Skip to main content

Full text of "A history of the United States of America"

See other formats

Class _t/7d. 




' £ 

mm OF Ti DiiTED wm 




Autlior of "Life of Archbishop Hughes,'" "Life of Pius ZX.," Etc. 



Right Rev. J. L. SPALDING, D.D., 

Bishop of Peoria. 

New York: 







1 1 



The value of the study of liistory as a means of edu- 
cation is so evident as hardly to need statement. The 
young reflect but little ; their knowledge is of facts and 
events, not of principles ; and their thoughts and con- 
versation habitually assume the historic form of narra- 
tion. They seldom speak of what they think or liave 
thought, but constantly of what they have seen or under- 
gone ; and hence the youthful mind finds more interest 
and instruction in the deeds than in the thoughts of 
men. The knowledge thus acquired is also the truest, 
for Avhat we do is a more real expression of ourselves 
than what avo think. Action is not only intelligible to 
every one, but its effects are often highly picturesque 
and appeal strongly to the imagination. History has 
thus the force of example. By bringing us into almost 
living contact with the greatest and most highly endowed 
members of our race, it fills us with admiration for what 
is noble and heroic. The effort to preserve the memory 
of high and worthy deeds is universal. There is no tribe 
so rude as not to liave some record of its struggles and 
victories, and the most civilized nation has no deeper 
lesson of wisdom to teach than that which is conveyed 
by its own history. It is needless to insist upon this, 
for no one is so unreasonable as to imagine tliat the 
study of history should be excluded from the process of 


iv Preface. 

— + — 
We Americans have a liistory which if not ancient 
is honorable. The charm that is given by the conse- 
crating and beautifying power of time is indeed want- 
ing. The thrilling and soul-stirring incidents of an age 
of chivalry are absent ; embattled castles frowii not 
down ui)on us, and the pageant of plumed knights and 
highborn ladies passes not before our eyes. We seem to 
tread a lower plane. As of old the Israelites with no 
king but God entered into the promised land, so the 
people took possession of this New World, to which the 
Cross of Christ, like the pillar of fire of other days, led 
the way. The principles and elements of Christian civili- 
zation they brought with them to give vigor and 
strength in a new world to new social forms and systems. 
They were in a very true sense a chosen people entrust- 
ed with a Providential mission, upon the fulfilment of 
which the future of a large and important portion of the 
human race is dependent ; and as the highest object of a 
nation cannot be self-defence, or wealth, or any other 
outward good, this mission must be associated with jn-in- 
ciples which are intimately related to the moral welfare 
and progress of the race. Our growth has been prodig- 
ious, our prosperity unbounded, our enterprise and in- 
dustry keen and unwearying. The wilderness has fled 
from the face of a resistless army of pioneers ; populous 
and well-built cities, the centres of a commerce that 
extends to the end of the world, have sprung up as 
while men slept ; steam and electricity have made a 
thousand miles as but a step ; upon our Avide-extcnding 
plains and prairies the richest harvests wave, and from 
the exhaustless earth we dig the most precious ores. At 
the same time the opportunities of education and the 
means of acquiring knowledge have been brought Avithin 
the reach of every one. 

Prkface. V 

All this, lio"wever, Js but the work of j^reparation — a 
removal of obstacles. _If our society fails to reconcile ma- 
terial with moral progress, and to develop man's higher 
nature while satisfying his lower wants, it is defective and 
contains within itself the germ of its dissolution. For the 
end of society is not to multiply indefinitely the means and 
opportunities of indulgence, but to form strong and noble 
men and women ; and such characters are not created by 
indulgence but by self-control, which comes of self-denial. 
Tiie progress of industries, the growth of material and 
mechanical civilization, are interesting ; but unless our 
views of human nature are to undergo a radical change 
there are other things which more nearly concern us. 
Dr. Brownson maintained that the mission of the United 
States is to reconcile authority with liberty, to establisii 
the sovereignty of the people without socnd despotism, 
and individual freedom without anarchy. But this is 
the common aim of all free states, and can, therefore, 
hardly be considered as the peculiar mission of any na- 
tion. \Americans have hitherto been accustomed to em- 
phasize the value of liberty, and to consider authority 
as in some way or other dangerously allied to despotism ; 
tliey are now beginning to perceive, however, that if 
tyrani'.y lurks in tiie shadow of authority, anarchy may 
very readily assume tiie garl) of liberty ; and that if a 
despot is ever to rule over us, he will be lifted to power 
by the lawless rabble, and not by those Avho respect and 
love autliority. And this reveals an all-important social 
mission of the Church in the United States. There are 
various forces at woi-k in modern society which weaken 
the sj)irit of patriotism. The facility and cheapness of 
travel brings about an increasing friendly intercommu- 
nion of the civilized peoples of the world, by which na- 
tional prejudice and hatred are being insensil)ly destroyed. 

vi Preface. 

— ^ — 

The introduction of machinery has produced rehitions 
between capital and hibor wliich are substantially the 
same in all manufacturing countries ; and as the working 
classes feel themselves aggrieved and at a disadvantage, 
they merge their national sentiments and seek to make 
common cause. Again, the frequency of revolution and 
the notorious unworthiness of politicians have brought 
government into disrepute, and, though there is a distinc- 
tion between the country and the governnfent, yet the 
one cannot be despised wdthout a corresponding diminu» 
tion of the love and reverence which we bear the other. 
And finally, as religion is always the surest inspiration 
and support of patriotism, the breaking down of religious 
beliefs in various modern nations, and notably m our 
own, is accompanied by a loss of patriotism. As the 
love of country grows cold men cease to take an interest 
in public affairs, or are influenced by selfish motives. 
Local questions take precedence of national interests, and 
the spirit of sectional and partisan strife is substituted 
for the lofty and ennobling passion of patriotism. Eev- 
erence for authority is lost, and society, in order to pro- 
tect itself, is driven to appeal to force. Nothing can avert 
this danger but the influence of a great moial power, 
endowed with all the attributes which create respect and 
encourage obedience. 

The Catholic Church is this power, and the mission 
which she is destined to fulfil in behalf of American 
society is as yet hardly suspected, though an observant 
mind cannot fail to perceive its vast importance. No 
other religion in the United States has unity of doctrine 
and discipline, or the consciousness of definite purposes, 
or a great and venerable history, or the confidence born 
of a thousand triumi)hs and of victories wrung from de- 
feat. No other thoroughly trusts its destiny, or dare^ 

Peefa CI-:. vii 

— "i— 

boldly jiroclaiiu its hciivenly mission mid infallible au- 
thority. It is the only historic religion among us. Out- 
side the Church there are shifting views, opinions, and 
theories ; but there is no organic growth and progressive 
development of faith and discipline. Whatever may be 
thought of this, it can no longer be denied that Catho- 
lics arc a living and growing element in American so- 
ciety ; and hence it is not possible to ignore their views 
on subjects which have a bearing upon the destiny and 
welfare of our common country. L^or my own part, I, 
believe that he who will do most to form the character of 
the Catholic youth of America, will also have done most 
to mould the future of the American ])eople. In any 
event, it is the manifest duty of those who are entrusted 
with the education of our children to see that in learn- 
ing the history of their country they do not lose sight 
of the rise, progress, and social influence of the Church 
in the United States. The sense of the urgency and 
importance of this obligation has led the publishers of 
the Yovng CatlwUcs School Series to add the present 
work to their list of text-books. The author's reputation 
as a careful and thoughtful writer is of itself sufficient 
assurance that his task has been Avell performed. Tlie 
book has, however, been submitted for examination to 
competent judges, some of them non-Catholics, and they 
are unanimous in praise of its merits ; and if I may be 
permitted to express my own ojiinion, I will say that I 
know of no other school history of the United States 
which is distinguished by so numy excellences. The 
style is clear and simple, the narrative lucid and flowing ; 
the descrij)tion of remarkable incidents brief but vivid ; 
and through the whole book there breathes the spirit of 
candor and truth. 

Ko attem})t is made to pi-ove a point, or to establish 

riii Prefa ce. 

— 4, — 

a tlieory, or to arrange the events of our history so as 

to make them illustrate any particular law or principle. 

Facts are stated simj)ly as they occurred and are left to 

tell their own story. The tone and temper in Avhicli 

the work is written at once removes all suspicion of 

sectional, partisan, or religious prejudice. The Avriter is 

a Catholic, and is therefore able to rise above the 

spirit of party. 


Peoria, Feast of the Assumption, 1878. 



Introduction. — The Native Races of America, , . t) 



1. Discovery by the Northmen — Cohimbus — The Cabots — 

Vespucci, 13 

II. The Spanish Explorers — Ponce de Leon, Ayllon, Nar- 
vaez, De Soto — The First Missionaries — The Span- 
iards and Huguenots in Florida — St. Francis Borgia 
and Pope St. Pius V. and the Indians, ... 23 

III. The French Adventurers and Missionaries — Settlement 

of Canada — The Jesuits in Maine and New York — 
Exploration of the Mississippi — Marquette, Joliet, 
La Salle, 33 

IV. First English Settlements— Sir Humphrey Gilbert and 

Walter Raleigh— The English in Virginia— Early 
Voyages to New England— The Dutch in New York. 38 
V. Settlement of Virginia— Captain John Smith— Poca- 
hontas— The First Colonial Assembly, ... 46 
VI. Virginia continued— Political Development— Charac- 
ter of the Colony, •'^^ 

VII. Settlement of New England— The Plymouth Company 

—The Puritans — The IMassachusetts Company, . 55 
VIII. New Ilam])shire — Maine — Conjiecticut, . • • 67 

IX. The Dutch Settlements- Swedes on the Delaware — 
Seizure of New Netherland by the English — New 

Jersey, • 71 


— 4. — 


X. The Catholic Colony of Maryland — Lord Baltimore — 

Freedom of Worship destroyed by the Protestants, . 76 
XI. The Indians in New England — The.Pequod War — The 

United Colonies — King Philip's War, ... 84 
XII. The Carolinas — Georgia — Gen. Oglethorpe, ... 89 

XIII. The Quakers — William Penn — Settlement of Penn- 

sylvania, 94 

XIV. The Colonists and the King — Troubles in New York — 

The " Negro Plot "—Salem Witchcraft, ... 97 



XV. French and English Rivalries — Enterprises of the 

French — King William's War, 104 

XVI. Queen Anne's War — Indians in the Carolinas — Father 

Rasles, 109 

XA^II. The French in the Mississippi Valley — War with the 
Spaniards — King George's War — Capture of Louis- 
burg, 114 

XVIII. The French and Indian War — George Washington — 

Benjamin Fraiiklin 119 

XIX. The French and Indian War continued — Braddoek's 

Defeat — Expulsion of the Acadians, . . . 126 

XX. The French and Indian War concluded — Capture of 
Louisljurg — Conquest of Canada — Montcahn and 
Wolfe — Conspiracy of Pontiac, . . . .131 


XXI. Condition of the Colonies — Dawn of the Revolution — 

Writs of Assistance — The Stamp Act, . . . 142 
XXII. The Boston Massacre— Destruction of Tea— The Bos- 
ton Port Bill— The First Continental Congress, . 148 
XXITI. Beginning of the War of Independence — Lexington — 

Concord— Bunker Hill, 156 


XXIV". Washington Commander-in-Chief — Operations in Can- 
ada — Siege of Boston, 1G2 

XXV. The Declaration of Independence, .... 109 
XXVI. Battle of Long Island — Capture of New York — Battle 

of Wliite Plains, 175 

XXVII. Battle on Lake Chaniplain — Washington in the Jerseys 

— Battle of Trenton — Battle of Princeton, . . 180 

XXVIII. Campaign of 1777 — Invitations to Foreign Officers — 
Alfaii's on Long Island Sound — Buttle of the Bran- 
dywine — Capture of I'hiladelphia — Battle of Ger- 

mantown, . 185 

XXIX. Burgoync's Invasion — Battle of Bennington — Surren- 
der of Burgoyne, I'JO 

XXX. Oi)erations of 1778 — Alliance with France — Battle of 

Monmouth — Massacre of Wyoming, .... I'JU 
XXXI. The War in the South— Minor Operations in the North 
and East — Capture of Stony Point — Indian Hostili- 
ties — The Navy — John Paul Jones, .... 202 
XXXII. Capture of Charleston — Inglorious Campaign of Gates 
— Atrocities of Cornwallis — Partisan Leaders in the 
South 209 

XXXIII. Treason of Benedict Arnold — Execution of Major 

Andre, 213 

XXXIV. Arrival of Count Rochambeau — Greene's able Cam- 

paign in tlie South — The Cowpens — Guilford Court- 
Ilouse — Eutaw Springs, ...... 217 

XXXV. The End of the War— Siege of Yorktown— Surrender 
of Cornwallis — Treaty of Peace and Acknowledg- 
ment of American Independence, .... 223 


XXXVI. The Constitution — Administration of Washington — 

Disputes with England 231 

XXXVII. Settlement of the W'est 238 

XXXVIII. The Catholic Church in (lie United States at the end 

of the Revolution, 1:40 

) Contents. 

— ^— 


XXXIX. John iUlainy President, 1797-1801— Hostilities with 

France — Death of Washington, .... 245 
XL. Thomas Jefferson President, IbOl-D— Pureliase of 
Louisiana — War with the Barbary States — CV)nsj)i- 
racy of Aaron Burr — Quarrel with England, . . 250 
XLI. James Madison President, 1809-17 — Tecumseh — Se- 
cond War with England, 256 

XLIL Cam^jaign of 1813— Battle of Lake Erie — Perry, Law- 
rence, and Porter, ,. 260 

XLIII. Campaign of 1814-15 — Lundy's Lane — Plattsburg — 
Burning of Washington — Battle of New Orleans — 

End of the War, 266 

XLIV. War with Algiers — James Monroe President, 1817-25 — 

Purchase of Florida — Slavery — Indian Missions, . 271 
XLV. John Quincy Adams, 1825-29— Andrew Jackson, 1829- 
-37 — Seminole War — Kullification — Martin Van 

Buren, 1837-41, 277 

XLVL John Tyler President, 1841-45 -The Dorr Rebellion— 

The Mormons — Annexation of Texas, . . . 284 
XLVn. The Mexican War — Taylor's Invasion — Fremont in 

California, . . . . . . . . . S88 

XLVIII. General Scott's Campaign — Capture of Mexico — End 
of the War — California — Xew Mexico — The Oregon 

Troubles, 294 

XLIX. General Taylor President, 1849-50— Fillmore's Admin- 
istration, 1850-53 — Slavery — Franklin Pierce Presi- 
dent, 1853-57 — Kansas — Cuba — Know-Nothingism, 302 
L. James Buchanan President, 1857-61 — Mormon Rebel- 
lion — The Dred Scott Decision — John Brown — Elec- 
tion of Abraham Lincoln, 308 

PART F T 1^^ T II . 


LI. Secession — The Confederacy Organized — Capture of 
Fort Sumter— First Battle of Bull Run— Missouri 
and Kentucky— The Blockade— The Ti'cnt Affair, . 313 
LII. Second Year of the War, 1862 — Campaigns in Tennes- 
see and Kentucky — Capture of New Orleans — Tlio 
Monitor and the Merrimac, ..... 3'^4 






Second Year of tho U'ar, continued — McClellan's Pe- 
ninsula (.'anipaign — Invasion of Maryland — Antie- 
tani — Burnside at Fredericksburg, .... Z'So 

Third Year of the War, 1863— Chancellorsville— Get- 
tysburg — Vicksburg — Cliickamauga — Chattanooga — 
Confederate Cruisei-s, 343 

Fourth Year of the Wsir, 1864 — General Grant in 
Command of all the Fcdei-al Armies— Battles of the 
Wilderness — Siege of Petersburg— Early and Sheri- 
dan — Sherman's Atlanta Campaign — Thomas at 
Nashville — Sherman's March to the Sea— Capture of 
Savannah — Farragut at Mobile — He-election of Pre- 
sident Lincoln 353 

The End of the War — Assassination of President 
Liucolu, 305 



LVn. Reconstruction — Impeachment of President Johnson — 
President Grant — The Treaty of Washington — The 
Centenary of Independence — President Hayes, . 371 

LVIII. The Catholic Church in the United States in 1878, . 370 


Declaration of Independence, 
Amendments thereto, . 
Administrations. . 
Battle Record, 



North America, 



The Native Races of America. 

1. First Settlement of America. — Ii is noi known how 
the continent of America was first pcoi)led. Tlie red men 
who occupied the country at tlie time of its discovery hy 
Europeans in the fifteentli century were ])receded hy anotlier 
race, of which few and indistinct traces renuiin. The ic- 

1, IIow was Aint'rica ]H'o|iK'(r/ Wliciice aiv the lii(U;uis supposed 

to have come? 


10 History of the United States. 

— 4" — 
mote ancestors of the American Indians are supposed to 
have migrated from the northeast of Asia, but hoAv they 
came is a subject of mere conjecture. 

2. The Indian Families. — Mexico, Central America, and 
parts of South America were occupied at the time Avhen 
authentic history begins by tribes much more civilized than 
those of the territory now covered by the United States. 
On the North American continent there were numerous small 
and generally hostile tribes which are classed in certain great 

3. The Algon'quin {Mn) tribes inhabited what is now 
New England and the basin of the St. Lawrence and the 
Great Lakes, and extended from Hudson's Bay to North 
Carolina and from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. The 
Mobilian or Muscogee tribes were found between Carolina 
and the Gulf of Mexico. The Huron-Iroquois [ir-ro- 
kicah'), including the famous Five Nations of New York, 
occupied a territory surrounded by the Algonquins, with 
whom they Avere always at war. The Cherokees inha- 
bited the mountain region of Alabama, Georgia, and Caro- 
lina, with the Mobilian family all around them. West of 
the Mississippi were the various Sioux {soo) tribes of the 
North, the New Mexican family of the South, and still 
other families on the Pacific coast. 

4. Characteristics of the Indians. — The clans or tribes 
embraced in these great divisions spoke different languages 
or dialects, and differed a great deal in disposition, but they 
had many characteristics in common. They were copper- 
colored, with coarse black hair, little or no beard, features 
often noble and regular, and a haughty liearing. They 
dressed in skins, or, where the climate was warm, went 

2. T[()\v (lid the tribes of Mexico differ from the tribes further north? 

3. Naiiic the ij^rciit l';iiiiilios of Indiiins. Wind f(MTilory was occupied 
by fivch? 4. Did all Uio iiibcs speak the sfuuc language? 

The N'ativk Races. 11 

— + — 

nearly nuked. They painted the face and body, and deco- 
rated the head with feathers. 

5. They dwelt in rude huts of skin, earth, or branches, 
had no towns, and only a few miserable villages, lived l)y 
the chase, despised agriculture, and usually wandered from 
place to place. While the men hunted, fished, or fought, 
the women did all the drudgery of the family, carried the 
burdens on the march, and gathered the scanty crops of 
maize, potatoes, and tobacco. The weapons in use were 
the bow and arrow, a spear tipped with Hint, a tomahawk 
or stone hatchet, and a club. Iron was unknown. The 
dog, horse, ass, ox, and sheep were not found in any part 
of the continent. 

6. Manners, Customs, Religion.— Many of the islanders 
tirst seen by Columbus were gentle, amiable, and Iiospitable. 
The savages of the Northern continent were in general 
tierce, cruel, cunning, and warlike. They tortured their 
prisoners with the most shocking ingenuity, and bore pain 
with extraordinary firmness. They had no regular govern- 
ment. At the head of each tribe Avas a sachem, sometimes 
recognized as chief by descent, sometimes chosen for his 
ln'a\ ery and wisdoui ; but his authority depended entirely 
upon his personal influence and Avas often disregarded. 

7. The Indians recognized one Supreme Being, whom 
they called the Great Spirit, l)ut they did not worshij) him. 
They believed in a Bad Spirit, whom they tried to propitiate, 
and in many demons, in witches, and in magic. They had 
some :dea of a future state, imagining that after death the 
brave would be taken to the ''happy hunting grounds." 
They had no written language, but they sometimes record- 
ed battles and other incidents by a rude sort of pictures. 

Describe their personal appearance. Dress. 5. Dwellings. Mode of 
life. Weapons. 0. Tlieir dispositions. How were the tribes governed? 
7. Describe their religious belief, llow did they record events i" 




Discovery by the Northmen — Columbus — The Cabots— Vespucci. 

Ruins of the Cathedral of Garda, Oreenlanu. 

1. Discovery of America. — The date of tlie first discovery 
of America by Euroi)eans cannot be given with absolute 
certainty. There are many legends of early voyages hither, 
centuries before Columbus, but the most ancient of them 
are generally regarded as fictions. 

2. Voyages of the Northmen and First Christian Settle- 

1, IIovv arc the legends of early discoveries generally regarded? 


The Kobthmen. 13 

— +— 

ment. — (h-ecnland was discovered in tlic ninth century by an 
Icelander named Guunbiorn, whose ship was driven thither 
by a storm. About one hundred years afterwards Greenland 
was visited by another Icelander named Eric. He explored 
it, and brought over a large body of colonists, with whom he 
founded two settlements on the west coast, and thence, dat- 
ing from the year 1000, expeditions sailed as far south as 
Narraganset Bay, and probably even to the Bay of Xew 
York. Leif, the son of Eric, finding quantities of grapes 
about the shores of Narragansct Bay, gave the name of 
Vinland {vineland) to the fertile and beautiful country. 

3. Iceland having been converted to Christianity about 
this time, missionaries soon came over to the North American 
colonists, and the Greenland settlements are said to have had 
at one period sixteen churches, two monasteries, and a bishop. 
The colonies were destroyed 
in the fourteenth and fif- 
teenth centuries, and, as com- 
munication between Iceland 
and the rest of the world 
was difficult and infrequent, 
tlie discoveries of Eric and 
Leif were forgotten by their 
own countrymen, and never 
known by the other peoi)le.'. 
of Europe. 

4. Christopher Columbus. 
— The existence of America 
was therefore unsuspected by 
the Christian world when Christopher Columbus, a native 
of Genoa, conceived the idea that, by sailing westward from 

2. Wlu'ii was Greenland diseovorod? Describe Eric's voyages. 3. 
Flow many churches existed in Groenhind? What was the fate of the 
colonics y Why were these voyages forgotten? 4. Who was Columbus? 

Chbistopher Columbus. 


— 4— 
some port in Europe, he could reacli the shores of Asia. 
Commerce with the Indies was in the fifteenth century one 
of the chief objects of European enterprise, and the discovery 
of a short route to those ricli countries was the favorite 
dream of maritime adventurers. 

5. The passage around the Cape of Good Hope had not 
yet been attempted. Ships creeping along the northwestern 
coast of Africa never ventured as far as the tropic, and in 
the North Atlantic the boldest sailor did not trust himself 
beyond the Azores. To the west, it was believed, lay an 
impenetrable sea of darkness, and to the south a region of 
boiling water where no man could live for the heat. Colum- 
bus knew that the earth was round, but he supposed it to be 
much smaller than it really is, and he had no suspicion of 
the existence of a continent between the western coasts of 
Europe and the eastern shores of the Indies. 

6. Character and Aims of Columbus. — In seeking for a 
short way to India he was not animated by love of earthly 
gain, but, moved by sincere piety, he hoped to become an in- 
strument for the conversion of the heathen and the recovery 
of the Holy Sepulchre. ''It is a curious and characteristic 
fact," says \Yashington Irving, ''which has never been par- 
ticularly noticed, that the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre was 
one of the great objects of his ambition, meditated through- 
out the remainder of his life and solemnly provided for in 
his will. In fact, he subsequently considered it the main 
work for which he was chosen by Heaven as an agent, and 
that his great discovery Avas but a preparatory dispensation 
of Providence to furnish means for its accomplishment." 

7. Columbus at che Court of Spain. — Columbus ex})lained 
his project and applied for aid at first to the reimblic of 

What led him to desire a voyage westward ? How did commerce affect 
enterprise at that time? /). Wiiat were the limits of navigation? (!. Wliat 
religious motives animated him? What does Irving say of Columbus? 

Columbus. 16 

—^ — 

Gonoii ; then to the king of Purtugiil ; then to Henry A''IL of 
EngUuid ; next, it is said, to the republic of Venice, and after- 
Avard to certain Spanish nobles. Disa})i)ointed in all these ap- 
plications, he had recourse, 
in 1485, to the court of 
Spain. Ferdinand of Ara- 
gon, and his devout and 
high-minded queen, Isabella 
of Castile, uniting their do- 
minions, had raised the Spa- 
nish monarchy at this period 
to great power and renown. 

8. They listened to Co- 
lumbus with respect, and 
Isabella in particiilar was 
deeply moved by his religi- 
ous projects. Cardinal Men- 
doza, archbishop of Toledo, and several other S])anish 
churchmen, also favored his designs ; but a commission of 
learned men to whom Ferdinand referred the matter pro- 
nounced the scheme vain and impracticable, and after seven 
years' delay Columbus turned his steps toward France. 

9. On the way he stopped to beg a little bread and water 
at the convent of La Rabida (rah-bee'-daJi), near the small 
seaport of Palos, in Andalusia. The prior, Juan Perez, who 
had formerly been the queen's confessor, after hearing his 
story, persuaded him to remain at the convent while he re- 
newed the application to Isabella. The good prior pleaded 
the cause of his guest with so much ability that Isabella sent 
for Columbus, and offered to ])ledge her Jewels if the funds 
for the expedition could be obtained in no other way. 

7. To whom did Columbus apply for aid? What was the condition of 
Spain in 1485? 8. How was Columbus received? To whom were his plans 
referred? The decision? 9, How did Perez assist him? The result? 


16 History of the Usiteb Status. 

— 4- — 

10. Preparations for the Voyage.— After negotiation it 
was arningcd that Columbus, tlirougli some of his friends, 
should furnish one-eighth of the necessary funds, and the 
crown of Castile the rest. 
Columbus was invested with 
the rank and privileges of ad- 
miral and viceroy, and grant- 
ed a title to one-tenth of the 
l)rofits of the enteqirise, the 
whole of which share he pro- 
})osed to devote to the recov- 
ery of the Holy Sepulchre. 

11. It was eighteen years 
since the conception of his 
project ; " the greater part of 
that time was passed in al- 
most hojjeless solicitation, 
amidst poverty, neglect, and taunting ridicule ; the prime 
of his life had wasted away in the struggle ; and when his 
perseverance was fimdly crowned with success he was about 
his fifty-sixth year" (Irving). In spite of the orders of the 
crown, it was only with the greatest difficulty that men and 
ships could be obtained for what almost everybody regarded 
as a wild and fatal adventure. 

12. Columbus Discovers the New World. — The fleet, which 
at last set sail from Palos (pah'-Ioce) on the 3d of August, 
1493, consisted of three small vessels, the Sa)ifa Maria [inalt- 
ree'-ah), Pin'ta, and JV^'nr/, (neen'-yah)Ayvo of which Avere light 
barks, called caravels, witliout decks. None of them was fit 
for an ocean voyage. Columbus sailed in the Santa Maria, 
and the two caravels were commanded by the brothers Martin 

10. Describe the preparations for the voyage. How were the profits 

to be divided? 11. Describe the struffglos of C'oluinbiis for suceoss. 
Ilow did sciunen regard this voyiigeV 12. Describe the fleet. 

Fb. Juan Perez. 

Discovery of San Salvador. 17 

—h — 
Alonzo Piuzon {jjeen-thou') unci Vincente Yaiicz {yahn'-yetli) 

Piuzon. The number of persons on the three vessels was 
one hundred and twenty, many of the sailors having been 
embarked by force at the order of the crown. On the morn- 
ino- of their dejjarture the whole expedition confessed and 
received Holy Communion. 

A T £ A ^J- T-**''! C 

O C i:J^A M 'V 
•■-- -■-::.. ,^«"'""^ 

^ '—M^ 

The Koute of Columbus. 

13. They sailed first to the Canary Islands. Thence 
Cohimbus was persuaded that by keeping due west for about 
twenty-two huntlred miles he should reach the island of Ci- 
pango, or Japan, which he sui)posed to lie in about the situa- 
tion actually occupied by Florida. He had fine weather and 
generally favorable winds ; but his men became alarmed at 
the length of the voyage, and were on the point of mutiny 
when, on the night of the 11th of October, 1402, the thirty- 
sixth day after leaving the Canary Islands, Columl)us saw a 
liglit, and at two o'clock on the following morning land was 
made out from the riiil((. 

14. Landing on San Salvador. — Soon after daylight they 
landed on a beautiful island, to which Columbus gave the 

Name the commanders. Describe the crew. What religious duties 
were performed before embarkation? 13. Describe the voyage. When 
was land discovered? IIow long did the voyage last? 

18 History of the United States. 

— I- — 
name of Sun Salvador. It was called by the natives Gnana- 
hani {gwah-nalt-Jiah'-nee), and is now sometimes known as 
Cat Island, one of the Bahama gronp. On reaching the 
shore the discoverers fell on their knees to thank God, and 

''■^^^-^-,*S^->-"-- -7'°'^^!^^^^^pi^^^*i^"^T 

The LANDrao op Columbus. 

then, planting the cross and the Spanish standard, took sol- 
emn possession of the island in the name of Ferdinand 
and Isabella, while the natives crowded ahont them and re- 
vered them as snperior beings descended from heaven. 

15. Columbus in the West Indies. — In the course of twelve 
weeks Columbus visited several of the Bahamas, discovered 
Cuba, which he supposed to be part of the mainland of Asia, 

14. Eelate the incidents of the landing of Columbus. How were the 
Spaniards regarded by the natives? 15. How long did Columbus re- 
main in the New World? What did he accomplish before his return? 

Return of CoTA'Mnus. 19 

— 4- — 
visited the ishuid of Ilayti {hay' -tee), naming it Ilispuuio'la, 
or Little Spain, and leaving thirty-nine nun to form a colony 
on its coast ; then, after losing the Santa Maria by ship- 
wreck, he sailed again for Si)ain. 

16. Columbus Returns to Spain. — He re-entered the jiort 
of Palos, March 15, 14U3, after an absence of seven months. 
Extraordinary honors were lavished upon him, and he was 
conducted in triumph to the court at Barcelona, taking with 
him several Indians and a ([uantity of gold, curious birds and 
animals, and other products of the New World. A second 
expedition was immediately fitted out under his command. 
It consisted of seventeen ships and fifteen hundred men, 
well supplied with everything necessary for the establish- 
ment of a colony. Twelve missionaries accompanied the 
fleet, one of them. Father Bernardo Boyle, a Benedictine, 
having the rank of vicar-ajiostolic. 

17. Second Voyage of Columbus. — Columbus sailed on his 
second voyage September 25, 1493. He found the settle- 
ment on the island of Hispaniola in ruins and all the colo- 
nists dead, their excesses having provoked the hostility of 
the natives. After building a town, which he called Isabella, 
erecting a church, and making arrangements to collect gold, 
he explored the coasts of Hispaniola and Cuba, discovered 
Jamaica, Porto Rico (ree'-co), and other islands, and on his 
return to Spain left his brother Bartholomew in command 
of the settlement. 

18. Third Voyage of Columbus and Discovery of the Main- 
land. — On his third voyage, in 1408, he discovered the South 
American continent and entered the mouth of the river 
Orino'co. ^lutinies, however, broke out in the colony. The 
misconduct of the Spaniards thwarted the labors of the mis- 

16. How was Columbus received on his return ? Describe his second 
voyajjc. W'lio acoompaniod tho fleet? 17. What was accomplished? 
Describe the settlement. 18. When was the mainland discovered? 

20 IIisTonv OF Tine Umted States. 

— 4— 
sioiuiries, tuniod the amiable natives iuto cruel enemies, and 
lessened the expected profits of the crown. The intrigues of 
dissatisfied and avaricious adventurers made so much im- 
pression upon the court that an officer was sent out to inves- 
tigate the affairs of the colony. He listened to everything 
that was said against the admiral, and finally sent him home 
in chains. Isabella, indignant at this outrage, caused Co- 
lumbus to be honored with new marks of the royal favor ; 
but he was never restored to his government, and after the 
death of the queen, Ferdinand treated him with neglect and 

19. Fourth Voyage of Columbus; His Death. — He made 
a fourth voyage in 1502, in the hope of discovering a passage 
from the Caribbean Sea into the Indian Ocean, and on this 
expedition, which was crowded with disaster, he explored 
part of the coast of Central America. He died in poverty 
and distress at Valladolid {val-lah-do-hd') in 1506. He never 
knew that he had found a new world, but supposed to the 
last that he had reached eastern Asia. 

20. Cabot Discovers the North American Continent. — In 
the meantime other expeditions had followed in the path 
pointed out by Columbus. John Cabot, a Venetian, sailed 
from England with a single vessel, under a commission from 
Henry VII., and on June 24, 1497, discovered the North 
American continent, more than a year before the mainland 
of South America was seen by Columbus. He traced the 
coast from Labrador or Cape Breton to Virginia. Ilis son 
Sebastian the next year made another voyage, ami sailed from 
Newfoundland to Cape Hatteras. 

21. The Spaniards on the Coast of South America. — These 
English voyages had no immediate result. The Spaniards, 

How were the missionaries thwarted ? Why was Columbus deprived 
of power? 10. Describe his fourth voviitjo. Did he ever understand the 
extent of his discoveries ? 30. Describe the voyages of the Cabots. 

The PoRTnoTTESE. 21 

— + — 

liowever, continued their ex})loratious in the soutlieni part 
of the New World with the utmost energy and speed. Vin- 
ceute Yafiez Pinzon, Pedro Niiio {neen'-yo), and Alonzo de 
Ojeda {o-hay'-dah), companions of Cohimbus, sailed on inde- 
pendent voyages to the coast of South America in 1499. 

22. All these were private enterprises, fitted out at the 
cost of Spanish merchants ; and of the same character were 
the expeditions of Diego de Lepe {I(iy'-jn(y) and Eodrigo 
de Bastides {bas-tee'-dcs) in 15U0. In the course of two or 
three years these daring adventurers explored a large part of 
the coasts of Venezuela, Guiana, and Brazil. The most dis- 
tinguished of them was Ojeda, who made three voyages to 
the New AVorld, and died iu San Domingo after a most ro- 
mantic career. 

23. The Portuguese. — The Portuguese, who had just dis- 
covered the route to the Indies by way of tlie Cape of Good 
Hope, followed close after the Si)aniards, One of their 
fleets, commanded hy Cabral, reached Brazil l)y accident, on 
a voyage to India, in 1500, and Cabral, believing himself to 
be the first discoverer of the country, landed and took pos- 
session of it in the name of the King of Portugal. 

24. In the same year a Portuguese expedition, under 
Gasjiar Cortereal {ror-fdy-ray-al'), was sent to look for a 
northern route to India. Either on this voyage or a 
second one. in 1501, Cortereal explored the American coast 
for five hundred or six hundred miles, being stopi)ed by 
ice in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. He seized a number of 
Indians as slaves, and called the country Labrador, a name 
which was afterwards transferred to a region further 
north. Cortereal never returned from his second voyage, 
and his fate is unknown. 

21. How did the voyages of Columbus and of the Cabots affect their 
respoftive oountries? 22. Name five Spanish adventurers. 23. Describe 
Cabral's voyage. 24, (Jortereal's voyages. 

23 History of the United States. 

— •!• — 

25. Amerigo Vespucci. — One of the comjianioiis of Ojeda 
on liis first expedition was a Florentine merchant named 
Amerigo Vespucci {a-mer-ree'-go ves-poot'-chee). In 1501 lie 
made a voyage of his own to Brazil under the patronage of 
the king of Portugal, and sailed much further south than 
any navigator had gone before. He wrote the first published 
account of the New World, and his work excited so much 
interest that the credit of discovering the continent was 
wrongly assigned to him, and it was called America in his 


The Spanish Explorers — Ponce de Leon, Ayllon, Narvaez, De Soto — 
The First Missionaries — The Spaniards and Huguenots in Flori- 
da — St. Francis Borgia and Pope St. Pius V. and the Indians. 

1. Character of the Spanish Explorers. — The first Spanish 
explorers of the New World were animated by a thirst for 
daring adventure and a zeal for the Catholic religion which 
resembled the chivalrous enthusiasm of the Crusaders. But 
they had not the piety, pure sentiment, benevolence, and 
unselfish ambition of Columbus ; and. while they invited 
missionaries to accompany their expeditions, in order to con- 
vert the savages, they were not willing to submit themselves 
to the instructions of these religious guides. 

2. Next to the fascination of bold enterprise their chief 
impulse was a love of gold. The small quantity of that pre- 
cious metal, which they saw in the possession of the natives 
convinced them that there were mines and rich cities in the 
interior, and many hundreds of lives were lost in searching 

25. Describe Vespucci's voyage. Why was the new continent called 
America? 1. By what were the ftrst Spanish explorers animated? How 
did they differ from Columbus? How did they treat the missionaries? 

Las Casas. 23 

for them. The customs of tlic age were barbarous and cruel, 
aud the Spaniards, iu their hunt for gold, were guilty of 
outrages upon the savages which soon made those unhapi)y 
people enemies of the whole white race. 

3. The Indians were distributed as slaves among the con- 
querors, and compelled to dig in mines, to cultivate the 
e:round, and to serve instead of beasts of burden. Under 
hardships for which their previous way of life had not i)re- 
pared them they died Avith awful rapidity. Queen Isabella 
suppressed these cruel abuses, but they were revived after 
her death. Bartholomew de Las Casas, the first priest or- 
dained in the Xew World, devoted himself with extraordi- 
nary ardor to the relief of the poor natives, and made several 
voyages to Spain to demand redress from the crown. 

4. At his instigation. Cardinal Ximenes (Iie-may'-nez), the 
minister of Charles Y., appointed a commission of eccle- 
siastics to devise a scheme of reform, and Las Casas Avas 
honored witli the title of Protector-General of the Indians. 
He afterwards became a Dominican and Bishop of Chiai)a 
[che-ah'-jMiIt) in Mexico, continuing his zealous labors in the 
face of great opposition, and encouraging his Dominican 
brethren in that enlightened care for the welfare of the 
Indians for Avhich the missionaries of that order were so 
highly distinguished. 

5. Rapid Progress of Discovery and Settlement. — Al- 
though the avarice and rapacity of the Spaniards continu- 
ally thwarted the work of the missions, the material growth 
of their colonies Avas very rapid. The settlements in Cuba, 
Ilispaniola, and other islands became points of dei)arture 
for many important expeditions to the mainland. Within 
four or five years of the death of Columbus they occupied 

2. What turned the savages into enemies? 3. Wliat did Las Casas aim 
to accomplish? 4. Describe his life and works. 5. TTow did the Spanish 
colonies prosper? What did the West Indian settlements become? 

24 History of the Uxtted States. 

tlie coasts of Central America and Southern Mexico, every- 
where forming colonies, collecting gold, silver, dye-stulfs, 
and other valuable products, and setting up royal governors, 
who pushed their discoveries still further and further. 

6. The South Sea, or the ocean washing the shores of 
Asia, was found in 1513 by Yasco Nuilez [noon'-nefli) de 
Balbo'a, who crossed the Isthmus of Panama, and, wading 
into the Pacific, took possession of it in the name of the 
Spanish sovereign. Mexico was visited by Cor'dova in 1517 ; 
Cortes sailed from Havana to conquer it in 1519 ; Pizar'ro 
went from Panama to the conquest of Peru in 1531. 

7. Discovery of Florida. — Before this, however, the Sj^an- 
iards had crossed over to the present territory of the United 
States. Six years after the death of Columbus, Ponce 
de Leon {jmne'-tha-da-la-on') sailed from Porto Rico in 
search of a land towards the north where it Avas reported 
that gold abounded, and a fountain bubbled up in the 
forest whose Avaters conferred upon all who drank of them 
the gift of perpetual youth. 

8. He discovered Florida in 1512, and gave it the name 
by Avhich it is still known, because ho first saAv it on Easter 
Sunday, which the Spaniards called Pascua de Flores, or 
the pascli of flowers. De Leon was appointed governor of 
this ncAV territory on condition that he would colonize it. 
He accordingly returned in 1521 with the first expedition 
which undertook the coiKpiest of any jiart of tlie United 
States, but ho Avas driven away mortally Avour^ded. 

9. Ayllon and Gomez. — Yasquez {vahs'-lrth) de Ayllon 
[ile-yon) renoAved the attemiit in 1525 Avith six hundred 
men, explored the coast as far north as Maryland, and 
made scA'eral expeditions inland ; but three-fourths of the 

G. Describe tlie discovery of the Pacific. Who conquered Mexico? 
Peni? 7. Wliiit led to tlie discovery of Florida? 8. Why was it so 
named? Describe De Leon's second vovago. 9. De Avllon's A^oA'age. 

De Soto. 25 

— 4,— 

party, including tlic commander, perished miserably. Gomez 

about tlie same time made an examination of the middle 

AtUiutic coast in search of a passage to tlie East, and 

brought away a cargo of slaves. 

10. Narvaez and the First Missionaries. — Panfilo de 
Narvaez led an exjiedition into Florida in 1528, looking 
for gold, and was lost with his whole company except 
four men, who coasted along the Gulf of Mexico in a canoe, 
and finally, after six years' Avandoring, reached the Spanish 
settlements on the Gulf of Mexico. Narvaez Avas accom- 
panied by several missionaries, one of wliom, a Francis- 
can, Juan Juarez {Jioo-an' Jtoo-ah'-res), had been consecrated 
Bishop of Florida. These were the first missionaries within 
the present limits of the United States, and Juarez the 
first bishop. They all perished without the opportunity of 
making any establishment. 

11. De Soto on the Mississippi. — Hernando de Soto landed 
at Tampa Bay, Florida, in 1539. With nearly a thousand 
men, pi'cpared for conquest and colonization, he moved in- 
land, searching for gold and pearls, and everywhere pillaging 
and outraging the Indians. After two years of marching (ind 
fighting he crossed the Mississippi River (1541), not far from 
the present site of Memphis. Although De Soto is. generally 
called the discoverer of the Mississippi, the river must have 
been previously seen by the survivors of the expedition of 
Panfilo de Narvaez, and for twenty years its existence had 
been known to the Spaniards, who Jiamod it the River of 
1 he Holy Ghost. "Worn out with misfortunes, De Soto died 
in 154.2 and was buried in the Avaters of the Mississippi. 

12. The remnant of his expedition, after fruitless at- 
tempts to reach the coast by a land march, built boats on 

What is said of Gomez? 10. Narvaez? By whom was Narvaez ac- 

companicil? What becaino of tlioin? 11. What wore the objects of De 
Soto's expedition? Describe its progress. The result. 

26 History of the United States. 

— + — 
the river, forging nails from the fetters of their Indian 
slaves, twisting cordage from the bark of the mulberry, and 
using Indian mantles for sails. Thus they descended to the 
Gulf and reached the Spanish settlement of Panuco, in 
Mexico. They were in sad plight, having been absent four 
yeai-ri, lost two-thirds of their number, and accomplished 
nothing of value. The missionaries who set out with them 
could do nothing in the face of the excesses of the soldiers, 
and all of them died during the expedition. 

13. Dominican Martyrs in Florida. — In 15i9 the Domini- 
can Father Cancer made an heroic attempt to establish the 
faith in Florida without the help of arms. The Spanish 
king, Philip II., placed a ship at his disposal, and he sailed 
with three other Dominicans from Havana, first publishing a 
royal decree to release all natives of Florida held in slavery. 
He landed at Appalachee Bay, and was immediately put to 
death by the Indians, the expedition being thereupon aban- 

14. Spaniards at Pensacola. — Ten years later Don Tristan 
de Luna sailed from Mexico with a considerable fleet, sol- 
diers and their wives, and a number of priests, to attempt 
the colonization of Florida. He landed in Pensacola Bay, 
but encountered only misfortunes, and abandoned the enter- 
prise after two years' trials. 

15. Spaniards in New Mexico. — ^Meanwhile the Spanish 
colonists in Mexico sent out expeditions which penetrated 
into the territory now belonging to the United States, and 
examined the coast of California. The Franciscan Father 
Mark, of Nice, led a small party of discovery into New 
Mexico in 1539, and took back reports of a civilization quite 
different from the rude condition of most of the North 

12. What was the experience of the missionaries? What became of 
thorn? 13. What noble work did Father Cancer attempt? The resnlt ? 
14. Describe De Luna's expedition. 15, Wliat was done by Father Mark? 

St. Augusttne. 27 

— + — 

A.merican tribes. He gave such accounts of some large 
iowns, known as the Seven Cities of Cibola, which he had 
seen from a distance, that the viceroy of Mexico sent an ex- 
)editiou under Vasquez de Coronado to exi)lore the region 
[154:0), Father Mark and four other Franciscans making 
3art of the company. 

16. Tlie seven cities proved to be poor towns, and the 
Spaniards returned disappointed. Father John de Padilla 
md Brother Jolm of the Cross remained to found a mission 
iniong the Indians, but they were soon martyred. The same 
'ate befell three Franciscans — Father Rodriguez, Father Lo- 
)ez, and Father Jolm de Santa Maria — who attempted to 
Jhristiunize Xew ^loxieo in 1580. 

17. Settlement of St. Augustine ; Massacre of the French. 
— Tlie lirst })ernuineut settlement in what is now the United 
states was made by the Spaniards at St. Augustine, Florida, 
n September, 1505. The story of the foundation of this 
lolony is one of the saddest chapters in the annals of the 
lountry. A party of French Huguenots under John Ribault 
re'-ho') had visited the St. John's River of Florida in 1502, 
md had planted a small colony at Port Royal Inlet, South 
Carolina, which did not long live. 

18. Huguenots under Laudonniere (Jo-do n-f/rnr') landed 
)n the St. John's River two years later and built a fort 
diich they named Fort Caroline. Like other settlers they 
'o])bed and murdered the natives, searched for gold instead 
•f cultivating the ground, and suffered terribly from their 
>wn misconduct. They quarrelled among themselves, and 
> party of them, seizing four of the ships, turned pirates 
,nd went off to prey upon the Spaniards in the West 
ndies. Ribault came out with re-enforcements in 1505. 

What region did Coronado explore? 16. Were the first New Mexican 
nissions supoessf 111 ? 17. What can you say of St. Aue:nstinc'? Of Ri- 
lault's colony ? 18. Laudonniere's colony ? Describe the colonists. 

28 History of the United States. 

— 4- — 

19. Only a week later arrived a Sjianish fleet under Pedro 
Melendez {ma-leii'-detlt), one of the most famous captains ol 
the age, commissioned by Philip II. to destroy all French 
settlements in the territory of which the Spaniards claimed 
the ownership. Ribault set sail to jittack the Spaniards by 
sea, but his fleet was wrecked in a storm and he was left 
helpless on the coast. Meanwhile Melendez, avIio had landed 
near the site of St. Augaistine, marched against Fort Caro- 
line, took it by surjjrise, and put the garrison to the sword, 
only Laudonniere and a few of his followers escaping. Ri- 
bault and most of his men afterwards surrendered, and were 
massacred in cold blood ; a remnant of the Frenchmen were 
captured and sent to the galleys. 

20. Spaniards on the Atlantic Coast. — Having thus se- 
cured the Spaniards in the possession of the southern coast, 
Melendez laid the foundation of St. Augustine, which re- 
mained for seventeen years the only European colony within 
tlie limits of the present United States, if we except cer- 
tain small Spanish outposts Avhich the St. Augustine settlers 
maintained for a short time on the coast further north. 
The most important of these were on the St. John's, Flo- 
rida, and at Crista, or St. Helena, on Port Royal harbor. 
South Carolina. 

21. Massacre of Spanish Settlers. — Three years after the 
massacre of the Huguenots a French adventurer, Dominic 
de Gourges {deh-goorg'), having fitted out an expedition at 
his own risk, sailed for the Spanish settlements on the St. 
John's, and, with the help of the Indians, destroyed three 
forts and slew four or five hundred men. St. Augustine, 
however, was not attacked. 

22. The Jesuit Missions in Florida. — Very soon after the 

19. Describe the movements of Melendez. Of Ribault. What was 
the fute of tlie French? 20. Name tlie imi)orl!Uit Spanish outposts. 
21. What was the object of the expedition of De Gourges? Its result? 

Early Missioxaries. 09 

— + — 

Spaniards had established tliemsclvcs in Florida the condi- 
tion of tlie missions in that part of the world attracted the 
particular attention of St. Francis Borgia, the general of the 
Society of Jesus. He sent Father Peter Martinez with two 
associates to attempt the conversion of the natives ; but Fa- 
ther Martinez was immediately put to death by the savages 
near St. Augustine (15(J(J), and bis companions went to Ha- 
vana to prepare themselves for further attempts by learning 
the languages of tbe Florida tribes from the slaves held in 
that settlement. The Father-General sent out a number of 
other missionaries, with Father John Baptist Segura as vice- 
liroviueial (1508) ; an earnest effort was made by Father 
John Roger to plant mission settlements, and a school was 
established at Havana for the instruction of' Indian converts 
and tlie training of missionaries. 

23. The Pope and the Spanish Settlers. — Pope St. Pius V. 

in 15(J9 addressed a brief to 
the viceroy, Meleudez, com- 
mending the missions to liis 
care, and urging him es]>eci- 
ally to check tlio vices and im- 
moralities ot the colonists, 
wliich had tlius far rendered 
tlie lal)ors of the priests fruit- • 
less. " This," said the pontiff, 
*' is the key of this holy work, 
in which is included the whole 
essence of your charge." 

24. Jesuits on the Rappa- 
hannock. — Several other at- 
tempts to establish the faith on the Nortli American con- 

The Jesuit Teacher. 

22. What can you say of St. Francis Borgia? Who were sent by him 
to Plnri(l;i? What became of Father Martinez? What did Father 
Roger attempt ? 28. State the substance of the Pope's brief to Melcudez. 

30 History of the United States. 

— -f — 

tinent having failed, Father Segura, with four other Je- 
suits, a baptized Indian chief called Don Luis, and four 
Indian boys from the school at Havana, undertook in 
1570 to found a mission on the Chesapeake, or Bay of 
St, Mary, far from any Spanish settlement. They built 
a chiipel which they named Our Lady of Axacan, probably 
on the Eappaliannock, below the })resent site of Fredericks- 
burg, Virginia, and there spent a hard winter. Don Luis 
apostatized, and under his lead the Indians massacred the 
whole party except one of the boys (February, 1571). The 
Jesuits after this abandoned the Florida mission and trans- 
ferred themselves to Mexico. 

25. The Franciscans in Florida. — The Franciscans next 
attempted the conversion of the Indians. They had a con- 
vent at St. Augustine and a number of stations in the neigh- 
boring country, where they gathered the savages into villages 
and taught them the habits of civilization as well as the 
doctrines of the faith. In 1597 nearly all these stations 
were destroyed and the friars put to death by a rising of the 
Indians. Other Franciscans arrived, however, four years 
later, and Florida was soon erected into the Franciscan pro- 
vince of St. Helena, so named from the convent at St. Au- 

26. In a short time the Franciscans had twenty con- 
vents or residences in the vast region which then went by 
the name of Florida ; and gradually they established settle- 
ments of Christian Indians far inland, which flourished for 
nearly a hundred years. They were greatly strengthened in 
1693 by the founding of Pensacola, where the Spaniards 
made a fortified settlement and dedicated it with great 
solemnity to the Blessed Virgin. 

24. Who attempted to establish a mission on the Chesapeake? State 
the riroTitnsianecs and the result. 35. What elTorts were jnade by the 
Franciscans ? Did the Franciscans persevere ? 20. Witli wliat result ? 

Mtsswxs IX Flohtda axd New Mexico. 31 
— * — 

27. Catholic Missions Destroyed by the English and the 
Indians. — Tlie Spanish luissious in Florida and Georgia were 
at last almost wholly destroyed by the English, who attacked 
them with the help of their pagan Indian allies, the Ala- 
bamas, and carried off the converts to bo sold as slaves. In 
1705 the English and the Alabamas took St. Mark's, the 
chief settlement of the Appalachee mission, massacred eight 
hundred Indians and three friars, and carried off an im- 
mense number of slaves. 

28. The missions lasted, however, until Florida was ceded 
to England in 1TG3 ; then the Franciscans left the colony 
with most of the Spanish settlers, and the Christian Indians, 
being expelled from their churches and mission-buildings, 
were driven into the forests, where they lost all trace of 
faith and civilization, and became the fierce tribe known as 
Seminoles, or "wanderers." 

29. Franciscans in New Mexico. — In the meantime Span- 
ish Franciscans had continued their missionary labors in 
New Mexico, where Santa Fe, the second permanent settle- 
ment in the United States, was founded by Don Antonio de 
Espejo {es-pny'-lio) in 1582. The Catholic missionaries had 
prosperous communities of industrious and educated In- 
dians in Xew Mexico long before the Puritans established 
themselves in New England ; they had penetrated into Texas 
as early as 1544: ; and they had attempted the conversion of 
California, where the Carmelites and Jesuits were also jiio- 
neers of the cross. The Spanish missions in all these 
regions lasted with some interruptions down to our day. 

27. "What fate befell those missions? How were the captives treated? 
38, Why were the Florida missions discontinued? Wliat became of 
the Christian Indians? 2!). In what other region weiT the Fi'anciscans 
at work? Wliat can you say of Santa Fe? What was accompHshed by 
these missions? Whence weiv tliey extended? What other religious or- 
ders were at work in this field? How lonjr did these missions last? 

32 History of the United States. 

— •?• — 


The French Adventurers and Missionaries — Settlement of Canada 
— The Jesuits in Maine and New York — Exploratioi; of the 
Mississippi — Marquette, Joliet, La Salle. 

Marquette Sailing down the Mississippi. 

1. The French in the North. — While the Spaniards were 
e\[)I()riiig tlic southern part of the continent the French 
were making discoveries at tlie nortli. They visited Cape 
lireton and the mouth of tlie St. Lawrence at the beginning 
of the sixteenth century, and engaged in tlie cod-fishery off 
Newfoundland. In 1523 the French king, Francis I., sent 

1. What part of the continent was explored by the Spanish? What, 
were the French doins: in the meantime ? Describe their progress. 
Whore were the eod-tislicries ? Whom did Francis I. send out ? 



out an expedition under the Florentine Verrazzuni {rer- 
rat-tmh'-ne), which examined the coast from North Carolina 
to Maine in search of a passage to the Indies, and probably 
entered Narraganset and New York bays. To Verrazzani 
belongs the credit of recognizing that America was not a 
})art of the Indies but a new world, and that the globe was 
much larger than Columbus had imagined. 

Present State of the old Jesuit Mission Station, near Montreal. 

2. Cartier in Canada. — All the most im])ortaut of the 
French enterprises in America were associated with flie 
Catholic missions, James Cartier [i-dr-ft'-ai/) was sent out l)y 
the king of France in Ir/iU. and in consequence of liis favor- 
able report of Newfouudlaiul a second expedition uudci- liis 
command was despatelied in 1535, with the doulile purpose 
of establishing a trading colony and converting the Indians. 

What did he accomplish ? For what is he entitled to credit ? 2. 
Wliat is said of tho important Fronoli ontori)risos ? Give the result of 
Cartier's fii-st expedition. Give the objects of the second expedition. 



— + — 

Before embarking at St. Malo, Oartier, who was a man of 
much religious feeling, caused all his men to assemble in the 
cathedral, where, after receiving communion, tliej entered 
the sanctuary and the bishop solemnly blessed them. 

3. On this voyage Cartier ascended the St, Lawrence 
River as far as Hochelaga, the present site of Montreal, and 
built a small fort near Stadacona, where Quebec now stands. 
Francis de la Roque {deh-lah-roke), lord of Roberval, in Pic'- 
ardy, having obtained a charter from the French crown 
covering all this territory, despatched Cartier with a third 
expedition in 15-41, and followed in jjerson, with three ships, 
the next year. None of these attempts at colonization, how- 
ever, were successful. Roberval perished on his way to Ca- 
nada again in 1549. 

4. Huguenots; Convicts. — 
The next attempt of the 
French was the unfortunate 
expedition of the Huguenots 
under Ribault to Florida, of 
which the story has already 
been given. The Marquis de la 
Roche (rosh), who succeeded to 
Roberval's patent, took a col- 
ony of forty convicts to Sable 
Island, near the coast of Nova 
Scotia, in 1598, but most of 
them died miserably and the 
rest were taken off a few years later. 

5. Voyage of Champlain. — Samuel Champlain, a pious 
and enthusiastic French Catholic, established a colony at 
Port Royal, in Acadia {JVova Scot id), in 1G05, in comjjany 

What ceremonies were performed before oinbarkntion ? 3. What did 
he accomplish ? Give an account of his tliinl expedition. The result 
of these expeditions ? 4. What is said of the Sable Island Colony ? 


MissTox/^ 7.V N'uVA Scott A akd ^fAiXE. 35 

— -i" — 

with the Sioiir de Monts. The hitter was a Protestant, l)ut 
it was provided in the royal patent anthorizing the enterprise 
that the savages shoukl be taught the Catholic faith. The 
()l)jcct of the venture was fishing and fur-trading, and De 
Monts obtained exclusive rights over all tlie territory be- 
tween the fortieth and lifty-fourth parallels (from New Jer- 
sey to Labrador). Two years afterwards the colony was 
abandoned, I)ut in IGIO it was reoccupied and made a cen- 
tral station for tbe .losuit missions among the Indians. 

6. Missionary Settlements in Nova Scotia and Maine. — 

The person to whom this mis- 
sionary scheme of settlement 
within the present limits of 
the New England States was 
principally indebted was the 
Marchioness de Guercheville, a 
devout French lady, to whom 
De Monts had ceded his patent, 
and to whom the French king 
afterwards granted all New 
France ; in this designation 
tbe Frencli embraced the 
whole territory which now 
forms the United States. 

7. A mission settlement was 
made at her cost at .Mount 
Desert on the coast of Maine, 
but it was soon broken up ])y 
the English, who claimed an 
exclusive right to all this territory, and accordingly sent an 
expedition from Virginia under Captain Argall to drive the 

5. Where did Champlain found a colony ? Why did he associate 
himself with De Monts? Why was Port Hoyjii rooc*('u[)ie(l ? G. De.schbe 
the limits of New France. 7. Describe the mussion on Mount Desert. 

The Dead Jesott. 

36 History of the United States. 

— 4- — 

French away. Argall destroyed all the French settlements 
on this part of the coast, killed one of the Jesuits and car- 
ried off two others as prisoners. They suffered a long cap- 
tivity hefore they finally made their way to Eurojie. 

8. Explorations by Champlain and the Jesuits. — Further 
north the French settlements prospered. Champlain ex- 
plored part of New York, and discovered the lake which 
bears his name, 1609. The Jesuits, who were very success- 
ful in the Canada mission, made many fruitful excursions 
among the Indians of Maine, New York, Ohio, Michigan, 
Illinois, and Wisconsin, exploring the interior of the coun- 
try and founding Christian villages. 

9. The Jesuits in New York. — The French made friends 
of the Huron and Algonquin tribes in Canada, but, together 
with their Indian allies, they were involved in bloody wars 
with the fierce Iroquois, or Five 
Nations, of New York, in the 
course of which many of the 
Jesuits suffered martyrdom. 
Among the most celebrated of 
this heroic company were Father 
Isaac Jogues, who, after the 
most horrible tortures, Avas kill- 
ed at Caughnawaga, New York, 
in 1G4G, and Fathers Lalemant 
and Bri'beuf. who Avere fastened 
to stakes and slowly hacked to 
pieces Avitli indescribable cruelties at the mission of St. 
Ignatius in 1G49. 

10. A few weeks before his death. Father Jogues dis- 
covered Lake Geoi'ge, and named it Lake of the Blessed 

Father Brebeup. 

8. What did (.'ham plain rtccomplish ? In what were the Jesuits suc- 
pesstul ? n. What led to the martyrdom of many Jesuits ? Name a 
few of the sufferers. 10. What did Father Jogues discover 'i 

Fattier JFarquette. 37 

— + — 
Sacrament, because tlie day Avas tlic feast of Corpus Cliris- 
ti. The Hurons Avere finally destroyed or dispersed by 
the Iroquois, and by this catastrophe the thriving Jesuit 
missions in New York were broken up. The indefatigaljle 
priests, however, soon resumed their labors, and began the 
still more diflficult and dangerous task of converting the 
savage Iroquois. 

11. Marquette on the Mississippi. — In 1673 the Jesuit 
Father Marquette {/cef), who had been for several years a 
missionary among the fugitive Hurons on Lake Michigan, 
succeeded in reaching the Mississippi by crossing Wisconsin. 
His object was to open the Avay for fuMher missionary ef- 
forts. He was accompanied by Louis Joliet {zhole'-e-ay), a 
fur-trader commissioned by the governor of Canada to seek 
a passage by this route to the South Sea, as the river, of 
which earlier missionaries had given some report, was sup- 
posed to empty into the Gulf of California. 

12. Marcjuette and Joliet floated down the Mississippi 
in bark canoes as far as the moutli of the Arkansas, and 
on their discoveries the French established their claims to 
the great West. Afterwards, under the orders of Fronte- 
nac, governor of Canada, La Salle explored the Mississippi 
to the Gulf of Mexico. In 1G84 he attempted to found a 
colony at the mouth of the great river, but he was killed 
in a revolt of liis men, and the exi)ediiion ended in dis- 

What became of the Hurons ? What task did the Jesuits next at- 
tempt ? 11. What is said of Father Marquette ? What was JoHet com- 
missioned to seek ? 12. On what diil the French base liieir claims to 
t lie great West ? What did La ttallc accompUsh ? What was his fate ? 

38 History of the United States. 

— 4- — 


First English Settlements — Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Walter 
Raleigh — The English in Virginia — Early Voyages to New 
England — The Dutch in New York. 

1. Early English Voyages. — Although the English claim- 
ed the northern part of this continent in right of Cabot's 
discovery (1497), it was nearly eighty years before they made 
any serious attempt to exjilore it. Meanwhile, however, in 
common with other nations, they often visited the New- 
foundland Fishing Banks. An expedition in which Cardi- 
nal Wolsey seems to have had some interest reached New- 
foundhmd in 1527, and another landed there in 153G, but 
neither accomplished j:iny valual:)le result. 

2. Search for a Northwest Passage. — In the latter part of 
the sixteenth century the sj^irit of maritime adventure from 
which England has derived so much honor and advantage 
became aroused. Under the influence of Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert and other enterprising gentlemen tlie search for a 
Northwest passage to the Indies was taken up with great 
ardor. In the hope of finding a way by sea from Europe to 
Asia, by sailing westward around tlie northern coast of 
America (a problem which engaged the attention of British 
explorers during the next tliree hundred years, and was only 
settled in our own day by tlie Arctic discoveries of McClure 
and Sir John Franklin), Martin Frobisher made three voy- 
ages between 1576 and 1578, gave his name to the strait 
which leads into Hudson's Bay, and brought home shiploads 
of ''l)laek ore^md pretty stones," which he wrongly supposed 
to contain gold. John Davis made three voyages in search 

1. On what were Ensrland's claims based ? Did they take iininediale 
possession ? Wliat, valiial)le territory seemed to be common property ? 
3. How did the scarcli for the Northwest passage affect enterprise ? 


of the Nortliwesfc route to Indiu (1585-87), and discovered 
the strait called by his name wiiich oi)ens into Baffin's Bay. 

3. The English on the Pacific— Sir Francis Drake in the 
meantime had reached the Pacific by the Strait of Magellan 
(1578), pillaged the Spanish settlements in Peru and Chili, 
taken possession of California in the name of Queen Eliza- 
beth, and, after a vain attempt to find a northern jjassage to 
the Atlantic, had returned to England by the Cai)e of (Jood 
Hope, thus circumnavigating the globe— a feat wliich no one 
excei)t the Portuguese Mui^-ellan had performed before. 

4. Sir Humphrey Gilbert.— The first Englishman to un- 
dertake the colonization of the American continent was Sir 
Humphrey Gilbert. The Spaniards had been established in 
the South for a hundred years, and the French had made 
several attempts to settle in Canada, when Gilbert obtained a 
charter from Queen Elizabeth for the discovery and occui)a- 
tion of countries lying between Florida and New France. 
His half-brother, "Walter Ealeigh {raw'-U), one of the most 
gallant, accomplished, and influential of Elizabeth's cour- 
tiers, was associated Avith him in the enteri)rise, and bore a 
large share of the cost. 

5. lu 1583 Gil])ert sailed with five ships and two hun- 
dred and sixty men, among whom were a number of me- 
chanics. He took possession of Newfoundland, where he 
encountered fishing and trading vessels of various nations, 
and then proceeded southward ; but one of his ships had 
deserted, another had been sent home with the sick and 
discontented, a third Avas Avrecked, the colonists Avere 
mutinous, and Sir Humphrey, after collecting a quantity 
of AvortMcss mineral Avhich he supposed to be silver, em- 
barked for home Avith the remnant of the expedition. The 

Name the early English navigators. 3. Describe Drake's Pacific 

voyago. 4. Wliat did Gilbert attempt ? What had Jicoii done pre- 
viously by other nations ? 5. Describe Gilbert's attempt at settlement. 


History of the United States. 

vessel ill which he sailed foundered on the voyage, and all 
on board perished. 

6. Sir Walter Raleigh. — Raleigh now obtained a patent 
for himself, and in 158-1 sent out two ships, commanded by 
Philip Aniidas and Arthur Barlow, to tlx upon a place for 
a settlement. They sailed along the coast of North Caro- 
lina, entered Pamlico Sound, landed on one of the low, 
sandy islands which separate 
the sound from the ocean, 
and visited Roanoke Island, 
where the Indians received 
them with great kindness. 
It Avas midsummer ; the coun- 
try seemed to them wonder- 
fully beautiful and fertile ; 
and they carried home a most 
alluring report of it. Raleigh 
received, in acknowledgment 
of his enterprise, the honor 
of knighthood and a grant 
of certain trading monopo- 
lies, and, in compliment to the 
the new land Virginia. 

7. The First English Colony. — The next spring (April, 
1585) Raleigh sent out a larger expedition to form a perma- 
nent colony. There Avei'e seven ships, under command of 
Sir Richard Grenville, and the settlers nuinl)ered about one 
hundred, witli Ral})h Lane for governor. Sailing from Ply- 
mouth, they first visited the Canaries and the West Indies, 
cai)turing some Spanish vessels, and after a three months' 
voyage they reached Roanoke Island. There they laid the 

6. Describe the first expedition under Raleigh's patent. What terri- 
tory was visited ? How was Raleigh ivwarded for his enterprise ? 7. 
Describe the Roanoke Island colony. Who was appqinted governor 'i 

Sir Walter Raleigh. 

virgin queen," he called 

S/n Tr.i/.VA'A' liALKTair. 41 

— + — 
foundations of a town, Grenville returning to England with 

a promise to send tliem fresh sujiplies. 

8. Repaying the hospitality of the natives with base 
outrages, tliey were soon involved in war ; they went off in 
search of gold, which they did not find ; they neglected to 
raise corn ; and before long they Avere reduced to feed on 
sassafras leaves and dogs' flesh. The next year Sir Francis 
Drake, having pillaged and burned St. Augustine during a 
cruise against the Spaniards, visited Roanoke and found the 
settlers so discontented that they all gladly accepted his 
offer of a passage to England. 

9. They carried tobacco with them, and Raleigh made 
smoking fashionable in England, though the Portuguese 
had introduced the plant into Portugal and France nearly 
thirty years before. Shortly after the departure of the col- 
onists from Roanoke, Grenville arrived Avith sui)plies, only 
to find the island deserted. lie left fifteen men to hold 
possession, and then returned to England. 

10. The City of Raleigh.— In 1587 Sir Walter Raleigh 
sent out from Plymouth a new colony of one hundred and 
fifty men and women, with John White for governor, and 
gave them a charter for the establishment of "the City 
of Raleigh." Again Roanoke Island Avas found deserted, 
and the fate of the fifteen men left there by Grenville 
was never ascertained. White landed his party and re- 
turned to England to ask for further help. 

11. The English nation, howcA'er, was at this time put- 
ting fortli all its resources to resist the threatened invasion 
by the Spanish Armada ; no ships could be spared for 
America ; it was three years before White could return to 
his post ; and when he arrived there (1590) the third colony 

8. How did the settlers conduct themselves ? The result ? How 
(lid Drake assist thcMii ? 9. What did they carry to England ? What 
did Gren\ille find ou his urrivul ? 10. Describe the third colony. 

42 History of the Uxited States. 

had disappeared like tlie second. Sir Walter never ceased 
his anxiety to discover what had become of them ; but 
on the accession of James I. in 1603 he was accused of liiHi 
treason and committed to the Tower, his grants were for- 
feited, and attempts to settle Virginia were dropped. 

12. Bartholomew Gosnold. — In 1G02 a new direction was ffiv- 
en to adventure in x\merica by the voyage of Bartholomew 
Gosnold. This adventurous captain was sent out by the 
Earl of Southampton with twenty colonists, who proposed 
to settle in the northern part of Virginia, that name being 
then applied to the whole coast from the southern extremity 
of what is now North Carolina to the eastern boundary of 
Maine. Gosnold, instead of. following the track of the earlier 
English voyagers, far to the south by the Avay of the Cana- 
ries and the West Indies, took a short and direct northern 
route and so fell upon the coast of Massachusetts. 

13. He discovered and named Cape Cod, entered Buz- 
zard's Bay, and began a settlement on Cuttyhunk which he 
called Elizabeth Island, a- name now given to the whole 
group of which this little island forms a part. Being ill- 
provided with stores, the colonists determined to return 
Avitli tlic ship that brought them ; but Gosnold took home 
so good a report of the country, and so valuable a cargo 
of sassafras (then prized as a medicine) and of furs, that 
other expeditions were soon fitted out for trade or dis- 
covery in the same region. 

14. Finally, an association was formed by a number of 
rich men of London, Bristol, and Plymouth to continue 
the adventure. Letters-patent issued by King James I. in 
lOOG granted to Sir George Somers, Ptichard Ilakluyt, Ed- 
ward Maria Wingfield, and others all the territory on the 

11. Were anyof Raleigh's attempts successful? Why were his grants 
forfeited i- 12. What is said of Gosnold? l:J. What did ho discover? 
Why did the colonists return? Why were other expeditions fitted out? 

PLY.vorriT Axn Loxnox Co.vrAxrES. 43 

— + — 
coast from latitude 34° to latitude 45° — that is, from Cape 

Fear to the Bay of Fuudy — bordering on the Spanish pos- 
sessions at one extremity and the Freneh at the other. 
There were to be two companies, one having charge of the 
northern colony, the other of the southern. But their 
grants overlapped each other. 

15. To the northern, called the Plymouth Company, be- 
cause most of the proprietors lived in Plymouth (England), 
was assigned all the territory north of latitude 38°, while the 
jurisdiction of the London Company covered everything 
south of latitude 41° ; thus the coasts of Long Island, New 
Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland were left open to both. 
Each colony was to be governed by a resident council of 
thirteen members appointed by the king, with power to 
choose one of their own number for president. Their hnvs 
were to be subject to revision by the king or his council in 
England, and the religion was to be that of the Protestant 

16. Claims of the European Powers. — Thus there were 
tliree great nations whose claims in North America were 
more or less in conflict. None of them had any idea of 
tlie vast extent of the land which they assumed to own, 
or ])laced any precise boundaries to the territory over 
which they asserted a right. When the settlements in- 
creased quarrels frequently broke out in consequence of 
tiiese rival pretensions. 

17. The tS]xiniards confined their explorations to the 
south, l)ut claimed the wliole continent north of them. 
]\Iexico aiul tlie country thereabouts, including part of the 
l)resent territory of the United States, they called New 
Spain ; to all the rest of the country they gave the general 

14. What grant was made by James I. ? How was it divided? 15. 
Describe the territory of each f'omj)any. How was each colony to be gov- 
erned? 16. What nations chvimod territory in America? 

44 History of the United States. 

— -I— 

name of Florida. The French at the north held Canada 

and part of the Northern States ; they claimed everything 
sonth of them, and called the whole New France. The 
English settlements were midway between the French ^ 
and Spanish, and they claimed everything from New Eng- 
land and Carolina westward to the Pacific, naming it all 

18. — The Dutch. — A 
fourth power now appear- 
ed. Captain Henry Hud- 
son, an Englishman in the 
service of the Muscovy 
Company, of London, had 
made voyages in 1G07 and 
1608 in search of a nor- 
thern or northeastern route 
to India. In 1G09 he Avas 
engaged by the Dutch East 
India Company to renew 
the attempt. He sailed 
from Amsterdam in a ves- 
sel called the Half-Moon, 
to look for a passage around the northern coasts of Europe, 
!)ut, being stopped by the ice, he turned westward to try 
the American side. 

19. After coasting from Maine to tlie Chesapeake he en- 
tered the Bay of New York, September 3, two months after 
the French had first seen Lake Chami)lain. Hudson dis- 
covered tlic river which now bears his ntmie, and ascended 
beyond the present site of Albany. The next yer.r (1610) he 
made another voyage in the service of the Muscovy Com- 

17. What did the Spaniards claim? The French? The English? 
IS. Who was llciiry Hudson? What was ho in search of? Describe his 
voyage in the IhdJ-Moon, 19, Describe his last voyage. 

IIettrt Hudson 


JIkxr y Iff'Dsox. 
— 4- — 

pany, and wliilc looking for a northwest i^assago he discov- 
ered Hudson's Bay. On the way liome his crew mutinied 
and sent him adrift witli oiglit others in an open boat. 
Nothinor more was ever ])e;inl of him. 

The IIalf-Moon ascending the Uluson ItivER. 

20. On tlie strength of Hudson's discoveries the Dutch 
claimed the coast from Xew Jersey to tlie Bay of Fundy, 
and gave it the name of Xew Nethorland. TJiey immedi- 
ately hegan a fur trade with the Indians on the Hudson, 
tlien called the Mauritius (tnaw-Hsh'-i-iis) River, and in 
1G13 built a temjiorary fort on Manhattan Island, the site 

What became of Hudson? 20. What did the Dutch claim? What 
use did they make of Iludson's discovery? When and where did they 
build a fort? When and where did they make a permanent settlement? 

46 History of the United States. 

— 4— 

of the city of New York ; but tlieir first permanent set 

tlement was Fort Nassau, near Albany, built in 101-i. 


Settlement of Virginia — Captain John Smith — Pocahontas — The 
First Colonial Assembly. 

1. The London Company. — The earliest attempts at coloni- 
zation under the new English patent were made by the Ply- 
mouth Company, but the expeditions which they sent 
out in 1G06, 1607, and 1608 failed, and it was reserved 
for the London Company of Virginia to establish the first 
permanent English settlement in the New World. 

2. In December, 1606, the London Company despatched 
a fleet of three small vessels, commanded by Captain Christo- 
pher NcAvport, and carrying one hundred and five colonists. 
Twenty of the settlers Avere mechanics, and the rest were 
soldiers, servants, and idle gentlemen ; there were no women 
among them. Gosnold, Wingficld, Hunt (a minister of the 
Church of England), Percy (a ])rother of the Earl of North- 
umberland), and John Smith, an Englishman who had dis- 
tinguished himself by some remarkable adventures in the 
Avars against the Turks, Avere the most important members 
of the party. 

3. They took the long route by the West Lidies, and made 
a voyage of nearly four months. April 26, 1607, they en- 
tered Chesapeake Bay, and named Cape Charles and Cai)e 

1. What did the Plymouth Company attempt? The result? What 
is said of the London Conipiiny? 2. Doscribo the first colony sent out 
by them? Name tlie loading men. .3. What route was taken? 

Caftaix Joiix S.nTTH. 47 

— + — 

Henry in honor of the sons of the king. May 13 they chose 
the site of their settlement on King's (afterward called 

James) Kiver, and began the 
building of Jamestown, nam- 
ing both the stream and the 
town after King James I. 
This was the third perman- 
ent settlement by Europeans 
in the United States, and 
the first by Englishn\en. 

4. The Jamestown Colony. 
— Sealed instructions from 
the company, opened after 
their arrival, appointed Gos- 
nold, Smith, Wingfield, New- 
port, Rateliffe, Martin, and 
Kendall members of the council, and they elected Wing- 
field president. Newport was directed to explore the river 
in search of a passage to the South Sea (for the company 
never gave up this idea), and before returning to Eng- 
land Avith the ships he accordingly ascended the James as 
far as the falls, where Richmond now stands. 

5. Captain John Smith. — The settlers quarrelled from the 
first. AVingfield was soon deposed and succeeded l)y Rat- 
cliffe, but affairs were not improved by the change, and 
Captain John Smith became by common consent the real 
leader of the party. He suppressed mutinies, compelled the 
idle to work, kept off attacks l)y the savages, and saved the 
colony from starvation l)y inducing tlie Indians to suj^j^ly 
tliem with corn. 

6. On one of his expeditions he was captured by the 

When and where clid the colonists land ? Describe their movements. 
4. IIow was tlio colony govornod? Why did Xow]iort oxploro the 
James? 5. What is said of Smith? IIow did he conduct affairs? 

48 History of the U sited States. 

— 4,— 

savages. Showing them a pocket-compass, he so much 
excited their wonder at the motion of the needle that they* 
treated him as a superior being. Their amazement was in- 
creased when they found that a letter, which they allowed 
him to send to Jamestown, could " talk,'' and was quickly 
answered ])y the arrival of articles he had sent for. 

7. Pocahontas. — The savages led Captain Smith from 
village to village, and at last brought him to the i)owerful 
chief, Powhatan, near the site of Jamestown. Powhatan 
ordered that he should be killed, but Avlien the club was 
raised to beat out his brains the chief's daughter, Poca- 
hontas, a girl of ten or twelve years, threw herself on the 
captive's neck and saved his life. Such, at least, is the com- 
mon story, but recent historians throw doubt upon it. 

8. Eeaching Jamestown after seven weeks' absence. 
Smith found the colony in great misery. Only forty men 
were left, and, though Newport returned twice in 1G08 with 
other emigrants, they were mostly vagabond gentlemen like 
the first. The Avhole company gave themselves up to gold- 
hunting, and loaded the sliijis with useless earth, which 
they supposed to contain the precious metal. A fourth and 
still larger party, sent out in 1G09, was still worse than the 
first, second, and third. 

9. The raising of food was neglected, and a famine was 
only alleviated by the generosity of Pocahontas, Avho often 
brought food to the settlement in her canoe. On one occa- 
sion she averted a general massacre of the whites by bringing 
them information at night of an intended attack. The 
ungrateful colonists, after Smith had left the country, made 
her a prisoner and demanded a ransom. Powhatan was too 
indignant even to answer them. lu captivity slie was ba})- 

6. Relate the story of his captivity. 7. How was he saved from 
death? 8. What effect had his al)sen('e on the welfare of the colony? 
Describe the early colonists. 9. Give the story of Pocahontas. 

Jajtestowx. 49 

— * — 

tized, took the iiiime of Eebeccii, and married John Rolfe, 

one of the colonists, who went witli her to England and 
presented her at court. She died suddenly as she was about 
to return to America, leaving a son, who became the ancestor 
of an honorable Virginia family. 

10. Smith was regularly elected president in 1608, and 
affairs began to mend, but, being injured by an accidental 
explosion of gunpowder, he went to England in 1G09 for 
surgical aid, and never returned. His dejiarture was nearly 
fatal to the settlement. He left four hundred and ninety 
colonists, and in six months only sixty remained alive. 

11. Lord Delaware. — In June, IGIO, the survivors aban- 
doned Jamestown, and, having constructed some small ves- 
sels, were on their way to Newfoundland, hoping to be taken 
care of by English fishermen there, when they met a fleet in 
the James River coming to their aid. It carried abundant 
supplies and a large party of settlers, led by Lord Delaware 
(De la Warr), Avho, under a new charter granted to the 
London Company, had been apjjointed governor of Yii-ginia 
for life. The deserting colonists and the new arrivals 
returned to the settlement together with great rejoicing. 

12. From this time Jamestown jirospered. The lands 
had been held in community, but each man now received 
and cultivated a share for himself ; industry was encouraged ; 
valuable crops of tobacco were sent home to England ; new 
settlements were commenced on the James. Powhatan, 
after the marriage of his daughter, became a steady friend 
of the Avhites ; and before long respectable young women 
were sent out as wives for the planters. Under Gov- 
ernor Yeardley an important change was made in the form 
of administra-tion. A representative assembly was sum- 

What became of Pocahontas? 10. Wliy did Smith leave the colony? 
The foiiseciueiices? Wlio was Lord Dehiware? 12. "What is said of his 
administration? What is said of Powhatan ? Of Gov. Yeardley ? 

50 History of the United States. 

^•J* — 
moned (1G19), the first legislature ever elected in America; 
and thus was laid the foundation for that popular form 
of government which soon pi-evailcd throughout all the 


Virginia Coxtinued — Political Development — Character of the 


1. The First American Constitution. — In 1G21 tlie Lon- 
don Company granted to the Virginia colony a written 
constitution, the first ever established in America. The 
authority was confided to a Governor and Council ap- 
pointed by the company, and an Assembly consisting of 
the Council and a House of Burgesses elected by the 
people. Laws enacted by the Assembly required the 
assent of the governor and of the company in England. 
Nobody as yet held the idea that the peoi)le were capable 
of ruling themselves. The orders of the company, how- 
ever, had to be ratified by the colonists. 

2. Indian Hostilities. — After the death of Powhatan 
the savages, led by Opecancanough, tlie brother of that 
chief, determined upon the destruction of all the English. 
They made their plans secretly, and on the 22d of March, 
1622, they suddenly attacked the scattered plantations, 
and massacred three hundred and fifty ])ersons. A con- 
verted Indian revealed the plot to a planter on the James 
Eiver, who hurried by night to give warning at James- 

1. What was granted to the Virginia colony in 1621? To whom was 
authority confided ? What check was phiced upon the assembly? On 
the Company? 2, Pescrihe the first Indian massacre, Give the date. 

TxinAx 3r.issAr7?KS. 51 

— * — 
town. Thus that place and some of the other settle- 
ments were suved, but there Avas no time to send word 
to the more distant farms. 

3. In a few days the number of settlements was reduced 
from eighty to eight. The colonists gathered in fortified 
towns, and a bloody Indian Avar began, in Avhich the savages 
suffered scA^erely, but the English also Avere greatly reduced. 
Another massacre, in Avhicli three hundred persons perished, 
took place April 18, lG-i4. Opecancanough Avas made i)ris- 
oner tAvo years later, and died in cajitiAity, and the red 
men Avere gradually driA'cn back from the coast, and left 
the fertile lands of that region to the Avhite colonists. 

4. Political Changes. — There had long been disagree- 
ments bctAvcen King James I., Avho Avas jealous of his 
authority, and the London Company, Avhich, in asserting 
its rights over the colony, Avas also contending for politi- 
cal liberties. In 1G24, after an unsuccessful attempt to 
induce the colonists to surrender their i)riA'ileges, James 
cancelled the charter and the company Avas dissolved. 
Virginia Avas noAV a royal province, but for scA'eral years 
there was no change in its local government. 

