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1. Thompson Hall 

2. Murkland Hall 

3. DeMeritt Hall 

4. James Hall 

5. Morrill Hall 

6. Dairy Building 

7. Nesmith Hall 

8. Nutrition Lab. 

9. Pe/tee Hrf// 

10. Shops Buildings 

11. Conant Hall 

1 2 . Greenh ouses 

13. Poultry Plant 

14. jFzVe Station & Shop 

15. Power Plant 





F*W</ House 

Livestock Barn 

Racing Commission 



Ballard Hall 

B&M Station 


President's H 

New Hampshire Hall 



Faculty Club 


Fairchild Hal 

Congreve Hall 


Hetzel Hall 

Scott Hall 


East Hall 

Smith Hall 


West Hall 

Crafts Cottage 


Hood House 

Home Management 


Hamilton Sm 


■K -7c t ~ 






of the 

University of New Hampshire 


19 4 1 

Copyright, 1941 

The University of New Hampshire 

Durham, N. H. 

The Record Press, Inc. 
Rochester, New Hampshire 



Foreword by President Engelhardt v 

Preface vii 


I The Land Grant College .... 1 

II The Formative Period . . . .15 

III The College in Hanover .... 47 

IV Benjamin Thompson's Bequest . . .83 
V The Administration of President Murkland . 107 

VI The Administration of President Gibbs . 165 

VII The Administration of President Fairchild . 205 

VIII The War Years 233 

IX The College Becomes the University . .253 

X The Present University . . . .275 



Those of us working in the University are constantly re- 
minded of the close relationships between life here in Durham and 
life in every town of the state. These reminders have their origin 
through the home contacts of 2,000 students, through the thou- 
sands of alumni, through the contacts of the extension service and 
experiment stations with home, farm, industry, and business, and 
through a growing body of citizens in all walks of life who know 
the University because of its work and its relationship to them. 

The public interest that arises out of this close contact with 
the state may at times be expressed in challenge, in criticism, in 
skepticism, or in enthusiastic and understanding support. The 
ease with which university matters attain state-wide concern dis- 
turbs some who fear that a kind of political control may hamper 
the University in performing its duties. To us, however, this 
public interest when sincerely expressed is cherished and desired. 
When it is critical or inquiring, we realize that either we are wrong 
or the public has been poorly informed. When our work receives 
endorsement, we are encouraged to continue to improve the qual- 
ity of our efforts. 

It seems sound to hold that, if democracy is to grow and 
preserve the ideals of a people, then the people must exercise con- 
cern for and a leadership in directing the education of their chil- 
dren as well as of themselves. Education in a democracy to serve 
its true purpose cannot prosper free from the control of the people. 
This control is enlightened, constructive, and worthy as the people 
are enlightened and of quality. 

The history of the University from its early days at Hanover 
is proof positive of the point of view expressed above. As one 
reads the pages of this volume one cannot refrain from noting 
the evolution of a public interest that grew into a demand. With 
the passing years, people cleared their thinking on the issues in- 
volved and became better acquainted with the educational needs 
of the state. It is of interest to note how public sentiment changed 
as people understood the potential relationships between the de- 
velopment of the state and the college. The evolution of pub- 
lic interest in this educational venture through a period of doubt, 
disagreements, marked differences in judgment, and skepticism is 

History of University of New Hampshire 

an excellent example of the processes of democracy. Even out 
of the heat of bitter argument and conflict in convictions, either 
as expressed on the platform or in the press, there arose and grew 
an institution which is of the people and which belongs to the 
state of New Hampshire. Throughout this period stand out 
persons of vision and of devotion to a cause. The story one reads 
in these pages is full of human interest. It portrays good people 
finding the answers to their problems. Their record should be 

We dedicate this volume to those citizens of the past, who, 
in the words of the first president of New Hampshire college, Asa 
D. Smith,* "builded better than they knew." We make this 
work available to you, old and young, of this generation. May 
it be a challenge to maintain and to build this institution through- 
out the years as a worthy symbol of democracy and as a true ex- 
pression of your greatest expectations! 

Fred Engelhardt. 

* From first report to Board of Trustees, June, 1873. 



This history is the result of plans made by President Engel- 
hardt and the trustees of the University of New Hampshire for a 
fitting observance of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the institu- 
tion. In large measure, that observance has been oriented to the 
present and future. The place of the University in the life of the 
state, and its prospects and possibilities for serving in an ever 
larger way the expanding economy and social life of the modern 
world, have been foremost in mind. Yet at the same time it 
seemed fitting to look backward and to assemble, for the first 
time in any complete fashion, the story of how it came to be what 
it is. 

There is a peculiar appropriateness in doing this at the pres- 
ent moment, for it is only within a very few years that the Uni- 
versity has achieved a genuinely historical character. As long as 
Clarence Scott and Charles Pettee were among us, our past was 
contemporary. So recently have they left us, along with others 
almost as intimately connected with the older days, that the mani- 
festations of their personalities are experienced at every turn, — 
in old files of documents, in reminiscences of men and women who 
meet in committees, and in the undefined minutiae of the daily 
routine of the campus. 

But now the University, like the nation and the world, moves 
into an unknown but unmistakably new day. "The old order 
changed!," and it is time to take decent farewell of the past. In 
so doing, we may do more than merely to erect a monument to 
it and leave it. The spirit in which this history is presented is 
more than that of a memorial. For the living fact which is the 
University of New Hampshire was always dynamic. It sprang 
from the Great American dream. That dream has never been 
defined, but popular education was of its essence. The Morrill 
Act, the bequest of Benjamin Thompson, the assumption by the 
older College of the title of University — all these were acts of 
growth, and in them all run the sap and vitality of America. The 
University of New Hampshire, in a very real sense, is America. 

In this conviction, and because it is most certain that the 
people of New Hampshire share it, this history is presented, to 
serve as the enduring bond between our living past and our living 


History of University of New Hampshire 

The preparation of the manuscript has been collaborative to 
a large degree, and has been possible because of the cordial as- 
sistance given by many individuals. 

Preliminary work on a history was started in 1925 by Dr. 
Clarence W. Scott when he became emeritus professor of history. 
Dr. Scott left a manuscript of 292 pages which has been of great 
value in the preparation of the present book. Dean Charles H. 
Pettee also devoted some time before his death to the gathering 
of material but did not complete a manuscript. Both Dr. Scott 
and Dean Pettee served as University historians after their retire- 

In 1939, when plans were being made for the Seventy-fifth 
Anniversary, a committee was set up to function as a part of the 
anniversary organization. This committee, consisting of Harold 
H. Scudder, professor of English, Philip M. Marston, assistant pro- 
fessor of history, and Donald C. Babcock, professor of history, 
was of an advisory nature. In general charge of the work was 
Henry B. Stevens, assistant director of the General Extension serv- 
ice and editor of University publications. Later on, when the 
work was partly written but not in final form, Mr. Marston ac- 
cepted the exacting work of supervising, editing, and in part re- 
writing the history, and has remained in charge till its completion. 

The writing of the history, in the form of a first draft, and, 
to a very large extent, the permanent wording, was done by John 
P. Hall, of the class of 1939. Marion Boothman, of the class of 
1922, did a considerable part of the research during the early 
stages of the work. Others engaged to help in this phase in- 
clude Anthony Nebeski, class of 1939, Phyllis R. Deveneau, class 
of 1943, and Cornelia Constable, class of 1943. 

Assistance in the preparation of these materials was furnished 
by the personnel of Work Projects Administration Official Proj- 
ect No. 65-1-13-26 (Historical Records Survey). 

Interviews from which much helpful information was se- 
cured were granted by Mrs. Clarence W. Scott, George H. Whitch- 
er, of the class of 1881, Professor Leon B. Richardson, Dartmouth 
College historian, Harry W. Evans, of the class of 1901, Registrar 
Emeritus O. V. Henderson, Miss Esther Y. Burnham, Charles W. 
Scott, Charles Wentworth, and John C. Kendall, '02, director of 
the General Extension service, among others. 

The chapter on New Hampshire in the World War is based 
to a very large extent on the manuscript prepared by Professor 



Richard Whoriskey and as far as possible the original language 
of the manuscript has been retained. 

The manuscript in whole or in part has been read by Charles 
I. Parsons, George H. Whitcher, Albert Kingsbury and Fred W. 
Morse who were on the staff of the college in the earlier years, 
also by Professor Leon B. Richardson of Dartmouth, and Roy D. 
Hunter, president of the University Board of Trustees, from whom 
have come many desirable suggestions. 

Many members of the faculty or of the University staff have 
been extremely helpful either by reading the manuscript and mak- 
ing suggestions or by answering inquiries which have cleared up 
doubtful points. The committee is especially grateful to Presi- 
dent Fred Engelhardt, Mrs. Marcia N. Sanders, Miss Annie L. Saw- 
yer, Jesse R. Hepler, associate professor of horticulture, Hermon L. 
Slobin, dean of the Graduate School, O. V. Henderson, Raymond 
C. Magrath, treasurer, Frederick W. Taylor, director of the com- 
mercial departments of the College of Agriculture, Arwood S. 
Northby, assistant to the president, James A. Funkhouser, associ- 
ate professor of chemistry, Alfred E. Richards, professor of Eng- 
lish, and Edward Y. Blewett, dean of the College of Liberal Arts. 

The illustrations were prepared under the direction of John 
P. Neville, assistant to the director of the Extension service, and 
Harland P. Nasvik, university photographer. The map of the 
campus serving as the end papers was prepared under the super- 
vision of George R. Thomas, assistant professor of architecture. 

To the staffs of the New Hampshire Historical society, the 
Dartmouth library, the State library, and especially to the Hamil- 
ton Smith library of the University, the committee wishes to ex- 
tend its appreciation for assistance rendered. 

The manuscript was typed and editorial assistance given by 
Elizabeth Norton of the class of 1940. 

Donald C. Babcock. 


The Land Grant College 


In the decade following the war between the states, the capital 
of New Hampshire was a quiet country town throughout most of 
the year. Annually in June, however, business improved; Con- 
cord became filled with members of the state legislature; hotels 
were crowded; and groups of men carried on endless discussions on 
street corners or in the corridors of the State house. The news- 
papers contained long and closely printed columns of reports which 
were issued daily to keep the public informed. 

In these newspapers, in June of 1866, stories of Fenian raids 
on Canada, the proposed trial of Jefferson Davis, and reports of 
progress in the construction of the first transcontinental railroad 
alternated with columns of fine print concerned with the activities 
of "the Senate and House of Representatives in General Court con- 
vened." The legislature itself was leisurely about organizing and 
getting down to business. Much had to be settled before any im- 
portant business could be brought on the floor. The overwhelm- 
ing majority of the 326 representatives and 12 senators were Re- 
publicans. The Democratic party had far to go before it could 
recover from the blows it had suffered and was still suffering be- 
cause of the war and the reconstruction period. 

Austin F. Pike and Daniel Barnard, both Republicans from 
Franklin, were elected respectively speaker of the house and presi- 
dent of the senate by comfortable majorities, and proceeded with 
naming committees and establishing the rules of the session. 
Hours were consumed debating a proposal that the state subscribe 
to certain daily newspapers for each member. Friends of various 
papers added more names to the proposed list until each member 
was in danger of finding half a dozen papers at his seat each morn- 
ing. After three days, the issue was settled by compromise. Bills 
poured into the hopper and were assigned to the proper committees. 
A United States senator was to be elected. The only question was 
the name of the Republican candidate. To be sure, the Democrats 
would nominate, but in this legislature only a Republican could 
possibly win. The Republicans finally chose George G. Fogg of 
Concord for senator and elected him according to schedule. The 
legislature then settled down to its routine business. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

In his message to the legislature, Governor Frederick Smyth 
included a section in which he reminded the legislators that they 
had voted three years before to accept a grant of 80,000 acres of 
public lands from the federal government to be used for the sup- 
port of a college of agriculture and the mechanic arts, but that this 
grant would be forfeited if concrete action were not taken to es- 
tablish such a college before July of the following year. He rec- 
ommended further that the college be established at Hanover with 
such a connection with Dartmouth as might be most advanta- 
geous to both colleges. 

In response to this suggestion, the legislature appointed a 
special committee which included one person from each county in 
the state. The members of the committee were: Joseph B. Walk- 
er of Concord, Asa P. Cate of Northfield, Ellery A. Hibbard of 
Laconia, Dexter Richards of Newport, William H. Haile of 
Hinsdale, Hosea Eaton of New Ipswich, George N. Murray of 
Canaan, Ezra A. Stevens of Portsmouth, Wolcott Hamlin of Do- 
ver, and Isaac Adams of Sandwich. The bill which this commit- 
tee finally reported for the incorporation of the New Hampshire 
College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts was passed by the 
house of representatives on July 5, by the senate the next day, 
and was signed by Governor Frederick Smyth on July 7, 1866. 

This act, three-quarters of a century ago, which started New 
Hampshire college was probably not considered by most of those 
who voted for it either the most interesting or the most important 
of the acts of that June session. However, both as the culminat- 
ing point in New Hampshire of a great movement, and as the be- 
ginning of an institution whose importance to the state has con- 
stantly increased, the passage of the act deserves to rank as one of 
the memorable events in the history of the state. Yet it was not 
an event peculiar to New Hampshire, for in many states, similar 
colleges were being founded during the same decade. Before en- 
tering on the story of this particular one, it seems advisable to re- 
view briefly some of the background of these colleges. 

# # # 

The colleges founded in this country before the Revolution- 
ary war were strictly classical in their program of study and con- 
cerned largely with supplying an educated ministry. At Dart- 
mouth college, founded in 1769, for example, during the first 20 
years of its existence, over 40 percent of the graduates became 

The Land Grant College 

ministers. The Industrial revolution, with its flood of new in- 
ventions and increasingly complex technology, created a demand 
for numbers of young men possessed of a technical education be- 
yond that available at a secondary level. But even more impor- 
tant in an overwhelmingly agricultural society was the need for 
advanced agricultural education and research. 

Most of the early American schools which taught agriculture 
required that a part of the students' time be devoted to manual 
labor on the farm or in shops. Earliest and most famous of these 
was the Gardiner lyceum, founded in 1821 at Gardiner, Maine, by 
Thomas Hallowell Gardiner, a graduate of Harvard, 

"... for the purpose of establishing a school for 
teaching mathematics, mechanics, navigation, and those 
branches of natural philosophy and chemistry which are 
calculated to make scientific farmers and skillful me- 

This school received some aid from the Maine state legislature, and 
its enrollment once reached 120; the school was closed, however, 
in 1832, largely for financial reasons. 

Early efforts to improve agriculture were made through such 
organizations as the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agricul- 
ture, which was founded in 1785 and which sponsored publica- 
tions, offered various prizes, and helped form similar societies else- 
where. 1 True's History of Agricultural Education states that, 

"The legislature of New Hampshire in 1814 
granted a charter to an agricultural society in Rocking- 
ham county, with headquarters at Chester or Exeter. 
In 1817 there were county agricultural societies in 
Rockingham and Cheshire counties, each of which re- 
ceived a state appropriation of $100 . . . In 1819 and 
1820, all the counties had societies which held fairs 
and received state aid. Up to 1820, the annual ap- 
propriation to each society ranged from $100 to $300 
and in all $3,000 had been expended by the state." 

In the same year, New Hampshire organized the second 2 state 
board of agriculture in the country as a result of the vigorous spon- 

1 Among the notable men of the time who were members and officers of 
these societies were Franklin, Washington, Marshall, Jefferson, and Madison. 

2 The first one was organized in New York in 1819. 

History of University of New Hampshire 

sorship of Humphrey Moore of Milford. This board was made 
up of a delegate from each county. The legislature appropriated 
$800, largely for printing the annual report, but only one report 
was issued, in 1822, and the board soon passed out of existence. 

Agricultural fairs have always been a means of spreading in- 
formation about improvements in the science of farming. One 
of the earliest of these fairs is reported to have been held at Rye, 
New Hampshire, in 1726. 

By the beginning of the nineteenth century, at least six lead- 
ing colleges in the United States had established chairs of chemis- 
try, natural history, and similar subjects. Inevitably, some con- 
sideration of agricultural science was included in such teaching, 
and the work of the teachers was often strongly concerned with 
discovering means of improving the standards of agriculture. As 
these courses were merely adjuncts of the classical institution, agi- 
tation continued for an education to serve not only the vocational 
but also the cultural needs of the sons of farmers and workmen. 

The earliest steps toward broadening the college curriculum 
and providing greater educational opportunities for those who 
found no place in the traditional classical colleges were taken in 
the high schools of the older states on the eastern seaboard. Such 
schools were the popular schools of their time and gave science 
courses and even teacher training courses. The work of Horace 
Mann and his associates in improving the public school system 
helped to pave the way for liberalizing the colleges. 

West Point, founded in 1802, was the first primarily scientific 
college in America. The Rensselaer Polytechnic institute, founded 
in 1824, undertook to combine courses in agriculture, the mechanic 
arts, and domestic science, but later restricted itself to engineering. 
The original program resembles that of the land grant colleges in 
later years. Harvard accepted the bequest of Benjamin Bussey 
for "a course of instruction in practical agriculture" while Yale and 
Dartmouth established scientific schools before the war between 
the states. 

The Chandler Scientific school was announced in the Dart- 
mouth catalogue for 1851-52 as giving instruction in the practical 
and useful arts of life, 

". . . comprised chiefly in the branches of Mechan- 
ics and Civil Engineering, the Invention and Manu- 
facture of Machinery, Carpentry, Masonry, Architec- 

The Land Grant College 

ture and Drawing, the Investigation of the Properties 
and Uses of the Materials employed in the Arts, the 
Modern Languages and English literature, together 
with Bookkeeping and such other branches of knowl- 
edge as may best qualify young persons for the duties 
and employments of active life." 
The course was originally for three years. Admission to the first 
year required an examination in reading, spelling, penmanship, 
English, grammar and parsing, arithmetic, and geography. It was 
probably a fair expression of the views of the average college man 
of the time when the president of Dartmouth expressed himself as 
much in doubt about the advantages of the gift of $50,000 given by 
Abiel Chandler of Walpole, New Hampshire, to endow the school. 
Three agricultural colleges were established by state action 
before the land grant act was passed. Michigan, Maryland, and 
Pennsylvania chartered state supported schools which have be- 
come Michigan State college, the University of Maryland, and 
Pennsylvania State college. 

Throughout the middle years of the nineteenth century, 
movements were developing and men appeared to provide the 
leadership for securing the land grants. While the need became 
common knowledge, the idea appeared in the work of many men 
in all parts of the country. If it had been a one man movement, 
it is doubtful if success could have been achieved as soon as it was. 
Argument as to who first conceived of the idea of the land grants 
conceals the more important fact, that the idea grew from the 
ground up, parallel with, and to a large degree caused by, the ur- 
gent need of numbers of people. 

One of the leaders, as much shaped by events as shaping 
them, was Captain Alden Partridge of Vermont, a graduate of 
Dartmouth and of West Point. He organized three military acad- 
emies, one of which, the American Literary, Scientific and Military 
academy, organized in 1820 at Norwich, Vermont, became Nor- 
wich university in 1834 with Captain Partridge as president. In 
1841, President Partridge memorialized congress for a grant of 
money to be divided among the states for schools which would 
give the following curriculum: 

"The course of study should include mathematics, 
physics, chemistry, natural history, science of govern- 
ment, history, moral and mental philosophy, ancient 

History of University of New Hampshire 

and modern languages and literature, logic, civil engi- 
neering, military science, and agriculture, manufactures 
and commerce. There should be physical education 
with regular military exercises, including fencing, etc., 
as a substitute for idleness or useless amusements." 
The nature of this proposal gives color to the assertion that Presi- 
dent Partridge, during their frequent discussions, greatly influ- 
enced Senator Morrill in forming the latter's ideas. 

Jonathan B. Turner, who was born in Massachusetts and was 
a graduate of Yale, proposed to a convention of farmers and me- 
chanics in Illinois in 185 1, a plan for an industrial university which 
should give instruction: 

". . . in all those studies and sciences, of whatever 
sort, which tend to throw light upon any art or em- 
ployment which any student may desire to master, or 
upon any duty he may be called upon to perform; or 
which may tend to secure his moral, civil, social, and 
industrial perfection, as a man." 

He also recommended that the professors of such a university 
carry on "a continued series of annual experiments." 

Marshall P. Wilder and Edward Hitchcock of Massachusetts 
were two other important leaders in the movement for land grant 
colleges. These men and many others corresponded and worked 
with Senator Morrill, to whom came reports of the educational ex- 
periments, the plans, and the opinions. The final proposal for 
the land grant colleges was the product of many minds, and above 
all, of a widely felt need. 

Benjamin Thompson of Durham drew up his will in 1856, 
in the midst of the events which have just been described. Mr. 
Thompson had been reared on his father's farm in Durham and 
was a farmer nearly all of his life. He devised a plan, which he 
expressed in his will, to help develop the leading interest of his 
state and to provide a means for the education of young people 
from the farms. Mr. Wilder is known to have received com- 
munications from Benjamin Thompson in regard to the latter's 
plans and to have replied with advice and approval. Although 
Mr. Thompson was a particularly successful farmer and business 
man and accumulated a considerable fortune before his death, he 
was, nevertheless, representative of the more progressive farmers 
of his day. 

Benjamin Thompson 

Home of Benjamin Thompson 

Asa Dodge Smith 

Samuel Colcord Bartlett 

The Land Grant College 

Benjamin Thompson's decision on the disposal of his prop- 
erty indicates how thoroughly this whole movement for agricul- 
tural education influenced the farming class of this country. His 
original will was for a purely agricultural school, but Mr. Thomp- 
son changed it after the land grant act was passed in order to 
make the terms of the will agree with the official conception. It 
is doubtful whether he saw the consequences of the changes, but 
he did conceive of a college for the young people of his state 
which would grow and flourish with the help of his life's work. 

All these activities and interests soon centered around the 
bill introduced into congress by Justin S. Morrill, then representa- 
tive and later senator from Vermont. He was the son of a black- 
smith and at an early age, went to work in a store. Later, he was 
owner or part owner of several stores. This was, of course, in the 
days before the railroads and the city stores had taken so much 
business from the country towns. In less than 20 years, he be- 
came financially independent, sold out his business, and devoted 
himself to farming and to politics. In 1854, he was elected to 

Mr. Morrill wanted to foster agricultural education. In the 
days of large grants of land for railroad building in the West, it 
was only natural that he should turn to this means of securing 
federal subsidies. Public lands had been set aside for the support 
of education for generations. His first move was a resolution of- 
fered in 1856 

". . . that the Committee on Agriculture be re- 
quested to inquire into the expediency of establishing 
one or more national agricultural schools upon the 
basis of the naval and military schools." 

This resolution was objected to and hence was not approved. 

The land grant bill came before congress in December, 1857. 
Mr. Morrill, speaking in its behalf, described the accomplishments 
of the European schools and suggested that schools of a similar 
kind could do much to overcome the decline in agricultural pro- 
duction which had taken place in the United States during the 
previous decade. He scoffed at any possibility of conflict between 
the established schools and the proposed new ones: 

"Our present literary colleges need have no more 
jealousy of agricultural colleges than a porcelain manu- 
factory would have for an iron foundry." 

History of University of New Hampshire 

Although his chief interest was in colleges of agriculture and the 
mechanic arts, the wording of his bill permitted the growth of 
great universities. 

After a long delay, an adverse committee report on Senator 
Morrill's bill was presented, yet both houses passed the bill by 
the narrowest of majorities. The bitterest opposition came from 
some southern Democrats who considered the bill a violation of 
states' rights. One senator called it, "one of the most monstrous, 
iniquitous and dangerous measures which have ever been sub- 
mitted to Congress." President Buchanan vetoed the bill. 

In December, 1861, with a new president in the White 
house, Mr. Morrill again introduced his bill. It was almost lost 
in the pressure of war legislation, but in May, 1862, it was again 
reported adversely. Senator Wade of Ohio had introduced the 
same bill in the senate, where it finally passed, 32 to 7. Its bit- 
terest opponents were then, for the most part, with the Confed- 
eracy. The house passed the senate bill, 90 to 25, and it re- 
ceived President Lincoln's signature on July 2, 1862. From this 
act, 69 land grant colleges and universities in the 48 states, Hawaii, 
Puerto Rico, and Alaska have since come into existence. It would 
be difficult to find anywhere in history a single law which has 
meant more to the advancement of education. 

The Morrill act is not particularly complex although there 
have been disputes as to its precise meaning ever since it was 
passed. Each state was granted 30,000 acres of the public lands 
for each of its senators and representatives for 

". . . the endowment, support and maintenance of 
at least one college where the leading object shall be, 
without excluding other scientific and classical studies, 
and including military tactics, to teach such branches 
of learning as are related to agriculture and the me- 
chanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the 
States may respectively prescribe, in order to promote 
the liberal and practical education of the industrial 
classes in the several pursuits and professions in life." 
The income of the fund resulting from the sale of these lands 
would have to be guaranteed, as would the principal, by the vari- 
ous states forever. Since none of the federal money could be 
used for buildings, it was up to the individual states to find means to 
establish the schools and this had to be done in five years or the 


The Land Grant College 

giit would be forfeited. Some states established independent col- 
leges, some turned the money over to existing private or state 
institutions, and some established their colleges in connection 
with an existing institution, but not as a part of it. The estab- 
lishment of New Hampshire college would come under this last 
classification. # # m 

A year after President Lincoln signed the Morrill act, in 
July, 1862, the senate and house of the New Hampshire legisla- 
ture passed a joint resolution accepting the provisions of the law; 
this was promptly approved by Governor Joseph A. Gilmore. The 
following day, another act was passed authorizing the governor to 
receive all land scrip to which the state was entitled and to ap- 
point a commissioner to take care of it. The money received 
from the sale of the scrip was to be turned over to the state treas- 
urer, and a committee of ten, appointed by the governor and 
council, was authorized to investigate all possible procedures and 
report to the next legislature. This committee, as appointed, in- 
cluded: Horton D. Walker, George W. Burleigh, John Wadleigh, 
Alphonzo H. Rust, Anthony Colby, John Preston, William P. 
Wheeler, Edward H. Brown, David Culver, and Morris Clark. 

