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Full text of "History of the United States Naval academy, with biographical sketches, and the names of all the superintendents, professors and graduates, to which is added a record of some of the earliest votes by Congress, of thanks, medals, and swords to naval officers"

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J 3 67 



HISTORY 



UiNlTED STATES i\AVAL ACADEMY, 



WITH BIOGRAPUICAL SKETCHES, 

AND TUB NAMES OP ALL THB 

81XPERINTEN^DENT3, PROFESSORS AND GRADUATES, 

TO WmCH 13 ADDED A RECORD OF SOME OF THE EARLIEST VOTES BY CON6BESS, OT 
THASKS, MEDALS, AND SWORDS TO NAVAi OFWCEKS. 



BY EDWARD CHAUXCEY MARSHALL, A. M., 



" Flag of the seas ! on ocean's wave 
Thy stars shall jrlitter o'er the brave, 

Each (lyintr wanilerer of the sea 
Shall look at unce to heaven and thee. 
And sinilf ti> soc thy splendors fly- 
In triumph oV-r his closint; fye!" 

J. Rodman Drake. 



NEW YORK: 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, 192 BROADWAY. 

18G2. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862, by 

D. VAN NOSTRAND, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the 

Southern District of New York. 



V 

4)5' 



i0n. 6iircan MHhs, 



WHOSE AVISDOM, PATRIOTISM, AND FIEMITESS, 

THE UNITED STATES NAVAL ACADEMY 

HAS BEEN PRESERVED TO THE OOTTNTRT FROM 

DANGERS WIIICU IMPERILLED ITS EXISTENCE, 

THE AUTHOR, 7ERY RESPECTFULLY, 

iDftiicatts tl)is littU Toliimt 

OF ITS 

HISTORY. 



S/-^ .S 1^ "^ -^ 



PREFACE 



The language of Horace, Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona 
may be applied, justly, to the Naval Academy. 

While we rejoice at the skill of our naval cadets, we must 
not depreciate the merits of their seniors in the service. It 
was the science already existing in the navy which created the 
Academy, and the superior discipline and accurate firing of 
the naval cadets, besides evincing the excellence of their at- 
tainments, reflect additional glory upon the older officers. 
By the older officers the Academy was organized, and has 
been brought to its present condition of admirable efficiency 
in imparting a scientific education to the eUves of the navy. 

Full access to public documents has been had, considerable 
assistance has been rendered, also, by naval officers and mid- 
shipmen, in the preparation of this work, and, it is believed, 
that the statements here made are reliable. 

New York, Marcli, 1862. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAOB. 

Alexander Hamilton's plan for a Military Academy. — A Naval 
School recommended in ISl-i. — Successive recommendations and 
discussions. — Failures 11 



CHAPTER H. 

The School is founded by the Hon. George Bancroft. — His letter to 
Conamander Buchanan 19 

CHAPTER HI. 

History of Mr. Bancroft's efforts and success. — The School is opened. 
— Its first Officers and text-books. — The Quarters at Fort Sev- 
ern. — A Naval Ball 25 

CHAPTER IV. 

The first appropriations for the support of the school. — Commander 
Upshur as Superintendent. — Revised regulations. — A practice 
Ship. ^-Commander Stribling as Superintendent. — The first cruise 
of the Preble. — The four years' course. — The professors and oflB- 
cers 31 



8 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER V. 

PAGB. 

The cruises of 1852-3. — Commander Goldsborough as Superin- 
tendent. — The cruises of 1854-5-6. — Capt. Greorge S. Blake as 
Superintendent. — The Board of Examiners for 1857. — The cruise 
of tlie Plymouth in 1858. — The frigate Constitution 35 

CHAPTER VI. 

The cruise of 1860. — Commander Craven's report 41 

CHAPTER Vn. 

Perilous times. — Secession. — The Massachusetts 8th. — Removal to 
Newport, R. I. — Quarters of the officers and midshipmen 44 

CHAPTER Vni. 

The Buildings and grounds at Annapolis. — Fort Severn. — Laboratory 
and Armory. — Quarters of the Midshipmen. — Recitation Hall,- 
Mess Hall. — Library and Lyceum. — Trophies of Naval Victories, 50 

CHAPTER IX. 

The Chapel. — The Observatory. — Midshipmen's Monument. — Hos- 
pital. — Boat House. — Quarters of the officers and professors. — 
Naval Monument. — Monument to Lieut. Herndon. — Old Iron Sides, 57 

CHAPTER X. 

The Academic Staff. — Examinations. — Midshipmen on Furlough. — 
Merit Roll. — Conduct Roll. — Punishments 63 

CHAPTER XL 

Daily division of time. — Section-formations. — Captains of Crews. — 
The Mess Table.— Tattoo and Taps.— Balmy Sleep 68 



CONTENTS. 9 

CHAPTER XII. 

PAGB. 

Routine on the Constitution. — Stowing Hammocks and Washing. — 
Roll call, Inspection, Breakfast. — Study. — Parade.- — Tattoo. — 
Etiquette 73 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Naval and military organization of the midshipmen. — Watchmen.— 
Uniform. — Lawrence Literary Society. — Hops and Balls 82 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Sketches. — Captain Bu'chanan. — Commander LTp.shur. — Captain 
Stribling 87 

CHAPTER XV. 

Captain Goldsborough. — Captain Blake 93 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Professor Chauvenet. — Brigadier-General Lockwood. — Professor 
CofEn. — Professor Girault. — Professor Xourse. — Professor Hop- 
kins. — Professor Wiulock. — Professor Smitli 99 

CHAPTER XVIL 

Captain Craven. — OfBcers at Port Royal. — Importance of naval and 
military schools. — Opinion of "Washington. — War with a European 
power 104 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

The first two assistants at the Academy. — Lieut. Samuel Marcy. — 
Captain James U. Ward.—" Flag of the Seas" 112 



10 CONTENTS. 

APPENDIX. 

PAGK. 

I. The Appointment of Candidates and their Qualifications. .. . 1:51 

II. Programme of Studies 135 

IIL Merit Rolls 137 

IV. Officers and Professors of the Academy from 1845 to the 

present time 139 

V- Graduates not of the Four Years' Course 141 

VL Graduates who were in the Four Years' Course 144 

VII. A list of the OfBcers to whom thanks, medals, and Swords 
lia,ve been voted by Congress for our earlier naval victories 
— Note by the author. — Commodore Chauncey. — Commo- 
dore Paulding. — Prize-money to the victors 146 



HISTOIIY OF THE NAVAL ACADi:]!!. 



CHAPTER I. 

ALEXANDER HAMILTON'S PLAN FOR A MILITARY ACAD- 
EMY.— A NAVAL SCHOOL RECOMMENDED IN 1814.— SUC- 
CESSIVE RECOMMENDATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS.— FAIL- 
URES. 

The management of the naval affairs of the United 
States was confided, first, by Congress, during tlie 
revohitioii, to a Naval Committee, who were appointed 
on the 11th of December, 17T5. The administration 
of this branch of the public service was vested in 
Commissioners on the ninth day of June, 1TT9, and on 
the twenty-eighth of October, in the same year, a Board 
of Admiralty was established to superintend the naval 
and marine affairs of the United States. Two years 
later, also, a Secretary of Marine was appointed, who 
executed all the duties of the Board of Admiralty.* 

After the adoption of the federal constitution, tlic 

*Scybert's Statistical Annals, p. G37. 



12 HISTORY OF THE 

Department of War was organized by act of Congress, 
on tlie Ttli of August, 1789, wliicli included, also, the 
department of the navy, and these two departments 
were united during a period of about nine years. 
Henry Knox, Timothy Pickering and James McHenry 
were the first Secretaries who were charged with the 
management of both military and naval affairs. The 
"act to establish an executive department to be de- 
nominated the Department of the Navy" was passed 
on the 30th of April, 1798. 

The first official recommendation of a naval school 
for the United States, was made by Alexander Ham- 
ilton, the Inspector-General, then, of the army, in his 
plan for a military academy which he submitted to 
his former companion-in-arms in the revolution, James 
McHenry, the Secretary of War, and to General Wash- 
ington, who was in retirement at Mount Vernon. It 
is an interesting fact, to record, also, that the last letter 
upon public questions ever written by General Wash- 
ington, of wliicli we have any knowledge, was his reply 
to Hamilton approving of this plan. Two days after 
writing this letter, George Washington died. 

Hamilton's plan for the military academy was sub- 
mitted to Congress on the fourteenth day of Januaiy, 
1800, by the Secretary of War, with the approval of 
the President, J(»l 111 Adams; tlie oi-ganization recuiu- 



KAVAL ACADEMY. 13 

mended was as foUoM's, viz.: "Tliis academy sliall 
consist of four schools, one to be called the Funda- 
lueiital School, another the Scliool of Engineers and 
Artillerists, another the School of Cavahy and In- 
fantry, and a fourth the School of the Navy." By the 
act which was passed on the sixteenth day of March, 
1802, fixing the military peace establishment, the 
academy was organized, to be located at West Point, 
but the only schools founded were the fundamental 
school, and the school of the engineers and artillerists ; 
no provision was made for the school of the navy. 
From an examination of General Hamilton's plan it is 
evident that the idea which prevailed, at that early 
period, of the united administration of naval and mili- 
tary affairs in one department, produced, also, quite 
naturally, the proposed combination of a naval with a 
military school. 

In March, 1808, General Jonathan Williams, of the 
Engineers, the Superintendent of the Military Acadeni}', 
from its organization, recommended in a report upon 
the subject of an enlargement of the Academy, that 
nautical astronomy, geography, and navigation should 
be taught by the Professor of Mathematics at West 
Point, and that it would be well " to make the plan of 
the Academy upon such a scale as not only to take in 
the minor officers of the navy, but also any youths 



14 HISTOEY OF THE 

from any of the states, who might wish for such an 
education, whether designated for the army or navy, 
or neither, and to let these be assessed to the value of 
their education."* These recommendations were sub- 
mitted to Congress by the President, Thomas Jefferson, 
with his approval, and on the twenty-eighth of March 
in that year, a bill was reported in the Senate, provid- 
ing for the removal of the Military Academy to the 
city of Washington, for its reorganization and for in- 
structing in the institution, midshipmen of the navy. 
The bill was, however, postponed, and its further con- 
sideration was not again resumed.f 

By the " act to increase the navy of the United 
States," which was passed on the second day of Jan- 
uary, 1813, the employment of naval schoolmasters was 
authorized. This act was one of the measures of the 
war of 1812, and a careful attention was given, at this 
time, to strengthening both the army and the navy, 
and to the scientific education of officers. The Military 
Academy at West Point was reorganized upon its 
present basis in 1812. At this early period also, many 
of the cadets of the Military Academy were commis- 
sioned as midshij^men in the navy. 

Probably the first ofiicial recommendation of the 

* Am. State Papers, vol. XII., p. 220. 

f Reports II. of Roj)., 1830-7, vol. II., No. nO."?, p. 10. 



NAVAL ACADKMV. 15 

separate organization of a United States is aval Acad- 
emy, was made by the Hon. William Jones, of Penn- 
sylvania, the Secretary of the Navy under President 
Madison, in a communication to the Senate, in Novem- 
ber, 1814 ; he says, "I would respectfully suggest the 
expediency of providing by law for the establishment 
of a naval academy with suitable professors, for the 
instruction of the officers of the navy in those branches 
of the mathematics, and experimental philosophy, and 
in the science and practice of gunnery, theory of naval 
architecture, and art of mechanical drawing, which are 
necessary to the accomplishment of the naval officer." 
A naval academy was again recommended by the Hon. 
Smith Thompson, of New York, the Secretary of the 
Navy under President Monroe. 

The establishment of such a school was urged upon 
Congress a third time, with great eloquence and ability, 
by the Hon. Samuel L. Southard, of New Jersey, the 
Secretary of the Navy, in his report of December 1st, 
1 824, and one year later, in his " opinion as to such 
alterations as are necessary in the present organization 
of the navy," which was given in obedience to a reso- 
lution of the Senate. He says in this document, " The 
younger officers are taken from the poor who have not 
the means of a good education as well as the rich who 
have. They enter, from the nature of their duties, at 



16 HISTORY OF THE 

BO early an age, that they cannot be accomplished, nor 
even moderately accurate scholars. They are con- 
stantly employed on shipboard, or in our navy-yards, 
where much advancement in learning cannot be ex- 
pected. The better instructed and more intelligent an 
officer is, the more skilfully and precisely, and, of 
course, the more economically, will he perform the 
duties assigned to him. Ignorance is always, skill is 
never, prodigal. The navy is also the bearer of our 
honor and our fame to every foreign shore. The Amer- 
ican naval officer is, in fact, the representative of his 
country in every port to which he goes, and by him is 
that country in a greater or less degree estimated." 
Mr. Southard proposed, as a location for the school, 
Governor's Island, in the harbor of New York, and 
asked an appropriation of $10,000, that it might be put 
into operation without delay. 

The subject occupied, during that session, much of 
the attention of Coligrcss, but no bill was passed au- 
thorizino; the establishment of a naval school. In the 
following year, the President, John Quincy Adams, 
recommended the proposition of Mr. Southard to Con- 
gress, and he repeated the recommendation in 1827. 
The measure was fully discussed, at this time, in the 
national legislature ; it was advocated ably in the 
Senate by Mr. Ilayne, of South Carolina, and General 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 17 

Win. H. Harrisou, of Okio ; nevertheless, the hill did 
not hecome a law. 

The Hon. A. P. Upshur, Secretary of the Navy, 
again urged the subject upon the attention of Congress 
in 18il, and a bill providing for the establishment of a 
naval school at or near Fortress Monroe, Virginia, was 
passed in the Senate, but was not acted upon in the 
House, for want of time. In his Report for 1842, Mr. 
Upshur sajs, "Through a long course of years, the 
midshipmen were left to educate themselves and one 
anotlier. Suitable teachers are now provided for them, 
but their schools are kept in the midst of a thousand 
interruptions and impediments, which render the whole 
system of little or no value."* 

Mr. Bayard,t in a report of a committee which 
was made in the Senate, three years latei*, descrilicd 
the evils of the old system, and advocated the measure 
with the following language : " Under the existing laws 
appointments of midshipmen are made by the Secretary 
of the Navy, and are the result, for the most part, of 
personal or political influence. Instances have occurred 
in which boys who have been thought by their ac- 
quaintances to be good for nothing else, have yet been 

* There were similar recommendations by the Hon. J. K. Paulding, 
and other Secretaries of the Navy. 

f The Hon. Richard H. Bayard, Senator from Delaware, afterward 
appointed Minister to Belgium. 



18 mSTOEY OF THE 

thonglit good enough for a service which, in its perils 
and its responsibilities, requires high qualities of 
physical and intellectual vigor, as well as moral worth. 
His scientific instruction commences at sea, or in a 
foreign port, amidst the noise and distraction of a 
crowded ship, and the interruptions of the various calls 
of duty. Having been five years in the service, three 
of which must have been passed in active duty at sea, 
and having attained the age of twenty years, the mid- 
shipman may be examined for promotion. To prepare 
for this examination, he spends a few months at the 
naval asylum in Philadelphia, where a school has been 
established for that purpose. This meagre course of 
instruction furnishes the sum of his attainments. Such 
are the provisions for the training of this important 
branch of officers." 

Failure, however, seems to have been the fate of 
every efifort to secure the passage, directly, of an act 
establishinc: the naval school. 



NAVAL ACADl!.MY. 19 



CHAPTEE II. 

THE SCHOOL IS FOUNDED BY THE HON. GEORGE BAN- 
CROFT.— HIS LETTER TO COMMANDER BUCHANAN. 

It was reserved, finally, for the lion. George Ban- 
croft, the Secretary of the Navy, to devise in 184.5, an 
economical and snccessful scheme for the organization 
of the desired institution. He had discovered that he 
was already clothed with the power of establishing 
such a school without a special enactment, and having 
made the selection of Commander Franklin Buchanan, 
a native- of Maryland, as the first Superintendent, he 
addressed to him the following official communica- 
tion : 

"Navy Department, August Ith, 1845. 
"Sik:* 

" The Secretary of War, with the assent of the Presi- 
dent, is prepared to transfer Fort Severn to the Navy 
Department, for the purpose of establishing there a 
school for midshipmen. 

" In carrying this design into effect, it is my desire to 

* Sonate Documents, vol. T, IR 15-46. 



20 HISTORY OF THE 

avoid all unnecessary expense — to create no places of 
easy service — no commands that are not strictly neces- 
sary — to incur no charge that may demand new an- 
nual appropriations ; but, by a more wise application 
of moneys already appropriated, and officers already 
authorized to provide for the better education of the 
young officers of the navy. It is my design not to 
create new officers, but, by economy of administra- 
tion, to give vigor of action to those which at present 
are available ; not to invoke new legislation, but to 
execute more eifectually existing laws. Placed by 
their profession in connection with the world, visiting 
in their career of service every climate and every lead- 
ing people, the officers of the American navy, if they 
gain but opportunity for scientific instruction, may 
make themselves as distinguished for culture as they 
have been for gallant conduct. 

" To this end it is proposed to collect the midship- 
men who from time to time are on shore, and give 
them occupation during their stay on land in the study 
of mathematics, nautical astronomy, theory of morals, 
international law, gunnery, use of steam, the Spanish 
and the French languages, and other branches essential, 
in the present day, to the accomplishment of a naval 
officer. 

"Tlie eflect of such an employment of the midship- 



NAVAi ACADEMY. 21 

men, cannot but be favorable to tliem and to the ser- 
vice. At present they are left, when waiting orders 
on shore, masters of their own motions, without steady 
occupation, young, and exulting in the relief from the 
restraint of discipline on shipboard. 

" In collecting them at Annapolis for purj)Oses of 
instruction, you will begin with the principle that a 
warrant in the navy, far from being an excuse for 
licentious freedom, is to be held a pledge for subordi- 
nation, industry, and regularity, — for sobriety, and as- 
siduous attention to duty. Far from consenting that 
the tone of the discipline and morality, should be 
less than at the universities or colleges of our country, 
the President expects such supervision and manage- 
ment as shall make of them an exemplary body, of 
which the country may be proud. 

" To this end you have all the powers for discipline 
conferred by the laws of the United States, and the 
certainty that the department will recommend no one 
for promotion, who is proved unworthy of it from idle- 
ness or ill conduct or continuing ignorance, and who 
cannot bear the test of a rigid examinetion. 

" For the purpose of instruction, the department can 
select from among twenty-two professors and three 
teachers of languages. This force, which is now al- 
most wasted by the manner in which it is applied, may 



22 HISTORY OF THE 

be concentrated in siicli a manner as to produce tlie 
most satisfactory results. Besides, tlie list of chap- 
lains is so great that they cannot all be employed at 
sea, and the range of selection of teachers may be en- 
lai-ged by taking from their number some who would 
prefer giving instruction at the school to serving afloat. 
The object of the department being to make the sim- 
plest and most efiective arrangement for a school, you 
will be the highest ofiicer in the establishment, and 
will be intrusted with its government. It is my wish, 
if it be possible, to send no other naval ofiicer to the 
school, except such as may be able and Avilling to give 
instruction. Among the oflacers junior to yourself, 
there are many whose acquisitions and tastes may lead 
them to desire such situations. For this end the de- 
partment would cheerfully detach three or four of the 
lieutenants and passed midshipmen, who, while they 
would give instruction, would be ready to aid you in 
affairs of discipline and government. Thus the means 
for a good naval school are abundant, though they 
liave not yet been collected together and applied. 

" One great difiiculty remains to be considered. At 
our colleges and at West Point, young men are trained 
in a series of consecutive years ; the laws of the United 
States do not sanction a preliminary school for the 
navy ; tliey only provide for the instruction of ofiicers 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 23 

wlio already are in the navy. The pupils of the naval 
school being, therefore, officers in the public service, 
will be liable at all times to be called from their 
studies, and sent on public duty. Midshipmen, too, 
on tlieir return from the sea, at whatever season of the 
year, will be sent to the school. Under these circum- 
stances, you will be obliged to arrange your classes in 
such a manner as will leave opportunity for those who 
arrive, to be attached to classes suited to the stage of 
their progress in their studies. It will be difficult to 
arrange a system of studies which will meet this emer- 
gency ; but with the hxed resolve which you will 
bring to the work, and with perseverance, you will 
succeed. 

" Having thus expressed to you some general views, 
I leave you, with such assistance as you may require, 
to prejiare and lay before this department for its appro- 
bation a plan for the organization of the naval school 
at Fort Severn, Annapolis. 

" Tlie posts to which you and those associated with 
you will be called are intended to be posts of labor; 
but they will also be posts of the highest usefulness 
and consideration. To yourself, to whose diligence and 
care the organization of the school is intrusted, will 
belong in a good degree the responsibility of a wise 
arrangement. Do not be discouraged by the many 



24: HISTOKT OF THE 

inconveniences and difficulties whicli you will certainly 
encounter, and rely implicitly on this department as 
disposed to second and sustain you, under the law, in 
every effort to improve the character of the younger 
branch of the service. 

" I am respectfully, your obedient servant, 

'' GEORGE BANCROFT. 

"Com'r Feankxin Buchanan, 

United States Navy, Washington." 



NAVAL ACADEMY. iJ5 



CHAPTER III. 

HISTORY OF MR. BANCROFT'S EFFORTS AND SUCCESS.— 
THE SCHOOL IS OPENED.— ITS FIRST OFFICERS AND TEXT- 
BOOKS.— THE QUARTERS AT FORT SEVERN.— A NATAL 
BALL. 

It is but justice to Mr. Bancroft to mention here, that 
this plan for the organization of the Naval School was 
his own original conception ; his alone, and it was, in 
every particular, carried out bv him. Desiring, if 
possible, to establish the school, he studied, miaided, 
himself, and for this pui-jiose, the laws relating to the 
navy, and finding that his j^lan did not conflict with 
existing acts of Congress, he then searched for a suit- 
able site for the school, among the forts which were 
already established along our seaboard. Fort Severn 
appeared to be the most desirable location, and he so- 
licited from the Hon. "\Ym. L. Marcy, the Secretary of 
war, a transfer of this fort from the "War Department to 
the Navy Department, whicli rccpicst was cheerfully 
complied with. General Scott was also consulted, and 
it was his opinion that Fort Severn was no longer of 
2 



26 HISTOEY OF THE 

importance, as a fortified place ; the plan, therefore, of 
estaljlishing there a naval school received his hearty 
approval. 

Withont any special appropriation, without any vio- 
lation of the law, and making use only of such moneys 
as were already provided for the salaries of the pro- 
fessors employed in tlie navy, Mr. Bancroft succeeded, 
during the recess of Congress, in organizing the school 
and setting it in motion, and he presented it to Con- 
gress, at the next session, as a thing done and in full 
operation. The reasons which were especially assigned, 
at this time, for estahlishing the school, were, — first, to 
give greater concentration to the services of the excel- 
lent professors of the navy, and, secondly, to guard the 
morals of the young midshij^raen, who were exposed, 
while on shore, to numerous temptations. To accom- 
plish the latter the more effectually, it was made a 
rule of the. department, by order of Mr. Bancroft, that 
midshipmen who were not at sea, must l>e either in 
attendance at the school, or at their homes, under pa- 
rental care. Economy in expenditures for the school 
received, also, great attention, and it was for this end 
that the superintendency was confided, from the first, 
to an officer of a younger grade, a commander being 
selected for the position ; and the instructors appointed 
were known to be men of industry and good scholar- 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 27 

ship. The policy thus inaiignratcd, from the begin- 
ning, for administering the affairs of the naval school 
was to endeavor to secnre, for the moneys expended, 
the greatest possible returns. 

The school was duly organized at Fort Severn, An- 
napolis, a situation both healthy and secluded, yet 
easy of access, the grounds were extensive enough ; 
and the buildings, with some slight alterations and im- 
provements, were made in all respects suitable. The 
location was admirably adapted in other respects, for 
the purposes of such an institution ; it is at the mouth 
of the Severn river, a beautiful tributary to the noble 
Chesapeake, and commands a view of the commerce of 
Baltimore which passes this point, also of a roadstead 
much frequented in heavy weather by vessels of all 
classes, and the young officers were afforded here am- 
ple opportunity to acquire nautical skill, and to apply 
their professional attainments practically, by being 
from time to time " afloat."* 

The institution was formally opened on Friday, 
the lOtli of October, 1845. At eleven o'clock, a. m., 
the officers, professors, and midshipmen assembled in 
one of the recitation rooms, and were impressively 
and feelingly addressed by the Superintendent, Com- 
mander Buchanan, who also read and illustrated with 

* Niles' Register, vol. LXIX. 



28 HISTOEY OF THE 

proper remarks, the rules and regulations he had 
prescribed for the government of the school. lie con- 
cluded the ceremony by reading a letter from the Sec- 
retary of the x^avy, disclosing his views and purposes 
in regard to the conduct and organization of the 
school. About forty midshipmen had already reported 
themselves, and a writer of that day informs us that 
their handsome appearance and gentlemanly deport- 
ment gave a cheerful aspect to the streets of the quiet 
city of Annapolis, and elicited universal admiration. 

In January following, there were reported con- 
nected with the school as officers of instruction and 
government, besides Commander Buchanan, Lieutenant 
James II. Ward in the department of gunnery and 
steam ; Surgeon J. L. Lockwood in the department of 
chemistry ; Chaplain George Jones in the English de- 
partment ; Prof. William Chauvenet in the depart- 
ment of mathematics; Prof. Henry H. Lockwood in 
the department of natural philosophy, and Prof. Girault 
in the department of French.* Passed Midshipman 
Samuel Marcy was an assistant and instructor in the 
use of astronomical instruments. Lieutenant Ward and 
Mr. Marcy also aided the Superintendent in the mili- 
tary duties of tlie establishment. There were then 
assembled at the school as students, tliirty-six midship- 

* Nilcp' Register, vol. LXIX., p. 351. 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 29 

men of the date 1840, who were preparing for exam- 
ination ; thirteen of the date 1841, who were to remain 
])ursuing studies and attending lectures until drafted 
for service at sea, and seven acting midshipmen, ap- 
pointments of that year. By regulation these last 
were to remain at the school one year ; at the expira- 
tion of it to undergo an examination, and if found to 
have made satisfactory proficiency, to be ordered to 
sea ; at the end of a probationary term there, they 
Avere to receive, as was previously the regulation, a 
warrant, and after three years' service they were to 
return, and spend another year at the school, prepara- 
tory to examination for promotion. 

The text-books adopted for use in the school at this 
time, were, in mathematics, Davies' Arithmetic, for 
the junior class; Bourdon's Algebra, Legendre's Geom- 
etry, Pierce's Trigonometry or Maury's Navigation 
and Bowditch's Navigator ; in natural philosophy, 
Peschell's Elements of Physics ; in French, Girault's 
French Guide, Girault's Colloquial Exercises, Picot's 
Narrations, Meadow's French Dictionary ; in gunnery. 
Ward's Treatise ; and in chemistry, Fowne's Chem- 
istry. 