5. King Charles I. alloAA'cd the colonists in practice to 
rule themselves. They IcAied their own taxes, and, as 
the crown Avas too much occupied Avith other things to 
])ay attention to them, they became almost an independent 
state. They remained faithful to Charles during tlie 
civil Avar, and after the triumph of the Parliament and 
tlie execution of the king a great many of the royalist 
l)arty emigrated to Virginia. 

6. Under the rule of the Parliament the colonists 
greatly extended their political liberties, and secured the 

How was .Jamestown saved? 3. How did the settlers act? What 
occurred in 1044? ITow were the savages punished? Wliy was the 
London Company dissolved? 5. Describe the province under Charles I. 

52 History of the Umted States. 

right of electing their own governor ; but aSter the res- 
toration of Charles 11. an aristocratic party got control 
of the colonial legislature, restricted the privilege of voting 
to the landuwners, kejjt the Assembly in power without 
regard to the term for which it had l)een elected, imposed 
severe taxes, and i)aid every member of the Assembly two 
hundred and fifty pounds of tobacco a day, which, ac- 
cording to the present value of money, would be worth 
about forty-five dollars. 

7. Navigation Laws. — The dissatisfaction of the settlers 
was increased by oppressive navigation laws passed by the 
English Parliament in 16G0 and 1GG3, which forbade them 
to buy or sell in any country except England, or export 
their produce in any except English vessels. These unjust 
and unwise laws, enacted for the benefit of avaricious Eng- 
lish merchants, gave a severe blow to the industry of all 
the American colonies by raising the price of everything 
they needed to buy, and lowering the price of everything 
they had to sell. 

8. Bacon's Rebellion. — The Virginians were ready for 
revolt w^hen an Indian war ])roke out on the border of 
Maryland (1G75). The colonists armed themselves for de- 
fence under the command of a popular young i)lantcr named 
Nathaniel Bacon ; but the governor, Sir AVilliam Berkeley, 
distrusted Bacon, declared him a rebel, and collected a 
military force to oppose him. 

9. This was a signal for insurrection. Bacon first pun- 
ished the Indians, and then marched against Jamestown, 
whicli ho burned to the ground (8c})t. , IGTG), but in the 
midst of his success he died of fever, and his followers were 
soon overcome. Gov. Berkeley treated the insurgents with 

G. What is said of the colonists under Parliament ? How did the 
restoration affect them ? 7. What laws increased their dissatisfaction? 
Describe the navigation laws. 8. Describe Bacon's rebellion, 

Thk Skttlhus of VjiidtxiA. 53 

— + — 
the most cruel severity, causing twenty-two to be hanged. 
Soon afterwiird, to the great joy of the Virginians, he re- 
turned to Enghmd, where he died in disgrace. "The old 
fool," said King Cluirlcs II., "has taken away more lives 
in that naked country than I did here for the murder of 
my father.'' 

10. Without regard to the riglits of the colonists, Charles 
had granted to Lord Culpepper and the Earl of Arlington 
(l(iT;5) the whole of Virginia for the period of thirty-one 
years. Culpepper came out as governor in 1G80, and during 
liis short stay he loaded the colony with fresh burdens, 
in order to enrich himself. Under the next governor. Lord 
Howard of Effingham (1G83), tlic misery of tlic people was re- 
d()ul)lcHl. and poverty and discontent became almost universal. 

11. Character of the Settlers. — A large proportion of the 
first settlers of Virginia were men of good family, attracted 
to the new world by the desire to make money and to enjoy 
personal freedom. Many of them secured jxitents for phm- 
tations of their own, instead of attempting to improve the 
lands ill common, and brouglit out laborers at tlieir private 
expense. Tints large estates were founded, and a strong 
aristocratic element was infused into society. 

12. A great deal of the work was done h}' white convicts 
from Enghmd, sold into servitude for a term of years as a 
])unishment for felonies or political offences. Prisoners of 
the Scottish and civil wars were tlius sold by the English 
fjovernment, just as Cromwell sold liish Catholics into 
slavery in the West Indies. At the end of their term of 
service these convicts (many of whom were not criminals 
])ut political victims of tyranny) became the cfpuils of the 
other colonists. Young women and children were kid- 

9. ITow was Berkeley received in England ? 10. To whom did 
Charles grant Virginia? ^\'hat is said of Culpepper? Of Howard? 
11. Describe the early settlci"s. 13. Who served as laborers in Virginia? 

54 History of the United States. 

— •I'— 
napped in England and sold to Uic planters. The first 
women sent out as wives for the settlers Avere also sold. 

13. In 1619 a cargo of Africans was brought to Virginia 
by a Dutch vessel. This was the origin of negro slavery in 
the English colonies of America, but for many years the 
number of slaves Avas very small. The first- colony to 
establish slavery by hnv Avas Massachusetts, and the Puri- 
tans of Boston engaged in the slave trade as soon as they 
had any commerce at all. 

14. The farms of Virginia were far apart. The houses 
Averc rude buildings of one story. There Avere no villages 
except the capital, JamestoAvn, and that i)lace contained 
only eighteen houses. The legislature met in an ale-house. 
A roj-al order prohibited iirinting-presses in any i)art of the 
province. ''I thank God," said Gov. Berkeley, ''there are 
no free schools nor j)rinting, and I hope we shall not have 
any these hundred years." As earl}' as 1619, however, an 
estate on the James Eiver, with a number of servants to 
cultiA'ate it, had been set ajjart for the endoAvmcnt of a 
college for Avhites and Indians. The settlers Avho took 
charge of it Avere massacred l)y the savages, and the insti- 
tution Avas not started till KiOo. This Avas the origin of 
William and Mary College at AVilliamsburg, \n. 

15. The search for gold had been abandoned, and the 
cultivation of tobacco became almost the only pursuit of 
the planters, so that there Avas sometimes a lack of food. 
Tobacco was used instead of money, and the prices of 
articles were fixed at so many jjounds of the leaf instead 
of so many pence. As the price of tobacco AA'as violently 
disturl)ed by the navigation hiAvs and other causes, this 
system produced great mischief. 

13. "What is said of sla^eiy? '\i\nio engaged in the slaA'c trade? 14. 
Describe the social condition of the Virginians. Wliat provisions were 
made for edneation? lo. What is said of the culti\'ation of tobacco? 

"^^ Xkiv Exglaxi). 55 

— + — 

16. Religion. — The Protestant Church of England was 

established by law ; attendance at the service was made 
compulsory ; Protestants of other denominations were fined 
or expelled ; " novelties " in religion were forbidden ; all 
*• popish priests" were to be sent out of the colony within 
five days after their arrival ; and Lord Baltimore, who 
visited Jamestown on a tour of observation, was promptly 
ordered away because he was a Catholic. 


Settlement op New England — The Plymouth CoiMpany — The Puri- 
tans — The Massachusetts Company. 

1. Maine. — Capt. George Weymouth visited the coast 
of Maine in IGOo and carried off five Indians l)y force. 
In 1007 the Xorth Virginia, or Plymouth, Company, on 
the strength of a favorable report by Weymouth, sent out one 
hundred and twenty persons and two ships, commanded 
by Sir Ceorge Popham and Raleigh Gilbert, the son of 
Sir Ilimiphrey. They made a settlement near the mouth 
of the Kennebec, on that part of its broad estuary then 
called the Sagadahoc, but it was abandoned the next year. 
Sir George Popham died in Maine. His nephew, Sii- 
Francis, continued to send out exi)e(litions at his private 
cost, l)ut they accomplished nothing of imi)ortance. 

2. The destruction of the French missionary settlement 
at Mount Desert by the English Captain Argall (see p. 35) 

16. What was the established religion? How were Catholics treat- 
ed? 1. Describe Weymouth's voyage. To what did it lead? Describe 
the Kennebec settlement. Who sent out several expeditions? The result. 

56 History of the Umted States. 

— ^. — 
occurred in 1G13. One of the four Jesuit missionaries 
was killed. Two were carried prisoners to Jamestown, and 
only reached France after many dangers and long captivity. 
The fourth was turned adrift with a few companions to 
find his way to Port Royal in a small bark, and was rescued 
by French fishermen. 

3. Captain John Smith in New England. — Capt. John 

Map of New England. 

Smith made a successful (isliing and fur-trading voyage 
tVom England to Maine in l(il4. aud drew a ma[) of the 
coasts. At his suggestion the name of New England was 
given to this region l>y Prince Charles, afterwards King 
Charles I. Hunt, the captain of one of Smitlrs two vessels, 
carried off twenty-seven Indians and sold them as slaves 

2. Describe the trpatment of the Mount Desert missionaries. 3. What 
did Sniitli aeconi])lislr;' Wliat name did he suggest for the region? 
Wliat is said (if Ciiplaiii IIuiil?- What became of tin- Indians? 

Tjie J'rjr/TAys. 67 

— -i- — 

in Spain, where some of them were ransomed by a pious 
confraternity and sent home. 

4. The Plymouth Company. — 8ir Ferdinando Gorges, 
Governor of Plymouth, England, and a member of the 
Northern Company, was one of tlie most active promoters 
of expeditions to New England at this period, and it was 
principally through his agency that King James I. was 
induced to grant a new and more favorable patent in 1G20, 
incorporating forty persons as the Council for New Eng- 
land, or the Plymouth Comi^any, and giving them exclusive 
right to the territory from lat. 40° to lat. 48°, or from 
the middle of New Jersey to St. John's, Newfoundland. 
Their title to this immense domain was absolute. They 
had sole power to make laws and appoint officers. 

5. The Puritans. — The lirst permanent settlement, how- 
ever, within the limits of their grant was made without 
their help or consent by a company of English Puritans, 
who thus became the fathers of New England. The Pro- 
testant Church of England, having rebelled against the 
authority of the Holy See, persecuted with almost equal 
severity the other Protestant sects and the Catholics. The 
name of Puritans was given to a party of Protestants who 
refused to follow the cstaldished form of Avorship, because 
they said it retained too many of the ceremonies of Rome. 
At first they agreed in most particulars with the doctrines 
of the government church, though after a while their be- 
liefs were greatly changed. 

6. Many of the Puritans flod to TTolhnid in order to 
avoid the tyranny of the crown. Tu lOOS a number of 
Puritans from Nottinghamshire, making their esca]U' from 
England with difficulty and loss, settled in Amsterdam, 

4. Who was Gorges? What changes were made in the Plymouth 
Company? Locate the new grant. 5. Who were the Puritans? "WTiy 
so named ? Describe their movements. 6. Where did they settle ? 

58 History of the United States. 

and thence, with their pastor. Jolm Robinson, removed 
to Leyden. Not liking their liard life in a foreign country, 
they turned their thoughts towards Virginia. In 1G17 
they sent a deputation to England to apply for a patent. 
They ottered to assent to the doctrines of the established 
church, to honor ilie bishops as civil officers, and to reject 
all i^ower or authority in any ecclesiastical body tliat was 
not derived from the king, although they Avould not adopt 
the established form of worship. 

7. King James I. was willing to connive at their settling 
in America, thougli he would not promise them liberty in 
religion. The Virginia Company, after many delays, gave 
them ii patent (1G19), of which, however, no use was. made. 
They had some fruitless negotiations, also, with the Dutch 
for permission to settle in New Netherland. At length, 
in 1G20, a portion of the Pilgrims, as they are now called, 
formed a Joint-stock partnership with certain London mer- 
chants for the estal)lishment of a trading, tishing, and 
planting com})any : the mercliants to furnish the money, 
the labor of every adult emigrant to be considered equiva- 
lent to one share of £10, and all the i)rofits to be divided 
at the end of seven years. 

8. They sailed from Delft Haven in July, in a small ves- 
sel called the Speedwell, and at Southampton the greater 
part of them went aboard a lai'ger ship, the Mayflower. 
The Speedwell proved unseaworthy ;ind put back, and it 
was not until September 0, 162U, two montlis before tlic 
organization of the Council for New England, that the Mdip 
flo'wer alone sailed from Plymouth with one hundred and 
two Pilgrims, men, women, aiul children, led liy Elder Wil- 
liam Brewster. 

Why did thoy desire to settle in Amerie.i? What overtures were 
made to secure a patent V 7. Describe the conduct of James I. What 
partnership was entered into? 8. What is said of the Speedwell ? 

Landing of the PrLGRnrs. 59 

— + — 
9. Landing of the Pilgrims. — Wlicu they put to sea they 
hud not determined upon what part of the coast to hind, and 
they liad no pUin of government. On the 11th of November 
they cast anchor in what is now the harbor of Provincetown, 
on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Before huulinii- tliey drew u)) 

Landing op the Pilokims. 

a written agreement "covenanting and coml)ining them- 
selves togetlier into a civil body politic," and cliose Jolin 
Carver as governor. 

10. lvKph)riiig parties examined tlie sandy peninsula and 
the opposite shore of the mainland, and on December 1 L 
(old style, or December 31 new style) they chose for their 
liome the site of what is now the town of Plymouth, Mas- 

!). Wlierc ilkl the pilgrims intend to land ? Whore did they anchor ? 
What remarkable agreement did tliey make before landing ? Who was 
chosen governor ? 10. What place did they choose for their home ? 

60 History of the United States. 

— * — 

sacliusetts. The 'Z2d of December is wrongly observed as 

the anniversary of the landing ; but it was not until Decem- 
ber 35 (old style) that the passengers disembarked on a rock 
still shown at Plymouth, and began the first house for their 
common use. It was nearly three mouths before shelter was 
ready for all, and meanwhile many of them lived on the 
ship. They named the settlement New Plymouth. 

11. New Plymouth. — Like nearly all the first adventu- 
rers in America, they were ill-provided for life in the wil- 
derness. They had little to eat except scanty and irregular 
sujiplies of fish, and nothing to drink except water. At 
one time their store of corn was so small that, being divided, 
it gave only five kernels to each person. About half the 
emigrants perished during the winter. Governor Carver 
died in the spring, and William Bradford was elected his 
successor. Miles Standish, who had served as a soldier in 
the Low Countries, was entrusted with the military defence. 

12. Fortunately, the first Indians whom the colonists 
encountered were avcII disposed. In the spring tlie settle- 
ment was visited by a friendly savage named Samoset, who 
had learned a few words of English from fishermen on the 
coast of Maine, and by another Indian called 8rpianto, one 
of those whom Weymouth had taken to England. These 
two men brought to the settlement the powerful chief 
Massasoit, whose home wns at Pokanoket, now W^arren, 
Rhode Island, and later two of the colonists were deputed 
to traverse the forests with an Indian guide and return the 
cliief s visit. The Pilgrims made a treaty of friendsliip and 
alliance with Massasoit. When Canonicus, tlie chief of the 
Narragansets, sent tliem a bundle of arrows tied with the 
skin of a rattlesnake as a message of enmity, Bradford 

When did they land ? What name was given to the settlement ? 11. 
What is said of their sufferings daring the winter ? 13. Describe their 
intereoiu'se with the Indians. Who visited them ? The result ? 

The Pilgrims and the Lxdiaxs. G1 

— ^ — 

stuffed the skin witli powder and ball, and sent it Lack 

as a deliance. Canonicus thereupon treated for peace. 

13. In the summer the colony revived ; food became 
abundant; and in November (10:^1) the &\\\\) Fortune ar- 
rived, bringing- a reinforcement of tliirty-five persons and 
a patent for the colony, being the first grant issued by the 
new Council for New England. In the autumn of 1622 a 
day was api)ointed to render thanks for a fi-iiitful harvest, and 
this is the earliest men- 
tion of the New England 
festival of Thanksgiving. 

14. A party of emi- 
grants Avho came out in 
l«i22, finding the stern 
and sour manners of the 
Puritans distasteful, left 
New Plymouth and set- 
tled at Wessagusset (now 
Weymouth, near Boston), 
where their bad conduct 
soon provoked a consinra- 
cy of the Indians to massa- 
cre all the whites. "Wins- 
low, one of the leading 
Pui'itans, cured ]\[assasoit 
about this time of a dan- 
genms illness, and the 
grateful chief disclosed the plot in good season. C'a])tain 
8tandish thereui)on marched to Wessagusset with eight men, 
roused the colonists, killed three Indian chiefs, and so terri- 
fied the savages that for a long time there was no more 

What is said of the Narragansets ? 13. What good fortune befell the 
colony in 1()21 ? Give the origin of the festival of Thiinksgiving. 14. 
Describe the Wessagusset colony. What did Capt. Standish accomplish? 

Miles Standish. 


62 History of the United States. 

— ^ — 

trouble with them. The Wessagusset settlement, however, 

was broken up. 

15. Disputes in the Colony.— The new Plymouth people 

were soon vexed by internal dissensions. Although they had 

left Eno-land on account of religious persecution, they had no 

idea of granting to others the liberty of worship which they 

claimed for themselves. A preacher named Lyford was 

arrested for holding service according to the forms of the 

Cutting down the May pole. 

Cniuivli of England, and, together with one Oldliam, Avas 
bauislied from the colony. 

16. Tlie result of tliese troubles was a quarrel among 
the London merchants who were partners with the Pilgrims 

15. What troubles arose in tlio Plymouth colony ? Why was Lyford 
arrcstcMl ? Wlio wero banished ? Ki. Give the result of these troubles. 
On what terms was the joint-stock partnership dissolved V 

The JfASSACffusETTS Company. ^63 

— + — 

in the joint-stock enterprise. The company Avas dissolved ; 
the colonists bought out the rights of the other shareholders 
for about $U,U0O, divided the property among themselves, 
and became an almost independeut cumiuuiiity. 

17. Lyford and Uldham established themselves at Nan- 
tasket (now Hull) ; other stations were soon formed at Cai)e 
Ann, Xaumkeag (Salem), and all along the coast of Massa- 
chusetts Bay. A colony of roystenng adventurers, led by 
Thomas Morton {WZb), set up a tall May-pole in the midst 
of their settlement at Mount WoUaston, known as Mare 
Mount, or ]\lerry Mount (Quincy, near Boston), and so 
shocked the Puritans by their disorderly behavior that an 
ex])edition from New Plymouth dispersed the establishment 
and cut down the pole. Morton was shipped to England. 

18. The Massachusetts Company. — The original Plymouth 
colony never attracted more than a handful of settlers, but 
a new establishment was soon made close alongside of it 
which prospered rajjidly. In 10:28 the Council for Xew 
England granted to John Endicott and five associates the 
territory between the Charles and ]\[en-imac rivers (that is, 
from Boston to the Xew Hampshire line),' and the next year 
a royal charter was olitained for the colony in the name of the 
Covernor and Company of Massachusetts Bay in Xew England. 

19. A few months later the company transferred the gov- 
erning power from London to the colony itself by choosing offi- 
cers from those stockliolders who proposed to emigrate, while 
tliose who remained in England kept only a partial conti'ol of 
the trade. After this important change a great number of emi- 
grants came out. many of them being persons of education and 
means: nearly all were members of the popular i)arty in politics, 
and more or less hostile to i\\e established church in religion. 

17. Where were new settlements made ? Describe the settlers at 
Merry Mount. 18.. Describe the grant to Endicott and others. 19. 
What important change was made in the government ? The result ? 

64 History of the Uxited States. 

20. The limits of the Plymouth colouy were fixed be- 
tween the Charles Eiver and Xarraganset Bay, so that the 
two colonies divided Massachusetts Bay between them, the 
present site of Boston being on the north side of the boun- 
dary line. The Pilgrims, however, did not obtain the king's 
sanction to their charter, and they continued to govern them- 
selves by the covenant signed in the cabin of the Mauflower. 

21. The first parties of emigrants under the charter of 
Massachusetts Bay settled at Xaumkeag, to which the name 
of Salem was now given. Endicott was already there as 
governor. Charlestown was founded by an offshoot from 
this body. In 1G30 about one thousand settlers came out 
with John "Winthrop as governor, and a part of them 
founded Boston, naming it in honor of the town of Bos- 
ton, in Lincolnshire, to which many of them belonged. 

22. State and Church. — Most of the new-comers were 
Puritans, like the settlers of Xew Plymouth, and they 
founded their civil government upon their church. Xo 
man was to be a citizen and voter unless he had been ad- 
mitted to membership in some one of the congregations 
of the colony. Mem1)ersliip was not easily granted, and 
not more than a fourth part of the adult population ever 
obtained it. The magistrates had authority in both civil 
and religious concerns, and the elders of the churches were 
consulted on all important temporal affairs. 

23. Any settler who made malicious remarks about the 
magistracy or the church was to be punished with the loss 
of his ears. Baptism was a privilege confined to church 
members and their children. Marriage was celebrated by 
the magistrates instead of the church, and the civil author- 
ities had power to grant divorces in such cases as they saw 

20. How was Massachusetts di^ided ? How was the Plymouth colony 
governed ? 21. When was Boston founded ? 22, How were church 
and state combined ? 23. How were baptism and marriage regarded ? 


fit. Amusements were forbidden. Gayety was looked upon 
as wicked. The observance of any of the holidays of the 
Catholic or English Church was called ''idolatrous," and 
it was reckoned a sin to eat mince-pie on Christmas Day. 

24. Intolerance. — The Puritans were equally intolerant 
of those who conformed to the observances of the estab- 
lished English church and those who fi-ankly rejected its 
doctrines. They sent back to England those who wished 
to preserve the English liturgy, and those whom they con- 
sidered '^ secret papists'' or otherwise ••unfit to inhabit"' 
the colony. Quakers were persecuted with especial severity, 
and all of that sect who ventured into the colony were 
l>arbarously used. Four were hanged ; but as harsh mea- 
sures failed to prevent their coming the laws against them 
were finally repealed. 

25. Jesuits were forbidden to enter the colony, and if 
they came a second time after being expelled they were to 
be punished with death. It used to be the practice of the 
Puritans, up to the time of the Revolution, to show their 
hatred of the Catholic Church by publicly bui-ning an eflSgy 
of the Pope. Soon after taking command of the troops 
before Boston, General Washington issued an order severely 
condemning this ''ridictilous and childish custom." 

26. Roger Williams. — A young preacher named Roger 
Williams, who came out in 1631, was obliged to leave Boston 
on account of his theological views, especially for denving 
the autliority of the magistrates in matters of religion. 
Banished likewise from Salem, he fled to the wilderness in 
midwinter, in order to escape being transported to England, 
and found refuge and kind treatment with [Mjissasoit. 

27. After suffering many hardships he founded the town 

What is said of Catholic holidays ? 24. Describe the intolerance of 
the Puritans. 25. flow wore Catholics treated ? Wliat practice was 
condemneil by Washington ? 2C. Why was Roger Williams banished ? 



of Providoiiec (1G3G), and set up the^ first congregation of 
Baptists ill America. The colony composed of his followers 
was governed at first as a simple democracy, everything being 

decided by the votes of 
^ MT U ^^^® majority; but in 1643 
^m^J \ Williams obtained a char- 
ter in England. This 
was the origin of the 
State of Rhode Island. 
Williams professed the 
principle of toleration in 
religion, but the laws of 
Rhode Island, as of near- 
ly all the colonies, con- 
tained provisions against 
the Catholics. 

28. Mrs. Anne Hutch- 
inson.— Mrs. Anne Hutch- 
inson, who disturbed the 
cliurch in Boston by in- 
stituting meetings of wo- 
men to discuss theology 
and teaching that all believers are inspired by the Holy 
Ghost, was banished (1037), together wuth several who 
shared lier opinions, and her adherents were reriuired to 
surrender all tlie arms in their possession, for fear they 
" might upon some revelation make a sudden insurrec- 
tion." Finding refuge at first near Roger Williams in 
Rhode Island, the exiles afterwards removed to the pro- 
tection of the Dutcli, in what is now Westchester County, 
New York, in order to get further away from the Puri- 

lloGER Williams. 

27. What is said of the settlement of Rhode Island ? When was 
Kliode Island founded ? Wore Catholics tolerated there ? 28. Wlio was 
Mrs. Hutchinson ? Describe her teachings. Where did she seek refuge ? 

Character of the Puritans. 67 

— + — 

tans. Mrs. Hutcliinson Miid her family were there mur- 
dered by tlic Indians. 

29. Spirit of Independence. — Thus the Puritans prac- 
tised in the Xcw AVorld the same intolerance from wliieh 
tliey suffered in the Old. Fear of the established church, 
however, helped to keep alive among them a love of self- 
government, and the si)irit of i)olitical independence Avas 
continually strengthened by the arrival of new emigrants 
who had belonged to the popular party in the struggle 
between the king and Parliament in England. They pro- 
vided for their military defence ; they voted £G0O to fortify 
the settlements on Massachusetts Bay when the crown 
attempted to take away their charter and govern them by 
a royal commission ; and they refused to use the English 
flag because there was a cross in it, Endicott going so far 
as to cut that symbol out with his sword. 

30. Fanatical and tyrannical in their laws and customs, 
the people of New England were nevertheless industrious 
and self-reliant. They practised various trades, built ships, 
0})ened schools in every toAvn, f(ninded Harvard College in 
1G38, and set up a ])ri7)ting-press in 1G.30, Avhirh was the 
first in the United States, though not the first in America, 
the etirliest books printed on this continent having been 
issued by the Spaniards in Mexico. 


New Hampsiiirk — ^SFaixk — Coxxecticut. 

1. New Hampshire and Maine. — The first settlements in 
New Hampshire followed very soon after the landing of the 

29. What did tlie Puritans practise in the New World ? What kept 
alive the spirit of independence ? How did they provide for tlicir de- 
fence ? For education ? 30. For what were the Puritans distin":uislicd ? 


— -i- — 

Pilgrims at New Plymouth. iSir Ferdinundo Gorges and 
John Masou obtained from the Council of New England, in 
1G22, a grant of territory between the Merrimac and the 
Kennebec, which they named Laconia. They organized a 
partnershi}) of merchants called the Company of Laconia, 
and sent out a colony of fishermen, who founded Ports- 
mouth and Dover (1G23). Exeter was founded in 10:29 by 
the Eev. Mr. Wheelwright, one of the exiled followers of 
Mrs. Hutchinson. 

2. Afterwards Mason and Gorges divided their grant, 
Mason taking all west of the Piscataqua and naming it 
New Hampshire, while Gorges took the eastern share and 
called it New Somerset. The name of Maine was first 
given to this region in 1635, when the Council of New 
England, or Plymouth Company, surrendered its charter to 
the crown, and the lands were divided among the members. 

3. The New Hampshire settlements soon submitted to 
the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, avIio claimed that they 
were situated within her boundaries. They remained sub- 
ject to this more flourishing colony until 1G80, when New 
Hami)shire became a royal })rovince. 

4. In the territory belonging to Gorges (Maine) settle- 
ments were carried all along the coast, but they were small 
and scattered, and for a long time there Avere no towns. 
Massachusetts set up a claim to these settlements, and after 
a long conflict secured her authority over them, which lasted 
till 1820. 

5. As Gorges wished to erect a barrier of Scotch Pres- 
byterianism between his domain and the French Catholic 
settlements of the extreme eastern coast, a patent for the 
territory beyond the St. Croix (the present boundary be- 

1. Give an account of the settlement of New Ilampsliire. Who founded 
Portsnumth ? 2. IIow was the gnuit divided? What occurred in 1635? 
3. What is said of the New Hampshire settlements? 4. Of Maine? 

Catuolics IX Maixe. 69 

— + — 

tween Maine and the British possessions) was given in 1G21 
to 8ir William Alexander, Earl of Stirling. None of this 
country belonged to the English, for it Avas all included in 
the French province of Acadia (New Brunswick and Nova 

6. War breaking out between France and England a 
few years later. Lord Stirling took the ()])portunity to get 
possession of this domain, but it was given \\\) to France by 
the treaty of peace. The boundaries, however, were ill de- 
fined, and for many years there were tpuirrels between the 
French and English settlers. 

7. Catholic Missions in Maine. — The first white settlers 
in Maine, as we have seen, were the French missionaries 
at Mount Desert. They did not abandon the field after the 
destruction of this post. The Capuchins hud ah'cady a con- 
vent on the Penobscot and a lios])ice on the Kennebec when 
the Jesuit Father Gabriel Druillettes founded a mission among 
the Abenakis, near the present site of Augusta, in IG-tG. 

8. The Abenakis had heard of the Catholic religion from 
an Indian who had been converted l)y the Jesuits in Canada, 
and they had sent two of their chiefs to Quebec to ask for 
" black-gowns '■ to instruct the ti'ibe. The mission among 
the Al)enakis was so fruitful that idmost the whole peojile 
became Catholics, and retained their faith under all trials. 
Of the many devoted priests who labored among them after 
the departure of Father Druillettes, the most distinguished 
was Father Sebastian Rasles, who Avas finally killed ])y the 
English in the midst of his flock. 

9. Connecticut. — The Ilousatonie aiid Connecticut rivers 
were discovered by a Dutch navigator, Adrian Block (1014), 
the year after the first occupation of Manhattan Island, and 

5. Why was a patent granted to the Earl of Stirling ? To whom 
did tho territory beloDg ? 6. IIow did tlio Eiiijlish got possession ? 
The result 'i 7. Describe the Catholic missions in Maine. Their success. 

70 History of the U sited States. 

the Dutch soon began ti trade Avith the Indians on the 
shores of Long Island Sound. In 1033, having purchased 
land from the natives, they built Fort Good Hope on the 
Connecticut, near the present site of Hartford. The Eng- 
lish, however, claimed all this country, and the Pilgrims 
of Kew Plymouth immediately sent a party of settlers un- 
der Captain Holmes to establish themselves on the Con- 
necticut a mile and a half above the Dutch fort. The 
Dutch commanded them to begone, but they paid no atten- 
tion to the order. 

10. Two years later a large party of Puritans from Xew- 
town and Dorchester, in the colony of Massachusetts Bay, 
removed to the neighborhood of the Plymouth trading-jiost 
on the Connecticut Eiver, finding their "way across the coun- 
try by the compass and driving their cattle before them. 

11. In the meantime certain i)ersons in England — Lord 
8ay, Lord Brooke, John Hampden, John Pym, and others — 
had ol)tained a grant as lords proprietors of all the coast one 
hundred and twenty miles west from Narraganset Bay, em- 
bracing the whole of Connecticut and more than half of 
Ehode Island. John Winthro}) the younger (son of the 
governor of Massachusetts). Hugh Peters, and Henry Yane 
were appointed commissioners of the lords proi)rietors, and 
sent a party by Avater from Boston to build a fort at the 
mouth of the Connecticut Eiver. The fort was named Say- 
l)rook, in honor of two of the projjrietors. 

12. The settlers up the river nearly died of starvation 
during the first winter, but the next summer (1(j3G) a larger 
])arty, under their ]ireacher, Thomas Hooker, made their way 
through the wilderness, and the little colony revived. The 
emigrants from Newtown founded Hartford ; the Dorchester 

9, Who discovered Connecticut ? Who disputed the claims of the 
Dutch V Tlic result ? 10. T)(>sci'il>e the Puritan settlonu'ut on llio C'on- 
uecticut. 11. Describe the settlement of Savbrook. 12. Of llai-tford. 

The Dutch in I^kw York. 71 

— -h — 

people settled at Windsor; Wethorslield was [)lanted soon 
afterwards ; aud in 1G39 these three towns met in conven- 
tion in Hartford and adopted a written constitntion. 

13. Xew Haven was founded in 1G38 by a party of Non- 
conformists under the IJev. John Davenport. Tliey had 
recently emigrated from England to Boston, but, not liking 
the religious i)eculiarities of the Puritans of the Massachu- 
setts colony, they determined to estal)lish a community of 
tlieir own. They admitted none but members of tiie church 
to share in tiie government, resolved to have no legislation 
except what they could find in the Bible, and were even 
stricter tinin the other New England colonists. Their 
strange rules have been the objects of ridicule under the 
name of the ]51uc Laws ; but the account generally given 
of those laws is greatly exaggerated. 


The Dutch Settlements — Swedes ox the Delaware — Seizure op 
New Xethj;klaxu by the Exglish — Xkw Jersey. 

1. Dutch Settlements. — While the Puritans were estab- 
lishing themselves in New England, the Dutch settlements 
(Xew Xetherland) on and near the Hudson River were 
slowly increasing. The Dutch kept up a friendly inter- 
course with the Indians, and applied themselves with great 
industry to the trade in furs and skins. The merchants 
engaged in the enterpi-ise were incorporated by the name 
of the Dutch West India Company (1G21) with powers 

What towns "adopted a written constitution in 1639? 13. When 
was Xow Ilavon founded ? Descrilx" the founders. Tlicir ^overiuuent. 
Their rules. 1. What is said of the Dutch in New Netherhuid V 

72 History of the United States. 

— -i- — 
of government, and in 1G23 thirty families of Walloons, 
or Protestants from the Belgian and Flemish provinces, 
were sent out to make a permanent colony. Some settled 
at Fort Orange, where Albany now stands (Fort Nassau, 
built near this place in IGl-l, had been abandoned) ; others 
removed to the Delaware and Connecticut Rivers ; and 
others laid the foundation of Brooklyn (1G25). 

2. Governor Peter Minuit (min'-u-it) in 1G2G bought 
tlie whole of Manhattan Island of the Indians for $24, 
aud built Fort Amsterdam on the present site of the Bat- 
tery. Around this post grew up the city of New York. 
The settlement was called New Amsterdam, aud Avas made 
the capital of the colony. This was six years after the 
landing of the Pilgrims and four years before the found- 
ing of Boston. 

3. To encourage the formation of trading and farmiug 
settlements the company granted extraordiuary privileges 
to any of its members who would take out colonies of fifty 
or more persons at their own expense. Under this regu- 
lation villages were planted all along the Hudson. The 
proprietors were known as "patroons," or patrons, and 
governed their territories like feudal lords — a system which 
led to disputes and conflicts lasting for several genera- 

4. The Swedes. — In consequence of dissensions between 
tlie i^atroons and the company Minuit was recalled. He 
thereupon entered the service of Sweden, and in 1G38 
sailed with a colony of Swedes to the Delaware Eiver, where 
he built a fort near the present site of Wilmiugton, Dela- 
ware, and another on an island Just below what is now 
Philadelphia. A Dutch settlement liad been made in the 

What is said of the Dutch West India Co.? Of the Walloons? 
Where did they settle? 2. By whom was ^lanhattan Island purchased? 
3, Ilow did the Company encourage scttlunionts? The result? 

J^^jKW NErrncRLAND. 73 

_4. — 

southern part of Delaware several years earlier, but the 

Indians destroyed it. 

5. The seeond governor of New Netherland was "Wouter 
van Twiller, and lie was succeeded by William Kieft, under 
whom in 10-13 a barbarous attack was made by the colonists 
upon the Indians at lloboken, and one liundred and twenty 
savages were massacred in 
the night. This led to a 
terril)le Indian war, which 
lasted more than two years. 
Kieft Avas recalled, and re- 
placed by Peter Stuyvesant 
{sti'-ve-sant), a brave and 
able but arbitrary man^ who 
kept peace with the savages, 
and in 1CG5 compelled the 
Swedes on tlie Delaware to 
submit to the Dutch au- 
thority. Thus New Sweden 
was annexed to Xew Neth- 

6. The English in New York.— The Dutch settlers, 
occupying territory claimed by the English on both sides 
of them, were continually involved in disputes with their 
neighbors, especially those of Connecticut. Tlu'ir troul)les 
were increased bv English families who, bavins; settled in 
and near New Amsterdam, began to demand popular forms 
of government and to fill many of the Dutch with the 
same political ideas which prevailed in New England. In 
December, 1003, deputies chosen by eacli village in New 
Netherland assembled at New Amsterdam without the 

Peteu Stuyvesant. 

4. What led to the settlement of Delaware by the Swedes? 5. Wliat 
occm-red under Kicft's ride? What did Iiis successor accoin])lisli? 
6. With whom did the Dutch quarrel? Wluit increased the trouble ? 

74 History of the United States. 

— ^— 
governor's consent, and a, revolution seemed to be at hand 
when the Dutch authority was suddenly overthrown by 
other means, 

7. The English king, Charles II., gave to his brother, 
the Duke of York (afterwards James II.), the whole terri- 
tory from the Connecticut to the Delaware, and James sent 
out a fleet under Col. Nicolls to take possession of the gift. 
The ships arrived in August, 1G64, and summoned the 
colonists to surrender. Stuyvesant wished to resist, but 
the Dutch inhabitants would not fight and the English 
declared for their countrymen. New Xetherland accord- 
ingly passed peaceably into English possession, and in honor 
of the duke the name of New York was given to the town 
and province. The other settlements on the Hudson and 
the various Dutch villages in New Jersey and Delaware 
promptly capitulated. 

8. Nine years afterwards, when the people, still less 
pleased with their new rulers than with the old, were again 
on the point of rebellion, a Dutch fleet entered the Bay of 
New York and easily regained possession of the town. It 
Avas restored to England, however, at the end of the war 
then going on between that country and Holland. 

9. Character of the Colony. — At the time of the sur- 
render to Nicolls in 1004 the province contained 10,000 
inhabitants scattered far and wide along the Hudson and 
Delaware Rivers, on Long Island and in New Jersey, and 
New Amsterdam had a population of about 1,500. The 
Dutch settlers had emigrated merely for the purpose of 
making money, and without any reference to politics or 

10. According to law, no religion except that of the 

TIow did the internal disputes culrainale? 7. "VVTiat grant did the 
Duki' of York receive? "What occurred in 1664? How did Stuyvesant 
act? The result? 8. Did tlio people like the change? 

New Jersey. 75 

— + — 
Reformed Dutcli C'liiirch was to be tolerated, but tlie law 
Avas not strictly enforced, and many other Protestant sects 
were admitted into the colony. There were even a few 
Catholics in Xew Amsterdam. Father Jogues and Father 
Bressani, the Jesuit missionaries, after sutfering unheard- 
of tortures at the hands of the Mohawks, were ransomed 
by the Dutch at Fort Orange (Albany), and kindly en- 
tertained by Governor Kieft at Xew Amsterdam. Fa- 
ther Jogues relates that he heard the confessions of two 
Catholics whom he found at Fort Amsterdam in 1G43. 
The only denominations, however, Avhich were allowed to 
celebrate worship in public were the Keformed Dutch, the 
Swedish Tjutlu'i-ans. and the Church of England. 

11. New Jersey. — The Duke of York conveyed the ter- 
ritory between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers to Lord 
Berkeley (brother of tlie governor of Virginia) and Sir 
George Carteret (1GG4), and it was named Xew Jersey after 
the Island of Jersey, in the English Channel, of which 
Carteret had been governor. Elizabethtown, settled the 
same year by Englishmen from Long L^hiud, was named 
in honor of Lady Carteret. The Dutclt had several small 
trading stati(ms in this territory at an earlier date, and 
Quakers, having bought the riglits of Lord Berkeley, came 
soon afterwards. In 1G76 a division Avas made, the Quakers 
taking West Jersey and Carteret retaining East Jersey, 
which became Puritan. 

How (lid the English lose and rogain control of the province? 9. 
What was the popnlation in 1664? What is said of tlie Dutch settlers? 
10. What is said of religious toleration in New Netherland? How 
were two Jesuit missionaries treated? Name them. Where did Father 
Jogues find Catholics? What denominations had privilege to worship 
in jiublic? 11. To whom was New Jersey granted? When and by 
whom was Elizabethtown settled? Who 'bought Berkeley's rights? 
What division was made in 1070? What did Carteret retain ? 

76 History of the United States. 

— + — 


The Catholic Coloxy of Maryland — Lord Baltimore — Freedom of 
Worship Destroyed by the Protestaxts. 

1. Lord Baltimore. — The tirst colony estuLlislied in 
America on the principles of freedom and self-government 
in politics and equal treatment for all in religion was tlie 
Catholic colony of Maryland. Sir George Calvert, a gentle- 
man of Yorkshire, a Secretary of State under James I., and 
one of the original menibers of tlie London Company of 
Virginia, resigned his offices when the Puritan party he- 
came violent in England, and declared himself a Catholic. 
James seems to luive respected his courage, for soon after- 
wards he was created Lord Baltimore. 

2. Calvert had previously estahlished a colony in Ncav- 
foundland just after the landing of the Pilgrims at Xew 
Plymouth, and offered a refuge there to Catholics and other 
persecuted persons. In search of a milder clinuite and a 
more generous soil, he visited Jamestown, hut he was 
turned away on account of his religion. Finally, in 1G33, 
he obtained from Charles I. a grant of unoccui)ied land 
north of the Potomac, and named it Maryland in honor 
of Queen Henrietta Maria, and to this territory he resolved 
to transplant at his own cost a large colony of Catholics 
and such other persons as chose to join them. 

3. The patent was prepared by his own hand, but he 
died before it received the royal signature, and it was 
issued to his son, Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore. 
The ])roprietor was created absolute lord of the i)rovince, 
and em].)()wered to make all necessary laws, but he stijju- 

1. For what is the Maryland colony distinguished? Who was Sir 
George Calvort? 2. Where had he established a eolony? Why did he 
visit Jamestown? What did he get from the king? For wliat ()l>je('t? 


Lord Baltimore. 

— 4* — 


Cecil Calvert, Second Loud Baltimoue. 

hitcd of liiri own accord lliat no laws should be valid Avith- 
out Lliu consent of the free- 
men of the colony or their 
rei)rcsentatives in assembly. 
4. When a dispute soou 
arose between the colonists 
and the proprietor as to 
which should have the right 
of originating laws, Lord 
IJaltimore magnanimously 
surrendered his claims, and 
reserved only the privilege 
of a veto. No other patent 
up to this time had given 
the peoi^le of a colony any 
share in legislating for their 
own interests. The right of taxation, Avhich the crown per- 
sistently claimed in other cases, was given up to the settlers 
themselves. Nothing was said in the patent about religious 
toleration, perhaps because a proposal to leave all denomi- 
nations free would have provoked too much opposition in 

6. In a pros])eetus inviting ])oople to join the enter- 
prise Lord Baltimore, Ix'sidcs setting forth the richness 
of the country and the advantages of the expected trade, 
declared lliat his '' first and most important design. Avhich 
also ought to ])(' (he aim of flic rest,"' was *' not lo think 
so much of planting fruits and tives in a land so fruitful 
as. of sowing the seeds of religion and l»iety — surely a 
design Avorthy of Christians, worthy of angels, wortliy of 

3. To whom was the imtcnt issued? Why? What power was given 
to the proprietor? By the proprietor to (lie pi'n|)l(3? 4. What right was 
surrendered? IIom* did tlie patent differ from all previous ones? 




6. Departure of the Colony. — About twenty Catholic 
gentlemen joined him, and these, Avith servants and hiljor- 
ers, tAYO Jesuit priests, Father AndreAV White and Father 
John Altham (sometimes called John Gravener), and two 
lay brothers, John Knowles and Thomas Gervase, made 
a party of nearly three hundred. Lord Baltimore Avas 

The Landing of the MAiiYLANn Catholu;*. 

detained in England and committed the expedition to his 
younger brother, Leonard Galvert, as governor, witli Je- 
rome IlaAvley and Thomas Cornwallis as liis councillors. 

7. They sailed from Cowes, in the Isle of AVight, with the 
ship Ark and the pinnace Doi'e, committing them to the 
protection of God, the Blessed Virgin, St. Ignatius, and 

5. State Lord Baltimore's "first and most important design." 6. 
Of whom was the first colony composed? Who luid charije of the 
colony? 7. From what port did they sail? Under whose protection? 

Founding of 3£ARTLAxt). "79 

tlic guardian angels of Maryland. Following the long 
route by the West Indies, they sighted Virginia after a 
stormy voyage of three months. They sailed, up Chesa- 
peake Bay, and on the Feast of the Annunciation, March 
25, 1634, they landed on a fair island (Blackstone's Island, 
now nearly washed away), which they called 8t. Clement's. 
Mass was celebrated, and then with great solemnity they 
set u]> a large cross and recited a litany. 

8. St. Mary's. — After spending two days in exploring 


the Potomac and making friends of the natives, Calvert 
chose a place for his settlement on a little stream which 
flows into the Potomac on the north side, near its mouth, 

What roiite was taken? How long did the voyage last? Where did 
thoy land? What name was given to the island? How did tlu'v com- 
menioi-ate their landing? 8. What place was chosen for settlement? 

80 History of the United States. 

— + — 
wliere there was already an Indian village. He bought 
of the savages their whole village, wigwams and all, 
and thirty miles of land, paying in axes, hatchets, 
rakes, and cloth. The colonists occupied the Indian huts 
till they could Ijuild houses, and one of the best of them 
they used as a chapel. They gave the town the name of 
St. Mary's. 

9. Tlie settlement prospered. A crop of maize was 
gathered the first summer, and the Indians taught the 
colonists how to pre})arc it for food and how to trap 
game. Before winter all were comfortably sheltered. A 
church was soon erected on the high bank of the river. 
The Jesuits, Joined by others of their order, devoted them- 
selves to the spiritual Avants of the settlers and the con- 
version of the Indians ; in six months St. Mary's made more 
progress than Virginia had made in six years ; good order, 
morality, and industry prevailed ; and in less than a year 
after their landing the colonists met in general assembly 
to make laws for themselves. 

10. Although the founders were Catholics, and tlie Ca- 
tholic faith was recognized by law as the established reli- 
gion of the colony, there were some Protestants — servants 
and la])orers — in the first party that came out, and others 
followed them from England, many becoming converted 
after their arrival. Tlie policy of Lord Baltimore, as well 
as of the colonists themselves, was not to interfere Avith 
anybody's creed. 

11. A refuge was offered at St. Mary's to all Pro- 
testants who fled from the Protestant intolerance either 
of Puritanism in Massachusetts or of the Church of 
England in Virginia, and after a few years a formal act 

Describe the purchase from the Indians. What was the town 
named? 0. Doscribc the progress of the settlement. 10. What was the 
established religion? What policy was pursued towards Protestants? 

Puritans and Catholics. 81 

of toleration wus passed, by which all Christians were 
to be protected against molestation on account of tJicir 
religion. There never Avas any departure from this rule 
as long as Maryland remained Catholic, and it was a rule, 
tluit prevailed nowhere else. AVe shall see tliat, as a con- 
sequence of this generosity, the Catholics became the vic- 
tims of Protestant persecution in their own colony, and 
the freedom which they had established w^as destroyed. 

12. Trouble? with Virginia, — At the time of Calvert's 
arrival a trader named Clayborne was established on Kent 
Island, in Chesapeake Bay, within the limits of the Mary- 
land grant. Clayborne refused to acknowledge the autho- 
rity of Calvert, and, being sustained by the Virginians, 
who always regarded the Maryland colony with hostility, 
lie maintained an open warfare with the government at 
St. Mary's. A number of Puritans, expelled from Vir- 
ginia, had accepted the hospitality of the Maryland Ca- 
tholic?, and now turned against their protectors, allying 
themselves with the partisans of Clayborne, and obliging 
Calvert to flee from the province (1644). Two years later 
the governor came l)aek with a body of troops and re- 
established his authority. 

13. Puritans and Catholics. — It was three years after 
this (1G49) that the Catholic Assembly of Maryland passed 
the act of toleration which earned for the colony the 
name of "land of the sanctuary." Protestants were ad- 
mitted to office on equal terms -with Catholics, and, some 
time after the death of Leonard Calvert, Lord Baltimore 
ajipointed Stone, a Protestant, as governor. The greater 
part of the Puritans had cstablislied themselves at Provi- 
dence, near the present site of Annapolis, and a separate 

11. To wliom (lid St. Mary's offer a rcfiij^o? What act was passetl? 
Its object? Its consequences? 13. Wliat led to Clayborne's rebellion? 
The result? 13. Why was Maryland called " land of the sanctuary" ? 

82 History of the United States. 

— 4, — 

county, called Anne Arundel, was organized for them in 

1G50. As they increased in numbers Charles County 

was als.o formed for them. They were always turbulent 

and insubordinate. 

14. After the execution of Charles I. and the estab- 
lishment of the Commonwealth, the Parliament sent out 
commissioners to look after " the plantations within Chesa- 
peake Bay" (1652), which had acknowledged Charles II. 
One of these commissioners was Clayborne, the old enemy 
of the colony. With the aid of the Puritans Governor 
Stone was deposed and imprisoned (1655), several of the 
adherents of Lord Baltimore were hanged, Clayborne was 
reinstated at Kent Island, and a new government was 
set up, one of whose first acts was to exclude all "papists 
and prelatists " from the benefits of the statute of tolera- 
tion, and to declare that no Catholic should sit in the 
Assembly or vote for members of it. 

15. For three years the jirovince remained in a state 
of civil war. One government was established at St. 
Mary's under the authority of Lord Baltimore's patent, 
and another at Providence under the authority of tbe 
Puritan commissioners. The rights of the proprietor were 
restored on the accession of Charles II., and Lord Balti- 
more's brother, Philip Calvert, became governor. The act 
of toleration was now revived in its full extent, and the 
colony remained at i)eace until the ascendency of Protest- 
antism Avas secured in England by the revolution which 
dethroned James II. and set u}) William and Mary. 

16. The year after that event (1080) a Puritan named 
Coode raised an insurrection in j\Iaryland, and, si)rcading 
a lying report that the Catholics liad made a league with 

14. Wliat course did Piirliamont pursue toward Maryland? Wh)- ? 
Who sided with the commissioners? What followed? How were tlie 
Catholics freatcd? 15. How did the Restoration affect the colony? 

Persecution of the Catholics. 83 

— ^ — 

the Indians to massacre the Protestants, he organized an 
"Association in arms for the defence of the Protestant 
religion," marched upon St. Mary's, captured the fort of 
St. Inigoe (St. Ignatius), and called a convention, which 
declared the authority of Lord Baltimore forfeited. 

17. Two years later the king revoked the grant to the 
proprietor and made Maryland a royal province. The ca])i- 
tal was removed from St. Mary's to Annapolis. The Church 
of England was made the established religion of the colony ; 
the Catholics were disfranchised ; and thus the founders of 
Maryland Avere violently and ungratefully de]n-ived of the 
privileges they had been the first to grant to other people. 

18. In 1715 Benedict Charles Calvert, the fourth 
Lord Baltimore, being a Protestant, recovered the i)ro- 
prietary rights, and they remained in the family until 
the Revolution. No justice, however, was shown to the 
Catholics. In 170-4 an *'Act to prevent the increase of 
popery in the province " made it an offence to say Mass 
except in private houses, to exercise any other function of 
the priesthood, or attempt to make converts. Catholics 
were forbidden to teach. They were taxed twice as much 
as Protestants. After a while they were forbidden to ap- 
proach within one hundred yards of the state-house. Most 
of the oppressive penal statutes continued in force until 
177-4. The Jesuit mission>!. however, survived all jiersecu- 
tions and became the foundation of the American Church. 

16. What occurretl in 1690? What report did Coode spread? De- 
soriho tho progress of the insurrection. By wlioni was the authority of 
Lord Baltimore declared forfeited ? 17. What action did the king take? 
What became the established religion? Of what were Catholics de- 
prived? 18. What occurred in 171")? Did this better the condition of 
the Catholics? Describe the act of 1704, How long did these penal 
laws continue in force? Did the .Tesuits abandon tlio mission ? 

84 History of the United States. 

—I- — 


The Indians in New England — The Pequod War — The United 
CuLONiAs — King Philip's War. 

\. The New England Settlers and the Indians. — Tlie 
settlers of !New England took little interest in attempts 
to christianize the Indians, thongh they succeeded for u 
time in keeping the friendship of most of the tribes, and 
one of the first Boston preachers, the Eev. John Eliot, 
devoted a long life to missionary enterprises among the 
savages, and won great influence over them. 

2. The powerful and warlike confederacy of the Pequods, 
whose chief seat was on the Pequod (now the Thames) Riv- 
er, Connecticut, was on bad terms with the whites, and, 
after a succession of raids and murders, endeavored to 
concert with the Narragansets a general massacre of the 
colonists. This ])lot was defeated by the influence of 
Roger Williams over the Narragansets. The whites now 
determined upon a war, and secured the help of the Nar- 
ragansets and Mohegans. 

3. An expedition accordingly gathered on Xarraganset 
Bay, consisting of twenty men from the Massachusetts 
colony under Captain Underhill, ninety from the Con- 
necticut toAvns under Captain Jolin Mason, sixty Mohc- 
gan Indians led by their chief, Uncas, and two hundred 
Narragansets uiuh'r IMiautonomoh [mi-an-fo-nn-wo), the 
nejOiew of Canonicus. 

4. After a march of two days (May, 1037) the allied 
force came upon one of the principal Pequod strongholds, 
a village surrounded by a fortification of trees and brush- 

1. Did the Puritans attempt to christiaTiize the Indians ? What is 
said of Kcv. John Eliot ? 2. What is said of the Pequods ? Why 
did the whites determine upon war ? 3. Describe the preparations. 

The Pfqt'op War. 85 

^•h — 

wood. Tlie Pcquods were surprised in tlicir sleep, but tlicv 
fought bravely, until Mason, crying out, '' We must burn 
tliem," thrust a firebrand into one of the wiuwanis, setting 
the whole village in flames. The attack now became ii 
massacre, the whites keeping up the fight Avithin the fort, 
while their Indian allies struck down those who attempted 
to escape. 

5. A fortnight later, more troojjs having arrived from 
Boston, the remnant of the Pe(|Uods were i)ursued to the 
SAvamps in Avhich thoy had taken refuge, and their ruin 
Avas completed ; eight or nine hundred Avere killed or taken ; 
the captives Avere sold into slavery. fSas'sacus, the head 
sachem, fled to the MohaAvks, who put him to dcatli ; and 
the confederacy was entirely broken u]). 

6. The United Colonies. — For better protection against 
Indian attacks, and for the advancement of their interests 
in general, a confederation of " The United Colonies of 
XcAv England" Avas formed in 1043 by delegates from 1*1 v- 
mouth, Connecticut, and Xcav Haven, Avho met at Boston 
with the General Court of Massachusetts. Commissioners 
from each colony were to meet alternately at Boston, Ply- 
mouth, Hartford, and Xcav Haven. The commissioners 
must be church members ; they chose their oAvn presi- 
dent ; they had charge of Indian affairs and war. Massa- 
chusetts, being Ijy far the most powerful colony, took i)re- 
cedence over the others. The settlements of Rhode Island 
and ]\[aine Avere not admitted to this league. The con- 
federacy Avas important as the first step toAvards union, 
but it was dissoh'ed after some years Avithout acc()m])li8h- 
ing Avhat Avas expected of it. 

7. King Philip's War. — An attemi)t was nuide to ivvivc 

4. Describe the attack. 5. "What happened a fortnight Ijitcr ? 6. 
Why (lid tho Xow Enfjlaiid colonics unite? Which colonies t\'ci-o repre- 
sented ? Excluded ? Describe the plan. What was accomplished ? 

86 History of the United States. 

— 4- — 

the uuioii in 1GT5, when a new and more terrible Indian 
war broke out. The Whampano'ags, or Pokano'kets, on the 
east side of Narragansct Bay, were now ruled by the nephew 
and successor of Massasoit, Pometacom, known to the colo- 
nists as King Philip. Jealous of the continual encroach- 
ments of the whites, and incensed by the hanging of some 
of his men on a charge of murder, he attacked the nearest 
settlements and killed several of the inhabitants (June, 

8. A body of Massachusetts volunteers pursued him 
through the swamps and forests, but he escaped into the 
interior of Massachusetts, where the Nipmuc tribe had 
likewise taken arms against the Avhites. In a short time 
there was a general rising of the Indians all over New 
England, and they were more dangerous now than ever 
before because the colonists had supplied many of them 
with arms. 

9. Brookfield, Northficld, and Decrfield were burnetl, 
and at Deerfield Captain Lathrop and eighty men were 
killed in an ambuscade. Small parties of troops on the 
march were cut off and destroyed. The people of the 
outlying settlements abandoned their homes and fled to 
the larger towns. A thousand men, half to be mounted 
dragoons, were levied at the joint expense of the confede- 
rated colonies, and a second thousand were voted for a 
special expedition against the Narragansets, who had given 
aid and shelter to the hostile tribes. 

10. In December, 1G75, thirteen companies of troops from 
Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Connecticut, the whole com- 
manded by Josiah "Winslow, Governor of Plymouth, at- 
tacked the Narragansets in one of their ancient strong- 

7. What occurred in 1675 ? Who was King Philip ? Why did he 
at I nek the settlers ? 8. Wlio pursued him ? Who joined hini ? What 
made the Indians powerful? U, JJescribc the progress of the war, 

KiXG Phtltp's War. 87 

— * — 
holds, in what is now tlie toAvn uf hJouth Kingston, Rhode 
Island. The fort was built on a rising ground in the 
midst of a swamp, and surrounded by a jialisade and a 
close hedge fifteen or sixteen feet thick. The only ap- 
proach was by a narrow entrance defended by a tree thrown 
across it, and with a blockhouse of logs in front and an- 
other on the flank. 

11. As the colonists advanced they were met by a 
severe fire and many of them fell; but after two hours' 
lighting they forced the entrance and set fire to tiie wig- 
wams. The horrors of the Pccjuod nuissacre were renewx'd. 
Numbers of the Indians perished in the flames, and the 
colonists themselves lost in the "Swamp Fight," in killed 
and wounded, about two hundred and forty men. 

12. The exasperated Narragansets revenged themselves 
u})on the settlements, and the war became more dreadful 
than ever. "Warwick was burned, Providence was partly 
destroyed, the whole colony of Plymouth was overrun, 
attacks were nuide simultaneously in all quarters. In 
March, IGTG, Captain Pierce, Avith fifty colonists and some 
friendly Indians, Avhile trying to cover the Plymouth 
towns, fell into an ambush and was cut off. In April 
Captain Wadsworth and fifty men were surprised and 
killed while marching to the relief of Sudbury. In May 
Captain Turner, returning from a slaughter of Indians on 
the Connecticut, was entrapped and slain with thirty- 
eight men. 

13. At Hadley, Mass., the savages made a sudden de- 
scent upon the settlement while the jieople were at cliurch. 
In the midst of the confusion an old man Avith a long 
beard, ' whom nobody knew% rallied the terrified colonists 

10. Who attacked the Narragansets? 11. Describe the "Swamp Fight." 
12. How did the Xivrraganseis rovengo theinsolvos ? "What seitlpinpiits 
suffered ? What is said of Captain Pierce ? "Wadsworth ? Turner ? 

88 History of the United States. 

— 4- — 
and took command of tlie defence. As soon us the Indians 
had been beaten off lie disa})i)eared, leaving many of the 
settlers undej- the impression that they had been saved by 
an angel. He was General William Goffe, one of the regi- 
cides, or Puritan judges who condemned King Charles I. 
to death. After the restoration of the Stuarts he fled to 
America with his father-in-law, AVhalley, and was hunted 
from town to town and from forest to cave, with a price 
set on his head. For the last fifteen years of his life he 
Was concealed at Iladley. 

14. The war lasted more than a year. The General 
Court of Massachusetts regarded it as a punishment for 
the sins and extravagances of the people, and among other 
offences they mentioned pride, profanity, cheating, the 
wearing of long hair by the men, and toleration of the 
Quakers. The persecution of the Quakers was renewed, 
and still more effectual measures of defence were taken by 
calling out troops, placing garrisons in the towns, and col- 
lecting bands of ]\l()hegans and other friendly Indians. 

15. Death of King Philip. — Philip, after long evading 
the English by the rapidity of his movements, returned to 
his own stronghold, Mount Hope, or Pokanoket, where he 
was su})i)()rted by his relative, "Witamo, the female sachem 
of Pocasset. On the Isr of Aiigust, 1G7G, the cauij) Avas 
surju-ised by Major Church witli a body of English and 
Indian volunteers. Philip escaped ; his wife and son were 
captured ; the boy was sold as a slave in Bermuda ; more 
than a liundred of the Whampanoags and most of the 
followers of "Witamo were killed ; Witamo herself was 
drowned in trying to get away, and her head was cut off 
and set up on a pole in Taunton. A few days later Philip, 

13. What occurred at Iladley ? Who was General Goffe ? 14. How 
long did the wur last ? ITow was it rej^arded ? The effect on the Qua- 
kers ? 15. Where was King Philip's stronghold ? Who attacked liim ? 

The Caroltxas. 89 

— 4" — 

being iittueked again ])y (Jliurdi, wa.s killrd ])y one of liis 
own people who had deserted ; his head was carried in 
triumph to Plymouth, and one of his hands was given to 
the man who had shot him. 

16. In this disastrous war the colonists lost six hundred 
men in battle, besides many })ersons massacTed in the set- 
tlements. Twelve or thirteen towns were entirely ruined 
and others Avere partly burnech The losses in money were 
about a million dollars. On the other hand, the poAver 
of the savages was for ever broken. j\Iore than two thou- 
sand wTre killed or captured, and most of the captives 
were either hanged or reduced to slavery. From this 
time the tribes in New England fast dwindled away. 



1. Settlement of Carolina. — Between the English settle- 
ments of A'irginia and the Spanish posts in Florida lay a 
vast tract which l)oth nations claimed and neither had thus 
far colonized. In IGGo, just before the grant of New York 
to the Duke of York, Charles II. erected this vacant terri- 
tory (North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, 
and part of Florida) into tlie i)rovincc of Carolina, and 
gave it to eight proprietors : Clarendon (the prime min- 
ister), Gen. Monk (Duke of Albemarle), Lord Ashley 
Cooper (afterwards Earl of Shaftesbury), Lord Berkeley 

What became of King Philip ? 16. What did the colonists suffer in 
this war ? IIow did it affect the savages ? What boeanio of tlie cap- 
tives ? 1. Who claimed Carolina ? To whom was it granted ? 

90 History of the United States. 

— + — 

and Sir George Carteret (proprietors of New Jersey the 
next year), Sir "William Berkeley (governor of Virginia), 
Lord Craven, and Sir Julin Colleton. 

2. The Spanish missionaries had already penetrated 
into this region and made numerous converts among the 
savasfes. The Franciscans had towns of Christian Indians 
all along the Flint Kiver in Southwestern Georgia, and 
stations also in the eastern part of the State, which lasted 
until the English destroyed them. Attempts had been 
made to form white settlements by the French under l\i- 
bault, the English under Kaleigb, the Virginians, and the 
New Englanders, all of which failed. 

3. The history of the colonization of the Carolinas 
dates from 1GG4:, v.'lien i)lantations in what is now North 
Carolina were organized under the Clarendon grant as the 
Albemarle County Colony. A number of settlers from 
Barbadoes established themselves near the mouth of Cape 
Fear River, the present site of Wilmington, and, with 
some New-Englanders already there, formed the Clarendon 
Colony. They soon engaged in the exportation of boards, 
shingles, and staves, which is still one oi the chief indus- 
tries of that region of pine-woods. 

4. A scheme of government for the province of Caro- 
lina was drawn up, at the request of the Earl of Shaftes- 
bury, liy the famous Englisli jihilosopher, John Locke. 
It was a complicated plan whicli provided for a feudal 
nobility and other aristocratic institutions, the subjection 
of the people to the lords proprietors, and the establish- 
ment of the Church of England. Although nominally in 
force for more than tAventy years, many of its regulations 
were never carried into effect. It produced quarrels a1)out 

Name the proprietors. 2. What is said of the Spanish missionaries? 
By wlioin had settlomcnts boon ai tempted ? H, Deseribe the Alheinarle 
County Colony. The Clarendon colony. 4. Wliat is said of John Locke? 

Settlement of South Carolixa. 91 

— ^ — 
rent and taxes between the settlers and the proprietors, 

and generally the people managed to retain the power of 
governing themselves. 

5. Finally, after a long period of misrule and disorder, 
in the course of which there was more than once an o])en 
insurrection in North Carolina, the rights of the proprie- 
tors were purchased by Parliament and the wliole province 
was subjected to the crown (1729), 

6. South Carolina. — The settlements in what is now 
South Carolina were known under the Clarendon grant as 
the Carteret Colony. The emigrants established themselves 
first on the Ashley Iliver (1G70), whence they removed 
after a few years to a' better situation at the junction of 
the Ashley and Cooper, and so founded the city of Charles- 
ton. Their original village, called Old Charleston, has en- 
tirely disappeared. Slaves were introduced from Barbadoes 
in 1G71, and South Carolina was from the beginning essen- 
tially a colony of planters em])loying negro slaves. 

7. Emigrants came at an early })eriod from New York, 
Holland, Scotland, and the North of Ireland (Presby- 
terians). In 1G8G and 1G87 a large number of Huguenots 
(French Calvinists) arrived, but the other settlers looked 
upon them with jealousy, and for more than ten years 
refused them the privileges of citizenship. 

8. Like their l)rethron in North Carolina, the people 
of the southern colony were in fretjuent revolt against 
the proprietors. In 1G90 they lianished Governor Colle- 
ton. They then submitted for a while to Governor Sothel, 
one of the proprietors, who had just been expelled from 
North Carolina, but after two years he was impeached. 
The next governor, Ludwell, "w\as likewise driven out. 

Was the plan successful ? 5. What change was made in 1729 ? 
6. Wlien and where was South Carolina settled ? What is said of sla- 
very ? 7. Describe the early settlers. 8. What troubles arose? 

93 History of the United States. 

^ — 
The rule of the i)roi)rietors was finally overthrown by a 

popular movement in 1719, ten years before their rights 
were extinguished by purehase. It Avas after this pur- 
chase that the settlements under the Clarendon grant be- 
came known as North Carolina and South Carolina, 

9. Georgia. — It Avas seventy years after the grant to 
Clarendon and his assoeiates before any attemi)t was made 
to settle that part of the province of Carolina now in- 
cluded in the States of Georgia and Alabama. The rights 
of the proprietors by that time had been extinguished, 
and North and South Carolina had been erected into 
separate provinces. 

10. The settlement of Georgia was due at last to the 
efforts of General Oglethorpe, a distinguished English 
officer and a memlx^r of the House of Commons, who, 
having taken a great interest in the reform of prisons, 
and especially in improving the condition of those who 
were confined for debt, formed the design of establishing 
a community in America Avhere discharged prisoners and 
other unfortunate persons might begin a new life. It was 
also his intention to interpose a military barrier between 
the Spaniards of Florida and the weak colonies of South 

11. In furtherance of the scheme George 11. granted a 
charter (1733) covering all that i)art of the old province 
of Carolina south of the Savannah River. Sul^scriptions 
were taken all over the kingdom to defray the expense. 
Trustees were ai)i)ointed to govern the colony ; and in 
November, 1733, Gen. Oglethorpe sailed with 135 persons, 
soon followed by 150 more sent out by the trustees, 40 
Jews equijiped by the efforts of some of their brethren. 

What happened in 1719 ? 9. When were settlements in Georgia 
attcmptoil ? 10. What did Oi^lethoriio desire to establish ? 11. Who 
granted the territory ? How were funds obtained '{ 

Oglethorpe ix Georgia. 93 

— + — 
and 78 German Protestants. Suvannali Avas founded in 
May, 1733. A party of Moravians came over the next 
year, and some Scotch Highlanders settled on the Alta- 
niaha. A free exercise of religion was guaranteed to all 
'*cxcei)t pajjists." The name Georgia Avas given to the 
colony in honor of the king. . 

12. The English colonists were not well chosen for life 
in the wilderness, and the laws established by the trustees 
were unwise. Industry was not properly encouraged, and 
the settlers were greatly burdened by the ol)ligation to 
perform military service. As the Spaniards in Florida 
threatened to attack the i)lantations, Gen. Oglethor})e 
brought over GOO soldiers from England, and also added 
to liis forces a large body of friendly Indians. 

13. In 1740, fearing an invasion by the Spaniards, he 
resolved to strike them first, and conseiiuently marched 
against St. Augustine with ;i,000 men. The want of can- 
non and the approach of the sickly season obliged him 
to abandon the siege and return to Savannah. Two years 
later the Spaniards retaliated l)y an expedition into Georgia, 
but after many disasters they Avere driven off. 

14. Oglethorpe returned to England in 1743, and the 
colony Avas ruled after that by a governor and council for 
nearly ten years. It then became a royal province. Like 
the other southern colonies, it dei)ended chiefly u]ion 
the labor of negro slaves. Alabama Avas not separated 
from Georgia till after the Eevolution. 

Describe the first colonists. When was SaA'annah founded ? Who 
camo over in 1734 ? Wlio were sjuaraiiteed a free exercise of reliijion ? 
12. Did the colony prosper ? What is said of the Spaniards? 13. What 
occurred in 1740 ? The result ? Describe the movements of the Span- 
iards. 14. What became of Oglethorpe ? How was the colony ruled 
afterward ? What change was made in the gOA'ernment ? By whom 
was the hibor performed ? When was Alabama separated from Georgia ? 

94 History of the United States. 

— * — 


The Quakers — William Pexx — Settlement of Pexnstlvaxu. 

1. Quakers in America. — Members of the sect of Quakers, 
or Societ}' of Friends, ai)i)eared in Boston as earh' as IGoG, 
and soon showed themselves in other colonies. They met 
everywhere the severest treatment, and the laws of Massa- 
chusetts provided that they should be whipped at the 
cart's tail from town to town, branded with the letter II 
(rogue), and hanged if they still returned ; but in spite 
of persecution they continued to come, and in 1673 George 
Fox, the founder of the denomination, visited this coun- 
try and preached in many of the settlements. 

2. Soon afterwards the western half of Xew Jersey was 
sold by Lord Berkeley to the Quakers, and they found 
security by settling a colony of their own (1G75). Later 
they bought East Jersey also. But in the meantime Wil- 
liam Penn, one of the most distinguished converts to the 
sect, a man of wealth and family, and son of a famous 
English admiral, obtained from King Charles 11. , in pay- 
ment of an old debt due from the crown to the Penn 
family, a charter for a colony west of the Delaware, to 
which was given the name of Pennsylvania (1G81). 

3. Penn wished to call it Sylvania, or " land of forests," 
but against his protests the king insisted that *'Penn" 
should be added to this name. The present State of Dela- 
ware, then known as " the Territories," and belonging to 
New York, was added to his domain in 1G82. The cliarter 
was copied from that of Maryland. Lands were sold to 

1. "Wlien did the Quakers arrive in Boston? Uow were they re- 
C'civfd? The effect? 2. What territory was bought by them? What 
grant was nuidc in 1681? '6. Why was the colony named Pennsylvania? 

Founding of Pennsylvania, 

— 4- — 


settlers ut about ten cents an acre, subject to an annual 
rent of about a (juarter of a cent an acre. 

4. Settlement of Pennsylvania. — The first party of emi- 
grants sailed in 1081. Penn followed them in 1GS2 ; in 
the course of the first year no fewer than twenty-three 
ship-loads arrived, and in two years the population 
amounted to 7,000, including the settlers who were al- 
ready on the ground wlieu the new colony was organized. 
A few weeks after his arrival Penn held a conference 

TuE Penn Tueatv. 

■with a large assembly of the Indians, under an elm-tree 
at Shackamaxon, in what is now Kensington, Philadel- 
phia, and formed with them a treaty of friendship. This 

How was Penn's domain increased? What is said of the charter? 
TIow woro lands sold? 4. When was the first sottlenuMit made? IIow 
did the population increase? Describe Penn's treaty witli the Indians? 

96 History of the United States. 

--+ — 

treaty was never l)roken, and the kindly intercourse be- 
tween the Quakers and the savages was rarely disturbed. 

5. The same year Penn founded the city of Philadel- 
phia, Avhose name signifies '' brotherly love," and sum- 
moned a legislative assembly, whose first session Avas held 
at Chester. Before his return to England (lG8-i) he es- 
tablished a representative government and a code of laws. 
The first emigrants were mostly Quakers, including some 
from Germany and Holland, but toleration Avas promised 
to all Christians. This pledge does not appear to have 
been regarded as applying to Catholics, yet they were not 
molested ; a number of Irish Catholics were among the 
early arrivals, and Mass was celebrated in Philadelphia 
in 1686. 

6. Penn was involved in political troubles in England ; 
his province was taken from him ; and for tAvo years 
(1092-94) Pennsylvania Avas ruled by the royal governor 
of XcAV York. Then the rights of the proprietor Avere 
restored. He made a second visit to America, and at the 
demand of the people, Avho wished for greater political 
privileges, he granted a ncAV charter. In 1779 the State 
of Pennsylvania bought all the rights of Penn's heirs for 
about $500,000. 

Did the saA'ages keep this treaty? 5. What was done in the same 
year? When did Penn return to England? What did he summon 
i)efore his return? What is said of the first emigrants? What is said 
of toleration ? Were Catholics included? Were there any Catholics in 
Pennsylvania? When was Mass celebrated in Philadelphia? 6. Why 
was the Province taken from Penn? Were his rii,dits restored? What 
is said of his second visit to America? What occurred in, 1779? 

2'he Ooloxies axd the Crown. 1)7 

— * — 


The Colonists and the King — Troubles ix New York — The "Ne- 
gro Plot" — Salem Witcucraft. 

1. The Colonies and the Crown. — Charles II. in the 
latter jnirt oi his life wisliud to destroy the liberties of the 
American coh)nies and take their government into his own 
hands, lie died (1G85) before lie could carry this scheme 
into effect, but his brother, James 11. , immediately under- 
took to execute the project, and recpiired all the New Eng- 
land colonies to surrender their charters. 

2. Sir Edmund Andros, who had previously been gover- 
nor of New York, arrived in Boston at tlie end of 1G86 with 
the title of Governor-General of New England. New York 
and the Jerseys were soon added to his jurisdiction. The 
first imiwrtant act of his administration wliich provoked 
the resentment of the Puritans was the publication of the 
royal Dechiration of Indulgence, which granted toleration to 
Quakers, Baptists, Episcopalians, and other Protestant sects, 
as well as to Catholics. Thus religious tyranny in New 
England received its death-blow from a Catholic king. 

3. Andros, how'ever, was a bad ruler. He issued the 
most tyrannical orders, interfered with private rights, im- 
posed ()p[)ressivo taxes, exceeded his authority in many 
ways, and niiide himself generally hated. 

4. The Charter Oak. — XW the New England colonies 
except Connecticut were forced to give up their charters 
at his command. As Connecticut refused, he marched to 
Hartford in November, 1G87, Avitli sixty soldiers, to seize 
the document by force. He entered the hall where the 

1. What did Charles II. wish to accomplish ? What course did 
Tamos TT. pursue? 2. Of what was Andros made governor ? What 
was his first important act V 3, Give the character of Andros. 

98 History of the United States. 

— 4* — 

Assembly was in session in the evening. The charter was 
brought out and hiid on tlie table, but wlien Andros was 
about to take it the lights were suddenly put out and the 
document disappeared. It had been carried away by the 

colonists and hidden in a 
IkjIIow tree, and Andros 
never found it. The tree, 
known as the Charter Oak, 
was carefully preserved for 
nearly two hundred years. 
It was blown down in 185G. 
5. Andros deposed. — 
The peoi)le of Xew Eng- 
land Avere about to rebel 
against the bad government 
of Andros when news ar- 
rived (April, 1689) of the 
expulsion of James from 
the throne and the acces- 
sion of William and Mary. The people of Boston imme- 
diately imprisoned Andros witli about fifty of his partisans, 
and sent them to England for trial. The government 
never came to any decision in the case, but some years 
later Andros was made governor of Virginia. 

6. The colonies now resumed their charters by their 
own authority, and for some time King William was too 
busy with troubles at home to i)iiy much attention to them. 
He Avas by no means disposed, liowever, to concede any 
liberties to the Americans. To the bills of rights which 
the provincial assemblies hastened to enact, lie returned 
decided and repeated negatives. He sent over some of the 

Hiding the Cuakter. 

4. Relate the story of the Charter Oak. 5. What was the result of 
Andres's bad government V What occurred in England ? What be- 
came of Andros ? 6, How were the colonies governed in William's reign ? 

JVeiv York. 99 

— 4- — 

same tyrannical governors who had been employed by James, 
and others who Avere no better. 

7. Persecuting laws, relaxed in favor of I'rotestant sects, 
now became more severe against Catholics. The colonies 
were also made to suffer by despotic restrictions upon their 
trade, made for the benefit of Englisli merchants. In 1G92 
King William caused the colonies of Massachusetts Bay and 
Plymouth, with the settlements in Maine and New Bruns- 
wick, to be consolidated uuder the old name of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay Colony, and greatly abridged their liberties. 
Sir William Phipps was appointed governor by the crown. 

8. New York. — The Duke of York had allowed the peo- 
ple of Xew York in 1G83 to meet in assembly, at the call of 
the governor — Thomas Dongan, a Catholic — and enact a 
code of fundamental laws kuown as tlie '" Charter of Liber- 
ties," which claimed for the i)eople the right to rule and tax 
themselves, to vote, and to practise any form of the Chris- 
tian religion without molestation. This was the first legis- 
lative assembly of New York. As soon as he became king, 
liowever, James began to exercise the sauie arbitrary autho- 
rity in New York wliich he asserted in New England. 

9. Leisler's. Rebellion. — When James was dethroned, Ja- 
cob Leisler, a rich German citizen of New York and cap- 
tain in the militia, put himself at tlie head of a fanatical 
party of the lower class of the peoiile, and took possession 
of the fort and the public money "for the preservation of 
the Protestant religion"' (June, 1G89). The royal lieu- 
tenant-governor, Nicholson, who was the deputy of Andros, 
fled to Eugland, and Leisler coustituted himself a military 
ruler, leading an expedition against Albany to compel the 

"Were the colonists benefited by the expulsion of James ? 7. How 
were Catholics treated ? What change was made in the government of 
Massachusetts ? 8. What privileges were conferred by Governor Don- 
gan. 9, Give aji account of Leisler's Rebellion, 

100 History of the United States. 

— + — 

northern settlements to recognize his iiuthority, and taking 
part vigorously in the hostilities against the Frencli and In- 

10. The cause of this insurrection was in great part a 
bigoted hatred of Catholics. The most absurd stories were 
circulated about plots of the ''papists" to cut the throats 
of the inhabitants, and the revolt began with the refusal of 
Leisler to pay his taxes, on tlie ground that the collector 
was a Catholic. There were three Jesuit i)riests in New 
York at this time, and for a little while tliey even had a 
Latin school in the city. This school was on what was 
known as King's Farm, near the present site of Trinity 
Church. Leisler's anti-Catholic outbreak occurred at the 
same time as the similar Protestant insurrection under 
Coode in Maryland. 

11. King William appointed Colonel Henry Slough ter 
governor of New York, and on his arrival, in March, 1G91, 
Leisler and his son-in-law and secretary, Milbourne, were ar- 
rested, tried for high treason, and hanged. His death exas- 
perated party spirit, and the feud between the enemies and 
friends of Leisler continued to disturb the politics of New 
York for many years. 

12. Religious Affairs. — The accession of William estab- 
lished in the colonies tlie policy of complete toleration for 
all Protestant sects and exclusion of Catholics. The New 
York Assembly of 1G91 repealed the Charter of Liberties, 
and enacted a Bill of Riglits Avhicli excluded Catholics from 
the privileges it conferred upon others. An act of 1700, 
passed by the exertions of the governor, Lord Bcllaniont, 
dechired that every priest found in the province sliould be 
liable to perpetual imprisonment. If lie broke jail and 

10. What was the cause of this rebellion ? When did a similar out- 
break occur ? 11. What did Govornor Sloughter do ? 12. Wliat kind 
of toleration was establi^lied by William ? What was done in WJl''' 

The "Popish Plot"' ix JSTew York. 101 

— + — 
were retiiken lie should suffer death. The penalty for liar- 
boring a priest was a line of £'200 and three days in the 
pillory. In 1701 Catholics were declared incapable of 
voting or holding office. 

13. The anti-Catholic feeling reached its height in 1741, 
when the city of New York was thrown into a panic by 
rumors of a conspiracy of the negroes to burn the houses 
and massacre the inhabitants. A full jjui'don and a large 
rcAvard in money being offered to all Avho would confess, the 
territied slaves began to tell the most extraordinary and hor- 
rible stories, and the excitement was soon increased by a 
foolish letter from Governor Oglethori)e, of Georgia, declar- 
ing that Jesuits in the interest of the Spaniards were hidden 
in all the towns. 

14. The cry of a '^ popish i)lot" was now raised, and a 
schoolmaster named John Ury was arrested on suspicion of 
being a jiriest. Denounced by one of the purchased wit- 
nesses, a low woman of infamous character, as an accom- 
plice in the imaginary conspiracy, he was hanged, August 
29, 1741, after a mock trial. It is not certainly known 
whether he was a priest or not. Eighteen negroes were 
hanged, eleven were burned at the stake, and fifty Avore 
trans]iorted to the West Indies. 

15. Salem Witchcraft. — A delusion of another kind was 
raging in Massachusetts about the time of Leisler's insur- 
rection in New York. The Puritans of New England be- 
lieved in witches from the first, and made witchcraft i)un- 
ishable with death. Six or eight persons supposed to l)e 
witches were executed between 1G48 and 1G55. Trials and 
condemnations took place from time to time at Boston, 
Charlestown, and Hartford. In 1()88 the fear of witches 

Describe the act of 1700. privilej^^es were the Catholics de- 
prived of? 13. What took place in 1741? 14. Give an acfount of 
John Ury. 15. Give an account of the Salem witchcraft ikliision. 

102 History of the United States. 

became a jjopular excitement and led to the greatest ex- 

16. The panic licgan in tlie faniil}- of John Goodwin, a 
citizen of Boston, whose children })retended to have been 
bewitched by an old Irishwoman. The case was investi- 
gated by the Kev. Cotton Mather and other ministers ; the 
old woman was found to be a lioman Catholic who spoke 
Irish and could not say the Lord's prayer except in Latin, 
and she was adjudged a witch and hanged. Cotton Mather 
preached against witchcraft, and, like his father, Increase 
Mather, president of Harvard College, wrote books on the 
subject which greatly increased the delusion. 

17. In 1G92 the disorder appeared at Salem, where the 
daughter and niece of the Rev. Mr. Parris accused two 
friendless old women, and a squaw named Tituba, of be- 
witching them. All three were sent to prison. On the 
word of children and the malicious accusations of enemies 
a number of women and a few men were thrown into jail ; 
a town committee was formed to search for Avitches, and a 
special court was organized at Salem for the trial of the 

18. Witnesses swore that they w^ere tormented by the 
spectres of the supposed witches and wizards, and were 
thrown into spasms by a mere glance from their evil eye. 
Soon, under the impulse of fear or frenzy and the frantic 
denunciations of Mather from the pulpit, some of the ac- 
cused tried to save their lives by confessing that they had 
ridden through the air on broom-sticks, and had meetings 
with the devil, and they gave the names of some of their 
neighl)ors Avhom they pretended to have seen at these 

16. Give the origin of the panie. What ministers took an active 
part against witchcraft ? 17. What occurred at Salem ? 18. What 
did persons testify to ? What confessions were made 'i 

Salem Witchcraft. 103 

— 4« — 

19. In one year twenty persons had been executed, eight, 
were under sentence of death, one liundred and fifty were 
in prison, nnd many of the suspected had lied tlie country. 
A reaction now set in. The ])risoners were rek>ased, and 
some of the judges and ministers acknowledged that they 
had been deluded. 