In its report to the legislature of 1864, the committee pro- 
posed three alternatives for locating the college: the offer of Dart- 
mouth college, the offer of General David Culver, a member of 
the committee, and a possible location at the state farm connected 
with the House of Reformation at Manchester. Nothing more 
was ever heard of the last proposal, but the other two are both 

Mr. Culver was a successful business man from Lyme, New 
Hampshire, who took an active interest in politics and held sev- 
eral important positions in the state government during his life- 
time. He offered to give the state a 400 acre farm which he 
owned in Lyme. This farm included good land, several buildings, 
water power, mill privileges, and other advantages, all estimated 
to be worth $20,000. In addition, he offered the state $30,000 in 
cash, "to aid in the erection of the necessary buildings, and appara- 
tus for its practical operation . . ." This proposal required that 
the college be located in Lyme, which was on the western border 
of the state, just north of Hanover. 

Dartmouth offered, if the fund from the Morrill act were 
turned over to it, to 

History of University of New Hampshire 

". . . make whatever additional provisions for 
Agricultural Education as should be thought needful, 
and to devote one half of the avails of the Fund to the 
gratuitous instruction of pupils selected under the au- 
thority of the State." 
If the fund amounted to $100,000, it would pay the tuition of 
about 60 pupils annually. Dartmouth would guarantee the state 
against all expenses because of the Agricultural college and would 
"assent to the placing of the fund and the Agricultural course 
under the care of those State officers who" were members ex officio 
of the Dartmouth board of trustees, and would permit 

". . . the use of all the means and appliances of edu- 
cation already established here, Buildings, Libraries, 
apparatus, Professorships — to the value, if the cost of 
purchasing them anew were estimated of more than 
four hundred thousand dollars." 

New Hampshire college would only need to provide one pro- 
fessor, or at most two. Dr. Clarence W. Scott wrote of this 

'It is possible that the value of what Dartmouth 
College offered was overestimated. Dartmouth in 
1864 had in the Academic Department one hundred 
and forty-six students who were receiving instruction 
from a president and ten professors. The larger part 
of the instruction could not be used for classes in Agri- 
culture or the Mechanic Arts . . . the college library 
contained fewer than sixteen thousand volumes, a part 
of which were handsome looking government publica- 
tions, and another part consisted of fine editions of 
books read by only a small class of students. 

"In fact, one donor of a valuable collection had 
prohibited the use of the books by students. There 
were two society libraries belonging to the two societies 
which included all academical students. The two li- 
braries together outnumbered the college library and 
probably provided the students eighty per cent of the 
books read. These society libraries were not included 
in the library facilities for a new department." 

Although Dr. Scott's review of Dartmouth's position does 
not sound too attractive to a modern reader, it should be viewed 


The Land Grant College 

in the perspective of its time. Dartmouth was much poorer and 
smaller than now, but it was a going concern with equipment 
which it would have taken New Hampshire college decades to 

The committee of ten appointed in 1863 offered a bill to 
incorporate the college but left the question of location to be 
settled by a special commission, subject to the approval of the 
governor and council. The Dartmouth trustees were not in favor 
of establishing a separate college, so President Asa Smith pro- 
posed that the whole question be postponed for a year and the 
legislators were willing to accept his proposal. 

In 1865, the matter was again postponed. When the legis- 
lature of 1866 came to consider the question of the location of 
New Hampshire college, the situation had changed radically. 
General Culver had died in the meantime, leaving his farm and 
the promised fund of $30,000 to the state on condition that the 
college be located in Lyme. If the state refused the legacy it 
would go to Dartmouth to be used to promote agricultural edu- 
cation. However, the will was being contested, and no one could 
tell how much the state might receive or when it would be avail- 
able. Furthermore, the sale of the land scrip had brought a dis- 
appointingly small return, for the 150,000 acres had been sold for 
only $80,000, or about 53 cents an acre and the state could not 
finance the establishment of the college while waiting for the 
settlement of the Culver estate. 

The representative to the state legislature from Lyme intro- 
duced resolutions in 1866 committing the state to the acceptance 
of the Culver gift. These resolutions were referred to the spe- 
cial committee of ten, previously mentioned as appointed that 
year, who recommended that they be indefinitely postponed. The 
report of the committee was accepted, following which, the act to 
incorporate New Hampshire college was passed as related above. 

By the time of the passage of the act, President Asa Smith 
of Dartmouth was somewhat less enthusiastic about the arrange- 
ment with the state. Two colleges, separate, yet bound to func- 
tion in common, and held together only by a contract and inter- 
locking boards of trustees might be difficult to manage. The state 
was to select five members of the board of New Hampshire col- 
lege, and Dartmouth was to choose four. The governor and 
council appointed John D. Lyman of Farmington, Joseph B. Walk- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

er of Concord, William P. Wheeler of Keene, John B. Clarke of 
Manchester, and Chester C. Hutchins of Bath. The trustees of 
Dartmouth appointed President Asa S. Smith, Frederick Smyth 
of Manchester, Ira A. Eastman, and Anthony Colby of New Lon- 
don. This first board of trustees of New Hampshire college held 
its first meeting in Concord, September 28, 1866. 

Joseph Walker, one of the trustees, in a letter to President 
Smith, dated October 12, 1866, expressed the following opinions 
concerning the new institution: 

1. The college doesn't want and can't afford an experi- 
mental farm for the present. 

2. Lectures through the state should be arranged for their 
educative and advertising value. 

3. Economy suggests that the Agricultural course be a de- 
partment of the Chandler school. Agricultural students might 
omit the summer term to work on their own farms. 

4. One professor should be hired to start work with the 
fall term of 1867. 

Mr. Walker had visited Ezekiel Dimond, a professor at the 
Oread institute in Worcester, Massachusetts, and recommended 
him very highly for a position with New Hampshire college. He 
had also visited the agricultural school which Connecticut had es- 
tablished at Yale, regarding which he had this comment to make: 

"The Ag 1 and Mech 1 Colleges are something yet 
to be made. The professors are most of them to be 
educated and the text books to be written. I was very 
much surprised to learn that they had but ( 5 ) five stu- 
dents in their Agricultural Course, and some thirty in 
the Mechanical. We may meet with a similar experi- 

A contract was signed by representatives of Dartmouth and 
New Hampshire college on June 4, 1867. According to this 
contract, students of the Agricultural college were to take the 
regular course of the Chandler school and were to conform to 
all the requirements of the four-year course already in existence 
except that the Chandler school would 

". . . provide a special course of Agricultural in- 
struction, falling into the last two years of the Chandler 
Scientific Department, analogous to what are called the 
engineering course, the commercial course, and the gen- 


The Land Grant College 

eral course, in the said department, the studies of which 
shall be acceptable to the trustees of the New Hamp- 
shire College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts . . ." 
New Hampshire college would pay the salary of at least one pro- 
fessor, whom they would select, and Dartmouth agreed that any 
income from the Culver estate would be applied to agricultural 

This contract was shortly abandoned. The reasons are not 
exactly clear, although it appears that the Visitors of the Chandler 
school, a body independent of the Dartmouth board of trustees, 
objected because they had not been consulted and because they 
felt that the proposed arrangement might be detrimental to the 
Chandler school. The opening of the new institution had to be 
postponed again, until the fall of 1868. 

A second contract between Dartmouth and New Hampshire 
college was signed April 7, 1868. It provided for the exchange 
of professors between the two schools, for the use of the Dart- 
mouth equipment by the agricultural students, and defined the 
relations between the governing boards of the two colleges. The 
interests of the Agricultural college in the Culver estate were 
again expressly protected. 

With the signing of the second contract, the trustees of 
New Hampshire college turned their attention to the choice of 
some suitable person for the position of the first professor of the 
new school. Ezekiel Dimond, who had previously been inter- 
viewed by members of the board, was elected on April 28, 1868. 
He was in Dresden, Germany, when he received President Smith's 
letter, placing at his disposal $3,000 to be expended for books 
and apparatus for the institution and notifying him of his ap- 
pointment as the first professor of New Hampshire college. 


The Formative Period 


On Thursday, August 1, 1868, Ezekiel Webster Dimond 
climbed down from the train at the Hanover-Norwich station. Ira 
Allen, driver of the coach to Hanover, helped pile his bags into the 
back of the wagon, then gave him a hand up to the seat in front. 
There were few passengers on the trains in August for the summer 
term at the college was over, and the normal trading business of 
the town was not very lively in the middle of the week. Allen 
was an amiable and talkative man, and was particularly interested 
when he discovered that his passenger was to be professor of chem- 
istry, in fact, the only full-time professor in the new College of 
Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. 

The horses slowed to a walk as they crossed the Ledyard 
bridge and toiled up the long sandy hill with its deep raincut gul- 
lies on each side. Professor Dimond had little to say of his plans, 
except that seven boxes of equipment, specimens, and laboratory 
materials which he had brought with him from Europe would ar- 
rive soon by train and would have to be transported to Hanover. 
These boxes contained the entire physical property of the new col- 
lege. However, he was unable to say where this material was to 
be stored, for the school had no buildings, no laboratories, no class- 
rooms, not a roof of its own. Dartmouth would have to house the 
stranger until it could build its own home. 

As the road leveled off at the top of the grade, the houses 
of the town appeared. The coach stopped at the Dartmouth hotel 
on the corner of South Main and East Wheelock streets. Pro- 
fessor Dimond climbed down from the wagon, walked up to the 
corner and looked across the Green with its neat white fence and 
crisscross of dusty paths. The grass, which had been mowed for 
hay a week or two before, was stubbly and a little yellow from the 
summer heat. On the far side of the Green were the white build- 
ings of the "Old Row," Wentworth, Dartmouth, Thornton, and 
Reed halls. These were simple colonial structures housing the 
offices, classrooms, laboratories, libraries, and most of the students 
of Dartmouth college. On the southeast corner of Wheelock and 
College streets was the new Bissell gymnasium which had been 
opened only a few months before. The Chandler Scientific school 


History of University of New Hampshire 

occupied the building which had been formerly used for Moor's 
Indian school. 

There were very few trees along the streets, which were 
neither paved nor provided with sidewalks. A heavy rain would 
reduce the roads to quagmires, but at this season of the year, they 
were deep with dust. Along South Main street, the business sec- 
tion of the town was concentrated in a series of shabby wooden 
buildings dominated by the huge four-storied brick building called 
the Tontine. This was built in 1813 and housed the most im- 
portant stores of the town. It also contained the meeting rooms 
of the college societies until its destruction by fire in 1887. 

This was the home of Dartmouth college and was to be the 
home of the Agricultural college for a quarter of a century. Dart- 
mouth itself was a small college and far from wealthy. It had 
been exceeding its income for a number of years; this was largely 
due to the war between the states which had greatly reduced the 
number of students attending the institution. Not until Presi- 
dent Bartlett's administration was there a notable prosperity. 

Professor Dimond faced an enormous task in both organiza- 
tion and procedure. Side by side with Dartmouth and her classi- 
cal courses, a new college had to be set up to offer agricultural and 
mechanical courses. Joseph B. Walker, one of the original trus- 
tees of the Agricultural college, later described the situation in a 
concise and graphic manner in a speech on the history of the col- 
lege which was delivered at the dedication ceremonies of the new 
buildings in Durham in 1892. 

"It may be interesting to take a general inventory 

of what the College then had, and what it had not. 

1. It had great expectations and unlimited pos- 

2. It had a very respectable board of trustees, 
who desired to accomplish a great deal and had very 
narrow means with which to do it. The land donated 
by the United States had been sold and yielded a fund 
of $80,000, to be kept intact forever, and an annual 
available income of $4,800. 

3. It had a Faculty of two learned Professors; a 
fit body though few. 1 

1 President Smith of Dartmouth was also president of the New Hamp- 
shire college faculty and taught one course. Dr. Thomas Crosby was added 
to the faculty as a part-time instructor later in the year. 


The Formative Period 

4. It had a class of students who could be num- 
bered on the fingers of one hand, 2 coupled with a pros- 
pea for more which was the reverse of cheering. 

5. It had a few books and a little apparatus, but 
had no place to store either. 

6. Lastly, and most encouragingly, it had some 
warm friends who had faith in the College and were 
determined to stand by it. 

"From this not very brilliant showing, we will 
turn to the inventory of what the College had not. 

1. It had not a single building in which to lay 
its official head or bestow its goods. 

2. It had no system of study, nor any valuable 
precedents from which to form one. There was then 
no Agricultural College in this country, 3 and the sug- 
gestions to be had from those abroad were, for various 
reasons, quite limited. 

3. It had no text-books on applied science, such 
as its students were sure to need. These had then no 
existence. They were yet to be written. 

4. It had no corps of Professors to teach intel- 
lectually and practically many of the studies which its 
students were expected to pursue. These were yet to 
be made. 

5. It had no sufficient endowment with which 
to meet the demands to be made upon it. 

6. Saddest of all, its managers, of whom your 
speaker had the high privilege or great misfortune to be 
one, had but vague conceptions of the precise product 
which the College was expected to furnish. The hole 
in the grindstone before them had been bored but half 
through, and the light was all on the farther side of it." 

This description was far from being an exaggeration. The teach- 
ing of agriculture and the mechanic arts had been advocated for 
many years, but when it came to arranging an actual course, teach- 

2 The entering class in 1868 actually included ten members. 

8 This is not strictly true. There were new schools which were founded 
before New Hampshire college, but they had not devised an adequate system 
of study, or even had a clear understanding of their own function. Most of 
the thinking on this problem had to be done in the midst of its actual work- 
ing out. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

ers in the new schools were confronted with a poverty of materials 
and methods, and were also uncertain of what the objectives of 
their teaching might be. It was assumed that chemistry would 
play a large part in agricultural training, but the sciences of agron- 
omy and agricultural chemistry were only slightly developed. For 
years, the teachers had to work out the material of their courses 
while they taught them, and it was 20 years before they had the 
assistance of the Experiment stations in the research which had 
to be done. 

At the same time, the lack of clarity about the objectives to- 
ward which the land grant colleges were supposed to work led 
to many bitter struggles. In New Hampshire, this was further 
complicated by the connection with Dartmouth. Many thought 
of these colleges as trade schools for farmers and mechanics. In 
such schools, a thorough training in the fundamentals of agricul- 
ture and the mechanic arts, with enough background in theory to 
foster an understanding of the reasons for the practices followed, 
would be given. 

On the other side were those who wanted the new colleges to 
educate the sons and daughters of farmers and workmen who could 
not afford the expenses of the endowed colleges. In the states 
west of the Alleghenies, it was not difficult for those who believed 
in this to carry the day, and in many states, state universities early 
grew out of the land grant institutions. But in the East, long es- 
tablished endowed schools resisted this move and fought to restrict 
the new state colleges to a narrower field. 

Dartmouth had been New Hampshire's only college for 
many years. Her graduates were prominent in every town and 
in every business. They carried an enormous influence in the af- 
fairs of the state. When the question of the location of the Agri- 
cultural college was being discussed in the legislature, President 
Smith of Dartmouth made his opinion quite clear on the proper 
relationship of the two schools. In June of 1867, he had written 
to Joseph B. Walker expressing misgivings about the plan as then 
proposed. He had favored locating the college at Hanover on 
condition that the fund be given to Dartmouth. In return, Dart- 
mouth would provide agricultural instruction and devote half the 
income of the fund to free scholarships for agricultural students. 
The state would be guaranteed against any further expense, and 
the fund could be placed under the care of those state officials who 
were ex officio members of the Dartmouth board of trustees. 


The Formative Period 

This plan had been rejected, and the school set up under its 
own board of trustees, with provisions made for later separation 
of the two colleges if that should appear to be necessary. Presi- 
dent Smith disliked the temporary nature of the arrangement, the 
duplication of governing bodies, and the possible duplication of 
classes and activities. However, when the decision was made to 
locate the school in Hanover, he became and remained its fast 
friend. Ezekiel Dimond, Charles H. Pettee, and others have com- 
mended him for his great patience and tact in helping to work out 
the problems of the college. This held true even though the 
trends developed by Professor Dimond were often contrary to 
President Smith's own beliefs and hopes at the time of the found- 
ing of New Hampshire college. 

New Hampshire's first professor was a truly remarkable man. 
He possessed an enormous energy and an executive ability which 
contributed more than any other factor to keep the school alive 
and make its later success possible. Until his death, he carried 
the entire work of the business manager of the college. His duties 
included not only handling the finances and preparing the annual 
reports, but also planning and supervising the construction of 
buildings. In addition, he organized and taught most of the 
courses, including all of the chemistry courses at Dartmouth col- 
lege, lobbied at the legislature, gave lectures through the state, 
secured students, and did innumerable other things which would 
have taxed the strength of a giant. 

Professor Dimond was afflicted with poor health during the 
latter part of the time he was at Hanover. He suffered from epi- 
lepsy which was undoubtedly aggravated by overwork, so much so 
that he can truthfully be said to have sacrificed years of his life 
for the college. What New Hampshire college needed at this 
stage of her development was not so much a teacher as a vigorous, 
clear-thinking executive who was determined to make the college a 
going concern. If any man can be called the father of the col- 
lege, Ezekiel Dimond is the man, and his name should be re- 
membered side by side with those of Charles H. Pettee and Clar- 
ence W. Scott for his endless devotion to the school. 

In the third report of the trustees of New Hampshire college, 
Professor Dimond had a lengthy discussion dealing, among other 
things, with the objectives and methods which the college should 
pursue. The heart of his philosophy appeared in his objections to 
the name "Agricultural college." He argued that the Morrill act, 


History of University of New Hampshire 

in addition to providing for "at least one college where the leading 
object shall be ... to teach such branches of learning as are re- 
lated to Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts," did not exclude the 
teaching of "other scientific and classical studies." This meant 
to him that what was needed was not merely an agricultural col- 
lege, but an industrial university, and he avoided the former name 
throughout his report, using instead State college, Industrial col- 
lege, and State Industrial college. 

The connection with Dartmouth was invaluable for his pur- 
poses in the beginning and development of the new school. 

"These institutions [he wrote], unless they re- 
ceived a much larger additional endowment than they 
would be likely to receive, in the smaller states at least, 
if established by themselves, could become little more 
than one-horse academies,' where everything is at- 
tempted, where everything is praised to excess, and 
where boys would be taught to memorize a mass of 
words from dry and, to them, unmeaning text-books, 
as parrots are taught to recite verses; or else they would 
be organized upon the compulsory manual-labor system, 
and would teach neither theoretical nor practical science 
enough to produce any visible effect or permanent good, 
but would dwindle into mere agricultural experiment 
stations or apprentice-shops where boys would be blind- 
ly taught the manual arts of agriculture and manufac- 
ture, as monkeys are taught to perform antics in order 
to procure coppers for their masters. 

"The conclusion arrived at in every New England 
state save one (Maine) favors a concentration of all our 
educational efforts. The institutions have been located 
either in connection with or adjacent to, other colleges, 
where the advantages of buildings, of libraries, of ap- 
paratus and museums already collected could be avail- 

He then presented a long argument in favor of the name 
"Industrial college," as representing more accurately the broader 
objectives and functions of the new school. New Hampshire col- 
lege, according to Professor Dimond, differed from Dartmouth and 
the Chandler school in four major respects: 

1. The classes of persons to be benefited by its instruction. 


The Formative Period 

2. The number and character of the studies to be pursued. 

3. The methods of instruction it will employ. 

4. The appliances required for such instruction. 

In addition to the scientific studies, the students needed English, 
commercial arithmetic, bookkeeping, and drawing immediately. 

Professor Dimond continued in the same report to describe 
what the school would do for the students. 

"It is to take young men who have been made 
familiar at home with the more simple processes and 
practices of the farm and shop — to take them where 
the shop, farm and common school leave them — and 
give them such general training as will form good 
habits of study and enable them to become first-class 
men, useful and influential citizens. It then proposes 
to cultivate their powers of observation by an experi- 
mental study of nature; to train them to use these pow- 
ers of practical reasoning by a careful study of the 
methods of science; and finally to prepare them, by a 
careful study of both science and art, to bring then- 
powers of observation and reasoning to bear upon all 
important questions connected with their occupations, 
just as the physician or lawyer makes use of his previ- 
ous training and knowledge." 

Toward the achievement of these ends, Dartmouth could con- 
tribute such "general culture as the industrial classes require" but 
it could furnish only a small portion of the "teaching force and 
appliances for the required technical instruction." 

It does not appear that President Smith disagreed very widely 
with Professor Dimond on the nature of the work which students 
of the new school should do, once it had been settled that the 
school was to have an independent existence. With the latter's 
ideas set forth in principle and more or less agreed to by both 
President Smith and the trustees, it was possible for Professor 
Dimond to proceed to plan for the equipment needed. 

The first thing that the college needed was a building of 
its own, with adequate space for a chemical laboratory, two class- 
rooms, and a room for the collections of the New Hampshire Mu- 
seum of General and Applied Science, which was to be built up 
around the specimens which Professor Dimond had brought from 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Europe. He had already prepared plans for such a building and 
devoted seven pages to a minute description of them. 

The second thing needed was an experimental farm. Pro- 
fessor Dimond planned to use this for experiments in the me- 
chanical improvement of the soil, the use of manures and com- 
mercial fertilizers, and improvement of crops, grass, and livestock. 

His third most important request was for an experimental 
machine shop in which various machines necessary for mechanical 
instruction could be set up, and the course developed to suit the 
needs of the students. 

This was the program with which Professor Dimond under- 
took his new position. The program was not realized immediate- 
ly, nor even by the time of his death. Probably even he only 
partly realized the full meaning of his plans and the results to 
which they would lead in later years. The opposition to them was 
strong and extremely vocal for many years. However, his ideas 
have been essentially followed and have been carried out to a de- 
gree which he could scarcely have foreseen. 

# # # 

One of the first problems that Professor Dimond faced was a 
recurring one throughout the college's stay in Hanover. This 
was to obtain an entering class. Nothing had been done to secure 
students, and the college was scheduled to open in September. 
Professor Dimond had 2,000 circulars printed and distributed 
through the state. This and some personal soliciting by a few 
interested people in the state was all the effort which it was pos- 
sible to put forth. Professor Clarence Scott, commenting on this 
later, says, ". . . it would not have been too much if half a dozen 
men had worked the field for six months before the opening 

Probably everyone was surprised when ten men appeared to 
register on September 4, 1868. Apparently, these students had 
the attitude that they were willing to try the experiment but re- 
served the right to drop out at any time they had an impulse to 
do so. That impulse worked overtime during the first year. Only 
two of them came back for the second year, and they, with the 
addition of a third man who joined them at that time, went on to 
graduate in the first class of New Hampshire college. These three 
men were given the training they wanted and such work as they 
were able to carry. William Ballard of Concord took the agri- 


The Formative Period 

cultural course, and Lewis Perkins of North Adams, Massachu- 
setts, and Charles Sanders of Penacook took the mechanic arts 
course. All three of them attended their fiftieth reunion in 1921. 

A story is told that among the original ten entrants in 1868 
was a huge Indian, who is listed in the records of the registrar as 
Albert Carney from Boggy Depot, Choctaw Nation. He had 
been a confederate soldier and had come to Dartmouth college to 
take advantage of the funds provided for the education of Indians. 
He was transferred to the Agricultural college because he certain- 
ly fitted in nowhere else in Hanover and it was thought that that 
school could do something for him. He soon transferred, how- 
ever, to a classical preparatory school to acquire a proper back- 
ground of Greek and Latin for a classical course, so it must have 
been that the school failed to meet his needs. 

The faculty of New Hampshire college for the first year con- 
sisted of Ezekiel Dimond, A. M., professor of general and applied 
chemistry, and Thomas R. Crosby, M. D., instructor in animal and 
vegetable physiology. The latter had been a professor at Nor- 
wich university and had served in the army during the Civil war as 
a surgeon with the rank of lieutenant colonel. He was a very able 
and scholarly man, and his death in 1872 was mourned as a great 
loss to the college. Dr. Crosby was available only for a few 
classes a week so the chief burden of instruction fell on Professor 
Dimond. It was the custom at Dartmouth to pay instructors two 
dollars an hour for classes conducted in the other schools. Under 
this arrangement, Edwin O. Sanborn, instructor in rhetoric and 
history, Charles F. Emerson, instructor in mathematics, and Charles 
A. Young, instructor in natural philosophy and astronomy, taught 
classes for the new institution. Instruction was also given in free 
hand drawing by John E. Sinclair of the Chandler school during 
the last term of this first year. Both Professor Dimond and Dr. 
Crosby were paid on the hourly rate for classes they taught in the 
other schools. 