It was found that the houses which were occupied 
formerly by the commandant and subalterns of the 
post, atforded ample accommodations for the Superin- 



30 HISTORY OF THE 

tondcnt, and most of the other officers of the institu- 
tion. The midshipmen also were made very comforta- 
ble in wooden buildings, which had been in use already 
for various purposes at the post. Two large barrack- 
rooms served well for recitation halls, and the two 
rooms below of equal size, were used for the kitchen 
and the mess-hall. The expenditures for the school at 
this time, were certainly quite moderate ; nevertheless 
they were sufficient for all its reasonable necessities. 

A Naval Ball whi(;h was given by the midshipmen, 
on the evening of Thursday, the fifteenth day of Jan- 
nary, was numerously attended by ladies and gentle- 
men from various parts of the Union. 



KAYAL ACADEMY. 31 



CHAPTEE IV. 

THE FIRST APPROPRIATIONS FOR THE SUPPORT OP THE 
SCHOOL.— COMMANDER UPSHUR AS SUPERINTENDENT.— 
REVISED REGULATIONS.-A PRACTICE-SHIP.-COMMANDER 
STRIBLING AS SUPERINTENDENT.— THE FIRST CRUISE OF 
THE PREBLE.— THE FOUR YEARS' COURSE.— THE PROFES- 
SORS AND OFFICERS. 

Permission was grauted by Congress, ou the tenth 
of August, 1846, to expend " an amount not exceed- 
ing $28,200 under the direction of the Secretaiy of 
the ISTavy for repairs, improvements, and instruction 
at Fort Severn, Annapolis, Md.," and this modest pro- 
vision for the wants of the school, was found sufficient 
at that time for its economical support. An amount 
similar to the above was appropriated again in 1847, 
for repairs, improvements, and instruction, and for tlie 
purchase of land not exceeding twelve acres, for the 
use of the Naval School. Commander George P. 
Upshur, a native of Virginia, succeeded Commander 
Buchanan, also, in 1847, as the Superintendent. The 
administration of the affairs of the school, in its in- 
fancy by the latter, is described as judicious, and the 



32 HISTORY OF THE 

institution gave promise of considerable usefulness to 
the service. In December, 1847, Secretary Mason re- 
ported that there wore ninety midshipmen in attend- 
ance, prosecuting their studies under great advantages, 
lie recommended a practice-ship for the school, and that 
certain flags and other naval trophies should be trans- 
ferred from Washington to the institution, that their 
presence might assist in exciting in the minds of youth- 
ful midshipmen a laudable ambition, and the desire to 
distinguish themselves in the service of their country. 
But there were found to be still some defects in the 
organization of tlie school. The course of study thus 
far, had been for a midshipman,* " two years at the 
school, then three at sea and two years again at the 
school," but it was now, after some experience, deemed 
expedient to adoj^t the plan which prevails in most 
institutions, of a four years' course of study without 
going to sea, excepting three months spent in the sum- 
mer on a cruise. Accordingly, in October, 1819, a 
board of officers was directed to reorganize the scliool, 
conforming its organization as nearly as tlie two 
branches of the service would permit to that of tlie 

* Report of the Secretary of tho Nav}', the Hon. W. A. Graham, in 
November, 1851. Tho above periods of study diiTer Romowhat from 
those given by Senator Bayard, and aguin in Niles' Register. See 
pages 11 and 29 above. It is probable that both of these statements are 
correct, and that in a few years after its organization, tho term of study 
at the school was enlarged. 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 33 

Military Academy at West Point. The hope Avas enter- 
tained tliat the discipline, instruction and management 
of the school would be greatly benefited by the change. 

The new system and regulations having been fully 
matured, it was ordered that they take effect on the 
first of July, 1850. Tlie corps of professors was also 
enlarged, and a practice-ship, the Preble, a sloop of 
war of the third class, was attached to the Academy 
in order that instruction in seamanship might be given 
on a cruise in the summer months, a method analogous 
to that of the encampment of the cadets of the Military 
Academy at West Point. Henceforth the school is 
styled in the reports of the Secretary of the Navy and 
in the acts of Congress, the Naval Academy. 

The new academic term commenced on the first of 
October, 1850, under Commander C. K. Stribling, as 
Superintendent. The pay of the Superintendent was 
now fixed by Congress at the same rate as that allowed 
to an officer of his rank when in service at sea. A 
Board of Examiners was also appointed to visit the 
Academy annually, and report upon its condition. 
The first cruise of the pupils was made in the summer 
following, under the Commandant of Midshipmen, 
Lieutenant Thomas T. Craven. They embarked in the 
Preble, after the examination in June, and sailed as 
far as our nortlicrnmost boundary, then returning, they 



34 HISTOEY OF THE 

touclied at tlie principal ports of tlie United States, 
between Portland and Virginia, and readied Annapolis 
again in the latter part of September. 

The first class of acting midshipmen, under the four 
years' course, entered the Academy in October, 1851. 
The professors and higher officers for the academic 
year following, were Commander C. K. Stribliug, 
Superintendent, Lieutenant Thomas T. Craven, Com- 
mandant of Midshipmen, D. S. Green, Surgeon, H. H. 
Loekwood, Professor of Gunnery and Infantry Tactics, 
William Chauvenet, Professor of Mathematics, W. F. 
Hopkins, Professor of Natural and Experimental Phi- 
losophy, A. 'N. Girault, Professor of French, Joseph 
E. Kourse, Professor of Ethics, Edward Seager, In- 
structor in Drawing and the Art of Defence, Samuel 
Marcy, Master, George Jones, Chaplain. There were 
also four passed midshipmen, acting as assistants, and 
three assistant professors. There were eighty-four 
students, of whom nine were midshipmen, and seventy- 
five were acting midshipmen. The Academy was now 
in the full tide of successful operation. The appropria- 
tions made by Congress were, henceforth, liberal, and 
the various edifices which had begun to take the place 
of the old barracks, together with the well laid out 
grounds, were a conspicuous ornament to the banks of 
tlie Severn. 



NATAL ACADEMY. 35 



CHAPTEK V. 

THE CRUISES OF 1852-3.— COMMAJS^DER GOLDSBOROUGH AS 
SUPERINTEXDEXT.— THE CRUISES OF 1854-5-G.— CAPTAIN 
GEORGE S. BLAKE, AS SUPERIXTEXDEXT.— THE BOARD 
OF EXAMINERS FOR 1857.— THE CRUISE OF THE PLYM- 
OUTH IN 1858.— THE FRIGATE CONSTITUTION. 

In tlie summer of 1852, the acting miclsliipmau em- 
barked on the 14th of June, on board the Preble, under 
command again of Lieutenant Craven, and visited the 
port of Orta on the ishmd of Fayal, Funchal of Madeira, 
Santa Cruz, and Pahna of the Canaries, and the island 
of St. Thomas, West Indies. The cruise of 1853 was 
nearly the same, they visited the island of Fayal, 
Corunna, on the north coast of Spain and Funchal. 
At Corunna they were received with the greatest po- 
liteness by the Governor-General of the province and 
the civil and military authorities of the town. They 
visited, also, the great naval arsenal at Fen-ol, which 
is remarkable for its age, and is one of the most exten- 
sive in the world. They reached Hampton Eoads on 
the 14th of September. 



36 HISTOKY OF TUB 

In 1853, Captain Stribliug was relieved, as the 
Superintendent of the Academy. The Secretary of tlie 
Navy reports that he had discharged the duties of his 
office, during a term of three years, with diligence and 
marked ability. Commander Goldsborough, an accom- 
plished officer, who had recently returned from the 
Mediterranean Squadron was appointed his successor. 
The number of midshipmen and acting midshipmen 
who were attached to the Academy as students was 
one hundred and sixteen. 

In 1854, there were one hundred and sixty students 
at the Academy. The first class under the new organ- 
ization of a four years' course, graduated in June of 
this year. The usual summer cruise was made with 
the second and fourth classes, on board the Preble, to 
the ports of Plymouth, Cherbourg, and Brest. Their 
visits at these ports are described as very interesting 
and instructive. They were politely received by the 
various officers and dignitaries of the stations, and 
every facility was extended to them for examining the 
dock-yards, machine-shops, and ships. At Brest they 
visited the school-ship La Borda, on wliich students 
were instructed for the naval service. Here were two 
frigates also, whereon some two or three hundred boys 
were practised daily in seamanship. In 1855, llie 
cruise in the Preble, under command of Lieutenant J. 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 37 

F. Green, to Eastport, the Bay of Fundy and Boston, 
was a stormy one. 

In 1856, the Board of Examiners report that the soa- 
^vall along the banks of the Severn, designed for the 
protection of the grounds and buiklings, had been fin- 
ished. A new light field battery had also been fur- 
nished the Academy. In the summer of this year, the 
annual cruise was made to Boston, Portland, and New- 
port, on board the Plymouth, a sloop of war of the first 
class. 

Captain George S. Blake succeeded Captain Golds- 
borough as the Superintendent, in 1857. There were 
now attached to the Academy for instruction, one hun- 
dred and seventy-six acting midshipmen ; at the close 
of the last academic year fifteen had graduated, and 
eighty-nine had been since admitted. The Board of 
Examiners, in their report for 1857, commend the 
discipline and police regulations of the Academy, the 
performances of the students in field artillery and in- 
fantry tactics, and their exercises with the great guns 
in battery, and in shell and shot practice at the target. 
They were also pleased with the admirable acquire- 
ments of the graduating class, and the successful man- 
agement of the Academy, which can no longer be 
regarded, they remark, as an experiment. 

In 1858, there were one hundred and eighty-nine 



oS UlSTOliY OF THE 

acting midshipmen in the Academy. The annual cruise 
was made to Cherbourg, Cadiz, and Madeira. The 
weather Avas Loisterous. In the following year, the 
Secretary of the Kavy reports tliat there were most 
gratifying evidences of the proficiency of the pupils. 
The cruise was made on board the Plymouth with one 
hundred and seven acting midshipmen. They visited 
Plymouth, England, Brest, France, and Funchal, on 
the island of Madeira. The young gentlemen were 
divided into two watches, while at sea, from 8 a. m. to 
8 p. M. one watch, and from 8 p. m. to 8 a. m. half a 
watch, in their turns, were on deck. They were divided, 
also, into six gun-crews ; from these crews four were 
stationed at the guns, and the remaining two were dis- 
tributed in the master's and powder divisions. Imme- 
diately after morning insj)ection at quarters, the watch 
on deck was exercised aloft, for one hour and a half, 
at reefing, furling and unbending sails, sending up and 
down yards, making and taking in sail, &c., &c. 

After these exercises, from 10.30 to 11.30 and from 
1 to 3.30 p. M., they were employed in knitting, spli- 
cing, strapping blocks and fitting rigging generally. 
The watches below, from 2 to 2.30, studied navigation, 
and at 4 p. m. there was a divisional or general exercise 
at quarters. Parties of the first class navigated the ship 
in turn. Nearly all the steering was by the acting mid- 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 39 

Bliipmefi. The sliip's position was ascertained by obser- 
vations made by the first class, and these were so accu- 
rate, that when the hist course bore upon Cape ♦Henry 
light upon the chart, the light was discovered exactly 
ahead of the vessel. Commander Craven says — " In 
all my experience, I have never made or known a more 
perfect land-fall." 

During this year, the measure was adopted, of placing 
the fourth class, for quarters, on board the sloop of war 
Plymouth, and the frigate Constitution was afterwards 
anchored in the harbor of Annapolis, and was substi- 
tuted for the Plymouth. " The historic recollections 
associated with the Constitution, must, undoubtedly, 
exercise a salutary influence on the minds of the pu- 
pils," remarks the Secretary of the Navy. All of the 
fourth class were accommodated on board, with study 
and recitation rooms, and the officers and acting mid- 
shipmen, and the crew of the ship, with sleeping and 
mess apartments. The examination of the summer 
of 1860, was again a most gratifying exhibition of the 
academic acquirements of the various classes. The 
twenty-five graduates had laid the ground-work of pro- 
fessional educations which gave promise of great use- 
fulness to the country. The exercises of the infantry 
and light artillery drills, of the great guns in battery, 
the boat-gun, and the broad and small swords were 



40 HISTORY OF THE 

highly creditable. Much attention had bcOn given, 
also, to drawing and draughting. The discipline and 
police^f the institution were excellent. The Board of 
Visitors " desire to record their high appreciation of 
the services of the Superintendent and his subordinates. 
The institution has prospered in their hands, and prom- 
ises to the navy a high standard of general and pro- 
fessional knowledge." 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 41 



CHAPTEPt YI. 

THE CRUISE OF 18G0.— COMMANDER CRAVEN'S REPORT. 

The cruise-of the sumuier of 1860 is the last which 
the pupils of the Naval Academy have enjoyed. The 
terrible scourge secession was destined to visit, iu 
the following year, the quiet shades of the Academy, 
and drive her rudely to wander afar from her classic 
halls. The following account of this cruise on board 
the sloop-of-war Plymouth is abridged somewhat, from 
Commander T. T, Craven's report to the Secretary of 
the Xavy : " On the 27th of June, I put to sea, and 
proceeded first to the Azores, and arrived at the island 
of Fayal on the ITth of July. On the next day, in 
the evening, we sailed for Cadiz and had the mortifica- 
tion of being — as we had been a year previously — put 
in quarantine. On the next day I got under way, and 
being compelled by a strong "levanter" which was 
then blowing, to abandon our contemplated visit to 
Gibraltar, proceeded to Madeira, and anchored off 
Funchal on the 3d of August ; remained there three 
days, and left for Santa Cruz, in the island of TenerifTe, 



42 HISTORY OF THE 

where we arrived early on the morning of the 10th of 
August. In the evening of the same day we took our 
departure for the Chesapeake, and on tlie 3d of this 
month (September) anchored in Hampton Koads. 

"At an early period of the cruise the first class were 
put in charge of the deck, and performed all the duties 
of lieutenants in charge of the watch. They have also 
been carefully instructed in the use of the sextant, and 
have been well taught in observing time-sights by the 
moon and stars, and in ascertaining the longitude and 
latitude by Bowditch's, Chauvenet's, and other meth- 
ods. They became familiar, so soon, with their work, 
that I was enabled, in a short month, to call upon any 
one of this class to take observations for latitude or 
longitude by the sun, moon, or stars, and to feel the 
most j)erfect confidence in the correctness of the work. 
They were all taught practical seamansliip. During a 
pretty smart gale, one of our topsails was split, and 
the occasion was taken advantage of, to practise the 
acting midshipmen in shifting topsails. They were 
taught practically how to carry out a heavy anchor 
between two boats. When anchored off Thomas 
Point, an anchor weighing more than 5000 pounds, 
with fifteen fathoms of one and three-quarters' inch 
chain cable attached to it, was carried out between our 
qiuirter boats and planted fifty fathoms from the ship • 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 43 

then forty-five fathoms of the same cable were hauled 
out and shackled to the fifteen fatlioms already out. 
In short, they were instructed in every branch of sea- 
manship, from heaving the lead, steering, reefing, and 
furHng, making and taking in sail, up to tlie most intri- 
cate evolution. 

"Alarms of 'man overboard' were given. At one 
time, the ship was going at the rate of eight knots ; 
the life buoy was let go, the boat lowered, the ship 
brought to, the buoy picked up, the boat alongside 
again, and away and standing on her course under all 
sail, in seven minutes and twenty seconds from the time 
of the first alarm. The first class was also practised 
in firing at targets, and, in some cases, the accuracy 
was remarkable." There were one hundred and fifteen 
acting midshipmen on board the Plymouth on this 
cruise. The total number of acting midshipmen was 
two hundred and eighty-one. 



4A HISTOKT OF THE 



CHAPTER VII. 

PERILOUS TIMES— SECESSION— THE MASSACHUSETTS 8TH, 
REMOVAL TO NEWPORT, R. L— QUARTERS OF THE OFFI- 
CERS AND MIDSHIPMEN. 

The Naval Academy under the superintendence of 
Captain George S. Blake, was reported to this period 
as in admirable condition. But the Academy and 
the public property at Annapolis attracted early, 
the attention of the disloyah And it was fortunate 
that this charge was intrusted during these perilous 
times to so patriotic an othcer. The Hon. Gideon 
Welles, the Secretary of the Navy, in his report of 
December 3d, 1861, says of his services at this crisis : 
" I have deemed it important that the accomplished 
Superintendent, whose lidelity to his trust was exhib- 
ited under trying circumstances, should be continued 
in the position he has filled so acceptably, until the 
school shall be again permanently established." The 
prompt measures adopted by Captain Blake, and the 
assistance of loyal acting midshipmen, rescued the 



KAVAL ACADEMY. 45 

government property and the frigate Constitution 
from desecration and plunder. 

In the latter part of April, 1861, the rebellion which 
had assumed so formidable a shape, extended its 
malign influence to the Naval Academy and imperilled 
its safety ; it became necessary therefore, to take im- 
mediate steps for its protection. Its advantages as a 
base of military operations against "Washington, to- 
gether with the arms a)id ammunition of the institu- 
tion, invited attack, and the disloyal were planning its 
seizure. The frigate Constitution was also much 
coveted by the rebels, and the Academy itself was 
spoken of as the future nursery of the Southern navy. 
Under these circumstances, every possible preparation 
for defence was made, both in the Academy and on 
board the frigate, and every movement of the disaf- 
fected was watched with the utmost vigilance. But 
the means of defence were limited. The grounds were 
commanded by adjacent heights, the Constitution, with 
the partial armament then on board her, lay aground, 
except at high water, and the channel through which 
she was to be carried out of tlie harbor was narrow 
and very difficult. She was also directly under 
heights from which secessionists had declared their 
intentions to open a fire upon her if she were 
moved. 



46 HISTORY OF THE 

On the morning of the twenty-first of April, the 
steamer Maryland arrived off the port with the 
Massachusetts 8th, commanded by Brigadier-General 
Butler, who immediately expressed his readiness to 
lay the steamer alongside the Constitution, lighten 
her of her guns, and tow her out. This was accom- 
plished, though with great difficulty, by the close of 
that day ; the ship was anchored in the roads, her 
guns were replaced on board, and her crew, which 
consisted of only thirty or forty men, being reinforced 
by a detachment of the regiment, she was anchored 
in a favorable position for covering the landing of 
troops and stores, which, owing to the burning of the 
bridges on the Pliiladelphia and Baltimore railroad, 
were directed to this point. 

This sudden conversion of the ]^aval Academy into 
a military post, rendered it impossible to carry on the 
routine of the institution, and its transport to Fort 
Adams, ^Newport, R. 1., was directed. The valuable 
librar}^, philosophical apparatus, and other Academy's 
property, together with the officers and professors, 
were embarked on the fifth and sixth of May, in the 
steamer Baltic, then in the service of the government, 
and on the eighth the fort was occupied. The Consti- 
tution had already arrived with about one hundred 
and fifty acting midshipmen on board, and, in less 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 47 

than a week, the course of instruction was resumed. 
A portion of the first class liad been ordered to re- 
port for duty in Washington, before the arrival of 
the Academy from Annapolis, and the remainder 
of that class, together with the members of the second 
and third classes, were called into active service soon 
after reaching IS^ewport, leaving in the Academy only 
the fourth class, about uoventy-six in number. 

The annual examination took place in the fort in 
June, and the class, now become the third, entered 
upon a course of practical instruction in gunnery, sea- 
manship, &c., on board the ship. The usual summer 
cruise was dispensed with, for the reason that all the 
ships suitable for that service, were needed for block- 
ading purposes. In the month of September, the Con- 
stitution, which had been anchored off Fort Adams, 
was removed into the inner harbor of Newport, 
and as the fort could not be occupied during the 
winter, in consequence of the limited and damp con- 
dition of its accommodations, which are all in the 
casemates, it was resolved to quarter the third class in 
the Atlantic House, which was rented for the purpose, 
and which affords accommodations for the class, also 
the necessary recitation rooms, as well as quarters for 
a considerable number of the officers and professors. 
The new fourth class are quartered on board the 



48 HISTORY OF THE 

frigate, wliere they receive academic inatriiction and 
are drilled at tlie guns, and in practical seamanship. 
This class contains two hundred and three members, 
and the total number of acting midshipmen on pro- 
bation at the Naval Academy is two hundred and 
sixty-four.* Previous to this time the academic term 
had begun on the first of October, but the period 
during which candidates should report themselves, 
was extended by the Department for the year 18G1 to 
the thirtieth of November. A guard from the Con- 
stitution is kept in Fort Adams ; the acting midship- 
men have been stationed at the guns now mounted 
in the work, and the whole establishment could be 
quartered in it, at a few hours' notice. 

Thus we see, in the language of Secretary Welles, 
that, " although the numbers at the school are reduced 
by the resignation of nearly every student from the in- 
surrectionary region, and a call of the elder classes to 
active professional duty, the younger classes that re- 
main form a nucleus to re-establish and give vitality to 
the institution." He recommends, also, tJiat the coun- 
try educate, for a period at least, double the number 
of acting midshipmen now authorized by law. 

* There is one student also, the son of the Prince de Joinville, the Duko 
of Penthi(ivre, who is not a regularly appointed acting midshipman, 
but has been permitted to join the Academy at his own cliarges, being 
subject to all the regulations and the discipline of the institution. 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 49 

It is a fitting conclusion to this chapter to place on 
record here the testimony gathered from ^ai-ioiis sources, 
that, had it not been for the firm determination of the 
Secretary of the Navy to preserve this most valuable 
institution, so great were the embarrassments of the 
Government at the breaking out of the rebellion, that 
the country miglit have witnessed the total destruction 
of the Academy, or, at least, a suspension of its exer- 
cises. Most fortunately, also, Mr. Fox, the Assistant 
Secretary of the Navy, who was formerly an ofiicer of 
high reputation, and Captain Ilarwood, the accom- 
plished Chief of tlie Bureau of Ordnance and Hydro- 
graphy, who has, ex officio, the personal supervision of 
the institution, both took a deep interest in its welfare 
and, under the arrangements directed by the Depart- 
ment, it remains in full and successful operation, at 
rather a diminished than an increased expense, for the 
cui'rent year, 1861-2. -^ 



60 HISTORY OF THE 



CHAPTEE YIII. 

THE BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS AT ANNAPOLIS. — FORT 
SEVERN.— LABORATORY AND ARMORY.— QUARTERS OP 
THE MIDSHIPMEN.— RECITATION HALL.— MESS HALL.— 
LIBRARY AND LYCEUM. — TROPHIES OF NAVAL VIC- 
TORIES. 

The city of Annapolis, wliicb, many years ago, was 
the seat of wealth, refinement, and an extensive trade, 
and has long been the official i*esidenee of the Governor 
of Maryland, was an admirably chosen location for the 
Naval Academy. Since its organization, various im- 
provements and additions having been made, an estab- 
lishment of respectable proportions has been created, 
and the buildings which were occupied by the institu- 
tion, although characterized by no magnificence of 
architecture, have, nevertheless, an air of neatness and 
elegance, and are well arranged for the comfort and 
convenience of the professors and midshipmen. 

The Academy grounds contain about forty-seven 
acres, they are surrounded by a brick wall, and the 
entrance to them is guarded by two gates of iron. 
Within the enclosure, close by the sea-wall stands 



NAVAL AC.VDKMV. 61 

Fort Severn, wliich is a small circular redoubt, and has 
no outworks of any kind. It is roofed over, and con- 
tained a battery of thirty-two pounders mounted on 
naval carriages. This battery was used for instruction 
and target practice, and the acting midshipmen were 
exercised here in firing as if on board a man-of-war. 
In the lower part of the fort the field guns were run in 
and sheltered. Near Fort Severn are the steam and 
gas works of the institution. They are small and are 
economically constructed, but are of sufiicient capacity 
to liglit and heat the whole establishment. Twelve 
thousand cubic feet of gas could be made daily. 

l^ot far from the fort was the Laboratory and Ar- 
mory, which occupied a single building, built of brick, 
plain and one story high. The Academy possesses a 
very good chemical laboratory, and a fine collection of 
philosophical instruments and apparatus. The lecture 
and recitation rooms of the Professor of Natural and 
Experimental Philosophy were in one wing of this 
building, and in the other were the armory, and the 
recitation rooms of the Professor of Field Artillery 
and Infantry Tactics. Near by are the Quarters of 
the acting midshipmen, or, more properly, the naval 
cadets. T^hese buildings are five in number, and con- 
tain in all ninety-eight rooms, each about fifteen feet 
square. Two acting midshipmen were quartered in 



52 HISTOKT OF THE 

each room, the furniture being a small h'on bedstead 
and bureau for each, which were of the simplest and 
most substantial kind. The Quarters are well propor- 
tioned and convenient though plain buildings: they are 
of brick ; the three on the left are three stories high, 
and the two on the right are of two stories. Some of 
them were built in 1850, and others at a more remote 
period. A brick pavement is laid in suitable places. 

Facing the Quarters is the Parade Ground, which is 
a beautiful oblong area. Tlie Recitation Hall, which 
is next in order, is a very handsome and convenient 
building. It is three stories high, and about fifty feet 
square. Kear this edifice is- the Mess Hall, ofM'hich 
the dimensions are about one hundred feet by fifty. 
The kitchens are in the basement and the dining saloon 
is on the first floor. The second story which contains 
two spacious rooms, is devoted to the Library and 
Lyceum. The library was founded by the Hon. George 
Bancroft, in 1S15, who transferred to the Academy a 
few hundred volumes of miscellaneous works which 
had been accumulated on board our ships-of-war and 
at the navy yards. From the year 1851 to the present 
time there has been an appropriation of $2,000 an- 
nually, for its uses, and the yearly increase has averaged 
750 volumes. The number of printed works is now 
about 10,000, and, besides these, there are 200 maps 



NAVAL ACADEMY, 



and charts, and a collection of manuscripts and engrav- 
ings. The selection of books is verj carefully made, 
and it is the design that the library shall be so com- 
plete a nautical collection that the naval officer may 
have access here to the best works on all subjects con- 
nected with his profession. 

The Lyceum contained many objects of interest, 
which have been contributed chietiy by officers of the 
navy, and among these, were the trophies of naval 
victories, which had been arranged with much skill by 
1 le first chaplain at the post, the Rev. George Jones. 