19. How many persons suffered by the delusion ? How did the ex- 
citement end ? What did the judges and miuislers ackuuwiedge. 




French and English Rivalries— Enterprises of the French- 
King William's War. 

1. French Settlements.— We have seen that the French 
from Canada penetrated into what is now the State of New 
York some years before the Dntch established themselves on 
Manhattan Island, and tliat Jesuit missionaries planted 
villages of Christian Indians along the shores of the great 
lakes and the valley of the Mississippi. The English settlers 
during this period made no attempt to explore the interior, 
and supposed the continent to Ijc quite narrow. 

2. It was about the time of the settlement of Massachu- 
setts Bay that the Jesuit Fathers, wlio liad ah-eady been 
laboring for many years among the Algonquins and Tlurons 
of Canada and New York, l)egan to push their explorations 
westward witli a new zeal and enterprise, accomiianying, 
and often leading, the Canadian fur-traders on their hmg 
joui-neys, and establishing kindly intercourse with many of 
the tribes. 

3. '- It is certain," says Father Charlevoix, the historian 
of New France, " that a peculiar unction attached to this 

1. Give a brief statement of the progress of the Jesuit missionaries. 
Describe the progress of tlie English settlers. 2. Wliat were the Jesuit 
Fathers doing about the time of the settlement of Massachusetts Bay 'i 


French Missionaries. 105 

— •!• — 

savage mission, giving it a preference over many others 
far more brilliant and more fruitful. The Lord, who never 
allows himself to be outdone, communicates himself without 
measure to those who sacritice themselves without reserve ; 
who, dead to all, detached entirely from tliomselves and the 
world, possess their souls in un;ilter;il)le peace, perfectly es- 
tablished in that child-like spirituality which Jesus Christ 
has recommended to his disciples as that which ouglit to be 
the most marked trait of their character. Such is the por- 
trait drawn of the missionaries of New France by those who 
knew them best. I myself knew some of them in my youth, 
and I found them such as I have painted them, bending 
under the labor of a long apostleship, with bodies exhausted 
by fatigue and broken by age, but still preserving all the 
vigor of the apostolic spirit." 

4. Jogues, Daniel, Lalemant, Brcbcuf, Oarnier, Chaba- 
nel, and others (including some Recollects) were martyred. 
Allouez made known the copper-mines of Lake Superior. 
Dablou and Marquette founded Sault Ste. Marie, the first 
white settlement in the Northwestern States. Marquette, 
accompanied by the trader Joliet, first reached the upper 
waters of the Mississippi, the priest seeking a new field for 
missionary enterprise, and the fur-trader being commanded 
by the governor of Canada to look for a route to the South 
Sea. The Prcnch trader and adventurer, La Salle, under 
orders of the Canadian governor, Fronteiuic, explored the 
^lississippi to its mouth, and took possession of the country 
in the name of the king of France. It was then (1082) that 
this region received the name of Louisiana, in honor of 
Louis XTY. 

5. English Jealousy. — The English settlements thus be- 

3. What does Father Charlevoix say of the Canadian mission ? 4. 
Name the Jesuits who suffered martyrdom. Name the important jihices 
discovered bv the missionaries. What is said of La Salle ? 

106 History of the United States. 

— + — 

cjime enclosed by a line of Frcncli colonies and outposts, 

extending from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia up the 

valley of the St. Lawrence, through the region of the great 

lakes, and down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. It 

seemed doubtful at that time whether the whole continent 

was not destined to become French rather than English, 

and the strength of the French was greatly increased by 

the fact that through the influence of the missionaries and 

their own prudent policy they had made many of the Indian 

tribes their fast friends and allies. 

6. The English settlers looked upon their French neigh- 
bors with jealousy and alarm. In New York especially, 
where the French priests had established so many villages 
of Indian converts, the bad feeling was very strong, and 
the English governor, Dongan, although a Catholic himself, 
tried to detach the savages from their missionaries (promis- 
ing to send them English Jesuits instead) ; he furnished 
arms to the warlike Iroquois, and encouraged them to attack 
the French, with whom they were never long at peace. In 
the course of the hostilities thus l)egun the missions were 
broken up, many of the converts removing into Canada, and 
tlie French settlers sutfered severely. 

7. King ■William's War. — These Indian troubles had 
lasted several years when King James II. was dethroned 
(1G88), and as the French king espoused his cause war 
lu-oke out between France and England. The colonies 
were at once involved in the quarrel, and fighting between 
them lasted for seven and a half years. This is known as 
King William's War. 

8. Both the French and English colonies made use of 
Indian allies, and the warfare was marked by the most bar- 

5. By what were the English settlements surrounded? What nation 
seemed destined to gain the mastery in America ? G. What did Govei^ 
nor Dongan attempt? 7. AVliat wius tlie cause of Kiug William'? War ? 

Indian Massacres. 107 

— + — 

biirous excesses. French traders incited the Indians of 
Maine and New Hampshire to attack the English towns. 
Dover was bnrned (June, 1089), and tifty persons were killed 
or carried olf. Caseo was saved by the arrival of Church 
with two hundred and lil'ty men from Massachusetts. All 
tlie settlements further east were ravaged and broken up. 

9. Count Fronteiuic det;i)atched three war parties of 
French and liulians from Montreal. Tliree Rivers, and 
Quebec. The first, after a three weeks' march on snow- 
shoes, fell upon Schenectady in the dead of night (Febru- 
ary 8, 1690), massacred sixty persons, and carried off twenty- 

. seven prisoners. The second surprised Salmon Falls, New 
Ilampshire, killed most of the men, and made fifty-four 
prisoners ; and then, in conjunction with the third party, 
captured Casco. 

10. The English Government took no pains to protect 
the colonists, and they were left to conduct the war in their 
own way. Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New 
York united in fitting out an expedition against Montreal, 
and placed it under conunaud of Fitz-John Winthrop, son 
of the governor of Connecticut. The attack, led by Schuy- 
ler with a party of ]\[ohawks, was repulsed by Frontenac. 

11. Meanwhile ^[assaehusetts had sent a fleet commaiul- 
cd by Sir AVilliam Pliipps to ravage the coasts of Acadia. 
After plundering Port Hoyal and other French scttlenumts, 
Phi})ps, with additional vessels and al)Out two thousand 
men, sailed up the St. Lawrence to sur])rise Quebec. But 
Frontenac, having beaten off the attempt upon Montreal, 
reached Quebec before him, and the enterprise failed. 

12. Treatment of Prisoners. — Col. Church was more snc- 
cessful in a campaign against the Indians of Maine, Avhere 

8. Wluil folldwvd the use ol" Iiiili.tu jillies ? What settlements were 
attaclvrd ? 0. What war parlies wore ]iIannoil by Froiitoiiaf ? 10. Did 
Enghuid soiut assistance? 11. Deserilte the colonial expeditions. 

108 History of the TJ sited States. 

— 4— 

he put some of his prisoners to death for the sake of 

exaiii})le, not even sparing women and children. The 
Indians retaliated, but as a rule they carried their prisoners 
to Canada and sold them to the French as servants. The 
women and cliildren suffered horribly on the long march, 
often made in the dead of winter, though they were kindly 
treated when they reached Canada. 

13. All the settlements were in constant dread of an 
Indian attack ; some of them Avere wholly al)andoned. The 
houses Avere })ut in a state of defence. The men took their 
muskets with them Avlien they Avent to Avork in the fields, 
and the Avonien learned to load and fii'e. 

14. Story of Mrs. Dustin. — When the Indians attacked 
Haverhill, near Boston, in the Avinter of 1697, they took 
prisoner Mrs. Hannah Dustin, with her baby a Aveek old, 
and started for Canada. As the child proved troublesome 
they dashed out its brains against a tree. Mrs. Dustin, A\'itli 
her nurse and a Avhite l)oy, Avas assigned to an Indian family 
consisting of Iavo men, three Avomcn, and seven children. 
One night during the journey she roused the nurse and boy 
Avhile the Indians were asleep, and Avith their assistance 
killed all the savages, except the two youngest, with their 
OAvn hatchets, took their scalps as a proof of her exploit, 
and made her Avay back to Haverhill, a journey of more 
than a hundred miles through the forest. 

15. A treaty of ])o;ice l)etween Frauc(> and England in 
1007 jnit an end to the war in the colonies. Both ])arties 
liad suffered severely, and neither had gained any real ad- 

13. What treatment did prisoners receive? 13. How did the feel- 
mff of insecurity show itself ? 14. When was IlaA'erhill attacked ? 
liehite the story of Mrs. Dustin. 15. When was peace made ? 

QuEEX Axxe's War. 109 

— •i' — 


.QuEEX Anxe's War — Indians in the Caholixas — Father ILvsles. 

1. Q,ueen Anne's War. — After the dcuth of Jtimes II., 
his soil, known as the Pretendor, was acknowledged by the 
French court as king of Enghmd. This, with otlier causes, 
led to a renewal of the war between the French and English 
(1702), and the colonists were again involved. As S])ain 
was now in alliance with France, the English settlers found 
themselves opposed not only by tlie French in the north 
and west but by the Spaniards of Florida in the south. 
William was succeeded l)y Queen Anne just before tlie be- 
ginning of hostilities, and the Avar is consequently known 
as Queen Anne's War. 

2. During the five years of jicace the French had con- 
tinued to make settlements in the Avest. They had founded 
Mobile, Detroit, and numerous villages on the Mississippi, 
and the idea of a great French-American emijire inflamed 
their ambition. In New York they liad obliged the jiower- 
ful Five Nations to make peace with them. In the east, 
having recovered all the i)laces taken from them by the 
English in tlie last Avar, they had estaldished ncAV missions 
and increased their influence over the Indians. 

3. Tlie first operations of Queen Anne's AVar Avere directed 
against the Spaniards of Florida. »St. Augustine Avas cap- 
tured by an exiiedition from Houtli C-arolina under Governor 
James Moore (September, 1702), but Avas hastily abandoned 
on the a])proach of two Spanish men-of-war from Havana. 
Tliree years later ]\Io()re, at the head of fifty Avhites and one 
thousand pagan Indians, fell upon the Christian Indian 

1. What led to Qiippn Anne's war ? How did it affect the English 
colonics ? 2. What proj^ross was made l\v the Frcncii duriiiix the term 
of peace ? 3. Give the events of tlie war on the southern border. 

110 History of the TJniteb States. 

— 4. — 

settlements of Middle Florida, where the Appalachees, under 
the instruction of Spanish missionaries, had been partly 
civilized and become herdsmen and farmers. The villages 
were burned, the churches pillaged and destroyed, the mis- 
sions entirely broken up, and the converts, to the number 
of two thousand, were forc-ibly removed to Georgia. 

4. The Deerfield Massacre. — The alliance between the 
French and the Five Nations prevented the war from ex- 
tending to New York, but in New England there was severe 
suffering. Deerfield, Massachusetts, which was then a fron- 
tier village surrounded 1)y a palisade, was sur})rised in the 
night by a force of Canadians and savages (March, 1704). 
The snow-drifts were so high that the palisade Avas easily 
crossed ; the village was burned ; forty-seven of the inhabi- 
tants were killed, and more than one hundix'd were carried 
into captivity. 

5. Haverhill, hardly recovered from tlie massacre of 
1G97, was pillaged and Ijurnod a second time, forty or 
fifty of the colonists being killed. The whole border was 
filled Avith alarm. The colonial authorities offered a ju'ice 
for Indian prisoners or scalps, and the English settlers 
learned to fight in the savage fashion. 

6. Getting little help from England, the colonists were 
unable to carry out any important expeditions for several 
years. They repulsed, however, a French aiul Spanish at- 
tack upon Charleston, S. C. (I70G), cajjturing a French 
frigate and a number of men ; and they ravaged the set- 
tlements of Acadia, failing, however, to take the fort at 
Port Royal. 

7. Port Royal taken. — Another attack u})()n Port Royal, 
sup})orted by ships of war, resulted in the surrender of the 

Wliat happened to the missionary settlements ? 4., Why did Xew 
York es('ai)e the liorrors of war ? Describe tlie Deoi-field massacre. 5. 
What were the autliorities compelled to do ? G, What occurred in ITOG ? 

Expedition against Canada. Ill 

— 4" — 

garrison (1710) and the i)lunder of the unfortuniite Aca- 
dians, who were threatened with expulsion from their 
homes "unless they Avould turn Protestants." The name 
of Port lloyal was ehanged after this to Annapolis, in honor 
of the queen. 

8. Expedition against Canada. — At last, in 1711, a fleet 
of tiftoc'U ships of war and forty transports, with live vete- 
ran regiments of Marlhorough's army, arrived at Boston to 
co-operate with the colonists in an attempt to concpier 
Canada. XeAV York, ^Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania 
raised large sums of money, besides a strong body of 
troops, and the fleet, carrying seven thousand soldiers, 
sailed for Quel)ec under the command of Admiral Sir IIo- 
venden Walker and tlie British (leiu'ral Hill, Avhile fifteen 
hundred colonial soldiers and eiglit hundred warriors of the 
Five Nations, who had been persuaded to take arms against 
the French, assembled at Albany for an attack upon Mon- 

9. A jxirt of the fleet was wrecked in the St. Lawrence 
and 1,000 men ])erished. Disheartened by this disaster. Ad- 
miral Walker al^aiuloned the ex})e(lition and sailed at once 
for England. The advance of the land forces was thcrt'upon 
cut short, all the more readily Ijccausc Xew York was then 
excited by rumors of a conspiracy of the slaves and the pros- 
pect of a Avar Avith the Five Nations. 

10. End of the War. — England had been more fortunate 
in the European campaigns, hoAVCA'cr, than in America, and 
a treaty of peace was signed at Utrecht in 1713. By this in- 
strument the English actpiired XeAvfoundlaiul ami Acadia, 
and the latter province Avas thenceforth known by tlu' name 
of Nova Scotia. The eastern Indians were also induced to 

7. What occurred at Port Royal ? 8. What was attempted in 1711 ? 
Doscribe the propanitions ajjainst Qiioboe and IVrontrcal. 0. The result? 
10. When did the war end ? Wliat territory Avas gained by England ? 

112 History of the United States. 

— + — 
make pence. Of the many settlements on the western half 
of the coast of Maine only three now remained, and about 
one-third of the inhabitants had been killed. 

11. Other Indian Troubles.— The settlers in North Caro- 
lina had meanwhile been involved in hostilities caused by 
their encroachments upon the Indian lands. For two years 
(1711-1713) they carried on a devastating war with the 
Tuscaroras, driving that tribe at last out of the country. 
The fugitives retired to AVestern Xew York, aiul Avere ad- 
mitted into the confederacy of the Five Nations, often 
known after this as the Six Nations. 

12. Soon afterwards South Carolina found herself at war 
with the Yamassees, Catawbas, Cherokees, and Creeks, Avho 
ravaged the outlying settlements and ol)liged the jjlanters to 
seek refuge in Charleston (1715). The Yamassees were 
finally driven into Florida, and the other tril)es, in the 
course of a year or two, nuide peace. 

13. On the eastern frontier, in what is now tlie State of 
Maine, disputes arose with the French on the subject of 
boundaries, and AVith the Indians, Avho bitterly resented the 
occui)ation of their lands by the English settlers. "Wrongs 
on one side led to retaliation on the other, and the savages 
and the colonists were soon at Avar. 

14. A large proportion of the Abenakis of this region had 
long been Christians, and flourisliing missions Avitli churches 
and other buildings Avere maintained by French priests on 
the Penobscot and the Kennebec. The most famous of 
these missionaries Avas the Jesuit father Sebastian Kasles 
(raJil), Avho had been settled at NorridgcAvock, on the Ken- 
nebec, for nearly thirty years. 

15. Father Rasles. — The Indians Avere devoted to this 

What is said of the Maine settlements ? 11. Why did the southern 
Indians become hostile ? 12. What occurred in South Carolina ? 13. 
Ontliooastorn frontier ? 14. What is said of Iho Aboiialcis ? 

Death of Fatjier Uasles. 113 

— ^.— 

holy nuin, uiid the :iitem])ts of the Massachusetts pei)i»k' to 
miike them dismiss him iiiid take u preacher in his phice 
were repulsed with indiguation. lie became an object of 
intense hatred to the Eng-lisii settlers, who accused him of 
exciting the hostility of the Indians and keeping- alive 
French influence in the disputed territory, 

16. In 1705 a party of New-Englanders had burned the 
church and village at XorridgCAVock, but they were rebuilt. 
In 1722 an expedition was srcrelly sent out from Boston by 
Governor Shutc for the ])urpose of seizing Father Rasles. 
Norridgcwock was attacked and ])lundered, and all the 
papers and other ])roi)erty of the good [)riest were carried 
off, including the manuscript of his celebrated Abenaki dic- 
tionary, which is still preserved at Harvard College. Father 
Rasles made his escape to the woods, where he nearly per- 
ished in the snow. 

17. The Indians avenged this outrage 1)y still fiercer hos- 
tilities. In August, IT'.'-i, another exi)edition of New-Eng- 
lauders, aided by ^Mohawk warriors, surprised I^^orridgewock 
and poured a volley of musketry into the village. Father 
Rasles, knowing that he Avas the principal object of the at- 
tack, Aveut forth to meet the assailants, hoping by the sacri- 
fice of his own life to secure the escape of his converts, lie 
was shot down at the foot of the mission cross, and the vic- 
tors, after hacking liis body to pieces, rifled the altar, pro- 
fanrd the Host and tlie sacrc'(l vessels, and l)unu'd tlie 
church. Thirty of the Indians wei'c killed and the rest 
took flight. 

18. The Abenakis returned after the English had dis- 
appeared, and buried the martyr among the ruins of the 
church, on the spot where the altar had been. The village 

15. Who was Father Rasles ? How was he regarded by the Indians r 
By the Ensjlisli ? 10. What atteni])ts upon his life were made by them r 
17. How wore these outrages avenged ? Describe his death. 

114 History oi^ the UiMted States. 

— -I- — 

was aLandoiK'd, and many of the Catliolic Indians removed 

to Canada. The English, far from being relieved by the 


missionary's death, were exposed to greater cruelties than 
ever now that his influence no longer restrained the ex- 

cesses of the savages. 


The French in the Mississippi Valley — War with the Spaniards 
— KiNa George's War — Captukk op Loitisburg. 

1. Progress of the Colonies. — Many years of ]>eace fol- 
lowed, during which the English colonies increased rapidly 

18. By whom was he buriod ? What booamc of the Christian In- 
dians ? TTow did his doatli aiToct the Eiiijlish ? 1. Wliat pro<?ross was 
made by the English during the peace following Queen Anne's war ? 

French Enterprise, 115 

— -i^ — 
in population, and in »\)\\.o of (|uarrc'Is and jealousies among 
themselves and the seltish and oi)})re.ssive policy of the 
home government, Avhich only valued them as a source of 
revenue to English mercliants and courtiers, they advanced 
in material i)rosperity. The democratic si)irit was fostered 
by the injustice and neglect of the crown, and there Avere 
constant disputes between the settlers and the royal gover- 

2. Two years after the close of Queen Anne's War the 
population of the English colonies was al)out 450,000, and 
that of Canada was not more than 25, ()()(). Yet the French 
still i)ursued their scheme of l)uilding \\\^ a great power in the 
"West. They controlled the valuable fur-trade of the Avhole 
Mississippi valley, and their adventurous traders, traversing 
the wilderness from Quebec to Lake Superior, and follow- 
ing the mighty river to the Gulf of Mexico, made that 
long route of more than 2,000 miles a channel of commerce 
for Canada. 

3. At the mouth of the St. LaAvrence the French, on 
their expulsion from Acadia, crossed to the island of Ca})e 
Breton and built the strong fortress of Louisburg, which 
was so formidal>le as to be calknl the Gibraltar of America. 
At Niagara they had a fort commanding the communica- 
tion between Lakes Ontario and Eric ; at Detroit, since 
1701, they had controlled tlio channel to the great upper 
lakes. Natchez Avas founded in 171G. Two years later 
Governor Bienville began the building of Ncav Orleans, to 
AA'hich the capital of Louisiana Avas soon removed from 

4. The ^rississip})i Company was organized in France 
for the purpose of colonizing the French possessions in 

What tended to hinder their progress ? How was a democratic spirit 

fostorod ? 2. Wliat was tlio population of tlie colonics ? Wliat <lid the 
French still pursue ? 3. What places were occupied by thoin ? 

116 History of thk Umted States. 

— + — 
America (1717). John Luw, a Scotck fiuaucier Avho had 
settled in Paris, was the originator of the scheme, and 
under his management an extraordinary fever of specula- 
tion broke out ; the shares of the company rose to forty 
times their original price ; fortunes were made and lost in 
a day ; and the issue of enormous sums of paper money 
led to boundless extravagance. Some few colonists were 
sent to Louisiana, but the excitement was little better than 
gambling; it did no real good to America, and it was fol- 
lowed by a crash Avhich involved the whole French nation 
in distress. Law became a fugitive and died in great 

5. Meanwhile the French missionaries continued their 
conquests in the wilderness of the Mississippi, and the 
whole region was formally divided among them, the Jesu- 
its taking the iipper part and the Capuchins the lower. 

6. Indian Wars. — In 1729 the Natchez Indians suddenly 
fell upon tlie French settlers at Katchez, massacred all the 
men except two, and made the women prisoners. Two 
hundred persons perished in this catastrophe, including the 
Jesuit Fathers Du Poisson and Souel. The French, in 
retaliation, almost entirely destroyed the Natchez nation, 
and afterwards, aided by the Choctaws, marched against 
the Chickasaws of Alabama, who had also l)ccome hostile. 

7. This enterprise was not successful. The Chickasaws 
received help from the English, and after two hard cam- 
paigns, in the second of which the Jesuit Father Scnat was 
burned at the stake, both sides were glad to make peace. 

8. Spanish Wars. — The Canadians had advanced into 
New York, and, to the great indignation of the English, 
had occupied Crown Point on Lake Champlain (1731). For 

4. Give the history of the Mississippi Company. What was the result ? 
5. What were the missionaries doinf;: mcanwliile ? 6. Give an account 
of the trouble with the Natchez Indians. 7. With the Chickasaws. 

Ki\a George's War. 117 

a while, however, the attention of the English settlers was 
diverted from these rivalries by the outl)reak of hostilities 
with ypain (17-iO). A British lieet was sent to attack the 
Spaniards in the West Indies, and the colonists were re- 
quired to furnish men and money for the exi)edition, besides 
assailing the Spaniards in Florida. The oi)erations of these 
campaigns were not important, but they cost the colonists a 
great many lives. 

9. When the Quakers of Pennsylvania were asked to do 
their share in the enterprise, they declared that conscience 
would not allow them to bear arms or vote money for a war ; 
but they appropriated £4,000 ''for the king's use," and pre- 
ferred not to know what his majesty meant to do with it. 

10. King George's War.— In 1744 France declared war 
against England, and immediately began hostilities against 
the settlements and fishing fleets on the coast of Nova 
Scotia. As this happened in the reign of George II., the 
campaign wliich followed is known as King George's War. 

11. The colonists of K'ew England resolved not to wait 
for the uncertain aid of the home government, but to carry 
on the war by their own means. Massachusetts proposed 
an attack upon the fortress of Louisburg, and furnished 
most of the men and ships needed for the expedition. Con- 
necticut, NcAv Hampshire, New York, and New Jersey con- 
tributed ; the Quakers of Pennsylvania raised money to buy 
provisions; the animosity of the Puritans against French 
Catholics was excited ; and a Methodist chaplain who 
accompanied the troops was provided with a hatchet to 
hew doAvn the images in the ''popish" chapels. 

12. Capture of Louisburg.— Aided by four British shii)s 

8. Wluit [)ost in Xow York was occupied by the French ? Describe 
the Enjjlish niovcMnont against the Spaniards. 9. How did the Quakers 
act ? 10. Where did hostilities begin in King George's War ? 11. 
What did the colonists resolve to do 'i What aniinosity was excited ? 

118 History of the United States. 

— ^ — 

from the West Indies, the colonists, 3,250 strong, and com- 
niiinded by William rc})peroll, of Maine, compelled Lonis- 
burg to surrender after a siege of six weeks (June 17, 1745). 
They now meditated the con({uest of Canada, and Massa- 
chusetts joroposed to the British government to raise a 
colonial army. But the ministry took alarm at ''the inde- 
l^endence it might create in those iirovinces," if they were 
allowed to muster so strong a force, and decided that the 
colonists should only be allowed to menace Montreal, while 
a British fleet and army ascended the St. Lawrence to 
attack Quebec. 

13. The colonies instantly raised about 8,000 men, at a 
cost of over $1,000,000, and the army began its march. 
But the British expedition did not arrive. On the con- 
traiy, a French fleet of 40 ships sailed to recover Louisburg, 
while the Canadians and Indians harassed the frontier and 
menaced Nova Scotia. The French squadron, however, was 
shattered by a storm, a terrible fever broke out on board, 
the admiral died, the vice-admiral committed suicide, and 
the remnant of the expedition, dispersed by a second storm, 
returned to France. 

14. The treaty of Aix-la-Chapclle (1648) put an end to 
the war, restoring Louisburg to the French and giving them 
also the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, off the coast of 
Newfoundland. The colonies received from Parliament an 
indemnity for their expenses during the war. 

12. Give tin account of tho capture of Louisburg? What did the 
colonists propose to do? What course did the ministry decide upon ? 
13. What preparations were made by the colonists ? What was the 
result ? Doscrilx' tiie movements of tlie French. Give an account of 
the fleet. 14. Wiiat treaty imf an end to King Georf?e"s war ? State the 
terms of the treaty. The date. What is said of the colonial expenses. 

Rivalries with the French. 119 

— 4. — 


The French and Indian War — George Washington — Benjamin 


1. Rivalries with the French. — The previous hostilities 
between the Freneh and English colonies had originated in 
the ([uarrels of the mother-countries; but very soon after 
the ch)se of King George's AVar a new and much more severe 
struggle began witli tlie settlers themselves, and lasted until 
the supremacy of the English immigrants on this continent 
was finally established. 

2. Up to the middle of the last century the English had 
not attempted to settle or explore the regions lying beyond 
the Blue Eidge and Alleghany Mountains, but in 1749 
the crown granted to an association of London merchants 
and Virginia land speculators, called the Ohio Company, a 
tract of 500,000 acres on the cast bank of the Ohio, in 
what is now West Virginia and Pennsylvania, Avith exclusive 
privileges of traffic with the Indians. Agents Avere at once 
sent to examine the country and make treaties with the 
savages, and they penetrated almost to the present site of 

3. The French regarded this as an encroachment upon 
their territory. Besides inciting the Indians to resist the 
English claims, they strengthened the fort at Niagara, built 
another at Presque Isle (prcsk-eeJ), now Erie, established 
posts at Le Banif [luh hvjf) and Venango (now Waterford 
and Franklin, in the oil region of Northwestern Pennsyl- 
vania), seized English traders and confiscated their goods. 

4. Orders were hereupon sent from England to the 

1. Where did the last four wars originate ? What caused the next 
struggle ? 2. What had been the limits of the English settlements ? 
What is said of the Ohio Co. ? 3. What did the French do ? 

J.20 History of the United States. 

—'i' — 

governors of Virginia and Pennsylvania to expel the French 
by force whenever they were fonnd within the limits of those 
provinces. Virginia was then nnder the authority of the 
lieutenant-governor, Robert Dinwiddle, a man of ability and 
enterprise. He at once obtained leave of the Indians to 
build a fort at the sjiot where the Alleghany and Mononga- 
liela Eivers unite to form the Ohio, and in the meantime he 
sent a messenger to the nearest French p(^st to demand tlie 
release of the captured traders and indemnity for their 
losses, and at the same time to inquire into the purposes 
and strength of the French occupation. The agent selected 
for this mission was a young surveyor named George Wash- 
ington (1753). 

5. Washington. — "Washington was at this time not quite 
twenty-two years old. He Avas born in "Westmoreland Coun- 
ty, Virginia, February 22, 1732. His family was honoralde 
and wealthy, and his ancestors for three generations had 
lived in Virginia, where Sir John AVashington, the great- 
grandfather of George, was an officer in some of the In- 
dian campaigns. George inherited from his father, who 
died when the boy was twelve years old, an estate on the 
Rappahannock, near Fredcricksljurg, and he li\ed tliere 
with his mother. 

6. It is related that as a lad he Avished to enter the Bri- 
tish navy ; a Avarrant as midsliipman Avas obtaiiied for liim, 
and liis clothes Avere packed to go on ])oard ship, Avhen tlie 
entreaties of his mother induced him to remain at home. 
But for this change the history of America might have been 
A'Cry different. 

7. He had not many opportunities for education, l)ut he 
Avas diligent and studious, and became a fair scholar. He 

4. What orders wero sent from England ? Who was acting gov- 
ernor of Virginiii ? What courso did lie jmrsno ? 5. Give an account 
of Wasliington's family. 6. Of his wish to enter the British navy. 

George Washington. 121 

— + — 

Avus always distinguished fur a love of truth and justice, 
high sense of honor, good judgment, and dignified manners. 
He was skilled in athletic exercises, strong, enduring, and a 
bold and graceful horsenum. 

8. Having a thorough knowledge of surveying, he was 
omi)loyed to make a survey of an immense and unexi)lored 
domain belonging to Lord Fairfax in the Shenandoah val- 
ley — a difficult and dangerous Avork, in Avhicli he passed three 
years. At the age of nineteen he received an important 
command in the militia, Avitli the rank of nuijor. 

9. His elder l)ruther, Lawrence Wasliington, Avas one of 
the mem])ers of the Oliio Com})any, and George Avas early 
interested in the schemes of that association. For many 
reasons he Avas a most fit person to carry Gov. DinAviddie's 
message to the French, and Avhen the appointment was offer- 
ed to him, after it had ])een refused by several others, he 
promj)tly acce]ited. 

10. Washington's Mission to the French. — He set out at 
tlie end of October, 1753, Avith only a guide and two or three 
attendants, and after a hard and dangerous journey of more 
than five hundred miles, mostly through an unknoAvn Avil- 
derness infested by hostile savages, he reached the French 
post at Le Ikeuf. The French comnumder, St. Pierre, re- 
ceived him politely, and i)romised to transmit the gOA'crnor's 
demands and remonstrances to Montreal, but the officers of 
the })ost nuide no secret of the intention of their government 
to occuju' the country permanently. 

11. The return to "S'irginia Avas made still more perilous 
by the increasing severity of the Avintcr and ihe hostility of 
the Lulians. A part of the journey was made by canoe. At 
Venango, finding that their Ha'cs Avere in danger from the 

7. Wliat is said of his education ? Name traits in his character. 
8. What service did he perform for Lord Fairfax ? 0. What appoint- 
ment Avas ottered to him ? 10. Give an account of tlie journey. 

132 Rtstorv of the Uxtted States. 

— * — 

savages, Washington and his guide took to the Avoods on 

foot, with tlieir packs on their slioulders and their guns in 
their hands. A treacherous Indian kxl tliem otf the track 
and attcm])ted to kill them. They seized him, and the 
guide would have put him to death, hut Washington saved 
him and let him go. 

12. They found the Alleghany River half frozen, and the 
mid-channel filled with tossing cakes of ice. AVitli no tools 

but " one poor hatch- 
et " they built a raft 
after a whole day's 
labor, and were near- 
ly drowned in trying 
to cross. Washing- 
ton was hurled into 
the deep and rapid 
stream, but succeed- 
ed in reaching an 
island, Avhere he and 
his companion pass- 
ed the night. Their 
clothes froze to their bodies. By morning fortunately the 
whole river was frozen over, and they were able to continue 
the journey. 

13. Washington's journal was published in London and 
regarded as a document of great importance. In Virginia 
his report made the purposes of the French so dear that 
there was a general preparation for war, and the Assembly, 
which had been on bad terms with Gov. Dinwiddle, sus- 
pended the quarrel and voted the su])])lies he as'ked for. 

14. Beginning of the French and Indian War. — Wash- 

11. Wli;it is siiid of the return to Virginia ? 12. Describe the cross- 
ing of tlie Allegliiiny. 13. What is said of Washington's journal and 
report ? Of the trouble between the assembly and governor. 

■^N V-111Nl,1(>N CRO!^>-I■VG lUL Al I LCtHANY. 

French and Indian War. 


ington recommended the estublishmeiit of a fort jit the junc- 
tion of the Alleghany and Monongahela rivers, where Pitts- 
burg now stands, and Dinwiddle sent a small body of men 
to build it, while preparations were made for a larger expe- 
dition, in which the other colonies were urged to take part. 
Of the regiment raised in Virginia Fry was appointed colo- 
nel and Washington lieutenant-colonel. 


15. Tliey marched from Alexandria together with some 
troojis from New York and South Carolina. On the way 
tliey learned tliat the French had seized the nnfinished fort, 
completed it for themselves, and called it Fort Du Quesne 
{du Tcnne) after the governor of Canada. An advance party 
under Washington surprised a detachment of the French at 

14. What did Washington recommend ? What action was taken by 
Dinwiddio ? Name two officers of the Virijinia re<;imeiit. Locate the 
French posts. 10. What did the French succeed in doing ? 



a place called the Great Meadows, and defeated them, the 
commanding officer, Jumonville, being killed (Ma}', 1754). 

16. Col. Fry having died, the command devolved npon 
Washington. He bnilt a stockade at the Great Meadows, 
which he called Fort Necessity, and here he was soon at- 
tacked by a greatly snperior force. After a day's fight- 
ing he Avas compelled to give np the fort, retiring with all 
his arms and baggage to the Ui)per Potomac, where he 
built Fort Cumberland. 

17. Thus began the war which was destined, after lasting 
eight years, to put a stop to the Frencli scliemcs of aggran- 
dizement in the New World. There had been no formal 
declaration of hostilities between France and England, but 
the British Government did not long hesitate to assist tlie 
colonists. The ministry advised them to unite for the 
general defence, and in June, 1754, delegates from New 
Hampshire, Massachusetts, Ehode Island, Connecticut, New 
York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland met at Albany for tliat 

18. An Attempt at Confederation. — On the 4th of July 
the delegates adopted a scheme of confederation. It was 
not put in force, the colonial Assemblies all refusing to fa- 
vor it because it gave too much i)owcr to the crown, while 
the royal government disapproved of it because it gave 
too much power to tlie colonies. Out of it, however, grew 
many years later tlie Federal Constitution. The i)lan was 
draAvn up by Benjamin Franklin, a delegate from Penn- 

19. Benjamin Franklin. — This distinguished man, Avho 
had so great a part in the struggle for American indci)cn- 

Give an account of the first bloodshed. 16. Where did Washington 
intrench liiinsclf ? Describe the capture of Fort Necessity. 17. Wliat 
did the English ministry advise ? What followed ? 18. What was 
adopted at Albany ? What objections were made to the plan ? 

Benjamin Franklin. 125 

— ^._ 

deuce, was at this time forty-eight years old. lie was the 

son of a soap and caudle maker, and was born in Boston, 

Jan. 17, 170U. It is a curious fact that his family and AVash- 

ingtou's came from the same })art of N^ortham2)toushire, Eug- 

huul, having lived within a few miles of each other. 

20. AVithout much schooling Franklin had contrived 
to give himself a good education, and, having Ijeen 
bound a])|)rentiee to his elder Ijrother, James, who was 
the printer and editor of one of the earliest newspapers 
in Boston — the yeiv EmjliDul Coiwcuit — he used to write 
essays for the paper in a disguised hand, and drop them 
into the letter-box secretly. James Franklin pul)lished 
them without suspecting the authorshi}), and they attracted 
a great deal of attention. 

21. James Franklin having been arrested on account 
of the political character of his journal (for there was no 
freedom of the press at that time), the Courcuit was pub- 
lished for some time by Benjamin. The brothers ([uar- 
relled, however, and Benjamin, at the age of seventeen, 
ran away from Boston, went llrst to Kew York, and 
thence made his way almost penniless to Philadelphia. 

22. There he ol)tained employment in a printing 
office ; he also worked for a year and a half at the print- 
ing trade in England; and after returning to Philadel- 
phia he founded the Pennsylvania Gazette, and became 
a man of note in public affairs and a writer pf ability, 
popularity, independence, and common sense. Ho estab- 
lished the celebrated "Poor Kichard's Almanac," whose 
short proverbs and rules of frugality and prudence were 
copied all over America and Europe. 

23. Applying himself to scientific studies, he made im- 

19. Give a brief account of Franklin's early life. 20. Of his edu- 
cation and occupation. 21. Of the troubles that caused Jiim to leave 
Boston. 22. Of his occupation in Pennsylvania. Of his success. 

136 History op the United States. 

— ^ — 

portant discoveries in electricity and invented the light- 
ning-rod. The fact that lightning and elcctridty are the 
same, Avhich had been suspected by other philosophers, was 
clearly proved by his famous exi)eriment with a kite, by 
means of which he drew down electricity from a tliunder- 

24. He was a zealous advocate of the popular side in 
the political controversies of the time ; he held numerous 
public offices, and at the outl)reak of the French and 
Indian War was deputy postmaster-general for America. 



1. Braddock's Expedition. — Having resolved to form a 
considerable army in the colonies, the British Government 
sent out General Braddock as commander-in-chief, and 
furnislu'd him with two regiments of regulars, while the 
])rovineial Assemblies voted to raise seven or eight thou- 
sand men aiul contribute large sums of money. 

2. After a consultation witli the colonial governors at 
Alexandria, Braddock formed a ])laii of campaign. The 
provincials were to operate against the French in the 
north ami east, and he undertook to lead an .expedition 
against Fort I)u Quesne. 

3. Braddock marched from Alexandria with his regii- 
lars and some Virginians, having in all about 2,200 men. 
Washington went with lum as ai(k-(U'-eamp, and his know- 

23. What discovery was niadc by I'laiiklin ? 24. What political 
side dill he support ? What office did he liold ? 1. What preparations 
were made ? 2. What plan of campaign was decided upon ? 

Braddock^s Defeat. 12? 

— + — 

ledge of the country and of the character and mode of 

tigliting of the enemy would have been of the greatest 
service to the expedition, if Braddock had not held 
the provincials in too much contemjit to listen to his 

4. The march was much delayed by the Avant of wagons 
and horses, which were not obtained until Franklin offered 
to collect them on his own res])onsibi]ity among the far- 
mers of Pennsylvania. It was nearly three months before 
Braddock, with his advance division of 1,300 men, reached 
a narrow road through the woods between two ravines, a 
fcAV miles from Fort Du Quesne. Washington, Avho ex- 
pected an Indian ambuscade in some such i)lace, advised 
the general to throw forward the Virginia rangers to 
scour the woods in front and on the flanks, but Braddock 
believed that nothing could stand against disciplined 
British troops, and angrily refused. 

5. The army entered the Avoods Avith di'ums beating and 
colors flying (July 9, 1755), Avhen suddenly an invisible 
enemy opened a murdei'ous Are. There Avere about tAVO 
hundred French and six hundred Indians concealed among 
the trees and the high grass. 

6. For a short time the British stood firm, firing at 
random Avhcrcver they saAV the smoke of the rifles or heard 
the savage yells ; but at last, after sixty of their officers 
had been killed or disabled, aiul moiv than half the men 
shot doAvn, they fell into a ])anic. Braddock himself, who 
was a man of great bravery, Avas mortally wounded. The 
despised ])rovincials, of Avhom Washington had taken the 
comnuind, held their ground firmly, and enal)led the defeated 
regulars to carry off the Avounded and fall back to the 

3. W\\i\i is said of Braddocit and Washington ? 4. Give an account 
of Braddock's march. 5. Of the andiush. G. Of the scene that followed. 
What happened to Braddock ? What troops saved the reguhii-s ? 

138 History of the United States. 

— + — 
camp of the rear division, tliougli with the loss of all 
their baggage and cannon. 

7. '* Tliroughont this disastrous day," says Irving, 
*' Washington distinguished himself by his courage and 
presence of mind. He was in every part of the field, a 
conspicuous mark for the murderous rifle. Two horses 
were shot under him ; four bullets passed through \i\& 
coat. His escape Avithout a wound was almost miraculous.'' 

8. Braddock, shot through the lungs, lingered four 
days, and died on the IStli. The remnant of the army, 
destroying all its stores not needed for immediate use, 
retired to Philadelphia, and the attempt upon Fort Du 
Quesne was abandoned. This left the frontier exposed to 
Indian attacks, and a force was raised to defend it, and 
placed under Washington's command. 

9. Operations in the North. -^ In the meantime Gov. 
Shirley, of Massachusetts, who became commander-in-chief 
on the death of Braddock, marched from Albany with an 
expedition intended to reduce Fort Niagara, but accom- 
plished nothing. 

10. Gen. William Johnson, superintendent of the In- 
dians of New York, Avas appointed to attack CroAvn Point. 
He defeated the French general Dieskau {dec-es-l'o) in tlic 
battle of Lake George (Sept. 5, 1755), changing the name 
of the lake at this time from St. Sarrament, given it more 
than one hundred years before ])y Father Jogues, to that 
which it now bears in honor of the king. Dieskau was 
mortally wounded and taken })risoncr. Johnson built Fort 
William Henry, at the head of the lake, but he could not 
reach Crown Point, and he even allowed the French to 
fortify Ticonderoga. 

7. What does Ining say of Washington ? 8. Describe the retreat. 
The consequeiicos to the settlers on Iho frontier. 9. Give an account 
of Shirley's expedition. 10. Of the expedition against Crown Point. 

The Acabtans. 129 

— +— 

11. Banishment of the Acadians. — Tlie expedition to 
the eiist wtis coiuniandcd by John Winslow of Massachu- 
setts and Col. Monckton of the regulars, and was directed 
against the French on the Bay of Fundy. The military 
l)osts were easily overcome (June, 1755), and capitulated 
on condition that the inhabitants should not be disturbed. 
Tlic i)coi)le of the country, remnants and descendants of 
the Acadians of forty years bjick, and known as ''French 
neutrals," had always remained French in language and 
sympathies and Catholics in religion. The English were 
unwilling to bear the expense of establishing garrisons to 
keep them in order, and were afraid that if they ordered 
them to quit the country they would reinforce the French 
in Canada and Cape Breton. In consultation with two of 
the British naval commanders, the lieutenant-governor and 
chief-justice of the province thereupon devised a most 
cruel and villainous deed. 

12. In spite of the solemn engagements of the capitu- 
lation, it was determined to transport the Acadians to 
the British provinces, and scatter them far and wide. 
•'The Acadians," says the historian Ilildreth, ''had })re- 
servcd all the gay simplicity of ancient French rural 
nuinuers. Xcver Avas there a people more attached to 
their homes, or who had more reasons for being so. They 
lived in rustic plenty, surrounded hj herds of cattle and 
sheep, and drawing abundant crops from the rich levels, 
fine sediment deposited by the tides on the borders of the 
basins, and which their industry liad diked in from tlic 

13. The ruthless design against them was kept a pro- 
found secret. "Assembled under various false pretences 

11. Wliat expedition was fitted out in IMassachu.sotts ? On what 
terms did the French surrender ? What did the English fear ? 13. 
What plan was decided upon? What does Ilildreth say of the Acadians? 


History of the United States. 

in their ]):irisli cbu relics, tliey were siu'rounded with troops, 
made i)risoners, and hurried on board the ships assigned 
for their transportation. Wives separated from their lius- 
bands in the confusion of embarking, and children from 
their parents, were carried oif to distant colonies, never 

ft "S BP.0SS1 


affain to sec each other.'' Their lands and cattle were 
confiscated to the crown, their crops destroyed, tlie houses 
and l)arns burned with all their contents. 

14. Every British colony received some of these desti- 
tute and licart-broken people, and most of them died in 
exile and despair. More than a thousand were carried to 
Massachusetts, where they were not even allowed to console 

13. ITow wore the inhabitants entrapped ? What was done with 
them ? Were family ties respected ? Wliat bec-ame of tlieir laiKls and 
cattle? Their crops and houses? 14. Where were the Aoadians landed? 

Capture of Oswego. 131 

— + — 

themselves by the celebration of Muss. Four hundred who 
were sent to Georgia built rude boats, and tried to make 
their way northward along the coast to the French colo- 
nies ; but few succeeded. The miserable story of the ex- 
pulsion of the Acadians is the groundwork of Longfellow's 
poem of "Evangeline." 


The Frexch and Indian War concluded — Capture of Louisburg — 
Conquest of Canada — Montcalm and Wolfe — Conspiracy of 


1. Campaign of 1756. — In May, 175G, England formally 
declared war against France. General Abercrom1)ie, with 
several regiments of regulars, was sent out to America, and 
the gallant and able Marquis of Montcalm became the 
French commander in place of Dieskau. The British plan 
Avas to send 10,000 men against Crown Point, G,000 against 
Niagara, 3,000 against Fort I)u Quesne, and 'Z,Qi)Q across 
Maine in the direction of Quebec. 

2. Operations were delayed while they waited for the ar- 
rival of tlie Earl of Loudon, who had been api)ointed com- 
mander-in-chief, and meanwhile Montcalm, crossing Lake 
Ontario from Fort Frontcnac (now Kingston, in Canada), 
demolished the English forts at Oswego, and carried off a 
large number of prisoners, gnns, stores, and boats (August 
14, 1756). This filled the colonies with alarm and put a 
stop to all tbe contemplated exiieditions. "Washington in 
the meantime liad been actively employed in Virgini;i, col- 

Wliat is saiil of those wlio wore sent to Gcorp:iii ? 1. When was war 
dec'larcil ? Describe the British i)lan ? 3. Why were operations de- 
layed ? Describe the capture of Oswego. The effect on the English ? 

132 History of the UmTED States. 

— 4* — 
lectiug a force for the protection of the frontiers against the 
Indians, and reducing the raw and insubordinate levies to 

3. Campaign of 1757. — Lord Loudon at hist arrived, 
with extraordinary powers. He was not only to be com- 
mander-in-cliief of the armies, but governor of Virginia, 
with precedence over the governors of all the other provinces, 
the purjiose of the crown being to place the colonies under 
one supreme military rule. He quartered his soldiers on the 
citizens, and carried matters with so high a hand that he was 
involved in perpetual quarrels with the i)eoiile he was ex- 
pected to defend. The only offensive movement which he 
attempted during the summer of 1757 was an expedition 
against Louisburg. He sailed from New York with a large 
body of regulars, and was joined at Halifax by a British 
fleet, but, finding the French stronger than he had suji- 
posed, he returned to New York without striking a blow. 

4. The activity of Montcalm contrasted strongly with 
the imbecility of Loudon. No sooner had the British 
troojos been drawn aside for the futile attack upon Louis- 
burg than the French commander collected eight thousand 
men, and overpowered the English garrison at Fort William 
Henry (August, 1757), allowing the troops to march out with 
the honors of war and retire to Fort EdAvard. On their rc- 

. treat the disarmed soldiers were attacked by Montcalm's 
Indian allies, and many of them were massacred in spite of 
all the efforts of the French officers to save them. The fort 
was destroyed and was never rebuilt. This disaster created 
a panic in the colonics, and twenty thousand militia were 
called to arms, but Montcalm retired to Canada, and the 
campaign ended. 

How was Wasliinj^ton occupied in 1756 ? 3. Who arrived in 1757 ? 
What is said of him ? Name his only offensive inovement. Tlie result. 
4. Describe the capture of Fort William Ilcnry. What followed ? 

Wtllta^t Pitt. 133 

— + — 

5. Thus, after four years' liostilities, better generalship 
still gave the French the advantage, although their colonies 
counted hardly 100,000 inhabitants, while the English had 
1,500,000. Not only had the British commanders been in- 
competent, but their arrogant treatment of the provincials 
had been a cause of discord and disgust, and the arbitrary 
conduct of the home government towards the provinces had 
greatly increased the universal discontent. Military opera- 
tions had also been obstructed by the refusal of the regulars 
to recognize rank in the provincial service. 

6. Change of Policy at Home. — In the summer of 1757 a 
great change began in the aspect of affairs. The celebrated 
statesman William Pitt, afterwards created Earl of Chat- 
ham, was called to the ministry with functions which gave 
him control of tlie military operations of England and made 
him virtually })rime minister. He recalled the Earl of Lou- 
don, of whom Franklin said that he was " entirely made 
up of indecision," gave the command to Abercrombie in his 
place, sent twelve thousand British troops to America, fitted 
out a powerful fleet under Admiral Boscawen, and made 
such spirited proposals to the colonists that they raised even 
more than the twenty thousand men he asked of them, and 
taxed themselves heavily to furnish supplies. At the be- 
ginning of 1758 Abercrombie found himself ,at the head of 
fifty thousand men. 

7. Capture of Louisburg, — The first operations of the 
energetic campaign now begun were directed against Cape 
Breton, where Admiral Boscawen, with forty ships and a 
land force of fourteen thousand men commanded by Major- 
General Amherst, with Brigadier-General Wolfe as his lieu- 
tenant, arrived at the beginning of June. Louisburg was 

5, Why were the French at fii-st successful ? What is said of the 
British conuuanders ? Of the regulars ? 6. What change was made in 
1757 ? What measures did Pitt adopt ";:' What was the result ? 

134 History of the United States. 

¥ — 

captured July 27, 1758, after ii defence of seven weeks, and 
by this event the English became masters of the whole 
island and its dependencies and of the entire coast almost 


Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Vicinity. 

to the St. Lawrence. Five thousand prisoners and an im- 
mense quantity of stores fell into their hands. 

8. Other Operations of 1758. — A second body of troops 
under Abercrombie himself Avas directed against Ticonde- 
roga. It consisted of 7.000 regulars, 9,000 provincials, and 
a heavy train of artijlery. The French numbered 4,000, 
and were under Montcalm. Descending Lake George in 
flat-boats, Amherst landed at its northern extremity, and, 
after repulsing a French scouting party, pushed on rapidly 

7. Give an account of the capture of Louisburg ? What were the con- 
sequences ? 8. Who led the expedition apainst Ticonderop^a ? State 
the number of ti'oops in each army. Give an account of the battle ? 

Conquest of Caxada. 135 

— + — 

to Ticonderoga without wuiting for liis artillery, hoping to 
capture the fort before re-enforcenicnts then on the way to 
Moutcahn could reach him. He was defeated, however, 
after a bloody batlle (July 8), and retired to the southern 
end of Lake George, whence he sent off an expedition under 
Col. Bradstreet, who captured Frontenac (August :^T) with 
its garrison and shipi)ing. Bradstreet suffered little in the 
engagement, but lost 500 nu'u aftei-wards l)y camp-fever, 

9. A third army, commanded by Gen. Forbes, was sent 
against Fort Du Quesne, but it made little progress until 
"Washington, with his \'irginians, was placed in the advance. 
lie reached the fort at the end of November after a rapid 
march, and the Freiu-h set it on fire at his approach and 
tied down the I'iver in l)oats. The flames were extinguished, 
the damage was repaired, and the name of the post was 
changed to Fort Pitt in honor of the British statesnum. 

10. The Conquest of Canada. — Having deprived the 
French of three of their important fortresses, and also 
succeeded by treaties Avith the Indians in detaching many 
of their savage allies, Pitt planned the final conquest of 
Canada. The colonies, to whom he had promptly refunded 
the money advanced by them for the previous campaign, 
entered heartily into his i)rojects, so that, unlike former 
ministers, he received an enthusiastic su])port both in 
Ameriea and England. 

11. The campaign of 1759 was under the direction of 
(Jen. Andierst, who had superseded Abcrcrombie. Am- 
herst was to attack the French in uoi-(hern New York, 
while Wolfe ascended the tSt. Lawrence to assail Quebec, 
and Gen. Prideaux led a force against Fort Niagara. Am- 
herst captured Ticonderoga July 23, 1759, and pursued 

9. Against what fort was Gen. Forbes sent ? What progress was 
made ? The result ? 10. What plan did Pitt now form ? ITow did 
ho treat the colonists ? 11, Ucscribe the plan of campaign tor 17o9 ? 

136 History of the Uxited States. 

— + — 
the French down Lake Chuniphun ; but his boats were 
driven back by a storm, and he wintered at Crown Point 
and built a fort there. Prideaux, while besieging Fort 
Niagara, was killed by the bursting of a mortar, and the 
command devolved upon Gen. (now Sir) William Johnson, 
to whom the place finally surrendered, July 25, after a 
force of French and Indians attempting to relieve the gar- 
rison had l>een defeated in a severe battle. 

12. The most important part of the cami)aign was 
Wolfe's expedition against Quebec. This brave and accom- 
plished officer was only thirty-tliree years old, but already 
a distinguished soldier. He ascended the St. Lawrence 
with an army of 8,000 men, escorted by a fleet of more 
than forty vessels. Several men who became great in the 
military or naval service accompanied him as subordinates 
— among others Captain Jcrvis, afterwards the celebrated 
Admiral Earl of St. Vincent ; James Cook, the famous 
navigator and explorer ; Col. Barre, the Irish Member of 
Parliament who took the side of the colonists in the 
debates on the Stamp Act ; and Carleton and Howe, Avho 
commanded the British forces during the Revolution. 

13. The troops landed June 27 on the island of Orleans, 
which lies in the channel of the St. Lawrence just below 
Quebec. A few days later they formed two camps, one at 
Point Levi on the south side of the river opposite Quebec, 
the other on the lower side of the river Montmorenci, Avhich 
flows into the St. Lawrence from the north, about nine 
miles below Quebec. Tlie fleet protected both divisions. 
The French, whose number was about ecpial to that of the 
English, were entrenched along the St. Lawrence between 
Quebec and the Montmorenci. Montcalm's best defence 

Wliat did Amherst accomplish ? What occurred at Niagara ? 12. De- 
scribe the expedition against Quebec ? Wliat ofTiccrs assisted Wolfe ? 
13. Where were the English stationed ? What is said of the French ? 

Fall of Quebec. 137 

— + — 
was the strength of the city itself, wliich consisted of an 
upper town, occupying the top and sh)pes of a steep and 
high peninsuhi, enclosed by formidable fortifications, and 
a lower town, built on the narrow shore at the foot of this 
})romontory. The elevation is called the Heights of Abra- 
ham, and the level summit in the rear of the city is known 
as the Plains of Abraham. 

14. Fall of Quebec. — An assault by Monckton on the 
French left near the Montmorenci was defeated with heavy 
loss. Although the British batteries at Point Levi destroy- 
ed most of the lower town, the citadel and fortifications 
seemed to defy attack, and two months passed without 
important advantage to either side. Wolfe, sick with fever 
brought on by anxiety and exposure, now called a council 
of war at his bedside and unfolded a daring plan for scaling 
the Heights of Abraham and attacking the city in the rear. 
Reconnoitring the ground, he had discovered a narrow ravine 
in the steep bank above the city, with a winding path \\\) 
which two men could hardly walk abreast. Xot imagining 
that an enemy could approach by such a difficult pass, the 
French had only a small gnard at the top ; yet by this road 
Wolfe determined to lead his army to the heights. 

15. The preparations were made with the greatest se- 
crecy, and AVolfe left his sick-bed to attend to all the 
details in person and lead the attack. On the 12th of 
Septeml)er the fleet, carrying about half the army, moved 
up the river, several miles above the ravine, and made a 
pretence of disembarking at several points. After night- 
fall the soldiers took to the boats, and with muffled oars 
dropped silently down the river Avith the falling tide. 
They reached the landing Avithout being discovered, 

Wliere are the Plains of Abraham ? 14. Give an account of the pro- 
gress of the siege. What plan did Wolfe unfold ? What is said of the 
pass ? 15. Describe the preparations for the attack. Give the date. 


History of the United States. 

and the advance, led by Colonel (afterwards Sir William) 
Howe, clambered up the heights, supporting themselves 
by projecting rocks and branches of the trees. The sur- 
prised French pickets were easily dispersed, and Wolfe, 
with the main body of the attacking force, mounted safely 
by the patli. Before daylight on the 13th the English were 
drawn up in order of battle on the plain. 

16. Montcalm could hardly believe the news which was 
brought to him in his entrenchments below Quebec, but 
he hastened to bring up his troops, and soon faced his 

enemy with all the men 
he could assemble. The 
two armies were about 
equal in number and in 
the ability of their com- 
manders. The English 
were the better disci- 
plined ; the French had 
the advantage in artillery 
and position. 

17. After an hour of 
cannonading, and an un- 
successful attempt by 
Montcalm to turn the 
left of the British and 
force them into the river, the French made an impetuous 
charge upon the English line. The veteran troops of 
Monckton withstood the onset. At Wolfe's command tliey 
reserved their fire until the enemy Avas within forty yards, 
when they poured in a steady and murderous discliarge of 
musketry. The 'Frencli wavered. jMontcalm, wounded 

Who led the advance ? What is said of the French pickets ? 16. 
What did Montcalm think of the movement ? What did he determine 
on ? Compare the armies. 17. Describe Montcalm's movement. 


Death of Wolfe axd Moxtcal^f. 139 

— 4.— 

early in the action, was i)resent evorywlicre encouraging 

his men nntil, wliile attempting to rally a body of fugitive 

Canadians, he fell mortally wounded, and was carried ofE 

the field. 

18. Wolfe and Montcalm. — On the other side Monck- 
ton, Barrc, Carleton were all wounded, and Wolfe was 
shot twice while leading a charge. A third bullet j)ierced 
his l)reast. " Support mo," he said to an officer next him ; 
"don't let my brave fellows see me drop." As he was 
can-ied to the rear he heard the cry, " They run, they 
run!" "Who run ?" he asked. "The French," was the 
answer; "they give way everywhere." Wolfe roused him- 
self enough to give an order for cutting off the retreat, and 
expired exclaiming, "Now, God be praised, I die happy !" 

19. Montcalm, being told that he had only a few hours to 
survive, replied : " 80 much the better ; I shall not live to 
see the surrender of Quel)cc. "' He pointed out to his officers 
how they might collect troops to renew the attack, and then 
to the commander of the garrison, who asked his advice 
about surrendering the city, he said : "To your keeping I 
commend the honor of France. As for me, I shall pass the 
night with God and prepare myself for death." He wrote a 
letter recommending the French prisoners to the generosity 
of the victors, and died at five the next morning, having 
devoted his last hours to the care of his soul. A monument 
to commemorate the heroism of both Wolfe and Montcalm 
was afterwards erected on the battle-field, and another 
staiuls within the city. 

20. Five days later (Sept. 18) Quebec surrendered. The 
contest was prolonged for some time yet, but Wolfe's victory 
was the death-blow to the French power in America. In 

Give the result of the action. 18. What olBcers were wounded ? 
Repeat tlio last words of Wolfe. 19. Repeat the last words of IMont- 
cahn ? His advice to liis successor. How did he spend his last hours ? 

140 History of the United States. 

— * — 
the following April a French army from Montreal, with six 
ships of Avar, came down the river and laid siege to Quebec, 
defeating the British commander, Murray, with severe loss ; 
but the arrival of a fleet from England put an end to the 
siege. Gen. Amherst, who had been strangely inactive 
during AVolfe's brilliant campaign, now got slowly in 
motion, and in September, 1700, appeared before Montreal 
Avith 18,000 men. The French were too weak to resist, and 
Vaudreuil, the governor-general, surrendered not only the 
city but the whole of Western Canada, it being stipulated 
in the capitulation that the inhabitants should be protect- 
ed in their property and religion. 

21. End of the War. — This was the end of the war 
between the British and French colonies in ISTorth America, 
though peace Avas not restored betAveen France and England 
till the signing of the Treaty of Paris, February, 17G3. By 
this agreement, to Avliich Spain and Portugal Avere also par- 
ties, the French surrendered all their possessions in North 
America. EA'Crything east of the Mississippi Eivcr, except 
the toAvn of Ncav Orleans, was relinquished to England. 
NcAV Orleans and that part of Louisiana beyond the Missis- 
sippi Avere ceded to Spain. In exchange for Havana, Avhicli 
had been captured by the British, Spain yielded Florida to 
England. In 1800 Spain restored Louisiana to France, and 
in 1803 Napoleon sold it to the United States. 

22. Indian Troubles.- — ^During the last years of the war 
the Cherokee Indians committed great ravages on the 
Southern frontiers. Expeditions against them by Gov. 
Littleton of South Carolina (1759), and by Col. Mont- 
gomery Avith a detachment from Amherst's army (17G0), 
Avere only in part successful. They Avere at length subdued 

20. When was Quebec surrendered ? What were the consequences ? 
What occurred in the following April ? Describe Amherst's movement 
against Montreal. The result. What stipulation was made in the 

Conspiracy of PoyTiAC. 141 

— + — 

by a force of regulars and provincials under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Grant (17G1). 

23. The Indians, who had been living on good terms 
•with the French traders and settlers, were greatly displeased 
at the transfer of the western country to the English. A 
chief of the Ottawas named Pontiac formed a conspiracy 
of the western tribes to fall upon all the English frontier 
posts from Virginia to the lakes in May, 17G3. In less 
than a fortnight nearly the whole of that region was in 
the possession of the savages ; there Avas wide-spread mas- 
sacre and pillage, and Pontiac himself besieged Detroit for 
five months. The siege having been raised by a large force 
of provincials, the tribes sued for peace. Pontiac retired to 
the Illinois country and made a stand there for some time 
longer, finally submitting in 17G6. 

capitulation ? 21. When was peace restored between France and Eng- 
land? What did France surrender ? What was ceded to Spain ? What 
did Spain give up ? Why ? Give the subsequent history of Louisiana. 
22. What is said of the Cherokee Indians ? Who were sent against 
them ? With what success ? Who subdued them ? 23. What displeas- 
ed the Indians on the western frontier ? What followed ? Who led the 
Indians ? How successful were they ? What place was besieged by 
Pontiac ? The result ? Where did Pontiac retire ? When did he 
submit ? How long did the French arid Indian war last ? 





AS.SISTAXCE — The Stamp Act. 

1. The Thirteen Colonies. — At the close of the French 
and Indian war there were thirteen English colonies in 
i^orth America, not counting tlic possessions just won from 
France and Spain. In these thirteen colonies there were 
three different systems of government. Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island, and Connecticut possessed charters from tlie 
crown. Maryland and Pennsylvania were "proprietary 
]n'ovinces " — that is, they were ruled by tlieir jiroprietors 
under authority of the original grants. A^irginia, Xew 
Hampshire, New York, New Jersey, the two Carolinas, and 
Georgia were royal provinces directly subject to the king. 
Delaware was included in Pennsylvania. 

2. The population of the whole was a little less than 
2,000,000, of whom 350,000 were negro slaves. A'irginia 
was the most ])opulous of the colonies, containing at that 
time more than 300,000 inhabitants. Massachusetts came 
second with 230,000 ; Pennsylvania had nearly as many ; 
the Carolinas i-anked fourth ; and next in order were Mary- 

1. How many English colonies were then in America ? How many- 
systems of government ? "Which colonies possessed charters ? Which 
were proprietary provinces ? Which were royal provinces ? 2. What 
was tne population of the whole ? Which were the most populous ? 


ThE Eve of the JIevolutiox. 143 

— •!« — 
land, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, New llamp- 
sliire, lihode Island, and Georgia. In the South, however, 
a large proportion of the inhabitants were negroes. Massa- 
chusetts ranked first in white population, Pennsylvania 
second, Virginia third, Connecticut fourth. 

3. Settlements Avere just beginning in Vermont. Irish 
and German immigrants Avere i)eopling whole counties in 
Pennsylvania, and. turning towards South Carolina also. 
Adventurous settlers from the older colonics now crossed 
the mountains and occupied the lands claimed by the Six 
Nations on the headwaters of tlio Oliio. A few years 
later Tennessee was settled by people from North Caro- 
lina, and Daniel Boone laid the foundation of Kentucky. 
The whole AVost was a wilderness, almost unknown, the 
French settlements on the Mississippi being little more 
than trading posts. New Orleans had only 3,000 inhal)i- 

4. The pri::eipal town Avas I^oston, Avhich had a1)out 
ir),000 inhabitants. It was not groAving fast. Pliiladel])hia 
and NcAV York Avere rapidly overtaking it, Philadelphia 
ilicn having the lead. NcAvport Avas the rival of Boston 'n 
trade. Norfolk and Baltimore AA'ero also Ix'coming impor- 
tant commercial toAvns. 

5. During the French and Indian Avars the colonies lost 
30,000 soldiers and spent $10,000,000, of Avliich the homo 
governiuent refunded only $5,000,000. They incurred very 
heavy debts, and many of tlu'in made large issues of ])aper 
money, Avhich l)ecame greatly depreciated. Peace found 
them, therefore, depressed and exhausted. 

6. Eestrictions on Trade. — The i)olicy of tlie home gov- 
ernment Avas to make the colonies entirely dependent upon 

3. What is said of the Irish and Gorman immigrants ? By whom 
was the land beyond the mountains occupied ? 4. Name tlie jirincipal 
towns. 5. "What did tlie colonists lose in the French and Indian wars ? 

144 History of the United States. 

— + — 

English mcrclumts and manufactnrers, and to prevent all 

competition in indnstries. As it was found that the Ameri- 
cans were learning how to make good hats out of American 
fur, the London hatters complained, and an Act of Parlia- 
ment accordingly prohibited the transportation of hats from 
one plantation to another. When they began to manufac- 
ture iron for their own use, the British government ordered 
that "none in the plantations should manufacture iron 
wares of any kind whatsoever," and that mills, furnaces, 
etc., should be regarded as "nuisances." The Navigation 
Acts, already mentioned, made it unlawful for the colonies 
to trade with any country except England. 

7. The colonists, especially in New England, remon- 
strated against these measures, and carried on an extensive 
contraband traffic with the West Indies and other places, 
which the British governors and ships of war Avere unable 
to break up. No open resistance, however, was made as yet, 
and the right of Parliament to regulate the ti*ade of the 
plantations for the exclusive benefit of the mother country 
came to be looked upon as settled. 

8. Writs of Assistance. — In 17G1 the government at- 
tempted to enforce the tyrannical Acts of Trade by the issue 
of "writs of assistance," or general search-warrants, which 
authorized officers of the customs to break into any store or 
private house and hunt for goods which they even suspected 
had not paid duty. The most violent opposition was excited 
to these Avrits in Massachusetts, where they were first grant- 
ed. The colonists declared their liberties to l)o in danger, 
obedience Avas refused, and the legality of tlic warrants was 
tested in the court at Boston. . 

9. Here James Otis, the advocate-general of the crown. 

6. "What was the policy of tlie home government ? What restric- 
tions were laid on trade ? 7. Wliat action did the colonists take ? 
8. What was attempted in 1761 ? What were " writs of assistance "? 

The iStamp A ut. 145 

— + — 

refused to defend the writs, resigned his office, and appeared 
in behalf of the pcoi)le. His eloquent and courageous 
speech made a profound impression. " Otis was a flame of 
fire," said John Adams; "he carried away all before him. 
American independence was then and there born. Every 
man of an immense, crowded audience ai)i)eared to me to go 
away, as I did, ready to take arms against the writs of as- 
sistance." A majority of the judges were inclined to decide 
against the writs, but the chief-justice, Hutchinson, ])ersuad- 
ed them to defer judgment until they could conimunicute 
with England. The legality of the Avrits was finally u^jheld, 
but the officers did not venture to execute them. 

10. The spirit of independence soon began to manifest 
itself also in Xew York, where a jjroposal to make the office 
of the judges entirely dependent upon the pleasure of the 
king Avas met by a refusal of the Assembly to grant any sala- 
ry to judges so appointed. A'irginia, Maryland, and Penn- 
sylvania were looked upon by the crown as insubordinate ; 
and the colonies generally showed a disposition to assert 
their rights by breaking through the unjust restrictions of 
the Acts of Trade. The attempt to tax the colonies with- 
out their consent finally provoked an open resistance. 

11. The Stamp Act. — The British government had long 
desired to raise a revenue from the colonies, but no ministry 
had ever dared to lay a direct t;ix upon them. Pitt, how- 
ever, who resi)ccted the rights of the Americans, had now 
been driven from office, and King George III. surrounded 
himself with courtiers and ministers who had no politics 
except to carry out his arbitrary designs. Under the ijiflu- 
ence of the court party Parliament passed a resolution de- 
claring that it had authority to tax the colonies, and in 17G4 

9. What is said of James Otis ? 10. What proposal called forth the 
spirit of independence in New York ? What provoked open resist- 
ance ? 11. What led to the passage of the Stamp Act ? 

146 History of the TJnited States. 

— + — 

tlie i)rimo minister, Grenville, brought forward the scheme 
of a stamp tax to carry tliis doctrine into eifect. 

12. Tlie colonists took the ground that tliey couhl not 
hiwfully be taxed by a i)arliamcnt in which tliey were not 
represented — in other words, that " taxation without repre- 
sentation is tyranny." Samuel Adams and James Otis in 
Massachusetts, Patrick Henry in Mrginia, became leaders in 
the popular movement. Benjamin Franklin was sent to 
England to ojipose the scheme in the name of Pennsyl- 
vania. Col. Barre made a speech against it in Parliament. 
The Stamp Act was nevertheless passed in March, ITGo. 

13. It declared that every document used in trade, as 
well as every legal j^aper, to be valid must luive affixed to it 
a stamp, the lowest in value costing a shilling, and thence 
increasing in i)rice according to the importance of the paper. 
A college diploma, for instance, was taxed £2, or |10. 
Government agents were appointed to sell the stamps ; vio- 
Litions of the act could be tried in any royal or admiralty 
court, however distant from the i)lacc of the alleged offence, 
and without a jury ; and, as a precaution against resistance, 
the ministers were authorized to send as many troops as 
they saw proper to America, and oblige the colonies to sup- 
ply them with " quarters, fuel, rum, and other necessaries." 

14. Resistance of the Colonies. — These acts caused a 
burst of indignation in America. The Virginia Assembly 
passed resolutions introduced by the brilliant young orator 
and ])atri()t Patrick Henry, declaring that the General 
Assembly had exclusive right and power to lay taxes and 
impositions upon the inhabitants. His speech on the reso- 
lutions closed with a daring passage : " Caesar," he cried, 
"had his Brutus, Charles his Cromwell, and George the 

Who broup:ht forward this measure? 12. "What ground did the colo- 
nists take? Who led the jjopular inovcmont? When was the act passed? 
13, Describe the .Stamp Act. 14, What is said of Patrick flenry ? 

Sons of Liberty. 147 

— + — 

Third " — " Treason, treason ! '' cried some of the delegates 
— ''George the Third may profit by their e.\ani[)les. Sir, if 
tliis be treason, make the most of it.'' 

15. Tlie resohitions of Virginia gave tlie signal for a 
general outcry. Massachu- 
setts resolved that the 
courts should conduct their 
business without stamps, 
and invited all the colonies 
to send delegates to a con- 
gress in New York. Asso- 
ciations, called " Sons of 
Liberty," were organized 
to resist the act and defend 
the rights of the people. 
Societies of young ladies, 
calling themselves ''' Daugh- 
ters of Liberty," met to 
spin yarn and encouragu 
the colonists to persevere in their resolution of buying no 
British goods. Stamps were seized and destroyed, and the 
agents ajopointed to distribute them were so rudely used that 
they all resigned their offices. 

16. Tlie Congress met in New York in October, dele- 
gates from nine colonies being present. They drew up a 
declaratiiMi of rights, a memorial to Parliament, and a 
petition to the king, claiming that they could be taxed 
only by their own representatiA'cs. The colonial assemblies 
approved their proceedings, and tlms u'as taken the first 
steps toward a federal union. 

17. On the 1st of November, the day on which the 

15. What did Massachusetts resolve ? What were the colonies in- 
vited to do ? What associations were formed ? Wliat hecamo of the 
stamps ? 16. What was done by the Congress that met in New York ? 

I'ATUIUU llh.MiV. 

148 History of the United States. 

— + — 
Stamp Act was to go into oi^eratiou, the bells were tolled 
and the flags hung half-mast, as if for " the funeral of 
liberty." The courts were closed ; business was suspended ; 
the houses of the British officials were attacked by mobs, 
and some of the obnoxious friends of the government were 
burned in effigy. So alarming Avere the popular demonstra- 
tions, and so great was the loss inflicted ui)on English 
merchants by the refusal of the colonists to buy any goods 
from them, that Parliament was obliged to repeal the hate- 
ful act. 

18. Pitt, Burke, Barre, and others defended the colo- 
nists in Parliament, and Pitt declared that he rejoiced in 
their resistance ; "if they had submitted, they would have 
voluntarily become slaves." Pranklin was examined by a 
committee of the House of Commons, whom he assured 
that the colonists would never submit to taxes imposed by 
those who had no authority. The repeal, March 18, 1706, 
was celebrated with great rejoicings both in America and 
the English seaports. 


The Boston Massacre — Destruction of Tea — The Boston Port 
Bill — The First Continental Congress. 

1. New Schemes of Taxation. — In s])ite of the failure of 
the stamp duty the ministry persevered in the attempt to 
tax the colonies, and a year after the repeal of Grenville's 
scheme a new act imposed duties on paper, tea, glass, etc. 

17. What took place on the 1st of November ? Why did Parliament 
repeal the act ? 18. Who dofoiided the colonies ? What did Franklin 
assert ? 1. What did the ministry still desire to do ? 

Popular Resistance. 149 

— + — 
(Juiio, 1TG7), in reply to wliicli tlie Americans renewed 
their pledge not to inij)ort any British merchandise. 

2. A Mutiny Act, which empowered the ministry to 
quarter soldiers on tlie colonists, and the high-handed con- 
duct of Parliament in forbidding the Assembly of New York 
to perform any legislative business because that body had 
resolved to disobey the Mutiny Act, increased the exaspera- 
tion of the people. Massachusetts issued a circular letter to 
the other colonics, urging them to co-operate in efforts to 
obtain redress, and nearly all the assemblies passed resolu- 
tions denying the right of Parliament to tax them. The 
Assembly of Massachusetts, being commanded in the name 
of the king to rescind the circular letter, voted by a large 
majority not to do so. 

3. Popular Tumults. — Commissioners of Customs ap- 
pointed under the new acts arrived at Boston in May, 17G8. 
The next month they seized a sloop belonging to John Han- 
cock, a popular leader and rich merchant, Avho had refused 
to pay the tax. A riot followed, and the commissioners fled 
for safety to a fort in the harbor. 

4. The government resolved to punish " the insolent 
town of Boston, " and at the request of the royal governor, 
Bernard, a body of soldiers under Gen. Gage was sent to 
occupy the place. The Assembly refused to find quarters 
for them, and some were accordingly posted in Faneuil Hall 
and the State-House, while others camped on the Common. 
At the same time Parliament recommended that the gover- 
nor should be ordered to arrest the ringleaders in the riot 
and send them to England to be there tried for treason. 
Massachusetts had no Assembly at tliis time, the governor 
having dissolved the last House for insubordination ; but 

What new act was passed ? 2. What was the object of the Mutiny 
Act ? Wliat (lid ]\Iassachusctts urpo V 3. Who arrived in Boston in 
17C8 ? What was seized? The restdtV 4. How was Boston punished ? 

160 History of the United States. 

— + — 

the Assembly of Virginia took up the matter, and denied 

the power of tlie crown to infringe in this dangerous way 
upon the liberty of the subject. The Virginia Burgesses 
were thereupon dissolved likewise. 

5. The Boston Massacre. — The new Assembly which 
soon came together in Boston refused to transact any l)usi- 
ness wliile surrounded by an armed force. The soldiers and 
citizens had constant quarrels. At length, on March 5, 
1770, a serious collision occurred between the troops and a 
mob, and the soldiers fired, killing three of the crowd and 
mortally wounding two others. The reports of this ''Bos- 
ton massacre," as it was called, were greatly exaggerated 
and filled the country with excitement. 

6. The people demanded the removal of the troops from 
the city, and the trial of the captain and eight men of the 
guard on a charge of murder. The royal officers were 
obliged to yield. Detei'mined, however, to show the respect 
of the Americans for hiw and justice, two of the most dis- 
tinguished of the poi)ular leaders, John Adams and Josiah 
Quincy, defended the accused on the trial. Captain Pres- 
ton and six of the privates were acquitted ; the other two 
were found guilty of manslaughter and branded on the hand. 

7. The Tax on Tea. — A change of ministry had now 
brought to the direction of affairs Lord North, a states- 
man Avho possessed many excellent personal qualities, but 
is chiefly remembered as the obedient servant of an obsti- 
nate king and the minister who lost America for the Bri- 
tish crown. Tlie firmness with which the colonists perse- 
vered in their non-importation ])olicy had caused so much 
distress to British merchants that Lord North determined 
to remove all tlie duties except a tax of threepence a pound 

What led to the dissohition of the Virginia Burgesses ? 5. Give 
an account of the Boston ]Vrassacic. G. What did tlio people demand ? 
How were the ofiEeiidcrs punislied ? 7. Why was the tea-tax retained ? 

Destruction of Tea. 151 

— + — 

on tcji. Tliis was retained ut the express command of the 
king, who said tiiat ''there should always be one tax, at 
least, to keep up the right of taxing." 

8. Lord Nortli was ignorant enough to helieve tliat the 
colonists would not object to this ligiit tax, which was only 
one-(|uarter as mucli as the English at home i)aid on the 
same article, and would actually leave tea cliea])er in 
America than in England. lie did not understand that 
it was against "the right of taxing" that the Americans 
were contending. 

9. The tea-tax, brought forward by the ministry on the 
day of the Boston massacre, o\\\\ excited the colonies to a 
still more earnest declaration of the i)rinci})le that " taxa- 
tion without representation is tyranny." Besides i)ledging 
themselves to nse no tea wliile the tax remained, they 
determined that none should l)c lauded or sold ; and in 
Philadelphia, Boston, and other ])laces it was voted in 
public meeting that any one who aided in unloading or 
selling a cargo of tea was an eiu'my of his country. 

10. Destruction of the Tea in Boston Harbor. — In the 
latter jiart of 1773 news came that three sliijjs laden Avith 
tea were on their way to Boston. A meeting of 5,000 
citizens resolved, on motion of Samuel xVdams, to send 
the ships back. Covernor Hutchinson refused to let the 
ships depart until the tea was landed. On the evening 
of December 18, while the citizens were assembled in mass 
meeting at Faneuil Hall, a band of fifty or sixty men, 
disguised as Indians, went on l)oard the vessels, threw the 
tea into the water, and then quietly dis'pcrsed. 

11. Other tea-ships, bound for Philadelphia and New 
York, were sent l)ack without discharuinii: their cargo. 

8. What (lid Lord North believe ? Against what were the Ameri- 
cans ron1ondiii<? ? 0. What was the effeet of the tea-tax ? On what 
did the colonies determine ? 10, Why was the tea destroyed ut Boston? 

152 History of the United States. 

— 4* — 

Smtill consignments of tea found on various vessels were 
seized and thrown overboard. 

12. At the news of these proceedings Parliament ordered 
the port of Boston to be closed against all ships, and the 
capital to be transferred to Salem ; nearly all the impor- 
tant privileges granted to the people by the Charter of 
Massachusetts were taken away ; troops were quartered on 
the colonies at the people's expense ; it was enacted that 
officers prosecuted for deeds done in the enforcement of 
these laws should not be tried except in England ; and 
Gen. Gage, besides having command of the troops, was 
appointed governor of the colony. 

13. Popular Agitation. — These laws, which were gross 
violations of the rights and charters of the colonies, arous- 
ed everywhere in America the deepest indignation. The 
people of Boston, reduced to distress by the stoppage of 
their trade, were regarded as martyrs of liberty, and con- 
tributions were made for their relief not only in the thir- 
teen colonies but even in London and Quebec. In Boston 
itself, although meetings were held almost daily in Faneuil 
Hall and the Old South Church, at which the popular 
orators inflamed the spirit of resistance, the patriots were 
careful to avoid all disorderly and unconstitutional pro- 
ceedings, and nothing was done which the British au- 
thorities could punish. The friends of the crown about 
this time became known as Tories, and the popular party 
as Whigs. 

14. One measure passed by the Parliament in order to 
meet this crisis was eminently Just. Deeming it impor- 
tant to prevent Canada from joining the rebellious colo- 
nies, a law known as the Quebec Statute was enacted, which 

11. "What was done with the tea at other places ? 12. What did 
Parliaincnt order ? In what other ways were the colonists punished ; 
13. What is said of these laws ? What did the patriots avoid ? 

TuE Old Continental Congress. 153 

— + — 

restored the French civil hiw, known as the ''custom of 

Piiris," and sanctioned throughout the province "the free 
exercise of the religion of the Church of Rome, and con- 
firmed to the clergy of that church their accustomed due? 
and riglits." Thus the same power which cruelly perse- 
cuted Catholics in Ireland was induced by political con- 
siderations to protect them in Canada. 

15. The Quebec Statute extended not only to Canada 
proper, but to the whole region' accpiired from the French 
west of the Mississippi and north of the Ohio, including 
the present states of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, 
and Wisconsin. The colonics Avarmly protested against 
this concession of liberty of conscience, although some- 
what later they found it expedient to adopt nearly the 
same policy, and to promote a closer union among them- 
selves by juster treatment of their Catholic brethren. It 
was not until after the Revolution that discriminations 
against Catholics were gradually expunged from the laws. 

16. Committees of correspondence had already been 
formed at the suggestion of Patrick Henry, Thomas Jef- 
ferson, Richard Henry Lee, and other Virginians, and the 
colonies took counsel together l)y this means for the com- 
mon defence. In jMay, 1T74, proposals were made by the 
Assemblies of several of the provinces for a General Con- 
gress of delegates. The scheme was taken up Avith great 
enthusiasm; and on September 5, 1TT4, an assembly of 
fifty-five delegates, representing all the colonies excejjt 
Georgia, met in Philadelphia under tlie i)residency of 
Peyton Randolph, of Virginia. This was tbe first, or, as 
it is often called, the "old," Continental Congress. 

14. What just measure was passed by Parliament ? 15. To what 
territory did thi' (Quebec Statute extend ? Wluit aetion did the colonies 
taki" aj^ainst this concession ? 1(5. Wliy were committees of correspond- 
ence formed ? What proposals were made in May, 1774 ? The result. 



