 
change in their conduct after the accession 
of Lord Shelburne to power, 502. 

British people, address of congress to them, 
vii. 148. 

British standard joined by many people in 
Virginia, viii. 226. 

British troops, their sufferings from the 
attack on Bunker Hill, viii. 25; great loss 
of officers, 26; positions of the arm}' in 
July, 1775, 41; its numbers, 41; its num- 
bers in Feb. 1776, 292; Washington plans 
an attack, 292; he takes possession of 
Dorchester Heights, 293 ; the British army 
unsuspicious of peril, 295 ; their astonish- 
ment at beholding the American works, 
290 ; contrast between them and the 
Americans, 296 ; a council of war advises 
to evacuate Boston, 298; the British arms 
disgraced, 299; hasty departure of the 
British army, 302, 356; to be concentrated 
at New York, 356; Clinton, re-enforced 
from Ireland, is to reduce Charleston and 
the southern colonies, 357; Clinton, with 
a body of troops invades South Carolina, 
395; lands on Long Island, 396, 397; his 
dilatory proceedings and inactivity, 399 ; 
withdraws his troops, 412; re-enforcements 
arrive to the British troops in Canada, 
424; they pursue the retreating Americans, 
425, et seq. ; their murderous attack on 
the men of Lexington, vii. 293; enter 

Concord in a hostile manner, 298; they 
fire on the people, 302 ; are driven out of 
Concord, 303, 304; their retreat becomes 
a flight, 360; are pursued through Lincoln, 
Lexington and West Cambridge, 305-308; 
get back to Boston, 309; their great loss, 
309; are besieged in Boston, 310; dai'e 
not attempt a sally, 317; straitened 
quarters and scanty supplies, 318 ; British 
flag struck on the ocean to the Americans 
for the first time, 341; the British army in 
Boston receives re-enforcements, 362. 389; 
a large force lands in Charlestown on the 
day of Bunker Hill, 413; re-enforcements 
arrive, 420; number of the British troops 
engaged, 420; first attack on the American 
line, 422; their slow advance, 423; pre- 
cipitate retreat, 424; second attack of the 
British, 425; are repulsed in greater dis- 
order, 425; great slaughter of their right 
wing, 426; most of their officers killed or 
wounded, 420; third attack, 429; the re- 
doubt carried by the bayonet, 429, 430; 
the Americans retreat unpursued, 431 ; the 
immense loss of the British, 431, 432; on 
Staten Island, ix. 33; they land on Long 
Island, 83; twenty thousand British and 
Hessians attack four thousand Americans, 
90; the Americans are overpowered, 94; 
the British insult their prisoners, 97, 98; 
approach the American lines at Brook- 
lyn, 101; do not perceive the retreat of 
the Americans, 104; enter the American 
works, 104; land on New York Island, 
119; obtain possession of the city, 120; 
their cruelty, 129, 130; land on Frog's 
Neck, 175; their march to White Plains, 
177-179; a partial engagement at Chat- 
terton Hill, 181; overrun New Jersey, 
194, et set/. ; take possession of Khode 
Island, 200; their brutal conduct, 216; 
in New York, how they spent their time, 
220, 227; their signal reverses at T»enton, 
232-235; and at Princeton, 247-250; the 
results of the campaign inauspicious to 
them, 254; General Howe prepares to 
march on Philadelphia, 351; is out-gen- 
eralled by Washington, 352; evacuates 
New Jersey, 350; embarks for Philadel- 
phia, 391;" lands at the Head of Elk, 
393; battle of Brandywine, 390, et seq.; 
British troops enter Philadelphia, 404; 
they cross over into New Jersey, 423; 
battle of Germantown, 425-428 ; the Brit- 
ish abandon the highlands on the Hudson, 
429 ; they take the forts on the Delaware, 
434, 435: comfort of the British in Phila- 
delphia, 405; their passion for amuse- 
ment, 405; their licentiousness, 405, 400. 

Broeck, Abraham Ten, a patriot of the New 
York Assembly, vii. 210. 

Broglie, Count de, a friend of America, ix. 
70; aspires to Washington's place, 284. 

Brooke, Lord Robert, proposes to remove to 
America, i. 384; a proprietary of Connecti- 
cut, 395. 

Brookfield, Mass., set on fire and deserted, ii. 



Brooklyn, in Connecticut, sends provisions to 
Boston in 1774, vii. 73, 74. 

Brooklyn, on Long Island, how defended, ix. 
82; Howe dares not assault those defences, 
95; intends to take them by regular ap- 
proaches, 101; the fortifications and the 
island evacuated, 103, 104. 

Brooks, John, a physician in Reading, cap- 
tain of the minute-men of that town, at 
Concord battle, vii. 304; as major in Col- 
onel Bridge's regiment took part in the 
battle of Bunker Hill, 414: afterwards gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts, 414. 

Brooks, John, his statements touching Lee's 
conduct at Monmouth, x. 131, note. 

Brooks, Colonel John, of Massachusetts, at 
White Plains, ix. 181; in the battle of 
Bemis's Heights, 417. 

Broome, of the New York Congress, viii. 

Broughton, Captain Nicholas, of Marblehead, 
cruises against the commerce of the ene- 
my, viii. 69. 

Brown, John, of Pittsfield, Massachusetts, 
announces a plan for seizing Ticonderoga, 
vii. 271 a; unites with others in the enter- 
prise, 338, 339; bears information of the 
surrender to the continental Congress, 341 ; 
his expedition against Ticonderoga, ix. 

Brown, John, slain at Lexington, vii. 294. 

Brown, John and Joseph, of Providence, 
take the lead in the burning of the " Gas- 
pee," vi. 419. 

Brown, John, of Providence, a merchant, 
Washington applies to him for powder, 
viii. 61. 

Brown, Major John, sent into Canada to 
obtain information, viii. 177 ; brings back 
an encouraging report, 178; is not able to 
join Allen, 183; is esteemed able by Mont- 
gomery, 184; he and Livingston capture 
V'hambly, 186; they repel Maclean, 187; 
at Quebec leads on a feigned attack, 206. 

Brown, Jonas, wounded at Concord, vii. 302. 

Brown, Lieutenant-Colonel (British), defeated 
at Augusta bv Marion, x. 333 ; his extreme 
cruelty, 334, 489. 

Brown, Kobert, leader of the English Inde- 
pendents, i. 287. 

Browne, John and Samuel, adherents of 
Episcopacy in Salem, i. 348; sent back to 
England, and why, 350; publish in Eng- 
land ill reports of the colony, 350. 

Brunswick, the king applies for troops to, 
viii. 255, et seq. ; character of the reigning 
duke, 256 ; of Prince Ferdinand, 256, 257 ; 
he approves the British proposal, 257; the 
duke concurs, 257, 258; chaffering on the 
price of troops, 258 ; price of every one 
killed, 258; tariff for the wounded, 258; 
pay and subsidy, 258; numbers furnished 
by Brunswick, 258, 259; future life of 
Ferdinand, 259; his incompetence cost 
Prussia a fearful overthrow in 1806, 259; 
his inglorious end, 259; number of Bruns- 
wickers sent to America, 269, 270. 

Brunswick, Duke of, his shabby conduct, ix. 

315; his extreme meanness, 474; Bruns- 
wick troops under Riedesel in the battle 
of Hubbardton, ix. 369, 370 ; in the battle 
of Bennington, 384, ^S85; in the battle of 
Bemis's Heights, 409, 416; their surrender 
at Saratoga, 420; the Brunswick princes 
wish them not to be sent home, 475. 

Brunswick in Maine burned by the Indians, 
iii. 335. 

Brutality of British soldiers, ix. 210, 5G0, 

Eryan, George, vice-president of Pennsyl- 
vania, hostile to slavery, x. 359, 360. 

Buccaneers, their origin, i 214. 

Buckingham county in Virginia, instructions 
to its delegates in convention, viii. 376. 

Buckingham, Earl of (Robert Hobart), his 
extravagant words in the House of Lords, 
vi. 500. 

Buckminster, William, of Barre in Massa- 
chusetts, in Bunker Hill battle, vii. 418; 
is dangerously wounded, 432. 

Buford, Colonel, his dastardly flight, x. 307; 
massacre of his regiment, 307. 

Bulkelev, Rev. Peter, leads in the settlement 
of Concord, i. 382. 

Bulkeley, Peter, son of the preceding, agent 
of the colony in England, ii. 112 ; returns, 

Bull, Captain, disconcerts Andros's attempt 
to get possession of the fort at Say brook, 
ii. 404. 

Bull, Henry, restores the charter of Rhode 
Island, ii. 448. 

Bullitt, Thomas, of Virginia, his braverv, iv. 

Bunker Hill, battle of, vii. 407, et seq. ; prep- 
arations for it, 408; the British gener.J, 
Gage, intended to occupy the hill, 407; the 
movement anticipated, 407; the execution 
of the design intrusted to Prescott, 408; 
the prayer before commencing the march, 
408; the redoubt constructed, 409; day- 
break, 410; surprise of the British, 410; 
armed vessels and a battery on Copp's 
Hill fire on the American-;. 410; Prescott 
strengthens his defences, 410; sends for 
re-enforcements and provisions, 411; no 
refreshments are sent, and no supplies of 
any kind, 412: Gage orders an attack, 411; 
two thousand British troops land at Moul- 
ton's Point in Charlestown, 413; Howe 
halts and sends back for more troops, 413; 
Prescott prepares to oppose them, 414; the 
defences incomplete, 414; small supply of 
powder, 415; the regiments of Stark and 
Reed are sent to the hill, 416; Seth Pome- 
roy arrives as a volunteer, 417; Joseph 
Warren comes a volunteer, 417, 418; por- 
tions of Little's, Brewer's, Nixon's, and 
Whitcomb's regiments arrive, 418; troops 
from Connecticut, 408, 410, 414, 418; the 
artillery-men desert their field-pieces, 418; 
number of the British troops engaged, 420; 
number of the provincial troops in the 
battle, 421; free negroes fight side by side 
with white men, 421; Charlestown burned, 
422; terrific grandeur of the scene, 422; 



first attack of the British, and their pre- 
cipitate retreat, 424; joy of the Americans, 
424; second attack and another hasty re- 
treat, 425 ; utter disorder of the British, 
425; great slaughter in their ranks, 42G; 
unerring accuracy of American aim, 426 ; 
horrors of the scene, 426; defeat of the 
British certain had the powder not been 
utterlj- exhausted, 427; reduced to a single 
artillery cartridge, 429; the redoubt carried 
bv the bayonet, 430; retreat of the Ameri- 
cans, 430; the British loss, 431, 432; 
American loss, 432; fall of Warren, 433; 
his exalted character, 433; Gage's opinion 
of the battle, 434; Howa>s attack con- 
demned, viii. 25; effect of the battle in 
Europe, 100, 102. 
Bunker Hill Monument and the smiling 

scenes around it, viii. 306, 307. 
Burgh, Hussey, in the Irish House of Com- 
mons, denounces the American war, viii. 
Burgoyne, John, appointed major-general of 
the army under Howe, vii. 245 ; his char- 
acter and talents, 245, 246 ; he is rebuked 
by Luttrell, 246; lands in Boston, 362, 379, 
389; his estimate of the British troops in 
the battle of Bunker Hill, 420; observes 
the battle from Copp's Hill, 422; arrives 
in Canada, viii. 431; pursues the retreating 
Americans, 432; his correspondence with 
Lee, 46, 220; plan of his campaign, ix. 
322; arrives at Quebec, 361; his prepara- 
tions for invading the states, 362; his 
speech to the savages, 363, 364; the reply, 
364; his regulations about scalping, 364; 
in a proclamation he threatens to let loose 
the savages, 365; amount of his force, 366; 
he moves his army up the lake, 366; and 
occupies Ticonderoga and Mount Inde- 
pendence, 367 ; his high reputation in Eng- 
land, 367; Carleton refuses to assist him, 
370; his thanksgiving, 370; his difficulties, 
371 ; his mistake in the choice of a road, 
371; his delays, 371 ; his troops dispirited, 
371; his opinion of the Indians, 371; he 
resolves to use them, 371; murder of Jane 
McCrea, 371; Burgoyne forgives the mur- 
derer, 372; approves of the Indian bar- 
barities, 382; takes a pledge of them to 
remain, 383 ; fixes the time for arriving at 
Albany, 383; sends an expedition under 
Baum to Bennington, 383 ; the expedition 
totally frustrated, 385; Indians leave in 
disgust, 386; dismay in the camp, 386; 
Burgoyne attempts to force his way to 
Albany, 407; his slow progress. 408 ; first 
battle of Bemis's Heights, 409: Burgoyne's 
army utterly crippled, 411; his condition 
becomes dangerous, 414; the Indians leave 
him, 414; waits for co-operation from New 
York, 415; second battle of Bemis's 
Heights, 415; Burgoyne exposes himself 
fearlessly, 417; orders a retreat, 418; finds 
himself surrounded, 419; he capitulates, 
420; amount of his losses, 420; causes of 
this great result, 421; his captive troops 
remain in the environs of Boston, 466 ; he 

goes to England on parole, 466 ; his troops 
detained, and why, x. 126. 
Burke, Edmund, shares the opinions of the 
Board of Trade in regard to taxing Amer- 
ica, iv. 375 ; in the service of that Board, 
375, note; spares the reputation of Halifax, 
375, note ; secretary to the Marquis of 
Rockingham, v. 302; his exalted character, 
302; quoted, 73, 74, 91, 100, 102, 190; ob- 
stinately maintains the power of Parlia- 
ment to tax America, 397, 398; advo- 
cates the reception of the petition of Con- 
gress, 400; founds the new tory party 
of England, 418; bitterly ridicules Gren- 
ville, 455; his sarcasm on Lord Chatham, 
vi. 46; his inconsistency, 59; denounces, 
while partly approving, the plan of tax- 
ing America, 78; his prophecy respecting 
American taxation, 78; sympathizes with 
the enemies of liberty, 216 ; inveighs against 
Lord Camden, 231, 232; justifies the Mas- 
sachusetts assembly, 232; opposes Lord 
North, 253; opposes parliamentary reform, 
320; Burke and Wedderburn are allies, 357, 
362 ; prescribes more aristocracy as the 
cure of evils caused by aristocracy, 361; 
condemns the system of the ministry in 
regard to America, 362; elected agent of 
New York, 385; does not oppose the coer- 
cion of America, 510; strongly condemns 
the Boston port bill, 513; his great speech 
against taxing America, 519-521; his un- 
fortunate position, 522; protests against the 
employment of Indians against the Ameri- 
cans, 118; his despondency, 175; he is 
elected from Bristol, 176 ; follows the lead 
of Rockingham, and is not willing to accept 
the conditions proposed by the continental 
Congress, 192; is opposed to hostile meas- 
ures, 218; his interview with Franklin, 
263; he reveres Franklin to the last, 263; 
he brings forward his plan for conciliation, 
265 ; his splendid eulogy on New England, 
266-270 ; misjudges in regard to the steadi- 
ness of American troops, viii. 99; brings 
forward a bill for composing the troubles, 
168, 169; eulogizes Montgomery, 212; his 
position in 1776 not tenable, ix. 141; ap- 
plauds Fox, 144; his secession from public 
business, 146; his opinion of Franklin, 
285, 286 ; denounces the war with America, 
324; condemns the employment of Indians, 
365; desires peace at any rate, 478; his 
utterances in Parliament, x. 39, 246; is 
hopeless as to the abolition of slaver}-, 347; 
favors peace with America, 529 ; is made 
paymaster of the forces, 535; opposes par- 
liamentary reform, 549; his ungenerous 
language towards Shelburne, 553. 
Burke, William, would relinquish Canada, iv. 
364; a friend of liberty quoted, vi 51, 361. 
Burnet, William, governor of Massachusetts, 
insists on a fixed salary, iii. 391; dies, 392. 
Burr, Aaron, a volunteer in Arnold's march 
through the wilderness to Quebec, viii. 191; 
aide-de-camp to Montgomery, 206 ; aid to 
General Putnam, on New York Island, ix. 



Burroughs, George, accused of witchcraft, iii. 

87; his trial, 91 5 his execution, 92. 
Burroughs, Leaman, alarms Port Royal, S.C., 

iii. 327. 
Bute, Earl of (John Stuart), his relation to 
the royal family, iv. 214; his character, 
24-4; George II. despises him, 245; Towns- 
hend despises him, 240; he assists Murray, 
240'; and Pitt, 247; rejoices in the eleva- 
tion of Pitt, 275 ; recommends Abercrombie 
as commander-in-chief in America, 204 ; 
the young king's speech written by him, 
383; admitted to the privy council and to 
the cabinet, .384; a timid, imbecile, igno- 
rant man, 388; becomes secretary of state, 
391; becomes first lord of the treasury, 
438; decorated with the order of the garter, 
442; his perfidy towards the Duke of Bed- 
ford, 443; not the author of the stamp 
act, v. 89, note ; opposes its repeal, 88, 
note; resigns office, 94; his contempt of 
Pitt, 95; but wishes to see Pitt in office, 
143; retires into the country, 140 ; his aid 
solicited by Bedford and Grenville, 427, 

Butler, Colonel John, inflames the Indians 
against the Americans, ix. 377; leads a 
party of tories, 378. 

Butler, William, of North Carolina, arrested 
as a " regulator," vi. 188; a reward offered 
for killing him, 397. 

Butterfield, Major, surrenders the fort at the 
Cedars, viii. 427. 

Buttrick, Major John, of Concord, vii. 302; 
gives order to fire, 303. 

Byllinge, Edward, and other Quakers, pur- 
chase West New Jersey, ii. 355; his un- 
reasonable claim, 361. 

Bj'nge, George, the solitary "no" in the 
House of Commons on the Boston Port Bill, 
vi. 512. 

Byron, Admiral, succeeds Lord Howe in com- 
mand of the British fleet, x. 149 ; his opera- 
tions in the West Indies, 295. 


Cabeza de Vaca lands with a body of Span- 
iards in Florida, i. 396; his adventures 
there, 40, et seq. ; traverses Texas and New 
Mexico, 40, et seq.; returns to Spain, 41. 

Cabinet of Great Britain, its divisions and 
jealousies, iv. GO, 70; plans for taxing 
America are delayed in consequence, 80; 
imbecility of the cabinet, 101 ; end of New- 
castle's cabinet, 247 (see Ministry); re- 
organization of the cabinet, 438. 

Cabinet of George III. in 17G3; names of its 
members and their characters, v. 79, 80 ; 
the triumvirate ministry, 96; end of that 
ministry, 142; a strong cabinet, 147, 148; 
this cabinet overturned 299 (see Ministry). 

Cabot, John, his commission for discovery, 
i. 10; discovers the Western continent, 11. 

Cabot, Sebastian, discovers the continent of 
North America, i. 11; his second voyage, 

• 12; skirts the coasts of the United States, 

13; deprived of his due renown, 14; his 
later years, 15; "the great seaman," 15; 
too little known, 15 ; proposes a north-east 
pas-age to India, 78. 

Cadillac, de la Motte, conducts a colony to 
Detroit, iii. 194; is governor of Louisiana, 
347; visits Illinois, 348. 

Cadwalader, Lambert, of Philadelphia, at 
fort Washington, ix. 190, 191 ; is unable 
to co-operate with Washington in crossing 
the Delaware, 228, 229 ; from Bristol crosses 
that river to Burlington, 239< at Croswick, 
243 ; advises to attack the British, x. 127. 

Cahnewaga tribe of Indians, iii. 245. 

Caldwell, Jarne*, minister of the gospel, mur- 
dered by a British soldier, x. 372, 373. 

Calef, Robert, his exposure of the witchcraft 
delusion, iii. 97. 

Calendar regulated in 1752, iv. 84. 

California discovered, i. 40<?. 

Callieres, governor of Canada, iii. 179, 194. 

Calloway, Richard, a pioneer settler of Ken- 
tucky, vii. 366, 368. 

Calvert, Benedict, son of Lord Baltimore, 
renounces the Romish Church, iii. 33. 

Calvert, Cecil. (See Baltimore, second lord.) 

Calvert, Cecil, secretary of Maryland, in 
London, his letters quoted, v. 78, 82, 86, 
190, 249 ; is strongly opposed to taxing the 
colonies, 249, note. 

Calvert. Charles. {See Baltimore, third lord.) 

Calvert, C, secretary of Maryland, advises 
taxation, iv. 250, 380. 

Calvert, Frederic, sixth Lord Baltimore, his 
character, iv. 137; relation of Maryland to 
him, 137 ; his prerogatives and revenue, 138. 

Calvert, Leonard, conducts a colony to Mary- 
land, i. 245; his mild government, 248; an 
insurrection compels him to flee, 255. 

Calvert, Sir George. (See Baltimore, Jirst 

Calvin, John, his influence on the settlement 
and destinies of New England, i. 266; 
afraid of too much free inquiry, 275 ; par- 
allel between g him and Luther, 274, 277, 
278; influence of his system on the Ameri- 
can mind, ii. 459, et seq. ; his system com- 
pared with that of Luther, iv. 152; "a 
church without a bishop, a state without a 
king," 153; its wide influence, its mighty 
and deep impression, its living energy, 153; 
teaching the natural equality of man, it 
was always favorable to freedom, 154; it 
moulded and fashioned American institu- 
tions, 154; its tenets as taught by Jonathan 
Edwards, 155, et seq. 

Calvinism, political meaning of, ii. 459, 460; 
its influence on the institutions of Massa- 
chusetts, 461, 463; of Connecticut, 402; 
its essential and distinctive traits, iv. 153, 
et seq. ; the inspirer of human hope and 
parent of freedom, 154; always favorable 
to intelligence, purity of life, freedom, and 
courage, vi. 192; spirit of liberty thence 
derived, ix. 501; four great teachers of 
four great nationalities arose from it, 501; 
how it differs from the philosophy of 
Descartes, 501, 502, 



Calvinist, Samuel Adams is one, vi. 192, 267. 

Cambridge, its response to the Boston cir- 
cular, in opposition to British aggression, 
vi. 438 ; again, 450 ; and once more, 475, 477. 

Cambridge, in Massachusetts, the men of 
Middlesex come in arms to this place, vii. 
114, 115: provincial congress meet there, 
154; British troops pass through it, 289; 
outrages committed there, 308 ; head- 
quarters of the American army established 
there, 313, 315, 321, 325, 405, 408, 420. 

Cambridge platform, i. 444; its lasting influ- 
ence, 444. 

Camden, Earl of (Charles Pratt), maintains 
that Parliament has no right to tax Ameri- 
ca, v. 403 ; opposes the declaratory bill, 446- 
448 (see Declaratory Bill); he wishes the 
elective franchise more equally diffused, 
447; is lord chancellor under Lord Chat- 
ham, vi. 22; his indiscretion, 44; consents 
to the taxation of America by Parliament, 
58, 59; denounces New York, 65; is thor- 
oughly in accord with the enemies of 
America, 177, 178, note ; is at a loss what 
to do, 182, 183; his ingratitude towards 
Lord Chatham, 214; is afraid of Chatham, 
268,276; urges the repeal of the Revenue 
Acts, 276 ; dismissed from office, 324; favors 
equal representation in Parliament, 361; 
favors the cause of liberty in the colonies, 
519; protests against the violent policy of 
the ministry in 1774, vii. 178; thinks jus- 
tice on the side of America, 181; desires 
the settlement of the controversy on the 
conditions proposed by Congress, 191 ; con- 
tends that Parliament has no right to tax 
America, 202; and that the Americans do 
well to resist, 202; denies any responsibil- 
ity for the duty on tea, although he con- 
sented to the measure, 226; justifies the 
union of the Americans, and predicts the 
independence of the colonies. 262. 

Camden, S.C., battle of, x. 319; the two 
armies meet, 320; favorable position of 
the British, 321; dispositions for battle, 
321; total defeat of the Americans, 323; 
great loss of the British, 323; the place 
abandoned by the British, 488. 

Cameron, deputy Indian agent, shrinks 
from employing the Cherokees against the 
colonists, viii. 89; inflames the savages 
against the Americans, ix. 160, 162. 

Cameron. James, in the convention of Penn- 
sylvania, ix. 170. 

Cameronians, their sufferings, ii. 410. 

Camp of liberty around Boston, vii. 321; its 
want of able generals, 321 ; want of per- 
fect union, 322; want of efficient discipline, 
322 ; want of militnry equipments, 322. 

Campbell, Arthur, a patriot in South Western 
Virginia, vii. 195. 

Campbell, Donald, after Montgomery's fall, 
orders a retreat, viii. 208. 

Campbell, Farquhar, a Highland settler in 
North Carolina, viii. 96. 

Campbell, Indian agent of the British, ar- 
rested by Wooster, and sent out of Canada, 
viii. 419. 

Campbell, John, of the Scoto-Trish church on 
the Holston river, vii. 195. 

Campbell, John, an insurgent Highlander, is 
killed in battle, viii. 288, 289. 

Campbell, Lieutenant-Colonel ( British), takes 
Savannah, x. 285: and Augusta, 286. 

Campbell, Lord William, governor of South 
Carolina, vii. 337; viii. 84; untit to govern, 
84; his rash conduct, 85; denies the exist- 
ence of grievances, 85 ; urges the ministry 
to employ force against the patriots, 89 ; 
his arrest proposed. 89; he dissolves the 
assembly and t:ikes refuge on board a man- 
of-war, 90; thinks it would be easy to re- 
duce the Carolinas and Georgia, 91, i)2 ; 
urges Sir Peter Parker to attack Charles- 
ton. 357; is present during the attack, 404; 
receives a mortal wound, 411. 

Campbell, Major (British), a prisoner at* 
Yorktown, x. 520. 

Campbell, Neil, governor of New Jersev, ii. 

Campbell, William, in the battle of Point 
Pleasant, vii. 169; marches with a rifle 
company to the relief of the tide-water in 
Virginia, viii. 224. 

Campbell, William, of North Carolina, viii. 
284; "the famous Colonel William," 
raises a regiment of backwoodsmen from 
beyond the mountains, x. 332; commands 
at King's Mountain. 336, 338; severe ac- 
tion there, and total defeat of a strong 
British force, 339 ; his humanity towards 
house-burners and assassins, 340; the 
turning point of the war, 340; he is sum- 
moned to join Greene in South Carolina, 
470, 475, 477; his brave conduct at the 
battle of Guilford, 479; at Hobkirk's Hill, 
486 : and at Eutaw Springs, 493. 

Canada, settled bv the French, i. 27; con- 
quered by the Kirks, 334; restored, 335; 
conquest of Canada first proposed in New 
England, ii. 88; its population in 1679, 
417; invasion of the Iroquois, 418-424; 
granted to the Hundred Associates, iii. 119 ; 
religious zeal the motive for colonization, 
119; the Franciscans, 119; the Jesuits, 
120; their privations, 128 (see Jesuits and 
Alissions); insecurity of the colonists, 148; 
harassed by the Mohawks, 148; the Hun- 
dred Associates resign the province to the 
king, 148 ; supposed to include the Ken- 
nebec valley, 154; New England fails in 
the attempt to conquer it, 184-186; an- 
other failure, 223; supposed to include the 
whole basin of the St. Lawrence, 339; 
Upper Canada claimed by the English, 
340; conquest of Canada proposed, 464; 
the design abandoned, and why, 464; iv. 
30, 31, 165, 184; regarded' by some 
French statesmen as an incumbrance, 
72, 73; its population in 17o4, 129; desire 
to conquer it, 148, 182; Loudoun fails to 
conquer it, 240; scarcity in Canada, 260; 
the English aristocracy could not conquer 
it, 270; Pitt determines on its conquest, 
291; New England enters on the affair 
with great zeal, 292; the couutry cut off 



from intercourse with France, 203 ; misery 
of the inhabitants, 293; the county- ex- 
hausted, 306; its weakness, 320; popula- 
tion in 1759, 320; surrender of Quebec, 
338, 360; discussion in England about 
retaining Canada, 363, et scq. ; great errors 
committed in its early history, 458; not a 
printing-press in the country, 458, note; 
ignorance of the people, 458, note ; the 
cession of Canada hastens the indepen- 
dence of the British colonies, 460 ; further 
results, 460; its boundaries restricted, v. 
135, 163; its former laws and usages 
abolished by the British government, 
212 ; malconduct of the royal officers, 
213; affairs of, vi. 17, 55; an immense 
territory included under this name, vii. 
156; the Catholics living there partly en- 

' franchised, 156, 157; the French system of 
law restored, 157; the Canadian nobility 
conciliated, 157; the Catholic worship 
established by law, 158; the clergy well 
satisfied, 158; Indians in Canada, a mis- 
sionary sent to conciliate their friendship 
to America, 279 ; the occupation of it be- 
comes to the united colonies an act of self- 
defence, viii. 176 ; an invasion of it resolved 
on by Washington, 68; the French nobility 
and Catholic clergy favor the English rule, 
177 ; the peasantry welcome an invasion, 
177; Schuyler sends an emissary to obtain 
information, 177; and makes some prepa- 
ration for the enterprise, 177, 178; the prov- 
ince invaded by the Northern army, 181 
(see Northern Army); Canadian clergy 
and nobility unfriendly to the American 
cause, 417; the people become hostile, 421; 
Congress sends commissioners to Canada, 
423 ; they advise the evacuation of the 
province, 426 ; Congress reluctant, 426 ; plan 
for conquering, x. 176; its voluntary cession 
to the United States suggested, 540 ; the 
cession cannot take place. 541. 

Canadians, iv. 188, 210, 211, 238, 239,252, 
257, 263, 266; assist in the defence of 
Ticonderoga, 302; and in the defence of 
Quebec. 325, 328, 330; they waver and fly, 
335, 337 ; General Gage endeavors to raise 
them against the Americans, vii. 117, 118 ; 
address of the continental Congress to 
them, 159; another address of the same to 
the same, 381. 

"Canceaux," a British armed ship, bom- 
bards Portland, vii. 341. 

Cancello, Louis, missionary to Florida, i. 59. 

Candor is possible in writing history, and 
why, viii 118. 

Cannibalism of the Indians, iii. 134, 145, 
284, iv. 95, 97, 312. 

Cannon, seizure of, near Newport, vii. 183; 
used by the British in their attack on Bun- 
ker Hill, 410-428; a large supply obtained 
by the Americans at Ticonderoga, 340. 

Canonchet, Sachem of the Narragansetts, ii. 
102; his spirit of revenge, 102, 105; his 
death, 106. 

Canonicus, Sachem of the Narragansetts, i. 

Cape Ann, visited by Pring, i. 114; a settle- 
ment there, 321, 339. 

Cape Cod, the first spot in New England 
trod by Englishmen, i. 112. 

Cape Fear River, arrival of British land and 
naval forces in, viii 357. 

Cape Horn, origin of the name, ii. 276. 

Capellen, Van der, Baron, his reasons for 
refusing to England the Scottish brigade, 
viii. 251, 252. 

Captives in war, how treated by Indians, 
iii. 283, 284 ; among Indians unwilling to 
return to their former homes, v. 222; 
striking instances of this, 222. 

Cardross, Lord, leads an emigration to South 
Carolina, ii. 173 ; returns to Europe, 174. 

Carillon (see Fort Carillon). 

Carleton, Guy (afterwards Lord Dorches- 
ter), colonel of grenadiers in Wolfe's army, 
iv. 325 ; is wounded, 335 ; at the siege of 
Havana, 444 ; governor of Canada, vi. 
51 ; his advice, 51, 52 ; supports the views 
of the British ministry, 68 ; in England, vii. 
117 ; has full authority to arm and employ 
Canadians and Indians against the Amer- 
icans, 118 ; abhors the scheme, 119 ; re- 
turns to his government, 158; takes 
measures for the defence of the province, 
365 ; the command in Canada assigned to 
him, viii. 100 ; he proclaims the Americans 
as traitors, 176 ; is unable to relieve St. 
John's, 186 ; the Canadians and Indians 
forsake him, 183, 186; he will not turn the 
savages loose on the frontier, 186 ; vainly 
attempts to relieve St. John's, 187 ; is 
defeated by Warren, 187 ; descends the 
river to Quebec, 199 ; the amount of his 
force there, 200 ; returns no answer to 
Montgomery's summons, 202; repels the 
assault made by that general, 206-210; 
is lenient to his prisoners, 210 ; his hu- 
manity to sick Americans left behind, 
425; his cautious movements, 431 : blamed 
for restraining the Indians, ix. 151, 376; 
his plan for the campaign of 1776, 152; 
provides a naval force on Lake Chain- 
plain, 153; sails up the lake, 154; severe 
conflict with Arnold's fleet, 155; gains a 
complete victory, 156 ; lands at Crown 
Point, 157 ; his retreat, 157 ; greeted with 
cheers at Quebec, 241 ; restrains the rav- 
ages of the Indians, 321 ; the king and 
ministers are displeased at this, 321 ; 
Carleton prepares to invade the United 
States, 359 ; is displeased at being super- 
seded by Burgoyne, 361, 362; refuses to 
assist Burgoyne. 370; is censured by that 
officer, 376 ; supersedes Clinton in Amer- 
ica, x. 529. 535; his humanity, 563; re- 
strains Indian hostility, 563. 

Carlisle, Earl of (Frederic Howard), sent as 
commissioner to America, x. 122. 

Carolina, North (see North Carolina). 

Carolina, South (see South Carolina). 

Carolinas, condition of the, viii. 84-98 ; 
British expedition against them, 282, 394, 
et seq. ; their example, 345-354. (See 
North Carolina and South Carolina. ) 



Caroline of Brunswick, queen of George IV., 
viii. 259 ; her early training, 259. 

Caron, Le, early Franciscan missionary to 
the Wyandots, iii. 118 ; visits Lake Huron, 

Carr, Dabney, of Virginia, a young states- 
man of great promise, vi. 454 ; his early 
death, 455. 

Carr, Maurice, lieutenant-colonel of the 
twenty-ninth regiment in Boston, vi. 335, 

Carr, Robert, one of the royal commissioners 
in 1GG4. ii. 84, 

Carrier, Martha, accused of witchcraft, iii. 
92 ; executed, 92. 

Carrington, Colonel, his able conduct, x. 
472, 471. 

Carroll, Charles, of Maryland, vii. 143; on 
the Maryland committee of correspondence, 
viii. 76 ; is sent to Canada as commis- 
sioner, 423 ; signs the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, ix. 59 ; a fast friend of Wash- 
ington. 465. 

Carroll, John, brother of Charles, afterwards 
archbishop of Baltimore, goes to Canada 
to conciliate the clergy to the American 
cause, viii. 423. 

Carteret, James, son of the preceding, ii. 

Carteret, James, governor of New Jersey, ii. 

Carteret, Lord, reserves his share of land in 
South Carolina, iii. 331. 

Carteret, l'hilip, brother of George, governor 
of New Jersey, ii. 317, 408 ; arrested by 
Andros, 408. 

Carteret, Sir George, one of the proprietaries 
of Carolina, ii. 129 ; and of New Jersey, 
315 ; his heirs sell east New Jersey to 
William Penn and others, 361, 409. _ 

Carthagena, attack on it by Vernon, iii. 441 ; 
fatal effects of the climate, 442. 

Cartier, James, his voyages to North Amer- 
ica, i. 19, et seq. ; discovers the St. Law- 
rence, 19, el seq.; reaches and names Mon- 
treal, 21 ; passes a winter in Canada, 23. 

Cartwright, George, one of the royal com- 
missioners in 1664, ii. 84; his testimony 
before the privy council, 90. 

Cartwright, John, advocates the indepen- 
dence of America, vi. 516. 

Cartwright, Major John, refuses to take part 
in hostilities against America, vii. 343. 

Cartwright, Thomas, a sufferer for non-con- 
formity, ) r et intolerant, i. 285, note. 

Carver, John, the pilgrim, and Robert Cush- 
man, negotiate with the Virginia com- 
pany, i. 303 ; chosen governor of the 
Plymouth colony, 310 ; dies, 314. 

Carver, Jonathan, explores the great western 
vallev and the borders of Lake Superior, 
vi. 297. 

Carver, Jonathan, of Connecticut, his travels 
in the ^orthwest, x. 134 ; published in 
England, 134 ; his ardent anticipations, 

Cary, Archibald, member of the Virginia 
convention, viii. 247, 377, 378, 380. 

Cary, Thomas, governor of North Carolina, 
iii. 22 ; he and his party take up arms, 
23, 24 ; sails for England, 24. 

Castine, or St. Castin, Baron, establishes a 
fort on the coast of Maine, iii. 178; his 
expeditions against Casco, 183 ; and 
Pemaquid, 189; in Acadia, 218; repels 
an invasion of that province, 217. 

Castine the younger, seized by the English, 
iii 335. 

Castine occupied by the British, x. 232 ; 
Massachusetts undertakes its recovery, but 
fails, 233; causes of the failure. 233. 

Caswell, General of North Carolina, at Cam- 
den, x. 321 ; his brigade make speedy 
flight, 322, 324. 

Caswell, Richard, of North Carolina, vii. 
271 c ; delegate to Congress from North 
Carolina, viii. 95 ; the foremost patriot 
of the province, 97 ; a financier, a states- 
man, and a general, 97 ; marches against 
the highland insurgents, 285. 286 ; mis- 
leads the enemy, 287 ; totally defeats 
them, 28S, 289. 

Catawba nation of Indians, iii. 245; foes of 
the Iroquois, 246 ; estimated population, 
253 ; war with the colony, 326. 

Catawbas, their alliance sought, iv. 345, 
347 ; allies of the English, 423. 

Catharine II., becomes Empress of Russia, 
iv. 455 ; her character, v. 9 ; her domestic 
and foreign policy, 9, 10 ; her military 
resources, vii. 348; her character, viii. 
104, 105; her equivocal answer to the 
British minister, asking for troops to be 
employed in America, 107 ; George III. 
writes to her for troops, 149; her coolness, 
150 ; her friendly advice to the British 
ministry, 150 ; she recommends concession, 
150 ; a question of veracity between her 
and the king, 151 ; she refuses his demand 
for troops, 153, 155 ; her dignity and pol- 
icy will not allow her compliance, 153 ; 
her sarcastic reply to the king, 154 ; her 
letter, 154; the letter not an autograph, 
155 ; she will not allow any further dis- 
cussion, 155 ; her attitude towards Amer- 
ica, x. 55 ; joins the armed neutrality, 

Cathmaid, George, has a grant of land in 
North Carolina, ii. 135. 

Catholic Church assumes to represent the 
divine wisdom itself, vii. 28. 

Catholic powers bound together to oppose 
Protestantism and reform, iv. 278; league 
of the Catholic powers against England 
and Prussia, 432 ; defeated in their strug- 
gle against innovation, v. 3. 

Catholics, how their emancipation began, 
vii. 156 ; those in Canada are in part en- 
franchised by the Quebec act, 157 ; their 
worship is established by it, 157, 158 ; the 
American Congress seeks their aid, 159 ; 
few Catholics in the thirteen colonies, 159, 

Catholics of Ireland, disqualifying laws 
against them, v. 62-72 ; their education 
prohibited, 68. 



Catholics of Maryland placed, on an equality 

with Protestants, viii. 70, 78. 
Catlin, his resignation as mandamus council- 
lor, vii. 111. 
Causes of the war which followed the acces- 
sion of William of Orange to the throne of 
England, iii. 175, 176. 
Cavendish, Lord John, refuses to serve under 
Grafton, vi. 22; approves the Boston port 
bill, 512; deprecates the policy of the 
British ministry, vii 224, 225; denounces 
the employment of German mercenaries 
against America, viii. 208; in Parliament 
objects to the policy of the ministry, ix. 
142; he proposes a revisal of the obnoxious 
measures, 145; the revisal refused, 140; 
moves in Parliament to withdraw the Brit- 
ish forces from America, 246. 
Cayuga, tribe of Indians, ii. 419. 
Celtic-American Republic on the banks of 
the Mississippi, vi. 217, et seq. ; an envoy 
sent to France, 218, 220; its disastrous ter- 
mination, 292, et seq. 
Census of New Orleans in 1769, vi. 296 ; of 
the whole valley of the Mississippi, the 
Spanish portion, 296; of the English por- 
tion. 223. 
Central power wanting in America; great 
danger arising from the lack of it, x. 179, 
Chalmers, the historian, an error of his cor- 
rected, ii. 309, note. 
Chambly, in Canada, taken by the Ameri- 
cans, viii. 186. 
Champlain, Samuel, conducts an expedition 
to Canada, i. 25: founds Quebec, 28; goes 
on an expedition against the Iroquois, 28 ; 
explores lake Champlain, 28; spends a 
winter among the Hurons, 29; "father of 
New France," 29; his death. 29; introduces 
Franciscan friars into Canada, iii. 119; in- 
troduces Jesuits, 120. 
Champlain, Lake, Allen and his party cross it 
on their way to Ticonderoga, vii. 339; 
cruise of Arnold on this lake, 364; the 
lake the key of Canada, 365 ; a naval force 
provided there by the Americans, ix. 152; 
by the British, 153; operations of Arnold 
and of Carleton on the lake, 154-156. 
Chancellor, Richard, first reaches Archangel 

by sea, i. 79. 
Charlemagne, under him a united Germany, 
x. 64 ; he crosses the Alps, and is made by 
the pope emperor of Rome, 64; the pope 
acknowledges his temporal, but not his 
spiritual authority, 65; the consequences 
happy for mankind, 66 ; his authority lost 
by his successors, 67. 
Charles Augustus of Saxe "Weimar refuses 

aid to England, x. 95. 
Charles I , king of England, his sentiments 
in regard to Virginia, i. 194; demands a 
monopoly of tobacco, 197 ; tacitly sanctions 
a representative government in Virginia, 
197; his partisans resort thither, 210; his 
marriage with Henrietta Maria 333; con- 
firms tlie grant of Massachusetts, and why, 
342; places restraint on emigration, 412; 

in Scotland is involved in difficulties, 414; 
convenes a Parliament and dissolves it, ii. 
2; his weakness, 5; his rash attempt to 
seize some of the members of Parliament, 
7; is seized and held prisoner by the army, 
14; his death, 15; the deed justified, 15; 
the consequences disastrous, 17. 

Charles II., king of England, recognized in 
Virginia, though in exile, i 210; his char- 
acter, ii. 48; not cruel, 32, 50; weak, silly, 
and licentious, 49; grants a liberal charter 
to Connecticut, 54; grants a like charter to 
Rhode Island, 62; his lavish grants of ter- 
ritory to his courtiers, 69, 70; proclaimed 
at Boston, 74; gives away Virginia to his 
courtiers, 209; his fickleness. 435; hangs 
an innocent papist, 438; becomes an ab- 
solute monarch. 438. 

Charles III., of Spain, his weak character 
and inglorious reign, v. 15, 16; how em- 
ployed in 1774, vii. 33; his character, ix. 
303 ; devoted to the interests of the papal 
see, 303. 

Charlestown, Massachusetts, i. 347; the 
church formed there, the model of all 
succeeding churches in Massachusetts, 359; 
removed to Boston, 359; heroic spirit of its 
inhabitants, vi. 477, 481; burned on the 
day of Bunker Hill, vii. 421, 422 (see 
Bunker Hill). 

Charleston, S.C., founded, ii. 170; in peril 
from the Indians, iii. 327; patriotic spirit 
of its citizens, vii. 251 ; their enthusiasm, 
337; is threatened, viii. 394; measures for 
its delence, 89, 90, 395, 398; activity of 
Governor Rutledge, 394; earnest spirit of 
the people, 398; they watch the proceed- 
ings of the enemy, 403; their anxietv, 406; 
their joy at the repulse of the British, 412; 
the women of Charleston present a pair of 
colors to their brave defenders, 413; de- 
fence of, x. 291; a capitulation asked for 
and refused. 293; description of the place, 
302; not defensible, 303; it surrenders, 
305: severe terms, 305; value of the spoil, 
305, 306. 

Charlevoix, Peter Francis Xavier de, mis- 
sionary at Niagara, iii. 342. 

Charter, first colonial English, i. 120; its 
provisions, 120; second charter for Vir- 
ginia, 130; third charter, 145; its sur- 
render demanded by the king, 188: Quo 
warranto issued, 189; judgment declared 
against it, 192; charter of Maryland, 241; 
to the second Plymouth company, 272, 
273; the Plymouth Pilgrims did not obtain 
one, 321; charter of Massachusetts, 328; 
charter of Plymouth company revoked, 
329; charter of Massachusetts granted, 
342; its fundamental principle, 343; the 
rights of the colonists fully secured, 344; 
this charter regarded as the voice of God, 
350; the charter and government trans- 
ferred across the Atlantic, 352; the meas- 
ure justified, 352, 353; the charter in 
danger, 407; charter of Connecticut, ii. 54, 
55: charter of Massachusetts abrogated, 
127; resumed, 447; charter of Carolina, 



129; another, 137; charter of Pennsyl- 
vania, 302: charter of- Rhode Island de- 
manded, 429; the demand for the charter 
of Connecticut evaded, 430; the charter 
oak, 439 ; charter of 1092 to Massachusetts, 
lii. 80; arrives in Boston, 87; charter 
threatened, 380. 

Chartered rights menaced, vi. 9, 10, G9, 111, 
113, 116, 182, 231, 249, 250, 306, 370, 371, 
372, 451. 

Charters in France arbitrarily confiscated, 
vii. 29. 

Chase, Samuel, the foremost man in Mary- 
land, viii. 70; liis character, 70; for inde- 
pendence, 313, 315, 320; is sent to Canada 
as commissioner, 423; his activity in Mary- 
land for independence, 447 ; moves to count 
only white inhabitants in apportioning 
supplies, ix. 51; speaks on the claim of 
Virginia to western lands, 50; signs the 
declaration, 59. 

Chase, Thomas, of Boston, a " son of liberty" 
in 1765, v. 310; refuses to take the oath, 
vii. 111. 

Chastellux, Francis John, Marquis de, 
quoted, viii. 341, 302; x. 503, 510. 

Chatelet, Count du, sent as minister to Eng- 
land, vi. 1 : <0; thinks it impossible for 
England to conquer America, 140; thinks 
advantage may be taken of opportunities, 
237 ; tore-tells the independence, of America, 
244. 255; his remarkable letter to Choiseul, 
255, 250; advocates free trade, 255, 259: 
warmly favors the independence of Louis- 
iana. 204. 

Chatham, Earl of (see Pitt, William), his 
administration weakened on his elevation 
to the peerage, vi. 24-28; cannot cope as 
formerly with difficulties, 27, 28; jealous 
of the bourbons, 27; his accord with the 
king, 45; gives his confidence to Shel- 
"burne. 45 : his determined character, 45, 43 ; 
his embarrassments with regard to Amer- 
ica, 52; thrice denounces Charles Towns- 
hend as "incurable," 57; his ministry 
opposed by the old whig party, 59; and 
defeated, GO; his administration virtually 
at an end, 01 ; the king needs his help, 
and writes to him, 82; vindicates his friend 
the Earl of Sherburne, 83; prefers the 
adherents of Bedford to those of Rock- 
ingham, 83 ; his long illness, 91, 108 ; his 
extravagance, 108; he resigns office, 214; 
proposes a reform in Parliament, 320, 325; 
accuses the ministry of conspiring against 
liberty, 323; he invokes the guidance of 
reason and common-sense in the halls of 
legislation, 324; asks for the entire re- 
peal of the revenue act, 351 ; comes for- 
ward as the champion of the people of 
England, 301; desires a "more full and 
equal representation" in Parliament, 3G3; 
reads an election sermon by Dr. Tucker, 
440; sees the crisis hastening in Boston, 
457; protests against employing Indians 
against the colonists, vii. 118; his favorable 
opinion of the Americans, 190; his high 
praise of the American Congress, 191; his 

interview with Franklin, 191; wishes the 
dispute settled on the terms proposed by 
Congress, 191; he and llockingham do not. 
agree, 192; his energetic speech in the 
House of Lords, 190; proposes to remove 
the army from Boston, 190; his splendid 
eulogy on the American people, 197; their 
spirit of liberty, 198, 199; the wisdom of 
Congress, 200; urges the repeal of the opr 
pressive acts, 201 ; the king's anger at this 
speech, 201; good effect of the speech, 203; 
introduces a bill for conciliation and to 
prevent a civil Avar, 219; his speeches upon 
it, 220, 221; the bill rejected, 222; his 
eulogy on Franklin, 220,' 221 ; his severe 
invective against, the ministry, 221; his 
eldest son refuses to serve against the 
Americans, 343 ; disapproves of the Ameri- 
can war, ix. 325; condemns the employ- 
ment of Indians, 3G5, 477; maintains that 
America cannot be conquered, 477; pro- 
tests against the use of German merce- 
naries, 477 ; says Gibraltar is the best proof 
of British naval power, 477 ; his last speech 
in the House of Lords, 494; opposes the 
dismemberment of the British monarchy, 
495; is struck with death, 495; his lust 
days, 495; his wonderful eloquence, 496; 
his death, 496. 
Chatham, Massachusetts, its utterance in 

favor of liberty, vi. 440. 
Chaudiere river, dangers of the, viii. 194, 195. 
Chaumonot, Joseph Marie, a Jesuit mis- 
sionary to the Onondagas, ill- 143. 
Chauvin has a monopoly of the fur trade in 

Canada, i. 25. 
Cheeseman, Captain, in Montgomery's attack 

on Quebec, viii. 200 ; is slain, 208. 
Cheesman, Edmund, one of the chiefs of the 
insurrection in Virgin : a, ii. 230; intrepid 
conduct of his wife, 231. 
Cherokee nation, iii. 240; its beautiful coun- 
trv, 247; estimated population, 253; war 
with the English settlements, 320 ; treaty 
with the English, 331, 332; Cherokees in 
London, 332 ; their Iriendship to Oglethorpe 
and his colony, 433. 
Cherokees friendly to the colonists, iv. 193 ; 
Lyttleton provokes them to war, 342, 343; 
their distrust of the English, 344 ; send a 
large deputation to Charleston, 345 ; are 
haughtily received by the governor, 340 ; 
he invades their country, 348 ; massacre of 
Cherokee prisoners by the English, 350; 
the Cherokees retaliate, 350. 355 ; Chero- 
kee towns destroyed, 352; they take fort 
Loudoun, 355; the frontier deserted, 356; 
another expedition into the Cherokee 
country, 423, et seq. ; the Cherokees sub- 
mit, 423 ; their utterance to Tryon respect- 
ing the division of territory, vi. 86; treaty 
concluded with them, 226, 227; another 
treaty, 378 ; their help sought by the British 
government against the colonists, vii. 119; 
murders committed by them, 164; their 
numbers in 1775, 337; Georgia open to 
their hostility, 337; they sell the land now 
in part constituting the state of Kentucky, 



305 ; the British authorities excite them to 
hostilities against the people of Carolina, 
viii. 88 ; take, up the hatchet against the 
Americans, ix. 160; they are utterly de- 
feated, 101, 102; and sue for peace, 102, 
163 ; their incursions repelled, x. 202 ; in- 
vited to the British standard, 332; lavish 
distribution of presents to them, 314. 
Cherry Valley, the settlers there threatened 
with Indian hostility, vii. 305; massacre 
at, x. 152, 153. 
Chesapeake discovered by Spaniards, i. 60; 
attempt of Spaniards to possess it, 71; 
Spaniard* again visit it, 73; explored by 
Smith, 133, and by Clayborne, 237. 
Chester, Captain John, commands a company 
of Connecticut troops at the rail-fence on 
the day of Bunker Hill, vii. 420. 
Chesterfield, Earl of (Philip Dormer Stan- 
hope), is thanked by Massachusetts, vi. 13. 
Chicago visited by Marquette, iii. 161, 346. 
Chickasaw tribe of Indians, iii. 100, 249; where 
located, 240, 250; estimated population, 
253; incite the Natchez to attack the 
French, 300; their hatred of the French, 
.305; expel them from their country, 308; 
befriend the colony of Georgia, 433. 
Chickasaws, their alliance sought, iv. 345, 
347; allies of the English, 423; their num- 
bers in 1775, vii. 337. 
Chiegnecto, N.S., burned bv the French, iv. 

08; taken by the British, 71. 
Child, Robert, and others, attempt to subvert 
the charter government of Massachusetts, 
i. 438-441. 
Child, Sir Joshua, his statement touching 

Massachusetts, ii. 91. 
Chippeway Indians invite a mission, iii. 132 ; 
a mission begun, 150; attack the Iroquois, 
190 ; peace with them, v. 210. 
Chiswell's lead mines in Virginia, vi. 80, 225, 

Choctaw nation, iii. 250 ; assist the French 
against the Natchez, 363 ; friendly to the 
Georgia colony, 433. 
Choctaws, their help sought by the British 
government against the colonists, vii. 119 ; 
their numbers in 1775, 337. 
Choiseul, Stephen Francis, duke of, the 
French minister of war and of foreign 
affairs, iv. 392; offers to negotiate with 
Englnnd, 393; his great character, 394; 
the greatest French minister since Rich- 
elieu, 394 ; proposes peace on the basis, uii 
possidetis, 395; the offer refused, 402; he 
concludes the family compact between 
France and Spain, 403; foresees the neces- 
sary result of the surrender of New France, 
400; sends a French officer to travel in 
America, v. 193; he foresees American in- 
dependence, 193, 341 ; a great minister, vi. 
25; foresees the greatness of America, 2G; 
studies the condition of the British colonics, 
20, 29; his circumspection and prudence, 
53; sends De Kalb to ascertain the condi- 
tion of things in America, 00; seeks in- 
formation from every possible source re- 
specting that country, 07, 180; foresees the 

result of American taxation, 79, 96: sends 
Chatelet to England as minister, 130; his 
projects, 169; makes diligent inquiry into 
American affairs, 180; his watchfulness, 
236; his sagacity, 237; corresponds with 
Chatelet, 230-238 ; wishes the independence 
of Louisiana, 203,264; his jealousy of Eng- 
land, 268, 269; and of Russia, 269, 270; 
bis moderation prevents a war between 
Spain and England, 387, 388; is dismissed 
from office, 388; his exalted character, 
Christian, Colonel, with Virginia levies; his 
successful march against the Indians, ix. 
Christiana fort on the Delaware, ii. 287. 
Christianity predicated on the unity of man- 
kind, iv. 7. 
Christison, Wenlock, a Qiuoker, bis courage 
before his judges, i. 457; is discharged, 
Church, Benjamin, a professed patriot, se- 
cretly a traitor, vi. 409, quoted on the sub- 
ject of union, 454; a concealed traitor, vii. 
130 ; appointed director of the army hos- 
pital, viii. 57; his secret correspondence 
with the enemv, 112; he is imprisoned, 
112; his fate, 112. 
" Church without a bishop, a State without a 

king," iv. 153. 
Church of England, v. 34, 35; of Ireland, 63. 
Cibola, a fabulous country, vain attempts to 

find it, i. 40 e, et seq. 
Cilley, Colonel, of Nottingham, in New 
Hampshire, hastens to the scene of conflict 
alter the combat at Concord, vii. 314; in 
the battle of Bemis's Heights, ix. 409. 
Civil compact, this idea shapes the English 

revolution of 1688. iii, 6, 8. 
Civilization, established in Greece and Rome, 
iv. 6; extended by the Greek colonies, 6; 
the old and the new civilization compared, 
Civilization, high, of the colonies, vi. 240, 

et seq. 
Civil list, American, opposed bv Mr. Gren- 

ville, v. 176. 
Civil list proposed for every American prov- 
ince, vi. 77. 
Civil society, ancient bonds of, weakened, 
iv. 4; civil war arms men of the same 
ancestry against each other, 13. 
Civil wars multiplied by kings, viii. 237. 
Clarendon, Earl of, a i'riend of the younger 
Winthrop, ii. 53, 54; Rhode Island votes 
thanks to him, 64; bis message to Massa- 
chusetts, 77,83; one of the proprietaries of 
Carolina, 129; his ministry, 433. 
Clark, Abraham, delegate in Congress from 

New Jersey, ix. 53, 253. 
Clark, George Rogers, of Kentucky, x. 193; 
his operations bevond the mountains, 194, 
et seq. ; takes Kaskaskia without blood- 
shed, 196; takes Vincennes, 197, el seq.; 
obtains possession of all the country on the 
Illinois and Wabash rivers, 201 ; and thus 
disconcerts the plans of Spain in that 
quarter, 203. 



Clark, Jonas, minister of Lexington, vii. 
231; his patriotic spirit, 291. 

Clarke, Colonel, defeats the British at Au- 
gusta, Georgia, x. 333. 

Clarke, Sir Francis, mor f ally wounded in 
the battle of Bemis's Heights, ix. 416. 

Clarke, John, goes to Rhode Island, i. 392; 
goes to England, 427; preaches at Lynn, 
450; his arrest and fine, 450; agent of 
Rhode Island in England, ii. Gl; he obtains 
a charter for that colony, 04; his benevo- 
lence, 65. 

Clarke, Richard, of Boston, one of the con- 
signees of the tea shipped to Boston, vi. 
473; his rude answer to the committee, 

Clarke, Saint Clair, his expedition to the 
country northwest of the Ohio, ix. 467. 

Clarke, Walter, governor of Rhode Island, 
ii. 429; declines office, 448. 

Claverhouse, John Graham of, his cruelty, ii. 

Clayborne, William, comes to America as a 
surveyor, i. 237; explores the country 
around the Chesapeake, 237; discourages 
the settlement of Maryland, 246; resists 
by force of arms the colony of Lord Balti- 
more, 219; attainted for treason, 249 ; ban- 
ished as a murderer, 200; returns and 
excites a rebellion, 254; as commissioner 
of the long Parliament, deposes Stone, the 
deputy of Lord Baltimore, 259; repeats 
the act, 260; visits Carolina, ii. 133. 

Cleaveland, Colonel Benjamin, raises a regi- 
ment in the mountains of North Carolina, 
x. 335, 336 ; his brave conduct at King's 
mountain, 337, 339 ; 

Cleaves, George, agent in Maine for Rigby, 
i. 429. 

Clergy of Canada, satisfied with the Quebec 
act," vii. 158; clergy of France tainted with 
scepticism, 28; averse to the American 
cause, viii. 177, 417, 423. 

Clergy of Massachusetts, how supported, i. 
35!t : their action in the case of Roger 
Williams, 373; reproached by the adher- 
ents of Mrs. Hutchinson, 387; a synod of 
ministers assembles, 390 ; consulted in civil 
affairs, 440, 445; their courage, 443; the 
ministry indispensable to New England 
life, 443; the second synod in 1048, 444; 
influence of ministers, 446, ii. 87, 121, 123; 
what gave them this influence, iii. 74; their 
connection with the witchcraft delusion, 
75, el seq. 

Clergy of Virginia, their contest for church 
dues, v. 171, 172; clergy, Calvinist, of 
New England, their good influence, 320. 

Cleverly, Stephen, of Boston, one of the 
" Sons of Liberty " in 1765, v. 310. 

Clinton, George, in the general assembly of 
New York, vii. 210; elected to the second 
continental Congress, 284; present there, 
353; opposes the evacuation of New York, 
ix. 118; in the skirmish near Manhattan- 
ville, 126; in a council of war, 176: visits 
the Highlands with Washington, 187; his 
success at Hackensack, 251 ; commands in 

the Highlands, 338; is chosen governor of 
New York, 372; endeavors to save fort 
Clinton, 413; will be satisfied with nothing 
short of independence, 498. 

Clinton, George, admiral and governor of 
New York, iv. 24; ascends the Hudson, 
25; attends the Congress at Albany, 29; 
deplores the tendency to independence, 
25; Clinton and Shirley invoke the inter- 
position of the king, to provide a contri- 
bution of the colonies for their own 
defence, 29, 32; resolves to compel the 
interposition of Parliament, 34; his pro- 
ceedings in New York firmly resisted by 
the legislature, 52, 53; still pursues his 
selfish schemes, 57; urges the imposition 
of taxes, 62 ; asks of the assembly means 
to resist French encroachments on the 
Ohio, and is refused, 74; is superseded in 
office, and execrated by the people, 103; 
impeached for mal-administration, 164. 

Clinton, Sir Henry, sent out as major-general 
of the armv in America, vii. 245; lands in 
Boston, 362, 379, 389 ; watches from Copp's 
Hill the battle in Charlestown, 422; crosses 
Charles river in a boat and joins in the 
fray, 428; embarks at Boston on a South- 
ern expedition, viii. 277; is destined to 
North Carolina, 279, 282; his instructions 
from the ministry, 357; receives re-enforce- 
ments in Cape Fear river, 357; resolves to 
sad tor Charleston, 358 ; his savage procla- 
mation, 358; his arrival off Charleston, 
395; lands on Long Island, 396, 397, 399; 
differs in plan from the naval commander, 
399; his troops suffer from the climate, 
399; he discovers no ford between Long 
Island, where he was, and Sullivan's Is- 
land which he was to attack, 399; his in- 
activity, 400; the attack is made by the 
fleet, but the land forces do nothing, 404, 
405, 408: they embark for New York, 412; 
joins Howe on Staten Island, ix. 82; leads 
the van in the battle of Long Island, 90 ; 
marches on White Plains, 180; commands 
the expedition to Rhode Island, 290; 
moves against Putnam in the Highlands, 
412; takes forts Clinton and Montgomery, 
413; returns to New York, 414; succeeds 
Howe in the command of the British land 
forces, x. 120; evacuates Philadelphia, 
124; commences his retreat to New York, 
127; loses the battle of Monmouth. 133; 
remonstrates against the weakening of his 
force by detachments to the South, 156; 
threatens to evacuate New York, 156; 
represents his forces as inadequate, 174, 
221 ; raises a regiment of Irish, 175 ; de- 
termines on the conquest of South Carolina, 
301; embarks on that enterprise, 301; 
disasters suffered by the way, 301; takes 
Charleston, 305; his ensnaring proclama- 
tion not proc aimed, 307; confiscates pri- 
vate property, 307; another proclamation, 
full of cruelty, 308; returns to New York, 
308, 309 ; his operations in New Jersey, 
374; his retreat, 375; his expedition to 
Rhode Island, 376; he becomes dishearU 



ened, 376, 377; complains lo the ministry, 
377; his complot with Benedict Arnold, 
371, et ieq. ; his disappointment at the 
result, 394; his false representations of the 
affair, 394; lie disapproves of Cornwallis's 
movement on Virginia, 484; foresees evil 
from it, 484; fears an attack from Wash- 
ington in New York, 508, 509 ; regards the 
royal cause as hopeless in Virginia, and 
advises Cornwallia to take a defensive 
position, 503; hatred and rivalry between 
him and Cornwallis, 50G; wishes by all 
means to retain command of the Chesa- 
peake, 510; favors a post at Yorktown, 
511; finds himself thoroughly out-gene- 
ralled by Washington, 513; purposes to re- 
lieve Cornwallis, but fails, 517; is recalled 
from his command, 520. 

Clinton, General James, brother of George, 
with Washington at the Highlands, ix. 187 ; 
takes command of fort Montgomery, 413; 
marches into the Indian country, x. 231. 

Cloyce, Sarah, of Salem village, accused of 
witchcraft, iii. 86. 

Clymer, George, of Philadelphia, vi. 481, 
524; in Congress, ix. 59. 

Cocheco, now Dover, attack on it by Indians, 
iii. 180. 

Coddington, William, built the first good 
house in Boston, i. 358; an adherent of 
Ann Hutchinson, 392; obtains a grant of 
Bhode Island, 392; a judge there, 392. 

Coffin, Nathan, an American sailor, will not 
light against bis country, ix. 313. 

Colbert, Jean Baptiste, favors the plans of 
La Salle, iii. 1G3. 

Colburn, Andrew, lieutenant-colonel, killed 
in the battle of Bemis's Heights, ix. 411. 

Colden, Cadwallader, of New York, iv. 25 ; 
his elaborate argument for taxing the 
colonies, 54; a further argument, 57, 58; 
continues to favor parliamentary taxation, 
116 ; advises the subversion of American 
liberty, 371; is made lieutenant-governor 
of New York, 372, 427, 429 ; advises the 
annexation to New York of Western Mas- 
sachusetts and all of Vermont, v. 149; his 
false representations of the people, 215; 
would allow an appeal to the king in all 
cases, 224; upholds the stamp act, 314, 
332; opposes the people and threatens to 
fire on them, but is told the consequences, 
355; he yields to the people, 356; thirsts 
for revenge. 357 ; is superseded in the gov- 
ernment, 358 ; announces -the probability 
of the repeal of the revenue acts, vi. 315. 

Coligny, Admiral, sends a colony of Hugue- 
nots to Florida, i. 61. 

College of William and Mary founded, iii. 

Colleton, James, governor of South Carolina, 
ii. 183; his oppressive conduct, 186; the 
people resist, and banish him from the 
province, 187. 

Collier, Sir George, British admiral, his state- 
ment of the British force landed on Long 
Island, ix. 85, note ; his barbarity, 227; 
sails up the Penobscot, x. 233. 

Colonial agents, Grenville's interview with, 
v. 188. 

Colonial assemblies in Virginia, an error 
respecting them corrected, i. 199, note ; 
tacitly sanctioned by the king, 197; colo- 
nial commerce, restrictions on, 196, 203.220, 
221, ii. 42, 197 (see Commerce); the 
modern colonial system, iii. 112, 384; co- 
lonial manufactures discouraged, 384; co- 
lonial interests sacrificed, 385. 

Colonial governors, dependent for their sala- 
ries on the provincial assemblies, iv. 19 : 
often dissolute and vile men, 20. 

Colonial governments, remodelling of, iv. 

Colonial policy of the Grenville administra- 
tion, v. 107; Shelburne opposes this policy, 
136; Richard Jackson opposes it, 155; 
Grenville urges on the scheme, 157, et seq., 
182, 187, 190; the policy openly inaugu- 
rated, 187. 

Colonial policy of Spain, v. 16. 

Colonial system of Europe, overthrow of the, 
iv. 3, et seq. passim ; this svstem is self- 
destructive, 461, 462. 

Colonies, their military strength in 1765, v. 

Colonies, Anglo-American, their general 
character, ii. 450; population in 1688,450; 
cause of the emigration, 451; origin, 452; 
a free people, 452; a moral people, 453; a 
Christian people, 453 ; a Protestant people, 
454, et seq. ; how related to the home gov- 
ernment, iii. 100; taxation, 101; how re- 
lated to Episcopacy, 102; the judiciary, 
103; policy pursued by England towards 
them, 104; the currency, 104; the colonial 
svstem, 105; the trade in wool, 106; masts, 
106, 390; theory as to charters, 107; unin- 
terrupted progress, 339 ; extending settle- 
ments, 370; population, 371; schools and 
colleges, 373; the press, 874; no union of 
the colonies, 380; charters threatened, 381; 
checks on their industry, 384; sugar colo- 
nies favored at the expense of the others, 
385 ; paper-money system, 383 ; compelled 
to receive slaves, 415; tendency to inde- 
pendence, 464; their relation to England, 
iv. 15; an offshoot, not a part of it, 15; 
admire the constitution of England, yet 
prefer their own, 16; had a life of their 
own, 16, 17, 55; could not be moulded at 
will, 55; attempts to obtain a revenue from 
them, 25, 32, 33, 52, 58, 62, 85 ; they are 
left to protect themselves, 88; effort still 
made to raise a revenue from them, 100; 
the project delayed, 101 (see American 
colonies) ; to be taxed by Parliament, v. 81, 
82; all civil officers therein to be depen- 
dent on the king's pleasure; 82, 83; their 
charters to be annulled, 83; one scheme of 
government to be imposed on all, 83; a 
standing army to be maintained at their 
expense, 83, 86 ; the measure supported by 
Pitt, 87; fervent attachment of the colonies 
to England, 90; navigation acts disre- 
garded in the colonies, 1 57, 158 ; Grenville's 
plan for taxing the colonies sanctioned by 



Parliament, 1S7, 191; alarm occasioned in 
the colonies by its adoption. 193, et si >/■ ; 
views of James Otis on the rights of the 
colonists, 198, 199 ; loyalty of the colonies, 
201), 223; spirit of resistance in lioston, 
197, et sf/.; in New York, 198, 216; in 
Rhode Island, 217; the military power 
placed above the civil, 235; taxation by 
Parliament carried through, 247 ; the mu- 
tiny act extended to America, 219 ; bounties 
to the colonies, 250; restraints on the in- 
dustry of the colonies, 205; and on their 
trade, 266-268; taxation, direct and in- 
direct, now added to colonial restrictions, 
207 ; general dissatisfaction in the colonies, 
270-280, 285, et seq. ; the colonies meet in 
Congress, 331; the people in all the colonies 
accede to its action, 359, 300 ; plan for a 
permanent union, 300 (see America); the 
lime from which their revolt may be dated, 
vi. 41; they all deny the right of Parlia- 
ment to tax them, 43; kind spirit of Lord 
bhelburne towards them, 39, 43; his con- 
ciliatory policy, 53-55; rendered ineffectual 
by the headstrong opposition of the king 
and the oligarchy, 50, 57, 04; extreme 
bitterness of party leaders in England 
against them,65,66 ; each colony had a char- 
acter of its own, which the men in power 
wholly overlooked, 73 ; the men in power 
refuse to hear their complaints, 74; every 
thing must be done bv the strong hand, 
45, 08, 73, 74, 80, 91 ; the doors of Parlia- 
ment, by special order, shut against their 
agents, 75, 80; the colonies aim not at 
independence, 73; but only at having their 
rights, 12, 51, 97, 121 ; false representations 
respecting them, 39, 41, 57, 08; their in- 
•dependence foreseen, 20, 84, 95, 370 ; prog- 
ress of revolutionary ideas, 102, 103, 105; 
the department of the colonies assigned to 
Lord Hillsborough, 109; his policy in re- 
gard to them, 110; their charters to be 
abrogated, 111, 116; the colonists firmly 
resolved to resist all infringement of their 
privileges, 139; the prospect before them, 
140; the colonies to be trampled under 
foot, 207, 210; spirit of the colonies not 
understood, 229,230; the colonists unap- 
pallcd, 260 ; form agreements for non-im- 
portation, 272, 308; "the ferment increases, 
310; their charters threatened, 231, 306, 
371, 372; enumeration of the rights of the 
colonies, 432; and of their grievances, 433; 
a committee in Massachusetts issue a secret 
circular summoning all the colonies to 
stand for their rights, 409; the colonies 
united, 488 ; were entitled to independence, 
vii. 23; there was no other way to their 
full development, 34; Britain should have 
offered them independence, 23; determina- 
tion of the king to coerce them, 24; the 
thirteen colonies are pledged to union, 35; 
character of the people, 35; the colonies 
make the cause of Boston their own, 55 ; 
they contribute largely for its relief, 73, 
et seq. ; a general Congress proposed by 
New York, 40, 46 ; by Pennsylvania, 45 ; 

by Connecticut, 40; by Maryland, 50; by 
New Jersey, 50; by Virginia, 54; Massa- 
chusetts appoints the time and place, 64; 
and elects delegates, 64; Indians and 
Canadians to be employed against the 
colonists, 117, 118; the continental Con- 
gress meet, 127; total population of the 
colonies, 128 ; it is agreed that in Congress 
each colony shall have one vote, 130; de- 
bate on the foundation of colonial rights, 
132; the demands of the colonies are made 
to rest on an historical basis, 138; a union 
of the colonies under a president to be ap- 
pointed by the kins is rejected, 140; firm 
union of the colonies, 205; Lord North's 
plan of conciliation, 243; contrasted with 
that of Lord Chatham, 244; '-the twelve 
united colonies," 391; their union, viii. 
38 ; a plan of confederation proposed, 53 ; 
its provisions, 53, 54; their affairs a sub- 
ject of discussion at the court of Catharine 
II., 104; Georgia accedes to the union, 108; 
the colonies threatened with force by the 
king, 131; he will send Russians, Han- 
overians, and Hessians to crush them to 
submission, 137; the king cannot obtain 
Russian troops, 150-156; temper of the 
middle colonies, 213; attempts to detach 
them from the union, 214, 215; mutual 
attraction of France and the colonies, 210, 
217; division of the country into military 
departments, 317; plan of a' confederation, 
Colonies, modern European, i. 213, iii. 113, 

Colonies, the Greek, i. 212, 213. 

Colorado of the West, discovered, i. 40/. 

Colored American soldiers at the battle of 
Monmouth, x. 133 ; proposal to enlist 
colored troops, 291; Hamilton advises it, 
291; Henry Laurens advises it, 291; Con- 
gress recommends it, 21)1 ; Washington 
discourages it, 292 ; South Carolina rejects 
the proposal, 292 ; and would rather assume 
a position of neutrality, 293. 

Columbus, his earlier life, i. 7 ; expected to 
reach the Indies by sailing west, 8 ; dis- 
covers America, 8; discovers the main 
land, 12, 14 ; brought together the ends of 
the world, iv. 8. 

Commerce, freedom of, beneficial to man- 
kind, v. 25 ; state of, in America, 42J ; x. 

Commerce of America thrown open to the 
whole world, viii. 323. 

Commerce of the world, great changes in, 
i. 117 ; commerce in slaves, 102, et seq. ; 
commerce in white servants,. 175; colonial 
commerce, restrictions on, 196, 203 ; colo- 
nial policy of ancient Greece, 213 ; of 
Carthage, " 213 ; of Spain and Portugal, 
213 ; English navigation acts, 212, ii. 42 ; 
freedom of commerce vindicated by the 
Dutch, i. 215 ; commercial policy of Crom- 
well, 216-218; this policy permanently 
■ established in England, 218 ; commercial 
policy of the Stuarts, 219; commercial 
monopolies, iii. 104, 105 ; their gross injus- 



tice, 100, 107; wide extent of the system, 
109; falseness of its principles, 110; its 
influence on the polities of nations, 110; 
ancient commercial system, 111; a paper 
currency, and the funding system un- 
known, 112; development of the modern 
system, 112; it is founded in error and 
injustice, 113; system of Portugal, 113; 
of Spain, 114 ; of Holland, 114 ; of France, 
115 ; commercial rivalry of France and 
England, 110 ; other causes of animosity, 
118; English colonial monopoly, 231 ; com- 
merce in slaves a source of power to 
England, 233 ; commerce with the West 
through Oswego, 339 ; commerce bears 
sway, 390 ; commercial monopoly a cause 
of war, 400 ; commerce in slaves, 402 ; 
contraband trade (see Smuggling). 

Commerce, universal tendency of society 
towards, iv. ; promoted by the diffusion 
of the northern nations of Europe, 7 ; 
commercial restrictions shattered, 13. 

Commercial class acquires supreme power in 
England, iii. 7, 8, 387; divided commercial 
monopoly, 400. 

Commercial restrictions proposed, iv. G2, 
146; and disregarded, 147. (See Writs of 

Commissioners of customs at Boston pretend 
to be in danger, vi. 128 ; complain of the 
spirit of liberty there prevailing, 128 ; and 
call for troops, 129 ; under false pretences 
they again call for troops, 130 ; a 50-gun ship 
sent to Boston at their request, 154 ; their 
haughtiness and hatred of the country, 
154 ; their spite against John Hancock, 155 ; 
order the seizure of his sloop "Liberty," 
155 ; under apprehensions of danger, they 
go on board the frigate " Romney," 157 ; the 
danger not real, 157, 158 ; the}' exaggerate 
the recent disturbance, 160; they call for 
the exertion of military power, 161; they 
return to Boston, 212; they apply to be 
released from the income tax, 404. 

Commissioners, royal, to inquire into the 
affair of the "Gaspee," vi. 450, 451. 

Commissioners sent by Charles II. to regu- 
late the affairs of New England, ii. 77 ; 
their ill success in Massachusetts, 78, 84- 
8G ; and in Plymouth, 84; their proceedings 
in Connecticut, 83 ; and Maine, Sfj ; they 
return disappointed, 87. 

Commissioners sent to treat with the re- 
volted colonies, x. 122 ; who they were, 
123; their mission deceptive, 123; their 
silly conduct, 123 ; their letter to Congress, 
and the answer, x. 125 ; their ferocious 
proclamation, 151. 

Commissioners to be sent from England to 
the colonics, viii. 170 ; they are expected 
by the moderate party in America, 244, 
327; Samuel Adams scorns the thought, 
327 ;_ their powers, 300, 361. 

Committee of correspondence appointed by 
New York, vii. 41, 42; by Philadelphia, 
45; by Baltimore, 50; by Virginia, 54. 

Committee of safety appointed by the pro- 
vincial Congress of Massachusetts, vii. 228 ; 

their powers, 228: their circular to the 
several towns of the province and to New 
Hampshire and Connecticut, 313; no alter- 
native left to them but to drive out the 
British army or perish in the attempt, 321. 

Committees of correspondence proposed, vi. 
425 ; and appointed, 429 ; their secret 
journals still exist, 428, note ; their design 
429; and influence, 430; under a pledge "of 
secrecy, 430; the plan works well, 437, 
et ser/. : 446, 447, 452 ; at least eighty towns 
in Massachusetts respond, 445; the sys- 
tem results in a union of the colonies, 439, 
454, 456, 466 (see Boston Committee); 
committees of correspondence between the 
colonies organized, 455, 460; a select com- 
mittee issue a secret circular to all the col- 
onies, 469. 

" Common Sense," an essay by Thomas 
Paine, viii. 2?6; Rush gives it this title, 
230 ; the argument : monarchy discoun- 
tenanced in the Bible; the greater number 
of kings are bad men ; kings multiply 
civil wars ; they are of no real use ; we 
are now driven to an appeal to arms ; our 
cause is of great worth, 237 ; Great Britain 
has not been our protector: not England 
only, but all Europe, is our parent land; 
our connection with England is of no use 
to us ; America should avoid any close 
connection with Europe, 238 ; our territory 
is too vast to remain long subject to any 
external power, 239 ; reconciliation to Eng- 
land would be our ruin ; peace and pros- 
perity can come to us only through inde- 
pendence, 240; France and" Spain will give 
us no assistance, unless we declare our 
independence, and the proper time for this 1 
is now come, 241. • 

Common-sense the standard of morals and 
of truth, viii. 248, 249. 

Complot of Sir Henry Clinton and Benedict 
Arnold, x. 371, et seq. 

Conant, Roger, his extraordinary vigor, i. 
339; makes a settlement at Salem, 339. 

Concord, Mass, settled, i. 383; a town meet- 
ing held there composed of Boston exiles, 
viii. 48. 

Concord in Massachusetts, the Middlesex 
county convention meet there, vii. 112; 
the provincial Congress meet there, 153; 
Gage sends an expedition thither, 288; the 
people are roused, 230; William Emerson, 
the minister, 230; he and his flock appear 
in arms, 290; arrival of the British troops 
at Concord village, 238; rally of the alarm 
company, 298; they retreat beyond the 
river, 298; re-enforcements come from Lin- 
coln, Acton, Bedford, Westford, Littleton, 
Carlisle, and Chelmsford, 299; destruction 
of stores by the British, 300; the Amer- 
icans hesitate about resisting, 300 ; their 
hesitation removed by the British fire, 
302; the tirst victims at Concord, 303; 
the battle of Concord, 303; the British 
retreat with great loss and are vigor- 
ously pursued, 304, et seq ; their retreat 
becomes a flight 306; cruelties per- 



petrated by them, 308; the British ar- 
rive in Boston, 309; the American loss, 
309; the British loss, 309; great conse- 
quences of the battle, 310, 311, el seq. ; 
the whole country roused, 312; the British 
army besieged in Boston, 313; the effect 
in Europe, 342, e t seq. 
Confederation, plan of, proposed by Franklin, 
viii. 53; the plan equivalent to a declara- 
tion of independence, 54; its two great 
principles, 54; submitted to Congress by 
Franklin, 245; the proposal negatived, 245; 
committee to prepare articles of confedera- 
tion, 392; draft of a plan made by Dickin- 
son, ix. 4G; his unfitness for such a work, 
40, 47; hinderance to a confederation, 47; 
the states jealous of a central power, 48; 
the effects remain of contests with the 
crown, 48 ; the confederacy seemed to stand 
in the place of the crown, 49; the right 
of taxation withheld from Congress, 49; 
Franklin's plan contrasted with that of 
Dickinson, 49, 50; debate on the appor- 
tionment of supplies to be furnished by the 
several members of the confederacy, 51, 52; 
debate on the question of representation, 
53, 54; no plan of confederation at present 
adopted, 57 ; a further delay, 131 ; articles 
of confederation adopted, 436; unity of 
the colonies, of what sort, 437; no central 
authority, 437; what does "my country" 
meanV 437; the principle of resistance, and 
this alone, held the colonies together, 437 ; 
the spirit of separation increases, 438; the 
South jealous of the North, 438; vast ex- 
tent of the United colonies, 438; what con- 
stitutes citizenship? 439; power of natu- 
ralization, 439 ; each state an independent 
sovereign, 440; vote by states, 440; evi- 
dent inequality, 440: a compromise, 441; 
Congress has no power to lev}' taxes, 441 ; 
the post-office, 441; import and export 
duties, 441; influence of slavery on the 
distribution of quotas, 441, 442; rule finally 
adopted, 442; navigation laws, 442; the 
public lands, 443; country north-west of 
the Ohio, 443 ; jealousy of a standing army, 
443; effect of the popular affection for 
"Washington, 444; thirteen armies, and not 
one, 444; maritime affairs, 444; foreign 
relations, 444; coining money, &c, 445; 
rotation in Congress, 445; no executive 
power, 445; no judiciary, 445; no veto on 
the action of any State, 445; no incidental 
powers, 44G; scarcely any mode of amend- 
ment, 44G ; but for the spirit of the people, 
the government had no chance to live, 446. 
Four great results, 446: 1. A republican 
government may equal the widest empire 
in its extent of territory, 447; 2. No man 
to be disfranchised for color, race, or reli- 
gious belief, 447; 3. A citizen of one state 
entitled to equal privileges in all the states, 
447, 448; free blacks are citizens, 449; 4. 
Individual liberty secured, 449, 450. The 
confederation was a contradiction, yet con- 
tained the elements of a free nation, 450 ; 
articles of, x. 144; confederation of the 

states proposed, 408; adopted, 420; its 
defects, 421; it was the opposite of union, 
422; it was sure to lead to division, strife, 
and anarchy, 422; obedience to its requisi- 
tions could not be enforced. 423 

Conliscation of property bv Sir Henry Clin- 
ton, x. 307. 

Congress, a general, proposed by Samuel 
Adams, vi. 466, 507; advocated by the 
"Boston Gazette," 469; recommended by 
Providence, vii. 42; by Philadelphia, 45; 
by New York, 46 ; by Baltimore, 50 ; by 
Virginia, 54; by North Carolina, 55; Mas- 
sachusetts appoints the time and place, 04; 
and elects delegates, 64 ; delegates chosen 
by Rhode Island, 65; by Maryland, 06; by 
New York, 78 83; by South Carolina, 81; 
by Pennsylvania, 82, 83; by New Jersey, 

' 83; by New Hampshire, 83; by Virginia, 
84, 85. (See Continental Congress.) 

Congress, first Anglo-American, iii. 183 ; sug- 
gested by Massachusetts, 183; Congress 
European, at Aix-la-Chapelle, 466. 

Congress, general. (See Continental Con- 

Congress of Indian tribes at the Falls of St. ■ 
Mary, iii 153; a splendid affair. 154; with 
no enduring result, 154; another Indian 
congress, 214, 222. . 

Congress of commissioners at Albany in 
1748; iv. 25, et seq.; the Massachusetts 
delegation, 26, 27; plans of Clinton and 
Colden, 25; numerously attended by In- 
dian chiefs. 28; another congress there, 88; 
congress of governors at Boston, 252. 

Congress of Massachusetts. (See Provincial 
Congress. ) 

Congress of the American people proposed, 
v. 279 ; some of the colonies falter, 292, 293 ; 
South Carolina yields a hearty approval, 
294; the Congress meet in New York, 334; 
what colonies were represented, 334; the 
argument for American liberty, on what 
founded, 335; debates in Congress con- 
cerning liberty and privilege, 343; declara- 
tion of rights, 344: memorials to Parliament, 
344,345; union inaugurated, 346 ; i he peti- 
tion of Congress presented in Parliament, 

Congress, provincial. (See Provincial Con- 

Connecticut river discovered by Adrian Blok, 
ii. 275. 

Connecticut, settled from Massachusetts, i. 
395,396; the Pequod war, 398-402; civil 
institution of the colony, 402; it recognized 
no jurisdiction of the king, 402; charter 
obtained by the younger Winthrop, ii. 54; 
the charter liberal, 55 ; happy fruits of the 
charter, in the purity, the tranquillity, the 
domestic and social happiness of the colony 
during more than a hundred years, 56-61 ; 
the royal commissioners in Connecticut, 
83; Hartford and New Haven united, 83; 
population in 1675, 93; no blood shed 
there, in Philip's war. 109; generosity to 
the sufferers, 109; boundary fixed on the 
side of New Netherland, 295; Andros as- 

VOL. X. 




sumes the government, 430; the charter 
oak, 430; the charter taken from its hiding- 
place, 448; population in 1088. 450; effect 
of the English revolution, iii. GO; address 
of the assembly to William, 00 ; the charter 
intact, 00; influence of the clergy, 09; the 
charter always in danger. 09; attempt in 
Parliament to revoke it, 70; Cornbury joins 
in the attempt, 70; law of inheritance, 392; 
remonstrates against arbitrary power, iv. 
49; population in 1754, 128, 129; claims 
a part of the territory of Pennsylvania, 
140; Connecticut troops brave and vic- 
torious in war, 207, 211; heavy burdens 
on the colony, 293 ; Connecticut troops at 
Ticonderoga, 298, 301; has five thousand 
men under arms, 319 ; described as a mere 
democracy, 370; remonstrates against in- 
fringement of its rights, v. 224; Bernard 
proposes a dissolution of the colony, 225; 
Johnson has a similar desire, 220 ; Con- 
necticut deals roughly with Ingersoll, the 
distributor of stamps, 310, et seq. ,• the prin- 
ciples of natural liberty avowed, 300 ; re- 
solves on resistance to the stamp act, 378; 
elects William Pitkin governor, vi. 14; 
refuses compliance with a requisition, 51; 
able defence of its rights by Johnson, its 
agent, 111-115; purpose of the British min- 
istry to annul its charter, 111, 113, 110; 
determined attitude of the colony, 149; 
petitions the king, but refuses to petition 
Parliament, and why not, 149; denies the 
right of Parliament to tax the colonics, 100; 
sends a colony to the lower Mississippi, 298 ; 
its charter again threatened, 451 ; Connecti- 
cut has claims on the Western Valley, 500 ; 
its representatives make a declaration of 
rights, vii. 42; the people anxious for a 
general Congress, 40 ; they send relief to 
the suffering people of Boston in 1774, 73; 
honors the delegates of Massachusetts to 
Congress as they pass through the colony, 
100, 107; thousands of its men in arms 
start for the relief of Boston, 120; measures 
taken preparatory to active resistance, 155; 
armed bands rush to the scene of conflict 
near Boston, 315, 310; Connecticut attempts 
to mediate, 321; offers six thousand men, 
325 ; sends one thousand of her sons to gar- 
rison and defend Ticonderoga and Crown 
Point, 305; Connecticut troops with Spen- 
cer at Roxbury, 405 ;\ with Putnam at 
Cambridge, 405; with Knowlton and Put- 
nam at the rail-fence near Breed's Hill, 
408, 410, 414, 418; attack of the British 
and their hasty retreat, 424; the Connecti- 
cut and New Hampshire men cover the 
retreat of the Massachusetts men from the 
redoubt, 430; under Putnam, on Prospect 
Hill, near Boston, viii. 43; the legislature 
order the equipment of two armed vessels 
for the defence of the coast, 08 ; Connecticut 
•soldiers complained of by Schuyler, 185; 
many of them leave the army at Cam- 
bridge, 218; Governor Trumbull apologizes 
for them to Washington, 219 ; others volun- 
teer to take their places, 219 : the ministry 

intend to infringe on the charter of the 
colony, 300; instructs its delegates in Con- 
gress to vote for independence, 437; sends 
troops to the defence of New York, ix. 57, 
79; Connecticut men on Lake Champlain, 
152, 157 ; the civil government, still admin- 
istered as under the charter, 281 ; popular 
education provided for, 271 ; rule for nom- 
ination to high civil office, 271; Connecti- 
cut militia sent to Providence, 412; her 
regiments resolve to return home, 403. 

Connolly, John, a land-jobber and willing 
tool of Lord Uunmore, vii. 102 ; his letter 
to the people of Wheeling, 105; arrested in 
Maryland, viii. 224. 

Conservative party formed in New York in 
1774, vii. 41 ; on what founded, 41 ; their 
principles and influence, 41, 77, 107 ; con- 
servative policy of Congress, 138, 149, 150, 
350, 358, 301. 

Constitutions of civil government in America, 
not founded on speculative theorj', but on 
the innate idea of justice, and the rights 
of man, ix. 257; no fifth monarchy men, 
258; no desperate hatred of England, 258; 
no violent departure from the past, 258; 
sovereignty resides in the people, 258; 
the people had confidence in themselves, 
259; England a land of liberty, 259; why 
American statesmen became republican, 
200; elective franchise, how enjoyed (see 
Elective Franchise), the legislature, how 
elected in the several states, 205; House of 
Representatives, how apportioned, 205; 
great inequality in Maryland and South 
Carolina, 205 ; historic precedents generally 
followed, 200 ; two legislative bodies, in 
every state but two, 206; term of service, 
200 ; modes of electing the governor, 207 ; 
property qualification, 207; period of ser- 
vice, 208; a conditional veto, 208; the 
legislature independent of the governor, 
209; the appointing power, 209; the judi- 
ciary, 270; public education not provided 
for save in Massachusetts and Connecticut, 
270, 271; the people are represented in the 
government as they truly are, 271 ; free- 
dom of worship and of religious belief 
secured to all, 272, 273 ; religious tests, how 
far inquired as qualificat ions for oilice, 275 ; 
applied chiefly to the Catholic and the Jew, 
275; soon eliminated, 275; the church not 
a part of the state, 270; in freedom of 
conscience and of worship, America found 
its nationality, 270; disposition of church 
property, 277; separation of church and 
state approved of by all, 277, 278; estates 
not to be entailed, 279; provision tor re- 
forming the civil constitu*ion, 281; the 
rights of man declared in every constitu- 
tion except that of South Carolina, 282; 
theory of political life, 282, 283. 

Constitution of South Carolina, x. 155: of 
Virginia, 223; of Massachusetts, 307;' 
one formed by the British ministry for 
Eastern Maine, 308. 

Contempt, language of, employed by British 
officials in speaking of the Americans, vi. 



10, G5. 143, 203, 278, 322, 419 y 40G, 501, 
513, 517, 523. 

Continental army, first, assumption of the 
name, vii. 391; Washington chosen gen- 
eral, 393; his great qualities, 393-400; 
state of the army on his arrival, 404; 
want of order, 404; want of experience, 
405; imperfect discipline, 405 ; scanty sup- 
plies of military means, 405; want of 
system, 405; small supply of powder 415; 
its temper exhibited at Bunker Hill, 41(5, 
et seq.; election of generals, viii 26-31; 
their incompetency, 30; state of the army 
at Cambridge, 41 ; its several positions, 
43; its numbers, 44; deficiencies, 44; want 
of discipline and subordination, 45: various 
skirmishes, 47, 49; nothing done for the 
army by Congress, 50; its condition un- 
satisfactory to Washington, 51; the army 
in three divisions, Gl ; great want of am- 
munition, 61; colored men allowed to 
serve in the army, 110; a committee of 
Congress visit the camp, 111; arrange- 
ments made for a new army, 112 ; invasion 
of Canada, 182, et seq. (see Northern 
Army and Montgomery), distress of the 
army for want of supplies, 217; enlistments 
go on slowly, 218; Connecticut men desert, 
218; Washington complains, 219; he en- 
lists a new army, 219; great neglect of 
Congress to provide for the army, 234? 
Congress votes to increase the army, 245 ; 
powder is received in large quantities, 245; 
the American army employed with decisive 
effect on the British troops in Boston, 293, 
et seq. ; bad policy of short enlistments, 
315, 310; small amount of Washington's 
force in New York, 440; the men poorly 
equipped, 440; conspiracy against Wash- 
ington, 441; the first military execution, 
441 ; an exchange of prisoners agreed on, 
ix. 45, 40 ; dissensions among the officers, 
58 ; Gates assumes to hold equal rank with 
Washington, 58; New York eitjr to be 
defended. 76; the fortifications poorly 
armed, 77; condition of the army. 77; the 
Americans defeated on Long Island. 90-94; 
their sufferings, 97; their confidence in 
Washington, 98; retreat from Loin; Island, 
103, 104; shameful panic and flight from 
New York, 119, 120 (see American Arm;/). 