Here were preserved : — 

The flag of the Frencli frigate, L'Insurgente, cap- 
tared February, 1799, by the frigate Constellation, T. 
Truxton, Commander ; 

The flag of the French brig Berceau, captured 
November, 1800, by the frigate Boston, George Little, 
Commander ; 

The Royal Standard of Great Britain, captured at 
York, near Toronto, April 2Tth, 1813, by General Z. 
Pike, in conjunction with Commodore Isaac Chauncey ; 
The Mace, belonging to the Speaker's Chair of the 
Provincial Assembly of Upper Canada, also taken on 
the same occasion, and the lion, carved in wood, which 
stood in front of the Speaker's Chair ; — General Pike 
was killed at the capture of Toronto : 



54 HISTORY OF THE 

Tlie flag of tlie Java, captured December 29th, 1812, 
by tlie frigate Constitution, W. Bainbridge, Commander ; 

The flag of the Boxer, captured September 5th, 
1813, by the brig Enterprise, W. Burrows, Commander. 
Burrows was killed in this engagement ; 

The flag of the Levant, also of the Cyane, captured 
February 20th, 1815, by the frigate Constitution, C. 
Stewart, Commander ; 

The flags of the Chippewa, Lady Prevost, Queen 
Charlotte, Hunter, Detroit, and Little Belt, captured 
September 10th, 1813, on Lake Erie, by the United 
States Squadron, O. 11. Perry, Commander ; 

The flags of the Beresford, Linnet, Chubs, Confi- 
dence, captured September 11th, 1811:, on Lake Cham- 
plain, by the United States Squadron, T. M. Mc- 
Donough, Commander ; 

The flag of the Reindeer, captured July 2Sth, 1814, 
by the sloop Wasp, J. Blakely, Commander ; 

The flag of the Peacock, captured February 24th, 
1813, by the sloop Hornet, Lawrence, Commander; 

The flag of the Avon, captured September 1st, 1814, 
by the sloop Wasp, J. Blakely, Commander ; 

The flag of the Frolic, captured November, 1812, by 
tlie sloop Wasp, Jacob Jones, Commander ; 

The flag of the Epervicr, captured April 9th, 1814, 
by the Peacock, L. Warrington, Commander ; 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 55 

Tlie flag of the Higli Flyer ; 

Tlie flag of tlie Macedonian, captured on the 25th 
of October, 1812 ; 

Tl]e flag of the Alert, captured August 13tli, 1812, 
by the frigate Essex, D, Porter, Commander ; 

Tlie flags of the Dominica, Diike of Gloucester, St. 
Lawrence, and Londeville, captured by privateers ; 

The flag of the Guerriere, captured August lOtli, 
1812, by the Constitution, Isaac Hull, Commander ; 

Perry's flag, worn at his mast-head, during his 
engagement on Lake Erie, September 10th, 1818, 
and carried under his arm when he removed in an 
open boat from the Lawrence to the Niagara ; — it is 
black, the death color, with Lawrence's last words, 
"Don't give up the ship," inscribed on it, in white 
letters ; 

The flag of the Algerine frigate Mesoura, captured 
June 20th, 1813, by the United States Squadron, S. 
Decatur, Commander ; 

The flag of an Algerine brig captured on the same 
day as the above ; 

Two Mexican flags captured at Mazatlan, Novem- 
ber 7th, 1847, by a part of the Pacific Squadron under 
Commodore Shubrick ; 

A Mexican flag captured at Monterey, California, 
July 7th, 1846, by the United States naval forces 



56 HISTORY OF THE 

under Commodore J. D. Sloat ; — this was the first flag 
taken in California; 

An American flag used at St. Jose, California, ex- 
hibiting the holes made by Mexican bullets ; — Passed 
Midshipman McLanahan was killed while holding the 
staff ; a small party of Americans in a rude fort, 
were besieged for twenty-one days by five hundred 
Mexicans, until they were at last relieved by the 
United States Squadron ; 

A drum taken at Tabasco ; 

Three horsemen's lances taken at Figueras, on the 
western coast of America ; 

One lance taken in a fight back of Mazatlan. 

There was also a part of the national flag of San 
Juan de Ulloa, and there were models of the principal 
ships of the United States Navy.* When the Academy 
was transferred to Newport, these trophies and other 
articles belonging to the Lyceum, were placed care- 
fully on board the Constitution, and are now in Fort 
Adams. 

* NileE' Register, vol. LXXY, p. 370. The Rev. Mr. Jones, to whose 
zeal the Academy was mainly indebted for the transfer of these trophies 
from the city of Washington to its Lyceum, is a graduate of Yale Col- 
lege, and is said to be a highly accomplished scholar. 



NAVAL ACADKMY. 57 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE CHAPEL.— THE OBSERVATORY.— MIDSHIPMEN'S MON- 
UMENT.— HOSPITAL.— BOAT HOUSE.— QUARTERS OF THE 
OFFICERS AND PROFESSORS.— NAVAL MONUMENT.— MON- 
UMENT TO LIEUT. HERNDON.— OLD IRON SIDES. 

The Chapel, which stands near the Mess Hall, is a 
neat, modest ediiice of brick, painted brown, having 
pillars in front, and will seat comfortably about three 
hundred persons. Xext to the Chapel is the Astro- 
nomical Observatory, which is a small building, built 
in the form of a cross. In the right wing, the reci- 
tations were held, and in the left, was an excellent 
meridian circle from Repsold, at Hamburg. Under a 
revolving roof was mounted a fine equatorial telescope, 
which was manufactured by Clark of Boston. It has 
an achromatic lens of seven and three quarters' inches 
clear aperture, and the focal length is nine and a half 
feet. The whole length of the telescope is twenty 
feet. Here also were levels, theodolites, sextants, 
charts, coast survey reports, etc. The collection com- 
prises, indeed, all of the instruments which are of 



58 IIISTOKY OF THE 

chiefest importance to tlie astronomer, the surveyor, 
and the navigator. These instruments are now depos- 
ited in the Observatory at "Washington. 

Between the Chapel and the Observatory, is a small 
but beautifully designed monument of white marble, 
which was erected by the acting midshipmen, in 
memory of Passed Midshipmen Henry A. Clemson, 
and John R. Ilynson and Midshipman Wingate Pills- 
bury, who were drowned near Vera Cruz in 1806, 
and of Midshipman T. B. Shubrick, who was killed 
on the twenty-fifth of March, 1847, while gallantly 
performing his duty at the naval battery on shore be- 
fore Yera Cruz, during its bombardment. In the 
south-west angle of the ground is the Hospital, a neat 
building about fifty feet square, and two stories high, 
with a deep veranda to each story which entirely sur- 
rounds the building. The Boat House, a handsome 
brick building, having an extension of wood to hoist 
up the boats, contained about twelve cutters and other 
boats, — a flotilla for practice in fleet sailing, provided 
for the use of the acting midshipmen. On the op- 
posite side of the Parade Ground are the buildings 
which were occupied as the quarters of the Superin- 
tendent, the professors, and the ofticers of the Academy. 
They are twenty-one in number, are built of brick, and 
are arranged in blocks around the boundaries of the 




■Jlh^nUtJi XY. 



MII)Sllll'Mi;\S MOM'MKXT 

\';.v.il \,-;ul..n.v \nM;M..)li< \l'' 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 59 

grounds for tlie most part, and present a very beauti- 
ful appearance. These, with a few workshops, com- 
prise all the buildings of the Naval Acaden.iy. 

Besides the marble monument already mentioned, 
there arc two others witliin the grounds. Directly in 
front of the professors' quarters is a beautiful luival 
monument, which was erected originally in 1806, in 
the Navy Yard at Washington, by the officers of 
Commodore Preble's command in the Mediterranean 
Squadron, in honor of these who fell in the naval en- 
gagements before Tripoli, in ISO-i. They were Cap- 
tain Ilichard Somers, Lieutenants James Decatur, 
James R.. Caldwell, Henry Wadsworth, Joseph Israel, 
and Midshipman John S. Dorsey.* Commodore Pre- 
ble says that Decatur " died nobly," and of the others 
he uses language like the following : " They were 
officers of conspicuons bravery, talents, and merit." 
The monument is of white marble, was executed in 
Italy, and is very elaborate. It is composed of a cu- 
bical base which supports a highly ornate shaft, upon 
whose summit stands the Ainericai^ eagle, guarding 
the escutcheon of liberty and preparing, seemingly, to 
wing his flight heavenwards. Tlie whole structure is 
about forty feet high. Around the base are four cm- 

* Preble's Official Report, American State Papers, vol. XIV., p. 133, 
and Groldsborough's Naval Chronicle, vol. I., p. 2-40. 



60 HrST(JKY OF THE 

bleruatical marble figures, Mercury, Fame, History, 
and America. One of the panels displays a repre- 
sentation in relief, of tlie city of Tripoli, and upon 
another are inscribed tlie names of the ofiicers to 
whose memory the monument was erected. 

At the burning of the city of Washington by the 
British, under General Koss, in 1814, this beautiful 
memorial of the brave deeds of American naval offi- 
cers, was barbarously dilapidated, but has since been 
restored. The troops under General Ross destroyed 
also the public buildings and the national archives at 
Washington, a mode of warfare which is wholly dis- 
countenanced now by Great Britain, we must believe, 
as unbefitting a professedly civilized and Christian 
nation. The monument to Somers, Decatur, and other 
officers, was rem-oved from the Navy Yard to the west 
front of the Capitol, and very recently to the Naval 
Academy. It is to be hoped that it will be shielded 
carefully from injury, and may long remain one of the 
chief ornaments of the academic grounds. 

Another monument, a simj)le obelisk of Quincy 
granite, stands near the centre of tlie area. It was 
erected by tho officers of the navy in memory of 
Lieutenant Ilerndon, Avho perished M-hile commanding 
the California Mail Steamer, tlie Central America, 
which foundered at sea on the twelfth of September, 



NAVAL ACADKMT. 61 

1357. He had been distinguished previously for his 
successful entei'prise in an e-xploration of the valley 
of the Amazon, made in 1851 and 1852, under the di- 
rection of the Xavy Department, by William Lewis 
Ilerndon and Lardner Gibbon, Lieutenants of the 
United States l^avy. 

The school-ship of the Academy, first the Plym- 
outh and afterwards the Constitution, was securely 
moored near the fort. 

The "Old Iron Sides" which "neither the elements 
liave destroyed, nor have enemies been able to catch 
or capture, is the only keel remaining of the renowned 
squadron, so well known to Americans for their achieve- 
ments in the war against Tripoli, and in the second war 
with Britain. It was the Constitution which bore the 
broad pennant of Preble in all the victories of the 
squadron in the Mediteranean. On the Atlantic, com- 
manded by Hull, she astonished British officers by es- 
caping from their squadron. Commanded by the same 
officer, she sent the boasting Guerriere to the bottom ; 
commanded by Bainbridge, she compelled the Java to 
submit to the same fate, and commanded by Stewart, 
in one action, added the Cyane and Levant to the Am- 
erican Navy.'-* 

This war-worn glorious old hulk was attached to the 

* Waldo's Naval Heroes, p. 241. 



62 HISTORY OF THE 

Academy two years ago, and the plan, of having per- 
manently a school-ship which was then first adop'ed, 
has been found to be an admirable one. When sta- 
tioned at Annapolis, she was connected with the shore 
by a light bridge, which was supported upon piles, and 
upon this bridge pipes were also laid for the gas and 
steam which lighted and warmed the ship in the most 
perfect and economical manner. It was doubted, at 
first, whether steam could be carried so far in pipes 
which were so much exposed, but the success of the 
experiment was complete. The ship was rigged very 
beautifully, and the " new appointees" are quartered, 
during their first year, on board of her, where they 
receive instruction in practical seamanship in a much 
better, and more thorough manner than it could pos- 
sibly be given on shore. The gun-deck is fitted up as 
a study room, — the berth-deck is used for messing and 
sleeping. 

A set of spars was recently erected on tlie grounds 
of the Academy, which were fully rigged and fitted 
witli sails, in order that the students might be exercised 
without the necessity of embarking, and might by this 
means, become familiar with the modes of rigging the 
spars, unbending, furling and reefing the sails, and of 
fitting and managing the running rigging. 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 63 



CHAP TEE X. 

THE ACADEMIC STAFF.— EXAMINATIONS.— MIDSniPMEX ON 
FURLOUGH.— MERIT ROLL.— CONDUCT ROLL.— PUNISH- 
MENTS. 

The Superintendent of the Naval Academy has the 
immediate government and command of the institution. 
He must be of a rank not lower than that of com- 
mander. The officer at the Academy who is next in> 
authority to the Superintendent, is the Commandant 
of Midshipmen, whose rank must not be below that 
of lieutenant. He is the executive officer, and the in- 
structor in practical seamanship, practical naval gun- 
nery, and naval tactics. He may grant permission to 
midshipmen to leave the grounds for recreation, he in- 
spects, once each day, the halls, quarters and grounds 
of the Academy, he gives orders when to appear in full 
uniform, he receives the reports of improper conduct 
at recitations, he has charge of the requisition-books 
of the midshipmen, and he attends to all other duties 
which the immediate supervision of the midshipmen 
devolves upon him. He has three officers to assist him 
in the discharge of these duties. 



64 



HISTORY OF THE 



There are eight professorships at the Academy and 
the heads of these departments of instruction, viz. : the 
Professor of Mathematics, the Professor of Astronomy, 
Navigation and Surveying, the Professor of Natural 
and Experimental Philosophy, the Professor of Field 
Artillery and Infantry Tactics, the Professor of Ethics 
and English Studies, the Professor of the French Lan- 
guage, the Professor of the Spanish Language, the Pro- 
fessor of Drawing and Draughting, with the Superin- 
tendent and Commandant, constitute the Academic 
Board, who decide upon the examinations of candidates 
and of acting midshipmen, npon the order of instruction, 
upon the text-books and ujDon other subjects of like 
character. There are several officers and instructors mIio 
are not members of the board. The annual examination 
of all the classes in the Academy is held by the board 
from and after the first day of June. There is a semi-an- 
nual examination on the 1st day of February. Tliere 
are present at the June examination, by invitation from 
the Secretary of the Navy, seven citizens as a Boai-d of 
Visitors, who witness the manner in which the officers 
and pupils discharge their respective duties, and report 
to the Secretary upon the police, discipline and general 
management of the institution. At the close of the 
June examination, those members of the second class 
who have not received more than one hundred and 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 65 

fifty demerits for the year are fnrlouglied until the 30th 
of the following September, and the remaining students 
are embarked immediately on board the practice-ship, 
to perform such cruise as the Secretary of the Navy 
may direct. 

The Commandant of Midshipmen has command of 
the vessel, and he is assisted by other officers and profes- 
sors. Every acting midshipman who succeeds in pass- 
ing the June examination receives a certificate which 
entitles him to his warrant as a midshipman from that 
date, and he is promoted according to his order of 
merit at graduating. No acting midshipman who has 
been dismissed or dropped in consequence of defit3iency 
at an examination can be restored to the Academy ex- 
cept on the recommendation of the Academic Board. 

Much of the professional instruction at the Academy 
is given from manuscripts. Lieutenant Marcy, who 
was the first assistant appointed, and Lieutenant Parker 
have left such manuscripts. Lieutenant Simpson is the 
author of a treatise on Ordnance and Naval Gunnery 
and the translator of a French work, Theorie du Point- 
age. Lieutenant Jeifers is the author of a work on 
Naval Gunnery. Professor Coffin has his own manu- 
scripts. Professor Girault is the author of some excel- 
lent works which are used in his department. 

The general merit of an acting midshipman exprpsscs 



6G HISTORY OF THE 

the values received at his recitations diminished in a 
certain ratio for his demerits. Tlie scale of daily merit 
is from to 4. These merits are, of course, reported 
regularly by the professors and instructors. The de- 
merits are comprised in several classes ; first class, ten 
demerits — repeated neglect of orders, overstaying leave, 
absent from room at night after " taps," etc. ; second 
class, eight demerits, light in room after " taps," etc. ; 
third class, six demerits, absence from parade, roll-call, 
etc., improper noise in the buildings, absence from 
room in study hours, etc. ; fourth class, four demerits, 
slovenly dress, etc. ; filth class, two demerits, late at 
prayers, etc. ; other minor offences one demerit. 

A student who shall have standing against him more 
than two hundred demerits, during the academic year, 
is declared deficient in conduct, and is dropjDcd from 
the navy. Any student who shall be intoxicated, or 
shall have in his possession, within the limits of the 
Academy, intoxicating drinks, may be dismissed from 
the institution. Any one who shall go beyond the 
academic limits, without permission, who shall send, 
accept, or bear a challenge, who shall play at cards, 
or games of chance, in the Academy, who shall offer 
violence to, or insult a person on public duty, who 
shall publish any thing relating to the Academy, or 
who shall be guilty of conduct unbecoming a gentle- 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 67 

man, may be dismissed tlie service. Any one who 
shall be found to be married, or who shall marry while 
attached to the Academy, shall be considered as having 
authorized his name to be dropped from the navy list. 
Various other offences are minutely specilied in the 
regulations of the Academy. 

Besides the demerits, there are the following punish- 
ments : first, confinement to limits, private reprimands, 
confinement to room, reprimand read on parade, etc. ; 
second, confinement in guard-room ; third, dismissal, 
with the privilege of resigning, and, lastly, public dis- 
missal. 



68 UISTOEY OF THE 



CHAPTER XI. 

DAILY DIVISION OF TIME.— SECTION-FORMATIONS. — CAP- 
TAINS OF CREWS.— THE MESS-TABLE.— TATTOO AND TAPS. 
—BALMY SLEEP. 

The following are the divisions of time and the order 
of daily duties for the naval cadets. The Morning 
Gun-fire and Reveille with the beating of tlie drum is 
at 6 o'clock and 15 minutes a. m., or at 6.30, according 
to the season. Then there is the police of quarters 
and inspection of rooms. The roll-call is at 6.45 or at 
7.15, according to the season. From December 1 to 
March 1 the later hour here mentioned is the one ob- 
served. Chapel Service follows, and afterwards, break- 
fust at 7 or at 7.30. The Sick-call is 30 minutes after 
breakfast. Then the acting midshipmen enjoy recre- 
ation mitil 8 o'clock, when the study and recitation 
hours begin. Most of tliese calls are made with the 
drum ; some, however, are sounded with the bugle. 

Section-formations* take place in the front hall of the 
third floor, under tlie immediate supervision of the 

* " Routine and Orders" at Newport. 



NAVAL ACADKMV. 69 

Officer of the Day, who, as well as the Section-leaders, 
is held responsible for the preservation of silence and 
oi'der. AVheu the sii>;nal is jjjiven by the bugle, the 
sections are marched, by the centre stairs, to their 
respective rccitatiun-ruoins. The sections march in 
close order, in perfect silence, and with strict observ- 
ance of military decorum. "Whenever a section leaves 
its recitation room, it is marched, by its Leader, np the 
western staircase, to tlie third floor, and is there dis- 
missed. 

This method of forming and dismissing the sections 
is now followed in the present quarters of the Acad- 
emy at Newport. Study alternates or intervenes with 
recitations until 1 o'clock, when the signal for dinner 
is sounded. The young gentlemen are again formed 
in order by the Captains of crews, and are marched 
into the Mess Hall. The organization of the actino- 
midshipmen is into ten guns' crews, for practical in- 
struction in seamanship and gunnery, and for purposes 
of discipline. 

The Captains of crews, when at the Mess-table, 
are to consider themselves upon duty ;* and must re- 
press promptly all disorderly conduct, unbecoming 
language, and unnecessary noise. 

They must enforce perfect silence among their sev- 

* " Routine and Orders" at Newport. 



70 HISTOKY OF THE 

era! guns' crews until the order — "Seats !" — shall have 
been given. Silence must also be enforced after the 
order — " Rise !" — until the crews reach the main hall. 

At all times, in mustering their crews, the Captains 
must call the names in the lowest tone which will 
secure attention. 

The Captains of crews are required to report any 
irregularity in uniform or untidiness, which they may 
perceive at any formation, as well as any infraction of 
regulations, disregard of orders, or other impropriety.* 

The Professor of Field Artillery and Infantry Tactics 
is the inspector of the mess-hall, and presides at the 
mess-table. He has charge of the police and order of 
the mess-hall, in which duty he is assisted by the Offi- 
cer of the day, and the Captains of crews. 

Each student has a seat assigned him at table, which 
he must not cliange without the sanction of the inspec- 
tor of the mess-hall. 

The hours for meals are regulated by the Superin- 
tendent. 

No student must appear at meals negligently dressed. 

Thirty minutes are allowed for breakfast, and the 
same time for supper. Forty minutes are allowed for 
dinner. At the expiration of these times allowed for 
meals, the students retire, the mess-hall doors are 

* " Roiitiiio und orders" nnd " Rogulations." 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 71 

closed, and then no extra meals are served therein 
except by order of the Superintendent. 

Loud talking is not permitted at table, in the mess- 
hall, or in its vicinity. Breaches of good breeding 
and decorum are noticed and reported, if necessary, by 
the inspector. 

Wasting provisions, or taking any article of furni- 
ture or provisions from the mess-hall, is positively for- 
bidden. 

When there is cause of dissatisfaction, whether in 
relation to the quantity or quality of provisions, cook- 
ing, inattention of steward, or of servants, it must be 
reported first to the inspector of the mess-hall, and 
then, if necessary, by him to the Superintendent. 

No student is permitted to have a guest at mess- 
table. 

No meals are furnished to students at their rooms 
except in case of sickness, and then only by direction 
of the surgeon, and in strict accordance with the diet 
list which he furnishes. 

A board of three officers attached to the Academy 
is appointed quarterly by the Superintendent, whose 
duty it is to propose, subject to his approval, the rate 
of charge, per day, for subsistence, and the articles 
of which it shall be composed for each day of the 
week. 



72 HISTORY OF THE 

Dinner having been well discussed, the young gen- 
tlemen may enjoy recreation again until two p. m., 
M'hen the afternoon study and recitation hours begin 
and continue until four o'clock. There are then in- 
struction in the art of defence, infantry or artillery 
drill, and recreation until parade and roll-call at sun- 
set. Supper follows immediately afterwards, then re- 
creation and call to evening studies at 6.25 or 6.55 
according to the season. Study hours continue until 
Tattoo at 9 1-2 p. m., which is a signal for extinguish- 
ing lights and the inspection of rooms. 

After " taps" at ten o'clock, no lights are allowed 
in any part of the students' quarters, except by au- 
thority of the Superintendent. " Kind nature's sweet 
restorer, balmy sleep" visits now the tyro midshipman, 
and soothes his weary couch until morning Gun-fire 
and Reveille arouse him again for the same appointed 
round of duty. So wear away his youthful days in 
timely preparation for the brave deeds of manhood, 
in the service of his country, to win an undying repu- 
tation at the cannon's mouth, — " to pluck bright honor 
from the pale-faced moon," or " dive into the bottom 
of the deep and drag up drowned honor by the locks." 
Let us believe that glory is no mere bubble, and tliat 
the golden age of our Somers' and Lawrences, and 
Terrys and Docaturs has not yet departed. 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 73 



CHAPTER XII. 

ROUTINE ON THE COXSTITUTION.— STO^WING HAMMOCKS 
AND WASHING.— ROLL CALL, INSPECTION, BREAKFAST, 
STUDY.— PARADE.— TATTOO.— ETIQUETTE. 

The routine of duties of the fourtli class on board 
the frigate Constitution, is very much like that of the 
other classes. The following are extracts from the 
routine book : 

STOWING HAIMMOCKS, AND WASHING. 

(Quarter-Masters, and Captains of Forecastle, will superintend stowage.) 

At Heveille, the midshipmen will immediately turn 
out, arrange tlieir bedding, and taking their lashings 
from the head clews of their hammocks, Avliere it was 
neatly coiled the night before, will lash uj) tlieir ham- 
mocks, taking seven taut turns at equal distances, and 
tucking in their clews neatly. They will then place 
their hammocks under their right arms, and 1st cap- 
tains will give the order, " Stand by your hammocks, 
No. — forward, march ;" at which order they will 
proceed in line, by their allotted ladders, to theii* al- 
4 



74 HISTORY OF THE 

lotted places in their respective nettings ; wlien there, 
they will in order deliver their hammocks to those ap- 
pointed to receive them : — each 1st captain delivering 
his hammock and falling back, will face the line of 
his gun's crew, and see that proper order is main- 
tained ; each midshipman, after delivering his ham- 
mock, will fall back, facing outboard, forming line 
from 1st captain aft ; when all are stowed, the 1st cap- 
tains, each at the head of his crew, will face them in 
the direction of their ladder, and march them to the 
wash-room, odd-numbered crews on starboard, even 
numbers on port side of the wash-room. Towels will 
be marked and kept In their places, over each respec- 
tive basin. ISTo one will leave the wash-room until 
marched out ; three guns' crews will wash at the same 
time, and each week the numbers will be changed, 
commencing with Nos. 1, 2, and 3 guns' crews. "When 
ready, the 1st captains will march their crews to their 
places on the berth-deck, where they will dismiss 
tliem. 

Guns' crews Kos. 1 and 2 stow hammocks in forward 
netting, No. 2 on port, and No. 1 on starboard side ; 
Nos. 3, 5, and 7, in starboard, and ISTos. 4, 6, and 8, in 
port quarter-deck nettings, lowest numbers of each 
crew stowing forward. 

Nos. 1 and 2 guns' crews leave berth-deck by fore- 



NAVAL ACADEMY, 7o 

liatcli ladders, ISTos. 3 and 4 hj maiu-hatch ladders, 
Nos. 5 and 6 by after-hatch ladders, and oSTos. 7 and 8 
by steerage ladders, each on their respective sides, and 
each march to their allotted places on spar-deck. 

Twelve minutes from the close of Reveille (which 
will be shown by three taps on tlie drum) are allowed 
for lashing hammocks, and to leave the berth-deck. 

MORNING ROLL-CALL, INSPECTION, AND BREAKFAST. 

The guns' crews will form in tw^o ranks, at their re- 
spective places on gun-deck : Xos. 1, 3, 5 and 7 on 
port side, and Nos. 2, 4, 6 and 8 on starboard side ; 
1st and 2d captains on the right of their crews, officer 
in charge, and adjutant forward of main-mast. Officer 
of the day and superintendents forward of main-hatch, 
fronting officer in charge ; when formed, they will be 
faced to the front, and dressed by 1st captains by tlie 
orders, " Front ; right dress ;" (captains are specially 
enjoined to give no other orders). The adjutant then 
gives the order, " Muster your crews ;" when each 1st 
captain, taking one step to the front, faces the line of 
his crew, 2d captain stepping forward into his inter- 
val ; 1st captain then calls the roll from memory, 
noting absentees ; when finished, faces toward his 
place, 2d captain takes backward step to his former 
position, and 1st captain faces about to his place 



76 HISTORY OF THE 

in the front rank ; the adjutant then gives the order, 
" First captains front and centre;" 1st captains take 
one full step to the front, and face the adjutant's po- 
sition, 2d captains filling intervals as before ; the 
adjutant then gives the order, "March," at which, 
captains march in direction of the adjutant, forming 
in line abreast of him ; the adjutant then gives the 
order, "Front; report;" the captains report all pres- 
ent ; thus : " All present, 'Ro. 1 ;" or if any are absent, 

thus : " absent, Ko. 1 ;" 1st captain of No. 1 

will commence in a short, sharp, and intelligible tone, 
making the salute when he has finished, which w^ll 
be the signal for 1st captain of No, 2 to report, and so on 
to the last ; the adjutant then gives the order, " Posts; 
march ;" the 1st captains facing, at the order, "j9(?<s?f5," 
in the direction of their crews, advance at the word 
" marclb'' to their places in the ranks ; the adjutant 
then reports to the officer in charge, and receives his 
instructions ; if there be any orders, he publishes 
them ; he tlien gives the order, " Two files from the 
right, two paces to the front ; march ;" when the two 
files from the right of each rank step two paceb to the 
front, and the adjutant gives the order, "Battalion 
right dress ;" tlie battalion dresses on the two files, 
and the adjutant gives the order, " Battalion to the 
rear, open order ; march ;" when the rear rank will 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 77 

talce t'^0 steps to the rear, halt, and be dressed by the 
2d captain. 