17. The Old Continental Congress. — Among the most 
distinguitslu'd of the ineinbors were Wasliington, Patrick 
Henry, and Ilichard Henry Lee, of Virginia ; Samnel 
Adams and his second cousin John Adams, of Massacliu- 
setts ; Jolm Jay, Phih']) Livingston, and James Diiane, of 
New York; Roger Sherman, of Connecticut; Edward Eut- 

ledge, John Rutledge, and 
Cliristopher Gadsden, of 
South Carolina. Patrick 
Henry, J. Rutledge, and Lee 
were tlic most eloquent 
orators ; " Ijut if you speak 
of solid information and 
sound judgment," said Pat- 
rick Henry, " Washington 
was unquestionably the 
greatest man of tliem all." 
18. Impressed with the 
great importance of their 
proceedings, the delegates, 
when the Congress opened, 
sat for some time in silence. The debate then began with a 
strong and brilliant si)ecch from Patrick Henry, exposing 
the wrongs from which the colonies suffered. The sessions 
lasted seven weeks. A Declaration of Colonial Rights was 
agreed to, setting forth the claim of the people to parti- 
cipate in making their own laws and imposing their own 
taxes, and denying the right of the crown to send accused 
])ersoiis to England for trial, or to maintain a standing 
army among the colonists without tlieir consent, or to 
forbid iieaceable jiuljlic meetings. A protest Avas made 

17. Name the most (listiTignisherl members of the old Continental 
Congress? Wliat is said of Patrick Iloiiry ? Of Washington? 18. 
Who began tlic debate ? What was agreed to? What protest was made? 

Samuel Adams. 

Minute-Mek. 155 

— + — 

against eleven of tlie most tyrannical acts of Parliament 
passed since tlie accession of George III. 

19. A jietition to the king Avas prepared, as well as 
addresses to the people of Great Britain, of Canada, and 
of the colonies. An ''American Association " was formed, 
the members of which pledged themselves not to trade 
with Great Britain or the West Indies, or Avith any pro- 
vince which refused to come into this agreement, and not 
to nse tea or any British goods. Provision was then made 
for another Congress to meet in May, unless the grievances 
should meanwhile be redressed. 

20. When the proceedings of the Congress were pub- 
lished in England, Pitt (who was now Lord Chatham) 
said: "For solidity of reason, force of sagacity, and wis- 
dom of conclusion under a complication of difficult cir- 
cumstances, no nation or body of men can stand in pre- 
ference to the General Congress at Philadelphia. The his- 
tories of Greece and Rome give us nothing equal to it, 
and all attempts to impose servitude upon such a mighty 
continental nation must be vain." 

21. The People take Arms. — In the meantime the situ- 
ation of affairs in Massachusetts became alarming. The 
people collected arms, enrolled themselves in companies, 
and prepared to turn out at a minute's notice, from Avhich 
circumstance they were called "minute-men." Public 
speakers and writers boldly defended the right of the peo- 
ple to rebel against oppression. Eoyal officers were forced 
to resign. Gen. Gage began to fortify the narrow neck 
which connected Boston with the mainland, and to seize 
all the arms and ammunition he could find. lie had about 
4,000 troops, and he sent home a request for 20,000 more. 

19. What petition was prepared ? What association was formed ? 
What provision was made for another Cong^rcss ? 20. What did Pitt 
say of the proceedings ? 21. Describe the condition of affairs in Masa, 


— ^ 

22. Chatham, Burke, Fox, Barre, aud other enlight- 
ened statesmen in Parliament urged the Government to 
recede from its Avrong position, but the obstinacy of the 
king prevented any conciliation ; it was resolved that Ame- 
rica was in rebellion and must be sulxlued ; and so the 
Eevolution began. 


]'>E(iixNixi} OF TiiK War of Ixdepexdkxce — Lexington — Concord — 
Bunker Hill. 

1. The War Begins. — In defiance of Gen. Gage a Pro- 
vincial Congress had assembled in Massachusetts, under 
the jn-esidency of John Hancock, first at Cambridge and 
afterward at Concord, and had taken measures to call out 
troops aud collect military supplies. Learning that arms 
and ammuuitiou had been stored at Concord, sixteen miles 
from Boston, Gage ordered 800 picked soldiers to proceed 
thither by night and destroy them. 

2. The movements of the British were closely watched, 
and they had no sooner started than signals were given 
to ull the surrounding country, ;in(l a young patriot named 
Paul Ilevc'i-e leaped upon his horse to rouse the minute- 
men along the road. Gage had sent guards to prevent 
any one from leaving the town, but Eevere was too quick 
for them. The bells were rung ; the minute-men turned 
out in the middle of the night ; and when the British 
reached Lexington, half way between Boston and Concord, 

23. What did several English statesmen urge ? "What prevented 

conciliiition ? What was resolved upon ? 1. State wliat oecvirred in 
Massaoluiselts. Wliat action was taken by Gage ? 2. By the patriots ? 


— 'i' — 

at dawn on the 10th of April, 1775, sixty or seventy of 
the patriots were drawn up in anus to oppose them. 

3. Battle of Lexington. — Major Piteairn, wlio command- 
ed the British advance, cried out, '' IJisperse, ye vilhiius, 
ye rebels, disperse ! Why don't you lay down your arms 
and disi)erse ? •' As they stood motionless, he gave the 
order to fire. It was a slaughter rather than a battle. 
Eight of the patriots, including their captain, Jonas Par- 
ker, Avere killed and several wounded, and the British then 
proceeded to Concord. 

4. Battle of Concord. — Here they destroyed an insigni- 
ficant quantity of stores. At a bridge near the village 
they encountered 400 Americans, hastily collected from 
the neighboring towns, and wore so warmly received that 
they began a hasty retreat. The patriots followed them. 
The whole country was in arms. A galling fire Avas i)oured 
upon the regulars from behind every fence and almost 
every tree. The retreat became a rout ; and when the 
British were rescued at last Ijv the arrival of Lord Percy 
with reinforcements, they had lost 37o men. They en- 
camped for the night on Bunker Hill under cover of the 
ships of war in tiie river. 

5. Up to this time no party in America had thought 
of a separation from the mother country, but now the 
colonies were aflame with the spirit of independence. In 
the course of one or two days the king's army found itself 
besieged in Boston by an irregular and ill-furnished but 
large and determined body of men, who marched to the 
scene of action from all parts of New England. The 
Provincial Congress of Massachusetts came together un- 
der the presidency of Dr. Joseph Warren, voted to raise 

3. Give an account of the battle of Ijexington. 4. What took place 
at Concord ? Describe the retreat. 5. How did Lexinji^ton and Concord 
affect the colonies ? By what was the king's army besieged 'i 

158 History of the Umted States. 

— + — 

13,000 men, and invited the other New England colonies 
to make up the army to 30,000. 

6. Before the end of the month the Americans had 
20,000 men in camp around Boston, and in tlie course of 
a few weeks the authority of the royal governors in all 
the colonies was at an end. In some places the manage- 
ment of affairs was taken by the provincial Assemblies, 
in others by provincial Congresses or Committees of Safety. 
Franklin was chairman of the Committee of Safety in 
Pennsylvania. In North Carolina the people of Mecklen- 
burg County went so far as to assemble in convention at 
Charlotte (May 31) and adopt a formal declaration of 
independence. This movement, however, Avas not gene- 
rally sustained. 

7. Capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point. — The fort- 
resses of Ticonderoga and Crown Point Avere considered im- 
portant by the colonists, not only on account of their i)osi- 
tion on the frontier of Canada but because they contained a 
great quantity of stores. An expedition of Vermont vol- 
unteers, knoAvn as Green Mountain Boys, marched against 
them under command of Ethan Allen and Setli AYarner. 
Allen surprised Ticonderoga at night (May 10, 1775), pene- 
trating into the fort undiscovered with about eighty men, 
and rousing the British commander from bed Avith a sum- 
mons to surrender. ''In whose name ?" asked the aston- 
ished officer. "In the name of JchoA'ah and the Conti- 
nental Congress," Avas the reply. Warner captured Crown 
Point Avith equal ease, and by these tAvo exploits the patriots 
obtained over tAvo hundred cannon and a large supply of 
poAvder, of Avhich they had great need. 

8. Benedict Arnold, a captain in the forces before Bos- 

What action was taken by the Provincial Congress of Mass. ? 6. 
What change took place throughout tlie colonies ? Give an account of 
the Mecklenburg declaration. 7. Describe the capture of Ticonderoga. 

Bunker Hill. 159 

— 4, — 

ton, served as a volunteer in Allen's expedition, and after- 

Avards captured some stores at 8t. John's, on the Sorcl lliver. 

9. The Second Congress. — The second Continental Con- 
gress met at Philadeli)hia, May 10, the day of the capture 
of Ticouderoga. Peyton Randolph Avas at first president, 
but John Ilancock soon succeeded him in that position. 
Washington, Jefferson, Franklin, the Adamses, Patrick 
Henry, and K. II. Lee were members. The Congress was 
nu)derate and asked only for redress of grievances, not in- 
dei)endence ; but it took vigorous measures to carry on war ; 
it formed a federal union, assumed the general authority of 
government, and authorized the issue of bills of credit. 

10. Battle of Bunker Hill. — The British army in Boston 
soon received large re-enforcements led by Generals llowe, 
Burgoyne, and Henry Clinton, raising their total force to 
ten thousand disciplined regulars, besides a considerable 
fleet. The Americans comi)rised a number of independent 
commands under Generals Artemas AYard of Massachusetts, 
Israel Putnam of Connecticut, Nathanael Greene of Rhode 
Island, and others ; General AVard being recognized as chief. 
The whole number of men was about sixteen thousand. 

11. The Committee of Safety having resolved to make 
the blockade of Boston more complete by occupying the 
heights of Charlestown overlooking the city and harbor. 
Colonel Prescott, of Massachusetts, Avith tAvelve hundred 
men, Avas ordered (June 10) to march secretly from Cam- 
bridge and throw up entrenchments during the night on 
Bunker Hill. He understood his instructions to refer to 
Breed's Hill, an eminence a little nearer Boston, and there, 
accordingly, he began to fortify. 

8. What did Arnold accomplish ? 9. Whon did the second Conti- 
nental Congress meet ? What did it aecomi)lish ? 10. What was the 
strength of the British army in Boston? What is said of the Ameri- 
cans ? 11. On wliat did the Committee of Safety resolve ? The result. 

160 History of the Unite n States. 

— -i- — 

12. Tlie patriots wurked all night 'with such silence 
that their operations were not discovered, and by daylight 
on the 17th they had already thrown up a redoubt and a 
breastwork about six feet high. They were first seen from 
the ships, which immediately opened fire, but the work went 
on until noon. By that time the British in Boston had 
completed their preparations for an assault, and the Ameri- 
cans, exhausted by a long march, a hard night's labor, and 
the want of food and water, laid down their shovels and 
picks and took their muskets. 

13. Prescott was everywhere, encouraging his men. 
With him were Dr. Joseph Warren, one of the ablest of 
the i^atriot leaders, avIio held a commission as major-general, 
but refused to deprive Prescott of the command, and served 
with a musket as a volunteer ; and Israel Putnam, a veteran 

of the French and Indian 

wars, now fifty- seven years 
old, who had left his plough 
standing in the furrow at 
the news of the fight at 
Lexington, and in one day 
had galloped sixty-eight 
miles to join the patriots 
at Boston. 

14. About three o'clock 
in the afternoon the as- 
saulting party, three thou- 
sand i)icked regulars com- 
manded by Generals Howe 
and Pigot, having crossed the Charles River from Boston 
in boats, advanced up the hill under cover of a fire from 

Boston and Vicinity. 

12. Give an account of the fortification of Breed's Hill. Of the 
movements of the British. 13. Name the American leaders. What is 
Siiid of T^utnam. 14. How hirge was the assaulting party ? 

Battle of BuxKfm Hill. 161 

— * — 
the ships and batteries. The provincials stood firm. 

''Don't one of you fire," said Putnam, "till you see the 
whites of their eyes." 

15. AVhen the British were witliin a hundred yards of 
tlic works the Americans delivered their fire witli the aim 
of pi'actised marksmen. Before the quick and murderous 
volleys the veteran regiments of King George wavered, broke, 
and at last fell back in disorder to the landing-place. 
There they rallied, and soon moved forward again to the 
charge, only to be driven back as before by the steady fire 
of the colonists. 

16. The ofiicers exerted themselves to form their men a 
third time, but they were discouraged. At this moment 
the British General Clinton, who was watching the engage- 
ment from Boston, seeing two regiments on the beach in 
confusion, threw himself into a boat, crossed over, and suc- 
ceeded in getting them into line. Four hundred marines 
landed from the ships. Thus re-euforoed the beaten red- 
coats, after a long delay, moved once more up the hill, 
while the field of battle was half hidden by a thick smoke 
from the burning houses of Charlestown, which Gage had 
caused to be set on fire. 

17. As before, the steady and well-aimed fire of the 
Americans, delivered at short range, checked the advance, 
but at this critical moment the ammunition of the colonists 
gave out. The British grenadiers sprang forward Avitli the 
bayonet, and after a short and desiderate struggle Prescott, 
finding himself nearly surrounded and exposed to an artil- 
lery fire in the rear, gave the order to retreat. 

18. On the left of the American line, where the breast- 
work was unfinished, a slight defence had been constructed 

What advice did Putnam give ? 15. Describe the first and second 
attacks. 16. What efforts wore made to rally the British ? By whoiE 
were tliey re-euforced 'i 17. Describe the third attack. The result. 

162 History of the ILxited States. 

of fence-rails and loose hay ; and here Colonel Stark and 
others kept the British at bay until the redoubt was taken, 
when it became impossible to hold the position any longer. 
The provincials made good their retreat over Charlestown 

19. At the beginning of the retreat the ardent Warren 
was killed. The Americans lost 449 in killed, wounded, and 
prisoners, while the British loss was over 1,000, or more than 
a third of the force engaged. The result of the battle was 
encouraging to the provincials, since it proved the ability of 
the raw militia to contend against disciplined regulars ; and 
the dear-bought victory, only won by the exhaustion of the 
Americans' powder, was so little satisfactory to the British 
government that General Gage was displaced from the com- 
mand and succeeded by General Howe. This engagement, 
always known as the Battle of Bunker Hill, was the first 
real battle of the Revolutionary War. The affairs at Lex- 
ington and Concord were only skirmishes. 


Washington Commander-in-Chief — Operations in Canada — Siege op 


1. The Continental Army. — The Congress at Philadelphia 
had adopted the unorganized force before Boston as a "Con- 
tinental Army," and apiiointed George Washington com- 
mander-in-chief of all the troops to be raised for the de- 
fence of the colonies, voting him pay at the rate of $500 a 

18. Who commanclod the. loft ? With what success ? 19. Wliat was 
the loss on the American side ? Wliat was the loss on the Biitisli side ? 
How was the result of the battle regarded ? By what name is the en- 
gagement known ? 1. State the origin of the " Continental Army." 

Canada Attacked. 103 

— ^ — 

mouth. He accepted the appointment hut refused the pay, 
decUiring that he would take nothing hut his actual ex- 
penses. Setting out immediately on hoi-sehack, he reached 
the camp at Camhridge on the 2d of July, 1775. The 
American force then consisted of about 14,000 men. Wash- 
ington established himself with the centre at Cambridge, and 
gave the right wing at Roxbury to General Artcmas Ward, 
who was second in rank, and the left at Prospect Hill, two 
miles from the battle-ground of Breed's Hill, to General 
Charles Lee. Boston was now regularly besieged, and Wash- 
ington improved the time by bringing the disorderly force 
of i)rovineials into some kind of discipline. 

2. Attack upon Canada. — A second army was raised for 
an attack upon Canada, and Washington gave the command 
of it to General Philip 
Schuyler ; but, Schuyler 
falling sick on the way, 
the management of the 
expedition fell to General 
Richard Montgomery, an 
exiierienced and distin- 
guished Irish soldier, who 
had lately settled in New 

3. Montgomery captured 
St. John's and Chambly, 
both on the Sorel (the out- 
let of Lake Champlain), 
and then easily made him- 
self master of Montreal, after Ethan Allen had been taken 
prisoner in a foolhardy attempt to surprise that town, and 

Who was appointed commander-in-chief ? When did he take com- 
mand ? Wliat disposition did he make of his forces ? 2. Wlio command- 
ed the army against Canada 3. Describe the progress of Montgomery. 

OfNUJM KlCIIMJl) AI()Ml,()MLr.\ 

164 History of the United States. 

— -i- — 

had been sent to England in irons. Montgomery then 

moved towards Quebec. 

4. Arnokl, in the meantime, had marched from Boston 
witli 1,100 men, ascended the Kennebec in boats, struck 
across tlie forest to the head- waters of the Chaudiere, and, 
after suffering great luirdships, floated down that stream to 
the St. Lawrence, lie reached Quebec at the beginning of 
November Avith little more than half his detachment, the 
rest having deserted during the six weeks' struggle in the 

5. In a few weeks Montgomery and Arnold joined their 
forces and began the attack upon Quebec. The united 
army, not exceeding 1,000 men, gallantly assaulted the town 
on the 31st of December in the midst of a blinding snow- 
storm, Montgomery was killed almost at the first charge, 
Arnold was badly wounded, and the Americans were driven 
off Avith a loss of 300 men. They persevered all the winter 
and spring in blockading Quebec, but the arrival of rein- 
forcements for the British at last compelled them to retire. 

6. The South. — In the summer of 1775 Dunmore, the 
royal governor of Virginia, was driven out of Williamsburg, 
then the capital of the colony, and obliged to seek safety on 
board a British man-of-war. Collecting some ships and a 
considcra])le force of men, partly slaves and indented ser- 
vants to whom he promised freedom, he burned Norfolk 
(Jan., 1770), Avhich w.-is the largest and richest town in Vir- 
ginia, and made descents upon various parts of the coasts. 

7. In North Carolina there was some sharp fighting be- 
tween the Tory settlers, who were principally Scotch, and 
the patriot militia, in which the Tories were worsted. In 

What happened to Ethan Allen ? 4. Give an account of Arnold's 
march. 5. How large was Montgomery's army ? Describe the attack. 
What was the result ? 6. What is said of Dunmore ? Why was Nor- 
folk burned ? 7. Wliat took phicc in North Carolina ? Tlic result ? 

Commissioners to C'axada. 105 

— ^ — 
South Carolina the gallant defence of Charleston (June, 
1770), where a British fleet nnder Sir Peter Parker, aided 
by a large land force under General Clinton, was beaten otf 
with great loss by a small body of men on Sullivan's Island, 
commanded by Colonel Moultrie, filled the colonists with 

8. Operations on the Coasts. — While tlie c()h)nies were 
one after another deposing the royal governors, organiz- 
ing a temporary administration of civil affairs, and raising 
troops, the British vessels of war hung upon the coasts 
and attacked various seaport towns. The provincials 
themselves, however, fitted out cruisers, some by order 
of Congress, others by separate colonies, and by capturing 
British supply-ships they obtained stores, of which they 
were in great* need. Their most serious want was in pow- 
der, of which they were almost destitute. 

9. Commissioners to Canada. — In protesting against tlie 
Quebec Statute of 1744 (see page 153) Congress expressed 
" astonishment that a Britisli Parliament sliould ever con- 
sent to establish " in Canada the freedom of the Catholic 
religion ; nevertheless, the provincials hoped that Canada 
might be pei'suaded to join in the revolt against the British 
crown, and in the spring of 1776, while Arnold was still in 
camp before Quebec, delegates were sent to ]\Iontrcal to pro- 
pose co-operatiou, or at least secure Canadian neutrality. 
The persons chosen for this mission were Benjamin Frank- 
lin ; Charles Carroll of CarroUton, the distinguished Catho- 
lic patriot who signed the Declaration of Independence as 
representative of Maryland ; Samuel Chase, likewise of 
Maryland ; and Father John Carroll, a cousin of Charles. 

10. Father Carroll. — John Carroll was born at Uiiper 

What occurved at Charleston ? 8. To wliat were the seaport towns 
exposed ? What was done by tlic provincials ? 9. Did Conf^ress an- 
prove the Quebec Statute ? Why were commissioucrs sent to Canadu ? 


History of the United States. 

Miirlborongli, Maryland, in 1735, studied with the Jesu- 
its, first in Marvhmd and afterwards in France, became 
a member of tlie Society, and spent several years in 
priestly duties in Europe. After the supj)ression of the 

Society of Jesus Jie 
retired first to Eng- 
land, and in 1744 re- 
turned to America to 
devote himself to the 
mission in Maryland. 
Here his sympathies 
were engaged from 
the first with the pojj- 
ular side. The Cath- 
olics of Maryland were 
amongst the stanchest 
supporters of colonial 
liberty, and they were 
represented in the 
Continental Congress 
by two of their most 
eminent men — Daniel 
Carroll, the elder brother of Father John, and Charles 
Carroll, his cousin.* 

11. The commissioners left New York April 2, 1776, 
and only reached Montreal on the 20th. Franklin endea- 

Archbishop Caeroll. 

* In 1789 the epis^copal sec of Baltimore was erected, and Father Carroll be- 
came the flrft bishop in the United States. Ilis appointment had been recom- 
mended to the Holy See by Franklin, who retained a strong regard for him. In 
1808 Bishoj) Carroll was promoted to the dignity of archbishop, New York, 
Philadelphia, Boston, and Bardstown being established as suffragan sees. He died 
ill 1815. 

10. Give H bi-ief iU'cdunt of Father John Carroll. Why did he 
retiu-n to Maryland ? Which side did he join ? What is said of the 
Catholics of Maryland ? How were they represented in Congress ? 


4* — 

vorccl to convince the Canadians of the political advanta- 
sres of a connection Avitli the thirteen colonies, and Father 
Carroll used his influence Avith the clergy ; but the British 
Government had caused the protests of the colonists against 
the freedom of the Catholic religion to be translated into 
French and circulated amongst the Canadians. This, with 
other causes, defeated the efforts of the commissioners, and 
after a fortnight they returned to New York. 

12. WasMngtoii at Boston. — The army which Washing- 
ton found encamped before Boston was ragged, disorderly, 
insubordinate, and ill-equipped. Many of the soldiers were 
dissatisfied ; they had volunteered only for a short time, and 
were now anxious to go home. With the exception of 
three well-drilled Rhode Island regiments commanded by 
General Nathanael Greene, most of the men mistook dis- 
obedience for independence. The stock of powder was 
so low that each soldier had only nine cartridges, and for 
two weeks the troops were in such a destitute condition 
that if the British had attacked them they must have 
been cut to pieces. 

13. By extraordinary exertions Washington renewed the 
supplies, and, with the aid of Putnam, Greene, Gates, and 
other generals, brought the army into discipline, strength- 
ened the entrenchments, and filled up the thinned ranks. 

14. Observing preparations in the British fleet to em- 
bark troops, he rightly conjectured that Howe meditated 
the seizure of New York. General Lee was accordingly 
despatched in haste to raise volunteers in Connecticut 
and occupy the city — a task which ho performed so well 

11. When (lid the coiimiissioners start ? What did Franklin at- 
tempt ? With whom did Father Carroll use his influence ? What de- 
feated their efforts ? 12. In what condition was the American army en- 
camped before Boston ? Whose rejjiments were well drilled ? How much 
powder luvd Washington ? 13. What did Washington succeed in doing ? 



that when the British expedition under Sir Henry Clin- 
ton arrived in New York harbor, Lee was ready to re- 
ceive it. Chnton tlien sailed to the South and joined Sir 
Peter Parker in the attack on Charleston. (See page l(i5.) 

15. Evacuation of Boston. — On the morning of the 5tli 
of March, 1770, the Britisli in Boston were astonished 
to discover that Washington had occupied Dorchester 
Heights during the night, and thrown up a scries of re- 
doubts Avhich commanded the town and fleet, and made 
it necessary to evacuate Boston if the Americans could 
not be dislodged. Howe planned an attack upon the 
heights, ])ut it was prevented l)y a storm, and on the 17th 
he em])arked with his whole army and Avent to Halifax, 
taking Avitli him fifteen hundred of the Tory inhabitants. 
This l)loodless and important victory for tlie i)atriots was 
received with loud rejoicings, and Congress voted a re- 
solution of thanks to Washington, and ordered a gold 
medal to be struck in his honor. 

16. Putting Boston in a state of defence, Washington 
now hastened to New York, where he Avas certain that 
the next blow Avould be struck, and Lee was ordered to 
command the troops in the South. The commander-in- 
chief reached Ncav York on the 13th of April. Fortifica- 
tions Avliich Lee had begun Avere hastily completed. Greene 
was placed in command of a division on Long Island. 
Measures Avere taken to disarm the Tory inhabitants ; and 
the royal governor, Tryon, Avho had been driven to seek 
refuge on "hSard a man-of-war in the loAver bay, Avas pre- 
vented from holding any communication Avith his parti- 
sans on shore. 

14. Who was sent to protect New York ? 15. What position was fortified 
by Washington ? What advantage Avas thus obtained ? What were the 
British obliged to do ? How was tliis important victory received ? 16. 
Describe Washhigton's next movement ? What Avas done to protect 
the city ? What measures wore taken against the Tories ? 

Independence Puofosed, 109 

— * — 


The Declaration ov Lvdependence. 

1. The Project of Separation. — Even after the war liad 
fairly begun l!ie colonics still looked forward to a reconci- 
liation with the mother-country, ancl the first proj)osals for 
a sei)aration were received with general disapproval. In 
authorizing the seizure of all British vessels, and sending 
Silas Deane to France to ask assistance from the French 
king, the Continental Congress had indeed assumed the 
functions of an indei)endent government. A flag had also 
been adopted, showing thirteen stripes of white and red 
(but not yet the stars in the bhie field), and on the 1st of 
January, 1770, this emblem of nationality Avas disi)laycd 
in AVashington's camp at Cambridge. The Assembly of 
Pennsylvania, however, instructed its delegates in Con- 
gress to oppose " any proposition that might lead to a 
separation from our mother-country." New Jersey did 
the same. The Maryland delegates were instructed to do 
nothing without the previous sanction of their Assembly. 

2. The conflict of arms was not long in giving an im- 
pulse to a bolder policy. General instructions extending 
to the question of independence, without using the word, 
were given to the delegates by Massachusetts in January, 
1776, by South Carolina in March, by Georgia in April. 
North Carolina was the first to command its representa- 
tives in Congress to concur in a declaration of independence 
(April 13). Massachusetts and Rhode Island a few days 
later made their provincial legislatures independent of the 
royal authority in name as they had already become in effect. 

1. What functions had Congress assumed ? IIow were delegates 
from these colonies instructed ? 2. To what did the conflict of arms 
lead ? What colonies issued instructions pointing to indopondence ? 

170 History of the United States. 

— * — 

3. On the lOtli of May John Adams carried through 

Congress a resohition re([uesting each of the United Colo- 
nies to establish a government for itself, and five days later 
a preamble to this resolution was adopted, declaring that 
all authority under the crown ought to be suppressed, " and 
all the powers of government exerted under the authority of 
the people of the colonies." This important decision led 
necessarily to complete independence. 

4. On the same day (May 15) the Virginia delegates Avere 
instructed by their Convention to bring forward in Congress 
a declaration of independence, and this determination was 
communicated by a circular letter to the other colonies. 
Two weeks later at the annual election in Massachusetts 
the voters declared themselves unanimously in favor of in- 

5. On the 7th of June Richard Henry Lee, of Virginia, 
in obedience to the instructions of the Convention of his 
province, moved in the Congress at Philadelphia '' that 
the United Colonies are, and ought to be, free and inde- 
pendent States, and that their political connection with 
Great Britain is, and ought to be, dissolved." John Adams 
earnestly supported the resolution. Others opposed it, not 
because they did not Avisli for independence, but because 
they thought the time had not yet come. It was earnestly 
debated in secret ; seven colonies were in favor of it, and the 
delegates from the other six either against it or else Avithout 
authority to vote. 

6. To give time for consultation with the people the 
matter was then postponed till the 1st of July ; but mean- 
while a committee was appointed, consisting of Thomas 
Jefferson of Virginia, John Adams of Massachusetts, Ben- 

3. What resolution was passed by Congress ? What preamble was 
adopted ? 4. How were the Virginia dologatos instructed ? 5. What 
occurred in Congress on June 7 ? 6. Why was the matter postponed ?^ 

Debate on Independence. 171 

— * — 

Jtimin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Eoger Sherman of Con- 
necticut, and Kobert E. Livingston of New York, to pre- 
pare a formal declaration of independence. Another com- 
mittee was to draw up a scheme of confederation, and 
a Board of War was created with John Adams at its 

7. Declaration of Independence. — The *' resolution re- 
specting independency " was considered in committee of 
the whole on the appointed day. During the postpone- 
ment the spirit of the patriots had everywhere declared 
itself. Several of the Assemblies had issued new instruc- 
tions to their delegates. Maryland had been induced, by 
the strenuous exertions of Carroll and Chase, to consent 
to the declaration. The proprietary government of Penn- 
sylvania had been quietly overthrown, and a popular As- 
sembly ruled in its place. 

8. Business opened in Congress on the 1st of July wnth 
the reading of letters from Washington at New York. Op- 
posed to him was an army of 30,000 British veterans, and 
to meet them he had only 7,700 men, many of whom were 
not armed. A fleet of fifty-tliree British ships had been 
reported off Charleston, and the safety of that port was 
in great doubt. Before the debate closed further advices 
from NcAV York announced the arrival there of a powerful 
expedition under Howe. Part of the American force, 
moreover, was disaffected ; the Tories in New York gave 
great uneasiness ; and a plot had been discovered to seize 
Washington and deliver him to the British. 

9. While the military situation was thus discouraging, 
the spirits of Congress Avere revived by a letter from Mary- 
land announcing that the Convention had declared unani- 

What committees were appointed ? 7. How did postponement 
benefit Lee's resohition ? 8. What was the condition of aflairs on 
July 1 ? 9. How were the spirits of Congress revived V 

173 History of the United States. 

— 4. — 

mously for independence. The Virginia resolution was 
then taken up. For a few minutes perfect silence pre- 
vailed ; every delegate seemed to be oppressed by a sense 
of grave responsibility. In the absence of Lee all eyes 
were turned towards Jolm Adams. He had not prepared 
himself to speak, but without premeditation he delivered 
an impetuous and powerful address in support of the 

10. At the end of the discussion nine of the colonies 
voted to sustain the resolution; South Carolina was una- 
nimously opposed to it ; Delaware and Pennsylvania were 
divided ; New York had called a popular convention to 
consider the question, and, as it had not yet met, the dele- 
gates in Congress had no authority to vote. 

11. The matter having thus been decided in committee, 
the final vote was taken by the House on the 2d of July, 
when twelve colonies resolved "that these United Colo- 
nies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent 
States ; that they are absolved from all allegiance to tlie 
British crown, and that all political connection between 
them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, 
totally dissolved." There was no opposition. New York 
was still unable to vote, but the delegates of that pro- 
vince were in favor of the resolution ; and when the new 
convention met a week later at White Plains, the Declara- 
tion was ratified unanimously. 

12. The discussions in the Congress at Philadelphia 
were held in private. A large crowd waited in tlie streets 
to learn tlie results of the momentous deliberation. In 
the steeple of the State House was a -bell, imported from 
London twenty-three years previously, and by a strange 

"Who supported the resolution ? 10. ITow many colonies voted to 
sustain it ? Which opposed it ? ITow did the other colonies stand ? 
11. W'lion was the final vote taken ? Repeat the resolution. 

The Declaration. 
— 4- — 


coincidence it bore the following text inscribed on the 

metal : " Proclaim liberty throughout the land unto all 

the inhabitants thereof." The old bell-ringer stood at his 

post all day, ready to announce 

the Declaration by a joyous peal, 

and his boy was stationed below 

to give him the signal as soon as 

the resolution was adopted. As 

the time went on the story is that 

the old man shook his head and 

repeated : '' They will never do 

it ! they will never do it ! " At 

last the boy appeared, clapping 

his hands and shouting, " Ring ! 

ring ! " Then the bell *' proclaimed liberty," and the whole 

city was filled with rejoicing. The Liberty Bell is still 

preserved at Independence Hall in the old State House 

of Philadelphia, the same room in which the Declaration 

was adopted. 

13. It now remained for the delegates to set forth the 
reasons of the separation in the formal Declaration of 
Independence. This famous document, written by Jeffer- 
son, had been submitted to Congress on the 28tli of June, 
and after a few changes was agreed to on the evening of 
the 4th of July, twelve of the colonies — or, as they 
should now be called, indejiendent States — approving it, 
and New York not voting. It was then signed by John 
Hancock, President of the Continental Congress, and im- 
mediately published. The other delegates waited until 
it had been carefully engrossed on parchment, and did 
not sign until August 2. 

13. Were the meetings of Congress public ? Give an account of the 
riiiijin? of the Liberty Boll. 13. What, still remained to be done by the 
delegates ? Who wi-ote the Declaration ? When was it adopted ? 

174 History of the United States. 

— 4- — 

14. "When Joliii Hancock wrote liis name in a large, 
bold, and bcantifnl hand, he said: "There, John Bull 
can read that without spectacles." Franklin remarked : 
" Well, gentlemen, we must hang together now, or we are 
likely to hang separately." As Charles Carroll affixed his 

signature, one of the mem- 
bers, knowing that he was 
very rich, said : " There go 
a few millions. However, 
there are many Carrolls, 
and the British will not 
knoAV which one it is." Mr. 
CjuToll thereupon, in order 
that there might be no 
mistake, added to his name 
" of Carrollton," and he 
was ever afterward known 
by that title.* 

15. The Declaration 
was celebrated by the peo- 
ple with demonstrations of joy. Washington caused it to 
be read to his soldiers in Kew York on the 9th of July. 
On the same evening the excited inhabitants pulled down 
a leaden statue of George III. on horseback Avhich stood 
on the Bowling Green, and it was melted into bullets for 
the use of the patriot army. 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

* This illustrious Catholic patriot survived all the other signers of the Declaration 
of Independence, and died in 1832, universally respected. In his last days he uttered 
these words : " I have lived to my ninety -sixth year ; I have enjoyed continued health; 
I have been blessed with great wealth, prosperity, and most of the good things which 
the world can bestow — public approbation, esteem, apjilause ; but what I now look 
back on with greatest satisfaction to myself is that I have practised the duties of 
my religion." 

14. What remark was matle by Hancock when he wrote his name ? 
By Franklin? Why diil Cliarlcs Oarroll add "of Carrollton"? 15. 
How was the Declaration celebrated ? When was it read to the army ? 


Attack ox New York. 175 

— 4- — 


Battle c^ Long Island — Capture of New York — Battle of 
White Plains. 

1. The British Attack New York.— The British Gov- 
erumeiit, during the progress of these events, had de- 
chired the colonists to be rebels, autliorizcd the destruc- 
tion of tlieir property at sea, and prepared powerful ilcets 
and armies to reduce them to submission. Besides send- 
ing a large numhei- of British troops to America, the 
crown hired 17,0U0 soldiers in Germany to assist in sup- 
pressing the revolt. As most of these foreign troops were 
obtained from the Prince of Hesse Cassel, they were all 
called by the general name of Hessians. They were espe- 
cially hateful to the Americans. 

2. The first ()i)erations were intended to secure the 
line of the Hudson Piiver, and thus cut off New Eng- 
land from the other States. AVliile Sir Guy Carleton led 
an expedition from Canada against the Americans on 
Lake Champlain, a formidable land and naval force was 
directed against the city of Xew Yoi-k. It Avas un- 
der General Sir William Howe and his brother. Admi- 
ral Lord Howe, who had been appointed to the chief 
command, (he one of the fleets, the other of the 
armies, in America. 

3. On the day of the adoption of the resolution of 
independence (July 2) General Howe, having sailed from 
Halifax "with the late garrison of Boston and some oilier 
troops, landed on Staten Island in Few York harbor ; ten 
days later Lord Howe arrived from England with larire 

1. Wliat llii' Biitisli Goviriimciit done in the meantime ? How 
many ::■,^i(lior.s were liired ia (J(>niiaiiy ? 3. Wluit was the ol)j(ict of the 
first operations ? 3. When did Howe land on Staten Ishmd ? 

176 History of the United States. 

— + — 
reinforcements ; and Sir Henry Clinton, after his defeat 
at Charleston, soon joined them. 

4. The Howes had been apj^ointed commissioners to 
receive the submission of any of the rebels who might 
throw themselves on the king's mercy. They sent on 
sliore hy a flag of truce a circular letter offering a pardon 
to all who would submit. Congress 'ordered it to be j)ub- 
lished to show the people that no redress was to be ex- 
pected from the crown, and '' that the valor alone of 
their country could save its liberties." 

5. Battle of Long Island.— On the 22d of August, 1776, 
10,000 of the British, led by Sir Henry Clinton, land- 
ed on the southwest end of Long Island, at Graves- 
end Bay, with the intention of seizing Brooklyn Heights, 
from which commanding jiosition the city of New York 
would be at their mercy. The ai)proaches to the heights 
from the rear had been fortified by General Greene, but 
he was attacked by a raging fever just before the battle, 
and the command on Long Island devolved first upon 
General Sullivan and afterwards upon Putnam, Avliom 
Washington sent over from New York with reinforce- 
ments as soon as the plan of the British became clear. 
The absence of Greene, who was familiar with all the 
roads and passes, was a great misfortune. 

6. Driving back the American advance posts, Howe 
brouglit over his main army, and prepared to attack the 
American position in three columns. One, under Gene- 
ral Grant, was to march along the shore of Gowanus Bay ; 
another, composed of Hessians, was to assail the centre ; while 
Clinton, making a long night march, gained a pass in the 
hills beyoiul the American left, and took the lines in the rear. 

4. What powers were conferred on the Howes ? What offer was 
made by them ? 5. What itiovcmont was mado liy tlio Brilisli ? llow 
were Brooklyn Heights defended ? C. Describe the phm of al^iu-k. 

^ ^lii PLAINS 

Battle of Lo.xa Island. 177 

— 4,— 

7. Tlie jithick begun early in tlie iiiornino- of August 
27. Clinton's manoeuvre, executed with great secrecy, 
gave the day to the British. Sullivuu was caught l)e- 
tweeu two fires, and made prisoner Avith a large i)art of 
his army. Stirling was also eaj)- 
tured. At night, after a despe- 
rate engagement, the Americans 
ha<l lost five luuulred in killed 
and wounded, besides eleven 
hundred prisoners, who were soon 
suffering great hardships and 
cruelties in the prisons of New 
York and the prison-ships moor- 
ed in the harljor.* 

8. Howe now Avaited for his 
fleet to come up in order to com- 
plete the capture of Brooklyn 
and of the army defending it. 
But before light on the morning 
of the 29th, aided by a thick fog, 
Washington caused the whole 
force to be ferried across the East 
River to New York. Howe did 
not discover the retreat until 
the last boat was Ijcyond musket-shot. 

9. Evacuation of New York. — Tt was impossible to hold 
Ni'W ^'ork. bt'cause il could be shelled from I'rooklvn 
Heights, and attacked on both sides by the Ibitish licet, 
and Washington accordingly determined to withdraw lo 

Was<uington» Uetueat. 

* During the Rfvolutionary war about 11,000 inisom-rs died in those .-liips, 
wliich hjy near the piCHt-nt site of the Brooklyn Navy Yard. 

7. What is said of Clinton's mana?uvrc ? What was the result of 
till' iMipipMuent ? Sfatc the loss on cMc-h side. 8. What movement 
(lid Wasiungton iH rlorm ■/ 9. Why was Nov Yo;k evacuated ? 

178 History of the United States. 

the ridge of liills iit the north end of the island, known 
as Harlem Heights. The movement was made just in 
time : General Howe began to cross the East River while 
the Americans Averc on the march (September 15). A de- 
tacliment ordered to oppose tlieir landing (at what is 
now the foot of Thirty-fourth Street), so that the main 
body might make good its escape, fell back in a panic, 
and Washington, while trying to rally the fugitives, nar- 
rowly escaped capture. New York remained in the handa 
of the Britisli till the end of the war. 

10. The condition of the patriots was now dei)lor- 
able. The army, greatly reduced by losses in hattle, waa 
still further weakened by desertions and insubordinatio^i. 
Thousands of the disheartened soldiers went home. In 
a few days the Connecticut militia dwindled down from 
six thousand to two thousand. Fortifying himself, lunv- 
ever, on Harlem Heights, Washington succeeded in partly 
establishing discipline, and opposed so bold a front to the 
enemy's line that Howe did not venture to attack him 

11. At the same time Washington addressed a strwig 
letter to the President of Congress, setting forth the 
total inefficiency of the existing system of enlisting mi- 
litia-men for short terms, and insisting upon the formation 
of a iiermanent military force. In consequence of these 
representations the army was at length reorganized. 

12. Nathan Hale. — As it w^as very im])ortant for the 
Americans to ol»tain correct information of tlie force and 
])Osition of the British troops on Long Island, a y<.ung 
captain in a Connecticut regiment, named Nathan Hale, 
volunteered on that dangerous service. He entered the 

What occurred chuing the withdrawal of the troops ? 10. What did 
Washington succeed in doing ? 11. Give the substance of Ids letter 
to Congress. The consequence. 13. Give an account of Nathan Hale. 

Battle of White Plains. 179 

— 4. — 

camp at Brooklyn, learned all the necessary facts, and 

was about to return when lie was arrested and hanged 

tlic next morning as a spy. 

13. After a delay of a month Howe undertook to at- 
tack Washington in the rear. While a part of the British 
fleet sailed up the Hudson, easily breaking through a line 
of obstructions which Putnam had placed in the river, a 
strong body of troops landed at Throg's Neck, where the 
East Eiver opens into Long Island Sound, and attempted 
to advance in the direction of Fordham. 

14. Unable to drive in the American outj)osts at this 
place, they made a landing further east. Washington, 
lioAvever, was prepared for them. He withdrew his force 
across the Harlem Eiver at King's Bridge, and entrenched 
himself on Fordham Heights, facing the British advance. 
A scries of mananivres occupied the next two weeks, dur- 
ing which the sui)erior generalship of Washington ballled 
{■^11 the movements of Howe's fine army. Skirmishes from 
time to time resulted to tlu' advantage of the Americans 
and greatly encouraged the raw and disheartened troops. 

15. Battle of "White Plains.— On the 28th of October a 
l)attlo took place at White Plains, in which, after severe 
fighting, the British carried one of the American positions. 
They then rested for the night. During the darkness 
Washington built throe redoubts of corn-stalks, piled with 
llie roots outward; the lumi)s of earth clinging to them, 
just as they had been pulled from the ground, made them 
look like solid fortifications. Deceived by the apparent 
strength of these works, Howe was afraid to attack them 
in tlie morniug, and while he was waiting for reinforce- 
ments Washington fortified a much stronger i)osition on 

13. What was ITowe's next iiiovonipnt ? 14. What was clone by 
Washinyion ? What was the result uf liis inaiioeuvres ? 15. WJiat 
took place at White Plains ? Where did Washington fortify himself ? 

180 History of the United States. 

— * — 
the heights of Northcastle, five miles distant, and removed 
thither his baggage, stores, guns, and men. Howe waited 
a few days and then retired to King's Bridge. 

16. The whole of this campaign, although it was a vic- 
tory for the British, showed the military genius of Wash- 
ington in a most striking light. With a small, untrained, 
ragged, hungry, half-armed, and dissatisfied body of men, 
more like a rabljle than an army, he had kept at bay a 
formidable arn\y of veterans led by skilful and experienced 
officers. Unable to resist Koweis sui)erior numbers, he 
had, nevertheless, brought off his army and stores by a 
series of retreats which deserve to be celebrated as war- 
like achievements. 


Battle on Lake Champlain — WAsniNciTox in the Jerseys — Battle 
OK Trentox — Battle of Piuncetox. 

1. Affairs on the Hudson. — Notwithsttmdiiig the cap- 
ture of New York, General Howe was not able to carry 
out his plan of seizing the line of the Hudson Eiver. As 
a part of the scheme. Sir Guy Carleton undertook to sail 
up Lake Cham])lain and Lake George from Canada (there 
were no roads in that region), and tlicn to mai'cli tlii'ough 
the wilderness to Albany, whence he could descend the 
river to co-operate witli Howe. 

2. Vessels f(n" his use were brought from England in 
pieces and put together on the outlet of Lake Champlain. 
To meet him the Americans under Benedict Arnold col- 

Whorc (lid Howe retire ? 16. What diil this campaign show ? In 
what (lid Wasliington siu'('(hm1 ? 1. WeiT tlio Brilisli able to seize the line 
of the Hudson ? What did Carleton attempt ? 2. Who opposed hhn ? 


Battle on Lakk Champlain, 181 

— +— 
Iccted a small llotilla. and on October 11, 177G, a battle 
was fought on tlie lake, in which the Americans, being 
outnumbered two to one, lost more than half their vessels, 
barely escaping with the rest to Ticonderoga. They dis- 
])layed great courage and ability, however, in the action, 
and Carleton, though he occujjied Crown Point for a short 
time, did not venture to attack Ticonderoga. CJeneral 
(Jates, in the meantime, who commanded in the nortliern 
department, strengthened the American position, and the 
British abandoned the enterprise for the season. 

3. Washington, after the battle of White Plains, made 
haste to secure the lower part of the river by fortifying 
the passes of the Highlands from West Point to Poekskill, 
where the Hudson ilows tlirough the gateway of the 
mountains. A part of his army crossed into Jersey l)y 
defiles among these hills, and the whole force was held ready 
to move swiftly as soon as Howe's plans were disclosed. 

4. Fort Washington, on the ui)per end of Manhattan 
Island, was still held by an American garrison commanded 
by Colonel Magaw. Howe captured it by assault Novem- 
ber IG, after a gallant defence, and took nearly three tliou- 
sand prisoners. Then he sent Lord Cornwallis with a 
strong corps to cross the river to Fort Lee, Washington 
retreating hurriedly before his advance. 

5. Campaign in the Jerseys. — 1'hc two armies crossed 
New Jersey in hot haste, Washington manceuvring so as 
to defeat the British design of cutting him oft' from Phila- 
deli)hia. The armies were often in sight of each other, 
and the American rearguard sometimes had to destroy the 
bridges while the British were actually within musket-shot. 

Wh(M-o was a battle foujxht ? What was the result of tiie British 
inoveineiit ? 3. What passes did Washinjjton secure ? What disijosiliou 
did he make of his army ? 4. Describe the capture of Fort Wash- 
ington, ij, I)escribe the campaign in northern Jersey, 

182 History of the Untted States. 

— ^— 

6. Wasliingtou luid not more tluiu four tliousand men, 
and this little force was fast dwindling away. General 
Charles Lee with a division was near Northcastle, and, 
though he was repeatedly ordered to join the commander- 
in-chief with all haste in the Jerseys, he hesitated and de- 
layed until near the end of the year. On the march he 
carelessly separated himself from his army and Avas made 
prisoner by the enemy. This event caused great re- 
joicing in one camp and consternation in the other, as 
Lee was considered the ablest of the American generals. 
It has lately been discovered that while detained as a 
prisoner of war Lee was concerned in a plot to betray his 

7. The patriots were in great alarm during these move- 
ments. The Convention of New York travelled from place 
to place on horseback, and sometimes, it is said, held meet- 
ings in the saddle. The legislatures of New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania adjourned and left those States almost with- 
out a gov(?i'nment. Congress, fearing for its safety in 
Philadeljihia, removed to Baltimore. Apathy and disorder 
prevailed among the troops and disaffection among the 
citizens, and a great number of prominent persons, believ- 
ing that the cause of independence Avas lost, hastened to 
make tlieir peace Avith the British authorities. 

8. Battle of Trenton. — Early in December Wasliington 
had fallen back into Pennsylvania, crossing the DehiAvare 
at Trenton and securing all the boats. Here the pursuit 
stopped, the British going into Avinter quarters on the Jer- 
sey side of the river. Strengthened by the arrival of Lee's 
division, noAV under the command of Sullivan, Washington 
determined to strike a sudden bloAV that might at least 

6. Give an account of the capture of Lee. 7. How did the cam- 
paign in the .Jerseys aflfcct (ho patriots ? What step was taken by many 
prominent persons ? 8. Wliere did the retreat and pursuit end ? 

Trenton and Princeton. 183 

— + — 

revive the courage of the people ; courage was especially 

needed just then, because the term of enlistment of many 
of his troops was about to expire. lie resolved to fall 
upon a detachment of one thousand five hundred Hessians 
at Trenton, and he chose Christmas night for the attack. 

9. With two thousand four hundred men Washington 
crossed the Delaware in boats nine miles above Trenton. 
The river was full of floating ice, snow was falling, and the 
passage, made with great difficulty, took all night. The 
troops marched in two columns, led by Greene and Sullivan, 
and reached Trenton about eight o'clock on the morning 
of December 26. The Hessians were completely surprised 
and routed. Their commander. Colonel Rahl, was killed ; 
and Washington returned to camp Avith one thousand 

10. This brilliant exploit had a great effect upon the 
people. The soldiers who were about to return home con- 
sented to serve six weeks longer ; Congress, which had 
exliibited great firmness under the most trying circum- 
stances, pilt forth fresh efforts to sti-engthen the army ; 
and Washington, invested for six months with the au- 
thority of a dictator, crossed the Delaware again and oc- 
cupied Trenton. 

11. Battle of Princeton.— The British had fallen back 
from the river and concentrated at Princeton, and Lord 
Cornwallis, who had returned to New York on his way 
home to England, was hastily sent to take the command 
again while General Howe was bringing up reinforcements. 
On the 2d of January, 1777, Cornwallis marched to Trenton, 
and, resting for the night in sight of the American lines, 
made })reparations to attack the next morning. His army 

How did Washington seek to revive the courage of the people ? 9. 
Describe the battle of Trenton, 10. What was the effect on the peo- 
ple ? On Congress ? 11. Describe the movements of Cornwallis, 

184 J/iSToji'i OF THE UyiTJ-jj) Statj^s. 

— +— 

wus mucli the larger of tlie two; a sh-oug force at Prince- 
ton was ready to join liini ; and the jjosition oi "Washino-ton 
was full of danger. 

12. But Avhile Oornwallis slei)t Washington quietly 
ahandoned his canij), niarclu'd around his enemy, and at 
sunrise (January 3) fell uj)ou the British reserves at 
Princeton just as they were starting to take part in the 
exi)ected battle at Trenton. Some of the American mili- 
tia, disheartened Ity tlu> fall of their leader, the gallant 
General Mercer, were ])ut to tlight early in the action ; 
but Washington, mounted on a white horse, dashed into 
tlie thickest of the tight and turned the fortune of the 
day. Those of the British who escaped from the held 
hastened towards Trenton to join Cornwallis. 

13. This olticer lost no time in bringing n]) the main 
body of the Jiritish, and the Americans, exhausted by 
fighting and long marches and the want of food and 
sleep, were in no condition to jneet him. 'They retired, 
consequently, towards Morristown. Posting them in safe 
positions between that place and the Highlands of the 
Hudson, Washington spent the rest of the winter in sud- 
den and daring exploits wdiich, without risking a gene- 
ral engagement, kept the enemy in constant distress and 
compelled him to abandon every ]Kist in New Jersey ex- 
cept !New Brunswick and Perth Amhoy. Thus, with a 
few ragged regiments, which Alexander Ilaniilton called 
"^the phantom of a military force,"' "Washington l)rought; 
to a brilliant close a campaign which oiit>ned in disaster. 
Congress now returned to l^hil;ulel])hia. 

What is said of Wasliiii^toirs position ? 13. How <li(l lie extricate 
liimself ? Wtiat occurred at Priiiceloii ? 18. Wliere did the Ame- 
ricans establish themselves ? Ilow diil Wasliini^lou spend tlie. winter ? 

Aid from Fha.we. 
— 4— 



Campaign of 1777 — Invitations to Forkkjn Offickrs— Affairs on 
LoNu Island Sound — Battle of the Bkandvwine — (.'ai'tlre of 
Philadelphia— Battle of Germantown. 

1. Preparations for a New Campaign.— While W'usli- 
iiio-ton wjis busy in tliu reorgunizutiou of his shattered 
army Congress applied itself industriously to the raising 
of money and purchase of supplies. Funds had hitlierto 
been obtained by the issue of a paper currency, which de- 
clined rapidly in value as 
the amount of the issues 
increased. To sustain the 
credit of these bills Con- 
gress resorted to the expe- 
dient of declaring all per- 
sons who refused to take 
thcni "enemies of the. 
United States.'' 

2. Franklin, Deane, and 
Arthur Lee were appointed 
regular diplomatic commis- 
sioners to the court of 
France. They were infor- 
mally but kindly received 
there, and obtained aid in money, as well as valuable sup- 
plies by indirect means from the royal arsenals, although 
the French Government was not Avilling as yet to recognize 
the United States as an independent nation. 

3. Foreign Officers. — Commissions Avere offered to French 

Benjamin Franklin. 

1. How had Congress obtained funds to carrj' on the war ? In what 
way dill Congress attenipt to sustain the credit of these l)ills ? 2. Who 
were upi)ointed commissioners to France ? IIow were tliey received ? 

18G History of tuk United States. 

— 4. — 

and other foreign officers wlio wished to serve in the Ame- 
rican armies, and a hirge number of ambitious sokliers 
conscfpiently embarked. Washington was embarrassed l)y 
the arrival of so many, not all of them men of merit, 
and the American officers Avere displeased to find strangers 
suddenly placed over them. 

4. Among the foreigners, however, who thus gave their 
services to the American cause Avere several distinguished 
men : Kosciuszko and Pulaski, the famous Polish patriots ; 

Baron Steuben, an accom- 
plished and experienced 
Prussian soldier ; Baron de 
Kalb, an Alsatian ; and the 
French Marquis de Lafay- 
ette, Avho, at the age of 
nineteen, purchased a ship 
Avith his OAvn means, and, 
in spite of the prohibition 
of his Government, sailed 
for America to offer his 
sAvord, Avithout pay, to the 
cause of independence. 
These generals rendered the 
most A'aluable aid to the 
struggling nation, and their 
names are spoken Avith gratitude l)y all Americans. 

5. Naval Operations. — Congress ordered thirteen frigates 
and several other vessels of Avar to be fitted out, and, al- 
though there Avas not money enough at present to build 
so many, the organization of a naAy Avas begun, and priva- 
teers were despatched to cruise against British merchant- 

3. To whom were commissions offered ? 4. Name the distinguished 
foreigners who offered their services. What is said of Lafayette ? 5. 
What provisions Avere made by Congress for the organization of a navy ? 


Capture of Daxburv. 187 

— + — 

men. In the first year of this naval warfare about tliree 
hundred and fifty British vessels were captured, with car- 
goes valued at $5,000,000. The privateers disposed of 
many of their prizes in French ports, 

6. Military Expeditions on Long Island Sound. — The 
campaign of 1777 opened with small detached cxi)edition!^, 
the most important of which Avas one against ])anbiiry, 
Connecticut, where the Americans had a large quantity 
of stores. Tryon, the royalist ex-governor of Kew York, 
landed near Nor walk, on Long Island Sound, with two 
thousand men, marched to Danbury, destroyed the maga- 
zines, and set fire to the town (April 2G). On his retreat 
he was tlu'ce times attacked by a militia force hastily 
assembled under Generals "Wooster and Arnold, but he 
reached his ships witli a loss of about two hundred men. 
Wooster, a brave, honest, and valual)le old officer, was 
mortally wounded. 

7. The Americans had their revenge the next month 
when Colonel Meigs with two hundred Connecticut men 
crossed the Sound in wliale-boats, destroyed a quantity 
of British stores at Sag Harbor, on the eastern end of 
Long Island, burned eleven or twelve vessels, took ninety 
prisoners, and returned without the loss of a man. 

8. On the LSth of July a small party of Continentals 
landed by night near Newport and carried off General 
Prescott, the British commander at that post. This affair 
was considered a great triumph as an offset for the cap- 
ture of General Lee, for wliom Prescott was soon ex- 

9. Operations of General Howe. — Fncertain whether 
General Howe intended to attack Pliiladel])hia or to move 

What was accomplished by tlie privateers ? 6. Give an account of 
Tryon's expedition. 7. Describe the expedition against Sag Harbor. 
8. Give an account of the captiu-e of Gen. Prescott. 

188 History of the TJ sited States. 

— + — 
towards the Hudson and co-operate with a neAV expedition 
known to be fitting out in Canada, Washington remained 
on the watch in his winter quarters in Jersey. At length 
the Avhole British force crossed over to Staten Island 
(June 30), embarked on board the fleet, and sailed south- 

10. Washington hurried to Philadelphia l)y forced 
marches, and, in order to make an impression upon the 
disaffected inhabitants, paraded through that city Avith all 
l)ossible display. Howe, proceeding up Chesapeake Bay, 
landed eighteen thousand men at its head (the present 
site of Elkton, Maryland), sixty miles south of Philadel- 
phia. Both armies then advanced to meet each other. 

11. Battle of the Brandywine. — Reaching Brandywine 
Creek, al)out half way between tlie place of landing and 
Philadel})hia, Howe found Washington prepared to give 
battle, though with hardly eleven thousand effective men. 
The Hessians under Knyphausen attacked the American 
front at Chadd's Ford, while Cornwallis crossed the stream 
further u]) and attempted to gain the American rear 
(September 11). 

12. The attack at the ford was gallantly resisted by 
General AVayne, while Sullivan, who commanded on the 
American right, marched with three divisions to intercept 
Cornwallis. He was l)eaten, however, and driven back in 
confusion, and Wayne was then compelled to abandon the 
ford, GrQpne bringing up the reserve to cover the retreat. 
The Americans retired first to Chester and then through 
Philadelphia to GcrmantoAvn, having lost about twelve 
hundred men, or twice as many as the British. For his 
bravery in this battle Count Pulaski was nuxde a briga- 

9. Why did Washin^Hoii iciiiiiiii in his winter quarters until June ? 
Where did the British force go ? 10. Wlicro did Howe land ? 
11. WJiere did Washington nuilic a stand ? 13. Describe tlie battle. 

liATTLK OF a I'UiM xyjOWX. 189 

dier general. Lafayette, wlio was wounded, dis^tinguishod 
himself so highly that he was soon after appointed to tiie 
command of a division. 

13. After some days occupied in skirmishes and man- 
u^uvres AVashington Avas ol)liged to fall back behind the 
Schuylkill, about thirty miles from Philadelphia, and 
General Howe took possession of the city on the ;i(ith 
of September, Congress having in the meantime re- 
moved first to Lancaster and afterward to York. The 
main body of the British was stationed at Germantown, 
then a small village about six miles from Philadelphia, 
but now included within the limits of the city. 

14. Battle of Germantown. — Here General Howe was 
suddenly attacked by Washington at sunrise on the 4th of 
October, and his men were driven in disorder. Just when 
victory seemed secure, however, the American line, hav- 
ing to advance in a dense fog across ground Avhich was 
broken by a great many strong stone enclosures, became 
confused in the darkness ; the officers could not see th.eir 
own position or that of the enemy; and the British took 
advantage of the accident to rally and repel the attack. 
The Americans lost one thousand men in this affair, and 
their adversary lost about six hundred. 

16. "Washington still held Fort Mifflin, on an island 
in the Delaware Eiver a few miles below Philadelphia, 
and Fort Mercer, on the eastern bank, nearly opposite 
the other work, and thus he prevented the British fleet 
from bringing up supplies to Howe's army. On the 
22d of October Count Donop, Avith twelve hundred Hes- 
sians, attacked Fort ]\Iercer, while the fleet opened fire 
upon Fort ^lifflin. The combined assaults were gallantly 

13. Wliat was Washington compelled to do ? When did Howe take 
Phila(U'lj>liia ? Whore was tho British army stat ioncd ? 14. Doscrilu' the 
battle of Gormantown. 1.5, Wliat forts wore still hold by Washington ? 

190 History of the United States. 

repelled, Donop and four hundred of his men being killed 
and two of the ships destroyed. Land batteries were now 
erected, and, after Fort Mercer had been almost entirely 
destroyed by a bombardment lasting several days, both 
posts were evacuated, and the British became masters of 
the river. Howe thereupon stationed his army behind a 
line of fortifications extending from the Delaware to the 
Schuylkill, and Washington went into winter quarters at 
Valley Forge, on the Schuylkill, about twenty miles above 


Burgoyne's Invasion — Battle of Bennington — Surrender of 

1. Burgoyne's Invasion. — While the Americans were 
thus unfortunate in the middle department a brilliant 
success in the north revived their drooping spirits and 
had a very important effect upon the fortunes of the war. 
The British still adhered to the project of an invasion 
from Canada to seize the whole line of the Hudson Piver, 
and a powerful expedition was fitted out for that i)urpose 
and. placed under the command of General Burgoyne. 

2. The plan of campaign was arranged by Burgoyne 
himself after a personal interview with the king. He had 
nearly eight thousand men, of whom four hundred were 
Indians, two hundred and fifty Canadians and Tories, 
and the rest discii)lined English and German regulars, 
'^riiere were forty-two pieces of artillery. 

Describe the first attack. Why were the posts evacuated ? Where 
wore the ariiiies stationed for tlic winter ? 1. What was going on in 
New York in the meantime ? 2. How large was Burgoyne's army ? 

jBuegoyne's AnvA.ycB. 191 

— ^ — 

3. The American army in Northern New York was 
under General Schuyler, who had only a handful of un- 
disciplined militia-men, many of them unarmed, and all 
short of food and ammunition. The main body, twenty- 
five hundred strong, was at Ticonderoga, commanded by 
General St. Clair. 

4. Burgoyne began his advance by Lake Ohamplain in 
June, ITTT, just as Sir William Howe left New Jersey for 
his attack upon Philadeli)hia, and on the 2d of July he 
appeared with his ])rilliant and tinely-equipi)ed army be- 
fore Ticonderoga. The post was overlooked by a steep 
hill called Mount Defiance, and on the 5th the British 
appeared on the summit with a battery of artillery which, 
by great effort, they had hoisted up from tree to tree. 

6. Evacuation of Ticonderoga. — The American position 
was no longer tenable, and St. Clair hastily sent off his 
cannon and stores by boat to Skenesborough (now White- 
hall), at the upper end of Lake Cliamjilain, and led the 
garrison to the same point by a road recently cut by the 
soldiers. Burgoyne followed the boats, captured two at 
Skenesborough and compelled the Americans to destroy 
the others, and at the same time the light division of his 
army pursued St. Clair. 

6. The American rearguard was beaten at Hubbardton 
on the 7th of July, after a sharp action, in which 
the losses of the two sides were al)out equal. St. Clair 
made his way to Fort Edward, on the Hudson, and tliere 
the remnant of his force, with a few Continentals and a 
brigade which AVashington had detached from Putnam's 
command in the Highlands, was concentrated under the 
personal direction of Schuyler. 

4. When did Burgoyne appear before Ticonderoga ? 5. Why did St. 
Chiir retreat ? What occurred at Skenesborovigli ? 6. AtTInbbardton ? 
Where ditl Uie Americans concentrate V Describe Scliuyler's army. 

192 History of riii-: Umted States. 

— -h — 

7. 8c]uiyler''s tirniy all told did nut amount to more 

than forty-live hundred destitute men, and the enemy, 
flushed with victory, was only twenty-six miles distant. 
Schuyler obstructed the road through the Avilderness by 
felling- trees across it and destroying the bridges, and 
he did his work so thoroughly tiuit Burgoyne Avas twenty- 
four days in reaching the Hudson. In the meantime the 
Americans had fallen back first to Saratoga and then to 
Stilhvatei', near the mouth of the Mohawk. 

8. While the British were on the march a party of In- 
dians who, in accordance with the recommendation of the 
king, had been attached to the exiDedition, made a raid 
upon a house near Fort Edward, murdered several persons, 
and carried off a young lady named Jenny McCrea, who 
was engaged to be married to a loyalist officer of Bur- 
goyne's army. Quarrelling over their jn-ize, they killed 
her and carried her scalp into the British camp. General 
Burgoyne spared no pains to show his horror of the deed 
of his savage allies ; but the tragedy caused a great ex- 
citement among the ])eo])le and increased the animosity 
against the British. 

9. St. Leger's Expedition. ^While Burgoyne Avas forcing 
a road towards the Hudson, exi)editions were im})rudcntly 
detached from his main body on both sides. One under 
Colonel St. Leger, composed of regulars, Tories, Canadians, 
and Indians, marched into the valley of the Mohawk, and 
on August 3 laid siege to Fort Schuyler (now Rome), an 
imi)oi'tant post, on Avhat was then the extreme western 
frontier of the New York settlements. It was occupied by 
two regiments of Americans under ('olonel (iansevoort. 

10. General Herkimer, advancing Avith a body of New 

7. How lar^e was Schuyler's army ? How was Burgoyne's progress 
retarded ? To where did the Aiiierieaiis retreat ? 8. Rehite the story 
of Jenny McCrea. 9. What was the object of St. Leger's expedition ? 

F.MLi'tn'. OF jSr. Lkokh. 
— + — 


York militia to tlio relief of tlie garrison, fell into an am- 
biish at Oris'kany, near tho fort (August G), and was mor- 
tally wounded, and numy of his men were killed. The 
garrison, by a successful sally, rescued the survivors. A 
nunil)er of the prisoners taken by St. Leger in this affair 
Avere massacred by the Indians. 

11. A few (lays later Arnold api)roaehe(l with three 

Map of New York. 

regiments sent by Schuyler. The British did not wait 
for his arrival, but. abandoning their tents and most of 
their stoi'es and baggage, retired hastily to Oswego and 
thence crossed into Canada. The effect of this disastrous 
failure was the desertion of many of Burgoyne's Indian 

10. What happened to Gen. lIcrkiiiuT? How were the survivors 
rescued ? 11. Who was sent to Ihc Jissistaiue of tho garrison ? What 
was the result ? Ilow did St. Tjeger's failure atlt'tt Burgoyne ? 

194 History of the United States. 

— + — 

12. Battle of Bennington. — Still more unfortunate were 
Burgoyne's undertakings on his left flank. He had sent 
a mixed force under Col. Baum, including eight hundred 
Britisli and German regulars, to seize a quantity of stores 
collected by the Americans at Bennington, Vermont. Six 
miles from the town Baum was confronted by a body of 
New Hampshire militia commanded by Col. Stark. Botli 
parties threw up entrenchments and sent back for reeu- 
forcements. On August 16 Stark nuide an attack in four 
columns, and after an engagement of two hours put the 
British force to rout. 

13. On the same day Col. Breyman arrived with a 
fresh body of British, but fortunately Col. Seth Warner 
came up also with help for Stark. The battle was renewed 
and lasted till night, when Breyman retreated in confusion, 
leaving his guns and baggage. The British lost in the 
two actions about two lumdred killed, six hundred prison- 
ers, one thousand muskets, and four cannon. The Ameri- 
can loss was only fourteen killed and forty-two Avounded. 

14. Burgoyne's Advance. — These defeats, together with 
the i)rudent defensive tactics of Gen. Schuyler, proved tlie 
ruin of Burgoyne's enterprise. He could not retreat, how- 
ever, because the militia had begun to collect in his rear. 
Pushing on to Saratoga, he fortified a camp there. His 
desperate situation Avas not understood by Congress or the 
people. Schuyler's careful campaign was severely criti- 
cised, and Just as he Avas about to secure the final victory 
Congress removed him from tlie command, and appointed 
Gen. Horatio Gates in liis place. Schuyler obeyed grace- 
fully and Avelcomed his successor with cordiality. 

15. Gates fortified himself on Bemis's Heights, near 

12. Describe the battle of Bennington. 13. How was each side re- 
enforeed ? What was the res^ult ? 14. Wliat ruined Burg()yiU''s enter- 
prise ? Why was a change made in the xVnierican commanders 'i 


— 4" — 

Burgoyne's lines, Kosciuszko acting us liis engineer. Wliile 
awaiting tlie British attack, he sent a detachment nnder 
Gen. Lincoln to harass the enemy's flank and rear. On 
the lOtli of September Bnrgoyne attacked the American 
position at Bcmis's Heights, and a severe battle took place, 
in which the held was lost and won over and over again in 
tlie course of the day. IS'ight put an end to the indeci- 
.sive conflict. The British lost GOO men and the Ameri- 
cans 300. 

16. On the eve of the battle Stark arrived in camp 
with the victors from Bennington. They were militia-men 
whose term of service expired that day, and in spite of all 
efforts to detain them they marched off home again the 
very morning of the battle. The American generals were 
often exposed to similar troubles with the militia. Not- 
Avithstanding these desertions, however, the army of 
Gates began to increase, and the battle of Bemis's Heights 
being announced as a great victory, i)roved an encourage- 
ment to recruiting. Burgoyne, on the other hand, was 
daily in greater distress, and his only hope was in the suc- 
cess of an expedition Avhich Howe had sent up the Hud- 
son to force tlie passes of the Highlands. 

17. Capture of the Highlands. — That force, commanded 
by Sir Henry Clinton, captured Forts Clinton and Mont- 
gomery (October C), compelled the evacuation of other 
forts, ravaged the country, and burned Kingston. But 
tlieir help came too late. The news of their advance 
reached Gates, but was kept from Burgoyne. 

18. Surrender of Burgoyne. — On the 7th of October a 
severo engagement was fought at Saratoga, when the Ame- 
ricans not only obtained an important advantage in jiosi- 

15. Where did Gates fortify himself ? What occurred on Sept. 19 ? 
16. What i.s said of Stark's party V What was the condition of affairs 
in each army ? 17, What expedition was led by Sir Ileniy Clinton '{ 


tion but captuved what they greatly needed, a full supjily 
of ammunition. 

19. During the night Burgoyne fell back to the high 
grounds in the rear, but Gates, too wary to attack him 
there, sent a detachment to threaten the enemy's retreat. 
At last, his provisions being nearly exhausted and his 
army hemmed in, Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga on 
the 17th of October, giving up 5,800 men and 27 pieces of 
artillery. Gates granted honorable terms to the British, 
the more readily as he was anxious to hasten the surrender 
before Burgoyne heard of the capture of the Highlands 
and the advance of Sir Henry Clinton. 

20. Clinton, on being informed of the capitulation of 
Burgoyne, dismantled the forts he luid taken on the Hud- 
son, and returned in haste to Kew York. Tlie cai)ture of 
a wdiole British army and the failure of the invasion which 
had excited so much alarm, filled the people with exulta- 
tion. The battles of Saratoga also had an important effect 
in proving to the Americans that their marksmen were able 
to withstand the British bayonet. 


Opkkations of 1778— Allianck with Fkax(.e— Battle of Monmouth— 
3iassacre of wvoming. 

1. The Dark Winter. — In sjjite of the encouragement 
])lncked from tlie Saratoga campaign, the cause of the 
l»atriots looked dark and the winter of 1777-78 was the 
most trying time of the war. Washington's army at Valley 

18. What occun-ed at Saratoga ? 19. Describe the manoeuvres of 

each general. Why <lid Bm-goyne snrrender ? 20. What was the effect 
of the capitulation ? 1. What js said of the winter of 1777-78 ? 

7'he French Alliance. 107 

— + — ' 
Forffc Wiis in great misery. Tlie men ^vel•u wit lion t shoes, 
iuul the snow was stained Avith the marks of their bleeding 
feet. They had few bhmkets, and they only kejjt them- 
selves from freezing by sitting all night aronnd the canij) 
fires. There Avas no money to ])ay them. The bills issued 
l)y Congress had become so depreciated as to be nearly 
worthless. Food was so scarce that Washington was au- 
thorized to seize provisions wherever he could find them. 

2. The Conway Cabal. — During tliis timu of trouble a 
plot was formed l)y Generals Conway and Mifflin, aided 
by a few members of Congress, to force Washington from 
his command and put Lee or Gates in his i)]ace. The 
scheme, known in history as '* the Conway Cabal," Avas 
brought to light ; AVashington became more ])opular than 
ever, and ConAvay Avrote a liumble apolog}'. 

3. Brighter Prospects. — In the spring the condition of 
affairs improved. Kelief Avas afforded to the treasury by 
the patriotism of Robert Morris, a rich merchant of Phila- 
delphia, Avho raised large sums of money for the goA'ernmcnt 
on his personal credit, and continued to serAc the country 
in this Avay till the end of the Avar. The British Parlia- 
ment, alarmed by the surrender of Burgoyne, made an 
attempt at reconciliation by renouncing all intention to 
levy taxes in America, and appointing five commissioners 
to negotiate for the restoration of the royal authority. 
The war had already cost Great Britain '?0.()()0 luen ami 
^100,000,000; and American cruisers, infesting even the 
British Avaters, had cai)turcd over 500 English vessels. 

4. Alliance with France. — But the nu)st imjjortant 
result of the capture of Burgoyne was the conclusion of a 
formal alliance Avith France. That country had favored 

Describe the suffering at Valley Forge ? 2. Givr iiii atcnmil of (lie 
Conway Cabal. 3. How did HohiTt ^[orris a!<sist Congress 'i Wliat 
was (lone by Parliament ? What iiail the war co(?t Cireat Britain ? 


the insurgent C(/loni.sts from the first. On the Gth of 
February, 1778, two treaties Avere signed Avith the Amer- 
ican commissioners in Paris, one of commerce and friend- 
ship, the other of defensive alliance in case Great Britain 
should declare war against France. No peace was to be 
made until the independence of America was secured. 
Tlie influence of Franklin, who was a great favorite at 
the French court, was of the highest service to his coun- 
try in these negotiations. A French frigate was immedi- 
ately sent across the ocean with the treaties, and Con- 
gress promptly ratified them amid the general rejoicings. 

5. The terms offered by the British commissioners, who 
arrived soon afterward, were at once rejected, the Ameri- 
cans refusing to negotiate except on the basis of the recog- 
nition of their independence. Tlie proceedings of the com- 
missioners, moreover, rather increased tlie general bitterness 
against the mother country. 

6. Johnstone, one of their numl)er, was compelled to re- 
sign his appointment, having been exposed in an attempt to 
l)ribc Joseph Eeed, the President of Pennsylvania. '* I am 
not worth purchasing," said Peed, '' but such as I am tlio 
king of England is not rich enough to buy me.'' In a maui- 
festo to the people, the British agents tried to excite the 
bigotry of the Protestant clergy against an alliance with 
French '•'papists," and threatened, if the rebels did not 
submit within forty days, to make ihe desolation of the 
country the leading object of the Avar. Congress caused 
this violent proclamation to be Avidely published as a 
means of encouraging the patriots in their determination 
to be free. In consequence of tlie language used against 

4. What was the most iniiioitant rossult of the capture of Bnr^oyne ? 
Wliat treaties were coneliuled witii France ? 5. Why were the terms 
offered by the British coinmissioiiers rejected ? (>. What is said of 
Johnstone ? What did tlic British asrents try to excite ? 

Battle of Monmovtm. 199 

—4- — 

the French, Lafayette sent a challenge to one of the com- 
missioners, the Earl of Carlisle, l)ut that nol)leman de- 
clined it. 

7. A i)r()))osal to acknowledge the independence of the 
colonies was made ahout this time in the British Parlia- 
ment, and it was wliile i)rotesting in the House of Lords 
against any such '• dismemljerment of the British Empire" 
that Lord Chatham fell in an apoplectic fit, dying shortly 

8. Aid from France. — The French government fitted 
out a licet of sixteen large vessels under Count d'Estaing 
{des-tang') to aid the Americans, and despatched it to the 
Delaware. This obliged the British to evacuate Phihidel- 
l)liia. Lord Howe sailed at once Avith the English fleet 
for NcAV York, and 8ir Henry Clinton, who had succeeded 
General Howe in the chief command of the land forces, 
crossed the ]3elaware to march for the same i)lace. 

9. Battle of Monmouth. — Washington instantly left Val- 
ley Forge, and pursued the Tctreating British with about 
twelve thousand men. He came up with them at Mon- 
mouth Court House, Nev,^ Jersey, after a rapid march of 
several days in the most intense heat, and there on the 
28th of June a hard battle Avas fought. 

10. The attack Avas begun by (!eneral Cliarles Lee's di- 
vision. Avliich was easily l)eaten and lied in disoixler. AVasli- 
ington succeeded in arresting the panic, addi'essing to Lee 
on the spot a very severe reprimand, and a general engage- 
ment followed, broken off at night without decisive result. 
Under cover of the darkness Clinton stole away and reached 
the protection of the fleet at Sandy Hook. 

11. The American loss in the l»attle Avas about 'ZOO and 

7. What proposal was made in Parliament ? 8. Wliat aid was sent 
to the Americans V The consequence ? 9. What occurred at Mon- 
mouth ? 10. Who beran the attack ? What was the result ? 

SOO History of tiii': Uxited States. 

the British loss 300 ; Init tlie retreat luul cost Clinton in 
killed, wounded, and missing nearly 2,000. For his conduct 
at Monmouth Lee was arrested and tried by court-martial ; 
he was acquitted of the most serious charges, but found 
guilty of disrespectful behavior to the commander-in-chief 
and suspended for a year. This was the end of his career 
in the army. He Avas soon afterwards dismissetl for writing 
an insolent letter to Congress. 

12. With a view to an attack ui)on New York, in con- 
junction with the French fleet, Washington crossed the 
Hudson and encami)ed at White Plains. This plan, how- 
e\er, was given up, and the American army passed the 
winter in a line of cantonments extending from Danbury 
in Connecticut, across the Hudson at West Point, to Eliza- 
beth town, in New Jersey. 

13. Operations of D'Estaing. — Lord Howe's fleet anchor- 
ed in Raritan Bay, where the water was too shallow for the 
French ships (which were much larger than the English) to 
follow. A movement was then planned against Newport. 

14. General Sullivan marched to Rhode Lsland in August 
with a consideral)le force of militia, and the French fleet ap- 
])eared in Narragiinset Bay, closely followed by Lord Howe, 
who had been rc-enforccd. Botli admirals prepared for 
action, but a storm of extraordinary severity dis})ersed the 
fleets, and D'Estaing, much to the disgust of Sullivan, 
abandoned the cnteri)rise and went to l^oston for rei)airs. 
Sullivan was now obliged to retreat, after gallantly repuls- 
ing an attack by the British garrison. 

15. Massacre of Wyoming. — In July. 1778, a large 
bod}' of Tories and Seneca Indians, commanded by Colonel 
John Butler, made a raid into the \Vyo)niiig valley, on llie 

11. Ilow was Lt'c piiiiislicd ? VI. Why did Wiisliiiiii-tun cross the 
Hudson V Where did the iirmy pass t lie winter ? 13. Where did Loid 
Howe anchor his fleet 'i 14. Describe the niovenient against Newport. 



Susquehanna opposite the present town of Wilkesbarre 
{wil/cs-barri/) in Pennsylvania.' A settlement called West- 
moreland had been made here some years before by emi- 
grants from Connecticut and elsewhere, and it now had 
2,000 or 3,000 inhabitants, a large proportion of whom, 
however, were absent in AVashington's army. Colonel But- 
ler defeated the small body of soldiers which attempted to 
oppose him (July 3), and comjjelled the rest of the people 
who had taken refuge in Fort AYyoming to surrender, on 
promise of security to life and pro})erty. Butler, however, 
Avas uuahle to control his savage allies. They massacred 
about 400 prisoners and civilians, burned the houses, and 
destroyed the croi)s ; and the survivors, mostly women and 
children, fled to the mountains, where many of them perished. 

16. The cruel policy of 
arming the Indians against 
the Avhite settlers produced 
deplorable consequences. In 
October a regiment of Con- 
tinental troops destroyed 
the settlement of XJnadilla, 
on the upper Susquehanna 
in New York, where a num- 
ber of Indians and Tory 
refugees iiad fixed them- 
selves ; aud in November 
the Indians and Tories re- 
venged themselves by sur- 
prising the neigliboring 

Cherry Valley, and repeating the tragedy of Wyoming. 
The red men, under the famous MohaAvk chief Brant, and 

15. Who made a raid into Wyoming Valley ? How large was the 
settlement ? Give an account of the massiicre. IG. What settlement 
was destroyed by the Continental troops 7 Who led tlie red men ? 


the loyalists under Jolm Johnson, a son of Sir William 
(see p. 128), for a long time spread terror throngh central 
New York. The frontier towns in the south were harassed 
in the same way. 


The War in the South— Minor Operations in the North and 
East— Capture of Stony Point— Indian Hostilities — The 
Navy — John Paul Jones, 

1. The War transferred to the South. — At tlie besinninff 
of the year 1779 Washington resolved to make tlie next 
campaign a defensive one. His army had been reorgan- 
ized and strengthened. Greene, one of his favorite officers, 
had taken charge of the quartermaster's department. 
Baron Steuben, replacing Conway as inspector-general, had 
greatly improved the discipline of tlic forces. Kosciuszko 
had undertaken the fortification of the Higlilands and 
other engineering duties. The whole number of soldiers, 
however, in all the patriot armies, was only 10,000, and 
with so small a force it Avas impossible to attack the Bri- 
tish either at New York or Newport. 

2. The British, on their part, despairing of the subju- 
gation of the Northern and Middle colonies, resolved to 
strike a blow at the South. At the close of 1778, Sir 
Henry Clinton sent an expedition by water from New 
York to invade Georgia. The troops, commanded by 
Colonel Campbell, landed on the Savannah River a few 

Who led the loyalists ? 1. What kind of campaign did Washington 
resolve to make in 1779 ? What rliangos hud been made in the gene- 
rals ? 2. What expedition was sent out by Clinton ? 

Attack o.v Charleston. 203 

— 4" — 

miles below the city of that name, and Avon an easy victory 
over the small American garrison wliicli nnder Colonel 
Kobert Howe attempted to oppose them (December 29, 

3. The Britisli Heneral Prevost marched from Florida, 
took Sunl)nry in Oeorgia (January 1), 1779), and, assuming 
command at Savannah, sent Colonel Campbell against Au- 
gusta, which surrendered. Tlie whole slate tlien submit- 
ted to the invaders, and the Tory inhabitants, organized 
under the command of Colonel Boyd, became very trouble- 
some on the South Carolina frontier. A band of them on 
the march to join the British Avere defeated at Kettle 
Creek by Colonel Pickens, and five Avere hanged for 

4. General Lincoln had noAV taken command of the 
American trooi)s at the Soutli and had begun tbe formation 
of an army on the Carolina side of the Savannah liiver above 
Savannah. A detachment of his forces under General 
Ashe compelled Campbell to cAacuatc Augusta, but Avhile 
pursuing the retreating British, Ashe Avas signally defeated 
by General Prevost, lAIarch 3, 1779, at Brier Creek, a little 
stream Avhicli enters the Savannah Eiver betAveen Augusta 
and Savannah. Prevost then crossed the river to invade 
South Carolina. 

5. Attack on Charleston. — On the lltli of May Prevost 
reached Charleston. The city Avas prepared for defence, 
and before an assault could be attempted Lincoln ai'rived 
by forced marches, and the British fell back toAvards Sa- 
vannah by the way of th3 Sea Islands on the coast, Avhere 
a part of their force remained for some time under protec- 
tion of a redoubt. Lincoln atteniitted to drive tliem off. 