It was not long before steps were taken to provide a building 
suitable for the use of the state college. In May, 1868, the trus- 
tees sent a committee to a meeting of the Dartmouth trustees. This 
committee acknowledged that Dartmouth had fulfilled the terms 
of her agreement, but they went on to point out the need of a 
building as a "local habitation" for the new college. This build- 
ing should be provided with a chemical laboratory, classrooms, and 
museum space. The committee asked the Dartmouth trustees 


History of University of New Hampshire 

what they were willing to do about it and also referred, somewhat 
discreetly, to the Culver bequest. 

After General Culver's offer had been refused by the state 
legislature, the terms of his will made Dartmouth the beneficiary 
of his estate with the provision that the proceeds must be devoted 
to agricultural education. The Culver heirs contested the will, 
and Dartmouth reached a compromise with them, to avoid litiga- 
tion, whereby the estate was sold and the proceeds divided equally 
between the heirs and the college. This yielded about $22,000 to 
Dartmouth. In addition, Mr. Culver's widow died and left prop- 
erty in Lyme to Dartmouth under the same provisions which had 
been in her husband's will. This bequest of Mrs. Culver amounted 
to approximately $9,000, which gave the college a fund of over 
$30,000 which it was required, by the terms of the agreement, to 
devote to agricultural education. 

The Dartmouth trustees offered to appropriate $25,000 from 
the Culver fund, provided that the state of New Hampshire appro- 
priate $15,000 more to go with it, to construct a building which 
should cost not more than $40,000. When the money had been 
assured, the work of construction should be supervised by a com- 
mittee of three, one appointed by the New Hampshire college 
trustees, one by the Dartmouth college trustees, and the third mem- 
ber, the president of both institutions. 

The Dartmouth trustees also agreed to the list of rooms which 
was proposed by Professor Dimond for the building, and they 
specifically reserved the right to keep their own museum there. 
Moreover, they agreed to the joint use of the chemical laboratory 
and the rooms intended for the departments of mineralogy, geol- 
ogy, and natural history. Finally, they stipulated that the expense 
of operation and maintenance of the building should be shared in 
proportion to the use of the building. In practice, this amounted 
to an even division of the cost of heat, light, repairs, water, and 
services. In case the two schools should separate, the trustees 
of Dartmouth agreed to repay, with interest, the $15,000 con- 
tributed by the state. 

This proposal was accepted, and it was agreed that the new 
structure should be named for General Culver. Professor Dimond 
became extremely active during the legislative session of 1869 and 
succeeded in securing the required appropriation of $15,000. 
Whenever the need arose, Professor Dimond was an indefatigable 
lobbyist and usually managed to secure very nearly what he wanted 


The Formative Period 

from the legislature. In this case, he received assistance from 
the many Dartmouth men in public life who were eager to help 
their alma mater acquire this new building. 

In his long section of the 1869 trustees' report, Professor 
Dimond gave floor plans for all the four floors of Culver hall. 
The first floor was to be used for agricultural implements, ma- 
chines, and models. The second floor was to include a chemical 
lecture room and a chemical laboratory. On the third floor were 
to be recitation rooms and a museum illustrating the geology of 
New Hampshire and Vermont. The fourth floor was to be de- 
voted chiefly to a large museum and to a lecture room. When 
completed, Culver hall would be the largest and most modern 
building in the whole college. Professor Dimond lost no oppor- 
tunities to point out what this would mean for the prestige of the 
state college. 

The architect, Edward Dow of Concord, New Hampshire, 
spent two years in building Culver hall. Hanover was not the 
easiest place in the world to carry on construction work, especially 
when such a large building was being erected. Many materials 
had to be transported from considerable distances, and some skilled 
labor had to be brought in. Moreover, in October, 1869, New 
Hampshire suffered from an unusually severe flood, one not 
matched, in fact, until the one in the fall of 1927. Several hun- 
dred thousand bricks which had been made for Culver hall, and 
which were just ready to be burned, were destroyed by the flooding 
of the brickyards, and the wood provided for burning them was 
carried downstream. As a result, the making of the bricks had to 
be put off until the following summer. Moreover, the whole 
problem of transportation was further complicated because the 
flood had destroyed bridges and long stretches of highway. 

The cornerstone of Culver hall was laid by Governor Onslow 
Stearns on June 23, 1870, in the presence of a number of political 
leaders of the state, but the great celebration came exactly a year 
later, on June 23, 1871, at the dedication ceremonies. The legis- 
lature, at that time, held its annual session in June and was usual- 
ly in session through the early summer. Professor Scott has thus 
described the visit of the state officials and the legislature: 

"It was safe to assume that the railroads would 
provide a special train without cost for the members 
of the legislature and for a few hundred extra passen- 
gers. There was the prospect of a trip of seventy-five 


History of University of New Hampshire 

miles, some good speaking and a good dinner provided 
by the citizens of Hanover. 

"The station of Hanover, also known as Norwich, 
as it is on the Vermont side of the Connecticut, [was] 
crossed by a covered wooden bridge. At that time there 
was no approach to Hanover except by means of a climb 
up a disagreeable sand hill not provided with a side 

"There seemed to be, on a small scale, a repetition 
of Commencement. The same railroad station seemed 
to be doing the business of a city. The marshal of the 
day cautioned the crowd that in marching across the 
bridge they must break step. 

"The crowd filled the upper [floor] of Culver hall. 
The dinner was very satisfactory and so were the speak- 
ers. This year had been one in which there had been 
a sharp political fight with success for the outs . . . 

"The speakers included Governor Weston, Ex- 
Governor Smythe and Honorable D. M. Clough, one of 
the leading farmers of the State. President Smith had, 
ever since he was a freshman, had a reputation for mak- 
ing happy speeches. Of course on this occasion he was 
at his best, several times making humorous references 
to the legislative controversies. One of the references 
was, 'Now the lion and lamb lie down together. Mind 
I do not say which is the lion and which is the lamb/ 
Even more satisfactory was the speech of Honorable 
W. P. Wheeler who told of the Honorable John Co- 
nant who had given $7,000 to the College and had giv- 
en an additional $5,000, available when the State con- 
tributed a like sum. 

"Later than the speaking was a ploughing match in 
which figured the huge Daniel Webster plough drawn 
by two yoke of oxen and held by Mr. Clough. 

"This was the successful Friday afternoon, June 
23, 1871." 

The account in the Dartmouth for July, 1871, the monthly 
student magazine and the predecessor of the present daily news- 
paper, indicates that all the students took part in the celebration. 


The Formative Period 

"Considerable disappointment was occasioned by a 
misunderstanding, quite general among the students, to 
the effect that the day had been promised them as a holi- 
day, whereas only the afternoon recital was omitted. 
They were soon reconciled, however, and entered into 
the spirit of the occasion with a peculiar zest, heightened, 
no doubt, by a term of unusual quiet . . . With their 
usual kindly hospitality, the people of Hanover had pre- 
pared an excellent collation in the hall of the gymnasi- 
um, which was served by the ladies and students, and 
to which all did ample justice. Thence they proceeded 
in procession to the new building, in the upper hall of 
which the dedicatory services were to be held. This was 
soon filled to its utmost capacity, and after an address 
of welcome from President Smith, in which he apolo- 
gized for the unfinished condition of the building, and 
disclaimed all politics for Dartmouth in a very happy 
manner, Professor Dimond gave a brief account of the 
material and cost of the building, and delivered up the 
keys to the President." 
The Dartmouth closed its account with the comment, 

"Here, at least, the affair seemed very enjoyable to 
all concerned. We learn that the Legislature has 
voted $12,000 to the College since their return. Tran- 
seat in exemplum" 

That Culver hall was an important addition to the plant of 
the Dartmouth community is easy to see. The Dartmouth, in 
March, 1872, commended the 

". . . spacious airy lecture room in Culver hall with 
its large and numerous windows and pleasant situation, 
as contrasted with the Cimmerian gloom of the Chapel 
or some of the recitation rooms of Dartmouth Hall." 

However beautiful and convenient Culver hall may have 
seemed to the students and faculty of 1871, it did not keep that 
reputation for long. To later generations, it was an ugly example 
of the style of its time. Upon the removal of New Hampshire 
college to Durham, it was turned over to Dartmouth, and was 
used for recitation and other purposes. The chemistry depart- 
ment continued to occupy the first floor until 1906 when it se- 
cured the use of the whole building. When it was finally judged 


History of University of New Hampshire 

too hopelessly inadequate for the chemistry department in 1921, 
it was taken over by the department of art. The building was 
torn down in 1929. 

In the same issue mentioned above, the Dartmouth reported 
that the first gas light in Hanover was used in Culver hall at a 
meeting of the state board of agriculture. The gas system was a 
product of Professor Dimond's genius for work. He installed a 
plant for making gas from crude oil, and for economy's sake, laid 
wooden mains to conduct the gas to the college buildings and to 
private homes. However, the wooden mains leaked and when 
the gas came in contact with the roots of the trees, it killed a large 
proportion of the shade trees in the town. Iron pipes were laid 
to replace the wooden ones but the cost of the gas was extremely 
high. For this reason, there was a great deal of criticism of the 
gas company until the introduction of electricity, in 1893, put it 
out of business. 

In spite of the extremely high price of the gas, the company 
never paid a dividend. A few street lights were set up in 1875, 
but the town was never very brilliantly lighted. To the faculty, 
the chief advantage of the gas system was that it made possible 
holding the five o'clock recitations all the year round, instead of 
omitting them during the short days of midwinter. 

During the time that New Hampshire college was in Han- 
over, there was difficulty in securing an adequate supply of water. 
In 1872, Professor Dimond reported that he was continually hav- 
ing trouble with the water supply for the laboratories. Five years 
later, there was a complaint in the trustees' report that it had been 
necessary to haul water from the Connecticut river to the farm 
during the dry seasons. The report of 1876 mentioned a spring 
from which water was drawn for use in the barn; this spring was 
near Conant hall. The next year, a suggestion was made that 
a sufficient supply of water could be secured from Balch hill if 
money were made available for the necessary equipment. The 
problem was not finally settled until a reservoir was built north 
of the village; this became available for use, however, just after 
the college moved to Durham. 

While Culver hall was being built, the college began adding 
to its property in other ways. According to Professor Dimond, 
in the third trustees' report, one of the chief needs of the college 
was an experimental farm. In fact, he asserted, the most effective 
work of the college was impossible without a large farm which 


The Formative Period 

could be used both for purposes of instruction and for scientific 
experimentation. An accumulation of a considerable fund from 
the interest on the land grant money had resulted because of the 
delay in starting the classes of the institution. Professor Dimond 
proceeded to use about $3,700 of this to purchase 25 acres of 
land 4 opposite Culver hall. 

This purchase was by no means sufficient to fill the needs of 
the school but Professor Dimond was not the man to hesitate in an 
emergency. He went ahead and bought the Chase farm of 135 
acres with his own money and held it for the use of the college un- 
til money could be made available to buy it from him. In the 
fourth trustees' report, the legislature was informed of this situa- 
tion and urged to appropriate the $7,000 necessary for the pur- 

There was a dwelling house and some small outbuildings on 
the Chase farm but they were in a dilapidated condition. Pro- 
fessor Dimond set to work immediately to repair and improve the 
buildings. He then moved in and waited for action by the legis- 
lature. What he would have done if he had not been able to sell 
the farm to the college is problematical. If his usual habits are 
any criterion, he probably would have decided to cultivate the 135 
acres in his spare time. 

The problem of the farm was solved without the necessity of 
action by the legislature. The most generous of the early friends 
of the college, John Conant, made it the occasion of his first gift. 
Mr. Conant is described by Joseph Walker as having been "... a 
tall, solemn, thoughtful, hard-fisted farmer, whose piety was of 
the practical kind . . ." He had accumulated a small fortune from 
farming and wise investments in his home town of Jaffrey and in 
his old age, decided that he wanted to use his money to help ad- 
vance agricultural education in New Hampshire. A friend 6 of 
the college brought the needs of the institution to his attention. 
In the fall of 1870, Mr. Conant went to Hanover to meet the men 

4 This extended from East Wheelock street south between Crosby street, 
which had not been cut through at the time, and Park street; this purchase in- 
cluded all the land now occupied by the gymnasium and the athletic fields. 

5 This land lay on the south side of East Wheelock street, from Park 
street to Balch hill. 

6 Probably Mr. Walker himself because he says in one place that the 
"friend" went to Hanover with Mr. Conant, and in another place that he 
[Walker] was there during the visit. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

who were running the college and to look over the situation him- 
self for he "was a man whose faith was governed largely by his 

Joseph Walker's account of the visit continued: 

"They [Conant and the friend] were met at the 
station, one day about noon, by Professor Dimond, and 
taken in a very plain, open wagon to his modest one- 
story house, on what afterwards became the college 
farm. Here he [Conant] found extreme neatness, sim- 
plicity of furnishings, and a good dinner. 

"Inwardly fortified by the latter, the old gentleman 
asked to be taken over the farm. It was ere long evi- 
dent that he liked the looks of things. Watching his 
opportunity, as the professor's attention was turned 
aside; he said confidentially, and in an undertone to his 
friend, 'The professor says that he bought this farm to 
secure it for the college, and that, if I want it for the 
college, he will sell it to me for its cost and interest. I 
am thinking about buying it/ 

"Later in the afternoon, the friend was again taken 
aside, and confidentially told, The professor tells me 
that since he has bought this place he has laid out 
about $200, exactly how much, the bills will show, in 
painting, papering, and otherwise repairing the house. 
Do you think I ought to pay for those repairs?' To the 
remark that it seemed reasonable that he should, he 
thoughtfully replied, 'I think so myself/ Later still in 
the day, the immaculate tea service of Mrs. Dimond, 
and the frank conversation of President Smith, who had 
been invited to meet Mr. Conant, seemed to deepen his 
favorable impression. 

"The next morning, in his solemn way, he said to 
his confident of the day before, then about to leave him, 
'I shall buy this farm and give it to the college. I may 
do more but I want first to give $10,000 I have prom- 
ised to give to the New London Academy, and get from 
its trustees a moral discharge. They expect I shall do 
more but I haven't agreed to and I shan't/ " 
Mr. Conant was as good as his word and bought the farm 
at a price which included the original purchase price with interest 


The Formative Period 

and the cost of the repairs which Professor Dimond had made. 

In his memorial sketch of Professor Dimond's life, Mr. Walk- 
er adds a detail which indicates that Mr. Conant was already plan- 
ning further gifts. He says that Mr. Conant remarked the next 
morning that the agricultural students, who were then boarding 
and rooming at different places in the village, wherever they could 
find accommodations, 

"... should have some place in which to live. I 
will give $5,000 toward the twelve which would prob- 
ably be required for building a suitable farm and board- 
ing house, if the state will give the other seven. That, 
with the farm, will make $12,000 that I will offer now. 
Perhaps I may hereafter do something more." 
This apparently is the $5,000 offer which made William Wheeler's 
speech at the dedication of Culver hall the following spring such 
a success. 

This was Mr. Conant's only visit to Hanover. He stayed 
three days and must have seen enough to convince him thoroughly 
of the value of the new school for his gifts totaled nearly $70,000 
during the six remaining years of his life. He was 80 years old 
at the time of this visit but he retained an active interest in the 
college and carried on a frequent correspondence with various 
people connected with it. 

The second building constructed at Hanover for the use of 
New Hampshire college was named after this early benefactor of 
the institution. The legislature appropriated $12,000 for Conant 
hall at the sessions of 1871 and 1872, but the actual construction 
did not get under way until May, 1873. Dartmouth offered a 
site for the building, but the offer was rejected because the pro- 
posed location was too far from Culver hall and the farm. In- 
stead, the trustees of New Hampshire college bought the Allen 
lot, and with part of it, provided for a new street, which is the 
present Crosby street, from East Wheelock street to Lebanon 
street. Conant hall was built on the northeast corner of this lot, 
where Topliff hall now stands. The new building was opened in 
the fall of 1874. 7 

The first floor was used for a dining room where about 135 
students from all the schools secured their meals at a cost of $3.25 
a week. Professor Dimond had figured, originally, that the cost 

7 The total cost of Conant hall was computed to have been $22,358. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

could be kept down to $2.50 or $2.75 a week by the use of produce 
from the farm, but even at the higher price, the Conant dining 
room never paid its expenses. For several years, it was let out to 
a Mrs. Durgin who ran it with rigid economy. The upper floors 
were a dormitory where rents ranged from $15 to $25 a year for 
double rooms. 

John Conant was determined that the full income from his 
scholarships should be used each year. On October 6, 1874, 
he made an agreement with one of the trustees, William P. Wheel- 
er of Keene, New Hampshire, to the effect that, 

"If additional scholarships are not wanted, any sur- 
plus remaining may be used in rendering further aid 
if required, either in the form of a gift or of compensa- 
tion for labor, to students who propose to devote them- 
selves to agricultural pursuits." 

In a letter to President Smith, written the following January, 
Mr. Conant specified that one of the ways in which he wanted the 
surplus income to be employed was in providing free rooms in 
Conant hall. 

In all his correspondence, Mr. Conant was careful to repeat 
the condition that his money was to be used only for students who 
intended to follow agriculture as an occupation. Whether this 
actually operated to eliminate those who took the mechanical 
course from the benefits of the Conant fund, there is no way of 
discovering. Since only about a third of the graduates became 
farmers, strict observance of the letter of the rule would have 
placed a heavy limitation on the use of the funds. 

Dartmouth college bought Conant hall when the Agricul- 
tural college moved to Durham and renamed it Hallgarten. It 
continued to be used as a dormitory but became increasingly un- 
popular with the students as it grew older and so acquired the nick- 
name of "Hellgate." It was torn down in 1925. The annex to 
Hallgarten, a small, square, brick building, formerly used as a 
kitchen, still stands behind Topliff hall and is used only as a store- 
house. It is the only survivor of the college buildings used by 
New Hampshire college during its stay in Hanover. The Experi- 
ment station building and several houses used by faculty members 
are still in use, however. 

Professor Dimond, during his term as business manager of 
the college, supervised the construction of some smaller buildings 


The Formative Period 

as well as that of Culver and Conant halls. In his report for 
1869, which has been mentioned before, he made a plea for an ex- 
perimental machine shop. 

"The Mechanic Arts the wrote] are placed upon 
an equal footing with Agriculture, and we need a small 
experimental machine shop as much as an experimental 
farm. We cannot, if we would, separate these two 
great interests in our State, nor can any man tell us 
which is the more important." 

A small, two-story frame building was built near Conant 
hall. It was apparently designed originally to be used for the 
mechanic arts, but no equipment was forthcoming, and no philan- 
thropist interested in the mechanical courses was found to follow 
the example of John Conant, so the building, under the name of 
Allen hall, was converted into a dormitory. 

In 1875, the legislature gave the college $5,000 to build a 
new barn behind the farm buildings. When it was completed it 
was 50 feet by 100 feet in size and was considered a model barn. 
The farm house had originally been a square one-storied wooden 
cottage with a large central chimney and a small kitchen addition 
at one end. It was enlarged by the addition of a second story 
and was used as a residence for the farm superintendent after 
Professor Dimond's death. 

# # # 

The contest for students was extremely sharp in the eighteen- 
seventies and eighties. This was a real problem even for colleges 
with established reputations. Dartmouth did not begin to ap- 
proach its present size until the administration of President Tucker 
who assumed office in 1893. Under President Smith and Presi- 
dent Bartlett, the Dartmouth student body remained between 300 
and 400. With new and untried institutions like the Agricul- 
tural college, the securing of students was even more of a prob- 
lem and every possible means was used to secure entrants. Dur- 
ing vacations, according to the traditional story, Professor Pettee 
and Professor Scott traveled about the state with a horse and bug- 
gy and talked to prospective students wherever they might be 

The endowment of the Conant scholarships, which were giv- 
en on the basis of $1,000 for each town in Cheshire county, with 
$2,000 for Mr. Conant's native town of Jaffrey, made that county 


History of University of New Hampshire 

a particularly advantageous part of the state in which to find new 
students. With such an inducement to offer, the officials of the 
college carefully canvassed Cheshire county every year. The in- 
come of the Conant scholarship fund was to be used for the tui- 
tion of students majoring in agriculture and was available for 
students from Cheshire county. There were also 12 state scholar- 
ships that covered tuition; one of these was available for a student 
in each senatorial district. 

Although the entire student body never exceeded 33 before 
1880, a total of 34 or more scholarships were offered for in-state 
students each year. Moreover, many of the students came from 
other states, especially from Vermont and Massachusetts; in fact, 
nearly half of the total graduates of New Hampshire college before 
1877 were from out of the state even though the out of state stu- 
dents were not eligible for scholarships. It was extremely im- 
portant to have the classes filled because the college was too poor 
to suffer the serious loss of income that resulted from having the 
tuition funds stand idle. The state scholarships represented an 
irrecoverable loss of income to the institution if they were not 
used. In almost every trustees' report, therefore, the members 
of the legislature were urged to help find students for the college. 
The tuition income from the 34 available scholarships amounted 
to over $1,000 a year; this sum was a sizeable addition to the col- 
lege's income of $4,800 a year from the land grant fund. 

If New Hampshire college had been organized like Cornell 
university, so that it could give instruction in any course which 
the student might want, the task of building up classes might 
have been much easier. The agricultural course was, however, 
more than a little suspect and was subject to a great many jokes as 
well as considerable snobbery. 

New Hampshire college was one of the poorest of the land 
grant institutions. In an article written in 1884, entitled, Agricul- 
tural Education Historically Considered, Professor Scott wrote: 

"In income, Cornell heads the list with $230,000. 
Next comes the University of California, with a yearly 
income of $100,000 ... It has received from the state 
$35,000 for its library, nearly half a million dollars 
for buildings and over a million for general expenses. 
. . . The income of $4,800 received by the state college 
of New Hampshire is the smallest income received by 
any one of the colleges doing independent work." 


The Formative Period 

This is not an entirely fair comparison because New Hampshire 
did have the advantage of Dartmouth's equipment and the help 
of some members of the Dartmouth faculty at a very low cost. 

The Dartmouth connection, however, did have the effect of 
restricting the state college's curriculum without providing a coun- 
terbalancing amount of more general courses. Professor Scott, 
who could speak from experience, expanded this point in another 
part of the article which is quoted above: 

"A second plan for establishing the new college 
was to place it beside an existing institution, but to keep 
funds and students distinct. The advantages urged are 
evident — libraries, museums, instructors at nominal 
prices, and the reputation presumably gained. On the 
other hand, there has been an unfortunate current be- 
lief that agricultural students so situated are subjected 
to petty insults, that new institutions are overshadowed 
by the old, and unnoticed by those who bestow their 
money upon colleges, and that they are frowned upon 
if they show too much inclination to grow. It is quite 
certain that no college situated thus can teach agricul- 
ture successfully if devoid of two conditions. It may 
use instruction from the other college, but it must have 
an independent faculty, who are thoroughly in sym- 
pathy with the work, and it must give an education up- 
on the basis sufficiently broad to give its students an as- 
sured position." 

How well this worked out in practice, it is not possible to 
say. President Smith took the position that one college helped 
the other in both instructors and buildings. Thus, Professor Di- 
mond conducted the chemistry courses for both colleges, and of 
the first three new buildings which were constructed on the cam- 
pus at Hanover after 1869, two existed because of the Agricul- 
tural college. 

The Dartmouth, in its issue of March, 1869, printed an 
article opposing a proposal which it said had been made, even at 
that early date, to remove the Agricultural college from Hanover 
because the tastes and interests of the classical students were so 
far removed from those of the agricultural students. The writer 
of the article felt that the state owed more to the college than the 
college owed to the state and claimed that there was far more 


History of University of New Hampshire 

sympathy toward agricultural education in Hanover than in most 
farming communities because college men were likely to have a 
fuller appreciation of what the advances of science could mean in 
their practical application. No single article could represent the 
opinion of everybody, however, and there were some whose ideas 
varied widely in both directions. 

A more serious criticism of the agricultural course appeared 
in the Dartmouth of April 20, 1876. An anonymous corre- 
spondent wrote a letter to the editor objecting to the continuance 
of the Agricultural college in connection with Dartmouth. He 
criticized the requirements for admission and for graduation and 
laid particular stress upon the fact that it was possible for agri- 
cultural students to receive the same degree as the students of the 
Chandler school in spite of the differences in standards which 

The tone of the letter created a great deal of resentment. 
The administration took immediate steps to establish a censor- 
ship over the paper and the argument was not resumed in the 
columns of the Dartmouth. However, the opinion which was 
held by a considerable number of both students and faculty had 
been brought into the open, and it was apparent to many that 
there was a great deal of truth behind the criticism. 

The requirements for admission to New Hampshire college 
were given in the first trustees' report as, ". . . good moral char- 
acter and a mastery of the branches usually taught in our com- 
mon schools." This was expanded in the next report to include 
examinations in English grammar, geography, and arithmetic. It 
was not until several years later that United States history was 
added to this list, followed by algebra through simple equations. 
These standards were considerably lower than those of the Chand- 
ler school. In addition, the Chandler school course comprised 
four years' work while the agricultural course required only three. 

In the second trustees' report, the academic year was divided 
into two terms: a fall term, from September 4 to Thanksgiving, 
followed by a winter vacation of six weeks, and a spring term, 
ending on the next to the last Thursday in April. The 
summer term was omitted in order to allow the students to work 
at home, and for that period, projects in practical farming were 
assigned. In some instances, however, the summers were used 
to earn money for the students' expenses at college; this was a 
practice which the college authorities encouraged. 