The officer in charge, Avith the adjutant, ^vill pro- 
ceed to inspect the battalion, the adjutant making 
memoranda of any thing not in order ; when finished, 
they will return to place ; the adjutant will then give 
the order, " Rear rank, close order ; march ;" when 
the rear rank will take two steps forward ; the adj u- 
tant then gives the order, " Officer of the day and 
superintendents, relieve ;" at which the officer of the 
day and superintendents of the day previous will face 
about, and pass the orders to their reliefs, the officer 
of the day delivering his side-arms ; they will then 
take position in their respective crews. 

At all formations, the officer of the day and super- 
intendents will form in rear of the officer in charge 
and adjutant. 

When the officer of the day and superintendents 
of the day previous have taken their places in their 
crews, the adjutant gives the order, " March to break- 
fast ;" the 1st captains will direct their crews by their 
respective ladders, to their respective mess-tables : 
Nos. 1, 3, 5 and 7 on starboard, and Xos. 2, 4, 6 and 
8 on port side of the berth-deck ; on arriving at the 
mess-tables, each 1st captain will take position in rear 
of his camp-stool, at the after end of the table, 2d 



7o HISTORY OF THE 

captain taking the forward end, and tlie crew taking 
position corresponding to tlieir places in the ranks ; 
all will remain standing in rear of their respective 
camp-stools, nntil the officer in charge gives the order, 
" Seats ;" at which word the midshipmen will place 
their caps under their camp-stools, and quietly take 
their seats. As the midshipmen at each table shall 
have finished the meal, the 1st captain will rise and 
look at the adjutant, who will acknowledge the report 
by raising his right hand ; the 1st caj^tain will then 
resume his seat ; when all shall have reported, the 
adjutant will make it known to the officer in charge, 
who, rising from his seal, will tap on the table, and 
give the order, " Kise;" at which order, each midship- 
man will rise, put on his cap, step to the rear of his 
camp-stool, putting it in place, and facing aft; at the 
order, " March," from the adjutant, 1st captains will 
advance, followed by their crews in their proper order, 
and proceed to their parade stations on the gun-deck, 
where they will form and dress their command, and 
})ring them to parade rest, in order for prayers ; all 
will take off their caps at the opening of prayers, and 
put them on at the order, " Attention," at the close 
of prayers, from the adjutant, who gives the order, 
" Battalion, attention ; right face, break ranks, march." 
The hours for recitation and study are the same on 



NAVAL ACADKMY. Y9 

board the frigate as in quarters, — from about eight 
o'chtck ill the morning to one o'clock, and from about 
tM'o o'clock in the afternoon to four o'clock. The 
guns' crews are then assembled for exercise at the 
" great guns" for one hour, or one hour and a half, or 
perhaps -in infantry drill, or in practical seamanship, 
including exercises with boats, the lead, log, etc. Even- 
ing Parade intervenes, and after supper the fourth class 
are called to their studies again at about seven or ten 
minutes before eight o'clock, according to the season. 
Tattoo, 9.30 p. m. Taps, 9.53 p. m. 4 bells, 10 p. m. 

TATTOO.* 

At the call, the midshipmen will neatly arrange 
their books and papers, place their chairs under their 
desks, and at gun-fire will form by crews, as at even- 
ing studies, when the officer in charge will inspect 
the study-tables, the superintendents accompanying 
him, and at close of the inspection, handing in their 
reports to, and falling in, to rear of the officer in 
charge. 

The adjutant will then give the order "beat the re- 
treat ;" when the retreat is beaten, he will give the 
order " battalion, right face, break ranks, march." 

The midshipmen will prepare to retire to their ham- 

* Routine Book on board the Constitution. 



80 HISTORY OF THj: 

mocks, or will amuse themselves, but at " taps" they 
must all turn in, and all noise must cease at four bells. 
Captains are charged with the execution of this order 
in theu' crews. 

At four bells, the officer of the day and the master- 
at-arms will go around the gun-deck, study room, and 
berth-deck, see all study room windows, study and 
recitation room doors closed, and all lights out, except 
that forward of main-mast, on berth-deck and cabin 
bulkhead, and will report to the officer in charge, at 
his office, who will then give them permission to turn 
in. The officer of the day will then place his journal, 
written up and signed, together witli the routine re- 
port, in the office of the officer in charge. 

During the night, the quarter-master of the watch 
will every hour visit all parts of the ship, and see that 
there are no signs of fire, and that the lights and 
steam connections are secure. 

ETIQUETTE.* 

The midshipmen will not use the steerage ladders, 
tlie after ladder from the gun-deck, the starboard poop 
ladder, the starboard side of the poop, quarter-deck, or 
gangway abaft No. 2 recitation room ; they are par- 
ticularly enjoined to keep the starboard gangway clear. 

* Roiitino Book on the Constitution. 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 81 

The etiquette of the quarter-deck will be strictly ob- 
served. Officers on coining up the quarter-deck lad- 
ders will make the salute. No running, skylarking, 
boisterous conduct, or loud talking, will be permitted 
on the quarter-deck or poop. The midshipmen will 
never appear on the gun-deck or quarter-deck without 
their caps, jackets, and cravats. They will, in ascend- 
ing and descending the ladders, avoid the heavy step 
upon them which is made by shore people ; when 
absent in boats they will yield implicit and prompt 
obedience to their captains, or those placed in charge. 

It is particularly forbidden to get out of, or into the 
ship, through the ports, or to sit on the rail of the 
ship. 

No one is permitted to go out on the head-booms 
during study hours, or to go aloft, without authorized 
permission. No one is permitted to go or come from 
the berth-deck during study hours, by any other than 
the main-hatch ladders. The midshipmen are forbidden 
to sit upon the study tables. 



82 HISTORY OF THE 



CHAPTEE XIII. 

NAVAL AND MILITARY ORGANIZATION OF THE MIDSHIP- 
MEN.— WATCHMEN. — UNIFORM. — LAWRENCE LITERARY 
SOCIETY.— HOPS AND BALLS. 

The first in command at the Naval Academy is, of 
course, the Superintendent, the second in command is 
the Commandant of Midshipmen, and the next in order 
is the Othcer in Charge, M'ho is a lieutenant, one of 
the academic assistants detailed temporarily to attend, 
especially, to tlie discipline of the Academy. When 
the battalion of acting midshipmen is formed, at parade, 
or on other occasions, the Adjutant, who is the highest 
officer of the acting midshipmen, is next in command 
to the Officer in Charge, and these two take their 
position a few paces in front of the battalion. The 
Officer of the Day is an acting midsliipman, wlio assists 
the naval Officer in Charge in the details of the police 
and discipline. There are also acting midshipmen who 
serve as superintendents of floors, and maintain order 
in their respective quarters. It has been already men 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 83 

tioned that there are ten guns' crews of acting midship- 
men, which are commanded by Captains, a mode of 
dividing the corps which is very important in exercis- 
ing at the guns, and in di-illing. 

Men are also employed in the capacity of watchmen 
about the grounds of tlie Academy, and there is not 
60 much reliance, in matters of discipline, upon senti- 
nels who are selected from the students, as there is in 
the Military Academy at AVest Point. This is, un- 
doubtedly, the weakest feature in the West Point sys- 
tem. The greatest evil of all, in that institution, is the 
frequent absence of the young gentlemen from cadets' 
limits, and this is sometimes, of course, accompanied 
with midnight revelry and intoxication, an evil which 
could not exist, in any degree, except through the con- 
nivance of the cadet sentinels. Xearly all college pro- 
fessors and other instructors will testily that it is folly 
to intrust discipline too much to the students. There 
is a romantic esprit du corps among the young men in 
these institutions, which unfits them absolutely for 
such duties. In regard, therefore, to the employment 
of watchmen, the West Point Academy can learn much 
from her younger sister, the Naval Academy. It is 
evident that the latter institution has borrowed many 
features from the systems of the former, but, in this par- 
ticular she can repay the debt. 



84 HISTORY OF THE 

The regulations in regard to uniform are as follows, 
viz. : — 

All officers attaclied to the Academy, or practicc-sliip, 
sliall wear tlieir undress uniforms at all times while on 
duty, unless the Superintendent should, on any occa- 
sion, direct the officers to appear in some other par- 
ticular kind of uniform prescribed for their respective 
grades. 

The uniform of an acting midshipman shall consist 
of a jacket of dark blue cloth, double-breasted, with 
side-]30ckets, rolling-collar, nine small navy-buttons on 
each breast, and a gold foul-anchor on each side of the 
collar. Cajp^ same as that prescribed for midshipman, 
except the gold-lace band ; instead of which, a silver 
foul-anchor over the vizor is to be worn. Vest, jpantor 
loons^ and other articles of -under-dress^ and the regu- 
lations for hair, beard, and whiskers, the same as for 
midshipman. Overcoat^ as now authorized for mid- 
shipman, with the exception of the buttons on the 
cuifs. 

A service or fatigue dress, of the same color and 
form, but of coarser and stronger fabric; jumpers of 
blue flannel, j^antaloons of blue flannel, and straw liats 
and white jackets, may be worn when autliorizcd by 
the Superintendent. 

Changes of clotliing from bhie to white, or the 



KAVAL ACADEMY. 85 

reverse, suggested by different seasons of the year, 
are not to be made by students until directed by the 
Superinteiident. 

Students appointed to act as officers of crews, com- 
panies, etc., shall wear such badges as designation on 
the sleeves of the jacket as the Superintendent may 
prescribe. 

No student shall be allowed to keep, or to weai* 
•within the walls of the Academy, or in the city of An- 
napolis, or its immediate vicinity, any article of cloth- 
ing, or wearing apparel, not permitted to be worn with, 
or as a part of, his uniform. 

In a history of the Naval Academy, some allusion, 
although brief, should be made to the amusements of 
the acting midshipmen. Among these may be men- 
tioned, first, the exercises of a voluntary association, 
the Lawrence Literary Society, which was named after 
Captain James Lawrence, whose dying words, " Don't 
give up the ship," are so well known. This society 
was founded by the graduating class of 1S5S. Its 
meetings have been discontinued, lately, on account 
of the diminished numbers who have recently been in 
attendance at the Academy. Practice with the boats 
" afloat," generally furnishes, of course, much recrea- 
tion for the young gentlemen, and, besides the amuse- 
ments of such a character, they receive permission from 



86 IlISTOKY OF THE 

the Superintendent, during tlie spring and autumn, 
also, to entertain their friends at extemporized dancing 
parties which are known as "hops." 

It has ah-eady been mentioned that a Naval Ball -was 
given, with great eclat^ during the first winter after the 
establishment of the school at Annapolis, and, from 
this as a precedent, it has become a custom at the 
Academy to give such a ball, each year, generally near 
the holidays. This is a joyous season for the naval 
cadets, — we shall not venture on a description of the 
gay scene. Banners and trophies captured in blood, 
on many a sea, adorn the walls, the Marine Band is 
there discoursing sw^eet music and 

" There is a sound of revelry by night, 
And Academia doth gatlier then 
Her beauty and her chivalry, and bright 
The lamps shine o'er fair women and brave men." 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 87 



CHAPTER Xiy. 

SKETCHES.— CAPTAIN BUCHANAN.— COMMANDER UPSHUR. 
—CAPTAIN STRIBLING. 

Captain Franklin Buchanan, the first Superinten- 
dent of the Naval Academy, has always borne the 
highest character as an accomplished officer. He is a 
native of Maryland, and he entered the service in the 
year 1815, When the important duty of organizing 
the Naval School at Annapolis was confided to him by 
the Hon. George Bancroft, he was yet a young man, 
being then about thirty years of age, and his rank was 
that of commander. Mr. Bancroft had, himself, been 
connected in early life as an instructor with institutions 
of learning, and he was an excellent judge of the quali- 
fications of the professors and officers whom he selected 
for the academic staff at Annapolis. Commander Bu- 
chanan entered upon his duties as Superintendent, as 
we have seen, in August, 1815, and he continued in 
charge of the Naval School about two years. All par- 
ties of that day, the Secretary of the Navy, the public 



88 HISTORY OF THE 

journalists, and others, bear testimony to tlie skill, 
ability and success with which he discharged the diffi- 
cult duties of his office. lie was relieved in March, 
1847, and was ordered to the sloop-of-war Germantown. 

He has been since in various resj^onsible positions, 
the last of which, in 1860, was that of commandant of 
the I^avy Yard in "Washington. At the time the pres- 
ent difficulties arose with the seceding states, Captain 
Buchanan, in an unguarded moment, sent in his resig- 
nation to the Kavy Department, wliich was accepted, 
but it is stated that he has since deeply regretted hav- 
ing taken such a step. The entire period of his service 
in the United States Navy was about forty-six years. 

Commander George P. Upshur was a native of Vir- 
ginia, and a kinsman of the Hon. A. P. Upshur, who 
was the Secretary of the Navy dunng the administra- 
tion of Harrison and Tyler from 1841 to 1845. Com- 
mander UjDsliur entered the service in 1818. He was 
ordered to the Naval School as its Superintendent in 
March, 1847, he discharged the duties of his office sat- 
isfactorily for three years, and his next orders were to 
join the Mediterranean Squadron. He died on board 
the sloop of war Levant at Spezzia, on the third of 
November, 1852. 

Captain C. K. Stribling is a native of South Carolina; 
there are members of his family, also, resident in Fau- 



NAVAL ACADKMV. 89 

quicr County, Virginia, wliicli is the liome of the 
descendants of the late Cliief Justice Marshall. Cap- 
tain Stribling's original entry into the service was in 
the year 1812. lie served as a midshipman and after- 
wards as a lieutenant on board the frigate Constellation, 
commanded by Captain Crane, which was in the Medi- 
terranean for three or four years previous to 1820, when 
the frigate made a cruise along the eastern coast of 
South xVmerica. lie was then on duty, for two years, 
on board the United States, and was ordered, some time 
in 1822, to the sloop of war Peacock under Commander 
Cassin. The Sea Gull, John Adams, Peacock, Hornet, 
Spark, Grampus, Shark, eight small schooners, five 
barges, and one transport, formed the squadron com- 
manded by Commodore Porter at this time, a flotilla 
stationed in the West Indies, and the Gulf of Mexico, 
for the protection of trade and the suppression of acts 
of piracy which were frequent in those seas. Com- 
mander Cassin, who was then off Havana, made his 
report in April, 1823, to Commodore Porter, of an action 
which had resulted in the capture of the " noted pirat- 
ical schooner Pilot," by Lieutenant Stribling in com- 
mand of the Gallinipper and another small vessel, an 
exploit which gave Commander Cassin " great satisfac- 
tion." 
Lieutenant Stribling's own account of the capture is 



90 HISTORY OF THE 

as follows:* — "At 7 a. m. I discovered a sclioouer about 
three miles to the eastward, of a suspicious appearance, 
and immediately gave chase ; the stranger was appar- 
ently full of men and sweeping in shore. At 8h. 15ni. 
I fired two nmskets to bring the chase to. On firing 
the second gun, she commenced firing with round, and 
grape and musketry. We returned it with our mus- 
kets, at the same time making every exertion to get 
along-side of her ; at 8.30 the schooner gained the 
shore ; in an instant we were on board of her, and suc- 
ceeded in getting on shore. We secured one man, and 
found two of her crew killed, — one on board, the other 
on shore. We have every reason, however, to believe 
that several were wounded. I landed the marines with 
some of the seamen, but the thickness of the under- 
wood rendered it imprudent to pursue them. We got 
off the schooner, — late the Pilot, of Norfolk, without 
her sustaining any material injury. I am happy to 
state that not one of our men was injured, — this I con- 
sider the more remarkable and providential, as the 
pirates had every advantage in being in a larg6 vessel, 
where they covdd load and fire with quickness and cer- 
tainty." The schooner at first hoisted Spanish colors; 
her complement was thirty-six men. 

The arms found on board were a long twelve-pounder, 

* American State Papers, Naval Affairs, Vol. I., p. 1109. 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 91 

a good supply of blunderbusses, and other weapons of 
various kinds. It is probable that many of the pirates 
were severely wounded, as the captain was seen after- 
wards at Matanzas, and he then declared that all of the 
crew but three were killed. His name was Domingo, 
a well known character. He had some ideas of pro- 
priety left, for when the Pilot was captured, but eight 
days previously, he found on board a number of letters 
for Commodore Porter's squadron which he took care 
to forward, courteously, to their destination. On the 
28th and 30th of September, in the former year, Cap- 
tain Cassin had captured five j^iratical vessels. Com- 
modore Porter was able to report, at the end of the 
year, that all the haunts of pirates in those seas, had 
been entirely broken up. 

Captain Stribling was on the West India station 
about three years, and after a short period passed on 
shore, on leave of absence, he served again for three 
years, from 1828, in the Pacific Squadron, on board 
the sloop of war Yincennes. He was afterwards em- 
ployed a few years in the ordnance department, and 
finally, from 1812 to 1845, and, perhaps, during a few 
later years he commanded the Cyane and the Falmouth 
in the Pacific Squadron, In 1849, he was on board 
the flag-ship Ohio, as Fleet Captain in the Pacific. He 
discharged the duties very acceptably, as we have al- 



92 HISTORY OF THE 

ready seen from. 1850 to 1853, of the Superintendent 
of tlie ISTaval Academy. 

His most important service during the last few years 
lias been rendered as Flag Officer of the East India 
Squadron, from which command he has just been or- 
dered home, the necessities of the Government having 
compelled the withdrawal for home service of the East 
India, Mediterranean, Brazil, and African Squadrons. 
Upon taking leave of this station, a meeting of Amer- 
ican merchants was held at Hong Kong on the twenty- 
fourth of July, 1861, at which resolutions were passed 
complimentary to Flag Officer Stribling and Com- 
mander Radford, expressing "high esteem for their 
personal character and their appreciation of the man- 
ner in which their responsible duties have been dis- 
charged." The resolutions refer also to " their enlarged 
and patriotic view of their duty in the present state of 
American affairs," and commend their loyalty and the 
good faith disj)layed by them. Captain Stribling is 
true to his flag and his country to the last, a brave 
officer and an honest man. 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 93 



CHAPTER XV. 

CAPTAIN GOLDSBOROUGH.— CAPTAIN BLAKE. 

Captain Lewis M. Goldsborough is a native of the 
District of Columbia, and a son, we believe, of the late 
Hon. Charles "VY. Goldsborough, who was formerly 
Governor of Maryland, and was, also, for many years, 
the Secretary to the Board of Commissioners for the ■ 
!N"avy in Washington. Captain Goldsborough first 
entered the service in 1812. He was on board the 
seventy-four gun ship Franklin, in the Mediterranean, 
as a midshipman, under Captain Charles Stewart, for 
about four years previous to 1821. He was also with 
Captain "Warrington, a short period, on the Guerriere. 
From 1822 to 1824 he was on duty again, on board the 
Franklin, in the Pacific, protecting our extensive whale 
trade and commerce in those seas, and he assisted after- 
wards in the survey of the coast, near Pensacola and 
Tampa Bay, Florida. He enjoyed now a short respite 
on shore, and he then served for about three years, in 
the Mediterranean, on board the schooner Porpoise. 

In 1832, he was placed in charge of the chronometers 



94 HISTORY OF THE 

and charts of the department at Washington. He also 
served, about this time, in the Portsmouth Navy Yard, 
and in December, 1846, he was ordered to the com- 
mand of the seventy-four gun ship Ohio, which bore 
also Fleet Captain Stringham, and was preparing for 
service in the Pacific. Before sailing thither, however, 
they were first dispatched to the Gulf and participated 
in the capture of Vera Cruz, and Tuspan, and in other 
engagements. In 1849 he was on special duty in Cali- 
fornia and Oregon, and for four years from 1853, a 
longer term than that of any of his predecessors, he 
discharged successfully the duties of Superintendent of 
the Naval Academy. He was recently in service in 
the Brazilian Squadron, commanding the flag-ship, the 
frigate Congress, until the squadron was ordered home. 
The Congress arrived in August, 1861, and joined the 
blockading squadron in the Gulf. 

After the brilliant achievements of the naval fon^e 
dispatched against the forts at Hatteras Inlet, on the 
twenty-eighth of August, 1861, under command of 
Plag Officer Stringham, this veteran in the service 
asked to be relieved from the command of the Atlantic 
Squadron, which request was complied with by the 
Secretary of the Navy. The squadron was then di- 
vided, and Ca2)tain L. M. Goldsborough was placed in 
command of the northern division, embracing the 



NAVAL ACADKMY. 95 

coasts of Yirginia and North Carolina, and Captain S. 
F. Diipont, over the southern division, which inchidcs 
South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Captain Golds- 
borongh commanded the fleet at the attack on Roanoke 
Island "which, ■with the assistance of the land forces 
under General Burnsidc, resulted so favorably. His 
broad pennant floats upon the breeze now, along those 
shores, a terror to rel)el enemies, and a signal of union, 
of peace, and of pros2:>eritj to loyal citizens. 

The triumph of our arms at Roanoke Island has 
imparted new lustre to the name of Commodore 
Goldsborough, and conferred additional glory upon 
American arms. And here we must remember that 
the skilful firing of the naval cadets, was also an im- 
portant element of success in that engagement. Hat- 
teras, Port Royal, Roanoke, Forts Henry and Donel- 
son, bear witness both to the superior skill of the 
ohler oflicers, and to the scientific practice at the guns 
of the graduates of the Naval Academy. This Acad- 
emy is a product of the navy. It is the creation 
solely of the scientific officers of the navy, who had 
no similar institution to aid them in the study of nav- 
igation and the art of war. Nevertheless, many of 
the older officers, as well as the younger, are in this 
day, bright ornaments to their profession and worthy 
defenders of their country's honor. 



96 HISTORY OF THE 

Captain George S. Blake is a native of Worcester, 
Massachusetts. He is the son of a distinguished advo- 
cate at the bar, the late Francis Blake, Esq. He was 
commissioned in the navy in 1818. His first service 
as a midshipman was rendered from 1819, on board the 
seventy-four gun ship Columbus, for three years, under 
Captain William Bainbridge in the Mediterranean. In 
1822, he served on board the brig Spark, carrying 
twelve guns and commanded by Captain John H. 
Elton, in the squadron which had been fitted out for 
the protection of American commerce,' and the sup- 
pression of piracy in the West Indies and the Gulf of 
Mexico. The Sj^ark succeeded, in January of that 
year, in recapturing from the pirates a Dutch sloop, 
which had been seized and converted by them into a 
piratical craft. A prize crew of seven men was put 
on board of her and she was sent into Charleston, 
South Carolina. 

On his return from the West Indies in 1823, Mid- 
sliipman Blake enjoyed a furlough for a few years, and 
it is probable, that the opportunity was seized to give 
some further attention to his studies, and complete 
more fully his professional education. In 1827, he 
was promoted to a lieutenancy, and his next station 
was in tlie West Indies. In 1830 and 1831, he was 
on board the Java in the Mediterranean. On the re- 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 97 

turn of the Java from that station, her commander 
was directed, in furtherance of the humane policy of 
the government, to touch at Liberia, and aid in en- 
forcing the laws enacted for the suppression of the 
slave trade. Munitions of war and other supplies 
were furnished to the governor of the colony, by order 
of the Secretary of the Navy. Five mutineers were 
received on board at Porto Praya, and brought home 
to Norfolk for trial. 

Lieutenant Blake was afterwards on leave, and at 
the Philadelphia Navy Yard, for a few years, until 
1836, when he entered upon one of the most import- 
ant services of his life, which was rendered during a 
period of about ten years upon the national Coast 
Survey, under the superintendence at first, of the dis- 
tinguished scholar Mr. F. R. Hassler, and, afterwards, 
of the no less learned and distinguished gentleman, 
Mr. Alexander Dallas Bache. Lieutenant Blake's 
labors upon this survey were begun at Narragansett 
Bay, Rhode Island, and afterwards in 1838, he com- 
manded the schooner Experiment, in the survey of 
the coast near New York. Li lSi2, he had charge 
of a party on board the United States schooners Nau- 
tilus and Gallatin, who were surveying the Delaware 
Bay and river, in the course of which survev he dis- 
5 



98 HISTOKT OF THE 

covered a new and safe ship channel, which had not 
been laid down before on the chart.* 

In 1846, he was relieved from duty, on the Coast 
Survey, and assumed command of the brig Perry in 
the Pacific. About two years afterwards, he was em- 
ployed for a short period at the Navy Yard in Phila- 
delphia, and in the Bureau of Construction. From 
1850 to 1853, he served as Fleet Captain of the squad- 
ron in the Mediterranean. He was then on duty for 
two years again in the naval Bureau of Construction , 
and afterwards for about two years, he was upon special 
duty connected with the building of the war steamer 
which was under contract with Mr. P. L. Stevens. 
He was appointed the Superintendent of the Naval 
Academy in 1857. He has been now forty-three 
years and nine months in the service ; he is yet in the 
vigor of manhood, and is well able, if his life be 
spared, to add many more honorable deeds to this 
already so brilliant a record. 

* See Lieutenant Blake's report of this survey. Executive Docu- 
ments, 1844-45, vol. 11., Document 25. 



NAVAL ACADEMY, 



CHAPTEK XYI. 

PROFESSOR CHAUVENET.— BRIGADIER GENERA.L LOCK- 
WOOD. — PROFESSOR COFFIN. — PROFESSOR GIRAULT.— 
PROFESSOR NOURSE.— PROFESSOR HOPKINS.— PROFESSOR 
WINLOCK.— PROFESSOR SMITH. 

Professor William Chauvenet was tlie Professor of 
Mathematics at the organization of the Naval School 
in 1845. He is a native of Pennsylvania. He was 
commissioned a professor in the navy, on the eighth 
of December, 1841, and was ordered for duty, to the 
school for midshipmen, which was then held in the 
naval asylum, in Philadelphia. At the time of his en- 
tering upon his duties, there were but two professors, 
Mr. Meiere and himself, and twenty-nine midshipmen. 
Tlie school ^vas not at this period, a recognized institu- 
tion; it was merely a collection of midshipmen under 
the instruction of teachers, and attached to the naval 
asylum. It was opened at the asylum sometime in 
the year 1840. Similar schools had been gathered 
previously at other points ; there Avere, at one time, 
naval schools at Xew York and Xorfolk, and on board 
many of the ships. It is evident that these schools, 



100 HISTORY OF THE 

which were entirely deficient in organization, and aca- 
demic staff" and professorshijDS, were quite unlike the 
one established by the Hon. George Bancroft in 1845, 
at Annapolis. 

Tlie selection of Professor Chauvenet for the de- 
partment of mathematics in the institution then just 
founded, was commended by a journalist of that day 
in the following language :* " Among those who have 
been called to assist in opening and conducting the 
new school, is Professor Chauvenet, of Philadelphia, 
a young gentleman, whose love and acquisition of 
science and aptness to impart, gives assurance of the 
continued progress of those submitted to his care." 
It it said by his friends, that Professor Chauvenet 
assisted much at an early period, in organizing the 
systems of instruction, and shaping the destinies of 
the school. He served in the departments of Mathe- 
matics, and of Astronomy, and Navigation until the 
year 1859, when he sought a furlough, and having 
taken up his residence in St. Louis, Missouri, he has 
since resigned his professorship in the Academy. He 
is considered an able instructor, and he is the author 
of one of the best treatises we have upon Trigonometry. 
Although he is in retirement, he is not forgotten ; his 
memory is still cherished in the hearts of his pupils, 
* NUes' Register, vol. LXIX. 



NAVAI. ACADEMY. 



101 



whose scientific attainments, applied now in the service 
of their country, reflect back new honors upon their 
teacher. 