Where did the British win u vietoiy V 3. By whom Avas Sunbury 
taken ? What was the result of these successes ? Wliat occurred at 
Kettle Creek ? 4. What took place at Brier Creek ? 

204 History of the United States. 

— + — 
but was defeated at Stono Fen-y, Jiiue 20. Operations 
were tlien suspended in consequence of the hot and sickly 

6. In September, Count d'Estaing, who liad been cruis- 
ing in the AVest Indies since tlie failure of the atteni])t 
upt)n Newport, arrived on the Georgia coast with his fleet, 
and agreed to undertake with General Lincoln the capture 
of Savannah. Troo])S and guns Averc hinded, and after a 
siege of a fortnight an assault was made upon the British 
works by the French and Americans together (October 9). 
At the end of five hours'" hard fighting, in the course of 
which the gallant Pulaski was mortally Avounded, a truce 
was arranged for the jjurpose of burying the dead. The 
French refused to resume the attack, and returned to the 
West Indies, whereu])on Lincoln was obliged to retire to 
Charleston. This brought the southern campaign of 1779 
to an end. 

7. The Spanish governor of Xew Orleans, aided by 
American volunteers, had meanwhile driven the British 
out of Baton Eouge and Mobile, and ca])tured a British 
fort near Natchez. 

8. Raids on the Coast. — On the other hand, Sir Henry 
Clinton lost no ojjportunity of harassing the ])eople by 
sudden raids. An cxijcditioa despatched by him from New 
York did great damage on the James and Elizabeth Rivers, 
A^irginia, destroying shipping and other i)roperty and car- 
rying away 3,000 hogsheads of tobacco. 

9. General Tryon was sent to ravage the coasts of Long 
Island Souiul, and in the curse of this excursion (March, 
1779) he attacked and scattered a small outpost of Put- 
nam's near Greenwich. Putnam escaped with a bullet 

5. Whore was Lincoln dcfoatcd ? 6. By whom m'hs Savannah be- 
sieged ? Give an account of tlic assault. 7. Wliat liad taken phioe in 
the f?outhwesf ? 8. Wliat expedition was sent out by Clinton ? 

Capture of Stony "Point. 205 

through his hat, hy riding on liorseback down a stec]) de- 
divity wliere a long- fliglit of steps had been cut in the 
bank. Collecting liis men, he then liung ni)on tlie rear 
of the British, reca])tured some of their plunder, and took 
fifty prisoners, whom he treated so kindly that tlie British 
commander wrote him a letter of thanks. 

10. Disaster in Maine, — A Britisli force from Nova Sco- 
tia had established a post on Penobscot Bay, and in the 
summer the State of ]\[assachusetts sent an expedition, con- 
sisting of fifteen hundred militia under General Lovel and 
nineteen armed vessels under a Connecticut sea-captain 
named Saltonstall, to break it up. The affair was misman- 
aged and resulted in complete disaster ; the ships were all 
lost ; the soldiers who escaped from the British took to the 
woods and wandered nearly one hundred miles before they 
reached any habitations ; and Saltonstall was tried by court- 
martial and cashiered. 

11. Events on the Hudson. — Washington had ordered the 
construction of two forts, one at Stony Point on the west 
bank of the Hudson, the other at Verplanck's Point oppo- 
site ; these Avorks commanded the crossing at King's Ferry, 
just below the entrance to the Highlands. Sir Henry Clin- 
ton had captured Stony Point while the works were still un- 
finished, and Yerplanck's Point was obliged thereupon to 
surrender. Eegarding these i>().sts as very important to his 
army, "Washington sent General ^\'ayne (whose daring ex- 
jdoits won for him the name of "\Mad Anthony") to at- 
temi)t their recai)ture. The plan was Washington's in all 
its details. AVayne carried it out with splendid success, as- 
saulting the fort Avith two columns, about one o'clock in the 
morning (July 10, 1T79), killing sixty of the garrison and 

9. What was the object of Tryon's raid ? 10. What expedition was 
sent out from Massachusetts ? The result? 11. Where were two forts 
built by the Americans ? Who took thoin ? 

20G IIisTOiii" OF THE United States. 

— + — 
making all the rest prisoners. The Americans did not fire a 
o-un, but trusted entirely to the bayonet. This has been 
described as one of the most brilliant exploits of the war. 

12. Verplanck's Point was saved by Sir Henry Clinton, 
who came up the river in force, and Washington, not choos- 
ing to risk a general engagement, then caused Stony Point 
to be evacuated. The British held these posts, however, 
only a little while longer. Resolving to transfer all his 
available troops to the south, Clinton strengthened the 
fortifications of New York, and in October abandoned not 
only the forts below the Highlands but also Newport. 

13. The achievement of Wayne had an excellent effect 
upon the spirits of the people and the soldiers, besides re- 
sulting in the captni-e of a large amount of military stores, 
and putting a stop to the depredations of Tryon on Long 
Island Sound. A few weeks later there was another gallant 
affair at Paiilus Hook (Jersey City), opposite New York, 
where Major Henry Lee * surprised the garrison by night 
(August 18) and brought away one hundred and fifty-nine 

14. Hostilities with, the Indians. — Li the West the hos- 

* The Lees of Virginia played a remarkable part in the American Revolution. Five 
brothers won more or le^s fame, the best known being Iliehard Henry, wlio introduced 
the resolution of independence in the Continental Congress and was distinguished as 
an orator ; Francis Lightfoot, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence ; 
and Arthur, who was agent of the colonies in London, and diplomatic agent of tlu; 
United States successively in Paris, Madrid, and Berlin. Henry Lee, the hero of the 
exploit above mentioned, was a cousin of these distinguished brothers. He served with 
great credit through the war, commanding an independent corps, or legion, principally 
of cavalry, and was known ai? " Harry," or " Legion Harry." He was a 
favorite of Washington, to whom he applied the celebrated phrase, " First in war, first 
in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen." Robert E. Lee, the commander 
in chief of the Confederate armies during the Civil War, was his son. General Charles 
Lee was an Englishman by birth, and belonged to another family. 

Describe the recapture of Stony Point. 12. Who saved Verplanck's 
Point ? Why was Stony Point evacuated ? What places wore soon 
abandoned by Clinton ? 13, Describe the affair at Paulus Hook. 

The Na vv. 207 

— + — 

tility of tlio Indians, instigated by the British commander 
at Detroit, was in part counteracted by tlie daring opera- 
tions of a force of pioneers under Major Clarke, who cap- 
tured several of the liritish posts north of the Ohio. The 
Six Nations of New York were more formidable, and a 
considerable military force, including three brigades from 
Wasliington's army, was sent against them in the summer 
of 1779 under tlic command of Sullivan. 

15. Joined by Gen. James Clinton* with another brigade, 
Sullivan gave battle to a large body of Indians and Tories 
led by Brant, Johnson, and the Butlers, at Newtown, now 
Elmira (August 29), and routed them. Then he ravaged 
the Genesee valley, burned all the Indian villages, and de- 
stroyed the crops, his purpose being to lay "waste tho Avholo 
region in which the savages found shelter. 

16. Naval Affairs. — The activity of the little American 
navy had l^eeu seriously checked by the loss of several ves- 
sels, and the vigilance of the British cruisers had greatly di- 
minished the number of privateers. Gallant services, how- 
ever, had been performed by Admiral Esek Hopkins, Cap- 
tain Biddlo, Captain John Barry (an Irish Catholic), and 
other brave otRcers, and in 1779 an exploit by Captain 
John Paul Jones created the greatest enthusiasm both at 
home and abroad. 

17. John Paul Jones. — Tliis ofheer was a Scotchman 
by birtli. In 1778 he made a successful cruise in an eigh- 
tccn-gun vessel called the Rdmjcr, with which he took a 

* Tlicre were three generals named Clinton in the Rcvolntion. Sir Ilenry Clinton 
was tile British commander-in-chief ; Geor','e and .James Clinton, brothers, wire dis- 
tinguished officers on the American pide, and George became Governor of New York 
and Vice-President of the United States. De Witt Clinton, an eminent governor of 
New York, was the son of Gen. James Clinton. 

14. What service did Major Clarke perforin ? "Who wa.s sent against 
the Six Xations ? 15. By whom was he joined ? What did lie accom- 
plish ? 16. Name the naval olTicers who performed gallant services. 

208 JIisToiiY OF Tui'J TJmtkd States. 

— + — 
large number of prizes. He was then placed in command 

of a squadron of five vessels fitted out in France, his flag- 
slii]) being an old Indiamau altered to a nuui-of-war, ill- 
ec|nipp.ed and imperfectly armed ; she was named the Bon 
Homme Richard, in allusion to the '• Poor Kichard " of Dr. 
Franklin's almanac. 

18. With this squadron Jones sailed from L'Orient, 
France, for the North Sea, and in the course of a month 
cai)tured or destroyed twenty-six vessels and spread terror 
along the. eastern coast of England. On the 23d of Septem- 
ber, 1779, having two of his ships i\\ company, he encounter- 
ed off Flamborough Head, on the coast of Yorkshire, a fleet 
of English merchant vessels under convoy of two powerful 
men-of-war, the Sercqjis and the Countess of Scarhorough. 
Jones immediately gave chase, and came uj) with the Se- 
rapis soon after nightfall. One of the most terrible engage- 
ments on record now took jilace by moonlight, in full view 
of crowds of people Avho lined the shore. 

19. The ships lay touching each other, and Jones lashed 
them together for a furious hand-to-hand combat. After 
the Bon Homme Bicliard had been dreadfully injured by the 
bursting of two of her guns the commander of the Serapis 
called out to enquire if she had surrendered. *' I have not 
begun to fight yet," was the reply of the American captain. 

20. The l)attle lasted three hours, when the Serapis, a 
much finer and heavier ship than her antagonist, hauled 
down her flag. The Bon Homme liicluird was on fire in 
two places, and so badly injured that she sank a few liours 
later, all hands being transferred to the Serapii^. In the 
meantime the Countess of Scarhorough had surrendered to 
one of the other ships, but the third vessel of Jones's squad- 

17. Where was Jones's sqiiarlron fitted out ? 18. How many ves- 
pols were captured by this squadron ? What occurred off Flamborough 
Head 'i 19. What is said of the combat? 20. What was the result ? 

SlJiGJi OF Cjiauleston. 209 

— +— 

roil, a frigate commanded by a French officer named Lan- 
dais, gave no help in the victory. 

21. Cruiriing once on the coast of Scotland, Jones land- 
ed in the hope of carrying off the Earl of Selkirk, and com- 
pelling the Britisli Government to agree to an exchange 
of prisoners in order to release him. The earl, however, 
was absent from home, and tlie expedition only bronght 
away a quantity of silver plate. When this plate was sold 
as a prize, Jones became the pnrchaser and sent it to Lady 
Selkirk with his compliments. 

Cai'tikk ok Charlestok — Inglorious Campaign of Gates — ATRonxiES 


1. Siege of Charleston. — Sir Henry Clinton resolved to 
conduct the next eaiii])aign at the South in jierson. As 
soon as ilie defence of New York was sufficiently provided 
for he sailed Avith a fleet coiumaiided by Admiral Arbuth- 
iiot, and a land force of five thousand men, besides two 
thousand marines, and in February, 1780, disembarked on 
the islands below Charleston. 

2. General Lincoln was in Charleston with a small body 
of Continentals, which he inii)rndeiitly increased by calling 
111 all the troops lie could reach. Tlicre was really no hope 
of making a good defence, and the re-enforcements wliich 
he collected only iiKirched to certain captivity. "While the 
ships slowly ai)i)roiichcd the harbor tiie British army com- 

21. Give an account of the attempt to capture the Earl of Selkirk. 
1. Where did Clinton sail ? Whore did he land ? 2. "Who was in 
cominiuui of Charleston ? What mistake did Liiicohi make ? 



pletcd the investment on the land side, dispersing the 
American detachments wliicli endeavored to keep open tlie 
communications with tlie country. Colonel Tarletcm, com- 
mander of the British cavalry, greatly distinguished himself 
during these operations. On the l-tth of April he signally 
defeated fourteen hundred American cavalry at Monk's Cor- 
ner, thirty miles from Charleston. 

Map op tite Oarolinas. 

3. At length the siege-works were finished, and, when 
the city could resist no longer and escape was cut off, Lin- 
coln surrendered (May 12, 1780), the soldiers and male citi- 
zens — about six thousand in all — becoming prisoners of war. 
The town was jdundered, and the negroes were shi})ped to 
the West Indies to be sold. 

What did the British army succeed in doing ? What took place at 
Monk's C'oi-ncr ? 3. When was the city surrcndoi-od ? ITow many 
prisoners were taken ? What was done with tlie negroes ? 

CoRXWALLis IX Sorrir Cauol/xa. 211 

— -i- — 

4. South Carolina overrun. — Clinton now sent out cxi)c- 
ditions to scour the state. Ttirleton cunie ujjon a part of a 
Virginia regiment, and massacred in cold blood over a liun- 
dred who offered no resistance but sued for quarter. The 
inhabitants were treated with the utmost rigor, and all i)er- 
sons, even prisoners on parole, were required to aid in re- 
storing the royal authority on penalty of beiiig treated as 

5. Returning to NeAV York with a part of his army, 
Clinton left South Carolina in the hands of Lord Cornwal- 
lis, Avliose severity even surpassed his omii. The ])eo})lo 
Averc forcibly enrolled for military service under the hated 
British flag, and the conditions of the surrender of Charles- 
ton were violated in order to drive the prisoners into the 
ranks. These brutalities were far from securing the sub- 
mission of the state. Many of the soldiers thus pressed 
into the service of their enemies turned their arms against 
their ofScers, and many were driven to join the ])artisan 
bands of the interior, Avhich kei)t alive the Sj)irit of resis- 
tance under the British reign of terror. 

6. One of the i)artisan leaders was Sumter, whose forces, 
after gaining some successes, were almost annihihited by 
Tarleton near the Catawba River, August 18. Another 
was Marion, Avho kept the country between the Pedee and 
Santee in arms. Pickens and Clarke were commanders of 
corps in the western ])art of the state. 

7. General Gates in the South. — Before the surrendi'r of 
Lincoln, Washington had sent Baron de Kalb to the South 
with re-enforcements, but he did not arrive in time to save 
Charleston. More extensive operations were now resolved 
upon, and Congress })laced the southern department under 

4. Wliat did Clinton next attempt ? "Who were massacred l)j' Tarle- 
ton ? IIow were the inhabitants treated ? 5. Who was left in com- 
mand of the South ? G. Name the partisan leaders. 


— "f — 

the command of General Gates, although Washington would 
liave preferred to entrust it to Greene. 

8. Gates, Avhose military capacity was greatly overrated, 
collected about six thousand men, including the forces of 
De Kalb, and marched precipitately towards Camden, on the 
Wateree, in the interior of South Carolina. Cornwallis con- 
centrated a superior army and moved out to meet him. 
lie surprised Gates on the road at two o'clock in the morn- 
ing, August 16, about nine miles from Camden, and inflict- 
ed upon him a signal and disgraceful defeat. Gates had 
placed the worst of his new militia-men in front to bear 
the brunt of the charge ; they ran at the first onset and 
nearly two-thirds of the army scattered witliout firing a 
shot. The gallantry of De Kalb's Maryland and Dela- 
ware brigades could not save the day, although they in- 
flicted severe loss upon the enemy. De Kalb was mortally 
wounded. Gates fled to North Carolina, and left his fugi- 
tive soldiers to take care of themselves. Soon afterward he 
was removed from his command. 

9. The outrages of Cornwallis were now redoubled. 
Numbers of the patriots were imprisoned or hanged, and 
their property was confiscated ; houses were burned and 
women were beaten. The Cherokee Indians were encour- 
aged to take arms ; and bands of Tories, organized under 
Major Ferguson and others, committed great ravages. 
Tlie war at the South assumed a cruel and Ijrutal cha- 
racter from which it was generally free in the Northern 

10. In September Cornwallis marched into North Caro- 
lina, expecting to overrun that State with ease and then 
invade Virginia. A disaster, liowever, to Ferguson's par- 

8. What did Gates do ? Whore did Cornwallis meet him ? T)e- 
scril)c the battle, f). What was the character of the war at the South ? 
10. Where did Cornwallis next go ? 

WASUiXGToy ly N'E^v JEifSEV. 213 

—h — 
tisan corps compelled him to fall buck. On the Ttli of 
October Ferguson was surprised at King's Mountain, on 
the South Carolina frontier, In- a body of backwoodsmen 
and Virginia militia under Colonel Campbell, and his 
whole command was either killed or captured. Ferguson 
himself was among the killed. In revenge for the cruel- 
ties of the Tories several of the i)risoners Avero hanged on 
the spot. 

11. Partisan Warfare. — No sooner had Cornwallis re- 
treated into the northwestern part of South Carolina than 
the whole country seemed to rise in arms. Marion, Avho 
could boast that he never burned houses or distressed 
women and children, continually harassed the British 
soldiers, and defied pursuit by the rapidity and secrecy of 
his movements. Sumter appeared at the head of a con- 
siderable force, and defeated Tarleton, who was sent to 
crush him. 


Treason ok Bexedict Arnold — Execution ov Major Andre. 

1. Washington in New Jersey. — During the course of 
these events at the South the army of Washington, whose 
headquarters were at ]\Iorristown, Xow Jersey, was in great 
suffering. Provisions were scarce ; the nu'U had not been 
paid for five months ; the winter was imusually severe ; 
many of the soldiers, exhausted by their sufferings, were 
in open mutiny ; and, to make matters worse, there Avas 
an insensibility among the people and a negligence in 
Congress which filled Washington with despondency. 

What happened at King's Mountain ? 11. What followed the re- 
treat of Cornwallis ? '\iMio were the chief partisan leaders ? 1. How 
did "Washington fare in New Jersev V 

214 History of tup: Umted States. 

— + — 

2. Ill June, 1780, General Kuyplumsen, who com- 

nuinded at New York in Clinton's absence, sent a detach- 
ment of five thousand men into New Jersey, hoping to 
capture the heights of Morristown. He Avas met by Gene- 
ral Greene at Springfield, on the Rahway Eiver (June 23), 
and so energetically opposed that he abandoned the en- 

3. Treason of Arnold. — General Benedict Arnold, 
thouirh a brave and able soldier, was a vicious and treacli- 
erous man. He had involved himself in debt, fallen into 
disgrace by misconduct while in command of Philadeliihia, 
and been sentenced by a court-martial to a rei)rimand, 
Avhicli Washington delivered with all possible tenderness. 
Angry at Congress and embarrassed by his creditors, he 
entered into a secret correspondence with Sir Henry Clin- 
ton, and agreed to betray his country for a large sum of 
money and a commission in the British army. In order 
to carry out this infamous design he asked and obtained 
from Washington the comnumd of West Point. 

4. His plan Avas to surrender this important post to 
the British. The details were arranged through Major 
Andre, an accomplished young officer of Sir Henry Clin- 
ton's staff, and after the interchange of several letters it 
Avas agreed that Andre should meet Arnold by night 
near Haverstraw on the Hudson, Avhich w^as neutral 
ground between the English and American lines. Andre 
landed from the sloop-of-war Vulhirc, and the last partic- 
ulars of tlie treachery were settled at the i)romised inter- 
view. Tlie Vulture, however, was driven some distance 
down the river by the American batteries, and, unable to 
return to her, Andre w^as obliged to cross the Hudson and 

2. What did Knyphausen attempt ? Who opposed him ? 3. What 
was the character of General Arnold ? What was his plot ? 4. Through 
whom did he negotiate with the Britisli ? 

Capture of Major Andre. 
— 4, — 


attempt to reach New York l)y luiul, passing the Amerieau 
lines in disguise. 

5. Capture of Andre. — This rendered liini liable to be 
hanged as a si)y if he was caught. Arnold, however, had 
given him an order instructing the sentries to i)ass ''Mr. 
John Anderson " on public business. Xear Tarrytowu he 

Captuke of Major Andrk. 

was arrested by three patriot militia-men, Paulding, Van 
"Wart, and Williams, whom he at first mistook for Tory 
refugees. An incautious expression ai-oused their sus])i- 
cibns ; they refused to recognize Arnold's pass, and insist- 
ed uj)on searching their prisoner. In his boots they found 
a plan of West Point and other i)apers which disclosed 

How came Andre to enter the American lines ? 5. How was he 
captured ? What was found on his pei"son ? How did his captors 
behave ? 

316 ITtstory of the FiMted States. 

— + — 
the whole plot ; and, rejecting the large reward which he 
offered them for his liberty, they conducted him to the 
nearest American post, at Northcastle. 

6. The officer in command there, not susijccting Arnold, 
sent intelligence of the caj)ture to that officer at AV'est 
Point, and forwarded all the jjapers to Washington. Thus 
Arnold Avas warned and escaped to the Vulture before his 
crime was knoAvn. Washington, accompanied by Lafayette, 
arrived unexj^ectedly at West Point at the time Arnold was 
fleeing down the riA'er, and there he receiA'cd the despatches 
from Northcastle which told the shameful story. The 
fugitive was at once pursued, but it was too late. 

7. Execution of Andr^. — The greatest pity was felt for 
Andre, but under the laws of war there could be no hesita- 
tion as to his fate. He was tried by a board of fourteen 
generals, Avitli Greene at the head, condemned as a sjiy, and 
hanged at Tappan, near the Hudson, October 2. Each of 
his captors received from Congress a silver medal and a life 
pension of $200. 

8. Arnold received about 1^30,000 for his perfidy. He 
bore arms against his country with the rank of brigadier- 
general ; but he was desi)ised and insulted by the English 
to Avhom he had sold himself, and he died in London in 
obscurity. His young wife, whom he left at West Point, 
was treated with the greatest kindness by Washington, 
and Avith consideration by all the people. She wished 
to sei)arate from her unAvorthy husband and remain Avith 
her father in Philadelphia, but the executiA'e council 
suspected her of complicity in the ])lot, and she Avas 
forced against her Avill to join Arnold in Kew York. 

6. What mistake did the officer at Xorthcastle make ? How did 
Arnold escape ? 7. Wliat was tlio fate of Andre ? 8. What became 
of Arnold ? What is said of his wife ? 

Arrival of Uochambeau. 217 

— 4. — 


Arrival of Couxt Rociiambeau — Greenk's able Campaiox ix the 
South — The Cowpens— Guilford Court-IIouse — Eutaw Sprinus, 

1. More Aid from France. — Just at the time of Arnold's 
treiison the Aiuericuus were encouraged by the arrival of 
succor from France. Lafayette had spent the winter at the 
French court, Avlierc, aided by Queen Marie Antoinette, he 
pleaded the cause of the patriots Avith great ability and 
enthusiasm, and in the spring he had the satisfaction of 
returning to "Washington's cam]) Avith the news that an- 
other French fleet, commanded by Admiral de Ternay 
(D'Estaing had returned home), and an army under Count 
Rochambeau, would shortly sail for America. 

2. Rochambeau and De Ternay arrived at Newport in 
July, ITSO, Avith the first division of the troojjs (six thou- 
sand men) and a ])art of the fleet ; the rest Avere to follow 
very soon. They Avere to recognize Washington as com- 
mander-in-chief, and in order to avoid disi)utes the king 
sent the American general a high commission in the 
French service. The most cordial feeling prevailed be- 
tAveen the allies, and French officers Avho took part in 
this expedition have left interesting eulogies on Washing- 
ton and his principal associates. 

3. Admiral Arbuthnot, Avho noAV commanded the British 
fleet at Xcav York, had been re-enforced, and Avas able to 
blockade the French at Newport, while the second divi- 
sion of the auxiliary force Avas blockaded in the harbor of 
Brest, in France. For the present, therefore, the aid of 
Rochambeau Avas of no avail. 

1. What had Lafayette done ? What powerful friend had the Ame- 
ricans at tlie French court ? 2. Who arrived in 1780 ? What is said 
of the French ? How did the Britisli meet IIkmu ? 


4. Revolt of the Pennsylvania Line. — The troops iit 
Morristowii suffered a great deal during the next winter 
(1T80-81), and complained bitterly at not receiving tlieir 
])ay ; besides which there was a dispute as to the time for 
which they had been enlisted. On New Year's day, 1781, 
tlie men of the Pennsylvania line, thirteen hundred strong, 
marclied out of camp and started for Pliihideli)]iia Avitli 
arms in their hands to demand redress from Congress. 
General AYayne attempted to stop them, but they threat- 
ened to run liim througli with the bayonet. A captain 
was killed and several other officers were wounded. 

6. At Princeton the agents of Sir Henry Clinton urged 
them to desert to the British, but the soldiers, though 
tliey were mutineers, were not traitors ; they arrested tlie 
agents and delivered them to General AYayne as spies. A 
committee of Congress was sent to treat with the troops, 
and it was agreed to accept tlie understanding of the men 
as to their term of enlistment, to provide them with cloth- 
ing, and to make certain arrangements for their pay. A 
dangerous revolt Avas thus checked, but nearly all the 
Pennsylvanians obtained their discharge, and tlie effect of 
this successful mutiny upon the rest of the army was very 
bad. A rising of New Jersey regiments a few days later 
was })ut down by force, and two of the ringleaders were 

6. Congress, startled by these events, made fresh ex- 
ertions to rais6 money and supplies and improve the con- 
dition of AA^ashington's miserable little army ; but the 
efficiency of the soldiers was injured by the shortness 
of their term of service, and the finances were dread- 
fully embarrassed by the depreciation of the Continental 

4. What was the cause of ti-oiible with the Pennsylvania troops ? 
What did tlioy do ? 5. How did they treat the British agents ? 6. 
What did Con^rress do ? 

Greene in the South. 319 

— 4. — 

money, which had now fallen so low tliafc sixty dollars in 

paper were worth only one dollar in coin. 

7. Arnold in Virginia. — In Jannary, 1781, Arnold took 
sixteen hnndred British troops from New York, occupied 
Portsmoutli, Virginia, ravaged the James Hirer, and burn- 
ed a part of Kichmond. Thomas Jefferson, then governor 
of the State, called out the militia, and Arnold fell back 
to Portsmouth. Here AVashington endeavored to ca])ture 
the traitor, of whom lie was anxious that an example 
should be made. Lafayette was sent to attack the place 
by land while IJe Ternay's ships assailed it by sea. The 
British squadron pursued, however, and the French fleet, 
defeated off the entrance to Chesapeake Bay (March 18), 
was obliged to return to Newport. Arnold was then hea- 
vily re-enforced from New York, and Lafayette's march 
was arrested at Annapolis. 

8. Campaign in the South. — The direction of affairs in 
the South had now been entrusted to ]\lajor-General Cireeno, 
who had always been AVashington's fn-st choice for that iui- 
portant duty. Steuben aided him in the reorganization of 
an army. Henry Lee with his famous legion was detached 
to serve under him ; and he had the assistance also of 
General Morgan, an enterprising officer already in South 
Cnrolina with an independent command. 

9. At the l)eginning of January Tarleton with tlic 
light division was sent ag:iinst ]\Iorgan, while Cornwallis 
moved with the main l)ody from his canT]) between the 
Broad and Cataw])a Ixivers to separate ^Morgan from 
Greene. Penetrating this design, ^Mcn-gan retreated rapidly 
towards North Carolina. 

10. Battle of the Cowpens. — At a i)lace calli'd the Cow- 

7. Wliiit did Arnold do ? What did Washington ntlnni.t ? 8. WHio 
siK'ceodod to tlio coniinaiid at the Soutli ? Who ai(hMl liiin ? 0. How 
did the campaign begin ? 

220 History of the United States. 

— ►!. — 

pons, three miles soutli of tlie boundary line and not far 
from King's Mountain, he resolved to stand and give 
battle (January 17, 1781). The American militia were 
easily routed, and the British began to pursue them in 
some disorder when the Continentals suddenly poured in a 
deadly fire, and Morgan's horse at the same time charged 
upon the British cavalry. Tarleton Avas utterly defeat- 
ed with the loss of more than six hundred men and all 
his artillery and baggage, while Morgan's loss was only 
eighty. Congress caused a medal to be struck in com- 
memoration of this brilliant affair. 

11. Morgan now hastened his march eastward to meet 
Greene, and Cornwallis, collecting the fragments of Tarle- 
ton's division, and adding also to the main body a large 
force just arrived from Ncav York, made extraordinary 
exertions to overtake him before the Americans could 
unite. In order to move faster the British burned their 
stores and superfluous baggage. They reached the Ca- 
tawba River only two hours after Morgan had passed it. 
A sudden rise of the water, in consequence of rains, de- 
layed Cornwallis in crossing, and gave the Americans a 
fresh start. At the Yadkin, where Greene, who had hur- 
ried forward, was in personal command of Morgan's de- 
tachment, hiffh Avater amiiu favored the American retreat. 
Greene had not fairly got over when the British advance 
came up, but the American commander had secured all 
the boats. 

12. The two divisions of Greene were now joined in 
Central Xcn-th Carolina, but they numbered all told only 
a little more than two thousand men, and were quite unlit 
to meet the larger and better-appointed army of the enemy. 

10. Where (lid Morgan resolve to fight ? The result ? 11. Describe 
tlio iiiarcli of botli jjartios. W^w took coimnaml of tlie Americans at 
tlic Yadkiu ? 12. How many men had Greene ? 

Ui'iLFoui) douuT-lIousi:. Z'Zl 

Connvullirf turned nortliwurd Avith the iiileiilioii of cutting 
tlieni off from Virgini.i, but Greene battled this movcmeut 
b}- a rapid march in the same direction. 

13. Occupying Wilmington and Newbern, the British 
oA'erran North Carolina and endeavored to- rouse and 
organize the Tories. To check these operations Greene 
returned from Virginia, keeping the country in per2)etual 
alarm l)y skirmishing partii-s and never encam])ing twice 
in tlie same place. After a while, being joined by a body 
of six weeks' volunteers from North Carolina and Virginia, 
lie determined to offer battle. 

14. Battle of Guilford Court-House. — The engagement 
took })lace at Guilford Cuurt-llouse, near the present 
town of Greensborough, North Carolina, March 15, 1T81. 
Greene drew up his army in three lines, the North Caro- 
lina militia (many of them Tories serving under compul- 
sion) in front ; the Virginia militia next, with a row of 
sentinels behind them to shoot the first who ran ; and 
the Continentals in the rear. The first line threw down 
their arms and ran at the first charge. The second stood 
for a while, l)ut could not long resist the British bayonet. 
The Continentals checked the onset in gallant style, ami 
drove the enemy so hard that Cornwallis only extricated a 
part of his regiments by i)laying his artillery full in the face 
of his own men and cutting down friend and foe together, 

15. After the desertion of so many of his men Greene 
was in no condition to continue the battle, and accordingly 
retreated. Cornwallis had suff'ei'ed too much to ])ursue ; 
on the contrary, he was obliged to fall back toAvards Wil- 
mington. The result of the battle, therefore, was decidedly 
to the advantage of the Americans. 

13. What was the next movement of Cornwallis ? How diil Greene 
clu'i'k it ? 15. Describe the battle of Guilford Court-IIoiise. 16. ^^'l^at 
was the res-ult ? To whose advantage was it ? 

^:i2 HiaroNY of the UyiTKi) ^States. 

16. Greene now formed tlie bold i)];ui of marcliing 
past Cornwallis, invading South Carolina, and attacking 
tlic chain of British 2)osts which extended from Camdeu 
Avestward to Fort Xinety-six, and thence to Augusta and 
Charleston. lie was so far on the way towards Camden 
before Cornwallis found it out that pursuit was iiseless. 
The British commander then resolved to imitate Greene's 
policy and throw himself upon the State of A'irgima. 
Greene wisely left A'irginia to her fate and contimied his 

17. Greene in South Carolina. — Fort Watson, on the 
San tee, was captured l)y Marion and "Light-Horse Harry" 
Lee, April 23. At Hobkirk's Hill, near Camden, two days 
later, Greene had a sharp engagement with Lord Eawdon, 
without decisive result, hut Eawdon was soon forced by 
other movements to evacuate Camden. Fort Motte, on 
the Santee, was taken by Marion and Lee, Orangeburg 
by Sumter, Fort Graid)y by Lee, Augusta by Lee and 
Pickens. Fort Kineiy-six, unsuccessfully assaulted by 
Greene, was soon afterwards abandoned, and about the 
beginning of July o])erations were suspended on account 
of the intense heat, leaving with Greene all the fruits 
of victory. 

18. Strengthening and su]i])lying his ai'ni}- to some ex- 
tent during a six weeks' rest, Greene took the field again in 
August, and, crossing the Santee, marched down the right 
bank of that river, the enemy retiring before him. At 
Futaw S])rings, Se2itend)er 8, 17S1, he found tlie main body 
of the British, under C(»l. Stuart (Eawdon having sailed for 
Fngland), drawn U]) Id gi\e batik'. A severe engagement 
took place, each side losing al)i)ut six hundred men and 

16. Wlmt bold ])laii did Greene form ? How did Cornwallis art r 
17. Describe the Aiiiericuu successes in the spring and sununer. 18. 
Who were tlie commanders at I'^utaw Springs ? 


l)otli claiming the victory. Colonel William Washington, ;■. 
gallant American cavalry commander, and a distant kins- 
man of General George AVashington, was wounded and made 
l)risoncr in tliis battle. The advantage was really with tlie 
Americans, for Stuart was thenceforth restricted to tlie 
narrow tract between the Cooper and Ashley rivers. 
Greene, on tlie other hand, was crippled by the want of 
ammunition and shoes, and tlie desertion of his militia. 

19. Retiring to the hills of the Santee, he left Marion, 
Sumter, and Lee to harass the enemy. By the beginning of 
the next year the British retained only Charleston and 
Savannah. Greene was posted near the former city, and 
"Wayne was watching the other. The campaign, fought 
with a small, ill-furnished, and disaffected army in the 
midst of a Tory population, restored two States to the 
Union, and called fortli from "Wasliingtou the highest 
praise of Greene's fortitude and ability. 


TuK End ok the War — Sikuk of Yorktowx — Scrrendee of Corn- 
WALLis — Treatv of Peace axu Acknowledgment of Ameru an 


1, Cornwallis in Virginia. — While Greene was tlius 
subduing the Soutliern States, Cornwallis, effecting a junc- 
tion with the British troops already in Virginia, ravaged 
tlie James Eiver and marched beyond Richmond, wliere 
Lafayette was posted Avith a much smaller force. lie 
Avished to jn-event Lafayette from uniting witli Wayne, 

Describe tho battle. The resxUt. 19. What was the effect of the 
campaij^ii ? What iliil Washington think of Greene ? 1. Wliat was 
Cornwallis doius? in Virsrinia ? 

224: HisTORV OF Tin-: U sited States. 

— 4- — 
who yviis passing through Virginia on his way to join 
Greene ; but this he was unable to do, and after several 
unimportant affairs he retired to the mouth of the James 
Eiver, with the intention of embarking a part of his troops 
for New York. 

2. Abandoning this purpose in consequence of fresh 
orders from Sir Henry Clinton, he transferred his whole 
army to the peninsula Ijctween the James and York riv- 
ers (August, 1781), where the fleet could easily reach him, 
and he would hold, as it was wrongly believed, a favor- 
able position for further operations. The British had de- 
stroyed in the invasion of Virginia about 110,000,000 
worth of property. 

3. Affairs at the North. — At the North the whole num- 
ber of soldiers under Washington's command was not as 
larsre as the number of Tories alone in the service of tlio 
British. Food was very scarce. It Avas almost impossible 
to obtain recruits, the States being nearly exhausted. 
The French army was still at Newport, kept inactive liy 
the presence of the British fleet. The difficulties about 
money became more and more serious. The Continental 
bills fell rapidly. A dollar in that currency was soon 
worth only one cent ; fiually it took a thousand dollars 
in paper to equal one dollar in silver ; and before the end 
of the year Continental bills, of Aviiich there Avere more 
than 1100,000,000 in circulation, were worth nothing at 

4. In this extremiiy tlio States W(M-e relieved by tlu-ir 
good allies, tlie Freneli. When Ro1)ort Morris liad exhaust- 
ed all his own means and o'cdit, he o1)tained a little timely 
aid from Count Rochaml)eau, and soon afterward mone}'. 

2. What (lid he do next ? Why did he go there ? 3. What was tho 
condition of affairs at the North ? How did the Continental money 
fall ? 4. How did the States obtain relief ? 

Arnold ly (Jonnecticut. 225 

— 4* — 

clothing, arms, and aiuiuunition arrived from France, wliere 
Franklin and Laurens had succeeded in negotiating a 
loan from the Government. 

5. About the same time (August, ITSl) the French 
admiral, De Grasse, who had Ix'cn engaged against tho 
English in the West Indies, came north to co-operate for 
a little while with Washington, and it was resolved, in- 
stead of carrying out an attack u2)on New York which 
had been planned, to strike a hard blow at Cornwallis in 

6. The army of Rochauiheau marcluMl from Newport 
to meet Washington in the ]ri<;lilaiids. Their destination 
was kept secret, and the movements of hotli armies were 
so artfully contrived that Clinton su})posed tliey were 
going to attack XeA7 York. He did not discover their 
object until they had reached the Delaware. 

7. Arnold in New England. — It was then too late to 
help Cornwallis, and Sir Henry accordingly sent an ex- 
])edilion under Benedict Arnold to ravage Connecticut, 
in the hope of thus forcing Washington to turn back. 
Arnold plundered and burned Xew London (September 
G), and a part of his command took Fort Griswold, at 
Groton, on the opposite side of the Thames Itiver. After 
the surrender the brave American Colonel Ledyard and 
about sixty of his men Avero massacred by the victors, 
"^riie ottieer responsible for ibis disgraceful crime was 
j\[iijor Bromfiebl, a Xew Jersey loyalist. 

8. 'I'lie militia of Connecticut ((iiickly asscinblcil, an«l 
Arnohl liaslencd back to Xew Yoi'k. 'i'liis maraudiiii;- c\- 
2)edition into his native State was his last a})])earance in 
American Jiistory. It did not have the elfect which Sir 

5. Wlio arrived to aifl "Washington ? What was iinclcrtaken ? 6. 

What (lid Clinton suppose ? 7. Deseritje tlic Ijurning of New London. 
What disgraceful alfair h;ippened at Groton ? 8. What of Arnold ? 

236 History of the United States. 

Henry Clintou iuteiided, for Wjishiugtou kept on liis 

9. The Allies in Virginia. — Lafayette, who had con- 
ducted himself in the meantime with the greatest skill 
and gallantry in Virginia, disposed his command so as to 
l)revent the escape of Cornwallis into the Carolinas, oc- 
cupying the upper end of the peninsula, with his liead- 
quarters at AYilliamsburg, while Cornwallis was at York- 
town, only a few miles distant. It was a fatal blunder 
of the British general to place his army in this jiosition, 
because if his ships were beaten off he had no retreat ; 
but Cornwallis acted under the instructions of Clinton, 

10. Admiral Graves, wlio commanded the fleet at Xew 
York, knew that De Grasse was coming, and sailed to 
meet him. But he was too late. The French were al- 
ready at anchor in Chesapeake Bay, and had blocked u]) 
the James and York rivers and landed re-enforcements 
for Lafayette. In a naval engagement off the capes of 
the Chesapeake the English were badly damaged, so that 
they returned to New York to retit, and in the meantime 
De Grasse was joined by a number of the French ships 
from Newport. 

11. The armies of Washington and Kochambcau 
marched to the head of Chesaj)eake Bay, and there went 
aboard the French ships. By the end of September they 
were united with Lafayette's division at Williamsburg, 
and Cornwallis was invested on all sides. 

12. Siege of Yorktown. — The peninsula is al)out eight 
jniles wide at Yorktown, and across this neck of land 
the British had constructed a line of fortifications. Tlie 
siege was pushed Avith great rapidity. On tlie 14th of 

9. What ditl Lafayette do ? Wluit was the bhinder of the British ? 
10. What did the French fleet do? U. Where did Washington and 
Rochambeau unite ? 

Surrender of Corkwallis. 237 

— -i- — 
October two of the British redoubts were taken by assault 
simultaueously, one by the French, the other by the Ame- 
ricans. Cornwallis attempted a sally, but it failed, lie 
then tried to esca])e across the York River, with the 
hope of breaking through the lines on that side and 
pushing for New York, but a violent storm dispersed his 
boats and the desperate scheme had to be abandoned. 

13. Surrender of Cornwallis.— The result of an assault 
could not be doubtful, and on the 17th of October, 1781, 
Cornwallis proposed to Washington a suspension of hos- 
tilities to arrange terms of surrender. On the 19th the 
whole British army (seven thousand men) marched out 
and laid down their arms. Over one hundred cannon 
were given uj) and 111,000 in money, and at the same 
time the British vessels of war in the rivers, with about 
eight hundred sailors, surrendered to Admiral de Grasse. 
The allied army at the siege of Yorktown consisted of 
o.oOO Continentals, 3,500 militia, and 7,000 French. 

14. On the very day of the surrender Sir Henry Clin- 
ton sailed fron) New York with thirty-five ships and 
seven thousand troops to rescue his unfortunate lieute- 
nant. When he reached the Chesapeake and heard of 
the surrender he went back again. 

15. Washington Avished now to attack Charleston, 
l)ut l)c Grasse felt obliged to sail immediately for the 
West Indies. The Continentals, therefore, except a de- 
tachment sent to strengthen Greene, returned to New 
Jersey and the Higldands, and Rochambeau remained at 
Williamsburg. But the surrender of Cornwallis was re- 
garded everywhere as the final triumph of American in- 

13. How were the British redoubts taken ? What did Cornwallis next 
attempt ? 13. Describe the surrender. What was the number of the 
allies ? 14. What did Clinton do ? lo. The next movements ? 

328 History of the United States. 

— + — 

16. The country gave way to trans2)orts of joy. There 
were rejoicings in ull the camps and ilhmiinations in the 
cities, and Congress voted lionors to AV'ashington, Ilo- 
chambeau, Dc Grasse, and others, and proclaimed a day 
of general thanksgiving. When the news was told the 
British minister. Lord Korth, "he took it,"' said an eye- 
witness, " as he would have taken a ball in the breast, 
for he oi)cned his arms, exclaiming wildly as he paced 
up and down the ai)artment, ' It is all over ! ' "' 

17. End of the War of Independence. — The obstinate 
King George III. was still resolved "never to consent to 
a peace at the expense of a separation from America," but 
tlie temper of the English peojile was very different. The 
city of London petitioned the king to put a stop to this 
" unnatural and unfortunate war ' ' ; a resolution in favor 
of peace, supported by Fox, the younger Pitt, Barre, 
Burke, and others, passed the House of Commons Feb- 
ruary 27, 178'2 ; the king Avas compelled to dismiss Lord 
North and to accci)t a ministry headed l)y the Marrpiis 
of Rockingham, * who was committed to the policy of 
peace ; and commissioners were appointed on both sides 
to negotiate a treaty, hostilities being stopped in the 

18. The commissiont'i's nu't iu Paris, those of tlic 
Ignited States being John Aihims, John Jay, IkMijamin 
Franklin, and Henry Laurens. A preliminary treaty w'as 
signed November 80, 1782. Congress ratified the action 
of tlic commissioners in March, and a proclamation au- 

* Eorkingham died tlirco inoiillis later, and liis siicccsMor, Lord Slu'lbnmc, was 
the minister under who:ro administration tlic iudopendcncc of the United States was 

16. ITow did Anierieans receive the news ? Wliat did Lord North 
say ? 17. AVhiit followed in Enjrland ? Who advised peace ? 18. Wliero 
■was the treaty negotuited ? Who were the American commissiouers ? 

End of the War. 339 

— + — 

nouncing tlie end of the wur was published in Washing- 
ton's camp at Newburg on tlie 19th of April, 1783, 
just eight years to a day after the battle of Lexington. 

19. Deliberations \\\wn various points, however, lasted 
some time longer, and it was not till Sci)tember 3, 1783, 
that the delinitive treaty was signed at Paris. Peace was 
formally concluded at the same time between Great Bri- 
tain and the otlier 2)owers that had been at war with her 
— France, Spain, and Holland. 

20. Disaffection in the Army. — During tlie progress of 
the negotiations the temper of the American army was 
far from satisfactory. Unpaid and often suffering from 
absolute hunger, the soldiers became restless under their 
wrongs, and a ])ortion of them seem to have been anx- 
ious to establish a military despotism. In May, 1782, a 
letter was addressed to Washington advising him to de- 
clare himself king — a proposal to which he returned an 
indignant reply. 

21. In the following March an anonymous apjieal was 
circulated in the camji at Newburg, advising the soldiers 
to organize for the purpose of enforcing their demands 
upon Congi'ess. To counteract this movement Washing- 
ton called all the officers together, and, making them a 
sensible and patriotic address, succeeded in dispelling the 
danger. Afterwards he induced Congress to give every 
officer on his discharge a sum equal to five years' pay. 

22. Congress and tlie States had both treated the army 
badly ; but it should be rememl^ered in their excuse that 
the country was very poor, and that, after spending 
nearly $100,000,000 during the war, the treasury found 
itself at the end about ^40,000,000 in del)t. This did 

19. When was the treaty signed ? 20. Of what did the American 

soldiers eninplain ? Wliat proposal was made to Washington ? His 
luiswer ? 21. What occurred ut Newburg ? What did Wasliington do ? 

230 History of the llNiTbw States. 

— + — 

not include the outlay of the separate States, which 
amounted to $00,000,000 or $70,000,000 more. 

23. On the 25th of November, 1783, the last of the 
British evacuated New York, and Washington's troops 
marched in by way of King's Bridge. On the 2d of No- 
vember Washington issued his farewell address to the 
army ; on December 4 he took leave of his officers at 
New York ; on December 23 he formally resigned his 
commission to Congress, then in session at Annapolis, 
and immediately" retired to his home at Mount Vernon, 
on the Potomac, in Virginia. 

22. What had the war cost ? 23. When was New York evacuat- 
erl ? When and where did Washington take leave of the army ? What 
did he do at Annapolis '( 




The Constitutiox — Administratiox of Washington — Disputes vith 


1. The Confederation. — The States Avcre governed dur- 
ing the hitter part of tlie war "by "Articles of Confedera- 
tion," proposed by Congress at the time of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, but not adopted until several years 
later. Nearly all power Avas reserved to the separate 
States ; Congress had little authority ; there was no pre- 
sident or other executive chief ; and it was soon found 
that this system produced endless confusion. In par- 
ticular it left the country Avithout means of providing 
for the common defence or regulating commerce or the 

2. Shays's Rebellion. — An extensive rel^ellion in ^Massa- 
chusetts, led by an ex-captain in tlie Continental army 
named Daniel Shays (December, 178G), and directed against 
tlie collection of taxes, etc., was put down by a militia force 
under General Lincoln after a short but very active cam- 
paign. This served to strengthen the po})ular conviction 
that some change was necessary in the form of govern- 
ment, and a convention to revise the Articles of Con- 

1. How were the States governed at this time ? What was the cha- 

riu tor of this povorninoiit ? 3. What is said of Shays's rebellion ? 
The effect on the public mind ? 



federation met at Pliiladelphia iu May, 1787. AVasliing- 
ton was unanimously chosen president of tliis asseuiLly. 

3. The Constit-ition. — Instead of amending tlie old Ar- 
ticles, the convention advised a new Constitution. It was 
to go into operation March 4, 1789, if two-thirds of the 
KStates gave their assent. After much discussion it was 
ratified by all the States — by Delaware first in December, 
1787, and by Ehode Island last in May, 1790. On the 
4th of March, 1789, eleven of the thirteen States had 
approved it, and on that day accordingly the old Confed- 
eration came to an end and the Union began. 

4. New York was selected as a temporary seat of gov- 
ernment, and the old City Hall in Wall Street was given 

up to the use of Congress. 
Electors were chosen in 
January to cast the votes 
of their respective States 
for President and Vice- 

5. Washington Presi- 
dent. — When the votes were 
counted it appeared that 
George AVashington was 
unanimously chosen Pre- 
sident, and John Adams 
was chosen Vice-President. 
Washington's journey from 
JMount Vernon to New 
York was like a triumphal procession. The people turn- 
ed out everywhere to show their gratitude and respect 
towards him. At Elizal)ethtown he went aljoard a s])lon- 

Whcre did the convention meet ? Who was its i)resident ? 3. What 
was done ? Wlien did the Constitution take effect ? 4. Wliere was the 
capital ? 5. Who were chosen President and Vice-President ? 

Geokoe Washington. 

Washing TO X as President. 233 

— + — 

did barge constructed for tlie occasion and magnificently 
decorated. It was rowed by tliirteen masters of vessels, 
dressed in white, and commanded by Commodore Nichol- 
son. Other barges followed. As they i)roceeded through 
New York Bay a multitude of vessels decked Avith flags 
surrounded them, thousands of boats appeared upon the 
waters, and the ships of war of difl'urent nations nuiuned 
their yards, spread their colors, and fired salutes. The in- 
auguration took i)lace on the 30th of April in the midst 
of universal rejoicings. 

6. Thomas Jefferson was appointed Secretary of State, 
Alexander Hamilton Secretary of the Treasury, and CJen- 
eral Henry Knox Secretary of AVar. With tlie aid of 
these able men AVashington administered the government 
wisely, proving himself hardly less valuable to his country 
in peace than he had been in war. The skill of Hamil- 
ton in reducing the finances to order and restoring the 
ruined credit of the nation deserves to bo especially re- 
membered. The seat of government Avas transferred to 
Philadelphia in 1790, with the nnderstanding that in 1800 
it should be permanently established in a new city on the 
banks of the Potomac. 

7. Indian War in the Northwest. — The Indian tribes 
on the Ohio became very troul)lesome to the settlers who 
now began to pour into the AVest ; the emigrants were 
waylaid and murdered as they descended the river in 
l)oats. (leneral Harmer, who was sent against the savages 
in 1790, was defeated near tlio present site of Fort Wayne, 
Indiana ; and General St. Clair met with a similar dis- 
aster the next year. 

8. General Wayne ('Olad Anthony") was then de- 
Describe Washington's journey. When was he inangnrated ? 6. 

Whd were his cabinet officers ? To wliat city was the capital removed 
in 17U0 ? 7. Who were defeated by the Indians of the Northwest ? 

234 History of the United States. 

— 4" — 
spatched to tlie Indian country. As soon as the Indian 
chief, Little Turtle, heard that "Wayne was coming, he 
advised his people to make peace, because '^ the white 
chief never slept." They did not follow his advice, and 
Wayne devastated their villages, sweeping everything be- 
fore him till he reached the Maumee Iliver, in the north- 
west corner of Ohio. There he Avon a great victory near 
the site of Maumee City, August 20, 1794, and obliged 
the Indians to sue for terms. By the treaty concluded at 
Greenfield the next year the United States acquired from 
the savages a large tract for settlement in the present 
States of Ohio and Indiana. 

9. Washington's Second Term. — The second election 

for President occurred in 

1792, Washington's term 
ending on the 4th of March, 

1793. Washington was 
again the unanimous choice 
of the electors, and Adams 
"was re-elected Yice-Presi- 
dent. Political parties, 
however, had become sharp- 
ly divided. The Federal- 
ists, among whom were 
Washington, Adams, and 
Hamilton, favored the Con- 
stitution as it was, and be- 
lieved in a strong central 

government. Tbe Anti-Federalists, known also as Demo- 
crats or Republicans (those two names being used at that 
time iudilferently to designate the same party), wished to 

8. Wlio jmt an end to the war ? What did the United States gain by 
the treaty ? 9. Who were elected in 1793 ? What were tho two politi- 
cal parties ? Who were the leaders ? 


Relations with Frakck. 235 

— + — 

limit the power of the federal Government and give more 

independent authority to the States. Their ablest leader 

was Jefferson. 

10. The most terrible seenes of the French Revolu- 
tion were enacted during the first years of the American 
republic. King Louis XVI. Avas beheaded a few weeks 
before the end of Washington's first term, and Queen 
Marie Antoinette, Avho had so warmly befriended Ameri- 
ca during the struggle for independence, was executed a 
few months afterward. Jefferson and the Anti-Federal- 
ists sympathized strongly with the French revolutionists, 
and wished to aid them in their struggle against the 
European powers. Washington and the Federalists in- 
sisted \\\)0\\ preserving a strict neutrality. 

11. In April, 1703, Citizen Genest (zhen-di/) arrived 
in America as minister from the French rei)ublic. Ho 
fitted out })rivateers in American ports, tried to embroil 
the United States in war against England and Spain, 
violently attacked President Washington, and otherwise 
misbehaved himself so that the President rc(|uested tlio 
French Government to recall liini. 

12. This i)roper and dignified step shook for a time 
even Washington's ])()pularity. The Jeffersonian party 
had shown extraordinary favor to Genest as the repre- 
sentative of a French rei)u))lic, and at public receptions 
held in his honor crowds of peojjle appeared wearing the 
French revolutionary cockade. Calmer ojjinions, however, 
soon began to prevail, and the bad conduct of Genest 
helped to convince the country that Washington was 

13. Troubles with England. — The party spirit aroused 

10. What was the condition of France at this time ? Which party 
syinpatliizivt witli the revohitionists ? 11. Who was sent to America l)y 
the French republic ? Ilow did he behave ? What did Washington do? 

236 History of the United States. 

— + — 
by this affair avus embittered by tlie unjust conduct of 
the British Government, Avliich, in spite of tlie treaty of 
1783, still kept possession of the forts in the Northwest. 
British men-of-war cruising against the French had also 
committed great injuries upon American commerce, con- 
fiscating French property found on American vessels, 
seizing all vessels which attempted to carry grain to 
France, and searching American ships in order to carry 
off sailors supposed to -he British subjects. Even those 
Avho had become naturalized in America were not spared, 
and sometimes native Americans were taken and compelled 
to serve in the British navy. 

14. A strong disposition to go to Avar again with Eng- 
land Avas groAving up when Washington ajipointed John 
Jay a special envoy to London to arrange the disputes. 
Jay succeeded in negotiating a treaty (1794), which set- 
tled some of the causes of complaint, but left the ques- 
tion of the impressment of seamen to be a cause of future 
trouble. The treaty was ratified after much opposition. 
It greatly incensed the French, and they in their turn 
began to plunder American commerce. 

15. The Whiskey Insurrection. — In 1704 a violent dis- 
turbance Avas created in Western Pennsylvania by the 
refusal of the people to pay a tax on Avhiskey. Secret so- 
cieties Avere organized to resist the collection of the duty, 
the officers of the laAv Avere attacked, and the outrages 
soon amounted to an insurrection. The President called 
out fifteen thousand militia from Pennsylvania and other 
States, and this display of force quelled the revolt with- 
out a battle. 

16. During the i)olitical quarrels of his administration 

13, What w^ere the causes of complaint against England ? 14. What 
course did Washington adopt ? 15. Give an account of the whiskey in- 
surrection. How did the President put it doAvn ? 

Washingtox' s Retirement. ?37 

Washington had not escaped abuse and misrepresentation. 
He was even accused of wishing to establish a monarchy; 
but his just and noble character at last conipiercd even his 
enemies. He would probably have been unanimously i-e- 
elected for a third term had he not refused to let his 
name be used. 

17. In September, 1T9G, he jiublished his famous 
Farewell Address, in which he announced his fixed re- 
solve to retire to private life, and left to his countrymen 
a i)rccious political legacy, lie warned them especially 
against the dangers of disunion, and besought them to 
frown indignantly "upon the first dawning of every 
attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the 

18. The whole people seemed now to cimcur in testi- 
fying their respect and affection for their great leader. 
Congress and the State Legislatures passed ap]n-opriate 
resolutions on the occasion of his retirement. On the 4th 
of ]\rarch, 1797, when he left the Capitol at the close of 
his term, the multitude pressed around him in the street 
and followed him to his door ; there he turned to say 
farewell, but his emotions were too great for utterance, 
and, with tears in his eyes, he expressed his thanks and 
regard by silent gestures. 

16. Had Washington been slandered ? 17. When did he publish his 
Farewell Address ? What excellent advice did he give ? 18. Give an 
account of his retirement. 

238 History of the UiyiTED States. 

— + — 


Settlement of the West. 

1. Organization and Settlement of the West. By the 

treaty of V,So the Mississippi Eiver was recognized as 
the western boundary of the United States, but nearly 
luilf of the territory included within the national limits 
was unoccupied and unorganized. Several of the older 
States — Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Virginia, 
the Carolinas, and Georgia — claimed, under their colonial 
charters or other titles, the proprietorship of an unde- 
fined tract of western lands. They were induced to cede 
to the general Government the jurisdiction over all this 
country, Virginia and Connecticut, however, reserving 
the title to 7,000,000 acres in the present State of Ohio. 

2. One of the important acts of Congress under the 
Confederation was the adoption of an ordinance for the 
government of this ceded district (1787). It erected the 
whole region nortli of the Oliio into the Northwest Terri- 
tory, and on the j^roposal of Jefferson it was enacted 
that slavery should never be tolerated in the territory or 
any of the States to be formed out of it. In this regi(m 
are now included Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wis- 
consin, and a part of Minnesota. 

3. In Illinois there were already several small towns, 
C:ihol<ia, Kaskaskia, and some other settlements having 
been founded by the French under La Salle nearly a 
hundred years before. Vincennes, in Indiana, had been 
settled by the French about 1703. There were also 

1. What was the western boundary of the United Stales ? What dis- 
position did the older States make of their western lands ? 2. What did 
Conprress do with these lands ? 3. What French settlements existed in 
the West ? 

The West. 239 

French settlements in Micliigtin, at the outlets of Lakes 
Michigan, Superior, and Huron. Ohio was a wilderness ; 
the first permanent settlement in that State was made at 
Marietta in 1788, and named in honor of Queen Marie 

4. Ohio was divided off and formed into a separate 
territory in 1800, and the name of Indiana was given 
to all tlie rest of the Northwest Territory. 

5. Kentucky originally constituted a county of Vir- 
ginia. At one time a i)arty among tlie people wished 
to form themselves into an independent sovereignty — a 
scheme which was secretly promoted by the Spaniards. 
In 1790 the territory was separated from Virginia, and 
tlie next year it was admitted to the Union as a State. 

6. Tennessee was a part of North Carolina. The in- 
habitants organized themselves in 1785 as the State of 
Franklin, or Frankland, but North Carolina never ac- 
((uiesccd in this arrangement, and the new State fell to 
])ieces about 1788. In 1789 it was ceded to the general 
Covernment, and the next year it was organized as the 
Territory South of the Ohio. It became a State of the 
Union in 179G. 

7. Alabama and Mississippi were divided from Georgia 
in 1798, and erected into the territory of Mississij)pi. 
This territory did not reach to the Gulf of Mexico, for 
those portions of Alabama and Mississippi which now ex- 
tend to the gulf belonged at that time to Florida, which 
was the property of Spain. '^Flie northern boundary of 
Florida was unsettled, Spain claiming the east bank of 
the Mississippi, at least as far as the present site of 

3. What was the first settlement in Ohio ? 4. IIow was the Northwest 
Territory dividetl in 1800 ? 5. Give an account of Kentucky. G. Ten- 
nessee. 7. Alabama and ^lississippi. 


8. Vermont. — Vermont had long been in dispute be- 
tween New York and NeAV Hainjishire. A few years l)e- 
fore the Kevolntion tlie Britisli Government decided in 
favor of the chiim of New York, but tlie Green Mouii- 
tain Boys, under Ethan Allen and Seth Warner, violently 
resisted the New York authorities. In 1777 the people 
declared themselves independent. The quarrel, however, 
continued till 1701, Avlieu New York sold all her claims 
for 130,000, and A'ermont was admitted to the Union as 
a State. 

9. At the end of Washington's second term, therefore, 
the Union consisted of sixteen States, Kentucky, Tennes- 
see, and Vermont having been added to the original thir- 
teen. Emigration into the western country Avent on with 
great rapidit}^, and, in spite of trouble from the Indians, 
flourisiiing settlements l)egan to appear in the midst of 
the wildernesses which are now rich States. 


The Catholic Church in the United States at the end of the 


1. The Church in the United States. — At the time of 
the Revolution there were very few Catholic churches in 
the United States. We have already seen how the Ca- 
tholic religion was planted in Maryland, l)ut even there 
the members of the faith formed but a small minority of 
the population. Maryland, however, became the cradle 
of the American clergy, being the seat of the first bish- 

8. Vermont. When was Vermont admitted to the Union ? 9. How 
many States were there at the end of Washington's second term ? 1. 
What is said of the Catholic churches during the Revohition ? 

The Eauly Church, 241 

— + — 

opric, and tlie asylum of a luimlxn- of zealous Jesuits and 
other ])riests, who went thence to various parts of the 

2. In Pennsylvania, at the close of the war of indepen- 
dence, there had been churches or mission stations for 
many years at Philadelphia, Lancaster, Conewago, and 
other places. The venerable Father Farmer, who died at 
Philadelphia in 178G, lal)ored in Pennsylvania for more 
than foi-ty years. In ITUO the Catholics Avere so nume- 
rous that Matthew Carey ventured to publish in Phila- 
delphia the lirst edition of the Douay Bible printed in 

3. There Avere Jesuit missionaries among the Indians 
of the northern and interior parts of the State of New 
York from an early i)eriod (see i)p. 75, lOG), and three 
fathers of the same society were settled in New York 
City between 1G83 and 1G90 (see p. 100) ; but at the time 
of the Kevolution the number of Catholics in the town 
was insignificant. The spirit of the colony was bitterly 
intolerant, and in the first constitution of the State, 
adopted in 1T77, Catholics were excluded from the privi- 
lege of naturalization. This clause was inserted at the 
instance of John Jay, afterwards chief-justice of the 
United States. 

4. The French posts in the Mississippi valley were 
regularly attended by chaidains, so that when the western 
settlements came into the possession of the United States 
the Catholic religion had already a foothold among them. 
Al)out the middle of the last century there Avere scA-eral 
Jesuit stations in Indiana, Avith a church at Yincennes. 
'^riie Jesuits, hoAvever, Averc afterAvards Avithdrawn, and for 

Of the Church in Maryland ? 2. In Pennsylvania ? 3. Among the 
Indians of Xow York ? In New York City ? Wliat was done (o Catho- 
lics by the first constitution of tlie State ':* 

242 History of the United States. 

— + — 
many years the only priest in the territory now consti- 
tuting Indiana and Illinois was the Rev. Mr. Gibault, 
who was vicar-general for that region nnder the Bishop 
of Quebec. He lived at Kaskaskia, in the southwestern 
part of Illinois. 

5. In 1778 Father Gibault induced the French inhabi- 
tants of Vincennes to declare in favor of the United 
States against Great Britain, and he administered the 
oath of allegiance to them in the church. Ho also had 
great influence in keeping the Indians friendly to the 
American cause. 

6. The Catholics during the war of independence were 
practically unanimous in supporting the patriot side. 
They contributed many eminent men to the service of 
the country, including General Moylan in the army. Com- 
modore Barry in the navy, and Charles Carroll, Daniel 
Carroll, and Thomas Fitzsimmons in Congress ; they raised 
an Irish regiment in tlie Pennsylvania line ; and on 
Washington's election to the Presidency they i)resented 
an address of congratulation, to which the general re- 
plied : "I presume that your fellow-citizens will not for- 
get the patriotic part which you took in the accomplish- 
ment of their revolution aiul the establishment of their 
government, or the important assistance which they re- 
ceived from a nation in which the Roman Catholic faith 
is professed," 

7. The patriotism of Catholics in America and the 
generous aid given to the American cause l)y Catholic 
France helped to break down bigotry. At the close of 
the war a solemn Te Deum was chanted in iSt. Joseph's 
Church, Philadelphia, by request of the French ambassa- 

4. How was the Chinrh planted in the West ? 5. What did Father 
Gibault do during the Revolution ? C. What was the conduct of Catho- 
lics during the war ? Name some of their distinguished men. 

The First Priests. 243 

— + — 

dor, and Wasliingtou, Lafayette, and many distinguished 

official persons were present. 

8. Immediately after the peace Mass was celebrat- 
ed at stated intervals in New York City by Father 
Farmer, who used to come from Philadelphia for the 
purpose, and hold service in a loft over a carpenter's 
shop. The first church, Ht. Peter's, in Barclay Street, 
was begun in 178G. The first i)riest settled in the city 
after the war was Father Charles Whclan, an Irish Fran- 
ciscan, who had been a chai)lain in the French fleet. 

9. At the date of the first national census (1790) it 
was estimated by Bishop Carroll that the Catholics of the 
United States numbered 30,000, or one in every hundred 
of the total population. There were about 10,000 in 
^laryland, 7,000 in Pennsylvania, 5,500 among the French 
settlements of the AVest, and only 1,500 in all the rest 
01 the country. 

10. Increase of the Clergy. — In 1789 Father John 
Carroll, who had for some years administered the affairs 
of the American Church with the rank of prefect-apos- 
tolic, was appointed bishop, and Baltimore Avas created 
the first see in the United States. The diocese embraced 
the whole Union, and contained thirty or forty priests. 

11. Tlie first care of the new bishop was to jirovide 
for Catholic education. He had already l)egun the erec- 
tion of Georgetown College (178<S), and it was opened by 
the Jesuits in 1791, llr induced the Sulpitians in Paris 
to send over Father Nagot with several assistants to oi)en 
a theological seminary in Baltimore (1791). The first 
community of nuns in the United States was established l)y 

7. \Mmt lessened the bigotry oi tlie Protestants ? 8. What was the 
first church in Xew York City ? 9. Uow many Catholics were there in 
1790? In wliat States? 10. Who Avas the "first American bishop? 
11. Wliat dill ho do for education V 

244 History of the United States. 

— -i" — 
Carmelites in 1700 at Port Tobacco, Maryland, whence they 

removed to Baltimore after a few years and opened a school.* 

12. The Keigii of Terror in France drove a great many 
estimable French priests to the United States, where 
Bishop Carroll gave them welcome and employment. 
Among the most distinguished of these exiles who ar- 
rived between 1791 and 179G were Messrs. Dubois (after- 
wards Bishop of New York), Flaget (first Bishop of 
Bardstown and Louisville), David (coadjutor to Bishop 
Flaget), Dubourg (afterwards Bishop of New Orleans), 
Mar6chal (who became Archbishop of Baltimore), Eichard 
(a missionary in Michigan and delegate in Congress from 
that territory), Ciquard (who devoted himself to the In- 
dians in Maine), Gamier, Tessier, Barriere, Matignon 
(settled for many years in Boston), and Cheverus (first 
Bishop of Boston and afterwards Cardinal Archbishop of 

13. Mr. Stephen Badin, another of the French exiles, 
received orders in Baltimore in 1703, being the first 
priest ordained in the United States. He became a mis- 
sionary in the West. The second priest ordained in the 
United States (1705) was the celebrated Russian Prince 
Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin, who gave np an illustrious 
position and a vast fortune to become a missionary under 
the name of " Father Smith " in Western Pennsylvania. 
He founded a Catholic colony at Loretto, in Cambria 
County, giving away lands to the settlers and spending 
about $150,000 in the charital)le enterprise, lie is called 
the '' Apostle of the Alleghanies." 

* There were Ursulinesi much oiirlicT in New Orleans!, hut that place did not then 
belong to the United States. 

12. Name some of the French priests who fled to America. Wliat bc- 
eatne of them ? 13. Who was tlie first priest ordained in this country ? 
The date ? The second priest ? Give an account of him. 

Jojix Adams Puksident. '245 

— + — 
14. Father Leonard Neale, a native of Maryland, was 
sonsccrated coadjutor to Bishop Carroll (1800), and suc- 
ceeded him in the archbishopric of Baltimore. JS'eale and 
Carroll were both Jesuits. The Ivev. John Thayer, a 
Congrcgationalist minister of lioston, became a Catholic 
in 1783, and, being ordained priest in France, was ap- 
pointed pastor in Boston, where he labored with great 


JouN Adams Presiuknt, 1797-lSOl— IIosTn.rriEs with France- 
Death OF Washington. 

1. Election of President Adams. — The third election for 
the Presidency took place 
in 1790. The Federalists 
]nit forward John Adams, 
of Massachusetts, and the 
Republicans Thomas Jef- 
ferson, of Virginia, and 
after an angry contest the 
choice fell upon Adams. 
Under the Constitution as it 
then stood, Jett'erson, having 
received the next highest 
number of electoral votes, 
became Vice-President. 
The term of President Ad- 

1 „ "\r 111 i^'riw John Adams. 

ams began Marcb 4, 17'.I7. 

2. ftuarrel with France. — Two niontlis aft or bis inau- 

14. Who was FatliiT Noalo ? Wliat is said of IMr. Thayer 'i 1. Who 
wcVc randidatos at the tliird ok'ction fur tlic Presidency ? Who was 
chosen V 

246 History of the United States. 

guration President Adams called an extra session of Con- 
gress to consider the unfriendly relations between tlie 
United States and France. The council styled the Direc- 
tory, Avliicli then administered the affairs of the French 
Republic, had violently resented the conclusion of Jay's 
treaty Avith England, insisting that America ought to- 
support France in her Avar against Great Britain. The 
most inflammatory appeals Avere nuide by the French rep- 
resentatives in this country to the passions and l>reju- 
dices of the jjcople. American ships Avere seized, aiul :i 
decree Avas published under Avhich the hundreds of Ame- 
rican sailors AV'ho had been impressed into the British 
serA'ice Avere made liable, if caught, to be treated as 

3. GouA^erneur Morris, the American minister in Paris, 
did not sympathize Avith the extreme rcAolutionists, and 
the French Republic demanded his recall. His successor 
Avas Mr. Monroe, Avhom Washington Avas obliged to re- 
move because he misrepresented the neutral i)olicy of the 
administration. The next minister Avas Pinckuey, Avhom 
the French grossly insulted and refused to receive. Pre- 
sident Adams then resolved to send three commissioners 
to negotiate for a better understanding (1?97). 

4. The persons chosen Avere Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry, 
and John Marshall, afterAvards chief-justice of the United 
States. The Directory refused to receive them, but they 
had a long unofficial discussion Avith Talleyrand, the Min- 
ister of Foreign Affairs, Avho demanded of them, as a pre- 
liminary to any negotiation, a large loan for the use of 
the government, and a bribe of 1240,000 for the private 
pockets of members of the Directory, threatening Avar in 

3. What were the relations between America and France ? What 
had the French Directory done ? 4. IIow Avere the American commis- 
sioners treated in Paris ? Tell llu' storv of Pinckney and Talleyrand. 

Hostilities wits France. 247 

— + — 

case of refusal, rinckncy replied: *'AVar Lo it, then! 
Millions for defence, not one cent for tribute." 

5. l*inckney and Marshall were ordered to leave the 
country. Gerry was allowed to remain because he l)e- 
longed to the extreme i)arty in iwlitics. Great resentment 
was aroused in America by these i)rocecdings of the French 
revolutionists, so different from the behavior of Franco 
in former days, and Congress prejiared for war. A mivy 
was organized, money Vv'as appropriated for the defence 
of the coasts, a jirovisional army was raised, and AVash- 
ington, recalled from his retirement at Mount Vernon, 
Avas appointed commander-in-chief.* 

6. Hostilities were promptly begun at sea. Several ex- 
cellent ships of war had been built, and a number of mer- 
ehant vessels Avere converted into armed cruisers. Four 
squadrons Avere fitted out : one under Commodore Barry, 
then head of the navy, had the frigate Vnited States for 
Hag-ship, ami included also the celebrated frigate Consti- 
t Ntioii (knoyvn as '■ Old Ironsides"), Captain Samuel Nich- 
olson, and eight snudler vessels ; another Avas commaiuled 
by Commodore Truxtun, in the Constellation ; a third by 
Captain Tingey ; and the fourth by Captain Decatur. 
More than three hundred and tifty nun'chant vessels Avere 
also arined as privateers. 

7. All the squadrons nuule numerous prizes. In li'.i!) 
the French frigate Ij Inxunjente, after engaging the Con- 
stitntion, from Avhicli she escaped, Avas caj)tured by Com- 
modore Truxtun. The next year Truxtun drove the 

♦ It was (luring the excitement of this crisis that Joseph Hopkinson wrote the 
words of " Hail Columbia," ever since regarded as one of the national songs. The 
tune was already popular under the name of "The President's March."' 

5. What was done in America ? 6. Who commanded the American 
squadrons ? What other preparations were mjulc ? 7, What did Com- 
modore Truxtun accomplish ? 

248 History of the United States. 

Prcnch frigate Vengeance into Gurayoa, dismasted and 
sinking-. The exploits of the American navy dnring this 
" Frencli M'ar " (as it was called) tilled the country with 
pride and gave the new nation a higli repute abroad.* 

8. In the meantime the French Directory had offered 
to come to terms, and President Adams accordingly 
sent three envoys to France. On their arrival they found 
the Directory overthrown and the Consulate established 
in its place. A treaty of peace was concluded by Napo- 
leon Bonaparte as First Consul, KSeptember 30, 18U3. 

9. Death of Washington.— Washington died at Mount 
Vernon, December 14, 1799, after only one day's illness. 
His disease was an affection of the throat. The event 
was mourned all over the United States with sincere feel- 
ing, and was ap})ropriately observed by Congress and 
other public bodies. Bonaparte ordered the standards 
of the French army to be shrouded in crape for ten days, 
and in England a fleet of sixty British men-of-war lower- 
ed their flags to half-mast. 

10. Alien and Sedition Laws. — During the difficulties 
Avitli Franco two acts were ])assed by Congress known as 
the alien and sedition laws. The flrst em})owered the 
President to order aliens who were conspiring against 
the peace of the United States to ([uit the country, and 
tlie secoiul resiricictl liboi-ty o£ the press. These laws 

* Till' first " coinninndcr-in-chicf " of the navy of the Revolution wns Esok or 
Ezekiel, somctinu's culled '• Admiral," Hopkins. He was dismissed in 1777, and the 
senior oflker during the rest of the war was Conuiiodore James Nicholson, of Mary- 
land, a j;allunt sailor Ijclongin';; to a family which has been distinguished in the service 
to this day. The navy was disbanded after the peace, and a new establishment was 
orgaiiiy.ed in 1794, Commodore Barry was at the head of it till his death in 18(13, and 
he was succeeded by Commodore Samuel Nicholson, a lirother of Commodore Jame.*. 

8. TIow was peace made ? !). Wlieii did Washington die ? What 
signs of mourning wore cxIiiUitcd ? 10. What M'cre the alion and sedi- 
tion laws V 

Removatj of the Cai'ital. 240 

— + — 
proved highly uni)0])uhir and cuused the defeat of Adams 
in the next election for tlie Presidency. 

11. Removal of the Capital. — In 1800 (lie national 
cai)ital was removed from Philadelphia to the new city of 
Washington on the Potomac. For the purposes of the 
federal Government the {States of Virginia and Maryland 
had ceded a tract of land 


ten miles s(piare, and this 
was erected into the Dis- 
trict of Columbia and 
l)laced under the exclusive 
jurisdiction of Congress. 
The i)ortion on the south 
side of the Potomac, being 
about two-fifths of the 
whole grant, was given 
back to Virginia in 1840. 
12. Fourth Presidential 
Election. — At the election 
in 1800 the Eepnblican 
party triumphed. Of the 
electoral votes for President, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, 
and Aaron Burr of New York, received seventy-three each, 
and Adams sixty-five. This threw the choice into the 
House of Representatives, by whom Jelfersou was elected 
President and Burr Vice-President.* 

'lUOM \-4 <J| I' M 

* Thp ronto>'t betwoon .Tcffcr-nn and Burr led to tlif Twelftli Ainendineiit of the 
Constitution respecting the manniT of choosinj^ the President and Vioe-I'i-esident. 

What was the effect of thcso laws in politics ? 11. Wlion was the 
capital rcinovod ? To what place ? 13. When was the fourth presideu- 
tial election ? The result ? 

260 History of the United States. 

— + — 


Thomas Jefferson President, 1801-9— Purchase of Louisiana- 

Quarrel with England. 

1. Acquisition of Louisiana. — By a secret treaty with 
Spain iu 1800 France recovered the territory of Louisiana ; 
the Spanish civil officers, however, were left in command, 
and in 1802 the Spanish intendant at New Orleans issued 
a proclamation closing the Mississippi to American com- 
merce. This action threatened to result in war ; but 
fortunately Jefferson succeeded in a negotiation which 
lie had long carried on with Nai^oleon Bonajiarte. 

2. Knowing that whoever controlled the mouth of 
the Mississippi must become master of the whole valley, 
Jefferson proj^osed to buy Xew Orleans. Bonai)arte re- 
fused ; but finding himself on the eve of a great Eu- 
ropean war, he offered to sell the whole of Louisiana, and 
the United States obtained this vast territory in 1803, at 
the price of $15,000,000, one-quarter of which was to be 
paid to American citizens in satisfaction of claims against 
France. What is noAv the State of Louisiana Avas there- 
upon organized as the Territory of Orleans, and the rest 
was called the District of Louisiana, The Louisiana pur- 
chase included everything west of the Mississippi not 
already occupied by Spain, and comprised the whole or 
part of the present States of Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, 
Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Oregon, 
the Indian Territory, and the Territories of Dakota, 
Idaho, Montana, Washington, and Wyoming, 

1. What changes took place affecting Louisiana ? 3. How did the 
iTniied States acquire it ? Fur what price? llow was il divided? 
What did it comprise ? 

The BAiiiiAh'v War. ^6l 

— + — 

3. "War with the Barbary States.— Tiie Barbaiy States, 
Tunis, Tripoli, Algiers, and Morocco, on the soutliern 
shores of the Mediterranean, were in the habit of sending 
out piratical vessels to prey upon the commerce of other 
nations and reduce their sailors to slavery. All the great 
powers of Europe, as well as the United States, had 
adopted the custom of paying tribute to these petty gov- 
ernments, in order to secure immunity for their trade. 
In 1801. however, the bey of Tripoli having demanded 
additional presents, and Algiers having been guilty of 
great insolence, an American stpuidron was sent to give 
the corsairs a lesson. 

4. AVhile Commodore Preble, in the Constitution, men- 
aced Tangier and forced the emperor of Morocco to come 
to terms, Captain Bainbridge, in the Philadelphia, block- 
aded Tripoli. There he unfortunately ran on a sunken 
rock, and was attacked by a ileet of the enemy's gun-boats 
in such a position that he could not bring a gun to bear 
in reply. Unable to get the ship off, he was forced to 
surrender (October 31, 1803) ; the officers were held for 
ransom and the men were all reduced to slavery. 

5. A few months later Lieutenant Stephen Decatur 
(son of the Captain Decatur mentioned in the preceding 
chapter) entered the harbor of Tripoli with seventy 
picked men in a small schooner, boarded the captured 
frigate, drove off the Tripolitan crew, set the vessel on 
fire, and sailed out under the guns of the city without 
h)sing a man. For this exploit he was promoted to bo 

6. Tripoli was bombarded by Commodore Preble in 
August, and a number of the Tripolitan vessels were 

3. What were the Barbary States ? How did they treat other na- 
tions ? 4. Describe the Ainorican iiiival operations. 5. What was 
Decatur's exploit ? 0. Tiac laic oi" Captain Somci-s ? 

252 History of the IJ sited States. 

caiDturcd by boarding. A tiro-sbip sent into tlie hurboi 
in the hope of destroying the enemy's fleet bleAv up pre- 
maturely, Captain Somers and all her crew being killed. 

7. The bey of Trijioli had an elder brother named 
Hamet, whom he liad driven from the throne. Captain 
Eaton, the United States consul at Tunis, planned an 
expedition against Tripoli in conjunction with this 
person. They raised a force of four hundred men in 
Egypt, made a difficult march of six hundred miles across 
the desert, captured the Tripolitan i)ort of i)crne (April, 
1805) with the aid of two vessels of the American squad- 
ron, and wei'c about to move upon Tripoli when news 
came that the bey had made peace. Tunis also sued for 
peace, and the depredations of the Barbary cruisers came 
to a stop for several years. 

8. Burr and Hamilton. — In 1804 Jefferson was re- 
elected President, with General George Clinton for Vice- 
President, in place of Aaron Burr, Avho liad separated 
from his party. The Federalists then made Burr a can- 
didate for the governorship of N^cw York, but some of 
their leading men refused to support him, and he was 

9. Resenting especially the opposition of Alexander 
Hamilton, Burr sent that distinguished man a challenge 
to a duel. They fought at "Weehawken (now part of 
Hoboken), on the Hudson, opposite "N"ew York, July 11, 
1804, and Hamilton Avas killed. 

10. Hamilton had rendered the most brilliant service 
to his country, Ijoth as a confidential aide-de-camp and 
friend of Washington during the Revolution, and as a 
political writer and Secretary of the Treasury after the 

7. What was Captain Eaton's enterprise ? How did it end ? 8. 
What was the result of tli(> elec-tion of 1804 ? 9. What duel was fought ? 
10. What wore tlie cliaraoters of Hamilton and Burr ? 

Burros Treason. 353 

— + — 
peace. Burr had also been in the army, but he belonged 
to the faction opposed to AYashington, and Washington 
had a very bad opinion of him. His private life Avas 
notoriously profligate. 

11. The Conspiracy of Burr. — In 1805 Burr, bank- 
rupt in fortune and a fugitive from his home, visited 
Kew Orleans and other parts of the Soutli and AVest for 
the purpose of arranging an enterprise whose exact object 
has never been positively discovered. He planned either 
the seizure of Mexico or the establishment of a monarchy 
Avest of the Alleghanies ; he proposed to a number of 
military and naval officers to join him ; and he enlisted 
in his scheme the unfortunate Harman Blennerhasset, a 
rich gentleman of English birth but of Irish family, who 
owned a magnificent seat on an island in the Ohio Eiver 
near Marietta. Blennerhasset was ruined by his engage- 
ment in this affair, and his splendid home, surrounded 
by celebrated gardens, was laid waste. 

12. Burr and several of his partisans were arrested by 
the federal Government on a charge of treason. The 
trial of Burr took place at Richmond before Chief-Justice 
Marshall, and in September, 1807, after a long investigji- 
tion, he was acquitted in consequence of a defect in the 
chain of evidence. Burr went to England in search of 
aid for the prosecution of his schemes, but after suffering 
much from i)overty, and being expelled from England as 
a French spy and detained in Paris as an English spy, he 
returned to America and died at an advanced age in ob- 

13. Troubles with France and England. — France and 
England being at war, the United States, as a neutral 

11. What was the scheme of Burr ? Who was Blennerhasset ? 12. 
What became of Burr ? IIow did ]u> die ? 13. How did America profit 
by the war in Europe ? 

254 History of the United States. 

— + — 

power, acquired a valuable foreign commerce ; but this was 
speedily destroyed by the arbitrary measures of the two 
belligerents. Tlie British Government, by an ''order in 
council,-' declared all the French ports from Brest to the 
Elbe to be in a state of blockade (180G). Bonaparte re- 
taliated by proclaiming a blockade of all tlie British 

14. In 1807 another order in council forbade neutral 
vessels to enter a French port without previously stop- 
ping at a British port and paying a tax. Napoleon 
promptly replied by his " Milan decree," confiscating 
every vessel which should submit to British search or pay 
any duty whatever to England. Thus American mer- 
chantmen were made the prey of both parties. 