The Formative Period 

The idea of a summer recess was relatively new, for prac- 
tically all the colleges had a summer term. At Dartmouth, the 
winter was considered the better time to make extra money, for 
a large proportion of the students were in the habit of teaching 
in small country schools during the winter vacation. President 
Smith, in 1866, reformed the academic calendar for Dartmouth. 
He shortened the winter recess and arranged the college calendar 
much as it now is. However, students who needed to teach in 
order to earn money for their college expenses were excused dur- 
ing the winter with the understanding that the work missed 
should be made up. 

The Agricultural college arranged its calendar to meet the 
needs of its students and thus had two terms totaling 28 weeks. 
This was considered a very strange arrangement by the advocates 
of the classical curriculum. As this academic year of 28 weeks 
continued in use in New Hampshire college until 1877, the fac- 
ulty were able to make good use of the summer vacation. They 
visited around in the state, gave lectures, and interviewed possible 

The second trustees' report also included an announcement 
of the course of study to be followed. It was entitled Programme 
of the Several Terms. 

"The following is the outline of the course of 
study for the several terms, subject to such changes as 
experience may show to be desirable: — 


Fall Term. — Algebra; Botany; Chemistry; History; 

Spring Term. — Algebra completed; Systematic 
Botany; Animal and Vegetable Chemistry; Geometry; 

English Composition and Declamation through the 


Fall Term. — Practical Botany; Zoology; Com- 
parative Anatomy; Analytical Chemistry; Trigonome- 
try; French. 

Spring Term. — Natural Philosophy; Physiology; 
Geology; Mineralogy; Evidences of Christianity; 
French continued. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

English Composition and Declamation through 
the year. 

Lectures during the year on Farm Implements, 
Mechanics of Tillage, Drainings, and Fencings. 


Fall Term. — Physical Geography; Surveying and 
Mensuration; Astronomy; Meteorology; Agricultural 
Chemistry; Agricultural Zoology. 

Spring Term. — Intellectual Philosophy; Moral 
Philosophy; Political Science; Chemistry continued, 
with laboratory practice; or, at the option of the stu- 
dent, Practical Mechanics; Zoology continued, with the 
same option. 

English Composition and Declamation through 
the year. 

Lectures during the year on Rural Architecture, 
Rural Economy, Landscape Gardening, and Aesthetics 
of the Farm. 

Military Tactics through the whole course. 

A Bible Exercise once a week during the whole 

This announcement was more impressive than the actual 
courses given, for it was several years before instruction was offered 
in some of the subjects included in the list. For example, French 
was not taught until nearly 20 years after the first class entered 
New Hampshire college. Military tactics, though required by 
both the Morrill act and the act of the New Hampshire legisla- 
ture incorporating the college, had to wait nearly 30 years, until 
the college moved to Durham. It was impossible to consider as- 
signing an army officer to command a group of students which 
never exceeded 50 persons and was ordinarily nearer half that 
number. Until suitable instructors could be found for some of 
the subjects, members of the staff filled in as best they could, or 
members of the Dartmouth and Chandler school faculties taught 
the courses. 

Dean Pettee used to relate that, during his second year at 
the Thayer school of Civil Engineering, he was approached by 
Professor Dimond and asked to teach a class in meteorology in the 
Agricultural college. Mr. Pettee replied that he had never studied 
meteorology and knew nothing about it. 


The Formative Period 

"Well, that's all right," said Professor Dimond. "You can 
keep ahead of the boys." Whatever the arrangement was, Mr. 
Pettee accepted the offer, largely because the pay was welcome at 
the time. Later, he was added to the college staff as professor of 
mathematics but he carried on the teaching of meteorology as a 
side interest for 52 years. 

Benjamin T. Blanpied, as instructor in chemistry and natural 
history, was added to the faculty in 1871 to assist Professor Di- 
mond. He was raised to the rank of associate professor in 1875 
and after Professor Dimond's death, became professor of chemis- 
try, from 1877 to 1879, and also became business manager of the 
school although with somewhat lighter duties than those of his 

The announcements of the college twice stated that a degree 
other than that of bachelor of science would be awarded. The 
third trustees' report mentioned the degree of bachelor of philoso- 
phy as the one to be given. In the twelfth report, it is given 
as that of bachelor of agricultural science. The first proposal 
may have arisen out of Professor Dimond's leaning toward the 
industrial university idea, and the second may have been a move 
in the direction of appeasing the critics who were comparing the 
Agricultural college adversely with the Chandler school. Neither 
of these degrees, however, was ever given. 

^ TT Tt" 

Dean Pettee has left us a brief but amusing description of 
the life of the students at Dartmouth. It is similar to the condi- 
tions under which the agricultural students lived, at least, until 
the superior accommodations of Conant hall were ready. 

"I was graduated from Dartmouth college in 
1874, just three years after the first class of three men 
was graduated from our own institution, which was 
then at Hanover. Dartmouth at that time was a poor 
man's college. In the seventies, all dormitory rooms 
were heated by stoves. Students usually bought their 
coal in 500 pound lots. The coal was dumped at the 
rear of the building and was carried in, in coal hods 
by the students. For upstairs rooms, a pulley, with a 
rope attached, was suspended above a rear hall window, 
and one student would work below, filling the hods, a 
second at the window, drawing up full hods and low- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

ering empty ones, while a third carried the coal to the 

"Water was brought each morning in pitchers 
or pails from a well on the campus, at an average dis- 
tance from the dormitory doors of about 100 feet. 
Often steps were saved by throwing slops from the 
dormitory windows. 

"Toilet facilities were provided in an unheated, 
unfloored brick building about 10 by 70 feet, located in 
the rear and at an average distance of about 100 feet 
from the dormitories. Water was heated on top of 
the stoves in the students' rooms as it was needed for 
baths which were usually accomplished by use of a 
foot tub. With temperatures of 40 degrees below zero 
not at all uncommon in December and January, no 
one would, I presume, consider the facilities extrava- 
gant even for the seventies of the last century. In those 
days table board was $3 a week; room rent varied from 
$25 to $40 a year. Students bought necessary furni- 
ture at second hand, and sold it on graduation. Though 
I never heard of a freshman being persuaded to buy a 
radiator in his room or a reserved seat in Chapel, I have 
heard many stories of other ways of taking advantages 
of freshmen by trading furniture. Human nature has 
changed little from that time to this. 

"Kerosene student lamps were the fashion for 
light whenever finances allowed the extravagance. 
Otherwise a cheap kerosene lamp sufficed. Unskilled 
labor was worth $1.25 per day of ten hours. An oc- 
casional student helped pay his way through college by 
sawing and splitting wood which was then in common 
use by many families. One such hard-up student took 
his best girl home with him over a short vacation. 
Reaching White River Junction by train at noon, the 
boy ordered for lunch one dish of baked beans with two 
spoons. The two ate together to the great amusement 
of a crowd of students present. In those days many stu- 
dents paid their way by teaching winter schools and 
haying in the summer. Personally I stayed out my 
sophomore winter and taught a school of 45 scholars 


The Formative Period 

with all grades from a b c's to algebra, Latin and Greek. 
I had 27 recitations a day, two of which came after 
school. Beside the above I practiced the boys on add- 
ing tables while the girls were having their ten minute 
recess, and vice versa with the girls in their turn. 

"In those days New Hampshire had a prohibition 
law. For years it was a dead letter in the cities and 
some of the towns, so that liquor was quite easily ob- 
tained. This continued for a number of years until 
finally the legislature passed a local option, high li- 
cense law, which compelled every town to vote every 
two years on whether they would have license. This 
lasted only a few years, after which the state returned 
to state-wide prohibition. 

"From the earliest colonial times the use of some 
form of alcoholic stimulant was considered the preroga- 
tive of the educated gentlemen. Early college songs 
abound with references to drink. No social occasion 
was complete without some stimulant. It is doubtful 
that prohibition would have made the progress it has 
if it had waited for leadership from college students. 
We are not surprised therefore to find a considerable 
group of heavy drinkers in college in the seventies, 
even under prohibition. Of 82 who graduated in 1874, 
ten were heavy drinkers; that is, they participated in 
drunken carousals or, as the boys said, went on a bat, 
every few weeks. Generally it was group drinking, 
but one young man every two or three weeks, quite 
regularly, went off by himself and lay drunk over the 
week-end. Beside the above ten there was an equal 
number of light drinkers who intended to keep sober, 
but occasionally went over the line. A few others were 
not averse to a glass of beer on rare occasions/' 

There was a more serious side to student life in Hanover 
than one might judge from Dean Pettee's account and part of 
this centered around the use of the library facilities available there. 
A number of different libraries existed in Hanover in the eighteen 
nineties. The two literary societies of Dartmouth college had 
their own library and the different schools had their separate col- 
lections. At the beginning of President Smith's administration, 


History of University of New Hampshire 

the collections totaled about 36,000 books, of which about half 
were in the Dartmouth college library. Prior to this time, the 
library of the college had been open to students only on infre- 
quent occasions, but they were now permitted access to it for an 
hour and a half a day. 

In 1874, all the collections in the college were combined, 
and a full-time librarian was employed, whose salary, with the 
other expenses of the library, was to be paid from a fee of six 
dollars which was collected annually from all the students. The 
first librarian under this arrangement was Clarence W. Scott, 
class of 1874 of Dartmouth college and later professor of Eng- 
lish language and literature in New Hampshire college. However, 
the Agricultural college collection, which included nearly 2,000 
volumes by 1874, was not housed with the rest of the collections 
until after the construction of the Wilson library in 1885. 

Student labor was employed quite extensively on the college 
farm and was not confined to agricultural students alone. The 
rate of pay was fixed at 15 cents an hour. In the trustees' report 
for 1875, the following sums are listed as having been paid to 
students during the previous two years: 

1873-1874 1874-1875 
Agricultural $478. $708. 

Academic 218. 262. 

Medical 48. 318. 

Thayer school 84. 10. 

$828. $1,298." 

With each report dealing with student labor, President Smith 
was careful to point out that students of all the schools were work- 
ing side by side, and to affirm his belief that this would contribute 
greatly to the improvement of relations between the agricultural 
students and the others. 

The same result was indicated as likely to follow from the 
association of all the students in the dining room at Conant hall. 
One example of this occurs in the same report for 1875 where 
President Smith stated, 

* 'Professor Dimond says, I have been obliged to 
refuse numerous applications from the most worthy 
young men in all the departments of the college, be- 
cause our funds are too limited to employ them all. 


The Formative Period 

Had we $2,000 to spend annually in the improvement 
of our farm and other premises, every dollar of it could 
be given to deserving young men for labor; and the 
service rendered would, in a majority of cases, be more 
profitable than that obtained from other classes of la- 
borers.' There are incidental benefits resulting from 
all this, which will not escape the notice of thoughtful 
men. Such is the friendly commingling of the students 
of all the departments, and the tendency to make labor 
honorable in the eyes of all. Honest industry, in what- 
ever form, has never been disreputable at Dartmouth 
college, and it will certainly be none the less so for the 
peculiar opportunities furnished by the agricultural de- 
partment/ ' 

Whether the desired result was obtained would be hard to 
say. The agricultural students did not associate much with the 
others in Hanover, and the former were not eligible for member- 
ship in any of the Dartmouth undergraduate organizations. The 
Dartmouth had editors from the Chandler school but not from 
New Hampshire college. There is some indication that the agri- 
cultural students participated in the organized athletics of Dart- 
mouth although these were rather sporadic and did not result in 
much competition with other colleges. 

An attempt was made by the New Hampshire college stu- 
dents to set up an organization like the Dartmouth student socie- 
ties. This was the Culver Literary society which was included 
for the first time in the annual known as the Aegis for 1872-1873. 
The society had 21 members, all from the agricultural college, 
and its officers were, 

"President: J. Fred Smith, 73 

Vice-President: Henry A. Sawyer, 74 

Treasurer: Irwin O. Wright, 75 

Directors: Charles H. Tucker, 73 
Millard F. Hardy, 74 
GilmanW. Davis, 75" 

Like its models, the Culver Literary society started a library 
while at Hanover, but it never compared in size with those of 
the United Fraternity and the Social Friends. The purpose of 
the society was defined as, 


History of University of New Hampshire 

". . . improvement in elocution, composition, and 
debate, as well as for the improvement of our general 
knowledge, in the pursuit of which we intend to keep 
strictly in view the welfare of the Society as well as the 
tone of the institution of which we are members ..." 
At meetings, members read essays, largely on subjects related to 
the curriculum, which were then debated and discussed. These 
papers, with the addition of some items of news, personal items, 
editorials, and jokes, were copied out in long hand and circulated 
among the students under the name of the Culver Literary Jour- 
nal. The earliest surviving copy of this ancestor of all our stu- 
dent publications is volume 2, number 1, October 2, 1872. Its 
28 pages included a poem, The Joy of the Absent, six essays with 
such titles as, Trees, Rubber, and Mount Monadnock, and two 
pages of jokes. After 1876, the Journal seems to have been al- 
lowed to lapse, for we have no copies of any such paper from 
that time until the move to Durham. 

There is some reason to suspect that the society also was a 
medium for a certain amount of hazing although little is said 
about such actions. At no time during President Smith's admin- 
istration was there any report of disciplinary action of a serious 
nature against any of the students of New Hampshire college. On 
the contrary, the president's reports are eloquent in praise of their 
conduct and of their devotion to their studies. Probably one very 
good reason for this was that the students were, as a rule, quite 
poor and could afford neither the time nor the money for any 
large scale deviltry. 

tF *tt *rr 

The formative period of New Hampshire college ended with 
the death of Professor Dimond on January 6, 1876, and the resig- 
nation of President Smith which took effect on the first of the 
following year. President Smith lived only a few months after 
his resignation, suffering from a serious and lingering illness which 
caused his death on August 16, 1877. This year brought still 
further losses to the young college with the deaths of two trustees: 
William Wheeler, who had been chiefly instrumental in drawing 
up the contracts with Dartmouth college and had been one of the 
most active of the trustees, and Chester B. Hutchins of Bath who 
had served on the board for ten years. On April 6, 1877, John 
Conant died at the age of 87. He was the most generous bene- 


The Formative Period 

factor of the college while it was in Hanover, and his gifts are a 
lasting memorial to his interest in the advancement of agricul- 
tural education in his native state. 

Professor Dimond had been feeling the effects of his long 
period of overwork and in the fall of 1875, asked for a leave of 
absence to enable him to recover his health. Recovery, however, 
was out of the question for he was suffering from an incurable 
tumor of the brain. President Smith, speaking at Professor Di- 
mond's funeral, said, "He has accomplished in a little more than 
seven years the work of an ordinary lifetime.' ' Unfortunately, 
such a record did not shield him from adverse criticism. 

The trustees' report for 1876 stated that Professor Dimond's 
care of the farm had been excellent, "despite certain false reports 
maliciously originated and circulated." Moreover, in the reports 
for the year after his death, a committee of two, consisting of Dr. 
Edward Spalding and George W. Nesmith, which had been ap- 
pointed to go over his accounts, said that, 

"... a thorough investigation satisfied the commit- 
tee of the correctness of Professor Dimond's accounts 
and claims and the complete honesty and integrity of 
the man." 

The sum of $4,075.72 was due his estate from the college and this 
was later paid to Mrs. Dimond. The rumors touching his hon- 
esty were caused by the fact that he was forced to carry the whole 
financial responsibility for the school, and in his habitual down- 
right manner, was accustomed to buy supplies as they were needed 
without a good deal of red tape that would have been involved in 
a thoroughly business-like procedure. 

John Conant had been disturbed by entirely different charges 
against Professor Dimond. In a letter which Mr. Conant sent to 
President Smith, as well as to all of the trustees, in 1875, he wrote 
that he had just heard that Professor Dimond suffered from epi- 
lepsy and so considered him unfit for his position. 

"One of the students [he stated] wrote me a few 
days since that they had good profs as other Depart- 
ments, and that all was right except the want of right 
man at the head: he wrote the management of the farm 
he thought rather shiftless; & wrote that I suppose you 
have seen the piece in the paper about Dimond's pota- 
toes, that it is all true only a little more so." 


History of University of New Hampshire 

This last item was stated more specifically farther on in the same 
letter where it was charged that two acres of potatoes and 20 bush- 
els of beets froze in the ground as a result of neglect and that 
Professor Dimond would neither dig them nor let them be dug al- 
though students offered to do the work. 

Although such a report as this must have outraged the thrif- 
ty New Hampshire farmers, the trustees clearly considered that 
the errors of judgment were, at most, of minor importance and 
that the rest of the criticisms were almost totally false. There is 
no indication that Professor Dimond's request for a leave of ab- 
sence was anything other than voluntary. The marvel is that 
the criticisms of his work were so few when his accomplishments 
were so great. 


The College in Hanover 


The death of Professor Dimond and the resignation of Presi- 
dent Smith necessitated a general examination of the condition of 
the college before new officers assumed control. Professor Di- 
mond had carried most of the responsibility, but the growth of the 
college and the gradual expansion of its work required that this 
be divided among several men. 

Professor Blanpied, who had been serving as associate pro- 
fessor of chemistry, took over the duties of business manager of 
the college and superintendent of the farm when Professor Di- 
mond's illness forced him to request a leave of absence. This ar- 
rangement worked fairly well as a temporary expedient during 
the summer vacation when classes were not in session, but it soon 
became apparent that the appointment of a farm superintendent 
was an absolute necessity. Accordingly, at a special meeting of 
the board of trustees, held in August, 1876, the qualifications of 
various candidates were examined, and Jeremiah W. Sanborn of 
Gilmanton was unanimously chosen. 

Professor Dimond had urged several times that such an ap- 
pointment be made, and the board of trustees, aware of the prob- 
lems connected with the management of the farm, felt that Mr. 
Sanborn was an extremely fortunate choice for the position. He 
was a comparatively young man with an excellent background of 
training and experience and had great energy and enthusiasm for 
his work. He was a member of the state board of agriculture 
and had traveled throughout the state lecturing on agricultural 
topics so that he knew the farms and farmers of New Hampshire 
as few others did. His ability as a speaker had made him popu- 
lar, and his wide acquaintance with the political leaders of the 
state made him an asset to the college. 

Within a few months after his arrival in Hanover, Mr. San- 
born had completed a thorough survey of the farm and its equip- 
ment and had launched the series of experiments which were to 
make his name widely known. In his first report, that for 1877, 
the college farm was described as containing 77 acres of fields and 
251 acres of pasture and woodland. The fields contained from 
70 to 80 percent clay, but the soil was rich and capable of pro- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

ducing heavy crops. Professor Dimond had begun the work of 
underdraining part of it, but much more remained to be done. 
The pasture and woodland extended back onto the hills, and 
while it was not as good soil as that of the fields, it was excellent 
for the purposes to which it was then put. Mr. Sanborn pointed 
out that the productive capacity of the farm had evidently been 
much improved since the state had come into possession of it. 

The farmhouse was one of the oldest houses in the town 
and had neither a dairy room nor a suitable place for building 
one. The barn was adequate to take care of the stock on the 
farm and also for providing storage space for produce and fodder. 
It had been considered wise to go into debt in order to increase the 
stock on hand because the very low price of fodder made the 
prospects of profit greater from feeding the hay to the stock than 
from selling the crop. The college had received gifts of a Dur- 
ham bull, a Jersey bull, and a Devon heifer. All were fine 
blooded stock, and with a few more additions, the college herd 
could be expected not only to pay its own way, but to yield a 
profit to be used for the purchase of necessary equipment for the 
experimental work. 

The most important function of the farm, in Mr. Sanborn's 
opinion, was the experimental work which he planned to carry on. 

"A new theory or practice [he wrote] that prom- 
ises well and commends itself after careful considera- 
tion should be tested whether the immediate result af- 
fords profit or not; for negative results will often pay 
better than positive ones, in that it is done for many 
farmers of the state. If a success, and the farmers 
have confidence in the management, a more active and 
general adoption of it will take place." 

Among the problems which he had begun to investigate were the 
effects of temperature on production, so as to encourage ample pro- 
tection for the stock during cold weather, the relative value of 
bran, meal, and other feeds, and feeding formulae planned for 
low cost and maximum results. The first research work of New 
Hampshire college is significant if only because it antedated the 
Hatch act by many years. 

Mr. Sanborn carried on outstanding experimental work dur- 
ing his seven years' association with the college though much of 
his work could not attain the degree of accuracy of that done by a 


The College in Hanover 

well manned and well equipped modern experiment station. His 
opinions were widely known and quoted, not only in America but 
also in Europe. He lectured in towns in the state, and his lec- 
tures to the students of the college rapidly assumed the character 
of complete courses. It soon became apparent that he would 
make an excellent professor of agriculture. Unfortunately for 
New Hampshire, however, a very flattering offer came to him 
from Missouri. The salary offered was double what New Hamp- 
shire could pay, and he was also offered the headship of a depart- 
ment. He accepted the position and continued his work in the 
West with remarkable success. 

Several changes in the faculty were made after Professor 
Dimond's death. Professor Blanpied's promotion has already 
been mentioned. Henry C. Jesup was promoted from instruc- 
tor to professor of botany and natural history in 1877. He held 
the same position in the Chandler school; and when the state col- 
lege moved to Durham, he decided to remain in Hanover and re- 
signed from the agricultural faculty. Charles Holmes Pettee, who 
was already teaching a class in meteorology, was appointed in- 
structor in mathematics in 1876 and professor of mathematics 
and civil engineering in 1877. He was a graduate of Dartmouth 
in the class of 1874 and had earned the degree of civil engineer 
at the Thayer School of Civil Engineering. The biography of this 
teacher is really the history of New Hampshire college for, as pro- 
fessor, dean, and acting president, he was an active and important 
figure in the life of the institution for 62 years. 

George W. Nesmith was elected president of the board of 
trustees shortly after the resignation of President Smith. Judge 
Nesmith had served as a member of the boards of trustees of both 
the state college and of Dartmouth for a number of years. He 
had been active in the political life of the state from his youth 
and had a great deal of prestige with all of the citizens. His 
opinions carried great weight so that his work on behalf of the 
college was invaluable during its uncertain early years. 

When President Bartlett of Dartmouth took office, he was 
also elected president of the faculty of New Hampshire college 
but did not receive the honor which had been given to his pre- 
decessor, that of election to the presidency of the board of trustees. 
Judge Nesmith continued to hold that position until his death in 
1890. The reason for this change of policy is not fully known 


History of University of New Hampshire 

but it may have been due to the belief that President Bartlett 
would not be able to give as much time to the Agricultural col- 
lege as President Smith had. The latter had, in fact, been mildly 
criticized by a few Dartmouth men for devoting too much of his 
time and attention to the Agricultural college at the expense of his 
own health. Whatever the reason, President Bartlett had com- 
paratively little power in the affairs of the state college, and most 
of the administrative functions were carried out by Judge Nesmith 
or Professor Blanpied or, after 1888, by Dean Pettee. 

The board of trustees, in 1877, began a policy of limiting 
as much as possible the amount of instruction offered by men who 
were not regular members of the New Hampshire college faculty. 
The trustees explained that it was their purpose to secure a group 
of permanent professors in the agricultural department and also 
reduce, to some extent, the cost of teaching, for while the former 
system had provided a larger variety of teachers and courses, 

". . . yet the instructors were not specially identi- 
fied with our college, nor could they be held strictly ac- 
countable for the standing of the students who were 
under their individual tutelage and instruction for only 
a few hours in the week." 

Under this new plan, the list of the faculty of New Hamp- 
shire college, according to the trustees' report for 1879, included, 
in addition to the three professors mentioned above, Charles F. 
Emerson, instructor in natural philosophy, the Reverend Daniel 
J. Noyes, instructor in political economy, Clarence W. Scott, in- 
structor in the English language and literature, Frank A. Sherman, 
instructor in drawing. These four men taught only part time, 
and it was several years later before New Hampshire college was 
able to provide instructors in all the necessary courses from its 
own faculty. 

In order to have more control of the administration of the 
college funds, the trustees voted in 1877, 

". . . that no teacher or officer of the college should 
have any authority to contract any debt binding the 
corporation for any sum whatever, unless authorized by 
a special vote of the board of trustees, at a legal meet- 
ing, and an appropriation made therefor." 

This, with the other changes which had been made, inspired the 
hope that the institution might soon be made self-supporting. 


The College in Hanover 

The debts outstanding were estimated at $6,000, and if they could 
be paid, the trustees believed, although they did not have the 
figures available to prove it, that the current income would be 
enough to meet all expenses. If help could be given by the legis- 
lature toward the payment of this debt, as well as for a few ad- 
ditional expenses, it was expected that the chief financial prob- 
lems would be solved. The most important of the minor ex- 
penses was the need for about $500 worth of surveying and 
mathematical instruments which were being borrowed from Dart- 

The legislature came to the aid of the college and appro- 
priated $3,000 a year for six years. Of this, $1,000 a year was 
to be used toward payment of the college debt; $1,000 for the 
salary of a farm superintendent; and $1,000 toward the cost of 
building a new farmhouse. With this assistance, the trustees were 
able to report that the college was free from debt in 1881. 

The sessions of the legislature were important to the college 
for other reasons than securing appropriations although the college 
generally had some problem of finances before that body. The 
members of the legislature, though thrifty, were rather inclined 
to welcome the visits of representatives from the college. The 
June sessions were leisurely and comfortable, and Concord was an 
extremely pleasant place in early summer. It was easy to make 
friends in the shade of the State house; subjects of conversation 
were plentiful and, through these conversations, representatives of 
New Hampshire college were able to secure students, both from 
the families and from the constituents of the legislators. 