Professor Henry H. Lockwood was the Professor of 
Natural Philosophy and Astronomy at the opening of 
the Naval School in 1845, He is a native of the 
state of Delaware, and was educated in the United 
States Military Academy at West Point, at which in- 
stitution he graduated in 1836, and was commissioned 
a brevet second lieutenant of Artillery, on the first 
of July in that year. He resigned from the army in 
1837, and he was appointed a professor in the navy 
on the fourth of November, 1841. He was ordered 
to the Naval School in 1845, and he still holds in 
the Academy the professorship of Field Artillery and 
Infantry Tactics. It is evident that he possesses a 
decided taste for the practical application of the art 
of war, as well as undoubted patriotism, for in 1847, 
he served with Commodore Jones as Adjutant of the 
land forces at the taking of Monterey, California, and 
during this unfortunate rebellion, he has drawn his 
Bword again in the cause of his country, and having 
been excused temporarily from the duties of his pro- 
fessorship, he was commissioned by the War Depart- 
ment on the eighth of August last, a Brigadier-Gen- 
eral of volunteers. He is now in command in Acco- 



102 HI8T0KY OF THE 

mac and Northampton counties, Virginia, wliicli form 
a division of the department under Major-General 
Dix, and he has rendered ethcient service, in dispers- 
ing armed rebels and restoring those counties to their 
allegiance. The United States Military and Naval 
Academies, have both good reason to be proud of such 
a representative. 

Professor John H. C. Coffin is, by commission, the 
oldest professor in the navy. He has been twenty- 
five years in the service, of which five years and eight 
months have been spent at sea. In 1843 he was em- 
ployed with the command of Lieutenant Powell, in 
the survey of Tampa Bay, Florida, and of the coast 
from Appalachicola to the Mississippi river. From 
1845 to 1853, he was on duty at the National Obser- 
vatory in Washington, and he was then ordered to the 
Naval Academy. He is a distinguished scholar and 
an able professor. 

Professor Girault has administered with ability, 
since the first organization of the school, the depart- 
ment of instruction in the French language. This is, 
by connnon consent, the language de tout le monde, 
and if its acquirement is valuable to the man of let- 
ters, it is doubly so to the naval officer, who must 
make use of the French as a voyager to foreign lands, 
and as a student of the best works in all the sciences. 



NAVAL ACADHMV. 103 

Professor Nourse lias given a high character to the 
department of Ethics and English Studies, and such 
subjects and text-books as the Constitution of the 
United States ; Chancellor Kent on International Law ; 
Wajland's Moral Science, and the History of the 
United States, are evidence that this department is 
esteemed as by no means of inferior importance in 
forming the minds of naval officers. 

The late Professor William F. Hopkins was a native 
of Connecticut, and graduated at the West Point 
Military Academy in 1825. lie was commissioned in 
the Artiller}", he was an assistant professor of Chemis- 
try, Mineralogy and Geology in the Military Acad- 
emy, and he resigned from the army in 1836. He 
was afterwards a professor at Georgetown, Kentucky, 
Clarksville, Tennessee, and in William and Mary Col- 
lege, Virginia. He resigned his professorship in the 
Naval Academy in 1859, having been appointed* con- 
sul to Kingston, Jamaica, and he died there soon after 
going out. 

Professor Winlock was in service for some years in 
the Observatory at Cambridge, Massachusetts, and 
was the compiler of* the Nautical Almanac. Professor 
Smith was formerly, a distinguished member of the 
faculty of Wesleyan University, Connecticut. 



104 HISTOKY OF TUE 



CHAPTER XYII. 

CAPTAIN CRAVEN.— OFFICERS AT PORT ROYAL.— IMPORT- 
ANCE OP NAVAL AND MILITARY SCHOOLS.— OPINION OP 
WASHINGTON.— WAR WITH A EUROPEAN POWER. 

Captain Thomas T. Craven, was born in tlie Dis- 
trict of Columbia ; be was appointed from tbe state 
of I^ew llampsbire. He is tbe son of" Mr. Tunis 
Craven, wbo was a native of Kew Jersey, and served 
as a naval storekeeper for many years, at tbe Ports- 
moutb and Brooklyn navy yards. Captain Craven's 
original entry into tbe service was in tbe yeai* 1822. 
During a period of tbree or four years after 1S23, be 
served as a midshipman on board tbe frigate United 
States, in tbe Pacific Ocean. In 1828 be was on leave 
of absence, and be afterwards served again until 1830, 
as a passed midsbipman on board tbe Erie in tbe West 
Indies. He was on leave again for a sbort period, 
and be was tben on duty for about tbree years from 
1832, as tbe first lieutenant on board tbe Boxer, on tbe 
coasts of Brazil and India. After a sbort respite on 
bis return, be was ordered in tbe summer of 1838 to 



JSrA\*AL ACADEMY. 105 

the Yincenncs, as tlie lieutenant commandant, for ser- 
vice with the Exploring Expedition, which was com- 
manded by Captain Charles Wilkes of the United 
States Xavy. The Vincennes was the flag ship of 
the Squadron. The expedition was absent four years, 
during which period many islands in the Pacific, 
which were before unknown, were visited, portions of 
the western coast of America were surveyed, and 
discoveries were made at the far South, which was 
especially the field of exploration. liieutenant Craven 
was left at Valparaiso, on the sixth of June, 1839, to 
take command of the Sea Gull, one of the vessels of 
the squadron, but it was afterwards ascertained that 
the Sea Gull had been lost near Cape Horn, about the 
fiji'st of May in that year. By instructions received 
from Captain Wilkes, Lieutenant Craven awaited the 
arrival of the Sea Gull at Valparaiso four months, but 
he did not afterwards attempt to follow the expedition, 
which was regarded by Captain Wilkes as " impossi- 
ble with any chance of success, nor could he devote 
the time of any ofiicer to so vague a prospect of ser- 
vice." Lieutenant Craven was instrumental at this 
time in saving from a watery grave the crew of a 
Chilian vessel, and the honorable exploit was deemed 
worthy of commendation by the Secretary of the 
Navy, who addressed to him the following letter : 
6* 



106 mSTOEY OF THE 

"Navy Department, December 9th, 1839. 
" Sir : 

" The Department lias observed in the newspapers a 
notice of yoin- gallant and successful efforts in rescu- 
ing a portion of the crew of the Chilian Sloop-of-war 
Monteguedo, which, it appears, was wrecked in the 
harbor of Valparaiso, during the gale of- the 24th and 
25th of July last. Although you have already en- 
joyed the highest reward of your exertions, in the 
success which crowned them, it would not do justice 
to its own feelings, did it refrain from expressing to 
you its admiration of the fearless self-devotion dis- 
played by you on that occasion, and which is alike 
honorable to yourself, to the service, and to your 
country. 

" I am yours very respectfully, 

" J. K. Paulding."* 

" To Lieutenant T. T. Ckaven." 

Lieutenant Craven joined afterwards the Pacific 
Squadron, and was transferred to the Schooner Boxer, 
Lieutenant-Commandant Nicholson, which vessel made 
a strict search for the Sea Gull, but the search was 
fruitless, lie served on the coast of Africa, on board 
the frigate Macedonian, in 1843, and after an interval 
of leave of absence and repose frojn active duty, he 
* Wilkes' Exploring PIxpcdition, vol. I., Appendix. 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 107 

■was ordered in 1850, to the Razee Independence, the 
flag ship of the Mediterranean Squadron, under Cap- 
tain George S. Blake, the Fleet Captain of the Squad- 
ron. From 1851 to 1855, he was the Commandant of 
Midshipmen and Instructor of seamanship, naval tac- 
tics and practical gunnery in the Naval Academy. 

During the three years following this period of ser- 
vice at the Academv he commanded the fri>;ate Con- 
gress which was the flag-ship of the Mediterranean 
Squadron, and he serv^ed afterwards, for two. years, 
mitil 1860, as the Commandant at the Academy. Cap- 
tain Craven was then, for a short period, waiting orders, 
until after the unfortunate issue of the engagement of 
June twenty-seventh, 1861, at Matthias Point, Virginia, 
which resulted in the death of Commander Ward, when 
Captain Craven was appointed to succeed him as the 
Flag Ofticer of the Potomac flotilla. He was relieved 
from this duty in the autumn of the same year and 
was ordered to the command of the Brooklyn. Cap- 
tain Craven's history is already interwoven, we have 
seen, with that of his country, and is destined to form, 
henceforth, we must believe, a bright page in the an- 
nals of that country's glory. 

Commander J. F. Green, formerly a Commandant 
of Midshipmen at the Academy, was in command of 
the sloop of war Jamestown, in the engagement of the 



108 HI8T0EY OF THE 

6eventli of E^ovember, 1861, at Fort Royal, S. C. 
Lieutenant C. P. E.. Rodgers, who was the Comman- 
dant at the Academy in i860, was in immediate com- 
mand of the Wabash, which was Captain Dupont's 
flag-ship, and was foremost in the fight in that action. 
Lieutenant Wyman commanded the Pawnee, which 
suffered severely. Lieutenants Upsliur, Luce, and 
Matthews were on board the Wabash, Lieutenant 
Cuslxman w^as the Executive Officer of the Pembina, 
Lieutenant A. E. K. Benham was on board the Bien- 
ville, Lieutenant Fhisser was on the Jamestown, and 
Lieutenant Watmongli was commander of the Curlew, 
and all of them jiarticipated in that glorious vic- 
tory. These officers have served in the Naval Acad- 
emy as instructors, and many of them as pupils, 
and they now render back to their country abundant 
fruits of scientific culture as a return for her generous 
bounty. 

Occasionally, in former years, have short-sighted 
statesmen, on the score of the expense, cavilled at the 
policy of founding naval and military schools, and 
perhaps this objection caused those numerous failures 
in attempting to establish a naval school which have 
been described in the former part of this history, but 
wlien we reflect, in this day, upon the wonderful revo- 
lution which is being wrought in the art of war, we 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 109 

ishall appreciate the necessity for sucli institutions to 
impart a scientific education to officers and the danger 
of neglecting to organize them upon the broadest and 
most liberal basis. The fate of engagements, both on 
sea and land is determined, now, by the calibre, and 
accurate adjustment of heavy ordnance, by rifled can- 
non, columbiads, and shrapnel, and no longer, or sel- 
dom, by hand to hand encounters. It is a conflict 
directly between science, on the one side, strong, and 
armed with the best munitions of war, and a feebler 
science on tlie other side, and woe to that nation who 
fails, in the day of peace, to prepare for the hour of 
battle. Steam, too, has annihilated space, and we are 
now face to face as a people, with the mighty arma- 
ments, the growth of centuries, and the well instructed 
Sieves of the numerous schools of the old world. 

When General Washington was endeavoring to pro- 
vide, after the revolution, for a military peace estab- 
lishment, and for the education of officers, he declared 
in his last message to Congress that, " however pacific 
the general policy of a nation may be, it ought never 
to be without an adequate stock of military knowledge 
for emergencies. The first, would impair the energy 
of its character, and both, would hazard its safety, or 
expose it to greater evils, when war could not be 
avoided. Besides, that war might not often depend 



110 HISTORY OF THE 

upon its own clioice." Time lias fully tested the truth- 
fulness of his remarks, and we must be prepared now 
to meet these great changes in the art of war. Colonel 
Delafield, the Chief of the Crimean Commission, al- 
ludes to these changes. "The immense resources 
suddenly called into activity in the contest with Russia 
prove a facility for equipping forces beyond former 
precedent, and to such an extent, as should lead us to 
renew our study of this problem, and induce the au- 
thorities of our country to reflect well upon the conse- 
quences of wars with nations that can expend hun- 
dreds of millions, and perfect immense naval and mili- 
tary armaments with such remarkable raj)idity. We 
must admit the conclusion that a European power can 
suddenly equip a large army, transport it on the ocean 
three thousand miles, and maintain it in a hostile atti- 
tude for a year and more."* 

This line of argument which is applied by Colonel 
Delafield to the subject of coast defences proves, be- 
yond the possibility of contradiction, the immense im- 
portance of naval and military schools to the peace 
and welfare of the nation. "VVe must remember, too, 
the eloquent language of the Hon. Mr. Bayard, the 
former Senator from the State of Delaware, — that our 
naval cadets will be " the future commanders of a ser- 

* Art of War in Europe, p. 56. 



NAVAL ACADEMY. ' 111 

vice in which they are to bear with honor tlie flag of 
the nation, in peace and in war, at liome or abroad, on 
the high seas and in the ports of foreign nations, the 
armed ambassadors of the country, who must be able 
to fight and to negotiate, and whose duties require that 
they should be familiar, not only with naval tactics and 
the whole circle of nautical science, but also with the 
principles of international law."* Naval commanders, 
in this age, should possess, therefore, as great accom- 
plishments as the members of any of the recognized 
professions. 

* See page 17. 



112 HISTORY OF THE 



CHAP TEE XVIII. 

THE FIRST TWO ASSISTANTS AT THE ACADEMY.— LIEUT. 
SAMUEL MARCY.— CAPTAIN JAMES H. WARD.— " FLAG 
OF THE SEAS." 

Lieutenant Samuel Marcy and Captain James II. 
Ward were the first two assistants at the Naval Acad- 
emy, and were present at its organization in 1845 ; the 
former was then a passed midshipman, and the latter 
a lieutenant,— fratres mnho. 

Lieutenant Marcy was a native of Troy, ITew York, 
and a son of the late Hon. William L. Marcy. He en- 
tered the service in 1838, and he was on duty, at sea, 
about thirteen years. In 1818 he was in the Pacific, 
wliere he served two or three years, and after being re- 
lieved at the Naval Academy in 1856, he was, for three 
years, a lieutenant on board the frigate Congress, the 
flag-ship of the Mediterranean Squadron. In 1860, 
he was an assistant again at the Academy ; then in 
service on the Pawnee, which was in service before 
Charleston, at tlie time of the storming of Fort 



NAVAL ACADKMY, 113 

Sumter; and, finally, lie was ordered to the frigate 
Potomac, which has formed a part of the blockading 
squadron, in the Gulf of Mexico, since July, 18G1. 
In November, he M'as appointed to succeed Captain 
Handy, in the command of the Vincennes, on duty at 
the mouth of the Mississippi river, and he remained 
in the ellicient discharge of his duties, on this station, 
until the latter part of the month of January, 1802, 
when the mournful tidings was conveyed to his friends 
and the country, that a sad accident had terminated 
his existence. 

The circumstances attending his death are feelingly 
described in the following letter, from the Acting 
Gunner of the Vincennes, which exhibits also the 
high regard which was entertained for Commander 
Marcy, personally, by the men under his command : 

"UxiTED States Ship Vincennes, Jan. 31, 1862. 
" Capt. T. T. Craven, commanding United States Steamer Brooklyn. 

" Sir : Knowing your friendship for our late lament- 
ed commander, Lieutenant Marcy, and your intimacy 
with him, I have taken the liberty of acquainting you 
with the particulars of the accident by which he was 
injured, and from which he has lost his life. An in- 
telligent gentleman, a gallant officer, and thorough 
seaman, we deeply feel his loss, and know that you^ 
and officers of the United States Navy, with whom ho 



11-i HISTORY OF THE 

has heretofore sailed, will sympathize with us in our 
misfortune. At about four o'clock on Friday morning 
last, Jan, 23, the look-out reported a light, which soon 
proved to be a vessel on hre, apparently in the South- 
east Pass of the Mississippi river, we then lying off 
the Northeast Pass. After daylight, Captain Marcy 
ordered out and armed the boats. I went in the 
launch, Captain Marcy in the gig. We found the 
vessel to be a barkantine, loaded with cotton, which 
appeared to have grounded on the Southeast Pass, 
while attempting to run the blockade, and the crew, 
not being able to get her off, had fired and abandoned 
her. Captain Marcy directed me to fire the howitzer 
into her at the water-line, to sink her and put out the 
fire. I had fired once, and was ready for the second 
shot, when Captain Marcy ordered me to wait until he 
came on board. He took the lock and fired seven 
times, on the last of which the bolt, which secures the 
first pivot clamp to the stern, being insufiiciently 
clinched, pulled out as the gun recoiled on the side, 
and fell, jamming the Captain's thigh between it and 
the thwart. lie was calm and cool, seemed aware he 
was badly injured, and gave directions to be taken on 
board in his gig. Tlie leg was carefully sot and 
dressed, and he seemed to be doing well. On Satur- 
day he was comfortable, and fell asleep about eleven 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 115 

o'clock that night, from wliich sleep or stupor he was 
never thoroughly aroused. lie was more or less in- 
sensible, until about eleven o'clock on Wednesday 
night,. January 29, when he died. His body will be 
sent home by the steamer Connecticut. I am, sir, 

" Your obedient servant, 

"William "Wilson, 

"Acting Gunner, United States Steamer Vincennes." 

It is seen, from this communication, that Com- 
mander Marcy lost his life in the service of his 
country, and though he fell, surrounded not by the 
carnage of battle, and " the pride, pomp, and circum- 
stance of glorious war," yet his death was no less 
honorable ; he was in the path of duty. 

His remains were brought to the city of New York, 
and the funeral Services were celebrated in Calvary 
Church, by the Kev. Dr. Hawks, on the twenty-third 
of February, before a large assemblage of afflicted 
friends. They were conveyed, afterwards, to xVlbany, 
for interment. 

We cannot estimate the loss of Commander Marcy. 
One of the ablest and most accomplished men in the 
navy, it is not easy to fill the place of such an officer. 
To his reputation for gallantry and faithfulness, Sam- 
uel Marcy added, we are told, the excellencies of the 



116 HISTORY OF THE 

true Christian and the refined gentleman. We mourn 
his decease, now, with others who have gone before. 
Ward, too, is departed, and of these two assistants, 
wlio were first in service at the opening of the Na- 
val Academy, it is left for us only to say, iu the 
midst of our sorrowing, they were "lovely and pleas- 
ant in their lives, and in their death, they were not 
divided." 

Commander James H. Ward, was the first Com- 
mandant of Midshipmen at the Naval Academy. It 
is true that this title was then unknoMm, nevertheless, 
Lieutenant Ward discharged at that time the duties 
which pertain to the office of Commandant. He 
entered the service in 1823. He was born in Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, in the year 1806, and was the eldest 
Bon of the late Colonel James Ward, a gentleman of 
great respectibility in that city. The family of Wards 
in Connecticut, is a very ancient and honorable one. 
They are descended from Andrew Ward, who came to 
New England in company with Governor Winthrop, 
and became afterwards a distinguished citizen of the 
colony of Connecticut. He died at Fairfield in 1659. 
He was a grandson of Thomas Ward, Lord of the 
manor of Bacons in Gorlston, Sufiblk county, Eng- 
land. The Ward family of England has enjoyed 
many titles. The Viscounty Dudley and Ward be- 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 117 

came extinct in 1833. William "Ward is now Baron 
of Birmingham county, "Warwick, the eleventh lord 
of this succession.* 

James H. "Ward, the subject of this sketch, received 
his earliest education at the grammar school in Hart- 
ford. He was transferred thence, to the care of a 
well-known "West Point scholar, Captain Alden Part- 
ridge, whose military school was successfully estab- 
lished at that time in Norwich, Vermont. After en- 
joying for a considerable period the instruction of 
Captain Partridge, young Ward received while he 
was a member of the school, his warrant as a midship- 
man in the United States Navy. His first service 
was on board the frigate Constitution, for about four 
years in the Mediterranean, under the distinguished 
Commodore McDonough. After his return from this 
duty, he was on leave of absence about a year, and he 
availed himself of this opportunity to complete his 
education by studying in the partial course at Wash- 
ington, now Trinity college, Hartford. After his ex- 
amination in 1829, he was enrolled as a passed mid- 
shipman, and in the following year, having been pro- 
moted to a lieutenancy, he was ordered to the sloop 
of war Concord, for service in. the Mediterranean under 
Master-Commandant M. 0. Perry. The Concord left 

* Burke's Pcerapfe. 



118 UISTOEY OF THE 

Hampton Roads in the latter part of June, 1830, and 
conveyed to Kussia on her voyage out, the Hon. John 
Randolph, the Minister Plenipotentiary for the United 
States at the Court of St. Petersburg. 

Lieutenant Ward served at this time three years in 
the Mediterranean, and after a short leave of absence, 
in the West Indies again for three years more. He 
was afterwards on boar^ the steamship Fulton, and he 
was then on duty about three years in the Kavy Yard 
at Washington. In 1840, he Avas ordered to the brig 
Dolphin, for service on the coast of Africa. The Hon. 
J. K. Paulding, the Secretary of the Navy, reports 
that the Dolphin, under the command of Lieutenant 
Bell, and the schooner Grampus, commanded by Lieu- 
tenant Paine, were employed on the coast of Africa, 
in the suppression of the slave-trade. They returned 
at the commencement of the sickly season, and after- 
wards sailed again to the same station. The traffic in 
slaves was then carried on upon an extensive scale, 
and principally under Portuguese colors. ' Slave sta- 
tions were established on the coast at different points, 
under the protection of the neighboring chiefs, who 
furnished the slaves, and received in return goods 
which were manufactured in England expressly for 
this purpose ; and at these stations the slaves were 
collected, until an opportunity offered for the slaver 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 119 

to approach the land under cover of the night, and 
receive them on board. 

The Secretary of the Navy reported that the Dol- 
phin and Grampus rendered efficient service in the 
suppression of the traffic, and in the protection of 
American citizens, "who were engaged in commerce 
on the coast. The officers and crews suffered severely, 
however, from the diseases of tlie climate. Lieuten- 
ant Ward was among the number wlio were prostrated 
by the coast fever, and his life was despaired of, but 
he recovered finally, and was able to visit his native 
land again, and prolong still further an honorable 
career in the navy of the United States. 

Lieutenant Ward was attached to tlie Naval Acad- 
emy as an Assistant, at its first organization by the 
Hon. George Bancroft in 1845, an aj)poiutment which 
was certainly honorable to himself aud corroborative 
of the opinion often expressed, that Lieutenant AVard 
was one of the best educated officers in the service. 
After leaving the Naval Academy, in 1847, he served 
on board the frigate Cumberland, and afterwards, 
commanded the steamer Vixen of the Home Squad- 
ron, lie was then on shore a few years, until 1855, 
when he assumed command of the sloop Jamestown, 
Avhich was then the flag-ship of the African Squadron. 
He remained on the coast of Africa, at this time, 



120 HISTORY OF THE 

about three years, during which period he assisted 
in capturing several slavers, and proved himself an 
efficient commander. 

On his return to the United States, after enjoying a 
period of repose from active duty, he assumed com- 
mand, in 1858, of the North Carolina, the receiving 
ship at the Navy Yard in Brooklyn, and he continued 
in this command, until open hostilities were threatened 
by the states which were in rebellion against the gov- 
ernment established by Washington, Hamilton, Madi- 
son and Franklin, and then Commander "Ward Avas 
among tlie first to offer liimseif for service in defence 
of the Constitution and the Union. He had long been 
fond of experimenting with heavy ordnance, he was 
a ripe scholar in naval science, and had studied the 
latest theories and inventions in the art of war. He 
was on terms of friendly intercourse with the dis- 
tinguished Sir Howard Douglas, of the British Navy, 
and he corresponded with him often upon topics in 
Avhicli both were deeply interested. 

Commander Ward was also an author of considera- 
ble distinction. He has published the well known 
worKs, Steam for the Million, a ]>opnlar treatise on 
steam and its applications to the useful arts, especially 
to navigation, — a Manual of Naval Tactics, containing 
also an analysis of modern naval battles, and an ele- 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 121 

raentary work upon Naval Ordnance and Gunnery. 
His analysis of naval battles has been pronounced 
masterly, by officers of the British Navy. As soon 
as acts of violence were perpetrated by the seceding 
states, Captain Ward addressed a letter to Mr. Toucey, 
the Secretary of the Navy, proposing a plan for the 
defence of the Potomac, and asked that he might be 
permitted to organize and command a flotilla for this 
service. He was summoned soon afterwards to Wash- 
ington, for consultation with Mr. Toucey and General 
Scott, with reference to provisioning Fort Sumter. 
He presented his plan for accomplishing this object, 
and it was received with such favor, that General Scott 
gave his promise that his plan should be adopted if 
any attempt were made to provision the fort. 

Tlie Hon, Gideon Welles, who is now Secretary of 
the Navy, decided to summon Commander Ward for 
service in defence of the Potomac, and upon the 
recommendation of the latter, early in May, the Thomas 
Freeborn and three other propellers of light draught 
were purchased and fitted out as gunboats. The flo- 
tilla sailed from the Navy Yard in Brooklyn, on the 
sixteenth of May, 1861, and its departure called forth 
hearty cheers from the men who had served under 
Commander Ward on board the North Carolina, and 
from the ofticers of the yard and others assembled on 
6 



123 HISTORY OF THE 

the wharf. His first action, on arriving in the Chesa- 
peake, was the silencing of the rebel battery at Sew- 
all's Point, on the eighteenth of May, and two prizes 
were captured on his way up the river. The zeal and 
energy displayed by Commander Ward on the Poto- 
mac, have been universally acknowledged, and it is 
said that the plans for the defence of the river which 
were submitted by him to the Navy Department, 
exhibited marked ability. " Great service has been 
rendered," writes Mr. Secretary "Welles, "by this armed 
force, which has been vigilant in intei'cepting supplies, 
and in protecting transports and vessels in their pas- 
sage up and down the Potomac." 

It was urged upon the government at this time, by 
Commander Ward, that military forces should be detail- 
ed for the construction of batteries at prominent points 
on the river, and had this suggestion been adopted, it 
is claimed by his friends now, that the navigation of 
the Potomac would have remained unobstructed. The 
skill and vigilance of Captain Ward prevented the com- 
pletion of fortifications by the rebels at Acquia Creek, 
and at other places on the river, and finally he deter- 
mined upon the construction himself of a battery on 
Matthias Point, at which the river is narrow, and a bat- 
tery if completed there and properly furnished with 
guns, would control the navigation of the Potomac. 



NAVAL acadp:my. 123 

Accordingly, on the twenty-seventli of Jimo, he 
landed in boats a party of twenty-five men, who were 
provided with shovels and other implements for the 
work. Pickets were immediately thrown out, who re- 
mained undisturbed until late in the afternoon, when 
the party was ordered to return to the Freeborn. At 
this time they were fired upon from the thickets, on 
the right and left of the work upon which they had 
been engaged. Thej retreated hastily to the boats, 
but kept up a fire in return for the space of half an 
hour. A seaman named Williams, held the United 
States flag, and became therefore, a target for the 
enemy. He received a bad flesh wound in the thigh. 
The rebel troops were connnanded, it is understood, 
by Major Mears, a son-in-law of Captain Buchanan. 
They numbered about five or six hundred. The men 
in retreating attempted to gain the boats, but did not 
all succeed, and many, endeavoring to swim, were 
drowned. A fire was opened immediately from the 
bow gun of the Freeborn to cover the retreat, but the 
gunner was soon wounded in the thigh with a musket 
ball, when Captain Ward himself, advanced and took 
charge of the piece. He was in the act of aiming, 
when a shot from the rebels struck liiin in tlie abdo- 
men. The wound proved tatal ; he died in about one 
hour afterwards. The firing was continued, however, 



124 IIISTOKT OF TUE 

on board the Freeborn, and the rebels were dispersed. 
It is supposed tliat their loss was severe. About 
thirty shells fell into their camp, burned and destroyed 
their stores, and compelled an abandonment of the 
ground. 