Continental Congress meets at Philadelphia, 
in September, 1774, vii. 126 ; chooses a 
president and secretary, 127 ; number of 
members, 127; actuated by one spirit, 127; 
animated discussion on the manner of 
voting, 128; each colony to have one 
vote, 130; the session opened with prayer, 
131; news from Boston 132, 134; debate 
on the foundation of colonial rights, 132, 
et seq. : Congress sympathizes with Mas- 
sachusetts, 1 34 ; approves the resolutions of 
the county of Suffolk, 134, 135 ; by acompro- 
mise, it is agreed to consent to the naviga- 
tion acts, 135); the British colonial system 
was thus accepted, 140 ; the insidious plan of 
Galloway is rejected, 140, 141; the legisla- 
ture of Massachusetts applies to Congress 

for advice, 142 ; sympathy for Boston, 142; 
Congress leaves Massachusetts to her own 
discretion with respect to the form of her 
government, and approves of her resistance 
to British aggression, 145; if Britain at- 
tempts to execute the regulating acts by 
force, Congress promise that all America 
will resist, 145, 146 ; its declaration of 
rights, 146 ; resolves to discontinue all 
importations from Great Britain and all 
exports, save of rice, to Britain and the 
West Indies, 147; inaugurates the aboli- 
tion of the slave trade, 148; addresses the 
people of all the provinces, and the people 
of Great, Britain, 148; it petitions the king, 
149; strong desire for conciliation, 149; 
independence not yet desired, 150; the 
old relations with Britain are earnestly 
and exclusively sought, 151 ; Congress 
adjourns, 149; high character given to it 
by Lord Chatham, 191; he wishes that 
the conditions proposed by Congress may 
be accepted, 191, 192 ; his splendid eulogy 
on Congress, 200; second continental Con- 
gress meets in May, 1775, 353 ; essential 
weakness of this body, 353, 354; has great 
difficulties to encounter, 354 ; is swayed 
by diverse sentiments, 356 ; unprepared 
for war, 35G ; its course was directed by 
inevitable and unforeseen events, 357; 
unanimous approval of the conduct of 
Massachusetts, 357 ; the first deputy from 
Georgia appears, 357, 358; Congress in- 
structs New York not to oppose the land- 
ing of British troops, 358; unfortunate 
consequences of this advice, 358, 359 ; hes- 
itates to approve the taking of Ticonderoga, 
361; John Hancock is chosen president, 
378; Congress proposes to have the colo- 
nies put in a state of defence, 379, 380, 
381; while at the same time proposing to 
negotiate with the king, 379, 380, 381; 
misgivings of Congress, 381 ; address to 
the Canadians, 381, 382; propositions of 
Lord North are laid on the table, 382, 383 ; 
dilatory action of Congress, 383 ; consents 
to the occupation of Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point, 383 ; adopts the army around 
Boston. 390: borrows money for the first 
time, 390, 391 ; advises Massachusetts not 
to institute a new government, 391; ap- 
points a solemn fast throughout the twelve 
colonies, 392, 393; takes measures for 
organizing a continental army, 393 ; unan- 
imously elects by ballot George Washing- 
ton commander-in-chief, 393; his un- 
equalled character, 393-400; the extreme 
difficulties of his position, 400, 401 ; the ap- 
pointment gives universal satisfaction, 402; 
elects four _ major-generals, viii. 26; elects 
eight brigadiers, 30, 31 ; the character of 
•each. 30, 31; expects but one campaign, 34; 
its financial system, 35; its plan for the 
increase of the army, 35 ; authorizes the 
invasion of Canada, 35 ; sets forth the 
causes for taking up arms, 35, 30 ; second 
petition to the king, 37, 38; address to 
the people of Great Britain, 38; address 



to the city of London, 39 ; their delusive 
confidence, 39; Congress do nothing for 
the army round Boston, 50 ; inefficient as 
an executive body, 51; it gives authority 
to employ troops, but no proper cause is 
taken for raising and equipping an army, 
52; no leave for permanent enlistments, 53 ; 
plan of confederation proposed by Frank- 
lin, 53 ; Lord North's plan of conciliation is 
referred to a committee, 54; remembers the 
friendly interposition of Jamaica, 54; sends 
to Ireland an expression of sympathy, 55; 
complains that Howe, an Irishman, is an 
enemy, 55; its apathy and hesitation, 55; 
answer to Lord North's plan of conciliation, 
50 ; reasons for rejecting the plan, 56, 57 ; 
Congress shuns energetic measures, 57; 
organizes a post-office, 57; its financial 
system, 57, 58; paper-money issued, 58; 
and this virtually irredeemable, 58 ; Con- 
gress refuses to open the American ports, 
58; is wanting in sagacity, promptness, 
and decision, 108; a mean jealousy of 
New England, 109; Gadsden of South 
Carolina defends New England, 109; 
slow progress of Congress, 109, 110 ; 
much time spent on small matters, 110 ; 
men of color allowed to serve in the army, 
110; a committee of Congress visits the 
camp, 112, 113; Congress undecided, 115; 
the king's savage proclamation makes 
them somewhat more decided, 137; Con- 
gress encourages New Hampshire and 
South Carolina to establish a government, 
137 ; it sees the wisdom of a declaration of 
independence, but postpones the measure, 
141 ; appoints a committee for foreign cor- 
respondence, 142; Congress disapproves of 
Schuyler's proposal to relinquish the inva- 
sion of Canada, 182 ; founds an American 
navy, 215 ; secret communications between 
Congress and the French ministry, 21G, 
217 ; invites Virginia to institute a govern- 
ment, 224; Congress at first excludes 
negroes from the army, afterwards admits 
them, 233; votes to increase the army, 
245; a committee of Congress meets "a 
committee of New York, 279; Congress 
votes to Washington a medal, commemora- 
tive of his success at Boston, 304; dis- 
satisfied with Dr. Smith's eulogy on 
Montgomery, 315; discusses the policy of 
short enlistments, 310; more paper-money 
issued, 318; Congress sends commissioners 
to Canada, 319 ; authorizes commissions 
for privateers, 320; disclaims allegiance to 
the crown, 320; prohibits the slave-trade, 
321 ; a virtual declaration of independence 
issued, in the opening of the commerce of 
the united colonics to all the world, 323; 
John Adams moves that the people insti- 
tute governments, 307 ; the motion pre- 
vails, 307; preamble to the resolution, 367; 
the preamble a virtual declaration of inde- 
pendence, 308; Duane and others oppose 
it, 308; the Pennsylvania delegates decline 
to vote upon it, 369 ; it is adopted, 369 ; 
llichard Henry Lee presents resolutions for 

independence, 389 ; they are seconded by 
John Adams, 389 ; animated debate upon 
them, 390; all New England, Virginia, and 
Georgia for independence, 391 ; the oppo- 
nents, 390; the question postponed for 
three weeks, 392; a committee chosen to 
prepare a declaration, 392 ; a committee 
to form a plan for a confederation, 392 ; a 
committee for treaties, 393 ; inadequate 
provision made for the army, 441 ; meet- 
ing of Congress to consider the question of 
independence, 449 ; who were present, 44iJ ; 
their superior character, 449; their lon- 
gevity, 449; the order of the day, 451; 
great speech of John Adams, 451; reply 
of Dickinson, 452, et seq. ; he wants delay, 
452, et seq. ; he is answered by Wilson 
and Withcrspoon, 456, 457; the united 
colonics declared to be free and indepen- 
dent States, 459; signs the declaration of 
independence, ix. 41, 59 ; agrees to an ex- 
change of prisoners, 46 ; plan of a confedera- 
tion considered, 47, et seq. ; plan of Dickin- 
son, 49, 50 ; the plan criticised, 49, 50 ; debate 
on the matter of representation in Con- 
gress, 53, 54; and on the public lands, 55, 
50; the fear of a standing army precludes 
proper measures for the public defence, 
57; Congress too ready to assume the 
conduct of a campaign, 78 ; its relations to 
Gates and to Washington, 78; wish New 
York to be defended, 76; unreasonable 
expectations, 101; Sullivan comes with 
a message from Lord Howe, 110; Congress 
unwilling to abandon New York, 111; 
debate on the message from Lord Howe, 
112; a committee appointed to meet him, 
112; unsatisfactory interview with him, 
116, 117; Congress reluctantly yields to 
the opinion of Washington that New York 
must be abandoned, 115, 116; dilatory 
proceedings 131, 132; plan of a treaty 
with France, 132; the fisheries, 132; free 
ships make free goods, 132; commissioners 
to France appointed, 133; neglects to pro- 
vide an efficient and permanent army, 
136, 138; its vain, presumptuous confi- 
dence, 173, 174; confirmed in its delusion 
hy Lee, 174; interferes in military opera- 
tions, 185; a great disaster follows, 190- 
193; "Congress loves to see matters put 
to hazard," 185; on the approach of the 
enemy, Congress adjourns to Baltimore, 
213; the temporizing policy of Congress 
thrown aside, 237 ; confers on Washington 
additional power, 238; authorizes a loan 
in France, 238; and issues more paper- 
money, 239 ; mean jealousy entertained of 
Washington, 255; strange vote of Con- 
gress, 255; disregards the advice of Wash- 
ington, 335; offer of Congress to Gates, 
336; confers more power on Washington, 
338; helplessness of Congress, 338; it 
interferes in Pennsylvania, 338 ; its numer- 
ous errors and defects, 343; finally estab- 
lishes the ilag of the United States, 352; 
removes Schuyler from command, 386 ; 
elects Gates his successor, 386; lavish 



favor upon him, 386, 383; slight and 
neglect Washington, 388; interferes with 
the commissary department, 388; politics 
of Congress, 389; appointment of general 
officers." 389; retires to Lancaster, 402; 
improper interference of Congress, 433; 
meets at Yorktown, 43G; adopts articles 
of confederation, 436 (see Confederation); 
appoints a board of war, 454; the Conway 
cabal, 455; does nothing for the army, 
4G0; desires a winter expedition to Canada, 
462; issues more paper money, 468; its 
depreciation, 468; conflict of opinion be- 
tween Congress and Washington, 470; 
Congress for separatism, Washington for 
union, etc., 470; Congress jealous of the 
popularity of Washington, 470; ratify 
the alliance with France, x. 117; ad- 
dress of, to the American people, 118; 
rejects the offers of Lord North and the 
British ministry, 122; opens loan offices, 
169; is-ues continental money, 169; tries 
to obtain foreign loans, 171, 221 ; invites 
Richard Price to the country, 172; votes 
to place the country, in the matter of 
finance, under the "protection" of the 
King of France, 173; renounces all coer- 
cive power over the several states, 178; is 
therefore utterly helpless, 179; forms a 
plan for the invasion of Canada, 176; 
nothing came of it, 177 ; wastes time on 
personal and party interests, 204; its pecun- 
iary difficulties, 205; discussions in refer- 
ence to peace, 213, et seq. ; votes in regard 
to boundaries, 214; its ultimatum, 214; 
votes touching the fisheries, 215, 217; con- 
gratulates the King of France on the birth 
of a daughter, 216; refuses to prohibit the 
slave trade, 217; insists on independence, 
220; refuses to trust to the magnanimity of 
Spain, 220; recommends the arming of col- 
ored men, 291; finds itself utterly helpless 
for want of money, 401; resorts to tem- 
porary expedients, 401. 

Continental money issued, x. 169; counter- 
feited by the British ministers, 168, 205, 
396; depreciation of it, 168, 173; this pro- 
longs the contest, 168; amount issued, 
397; value in 1780, 401; it ceases to cir- 
culate, 401. 

Contraband trade with the French sugar 
islands, iv. 376, 377; measures taken to 
stop it, 414 ; widely carried on, v. 157 ; 
curious illustration, 158, note ; the British 
ministry resolve to suppress it, 160, vi. 248. 

Contrast between George III. and Samuel 
Adams, vii. 59. 

Convention of Massachusetts assemble at 
Boston in 1768, vi. 202 ; object of the 
meeting misrepresented, 203 ; Governor 
Bernard tries to frighten them, but in vain, 
204; their energetic proceedings, 205; 
united with prudence, 204, 206. 

Convention of Saratoga broken by the Eng- 
lish, x. 126. 

Conway, brigadier in "Washington's army, 
ix. 397 ; at Germantown, 424 ; the Conway 
cabal, 454, el seq. ; Washington's opinion 

of him, 455; his discontent, 455; his in- 
jurious words are made known to Wash- 
ington, 455 ; Washington has an interview 
with him, 456; he bids defiance to Wash- 
ington, 456 ; Sullivan's high praise of Con- 
way, 456 ; Conway resigns his commission, 
456; is appointed inspector-general and 
major-general, 457 ; at last he fully justi- 
fies and applauds Washington, 464. 

Conway, General Henry Seymour, wishes to 
command in America, iv. 293; denies the 
power of Parliament to tax America, v. 
242; his speech against a tax, 244, 245; 
is secretary of state for the colonies under 
the Rockingham administration, 303; his 
character, 304; friendly to America, 365; 
his speech on the right to tax America, 
387, 388 ; Conway and Grafton wish to see 
Pitt at the head of the government, 396; 
his wishes are thwarted, 397; assures the 
American agents of his good-will, 400; of- 
fers in Parliament a resolution in opposi- 
tion to his avowed sentiments, 415: moves 
the repeal of the stamp act, 434; the repeal 
carried, 436 ; transports of the people, 436; 
secretary of state and leader in the House 
of Commons, vi. 21; dismayed by Towns- 
hend's insolence, 49 ; his mild counsels are 
not hepded, 58; excluded from the minis- 
try, 109 ; wishes the duty on tea repealed, 
276, 360; his motion against continuing the 
war, x. 529 ; who supported the motion, 529. 

Cook, colonel, of Connecticut, at the battle 
of Bemis's Heights, ix. 409. 

Cook, James, the navigator, iv. 324 ; in the 
fleet sent against Quebec, 332. 

Cooper, Myles, president of Columbia college, 
New York, threatens the employment of 
savage Indians against the Americans, vii. 
119 ; inculcates the duty of passive obedi- 
ence. 208 ; says the friends of the Ameri- 
can Congress are guilty of unpardonable 
crime, 208. 

Cooper, Samuel, minister of Brattle Street 
Church, Boston, the eloquent and patriotic 
minister, vi. 24l ; quoted, 328 ; his prayer 
at town-meeting after the Boston massacre, 
341; his opinion touching that transaction, 
348; advises the election of Franklin as 
agent in England, 374 ; his letters quoted, 
405; in the pulpit stigmatizes Hutchinson 
as the progeny of the "old serpent," 461. 

Cooper, William, of Boston, vi. 158; true- 
hearted, 430 ; town-clerk, 473. 

Coplev, John Singleton, at town meeting, vi. 

Coplev, Sir Lionel, Governor of Marjdand, 
Hi. 31. 

Coree's Indian tribe in North Carolina, iii. 
239 ; attack that colony, 320. 

Corlaer, governor of New York, ii. 419, 420. 

Cornbury, Lord (Edward Hyde), his ill 
character and administration, iii. 60; gov- 
ernor of New York and New Jersey, 61; 
embezzles the public finances, 61; his 
haughty demeanor, 61; his imperious con- 
duct, 62 ; his career in New Jersey, 63 ; an 
enemy to Connecticut, 70. 



Corner, John, captain of the frigate " Rom- 
ney" in Boston Harbor, vi. 155; his diary 

quoted, 195, 196, 199, 200, 201, 203. 

Cornstalk, a Shawanese chief, vii. 109. 

Cornwallis, Earl, arrives in Cape Fear river 
with re-enforcements, viii. 357 ; his first ex- 
ploit in America, 358; is consulted by 
Clinton, 395.399; joins Howe on Staten 
Island, ix. 82; lanils on Long Island, 83; 
advances to Flatbush, 84; makes a further 
advance, 93, 94, 124; attacks fort Wash- 
ington, 191 ; commands in New Jersey, 194 ; 
enters Brunswick, 201 ; supposing the 
righting to be over, sends his baggage to 
England, 227; returns to command at 
Princeton, 241 ; leads an army to Trenton, 
243: rejects the good advice of Donop, 
244; linds Washington at Trenton, 244; 
is held at bay by" him, 245 ; defers an 
attack till next day, and thus loses the 
opportunity of crushing the "rebellion," 
245; his army goes to sleep, while Wash- 
ington goes to Princeton, 245 ; he starts in 
pursuit, but does not overtake him, 251 ; 
Cornwallis at Amboy, 334; at Brunswick, 
345; surprises Lincoln at Boundbrook, 
340 ; at Hillsborough, 352 ; at Brunswick 
again, 354 ; is vigorously attacked by Mor- 
gan, 355; attacks Stirling's division and 
drives it back, 356 ; leaves New Jersey, 
35G; on the march to Philadelphia, 394 ; 
forms a junction with Knyphausen, 395 ; 
crosses the Brandywine, 390; the battle, 
397, 398 ; takes possession of Philadelphia, 
404 ; takes part in the battle of German- 
town, 428; crosses the Delaware into Jersey, 
435 ; returns to Philadelphia, 435 ; Germain 
appoints him to conduct the southern cam- 
paign, x. 284; arrives in South Carolina, 
304; brings to Clinton a re-enforcement, 
304 ; marches towards Camden, 300 ; praises 
a terrible massacre, 307 ; rivalry between 
him and Clinton, 308, 309 ; state of his 
command, 309; forcibly enrols the male 
inhabitants among his troops; 310 ; in- 
stances of his cruelty, 311 ; reaches Cam- 
den, S.C, 319 ; totally routs the American 
force under Gates, 322; becomes with the 
British ministry the favorite general, 326 ; 
establishes a reign of terror, 327; his mil- 
itary murders, 328; his sequestration of 
estates, 333 ; marches into North Carolina, 
332 ; the victory of the backwoodsmen at 
King's mountain compels him to retreat, 
340 ; sufferings of his troops, 341 ; his 
plans wholly frustrated, 344; his barbarity 
to prisoners, 457 ; his cruelties not imitated 
by American officers, 457; pursues Mor- 
gan's army, 461 ; again invades North 
( 'arolina, 469 ; pursues Greene's army 
through that State, 470, et seq. ; encounters 
Greene's army at Guilford, 475 ; the army 
of Cornwallis victorious, but ruined there, 
481; he retreats to Wilmington, abandon- 
ing all North Carolina, out of Wilmington, 
to the Americans, 481: invades Virginia, 
484; excesses committed by his troops, 
485; he reaches Petersburg, Va., 499; 

amount of his force, 500; seizes all the 
valuable horses, 504; his operations in 
central Virginia, 504; amount of property 
destroyed by him, 505; tired of the war. 
he wishes to" get back to Charleston, 508, 
509 ; hatred between him and Clinton, 506 ; 
concentrates his force at Yorktown and 
Gloucester, 511; besieged by Washington, 
518, et seq.; surrenders, 522; articles of 
capitulation, 522. 

Cornwallis, Edward, conducts a body of 
English emigrants to Nova Scotia, iv. 45 ; 
his severe treatment of the Acadians, 46 ; 
and of the Micmac Indians, 47 ; endeavors 
to dislodge a French force on the isthmus, 
67, et seq. 

Cornwallis, Lord Charles, votes against tax- 
ing America, vi. 413. 

Coronado. Francisco Vasquez, despatches an 
expedition into New Mexico, i. 40 e; 
reaches the river Del Norte, 40 m ; fails to 
find a northern Peru, 41; reaches the 
Arkansas, 41. 

Correspondence, committees of (see Commit- 
tees, &c). 

Correspondence, foreign, a committee of 
Congress appointed for, viii. 142, 143. 

Corsica, the British ministry assist its revolt 
from Finance, vi. 175, 176. 

Cortereal, Gaspar, ranges the coast of North 
America, i. 16 ; kidnaps Indians, 16. 

Cortlandt, colonel of a New York regiment, 
ix. 409. 

Corv, Giles, of Salem village, iii. 87 ; pressed 
to death, 93. 

Cory, Martha, imprisoned for witchcraft, 
iii. 86 ; executed, 93. 

Cosby, governor of New York, encroaches 
on popular liberty, iii. 393; defeated, 

Cotton, its culture introduced into Virginia, 
i. 179. 

Cotton, Rev. John, arrives in Boston, i. 365 ; 
his character. 305; preaches against rota- 
tion in office, 366 ; argues against heredi- 
tary office. 385 ; a code of laws prepared 
by 'him, 416. 

Councils. Indian, how conducted, iii. 279. 

Country life, pleasures of, v. 51. 

Court intrigues on the accession of George 
III. iv. 382, et seq. 

Courts of law, opening of the, v. 375. 

Cowhowee river, combat on, iv. 424. 

Cowpens, meaning of the term, x. 402 ; fierce 
and obstinate battle there, 464; total 
defeat of the British, 465. 

Coxe, Daniel, a proprietary of New Jersey, 
iii. 47 : his plan to get possession of the 
lower Mississippi, 202. 

Cradock, Matthew, proposes the transfer of 
the Massachusetts charter to America, i. 
351 ; which seems to have been the early 
design, 351; the design accomplished, 
352. et seq. ; his generosity, 354 ; defends 
the Massachusetts colony, 405. 

Crafts, Thomas, of Boston, painter, one of 
the " Sons of Liberty." in 1765, who hung 
Oliver in effigy, v. 310. 



Cramahe, lieutenant-governor of Quebec, his 

preparations for defence, viii. 196. 
Cranueld, Edward, governor of New Hamp- 
shire, ii. 11G; the whole province mort- 
gaged to him, 117; dissolves the assembly, 
117 ; a new thing in New England, 117; 
his tyrannical proceedings, 118-120; his 
imprisonment of Moody, 119 ; his conduct 
approved by the English government, 120. 
Craven, Charles, governor of South Carolina, 

defeats the insurgent Indians, iii. 328. 
Credit, lulls of, issued, iii. 180, 209, 387. 

Creek Indians, their numbers in 1775, vii. 
337 ; Georgia exposed to their inroads, 
337 : the British authorities excite them 
against the people of Carolina, viii. 88 ; 
refuse to unite in a confederacy against 
the Americans, ix. 161. 

Creek nation of Indians, iii. 250, 251 ; esti- 
mated population, 253; treaty with the 
English, 331 ; befriend the Georgia colony, 
433 ; their alliance sought, iv. 345, 347. 

Crcsap, Michael, of Maryland, his contests 
with the Indians, vii. 105 ; raises a com- 
pany of riflemen, viii. 03 ; marches to the 
siege of Boston, 03 ; dies, 04. 

Croglian, George, of Pennsylvania, accom- 
panies Gist in his exploring tour, iv. 77; 
visits the Wyandots, Delawares, Miamis, 
and other Indian tribes, 77, et seq. ; nego- 
tiates a treaty with them, 79; his second 
journey in 1751, 82; descends the Ohio, v. 
243; his danger, 338; happily succeeds in 
his mission, 330 ; urges the colonization of 
the Illinois country, vi. 32. 

Cromwell, Oliver, his commercial policy, i. 
210; permanently established, 218; his 
war with the Dutch, 217; his vast plans, 
217 ; confirms the patent to Lord Balti- 
more, 201; did not embark for America, 
411.; offers the people of Massachusetts 
estates in Ireland, 444 ; offers them Jamaica, 
440 ; ever the friend of New England, 440 ; 
never its oppressor, 440 ; head of the inde- 
pendent party in England, ii, 11; religious 
spirit of his troops, 12; his share in the 
death of the king, 14, 15 ; assumes supreme 
authority, 20; his remarkable character, 
20 ; his great actions, 21 ; his successive 
parliaments, 23, et seq. ; his death, 27 ; his 
corpse insulted, 34. 

Cromwell, Richard, acknowledged in Vir- 
ginia, i. 227. 

Crown, immense patronage of the, vi. 94. 

Crown Point, a fortress there built by the 
French, iii. 341 ; military operations for its 
reduction, iv. 207, et seq., 251 ; abandoned 
by the French, 323 ; taken by Seth Warner, 
vii. 340 ; garrisoned by troops from Con- 
necticut, 305 ; abandoned by the Amer- 
icans, ix. 58 ; Carleton lands there, 157 ; 
and leaves it, 157. 

Cro/.at, Anthony, obtains a monopoly of the 
trade of the Mississippi valley, iii. 347 ; 
is disappointed and resigns his charter 

Cruelties of the British in South Carolina, 
x. 307, 310, et seq., 328, 334, 339. 

Cruger, of New York, elected to Parliament 
from Bristol, vii. 176. 

Culpepper, John, leader in the insurrection 
in North Carolina, ii. 159 ; goes to Eng- 
land, 100; his arrest, trial, and acquittal. 

Culpepper, Lord, obtains a grant of a large 
part of Virginia, ii. 209 ; is appointed gov- 
ernor for life, 245 ; his avarice, 240 ; re- 
turns to England, 247 ; his patent revoked, 

Cumberland, Duke of, brother of George III. 
votes tor removing the troops from Boston, 
vii. 203 ; his energetic speech against the 
employment of German mercenaries, viii. 

Cumberland, William, Duke of, at the head 
of military affairs, iv. 169 ; his cruel heart, 
170 ; his orders to Braddock, 170 ; increases 
the rigor of the mutiny bill, 171 ; is 
thought of as future king of British Amer- 
ica, 232 ; has the chief conduct of the war, 
249, 250 ; is defeated in Germany and 
compelled to retire, 284; is charged with 
forming a new ministry, v. 250, et seq. ; 
visits Pitt, 200; and presses him to take, 
office, 201, 262 ; forms a new ministry, 296, 
etseq.; has a seat in the Rockingham 
cabinet, 301; dies, 307; his merciless dis- 
position, 307 

Cumberland Island settled, iv. 242. 

dimming, Sir Alexander, makes a treaty 
with the Carolina Indians, iii. 332. 

Cummings, Charles, pastor in Southwestern 
Virginia, vii. 195. 

Cunningham, Patrick, of South Carolina, 
viii. 80. 

Cunningham, Robert, of South Carolina, 
viii. 86. 

Cunningham, William, a British officer, his 
extreme cruelty, x. 458. 

Currency, or circulating medium, false theory 
respecting, iii. 387 ; derangements of in 
the colonies, 388, 389 ; these lead to colli- 
sions with England, 390 ; state of in Mas- 
sachusetts, vii. 323. 

Cushing, Thomas, elected to a convention of 
the people of Massachusetts, vi. 198 ; 
representative from Boston to the general 
court, 284 ; is not ready for decisive action, 
426 ; refuses to serve on the committee of 
correspondence, 429 ; speaker of the House, 
his feeble advice, 466 ; he yields to the 
stronger impulses of Samuel Adams, 469 ; 
"the timid speaker," 492 ;Melegate to the 
Congress at Philadelphia, vii. 64; delegate 
in Congress from Massachusetts, opposed 
to independence, viii. 242 ; he is super- 
seded by Elbridge Gerry, 243. 

Cushman, Robert, agent for the Leyden 
church in England, i. 303. 

Custom-house officers, their rapacity, v. 1G2; 
their acts illegal and oppressive, 162. 

Cuvler, of the New York Congress, viii. 




Dablon, Claude, missionary to the Onon- 

dagas, iii. 143 ; and to the Chippeways, 152. 

D'Aguesseau, Henry Francis, chancellor of 

Fiance, opposes the frantic scheme of 

John Law, iii. 357, 358. 

Dahcota or Sioux tribe of Indians, where 

located, iii. 146, 148, 150, 167, 243, 244. 
Dale, Sir Thomas, governor of Virginia, i. 
142; establishes martial law, 143; intro- 
duces desirable changes, 150. 
D'Alembert, Jean le Itond, a free-thinker, 
ix. 283 ; his famous eulogy of Franklin, 
Dalrvmple, Sir John, his pamphlet for Amer- 
ica, vii. 285. 
Dalrvmple, William, lieutenant-colonel, com- 
mander of troops sent to Boston, vi. 207 ; 
finds it difficult to procure quarters for his 
men, 208, et seq. ; his broils with the peo- 
ple, 314 ; is ready for an attack on them, 
330, 334 ; removes the troops from Boston, 
342, et seq. ; by the king's order takes 
possession of the castle, 369, 370. 
Dalvell, Captain, relieves Detroit, v. 126 ; 
his night attack on the Indians, 127; is 
defeated and slain, 127, 128. 
Danbury, Connecticut, expedition of the 
British to, ix. 340 ; the village destroyed, 
346 ; hasty retreat of the British, 347. 
Danforth, Thomas, president of Maine under 

Massachusetts, ii. 114. 
Danforth, Samuel, of Cambridge, Mass., a 
mandamus councillor, addresses the peo- 
ple and resigns his office, vii. 115. 
Danger arising from the want of a central 

power, x. 207. 
Daniel, Antoine, his fatiguing and hazardous 
journey to the Huron country, iii. 122 ; 
his martyrdom, 138. 
Daniel, Robert, deputy governor of North 

Carolina, iii. 21. 
Dare, Virginia, first English child born in 

the United States, i. 105, 106. 
Darien, Ga.j founded, iii. 427, 431 ; the 
district of, assembles in a local congress, 
vii. 206 ; its patriotic language, 206. 
Dartmouth College exposed to danger from 

Indian liostility, vii. 279. 
Dartmouth, Earl of (William Legge), presi- 
dent of the board of trade under the Rock- 
ingham administration, v. 304 ; proposes 
a measure of gross injustice, 322; his con- 
ciliatory spirit, vi. 434, 459, 466, 467; con- 
fidence of the Americans in him, 466, 468, 
471; but drifts along with the cabinet 
towards coercion, 460; Samuel Adams 
thinks him a good man, but without great- 
ness of mind, 468 ; and intrusted with 
power in order to deceive the American 
people, 408; with the purest intentions, 
lie pursues the oppressive policy of the 
cabinet, 472; is disposed to wait patiently, 
500 ; wishes to see lenient measures adopted, 
518; basely lends his aid to the king in 
his measures subversive of all liberty, 
vii. 58, 59 ; he instructs Gage to have the 

leading patriots in Massachusetts arrested 
and imprisoned and to put down bv force 
the spirit of liberty, 218, 219; his' weak- 
ness, 221 ; opposes the bill of Lord Chat- 
ham for conciliation, 221; issues sangui- 
nary instructions to Gage, 285; becomes 
keeper of the privy seal, viii. 165 ; his 
character, 165; approves of coercing the 
Americans, 301. (See Legge). 
Dartmouth tea ship arrives at Boston, vi. 
477; her owner summoned before the 
Boston committee, 482; a clearance for 
her is refused, 483, 484 ; her cargo of tea 
thrown overboard, 486, 487. 
D Artois, C\iunt, afterwards Charles X., longs 

for war with England, ix. 287. 
Dashwood, Sir Francis, iv. 396. 
Davenport, Rev. John, first minister of New 

Haven, i. 403 ; his death, ii. 92. 
Davidson, General, of North Carolina, x. 

460, 470. 
Davie, William Richardson, his brave men, 

x. 334. 
Davies, Rev. Samuel, his encomium on 

"Washington, iv. 190. 
Davis, Isaac, Captain of the Acton minute- 
men, vii. 299; his earnest bravery, 302; 
is slain at Concord, 303. 
Dawes, William, goes to Lexington to in- 
form Adams and Hancock of clanger, vii. 
28J ; rouses the people on the road, 290. 
Dawn, Field Marshal, defeated by Frederic 

II. at Leuthen, iv. 2S8, 289. 
Daye, Stephen, printer, arrives in Boston, i. 
415; first printing done in the United 
States, 415. 
Dayton, Colonel, of New Jersey, x. 372 ; is 

thanked for good conduct, 374. 
Dead river in Maine, difficulties encountered 
bv Arnold's expedition on its banks, viii. 
Dean, James, missionary among the Cagh- 
nawaga Indians, employed to conciliate 
the northern tribes, vii. 279. 
Deane, James, his mission to the Six Nations, 

viii. 418. 
Deane, Silas, of Connecticut, with others, 
plans the surprise of Ticonderoga, vii. 
338 ; appointed commissioner to France, 
viii. 318, 319 ; his character, 318, 319; 
arrives in Paris, ix. 62 ; his instructions, 
62 ; he confides in Edward Bancroft, 62 ; 
his interview with Vergennos, 63 ; asks for 
two hundred field-pieces and clothing, 63 ; 
allows himself to disclose important se- 
crets, 64 ; freights three ships with war- 
like supplies, 291 ; he is presented to 
Louis XVI. and the queen, 489, 490. 
Dearborn, Henry, comes from Nottingham 
in New Hampshire with men to oppose the 
British troops, vii. 314 ; captain of a com- 
pany in Stark's regiment at the rail fence 
near Bunker Hill, 419 ; in the expedition 
against Quebec, viii. 191 ; is taken pris- 
oner in the assault, 210; in the battle of 
Bemis's Heights, ix. 416, 418. 
De Barras, Admiral, arrives in the Chesa- 
peake, x. 515, 516. 



De Berdt, Dennis, agent for Massachusetts 
in England, v. 398, vi. 41. 

De Bonvouloir, employed by Vergennes to 
go to America as his agent, viii. 103; his 
knowledge of the country, 103; his in- 
structions, 103 ; sails for the colonies, 104 ; 
arrives in Philadelphia, 210; has inter- 
views with Franklin and a secret commit- 
tee of Congress, 216 ; great importance of 
these communications, 217; his report to 
Vergennes, 330. 

Debt of the United States, x. 173. 

Debts to British subjects, contracted before 
the war, x. 555, 580, 585. 

Declaration of independence, the way pre- 
pared for it, viii. 247, 434-447 ; debate in 
Congress, and final decision, 448-4G1; 
written by Jefferson, and why by him, 
392, 402 ; "the draft wholly his own, 405 ; 
criticisms in Congress, 405 ; clause on the 
slave-trade and slave insurrection, 4G5, 
466; the passage stricken out, 466; the 
slave-trade first branded as piracy, 466; 
the omission to be regretted, 467 ; princi- 
ples of the declaration, 467 ; facts therein 
recounted, 468, et seq. ; solemn conclusion, 
471 ; character of its bill of rights, 472 ; 
its theory in politics, 472; it is written for 
all humanity, 472 ; its effect on the nations, 
473 ; its reconciliation of right and fact, 
473 ; it makes no war on all kings, 473 ; 
it renounces the rule of George III. not as 
a king but as a tyrant, 474; there was no 
wish "to revolutionize England, 474 ; the 
republic came to America unsought, 474 ; 
the declaration formed a nation, 475 ; why 
the fourth of July is kept as the anniver- 
sary. 475. 

Declaration of rights by Congress, vii. 146. 

Declaration of the rights of man, issued 
by the convention of Virginia, viii. 381- 

Declaratory act, its abominable character, 
vi. 24. 

Declaratory bill of 1766, what it was, v. 444, 
449; opposed by Pitt in the House of 
Commons, 444 ; by Camden in the House 
of Lords, 446-448 ; it claims the absolute 
power of Parliament to bind America in 
all cases whatsoever and to enforce this 
claim by fire and sword, 444, et seq., 454. 

De Clugny, minister of finance in France, 
viii. 363 ; his character, 363. 

Deerfield, Mass., burned in the Indian war, ii. 
103 ; slaughter of Lathrop and his men, 
104 ; again burned and the inhabitants 
massacred, iii. 212, 213. 

Deerfield in New Hampshire sends a military 
force to the scene of conflict, vii. 314. 

Defiance, Mount, on Lake George, unoccu- 
pied by the Americans, ii:. 361 ; occupied 
by Burgoyne's army, 366. 

De Grasse, Count, sent with a fleet to Amer- 
ica, x. 447 ; his part in the struggle, 503 ; 
arrives with a powerful fleet and army in 
Chesapeake, 514; his encounter with an 
English fleet, 515; is master of the Chesa- 
peake, 515 ; assists in the capture of Corn- 

wallis, 523 ; defeated and taken prisoner 
by Rodney in West Indies, 545. 

De Guines, French ambassador at London, 
viii. 102 ; his correspondence with Ver- 
gennes, 102, 103, 133; he thinks negotia- 
tion impossible, 134. 

De Kalb, sent by the Duke of Choiseul to 
ascertain the state of affairs in America, 
vi. 66, 67; his report to Choiseul, 132, 
133 ; sent to the relief of South Carolina, 
x. 314 ; not fitted to command in America, 
315; commands the right wing at Cam- 
den, 321 ; his brave conduct, 323 ; severely 
wounded and dies, 323. (See Kalb.) 

De la Barre, Governor of Canada, ii. 418; 
makes war on the Five Nations, 420; is 
worsted, 422. 

Delancey, James, chief-justice of New York, 
iv. 25; lieutenant-governor, 104; opposes 
Franklin's plan of union, 124; advises the 
interposition of Parliament, 172; his death, 
371, note ; royalist brigadier-general, ix. 
85, note ; takes Woodhull prisoner and 
takes his life, 100; appointed a brigadier 
in the British service, ix. 320 ; enlists men 
for the army, 320. 

Delancy Family in New York, vii. 76 ; are 
royalists, viii. 274. 

Delancy, James, a British officer, his cruelty, 
x. 562. 

Delaplace, Captain, surrenders to Ethan 
Allen the fortress of Ticonderoga, vii. 

Delaware (properly De la War), Lord, 
appointed governor of Virginia, i. 137 ; 
his arrival there, 140; his wise adminis- 
tration, 141; returns to England, 142; 
in Parliament, 149 ; his death, 152. 

Delaware, colony and state, first settled by 
the Dutch, i. 281, 282; a colony of Swedes 
and Finns on that territory, 286, 287 ; this 
colony subdued by the Dutch from New 
Netherland, 297; the territory purchased 
by the city of Amsterdam, 298; disastrous 
result, 299 ; possession of the country taken 
by the English, 315; the country claimed 
as an appendage to New York, 319; re- 
covered by the Dutch, 322; restored to the 
English, 325; retained bv the Duke of 
York, 362; granted to William Penn, 367; 
present boundaries established, 394; made 
a separate government, iii. 35 ; again united 
to Pennsylvania, 37 ; the final separation, 
44; elects representatives to the first 
American Congress, v. 329; adopts the 
Virginia resolves against taxation by Par- 
liament, vi. 282; contributes to the relief 
of Boston, vii. 74; a military organ : zation 
begun, 207; the assembly maintains the 
right of each colony to an equal vote in 
Congress, 2716; its firm patriotism, viii. 
75 ; it assents to the measure of an armed 
resistance, 75; declares for independence, 
437, 438 ; insists on a vote for each colony, 
ix. 53; a regiment of very brave troops 
from this state, 88, 93, 94, 103 ; constitu- 
tion of civil government, 262; prepares for 
the ultimate abolition of slavery, 281 ; the 



southern county disaffected, •'502; had par- 
tially abolished slavery, x. 357. 

Delaware Indians, their location, iii- 239 ; 
iv. 70, 77, 95, 108, 109, 110; interviews 
of Franklin and Washington with them, 
108, 109; their murders along the Penn- 
sylvania frontier, 241; chastised, and 
Kittanning, their town, destroyed, 241; 
combine with other Indians to drive out 
the English, v. 112, 119; attack fort Pitt, 
128, 12. t; peace made, 210,221; murdered 
in cold blood, vii. 105; peace with them, 
1G7; take up arms against the Americans, 
ix. 100. (See Lenni Lenape.) 

Delaware river explored by the Dutch, ii. 
276 ; lirst settlement on its banks, in New 
Jersey, 279; obstructed, ix. 422; approach 
to Philadelphia defended, 422, 429; the 
obstructions removed, 423, 434; forts 
Mercer and Mifflin evacuated, 434, 435. 

De Levi. See L< vi. 

De Longeuil, Governor of New France, iii. 

Demere, Paul, captain in the Cherokee coun- 
try, iv. 243, 343; is killed, 355. 

Democracy in Rhode Island, i. 393 ; in Mas- 
sachusetts, 433, et seq. ; democratic revolu- 
tion in England a failure, and why, ii. 1, 
17, 18; the party extinct, 31; Vane, the 
first, martyr to its principles, 40; democracy 
of Connecticut, 55, 50, 59 ; of Rhode Island, 
64; new empire of, hailed in Europe, iv. 
15; democracy in Connecticut, 370; in 
New York, 371; in Pennsylvania, 372. 

De Monts, Sieur, obtains a charter for Acadia, 
i. 25; settles a colony there, 20; explores 
the coast of New England, 20; his mo- 
nopoly revoked, 28. 

Denmark averse to the American cause, x. 
56; accedes to the "armed neutralitv," 
264, 205, 274, 429. 

Departure of General Howe, x. 118; of the 
British commissioners, 125, 151. 

Deplorable condition of the army, x. 177, 

Depreciation of the currency, x. 168, 173, 396. 

Depredations of the British, x. 333, 504, 505. 

De Rasieres, Isaac, his visit to New Plym- 
outh, ii. 280. 

Descartes, Rene, his philosophy, ix. 500 ; dif- 
ferences between him and Luther, 500. 

Des Chaillons joins in the savage attack on 
Haverhill, iii. 214. 

Des Moines river, in Iowa, discovered by 
Marquette and Joliet, iii. 158. 

De Soto, Ferdinand, his earlier life, i. 41 ; 
prepares to invade Florida, 42; lands with 
a strong force on that peninsula, 43 ; his 
Indian guides treacherous, 45; traverses 
Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, 47-51; 
severe battle with the Indians, 48; his 
cruelty, 47.; reaches the Mississippi, 51; 
crosses that river, 52; marches through 
Arkansas and Missouri, 53; harsh treat- 
ment of the natives, 54; his death, 56; 
entire failure of the enterprise, 57; his fol- 
lowers on the Red river, 57 ; their return, 

D'Eataing, Count, his fleet anchors in the 
Delaware, x. 145; enters New York Bay, 
145; arrives off Newport, 146; sails to 
attack the British fleet, 147; his fleet dam- 
aged by a storm, 148; sails for Boston, 148; 
is censured by Sullivan, 148; takes Gren- 
ada, 205; his operations in South Carolina, 
290 ; his unsuccessful attempt on Savannah, 
296; is wounded, 297; sails for France, 

Destructive inroad of British troops into 
South Carolina, x. 294 

Detroit occupied as a French post, iii. 194; 
saved from an attempt of the Fox Indians, 
224; in 1703 described, v. 114; the fort 
there, 115; the population, 115, note ; siege 
of it by the Indians, 117, 121; relieved, 
126, 127; its population in 1708, vi. 224. 

De Vaudrcuil, Governor of Canada, iv. 184. 
(See Vaudreuil.) 

Devens, Richard, of Charlestown, member of 
the committee of safety, vii. 421. 

De Vries visits Virginia, i. 200; commands 
an expedition from Holland lo the Dela- 
ware, ii. 282; goes on an embassy to the 
Indians, 291. 

Dexter, .Samuel, negatived as a councillor of 
Massachusetts, vii. 48. 

Dickinson, General Philemon, of New Jersey 
his success, ix. 252. 

Dickinson, John, of Pennsylvania, "the illus- 
trious farmer," speaks against the revenue 
act, vi. 104-106; the "Farmer's Letters," 
106; Boston thanks him for that produc- 
tion, 139; the author of the "Farmer's 
Letters," his great influence in that colony, 
vii. 44; wanting in vigor of will, 44; his 
cold feeling towards Boston, 44; proposes 
moderate measures, 45, 46; his timidity 
and extreme conservatism, 82; is neg- 
lected in the choice of delegates, 82, 83; 
believes that Parliament may regulate the 
trade of the colonies, 133; is elected to the 
first continental Congress, 142; petition ot 
Congress to the king written by him, 149; 
address of the continental Congress to the 
Canadians drawn by him, 159; his theo- 
retic views correct, 377 ; deficient in energy, 
377; for a time exercises unbounded influ- 
ence in Congress, 378; drafts a second 
petition from Congress to the king, viii. 
37; its tame spirit, 38; his apathy, 50; acts 
in concert with the proprietary government, 
72; misuses his power, 74; chosen one of 
the committee of safety of the province, 
75; is immovably opposed to indepen- 
dence, 109, 245; his incivility to John 
Adams, 109, 245; hinders all attempts at 
progress, 109, 245; mischievous conse- 
quences of instructions to the Pennsylvania 
delegates in Congress drafted by him, 139 ; 
his address to the assembly of New Jersey, 
214; opposes a convention of the people in 
Pennsylvania, 324; is flattered bj' the 
tories, 324; keeps aloof from the popular 
movement, 386; opposes the declaration in 
Congress, 390; one of the committee for 
digesting a plan of confederation, 3J2; of 



the committee on treaties with foreign 
powers, 393; his position in Congress, 452; 
at variance with John Adams, 452; his 
speech in reply to Adams on the question 
of independence, 452, et seq.; his timidity, 
ix- 47; his plan of a confederation con- 
trasted witli franklin's, 49, 50 ; its extreme 
weakness, tending to anarchy, 50; his prop- 
osition relative to supplies, 51; is super- 
seded in Congress, 50 ; refuses an election 
to Congress, 193. 

Dieskau, Baron, commander of the French 
forces in ( 'anada, iv. 183; sent to oppose the 
army of Johnson, 20;); falls in battle, 211. 

Difficulties of Congress, x. 109, et seq., 178, 
204, 210, 215. 

Dilatory conduct of General Howe, x. 121. 

Dinwiddle, Robert, surveyor-general for the 
southern colonies, iv. 42; lieutenant-gover- 
nor of Virginia, recommends an alliance 
with the Miamis, 97 ; sends Washington as 
envov to the commander of the French on 
the Ohio, 108; recommends a tax on the 
colonies, 1G7, 178, 222; urges the subver- 
sion of the charter government, 222; praises 
Washington, 235. 

Diplomacy of Spain fails, x. 1G4, 165, 188, 
193, etseq.. 203. 

Discontent of Spain at the continuance of the 
war, x. 441. 

Distress of America, x. 418; no remedy but 
in a stronger government, 419. 

Dixon, Jeremiah, and Charles Mason, their 
line established, ii. 334. 

Dixwell, John, a regicide, conies to America, 
ii. 35. 

Dobbs, Governor of North Carolina, iv. 208, 

Dodington, George Bubb, Lord Melcombe, 
iv. 98, 99. 388, 412, 413. 

Dogger Bank, naval battle there, x. 451. 

Dongan, Thomas, Governor of New York, ii. 
414; resists the building of a fort at Niag- 
ara, 422. 

Donop, Count, colonel of Hessian troops, viii. 
265; lands with his brigade on Long 
Island, ix. 83; narrowly escapes death, 
85; at White Plains, 181; in Mew Jersey, 
215, 224; his advice to Kail, 216; his diary, 
217, note ; is wounded, 226 ; the diarj' 
quoted, 229, note ; retreats to Princeton, 
239; marches on Trenton, 243; his advice 
to Cornwallis, 244; his encounter with 
Wayne, 401; his assault on lied Bank, 
430; his failure, 431; is mortally wounded, 
431; his dying words, 431. 

Dorchester, great celebration at, in 1769, vi. 
309; unites with Boston in the struggle 
for liberty, vi. 475, 477. 

Dorchester Heights. 407; a commanding 
position, viii. 232, 293; Washington takes 
possession of it, 293; the intrenchment, 
294; a good night's work, 295, 236; the 
enemy fear to attack, 297: Nook's Hill 
occupied, 299, 302; the enemy compelled 
to leave Boston, 298-300. 

Dorchester Neck, now South Boston, vii. 406. 

D'Orvilliers, French admiral, ix. 249, 250. 

Douglas, William, of Boston, proposes a 
stamp duty, iv. 58. 

Dover, N. Unsettled, i. 328, 323; attack on 
it and ma-sacre by Indians, iii. 180, 181; 
another, 187. 

Dowdeswill, chancellor of the exchequer, v. 
322, 368, 381, 415; leader of the Rocking- 
ham party in the House of Commons, vi. 
59; denounces the plan of Charles Towns- 
bend, 78 ; opposes Lord North, 253 ; wishes 
the duty on tea repealed, 300; justifies 
America, 510; strongly opposes the Boston 
port bill, 513. 

Drake, Sir Francis, explores the western 
coast of North America, i. 86; visits the 
colony of Iialeigh in North Carolina, 101; 
conveys the settlers back to England, 102. 

Drayton, William Henry, of South Carolina, 
viii. 80; president of convention, 345; 
chief justice, 348; his charge to the grand 
jury, 353. 

Dreuillettes, Gabriel, from Canada descends 
the Kennebec, iii. 135 ; travels among the 
Abenakis, 136 ; embarks for the Far West, 

Drummond, Lord, his intrigues at Philadel- 
phia, viii. 244, 318; receives a rebuke for 
breaking his parole, ix. 82. 

Drummond, Sarah, her intrepidity, ii. 224. 

Drummond, William, first, governor of North 
Carolina, ii. 135; advises the deposition of 
Berkeley in Virginia, 224; led the rebellion 
in that colony, 222, 224, 226 ; suffers death 
for it, 231 

Duane, of New York, member of the con- 
tinental Congress, vii. 79, 127, 133; he 
proposes to recognise the navigation acts, 
139 ; he advocates the insidious plan of 
Galloway, 141; his compromising spirit, 
379; delegate in Congress from New York, 
viii. 315, 318; anxious for the arrival of 
the British commissioners, 327 ; is averse 
to separation from Britain, 368 ; his action 
in Congress, x. 220. 

Du Barry, Marie Jeanne, countess, the last 
mistress of Louis XV., vii. 33. 

Du Bois, William, prime minister of France, 
his infamous character, iii. 324. 

Du Chatelet (see Chatelet). 

Duche, Jacob, opens the session of Congress 
with prayer, vii. 131; his extemporary 
prayer, 132. 

Dudingston, Lieutenant, commander of the 
revenue schooner "Gaspee," vi. 418; is 
wounded, 419. 

Dudley, Joseph, sent to England as agent of 
Massachusetts, ii. 123; president of the 
provisional government of that colony, 
425; his charge to a packed jury, 427; 
chief justice of New York, iii. 54; urges 
the ministry to revoke the charter of Con- 
necticut, 70; governor of Massachusetts, 
99; endeavors to subvert the liberties of 
his country, 100; his character, 100; meets 
the Indians at Casco, iii. 211. 

Dudley, Thomas, deputy governor of Massa- 
chusetts, i. 355, 359 ; his intolerant spirit, 



Dufiield, George, of Philadelphia, his sermon 
likening George III. to Pharaoh, viii. 385. 

Duhaut, the murderer of La Salle, iii. 173; 
is himself murdered, 174. 

Dumas, editor of Vattel, writes to Franklin 
on European interest in American affairs, 
viii. 210. 

Dulanv, Daniel, of Maryland, his arguments 
against the stamp act, v. 326; mentioned 
with honor by William Pitt, 327; his 
apathy, viii. 76. 

Dummer, Jeremiah, agent in England for 
Massachusetts, iii. 382. 

Dunbar, Colonel Thomas, in Braddock's 
army, iv. 186 ; destroys the military stores, 
191 ; his shameful retreat, 191, 192. 

Dunbar, Samuel, minister of Stougtiton, in 
Massachusetts, his prophetic prayer at a 
county convention, vii. 109. 

Dundas^ Henry (afterwards Lord Melville), 
his speech against the Americans, vii. 253. 

Dunmore, Countess of, congratulated on her 
arrival in Virginia, vii. 52. 

Dunmore, Earl of (Murray), royal governor 
of New York, vi. 384; is involved in an 
unworthy strife, 384; justifies the " Regu- 
lators " of North Carolina, 401; his rapac- 
ity, vii. 52, 161, 162; dissolves the 
Virginia House of Assembly, 54; takes 
possession for himself of Pittsburgh and 
its dependencies, 162; claims the country 
on the Scioto, the Wabash, and the Illinois, 
163; calls out the militia to resist Indian 
hostility, 166, 167; their heroic conduct, 
169 ; seizes the powder of the colony, 275, 
276 ; threatens to free and arm the slaves, 
and to lay Williamsburg in ashes, 276, 
277; great alarm and excitement, 276, 334, 
385; he convenes the Assembly, 384; 
vetoes a bill of that body, 385 ; becomes 
uneasy, aud apologizes, 386 ; takes refuge 
onboard a man-of-war at York, 386; his 
rash conduct, viii. 79 ; abdicates the gov- 
ernment, 79; driven from the land, he 
maintains command of the water of Vir- 
ginia by means of a flotilla, 220; plunders 
Holt's 'printing office, 220; blockades 
Hampton, 221; is repulsed with loss, 222; 
his foray at the Great Bridge, 222; pro- 
claims martial law, 223 ; invites servants 
and negroes to rise against their masters, 
223; his extensive plans, 223, 224; is 
routed from Great Bridge, 227; receives 
arms for the negroes, 229 ; is refused pro- 
visions for himself and the fleet, 229; to 
glut his vengeance, Norfolk is reduced to 
ashes, 230, 231; his anger because the 
British expedition is not sent to Virginia, 
282, 283; is driven from the land, ix. 35; 
his black allies do not help him, 35, 36 ; 
his adherents disperse, 36; he arrives at 
Staten Island, 82. 
Dunning, John [Lord Ashburton], solicitor- 
general of England, vi. 206, 233, 360; 
superseded by Thurlow, 358; wishes a 
repeal of the duty on tea, 360; is counsel 
for Franklin before the privy council, 494 ; 
his speech, 494,495, 498; vindicates the 

course of the American people, vii 223; 
he defends the right of the Americans to 
fish on the Banks, 239; a member of the 
Rockingham ministry, x. 534. 
Duplessis, Manduit, a French officer at Bran- 
dy wine, ix. 399; his gallant conduct at 
Germantown, 426. 
Du Poisson, Jesuit missionary among the 
Arkansas, iii. 361; slain by the Natchez 
362; his death avenged, 302. 
Duquesne, fort, now Pittsburg, a fort com- 
menced there bv the Ohio company, iv. 
108, 112, 110; becomes a French fort, 117; 
taken by the English and provincial troops, 
Duquesne, Marquis, governor of Canada, 
sends a powerful force to occupy the Ohio 
valley, iv. 107. 
Durand, French minister, at London, vi. 95; 
his opinions touching the dispute of the 
mother country with America, 95 ; predicts 
American independence, 95; his corre- 
spondence with Choiscul, 95, 96, 99, 111. 
Durant, or Durand, George, has a grant of 
land in North Carolina, ii. 134; joins in 
the insurrection of 1679, 160; a judge, 
Durkee, John, of Connecticut, active in the 

cause of liberty, v. 441. 
Dustin, Hannah, of Haverhill, taken by 
Indians, iii. 188; her escape, 189; heroic 
conduct of her husband and herself, 189. 
Dutch first maintain the freedom of the seas, 
x. 59, 255; their strong sympathies for 
America, 60 ; receive ungenerous treatment 
from England, 59; afraid of a war with 
England, 262 ; decline to make a treaty of 
commerce with America, 262; suffer from 
the ravages of British cruisers, 264, 270; 
submit to the insolence of England, 264; 
Paul Jones's squadron protected by the 
Dutch, 272; a Dutch squadron attacked by 
an English one, 275; Holland accedes to 
the armed neutrality, 281; Dutch ships 
captured and condemned by England in 
time of peace, 427; they lose their posses- 
sions in both the Indies, 438. 440; they 
fight the English at the Dogger Bank, 451 
(see Netherlands and Holland). 
Dutch Americans in New York, inflamed 

against England, vii. 249. 
Dutch colonies (see New Netherland). 
Dutch commerce, its vast extent, i. 215, 216. 
Dutch East India Company chartered, ii. 

Dutch republic, defects in its constitution, x. 
258; difficulties in the public administra- 
tion, 259; want of unity, 261; distracted 
by foreign influence, 259; acknowledges 
American independence, 527, 528. 
Dutch West India Company proposed, 261, 
275; chartered, 278; its" resources, 278; 
plants colonies extensively, 278 (see New 
Duties on glass, paper, red and white lead, 
painters' colors, and paper, imported into 
America, being articles of British manu- 
facture, an act passed for levying, vi. 84; 



contrary to the true principles of com- 
merce, 270; the duty produces only a 
paltry sum, 270; the repeal promised, 278; 
the act repealed, 351, 352. 

Dutv on tea, vi. 84 (see Tea). 

Dyer, Eliphaler, of Connecticut, urges union, 
V. 194; a delegate in the first American 
Congress, 340 ; his opposition to the stamp 
act, 351. 

Dyer, Mary, a Quaker, comes to Boston, i. 
452; is banished, but returns, 456; sen- 
tenced to death, reprieved, sent away, 
again returns, and is hanged, 457. 

Early envoys from France observe the an- 
tagonism between the North and the South, 
X. 349. 

East India Company, their impoverished 
condition, arising from the refusal of the 
colonies to receive their tea, vi. 457, 458; 
they are allowed the right of exporting 
tea* to America free of duty, 458 ; they 
export it, 405; proposal to pay an indem- 
nity to them for the destruction of the 
tea, vii 65, 82, 241; by the direction of 
the king exports tea to America, viii. 127; 
resisted by the colonists, 127. 

Ea-t Indies," British dominions in the, v. 59. 

Easton, Colonel, in the Northern army, viii. 

Easton, Colonel James, engages in the ex- 
pedition for taking Ticonderoga, vii. 339. 

Easty, Mary, of Topsfield. imprisoned for 
witchcraft, iii. 87 ; executed, 93. 

Eaton, Theophilus, governor of the colony of 
New Haven, i. 403. 

Ecuyer, Captain Simeon, commander at fort 
Pitt, v. 125; his vigorous defence against 
the Indians in Pontiac's war, 125, 128, 129 ; 
•wounded, 129. 

Eden, Robert, governor of Maryland, vi. 
315, 400, viii. 77; his prudent conduct, 77; 
his letters are intercepted, 354; he is put 
under arrest on his parole, 354. 

Eden, William, arrives as a commissioner to 
the revolted colonies, x. 122; his mission 
a mere farce, 123 ; leaves the country, 125, 
151; proposes the repeal of an act oppres- 
sive to Ireland, 548. 

Edes, Benjamin, a printer of Boston, one of 
the " Sons of Liberty." v. 310. 

Edes [Benjamin], and Gill [John], printers of 
the " Boston Gazette," vi. 97, 98; patriotic 
and bold utterances of that paper, 97, 98; 
these utterances denounced in Parliament, 
107; "Vindex" [Samuel Adams], in that 
paper, 247; these " trumpeters of sedition" 
to be "taken off," 251. 

Edes, of a newspaper, v. 377. 

Edge Hill, two battles at, v. 131, note. 

Education, system of, in England, v. 48, 49 ; 
wanting to the common people, 48; the 
schools and universities, 49 ; Catholics in 
Ireland debarred from, 68; state of, in 
Boston, vi. 241; of the people urged, viii. 

372; the whole people provided for in 
Blassachusetts and Connecticut and no- 
where else, ix. 270, 271. 

Edwards, John, of South Carolina, resists 
proposals of submission to Great Britain, 
x. 293. 

Edwards, Jonathan, his noble conception of 
a true history, iii. 399; recognises the law 
of human progress, 399; a vivid expression 
of his touching the divine omnipresence, 
iv. 151; his system of theology, 155, et seq. 

Efficient government, the great want of the 
country, x. 402, et seq. 

Effingham, Earl of, refuses to serve against 
the Americans, vii. 344. 

Effingham, Lord Howard of, governor of 
Virginia, ii. 249; a mean man, 249. 

Egmont, Lord, proposes the feudal system 
for America, v. 102; speech of, on the 
declaratory bill, 49. 

Egremont, Earl of (Charles Wyndham), iv. 
247 ; successor of Pitt in the ministry, iv. 
412, 428; secretary of state for the colo- 
nies, 438; in the cabinet, described, v. 80; 
secretary of state for the colonies, 90, 107 ; 
his inquiries, 107, note ; would have in- 
cluded in one province Canada and all the 
"West, 135; his zeal for taxing America, 
136; the king wishes to be rid of him, 140; 
his unpleasant interview with the king, 
140; his death, 142. 

Elective franchise should be more equally 
diffused, v. 447; its theory, ix. 263; the 
privilege enjoyed under various restric- 
tions, 203 ; qualifications of voters in the 
several states, 263 ; qualifications of race, 
of color, of age, of residence, of belief, 263; 
vote byword of mouth, 264; by ballot, 264; 
by proxy, 234 ; freehold and property quali- 
fications, 264. 

Eliot, Andrew, of Boston, his declaration in 
relation to the wishes of America, vi. 73; 
evidence furnished by him touching the 
authorship of certain papers, 119, note, 
123, note ; his letters quoted, 145, 205, 209, 
213, 252. 

Eliot, Rev. John, of Eoxbury ; a treatise of 
his condemned, ii. 73; his efforts to in- 
struct and Christianize the Indians, 95, 90. 

Elizabeth, empress of Russia, dies, iv. 434; 
her weak character, 434. 

Elizabeth, Queen, favors English commerce, i. 
80, 81; "the godmother "of Virginia, 103. 

Elizabethtown, N. J., repulse of the British 
there, x, 374, 375. 

Elizabethtown Purchase, ii. 317; whence the 
name, 318. 

Elkhorn, valley of the, in Kentucky, first 
visited by white men,vi. 299, 300. 

Elliot, Bernard, of South Carolina, he and 
others take possession of fort Johnson, 
viii. 90. 

Elliot, British minister at Berlin, ix. 474; 
hires a burglar to steal Arthur Lee's 
papers. 474. 

Elliot, George Augustus, General (Lord 
Heathfield), the brave defender of Gib- 
raltar, x. 581. 



Elliot, Gilbert, liis speech in Parliament, v. 
245,299, 373: his speech in the House of 
Commons, viii. IG2. 
Elliot, Susanna Smith, presents a pair of 
colors to the brave defenders of fort Moul- 
trie, viii. 413. 
Ellis, Henry, governor of Georgia, iv. 380; 

advises t he taxation of America, V. 137. 
Ellis Welbore, secretary of war, v. 80; gives 
order for the subordination of the civil to 
the military power, 235; brings in a bill 
for the extension of the mutiny act to 
America, 249; opposes the reception in 
Parliament of the petition of the American 
Congress, 399. 
Ellsworth, Oliver, in favor of "protection" 

from France, x. 173. 
Emerson, William, minister of Concord, 
appears in arms in defence of his coun- 
trv, vii. 290, 303; notes the courts of the 
month as among the greatest of the age, 
Emigration, impulse given to it in 1763, v. 

Emigration westward, vi. 33, 34, 297, 298, 
•171, 505, 506; Hillsborough opposes it, 
225; origin of Tennessee, 377, et seq. (see 
Regulators) ; to America promoted by op- 
pression in Europe, x. 84. 
Endicott, .John, one of the patentees of Mas- 
sachusetts, i. 340 ; his character, 340 ; sent 
over as governor, 341 ; rebukes the revellers 
at Mount Wollaston, 341 ; occupies Charles- 
town, 347 ; again governor of Massachu- 
setts, and receives the regicides, ii. 35; his 
speech, 82 ; his death, S2. 
Energy of the German emperors of the Saxon 

line, x. 72. 
England, rise of commercial adventure in, i. 
9; first American enterprise of, 10; early 
English voyages to America, 75, et seq. ; 
a northwest passage to India attempted, 
76, 77 ; the first act of Paliament concern- 
ing America, 77; trades with Archangel, 
79; first attempt to plant a colony, 84; its 
condition favored colonization, 118; sla- 
very existed in England, 102; English 
participation in the slave trade, 173; re- 
strictive policy of the English govern- 
ment, 196, 203; navigation act of 1651, 
211; England in possession of Canada, 
335; jealous of New England, 406; civil 
war, ii. 8; two parties in Parliament, 9; 
execution of the king, 15; the constitution 
subverted, 6, 17; fruitless attempts to re- 
store the monarchy, 18, 19; usurpation 
of Cromwell, 20; an English republic im- 
possible, 17, 21; restoration of the Stuarts, 
28, et seq. ; trial and execution, 
32, et seq.; navigation act of, 1660, 42; 
its oppressive character, 43, et seq. ; inju- 
rious to the colonies and to the English, 
45-18; royal commissioners for New 
England, 77; the English government 
overawed by the stern attitude of Massa- 
chusetts, 89, 90; the struggle renewed, 
111, 121; the colony denies the supremacy 
of Parliament, 122; a cjuo warranto issued 

against the charter, 124; review of public 
affairs after the restoration, 432. <i seq.; 
ministry of Clarendon, 433; his downfall, 
433; the cabal. 433; Buckingham and 
Shaftesbury, 434; the declaration of in- 
dulgence, 435, 443; fickleness of the king, 
435, 443; Danby, 435, 443; his impeach- 
ment, 436; Shaftesbury again in power, 
436; again displaced, 436; the habeas cor- 
pus, 430; the exclusion bill, 437; public agi- 
tation, 437 ; liberty overthrown, 438 ; exe- 
cution of Lord William Russell and of 
Algernon Sidney, 439 ; accession of James 
II., 439; the whig and tory parlies. 441 ; the 
party of William l'enn, 442; causes which 
led to the revolution of 1688, 440, et seq. ; 
the revolution accomplished, 444; its aris- 
tocratic character, iii. 11, 82; Parliament 
claims absolute power over the colonies, 
101, 105; but does not presume to tax 
them, 102, 383 ; the purpose entertained of 
extending Episcopacy, 102; England does 
not deny to the colonies personal freedom, 
103; the restrictive commercial system 
enforced, 105, 384; wool the great s'aple of 
England, 105; colonial industry discour- 
aged, 105; naval stores, 100; England 
claims the pine-trees for masts, 106; ani- 
mosity between France and England, 116- 
118; struggle for territory in North Amer- 
ica, 118; England triumphant in F.urope, 
225; dictates the treaty of Utrecht, 226; 
gains the assiento, 231; England becomes 
wealthy and powerful by the slave trade, 
233; obtains extensive possessions in Amer- 
ica, 233, 234; claims the whole of Upper 
Canada, 340; jealous of French encroach- 
ments, 344; claims the Five Nations as 
subjects, 340; colonial industry discour- 
aged, 384; the interests of New England 
sacrificed; of the Caro inas promoted, 385; 
English legislation promotes slavery in the 
Southern colonies, 402 (see Slaves and 
Slavery); severity of English laws con- 
cerning property, 418; number annually 
imprisoned for poverty, 418; England' to 
promote a contraband traffic, declares war 
with Spain, 438; its varied success, 439, et 
seq. ; the mother of the language and 
laws of the colonies, iv. 15; relation to her, 
of the colonies, 15; did not intend her 
colonies to be free, 56; encouraged the 
slave trade, 63; her relations with France 
in America, 67, et seq. ; dissensions in the 
cabinet, 80, 87; threatening attitude of 
France in America, 93; state of England 
in 1752, 98; did nothing to repel French 
encroachment, 102, 100, 113; the New- 
castle administration, 159; its imbecility, 
164, 165; and indecision, 108; taxation of 
the colonies proposed, 167, 172, 176; fruit- 
less negotiations with France, 170; Brad- 
dock sent to America, 170, 177; the 
government incline to enforce the author- 
ity of the parent state, 179; alarm felt at 
the rapid increase of colonial population, 
214: uncertain attitude of England towards 
France, 210, 217; urges liussia to inter- 



fere in the affairs of Germany, 219 ; tries to 
paralyze the power of Prussia, 219; refunds 
in part the military expenses of the north- 
ern colonies, 227; act for quartering sol- 
diers on the inhabitants, 230; declaration 
of war against France, 233; England seizes 
enemy's property in neutral ships, 23-1; 
prohibits the commerce of the Netherlands 
in naval stores, and declares the whole 
coast of France in a state of blockade, 234; 
end of the Newcastle administration, 247 ; 
Pitt fur a short time prime minister, 247- 
250; England humiliated in America, 267; 
and in Europe, 270; rights of the colonies 
denied by British officials, 209, 270 ; Eng- 
land without a ministry, 273; Pitt forms a 
cabinet, 274; important successes in Amer- 
ica, 29G, 305, 311; in Africa and the West 
Indies, 310; shall Canada be given up? 
363, et seq. ; the design to remodel the 
American provinces,- and crush the spirit 
of liberty, 370 ; the decision to tax Amer- 
ica, 381; accession of George HE, 382; 
court intrigues, 383 ; character of the young 
king, 386, 387; negotiations with France, 
393; their ill success, 395, 396; demands 
of Spain, 401; the ultimatum of England, 
402; a general thirst for conquest, 403; 
urges the slave trade upon the colonies, 
421; England and Spain at war, 432; 
offers Austria acquisitions in Italy, 433; 
pusillanimous endeavors to procure peace, 
433, 434; perfidy towards Prussia, 435; 
deserts Prussia, 436 ; reorganization of the 
cabinet, 438; negotiations for peace, 439; 
treaty of peace, 452; large accessions to 
England of territory and of power, 452; 
a standing army to be kept in America 
after the peace, 454; England gains Can- 
ada, out loses America, 400, 401 ; its 
social and political condition in 1763, v. 
32, el seq. ; the asylum of independent 
thought, the home of freedom, 32; loyalty 
to law, and stability of customs and institu- 
tions, 33; a monarchy limited by law, 
33; an aristocratic republic, 34; the 
church subordinate to the state, 34, 35; the 
church never in conflict with the ruling 
power, 36 ; the House of Lords sitting by 
hereditary right, but constantly replen- 
ished from the untitled ranks, 37; the 
House of Commons representing the land 
of England, but not the men, 38; the king 
reigned, but did not govern, 43; a free 
press governed the entire administration, 
44; English literature unfettered, and the 
free expression of the public mind, 45; 
scepticism existed, but had not penetrated 
the masses, 46; philosophy rebuked its 
own excesses, 47 ; courts of law, 47, 48 ; 
system of education, independent of rank, 
49 ; the common people not able to write or 
read, 48; life in the towns, 50; the inter- 
ests of trade uppermost, 50; life in the 
country, 50; predominance of the aristoc- 
racy, 51; severity of the game laws, 52; 
manufactures, as yet limited and imperfect, 
44, 55; benefits of the English constitution, 

56 ; the people proud of it, 57 ; her ministry, 
79, 89; plans for taxing America, 87, et 
seq.; loyalty of the colonies to her, 90; 
enforcement of the English navigation 
arts, 92, 157, et seq. ; new taxes for Eng- 
land herself, and opposition thereto, 93; 
a triumvirate ministry, 95, 90; solidity of 
the English constitution, 97 (see Gren- 
villi ■.■); the British oligarchy at its culmi- 
nating point, 205; public opinion fluctuates 
with regard to America, 363, et seq. ; Eng- 
lish love of liberty sustains America, 366; 
merchants and manufacturers alarmed, 364, 
367; effect of the death of the Duke of 
Cumberland, 367; debate in Parliament in 
relation to affairs in America, 368, et seq. ; 
arguments against the repeal of the stamp 
act, 369; the ministry undecided, 381 ; 
meeting of Parliament, 382; great speech 
of Pitt denying the competency of Parlia- 
ment to tax America, 383-387, 391-395; 
repeal of the stamp act, 436; the declara- 
tory bill introduced into the House of 
Commons, 444; Pitt speaks against it, 444; 
it passes, 445 ; in the House of Lords, 446 ; 
Camden earnestly opposes it, 446-448; it 
passes, 449 ; final" repeal of the stamp act, 
450; protest against the repeal by the Duke 
of Bedford and his adherents, 451, 487; a 
second protest by Earl Temple and his 
friends, 453; its people, in 1767, talk much 
about America, vi. 56; great pains to irri- 
tate them against America, 04: they com- 
plain that America is exempt from taxa- 
tion, G4; discussion in the House of Lords 
on American affairs, 65, 66; corruption of 
the body-politic, 94; the ministry changed, 
109; they determine to crush the spirit of 
liberty in America, 110, et seq. ; extreme 
measures proposed, 130; the profligacy 
and corruption of Parliament, 137; the 
ministry misled by Hutchinson and others, 
153; troops and ships of war ordered to 
Boston, 153; the cause of England more 
injured by its own servants than by all 
others, 154, note; the ministry and the 
people incensed against Boston, 173, 199; 
the law officers of England can find no 
treason in the proceedings of Massachu- 
setts, 206, 233; troops sent to Boston find 
no enemy there, 207, et seq. ; a weak and 
incapable ministry, 215; determines to 
trample down the colonies, 216; has spies 
in all foreign ports, 236; supports a restric- 
tive commercial system, 258, 259; the 
ministry restrained in measures against 
America by the English constitution, 265, 
260 ; repeal of the revenue act refused, 274 ; 
the real question at issue in the contro- 
versy, 318, 319; all parts of the British 
empire have a common cause, 319; the 
people of England long for freedom, 319, 
329; reform proposed by Chatham, 320; 
the proposal fails, and the new tory party 
controls the government, 327 ; yet popular 
liberty constantly gains ground, 359; great 
joy at the revival of American trade in 
1770, 307; the king orders measures to be 



taken preparatory to closing the port of 
Boston, 367; dispute with Spain concern- 
ing the Falkland Islands, 387; war averted. 
388; ''slaves cannot breathe in England," 
— the celebrated decision by Lord Mans- 
field in 1772, 415, 416; list of grievances 
suffered by America from England, 432, 
433; England grows weary of the strife, 
434; and loses heavily by it, 434; great 
commercial distress of the East India Com- 
pany arising from ihe refusal of the Ameri- 
cans to receive tea, 457, 458; Englishmen 
abuse Franklin, 492, 493; a great clamor 
against America, 493; but it is found that 
America has law on its side, 503, 513; 
gross calumnies and misrepresentations of 
America, 511; the Boston port bill passes 
the House of Commons, 511, 512; and the 
House of Lords, 518; other stringent acts 
passed, 525-527; decline of liberty in 
Europe, 527; the House of Commons 
essentially corrupt, 528; state of public 
opinion there in 1774, vii. 24; seeks Indian 
allies against the Americans, 118; no Eng- 
lish precedents for the measure, 118; her 
power defied by Massachusetts, 123; the 
fourteenth Parliament, 174; the elections 
carried by utter misrepresentation, and 
gross venality, 174; the French minister 
purchases a borough, and thus obtains a 
vote, 174, 175; the true spirit of England 
on the side of America, 203, 204; plans of 
the ministry, 217, 218; instructions to Gage 
to call out the savages, and to excite a 
servile insurrection, 222; war declared 
against America, 227; England excludes 
Mew England from the Newfoundland 
fisheries, 240, 253; a majority of the 
people abhor the proposal of going to war 
with their brethren in America, 241; Eng- 
land's arrogant demand on Holland, 246; 
news arrives in England of the bloodshed 
at Lexington and Concord, 342; the effect 
thereby produced, 342 ; expressions of sor- 
row, 343; funds raised for sufferers at 
Lexington and Concord, 344; expectations 
in England, 406; solicits the aid of Indian 
tribes against the colonists, viii. 55; sor- 
row felt there on receiving news of the 
battle of Bunker Hill, 100; England sup- 
posed to be a match for France and Spain 
united, 102; insult offered to the French 
minister, 102; question at issue between 
England and her colonies, 122-129; Eng- 
land has nothing to gain by the strife with 
America, 131 ; but the king is not opposed 
in his plans. 132; the king's savage proc- 
lamation, 132. 133; exasperation of party 
spirit caused thereby, 144; loyal addresses, 
but no enlistments, 145; the king's speech, 
160 (see George II '!.); changes in the 
ministry, 105; a ministry the weakest and 
lowest in principle of the century now 
assume power, 165; their policy not in 
accordance with the true spirit of Eng- 
land, 167 ; England at variance with her- 
self, 359; the ministry are determined to 
reduce the colonies to absolute submission, 

360; friends of liberty despondent, 361; 
tax on newspapers, 361; state of parties 
there, ix. 71 ; by the declaration of inde- 
pendence America lost many friends, 71, 
72; the government stronger than before, 
72; Kngland does not now claim the right 
to tax "her colonies, 72; but still claims 
power over charters, 73; the declaration of 
independence unites England against the 
Americans, 140, 141; the policy of the 
ministry sustained by Parliament, 144; 
unsatisfactory accounts received from Amer- 
ica, 144; no hatred of England long re- 
tained in America, 258; her overbearing 
conduct towards Holland, 292; the Eng- 
lish ambassador remonstrates against as- 
sistance furnished by France to the United 
States, 291, 297; vigorous efforts to gain 
recruits for military service, 313; threats 
to capture American sailors, 313 ; proceed- 
ings to obtain soldiers in Germany, 313- 
318; enlistments of royalists in America, 
320; number enlisted, 320; the king and 
ministiy give orders for the employment of 
savages, 321, 322; letters of marque issued 
against American vessels, 323; finances of 
England, 324; England inconsistent with 
herself, 325; employs savage Indians in 
the war against her own children, 363, 
371, 376-383; many English officers believe 
the Americans cannot be subjugated, 435; 
England cannot obtain further supplies of 
troops from Germany, 475; session of Par- 
liament opened, 477; the king still insists 
on reducing the American states, without 
regard to cost, 477; speech of Chatham, 
477 ; Lord Amherst says that an additional 
army of forty thousand men is needed, 
480; the king will not suffer Lord North to 
flinch, 481; news arrives of the treaty of 
France with the United States, 482; Lord 
North's conciliatory bills, 484; Hartley's 
attempt with Franklin. 485; Franklin's 
reply, 485; war between England and 
France, 486; Lord North desires to have 
Chatham in the ministry, 486; the king's 
violent anger at the proposal, 487, 488; 
England indirectly proposes to acknowl- 
edge independence on conditions, 497; the 
offer refused, 497; a political manoeuvre, 
497 : condition of, in 1778, x. 36; weakness, 
of the administration, 36; state of parties, 
37; theory of the supremacy of Par.iament 
carried to excess, 38; this theory becomes 
an instrument of despotism, 38; is in con- 
flict with the principle of individual right, 
39 ; the struggle between the two leads to 
the American revolution, 39: anew liberal 
party had arisen under the influence of the 
elder Pitt, 39 ; Frederic of Prussia will not 
aid England, 108; she obtains aid from 
Anspach and Hesse, 114; is ruled by an 
aristocracy, 117; the sentiment of loyalty 
and affection tor England disappeai'3 in her 
late colonies, and why, 140; in England, 
Americans become more respected, 141; 
her ablest men are for giving up the con- 
test, 142, 143; invasion of England threat- 



ened by France, 163, 2-10 ; shameful action 
of England in counterfeiting the American 
currency, 168; no progress made in the 
recovery of America, 178; war with France, 
116; how commenced, 116, 117; when 
commenced, 145; war with Spain, 246; 
ravage-; of England on neutral commerce, 
264, 270, 427; arrogant tone of England, 
204, 423; is willing to exchange Gibraltar 
for Porto Rico, 451; three parties in Eng- 
land, in 1782, 531, 532; she recovers the 
dominion of the sea. 545; the American 
contest felt in England to be hopeless. 529 ; 
change of ministry, 531; she becomes rec- 
onciled to the idea of peace, 545; her 
ministry anxious to get out of the war, and 
invite proposals for peace, 546; the treaty 
signed, 591. 

English barbarity. (See under British.) 

English constitution held by the colonies in 
high esteem, iv. 16; rights of Englishmen, 
how far claimed by the colonists, 15 ; more 
powerful than the will of the reigning mon- 
arch, v. 97. 

English language more generally diffused by 
the American revolution, iv. 13; destined 
to possess the North-American continent, 

English liberty, how affected by the revolu- 
tion of 1088," iii. 4. 

English ministry, their perfidious conduct 
towards Holland, x. 427, 429, 431, 433, 
436 : they, in time of peace, order a general 
attack o.i the commerce and possessions of 
Holland, 438; change of the ministry, 531; 
the outgoing ministry characterized, 531; 
the new ministry, of whom composed, 534. 
(See Shelburne). 

English perfidy, x. 427, 439. 

English plan for the conquest of the Southern 
States, x. 283. 

Enos, Roger, lieutenant-colonel under Ar- 
nold, in the expedition against Quebec, 
viii. 190 ; abandons the enterprise, 193. 
, Episcopacy and the common prayer ex- 
cluded from the Massachusetts colony, i. 
350; established by law in Virginia, 155; 
introduced into Massachusetts, ii. 427; in 
North Carolina, ii. 150, iii. 21: in South 
Carolina, 18; in Maryland, 32; in New 
• York, 58 ; no bishops allowed, and why, iii. 
102; in America supposed to be essential 
to the royal authority, iv. 38, 39 ; American 
feeling against, vi. 54, 516. 

Epsom, in New Hampshire, sends a body of 
armed men to the scene of conflict, vii. 314. 

Equality, natural, of man declared, iv. 12, 13. 

Erie, lake, visited by La iSalle, iii. 162; first 
ves-el on its waters, the "Griffin," built 
for him. 104. 

Erie tribe of Indians exterminated by the 
Five Nations, iii. 144, 146. 

Ernest. Duke of Saxony, refuses to aid Eng 
land, x 94. 

Erskine, Sir William, his advice to Corn- 
wallis at Trenton, ix. 245: in the expedi- 
tion to Danbury, 340 ; covers the retreat at 
Sangatuck, 348. 

Essex County, little regiment came thence to 
Bunker Hi 1, vii 418. 

Etchemins, Indian tribe in Maine, iii 237. 

Ethern.gton, C;iptain George, commands at 
Mackinaw, v. 122. 

Europe, the crisis of revolution in, foreboded, 
iv. 4; of the middle ages, men are tired 
of it, 278; sufferings of, during the seven 
years' war. 455; state of, in 1774; vii. 
25, et seq. ; great expectation there ex- 
cited by the contest in America, 287; 
effects of the day of Lexington and Con- 
cord there, 342, et seq. ; curiosity excited 
in, by the king's application to Russia for 
troops, viii. 155; political ai.d social cor- 
ruption of, 304; the worship of humanity 
general, 364; the age refuses to look be- 
yond the senses, 364; a blind, unreasoning 
conservatism, 365; general scepticism, 365; 
Hume's philosophy, 366; state of opinion 
there in the winter of 1776, ix. 226 ; the 
American ciuse regarded as hopeless, 220 ; 
the powers of Europe favor the United 
States, 497. 

Eutaw Springs, battle of, x. 493 ; two engage- 
ments the.-e, 494; great loss of the Ameri- 
cans, though victorious, x. 494. 

Ewing, Colonel, on the Delaware, ix 224. 

Excesses of the rovalists in South Carolina, 
x. 310, 312, 342. 

Existence of a western continent suspected in 
ancient times, i. 6. 

Existence of God not known to the Indians, 
iii. 285, 286. 

Expedition against Louisburg, iii. 458, et 
s<q.; of what composed, 459; the arma- 
ment arrives, 459; the fortress surrenders, 

Experience confirms by induction the intui- 
tions of reason, viii. 117. 

Fairfax county, in Virginia, adopts a series 
of patriotic resolutions, vii. 74; a military 
organization recommended, 237. 

Fairfield, in Connecticut, destroyed by British 
troops, x. 227. 

Falkland Islands, dispute concerning, vi. 
387, et seq. 

Falmouth, now Portland, disturbance at, vi. 
31; burned by Mowat, viii. 113. 

Faneuil Hall, the place for town mee'ings in 
Boston, vi. 241; convention of Massachu- 
setts at, 198, 203; British troops occupy it, 
209 ; town-meeting there the day after the 
massacre, 341; town-meeting there to ap- 
point a committee of correspondence, 427; 
meeting there to hear the report, 432; the 
cradle of American liberty, vii. 35 ; meeting 
there of nine committees from as many 
towns, 35; decides that the tea shall not 
be paid for, 36; proceedings there, 61; a 
meeting there of delegates from three coun- 
ties, 109, 110. 

Fanning, David, a British officer, his extreme 
cruelty, x. 560. 




Fanning, Edmund, attorney and register of 
deeds, greatly obnoxious to the people in 
North Carolina, vi. 30; his misdeeds, 30, 
184: cal's out the militia, 18G; his rash pro- 
ceedings, 188; chastised by the people, 382. 

Farewell of Sir William Howe to the Ameri- 
can contest, x. 119; of the English com- 
missioners to America, 151; its ferocious 
character, 151. 

"Farmer's Letters," by John Dickinson, vi. 
106; complained of by the British crown 
officers, 128; republished in England, 148; 
translated and circulated in France, 149; a 
reply to them by George Grenville, 258. 

Faucitt, Colonel William, agent of George III. 
for procuring troops on the continent, viii. 
101, 255, et seq. ; his mission to Brunswick, 
255-258; to Hesse Cassell, 259, et seq. 

Fayette. (See Lafayette.) 

Fellows, brigadier of Massachusetts troops, 
ix. 119. 

Fendall, Josias, deputy in Maryland for Lord 
Baltimore, i. 203; his equitable adminis- 
tration, 2G3; tries to make an insurrection, 
ii. 241. 

Fenwick, John, purchases West New Jersey 
for the Quakers, ii. 355 ; conducts a colony 
of Quakers to the Delaware, 355 

Ferdinand, Prince, afterwards Duke of 
Brunswick, his vile character, viii. 25G, 
257; agrees to furnish troops to England 
against America, 257; his family sorrows, 
259; the overthrow of Prussia in the cam- 
paign of Jena clue to his incompetence, 

Ferguson, Major Pa'rick, forcibly enrols 
Carolinians in the British army, x. 310, 
332; is sent for this purpose to the high- 
lands of Carolina, 332; encounters the 
backwoodsmen at King's Mountain, 336- 
338; is killed there, 339. 

Ferguson, of South Carolina, resists propo- 
sals of sedition, x. 293. 

Fernandez, Francisco, discovers Yucatan, i. 
34; is killed, 35. 

Feudal aristocracy of Europe in 1774, vii. 

Feudalism, all that was beneficent in it had 
died out, vii. 27. 

Fielding, Admiral, fires on a Dutch squadron 
in time of peace, x. 275. 

Finance, system of, adopted by Congress, viii. 
57, 58. 

Financial embarrassments, x. 397. 

Finland, emigrants from, settle on the Dela- 
ware, ii. 283. 

Finley, John, of North Carolina, a trader 
and pioneer, vi. 222, 298. 

Fish, Major, at Yorktown, x. 520. 

Fisher, Mary, a Quaker, arrives in Boston, i. 
452; eoes to Adrianople to enlighten the 
Grand Turk, 452. 

Fisheries of Newfoundland, beginning of, i. 
16 ; their great increase, 24, 76, 80, 87, 111; 
importance of, to Trance and to Massa- 
chusetts, iii. 178; New England to be de- 
prived of them, vii 239, 240, 253; discus- 
sions respecting them, x. 210, et seq., 215- 

218; the right to them insisted on by New 
England, 218, 351; four Southern States 
threaten to secede if the demand be not 
yielded, 218, 351,352; discussions at Paris 
respecting them, 576, 579, 588; the subject 
disposed of, 590. 

Fitch, Thomas, governor of Connecticut, 
favors the execution of the stamp act, v. 
316, 318, 351; his outrageous utterances, 

Fitzgerald, Lord Edward, x. 494. 

Fitzgibbon, in the Irish House of Commons, 
opposes the American war, viii. 169. 

Fitzherbert, British minister at Paris, x. 55G; 
567; takes part in the negotiations for 
peace, 588. 

Fleming, Captain, of Virginia, killed at 
Princeton, ix. 248. 

Fleming, Colonel William, a valiant com- 
mander in the battle of Point Pleasant, 
vii. 168, 1G9. 

Fletcher, Benjamin, royal governor of Penn- 
sylvania, iii. 37; governor of New York, 
56; his character, 56; his imperious con- 
duct, 58; endeavors to obtain control of 
the militia of Connecticut, 67; his disap- 
pointment at Hartford, 68. 

Fleury, Andrew Hercules de, cardinal and 
prime minister, his pacific policy, iii. 325; 
opposes a war with Austria, 449 

Fleury, Colonel, his gallant behavior at 
Stony Point, x. 229. 

Fleury, Major Louis de, a French officer at 
Brandy wine, ix. 399; tenderly waits on 
Donop, 431; his skill and courage at Fort 
Mifflin, 433, 434; promoted, 435. 

Florida Blanca, prime minister of Spain, ix. 
304; his character, 305; his public policy, 
305 ; his vanity, 305 ; his influence on 
Charles III., 306; wishes to avoid war 
with England, yet aids America secretly, 
310; prime minister of Spain, x. 158; his 
weaknesses, 161, 165; averse to America, 
159,164; wishes England to keep posses- 
sion of Canada and Nova Scotia, 18 J; 
wishes Spain to take part in the war, 185; 
but makes extravagant demands as the 
price of interference, 185; will not consent 
to a peace without the cession of Gibraltar, 
186,189, 191; his dissimulation, 188; his 
plans baffled by the backwoodsmen of 
Virginia, 193 et seq. ; and of North Caro- 
lina, 339, 340; accedes to the Russian 
declaration of neutral rights, 427; repents 
of having advised this measure, 441 ; is 
afraid that the example of the United 
States will encourage the Spanish colonies 
to revolt, 539. 

Florida discovered, i. 33; whence the name, 
33; claimed for Spain, 33; Spaniards un- 
dertake its conquest, 39 ; invaded by Fer- 
dinand de Soto, 44; peaceful mission to 
Florida fails, 59 ; the country abandoned, 
60; colonized by Huguenots, 61, et seq. ; 
character of the colonists, 65; their suffer- 
ings, 65; massacred by Spaniards and 
their settlement broken up. 70 ; the slaugh- 
ter terribly avenged, 72; divided, and why, 



v. 163; the Spanish people remove to 

Cuba, 167. 
Flovd, John, a pioneer settler of Kentucky, 

vii. 306; his character, 366. 
Floyd, William, delegate in Congress from 

New York, in favor of complete separation 

from Britain, viii. 369. 
Folsom, Nathaniel, of Exeter, brigadier- 

peneral of the New Hampshire troops, vii. 

Forbes, General Joseph, iv. 294 ; his tedious 

march to fort Duquesne, 308, et seq ; en- 
ters that fort, and gives to the place the 

name of Pittsburgh, 311. 
Ford, Colonel, of Maryland, x. 486; is 

wounded, 487. 
Fordyce, Captain, his desperate courage, viii. 

Foreign correspondence, committee appointed 

by Congress for, viii. 142. 
Foreign troops, engaged by Great Britain, 

viii. 255-270. 
Forest, an American officer at Trenton, ix. 

Forster, Captain, from Detroit, with a body 

of Indians, makes an attack on the Cedars, 

viii. 427; takes the fort, 427; inhumanity 

towards the prisoners, 742. 
Fort at Sandusky taken by the Indians, v. 

Fort at St. Joseph's river taken by the In- 
dians, v. 118, 119. 
Fort at Venango taken by the Indians, v. 

Fort Carillon, at Ticonderoga, built by the 

French, iv. 212, 238, 251 (see Ticonderoga). 
Fort Clinton taken by the British, ix. 413; 

abandoned, 429. 
Fort Duquesne, commenced by the Ohio 

company, iv. 108, 112, 116; occupied by 

the French, 117; captured by the English, 

311; named Pittsburgh, 311; an enduring 

monument to the great commoner, 311. 
Fort Edward built, iv. 208 ; Indians refuse to 

attack it, 209; attacked, 210, 200; Webb 

is there doing nothing, 266. 
Fort Frontenac (now Kingston), Canada, 

taken by Colonel Bradstieet, iv. 306. 
Fort Independence, on New York Island, ix. 

166; evacuated, 180. 
Fort Johuson, on James Island, in South 

Carolina, taken possession of, viii. 90; 

burned, 95; occupied by the Americans, 

Fort Le Brcuf, visit of Washington, iv. 110; 

taken by the Indians, v. 123. 
Fort Lee, on the Jersey side of the Hudson, 

ix. 167 ; it is hastily abandoned with great 

loss of cannon, tents, and stores, 195. 
Fort Lendorm, built in the Cherokee country, 

iv. 243, 207 ; its surrender, 355. 
Fort Ligonia threatened by the Indians, v. 

120; assaulted, 125. 
Fort Mercer on Delaware river, ix. 422 ; the 
fort described, 430; attack by Count Donop 
repulsed, 430, 431 ; great loss sustained by 
the attacking party, 431 ; the fort evacuat- 
ed, 435. 

Fort Miami taken bj- the Indians, v. 120. 
Fort Mifflin on Delaware river, ix. 422; suf- 
fers a heavy cannonade, 433 ; is ably de- 
fended, 434; is evacuated, 434. 
Fort Montgomery taken by the British, ix. 

413, 414; abandoned, 429. 
Fort Moultrie, on Sullivan's Island, so named, 

viii. 414; battle of, 401, et seq. 

Fort Ouatanon, taken by the Indians, v. 121. 

Fort Pitt threatened by the Indians in Pon- 

tiac's war, v. 119; assaulted, 126; again 

attacked, 128, 129. 

Fort Stanwix, congress of Indians at, vi. 227 ; 

treats with them, 227. 
Fort Washington on the Hudson, ix. 81; the 
British repulsed from it, 179 ; danger of its 
capture, 185; Washington wishes to have 
it abandoned. 186; Greene insists on its 
being kept, 188; Howe summons the fort, 
189; Magan's reply, 189; the fort attacked 
on four sides by greatly superior numbers, 
190; is gallantly defended, 191; it sur- 
renders, 193; the loss on both sides, 193. 
Fort William Henry, built by Johnson, iv. 
213; attempt of the French to surprise it, 
252; siege of it by Montcalm, 259, et seq. ; 
its surrender, 265; massacre, 255, 256; 
utterly demolished, 266. 
Foster, Edmund, minister of Littleton, vii. 

Fox, Charles James, incurs the severe dis- 
pleasure of George III., vi. 504; is dis- 
missed from office, 504; his character, 504; 
joins the opposition, 505; is despondent at 
bad news from Massachusetts, vii. 116, 117 ; 
denounces Lord North as incapable and 
false, 218; vindicates the whole course of 
the Americans, 223; his speech against 
coercive measures, 253;. rebukes Lord 
North, viii. 162; defends American prin- 
ciples as the safeguard of the British con- 
stitution, 172; his noble reply to Lord 
North on the application of the word 
"rebel," 212; his character. 361; supports 
the Americans, ix. 141 ; his noble speech in 
their defence, 143; the speech applauded 
b}' Gibbon and Burke, 144; another 
speech, 146; character of Fox, 146, et seq. ; 
his speeches, 148; his skill in attack, 149; 
a master in debate, 149 ; great only as a 
speaker, 149 ; he failed as a statesman, from 
want of fixed principles, 149, 150; disap- 
proves the war with America, 324; con- 
demns the employment of Indians, 365; is 
willing to concede independence to Amer- 
ica, 478, 497; speaks against the American 
war, x. 142; another speech in Parliament 
against the war, 481; rejoices at the capit- 
ulation of Yorktown, 524; supports Con- 
wav's motion for peace. 529; denounces 
Lord North, 530; the king dislikes him, 
533; becomes a member of the Rocking- 
ham ministry, 534; seeks a quarrel with 
Lord Shelburne, 539, 547; his insincerity, 
542 ; becomes foreign secretary under Rock- 
ingham, 541; his letter to Franklin, 542; 
his instructions to Grenville, 546, 547; his 
artful proceedings, 546, 547; threatens to 



quit office, 548; averse to a reform in Par- 
liament, 549 ; accepts the declaration of 
neutral rights, 550 ; misrepresents Lord 
Shelburne, 552 ; makes a bitter speech in 
Parliament, 553; withdraws from the min- 
istry, 554. 