# # # 

Although the hopes of the friends of the college for major 
increases in the student body were doomed to disappointment un- 
til after the move to Durham, the institution did grow in other 
ways under the care of Judge Nesmith and President Bartlett. The 
school year was lengthened, new courses of study were intro- 
duced, and standards were raised. Still, most of the entering stu- 
dents had, at best, only a common school education. This meant 
from three to five years less preparation than that of the Dart- 
mouth students, and two or three years less than that of those en- 
tering the Chandler Scientific school. 

The first change was made in 1877 when the school year was 
increased to 38 weeks to conform to the official calendar of Dart- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

mouth college and the Chandler school. Vacations were to co- 
incide in all the schools and the graduation exercises of New 
Hampshire college, which had previously been held nearly three 
months before the Dartmouth graduation, would now occur at the 
same time. However, the practice of holding the exercises sep- 
arate from the Dartmouth ceremonies continued to prevail. 

In 1881, the trustees voted to establish an optional course 
of another year, "provided any student may elect the longer 
course." No degree was given for this extra year but several stu- 
dents took the course during the next ten years. 

Two years later, the regular course was increased to four 
years with a new first year of 28 weeks, which was soon increased 
to 38 weeks. The entering students were divided between the 
new first year's work and that of the second year according to the 
degree of preparation which they possessed. 

The change to a four-year course resulted in a revision of 
the standards for admission. They are given in the catalogue for 
1883-1885 as, 

"Candidates for the First Year must present testi- 
monials of good moral character, and must pass an ex- 
amination in Arithmetic, Algebra through simple equa- 
tions, English Grammar, Geography, and United States 

"Candidates for the Second Year will also be ex- 
amined in Algebra through quadratics, Plane Geome- 
try, English Language and Composition, Ancient His- 
tory, Physiology, and Book-keeping. 

"Students coming from academies or high schools 
will be admitted without examination in certain studies, 
on the certificate of their respective principals that they 
are fully prepared in these, but examinations will be re- 
quired in every study not specially mentioned." 

It is interesting to compare this list with the requirements 
for admission to the Chandler school as given by L. B. Richardson 
in his History of Dartmouth College. The subjects required for 
admission at the time that school was founded were reading, spell- 
ing, penmanship, English grammar, arithmetic, geography, and 
general history. To this was later added physiology, American 
history, and all of algebra and plane geometry. The trustees of 
the Chandler school, however, in 1880, reduced the requirements 


The College in Hanover 

to algebra through simple equations, thus eliminating the major 
part of algebra and all of plane geometry. The history require- 
ment was changed at the same time to eliminate all but American 
history. This action, which was taken in the belief that it was 
necessary to meet the conditions of the founder's will, met with a 
storm of protests and the former standards were soon restored. 

This list of the Chandler school requirements corresponded 
roughly with the requirements for admission to the second year of 
New Hampshire college so that the agricultural course was still a 
year behind the Chandler school in entrance requirements. This 
was also true of the requirements for graduation. Though the 
college was making vigorous efforts to raise its standards, much 
still remained to be done to bring its work to a higher level. 

The system of elective courses was introduced in 1883 though 
in a limited and cautious degree. These courses were restricted to 
members of the senior class except for some courses in mathe- 
matics which were open to students in the middle year. Other 
elective courses, for seniors only, were offered in English and 
American literature, political science, history, analytical chemistry, 
forestry, veterinary science, dairying, and market and landscape 

The long felt need for better courses in the mechanic arts 
was not filled until 1886. Lieutenant Thomas W. Kinkaid of 
the engineering department of the United States navy was as- 
signed by the secretary of the navy, William C. Whitney, to in- 
struct in the mechanic arts at New Hampshire college. His sal- 
ary was paid by the navy. 

The facilities for such work were extremely limited. For 
years, workshop instruction had been given to all male students 
of the college in the carpenter's shop of Dartmouth college and 
this was, of course, limited in every way. In 1887, a frame build- 
ing, 30 by 30 feet, was constructed near Conant hall. It had to 
be lengthened to 50 feet the following year, and at the same time, 
a boiler, engine, and considerable machinery were installed. The 
college requested and received $4,500 from the legislature to be 
used to build and equip this shop. 

When the shop was working adequately and when the course 
was firmly established, Professor Kinkaid resigned from the col- 
lege faculty and returned to his naval duties. The college hired 
two men to work in the shop, one an excellent carpenter, the other 


History of University of New Hampshire 

a highly skilled iron worker. These two men carried on the in- 
struction in the shops, and George L. Teeple was added to the 
faculty as instructor in mechanical engineering and physic's. In 
1891, Albert Kingsbury was appointed professor of mechanical 
engineering and Mr. Teeple became instructor of electrical engi- 

There were four special courses of study offered by New 
Hampshire college during the last years of the stay in Hanover. 
There were courses in agriculture, chemistry, mechanical engi- 
neering, and electrical engineering; a general course was added to 
these when it became evident that women were interested in study- 
ing at the state college. This general course permitted women stu- 
dents to take a series of elective courses in place of shop work 
and surveying, which were not considered suitable for them. There 
appears to have been little expectation that this arrangement 
would have any particular attraction for men and it was frankly 
advertised as a "women's course." 

The growth of the agricultural work was even greater than 
the expansion of the engineering courses. After the resignation 
of Professor Sanborn, Professor Pettee took over the management 
of the farm for a year. In 1884, George H. Whitcher, a gradu- 
ate of the Agricultural college in the class of 1881, was appointed 
to the vacancy. Mr. Whitcher proved a very competent manager 
and his experimental work, upon which he entered immediately 
after taking over the farm, was both successful and valuable. He 
carried on the work which Mr. Sanborn had started on stock feeds 
and paid particular attention to feeds which could be grown on the 
farm. He described, in his first report, analyses he was making 
of various commercial fertilizers and gave some of his results. He 
indicated that more would be forthcoming as soon as he considered 
his discoveries to be reliable. The farm superintendent was ex- 
pected to give lectures in the courses in agriculture; Mr. Whitcher 
proved so successful that he was made professor of agriculture in 

The Hatch act, passed on March 2, 1887, which established 
agricultural experiment stations, was a very important aid to New 
Hampshire college. The work which had been a sideline of the 
farm superintendent could now be carried on in a far more am- 
bitious way with a staff of full-time workers engaged in a great 
variety of experiments and aided by the best equipment. The 









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The College in Hanover 

farm superintendent had previously been a combination of experi- 
menter, farmer, and instructor in agriculture. Though some of 
this continued after the establishment of the Experiment station, 
a much greater degree of specialization was made possible by the 
increased staff. 

The Hatch act provided, 

". . . That it shall be the object and duty of said 
experiment stations to conduct original researches or 
verify experiments on the physiology of plants and ani- 
mals; the diseases to which they are severally subject 
with the remedies for the same; the chemical composi- 
tion of useful plants at their different stages of growth; 
the comparative advantage of rotative cropping as pur- 
sued under a varying series of crops; the capacity of 
new plants or trees for acclimation; the chemical com- 
position of manures, natural or artificial, with experi- 
ments designed to test their comparative eff ects on crops 
of different kinds; the adaptation and value of grasses 
and forage plants; the composition and digestibility of 
the different kinds of food for domestic animals; the 
scientific and economic questions involved in the produc- 
tion of butter and cheese and such other researches or 
experiments bearing directly on the agricultural indus- 
try of the United States as may in each case be deemed 
advisable, having due regard to the varying conditions 
and needs of the respective states or territories." 

The act provided that the federal government would appro- 
priate $15,000 a year for support of the experimental work and 
the salaries of employees; it was, however, up to the individual 
states to construct any buildings which might be needed. Fifteen 
thousand dollars was a tremendous sum to the little New Hamp- 
shire school whose total annual budget did not equal this amount. 
With this appropriation, the resident staff could be increased and 
experts in a number of fields could be secured for part-time services. 

The organization of the Experiment station began with the 
choice of a director on February 22, 1888. A building commit- 
tee was also appointed at the same time; this consisted of S. B. 
Whittemore, G W. Stone, and C. H. Pettee. At the annual 
meeting of the trustees on April 17, a board of control was chosen 
and definite plans were made for the erection of a new Experi- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

ment station building to contain a laboratory and offices. The 
first meeting of the board of control was held the next day when 
a plan of work to be pursued was presented by the director. 

Professor Whitcher was appointed the first director of the 
Experiment station. He had been provided with an assistant on 
the farm the year before. Albert Wood of Lebanon, a graduate 
of New Hampshire college in the class of 1885, had been hired as 
assistant superintendent of the farm at a salary of $350 a year 
with board and room. He was placed in charge of the dairy work 
after the organization of the Experiment station and became as- 
sociate professor of agriculture two years later. 

The first annual report of the Agricultural Experiment sta- 
tion gave the following list of the board of control and of the 


Hon. Warren Brown, President. 
Hon. George A. Wason. 
Hon. S. B. Whittemore. 
Prof. G. H. Whitcher. 
Prof. T. W. Kinkaid,* Secretary. 

G. H. Whitcher, Director. 
A. H. Wood, Supt. Dairy Department. 
H. H. Lamson, Microscopist. 

F. W. Morse, 

E. H. Farrington, > Asst. Chemists. 

C. L. Parsons, 

C. H. Pettee, Meteorologist. 

T. W. Kinkaid, Consulting Engineer. 

J. M. Fuller, Station Farmer. 

H. L. Barnard, Clerk. 

* Resigned, and G. H. Whitcher chosen secretary." 

The laying of the cornerstone of the new Experiment station 
building in June, 1888, was honored by the presence of Governor 
Charles H. Sawyer. The exercises were conducted by the officers 
of the State grange who used the ritual of the order at the cere- 
monies. Several hundred farmers from all parts of the state at- 
tended. A special train brought the visitors and they were served 
a "bountiful collation" in the gymnasium by the ladies of the Graf- 


The College in Hanover 

ton Star grange of Hanover. The whole affair was an excellent 
method of introducing the Experiment station to the farmers of 
the state. 

Dean Pettee was very much alive to the need for spreading 
information about all the activities of New Hampshire college. 
He sent out frequent notices to the newspapers about the work of 
the school and usually succeeded in having his items printed. He 
also saw to it that the college was represented at nearly all im- 
portant farmers' meetings, and in short, lost no opportunity to 
remind people of the state that their Agricultural college was busy 
at work, not only for the benefit of its students, but also to aid 
as many of the people of New Hampshire as possible. He was a 
member of the Grange and took an active interest in its work. 
Much of the credit for the fine cooperation between the Grange 
and the state college should go to Dean Pettee for his enthusiastic 
work in both organizations. One sample of this early coopera- 
tion can be found in a printed circular which was written by him, 
in 1888, and sent to all of the Granges in the state with the en- 
dorsement of the officers of the State grange. It described the 
college and asked the local organizations to encourage young men 
in their towns to enroll. 

The Granges were of great assistance in the organization of 
local farmers' institutes. In 1885 and 1887, tours were arranged 
during the winter vacations to 25 cities and towns in the state. 
Dean Pettee, Professor Blanpied, Professor Scott, and Director 
Whitcher, with Robert F. Burleigh, instructor in veterinary medi- 
cine and surgery, represented the college at several of these meet- 
ings. The institutes were advertised by the liberal use of hand- 
bills and posters and drew people from a fairly large radius around 
each town. There were usually two sessions at these meetings, 
afternoon and evening; one of the sessions, whenever it could be 
arranged, was presided over by some prominent local man. 

This restricted and tentative effort to bring the work of the 
college to the people is all the more interesting in that it fore- 
shadows, with remarkable accuracy, the manner in which a great 
part of the work of the University Extension service was to be 
carried on 35 years later. Though this service is now operated on 
a far greater scale, the institution has been fortunate in never los- 
ing that closeness to the everyday lives of the people of the state 
which characterized its early work. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

The new Experiment station soon became actively engaged in 
supplying information to the farmers. In the first report of the 
station, Director Whitcher outlined a plan of research which 
placed special emphasis on the improvement of dairy herds, im- 
portant crops, farm equipment, and on the testing and compara- 
tive evaluation of feeds and fertilizers. During this first year, four 
bulletins were issued with the following titles: 1. Ensilage; 2. 
Feeding Experiments; 3. When to Cut Corn for Ensilage; 4. Sci- 
ence and Practice of Stock Feeding. These were printed in edi- 
tions of 10,000 copies. The mailing list alone required 7,000 
copies of each bulletin, and Director Whitcher commented that 
new names were being added to the list daily and he expected 
that the list would soon include 15,000 names. 

The second report of the Experiment station contained a 
number of abstracts of bulletins issued. In addition, there was in- 
cluded as part of the report of the trustees an article by William F. 
Flint, of the class of 1877, on the trees and shrubs of the New 
Hampshire forests. This article described over 180 varieties, giv- 
ing their distribution, relative abundance, and the uses to which 
they could be put. Five years before, the first state forestry com- 
mission had published an extensive report on the condition of the 
New Hampshire forests in the preparation of which Mr. Flint had 
participated and on which he drew for most of the material in his 
article. For a good many years, this was the best statement avail- 
able concerning the condition of the forest lands of New Hamp- 

"«* *?P tP 

Despite the growth and improvement in the curriculum and 
the faculty of the college, the problem of securing students re- 
mained as serious as ever. In the fall of 1877, not a single stu- 
dent appeared to register as a member of the class of 1880. The 
college year began and was well under way before one man finally 
appeared. By this time the catalogue of Dartmouth college was 
being printed, and in order to include the name of the newcomer, 
several pages of the catalogue were reprinted at the expense of 
the instructors of New Hampshire college. It was money wasted, 
however, for the man dropped out long before the end of the 

The next episode in the history of the class of 1880 was the 
most extraordinary of all. In the middle of the school year, a 


The College in Hanover 

mother and her son came from California to the college. A course 
was soon arranged for the young man, and he and his mother 
settled in Hanover. At the end of the college year, they left 
Hanover and did not return. Likewise, all record of his work in 
the college disappeared. Even his name was forgotten until, 50 
years later, a man who had been a student at New Hampshire 
college in 1877 visited Durham, and when asked about the phan- 
tom Californian, said that his name was Mandeville. Nothing 
more than this is known about him. 

In the fall of 1878, Charles Harvey Hood of Deny qualified 
to enter the middle year, and thus became the only person to grad- 
uate as a member of the class of 1880. Mr. Hood became an ex- 
tremely successful dairyman and maintained an active interest in 
his alma mater during his lifetime. His gifts and services to the 
college will be discussed in a later chapter. 

The size of the classes in New Hampshire college fluctuated 
widely during the entire period in which the institution was lo- 
cated at Hanover. This can be seen from the number of gradu- 
ates in the classes from 1877 to 1892. 

1877 1 






1886 2 


























The total number in attendance in any one year varied from 
10 to 50. These fluctuations in the size of the classes produced 
earnest appeals in the trustees' reports asking for a wider knowl- 
edge of the work of the college and of the opportunities offered. 

1 New Hampshire college can count at least one Indian among her gradu- 
ates. Rollin Kirk Adair of the class of 1877 was a Cherokee Indian who 
received aid from Dartmouth's fund for the education of Indians. After his 
graduation, he returned to Indian territory to take up farming. 

2 One of the graduates in the class of 1886 was Belezar Stoianoff Ruevsky 
of Sistova, Bulgaria. He presented a thesis on Agriculture in Bulgaria, and 
after his graduation, he went to Europe to continue his studies in veterinary 
science. In 1930, he was living in Roustchouk, Bulgaria. He was the first 
foreign student to attend the college. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

In a letter dated February 18, 1879, the master of the State 
grange, Dudley T. Chase, gave New Hampshire college his full 
endorsement. He praised the equipment and the faculty of the 
school as well as the moderate expense for the course. He then 

"The social position of the students is unobjec- 
tionable and they are regarded and respected by their 
comrades, by their fellow-students in other departments, 
by their instructors, and by the faculty of Dartmouth col- 
lege for their merits and good conduct. No parent and 
no young man need fear that the agricultural student 
will be degraded by his connection with the college." 

This, however, was an optimistic view of a part of the situa- 
tion for the students of New Hampshire college associated very 
little with the students of Dartmouth college. A certain amount 
of resentment was caused by the difference in the standards of 
the schools as well as by the snobbishness of some of the classical 
students. It would be futile to attempt to place the blame for this 
on any one group, just as it would be unreasonable to expect com- 
plete understanding between groups whose interests, backgrounds, 
and occupations were so widely at variance. 

The Christian fraternity was organized on November 22, 
1881, with E. P. Dewey as president, A. E. French, vice-president, 
and Ziba A. Norris, secretary-treasurer. Later, the list of officers 
was extended to include three Guardians whose duty was to ex- 
amine candidates for membership and "be watchful for the wel- 
fare of the society . . ." Meetings were held weekly with dis- 
cussions, lectures, or prayer meetings as part of the programs. A 
typical meeting was thus recorded by the secretary: 

"Met in the English Room with President Dewey 
in the chair. The first business of the evening was the 
reading of the secretary's report of the last meeting. 
Then followed the discussion of when and where to 
have a business meeting. President Dewey, Mason, 
and French had more or less to say on the subject. It 
was finaly moved and seconded to have a business meet- 
ing at half past six o'clock, and at twenty minutes of 
seven have a prayer meeting in an other room. 

"The meeting then proceeded to attend to the pro- 
grame for the evening. The first on the same was to 


The College in Hanover 

have been a declamation; but he not being prepared 
was excused by the chair and was permitted to read a 
piece instead. 

"The next was the discussion of the following 
question: Resolved that religion has made greater prog- 
ress in the last century than in the three preceding cen- 

After listing the speakers on both sides of the discussion, the 
secretary reported that "The question was decided in the Affirma- 
tive by both chair and house," whereupon the meeting adjourned. 
Records of this society from 1881 to 1893 are preserved in the 
university library. 

The date of the founding of New Hampshire's first fraternity, 
Q. T. V., is not recorded. The first chapter of this fraternity was 
established at Massachusetts State college in 1869; it was the sec- 
ond agricultural fraternity organized there. George Whitcher, of 
the class of 1881 at New Hampshire, remembers that the society 
held its meetings on the mezzanine floor of Culver hall while he 
was a student, using a ritual which he believes was worked out 
by the students. Thus we can only say that Q. T. V. was founded 
sometime in the seventies and maintained a continuous existence 
until it affiliated with Kappa Sigma after the turn of the century. 
The amount of money available for student aid continued 
to be plentiful considering the size of the student body. In 1890, 
the tuition was still only $30 a year, and 34 scholarships, 22 from 
the Conant funds and 12 state scholarships, were offered. The 
tuition was increased the following year to $60, but the number 
and value of the scholarships were also increased. The Conant 
scholarships were increased to 30; these now paid $40 and tuition 
or a total of $100. The number of state scholarships was in- 
creased to 24, so that two state scholarships were reserved for 
each senatorial district. They were worth $80 each. In addi- 
tion, it was possible for students to earn money through monitor- 
ships, janitorships, and work on the farm. The estimated expenses 
of the college year 1890-91 were as follows: 

Minimum Maximum 

"Tuition Free $30.00 

Library and reading room tax $6.00 6.00 
Room rent, including steam 

heating or fuel 18.00 30.00 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Board, from $2.70 to $3 per 

week, for 37 weeks 100.00 111.00 

Total $124.00 $177.00 

"Room-rent is estimated on the supposition that 
two students occupy the same room. 

' 'Washing costs from twenty-five to fifty cents per 
week. Rooms are unfurnished. Students bring bed 
linen and blankets; second-hand furniture can be 
bought at low prices, and sold at a slight reduction. 

"The cost of text-books, if obtained new, is about 
$12 per year. As most of the students sell part of their 
books, the actual expense is from $6 to $10 per year/' 

Students who received financial aid from the college were 
subjected to requirements which might seem strange to the modern 
college man though it was not at all out of harmony with the spirit 
of the times. Dean Pettee stated in his report for 1891 that, 

"This [assistance] is given for the purpose of aid- 
ing deserving students, and will be withdrawn from 
those who use tobacco or intoxicating liquors . . ." 

The use of tobacco by a student was regarded somewhat in the 
light of a moral lapse. Such close attention to the morals and 
conduct of the students was expected by both the faculty and the 

Among Dean Pettee's letters, which are now in the possession 
of the university, are a number from anxious parents asking the 
dean to take a personal interest in the religious life and general 
conduct of their sons. The religious life of the students was not 
neglected, for compulsory daily attendance at chapel services was 
required throughout the Hanover period. These services were 
held immediately after breakfast. 

The students of New Hampshire college were a hard work- 
ing, sober group for the most part, with neither time nor money to 
waste. This was not so much because they were especially vir- 
tuous, but because they were enjoying the luxury of a college edu- 
cation which a few years before would have been totally beyond 
their reach. Even with the advantages of the state college, es- 
pecially in regard to expenses, it was a struggle for most of them 
to continue in the institution. 


The College in Hanover 

Typical of this kind of boy was one who wrote to Dean 

"I do not drink, smoke, or use tobacco but do not 
pretend to be perfect. I am almost 18 years old and 
am a painter by trade, that is I have worked at it 5 

Another wrote, 

"I have been thinking for some time, that I should 
like to learn the Mechinist's trade ... I am 19 years 
old and weigh 225 lbs, have always worked on a farm 
... I have faith to believe that I would make a success, 
as I am tuff and healthy, and can stand considerable 
racket. You may think this a peculiar letter but it is 
my way of saying it. in haste." 

The letter may have been peculiar, but it and others like it reflect 
the urgent desire of many young people to take advantage of the 
opportunities offered by the college. 

Some of these letters show a profound lack of understanding 
of New Hampshire college. All through the Hanover period, 
the college was considered by some applicants as a possible alterna- 
tive to a local academy. Letters asking advice about a possible 
choice of this sort were common. After the college was estab- 
lished at Durham and the classes became larger, letters of this 
kind decreased in number. Gradually the idea became more wide- 
ly accepted that completion of an academy or high school course 
should precede application for admission to the college. 

Both at Hanover and after the move to Durham, the fac- 
ulty were eager to see that the students' wants were met. A great 
amount of personal concern was devoted to the problems of the 
students. Faculty and students were both few in number but 
they were close to one another in their daily lives, and the under- 
standing between them was thorough and fruitful. 

Not all the students at Hanover were men. In 1890, Lucy 
Swallow of Hollis, New Hampshire, the sister of a student, Frank 
Swallow, wrote that she would like to take a course in chemistry 
to prepare for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and 
wanted to know if she would "be permitted to go to recitation 
with the young gentlemen and obtain full benefit as well as they." 
She was assured that she could have every opportunity that the 
male students had, and so she entered New Hampshire college that 


History of University of New Hampshire 

same year. She was joined almost immediately by Delia E. Brown 
of Hanover. These two share the honor of having been the first 
women students at New Hampshire college. However, the col- 
lege left Hanover before they had completed the work for a de- 
gree and neither of them graduated. 

The examining committee for 1891 noticed, 

". . . with satisfaction the admission upon their ap- 
plication of Miss Lucy E. Swallow, of Hollis, and Miss 
Delia E. Brown, of Hanover, to the benefits of the col- 
lege. Whether we consider the fact that the college is 
in part sustained by state appropriation, that agricul- 
tural and mechanical employments are concerns of both 
men and women, or the purpose of the college as de- 
fined by the act of Congress in pursuance of which it is 
established, the propriety of offering the advantages of 
the college to young women equally with men is ap- 
parent. The legally defined purpose is, without exclud- 
ing classical and other studies, 'to teach such branches 
of learning as are related to Agriculture and the me- 
chanic arts # # # # in order to promote the liberal and 
practical education of the industrial classes in the several 
pursuits and professions of life.' So broad a statement 
of purpose affords no warrant for limiting the benefits 
of the college to one half of the population as would be 
the case if young men alone were admitted. The prop- 
er furnishing of the college with all that may be neces- 
sary to give equal advantages in respect to dormitory 
and other accommodations to young women may well 
invite the liberality of friends of the education of wom- 
en. We cannot doubt that in the management of this 
interest the need will be seen of some studies specially 
chosen in view of the ordinary employment of women 
in the homes of the people. The conduct of the board- 
ing accommodations for both sexes may afford an op- 
portunity for both practical study of domestic economy 
and some industrial employment on the part of such 
young women as may need in part to pay their expenses 
or may wish to study the various branches of domestic 
economy for the benefit of their subsequent lives." 
The approval of the examining committee was not universal- 
ly shared although coeducation had been an established fact and 


The College in Hanover 

practice for a number of years; it was still a novelty to many 
people. Cornell had admitted women for 15 years before 1890, 
but New Hampshire college was slow in following this practice. 
However, as soon as the first two women students had entered the 
state college, many more were desirous of joining them. In the 
school year 1891-1892, 11 women, 8 of them special students, 
were taking courses at New Hampshire college. 

The first prizes offered to the students were given by the 
Reverend Henry G. Jesup, professor of natural history. Begin- 
ning in 1879 and continuing until the college moved to Durham, 
he gave two prizes each year amounting to $20 for the best her- 
bariums made by students of botany. 