15. Congress attempted to meet these high-handed 
acts by declaring an embargo, Avliich detained all vessels, 
American or foreign, in the ports of the United States, 
and ordered all American vessels abroad at once to return 
liome. Tliis measure proved so unpopular that it was 
repealed (1809), and in its place a non-intercourse law 
was passed prohibiting trade with France and England. 

16. The Right of Search. — The resentment aroused 
against England by the injury to American eomnierce, 
and tlie arbitrary ruling of the English prize courts witli 
respect to neutral property captured at sea, was greatly 
intensified by the offensive manner in Avhich British crui- 
sers continued to search American vessels, and seize all 
sailors, even naturalized citizens, who were supposed to 
be British subjects. 

17. In June, 1807, tlie insolence of this claim was car- 
ried so far that the British man-of-war Leopard stopped 

What were the orders in council ? 14. The next orders ? How did 
Bonaparte reply ? 15. What did Congress do ? 16. What claim did 
England enforce ? 

The Right of Search. 255 

— 4- — 
the United States frigcatc Chesapeake off the entrance to 
Cliesiipenke Bay, fired into her, killing or wounding 
twenty-one of the crew, and took off four men, three of 
whom were Americans. President Jefferson demanded 
reparation for this outrage, and issued a proclamation or- 
dering all British war vessels out of American waters. 
The British Government was ready to disavow the act of 
the Leopard, but as it would not surrender the right of 
search the negotiations became angry, and the cud of 
Jefferson's term found the matter still unsettled. 

18. Other Events of Jeflferson's Administration. — Among 
the other important events of Mr. Jefferson's administra- 
tion were the admission of Ohio as a State in 1802 ; the 
passing of an act of Congress i)rohibiting the slave trade 
after January 1, 1808 ; the beginning of the United 
States Coast Survey, a valuable work Avhicli is still con- 
tinued to the great credit of American science ; and the 
iij)i)lication of steam to navigation by Eobert Fulton. 
The first steamboat on the Hudson was built by Fulton 
in 1807, and made the voyage from New York to Albany, 
one hundred and fifty miles, in thirty-six hours. John 
Fitch, however, a native of Connecticut, had built a 
steamboat nearly twenty years earlier. Fulton also ex- 
perimented with submarine torpedoes, and some years 
hiter built the first steam vessel of war. 

19. Jefferson refused to be a candidate for a third term, 
and at the election in 1808 James Madison, of Virginia, 
the Secretary of State, was chosen President by the Repub- 
lican, or, as it now began to be called, the Democratic, 
j)arty. Clinton Avas re-elected Vice-President. The candi- 
dates of the Federalists were C. C. Pincknevand Rufus Kinsr. 

17. What was the affair between the Leopard and the Chesapeake f 

18. Mention other events of Jefferson's administration. Who invented 
steamboats ? 19. Who was elected in 1808 ? 


* — 


James Madison President, 1809-17 — Tecumseh — Second War with 


1. Relations with England. — President Madison's term 
of office began March 4, 1809. He was surrounded from 
the first with extraordinary difficulties. The French and 
English alike continued to confiscate American ships on 
the ocean and in foreign ports, and to treat remonstrances 
and demands for reparation with extreme insolence. The 
British, moreover, persisted in searching American shijis 
and taking olf seamen, and the Dejiartment of State at 
AA^ashington had a list of six thousand of tlicse unfortu- 
nate men who were said to have been forced into the 
English service. 

2. Indian War. — The bitter feeling against the British 
was increased by a general belief that they were the in- 
stigators of troubles which now began to ajipear among 
tlie Indians of the Northwest Territory. Tecumseh, a 
Shawnee chief, and his brotlier, a famous *' medicine- 
man," commonly called The Prophet, were known to be 
forming a confederacy of the tril)es to resist the progress 
of the whites. 

3. Tlie Government determined to attack them before 
they could begin hostilities, and General William Henry 
Harrison, Governor of the Territory of Indiana and 8u- 
l)erintendent of Indian Affairs, marched against tlieir 
principal town, at the junction of tlie "Wabash and Tip- 
pecanoe rivers, Indiana. 

1. What were the foreign diflficulties of Mr. Madison ? 2. What 
trouble arose in the Northwest ? 3. Who was sent against the In- 
dians V 

The War of 1812. 257 

— + — 

4. Battle of Tippecanoe. — Ton miles fruiu the iown the 
savages attempted to surprise Harrison's camp before day- 
light, Xovember 7, 1811, but they were beaten off and put 
to flight, and the town Avas burned. This quelled the dis- 
turbances in the West for a time, but Tecumseh was soon in 
arms a^'ain with a reirular commission in the British service. 

5. British Outrages. — On the sea the conduct of the 
English fell little short of actual Avar. In May, 1811, 
the United States frigate President, Commodore Ivodgors, 
hailed the British man-of-Avar Little Belt near Sandy 
Hook, and on asking, "What ship is that?" Avas an- 
SAvered by a shot Avhich cut the rigging and entered the 
nuiinmast. The President replied Avith a gun, and a 
sharp action ensued, in Avliich the Little Belt Avas severely 
crii)pled and lost thirty-one killed and Avounded. 

6. The War of 1812.— On the 19th of June, 1812, the 
President proclaimed Avar against England ; Congress au- 
thorized the enlistment of tAventy-tive thousand regulars 
and fifty thousand volunteers, and the calling out of one 
hundred thousand militia to man the defences of the coast 
and frontier. Henry Dearborn, of ^lassachusetts, was made 
commander-in-chief, and commissions as brigadiers were 
issued to James Wilkinson, AVade Hampton, William Hull, 
Governor of Michigan, and Joseph Bloomfield. 

7. The Avar opened Avith the invasion of Canada, Hull 
being ordered to cross at Detroit and attack Fort Maiden, 
a fcAv miles distant. He entered Canada, but learning that 
the British had captured MackinaAv (July 17), and had 
surprised and defeated a small force under ]\[ajor A'an 
Htirne at the llaisin River (August 5), he abandoned his 
nuuvh and returned to Detroit. 

4. Give an account of the battle of Tippecanoe. 5. Of the affair 
between the President and Little Belt. (>. When was war dechiredV 
7, Describe the first operations. 

258 History of the United States. 

— * — 

8. Here lie was ut once uttackcd by n combined Britisli 
and Indian force under General Brock and Tecumseli. 
Believing that he was not strong enough to defend the 
place, he surrendered (August 16) not only Detroit, with 
its garrison and stores, but the whole territory of Michi- 
gan. Exchanged after some time, he was tried by court- 
martial on charges of treason and cowardice. He was ac- 
quitted of treason, but sentenced to be shot for cowardice. 
The President pardoned him because he had been a faith- 
ful soldier during the Revolution. 

9. Battle of ftueenstown Heights. — The next attempt 
upon Canada was made near Niagara. A small body of 
troops, jiartly militia, under Colonel Van Eensselaer, crossed 
from Lcwiston, below the falls, to attack the village of 
Queenstown (October 13). The Americans stormed the 
Heights and drove the enemy out of their batteries, the 
British general. Brock, being killed and two young Ame- 
rican officers, Avho afterAvards became noted generals — 
namely, Lieutenant-Colonel "Winfield Scott and Captain 
John E. Wool — distinguishing themselves in the action. 
Most of the militia at Lewiston refused to go to the sup- 
port of their comrades, and the invaders Avcre overpowered, 
nearly all being killed or captured. 

10. Exploits of the Navy. — To compensate for these 
disasters on land the little American navy won imperish- 
able glory on the ocean. The United States frigate Essex, 
Captain Porter, captured the British sloop-of-war Alert 
(August 13). The Coiisfifufion, Captain Hull (a relative 
of General Hull), fought a famous action with the British 
frigate Guerriere {(jher-c-(ire'). Captain Dacres, near the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence (August 19), and completely de- 

8. Describe the affair at Detroit. What was clone to Hull ? 9. De- 
f'cril)e the battle of Queenstown. Wlmt Ainerioan olTiotrs distinguished 
themselves ? 10. What were the exploits of the Essex sxiid Constitution ? 

Exploits of the Na vr. 259 

— + — 
stroyed her in about an hour. Tliis victory, dispelling 
the ])opular belief that the British navy Avas invincible, 
filled the country with transports of delight. 

11. The sloop-of-war Wasp, Captain Jones, captured 
the British brig-of-war Frolic oft the Nortli Carolina 
coast (Octolxn- 18), but the same day the British ship 
J'oictiers took both the captor and her prize. 

12. The frigate lliited States, Commodore Decatur, 
fought a memorable action (October 25) with the British 
ship Macedunian, Captain Carden, which surrendered after 
being nearly cut to pieces. This engagement took i)lace 
near the Azores, but Decatur succeeded in carrying his prize 
to New York. 

13. The Co7istUntion, now commanded by Commodore 
Bainbridge, was the victor in another great sea-fight the 
same year, capturing the British frigate Java, Captain Lam- 
bert, olf the coast of Brazil (December 29) ; Captain Lam- 
bert Avas killed, and his ship Avas so badly injured that 
Bainbridge burned her, Avhilc the Coast Uution did not lose 
a spar. 

14. Madison Re-elected. — During the first six months of 
the Avar the despised American navy, of Avhicli even the 
Americans themselves expected little, became the admiration 
of the Avorld. Privateers also were very active; and before 
the end of the year the captures from the British number- 
ed al)out fifty vessels of Avar, tAvo hundred and fifty mer- 
chant vessels, and three thousand men. Under the im- 
pulse of these successes the Federalists, Avho had been 
oi)})osed to the Avar, Avere beaten in the autumn elections, 
and Madison Avas chosen President again, Avith Elbridge 
Gerry for Vice-President. 

11. Of the Wasp f 12. The United States ? 13, The Comtituiion 
again ? 14. IIow many British vessels were captured this year ? IIow 
did the elections result in November ? 

2oO History of the U sited States. 

— + — 


Campaign of 1813— Battle of Lake Erie— Perry, Lawrence, and 


1. Operations in the Northwest.— For the campaign of 
1813 the American haul forces were divided into three 
armies. General Harrison, with the army of the west, in 
Ohio, was to operate near Detroit and undertake the re- 
covery of Michigan ; General Dearborn, with the army of 
the centre, was on the shore of Lake Ontario ; and General 
Hampton, Avith the army of the north, was near Lake 

2. In January General Winchester, who held a command 
under Harrison, sent a detachment to drive off the British 
then threatening the village of Frenchtown, on llaisin Kiver, 
Michigan. Winchester soon joined this detachment with his 
mam body. On the 22d of January, 1813, the Americans 
were surprised by the English from Fort Maiden, under 
General Proctor, and forced to surrender. Those who 
were able to march were taken to Canada ; the sick and 
wounded were left bcliiiid and massacred by the Indians. 

3. Harrison, who was on the way to join Winchester, 
stopped at the rapids of tlie Z^Iaumee, in Northwestern Ohio, 
and established a post, wliich he called Fort Meigs. There 
he was besieged by two thousand British and Indians, 
under Proctor and Tecumseh, but General Ch'een Clay, 
with a body of Kentucky troops, came to liis relief, and 
the enemy were driven off, ]\Iay 9. 

4. In July Proctor and Tecumseh, with four thousand 
men, renewed the attack. Clay, who was now in command, 

1. What was the plan of campaign for 1813 ? 2. Describe the battle 
of Raisin River. 3. The siege of Fort Meigs ? 4, Was the attack 
renewed ? What was the result ? 

De ARBOR \'s Camraigx. 261 

— + — 

gave tliein ti rough reception, and tliey turned aside to 
attempt the capture of Fort Stevenson, at Lower Sandusky. 
This post had a garrison of only one hundred and sixty 
men, comnumded by Lieutenant Croghan, a boy of twenty- 
one, and it mounted only one gun. Nevertheless young 
Croghau made such a gallant defence that the assailants, 
tiiough they were assisted by gunboats, were driven olf 
with severe loss, August 2. 

5. Dearborn, with the army of the centre, crossed 
Lake Ontario in the spring, and captured York (iu)w 
Toronto), April 27. The British blew up the magazine 
when they retreated, and the American general, Pike, who 
led the assault, was killed with many of his men by the 

6. A month afterwards Dearborn, with the aid of a 
S(|uadron commanded by Commodore Chaiincey, drove the 
British out of Fort George, on the C'anada side of the 
mouth of the Niagara River, and pursued them to the 
western end of Lake Ontario. There they turned and 
attacked him (June 6) at Stony Creek, in Canada. They 
were repulsed, but in the confusion two American gene- 
rals. Chandler and Winder, were made prisoners. 

7. Retn-ing to Fort George, Dearborn was there attack- 
ed and six hundred of his men were cut off. His cam- 
paign Avas severely criticised, and he was soon supplanted 
by AVilkinson. 

8. While Dearborn was operating at the western end 
of Lake Ontario, Sir George Prevost, the Britisli com- 
mander-in-chief, landed Avith one thousand men at the 
eastern end to attack Sackett's Harbor (May 20). Gen- 
eral BroAvn, a Ncav York militia officer, rallied a body of 

What was Lieutenant Croglian's exploit ? 5. Describe the capture 
of Toronto. 6. The affair at Stony Creek. 7. At Fort George. Who 
superseded Dearborn ? 8. What did Prevost undertake ? 



voliintccr.s to aid the smuU force of reguluris stationed 
there, and liandled them so well that Prevost abandoned 
his wounded and retired hastily to his shijjs. 

9. Naval Operations on the Lake. — These land oi^era- 
tions had no important result, but the navy (which had 
never been fairly appreciated by the Government) was 
meanwhile preparing a brilliant success. Oliver Hazard 
Perry, a young master-commandant, had volunteered for 
service on Lake Erie, and by extraordinary exertions had 
built and launched several vessels at Presque Isle (now 
Erie), Pennsylvania, and added to them a fcAv craft cap- 
tured in the Niagara Kiver. 

10. AVitli a fleet of ten sail (some of them mounting 
only one gun), imperfectly equipped and short of men 
and officers, he met an English squadron under Com- 
modore Barclay near the western end of the lake on 
the morning of Scq^tember 10, 1813. The enemy had 
only six vessels, but, as they were superior to the Ameri- 
CitU, the fcH'ces were about equal. 

11. Battle of Lake Erie. — Tlie engagement lasted about 
three hours. Perr^^'s Qwn ship, the Lawrence, became the 
target of the heaviest of the enemy's fire, and was so badly 
injured as to be useless. Perry then abandoned lier, and, 
taking an open boat, pulled through the thick of the battle 
to the Niagara. "With this brig he sailed into the British 
line at a critical moment, pouring in a terrible broadside 
right and left as he passed, then turning and continuing a 
deadly discharge at short range. In fifteen minutes the 
British surrendered, and Perry sent a messenger to General 
Harrison with the despatch, "■ We have met the enemy, 
and they are ours." 

Who defended Sackett's Harbor ? The result ? 9. What was at- 
tempted on Lake Erie ? 10. What were the forces on each side ? 11. 
Describe tiie battle. 

Death of TECuMshJU. 363 

— + — 

12. This victory gave the Americans command of the 
hike. The squadron was emphned to transport Harri- 
son's troops to Canada; the British evacuated Detroit and 
Fort Maklen, and retreated with Tecumseh and his Indians 
up tha river Tliames, a stream of Canada West, which 
flows into Lake St. Clair. 

13. Harrison overtook them, October 5, at a viHage 
called Moravian Town. At tlie first charge by a body of 
Kentucky mounted volunteers under Colonel Richard M. 
Johnson (afterwards Vice-President) the British threw down 
their arms and surrendered, General Proctor and his staff 
making their escape. The Indians fought better until 
Tecumseh was killed, when they also fled. 

14. Wilkinson's Expedition. — This i)ut an end to the 
war in the Northwest. Michigan was restored to the 
United States, and the government was reorganized under 
General Cass. Harrison ar.d his army went to liuffalo in 
order to take part in a contemplated attack upon Canada 
by Wilkinson. 

15. Wilkinson moved down the St. Lawrence in boats, 
wiHi the intention of capturing Montreal. A battle was 
fought November 11 near Williamsburg, on the Canada 
side of the river, below Ogdensburg, in which botli parties 
were somewhat crippled. Disappointed in the expectation 
of meeting Hampton with a supporting force whicli had 
l)egun to advance from Lake Champlain. Wilkinson aban- 
doned the attempt to reacli Montreal, and went into winter 
(puirters near St. Regis, on the St. Lawrence. The (piar- 
rels of the American commanders had been the chief cau.-e 

■ of the failure of the expedition. 

16. In December the British attacked Fort George, and 

13. What was the result of Perry's victory 'i 13. Describe Har- 
rison's battle at Moravian Town. Who was killed here ? 14. The 
result of the victory. 15. Describe Wilkinson's expedition. 

264 History of the United States. 

— 4- — 

drove the smiill American garrison under General McClure 
across the Niagara River. On tlie uiglit of the 19th they 
captured Fort Niagara, on the American side, and tlien 
they laid waste the American shore, burning Buffalo and 
several other towns. 

17. War with the Creeks. — In the i)revious spring Te- 
cumseli had visited and roused the Creek Indians of the 
Southwest, and in August they suri)riscd Fort Minims, on 
the Alabama River, and massacred nearly four hundred 
settlers who had gone there for protection. General An- 
drew Jackson, with a force of volunteers, marched into tlie 
Creek country, and inflicted on them a series of crushing 
defeats, ending Avith the battle of March 27, 1814, at the 
Horseshoe Bend of the Tallapoosa, where six hundred 
warriors Avere slain. This entirely subdued the Creeks, 
and they i)urchased peace by the surrender of two-tliirds 
of their hunting-grounds. 

18. Events on the- Sea. — In February, 1813, tlie Ame- 
rican sloop-of-Avar Hornet, Captain James Lawrence, cap- 
tured the Peacock off the coast of Guiana, after an action 
of only fifteen minutes. The Peacoch sank almost imme- 
diately, carrying down nine of her own crew and three 

19. On his return to the United States Lawrence Avas 
promoted to t]io frigate (liesapi'itkc, with Avhich. on June 1, 
he had a severe engagement Avitli tlie British frigate Sliaii- 
non, Captain Broke, near lioston. LaAvrenco AA'as mortally 
wounded at the beginning of the action. As he Avas car- 
ried bcloAV he exclaimed: '"Don't give Tip the ship!"* 

* Cominaiidcr Perry had tlie-je words displayed on the flag of the brig Lawrence, 
in which he fought the battle of Lake Erie a few weeks afterwards. 

16. Give an account of the operations on the Niagara River. 17. 
Of the rising of the Creek Indians. Wlio conquered thein ? 18 anil 
19. Describe the exploits of Captain Lawrence, 

Cruise of the Essex. 2Go 

— + — 

The Chesapeake, however, was eaptured by boarding jifter 
slie had lost a large proi)ortion of her officers and crew. 

20. The Aryus, Captain Allen, took a number of prizes 
near tlie English coast, and created s>o much alarm that 
several cruisers were sent after her. On the 14th of Au- 
gust she was cai)tured by the British man-of-war Pelican, 
after a gallant tight, in which Captain Allen was mortally 

21. The Enterpri.s-e, Lieutenant Burrows, Miiile cruising 
oif the coast of Maine, fell in with tlie British brig-of-war 
Boxer, Cajjtain Blythe (September b), and cai)tured her 
after a short action. Both commanders were killed, and 
they are buried in the same grave in Portland. 

22. The frigate Essex, Captain Porter, made a brilliant 
and successful cruise during the year 1813 in the Pacific, 
where she was the first to show the flag of an American 
man-of-war. She captured a great number of merchant- 
men and several armed sJiii)s, and entirely broke up the 
Kritisli whaling business in those seas. At length, how- 
ever, she was attacked and destroyed, March 28, 1814, 
by the British ships Fhvehe and Cliernh, in the har1)or of 
Valjjaraiso. In this affair the British committed a gross 
violation of the neutrality of Chili. 

23. During the spring and summer of 1813 a British 
squadron under Admiral Cockburn {cu'hurn) ravaged Dela- 
ware and Chesapeake bays, and, in c<)-()])eration Avitli a 
land force under Sir Sidney l^eekwith, attacked Norfolk. 
lie})ulsed June 2'1, tlie British ])liindered Hampton, on the 
Janies Piver, and (-ockburn afterwards made a descent 
ui)on the Carolina coast. 

20. The cruise of the Argm^. 21. The Enterpri.'^e. 22. The En- 
sex. How was the ^ destroyed ? 23, DoscriUe t lie Brit i.-^h raids on 
the coast ? 

366 Htstorv of the United States. 

— + — 


Campaign of 1814-15 — Lundy's Lane — Plattsburq — Burning of 
Washington — Battle of New Orleans — End of the War. 

1. On the Niagara Frontier. — Brown, the New York 
militia general who disting-uished himself so highly at 
Sackett's Harbor, had been rewarded for that affair by a 
commission as major-general in the regular army, and in 
the summer of 1814 he obtained jiermission to attempt a 
new invasion of Canada. He crossed the Niagara River 
with five thousand men. Fort Erie, nearly opposite Buf- 
falo, surrendered July 3. On the 5th he fought a severe 
battle at Chippewa, near the falls, with the British under 
General Riall, who were defeated and forced to retire to 
Burlington Heidits, at the western end of Lake Ontario. 
In this action the American advance was led by Brigadier- 
General Winfield Scott. 

2. Battle of Lundy's Lane. — Having been re-enforced, the 
British advanced again to the Niagara River under com- 
mand of Lieutenant-General Drummond, and came upon 
Brown at Bridgewater, or Lundy's Lane, a short distance 
from the falls. The battle began at sunset July 25, 1814, 
with a gallant attack by the Americans under Scott, and 
it lasted till midniglit, without important advantage to 
either side. The Americans, thougli greatly inferior in 
numbers, were left in possession of the field. Brown and 
Scott Avere botli Avounded, and Ripley, upon whom the 
command devolved, retired the next day to Fort Erie, 
where General Gaines took the chief command. 

3. Drummond laid siege to Fort Erie at the begin- 

1. Give an account of Brown's invasion of Canada ? 2. Describe 
the battlo of Lundy's Lane ? llow did it end ? 3. Describe the siege 
of Fort Erie. 

Battle of Plattsburg. 2G7 

— + — 

ning of August. On the 15lh he lost one thousand men 

in a vain attempt to take it by a night assault. A month 
later General Brown, who had now recovered from his 
wounds, made a sortie, destroyed the British works, and 
took four hundred prisoners. Drummond then abandoned 
the siege. In November the Americans blew up the fort 
and crossed to the New York side. 

4. Invasion of New York. — Tlie war between France 
and England was now over, and a large number of veteran 
British troops who had served under Wellington were sent 
to Canada. Thus strengthened, Prevost advanced with an 
army of fourteen thousand men to attack Plattsburg, on 
Lake Champlain, while a British squadron, under Cap- 
tain Downie, sailed up the lake to co-operate with him. 

5. The Americans, under Gen. Macomb, being only 
fifteen hundred strong, fell back behind a rapid 
stream called the Saranac, and there made a vigorous de- 
fence. They had also a squadron of small vessels under 
Commodore j\racdonough, and this was stationed at the 
entrance to Plattsburg Bay. It was decidedly inferior in 
size and equipment to the English fleet. 

6. Battle of Plattsburg.— On the 11th of September, 
1814, Captain Downie attacked Macdonough at the same 
time that Prevost attempted to force the passage of the 
Saranac. After two hours' hard fighting all the British 
vessels were captui-ed except a few small galleys, and Pre- 
vost, beaten at every point by Macomb, retreated in dis- 
order and fled to Canada. 

7. Operations on the Coast. — The British fleets block- 
aded the coast from Maine to Carolina. In August they 
bombarded Stonington, Connecticut, for four days, but 

4. How was Prevost strengthened ? What did he undertake ? 6. 

Describe the situation at Phittsburg ? 6. The l)attle. 7. British opera- 
tions ou the coast ? 

268 History of the United States. 

— 4" — 
were driven off. They occupied part of the coast of 
Maine, aud broke up the fisheries, and they committed 
great ravages on the Chesapeake. 

8. Tlie new sloop-of-war Peacock, Captain "Warrington, 
captured tlie British brig Epervier off the coast of Florida 
in April, and the ]fV^s/>, Cajitain Blakely, made a brilliant 
cruise, taking a great number of prizes ; but she never 
returned, and Avas probably lost in a storm. 

9. Capture of Washington. — In August a British fleet 
under Admiral Cochrane ajJiJeared in the Chesapeake, 
united Avith Cockburn's squadron, and landed five thou- 
sand veteran troops under General Ross on the Patuxent 
River, about fifty miles from Washington. The army 
thence marched towards the capital, while a part of the 
fleet ascended the Potomac. 

10. There was a force of American militia under Gene- 
ral Winder at Bladensburg, six miles from AVashington, 
and here, on the 24th of August (1814), a faint effort was 
made to stop the enemy's advance. The militia, however, 
fled almost at the first attack, and Commodore Barney, 
who, with a fcAV marines and artillery, made a brave stand, 
was Avounded and taken prisoner. 

11. Ross noAv entered Washington Avithout further op- 
position, the President and other officers of the Govern- 
ment taking refuge in the country. The Capitol, the 
President's house, the Library of Congress, the buildings 
of the State, Treasury, and War Departments were burned, 
and the Posl Office and Patent Office were only saved by 
a sudden storm. After this barbarous destruction of pro- 
perty the British retired to their ships. 

12. Defence of Baltimore. — In September they moved 

8. Naval operations ? 9. What were the British plans for capturing 
Wasliington ? Who were their cmninandors ? 10. Describe the affair 
at Bladensburg. 11. The burning of Washington. 

Battle of Kew Orlkaxs. 269 

upon Baltimore. Koss and his troops were landed on tlie 
12tli at Nortli Point, fourteen miles below the city, while 
the fleet moved up the Patapsco to bombard Fort McHenry, 
■which commanded the entrance to the harbor. Ross was 
killed in a skirmish at North Point, the attack upon the fort 
failed, and on the night of the 13tli the assailants retired.* 

13. Affairs in Florida. — Florida still belonged to the 
Spaniards, and they allowed the British to make use of the 
port of Pensacola for the purpose of fitting out an expedi- 
tion against the Americans on Mobile Bay. Gen. Jackson, 
who commanded in the South, after vainly remonstrating 
against this breach of neutrality, marched against Pensacola 
and captured it Novem])er 7, 1814. 

14. Invasion of Louisiana. — Jackson then hastened to 
New Orleans to meet a British force which had suddenly ap- 
peared in the Gulf. It consisted of 12,000 veteran soldiers 
under Sir Edward Pakenham, a distinguished general in 
Wellington's campaigns, and a fleet mustering 4,000 sailors 
and marines. Jackson had only 1,000 regulars, 4,000 mi- 
litia, and a small flotilla of gunboats on that arm of the 
Gulf of Mexico called Lake Borgne, which lies east of New 
Orleans and extends almost to the Mississippi. 

15. Battle of New Orleans. — Having captured the gun- 
boats, December 14, 1814, after a severe conflict, the British 
advanced towards the city. On the night of the 23d Jack- 
son attacked them and inflicted a severe loss. This checked 
their march and gave the Americans time to complete their 

* It was dining the bombardment of Fort McHenry that Francis Scott Key. an 
American gentleman debiined on board one of the British sliips, to which he had gone 
to ask the release of a friend, wrote the words of "The Star-Spaugled Banner." 

12. What was the next movement of the British ? The result ? 13. 
What liappenorl in Florida ? 14. What were the forces on each side at 
New Orleans ? 15, What were the first movements ? 


16. Jackson had constructed a line of entrenchments 
four miles below the city, extending from the Mississip2)i on 
one side to an impassable swamp on the other. At first 
his defences were breastworks built of cotton-bales, but as 
the British artillery set the cotton on fire, it was all re- 
moved and a ditch and earthworks were constructed The 
only approach for the British Avas by a neck of land hardly 
a mile wide and entirely exposed to the American batteries. 

17. Pakenham tried a cannonade in A'ain. On the 8tli 
of January, 1815, he ordered an assault. His troops moved 
forward in excellent order, in spite of the murderous fire of 
the American artillery ; but when they came within range 
of the Tennessee riflemen the slaughter was so terrible 
that they broke and fled. Pakenham was killed ; Gibbs, 
one of his subordinate generals, Avas mortally Avounded ; and 
the British retired to their ships. Their loss in the battle 
Avas about two thousand, Avhile that of the Americans Avas 
only thirteen. This Avas the last battle of tiie Avar. Indeed, 
a peace had already been concluded at Ghent, but the ncAvs 
had not yet reached xVmerica. 

18. Naval Operations. — A Aveek after the battle of New 
Orleans the frigate President, Commodore Decatur, in at- 
tempting to put to sea from Ncav York, encountered a 
British blockading squadron of five vessels, and was cap- 
tured after a severe and gallant action. 

19. The old Constifntion, Captain Stewart, made up for 
this disaster by engaging singly the British sloops-of-Avar 
Ciiane and Levant off the coast of Portugal, and capturing 
both in a remarkable night engagement, February 20. The 
Hornet, Captain Biddle, captured the British brig Penyuin 
in March, and in June Captain "Warrington, Avith the Pea- 

16. How was Jackson posted ? What is said of his breastworks ? 
17. Di>scnbc the Itattlc of New Orleans. Was tliis the lust of the war ? 
18 and 19. Mculion some of the naval cusagcmcuts. 

11 '^ A' WITH Algiers. 271 

•t' — 

cock, took the y<(ii/ifi(.s in the Paeitie. Learning that 
peace had been conchided, lie restored this vessel to the 
British the next day. 

20. Peace. — Both sides had for some time desired peace, 
and in America there was a ecjnsiderable party, esi)ecially in 
Kew England, with whom the war had always been un- 
popular. In December, 1814, a convention of the jjcace 
party of Xew England met at Hartford to consider the 
grievances of the peoi)le. The Hartford convention was 
often denounced as treasonable, but there was not suffi- 
cient ground for such a charge. 

21. The negotiations for peace took place at Ghent, 
in Belgium, the commissioners on the part of the United 
States being John Quincy Adams, James A. Bayard, Henry 
Clay, Jonathan Russell, and Albert Gallatin. The treaty 
was signed December 24, 1814, and pronii)tly ratified by 
both governments. 

22. Xothing was said in the treaty about the right of 
search and impressment of seamen, out of which the war 
arose, but the British ceased to enforce their claims, and 
hence the United States must be said to have succeeded 
in the object of the contest. 


War with Algiers — James Monroe Presidext 1817-25 — Purchase 
OF Florida — Slavery — Indian Missions. 

1. War with Algiers. — During the war with Great 
Britain hostilities had broken out again with Algiers, and 
the crew of an American vessel had been reduced to slavery. 

20. What was the Hartford convention ? 21. Where was the treaty 
of peace signed ? When ? 22. What was done al)out the right of 
search, etc. ? 1. What happened iu the Meditorraucan ? 

272 IIisTonr of the Vmted States. 

— 4.— 

As soou as the treaty oi Glieut was signed the Uuited States 
Goverumcut undertook to deal with this aifair decisively. 

2. Commodore Decatur accordingly sailed fur the Medi- 
terranean in May, 1815, with a fleet of nine vessels, in- 
cludino- three tine frigates, the Guerriere, Macedonicm, and 
Constellation. Soon after passing Gibraltar the Guerriere 
captured a large Algerino man-of-war, the best in the dey's 
navy. An Algerine brig was next taken ; and when De- 
catur appeared off Algiers the terrified ruler was ready 
to submit to any demands. 

3. Decatur forced the dey to come on board his ship 
and sign a treaty renouncing all future claim to any tribute 
from America, and agreeing to pay a sum of money as in- 
demnity, to abandon the practice of reducing i)risoners of 
war to slavery, and to surrender all the ])risoners then in 
his possession. Afterwards Decatur exacted certain indem- 
nities from Tunis and Tripoli. This put an end to the 
piracies of the Barbary Powers. 

4. Important treaties Avere made with the Indians of 
the Northwest in September, 1815. Indiana was admitted 
to the Union as a State the following year. 

5. James Monroe President. — At the elections -of 1816 
the Democratic, or Anti-Federalist, party was again success- 
ful. James Monroe, of Virginia, Madison's Secretary of 
State, was chosen President, and Daniel D. Tompkins, of 
New York, Vice-President. The new Administration began 
March 4, 1817. 

6. Mr, Moni-oe was an old soldier of Washington's and 
a man of pleasant and ]>opnlar m-mners and ui)right cha- 
racter. ITo served, like all his predecessors cxce])t John 
Adams, for two terms. 

2. Describe Decatur's cniise. 3. "What terms did he exact of the 
dey ? 4. What State was admitted in 1816 ? 5. What Avns tho result 
of the elections of 1816 ? 6, What is said of Monroe ? 



7. Hostilities broke out with the iSemiuole aud (Jreek 
Indians of ISpauish Florida, (jeorgia, and Alabama in 1817, 
and Gen. Jackson, being sent to the scene of disturbance, 
chastised the savages and destroyed their villages. 

8. Satisfied that the JSpaniards had incited the Indians 
to make war, Jackson 

invaded Florida (April, 
1818), captured 8t. Mark's, 
and hanged two British 
subjects who were convict- 
ed by a court-martial of 
stirring up the Indians 
and sup})lying them with 
arms. Then he seized Pen- 
sacola and sent the Span- 
ish troops and civil author- 
ities to Havana. 

9. Spain vigorously pro- 
tested against these pro- 
ceedings as a gross viola- 
tion of neutrality, but they 

were defended by the rrovornment on the pica flint thoy 
wore necessary for the protection of the States. The matter 
was finally arranged by the purchase of Florida by the 
ITnited States for $5,000,000 in 1810. 

10. Mississippi Territory was divided in 1817, the west- 
ern half being ndmitted into the Union as the State of 
Mississippi, and the eastern half erected into the Territory 
of Alabama. Illinois became a State in 1818 and Alabama 
in 1810. Maine was divided from Massachusetts in 1820 and 
admitted as the twenty-third State. In 18-^0 Alonroe and 

7. What occurred in 1817 ? 8. What did General Jackson do at St. 
Mark's? At Pensacola ? 0. Row was the difficulty with Spain arrang- 
ed V 10. What new States wore admitted ? 

James Monroe. 

274 History of the United States. 

Tompkins were re-elected, Mr. Monroe receiving all the 
electoral votes except one. 

11. Slavery Agitation. — The question of slavery began 
to give serious trouble during Mr. Monroe's administra- 
tion. In the Northern States the use of slave labor had 
nearly died out, while in the South, on the other hand, 
it had rapidly increased in consequence of the great de- 
velopment of the cotton industry. The invention of the 
cotton-gin, or machine by which the fibre of the cotton 
is separated from the seed (1793), was followed by the 
sudden extension of the cultivation of cotton all over the 
South. The labor of the fields was performed entirely by 
negroes, and the slaves, with the crops of cotton, rice, and 
tobacco raised by them, became sources of great wealth 
to the planters. 

12. In the Northwest Territory slavery was i)rohibited 
by law ; in all territories south of that domain it was 
permitted. There soon grew up a contest between the 
free and the slave States for the control of the Govern- 
ment, the South wishing to extend the area of slavery by 
the admission of new slave States ; the North seeking to 
confine the institution to the localities where it already 
existed ; while the abolitionists of the North desired to 
put a stop to it altogether. Hence began the " irrepres- 
sible conflict " between free and slave labor which ended, 
after more than forty years, in the great civil war. 

13. The Missouri Compromise. — In the session of Con- 
gress of 1818-19 the controversy became exciting when it 
was proposed to admit Missouri as a State. The House 
of Kepresentatives voted by a small majority to prohibit 
slavery in tlie new State ; the Senate would not consent. 

11. What is said of slave labor at ihv. North ? At tho South ? 12. 
In the Northwest Temtory ? In other Territories ? 13. What contro- 
versy arose in 1818-lf) ? 

The Monroe Doctrine. 276 

At the next session the conliiet was renewed with the 
same result. At lust a compromise was nuido by which 
Missouri was admitted as a slave State (1820), but it was 
agreed that slavery should not be tolerated in future north 
of latitude 30'^ 30', which was the southern boundary of 
Missouri. This law, known us the Missouri Compromise, 
quelled for a time an agitation which threatened to break 
uji the Union. 

14. The Tariff, — The policy of a protective tariff, which 
dates from the year 1820, afterwards became anotlier cause 
of disagreement between the North and the South. The 
manufacturing communities of the North wished the Gov- 
ernment to impose high duties upon foreign goods im- 
ported into this country, so that the owners of American 
mills and factories might be protected against the ruin- 
ous competition of older countries. The Soutli, wliieh 
was devoted to agriculture, insisted upon low duties. The 
question was postponed for a few years, but the senti- 
ment in Iaxoy of the protective system rapidly increased. 

15. The Monroe Doctrine. — Mexico and the Spanish col- 
onies of South America had revolted against Spain and 
established republics, and in 1823 President Monroe ac- 
knowledged them as independent nations. This important 
step was urged with the greatest ability and eloquence by 
Henry Clay, of Kentucky, who was at this time one of the 
most distinguished of American statesmen. The next year 
Mr. Monroe declared in his annujil message that " the 
American continents are not to be considered as subjects 
for future colonization by any European power." This 
principle afterwards became famous as the " ]\ronroe 

What was the Missouri Compromise ? The date ? 14. Explain the 
disaproeraeiit alioiit tlie tariff. 15. Explain the ^[onroe Doctrine. Who 
adviseil tlio recognition of tlie South American States ? 

2'J'6 History op the XTnitrd States. 

— 'i' — 

16. Visit of Lafayette. — In 1824 Congress requested 

President Monroe to invite Lafayette to visit the United 
States as the guest of the nation. The marquis, then 
sixty-seven years of age, s})ent eleven niontlis in a tour of 
the States, receiving everywhere the highest honors, and in 
1825 he returned to France in an American frigate named, 
in compliment to him, the B randy wine.* (See page 189.) 
His great fortune had been lost during the French Eevolu- 
tion, and Congress voted him a present of a township of 
land and two hundred thousand dollars m money. 

17. On the lUh of June, 1825, the fiftieth anniversary 
of the battle of Buuker Hill. General Lafayette laid the 
corner-stone of the Bunker Hill Monument. There were 
present on the occasion about forty survivors of the battle 
and two hundred soldiers of the Eevolution. A memo- 
rable oration was delivered by Daniel Webster. 

18. Indian Missions. — It was during the administration 
of Mr. Madison that the Catholic missions among the In- 
dians west of the Mississippi, neglected after the dispersion 
of the French Jesuits, entered upon a new course of jiros- 
perity. Bishop Dubourg, soon after his appointment to the 
see of Xew Orleans in 1815, exerted himself to obtain mis- 
Bionaries for the Western tribes, and from the labors thus 
begun date the fruitful enterprises which the Church has 
since prosecuted among these Indians. 

19. In 1824 a number of Jesuits were secui-ed. They 
opened a school for Indian boys at Florissant, near the 
junction of the Missouri and Mississi])pi rivers, where the 
Ladies of the Sacred Heart had alreadv a school for Indian 

* At the battle of llic Brandy^vine Monroe and Lafayitto fouRlit ?ido hy pido. 

16. Describe the visit of Lafayette. 17. When did he lay the corner- 
stone of the Ennkor TTill Monument? 18. TVliat is said of the Indian mis- 
sions? 19. What missionaries "vvcrc secured for them liy Bishoj) Dubourg? 

Father T)e Smet. 277 

— 4* — 

girls. The missions on ilie Missouri Avcre confided to tlie 

Jesuits and tliose ou the Mississippi to the Lazarists. 

20. Among the Jesuits 
at Florissant was Father 
Peter John De Smet, one 
of several young Belgians 
who came to tlie United 
States under the care of 
the Kev. Charles Neriuckx, 
one of the first priests in 
Kentucky. Father De 
Smet devoted the whole of 
his long life to the Indian 
missions, earning the title 
of the Apostle of the 
Rocky Mountains, and re- ;" 
calling by his extraordi- 
nary career the heroic 
davs of Jofifues and Brebenf. 

Father De Smet. 

He died iu 1872. 


John Quincy Adams, 1825-29 — A>rDREW Jacksoi^, 1829-37 — SErnxoLE 
War — Nullification — ISIartin Tax Burf.x, l!^3T-41. 

1. Election of John ftuincy Adams. — Mr. ]\Ionroe refused 
to be a candidate for a third term, and at the election of 
1834 the political })arties were in such a state of confusion 
that four persons were nominated for President, none of 
whom receiATd a majority of tlie electoral votes. General 

How were the missions divided ? 20. Give an acconnt of Father De 
Sract. 1. Give an account of the election of 1824, 

278 MiSTOKY OF THE JJniteb States. 

— + — 

Andrew Jackson, of Tennessee, had ninety- nine ; John 
Quincy Adams, of Massachnsetts, eighty-four ; William H. 
Crawford, of Georgia, forty-one ; and Henry Clay, of Ken- 
tucky, thirty-seven. For Vice-President, however, the 
balloting was more successful, and John C. Calhoun, of 
South Carolina, was elected. 

2. The choice for President now fell to the House of 

Representatives, and John 
Quincy Adams was select- 
ed. He was a son of Pres- 
ident John Adams, and in 
politics he belonged to the 
same school as Monroe. 
Henry Clay became Secre- 
tary of State. The admin- 
istration was quiet, pros- 
perous, and economical, 
and its most important act 
was the passing of the pro- 
tective tariff of 1828. 

3. On the 4th of July, 
1836, the fiftieth anniver- 
sary of the Declaration of 
Independence, John Adams died at Quincy, Massachusetts, 
and Thomas Jefferson at Monticello, Virginia. They ex- 
pired nearly at the same hour. 

4. Andrew Jackson President. — Party feeling was very 
bitter at the election of 1828, and Andrew Jackson was 
chosen President by one hundred and seventy-eight votes, 
against eighty-three cast for Mr. Adams. Calhoun was 
re-elected Vice-President, Jackson was a man of great 

John Quincy Adams 

3. How was John Quincy Adams chosen ? What is said of his 

administration 'i 3. What distinguished men died on the fiftieth anni- 
versary of the Declaration ? 4. Who was the next President ? 

The United States Bank. 
— + — 


courage, energy, and bokluess, and his administratiou, 
which begun March 4, 1829, aud lasted eight years, was 
marked 'hy many exciting political strifes. 

5. The United States Bank. — A national United States 
Bank had been established by Alexander Hamilton, and 
the public money was deposited in it. Jackson was bit- 
terly opposed to this institution, because he believed that 
it was unauthorized by the 

Constitution and a means 
of political corruption. As 
the charter was to expire 
in 1836, he urged Congress 
not to renew it. An angry 
controversy followed. A 
bill renewing the charter 
passed ' in 18'32, but Jack- 
son- vetoed it. 

6. Subsequently he re- 
commended that the public- 
money should be removed 
from the bank, and when 
Congress refused to con- 
sent to this measure he 

took the responsibility of ordering the Secretary of the 
Treasury to remove it (1833) — a measure which was follow- 
ed at first by great distress among merchants. In this 
quarrel the commercial classes generally took the side of 
the bank and became known as "Whigs, while tlie parti- 
sans of tlie President ke])t tlie old name of Democrats. 
The bank Avas finally closed when its ch.irter ran out, in 

5. Who founded the United States Bank ? What did Jackson think 
of it ? His action ? 6. What did he do nest ? How did the affair 
end ? 

Andrew Jackson. 

280 History of the United States. 

— -i— 

7. War with the Indians.— In 1832 hostilities with 
the Sac and Fox tribes of Indians broke out in what is 
now Wisconsin. Their chief, Black Ilawk, was captured, 
and the Indians were removed beyond the Mississijipi. 
In this campaign, known as ''Black Hawk's "War," Abra- 
ham Lincoln, afterwards President, served as a captain of 
volunteers, and Jefferson Davis as a second lieutenant of 
the regulars. 

8. The removal of the Seminoles and Creeks of the 
South was not accomplished without a more serious war. 
The Seminoles of Florida, dissatisfied with a treaty for 
their removal made by some of their chiefs, made a de- 
termined resistance under the leadership of Osceola. 
General Tliomi)son and a few companions were killed 
and scalped near Fort King, December 28, 1835, and the 
same day, at a place many miles distant, a detachment 
of, one hundred soldiers under Major Dade were- sur- 
prised^' and all but four were slain. 

9. A few days later General Clincli fought a battle 
with .the Seminoles on the AVithlacoochee, and in Feb- 
ruary, 1836, General Gaines inflicted uj)on them a severe 
defeat near the same place. 

10. In May the Creeks of Georgia and Alabama 
joined the Seminoles, but General Scott soon subdued 
them and they were sent across the Mississippi. The 
Seminoles still held out, and, lurking in the trackless 
swamps known as the Everglades, they caused the sol- 
diers much suffering. Osceola, luiving once made a 
treaty and broken it, was captured and imprisoned in 
Fort Moultrie, at Charleston, where he died. Soon 
afterwards Colonel Zachary Taylor, afterwards President, 

7. What was Black Hawk's War ? 8. How did the Seminole war 
begin ? Mention some of the incidents of it. 10. What became of 


defeated the Indians in the 
battle of Okechobee, De- 
cember 25, 1837. It was 
not until 1842, however, 
that the war was brought 
to an end, 

11. Nullification.— The 
dissatisfaction with the 
protective tarilf was so 
great at the South that 
after the passing of an act 
in 1832, increasing certain 
duties, a State convention 
in South Carolina declared 
the tariff acts unconstitu- 
tional, and therefore null and 



Uaniei, Webstkb. 


void, and resolved that any 
attempt to collect the du- 
ties at Charleston should 
be resisted by force of 
arms. Preparations were 
also made to take South 
Carolina out of the Union. 
12, The lenders of the 
"' nullification party," so- 
called because it asserted 
the right of a State to 
"■' nullify," or annul, an 
act of Congress, were John 
C. Calhoun, who had re- 
signed the Vice- Presidency 
and been elected to the 

Who won the battle of Okechobeo ? "When did the war end ? 

11. What controversy arose in South Carolina about the tariff? 

12, What was the " nullitication party " 'i 


— ^ - 

Senate ; Kobert Y. Hayue, also a senator ; and George 
McDufiBe, governor of the State. In the course of the 
controversy in the Senate Daniel Webster held a famous 
debate with Mr. Hayne lasting for several days, and pre- 
sented the arguments against the right of secession with 
an eloquence and force never equalled in any discussion 
of that question. 

13. General Jackson treated the difficulty with charac- 
teristic vigor. He issued a proclamation denying the right 
of a State to set aside an act of Congress ; he sent a ship 

of war to Charleston ; and 
he ordered troops to assem- 
ble there under command 
of General Scott. The 
leaders of the nullification 
party were also privately 
assured that if they com- 
mitted any open act of 
rebellion they would be 

14. The firmness of the 
President had its effect ; 
and in the meantime Henry 
Clay, the leading champion 
of the protective system, 
brought forward a comi^romise measure for the gradual re- 
duction of the tariff, and the South Carolina i>arty yielded. 
Mr. Clay did this at the sacrifice of his popularity. 

15. Railroads and Steamships. — It was during the ad- 
ministration of General Jackson that the railroad system, 

to which the United States owe so much of their greatness, 

— ^ ^ . « . 

Who were its leaders ? What celebrated debate was held ? 13. How 
did Jackson treat the nulliflers ? 14. How did the matter end ? Who 
was the author of tlie compromise ? 

Henry Clat. 

Railroads axd Steamships. 283 

— 4- — 
was begun. The first steam locomotive in this country was 
run on tlie track of the Dehiware and Hudson Canal Com- 
pany in Pennsylvania in 1829. Tlie engine was built in 
England. The first steamship that ever crossed the Atlan- 
tic was the Savannah, a vessel built in New York, which 
made the voyage from America to England and llussia in 
1818. Uhe first steamships that made regular passages 
were the Sirius and Great Western, which began running 
in 1838 between London and Bristol and New York. 

16. At the end of his first term Jackson was re-elected 
(1832) by two huiulrcd and nineteen electoral votes, against 
forty-nine for Henry Clay, eleven for John Floyd, and seven 
for William "Wirt. Martin Van Buren, of New York, was 
chosen Vice-President. In 1836 Mr. Van Buren was elected 
President by tlie Democrats, the Whig vote being divided 
between several candidates, of whom the leading one was 
General Harrison. Eichard M. Johnson was chosen Vice- 

17. Martin Van Buren President. — The administration of 
President \';iu Buren (1837-41) was oecui)icd chiefly with 
efforts to remedy the commercial disasters of the nation, to 
secure a stable currency, and to establish the present inde- 
pendent treasury for the custody of the public money. Mr. 
Van Buren also negotiated a settlement of a threatening 
dispute with Great Britain about the boundary between 
Maine and New Brunswick, and succeeded, with much trou- 
ble, in preserving tlie neutrality of the United States dur- 
ing a revolutionary movement in Canada. 

18. The country was not prosperous during liis term 
of ollice, and he was defeated as a candidate for re-election 
(1840) after a remarkably exciting canvass, tlie Whigs clioos- 

15. "\iMien and where was the first Amorican steam raih-oad operated? 
Name the first ocean steamships. IG Who was elected in 1833 ? In 
1836 ? 18. Ill 1840 ? 

. 4- 

ing William Henry Harrison, of Ohio, President, and John 
Tyler, of Virginia, Vice-President. 


John Tyler President, 1841-45 — The Dorr Rebellion— The 

Mormons — Annexation of Texas. 

1. Harrison and Tyler. — (General Harrison, known as 
the "hero of Tippecanoe," was inaugurated March 4, 1841, 
and died April 4, having been President exactly one mouth. 
The office then devolved upon the Vice-President, Mr. 

2. Mr. Tyler disapproved of some of the favorite mea- 
sures of the Whig party which elected him, especially of 
their project for re-establishing the United States Bank. 
G-reat dissatisfaction was expressed at his policy, and all 
his cabinet resigned. Daniel Webster, however, the Sec- 
retary of State, retained office long enough to finish a 
negotiation with Great Britain for the settlement of a dis- 
pute about the northwestern boundary. 

3. The Dorr Rebellion. — In 1843 an affair known as 
''Dorr's Rebellion " occurred in Ehode Island. Tbe State 
was still governed under the old colonial charter, and a 
party, led by Thomas Dorr, was anxious to exchange it for 
a new constitution giving more power to the people. Dorr 
assumed to be governor by the votes of his partisans ; the 
lawful governor, under the charter, called for the assist- 
ance of the United States ; and civil war was imminent 
when President Tyler sent troops into tlie State to up- 

1. How long was Harrison President ? Who succeeded him ? 
2. What is said of Tyler's administration ? 3. What was " Dorr's 
Rebellion " ? 

The JfojiMojvs. :iS6 

— + — 
hold the old government. Dorr was convicted of treason 
and sentenced to imprisonment for life, but he was soon 
pardoned and a more liberal constitution was adopted. 

4. The Mormons. — It was about this time that the sect 
of the Mormons began to make trouble. They were es- 
tablished in the western part of New York in 1830 by an 
impostor named Joseph Smith, who pretended to have re- 
ceived from an angel a number of golden plates on which 
was engraved in unknown characters a revelation from 
lieaven. Smith made what he called a translation from 
these imaginary plates, and, pubhshing it as the J^ook of 
Mormon, became the founder and jiropliet of a nv^v re- 
ligion in whicli the " saints " were allowed to have as 
many wives as they chose. 

5. Smith and his followers settled at Independence, 
Missouri, where they tried to sot u]) a government of their 
own. Driven away from there, they founded the city of 
Nauvoo, on the Mississippi, in Hancock County, Illinois 
(1840), built a costly temple, formed an army, and defied 
all authority except that of ^Mormon courts and officers. 
Smith became rich and powerful, and in 1844 proclaimed 
himself a candidate for the Presidency of the United States. 

6. In 1844 a newspaper at Xauvoo began to publish 
an exposure of the crimes and corruptions of the ^for- 
mon leaders. Smith caused the press to be destroyed. 
The editor applied to the courts of Illinois for redress, 
and warrants were issued for Smith's arrest. He resisted ; 
troops were called out ; at last Joseph and several of his 
companions were lodged in jail at Carthage, wliere they 
were attacked by a mob June 27, 1844, and Joseph Smith 
and his brother were killed. 

4. Who was the founder of the Mormons ? Give an account of thoir 
orijrin. 5. Describe their conduct in the Wetst. 6. How was Smith 
killed ? 

286 History of the United States. 

— + — 

7. Smith liad made some i)reparcifcions to remove the 
whole community of the Mormons across the Eocky Moun- 
tains, and the emigration was accomplished under his suc- 
cessor, Brigham Young. They began their march in Feb- 
ruary, 1847, and reached the shore of the Great Salt Lake 
after a horrible Avinter journey on foot and in waoons 
across an unknown country, thousands of them dying on 
the way. There they founded Salt Lake City, and set up 
what they intended to be an independent State. It was 
theu a part of Mexico, but the territory was soon annexed 
to the United States, and the difficulty with the Mormons 
broke out again. 

8. Native American Riots. — In 1844 the "Native 
American" party, organized for the purpose of excluding 
Catholics from politics, provoked a dreadful riot in Phila- 
delphia, which lasted three days. Two of the Catholic 
churches, a house of the Sisters of Charity, the valuable 
library of the Augustinian Fathers, and a number of pri- 
vate dwellings occupied by Irish Catholics Avcre destroyed 
and many persons were killed. A similar riot in Ncav 
York was prevented mainly by the courage and prudence 
of Bishop Hughes. 

9. The Telegraph. — The first electric telegraph line in 
the United States was erected in 1844 by Samuel F. B. 
Morse. Professor Morse made this important invention as 
early as 1832. Ho had groat dilllculty in persuading people 
that his idea was practicable, and in raising money to carry 
it out. At length, on the very last night of the session. 
Congress was induced to a]-»propriate $30,000 for building 
an experimental line between Baltimore and Washington. 

10. Texas. — What is now the State of Texas was origi- 

7. Who succeeded Smith ? What became of the Mormons ? 8 Give 
the story of the Native American riots. 9. Of the invention of the tele- 

Annexation of Texas. 2S1 

— +— 
nally part of Mexico, Tlie pe()i)le, inuuy of tliein colonists 

from the United States, declared their independence of Mex- 
ico in 1835, and after some severe lighting, in which they 
were commanded by General Sam Houston, and the Mexi- 
cans by General Santa Anna, they established the Kepublic 
of Texas, with General Houston as President. The new 
republic was recognized by the United States and other 
governments, but not by Mexico. 

11. In 1844 a proposal for the annexation of Texas to 
the United States, which had been defeated several years 
before, was revived by President Tyler. It was acceptable 
to the Texans, who needed the protection of a strong gov- 
ernment, but it caused great excitement and controversy in 
the United States. A strong party in the South favored 
it ; but in the I^ortli it was earnestly opposed, partly be- 
cause it threatened to involve tlie country in war with 
Mexico, and partly because it would extend the area of 

12. A treaty of annexation was rejected by the Senate in 
July, 1844. Tlie (piestion then became a principal issue in 
the election for the Presidency. The Democratic party, 
which desired annexation, triumphed in the election of 
James K. Polk, of Tennessee, as President, and George M. 
Dallas, of Pennsylvania, as Vice-President, the Whig candi- 
dates being Henry Clay and Theodore Frelinghuysen. 

13. On the 1st of March, 1845, three days before the 
end of Mr. Tyler's term of office, a resolution annexing 
Texas to the United Stales passed Congress, and the 
President immediately signed it. 

10. Wliat is the early history of Texas ? 11. What is said of the 
proposal of annexation ? 13. IIow did the election of 1844 result ? 
13. When did the treaty pass Congress ? 

288 History of the United States. 


The Mexican War — Taylor's Invasion — Fremont in California. 

1. The Mexican War. — Mr. Polk promptly ordered 
General Zacliary Taylor to the commaiid of an "Army of 
Occupation " in Texas, consisting of about fifteen hundred 
men. It was stationed between the Nueces {nway'-ce.s) 
and the Eio Grande {re'o gran'day), a part of the State 
which Mexico insisted had never belonged to Texas. At 
the same time a squadron under Commodore Conner was 
sent to the Gulf of Mexico. 

2. In the spring of 1840 the Mexicans were found to 
be collecting an army at Matamoras, on the south side of 
the Eio Grande, near its mouth. Taylor advanced and 
established a fortified camp on the opposite side of the 
river. On the 2Gth of April a skirmish occurred on Texas 
soil between a company of Taylor's dragoons and a de- 
tachment of Mexicans. As soon as the news reached 
Washington the President declared, in a special message 
to Congress, May 11, 1840, that "war existed by the act 
of Mexico," and Congress appropriated 110.000,000 and 
authorized the raising of fifty thousand volunteers. 

3. Palo Alto. — Marching to Point Isabel, on the Texas 
coast, a few miles north of the Eio Grande, to protect his 
stores, Taylor was recalled by an attack upon the camp 
opposite Matamoras, where Major Brown had been left in 
command. On the way he met the Mexicans, under Gene- 
ral Arista, at Palo Alto (pah'-ln al'-to). Taylor had two 
thousand men, and Arista had six thousand; but, after a 

1. What pfpneral was sent to the frontier ? 2. What happened on 
the Rio Grande ? Wlion was war declared ? 3. Give an account of the 
battle of Palo Alto. 

Taylou invades Mexico. 289 

— + — 

battle of five hours, the Americuiis were victorious (May 8, 

4. Hesaca. de la Palma. — The uext day the armies met 
again at Resaea de la Palma {ray-saJi -ca day la pahV-7na), 
Avhere the Mexicans were found strongly posted in a ra- 
vine protected by a thick chaparral, or matted growth of 
])rickly cactus. One of their batteries was doing great 
execution when Captain May, at the head of his dragoons, 
dashed through a murderous lire and rode over the guns, 
capturing the Mexican Ckuieral La Vega {vay'-gd). The 
battle soon ended in the rout of the Mexicans, whose 
loss was about one thousand men. This engagement, as 
well as the one of the day before, was fought in Texas. 

5. The small force left on the Eio Graude under 
Major Brown had sustained a severe bom])ardment, hut 
was now safe. Major Brown, however, had been moi'tally 
Avounded. and in his honor the post was named Fort 
Brown (now Brownsville). 

6. Taylor crossed the river and occupied Matamoras, 
where he waited for re-enforcements. The volunteers 
called for by the Government were easily obtained, and 
General "Wool. Inspector-Genei-al of the Army. equii)ped, 
orfranized, and drilled them with remarkable rapidity. 

7. Taylor's Advance. — In August the advance of Tay- 
lor's force, now six thousand strong, pushed into the in- 
terior of Mexico. In September the whole army appeared 
before the city of Monterey {mon-fay-ray'), defended by 
General Ampudia (rfw-poo'-dr-n) with nine thousnnd Mexi- 
cans. The nttiifk beg:in Scjitembor 'U iuid Listed three 
days, at the end of which time Ampudia surrendered 
(September 24, 1846). 

4. T)esfTibe the battle of Resaea de la Palma. Where was it fought ? 
5. "Wliiit of Major Brown ? 6. Wliat was Taylor's next movement ? 
7. Describe the hattlf of Monterey. 

290 History of the United States. 

— 4" — 
8. Au armistice was agreed to for a few weeks, and in 
the meantime General Wool arrived with a division of 

three thousand men, and occupied a fertile district from 
which he supplied both his own force and Taylor's with 

8. What other general now arrived ? 

Conquest of California. 291 

— + — 

provisions. At the end of the armistice Wool occupied 
Saltillo {sal-teel'-yo) and Taylor took possession of Vic- 
toria, Avith the intention of marching upon Tampico {tam- 
pee'-co), a port on the Gulf of Mexico. 

9. Tampico, however, had already surrendered to Com- 
modore Conner, and Taylor therefore fell back to Saltillo 
and formed a junction with AVorth. 

10. Plans of General Scott. — The jjlau of the war had 
been arranged by General Scott, who was the commander- 
in-chief of all the United States armies. Besides the 
operations of Taylor, it embraced an attack upon the 
northern part of Mexico (New Mexico and California) by 
an ''Army of the West"; an assault upon the Mexican 
capital by an *'Army of the Centre"; and a naval attack 
upon the Pacific coast. 

11. The Army of the West.— The Army of the West, 
under General Ste})lien W. Kearny, started from Fort 
Leavenworth, on the Missouri, in June, 1846, and, after 
a march of a thousand miles across the desolate plains, 
occupied Santa Fe [sahn'ta fay'), New Mexico. Thence 
Kearny was to have invaded California, but, finding that 
Captain Fremont had already conquered that State, he left 
his main body at Santa Fe, and pushed on to the Pacific 
coast with only one hundred men. 

12. Conquest of California. — Fremont, with a party of 
sixty men, had been sent (1845) before the outbreak of 
the war to explore what was then the almost unknown 
region between the Great Salt T^ake and the Pacific. For 
several years he had been almost continually engaged in 
the survey of the mountains and deserts of the west, with 
a view particularly to the discovery of the best overland 

10. What were Scott's plans for the war ? 11. Describe Kearny's 
march. 12. On what diitv had Fremont been sent out ? 

292 History of the United States, 

route between the two oceans, and liis reports, published 
by the Government, had attracted attention all over the 
world and been universally commended as an honor to the 
country and the service. This was the third of his great 

13. Fremont was in Oregon in the spring of 1846 when 
a messenger from Washington reached him with instruc- 
tions to look after the interests of the United States in 
California. War had not yet been declared, but Mexican 
ttbops were already marching against American settlements 
oh the Sacramento River, and a movement was also in pro- 
gress to annex the whole province to the British possessions. 

14. Hastening into California, Fremont enrolled a 
force of American volunteers, and in less than a month 
drove the Mexican authorities out of the province. The 
Americans then organized an independent State and 
chose Fremont president. 

15. About the same time (July, 1846) the American 
naval forces, commanded at first by Commodore Sloat 
and afterwards by Commodore Stockton, occupied San 
Francisco, then a small place called Yerba Buena 
{bway'-na), and Monterey, a town on the coast of Califor- 
nia south of San Francisco. War being now declared 
between the United States and Mexico, the American 
Californians abandoned their scheme of independence, 
and Fremont and his men placed themselves under the 
orders of Commodore Stockton. 

16. With about three hundred soldiers, sailors, and 
volunteers Stockton captured Los Angeles [alui'-pe-les), 
the capital of the province. California Avas then pro- 
claimed a territory of the United States, and Fremont 

What is said of his explorations ? 13. What message was sent to 
him in Oregon ? 14. What did he do ? 15. What was the action of 
the naval officers ? 16. What did Commodore Stockton do ? 

DoNiPHAi^s Expedition. 293 

— -i- — 
was appointed governor. The Mexicaus, under General 
Flores, rallied and gained several temporary successes over 
the Americans, but were defeated in January, 1847, in 
two battles which decided the contest.* 

17. Doniphan's Expedition. — When General Kearny 
left Santa Fe he ordered Colonel Doniphan, with about 
a thousand volunteers, to chastise the IS'avajo (na-vah'-ho) 
Indians. Having performed tliis duty and compelled the 
savages to make a treaty of peace, Doniphan marched a 
thousand miles' to join the army in Mexico. 

18. At Bracito {bra-the'-to), December 'Zb, 1847, he 
defeated a large force of Mexicans ; near Chihuahua 
{che-wah'-wah), February 28, he gained a decided victory 
over an army four times as large as his own. Finally 
he reached General Wool at Saltillo, May 22, after a 
march which is considered one of the most brilliant 
exploits of the war. 

• General Kearny arrived soon aften\'ards with a few dragoons, and a qnarrel 
occurred between him and Stockton as to the right to command. Fremont deter- 
mined to obey Stockton. Out of this aflfair grew a bitter feeling between Kearny 
and Fremont, and, when Kearny was finally snstained by the Government at Wash- 
ington, he sent Fremont home nnder arrest and made charges of mutiny and die- 
obedience against him. An exciting trial by court-martial resulted in Fremont's 
acquittal on the charge of mutiny, but he was fomid guilty of disobedience and sen- 
tenced to be dismissed tlie service. The President ai)i)roved the lindings of the 
court, but promptly remitted the penalty. Fremont, however, believing that he had 
been unfairly treated, resigned liis commission. 

What li il lowed V 17 hikI 18. Describe Doniphan's expodit ion. 

294 History of the United States. 


General Scott's Campaign — Capture of Mexico — End of the War — 
California — New Mexico — The Oregon Troubles. 

1. Scott's Campaign. — General Wool had been selected 
to lead the operations of the Army of the Centre ; but a 
change of plan was made, and it was determined to 
attack the city of Mexico by way of Vera Cruz, the 
nearest port on the Gulf. This expedition General Win- 
field Scott was to lead in person, and, as he was com- 
mander-in-chief of the army, he superseded Taylor. 

2. Taylor was about to begin a new campaign, but he 
was required to send nearly all his best officers and men 
to serve under Scott. Though bitterly disappointed, he 
obeyed at once, and sent off the divisions of Generals 
Quitman and Worth, retaining but five thousand troops, 
with whom he could only stand on the defensive. 

3. Battle of Buena Vista. — As soon as the Mexican 
president and commander-in-chief. General Santa Anna, 
learned of these movements, he fell upon Taylor's little 
force with an army of twenty thousand men. The battle 
took place near a plantation called Buena Vista {btuay'- 
nali vees'-iah), eleven miles from Saltillo, February 23, 
1847. It lasted ten hours, and after a series of terrible 
conflicts Taylor, ably assisted by Wool, May, and Jeffer- 
son Davis, put Santa Anna to rout. This brilliant vic- 
tory was owing in great part to the American light artil- 
lery. Among the officers distinguished in this branch 
were Captain Braxton Bragg, Captain T. W. Sherman, 
Captain O'Brien, and Captain Washington. 

1. What was Scott's plan of campaign ? 2. What was done with 
Taylor's best troops ? 3. Describe the battle of Buena Vista. 

Scott's Camp a ray. 295 

— + — 

4. Siege of Vera Cruz. — ({eucrcil Scott's expedition, 
with a S({iuidron under Commodore Conner, appeared off 
Vera Cruz on the 9th of March. The city was defended 
by hind works and the castle of San Juan de Ulloa {san 
hwan' day ool-yo'-ah), built on a reef in the harbor, and 
said to be the strongest fortification on the continent ex- 
cept Quebec. 

5. The troops, about twelve thousand in number, 
were landed, threw up batteries commanding the city, 
and invested the place so as to cut off su})plies. On the 
22d a bombardment began from the batteries and the 
fleet. It lasted four days, and the city and castle then 
surrendered (March 2G), with five thousand prisoners and 
five hundred pieces of artillery. Scott had lost eighty 
men and the Mexicans more than two thousand. 

6. Cerro Gordo. — The army marched at once towards 
Mexico. At the mountain pass of Cerro Gordo Santa 
Anna was found strongly entrenched with twelve thou- 
sand men. Scott attacked him with a little more than 
eight thousand, carried tne heights, and took three thou- 
sand prisoners and forty-three guns (April 18). Santa 
Anna made his escape on a mule. 

7. The American army had now a mountain range to 
cross in order to reach the capital. In the ascent they 
occupied the strong castle of Perote {pay-ro' -tay) and the 
large city of Puebla {pioay'-hla), and at the lattei" place 
Scott rested three months on account of sickness among 
the men, who suffered a great deal from the climate. 

8. He resumed his march in August with ten thou- 
sand troops, and was soon within sight of Mexico. The 
city was defended by thirty-two thousand soldiers and an 

4 and 5. Describe the siege of Vera Cruz. What were the losses on 
each side ? 6. Descri!»e the battle of Cerro Gordo. 7. Where did Scott 
rest after this ? 8. How many troops had he before Mexico ? 

296 History of the United States. 

— 4" — 
elaborate system of fortifications. On the south side, by 
which Scott determined to advance, the jirincipal out- 
lying positions were the fortified camp of Contre'ras and 
castle of San Antonio, with the fortified heights of Chnru- 
busco behind them, and a little distance to the American 
left the fortified heiglits of Chapultepcc. 

9. Capture of Mexico. — On the 20tli of August, at sun- 
rise, General Persifer F. Smith attacked the camp at Con- 
treras and carried it in fifteen minutes. Cxeneral AVortli 
about the same time made himself master of San Antonio. 
The heiglits of Ohurubusco were then assailed ; Santa 
Anna, who had advanced from the capital, was driven 
back ; and at the end of the day the Americans had won 
three victories and taken 3,000 prisoners and thirty-seven 

10. Santa Anna now asked for an armistice to nego- 
tiate a treaty with tlie American commissioner, Mr. Trist, 
who iiad arrived in the camp from "Washington. The 
proposal was made in bad faith, and served to give the 
Mexicans time to strengtlien their defences. 

11. A strongly-fortified building, called El Molino del 
Rey {mo-Iee'-no del 7'ai/), or the "King's Mill,'' was taken 
by General Worth, September 8. Second Lieutenant 
Ulysses Grant, afterwards President of the United States, 
was promoted on the field for his gallant behavior in this 
battle. Tlie heights of Clia]niltepcc Avere stormed amid 
great slaugliter, September 13, Tjieutenant (irant earning 
a second promotion, and at night two of tlie gates of 
tlie capital Avere in the jjossession of AV^)rth and Quit- 

12. General Scott entered the city with his victorious 

What were the defences of Mexico ? 9. Describe the battles of Con- 
treras anrl Chnrubnsco, 10. Wliat is said of tlie proposal for an armis- 
ficc ? 11. Describe the capturo of IMexieo. 

Terms of Peace. 


army the next morning, Sei)tcmbcr 14, 1847. The war 
Avas noAV })ractically at an end. Tlie treaty of peace, 
negotiated at Guadalupe Hidalgo {gwah-da-loo' -pay he- 

dal'-go), was signed 

March 2, 1848. ' 

13. Terms of 
Peace. — By tlie terms 
of this treaty Mexico 
recognized the Rio 
Grande as the west- 
ern boundary of Tex- 
as, and sold to the 
United States, for 
$18,500,000, the pro- 
vinces of Upper Cal- 
ifornia and New 
Mexico. Of the 
price agreed upon for 
these extensive ter- 
ritories, 13,500,000 
was to be paid to citizens of the United States in satis- 
faction of claims against Mexico. 

14. California. — Tlie province of Upper California (Al- 
ta California), acquired by the United States, included 
not only the present State of California but the State of 
Nevada and the Territory of Utah. It contained scarcely 
15,000 persons, many of whom were recent American set- 
tlers Tlie i)eninsuhi of Lower California, which was re- 
t;iiiK'd by Mexico, had long l)een occupied by the Span- 
iards, and became as early as 1()42 the seat of one of the 
greatest of the Jesuit missionary enterprises. Upper Cali- 

13. When did Scott enter the city ? When and where wiis peace 
signed ? 1:]. What were the conditions ? 14. What did Upper Cali- 
fornia include ? What is s;iid <>f i(s early lli^stol•y ? 





















298 History op the U.^ited States. 

—^ — 

foruia, however, though occasionally visited, was neglected 
until a much later period. 

15. In 17G9 the Franciscans, who had succeeded the 
Jesuits, founded, the mission of San Diego within the 
limits of the present State of California, and this was 
soon followed by others. The leader of the good friars 
was Father Juniper Serra, Avho had the rank of prefect 
apostolic. The mission of San Francisco was founded 
through his eiforts in 1776. 

16. The California missions were managed on a pecu- 
liar plan. The priests went in small comi)anies, attended 
by a few soldiers, and planted a colony of Indian con- 
verts well supplied with herds and cattle and farming 
tools. The Indians made excellent herdsmen ; the mis- 
sions prospered ; the wild tribes were attracted to them ; 
and thus large communities of converts were gradually 
built up. White settlers were not encouraged to join 
them. The missionaries had entire control of the set- 

17. Under this plan, in spite of occasional savage out- 
breaks, the work of converting and civilizing the Indians 
went on Avith extraordinary success. The natives became 
orderly and industrious ; they were expert farmers, ma- 
sons, mechanics, and weavers. The great mission of San 
Luis contained as many as 3,500 Indian Christians, who 
owned 00,000 head of cattle and raised every year 13,000 
bushels of grain. 

18. At one time th.c missions numbered 30,000 In- 
dians, 424,000 head of cattle, G2,000 horses, and 320,000 
sheep. But on the establisliment of the Mexican Ee- 
public the system which had produced such rich fruit 

15. Who founded San Diego ? San Francisco ? 16 and 17. Describe 
the California mi?s;ions. 18. Wliat were the uumbei"s of the converts ? 
Wliat property had they ? When were these missions broken up ? 

California. 290 

was violently broken up. The Mexican civil iiutluirities 
beo-iin in 18'^4 to expel the missionaries and seize the 
mission property, and soon afterwards a decree was passed 
by the Mexican Congress to "secularize" all these Indian 
colonies. Under the operation of this law the lands, 
buildings, cattle, etc., were confiscated, the converts were 
scattered, and at least one of the fathers died of star- 

19. In five years the number of mission Indians was 
reduced from oO,UOO to 4,000. The others, separated 
from religious infiuenccs, soon lost what civilization they 
had accjuired, and fell into a state of miserable degrada- 
tion, from which very few of them were ever rescued. 
Thus the violence of an unscrupulous government i)ut a 
final stop to the experiment of civilizing the savages of 
the Pacific coast. 

20. When Upper California became a territory of the 
United States there were only some weak and scattered 
remains of the once powerful missions. One of the Fran- 
ciscans, Father Francis Garcia Diego y Moreno, had been 
consecrated bishop of both Californias in 1840, ])ut ho 
died in 184f) and his place had not boon filled. 

21. Discovery of Gold. — In Fel)ruary, 1848, gold was 
discovered near a mill l)olonging to Captain Sutter, on 
the American fork of the Sacramento Kivor. Soon after- 
wards the precious metal was found in many other places 
near there. When the news reached the States an im- 
mense crowd of gold-hunters rushed to California, some 
going by ship around Cape Horn, some crossing the Isth- 
mus of Panama, and others travelling by wagon-trains 
across tho plains and mountains. In the course of the 

What was done by tlie Mexican authorities ? 19. The result ? 
30. What was the condition of the missions in 1848 ? 21. What im- 
portant (Hscovery was made in tliat year ? 

300 History of the United States. 

— .J, — 

year 1849 nearly one hundred thousand immigrants entered 
California, and the whole character of the settlements was 
suddenly changed. 

22. The gold mines proved to be extraordinarily rich. 
Immense fortunes were made by digging for gold or grop- 
ing in the streams and washing gold from tlie sands. 
Great numbers of the adventurers, however, found noth- 
ing ; there was much suffering ; crimes and disorders of 
all sorts became common ; and the gold diggings were the 
resort of the most despertite characters. 

23. New Mexico. — New Mexico when it was annexed 
included not only the present Territory of that name but 
most of Arizona and parts of Colorado and Nevada. The 
southern portion of Arizona, south of the Gila River, Avas 
purchased from Mexico a few years later, and was known 
as the " Gadsden purchase." 

24. The Spanish missionaries were at work in New 
Mexico three hundred years before that region was ac- 
quired by the United States (see pages 2G and 31), and 
Santa Fe, founded in 1583, was the second permanent set- 
tlement in what is now the territory of the Union. 

25. The missions were so successful that in 1G20 there 
were twenty-seven stations, many of them possessing large 
churches, and the Indian converts, who were mustered by 
thousands, could read and write and had adopted the cus- 
toms of civilization. Tlu' lierceness of the pagan tribes 
and the opjiressions of the Spanish colonists were equally 
the cause of many disasters to these Christian communi- 
ties ; but they have never l)ecn entirely obliterated. 

26. The Oregon Boundary. — When Mr. l*olk became 
President there was a disi)uto with Great Britain about 

22. What is said of tlic gold mines ? 23. What did New Maxico in- 
chidc ? 24. IIow long liad Spaiiisli niissionariew been in the Territory ? 
«ri. What is said of tlie missions ? 


— + — 

the boundary between the British and American posses- 
sions beyond the Rocky Mountains. The United States 
claimed as far north as hititude 54'^ 40', taking in the 
greater part of what is now British Cohimbia, and during 
the political canvass which resulted in Mr. Polk's elec- 
tion a popular cry of the Democratic party was " Fifty- 
four forty or fight ! " A compromise was at last pro- 
posed by the President, and the present boundary line of 
latitude 49"^ was agreed upon. 

27. Immigration. — It Avas during the Presidency of Mr. 
Polk that the great movement of emigration began 
from Europe to the United States. The number of arri- 
vals annually had been slowly increasing up to 1844 ; but 
in 1845 it rose suddenly 
to 114,000 ; in 184G to 
154,000 ; in 1847 to 235,- 
000 ; and in 1850 it ex- 
ceeded 310,000. More than 
half those new settlers were 
Irish. One cause of the 
great increase of immigra- 
tion between 1845 and 1854 
was the Irish famine, and 
another was the political 
disturbance in Europe. 

28. End of Mr. Polk's 
Term.— :\[r. Polk's term of 
office ended March 4, 1849. 
In the elections of the 
previous Xovem1)er there were three ])arties in the field. 
The Whigs nominated General Zachary Taylor ; the Demo- 

26. What was the Oregon boundary dispute ? How was it settled ? 
27. What great movement of population began in President Polk's time ? 
Give some of the figures. 

Zachaky Taylor. 

303 History of the United States. 

— + — 
cruts, General Lewis Cass; and the third, or "Free-Suil," 
party nominated ex-President Van Buren, who repj-e- 
sented the principle that slavery ought to be forbidden in 
all the Territories of the United States. The choice fell 
upon General Zachary Taylor, of Louisiana ; Millard 
Fillmore, of JS^ew York, was elected Vice-President. The 
4th of March being Sunday, the inauguration took ])lace 
on the 5th. 


General Taylor President, 1849-50— Fillmore's Administration, 
1850-53 — Slavery — Franklin Pierce President, 1853-57— Kan- 
sas — Cuba — Know-Notiiingism. 

1. Slavery Agitation Revived. — The annexation of 
California renewed the excitement over the slavery ques- 
tion in a more dangerous form than ever. The people of 
the Territory adopted a constitution prohibiting slavery, 
and in February, 1850, applied for admission to the 
Union. The South earnestly oi)posed the admission of 
California as a- free State, and the extreme Southern 
party even took some steps towards secession. The de- 
bates Avere conducted on both sides with great bitterness. 

2. Henry Clay's Compromise Bill. — At last, on the 
proposal of Henry Clay, a compromise measure was 
passed (September 0, 1850) Avhich for a time secured 
peace. It provided for the admission of California as a 
free State ; the formation of the Territory of Utah with- 
out slavery, and of the Territory of New Mexico without 

28. What threo candidates were nominated for the Presidency in 

1848? Wlio was elected ? 1. What political dispute was revived by the 
annexation of California ? 2. What did Henry Clay propose ? 

Death of Prehwest Taylor. 303 

— + — 

anytliiug being said about slavery ; the abulition of slu- 

vei-y iu the Distriet of Columbia ; and u Fugitive ISlavo 

Law, under which slaves who escaped to the free States 

could be arrested and sent back to their masters. 

3. Death of President Taylor.— During the discussion 
of this bill President Taylor died after a very short ill- 
ness, July 9, 1850, and Vice-President Fillmore succeeded 
to the vacant office. lie enforced the Compromise Act 
impartially, but the provision in regard to tiie arrest of 
fugitive slaves was very obnoxious to the North, it was 
often evaded and sometimes forcibly resisted, and it 
strengthened the anti-slavery party in the free States, 
while the agitation of the cpiestion of the nu)rality aiul 
wisdom of slavery was hotly resented at the South. 

4. Among the important events during Mr. Fillmore's 
administration wore the invasion of Cuba by five hun- 
dred adventurers collected in New Orleans l)y (Jeneral 
Lopez, and known as "filibusters" (1851), nearly all of 
them being made i)risoners ])y the S[)aniards, and Lopez 
and some of the others shot ; the settlement of a dis- 
pute with England about the fisheries ; and the sailing 
in 1852 of a squadron under Commodore M. C. Pei-ry 
(hrother of the victor of Lake Eric), by which the empire 
of Japan was induced to open its ports to American traders. 

5. The slavery question was the principal issue in the 
Presidential election of November, 1853. The Democrats 
nominated Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire, the 
Whigs General Winfield Scott, and the Free-Soilers John 
P. Hale of New Hampshire. Some of the Whigs, dis- 
satisfied with General Scott, wished to bring forward 

3 When did President Tiijior (lie ? Who suoeeeded him ? How did 
he adininistei- the Compromise Act? With wiiat result? 4. Mention 
the important events of his term. 5. What was the principal question 
of the next campaign ? 

304 History of the United States. 

—4* — 

Daniel Webster iis an independent candidate, but Mr. 
Webster died in October.* The election resulted in the 
choice of Mr. Pierce, with William II. Kii)g, of Alabama, 
for Vice-President. 

6. Pierce's Administration. — Mr. Pierce's administra- 
tion (185y-5T) was cliietiy occujjied with the slavery dis- 
pute, on which he represented the policy of the Southern 
party. He chose William L. Marcy for Secretary of 
State, James Guthrie for Secretary of the Treasury, 
Jefferson Davis for Secretary of War, and Caleb Cushing 
for Attorney-General. 

7. The Kansas-Nebraska Bill. — In January, 1854, 
Senator Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, introduced a 
bill for the virtual repeal of the Missouri Comi)romise 
(see ]). 274) and the creation of two new Territories, Kan- 
sas and Nebraska, leaving the people of each free to de- 
termine whether slavery should be admitted or not. 
This principle was called ''popular sovereignty" or 
" squatter sovereignty." It was violently opposed by 
the anti-slavery party and by many others at the Xorth, 
who regarded the Missouri Compromise Act as a solemn 
and binding agreement. 

8. After a very exciting controversy, in wliich the 
Administration and the Democratic party in general sup- 
ported the bill, and Chase and Wade of Ohio, Seward of 
New York, Everett and Sumner of Massachusetts, Benton 
of Missouri, and Fcssenden of Maine were among the 
leaders of the opposition, Mr. Douglas's measure was 
adopted (May, 1854). 

* Henry Clay died in June of the same year. 

Who was eloctocl President in 1852 ? 6. What is said of Jiis adminis- 
tration ? 7. Who was the anthor of the Kansas- Nebraska bill ? What 
was it ? 8. When was it passed ? 