Fox, George, visits Carolina, ii. 154; visits 
Maryland, 237; his humble origin and 
early life, 331; his struggles of mind, 332; 
the inner light, 333, 337; he exalts this 
above the light of revelation, 334; will 
yield no deference to authority, 334; his 
enthusiasm, 335; his fame, 335; his vast 
plans, 336; his visions, 351; his dangers, 
354; visits the American colonies, 355; his 
death, 402. 

Fox, Henry, first Lord Holland, iv. 45, 159; 
his inquiry about secret service money, 
160; leader of the House of Commons, 170; 
secretary of state, 220; recalls Shirley 
from America, 228; leaves the cabinet, 
246 ; takes office under Pitt, 274. 

Fox Indians, or Ottagamies, iii. 151, 155; 
determine to burn Detroit, 224; are 
repulsed and compelled to surrender, 224. 

France, early French voyages to North 
America, i. 16; of Verrazzani, 17, 18; 
of Cartier, 19, et seq. ; of Koberval, 23 ; 
first French settlement in America, 27; 
colony of Huguenots in Florida, 61 ; their 
reception by the natives, 64; character of 
the colonists, 65; their sufferings, 65; de- 
struction of the settlement by the Spaniards, 
70; the massacre avenged, 72, 73; French 
colony at Mount Desert, 148 ; broken up, 
148; France loses Quebec, 334; loses Aca- 
dia, 445; persecutes the Huguenots, ii. 
174-183 (see Huguenots) ; war with the 
Iroquois, 417-424; monarchy of France, its 
character, 465; commercial rivalry of 
France and England, iii. 115; other causes 
of animosity, 117, 118; struggle for terri- 
tory in North America, 118 ; New France, 
119; the Hundred Associates, 119; relig- 
ious zeal of French colonists, 119 (see Mis- 
sions) ; wide extent of French outposts in 
North America, 136; farther extension of 
French influence, 152; a French colony in 
Texas, 171; the encroachments of France 
array her neighbors against her, 176; pop- 
ulation of French colonies in America, 177 ; 
principal French p*sts, 177; Indian allies 
of France, 177; claims of France to Ameri- 
can territory, 178, 202; excludes England 
from Louisiana, 203; exhausted condition 
of, 208; decline of her power, 225, 226; 
loses large possessions in America. 233 ; 
claims the Kennebec as her western boun- 
dary, 338; fortifies Crown Point and Ni- 
agara, 341; claims the entire West, 343; 
and the whole valley of the Ohio, 345; the 
Mississippi scheme, 349, et seq. ; infatua- 
tion of the people, 351 ; the unhappy results, 
357 ; engages in the war of the Austrian 
succession, 450; misses her opportunity in 
Hindostan, 453; her ill success in America, 
462, 463; attitude of, in 1748, iv. 30; 
boundary claimed by her in America, 30, 

31, 37; boundary claimed in Maine, 72; 
and in Vermont, 74; her claims opposed by 
Halifax, 70; excites the Indians against 
the English, 89; yet disclaims hostile in- 
tentions, 90; begins hostilities in the Ohio 
Valley, 94, 95; seeks Indian alliances, 
169; negotiations with England, 176; ex- 
asperation against England, 218; unwilling 
to engage in war with her, 169 ; France 
and Austria suspend their ancient rivalry, 
278; the liberal thought of France on the 
side of Prussia, 280 ; French army del'eated 
by Frederic at Kosbach, 285,280; France 
loses the battle of Minden, 317 ; loses Cana- 
da, 325-338, 361 ; desires peace, 392 ; negoti- 
ations for peace, 393; Choiseul, prime min- 
ister, a great statesman, 392-394; Belle 
Isle taken, 400; the family compact, 403, 
404; special convention between France 
and Spain, 404; it secured in advance aid 
to America in its struggle for liberty, 404; 
France loses Martinico, 436; peace con- 
cluded, 452; erroneous policy of France 
towards her colonies, 458 ; her social con- 
dition in 1763, v. 19; character of the peo- 
ple, 19, 20 ; high cultivation, severe science, 
elegant taste, vanity, frivolity, licentious- 
ness, 19,20; checks on the royal power, 
20; decay of faith, 21; scepticism, 21; in- 
fluence of Voltaire, 22, 23; agriculture de- 
pressed, 25; influence of Rousseau, 30, 31; 
surrenders to England the left bank of the 
Mississippi, 164, 336, 340; speculations of 
her statesmen touching the controversy be- 
tween Britain and her colonies, vi. 79, 96, 
180, 236, 255; their wakefulness, 237, 255, 
310; her condition at the opening of the 
American revolution, vii. 25; increase of 
monarchical power, 25; the most powerful 
state of continental Europe, 25; the people 
poor and ignorant, but all free, 25: they 
formed one compact nation, 26; owned the 
land they tilled, 26 ; degeneracy of the 
nobility, 26; they escape military service 
and taxation, 26; a burden on the State, 
27; the king master of the treasury and of 
the army, 28; the Church subordinate to 
the State, 28; scepticism universal, 29; 
degradation of the monarch}', 30; its arbi- 
trary rule, 30; rising importance of the 
people, 31; the cabinet of Louis XVI., 86, 
et seq.; disordered state of the finances, 
91; abuses in the revenue system, 91; dis- 
tress of the people, 92; Turgot plans re- 
form, 92; France leans to the American 
colonics, 93 ; her traditional policy ofregard- 
ing England as her natural enemy, 93; 
views of the French cabinet regarding the 
controversy between England and her col- 
onies, 190; orders given to British naval 
commanders not to annoy French colonies, 
240 ; attention of France fixed on the strug- 
gle in America, 351; state of opinion there, 
351 ; an emissary sent to America to watch 
the progress of affairs, 352; her minister 
insulted by the British secretary of state 
viii. 102; wishes not to repossess Canada, 
102 ; mutual attraction of France and the 



colonies, 215 ; secret communications be- 
tween the French ministry and Congress, 
210; their great importance, 217; the 
French ministers divided in opinion, 329; 
cautious policy adopted, 330 ; France should 
assist America, but secretly, 333, 334; 
France advances a million of livres to assist 
America, 313 ; opens her ports to American 
commerce, ix. 63; Vergennes advises a 
war with England, 68; many French offi- 
cers seek to enter the American army, 70; 
Marquis de Lafayette, 70; plan of a treaty, 
132; commissioners appointed by Con- 
gress, 133; effect produced by Franklin's 
arrival in Paris, 287; the public feeling in 
favor of America, 287 ; the American com- 
missioners wait on Vergennes, 288; the)' 
present to him a request for ships of war, 
cannon, and muskets, 289, 290 ; answer of 
the king, 290; he can afford no direct aid, 
290; hut will grant secret succor, 291; 
A mericans may trade in the ports of France 
and Spain, 291; money secretly advanced, 
and ships freighted with warlike supplies, 
291; contract for tobacco, which procures 
further supplies, 291; war in disguise, 293; 
the king expresses no sympathy with 
America, 293; influence of philosophy, 
293; supplies continually furnished to the 
United States, 297; England remonstrates, 
297 ; American privateers admitted to 
French harbors, 298; France prefers to act 
in concert with Spain, 301 ; account of Bur- 
goyne's surrender brought to France, and 
received with joy, 478, 479; Vergennes 
desires a treaty with America, 478, 479; 
boundaries of the United States, 478, 479; 
the fisheries, 478, 479 ; the king determines 
to acknowledge and support American in- 
dependence, 480; aid in money promised, 
480; convoys promised for American ships, 
480; treaty of alliance between France and 
the United States, 481; its conditions, 481; 
French right to the fisheries acknowledged, 
481; free ships make free goods, 4S2; mut- 
ual guarantees, 482; France avows to Eng- 
la d her treaties with America, 485; war 
between England and France, 486 ; the 
American commissioners presented to 
Louis XVI., 489; France demands of the 
United States no preference, 497 ; de- 
spatches a fleet to the aid of America, and 
an ambassador, 499; causes of the alliance 
between France and America, 499, 500 ; 
spirit of free inquiry, 502; its bewildered and 
pervei>e course, 502; state of public mind in, 
40; the king in theory is absolute, earnest 
longings for liberty, especially in Paris, 41; 
war between the philosophers and the 
Church, 41; French sentiment averse to 
the American cause, 42, 43 ; the king has no 
sympathy for the Americans, 46; splendor 
of the French court and capital, 46 ; France 
more liberal in its policy than England, 
116 ; many of its people held rights in the 
soil, not so in England, 116; the treaty 
with France received in the United States 
with great rejoicing, 117; though America 

had already substantially achieved her 
independence, 139; wavering policy of 
France, 160; she waits for the active co- 
operation of Spain, not j^et promised, 161 ; 
hence the most favorable chances are 
thrown awaj', 162; frivolous, indecisive 
conduct of France and Spain, 163; a 
French army collected for the invasion of 
England, but nothing done, 163, 250; splen- 
did condition of the French navy. 163 ; in- 
decisive action of the two hostile fleets off 
Ouessant, 162; who was to blame, 163; 
little done towards carrying on the war, 
187; moderation of France, as compared 
with Spain, 184, el seq. ; yet France insists 
on the recognition of American indepen- 
dence, 189 ; French minister endeavors to 
persuade Congress to accept the unworthy 
terms proposed by Spain, 215, 218, et seq. ; 
an invasion of England attempted, but 
fails, 249, 250; France has need of peace, 
441, 444; its heavy debt. 445; urges a 
more perfect union of the United States, 

Francis, Ebenezer, of Beverly, Massachusetts, 
colonel of the eleventh Massachusetts 
regiment, his gallant conduct at Hubbard- 
ton, Vt., ix. 369; his heroic death, 369. 

Franciscan missionaries in Maine, iii. 135, 

Franklin, Benjamin, works at his brother's 
press in Boston, iii. 375; goes to Philadel- 
phia, 376; gains respect and influence 
there, 376; his electrical experiments, 377; 
his character, 378 ; inclined to materialism, 
380 ; advocates a paper currency, 388, 390 ; 
the champion of popular rights. 395 ; devises 
a military organization lor Pennsylvania, 
456 ; proposes a union of the colonies, iv. 91 ; 
meets a council of Indians at Carlisle, 108; 
his plan of union proposed at Albany, 122, 
et seq. ; the proposed constitution a com- 
promise, 123; its details, 124; advises col- 
onizing the great West, 126; his predomin- 
ant influence in Pennsylvania, 140 ; a vessel 
sent by his advice to discover a north-west 
passage, 141; his objections to Shirley's 
plan of union, 172, 173; supplies Braddock 
with horses and carriages, 184; his state- 
ments concerning the rapid growth of the 
colonies, 213, 214; is placed in charge of 
the frontier of Pennsylvania, 225; goes to 
England as agent of Pennsylvania, 254; 
hears new doctrine touching the king's 
supremacy over the colonies, 256; advises 
to retain Canada, 366; and why, 367, 368; 
foresees the future growth of America, 367; 
corresponds with David Hume, 308 ; never 
admitted to the presence of Pitt, 376 ; pre- 
fers a royal to a proprietary government, 
v. 218; sent to England to defend the lib- 
erties of Pennsylvania, 220 ; his interview 
with George Grenville, 230; is made a 
stamp-officer, 250; believes that the stamp- 
act will be carried into effect, 306, note ; 
his letter to Charles Thomson correctly 
printed, 306. 307, note ; listens to the de- 
bates in Parliament, 405 ; his examination 



before the House of Commons, 428, et seq. ; 
his determined spirit of liberty, vi. 6; 
appointed agent for Georgia, 149; ap- 
prehends a breach between Britain and 
America, 106; Choiseul's opinion of 
him, 180; Chatelet's opinion of him, 238; 
the great Bostonian, 240; his advice to the 
ministry disregarded, 318; chosen agent of 
Massachusetts, 374; his sentiments on 
government and on the controversy with 
England, 375; Hutchinson opposes him, 
376; he favors the colonization of the great 
West, 377; foretells a bloody struggle, 
406; reproaches England for prosecuting 
the slave-trade, 416; negotiates with the 
lords of the treasury for a large tract of 
western lands, 421: discovers the secret 
letters of Hutchinson and Oliver, 435; 
sends them to the speaker of the Massa- 
chusetts House of Representatives, 436 ; he 
concurs with Samuel Adams, 469 ; delivers 
the address of Massachusetts for the re- 
moval of Hutchinson and Oliver, 490 ; ap- 
pears before the privy council, 492,; is 
abused in every company, 492; is harassed 
and threatened, 493 ; is shamefully vilified 
and misrepresented by Wedderburn, 496, 
497; the immediate consequences, 497, 
502; Franklin and Wedderburn contrasted, 
499; Franklin and the Lords ot Council 
contrasted, 499; Franklin always a concili- 
ator and still pursues that policy, 496, 500; 
is turned out of his office as postmaster- 
general in America, 500; his character as 
drawn by Washington, 499 ; the king wishes 
him arraigned for treasnn.vii. 58; is exposed 
to great danger in Fngland, 174 ; the friends 
of America wish him to stay, 174; sees no 
safety for his country but in total eman- 
cipation, 177, 178; the ministry ask him 
what terms will satisfy America, 179; his 
answer, 180; his firmness, 180; presents 
the petition of the continental Congress to 
the king, 186 ; the ministry negotiate with 
him through Lord Howe, 188; they offer 
terms of high preferment to him if he will 
concur in their measures, 189; he points 
out the only basis for conciliation, 18:); his 
proposals rejected, 189; is introduced by 
Chatham into the House of Lords, 196; 
admires Chatham's speech, 203; Chatham's 
warm encomium on him, 221; his letters 
quoted, 177, 178, 219, 222, 247 ; Lord North 
again tries to negotiate with him, 224; 
Franklin's heroic firmness, 224; he is once 
more consulted by Lord North, 241 ; am- 

Ele rewards offered him, but he abides in 
is former position, 242; he counsels Mas- 
sachusetts not to begin hostilities without 
the advice of Congress, 247; he also coun- 
sels firm courage, 247; his interview with 
Gamier, the French minister. 262; his in- 
terview with Edmund Burke, 263; sails for 
America, 263, 264; his sadness at the pros- 
pect of a separation from the mother coun- 
try, 263; his perfect sincerity in his inter- 
course with men in power, 264; his 
remarkable ability in all his dealings with 

the British government, 265; he retains the 
confidence of Chatham and other liberal 
statesmen, 285; arrives in Philadelphia, 
and the next morning is unanimously 
elected to Congress, 333; meeting of Con- 
gress, 353 ; becomes decided in his wishea 
for independence, 354, 377, 378; his mes- 
sage to Strahan, viii. 37; proposes a con- 
federation of the colonies, 53; organizes a 
post-office, and is the first postmaster-gen- 
eral, 57; one of a committee of Congress to 
visit the camp at Cambridge, 111; feels 
that a separation from Britain is inevitable, 
112; Greene's opinion of him, 112; friend- 
ship between Franklin and Washington, 
112; encourages Thomas Paine to write in 
favor of independence, 140; brings forward 
his plan of a confederacy, 245 ; is outvoted, 
245; his great confidence in general Lee, 
281 ; refuses the oath of allegiance to the 
king, 315; wishes for a declaration of war, 
320; one of the committee to prepare a 
declaration of independence, 392; is sent 
to Canada as commissioner from Congress, 
423; Lord Howe writes to him, ix. 42; 
Franklin's reply, 42, 43; his plan of a con- 
federation contrasted with Dickinson's, 49, 
50; insists that each state shall have votes 
in proportion to the number of its inhabit- 
ants, 53; is elected one of a committee to 
meet Lord Howe, 112; the interview, 116, 
117 ; elected commissioner to V ranee, 133 ; 
arrives in Paris, 223, 285 ; allows in the 
legislature only one assembly, 265 ; marked 
effect of his arrival in France, 286 ; his high 
reputation there. 287 ; waits on Vergennes 
and Aranda, 288, 289 ; his sagacity, 283 ; 
the commissioners ask Vergennes for ships 
of war and military appliances, 289,290; 
in answer promises of indirect aid given, 
and supplies furnished, 292; treaty with 
France, 481; his interview with Voltaire, 
484 ; his reply to Hartley, 485 ; is presented 
to the king, 489 ; his dress, 489 ; presented 
to the queen, 490; not awed by birth or 
station, 490; his mental tranquillity, 490; 
why he was frugal, 491 ; his moral great- 
ness, 491; his manners, 491; he wins uni- 
versal respect, 491; eulogized by John 
Adams, 491; by D'Alembert, 492; the im- 
personation of a true democrac3 r , 492; ex- 
cited no jealousy in the privileged classes, 
492; his secret of statesmanship, 492; used 
his fame for his country's good, 493; su- 
perior to envy, 493; is esteemed by the 
best men in England, even by Lord 
North, 493 ; his reply to Hartley, seeking 
some favor for England from America, 497 ; 
Franklin and Voltaire at the French Acad- 
emy, 499 ; dissuades from wooing Spain, 
166 ; great confidence reposed in him by 
the French cabinet, 166 ; is appointed sole 
envov to France, 167; his proceedings, 
261, "262; his letter to Lord Shelburne, 
535; Shelburne's answer, 536; his rejoin- 
der, 540; his interview with Oswald, the 
British negotiator, 540; he excludes Spain 
from the negotiation, and why, 540, 541 ; 



receives Grenville at Pari?, 542 ; prefers Os- 
wald, and why, 543; his great discretion, 
547; will not accept independence at second, 
hand, 542; his knowledge of parties, in 
England, 554; states to Oswald conditions 
of peace, 555 ; his able arguments with the 
British plenipotentiaries, 555 ; labors to 
hasten the treaty of peace, 575; his letter 
to Lord Grantham, 575; his sound judg- 
ment, 575 : he and Jay unite in the nego- 
tiations, 580, 584, 585; Franklin, Adams, 
and Jay meet the British commissioners, 
589; the treaty signed, 591; America owes 
to him this treaty, 558. 

Franklin, James, prints the " New England 
Courant," iii. 375; censured and punished 
for a libel, 376. 

Franklin, William, becomes governor of New 
Jersey, iv. 440. viii. 71; negotiates with 
the Six Nations, vi. 227; his malignant 
letters are intercepted, and he is placed 
under arrest, 245, 442; he is kept under 
guard, 443 ; his fiendish advice, 175 ; 
wishes to employ the savages to crush the 
rebellion, 222. 

Franklin, William Temple, grandson of Dr. 
Benjamin Franklin, presented by him to 
Voltaire, ix. 484. 

Fraser, Lieutenant Alexander, visits the Illi- 
nois Indians, v. 337 ; and pacifies them, 

Fraser, a Highlander, brigadier under Bur- 
goyne, ix. 362 ; moves upon Ticonderoga, 
367 ; marches in pursuit of the army of St. 
Clair, 367 ; overtakes the rear-guard, 369 ; 
overwhelms it by superior numbers, 370 ; 
in the Battle of Bemis's Heights, 409, 415; 
is mortally wounded, 416; his last mo- 
ments, 418; his burial, 419. 

Frazer, General, in command at Three Rivers, 
viii. 430. 

Frederic II., king of Prussia, conquers Silesia, 
iii. 452; asserts the freedom of the seas, 
466; insists that "free ships make free 
goids," iv. 233; England hires Russia to 
hold him in check, 221 ; the bulwark of 
Protestantism and free thought, 279; re- 
garded as such in the NewEngland colonies, 
280; makes war on Austria and Saxon) 7 , 
281; takes Dresden, and compels the Sax- 
on army to surrender, 281 ; a strong con- 
federacy of Catholic powers against him, 
281; invades Bohemia, gains the Battle of 
Prague, but loses the Battle of Colin, 282 ; 
his retreat and reverses, 283, 284; gains 
the Battle of Rosbach,285: suffers reverses 
in Silesia, 286 ; his animating address to 
his soldiers. 287 ; gains the Battle of Leu- 
then, 288 ; Prussia is saved, 289 ; his magna- 
nimity in refusing cessions of territory, 397 ; 
his firmness, 434 ; perfidy of the English 
ministry towards him, 435 ; his alliance 
with Russia, 435, 454; concludes a glorious 
peace, 455 ; an absolute monarch, yet tol- 
erant of opinion, v. 7 ; his philosophy at 
variance with the political constitution of 
his kingdom, 7 ; is disgusted with the 
hiring of troops in Germany for the 

British army, ix. 316, 318; forbids their 
passage through his dominions, 474; his 
policy towards the United States, 473, 
474; his great character, 97; now old 
and infirm, x. 98; the friend of his 
people and of civil liberty, 98; hopes 
well of republics, and of the new repub- 
lic of America, 99; detests the Tory 
policy in England, 100; indignant at the 
oppression of the colonies, 100; justifies 
the American revolt, and predicts its suc- 
cess, 102, 106; yet, in the interest of Prus- 
sia, declines taking part in the war, 103; 
foresees the intervention of France and 
Spain, 104; refuses an alliance with Eng- 
land. 108, 241, 242 ; thinks the situation of 
England critical, 108, 241, 242; regards 
her efforts against America hopeless, 109; 
exacts indemnity from England for Prus- 
sian ships taken, 256; watchful against 
Austria, 110; proposes an alliance of 
France, Prussia, and liussia against that 
power, 111; his sympathy for America in- 
creases, 114; forbids the passage of Hessian 
troops through his dominions, 114; prom- 
ises that he will ere long recognize Ameri- 
can independence, 115; his answer to an 
American envoy, 240 ; opposes the designs 
of Austria, 242; contrasted with Joseph II. 
of Austria, 244 ; Prussia joins the armed 
neutrality, 284, 274. 

Frederic, landgrave of Hesse Cassel, viii. 
260 ; his character, 260, 261 ; George III. 
of England applies to him for troops, 261 ; 
his sordid avarice, 261 ; his exorbitant de- 
mands, 261 ; he gets the troops read}-, 265 ; 
his letter to Voltaire, 270; Frederic of 
Prussia despises him for selling his subjects 
like cattle, 270 ; he disgraces Germany, 

Frederic Augustus, Elector of Saxony, re- 
fuses aid to England in the American 
struggle, x. 96. 

Frederic Barbarossa, acquiesces in the su- 
premacy of the pope, x. 69. 

Frederica, Ga., founded by Oglethorpe, iii. 

Freedom, progress of, in America, v. 269, 
270; the Bible for, 289; the idea of it, 
founded on universal principles, vii. 21 ; it 
had always been cherished in America, 
22 ; it was essential to the full development 
of the British colonies, 24 ; in America, 
movement for it irresistible, vii. 21. 

Freedom of the seas, unknown to barbarians, 
x. 255 ; first asserted by the Dutch, 255 ; 
when first stipulated by treaty, 255 ; recog- 
nized by England in its full extent, 256 ; 
violated by England, 256 ; reasserted in 
the treaty of Utrecht. 256 ; indemnity for 
capture of Prussian ships exacted by Fred- 
eric II., recognized by the Rockingham 
ministry, 256 ; France protects neutral 
ships, 261 ; England ravages neutral com- 
merce, 264 ; the Dutch complain, 264 ; 
Denmark complains, Sweden also, and 
Prussia, 264; England's insolence, 264; 
the armed neutrality, 277, et seq. 



"Freeman " of New York exposes the fallacy 
of the arguments used to justify parlia- 
mentary taxation of America, v. 280, et 
Free schools in New England, i. 458. 
" Free ships make free goods," this principle 
how and when introduced, iii. 230; the 
principle asserted by Frederic II., 466; 
England disregards it, 467. 
Free trade allowed to Ireland, x. 455. 
French armv assembled for the invasion of 
England x. 163, 249, 250; French brig- 
antine seized in time of peace, iv. 
73 ; the French obstruct the progress of 
English colonization, 89; begin hostilities 
on land, 94, 95; their encroachments on 
Virginia to be resisted, 102; a powerful 
force proceeds from Canada to occupy the 
Ohio Valley, 106, et seq. ; the Indians ad- 
monish them not to proceed, 107 ; French 
ships seized by the English without a dec- 
laration of war, 217; French power in 
America extended, 267 ; French successes in 
Germany, 317; French losses in America 
and elsewhere, 452; fleet arrives in the 
Delaware, x. 145; enters New York Bay, 
145; appears off Newport, 146; indecisive 
action, 147; the fleet almost wrecked in a 
storm, 148; in the West Indies, x. 382; suf- 
fer a great defeat, 545; ministry, their 
views of the American struggle, viii. 102, 
330, et seq. ; neutrals of Acadia, hard con- 
ditions imposed on them, iv. 46 ; cruel 
treatment of that people, 199-206; officers 
embark for America, 285, 286; French 
women favor America, 296 ; French ports 
are open to American privateers, 297, 298 ; 
system of law restored in Canada, vii. 157, 
Friends (see Quakers). 
Frivolous conduct of France and Spain, x. 

Frobisher, Martin, attempts a north-west 
passage to the Indies, i. 81; reaches Lab- 
rador, 82; enters Hudson's Straits, 85; 
perils of the voyage, 85. 
Frontenac, Count, governor of Canada, iii. 
162, 179 ; endeavors to win the Iroquois to 
the French alliance, 182; sends three expe- 
ditions against the English provinces, 182; 
succors Montreal, 184; and Quebec, 185; 
invades the country of the Five Nations, 
189, 190; humbles, but not subdues, that 
warlike people, 191. 
Frontenac, Fort, now Kingston, Canada, 
granted to La Salle, iii. 162; his journey 
thither on foot from Illinois, 166; this fort 
a principal French post, 177; evacuated 
and razed, 179, 340. 
Frye. Colonel James, a detachment from his 
regiment in the Battle of Bunker Hill, vii. 
Fuller, Rose, opposes the Boston Port Bill, 
vi. 513, 514; moves the repeal of the duty 
on tea, 519. 
Fur-trade in Canada commenced, i. 25 ; con- 
tinues, iii. 136. 


Gadsden, Christopher, of South Carolina, iv. 
348, 426 ; his character, v. 293 ; procures 
the adhesion of South Carolina to the pro- 
posal of union, 294; delegate of that colony 
to the Congress, 333; his noble utterances, 
335, 343,425: an enthusiast in the cause of 
liberty, vi. 42, 386; sends rice for the poor 
of Boston, and advises not to pay tor the. 
tea, vii. 62 ; elected to the first continental 
Congress, 81, 127; utterly denies the power 
of Parliament to legislate for America, 133; 
proposes an attack on Gage at Boston, 
142 ; proposes to export rice, 205, 206 ; 
escapes capture by British cruisers on the 
way to Charleston, viii. 312, 313; arrives 
and receives thanks, 345; assumes com- 
mand as senior military officer, 346; is de- 
cidedly for independence, 346; takes part 
in the defence of Charleston, 403, 407 ; in 
Charleston, x. 293; suffers barbarous treat- 
ment. 329. 
Gage, General Thomas, commander-in-chief 
in America, v. 209, 210; advises the ex- 
tension of the mutiny act to America, 249; 
would enforce the stamp act by military 
power, 314; his power as commander-in- 
chief, 331 ; is thought not to be a man of 
capacity, 331 ; is compelled to yield to the 
people in New York, 357; his liability to 
mistake, vi. 68; demands quarters for 
troops in Connecticut. 51 ; and in Boston, 
201; the demand refused, 201; his false 
representations of Boston, 200, 203 ; orders 
the landing of troops in Boston, 208 ; comes 
to Boston in person, 210; indicted for 
slander, 314; visits England, his false rep- 
resentations there, 501; his contempt for 
Americans, 501 ; returns to Boston as civil 
governor of Massachusetts, and with four 
additional regiments to enforce submission, 
523; arrives in Boston as governor and 
commander-in-chief, vii. 37; his vacil- 
lating character, 38; stands in dread of 
Samuel Adams and other leading patriots, 
38; negatives thirteen councillors, 47, 48; 
refuses to appoint a fast, 48; removes the 
legislature of Massachusetts to Salem, 61; 
refuses to receive the address of the council, 
61; dissolves the assembly, 64; his in- 
trigues, 67, 68 ; his unwise proclamation, 
69, 70; finds himself unable to execute his 
threats, 70, 71; dreads the town meetings, 
71; issues a proclamation against ''hypoc- 
risy and sedition," 83; alarmed at the 
high spirit of the people, 110; embarrassed 
at every step, 112; seizes the powder of 
the province at Somerville, 114; remains 
inactive, 115; wants more troops, 117; 
desires a body of Canadians and Indians, 
117, 136 ; his* want of pity, 119 ; he is dis- 
heartened and appalled, 136; meets every- 
where with determined resistance, 137; 
dares not meet the legislature of Massachu- 
setts, 138; accuses Franklin, 174: his state- 
ments touching the colonies, 177; advises 
the repeal of the obnoxious acts, 177 ; sug- 



gests that it may be well to give indepen- 
dence to America, 177; denounces the pro- 
vincial Congress as an unlawful assembly, 
182; is instructed to arrest and imprison 
the leading patriots, 218; has spies at 
work, their report, 230; is denounced in 
Parliament as a coward, 244; his confi- 
dence of success, 231 ; is ordered to pursue 
violent measures, 284; sends an expedition 
to Concord, 288 ; the troops vigorously re- 
pulsed, 299-309; his army shut up in Bos- 
ton with scanty supplies, 318; mortification 
of the British officers, 318; Gage permits 
some of the people to leave Boston, 320 ; 
he refuses the mediation of Connecticut, 
321; proscribes by name Samuel Adams 
and John Hancock, 391; proclaims martial 
law throughout Massachusetts, 392 ; call- for 
large re-enforcements from England, 392; 
wishes for Indian auxiliaries, 392; endeav- 
ors to terrify the Americans, viii. 66; his 
ill treatment of prisoners, 66 ; his foolish 
insolence, 66; dares not venture beyond 
his lines, 67; fears for his own safety, 07; 
declines the oft'er of battle made by Wash- 
ington, 67; cuts down the Boston liberty- 
tree, 68: sends orders to employ against 
the patriots of Carolina the savages on their 
borders, 87, 88; is superseded in his com 
mand, 100; embarks for England, 111. 

Gage, Thomas, a lieutenant-colonel in Brad- 
dock's expedition, iv. 187; his indecision 
lost the day, 188; sent to command at 
Niagara, 322; his dilatory conduct, 

Gallican church subordinate to the state, 
vii. 28 ; the clergy inclined to scepticism, 

Gallican party in Congress, x. 216, 217. 

Galloway, Joseph, of Pennsylvania, a royalist, 
v. 219"; favors the stamp act, 328 ; elected 
to Congress, vii. 83; a volunteer spy for 
the British government, 126; proposes 
sending a committee to the British court, 
unites with the rest in a pledge of secrecy, 
131 ; his insidious plan for retaining the col- 
onies in subjection, 140; loses his influence, 
141; and his seat in Congress, 141; de- 
clines to serve in the Second Congress, 
211; exercises great influence in the legis- 
lature, viii. 73; declines an election to 
Congress, 73 ; deserts the American cause, 
ix. 199. 

Galvez, minister of Spain for the colonies, ix. 

Gama. Vasco da, his voyage to Hindostan, 
i. 12, 14. 

Game laws of England, their severity, v. 52, 

Gansevoort, in the New York convention, 
ix. 33. 

Gansevoort, Lieutenant-Colonel, commands 
at Fort Stanwix, ix. 378. 

Garay. Francisco de, discovers the mouth of 
the Mississippi, i. 35. 

Gardner. Isaac, of Brookline, slain by the 
British troops, vii. 309. 

Gardner, Thomas, representative of Cam- 

bridge in the General Court of Massa- 
chusetts, vi. 284; his intrepid and guile- 
less heart, 285 ; his patriotic utterance, 
456; his energetic words, vii. 100; is mor- 
tally wounded on Bunker Hill, 433. 

Gareau, Leonard, a Jesuit missionary, em- 
barks for the Far West, iii. 146. 

Gamier, the French minister, purchases a 
seat in Parliament, vii. 174, 175; his letter 
t" Yergennes about it, 175; other letters 
of his quoted, 178, 180, 210, 219, 244, 248, 
262, 342. 

Garth, agent of South Carolina, his letter 
quoted, v. 186, note; his interview with 
Mr. Grenville, 230; a member of Parlia- 
ment, 237, note. 

" Ga c pee," British armed schooner, burned 
in the waters of Rhode Island, vi. 419; the 
British ministry are bent on revenge, but 
fail in their efforts, 441, 450, 451. 

Gates, Horatio, questioned by the British 
ministry, iv. 168; elected adjutant-general 
by Congress, viii. 30 ; his character, 30 ; is 
elected major-general, and appointed to the 
command of the Northern Army, 432 ; 
claims equality of rank and command with 
Washington, ix. 58; his meanness, 58; his 
correspondence with the traitor Lee, 209; 
brings a re-enforcement to Washington, 
223; his wilful disobedience of orders, 228; 
shameful neglect of duty, 228; finds fault 
with Washington, 228; his greediness, 336 ; 
his intriguing character, 339; refuses to 
serve under Schuyler, 339; Congress ap- 
points him to the command of the Northern 
Array, 339 ; he assumes undue authority, 
339; "his intrigues, 339, 342; his insubordi- 
nation, 341; appeals to Congress against 
Washington, 341 ; is removed from his 
command, 341. 342 : his speech to an In- 
dian council, 360 ; his advice to St. Clair, 
361; supersedes Schuyler in the command 
of the Northern Army, 386 ; superiority in 
point of numbers and strength, 405 ; his 
inactivity, 406; advances to Stillwater, 
406; spirit of the army, 407; his unfitness 
for command and want of personal courage, 
407; Battle of Bemis's Heights, 409; Gates 
not on the field, 410 ; he and Arnold quar- 
rel, 412; is constantly re-enforced, 414; does 
not appear on the field of battle, 418; sur- 
render of Burgoyne, 420; cause of this 
great result, 421; what Gates should have 
done, 421; he fails to send re-enforcements 
to Washington, 432 ; detains his troops at 
Albany, 432 ; his disrespect to Washington, 
432; praises Conway, 457; complains to 
Congress, 457 ; his utter incompetence as a 
general, 463; denies being implicated in a 
plot to supersede Washington, 464; com- 
mands the Southern Army, x. 316; how 
it happened, 316; powers given him, 316; 
marches on Camden, 317; his favorable 
prospects, 318; his proclamation, 318; 
misses his only opportunity, 319 : his delay, 
319; his undue ha»te and carelessness, 320; 
his utter defeat at Camden, 322; his un- 
soldierly flight from the field, 324. 



Gates, Sir Thomas, wrecked on Bermuda, i. 
137; arrives in Virginia, 140; brings addi- 
tional emigrants, 144; returns to England, 

General assembly of the towns in Massachu- 
setts proposed, vi. 195. 

General Court, the first in America, i. 

"General Mifflin," privateer, x. 257. 

Generous conduct of the Americans, x. 

George I., king of England, his bad charac- 
ter, iii. 322; iv. 163. 

George II., ruled by his mistress, iv. 70 ; dis- 
likes the Duke of Bedford, 70, 87 ; a mean 
prince, swayed by his prejudices and his 
mistress, 97, 98; decides concerning the 
Valley of Ohio, 101 ; thinks English notions 
of liberty very singular, 102; hates Pitt, 
249; dismisses him from office, 250; death 
of George II., 381. 

George III. described when a boy, iv. 98; 
lived in seclusion and idleness, 99; full 
even then of high notions of kingly power, 
99, 1G2; Pitt and Prince George become 
allies, 102, 244; the prince becomes of age, 
244; determines to have the free choice of 
his servants, 245; is anxious lest free- 
thinking and scepticism should spread in 
America, 257; his accession to the throne, 
381; his first speech to the privy council, 
383; the speech amended by Pitt, 384; a 
general welcome to the throne. 385; his 
ruling passion a love of authority, 380; his 
self-will and obstinacy. 380, 387; uses as 
his instrument the Earl of Bute, 38"; de- 
spises and hates popular opinion, 389; his 
relations with Prussia, 389; from an old 
grudge dismisses William Legge, 390; 
wishes to leave Prussia to ruin, 397 ; his 
marriage, 405; accepts Pitt's resignation, 
409; his rupture with the great Whig lords, 
446; is not dazzled with victory, 451; 
readily concludes a peace, 452; finds him- 
self overruled in his designs about govern- 
ing England, v. 97; is dissatisfied with the 
"triumvirate ministry," 139; his interview 
with Halifax and Egremont, 140; wishes to 
be rid of Egremont, 140; hates Pitt, 142; 
yet invites him to enter the ministry, 143; 
his unsatisfactory interview witli Pitt, 144; 
his insanity, 248; the affair kept secret, 
248, 253 ; he proposes a regency bill, 253 ; 
his want of confidence in his ministers, 254 ; 
his mother excluded from the regency, 255 ; 
he is displeased at this, 255; wishes Pitt to 
take office, 250-203; Pitt refuses, 262,263; 
the king complies reluctantly with Gren- 
ville's terms, and Grenville continues in 
office, 264, 265 ; his wounded pride, 295 ; 
frowns on his ministers, 295; Bedford's in- 
terview with him, 296; the king resolves 
on a change, and sends for Pitt, 296; his 
interview with Grenville, 300; his mind 
unsettled with regard to America, 363; is 
provoked by the riots in New York, 308 ; 
is disappointed by the unwillingness of the 
House of Commons to enforce the stamp 

act, 424; is willing to have the act modi- 
fied, 427; gives his assent to its repeal, 
454; is dissatisfied with the repeal of the 
stamp act, vi. 3; invites Pitt to form a new 
administration, 19; his interview with Earl 
Temple, 20; talks much about America, 
50; is afraid of the increasing spirit of lib- 
erty, 55, 56 : dislikes the Earl of Shelburne, 
21, 55; dislikes George Grenville, 60, 99; 
wishes to preserve the Townsbend ministry, 
and also to humble the aristocracy, 81 ; his 
influence baneful to liberty in both hemi- 
spheres, 83; is enabled to govern as well as 
to reign, 88, 94; procures the expulsion of 
Wilkes from Parliament, 148 ; is bent on 
trampling down the colonies, especially 
Boston, 230; will not hear their petition*, 
234; insists on retaining the duty on tea, 
277; and thus is singly responsible for the 
revolt of the colonies, 277, 278; the system 
of taxing America would have been 
abandoned but for" him, 353 ; his good and 
bad qualities, 354; the great founder of the 
modern conservative party, 354; makes a 
beginning of martial law in Massachusetts, 
307 ; hates Boston and Massachusetts, 307 ; 
is brought into contempt by his own rep- 
resentative, 368, 405 ; tempts the patriotism 
of John Hancock, 407; steadily pursues the 
system of concentrating in himself all 
power over the colonies, 402, el seq. ; for- 
bids the discontinuance of the slave-trade, 
413,457; makes the judges in Massachu- 
setts dependent on his pleasure, 420, 421; 
is weary of Hillsborough, 421 ; and soothes 
his fall by giving him a British earldom, 
421; his cordial understanding with Louis 
XV., 422; his selfish aims, 424; approves 
the conduct of Hutchinson, 444; is deter- 
mined on coercion, 457; rejects the peti- 
tions from Massachusetts, 459; "the king 
means to try the question with America " 
by sending tea thither, 465 ; the tea sent by 
the East India Company, 405; after the 
destruction of the tea, the king's heart 
more hardened than ever, 501 ; he sees 
nothing to blame in the letters of Hutchin- 
son, and rejects the petition of Massachu- 
setts for his removal, 501. 502; his infatu- 
ation, vii. 24; is determined to coerce the 
colonies at any cost, 24; appoints manda- 
mus councillors for Massachusetts, 58; 
orders Gage to arrest the leading patriots, 
and to tire on the Boston people at his dis- 
cretion, 58, 59; is greedy for information 
concerning Boston, 71; eagerly questions 
Hutchinson, 71, 72; cherishes pleasing de- 
lusions touching America, 72 ; is confident 
of the success of the measures against the 
colonies, 72; assents to the "regulating 
act," 94; and thus tramples under font tin; 
affections, customs, laws, and privileges 
of Massachusetts, 96 ; wishes to employ the 
savage Indians in the impending war, 118; 
dissolves Parliament, 135; will listen to no 
terms of conciliation with America, 145, 
146; has no thought of concession, 174, 
177, 179; declares New England in a 



state of rebellion, 177 ; forbids the export 
of arms to America, 183; raves at Chat- 
ham's speech in the House of Lords, 201; 
calls him " the trumpet of sedition," 201 ; 
calls the proceedings of the patriots of Mas- 
sachusetts "the acts of a rude rabble," 
218 ; gives orders to arrest and imprison the 
chief patriots. 218; his heart is inflexibly 
hardened against America. 227; is confi- 
dent of success, 252. 253, 280 ; frowns on the 
citv of London, 282 ; his extreme arrogance, 
282; will not allow Lord North to re- 
sign. 211, 346; will not receive the address 
of the citizens of London, 282, 316 ; applies 
for liussian troops, 348; is specially desir- 
ous to arm the negro slaves and savage 
Indians, 349 ; his senseless complacency at 
the state of affairs in America, viii. 99; his 
undue animation on receiving news of the 
Battle of Bunker Hill, 100; he will have 
twentv thousand regular soldiers in Amer- 
ica in* 1776. 100; the secretary at war tells 
him it is impossible, 100; "the most ob- 
stinate prince alive," 104; he will not see 
Richard Penn, the bearer of a humble peti- 
tion from Congress, 131; is determined to 
force the Americans to submission, 131; 
scorns to dissemble, 131; insists on pro- 
claiming the Americans rebels, 131; has no 
misgivings that he may be in the wrong, 
131; his irrevocable proclamation for sup- 
pressing rebellion and sedition, aimed not 
only at the Americans, but at their friends 
in England, 132; its bearing on Chatham, 
Rockingham, Camden, Barre, and the like 
of them, 133 ; he is compared to Charles 
the First, 134; his courage and fortitude 
in difficulties, 145; his pertinacity, 145; he 
wishes to obtain from Holland the Scottish 
brigade, 148, 250; but does not, 148, 250; 
writes for troops to Catharine of Russia, 
148, 149; the letter, 149; the empress ab- 
solutely refuses, 151, et seq. ; she gives him 
friendly advice, 150; he is surprised at the 
refusal", but bears the disappointment with 
firmness, 157; he thinks he is fighting the 
battle of Parliament, 159 ; his speech at the 
opening of Parliament, 160; he calls the 
Americans rebels, and wholly misrepresents 
the affair, 160. 161 ; he is sustained by Parlia- 
ment, 161; his policy not in harmony with 
the true spirit of England, 167 ; he prefers 
to lose America rather than to recognize 
American principles, 171; he could not 
carry on the war with British troops only, 
250; applies to Holland and Germany, 
250, 254, et seq. ; his negotiations with 
Brunswick and Hesse Cassel for troops, 
255, et seq. ; expects important aid from 
the Iroquois and other Indians, 301; gives 

feremptory orders to employ the savage 
ndians, ix. 321, 376; he still, 1777, insists 
on reducing the colonies whatever it may 
cost, 477; persuades Lord North to remain 
in the administration, 478; will not suffer 
him to flinch, 481; will not have Lord 
Chatham in the ministry, 486; will sooner 
riak his crown, 487 ; his violent anger at 

the proposal, 487, 488; his exultation when 
Lord Chatham was struck with death, 495; 
is determined on the conquest of America, 
x. 240, et seq. ; his interview with his min- 
isters, 247; his resolution falters, 142; flat- 
ters Catherine II., 273; notwithstanding 
constant ill success, as obstinate as ever, 
525; wishes to continue the war, 533; 
wishes Shelburne to form an administra- 
tion, 533; hates Charles Fox, 533; consents 
to the independence of America, 534; 
pledges his word that he will consent to it, 
558; wishes for delay, 578. 

Georgia, traversed by Spaniards, i. 46; its 
colonization proposed, iii. 417 ; Oglethorpe 
obtains a charter, and arrives with a col- 
ony, 419, 420; treat}' with the Indians, 
420, 421; Protestant emigrants from Salz- 
burg arrive, 425; grievances of the colo- 
nists, 426 ; slavery prohibited, 426 ; Moravi- 
an emigrants arrive, 427; Spanish hostility, 
432; the colony protected by its Indian 
allies, 433; invasion by the Spaniards and 
their repulse, 444-446; slavery at length 
permitted, 448; population in 1754, iv. 129, 
130; its social and political condition, 130, 
131 ; colon}' of, send no delegates to Con- 
gress, but promise adhesion to its measures, 
v. 328; refuses compliance with the billet- 
ing act, vi. 81; great prosperity of, 149; 
spirit of liberty there, 149 ; chooses Frank- 
lin its agent in England, 149; approves the 
proceedings of Massachusetts and Virginia, 
247; its liberties invaded by the ministry, 
410 ; accession of a part of, to the measures of 
Congress, vii. 206 ; population of, in 1775, 
337; number of the Indians along her bor- 
ders, 337 ; she unites with the other colonies, 
337; accedes to the union, viii. 54; provin- 
cial Congress of, 83; its measures, 83; 
movements of the people, 84; Georgia is 
for independence, 391; its civil constitution, 
ix. 262; only one legislative assembly, 
265; invaded and lost, x. 284, et seq. ; re- 
covered, 563. 

Gerard, first minister of France to the United 
States, ix. 499. 

Gerard de Rayneval, the French minister, 
arrives, x. 147 ; urges on Congress an ac- 
ceptance of the terms proposed by Spain, 
215, et seq. 

Germain, Lord George, proposes to subvert 
the liberties of America, vi. 517; delivers 
the message of the Commons at the bar of 
the Lords, vii. 225 ; becomes secretary of 
state for the American department, viii. 
165 : his character and previous history, 
166 (see Sackville, Georye) ; his reply to 
Burke, 169; his interview with a Mohawk 
chief, 301; insists on unconditional sub- 
mission from the Americans, 301 ; com- 
pliments Lord and General Howe, ix. 140; 
defends the policy of the ministry, 143; his 
gloomy forebodings, 145; tries to exculpate 
himself, 145; his merciless cruelty in stir- 
ring up the Indians against the Ameri- 
cans, 152, 163; loses hope, 235; his merci- 
less order, 253; conduct of the war on the 



side of Canada left to him, 312; urges the 
employment of the savages, 321, 322; wishes 
to remove General Howe, 323; gives him 
new instructions, 332; his disingenuous- 
ness, 332; cannot furnish the re-enforce- 
ments called for, 332,333; expects much 
from Indian alliances, 334; his vengeful 
spirit, 349 ; longs to hear that Boston is in 
flames, 349 ; gives orders to " distress and 
destrov," 350; is determined on employing 
Indians, 370 ; in a fit of anger resigns his 
position, x. 40 ; determines on a cruel and 
destructive war, 123 ; proposes to rouse and 
employ the savages against the Americans, 
124; approves and sanctions the massacre 
of Wyoming, 138; resolves to encourage 
devastation and murder, 138, 141 ; defends 
the ferocious proclamation of the English 
commissioners, 151 ; orders the invasion of 
South Carolina, 155; his plan for a south- 
ern campaign, 283, 284; approves of the 
horrid outrages of the British troops in 
South Carolina, 328; applauds breaches of 
faith in British generals, 329; encourages 
the complot of Arnold and Clinton, 378; 
approves of the invasion of Virginia by 
Cornwallis, 484; earnestly favors that 
campaign, 509; extravagantly praises 
Cornwallis, 510; retires from office, 529. 

German empire in 1763, v. 11; its political 
constitution faulty, 11, 12; a mere shadow, 
12; it has a pompous and stupid nobility, 
12; its princes venal and pensionary, 12; 
degradation of the people, 12. 

German literature is on the side of America, 
ix. 475; Goethe, 475; Lessing, 475; Schil- 
ler, 475; Kant, 475; Price on Liberty 
translated into German, 475. 

Germantown, the village described, ix. 423; 
encampment of Howe, 423; Chew's stone 
house, 423, 425; the battle begins, 425; 
attempt to take Chew's house, 420; tardy 
arrival of Greene, 42G; his mismanage- 
ment, 426; the battle is lost, 427; the rea- 
son why, 428; the effect of the engagement, 

Germany, emigrants from, iii. 319, 370; at- 
tacked by Indians, 320; a recruiting 
ground, viii. 148; orders issued to raise 
recruits there, 169; disordered state of 
Germany, 253 ; war made a profitable 
trade, 253; military adventurers, 253; 
George III. has scruples about accepting 
their offers, 254; he contracts for German 
troops, 254; in violation of the laws of that 
empire, 254; his success, 254; Germany 
dishonored by the proceeding (see Bruns- 
wick and Hesse Cassel) ; recruits thence 
obtained for the British army, ix. 313- 
315 ; public opinion strongly against^ it, 
315 ; several German princes protest against 
the practice, 316; discontent of the enlisted 
men, 316; a meeting, 316; zeal of the mar- 
grave of Anspach, 317; whole number of 
recruits obtained, 317; all from Protestant 
states, 317, 318 ; opposition of the Catholic 
princes. 318; Frederic of Prussia ridicules 
the policy of the British government, 473 ; 

and prevents new treaties for troops to he 
furnished by German powers, 474, 475; 
address of Mirabeau to the people and sol- 
diers of Germany, 476; its early history, 
61; origin of the people, and character of 
the language, 61; never wore the Roman 
yoke, 62; early conquests of its people, 62; 
Christianity diffused among its tribes, 63; 
Charles Martel, 63; Charlemagne, 64; un- 
der him a united Germany, 64; crosses the 
Alps, and is made emperor of Rome, 64; 
confusion and misery existing under his 
successors, 66 ; this is removed by Henry 
the Fowler and the Saxon emperors, 66; 
Otho the Great crowned at Rome, 67 ; Italy 
annexed to Germany, brought many ad- 
vantages, but infinite sorrows, 67; long 
and furious contests between pope and em- 
peror, in which the pope gains and main- 
tains the superiority, 68; reasons for this, 
68; Gregory VII. compels the emperor to 
abject submission, 68; alone in Switzer- 
land was liberty preserved, 70 ; the free 
imperial cities, eighty in number, had 
places in the German diet, and upheld the 
spirit of free inquiry, 71 ; energy of the em- 
perors of the Saxon line, succeeded by 
apathy and inaction, 72; the pope claims 
supreme power over all princes, 72; can 
elect, if he please, a German emperor, 72; 
may even substitute a falsehood for a fact 
in history, and has done this, 72; these 
high clafms at length wrought their own 
ruin, 73; the Reformation, 75, et set/. ; cir- 
cumscribed at home, it extends to distant 
lands, 79 ; the Thirty Years' War, a relig- 
ious, not a civil, war, — a war to restore 
the old superstition, 83 ; its baleful effects, 
83; this war drove multitudes of Protes- 
tants to America, 84; the Seven Years' 
War, directed against Protestantism and 
Prussia, worked for freedom, 86; the later 
German philosophy and literature, 86- 

Gerry, Elbridge, of Marblehead, vi. 427, vii. 
388, 389 ; entreats Warren not to expose 
his life, 417; supersedes dishing as dele- 
gate to Congress, viii. 243, 308; in Con- 
gress, votes for limiting Washington's 
powers, ix. 433; his action in Congress, 
x. 173, 217 ; his decisive action in respect 
of the fisheries, 215, 216, 217 ; anticipates 
the capture of Cornwallis, 516. 

Gibbon, Edward, expecting soon that Russian 
troops would be obtained, proposes to 
visit their camp, viii. 157; favors the 
American cause, x. 140. 

Gibraltar, Spain is determined to recover it, 
x. 186, 191 ; attack on it by the French 
and Spanish fleets, 581; gallant and suc- 
cessful defence by the garrison, 581. 

Gibson, Edmund, bishop of London, his 
opinion concerning slavery, iii. 409. 

Gilbert, Raleigh, son of Sir" Humphrey Gil- 
bert, conducts a colony to the Kennebec, 
i. 268. 

Gilbert, Sir Humphrey, proposes a north- 
west passage, i. 81; his character, 88; ob- 



tains a patent, 8S; his first voyage, 89; 
takes formal possession of Newfoundland, 
90; lost on the passage home. 91. 

Gist, Christopher, explores the Ohio Valley, 
iv. 76-82; visits the Wyandots, the Dela- 
wares, and other Indian tribes, 77, et seq. ; 
is charmed with the country, 81; returns, 
82; his second tour, 9-3; his* plantation be- 
yond the mountains, 100; guides Washing- 
ion on his mission, 109, 111; joins him on 
his march, 118. 

Gist, Colonel Nathaniel, in the action at 
Edgehill, ix. 454; his expedition to the 
south-west. 407. 

Gist, General, of Maryland, commands a 
brigade at Camden, x. 321. 

Gladwin, Major, commands at Detroit, v. 
115 ; sutlers Pontiae to escape, 110. 

Glen, governor of South Carolina, iv. 38, 75, 
113, 193. 

Gloucester, Duke of (William Henry, brother 
of George III), his sympathy for America, 
vii. 349 ; visits the strong fortress of Metz 
in France, 350. 

Gloucester, Mass., its patriotic utterance in 
response to the Boston circular, vi. 440, 
484; the men of this place repel the attack 
of Captain Linzee, viii. 05. 

Glover, Jesse, embarks for Massachusetts 
with a printer, i. 415; dies, 415. 

Glover, John, colonel of a regiment of Massa- 
chusetts fishermen, ix. 98; he and his men 
manage the boats in the retreat from 
Brooklyn, 103 ; successfully engages the 
British advance, 177; is with Washington 
at the Battle of Trenton, 230; as brigadier- 
general is sent to re-enforce the Northern 
Army, 374. 

GloverJ William, deputy -governor of North 
Carolina, in. 22. 

Godfrey, Edward, governor of Maine under 
George I., 431. 

Godyn," Samuel, and others, purchase a tract 
of" land near Cape Henlopen, ii. 281 ; and 
at Cape May, 282. 

Goethe, John Wolfgang, in sympathy with 
America, x. 91. 

Gofre, William, a regicide, arrives in Boston, 
ii. 35; fruitless search made for him, 35; 
the saviour of Iladley, 104. 

Gomez, Stephen, examines the coast of New 
England, and discovers Hudson river, i. 

Good, Sarah, accused of witchcraft, iii. 

Goodwin children supposed to be bewitched, 
iii. 75. 

Gordon, William, historian of the American 
Revolution, vi. 428, note ; his errors, how 
accounted for, 429, note ; his character as a 
historian, ix. 123 ; not always to be trusted, 
123 ; Washington's letter to him, 403 ; his 
opinions on slavery, x. 501. 

Gorgeana, in Maine, made a city, i. 429. 

Gorges, Robert, obtains a patent for a portion 
of Massachusetts, i. 326. 

Gorges, Sir Ferdinando, his attention first 
drawn to Maine, i. 115; engages in the 

scheme of colonization, 119, 207, 270; a 
royalist, 207, note, 429 ; befriends the Pil- 
grims, 320; his perseverance, 328, 337 ; ob- 
tains a grant of a large tract of land, 323, 
337; his public spirit, 331; appointed gov- 
ernor-general of New England, 337; makes 
laws for his province, 338; befriends the 
Massachusetts company, 340; complains of 
them, 405; his pecuniary losses, 428; his 
visionary schemes, 429; his death, 430; 
his claim superseded, 430 ; purchased by 
Massachusetts, ii. 113. 

Gorges, Thomas, deputy of Ferdinando, i. 

Gorges, William, governor of Western Maine, 
i. 337. 

Gorton, Samuel, his case, i. 419; intercedes 
for Miantonomoh, 423; in England ob- 
tains an order of Parliament in his favor, 

Gosnold, Bartholomew, discovers and names 
Cape Cod, i. 112; visits Buzzard's Bay, 
112; active for the colonization of Virginia, 
118; dies there. 127. 

Gourgues, Dominic de, avenges on the Span- 
iards in Florida their massacre of the Hu- 
guenots, i. 72. 

Gove, Edward, his severe treatment, ii. 

Government, views of Otis on its theory and 
practice, v. 202-205. 

Governments of every form contain two op- 
posite tendencies, that of centralization and 
that of individuality, viii. 119; opinions of 
John Adams on government, 370, 371. 

Governor, how chosen, ix. 207; property 
qualification, 207; term of service, 208; a 
conditional veto allowed him, 208. 

Governors, royal, of America, their bad char- 
acter, iv. 20. 

Gower, Lord, becomes president of the coun- 
cil under the Bedford ministry, vi. 109; 
opposes the repeal of the revenue acts, 277; 
his speech against America, vii. 202, 

Graifenried, Count de, leader of the German 
colonists in North Carolina, iii. 319; a 
captive among the Indians, 319; released, 

Grafton, Duke of (Augustus Henry Fitzroy), 
v. 257; secretary of state under the Rock- 
ingham administration, 302; praised by 
Cray, 303; wishes to repeal the stamp act, 
305; advises the king to send for Pitt, 390 ; 
the king refuses, 390 ; Grafton has a con- 
versation with Pitt, 397; his wishes are 
thwarted, 398; offers in Parliament a reso- 
lution contrary to his declared opinions, 
402; resigns office, vi. 4; becomes first 
lord of the treasury under Pitt, 20; his two 
interviews with Lord Chatham, 82; is left 
in the position of prime minister, 83; ap- 
proves the oppressive measures inaugurated 
by Charles Townshend, 88 ; consents to the 
displacement of the Earl of Shelburne, 213 ; 
moves in cabinet for the repeal of the rev- 
enue acts, 270; resigns the office of prime 
minister, 320; keeper of the privy seal, a I- 



vises concession and reconciliation, viii. 
'159; his remonstrance unheeded, 100; he 
complains to the king of the rash measures 
taken, 160; he tells the king all his efforts 
will fail, 160; resigns office, 105; once 
more pleads tor conciliation, 301. 

Grand Bank, iisheries there, i. 8"; number 
of vessels employed, 87. 

Grant, , in Parliament, ridicules the 

Americans, and says they will not fight, 
vii. 223. 

Grant, General, commands a portion of the 
British force on Long Island, ix. 87, 88, 
92; commands in New Jersey, 215; his 
atrocious order, 215; his confidence of suc- 
cess, 210; his fancied security, 225; his 
opinion of Washington's army, 225; sent 
to intercept Lafayette, x. 119; fails in the 
attempt, 120. 

Grant, Major .fames, is shamefully beaten by 
the French and Indians, iv. 309; attacks 
the Cherokees, 351; leads another expedi- 
tion against them, 423; saved from ruin by 
the Virginia troops, 420; his arrogant de- 
meanor, 420. 

Grantham, Lord, foreign secretary, x. 553, 
575, 577. 

Granville, Earl of (John Carteret), president 
of the privy council, iv. 210, 245, 247, 255; 
tells Franklin that the king's instructions 
to the governors are the laws of the colo- 

,' nies, 256: often guiltv of inebriation, 273. 

Granville, Earl of Temple, iv. 248, 249: 
brother-in-law of Pitt, 359; stands alone 
with Pitt, 407, 408; sullen, 442. 443. 

Grape Island in Boston Bay, affair at that 
place, vii. 362. 

Grenville, George, his deep hatred of Amer- 
ica, vi. 57. 78, 80; combines with Bedford 
and Rockingham against Lord Chat- 
ham, 59; has in the king a mortal enemy, 
60, 99 ; proposes arbitrary and oppressive 
measures for America, 78, 79 ; wishes the 
colonies reduced to submission by force, 
80; his violent language, 80; Choiseul es- 
teemed him by far the ablest financier in 
England, 99; Bedford forsakes him, 108; 
his mortification and despair, 109; advises 
to chastise America, 130; and to prohibit 
to them the fisheries, 130; advocates a re- 
form in Parliament, 216; condemns the 
conduct of the ministry in requiring Massa- 
chusetts to rescind her resolves, 232; op- 
poses Lord North, 253, 274 ; his reply to the 
"Farmer's Letters," 258; retorts on Lord 
North, 274; assumes the responsibility of 
the stamp act, but throws on the king the 
responsibility of the taxation of America, 
253 ; the king's aversion to him, 355 ; he in- 
clines to liberal sentiments, 359, 360; his 
death in 1770, 389 ; his friends join the 
ministry of Lord North, 389. 

Grattan, Henry, his high character, x. 454; 
his influence in favor of free-trade, 454. 

Graves, Admiral Samuel, arrives in Boston, 
vii. 70; his mean character, x. 514; his 
mismanagement, 515 ; his squadron worsted 
in an encounter with the French, 515. 

Graves, Thomas, erects a "great house" in 
Charlestown, i. 347. 

Gravier, Jesuit missionary, in Illinois, iii. 
195; reduces the language to order, 196; 
his death, 197. 

Gray, John, of Boston, affray at his ropewalk, 
vi. 334. 

Gray, Samuel, of Boston, a victim at the 
Boston massacre, vi. 339, 340. 

" Gray's Elegy," part of it repeated by Wolfe 
the'night before his death, iv. 333. 

Grayson, Colonel, of Virginia, statements 
respecting him, ix. 105, 106, 107; aide-de- 
camp of Washington, 196. 

Great Bridge, near Norfolk, Virginia, occu- 
pied by British troops, viii. 222; they are 
compelled to retreat with heavy loss, 

Great Britain should have offered inde- 
pendence to her colonies, vii. 23; ex- 
treme haughtiness of her people, 25; pro- 
ceedings of the Fourteenth Parliament, 
178, et seq. (see England and Parliament) ; 
second address of Congress to the people of, 
viii. 38; Thomas Paine's reasons for a 
separation from, 238, et set]. ; the separa- 
tion resolved on, 459 (see England). 

"Great Swamp Fight" in 1075, ii. 105. 

Greaton, Colonel, his visit to Long Island, 
in Boston harbor, viii. 47. 

Green, Roger, leads a company of Non-con- 
formists from Virginia into North Carolina, 
ii. 134. 

Green, Timothy, publisher of the " New 
London Gazette," an ardent patriot, v. 

Greene, Christopher, lieutenant-colonel under 
Arnold in the expedition against Quebec, 
viii. 191, 192; his heroic efforts to carry 
that place, 209; is taken prisoner, 210; his 
gallant defence of Fort Mercer on Red 
Bank, ix. 429. 

Greene, General Nathaniel, of Warwick, in 
Rhode Island, vii. 325 ; commands the forces 
of that colony near Boston, 325 ; his parent- 
age, early history, and character, 325, 326; 
elected brigadier-general, viii. 31; his high 
character, 31; commands at Brooklyn, ix. 
82; his command assigned to Sullivan, 83; 
advises to burn the city of New York. 110; 
in the action near Manhattanville, 127; at 
Fort Lee, 167; his rash confidence, 174; 
elated by success, 180 ; complains of Wash- 
ington, 180 ; re-enforces Fort Washington, 
184; proceeds in direct opposition to Wash- 
ington's intentions, 188; his want of vigi- 
lance, 189, 195; his disingenuousness, 193; 
is responsible for the loss of Fort Washing- 
ton, 193; his neglect of orders, 194, 195; 
resulting in a hasty evacuation of Fort 
Lee, and great loss of cannon and stores, 
195; expresses full confidence in the suc- 
cess of the American cause and in the 
ability of Washington, 222, 223; greatly 
assists Washington, 224; in the crossing of 
the Delaware and at Trenton, 230; is sent 
to Philadelphia, 339; attacks a body of the 
enemy on the Haritan, 354, 355 ; leads the 



advance at Brandywine, 390, 398; com- 
mands the left wing at the battle of Ger- 
mantown, 421; is behind lime, 425; his 
bad disposition of his troops, 420; ioss of 
the battle in consequence, 427; incurs the 
frown of Washington, 428; elected quar- 
termaster-general, 409; repels the British 
at Monmouth, x. 132; defeats a British 
force at Quaker Hill, 149; in 1779 requests 
the Southern command, 289; repels an in- 
vasion of New Jersey, 375; his administra- 
tion of the quartermaster-general's depart- 
ment, 400; his integrity, 407; appointed 
to command the Southern Army, 407; 
takes command, but subject to the control 
of Washington, 450; Washington's opinion 
of him, 457; his humanity, 457,458; bis 
enforcement of discipline, 459 ; his difficul- 
ties, 400; his retreat through North Caro- 
lina before Cornwallis, 472; Washington 
applauds it, 473; his sufferings and those 
of his soldiers, 473; turns on his pursuers, 
474; battle of Guiltbrd Court-House, 475, 
errs in the arrangement of his forces, 470 ; 
the repulse of the North Carolina militia, 
470; brave stand made by the Virginia 
brigade, 477, 478; British troops driven 
back, 478; Greene faints from extreme ex- 
haustion, 479; great loss of the British, 
479 ; the field left to the British, 479 ; but 
the British Army ruined, 481; Greene pur- 
sues Cornwallisj 481 ; the virtual defeat of 
Cornwallis confessed in Parliament, 481; 
Greene's operations in South Carolina, 485; 
encamps near Camden, 480 ; battle of Hob- 
kirk's Hill with Kawden, 487; force on 
each side, 487; Greene's able dispositions, 
487; alter nearly routing the enemy, he is 
forced to retreat^ 488 ; is compelled to raise 
the siege of Ninety-Six, 490; at Eutaw 
Springs, is at first victori ius, 494; in a 
second engagement is defeated, 494; his 
remarkable career at the South : sometimes 
defeited, but always gained the object for 
which he fought, 495; complains of the 
condition of the army, 505. 

Green Bav, mission at, iii. 153; visited by 
La Salfe, 104, 107. 

Green Mountain Boys of Vermont, promise 
support to the cause of liberty, vii. 271 a ; 
renounce the government of New York, and 
virtually their allegiance to the king, 280; 
agree to seize Ticonderoga, 280; the deed 
is accomplished, 340. 

Green Springs, action at, x. 508. 

Greenwood, John, hanged in England for not 
promising to goto church, i. 291. 

Gregory VII., Pope, compels the emperor to 
submit, x. 08. 

Grenada, impost levied on, v. 211; taken by 
the French, x. 295. 

Grenville, George, iv. 160, 163; retires from 
office, under Newcastle, 220; takes office 
under Pitt, 248; again, 274, remains in 
office after Pitt's retirement. 412; is sec- 
retarv of state for foreign affairs, 438; is 
first "lord of the admiralty, 446; in the 
cabinet of George III. v. 80: not the prime 

originator of the stamp act, 89, note; his 
zeal for taxing America, 91; urges the 
rigid enforcement of the navigation laws, 
92; his measures adopted, 92; his defence 
of the excise on cider, 93 ; succeeds Bute 
as chancellor of the exchequer, 95; his 
character as a public man, 98; his love of 
money and of office, 98,99; his personal 
deportment, 99; Walpcle's dislike of him, 
99, note ; his private character, 100 ; his 
self-conceit, pride, and obstinacy, 100, 
102, 105; has a rival in Charles Townshend, 
103; his good intentions, 106, 107; strongly 
favors the protective system, 106; his colo- 
nial policy, 107 ; hates the Duke of Bedford, 
142; complains to the king of his private 
griefs, 145; "Mr. Greenville," 145; union 
with the Duke of Bedford, 147 ; the respon- 
sible author of the stamp act, 152, 156; de- 
termines to enforce the navigation acts, 
158, 159; his theory of the connection be- 
tween the colonies and the parent state, 
160; triumphs in Parliament over his op- 
ponents, 169; has the entire confidence of 
the House of Commons, 169; refuses his 
support to an American civil list, 176; 
takes no part in the schemes to subvert the 
colonial charters, 177; his course with re- 
gard to the affair of Wilkes, 178, 179; re- 
luctant to propose a stamp tax, 179 ; though 
he doubted not the power of Parliament, 
180; finds many objections in the way, 
181, 182; postpones the tax one year, 183; 
offers bounties for colonial hemp, butdis-' 
allows the manufacture of linen. 184; favors 
the trade in rice, 184 ; encourages the New 
England whale fishery, 184, 185 ; the most 
liberal act of his administration, 185 ; Gren- 
ville as chancellor of the exchequer, 180; 
opens the annual budget with American 
taxes, 186, 187; no person in Parliament 
controverts the right to tax America, 187, 
191; the system of colonial taxation openly 
inaugurated, 188; his interview with col- 
on}' agents, 189; his "tenderness" to- 
wards the colonists, 189; allows the colo- 
nies no power to tax themselves, 190; 
his artful attempts to mislead, 190; his 
vanity gratified, 191 ; brings forward the 
stamp act on the general ground of the 
authority of Parliament, 229 ; Parlia- 
ment echo his words, 229; offers boun- 
ties as offsets to taxation, 230; his inter- 
view with Franklin and other agents 
of the colonies, 230; moves in Parliament 
for a stamp tax, 230; formally introduces a 
stamp bill, 243 ; which passes, 247 ; prom- 
ises relief if the measure prove severe, 250 ; 
his unp'easant interview with the king, 
254; the king compelled to submit, and to 
continue him in office, 265: the king re- 
solves to be rid of him, 296 ; end of the 
Grenville ministry, 300; the king never 
liked him, 98, note ; Grenville thinks he 
could have carried the stamp act through, 
363; is in favor of crushing America, 372; 
blames the lenity of the Kockingham ad- 
ministration, 373"; is blamed as the author 



of all the trouble, 373; replies to Pitt, and 
justifies himself, 388-390; Pitt's crushing 
reply to him, 391-395; he moves to enforce 
the stamp act, 423; the motion rejected by 
a majority of two to one, 424. solicits aid 
from' Bute, 427, 428; opposes the repeal of 
the stamp act, 43.3; hissed by the people, 
436 ; his Whig principles, viii. 124 ; his 
colonial policy, 124. 

Grenville, George, the younger, his eulogy of 
Lord Chatham, ix. 483. 

Grenville, Sir Richard, commands Raleigh's 
fleet, i. 95; takes a Spanish prize. 97; con- 
veys more settlers to North Carolina, 103. 

Grenville, Thomas, is sent to P;iris by Fox to 
act in his behalf, x. 542; his mean charac- 
ter, .042 ; singularity of the case, 542 ; his 
interview with Vergennes, 542; with 
Franklin, 543; weakness of his character, 
543, 540; his thoughtless behavior, 547. _ 

Grey, Major-General, defeats Wayne, ix. 
402; action between his troops and Mor- 
gan's riflemen, 454; burns the shipping at 
New Bedford, x. 149 ; his merciless career 
in New Jersey, 152. 

Gridley, Jeremiah, attorney-general of Mas- 
chusetts, argues in favor of writs of assist- 
ance, iv. 414, 415. 

Gridley, Richard, an officer in the expedition 
against Louisburg, iii. 462; as engineer 
draws the lines for the redoubt on Breed's 
Hill, vii. 409; leaves the scene of action, 

" Griffin," the first vessel built on the upper 
lakes, iii. 104; lost, 165. 

Griffin, General, at Mount Hollv, ix. 224; re- 
pulsed bv Donop, 223, 228. 

Griffin's Wharf (Liverpool Wharf since 1815), 
where the tea was destroyed in December, 
1773, vi. 480, 480. 

Grigsby, Hugh Blair, important statement 
by him, x. 423, note. 

Grijalva explores the coast of Mexico, i. 

Grimaldi, minister of foreign affairs for Spain, 
promises to share the expense of aiding 
America, viii. 342,343. 

Griswold, Fort, its garrison massacred by 
Arnold, x. 500. 

Grotius, Hugo, vindicates the freedom of the 
sea, i. 214, ii. 325; opposes, the coloniza- 
tion of America, ii. 234; his imprisonment, 

Guadaloupe, taken bv the English, iv. 310, 
317; shall it be retained? 363, 365. 

Guilford Court-House, battle of, x. 475. 

Gunbv, Colonel, commands a regiment of 
Marylanders at Guilford, x. 478; and at 
Hobkirk's Hill, 486; his unwise conduct, 

Gunning. British ambassador to Russia, viii. 
107; asks for Russian troops, 107; cour- 
teous reply of the empress, 107 ; deceives 
himself and misleads his government, 107; 
is directed to ask for twenty thousand men, 
149; coolness of the empress, 150; she 
gives good advice, and recommends lenity 
and concession, 150 ; he is thus put on the 

defensive, 150 ; makes a direct request for 
the troops, 151 ; the request refused, 102; 
will be content with fifteen thousand, 152, 
and even with ten thousand, 155 ; both re- 
quests are declined. 153, 155 ; a question of 
veracity between the king and the empress, 
151; she refuses to see Gunning, 153; the 
matter of sending troops discussed in coun- 
cil, 153 ; the dignity and policy of Catha- 
rine combine against granting the troops, 
153; her sarcastic reply to the king, 154; 
Gunning takes leave of the empress, 156. 

Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, favors 
colonization in America, ii. 284, 285 ; slain 
at Lutzen, x. 82. 

Gyles, Thomas, killed by the Indians at 
Pemaquid, iii. 181. 


Habersham, James, of Georgia, his patriotic 

words, v. 290. 
Habersham, Joseph, and others, obtain pos- 
session of the royal magazine in Savannah, 
vii. 337 ; makes Sir Joseph Wright prisoner, 
viii. 246. 
Haddrell's Point, near Charleston, occupied 
as a military post, viii. 90, 396, 398 ; Arm- 
strong commands the defences there, "99, 
403 ; an attack on it intended, 406. 
Hadley, Mass., in the Indian war, saved by 
the sudden appearance of Gone, the regi- 
cide, ii. 104. 
Hadley,- Samuel, slain at Lexington, vii. 

Hakluyt, Richard, one of the assigns of 
Raleigh, i. 107 ; favors commercial voyages 
to New England, 113 ; promotes the colo- 
nization of Virginia, 119. 
Haldimand, Colonel, at Oswego, iv. 321. 
Hale, Captain Nathan, his excellent charac- 
ter, ix. 130 ; his cruel treatment, 130 ; 
hung as a spy without trial, 130. 
Half-king of the Mingoes or mixed tribe of 
Indians in the Ohio Valley, why so called,' 
iv 82; at variance with the French, 94; 
opposes their occupation of the Ohio Valley, 
107; attends Washington in his journey to 
Fort Le Boeuf, 110; solicits help from 
Washington, 117. 
Halifax, Karl of, becomes head of the Board of 
Trade and Plantations, iv. 36 ; his character, 
36, 37 ; finds France encroaching in Amer- 
ica, and the colonies tending towards inde- 
pendence, 37, 38; is resolute against the 
spirit of freedom, 41 ; seeks to confine French 
encroachments by a colony on the Ohio, 42; 
the French anticipate the movement, 42, 
43; Halifax zealous for restraining the col- 
onies, 57; his pride and ambition, 70; dis- 
agrees with Bedford, 70; plan of union of 
the colonies proposed by him, 165, 106; 
takes charge of American affairs, 92; in- 
quires "who is Mr. Washington?" 190; 
wishes a tax on the colonies, 223; takes 
office under Pitt, 274 ; continues to cherish 



designs against the liberties of America, 
299; his licentiousness, 380; is '■ earnest 
for bishops," 380; is settled in the decision 
to ta^i the colonies, 381; sent as lord lieu- 
tenant to Ireland, 392; becomes first lord 
of the admiralty, 438 ; secretary of state, 
446; in the council, v. 80; secretary of 
state, 90; one of the triumvirate ministry, 
96; his unpleasant interview with the 
king, 140 ; secretary of state for the colo- 
nies, 148; defeated in some of his plans, 177, 
178 ; his conduct in regard to the regency 
bill, 254, 255; is strongly on the side of 
Bedford, 203. 

Halifax, town of, in Nova Scotia, founded, 
iv. 45, 46. 

Halket, Sir Peter, a brigadier in Braddock's 
expedition, iv. 185; killed, 190; his re- 
mains interred three years afterwards, 312. 

Hall, Lyman, chosen delegate to the conti- 
nental Congress from Georgia, vii. 207; is 
admitted to their body, 357, 358. 

Hallowell, Benjamin, comptroller of the cus- 
toms at Boston, vi. 156 ; sent to London as 
the emissary of Bernard and Hutchinson, 
161; his representations there, 174. 

Hamblin, John, has been confounded with 
John Hampden, i. 412, note. 

Hamburg, senate of, promote the embarka- 
tion of continental troops, viii. 101. 

Hamilton, Alexander, of New York, his early 
historv and first appearance in public, vii. 
79, 80; he writes in delence of liberty, 
212-210; his artillery company, viii. 440; 
serves a battery on the Raritan, ix. 201 ; 
at the battle of* Trenton, 230; made secre- 
tary to Washington, 335; is sent to Phila- 
delphia, 401; is sent to Gates to demand 
re-enf>reements, 432; his character, x. 
409; his leaning to authority, 409; admires 
the English constitution, 409 ; did not fully 
appreciate the character of Washington, 
410; earnestly desires a vigorous confeder- 
ation and a strong government, 411, 412; 
defects of his plan, 412; is full of hope for 
his country, 413; advises to raise colored 
troops, 291; leads a storming party at 
Yorktown, 519; his gallant behavior at 
that time, 520; testifies to Lee's inactivity 
at Monmouth, 131, note ; leaves the army, 
and studies law, 569; favors a stronger 
government, 570; elected to Congress, 570; 
comparison of him with Madison, 570. 

Hami ton, Andrew, of Philadelphia, his tri- 
umphant defence of popular liberty, iii. 
393, 394; governor of West New Jersey, 
iii 47. 

Hamilton, Lieutenant-Governor of Detroit, 
excites the Indians against the Americans, 
vii. 279; promises the assis'ance of the 
Indians acainst the Americans, ix. 151; 
sends out parties of Indians against the 
American frontiers, 377, x. 197; gives re- 
wards for scalps^ 198; excites the Indians 
against the settlers, 198, 199; is taken 
prisoner with his garrison, 301. 
Hamilton, William, of Philadelphia, viii. 

VOL. X. 

Hamilton, William Gerard, one of the Board 
of Trade, iv. 297, 375 

Hampden, John, did not embark for Amer- 
ica, i. 411, 412; the maxim of his life, 412, 

Hampshire county courts are broken up, vii. 
103; volunteers from this county march 
towards Boston, 120. 

Hampton, in Virginia, blockaded by Dun- 
more, viii. 221; he intends to destroy the 
town, but is successful iy resisted, 221. 

Hampton Court, conference at i. 295. 

Hanau, zeal of the hereditary prince to ob- 
tain recruits for the king of England, viii. 
2G6 ; his meanness, 266 ; his imperfect Eng- 
lish, 266, 207. 

Hanbury, John, and his associates obtain a 
large grant of land in the Ohio Valley, iv. 

Hancock, John, sends a valuable ship to sea 
without stamped papers, v. 374; chosen 
representative from Boston, vi. 7, 284 ; 
seizure of his sloop " Liberty," 155; fclected 
to a convention of the people, 193 ; arrested 
by the crown officers, 213; Hancock in 
Faneuil Hall, 309; one of a committee to 
demand the removal of the troops, 343; his 
zeal for liberty abates, 403; the king hopes 
to win him to his side, 407 ; disapproves of 
committees of correspondence, 425; refuses 
to serve on the committee, 429; denounces 
Hutchinson and Oliver, 401; his share in 
the affair of the Boston tea-party, 473, et 
seq. ; moderator of town meeting called in 
reference to the expected arrival of tea, 
474; is willing to spend fortune and life in 
the cause of liberty, 479; his brave speech 
on the fifth of March, 508; commands the 
Boston cadets, vii. 37; Gage is required to 
seize him, but dares not attempt it, 37; 
Gage revokes his commission, 101; is 
elected president of the provincial Congie'-.s, 
153; one of the committee of safety, 153; 
Gage hopes to seize him at Lexington, 288, 
he retires to Woburn, 292; is chosen presi- 
dent of the second continental Congress, 
378; proscribed by Gage, 391; president 
of the continental Congress, viii. 392; a 
vain, negligent man, x. 501; vetoes an 
important act of the legislature, 571. 

Hand, colonel of riflemen, retires before Corn- 
wallis, ix. 84; retreats from Long Island, 
103: guards the causeway at Frog's Neck, 
175; his successful attack, 178; is with 
Washington in the battle of Trenton, 230, 
234; and at the battle of Princeton, 249. 
Hand, Edward, lieutenant-colonel of a Penn- 
sylvania regiment, viii. 64. 
Hanoverian troops taken into British pay, 
viii. 101; they are sent to Gibraltar and 
Port Muhon, 160. 
Hansford. Thomas, the first American mar- 
tyr for liberty, ii 231. 
Harcourt, Lieutenant-Colonel, takes General 

Lee prisoner, ix. 210. 
Ilanhvicke, Earl of, invited to enter the cab- 
inet of George III, v. 139; his refusal, 




Hardwieke, Earl of (Philip Torke), lord 
chancellor, admits tlic power of Parlia- 
ment to tax the colonies, iv. 33, 34; places 
the military in the colonies above the civil 
power, 221); joins with Newcastle and 
others against Pitt, 408. 

Hardy, Sir Charles, governor of New York, 
iv. 222; governor of New Jersey, 440; in 
command of a powerful British fleet, fails to 
engage the enemy, x 249. 

Haring, of the New York provincial assemblv, 
viii. 439. 

Hariot, the historian of Raleigh's expedition 
to North Caroliua, i. 96; describes the 
natives, 98. 

Harnett, Cornelius, of North Carolina, he 
and others burn Fort Johnston, viii. 95; 
president of the provincial Congress, 98; 
is excepted by Sir Henry Clinton from par- 
don, 358. 

Harrington, Caleb, slain at Lexington, vii. 

Harrington, Jonathan, slain at Lexington, 
vii. 294. 

Harris, James, earl of Malmesbury, British 
envoy at St. Petersburgh, x. 242, 257, 
2G6. 208; his interview with Prince Po- 
temkin, 208, 274; and with the empress 
Catharine 1 , 269; his vain endeavor to de- 
tach her from the northern alliance, 273, 
274; is outwitted by Russian diplomacy, 

Harrison. Benjamin, a member of the first 
continental Congress, vii. 130; his impru- 
dent speech, 130 : he opposes the measures 
of resistance advocated by Washington and 
Patrick Henry, 273; his resolute spirit, 
vLi. 38; one of a committee of Congress to 
visit the camp at Cambridge, 111; mem- 
ber of a committee of correspondence, 142; 
member of a committee sent to New York, 
279; his speech on opening the ports, 314; 
for independence, 320; one of the commit- 
tee for treaties with foreign powers, 
393 ; ix. 52 ; objects to encroachment on 
Virginia, 56. 

Harrison, Joseph, collector of the port of 
Boston, vi. 156 ; reports a general spirit of 
insurrection, 160. 

Harrison, lieutenant-colonel in the American 
army. ix. 329. 

Harrod, James, a pioneer settler of Kentucky, 
vii. 306, 367; his character, 367. 

Harrod, William, a captain of backwoods- 
men, x. 195. 

Hartford settled, ii. 283; sends relief to the 
suffering people of Boston in 1774, vii. 73; 
treats witli great respect the delegates from 
Massachusetts. 106. 

Hartley, David, in Parliament opposes the 
employment of German mercenaries, viii. 
269; member of Parliament, sends infor- 
mation to Franklin, ix. 485; Franklin's 
reply, 485; his attempt with Franklin in 
behalf of Lord North, 497; Franklin's re- 
ply, 497. 

Hartshorne, Thomas, slain at Haverhill, iii. 

Harvard College founded, i. 415, 459; liber- 
ality of the people towards it, 459. 

Harvey, Sir John, governor of Virginia, i. 
197; unfriendly to the privileges of the 
colonists, 198; deposed and impeached, 
201; resumes his government, 201; super- 
seded, 202 ; his administration unfairly de- 
scribed, 201-203. 

Haslet, Colonel, of Delaware, his successful 
attack, ix. 178; at White Plains, 181; 
slain in the battle of Princeton, 248. 

Havana captured, iv. 444-446; exchanged 
for the Floridas, 451. 

Haverhill, Mass., destroyed by Indians, iii. 
215; savage scenes enacted there, 215, 

Haviland, Colonel, leads a party from Crown 
Point to Montreal, iv. 360. 

Hawcs, Colonel, commands a regiment at 
Hobkirk's Hill, x. 486, 487. 

Hawkins, Sir John, arrives in Florida, i. 65; 
his kindness to the French colonists there, 
66; first English slave-trader, 172. 

Hawley, Joseph, of Northampton, Mass., his 
pure life, vi. 38; representative of the town, 
38; denies the right of Parliament to legis- 
late for America, 38, 39; his great infhi- 
ence, 39; bis bill to compensate sufferers 
from the stamp act, 40; his report to the 
assembly, 420; assists Samuel Adams with 
his sound legal knowledge, 448.467; his 
brave spirit, 507; the great patriot, his en- 
ergetic words to the delegates of Massa- 
chusetts, vii 102; with New England only 
he would resist the whole force of Great 
Britain, 125; advises independence, and a 
national parliament of two houses, viii. 

Hawley, William, governor of Carolina, ii. 

Hawthorne, Major William, of Salem, makes 
a patriotic speech, ii. 82; counsels resist- 
ance to prerogative, 88. 

Hayes, Colonel, hanged in violation of a 
parole, x. 458. 

Hayne, Colonel Isaac, hanged by order of 
Lord Rawden, x. 492 ; the execution illegal, 

Haynes, John, arrives in Boston, i. 364; goes 
to Connecticut, 397. 

Haynes, Josiah, of Sudbury, eighty years 
of age, in the field at Concord, vii. 304; he 
is slain, 306. 

Hayward, James, of Acton, slain while pur- 
suing the British from Concord, vii. 306. 

Havward, John, the historian of Tennessee, 
vi. 381, note, 401. 

Heard, Colonel Nathaniel, of New Jersey, 
disarms the Tories on Long Island, viii. 

Heath, Sir Robert, has a patent of Carolina, 
ii. 130 

Heath, William, of Roxbury, Mass., member 
with Adams and dishing of a select com- 
mittee, vi. 469; elected brigadier-general, 
viii. 31; ordered to New York, 303; com- 
mands at Kingsbridge, near New York, 
ix. 101; his dishonesty, 118; marches to 



White Plains, 178; with Washington at 
the Highlands, 187; is placed in command 
there, 187; disregards the assumed author- 
ity of Lee, 214, 206 ; his bombast at Kings- 
bridge, 252; his disrespect to Washington, 

Heister, lieutenant-general of Hessian troops, 
viii. 2J5; his character, 2G5; re-enforces 
the army of Howe on Long Island, ix. 85; 
encamped at New Iiochelle, 178; marches 
on White Plains, 180; he is at Middlebush, 
N. J., 352; retreats to Amboy, 354; is re- 
called for his humanity to his troops, 314; 
dies of wounded feeling, 314. 

Hemp and flax, colonial, Grenville grants a 
bounty on, v. 183, 184. 

Hendrick, chief of the Mohawks, iv. 89, 122; 
slain at Lake George, 210. 

Hendricks, captain in a Pennsylvania regi- 
ment, viii. 04; his noble aspect, 04; joins 
the expedition against Quebec, 191; slain 
in the assault on that place, 210. 

Henley, Robert (Lord Northington), becomes 
lord chancellor, iv. 274. 

Henley, Thomas, of Charlestown, in Massa- 
chusetts, slain, ix. 131. 

Hennepin, Louis, joins La Salle, iii. 103; 
traverses the Illinois region, 105; ascends 
the Mississippi to the Falls of St. Anthony, 
1GG ; his captivity among the Sioux, 107 ; 
enters the English service, 202; his false 
statements, 202, 203. 

Henry VIII., a pope in his own dominions, 
i. 275; enforced the doctrines of the Rom- 
ish church, 270; his inexorable severity, 

Henry, Alexander, his " Travels in Canada," 
quoted, v. 121, note. 

Henry the Fowler, his successful reign, x. 

Henry, Patrick, his early history, v. 172; his 
first case in court, 173; his plea against 
"the parsons," 174; gains the case, 175; 
as a member of the colonial assembly, he 
reports a series of patriotic resolutions, 275; 
his daring speech, 277 ; his earnest disap- 
proval of slavery, vi. 416, 417; advocates 
the plan of inter-colonial committees, 455; 
an austere patriot, vii. 52; compared to 
Demosthenes, 85; a member of the First 
Continental Congress, 127; his speech on 
the manner of voting, 129; thinks a new 
government should be instituted, 131; pre- 
dicts war, 152; his opinion of Washington, 
153 ; he moves that the colon}' of Virginia 
be put in a posture of defence, 273 ; sup- 
ports his motion by an energetic speech, 
273, 274; a member of the second conti- 
nental Congress, 353; made provincial 
commander-in-chief in Virginia, viii. SO; 
in theVirginia convention, 378, 430 ; elected 
governor, 437; is consulted respecting 
the occupation of the north-west, x. 194. 

Henshaw, Colonel, of Massachusetts, at the 
battle of Long Island, ix. 80, 89. 

Herder, John Godfrey, sees the rising glories 
of America, x. 89. 

Herkimer, General, rouses the militia of 

Tryon County to the relief of Fort Stanwix, 
ix. 378; falls into an ambuscade, 378; is 
mortally wounded, 379; the " hero of the 
Mohawk Valley," 381; first turned the 
tide of success in the northern department, 

Hertel de Rouville, leads an attack on Sal- 
mon Falls, iii. 182; and on Casco, 183; 
and on Deertield, 212; and on Haverhill, 
214; his savage cruelty, 215. 

Hesse Cassel, the prince of, offers a regiment 
to George III., viii. 147; his meanness, 
148; the Hessians a nation of soldiers, 200; 
the landgrave, Frederick II., 200; his 
coarseness and voluptuousness, 200, 201 ; 
life at Cassel, 201; the prince sells his sub- 
jects to George, 201 ; drives a hard bargain, 
201, 202; a double subsidy, 202; an onerous 
affair to England, 202; the landgrave's 
meanness, 203; he gains on the killed and 
wounded, on the sick, and on the clothing, 
203; and in other ways, 204; number of 
troops furnished and their character, 264, 
205; the men reluctant to go, 204, 205; 
character of the officers, 205; the troops 
are got read}', 205; delay of England in 
providing transports, 205; transports badly 
fitted up, 200; frauds of contractors, 206; 
the treaty under debate in Parliament, 208, 
209 ; number of Hessians sent to America, 
270; almost every family in mourning, 
270; Frederic II. of Prussia is indignant, 
270; furnishes recruits for the British 
army, ix. 313, 314; men impressed for the 
service, 474. 

Hessian barbarity, x. 227. 

Hessian troops land on Long Island, ix. 
83, 85; attack the Americans, 91; their 
great success, 92; their cruelty, 92; their 
trifling loss, 95; they take possession of 
New York city, 120; at the battle of 
White Plains, 178—181 ; in the attack and 
capture of Fort Washington, 185, 190- 
193 ; and of Fort Lee, 195 ; at Rhode Island, 
200; in New Jersey, 215; their rapacity, 
210 ; their defeat and surrender at Trenton, 
232-235; the Hessian troops greatly wasted 
by the campaign, 314; forbidden to pa9S 
through the Prussian dominions, x. 114; 
two regiments taken prisoners at York- 
town, 523. 

Heth, William, lieutenant in Morgan's rifle 
company, viii. 03; joins the expedition 
against Quebec, 191 ; and in the assault on 
that place, 209 ; a prisoner there, 210. 

Hewes, Joseph, of North Carolina, viii. 

Higginson, Francis, one of the earliest minis- 
ters of Salem, i. 345; his affecting farewell 
at losing sight of England, 340; his death, 

Higginson, John, minister of Salem, his ar- 
gument from Genesis, ii. 428. 

Highland settlement at Darien, Georgia, iii. 
427, 431; bravery of the settlers, 445. 

Highlanders in America, iv. 250; their 
bravery at Louisburg, 295; and at Ticon- 
deroga, 303 ; in the expedition against 



Fort Duquesne, 308. 309 ; in the Cherokee 
country, 351; in North Carolina, viii 92; 
their large number, 93; are invited to rise 
against the colonists, 94; the measure de- 
feated, 90; Highlanders of the Valley 
of the Mohawk, 272; they rally to the 
king's standard, 272; they are over- 
powered, 273; Highlanders in North Caro- 
lina rise in arms, 284; their military 
operations, 285-288; are defeated with loss 
by Caswell, 288, 289; are disarmed and 
crushed, 290. 
Hill, John, brigadier-general, has command 
of a land force lor the reduction of Canada, 
iii. 221. 
Hillsborough, Earl of (Willis Hill), comes 
into office, iv. 220; first lord of the Board 
of Trade, v. 148; disapproves of taxation 
of the colonies by Parliament, 181; an 
Irish, after 1772 a British, peer, opposes the 
colonization of the Mississippi Valley, and 
■why, vi. 33; department of the colonies 
assigned to him, 109; his colonial policy, 
110; his interview with \V. S. -Johnson, 
agent for Connecticut, and the able defence 
bv. Johnson of the rights of that colony, 
lil-115; Hillsborough's purpose to abro- 
gate colonial charters, 110; his duplicity 
towards Massachusetts, 11G; his circular 
letter to American governors, 143; he re- 
quires Massachusetts to rescind its resolu- 
tions against taxation, 144; is totally mis- 
led by Bernard and Hutchinson, 152 ; orders 
troops and ships of war to Boston, 153; 
takes his opinions from Bernard, 171 ; his 
duplicity, 172; his arbitrary conduct, 216; 
wishes to prevent the colonization of the 
West, 222, 225; defeated in his plans 
against American liberty, 235, 236; his in- 
terview with the agents of the colonies, 
238; confesses the revenue acts to be un- 
wise and wrong, yet determines not to 
have them repealed, 238, 239, 245; intends 
to deprive Massachusetts of chartered 
rights, 249 ; his blind adherence to the coun- 
sel of Bernard, 318 ; is denounced in the 
House of Commons, 362; perseveres in the 
fixed purpose to subvert the charter of 
Massachusetts, 371; forbids the legislature 
of that province to tax the commissioners 
of customs, 404, 409; infringes the liberties 
of Georgia, 410; is compelled to resign 
office, 421; moves an address in the House 
of Lords denunciatory of Massachusetts, 
vii. 178; insists on the submission of the 
Americans, viii. 301; attacks the Duke of 
Richmond in Parliament, ix. 482. 

Hinckley, Thomas, governor of Plymouth, 
ii. 447. 

Hingham, Mass, disturbance at, i. 435; the 
disturbers punished, 436. 

Historian should be unbiassed, viii. 118. 

Historic candor and love of truth, viii. 116 ; 
it is possible, and why, 118. 