A universal gloom hung over the country on the 
reception of the news of the death of this brave and 
accomplished commander. His noble conduct in vol- 
unteering for service on the Potomac, as well as his 
previous career, had endeared him. to a large circle 
of friends in the Capital of the nation, at the ISTaval 
Academy, in ISTew York and in Hartford, and high 
hopes were entertained for him. These fond hopes 
and anticipations were now silenced by the pale visi- 
tant, Death. His friends i-emark that they might have 
expected such a result, for where the post of danger 
was, there Ward would surely be found. Noble ex- 
ample! This was the spirit of the heroes of 1812. 
It is said that it was a maxim among the officers in 
that war, never to send men where they dared not go 
themselves. 

The body of Captain Ward arrived in New York on 
Sunday, the thirtieth of June, and was conveyed to 
the North Carolina at the Navy Yard in Brooklyn. 
Here it lay in state and was visited by large numbei-s 
of citizens. The remains were transferred on Mondav 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 125 

to tlie steamboat Granite State, and the following was 
the order of the funeral procession : 

Marine Escort, Band, Dr, Abernethj, U. S, N. ; 
Commander Meade, Commander Gansevoort, Com- 
mander Foote, Captain Ringgold, Commander Hull, 
pall-bearers ; Family, Cajitain Ward's Crew, including 
sailors and marines ; Commander Meade's Gig's Crew, 
Korth Carolina's Ship's Company, Volunteer Company, 
Revenue Officers, Naval officers. 

Among the naval officers in the procession were 
Commodore Breese, Commandant of the yard. Lieuten- 
ants Almy, Woolsey, Henry, the officers of the yard 
and of the ships lying there. Naval Constructor Delano, 
the Paymasters and clerks of the post.* 

Caj)tain Ringgold, United States Navy, Lieutenant 
Huntington, with the marines, and Captain Ward's 
Gig's Crew, went on the boat with the corpse to Hart- 
ford. 

When the steamer reached that city, the body was 
conveyed under the escort to St. Patrick's Cathe- 
di*al, and High Mass was solemnized, after which 
ceremony the remains were removed to the Capitol and 
lay in state in the Court Room until four o'clock. His 
sword, uniform and flag were placed upon the coffin, 

* The author would acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. Ripley, of 
the Evening Post, for this description of the funeral procession.. 



126 HISTORY OF THE 

banuers and signals of grief hung in festoons about 
the room, and weeping friends gathered in crowds 
around the beloved dead. A numerous procession of 
soldiery and citizens bore him away to his last resting 
place. The tolling bells, the muffled drum, the funereal 
music, the flags furled in mourning, the slow march, 
all gave solemnity to the scene. The burial service, 
according to the rites of the Church of England, was 
pronounced, the Guard fir-ed three volleys over him, — 
so sleeps the hero! So departs a noble spirit, chiv- 
alrous to the last. 

He met death in the discharge of duty. His zeal in 
behalf of the flag of the Union knew no bounds. He 
had been sheltered beneath that flag on many a sea, he 
had seen it honored in all lands, and he was its sworn 
defender, with liis life, against every foe. " We tell 
his doom without a sigh, — he is Freedom's now and 
Fame's." He rests with the great and the brave of all 
lands, — soldiers, and martyrs and heroes of old. So 
dies the naval commander, in defence of the flag of his 
country ! 

"Flag of the seas! on ocean's wave, 

Thy stars shall glitter o'er the brave ; 

When death, careering on the gale, 

Sweeps darkly round the bellied sail. 

And frighted waves riisli wildly back, 

Before the broadside's reeling rack, 



NAVAL ACADEMY. _ 127 

Each dying wanderer of the sea 
Shall look at once to heaven and thee, 
And smile to see thy splendors fly 
In triumph o'er his closing eye ! 

Flag of the free heart's hope and home, 
By angel hands to valor given, 

Thy stars have lit the welkin dome. 
And all thy hues were born in heaven I 

Forever float that standard sheet, — 
"Where breathes the foe but falls before us, 

With Freedom's soil beneath our feet, 
And Freedom's banner streaming o'er usl" 



APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX. 



THE APPOINTMENT OF CANDIDATES, AND THEIR QUALI- 
FICATIONS. 

(This is a copy of a paper which is sent out officially by the Superintendent of the 
Naval Academy.) 

Application, addressed to the Secretary of the Navj', can be 
made at any time, by the candidate himself, or by his parent, 
guardian, or any of his friends, and his name will be placed on 
the register. The registry of a name, however, does not give 
any assurance of an appointment. No preference will be given 
on account of priority of application. No application will be 
considered where the candidate is under or above the prescribed 
age ; where the precise age, and actual and fixed residence, are 
not stated ; and where the applicant is not a resident of the Con- 
gressional district of the State from which he applies. 

The law limits the number of Midshipmen to four hundred and 
sixty-four, and requires that this number shall be divided among 
the several States and Territories, with reference and in propor- 
tion, as near as may be, to their number of representatives and 
delegates to Congress ; that appointments shall be made from 
those States and Territories which have not their relative pro- 
portions on the Navy list ; and that the individual selected for 
appointment sl^all be, in all cases, an actual resident of the State 
and Territory from which the appointment purports to be made. 
It is further required by law that appointments from each State 
sliall be apportioned, as nearly as practicable, equally among the 



132 HI6T0KY OF THE 

several Congressional districts therein, and that the person so ap- 
pointed shall be an actual resident of the Congressional district 
of tlie State from which appointed, and be recommended by the 
member of Congress representing the district in which he resides. 

The selection of candidates is made annually on or before the 
1st of June, and candidates who receive permission, will present 
themselves to the Superintendent of the Naval Academy, between 
the 20th and 30th of September. No candidate will be received 
into the Academy at any other time. Upon reporting to the 
Sujierintendent, candidates will be examined by a Board of Med- 
ical Officers, and by the Academic Board of the Academy, as to 
their qualifications for admission into the Academy. 

No candidate will be admitted into the Naval Academy, unless 
at the time of examination he is found qualified, in the opinion 
of the Medical Board, to discharge the arduous duties of an officer 
of the Navy, and ehall have passed a satisfactory examination be- 
fore the Academic Board. 

If both these examinations result favorably, the candidate will 
receive an acting appointment as a Midshipman, become an in- 
mate of the Academy, and be allowed his actual and necessary 
travelling expenses from his residence to the Naval Academy. If, 
on the contrary, he shall not pass both these examinations, he will 
receive neither an acting appointment nor his travelling expenses. 

A candidate who has once presented himself for examination, un- 
der the permission of the Department, and has been rejected, can- 
not be allowed to present himself for examination the second time. 

No one can receive a warrant as a Midshipman in the Navy, 
unless he be a graduate of the Naval Academy. 

(Note by the author. — It is especially important to secure a 
nomination for a vacancy at the Naval Academy, from the Con- 
grossmiin of the district in which the ap{)licant resides. An Act- 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 133 

* 
ing Midshipman is not expected or permitted to receive pecuni- 
ary support or assistance from his parents or friends. He is 
maintained wliolly at the expense of the govcrnmont. Ilis pay 
is $500 per annum, of which $100 is reserved until he leaves the 
Academy, and constitutes an ample fund for his equipment for 
active service.) 

Qualifications. — Candidates must be over fourteen and under, 
eighteen years of age at tlie time of examination for admission ; 
must be- free from deformity and disease and imperfections of the 
senses. They must be of good moral character, able to read and 
write "well, — writing from dictation, and spelling with correct- 
ness, — and to perform with accuracy the various operations of the 
primary rules of arithmetic; viz., numeration, and the addition, 
multiplication, and division of w^hole numbers. 

Any one of the following conditions will be suflBcient to reject 
a candidate ; viz. : 

1. Feeble constitution and muscular tenuity ; unsound health, 
from whatever cause ; indications of former disease ; glandular 
swellings, or other symptoms of scrofula. 

2. Chronic cutaneous affections, especially of the scalp, or any 
disorder of an infectious character. 

3. Severe injuries of the bones of the head ; convulsions. 

4. Impaired vision, from whatever cause ; inflammatory affec- 
tions of the eye-lids ; immobility, or irregularity of the iris ; 
fistula lachryraalis, etc., etc. 

5. Deafness ; copious discharge from the ears. 

6. Loss of many teeth, or the teeth generally unsound. 

7. Impediment of speech. 

8. Want' of due capacity of the chest, and any other indication 
of a liability to a pulmonic disease. 

9. Impaired or inadequate ethciency of one or both of the 



134 



HISTORY OF THE 



superior extremities on account of fractures, especially of the 
clavicle, contraction of a joint, extenuation, deformity, etc., etc. 

10. An unnatural excurvature or incurvature of the spine. 

11. Hernia. 

12. A varicose state of the veins of the scrotum and spermatic 
cord (when lai'ge), sarcocele, hydrocele, hemorrhoids, fistulas. 

13. Impaired or inadequate efficiency of one or both of the 
inferior extremities on account of varicose veins, fractures, mal- 
formation (flat feet, etc.), lameness, contraction, unequal length, 
bunyons, overlying or supernumerary toes, etc., etc. 

14. Ulcers, or unsound cicatrices of ulcers likely to break out 
afresh. 

EXTRACT FROM THE REGULATIONS OF THE ACADEMY. 

Art. 10. "When candidates shall have passed the required ex- 
aminations, and have been admitted as members of the Acad- 
emy, they must immediately furnish themselves with the follow- 
ing articles ; viz. : 



Two Navy-blue cloth uniform 

suits. 
Six white sliirts. 
Six pairs of socks. 
Four pairs of drawers. 
Six pocket handkerchiefs. 
One black-silk handkerchief, or 

stock. 
One mattress. 
One pillow. 
One pair of blankets. 



Two pairs of sheets. 

Four piUow-cases. 

Six towels. 

Two pairs of shoes or boots. 

One hair-brush. 

One tooth-brush. 

One clothes-brush. 

One coarse comb for the hair. 

One fine comb for the hair. 

One tumbler, or mug ; and 

One thread and needle case. 



One bed-cover, or spread. 

Room-mates will jointly procure for their common use, one 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 135 

looking-glass, one wash-basin, one water-pail, one slop-bucket 
and one broom. These articles may be obtained from the Store- 
keeper of the Academy, of good quality, and at fair prices. 

Art. 11. Each Acting Midshipman must, on admission, de- 
posit with the Paymaster the sum of fifty dollars ; for which he 
will be credited on the books of that officer, to be expended, 
by direction of the Superintendent, for the purchase of text- 
books, and other authorized articles. 



IL 
PROGRAMME OF STUDIES DURING THE ACADEMIC YEAR. 

FIRST CLASS FOURTH TEAR. 

Department of Practical Seamanship^ Xaval Gunnery and ^- 
va.l Tactics. — Seamanship, Naval Tactics. Naval Gunnery ; Simp- 
son's Ordnance and Gunnery. Simpson's Translation of Page's 
Theory of Pointing. Dahlgren's Boat Howitzer. 

Department of Astronomy., Xatigation and Surveying. — Theory 
of Navigation. Practical Astronomy. Marine Surveying. 

Department of Natural and Experimental Philosophy. — Lard- 
ner on Heat. "Wells' Chemistry. Main & Brown on the Steam 
Engine. 

Department of Ethics and English Studies. — Constitution U. 
S. ; Kent on International Law, vol. I. 

Department of Spanish. — Ollendorff. 

SECOND CLASS — THIRD TEAR. 

Department of Practical Seamanship, Naval Gunnery, and 
Naval Tactics. — Seamanship. Simpson's Naval Gunnery. 

Department of Mathematics. — Smyth's Analytical Geometry, 
Smyth's Differential and Integral Calculus. 



13G HISTORY OF THE 

Department of Astronomy , J^arigation and Surveying. — Davies' 
Surveying. Ilerschers Astronomy. Bowditch's Navigation. 

Department of Natural and Experimental Philosophy. — Lard- 
ner's Oiitics, Acoustics, Electricity, and Magnetism. Smith's 
Mechanics. 

Department of Field Artillery and Infantry Tactics. — Hardee's 
Light Infantry Drill. Instruction in Field Artillery. 

Department of Ethics and English Studies. — Wayland's Moral 
Science. 

Department of French.— Girault's French Student's Manual. 
Dumas' Vie de Napoleon. Manesca's Reader. 

THIRD CLASS SECOND YEAR. 

Department of Practical Seamanship^ Na/cal Gunnery, and 
Naval Tactics. — Seamanship. 

Department of Mathematics. — Davies' Legendre's Geometry. 
Chauvenet's Trigonometry. Davies' Mensuration. 

Department of Ethics and English Studies. — Eliot's History 
U. S. Quackenbos' Ehetoric. Composition. 

Departinent of French. — Girault's French Student's Manual. 
Girault's Vie de Washington. 

Department of Drawing and Draughting. — Line Drawing. 

FOURTH CLASS — FIRST YEAR. 

Department of Mathematics. — Greenleaf 's Arithmetic. Davies' 
Algebra. Davies' Legendre's Geometry. 

Department of Ethics and English Studies. — Bullions' English 
Grammar. Cornell's Geography. Worcester's and Lord's History. 
Composition. 

Department of Drawing and Draughting. — Sketching. 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 



137 



III. 



MERIT-ROLLS. 
(From tho Regulations.) 

The relative tv eight, or the maximum numbers which are to be 
assigned to each of the " principal branches" of study, and to 
conduet in each of the several classes, in forming the merit-rolls, 
will be as follows, viz. : 



Departments. 



Seamanship, gun- 
nery, and naval 
tactics. 



Mathematics . 



Astronomy, navi- 
gation, and sur- 
veying. 

Natural and Expe- 
rimental philoso- 
phy. 

Field artillery and 
infantry tactics. 



Ethics and English 
studies. 



French language. 
Spanish language. , 

Drawing 

Conduct 



Aggregate. 



Principal branches. 



Se.imanship 

Nar;il tactics 

Practical gunnery and 
boat armament 



Mathematics . 



General astronomy. . . . 

Practic.ll astronomy, 
navig.ition, and sur- 
veying 



Mechanics. . . . 

Physics 

' Steam engine. 



I Theory of gunnery. 

Field artillery 

I Infantry tactics 



'Moral science and in- 
ternational law 

Grammar and rhetoric. 

Geography 

llistory and composi- 
tion 



French.. 
Spanish. 
Drawing 



30 



80 



60 






25 



40 



30 



c 5 - I - 



? .S ft. S S E 



150 
30 



35 



75 

60 

40 

100 



y 90 



75 

60 
40 
100 



1,000 1,000 



At every June examination, the Academic Board shall form a 
"general merit-roll" for eacli class, in the following manner, viz. : 



138 niSTORY OF THE 

of those members of each class who shall have passed a satisfac- 
tory examination, the individual having the highest standing in 
any principal branch for that year shall receive the maximum 
number assigned to it for that class and year in the table of 
weights of this chapter, and the one having the lowest standing 
shall receive the minimum number, which, in every case, shall be 
one-third of the maximum for the same branch and class. The 
members of the class having intermediate standings shall receive 
numbers proceeding by equal difterences from the maximum to 
the minimum, in the order of their relative merit, as fixed by 
their " class merit-rolls." Of those who have not two hundred 
demerits recorded against them, such as have no demerits shall 
receive the maximum number allowed for that class and year, and 
the others shall have that maximum diminished by one three-hun- 
dredth part of it for every demerit recorded against them. All 
the numbers which shall be thus assigned to tlic several members 
for the several branches of study, and for conduct, shall then be 
added together, and the names of the members shall be arranged 
in each class according to the aggregates thus obtained, the high- 
est number being placed first on the list, and the others in their 
order. Only those who shall have passed in all the principal 
branches of their classes, and have not exceeding two hxmdred 
demerits recorded against them, are to be included in the " gen- 
eral merit-roll," 

At the June examination, the Academic Board shall also form 
the "graduating merit-rolls" for the graduating class, by adding 
the aggregate numbers which each member of the class shall 
have received on the several "general merit-rolls" for June 
during the four years, and arranging the order of the members 
according to the aggregates, placing the highest first. 



KAVAL ACADEMY. 



139 



IV. 

OFFICERS AND PROFESSORS OF THE ACADEMY FROM 1845 
TO THE PRESENT TIME. 



Superintenden ts. 

Com'r Franklin Buchanan, 1845 

to 1847, 
Com'r Geo. P. Upshur, 1847-50, 
ComV 0. K. ytribling, 1850-3, 
Com'r L. M. Goldsborough, 

1853-7, 
Capt. Geo. S. Blake, 1857-62. 

Commandants of Midshipmen. 

Lieut. .Tas. II. Ward, 1845-8, 
Lieut. S. S. Lee, 1848-51, 
Lieut. T. T. Craven, 1851-5, 
Com'r J. F. Green, 1855-8, 
Com'r T. T, Craven, 1858-fiO, 
Lieut. C. R. P. Rodgers, 18G0, 
Lieut. G. W. Rodgers, 1861-2. 

Professors of Mathematics. 

William Chauvenet, 1845-53, 
J. 11. C. Coffiu, 1853-9, 
Joseph Winlock, 1859-60. 

Professors of Astronomy and 
Navigation. 

William Chauvenet, 1853-9, 
J. II. C. Coffin, 1859-62. 

Professors of Natural and Ex- 
perimental Philosophy. 

Ilenry H. Look wood, 1845-51, 
W. F'. Hopkins, 1851-9, 
A. W. Smith, 1859-62. 



Professor of Field Artillery and 
Infantry Tactics. 

Henry II. Lock-wood, 1851-62. 

Professor of Ethics and English 
Studies. 

J. E. Nourse, 1851-62. 

Professor of French. 

A. N. Girault, 1845-62. 

Professor of Spanish. 
E. A. Roget, 1852-62. 

Professor of Urate ing. 
E. Seager, 1851-62. 

Teachers of the Art of Defence. 

E. Seager, 1851-9, 
A. Coppa, 1859-60. 

Lieutenants, dr., acting as As- 
sistants. 

S. Marcy, 1846, 1851-5, 1858-9, 

W. N. Jetfers, Jr., 1849, 

S. P. Carter, 1851-3, 1858-9, 

W. P. Buckner, 1851-6, 1859-60, 

J. Armstrong, 1851-4, 

A. M. DeBree, 1851, - 

J. V, N. Blake, 1851-7, 

E. Simpson, 1853-5, 1859-62, 



140 



HISTORY OF THE 



W. K. Mavo, 1855-r, 1859, 

R. W. Scott, 1855-7, 1859-60, 

J. T. ^Yood, 1855-8, 1860, 

W. II. Willcox, 1855-r, 

S. R. Franklin, 1856, 

J. Watters, 1857, 

0. W. Flnsser, 1857-9, 

C. H. Cushman, 1857-9, 

J. N. Miller, 1857-8, 1860, 

J. I. Waddell, 1858, 

R. H. Wvman, 1859, 

J. H. Upshur, 1859-60, 

H. Davidson, 1859-60, 

W. McGunnegle, 1859, 

J. G. Walker, 1859, 

F. E. Shepperd, 1859, 

G. W. Rodgers, 1860, 
S. B. Luce, 1860, 

B. B. Tavlor, 1860, 

E. O. Mathews, 1860-2, 
E. P. Lull, 1860-2, 
J. D. Marvin, 1861-2, 

C. L. Huntington, 1861-2, 
E. P. Brower, 1861-2. 

Assistant Professors. 

A. H. Barber, 1856, 
T. Karney, 1856-62, 
L. I. Dovilliers, 1856-62, 
W. R. Hopkins, 1857-62, 
W. H. Willcox, 1857-62, 
W. Harwood, 1857-60, 
M. H. Beecher, 1859-62, 
T. G. Forde, 1861-2, 
A. L. Smith, 1861-2. 

Surgeons and Assistants. 
J. A. Lockwood, 1815-50, 



D. S. Green, 1850-3, 
N. Pinkney, 1853-5, 
S. Sharp, 1855-9, 
W. Grier, 1859-60, 
J. 0. Palmer, 1860-2, 
J. Y. Taylor, 1858, 
J. McMaster, 1859, 
O. S. Inglehart, 1860. 

Chaplains. 

George Jones, 1845-53, 
T. B. Bartow, 1853-9, 
George Jones, 1859-60, 
D. X. Junkin, 1861-2. 

There are also attached to the 
Academy, 1861-2, 

Paymaster. 

H. M. HieskiU. 

Secretary. 
R. M. Chase. 

Superintendents Clerk. 
O. D. Robb. 

Paymaster'^s Glerh. 
J. 11. Havens. 

Assistant Librarian. 
J A. Davenport. 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 



141 



V. 

GRADUATES WHO WERE NOT IN THE FOUR YEARS' 

COURSE. 

(Any iDaccuraeies which may be discovered in this list will be cheerfully corrected in 
later editions.) 



C. W. Abv, 


1846 


L. A. Beardslee, 


1856 


R. Auliok, 


u 


W. L. Bradford, 


(( 


W. D. Austin, 


(1 


R. Bovd, Jr., 


u 


J. Armstrong, 


1847 


C. A. Babcock, 


u 


A. Alhiiand, 


1849 


George Bacon, 


u 


E. T. Andrews, 


u 


S. P. Carter, 


1846 


T. Abbot. 


1854 


T. S. Conover, 


(( 


H. A. Adams, Jr., 


1855 


G. Cilley, 


1848 


Aeneas Armstrong, 


185G 


D. Coleman, 


u 


J. M. Bradford, 


1846 


J. J. Cook, 


u 


J. W. Bennet, 


(( 


F. G. Clarke, 


u 


H. 0. Blake, 


^^, 


II. N. Crabb, 


1849 


F. B. Brand, 


u 


W. 0. Grain, 


ii, 


E. Brinley, Jr., 


u 


R. R. Carter, 


u 


W. K. Bridge, 


1847 


R. Cliandler, 


1852 


T. W. Brodbead, 


(1 


E. 0. Carnes, 


ii 


J. M. Brooke, 


u 


J. J. Cornwell, 


1853 


W. P. Buckner, 


<( 


R. T. Chapman, 


n 


0.- C. Badger, 


(( 


A. B. Cummings, 


n 


S. S. Bassett, 


a 


W. P. A. CampbeU, 


it 


J. T. Barrand, 


i; 


C. H. Cushman, 


1855 


C. C. Bayard, 


1848 


W. II. Cheever, 


a 


G. H. Bier, 


(( 


C. C. Carpenter, 


1856 


A. T. Byrens, 


1849 


A. J. McCartney, 


u 


S. J. Bliss, 


li 


J. C. Chaplin, 


u 


S. L. Breese, 


1852 


M. C. Campbell, 


(( 


I). L. Braine, 


(1 


C. Dyer, Jr., 


1846 


K. R. Breese, 


(( 


G. V. DennLston, 


u 


E. Brodliead, 


1853 


J. L. Davis, 


1847 


R. T. Bowen, 


li 


E. D. Dennv, 


(1 


F. F. Brose, 


u 


F. G. Dallas, 


' 1848 


A. E. K. Benham, 


a 


W. DeKoven, 


it. 


G. E. Belknap, 


u 


J. D. Danels, 


u 


J. D. Blake, 


1854 


J. P. C. DeKraflft, 


1848 


J. Bruce, 


u 


R. C. Duvall, 


It 


F. II. Baker, 


1854 


A. M. DeBree, 


1849 


George Brown, 


1855 


II. Davidson, 


(( 



142 



HISTORY OF THE 



W. F. Davidson, 


1849 


A. DesloHde, 


u 


J. W. Dunniiigton, 


1855 


W. 11. Dana, 


185(5 


W. G. Dozier, 


u 


E. English, 


1846 


T. C. Eaton, 


1847 


J. R. Eggleston, 


1853 


Henry Erben, Jr., 


1855 


"W. II. Fauntleroy, 


1847 


Joseph Fry, 


(( 


S. R. Franklin, 


1848 


D. A. Forrest, 


a 


T. S. Fillebrown, 


<( 


J. L. Friend, 


a 


J. P. Foster, 


1853 


0. Vi. Flusser, 


(( 


J. P. Fvfte, 


1854 


W. E. Fitzhugh, 


n 


Francis Gregory, 


1846 


W. Gibson, 


1847 


W. M. Gamble, 


1848 


C. Grav, 


u 


f^. V. Gilliss, 


il 


S. P. GritRn, 


1849 


E. 0. Grafton, 


u 


E. F. Gray, 


1852 


B. (rlierardi, 


a 


W. Gvvin, 


1853 


J. A. Greer, 


1854 


C. 11. Greene, 


11. 


J. II. Gillis, 


u 


H. M. Garland, 


1855 


R. Harris, 


1840 


•J. P. Hall, 


u 


T. 0. Harris, 


1847 


II. C. Hunter, 


n 


J. E. Hart, 


1848 


J. J. llarlson. 


u 


W. AV. Holi.iea, 


It 


W. G. llotlman, 


1848 


M. Haxtun, 


a 


C, F. Hopkins, 


(( 


E. W. Henry, 


u 


C. C. Hunter, 


a 



A. W. Ilabershaw, 1849 
G. H. Hare, 

H. St. G. Hunter, " 

Thos. T. Houston, 1851 
J. R. Hamilton, " 

D. B. Harmony, 1853 

B. E. Hand, 

J. G. Ileileman, 1854 
J. W. Hester, " 

C. E. Ilawley, 1855 
A. Izard, 1856 
W. N. Jeffers, Jr., 1846 
M. P. Jones, 1847 
J. P. Jones, 1848 
J. E. Jouett, " 
W. F. Jones, " 

A. W. Jolmson, ■ 1849 
O. F. Johnson, 1852 
P. C. Johnson, Jr., " 
J. E. Johnston, 1854 
J. Kell, 1848 
G. S. King, " 

B. Kennon, 1852 
L. A. Kimberly, 1853 
W. A. Ivirkland, 1850 
R. B. Lowry, 1846 
R. L. Law, 1847 
L. H. Lyne, '-' 
W. W. Low, 1848 
0. Latimer, " 
J. D. Langhorne, " 
T. Lee, 1852 
S. B. Luce, " 
W. S. Lovell, 1853 
De G. Livingston, 1855 
B. P. Loyall, " 
J. B. McCauley, 1846 
R. U. MeAraim, " 
J. V. MeCollum, 1847 
A. F. Monroe, " 
AV. II. Mui-(huigh, « 
A. MfLaughUn, 1848 
J. ISIcL. Muri)hy, " 
(i. E. iMurgan, " 
n. D. .Minor, « 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 



143 



E. Y. McCauley 

D. P. McOorkle, 
W. K. Mavo, 

J. H. March, 
S. Maguvv, 
A. MfLane, 
J. Maury, 
W. Mitchell, 

C. P. McGary, 
W. R. Mercer, 
G. U. Morris, 
W. McGunnegle, 
J. P. K. Mvgatt, 
W. P. McKann, 
R. L. Mav, 

E. P. McCrea, 
J. G. Max vv: ell, 
G. F. Morrison, 
John G. Mitchell, 
R. W. Meade, Jr., 
W. Nelson, 

L. II. Newman, 

D. Ochiltree, 

E. II. Oakley, 
T. S. Phelps, 
J. J. Pringle, 
L. Paulding, 
R. J. D. Price, 
W. L. Powell, 

J. Van Ness Philip, 

D. Plieuix, 

W. H. Parker, 

S. L. Pholps, 

Jas. Parker, Jr., 

A. Pendergrast, 

T. P. Pelot, 

Er-E. Potter, 

0. F. Peck, 

S. P. Quackenbush, 

W. Reily, 

T. Roney, 

J. Rochelle, 

J. II. Russell, 

r. A. Roe, 



1848 


E. Renshaw, 


1848 


(1 


J. 1). Rainey, 


1853 


u 


F. M. Ramsay, 


1850 


u 


E. Simpson, 


1846 


" 


E. C. Stout, 


(1 


u 


R. Savage, 


u 


u 


G. A. Stevens, 


u 


1849 


W. H. Smith, 


(( 


(( 


R. Selden, 


1847 


(1 


W. Sharp, 


11 


1852 


J. II. Somerville, 


u 


1853 


M. J, Smith, 


1848 


a 


E. E. Stone, 


{( 


1854 


W. Smith, 


(( 


1855 


R. Stuart, 


(( 


u 


J. B. Smith, 


(C 


u 


A. A. Semmes, 


(( 


u 


J. A. Seawall, 


u 


1856 


J. B. Stewart, 


1849 


u 


E. Shepherd, 


a 


1840 


G. T. Simes, 


u 


1853 


R. W. Scott, 


1850 


1846 


J. G. Sproston, 


1852 


1854 


C. B. Smith, 


u 


1846 


0. F. Stanton, 


1855 


(( 


F. E. Shepperd, 


it 


(( 


J. W. Shirk, 


C( 


1847 


E. C. Stockton, 


(( 


u 


W. G. Temple, 


1846 


1848 


J. S. Thornton, 


1847 


u 


W. T. Truxtuu, 


u 


u 


C. E. Thorburn, 


1853 


1849 


W. Totton, 


It 


1852 


J. Taylor, Jr., 


1855 


1854 


C. F. Tiiomas, 


1856 


1855 


J. H. Upshur, 


1848 


1856 


W. II. Ward, 


1855 


t( 


J. G. Walker, 


1856 


1846 


W. Van AVvck, 


1848 


1847 


N. 11. Van Zandt, 


1849 


" 


E. Vandor Horst, 


ii, 


1848 


G. W. Young, 


1848 


(( 


T. Youritr, 


(( 


(( 


Total, '251. 