Jlajvsas. 305 

— * — 

9. Civil War in Kansas. — As the question of slavery 
was to be decided by the votes of the people of the new 
Territories, both parties exerted themselves to despatch 
emi<?rauts thither. Kansas was the scene of the strutrL^le 
Anti-slavery men were sent in large number from the 
East, and slavery men came across the border from Mis- 
souri, many of them returning as soon as they liad voted 
at the Kansas elections. 

10. Five years of violence and disorder followed. Both 
sides took arms. Elections were carried by wholesale 
fraud or prevented by force ; rival legislatures were dis- 
persed by armed bands ; there were murders and riots ; 
six governors in succession were appointed by the Pre- 
sident — two were removed, and three of them resigned 
in desi)air. At last, after a long reign of anarchy and 
bloodshed, the free-state party triunqjlied and slavery 
was excluded from Kansas. 

11. Filibustering. — The desire to obtain more territory 
at the South for the creation of new slave States caused 
the extreme pro-slavery party to sympathize with the 
operations of bands of filibusters who tried to revolu- 
tionize some of the Spanish American governments by 
means of expeditions from the United States. William 
Walker, a native of Tennessee, made various attempts 
upon Mexico, Nicaragua, and Honduras, and was finally 
captured and shot by the authorities of the last-named 
State in 1800. 

12. Cuba. — Another scheme of the Southern party was 
the annexation of Cuba. Mr. Pierce proposed to buy it,* 

Mr. Polk had offered $100,000,000 for it, which Spain refused with indignation. 

9. What was the result in Kansas ? 10. How did the stniggle end ? 
11. What is said of filibnsteriiin: ? Wlio was William Walker ? 12. What 
Otlier scheme was favored by the slavery party ? 

306 History of the United States. 

— -J- — 
iiud at liis suggestion a conference "vvas licld at Ostend, 

in l-?lgiuni, in 1854, between the American Ministers to 
Spain, England, and France, Messrs. Pierre Soule, James 
Buchanan, and John Y. Mason, to consider the question. 
A. memorandum drawn up by tliese gentlemen and sub- 
mitted to the President is known as the '' Ostend Mani- 
festo." It declared that Culja was necessary to the 
United States ; that it was the duty of this country to 
prevent the emuneii)ation of the slaves in the island ; and 
that if Spain refused to sell Cuba the United States would 
-be justiiied in taking it from her by force. This decla- 
ration caused great indignation at the Xorth. Nothing 
came of it. 

13. The Know-Nothing Movement. — A fanatical ex- 
citement against the Catholics began to disturl) the coun- 
try in 1853. Tumults were aroused in New York ; 
preachers declaimed in the streets against ''Poi)ery"; but 
the Catholics, by the advice of Archlnshop Hughes, kept 
away from public meetings, and order was easil}^ restored 
by the militia, 

14. Archbishop Bedini, Papal Xuneio to Brazil, was 
visiting the United States at this time, and the rage of 
the fanatics against him knew no l)ounds. At Cincinnati 
a German newspaper o})enly urged the radicals to mur- 
der him. The next niglit, which was Christmas (1853), 
a UKjb of Cermans marclu'd with arms to attack the 
house in which the nuncio was lodged ; the police re- 
sisted them; a light occurred, and eighteen jjcrsons were 
killed. When the nuncio sailed from New York on his 
return to Euroi)e tlie nu)b crowded the wharves, intend- 
ing to maltreat him ; their behavior was so threatening 

What was the Ostend Miuiifesto ? 18. Wliat fanatical excllcniont 
began in 185:}? What happened in New V^ork ? 14. Describe (he 
treatment of the nuncio, Archljisiiop Bedini. 

Know- Norm XG ISM. 307 

— + — 

tliut tlie mayor induced Moiisiguor Bedini to take a tug- 
boat secretly and go aboard tlie steamer after she had 
reached the bay. 

15. In the course of 185-4 mobs destroyed Catholic 
churches at Manchester and Dorchester, New Hampshire ; 
at Bath, Maine, and at Newark, New Jersey. The Je- 
suit Father Ba})st was tarred and feathered and ridden 
on a rail at Ellsworth, Maine. A church in Williams- 
burg, New York, was attacked, and only saved from de- 
struction by the arrival of the military. 

16. These outrages were promoted by secret societies, 
commonly called "Know-Nothing" associations. They 
made a political question of hostility to the Catholics, 
and in 1854: they carried the elections in a great many 
of the Northern iStates. In June, 1855, they lu'ld a Na- 
tional Convention at Philad('l])hia, and published a de- 
claration of political i)rinci[)les, in which they avowed 
their determined o})posiiion to the Roman Catliolic 
Church, and their resolve tliat none but native Anuu'i- 
cans should hold otlicc. 

17. In August, 1855, there was a terrible riot in Lou- 
isvilk', where the Kuow-Nothings l)urued or i)illaged 
about twenty houses, killed a large number of Irish ami 
German Catholics, and were with difliculty prevented 
from destroying the cathedi-al. 

18. Reorganization of Parties. — The old Whig party 
disappeared about this time. Some of its meml)ers 
joined the Know-Nothiug, or, as it preferred to be called, 
the American party, and the majority, iiududing the old 
anti-slavery men and Free-Soilers, with many others, took 
the name of Republicans. They made the first important 

15. What outrages were committed in 1854? 10. Who promoted 

those crimes ? Whnt wore the principlos of tliis jmrl y ? 17. What iuip- 
pened in Louisville V 18. What became of the Wliig party 1' 

308 History of the United States. 

— * — 
display of their strength ut the ojieinng of Congress in 
December, 1855, when, after a long and remarkable con- 
test, they elected Xathaniel P. IJanks as speaker of the 
House of Eej^resentatives. Mr. Banks had formerly been 
a Democrat, but was elected to Congress by a union of 
liepublicans and Know-Xothings. 

19. In the Presidential election of 1856 there were 
three parties in the lield. The Democrats nominated 
James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, the Ecpublicans John 
C. Fremont, of California, and the Americans ex-Presi- 
dent Fillmore. The contest between the Democrats and 
Republicans was very animated, and resulted in the choice 
of Mr. Buchanan, with John C. Breckinridge, of Ken- 
tucky, as Vice-President. Mr. Fillmore obtained only 
the vote of Maryland, and the Know-Nothing party soon 
broke up. 


James Buchanan President, 1857-Gl — Mormon Rebellion — The 
Dred Scott Decision — John Brown — Election of Abraham 

1. imormon Rebellion. — Soon after the inauguration of 
IVIr. Buchanan the Mormons of Utah, who had organized 
a State .of their own and made their i)roi)het, Brigham 
Young, governor of it,* were found to be in open rebel- 
lion aofainst the United States. Under the influence of 

* They called this State Dcseret. and claimed as parts of it the whole repion 
for hundreds of miles around Utah, from Oregon to New Mexico, and from Colo- 
rado almost to the Pacific. They still pretend to own all this territory, including 
parts of several States of the Union. 

When did the Republican party first show its strength ? 19. What 
was the result of the election of ISoO ? 1. What distuibunce occurred 
at the beginning of Mr. Buchanan's term ? 

The Mormon Wak. 309 

— + — 

fanaticism tliey had committed a great many murders, and 
in tlie summer of .1857 they massacred at a phicc called 
the Mountain Meadow a whole company of one hundred 
and twenty men, women, and children who were passing 
through (Jtali on the way to California. As the Mormons 
refused to recognize the United States officers ai)pointed 
by the President to govern the Territory, Mr. Buchaium 
sent an army of twenty-five hundred men to reduce tliem 
to obedience. Brigham Young threatened war and raised 
troo})s, but submitted at tlio last moment. 

2. The Atlantic Cable. — The Hrst telegraph cable be- 
tween Europe and America was laid in 1858, and con- 
gratulations between Queen Victoria and President Bu- 
chanan were the first messages that passed through it. 
The cable, however, was imperfect ; communication was 
soon interrupted ; and it was not until eight years later 
that the persevering efforts of the originator of the pro- 
ject, Mr. Cyrus Field, of New York, were rewarded with 
permanent success. The money for this costly enterprise 
was furnished by English and American capitalists jointly, 
and both Governments lent it valuable aid. 

3. Slavery Agitation continued.— The agitation of the 
slavery question, which Ijeeanie steadily more and more 
alarming, received % fresh impulse at the beginning of 
Mr. Buchanan's administration from a decision of the 
Supreme Court of the United States in the case of a slave 
named Dred Scott, who sued for his freedom on the 
grouiul that his master had taken him into the free ter- 
ritory of Illinois. The court decided (March, 1857) that 
it had no jurisdiction in the suit, because a negro could 
not be a citizen of the United States. 

What is said of the Mormons ? Of the ]\rormon war ? 2. Of the 

Atlantic toleijraph cable ? 3. Wliat gave a fresh impulse to tlic slavery 
excitement at this time ? 

310 History of the U sited States. 

— +— 

4. Chief-Justice Taney also expressed the opinion that 
the autliors of the Declaration of Independence did not 
intend to claim the same rights for negroes that they did 
for other people, because negroes were supposed at that 
time to be so far inferior to their masters that they had 
'•no rights which Avhite men were bound to respect."* 
He, moreover, pronounced the Missouri Compromise Act, 
forbidding slavery in the Territories north of latitude 
30'-' 30', to be unconstitutional, slaves being private pro- 
perty which Congress hud no right to interfere witli. 

5. Great excitement was caused by this decision at the 
North. The abolition i)arty was strengthened ; associa- 
tions for helping slaves to escape became more active ; 
''personal-liberty bills " Avere passed in several of the free 
States to prevent the return of negroes under the Fugitive 
Shive Law without a trial In' jury. Finally, an enterprise 
was undertaken by an anti-slavery enthusiast named John 
Brown, with about twenty companions, which aroused the 
whole country. 

6. John Brown's Raid. — BroAvn's i)lan was to raise an 
insurrection among the slaves of Virginia and arm them 
to liberate their peo])le by force. In Octo1)er, 1859, lie 
and his men surpi-ised and seized the United States arse- 
nal at Harper's Ferry, Avhere there Avas a large store of 
muskets and ammunition ; but the negroes did not rise, 
and ])i'()wn was overpoAvered by National and State troojis, 
and hanged (December 2) by the authorities of Virginia. 

7. The next election for the Presidency Avas looked 

* Chief-Justice Taney was bitterly denounced for the use of this expression, as if 
it h.^d been a statement of his own opinion about neirroes' ri<;hts. Tliat. however, 
it was not. He said it was the sentiment wliicli did prevail at the time of the Revolu- 
tion, not that which ought to prevail. 

4. What was Chief-Justice Taney's opinion in the Dred Seott case ? 
5. Wliat followed this decision ? 0. What was John Brown's raid ? 
The result ? 

The Eve of iSecesswiY. 311 

— 4- — 
forwiii-cl to us a critical time. In tlic long struggle be- 
tween the free and the slave States for the preponderance 
in the government, the North had at last gained a de- 
cided advantage in i)reventing the extension of slavery 
in the new Territories ; it had also a small majoritv of 
the States, certain to be increased in a short time Iv the 
settlement of the Northwest. 

8. In 18G0 the slave States were fifteen — namely, Dela- 
ware, Maryland. Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Georgia, Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, Mis- 
sissippi, Missouri, Arkansas (admitted 1836), Florida 
(184:)), and Texas (1815). The free States were eighteen 
—namely, Maine, New Hami)shire, Vermont, Massachu- 
setts, Khode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania. Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan (admitted 
1837), Iowa (184(;), Wisconsin (1818), California (1850), Min- 
nesota (1858), and Oregon (185!)). Kansas had adopted a 
free State constitution, but was nut admitted until 18G1, 

9. A considerable party in the South declared that if 
the next election should strengthen the preponderance of 
tlie North the slave States would break up the Union 
and foi-m a confodoracy of their own. The demands of 
these extremists i)r(»duccd a schism among the Democrats, 
and, after a stormy session of the Democratic National 
Convention in 18fiO. most of tiio Southern delegates with- 
drew and nominated for President John C. Breckinridge, 
of Kentucky (then Vice-President). The more moderate 
Democrats nominated Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois. 
The Republicans named Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois : and 
there was a fourth organization, called the Constitutional 
Union party, whose candidate was John Bell, of Tennessee. 

7. Whnt had been the result of the rivalry between North and 
South so far? 8. Name the slave States. The free States. 9. What was 
tliC condition of polit ics in 1860 ? 


History of the United States. 

10. Election of 1860. — The result of the election in 
November, 1S(J0, wtis that Mr. Lincoln received the votes 
of till the free States except three in New Jersey, which 
were given to Dougiiis. Breckinridge had all the votes 
of the slave States except Virginia, Kentucky, and Ten- 
nessee, which voted for Bell, and Missouri, which was car- 
ried by Douglas. Mr. Lincoln was thus elected, having 
180 electoral votes, while Breckinridge had 72, Bell 39, 
and Douglas 12. Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine, Avas chosen 

11. Abraham Lincoln was born in Kentucky, February 

12, 1809. His parents were 
poor, and he had little edu- 
cation except what he gave 
himself by hard study in 
the intervals of his work. 
He removed to Illinois 
while a young man, taught 
himself law, and was elect- 
ed to the Legislature and 
Congress. He first won a 
national reputation in 1858, 
when he and Mr. Douglas, 
being rival candidates for 
the United States Senate, 
canvassed Illinois together, 

holding a public debate on the slavery question, which 
attracted the attention of the whole country. Mr. Doug- 
las advocated his scheme of "i)o])ular sovereignty,'' and 
Mr. Lincoln stated with great force the arguments for 
the prohibition of slavery in all the new Territories. 

Abraham Linculn. 

10. What Wiis tlio result of the election of 1860? 
account of Abraham Lincoln. 

11. Give an 




Secession — The Confeueracy Organized — Capture of Port Sumter 
— First Battle of Bull Run — Missouri and Kentucky — Tue 
Blockade — The Trent Affair. 

1. Secession. — No sooner was the election of Mr. Lin- 
coln ciniiouncetl than the Southern States prepared to 
carry out their threat of seceding from the Union. South 
Carolina took the lead, her Legislature ordering (Novem- 
her 10, 18G0) the assembling of a convention, which met 
December 17 and i)assed an ordinance, December 20, de- 
claring ''that the union now subsisting between South 
Carolina and other States under the name of the United 
States of America is hereby dissolved." As reasons for 
this course the convention referred to the nullification of 
the Fugitive Slave Law by the personal-liberty bills and 
the election of a President " whose opinions and })urposes 
were hostile to slavery.'' 

2. Mississippi seceded January 0, 18G1, Florida Jan- 
uary 10. Alabama January 11, Georgia Januaiy 19, 
Louisiana January 2G, and Texas February L The pco- 

' pie in these States seized all the forts, arsenals, custom- 

1. What followed the election of Lincoln ? Which State was the first 
to seceili- ? Wliat reasons were given for the act ? 2. Which States fol- 
lowed South Carolina ? 

314 History of the United States. 

— 4- — 

liouses, post-offices, and other federal property except 

Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, where Major Ander- 
son with about eighty men stood ready to repel any 
attack, and Fort Pickens at Mobile, which Avas saved by 
the energy of Lieutenant Slemmer. 

3. Mr. Buchanan's Secretary of War was John B. 
Floyd, of Virginia, a zealous secessionist, and by his 
orders an immense quantity of muskets, cannon, ammu- 
nition, and other warlike stores had been trausf erred in 
18G0 from Northern to Southern arsenals. All this fell 
into the hands of the secession party. The army was 
scattered at remote posts where it could be of no use, 
and most of the navy was on foreign stations. 

4. General Scott urged President Buchanan to strengthen 
the garrisons of the Southern forts, but Mr. Floyd i)ro- 
tested and nothing was done, (leneral Cass, of Michigan, 
Secretary of State, resigned in displeasure at Mr. Bu- 
chanan's inaction. Howell Cobb, of Georgia, Secretary 
of the Treasury, resigned and returned to his own 

5. When Congress met in December, 18(50, Mr. Bu- 
chanan recommended several measures designed to con- 
ciliate the South. Shortly afterwards, at the suggestion 
of the Legislature of Virginia, a "peace convention" met 
in Washington, with ex-President Tyler as chairman, and 
proposed a number of amendments to the Constitution. 
Nothing came, however, of any of these schemes. 

6. In January a faint attempt was at last made to 
send men and supplies for the relief of Fort Sumter. 
An unarmed merchant steamer, the Star of the West, 
was despatched on this errand, but she was fired upon by 

What became of the federal property in these States ? 3. How had 
Secretary Floyd helped the secessionists ? 4-5. What was the conduct 
of the Administration ? 6. Describe the attempt to re-enforce Sumter. 

Attack ox Fokt Sumter. 
— + — 


the South C'iirolinti butteries ut the cutrance to Charles- 
ton harbor, and returned without making a hinding. 

7. The Confederacy Organized. — On tlie 4tli of Feb- 
ruary, 18G1, delegates from 

six seceding States met at 
Montgomery, Alabama, and 
formed the " Southern 
Confederacy " under the 
title of the Confederate 
States of America. Jeffer- 
son Davis, of Mississippi, 
was chosen temporary Pres- 
ident by this Montgomery 
Congress, and Alexander 
H. Stephens, of Georgia. 

8. Inaugaration of Pres- 
ident Lincoln.— ^Ir. Lin- 
coln w a s inaugurated 

March 4. 1801. In his address he declared that he had 
neither the right nor the desire to interfere with slavery 
where it already existed ; that no State conltl lawfully 
go out of the Union ; and that he should maintain the 
laws of the Union in all the States to the best of his 

9. Fort Sumter. — Mr. Lincoln made immediate prepa- 
rations to re-chforce Fort Sumter, but before he could do 
so the Confederate batteries ojiened fire on it, April 12. 
This was the beginning of the war. The bombardment 
lasted till the 14th, Avhen, the interior being in flames 
and many of the guns dismounted, Major Anderson 

7. How was the Confedcraev organized ? Who were chosen Presi- 
dent and Vice-President ? 8. When was Lincoln inaugnrated ? What 
did lie say in his address ? 9. When and how did tlie war begin ? 

Jeffeuson Davis. 



luurclied out with all the garrison and the next day 
sailed for A'ew York. 

10. This event served to consolidate both the North 
and the South. All the slave States speedily joined tlie 
Confederacy, except Maryland and Delaware, which Avere 
bound to the North by their geographical position, and 
Kentucky and Missouri, which wished to remain neutral. 
In the North there was a general uprising of the people 
for the defence of the Union, which until now they had 
refused to believe in real danger. 

11. The day after the evacuation of Fort Sumter 
President Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers for three 
months (April 15). The response was so quick that the 
first companies of Massachusetts troops began their march 
the same day, and in a surprisingly short time the quota 
was full. Early in May a call was made for 42,000 vol- 
unteers for three years or the war, and 40,000 men for 
the regular army and navy. These calls also were at 
once answered. 

12. The Government Avas in no want of men, but the 
action of Mr. Floyd had almost stripi)ed it of aruis. 
Agents Avere sent abroad to purchase guns ; private manu- 
factories Avere worked day and night ; and in a short 
time the Administration was able to call more men into 
the field. 

13. A blockade of all the Southern ports Avas pro- 
claimed April in, and to increase the navy the Govern- 
ment proceeded to purchase and arm a great many mer- 
cliant A'essels. The important naA^y-yard at Norfolk, 
Virginia, being menaced by the Confederates, Avas eva- 
cuated by the officers in cominand after an attempt, 

10. What was the eflfect of the fall of Port Sumter ? 11. What pre- 
parations (lid Mr. Lincoln make for war ? 12. How did he procure 
iirms ? 13, Wiiiit naval preparations wore made ? 

Riot in Baltimore. 317 

— +— 
only partially successful, to destroy the ships, buildings, 

luid stores. 

14. The arsenal at Harper's Ferry was captured by 
the Virginia militia April 18, and Washington itself 
was for a time in great danger. Massachusetts and Penn- 
sylvania troops on the way to the capital were attacked 
by the populace in the streets of Baltimore April 10, 
and some of the soldiers were killed. The mob, which 
sympathized with the South, declared that no Xorthern 
troops should pass through the city. The railroad was 
blocked up, bridges were bui-ned, telegraph wires were 
cut, and all direct communication between "Washington 
and the North was stopped, until Mr. Lincoln sent a 
military force from Annapolis to occupy Baltimore and 
keep the road open. 

15. The First Battles. — The Confederate armies, com- 
manded principally by Soutliern graduates of West 
Point, who had resigned when their native States seceded, 
were recruited with quite as much ease as the Northern 
forces. Their main body advanced into northeastern 
Virginia, and took position between Harper's Ferry and 
Norfolk, thus menacing Washington and protecting 
Richmond, which luid become the Confederate capital. 

16. A small engagement near Fortress Monroe, where 
General Butler was worsted by a Confederate force 
under Magruder at Big Bethel, was followed by a series 
of Union victories in Western Virginia, where Generals 
McClellan and Rosecrans defeated the Confederates at 
Rich Mountain, Carrick's Ford, Carnifcx Ferry, etc. 

17. Bull Run. — The princii)al force of the Confede- 
rates was posted at Manassas Junction, Virginia, about 

14. What happened at Harper's Ferry ? In Baltimore ? 15. What 
is said of tlie Confodoratc soldiers and ofiicers ? IG. Mention some of 
the first engagements. 

318 Htstory of the United States. 

— -J- — 
thirty miles from Washington, under command of Gen- 
eral Beauregard. The Federal troops, drilled and organ- 
ized by General Scott, occupied Arlington Heights, on 
the south side of the Potomac, opposite Washington, and 
thence moved in July to attack the Confederate position. 
Their commander was General Irvin McDowell. 

18. The battle was fought July 21, near Bull Run, 
a small stream in front of the Confederate camp. Dur- 
ing the hrst part of the da}' the Union army was success- 
ful, driving back the enemy in gallant style ; but late in 
the afternoon the Confederate General Joseph E. John- 
ston, eluding General Patterson, who had been instructed 
to keejj him in check at Winchester, came upon the field 

with several thousand fresh 
troops, and McDowell's 
army, seized Avith a panic, 
fled in great disorder. The 
Union loss w'as about 3,000 
and the Confederate loss 
2,000. The forces engaged 
Avere about 20,000 on each 

19. This disaster only 
stimulated tlie Xorth to 
fresh exertions. Cimgrcss 
authorized the President 
to enlist halv a million 
volunteers, and voted 
^500,000,000 for the cx- 
McClellan, whose campaign 

George B. McClellan. 

penses of the war. General 

in Western Virginia had given him a high reputation, 

17. How were the two aniiies posted ? Who wero their communders ? 
18. Desoi-ibe the battle of Bull Kiui. What were the losses ? 19. What 
dill the North do after this ? 

Ball's Bluff. 319 

was called to Washington and placed at the head of the 
Avniy of the Potomac, and soon afterward he became 
general-in-ciuef of the United Htates armies, General Scott 
retiring from active service on account of his age and 
infirm ity. A large body of Federal troops had been for 
some time collecting ut Fortress Monroe at the entrance 
to Chesapeake Bay, and this force was placed nnder the 
charge of the veteran General AVool. 

20. Ball's Bluff. — There were no important movements 
by the Army of the Potomac during the rest of the year, 
McClellan wisely preferring to sj)end the time in prepar- 
ing his raw arid unorganized recruits for the hard work 
before them. In the autnmn, however, a portion of Gen- 
eral Stone's command on the Upper Potomac was sent on 
a rcconnoissance into Virginia uiuler Colonel Baker, Sen- 
ator from Oregon, and, being attacked by the Confederate 
General Evans at Ball's Bluif, was disastrously defeated. 
Colonel Baker was among the killed. 

21. The Neutral States. — Although Missouri had de- 
clared itself neutral, a strong party, with which the gov- 
ernor was acting, wished to carry it over to the Con- 
federacy. A Confederate cam]i near St. Louis was broken 
up by Captain Lyon, of the regulars, and the St. Louis 
arsenal was thus saved. The State was afterwards in- 
vaded by Confederates from Arkansas, who were defeated 
by Lyon (now a general) at Booncville, June 17, and by 
Sigel at Carthage, July 5. 

22. A large force of Confederates under McCulloch 
and Price then attacked Lyon at Wilson's Creek, August 
10. Lyon was killed, and his command fell back to- 
wards the centre of the State. Price with 20,000 men 

Wlio was placed in coinmand of the Federal troops on the Potomac ? 
20. Describe flie affsiir at Ball's Wuflf. 21. What happened in IMis- 
souri ? 22. Describe Pi-iee's invasion. 



tliurcupou pushed forward to Lexington, on the Mis- 
souri Kiver, where a little garrison of only 2,000, consist-, 
ing of the Irish brigade of Chicago, under Colonel James 
A. Mulligan, held out heroically for three days, and only 
surrendered (September 20) after their supply of water 
had been cut ofE for forty-eight hours. 

23. General Fremont was now appointed to the com- 
mand of the Western department. He drove Price into 
the southwest corner of the State, and was about to give 
battle when he was superseded by General Hunter (Xo- 
veniber 2). Hunter retreated to St. Louis, with Price 
after him; hut in a fortnight Hunter Avas superseded by 
Halleck, and Price was driven into Arkansas. 

24. Kentucky, like Missouri, was distracted by dis- 
sensions among its own people and harassed by the ar- 
mies of both sides. In September Leonidas Polk, bishop 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church, having received a 
commission as major-general in the Confederate army, 
occupied Hickman and Columbus, towns on the Missis- 
sippi in the southwestern corner of Kentucky. Tliere 
was also a Confederate force at Belmont, Missouri, oppo- 
site Columbus. 

25. Ulysses S. Grant, recently appointed a brigadier- 
general of volunteers, now first came into notice. He 
drove the Confederates out of Belmont. November 7, 
but was unable to hold tlie town, because it was com- 
manded ])y the fortifications of Columbus. 

26. Naval Operations. — In the meantime formidaltle 
expeditions were fitted out to recapture Southern har- 
bors. A combined land and naval force under General 
Butler and Commodore Stringham reduced and occupied 

Give an account of the defence of Lexington. 23. What Federal 
generals opposed Price, and with what result ? 24. Who conunauded 
tln! f'oiifoderatfs in Knitiickv "i' 25. Who dofcniod tlioiu at Bi'linont ? 

The Blockade. 321 

— + — 

two forts at Hatteras Inlet, North Carolina, at the en- 
trance to Albemarle and Pamlico sounds (August 29) ; 
and Port Poyul harbor, near Beaufort, South Carolina, 
was secured by the reduction of Forts "Walker and Beau- 
regard by the fleet of Commodore Dupont (November 7), 
a land force under CJeneral Thomas W. Sherman taking 
possession of the captured works. 

27. The Blockade. — These victories were of high value 
to the Federal cause. They not only closed important 
Southern ports, but they gave the blockading squadrons 
on the coast convenient harbors for rendezvous and sup- 
plies. It was of great consequence that the blockade de- 
clared by the President in April should be rendered effec- 
tive ; otherwise neutral nations, which by international 
law are never obliged to respect a "palmer blockade," 
Avould have been at liberty to enter the Southern ports 
and trade witk them. 

28. In spite of the watchfulness of the Federal navy 
several Confederate men-of-war and privateers got out of 
port and did much damage to merchant ships. The 
most successful of these first cruisers was the Snmfer, 
commanded by Captain Semmes. She was chased into 
Gibraltar by the United States man-of-war Tuscarora, 
and, being unable to evade that ship and get to sea again, 
was there sold. Afterwards the Confederates obtai'iied 
much better vessels, built expressly for them in British 

29. The practice of '' running the blockade " became a 
very profitable business. An agency was established at 
the British port of Nassau, in the West Indies, about 
two days' sail from Charleston or Savannah. Swift ves- 

26. What naval expeditions were fittecl out in this year ? What did 
they accomplish ? 27. What is said of tlie blockade ? 28. Of the Con- 
federate cruisers ? 29. Tlie blockade-runners ? 

322 History of the United States. 

sels of light draught, mostly built in England, were em- 
ployed to i^ly between this place and the blockaded ports, 
stealing past the Federal squadrons under cover of the 
night. They brought out cotton, and took in arms and 
all sorts of supplies, and their cargoes were transferred 
at Nassau to or from British ships sailing to Liverpool. 
Many of the blockade-runners were caught, but the 
profit on a successful voyage was so enormous that ad- 
venturers could afford to take the risk. 

30. Foreign Relations. — The Confederates were treated 
by the British Government with undisguised favor, and 
immediately on the news of the attack upon Fort 8umter 
the Queen issued a proclamation of neutrality which ac- 
corded to them the rights of a belligerent power. By 
previous arrangement between Lord Palmerston and Xapo- 
leon III. the English and French Governments adopted 
the same policy on the American question.* 

31. The South depended a great deal upon assistance 
from abroad. It made no doubt that the interests of the 
British cotton-spinners would soon oblige England to 
interfere and enforce the recognition of Southern inde- 
pendence. Tavo commissioners, Messrs. Mason and Slidell, 
were despatched to London and Paris, and succeeded in 
escaping from Charleston to Cuba, whence they em- 
barked for England in the British passenger steamer 

32. On the 8th of November, 18G1, Captain Charles 
Wilkes, of the United States frigate San Jacinto, stopped 
the Trent at sea and forcibly took off Messrs. Mason and 
Slidell and their secretaries. This action, which was ille- 
gal and unauthorized, produced an angry excitement in 

30. How did the British Government treat the Confederates ? 31. 
Upon what did the South rely ? Wliat commissioners did it send out ? 
32. Give an account of the Trent affair. 

The Trent Affair. 323 

England, and Lord Palnierstun made a peremptory de- 
mand for the surrender of tlie prisoners. 

33. Tlie American Government had ah-eady disavowed 
Captain Wilkes's act, and in an able paper tlie Secretary 
of State, Mr. Seward, showed that while it was justified by 
the Britisli claim of the "right of search," which led to 
the war of 1813, it was contrary to American principles, 
and must therefore be condemned. Messrs. Mason and 
Slidell were promptly released and sent to England. 

34. Just before this occurrence President Lincoln re- 
quested two confidential agents to visit France and Eng- 
land, in order to help the cause of the Union and avert 
the danger of foreign Avar by their influence with the 
governments and persons of distinction. He believed that 
the exertions of Messrs. Slidell and Mason could be best 
counteracted l)y unofficial envoys in addition to the regu- 
lar ambassadors. The persons selected for this delicate 
and important trust w^ere Archbishop Hughes, of Kew 
York, and Mr. Thurlow Weed. They sailed in the be- 
ginning of Xovember and rendered very valuable service, 
Mr. Weed iu England and the archbishop in France. 

35. The Confederate Government. — The eleven Con- 
federate States, acting at first under a jirovisional govern- 
ment, had now adopted a jjcrmanent constitution. Messrs. 
Davis and Stephens were elected, November 6, President 
and Vice-President for six years. 

33. ITow was it settled ? 34. What special envoys did Mr. Lincoln 
send to Enropc ? 35. When did the elections under the "permanent" 
constitution of the Confederacy take place ? Who were chosen Presi- 
dent and Vice-President ? 

324 History op the United States. 

— 'i' — ' 


Second Year of the War, 1862 — Campaigns in Tennessee and Ken- 
i-LXKY — Capture of New Orleans — The Monitor and tue Mer- 


1. The Second Year of the War. — At the beginning of 
18G2 the war hud assumed enormous proportions. The 
number of men under arms North and South was not far 
from a million, and botli sides displayed the highest spirit 
and courage. The Confederates held possession of the 
Mississippi River from the Gulf of Mexico to the south- 
ern boundary of Kentucky, and occupied a chain of strong 
positions extending thence through Tennessee and Ken- 
tucky to the southwestern corner of Virginia. 

2. Tlie counties of Virginia west of the Alleghany 
Mountains had refused to join the Confederacy, and were 
afterwards admitted to the Union as the State of AVest 
Virginia. Between the Alleghanies and the Blue Ridge 
is the fertile Shenandoah Valley, often disputed by the 
two armies. At the east the Confederates were posted in 
great force between the Potomac and the Rappahannock. 

3. The plan of the Federal authorities was to open the 
Mississippi and ]ionotrate the Confederate line at the 
West, while at the same time McClellan attacked Rich- 
mond, and a land and naval force continued the process 
of capturing and closing the Southern harbors on the At- 
lantic coast. Simon Cameron, who had been Secretary of 
War, resigned January 20, 18G2, and was succeeded by 
Edwin M. Stanton. All the Federal armies were to move 
simultaneously on Washington's birthday, the 22d of Feb- 
ruary, but this order could not be strictly carried out. 

1. What was the militarv situatitui at the boijiiining of 1802 ? How 
were the Confcdoratcs posted V 3. Wliat was tlie phm of the Federals ? 
Who succeeded ]\Ir. Cameron as Secretary of War ? 

The Armies of the West. 325 

— + — 
4. Operations in the West. — For the o])enitions in tlio 

AVcst there were two hirge armies, one commanded by 




;Major-General Ilalleck, with headquarters at St. Louis, 
the other by General Buell, with headquarters at Louis- 

4, What two armies had the Federal Crovernment in the West ? 

326 UisTOur of tiii': United ^Status. 

— + — 
ville. The chief Confederate positions between the Mis- 
sissippi River and the Alleghany Mountains were Fort 
Henry, on the Tennessee River, and Fort Donelson, on 
the Cumberland (both in Tennessee), and Bowling Green 
and Mill Spring in Southern Kentucky. 

5. General George H. Thomas, Avith a i)art of BuelTs 
forces, gained an important victory at Mill Si)ring, Janu- 
ary 19, 1862, the Confederate General Zollicolfer being 

killed. The reduction of 
Forts Henry and Donelson, 
which lay Avithin Ilalleck's 
department, was then un- 
dertaken l)y a military force 
co-operating with a fleet of 

6. Capture of Fort Hen- 
ry. — The guulxKits under 
Commodore Foote loft 
Cairo, at the junction of 
the Ohio and Mississippi, 
and ascended the Tenn- 
essee River to boinl);ir(l 
Fort Henry, while an army 
lender General Grant Avas 
to attack it by land. After a hot lire the ft)rt surren- 
dered to Commodore Foote (February (J) before Grant 
could invest it, and most of the garrison escajjcd across 
the narrow strip of land Avhich here divides (he Tennes- 
see from the Chimbcrland, and reached Fort ])onelson. 

7. Capture of Fort Donelson. — The two streams run 
side by side, and the forts are only twelve miles apart. 

What were the Confederate positions between the Mississippi nnd 
the Alleghanies ? 5. What victory did Gen. Thomas win ? 6, How 
was Fort Henry captured 't The date, 

Commodore A. H. Foote. 

Fort l>(tM:LS(>.\ — Suiloh. 337 

— !• — 
The gunboats, however, were obliged to niuke the long 
journey down tiie Tennessee to the Ohio, and then up 
the Cund)erland, so that it was not until the l-ith that 
the combinetl forces were ready to attack Fort Donelson. 
This was a much stronger work tiiaii tiie otlier, aiul had 
been heavily re-enforced. It had a garrison of 22,000 men, 
under Generals Buckner, Pillow, and Floyd (Mr. Bucha- 
nan's Secretary of War). 

8. Owing to the position of the fort on a high bluff 
the gunboats were unable to do much service here. They 
•were badly injured, and C*ommodore Foote received a 
severe wound. (ioucral (I rant pressed the land attack, 
however, with such energy that after a l)i-ave resistance 
the Confederates surrendered, February KI, Floyd and 
Pillow having ])reviously made their escape. 

9. These important victories obliged the Confederates 
to evacuate Columbus, ]?owling Green, and Xashville, and 
to give up the Avhole of Kentucky and most of Tennes- 
see. General liuell occui)ied Xashville ; a strong Union 
party showed itself in Tennessee ; and Senator Andrew 
Johnson was apiwinted militar}^ governor of the State 
with the rank of l)rigadier-gcneral. 

10. Shiloh. — General Grant moved u]i the Tennessee 
liiver and encamped near Shiloh, <>r Pittsl)urg Landing, 
where General Buell was to unite with him for an attack 
u]i()n llie new ])()sition of the enemy at Corinfli. The 
Confederates resolved to fall upon Grant before this Junc- 
tion could be effected. A dreadful battle was fought at 
Pittsburg Landing April 0, lasting all day. The Federal 
troops were driven back step by step to the edge of the 
river, and OAved their safety in great measure to the fine 

7. How was Fort Donelson attackcrl ? 8. Describe the capture. 
9. What were the results of these victories ? 10. What was Grant's 
next move ? l)cscribe the battle of Shiloh, 


— -f — 

conduct of General William Tecumseh Sherman, who had 
a division under General Grant. The Confederate com- 
mander, General Albert Sidney Johnston, was killed, and 
Beauregard took his place. 

11. During the night General Buell's troops arrived, 
and in the morning Grant ordered an advance against 
the Confederate lines. The battle of the 7th lasted seve- 
ral hours, and ended in a complete victory for the Union 
troops, Beauregard retreating to Corinth. 

12. On the Mississippi. — While these operations were 
taking ])lace on the Tennessee, Commodore Foote willi 
his gunboats entered the Mississippi, and in conjunction 
with General Pope attacked a strongly-fortified position at 
Island Ko. 10, a few miles below Columbus. The l)om- 
bardment lasted twenty-three days, and the island was 
captured April 7, the day of Grant's victory at Shiloh. 

13. General Pope then moved eastward, and the gun- 
boats proceeded down the Mississippi to attack Fort Pil- 
low. Commodore Foote, suffering from the wound re- 
ceived at Fort Donelson, turned over the command to 
Captain C. 11. Davis, who destroyed a number of Con- 
federate iron-clads, and afterwards (Fort Pillow having 
been evacuated June 4) forced the surrender of ]\rcmphis 
after a brilliant action with the Confederate gunboats. 

14. Capture of Corinth. — After the battle of Shiloh 
Ilalleck took command in jicrson of the armies of Grant 
and Buell, and at the head of 100,000 men marched 
against Corinth, Avhich Beauregard abandoned without a 
battle. It was occupied by Ilalleck May 30. Leaving 
Grant in command there, Ilalleck then went to AVashing- 
ton to assume the duties of general-in-chief. 

12. "What was accomplisliod V)y Foote and Pope on the Mississippi ? 
13. What was the next exploit of the navy ? 14. Who now took com- 
mand of the Union forces ? What did he accomplish ? 

Bragg and Buell. 329 

— + — 

15. Affairs in Arkansas. — The Confederate forces of 
Price and McCulloch, driven out of Missouri by General 
Curtis, united with the troops of Van Dorn, and on March 7 
Van Dorn was thus enabled to attack Curtis and Sigel 
with a greatly superior army at Pea Eidge, in Northwestern 
Arkausas. The battle lasted three days, and ended in an 
important victory for Curtis, McCulloch was killed. 

16. Campaign in Kentucky. — During the summer the 
Confederates made a great effort to repair by an invasion of 
Kentucky the disasters they had suffered on the Tennessee 
and Mississippi. An army under Kirby Smith moved from 
Knoxville, in East Tennessee, while another under Bragg 
marched from Chattanooga. Smith defeated General Kel- 
son near Ixichmond, Kentucky, August 30, occupied Lex- 
ington and Frankfort, and advanced towards the Ohio, 
threatening Cincinnati. General Lewis Wallace, however, 
forced him to fall back to Frankfort. 

17. Bragg in the meantime, after a victory at Mum- 
fordsville, September 17, hastened towards the important 
city of Louisville. General Buell, as soon as the object of 
Bragg was disclosed, left Xashville, and by forced marches 
reached Louisville just one day before his adversary. After 
obtaining re-enforcements he slowly jiushed the Confede- 
rates back. Bragg formed a junction with Kirby Smith at 
Frankfort, and four days later a severe but indecisive battle 
was fought at Perryville (October 8). The Confederates 
then retreated through Cumberland Gap, carrying off an 
immense amount of supplies collected in Kentucky. 

18. Operations of Rosecrans. — During Bragg's campaign 
the L'nion troops at Corinth were threatened bv Price and 
Van Dorn. General Rosecrans defeated Price vt luka, a 

15. What happciipd in Arkansas ? 16. "What did the Confederates 
undertake in Kentucky ? 17. Describe the campaign of Bragg and 
Buell. 18. What happened meanwhile at Corinth ? 


History of the United States. 

few miles from Corinth, September 19. On October 4 Price 
and Van Dorn together attacked Corinth, and a very severe 
battle was fought, ending in the repulse of the Confederates, 
who lost over five thousand men and Avere pursued by 
Kosecrans for about forty miles. General Eosecrans earned 

a great ro})utation by this 
brilliant achievement, and 
was shortly after appointed 
to the command of the 
Army of the Cumberland 
in place of Buell. 

19. Battle of Stone Riv- 
er. — Marching from JS'ash- 
ville to attack Bragg, Rose- 
crans took up a strong 
position near Murf reesboro, 
in Central Tennessee. 
There, after some skir- 
mishing, lie attacked the 
Confederates in force, De- 
cember 31, and a bloody battle ensued, in which, after the 
day had been apparently lost, the bravery and alnlity of 
General Eosecrans saved his gallant army. This severe en- 
gagement is generally known as the battle of Stone Eiver. 
Kosecrans had 43,000 men, and the Confederates about 
GO, 000. The Tnion loss was 11,500. On the 2d of January 
Bragg renewed the attack with great vigor ; but in this 
second battle he was r-ignally defeated and obliged to retire 
to Chattanooga, while Eosecrans fortified Murfreesboro 
and made it a depot of supplies during his further ad- 
vance. The fame which Eosecrans had w^on at luka 

William S. Eosecrans. 

Who defecated the Confederates at Tuka ? What followed at Co- 
rinth ? 19. Give an account of the battle of Stone River. What is said 
pf these engagements ? 

New Orl'sass Expedition. 331 

— + — 

and Corinth was deservedly increased by these remarkable 


20. Attempt on Vicksburg. — General Grant in the mean- 
time had undertaken an exjiedition against the strong and 
important post of Vicksburg, on the Mississippi. lie 
proposed to march from .Jackson, Mississippi, while Sher- 
man, with forty thousand men, and Porter with a fleet of 
gunboats, descended the river from Memphis. The move- 
ments were made according to arrangement, but Van Dorn's 
cavalry succeeded in getting into Grant's rear and cutting 
off his supplies, so that he was forced to abandon his 
share of the enterprise; 

21. Sherman and Porter attacked the bluffs north of 
Vicksburg, but Avere re- 
pulsed with heavy loss 
(December 29). Hearing 
of Grant's misfortune, they 
then returned to Memphis, 
capturing on their way the 
town of Arkansas Post, on 
the Arkansas River. 

22. Expedition against 
New Orleans. — While the 
Federal arinios were thus 
slowly figliting tlieir way 
down the Mississippi a for- 
midable expedition was 
ascending the river from 
the Gulf. It consisted of 

a fleet of forty-five ships, gunboats, and mortar-boats, under 
Flag Officer Farragut, and an army of fifteen thousand 

20. Describe Gen. Grant's first attiMiij)! upon Vicksburg. The 
result. 21. What did Porter und Sheniiati do ? 22. What impQitant 
land and naval expedition was sent up the Mississippi ? 

ArMiUAL David G. Farkagut. 

332 History of the United States. 

— + — 
troops under General Butler. Tlie i^rincipal Confederate 
defences Avhich they had to encounter were the two strong 
forts, Jackson and St. Philip, situated on opposite banks 
of the Mississippi seventy-five miles below New Orleans. 
At Fort Jackson there was an obstruction stretching across 
the river, and consisting of a line of hulks connected by a 
heavy chain. There were also various batteries on the shores. 

23. The mortar-boats, under the immediate orders of 
Captain David D. Porter, were towed to a sheltered posi- 
tion beneath the banks, nnd their masts were concealed by 
dressing them with branches of trees. For six days (April 
18-24) they bombarded Fort Jackson, which was the near- 
est and m-ost important of the Confederate works. Then 
Captain Farragut determined, with great bravery, to run 
past the forts with all the best vessels of his fleet. 

24. A detachment of gunboats having first cut the 
chain barrier under fire of the Confederate batteries, tlie 
fleet was organized in three divisions, and at three o'clock 
on the morning of the 24th moved slowly uj? the river, 
Farragut leading tlie way in the flag-ship Hartford. The 
forts were passed in the midst of a tremendous cannon- 
ade, and then the fleet found itself in the midst of a Con- 
federate flotilla com})rising sixteen armed steamers, the 
steam-battery Louisiana, and the formidable iron-jilated 
ram Manassas. 

25. Nearly all these vessels were destroyed or cajitured, 
and on the 25th Farragut appeared before New Orleans. 
The Confederate forces evacuated tlie city, first setting 
fire to millions of dollars' worth of shipping, cotton, etc. 
'The forts surrendered to Captain Porter on the 28th, and 
the army of General Butler occupied New Orleans on the 

Who were the Federal commanders ? 23. Describe the bombard- 
ment. 24. The passing of the forts. 25. The naval battle. The 

The Merrimac. 333 

— + — 

1st of May. Captain Farragut with a part of his fleet 

then pushed up the river, occupied Baton Rouge, the 

State capita], passed the batteries at Vicksburg, and met 

the gunboats of Captain Davis. 

26. Operations on the Coast. — Hatteras Inlet to Pam- 
lico Sound having already been captured, it was next re- 
solved to attack the Confederate position on Koanoke 
Island, which commands the passage between ramlico and 
Albemarle Sounds. A land and naval expedition under 
General Burnside and Commodore Goldsborough took the 
forts and batteries on the island February 8, 1802, de- 
stroyed or captured a Confederate flotilla, occupied New- 
bern, N. C.,' after a severe battle, March 1-4, and reduced 
Fort Macon, at Beaufort, N. C, April 25. 

27. Expeditions from Port Royal under Commodore 
Dupont in March took possession of Fernandina, Jackson- 
ville, and St. Augustine, Florida, and of Darien and 
Brunswick, Georgia. Fort Pulaski, on the Savannah 
River, was taken by General Quincy A. Gillmore, Ajn-il II. 
Thus the port of Savannah was completely closed, altliough 
no attempt was made for some time to occupy tlie city. 

28. Confederate Victory in Hampton Roads. — But wliile 
the Confederates were unfortunate in the West and Soutli 
they were encouraged by a remarkable success in Hampton 
Roads, at the entrance to Chesapeake Bay. Wlien tlie 
Norfolk navy-yard was abandoned at the beginning of the 
war the steam-frigate Merrimac was One of the vessels 
scuttled and sunk. The Confederates raised her and con- 
verted her into a powerful ram, Avliicli they called the 
Virghiia. Her deck and sides were i)rotected by a shint 
roof of railroad iron. 

26. What was aocomplishofi at Roanoke Island? WTiat other captures 
were made ? 27. What was done by Coin. Dupont ? By Gen. Gillmore? 
88. What armored vessel had the Confederates fitted up at Norfolk ? 

334 History of the United States. 

— + — 

29. On the 8th of March, 1862, this strange craft, look- 
ing like nothing ever seen before, came out of the Eliza- 
beth Eiver and headed for the Federal fleet in Hampton 
Eoads. The heaviest guns had no effect upon her, shot 
and shell rolling off her iron roof and sides like hail. 
She sank tlie sloop-of-war Cumberland by a blow Avith her 

Fight of the Iron-clads JIonitor and Merrimac, 

armored ram, and drove the frigate Congress ashore and 
burned her. At night she went back to Norfolk. 

30. The next morning she was seen coming out again 
to complete the work of destruction, and there api)eared 
to be no way of saving the rest of the fleet. But before 
she reached the ships a still more novel and curious vessel 

29. Describe her raid into llaiupton Roads. 

The Monitor. 335 

— + — 

than the Merrimac ran out to meet her. This was tlie 
Monitor, a little iron-clad of a new design, invented by 
Captain John Ericsson, which had arrived during the 
njo-ht under command of Lieutenant AVorden, this being 
her first voyage. She was not more than one-fifth as 
large as her antagonist. ller hull was almost entirely 
under water, and on her deck she had a revolving, shot- 
proof turret of iron, Avith two enormous guns inside. The 
sailors called her "a cheese-box on a raft.'' 

31. The Mo)iifor darted at the great Confederate vessel, 
and for five hours the battle went on, with great ex])en- 
dituro of i)owder, but with slight etfect on either side. 
At last the Merrimac was disabled and returned to Xpr- 
folk. She never appeared again. This was the first bat- 
tle ever fought between iron-clad ships, and the history 
of it was studied Avith great interest aU over the Avorld. 
A number of gunboats on the Monitor pattern Avere im- 
mediately constructed, and Ericsson's idea influenced the 
naval svstems of all foreiirn nations. 


Second Tear of the Wa:i, coxTixri:!) — ^IcC'lellax's Pkxixsula 
Campaign — Invasion oi-' Maryland — Antietam — Lckn.side at 

1. The Shenandoah Valley. — The militaiy oiicralions in 
Virginia during the year 180:J offered a strong contrast 
to the course of events at the West. AVhile General Mc- 
Clellan was organizing a splendid army of 200,000 men 

30. "What vessel opportunely arrived just at this time ? What was 
the Monitor ? 31. Describe the battle. What was the effect ? 

836 History of the United States. 

— * — 

near Washington, General Banks Avas detached with one 
corps to occupy the Shenandoah Valley. He began his 
advance in February, and pushed the enemy as far south 
as Harrisonburg, the division of General Shields hieing 
especially distinguished in the victorious advance. Gen- 
eral Fremont now api)roached from the West, endeavor- 
ing to unite with Banks near Staunton. 

2. To prevent this the Confederate General Jackson, 
popularly known as ''Stonewall Jackson" because his 
troops at Bull Eun stood as firm as a stone wall, has- 
tened to attack the Federal forces in detail. He signally 
defeated a part of Banks's command at Front Royal May 
23, and nearly succeeded in getting into the rear of 
the main body with a much stronger army than Banks 
could muster. By a hurried retreat Banks readied and 
crossed the Potomac, closely pursued hy the Confederate 

3. Jackson then turned south, checked Fremont at 
Cross Keys, June 8, and overpowered Shields at Port 
Republic, and having thus saved the Shenandoah Valley 
to the Confederates, and obliged the Government at 
Washington to detain for the defence of tlie cai)ital a 
large body of troops w^hich McClellan greatly needed for 
other duty, he joined the Confederate army in front of 

4. The Army of the Potomac. — General McClellan con- 
centrated tlie Army of ihe Potomac between Washington 
and Manassas, as if intending to advance against Rich- 
mond by tliat route. Meanwhile, however, he was col- 
lecting boats to trans})ort his men to Fortress Monroe, 
and thence to march np the i)eninsuh\ between the James 

1, What was done by Banks in the Shenandoah Valley ? 2. How 
did the f'onfodcrates meet this movement ? Why was Jackson called 
•' Stonewall " ? 3. What was the consequence of his campaign ? 

McCl ELLA .\\s A J) VA ycE. 33 7 

— + — 

and York Eivers. The enemy found out his plan, and, 

under the chief command of (Jeneral})h K. Johnston, 
silently changed their position to meet him. 

5. On the -ith of April McClellaii, havinii- landed 
about 1^0,000 men on the peninsula of Yorktown, ])egan 
his advance over the ground made memorable by the 
surrender of Lord Cornwallis to General Washington. 
The Confederates had a lino of earthworks across the 
l)eninsula, defended by only sevent^'-fivc hundred men 
under General Magruder. These, however, were so art- 
fully and bra\ely disposed that Cieneral McClellan, deceived 
as to their nundjer, was detained a month before the lines. 
This gave General Johnston ample time to complete his 
preparations for the defence of Eichmond. At last, when 
the Federal troops Avere about to make an assault, Ma- 
gruder withdrew. Yorktown was then occupied without 
opposition. May 4. Korfolk, threatened by General Wool, 
was evacuated by the Confederates May 3, and the famous 
ram Virginia, or Mcrrimac, Avas blown up to prevent 
its falling into the hands of the Union forces. 

6. Both armies now concentrated around Eichmond. 
McClellan gained the battles of Williamsburg, May 5, 
and West Point, May 9, and advanced within seven miles 
of Richmond. A panic broke out in the Southern capi- 
tal, and the Congress adjourned in haste. Federal gun- 
boats ascended the James River to a point about eight 
miles l)elow Richmond, but they were unable to pass 
Fort Darling and retired considerably injured. It Avas 
just at this time that StoncAvall Jackson, by his brilliant 
and daring operations in the Shenandoah Valley, obliged 
President Lincoln to keep in front of Washington a corps 

4. What was McClcllan's plan of advance ? 5. What happened 
at Yorktown ? 6. What victories were gained by McClellan ? What 
Jiappened in Richmond ? 

338 HinToiiv OF THE VyiTED States. 

under McDowell which was about to co-operate with Mc- 
Clellau by way of Fredericksburg. 

7. On the 31st of May the Confederates attacked 
McClellan's left Aving, which had been pushed across the 
Chickahominy at Fair Oaks and Seven Pines. A terrible 
battle ensued, lasting two days, and memorable for heroism 
on both sides. The Federal troops Avere greatly embar- 
rassed by the nature of the ground ; for they occupied a 
A'ast swamp, and the Chickahominy, swollen by rains, 
divided their lines. The result, however, Avas a Union 
victory. The C'onfederate General Johnston Avas severely 
AV(.)undod, and the command of the Army of Virginia de- 
volved upon General liobert E. Lee, Avho retained it during 
the rest of the Avar. 

8. The Seven Days' Battles.— The absence of McDoAvell, 
Avliu Avas expected to support McClellan's right, compelled 
a change in the whole jilan of ojierations. Although Lee 
hud been rejnilsed in an attack upon the Federal lines at 
Mechanicsvillc (June 20), he fell upon them again at 
Gaines's j\Iill, or Cold Harbor, the next day, in OA'crAvhelm- 
ing force, and drove them across the Chickahominy Avitli 
terrible loss. Jackson had noAV re-enforced Lee, and the 
Confederate caA'alry leader Stuart made the circuit of the 
Federal army, destroying a cpiantity of stores at White 
House, on the Pamunkey, Avhicli was McClellan's base of 
supplies. L'nablc any longer to keep up his communica- 
tions Avitli the York liiver, the L'nion general decided u})on 
the tliillcult mancouvrc of changing his base to the James. 

9. Tliis flank movement began on the night of the 
2Htli and continued until July 1, the troops marching all 
night and fighting all day, Lee attacking them at Golding's 

7. Describe the battle of Fair Oaks and Seven Pines 't Who suc- 
ceeded Johnston ? 8. What obliged McClellan to cliangc his plan ? 
What happened at Gaines's Mill ? What did McClelluu undertake ? 

The Skvrn Days" Battli-s. 


Farm, Savage's Station, Wliite Oak Swamp, etc., and di- 
recting a heavy force against them at Malvern Hill, near 
the James, where, however, he was signally repulsed. This 
was the last of a series of engagements known as the 

''Seven Days' Battles," in the course of which McClellan 
lost over lifleeii thousand men. Lee suffered almost as 

10. After the battle of Malvern Hill McClellan fell back 

9. When did the flank movement begin ? Describe it. What 
were the engagements called ? 10, What did McClellan do next ? 


to Harrison's Landing, on the James, and fortitied himself 
in a strong position where tlie gunboats could protect him. 
Both 2>arties were glad of an o})})()rtunity to rest and repair 
damages, and during the next month there Avere no im- 
portant engagements. 

11. Lee moves North.— Feeling no anxiety about Rich- 
mond for the present, Lee determined to invade the North. 
General Pope had been called from the West and i)laced in 
command of the troops reserved for the defence of AVash- 
ington, namely, the corps of McDowell, Banks, and Fre- 
mont, amounting to not more than forty thousand men. 
Lee's advance met Banks at Cedar Mountain, and defeated 
him in a sharp engagement, August 9. 

12. As soon as the Confederate design was perceived 
the President ordered McClellan to abandon the peninsula 
and transfer his army by water to the Potomac. Poi)e fell 
back slowly from the Ea])pahannock towards Washington, 
continually fighting Avith Lee's advance, which he lio})ed to 
hold in check until McClellan should arrive. Li the mean- 
time, however, Lee had sent Jackson around a mountain 
ridge at the west, to pass through Tlioroughfare Gap and 
fall upon Pope's rear. 

13. Jackson executed tliis manoeuvre, and from the 26th 
of August to the 1st of Sei)tember there Avas. an almost 
uninterrupted battle, a part of the fighting taking i)lace on 
the old field of Manassas, and being knoAvn as tlie second 
battle of Bull Run. Portions of McClellan's force arrived 
during these critical days and were placed under Pope, 
but Pope complained that some of them did not pro- 
perly sujiport liim. In an engagement at Chant illy, Sep- 
tember 1, the Confederates were repulsed ; but Pope was 

11. What was Log's project ? Who commanded in front of Wash- 
ington ? What battle was fought ? \l. What orders were sent to 
McClellan ? 13, Pescribe Pope's campaign. 

Antietam. 341 

— + — 
now greatly outnumbered, and, Iniving lost about thirty 

thousand men and a quantity of guns and stores, he re- 
treated to the defences of Washington and resigned his 
command. General McClellan, whose poi)ularity with the 
soldiers was unbounded, was again 2)laced in charge of the 
Army of the Potomac. 

14. Invasion of Maryland. — Lee now disregarded Wash- 
ington, and, moving further up the Potomac, crossed into 
Maryland at Leesburg, while Jackson i)roceeded still higher 
up the river and attacked Harper's Ferry. This important 
post, commanded by Colonel Miles, surrendered on the loth 
of September with thirteen thousand prisonei-s. Lee's 
invasion of Maryland Avas made at the exact time of Bragg's 
invasion of Kentucky. 

15. McClellan in the meanwhile pushed between Jack- 
son and Lee, and on tlie 14th defeated Lee at South Moun- 
tain, obliging the Confederate leader to fall back in order 
to secure his communication with Jackson, who, with 
characteristic energy and watchfulness, was hastening to 
join him. 

16. Battle of Antietam. — The Confederates united at 
Sharpsburg, Maryland, on a little stream called the Antie- 
tam, which flows into tlie Potomac, and there a severe battle 
was fought, September 17, 18G2, Lee having about 70,000 
men and McClellan 87,000. The fighting lasted all day, 
with a loss of over 12,000 on the Union side, and probably 
as many on the otiier. At the close of the slaughter each 
army lield its own ground, but neither was in a condition 
to renew the struggle next day, and Lee retired and re- 
crossed the Potomac. 

17. The invasion was thus rei)ellod, but the President 

14. What were Lee's next movements ? 15. What did McClellan 
do? 16. Describe the l)tittlo of Antietam, Give the date. The 

342 History of the United States. 

— -i- — 

was dissatisfied with General McClellan's management of 
the camjjaign, and in Xovcmber replaced liim by General 
Burnside. The new commander moved at once towards 
Richmond, proposing to cross the Eappahannock at Fred- 

18. Battle of Fredericksburg. — Lee posted his army, 
eighty thousand strong, on a range of heights back of 
Fredericksburg, on the south side of the river. lie Avas 
protected by a line of earthworks and a thick stone wall 
about four feet high. Burnside crossed the Eai^pahannock 
on the 11th and 12th of December, and, forming his 
army in columns of attack under the partial shelter of 
the houses of Fredericksburg, he attemjjted on the 13th 
to scale the heights. 

19. It was a day of horrible carnage. The Confede- 
rates were organized in two corps under Jackson and 
Longstreet ; the Unionists in three grand divisions 
under Franklin, Hooker, and Sumner, with Hancock, 
French, W. F. Smith, Stoneman, Reynolds, and "Wilcox 
as corps commanders. It was in vain that Burnside's 
gallant soldiers threw themselves against the heights ; the 
enemy's artillery never failed to sweep away the heads of 
the columns before they could reach the top. Tbe most 
formidable of the positions was the stone wall. The Irish 
brigade of Meagher assailed that no fewer than six times, 
going into the battle with twelve hundred men, and 
losing more than nine hundred of them. At night 
Burnside found himself everywhere repulsed. He had 
lost about twelve thousand men ; the army Avas demoral- 
ized ; and retreating to the north side of the river, he 
was replaced by General Hooker. 

17. Who replaced MeClellan ? What was Burnside's plan ? 18. 
Describe the positions at Fredericksburg. 19. Give an account of the 
battle. Who replaced Burnside ? 

Emancipation. 343 

— + — 

20. The year closed ?X the North in gloom and dis- 
couragement. At the State elections in the autumn 
there was a majority against the Administration in seve- 
ral of tlie Northern States, and the result of the cam- 
paigns on the Potomac gave great strength to the peace 
party, which believed that the attempt to subjugate the 
JSouth ought to be abandoned. ^ 


Third Year of the War, 1863 — Chaxcellorsville — GETTVPBrRG — 


1. Emancipation. — On tlie 1st of January, 18G3, Presi- 
dent Lincoln issued his celebrated Proclamation of 
Emancipation, in Avhich he declared all slaves in the 
States or i)arts of States " in rebellion against the United 
States " to be for ever free. In the previous Sc]itember 
he had publicly announced his intention to take this step 
if the Southern States did not return to the Union. 

2. The Army of the Potomac. — Hooker spent three 
months in reorganizing and strengthening the Army of 
the Potomac, and at the end of April began his march 
towards Richmond with 1-20,000 men. Sending the Gth 
corps under Sedgwick to cross the Rai)pahannock below 
Fredericksburg, he threw his main body across the river 
a few miles liigher, and before Lee understood his \n\v- 
pose he had advanced to Chancellorsville, about live miles 
from the scene of Burnside's defeat. 

3. Battle of Chancellorsville. — Lee had onlv half as 

20. What was the effect of these battles at the North ? 1. What 
important proolanuition did the President issue ? The date ? 2. What 

was Hooker's plan ? 

344 HiSToar of the United States. 

— * — 

many men as Hooker, bnt the position was greatly in liis 

favor. The battle lasted all through the 2d and 3d of 
May. Jackson, at the head of twenty-five thousand men,, 
made a magnificent attack upon the Union right, taking 
it 1jy suri)rise, throwing the whole wing into confusion 
and putting most of it to flight. Sedgwick on the left 
carried the Ileiglits of Fredericksburg, and was pushing 
on towards Chancellorsville when the disaster on the right 
enabled Lee to face him with the main Confederate 
army. Sedgwick was at last compelled to withdraw dur- 
ino; the ni"-ht that followed the 4th of May, and Hooker 
recrossed the Ita|)])alianu()ck the next night. The Federal 
'losses were seventeen thousand. The Confederates, on the 
other hand, sustained a severe misfortune in the death 
of Stonewall Jackson, who was shot through mistake by 
his own men. 

4. Invasion of Pennsylvania. — Lee now repeated the 
manoeuvre he had practised after the defeat of Pope, and 
hastened with nearly all his force to invade the North. He 
seemed to liavo a fair prospect of capturing Washington, but 
Hooker threw himself between the capital and the invading 
force, and Lee marched through the Shenandoah Valley, 
entered Pennsylvania, and advanced to Chambersburg. 
From that point he threatened not only Washington but 
Baltimore and Philadelphia. There Avas great alarm at the 
North, and re-enforccments were liurried to Pennsylvania 
from all ]nirts. 

5. Battle of Gettysburg. — Tn consc(picnce of a disagree- 
ment with General Halleck, Hooker resigned tlio command 
of the Army of the Potomac, and it was given (June 2S) to 
General George G. liileade. The two hostile armies, each 

3. Describe the battle of Chancellorsville. What great loss did the 
Confederates sustain ? 4. Give an account of the invasion of Pennsyl- 
vania. 5. Who replaced Hooker ? 

Battle op Gkttysbvrg. 345 

— + — 

about 100,000 strong, were now moving north in i);irallel 
lines, with the Bhie Eidge and South Mountain Eango be- 
tween them. On the 1st of July they met near Gettys- 

6. Meade took a strong position on a line of hills and 
awaited the attack. The battle lasted till the close of the 
3d, and was one of the most bravely contested of the Avhole 
war. Lee was at length driven back with the loss of nearly 
40,000 men. Meade's loss was 23,000. On the 4th of July 
Lee retreated towards the Potomac, which he soon aftei 
crossed, and the invasion of the North was at an end. This 
was the turning-point of the w\ar. The South was never 
able to collect so fine an army again, and never recovered 
from the exhaustion of the (Jettysburg cam2)aign. 

7. General Grant in the West. — On the very day of Lee's 
retreat General Grant gained a decisive victory on tbe Mis- 
sissippi, He had failed in several attempts to take Vicks- 
burg from tlie north, and lie now determined to transfer his 
army to tlie soutli side of the i)laco. To do tliis it was 
necessary to cross tlie Mississippi, march down the west 
bank of the river, then cross again below Vicksburg, and 
marcli up tlie east bank ; and the lleet, wliieli liad run past 
the batteries of Yicksl)urg after the cai)ture of Xew Orleans, 
would liave to pass them again in order to transport the 
ai'niy over the river and protect the crossing. 

8. This plan was \n\i in operation in April. As Vicks- 
burg is built on the Jiigh blutT at a bond in the Mississippi, 
its guns commanded the river for a great distance both 
above and Ijclow, aiul tlie passage by the gunboats was at- 
tended with extreme danger. Commodore Portei-, liow- 
evcr, performed his task successfully under a heavy fire, and 

6. Give an ju'count of the battle of Gettysburg, Wliat is said of 
this battle ? 7. "What was General Grant doing in the West ? 8. llow 
was his now plan put in operation ? 

346 History of the United States. 

on the 29tli of Ajiril opeuod a caimonado upon Grand Gulf, 
at the mouth of the Big Bhick Kiver, where it had been de- 
termined to attempt a crossing. The Confederate batteries 
here proving too strong, the fleet ran past them, as it had 
run the batteries of Vicksburg, and the crossing was made 
at Bruinsburg, a few miles below. 

9. Grant now pushed forward with all speed, and Sher- 
man, who had been left to deceive the enemy by a demon- 
stration against Yicksburg on the nortli, made haste to join 
him. The Confederates were beaten at Port Gibson and 
compelled to evacuate Grand Gulf, and on the 14th of May 
the troops of McPherson and Sherman captured Jackson, 
the capital of the State of Mississippi, and a j^lace of great 
military importance on account of its railway connections. 
It is forty-five miles east of Yicksburg. 

10. The Confederate forces at Jackson consisted of an 
army hastening from the east under command of General 
Joseph E. Johnston to relievo Yicksburg. Grant's bold and 
rapid movements, however, baffled all Johnston's attempts to 
reach the beleaguered city. After the victory at Jackson tlie 
Union army turned around and fell upon the Confederate 
General Pembcrton, avIio had marched out of Yicksburg 
with twenty-five thousand men to unite with Johnston. 
Pemberton Avas beaten and driven 1)ack at Cliami)ion Hills 
on the IGth, and beaten again at ilie crossing of the Black 
River on tlie ITth. He tlion retired to the defences of 

11. Anxious to carry the city before Johnston could re- 
cover fi-om his defeat at Jackson, Grant made two grand 
assaults (May 10 and 22), but in spite of the gallantry of 
his heroic army he Avas beaten back with heavy loss. He 

How (lid the fli'ot pass the Confederate batteries ? 9. Describe the 
advance towards JaLkson. 10. The fighting with Pembcrton. 11, Tho 
assanlts upon Vicksbnrg. 

Capture of Vickshurg. 

— 4— 


then begun a regular siege. The phice was invested on all 
sides. The formidable batteries at Haines's Bluff, which 
had so long resisted his attempts to advance from the north, 
were evacuated, and Porter, after reducing the Confederato 
l)ositions on the Yazoo Kiver, brought his mortar-boats into 
a position on the Mississippi from which he could shell the 

12. Capture of Vicksburg.— The siege lasted forty-five 
days. At the end of that time, being out of provisions 
and fearing an assault, Pember- 
ton proposed to surrender, and 
on the 4th of July, 18C3, Grant 
took possession of the great 
Confederate stronghold of the 
"West. Peml)erton gave up 27,000 
prisoners ; he had previously lost 
10,000 captured in the various 

battles before Yicksburg, and as many more killed and 
wounded. Grant's losses in this memorable campaign, 
from the time he crossed the Mississippi at Bruinsburg, 
were eighty-five huiulrcd. 

13. Sherman Avas now hurled against Johnston, who did 
not venture a general engagement, but after making a short 
stand at Jackson hurriedly retreated. Port Hudson, a 
strong place on the Mississippi above Baton Eougc, sur- 
rendered to General Banks July 8. Helena, on the Ar- 
kansas side of the river, some distance above Vicksburg, 
was attacked by the Confederates in vain. From this time 
the Union forces held control of the whole Mississippi, tlio 
Confederacy being thus cut in two. 

14. The Vicksburg campaign marked the decline of the 

13. Give an account of the siege of Vicksburg. When did it surren- 
(Im* ? 13. Wliat operations fi)ll<>\vod ? 14. What is .siid of the Vicks- 
burg campaign ? 

348 HiSToiiY OF TitE United Stated. 

— 4.^^ 

Confederate fortunes in the West, as the Gettysburg cam- 
paign did in the East. The South had put forth its ut- 
most efforts and used almost its last resources. About the 
middle of April General Grant had detached a force of 
one thousand cavalry under Colonel Griersou to traverse 
Mississippi and cut the railroads east of Vicksburg. In 
two weeks Grierson rode the whole length of the State, 
from a point near Memphis to Baton Eougc, destroying 
stores, passing between the armies of Johnston and Peni- 
berton, and losing only twenty-seven men. lie reported 
that the country was exhausted, being little more than a 

15. The Draft Riots. — As early as April, 18G2, the Con- 
federate Congress had passed a conscri2)tion act, enrolling 
in the army all adult white males below a certain age. In 
March, 18(33, the United States Congress passed a some- 
what similar act for the enrollment of all able-bodied male 
citizens between eighteen and forty-five, and the President 
was authorized to make drafts for the military service, 
those Ijctween twenty and thirty-five to be first called upon. 
A call for 300,000 troops under this law was made in May, 
and as the full numlx'r Avas not obtained by volunteering 
a draft was ordered to sup]ily the deficiency. This draft 
took place in New York City in July, just after the battle 
of Gettysburg, and was followed by a riot, which lasted four 
days (July 13-10), und resulted in a number of shocking 
murders and the destruction of |'2.000,000 worth of ])ro- 
perty. There were riots also in Boston, Jersey City, and 
other places. 

16. Tennessee and Georgia. — After his brilliant victory 
near Murfrecsboro in January Ivosecrans remained quiet for 

What is said of the condition of the Soulli ? Of Griorson's raid ? 
15. Give an aocount of the draft riots. 10. "V\Tiat did llosccnms do 
after his victory near Murfreesboro ? 

Battle of Cijtckamauga. 34D 

— ^ — 

some time, preparing for a new campaign. It "vyas iiot until 
the end of June that lie was able to advance. His move- 
ments were so well planned that in a few days he oblio-ed 
General Bragg to evacuate Middle Tennessee and fall back 
in haste towards Georgia. 

17. Battle of Chickamauga. — Kosecrans followed him 
across the Tennessee Kiver, and was beyond the strong 
position of Chattanooga when Bragg, having been heavily 
re-enforced by a part of Johnston's army and by Longstreet's 
corps from Lee, turned at Chickamauga Creek to give 
battle. A severe engagement Avas fought September 19 
without decisive result. But the next day the Confederates, 
now largely outnumbering 

their adversaries, gained a 
clear victory, Longstreet rout- 
ing the right wing of the 
Union army after a determined 
contest. The stubborn resis- 
tance of Thomas on the left 
prevented the rout from be- 
coming general. Bragg did not venture to follow up his 
advantage, and after a day's inaction Rosecrans retired to 

18. Burnside's Operations. — The Government at Wash- 
ington had committed the mistake of dividing its forces ; 
for while Rosecrans with only 55,000 men was left to 
face the 92,000 concentrated under Bragg, General Burn- 
side was sent into East Tennessee Avith an independent 
army of 20,000 men. Tlic Confederates wisely retired be- 
fore him until they had overwhelmed Rosecrans, and tlicn 
Longstreet was despatched to attack Burnside at Knoxville. 

17. Give an account of the battles at Chickamauga Creek. What 
followed ? 18. What mistake had been made by the Federal Govern- 
inent ? How did the Confederates take advantage of it ? 

350 History of the United States. 

— + — 

A brave assault was gallantly repelled at the end of No- 
vember, and soon afterwards the defeat of Bragg obliged 
Longstreet to abandon the siege and retreat to Virginia. 

19. Grant at Chattanooga. — In October General Rose- 
crans was relieved of his command and General Grant 
placed in charge of all the Western armies, the immediate 
command of the Army of the Cumberland being entrusted 
to General G. H. Thomas. Grant proceeded to Chatta- 
nooga, and, being there joined by Sherman from the Mis- 
sissippi and Hooker with two corps from the Potomac, 
assaulted Bragg's position on two parallel ranges called 
Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. 

20. Hooker carried Lookout Mountain by storm No* 
vember 24, part of the fighting taking place in the midst 
of a thick mist which covered the summit ; hence this is 
called the "battle above the clouds." On the next day 
Missionary Ridge was scaled by the main army. Hooker on 
the right, Thomas in the centre, and Sherman on the left, 
and Bragg retreated into Georgia. A part of the victo- 
rious army was at once sent to the relief of Burnside at 
Knoxville. Hooker pursued the retiring enemy, but was 
cliecked at Ringgold by the dashing Confederate general, 
Pat. Cleburne. Bragg was soon afterwards relieved of his 

21. Morgan's Raid. — The Confederate cavalry leader, 
General John Morgan, made a remarkable raid through 
Kentucky into Lidiana and Ohio in the summer of tliis 
year at tlie head of about three thousand horsemen. Most 
of liis men were captured, and Morgan with the remnant of 
the band at last surrendered. He was sent to prison, but es- 
caped by digging out, and was killed in battle the next year. 

19. What changes were made in the commands at the West ? 20. 
Describe the battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. 21. 
Give an account of Morgan, 

Confederate Cruisers. 351 

— * — 

22. Operations on the Coast. — Operations on the coast 
began inaiispiciously for the Unionists this year, the Con- 
federates under Magruder capturing Galveston, Texas, on 
the 1st of January, and getting possession of one armed 
vessel and destroying another. 

23. Affairs at Charleston. — Tlie strongest of the South- 
ern seaports, as "well as the most important, was Charles- 
ton, and many attempts were made to reduce it. An 
attack by a fleet of nine iron-clads, under Commodore 
Dupont, was beaten off April 7, 1SG3, one of the vessels 
being sunk. In July General Gillmore undertook a siege 
of the harbor forts. An assault upon Fort Wagner, on 
•Morris Island, having been repulsed with heavy loss, bat- 
teries were erected on the island, and by extraordinary 
exertions an enormous Parrott gun was secretly planted in 
the marshes, whence the city itself could be reached. Fort 
Wagner was taken September 7, after a tremendous bom- 
bardment, in which the fleet, under Commodore Dahlgren, co- 
operated withGillmore's batteries. Fort Sumter was reduced 
to ruins ; the blockading ships were thus ena1)lcd to enter 
the harbor, and the port of Charleston was entirely closed. 

24. Confederate Cruisers. — With the aid of the British 
government the Confederate authorities succeeded in fitting 
out several formidable cruisers, which in the course of the 
year 18G3 did enormous damage to Northern commerce. 
The Florida, built at Liverpool, ran the blockade into 
Mobile, and issued from that port in January, 18G3. She 
captured twenty-one vessels, and was then seized in the 
harbor of Bahia, Brazil (October, 18G4). Three of her 
captures were fitted out as cruisers and manned from her 
officers and crew. 

23 What occurred at Galveston on the 1st of January ? 23. De- 
scribe the attacks upon Clmrlcston. How was the port finally closed ? 
24 How did the Confederates obtaui armed vessels of war ? 

352 History of the United States. 

—J* — 

25. The Georgia was built at Glasgow, and put to sea 
in April, but was captured after a short cruise by the 
United States frigate Niagara. The Olustee (or Talla- 
hassee), CliicTcamauga, and Shenandoah Avere built or pur- 
chased in England afterwards. 

26. The most important of the cruisers was the Ala- 
lama, built at Liverpool for Captain Semmes after the sale 
of the Sumter. Mr. Adams, the American minister in 
London, urged the British Government to enforce its own 
laws and prevent her going to sea ; nevertheless, she was 
allowed to sail in July. After destroying more than sixty 
vessels the Alabama challenged the United States war steam- 
er Kearsarge, Captain Winslow, to fight her ofE the har- 
bor of Cherbourg, France — an invitation which was gladly 
accepted. The two ships were fairly matched, but Captain 
Winslow had the better gunners, and after an action of 
about an hour the Alabama was sunk. Captain Semmes 
and many of his crew being picked up by an English 
yacht, while nearly all the rest were rescued by the Kear- 
sarge (June 19, 18G4). 

27. By the operations of these cruisers, which obtained 
all their supplies, etc., in British ports, the foreign ship- 
ping trade of the United States was almost ruined, and 
what this country lost the English ship-owners secured. 
The unlawful conduct of Great Britain in this matter was 
long a cause of bad feeling between the two countries. 
The matter was at last settled by England's paying to the 
United States fifteen and a half million dollars in satisfac- 
tion of the "Alabama claims." (See page 373.) 

28. \\\ June of this year the western counties of Vir- 
ginia, whicli had refused to join the Southern Confede- 

25. Name some of the Confederate cruisers. 26. Which was the 
most important of them ? What became of her ? 27. What was the 
effect of these cruisers upon American trade ? 

Gex. Banks on the Red River. 353 

— * — 
racy, were admitted into the Union as the State of West 



Fourth Year of the War, 1804 — General Grant in Command of all 
THE Federal Armies — Battles of the Wilderness — Siege of 
Petersburg — Early and Sheridan — Sherman's Atlanta Cam- 
paign — Thomas at Nashville — Sherman's March to the Sea — 
Capture of Savannah — Farragut at Mobile — Re-election of 
President Lincoln. 

1. Minor Operations. — At the beginning of the year 
18G4: there were numerous 
detached operations whieli 
attracted a great deal of 
notice at the time, hut may 
be passed over briefly, be- 
cause they had little direct 
bearing upon the final 
campaigns now close at 
hand. General Seymour 
led a Union exi">edition 
into Florida and was de- 
feated. General Sherman 
marched into Mississippi 
and destroyed railroads, 

bridges, and supplies. ultsses s. grant. 

General Banks, accompa- 
nied by Commodore Porter with his gunboats, ascended 
the Red River to attack Shreveport and bring away cot- 

38. When was the State of West Virginia admitted ? Of what was 
it formed ? 1. Mention some of the minor operations at the beginning 
of 1864. 

354 History of the UiXIted States. 

— + — 
ton. This expedition ended in disaster. While the fleet 
Wtis up the river the water became low and the boats 
Avere unable to pass the rapids on their return. Por- 
ter would have been obliged to destroy the whole fleet, 
but Lieutenant-Colonel Bailey, Avho had been a lumberman 
in Wisconsin, built a dam below the rapids and raised the 
water so that the gunboats could pass ; then the dam was 
cut and the fleet shot through the opening. 

2. The Confederate General Forrest made a raid into 
Tennessee and Kentucky, and captured Fort Pillow April 
12, where a number of negro troops were killed. 

3. General Eosecrans, having been aj^pointed to com- 
mand in Missouri, discovered there an extensive secret 
organization for co-operating with the Confederates. He 
arrested some of the members, and was afterwards en- 
gaged in repelling an invasion by General Stci'ling Price, 
whom at last he drove out of the State. 

4. Reorganization of the Armies. — At the oiicning of 
the spring a change of great im})()rtance was made in the 
manner of conducting the war. Much had hitherto been 
lost by the failure of the various generals to co-operate 
with one another, and an act of Congress now revived the 
grade of lieutenant-general (never held before by any one 
in this country, except General W^ashington, although Scott 
had been lieutenant-general by brevet), with the under- 
standing that it should be conferred upon General Grant. 
Mr. Lincoln accordingly nominated Grant for the new 
rank March 1, and he became eeneral-in-chief * of all the 

* By the Constitution the Presidont is commander-in-chief of the army and navy. 
The lieutenant-general stands in the Presidents place, and is the liijjhest in rank under 

What ingenious plan was devised on the Red River ? 2. What is 
said of Forrest's raid ? 3. What did Gonoral Rosecrans do in Wis- 
souri ? 4. What important measure was adopted in tlie spring ? 

The WiLT)?:iiXESs. 355 

— + — 

armies of the United States. General Halleck had (he 
rank of chief of staff of the army. 

5. The three western armies of the Ohio, the Cumber- 
land, and the Tennessee were now placed under the com- 
mand of Sherman, while Grant took personal direction of 
the campaign against liichmond, Meade retaining the im- 
mediate charge of the Army of the Potomac. The Army 
of the Potomac was reorganized in tlirec cori)s, under 
Hancock, Warren, and Sedgwick, to wliicli was soon added 
another under Burnside, and Slieridan, called from the 
AVest, was appointed to the command of all the ca^alry 
of this army. Lee had likewise divided his forces into 
three corps, under Ewell, A. P. Hill, and Longstreet. They 
were the flower of the Southern troops. 

6. The Wilderness. — It having been arranged that 
Meade and Sherman should move at the same time, the 
Army of the Potomac crossed the Eapidan May 4, 18G4, 
and found itself on tlic edge of a tal)le-lund called tlie 
AVihlerness, covered witli a thick growth of bushes and 
small trees, a short distance west of the battle-field of 
Cluincellorsville. It was Grant's object to push through 
this difficult country as rapidly as possible, and Lee's 
ol)ject to attack him incessantly while he was still en- 
tangled in the labyrinth of the woods. 

7. The battles began on ihe Stli and continued with- 
out interru})tion till the 12th, both sides fighting like 
heroes and suffering severely, but Lee being slowly forced 
back or outflanked and so compelled to retreat little l)y 
little. On the 9th Grant was clear of the "Wilderness 
and concentrated near Spottsylvania Court-House. Here 
the most furious and obstinate fighting raged with little 

5. How were the armies reorgimized ? 6. When did the Army of 
the Potomac move ? What was the Wilderness ? What was Grant's 
object ? What was Lee's ? 

356 History of the United States. 

— + — 

intermission during ten days. Grant, wlio had lost nearly 

twenty tiiousand men in the Wilderness, lost ten thou- 
sand more here, and among the killed was the commander 
of the Sixth Corjas, General Sedgwick, a brave and tho- 
rough soldier. Lee's losses, however, had also been se- 
vere. General Hancock's corps alone taking seven thou- 
sand prisoners and twenty-one pieces of artillery, and 
Lee was much less able to bear such losses than Grant. 

8. On the 11th Grant had telegraphed to Washing- 
ton : ''I propose to fight it out on this line, if it takes 
all summer." He continued, in sjiite of repeated repulses, 
to move to the left and try again. At the end of May 
he had reached McClellan's old battle-ground near the 
Chickahominy. There he fought two severe battles at 
Cold Harbor. In the second of these (June 3) Colonel 
McMahon, at the head of a New York regiment, succeeded 
in planting his colors inside the Confederate works, when 
he was killed. In twenty minutes the army w'as hurled 
back with the loss of ten thousand men. 