Two years later, the former governor Frederick Smyth of 
Manchester, who served as treasurer of the board of trustees from 
1866 to 1895, made his first gift of $100 for prizes and continued 
to donate the same amount annually until his death. The money 
was used for three contests, one each in oratory, reading, and orig- 
inal essays. The amount of the individual prizes was changed 
several times, but the catalogue for 1885 describes them in the 
form which was followed through most of the life of the contests. 
The contest for essays on subjects connected with agriculture and 
the mechanic arts was open to members of the junior and senior 
classes, with prizes of $20 and $10 for the winners. Three prizes 
of $20, $15, and $10 were offered for oratory; this contest was 
also open only to members of the two upper classes. The mem- 
bers of the lower classes could compete for the $15 and $10 prizes 
offered for reading. The first year these contests were held, George 
Whitcher, who was to become professor of agriculture and director 
of the Experiment station, won first prize in the essay contest. 

The third series of prizes was given by the Alumni associa- 
tion, beginning in 1883, for the best essays submitted upon "sub- 
jects connected with Political Economy." The first prize was $15 
and the second, $10. The Bailey chemical prize, given by Dr. 
C H. Bailey of Gardner, Massachusetts, and E. A. Bailey of Win- 
chendon, Massachusetts, was first awarded in 1888. 

The growing pride in New Hampshire college resulted in the 
formation of an Alumni association. The first meeting of the 
graduates was held at the City hotel, in Keene, New Hampshire, 
on March 23, 1880. A business meeting was held at three o'clock 
in the afternoon at which officers were elected, a constitution and 


History of University of New Hampshire 

by-laws were drawn up, and an executive committee of three chos- 
en. After the business meeting, the group enjoyed a banquet dur- 
ing which 13 toasts were offered. Among these were toasts to 
former President Smith, President Nesmith, the buildings of the 
college, the alumni and their association, the belles of Hanover, 
the boarding houses of Hanover, the Culver Literary society, and 
even to "mine host/' The graduates of the college numbered 
only 49 in 1880, but about two-thirds appear to have taken some 
part in the alumni organization. 

The first list of officers of the association which appears in 
any of the reports is printed in the trustees' report for 1885. These 
are probably not the original officers. 

"President: H. A. Sawyer, 74 
Vice-presidents: J. G. Henry, 77 

W.P.Ballard, 71 

F. P. Marston, '81 

E. P. Dewey, '82 

E. S. Comings, '84 
Secretary and treasurer: W. W. Kimball, 76 
Corresponding secretary: E. Whittemore, 77 

Executive Committee: G. H. Whitcher, '81 

F. A. White, 72 
R. F. Burleigh, '82 

Committee on Prizes: C. M. Woodward, '83 

F. P. Marston, '81 
J. Fred Smith, 73" 

The first organized activity of the alumni was the offering 
of the Alumni prizes mentioned above. Their annual meetings 
continued without interruption from the year of the first meeting, 
and as the association grew in numbers and strength, it became an 
invaluable agency for the advancement of the interests of New 
Hampshire college. 

The list of graduates of the college during its stay in Hanover 
provides an illuminating commentary on the direction of the 
school's development, both then and after the move to Durham. 
The problem to which Professor Dimond devoted so much time 
and thought, namely the relative place in the curriculum of agri- 
culture, mechanic arts, and such other subjects as might be taught, 
was not yet settled. The problem continued to be vigorously 


The College in Hanover 

discussed and debated, and the trustees of New Hampshire college 
were usually on the defensive to prove that the institution really 
was training farmers. One means which the trustees used re- 
peatedly to stress this point was to cite the occupations of the 
graduates. The most complete of such lists was published in 
their report for 1893. 

Living Dead Total 
"Graduates (1871-92, inclusive) 136 7 143 

Clergymen . 

Lawyers . 

Physicians . 

Professors of Agriculture 

Others connected with Agriculture . 




Other teachers . 


Civil and Mechanical Engineers 
Architects . 



Chemists . 


Electrician . 


Journalist . 

Manufacturers and Mechanics . 


Weather Bureau . 


Business pursuits . 
Unclassified . 


Unknown .... 


An examination of these lists as they appeared shows a small 
but steady decline in the percentage of graduates who either be- 
came practicing farmers or teachers of agriculture after gradua- 
tion. In 1885, a correspondent of the Boston Journal could truth- 
fully report that 35 percent of the graduates were farmers, but 
the list of the graduates through 1892 which is reproduced above 
shows less than 25 percent in that category. This trend contin- 
ued. The reasons for it form part of the subsequent history of 
New Hampshire college. 




Dissatisfaction with the location and conditions of the state 
college at Hanover slowly increased. The occasional difficulties 
between students of the two colleges have already been mentioned. 
Added to this were a number of other irritants, some minor and 
others of serious weight. Dartmouth and New Hampshire col- 
lege were two entirely different organizations. If both had been 


History of University of New Hampshire 

parts of one larger whole, as are the various colleges of the pres- 
ent university, some of the trouble might have been averted. As 
it was, each had its own separate funds, faculties, and students. 
They shared the use of certain equipment under conditions which 
were set by their own boards of trustees. Yet these boards were 
connected by a sort of interlocking directorate so that three or four 
men were members of both boards. One institution was a pri- 
vate, endowed, classical college; the other a publicly controlled 
and supported agricultural and technical school. In order to make 
such a connection work smoothly, the greatest tact and under- 
standing were necessary on both sides. Unfortunately, however, 
neither of these qualities was always apparent. 

Relations with Dartmouth were not the only cause for dis- 
satisfaction with the location at Hanover. Complaints were made 
that Hanover was too far from the center of the state, that the 
college farm was not sufficiently typical of New Hampshire soil 
and conditions to make the experiments made there applicable to 
the whole state, and that the representation of the farmers on the 
board of trustees was too small to guarantee that proper emphasis 
would be placed on agriculture. The criticism and discussion in- 
creased until the question of the removal of the state college to 
some other location became an important issue in the state. 

The dispute over the use of Culver hall was one of the major 
irritants. This dispute went back to the original wills of the don- 
ors in which the bequests of General Culver and his wife were 
designed to be used for agricultural education. Some partisans 
of Dartmouth claimed that, since General Culver's will had been 
broken and Dartmouth had received only part of the money by 
agreement with the heirs, there remained only a moral obliga- 
tion to use the funds as originally designated. 

On the other hand, it was argued by Dean Pettee and others 
that Dartmouth would never have received the gift if it had not 
been for the Agricultural college and that the share in Culver hall 
assigned to New Hampshire college was far too small. The 
$15,000 appropriated by the state for the buildings was indisput- 
ably attributable to the state college, but the extent of its claim 
to the Culver money was strongly contested. 

As Dartmouth grew and felt the need for more room, pro- 
posals were made to buy out the state's share in Culver hall and to 
permit New Hampshire college to build a new building for its 

own use. 


The College in Hanover 

Dean Pettee felt that the problem of Culver hall was unnec- 
essarily complicated by President Bartlett's personality. That per- 
sonality is worth studying because of the large part it had in form- 
ing the future of both colleges. Leon Richardson, the historian 
of Dartmouth, has described President Bartlett in a manner which 
is both fair and accurate, and what follows is based largely on Mr. 
Richardson's account. President Bartlett was primarily a scholar, 
interested in research in Old Testament literature. He was bril- 
liant in research and controversy, not only in his own field, but in 
others as well. So keen and swift was his mind that he would 
outstrip the ordinary man in solving problems which he met in 
the course of his work. When he had reached a decision, he 
lacked the patience and tact to wait for others to catch up with 
him. To him, an answer was right or wrong, and compromise was 
out of the question. When men were slow or stupid, he would 
use all the brillance of his mind and the extreme sharpness of 
his tongue on them without stint. His fatal weakness for sarcasm 
made him many enemies. He gave the appearance of intoler- 
ance of any opposition, of desiring to force through his opinion 
by brute force if necessary. His inability to use tact and indirect- 
tion to secure his ends made many consider him a dictator. 

Moreover, this vigorous, tactless, but extremely able man had 
strong opinions about the management of Dartmouth and the 
associated schools. In the first place, he became convinced that 
both the Chandler school and New Hampshire college were not 
bearing their share of the burden of expenses. He objected first 
to the use of the services of Dartmouth instructors in the classes 
of the Chandler school, which provided the school with a much 
larger faculty, at very low expense, than it could have supported 
out of its own funds. 

In addition, he contended that the entrance requirements 
which the faculty of the Chandler school had established were not 
in keeping with the provisions of the founder's will and that there 
were other dubious points in the administration of the school. 
The trustees responded by increasing the school's share of the 
common expenses and by restricting the amount of teaching which 
Dartmouth faculty members would be allowed to do for the 
Chandler school. It was further voted that one-half of the pay 
for such teaching must be turned over to the treasury of Dartmouth 
college. By this move, members of the Dartmouth faculty found 
themselves drawn into the controversy. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

The situation was further complicated by the charge of the 
teachers in the scientific schools that President Bartlett was not in 
sympathy with scientific education, but that he considered a classi- 
cal education to be the only kind worthwhile. This charge was 
at least partly true for, later on, when a similar difficulty arose in 
connection with New Hampshire college, President Bartlett's op- 
ponents were able to cite one public declaration which seemed 
to tend in that direction. 

He attended a commencement of the Agricultural college 
early in his term of office at which the main speaker seemed to 
him to give too much credit to agricultural education. When he 
was called upon for some brief remarks, therefore, he praised the 
classical course and characterized the agricultural course as fitting 
men at best "for highway surveyors, selectmen, and perhaps, mem- 
bers of the legislature." This seeming intent to relegate the agri- 
cultural students to an inferior position caused both the students 
and faculty of New Hampshire college to consider themselves 
insulted. Such an attitude on the part of the president of Dart- 
mouth could not encourage anything but hard feeling between Dr. 
Bartlett and the students and faculty of New Hampshire college 
and give further color to the prevalent feeling that the position 
of the students of agriculture was an uncomfortable one. This 
feeling became common in the state and strengthened the con- 
victions of those who were suspicious or unfriendly toward Dart- 

Further disputes between President Bartlett and members of 
the faculties of the different schools added to the tension until an 
explosion became inevitable. The alumni were drawn into the 
situation by rumors of the discontent and discord at the college 
to such an extent that the New York alumni of Dartmouth sent 
a letter to the Dartmouth trustees, in April, 1881, asking that an 
investigation be made. A few weeks later, a memorial, signed by 
members of the different faculties and the treasurer of Dartmouth, 
was presented to the Dartmouth trustees urging that President 
Bartlett resign. Included in the list of signers were all the pro- 
fessors of the Chandler school, New Hampshire college, and the 
medical school, as well as some of the academic faculty. Addi- 
tional support to the movement against President Bartlett came 
from students and outsiders. 

In the face of such a situation, it was clearly necessary for 
the trustees to act. The controversy had become such an open 


The College in Hanover 

issue that a public hearing of the charges was accepted as the only 
way out. The New York alumni were asked to prepare a list 
of specific charges on the basis of which a formal trial could be 
conducted. Both the alumni and President Bartlett were repre- 
sented by counsel. 

The charges against President Bartlett included claims that 
his "habitually insolent, discourteous, and dictatorial manner" had 
destroyed freedom of discussion by members of the faculty and had 
led to the usurpation of faculty functions and powers by the presi- 
dent; that he had acted to impair the influence of faculty members 
with students and the public; that he had acted against the inter- 
ests of various departments; that he had humiliated students and 
turned them against the college; and that he had lost the con- 
fidence of the faculty to the extent that a large majority of them 
wished his resignation. 

These charges were supported by a number of specifications 
but the strength of the opposition tendency lay more in the general 
atmosphere of dissension which prevailed than in any specific acts. 
The revolt was an accumulation of petty irritations which were 
difficult to show in the evidence given. Thirteen professors, in- 
cluding Dean Pettee, Professor Blanpied, and Professor Jesup of 
New Hampshire college, testified at the hearing. The evidence 
was more impressionistic than factual, and President Bartlett, in a 
very able and thorough defense, was able to explain or reduce to 
petty proportions most of the specific charges. 

The general atmosphere of ill will and hard feeling was dealt 
with only incidentally so that President Bartlett came off rather 
better than his accusers in the hearing; this was due largely to 
the keenness and vigor of his defense. This is not to imply that 
there was any dishonesty, for President Bartlett undoubtedly felt 
quite sincerely that his course was proper and right. The diffi- 
culty was simply that a vigorous personality, highly individualistic, 
and possessed of all the qualifications for his office except the art 
of managing men, had been placed in a position where managing 
men tactfully and skillfully was essential to his success. Evil 
motives and improper actions could not be proved to the extent 
necessary to justify his removal, but poor methods and ineptness of 
administration were clearly demonstrated, and it was apparent to 
many that the evil lay chiefly in the personality of the president. 

This consideration more or less dictated the decision of the 
trustees. It was impossible to ignore that things were wrong and 


History of University of New Hampshire 

needed correction but it was equally impossible to place the blame 
wholly on the president or to take disciplinary action against him. 
Therefore, the Dartmouth trustees voted, in essence, that this was 
no way for things to go on, and everybody involved should try 
to get along in the future without so much friction. They said 
that no resignations or other punitive measures of any sort were 
desired against anybody, but all those involved were expected to 
retain their positions and to cooperate freely in strengthening the 

The hope of the trustees for harmony was not realized. The 
bitterness was too deep-seated, and the causes of the friction were 
not removed. On the contrary, both sides shortly began working 
to have their opponents removed, and it was necessary for the 
trustees to vote a second time, a year later, that they were not will- 
ing that anyone should lose his position. This was expressed in 
two resolutions: the first, regarding the faculty, being passed unan- 
imously; and the second, reasserting their confidence in the presi- 
dent, being passed by a vote of six to four. This ended all hope 
of action against anyone but did not end the bitterness. Both sides 
were unable to overcome their prejudice and subordinate their 
feelings to the need for harmony. 

The effect of this conflict on the state college was most un- 
fortunate. Dean Pettee had been an active supporter of the move- 
ment against President Bartlett and continued to maintain this at- 
titude of opposition. President Bartlett felt that the Agricultural 
college was leaning too heavily on Dartmouth and that it received 
more than its proper share of assistance. The friends of New 
Hampshire college, on the other hand, not only maintained that 
President Bartlett was unfriendly to agricultural education, but that 
he was doing all in his power to hinder and hamper New Hamp- 
shire college in its work and to gain advantages for Dartmouth 
at the expense of the agricultural institution. 

Dean Pettee, in a penciled manuscript of his report to the 
trustees of New Hampshire college, written in 1890, expressed 
himself thus on the issue, 

"I felt that my position was right and I was certain 
it was endorsed by a large number of Trustees & Alum- 
ni of Dart. Still I know there were some who looked 
at the matter differently & considered that our success 
would mean a practical loss of students to Dart. Coll. 


The College in Hanover 

For this and other reasons such have encouraged the 
policy of keeping this Institution at arm's length so that 
by no possibility could any reflected glory add to our 
advancement. . . . Said a prominent friend of Agr. to me 
within a few months, since sending his son to Dart. 
Scientific School, 1 have often argued with you that the 
State College should be removed from Hanover. Now 
I know it should be done because my son is there & he 
tells me your students are not recognized as any part 
of Dartmouth.' . . . gentlemen, I could not deny the main 
fact that we did not receive the official recognition that 
is absolutely essential to continued success without fric- 
tion here in Hanover. 

"When this college was established here it was 
promised all the rights and privileges accorded the 
Chandler school. Practically it does not have them. . . . 

"On our part we receive a great gain in a hundred 
ways by contact with old Dartmouth. On the other 
hand Dart, has already been materially benefitted by us. 
Is it not something to have half the use of Culver Hall 
for 20 years at the mere cost of running? Let it be 
remembered that not one dollar of the Culver money 
would ever have found its way into Dart. Coll. 
hands but for arrangement with the friends of agr. edu- 
cation in the state. Is it not proper to show a little 
righteous indignation when the claim is soberly put 
forth that a sharp bargain was made when so much of 
an interest in Culver Hall was given to us? Might it 
not on the other hand be claimed as a sharp bargain 
that Dart. Coll. obtained any interest at all in the Cul- 
ver money? A careful study of the case will show, I am 
sure, that no sharp bargain was thought of on either 
side. . . . 

"Has the Chandler school ever made any return 
to be compared with what we have done, and is not her 
course of study more general and therefore more com- 
petitive than ours? ..." 

In a letter to Isaac Smith, dated November 4, 1889, of which 
a letter-press copy survives, Dean Pettee discussed more specific 
complaints against President Bartlett. Instead of the assistance 


History of University of New Hampshire 

and sympathy which New Hampshire college was entitled to re- 
ceive from the president of Dartmouth, he claimed that the friends 
of the agricultural school found that President Bartlett "worked 
in every possible way trying to separate our institution from Dart." 
He cited the matter of exchanging instructors between the schools; 
the technical change of names from departments of Dartmouth, 
to independent schools, which was "certainly made in a very bad 
spirit"; President Bartlett's treatment of agricultural students who 
went to him, "going out of his way to inform them that they were 
not members of Dart. College," and an endless round of petty 
irritations. Regarding the Culver hall controversy, he continued, 
"I should consider it simply a further scheme to 
[alien] ate the Institution or degrade it unofficially when 
all [considerations of attempts to remedy the real diffi- 
culty of [lack] of room in Culver Hall were perempto- 
rily shut off by announcement that Dartmouth would 
have nothing to do [with] any more joint agreements." 

Dean Pettee protested that the board of trustees of New 
Hampshire college would have made no objection to paying a 
larger share of the common expenses of Culver hall, if Dartmouth 
had so requested, but that the lack of means prevented them from 
doing so. Yet, he continued, "It frequently appeared as if we were 
suspected, if not charged, with being thieves and robbers from 
the old college." He said that President Bartlett tried to make 
it appear that the feeling against the latter was actually hostility 
to the Dartmouth trustees; but this Dean Pettee categorically 
denied. He referred to the assistance given them by the trustees 
of New Hampshire college in controversies with outsiders, as well 
as to the substantial number of the trustees of the Agricultural 
college who were Dartmouth men themselves. 

The people of the state took a lively interest in all of these 
issues and especially through the Grange, contributed points of 
their own to the discussion. This organization had been keenly 
interested in the welfare and activity of New Hampshire college 
since the institution was founded. Repercussions of the dispute 
with Dartmouth were felt throughout the state and led to con- 
siderable uneasiness among the members of the Grange. This 
uneasiness communicated itself to others and led the state legis- 
lature, in 1885, to appoint a committee to investigate the pro- 
priety of moving New Hampshire college from Hanover to some 


The College in Hanover 

more suitable site. The Grange also made an independent in- 

The resolution of the legislature which initiated the investi- 
gation gave as its sole motivation the assertion that the college, 
"during the period of almost twenty years had graduated less than 
forty agricultural students. . . ." However, this reason was clear- 
ly only a part of the cause of the resolution. The committee con- 
sisted of Joseph B. Walker, Greenleaf Clarke, and Warren F. 
Daniell. They went to Hanover first where they interviewed the 
president and faculty of New Hampshire college and learned all 
they could of the condition of the institution and of the opinions 
of its officials regarding the issues at stake. This was followed by 
two meetings with the trustees of New Hampshire college and a 
conference with leaders of the Grange. 

In the spring of 1886, the committee announced a public 
hearing on the question to be held at the State house in Concord 
on May 28. This meeting was advertised in six leading news- 
papers located in Concord, Manchester, Keene, and Exeter, but in 
spite of this liberal advertising, only two men appeared at the 
hearing; one was the superintendent of the college farm, who 
happened to be in town that day, and the other was an unnamed 
person from another state who, being there, was invited to present 
his ideas on the issue. 

No other attempt was made at holding a public hearing 
until February 7, 1887. At a meeting held on this date, a group 
of Grangers appeared and presented their opinions. A few un- 
specified personal interviews completed the work of the committee. 

The report of the committee of the legislature was presented 
to that body at the June session of 1887. The report gave a very 
thorough review of the history and current functions of New 
Hampshire college. It pointed out that 37 out of 106 graduates 
were engaged in agricultural pursuits and that about two-thirds 
of the graduates had taken the agricultural course. The value of 
the college's real and personal property was computed at approxi- 
mately $163,400, of which about $52,500 was estimated to be in 
land and buildings. The effect upon the value of this property 
of removal from Hanover, including losses due to forced sale of 
the land and buildings and the costs of moving equipment, would, 
in the words of the committee, "far exceed any sum which its 
present resources are adequate to supply." Curiously, in view of 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Dean Pettee's opinions which are quoted above, the committee 
made no mention of any possibility of the college having either a 
legal or moral right to any part of the Culver money, but estimated 
the interest of the state in Culver Hall at the $15,000 appro- 
priated for it by the legislature. 

The report cited the reasons urged in favor of moving the 
college which were: 

1. That the college had not accomplished as much for agri- 
culture as it should have done. 

2. That the location was too far from the center of the state. 

3. That it was, and must continue to be a small college 
overshadowed by its larger neighbor. 

4. That the students could not be expected to live harmonir 
ously with the men of the other colleges, due to differences in in- 
terests and background. 

5. That the management of the college had been in the 
hands of men who had little interest in or knowledge of agricul- 

6. That the removal would dispose of these objections, and 
would enable the institution to develop freely to greater usefulness. 

As against these points, the report stated that the removal 
of New Hampshire college would have certain bad results, namely, 

1. A heavy financial loss. 

2. The loss of the use of the libraries, museums, apparatus, 
chapel, and other equipment of Dartmouth, which would largely 
have to be replaced. 

3. The loss to the students of valuable associations with 
people of the other institutions. 

4. The loss of the ' literary and scientific atmosphere" 
which surrounds important colleges, and thereby the loss of 
"healthy stimuli which aid so greatly in the attainment of highest 
literary results." 

Weighing all these assertions carefully, the committee gave 
in its report several opinions, conclusions, and recommendations. 
They were unable to find that the weakness of New Hampshire 
college was caused by its location, on the other hand, they felt that 
it was only natural in view of the newness of the whole experiment 
of land grant colleges "that they should have progressed so slowly." 

In favor of the location at Hanover, the committee stressed 
the aid available from Dartmouth and the nearness to Vermont, 


The College in Hanover 

which was a possible source for students at least until New Hamp- 
shire was able to provide more. As for any danger of Dartmouth's 
overshadowing the school, the committee had the opposite opinion, 
namely, that Dartmouth inspired and encouraged the smaller and 
younger institution. The claim of bad relations between students 
of the various schools, the committee found, to be "unsupported 
by experience." 

As a majority of those trustees appointed by the state had 
not engaged in agricultural pursuits, the committee recommended 
that the governor use his appointing power, as vacancies occurred, 
to correct this situation. Having thus disposed of the reasons 
favoring the removal of the college, the committee reemphasized 
the value of the use of Dartmouth's equipment as well as the 
costliness of such a move which they estimated would involve a 
financial loss of not less than $40,000. 

The conclusion of the report was strongly against any pro- 
posal to move the college and instead, anticipated greater advan- 
tages to New Hampshire college from its association with Dart- 
mouth. The report suggested the possibility that Dartmouth and 
its associated schools might develop into a university which would 
provide even greater advantages for New Hampshire college. 

During the investigation of the legislative committee, only 
one possible alternative to the Hanover location presented it- 
self. Charles E. Tilton offered to give his farm as a site if the 
college would move to his home town of Tilton. In addition, he 
made a tentative offer of a gift of about $40,000. The town of 
Tilton had the advantage of a central location, but the tentative 
gift, generous as it was, was insufficient to balance the financial 
loss which would be involved in leaving Hanover. 

The legislative committee's report had the effect of shutting 
off any hope of official action for the time at least. The examin- 
ing committee of New Hampshire college for 1889 said in its 
report, "The question of removal from Hanover is regarded as 
definitely settled. ..." and Dean Pettee wrote, the following year, 
that the college must "strengthen its bonds of union and sympathy 
with 'Old Dartmouth' so that all eyes in the State shall turn to- 
wards Hanover as the mother of arts and eloquence.' " The 
faculty of New Hampshire college, necessarily, turned their atten- 
tion to the problem of improving the conditions of the college 
in Hanover. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

The issue was not settled as far as the people of the state or 
of the Grange were concerned. Probably it was not settled in 
anybody's mind, although many were forced to admit that no alter- 
native had presented itself. One result of the legislative commit- 
tee's work and the lobbying of the Grange was an act of the 
legislature which increased the board of trustees of New Hamp- 
shire college by three members. One of these additional members 
was the governor and the other two had to be practicing farmers. 

The Dartmouth board of trustees, by a resolution, protested 
against this increase as a breach of the contract between the two 
schools and an impairment of Dartmouth's rights under the origi- 
nal arrangement. They later placed the resolution on the table 
and appointed a committee of two, consisting of Edward Spalding 
and Isaac Smith, to negotiate with the New Hampshire college 
trustees for the termination of the joint ownership and occupancy 
of Culver hall and for the working out of a new contract between 
the two colleges. These negotiations failed to produce the de- 
sired results and so the resolution was taken from the table a year 
later and passed. Hence, the effect of the increase in the board of 
trustees of New Hampshire college was to add another grievance 
to Dartmouth's list. 