144 



mSTOBY OF THE 



VI. 

GRADUATES WHO WERE m THE FOUR YEARS' COURSE. 



W. N". Allen, 


1856 


G. D. Gove, 


1856 


J. W. Alexander, 


1857 


N. Green, 


u 


8. W. Averett, 


1859 


C. J. Graves, 


1857 


S. D. Ames, 


1860 


J. Grimball, 


1858 


J. L. Barnes, 


1854 


S. D. Greene, 


1859 


T. McK. Buchanan, 


1855 


S. P. Gillett, 


1860 


R. F. Bradford, 


1856 


A. Hopkins, 


1855 


G. A. Bigelow, 


(( 


J. W. Harris, 


1856 


G. M. Blodgett, 


u 


C. Hatfield, 


u 


F. B. Blake, 


1857 


J. A. Howell, 


1858 


F. M. Bunce, 


u 


H. L. Ilowison, 


u 


J. Bishop, 


1858 


W. B. Hall, 


1859 


H. M. Blue, 


u 


S. H. Hackett, 


a 


G. A. Borcliert, 


1859 


T. L. Harrison, 


1860 


W. R. Butt, 


(( 


H. D. Hoole, 


(( 


W. H. Barton, 


1860 


F. L. Hoge, 


u 


F. S. Brown, 


u 


G. W. Havward, 


1861 


G. M. Bache, 


1861 


J. W. Kellv, 


1857 


T. C. Bowen, 


(( 


W. A. Kerr, 


1858 


J. Cain. Jr., 


1854 


A. Kantz, 


a 


A. F. Crosman, 


1855 


T. F. Kane, 


1859 


A. P. Cooke, 


1856 


G. E. Law, 


1855 


II. B. Claiborne, 


1859 


E. P. Lull, 


u 


H. Cenas, 


u 


E. Lea, 


(( 


S. E. Casey, Jr., 


1860 


J. N. Miller, 


1854 


J. B. CroMivvell, 


1861 


E. 0. Matthews, 


1855 


H. H. Dalton, 


1855 


J. C. Mosely, 


1856 


George Dewey, 


1858 


C. J. McDougal, 


u 


T. L. Dornin, 


1800 


T. B. Mills, 


1857 


A. Dexter, 


1861 


F. V. McXarr, 


u 


F. 0. Davenport, 


u 


II. W. Miller, 


u 


T. II. Eastman, 


1856 


C. ^[erohant. 


t( 


W. E. Evans, 


u 


L. C. Mav, 


1858 


LeRoy Fitch, 


u 


A. T. Malian, 


1859 


C. L. Franklin, 


1858 


A. S. Mackenzie, 


u 


E. G. Furbur, 


u 


R. S. McCook, 


u 


N. 11. Fanpihar, 


1859 


J. I). Marvin, 


1860 


R. W. M. Graham, 


1855 


A. R. McNair. 


u 



NAVAL ACADKMY. 



145 



H. D. n. Matiley, 
C. E. McKay, 
J. F. Mclileiisey, 
II. E. iMullan, 
Charles S. Norton, 
J. O'Kane, 
Philip Poroher, 
R. L. Plivthiau, 
T. K. Porter, 
G. H. Perkins, 
J. l[. Pritehett, 
li. Prentiss, 
S. D. Paddock, 
L. Phenix, 
II. F. Picking, 
J. W. Philip, 
A. V. Reed, 
G. C. Reiney, 
H. B. Robeson, 

E. G. Read, 
0. W. Read, 
G. P. Ryan, 

F. Rodfjers, 
Thos. O. Selfridge, 
J. M. Stribling, 
M. Sicard, 

G. S. Shvrock, 
n. B. Seely, 



1860 


G. S. Storrs, 


1858 


1861 


0. II. Swasey, 


1859 


a 


B. P. Smith, 


t; 


<( 


0. M. Sohoonmaker, 


(( 


1855 


Thos. S. Spencer, 


(I 


1860 


M. S. Stuyvesant, 


1860 


1855 


T. L. Swann, 


(( 


1856 


W. S. Schley, 


(( 


(( 


W, T. Sampson, 


1861 


i( 


A. T. Sneli, 


u 


1857 


W. F. Stewart, 


(( 


1859 


F. Steece, 


(1 


1860 


J. M. Todd, 


1854 


1861 


E. Terrv, 


1857 


i( 


II. D. Todd, 


(( 


« 


J. L. Tayloe, 


18G0 


1858 


R. R. Wallace, 


1856 


1859 


B. Wilson, 


1857 


1860 


G. B. White, 


1858 


i( 


W. C. Whittle, 


^i 


(1 


G. 0. Wiltse, 


1859 


1861 


E. A. Walker, 


1860 


(( 


W. Whitehead, 


(( 


1854 


J. 0. Watson, 


(( 


(I 


A. D. Wharton, 


-<i 


1855 


J. Weidman, 


1861 


1856 


A. R. Yates, 


1853 


1857 


Total, 131. 





REOAPrrULATION. 



251 
131 



Graduates who were not in the four years' course. 
Graduates who were in the four years' course, 

Total of Graduates, from the organization of the Academy 
in 1845, to the present time, 882 

7 



146 HISTOEY OF THE 

VII. 
OFFICERS OF THE NAVY TO WHOM THANKS, MEDALS, AND 
SWORDS HAVE BEEN VOTED BY CONGRESS. 

(Extracted from the Army and Navy Eegister for 1839, by Peter Force, Esq. Nearly 
all the Muster Rolls of the Navy, prior to 1818, having been burned in 1833, this is all 
the information that can now be accurately obtained in relation to the " War Ser- 
vice.") 

Capture of tlie French Frigate Insukgentk, by the United 
States' Frigate Constellation, February 1, 1799. 

The thanks of the President of the United States, to Commo- 
dore Truxton, his officers and crew, for their good conduct and 
gallantry on this occas'ion, were communicated in a letter from 
the Secretary of the Navy to Commodore Truxton, dated 13th 
March, 1799, of which the following is an extract: 

" The President desires me to communicate to you, his high 
approbation of the whole of your able and judicious conduct in 
the West Indies; and to present to you, and through you to the 
officers and crew of the Constellation, his thanks for the good 
conduct, exact discipline, and bravery, displayed in the action 
with, and capture of the French frigate Insurgeiite, on the 9th 
February. I must, however, add that he observes, and all the 
officers of the government, indeed all others I have heard speak 
on the subject, join in tlie observation, that this is nothing but 
what we expected from Truxton." 

The officers in the fighting dej)artment who shared with Com- 
modore Truxton the honor of this victory, were: 

Bartholomew Clinch, lieutenant 



.John liodgcrs, lieutenant, 
William Cowpcr, " 
Andrew Sterritt, " 
J(jhn Arcilier, " 

Amhnjse Shirley, sailing m;ister, 



marines, 
Henry Vandyke, midshipman, 
John II. Dent, 
Pliil. ('. Wedcrslnindt, " 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 



147 



John M. Clapott, inidshipniaii. 
J. M. MoDonough, 
David Porter, " 

Win. Davis, " 

Josliujv Herbert, " 

Artiuir Sinclair, " 

Thomas Robinson, " 
Sauil. B. Brooks, master's mate, 
Jos. S. Smith, 
Buniel Gorman, " 

Officers of the Coxstellation in 
action with the French ship 
of war La Vexgeance, Feb- 
ruary 1, 1800. 

(See Resolution of Congress of March 29, 
ISUO.) 

Thomas Truxton, ca])tain, 
Andrew Sterritt, 1st lieutenant, 
Ambrose Shirley, 2d " 

Sand. B. Brooks, 3d " 

John II. Dent, 4th " 

Danl. Eldridge. master, 
B. Clinch, lieutenant raarmes, 
James Morgan, gunner, 
Abraham Long, boatswain, 
Pat. McDonald, carpenter, 
Rol)ert Henley, uudshipman, 
Phil. C. Wederstrandt, " 
Henry Vandyke, " 

Benjamin Yancy, " 

Samuel Angus, " 

Saml. Woodliouse, " 

John il. Claggett, " 

Robert Warren, " 

James T. T^^onard, " 

Benj. F. Read, " 

Thomas Robinson, " 

James Jarvis, " 

Isaac Garrettson, purser, 
Is.aac Henry, surgeon, 
John Murdaugh, surgeon's mate. 



Capture of the TripoUtnn sh'q) 
of war TiuroLi. by the United 
States schooner Enteim-kise, 
August 1, 1801. 

(See Resolution of Contrress of February 
3, 1M)2.) 

The following are all the names 
of the officers engaged in this 
action we have been able to ob- 
tain: 

A. Sterritt, lieutenant command- 
ing, 

David Porter, lieutenant, 

R. H. Lawson, " 

E. S. Lane, lieutenant of ma- 
rines. 

Capture and destruction of re 
Tripolitan frigate (the Phil- 
adelphia), of forty four guns, 
in the harbor of Tripoli, by 
the United States Tcetch Ix- 
TEEPiD, February 16, 1804. 

(See Resolution of Confess of Novem- 
ber 2T, 1804.) 

Names of the officers, sea- 
men, and marines, who volun- 
teered their services on this oc- 



Stephen Decatur, conmiander, 
James Lawrence, lieutenant, 
Jose])h Baini>ridge, 
Jonathan Thorn, '' 
Lewis Heerman, surgeon, 
John Row, midshipman, 
Thos. Macdonougli, midshipman, 
Ral])h Izard, 



us 



HISTORY OF THE 



Alexander Laws, midsliipman, 
Charles Morris, " 

John Davis, " 

Thomas A. Anderson, " 
AVilliain Willey, boatswain, 
"William Hook, gunner, 
Geo. Crawford, quartermaster, 
George Brown, " 

John Newman, " 

Paul Frazier, " 

Jas. Metcalfe, boatswain's mate, 
Nicholas Brown, " " 

Edward Keller, master's mate, 
Saml. Endieott, quarter gunner, 
James "Wilson, " " 

John Ford, 

Eichard Doyles, " " 

Charles Berryman, seaman, 
Peter Murrell, " 

Edward Burk, 
Eichard Ormon, " 

Samuel Jackson, " 

James Pasgrove, " 

Joseph Goodwyn, " 

John Boyles, " 

Augustus C. Finer, " 

Daniel Frazier, " 

William Graham, " 

Eeubcn James, " 

Eobert Love, " 

John "Williams, " 

Joseph Fairfield, " 

George Fridge, " 

James Eobinson, " 

Matthew Yates, " 

"William Duckett, " 

Andrew Espy, " 

William Trumbo, " 

Thomas James, " 

Joseph Normond, " 

(ieorge Murray, " 

JiolKTt M. Knight, " 

AVilliam Dixon, " 

Joseph Parker, " 



Henry Davenport, seaman, 
Michael Williams, " 

Joseph Boyd, S. steward, 
Dennis O'Bryan, ord'ry seaman, 
Jacob Kurgen, " " 

John Benton, ordinary seaman, 
"W^illiam Eodgers, " 

Charles Eobinson, " 
"William Tripple, " 

John Joseph, " 

Marines. 

Solomon Wren, sergeant, 
Duncan Mansfield, corporal, 
Noble James, private, 
John Quinn, " 

Isaac Campfield, " 
Ecuben O'Brian, " 
William Pepper, " 
J. Wolsfrandoff, " 

Officers of the United States' 
Squadron, vnder the command 
qf Commodore Edward Preble, 
in the several attacks on the 
City and Ilarlor of Tkipoli, 
in July, At/gust, and Septem- 
ber, 1804. 

(Resolution of Congress of March 8, 1S05.) 

Stephen Decatur, Jr., captain of 
the frigate Congress, 

Charles Stewart, master and 
commander, brig Siren, 

Lsaac Hull, master and comman- 
der, brig Argus, 

John \Smith, master and com- 
mander, brig Vixen, 

Isaac ( 'hauiicey, master and com- 
luaiider, frigate Jt)hn Adam«, 

John 11, Dent, lieut. command- 
ant, si'hooner Nautilus, 

Thomas Eobinson, licut. coiu- 
mander. Schooner Enteriirise, 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 



149 



Charles Gordon, lieutenant, 
Josepli Tnrliell, '' 

.SimuK'l Kll>LTt, " 

Cliiirles Morris, " 

llethcote I. lieed, " 

Daniel S. Dexter, " 

Edward Ik-uuett, " 

John li. Nicholson, " 
James Lawrence, " 

Josei)]i Bainbridge, " 
J. Thorn, " 

Tiionias McDonough, " 
Michael 15. Carroll, •' 
Joseph I. Maxwell, " 
WilUani Burrows, " 

liohert T. S[)ence, " 
Syhraut Van Sehalck, " 
Jolin Trijjpe, " 

AVilliani M. Crane, " 
G. AV. Keed. " 

Cliarles G. liidgely, " 
Ralph Izard, " 

J. M. Ilaswell, " 

G. Mareellin, " 

Nathaniel llaraden, sailing mas- 
ter, 
Marnuuluke Dove, master, 
Seth Carter, " 

Richard Butler, " 

Stephen Cassin, " 

James Wells, surgeon, 

Lewis Heerman, surgeon, 

Sanmel R. Marshall, " 

:S[. T. Weenis, " 

John AV. Dor.sey, " 

Larkin Gritlin, " 

L Graham, " 

(J. R. Jacques, " 

N. Morris, purser, 

T. Winn, 

John Darbv, " 

Jas. Tootell, " 

J. Green, " 

r. Lcuuurd, chaplain, 



Jol'ii Hall, captain of marines, 
Robert Cireenlcaf, lieutenant of 

marines, 
John Johnson, lieutenant of nux- 

rines. 

Officers, seamen, and marines, 
killed before Tkipoi.i, icith the 
names of the vessels to which 
they belonged. 

July 7 — Siren. 

"William Williams, seaman. 

August 3 — Xautilus. 

James Decatur, lieutenant. 

August 7 — Siren, 

James R. Caldwell, lieutenant, 
John Spear, quartermaster, 
John S. Dorsey, midsliipman, 
Wm. Davis, boatswain's mate, 
James Farrell, (juarter gunner, 
John Robinson, seaman, 
John Holmes, " 

George Irving, " 

Jno. Meredith, sergeant marines, 
Nath'l Holmes, private " 

August 17 — Vixen. 

John Brown, seaman, 
John Jones, 

August 28 — John Adams. 

Thos. Macdonough, seaman, 
Wm. Fountain, " 

John Bartlett, " 

September 4 — Xantiltts. 

Richard Somers, captain, 
James Simms, seaman, 
Thos. Tom[)line, " 
James Harris, " 

William Keith, " 



150 



IIISTOKY OF THE 



September 4 — Constitution. 
Henry Wadswortli, lieutenant, 
JusL'])li Israel, " 

"N'i illiani Harrison, seaman, 
Kobert Clark, " 

Hugh McCormick, " 
Jacob Williams, " 

Peter Penner, " 

Isaac W. Downes, , " 

Total— 30 killed. 

Officers of the Constitution in 
action with the "Gueeeieee," 
August 19, 1812. 

(Eesolution of' Consrress of January 29, 
1M3.) 

Isaac Hull, captain, 
Cliarles Morris, lieutenant, 
Alex. S. Wadswortb, " 
Beeknian V. Ilotfraan, lieutenant 
George C. Read, " 

John T. Shubrick, " 

Charles W. Morgan, " 

John C. Ahvyn, sailing master, 
AVm. S. Bush, 1st lieut. marines, 
John Contee, 2d " " 

Amos A. Evans, surgeon, 
Jolin D. Armstrong, surgeon's 

mate, 
Donaldson Yates, surgeon's 

mate, 
Thomas J. Chew, purser, 
Ambrose L. Field, midshipman, 
Henry Gilliam, " 

Thomas Beatty, " 

AViUlaMi D. Slater, " 

Lewis German, " 

AVilliam L. Gordon, •' 

Frederick Baury, " 

JoHcph Cross, " 

Alexander Jk-lclies, " 

AVilliam Taylor, " 

Alexander i^skridgo, " 



James W. Delany, midshipman, 
James Greenleaf, " 

Allen Griffin, " 

John Tayloe, " 

Peter Adams, boatswain, 
Robert Anderson, gunner. 

Officers of the United States in 
action with the " Macedo- 
nian," Octoler 25, 1812. 

(Resolution of Consress of January 29, 

1813.) 

Stephen Decatur, commodore, 
"William H. Allen, lieutenant, 
John Gallagher, " 

John M. Funck, " 

George C. Read, " 

Walter Winter, " 

John B. Nicolson, " 

John D. Sloat, sailing master, 
Samuel R. Trevitt, surgeon, 
Samuel Vernon, surgeon's mate, 
John B. Timberlake, purser, 
John P. Zantzinger,midshipman, 
John Stansbury, " 

Joseph Cassin, " 

Philip Voorhees, " 

Richard Delphi, " 

Dugom Tavlor, " 

Richard S.'Heath, " 

Edward F. Howell, " 

Archibald Hamilton, " 
John M'Caw, " 

H. Z. W. Harrington, " 
William Jamesson, " 

Lewis llenclinian, " 

Benjamin S. William, " 
Thomas Barry, gunner, 

^[(irini'!*. 

William Anderson, lieutenant, 
James L. Edwards, "■ 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 



151 



Officers of the Wasp in action ' Officers of the Constitution in 
' " " ' ^^ action with the Jay A, Decem- 

ber 29, 1612. 



irith the Fuouo, October 18, 
1812. 

(Resolution of Omsrross of January 29, 

Jacob Jones, coinniander, 
George W. Rodgers, lieuteuant, 
James Biddle, " 

Bonjainin Booth, " 

Alexander Claxton, " 

Henry B. Rapp, " 

AVilliam Knight, sailing master, 
Thomas Harris, surgeon, 
George S. Wise, purser, 
John M'Cloud, boatswain, 
George Jackson, gunner, 
George Van Clave, midshipman, 
A. S. Ten Eick, " 

Richard Brashears, " 
John Ilolcomb, " 

WilUam J. M'Cluney, " 
C. J. Baker, " 

Charles Gaunt, " 

Walter W. New, surgeon's mate. 

Officers at the capture of the 
Detroit and Caledonia, Octo- 
ber 8, 1812. 

(Resolution of Consress of January 29, 
1S13.) 

Jesse D. Elliott, commander, 
George Watts, sailing master, 
Alexander Sitjson, " " 

"N. To\vs(m, captain of artillery, 

as cai)tain of marines, 
Isaac Roach, lieutenant of artil- 
lery, as lieutenant of marines, 
William Pressman, ensign of in- 
fantry, as lieutenant of ma- 
rines. 
J, C. Cuinming, acting midship- 
man, 



(Eesolution of Congress of March 3, 1S13.) 

William Bainbridge, captain, 
George Parker, lieutenant, 
Beckman V. llottraan, " 
John T. Shubrick, " 
Charles AV. Morgan, " 
John C. Avhvin, sailing master, 
John Nichols, " " 

John Carlton, chaplain, 
William H. Freeman, lieutenant 

of marines, 
John Contee, 2d lieut. marines, 
Amos A, Evans, surgeon, 
John D. Armstrong, surgeon's 

mate, 
DonaldronYeates, surg'n's mate, 

Robert C. Ludlow, purser, 

Henry Gillam, midshipman, 

Thomas Beatly, " 

Xewis German, " 

William L. Gordon, " 

Ambrose L. Fields, " 

Frederick Baury, " 

Joseph Cross. " 

Alexander Belches, " 

William Taylor, " 

Alexander Eskridge, " 

James W. Delany, " 

-lames Greenleaf, " 

William 1). M'Carty, " 

Z. M. Nixon, " 

John A. Wisli, " 

Dulauy Forrest, " 

George Leverett, " 

Henry Ward, " 

John C. Long, " 

John Packett, " 

Richard Winter, " 

Peter Adams, boatswain, 

Ezekiel Darling, gunner, 



152 



HISTORY OF THE 



John 0. Cummings, acting mid- 
shipman. 

Officers in the victory on Lake 
Erie, Septejuher 10, 1813. 

(KesolutioD of Congress of January 6, 
ISM.) 

LAWEENCE. 

Oliver II. Perry, commandhag, 
John J. Yarnell, lieutenant, 
Dulany Forrest, " 

Samiiel Hambleton, purser, 
Samuel Horsley, surgeon, 
^Villiam V. Taylor, sailing mas- 
ter, 
Tiiomas Breeze, chaplain, 
Ursher Parsons, acting surgeon, 
Augus. Swartwout, midshipman, 
Peleg K. Durham, " 

Henry Laub, " 

James Alex. Perry, " 

John Fox, gunner, 
Joseph Cheeves, boatswain, 
John Brooks, lieut. of marines, 
James Tull, sergeant marines, 
Wm. S. Johnson, " " 

CALEDONIA. 

Daniel Turner, lieutenant com- 
audant, 

James E. M'Donald, sailing mas- 
ter, 

Thomas Rogers, boatswain, 

Joseph lieckley, sergeant ma- 
rines, 

James Artis, sergeant marines. 



Stephen Champlin, sailing mas- 
ter, 
John W. Wendell, midsliipman, 
Jolin Clark, " 

Jolni Fifcll, boatswain's mate, 
J<).sei)h Berrj, corporal nuu'inos. 



POECUPIKTE. 

George Senate, acting sailing 

master, 
Cornelius Denicke, master's 

mate, 
Daniel Armitage, boatswain's 

mate, 
David Little, corporal marines, 
J. Packet, lieut. commandant, 
Thos. Brownell, sailing master, 
Gamaliel Darling, master s mate, 
John AVhite, boatswain's mate, 
Robert xVnderson, lieut. of in- 
fantry, connnanding marines. 



Thos. 0. Ahny, sailing master, 
David C. Nichols, midshipman, 
Clem. Shannon, boatswain's 
mate. 



Thomas Holdup, (Thomas Hold- 
up Stephens,) lieut. com- 
mander, 
James Bliss, midshipman, 
Alexander M'Culleu, master's 

mate, 
John Brown, boatswain's mate, 
James Blair, lieut. of infantry, 

conmianding marines, 
John Brown, corporal marines. 



A. H. M. Conkling, lieut. com- 
mander, 
Alexand'r C. Stout, nndshipman, 
Hugh N. Page, 

Petei- l>rown, boatswain's mate, 
Wm. Webster, corp'l marmes. 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 



153 



Jesse T). Elliott, ciqitain, 
Jqjin J. Edwards, lieutenant, 
JoSf|)li E. Smith, " 

Nelson Webster, sailing master, 
Daniel Dohbins, " " 

Kohert K. Barton, siu'geon, 
llumplirey Magnitli,'i)urser, 
J. B. Montgomery, midshipman, 
James L. Cunnnings, " 
Charles Smith, " 

S. W. Adams, " 

Ilobert S. Tateni, " 

Simeon Warn, " 

Edward Bridgeport, gunner, 
Peter Barry, boatswain, 
Geo. Stockton, captain marines, 
Henry B. Brevoort, captain in- 
fantry, commanding marines, 
John Ileddleson, lieut. '* 

Jonathan Curtis, serg't " 
Sanford A. Mason, " " 

Officers of the Extekprise in ac- 
tion icith the Boxer, Scptem- 
ler 4, 1813. 

(Resolution of Consrcss, of January 6, 
lsi4.) 

"William Burrows, lieut. com- 
mandant, 
Edward K. M'Call, first lieiiten- 

ant, 
Thomas G. Tillinghast, second 

lieutenant, 
"William Harper, sailing master, 
John H. Aulick, master's mate, 
Bailey Washington, surgeon, 
Edwin W. Turner, purser, 
Kervan Waters, midshipman, 
^Vil]iam F. Shields, 
Vincent L. Sassier, " 
Eichard O'Neal, 
Horatio Ewart, gunner, 
John Ball, boatswain. 



Officers of the Hornet in action 
icith the Peacock, February 
24, 1813. 

(Uesolution of Conjjress, of January 11, 
JS14.) 

James Lawrence, master com- 
mandant, 
John T. Shabrick, lieutenant, 
W^alter Stewart, " 

David Conner, " 

John T. Newton, acting lieuten- 
ant, 
John Earles, sailing master, 
Sylvester Bill, acting sailing 

ma.ster, 
Micajah Ilawkes, surg'n's mate, 
Charles Cotton, acting surgeon, 
Ik^njamin Cooper, midshipman, 
French Forrest, " 

George Getz, " 

Ira Titus, " 

William Boerum, " 

Wni. E. McKenney, " 

Thomas A. Tippet, " 

Joseph Smoot, " 

Officers in the victory on Laks 
Champlain, Sejitemher 11, 
1814. 

(Etsolution of Congress, of October 20, 
1S14.) 