History, its criterion, iii. 397; need of dili- 
gent research, 397; need of impartiality, 
398; mav be established as a science, and 
how, 398; a record of truth, and of Divine 

Providence, 398; emancipated from the 
dictates of authority, iv. 4; records the 
progress of the human race, 8,9; therefore 
the most cheering of all pursuits, 10; must 
not conceal faults, or neglect the influence 
of principles, viii. 116, 117. 

Hitchcock, General, brings aid to Washing- 
ton at Princeton, ix. 239, 249. 

Hobart, John Sloss, in the New York Con- 
vention, ix. 33. 

Hobkirk's Hill, battle of, x. 487. 

Hog Island, in Boston harbor, skirmish 
there, vii. 363. 

Holderness, Earl of, succeeds Bedford as 
Secretary of State for the colonies, iv. 87 ; 
transferred to the Northern Department, 
160; his imbecility, 93, 164; retires from 
office, 391. 

Holland and the United Provinces, engross 
the carrying trade of the world, i. 215 
(see New Netherlands); severe struggle 
against England and France, ii. 3i3; 
heroic conduct of the Dutch, 323; com- 
mercial system of, iii. 115- 

Holland, her sovereignty invaded by England, 
iv. 234; in 1763, no longer a great mari- 
time power, v. 13; political relations, 13; 
liberty enjoyed, 13; champion of the free- 
dom of the seas, 13 ; menaced by England, 
vii. 246; application is made to, for the 
Scottish brigade, viii. 148, 250; origin of 
the brigade, 251; arguments for granting 
the request, 251; arguments against it, 

251, 252; the connection with England an 
injury to Holland, 251; the free republic 
of Holland should not war on Irec America, 
252 ; unwillingness to offend England, 252 ; 
the request refused, form of the refusal, 

252, 253; menaced with war by England, 
ix. 292; spirited conduct of the States 
General, 293; its long-continued sufferings 
for liberty, x. 58; ungenerous treatment 
from England, 59; maintains the freedom 
of the seas, 59; has strong sympathies for 
America, 60; disregards an American 
overture, 261. (See Dutch and Nether- 
lands. ) 

Holland, Lord (see Fox, Henry). 

Holhs, Thomas, foresees the approaching in- 
dependence of America, iy. 450; waits 
on Rockingham with threatening accounts 
received from America, v. 341. 342; ex- 
pects American independence, vi. 166; his 
letter to Eliot quoted, 230. 

Holmes, Admiral, commands part of the fleet 
in the attack on Quebec, iv. 331. 

Holmes, Obadiah, severely whipped, i. 450. 

Holstein or Holsten river in Tennessee, peti- 
tion of the inhabitants to the Virginia 
Convention, viii. 376. 

Holt, John, his printing office in Norfolk 
plundered by Dunmore, viii. 220. 

Hood, Samuel (afterwards Lord Hood), at 
Boston, vi 161, 210, 247, 312. 

Hood, Zachariah, distributor of stamps at 
Annapolis, flees to New York for safety, v. 

Hooker, Rev. Thomas, arrives in Boston, i. 



305; his character, 365; goes to Connecti- 
cut. 396; settles at Hartford, 397. 

Hooper, .John, Bishop of Gloucester, a Puri- 
tan, i. 289; a martyr. 280; his firmness,281. 

Hooper, William, of North Carolina, viii. 97; 
introduces into the Provincial Congress 
Franklin's plan of a confederacy, 97; 
drafts an address to the people of Great 
Britain, 98; as delegate in Congress from 
North Carolina, is averse to independence, 
viii. 245; his house burned by Governor 
Martin, 358; wishes to see slavery pass 
nway, ix. 52; his high encomium on 
Washington, 250. 

Hopkins, Commodore Esek, censured for 
misconduct in an action with the l> Glas- 
gow " frigate, ix. 134. 

Hopkins, Samuel, an eminent American 
divine, his doctrine of disinterested love, 
vi. 425; writes against slavery, viii. 322; 
addresses a memorial to Congress respect- 
ing it, 322. 

Hopkins, Stephen, of Rhode Island, at Al- 
bany, iv. 122 ; favors a tax by Parliament, 
179; governor of Rhode Island, v. 217; 
his patriotic sentiments, 271, 286, 290; 
chief-justice of Rhode Island, his opinion 
on the proceedings of the schooner '• Gas- 
pee," vi. 418; asks advice of Samuel 
Adams, 441; his brave conduct in the 
affair, 451; a member of the first conti- 
nental Congress, vii. 127; contends that 
each colony have one vote, ix. 54. 55. 

Hormansden, chief-justice of New York, 
advises the abrogation of charters, vi. 451, 

Horry, Peter, colonel, takes part in the de- 
fence of Charleston, viii. 402, 413. 

Hosmer, Abner, of Acton, slain at Concord, 
vii. 303 

Hotham, Admiral, with his squadron, covers 
the landing of troops on New York Island, 
ix. 119. 

House of Commons, on what its power 
rested, iv. 19; how was itself governed, 
160; able men in it, 160; impatient of its 
subordination to the lords, 161; denies the 
right in a colonial assembly to raise and 
apply public money, 255; claims control 
over American legislation, 255; how consti- 
tuted, v. 38; inequality and imperfection 
of the elective franchise, 39, 40; its exclu- 
sive character, 40, 41; subordinate to the 
aristocracy, 40, 41 (see Parliament) ; its 
debates on the points in controversy with 
the colonies, vii. 179; its unrelenting spirit 
against America, 217; altercations among 
its members, 218; refuses to receive Frank- 
lin's petition, 218; declares Massachusetts 
in rebellion, 222 (see Parliament); ani- 
mated debate on the king's speech de- 
nouncing the Americans as rebels, viii. 
161, 162; its strong vote for coercive 
measures, 161 ; debate on the treaties with 
Brunswick and Hesse for the supply of 
troops against American liberty, 268; de- 
bate on the policy of the ministry, ix. 142- 

House of Lords, angry discussions in it, on 
the defiant attitude of Massachusetts and 
New York, vi. 65, 66, 245. 246, 497, 518; 
vehement debate on the disobedience of 
Massachusetts, vii. 178; debate on Chat- 
ham's motion to remove the troops from 
Boston, 196, et seq. ; fierce debates on the 
controversy with America, 220, 226, 261, 
262; Franklin's contempt for this body of 
hereditary legislators, 222; supports' the 
coercive measuresof the ministry, viii. 163; 
debate on the treaties with Brunswick and 
Hesse, 269; debate on making peace with 
America, ix. 477, 482, 494. 

Howard, John E., colonel, of Man-land, 
commands a regiment at Cowpens, x. 
463, 464. 

Howard, Lord, of Effingham (see Effing- 

Howard, Martin, chief-justice of North 
Carolina, his bad character, vi. 184. 

Howe, Captain, in the " Dunkirk," captures 
the " Alcide " and the " Lys," iv. 183. 

Howe, General Robert, of North Carolina, 
his patriotism, viii 92; takes possession of 
Norfolk, 228; his plantation ravaged by 
Cornwallis, 358; and himself excepted 
from pardon by Clinton, 358; arrives in 
the vicinity of Charleston, 396; follows 
Lee into Georgia, ix. 158. 

Howe, General Robert (American), com- 
mands at Savannah, x. 285. 

Howe, Lord, his excellent character, iv. 294; 
slain in a skirmish before Ticondero^a, 
300, 301. 

Howe, Lord, and General Howe, sent as 
commissioners to America, viii. 300 ; powers 
conferred on them, 360 ; Lord Howe wishes 
well to the Americans, 361 ; insists on the 
power of acting alone, 361. 

Howe, Lord (Richard Howe), negotiates with 
Franklin in behalf of the ministry, vii. 188; 
he again sees Franklin, and proposes terms 
of conciliation in behalf of Lord North, 242; 
appo nted admiral and commander of the 
naval forces on the American coast, 245; 
sent out also as a pacificator, 245; a de- 
scendant of George I., ix. 37 ; his character, 
37 ; confidently expects peace, 38 ; does not 
perceive how limited are his powers as a 
commissioner, 38; arrives at Staten Island, 
38; his declaration, 38; seeks intercourse 
with Washington as a private man, 39, 41, 
42; Washington declines the intercourse, 
39,41,42; Howe's circular letters, 39; letters 
to individuals, 39; he writes to Franklin, 
42; Franklin's reply, 42; his disappoint- 
ment, 44 ; Lord Howe once more proposes 
Lord North's plan of conciliation, 82; the 
proposal not received, 82; amount of the 
naval force under his command. 85; fur- 
nishes the land forces with powder at the 
battle of Long Island, 92; he sends Sulli- 
van to Congress, 108 ; Congress appoint a 
committee to meet him, 112; interview of 
Lord Howe with the committee, 110; the 
interview leads to no good result, 117; his 
declaration, 128; his proclamation of par- 



don to those who would submit, 199: its 
effect) 199; Lord Howe and his brother 
differ from Germain as to the conduct of 
the war, 331; Germain gives them new in- 
structions, 332; Lord Howe's fleet in the 
Delaware, 429; his reputation, x. 145; ap- 
pears off Khode Island, 147; is superseded 
by Byron, 149; relieves Gibraltar, 581. 

Howe, William (afterwards Sir William), 
lieutenant colonel of light infantry in 
Wolte's army, iv. 325; at the siege of 
Havana, 444; elected to Parliament from 
Nottingham, vii. 176 ; appointed com- 
mander-in-chief in America, 188, 244; 

, his incapacity, 244; his inconsistency 
with foimer professions, 245; lands in 
Boston with re-enforcements, 302, 379, 
389; lands in Charlestown to attack the 
Americans there, 413; requests that 
Charlestown may be burned, 422; his first 
. attack on the American line, 422; second 
attack, 425; both attacks repulsed with 
great slaughter, 420 ; Howe is left almost 
alone, 426; escapes unhurt, 432; his attack 
on Bunker Hill censured, viii. 25; takes 
command of the army in Boston, 111; 
disapproves the expedition to the Carolinas, 
282; finds himself surpassed in skill by the 
American officers, 296; his position in Bos- 
ton rendered untenable, 2)6 ; proposes an 
attack, 297; he finds himself compelled to 
evacuate Boston, 298 ; his false pretences, 
300: his precipitate retreat, 302; leaves 
behind him ample supplies for the Ameri- 
can army, 302; remains several days in 
Nantasket Loads, 356; with a powerful 
fleet and army arrives at Sandy Hook, 
459; on Stateu Island, sends his adjutant- 

, general to the American camp, ix. 42, 45 ; 

1 agrees to an exchange of prisoners, 46; re- 
ceives re-enforcements, 82; lands a power- 
ful force on Long Island, 83; amount of his 
force, 85; his plan of attack, 87; defeats 
the Americans, 90-94; refuses to storm the 
redoubt at Brooklyn, 95; his character 
and aspect, 99; connected with the royal 
family, 99; lethargic and slow, 99; addict- 
ed to pleasure, 99 ; wanting in every great 
quality, 99. his boastful exaggerations, 
109; prepares to land on New York Isl md, 
118; takes possession of the city, 120, 121; 
is complimented by Germain, 140; de- 
mands of the ministry large re-enforcements, 
145; sails up the Hudson, and lands at 
Frog's Neck, 175; marches for White 
Plains, 177; ventures not to attack Wash- 
ington, 180; but sends a division to attack 
McDougal at Chatterton Hill, 181; the at- 
tack at first not successful, 182; removes 
to Dobbs's Ferry on Hudson Liver, 184; 
takes Fort Washington on New York 
Island, 190-193; joins Cornwallis at 
Brunswick, 201 ; his slowness saves Wash- 
ington, his army, and Philadelphia, 202 ; 
supposing New Jersey conquered, returns 
to New York, 215; refuses to see Lee, 215; 
Howe and his mistress in New Y'ork, 227; 
his high reputation there and in Europe, 

226,227; the king honors him. 227; his 
sluggishness, 242; invested with the Order 
of the Bath, 241, 251; small success of the 
British troops, 254; Howe sustained by 
Lord North and the king, 312, 323; he 
wishes no foreign officers, 314; is less hope- 
ful of conquering America, 327, 333; calls 
for large re-enforcements, 327, 332; he and 
Lord Howe attempt to negotiate with 
Washington, 328, 329; the overture re- 
jected, 329; Howe's final plan, 333; his 
letter to Carleton, 333; misses favorable 
opportunities, 334; wastes time at New 
York, 345; refuses to countenance the em- 
ployment of Indians, 350; is supported by 
Lord North, 350; his dilatory movements, 
350; prepares to march on Philadelphia, 
351; amountof his force, 351; Washington 
outgenerals him, 351 ; he retreats to Bruns- 
wick, 354; to Amboy, 355; and to Stuten 
Island, 356; thus finally evacuating New 
Jersey, 356; embarks for Philadelphia, 
391; enters the Chesapeake, 391; strength 
of his army, 392; lands at the Head of 
Elk in Maryland, 393; begins his march., 
394; his feint at Milltown, 394; Washing- 
ton again outgenerals him, 394; Howe's 
personal courage, 400; his plan of battle 
fails, 400: is detained from the pursuit of 
Washington's army, 400, 401; crosses the 
Schuylkill, 403; takes possession of Phila- 
delphia, but fails in the great object of the 
campaign, 404; his camp at Germantown, 
423; is surprised there, 425; his troops 
repel the attack, 427; he fortifies himself 
in Philadelphia, 429: offers his resignation 
of his command, 432; plans an attack on 
Washington, 452; his first advance, 453; 
its failure, 453; second advance, 453; fears 
to attack, 454; returns to Philadelphia, 
454; his unsuccessful attempt to entrap 
and capture Lafayette, x. 119, 120 ; his char- 
acter, 120; his want of enterprise, fondness 
for pleasure, 121; his lack of military skill 
and judgment, 121; his farewell to the 
American shore, 119; thinks the contest 
hopeless, 141. 

Huddy, Joshua, murdered by loyalists, x. 

Hudson, Henry, endeavors to discover a 
north-east passage to China, ii. 265; ex- 
plores the American coast 266; enters the 
harbor of New Y'ork, 267; sails up the 
North river, 268; returns to Europe, 209; 
is detained in England, 273: his last voy- 
age, 273; enters Hudson's Bay, 274; hi3 
death, 274. 

Hudson river discovered, i. 38. 

Hudson's Bay discovered, i. 82,274; hostile 
operations there, iii. 178, 179, 199. 

Huger, General Isaac, of South Carolina, x. 

Huguenots, in Canada, i. 26, 28; in Florida, 
61; massacre of, 70; emigrate to South 
Carolina, ii. 174-183; their condition in 
France, 175; excluded from office. 176; 
"dragooned," 177; forbidden to emigrate, 
177; enormities suffered by them, 178; 



their steadiness under suffering, 179; mul- 
titudes emigrate, 179; to New England, 
New York," especially to South Carolina, 
180; whole number of emigrants, half a 
million, 180; sufferings of Judith M.mi- 
gault, 180; descendants of Huguenots, their 
services, 182; in South Carolina enfran- 
chised, iii. 14, 17. 

Humanity of American officers and soldiers, 
x. ;j49,*562, 564; of SirGuy Carleton, 5G3; 
of General Leslie, 565. 

Human race, unity of the, iv. 5, G; progress 
everywhere manifest, 8, 9. 

Human sacrifices offered by Indians, iii. 289. 

Hume, David, his tribute to the memory of 
the Puritans, i. 291; the correspondent of 
Franklin, iv. 3G8; character of his mind 
and of his history, viii. 173; his sentiments 
touching the American controversy, 173; 
his philosophy, 3G6; advises Kngland to 
give up the war with America, ix. 74. 

Humphrey, John, one of the patentees of 
Massachusetts, i. 340; remains in England, 
355 ; defends the colony, 405. 

Humphreys, John, lieutenant in Morgan's 
rifle company, viii. G3; joins the expedition 
against Quebec, 191; taken prisoner there, 

Hundred Associates, The, obtain a grant of 
New France, iii. 119; they resign the prov- 
ince to the king, 148. 

Hunt, Robert, i. 118; his eminent services to 
the colon}' of Virginia, 125. 

Hunter, James, general of the regulators of 
North Carolina, vi. 394, 395, proscribed by 
Tryon, 396. 

Hunter, Robert, Governor of New York, iii. 
64; his contest with the assembly, 04, 65. 

Huntington, Jcdediah, colonel of a Connecti- 
cut regiment on Long Island, ix. 88; at 
Danbury, Conn., 346. 

Huron-Iroquois. (See Wyandots.) 

Ilurous visited by Champlain, i. 29; Jesuit 
mission among them, iii. 122, et seq. (see 
Missions); exterminated by the Iroquois, 
138-140; some of them incorporated with 
their conquerors, 142, 177, 244 ; peace made 
with them, 211. 

Husbands, Herman, of Orange County, North 
Carolina, his advice to an oppressed people, 
vi. 35; is arrested, 188; is insulted and 
harassed, 188 ; representative of Orange in 
the Assembly, 382; is expelled without 
good cause, and kept in prison, 383 ; bail 
refused him, 383 ; a price set on his head, 

Huske, Ellis (son of Ellis Huske, of Ports- 
mouth, N. II., educated at Boston), v. 170; 
advised the stamp tax, 170; betra\-ed his 
native land, 170, 171; his speech in Par- 
liament, 170, note ; wishes for delay, 183, 

Huske, John, his letter quoted, v. 179, note. 

Hutcheson, Francis, a British writer, asserts 
the right of America to independence, iv. 

Hutchinson, Ann, the leader of the Antino- 
mians, in Massachusetts, i. 388 j exiled, 

391; her opinions compared with those of 
Descartes, 391; goes to Rhode Island, 393; 
removes to the Dutch territory, 394; she 
and her family slain by Indians, 394, ii. 

Hutchinson, Thomas, his inaccuracy, i. 443, 
note ; at Albany, iv. 27 ; his character, 27, 
28 ; sordid, selfish, unprincipled, 28 ; advises 
the coercion of the colonies, 29, 32; pro- 
poses the displacement of the paper cur- 
rency by coin, 51; drafts a pusillanimous 
state paper, 269; appointed ehie! L justiec of 
Massachusetts, 379; as such heard argu- 
ments on the question of granting writs of 
assistance, 414; his subserviency to the 
British ministry, 418, 429; holds too many 
offices, 431; threatt-ns in his posthumous 
history to take vengeance on those who 
opposed him, 449 ; elected agent in London 
for Mas-achusetts, v. 176; is excused, 176; 
remonstrates against parliamentary taxa- 
tion of the colonics, 200, et seq. ; utterly de- 
nies the right, 206; his pusillanimity, 299; 
his history published, 228 ; its great merit, 
223; his letters quoted, 248; he defends the 
stamp act as legally right, and admonishes 
the people to obey, 272; is baffled in the 
endeavor to disperse the patriotic move- 
ments of the people, 310, 311; universally 
distrusted, 312; his furniture and papers 
destroyed, 313; flees to the castle, 314; is 
compensated for his losses on account of 

; the stamp act, vi. 40; his hypocrisy un- 
masked, 41; date of the revolt as assigned 
by him, 41; usurps a seat in council. 50, 
70; deceives the liberal statesmen of Eng- 
land, 69; appointed on a committee to 
settle the boundary with New York, 54, 
55; obtains a grant from Massachusetts, 
116; wishes troops sent to Boston, 133; 
fails of an election to the council, 151, 152; 
a pensioner of England, 152; a falsehood 
of his, 152; he wishes Samuel Adams 
"taken off," 192, while admitting his un- 
sullied purity, 192; his treacherous recom- 
mendations to the British ministry, 249, 
250 ; recommends " an abridgment of Eng- 
lish liberties," 250; his letters quoted, 250; 
is busy in getting evidence against Samuel 
Adams, 251; succeeds Bernard as governor, 
303; brief sketch of his previous life and 
character, 303, et seq. ; his duplicity, 304; 
his sympathy with Bernard, 303, 305; a 
trimmer and time-server, 305; his servility 
to great men, 305; his complicity with 
those who sought the utter subversion of 
colonial liberty, 306, 307 (see American 
Letters) ; yet wishes to keep in the dark, 
307; his sons recreant to freedom, 308; 
their names recorded as infamous, 311 ; he 
advises the ministry to deprive Boston, his 
native town, of its municipal government, 
312,313; orders a new supply of tea for his 
sons, 313; is a large importer of it, 329; 
prorogues the Massachusetts Assembly, 
328; his altercation with the merchants 
about tea, 329, 330; he capitulates, 330; 
his cringing servility, 330, 331; is despised 



and taunted with his old frauds and days 
of smuggling, 333; insulted by the press, 
333; tries to evade the demand for the 
removal of the troops, 342; is overawed bv 
Samuel Adams, 344, 345; and vields, 34G; 
is governed by the advice of Bernard, and 
thereby involved in needless difficulties, 
358, 359 ; convenes the legislature at Cam- 
bridge, 359 ; tells a lie about it, 359 ; over- 
acts his part, 3G4; delivers up Castle 
William to the king's troops, 369, 370; 
flees for safety to the castle, 370; advises 
the abrogation of the charter of Massachu- 
setts, 372; opposes Franklin, 376; vetoes 
a tax-bill, because it imposed on the roval 
commissioners equal burdens with other 
people, 404; and his thanksgiving procla- 
mation in 1771, 408; his shameful conduct, 
409 ; wishes Americans carried to England 
for trial and punishment, 251, 373, 419; 
refuses to answer the inquiries of the town 
of Boston, 427, 428; ridicules the efforts of 
the patriots, 431; his secret letters dis- 
covered and sent to Massachusetts, 435, 
436; challenges the legislature of the prov- 
ince to discuss with him the supreme 
power of Parliament, 445; answer of the 
council, 448; answer of the House, 448, 
449 ; the governor foiled at his own weapons 
by Samuel Adams, 450; disputes with the 
House on the salaries of the judges, 452; 
claims that Massachusetts is a feudatorv 
of the crown of England, 453; wishes the 
ministry to coerce the province, 453, 454; 
his letters are published far and wide, and 
prove him to be a consummate villain, 462, 
el sent. ; his extreme dejection, 463; ruin 
of all his prospects, 463; his testimony to 
the exalted character and controlling* in- 
fluence of Samuel Adams, 469, note; his 
pusillanimity, 476; orders the great meet- 
ing at the Old South Church to disperse, 
479; the order received with derision, 479; 
he finds he can do nothing, 487; address 
to him on his leaving Massachusetts, vii. 
46 j he embarks for England, 56; is hur- 
ried into the royal presence, and gives ialse 
information, which misleads the king, 71 ; 
becomes a lavorite of the monarch, 72; his 
confident promises to the ministry, 282; 
sinks into neglect and insignificance, 342; 
advises to close the port "of Boston, his 
native city, viii. 127. 
Hutchinson* Thomas and Elisha, sons of 
Governor Hutchinson, importers of tea con- 
trary to the non-importation agreement, vi. 
311; violate their agreement, 329; refuse 
to resign their appointment as consignees 
of tea, 474. 
Hyde, Edward, Earl of Clarendon (see Clar- 
endon, Earl oj). 
Hyde, Edward (Lord Cornbury), governor of 
North Carolina, iii. 22, 23; of New Jersey, 

Iberville, Lernoine d', dispossesses the Eng- 
lish of their ports in Hudson's Bav, iii. 
179, 180; takes part in the attack on Sche- 
nectady, 182; captures Pemaquid, 189; 
victorious again in Hudson's Bay, 199; 
leads a colony to the lower Mississippi, 
200; builds a fort on its bank, 203; his 
death, 205 ; state of Louisiana at his death. 
Icelandic voyages to North America, i. 5 ; the 

story discredited, 5, iii. 313. 
Illicit trade practised, iv. 85, 147, 376, 377; 

on the coast of Spanish America, x. 48. 
Illinois country, French officers in, v. 118; 
passes into the hands of the English, 336; 
the Indians threaten war, but are pacihed, 
337; white and black population of the 
valley of the Illinois, 338; plan for coloniz- 
ing it, vi. 32, et seq. ; to be the home of the 
free, 33: its scanty population in 1768, 223; 
the Indians there mostly exterminated, 
297, 298; the settlers oppressed bv the 
British government, 411; they set* up a 
government of their own, 412; thev per- 
sist in the affair notwithstanding the'frown 
of the Bnti-h government, 471, 472; their 
indignant protest, 472; infested by the 
Iroquois, iii. 151; visited bv Jesuits, 155; 
traversed bv Marquette ami Joliet, 161; 
and by La Salle, 165, 167; held bv the 
French, 177, 195; missions there, 195* 196; 
first permanent settlement, 195. 
Illinois river, military operations thereon, x. 
198, et seq. ; that country permanently 
secured to the United States, and how, 
202. ' 

Illinois tribe of Indians, iii. 146, 165, 177. 
241. ' 

Impartiality in history, how to be main- 
tained, viii. 119; aiways wins sympathy 
and belief, 120; with regard to men an'd 
States, 120; British writers have failed in 
it with regard to America, and why, 120, 
121; haughtiness their prevalent* error, 
121; why Americans can more easily be 
impartial, 121; citizens of a republic less 
likely to speak ill of princes than men of 
rank, and why, 122: Americans discrimi- 
nate between the English people and a 
transient ministry, 122. 
Importation of British goods decided against, 

vi. 98, 103, 150 (see Non-importation). 
Importations from England into the colonies, 
great increase of, v. 429; merchants of 
New York resolve to discontinue them, 
351, 352. 
Improvement the universal desire, iv. 10; its 

successive steps, 11. 
Incarnation, Mary of the, iii. 127. 
Independence, Fort (see Fort Independence). 
Independence, legislative,claimed by the colo- 
nies, iv. 3, et seq. ; tendency to indepen- 
dence in 1748, 25; the opening scene in the 
strugsle for independence, 35; right of 
America to independence, 181 ; principles 
of independence disavowed, 269; Governor 



Pownal predicts independence, 297, 3G9; 
Pratt (Lord Camden) predicts it, 380; 
Thomas Hollis predicts it, 450; the inde- 
pendence of the British colonies a matter 
of course on the cession of Canada, 4(30, 
461; in prospect, v. 193, 194; broadly 
hinted at, 289; the desire for it disavowed, 
vi. 73 ; but foreseen by discerning men, 26, 
67, 84, 95; Samuel Adams distinctly aims 
at it, 192, 253, 449, 469 ; French statesmen 
foresee it, 244; the prospect brightens, 
464; Samuel Adams the first person that 
openly declared for independence, 469, 
note • increasing spirit of, 505, 506 ; the 
independence of America advocated by 
Josiah Tucker and John Cartwright, 514- 
516; the idea disclaimed, vii. 82; fore- 
shadowed, 84; foreseen by Vergennes, 90; 
not yet desired, 138, 150; the idea scarcely 
entertained till the battle of Lexington 
and Concord, 301 ; becomes the desire of 
some leading men, but cannot immediately 
be declared, 354; the desire for it dis- 
claimed by the provincial Congress of New 
York, 392; independence declared by the 
county of Mecklenburg, North Carolina, 
372, 373; virtually included in the plan of 
confederation proposed by Franklin, viii. 
54; proposed by James Warren of Massa- 
chusetts, 136; Joseph Hawleysees in inde- 
pendence the only solution of existing 
difficulties, 136; George II [. of England the 
real author of American indepen 'ence, 
175; Washington's mind fully made up 
for independence, 235 ; opinion of Greene, 
235; change of popular opinion in favor of 
it, 236; Paine's pamphlet "Common 
Sense," 236-241; the pamphlet opportune 
and widely circulated, 242; moderate men 
opposed to independence, 242, et seq. ; 
New Hampshire hesitates, Portsmouth in 
particular, 243; yet progress was con- 
tinually made toward independence; it 
came of necessity, 247 ; sprang from the 
people, was the dictate of comm n- 
sen-e, 248; a virtual declaration of inde- 
pendence, 323; North Carolina the first 
colony to vote an explicit sanction to inde- 
pendence, 352; Virginia convention in- 
structs its delegates in Congress to propose 
a declaration of independence, 378; reso- 
lutions for independence moved and 
seconded in Congress, 389 ; independence 
not sudden; it had been amply discussed, 
434; the colonies had severally instructed 
their delegates on the subject, 449; Con- 
gress declares the United Colonies to be 
Free and Independent States, 459; state 
of the vote, 459 ; its immediate effects, ix. 
31; proclaimed to the army, 34; the act of 
the people, 37; its aspect on the nations of 
Europe, 37; the declaration signed by 
every member of Congress, 41; first cele- 
bration of the declaration, 357; of the 
"United States, decided in part by the sym- 
pathies of foreign powers, x. 36; many 
true friends of liberty in England reluctant 
(to grant it, 40 ; French statesmen averse to | 

it, 42; Spain averse to it, 50, 157, etseq., 
164, 181, et seq., 190; Denmark disinclined, 
also Austria, 53, 56; Holland desires it, 
60; warm sympathy for the American 
cause entertained bv Frederic of Prussia, 
102, 100, 114; 115;"the spirit of indepen- 
dence remains firm in America, 177, 506; 
France insists on American independence, 
189; Fox, Pownall, Conway, Barrington, 
and other British statesmen favor it, 142, 
143, 246; Congress insists on indepen- 
dence, 214, 220; acknowledged bv France, 
117; by Holland, 527; by Spain, 527; 
independence steadily conceded bv Eng- 
land, 546, 547, 553, 557, 560,576, 578; 
formally acknowledged by treaty, 591. 

Independence, Mount (see Mount InclejieTi- 

Independents, to be distinguished from the 
Puritans, i. 288; cruelly persecuted, 290; 
many went into exile, 200; party of the 
Independents in England, ii. 9, et seq. ; 
represented by Vane and Cromwell, 11 ; 
sustained by the army, 12; army seizes 
the king, 14. 

Indiana, its settlement begun, iii. 346. 

Indian mission and village at Ogdensburg, iv. 
31 ; Indians in Nova Scotia, 47. 

Indians carried off as slaves, i. 16, 36, 54; 
harsh treatment of, 45,47-50; Indians m 
Virginia, 179; their inconsiderable num- 
bers, 180; their ignorance and simplicity, 
181 ; are taught the use of lire-arms, 181 ; 
massacre the whites, 182; a second massa- 
cre, 208; disappear from the soil, but their 
memory remains in the names of rivers 
and mountains, 209 ; friendly relations 
with the colony of Massachusetts, 363; 
Pequod war, 398-402; Pequods reduced to 
slavery, 402; number of Indians in 1675, 
ii. 93; efforts of Eliot to christianize the 
Indians, 94; of Mayhew, son and father, 
97; inquisitive spirit of the Indians, 95, 96; 
the Bible in the Indian language, 95; the 
"praying Indians," 97; Indian war of 
1675, its causes, 98, 99 ; jealousy of Philip, 
100; commencement of the war accidental, 
100; the colonists surprised and appalled, 
101: prognostics of the conflict, 102; hor- 
rors of the war, 103; " great swamp light," 
105; distress of the Indians, 105; of the 
colonists, 106, 107, 109 ; losses sustained by 
the colonists, 109; Indian war in Virginia, 
215, 216; Indian war against the Dutch in 
New Netherland, 288, et seq. ; Indian 
ravages, 290; peace restored, 293; friendly 
relations between the Quakers and Indians, 
358; the Iroquois, or Five Nations, 415 
(see Iroquois); missions prosecuted by the 
Jesuits among the Indians (see Missions); 
instances of Indian ferocity, iii. 134, 137- 
141, 145, 179, 180, et seq. ; cannibalism of 
the Indians, 134, 145; cruelties of the 
Indians at Deerfield and Haverhill, 212- 
216; bounty offered for Indian scalps, 217; 
estimated Indian population, 253; Indian 
languages, 254, et seq. (see Languages); 
the ancestors of the Indians must have 



been like themselves, 265; manners and 
customs, 2GG; Indian habitations, 206; 
marriage, its limitations, 2G7; how con- 
tracted, 2G7; existence of polygamy, 267; 
divorce permitted, 207; childbirth easy 
and speedy, 2G8; love of mothers fo? their 
children, 268: children, how treated, 269; 
how educated, 209, 270; employments of 
the men, 270; of the women, 270; the 
Indian's wife his slave, 271; the calendar 
of the Indian, 271 ; lives by the chase, 271 ; 
and on maize, 272; Indian hospitality, 
272; indulgence at festivals, 272; suffering 
from famine, 273; treatment of the sick 
and the aged, 273; clothing of the Indian, 
273, 274; ornaments, 274; political institu- 
tions, absence of law, 275; every man his 
own protector, 275; revenge frequent and 
severe, 27G; the family, 27G; the tribe a 
union of families, 27G, 277; succession of 
chiefs, how determined, 277; the authority 
of the chief, how limited, 277 ; councils, 
how conducted, 270; the calumet of peace, 
280; war the Indian's delight, 281); how 
conducted, 282; captives, how treated, 
283; scenes of unutterable horror, 284; 
cannibalism, 284; religion, no conception 
of a supreme, spiritual, self-existent Deity, 
285; every mysterious influence deified, 
28G ; worship never paid to living or de- 
ceased men, 287 ; but spirits are every- 
where, 287; the Manitou, 287, 288; sacri- 
fices offered, 288, 280; human sacrifices, 
280; gifts of tobacco, 280, 200; Indian 
penances, 200; yows of chastity, 200; 
Indian fasts, 291; atonement for sin, 201; 
guardian nngels, 201; the medicine man, 
201; faith in his power, 202; no sacred 
days or places, 203; faith in dreams, 204; 
belief in a future state, 295; provision 
made for the departed, 295 ; the world of 
shades, sometimes visited by the living, 
296; the sitting posture in burial, 297; 
animals believed to be immortal. 298; the 
Indian paradise, 299; bones of the dead 
collected by the Ilurons, 299; veneration 
for the dead, 299; in natural endowments 
the Indians like other people, 300, 301 ; but 
deficient in imagination, the reasoning 
faculty, and the moral qualities, 302; there 
is an inflexibility of character which has 
resisted the efforts of benevolence for their 
improvement, 303, 304; peculiar physiog- 
nomy and bodily organization, 305; j'et 
improvement has begun among the Chero- 
kees and other south-western tribes, 30G; 
the origin of the American Indian cannot 
be made out from the mounds of the west, 
307; nor from tradition, 300; nor from 
analogies of language, 310; nor from simi- 
larity of customs, 311, 312; nor from the 
knowledge of astronomy, 314; neither 
Israelites, 311, nor Carthaginians, 312, 
nor Chinese, 313, were the ancestors of 
our Indians; resemblance of the American 
and Mongolian races, 317; in the Congress 
at Albany, iv. 28, 88, 122; Indians of the 
Ohio valley friendly to the English, 41; 

protest against the claims of France, 43; 
Indians in Nova Scotia protect against the 
English claim, 47; Indians beyond the 
Alleghanies receive Girt, 77; their jealousy 
of the English, 03, 94; friendly to the 
English, 96, 07; protest against French 
occupation of Ohio, 107, 100; Mingo In- 
dians attack the French, 118; Indians 
make war on the English, 1G0: defeat the 
army of Braddock, 188, et m-(/. ; southern 
Indians friendly to the English, 193; 
northern Indians join with the French, 
200, 210; ravages of Indians in Virginia, 
224; they drive the white people wholly 
out of the western valley, 224; while the 
Six Nations are in general neutral, the 
Oneidas take part with the French, 250 
(see Cherokees); their inroads and horrid 
barbarities, 137; praised for this by Lord 
Germain, secretary of war, 138; "British 
treasury provides their sealping-knives, 
152; Indian massacre at Wyoming and 
Cherry Valley, 137, 152; again employed' 
by British agents, 105, et set], ; Try on, 
William Franklin, and other refugees ad- 
vise their employment, 222; congress of, 
at Fort Stanwix, vi. 227 (see Cherokees); 
British governors threaten to employ them 
against the colonists, vii. 117; they have 
full authority to employ them, 118; Chat- 
ham and Burke protest against the 
measure, 118; the horrors of Indian war- 
fare described, 120; murders perpetrated 
by them, 1G4; the backwoodsmen take 
revenge, 165; great battle with the In- 
dians in West Virginia, 108, 169; the 
king and ministry give orders to Gage to 
employ them against the Americans, 222; 
measures taken to avert their hostility, 
270, 280; George III. specially desirous to 
rouse them against the co onists, 349; no 
English precedents for employing Indians 
in war, 118; a lew of the Stockbridge 
tribe in the American army, viii. 43; Brit- 
ish authorities excite the savages to war 
against the colonies, 55, 88; the}- join Car- 
leton and forsake him, 186; he will not 
allow them to ravage the frontier, 186; 
Indians not employed by the American 
authorities, 418; an Indian council, 418; 
they agree to remain neutral, 419; Indians 
under Foster attack the fort at the Cedars, 
427; their savage cruelty to prisoners, 
427; promise of their aid against the 
Americans, ix. 151; Indian war in the 
mountains of Carolina and Georgia, 159, 
et seq. ; the Indians totally defeated, 161, 
162; the king gives peremptory orders to 
empW savages, 321; Sir William Howe 
never encouraged the employment of 
savages, 350; Burgoyne's speech to a con- 
gress of savages, 363, 364; the reply, 364; 
his regulation about scalping, 364; mur- 
der of Jane McCrea, 371; Burgoyne's 
opinion of the Indians, 371; yet resolves 
to employ them, 371; the king and Ger- 
main bent on employing them, 376 ; a 
large Indian force accompanies St. Leger 



against fort Stanwix, 377; they waylay 
General Herkimer, 378; a terrible conflict, 
379 ; they are repulsed with severe loss, 379 ; 
torture and kill their captives, 379; canni- 
balism, 380, note; Indians cannot be con- 
trolled, 381; description of them by a 
Brunswick officer, 382; Indians sent in 
Baum's expedition, 383; to be employed 
against the revolted colonies, x. 123, 151, 

Indians of the South, peace made with them, 
v. 107. 

Indians of the West, uneasy at the presence 
of the English in 1703, v. Ill; conspiracy 
formed for their expulsion, 111; the tribes 
engaged in it, 112; the forts taken by 
them, 118, et seq. ; ravages committed, 
123; end of the war, 104; treaty of peace, 
211; Indians of Illinois and Missouri 
threaten war, 33(3, 337. 

Indies, East, war in, iii. 452. 

Indiscretion of Howe, 121; of Sullivan, 148. 

Individual right as opposed to the supremacy 
of Parliament, 39. 

Industry may follow the bent of its own 
genius, iv. 13; of Ireland repressed by 
law, v. 73; and of America. 206, 237, 288. 

Inlluence of American ideas on Europe, x. 

Informer tarred and feathered in Boston, vi. 

Ingersoll, Jarcd, of Connecticut, agent in 
England lor that colony, his interview 
with Mr. Grenville, v. 230; he reports 
Barre's great speech, and sends it to Amer- 
ica, 241 ; is a stamp-master, and comes to 
Boston, 308; roughly handled in his own 
colony, and compelled to resign, 31G-320. 

Ingle's Rebellion, i. 254. 

Inglis, Charles, rector of Trinity Church, 
New York, a royalist, flatters Dickinson, 
viii. 324. 

Ingoldsby in New York, iii. 53. 

Inheritances, English law of, excluded from 
the colonics, iii. 392. 

Inhumanity of British officers and soldiers 
(see Barbarity). 

Inquisition in Spain, ix. 303, 304, 503, 504. 

Insurrection in Virginia, its causes, ii. 
210, 218; its leader. Nathaniel Baun, 217; 
suppressed, 229 ; its unfortunate results, 
233; the truth concerning it long un- 
known, 233. 

Intelligence, a supreme, governs the material 
universe, viii. 117. 

Intercolonial correspondence, v. 200. 

International law has become humanized and 
softened, iv. 13. 

Invasion of England threatened by France, 
x. 103, 249; of New Jersey by Knyphau- 
sen, 372; of Virginia bv Cornwallis, 484; 
by Arnold, 497. 

Iowa early visited by Jesuits, iii. 157. 

Iowa tribe of Indians, visited by Le Sueur, 
iii. 204. 

Ipswich in Massachusetts, patriotic utterance 
in response to the Boston circular, vi. 440. 

Iredell, James, of North Carolina, viii. 95. 

Ireland and America treated alike, iv. 439. 

Ireland, contribution from it to relieve the 
distress of Philip's war, ii. 109; emigrants 
from, iii. 370; conquest of, by the English 
oligarchy, v. 01; its Parliament from the 
first unfairly constituted, 01; severe laws 
passed, 01,02; establishment of the Pro- 
testant Church bylaw, 02; bad character 
of the Protestant clergy of Ireland, 03 ; no 
Parliament for twenty-seven years, 03; 
escheats to the crown and manifold ex- 
tortions, 04; rebellion of 1041 ibllowed by 
large forfeitures, 04; sufferings of the 
people, G5 ; state of things after the resto- 
ration, 05; after the revolution of 1088, 
05; proportion, respectively, of the Catho- 
lics, of the Anglican churchmen, and of 
the Presbyterians, 00; Roman Catholics 
excluded from all places of honor and of 
power, 07; various other disabilities, 07, 
08; laws prohibiting their education and 
worship, 08, 09; restrictions on their in- 
dustry, holding land, and keeping arms, 
70-72; the Irish treated as a conquered 
people, 73; rise of the' patriot party of 
Ireland, 74; Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, 
04, 75 ; they too are oppressed and in large 
numbers emigrate to America, 76, 77; 
their posterity retain the spirit of liberty, 

Irnham, Lord, opposes in Parliament the 
treaties with Brunswick and Hesse for 
troops to be sent to America, viii. 268. 

Iron manufacture in the colonies prohibited, 
iii. 384; forbidden, iv. 03; indignation 
thus awakened, 04. 

Iroquois, or Five Nations of Indians, at- 
tacked by Champlain, i. 28 ; treaty with, 
ii. 255; names of these nations, 415; their 
political and social condition, 415; wide 
extent of their power, 410; their wars with 
the French in Canada, 417; friendly to the 
Dutch of New Netherland, 311; and to the 
English of New York, 315, 418 ; treaty with 
the English at Albany, 419 ; specimens of 
Indian eloquence, 420, 421; the Iroquois a 
bulwark against the French, 422; a party 
of chiefs entrapped and made slaves by the 
French, 423; and restored, 424; the* Iro- 
quois secure to New York its northern 
boundary, 424; their attack on Montreal, 
449; hinder the access of the French to 
Upper Canada, iii. 132; Jogues a prisoner 
among them, and tortured, 133; human 
sacrifices, 134; peace with the French, 135; 
exterminate the Hurons, 138; supplied 
with lire-arms by the Dutch, 141; their 
extreme cruelty, 134, 138-141, 145 ; Jesuit 
mission among them, 143 ; renewed hostil- 
ities with the French, 145; exterminate the 
Eries, 140; invade, the Illinois region, 151; 
inspire terror on the banks of the Ohio and 
Mississippi, 159; attack La Salle's fort on 
the Illinois, 107; attack the French at 
Montreal, 179 ; are claimed as subjects of 
England, 192; five Iroquois sachems have 
an interview with Queen Anne, 219; unite 
in an attempt on Canada, 221; their mill- 



tary strength arid political importance, 
244; their extensive dominion, 244, 245; 
estimated population, 253; the Iroquois 
confederacy cede lands to Virginia, 455, 
iv. 210, 293; deny their subjection to any 
European power, 31 ; in council, addressed 
by Burgoyne, ix. 302, 303; are inclined to 
neutrality, 377; roused by Butler, join the 
expedition of St. Leger, 377 ; they hastily 
abandon it, 381. 

Irvine, Colonel, of Pennsylvania, sent to re- 
enforce the army in Canada, viii. 422; in 
the attack on Three Rivers, 429 ; a prisoner, 

Irvine, General, of Pennsylvania, wounded 
and a prisoner, ix 453. 

Isle aux Noix, in Canada, viii. 181, 182; re- 
treat of the American troops to, 432, 433. 

Italy lbrmerly annexed to Germany, x. 07; 
the results, 07 ; indisposed to assist the 
United States, 54. 

Izard, Ralph, of South Carolina, the unre- 
ceived minister to Tuscany, is presented to 
Louis XVI., ix. 489 ; his strange conduct, 

Jackson, Andrew, in youth, appears in arms 
against the British, x. 314. 

Jackson, Richard, quoted, v. 89, note ; an 
officer of the Exchequer under Grenvillc, 
106; his excellent character, 10G; agent 
for Connecticut, 100; advises Grenville 
to abandon the idea of taxing America, 
155, 181; dissuades him from founding a 
system of corruption in the colonies, 176 ; 
again dissuades Grenville from his plan of 
taxing America, 230, 231; his speech in 
Parliament against the stamp-tax, 238; 
superseded as agent of Massachusetts, vi. 
41 ; his speech against taxing America, 77 ; 
another speech, 274. 

Jacobs, George, hanged for witchcraft, iii. 

Jamaica, centre of a smuggling trade, iii. 
402; offers its mediation, vii. 189; its 
friendly interference remembered by Con- 
gress, viii. 54; proposed to make it a re- 
public, x. 536. 

James I., King of England, grants a charter 
for Virginia, i. 120; its provisions, 120- 
122; makes laws for the colony, 122; 
makes a gift of arms to the colony. 183 ; 
contends with London Virginia Company, 
187; his arbitrary proceedings, 187; de- 
mands the surrender of the charter, 188; 
his death, 193; his ample charter to the 
second Plymouth Company, 272, 273; 
his cotemporaneous reputation, 292; the 
weakness and vices of his character, 293; 
his pedantry, 290; insults the Puritans, 
230 ; hates them, 297 ; his proclamation in 
reference to the fisheries, 325; grants a 
patent of Nova Scotia, 332. 

James II., King of Great Britain, sends ad- 
herents of Monmouth to Virginia, ii. 250; 

his character, 405; his friendship for Wil- 
liam Penn, 395 ; patron of the slave-trade, 
316; as Duke of York obtains grants of 
large territories in America, 313, 315, 325; 
employs Andros as his governor, 403; his 
instructions to Andros, 406 ; his cruel 
treatment of the Scottish covenantors, 411; 
his commercial cupidity, 413; his arbitrary 
government, 442, 443; his dethronement, 
444; his usurpation, viii. 123. 

James, major of artillery in New York, a 
braggart, v. 332; his house sacked by the 
people, 356. 

Jamestown, in Virginia, founded, i. 125; de- 
serted, 140. 

Jasper, William, a sergeant, replaces the flag 
shot .way in the attack on Fort Moultrie, 
viii. 406; a lieutenant's commission offered 
him, 414; his heroism, at Savannah, 

Jay, John, wishes not to separate from Brit- 
ain, vii. 41, 42; his character, 78; his con- 
servatism's, 80, 108; a member of the 
First Continental Congress, 127; wishes to 
make no change in the constitution, 131; 
objects to opening the proceedings with 
prayer, 131; believes in natural rights, 
133; advocates the insidious plan of Gal- 
loway for retaining America in subjection, 
141; a member of the Second Continental 
Congress, 353 ; wishes not to oppose the 
landing of British troops in New York, 
358; proposes a second petition to the 
king. 360, viii. 37; member of a committee 
ot correspondence, 142; his address to the 
assembly of New Jersey, 214; his prudent 
policy, 274; averse to separation from 
Great Britain, 320; his firmness and purity, 
439; in the New York Convention, ix. 33, 
34; advises to burn the city of New York, 
and retire to the Highlands, 70; entreats 
"Washington to send aid to Schuyler, 374; 
first chief-justice of New York, 405; his 
patriotic charge to the grand jury, 406; 
will accept of nothing from England short 
of independence, 498; js willing to give up 
the Mississippi, x. 183; his course in Con- 
gress, 215, 217, 219; ;ippointed envoy to 
Spain, 221; is hostile to slavery, 358; 
Franklin sends for him to come to Pans, 
540 ; arrests the negotiations tor peace, and 
why, 558, 560; loses his confidence in 
Spain, 559; disagrees with Franklin, 560; 
will not yield to Spain the territory east of 
the Mississippi, 574, 579; his interview 
with the Spanish minister, 579; with Os- 
wald, the British negotiator, 580; Jay, 
Franklin, and Adams meet the British 
commissioners, 589; the treaty signed, 

Jealousy between the Northern and Southern 
States, 348; between Clinton and Corn- 
wallis, 506. 

Jefferson, Thomas, his childhood, iv. 136; 
early prepared for resistance to British ag- 
gression, v. 275, 277; his first appearance 
in public life, vi 279; proposes a bill for 
the emancipation of slaves in Virginia, 



413 ; one of the committee of correspond- 
ence, 455; in the house of burgesses, vii. 
53; strongly condemns i lie Boston port 
bill, 58; denies the power of Parliament to 
make laws for America, 107; will no 
longer accept acts of repeal, 385; drafts 
the reply of the legislature of Virginia to 
the proposals of Lord North, 38 j; enters 
Congress, viii. 30; his paper adopted by 
Congress in reply to Lord North's proposal 
for conciliation, 50; his intrepid spirit, 82; 
his clear discernment of the issue, 143; 
■writes the Declaration of Independence, 
392; writes the preamble to the constitu ion 
of Virginia, 43:3; his sympathetic nature, 
462; his character, 463; philosophic cast 
of his mind, 463; a free-thinker, 463; an 
idealist, 464; his mastery of details, 464; 
always prepared, 464; no orator, 464; free 
from envy, 464; his intimacy with John 
Adams, 464; not a visionary, 465; the 
draft of the Declaration wholly his own, 
465 ; criticisms of Congress, 465 : his com- 
promise proposed in Congress by Sherman, 
ix. 55; protests against the assumption of 
power by Congress, 56 ; is summoned from 
the National Congress to assist in forming 
the constitution of Virginia, 280; the 
separation of church and state carried by 
his activity, 278; lie is employed to revise 
the law of "descent, 280; consulted respect- 
ing the occupation of the Northwest, x. 
104; his sentiments on religious freedom, 
224, 225; his opinions on slavery, 356; 
his forebodings, 357; governor of Virginia, 
315; organizes a regiment of backwoods- 
men, 332; in time of invasion invites the 
presence of Washington, 500; narrowly 
escapes capture, 505. 

Jeffries, Sir George, lord chief-justice of 
England, his severity towards the partisans 
of Monmouth, ii. 250 ; this severity sends 
many emigrants to America, 251. 

Jenkins, a noted smuggler, iii. 436 ; pretends 
to have lost his oars, 436. 

Jenkins, John, governor of Carolina, i. 161, 
162, note. 

Jenkinson, Charles, afterwards Earl of Liver- 
pool, iv. 234, 391; first Earl of Liverpool, 
v. 79; the father of the stamp act, 89, 
mote, 152; becomes secretary of the treas- 
ury, 102; his rare talents, 102; his self- 
control, 103; thinks it absurd to charge 
England with ambition, iv. 234; proposes 
new regulations in American trade and 
new taxes, v. 187, 188 ; opposes the repeal 
of the stamp act, 434 ; is a member of the 
treasury board in the Bedford administra- 
tion, vi" 110, 123 ; engages to assist Thomas 
Hutchinson and other enemies of Massachu- 
setts. 110 ; wishes Parliament to disregard 
the popular voice, 320 ; procures a pension 
for Hutchinson, 110; thinks the Americans 
ought to submit, vii. 218, 243; his mean 
reply to Burke, 270. 

Jennings, Samuel, his intrepid conduct as 
speaker of the assembly of New Jersey, 
iii. 63, 64. 

Jenyns, Soame, becomes a lord of trade, 
iv. 221; lavors colonial taxation, 223; 
advises the subversion of the charter of 
Pennsylvania, 230; a member of the board 
of trade, v. 231 ; his sophistical arguments 
for taxing America, 232-234. 
Jervis, John (afterwards Earl of St. Vincent), 
in the fleet, in the St. Lawrence, under 
Admiral Saunders, iv. 324. 
Jesuits arrive in "Acadia," and visit the Ken- 
nebec river, i. 27; establish themselves in 
Canada, i. 29, iii. 120 ; character and gen- 
eral policy of the order, iii. 120; Jesuits in 
Canada, their character and numbers, 122 ; 
college founded by them in Quebec, 126 ; 
Brebeuf and Daniel, 122; their sufferings, 
124, 128 ; increase of Jesuit missionaries, 
128 ; extended plans and labors, 128 ; mis- 
sion to the Onondagas, 143 ; visit the 
Indians beyond Lake Superior, 145 ; stim- 
ulate the Indians to horrid barbarities, 187 ; 
their sway of the Indian mind, 222, 224 ; 
Jesuit mission not fruitless, 245 ; expelled 
from France, vii. 28; had been useful to 
Spain, x. 49 ; the order abolished there, 
Jewett, of Lyme, in Connecticut, captain of 
volunteers, is slain after his surrender, ix. 
Jews in New Netherland, ii. 300. 
Joachim, elector of Brandenburg, embraces 

Lutheranism in 1539, x. 81. 
Jogues, Isaac, a Jesuit, visits Lake Superior, 
iii 131; taken prisoner by the Iroquois, 
132; tortured by them, 133; ransomed by 
the Dutch from Albany, 134; his martyr- 
dom, 137. 
John Sigismund, elector of Brandenburg, be- 
comes a Calvinist, x. 81; becomes Duke 
of Prussia in 1618, 81. 
Johnson, Guy. royal superintendent of Indian 
affairs, vii. 279; the king sends a positive 
order to him to rouse the Six Nations 
against the Americans, 349; he acts in con- 
formity with these instructions, 305; ex- 
cites Indian hostility against America, viii. 
55. . 
Johnson, Isaac, i. 352, 354, 359 ; dies, 360. 
Johnson, John, and his wife, of Haverhill, 

slain by Indians, iii. 215. 
Johnson, Lady Arbella, i. 354; dies, 360. 
Johnson, Lev. Samuel, of Connecticut, prays 
for the subversion of popular liberty in New 
England, v. 225, 220. 
Johnson, Robert, governor of South Carolina, 
iii. 329; resists the popular movement, 
Johnson, Samuel, the famous moralist, his 
ungracious utterai ce respecting America, 
vi. 278 ; the lexicographer, his long struggle 
with poverty, vii. 257 ; his antipathy to the 
Whig part}', 258; he sells his pen to a cor- 
rupt ministry, 258; his "Taxation no 
Tyranny," 258; his abuse of Franklin, 
259 ; his vituperations of America, 259 ; his 
unsparing ribaldry, 259, 230. 
Johnson, Sir John, defeated by Schuyler, and 
taken prisoner, viii. 272; breaks his parole, 



272 ; stirs up Canadians and Indians against 
the Americans, 425 ; leads a party of loyal- 
ists against fort Stanwix, ix. 378. 

Johnson, Sir Nathaniel, governor of South 
Carolina, iii. 211. 

Johnson, Sir William, iv. 183; commands 
the army destined for the reduction of 
Crown Point, 207 ; arrives at Lake George, 
208; is wounded in battle, 211; his army 
gains the battle, but the victory was not 
due to him, 212; is made a baronet, 212; 
his inefficiency, 212; fails of taking Crown 
Point, 213; at Ticonderoga, with warriors 
of the Six Nations, 301, 302; at Niagara, 
with Mohawks, 320; he takes Niagara, 
321; engages in a scheme for colonizing 
the West, vi. 32; negotiates with the Six 
Nations, 227. 

Johnson, Stephen, minister of Lyme, Conn., 
denounces the oppressive acts of England, 
v. 320, 321 ; his fervent appeal in the " New 
London Gazette," 353. 

Johnson. William Samuel, agent in England 
for Connecticut, quoted, vi. 48, 58, 04, 75; 
present during a violent debate on Ameri- 
can affairs, 80; his able defence of the 
rights of Connecticut during a discussion 
with Lord Hillsborough, 111-115; his lettPr 
to Wedderburn after his return home, 406; 
an envoy from Connecticut to Gage at 
Boston, vii. 321. 

Johnston. Colonel, of New Jersey, at the 
battle of Long Island, ix. 80, 81) ; is slain, 

Johnston, Samuel, of North Carolina, viii. 
95; president of the provincial congress, 
90; his moderation, 97. 

Johnstone, George, one of the three commis- 
sioners sent by Lord North to America, x. 
122; his character, 123, 151; leaves the 
country, 125. 

Johnstone, governor of West Florida, v. 235. 

"Join or Die," motto of a paper at New 
York, v. 332. 

Joliet, Louis, discovers the Mississippi river, 
iii. 155; the Missouri and Ohio, 159. 

Joncaire, lives among the Senecas in Indian 
style, iii 34 L, 344. 

Jones, John Paul, captain in the American 
navy, ix. 134; takes the ''Serapis" and 
" Countess of Scarborough," x. 271 ; enters 
the Texel with his prizes, 272; the cap- 
tured ships reclaimed by the British, 272; 
the demand refused by the Dutch authori- 
ties, 272. 

Jones, Nnble Wimberly, of Georgia, elected 
speaker in defiance of the governor, vi. 409 ; 
with others, obtains possession of the royal 
magazine, vii. 337. 

Joseph IL, emperor of Austria, and his 
mother, Maria Theresa, how they regard 
the struggle in America, viii. 391, 392; 
visits Paris, and why, x. 52, 110; his de- 
signs on Bavaria, 105; contrasted with 
Frederic of Prussia, 244. 

Joseph II. , emperor of Germany, as a philos- 
opher and reformer, v. 10, 11; his ill 
success, 11; visits Paris, ix. 297; he will 

have no communication with the American 
commissioners, 297. 

Josepli, William, deputy of Lord Baltimore, 
in Maryland, his high claims, ii. 244; his 
defeat, iii. 30. 

Judges appointed by the king, and held office 
at his pleasure, iv. 428, 441; independence 
of the judiciary subverted, 427; judges to 
be paid by colonial assemblies, and not by 
the king, vi. 452; they are required to 
refuse to receive salaries from the crown, 

Judiciary of the colonies made dependent on 
the king, v. 85. 

Judiciary kept distinct from the legislative 
and executive power, ix. 270; appointment 
of judges 270; their term of office, 270; 
no judiciary under the confederation, 445. 

Jumonville, a French officer, killed, iv. 119. 


Kahokia, population of, in 1768, vi. 223. 

Kalb, attaches himself to the American cause, 
ix. 285; embarks with Lafayette, 295; ar- 
rives at Philadelphia, 389; mee^s a rude 
repulse, 389; with Washington at White- 
marsh, 453; to go with a winter expedition 
to Canada, 4G2. (See De Kalb.) 

Ivilm, Peter, the Swedish traveller in Amer- 
ica; his statement of American opinion, 
iii. 464. 

Karnes, Lord (Henry Home), believes a po- 
litical union of the American colonies im- 
possible, vii. 107. 

Kant, Emanuel, in political science the coun- 
terpart of America, ix. 501; his philosophy, 
x. 87, 88 ; defends the American cause, 88. 

Kaskaskia, the oldest se tlement in the Mis- 
sissippi Vallev, iii 195, 340 ; why so named, 
340 ; taken by Clark, x. 196. 199. _ 

Kaskaskias, population of, in 1768. vi. 223. 

Kattnitz, prime minister of Austria, at first 
unfriendly to America, x 53, 245; wishes 
to have America represented in the peace 
congress, 449 ; favors the American cause, 

Keith, George, makes a schism in the Quaker 
body in Pennsylvania, iii. 36; embraces 
Episcopacv. 37. 

Keith, Sir 'William, governor of Pennsyl- 
vania, iii. 345; recommends English taxa- 
tion of the colonies, 383; proposes a stamp 
duty, iv. 58. 

Kemp's landing in Virginia, viii. 222, 226. 

Kennebec river visited by the French, i. 27; 
claimed by them, iii. 154; difficulties ex- 
perienced by Arnold's expedition on its 
banks, viii. 192. 

Kennedy, Archibald, of New York, urges an 
annual meeting of commissioners from all 
the colonies, iv. 91; and a "gentle land 
tax," 115. 

Kennedy, Joseph, a leading patriot in North 
Carolina, vii. 373. 

Kennedy, Quintine, of South Carolina, iv. 



Kenon, of North Carolina, joins colonel 

Moore with a re-enforcement, viii. 285. 
Kent, Benjamin, of Boston, vi. 483. 
Kentucky, not a white man there in 17G8; 
vi. 222; the region explored by Daniel 
Boone and others, 298, et seq. ; settled 
vii. 365; names of the chief settlers, 366; 
its first assembly, 3G6; the session opened, 
367; spirit of liberty, 368; civil constitu- 
tion and laws, 368; 369; spirit of piety, 
339; and it- representative, viii. 108; the 
wonderful richness of its soil, 108; Virginia 
bars it out of Congress, 108; a part of Vir- 
ginia, x. 193; made a county, 194; the 
bold, brave men of that region, and what 
they did, 194, et seq. 
Kepp'el, Augustus, admiral, refuses to serve 
against America, vii. 343 ; sails in quest of 
a French licet, x. 162; he fails, 163; his 
incapacity, 163. 
Kichline, of Pennsylvania, on Long Island, 

ix. 86-89. 
Kickapoos, iii. 155, 156, 242. 
Kidd, William, the famous pirate, iii. 60. 
Kieft, William, governor of New Netherland, 
ii. 283; claims for his country, against 
Sweden, the region on the Delaware, 287; 
a massacre of Indians by him, 289; his 
meanness, 291 ; perishes in the waves of the 
Atlantic, 293. 
Kings, the argument of " Common Sense" 
against them, viii. 236; the greater part 
have been bad men, 237 ; they have multi- 
plied civil wars, 237 ; they are of no good 
use, 237. 
King's Mountain, battle of, x. 337; forces 
engaged there, 337; severe action, 338; 
surrender of the whole British force, 339; 
effect of the victory, 340. 
Kirk, Sir David, takes Canada, i. 334. 
Kirkland, Moses, of South Carolina, changes 

sides, viii. 87. 
Kirkland, Samuel, missionary among the 

Oneida and Mohawk Indians, vii. 280. 
Kittanning, a town of the Delawares, de- 
stroyed,^. 241, 242. 
Klopstoek, Frederic Theophilus, a friend to 

America, x. 90. 
Knowles, Commodore Sir Charles, impresses 
seamen at Boston, iii. 465; high excite- 
ment produced thereby, 466. 
Knowlton, Captain Thomas, of Ashford, leads 
a detachment of Connecticut troops to 
Bunker Hill, vii. 408, 414, 419; his gal- 
lant conduct, 424, 430 ; mortally wounded 
in a skirmish near Manhattan ville, ix. 126. 
Knox, Henry, afterwards general and secre- 
tarv of War, a witness of the Boston mas- 
sacre, vi. 338. 339, 349 ; a bookseller of Bos- 
ton, vii. 326 ; plans the American works in 
Eoxburv, July, 1775, viii. 43 ; colonel of 
artillery, ix. 77; is with Washington in 
the battle of Trenton, 230. 
Knox, James, a pioneer of settlement in the 

Cumberland Valley, Tennessee, vi. 380. 
Knox, "William, agent for Georgia, quoted, 
v. 137. 191; defends the stamp tax, 155, 
189, 251. 

Knvphausen, Baron, lieutenant-general, 
commander of Hessian troops, viii. 265; 
his character, 235 ; lands at New Rochelle, 
ix. 178; removes to New York Island, 
184; attacks Fort Washington, 190; it 
surrenders to him, 193; he supersedes 
Heister, 314; leads a column on the march 
to Philadelphia, 394; comes to the Brandy- 
wine at Chad's Ford, 395; crosses that 
stream, 398; defeats the American left 
wing, 398; x. 119, 120, 130; in command 
at New York, 301, 371; invades New 
Jersey, 372 ; fears to attack the Americans, 
and retires, 373. 

Kosciuszko, Thaddeus, enters the American 
army, ix. 337; his great merit, 337; in 
South Carolina, x. 459, 490. 

Laconia, its extent, i. 328; granted to Gorges 
and Mason, 328. 

La Corne, his violent proceedings in Acadia, 
iv. 67, et seq. 

Lafayette, Gilbert Motier de, became inter- 
ested in the American cause, vii. 350; re- 
solves to engage in the American struggle, 
ix. 70; purchases and freights a ship for 
America, 285 ; embarks for America in de- 
fiance of the order of the king, 296; the 
women of Paris applaud his heroism, 290; 
arrives at Philadelphia, 389; is at first re- 
pulsed, 389; made a major-general, 389; 
received into Washington's family, 393; 
wounded at the battle of Brandywine, 
397, 399; Washington's love for him, 
400 ; routs a party of Hessians, 435 ; ap- 
pointed to command a winter expedition 
to Canada, 462; the design relinquished, 
463; unsuccessful attempt of Sir William 
Howe to circumvent and capture him, x. 
119, 120; advises an attack on the British 
army after its evacuation of Philadelphia, 
127; the attack committed to him, 128; 
has no support from Lee, 129; battle of 
Monmouth, 131; he compels Sullivan to 
withdraw his censure of the French officers, 
148; his address to the people of Canada, 
176; visits France, 187; exerts himself 
there in behalf of the United States, 187; 
commands in Virginia, 497, et seq. ; his 
generous conduct, 498; refuses to corre- 
spond with Arnold, 499; retreats _ before 
Cornwallis, 504; pursues Cornwallis, 505, 
507 ; amount and quality of his force, 507 ; 
never guilty of rashness, 507; his great 
vigilance and self-possession, 507: his 
great bravery, 508; his strong hopes of 
success, 512; welcomes Washington to 
Virginia, 516; persuades de Grasse to keep 
within the capes of Virginia, 517; assists 
in the capture of Cornwallis, 517, et seq. ; 
honored in France, 524. 
Lafreniere, a prominent man in the republic 
of New Orleans, vi. 220, 293; hanged, 



La Galissoniere, governor of Canada, iv. 31; 
sends a colony into the Ohio valley, 43; 
entices the Acadians to leave English ju- 
risdiction, 44; returns to France, 47; 
opposes the abandonment of Canada, 72, 

La Harpe, Bernard de, claims the del Norte 
as the western boundary of Louisiana, iii. 

Lake George, all around is a wilderness, iv. 
208; battles near there, 210, 211; gather- 
ing of a large force in its vicinity, 298. 

Lakes, countrv on the, possession taken of it 
by the Engiish, iv 301. 

Lallemand, Gabriel, his sufferings and mar- 
tyrdom, iii. 140. 

LaLoutre, Abbe, missionary in Nova Scotia, 
iv. 44; instigates the Indians against the 
English colony, 47; sets lire to a church at 
Chiegnecto, 68. 

Lamb, Captain John, in the Northern Army, 
his character, viii. 183; takes part in the 
assault on Quebec, 208. 

Lamb, colonel of artillery, opposes the enemy 
at Saugatuck, ix. 347; is wounded, 348. 

Lamb, John, a Son of Liberty in New York, 
v. 425; a leading patript in New York, vii. 

Land, large grant of, in the Ohio vallev, iv. 
42, 167. 

Land Bank in Massachusetts, iii. 388, 389; 
depreciation of the currency, 389. 

Land-tax in England reduced, vi. 59. 

Land-tax proposed, iv. 222. 

Lands, western, speculation in, vi. 32; large 
cessions of, made by the Indians, 88, 227; 
lands for the soldiers of the French war, 
379; lands granted to a company in Eng- 
land, 421. 

Lane, Ralph, conducts a colony to North 
Carolina, i. 95; massacre of Indians by 
him, 100; returns to England, 106. 

Langdon, Samuel, of Portsmouth, his de- 
liverance on colonial rights, vi. 166. 

Langdon, Samuel, president of Harvard 
College, his prayer on the marching of the 
detachment for Bunker Hill, vii 408. 

Language not a human invention, iii. 263; 
it springs from our very nature and cannot 
be essentially changed. 264. 

Languages of the Amcricn Indians, eight in 
number, iii. 237; distinctive peculiarities, 
254, et seg. ; free from irregularities, gov- 
erned by undeviating laws, 254; no writ- 
ing, knowledge conveyed by hieroglyph ; cs, 
256; poor in abstract terms, 256; copious 
for objects of sense, no spiritual or moral 
ideas conveyed, 250; synthesis pervades 
the entire language, 257 ; no generic terms, 
258; no substantive verb, the verb to be 
always includes place and time, 258; 
abounds in combinations, often excessive 
and grotesque, 259 ; no distinction of gen- 
der, but only of animate and inanimate, 
260 ; the verb the dominant part of speech, 
261 ; peculiar use of the pronoun and 
adjective, 261; relations of time, how ex- 
pressed, 262; the verb receives almost 

countless changes, 202, 263; the language, 
in its internal mechanism, resembles all 
other languages, 264. 

La S die, Robert Cavalier de, his early his- 
tory, iii. 162 ; obtains the grant of Fort 
Frontenac, 162: his vast designs, 163; 
builds the " Griffin," the first vessel on the 
upper lakes, 164; traverses lakes Erie, 
Huron, and Michigan, 164; penetrates the 
Illinois country, 165; intercourse with the 
Indians, 165; his strength of will, 165, 
172; goes on foot fifteen hundred miles 
back to Fort Frontenac, 166; visits Green 
Bay, 167; returns to Illinois, 167; descends 
the Mississippi to its mouth, 168; returns 
to Quebec and to France, 108; his dis- 
astrous voyage in the Gulf of Mexico, 169, 
170; lands a colony in Texas, 171; de- 
parts for Canada, 172; murdered by one of 
his men, 173; his great character, 173,174. 

"Last Appeal " contemplated, vi. 407. 

Lathrbp, Captain Thomas, and his company 
slaughtered by the Indians, ii 104. 

Lauderdale, John Maitland, duke of, ii. 410. 

Laurens, Henry, of South Carolina, vii. 336; 
is opposed to independence, viii. 84, 328; 
is chosen vice-president of the province, 
348; president of Congress, x. 173, 221; 
advises the arming of slaves, 291; is sent 
to the Netherlands to negotiate for a loan, 
433; taken prisoner and confined to the 
tower, 433 ; the ministry dare not bring him 
to trial, 437 ; he is liberated from the tower, 
536; his interview with Lord Shelburne, 
536; goes to Holland, 537 ; assists in the 
negotiations at Paris, 589. 

Laurens, John, of South Carolina, son of 
Henry, his gallant conduct, ix 426; lieu- 
tenant-colonel, assists Washington at Mon- 
mouth, x. 129, 132; serves in the Rhode 
Island campaign, 146, 149; in South Caro- 
lina, 292, 293; wishes to raise a regiment 
of blacks, 291; comes to the defence of 
Charleston, 292; is sent to France to pro- 
cure a loan of money, 418; obtains money, 
but not as a loan, 447; his bravery at 
Yorktown, 520; in South Carolina, re- 
ceives a mortal wound, 565 ; Washington's 
high encomium on him, 565. 

Laurie, Captain, has a command at the battle 
of Concord, vii. 298. 

Lauzun, Duke de, repulses Tarleton's legion, 
x. 518. 

Law, John, iii. 349; his credit system, 350; 
his theory of money, 350 ; his vast schemes, 
350, 354; his bank, 350; becomes the bank 
of France, 354; contest between paper and 
specie, 354; paper made a legal tender, 
355; Law becomes a Catholic, 356; and 
comptroller- general of the currency, 356; 
results of the frantic scheme, 357. 

Law, what gives it binding free, vi. 97. 

Law-courts of Kngland, v. 47, et seq. 

Lawrence, lieutenant-governor of Nova 
Scotia, iv. 68, 182, 199, 200, 206. 

Laws of Massachusetts, early, i. 417, 418. 

Laws, common consent the only just origin 
of, iv. 13. 



Lawson, a captive among the Tusearoras, 
iii. 310; burned to death, 320. 

Lead mines in Virginia, vi. 86, 225, 227. 

Learned, Brigadier, in the battle of Bemis's 
Heights, ix. 410, 417. 

Le Caron, his early visit to Lake Huron, iii. 

Ledyard, John, colonel, murdered by Arnold, 
x. 500. 

Lee, Arthur, proposed as agent in England 
for Massachusetts, vi. 374; the king wishes 
to have him arraigned for treason, vii. 58; 
agent for Massachusetts in England, 342; 
in London, is desired by Congress to ascer- 
tain the disposition of foreign powers, viii. 
210; receives a promise of pecuniary aid, 
344; commissioner to France, ix. 133; his 
character, 133 ; not noticed by Vergennes, 
291; on his way to Madrid, 28!), 306; 
stopped at Burgos, 308; his interview with 
Grimaldi, 308; he is snubbed by Prussia 
and Austria, 473 ; his papers stolen, 474 ; 
his mischievous intermeddling, 480; he is 
presented to Louis XVL, 489; envies 
Franklin, and intrigues to supplant him, 
493; his ill success at Berlin, x. 104, 107, 
170; his proceedings in France, 261, 

Lee, Charles, resolves to devote himself to the 
cause of American liberty, vi. 460; comes 
to Boston, vii. 101; his restless spirit, 101; 
asumes the rank of major-general, 102; 
opinion entertained of him in England, 
viii. 26; his true character, 27; his de- 
mand of indemnity for renouncing his 
English half-pay, 28; accompanies Wash- 
ington to Cambridge, 32, 40; his letter 
to Burgoyne and Burgoyne's answer, 46; 
his secret treason, 46; he continues the 
correspondence, 220; inspects the harbor 
and fortifications of Newport, 220 ; his high 
reputation for military genius, 277, 280, 
281; goes to Connecticut, 277; persuades 
Governor Trumbull to call out two regi- 
ments, 278; usurps authority, 278; New 
York offended by his interference, 278; he 
enters New York, 279; begs money of the 
New York Congress, 281 ; is appointed to 
the Southern command, 282; his arbitrary 
conduct in New York, 282; and in Virgi- 
nia, 354; transcends his proper authority, 
354; arrives in the ticinity of Charleston, 
396; examines its defences, 396; proposes 
to abandon Sullivan's Island, 390; doubts 
whether Sullivan's Island can be held, 
400, 401; meditates removing Moultrie 
from his command, 400, 401 ; neglects to 
send him powder, 409 ; plans the fortifica- 
tions of New York and Brooklyn, ix. 76; 
Congress sends for Lee, 113, 159; he de- 
mands money of Congress, 158 ; proposes 
to attack East Florida, 158; his march 
into Georgia, 159; loses many of his men 
by sickness and death, 159 ; abandons the 
expedition, 159; goes to the North, 159; 
is eagerly expected by the army of Wash- 
ington, 168; his high reputation, 168; yet 
utterly incompetent as a commander, 168; 

VOL. X. 

his pride as an Englishman, 168; his con- 
tempt of Americans, 168; his opposition to 
independence, 169; his insincerity, 169; 
his interview with Congress, 169; clamors 
for a separate army, 169; advises Mary- 
land to submit to Britain, 170; proposes a 
negotiation with Lord Howe on his own 
terms, 173; did not originate the evacua- 
tion of New York Island 175, note , his 
arrival in Washington's army, 176; attends 
a council of war, 176; at White Plains 
blames the place of encampment, 179; is 
ordered by Washington to join him in 
New Jersev, 187, 194, 196, 198,202,204; 
disregards those orders, 187, 194, 196, 198, 
202, 204; his idleness, 197; his military 
reputation very high in Congress and 
among the people, 203; his wild ambition, 
203; his intrigues to obtain dictatorial au- 
thority, 204, 205; meditates a "virtuous 
treason," 205; falsifies Washington's let- 
ter to him, 204; misrepresents and vilifies 
Washington, 205, 207, 209; his arrogant 
letter to Washington, 206; assumes au- 
thority in chief, 206; crosses the Hudson, 
207; his falsehoods, 208; his self-esteem, 
209 ; his continual disobedience of orders, 
208; hopes to reconquer the Jerseys, 208; 
his slow progress, 208 ; his spleen against 
Washington, 209; is surprised and taken 
prisoner by a party of British, 210; his ab- 
ject cowardice, 210; treated as a deserter, 
211, 215; a letter purporting to be from 
him to Kennedy not genuine, 211, note; 
Lee beyond doubt a traitor, 211 ; put under 
a close, guard and sent to New York, 215; 
Congress and Washington intercede for him, 
327 ; volunteers to bring back the colonies 
to their old allegiance, 328; his request to 
Congress, 328; the request refused, 328; 
the request repeated, 330; and again re- 
fused. 330; he presents to Lord and Gen- 
eral Howe a plan for reducing the Ameri- 
cans, 330; the plan rejected, 331; the 
opinion entertained of him in Europe, 331; 
his hypocrisy and treason, 331; his want 
of veracity, 333, note ; put on board the 
"Centurion," 351; plots the ruin of the 
American cause, x. 127 ; refuses to attack 
the retreating British army, 128; battle of 
Monmouth, 129 ; the day nearly lost through 
his treachery, 129 ; disobeys the orders of 
Washington, 129 ; his false representations, 
130; his inactivity, — does nothing, 131; 
Washington's anger at this, 131; his dis- 
respect to Washington, 130, 133; is tried 
by a court-martial and suspended, 134; his 
inglorious end, 134. 

Lee, Francis, of Virginia, elected to Congress, 
viii. 81. 

Lee, Henry, major, takes Paulus Hook. x. 
229, 23o": lieutenant-colonel, with his legion, 
sent to South Carolina, 457, 477; his suc- 
cessful operations there. 485, 489. 

Lee. Richard Henry, of Virginia, his speech 
against negro slavery, iv. 422; an eloquent 
advocate for freedom, vi. 445, 455, vii. 52; 
compared to Cicero, 85; a member of the 




First Continental Congress, 127; his con- 
ciliatory speech, 130; believes in natural 
rights, 132; sustains the Fairfax resolu- 
tions, 275; a member of the Second Con- 
tinental Congress, 353 ; delegate of Virginia 
in Congress, in favor of disowning the au- 
thority of the king, viii. 320; in favor of 
independence, 307; introduces resolutions 
for independence, 389; assists in framing 
the constitution of Virginia, 436, ix 59, 
207; his confidence in Washington, 250; in 
Congress sides with the New Fngland 
States on the question of the fisheries, x. 
215; proposes to send a body of troops to 
the succor of South Carolina, 315; pro- 
poses to invest Washington with supreme 
power, 50U. 

Lee, William, brother of Arthur, " the unre- 
ceived minister to Prussia," ix. 489; is re- 
pulsed at Berlin, and why, x. 240; is dis- 
missed from office, 241, 2(33. 

Legge, William, afterwards Earl of Dart- 
mouth, chancellor of the exchequer urn lei- 
Newcastle, retires from office, iv. 220; 
chancellor under Pitt, 248; dismissed from 
office, 250; London and other cities vcte 
him their freedom, 272; the king dismisses 
him from office, 390. 

Legislative power, how exercised, ix. 265, 
266 ; two legislative bodies in every state 
but two, 266. 

Legislature, necessity of two branches in it, 
viii. 371. 

Leibnitz, Godfrey William, foretells a general 
overturn in Europe, viii. 364. 

Leicester, in Massachusetts, its patriotic ut- 
terances, vi. 442, 483. 

Leicester House, a name for the partisans of 
George III. before he became king, iv. 162, 
245, 275. 

Leisler, .Jacob, assumes the government of 
New York, with the assent of the humbler 
classes, but opposed by the aristocracy, iii. 
51; takes possession of the fort, 51; refuses 
possession to Ingoldsby, 53 ; his arrest, 
trial, and execution, 54, 55; has the sym- 
pathy of the people, 55. 

Leitch, Major, from Virginia, slain in a skir- 
mish on New York Island, ix. 126-128. 

Lemoine, Charles, iii. 179. (See Iberville.) 

Le Moyne, a Jesuit missionary to the Onon- 
dagas, iii. 142; and Mohawks, 145. 

Lenni Lenape Indians, their location, iii. 239; 
Penn's treaty with them, ii. 381, 382. 

Lenox, in Massachusetts, their patriotic re- 
sponse to the boston circular, vi. 442. 

Leo III., pope, claims superiority over all 
temporal power, x. 65. 

Leon, Juan Ponce de, his earty history, i- 31, 
et seq.; discovers Florida, 33; mortally 
wounded, 34. 

Leonard, Daniel, of Taunton, in Mass., a 
member of a committee appointed by the 
House of Representatives, vii. 02; deceives 
himself, and also the governor, in regard 
to the spirit of the province, 62; his letters 
signed Massachusetten3is," published in 
Draper's paper in Boston, recommend sub- 

mission to the arbitrary acts of the British 
Parliament, 231, 232; they are ably an- 
swered by John Adams, 232-238. 

Leslie, Colonel, his expedition to Salem, vii. 
252; his attack on the Great Bridge near 
Noriblk, viii. 227; retreats to Norfolk, 2-8. 

Leslie, General, his movement, ix. 126; at 
Maidenhead, in New Jersey, 244, 250. 

Le Sueur explores the Northwest, iii. 204; 
succors the French settlement at Natchez, 

Leuthen, great battle of, gained by Frederic 
II., 288, 289. 

Leverett, John, agent of Massachusetts iu 
England, ii. 72. 

Levi, De, assists in the capture of Fort Wil- 
liam Henry, iv. 262, 263, 265; assists in 
the defence of Ticonderoga, 302, 303; at 
Ogdensburgh, 322; attempts to retake 
Quebec, 358; his failure, 359. 

Lewis, Andrew, of Virginia, commands at 
the buttle of Point Pleasant, vii. 108; his 
ill conduct, 169; elected brigadier-general, 
viii. 317; resigns, 318. 

Lewis, Charles, brother of the preceding, 
killed in the battle of Point Pleasant, vii. 

Lewis, of the New York provincial congress, 
viii. 430. 

Lewisburg, the men of South-West Virgini t, 
assemble there in arms, vii. 167; their 
battle with the Indians, 168, 169. 

Lexington, its people resolve to drink no 
more tea, vi. 237; Gage sends an expedi- 
tion to that place and to Concord, vii. 288 
(see Concord); population in 1775, 291; 
spirit of the townsmen, 288; they appear 
in arms at the approach of the British, 
288; they are fired on by the troops at the 
command of Pitcairn, 293 ; seven men of 
Lexington slain, and one of Woburn, 294; 
names of the victims, 293, 294; the Lexing- 
ton company join in the pursuit of the 
British, 305; the consequences, a general 
rising of the people, 310, 312, et seq. ; the 
news received in London, and the effect in 
Europe, 342, et seq. 

Liberal-party, a new one in England, x. 39. 

Liberties of America protected bv Pitt, iv. 
249, 250. 

Liberty, progress of, in Europe, vi. 29, 83, 
91); held to be the inherent right of all 
mankind, 97; stagnant in Europe, 527; 
camp of, near Boston, vii. 321, et seq.; 
Dr. Richard Price's able pamphlet on, viii. 
361, 302. 

"Liberty," sloop, her cruise on Lake Cham- 
plain, 364. 

"Liberty of prophesying," what, i. 284; de- 
manded by the Puritans, 284; severelv 
punished, 286, 289. 

Liberty of the press infringed in Boston, iii. 
375, 376; infringed in New York, 393; 
vindicated, 394; defended by Franklin, 395. 

Liberty-tree in Boston, v. 310; Oliver hung 
there in effigy, 310; splendid scene there 
after the repeal of the stamp act, 458; pub- 
lic meeting there, vi. 473. 



Lillie, Theophilus, a grocer in Boston, sells 
contrary to the agreement, vi. 333; blood 
shed in consequence, 334. 

Lillington, of Wilmington, North Carolina, 
brings a re-enforcement to Colonel Moore, 
viii. 285; joins General Caswell, 287. 

Lincoln, General Benjamin, at Boundbrook, 
New Jersey, ix. 346 ; is sent to the aid of 
the northern army, 374; at Manchester, 
Vermont, 408 ; arrives in the camp of 
Gates, 414; does not appear on the field of 
battle, 418; his character, x. 287; takes 
command in South Carolina, 287; his 
operations there, 289, el seq. ; besieges Sa- 
vannah and fails, 296 ; retreats to Charles- 
ton, 298; sustains a siege there, 302; 
amount of his force, 302; his measures for 
the defenee of the city, 303; his indecision, 
304; he surrenders, 305. 

Lincoln minute men at Concord, vii. 298; 
pursuit of the British through this town, 

Linzee, captain of the "Falcon," beaten off 
from Gloucester, viii. 65. 

Lippincott, Captain, a murderer, x. 562. 

Lisle, his patriotism, x. 313. 

Literature of England, v. 44, 45. 

Little, Colonel Moses, a portion of his regi- 
ment are in Bunker Hill battle, vii. 

Livingston, Colonel James, of New York, as- 
sisted by Major Brown, captures Chambly, 
viii. 186; is sent to watch Maclean ap- 
proaching from Quebec, 187; joins in the 
attack on Quebec, 206. 

Livingston, Henry, colonel of a New York 
regiment, ix. 409. 

Livingston, Peter Van Brugh, of New York, 
vii. 78, 80. 

Livingston, Philip, of New York, iv. 371; 
his patriotic motion, vi 272; loses his elec- 
tion, 272; vii. 79, 108; member of the First 
Continental Congress, 131; president of 
the convention of New York, 283. 

Livingston, Philip, of Brooklyn, delegate in 
Congress from New York, ix. 60; council 
of war at his house, 102. 

Livingston, Robert, of New York, a stanch 
patriot, foresees his countrj r 's indepen- 
dence, viii. 179; his death, 179. 

Livingston, Robert, grandson of the preced- 
ing, opposes in Congress the resolution for 
independence, viii. 390. 

Livingston, Robert R., viii 178; Montgomery 
marries his daughter, 178; one of the com- 
mittee to prepare a declaration of inde- 
pendence, 392. 

Livingston, Robert R., of Dutchess County, 
N. Y., iv. 371; his utterances on the news 
of colonial taxation, v. 198; elected to the 
Second Continental Congress, vii. 284; 

E resent there, 353; Washington's letter to 
im, x. 419; proposes in Congress resolu- 
tions on maritime rights, 428; administers 
for Congress the department of foreign 
affairs, 501. 
Livingston, William, iv. 371; a popular 
lawyer, 429; of New York, one of the 

patriotic triumvirate of lawyers, vi. 141, 
and note; his impassioned appeal, 141. 

Livingston, William, of New Jersey, chosen 
delegate to the general Congress, vii. 83; 
present there, 131; in Congress, viii. 315, 
328; his sympathy for Washington, ix. 
198; governor, of New Jersey, is hostile to 
slavery, x. 358. 

Livingston family in New York, vii. 76- 

Lloyd, David, a political scold, iii. 38, 44. 

Lloyd, Thomas, a Quaker preucher, president 
of the council in Pennsylvania, iii. 35. 

Loan from France obtained, x. 446 ; absolute- 
ly necessary, 446 ; wrong use made of this 
loan, 447. 

Locke, John, his character, ii. 144 ; frames a 
constitution for Carolina, 145; landgrave 
of Carolina, 168; his constitution abrogated, 
iii. 15. 

Logan, James, secretary of Pennsylvania, 
calls the attention of the British govern- 
ment to the encroachments of the French, 
iii. 345 ; his character of Franklin, 377 ; 
complains of the rising spirit of liberty, 
394, 395. 

Logan ( Ta/i-gah-jute), a chief of the Cayugas, 
but leading the Shawanese, the friend of 
the white man, some of his kindred slain, 
vii. 165; he determines on revenge, 166; 
his earlier history, 166 ; he takes revenge, 
166; his celebrated speech, not spoken, 
however, 170. 

London intercedes for America, vii. 282 ; the 
king frowns on the attempt, 282; address 
to the corporation of London from New 
York, 330; sorrow in London on hearing 
of the slaughter at Lexington and Con- 
cord, 343; address of the citizens to the 
king, 346; address of Congress to, viii. 

London Virginia Company, the, chartered, i. 
120; the charter revoked, 192. 

Long Island, the inhabitants disinclined to 
the cause of libertv, viii. 274; disarming of 
the Tories there, 276; battle of, ix. 82-96; 
landing of the British and Hessian troops, 
83; their numbers and equipment, 85; 
American force, its amount, 86; their posi- 
tions, 86 ; the Americans defeated with 
great loss, 92-94; British loss, 95; Ameri- 
can loss, 95; sufferings of the American 
troops, 97, 98, 101 ; they retreat without 
further loss, 103, 104; erroneous account 
of the retreat, 105; the errors corrected, 
100, 107; the retreat Washington's own 
measure, the design and proposal originated 
with him, 107. 

Lords of trade, what, iv. 17; their powers, 
18; could advise, but not execute, 18. 

Loudoun, Earl of, made commander-in-chief, 
"viceroy," and governor of Virginia, iv. 
228 ; clothed with despotic power, 229 ; his 
cruel treatment of Acadians, 206; his 
slackness, 237; his cowardice, 240; de- 
mands free quarters for his troops in New 
York, 240 ; his rude language to the mayor, 
240; and in Philadelphia, 241; impresses 
four hundred men at New York, 256 ; sails 



for Halifax, 257; has a large army there, 
258; accomplishes nothing, and returns to 
New York, 258; stays there doing nothing, 
267; attempts to overawe the continent, 
268; is recalled, 290. 

Louis XIV. of France, governed by Madame 
de Maintenon, ii. 175 ; revokes the edict of 
Nantz, 177; an absolute monarch, iii. 115; 
claims a large part of North America, 118; 
his bounty to a French colony, 171, 199; 
takes up arms in behalf of James II., 175; 
encourages the slave-trade, 187; his humi- 
liation, 225 ; his last days, 323. 

Louis XV., of France, disclaims hostile inten- 
tions, iv. 90, 177 ; exasperated against Eng- 
land, 218 ; his licentiousness and profligacy, 
2K0; his cordial understanding with George 
III., vi. 422; his arrogant spirit, 422; his 
oppressive, rule, 423; his licentious course 
of life. 423; his arbitrary rule, vii. 30; his 
enslavement to pleasure, 30; courts the 
friendship of George III-, 30; Madame de 
Pompadour rules, 30. 

Louis XVI. of France, ascends the throne, 
vii. 32; joy at his accession, 32; holds that 
the king alone should reign, 33 ; his char- 
acter, 80; his choice of ministers deter- 
mined by his aunts, 87; sends an emissary 
to America, 352; has confused ideas about 
the American struggle, and can come to no 
decision, viii. 329; his sluggish disposition, 
ix. 69 ; not ready for war with England, 
69; has no sympathy with America, 233; 
his weakness, 294, 295; determines to ac- 
knowledge and support American inde- 
pendence, 480; he receives the American 
commissioners, 489; his peevishness, 490; 
a mere child, x. 45; his limited under- 
standing, 40 ; his weakness, 445. 

Louisburg, fortified, iii. 235; capture of, by 
New England troops, 457, el seq. ; strength 
of the fortifications, 459; the surrender, 
462; expedition to, in 1758, iv. 294; the 
troops land, 295; the garrison surrenders, 
296 ; the town is deserted, 296. 

Louisiana, colonized by the French, iii. 202 ; 
insalubrity of the climate, 204; the colo- 
nists isolated and unhappy, 206; its extent 
as claimed by the French, 343, 347 ; the 
cob my not prosperous, 348; the Mississippi 
scheme, 349 ; tales of the wealth of Louisi- 
ana, 351 ; arrival of a colony from France, 
352; the Del Norte the western boundary, 
353; when half a century had elapsed, still 
a wilderness, 369; surrendered to Spain, 
v. 193 ; a republic installed there, vi. 219 ; 
the Spanish government expelled,^ 220; 
Spain resolves' to repossess it, 201; French 
statesmen desire that it may be free, and 
the reason why, 263; is conquered by 
Spain, and the" inhabitants treated with 
great cruelty, 292, el seq. 
Lovelace, Colonel, governor of New York, his 

arbitrary conduct, ii- 321, iii. 64. 
Lovell, delegate from Massachusetts, praises 
Gates and disparages Washington, ix. 456; 
his abusive language, 457. 
Low, Isaac, of New York, vii. 43; a Tory at 

heart, yet elected to Congress, 79 ; not re- 
elected, 283. 
Lowell, John, of Boston, an able lawyer and 

zealous abolitionist, x. 361. 
Lowndes, Bawlins, of South Carolina, elected 
speaker of their assembly, vi. 447; his 
noble conduct as a magistrate, 471 ; defeats 
the design of arresting the royal govern-, 
or, viii. 89; in favor of delay in instituting 
government, 347, x. 154; superseded as 
governor of South Carolina, 288; his 
cowardly behavior, 330. 
Loyal addresses from England received by 

the ministry, viii. 145. 
Loyalists in North Carolina, their military 
operations, viii. 284-288; their defeat, 
289; of Boston recommend unqualified sub- 
mission, vii. 69; their spirit as interpreted 
by Daniel Leonard, 231; they induce Gage 
to detain the loyal people as hostages, 321. 
Loyalists, American, nothing can be done for 

them, and why, x. 555. 580, 5S6. 
Loyalty to England disappears from the 

American heart, and why, x. 140. 
Ludwell, Philip, sent as governor to restore 
order in South Carolina, iii. 14; but in 
vain, 14. 
Luther, Martin, influences all Europe, i. 200 ; 
discountenanced harsh proceedings, 274; 
contrasted with Calvin, 277, 278; his coun- 
sel to the peasants of Suabia, 298; brought 
to light truths which elevated and ennobled 
humanity, iv. 151, 152; his teachings and 
their effect, x. 75; he justified slavery, 340. 
Luthcranism, its wide extent, x 79, el seq. 
Luttrell, the seat of Wilkes in Parliament 

given to him, vi. 275. 
Luttrell, Henry Temple, replies to Burgoyne 

in the House of Commons, vii. 246. 
Lygonia, or the plough patent, i. 336 ; pur- 
chased by Rigby, 429 ; absorbed by Massa- 
chusetts, 430. 
Lyman, Phinehas, of Connecticut, major- 
general of New England troops iv. 207. 
Lynch, Thomas, of South Carolina, vi. 380; 
"a member of the first continental congress, 
vii. 81, 127, 129; one of a committee of 
Congress to visit the camp at Cambridge, 
viii. Ill; opposed to independence, 244; 
member of a committee sent to New York, 
279; on slavery, ix. 52. 
Lyttleton, George, lord, of the treasury board, 
iv. 54, 100, 103; chancellor of the excheq- 
uer, 179, 231; speaks in Parliament in 
favor of taxing America, v. 402; his speech 
in the House of Commons against the 
Americans, viii. 161. 
Lyttleton. Richard, brother of the preced- 
ing;, governor of South Carolina, iv. 179, 
243; his overbearing conduct, 270, 340; 
provokes a war with the Cherokees, 340, 
342; hinders supplies from being sent to 
them, 344; the assembly and council op- 
pose his measures, 345.347; his perfidy, 
345, 347 ; he invades the Cherokee country, 
348; his unreasonable demands, 349; is 
transferred to the government of Jamaica, 
351 ; advises colonial taxation, 380. 