9. Grant now crossed the Chickahominy, and, moving 
far to the right of his adversary, transferred his army 
beyond the James to assail Eichmond from the south. 
This involved the reduction of the strongly-fortified town 
of Petersburg, on the Appomattox, practically a i)art of the 
defences of Richmond, from which it is twenty miles distant. 

10. General Butler on the James. — In connection with 
Grant's movement from the l\a])idan General Butler 
had been sent up the James from Fortress Monroe with 
thirty thousand men. He reached a peninsula called 
Bermuda Hundreds, which lies between the Appomattox 

7. Describe the battles of the Wilderness. What followed near 
Spottsylvania Court-IIouse ? Wliat were Grant's losses ? 8. What 
occurred at Cold Harbor ? 9. To what point was the attack on Rich- 
mond now shifted 'i 

Stege of Peteusbl'rg. 357 


and a bend in tlie James, and was there attacked by 
Beanregard, May 10, and brought to a stop. 

11. Siege of Petersburg — Ee-enforeed, so that his army 
now amounted to 150,000 men, Grant crossed the James, 
and in conjunction with Butler made three attemjjts 
(June 15, 10, and 18) to carry Petersburg by assault. 
These trials failed, and cost the Federal commander ten 
thousand men, A battle a few days later on the Federal 
left, Avhere Grant endeavored to seize tlie railroad running 
south from Eiehmond and Petersburg to Weldon, result- 
ed in the loss of four thousand men with little compen- 
sating advantage. An attemjjt to capture one of the 
Confederate forts by exploding a mine under it, and 
throwing an assaulting column into the chasm, was a ter- 
rible failure (July 30). All through the summer the 
fighting continued at various parts of the line, and when 
Grant at last desisted from these bloody assaults and set- 
tled down to a regular siege, the losses of his army (from 
the crossing of the Rapidan in May to the end of Octo- 
ber) reached the enormous total of 100,000 men, while 
Lee liad lost about forty thousand. 

12. The Shenandoah Valley. — A force under General 
Sheridan was sent to cut the railroad communications 
west of Richmond in the spring, and another iindcr 
Sigel (soon succeeded by Hunter) operated in the Shenan- 
doah valley. Hunter was obliged to retreat into. West 
Virginia, and Lee at once seized the opportunity to send 
Early into the valley with a corjis strong enougli to 
menace "Washington, hoping that this would induce 
Grant to call off troops from Petersburg. 

13. Early crossed into Maryland July 5, 18G4, de- 

10. What movement did General Butler make ? 11. Describe the 
first attempts to take PotiM'shurnf. What wore the losses on each side in 
six months ? 13. What happened west of llichmond ? 

358 History of the United States. 

— ^ — 

featcd a Federal force under General Lewis Wallace at 
the Monoc'acy, and ai^iiroached within a few miles of 
Baltimore and Washington. Both cities wei'e too well de- 
fended to be attacked, and Early, having collected a 
great many horses and cattle and spread general alarm, 
recrossed the Potomac and retreated as far as Win- 

14. There he turned and defeated a pursuing force 
under General Crook, July 23, the gallant General Mul- 
ligan (famous for his de- 
fence of Lexington in 1861) 
being among the killed. 
Elated by yictory. Early 
invaded Maryland again, 
entered Pennsylvania, and 
burned the town of Cham- 
bersburg, July 30. Still 
Grant would not quit the 
James River, but he sent 
Sheridan to take command 
in the valley, and gave him 
thirty thousand troops with 
Generals Wright, Wilson, 
Torbert, Crook, and others. 
Sheridan defeated Early at 

Winchester Se])teniber 19, and at Fisher's Hill two days 
later, after which he destroyed all the rich crops in tlie 
valley and carried off the cattle, so that the Confederates 
need have no temptation to go back there. 

15. The campaign in the Shenandoah was supposed 
to be ended, but Early obtained fresh troops and sud- 

13. Describe Early's raid into Maryland. 14. What did he do after 
reaching Winchester ? What happoTied at Chambersburg ? How did 
Grant meet this invasion ? What did .Sliuridau do 'i 

Philip II. Sheridan. 



denly fell \\\nn\ the Federals at Cedar Creek, October 19, 
driving them in great confusion. Sheridan was at Win- 
chester when this happened. Hearing the guns, he 
leaped to his horse, and by hard riding reached the field 
in time to restore his lines and change the defeat into a 
victory. Early's army was practically broken up. 

16. Sherman's Atlanta Campaign. — General Grant's plan 
having provided for the advance of the eastern and west- 
ern armies simultaneously, 
Sherman, with 100,000 
men under Thomas, Mc- 
Pherson, and Schofield, 
began his march from 
Chattanooga May 7, three 
days after Grant's crossing 
of the Rapidan. The Con- 
federates opposed to him 
Avere about sixty thousand 
strong, commanded by one 
of the very ablest of the 
Southern generals, Joseph 
E. Johnston. Sherman's 
first object was the cap- 
ture of Atlanta, Georgia, 
a very strongly fortified place about one hundred miles 
south of Chattanooga, and the chief manufactory of mili- 
tary supplies for the Confederate armies. 

17. Johnston with his inferior force could not afford 
to fight a regular battle, but he made the best use of the 
various defensive i)ositions which the rough and moun- 
tainous country afforded. Sherman, on the other hand, 

15. Describe " Sheridan's Ride." 16. Wliat movement was made at 
the West wliile Grant was in the Wilderness ? What was Sherman's 
force ? Who was opposed to him ? Wliat was Sherman's first object ? 

■William T. Sherman. 

3G0 IIisTonr of the United States. 

— 4, — 

conducted his advance with remarkable skill, constantly 
flanking his enemy and compelling him to evacuate one 
position after another. These movements were not ef- 
fected without fighting, and there were severe engage- 
ments at Eesaca (May 15), Dallas (May 25), Lost Moun- 
tain, wdiere the Confederate general Bishoj) Polk was 
killed (June 14), and Kenesaw Mountain, where Sher- 
man lost three thousand men in an unsuccessful assault 
(June 27). By the lOtli of July Johnston was behind 
the deiences of Atlanta, and Sherman was facing him, 
with the Chattahoochee River between the two armies. 

18. This campaign reflected great credit upon both 
commanders ; but the Confederate Government was dis- 
satisfied with Johnston's careful defensive tactics, and 
replaced him by Hood, who was expected to pursue a 
bolder pollC}^ Hood accordingly attacked Sherman with 
great spirit July 20 and 20, but he could do notliiiig 
against gi'eatly su])erior forces, and sacrificed in the two 
fruitless assaults about thirteen thousand men. The Fed- 
erals sustained a heavy loss in the death of General 

19. Capture of Atlanta. — Ai length by a masterly move- 
ment Sherman succeeded in suddenly transferring almost 
his entire army to the rear t»f Atlanta and cutting Hood's 
forces in Wo. This obliged the Confederates after some 
sharp fighting to retreat in all haste, and on the 2d of 
September Sherman entered Atlanta. 

20. General Hood now determined to invade Tennessee, 
in order to compel Slierman to fall back and defend that 
State. But Sherman was no more to be controlled by 
this device than Grant had been by Early's invasion of 

17. Describe the advance to Atlanta. 18. What is said of the cam- 
paign ? Wlio took tlic phico of .lohnslon ? Wliat did he attempt ? 19, 
How was Atlanta captured 'i 30. What did Hood do ? 

IIooB AXD Thomas. 361 

— 4* — 
Maryland and Pennsylvania. He folloAvcd Hood for a 
little while, and then, returning to Atlanta, arranged the 
remarkable and brilliant campaign which brought the 
war in the West to a close. General Thomas, with the 
Army of the Tennessee, was' sent to take care of Hood, 
while Sherman himself with the rest of his force should 
cut loose from all his connections and marcli boldly to 

21. Hood advanced towards Nashville, fi2:htin<:: a se- 
vere engagement (November 3U) with General Schofield 
at Franklin, where the Confederates lost six thousand 
men. Among their killed 
was General Patrick Cle- 
burne, called *• the Stone- 
wall Jackson of the AVest," 
an Irishman who had been 
a i)rivate in the British 
army, and V\ho won a great 
reputation as a daring liard 

22. When Hood reach- 
ed Nashville his command 
was reduced to about forty 
thousand mcu, while Gen- 
eral Tliomas, wlio awaited 
him there behind the for- 
tifications, was rapidly in- 
creasing his forces, so that, although they had been greatly 
inferior to Hood's at the beginning, the two armies were 
now nearly equal. 

23. On the loth of December Tliomas suddenly fell upon 

What was Sherman's plan ? Who was instructed to take care ot 
Hood ? 21. Pescnlje Hood's advance ? Who was General Cleburne ? 
33, What was the strength of each side at Xashville ? 

George \\. Thomas. 

3G2 History of the Visited States. 

— 4— 
the Confederate lines. The battle lasted two days, and 
ended in the complete overthrow and demoralization of 
Hood's army, General Wilson, with his cavalry, pursuing 
the fugitives for lifty miles. In the course of his cam- 
paign Thomas had taken twelve thousand prisoners. 

24. The March to the Sea. — In the meanwhile General 



Scale of Miles 

2S 50 100, 

Sherman, hurning Atlanta, destroying the railroads and 
telegraphs in his rear, and sending back the sick and 
wounded and much of the baggage, began (November 14) 
his march of more than two hundred miles across Geor- 
gia. His army, sixty-five thousand strong, was sjiread out 

23. Give an account of Hood's defeat. 24. What did Sherman do at 
Atlanta ? What was the number of his men ? How fui' had he to 
marcli ? 

The March to the Sea. 363 

— 4- — 

over a breadth of forty miles, and moved with difticulty 

over deep roads and tliroiigli dense swamps, subsisting on 
tlie produce of the country, and followed by long trains 
of captured cotton and stores and thousands of fugitive 
slaves. There Avas little fighting. The Confederates had 
numerous bodies of troojjs Avhich might have been concen- 
trated to oppose tlie march, but !*^herman's dispositions 
were so artfully made that they never could tell which 
Avay lie was going. 

25. For four weeks nothing was heard of him at the 
Xorth. At last, wlien the country had become very uneasy, 
lie ai)pcared in the rear of Savannah and attacked Fort 
jMcAllister. This work was taken by assault December 13. 
Gunboats now came up the river, and on the 20th Savan- 
nah was evacuated, Sherman sending the news of the 
cai)ture to President Lincoln as a ''Christmas gift." The 
spoils of Savannah included one hundred and lifty heavy 
guns and twenty-five thousand bales of cotton. 

26. The War on the Coast. — The only important ports, 
except Galveston, that remained open to the Confederates 
in the summer of this year were Mobile in Alabama and 
Wilmington in Xorth Carolina. Tlie entrance to Mobile 
Bay was defended by two formidable fortifications, Gaines 
and ]\[organ, besides a number of })atteries. Farragut, 
Avilh a licet of eighteen vessels, four of which Avere iron- 
clads, attacked the forts August 5, fought his Avay past 
them, captured a powerful iron-plated ram called the Ten- 
oiesscr, dispersed or captured several gunboats, and then 
resumed fire upon the forts, which soon surrendered to the 
co-operating land force of General Granger. During tlie 
battle Farragut had himself tied to the main-top of his 

Describe "the March to the Sea." 25. How long did it last? 
^t\Tioro was Sherman lipard of? TS'liat " Christinas <jift"did he send 
to the President ? 2G. Describe the buttle of :\Iobilc Dav. 

364 History of the United States. 

— 4- — 

flag-ship, the Hartford, so that he could see and direct 
evcrythingv The port of Mobile was now closed, but no 
attempt was made for the present to take the city. 

27. The approach to Wilmington Avas commanded by 
Fort Fisher, at the mouth of the Cape Fear Eiver. A 
fleet under Commodore Porter, accompanied by an army 
under General Butler, attacked it unsuccessfully about 
Christmas. The next month a larger military force was 
landed near the fort under command of General Terry, 
and captured it by assault, January 16, 1865, after a bom- 
bardment from Porter. 

28. The Confederates had a powerful iron-clad ram 
called the Albemarle in the Eoanoke Eiver, with which, 
after capturing Plymouth, North Carolina, they inflicted 
a great deal of damage upon the Federal gunboats in Albe- 
marle Sound. In October, 1864, Lieutenant Gushing, of 
the navy, volunteered to destroy this vessel. He went up 
the river in a small boat, and under severe fire coolly 
fastened a tori:)edo to the ram, blew her up, and made his 
escape by swimming. 

29. Re-election of President Lincoln. — The Presidential 
election took place in Xovember of this year, and Mr. 
Lincoln Avas chosen for a second term by a very large ma- 
jority, with Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, as Vice-Presi- 
dent. The candidates of the Democrats were General 
McClellan, and Mr. Pendleton, of Ohio. 

27. Give an account of the attacks upon Fort Fisher. Where is that 
work ? 28. What happened in Albemarle Sound ? How was the ram 
Albemarle destroyed ? 29. What was the result of the election of 1864? 

Sherman Marches North. 365 

— -i- — 


The End of tue War — Assassination of President Lincoln. 

1. Sherman Marches North. — Sherman rested a month 
in Savannah and then marched northward to co-ojierate 
with Grant. He started on the 1st of February, seized 
Columbia, and so obliged the Confederates to evacuate 
Charleston, crossed the whole State of South Carolina, 
devouring everything on his way, and about the middle 
of March reached Fayetteville, North Carolina. 

2. Hero a gunboat ascending the Cape Fear River 
brouglit news of the capture of Fort Fisher and the sur- 
render of Wilmington to the Federal forces. A halt was 
made, and Generals Schofield and Terry, who were wait- 
ing on the coast with re-enforcements, were ordered to 
unite with Sherman at Goldsborough. 

3. The Federal general had avoided serious opposition 
by repeating his old device of baffling the enemy as to 
his object. A considerable Confederate force, however, 
comprising the commands of Hardee from Charleston, 
Beauregard from Columbia, Cheatham from Tennessee, 
Bragg and Hoke from North Carolina, and the cavalry 
of Wheeler and Wade Hampton, had now been collected 
in his front and placed under the charge of General 
Johnston. There was some sharp fighting north of Fay- 
etteville; but Goldsborough w^as reached March 21, and tlie 
army was rested and reclad. Johnston was at Raleigh. 
While preparations were made for the final conflict Sher- 
man took a steamer on the coast and hurriedly visited 
the James River, Avhcrc he met the President, General 

1. What was Sherman's coiu'se after the capture of Savannah ? 3. 
TTow (lid he avoid a battle ? What force now opposed him ? What did 
he do after reaching Goldsborough ? 

366 History of the United States. 

— •^— ' 

Grant, and General Meade, and arranged with tliem the 
plan of operations for the future. 

4. During Sherman's march through South Carolina 
Sheridan was sent again into the Shenandoah Valley to 
destroy Lee's communications in the rear of Eichmond. 
He defeated Early at Waynesborough, cut the railroads 
and canals, and, passing around Eichmond, rejoined Grant 
near Petersburg just as Sherman arrived there for his 
conference with the President and the general-in-chief. 

5. Last Battles before Richmoiid. — The situation of 
Lee was now desperate. He was not only pressed by 
Grant, but threatened with the speedy approach of the 
victorious Sherman, and the Confederacy had used up 
all its resources and called out its last man. Lee's only 
hope was to cut his way out of Eichmond and unite 
with Johnston in North Carolina. With this purpose he 
made a severe attack upon Grant's lines at Fort Steed- 
man, east of Peterslnirg, March 25, expecting that the 
besieging army would be obliged to concentrate there to 
resist him, when he intended to break through at an- 
other place and to combine with Johnston in crushing 
Sherman. The movement failed, and Lee Avas repulsed 
with lieavy loss. 

6. On the 29th Grant began a general advance upon 
the Confederate positions before Petersburg. It continued 
Avitli some interruptions until the 2d of April. Sheri- 
dan, on the extreme left, gained a decisive and hard-won 
victory at Five Forks, April 1, practically demolishing 
Leo's right wing. The Confederate lines in two other 
places were carried by assault the next morning. Lee 
saw that it was no longer possible to hold cither Peters- 

4. What (lid Sheridan do during Sherman's march ? 5. What was 
Lee's condition now? How did lie try to extricate himself? The 
residt ? fi. Describe the final advance upon Petersburg. 

Fall of Richmond. 367 

— 4, — 

burg or Richmond, und accordingly telegraphed to Pre- 
sident Davis on Sunday morning, A[)ril 2, that the 
capital must be evacuated the same evening. 

7. Fall of Richmond. — The Confederate authorities 
liastened. to escape to Danville with what little they could 
carry, first setting fire to the shipping, tobacco Avare- 
houses, etc., at Richmond, and Lee retreated towards 
Lynchburg, still hoping to effect a junction there with 
Johnston. The Federal 
troops occupied Petersburg 
on the 3d, and entered 
Richmond the same day. 

8. Surrender of Lee. — 
No time was wasted in cele- 
brations of the victory. 
(Jrant pursued Lee with all 
speed. Uc had so disposed 
the Federal army that es- 
cape was almost impossible. 
Sheridan pushed out to 
the left, severed Lee's com- 
munications with Danville, 
and intercepted his pro- 
vision trains. Crook, Cus- 
ter, and Wright cut off General Ewell and his whole corps, 
forcing them to surrender. Custer, under Sheridan's or- 
ders, captured the Confederate supplies again near Appo- 
mattox Court-House. On the 7th General Grant, remind- 
ing General Lee of the hopelessness of further resistance, 
asked him to lay down his arms, and April 9, 18G5, the 
Confederate commander, finding his last avenue of retreat 

Robert E. Lee. 

What message did Lee send to President Davis on the 2d of 

April ? 7. What followed ? S. What proposal did Lee make to Gene- 
ral Grant ? What was the date ? 

368 History of the United States. 

— .J. — 

blocked uj), proposed an interview to discuss the terms of 
surrender. The two generals met at Ajjpomattox the 
same day. The surrender was promptly agreed to. Lee 
took an affectionate farewell of his officers and men, and 
the prisoners, twenty-seven thousand in number, were re- 
leased on parole not to take up arms again against the 
Government of the United States. 

9. Surrender of Johnston. — Slierman had begun to press 
Johnston when news arrived of the surrender of Lee. 
Jolmston thereupon capitulated April 'ZQ. All the other 
Confederate forces in the field speedily did the same, and 
the great civil war came to an end with enthusiastic re- 
joicings all over the North. Jefferson Davis, while try- 
ing to escape, was captured by a detachment of General J. 
H. Wilson's cavalry at Irwinsville, Georgia, and was sent 
to Fortress Monroe, and long confined there a close j)ri- 
soncr on charge of treason. He was at last liberated on 
bail furnished by Horace Greeley and others, and all 
proceedings against him were finally abandoned. 

10. Cost of the War.— At tlie close of the war the 
Federal armies numbered 1,000,000 men, of whom about 
600,000 were present in the field. Tlie number of Con- 
federate soldiers surrendered and j^aroled was 174,000, 
besides Avhom there Averc 63,000 prisoners then in the 
hands of the Federals. The whole number of men who 
served on the Federal side during the war Avas about a 
million and a half; *)6,000 were killed, 184,000 died of 
disease Avhile in the service; many tliousands more died of 
wonu'h-! or sickness after leaving the service. The Confed- 
erates had about 600,000 men in the field, and about 
half of them lost their lives by wounds or disease. 

Where did the two generals meet ? What were the terms of surren- 
der ? 9. Wliat did Jolinstnu do when he heard of it ? Wliat boeaino 
of .Tefferson Davis ? 10. Give some ficrures of the loss on each side. 

Cost of the War. 369 

— 4. — 

11. The expenses of the Federal Government amounted 
at one time to three and a half million dollars a day, 
and, besides the regular outlay by the Government, enor- 
mous sums were spent by the States and cities in boun- 
ties to volunteers, and by the Sanitary Commissions 
and other societies for the comfort of sick and wounded 
soldiers. The debt of tbe United States at the end of 
the war was $2,750,000,000. The Confederate debt was 
about $2,000,000,000, but this was wiped out by the 
failure of the Confederacy, all its bonds and notes be- 
coming worthless. 

12. In the United States funds were raised by the 
sale of bonds, the issue of paper money, or " greenbacks," 
and the imposition of heavy taxes, including for some 
years a tax on iricomes. The notes became greatly depre- 
ciated, so that in July, 18G4, it took nearly three dollars 
in paper to buy a dollar in gold. Gold and silver entirely 
disappeared from circularion. The difl&cult task of manag- 
ing the finances of the nation was committed to Salmon 
P. Chase, of Ohio, as Secretary of the Treasury. Mr. 
Chase resigned in June, 1864, and soon afterward, on 
the death of Roger B. Taney, was appointed Chief-Jus- 
tice of the United States. Mr. Fessenden succeeded Mr. 
Chase as Secretary of the Treasury. 

13. The finances of the Confederacy were in a ruinous 
condition long before the end of the war. The paper 
money, like that of the Kevolution, declined in value, so 
that it took fifty dollars in paper to buy a dollar in coin ; 
fabulous sums were needed to pay for a pair of boots ; 
food and clothing became very scarce ; luxuries of all 
kinds disappeared ; and almost the entire population was 
reduced to extreme poverty. 

11. Of the cost of the war. 12. How was money raised in the North ? 
13, Give an account of the Confederate finances. 

370 History of the United States. 

— 4- — • 
14. Assassination of President Lincoln. — In the midst 
of the rejoicings over the capture of liichinond a crime 
was committed at Wasliington which sent a thrill of 
•horror through all civilized countries. President Lin- 
coln was murdered at the theatre, on the evening of 
April 14, 18G5, by an actor named J. Wilkes Booth, who 
entered the box unperceived and shot Mr. Lincoln 
through the head, crying, "The South is avenged." Al- 
most at the same time one of Booth's accomplices, named 
Payne, forced his way into the sick-room of Mr. Seward, 
the Secretary of State, stabbed him repeatedly, and se- 
verely wounded several members of the family. Both 
the assassins escaped for the time, but they were soon 
caught. Booth was killed in resisting arrest. Payne 
and three accomplices were hanged, and others concerned 
in the plot Avcre sentenced to imprisonment. Mr. Seward 
recovered. Andrew Johnson, the Vice-President, imme- 
diately took the oath of office as chief executive. 

14. Describe the assassination of President Lincoln. What was the 
date ? Who became President ? 




Reconsteuction — Impeachment of President Johnson — President 
Grant — The Treaty ok Washington — The Centenary of Inde- 
pendence — President Hayes. 

1, Reconstruction. — The first business that engaged 
the attention of the President and Congress after the 
restoration of peace was the establishment of regular 
governments in the Southern States. Various proclama- 
tions of amnesty relieved all the people of those States 
from any punishment on account of their share in the 
war, and amendments to the Constitution were adopted 
to secure the colored people in their freedom and give 
them the privileges of citizens and voters. About the 
manner of restoring the State governments, however, a 
serious quarrel soon arose between President Johnson and 

2. The President appointed provisional governors in 
the States of the late Confederacy, who were to call con- 
ventions of the people for the purpose of restoring their 
relations to the Union. As this plan would result in 

1. What was the first important public business after the establish- 
ment of peace ? 2. What was Mr. Jolinson's phm of reconstruction ? 


372 History of the United States. 

excluding the colored people from a share in the recon- 
struction, Congress disapi)roved it, and caused military 
governors to be appointed, under whose supervision elec- 
tions were held in which the freedmen participated. 
New constitutions were adopted, and governors and legis- 
latures chosen ; and as the reconstructed States complied 
with the conditions exacted by Congress, their senators 
and representatives were readmitted to the national 

3. In the course of the disputes over this question the 
President gradually separated from the Eepublican party. 
A law, called the " Tenure-of-Office Act," was jjassed to 
prevent his removing civil officers without the consent of 
the Senate (March, 1807). He removed Mr. Stanton, 
Secretary of War, in violation, as it was alleged, of this 
law, and the House of Eepresentatives thereupon deter- 
mined to impeach him. 

4. Impeachment of the President. — The articles of im- 
peachment accused him of disobeying the tenure-of-office 
law, and of various other offences, and the trial took 
place according to the Constitution, members of the 
House apjiearing as accusers and the Senate acting as 
judges. The exciting trial lasted two months, and ended 
in May with a vote of thirty-fiA'e guilty and nineteen 
not guilty ; two-thirds being required to convict, this 
amounted to an accjuittal. 

5. Alaska. — The Russian possessions in North America, 
comprising a large and thinly-populated territory at the 
northwest corner of the continent, were purchased by the 
United States in 18G7 for the sum of $7,200,000. This 
territory is known as Alaska. 

What plan was preferred by Congress ? 3. What was the Tenm-e-of- 
Office Act ? 4. Give an aceoiint of the iin[)eachment of the President. 
5. What territory was purchased from Russia ? 

The Treatv of Washixgton. 373 

— + — 

6. Nevada, the thirty-sixth State, was admitted to the 
Union during Mr. Lincoln's administration (18G4). Ne- 
braska, the thirty-seventh, was admitted in 18G7 ; Colorado, 
tlie thirty-eighth, in ISiG. 

7. Election of President. — In 18G8 General Grant was 
elected President, as the candidate of the Republican party, 
and Schuyler Colfax A' ice-President. The Democratic can- 
didates were Horatio Seymour, of New York, and Frank 
P. Blair, of Missouri. 

8. The Alabama Claims. — The most important event of 
General Grant's administration was the settlement of the 
disputes with Great Britain about the resi)onsibility for the 
depredations of the Confederate cruisers. President Lin- 
coln addressed the British Government on this subject, 
through Mr. Adams, the American minister at London. 
The corresi)ondence was continued during the term of Mr. 
Johnson, the L'nitcd States urging that Great Britain ought 
to make compensation for tlie injury inflicted by her acts, 
and England refusing to admit any liability. 

9. A treaty was at last concluded at Washington, 1871, 
by which it was agreed that a tiibunal of arbitrators 
appointed by both parties should meet at Geneva, in Swit- 
zerland, to decide the question. The tribunal of arbitration 
decided (1872) that Great Britain was liable, and assessed 
the damages at fifteen and a half millions of dollars, which 
sum was ])n)mptly i)aid. 

10. The Fisheries. — The Treaty of Washington also pro- 
vided for the settlement of a long-standing dispute about 
the right of the poo})le of the United States to catch fish 
off the coasts of the British American provinces. A com- 
mission appointed by both parties met at Halifax, and after 

6. What new States were admitted ? 7. What was the result of the 
elections of 1868 ? 8. What was the most important act of Gen. Grant's 
admiuistratiou ? 9. What did the Treaty of Washington provide ? 

374 History of the United States. 

— ^ — 

hearing argument decided (1878) that the United States 
should pay five and a half million dollars for the privilege 
of the fisheries during twelve years. 

11. The Northwest Boundary. — A third question con- 
sidered by the Treaty of Washington was the boundary 
between British America and the United States on the 
Nortlnvest, where a small piece of territory was still in dis- 
pute. This controversy Avas referred to the Emperor of 
Germany, who decided in favor of the claim of the United 

12. Re-election of President Grant. — In 1872 General 
Grant was nominated by the Eepublicans for a second term, 
with Henry Wilson, of Massachusetts, for Vice-President. 
A number of Rei:)ublicans, dissatisfied with the policy of 
his administration, organized themselves as the Liberal 
Republican party and nominated Horace Greeley, editor of 
the Xew York Tribune, for President, and B, Gratz Brown, 
of Missouri, for Vice-President, Tlio Democratic National 
Convention met soon afterwards and resolved, instead of 
naming Democratic candidates, to support Greeley and 
Brown, Grant and Wilson were elected by a large major- 
ity, Mr. Greeley died a few weeks after the election, 

13. Indian Hostilities. — Great trouble Avas caused soon 
after the close of the Avar by the depredations of the In- 
dian tribes of the West and Soutlnvest. The Sioux and 
Cheyennes began hostilities. An expedition was sent out 
against them under direction of General Hancock in 
1SG7, and another beyond tlie Arkansas Eiver in 1868, 
Avhen General Custer gained an important victory. In an 
expedition against the Modocs of Oregon in 1873 Gen- 
eral Canby was treacherously murdered during a parley 

10. How vvas the dispute about tlic fisheries settled? 11. That about 
the Northwest boundary ? 12. How did the elections of 1873 result ? 
13. Mention recent incidents in the Indian wars. 

The Centexarv of Isdependence. 375 

— + — 
with the Indian chiefs. In June, 1876, General Custer 
and his entire coniiuand of two hundred men were killed 
by the Indians on the Big Horn branch of the Yellow- 
stone River, Montana. 

14. Relations with Spain. — The relations between the 
United States and Spain were frequently disturbed by in- 
cidents growing out of an insurrection in Cuba. In Oc- 
tober, 1873, the steainer Virginius, sailing under the 
United States ilag, was seiy.ed on the high seas by a 
Spanish man-of-war on the ground that she was employed 
by the Cuban insurgents. Preparations were made to 
enforce amends for this wrong, but at the demand of tlie 
President Spain surrendered tlie steamer. 

15. The Centenary of Independence. — In 1870 the Unit- 
ed States celebrated tlie one hundredth anniversary of 
the Declaration of Inde})endcnce. There were great re- 
joicings tlirougliout the country, and the various battles 
of the Revolution, as well as tlie signing of the Decla- 
ration, were commemorated by apjiropriate exercises. The 
Centennial year was chosen for the holding of a great 
international exhibition at Philadelphia, to which all the 
nations of the world wore invited to contribute. It was 
opened in May and closed in November, having been 
visited by about ton millions of people. 

16. Elections of 1876.— At the elections of 1870 the 
Rei)ubl leans supported Rutherford B. Hayes, of Ohio, for 
President, and William A. "Wheeler, of New York, for 
Vice-President. The Democratic candidates were Samuel 
J. Tilden, of Nev/ York, and Thomas A. Hendricks, of 
Indiana. The contest was very close, and a dispute arose 
as to how the A'otes of certain States ought to be counted, 

14 What is said of the relations between the United States and 
Spain ? Give an account of the Virqinins affair. 15. ITow was the 
huudredtli anniversary of American independence celebrated V 

376 History of the United States. 

— 4— 

both sides claiming them. Congress finally settled the 
controversy by creating an Electoral Commission, com- 
posed of five senators, five representatives, and five judges 
of the Supreme Court, to whom the disputed returns were 
referied. Under the rulings of this commission the votes 
were counted for Hayes and Wheeler, who thus obtained 
a majority of one, and were duly inaugurated March 4, 


The Catholic Church in the United States in 1878. 

1. Growth of the Catholic Church in the United States. 
— "VVe have seen that the Catholic Church in the United 
States at the time of the Revolution Avas weak and un- 
popular. It comprised hardly more than twenty-five thou- 
sand people, with about twenty-five priests, scattered here 
and there, and no bishops, and in all the colonies — even 
in Maryland — it was oppressed by unjust laws and a per- 
secuting public opinion. The first bishoj) was appointed 
in 1790, and for eighteen years he was the only one in 
the United States. There were no Catholic colleges or 
schools at the time of the Revolution, and no convents, 
hospitals, or asylums. 

2. In fifty years after the erection of the see of Balti- 
more the number of bishops had increased to seventeen, 
the number of priests to four hundred and eighty-two, 
and the Catholic po])ulation to about a million and a 
half. Catholics were then about one in eleven of the whole 

16. Who were the candidates at the elections of 1876 ? What dis- 
pute arose over the returns ? How was it settled ? With what result ? 
1. What was the condition of the Catholic Church in America at the 
time of the Revolution ? 

The Catholic Church in the United States. 377 
— + — 
number of inhabitants, while in 1776 tbey were only one 

in one hundred and twenty. 

3. The increase in the numbers of the clergy was every- 
where followed by a rapid development of Catholic spirit. 
Faith was revived among descendants of the early settlers 
of Louisiana and Maryland, who had long been deprived 
of the consolations of their religion ; churches suddenly 
arose where a Catholic, only a little while before, had been 
looked u])on as a curiosity; Catholic settlers were found 
on the most remote frontiers ; and many converts were 
nuide among the Protestant })()pul;tti()ii. 

4. After 1847 a still more remarkable impulse was given 
to the growth of the Church by the setting in of the great 
tide of immigration. The early persecuting laws had for 
the most part been rei)ealed by the States, and the general 
Government had ado})tcd a policy of hospitality to immi- 
grants ; and, favored l)y these circumstances, hundreds of 
thousands of Irish and German settlers came to seek their 
fortunes in the New "World. Xearly all the Irish and a 
large proportion of the Germans were Catholics. Catholics 
were also among the less numerous arrivals from other 
foreign nations. 

5. Thus at the end of the first hundred years of the 
nation the Catholics of the United States were supposed to 
amount to 0,500,000, or one-sixlh of all the inhabitants of 
the Union, having increased, therefore, in the course of a 
century from one in one hundred and twenty to one in six. 

6. They have given to the country a long line of il- 

2. To what numbers had the Catholic clergy and laity increased in 
the course of fifty years ? 3. What is said of the development of Catho- 
lic spirit ? 4. What great impulse was given to the growth of the 
Church after 1847 ? What is said of the religion of the immigrants ? 
5. What was the luimber of the Catholics in 187G ? What proportion of 
the whole population was that ? 

378 History of the United States. 

— * — 

lustrions men — theologians, philosophers, controversialists, 

scholars, preachers, statesmen, soldiers. Their missionaries 
have sought out the most savage Indian tribes ; their sister- 
hoods have carried peiice and comfort into hospitals and 
tenements ; a flourishing branch of the Sisters of Charity 
Avas established in the United States by an American 
Catholic lady. Catholic schools have been founded in 
almost every city, and a system of Christian education has 
been sustained in the face of great difficulties. 

7. In March, 1875, Pope Pius IX. testified his regard 
for the Church in the United States by creating the first 
American cardinal. The hat was conferred upon the Most 
Eeverend John McCloskey, Archl)isliop of Xew York, and 
he was solemnly invested with the insignia of his office in 
the Cathedral of IS'ew York, April 27, 1875. 

8. In 1878 the Church in the United States had 11 
archbishops, 54 bishops and vicars-aj)Ostolic, 5,548 priests, 
5,684 church buildings, 1,777 chapels and stations, 21 
theological seminaries, 74 colleges, 519 academies, 2,130 
parish schools, and 350 asylums and hospitals. 

6. Mention some of the services which Catholics have rendered to the 
country. 7. What signal mark of regard did Pope Pius IX. show the 
American Church ? Who was tlic first American cardinal ? When was 
he invested with the dignity ? 8. How many archbishops were there in 
the United States in 1878 ? Bishops ? Priests ? Churches ? Chapels 
and stations ? Seminaries ? Colleges ? Academies ? Parish schools ? 
Asylums and hospitals 'i 



PASSED JULY 4, 1770. 

A Declarafion by the Representatives of the United States of America, 
in Congress assembled. 

When-, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one 
people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with 
another, and to assume among the powers of the earth the sei)arate and 
equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle 
them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they 
should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created 
equal ; that they are endowed by their Creator witli certain inalienable 
rights ; that among these are life, liberty, and the jiursuit of happiness. 
That, to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, 
deriving their just powei*s from the consent of the governed ; that, 
whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it 
is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new 
government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its 
powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to efffct their 
safety and happiness. Prudence. ind(H>d. will dictate that governments 
long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; 
and, accordingly, all experience hath shown that mankind are more 
disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by 
abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. Bi;t when a long 
train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, 
evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their 
right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new 
guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance 
of these colonies, and such is now the necessity which constrains them to 
alter their former systems of government. The history of the i)resent 
king of Great Britain is a history i)f repeated injuries and usurpations, 
all having in direct object the establislnnent of an absolute tyranny over 

2 Appendix. 

— ^ — 

these States. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid 
world : 

He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and necessary 
for the public good. 

He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and press- 
ing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should 
be obtained ; and, when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to at- 
tend to them. 

He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large 
districts of people, unless those people would relin([uish tlie right of 
representation in the legislature — a right inestimable to them, and for- 
midable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncom- 
fortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, 
for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his 

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly for opposing, with 
manly firmness, his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused, for a long time after such dissolutions, to cause 
others to be elected, whereby the legislative powers, incapable of anni- 
hilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise ; the 
State remaining, in the meantime, exposed to all the danger of invasion 
from without and convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States ; for 
that purpose obstructing the laws for natui-alization of foreigners, re- 
fusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the 
conditions of new appropriations of lands. 

He has obstructed the administration of justice by refusing his as- 
sent to laws for establishing judiciary powers. 

He has made judges dependent on his will alone for the tenure of 
their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of 
officers to harass our people and eat -out their substance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies, without 
the cons(>nt of our legislature. 

He has affected to render the military independent of, and superior 
to, the civil power. 

He has cmnbined with others to subject us f o a jurisdiction "oreign to 
our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws ; giving his assent to 
their acts of pretended legislation : 

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us : 

For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any mur- 
ders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States : 

Appendix. 3 

— + — 

For cutting olT our trade with all parts of the world : 

For innjosing taxes on us without our consent : 

For depriving us, in many cases, of the beneiits of trial by jury : 

For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offences : 

For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring 
province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its 
boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for 
introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies : 

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, 
and altering, fundamentally, the powers of our governments : 

For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves in- 
vested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. 

lie has abdicated government here by declaring us out of his pro- 
tection and waging war against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and 
destroyed tlie lives of our people. 

He is, at this time, transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries 
to comiilete the works of death, desolation, and tyranny already begun, 
with circumstances of cruelty and ])erfidy scarcely paralleled in the most 
barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation. 

lie has constrained our fellow-citizens, taken captive on the high- 
seas, to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of 
their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has en- 
deavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiere the merciless 
Indian savages, whose kiKiwn rule of warfare is an undistinguished de- 
struction of all ages, sexes, and conditions. 

In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in 
the most humble terms ; our repeated petitions have been answered 
only by repeated injury. A prince whose character is thus nuirked 
by every act which may define a tyrant is unfit to be the ruler of a 
free people. 

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We 
have warned them, from time to time, of attempts made by their legis- 
lature to extend an tmwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have re- 
minded them of tlie circumstances of our emigration and settlement 
here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and 
we have conjured them, by the ties of our common kindred, to disavow 
these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and 
correspondence Tliey. too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and 
consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which de- 
nounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, 
enemies in war, in peace friends. 

4 Appendix. 

— + — 

We, therefore, the representatives of the Uxited States of America, 
in general Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the 
world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name and by the 
authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and de- 
clare. That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, fkee 
AND INDEPENDENT STATES ; that they are absolved from all allegiance to 
the British crown, and that all political connection between them and 
the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved ; and 
that, as free and independent States, they have full power to levy war, 
conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all 
other acts and things which independent States nuiy of right do. And 
for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection 
of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our 
fortunes, and our sacred honor. 


JVew Hampshire. — Josiah Bartlett, Wm. "Whipple, Matthew 

Ilassachuseffs Bay. — Samuel Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat 
Paine. Elbridge Gerry. 

Rhode Island. — Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery. 

Connecticut. — Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William 
Williams, Oliver Wolcott. 

New York. — Wm. Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis 

New Jersey.— Richard Stockton. John Witherspoon, Francis Hop- 
KiNsoN, John Hart, Abraham Clark. 

. Pennsijlvania.—Ro^T.KV Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Frank- 
lin, John Morton, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, 
James Wilson, George Ross. 

Delaware.— Cjesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas M'Kean. 

Ilari/land.—SAMVEL Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles 
Carroll of CarroUton. 

Virgim'a.— George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee. Thomas Jeffer- 
son, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jun., Francis Lightfoot 
Lee, Carter Braxton. 

North Carolina.— Wn.iAxsi Hooper. Joseph Hewes. John Penn. 

South Carolina.— EvM^ARv Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jun., 
Thomas Lynch, Jun., Arthur jMiddleton. 

6'eo/-^ta.— Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton. 

Appendix. 5 

— + — 



We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect 
union, establit;h justice, ensure domestic tranquillity, provide for the 
coniinon defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings 
of liitcrty to ourselves and our pc>sterity, ilo ordain and establish tliis 
CoxsxiTUTiox for the United States of America. 


Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a 
Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House 
of Representatives. 

Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of mem- 
bers chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and 
the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for elec- 
tors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature. 

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to 
the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State 
in which he shall he chosen. 

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the sev- 
eral States which may be included within this Union, according to their 
respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding lo the whole 
number of free persons, including those bound to service; for a term of 
years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. 
The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first 
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subse- 
quent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. 
The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty 
thousand, but each State shall have at least one representative ; and 
iintil such enumeration shall be made the State of New Hampshire 
shall be entitled to choose three ; Massachusetts, eight ; Rhode Island 
and Providence Plantations, one ; Connecticut, five ; New York, six ; 
New Jersey, four ; Pennsylvania, eight : Delaware, one; Maryland, six; 
Virginia, ten ; North Carolina, five ; South Carolina, five ; and Georgia, 

When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the 
executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such 



The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other 
officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six 
years ; and each senator shall have one vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first 
election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. 
The scats of the senators of the first class shall be A'acated at the expi- 
ration of the second year ; of the second class at the expiration of the 
fourth year ; and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, 
so that onc'third may be chosen every second year ; and if vacancies 
happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature 
of any State, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments 
until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such 

No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained to the age 
of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and 
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he 
shall be chosen. 

The Vice-President of the United States shall be president of the 
Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall choose their other otTicers, and also a president pro 
tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise 
the office of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When 
sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the 
President of the Ihiited States is tried, the Chief-Justice shall preside ; 
and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds 
of the members present. 

Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to 
removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of 
honor, trust, or profit under the United States ; but the party convicted 
shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, 
and punishment, according to law. 

Section 4. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for 
senators and representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the 
Legislature thereof ; but the Congress may at any time, by law, make 
or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such 
meeting shall be on tlie first IMonday in Decembei-, unless they shall by 
law api)oint a different day. 

Section 5. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns, 
and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall coib- 

Appexdix. 7 

sfcitute a quorum to do business ; but a smaller number may adjourn 
irom day to day, and may be authorized to compel the atleudanee of 
absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties,, as each 
house may provide. 

Each house may dctoniiinc tlio rules of its proceedings, punish its 
members for disorderly beliavior, and, wilh tiie concurrence of two- 
thirds, expel a member. 

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and fmrn time to 
time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment re- 
quire secrecy, and the yeas and nays of the mendjcrs of either house on 
any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered 
on the journa.1. 

Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, wit houl the con- 
sent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other 
place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. 

Section 6. The senators and representatives shall receive a compen- 
sation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the 
treasury of the United States. They shall, in all cases except treason, 
felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged fi'om arrest during their 
attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and 
returning from the same ; and for any speech or debate in either house 
they shall not be questioned in any other place. 

No senator or representative shall, during tlie time fur which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the 
United States which shall have been created, or the emoluments where- 
of shall have been increased, during such time ; and no i)erson holding 
any office under the United States shall be a member of either house 
during his continuance in office. 

Slctiox 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the TTouse 
of Rei)resentatives ; but the Senate may propose or concur with auu-nd- 
ments as on other bills. 

Every bill which shall have passed the Ilouse of Representatives and 
the Senate shall, before it become a law, be presented to the Presi- 
dent of the United States ; if he approve, he shall sign it ; but if not, 
he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall 
liave originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, 
and ]n-oceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds 
of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with 
the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be recon- 
sidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a 
law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined 
by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against 
the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If 

8 Appendix. 

— "I" — 

any liill shall not be returned Ijy the President within ten days 
(Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to hira, the 
same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, imless 
the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it 
shall not be a law. 

Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a 
question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the 
United States ; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved 
by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of 
th • Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and 
limitations prescribed in the case of a bill. 

Section 8. The Congress shall have jjower — 

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts 
and provide for the common dotence and general welfare of the United 
States ; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout 
the United States ; 

To borrow money on the credit of the United States ; 

To i-eguiate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several 
States, and with the Indian tribes ; 

To establish a uniform i-ule of naturalization, and uniform laws on 
the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States ; 

To coin money, regulate the value thereof and of foreign coin, and 
fix the standard of weights and measures ; 

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and 
current coin of the United States ; 

To establish post-offices and post- roads ; 

To promote the progress of science and useful arts by securing, for 
limited times, to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their re- 
sj)ective writings and discoveries ; 

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court ; 

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high- 
seas, and offences against the law of nations ; 

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make niles 
concerning captures on land and water ; 

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that 
use shall be for a longer term than two years ; 

To provide and maintain a navy ; 

To make ndes for the government and regulation of the land and 
naval forces ; 

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the 
Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions ; 

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and 

Apfexdix. 9 

— + — 

for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of 
the United States, reserving to the States respectively the appointment 
of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to tlie 
discipline prescribed by Congress ; 

To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such 
district (not exceeding ten miles sipiare) as may by cession of particular 
States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the govern- 
ment of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all phices 
purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the 
same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, 
and other needful buildings ; and 

To make all laws whicii shall be necessary and proper for carrying 
into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested Ijy this 
Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any depart- 
ment or officer thereof. 

Sectiox 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of 
the States now existing shall think proper to admit shall not be jiro- 
hibitcd by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred 
and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such imj^ortation, not 
exceeding ten dollars for each person. 

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, 
unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may re- 
quire it. 

No bill of attainder or ex-post-facto law shall be passed. 

No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to 
the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken. 

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. 

No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or reve- 
nue to the ports of one State over those of another ; nor shall vessels 
bound to, or from, one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in 

No money shall be drawn from tiio treasury but in consequence of 
appropriations made by law ; and a regular statement and account of 
the receii)ts and expenditures of all i)ublic money shall be published from 
time to time. 

No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States ; and no 
person holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, without 
the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, 
or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign 

Section 10, No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confed- 
eration ; grant letters of marque and reprisal ; coin money ; emit bills 
of credit ; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment 

10 Appendix. 

— •i' — 

of debts ; pass any bill of attainder, ex-post-facto law, or Law impairing 
the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any impost 
or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary 
for executing its inspection laws ; and the net produce of all duties and 
imposts laid by any State on imports or exports shall be for the use of 
the treasury of the United States ; and all such laws shall be subject to 
the revision and control of the Congress. 

No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of ton- 
nage, keep troops or ships-of-war in time of peace, enter into any agree- 
ment or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage 
in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not 
admit of delay. 


Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the 
United States of America. lie shall hold his office during the term of 
four years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same 
term, be elected as follows : 

Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof 
may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of senators 
and representatives to which the State may be entitled in the C!ongress ; 
but no senator or representative, or person holding an office of trust or 
profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector. 

[*The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot 
for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the 
same State with themselves ; and they shall make a list of all the per- 
sons voted for, and of the numV)er of votes for each, which list they shall 
sign and certify, and transmit scaled to the seat of the government of the 
United States, directed to the president of the Senate. The president 
of the Senate shall, in the ])resenco of the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. 
The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed ; 
and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an 
equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immedi- 
ately choose by ballot one of them for President ; and if no person have 
anuijority, then from the five highest on the list the said house shall, 
in like manner, choose the Pi-esident. But in choosing the President 
the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State 

♦ This clause has been superseded by the Twelfth Amendmcut, on page 17. 

Appendix. 11 

— + — 

having one vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member 
or members from two-lhirds of the States, and a majority of all the 
States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of 
the President, the [jcrson having the greatest number of votes of the 
electors shall be the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or 
more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot 
the Vice-President.] 

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and 
the day on which they shall give their votes ; which day shall be the 
same throughout tlie United States. 

No person except a natural-b'orn citizen, or a citizen of the United 
States at the time of the ado{)tion of this Constitution, shall be eligible 
to the office of President ; neither shall any person be eligible to that 
office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years and 
been fourteen years a resident within the United States. 

In case of the remov'al of the President from office, or of his death, 
resignation, or inability to discliarge the powers and duties of the said 
office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress 
may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or in- 
ability both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer 
shall then aei as President ; and such officer shall act accordingly until 
the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a com- 
pensation which shall neitlier be increased nor diminished during the 
period for which he shsill have been elected, and he shall not receive 
within that period any (.llier einoliniu'iit from the United States, or any 
of them. 

Before he enter on the execution of his office he shall take the fol- 
lowing oath or affirmation : " I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will 
faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will, 
to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution 
of the United States." 

SiX'TioN 2. The President shall be commander-in-chief of the army 
and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, 
when called into the actual service of the United States ; he may re- 
quire the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the 
executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their 
respective offices ; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and par- 
dons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeach- 

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate to make treaties. ])rovided two-thirds of the senators present 
concur ; and he shall nominate, and, by and with the advice and con- 

12 Appendix. 

— 4« — 

sent of the Senate, shall appoint, ambassadors, other public ministers 
and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of 
the United States whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided 
for, and which shall be established by law : but the Congress may by 
law vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper 
in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of de- 

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may hap- 
pen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which 
shall expire at the end of their next session. 

Section 3. He shall, from time to time, give to the Congress infor- 
mation of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration 
such measui'es as he shall judge necessary and expedient ; he may, on 
extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in 
case of disagreement between them with respect to the time of adjourn- 
ment he may adjourn them to such tiine as he shall think proper ; he 
shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers ; he shall take care 
that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers 
of the United States. 

Section 4. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of 
the United States shall be removed from office on impeachment for, 
and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misde- 


Section 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in 
one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may 
from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Su- 
preme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, 
and shall at stated times, receive for their services a compensation 
which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. 

Section 3. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and 
equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, 
and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority ; to 
all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls ; 
to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction ; to controversies to 
which the United States shall be a party ; to controversies between 
two or more States ; between a State and citizens of another State ; 
between citizens of different States : between citizens of the same 
State claiming lands under grants of different States, and between 
a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens, or sub- 


— 1« 

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and con- 
suls, and those in which a State shall be party, the Supreme Court 
shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before men- 
tioned the Supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to 
law and fact, witli such exceptions and under such regulations as the 
Congress shall make. 

The triiil of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by- 
jury ; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes 
shall have been committed ; but when not committed within any State, 
the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have 

Section 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in 
levying war against them, or in adhering to tlx'ir enemies, giving them 
aid and comfort. 

Xo person shall be convicted of treason imless on the testimony o£ 
two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. 

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of ti-eason, 
but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture, 
except during the life of the person attainted. 


Section' 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to 
the iKiblic acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State; 
and the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which 
such acts, records, and jjroceedings shall be proved, and the effect 

Section 2. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privi- 
leges and immunities of citizens in the several States. 

A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other 
crime, who shall flee from justice, and Ijc found in another State, shall, 
on demand of the executive authority of the State from which he 
fled, be delivered up to be removed to the State having jurisdiction 
. of the crime. 

No person held to service or lalior in one State, under the laws 
thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or 
regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall 
be delivered up on claim of the party to wliom such service or labor 
may be due. 

Section 3. Xew States may be admitted by the Congress into this 
Union ; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdic- 
tion of any other State, nor any State be formed by the junction of 

14 A pp EN nix. 

— -r — 

two or more States, or parts of States, without the consent of the Legis- 
latures of tlie States concerned, as well as of the Congress. 

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful 
ndesand regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging 
to the United States ; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so con- 
strued as to prejudice any claims of the United States or of any 2)ar- 
ticular State. 

Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this 
Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them 
against invasion, and on application of the legislature or of the 
executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic 


The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the 
application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall 
call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall 
be valid to all intents and purposes as part of this Constitution, 
when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several 
States, or by conventions in tliree-fourths thereof, as the one or the 
other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress ; pro- 
vided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one 
thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first 
and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article ; and that no 
State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the 


All debts conti'acted. and engagements entered into, before the adop- 
tion of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States 
under this Constitution as under the confederation. 

This Constitution, and the laws of the United St.ates which shall V)e 
made in ])ursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be 
made, untler the authority of the United States, shall be the sujireme 
law of the land ; and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, 
anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary not- 

The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the members 
of the several State legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, 

Appexdtx. 15 

both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by 
oath or afhnnation to support this Constitution ; but no religious test 
shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under 
the United States, 


The ratification of the conventions of nine States shall be sulTicicnt 
for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying 
the same. 

Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of the States pre- 
sent, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of tlio inde- 
pendence of the United States of America the twelftii. 
In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names. 

President, and Dejnity from Virginia, 
{Signed oy Deputies from cdl the States exceptlthode Island.) 

The Constitution was adopted by the Convention September 17, 
1787, and was ratified by conventions of the several States at the follow- 
ing dates, viz. : 

Delaware, December 7, 1787. Maryland, April 28, 1788. 

Pennsylvania, December 1-2, 1787. South Carolina, May 23, 1788. 

New Jersey, December 18, 1787. New Hampshire, June 21, 1788. 
Georgia, -January 2, 1788. Virginia, June 26. 1788. 

Connecticut. January 9, 1788. New York, July 2G, 1788. 

Massachusetts, February 6, 1788. North Carolina, Nov. 21, 1789. 

Rhode Island, May 29, 1790. 


Proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several 
States, pursuant to the Fifth Article of the foregoing Constitution. 


The first ten articles were proposed by Congress in 1789, and declared 
adopted in 1791. 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, 
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ; or abridging the freedom of 
speech, or of the press, or of the right of the people peaceably to assemble, 
and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. 

10 Appexdix. 

— + — 


A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free 
State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be in- 


No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without 
the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be pre- 
scribed by law. 


The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, 
and effects, against unreasonable seai'ches and seizures, shall not be 
violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported 
by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be 
searched and the persons or things to be seized. 


No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous 
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in 
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual 
service in time of war or public danger ; nor shall any person be subject 
for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb, nor 
shall be compelled in any criminal ease to be a witness against himself, 
nor be deprived of life, lilierty, or property without due process of law ; 
nor shall jirivate property be taken for public use without just compen- 


In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district 
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have 
been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature 
and cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with the witnesses against 
him ; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; 
and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence. 


In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact 
tried l)y a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any coiirt of the United 
States than according to the rules of the common law. 

Appe.xiux. 17 

— + — 

Excessive bail shall not be rtMniircd, nor excessive fines imposed, nor 
cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 


The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be 
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the jseople. 


The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, 
nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, 
or to the peojjle. 


Proposed by Congress in 1794 and declared adopted in 1798. 

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to ex- 
tend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one 
of the United States by citizens of another State, or by citizens or sub- 
jects of any foreign State. 


Proposed h>/ Congress and declared adopted in 1804. 

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot 
for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, sTiall not 
be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves ; they shall name in 
their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots 
the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists 
of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as 
Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they 
shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government 
of the United States, directed to the president of the Senate. Tlie 
president of the Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of 
Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be 
counted. The pei'son having the greatest number of votes for Presi- 
dent shall be the President, if such num])er be a majority of the whole 
number of electors appointed : and if no person have such majority, 
then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, 
on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives 

18 AppEynix. 

— •!• — 

shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the 
President the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from 
each State having one vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of 
a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of 
all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Rep- 
resentatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice 
shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, 
then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the 
death or other constitutional disability of the Presicent. The person 
having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President shall be the 
Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of 
electors appointed ; and if no person have a majority, then from the 
two highest numbers on the list the Senate shall choose the Vice- 
President ; a quorum for the purjjose shall consist of two-thii'ds of the 
whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall 
be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to 
the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the 
United States. 

Proposed by Congress in 18G5, and declared adojited December, 1865. 

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, 
shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their juris- 

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this Article by ap- 
propriate legislation. 

Proposed hy Congress in — , and declared adopted July 28, 1868. 

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and 
subject to the jurisdiction thereof arc citizens of the United States and 
of the State wherein they reside. No State .shall make or enforce any 
law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the 
United States ; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, 
or property without due process of law ; nor deny to any person within 
its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. 

Section 2. Representatives shall be appointed among the several 
States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole num- 
ber of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed ; but when 

ApPExnix. 10 


(lie right to vote at any election for tlie clioiee of electors for President 
mid Vice-President of the United States, representatives in Congress, 
the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the 
Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such 
State (being twenty-one years of age and citizens of the United States), 
or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other 
crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the propor- 
tion which the number of such nuile citizens shall bear to the wliole 
number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in said State. 

Sectiox 3. Xo person sliall be a Senator or Representative in Con- 
gress, or Elector, or Pi-esident, or Vice-President, or hold any office, 
civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, hav- 
ing previously taken an oath as a member of Congress, or as an officer of 
the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an 
executive or judicial otficer of any State, to support the Constitution of 
the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion 
against the same, or given aid or comfoi't to the enemies thereof ; but 
Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such dis- 

Section' 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, 
authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions 
and bounties, for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall 
not be questioned ; but neither the United States nor any State shall 
assume or pay any debt or obligation incuri-ed in aid of insurrection or 
rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emanci- 
pation of any slave. But all such debts, obligations, and claims shall 
be held illegal and void. 

Section 5. Tlie Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate 
legislation, the provisions of this Article. 


Proposed — / adopted — . 

Section 1. The right of the citizens of theU'nited States to vote sh.-.ll 
not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any State, on ac- 
count of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this Article by 
appropriate legislation. 



— ^ — 










George ■Washington John Adams. 

Thomas Jefferson, 

Alex. Hamilton, 


Edmund Randolph, 
Timothy Pickering. 

Oliver Wolcott. 


John Adam^< (Fed.) 

Thos. Jefferson. 'Timothy Pickering. 

Oliver Wolcott, 

John Marshall. 

Samuel Dexter. 


Thomas Jefferson 

Aaron Burr, James Madison. 

Samuel Dexter 


George Clinton. 

Albert Gallatin. 


James Madison 

George Clhiton, 

Robert Smith, 

Albert Gallatin, 


Elbridge (ierry. James Monroe. 

C;eo. W. Campbell, 
Alex. J. Dallas. 


James Monroe (D.) 

D. D. Tompkins. 

John Q. Adams. 

Wm. H.Crawford. 


Joliu Quincy Adams 

John C. Calhoun. 

Henry Clay. 

Richard Rush. 


Andrew Jackson 

John C. Calhoun, 

Martin Van Buren, 

S. D. Ingham, 


Martin Van Buren. 

Edward Li\ingston, 
Louis McLane, 
John Forsyth. 

Louis ^MtLane, 
V\'m. J. Duane, 
Roger B. Taney, 
Levi Woodbury. 


Martin Van Buren 

Richard M. John- John Forsyth. 

Levi Woodbury. 




William Henry Har- 

John Tyler. Daniel 'U'ebster, 

Thomas Ewing. 

rison (Wliigl (1). 

iiii'_;h S. Le_;are, 

Walter Forward, 

April 4, 1S41, and 

Abel P. Upshur, 

Caleb Gushing. 

John Tyler be- 

John Nelson, 

John C. Si)eneer, 

came President.) 

John C. Calhoun. 

G. M. Bibb. 


James K. Polk (D.) 

George M. Dallas. 

James Buchanan. 

Robert J. Walker. 



Millard Fillmore. 

Jolm isr. Clayton, 

Wm. M.Meredith, 

(Died JulvO. 1,S.~)0. 

Daniel Webster. 

Thomas Corwin. 

and iAliUard Fill- 

Edward Everett. 

more became Pre- 



Franklin Pierce (D.) 

WiUiam R. King. William L. Marcy. 

James Guthrie. 


Ja.-. Buchanan (D.) 

John C. Breckin- Lewis Cass, 

Howell Cobb. 

ridge. Jeremiah S. Black. 

Philip F. 'I'homas, 
John A. Dix. 


Abr'm Lincoln (B.) 

Hannibal Hamlin, iWm. IL Seward. 

Salmon P. Chase, 

(DiedAp. ].'), IHO,"), 

Andrew Johnson. 

W. I . Fessenden. 

in 2d term, and 

Hugh IMcCuhoch. 

And. Johnson be- 

came President.) 


Ulysses S. Grant 

Schuyler Colfax, Ie. B. "Washbnrns, 

Geo. S. Boutwell, 


Uinry Wilson. Hamilton Fish. 


IB. H. Bristow, 

L. M. Morrill. 

Present AdminMrntion—-i9,rt-\?fn—R. B. Ha.vcs. Prcs.; Wm. A. Wheeler. Vice-Pres.; 
of War ; R. W. Thompson, Sec. of Navy; Carl Schurz, Sec. of Interior ; 






Henry Knos, I (No Navy Dept. dnr- 
Tiin. PickeringJ in;,' Wnshiu^ton's 
Jas. MclU'ury. Adiniuistraliou.) 
Jas. Mcllfiiry, (icoigi' Cahof, 
Saniiul Dexter, Beujamiu Stoddert. 
It. Griswold. I 

II. Dearborn. Benjamin Stoddert, 
j Robert Smith, 
Jac. Crowuinshield. 

William Enstis, 
J. ArnK-trong, 

I.«aac Shelby, 
G. Graliam, 
J. C. Calhoiiu. 

James Barbonr. 
P. B. Porter. 
John H. Eaton, 
Lewis Cass. 

Paul Hamilton, 
William Jones, 
Benj. W. Crownin- 
I shield. 

Benj. W. Crowuin- 
I i^iield. 

iSniitli Thompson, 
{John Rogers, 
Samuel LT. Southard. 
^Samuel L. Southard. 

John Branch. 
Levi Woodbury, 
M. Diekersou." 

J. R. Poinsett. 

John Bell, 
John McLean, 
J. V. Spencer, 
J. :M. Porter. 
W. Williams. 

Wm. L. ilarcy. 

>r. Dickerson. 
James K. Paulding. 

George E. Badger, 
Abel P. Upshur, 
D. Ilenshaw. 
iThomas \\'. Gilmer, 
'John Y. !Mason. 
kieorge Bancroft. 
Ijohu Y. >Iason. 





G.W.Crawford, W. B. Preston. 
W. A. (iraliam, 
J. P. Kenuedv. 

Jefferson Davis. James C. Dobbin. 
John B. Flovd, 'Isaac Toucev. 
Joseph Holt! I 

Sini'n Cameron. 'Gideon Welles. 
E. -.L Stanton. 

Samuel Osgood, E, Randolph, 
T. Pickering, [Wm. Bradford, 
J. Habersham. Charles Lee. 
!J. Habersham. | Charles Lee. 

J. Habersham, 
Gid. Granger. 

'Gid. Granger, 

'Return J. Meig 
John McLean. 

Levi Lincoln, 
[Robert Smith, 
J. Breckinridge, 
iCies. A. Rodney. 
'Caes. A. Rodney, 
Wm. Piuckney, 
j Richard Rush. 

Richard Rush, 
William Wirt. 

ijohn McLean. I William M'irt. 

Wm. T. Barry, 
Amos Kendall. 

Amos Kendall. 

John M. Niles. 


F. Granger, 

;c. A. Wickliffe. 

Thomas Ewing, 
J. A. Pearce, 
T. JIcKennon, 
I A. H. U. Stuart. 

J. McP. Berrien, 
Roger B. Taney, 
Benj. F. Butler. 

Benj. F. Butler, 
Felix Grundy, 
H. D. (Jilpin. 
J. J. Crittenden. 
Hugh S. Legarc, 
John Nelson. 

Cave Johnson. John Y. Mason, 
N. Clifford. 
Isaac Toucey. 

Jacob CollanuT. R. Johnson. 

N. K. Hall. J. J. Crittenden, 

S. D. Hubbard. 

R. McClellan. 'Jas. Campbell. Caleb Cushing 
Jac. Thompson. A. V. Brown, J. S. Black. 

Jose|)h Holt. E. M. Stautcm. 

Horatio King, 
'Caleb B. Smith. Montgom. Blair. Edward Bates 
J. P. Usher, Wm. Dennisoii, James Speed. 

James Harlan, A. W. Randall. iH. F. Stanbery 
O. H. Browning. 

J. M. Schofield.'AdolphE. Borie. Jacob D. Cox, J.A.J. Cress- E. R. Honr, 
J.A.Rawlins, George M. Robeson. C. Delano. well, A. T. Akerman, 

W. W. Belknap. ,Zach. Chandler. Marshall Jewell, (J. H. Williams, 

J. I). Cameron. J. N. Tyncr. lE. Pierrepont, 

I A. Taft. 

Wm. M. Evarts. Sec. of State : John Sherman. Sec. of Treasury ; G. W. McCrary, Sec. 
D. M. Key, Postmaster-Gen.; Chas. Devens, Attoniey-Gen. 


— 4" — 




April 19, 1775 

April 19, " 

June 17, " 

Dec. 9, " 

Dec. 31, " 

Feb. 27, 1776 

Mar. 17, " 

June 28, " 

Aug. 27, " 

Sept. 16, " 

Oct. 28, " 

Nov. 16, " 

Dec. 26, " 

Jan. 3, 1777 

July 7, " 

Aug. 6, " 

Aug. 16, " 

Sept. 11, " 

Sept. 19, " 

Sept. 20. " 

Oct. 4. " 

Oct. 6. " 

Oct. 7, " 

Oct. 22, " 

Nov. 16, " 

June 38, 1778 

July 4, " 

Aug. 29, " 

Dec. 29, " 

Feb. 14, 1779 

Mar. 3, •• 

June 30, " 

July 16, " 

Aug. 18, " 

Oct. 4-9, " 

May 12, 1780 

June 23, •' 

July 30, " 

Aug. 6, " 

Aug. IG, " 

Oct. 7, " 

Nov. 18, " 

Nov. 20. " 

Jan. 17, 1781 

Mar. 15, " 

April 25, " 

Julv 9, " 

Sept. 6, " 

Sept. 6, " 

Sept. 8, " 

Oct. 19, " 






Bunker Hill 

Great Bridge 


Moore's Creek Bridge 

Boston (surrendered) 

Fort Sullivan 

Long Island 

Harlem Heights 

White Plains 

Fort Washington 







Bemis' Heights 



Fts. Clinton & Montgom. 
Bemis' Heights cJd battle) 

Fort Mercer 

Fort Mifflin 


Wvoming % •" 

Quaker Hill 


Kettle Creek 

Brier Creek 

Stono Ferry 

Stony Point 

Paulus' Hook 

Savannah (besieged) 

Charleston (surrendered) . 


Rockv Mduiit 

Hanging Koc'k 

Sanders' Creek 

King's Mountain 

Fish Dam Ford 



Guilford C. H 

Hobkirk's Hill 

Ft. Ninety-Six (besieged). 

Augusts ("besieged) 



New London 

Eutaw Springs 

Yorkto\vu (Burrcndered).. 

I Parker 

I Barrett 


I Woodford . . 
iMontgomerv. . . 
Caswell. "... 
! Washington. . . 

> Moultrie 



Washington . . . 











Jas. Clinton. 


Pitcairn ) 

Pitcairu f 




Parker. . .. 





Fraser ... . . 

St. Leger 



Burgovne . . . 



Sir H. Clinton 

Gates Burgoy 

Donop :.. 



John Butler.. 









Zeb. Butler 


Robt. Howe 
Pickens .... 


Lincoln .... 




Lincoln Clinton 

Greene Knyphausen 

Sumter. . 
Sumter. . . 


Sumter. . 
Smnler. . 
(Jreene . ., 
[Greene .. 
'Greene. .. 


Wayne . . . 

Ledyard ! Arnold 

... " I Arnold.. 

Greene 'Stewart 

Prevost . . 

Corn wal lis . 
Ferguson . . . 
Wemyss. . .. 
Tarleton. . . 
Tarleton. . .. 
Cornwallis . 
Rawdon.. .. 



Cornwallis. . 

Washinjrton Cornwallis. ■ 


Am Br. 
































Amer. I 





Brit, i 















Am. & 



449 1054 

Nil.! 62 

.586 20 

Nil 70 

Nil. 'Nil. 

24 235 

loot); 367 

.-)0 100 

300: 300 

2800 1000 

4 1040 

100 430 

300< 183 

.56 i 807 

1200 590 

319; 600 
300' .... 

1000: GOO 

300 140 

1.50 +700 

.50 400 

2.-J0 400 

22!) ;wo 


200, 220 

5.5:^1 24 

38 145 

2000; 16 

300 270 

98 606 

.... 159 

§4,57 120 

6000 .... 

13 20 


1000 ; .325 

20 1100 

8 200 

80; 700 

400| OX) 

266! 258 

150 ... 

51 1 .386 


* In these tables several mere skirmi.^hes are omitted. 

+ Burgoyne's whole army, numbering 5.791. was surrendered on October 17. 

% Massacre. " § The French, under D'Estaing, lost C:^7. 


THE WAR OP 1813. 





Julv 17 
Aug. 4, 
Aug. 16, 
Oct. 13, 
Jan. 18, 
Jan. 22, 
Feb. 22, 
April 27, 
Mav 27, 
May 39. 
June 6, 
June 13, 
June 22, 
June 23, 
July 11, 
Aug. 2, 
Aug. 9, 
Aug. 30, 
Oct. 5, 
Nov. 9, 
Nov. 11, 
Nov. 18, 
Dec. 19. 
Mar. 27. 
Mar. 30, 
Mav 5, 
Julv .5, 
Julv 25, 
Aug. 1. 
Aug. 4, 
Aug. 24, 
Sept. 11, 
Sept. 12, 
Sept. 17. 
Jan. 8. 


1812 Fort Mackinaw 

•• iBrownf^towii 

" Detroit (surrendered) 

•■ iQuecnstown Heights 

1813 ! Frenchtown 

•■ [River Raisin (massacre). . 
•• 1 Ogdensburg 


Fort George 

Sackett's Harbor 

Stony Creek 


Craney Island 

' Beaver Dams 

{Black Rock 

Fort Stephenson 


Fort Mimuis 



Chrysler's Field 

Hilliibee Towns 

Fort Niagara 

Black Rock 


Horseshoe Bend . 

La Colle Mills 

Fort Oswego 


Lundy's Lane 

Fort Erie (l)esieged) 

Fort Mackinaw 


Plattsburg , . . 

North Point 

Fort Erie 

New Orleans 



American. British 

Van Home 

HiUl iBrock.. 

Van Rensselaer Brock. . 

Allen I 

Winchester . . . Proctor. 

Forsyth | 

Pike iSheafle. 

Dearborn . . . 
Chandler. .. 
Beatlv .... 

BQ?rstler I 

Porter -Bisshopp 


Vincent . . 
Beckwith . . 

Croglian , 





Beasoley. . . 
Harrison . . 
Jackson . . . 



Hall .... 
Jackson . . . 
Jackson . . 
Wilkinson , 

Brown Riall 

Brown Drummond , 

Gaines Drummond, 

Croghan i 

Winder Ross 

McComb Prevost 

Slrycker Ross 

Brown ; 

Jackson. . . . iPakenham . 





I Brit. 



I Brit. 

































May 3. 1816 
May 8, " 
Mav 9. •' 
Sep.21-24, •' 
Feb. 23, 1847 
Feb. 28. •• 
Mar. 22-20 •' 
AprU 18, " 
Aug. 20, " 
Aug. 20, •' 
Sept. 8, •' 
Sept. 13, '• 
Sept. 14, " 
Dec. 25. " 



Fort Brown 


. Resaca de la Palina 


Buena Vista 


Vera Cruz (siege) 

jCerro Gordo 



El Molinodel Key 

Ckapultepec " 

City of Mexico (surrend.) 



Brown Ampudia .. . 

Taylor Arista 

Taylor Arista 

Taylor ... ... Ampudia ... 

Taylor Santa Anna. 



Scott Santa Anna. 

P. F. Smith. .. Valencia.... 

Worth Santa Anna. 

Worth Santa Anna. 

Scott Santa Anno. 

Scott Santa Anna. 


Am M'x 

Am. I 
Aai. \ 

80 7(XK) 

1015 7000 




J , 










Aug. ; 



14, 18C1 

Nov. r, 

10, 180; 











April 7, 

Mav .5. 

MaV 3.^, 

Mav ar. 


June s, 

June 9, 





Sept. 19, 20, 


Dec. 27, 29. 
D'c31-J'n 2,1863 















Julv 10-lK, 
Sept. 19, 20, 
Nov. 16, 

Fort Sumter 

Big Bethel 



Kich Mountain 

Bull Hun , 

W'ilsouV Creek,'. 

IlattcrasE.xpedition. , 


Ball's Bluft" 

Port Hoyal Exjjedition 


Middle Creek 

Mill Spring 

Fort Hemy 

Roanoke Island 

Fort Donelson 

Pea Ridge 


Island No. 10 



Hanover Coiirt-Ilouse 
S"v"n Pin's or F'irO'ks 

Cross Keys 

Port Republic 

Seven Days' Battles. . 

Baton Rouge 

Cedar ^loinitaln 

Bull Run (2d battle).. 

South Mountain 

Harper's Ferry 

Antietam .\ . 




Praiiie Grove 


Holly Springs'. 

Chickasaw Bayou 

Stone Ri\er. etc 

Arkansas Post 

Port (Jibson 




Champion Hill 

Big Black 

Hanover Junction. . . . 


Vicksburg (surrender) 


Port Hudson 


Foit Wagner 

Chickaniaiiga < 'reek. . 
Cainplifll's Station. . . 
Kiiosville (besieged). . 


Anderson. . . . 








! Mulligan 


T. W. Sherman 

(Jrant .. 













I Fremont 
















Rosecrans . . . 
McClernand . . . 
McClernand . . . 


McPherson .... 
McPherson. . . . 





( irant 









Beauregard . . 

Magruder. ... 
Marmaduke . 



Beauregard . . 
McC'uUoch. . . 






Crittenden. . . 
Tilghman.. . 



Van Dorii. . . 





Johnston. . . . 
Johnston . . .. 


Jackson . . . . 









Van Dorn 


Hmduian. . . 


Van Dorn . . . 
Pemberton . . 







Pemberton . . 
Pemberton . . 



Pemberton . . 






l.ongstreet. . . 
Longstrcct. . . 



























































Fed.! Con. 

Nil. NU. 
100 8 

"'43' igo 

... . 735 
;«)51 1887 
1236 K)95 


160 100 
lOOOj 155 


"246 "343 
73 ,S3 

260 2.500 

2000 12(XXt 

1351 i:?,X1 

ia575 ](>)99 

i 6976 

2228 \mC) 

mi 397 

397 930 
5739 4232 

664 329 

450 67 
15249 190(Xt 

300 4tX» 
2(K)0| 1314 
180(X1| K400 
1568 2000 


12469 13.5;33 

782; \-Vm 
2:5591 9271 
4348' 2.500 
11481 1317 
12000! (XXX) 
1900 30 
2(XX1 207 
8778 UXXX) 

977, 4640 

848 580 
17197 13000 

442, 823 

265 845 
2457I 44tXt 

276' l.'iOO 

399 1 9:30 
2;518(i ;3fiOtX) 
423() 27(XX) 

2.V) 16136 
30(X)| 7208 

.5(X)! 6(X) 

1700! 670 

1()351 ' 180(X) 

3(X1 .3(X) 
1000 3500 

* The results of these battles varied from day to day, but on the whole the advan- 
tage was with the Federals. 

— + — 

THE CIVIL WAR (Con/iinied). 



2J, 1863 
•ia, •■ 
20, 1864 

8, •• 

9, ■• 
12, " 

0, •' 


May 7-12, 
May 14, l.'j, " 
May 25, " 
June l-;i, ■■ 
June 21,22, • 
June 27, •" 
July -M. • 
Julv 22, ■• 
Julv 20-26, •■ 
Aug. 18-21, ■■ 
Aug81-Sepl, •• 
Sept. 2, •' 
19, • 




Dec. 1,5, 16. 

Mar 31 
April 8 12, 
April 9, 
April 26, 

16, 1865 
5, " 
16, " 

18. " 

Lookout Mountain . . . 

Missionary Kidge 


Sabine Cross Hoads . . 

Pleasant Hill 

Fort Pillow 




New Ilojie Cluircli.. . 

Cold Harbor 

Weldon Railroad 

Kenesaw Mountain . . 
I'eacli Tree Creek . . . . 




Wcldou Kailroad 


.\Ilanta (captured). . . 



Allatoona Pass 

iCcdar Creek 

Hatcher's Hun 

I Franklin 

Fort McAllister 


Fort Fisher (cap'iired 

Hatcher's Rini 

A verysboroiifjh 


Five Forks 

Petersburg (evaciuifd 


Ai)poinattox (;. H.*.. 





Fed. Con. 

Grant iBra; 

(rraiit. .. 
Banks . . . 
Banks . . 


(Jraiit. . . . 

....Fed I 1 

Bragg Fed | 

Fimiegan . . . Conf, 

Smith Con / 

Smith Fed \ 

F'orrest .... Conf. 

Lee Indec 

Lee Indec 

Johnston .... Indec 

.5616 HOOO 
2000 ! 7:J0 
.5000 5000 

.5:;'.) 80 

29410, 8000 

Sherman Johnston.... Indec 

(irant Lee C<mf. 

iBirney Hill Conf. 

Sherman Johnston Conf. 

131.5;V KKKt 


3(H)(I 442 

Shcrmaii Hood Indec 


Sherman Hood Fed. 

(irant Lee Conf. 

Warren Hill Fed. 

Sherman Hardee Fed. 

Sherman Hood Fed. 



Cors(! . . . 


(irant.. . . 


Ilazen . . 

Thomas Hood 

. . F,arly . . 
. . French 
. . . Karlv . . 
. . . Lee : . . . 









) Terry Whitintr Fed. 

(irant Lei 

Sherman Hardee 

Sherman Johnston . 

Sheridan Lee 

Cirant Lee 

Canby jTaylor 

(irant Lee 

Sherman Johnston . . 









































* Lee here capitulated with his whole army, and on the 26th Johnston also surren- 
dered, while minor commands elsewhere were given up later on. and the war ended. 


Black IIawk Wah.— This war began with attacks on the frontier settlers of Illi- 
nois by the Sacs, under their chief. Black Haw k. The war lasted from the middle of 
May, ia32. till August 2 of the same year, when it ended in the utter defeat of the 
Indians at the jmiction of the Bad Axe and 'Mississippi rivers. During the war twenty- 
two white iH'ople were killed and forty wounded ; the Indians lost in killod 203. 

Skminoi.e Wau.— This war began toward the close of 1AS.5, and grew out of an 
attemi)t by the (iovernmeiit to remove the Semiuoles beyond the Mississippi. With 
varying fortunes it dragged along for seven years, ending with the engagement at 
Pilaklikaha Big Hammock on April 19, 1842. Tlx; war cost the United States many 
valuable lives and millions of treasure. 

There have been several minor wars with Indian tribes, such as the Mmloc War. 
in which (ien. Canby was murdered, and that with Sitting Bull's tribe, in which (ieji. 
Custer and his entire eoninijiiid perished. 

26 Appekdix. 

— •!• — 


April, 1778. Paul Jones attacks Whitehaven. 

Sept. 23, 1779. Paul Jones, in the Bon Homme Richard, captures British frigate 

French frigate L'Insurgcnte taken by U. S. frigate Constellation. 

Engagement between (Jonstellution and La ^'engeauce. 

U. S. frigate Philadelphia, wliicli had been taken by the Tripolitans, 
was destroyed in the harbor of Tripoli by Decalur. 

Tripoli bombarded by Commodore Preljle. 

Combat between U. S. frigate President and British sloop Little 

U. S. frigate Essex captured British sloop Alert. 

U. S. frigate Constitution captured British frigate Giierriere. 

V. S. sloop Wasp took British brig Frolic, but both vessels were cap- 
tured on same afternoon by British seventy-four Poictiers. 

r. S. frigate United States captured British frigate Macedonia. 

IT. S. frigate Constitution captured British frigate Java. 

U. S. s-loop Hornet captured British brig Resolute, and on Feb. 34 the 
British brig Peacock. 

U. S. frigate Chesapeake surrendered to British frigate Shannon. 

U. S. sloop Argus surrendered to British sloop Pelican. 

L'. S. brig Enterprise captured British brig Boxer. 

Commodore Perry captured British fleet on Lake Erie. 

Commodore Chauncey captured British flotilla on Lake Ontario. 

U. S. frigate Essex surrendered to British ships Phoebe and Cherub. 

U. S. sloop Frolic surrendered to British frigate Orpheus. 

U. S. sloop Peacock captured British brig Eper'iier. 

U. S. sloop Wasp captured British brig Reindeer. 

A British fleet, under Commodore Hardy, attacked Stoningtou. 

Commodore Macdoirough's fleet ou Lake Champlain captured British 

U. S. frigate President surrendered to British frigate Endymion. 

U. S. frigate Constitution captured British ships of war Cyane and 

U. S. sloop Hornet captured British brig Penguin. 

Commodore Conner, with IT. S. fleet, bombarded Vera Cruz. 

U. S. sloop Cj-ane, Captain Hollins, bombarded San Juan de 

Federal flec^t, under Com. Stringham, captured forts at Hatteras Inlet, 
N. C. 

Federal fleet, under Com. Dupont, raptured Port Ro.val, S. C. 

Federal gunl)oats, under Com. Foote, captured Fort Henry. Tenn. 

Engagement between Federal iron-clad Monitor and Confederate iron- 
clad Merrimac, after tlie latt(u- had destroyed the Cumberland and 

Federal fleet, under Flag-Ofticer Farragut. after reducing Forts Jack- 
son and St. Philip, and destroying a Confederate fleet, captured 
New Orleans. 
June .'). 1802. Federal fleet, under Com. Davis, destroyed Confederate fleet and caj)- 

tured Memi)liis. 
Feb. 8. 18().3. Federal fleet, under Com. (ioldsl)orough. captured forts on Roaiiokt? 
Island. N. C. 























































June 28, 




. 1814. 




















. 1861. 













Appexdix. 27 

— +— 

NAVAL BATTLES {('onfinued). 

April 7, 1863. Federal fleet, under Com. Dupoiit, is repulsed in an attempt to reduee 
Charleston, S. C. 

April, 1863. U. S. frigate Niagara captured Confederate cruiser Georgia. 

Sept. 7, 186;i Federal tleet, under Com. Dalilgren, aided in reduction of Fort Wag- 
ner, by which the port of Charleston was entirely closed. 

March, 1864. A Federal fleet, under Hear-Admiral Porter, co-operated with a land 
force under General Bunks, in an expedition against Shreveport, on 
the Red River, La. The expedition was unsuccessful, and the fleet 
was only saved from destruction by a dam constructed under the 
supervision of Lieut. -Col. Bailey. 

June 19, 1864. Federal sloop-ofwar Kearsarge, Capt. Winslow, sunk Confederate 
steamer Alabama. 

Aug. 5, 1864. Federal fleet, under Rear-Admiral Farragut, reduced Forts Gaines and 
Morgan, and destroyed Confederate fleet in Mobile Bay. 

Oct., 1864. Lieut. Wm. B. Cushing, with thirteen men, destroys Confederate iron- 
clad Albemarle in Roanoke River. 

Jan. 16, 1865. Federal fleet, under Com. Porter, aided in capture of Fort Fisher.