The Grangers were still not satisfied with the composition 
of the board of trustees of New Hampshire college. They main- 
tained that Dartmouth had always had a majority on the board of 
trustees of the Agricultural college. Their argument was that the 
four members appointed by Dartmouth with such others as hap- 
pened to be members of both boards constituted a majority in 
Dartmouth's favor. In 1887, a committee of the Grange to in- 
vestigate the question of removal of the college from Hanover 
pointed out that six of the twelve members of the Agricultural col- 
lege board were also members of the Dartmouth board and asked 
which master these men were serving. The committee argued 
that one of the two farmers added to the board was counterbal- 
anced by the governor so that the net gain was only one farmer. 
That their logic was not exactly ironclad can be seen from the ex- 
ample of Judge George W. Nesmith, who held membership on 
both boards and served as president of the New Hampshire board. 
To assign him to the Dartmouth side was unfair since he was con- 
sidered by many as the chief advocate of the Agricultural college. 
The Grangers advocated, as the most desirable kind of board, one 
which contained a "practical, progressive and successful farmer 


The College in Hanover 

from each county." This would have left Dartmouth with a de- 
cidedly minority representation on the board of trustees of New 
Hampshire college. 

The investigating committee, quoted in the above paragraph, 
was the outgrowth of a series of discussions of the condition of the 
college at state conventions of the Grange. The state master of 
the Grange, William H. Stinson, in his report for 1885 dismissed 
the complaint that not enough of the graduates of the college 
were becoming practicing farmers. He thought it but natural 
that graduates should enter other lines of work and emphasized 
the fact that New Hampshire college was only partly agricultural; 
the other part being devoted to the mechanic arts. 

However, Mr. Stinson did maintain that the 

"... Agricultural College should be independent 
of Dartmouth College in every respect; it should be 
managed by practical, intelligent farmers, who have its 
welfare purely at heart." 
In his report for the following year, he stated, 

"It may be a wrong conclusion, but we firmly be- 
lieve that it is far better to sacrifice two thirds the value 
of the college property and to remove it to a central lo- 
cality, provided a liberal donation will be made. ..." 

He urged the acceptance of the Tilton proposal, including 
the gi£t of $40,000, which gift, he felt, would balance the losses 
incurred in moving. The location in the town of Tilton, Mr. 
Stinson felt, would give the college a far better chance to develop 
in the proper direction. 

The first report of the committee of the Grange on the re- 
moval of New Hampshire college was given at the State grange 
convention in 1886. The members of the committee were J. M. 
Connor, J. M. Taylor, William W. Flanders, George W. Drake, 
and John B. Mills. Their report began with a criticism of the 
college farm, which was described as midway between hill and 
river land and thus, represented only a small part of the soil of the 
state; they classed it as so unrepresentative, indeed, that experi- 
ments made on it would not necessarily be at all true for the rest 
of the state. The barn on the college farm, they called "a sort of 
castle in the air, which savors too much of theory, and too little of 
practical knowledge." Regarding the management of the farm, 
the committee "saw but little worthy of special consideration, or 


History of University of New Hampshire 

commendation." This, they held, was due to the lack of practical 
farmers for its management and administration. 

In the rest of the report, the committee reviewed the com- 
plaints which have already been discussed regarding the composi- 
tion of the board of trustees, the influence of the classical college, 
and the possible losses following the removal of the college. This 
committee of the Grange was continued for another year to carry 
on further investigations. 

Accordingly, in 1887, another report of the Grange com- 
mittee was presented. In this report, the conclusions of the com- 
mittee were that, 

1. Dartmouth should withdraw altogether its claims to the 
use of Culver hall, since the money from the Culver bequests was 
all designed to be used for agricultural education, and Dartmouth 
was, therefore, under a moral obligation to see that the funds were 
so used. 

2. The location of New Hampshire college at Hanover was 
a mistake. 

3. The board of trustees was not a properly representative 

4. New Hampshire college had $350,000 "purely" for the 
advancement of agriculture but this sum was under the control of 
a purely classical institution; therefore, it was the "farmer's duty 
to take possession and control" of the state college. A "joint 
trusteeship" was needed for the control of the Agricultural college, 
but such a trusteeship did not exist. 

5. The number of students in attendance at New Hamp- 
shire college was too small, and hence the cost per graduate was too 
high. The Grange could help this situation by securing more 
students for the college. 

6. The staff of the Experiment station included three as- 
sistant chemists, a clerk, whose function was a mystery to the 
committee, and a "mere novice" as superintendent of dairy work 
at a salary of $1000 a year. This staff seemed lacking in proper 
economy and regard for the actual needs of the institution. 

In many respects, the reports of the committee of the Grange 
presented a viewpoint in opposition to the reports of the legisla- 
tive committee. The estimate of the value of the college property 
at $350,000 by the Grange committee was in decided contrast with 
the estimate of $163,400 which was set by the legislative com- 


The College in Hanover 

mittee. Moreover, when New Hampshire college left Hanover, 
the college property was sold for only a fraction of the sum sug- 
gested by the Grange committee. The Grange reports advanced 
the maximum possible claims for the state college and dropped 
the distinction which Mr. Stinson had previously made between 
the agricultural and mechanical divisions of the school. How- 
ever extreme the position of the Grange reports may be considered, 
they did represent the opinions of an important section of the pub- 
lic, and moreover, a section which had earned the right to have its 
voice heard and respected. Furthermore, their reports represent 
what appears to have been a more thorough and thoughtful survey 
of the problem than that which was made by the committee of the 

This, then, was the problem, and the Grange investigation 
was an attempt, at least, to present a fair estimate of the attitudes 
which the citizens of the state held concerning the matter. 
Whether the recurrent criticism might have died away in time we 
cannot know. Possibly, with the aid of the increase in federal 
funds for New Hampshire college after 1890, the institution might 
have been strengthened to the point where it would have been able 
to grow in scholarship and breadth of activity side by side with 
Dartmouth. Certainly the development to the status of a univer- 
sity would have been almost impossible. Had this growth taken 
place in Hanover, the existence of two schools, one a public co- 
educational institution and the other a private, endowed men's 
college, would have been difficult under any sort of common man- 

The plan of departmentalization restricting each of the 
schools to a limited curriculum was discussed and abandoned in 
1877 because of the jurisdictional conflicts. Similarly, the plan 
for merging the Chandler school and New Hampshire college, 
which was discussed at about the same time, could only have led 
to further complications. The accumulated tradition, prestige, 
and strength on the side of Dartmouth and the eager impatience 
to be free to work out a new kind of educational program on the 
part of New Hampshire college were not very promising prospects 
for harmonious growth. 

In order to improve the effectiveness of the experimental 
work at New Hampshire college, the Grange appointed a commit- 
tee of three to work with the Experiment station and the United 
States department of agriculture. The Grange, also, chose an- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

other committee of three to "represent the farming interest before 
the governor and council" in order to urge the appointment of 
"practical and competent persons" to vacancies on the state board 
of agriculture and on the board of trustees of New Hampshire col- 

Dean Pettee defended New Hampshire college before the 
Grange diplomatically, yet vigorously, and used every criticism, 
favorable or unfavorable, as a means for advancing the interest 
of the institution and winning support for its needs and objectives. 

While the controversy over the location of the college, its 
functions and its trustees was being carried on, the answer to the 
problem lay in the will of Benjamin Thompson. The provisions 
of this will had been hidden from the public for 35 years, then the 
day came when his long, frugal life was ended, and it was found 
that he had offered to the young people of his state the fruit of 
his labor for the foundations of their state university. 


Benjamin Thompson's Bequest 


No part of the state incorporates more of the history and tra- 
ditions of New Hampshire than the region around Great Bay. 
This region, settled only three years after the landing of the Pil- 
grims at Plymouth, was, for two centuries, the center of a busy 
and highly profitable commerce. The great pines of the woodlands 
bordering the Piscataqua river were used for masts in the ships of 
the royal navy and became so famous and valuable that special 
ships were built to carry the enormous shafts across the Atlantic. 

Shipbuilding was not just an industry; it was part of the life 
of practically every family in the region. Almost every farm with 
frontage on the bay had a ship in the process of building, and there 
are stories of ships being built in the woods and hauled to water 
by many yoke of oxen. The ships of Portsmouth, manned by 
youngsters fresh from the back country farms, sailed to every har- 
bor in the farthest parts of the world. 

Shipping, shipbuilding, and fishing turned the thoughts and 
efforts of New Hampshire men to the sea and to the ports of 
every nation, and these industries brought wealth and power to 
great merchant families. As the population of the province in- 
creased, men from the coast penetrated the inland wilderness and 
moved westward to the valleys of the Merrimac and the Connecti- 
cut or northward through the White mountains to the 'country 
of Cohos." 

Durham, which was first called the Oyster River Plantation, 
was settled as a part of Dover. In 1732, it began its existence 
as a separate town. As with the other towns of the region, ship- 
building, lumbering, and agriculture occupied its people. The 
presence of clay deposits along the banks of the river gave rise 
to brickyards which were operated for many years. 

In 1792, a group of proprietors petitioned the legislature 
for the right to build a bridge across the Piscataqua river, from 
Tickle point on Meader's neck in Durham to Fox point in Newing- 
ton, and to collect tolls. The bridge, when completed, had a 
planked surface about half a mile long and a draw over one of 
the channels. It crossed to Goat island on which a tavern was 


History of University of New Hampshire 

The first New Hampshire turnpike, running from the Dur- 
ham end of the Piscataqua bridge to Concord, passed through Dur- 
ham which was the first town on the turnpike west of Great Bay. 
At the same time, Durham was a "baiting place" for the Boston 
to Portland stage. Great hopes were cherished for the future of 
the town because of its fortunate location. 

A real estate promotion scheme, given the name of Frank- 
lin City, was planned for the Durham end of the bridge two years 
after the bridge was open for travel in 1794. Streets were laid 
out, lots assigned for a court house, a meeting house, a state house, 
and for a public hall and library. Wharves were planned along 
the waterfront and everything was designed to produce a model 
commercial center. 1 The embargo of 1807 and the subsequent 
war with England ruined the promoters' hopes, and only one house 
was ever actually built at the proposed city. The railroads, spread- 
ing out to the northward from Boston, put an end to the impor- 
tance of both the coastwise shipping and the roads. For these rea- 
sons, therefore, when a part of the Piscataqua bridge was carried 
away by ice on February 18, 1855, Durham's commercial glory 
came to an end. The town was caught in a backwater and settled 
down to the existence of a small farming village. 

At the outbreak of the Revolution, when General John Sulli- 
van and his Durham neighbors had raided Fort William and Mary 
at Portsmouth, and when men from every town around Great Bay 
were setting out for Boston to take part in the battle of Bunker 
hill, Durham counted a population of 1,214. Today, in 1941, the 
number is about 1,500. As the long years of the nineteenth cen- 
tury rolled along, Durham, as far as population was concerned, 
stood still. The opportunities for growth and change were lim- 
ited by the town's dependence on farming. There were a few 
mills along the Lamprey river, but the business center at the Oyster 
river falls had lost much of its former importance. Young men 
and women left the old town to seek their fortunes elsewhere. 
Younger children of large families necessarily had to find other 
means of support than that provided by the farms. They turned 
to the limitless possibilities of the West, leaving behind them a 
slowly dwindling population of older people. 

Yet one man found here ample opportunity for the use of 
his abilities and developed a vision of a greatly changed future for 

a Ebenezer Thompson, grandfather of Benjamin Thompson, was one of 
tne incorporators of Franklin City. 


Benjamin Thompson's Bequest 

his town. Benjamin Thompson, a descendent of one of the old 
families of the Great Bay region, lived his long life in Durham, 
increased his fortune by careful investment, and planned for the 
gift to the state of New Hampshire which was to perpetuate his 
memory. He was born in 1806, in the house which was his 
home until his death, on January 30, 1890. His father was a 
prosperous farmer and merchant. 

Except for a few months of teaching school in 1825, young 
Benjamin Thompson confined himself to work on the farm. In 
1828, his father deeded to him the Warner farm and some other 
tracts of land. The young man's careful and prudent manage- 
ment is shown in a long series of accounts which he began the 
same spring that his father gave him the property and carried on 
neatly and accurately throughout his life. His interests were nu- 
merous and varied, and they expanded still more as his wealth in- 

Until his health began to fail, Benjamin Thompson improved 
his farm and took active charge of the extensive operations which, 
according to his nephew, Lucien Thompson, involved 

". . . much help employed, at least three pairs 
of oxen kept, besides cows, sheep, horses, swine, etc. 
Mr. Thompson had an interest in a sawmill which he 
used, also Lin a] cider mill and hay screw. Among the 
sales from the farm were hay, wood, lumber, butter, 
cheese, apples, cider, vinegar, beef, pork, grain, etc. 
In fact the men employed were furnished the necessities 
of life from rum and tobacco to clothing and food." 
Lucien Thompson describes his uncle as having been 

"... a man of simple tastes, of a quiet disposition, 
although, when aroused, quite excitable; exceedingly 
frugal and disposed to save everything from waste." 

Benjamin Thompson was tall and thin, with a heavy frame which 
gave him the appearance of awkwardness. His health was never 
robust, and as he grew older, he gave up some of his diversified 
farming and devoted himself to increasing his fortune by invest- 
ments. Nevertheless, he continued to raise a few crops, the most 
important of which were hay and apples. 

For a number of years, he gave his hay crop to the support 
of the Durham Library association, of which he was a founder and 
the first president. As with many another later benefaction to 


History of University of New Hampshire 

education, there was a condition attached to this offer; the other 
members of the association were required to bear the cost of cut- 
ting, pressing, and delivering the hay to the railroad so that the 
library might receive the full profit. It was characteristic of Ben- 
jamin Thompson that he made use of all his gifts to induce others 
to add something of their own. 

On another occasion, he offered to give his entire apple crop, 
amounting to several hundred barrels, to the family of a man who 
had been killed while working for the Boston and Maine railroad 
providing that the railroad would transport the apples to the Bos- 
ton market free of charge. The agreement was made, and the 
needy family received the entire value of the apples. He made a 
number of other gifts to the Durham Library association and to 
the Durham church, each of which showed the shrewd planning 
which he devoted to every act of generosity. 

Though he appears to have been fond of company and social 
intercourse with his townspeople, Mr. Thompson never married. 
According to Lucien Thompson, he paid his suit to a young lady 
of Portsmouth when he was 20 years old, but she accepted the pro- 
posal of another before Benjamin Thompson asked for her hand. 
Twenty-four years later, after the lady's husband had died, leav- 
ing her with several children, Mr. Thompson resumed his court- 
ship. The engagement was announced and preparations for the 
wedding were begun. He petitioned the town for ". . . the liber- 
ty of repairing the house by building a porch over the front door 
and enclosing an area four feet square." This porch would have 
technically obstructed the highway since the turnpike right-of- 
way extended to the doorsteps of the houses in this old section of 
the town. He gave his bride-to-be $1,000 to use for furniture 
and improvements for the house. All went well for awhile, but 
eventually some quarrel of an unknown nature took place and the 
engagement was broken. 

From this time on, he devoted himself to the theory and 
practice of agriculture as his major interest. He believed firmly 
in the use of sound scientific methods for improving agriculture and 
showed an active interest in all proposals for educating young men 
to become better farmers. Long before the Morrill act of 1862 
was passed, he corresponded with Marshall P. Wilder and others 
on the subject of agricultural education and appears to have won 
their respect for his carefully thought out opinions. His own part 


Benjamin Thompson's Bequest 

in the movement finally took definite form in his mind, and he em- 
bodied his ideas in his will which was signed on February 12, 1856. 

The will was later modified by three codicils, added in 1874, 
1875, and 1882, but its essential provisions remained unchanged 
for nearly 35 years. So carefully did Benjamin Thompson keep 
his secret that it is unlikely that anyone besides his lawyer and 
possibly his housekeeper knew what the will contained. As he 
grew older, he became known as the wealthiest farmer in the 
county and a rather feeble, slightly eccentric old man, whose money 
would probably go to his nephews. 

The will, when read, made no provision for any of his 
relatives. Lucien Thompson says that this probably was caused 
by ill feeling over the division of the estates of Benjamin Thomp- 
son's mother and of his brother John. There were a few minor 
bequests, notably, 12 "shares in the Boston & Maine Railroad Com- 
pany" to the Durham Congregational church for the "improve- 
ment of sacred music," and 20 "shares in the Suffolk National 
Bank, Boston," and the furnishings of his house to Lucetta M. Da- 
vis, his housekeeper for many years. Except for the small be- 
quests, the entire estate was willed to the state of New Hamp- 
shire to establish, 20 years after his death, 

". . . an agricultural school, to be located on my 
Warner farm, so-called, and situated in said Durham, 
wherein shall be thoroughly taught, both in the school- 
room and in the field, the theory and practice of that 
most useful and honorable calling." 

The will required that the state of New Hampshire should 
have a competent appraisal made of the entire estate and should 
guarantee interest, compounded annually at four percent, for 20 
years on the sum of the appraisal. This fund, thus accumulated, 
at the end of this period, the state must guarantee to preserve, us- 
ing the income from it for the support of the college. In addi- 
tion, since Benjamin Thompson believed 

"... that said fund will be insufficient to erect the 
necessary buildings and furnish the same, to stock said 
farm, procure the needful apparatus, to commence a 
library, and sustain said school usefully and honorably," 

he required that the state should appropriate the sum of $3,000 an- 
nually for the period of the 20 years, guaranteeing compound in- 
terest at four percent on each of these appropriations. This sec- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

ond fund was to be used for equipping the college at the end of 
the 20-year period. 

Originally, the interest rate was fixed in the will at five 
percent, but it was later lowered to four, and the executors were 
even given the power to waive the interest requirement altogether 
if it should be a major obstacle to the acceptance of the bequest. 
The payment of interest on the value of the Durham lands was 
waived by a codicil, but the requirement that no part of this Dur- 
ham land should ever be sold or leased by the state was never 

New Hampshire was allowed two years to accept the will; 
otherwise the property would go to Massachusetts on the same 
terms except that that state might sell the Durham land and could 
locate the college within its own boundaries. If Massachusetts 
rejected the gift, it would go to Michigan; failing there, the estate 
would be divided among Mr. Thompson's natural heirs as though 
there had been no will. 

The list of executors was changed several times, due to death 
or other causes. In the third codicil, John W. E. Thompson of 
Durham and James F. Joy 2 , a wealthy cousin of Benjamin Thomp- 
son, were named. John Thompson died before Benjamin Thomp- 
son did, however, and the court appointed Elisha R. Brown of Do- 
ver to serve in his place. 

In addition to providing for the terms of the gift, Benjamin 
Thompson expressed in his will some of his opinions on the na- 
ture of the proposed school. The opinions are extremely interest- 
ing, particularly in view of later controversies over his intentions. 

"It might seem presumptuous in me to attempt to 
devise any plan for the ordering and management of 
such an institution as is contemplated by this will, and 

2 James F. Joy was a native of Durham who became a very successful 
lawyer in Detroit, Michigan. He was a graduate of Dartmouth and studied 
for a year at the law school at Harvard. He was interested in railroad con- 
struction in the West and became a large owner of real estate and railroad stock. 
He nominated James G. Blaine for the presidency. Mr. Joy came East to 
speak at a public hearing in the State house at Concord in favor of the accept- 
ance of the terms of the will. It is quite likely that Mr. Joy was acquainted 
with the developments in agricultural education in Michigan and had informed 
Benjamin Thompson of what was being done in that state. How much in- 
fluence Mr. Joy had on his cousin's final decision concerning the terms of the 
will is a matter which can not be definitely ascertained. 


Benjamin Thompson's Bequest 

which will probably go into operation at a time so re- 
mote, when doubtless there will be great advancement 
in the knowledge of agriculture; so I leave this duty to 
the wisdom of the State, through its Legislature, only 
claiming to make the suggestions following: Morality, 
order, industry, and economy should be constantly 
taught and practiced by all the teachers and by all the 
scholars. Teachers, scholars, and laborers should be re- 
quired to meet each morning in the chapel for the read- 
ing of the Scriptures and for prayer. 

"No scholar should be admitted to the school under 
sixteen years of age. 

"Every scholar should be required to labor on the 
land four hours of each working day, when practicable. 

"Horticulture should receive its due share of at- 

"The chemistry of agriculture, and physiology, and 
other sciences, so far as they are connected with agricul- 
ture, should be taught; but no professor should be se- 
lected unless he is also distinguished for his knowledge 
of scientific and practical agriculture. 

"The theories taught should, as far as practicable, 
be tested by experiments on the farm; and all experi- 
ments together with the cost and results thereof, should 
be published and sold to the citizens of the State and 
the United States, at the cost of publication." 

In the original will of 1856, it is clear that Benjamin Thomp- 
son had in mind a school devoted exclusively to agriculture and 
did not favor extension of the work of the school in other direc- 
tions. He suggested, even then, "the propriety of applying to the 
Congress of the United States for a grant of land in aid of this ob- 
ject" and urged that the benefits which would be derived from 
such a school would make both public grants and private gifts 
for its support well worthwhile. 

When, six years later, congress passed the land grant act 
and the New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the Mechanic 
Arts was established, Benjamin Thompson watched, with increas- 
ing interest, the work and the precarious growth of the new 
school. Though he never visited the college, he was fully aware 
of the changes which its existence would require him to make in 


History of University of New Hampshire 

his own plans. He held to his determination to have the college 
established in his beloved town, however, and decided, therefore, 
to add a codicil to his will which would enable the state to use 
both the federal funds and his bequest for the same school. As 
he stated it, 

". . . my object being mainly to promote the im- 
provement of agriculture, though willing that the col- 
lege to be established should also provide for the me- 
chanic arts, it is my will . . . that in addition to the in- 
struction to be given therein, as provided by my said 
will, there shall be taught only such other arts or sci- 
ences as may be necessary to enable said State to fully 
avail itself of said donation of lands by the government 
in good faith, which two branches of instruction shall 
be the leading objects of such institution or college." 

This phrase was widely quoted and discussed in the later debates 
about the functions of New Hampshire college. 

The first step was to carry through the appraisal of the es- 
tate. The court, on March 12, 1890, appointed Charles S. Cart- 
land, Winthrop Meserve, and Augustus Mathes to do this work, 
which they completed in about three weeks. Their report, as 
summarized in the Dover Enquirer of April 3, listed the assets of 
the estate as follows: 

"Real Estate $18,300.00 

Bonds 60,795.00 

Bank Stock 40,093.00 

Railroad stocks 249,048.00 

Manufacturing stock 9,201.00 

Land 125.00 

Deposits in savings banks 30,336.21 

Household 404.75 

Total $408,392.96" 

In addition to the above, there was $35,000 worth of repudi- 
ated bonds of the state of South Carolina, whose value was simply 
reported as "unknown." On the basis of this valuation, the state 
would be obligated to pay interest of $15,596 for the current 
year if the bequest should be accepted. 3 This, with the $3,000 

3 This was figured on the remainder after deducting the value of the land 
and the small bequests. 


Benjamin Thompson's Bequest 

appropriation required by the will, would make the total cost to 
the state about $18,600 for the year. Against this, the income 
of the Thompson estate for the year 1890 was estimated at about 
$19,500, which would clearly cover all the expense to the state. 
On the basis of these figures, it appeared that New Hampshire 
could hardly afford to permit such a valuable prize to escape. 

However, opinion on the subject was far from unanimous. 
The state board of agriculture early recommended acceptance but 
the newspapers of the state debated the issue hotly. Clippings 
which have been preserved from eight New Hampshire newspa- 
pers show that five of these were vigorously opposed to acceptance, 
and two of the remaining three were rather lukewarm. The Mir- 
ror and American said that, 

"Our state has one agricultural college, which is 
all of that kind of educational luxury she can afford. 
She needs another, such as Mr. Thompson provides for, 
about as much as she needs a million dollar pest house, 
and the offer of such a one, coupled with a condition 
that she shall forever support it, is about the last act 
of mistaken generosity she should be thankful for. If 
we were millionaires and wanted to bankrupt New 
Hampshire, we would give it about four agricultural col- 
leges and three normal schools, and ii we desired to put 
our money where it would do nobody any good, where 
it would remain a lasting monument to our misconcep- 
tion of the needs of the time, we would found an acad- 
emy. The fact is, as everybody knows, we have many 
more of this kind of educational institution than we have 
or ever shall have students for, and it is mortal strange 
that natives of the State with sense enough to accumu- 
late fortunes should continue to throw them away by 
making such wills as the one referred to." 

The Portsmouth Journal hoped that the relatives would suc- 
ceed in breaking the will, and thought that it was 

"... good prima facie evidence of an unsound 
mind, when a man will deliberately try to foist another 
incubus in the shape of a state agricultural college upon 
New Hampshire." 

In Dover, the Daily Democrat referred to the will as the 


History of University of New Hampshire 

". . . last epistle of St. Benjamin . . . showing his 
intent to establish a turnip yard over in Durham if the 
state will agree to fence it and keep it fenced." 
Similarly, the Manchester Press said that Benjamin Thomp- 
son had tried to force the people of New Hampshire to contribute 
to the support of his hobby, but that the Press was not dazzled and 
did not think the purpose worth the price. The present college, 
they argued, did not produce farmers, and there was no reason to 
expect that a richer one would; besides, agriculture was declining 
in the state, and 

". . . all the agricultural colleges between here and 

the setting sun will not convert the rocky hills of New 

Hampshire into gardens of Eden." 

The most vigorous advocate of acceptance was the Dover 
Enquirer, which accused the Mirror and the Democrat of being 
unfriendly to the farmers and to education. The Independent 
Statesman of Concord supposed there was nothing to do but ac- 
cept the money, though the editors felt that the bequest would do 
more for the farmers than a dozen such colleges if it were used 
to found a free agricultural magazine. Nothing was said about 
where the material for such a magazine would come from, how- 

The People and Patriot of Concord suggested that an ar- 
rangement be made with the heirs, and the proceeds of such be 
used to move the college nearer the center of the state. The 
Nashua Gazette favored moving the college to Durham and unit- 
ing all the efforts of the state under one head. 