Littleton, Lord Thomas, reproaches Chat- 
ham, and speaks against the Americans, 
vii. 202. 

McArthur, Neil, a Highlander of North Caro- 
lina, viii. 284. 

Macaulay's opinion of Lord North, x. 531. 

Maccall, Major, of Georgia, joins Morgan. 
x. 400; makes a successful charge, 461. 

McClary; Andrew, major in Stark's regiment, 
is killed bv a chance shot on the day of 
Bunker Hill, vii. 433. 

McCrea, Jane, murder of, ix. 371, 372. 

Macdaniel, killed in the attack on Fort Moul- 
trie, viii. 407. 

Macdonald, Allan and Flora, settlers in 
Kingsborough, North Carolina, viii. 94; 
their character and previous history, 94; 
he takes sides with the royal governor 
against the country, 94; receives a com- 
mission to raise a body of Highlanders, 
283; marches for Wilmington, 284; is de- 
feated and a prisoner, 289. 

Macdonald, Donald, commissioned as briga- 
dier of Highlanders in North Carolina, viii. 
284; marches for Wilmington, 285; his 
message to Colonel Moore, 285; goes to 
encounter Caswell, 286; is defeated and a 
prisoner, 288, 289. 

McDougal, a brave " Son of Liberty " in New 
York, vi. 481; imprisoned for libel, vi. 332, 
365, 385. 

Macdougal, Alexander, a leading patriot at 
New York, vii. 40, 78, 79, 80. 283,329 ; in the 
New York assembly, viii. 215 ; concurs with 
Jay in his prudent policy, 274 ; at Brooklyn, 
advises a retreat, ix. 102; superintends the 
embarkation, 103; his brigade employed to 
secure Washington's rear, 175; occupies 
Chatterton Hill, 181; is attacked there by 
superior numbers, 181 ; at Peekskill is 
compelled to burn the magazine, 345; at 
Germantown, 424; does not assist in the 
battle, 427. 

Macdowell, colonel of North Carolina militia, 
forced to retreat beyond the Alleghanies, 
x. 334. 

McGinnes, of New Hampshire, killed, iv. 

Machenry, Doctor, at Monmouth, x. 131, 

Mackean (see McKean). 

McKean, Thomas, delegate to Congress from 
Delaware, viii. 75 ; is warmly in favor of 
independence, 368, 437; presides at the 
provincial conference, of Pennsylvania, 
445, 446. 

Mackenzie, John, of South Carolina, vi. 386. 

Mackinaw (see Michilimackinac). 

Mackinaw, strength of the garrison in Pon- 
tiac's war, v. 121; taken by the Indians, 
122; horrid scenes at the capture, 122. 

Mackintosh, Peter, a blacksmith of Boston, 
leader in the riots there, v. 375. 

Mackintosh, of South Carolina, his advice, 
x. 304. 

Maclean, Alexander, assists Governor Mar- 
tin in stirring up the Highlanders of North 
Carolina, viii. 2t3. 

Maclean, Allan, of Torloish, Scotland, is sent 
over to North Carolina, vii. 282. 

Maclean, Colonel Allan, in Canada, tries in 
vain to form a junction with Carleton, viii. 
187; retires to Quebec, 187, 196. 

McLellan, of Pennsylvania, lieutenant in 
Arnold's expedition against Quebec, taken 
severely ill on the way, viii. 194; dies, 

Macleod, Alexander, of the Scottish High- 
landers, in North Carolina, viii. 94. 

Macleod, Donald, of North Carolina, viii. 
284; commands the insurgent Highlanders, 
288; attacks the patriot army, and is mor- 
tally wounded, 289. 

Macpherson, Captain, aid-de-camp of Mont- 
gomery, a young officer of great promise in 
the northern army, viii. 184 ; slain in the 
assault on Quebec, 208; left not his like 
behind him, 211. 

Maddock's Mill, meeting at, vi. 36. 

Madison, James, his childhood, iv. 136; lieu- 
tenant-colonel, commands a party sent to 
seize the powder of the province, vii. 114; 
in the Virginia convention, viii. 378; pro- 
poses equal religious freedom, 380: favors 
a strong government, x. 424, 502, 571. 

Madison and Hamilton compared, x. 570. 

Magaw, Colonel of a Pennsylvania regiment, 
ix. 98; retreats from Long Island, 103; 
commands at Fort Washington, 179, 184; 
supposes the fort can stand a long siege, 
188; he makes a gallant defence, 190-192; 
surrenders, 193. 

Magistracy of France, their position in 1774, 
vii. 28, 29. 

Maine, its coast explored by the French, i. 
27; by Gosnold, 112: by Pring, 114; by 
Weymouth, 114; the French settlement on 
Mount Desert, 27, 28; they are dislodged 
by Argal, 148; colony at Sagadahoc, 268; 
part of the territory granted to the Plym- 
outh colonv, 320; and part to Gorges, 
328; colony at Saco, 330; at Pemaquid, 
331 ; design of these settlements, 331 ; mul- 
tiplied grants of the territory, 335: slow- 
progress of settlement, and why, 336; no 
efficient government, 337 ; not admitted to 
the New England confederacy, 422; ab- 
sorbed by Massachusetts, 430; the royal 
commissioners in Maine, ii. 86; population 
in 1675, 93; trade and business, 93; Indian 
war in 1676, 109, 110; Maine separated 
from Massachusetts by the privy council, 
113; this measure defeated by that colony, 
113 ; Maine becomes a province of Massa- 
chusetts, 114; its frontier laid waste by 
Indians, 431; again laid waste, iii. 183, 
212, 333 (see Abenahis, also see Rasley). 

Maintenon, Madame de, mistress of Louis 
XIV., ii. 175 ; her early history, 175 ; gov- 
erns the king, 175, 177 ; forsakes him, iii. 

Maitland, British general, comes to the relief 
of Savannah, x. 296 ; repels the besiegers, 

Major-generals elected by the continental 
congress, viii. 26 ; their names, 26, et seq. 



Malcolm, Daniel, of Boston, a stubborn patri- 
ot, refuses to have his house searched, vi. 31 ; 
moves thanks in town meeting, 13!) ; leads 
the people in the riot of the tenth of June, 
1768, 156 ; arretted by the crown officers, 

Malcolm, John, a Scotchman, tarred and 
feathered in boston, vi. 493. 

Maiden offers its blood and treasure in the 
cause of liberty, vi. 483. 

Malesherbes, Christian William, exiled by 
Louis XV., vi. 423, viii. 330, 362, ix. 293; 
what he said of Franklin, 492. 

Manchester, Duke of, his speech against the 
war with America, viii. 164. 

Mandamus councillors for Massachusetts, the 
king makes out a list of them, vii. 58; they 
fare hardly in that province, 103-105; in a 
state of alarm, they resign their commis- 
sions, or take to flight, 103-105; more 
resignations, 111, 115, 116. 

Manhattan visited by Hudson, ii. 268; by 
Adriaen Block, 275*; settlement begun, 

Manigault, Judith, her sufferings for religion, 
ii. 180. 

Manly, John, American naval commander, 
his success in taking prizes, viii. 217. 

Mansfield, Earl of (see Murray, William). 

Manslield, Earl of (William Murray), his 
elaborate speech in Parliament on the right 
of that, body to tax America, v. 405-413; 
his reasoning accepted as unanswerable, 
413 ; is in favor of coercion, 412 ; he and Ed- 
mund Burke found the new Tory party of 
England, 418; its impersonation, 419; his 
desperate counsel in regard to America, vi. 
182; his plea in behalf of arbitrary power, 
323, 324; in a debate "breathes out 
threatenings and slaughter " against Bos- 
ton, 518; in Parliament denies having ad- 
vised the duty on tea, vii. 226 ; he praises 
the Boston port bill and the regulating act, 
226 ; is charged by Shelburne with telling 
a lie, 227 ; his cruel and unrighteous pro- 
ceeding as a judge, 344; his atrocious 
speech in the House of Lords, viii. 170, 
171 ; ridicules the idea of suspending hos- 
tilities, 301; his heartless indifference 
when Chatham was struck with death, ix. 

Manufactures, colonial, frowned upon by 
England, iv. 63, 64, 150. 

Manufactures in England in 1763, v. 54; the 
cotton manufacture then unknown, 55; the 
manufacture of iron and clay scarcely be- 
gun, 55 ; domestic manufactures proposed 
in the colonies, 288; colonial manufactures 
forbidden by law, 266, 267, 287; restraints 
on American, vi. 71; a flagrant violation of 
national right, 71. 

Marblehead, its inhabitants respond to the 
Boston circular, vi. 431, 437; the board of 
customs transferred to that place, vii 34; 
its people make generous offers to Boston, 
67 ; Leslie with his command lands in Mar- 
blehead, 252; its fishermen man the boats 
at the crossing of the Delaware, ix. 230. 

Marchant, of Rhode Island, votes for limiting 
Washington's powers, ix. 433. 

Marest, Gabriel, Jesuit missionary in Hud- 
son's Bay and Illinois, iii. 196, 197. 

Marest, Joseph, Jesuit missionary among the 
Sioux, iii. 243. 

" Margaretta," a king's cutter, captured by a 
party from Machias, vii. 341, 342. 

Maria Theresa, empress of Austria, x. 53; is 
averse to the American cause, 245. 

Maria Theresa, queen of Hungary, caresses 
Madame de Pompadour, the French king's 
mistress, iv. 278. 

Marie Antoinette, queen of France, her char- 
acter, vii. 31; her levity, 31; calumniated, 
32; a friend to America, x. 45, 111, 112, 
187; gives birth to a daughter, 216; and 
to a son, 216. 

Marion, Francis, iv. 348, 423, 426, viii. 90; 
assists in the defence of Fort Moultrie, 402 ; 
sent to watch the enemy, x. 317 ; his noble 
character, 331; captures a British tone, 
331; exerts a good influence, 331; his fur- 
ther successes as a partisan, 341; his mercy 
to the enemy, 342, 485, 488, 493. 

Maritime restrictions of Carthage, i. 213; of 
Spain and Portugal, 213; the freedom of 
the sea vindicated by Grotius,214; and by 
the Dutch, 215; the navigation act of the 
English Parliament in 1651, 212; another 
in 1660, ii. 42; this policy permanently 
established in England, i. 218; further 
maritime restrictions, ii. 104, 105 ; absurdity 
of the system of monopoly, 110, 113; led 
to the decay of commerce, 113; a fruitful 
source of national animosity, 114, 116. 

Markham, Archbishop of York, recommends 
American reconstruction, ix. 324. 

Markham, William, deputy-governor for 
Penn, of Pennsylvania, ii. 364, 381; of 
Delaware, iii. 35; of Pennsylvania, 40. 

Marlborough, Mass., its patriotic response to 
the Boston circular, vi. 442. 

Marquette, James, missionary to the Chippe- 
ways in Michigan, iii. 152; resolves to 
discover the Mississippi, 153; gathers a 
village of Indians in Northern Michigan, 
155; discovers the Mississippi river, 155; 
the Missouri, the Ohio, and the Arkansas, 
159; his death, 161. 

Marshall, John, afterwards chief-justice of 
the United States, serves as a lieutenant 
at Great Bridge, viii. 226; commands a 
Virginia regiment in the battle of Brandy- 
wine, 397; in the battle of Germantown, 
427, note. 

Martha's Vineyard plundered by a British 
armament, x. 149. 

Martial law proclaimed by Lord Dunmore in 

Virginia, viii. 223. 
Martin, Josiah, royal governor of North 
Carolina, condemns the course pursued 
towards the ''Regulators," vi. 400; 
seeks to obstruct the progress of liberty, 
vii. 271 a; his disappointment and alarm, 
373, 374; sends his wife to New York 
for safety, 335; thinks Charleston ought 
to be destroyed, viii. 91; takes refuge 



first in a British fort, 92; his insult- 
ing proclamation, 90; excites the High- 
landers against the patriots, 94, 96; organ- 
izes an insurrection in North Carolina, 283; 
the insurrection is crushed. 288-290, wit- 
nesses the unsuccessful attack on Fort 
Moultrie, 411 ; arrives in New York Bay, 
ix 82. 

Martinieo captured by the English, iv. 436. 

Maryland, its territory originally included in 
Virginia, i. 236; a grant of it to Lord Bal- 
timore, 241; boundaries assigned to it by 
charter, 241; whence the name, 242; ab- 
solute authority conferred on the proprie- 
tary, 242; yet the liberties of the people 
secured, 242; perfect religious equality, 
243; no power reserved to the monarch, 
243 ; the first emigration, 246 ; rapid prog- 
ress of the settlement, 247; peace inter- 
rupted by Clayborne, 249; a declaration of 
rights adopted, 251 ; liberty and happiness 
of the people, 2-32, an Indian war, 253; 
Clayborne returns from England, and ex- 
cites a rebellion, 254; the governor flees to 
Virginia, 255; the toleration act, 256; the 
legislative body divided into an upper and 
a lower house, 257; disputes about the 
government, 258; Clayborne, as commis- 
sioner from the Long Parliament, sus- 
pends the authority of the proprietary, 
251); his patent confirmed by Cromwell, 
261; the right of jurisdiction still disputed, 
263; the assembly assert the superior 
power of the people, 2G4 ; condition of 
Maryland in 1660, ii. 234; the proprietary 
government re-established, 236; its policy 
mild and generous, 236; emigration en- 
couraged, 230 ; sufferings of the Quakers, 
237 ; residence of Charles Calvert in the 
province, 237; money coined there, 238; 
importation of felons prohibited, 240; the 
party of Bacon (of Virginia) obtains a 
lodgment in the province, 241 ; restrictions 
laid on suffrage, 241; insurrection, 242; 
struggle of the English church in Mary- 
land for an establishment, 242; the prov- 
ince suffers from the commercial policy of 
England, 243; a struggle for liberty, 244; 
the northern boundary of Maryland settled, 
394; population in 1688,450; a majority 
Protestants, 454; effect of the English 
revolution of 1688, iii. 30; the " Protestant 
Association," 30; Maryland made a royal 
government, 31; Annapolis made the capi- 
tal, 31; Protestantism triumphant, 31; 
Church of England established by law, 32; 
Catholics disfranchised, 32; missionaries 
come from New England, 32; power of the 
proprietary restored, 33; manufactures 
attempted, 33; white servants, 33; educa- 
tion, 34; population in 1710,34; restless- 
ness, 395 ; does nothing to repel the French 
from her borders, iv. 113; population in 
1754, 129, 130; its social condition, 137; 
prerogatives of Lord Baltimore, 138; cor- 
rupt state of society, 138, 139 ; spirit of 
freedom, 373; the province receives a rep- 
rimand from the young king, 441, 442; its 

frontiers ravaged by Indians in Pontiac's 
war, v. 124; the stamp act resisted, 315; 
approves the proceedings of Massachusetts, 
vi. 167; its promptness in choosing dele- 
gates to the continental congress, vii. 66; 
contributes to the relief of Boston, 74; high 
spirit of the province, 142; burning of the 
brig "Peggy Stewart " at Annapolis, with 
a ton of tea, 143; general convention of the 
people, 172; their patriotic resolves, 172, 
207; military organization, 207; wish for 
reconciliation to England, 334; volunteer 
troops from it join the army belbre Boston, 
viii. 63; unanimity of the province, 75; its 
conservative policy, 76; the population to 
be armed, 76; equality restored to the 
Catholics, 76, 78; resolute spirit of the 
colony, 77, 78; casts off the proprietary 
government, 78; establishes a temporary 
government, 78; issues bills of credit, 78; 
convention at Annapolis, ~8; its spirit 
averse to separation from England, 244; 
the proprietary interest dominant, 313; the 
province still hopes for a reunion with 
Britain, 385; in June, 1776, the province 
de lared unanimously for independence, 
446,447; a government to be formed by 
the authority of the people only, 447; re- 
nounces allegiance to George lit., ix. 32; 
has a grudge against Virginia, 56; a regi- 
ment of very brave troops from this state 
on Long Island, 88, 93, 94, 103 ; the state 
is willing to abandon the Declaration of 
Independence, 199; constitution of civil 
government, 262; great inequality of rep- 
resentation, 265; the state seeks to re- 
strain popular power, 266 ; public worship, 
how sustained, 276 ; disposition of church 
property, 277; disaffection on the eastern 
shore, 392. 

Mason, Charles, and Jeremiah Dixon, sur- 
veyors, their line (Mason and Dixon's line) 
established, ii. 394. 

Mason, George, of Virginia, foretells the dire 
consequences of slavery, vi. 417, 418; an 
eminent patriot, vii. 53 ; drafts a series of 
patriotic resolutions, 74; is elected to Con- 
gress, but declines, viii. 81; member of 
the Virginia convention, 379, 436; his ex- 
alted character, 379; and influence, 379; 
has the principal share in framing the con- 
stitution of Virginia. 436; a correspondent 
of Washington, x. 207; his vehement de- 
nunciation of slavery, 354. 

Mason, John, commander in the Pequod 
war, i. 399; successfully nssails the Pequod 
Fort, 400 ; unites his efforts with Gorges, 
328; obtains a grant of territory in New 
England, 328; takes out a new ""patent, 
328; extends his claims, 329; complains of 
the Massachusetts people, 405; his death, 
329, 409; his claim revived, ii. 115. 

Mason, Robert (formerly Robert Tufton), 
grandson of the preceding, ii. 115; selects 
a governor for New Hampshire, 110; de- 
rives no benefit from lawsuits in his behalf, 
118; his sons sell his claim to Samuel 
Allen, of London, iii. 82. 



Mascoutins, iii. 155, 156, 242. 

Massachusetts, its coast explored by Gos- 
nold, i. 112; by De Monts, 20; by Pring, 
114 ; by Smith, 209 ; included in the char- 
ter of the Plymouth company, 272 ; land- 
ing of the Pilgrims, 309 (sec Pilgrims) ; its 
soil claimed, in part, by Gorges and Mason. 
328; charter of the Massachusetts com- 
pany, 328, 340 ; names of the patentees, 340 ; 
the king confirms the patent, 342 ; provi- 
sions of the charter, 342; its fundamental 
principle, 343 ; seal of the colony, 346 ; 
the charter and government transferred to 
America, 352 ; Winthrop's company em- 
bark, 355; their farewell to England, 356, 
357 ; their numbers, 355, 357 ; their char- 
acter, 357; their arrival in Salem, 358; 
great suffering and mortality, 360; the 
oath of fidelity, 362 ; none to he freemen 
but members of the church, 362* ; a repre- 
sentative government, 363 ; friendly rela- 
tions with the natives, 363 ; new emigrants 
arrive, 364 ; the ballot-box introduced, 366 ; 
democracy, 367 ; religious union, 368 ; a 
proposal for a hereditary nobility declined, 
385 ; the Antinomian controversy, 386 ; 
Ann Hutchinson and John Wheelwright, 
388 ; Henry Vane, 388 ; emigration from 
Massachusetts to Connecticut, 395 ; Massa- 
chusetts participates in the Pequod war, 
399, 401 ; efforts of the enemies of the 
colony in England, 405 ; ships bound to 
Massachusetts detained, 406 ; her liberties 
threatened, 407; the colony prepares for 
resistance, 407; restraints placed on emi- 
gration, 408 ; a quo warranto issued, 409 ; 
the writ disregarded, 413; Massachusetts 
threatens to declare itself independent, 
413; its virtual independence, 415; and 
great prosperity, 415 ; population in 1041, 
415 ; the protection of Parliament declined, 
416; ministers decline to attend the West- 
minster Assembly, 416 ; Parliament favors 
the colony, 416 * ; the " Body of Liberties " 
established, 416 * ; its provisions, 417, et 
seq.; annexation of New Hampshire, 418 * ; 
absorption of Maine, 430 ; toleration of 
dissenters, 432; "a perfect republic," 433; 
exercises the functions of sovereignty, 433; 
its mint, 433 ; its democratical spirit, 433 ; a 
conservative and a liberal party, 434 ; the 
people jealous of the magistrates, 434 ; 
disturbance at Hingham, 435 ; zeal for 
toleration made a pretence for undermining 
the liberties of the country, 437 ; Parlia- 
ment assert a right to control the govern- 
ment of Massachusetts, 439 ; the claim 
resisted, 440 ; the true idea of the de- 
pendence of the colony on the mother 
country defined, 440-442 ; a noble remon- 
strance, 441; Cromwell offers the colonists 
estates in Ireland, 444 ; the offer declined, 
444; laws against irreligion and sectarian- 
ism, 450 ; severities against the Quakers, 
452, et seq. ; an issue made between Massa- 
chusetts and England, ii. 41 ; address of 
the colony to Charles II., 71; a declara- 
tion of rights, 73 ; two parties formed, — 

the friends of prerogative and those of 
freedom, 74, 75 ; the king's answer, 75 ; 
his demands resisted, 76 ; commissioners 
sent to regulate the affairs of New Eng- 
land, 77 ; the general court resolve on 
resistance, 79 ; they claim the right of self- 
government, 80 ; remonstrance to the king, 
79-81 ; the commissioners foiled in their 
attempts, 85-87 ; the general court resolve 
to disobey the king, 88 ; the privy council 
overawed, 89, 90 ; prosperity of Massa- 
chusetts, 91 ; its extensive commerce, 91 ; 
population in 1675, 93 ; extent of settle- 
ment at that time, 93 ; the Indian title to 
land always respected, 98 ; the Indian war 
of 1675, 100, etseq. ; its causes, 98, 99 ; hor- 
rors of the war, 103, etseq. ; " Great Swamp 
Eight," 105; great distress on both sides, 
106, 107 ; end of the war, 108 ; its cost in life 
and property, 109 ; controversy with Eng- 
land renewed, 111 ; Edward Randolph 
arrives, 111 ; his activity, 112; his exagger- 
ations, 112 ; the colony sends agents to Eng- 
land, 112 ; purchases the rights of Gorges in 
Maine, 113 ; continues the struggle against 
the privy council, 121 ; the colony resolves 
to stand on its charter, 123 ; a quo warranto 
issued, 124 ; the colony refuses to submit 
to the will of the king, 125, et seq.; the 
charter abrogated, 127 ; despotism estab- 
lished, 425 ; liberty recovered, 440 ; re- 
sumption of the charter, 447; population 
in 1088, 450; the political institutions of 
Massachusetts resulted from the Calvinism 
of its founders, 461, et seq. ; effect of the 
English revolution, iii. 71; the popular will 
defeated, and the opportunity lost for re- 
covering chartered rights, 71 ; Massachu- 
setts made dependent on England, 72 ; 
witchcraft, belief in it general, 73 ; con- 
trolling influence of ministers, 74; Massa- 
chusetts seeks a new charter, 79; has 
powerful friends in England, 79 ; the new 
charter compared with the old, 80 ; territory 
of Massachusetts greatly enlarged, 81 ; the 
withcraft delusion, 73-99 (which see); 
claims the right of habeas corpus, 103 ; a de- 
preciated currency, 104; a commercial mo- 
nopoly, 104; the navigation laws, 104 ; the 
governors obliged to enforce the restrictive 
system, 105 ; suggested the lirst American 
Congress, and therefore the parent of the 
American Union, 183 ; sends a fleet and 
army for the conquest of Canada, 185; the 
expedition fails, 186 ; consequent issue of 
paper money, ISO; distress of Massachu- 
setts in "Queen Anne's war," iii. 212, et 
seq.; final conquest of Acadia, 217, 218; 
flourishing condition. of, 369; the charter 
in danger, 380; Massachusetts vindicated, 
381; its territory curtailed, 382; paper 
money, 388, 389 ; Massachusetts refuses a 
fixed salary to its governor, 391, 392; 
petitions Parliament against the king, 392; 
sends an expedition to the capture of 
Louisburg, 458 ; protests against arbitrary 
power, iv. 50; her expenses for the reduc- 
tion of Louisburg refunded, 50; abolishes 



paper currency, 51 ; solicits the interposi- 
tion of the king against French encroach- 
ment, 114; bad character of its governor 
and council, 113, 114 (see Shirley); peti- 
tion to the House of Commons rebuked as 
an insult, 254; disavows a desire for in- 
dependence, 209 ; heavy self-imposed tax- 
ation, 202; a self-imposed stamp-tax, 293; 
its military strength, 297; has ten thou- 
sand men in the public service, 297 ; places 
a monument for Lord Howe in Westminster 
Abbey, 301 ; has seven thousand men un- 
der arms, 319 ; Bernard governor, 377 ; 
disavows "subjection to Great Britain," 
378; denies the justice of t.he_ acts of 
trade, and questions their authority, 414 ; 
great speech of James Otis against writs 
of assistance, 415, et seq. ; liberty in peril, 
414, 439 ; right of Britain to tax the col- 
onies denied, 447; the province determined 
to vindicate its rights, 449; its loyalty 
vouched for by Bernard, v. 148; its bound- 
aries settled, 163; proceedings of its gen- 
eral court on taxation by the British 
Parliament, 199; correspondence with the 
other colonies, 200; waives the question of 
right, 224; the spirit of Massachusetts re- 
vives, 273; proposes a congress of the 
American people, 279, 280; its cautious 
proceedings, 202; the people roused, 309, 
et seq. ; Bernard, the governor, essavs to 
frighten the legislature, 329, 330 ; * able 
reply of that body, 347-349 ; Samuel Adams 
the "author, 349 ; arbitrary conduct of its 
governor, Bernard, vi. 8, 9 ; threatened 
with the loss of its charter, 10 ; patriotic 
reply of the house, 12 ; and of the coun- 
cil, 12; the house votes thanks to Pitt, 
Grafton, and others, 13; the enemies of the 
province continue their machinations, 30, 
31, 47, 50 ; the house is willing to grant 
aid to the king's service " of their own free 
accord," but not to be taxed for it, 51 ; the 
province specially obnoxious to the British 
government, 68, 69 ; speech of Charles 
Townshend against it, 75; shameful con- 
duct of the earl of Hillsborough toward it, 
116, 117 ; loading men in the province pro- 
pose resistance, 117, 118; a solemn decla- 
ration of rights, 121 ; remonstrance of the 
province against the oppressive acts of the 
13ritish Parliament, 121, 122; its beautiful 
letter to the king, 123 ; great caution of 
the assembly, 120, 124, 125; a circular 
letter addressed to the other colonies, 125, 
126 ; they enumerate their grievances, 126 ; 
vote against the use of superfluities, 129 ; 
the house requests the recall of Bernard, 
131 ; Hillsborough requires the house to 
rescind its resolves, 144; the king himself 
responsible for this order, 308 ; its petition 
to the king never presented, 144 ; the 
house refuses to rescind, by a large ma- 
jority, 165 ; the governor dissolves the 
assembly, 165; England irritated against 
Massachusetts, 173, 177; Bernard wishes 
to forbid the meeting of the general court, 
194 ; is without a legislature, 194 ; proposal 

for an extension of chartered rights, 195 ; 
the council refuse to provide quarters for 
British troops, 201; a convention of the 
province assembles at Faneuil Hall, 203 ; 
Bernard tries to intimidate them, but in 
vain, 204; their energetic proceedings and 
resolutions, 205; the province on the side 
of law, its enemies law-breakers, 204 ; 
great firmness and prudence of the prov- 
ince, 204, et seq. ; the law officers of Eng- 
land can find no treason in its doings, 200 ; 
its charter to be abrogated, 231 ; this in- 
tention laid aside, 268 ; the ministry will- 
ing to withdraw the troops, 268 ; discontent 
at the presence of the troops, 283 ; alterca- 
tion with the governor, 285, et seq. ; the 
general court adopt the resolutions of 
Virginia, 288; and refuse all supplies to 
the troops, 289 ; Bernard threatens them, 
289; the Boston massacre (see Boston); 
Hutchinson succeeds Bernard as governor, 
303; he convenes the legislature at Cam- 
bridge, 359 ; this body declares a standing 
army in time of peace to be against law, 
300 ; the legislature again convened at 
Cambridge, 364, 367 ; and a third time, 
403 ; the king had ordered it, 307 ; Castle 
William, though the exclusive property of 
the province, taken possession of by'the 
regular troops, at the command of the 
king, 369; efforts of Hillsborough to sub- 
vert its charter, 371 ; the legislature keep 
a day of solemn fasting and prayer, 371 ; 
Hutchinson advises the entire abrogation 
of its charter, 372 ; proposes to exclude it 
from the fisheries, 373 : to seize the leading 
patriots, and especially to punish Boston, 
373 ; protest of the legislature against abuse 
of prerogative, 403 ; and against the king's 
instructions to exempt from taxation cer- 
tain individuals, 404, 405; the legislature 
pass a vote condemnatory of the governor, 
420; the king makes the" judges dependent 
on his mere pleasure, 420, 421; commit- 
tees of correspondence, 429, et seq ; the 
flame spreads, 431; Hutchinson's secret 
letters discovered and sent to Massachu- 
setts, 435, 436 ; general patriotic response 
of eighty towns to the circular of Boston, 
437, et seq. ; 445, et seq. ; Hutchinson 
challenges the legislature to discuss with 
him the supreme power of Parliament, 445 ; 
answer of the council, 448 ; answer of the 
house, 448, 449 ; the towns continue their 
patriotic responses, 446, 447, 452 ; dispute 
of the house with the governor on the de- 
pendence of the judgeSj 452 ; the province 
elects its committee of correspondence, 460; 
the insidious letters of Hutchinson and 
Oliver read to the house, 461 ; and published 
far and wide, 402, et seq. ; vigorous pro- 
ceedings of the committees of correspond- 
ence, 467, 475, et seq. ; the tea thrown 
overboard, 477-487 ; union of the people, 
409,_ 476, 478, 481, 484, 488 ; their resolute 
spirit, 507 ; the ultimatum of America, as 
expressed by Samuel Adams, 508, 509; 
the Boston port bill passes the House of 



Commons, 511, 512 ; and the House of 
Lords, 518 ; other stringent measures 
adopted, 525, 526 ; stringent measures of 
the British ministry against, vii. 34 ; the 
people exclusively of English origin, 38 ; 
George III. approves two acts against; 43; 
legislature of, organized, 47; the royal 
governor, Gage, negatives thirteen council- 
lors out of twenty-eight, 47, 48 ; bills 
passed in Parliament to subvert the char- 
ter, 60, 94, 97 ; Gage removes the legislat- 
ure to Salem, 01 ; and refuses to receive 
the address of the council, 01 ; Massachu- 
setts appoints time and place for the first 
continental congress, G4 ; keeps a day of 
fasting and prayer, 83; the act for better 
regulating the province subversive of the 
charter and liberties of the people, 95 ; 
sweeps away all authority but that of the 
king, 96 ; tramples on all the affections, 
laws, customs, and privileges of the people, 
96; requires Boston to pay for the tea 
thrown overboard, 96 ; and the province 
peacefully to acquiesce in the loss of its 
charter, 97 ; two other acts confer on Gage 
absolute power to enforce the preceding 
and all other acts, at his discretion, 97 ; the 
question between Britain and America 
wholly changed, 97 ; general spirit of re- 
sistance, 100, et seq. ; estimated population 
of the province, and of men able to bear 
arms, 101 ; delegates of Massachusetts are 
received with high respect as they pass 
through Connecticut, 106, 107; convention 
of three counties in Boston, 109 ; Gage 
seizes the powder of the province at Char- 
lestown, 114 ; the people of Middlesex 
county rise in indignation, 114, 115; in 
Worcester and Hampshire counties, and 
in Connecticut, 120, 121, 122 ; royal author- 
ity ceases outside of Boston," 121 ; the 
wealthy royalists flee to Boston, 122; 
Massachusetts wishes to resume its first 
charter, 124 ; the resistance of the province 
to Parliament approved by the continental 
congress, 134, 145 ; the " minute-men," 137 ; 
Gage dares not meet the legislature, 138; 
this body applies to Congress for advice, 142; 
the house of representatives resolves itself 
into a provincial congress, 153; it remon- 
strates with Gage, 154; the province con- 
forms to the second charter, 155 ; destitute 
of all government, yet in perfect tranquil- 
lity ; the people a law to themselves, 184 ; 
admirable conduct of the clergy, 184, 185; 
magnanimity of Boston, 185; Massachu- 
setts declared to be in a state of rebel- 
lion, 222 ; stringent measures against her, 
222 ; the provincial congress appoints a 
committee of safety, 228; elects general 
officers, 228 ; their measures for defence, 
229, 230; Massachusetts receives intelli- 
gence of the violent measures adopted in 
England, 278; precautions against Indian 
hostility, 279, 280 ; preparations for war, 
280, 281; scanty means, 281; the conflicts 
at Lexington and Concord, 292, et seq. ; 
people rush to the camp of liberty, 313 ; 

an army to be raised, 314; slender supplv 
of military stores, 314; personal character 
of the men composing the army of Massa- 
chusetts, 317 ; difficulties of the men at the 
head of affairs, 321 ; want of union and 
discipline in the army, 322 ; financial diffi- 
culties, 323; state of the currency, 323 ; no 
proper organization for government, 324 
(see Provincial Congress) ; the continental 
Congress unanimously approve the con- 
duet of Massachusetts, 357; the province 
asks the advice of Congress in regard to a 
form of government, 324, 357, 388 ; invites 
Congress to assume the army then be- 
sieging Boston,389 ; the Massachusetts dele- 
gates and leading men nominate Washing- 
ton as commander-in-chief ; Samuel Adams 
and John Hancock proscribed by Gage, 
391; the people choose a house of repre- 
sentatives according to their charter, viii. 
47, 48 ; the royal government wholly super- 
seded, and a new seal adopted for the com- 
monwealth, 48; the army sustained by 
voluntary contributions of' the people, 49; 
their character imperfectly understood by 
Washington, 41, 49; their untiring zeal 
and great exertions, 49, 50; institutes ad- 
miralty courts, 136; militia from Massa- 
chusetts called out to re-enforce the army at 
Cambridge, 219; Massachusetts keeps" up 
the numbers of the army, 233 ; the militia 
praised by Washington, 234 ; the people, 
in their town meetings, declare for inde- 
pendence almost unanimously, 438 ; wel- 
comes the Declaration of Independence, ix. 
36; three thousand of her soldiers return 
home, 197 ; her form of government from 
1775 to 1780, 260 ; education of the whole 
people provided for, 270 ; public worship, 
how sustained, 276 ; sends aid to the north- 
ern army, 384, 387; the richest state in 
the Union, x. 171 ; raises soldiers by 
draft, 206 ; refuses to give up the fisheries, 
215, 216, 218; vainly endeavors to recover 
Castine, 233; how far slavery was toler- 
ated, 360; laws in relation to it, 360; cau- 
tious steps towards abolition, 361, et seq. ; 
slavery finally abolished, and how, 304- 
367; made a free republic, 364; caution 
in establishing a form of government, 363, 
et seq. ; excellence of its constitution, 367 ; 
consents to a national debt, 571. 

Massachusetts Fort in Williamstown capitu- 
lates, iii. 463. 

Massachusetts tribe of Indians, iii. 238. 

Massacre of the Huguenots in Florida, i. 70 ; 
of the Virginia colonists, 182; a second 
massacre, 208. 

Massacre of Hurons by Iroquois, iii. 139; of 
inhabitants of Montreal by Iroquois. 179. 

Massacre of English at Lancaster, i. 106; 
at Schenectadv, iii. 182; at Oyster river, 
187 ; at DeeVfield, 213 ; at " Haverhill, 
215; in North Carolina, 320; in South 
Carolina, 327 ; of the French bv the 
Natchez, 360; at Wyoming, x. 137; at 
Cherry Valley, 152 ; terrible, in South 
Carolina, by Tarleton's cavalry, 307; by 



Arnold at fort Griswold, 500; applauded 
by British generals, 307. 
Massasoit visits the Pilgrims at Plymouth, 
i. 317; reveals a plan formed for their de- 
struction, 319. 
Masts, royal, monopoly of, iii. 10G, 390. 
Matagorda Bay, visited by La Salle, iii. 
170, 171; fort built there by Spaniards, 
Material universe, unity of the, viii. 116, 

117 ; not less so the moral, 117, 118. 
Mather, Cotton, opposes the resumption of 
chartered liberties, iii. 71; his share in the 
witchcraft delusion, 75, et seq., 85, el seq. ; 
his exultation at the appointment of Phips, 
83; his address at the execution of Bur- 
roughs, 92; his " Wonders of the Invisible 
Wo'rld," 95; his creduliiy, 97; procures 
the appointment of Joseph Dudley as gov- 
ernor, 99; desires a synod, 391. 
Mather, Increase, iii. 71; agent of Massachu- 
setts in England, 72, 79; nominates Sir 
William Plnps as governor, 83 ; has no re- 
compense for his services, 89. 
Matthews, General, his destructive incursion 

into Virginia, x. 223. 
Matthews, George, in the battle of Point 

Pleasant, vii. 109. 
Matthews, Samuel, governor of Virginia, i. 
220; his struggle with the assembly, 220 ; 
submits, 227 This death, 228. 
Mauduit, Duplessis, a French officer, his gal- 
lant conduct at Brandy wine, ix. 399; at 
Germantown, 420. 
Mauduit, Israel, favors the stamp tax, v. 
155 ; advises the concession to New Eng- 
land of the whale fishery, 185 ; his artful 
attempt to mislead, 190, note ; the adviser 
of the stamp tax, vi. 491 ; is in league with 
Hutchinson against Massachusetts, 65, 69, 
98, 110, 116 ; counsel for Hutchinson before 
the privy council, 492, 494. 
Mauduit, Jasper, agent in England for Mas- 
sachusetts, iv. 430 ; his letters quoted, v. 
79, 80, 88; consents to taxation of the colo- 
nies, 155, 180 ; quoted, 185, note. 
Maurepas, John Frederic Phillipeaux, Count 
de, chief minister of Louis XVI , his pre- 
vious history, vii. 87; his character, 87, 88; 
his weakness, 88, 89 ; his envy of Turgot, 
viii. 341; misrepresents him to the king, 
341, 303; desires to maim England, ix. 
287; advises Louis XVI. to acknowledge 
American independence, 400, x. 42, 187, 
242, 243; eager for peace, 443, 444. 
Maury, James, a clergyman in Virginia, v. 
171 ; sues his parish for salary, 173 ; is op- 
posed by Patrick Henry, and loses his 
case, 175. 
Maverick, Rev. John, arrives at Nantasket, i. 

Maverick, Samuel, on Noddle's Island, now 
East Boston, i. 341; one of the royal com- 
missioners in 1G04, ii. 84. 
Mawhood, Lieutenant-Colonel, commands the 
British at Princeton, ix. 248; his defeat, 
Maxwell, General, in command at Morris- 

town, New Jersey, ix. 224; orders given 
him. 224; his success at Elizabethtown, 
251; in the affair at Scotch Plains, 350; 
commands a body of light troops at Iron 
Ilili, 3J4; covers" the American retreat at 
Bran ly wine, 399, 402; at the battle of 
Germantown, 424; his good conduct at 
Monmouth, x. 129; commands the Jersey 
brigade, 372; repels an attack from Hes- 
sians, 373. 
May, Cornells Jacobsen, the Dutch navigator, 
ii. 275; his name given to the southern - 
point of New Jersev, 279 ; first governor of 
New Netherlund, 2*79. 
"Mayflower," the Pilgrim ship, i. 300; her 

voyage, 308; arrives at Plymouth, 313. 
Mayhew, Jonathan, a clergyman of Boston, 
his character, iv. 59; a champion of liberty, 
59, 00; his sermon in 1750 against un- 
limited submission, 00; known a9 "an 
enemy to kings," 429; his public spirit, 
v. 200; speaks and writes for liberty, 311, 
312 ; but disapproves of violent proceedings 
313; his letter to Ilollis, 342; his apos- 
trophe to Pitt, 459; advises a union of the 
colonies, vi. 12, 13; his death, 13. 
Mayhew, Thomas, father and son, their 

labors to convert the Indians, ii. 97. 
Mc( lulloh, Henry, is zealous for the taxation 
of America, v^ 137 ; biographical notices of 
him, 138. note; "a convenient subordi- 
nate," 138. 
Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, suf- 
fers under oppression from crown officers, 
vi. 187; its Scotch-Irish population, vii. 
370; their spirit of liberty, 371; they de- 
clare themselves independent of king and 
Parliament, 371, 372; they establish a gov- 
ernment of their own, 372; they publish 
their resolves to the world, 372; and sepa- 
rate wholly from the British empire, 
Meeom, Benjamin, editor at New Haven, fills 

his paper with patriotic appeals, v. 353. 
Meigs, Return Jonathan, major in the ex- 
pedition against Quebec, viii. 191; is taken 
prisoner in the assault on the citadel, 210; 
his successful expedition to Sag Harbor, 
ix. 348, 349. 
Mein, John, a printer, insults the patriots of 

Boston, vi. 313. 
Melcomb (see Dodington). 
Melendez de Aviles, Pedro, invades Florida, 
i. 67 ; lays the foundation of St. Augustine, 
G9; slaughters the French colonists, 70; 
his extreme cruelty, 71; attempts to take 
possession of Chesapeake Bay, 71. 
Menomonies, iii. 242; their singular dialect, 

Mercer, Captain Hugh, of Pennsylvania, 
wounded, iv. 242; left in command of Fort 
Pitt, 313. 
Mercer, Hugh, colonel of a Virginia 
regiment, viii. 240 ; commended by Wash- 
ington, 317; on Staten Island, ix. 170; 
wishes New York to be defended, 113; 
with Washington on the Delaware, 224; in 
the crossing of the Delaware, 230 ; is mor- 



tally wounded at Princeton, 246-248; his 
great merit, 250. 

Mercer, Lieutenant-Colonel, iv. 213; killed 
at Oswego, 239. 

Meredith, Sir William, a friend to America, 
v. 242, 244; espouses the cause of America, 
vi. 257. 

" Merlin," British frigate, destroyed in Dela- 
ware river, ix. 431. 

Mermet, Jesuit missionary, on the Ohio, iii. 
196 ; his labors, 198. 

Merrick, Captain, a. Tory of Monson, Mas- 
sachusetts, obnoxious to the people, vii. 

Merrill, Benjamin, of North Carolina, vi. 
395; hanged by Tryon, 397. 

Meserve, George, stamp distributor at Ports- 
mouth, resigns his office, v. 316. 

Mesnard, Bene, missionary among the Ca- 
yugas, iii. 144; visits Lake Superior, 147; 
is lost in the forest, 148. 

Methodists denounce slavery as repugnant to 
the law of Cod, x. 370. 

Miami tribe of Indians, iii. 154, 155, 156, 
240,241,244; visit Albany, 339; a power- 
ful tribe, iv. 78; friendly to the English, 
78; council at Picqua, 79, 80; at Shawnee 
town, 95 ; at Carlisle, 108 ; unite with other 
tribes to expel the English, v. 112. 

Miami, Great, iv. 78; iertile country on its 
banks, 81. 

Miantonomoh, the great chief of the Narra- 
gansetts, visits Boston, i. 363; makes a 
grant of Rhode Island to the followers of 
Mrs. Hutchinson, 392; dissuades from an 
attack on the Pequods, 399 ; makes war on 
the Mohegans, 423 ; his death, 424. 

Michigan, possession of it taken by the Eng- 
lish, iv. 362. 

Michig m, Lake, first visited by white men, 
iii. 128; traversed by La Salle, 164. 

Michilimacliinac, English traders visit it in 
1686, ii. 422; iii. 177 (see Mackinaw). 

Micmacs of Nova Scotia, allies of the French, 
iii. 187, 237, iv. 47. 

Middlebrook. New Jersey, camp of Washing- 
ton there, ix. 351 ; Howe, by various move- 
ments, endeavors to draw him awaj-, 351, 
352; Washington, by his steady firmness 
there, saves his country, 352. 

Middlesex County, Mass., convention at 
Concord, vii. 112; its patriotic spirit, 112; 
the people of the county rise and come in 
arms to Cambridge, 114, 115 ; their good 
conduct, 116; Prescott, Bridge, Brewer, 
Brooks, Gardner, Nixon, and the men they 
commanded were from this county, and 
fought on Bunker Hill, 408, 411, 414, 418, 

Middleton, Arthur, of South Carolina, iii. 
329; elected delegate to Congress, vii. 

Middleton, Henry, of South Carolina, iv. 
423, 426; his unworthy submission to 
British rule, x. 330. 

Midway in Georgia burned, x. 285. 

Mifflin, Thomas, of Philadelphia, vi. 481, 
vii. 43, 44 ; an ardent patriot, 45 ; is elected 

to the house of burgesses, 141 ; his fervent 
spirit of liberty, 332 ; his impatience at the 
dilatory action of Congress, 377 ; at Cam- 
bridge,' viii 40; at New York, ix. 81; 
Washington's confidence in him, 101: he 
and his command the List to leave the lines 
at Brooklyn. 103; his mistake, 104; state- 
ments respecting him, 105; the statements 
corrected, 107; with Washington at the 
Highlands, 187 ; is sent by him to Con- 
gress to ask for re-enforcements, 197; his 
spirited conduct, 197 ; rouses up the men 
of Pennsylvania to arms. 202; his advice 
to Congress, 213; is posted at Bordentown, 
243; grumbles, 337; cannot rouse Penn- 
sylvania, 392; neglects his duties, 455, 
459; one of the Conway cabal, 456; is 
chosen one of the board of war, 456 ; praises 
Conway, 457; recommends him for promo- 
tion, 457; denies being implicated in the 
Conway cabal, 464. 

Milborue, son-in-law of Leister, iii. 52: takes 
possession of Albany, 53 ; his trial, 54 ; and 
execution, 55. 

Milhet, John, of New Orleans, vi. 218, 220, 

Military, the, Townshend refuses to withdraw 
them from America, vi. 74; Bernard and 
Paxton wish their assistance, 101, 133; 
regiments and armed ships ordered to Bos- 
ton, 153; two regiments arrive, 207; they 
land and parade on the Common, 208; 
sleep in Faneuil, 209; quarters in the town 
denied them, 209, 210; the}' are stationed 
with a view to intimidate the legislature, 
211; many of the soldiers desert, 213; 
threats of seizing the leading patriots, 246, 
247; insolence of the soldiers, 247; the 
town of Boston demands their withdrawal, 
284; Bernard refuses to take measures for 
this purpose, 285, 286; the troops find 
nothing to do, 313, 314; they have frequent 
broils with the inhabitants, 314 ; the people 
despise them, 333; the Boston massa- 
cre, 334-340; extreme excitement, 340, 
et seq. ; Captain Preston and eight of the 
soldiers arrested, 341; the troops removed 
to the castle, 346; note on the evidence 
respecting the massacre, 347-349 ; trial of 
Preston and the soldiers, 350, 373 ; two of 
the soldiers convicted of manslaughter, 
374; more troops sent to Boston, 523. 

Military rule, the colonies placed under it, 
iv. 227, et seq. ; superior to the civil power, 
229 ; this state of things continues till the 
revolution, 229. 

Military stores, great want of, among the 
Americans, vii. 322, 401, 405, 415, 427; 
measures to procure them, 183, 184,340; 
great want of, in the northern army, viii. 
185, 420,424; in Washington's army, 51, 
61, 70, 217, 234, 291, 422 ; in the southern 
army, 404, 408. 

Militia of Massachusetts and New Hampshire 
assist in the siege of Boston, viii. 219 ; re- 
view of, at Boston, vii. 101 ; not to be relied 
on in war, ix. 137, 221 ; Washington's 
chief reliance the New England militia, 



335; testimony of General Howe to their 
value as soldiers, 335 ; turn the tide of suc- 
cess in the northern department, 378-381 ; 
defeat the Brunswick troops at Benning- 
ton, 384, 385 ; their invincible courage, 386 ; 
re-enforce the army of Gates, 405, 414 ; tri- 
umph over Burgoyne's veteran troops, 418. 

Millar, John, professor of law at Glasgow, 
commends the republican form of govern- 
ment, viii. 173. 

Miller, governor of North Carolina, ii. 156. 

Milton," John, the greatest poet of our lan- 
guage, i. 409, note. 

Milton, near Boston, the residence of Thomas 
Hutchinson, vi. 485. 

Mingo Indians active in Pontiac's war, v. 119, 

Ministry of Great Britain resolve to re- 
strain the liberty of the colonies, iv. 56, 
57 ; have American affairs much at 
heart, and resolve to persevere, 61 ; 
jealousies among them, 70, 71; plans 
for taxing America delayed in conse- 
quence of these jealousies, 86 ; great cor- 
ruption of the ministry, 98 ; their instruc- 
tions to Dinwiddie, governor of Virginia, 
102 ; they do nothing to repel French en- 
croachment, 102, 106, 113; their imbecile 
administration, 165 ; shameful proposal to 
Russia, 219; their dilatory proceedings, 
235; end of the Newcastle" ministry, 247; 
a new and liberal ministry formed by Pitt, 
274; in 1763, v. 79, 80; spirit of, 91; minis- 
trv of Bute overturned, 96 ; the triumvirate, 
97, el seq. ; the king wishes a stronger min- 
istry, 139 ; but fails to get one, 143, etseq.; 
the Grenville ministry, 147 ; the ministry 
responsible for the stamp act and all sub- 
sequent acts of American taxation, 151, 
152, 157, 180, 187, et seq. ; the ministry 
zealous to restrain the spirit of New Eng- 
land, 214 ; trouble in the ministry occa- 
sioned by the king's illness, 253, et seq. ; 
the Grenville ministry triumphs over the 
king, 264, 235 ; America at their feet, 285 ; 
this ministry displaced, and why, 300, 305; 
the Rockingham administration, 301 ; its 
gre # at defects, 305 ; has no intention of 
repealing the stamp act, 305 ; adopts meas- 
ures for enforcing it, 322; shrinks from 
employment of arms, 342; severe measures 
proposed, but not adopted, 381; ministry 
decided for the right to tax America, and 
to bind the colonies in all cases whatsoever, 
401, 418, 419; the new Tory party thus 
founded, 418; the Rockingham ministry 
defeated in the House of Lords, 421; vic- 
torious in the Commons, 422 ; various meas- 
ures proposed, vi. 17 ; Pitt once more prime 
minister, 20; the most liberal that had been 
seen in England, 22 ; weakened by Pitt's 
elevation to the peerage, 24, 25; opposed 
bv a combination of the friends of Gren- 
ville, Bedford, and Rockingham, 59; de- 
feated, 60, 01 ; the ministry misled by those 
in whom they trusted, 68 ; left with a small 
majority, 81; revolutionized, 109; resolve 
to abrogate colonial charters, 116 ; and to 

reduce America to absolute submission, 
130, 145, 164; is incensed against Boston, 
173 ; secret intrigues with Corsica, 175, 
176; its policy towards America, 176; 
more troops to be sent to Boston, 178 ; 
hinders the settlement of the Mississippi 
Valley, 223 ; threatens the violation of 
chartered rights, 231; nonplussed, 233; 
but refuses to recede, 233, 238, 239, 245 ; 
if America may be punished, is willing to 
sacrifice liberty in England, 258; but is 
restrained by the English constitution and 
the sentiment of the people, 265, 286 ; had 
no system, 267 ; is willing to make some 
concessions, 208; its mistaken policy in 
regard to Russia, 209, 270 ; afraid of Chat- 
ham, 238, 276 ; resolves to repeal the duties, 
except that on tea, 276 ; why was this duty 
retained, 277 ; under the advice of Bernard, 
declines taking conciliatory measures, 310; 
strengthened by the accession of Gren- 
ville's friends, 389; exasperated against 
the Americans, 503; takes pains to quiet 
the Bourbon powers, 504; will not be 
warned, 509; applies to Parliament, in the 
name of the king, for additional powers, 
509, 510 ; stringent measures to be adopted ; 
the Boston port bill, 511 ; the Massachu- 
setts charter abrogated, 525 ; men indicted 
for murder to be tried in Nova Scotia or 
Great Britain, 525; troops to be quartered 
in Boston, 520; the Quebec bill, 527; jeal- 
ous of the Bourbons, keeps spies in all the 
French ports and at Paris, vii. 34 ; its ma- 
jority in Parliament increased, 176 ; the 
colleagues of Lord North constantly thwart 
him, 24, 179 ; contemptuous language tow- 
ards America, 178, 181; is surprised at 
the firmness and unanimity of Congress, 
188; negotiates with Franklin through 
Lord Howe, 188 ; rejects his terms and 
those proposed by the continental con- 
gress, 193 ; Lord North's colleagues draw 
him into their measures, and into war with 
America, 193 ; it endeavors to break the 
union of the colonies, 207 * ; instructs Gage 
to act offensively, 218*; hopes to subdue 
the Americans by fear, 222; tries to obtain 
from Franklin some concessions, but in vain, 
242 ; employs Johnson to abuse America, 
258, 259 ; overreaches itself by not be- 
lieving Franklin, 264 ; its marvellous blind- 
ness, 284 ; the city of London ask the king 
to dismiss the ministers, 282, 346; their 
utter incompetency, ?47 ; they cannot en- 
list an army in England to tight against 
America, 347; they apply for Russian 
troops, 348 ; they send out arms for Indians 
and negroes, 349 ; condemns the conduct 
of General Gage, viii. 100 ; recalls him, 100 ; 
determines to burn Boston, 133 ; changes 
in the ministry, 165 ; the weakest and least 
principled of that century, 167; relies on 
German princes for support, 169 ; not pop- 
ular in England, 169; or in Ireland, 169; 
obtains four thousand men from the Irish 
Parliament. 170 ; its negotiations with Ger- 
man princes, 255, et seq. ; demands of the 



Americans unconditional submission, 301; 
knew nothing of the science of govern- 
ment, 359 ; conciliation with America not 
really designed, 3G0; is for absolute au- 
thority over the colonies, 3G0 ; the powers 
given to the royal commissioners limited 
by this purpose, 360 ; the charters of the 
colonies were to be violated, 361; have 
undisputed sway in Parliament, ix. 144; 
their hope of an easy triumph in America 
crushed, 144, 235 ; the ministry are divided 
on the conduct of the war, 312; their hopes 
rest on Germany, 313. 

Ministry, French, their cautious policy re- 
garding America, viii. 329, et seq. ; divided 
in opinion, 329. 

Minuit, Peter, purchases Manhattan Island of 
the Indians, ii. 279* ; the price, 279*; sends 
an embassy to New Plymouth, 280 ; dis- 
placed from his government, 282*; con- 
ducts a colony of Swedes to the Delaware, 

Mirabeau, his address to the German people, 
ix. 476. 

Miruelo Diego, visits Florida, i. 34, 39. 

Missions, Puritan, in Massachusetts, ii. 94; 
John Eliot, 9.5; the Mayhews, 97 ; ''pray- 
ing Indians," 97 ; Romish missions in New 
France, iii. 119, el seq. ; the Franciscans, 
119 ; the Jesuits, 120 ; Brebeuf and Daniel, 
122; among the Hurons, 123; austerities 
of lirebeuf, 124; interest awakened by 
his labors and success, 126; nuns arrive, 
126; Raymbault, 129, 131; Jogues, 131- 
134 ; Bressani, 134; the Abenakis in Maine, 
135, 136; the missionaries left alone. 136; 
Nou<5, 137 ; martyrdom of Jogues, 137, 138; 
of Daniel, 139; of Brebeuf and Lallemand, 
140; mission of Le Moyne and Dablon to 
the Onondagas, 143; the mission aban- 
doned, 145; mission of Allouez to the In- 
dians around Lake Superior, 149, et seq. ; 
of Dablon and Marquette in the same 
vicinity, 152 ; hardships endured by the 
missionaries, 152; their pleasures, 153; 
their toils and labors, 198 ; Spanish mis- 
sions in Georgia, 210; Jesuit mission not 
fruitless, 245. 

Mississippi river, its mouth discovered, i. 35; 
called Espiritu Santo, 36 ; crossed by De 
Soto, 52 ; discovered by Jolict and Mar- 
quette, iii. 155; La Salle reaches its mouth, 
168 ; the boundaries of Canada extended 
to it, vii. 156 ; with all the country watered 
by its affluents, is claimed by Spain, x. 
183, 193; immense value of this river and 
its tributaries to the United States, 192 ; 
without it and them these States cannot re- 
main united, 192 ; the possession put beyond 
a doubt, and the Spanish claims set for ever 
at rest by the backwoodsmen of Virginia, 
193, et seq. ; Gouverneur Morris and others 
would yield the Mississippi to Spain, and 
why, 350 ; the Mississippi to be the western 
boundary of the United States, 574, 579; 
navigation of this river, 580. 

Mississippi scheme, iii. 349, et seq. ; theory 
and plan of John Law, 350; infatuation 

of the people, 351 ; the unhappy results, 

Mississippi Valley claimed by France, iii. 175 ; 
the oldest European settlement in it, 195; 
state of, colonized, 204, 349 (see Iberville, 
Illinois, Louisiana); France abandons it, 
v. 164 ; England forbids its settlement, 
164; the mandate disregarded, 165; the 
British ministry wish it to remain a wilder- 
ness, vi. 222, 223 ; its small population in 
1768, 223 1 ; a TJeltic-American republic on 
its banks, 217, 292. (See Louisiana and 
New Orleans.) 

Missouri visited by De Soto, i. 52, 53; by" 
Joliet and Marquette, iii. 159, 160. 

Mobile, De Soto at, i. 49; a French colony 
there, iii. 205, 206. 

Mobilian race of Indians, iii. 249; estimated 
population, 253. 

Moderation of the claims of France compared 
with those of Spain, x. 185, 186. 

Moffat of Bhode Island petitions the assembly 
for relief, vi. 43 ; the petition denied, 43. 

Mohammed, influence of his system on the 
inarch of improvement, iv. 7." 

Mohawks, ii. 415; their extensive power, 
416; Champlain attacks them, 417; at 
peace with the Dutch, 418; at war with the 
French, 421, iii. 129; their extreme fero- 
city, 133 ; their treatment of missionaries, 
137, 139, 140 (see Iroquois); they receive 
fire-arms from the Dutch, 141; their de- 
structive inroads into Canada, 142, 179; 
their steady friendship for the English, 
181; with Johnson at Niagara, iv. 321 
(see Johnson, Sir William, and Six Na- 
tions); their help sought by the British 
government against the Americans, vii. 
119 ; speech of Gates to them, ix. 360 ; they 
incline to neutrality, 377; Brant the Mo- 
hawk, 321, 359. 

Mohawk Valley, the settlers there march to 
the relief of fort Stanwix, ix. 378; severe 
conflict with the Indians, 378, 379; the 
Indians repulsed, 379 ; the Indians torture 
and murder captives, 380; Highlanders of 
the, rally to the king's standard, viii. 272. 

Mohegan Indians attacked by the Narragan- 
setts, i. 423; faithful to "the English, ii. 

Molesworth. Parmely, captain, indicted for a 
rash speech, vi. 314. 

Molineux, William, of Boston, a leading 
patriot, vi. 311, 343; his interview with 
Clarke, one of the consignees of the tea, 
473, 474; at the Old South Church, 478. 

Molyneux, of Ireland, asserts the indepen- 
dence of the Irish Parliament, v. 74; the 
precedent, and his reasoning applied to 
the case of America, vi. 97, 319. 

Monarchies, great, their decline predicted, iv. 

Monarchy of England, of a different character 
from those of Catholic countries, v. 34; of 
France, its absolute power, vii. 28; the 
church subordinate to it, 28; its degrada- 
tion, 30; its arbitrary rule, 20; arguments 
otV" Common Sense" against, viii. 237. 



Monckton, Robert, colonel, afterwards gen- 
eral, assists in the removal or' the Acadians, 
iv. 204: general of brigade in the army of 
Wolfe, 324; occupies Point Levi, 320; 
lands with Wolfe on the north shore, 333; 
is wounded, 330 ; governor of New York, 
427 ; his great victories in the West Indies, 

Money, great danger of failure of the revolu- 
tion for want of it, x. 403, 404. 

Monhegan Island, a winter spent there by the 
crew of "Eoeroft," i. 330. 

Monk, George, Duke of Albemarle, his 
agency in restoring the Stuart dynasty, 
ii. 28; his despicable character, 28; one of 
the proprietaries of Carolina, 129; palatine 
of Carolina, 151. 

Monmouth, battle of, x. 128, el seq. ; the day 
nearly lost through the treachery of Lee, 
129 (sec Lee, Charles); statements of eye- 
witnesses of Lee's misconduct, 131, note ; 
Washington's anger at Lee's ill conduct, 
130; Washington's self-possession, ex- 
posure of himself, and admirable conduct 
retrieve the fortune of the da}', 131, 132; the 
British lose the day, 133; extreme heat of 
the atmosphere, 132 ; colored Americans in 
the battle, 133. 

Monro, Colonel, commands at Fort William 
Henry, iv. 203; capitulates, 205. 

Monroe, James, of Virginia, at the battle 
of Trenton, ix. 230; is wounded there, 

Montagu, Frederic, opposes in Parliament 
the proposal of Lord North, vi. 257. 

Montagu, John, rear-admiral, commands a 
powerful British fleet in the harbor of Bos- 
ton, vi 400; his insolent reply to the gov- 
ernor of Rhode Island, 418; goes to New- 
port on a silly errand, 450; blockades the 
harbor of Boston, 483. 

Montagu, Lord Charles Grenville, governor 
of South Carolina, vi. 235; his detcat, 235; 
his insolence, 411 ; insults the assembly, 
447, 448. 

Montbarev, Prince de, French minister of 
war, despises the people of the United 
States, x. 41. 

Montcalm. Louis Joseph de St. Veran, Mar- 
quis de, field-marshal of France, iv. 238; 
general of the French forces in Canada, 238 ; 
captures Oswego, 239 ; besieges Fort Wil- 
liam Henry, 200, et seq. ; captures it, 235; 
his humanity, 205, 200 ; his able defence 
of Ticonderoga, 300, et seq. ; small amount 
of his force, 302; his able defence of Que- 
bec, 327, et seq. ; his bravery, 335; is mor- 
tally wounded in battle, 337 ; his high char- 
acter, 330 ; forged letters of his, v. 180, and 

Montesquieu, his foresight in 1748 of the 
greatness of America, iv. 3; his " Spirit of 
the Laws," v. 24, 25; reasoned on facts, 
24; led the way to a milder penal code, 

Montgomery, Colonel (Earl of Eglinton), iv. 
250; invades the Cherokee country, iv. 
351 ; his vigorous campaign, 353 ; his hasty 

retreat, 355 ; inflames the Cherokee mind 
to madness, 350. 

Montgomery, John, a backwoods captain, x. 

Montgomery, Richard, in the expedition 
against Louisburg, iv. 295; comes to 
Boston with Amherst, 300; elected by 
Congress brigadier-general, viii. 31, 179; 
his previous history, 178; connected by 
marriage with the Livingston family, 178; 
happy in his beautiful home at Rhinebeck, 
179; a delegate in the New York conven- 
tion, 179; accepts military command, 180; 
advises the occupation of Canada, 180; ar- 
rives at Ticonderoga, 180; Washington 
urges the immediate prosecution of the en- 
terprise, 180; Montgomery moves forward 
without waiting for Schuyler's orders, 181 ; 
Schuyler retires, and the command is left 
with Montgomery, 182 ; he is in want of 
good officers, 184; complains of the New 
England troops, 185; and of the New 
Yorkers, 185; but wins the affection of 
the whole army, 185; meets with great dif- 
ficulties, 185; takes the strong fort of St. 
John, 188; enters Montreal, 188; his polit- 
ical plans for Canada, 188; resolves to at- 
tempt the conquest of Quebec, 189 ; most of 
his men desert him, 200; joins Arnold at 
Point aux Trembles, 201; appears before 
Quebec, 201 ; demands its surrender, 201 ; 
his batteries of snow and ice destroyed by 
the enemy's artillery, 203; his desperate 
situation, 203; visits the spot where Wolfe 
fell, 204; recalls three mutinous captains 
to their duty, 204; makes preparations for 
the assault, 205; leads on his men, 200; is 
stopped by a block-house, 207 ; finds the 
garrison on the alert, 207 ; is killed by a 
shot from the block-house, 208; his exalted 
character, 211; grief at his death, 211,212; 
eulogies on him in the British Parliament, 
212; effect of his death, 415, 416. 

Montmorin, French ambassador at Madrid, 
x. 158, 186, 190, 191. 

Montreal, occupied by Montgomery, viii. 
188; Arnold there, 420; the British ap- 
proach it from the west, 428; the place 
evacuated by the Americans, 432 

Moody, Rev. Joshua, pastor in Portsmouth, 
imprisoned by Crantield, ii. 119. 

Moore, Andrew, of North Carolina, in the 
battle of Point Pleasant, vii. 169; takes 
the field against the Highland insurgents, 
viii. 285; his message to their chief, 285; 
disarms the Highlanders and regulators, 

Moore, Colonel James, son of the preceding, 
defeats and expels the Tuscaroras from 
North Carolina, iii. 321; elected governor 
of South Carolina, 329. 

Moore, James, governor of South Carolina, 
leads an expedition against St. Augus- 
tine, iii. 209; his expedition against the 
Indians. 210. 

Moore, Major Willard. of Paxton. in Bunker 
Hill battle, vii. 418; is mortaily wounded, 



Moore, Sir IT., governor of New York, yields 
to the popular will, v. 358, vi. 43; calls for 
more troops, 68. 

Moorish slavery, i. 164. 

Moors contended with Christians in three 
thousand battles, i. 164. 

Morals and truth, common-sense the criterion 
of, viii. 248, 249. 

Moranget, a nephew of La Salle, murdered, 
iii. 173. 

Moravians, their emigration to Georgia, iii. 

Moravian settlement at Salem in North Car- 
olina, x. 471. 

Morgan, Daniel, of Virginia, a wagoner in the 
train of Braddock, iv. 185; in the Indian 
war, vii. 167; with his riflemen arrives at 
Cambridge, viii. 62; his early life, 62; 
his adventurous character, 62; his great 
abilities as an officer, 63; joins the ex- 
pedition against Quebec, 191; he and his 
company capture a battery, 209; taken 
prisoner in the assault on that place, 
210; his return from captivity, ix. 131; 
his great merits, 131; attacks a col- 
umn of Cornwall's troops, 355; his ad- 
mirable regiment of riflemen sent to the 
northern army, 387; in the lirst battle of 
Bemis's Heights, 409; in the second battle, 
410, 418; his corps of riflemen Again with 
Washington, 432; sharp action witli a 
British party at Edgehill, 454; sent to har- 
ass the British right, x. 128; a brig idier- 
general, is sent to join Gates in South 
Carolina, 316; his operations there, 461; 
pursued by Tarleton, 462; amount of his 
force, 463; turns on his pursuers, 463; at 
Cowpens, gives Tarleton a total defeat, 
465; retreats through North Carolina, and 
thus saves the Southern states, 466; the 
most extraordinary victory of the war, 
467; his remarkable career, 407; he joins 
his forces with those of Greene, 469. 

Moro Castle, Havanna, taken by storm, iv. 

Morrell, William, comes to Weymouth with 
Robert Gorges, i. 326; his mission fruitless, 

Morris, a preacher in Virginia, iii. 454. 

Morris, captain of the " Bristol," of fifty guns, 
killed in the attack on Fort Moultrie, viii. 

Morris, Gouverneur, in the New York con- 
vention, ix. 33; entreats Washington to 
send aid to Schuyler, 374; on a committee 
respecting the terms of peace, x. 213, 217; 
is willing to give up the fisheries, 215; 
wants no more land at the South, 213; is 
willing to give up the entire Mississippi, 
and why, 350; is hostile to slavery, 349, 

Morris, Lewis, in the New York convention, 
ix. 33; in Congress, 60. 

Morris, Major, of New Jerse)', killed at Edge- 
hill, ix. 454. 

Morris, Robert, a merchant of Philadelphia, 
his sloop captures a magazine of powder at 
Bermuda, viii. 69; in Congress, 318; his 

character, 325; his position with regard to 
independence, 325; impatient for the arrival 
of the British commissioners, 327; one of a 
committee for treaties with foreign powers, 
393; a stanch supporter of independence, 
ix 41,59; his zeal in the cause, 241; his 
financial aid, 242; calls Washington li the 
greatest man on earth," 250; will accept 
of nothing from England short of indepen- 
dence, 498; an error relating to him cor- 
rected, x. 495, note ; he is placed in charge 
of the finances, 501 ; recommends a national 
bank, 501; his extreme views, 501; his 
great financial ability, 566; his important 
services, 566; recommends a strong na- 
tional government, 567; proposes taxation 
by Congress, 568; his wishes frustrated, 

Morristown, N. J., American army encamped 
there, x. 372. 

"Mosaic" cabinet, the term when applied, 
vi. 22. 

Moscow, American affairs under discussion in 
that city, viii. 104, 107, 150; application 
made for Russian troops, 149, 151, et seq. ; 
a d refused, 151-154. 

Mott, captain of a company in Montgomery's 
attack on Quebec, viii. 206. 

Mott, Captain Edward, of Preston, Conn., 
assists in the plan for taking Ticonderoga, 
vii. 338. 

Motte, Isaac, lieutenant-colonel, of South 
Carolina, takes possession of Fort Johnson, 
viii. 90; assists in the defence of Sullivan's 
Island, 402. 

Motte, Rebecca, her patriotism, x. 489. 

Moultrie, Fort, surrenders to the British, x. 

Moultrie, WilXam, iv. 351, 423, 426; takes 
possession of Fort Johnson, in Charleston 
harbor, viii. 90; is ordered to fortify Sulli- 
van's Island, 346; his courage, 397; Lee's 
orders to him, 398; dilatory conduct of the 
British, 399; his preparations for defence, 
402; amount of his force, 402; the fort 
described, 402,403; the action begins, 404; 
Mou'trie fires slowly, and with good effect, 
404, 407, 408; sends for more powder, 405; 
his flag is shot away, 403 ; Sergeant .lasper 
replaces it, 406, 407; the enemy finally re- 
pulsed, 410; small loss of the Americans, 
410; great loss of the British, 411; the 
squadron greatly damaged, 411; the fort 
scarcely injured, 412; consequences of the 
action, 412; joy in Charleston, 412; the 
tort named, 414; honors and congratula- 
tions best'wed on him, 413, 414; accom- 
panies Lee's expedition into Georgia, ix. 
158, 159; repels an attack on Beaufort, 
S. C, x. 287; retreats before Prevost, 290; 
successfully defends Charleston, 291, 293. 

Mounds in the Western states, not evidence 
of an early civilization, iii. 307; explained 
by geology, 307. 

Mount Desert Island, in Maine, a French 
colony there, i. 28. 

Mount Independence, on Lake Champlain, 
ix 157; useless as a fort, 340; its invest- 



ment by Riedesel, 366; occupied by him, 

Mount Wollaston, plantation at, i. 338; visit 
of Endicott, 341. 

Mowat, captain of the armed ship "Can- 
ceaux," is forcibly detained at Falmouth, 
now Portland, vii. 341; he breaks his 
parole, 341; burns Falmouth, viii. 113. 

Moylan, an American officer, ix. 229. 

Mugford, James, a Marblehead sea captain, 
viii 372; takes a most valuable prize, 372; 
is i ttacked b} r a powerful force and mor- 
tally wounded, 372. 

Muhlenberg, commands a brigade at the bat- 
tle of Brandy wine, ix. 398; at German- 
town, 427. 

Muhlenberg, Peter, a clergyman and military 
commandor, vii. 75; his patriotic preaching 
in the Shenandoah Valley, viii. 224; leaves 
the pulpit lor the army, 246; his excellent 
rifle regiment, 246; the regiment takes 
part in the defence of Charleston, 400; its 
superior quality, 400; it is sent to Sulli- 
van's Island, 409. 

Municipal charters in France often confis- 
cated, vii. 29. 

Munroe, Robert, slain at Lexington, vii. 294. 

Murray, General James, commands a brigade 
in Wolfe's army, iv. 325; attempts a land- 
ing, without success, 329; lands with 
"Wolfe on the north shore, 333 ; left in com- 
mand at Quebec, 359; is defeated at 
Sillery, 359 ; maintains possession of Que- 
bec, 359; his advice in regard to Canada 
and the older colonies, v. 135. 

Murray, Mary Lindley, her patriotic conduct 
delays the British pursuit, ix. 121. 

Murray, of Rutland, Mass , a mandamus 
councillor, his flight and escape, vii. 104. 

Murray, William, Karl of Mansfield, affirms 
that' not the king, but the Parliament, may 
tax the colonies, iv. 33, 34, 56 ; as crown 
lawyer rules the cabinet, 54, 163; his 
opinion on obliging the colonies to furnish 
quarters for soldiers, 229,230; holds that 
"free ships do not make free goods," 233; 
becomes a peer and lord chief justice, 246; 
his extraordinary motion in the privy 
council, 374; his political principles, v. 80; 
strongly asserts the authority of Parlia- 
ment over America, 372 (see Mansfield, 
Earl of) 

Musgrave, British colonel, at Germantown, 
ix. 423, 425. 

Muskhogee, or Creek confederacy, iii. 250; 
friendly to Oglethorpe's colony, 420, 434 

Muskhogee-chocta Indians, iii. 249. 

Mutiny act revised, iv. 171; a proposal to 
extend it to America, 171. 

Muzzey, Isaac, slain at Lexington, vii. 294. 


Nansemond, in Virginia, ii. 133; abounds in 
Nonconformists, 134 ; some of them remove 
to North Carolina, 134. 

Nantes, edict of, its nature, ii. 174; revoked, 

177; its consequences, 178 ; revocation of 
compelled emigration to America, and thus 
promoted freedom, x. 84. 

Nanticocke tribe of Indians, iii. 239. 

Narraganset Indians, vicinity where found, 
iii. 238 ; hostile to the Pequods, i. 398 ; 
fear to engage in war with them, 399 ; at- 
tack the Mohegans, 423 ; reject the Chris- 
tian religion, ii. 97; their numbers, 97; 
engage to be neutral in Phillip's war, 102; 
"Great Swamp Fight," 105; extermination 
of the tribe, 105, 109. 

Narvaez, Pamphilo de, is defeated by Cortez, 
i. 39; undertakes the conquest of" Florida, 

Nash, Abner, of North Carolina, member of 
the provincial congress, viii. 98. 

Nash, general, commands a brigade at Ger- 
mantown, ix. 424. 

Natchez, a French colony there, iii. 204, 349 ; 
possession of it taken for the United States, 
ix. 466. 

Natchez nation, iii. 248, 249; estimated popu- 
lation, 253 ; their villages, 358 ; sacred 
building for the dead, 359; rupture be- 
tween the tribe and the French, 360 ; fear- 
ful massacre of the French, 360-362 ; 
extermination of the Natchez, 363 ; their 
peculiar language and customs, 364. 

National Bank chartered, x. 566; its pros- 
perity, 567. 

Navigation act of 1651, its origin, i. 212; its 
intention and scope, 216, 222; not enforced 
in Virginia, 229. 

Navigation act of 1660, ii. 42 ; its gross in- 
justice, 44; injurious both to the colonies, 
45, and to England, 46 ; a pledge to the 
colonies of ultimate independence, 46; as 
a scheme of taxation, a failure, 47 (see 
Commerce); ancient navigation, iii. 111. 

Navigation acts, extensively disregarded, v. 
157; curious illustration, 158, note; the 
British ministry determine on their en- 
forcement, 160 ; the army and navy to be 
employed for this purpose, 160, 161 ; the 
people incensed at them, vi. 39 ; a perpetual 
source of discontent, 72 ; their baleful in- 
fluence in the West, 224; their general 
operation, 236 ; consented to by Congress, 
vii. 139, 140, 148, 149. 

Navy, American, origin of, viii. 114; Wash- 
ington employs small vessels, 114 (see 
American Navy). 

Navy of Great Britain, employed in enforcing 
the navigation acts, v. 161. 

Navy of the United States almost wholly 
destroyed, x. 502. 

Neal, captain of artillerv, slain at Princeton, 
ix. 248. 

Necker, James, made director-general of 
French finances, ix. 295; his character, 
295; at the head of the French finances, 
x. 44 ; wishes France to be neutral in the 
American contest, 44; in 1782 is clamor- 
ous for peace, 444 ; wishes to be prime 
minister, 448 ; is made rich by the war, 

Negotiations for peace, x. 502; instructions 





given to the American commissioners, 502; 
negotiation, how begun, 535; its progress, 
540; terms proposed by the English min- 
istry, 541 ; further progress of the negoti- 
ation, 542, 545, 555, 558, 574, et seq. ; the 
negotiation ended, and treaty signed, 

Negro emancipation desired, vii. 42, 271 b; 
no more negroes to be imported, 84 ; ne- 
groes fought side bv side with white men 
on Bunker Hill, 42l' 

Negroes serve in the army along with white 
men, ix. 421 ; emancipated in Rhode 
Island, enlist during the war, 468 ; free ne- 
groes are citizens of the United States, 
449 (see Slaves) ; negro slaves in Pennsyl- 
vania join the British, 401. 

Negro population in Virginia, state of, viii. 
223; invited to rise against their masters, 
223; why they did not rise, 225; Dunmore 
has two companies armed, 224, 225, 227; 
free negroes serve in the continental army, 
232, 233; though at first excluded, 233; 
slave trade forbidden by Congress, 321; 
effect of the prohibition on the white race, 
321; on the negro race, 321 ; first proposal 
of colonization of free negroes, 322 ; Samuel 
Hopkins writes against slavery, 322; Vir- 
ginia treats the negro humanely, 322. 

Negro slaves, confiscated bv the British, x. 
292; and sold, 299; their treatment by 
the British, its consequences, 298 ; taken 
at Charleston, and sold in the West In- 
dies, 306 ; they wish success to England in 
the war, 360 (see Colored Americans, and 

Negro slavery existed from time immemorial, 
i. 165; introduced into Europe, 166; into 
America, 169 ; English participation in it, 
173, hi. 232 (see Staves, Slavery). 

Nepisings, iv. 243; assist in the reduction of 
Fort William Henry, 262, 263. 

Nesbit, Lieutenant-colonel, his shameful be- 
havior in Boston, vii. 256. 

Netherlands, or United Provinces, a land of 
liberty, x. 59 ; maintain the freedom of 
the seas, 59 ; are invited to join a league 
for the protection of neutral trade, 427; 
their difficult position, 431; the Northern 
powers will protect them, 432; on the seiz- 
ure of the Laurens papers, the United 
Provinces engage to give England "all 
reasonable satisfaction," 434; unwilling to 
have war with England, 436, 437 ; England 
makes war on them, 438, 440 ; they lose 
their possessions in both the Indies, 438, 
440; fight the English at Dogger Bank, 
451 (see Butch and Holland). 

Neufville, Jan de, of Amsterdam, x. 262. 

Neutral nation of Indians, iii. 129; mission 
among them, 129. 

Neutral ships ,not allowed to carry an ene- 
my's goods, iv. 233, 234. 

Neutrals, their maritime rights, x. 255. 

New Albion, ii. 296. 

New Amsterdam, ii. 279*. 

Newark in New Jersey, settled from New 
Haven colony ii. 3 18. 

New Bedford, the shipping there burned bv 
the British, x. 149. 

New Belgium, ii. 279, 296 (see New Nether- 

New Berne, in North Carolina, settled from 
Switzerland, iii. 24. 

Newburyport and the neighboring towns 
unite with Boston in the struggle for lib- 
erty, vi. 481; its merchants agree to sus- 
pend all commerce with Britain, vii. 38. 

Newcastle administration commences, iv. 
159; ends, 247. 

Newcastle, Duke of (see Pelham T. Holies). 

Newcastle, Duke of, lord privy seal under the 
Rockingham administration, v. 300, 301 ; 
tries, in vain, to unite the friends of Bed- 
ford and Rockingham, vi. 92. 

New England, its discovery by Cabot, i. 13 ; 
its shores visited by Verrazzini, 18; un- 
successful attempts of the French to settle 
it, 26, seq. ; visited by the Spaniards, 38; 
explored by John Smith, 269; first Eng- 
lish settlement, which soon fails, 268; 
granted to the first Plymouth company, 
120; to the second Plymouth company, 
272, 273; this company divide all New 
England among its members, and resign 
their charter, 408; the New England con- 
federacy of 1643, 420; motives which led 
to it, 421; its scope and limitations, 421; 
its long duration, 422; royal commission- 
ers, ii. 77-87; population in 1675, 92; In- 
dian war of 1675, 100-111; great loss of 
lives and property, 109; a colony in Norih 
Carolina from New England, 131; Andros 
governor of New England, 425 ; his ar- 
bitrary measures, 420; extortions, 426; 
Episcopal service introduced, 426; New 
England consolidated, 431; news of the 
revolution in England reaches Boston, 
445; excitement among the people, 446; 
Andros deposed, 447; a burning desire for 
the conquest of Canada, iii. 78 ; the colonial 
press free, 102; appeals to England not 
allowed, 103; commercial monopoly of the 
mother country, 104, et seq. ; tendency of 
the colonies to independence, 108; a gloomy 
period, 188; north-eastern boundary, 333; 
peace with the Indians, 338; overthrow of 
French influence, 338; English influence 
supersedes it, 338; the interests of New 
England sacrificed by the mother country, 
385; its manufactures forbidden, 384, 386; 
ineffectual attempt to introduce the Eng- 
lish law of inheritance, 392; capture of 
Louisburg by New-England troops, 457- 
403; insubordinate to royal authority, iv. 
39; population in 1754," 128, 129; social 
and political condition, 148, et seq., settled 
in towns; prerogatives of towns, 148; 
spirit of liberty cherished, 149; the land of 
free schools, of independent churches, of an 
efficient militia, 149 ; a people of homoge- 
neous origin attached to the parent state, 
149; frugal and industrious. 150; willi 
scarcely any slavery, 150; religious char- 
acter, 151; Calvinism the basis of New 
England ideas and character, 154 ; the New 



England creed, 155, et se/j. ; New England 
troops gain the battle of Lake George, 211 ; 
their military expenses partially repaid, 
227; New England zeal aroused in the 
prospect of conquering Canada, 232 (see 
Massachusetts); governments formed on 
republican principles, v. 149; the whale 
fishery conceded to it, 184, 185; alarm 
prevails at the encroachments of the Brit- 
ish ministry, 194; the ministry zealous to 
restrain the spirit of New England, 214; 
they annex part of it to New York, 214, 
215; decided opposition of New England 
to the stamp act, 323-320 (see Massa- 
chusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island); peo- 
ple unwilling to be taxed by Parliament, 
vi. 41 ; New England theologians study the 
Apocalypse in reference to the controversy 
with Great Britain, 1G8; the prime minister 
of France collects extracts from New Eng- 
land sermons, 180; rigid morality of the 
people, 425; the institution of town meet- 
ings the essential characteristic of their 
rights, 428; ministers to the wants of 
Boston, vii. 74; determined resistance of, 
to British aggression, 137; the king de- 
clares the New England governments in a 
state of rebellion, 177; the spirit of New 
England, 228-238; John Adams, in his 
letters signed "Novanglus," give< it utter- 
ance, 232, et seq. ; the king determines to 
exclude New England from the Newfound- 
land fisheries, 23!); a bill lor that purpose 
passes both Houses of Parliament, 253, 205; 
the king is resolved to reduce New England 
to absolute submission, 04, 97, 145, 146, 
193; will listen to no terms of conciliation, 
145, 174; gives orders to arrest and im- 
prison the leading patriots, 218; Burke's 
splendid eulogy on the people of New 
England, 200-270; the British fire on the 
people at Lexington, 291-204; battle of 
Concord, 299-309 ; the scheming genius of 
New England, 323; a scheme to capture 
Ticonderoga, 323; another to invade t'an- 
ada by way of Kennebec and Chaudiere 
rivers, 323; New Englanders encouraged 
by their successors. 363, 304; Washington 
rejoices in their resistance to Britain, 375; 
New England farmers behold British vet- 
erans recoil before them, at Lexington, 
306; and at Bunker Hill, 424, 425; the 
men of, their daring attempts, viii. 65; 
jealousy of. entertained by some delegates 
in Congress, 109 ; Gadsden of South Caro- 
lina defends them, 109; feelings of New 
England on reading the king's atrocious 
proclamation, 134-136; Montgomery com- 
plains of the New England soldiers, 185; 
Washington appeals to the families of New 
England to furnish his army with blankets, 
218; eagerness of New England men for 
paltry gains, 218; the press eager for in- 
dependence, 219, 220; some of the people 
hesitate respecting independence, 243 ; their 
affection for Washington, 304, 395; char- 
acter of the people of, 305, 300; their wide- 
spread influence, 300, 307; New England 

men re-enforce the army in Canada, 416 ; 
zeal and alacrity of the people, 417 ; a want 
of due subordination among the troops, 
418; the people of New England declare 
for independence almost unanimously, 438; 
it is nearly secure against invasion, 438; 
eagerly adopts the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, ix. 30; jealousy of, entertained 
by southern men, 51, 52; a bitter rivalry 
between the New England troops and those 
south of New England, 123; New England 
troops with Washington at the crossing of 
the Delaware, 230; large re-enforcements 
sent to the army, 240; New England regi- 
ments at Princeton, 250; nearly the whole 
territory free from invaders, 254; all New 
England love Washington and confide in 
him, 250; constitutions of civil govern- 
ment, 2G0, 201; equality of representation, 
205; militia of New England, reliable 335; 
insists on its right to the fisheries, x. 211, 
216, 218; this claim disputed by Yergennes, 
211; its people earnest for freedom, 218; 
patience and patriotism of the New Eng- 
land troops, 417. 

Newenham, Sir Edward, in the Irish House 
of Commons, denounces the American war. 
viii. 169. 

Newfoundland, its discovery by Cabot, i. 13; 
fishery, origin of, 16 ; its great increase, 
24,76, 80, 87, 111 (see Avaion); claimed 
by France, iii. 178; part of it held by 
France, 192, 217; England possesses the 
whole of it, 234; fisheries of, New England 
excluded from them, vii. 239, 240, 253, 

New France, institutions of, iv. 458 (see 
Canada); granted to the Hundred Asso- 
ciates, iii. 119; its vast extent, 119; relig- 
ious motives operate in its colonization, 
121; the Jesuits, 121 (see Canada). 

New Hampshire, its coast explored by Pring, i. 
114; its soil granted to Mason, 328, 329 ; an- 
nexed to Massachusetts, 418*; population 
in 1675, ii. 93 ; separated from Massachu- 
setts, 113; becomes a royal province. 115; 
the first ever established in New England, 
115; the province asserts its rights, 116; 
Cranfield governor, 116 ; takes from Mason 
a mortgage of the whole province, 117 ; 
his oppressive proceedings, 118, et seq.; 
the people resist, 119 ; population in 1088, 
450; Mason's claim sold to Allen, 82; 
Usher, lieutenant governor, 82; a succes- 
sion of complaints, lawsuits, and trials, 
82 : dismembered by the Grenville ministry, 
v. 214, 215; sympathizes with Massachu- 
setts, vi. 160 (see Portsmouth); organized 
for resistance, vii. 50; chooses delegates to 
Congress, 83; conforms to the recommen- 
dations of Congress, 205 ; chooses delegates 
to the next Congress, 205; the men of, rush 
to the scene of action after the combat at 
Lexington and Concord, 314; the colony 
offers to raise two thousand men, 325; 
regime :ts at Cambridge placed under the 
command of Wards, 405 (see Bunker 
Hill) ; asks Congress to sanction the in- 



stitution of a government in that colony, 
■ viii. 115; Congress advises the measure, 
137; militia re-enforce the army at Cam- 
bridge, 219; Washington praises these 
soldiers, 234; the convention of the colony 
not in favor of independence, 243; the leg- 
islature declares for independence, 438; 
its form of civil government during the 
revolutionary war, ix. 2G1 ; the men of 
New Hampshire fly to the standard of 
Stark, 384; defeat the Brunswick troops at 
Bennington, 385. 

New Hampshire grants, now Vermont, vii. 
209 ; the region is claimed by New York, 
271 ; the New York authorities get posses- 
sion of the court-house by force of arms, 
271 ; they are speedily dislodged, 271 a ; 
the "Green Mountain Boys," 271a; they 
engage to take Ticonderoga, 271a; they 
take "it, 338-340. 

New Haven colony, founded, i. 403 ; its civil 
constitution derived immediately from the 
Bible, 404; " The House of Wisdom," 404; 
absorbed by Connecticut, ii. 54; the union 
consummated, 83; honors the Massachu- 
setts delegates to Congress, vii 10G; mili- 
tary movement there, 316; suffers from a 
pillaging expedition, 220. 

New Ireland, of what territory to be formed, 
x. 3118. 

New Jersej', colonized by the Dutch, ii. 279 ; 
colony at Cape May, 282; this colony de- 
stroyed by Indians, 282 *; New Jersey In- 
dians ravage Staten Island, 288; separated 
from New Netherland, 315; whence the 
name, 315; assigned to proprietaries, 315; 
slavery introduced, 31G; condition of, pre- 
vious to its surrender to the English, 310; 
a settlement of New England Puritans on 
the l.'aritan, 317; another, 318; weight of 
New England influence, 318; the province 
recovered by the Dutch, 322; restored to 
the English, 325; West New Jersey sold 
to the Quakers, 355 ; constitution of govern- 
ment established there by them, 357 ; East 
New Jersey sold to William Penn and 
others, 301, 409; lands purchased of the 
Indians, 358 ; Andros claims authority over 
the province, 408; the claim successfully 
resisted, 408 ; a large emigration from Scot- 
land, 409; the causes, 410-412 ; the prov- 
ince annexed to New York, 413; popula- 
tion in 1088, 450; effect of the English 
revolution, iii. 47; the proprietaries surren- 
der their rights to the crown, 40, 48 ; East 
New Jersey without any government, 47; 
the two Jerseys united in one royal prov- 
ince, 48; Lord Combury governor, 48; 
all political power vested in the governor, 
48; no printing allowed, 49; slavery, 49; 
no permanent salary for the governor, 49; 
oppressive administration of Lord Corn- 
bury, 03 ; intrepid conduct of the assembly, 
03; growing discontent there, iv. 40; con- 
flict about land-titles, 40 ; population in 
1754, 128, 130; social condition, 142; the 
people rustic, unlearned, unwarlike, 142 ; 
Governor Belcher, 142 ; John Woolman, 

142, 143 ; New Jersey troops at Ticonder- 
oga, 301 ; makes great exertions in the 
war, 319; William Franklin, governor, 
440; denounced by Townshend in Parlia- 
ment, v. 76; sympathizes with Massachu- 
setts, 164; declares for a suspension of 
trade ami a congress, and sympathizes 
with Boston, vii. 50; would not have the 
tea paid for, and sends a delegate to the 
general congress, 83 ; the assembly unani- 
mously adopt the recommendations of Con- 
gress, and elects delegates to the next, 
211; petitions the king, 211; enthusiastic 
spirit of New Jersey, 332 ; a provincial con- 
gress meet at Trenton, 332 ; its proceedings 
in 1775, viii. 71, 72; provides for delence, 
72 ; enjoins on its delegates in the continen- 
tal congress to resist separation from Eng- 
land, 139 ; proposes once more to address 
the king, 213 ; dissuaded from this measure, 
214; the assembly addressed by Dickinson 
and Jay, 214; the provincial congress in 
1770 declares for independence, almost 
unanimously, 442, 443; a constitution 
formed, 443; its provisions, 443; sanctions 
the Declaration of Independence, ix 32; 
calls out its militia, 77; a strong party 
opposed to independence, 172; New Jersey 
overrun by the British and Hessian tr< ops, 
194, et seq. ; many of the people submit to 
the king, 199; desolations caused by the 
British, 202, 215, 216; New Jersey re- 
covered by Washington, 240-254; royalists 
in the state, 253; form of civil govern- 
ment, 202; the British army retreat tlmmt'h 
it from Philadelphia, x. 127, et seq. ; battle 
of Monmouth, 130; merciless conduct of 
the British troops, 152; invaded by Kny- 
phausen, 372; New Jersey troops show 
signs of discontent, 410; the trouble re- 
pressed by New England regiments, 417. 

"New Jcrsev Gazette," at Trenton, glorifies 
Gates, ix. 460. 

New Mexico, its eliscovery by the Spaniards, 
40 e, et seq. ; description of the inhabitants, 
40 k. 

New Netherland, preliminary statements, ii. 
250, et seq. ; oppression of the Low Coun- 
tries by Philip II. 257; resistance of the 
people, 258; the United Provinces, 259; 
their flourishing commerce, 200; a West 
India company proposed, 201; visits of the 
Dutch to India and China, 231; attempts 
to discover a north-east passage, 202; the 
Dutch East India Company chartered, 203; 
the Dutch propose to England a joint col- 
onization of the New World, 275; voyage 
of Hudson to America, 205, et seq. ; voyage 
of Adrien Block, 275; name of New Neth- 
erland imposed, 270 ; Albany founded, 270; 
treaty with the Iroquois, 270; intestine 
commotions in Holland, 277; the Dutch 
West India Company chartered, 278; set- 
tlement of New Netherland, 279; first pur- 
chase of land from Indians, 279*; friendly 
intercourse with New Plymouth, 279;* 
manors established, 281; privileges of pa- 
trons, 281; disastrous consequences, 28 1 * ; 



the Dutch from New Netherland occupy 
Hartford, 283; encroachments made on tlie 
province from New England, 283; Indian 
war, 288, ct se</. ; peace restored, 233 ; pros- 
perity of the colony, 2134: ; strife with Con- 
necticut, 295; boundary established be- 
tween the two colonies, 235; the Dutch 
overpower the Swedes on the Delaware, 
2J7; the colony prospers, 290; Dutch 
maxims of government, 300; toleration of 
Quakers and Jews, 300; emigrants from 
Fiance, Germany, and Italy, 301; Wal- 
denses, 301; Huguenots, 302; African 
slaves introduced, 303; emigrants from 
New England, 301; first struggle of the 
people lor liberty, 304; redress sought in 
vain from Holland, 305; meeting of an 
assembly of delegates from the people, 300 ; 
their demands refused by the governor, 
307; the West India Company approve 
the refusal, 338; Lord Baltimore claims 
the territory west and south of the Dela- 
ware, but without effect, 308; the Dutch 
remain in possession, 303; an error of 
Chalmers corrected. 309, note; friendly 
relations with Virginia, 309; discussions 
witli New England concerning territory, 
310; war with the savages round Esopus, 
311; discontent in the colony, 311; the 
king of England gives the country to his 
brother. 313; surrender of New Nefhevland 
to an English armament, 314; the territory 
dismembered, 315. 