Thos. Macdonough, command- 
ing the squadron, 

Eobert Henley, master com- 
mandant, 

Stephen Cassin, lieutenant com- 

•• mandant, 

Joseph Smith, lieutenant, 

John Stansburj^, " 

Peter (iainble, " 

Francis Mitchell. " 

Silas Duncan, acting lieutenant, 

Wm. A. Spencer, " " 



lU 



ITTSTOPvY OF THE 



Horace F. Maroellin, sailing 

master, 
E. A. F. Vallette, sailing master, 
Sainnel Kettletas, " 
AVin. M. Kobins, " 
Joseph Lindsay, " 
Henry Few, " 

Philip Brum, " 

Dan'l S. Stellwagon, " 
Roger Carter, acting master, 
John Hazleton, " " 
Jarius Loom is, " " 
Giistavus R. Brown, surgeon's 

mate, 
William Caton, surgeon, 
Charles T. Piatt, midshipman, 
John Kilburn, " 

Thomas A. Conover, " 
Daniel Hazard, " 

Hiram Paulding, " 

Frank Ellerv, " 

Joel Abbot," " 

Joseph S. Cannon, " 

William Boden, " 

Lawrence Montgomery, " 
Samuel Theriug, " 

Henry Tardy, " 

Samuel L. Breeze, " 

Walter N. Monteath, " 
James M. Freeman, " 

John H. Graham, " 

William Machesney, " 
Chas. L. Williamson, " 
James M. Baldwin, acting mid- 

shii>man. 
Josepii Barron, pilot, 
Thomas Pialicock, " 
7\braliam Walters, " 
William Wriiiht, " 



Offirers of the Peacock {in ac- 
tion tcith the Ei'ekviee), April 
29, 1814. 

(Resolution of Con^rpss of October 21, 
1S14.) 

Lewis Warrington, captain, 
John B. Nicolson, 1st lieutenant, 
Samuel Henlev, 2d " 

Philip F. Voorhees, 3d " 
John Percival, master, 
Charles B. Hamilton, surgeon, 
Herman Thorn, purser. 
Hill Carter, midshipman, 
Richardson N. Buck, " 
John M. Dale, " 

William T. Rogers, " 
Israel Israel, " 

Thomas Greeves, " 
Nehemiah Tilton, " 
AVilliam H. Jenkins, " 
Thomas Cadle, surgeon's mate, 
Philip S. Meyer, master's mate, 
Denison Baldwin, " " 

Josei>h Price, boatswain, 
Robert Benson, gunner, 
Daniel Cole, carpenter, 
diaries lleyer, sail maker, 
J. S. Townsend, captain's clerk. 

Officers of the Wasp {in action 
with the Reindeer), Jw72e28, 
1814. 

(Resolution of Coiisrress of November 8, 
1S14.) 

Johnston Blakelv, ca]itain, 
T. G. Tilliuirhast, lieutenant, 
F. Bari-v, 
J. Reilly, 

J. E. Carr, sailing master, 
William M. Clark, surgeon, 
Lewis Fairchild, jjurser, 
Joseph Martin, boatswain, 
Thos. Rogerson, surgeon's mut*\ 



NAVAL ACADEMY. 



155 



David Geisinger, midshipman, 
llc'iirv S. Laii^'dou, " 
W. J^'. Randolph, " 

II. S. Luvfll, 
Frank Tuscan, " 

Ashtou Hall, 
William House, " 

Thomas 15onnoville, " 
William O. Barnes, sergeant of 
marines. 

The Wasp captured the Avon 
of 20 guns, on the 1st of Sep- 
teraher following. 

Officers of the Constitution {in 
action with the Cyaxe and 
Levant), February 20, 1815. 

(Ki-solntion of Con<rress, February 22, 
ISIG.) 

Charles Stewart, captain, 
Henry E. Inillard, lieutenant, 
Wm.'M. Hunter, " 

Wm. B. Shubrick, " 

B. V. Hotlnian, « 

Eichard Winter, acting lieut., 
John Tayloe, " " 

Samuel C. Ilixon, sailing master, 
John A. Kearney, surgeon, 
Benj. Austin, surgeon's mate, 
Artemas Johnson, '' " 

Robert Pottenger, purser, 
Edmd. M. Russel, midshipman, 
Horace B. Sawyer, " 

James Taylor, " 



Charles P. Durhy, midshipman, 

Alex. W. Lurt'lxirtmgh, " 
Pardon M. Whipple, 

James F. Curtis, " 

William Steele, " 

Frederick Varnum, " 

William Taylor, " 

Shubrel Pratt, " 

George Leverett, " 

John A. Wish, " 

Z. W. Nixon, " 

James W. Delany, " 

Alexander Eskridge, " 

Joseph Cross, " 

Officers of the Hornet (in ac- 
tion with the Penguin), March 
23, 1815. 

(Resolution of Congress, February 23, 
1S16.) 

James Biddle, captain, 
John T. Newton, lieutenant, 
John T. Shubrick, " 
David Conner, " 

Isaac Mayo, " 

Edward Kumney, sailing master, 
Benjamin M. Kissam, surgeon, 
Sml. M. Kissam, surgeon's mate, 
William P. Zantzinger, purser, 
Adam Kulin, midshipman, 
William Boerum, " 
AVilliam Skiddy, " 
Samuel B. Plielps, " 
Thoinas A. Tippet, " 
Joseph Smoot, " 



KoTE BY THE AuTHOR. — The official reports of Commodore 
Preble's engagements in. the harbor of Tripoli contain excellent 
commendations of Captain Channcey — "Aug. 28. I cannot, in 
justice to Captain Chauncey, omit noticing the very able assistance 
I received from him on the quarter deck of the Constitution 



15G IIISTOKY OF THE NAVAL ACADEMY. 

during the whole of the action." " Sept. 3. I again acknowl- 
edge, with pleasure, the services of an able and active officer in 
Captain Chauncey, serving on the quarter deck of the Constitu- 
tion." A very good sketch of the life of Commodore Chauncey 
has been published, recently, in the New American Cyclopa;dia 
of D. Appleton & Co., New York. — It is said that Commodore 
Paulding, who is now the commander at the Navy Yard in 
Brooklyn, was but seventeen years of age when he was in the 
action on Lake Champlain, yet, such was the want of officers, 
that he commanded a whole division of guns. He fired the guns 
with the flash of a pistol. Very many of the officers whose 
names are on the above list received prize money for their ser- 
vices in the successful engagements. The following are selected 
from the published accounts: Com. Perry $7,140, Com. McDon- 
ough $22,807, Com. Chauncey $12,750, Capt. Jones $3,750, J. D. 
Elliot, Master Commandant, $7,140, Capt. George Stockton (army) 
$2,295, Lieut. Stephen Cassin $4,552.25, Lieut. Wm. A. Spencer 
$2,012.75, Midshipmen Charles T. Piatt, Thomas A. Conover, 
Iliram Paulding, Henry Tardy, and Samuel L. Breeze, each 
$1,427.13. The curious student of history will find a full state- 
ment of the distribution of the prize money to the victors in these 
engagements, in the American State Papers, Vol. XIV., p. 5G4. 

There are several interesting reports of geological and medical 
explorations, by the Ilev. George Jones and Surgeon Daniel S. 
Green, in Commodore Perry's Narrative of the Expedition to the 
China Seas and Japan, in the years 1852, 1853 and 1854,— Vol. IL 
The Observations on the Zodiacal Light which form Volume III. 
of this work are also by the Kev. Mr. Jones. 



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the sword published in this country." — New York Tablet. 

"It is a work of obvious merit and value." — Boston Traveller. 



Military Law and Courts Martial, 

By Capt. S. V. Bknkt, U. S. Ordnance, Asst. Prof, of Ethics in the 
L'liited Slates Military Academy. 1 vol. 8vo. Law sheep. In 
Press. 

The Artillerift's Manual : 

Compiled from various Sources, and adapted to the Service of the 
United States. Profusely illustrated with wooticuts and engrav- 
ings on stone. Second edition, revised and corrected, with 
valuable additions, in press. By Capt. John Gibbo-N', U. S. 
Army. 1 vol. 8vo, half roan, .$5 ; half russia, -^C. 

This book is now considered the standard authoritv for that particular branch 
of the Service iu the I'nited States Army. The War Department, at Wasbiiia- 
ton, has exhibited its thorou'jh appreciation of the merits of this volume, the 
■want of which has been hitherto much felt in the service, by subscribing for 700 
copies. , 

"It is with ereat pleasure that we welcome the appearance of a nowvrork on 
this subj.'Ct, enlitled 'The Artillerist's .Manual,' bv (apt .lohn (ribbon, a 
hi^'hly scieutitic and iiievitorious <ifficer of artillery in our regular service. The 
■work, an octavo volume of 500 prures. in larirc. clear tvpc, appears to he well 
adapted to supply just wh.at ha.s been heretofore needed to fill the irip between 
the simple Manual and the more abstruse demonstrations ot the .sci<'n<-e of eun- 
liery. The whole work is profusely illustrated with woodcuts and enu'va- insa 
on stone, tenditigto give a more complete and exact idea of the various matters 
desiTibed in the text. The book may well be considered as a valuable and im- 
portant addition to the military science of Iho country."— jS'tM) York Herald, 



6 D. Yan Nostrand^s Publications. 

Evolutions of Field Batteries of 
Artillery. 

Translated from the French, and arranged for the Army and Militia 
of the United States. Bv Gen. Robkrt Anderson, U. S. Armv. 
Published by order of the War Department. 1 vol. cloth, 32 

plates. $1. 

Wae Department, Kav. 2il, 1859. 
The System of "Evolutions of Field Batteries,'' translated tVoiii tbe French, 
and arranged lor the service of the United States, by Major Kobert Anderson, 
of the 1st l;e;;iiiient of Artillery, havinj; been approved by the President, is 
published for the information and government of the army. 

All Evolutions of Field Batteries not embraced in this system are prohibited, 
and those herein prescribed will be strictly observed. 

J. B. FLOYD, Secretary of War. 
"This system having been adopted by the War Department, is to the artil- 
lerist what Hardee's Tactics is to the infantry soldier; the want of a work like 
this has been seriously felt, and will be eagerly welcomed." — Louisville Journal. 



Standing Orders of the Seventh 
Regiment, National Guard, 

For the Regulation and Government of the Regiment in the Field 

or in Quarters. By A. Dcryee, Colonel. New edition, flexible 

cloth. 40 cents. 

" Th's, which is a new edition of a popular work, cannot fail to be eagerly 
eought after, as presenting chai ly iind succinctly tin; juinciples of organization 
and dibcii>line of a most favorite'corps. An appropriate index fucililates refer- 
ence to the matter of the volume." — Sew Yorker. 



Ordnance and Gunnery. 

A Course of Instruction in Ordnance and Gunnery. Compiled for 

the Use of the Cadets of the United 8tates Military Academy. 

By Captain J. G. Bknton, Ordnance Department U. S. A., late 

Instructor of Ordnance and the Science of Gunnery, U. S. Mili- 

tarv -Vcadeiny, West Pohit, and First Assistant to the Chief 

of Ordn;ince, U. S. A. Second editiou, revised and enlarged. 

1 vol. 8vo, half morocco, %\. 

Capt. Benton liiis carefully revised and rorrocted this valnable work on Ord- 
nance and (iinincrv. the rn>t"e<lili(in (if w liich w.is publl^lled only alx.nt a year 
ago. The many iniport.-.nt iiniirovi'nu'nls introilnccd in this branili of tlie service 
hTive rendiMi'd'sMch a revision necessary. Tho prescnl edition will be invalua- 
ble, not only to the btuduiit, but us a Blundard book of refeiBUCo on the subjoct 
of which it treats. 



D. Van Nostrand''s Publications. 7 

The Political and Military Hiflory 
oi: the Campaign of Waterloo. 

Trausliited from the French of Gl-jutuI Bauon de Jomim. By 

Capt. S. V. Benet, U. S. Oiduancu. 1 vol. I'inio, cloth, secoiui 

edition. 75 cents. 

"Baron Joinini lias the reputation of being: one of the greatest military his- 
torians and critics of ihe century. Ilis merits have been reeo-rnized by the 
hifibest military authorities in Kurope, and were rewarded in a conspicuous 
sianner by the j-'reatest military power in Christendom, lie learned tlie art of 
war in the school of experience, the best and only finishing school of the soldier. 
He served with distinction in nearly all the campaifrns of -Napoleon, and it was 
mainly from the fji^antic niilitjiry operations of this matchless master of the 
art thiit he was enabled to discover its true princi|)les, and to ascertain the best 
means of their application in the infinity of combinations which actual war pre- 
sents Joiniui criticizes the details of Waterloo with prreat scitiice. and yet in a 
manner that interests the general reader as well as the professional." — Ntw 
York World. 

"This book by Jomini, though forming the twenty-second chapter of his 
iLife of Napoleon,' is really a unit in itself, and forms a com])lete summary of 
the campaign. It is an interesting volume, and deserves a place in the affec- 
tions of all who would be accom|>lished military men." — Xeio York Times. 

" The present vcvlunie is the concluding portion of his great work, ' Vie Poli- 
tique et Militaire de Napoleon,' published in 18'26. Capt. Benet's translation of 
it ii;is been for some time before the imblic, and has now reached a second edi- 
tion ; it is very ably executed, and forms a work which will ahvaj-s be interest- 
iuL', and especially so at a time when military affairs are uppermost in the public 
mind." — Philadelphia 2>'orlh American. 



A Treatife on the Camp and March. 

With which is connected the Construction of Field Works and Mil- 
itary Bridges ; with an Appendix of Artillery Ranges, &c. 
For the use of Volunteers and Militia in the United States. 
By Capt. Henry D. Grafton, U. S. A. 1 vol. 12uio, cloth. 
75 cents. 

Manual for Engineer Troops, 

Comprising Drill and Practice for Ponton Bridges, and Pasley's 
Rules for Conducting Operations for a Siege. The Sap, Military 
Mining and Construction of Batteries. By Capt. J. C. Dcane, 
U. S. Engineers. Plates and woodcuts. 12nio, cloth. Jn 
Press. 

New Manual of Sword and Sabre 
Exercife. 

By Captain J. C. Kelton, U. S. A. Thirty plates. In Press. 



D. Van NostrantVs Puhllcaiions. 



School of the Guides. 

Designed for the use of the Militia of tlie United States. Flexible 
cloth. 50 cents. 

"This excellent compilation condenses into a compass of less than sixty 
pages all the instruction necessary for the guides, and the information being 
disconnected with otiier matters, is more readily referred to and more easily 
acquired." — Louisville Journal. 

" rh'3 work is carefully got up, and is illustrated by numerous figures, which 
make the positions of the guides plain to the commonest understanding. Those 
of our sergeants who wish to lie ' posted ' in their duties should procure a copy." 
—Sunday Mercury, Philadelphia. 

" It has received high praise, and will prove of great service in perfecting 
the drill of our Militia." — Jv. American and U. S. Gazette, Phil. 

"This neat hand-book of the elementary movements on which the art of the 
tactician is based, reflects great credit on Col. Le Oal, whose reputation is de- 
SHrvedly high among military men. No soldier should be without the School 
of the Guides." — New York Daily News. 



Gunnery in 1858 : 

A Treatise on Eifles, Cannon, and Sporting Arms. By Wm. 
Geeeneu, C. E. 1 vol. 8vo, cloth. $3. 



Manual of Heavy Artillery. 

For the Use of Volunteers. 1 vol. I'imo. Red cloth, 75 cents. 

'■Should be in the hands of every Artillerist." — JV. Y. Illustrated Neici. 

"This is a concise and well-prepared Manual, adapted to the wants «f Vol- 
unteers. The instruction, which is of an imjMirtant nature, is presented Ih a 
simple and clear style, such as will be easily understood. The volume is ;iIso 
illustrated with explanatory cuts and drawings. It is a work of practical 
value, and one needed at the present time in the service."^.B«6'to7i Cummerc ial 
bulletin. 

" An indispensable Manual for all who wish easily and accurately to learn 
tlie school of the Artillerist." — N. Y. Coimnerciul Advertiser. 



Auftrian Infantry Tactics. 

Evolutions of the Line as practised by the Austrian Infantry, and 

adopted in 185«. Translated l)y Cajjt. C. M. Wilcox, Seventh 

Regitnent U. S. Infantry. 1 vol. 12ino. Throe largo plates, 

cloth $1. 

"The movements of armies engaged in battle h.ave often been compared to 

those of tlie chess-lioard, and we cannot doubt that there .-ire certain ])rinciple3 

of tactics in actual war as In that game, which may determine the result inde- 

pendeiilly. In a srrent measure, of the personal sirc^ngih and courage of the men 

on'_'a2od. The difference between these principles as ai>plied in the ,\merican 

Army and in the .\ustrian, is so wldi'. as to have smr"estcd the 'ranslation of 

the work before us, whi<'h contMinstho wholerosult of the fniiious Field-Marshal 

ItAnp.TZK^'s experience for twenty-llvo years, while in uupromo command in 

Italy."— iV^Mff York Century. 



jD. Van Kostrand''s Publications, 



Rhymed Tactics, by "Gov." 

1 vol. 18mo, paper. With portraits. 25 cents. 

" It will strike the militAry man, fmiiiliar with the tedious routine of drill, 
by theory, practice, and iiieiiiory, us a most inifjue an<l valiuil>le im-tliod uf 
streiigtheninp the latter, witli the lea,-;t mental exertion. The aullior is a 
thoroujfh f-oldier, and his ahility as a rhymester will be conceded byony intelli- 
gent reader." — New York Leader. 

"Our author deserves frreat credit for the injrenuity he has displayed in 
piittins into verse a Manual which would at first pl.anoe seem to defy the most 
persistent efforts of the rhymer. The book contains a number of illuitrations 
representing some of the naore difficult positions, in the figures of which por- 
traits of several j)rominent offieers of the New York Volunteers may be recog- 
nized." — Sew lork Times. 



Maxims and Inftructions on the 
Art of War. 

Maxims, Advice, and Instructions on the Art of War ; or, A Practi- 
cal Military Guide for the use of Soldiers of all Arms and of all 
Countries. Translated from the French by Captain Lendy, 
Director of the Practical Military College, late of the French 
Staff, etc., etc. 1 vol. 18mo, cloth. 75 cents. 



Nolan's Treatife on the Training 
of Cavalry Horfes. 

By Capt. Kenker Garrard, U. S. A. 1 vol. 12mo, cloth, with 
twenty-four lithographed plates. $1.50. 



Official Army Regifter for 1862. 

New edition. 8vo, paper. 60 cents. 



American Military Bridges, 

With India-Rubber and Galvanized Iron Pontons and Trestle Sup- 
porters, prepared for the use of the Armies of the United 
States. By Brig.-Gen. Geo. W. Cili-CM, Major Corps of En- 
gineers TJ. S. A.; Chief of the Staff of Maj.-Gen. Halleck; 
Chief Engineer of the Army of the Mi.^sissippi. Second edition, 
with notes and two additional chapters. 1 vol. 8vo, with platcB. 
In Press. 



10 -D. Van Kostrand^s Publications. 

Siege of Bomarfund (1854.). 

Journals of Operations of the Artillery and Engineers. Published 

by permission of the Minister of War. Illustrated by maps and 

plans. Translated from the French by an Army Officer. 

1 vol. 12nio, cloth. 75 cents, 

"To military men tliis little volume is of special interest. It contains a 
translation by an officer of the United States Army, of the journ.il of operations 
by the iirtillery and engineers at the siecte of Bomarsund in 1S54, published by 
permission of ihe French Minister of War in the Journal den Armeen upeciii/fH 
et deVEtat Major. The account of the same successful attack, pi ven by Sir 
Howard Douglas in the new edition of his work on Gunncrv, is appended; and 
the narrative is illustrated by elaborate maps and plans." — i^ew York Paper. 

Lefsons and Pradical Notes on 
Steam, 

The Steam-Engine, Propellers, &c., &c., for Young Marine Engi- 
neers, Students, and others. By the late W. R. King, U. S N. 
Revised by Chief-Engineer J. W. King, U. S. Navy. Fecond 
edition, enlarged. 8vo, cloth. 

"This is the second edition of a valuable work of the late W. R. Kino, 
U. S. N. It contains lessons and practical notes on Steam and the Steam- 
Engine, Propellers, &c. It is calculated to be of great use to young marine en- 
gineers, students, and others. The text is illustrated and explained by numerous 
diagrams and representations of machinery. This new edition has been revi.sed 
ami enlarged by Chief Engineer J. W. Kino, U. 8. N., brother to the deceased 
author of the work." — Boston Daily Adrerther. 

"This is one of the best, because eminently plain and practical, treatises on 
the Steam-Engine ever published." — /^'hiltide/phia Press. 

" Its re-publication at this time, when so many young men are entering the 
service as naval engineers, is most opportune. Each of them ought to have a 
copy." — Philddelphia Evening Bulletin. 



Manual of Internal Rules and Reg- 
ulations for Men-of-War. 

By Commodore U. P. Levy, U. S. N., late riag-offieer command- 
ing U. S. Naval Force in the Mediterranean, &c. Flexible 
blue cloth. Second edition, revised and enlarged. 30 cents. 

"Among the professional publications for wh'ch we are indebted to the war, 
•we willindy give a prominent place to this useful little Manual <if Rules and 
Reyulations to be observed on board of ships of w.ar. Its authorship is a suHi- 
oient guarantee for its accuracy and practical value ; and as a guide to young 
officers in providing for the <liscipline, police, and sanitary government of the 
vessels under their command, wo know of nothing superior."— iV. Y. J/erdKi. 

"Should be in the hands of every Naval officer, of whatever grade, and will 
not come amiss to any intelligent mariner."— J?"v^o« Trtireller. 

" A work which will prove of great utility, in both the Naval service and 
the mercantile marine." — Baltimore Ame/rican. 



D. Van Nostrand''8 Publications. 11 



A Treatife on Ordnance and Naval 
Gunnery. 

Compiled and arranjied as a Text-Book for the U. S. Naval Acad- 
emy, by Lieuti'iiunt Euward Simpson, U. S. N. Second edi- 
tion, revised and enlarged. 1 vol. 8vo, plates and cuts, half 
morocco. $4. 

"As the compiler has charsre of the Instruction In Naval Gunnery at tho 
Naval Aeafleiny, his wuik, in the conipihition of wliich he has consulted a larpo 
number of eminent uiituorillcs, is prob^tbly will suited for the jmrj^se designed 
by it— nriinely. the lirc.ilaiioii of inloruiation which many officers, owin'/ to 
constant service afloat, may not have been able to collect. In simple and plain 
lansuaseit gives instruction as to cannon, gun carriajres. pun jiowiler. pnyectiles, 
fuzes, locks, and primers; the theory of pointin;: puns, rifles, the practice of 
punnory, and a preatvaiiety of other eiiirlar matters, iiiterestiiig to fighting 
men on sea and lund." — "WanUingtoii Daily Globe. 

"A v.Tst amount of inforni.ation is conveyed in a read.ihle and familiar form. 
The illustrations are excellent, and many of them unique, beinfj coloreil or 
liionz d so iis to represent various military arms, ic, with more than [liiulo- 
gniphic literalness." — Waahingtoii Star. 

"It is scarcely necessary for ns to .^ay that a work prepnred by a writer so 
practically conversant with all the subjects of which he treats, and who has such 
a reputation for scientilic ability, cannot fail to take .at once a hish placi- amon^ 
the text-books of our naval service. It has been approved hy the Sccn-tary of 
the Navy, and will henceforth be one of the standard authorities on all matterg 
connected with Naval Gunnery." — yew Vcrk Herald. 

"The book itself is admirahly arransed, characterized by p-eat simplicity 
and clearness, and certainly at this time will be a most valuable one to officers 
of the Navy." — Boston Cotnmerciiil Bulletin. 

"Oripinally desicned as n text-book, it is now enlarged, and so fnr modified 
in its plan as to m.ake it an in\ aluable hand-book for the naval officer. It is 
comprehensive — preserving the cream of many of the be.st books on ordnance 
and naval gunnery, and is ju-inted and illustrated in the most admirable man- 
ner." — Xew York World. 



Elementary Inftruction in Naval 
Ordnance and Gunnery. 

By J.\MKS II. "WAun, Commander U. S. Navy, Author of " Xavd 
Tactics," and "Steam for the Million." New edition, revised 
and "enlarged. 8vo. Cloth, $,2. ^ 

" It conveys an amount of information in the same sp.ace to be found no- 
where else, and given with a cKarmss which renders it useful as well to tha 
general as the professional inquirer." — y. Y. Eiening Post. 

"This volume is a standard treatise upon the subject to which it is devoted. 
It abounds in valuable infnnuation upon all the i)oints bearing upon Naval 
Gunnery." — y. Y. Commercial Ailverti.ier. 

" The work is an exceedingly valuable one, and is opportunely issued." — 
So.<iton Journal. 



12 D. Van Nbstra7id''s Puhlications. 

Notes on Sea-Coaft Defence : 

Consisting of Sea-Coast Fortification ; the Fifteen-Inch Gun ; and 
Casemate Embrasures. By Gen. J. G. Barnard, Corps of 
Engineers, U. S. Army. 1 vol. 8vo, cloth, plates. $1 50. 

"This small volume by one of the most accomplished officers In the United 
Btates service is especially valuable at this time. Concisely and thoroufrlily 
Major Barnard discusses the subjects included in this volume, and pives infor- 
mation that will be read with great profit by military men, and by all interested 
in the art of war as a defensive fotce." — 2^ew York Commercial. 

"It is no lirrht compliment when we say that Major Barnard's book does no 
discredit to the corps to which he belonirs. He writes concisely, and with a 
thorough knowledge of his subject." — Russell's Army and J^avy Gaeette. 



Inftructions for Naval Light 
Artillery, 

Afloat and Ashore. By Lieut. S, B. LccE, U. S. N. 1 vol. 8vo, 
with 22 lithographic plates. In Press. 



Steam for the Million. 

A Popular Treatise on Steam and its Application to the Useful 

Arts, especially to Navigation. By J. H. Ward, Commander 

U. S. Navy. New and revised edition. 1 vol. 8vo, cloth. 

"A most excellent work for the young engineer and general reader. Many 
facts i-elating to tlie management of the boiler and engine are set forth witli a 
simplicity of language, and perfection of detail, that brings the subject home to 
the reader. Mr. Ward is also peculiarly happy in his illustrations."— .4»te/'«t'a» 
Engineer. 

Screw Propulfion. 

Notes on Screw Propulsion, its Rise and History. By Capt. W. II. 
Walker, U. S. Navy, 1 vol. 8vo., cloth. 75 cents. 

"Some interesting notes on screw propulsion, its rise and progress, have just 
been issued by Commander W. IF. Walker, IT. S. N., from which all that is 
likely to bo desired on the subject may bo readily acquired. ♦ ♦ * * After 
thoroughly demonstrating tlie'efficiency of the screw, Mr. Walker j)roceeds to 
point out "the various other points to be attended to in oitler to secure an efli- 
cicnt man-of-war, and eulogizes throughout the rciidineBsji/f the British Adiui- 
ralty to test every novelty calculated to give satisfactory r^ults. * * • • 
Commander Walker's book contains an Immense auioimt of conci.w practical 
data, and every item of information recorded fully proves that the various 
points bearing upon it have been well considered previously to expressing aa 
ojiinion." — London Mining Journal. 

" Kvory engineer should have it in his library." — American Engineer. 



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