New Orleans founded, iii. 351; its unpro- 
pitious beginnings, 352; whence its name, 
352 ; becomes the capital of Louisiana, 358 ; 
its inhabitants unwilling to accept Spanish 
rule, vi. 217; the Spaniards land, 218; dis- 
tress of the inhabitants, 219; a republic 
proposed, 219, 220; an embassy sent to 
Pans. 218, 220; a Spanish armament ar- 
rive, 292; the place occupied by this force, 
233; arrest of the principal inhabitants, 
294; trials and executions, 235; great 
cruelty used, 294-296 ; census of New Or- 
leans 'in 1709,236. 

Newport, Christopher, commands the ships 
which bore the -first colon}' to Virginia, 
l. 124; ascends James river, 125; sails for 
England, 126; returns with a re-enforce- 
ment, 132; sails again for England, 133; 
embarks a third time for Virginia, 137; is 
wrecked on Bermuda, 137. 

Newport, Rhode Island, resists the revenue 
officers, vi. 289, 230. 

New Providence taken by a privateer, ix. 

Newspapers, the first in America, iii. 374, 
375; number in 1740, 375; tax on them in 
England, viii. 361. 

New Sweden, on the Delaware river, ii. 285- 
288; a colony of Swedes and Finns arrive, 
285; conquest by the Dutch, and end of 
the colony, 296, 297; descendants of the 
colonists, 297; the city of Amsterdam be- 
comes proprietor, 298. 

New Year*s Day of 1770, its sadness in Nor- 
folk, Virginia, viii. 230,231; the American 

banner unfurled at Cambridge, 232; free 
negroes allowed to serve in tlie army, 232. 
New York (the province) conquered from 
the Dutch, ii. 314; English liberty with- 
held from the inhabitants, 320 ; arbitrary 
conduct of the governor, 320, 321; re- 
covered by the Dutch, 322; restored to 
the English, 325 ; condition of the province 
in 1678, 407; Andros, governor, 404; pop- 
ular discontent, 407 ; the people obtain the 
"liberties of Englishmen," 414; the king 
first grants and then denies these privi- 
leges, 414; the northern boundary of the 
province due to the warlike enterprise of 
the Iroquois, 424; population in 1088, 450; 
dread of popery, iii. 50; insurrection of 
Leisler, iii. 51-53; his execution, 54, 55; 
Fletcher's administration, 58; the assem- 
bly deny the right of king or Parliament 
to tax them, 56; the other colonies in- 
structed to contribute to the defence of 
New York, 57; Church of England es- 
tablished by law, 58; the assembly 
oppose the governor, 58 ; administration 
of Bellermont, 59 ; imperious conduct 
of Lord Cornbury, the governor, 62; 
contests of the assembly with Governor 
Hunter, 64, 65 ; their assertion of liberty, 
65; contest with Governor Cosby, 393; 
triumph of the people, 394; measures of 
Governor Clinton to raise a revenue, iv. 
34; the assembly resist, 35, 53; a proposal 
for union, 75; the minis'ry endeavor to 
subject the province to the royal preroga- 
tive, 103, 104; custom of annual grants 
never to be surrendered, 104; population 
in 1754, 128, 129; social and political con- 
di ion, 144, et seq. ; relations to England, 
145; the king's prerogative disputed, 140; 
the laws of trade disregarded, 140; illicit 
commerce, 147; the merchants averse to 
England, ' 147; the province impeaches 
ex-Governor Clinton, 164; complains to 
the king of instructions sent out to his 
governor, 165; tenure of judicial office 
during the king's pleasure, 427; the as- 
sembly protests against this encroachment 
of power, 428 ; the colony made dependent 
on the crown, 440 ; opposition to the Brit- 
ish government deeply rooted, 441 ; remon- 
strates against the arbitrary measures of 
the British cabinet, v. 84, 85; its voice un- 
heeded, 85; covets the territory west of 
Connecticut river, 149 ; excitement in New 
York over news of the determination of 
Parliament to tax the colonies, 198 ; a 
strong spirit of resistance roused, 215, 210; 
protest of the general assembly against 
parliamentary taxation, 210; voice of the 
people. 270 (see New York City); demon- 
strations of loyalty in, vi. 14, 15; complies 
with the requisition of the British general 
for his troops, 15 ; the billeting act distaste- 
ful, 43, 44; the declaratory act resisted, 
44; severely denounced in Parliament, 76; 
disfranchised, 76, 81 ; avoids the blow, 91 ; 
meetings held there, 167 ; asserts its 'egis- 
lative rights, 248 ; its plan for an American 



union, 310 ; its " Sons of Liberty," vii. 40 ; 
division of sentiment, 41; a committee of 
fifty-one supersedes the former committee, 
41 ; two great families, — the Livingstons 
and the Delanceys, 70; a compromise of 
parties, 83; elects a delegation ot lukewarm 
patriots to the general congress, 83; the 
people wish not to sunder their connection 
with the English crown, 10? ; suppose an 
independent federative republic impossible, 
107; the royal party endeavor to detach 
New York from the other colonies, 203, 
210; the assembly false to Congress and 
to the people, 210"; it refuses to send dele- 
gates to the second Congress, 212; the 
people hampered and hindered by the legis- 
lature, 212; Alexander Hamilton writes in 
defence of liberiy, 212-210 ; the descendants 
of the Dutch remember the heroism of their 
fathers, 240 ; New York claims the whole 
territory of Vermont, 209, 271 ; the claim 
successfully disputed, 271 a, 280 ; the prov- 
ince elects delegates to the second conti- 
nental congress, 283, 284; conservative 
policy of the province, 359; the New York 
assembly disclaims the desire of indepen- 
dence, 392; proposes Schuyler for major- 
general, viii. 28; address of its provincial 
congress to Washington, 33 : its plan of ac 
commodation, 34; the war to be transferred 
to New York, 158; Montgomery complains 
of the New York troops, 185; intrigues of 
Tryon, the royal governor, 215; firmness of 
the assembly, 215; their exposed condi- 
tion imposes a prudent course of conduct, 
274; the provincial convention meet, 270; 
disarming of the Tories on Long Island 
undertaken at their request by the conti- 
nental congress, 270 ; Lee desires of Wash- 
ington to be sent on same business, 277; 
Washington consents, 277 ; the interference 
resented by the New York authorities, 278 ; 
the provincial congress vote money to Lee, 
281; position of New York in June, 1770, 

438, 440; its extreme danger, 440; firm- 
ness of the patriots, Jav, Scott, Haring, 
439; the people consulted on the great 
questions of independence and government, 

439, 440. 

New York, state of, its convention meets, ix. 
33; approves the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, 34; danger of invasion, 33; two- 
thirds of the men of property unfaithful to 
the cause, 80; the country people ready to 
defend the state, 80; the American army 
compelled to retire from Long Island, 103, 
104; and from New York, 175; British 
ships ascend the Hudson, 174; civil consti- 
tution of New York, 202 ; liberal system 
adopted, 274; the free black under no dis- 
qualification, 274; Clinton the first gover- 
nor, 372; alarm occasioned by the advance 
of Burgoyne, 374; the State the battlefield 
of the ifnion, 374; asserts her claims to 
western territory, x. 400; but consents, for 
the sake of peace, to waive her claim, 400. 

New York City, its rude beginnings as New 
Amsterdam* ii. 279*, 280; its early pros- 

perity, 294; first known as New York, 315; 
the city incorporated, 320; the acts of trade 
disregarded, iii. 59; its commerce at the 
present time compared with that of all 
Great Britain a centun'- ago, v. 159; the 
first American congress meets there, 333; 
indignation at the arrival of stamps from 
England, 345; its merchants resolve to im- 
port no more British goods till the stamp 
act be repealed, 351, 352; the people flock 
into the city to oppose their delivery, 355; 
the stamp act disregarded, 374; the stamps 
burned, 378; petition of merchants for re- 
dress of grievances, vi. 57; correspondence 
with Boston respecting the revenue acts, 
98; the New York triumvirate of Presby- 
terian lawyers, 141; New York joins with 
Boston in the non-importation resolution, 
150, 199; this resolution rigidly executed, 
308; New York patriots plan a union <f 
the colonies, 308, 310; insulting conduct 
of the troops 331, 332; affrays with the 
citizens, 332; New York alone adheres 
strictly to the non-importation agreement, 
305; yet here at length it is abandoned, 
except on the single article of tea, 300; the 
people resolve that the tea shall not be 
landed, 474,475; the tea sent back, 519; 
its "Sons of Liberty" propose a general 
congress, vii. 40; formation of a conserva- 
tive party among the aristocratic portion 
of the people, 40, 41; words of cheer sent 
to Boston, 41; many of the citizens under 
British influence, 41; new committee or- 
ganized there, 41; spirit of the people, 70; 
state of parties, 77 ; British infiuen e power- 
ful, 77; the new committee vote to send 
delegates to a general congress, 78 ; diver- 
sity of views, 80; origin of the two great 
American parties, 81; the press takes the 
side of liberty, 212; the news from Lexing- 
ton arrives, 328; a new committee organ- 
ized, 329; the royal authority prostrate, 
329; all parties united, 323; address of the 
committee to the people of London and of 
Great Britain, 330; enthusiastic reception 
of the delegates to Congress from Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut, 331; the city is 
advised by Congress not to oppose the 
landing of British troops, 358; consequences 
of this advice, 358, 359; its reception of 
Washington, viii. 32, 33; its exposed posi- 
tion, 273; the people for liberty, 274; the 
merchants averse to a separation from 
Britain, 274; General Lee arrives, 279; 
Clinton arrives, 279; troops from New .Jer- 
sey and Connecticut arrive, 279; general 
consternation and flight of the inhabitants, 
279; hostilities delayed. 279; the city is 
fortified, 280; Lee's arbitrary conduct. 282; 
Washington at New York, 350; British 
forces to be concentrated there, 350; con- 
spiracy against Washington, 441 ; menaced 
with invasion, ix. 33; statue of George III. 
thrown down, 35; Congress wish the city 
to be defended, 70; Washington promises 
to do what he can, 70; the defences, 81; 
consternation of the inhabitants, 81; pro- 



posal to burn the city ami retire to the 
Highlands, 70, 110; the men of wealth keep 
aloof Iroin the struggle or side with the 
'enemy, 80; the American troops retreat 
from Long Island to the city, 103, 104; the 
city must be abandoned, 110; shameful 
flight of the American troops, 110, 120; 
the British take possession of the city, 120; 
a great tire, 120; cruelty of the British, 
120; Clinton's retreat thither, x. 127-133; 
this and Rhode Island alone remain to the 
British, 130; the French fleet cannot reach 
it, 1-45; Clinton threatens to evacuate it, 
150: Lord Amherst advises its evacuation, 
1G8; Spain wishes it may remain in the 
possession of England, 182. 

Neyon, De, a French officer in Illinois, ex- 
horts the Indians to make peace with the 
English, v. 133 

Niagara first visited by white men, iii 128; 
a fort erected there by the French, ii. 423, 
iii. 341; purpose for which intended, 342. 

Niagara, Fort, description of, iv. 213, 320; an 
expedition planned against it, 183; the 
expedition fails, 213; a second expedition, 
320; Niagara is captured, 321. 

Nicholas George, commander of the Virgin- 
ians at Hampton, tires the first gun, viii. 

Nicholas, Robert Carter, of the House of Bur- 
gesses of Virginia, vii. 53. 

Nichols, Richard, one of the royal commis- 
sioners in 1604, ii. 84; takes possession of 
New Netherland, 313, 314; as governor of 
New York, exercises supreme power, 320; 
his exactions from the planters, 320. 

Nicholson, Francis, lieutenant-governor of 
New York and of Virginia, iii. 25; his 
exorbitant powers, 23 ; is governor of 
Maryland, 31 ; commands the successful 
expedition against Acadia, 218 ; goes to 
England to urge the conquest of Canada, 
218; the attempt fails, 224; governor of 
South Carolina, 330 ; makes a treaty with 
the Cherokees and ('reeks, 331. 

Niebuhr, Carsten, sympathized with the 
Americans, x. 92, 93. 

Ninety-six, S. C, district of, x. 288 ; occupied 
by the British troops, 303 ; orders given to 
the commander there, 327; fort on, 485; 
besieged by Greene, 490 ; evacuated, 491. 

Ninon de l'Enclos, ii. 175. 

Nipissing, Lake, visited by Jesuits, iii. 130. 

Nipmuck Indians, afford shelter to Phillip, 
ii. 102. 

Nixon, John, captain of the Sudbury com- 
pany at the battle of Concord, viii. 304 ; 
colonel of an incomplete regiment in Bunker 
Hill battle, 418; is dangerously wounded, 

Nobility of England, not a caste, v. 37; suc- 
cession of the title, 37; recruited from the 
commons, 38 ; amenable to law, 38 ; of Eu- 
rope, state of the, in 1774, vii. 2(3, 27 ; of 
France, their vices had demoralized the 
army, 93. 

Noddje's Island, now East Boston, skirmish 
near, vii. 303. 

Non-importation of British goods resolved 
on, v. 351. 352 ; vi. 98, 103, 120, 132, 150, 
179-199 ; the svstem rigorously main- 
tained, 272, 2 JO, 308; the agreement no' to 
import fails, being now limited to the single 
article of tea, 305, 300, 383. 

Non-intercourse with England proposed, vii. 
40, 47, 50, 00; Gage ' threatens all who 
enter into this agreement, 09, 70. 

Norfolk, in Virginia, sympathizes with Bos- 
ton, vii. 57, 58; Dunmore plunders a print- 
ing office there, viii. 220; the town is left 
to the Tories, 220; they take refuge on 
board ships of war, 228; the patriots take 
possession, 228 ; the town is burned to ashes 
by Dunmore's order, 230, 231. 

Norridgcwock on Maine, scene of the labors 
of the Jesuit Rasles, iii. 333 ; destroyed 
by the English, 330, 337. 

North, Lord, begins public life, iv. 161, 103; 
at the treasury board, 438. 

North, Lord Frederick, afterwards Earl of 
Guilford, v. 151; invited to become chan- 
cellor of the exchequer, vii. 00; succeeds 
Charles Townshend in the ministry, 100; 
his character, 100 ; opposed to liberty in 
every shape, 100; will have America pros- 
trate at his feet, 233, 230 ; and yet is afraid 
to strike, 253 ; his underhand proceedings, 
253; will not allow the question of repeal 
to be considered, 273 ; is responsible for 
the continuance of the duty on tea, and 
thus for the revolt of the colonies, 277; 
becomes first lord of the treasury and 
prime minister, 320; moves for a partial 
repeal of the revenue acts, 351 ; insists 
upon retaining the duty on tea, 352; justi- 
fies the stamp act, and rails at the 
Americans, 352; acts on the advice of 
Lord Thurlow, 358 ; deserves impeachment, 
301; his ministry strengthened by the ac- 
cession of Grenville's "friends, 389; the 
happiest period in his public career, 390 ; 
is sick of the dispute with America, 434 ; 
but will not permit the right to tax Amer- 
ica to be questioned, 459 ; introduces into 
Parliament the Boston port bill, 511, 512 ; 
is ready to employ military force against 
the Americans, 512; though prime minister 
in 1774, exercised no control over his col- 
leagues, vii. 24; constantly thwarted by 
them, 179 ; wishes to negotiate with the 
Americans, 179; consults Franklin, 180; 
is ready for some compromise, 187, 188; 
wishes to avoid war, but is drawn into it 
by his colleagues in the cabinet, 193 ; moves 
that Massachusetts be declared in a state 
of rebellion, 222; again consults Franklin, 
224; encounters strong opposition, 223, 
225; offers to repeal the tax on tea, 225 ; 
pretends not to be responsible for that tax, 
225; proposes to exclude New England 
from the Newfoundland fisheries, 23!); the 
measure is carried, 240 ; Lord North leans 
towards the Americans, 241; once more 
consults Franklin, 241 ; the attempt is use- 
less, 242 ; wishes to resign, but the king 
cannot spare him from his councils, 241 ; 



he proposes a plan for conciliation, but 
loses ground by it in Parliament, 243 ; the 
plan is wholly Inadequate, 2-43; wherein it 
differed from the plan of Chatham, 244; 
his weak and unsettled course, 28(3 ; dreads 
a civil war, 28(5 ; hopes the colonies will 
submit, 286 ; sick of the hopeless struggle, 
he wishes to resign, 340; his uneasiness 
at the state of affairs in America, viii. 99; 
his disinclination to the measures of his 
own ministry, 102; yet will not resign 
office, 162; rebuked by Fox, 102; keeps 
hi.s place by the sacrifice of his opinions 
and of America, 168; his bill for prohibit- 
ing the trade of all the colonies, and for 
capturing American vessels, is adopted, 
170, 171; defends the treaties with Bruns- 
wick and Hesse, 268; will not allow the 
obnoxious measures of the ministry to be 
revised, ix. 145 ; is willing to make con- 
cessions, 312 ; sustains General Sir William 
Howe, 350 ; receives information of Bur- 
goyne's surrender, 478; his intense agita- 
tion, 478; is willing to concede to America 
all she demands, 478 ; his penitence in his 
old age, 478 ; the king will not suffer him 
to flinch, 481 ; introduces two conciliatory 
bills, 484; confesses that he never had a 
policy of his own, 484 ; astonishment of 
the assembly, 485 ; he respects Franklin, 
493 ; attempts an informal negotiation with 
him, 497; his reply, 497 ; his weak minis- 
try, x. 37; how his administration was 
prolonged, 40; Frederic despises him, 100, 
102; Frederic's opinion of his ministry, 
113 ; his offers to America rejected, 122 ; 
proposes to resign office, and why, 143; 
wishes to give up the contest, 247 ; his ban 
mot referring to the Dutch, 258 ; de- 
nounced by Fox, 530; retires from the 
ministry, 530; his good private character, 
531; Macaulay's opinion of him, 531; char- 
acter of his administration, 531, 552. 
North Carolina, a colony settled on its shores 
by Raleigh, i. 93, et sea.; appearance of 
the country, 93 ; the natives described, 94, 
98; they become impatient of the presence 
of the "English, 99 ; the colony lost, 106 ; 
Massachusetts and Carolina compared, ii. 
128 ; province of Carolina, its chartered 
extent, 123 ; given to proprietaries, 129 ; 
claimed by Spain, 130; by Sir Robert 
Heath, 130; a colony there from New 
England, 131; this colony of short dura- 
tion, 132; settlements made from Virginia, 
133-135; its first governor, 135, 136; its 
first assembly, 136 ; spirit of freedom, 136 ; 
planters from Barbadoes settled there, 
137 ; a new charter to the eight proprie- 
taries, 138 ; a constitution for Carolina 
made by Lord Shaftesbury and John 
Locke, 145 ; thoroughly aristocratic in 
character, 147 ; serfdom and slavery al- 
lowed, 148 ; Church of England established, 
but toleration allowed, 150 ; the settlers 
reject the constitution, 153; George Fox 
visits Carolina, 154 ; is entertained by the 
governor, Samuel Stevens, 155 ; friends of 

popular liberty resort to Carolina, 157? 
the settlers oppressed by the navigation 
acts of England, 158; they rise against 
their oppressive rulers, 159; establish a 
free government, 160;' the proprietaries 
yield, 162; Sothel, a rapacious governor, 
103; no minister and no church in the 
province, 164 ; no city or township, or 
public roads, or printing press, 165; yet 
the people were free, contented, and happy, 
165 ; population in 1688,450; its unbridled 
liberty, iii. 21; called "the sanctuary of 
runaways," 21; only one clergyman in the 
province, 21; Church of England estab- 
lished by law, 21; Quakers in the colonv, 
their influence, 22, 23; insubordination, 
23 ; severity of the laws, 23 ; increase of 
the population, 24; Swiss and German 
colonists, 24; negro slavery, 25; war with 
the Tuscaroras, 319-321; cruelties of those 
Indians, 320; expatriation, 321; political 
state in 1748, iv. 38; population in 1754, 
123, 130 ; social and political condition, 
132, 133 ; spirit of resistance to the stamp 
act, v. 423 ; flagrant oppressions there, vi. 
35 ; a meeting of the people, 36 ; proceed- 
ings of governor Tryon, 86; severe and 
iniquitous oppressions of the people, 183 ; 
the regulators, 185 ; their peaceful con- 
duct, 183; their petition to the governor, 
183 ; his oppressive conduct, 190 (see 
Orange Couniy)\ a disorganized govern- 
ment and judiciary, 505; contributes to the 
relief of Boston, vii. 73 ; the convention 
of the province adheres to the resolutions 
of the continental congress, 271 c ; the king 
tries to detach this from the other colonies, 
282 ; the people excited by the news from 
Lexington, 335 ; its enthusiasm for liberty, 
viii. 92; Highlanders in the province, 93; 
spirit of the people on Albemarle Sound, 
95 ; a provincial congress assembles at 
Hillsborough, 90 ; its proceedings, 96, 97 ; 
emission of paper money, 96; raising a 
military force, &c, 97; insurrection of the 
Highlanders, 283, et serj. ; their total de- 
feat, 283 ; zeal of the people in the cause 
of liberty, 280, 230; the Highlanders dis- 
armed, 230; the provincial congress votes 
an explicit sanction for a declaration 
of independence, 352 ; two regiments from 
this province take part in the defence 
of Charleston, 398 ; its civil constitution, 
ix. 262; heroism of her men, 335, 340; 
military operations there, 460, et seq. ; bat- 
tle at Guilford court-house, 475; the state 
evacuated by Cornwallis's army, 481 ; 
British cruelties in the state, 500. 
North-eastern boundary, 220. 
Northern army, its unsalisfactory condition, 
viii. 52; invasion of Canada resolved on, 
68, 176; Washington urges it, 180? prepa- 
rations made by Schuyler, 177, 178; the 
army moves forward, 181; attacked by a 
party of Indians, 181; Schuyler's inde- 
cision, 182; his health obliges him to 
retire, and the command devolves on Mont- 
gomery, 182; great insubordination in the 



armv, 183, 185, 18(5; Etlian Allen taken 
prisoner, 183, 184; want of ammunition, 
185; powder supplied by the capture of 
Chamblv, 183; siege of St. Johns, 182, 
187; vain attempts of Carletonto raise the 
siege, 187 ; the place surrenders, 18S ; 
Montgomery enters Montreal, 188 ; his 
junction with Arnold, 201 ; appears be- 
fore Quebec, 201 ; attempts to carry it by 
assault, 200; is killed, 208; and the at- 
tempt fails, 210; effect of Montgomery's 
death, 415 ; the American force near 
Quebec, 415 ; the command in Canada de- 
volves on Wooster, 415; re-enforcements 
arc sent him, 410; insurmountable obsta- 
cles attend the enterprise, 417 ; wants of 
the army, 417 ; difficulty of travel and 
transportation, 418; time of enlistments 
of many expires, 420 ; the new regi- 
ments incomplete, 420 ; the Canadians 
become hostile, 421; large re-enforcements 
sent from Washington's army, 421 ; a gen- 
eral is wanted, 423 ; Thomas is sent, 423; 
he arrives, 424 ; nearly half of the army 
sick with small-pox, 423. 424 ; the army 
scattered and inefficient, 424 ; compelled 
to retreat with the utmost precipitation, 
425; arrival of British re-enforcements, 
425; the Americans retreat to Sorel, 425; 
Thomas dies of small-pox, 42); Sullivan 
succeeds him in the command, 42J ; his 
self-sufficiency, 420; the army retreats to 
Isle aux Noix, 433 ; evacuates Canada, 
433; its severe sufferings and great losses, 
433; Gates appointed to the command, 
432; rivalry between Schuyler and Gates, 
ix. 338 ; intrigues of Gates, 339 ; com- 
plaints of Schuyler, 339; Gates placed in 
independent command, 330; he assumes 
undue authority, 339; disobeys explicit 
orders, 340; asks for cavalry, 341; his 
disrespect towards Washington, 341 ; re- 
moved from his command, 341 ; Schuyler 
reinstated, 342; thinks Ticondcroga nearly 
impregnable, 342 ; Ticondcroga cannot be 
defended, 342; Schuyler unpopular with 
New England troops, 342 ; Saint Clair 
takes command at Ticondcroga, 301 ; the 
fort untenable, 301; Burgoyne's army in 
possession of it, 307 ; and in hot pursuit of 
Saint Clair, 307, 369 ; the northern army 
retreats to Fort Edward, 370; to Saratoga, 
373 ; to Stillwater, 375 ; to Mohawk river, 
370 ; repulse of Saint Leger at Fort Stan- 
wix, 378-381 ; defeat and surrender of 
the Brunswickers at Bennington, 384, 385 ; 
the army advances to Stillwater, 400 ; its 
strong position, 408 ; first battle of Be- 
mis's Heights, 409; good conduct of the 
Americans, 410 ; American loss, 411 ; Brit- 
ish loss, 411 ; desperate condition of the 
British armv, 411 ; second battle of Bemis's 
Heights, 414, 410 ; total defeat of the 
British, 417; surrender of Burgoyne, 420; 
Gates refuses to send re-euforcements to 
Washington, 432. 
Norlhin^ton, Lord-chancellor, insists on 
the right to tax America, v. 305, 372, 

404; becomes president of the council, 
vi. 22. 

North-west, disputed jurisdiction over it, vii. 

Norton, Rev. John, sent to represent Massa- 
chusetts in England, ii. 74. 

Norton, Sir Fle'cher, is for taxing America, 
v. 373, 399, 400. 

Nottingham in England, Sir William Howe 
returned for, vii. 176. 

Nottingham in New Hampshire, sends a 
body of troops to oppose the British forces, 
vii. 314. 

Nova Scotia, settlement of, i. 26 (see Aead'nt); 
a British colony settled there, iv. 45, 40 ; 
violent proceedings of the French, 07, 08, 
210,217, 220; always desired by the Brit- 
ish, and why, 350. 

Noyes, Nicholas, minister at Salem, his con- 
nection with the witchcraft delusion, iii. 
90, 93, 98. 

Nugent, Lord, insists on the execution of the 
stamp act, v. 383, 399, 423. 

Nurse, Rebecca, of Salem village, accused of 
witchcraft, iii. 80; acquitted, 89; con- 
demned and executed, 90. 

Nye, Philip, a faithful minister, i. 354. 


Oath of fidelity to the charter government of 
Massachusetts, i. 302, 371. 

Obedience, passive, this doctrine exploded by 
the revolution of 1088, iii. 6. 

OTirien, Captain Jeremiah, aad others from 
Machias, capture a British armed ship, the 
" Margaretta," vii. 341*. 

Oconostata, the great Cherokee war chief, iv. 
345, et seq. 

Ogden, Matthias, a volunteer in the march 
through the wilderness to Quebec, viii. 

Ogdensburg, Indian mission there, iv. 31, 

Ogle, George, in the Irish House of Com- 
mons, denounces the American war, viii. 

Oglethorpe, James, his earh' history, iii. 418; 
his disinterested philanthropy, 418, 432; 
plans an asylum in America tor the po r >rof 
England, 419; obtains a charter for a new 
colony, arrives in Georgia, 419 ; treats with 
the Indians, 421; begins the settlement of 
Savannah, 421; obtains the confidence of 
the red men, 422, 423; guides the Salzburg 
emigrants to their new home, 425; sails for 
England, 426; returns to Georgia with a 
new company, 427 ; brings with him John 
and Charles Wesley, 428; visits the Salz- 
burgers, 430; founds Frederica, 430; 
claims the territory as far as St. John's 
river, 431; exposed to danger from Span- 
ish hostility, 432; interdicts negro slavery, 
434; renews treaty with the Indians, 434; 
invades Florida, 443; besieges St. Augus- 
tine without success, 443; his heroic de- 
termination, 445; repels the Spanish inva- 



sion (f Georgia, 445, 44G; returns to Eng- 
land, 44G; his exalted character, 447; dies 
at near live score, 448; active in the cause 
of America, vi. 148. 
O'llara, General, conducts the surrender of 

York town, 522. 
Ohio company in Virginia, iv. 75; send Gist 
to explore the country beyond the Alle- 
ghanie*, 7G; open a road over those moun- 
tains, 10G; begin a fort at the confluence of 
the Alleghany and Monongahela, 108, 112, 
Ohio river first seen by white men, iii. 159; 
its banks occupied by the French, 190 ; 
even to its headwaters, 343; indifference 
of the English government, 345, 340; 
the French descend the Ohio, 340. 
Ohio, territory north-west of, ix. 55; claimed 
by Virginia, 5G ; question of ownership, 
443; an expedition thither, 4G7. 
Ohio Valley, new English colony to be 
planted there, iv. 42; formal possession 
taken by the French, 43; to be colonized 
from Virginia, 1G7. 
Ojibwas (see Chippewas). 
Old Sarum, almost without inhabitant, sent 
as many representatives to Parliament as 
the whole county of York, v. 39. 
Old South Meeting-House, Boston, town 
meetings held there, vi. 158, 343, 478, 
vii. 08; turned into a riding-school, viii. 
Olden Bameveldt, John, advocate of Holland, 
ii. 233; oppo-es the colonization of Amer- 
ica, 234; his execution, 277*. 
Oldham, John, i. 347; murdered by Pcquods, 

Oligarchy, British, its power at the culminat- 
ing point, v. 205. 
Olive, Thomas, governor of West New Jer- 
sey, iii. 50. 
Oliver, Andrew, secretary of Massachusetts, 
attends the Congress at Albany, iv. 20; his 
character, 27; advises the interposition of 
the king in colonial affairs, 29, 32; distrib- 
uter of stamps, v. 278; hung in effigy in 
Boston. 310; is compelled to resign "his 
office, 312; and to reiterate his resignation, 
375; urges the British ministry to oppres- 
sive measures, vi. 69; rejected from being 
councillor, 70 ; wishes to have " the original 
incendiaries taken off," 251, 2S3; lieuten- 
ant-governor, 385; his letters to persons in 
power in England. 435; they are sent to 
Massachusetts, published, and utterly ruin 
his prospects, 400, et seq. ; chief-justice of 
Massachusetts, vii. 108; attempts in vain 
to hold a court under the regulating act, 
108; is in great distress and resigns his 
office, 115, 110. 
Oneida tribe of Indians, iii. 144, 190, 194; 
mission to the, viii. 418; friendly to the 
Americans, ix. 377; some of them in the 
camp of Gates, 414. 
Onondagas, ii. 415; their wide-spread incur- 
sions, 419; magnanimity of a chief, i±->; 
mission among them, iii. 143; encouraging 
prospects, 144; the mission abandoned, 

145; the Onondagas attacked by the 
French, 190; remarkable fortitude of one 
of i he tribe, 191; join the French colony 
at Oswegatchie, iv. 123. 
Onslow, Arthur, speaker of the House of 

Commons, iv. 50. 
Opechancanouijh, an Indian chief, i. 130; his 
simplicity, 181; succeeds Powhatan, 181; 
his treacherous conduct, 182; his capture 
and death, 208. 
Opinions, ancient, relative to a western con- 
tinent, i. 6. 
Orange, now Randolph, County, North Car- 
olina, vi. 35; the seat of disturbances in 
1708, 185, et seq. ; gross oppressions there, 
184, 381, 382; the oppressors protected and 
encouraged by the royal government, 180, 
190, 382; the "Regulators," 185. etseq., 
382; Fanning, an oppressor, 183, 382; 
Husbands, a benefactor, 35; suffers great 
wrong, 188, 383; the unrighteous riot act, 
383; the regulators put down by the 
strong hand, 393, et seq. (see Reyulaturs 
and Tryon). 
Orangeburgh, S. C. surrenders to Sumter, 

Ord, George, in a sloop from Philadelphia 
captures a public magazine in Bermuda, 
viii. G9. 
Oregon, first visited by Englishmen, i. 80; 

visited by Spaniards, 8G. 
O'Reilly, Alexander, sent by Spain to recover 
New Orleans, vi. 265; "his arrival, 292; 
takes possession of the town, 293; by a 
stratagem arrests the principal inhabitants, 
2)4; puts them to death without merev, 
O'Beilly, Spanish minister of war, ix. 308. 
Origin of the two great American political 

parties, vii. 81. 
Oriskany, severe conflict with the Indians 

there, ix. 379, 380. 
Orb iff, Alexis Gregorievitch, Russian minis- 
ter, viii. 100. 
Orleans, Philip of, regent of France, iii. 

Orloff, Gregory Gregorievitch, favorite of 

Catharine II., viii. 10G. 
Osborne, Sir Danvers, sent out as governor 
of New Y'ork, iv. 103; commits suicide, 
Oswald, Richard, is sent by the British min- 
istry to Paris to negotiate respecting a 
peace, 53G; his character, 53G; his inter- 
view with Franklin at Paris, 540; his in- 
terview with Vergennes, 540; he is sent 
thither again, 541; his instructions, 541; 
he may propose independence in the treaty, 
54G; his powers enlarged, 547: a wide dif- 
ference between him and Grenville, the 
other commissioner, 543; a new commis- 
sion given him, 578; various hinderances 
to the negotiation, 558, et seq. ; the treaty 
signed, 591. 
Oswegatchie, now Ogdensburg, Indian mis- 
sion there, iv. 31, 123. 
Oswego, a post established there, iii. 339; 
channel of trade with the ^Yest, 339, iv. 



107; fort built there, 213; description of, 
238; captured by Montcalm, 239; left 
a solitude, 239; Bradstreet linds it such, 

Otho, emperor of German}', 66, 67. 

Otis, James, the father of Barnstable, 
slighted by Governor Bernard, iv. 379. 

Otis, James, the son, his eloquence and influ- 
ence, iv. 379; his great argument against 
writs of assistance, 415, et seq. ; effect of 
the speech, 417, 418; authorities for the 
speech as printed, 410, 417, note ; his char- 
acter, 419; elected representative of Bos- 
ton, 420; denies the right of England to 
tax America, 447; his theory of govern- 
ment, 448; his speech in Boston in 1703, 
v. 90; his memoir on the rights of the 
colonists, 198, 199; his published views on 
government, liberty, and natural right, 
202-205; his prophetic, sagacity, 205; de- 
fines the true foundation of human govern- 
ment, 202; denies the right of Parliament 
to tax America, 204; but counsels submis- 
sion and patience, 202, 270, 271; hs 
loyalty, 271; suffers reproach both from 
friends and enemies, 273 ; proposes a con- 
gress of the American people, 279 ; is elected 
a member of this congress, 280 ; chosen 
speaker of the Massachusetts House of 
Representatives, vi. 7; the choice vetoed 
by Bernard, 8; accuses Bernard of having 
caused the taxation of the colonies, 41 ; 
recommends caution, 104; speaks on the 
side of government, 104; his political 
"rhapsodies," 118; shrinks from the 
thought of independence, 118; desires "a 
general union of the whole British empire 
under one equal and uniform direction," 
118; the letter from the province to its 
agent in England not written by him, 119, 
note ; his indignation strongly excited at 
the conduct of Governor Bernard, 131; 
moderator at a town meeting, 158, 196; 
recommends peace and good order, 159 ; 
his speech in the House of Iiepresentatives 
on Lord Hillsborough's letter requiring 
Massachusetts to rescind its resolves, 163; 
elected to a convention of the province, 
198; representative to the general court, 
2S4; his rencontre with John Robinson, 
310 ; is disordered in mind, 403 ; a confirmed 
maniac, 409 ; a mere wreck, 430 ; his last 
public service, 431; killed by lightning, 

Ottagamies (see Fox Indians). 

Ottawas, an Indian tribe, iii. 142, 177, 190, 
193, 194, 195, 241, 242, iv. 76, 79, 81, 243, 
261 ; Pontiac their chief, 361 ; near Detroit, 
v. 116; peace made with them, 210,211; 
take up the hatchet against the Americans, 
ix. 302, 382. 

Ottawa river, iii. 129, 130, 132, 141, 149. 

Our country, its population in 1688, ii. 450; 
its national character, how formed, 451, et 
seq ; a free people, 452; an Anglo-Saxon 
people, 452; a Christian people, 453; a 
Protestant people, 454; influence of Wick- 
liffe, 450 ; of Luther, 458, of Calvin, 400, 

et seq. ; of Quakerism, 463 ; influence of 
each of the three races, — white, black, and 
red, 404; influence of America on Europe, 
465; absolute power of Parliament un- 
questioned, iii. 101; first proposal to tax 
the colonies, 101; this power always denied 
in America, 102; the press free here, 102; 
Episcopacy, 102; personal freedom enjoyed, 
103; the judges, how appointed, 103; a 
commercial monopoly, 104; a negative on 
the enactment of laws, 105; colonial indus- 
try discountenanced, 106, 107; a tendency 
to" independence, 108; the desire of it dis- 
claimed, 109 ; the time not come, 109. 

Outrage of an English admiral, x. 275. 

Oxenstiern, Axel, Count of Sweden, pro- 
motes the settlement of Delaware, ii. 280 ; 
chancellor of Sweden, x. 82. 

Oxford University, its address to the king 
against the Americans, viii. 103. 

Oyster River (now Durham, N. H.), attacked 
by Indians, iii. 187. 

Paine, Robert Treat, delegate to the first con- 
tinental congress, vii. 04; delegate in Con- 
gress from Massachusetts, not in favor of 
independence, viii. 242. 

Paine, Thomas, of Philadelphia, rejects the 
rule of the king of England, vii. 333 ; writes 
an appeal to the people in favor of inde- 
pendence, viii. 140: his previous history, 
236; writes "Common Sense," 236; Ru h 
gives it this title, 236; writes in favor of a 
strong government, x 567. 

Paine, Timothy, of Worcester, Massachusetts, 
a mandamus counsellor, is compelled to 
resign his commission, vii. 104. 

Palliser, Sir Hugh, admiral, x. 163. 

Pamlico Indians, iii. 239. 

Panin, Nakita Ivanovitch, chief minister of 
Catharine II., viii. 105; his character, 105, 
100; his intercourse with the British min- 
ister, 107; Gunning, the minister, applies 
to him for Russian troops to be employed in 
America, 151; the request is declined, 153, 
155; Panin declines all further discussion, 
155; he assures the French minister that it 
is physically impossible to send the troops, 
150; prime minister, 432; his pure charac- 
ter, x. 257 ; his language to Harris, the 
British minister, 265, 267 ; his language to 
the Prussian minister, 269; his death, 

Paoli, Pascal de, leader of the Corsican insur- 
gents, vi. 176; his failure and arrival in 
England, 176. 

Paper currency abolished in Massachusetts, 
iv. 51; retained in Rhode Island, 83; its 
depreciation in Massachusetts, 51 ; in Rhode 
Island, 83. 

Paper money issued, iii. 186, 209, 350, 354, 
387, 388; how introduced and sustained, 
387; contest between paper and specie, 
354; paper made a legal tender, 355; pop- 
ular frenzy, 355 ; circulation of gold and 



silver prohibited, 357; the reaction and 
fearful consequences, 357; lessons of the 
affair, 357; fluctuations of the currency, 
389; advocated bv Franklin and others, 
388, 390; issued, ix. 4G8; it depreciates, 
468, x. 109, et seq. (see Continental Money, 
Bills of Credit). 

Paris, its splendor and gayety, x. 40 ; state of 
opinion there concerning America, vii. 

Tans, Isaac, a captive, tortured and murdered 
by the Indians, ix. 380. 

Parisians sympathized with America, x. 41, 


I'arker, John, captain of the minute-men of 
Lexington, vii. 292; orders given by him, 
292; he orders his men to disperse, 293; his 
company renew the light, 305. 

Parker, Jonas, of Lexington, is slain at the 
action there, vii. 293. 

Parker, Moses, of Chelmsford, lieutenant- 
colonel in Bridge's regiment, wounded 
and a prisoner, dies in Boston jail, vii. 

Parker, Sir Peter, commodore in the British 
navy, enters Cape Fear river, viii. 357; 
resolves to attack Charleston, 358 ; arrives 
with his fleet off Charleston, 394, 395; the 
fleet crosses the bar, 397 ; delay from vari- 
ous causes, 399, 400; his confidence of an 
easy victory, 400, 401; arrival of the large 
ship, the ''Experiment," 400; the squadron 
afack Fort Moultrie, 404; his flag-ship 
greatly damaged and great slaughter on 
board, 407, 408; the land forces do not 
assist, 408; the ships retire very greatly 
damaged, 410, 411; in New York Pay, ix. 
82, 8 J ; convoys the expedition to lihode 
Island, 200. 

Parliament, establishment of religion by, i. 
279, 282, 285 ; the church party opposed in, 
296; opposition in, to the monopoly of the 
Plymouth company, 324, et seq. ; the Long 
Parliament favors Massachusetts, 416; yet 
tries to revoke its charter, 439 ; the attempt 
defeated, 441; the jurisdiction of, denied, 
442; is foiled by Massachusetts, and re- 
cedes from its claim, 443, 444; meeting of 
the Long Parliament, ii. 4; reforms effected, 
5; subverts the constitution, 6; the "Re- 
monstrance," 7; exercises despotic power, 
9; its division into two parties, 9; strife 
between army and Parliament, 13; the 
"purge," 14"; Parliament turned out of 
doors, 19; reassembles. 29; supremacy of 
Parliament over the colonies asserted, 41; 
the navigation act, 42; monopoly thus 
created oppressive, injurious, and mani- 
festly wrong, 43-48; a Parliament nineteen 
years long, 436; last Parliament of Charles 
II., 438; monarchy triumphs, 439; su- 
premacy of, established by the English 
revolution, iii. 2,7, 9; the king becomes 
subordinate to it, and how, 8, 9; the revo- 
lution partial and one-sided in its opera- 
tion, 4, 5, 82; Parliament claims absolute 
power over the colonies, 101, 104, et seq. ; 
its oppressive acts, 105, 106 ; theory of its 

supremacy, iv. 32, 34; act of Parliament 
proposed tor overruling all charters, 48, 49; 
the plan abandoned, 50, 51; authority of 
Parliament to be invoked, 58,02; proposal 
to tax the colonies, 101, 115; manner of 
governing Parliament, 100; Parliament 
advised to tax America, 107, 171, 172; 
power of Parliament incessantly invoked 
176; a tax urged by Bra Idock and the 
royal governors and others, 178 (see Tax- 
ation) ; Parliament establishes a British 
proconsular power in America, 228; claims 
control over American legislation, 255; in 
1703 wholly aristocratic, v. 38, et seq. ; its 
supremacy, 41 ; its functions, 42, 43; re- 
garded by Grenville as supreme, 180; op- 
position to its proceedings in New England, 
198, 199; debates in, on taxing America, 
236, et seq. ; vehement speech of Barrel 
against it, 240 ; the stamp act passes, 247 ; 
Parliament affirms its right to tax Amer- 
ica, 413, et seq. ; reduces the land tax in 
Engl ind, vi. 59; angry debate touching 
colonial affairs, Go; Parliament esteems 
itself master of America, 73 ; shuts its doors 
against all complaints and agents from that 
country, 75, 80; violent language against 
America, 80; has taken steps which cannot 
be retraced, 81; venality < f , 94; power of, 
denied in Boston, 96, 97; and bvthe legis- 
lature of Massachusetts, 121, 123, 126; the 
unrival cd profligacy of the Twelfth Parlia- 
ment, which taxed America, 137;- its 
shameless corruption, 137; destitute of an}' 
principle, unstable in conduct, and impu- 
dent in measures, 138; regarded by the 
colonists as their most dangerous enemy, 
139; the Thirteenth British Parliament 
meets, 147; cost of a seat in, 147; expul- 
sion of Wilkes, 148 ; reasons why America 
was not represented in Parliament, 181; 
Grenville advocates parliamentary reform, 
210; meeting of, in 1708, 230; the king's 
foolish speech, 230; determine to bring 
America to condign punishment, 233; by 
a large majority, determine to chastise 
Boston, 240 ; and to punish the " instigators 
of the late disorders," 240, 255; confers on 
the king additional powers, 510; the vote 
unanimous, 511 ; stringent measures adopt- 
ed for the punishment of Boston, 512- 
520; its strange infatuation, vii. 24; asserts 
an absolute dominion over the colonies, 
24; passes the " regulating act," sweeping 
away the liberties of Massachusetts, 94; 
that province sets the act at defiance and 
practically nullifies it, 108-113; dissolution 
of the Thirteenth Parliament, 135; the 
Fourteenth elected, 174; the general venal- 
ity and corruption, 175; the French minis- 
ter purchases a seat, 174, 175; Westminster 
elects Tories, 175, 170; the House of Lords 
refuses to remove the troops from Boston, 
203 ; the House of Commons refuses to re- 
ceive petitions in behalf of America, 217, 
218; declares Massachusetts in a state of 
rebellion, 222; address of both houses to 
the king advising hostile measures against 



the colonics, 227; excludes New England 
from the Newfoundland fisheries, 240, 253, 
205; rejects the petition of New York, 28G; 
the king expects its hearty concurrence, 
viii. 159; his speech at the opening of, 100, 
101; debates upon it, 161-163 tsce House of 
Commons) ; lias given up the power to tax 
the colonies, is.. ""2; but not the general 
power over charters, 73; its supremacy, x. 
37, 38 (see Supremacy) ; reform proposed, 
Parliamentary reform, questions relative to 
it raited by the discussions oi' the American 
controversy, viii. 125; advocated by Dr. 
Price, 302; opinions of French writers and 
statesmen, 302. 
Parris, Samuel, minister at Salem village, ill- 
84; his connection with the witchcraft de- 
lusion, 85, 88, 90; driven from Salem vil- 
lage, 98. 
Parry, lieutenant-colonel of Pennsylvania!! 
troops, slain in the battle of Long Island, 
ix. 92. 
Parsons, Samuel Holden, of Middletown, in 
Connecticut, plans the capture of Ticon- 
deroga, vii. 338; brigadier of Connecticut 
troops, in the battle of Long Island, ix. 88, 
89; makes his escape from it, 92; shame- 
ful flight of his brigade, 119 ; his operations 
in Connecticut, 348. 
Parties, state of, in England, favored the 

king's purposes, vi 350. 
Party always founded on some truth, viii. 
119; the cause of every party is some 
force which is always present in society, 119. 
Patapsco river, an admirable site for com- 
merce, vii. 49 ; its colonization, 49. 
Patriot party in Ireland, rise of, v. 75. 
Patriotic so::g, vi. 179. 
Patronage of the crown, immense, vi. 94; its 

corrupting influence, 137, 138. 
Patterson, colonel of a New England regi- 
ment at Princeton, ix. 250. 
Paulding, John, arrests Andre, x. 387; the 
circumstances related, 388; his resolute 
behavior, 388; his reward, 395. 
Paulet, Earl, votes against taxing America, 

v. 413. 
Paulli. ensign, taken at Sandusky by the 

Indians, v. 1 18. 
Paulus Hook taken by Major Henry Lee, x. 

Pauw, Miihacl, purchases Staten Island, and 

what is now Jersey City, ii. 281 *. 
Pawtucket tribe of Indians, iii. 238. 
Paxton, Charles, revenue officer in Boston, 
iv. 339: marshal of the court of admiralty 
in Boston, vi. 31; sails for England as the 
representative of the crown oilicers, 32; his 
nefarious schemes, 47, 50 ; advises the em 
ploymcnt of force in aid of the revenue acts, 
101 ; obnoxious to danger in Boston, 102, 
109; hung in effigy, 133; calls for troops, 
101; objects to paying a small income tax, 
Payson, Phillips, minister of Chelsea, captures 
two wagons sent with supplies for British 
truops, vii. 307. 

Peace, negotiations for, with England by 
France, iv. 393, 439 ; by the Cherokees with 
South Carolina, 425; Bedfor I sent to Paris 
to negotiate for peace, 439, 442, 443; 
George III. desires peace, 451; peace of 
Paris, 1703, 452.; the treaty approved by 
Parliament, 453; the happy results, 455, 
et seq. ; between Britain and her colonies, 
how it might have been secured, vii. 190, 
et seq. ; the way to restore it, viii. 359- 
372 ; France wishes it, x. 441 ; Spain wishes 
it, 412; Austria wishes it. 449; of Utrecht, 
iii. 220; provisions of the treaty, 227, et 
seq ; changes effected by it, 227, et seq. ; 
it contained the seeds of future war, 227, 
et seq. ; its effect on Spain, 229; on Bel- 
gium, 229; on France, 230; on the Spanish 
colonies, 231 ; its most weighty result, the 
Assieuto, 232. 
Peerage, first and last, erected by the English 
in America, i. 105 ; of England described, 
v. 30-38. 
Peirce, William, master of the ship "Lyon," 
i. 358; sent across the Atlantic for food for 
the colony, 358. 
Pelham, Henrv, prime minister of Great 
Britain, iv. 42, 45, 51, GO, 87,100; dies, 157. 
Pelham, Thomas Holies, Duke of Newcastle, 
favors a war with Spain, iii. 438; orders 
the expedition to Canada to be abandoned, 
404; the supposed reason, 404, iv 18; be- 
comes colonial minister under Walpole, 18; 
his ignorance and imbecility, 19 ; often be- 
stowed office in America on bad men, 20; 
his temporizing policy, 20, 21; transferred 
to the northern department, 21 ; contrasted 
with Russell, Duke of Bedford, 22; his im- 
patience, 63; wishes to get rid of Bedford, 
71; his forbearance towards the colonies, 
85; his perfidy towards the Duke of Bed- 
ford, 86; becomes prime minister, 15); 
Pitt solicits a nomination from him, 159; 
imbecility of the Newcastle administration, 
164, 105; Newcastle sends to Madame de 
Pompadour, 108; undecided whether to at- 
tack France or not, 210, 217; gives a sub- 
sidy to Russia, 219; tries to obtain the 
support of Pitt for this treaty, but in vain, 
220; Pitt refuses office under him, 247; is 
superseded in office by Pitt,- 247; a new 
ministry includes him with Pitt, 274; is 
sent for by the new king, George III., 382; 
intrigues at court, 383 ; has little favor with 
kin^or people, 390; he and the Duke of 
Bedford compel the resignation of Pitt, 
408, 409 ; retires from office, 437 ; end of the 
old line Whigs, 437. 
Peltrie, Madame de la, establishes the Ursu- 

Iine Convent at Quebec, iii. 127. 
Pemaquid settled, i. 331 ; attacked and taken 
bv Indians, iii. 181; again attacked and 
taken, 189. 
Pemberton, Ebenezer, minister of the New 
South Church in Boston in 1771, reads the 
proclamation of Governor Hutchinson, 
while all the rest refuse, vi. 408; he is 
known to George III. as a friend to govern- 
ment, vii. 72. 



Pembroke, Mass., its response to the circular 
from Boston, vi. 439. 

Pendleton, Edmund, a delegate of Virginia 
in the first continental congress, vii. 273; 
one of the committee of safety, viii. 81,82; 
president of the convention, 377. 

Penn, John, delegate to Congress from North 
Carolina, viii. 97. 

Penn, Richard, appointed to bear the second 
petition of Congress to the king, viii. 39; 
his zeal and celerity, 130; he arrives in 
London, 130; merits the confidence of the 
government, 130; yet he is on his arrival 
totally neglected, 130; the king will not 
see him, 131 ; the petition delivered to Lord 
Dartmouth, but no answer returned, 133; 
he is examined at the bar of the House of 
Lords, 1G5. 

Penn, Thomas and Richard, proprietaries of 
Pennsylvania, iv. 139, 141; strife with 
them, 115, 224, 255; favor parliamentary 
control, 255; their estates taxed, 372; the 
matter before the board of trade, 373; and 
privy council, 374; oppose the scheme of 
American taxation, v. 182; letter quoted, 
183, note. 

Penn, William, his doctrine of the inner light, 
li. 337, 338; he and others purchase East 
New Jersey, 381; obtains a charter for 
Pennsylvania, 302; his proclamation to the 
people of that province, 303 ; refuses to 
grant a monopoly of the fur-trade, 305; 
writes a letter to the Indians, 305; his 
views of government, 300; obtains a grant 
of what is now Delaware, 307; lands in 
Newcastle, Delaware, 308; his previous 
life, 308-380; at Oxford, 308; at Saumur, 
300; in prison for conscience' sake, 370; an 
outcast, 300, 370 ; in the Tower, 371 ; pleads 
the privilege of an Englishman, 372; in- 
herits a large fortune, 372 ; pleads for lib- 
erty of conscience, 373; again in prison, 
373; a Quaker missionary in Germany, 
374; appeals to Parliament for universal 
liberty of conscience, 375; and to the peo- 
ple, 375 ; connection with Algernon Sydney, 
370 ; turns t > the new world, 370 ; com- 
pared with John Locke, 377, et seq. ; Penn 
o i the Delaware, 380; his great treaty with 
the Indians, 381; visits Lord Baltimore, 
385; discussion with him on boundaries, 
380; frame of government for Pennsyl- 
vania, 388; his farewell to the people and 
return to England, 303; his influence with 
the monarch secures the liberation of the 
Quakers. 305; resists the commitment of 
the bishops to the tower, 397; his princi- 
ples sanctioned by posterity, 397 ; his en- 
during fame, 398:*yeta slave-holder, 401; 
his encomium on George Fox, 402. re- 
covers his authority in Pennsylvania, iii. 
34; gives liberty to the people, 35; his 
misfortunes, 30; his property restored, 40; 
visits Pennsylvania, 41; returns to Eng- 
land, 44. 

Pennacook Indians, iii. 238. 

Pennsylvania, first occupied by Swedes, ii. 
287 ; charter granted to William Penn, 302; 

a free society of traders organized, 367; 
Penn's arrival in the province, 380; his 
great treaty with the Indians, 381; the 
government organizel, 384; dispute with 
Lord Baltimore on boundaries, 380; frame 
of government adopted. 388; the lirst and 
last trial for witchcraft, 301; emigrants 
come from England, the Low Countries, 
Germany and Sweden, 392; Penn's de 
parture, 393 ; Mason and Dixon's line es- 
tablished, 394; uneasiness in the province, 
399; Indian alarm quieted, 399; slavery in 
Pennsylvania, 401; Penn a slave-holder, 
401; the German emigrants decide against 
slavery, 401; population in 1088, 450; effect 
of the English revolution, iii. 34; disputes, 
35 ; separation of Delaware, 35 ; George 
Keith's schism, 35; resists the magistracy; 
35; Pennsj'lvania a rcyal province, 37; 
administration of Fletcher, 37; the assem- 
bly resist, 38 ; Penn recovers his authority, 
30, 40 ; a democratic government, 40 ; the 
people rule, 34, 41 ; the old charter sur- 
rendered, 41; the colony refuses to contrib- 
ute for the defence of New York, 39, 41 ; 
condition of the negroes and Indians, 42; 
new constitution, 43; toleration, 43; colli- 
sions between the people and the proprie- 
taries, 44; perfect freedom, 43, 45, 40; Sir 
William Keith, the governor, urges the erec- 
tion of a fort on Lake Erie, 345; the people 
restive under restraint, 394; voluntary 
militia system devised by Franklin. 450; 
spirit of freedom in, iv. 39; does nothing to 
rep'd French encroachments, 88, 115; pop- 
ulation in 1754, 129, 130; political and 
social condition, 130, et seq. ; great freedom 
enjoyed, 140, 141 ; predominant influence 
of Franklin, 140, 141; strife with the pro- 
prietaries, 115, 224, 255; refuses grants of 
money, but issues bills of credit, 175: the 
frontier ravaged by Indians, 225; Frank- 
lin placed in command, 225, 220 ; a pro- 
posal to overrule the charter, 230; militia 
law repealed by the king in council, 231; 
flourishing state of the province, 253; pop- 
ulation, 253; liberty enjoyed, 253, 254; 
Franklin chosen agent to England, 254; 
sends a strong force against Fort Duquesne, 
308; leads the van of liberal principles, 
372; taxes the estates of the proprietaries, 
372; the province reprimanded by the king 
for disobedience to his instructions, 441, 
442; in Pontiac's war, v. 124; impatient 
of the proprietary government, 218; pro- 
tests against parliamentary taxation, 219; 
sends Franklin to England to defend its 
liberties, 220; sends a strong force under 
Bouquet into the Ohio country, 221; ac- 
cepts the proposal of an American Con- 
gress, 328; represented in the Congress, 
334, 340; spirit of the province, 377; its 
imports from England, 429 ; is greatly 
under the influence of Dickinson, vii. 44; 
its convention, echoing his opinions, rec- 
ommends paying for the tea, and advises 
gentle methods, 82; but chooses delegates 
to a general congress, 82, 83 ; resists the en- 



croachmeuts of Lord Dunmore, 162; the 
legislature approve the proceedings of the 
continental congress, 211; a proposal for 
manumission of slaves, 271 b ; the spirit of 
liberty bold and defiant, 332, 333; the as- 
sembly resolves to maintain a union wilh 
the other colonies, 333; the province 
wants a continued union with Britain, 377; 
riflemen from it join the army before Bos- 
ton, viii. 04; the ardent patriots of the 
province held under restraint, 72; Dickin- 
son guides the proceedings of the conven- 
tion, 72; the lirst and second conventions, 
72, 73; the loyalists have a majority in the 
House of Representatives, 72, 73; mistaken 
policy pursued, 74 ; influence of the pro- 
prietary governor, 74; insincerity of the 
ass mbly, 74; appoints a committee of 
safety, 75; a new legislature organized, 
and all its members take the oath of alle- 
giance to the king, 114; it pursues the 
Quaker po'iicy, 115; the legislature alarmed, 
138; unhappy influence of Dickinson, 138; 
he reports a set of instructions for the dele- 
gates in Congress, enjoining on them to 
resist a separation from England, 139; 
the mischievous consequences, 1J9; friends 
of the proprietary government opposed to 
independence, 242, 323; a convention of 
the people opposed by them, 323, 324; the 
representation enlarged, 32(1; measures of 
the assembly, 32G; it renews its instruc- 
tions against independence, 327; the 
"moderate men " carry the elections, 355; 
the Germans not allowed to vote unless 
naturalized, and naturalization involved 
allegiance to the king, 355; the popular 
party hold the proprietary government as 
virtually dissolved, 385; incapacity of the 
existing government, 38(5; a strong popu- 
lar movement for independence, 380 ; a 
conflict of parties, 387; one party conser- 
vative, the other progressive, 387 ; Dickin- 
son stands between the two, 387 ; the as- 
sembly become uneasy, 388; new instruc- 
tions to the delegates in Congress, 388; 
provincial conference of the committees of 
the several counties, 443; the proprietary 
government dies out, 444; reform de- 
manded, 444; new men brought forward, 
444; a new government, 445; all tax- 
payers allowed to vote, 415; a religious 
test imposed, 440; a unanimous vote for 
independence, 440; divided in opinion in 
respect to a civil constitution, ix. 170 ; its 
convention, 170; the new constitution, 170; 
its grave defects, 171; it disfranchises 
Quakers and others, 171; provides for only 
a single legislative assembly, 171 ; the state 
rent into factions, 171; a counter-revolu- 
tion desired, 171 ; a party for absolute and 
unconditional submission, 172 ; urgent ap- 
peal to the people to rise in arms for the 
defence of their state, 202 ; many of the 
people unfriendly, 225; Pennsylvania mili- 
tia at Princeton, 243; Congress exercises 
a temporary control, 338; the militia do 
not repair to Washington's camp at the 

approach of danger, 392; a factious spirit 
prevails, 401 ; the people will not rise, 42 ), 
433; the council and assembly remonstrate 
against going into winter quarters, 45J; 
Washington's reply, 459; condition of his 
arm}', 459, 405; leads in the abolition of 
slavery, x. 300; part of the Pennsylvania 
line in the army revolts, 415; they refuse 
to join the enemy, 410. 

Pensacola occupied by Spaniards, iii. 200, 
353 ; captured by the French and recovered 
by Spain, 353; its excellent harbor, vi. 

Pensioner, Dr. Johnson's definition of one, 
vii. 258; he has himself become one, 

People, sovereignty of the, v. 30; people of 
America, their opinions, 285, et scq. ; their 
rights as Englishmen, 280, 344, 385, et seq. ; 
the Declaration of Independence emanated 
from them, viii. 247, 248; their powerful 
agency in all reforms, 248; their common- 
sense must bear rule, 248. 

Peoria Indians, 197. 

Peoria, Lake, visited by La Salle, iii. 

Pepperell, its cheering answer to Boston in 
1774, vii. 99. 

Pepperell, William, commands the expedi- 
tion against Louisburg, iii. 458. 

Pequod Indians, i. 397; murder of Oldham 
by them, 398; their fort destroyed and 
hundreds of them slain, 400; the tribe ex- 
terminated, 402. 

Percy, Earl, brings re-enforcements to the 
British troops in their flight from Concord, 
vii. 300, 307; by great effort brings off the 
troops, 309; he calumniates the Americans, 
318,319; dares not mingle in the conflict 
at Bunker Hill, 413; appointed to attack 
Dorchester Heights, viii. 297; is compelled 
to make no attack, 237, 298; in the battle 
of Long Island, ix. 87; moves on Fort 
Washington, 179; his feeble attack, 191; 
assists in the expedition to Rhode Island, 

Periodical press, the, original of, in America, 
iii. 374. 

Personal freedom secured by the American 
revolution, iv. 13. 

Peter III. of Russia makes an alliance with 
Frederic II., iv. 434; his generous 
conduct towards him, 435; murdered, 

Peters, Hugh, arrives in Boston, i. 383 ; goes 
to England as agent for the colonies, 410; 
his character and death, ii. 32, 33; mis- 
representations concerning him, 33, note. 

Petersham, Massachusetts, its patriotic dec- 
laration against British aggression, vi. 

Petitions of the colonies rejected without a 
hearing, vi. 144, 234, 236. 

Petty, William (see Slulbume, Earl of). 

Philadelphia founded by William Penn, ii. 
387; its rapid growth, 392: first newspaper 
there, iii. 374; proposed as the seat of 
government forth" united colonies, iv. 123; 



meeting of governors there, 252; a diver- 
sity of sentiment in regard to resistance, 
vii. 43; moderate measures proposed, 45; 
a committee of correspondence appointed, 
45; a letter to Boston advises slower move- 
ments, 45; the bells tolled and the houses 
shut on account of the blockade of Boston, 
57; thirty military companies daily prac- 
tise the manual exercise, 333; the largest 
city in the land, 377; remonstrates against 
the tame conduct of the legislature, viii. 
114; a temporizing spirit prevails, 355; 
the "moderate men" succeed at the elec- 
tions, 355; great meeting for independence 
in the State House yard, 385 ; votes of the 
meeting, 38G; independence proclaimed 
there, ix. 32; the spirit of a counter revo- 
lution, 171; approach of a British army, 
202; measures taken for defence, 202; pro- 
posal to burn the city, 20'J ; first' celebra- 
tion of the Fourth of July, 357; panic on 
the approach of Howe's army, 401; Corn- 
wallis takes possession of the city, 404; 
Philadelphia of no military importance, 422; 
the forts below, 422; loss of an American 
frigate there, 423; two British ships of war 
destroyed, 431; Forts Mifflin and Mercer 
evacuated, 434, 435; the city strongly for- 
tified by the British, 452 ; occupied by Brit- 
ish troops, x. 121; British commissioners 
arrive there, 122; evacuated by the British, 
124; departure of the commissioners, 125; 
thousands of the inhabitants leave the city, 

Philadelphia merchants unanimously adopt 
the system of non-importation of British 
goods, vi. 272; the system modified and 
restricted, 317; it is confined to the single 
article of tea, 305; resolute stand taken 
against taxation by Parliament, 470; the 
tea-ship arrives and is sent back to London, 

Philip of Anjou becomes king of Spain, iii. 
220, 323. 

Phi ip of Hesse embraces Protestantism, x. 

Philip of Orleans, regent of France, iii. 

Philip of Pokanoket, rejects Christian in- 
struction, ii. 97; his jealousy of the Eng- 
lish, 100; the war of 1675 not designed on 
his part, 101; a fugitive, 102; his death, 
108; his son sold as a slave, 103. 

Philips, general under Burgoyne, ix. 302; 
invests Ticonderoga on the south side, 
360; in the battle of Bemis's Heights, 409, 
415; commands the British force in Vir- 
ginia, x. 498; dies there, 499. 

Phillips, George, first minister at Watertown, 
i. 358 *. 

Phillips, William, of Boston, vi. 330, 343; 
his share in public meetings concerning the 
tea party, 473, 482 ; negatived as a coun- 
cillor, vii. 48. 

Philosophy of France incapable of guiding a 
revolution, vii. 2'); of Hume, as prevalent 
in Europe, viii. 306. 

Phips, Sir William, his early history, iii. 83; 

governor of Massachusetts, 83 ; arrives in 
lioston, 87; appoints a court for the trial 
of witches, 88; his connection with the 
witchcraft delusion, 89; captures Port 
Koyal in Acadia, iii. 184; commands the 
ill-fated expedition against Quebec, 185; 
returns to Boston, 186. 

Phipps, of Cambridge, high-sheriff, resigns 
his office, vii. 115. 

Physiocrates of France, a school of political 
economists, v. 26. 

Piankeshaw Indians friendly to the English, 
iv. 79, 80; their great chief taken captive 
by French Indians, 95. 

Pickens, Andrew, of South Carolina, viii. 
87 ; pursues and captures a bod} 1 of Tories, 
x. 288; joins Morgan, 460,403; his able 
conduct at Cowpens, 434, 470; made a 
brigadier-general, 466; his efficient co- 
operation with Greene, 485, 489, 493. 

Pickering, Colonel Timothy, fails to bring his 
regiment into action at Bunker Hill, vii. 
309 ; quartermaster-general, x. 407. 

Picqua, a town of the Miami Indians, iv. 78; 
important treaty there, 79 ; this town at- 
tacked and destroyed by French Indians, 
•94, 95. 

Pinckney, Charles, president of the provincial 
congress of South Carolina, vii. 205; takes 
measures for the defence of the colony, 
330; his unworthy conduct, x 330. 

Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth, of South Car- 
olina, he and others take possession of Fort 
Johnson, viii. 90; his courageous reply to 
the royal governor, 90 ; assists in the de- 
fence of Charleston, 403. 

Pinckney, Thomas, aid to General Gates, x. 

Picquet, Francis, Abb<$, missionary to the 
Indians at Ogdensburg, iv. 31. 

Pierce, John, trustee for the Pilgrims, ob- 
tains a patent for them, i. 320; his treach- 
ery, 320. 

Pigot, brigadier-general, at Charlestown, vii. 
413 ; leads the left wing of the British, 
422, 425 ; his gallantly, 432 ; commands a 
British force on Khode Island, x. 148. 

Pijart, Claude, missionary among the IIu- 
rons, iii. 129; among the Algonquins, 130. 

Pilgrims, the, their church in the north of 
England, i. 299 ; assert the rights of con- 
science, 299 ; seek safety in exile, 300 ; 
retire to Holland, 301 ; settle at Leyden, 
301 ; inconveniences there, 302 ; resolve 
on emigration, 302 ; their patriotism, 303 ; 
negotiate with the London Virginia com- 
pany, 303 ; petition the king, 304 ; obtain 
a patent, which proves of no service, 305* ; 
propose to settle on the Hudson, 305 * ; 
the plan fails, 305 * : form a partnership 
with merchants of London, 300 ; they set 
sail for America, 306; their voyage, 308; 
made at the right period, 308; arrive at 
Cape Cod, 309; their political compact, 30J; 
search for a convenient residence, 311; 
voyage in the " Shall ip," 312 ; the landing 
at Plymouth, 313; their difficulties and 
hinderances, 313; their sufferings, 310- 



315 ; want of fond, 315 ; system of common 
property abandoned, 315; intercourse with 
the Indians, 31G, 317; the partnership dis- 
solved, 319; they obtain a patent, 320; 
but not a charter, 321 ; character of the 
colony, 322 ; its claims on our gratitude, 

Pillage by British troops, x. 223, 226, 227. 

Pinet, Jesuit missionary in Illinois, iii. 

Titcairn, major of marines at Lexington, vii. 
212; orders the troops to lire on the people, 
203; destroys stores at Concord, 300; is 
compelled to a hasty retreat, 304, 305; 
mortally wounded at Bunker Hill, 429. 

Pitkin, Timothy, his history corrected, vi. 
48, note. 

Pitkin, William, elected governor of Con- 
necticut, vi. 14. 

Pitt, William, Karl of Chatham, favors a war 
with Spain, iii. 438 ; the Great Commoner, 
iv. 159 ; solicits the patronage of New- 
castle, 159 ; opposes Newcastle's party in 
the Commons, 161 ; opposes the treaty 
with Russia, 220: Newcastle tries to win 
him to his side, 220; attacks the Russian 
subsidy and retires from office, 220 ; con- 
' nects himself with Prince George, the heir- 
apparent, 244; ineffectual attempt of New- 
castle to negotiate with him, 246 ; super- 
sedes Newcastle as prime minister, 248 ; 
protects American liberty, 249 ; possesses 
no real power, 250 ; the king dismisses 
him from office, 250 ; the foremost man in 
England, 272 ; forms a ministry, including 
Fox and Newcastle, 274 ; compared with 
Cromwell, 274 ; takes the colonial depart- 
ment, 274 ; the man of the people. 275 ; 
his commanding genius and remarkable 
achievements, 275,276 ; the Great Question 
of the day, 277 ; Pitt offers to restore Gib- 
raltar, 281 ; invites the colonies to unite 
with England in the conquest of Canada, 
291 ; a friend to liberty and the rights of 
America, 292 ; derives information from 
Franklin, but without seeing him, 315, 
376, note ; his plans for 1759, 315, 376, note ; 
is cheerfully seconded by all the Northern 
colonies, 319; rejoices over the relief of 
Quebec, 359 ; is desirous of peace, 363 ; 
and of retaining Canada, 369 ; never favor- 
ed encroachment on the liberties of Amer- 
ica, 375 ; never threatened interference, 376 ; 
is disliked bv the young king, George III., 
383 ; the great stain on his 'memory, 396 ; 
chooses to continue the war, 396 ; wishes 
the utter humiliation of France, 399 ; re- 
fuses a participation in the fisheries, 400 ; 
has knowledge of the family compact, 404; 
and of the special convention, 405; his 
vast designs, 406 ; proposes a war with 
Spain, 407 ; all the cabinet, save Earl Tem- 
ple, oppose the measure, 408 ; Pitt resigns 
office, 409 ; accepts a pension, 410 ; a peer- 
age conferred on his wife, 410 ; Pitt speaks 
against the treaty of 1762, 453 ; refuses to 
take office with Bedford, v. 141 ; the king 
invites him to enter the ministry, 143 ; 

vol. x. 45 

terms on which Pitt would accept office, 
144 ; a second interview with the king, 
146; the king rejects his terms, 146; he 
declines office, 262; the king sends for him 
again, 296 ; disagreemi nt between Pitt and 
Temple, 297; Pitt disapproves the stamp 
act, 297 ; cannot take office, 298 ; in«feeble 
health, 381, 382; his great speech in Par- 
liament, denying its right to tax America, 
383-387 ; his crushing reply to Grcnville, 
391-395 ; Grafton advises the king to send 
for Pitt, 396 ; the king refuses, 396 ; Graf- 
ton sees Pitt, 397; Pitt is willing to act with 
the Rockingham ministry, on the plan of 
relinquishing all right to tax America, 
397 ; pronounces the essay of John Adams 
on the feudal law masterly, 398 ; advocates 
the reception of the petition of the Ameri- 
can Congress, 399 ; contends strenuously 
for the rights of America, 415, 416 ; speaks 
in favor of the repeal of the stamp act, 434; 
almost adored by the people, 436 ; speaks 
against the declaratory bill, 444 ; his last 
speech in the House of Commons, 457 ; re- 
ceives the thanks of Massachusetts, vi. 13; 
a statue to him in New York, 15; his 
prostrated health, 18 ; his ill success, 18 ; 
invited by the king to form a new ad- 
ministration, 19 ; forms a most liberal 
cabinet, 22 ; is insulted by Rockingham, 
23 ; becomes Earl of Chatham, 24 ; by this 
means is bereft of all his power, 25 : the 
only point of his agreement with the king 
25 ; denies the right of Parliament to tax 
the colonies, x. 39 ; promotes the cause of 
liberty in both hemispheres, 86 (see Chat- 
ham, /Carl of). 

Pitt, William, the younger, accompanies his 
father to the House of Lords, ix. 494; 
condemns the war, x. 482 ; favors peace 
with America, 529 ; not in favor of Ameri- 
can independence, 552 ; proposes a reform 
in Parliament, 549 ; becomes a member of 
the Shelburne administration, 552 ; chan- 
cellor of the exchequer, 553. 

Pittsburgh, originally Fort Duquesne, its 
probable destiny foreseen by Washington, 
iv. 109 ; a fort there commenced by the 
Ohio company, 108, 112, 116; Virginia re- 
fuses to build a fort there, 88 (see Duquesne 
Fort); Lord Dunmore takes possession of 
it, and of its dependencies, vii. 162. 

Plymouth colony, settlement of, i. 309 ; suf- 
ferings, 314 ; intercourse with natives, 317; 
slow progress of population, 321 ; civil 
constitution, 322; trading house at Wind- 
sor, 395 ; proceedings of the royal com- 
missioners, ii. 84 ; population in 1675, 93 ; 
sufferings in "Philip's war," relieved, in 
part, from Ireland, 109. 

Plymouth company in England, the first, i. 
120, 267, 269 ; the second, 271 ; its very 
ample privileges, 272, 273 : grants a patent 
to the Leyden Pilgrims, 305 * ; their mon- 
opoly opposed in Parliament, 324 ; opposed 
by those concerned in the fisheries, 325 ; 
they fail to keep off the fishermen, 326 ; 
convey to Robert Gorges a portion of Mas- 



saehusetts, 32'J ; efforts of the company 
paralyzed, 327 ; their grant to the Massa- 
chusetts company, 340. 

Plymouth, town of, the people almost unani- 
mous in opposition to Britain, vi. 431,438; 
compels George Watson to resign his com- 
mission, vii. 105. 

Pleasant Kiver, in Maine, volunteers from 
this place and Machias capture a British 
armed ship, vii. 341 *. 

Pocahontas saves the life of Smith, i. 131 ; 
befriends the colony, 132 ; stolen by Argal, 
146 ; is married to John Rolfe, 147 ; visits 
England, 147 ; dies there, 147. 

Point Levi, in Canada, the American forces 
arrive there, viii. 106, 197. 

Point Pleasant, at the'confluence of the Kan- 
awha and Ohio, great battle there, vii. 1G8, 

Poisson, du, Jesuit missionary in Arkansas, 
iii. 361 ; killed by the Natchez Indians, 

Pokanoket Indians, their location, i. 317 ; 
treaty with them, 317; their numbers, ii. 
97; their chief scats, 99 ; reject Christian 
instruction, 99; war with them, 100, et 
seq. ; they are driven from their homes, 
102 ; death of Philip, and extermination 
of the tribe, 108, iii. 238. 

Poland, partition of, vi. 424, 527. 

Political power declared to be a trust, iii. 6, 8. 

Polk, Thomas, a leading patriot in North 
Carolina, vii. 371, 373. 

Poll-tax proposed, iv. 167, 222, 223. 

Pombal, Sebastian, Marquis of, prime minis- 
ter of Portugal, x. 47, 51. 

Pomeroy, Seth, an officer in the expedi- 
tion against Louisburg, iii. 460, iv. 212 ; 
elected brigadier-general of the Massachu- 
setts forces, vii. 228 ; goes as a private 
soldier to the combat near Bunker Hill, 
417 ; his gallant demeanor, 430 ; of North- 
ampton, Massachusetts, elected brigadier- 
general, viii. 30 ; he declines, 30. 

Pompadour, Marchioness of, a licentious but 
attractive woman, mistress of Louis XV, 
vi. 424; her great political influence, vii. 
30, 31. 

Ponce de Leon, Juan, his earl}' history, i. 31, 
el seq. ; discovers Florida, 33 ; mortally 
wounded, 34. 

Ponsonby, in the Irish House of Commons, 
opposes the American war, viii. 109. 

Pontiac, chief of the Ottawas, his "meeting 
with Rogers, iv. 362, v. 113; his origin, 
once a captive, 113 ; his character, 114 ; 
his attempt to surprise Detroit, 116 ; com- 
mences hostilities, 117 ; sends emissaries to 
Illinois, 117; a reward offered for his 
assassination, 132 ; end of the war, 164 ; 
his friendly conduct, 338 ; assassinated in 
time of peace, vi. 297 ; the Indians avenge 
his death, 298. 

Poor, colonel of a New England regiment at 
the battle of Princeton, ix. 250 ; general 
in the battle of Bemis's Heights, ix. 416. 

" Poor Richard," frigate, her light with the 
"Sorapis," x. 271. 

Popham, George, president of the colonv at 
Sagadahoc, i. 268 ; dies, 268. 

Popham, Sir John, embarks in the scheme of 
colonizing Virginia, i. 119; and in the 
affair of settling New England, 267 ; dies, 

Population of the colonies in 1675, ii. 92; in 
1688, 450; of the old thirteen colonies, 
iv. 127, et seq. ; of the valley of the Mis- 
sissippi in 1768, vi. 223, 224"; of the thir- 
teen colonies in 1774, vii. 128. 

Port of Boston, act for closing it, vii. 34 ; the 
act received, 35; the effect on the people, 
35, 36 ; the effect on other colonies, 42, el 
seq. (see Boston Port Bill). 

Porter, Asahel, of Woburn, slain at Lexing- 
ton, vii. 294. 

Porterfield, Charles, a sergeant under Mor- 
gan, viii. 63 ; lieutenant-colonel in South 
Carolina, x. 317 ; repulses the enemy, 320. 

Portland, in Maine, bombarded by the Brit- 
ish ship " Canceaux," vii. 341. 

Port Royal, in Acadia, founded, i. 26 ; 
burned" by Argal, 148; surrenders to the 
English amis, 334, iii. 186; again surren- 
ders, 218 ; its name changed to Annapolis, 

Port Royal, S. C, settled, ii. 174 ; attacked 
by Indians, iii. 327. 

Ports of the united colonies, Congress refuses 
to open them, viii. 58, 59; they arc finally 
opened, 323. 

Portsmouth settled, i. 328, 329. 

Portsmouth, N. H., makes common cause 
with the colonies, vi. 485 ; seizure of arms 
and powder at, vii. 183, 384 ; averse to 
separation from England, viii. 243. 

Portugal unfriendly to the United States, x. 

Portuguese discoveries befoi-e Columbus, i. 
7, iii. 113 ; voyage of discovery to North 
America, i. 16 (see Ccrlereal); Portuguese 
colonies, iii. 113. 

Post-office arrangement on the Chesapeake, 
iii. 34; established by Congress, viii 57; 
organized by Franklin, 57. 

Potawatomies invite a mission, iii. 151; give 
shelter to Tonti, 167 ; attack the Iroquois, 
190; mentioned, 242; unite in the design 
to drive out the English, v. 113, 116, 119" 

Potemkin, Gregory Alexandrovitch, Rus- 
sian field-marshal and favorite of Catharine 
II., viii. 106;. his character and habits, x. 

Potter, General, with a party of militia, cuts 
off supplies from the British, ix. 428. 

Poutrincourt, a lieutenant of De Monts, settles 
Port Royal, i. 26 ; attempts to colonize 
New England, 27. 

Powell, Thomas, of South Carolina, unjustly 
imDrisoned, vi. 471; released, 471. 

Power, new principles of, iv. 12. 

Powhatan, great Indian chief of Virginia, i. 
125; Smith brought to him as a captive, 
131; friendly to the colonists, 181; his 
death, 181. 

Pownall, John, secretary of the board of 
trade, iv. 375, note. 



Pownall, Thomas, comes to America, iv. 10-3, 
128; his estimate of the population of Brit- 
ish America, 128, note ; Governor of Mas- 
sachusetts, 297 ; complains of that province, 
and predicts independence, 297; often re- 
iterates this prediction, 369; contends for 
American taxation, v. 181 ; eulogizes Gren- 
ville, 191, 251; proposes the repeal of the 
revenue acts, vi. 267, 273; and of the duty 
on tea, 353; insists on the dependence of 
the colonies, 510; favors the Boston port 
bill, 514; a warm friend to the United 
States, x. 142; predicts their future great- 
ness, 235, et seq. 

Poyning's law enacted to restrain the holding 
of Irish parliaments, v. 62 ; proposed as a 
good precedent for America, 62. 

Pratt, Benjamin, of Boston, made chief jus- 
tice of New York, " at the king's pleasure," 
iv. 427 ; dislikes this new tenure of office, 
427 ; proposes a pern>anent salary, and 
dependence of the colonv on the crown, 

Pratt, Charles, afterwards Earl of Camden, 
speaks for colonial liberty, iv. 230; becomes 
attorney-general, 274; appears in behalf of 
the proprietaries of Pennsylvania, 373; 
foretells American independence, 380; pre- 
dicts for the young and obstinate king, 
George III., " a weak and inglorious reign," 
387; "chief justice of England sets Wilkes 
at liberty, v. 105 ; becomes Earl of Cam- 
den, 305 (see Camden, Earl of). 

Prerogative, government founded on, iv. 32. 

Presbyterian discipline excluded from New 
England, i. 444; Presbyterian party in 
England, ii. 9, el seq. ; tries to dispense 
with the army, 14; Presbyterian members 
of Parliament excluded, 14; resume their 
seats, 30. 

Presbyterians. Scotch, of Ireland, v. 76 ; their 
emigration to America, 76. 

Presbyterian partv in North Carolina, vi. 

Presbyterians in Philadelphia, vii. 43; of 
Baltimore, 49, 207*; of the Holston Valley, 
194; of South-western Virginia. 194; they 
meet in council, 194; their patriotic resolu- 
tions, 195, 196. 

Prescott, a British brigadier, abuses Ethan 
Allen, his prisoner, viii. 184; is himself 
taken prisoner, with all his command, 199 ; 
commander of the British forces on Rhode 
Island, ix. 200; taken prisoner by Colonel 
Barton, 358 ; exchanged for Lee, 358. 

Prescott, Samuel, of Concord, escapes from 
his pursuers, vii. 290. 

Prescott, William, of Pepperell, a brave man, 
vi. 447 ; his resolute answer in behalf of that 
town to the appeal from Boston, vii. 99 ; hast- 
ens to join in the pursuitof the British, 307; 
guards the entrance to Boston, 313; has 
orders to march to Breed's Hill, 408, 409; 
his unshaken courage, 411; his orders to 
reserve tire till the enemy were near, 423; 
gives the word "fire!" 424; the result, 
424-426 ; Prescott has no more powder, 
427; gives the word to retreat, 429; his 

self-possession, 429; though in extreme 
danger, he escapes unhurt, 430; his re- 
markable bravery, 431; offers with three 
fresh regiments to recover his post, 431; at 
New York, ix. 82; in command at Gover- 
nor's Island, 82; his regiment withdrawn, 
109; guards the causeway from Prog's 
Neck, 175. 

Presque Isle, now Erie, capitulates to the 
Indians, v. 122. 

Press, censorship of the, ceases in England, 
iii. 11; full liberty allowed, 12; of America 
defies the stamp act, v. 352-354; of Boston, 
its reasonings concerning liberty, vi. 97, 
102; urges a union of the colonies, 466, 469 
(see Boston Gazette, and Edes tf- Gill); of 
New England, favors a declaration of inde- 
pendence, viii. 219, 220. 

Preston, Captain Thomas, orders the troops 
to fire on the town's people in Boston, vi. 
338, 347; examination of the testimony, 
347, et seq. ; his trial and acquittal, 373. 

Prevost, General, plans to invade Georgia, 
x. 155, 284 ; takes Sunbury, 286 ; invades 
South Carolina, 290; plunders plantations, 
294; defends Savannah, 296. 

Prevost, Lieutenant-Colonel, surprises Gen- 
eral Ashe in Georgia, x. 289. 

Price, captain of a Maryland company in the 
army round Boston, viii. 64. 

Price, Dr. Richard, his able pamphlet on 
Liberty, viii. 361; his definition of liberty, 
362; honored by the city of London, 362; 
advocates parliamentary reform, 362; Con- 
gress invite him to be their fellow-citizen, 
x. 172. 

Prideaux, General, besieges Fort Niagara, 
iv. 321; is killed, 321. 

"Pride's purge," ii. 14. 

Priestcraft, its influence weakened, and how, 
v. 3. 

Primogeniture abolished in Virginia, ix. 280. 

Princeton, battle of, Washington concentrates 
his forces at Trenton, ix. 243; his plan for 
the deliverance of New Jersey, 240, 246; 
his night march to Princeton, 246, 247 ; the 
battle commences, 248 ; exposure of Wash- 
ington to danger, 249 ; the enemv take to 
flight, 249, 250; losses of the British, 250; 
of the Americans, 250; Mercer slain, 248, 
250; effect of the victory, 251. 

Pring, Martin, visits the harbors of Maine 
and New Hampshire, and lands in Massa- 
chusetts, i. 114, 327. 

Printing, first, executed in the United States, 
i. 415.* 

Prisoners inhumanly treated, x. 286, 320; 
the faith of British generals broken towards 
them, 329 ; vast numbers of them perished, 

Privateers authorized to be fitted out against 
British ships, viii. 320; American, their 
great success, ix. 134, 467, 473 ; British, 
their ravages, x. 204. 

Privateer "General Mifflin," x. 257. 

Private judgment, right of, affirmed, v. 4. 

Proctor, Edward, captain of the guard placed 
over the Dartmouth tea-ship, vi. 478. 



Proctor, Elizabeth, accused of witchcraft, iii. 
81J; reprieved, 92. 

Proctor, John, accused of witchcraft, iii. 87 ; 
executed, 92. 

Progress everywhere manifest, iv. 7, 8; this 
progress never-ceasing, 9 ; in intelligence, 
8; in religion, morality, and social life, 11. 

Prophecies of the New Testament supposed 
to have reference to American affairs, vi. 

Proprietary governments, a blow at, viii. 308. 

Protection to neutral vessels resolved on by 
the northern powers, x. 277. 

Protestantism, shall it prevail, or be over- 
powered by popery and feudalism, iv. 277; 
this the great question of the time, 277; 
the Catholic powers leagued against it, 
278 ; ceases to be a cause of revolutions, 
v. 3, 4; the successes of the Seven. Years' 
War favorable to it, 3; powerful in Ger- 
many, x. 85, et seq. 

Providence of God should be recognized in 
history, iii. 399; notwithstanding the ap- 
parent sway of human passion, 400. 

Providence, "R. I., founded by Roger Wil- 
liams, i. 379 ; denied admission to the New 
England confederacy, 422; welcomes Roger 
Williams on his return, 426; its address to 
Sir Henry Vane, 428; attack on it by In- 
dians, ii. 107; complains of British inso- 
lence, vi. 418 (see Gaspee); votes for a con- 
gress of all the colonies, vii. 42. 

Provincial congress, the house of represen- 
tatives of Massachusetts resolves itself into 
one, vii. 153; they remonstrate with Gage, 
154; measures adopted by them, 154; de- 
nounced by Gage as an unlawful assembly, 
182; adopts all the recommendations of 
the continental congress, 182; their brave 
words to the people of Massachusetts, 182; 
resolves to raise an army, 314; its address 
to the inhabitants of Britain, 342; remon- 
strates against the abandonment of Ticon- 
deroga, 365. 

Prussia, its rising greatness, x. 81, 84, 86; 
accedes to the armed neutrality, 430 (see 
Frederic); and its king, at the close of 
,the Seven Years' War, v. 6; tolerated 
every creed. 6. 

Prussia (see Frederic II.) 

Prynne, William, mutilated, i. 410; his elo- 
quence, ii. 14. 

Publication of the truth no libel, iii. 394. 

Pulaski, Count Casimir, engages in the Amer- 
ican cause, ix. 296; his fearless courage at 
Brandy wine, 400; his command surprised, 
x. 152; comes to the defence of Charleston, 
291, 293; is mortally wounded at Savan- 
nah, 297. 

Pulteney, William, Earl of Bath, promotes a 
war with Spam, iii. 437, 438; a friend of 
American liberties, iv. 363; is desirous of 
retaining Canada after its conquest, 363; 
eulogizes Frederic II., 364. 

Puritanism disallowed in Virginia, i. 178; 
vet some Puritans live there, 206; and in 
Maryland, 257; Puritan ministers invited, 
206 ; but silenced and sent away, 207 ; Puri- 

tans in Maryland, their intolerance, 261; 
their energy and courage, 262; a powerful 
part}', 263; rise of Puritanism in England, 
278; what is Puritanism? 279; many of 
them exiles, 281 ; the party of reform, 282; 
the champions of liberty, 284; desired not 
a schism, 286; but reform, 288; averse to 
popery, 289; Queen Elizabeth displeased 
with them, 284; favored by the people, 
284; the Protestantism of England due to 
them, 289; Hooper and Rogers, Puritans, 
280; increase in number and power, 291; 
could not be crushed, 291 ; conference at 
Hampton Court, 295; the Puritans hated 
by the king, but favored by the Commons, 
297; severities endured by them, 297; friv- 
olous acts made penal, 298 ; Puritanism the 
fundamental idea of Massachusetts, 343; 
the Puritans summoned to America by the 
voice of God, 350 ; confidence reposed in 
them, 429; character of Puritanism: its 
peculiarities, its excellencies, its spirit of 
independence, courage, and hope, its be- 
nign results, 400, et seq. ; the Puritans, in 
their treatment of dissentients, acted in 
self-defence merely, 463 ; mildness of their 
legislation, 465; their care for posterity, 
466; their many virtues, 467; Puritanism 
compared with chivalry, 468; Puritanism 
loses its power in England, ii. 40. 

Purviance, Samuel, of Baltimore, arrests Gov- 
ernor Eden, viii. 354. 

Putnam, Israel, of Connecticut, at Lake 
George, iv. 210; a major in the army of 
Abercrombie, 1758, 298; a prisoner to the 
Indians, 305; his narrow escape from a 
frightful death, 305 ; at the conquest of 
Havana, 444; in Bradstreet's expedition, 
v. 210 ; active in the cause of liberty in 
1766, 378, 441, vii. 73; visits Boston with 
supplies of provisions, 101 ; his undaunted 
demeanor before British officers, lol; he 
summons the militia in his vicinity to take 
up arms in aid of Boston, 120; his animat- 
ing language, 121; rushes from agricul- 
tural toils to the strife of war on hearing 
of the combat at Concord, 315; his mar- 
vellous speed, 315; brigadier of the Con- 
necticut troops near Boston, 325 ; he is 
stationed at Cambridge, 405; wishes to 
occupy Prospect Hill, 406; hastens to the 
impending conflict at Bunker Hill, 410, 
412; at the rail-fence, 418; his great ac- 
tivity, 420; cheers on the men, 424; bids 
them reserve their fire, 424; assumes the 
supreme direction, 431; occupies Prospect 
Hill, 431; chosen major-general, viii. 29; 
his previous career, 29; his character, 29; 
has command on Prospect Hill, near Bos- 
ton, 43, 61 ; is regarded as incompetent to 
command the army in Canada, 423; under- 
takes the obstruction of Hudson river, ix. 
81; takes command on Long Island, 85; 
his incapacity for command, 88, 89; his 
rash order to Lord Stirling, 88, 89; the 
disasters of the day chiefly due to his in- 
capacity, 90; escape of his division on New 
York Island, 120, 121; in the action near 



Manhattanville, 127 ; undertakes to ob- 
struct Hudson river, 167 ; his obstructions 
prove to be of no value, 174; at Mount 
Washington, 175; his overweening con- 
fidence, 184; he crosses into the Jerseys, 
188; is in command at Philadelphia, 202, 
214 ; promises not to burn the city, 214 ; 
fails to assist Washington in attacking the 
British posts on the Delaware, 225, 228; 
his foolish conduct, 403; his unfitness for 
command, 412 ; his want of sagacity, 412; 
his blunders, 413; his intense alarm, 414; 
disregards the orders of Washington, 432. 
Putnam, Rufus, the engineer, viii. 293, ix. 


Quakers, the early, described, i. 451; some 
arrive in Boston, 452; severities against 
them, 452, et seq. ; four put to death, 455; 
their own conduct provoked the fatal issue, 
458; in North Carolina, ii. 153; banished 
from Virginia, i. 231, ii. 201; yet they 
multiply, 202; their sufferings in Mary- 
land, 237; in New Netherland, 300; the 
faith of Quakers, 326, et seq. ; progress of 
intellectual freedom and political liberty in 
England, 327; advancement of science, 
328; origin of Quakerism, 330; George 
Fox, 331; the inner light, 333, 337; the 
instinct of a Deity, 338; method of Des- 
cartes, 338 ; liberty of conscience, 339 ; 
emancipation from superstition, 340; the 
inner light, not the Bible, guides the 
Quaker, 342; their disinterested virtue and 
purity of life, 345; reject capital punish- 
ment, and the right of self-defence, 346; 
reject religious rites of all kinds, 347; re- 
fuse an oath, 347; condemn the theatre, 
and appear in sober attire, 347; eschew a 
paid ministry, 348; pay no tithes, 349; 
believe in human progress, 350; and in 
human essential equality, 352; everywhere 
exposed to persecution, 354; purchase West 
New Jersey, 355; civil constitution estab- 
lished there, 357 ; their controversy with 
the Duke of York, 358; decided in their 
favor, 360; their first legislative assembly, 
360; the measures adopted, 360 (see Wil- 
liam Penn and George Fox); opinions of 
Quakers concerning slavery, 401; Buck- 
ingham pretends to favor them, 434 ; Quaker 
colonies enumerated, 402; in Pennsylvania, 
their principles, iv. 141; jealous of the 
younger Pcnns, 141; wish to abolish pro- 
prietary rule, 176; negotiate with the Del- 
awares, 231 ; a majority in the assembly, 
254; oppose the Revolution, viii. 245, 274; 
disfranchised in Pennsylvania, ix. 171; re- 
fuse in any way to aid in carrying on the 
war for independence, 215; of Philadelphia 
will not fight, vii. 43; nor those of the 
province at large, 211; they disapprove of 
opposition to the measures of government, 

Quarter, none to be given to the " rebel con- 
gress," x. 151; refused at Wyoming, 138; 
refused to Baylor's regiment of horse,- 152; 
refused at Cherry Valley, 153; refused to 
Colonel Hayne, 492; other instances, 327, 
328. 4S9 ; refused to the regiment of Colonel 
Buford, 307; refused to the garrison of 
Fort Griswold, 500 (see Barbarity). 

Quebec, founded by Champlain, i. 28 ; taken 
by the Kirks, 334; restored, 335; a Jesuit 
seminary founded, iii. 120; and hospital, 
126; Ursuline convent, 127; expedition 
against it fails, 185; attack on, by Wolfe, 
iv. 326; Wolfe lands above the citv, 
333; battle on the Plains of Abra- 
ham, 334; the momentous victory of the 
English, 336; Quebec surrenders, 338; 
great exultation in the colonies, 338; at- 
tempt of the French to retake it, 359; the 
attempt fails, 359 (see Canada); expedition 
to, by way of Kennebec river, viii. 190; 
command given to Arnold, 190 ; names of 
the officers, 191; instructions by Washing- 
ton, 191; the detachment enters the Ken- 
nebec, 191; lands at Fort Weston, in 
Augusta, 192 ; ascends the river to Nor- 
ridgewock, 192; manner of travelling, 192; 
encounters great difficulties, 193; Colonel 
Enos, the second in command, deserts the 
enterprise, 193; want of food, 194; all 
suffer, and man}' die, 194; arrive on the 
Chaudiere, 195; vanguard reaches Point 
Levi, opposite Quebec, 190 ; their coming 
known by the garrison, 196 ; preparations 
for defence, 190 ; the Americans cross the 
river, but are too weak to attack Quebec, 
197; the garrison is re-enforced, 190; the 
Americans retire to Point aux Trembles, 
198 ; assault on the city by Montgomery, 
206, et seq. (see Montgomery) ; British 
ships of war and troops arrive, 424; the 
Americans retreat, 425 (see Northern 

Queen's College, North Carolina, endowed, 
vi. 383 

Queen's County, Long Island, refuses to send 
delegates to the provincial congress, viii. 
274; the recusants disarmed, 276. 

Question at issue between Britain and Am- 
erica, viii. 122-129; antagonism between 
the numerous distinct representative gov- 
ernments of America and the central power 
of Britain, 122; solution attempted by 
James II., 123; after 1688, great incon- 
venience was experienced, but conflict was 
avoided, 123; George III. resolves on a 
new colonial system, 123 ; plan matured 
by Halifax, Bedford, and Charles Towns- 
hend, 123; modified b}- George Grenville's 
Whig proclivities, but still oppressive, 124; 
Grenville's theory, after his retirement, 
finds no support, 124; theory of Lord 
Chatham, 125; counter-theory of Rock- 
ingham, which prevails, 125; has Parlia- 
ment absolute power over the colonies ? 
the colonies deny this, because not repre- 
sented in Parliament, 125; here is the 
question, and this discussion leads to ques- 



tions of Parliamentary reform at home, 
125 ; the colonies taxed in conformity 
to Rockingham's theory, 126; discontent 
arising, all the taxes are repealed, except 
the tax on tea, 126 ; this tax is not burden- 
some; the trouble, the sting is in the 
preamble, 126, 127; the colonies cannot 
submit, 127; the East India Company, by 
direction from the king, send tea to Am- 
erica, 127; the colonists will not suffer it 
to be landed, 127 ; Parliament abrogate 
the charter of Massachusetts, 127; here is 
a claim of absolute power over life, liberty, 
and propert}' in America, 128; the people 
resist: the king says, "Blows must de- 
cide," 128. 

Quiney, Josiah, his resolute utterance, vi. 
102; is counsel for Captain Preston and 
the soldiers, 350, 373; was of opinion that 
the verdict of the jury was unjust, 348, 
374; draws up the instructions of the town 
of Boston to its representatives; 303; an- 
other bold utterance of his, 425, 426; his 
brave speech in the great meeting at the 
Old South Church, 485, 488. 

Quincy, Josiah, junior, visits England, vii. 
173; Warren's letter to him, 173; is de- 
nounced by Lord Hillsborough in Parlia- 
ment, 178. 

Quesnai, Francis, and his school of political 
economists in France, v. 26. 


Raleigh, city of, on Roanoke Island, i. 104; 
modern city of that name, 111. 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, his zeal for discovery, 
i. 74; obtains a patent, 92; his vessels 
reach the shores of North Carolina, 93; 
sends a colony thither, 95; the settlers re- 
turn to England, 102; Raleigh sends out a 
second colony, 103; the colonists all per- 
ish, 100; his" repeated attempts all prove 
fruitless, 108; his character, 109; cruelty 
of his sentence, 110 ; sent by King James 
to Guiana, 110; his execution, 110; his 
memory gratefully cherished, 111. 

Rail, a Hessian colonel, at White Plains, ix. 
182; leads an attack on Fort Washington, 
185, 190; in command at Trenton, 216; 
his sense of securitv, 217; his bad habits, 
217; scoffs at the idea of an attack, 226; 
his drunken revel while Washington is 
crossing the Delaware, 231; attack of the 
Americans, 233 ; Rail's mistakes, 234; he 
is mortally wounded, 234; surrender of his 
troops, 234. 

Ramsay, Colonel, at Monmouth, x. 131. 

Randolph County (see Orange County). 

Randolph, Edmund, of Virginia, viii. 378. 

Randolph, Edward, a special messenger of 
the Crown, arrives in Boston, ii. Ill; his 
zeal against Massachusetts, 112, 122; comes 
from England with the writ of quo war- 
ranto, 124; his hostile language, 425, 428. 

Randolph, John, of Virginia, opposes the 
patriotic resolutions of that colony, v. 276. 

Randolph, Peyton, of Virginia, tries to mod- 
erate the liery zeal of patriotism in that 
colony, v. 276; speaker of the Virginian 
Assembly, vii. 54, 84; a member of the 
first continental congress, 127, 131; presi- 
dent of the same, 127 ; directs the choice 
of deputies to a colony convention, 207*; 
advises delay to some who were ripe for 
insurrection, 277; a member of the second 
continental congress, but attends as speaker 
the legislature of Virginia, 378, 384. 
Rasles, Sebastian, missionary to the Aben- 
akis of Maine, iii. 195; at Mackinaw and 
Illinois, 195; again on the Kennebec, 196; 
his labors and success at Norridgewock, 
333; attempts to capture him, 335, 336; 
slain, 337. 

Ravages of the British armv in South Caro- 
lina, x. 306, 310, 328; in Virginia, 505; 
amount of property destroyed by them, 

Rawdon, Lord (Francis Rawdon Hastings, 
afterwards Marquis of Hastings), a lieuten- 
ant at the battle of Bunker Hill, vii. 429; 
his braverv, 432; his extreme cruelty, x. 
311, 313, 492; commands the British left 
wing at Camden, 321; is driven back by 
de Kalb, 323; Cornwallis retreating, the 
command devolves on him, 341; com- 
mands at the battle of Ilobkirk's Hill, 486, 
487 ; though victorious, is compelled to 
leave the field, 488; marches to the relief 
of Ninety-six. 490 ; retires to Orangeburgh, 
491; sends the brave Colonel Haync to the 
gallows, 492; in despair of the contest, 
sails for England, 492; is captured on the 
way thither, 492. 

Rawlings, colonel of a rifle regiment at Fort 
Washington, ix. 184, 190; is wounded, 

Raymbault, Charles, reaches the Huron mis- 
sions, iii. 129; among the Algonquins, 130; 
reaches the outlet of Lake Superior, 131; 
dies at Quebec, 132. 

Raynal, Abbe, his work on the history of 
the Two Indies, x. 448 ; its republican 
doctrines, 448; this book displeases the 
French government, and the author is com- 
pelled to flee, 449; its principles become 
widely diffused, 449. 

Rayncval, French minister, tries to conciliate 
Spain by the sacrifice of the American 
claims, x. 574; his discussion with Lord 
Shelburne, 576 (see Gerard). 

Razier, or Ue Rasieres (see De Rasieres). 

"Rebels," so called, blood of, first shed, vi. 

Red men of the West roused to war again; t 
the English, v. 112; their barbarity, 116, 
118, 119, et seq. 

Red river, a tributary of the Kentucky, vi. 

Reed, Colonel James, of New Hampshire, 
marches to the support of Prescott in Char- 
lestown, vii. 416; sent to re-enforce the 
Northern army, viii. 422; at the battle of 
Princeton, ix. 250. 

Reed, Joseph, of Philadelphia, vii. 43; wishes 



reconciliation with England, 44; president 
of the Pennsylvania convention, 211; op- 
poses arming the province, 211; an enemy 
to active resistance to the encroachments 
of Britain, viii. 73; takes, in February, 
1776, the oath of allegiance to George III., 
315; a friend of Washington, 325; desires 
a compromise, 325; wishes to avoid a lee 
shore, 325 ; in favor of making concessions 
to England, 326; joins the army as adju- 
tant-general, 444, 445; his despondency, 
458; is sick of the contest, and disposed to 
a reconciliation, ix 40; the proposal for a 
retreat from Long Island did not originate 
with him, 107 ; in a skirmish near Man- 
hattanville, 126; resigns his commission in 
the army, 171, 172; retracts his resigna- 
tion, 198; is sent on important business, 
198; tails of the duty, 198; his letter of 
flattery to Lee, and denunciation of Wash- 
ington, 205; Lee's reply, 205; deserts 
Washington in his time of greatest need, 
and obtains protection of the enemy, 229, 
and note ; a letter from him, 230; he re- 
covers courage, 239; never resumes his 
former post, 335; his disingenuousness, 
335; his disrespect for Washington, 455; 
hostile to slavery, x. 359. 

Eeed, William 13., his biography of Joseph 
Reed, ix. 105, note; exposure of grave 
errors contained in that work, 105, note 
(see Long Island). 

Reform, the voice of, iv. 5; certainty of, 
418; in Parliament proposed, x. 549; Pitt 
favors it, 549; Fox opposes it, 549. 

Reformation in England, i. 274; did not at 
the outset recognize the right of private 
judgment, 275; made the king a pope in 
his own dominions, 275; as opposed to 
popery, the great question of the age, iv. 
277; Frederic of Prussia regarded as its 
champion, 279, 280, 290; from popeiy, its 
main principles, x. 74; its happy influences 
and results, 75. 

Regency bill, proposed by George III., v. 
253; proceedings relating to it, 254, 255. 

Regicides, the, their fate after the restoration 
of the Stuart dynasty, ii. 34, et seq. 

" Regulating Act," for the province of Massa- 
chusetts is received, vii. 94; its provisions, 
95, 96; Gage receives full power to enforce 
it, and may fire on the people at his dis- 
cretion, 97 ; it changed the whole ground 
of controversy, 97 ; and brought the colo- 
nies at once into conflict with the mother 
country, 97; Massachusetts at once de- 
feats the "regulating act," 104, 105. 

Regulators in North Carolina, vi. 185; their 
number, 397; who they were, and their 
purpose, 35, 185, 187, 382, 390; are mis- 
represented, 186; their peaceable behavior, 
189 ; some of them commit acts of violence, 
185, 382; their grievances, 390; appear 
in arms, 391, 392; march through Salis- 
bury, 392; Governor Tryon's purpose of 
vengeance, 393 ; with an armed force he 
marches into their country, 394; a spirited 
encounter, 395; they are driven from the 

field, 395; seven prisoners are hanged by 
the governor's order, 39H, 397; the regu- 
lators cross the Alleghanies into Tennessee, 
39S ; and torm a republic, 399 ; the suc- 
cessor of Tryon condemns the course of the 
royal governor towards them, 400; their 
settlement beyond the Alleghanies, the 
germ of the Mate of Tennessee, 400, 401, 
viii. 96, 284, 286, 290. 

Religion, existence of it among Indians de- 
nied, iii. 285 ; disenthralled from civil 
fovernment, iv. 13; established by law in 
'irginia, ii. 200; religious liberty in Rhode 
Island, 65; religious contentions in Hol- 
land, 277; its establishment in France, 
subordinate to the Crown, vii. 28; its in- 
fluence in Massachusetts, 184, 185. 

Remsen, of the Mew York provincial con- 
gress, viii. 439. 

Representation of America in Parliament 
shoun to be a fallacy, v. 282, 290. 

Representation and legislation inseparable, 
viii. 128. 

Representative government, the earliest in 
America, i. 158; in Massachusetts, 366; in 
Carolina, ii. 168 ; opinion of French states- 
men and writers on, viii. 362. 

"Reprisal," the American armed ship, car- 
ries Franklin to France, ix. 285; takes 
several British ships, 285, 298; cruises off 
the French coast, 298 ; is captured, 298. 

Republic, dawn of the new, iv. 432, el seq. 

Republicans less likely to speak ill of princes 
than men of rank, viii. 122. 

Republics, difference between ancient and 
modern ones, viii. 370, 371. 

Restoration of the Stuarts, ii. 28, et seq. 

Restrictions on American manufactures, iv. 
63; on commerce (see Commercial Restric- 

Revenue, measures for raising a, iv. 34, 52 
(see Taxation); from America, to be placed 
at the disposal of the king, vi. 77 ; Charles 
Townshend's famous bill for raising it, 84; 
exasperation at Boston on its passage, 

Revenue acts (see Duties and Taxation); 
their enforcement deemed impracticable, 
vi. 128. 

Revere, Paul, sent express by the Boston 
patriots to New York and Philadelphia, vi. 
487 ; goes by way of Charlestown to Lex- 
ington to give information of danger, vii. 
289; rouses the people on the road, 290; is 
twice intercepted, 289, 290. 

Revolt of the colonies, its true date according 
to Hutchinson, vi. 41. 

Revolution imminent throughout Europe, 
viii. 364, 365. 

Revolution, near approach of, iv. 4 ; emanated 
from the people, vii. 366-374 (see Indepen- 

Revolution of 1688, its immediate purpose, 
iii. 2; the offering of experience, 4; adapt- 
ed to circumstances and to the spirit of the 
age, 5; the doctrine of passive obedience 
exploded, 6; triumph of the people over 
despotic power, 6 ; sovereignty of Parlia- 



ment established, 7 ; the commercial classes 
obtain the controlling power, 8 ; civil gov- 
ernment determined to be a compact, 9 ; 
its political theory, 9 ; public opinion su- 
preme, 10 ; leading characteristics of the 
revolution, 11; a free press guaranteed, 11; 
personal liberty secured, 12; influence of 
the revolution on Europe, 13 ; on New 
England, ii. 445, et seq. ; on Carolina, iii. 
14 ; the revolution secured not freedom but 
privilege, iii. 82. 

Revolution predicted, vi. 103. 

Rhett, Colonel William, repels the French in- 
vasion of South Carolina, iii. 211. 

Rhode Island, whence the name, ii. 275*; 
the colony founded by RogerWilliams, i. 
380; grant made to Coddington and others, 
392; obtains a charter, 425; democratic 
constitution, 42G ; denied admission to the 
New England confederacy, 422 ; obtains a 
liberal charter from Charles II., ii. 62; per- 
fect liberty of conscience allowed, 63; to 
Roman Catholics as well as to others, 65, 
66 ; an error on this point corrected, 65, 
66; Rhode Island never a persecuting com- 
munity, 67 ; population in 1675, 93 ; Indian 
war, 102; "Great Swamp tight," 105; 
writ of quo warranto against the charter, 
429; Andros dissolves the government, 
429 ; on his deposition the people resume 
their liberties, 448; population in 1688, 
450; effect of the English revolution, iii. 
69 ; Rhode Island compared with Connect- 
icut, 69; a paper-money colony, iv. 83; 
population in 1754, 128, 129; its spirit of 
liberty, v. 217, 218, 271, 286, 290; this 
Spirit manifested in act, 291, 314; their 
stamp-officer compelled to resign, 314; the 
assembly direct all their officers to disre- 
gard the stamp act, 328; it is disregarded, 
374; refuses to be bound by acts of the 
British Parliament, vi. 43 ; Charles Towns- 
hend inveighs against it, 75; resistance of 
the people to official insolence, 418 ; burn- 
ing of the schooner " Gaspee," 419; conse- 
quent wrath of the British ministry, 419, 
441; the authorities ask the advice of 
Samuel Adams on this case, 441 ; his 
courageous reply, 441, 443 ; efforts of the 
British authorities in the affair of the 
"Gaspee" disappointed, 451; the charter 
threatened, 451; the colony elects its com- 
mittee of correspondence, 460; its as- 
sembly unanimously choose delegates to 
the general congress, vii. 65, 66 ; seizure 
of cannon at Newport, 183; measures taken 
to import military stores, 183 ; armed men 
hasten to the scene of conflict near Boston, 
316 ; the colony agrees to furnish a force of 
fifteen hundred men, 316, 326 ; her troops in 
the armj' around Boston, viii. 43 ; the as- 
sembly directs the equipment of two armed 
vessels to protect the trade of the colony, 
68; the delegate from Rhode Island pro- 
poses an American fleet, 114; she casts off 
allegiance to the king and makes herself an 
independent republic, 355, 356; the minis- 
try had determined to infringe on its char- 

ter, 360 ; independence joyfully proclaimed, 
ix. 36 ; the island conquered by the British, 
200; form of civil government as under the 
charter, 261 ; military and naval operations 
there, x. 146, et seq. ; evacuated, 233, 

Ribault, John, conducts a colony of Hugue- 
nots to Carolina, i. 61, 66, 68. 

Rice introduced into South Carolina, iii. 

Richards, John, sent as agent of Massachu- 
setts to England, ii. 123. 

Richardson, Ebenezer, of Boston, an in- 
former, vi. 333 ; kills a poor German bov, 
333, 334. 

Richmond, Virginia, founded, i. 144, 153 ; at 
first called Henrico, and why, 144; burned 
by Arnold, x. 497. 

Richmond, Duke of, in relation to the regency 
bill, v. 254, 255, vi. 5; opposes the Boston 
port bill, 518; wishes that the Americans 
may resist, vii. 43; opposes the proceed- 
ings of the ministers, 178; his motion in 
favor of America rejected, viii. 165; is will- 
ing to concede American independence, 
ix. 477, 478; his spirited reply to the Earl 
of Hillsborough, 482, 483 ; he moves in the 
House of Lords for the recognition of 
American independence, 494; proposes an 
entire change of measures, x. 246. 

Rider, Sir Dudley, advises the taxation of 
the colorwes, iv. 56. 

Riedesel, Frederic Adolphus, Baron, com- 
mander of the Brunswick troops, viii. 258; 
arrives in Quebec, 265, 429; on Lake 
Champlain, ix. 157; is shocked at the em- 
ployment of Indians in the British service, 
322, 359; major-general under Burgoyne, 
362; occupies Mount Independence on 
Lake Champlain, 367; in the battle of 
Hubbardton, 369; in the battle of Bemis's 
Heights, 409, 410, 415. 

Riflemen of America, viii. 62; of Pennsyl- 
vania, 64; described, 64; their alacrity, 
64; their Influence on European tactics, 

Rigby, Alexander, purchases Lygonia, i. 
429; his claim superseded, 430. 

Rigby, Rich'ard, becomes a lord of trade, iv. 
221 ; favors a tax on the colonies, 223. 230, 
273, 292, 403, 442; leader of the Bedford 
part}' in the Commons, v. 296, 363 ; pro- 
poses an address to the king censuring 
America for her rebellious disposition, vi. 
9; reproaches the ministers, 58; is made 
vice-treasurer of Ireland, 109 ; wishes to 
continue the oppressive measures against 
America,, 232; despises the common people, 
321; in the House of Commons justifies 
the war with America, viii. 163. 

Rights of man as proclaimed by Virginia, 
viii. 381-383. 

Rivington, James, his New York "Gazette" 
quotes Scripture for passive obedience, vii. 
283 ; his printing office in New York rifled 
by Sears, viii. 275. 

Roanoke Island, colony of Raleigh settled 
there, i. 96; its extinction, 106. 



Roberdeau, Daniel, presides at a meeting of 
citizens of Philadelphia, viii. 380. 

Robertson, James, emigrates from North 
Carolina to Tennessee, vi. 381 ; his charac- 
ter, 381 ; a great benefactor to the early- 
settlers, 381; a republic in Tennessee with 
Robertson at the head, 398, 399; in the 
Indian war of 1774, vii. 167, 108, 169; he 
and his garrison repulse the Indians, ix. 

Robertson, William, the historian, his opin- 
ion on the strife between Britain and 
America, viii. 172. 

Roberval, his voyage to Canada, i. 22, et seq. ; 
passes a year there, 24. 

Robinson, John, pastor of the Pilgrim church 
at Scrooby, i. 299; and at Leyden, 301; 
publishes an apology, 301; his parting 
counsel to the Mayflower Pilgrims, 300; 
his death, 321. 

Robinson, John, one of the commissioners of 
the customs, his attack on James Otis, vi. 

Robinson, John, of Westford, has part in the 

*- Concord battle, vii. 302; and in the battle 

' of Bunker Hill, 423. 

Robinson, Sir Thomas, made secretary of 
state for the colonies, iv. 160; rallies his 
part}' against the Great Commoner, 161; 
his imbecility. 164. 

Robinson, William, a Quaker, hanged at 
Boston, i. 456. 

Rochambeau, Count de, arrives in Newport 
with six thousand men, x. 375, 376; is 
displeased at not being re-enforced from 
France, and wishes to return to Europe, 
447; is put under the command of Wash- 
ington, 447, 503; meets Washington at 
Weatherslield, 503; or Hartford, 382; sets 
out on his march to Virginia, 382. 

Roche, Marquis de la, leaves a colony on the 
Isle of Sable, i. 25. 

Rocheblave commands at Kaskaskia, x. 

Rochester, Mass., its response to the circular 
from Boston, vi. 439. 

(Rochford, Earl of, made secretary of state, 
vi. 215; his incapacity, 215; opposes the 
repeal of the duty on tea, 277; reproaches 
Chatham, vii. 202; provokes France, viii. 
102; his indiscretion, 102; says it is deter- 
mined to burn Boston, 133; retires from 
office, 165. 

Rockingham, Marquis of (Charles Watson 
* Went worth), v. 247; first lord of the treas- 
ury in 1765, 301; his character, 301; 
friendly to America, 341, 305; but cannot 
admit that Parliament does not possess the 
power of taxation, 397; refuses to give 
place to Pitt in the ministry, — the only 
thing that could have averted the Ameri- 
can revolution, 397; under his administra- 
tion was founded the new Tory party of 
England, 418; a question of veracity be- 
tween him and the kins, 427; the chief of 
the great Whig families, vi. 22; insults 
Pitt, 22. 23; his friends unite with Gren- 
ville and Bedford against Pitt, 59 ; he and 

they will not join in any severe measures 
against America, 64; tries to form a coali- 
tion with Grenville and Bedford, 89; the 
effort fails, 91, 92; he distrusts Grenville 
and Temple, 92; cannot form a strong ad- 
ministration, 93; he is kind and liberal, 
but notable, 93; his speech, 325; opposes 
the Boston port bill, 518; with his friends, 
protests against the act for regulating the 
province of Massachusetts Bay, vii. 94; 
protests against the rash proceedings of the 
ministers, 178 ; but resists the demands of 
the continental congress, 192; he and 
Chatham differ, 192; he refuses to sanction 
the measures proposed by Lord North, 225, 
226 ; defends American liberty as the bul- 
wark of the British constitution, viii. 172; 
his friends in Parliament keep aloof, ix. 
141 ; he advises to acknowledge American 
independence, 487, x. 530; becomes first 
lord of the treasury, 534; constructs a new 
ministry, 534; names of its members, 534; 
great results of this administration, 548; 
death of Rockingham, 548. 

Rockingham administration, its weakness 
after the repeal of the stamp act, vi. 4; 
their helpless condition, 10; their good 
and bad acts, 23, 24; their course ends, 23; 
the first, recognizes the freedom of the 
seas, x. 256. 

Rodney, Sir George, his character, x. 380, 
440; in prison at Paris for debt, 380; com- 
mands an expedition to relieve Gibraltar, 
381; defeats a Spanish squadron, 381; re- 
lieves Gibraltar and Minorca, 381; his 
operations in the West Indies, 381; comes 
to New York, and joins in the enterprise 
for obtaining West Point, 382, 383; in time 
of profound peace with Holland seizes St. 
Euslatius and captures two hundred Dutch 
ships, 438; a great rascal, 440; encounters 
the fleet of Count De Grasse near Guada- 
loupe, 544; a sanguinary battle, 545; he 
gains a great victory, 545. 

Rogers, Major Robert, commander of New 
England rangers, iv. 305; is sent from 
Montreal to take possession of the upper 
forts, 301; passes up Lakes Ontario and 
Erie, 361; meets with Pontiac, 302; takes 
possession of Detroit, 362. 

Rogers, Nathaniel, an abettor of Hutchin- 
son's proceedings, his letters quoted, vi. 
173, 251, 252. 

Rogers, Robert, burned by Indians, iii. 

Rolfe, John, marries Pocahontas, i. 147; visits 
England with her, 147. 

Rolfe, Rev. Benjamin, of Haverhill, Mass., 
killed by Indians, iii. 215. 

Rome extended the benefit of fixed principles 
of law, iv. 7. 

" Romney," of fifty guns in Boston harbor, 
vi. 154, 200 ; impresses New England men, 
154, 155. 

Rosalie, Fort, on the site of Natchez, iii. 204, 

Rossbach, battle of, iv. 285. 

Ross, George, of Pennsylvania, moves in, 



Congress that Massachusetts be left to her 
own discretion, vi. 145. 

Roteh, Francis, owner of the tea-ship " Dart- 
mouth," vi. 477; promises that the tea 
should he sent back to England, 479; is 
summoned before the committee of corre- 
spondence, 482 ; applies for a clearance and 
is denied, 483, 484. 

Rouerie, Marquis de la, commands a corps in 
Washington's army, ix. 393. 

Rousseau, Jean Jacques, predicts the decline 
of the great monarchies, iv. 437, 438; his 
philosophy, v. 29; his idea of the social 
compact, 30 ; teaches the sovereignty of the 
people, yet ignores the personal freedom of 
every man's thought, 30; his fiery elo- 
quence, 31 ; a fugitive from France in Eng- 
land, 414. 

Rowe, John, of Boston, a prominent patriot 
in 1773, vi. 482. 

Rowlandson, Mary, her captivity, ii. 10G. 

Roxbury settled, i. 358 *; joins with Boston 
in resistance to British aggression, vi. 431, 
438, 475. 

Royal governors, their rapacity, iv. 19 ; sup- 
ported by armed grants, 19, 25; the office 
often bestowed on bad men, 20; frequent 
attempts to obtain for them a fixed salarv, 
32, 35, 54, 56, 62, 85, 93, 100 ; these at- 
tempts always abortive, 52, 86, 104; ad- 
vise taxation of the colonies, 177, 178. 

Royal prerogative in France restrained, v. 
20, 21. 

Royalists in America urge the ministry to 
arbitrary measures, v. 200, 224, 379; their 
intrigues in New York, vii. 208-210; in 
Boston, 68, 09,121, 122; of South Carolina 
forsaken by the British, x. 491; their 
wretched condition, 491 ; of the country at 
large, no relief for them in the treaty of 
peace, and why, 555, 580, 586. 

Ruggles, Timothy, of Hardwick, presiding 
officer of the Congress of 1765, refuses to 
sign its declaration of rights, v. 346 ; his 
solitary vote for the use of superfluities, vi. 
129; a mandamus councillor, is warned 
that he cannot return home alive, vii. 

Rulhicre, Claudius Carloman de, assists Pu- 
laski to come to America, ix. 297. 

Rush, Benjamin, of Philadelphia, in favor of 
independence, viii. 446; gives the title of 
"Common-Sense" to Paiue's pamphlet, 
236; his speech in Congress on represen- 
tation, ix. 54; speaks against the confer- 
ence proposed by Lord Howe, 112; in cor- 
respondence with Charles Lee, 203, 207; 
supposed author of an article in the New 
Jersey "Gazette," 460; plots against 
Washington, 461; his letter to Patrick 
Henry, 401, 462. 

Russell, Duke of Bedford (see Bedford). 

Russia, trade opened with, through Arch- 
angel, i. 79; sends an expedition to North- 
West America, iii. 453; subsidized by 
England to check the power of Prussia, iv. 
219; cannot be fully relied on, 277; alli- 
ance of Russia and Prussia, 434, 454 ; ac- 

cession of Catharine IT., 455; its wide ex- 
tent and political importance, v. 8, 9; its 
growing power an occasion of alarm to 
Western Europe, vi. 289, 270; attention of, 
to the straggle between Britain and Amer- 
ica, viii. 104; favors the United States, 
ix. 473, 497; refuses an alliance with Eng- 
land, x. 55; favors the United States, 55; 
wishes neutral commerce to be exempt 
from capture, 257; joins the armed neu- 
trality, 265, 274, 278; the liussian declara- 
tion on that subject, 274; Rus-ia invites 
the European powers to a league for the 
protection of neutral commerce, 427, 

Russian camp, Gibbon's sarcastic query about 
visiting it, viii. 157. 

Russian troops, the king resolves to apply for 
them, vii. 348; George III. applies for 
them, viii. 149, et seq. ; but cannot get 
them, 151, 153, 155. 

Russian vessels seized by Spain, x. 276 ; the 
consequences, 276. 

Rutherford, of North Carolina, destroys many 
Cherokee towns, ix. 163, x. 288. 

Rutledge, Arthur, an inflexible patriot, his 
shameful treatment, x. 329. 

Rutledge, Edward, of South Carolina, elected 
to the first continental congress, vii. 81 ;. 
delegate in Congress, endeavors in vain to 
exclude colored men from the continental 
armv, viii. 110; his motions in Congress, 
279,"282, 315, 367; opposes the Declaration 
of Independence, 390 ; his ungracious 
words, 390; one of a committee to devise a 
plan for a confederation, 392 ; cavils at the 
idea of a permanent confederation, ix. 59, 
51; his jealous}' of New Eng'and, 51, 52; 
is in favor of procrastination, 112; is chosen 
one of a committee to meet Lord Howe, 
112; the interview, 116, 117; his despond- 
ency, 131; member of the committee on 
spies, 135. 

Rutledge, John, of South Carolina, v. 293; a 
delegate to the first American Congress, 
333; his patriotism, 343; elected to the 
first continental congress, vii. 81, 127; 
holds that allegiance is inalienable, 133 ; 
contends against the restriction of not ex- 
porting rice, 206; aids in forming a new 
government in South Carolina, viii. 313 ; is 
chosen president of that province, 348; his 
speech on accepting the office, 348; ad- 
dress of the legislature to him, 349; bis 
speech at the close of the session, 350-352; 
his great abilities, 353; his activity in pro- 
viding for the defence of Charleston, 394 ; 
will not suffer Sullivan's Island to be 
abandoned, 397 ; sends a supply of powder 
to Moultrie during the attack, 409; visits 
the garrison, 413; his feelings at meeting 
them, 413, x. 288, 290. 

Rvswick, peace of, iii. 192; its provisions, 




Sackville, Lord George, complains of the 
liberty enjoyed in the colonies, iv. 220 ; 
apologizes tor Loudoun, 290; declines to 
command in America, 204; his disobe- 
dience to orders at the battle of Minden, 
317, 318; his fall and disgrace, 318; under 
the Rockingham ministry is restored to 
office, v. 305, 373, 401, 436 ; favors Ameri- 
can taxation, vi. 49. 

Saco, a colony there, i. 330 ; tenure of land, 
336 ; first court held there, 337. 

Sacs and Foxes, Indian tribes, iii. 151, 224; 
where located, 242 ; enemies of the French, 

Sadducees in Boston, iii. 76, 77. 

Sagadahoc, Popham's colony there, i. 208; 
province of Sagadahoc has a fort and gar- 
rison, ii. 406; Pemaquid, the fort, iii. 181. 

St. Augustine, oldest town in the United 
States, founded, i. 69. 

St. Clair, Arthur, in the attack on Three 
Rivers, viii. 429; at Trenton, ix. 240; his 
mistake, 246; he takes command at Ticon- 
deroga, 361 ; expects to repulse the enemy, 
366 ; hastily evacuates the fort, 300 ; amount 
of his force. 366; Burgoyne's army in close 
pursuit, 367; Saint Clair and his ibrce 
reach Fort Edward, 370. 

St. Clair, or Sinclair, Sir John, in Braddock's 
army, iv, 187. 

St. Ignatius, a Huron village, destroyed by 
the Iroquois, iii. 139. 

Saint John, a parish in Georgia, conforms to 
the resolutions of Congress, and sends fond 
to Boston, 206,207; it is represented in the 
second continental congress, vii. 207, 358. 

St. John, Henry, Lord Bolingbroke, his char- 
acter, iii. 219; plans the conquest of Can- 
ada, 220 ; his sanguine expectation, 221. 

St. Joseph's, the fort at the mouth of that 
river surprised by the Indians, and the 
garrison massacred, v. 119. 

St. Lawrence, gulf and river, discovered, 
i. 20, 21. 

Saint Leger, Colonel Barry, his expedition 
against Fort Stanwix, ix. 377; his force 
chiefly composed of Indians, 377 ; proceeds 
from Montreal to Oswego, 378; arrives 
in the vicinity of Fort Stanwix, 378; 
strength of thefort, 378; severe conflict at 
Oriskany, 380 ; the Indians, frantic at their 
losses, rob the British officers, and hasten 
away, 381; Saint Leger makes a hurried 
retreat, 381. 

Saint Luc, La Corne, endeavors to rouse the 
Indians to ruthless warfare against the 
Americans, vii. 305 ; arrested by Wooster 
in Canada, and sent out of the province, 
viii. 419; urges on the Indians to take up 
the hatchet against the Americans, ix. 322, 

St. Lusson meets an assembly of Indians at 
St- Mary's, and erects the standard of 
France, iii. 154. 

St. Mary's, central station of the Huron mis- 
sion, iii. 125. 

St. Pierre, Gardeur de, commander at Le 
Boeuf, receives Washington, iv. 111. 

Salem, settlement of, i. 339, 341; the first 
ministers, Skelton and Higginson, 345; 
voyage of the emigrants, 340; their num- 
bers, 347 ; ordination of the first ministers, 
348; the church constituted on the prin- 
ciple of religious liberty, 348; the ballot 
here used for the first time, 348; distress 
of the inhabitants, 358 ; choose Roger Wil- 
liams their teacher, 369 ; lose land for their 
attachment to him, 373; ship-building in 
Salem, 415 * (see Salem village, and Witch- 
craft delusion). 

Salem to be the capital of Massachusetts, vi. 
178; seat of government of Massachusetts 
removed to it from Boston, vii. 34; deter- 
mines to stop all trade with Britain and 
the West Indies, 38, 39; the legislature 
meet there, 01; their proceedings, 63, 64; 
the merchants and others of the place speak 
kind words to Boston, 67 ; unsuccessful visit 
of British troops to that place in quest of 
military stores, 252. 

Salem village (now Danvers), the scene of 
the witchcraft delusion, iii. 84, et seq. (see 
Witch craft de lusion ) . 

Salisbury, on the Merrimack, counsels an 
American union, vi. 440. 

Salle, La (see La Salle). 

Salmon Falls, village of, attacked by the 
Indians, iii. 182. 

Saltonstall, Sir Richard, denounces the slave- 
trade, i. 174 ; determines to emigrate to 
New England, 352 ; settles at Watertown, 
i. 358 * ; remonstrates against hereditary 
power, 385; in England, defends the Massa- 
chusetts colony, 405; condemns the severi- 
ties there practised, 448. 

Salzburg, in Germain - , emigrants from, ar- 
rive in Georgia, iii. 425 ; introduce the cul- 
ture of silk, 430. 

Samoset. the Indian, welcomes the Pilgrims 
at Plymouth, i. 316. 

Sandusky, the fort there taken by the Indians, 
v. 118. 

Sandwich. Earl of, a lord of the admiralty, 
iv. 71, 87; dismissed from office, 87; be- 
comes secretary of state, v. 147 ; a hater of 
America, at the head of the English post- 
office, vi. 109; thinks a small force will be 
sufficient to reduce the colonies, vii. 181; 
calls the Americans cowards, 181, 202; 
opposas Lord Chatham's bill tor concilia- 
tion, 220; his tirade against Franklin, 220; 
berates the Americans as cowards, 202; 
is bent on coercion, 346; is for absolute 
authority over the colonies, viii. 360. 

Sandys, George, agent for Virginia, i. 204. 

Sandys, Sir Edwin, reforms abuses in the 
aifairs of Virginia, i. 157; sends over many 
colonists, 157; his friendly interposition for 
the colony, 191; befriends the fishermen, 

Santilla river, Georgia, colony on its banks, 
iv. 242. 



Saratoga, convention of, violated by the 

British, x. 126. 
Sartine, minister of police, vii. 32; minister 
of marine to Louis XVI., 93; concurs in the 
views of Vergennes, viii. 341 ; advises war, 

Saunders, Sir Charles, admiral of the fleet 
which convoyed Wolfe up the St. Law- 
rence, iv. 316, 324; with Wolfe, reconnoitres 
the shore, 327. 

Savages employed against the revolted col- 
onists, x. 123, 151, 195, 284; Tryon, Wil- 
liam Franklin, and other refugees, advise 
their employment, 222; their horrid bar- 
barities, 137, 152, 480; praised for it by 
Lord George Germain, 138 (see Indians). 

Savannah founded, iii. 421; taken by the 
British, x. 285; siege of, by Lincoln and 
D'Estaing, 296 ; the. effort fails, 297; evacu- 
ated by the British, 504. 

Saville, Sir George, the ''spotless" represen- 
tative of Yorkshire, vindicates the rights of 
the people, vi. 321. 322; wishes a repeal of 
the duty on tea, 300 ; wishes that Franklin 
may be heard at the bar of the House of 
Commons, vii. 218; thinks the Americans 
justifiable in resisting oppressive acts, 239, 

Saxon emperors of Germany, their energy, 
x. 72. 

Saxon princes refuse to furnish soldiers for 
conquest of America, x. 94-96. 

Say and Seal, Lord, proposes to remove to 
America, i. 384; a proprietary of Connecti- 
cut, 395 ; befriends that colony, ii. 51. 

Sayle, William, governor of Carolina, ii. 138, 
150.; conducts a body of emigrants to Ash- 
ley river, 166. 

Sayre, Stephen, sent to the tower, viii. 145. 

Scammel, Alexander, in the battle of Bemis's 
Heights, ix. 409. 

Scepticism in France in 1774, vii. 28, 29. 

Schenectady, massacre of its inhabitants by 
the Indians, iii. 182. 

Schlieffen, General, minister of Hesse, his 
negotiations with Faucitt, viii. 201, 262. 

Schuyler, Colonel Peter, remonstrates against 
Indian cruelties, iii. 216; takes five Iro- 
quois sachems to England, 219. 

Schuyler, Philip, in the New York assembly, 
vii. 210; risks his vast estate in the cause 
of liberty, 250; elected to the second con- 
tinental congress, 284; elected major- 
genera!, viii. 28; his character, 29; Mont- 
gomery's opinion of him, 28, 29 ; his report 
to Congress, 52; makes preparation for 
the invasion of Canada, 177 ; Washington 
urges him to proceed iu it immediately, 
180; he embarks for St. John's, 181; re- 
treats to the Isle Aux Noix, 181 ; his health 
suffers greatly, 181, 182 ; his indecision 
and delay, 182; he returns to Ticonderoga, 
182; forwards supplies to Montgomery, 
183; complains of the Connecticut troops, 
185; marches against Sir John Johnson, 
and takes him prisoner, 272 ; refuses the 
active command in Canada, 273, 432; sends 
a re-enforcement to Washington, ix. 200; 

his love of country, 338 ; Gates supplants 
him, 339; Schuyler's vindication of him- 
self .to Congress, 342; is restored to his 
command, 342 ; his military capacity 
doubted, 342; w r ant of personal courage, 
372 ; the soldiers have no confidence in 
him, 372; his mistakes, 373; he retreats, 
373; does not dispute the advance of Bur- 
goyne, 373 ; applies to Washington for aid, 
373; Washington encourages him, 375; 
removes the army to an island in Mohawk 
river, 376; expects Burgoyne at Albany, 
376 ; is removed from command, 386. 

Scollay, John, of Boston, one of the select- 
men, refuses to serve on the committee of 
correspondence, vi. 430. 

Scot, George, conducts an emigration from 
Scotland to New Jersey, ii. 409. 

Scotch-Irish emigration, iii. 371. 

Scotch Presbyterians, their settlement in Ire- 
land, v. 64, 76 ; some of them remove to 
America, 76; in North Carolina, vi. 34; 
oppressions suffered by them, 35. 

Scotland, Presbyterians in, sufferings en- 
dured by them for religion's sake, ii. 410; 
great numbers of them emigrate to East 
New Jersey, 412 ; the leading minds are on 
the side of America and against the stamp 
act, v. 437, 438. 

Scots, insurrection of, in North Carolina, 
viii. 284 (see Hiijhlanders). 

Scott, an officer of Virginia troops, ix. 230; 
at Germantown, 427. 

Scott, General, commands a division at Mon- 
mouth, x. 128. 

Scott. John Morin, a popular lawyer in New 
York, iv. 429, v. 224 ; the probable author 
of the patriotic article signed "Freeman," 
284, note ; one of the triumvirate of patri- 
otic lawyers, vi. 141; loses his election, 
249, vii. 78, 80, 329; in the assembly of 
that province, viii. 215; concurs with Jay 
in his policy, 274, 279, 439; brigadier in 
the American army, ix. 95, 97, 102, 107. 

Scottish brigade in Holland, its history, viii. 

Screven, an American officer, killed in cold 
blood, x. 285. 

Sears, Isaac, a leader of the people in New 
York, v. 352, 355, 356, 377, 425; his patri- 
otic utterances, vi. 366, 481; one of the 
principal Sons of Liberty at New York, 
vii. 40, 78, 80; for his patriotic efforts the 
mayor commits him to prison, 283 ; he is 
liberated by the people, 283 ; stops all ves- 
sels going to Quebec or Boston, 328; rifles 
the printing office of the Tor}' Hivington, 
viii. 275; goes to the camp in Cambridge, 
275; his representations to Lee, 276; abuses 
the committee of New York and its con- 
vention, 281 ; Lee makes him his adjutant- 
general, 278; and gives him great power 
in New York, 282. 

Seeker, Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, 
iv. 379, 385, 426. 

Secretaries of state charged with the conduct 
of the external relations of Great Britain, 
iv. 17. 



Secretary of state for the southern depart- 
ment; his administration of colonial affairs, 

iv. 17, 18; l'elham, Duke of Newcastle, in 
this office, 18, 1 J ; Russell, Duke of Bed- 
ford, succeeds him, 21. 

Selden, John, his answer to the question 
about resisting tyranny, vii. 202. 

Seminoles of Florida, iii. 251 

Seneca tribe of Indians, ii. 215, 415, iii. 163, 
164, 177, 180, 194, 244 ; incite the more west- 
ern tribes to take up arms against the Eng- 
lish, v. Ill; ambush laid by tliem near Niag- 
ara Falls, 132; the fearful result, 133; peace 
with them, 210, 211; take up the hatchet 
against the Americans, ix. ."J77, 370; their 
severe loss at Oriskany, 370; their yells of 
grief and rage, 382; under the British flag 
at Wyoming, x. 137 ; their fearful ravages 
and cruelties, 138. 

Separatists from the Church of England, 
i. 287, 288. 

Sequoah (or George Guess), a Cherokee, in- 
vents an alphabet, iii. 255. 

"Serapis" frigate taken by Paul Jones, 
x. 271. 

Sergeant, of New Jersey, in Congress, viii. 

Servants in Virginia invited by the royal 
governor to rise against their masters, 
viii. 223; why they did not rise, 225. 

Servitude of white people in the colonies, 
i. 175; abolished in Virginia, 205; con- 
tinues in Maryland, iii. 33. 

Sessions, Darius, deputy governor of Rhode 
Island, in the affair of the " Gaspee," vi. 
441, 450. 

Settlements, their wide extension, v. 165. 

Settlement of the West, Hillsborough at- 
tempts to counteract, vi. 225. 

Seven years' war, its successes the triumph of 
Protestantism, v. 3; its effect on America, 
x. 86. 

Sevier, John, a "backwoods" colonel, x. 
335; at the head of a regiment, 335; his 
undaunted valor at King's Mountain, 336- 

Sevier, Valentine, of East Tennessee, in the 
Indian war of 1774, vii. 167-160. 

Sewall. Jonathan, the early friend of John 
Adams, vii. 65; their political views sepa- 
rate them, 65. 

Sewall, Stephen, chief justice of Massachu- 
setts, dies, iv. 378. 

"Sexby, Edward," a signature in " Boston 
Gazette" in 1772, used by Josiah Quincy, 
junior, vi. 348, 426, note. 

Shaftesbury, Earl of (Antony Ashley Cooper), 
ii. 124; one of the proprietaries of Carolina, 
12 J ; his character, 139, et seq. ; errors 
concerning him corrected, 140; his political 
principles, 141; his virtues and vices, 142; 
wanting in delicacy, 143; his infidelity, 
143; with John Locke frames a constitu- 
tion for Carolina, 145; procures the ac- 
quittal of Culpepper, 161; 1'enn's acquaint- 
ance with him, ii. 376; one of the cabal, 
434; his fall, 435; recovers power, and is 
again displaced, 436 ; courts popular favor, 

437: his exile, 438; author of the decla- 
ration of indulgence, 435; fourth earl, one 
of the council tor Georgia, iii. 420. 

Sharks devour multitudes of French escaped 
the carnage of a naval battle, x. 545. 

Sharp, Granville, opposed to war with Am- 
erica, and resigns office, vii. 343. 

Sharpe, Horatio, lieutenant-governor of Mary- 
land, iv. 167, 178; made general of the 
military force in America, 168; his requi- 
sitions disregarded by the colonies, 175; 
meets Braddock at Alexandria, 177; his 
misgivings about the war, 235; recom- 
mends taxation of the colonies, 167, 177 ; 
apologizes for Loudoun's incapacity, 267; 
again recommends taxation, 307, 376; 
wishes to share in the contraband trade, 

Shawanese Indians, their ferocity, vii. 166, 
168; great battle with them at Point Pleas- 
ant, 168; they are defeated, 169; and sue 
for peace, 170; its humiliating terms, 170, 

Shawnee Indians, where located, iii. 159, 
240; their wanderings, 240, 252; for a time 
friendly to the English, iv. 77, 82, 94, 107, 
108; make war on them, 169, 225; their 
horrible ferocity, 225 ; combine with other 
tribes to expel the English, v. 112; their 
attack on Fort Pitt, 128, 129; peace with 
them, 210, 221; they restore their captives, 
222 ; take up arms against the Americans, 
ix. 160. 

Shawneetown, Indian council at, demand 
help from the English against the French, 
iv. 96, 97. 

Shee, tiolonel of a Pennsylvania regiment, 
ix. 98; retreats from Long Island, 103; re- 
signs his commission, 171. 

Shelburne, Earl of (William Petty), first lord 
of trade, v. 108; vindicated from the as- 
persions ofWalpole, 108, note ; a man of 
ability, 134; marks out the boundaries of 
New England, 135; declines to take part 
in the scheme for taxing America, 136; 
retires from office, 147; the firm friend of 
Pitt, 147; refuses office under the Rock- 
ingham administration, 304 ; wishes the 
repeal of the stamp act, 369 ; proposes a 
repeal in the House of Lords, 402; secretary 
of state for the colonies under Pitt, vi. 21 ; 
and, as such, has the care of American 
affairs, 21; wishes the Mississippi valley to 
be the refuge of English liberty, 33 ; seeks 
to recover the affections of the colonies 
by moderation and prudence, 39, 40 ; his 
orders to American governors, 52; his 
caution and moderation, 53 ; his American 
policy, 53,54; averse to sending bishops to 
America, 54; disapproves the billeting act, 
55; tries to check speculators in American 
lands, 53; is beset with difficulties, 56; 
the king dislikes him, 21, 47, 55; his wise 
policy defeated, 59, 60; finds himself pow- 
erless, 63; favors Massachusetts, 70; the 
colonies taken from under his care, 109; 
endeavors to calm the exasperated spirit of 
England, 175; the king wishes to get rid 



of him, 175; he is removed from the min- 
istry, 214; this induces the resignation of 
Chatham, 214; Shelburne esteems Lord 
North worthy of impeachment, 361; op- 
poses the Boston port bill, 519; protests 
against the rash proceedings of the minis- 
ters, vii 178; speaks in favor of removing 
the troops from Boston, 202 ; charges Lord 
Mansfield with uttering gross falsehoods, 
220; is greatly pleased with Jefferson's 
answer to Lord North's insidious proposi- 
tions, 388; bears honorable testimony to 
the sincerity of Franklin, and protests 
against the war with America, viii. 163; 
Marquis of Lansdowne, x. 531 ; his charac- 
ter as a statesman, 532 ; condemns, in 1780, 
the Russian manifesto in defence of neutral 
rights, 428; mediates between the king 
and the Marquis of Rockingham, 534; a 
member of the Rockingham ministry, 535; 
is desirous of peace. 535 ; his letter to 
Franklin at Pans, 536 ; his generous feel- 
ings, 536; Franklin's reply, 540; the earl 
writes again to Franklin, 541 ; his in- 
structions to Oswald, 541, 554 ; wishes 
the Penobscot or Kennebec to be the east- 
ern boundary of New England, 541, 583; 
he becomes first lord of the treasury, 
551; his noble qualities. 553; averse to 
a war with America, 554 ; accepts the 
American ultimatum, 556; his letters to 
Oswald, 557; consents, reluctantly, to the 
independence of America, 557; but cannot 
yield Gibraltar, 576; his discussion with 
Rayneval, the French minister, on that 
subject, 576; his generous feelings towards 
France, 577, 578 ; his final instructipns to 
Strachey, 583; his exalted merit as a Brit- 
ish statesman. 558. 

Shelburne ministry, of whom composed, x. 
552; favorable to parliamentary reform, 
549; their hesitation about the terms of 
peace, 586. 

Shelby, Evan, in the Indian war, vii. 167, 
1G9 ; a patriotic church member, 195. 

Shelbv, Isaac, of Kentucky, in the battle of 
Point Pleasant, vii. 169"; colonel of back- 
woodsmen, x. 335; with Sevier and others, 
gains a glorious victory at King's Moun- 
tain, 336-338. 

Sheldon, Colonel, receives a letter from Major 
Andre, 380. 

Sherburne, Major Henry, of Rhode Island, 
taken prisoner at the Cedars, and his men 
butchered by the Indians, viii. 427. 

Sherman, Roger, elected representative of 
New Haven, v. 317; quoted in regard to 
American rights, vi. 166; denies the power 
of Parliament to make laws for America, 
vii. 106; is a member of the first conti- 
nental congress, 132, 133; deduces alle- 
giance from consent, 133; in Congress, 
viii. 314, 315, 317, 319; one of the commit- 
tee to prepare a Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, 392; in Congress, ix. 55; his action 
in Congress, x. 173. 

Shipbuilding, commencement of, in New 
England, i. 415 *. 

Shirley, William, governor of Massachusetts, 
resolves on the capture of Louisburg, iii. 
457; his plan of attack, 458, iv. 26; at- 
tends the Congress at Albany, 1748, 28; 
unites with Clinton in an appeal to the 
paramount power of Great Britain, 29 ; ac- 
cuses Boston to the board of trade, 39; 
proposes the removal of the Acadians, 44 ; 
goes to England to prosecute his designs, 
53, 54; principal adviser of the ministry 
against Massachusetts, 59 ; his proceedings 
at Paris, 72; his influence with the mims- 
try, 114; returns from England, 1753, 114; 
and still plans for the royal prerogative, 
114; his plan of union of the colonies, 172; 
objections to it, as given by Franklin, 172, 
173 ; is bitterly opposed to the Albany plan, 
174, note ; invokes the power of Parliament, 
174, 175; meets Braddock at Alexandria, 
177 ; fails of taking Niagara. 213; soothes 
the alarm felt in England at the growth 
and prosperity of the colonies, 214; thinks 
the colonies could not become independent, 
214; placed at the head of the army in 
America, 221; advises a tax on the col- 
onies, 52, 172, 178, 222; is superseded and 
recalled, 228. 

Shute Daniel, minister of Hingham, in Mas- 
sachusetts, his election sermon in 1768, vi. 

Silesia, reverses in, iv. 288. 

Silk-weavers of London exasperated against 
the Duke of Bedford, and why, v. 257; 
their riotous behavior, 258, 259. 

Silleri, Noel, establishes a colony of Algon- 
quins near Quebec, iii. 127. 

Silliman, General, his combat with the enemy 
at Ridgefield, Connecticut, ix. 347. 

Simcoe, his advice to Cornwallis, ix. 245. 

Sinclair (see St. Clair). 

Sioux, first known to white men, iii. 131, 151 
(see Dahcotas). 

Six Nations, treaties with them, iv. 29, 31, 
103, 122; are present by their delegates at 
the Albany congress, 88, 122; their dis- 
trust of the English, 88, 122; their alliance 
sought by the French, 89, 169.; they claim 
the Ohio vallev, 96, 107; some of them 
aid the French, 209; neutrality of, 238, 
243 ; the Oneidas take part with the French, 
259 ; a body of warriors at Ticonderoga 
under Sir William Johnson, 302; with 
Bradstreet, at Fort Frontenac, 305 ; with 
Johnson, at Niagara, 321 : a congress with, 
at Fort Stanwix, vi. 227; their warriors 
paid to secure their neutrality, vii. 118; 
notices of, 167, 280, 349, 365, 392; take up 
arms against the Americans, ix. 160; speech 
of Gates to their council, 359 ; they incline 
to be neutral, 377. 

Skeene, a British agent, taken prisoner, vii. 
340, 341. 

Skelton, Samuel, one of the earliest ministers 
of Salem, i. 345. 

Skepticism applied to every object of human 
thought, v. 5; its tendency, revolution, 
5; uncreative, viii. 366; ought to be re- 
jected, 366. 



Skinner, Cortland, of New Jersey, appointed 
a brigadier in the British service, ix. 320; 
enlists men for the army, 320. 

Slavery, history of, i. 159; Indians made 
slaves, 16, 30; negro slavery, 65, 67; its 
early existence, 159; anciently in Egypt, 
Palestine, Greece, Home, 100, 161; in the 
middle ages in England, Germany, and 
other European countries, 162, 163; in the 
contests between the Christians and Moors, 
all captives were enslaved, 164 ; negro 
slaverv, its origin; not an invention of 
white "men, 165; existed long before Colum- 
bus, 166; negro slaves introduced into 
Spain and Portugal, 106; natives of Am- 
erica made slaves, 167; by Columbus, 168; 
and by the Fathers of New England, 169; 
negro "slaves introduced early into Hispan- 
iola, 109; sanctioned by royal decrees, 170; 
mistaken benevolence of Las Casas, 170; 
the slave-trade never sanctioned by the 
Roman pontiff, 172; Sir John Hawkins the 
first English slave-trader, 172; earliest im- 
portation of Africans into New England, 
173; denounced as a crime, 174; intro- 
duction of slavery into Virginia, 176; In- 
dians made slaves, 402; provisions of law 
in Massachusetts concerning slavery, 418 ; 
the son of Philip sold as a slave, ii. 109 ; 
slaves in Virginia, 193; their treatment, 
193; how regarded in law, 194; an aris- 
tocracy founded on slave property, 194; 
negro slaves introduced into New Nether- 
land, 303; slavery in Pennsylvania, 401; 
William Penn a slave-holder, 401; slavery 
in South Carolina, in. 20; in Maryland, 
33; in Pennsylvania, 41; in New Jersey, 
49 ; England becomes rich and powerful by 
the slave-trade, 233; slavery of Indians, 
321, 303 ; South Sea company and the 
slave-trade, 401 ; slave-trade, how con- 
ducted, 402; sources of the supply, 403; 
solution of the problem of the slave-trade, 
404; horrors of " the middle passage," 404, 
405; great loss of life, 405; emancipation 
proposed in Boston, 408; and in Pennsyl- 
vania, 408 ; conver-ion did not enfranchise, 
409; yet the rightfulness of slavery was 
never recognized bylaw, 409; color alone 
prevented emancipation, 410 ; England 
forced slavery upon the colonies, 411, 415; 
number of slaves imported, 411; slavery 
justified by public opinion, by national 
policy, and by able writers, 412, 413; 
"negroes are merchandise," was unques- 
tioned law, 414; slavery resisted by the 
colonies, but enforced on them, 416; for- 
bidden in Georgia, 426; permitted there, 
448; great alarm in Virginia on account of 
the increase of the slave population, vi. 
414; Massachusetts denounces the institu- 
tion, 415 ; a slave is free on touching Brit- 
ish soil, 415; the voice of Jefferson, of 
Patrick Henry, and of George Mason raised 
against it, 413-417 ; a wish to have it abol- 
ished, vii. 42, 75, 84, 271 b ; in Virginia, 
England alone is responsible for it, viii. 
225 (see Negro Pvjiutalion); contrary to 

conscience and the divine law, x. 298, 370; 
abolished in France on all the estates of 
the crown, 345; in Oberyssel, one of the 
United Netherlands, 346 ; justified by 
Luther, and by Bossuet, 340; prevalent 
over one-half of Europe, 340 ; threatened 
from the first the existence of the American 
Union, 349; could not be abolished by 
Congress, 353; it gave rise to jealousy be- 
tween the North and the South, 348; 
opinions of Jefferson on slavery, 356; his 
forebodings, 357 ; of Governor Morris, 349, 
358; of John Jay, 358; of William Living- 
ston, 358; of Robert R. Livingston, 358; 
of George Bryan, of Pennsylvania, 359, 
360; of Joseph Reed, of Pennsylvania, 359 ; 
of Gordon the historian, 361 ; how far had 
it been removed in Virginia, 356; in Dela- 
ware, 357 ; in New York and New Jersey, 
358; it remained a primary element in 
the social organization of South Carolina, 
360 ; how disposed of by the treaty of 1782, 

Slaves, negro, trade in, beginning of, i. 169; 
not sanctioned by the Roman pontiff, 172; 
introduced into New England, 173, 174; 
and Virginia, 176 ; the negro in Virginia, 
ii. 193 ; in New Netherlands, 303 ; in 
Pennsylvania, 401; in the Carolinas, iii. 
20; in New Jersey, 49; the traffic in slaves 
enriches England, 233, 412; great activity 
of the slave-trade, 402; extent of the slave 
coast, 402; slave-trade, how conducted, 
403 ; sources of the supply, 403 ; solution 
of the problem, 403; the slave in Africa, 
404; on the passage across the ocean, 405; 
great loss of life, 405; the number actually 
imported into the English colonies, 406, 
411; their condition here, 406, 407; a 
marked progress, 408 ; the English colonies 
always opposed to the slave-trade, 410; 
Congress forbids the traffic, 411 ; number of 
slaves imported, 411, 414; number thrown 
into the Atlantic on the passage, 412 ; pe- 
cuniary returns to the merchants, 412; 
public opinion sanctioned the traffic, 412; 
as did the civil law, 413; and the national 
policy, 414; no more to be imported into 
Virginia, vii. 84; the continental congress 
inaugurate the abolition of the slave-trade, 
148; the British ministry and the king 
give orders to Gage to excite them to cut 
their masters' throats, 222 ; Dunmore 
threatens to free and arm the slaves in 
Virginia, 276, 386 ; Dunmore would have 
them rise against their masters, viii. 223. 

Slave-trade prohibited by Congress, viii. 321 ; 
in Virginia, might be attached to the soil 
and entailed, ix. 280; attempt to abolish 
slavery, 281; why the attempt failed, 281; 
slaves in Pennsylvania side with the Brit- 
ish, 401; in South Carolina, proposal to 
make soldiers of them, x. 291, 292; confis- 
cated by British officers, and sold, 292, 
299 ; man}' perish from want, 294 ; many 
join the enemy, 294; many shipped to the 
'West Indies, 299. 

Slave-trade encouraged by England, iv. 62, 



63, 140; eagerly pursued, v. 207; opposed 
by Virginia, vi. 71, 413, 414; the king for- 
bids it to be obstructed, 413; upheld by 
the British government, x. 347; Chancellor 
Thurlow defends it, 347; could not be in- 
terdicted in the United States under the 
old confederation, 352. 

Slavonic race, extent of the, v. 8, 9. 

Sloughter, Henry, governor of New York, 
lii. 53; arrests Leisler, 54; procures his 
execution, 55. 

Smallwood, colonel of Maryland troops, his 
aspersions on the courage of Connecticut 
soldiers, ix. 123; quoted, 175, note; at 
"White Plains, 181; brings a re-enforce- 
ment to Washington, 403; not to be found 
when most wanted, x. 322. 

Smith, Adam, his great ability, viii. 174; his 
noble sentiments in regard to the contro- 
versy with the colonies, 174, 175. 

Smith, James, visits the region of the Ohio, 
vi. 34. 

Smith, John, engages in the scheme of colo- 
nization, i. 118; arrives in Virginia, 124; 
excluded from the council, 125 ; his early 
life and character, 127, 128 ; his strange 
adventures, 127, 128; explores the interior 
of Virginia, 129; a captive among the In- 
dians, 130; regarded by them with rever- 
ence, 130; conducted to Powhatan, 131; 
rescued from death by Pocahontas, 131; is 
released, and returns to Jamestown, 132; 
explores the Chesapeake, 133; ascends the 
Potomac to Georgetown, 134; his map of 
the country still extant, 134; is made pres- 
ident of Virginia, 134; his energetic ad- 
ministration, 134; returns to England, 
138; ingratitude of the company in Eng- 
land, 138 ; his eminent services and extraor- 
dinary character, 139; examined touch- 
ing Virginia affairs, 187; asserts the true 
policy of England, 269 ; explores the coasts 
of New England, 269; gives that name to 
the country, 270 ; his unsuccessful attempt 
to colonize it, 270 ; taken by pirates, 270 ; 
succeeds in forming a second Plymouth 
company, 271. 

Smi h, John, of Boston, one of" the Sons of 
Liberty" in 1765, v. 310. 

Smith, Joshua Hett, implicated in the trea- 
son of Arnold, and how, x. 383; conductor 
of Andre- on his return, 386. 

Smith, Lieutenant-Colonel, commands the 
expedition to Concord, vii. 288 ; his indeci- 
sion, 304; his retreat, 305, et seq. ; rapidity 
of the retreat, 309; his falsehoods, 318, 

Smith, Samuel, lieutenant-colonel, com- 
mands at Fort Mifflin on Mud Island, ix. 
422; is wounded, and leaves the fort, 

Smith, Thomas, governor of South Carolina, 
iii. 14, 15. 

Smith, William, of New York, desires an 
American parliament, iv. 268, 428 ; his dis- 
creet course in a time of high excitement, 
v. 357; one of the triumvirate of patriotic 
lawyers, vi. 141; his letter quoted, 310; 

an advocate of union under the auspices of 
the British king, vii. 108. 

Smith, William, of New York, the historian, 
seconds the intrigues of Governor Tryon, 
viii. 215. 

Smvth, chief-justice of New Jersey, vi. 

Smuggling carried on by the English, iii. 
231, 402,426, 435, 436; cause of a war with 
Spain, 438; practised at Boston, iv. 27; at 
New York, 85, 147. 

Society, ancient forms of, doomed to be 
broken, iv. 4; great changes in, 12, 13; 
every form of it contains the two elements 
of law and freedom, viii. 118, 119; for con- 
stitutional information votes money for suf- 
ferers in America, vii. 344. 

Sokokis, an Indian tribe, iii. 238. 

Soldiers billeted in private houses, iv. 236, 

Somers, Lord John, Baron of Evesham, lord- 
keeper of the great seal, leader of the Whig 
part}' at the revolution, iii 4; opposes the 
restoration of the charter to Massachusetts, 

Somers, Sir George, wrecked on Bermuda, i. 

"Sons of Liberty," the phrase first used, v. 
240; universally adopted in America, 241; 
what they did in Boston, 310; a wide- 
spread and powerful organization. 440, 
441 : the organization dissolved, vi. 30, 35; 
of New York, this organization still in ex- 
istence in 1774, vii. 40; they propose a 
general congress, 40; this their last achieve- 
ment, 41. 

Sothel, Seth, acquires a proprietary right in 
Carolina, ii. 161; is governor of that prov- 
ince, 163; an infamous, -worthless charac- 
ter, 103; is deposed in North Carolina, 
164; chosen by the people governor of 
South Carolina, iii. 14. 

Soto (see Be Soto). 

South, voices from the, vii. 49, et seq. 

South Carolina visited by Spaniards, i. 3G; 
natives carried off as slaves, 30; the name 
how derived, 62; a colony of Huguenots 
arrive, i. 61, 66, 68; emigrants from Eng- 
land settle there, ii. 166; a free, represen- 
tative government established, 168; the 
settlers resist the proprietaries, 168; hard- 
ships endured, 169; Charleston founded, 
170; slavery coeval with the state, 170; 
arrival of Dutch emigrants, 171; emigrants 
from England and Scotland, 172, 173; 
Huguenot emigration, 174-183; struggle 
of the people with the proprietaries, 184- 
18'i; the people prevail, 187; population in 
1688, ii. 450 ; character of the early settlers, 
iii. 13; factions in the colony, 14; Sothel 
governor, 14; Thomas Smith governor, 
14; effect of the English revolution, 14; 
struggle again between the people and the 
proprietaries, 15; arbitrary conduct of the 
latter, 14, 15, 19 ; the constitution of Shaftes- 
bury and Locke perishes, 14, 15, 19; emi- 
gration flows in from abroad, 17 ; the 
Huguenots, 17; High-Church faction, 18; 



Church of England established by law, 
18; cultivation of rice introduced from 
Madagascar, -20; the fur trade, 20; expe- 
dition against St. Augustine, 209; this in- 
volves the colony in debt, 200; invasion by 
the French, 2ll; the invaders repelled, 
211; succor afforded to North Carolina 
against the Tuscaroras, 320; war with the 
Yamassccs, 328; the people throw off the 
proprietary government, 328, 329; the 
colony becomes a royal province, 330; 
the proprietaries sell their rights to the 
crown, 331; paper money, 388; politi- 
cal dissatisfaction of, iv. 38; inclination 
towards union, 75; its first movement tow- 
ards confederation, 88; joins in council 
with the northern colonies, 88; a company 
from South Carolina join Washington in 
his first campaign, 120; population in 
1754. 129, 130; its political and social con- 
dition, 131, 132; favored by the parent 
state, 131; endeavors to hinder the impor- 
tation of negro slaves, 422; expedition 
against the Cherokees, 423, et seq. (see 
Cherokees) ; discontent of the province tow- 
ard England, 426; long strife with its 
royal governor on a question of privilege, 
v. 150; the assembly decides for a con- 
gress of the colonies, 293; its delegates 
arrive, 333; their names, 333; they act 
well their part, 343 ; complains of the arbi- 
trary measures of the British government, 
vi. 14, 43; approves the doings of Massa- 
chusetts, 107, 235, 309; defects in the judi- 
cial system of South Carolina, 183; refuses 
compliance with the billeting act, 309; its 
social connection with England, 317 ; pop- 
ulation in 1709, 317; slave-trade, 317; 
makes a liberal remittance to London in 
aid of the cause of liberty, 319; zealous in 
the cause, 380 ; wide discontent at the in- 
sults offered by the ministry, 411; affec- 
tions of the province alienated from Eng- 
land, 410 ; governor infringes the rights of 
the assembly and dissolves them, 447; de- 
termined spirit of the province, 471; the 
tea refused, 488 ; the colony in a disordered 
state, 505; condition of, in 1774, vii. 51; 
its close connection with England, 51; 
warm affection for the mother country, 
51 ; its numerous slaves hostages for loyalty, 
51; its sympathy for Boston, 51; and 
patriotic spirit, 52; contributes promptly 
for the relief of Boston, 62, 73; elects dele- 
gates to a general congress, 81 ; opposition 
of her delegates to the prohibition of ex- 
porting rice, 147; general convention of 
the colony, 172; another convention, 205; 
adopts the recommendations of Congress, 
206; firm spirit of the people, 251; they 
associate themselves for defence and raise 
a military force, 336; its condition in 1775, 
viii. 84; Vash conduct of its governor, 84; 
news of the battle of Bunker Hill, 85; the 
patriot party, 85; the legislature inactive, 
85; two distinct populations in the prov- 
ince, 85. 88 ; different in origin, in religion, 
in political affinities, 86 ; the planters on 

VOL. X. 

the sea, gentlemen, connected with Eng- 
land, despise the rude settlers in the inte- 
rior, recently from continental Europe, 86; 
struggle for superiority, 86; open hostili- 
ties, 87 ; danger from the savages, 87 ; the 
governor urges the ministry to employ 
force, 89 ; his arrest proposed, 89 ; Congress 
advise South Carolina to establish a gov- 
ernment, 137; expedition planned against 
South Carolina, 158, 159; the conven- 
tion of the province approves the proceed- 
ings of Congress, 345; opinions in the 
convention divided, 346; Sullivan's Island 
fortified, 346; paper money issued, 347; 
hesitation about instituting government, 
347; the act of Parliament prohibiting 
American Congress is received, 347; a 
constitution of civil government is estab- 
lished, 347 ; its provisions, 347, 348 ; John 
Rutledge president, 348; his speech on ac- 
cepting the office, 348; the government 
formally inaugurated, 348,349; condition 
of the inhabitants, 349; courage of the 
planters, 350; the legislature firm for union 
with the other colonies, 350; the supreme 
court declares George III. to have abdicated 
the government, 352, 353; attack on Fort 
Moultrie repulsed and South Carolina 
saved, 404-412; welcomes the Declaration 
of Independence, ix. 36; war made on its 
western settlements by the Indians, 161; 
the Indians totally defeated, 161, 162 ; and 
sue for peace, 161, 162; form of civil gov- 
ernment established by the legislature, not 
by the people, 261 ; great inequality of 
representation, 265; disposition of church 
property, 277; attempt to have a religion 
of the state, 277; South Carolina is silent 
as touching the rights of man, 282; its 
new constitution, v. 153, 154; invaded by 
British troops, 287; the seat of war, 290, 
et seq. ; neutrality proposed, 293 ; the people 
disheartened and sick of the war, 292, 298, 
the paper money worthless, 298, 302; suf- 
ferings of the population, 299, 300; main- 
disaffected, 302; opposition to British rule 
ceases, 306 ; *the state supposed to be 
thoroughlv subdued, 308; instances of 
British pe'rfkly and cruelty, 300, 307, 310, 
311, 312; Washington sends De Kalbwith 
the Maryland division to their relief, 314; 
cruel treatment of the people by the British, 
328; yet the people never conquered, 330, 

Southern campaign, x. 456, et seq. ; as con- 
ducted by Greene, 485, et seq. ; southern 
troops, their good conduct and good suc- 
cess, 496. 

Southern department, including the colon- 
ies, entrusted to Pelham, Duke of New- 
castle, iv. 18; to the Duke of Bedford, 

Southern Indians quiet, iv. 193 (see Cataw- 
bns, Cherokees, Chickri-mws). 

South Sea Company, financial dreams con- 
nected with it, iii. 401; the Assiento, 401; 
the slave-trade, 401; owe the king of 
Spain, 437. 




Sovereignty of the states asserted in all parts 
of the country, 352. 

Spain, her early love of adventure, i 30 ; her 
conquests in the New World, 31; discovers 
Florida, 33; enters the Gulf of Mexico, 
35; reaches the Mississippi river, 51; 
claims all North America, GO ; discovers 
the Chesapeake, CO ; exterminates the 
French colony in Florida, 70 ; extent of 
the Spanish dominion in North America, 
73 ; colonial system of Spain, iii. Ill ; 
she becomes involved in the destiny of 
Fnglish America, 206 ; character of the 
Spanish people, 206 ; decline of Spanish 
wealth and power, 207 ; possessions of 
Spain in Europe, 207 ; w;ir with England, 
209 ; occupies Florida, 209 ; loses her 
European provinces, but retains her colo- 
nies, 229 ; Spanish jealousy of France, 
347; Spanish commercial monopoly, 400 ; 
encroachments on it by English cupidity, 
402, 436 ; Spain claims the whole territory 
of Georgia, 410 ; and threatens hostility in 
consequence, 432 ; convention with Spain, 
437 ; is rejected by England and war de- 
clared, 438 ; Spanish invasion of Georgia, 
445; her demands on England, iv. 401; 

. the Family compact, 403 ; special conven- 
tion between Spain and France, 404 ; Eng- 
land declares war against Spain, 432, 433 ; 
Spain loses many treasure ships, 438 ; loses 
Havana, 444 ; which England resigns for 
Florida; 451; treaty of peace signed, 452; 
her position and political relations in 1763, 
V. 14, etseq. ; sunk to a fourth-rate power, 

16 ; its natural advantages neutralized by 
unsound policy, 16, 17 ; its people poor 
and wretched, 1G ; its hatred of England, 

17 ; surrender of Louisiana to her, 192 ; 
is eager for war with England, vi. 52 ; re- 
solves not to pay the ransom for Manilla, 
53; hopes that" England will master her 
colonies, 182; declines to interfere in the 
dispute, 237; sides against the colonies, 
259 ; supports a restrictive system of trade, 
259 ; fears England, much, but fears Amer- 
ica more, 260; resolves to recover New 
Orleans, 261; the design carried out with 
great cruelty, 292, et sec/. ; dispute with 
England respecting the Falkland Islands, 
387 ; contributes a million of French livres 
to aid America, viii. 343; opens her ports 
to American ships, ix. 71; even to priva- 
teers, 71; not friendly to American inde- 
pendence, 71; indifferent to the American 
struggle, 290; the discoverer of the we-t- 
ern world, 301 ; multiform origin of her 
people, 301; her great historical names, 
302; great natural advantages, 302; want 
of a good gi ivernment, 302 ; the church and 
the throne alike reverenced, 302; chivalry, 
303; the Austrian dynasty, 303; the 
House of Bourbon. 303; the Family com- 
pact, 304; Grimaldi, prime minister, 304; 
ministry of Florida Blanca, 304; his char- 
acter 304; his influence on the king, 300; 
reasons why Span was opposed to Ameri- 
can independence, 306, 307 ; Spain unpre- 

pared for war, 307; ruined by monopoly, 
307; without an efficient navy, 308; an 
American embassy not to appear at Madrid, 
308, 309; Spanish court drawn towards 
France, 309; its fear of England, 310; de- 
sires the friendship of France, 310; Spain 
aids America secretly, 310; Spain will not 
join France in the American alliance, 503; 
Spain and France contrasted, 503; the 
French and Spanish mind contrasted, 504; 
no free thought in Spain, 504; her recent 
disasters and wasting power, x. 47; her 
tbreign dependencies ill governed and 
scarcely held in subjection, 48; no senti- 
ment of union between her and her domin- 
ions abroad, 48; encroachments of tbreign 
nations, 48; illicit trade on the Spanish- 
American coast, 48; dangers attending her 
hold on her American provinces, 49 ; there- 
fore averse to the American revolution, 50; 
fears what may ensue from its success, 158, 
181; wishes that England may hold New 
York and other seaports, 182; wishes to 
maintain a firm hold on the Mississippi and 
its affluents, 183 ; this matter discussed be- 
tween the French and Spanish ministers, 
183; she intends to exclude the United 
States from the entire valley of the Missis- 
sippi, 186; wants Gibraltar, 186; Spanish 
policy wavers with regard to the American 
contest, 160 ; bad effect of this on France, 
160; consequently the most favorable 
chances for the conduct of the war are 
thrown away, 162; frivolous measures of 
both France and Spain, 163; Spain tries 
diplomacy and it fails, 164, 165; she oilers 
mediation and it is rejected, 165; frivolous 
conduct again and chicanery, 196; the 
Spanish designs on our western rivers 
utterly baffled, 194-201; Spain declares 
war against Great Britain, 246; imbroglio 
of Spain with Russia, 276; Spain repents 
of going to war with England, 441; wishes 
for peace, 442 ; opposed to the independence 
of the United States, and why, 442 ; in- 
tensely hates America as an independent 
power, 538; dreads the effect on her own 
colonies, 539; hopes to recover Gibraltar, 
539; the only obstacle to peace, 574; fails 
in the attempt, 581. 

Spaniards, their right of discovery, i. 30; 
their love of maritime adventure, 31; their 
numerous voyages to North America, 33, 
et seq. ; undertake the conquest of Florida, 
39; their sufferings, 39 6; failure of the 
enterprise, 40, et seq. ; under De Soto 
traverse Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mis- 
sissippi, and Louisiana, 43-59 ; destroy 
the French settlement in Florida, 71; ex- 
tent of the Spanish dominions in America, 

Spanish town of St. Louis, vi. 223. 

Spencer, General, at Providence, ix. 412. 

Spencer, Joseph, general of the Connecticut 
troops near Boston, vii. 325; at Roxbury, 
405; elected brigadier-general, viii. 31; his 
dulness, ix. 118; driven back to White 
Plains, 180. 



Spencer, Oliver, of New Jersey, puts to flight 
a party of \Yaldeckcrs, ix. 251. 

Spencer," Thomas, Lis heroic death, ix. 

Spotswood, governor of Virginia, ii. 453, iii. 
23, 24, 29, 30, 107 ; the best in the series, 
30; endeavors to check French influence 
over the west, 344 
■Stamp act, proposed, v. 88; the measure not 
Mr..(!renville's, 89, note; but Jenkinson's, 
89, note; its authorship discussed, 151, 
152; the responsibility on Grenville, 152; a 
stamp tax for America generally desired in 
England, 179; Richard Jackson advises 
Grenville against the measure, 181 ; Lord 
Hillsborough and the board of trade 
against it, 181; Grenville defers it for a 
year, 183; gives notice of his intention to 
bring it forward, 187 ; tries to procure the 
consent of the colonies, 189, 190 ; alarm in 
the colonies at the prospect, 194, et seq. ; 
Franklin and other Americans in England 
remonstrate, 230, 231 ; the measure intro- 
duced, 233; arguments of Grenville and 
Townshend for it, 236, 239 ; great speech of 
Barns against it, 239-241; speech of Con- 
way, 244 ; and of Yorke, 246 ; the stamp 
act passes, 247 ; stamp officers appointed, 
250; great dissatisfaction with it in the 
colonies, 270-280, 285, et seq. ; no hope of 
its repeal, 305, 306; the policy of employing 
Americans under it fails, 308; denounced 
in Boston, 309; stamp officers compelled to 
resign, 310, et seq. ; the first of November, 
352; the press bold in defying the stamp 
act, 353; in New York the people rise as 
one man against it, 355, 350 ; universal re- 
jection of it in all the colonies, 358, et seq. ; 
debates in Parliament about this act and 
kindred measures, 338 ; arguments against 
repeal, 369; the stamps burned at New 
York, 378 ; the act denounced by Pitt in 
Parliament and its repeal demanded, 391- 
395; repeal of the stamp act, 436; followed 
by great rejoicings in England and in Amer- 
ica. 454, 457 ; its repeal celebrated in Bos- 
ton, vi. 134; the rejoicing represented by 
Bernard as a fearful riot, 134; Grenville 
assumes the responsibility of the act, 353; 
expenses of the office exceeded the income, 

Stamp tax proposed by Sir William Keith, 
iv. 58 ; by William Douglas, 58 ; the pro- 
posal rejected by Sir Robert Walpole, 85; 
proposed also by William Shirley, 223 ; by 
Horatio Sharpe, 167; bv James Delancy, 
180; and by many others, 100, 180. 

Standish, Miles, the military leader of the 
Pilgrims, i. 311, 316; saves the colony by 
his intrepid behavior, 319. 

Stanhope, a British officer, breaks his parole, 
viii. 67. 

Stanhope, Earl (Philip Stanhope), favors 
parliamentary reform, vi. 357, 361; protests 
against the rash proceedings of the minis- 
try in 1774, vii. 178. 

Stanley, Hans, sent to Paris, iv. 396, 398, 
■402; furnishes important information, 404, 

note ; his speech against the colonies, vi. 

Stanwix, Fort, strength of its garrison, ix. 
378 ; besieged by .St. Leger, 378 ; delivered, 
380, 381. 

Stanwix, General, iv. 250, 305. 

Star chamber, its severe measures, i. 409. 

Stark, John, of New Hampshire, a captive 
among the Indians, iv. 93 ; a lieutenant in 
the army of Johnson, 200; his combat with 
a superior French force, 251; in the expe- 
dition against Ticonderoga, 298; his sound 
judgment, 301; leads a regiment to the 
scene of conflict near Boston, vii. 314; sta- 
tioned at Chelsea, 315 ; marches to support 
Prescott at Bunker Hill, 416, 419; his calm 
courage, 419; completes the line of defence 
to the Mystic, 419; bids his men reserve 
their fire, 424; his gallant conduct, 424, 
430; sent with re-enforcements to Canada, 
viii. 422; joins Washington on the Dela- 
ware, ix. 223 ; crosses with him, 230 ; his 
gallant behavior at Trenton, 233 ; to pay 
the troops, he pledges his own fortune, 241; 
in the battle of Princeton, 250 ; is slighted 
by Congress, 335; retires to his farm, 336; 
with a brigade of militia marches to oppose 
Baum, 384; battle of Bennington, 385; 
death of Baum, and surrender of his troops, 
385; Breymann comes up, a new conflict 
ensues, Breymann retreats, 3S5; a brilliant 
victory, 386; obstructs the retreat of Bur- 
goyne, 419; appointed to go on a winter 
expedition to Canada. 462. 

Staten Island, Lord Howe arrives there, ix. 
38; British troops retreat to that place, 
350; Sullivan's raid there, 390. 

Stephen, Adam, his brave words, vii. 250; 
commands a division in Washington's 
army, ix. 396; his "unofficer-like con- 
duct." 397; leads a division at the battle 
of Germantown, 424, 427; court-martial, 
397, note. 

Stephens, William, an eminent shipwright, 
i. 415*. 

Stephenson, Marmaduke, a Quaker, hanged 
at Boston, i. 456. 

Sterling, colonel of a Highland regiment in 
the capture of Fort Washington, ix. 191,193. 

Steuben, Baron Frederic William Augustus, 
a Prussian officer, ix. 469 ; falsely assumes 
high rank, 409 ; elected major-general, 469 ; 
and inspector-general, 469; at Monmouth, 
x. 131, note ; commands the American 
troops in Virginia, 497; joins Lalayette, 
499 ; his further operations, 504, 505. 

Stevens, commands a regiment of Virginians 
at Brandywine. ix. 398; joins Gates near 
Camden, x. 319; his brigade of militia 
driven from the field, 322. 

Stevens, Samuel, governor of Carolina, ii. 
151; dies, 156. 

Stewart, colonel of a Pennsylvanian regiment 
at Brandywine, ix. 398; commands a regi- 
ment at Monmouth, x. 131. 

Stewart, Lieutenant-Colonel (British), of the 
Guards, killed at Guilford Court-house, x. 



Stirling. Earl of (William Alexander), enters 
the army as colonel of the battalion of New 
Jersey, viii. 72; places Governor Franklin 
under arrest, 245; brigadier in the battle 
of Long Island, ix. 88, 8J ; his heroic con- 
duct, 92, 93; is compelled to surrender, 
94; is exchanged, 187; with Washington 
at the Highlands, 187; commands a de- 
tachment at Princeton, 201 ; with Washing- 
ton at the crossing of the Delaware, 230; a 
Hessian regiment surrender to him at 
Trenton, ix. 234; is worsted in the en- 
gagement near Scotch Plains, 356 ; com- 
mands a division, as major-general, on the 
Brandy wine, 396, 397; at Germantown, 
424; averse to an attack on the British 
force, x. 128; his firm stand at Monmouth, 

Stockbridge Indians, their friendship courted 
by Congress, vii. 280; in the army near 
Boston, viii. 43, 44. 

Stone, deputy of Lord Baltimore, in Mary- 
land, is displaced, i. 259; resumes his 
authority, 260 ; is defeated, and narrowly 
escapes death, 262. 

Stone, Samuel, of Hartford, i. 399; chaplain 
in the Pequod war, 399. 

Stone, Thomas, delegate in Congress from 
Maryland, ix. 56. 

Stonv Point, abandoned by the Americans, 
x."226; retaken by Wayne, 228. 

Stormont, Viscount (D. W. Murray), his in- 
terview with the king of France, viii. 163; 
and with Vergennes, 164; protests against 
aid furnished by France to America, ix. 
286 ; reply of Vergennes, 286 ; his remon- 
strances have little effect, 287 ; his violent 
language, 297 ; his arrogant reply to Frank- 
lin and Deane, 313; his character, x. 423; 
his arrogant language towards the Dutch, 
426, 430, 431, 435, 438. 

Stoughton, William, agent in England for 
Massachusetts, ii. 112; returns without 
success, 122 ; one of the judges at the trials 
for witchcraft, iii. 75, 88; lieutenant-gover- 
nor of Massachusetts, 83, 97. 

Stratford, Earl of, his advice to Charles I., 
ii. 3; his attainder and execution, 5. 

Strickland Plain, battle of, between the Dutch 
and Indians, ii. 293, note. 

Stuart, Charles Edward, the young Pre- 
tender, iii. 451 ; invades England, 451. 

Stuart, Henry, a British agent, retires from 
Charleston^) St. Augustine, viii. 87 ; obeys 
the order of Gage to employ Indians against 
Carolina, 83 ; inflames the savages against 
the Americans, ix. 160, 161. 

Stuart, James, a prisoner among the Chero- 
kee Indians, iv. 355, 356. 
Stuart, .John, British agent to negotiate with 
the Southern Indians, vi. 225; meets the 
chiefs in council, 226; his treaty with the 
Cherokecs, 227. 
Stuart, John, Earl of Bute (see Bute). 
Stuart iamil}', its vices and misfortunes, iii. 
1 ; benefits arising therefrom to the English 
colonies, 2. 
Stuarts, their colonial policy, i. 187, 194, 212, 

219, 409; their restoration, ii. 1, 30; their 
spirit of revenge, 32, 34 ; their crimes, 410 ; 
their despotic sway, 438; their overthrow, 
444; their misfortunes, iii. 1; their monu- 
ments in the New World, 1. 

Strachey, Henry, sent to Paris to assist Os- 
wald in the negotiation for peace, x. 583; 
his instructions, 583; takes part in the 
negotiation, 584, 586. 

Stuyvesant, Peter, governor of New Nether- 
land, ii. 293; negotiates with Connecticut, 
295; leads an expedition to the conquest 
of New Sweden, 297 ; rebuked for mal- 
administration, 300; refuses the demands 
of the people, 307 ; his visit to Boston, 310; 
surrenders New Netherland to an English 
squadron, 314. 

Subserviency of an English politician, ix. 75. 

Suffolk County, in Massachusetts, a conven- 
tion of its towns assembles at Stoughton, 
vii. 109; reassembles at Dedham in Sep- 
tember, 1774, 122; its brave resolutions, 
123 ; these resolutions approved by Con- 
gress, 134. 

Suffolk, Earl of (Howard), becomes secretary 
of state for the colonies, vi. 389; is deter- 
mined to reduce the Americans to obedi- 
ence, vii. 202; writes for Russian troops to 
be employed in America, viii. 149, 150; his 
instructions to Faucitt, 255 ; urges expedi- 
tion, 265, ix. 314; justifies the employment 
of Indians, 365. 

Suffrage, universal, in Virginia, i. 231, ii. 
188; the practice ceases, 195. 

Sullivan, John, of New Hampshire, a mem- 
ber of the continental congress, vii. 184 ; 
with a party dismantles the fort at Porte- 
mouth, 184 ; elected brigadier-general, viii. 
31; his character, 31; sent to fortify Ports- 
mouth, 113; sent with re-enforcements to 
Canada, 422 ; the command of the northern 
army devolves on him, 429; his vanity, 
429; he retreats from Sorel, 431; halts at 
Isle aux Noix, 432 ; arrives at Crown 
Point, 433; is superseded by Gates, 432; 
commands on Long Island, ix. 83 ; is super- 
seded by Putnam, 85; is taken prisoner, 
92; is exchanged for Prescott, 108; pro- 
poses to Lord Howe to visit Philadelphia 
as a go-between, 108; his reception in Con- 
gress, 110; John Adams's contempt for 
him, 110; mistakes the offers of Lord 
Howe, 111 ; Lord Howe disavows the mes- 
sage brought by Sullivan, 117; Sullivan 
brings to Washington Lee's division, 223; 
is with him in crossing the Delaware, 230; 
leads part of the force, 232, 233 ; his dis- 
respect to Washington, 337; stationed at 
Princeton, 351; avoids an attack, 352; his 
ill-conducted expedition to Staten Island, 
390; his delav in joining Washington, 
390, 393; disobeys the orders of Washing- 
ton, 396; his blunder, 397; the conse- 
quences, 397, 398 ; commands a division 
at the battle of Germantown, 424; joins in 
the intrigues of the Conway cabal, 456; 
his absurd advice, 460; commands on 
lthode Island, x. 147 ; his indiscretion aud 



inefficiency, 148 ; censures D'Estaing, and 
recalls the censure, 148; withdraws to the 
mainland, 149; disappointment of the 
people, 149; his invasion of the Indian 
country, 230 ; his slow and careless march, 

Sumner, General, of North Carolina, at battle 

of Eutaw, x. 493. 
' Sumpter, Thomas, Colonel, of South Carolina, 
leader of a patriot force, x. 312 ; his meth- 
ods to obtain arms, 313 ; surprises and 
destroys a British force, 313; a further 
sir cess, 314 ; Andrew Jackson is with him, 
314; captures a convoy, 320; his careless- 
ness, 324; his great loss in consequence, 
323 ; greatly harasses the British, 330; in- 
tercepts British supplies, 343 ; defeats Tarle- 
ton, 343; is wounded, 343; g-eneral, 485; 
takes Orangeburgh, 489. 

Sunbury, in Georgia, its surrender demanded, 
x. 284 ; occupied by the British, 286. 

Superior, Lake, first' known by white men, 
iii. 131 ; missionaries sent thither, 131 ; 
first visited by traders, 14G ; a mission 
begun on its shores, 150. 

Supremacy of Parliament, what it meant in 
1G88, x". 37; in its exaggerated form an 
instrument of despotism^ 38 ; and subver- 
sive of individual right, 38. 

Surrender of Charleston, x. 305; surrender 
of Cornwallis, 522 ; the news reaches Con- 
gress, 523 ; it reaches France, 524 ; _ and 
England, 524 ; how the news was received, 
524 ; Fox rejoices at it, 524. 

Susquehanna tribe at war with Maryland, 
ii. 215. 

Sweden takes part in American colonization, 
ii. 284; a company formed for this purpose, 
284 ; a colony settles on the Delaware, 286 ; 
the colony extends to the neighborhood of 
Philadelphia, 287 ; the colony subdued by 
the Dutch from New Netherland, 297 ; 
favors the American oause, and stands for 
the liberty of the seas, x. 55, 264 ; is a part}' 
to the armed neutrality, 274, 281, 429. 

Swiss, in North Carolina, iii. 24 ; on the Sa- 
vannah, 417 ; mercenary troops, viii. 254. 

Switzerland, the forerunner and friend of 
American liberty, x. 57. 

Sydney, Algernon, ii. 349, 366; his execu- 
tion," 439. 

Svnod of 1637 in Massachusetts, i. 390 ; of 
"1648, 443; the "Reforming Synod" of 
1079, ii. 121; desired, iii. 391; refused, 

Talbot, Silas, has command of a fire-brig, ix. 

Talon, intendant of New France, iii. 153; his 

great designs, 154 ; promotes the discovery 

of the Mississippi, 156. 
Tar and feathers used in Boston, vi. 313, 493 ; 

applied by British officers on an inoffensive 

citizen, vii. 256. 
Tarleton, Bannastre, Colonel, partisan British 

officer, x. 306 ; destroys the detachment of 
Colonel Buf'ord, 307; receives high praise 
for this massacre, 307 ; commits great 
ravages, 319; puts Sumpter to flight, 325; 
his cruel advice, 327 ; his merciless con- 
duct, 342 ; attacks Sumpter, but is totally 
defeated, 343 ; is sent to attack Morgan, 
461 ; attacks him at the Cowpens, 463 ; but 
suffers a thorough defeat, 464 ; his remark- 
able activity in Virginia, 504, 505; spares 
Jefferson's property, 505; his great rav- 
ages, 508 ; barely escapes capture, 518. 
Taxation and representation not to be sepa- 
rated, iii. 10, viii. 128; taxation of the colo- 
nies recommended, 383; Sir Robert Walpole 
averse to it, 383 ; taxation first resorted to, 
385 ; of the colonies proposed, iv. 32, 33 ; by 
Clinton and Shirley, 32; bv Lord Mans- 
field, 32 ; bv Shirley, 52, 172". 178, 222 ; by 
Colden, 54,"57 ; by "Keith, 58; by Douglas, 
58; bv Clinton, 62; bv many others, 100, 
115, 167; bv the board of trade, 100; 
taxation determined on, 101, 171, 180, 223, 
230 ; advised bv the roval governors, 177, 
178, 380; bv tiraddock, 178; bv men in 
office generally, 178; bv Gage, "221, 222; 
by Dinwiddie,"l67, 178, 222; the board of 
trade mature the system, 379 (see Poll 
tax, Stamp tax) ; not to be effected by the 
royal prerogative, v. 80 ; but by Parliament, 
80"; the first proposal of the measure in 
that body, 88; the colonies will not yield 
to the king's requisitions for a revenue, 
153 ; therefore Parliament must impose the 
tax, 154; the supposed necessity of it, 152, 
et seq. ; the right to do it not controverted 
in Parliament, 187 ; the system openly in- 
augurated, 187, 188; alarm in the colonies, 
194, et seq. ; Adams, Otis, Thacher, Living- 
ston, 196-200; Hutchinson opposes the 
measure, 206-209; Franklin and other 
Americans in England remonstrate, 230, 
231; speeches for and against it, 236, et 
seq. ; great speech of Barre, 240 ; petitions 
against the measure not heard, 244, 246;' 
the stamp tax passes, 247 ; receives the 
royal assent, 247, 248; legitimate results 
of "such an act, 269 ; general dissatisfaction 
in the colonies, 270-280, 285, el seq. (see 
Sta/np Act); Pitt in Parliament denies its 
competency to tax America, 383-387, 391— 
395 ; taxation and representation go to- 
gether, 344, 348, 385, 387, 403, 443, 447; 
inconsistent with civil liberty, vi. 5 ; the 
plan due to the advice of Bernard, 41 ; no 
distinction between internal and external 
taxation, 48, 74 ; Charles Townshend deter- 
mined on taxing America, 48, 58, 76, 84; 
his revenue bills pass, 84; the Americans 
denv the right of Parliament to tax them, 
41, 51, 121, 123, 126, 145, 146, 149, 151, 
166, 193, 205, 234, 247, 280, 353 ; they re- 
sist, but in a passive form, 98, 103, 129, 
132, 150, 153, 204, 272, 308, 311 ; the rev- 
enue acts repealed, except the duty on tea, 
276, 351 ; why was this duty retained ? 
277,278; this "partial repeal declared un- 
satisfactory, 290, 312, 318 ; American taxa- 



tion the wish of the king, and he was chiefly 
responsible for it, 353 ; the taxation of 
America a losing concern, 434 ; the right 
to tax the colonies denied, 470. 

Taxation inseparable from representation, 
viii. 128. 

"Taxation no Tyranny," an abusive pam- 
phlet written by Johnson in behalf of the 
ministry, vii. 258-2G0. 

Taxes, exclusive right of the colonial legis- 
latures to levy them, iv. 19 ; heavy self- 
imposed taxes in Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut, 292, 293. 

Taxing America, plans for, iv. 100, 11G, 340, 
370, 379, 414, 439, 440, 454 ; the right to 
do this denied, 447. 

Taylor, Jeremy, compared with Roger Wil- 
liams, i. 376 ; his opinion of Anabaptists, 

Tea, a duty laid on it by Parliament, vi. 84 ; 
produces only a paltry sum, 274, 270 ; yet 
the ministry refuse to have it repealed, 277; 
this reserve was to please the king, 277 ; a 
consignment of tea sent back from Boston, 
311 ; advance in the price, 329 ; the women 
renounce the use of it, 333 ; Lord Chatham 
recommends the repeal of the duty, 351 ; 
Thomas Pownall recommends it, 353 ; Par- 
liament refuse, 353 ; the repeal again urged 
and refused, 360; again urged and refused, 
519-523; trade between America and Eng- 
land is open in every thing but tea, 366 ; 
shipped to America by the East India Com- 
pany, 470 ; resolutions of Philadelphia 
against it, 470; the tea consignees give up 
their office, 471 ; the Boston tea party, 472- 
487; the tea thrown overboard, 486, 487; 
the tea ship sent back from New York, 
525 ; thrown overboard at Boston, not to 
be paid for, vii. 3G, 62, 63, 83 ; Lord North 
offers to repeal the duty, 225 ; this duty 
the original cause of the dispute, 226 ; tax 
on, levied by Townshend, and supported 
by Lord North, viii. 126 ; shipped to 
America by the East India Companv, 

Telfair, Edward, and others, in Savannah, 
obtain possession of the king's magazine, 
vii. 337. 

Temple, Earl (see Grenville, Earl Temple). 

Temple, Earl (Richard Grenville), brother of 
George Grenville, and brother-in-law of 
Pitt, v. 141, 146, 247, 257, 258, might have 
been first lord of the treasury, 262 ; refuses 
the office, 262; interview with Pitt, 297; 
be justilies the stamp act, 297 ; and again 
refuses office, 297; advocates taxation in 
America, 402, 403 ; he and other peers 
protest against the repeal of the stamp act, 
453; is invited by Pitt to take office under 
him, but refuses, vi. 20. 

Temple, John, one of the commissioners of 
'customs, vi. 154, note, 157; Bernard and 
Hutchinson wish him removed from office, 
249; his letters quoted, 249; in England, 
409 ; discovers that all the oppressive 
measures of England were prompted by 
some of the Americans, 435 ; denies the 

charge of purloining those letters, 491 ; his 
duel with William Whately, 492. 

Temporary expedients to carry on the war, 
x. 401, 405, et seq. 

Ten Broeck, Abraham, his motion in the New 
York assembly, vii. 210. 

Ten Broeck, General, in the battle of Bemis's 
Heights, ix. 416. 

Tennent, Rev. William, viii. 87. 

Tennessee settled, iv. 243 ; the whole region 
left to be inhabited by wild beasts, v. 166; 
origin of, vi. 377, el seq. ; trappers and 
emigrants, 380; its settlement begun, 381; 
the republic on the Watauga, 398^ 399, 401 
(see Regulator's); Eastern, faithful to the 
patriot cause, ix. 160, 164 ; their struggle 
against the Indians, 161 ; name their dis- 
trict Washington, 164. 

Ternay, Admiral De, arrives at Newport with 
a French squadron, x. 376. 

Texas claimed as part of Louisiana, iii. 171, 

Thacher, Oxenbridge, iv. 379, 415. 

Thacher, Oxenbridge, of Boston, his senti- 
ments in regard to the taxation of the col- 
onies, v. 200, 269 ; his patriotic words from 
his deathbed, 285. 

Thanksgiving Day, manifestations of popular 
feeling on it, vi. 408. 

Thayer, Colonel Ebenezer, of Braintree, vii. 
109 ; commands a Rhode Island company 
in the expedition against Quebec, viii. 191. 

Thaver, Major Simeon, commands at Fort 
Mifflin, below Philadelphia, ix. 433; his 
able defence, 434 ; " an officer of the highest 
merit," 435; evacuates the fort, 435. 

Theocracy in Massachusetts, i. 362*; justi- 
fied by impending dangers, 363. 

Theories of government must give place to 
analysis, viii. 118. 

Thirteen Colonies, the Old, iv. 127, et seq. ; 
population in 1754, white, 128; black, 129, 
130 ; social and political condition of each, 
130, et seq. 

Thirty years' war drove multitudes to Amer- 
ica, x. 83. 

Thomas, John, of Kingston, commands the 
American forces at Roxbury, vii. 321 ; 
elected brigadier-general, viii. 31; com- 
mands the right wing of the American 
army around Boston, 43 ; commands the 
working party on Dorchester Heights, 
294; raised to the rank of major-general, 
423 ; takes command of the northern army, 
424; finds the army weak and in bad con- 
dition, 424; is compelled to order a retreat, 
425 ; dies at Sorcl of small-pox, 429. 

Thompson, William, colonel of a Pennsyl- 
vania regiment in 1775, viii. 64; sent as 
brigadier with re-enforcements to Canada, 
421 ; makes an unsuccessful attempt on 
Three Rivers, and is taken prisoner, 429, 

Thomson, Charles, of Philadelphia, vii. 43, 
44 ; secretary of Congress, 127 ; a burgess 
of Philadelphia, 141. 

Thomson, Colonel William, of Orangeburg, 
in South Carolina, a man of rare worth, 



viii. 402: assists in the defence of Charles- 
ton, 402. 405. 

Thome, Robert, proposes a north-east passage 
to India, i. 76. 

Three Rivers, in Canada, unsuccessful attack 
on liv the Americans, viii. 429. 

ThurloV, Edward, afterwards Lord Thurlow, 
solicitor-general, his bad character, vi. 358 ; 
his hatred of America, 358; his opinion 
touching the burning of the " Gaspee," 
441; he finds treason in the conduct of 
some Americans, 523; his legal opinion in 
favor of despotism, vii. 58; his memory 
dear to Canadian Catholics, 158 ; he is for 
pursuing vigorous measures towards the 
colonies, 223; thinks the provincial con- 
gress of Massachusetts guilty of treason, 
284 ; his unrelenting proceedings against 
Home Tooke, 344 ; denounces a bill to ter- 
minate the slave-trade, x. 347 ; a colleague 
of Lord North, 530; a defender of the con- 
servative party, 531; Lord Chancellor dur- 
ing the Rockingham ministry, 534; bears 
Shelburne malice, 534. 

Thury, Jesuit missionary to Penobscot In- 
dians, iii. 181 ; stimulates them to atrocious 
acts, 187. 

Ticonderoga, Fort Carillon built there by the 
French, iv. 212, 238, 251, 200; a large army 
led against it by Abercrombie, 299; the 
place described, 299; valor of Montcalm, 
300, et seq. ; incapacity and cowardice of 
Abercrombie, 302, 303 ; great carnage, 303; 
shameful retreat, 304; Fort Carillon aban- 
doned by the French, 323 ; plan for seizing 
it, vii. 271 a, 280, 338 ; the enterprise under- 
taken, 339 ; and crowned with complete 
success, 340 ; condition of the army at that 
post, viii. 52 ; preparations made there for 
the invasion of Canada, 177 ; cannon 
brought from Ticonderoga to Cambridge, 
217 ; distress of its garrison, ix. 157, 158 ; 
supposed to be nearly impregnable, 342; 
Saint Clair takes command of that post, 
361 ; finds the fort untenable, 361 ; hastily 
evacuates it, 366 ; the fort occupied by the 
army of Burgoyne, 367 ; ample stores 
found there, 367; general alarm from its 
loss, 373, 374. 

Tilghman, in the action near Manhattanville, 
ix. 127. 

Tillotson, Archbishop, a friend to Massachu- 
setts, iii. 79. 

Tobacco, first cultivated in Virginia, i. 151 ; 
used as currency, 151, 229 ; given in ex- 
change for wives, 157 ; taxes paid in it, 
189 ; Virginia supplies with it the British 
market, 194; the king demands a monopoly 
of it, 196 ; debts paid in it, 202 ; restric- 
tions on its culture and sale, 219; tobacco 
the circulating medium, iii. 28. 
Toleration first asserted by Roger Williams, 
i. 376 ; a zeal for, made a pretence for 
undermining liberty, 437, 438 ; of religious 
opinion and inquiry, how far allowed by 
the revolution of 1688, iii. 5. 
Tonti, Henri, de, lieutenant to La Salle, iii. 
163 ; with him penetrates the Illinois coun- 

try, 165 ; driven thence by the Iroquois, 
167 ; rejoins La Salle, 167"; descends the 
Mississippi in search of him, 174 ; again 
descends that river, 195, 203. 
Tonyn, governor of East Florida, is impatient 
for an attack on Georgia, viii. 400; will 
raise the Indians to attack South Carolina, 
Tooke, John Home, persecuted by the Eng- 
lish government, vii. 344. 
Tories of Massachusetts, their address to 
Hutchinson, vii. 46, 47 ; Daniel Leonard, 
62; Tories of Boston endeavor to persuade 
the citizens to pay for the tea thrown over- 
board, and to paralyze the spirit of the 
country, 63, 68 ; they are disposed to ab- 
solute submission, 68; at a town meeting 
they exert their utmost strength, but are 
utterly defeated, 69 ; Tories abound in 
New York, 208-210 ; some Tories in Massa- 
chusetts, 230 ; Daniel Leonard, of Taunton, 
231 ; his utterances, 231 ; on Long Island 
disarmed, viii. 276; their inhumanity, x. 
300, 310, 328, 332, 458. 
Torrington, Viscount, votes against taxing 

America, v. 413. 
Tory partv of England, the new, founded by 
the Rockingham Whigs, v. 418 ; its plat- 
form, 418, 419 ; takes possession of the 
cabinet, vi. 327. 
Towns and cities of England", life in the, v. 

Townshend, Charles, a member of the board 
of trade, iv. 54, 62, 92 ; bent on sustaining 
extended limits in America, 100 ; defends 
the application of severe measures to the 
colonies, 171 ; retires from office, 220 ; dis- 
agrees with Pitt, 248 ; his connection with 
the heir-apparent, 248; secretary of war to 
George III., 391 ; resigns this office, 453 ; 
his able speech in favor of the treaty of 
Paris, 453 ; first lord of trade, v. 79 ; power 
assumed by him, 79 ; his colleagues in 
council, 80 ; his purpose and policy for the 
colonies, 81; rules the House of Commons, 
82; his plan of a standing army for the 
colonies, 83, 86, 88; his scheme for taxing 
America, 87; retires from the cabinet, 94; 
declines office under the triumvirate min- 
is'try, 103 ; favors taxing the colonies, 155, 
230"; is proposed for secretary of state, 256 ; 
is again proposed for that office, 303 ; pro- 
poses to deprive America of its charters, 
vi. 9; condemns "the madness and dis- 
tractions" of America, 10; becomes chan- 
cellor of the exchequer, 20, 21 ; courts the 
favor of Grenville and Bedford, 45 ; his 
headstrong conduct and arbitrary spirit, 
45 ; his political schemes, 46, 47 ; sets his 
colleagues at defiance, and usurps the lead 
in government, 47, et seq. ; undertakes to 
raise a revenue from America, 48 ; brow- 
beats the ministry, 49 ; is thrice denounced 
by Chatham as ""incurable," 57; his over- 
bearing conduct towards America, 43, 58, 
63; triumphs over Lord Chatham, 00, 61; 
his character and great abilities, 62; his 
supremacy in the administration, 63, et 



seq. ; his overweening self-confidence, 74 ; 
his American policy, 74 ; his answer to 
Trecothick, 74 ; his speech in Parliament 
on American affairs, 75 ; he inveighs against 
Massachusetts and other colonies, 75 ; holds 
the right of taxation as indubitable, 76 ; 
proposes port duties on wine, oil, fruits, 
glass, paper, colors, and especially on tea, 
76, 77; carries a bill for disfranchising 
New York, 76, 81 ; his sudden illness and 
death, 98; his character, 98, 99; "famed 
alike for incomparable talents and extreme 
instability," 98 ; always feared, never 
trusted, 98 ; his fatal bequest to his coun- 
trv, 101 ; plan of, viii. 123 ; his colonial 
system, 125, 126. 

Townshend, George, iv. 170 ; commands a 
brigade in Wolfe's army, 324; receives the 
capitulation of Quebec, of which he claims 
the credit, 339 ; visits Boston, 339 ; returns 
tp England, 340. 

Townshend, Thomas, home secretary in the 
Shelburne administration, x. 552; his sei>- 
timents regarding the peace, 587. 

Trade and plantations, board of commission- 
ers for regulation of, iv. 17 ; their want of 
power, 17, 18 (see Board of Trade); acts 
of trade resisted at Boston, 414, et seq. ; 
evasions of these acts habitually permitted, 

Trade, American, new regulations of Mr. 
Grenville, v. 183, 184; illicit, 157, 158; 
with Great Britain suspended, vi. 272 ; 
illicit trade of the Americans, 72 (see Non- 

Transportation of white servants, i. 177. 

Transylvania, part of Kentucky, its settle- 
ment, vii. 306; its civil constitution and 
laws, 368, 369 ; perfect religious freedom, 
369 (see Kentucky) ; its inhabitants concur 
with the people of the United Colonies, 
viii. 376. 

Treason, accusations of, against the leading 
patriots of Boston, vi. 251, 252, 257. 

Treat, Robert, governor of Connecticut, de- 
clines to surrender the charter, ii. 430 ; 
resumes his functions as governor, iii. 66. 

Treaties with foreign powers, committee of 
Congress for the preparation of, viii. 393. 

Treaty of peace, terms proposed by Lord 
Shelburne, x. 541 ; terms insisted on by 
Franklin, 555 ; preliminary negotiations, 
574, et seq. ; the treaty signed, 591 ; char- 
acter of the treaty, 591 ; advantages to 
England derived from it, 591 ; reflections 
on the event, 592. 

Trecothick, alderman, a merchant of London, 
v. 364 ; examined before the House of 
Commons, 424, 427. 

Trecothick, Barlow, member of Parliament, 
waits upon Townshend, and is repulsed, 
vi. 74; continues his efforts in behalf of 
America, 239, 273 ; moves for the repeal of 
the duty on tea, 360 ; again advises the 
remission of that duty, 458. 

Trenton, battle of, Colonel Rail has com- 
mand there, with a Hessian brigade, ix. 
216 ; Washington determines to attack the 

enemy, 218 ; his numbers, 223, note ; his 
watchword, 224 ; his preparations, 223, 
224; fancied security of the enemy, 217, 
225 ; the American cause regarded by 
many as hopeless, 226, 227; Washington 
crosses the Delaware, 230, 231 ; state of 
the weather, 231; sufferings of the troops, 
232 ; names of the officers, 230 ; the Ameri- 
cans enter Trenton, and iind the enemy 
unprepared, 232, 233 ; after a short conflict, 
Rail is killed, and nearly one thousand Hes- 
sians are prisoners, 234 ; effect of the vic- 
tory, 235. 

Triumvirate ministry, — Grenville, Egremont, 
and Halifax, v. 96 ; their difficulties, 103, 
104; laughed at, 104; their resolution to 
tax America, 107, 109 ; their weakness, 139. 

Triumvirate of Presbyterian lawyers in Mew 
York, vi. 141. 

Trumbull, Colonel Joseph, son of Governor 
Trumbull, commissary-general of the Am- 
erican army, ix. 102, 107. 

Trumbull, Jonathan, lieutenant-governor of 
Connecticut, his upright character, vi. 83; 
foresees a separation of the colonies from 
the mother country, 84, 103; governor, 
his patriotic letter, 331 ; convenes the legis- 
lature after the combat at Concord, vii. 315, 
vni. 41; his message to Washington, 41; 
wishes to keep back a portion of the new 
levies for the defence of the colony, 69 ; 
apologizes to Washington for the desertion 
of Connecticut soldiers, 219. ix. 57; sends 
troops to Washington, 79; exhorts them to 
be brave, 79 ; his opinion of the offer of 
Lord Howe to grant pardons, 117, 118; his 
firm patriotism in the darkest hour of the 
revolution, 200; his patriotism, x. 503. 

Tryon, royal governor of North Carolina, a 
savage at heart, vi. 68, 85; marches a body 
of troops into the Cherokee country, 86; 
his interview with the Cherokee chiefs, 
86; his violent spirit, 189, 190; favors op- 
pressors, 190, 382 ; assembles an armed 
force, 190; his gross injustice, 383; con- 
sidered at the colonial office the ablest of 
the royal governors, 384; is intimidated, 
391; marches against the "Regulators," 
394; his un justifiable demands, 395; battle 
of the Alamance, 395; execution of prison- 
ers on his bare order, 396, 397; is gratified 
at the spectacle, 397; leaves the province 
and becomes governor of New York, 397 ; 
his conduct severely denounced by his suc- 
cessor, Josiah Martin, 400, note. 

Tryon, William, royal governor of New York, 
his information touching the colonies, vii. 
71 ; professes a desire to assist the patriots, 
209 ; his reception at New York, viii. 33 ; 
his disappointment, 33; endeavors to de- 
tach that colony from the Union, 215; his 
conspiracy against Washington, 441; on 
Staten Island, ix. 82 ; his letter approving 
the employment of Indians, 326; his ex- 
pedition to Danbury, 346 ; burns the 
village, 347; makes a hasty retreat, 347. 

Tryon County (see Mohawk Valley, and 



Tubby-hook, ix. 166, 185, 189. 

Tucker, .lohn, minister in Newbury, Mass., 
a sermon of his read by Lord Chatham, vi. 

Tucker, Josiah, dean of Gloucester, his book 
advocating free-trade and the indepen- 
dence of America, vi. 514, 515; a writer 
on political economy, thinks Great Britain 
would luse nothing by the independence 
of America, viii. 175; advises England to 
let America be independent, ix. 74. 

Tucker, Samuel, of New Jersey, submits to 
the king. ix. 199. 

Tupper, Major Benjamin, his attack on the 
British guard at Boston light-house, viii. 

Turgot, Robert James, Abbe, his prediction, 
in 1750, of the future greatness of America, 
iv. 65 ; his excellent character, v. 27 ; the 
friend of liberty and of human nature, 27 ; 
condemns the tyranny of the British gov 
eminent, vi. 1G8, 16!); foresees the inde- 
pendence of America, 370, 371 ; minister 
of finance, vii. 90 ; his high character, 
90, 91; he plans reform, and in it has 
the countenance of the king, 92; his con- 
servatism, 92; his plans of reform, viii. 
335; the king of France requires his writ- 
ten opinion on American affairs, 335; he 
foretells the independence of the English 
colonies, 336; and a total change in the 
relations of Europe and America, 336; Am- 
erican independence will break up the 
colonial system and introduce liberty of 
trade, 337 ; France and Spain will cease to 
have dependent colunies, 337; the inde- 
pendence of all colonies is best for the 
mother country, 338 ; the Americans not 
to be aided with money, 339 ; neither 
France nor Spain is ready for war, 339, 
340; peace is the policy for both, 340; 
Turgot the friend of both king and people, 
341; intrigues of his enemies, 341; his 
advice is not followed, 342; Maurepas mis- 
represents hiin to the king, 341, 363; he is 
dismissed, 363; in him the F'rench mon- 
archy lost its firmest support, 363. 

Turner, Captain William, his successful at- 
tack oil the Indians at Turner's F'alls, ii. 

Tuscarora tribe, iii. 245; make war upon the 
people of North Carolina, 320 ; their crueltv, 
320, 321; defeated, 321; abandon their 
homes and join the confederacy of the Iro- 
quois, 322; their alliance sought, iv. 345, 

Twelve united colonies of America, vii. 391. 

Twiller, Wouter Van (see Van Twiller). 

" Two-penny Act" in Virginia, v. 172. 

Tyler, Royal, one of the governor's council, 
vi. 345. 


lichees, Indian tribe, iii. 247, 248; estimated 
population, 253 ; war with the colonv, 326, 

Ultimatum, American, in the negotiation at 
Paris, x. 555. 

Unbelief, foolish pride of, viii. 365. 

Uncas, the Mohegan chief, i. 399, 423 ; puts 
Miantonomoh to death, 424. 

Underbill, John, captain in the Pequod war, 
i. 399 ; commander of Dutch troops in an 
Indian war, ii. 292. 

Union, tendency towards, iv. 74, 75 ; proposal 
from New York, 75; plan of union pro- 
posed by Franklin at Albany, 122, 123; 
plan proposed by Halifax, 165, 166; plan 
proposed by Shirley, 172 ; of the colonies 
proposed by Otis of Massachusetts, v. 
279 ; the proposal received with hesita- 
tion, 292, 293 ; South Carolina decides 
for it, 294 ; proposed as the means of 
security, vi. 6, 12 ; union of all parts 
of the British empire under an equal 
and uniform direction, proposed by Otis, 
118; of the colonies proposed, 308, 310; 
strongly desired in Boston, 196, 363; in- 
cipient measures taken, 454, 455; with 
England desired by leading men in New 
York, 208. 209, 211; the people are for 
union with the other colonies, 216. 

Union, town of, in Connecticut, compel a 
mandamus councillor of Massachusetts to 
resign his commission, vii. 105. 

United colonies (see Colonies, and America). 

United colonies of New England, i. 420. 

United provinces (see Holland). 

United States, their prosperous condition, 
i. 1 ; compared with the nations of Europe, 
1 ; their declaration of independence, viii. 
462, el seq. (see America, and Declaration 
of Independence). 

Unity of the human race, iv. 5, 6 ; progress 
everywhere, 7, 8; Calvinism teaches this, 
154; of the material universe, viii. 117; 
and of the intelligent universe, 117. 

Universal suffrage in Virginia, i. 231 ; abol- 
ished, ii. 207. 

Unskilful conduct of the Massachusetts ex- 
pedition to the Penobscot, x 233. 

Ursuline convent at Quebec, iii. 27. 

Usher, John, lieutenant-governor of New 
Hampshire, iii. 82. 

Utrecht, peace of, iii. 226 (see Peace of 
Utrecht); favorable to liberty, v. 85; it3 
provisions touching the fisheries, 211; it 
recognized the rights of neutral flags, 256. 

Van Cortlandt, in the New York convention, 

ix. 33. 
Van Rensselaer, Kiliaen, obtains a grant of 

land near Albanv, ii. 281 *; extent of this 

grant, 281*. 
Van Twiller, Wouter, governor of New 

Netherland, ii. 282 *. 
Van Wart. Isaac, assists in the capture of 

Andre, 387; his reward, 395. 
Vane. Henry, arrives in Boston, i. 383; his 

character, 383 ; governor of Massachusetts, 

384; an unwise choice, 384; sustains Ann 



Hutchinson, 388; returns to England, 390; 
aids in procuring a charter tor Rhode 
Island, 425, 427 ; a friend of Massachusetts, 
443 ; leader of the moderate Independents, 
ii. 11; his pure and upright character, 30, 
37; his trial and execution, 38, 40. 

Varney, Lord, his venality, vii. 175. 

Varnum, brigadier from Rhode Island, pro- 
poses to enlist emancipated slaves, ix. 408. 

Vasquez de Ayllon, Lucas, sends ships to 
South Carolina for slaves, i. 36; his un- 
successful attempt to conquer it, 37. 

Vassal, William, a "busy and factious 
spirit," i. 438; endeavors the overthrow of 
the charter, 438. 

Vaudreuil, Marquis de, governor of Canada, 
iii. 211, 21G, 218, 222, 333, iv. 184; despairs 
of the safety of Fort Duquesne, 18G; takes 
measures for the succor of Crown Point, 
20!J ; holds a congress of Indians at Mon- 
treal, 259, 209 ; at Quebec, 334, 337 ; sur- 
renders Montreal, 360. 

Vaughan, Colonel William, takes one of the 
batteries of Louisburg, iii. 400; general, 
takes Fort Clinton, ix. 413; burns Kings- 
ton, 414. 

Venango, destroyed by Indians, v. 123. 

Vergennes, Count de, predicts the indepen- 
dence of British America, iv. 401; minis- 
ter of foreign affairs of Louis XVI., 
his character and previous history, vii. 
80, 90; his views of the controversy be- 
tween Great Britain and her colonies, 
190, 261, 264; his sagacity, 284; his opin- 
ions touching the struggle and its probable 
consequences, 351, 352; his opinion of the 
answer of Virginia to Lord North's pro- 
posals, 388; his opinion of the probable 
result of Bunker Hill battle, viii. 100; pro- 
poses to send an emissary to America. 103; 
his message to the Americans, 103 ; is 
amazed at the folly of the British ministers, 
104; sees that the king of England has no 
retreat, 134; his wariness, 146; finds it 
difficult to believe that the British minis- 
ters are seeking to obtain foreign troops, 
147 ; foresees American independence and 
its consequences, 164; his policy with re- 
gard to the American struggle, 329, 330; 
considerations submitted by him to the 
king, 331; the issue involves grave con- 
sequences to France and Spain, 331; dan- 
ger of war with England, 332 ; that 
power may make peace with her colonies, 
and then attack France, 332; to guard 
against this, aid should be extended to the 
Americans, 333; but secretly, 334; France 
should be prepared for war, 335; his ad- 
vice to the king in council, ix. 61,62; 
admits Silas Deane to an interview and 
promises arms to the United States, 63; 
his representations to the king of the as- 
pect of public affairs, 64; the danger to 
France of attack from England, 65; she 
will be bound by no treaties, 65 ; advan- 
tages to France of such a war, 66 ; of a 
friendly connection with America, 67 ; 
probable neutrality of other European pow- 

ers, 67; advises a war with England, 68; 
the king does not adopt the policy recom- 
mended, 09; reply of Vergennes to Stor- 
mont's protest, 280; his secret interview 
with the American commissioners, 288 ; 
permits warlike stores to be sent to the 
United States, and American privateers 
to relit in French harbors, 298-300; re- 
gards England as an enemy, 299 ; his 
adroit evasions of English remonstrances, 
300; fixes the time for France and Spain 
to go to war with England, 311; his de- 
light on hearing of Burgoyne's surrender, 
479; his character, x. 44; seeks the co- 
operation of Spain in a war with England, 
165, 182, 185, et seq. ; undervalues Am- 
erican energy, 183; yields to Spain all she 
required, 189; is averse to an attempt on 
Ireland, 251, 253; is willing to make con- 
cessions to England, 442; would leave to 
England Canada and the territory west 
and north-west of the Ohio, 442 ; is offended 
with John Adams for his republican ideas, 
443; his opinion of Neekeras a statesman, 
444; his complaints about a loan, 446 ; 
complains of Adams, 452; his interview 
with Grenville, the agent of Fox, 542, 543 ; 
he thinks Grenville's credentials insuffi- 
cient, 546; he is anxious for peace, 559, 
581; explains his system, 582; wishes to 
exclude the United States from the great 
lakes, 582: his sentiments concerning the 
boundaries and fisheries, 582, 588. 

Vermont settled, iii. 370; part of it claimed 
by France, iv. 74; part of it granted by 
N. Hampshire, 74; settlements made there, 
v. 165; annexed to New York, 214, 215; 
oppressions of the people there, 291,292; 
resists the jurisdiction of New York, vi. 
507; rising of the men of, vii. 338; they 
cross Lake Champlain and capture Ticon- 
deroga, 339, 340 (see New Hampshire 
Grants); wishes to join the confederacy, 
viii. 10 ; New York disallows it, 108; the 
name first given to the state, ix. 360 ; the 
convention meets, 360, 368; independence 
of the state declared, 360 ; Congress re- 
fuses to admit it to the Union, 361; the 
new constitution formed, 368; its provi- 
sions, 368, 369 ; slavery forbidden, 369 ; no 
imprisonment for debt, 369; aid sought 
from New Hampshire and Massachusetts, 
369; it is obtained. 384, battle of Hub- 
bardton, 369, 370; denied admission to the 
Union, and why, x. 352. 

Vernon, Admiral Edward, takes Porto Bello, 
iii. 440; fails in an attack on Carthagena, 

Verrazzani, John, visits the coast of North 
Carolina, i. 17; of New England, 18. 

Veto power ceases in England, iii. 7. 

Villere, a leading man in the republic of New 
Orleans, vi. 293; his tragical fate, 294 

Villiers, de, admits Washington to a capitu- 
lation, iv. 121; intercepts supplies for Os- 
wego, 237. 

Vincennes, slain in the war against the 
Chickasas, iii. 307. 



Vineennes, settled by emigrants from Canada, 
iii. 346; its population in 1708, vi. 224; 
the British ministry command them to 
leave their homes; they disregard the com- 
mand, 412; taken by" the Americans, x. 
19(3; retaken by the British, 197; recov- 
ered by the Americans, 200. 
"Vindex" [Samuel Adams] in Boston Ga- 
zette, quoted, vi. 247, 341. 
Vineland, the name given to a portion of 

New England, i. 5. 
Vines, Richard, settles at Saco, i. 330; leaves 

Maine, 430. 
Virginia, the name first imposed, i. 95; first 
charter, 120; a code of laws for it made 
by King James, 122 ; embarkation of 
the first colony, 124; a site selected for 
settlement, 125; dissensions among the 
colonists, 125; distress of the colony, 120, 
132; arrival of a re-enforcement, 133; un- 
reasonable expectations of the London 
company, 135; Smith's administration, 
134, 135; a new charter and enlargement 
of the company, 130; civil privileges de- 
nied to the emigrants, 137; Lord De la 
Ware governor tor life, 137 ; dissolute char- 
acter of the colonists, 138 ; their sufferings, 
— "the starving time," 139; great mor- 
tality, 140; the survivors take passage for 
Newfoundland, are met by Lord De la 
Ware in the river and return, 140; mar- 
tial law introduced, 143; new emigrants 
arrive, 144; private property in land 
allowed, 144; a third patent, 145; improve- 
ment under it, 146; Pocahontas, 140, 147; 
Argall, Gates, Dale, 148, 149; tobacco cul- 
tivated, 151; severity of Argall, 152; 
dismal state of the colony, 152; its real 
life begins under Yeardley, 153; first 
colonial assembly in the New World, 
154; the Episcopal Church established by 
law, 155; many abuses reformed, 157; 
women sent over from England, 157 ; paid 
for in tobacco, 157; a representative gov- 
ernment and trial by jury granted to the 
colonists, 158; slavery introduced, 170; 
Puritanism disallowed, 178; culture of silk 
and of the vine unsuccessful, 179 ; culture of 
cotton succeeds, 179; condition of the 
aborigines, 180 ; massacre by the Indians, 
182; succor from England, 184; Indian 
war, 184; quo warranto against the Vir- 
ginia company in London, 189; commis- 
sioners sentto^ 189; spirit of liberty among 
the Virginians, 190; the Virginia company 
dissolved, 192 ; the colonists retain their 
liberties, 193; beneficent administration 
of Yeardley, 154, 195; more emigrants ar- 
rive, 190 ; the colonists elect their governor, 
196-198; the representative government 
continues, 199, 201 ; scale of debts altered, 
202; Berkeley's administration, 203; quiet 
restored, 204 ; adheres to the royal cause, 
even after the execution of Charles, 205, 
210; Puritans in the colony, 200; Parlia- 
ment asserts its authority, 211; intolerant 
proceedings against Puritan ministers, 207; 
a second Indian war and massacre, 208 ; 

prosperity of the colony, 210; numbers of 
the colonists, 210 ; partisans of Charles I. 
resort to Virginia, 210; commercial policy 
of England revised, 212, et seq. ; submits 
to the Long Parliament and gains a virtual 
independence, 223; now as free as New 
England, 224; a declaration of popular 
sovereignty, 227; the rights of, respected 
under the" protectorate, 225; prosperity of, 
229; it enjoys free-trade, 230; religious 
liberty except for Quakers, 231 ; universal 
suffrage granted, 231; population in 1000, 
232; the genial climate. 233; beauty of the 
scenery, 233; happiness of the people, 234; 
remonstrates against the charter of Mary- 
land, 245; suffers from the sellishness of 
Sir William Berkeley, her agent, ii. 69; 
Virginians settle North Carolina, 135; 
character of the early settlers, 188 ; their 
independent spirit, 188; biennial election 
of legislators, 189; early tendency towards 
aristocracy, 190; a continuation of English 
society, 190; church established by law, 
190, 200; great lack of education, 191; 
common schools unknown, 192 ; a degraded 
caste of white servants, 192; negro slaves, 
193; their severe treatment, 193; an 
aristocracy founded on slave property, 194; 
absence of town government, 194; retro- 
grade movement in Virginia on the resto- 
ration of monarchy in England, 195; the 
sovereignty of the people ceases, and the 
aristocracy becomes dominant, 196; gains 
the ascendency in the legislature, 197; 
navigation act in Virginia. 198 ; its oppres- 
sive influence, 199; intolerance in religion, 
200; the Quakers persecuted, 201; the 
royal officers independent of the people, 
203; the judges not responsible, 204; arbi- 
trary taxation, 204; the legislature as- 
sumes indefinite continuance of power, 205 ; 
excessive compensation of its members, 
206; inequality of taxation, 207; universal 
suffrage abolished, 207, 208; and liberty 
taken away, 207, 208; Virginia granted to 
Culpepper and Arlington, 209 ; the colony 
remonstrates, 210; condition and character 
of the people, 212 ; discontent of the masses, 
214; Indian war, 215; insurrection led by 
Nathaniel Bacon, 217, et seq. ; a new as- 
sembly elected, 219; demands a redress 
of grievances, 220, 221; the insurrection 
suppressed, 229, et seq. ; changed to a 
proprietary government, with Lord Cul- 
pepper as governor for life, 245; his avari- 
cious conduct and arbitrary administration, 
247; extreme distress of the people, 248; 
Culpepper returns to England, 249 ; some 
of Monmouth's followers sent to Virginia, 
250; kidnapped men and boys, 251; the 
printing-press excluded, 252; liberty pros- 
trate, 253; the authority of the king ques- 
tioned, 254 ; the people contend for freedom, 
255; population in 1088, 450; its general 
character, 452; how affected by the revolu- 
tion of 1088, iii. 25; college of "William and 
Mary founded, 25; oppressions of Governor 
Nicholson, 26; the church on the side of 



liberty, 27; neglect of commerce, 28; 
tobacco the staple commodity, 28; the 
colony enjoys seventy years of peace, 29 ; 
toleration in religion not allowed, 32; the 
settlements extend westward, 370; no 
paper money in Virginia alone of all the 
colonies, 388, 396; its commerce in the 
hands of strangers, 39G; treaty with the 
Six Nations, 455, 456; spirit of freedom 
there, iv. 38, 39, 113; claims all the land 
west of her borders to the Mississippi, 94; 
the Indians in 1752 desire her to build a 
fort on the present site of Pittsburgh, 94; 
population in 1754, 129, 130; political and 
social condition, 133.131; the Church of 
England established by law, 134; no free 
schools, 134; slavery, 135; relations with 
England, 135; Madison and Jefferson in 
their boyhood, 136; Virginia to colonize 
the Great Western Valley, 167, 168; In- 
dians confine the settlers to the east of the 
Blue Kidge, 224; sends a strong force 
against Fort Duquesne, 308; Virginia op- 
poses the slave-trade, 421; its frontiers 
ravaged in Pontiac's war, v. 124; its strife 
with its clergy, 171, et seq. ; loyal to Eng- 
land, but protests against parliamentary 
taxation, 223; the assembly adopt patriotic 
resolutions, 275-277; Virginia gives the 
signal of resistance for the continent, 278; 
spirit of resistance to the stamp act, 426 ; 
opposes the slave-trade, vi. 71; approves 
the measures of Massachusetts, 146; denies 
the power of the British Parliament to tax 
America, 146; prepares a petition to the 
king, a memorial to the House of Lords, 
and a remonstrance to the House of Com- 
mons, 146 ; Botetourt appointed governor, 
177; limits of the colony curtailed, 226; 
and enlarged, 228 ; Botetourt reports favor- 
ably of the disposition of the colony, 229; 
meeting of the legislature, 279; the session 
opened by Lord" Botetourt, 279; it meets 
the declaration of Parliament by a direct 
negative, and claims for itself the sole 
right of taxing Virginia, 280; warns the 
king of danger, and sends a circular to the 
other colonies, 280 ; makes a non-importa- 
tion covenant, 281; and resolves to buy no 
more slaves, 281 ; Governor Botetourt 
promises a partial repeal of the revenue 
acts, 315; Virginia desires an entire repeal, 
315; chooses representatives to a congress, 
316; resists a proposed restriction of her 
western boundary, 378; her settlements 
continually extend westward, 379; the 
Earl of Dunmore becomes governor, 384; 
the legislature protest against the slave- 
trade, 413; but the king will not allow it 
to be in any way obstructed, 413 ; alarm 
at the increase of the negro population, 
414; the legislature propose intercolonial 
committees, 454, 455 ; in 1774, the exten- 
sion of the province greatly desired, vii. 
52; meeting of the assembly, 52; its lead- 
ing men, 52; sympathy with Boston, 52; 
a fast appointed, 52; the assembly dis- 
solved, 54; meeting of the members : they 

advise a continental congress, 54; they call 
a convention of the province, and inaugu- 
rate the revolution, 54; a fast strictly kept, 
57 ; contributes liberally to the relief of Bos- 
ton, 74; meets in convention, 83 ; high spirit 
and great energy of that meeting, 84; it 
forbids the slave-trade, 84; takes part 
strongly with Massachusetts, 85; condemns 
the conduct of General Gage, 85 ; opposes 
the extension by the Quebec act of the 
boundaries of Canada to the Mississippi, 
161; rapacity of Governor Dunmore, 161, 
162 ; the Indian war in Western Virginia 
and Kentucky, 164, etseq. ; great battle at 
Point Pleasant, 168 ; victory of the Virginia 
troops, 169 ; they cross the Ohio river, 169 ; 
the Indians sue for peace, 170; celebrated 
speech of Logan, 170; the Virginia forces 
nullify the boundary established by the 
Quebec act, 171; Presbyterians of South- 
western Virginia, their patriotic resolutions, 
195, 196; patriotic spirit of the dwellers in 
the Valley of the Shenandoah, 250; con- 
servative character of Virginia, 271 c; the 
people reluctant to sunder their connection 
with Britain, 271 d ; are unprepared for 
war and open to attack, 271 d; the con- 
vention meets, 272 ; its earnest debate, 273 ; 
the Fairfax resolves introduced, 272; 
Patrick Henry sustains them in a bold 
speech, 273, 274; they are adopted 275; 
measures for defence, 275; Dunmore 
seizes the powder of the colony, 275, 276 ; 
threatens to free and arm the slaves and to 
lay Williamsburgh in ashes,. 276, 277; the 
people ready to rise, 276 ; but are induced 
to forbear, 277; news from Lexington ar- 
rives, 334; great excitement and military 
rising, 334; Patrick Henry's bold conduct 
is approved by the people, 335 ; Dunmore 
convenes the assembly, 384 ; last use of the 
king's veto power on the acts of the as- 
sembly, 385; reply of the house of bur- 
gesses to Lord North's insidious proposals, 
386, 387 ; the reply written by Jefferson, 386 ; 
Shelburne praises the document, 388 ; ar- 
rogance and rashness of the governor, Lord 
Dunmore, viii. 78, 79; he virtually abdi- 
cates the government, 79; the royal au- 
thority at an end, 79; a convention at 
Richmond becomes the supreme govern- 
ment, 80; its vigorous measures, 80; com- 
mittee of safety chosen and delegates to 
Congress, 81; bills of credit issued, 82; 
taxation suspended, 82; the convention 
affirm their loyalty to George IIP, 82; 
Virginia bars the doors of Congress against 
Kentucky, 109; the ministry determine to 
recover the province, 158 ; violent proceed- 
ings of Dunmore, 220, et seq. ; first resist- 
ance of Virginia to British troops, 221 ; 
Dunmore' s foray at the Great Bridge, 222; 
he invites slaves to rise against their mas- 
ters, 223; state of the colored population, 
223 ; not Virginia, but England, responsible 
for slavery in that province, 225 ; why the 
slaves did not generally rise, 225 : many 
people join the British standard, 226; the 



convention give up the shoves of the Ches- 
apeake to waste and solitude, 246; raises 
more troops, 2-16; demands the opening of 
the ports. 24/ ; house of hurgesses dissolves 
itself, and thus annihilates the last vestige 
of regal authority. 373 ; the convention 
assembles, 373; "the population, whence 
derived, 374; historical notices, 374; ex- 
tent of territory claimed, 374; whence 
sprung the spirit of the revolution now in 
progress, 375; Virginia unanimous and 
resolute, 375; the Lee family and the Cary 
family, 375; purpose of the convention, 
375, 370'; its character, 377; a resolution 
adopted instructing the Virginia delegates 
in Congress to propose to that body a dec- 
laration of independence, 378; this resolu- 
tion received out of doors with high satis- 
faction, 378 ; adopts a declaration of the 
rights of man, 381, et seq. ; its principal 
features, 381; the end of government, 381; 
distinction of powers, 382 ; the right of 
suffrage, 382; freedom of the press, 382; 
the militia, 382 ; freedom of religion, 383; 
the declaration founded on immutable 
truth, 383; state constitution formed, 434; 
it made no attempt at social reforms, 435; 
parallel with the English constitution, 435; 
distribution of power, 436; acknowledges 
the territorial rights of Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and the Carolinas, 436 ; organ- 
ization of the government, 437 ; progress 
of the war, ix. 35 ; Dunmore infests the 
tide-waters, 35 ; independence proclaimed, 
36 ; claims the immense territory north- 
west of the Ohio, 55, 56 ; this claim dis- 
puted in Congress, 56 ; constitution _ of 
civil government adopted, 262 ; disposition 
of the glebe lands of the Church of Eng- 
land, 277 ; separation of church and state 
effected after a brief struggle, 278 ; entails 
abolished by the energy of Jefferson, 280 ; 
an attempt to abolish slavery, 281; why 
the attempt failed, 281 ; invaded by a 
pillaging expedition, x. 223 ; the legisla- 
ture confiscates the property of British sub- 
jects, 223 ; a bill lor establishing religious 
freedom, 224 ; a regiment of Virginia troops 
massacred in South Carolina by Tarleton, 
307 ; Virginia in part for slavery, in part 
against it, 354 ; the Virginia declaration 
of rights assumes the wrong of slavery, 
355 ; how far was slavery interdicted. 356 ; 
sentiments of her leading statesmen re- 
specting slavery. 356; offers a bounty to 
white men to enlist, 356 ; prohibits the in- 
troduction of more slaves, 356 ; sends troops 
to the relief of South Carolina, 315 ; asserts 
the sovereignty of the individual states, and 
protests against the assumption of power 
by Congress. 400; proposes to relinquish 
some of her rights for the sake of union, 
419; her magnanimity, 480; invaded by 
Arnold, 497; by Cornwallis, 484, 499; 
ravages of the British troops, 505 ; amount 
of property destroyed, 505; military op- 
erations there ending in the surrender 
of Cornwallis, 497, et seq. ; Virginia re- 

fuses to Congress the power of taxation, 

Virginia Dare, first English child born in 
America, i. 105. 

Virtual representation of America in Eng- 
land, aiallacy, v. 282, 230. 

Voltaire, influence of his writings, v. 22; the 
prince of scoffers, 22; complaisant to those 
in power, 22; his contempt of the people, 
23; competent to destroy, not to reform, 
23;. on the progress of human liberty, vi. 
83; his high reputation, ix. 483; repre- 
sented the France of his day, 483; his ad- 
vocacy of toleration, 483; not the teacher, 
yet the friend, of America, 483, 484; his 
interview with Franklin, 484; his admira- 
tion of Lafayette, 484; Voltaire and Frank- 
lin at the French Academy, 499. 

Vose, Major, burns Boston light -house, viii. 

Vries, De (see De Vries). 


Wabash river, the Americans obtain posses- 
sion of the country on its banks, x. 199, et 

Waddel, of North Carolina, commands a 
body of militia sent against the regulators, 
vi. 303, 396. 

Wadswortb, Joseph, secretes and secures the 
charter of Connecticut, ii. 430. 

Wadsworth, William, captain of the train- 
bands at Hartford, ii i - 67; disconcerts the 
attempt of Governor Fletcher of New York, 

Wainwright, Simon, of Haverhill, slain by 
Indians, iii. 215 ; courageous conduct of 
his wife, 215. 

Walcott, lieutenant-colonel of the British 
army, is sent by General Howe to negotiate 
with Washington, ix. 329. 

Waldeck, Prince of, his eagerness to supply 
troops to George III., viii. 256; the regi- 
ment is furnished, 267; collects recruits 
for England, ix. 313. 

Waldeckers at White Plains, ix. 178; under 
l>onop at Princeton, 243; put to flight by 
New Jersey militia, 251. 

Waldenses in New Netherland, ii. 301. 

Waldron, Richard, of Cocheeo, tortured to 
death by Indians, iii. 180. 

Walford, Thomas, at Charlestown, i. 341. 

Walker, Admiral Sir Hovenden, commands 
a fleet for the reduction of Canada, iii. 221; 
his dilatory proceedings, 221; his incom- 
petency, 223; the expedition fails, 224. 

Walker, Henderson, governor of North Car- 
olina, iii. 20. 

Walker, Thomas, commissioner of Virginia, 
to a congress of the Six Nations, vi. 227; 
the Anglo-Canadian, at Montreal, vii. 280. 

Walpole, Horace, quoted, v. 87, 89, note, 99, 
note; earl of Orford, his Memoirs quoted, 
vi 88. 

Walpole, Horatio, iv. 48, 63. 



"Walpole, Sir Robert, iv. 18; rejects the pro- 
posal of a stamp tax on the colonies, 85; 
doubts the wisdom of taxing the colonies, 
v. 182; prime minister of England, his 
character, iii. 324; his pacilic policy, 325; 
indifference to the encroachments of the 
French, 345; averse to taxation of the col- 
onies, 383 ; opposes a war with Spain, 438. 
Wanton, governor of Rhode Island, inclined 

to the royal side, vii 316. 
War of 175(i, the underlying causes, iv. 277 ; 
it involved the great question of modern 
times, 277; sufferings and sorrows of this 
war, 455; number of the dead in arms, 
455; results of the peace, 450; diffusion of 
the English tongue, 456. 
War which followed the accession of King 
William III., its causes, iii. 175,176; plans 
for conducting hostilities, 177; horrors of 
this w;ir, 179, el seq. ; war of the Spanish 
succession, 200 ; its causes, 207, 208 ; war 
between France and Spain, 353; war for 
trade, 400; war of the Austrian succession, 
War foreseen by Joseph Hawley of Massa- 
chusetts, vii. 102, 125, 152. 
War expenses of the United States, estimate 

of, x. 568, 569. 
War in New Jersey, x. 127, et seq. 372 ; in 
Rhode Island, 147; in the "backwoods," 
193, et seq. ; in the Northern department, 
222, et seq. ; in Europe, 240, et seq. ; in 
the Southern states, 283, et seq., 560 ; in 
South Carolina, 300, el seq. ; on the ocean, 
423, et seq. ; at the South, 456, et seq. ; in 
Virginia, 497, et seq. ; England tired of 
the war, 529, 531, et seq. 
Wars, Indian, how conducted, iii. 281. 
Ward, Artemus, one of the council of Massa- 
chusetts, vi. 152 ; of Shrewsbury, appointed 
major-general of the Massachusetts forces, 
vii. 228; unlit for the command, 321, 322, 
389; commands at Cambridge, 405; dreads 
defeat, 405 ; his inactivity on the day of 
Bunker Hill, 416; elected major-general 
by the Continental Congress, viii. 26; com- 
mands the American centre, 43, 6L 
Ward, Rev. Nathaniel, a code of laws pre- 
pared by him, i. 416*; its provisions, 417, 
et seq. 
Warham, Rev. John, arrives atNantasket, i. 

Warner, of Hampshire County, his resigna- 
tion as mandamus councillor, vii. 111. 
Warner, Seth, shares in the enterprise of tak- 
ing Ticonderoga, vii. 339; takes Crown 
Point, 340; elected lieutenant-colonel of 
the Green Mountain Bovs, viii. 177; com- 
pels the retreat of Carleton, 187; his regi- 
ment in the battle of Hubbardton, ix. 369; 
in the battle of Bennington, 385. 
Warren, Admiral Sir Peter, co-operates in 
the attack on Louisburg, iii. 459, 461; cap- 
tures a French fleet, 463. 
Warren, James, representative from Plym- 
outh, vi. 7; the idea of committees of 
correspondence did not originate with him, 
429, note; he concurred in it, 429; his de- 

spondency, 438 ; speaker of the new house 
of representatives, viii. 48; desires from 
Congress a declaration of independence, 
Warren, Joseph, of Boston, utters the new 
war cry, " Freedom and Equality," v. 
441, 442; a member of the committee of 
correspondence, his all-controlling love of 
liberty, vi. 430; concurs with Samuel 
Adams, 196, 430, 431; one of the commit- 
tee to prevent the tea from being landed, 
473; at the great meeting in the Old South 
Church, 478, vii. 35, 30; reports "a solemn 
league and covenant" to suspend commer- 
cial intercourse with England, 00; enter- 
tains Putnam, 101; gives direction to a 
convention for the county of Suffolk, 109; 
report to the Suffolk county convention, 
122; patriotic resolutions drafted by him, 
123; his fearless bearing before Gage, 124; 
his sound judgment, 124. 125; one of the 
committee of safety, 154; his letter to Jo- 
siah Quincy, then in England, 173; his 
courage, 229; his oration on the Boston 
massacre, 253, et seq. ; he is confident of 
success, 279; the British ministry, by in- 
structions to Gage, except him from par- 
don, 264; sends a message to Adams and 
Hancock at Lexington, 288, 289; assists 
in the pursuit of the British, 308; an- 
nounces that war is begun. 341*; desires 
that Ward may be superseded by a more 
competent general, 389; names Washing- 
ton as his successor, 389; fights as, a vol- 
unteer at Bunker Hill, 417, 418; he falls, 
the last in the trenches, 433; his exalted 
character, 433; his memory honored, 434. 
Warwick, R. I., and Sam uef Gorton, i. 419. 
Washington, George, comes into notice, iii. 
407; his early history, 408; his destiny, 
408; sent by Dinwi'ddie to remonstrate 
against French encroachment, iv. 108; 
foresees the destiny of the spot where 
Pittsburgh now stands, 109 ; his interview 
with the French commander at Le Bceuf, 
111 ; made a lieutenant-colonel, and ordered 
to the Forks of Ohio, 110; his advance 
solicited by the Indians, 117; goes in a 
dark night to the Indian camp, 118; his 
first combat with the French, 118, 119; 
compelled to fall back upon Fort Necessity, 
120; obliged to capitulate, 121; joins Brad- 
dock, 185; his description of that general, 
185; his extraordinary courage and hero- 
ism, 190; his hairbreadth escapes, 190; 
the praises lavished on him, 190; made 
colonel, and charged with frontier defence, 
223; visits Boston, 224; highly praised by 
Dinwiddie, 235; neglected by the British 
commander-in-chief, 230; his self-sacrific- 
ing spirit, 225; commands two Virginia 
regiments sent against Fort Duquesne, 
308; in command of the advance brigade, 
310; the fort is taken, 311; honors paid to 
Washington, 313; his marriage, 314; re- 
tires to private life, 314 ; his opposition to 
the stamp act, v. 327, 328 ; his patriotic 
utterances, vi. 272, 273; his scheme for 



non-importation adopted by Virginia, 281 ; 
his examination of the Ohio Valley, 37J; 
his eulogium on Franklin, 41)9; member of 
the House of Burgesses of Virginia, vii. 52; 
subscribes for the relief of suffering Boston, 
74; favors decisive measures, 85; wishes 
to march to the relief of Boston, 85; a 
member of the first continental congress, 
127; rejects the idea of independence, but 
condemns the regulating act, 144, 145 ; 
Patrick Henry's opinion of him, 153 ; 
chosen commander of a military organiza- 
tion, 207; presides at a convention of 
Fairfax County, which adopted very de- 
cided resolutions, 74 ; these resolutions, 
under the sanction of his name, adopted 
by the colony of Virginia, 272 ; his good 
advice to those who were ripe for insurrec- 
tion, 277 ; a member of the second conti- 
nental congress, 353; his patriotic decision, 
joined with modest regard for the opinions 
of others, 375, 376; is nominated for com- 
mander-in-chief, 390 ; unanimously elected, 
31)3 ; his exalted character, 393-400 ; of 
Southern origin, yet the true representative 
of his country, '398; religious character, 
398; his purity of motive, 399; was by 
necessity the first of men, 399 ; used power 
only for the public good, 400; never did 
any man so command universal confidence, 
400; saw the difficulties before him, yet 
cheerfully accepted the station, 401; re- 
fusing all pay, he entered on the duty, 
401, 402 ; Congress unanimously pledged 
to him its support, and invested him with 
full powers, 402; his appointment greatly 
united the people, and strengthened the 
cause, 403 ; his farewell to Congress, viii. 
31; his departure from Philadelphia, 31; 
his reception at New York, 32, 33 ; address 
of the provincial congress of New York to 
him, 33 ; his answer, 34 ; assumes the 
command of the army at Cambridge, 40 ; 
his popularity, 41 ; his' answer to Governor 
Trumbull, 41; visits the posts of the army, 
41, 42 ; introduces reforms, 45 ; misjudges 
the Massachusetts people, 49 ; his report to 
Congress on the state of the army, 51 ; his 
multifarious duties, 60 ; his position, 60 ; 
his want of money, powder, and arms, 61 ; 
his efforts to obtain powder, 61 ; relies on 
the spirit of the country, 62 ; remonstrates 
with Gage on the ill treatment of his Amer- 
ican prisoners, 66; maintains that the 
people are the true source of power, 66 ; 
his lenity to British officers in his hands, 
67 ; closely invests Boston, 67 ; offers battle 
to Gage, 67; the challenge not accepted, 
67 ; rejects the plan of an expedition against 
Nova Scotia, 68; directs an invasion of 
Canada, 68 ; his policy with respect to coast 
defence, 69 ; his difficulties and wants, 69 ; 
his great fortitude, 70 ; is fully convinced 
of the necessity of independence, 108 ; com- 
plains that Congress neglect to provide for 
his army, 111 ; Congress send a committee 
to the camp, 111; his indignation at the 
burning of Falmouth, 113; urges the im- 

mediate occupation of Canada, 180 ; his 
instructions to Arnold relative to his ex- 
pedition to Quebec, 191 ; his address to 
the Canadians, 191 ; his army at Cambridge 
greatly need supplies, 217 ; complains to 
Governor Trumbull of the desertion of 
Connecticut soldiers, 219; enlists a new 
army, and continues the siege of Boston, 
219; his ceaseless vigilance, 219; his in- 
dignation at the proceedings of Dunmore 
in Virginia, 224, 225, 232; allows free 
negroes to enlist in his arm}', 233 ; is sadly 
in want of money, 233 ; and in want of 
suitable implements of war, 234; yet Con- 
gress are impatient that he accomplishes 
so little, 234 a ; submits to a council of war 
the question of an assault on Boston, 234 a ; 
the officers advise against it, 234 b ; he 
would have been glad to resign his com- 
mission, but duty forbade, 2346; his mind 
now fully made up for independence, 235 ; 
destitute" condition of his army, 291 ; he 
calls out militia, 291 ; plans an attack on 
Boston, 292 ; takes possession of Dorchester 
Heights, 293 ; his skilful preparations, 293 ; 
his movements unperceived by the enemy, 
294 ; is ready for an attack, 297; the enemy 
fear to attack him, 297; takes possession 
of Nook's Hill, 302; this compels a pre- 
cipitate retreat of the British, 302 ; his army 
enters Boston, 303 ; receives a hearty wel- 
come, 303 ; orders troops to New York, 
303; he attends the Thursday lecture, 
304 ; address to him of the Massachusetts 
legislature, 304 ; Congress vote him a com- 
memorative medal, 304; he complains to 
Congress of the policy of short enlistments, 
315; at New York, 356; is fully for inde- 
pendence, 384 ; his army greatly weakened 
by detachments sent to re-enforce the north- 
ern army, 421, 422 ; is left with a small 
force, 422 ; and in great want, 422 ; amount 
of his force in June, 1776, 440, 450 ; Tryon's 
conspiracy against him, 441 ; Washington's 
trust in Providence, 442 ; will not hold 
intercourse with Lord Howe as a private 
person, ix. 39, 41, 42 ; will not accept par- 
don, 42 ; proposes an exchange of prisoners, 
45 ; Gates claims to be his equal, 58 ; Wash- 
ington's public spirit, 59 ; is surrounded by 
incompetent generals, 78, 334 ; Congress 
too ready to take affairs out of his hands, 
78, 334 ; few men on whom he can rely, 
78, 79; force at his command in August, 
1776, 80; repairs to Long Island, 89; his 
anguish at the slaughter of brave men, 94 ; 
his sleepless vigilance and activity, 98, 99, 
101, 104; his soldiers confide in 'him, 99; 
perceives the danger of his troops, and 
determines on a retreat, 101 ; the proposal 
unanimously approved, 103 ; the retreat 
effected without loss, 103, 104 ; Washing- 
ton the last to leave Brooklyn, 104; his 
wonderful power of secrecy, 107 ; the re- 
treat his own measure, 107 ; he represents 
to Congress the condition of his army, 109, 
110; tells them the city of New York must 
be abandoned, 110 ; is 'overruled in opinion 



by his officers, 113; he explains to Con- 
gress why New York cannot be defended, 
114, 115; his able argument, 114, 115; 
Congress yields, 115, 110 ; he is fired on 
by the Hessians, 118 ; removes his stores 
and artillery, 119 ; landing of British troops, 
119 ; shameful flight of the Americans, 119 ; 
Washington's example of courage, 120 ; is 
exposed to death or capture, 119, 120; his 
perfect self-possession, 122 ; did not lose 
his temper, 124 ; takes a strong position at 
Harlem Heights, 128, 165; condemns the 
practice of trusting to militia, 137; his 
representations to Congress on the subject 
disregarded, 138 ; his trust in the people, 
138; his renewed expostulations with Con- 
gress about an efficient army, 173; British 
ships ascend the Hudson, 174; British 
troops land at Frog's Neck, 175 ; his com- 
munications threatened, 175 ; takes meas- 
ures to secure them, 175 ; evacuates New 
York Island, 175; holds a council of war, 
176 ; secures his rear at White Plains, 179 ; 
Howe does not venture to attack him, 180, 
183; strengthens his position, 183; sees 
the danger of Fort Washington, and wishes 
to have it evacuated, 185; his instructions 
to Greene, 18G; Greene disregards his in- 
tentions, 188; Congress interferes with his 
movements, 188 ; a great disaster in conse- 
quence, 190-193; his instructions to Lee, 
186; Lee disregards them, 187, 196, 197, 
203, 206 ; examines the Highlands, and 
determines to fortify, them, 187 ; is not 
seconded by his generals, 187 ; his great 
grief at this, 188, 193 ; crosses the Hudson 
into New Jersey, 187 ; his army melts 
away, 195 ; he crosses the Passaic, 196 ; at 
Newark, 196; at Brunswick, 198; at 
Princeton and Trenton, 201 ; retreats be- 
yond the Delaware, 202 ; he does not de- 
spair, 198, 201 ; his daily orders to Lee to 
join him are disregarded, 194, 198, 200, 
202, 204; Lee misrepresents and denounces 
Washington, 205, 207, 209; Washington 
sees one of Lee's letters, 206 ; his difficul- 
ties, 217; his fortitude in meeting them, 
217 ; his trust in God, 218 ; he resolves on 
a bold stroke, 218; often blamed, 218, 
note; vindicated, 218, note; secures all the 
boats, 202, 219; proposes a reform in the 
army, 219, et seq. ; asks for power to enlist 
men, 220 ; his army on the eve of dissolu- 
tion, 220, 221 ;• remonstrates with Congress, 
220-222 ; proposes an army of the United 
States, 223 ; preparations for crossing the 
Delaware, 223 ; amount of his force, 223, 
note ; his watchword, 224 ; crosses the 
Delaware in a night of terrible severity, 
231 ; attack on the Hessians at Trenton, 
232, 233 ; his horse is wounded, 234 ; sur- 
render of the Hessians, 234 ; the Amer- 
icans lose not one man, 235 ; effect of the 
victory, 235 ; Washington's feelings at this 
great success, 234 ; Congress confer on him 
power to enlist an army, 238 ; they do not 
make him a dictator, 238 ; he again crosses 
the Delaware, and takes post at Trenton, 

240 ; the eastern regiments agree to remain 
with him, 240 ; to pay the troops he pledges 
his own fortune, 241 ; his letter on New 
Year's Day, 1777, 242 ; concentrates his 
forces at Trenton, 243 ; ins night march to 
Princeton, 246, 247; his plan of operations 
for delivering New Jersey, 240, 246 ; arrives 
at Princeton, 247 ; hattle of Princeton, 
248, 249 ; exposes himself to great danger, 
249 ; his complete success, 249, 250 ; en- 
camps at Morristown, 252 ; his proclama- 
tion to all who had accepted British pro- 
tection, 253; contidence reposed in him by 
his army and the people, 255; jealousy of 
him in Congress, 255 ; weakness of his 
army, 334 ; advises a draft, 334 ; relies on 
New England militia, 335 ; surrounded by 
unworthy officers, 337; Congress enlarges 
his powers, 338 ; helplessness of Congress, 
338 ; his opinion of Mount Independence, 
opposite Ticonderoga, 340 ; his unselfish 
zeal and untiring patriotism, 343 ; bears 
unjust reproach with meekness and dig- 
nity, 344 ; advances to Middlebrook, 351 ; 
his immovable fortitude at Middlebrook 
saves his country, 352 ; by his calm self- 
possession he utterly baffles a powerful 
enemy, 352-354 ; advances to Quibbletown, 
355 ; retires to Middlebrook, 356 ; his 
watchfulness over the northern depart- 
ment, 374 ; sends re-enforcements and 
generals to the northern army, 374 ; writes 
to New England for re-enforcements for 
that army, 374 ; writes to encourage 
Schuyler, 375 ; predicts that the success 
of Burgoyne will be but temporary, 375 ; 
writes to the council of New York, 375 ; is 
slighted and neglected by Congress, 388 ; 
his effective force in August, 1777, 393 ; 
marches through Philadelphia, 393 ; reaches 
Wilmington, 393 ; disappoints a plan of 
the enemy, 394 ; prepares to dispute the 
passage of the Bnmdywine, 395 ; his orders 
to Sullivan are disobeyed, 396; rout of the 
right wing, 397; checks the retreat of the 
fugitives, 398; the final encounter, 399; 
calls on Putnam and Gates for re-enforce- 
ments, 403 ; frustrates the purpose of 
Howe, 404; determines to attack Howe at 
Germantown. 423, 424 ; his plan of attack, 
424; the attack fails, 428; Washington's 
personal prowess and danger, 428 ; the 
retreat well conducted, 428 ; why victory 
was lost, 428; encamps at Whiteir.arsh, 
453 ; no serious action ensues, 454 ; Howe 
fears to attack him, 454 ; the Conway 
cabal, 454, et seq. ; Washington goes into 
winter quarters at Valley Forge, 458 ; con- 
dition of his army, 458: sufferings of the 
troops, 458, 459 ; his reply to the Pennsyl- 
vania remonstrance, 459, 460 ; his remon- 
strance to Congress, 461 ; is unwilling to 
seize provisions or clothing, 461 ; suffers 
exquisite pain from the efforts of concealed 
enemies, 463 ; his noble letter to the his- 
torian Gordon, 463 ; his calm dignity over- 
awes his enemies, 464 ; Conway and others 
exonerate him, 464 ; the majority of Con- 



gress his friends, 465 ; sad condition of his 
army from the neglect of Congress, 4G5 ; 
advises drafts from the militia, 468; Con- 
gress jealous of him and of the army, 470 ; 
endeavors to allay the existing jealousy, 
471 ; speaks warmly in praise of the army, 
471 ; will be content with no terms from 
England short of independence, 498 ; at 
the battle of Monmouth, x. 129, et seq: 
thinks Charleston not defensible, 303; his 
opinion slighted by Congress, 316; his views 
on slavery, 358; meets Kochambeau at Hart- 
ford, 382, 386; at Wetherslield, 503; visits 
"West Point. 389; his great influence, 403; 
favors a confederation of the states, 408, 409 ; 
perceives the defects of the existing confed 
eration, 422; his picture of the distresses of 
the country, 414, 418, 425; wants a stronger 
government, 414, 415; marches with the 
combined American and French army to 
the Chesapeake, 513; excellent spirit of 
the army, 513; thoroughly outmanoeuvres 
Clinton, 513; with Rochambeau visits home 
at Mount Vernon, 516; visits the French 
fleet, 516; siege of Yorktown, 518, et seq; 
surrender of Cornwallis, 522; his opinion 
of Greene, 457; his encomium on the 
younger Laurens, 565; his immense 
popularity, 460. 

"Washington, Captain "William, at the battle 
of Trenton, ix. 2 30; is wounded there, 233; 
is sent to the aid of Gates in South Caro- 
lina, x. 316; commands a body of mounted 
riflemen, 461. 463 ; of cavalrv, 476, 478 ; at 
the battle of Hobkirk's Hill, 487 ; at Eutaw 
Springs, 493; is taken prisoner, 494. 

Washington on the Delaware, ix. 231. 

Washington, a district so named, ix. 164. 

Washington, John, commands a body of 
Virginians against the Indians, ii. 215. 

"Watauga, Republic of, in Eastern Tennessee, 
vi. 398-401 (see Orange County, Regula- 

Watauga republicans m Tennessee, assist 
Virginia in the Indian war, vii. 167. 

Wataug.i and Holstein, the people on those 
rivers adhere to the United Colonies, viii. 

Waterbury, Colonel, of Stamford in Connect- 
icut, viii. 276, 277; his naval operations 
on Lake Champlain, ix. 152, 155. 

"Waterman, Nathaniel, of Boston, his visit 
to the Romney frigate, vi. 155. 

Watertown settled, i. 358* ; incorporated 
359*; provincial congress there, vii. 323. 

Watson, George, of Plymouth, a mandamus 
councillor, resigns his commission, vii. 105. 

Wayne Anthony, his early military ardor, 
iv. 308; of Pennsylvania, sent to re-enforce 
the army in Canada, viii. 422; his gal- 
lantry at Three Rivers, 429, 430 ; commands 
at Ticonderoga, ix. 157, 200 ; burns to go 
to the assistance of "poor Washington" 
in Jersey, 200: commands the left wing at 
the battle of Brandy wine, 398; his en- 
counter with Donop, 401; his rash confi- 
dence, 402; commands a division at the 
battle of Cermantown; 424; his impetuous 

attack, 425; he is separated from Sullivan, 
425; is compelled to retreat, 427; dispar- 
ages Washington, 456; his rashness at 
Green Springs, x. 508; too eager tor a light, 
508; rescued from destruction by the 
prompt action of Lafayette, 508; defeats 
the British and Indians in Georgia, 563; 
rescues that state from the hands of the 
British, 563. 

Weas, Indian tribe, friendly to the English, 
iv. 79, 80. 

Webb, Colonel, of Connecticut, at White 
Plains, ix. 181; is with Washington in the 
battle of Trenton, 230. 

Webb, General, sails for New York, iv. 235; 
his neglect of dutv, and cowardice, 237, 
240; his pusillanimity 261, 264, 266. 

Webster, Lieutenant-Colonel, commands 
the British right wing at Camden, x. 321, 
322; repulses an American force at Char- 
lotte, N.C., 334; commands the British 
left at Guilford, 477; receives a mortal 
wound there, 478. 

Webster, Pelatiah, his pamphlet, x. 424. 

Wemyss, Major, defeated by Sumpter, x. 
343, his ferocious cruelty, 343; is kindly 
treated by his captors, 343. 

Wentworth, Benning, governor of New 
Hampshire, grants land in Vermont, iv. 
74; complains of the spirit of liberty, 268. 

Wentworth, John, governor of New Hamp- 
shire, his sentiments on the controversy 
between Britain and America, vi. 154, note ; 
212 note. 

West, explorations of the, vi. 297-302; its 
colonization one of Franklin's great ob- 
jects, 377; Washington there, 379; Daniel 
Boon, and others, 380, et seq. ; its resist- 
ance to British domination, 411, 412; emi- 
gration rapidly extending thither, 505, 506. 

West, Benjamin, the painter, his early mili- 
tary ardor, iv. 308. 

West, Vallev of the, possession taken of it, 
iv. 74, 81,' 88, 89, 97, 101, 126, 167, 311, 

"Western armv " of backwoodsmen, under 
Campbell, Shelby, &c, x. 336, 338. 

Western lands to be formed into new states, 
x. 413. 

West Point, a plan for its surrender by 
Arnold, x. 384; its fortifications described, 
E<35 ; what they contained, 385 ; Washington 
visits it, 389. 

Wedderburn, Alexander, afterwards Earl of 
Rosslyn and lord chancellor, contends in 
Parliament for the right of binding the 
colonies in all cases whatsoever, v. 417, 
440; ridicules the Rockingham ministry, 
vi. 10; declaims against the Grafton min- 
istry, 232; in alliance with Burke, 357, 
362; inveighs against Lord Hillsborough 
and his policy 362; and against Lord 
North, 389; becomes solicitor-general, 
C"3J; his report concerning the burning'of 
the "Gaspee," 441; is counsel before the 
privy council for Hutchinson and Oliver, 
492, 494; his philippic against Franklin, 
495 ; his gross misstatements and blank 




falsehoods, 49G, 497 ; contrasted with Frank- 
lin, 4'J ( J; he finds treason in the conduct 
ot some of the American patriots, 523 ; the 
king's representation of him. 499: his legal 
opinion in favor of despotism, vii. 58; his 
memory dear to Canadian Catholics, 158; 
he detends the policy pursued by the min- 
istry, vii. 224; thinks the provincial con- 
gress of Massachusetts guilty of treason, 
-284; replies to Fox in Parliament, ix. 146. 

Weedon, commands a brigade at the battle 
of Brandy wine, ix. 398. 

Welles, Henrv, of Boston, a "Son of Lib- 
erty" in 1765, v. 310. 

Weniworth, Thomas, Earl of Strafford (see 
Strafford, Earl of). 

Wesley, John, the preacher to the poor, vii. 
260; misapprehends the controversy of 
Britain and her colonies, 260, 261; blames 
the Americans, and defends the ministry, 
261; protests against attempting to reduce 
America by force of arms, 345. 

Wesley, John and Charles, in Georgia, iii. 
428 ; they fail there of success and return, 

West, Francis, governor of Virginia, i. 196 ; 
admiral of New England, 326. 

West, John, deputy-secretary of New Eng- 
land under Andros, ii. 425; his rapacity, 

West, Joseph, agent for the proprietaries of 
Carolina, ii. 166; favors the people, 184. 

West, Thomas, often called Lord Ue la War, 
or Delaware. See Delaware, Lord. 

West brook. Colonel, leads an expedition to 
Norridgewock, iii. 335, 336. 

Westchester County in New York, the in- 
habitants equally divided, viii. 274. 

Western continent, its existence imagined in 
early times, l. 6. 

Western Wilderness described, v. 110; how 
far occupied by the English, 110; in- 
adequately garrisoned, 110. 

Western World, the youth and power of the 
human race to be there renewed, v. 269. 

Western Vallev, population of in 1705, 338, 

Westminster elects Tories to Parliament in 
1774, vii. 175. 

Weston, Thomas, his plantation at Wey- 
mouth, i. 318. 

Wetherslield in Connecticut sends a strong 
force to the scene of conflict near Boston, 
vii. 316. 

Wevman's " New York Gazette " quoted, v. 
88, 88, 109, 116, 117, 120, 123, 171, 307. 

Weymouth, George, ascends St. George's 
river in Maine, i. 115; kidnaps five of the 
natives, i. 115. 

Weymouth, Lord, succeeds Conway in the 
ministry, vi. 109, 326; desires war with 
Spain, 387; resigns his place in the minis- 
try, 388; opposes the repeal of the revenue 
acts, 277; becomes secretary of state, 
viii. 1G5. 

Weymouth, Town of, Weston's colony there, 
i. 318; Gorge's unsuccessful effort there, 
326 ; the settlement revived, 338. 

Whale fishery conceded to New England hy 
Mr Grenville, and why, v. 184, 185. 

Whalley, Edward, a regicide, comes to Amer- 
ica, ii. 34; fruitless search made for him, 

Whately, Thomas, joint secretary of the 
treasury, v. 105; his correspondence with 
Hutchinson and others, vi. 69, 150, 155- 
157, 161, 250, 253, note, 305, note, 307, 313, 
435; these letters communicated to Gren- 
ville, 435. 

Whately, William, the banker, brother of 
Thoaias, vi. 491; his duel with John 
Temple, 492. 

Wheelock, Eleazer, president of Dartmouth 
College, vii. 279. 

Wheelwright, John, sustains Mrs. Hutchinson, 
i. 388; his fast-day sermon, 388; threatens 
an appeal to England, 383; exiled, 391; 
founds Exeter, 392; sentence of exile re- 
scinded, 431. 

Whig aristocracy in England, decline of its 
power, iv. 1 63 ; their past services, 163 ; 
leading men among them, 163, 1G4; im- 
becility of the Newcastle administration, 
164, 165; end of that administration, 247; 
the Whig party, led by Newcastle, loses 
power, 247; the Whig aristocracy cannot 
govern England, 248; nor conquer Canada, 
260-270; they compel Pitt to resign office, 
408, 409; they are themselves driven from 
office, 437; rupture with the king, 447. 

Whig party in England, the old, its downfall, 
vi. 23; it was divided, and thus lost its 
ascendency, vi. 356, 357; it fought alike 
against the prerogative and against the 
people, 357; not friendly to relbrm, 357; 
what became of it, x. 552. 

Whigs, old, led by Edmund Burke, Lord 
Mansfield, and others, found the new Tory 
parly of England, v. 418. 

Whipple, William, delegate in Congress from 
New Hampshire, viii. 438. 

Whitaker, Alexander, the apostle of Vir- 
ginia, i. 144. 

Wnitcomb, Colonel Asa, of Lancaster, in 
Massachusetts, part of his regiment in the 
battle of Bunker Hill, not there himself, 
vii. 418. 

White, Lev. John, of Dorchester, England, i. 
339 ; suggests the permanent settlement of 
New England, 339. 

Whitefield, George, in Georgia, iii. 429 ; 
founds the orphan house at Savannah, 
429; pleads in favor of slavery, 448. 

White Plains, battle of. ix. 178, el seq. 

Whitgift, John, archbishop of Canterbury, i. 
288; cruelly oppresses the Puritans, 288; 
hates them," 294; dies, 296. 

Whiting, Nathan, of New Haven, conducts 
the retreat of Colonel Williams's regiment, 
iv. 210. 

Whiting, Samuel, agent of Connecticut in 
England, iii. GG. 

Wicklifie, John, his teaching and his trans- 
lation of the New Testament led the way 
to American freedom, ii. 456. 

Wigglesworth, on Lake Champlain, ix. 155. 



"Wilford, Thomas, a leader of the insurrection 
against Berkeley, ii. 230. 

Wilkes, John, promises support to Pitt, iv\ 
275; inflames the public mind, 446; ar- 
rested on a general warrant, and the cause, 
v. 104, 105; set at liberty, 105; the king- 
procures his expulsion from Parliament, vi. 
148; four times elected as representative 
of Middlesex, and four times expelled, 275; 
in Parliament vindicates America, vii. 225; 
with the alderman, as lord mayor, he com- 
plains to the king of the arbitrary pro- 
ceedings of ministers, 282; lord mayor of 
London, his disrespect for George 111., viii. 
144; says it is impossible to conquer Amer- 
ica, ix. 142. 

Wilkins. the British commandant in Illinois, 
vi. 224; his venality, 225. 

Wilkinson, James, the bearer of a message 
from Gates to Lee, ix. 209; a sycophant 
and a babbler, 455 ; is made a brigadier by 
( 'ongress, 455. 

Willard, John, accused of witchcraft, con- 
victed, and executed, iii. 91. 

"Willard, of Lancaster, Massachusetts, a man- 
damus councillor, resigns his commission, 
vii. 105; his answer to Gage's inquiry 
about Prescott, 411. 

"Willard, Samuel, minister of the Old South 
Church, Boston, his sermon, ii. 432. 

Willard, Simon, settles in Concord, i. 382. 

Willett, Colonel Marinus of New York, com- 
mands at St. John's, Canada, viii. 201; 
lieutenant-colonel, makes a successful sor- 
tie from Fort Stanwix, ix. 370, 380. 

"William III., his character, iii. 3; his ruling 
passion, 4, 207; his death, 208; his policy 
triumphant, 227; false to the liberty of the 
seas, 230. 

William and Mary College founded, iii. 25. 

Williams, Colonel James, of Ninety Six, S. 
C., avoids capture, x. 300; his persevering 
loyalty to freedom, 330 ; routs a superior 
British force, 331; commands a regiment 
of mounted men in the battle of King's 
Mountain, 336, 337; is killed there, 339. 

Williams, David, one of the captors of Andre, 
x. 387; his reward, 395. 

Williams, Ephraim, colonel, makes a bequest 
to found a free school, iv. 209 ; sent to re- 
lieve Fort Edward, 210; falls into an am- 
buscade and is slain, 210. 

Williams, Eunice, of Deerfield, killed by the 
Indians, iii. 213. 

Williams, John, of Deerfield, Mass., a cap- 
tive among the Indians, iii. 213; piety of 
his wife, and her death, 213; his daughter 
remains among the Mohawks, 214. 

Williams, Jonathan, moderator of an im- 
mense meeting at the Old South Church in 
Boston, vi. 478. 

Williams, Otho Holland, lieutenant of a 
Maryland company in the army near Bos- 
ton, viii. 64; at Fort Washington, ix. 190; 
is wounded 192; his thoughtless advice, x. 
322; renders good service at Guilford court- 
house, 472, 473; his gallant conduct at 
Eutaw Springs, 493. 

Williams, Roger, arrives in Boston, i. 361; 
his earlier history, 361*; goes to Plym- 
outh, 362; settles at Salem, 369; com- 
plaints against him, 369; will hold no 
communion with the Church of Eng- 
land, 369; is for restraining the power of 
magistrates to civil affairs, 370; contro- 
versy on the subject, 370; the breach wid- 
ened, 373; he appeals to the people against 
the magistrates, 374; asserts the doctrine 
of intellectual and religious freedom, 375; 
compared with Jeremy Taylor, 376; is 
banished the jurisdiction, 377: retires 
among the Indians, 378; the founder of 
Rhode Island, 3b0; his magnanimity, 381; 
persuades the Narragansetts not to unite 
with the Pequods, 398; goes to England, 
425; obtains a charter for Rhode Island, 
425; welcomed on his return, 428; again 
goes to England and procures a new char- 
ter, 427. 

Williams, William, of Lebanon in Connect- 
icut, his patriotic words, vi. 166, 167. 

Williams of Hatlield, a mandamus councillor, 
is compelled to ask forgiveness, vii. 103, 

W'illiamsburg in Virginia, gunpowder seized 
at, vii. 275; Dunmore threatens to lay it 
in ashes, 277. 

Williamson repels the Cherokees, and de- 
stroys their towns, ix. 162. 

Willing, Thomas, president of the convention 
of Pennsylvania, vii. 82; delegate to Con- 
gress, 333; thwarts every step tending to 
independence, 382; of Philadelphia, op- 
poses the idea of independence, viii. 72, 315. 

Willoughby, Francis, deputy governor of 
Massachusetts, counsels resistance to the 
king's demands, ii. 88; dies, 92. 

Willoughby, Sir Hugh, attempts a north-east 
passage to China, i. 78; his whole company 
perish, 78. 

Will's Creek, now Cumberland, Md., iv. 76; 
road over the mountains here opened, 106; 
on Braddock's march, 185. 

Wilmington, in North Carolina, sends a 
handsome donation to Boston in 1774, vii. 

Wilson, James, delegate from Pennsylvania 
to the continental congress, vii. 333; dele- 
gate in Congress, viii. 233, 315; is opposed 
to independence, 242,320; his failure, 313; 
he favors opening the ports of the united 
colonies, 313 ; opposes a preamble in- 
volving independence, 369; opposes the 
Declaration of Independence, 390, 391 ; 
being now authorized by his constituents, 
he argues in favor of independence, 456; 
thinks slaves ought to be taxed, ix. 52; in 
debate, 53, 56. 

W T ilson, John, first minister of Boston, i. 359; 
visits England, 361; visits Plymouth, 364; 
harangues the people from a tree on elec- 
tion day, 389; chaplain in the Pequod war, 
401 ; bis death, ii. 92. 

Wilson, Jonathan, captain of the Bedford 
minute-men at Concord, vii. 2J9; he is 
slain, 305. 



Windham, iri Connecticut, sends provisions 
to Boston in 1774, vii. 73. 

Wingrield, Edward Maria, aids in the col- 
onization of Virginia, i. 118; president of 
Virginia, 125; deposed, 127. 

Winnebagoes, iii. 213. 

Winslow, Edward, his account of the depart- 
ure of the Pilgrims from Holland, i. 307; 
agent in England for Massachusetts, 412. 

Winslow, General John, of Marshfield, super- 
intends the removal of the Acadians, iv. 

Winslow, Josiah, his successful winter cam- 
paign against the Narragansetts, ii. 105. 

Winston Major, at King's Mountain, x. 337. 

Winthrop, b'itz-John, goes to England as 
agent of Connecticut, iii. 67 ; governor of 
that colony, 08. 

Winthrop, John, the elder, chosen governor 
of Massachusetts, i. 353; his character, 
355 ; his self-denial, 358*; visits Plymouth, 
304; again chosen governor, 380; left out 
of office, 433; his impeachment, trial, and 
triumphant acquittal, 436 ; is weary of 
banishing heretics, 449. 

pin throp, John, the younger, i. 305; his 
tolerant spirit, 449, 453; his exalted char- 
acter, ii- 52-54; obtains a charter for Con- 
necticut, 54; fourteen years her governor, 
55; accompanies the English squadron to 
the conquest of New Netherland, 314. 

Wisconsin traversed by Jesuit missionaries, 
iii. 155, 157; visited by Hennepin, 166; 
and by Le Sueur, 204. 

Wise, John, minister of Ipswich, Mass., ad- 
vises resistance to arbitrary taxation, ii 427. 

Witchcraft, law against, in Massachusetts, 
i. 418; first and last trial for in Pennsyl- 
vania, ii. 391. 

Witchcraft delusion in Massachusetts, iii. 73; 
'a belief in it general, 73; how to be ac- 
counted for, 73; the Goodwin children, 75; 
the devils well skilled in languages, 76; 
Cotton Mather's sermon, 77; its influence, 
78; appears in Salem village, 84; the re- 
sponsibility rests on a very few people, 88; 
advice of'the ministers, 89; executions, 
88, 90, et seq. ; no mercy shown, 94; favor 
shown to friends and to accusers, 94; 
Cotton Mather's "Wonders of the Invisi- 
ble World," 95; the minister and people 
ofAndover remonstrate against the witch 
trials. 95, 96; acquittal of accused persons, 
96; witchcraft in Boston, 97; Robert Calef, 
97; the delusion over, 98; the common 
mind vindicated, 99. 

Witherspoon, John, of New Jersey, a staunch 
patriot, vii. 83; president of the college at 
Princeton, viii. 442; his great character, 
442; member of the provincial congress of 
New Jersey, 442; as a member of the con- 
tinental congress, argues for independence, 
457 ; in Congress, ix. 52, 53 : opposes the 
conference proposed by Lord Howe, 112; 
teaches .Madison the great lesson of perfect 
liberty of conscience, 278; a member of 
Congress, proposes to vest in that body the 
power to regulate commerce, x. 419. 

Woburn, in that town Adams and Hancock 
take refuge, vii. 202; a Woburn man slain 
at Lexington, 204 ; men from Woburn 
join in pursuit of the British, 305. 

Wolcott, (Oliver, in Congress, viii. 315. 

Wolfe, General James, sent to America as 
second in command to Amherst, ii. 294; 
his success at Louisburg, 205; appointed 
to command on the St. Lawrence, 310; 
ascends that river, 324, 325; amount of his 
force, 324; lands on the Isle of Orleans, 
325; oners battle and is repulsed, 328, 329; 
his poor health, 330; his despondency, 
331; lands on the north 'shore, 333; the 
battle on the Plains of Abraham, 335; 
death of Wolfe, 330. 

Woodtbrd, William, colonel of a Virginia 
regiment at Hampton, viii. 221; he repels 
the enemy, 222; he routs the British at 
Great Bridge, 226, 227; commands a bri- 
gade at Germantown, ix. 427. 

Woodhull, Nathaniel, president of the New 
Yoik convention, ix. 33, 34 ; is a brigadier- 
general on Long Island, 85; after being 
captured, is mercilessly slain by a Tory 
officer, 100. 

Wollaston, Mount, plantation at, i. 338, 341. 

Women sent from England to Virginia for 
wives as a commercial speculation, i. 157; 
the price paid in tobacco, 157. 

Woods, Major Henry, in Prescott's regiment, 
in the redoubt on Breed's Hill, vii 42o. 

Woolman, John, of New Jersey, iv. 142, 143; 
a Quaker, opposed to slavery, his great 
benevolence, 142, et seq. 

Woolwich, in Maine, its response to the 
Boston circular, vi 430. 

Wooster, David, of Connecticut, elected brig- 
adier-general, viii. 31; his character, 31; 
joins Montgomery at St. John's, Canada, 
187; left by him in command at Montreal, 
201; after "the fall of Montgomery, he has 
chief command in Canada, 415; applies for 
re-enforcements and supplies, 416 ; he is re- 
enforced, 416; his character as commander, 
419; brave, but not sufficiently prudent, 
419; takes command of the troops around 
Quebec, 420; his batteries are light, and do 
no harm, 420; he is superseded in the com- 
mand by Thomas, 423; his brave conduct 
at liidgefield. Connecticut, ix. 347; is mor- 
tally wounded there, 347. 

Worcester County, in Massachusetts, has a 
county congress; it disclaims the jurisdic- 
tion of Parliament, vii. 100; the militia rise 
in a mass and march towards Boston, vii. 
120; the court interrupted, 122; a com- 
mittee of ths county remonstrate with 
Gage, 154; its military organization, 137; 
Worcester men under Brown and Whit- 
comb fought on Bunker Hill, 418. 

Worcester in Massachusetts, the people pre- 
pare armed resistance to British troops if 
sent among them, vii. 103 ; a great meet- 
ing there, 104. 
Worthington of Springfield, resigns his com- 
mission as mandamus councillor, vii. 103, 



Wright, Sir James, governor of Georgia, sup- 
ports the views of the British ministry, vi. 
68; infringes the privileges of the assem- 
bly, 409; is for conciliation, viii. 83; is 
made prisoner bv the people, but escapes, 
245, 240. 

"Writs of Assistance," their legality doubt- 
ed, iv. 378 ; trial before Chief Justice Hutch- 
inson, 414, et seq.; argument of James Otis 
against them, 415, 41(3; the effect, 417, 418; 
the beginning of the revolution, 414, 418; 
not warranted bj' law, vi. 72 ; opinion of 
the English attorney and solicitor-general 
of England to 'this effect, 72, note; they 
are legalized by act of Parliament. 84. 

Wsselinx, William, proposes a Dutch West 
India company, ii. 201 ; and a Swedish 
West India company, 284. 

Wurtembcrg, Duke of, offers to furnish re- 
cruits for the British army, ix. 318; his 
inability to supply them, 318; the treaty 
fails, 475. 

Wyandots, or Huron Iroquois, where located, 
iii. 243, 244; visited by Gist, iv. 77; at 
Carlisle, 108; combine with other Indians 
to expel the English in Pontiac's war, v. 
112, 110; attack Port Pitt, 129. 

Wyatt, Sir Prancis, governor of Virginia, i. 
158, 178; retires from office, 195; reap- 
pointed governor, 202. 

Wyly, Samuel, cruel treatment of, x. 310. 

Wyllys, Samuel, of Connecticut, with others, 
plans the capture of Tieonderoga, vii. 338. 

Wyoming, Vallev of, settled, v. 105, vi. 298, 

Wythe, George, tries to moderate the patri- 
otic zeal of Virginia, v. 270 ; delegate to 
Congress from Virginia, addresses the as- 
sembly of New Jersey, viii. 215; one of a 
committee on enlisting colored men, 233 ; 
in favor of independence, 242, 315 ; his 
excellent character. 314; an important res- 
olution offered by him, 314, 319 ; the reso- 
lution carried, 320 ; assists in framing the 
constitution of Virginia, 430, ix. 59. 


Yamassee tribe of Indians, iii. 251 ; make war 
on the English settlements, 320; cruelties 
practised bv them, 327; defeated and 
driven into Florida, 328, 422. 

Yarmouth, Lad}', mistress of George II., iv. 
98; the ministers dependent on her good- 
will, 98, 240; Pitt waits on her, 247. 

Yeamans, Sir John, governor of North Caro- 
lina, ii. 137 ; a landgrave, 108 ; introduces 
negro slaves into South Carolina, 170; a 
sordid calculator, 184. 

Yeardley, Sir George, governor of Virginia, 
i. 153; his beneficent administration, 154; 

his second administration, 195 ; his death, 

Yellow Creek, in Virginia, murders of In- 
dians by whites committed there, vii. 

York, in Maine, attacked by Indians, iii. 

Yorke, Charles, on the side of prerogative, 
iv. 230, 373. 

Yorke, Charles, resigns office, v. 168; his 
equivocal position, 108; though a Whig, 
speaks against the claim of privilege, 169; 
desires office, but is slighted by Grenville, 
171 ; his elaborate speech in favor of tax- 
ing America, 240; attorney-general under 
the Rockingham administration, 301; in- 
sists on the right to tax America, 305; re- 
fuses the position of lord-chancellor, vi. 
324; dies by his own hand, 325. 

Yorke, Philip, iv. 33 (see Hardwicke, Earl 


Yorke, Sir Joseph, British minister at the 
Hague, viii. 20, 101 ; his opinion of Charles 
Lee, 26; thinks George III. may obtain 
troops from Germany, 148 ; ambassador of 
England at the Hague, ix. 292 ; his haughty, 
insulting language, 293, 290, note ; is pres- 
ent at tlie embarkation of German troops 
for America, 317 ; his opinion of General 
Charles Lee, 331 ; British minister to the 
Dutch republic, x. 430, 431 ; his interview 
with the stadtholder, 435; leaves the 
Hague, 438. 

Yorktown, Virginia, description of, x. 511 ; 
occupied by Cornwallis, 511 ; its fortifica- 
tions, 517 ; the place invested by the com- 
bined French and American army, 518 ; 
progress of the siege, 518, et seq. ; the out- 
works taken, 519, 520 ; the surrender, 522 ; 
amount and quality of the force surren- 
dered, 522 ; the American force employed 
in the siege, 523 ; the French force, 523 ; 
the news reaches England and France, 524; 
effect in each country, 524. 

Young, Thomas, at the meeting in the Old 
South Church, Boston, vi. 478 ; proposes 
to throw the tea overboard, 478; addresses 
the meeting, 485. 

Zealand unites with Holland in demanding 

freedom, ii. 258. 
Zenger, John Peter, prints a paper in defence 

of popular libertv, iii. 393; imprisoned, 

393 ; acquitted, 393. 
Zinzcndorf, Count, among the Indians, vii. 

Zubly, delegate in Congress from Georgia, 

denounces a republic, viii. 141 ; flees to the 

royal standard, 141. 

Cambridge : Pres3 of John Wilson & Son. 

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