The New England Homestead of Springfield, Massachusetts, 
said that Dean Pettee and most of the board of trustees were in 
favor of staying in Hanover, but that President Bartlett was un- 
friendly and thought that the New Hampshire college should be 
entirely separate, particularly now that it had enough money to 
move to Durham. They reported further that there was a strong 
feeling for "a branch experiment station and farm school at Til- 
ton," where they understood that Mr. C. S. Tilton "is ready to 
give handsomely" for such a purpose. 

If the press could be considered as representing accurately 
the sentiment of the people, it would appear that the Thompson 
will stood a rather poor chance of being accepted. However, the 
friends of the college were by no means inactive. J. D. Lyman 


Benjamin Thompson's Bequest 

of Exeter wrote to the Independent Statesman favoring acceptance 
and removal of the college to Durham as soon as possible. He 
praised Benjamin Thompson's 'good sense" in seeing the need for 
a large fund in order to make a success of the college in contrast 
to the "starveling at Hanover." It did not take long for the ma- 
jority of the members of the Grange to express themselves in favor 
of the acceptance of the Thompson bequest. 

Dean Pettee told the legislature that the faculty of the col- 
lege was in favor of accepting the gift and deciding what to do 
with the college later. President Bartlett strongly urged the leg- 
islature to accept the bequest. The day after the legislature voted 
to do so, he wrote to a friend that he had long regarded the re- 
moval of the Agricultural college as a foregone conclusion and 
was not at all disturbed about it. 

On January 29, 1891, John D. Lyman moved in the legis- 
lature that a special committee of one representative from each 
county be appointed to investigate the problem of the will. The 
committee included John D. Lyman of Exeter, Jeremiah Langley 
of Durham, Langdon Atkinson of Madison, James B. Tennant of 
Epsom, Henry A. Horton of Manchester, Christopher Robb of 
Stoddard, Moses F. Knowlton of Sunapee, Cyrus Sargent of Plym- 
outh, and Henry E. Forristall of Columbia. The committee held 
a hearing on the eleventh of February at which no one appeared 
to oppose acceptance of the gift. This may seem extraordinary 
after all the newspaper talk against the will, but it seems clear 
that the advocates of acceptance had worked so effectively that 
the opposition had been silenced. James Joy, one of the execu- 
tors of the estate, and Judge Foster, counsel for the executors, 
appeared to urge the committee to accept the will. They were 
supported by Dean Pettee, Joseph B. Walker of Concord, Frank 
Greene of Hampton Falls, and several other influential individuals. 
The legislative committee voted, according to the Boston Journal, 
"emphatically and unanimously" for acceptance. Though many 
prominent people in the state had been quite certain when the 
will was first made public that nothing would come of it, by the 
end of the year, sentiment in the state had become so strong that 
there was no possibility of rejection. An Act to accept the Pro- 
visions of the Thompson Will, and to Provide for the present Dis- 
position of the Funds, was passed by both the senate and the 
house of representatives and was signed by Governor Hiram A. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Tuttle on March 5, 1891. Thus, the first step toward the reali- 
zation of Benjamin Thompson's plans was taken. 

One very important obstacle still had to be removed. As 
might well be expected, the provisions of the will had been a 
great surprise to Benjamin Thompson's nearest relatives. His 
nephew, William Hale Thompson of Chicago, came to New 
Hampshire and announced his intention of contesting the will. 
It is not clear whether he was ever joined in this action by his 
cousins, Lucien and Mary P. Thompson of Durham. Newspaper 
accounts of the time speak of the "relatives" as though all of them 
were meant, but this seems improbable as Lucien Thompson was 
an active partisan of the college within a very short time. He was 
elected to the board of trustees, in 1891, and served enthusiasti- 
cally in that body until he moved to Colorado in 1912. His only 
complaint seems to have been that the money had been saved 
and accumulated by the Thompsons over a period of 200 years, 
and he felt that the members of the family should have been con- 
sulted before the money was sent out of the family altogether. 
However, he believed in the purpose to which the money was to 
be devoted and quickly reconciled himself to the terms of the will. 

William Thompson hired Mr. Kivel of Dover and Mr. Frink 
of Portsmouth as counsel and carried the fight to have the will set 
aside to the Supreme court of the state. No attempt was made to 
show any lack of capacity on Benjamin Thompson's part to make a 
valid will. The contest was based wholly on the constitutional 
ground that the state had no right to hold and administer an es- 
tate. The will required that the state hold property and guaran- 
tee not only the safety of the principal, but also the payment of a 
certain rate of annual interest, and perform other duties in the 
relation of a trustee, executor, or administrator. The case was 
not actually argued before the Supreme court for it soon became 
clear that the contest was hopeless, and Attorney Frink announced 
in May, 1891, that no further contest would be made. With this, 
all obstacles to action by the state were removed. 

The question of whether to move New Hampshire college to 
Durham immediately or to wait until the expiration of the 20- 
year period still remained to be settled. Lucien Thompson told 
a newspaper reporter, the day after the will was accepted, that he 
thought the college should move to Durham immediately. Dean 
Pettee spoke before a meeting of the Farmer's council, which con- 
sisted of the members of the legislature who were farmers, and 


Benjamin Thompson's Bequest 

told them that he saw only two alternatives, either to move the 
college to Durham and appropriate $100,000 for new buildings, 
or leave it where it was and appropriate $11,000 for repairs and 
a new workshop to be built in Hanover. The state had to decide 
soon, he said, for the secretary of the interior might withhold the 
money due New Hampshire college under the act of 1890 if he 
were not satisfied that the college was being conducted properly. 

George Whitcher appeared at the same meeting to speak in 
favor of moving and to report a threefold resolution which the 
Alumni association had recently adopted at its annual meeting in 
Manchester. This stated that ( 1 ) the college should be moved at 
once, ( 2 ) the state should make an adequate appropriation for new 
buildings, (3) the alumni were convinced that the influence of 
Dartmouth college was detrimental to the state college. 

A special committee of the legislature, including William A. 
Foster of Concord, E. A. Hibbard of Laconia, and E. G. Eastman 
of Exeter, reported in favor of giving Dartmouth college the one 
year notice which was required by the contract of 1868 and mov- 
ing as soon as the Thompson property had been placed in the 
hands of the state. President Bartlett expressed his personal will- 
ingness to have the notice waived if it would be "expedient for the 
state in order to facilitate moving." The special committee re- 
ported a bill to provide for the removal of New Hampshire col- 
lege from Hanover to Durham. The bill passed both houses and 
was signed by Governor Hiram A. Tuttle on April 10, 1891. 

This bill provided that the contract with Dartmouth should 
be terminated and that New Hampshire college and the Experi- 
ment station should be moved to Durham as soon as practicable. 
The land and buildings of the college in Hanover were to be sold, 
subject to the right of occupancy until the actual time of moving, 
and the proceeds were to be used either for the construction of 
buildings at the new site, or so far as the proceeds 

". . . shall be derived from the sale of the land 
conveyed to said college by [John Conant], in accord- 
ance with the terms expressed in his said will." 
In addition, Dartmouth was requested to repay the $15,000 which 
the state had advanced toward the cost of Culver hall. 

The manner of election and the composition of the board of 
trustees were changed to fit the new situation. The governor of 
the state and the president of the college were to be members ex 
officio, and the alumni were empowered to elect one member. The 


History of University of New Hampshire 

rest of the trustees were to be chosen by the governor and coun- 
cil with the provision that at least one trustee on the board be 
from each councilor district. Not more than five of these ten 
appointed trustees were to be of any one political party and at 
least seven of them were to be practical farmers. 
An appropriation of $100,000 was made 

". . . for the removal of said college from Hanover 
to Durham and the erection and maintenance of suit- 
able buildings for the purposes of said college." 
This appropriation was to be raised by a bond issue. The act ac- 
cepting the Thompson bequest had previously provided that the 
state, in case it should be found advisable to move the college be- 
fore the expiration of the 20-year period, might "raise and set 
apart such sums of money as will make said funds equal in 
amount" to what they would have been if allowed to accumulate. 
There were two changes provided for in the act which were 
significant. The office of "President of the College" was a new 
one. Previously, there had been a president of the board of trus- 
tees and a president of the faculty. Technically, President Murk- 
land was the first president of New Hampshire college. Only 
once had the two former offices been held by the same man. Asa 
Smith and Samuel Bartlett, both presidents of Dartmouth, had 
served as president of the faculty, and Asa Smith, George Nesmith, 
and Lyman Stevens had held the office of president of the board of 
trustees. The business of the college had been handled through 
a series of managers which had included Ezekiel Dimond, Benja- 
min Blanpied, and Dean Pettee. All these functions were now to 
be directed by one individual. However, the trustees decided that 
it would be inexpedient to elect a president until the college had 
moved to Durham. 

The second change for which the act provided was the in- 
clusion of a trustee elected by the alumni. Though the Alumni 
association had been in existence since 1880 and had taken a live- 
ly interest in the affairs of the college, this provision seems to 
have taken some of the members by surprise, especially one alum- 
nus, who wrote to Dean Pettee asking whom he would recom- 
mend as a candidate. The manner of conducting the vote for 
this position has not been preserved so far as can be discovered, 
except for a comment in a letter from Joseph Kidder, secretary 
of the board of trustees, to Dean Pettee, in which he says, "The 


Benjamin Thompson's Bequest 

records show . . . time for returning votes was extended to October 
1, 1892 ... to be counted by the President, Treasurer, and Secre- 
tary." The person with the highest number of votes, apparently 
with or without a majority, was to be declared elected, and the re- 
sults laid before the board of trustees at its next regular meeting. 

Dartmouth college was offered the opportunity of purchas- 
ing all of the property of New Hampshire college in Hanover. 
President Bartlett favored buying everything, including the farm, 
but his advice was not followed by the Dartmouth trustees. Dart- 
mouth bought Conant hall, Allen hall, the workshop, and the ad- 
joining land for $10,000, and that part of the farm south of Whee- 
lock street and west of Park street, including about 22 acres, for 
$5,000. The Thayer school bought the Experiment station build- 
ing for $3,000. The rest of the farm and the buildings on it were 
sold to John M. Fuller for $10,000. 

That President Bartlett was wiser than the trustees in this 
matter is indicated by the fact that Dartmouh has since bought all 
of this land at a much higher price. Dartmouth was also asked 
to pay the $15,000 due the state for Culver hall and agreed to do 
this, according to a letter from President Bartlett to Dean Pettee, 
"on condition that the N. H. C. A. M. A. give possession of the 
whole laboratory in Culver Hall next term and onward." 4 If this 
were done, Dartmouth "in case it is not relieved of paying the 
$15,000 as is earnestly hoped, will pay that sum by May 1, 1893 
. . ." This did not prove to be necessary, for the legislature of 
1893 passed an act giving the state's share of Culver hall to Dart- 
mouth and appropriated $15,000 to compensate New Hampshire 
college. In addition, $35,000 more was appropriated by the same 
legislature toward the building fund of the college; the money to 
be raised and the bonds retired in the same way as the previous 
sum of $100,000. 

Including the compensation for the loss of Culver hall, the 
college received $43,000 for its Hanover properties, which was 
considerably less than either the cost or the value of them, but 
which even so represented more than the estimate of a possible 
return which had been given to the legislature two years before. 
This, with the state appropriations, gave New Hampshire college 
enough money to construct adequate buildings for "classroom, 

i Letter dated April 7, 1892. The building was not actually turned over 
to Dartmouth until the following year. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

laboratory, shop and farm purposes" as Dean Pettee pointed out, 
but not enough to "furnish dormitory facilities for any large num- 
ber of students." 

This fact did not disturb Dean Pettee, however, for he re- 
ported in 1892 that, 

"After thorough investigation, it was found that 
several of our leading colleges had very successfully 
adopted the plan of leaving to private enterprise and 
capital the erection of all dormitories, thus freeing 
themselves from the difficulties always attending the 
management and control of such buildings, while bene- 
fiting students by giving them the advantages of in- 
dividual homes, care and oversight. The exigencies of 
the situation and good judgment have combined in es- 
tablishing this system at Durham. It is confidently ex- 
pected that this opportunity for the extension of pri- 
vate enterprise will be appreciated and acted upon at 
an early date." 

It is not surprising that Dean Pettee should have over-esti- 
mated Durham's capacity to take care of the housing needs of 
the college, for his previous experience would hardly have pre- 
pared him for the enormous increase in the enrollment of the col- 
lege which took place after the removal from Hanover. The need 
for more and more living quarters for students has been a problem 
which has continued down to the present day. 

The first group of buildings to be constructed were: 

1. The Main building, which contained an office, class- 
rooms, library, museum, and an assembly hall. This is the pres- 
ent Thompson hall. 

2. The Science building, with all the necessary laboratories. 
This is now Conant hall. 

3. A building for the Experiment station, which has since 
been twice enlarged and is still called Nesmith hall. 

4. The Shop building, which included a steam heating 
plant to serve all the buildings. 

5. A barn, which burned on November 3, 1894, and which 
was located on the site of the present Dairy building. 

All these buildings were to be constructed of brick except 
for the barn. The firm of Dow and Randlett of Concord, the 
same firm which had planned the college buildings in Hanover, 


Benjamin Thompson's Bequest 

was chosen to construct Thompson hall, Conant hall, and the 
Shop building. Mr. Randlett superintended the actual construc- 
tion. Nesmith hall and the barn were built under the direction 
of the board of control of the Experiment station, and Director 
Whitcher supervised their construction. 

Charles Eliot of Boston, son of the famous president of Har- 
vard university, was hired as the landscape architect, and he had 
to face one of the first difficulties in planning the new site. The 
Boston and Maine railroad line then crossed the present campus 
between Conant hall and the Shops and continued across the sites 
of both DeMeritt hall and the present Faculty Club building. The 
station and the freight depot stood in the middle of the present 
campus. Fortunately, the railroad was already planning to move 
the tracks about 900 feet to the west to its present location in 
order to straighten the line. At one time, Mr. Eliot was discon- 
certed to discover that the railroad's plans had been so drawn that 
the tracks would have been placed over the water tank knoll and 
would thus have gone through Nesmith hall. A hurried con- 
sultation straightened out the difficulty. After the tracks were 
changed, the old railroad station was moved down near the corner 
of Mill road and Main street where it became familiar to many 
students as Runlett's store. 

It became necessary to buy some land in Durham, and Dean 
Pettee was 

"... authorized to purchase such lots of land in 
Durham as he considered necessary for the uses of the 
college, at the lowest possible price, with the appro- 
bation of the executive committee." 
As usual in such a case, Dean Pettee found that even so routine a 
matter presented difficulties. For example, one property owner, 
whose original price was $1,200, wrote to him, "now that the col- 
lege is coming there, we feel that the place will be much more 
valuable," and raised the price to $2,000. Others increased their 
prices accordingly. Ephraim Jenkins and Jeremiah Langley, both 
of Durham, acted as agents for Dean Pettee in buying land, both 
for the use of the college and for his personal needs. Joshua Hall 
of Dover was the lawyer for the college all through this period. 
While the building was underway, at one time or another, 
nearly every faculty member had to go to Durham to aid in the 
supervision of the construction. Naturally this made it difri- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

cult to maintain classes in Hanover, but the entire faculty was 
so eager to see the work in Durham progress satisfactorily that 
it was always possible for substitutions to be arranged in order 
to keep things going properly in both places. That this enthusi- 
asm for the new location was shared by the students is indicated by 
the fact that the class of 1892 petitioned to have its commencement 
program in Durham. This was done even though the ceremonies 
had to be held in the new barn which was not wholly completed. 
The class of 1893 also had its commencement in Durham in the 
auditorium on the top floor of Thompson hall, although the in- 
side of the building was unfinished and planks had to be laid across 
the skeleton of the stairway so that the people might get upstairs 
for the ceremonies. 

Albert Kingsbury was placed in charge of the construction 
of the heating system and S. H. Woodbridge of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology was the consulting engineer. Neither was 
able to be in Durham all the time, and considerable trouble de- 
veloped over faulty construction, which threatened to cause hard 
feelings among all involved. This was averted by the close co- 
operation between Mr. Woodbridge and Mr. Kingsbury. The lat- 
ter wrote on one occasion, 

"Woodbridge writes ... he will be in Durham 
Wednesday and I think I should go there too on that 
day. I had expected to be in Hanover Wednesday 
morning . . . but will make it a day later. My classes 
have work laid out for them sufficient unto the day, 
but you may notify them i£ you will that I shall not 
be back till Thursday morning." 

Mr. Woodbridge condemned some of the work done and sup- 
ported Mr. Kingsbury in his complaints against the steam fitters, 
saying in one letter, 

"As instructor for the college, he ought certainly 
to have authority to order work suspended, or even taken 
down and redone, and he should be given the treatment 
due his position and his worth." 

As finally constructed, the steam system was sufficiently suc- 
cessful so that I. P. Roberts, director of the Cornell Experiment 
station, wrote to Dean Pettee in 1893 asking for information on 
"your most admirable system which I saw last winter" in order to 
correct some defects in the Cornell plant. Even after the plant 


Benjamin Thompson's Bequest 

was in operation, the supply of fuel was uncertain for a while, 
and Mr. Kingsbury wrote to Dean Pettee that he had received no 

" . . since the 10 tons of last Saturday. This all 
gone and burning wood again . . . found car at Ports- 
mouth which station agent has promised to ship . . . 
We can't get to wood at Reservoir yet; Whitcher's all 
gone — Bunker's pine all gone, and we have started on 
his hard wood." 
Another time he wrote that "All going on slowly and well here," 
except that some of the men "got at loggerheads while I was away, 

and have not yet fully quieted. C says he will quit, but 

I guess he won't. He is quite cranky." 

Dean Pettee, Director Whitcher, Mr. DeMeritt, and others 
were forced to put in much time and planning to secure an ade- 
quate supply of water for the college. A dam was built on Pettee 
brook behind the present horse barns, which impounded a large 
enough reservoir to take care of the needs of the barn and gave 
protection against fire. 

Artesian wells were dug in back of the Shop building to pro- 
vide drinking water for the college. It was proposed that the 
college construct a water system which would supply the town 
with both drinking water and electric power. The Wiswall Paper 
mill privilege on the Lamprey river near Packers' Falls was seri- 
ously considered for this purpose. There was a dam in good 
working order and a flow of water capable of developing about 
300 horsepower. Moreover, a large reservoir for water would be 
available at the same time less than three miles from the village. 
All of this could have been developed at a low cost. There was 
some doubt about the legality of the college going into such a 
business, however, and the matter was dropped rather than to in- 
troduce an additional source of controversy before the legislature 
which was then considering an appropriation for the institution. 
Electricity for the use of New Hampshire college was at first 
generated by steam power. One of the students had planned to 
refer to the wonders of electricity in his speech at the graduation 
ceremonies of the class of 1893 and at the same time to point to 
a light bulb in the ceiling of Thompson hall. When the day 
came, the current had not yet been turned on, so he had to amend 
his speech and refer to the electricity which would be shining in 
the bulb. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

All of the construction work was hurried as much as possible, 
and in spite of difficulties and numerous complaints, New Hamp- 
shire college was finally ready to open at its new home in time for 
the fall term of 1893. One faculty member wrote, in the midst 
of the building operations, 

"There is a fearful and wonderful amount of un- 
just & uncalled for criticism, not on me alone, but on 
everybody. The Barn which a year ago was praised by 
everyone is now cursed ad infinitum, the reservoir pre- 
vious to the rain was a fruitful subject & now that it 
is full the pipe line is pronounced useless and a waste 
of money. The boilers are known to be worthless and 
the central system of heating absolutely a failure at 
best. Jobbery is charged in awarding the contract to 
Dow and Randlett, and in the purchase of the brick 
at Epping. The only man so far as I know who isn't 
accused of dishonesty or ignorance is Lowell. I haven't 
heard anyone abuse him, so far. Well, I suppose 'the 
world will continue to have revolutions and such like.' ' 

This was written after a meeting at which the writer had 
found it necessary to defend his actions rather vigorously, so that 
it may represent an unduly prejudiced view, but certainly, it must 
have been extremely difficult for this small group of men to super- 
vise building operations involving expenditures of $170,000 while 
conducting the daily classes and the administrative routines of the 

Their troubles were aggravated by the fact that their two 
positions were separated by 100 miles when transportation was 
limited to indirect train routes or to the horse and buggy. A 
special building committee of the board of trustees, which in- 
cluded Lyman Stevens, Benjamin Prescott, Charles McDaniel, and 
Dean Pettee, was in charge of operations. The construction of 
the Experiment station building was taken care of by the board of 
control of the station. 

The housing situation called for immediate action even be- 
fore the college actually moved. As his contribution to solving 
this problem, Mr. Whitcher constructed several buildings himself. 
He built Dean Pettee's home, three houses on Strafford avenue, 
the present Lambda Chi Alpha house, and the four-story building 
which was later known as the Pettee block, where the Gorman 


* .-."FT ; ;*' -, ■', 

--V ? !H« 

t&: : ?££* 

Top L^.- Charles Sumner Murkland 
Middle Left: Edward Thomson FAIRCHILD 

Top Right: William David Gibbs 
Middle Right: Ralph DORN Hetzel 

Benjamin Thompson's Bequest 

block now stands. He also started developing the water com- 
pany, but when he left the employment of the college, he sold it, 
with the building on Main street, to Dean Pettee. 

In order to meet the needs of the new settlement centering 
around the college, the selectmen of Durham authorized a new 
road, to begin, "near the old blacksmith shop owned by Jeremiah 
Langley," which was on the corner where Smith hall now stands, 
across land owned by the college and by Mr. Whitcher, both of 
whom waived damages, to "the Madbury road so called at a point 
opposite Garrison avenue." This last name, at that time, applied 
to the road going from Madbury road up to the Woodman Garri- 
son house, which stood on the hill behind the present town school- 
house. The name is now used only for the part of the road built 
in 1893. Mr. Whitcher built his houses along this new road and 
a side road leading from it, known formerly as Faculty row, but 
now as Strafford avenue. Other dwellings were soon built on 
these streets by members of the faculty. It was necessary for many 
of them to build their own homes because Durham did not have 
enough houses to supply the demand. Professor Parsons and his 
family, and after them, Professor Scott and his family made use of 
the second floor of the Woodman Garrison house until houses 
were built for them. 

Dean Pettee wrote to Miss Lucetta Davis, Benjamin Thomp- 
son's housekeeper, asking her to vacate the Thompson house, which 
contained 20 furnished rooms and was needed by the college. The 
letter was a model of tact: 

"I can see [he wrote] that any such partial oc- 
cupation of it by yourself would not comport with your 
selfrespect. We don't wish to consider you as a servant 
to be tucked away in a corner, but as a prominent per- 
sonage of Durham, who was for many years the com- 
panion and counselor of the benefactor of the college." 

He then pointed out that Miss Davis had a house of her own where 
she could be more comfortable and independent. The Thompson 
house was used first by some of the college staff, then was made 
into a women's dormitory which it continued to be until it burned 
in December, 1897. 

The college was interested in acquiring one other very im- 
portant piece of property. Ephraim Jenkins told Dean Pettee, 


History of University of New Hampshire 

"I was in hopes that the trustees would think best 
to take the Hotel under their protecting wings' — not to 
run it themselves but as an investment, and then — for 
a certainty rum would be forever prohibited. As we 
know from the past, if any individual owns it, it will 
have to be watched with a shot gun to keep it out." 
This referred to the old Oyster River tavern which stood opposite 
the Town hall. The college did not acquire the property, but the 
tavern was destroyed by a fire in May, 1896. 

In order to start the college in the best possible manner, the 
faculty members made a number of trips to see what other col- 
leges, as well as industrial plants, were doing and to get all kinds 
of information which would be helpful in their work. Professor 
Parsons made one trip through the South, visiting experiment 
stations, colleges, and experimental farms. During the summer 
of 1892, he wrote to Dean Pettee several times from Ithaca, Wash- 
ington, and New York describing some of the ideas he had ac- 
quired which he thought were valuable. Director Whitcher also 
made a trip to New Orleans for a convention and planned to stop 
in several places along the way, but was unable to do so because 
of the press of work in Durham. 

There were several official visits to Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology; all of the members of the board of trustees were 
included in one of these visits. Durham also received more than 
its accustomed share of visitors, including the previously men- 
tioned visit of Director Roberts of the Cornell Experiment station; 
state officials, members of the legislature, and members of the 
Grange were frequent visitors. Among the visitors were the stu- 
dents of Northwood academy who came to Durham on their "an- 
nual May-ride" in the spring of 1893 to see for themselves what 
attractions the new institution would have for ambitious members 
of the graduating class. Of the 30 who came on this first trip to 
Durham, a "good number" were influenced to consider entering 
the college. Such visits meant much to the future prosperity of 
the college. 

Professor Scott was put in charge of shipping the college's 
property from Hanover to Durham. Much of the furniture was 
sold in Hanover, and some of the collections which were not 
needed in the new location or which were easily replaceable were 
given to Dartmouth. Professor Scott reported in the midst of 


Benjamin Thompson's Bequest 

this work that, "The present arrangement is as bad as anything 
can be. I have wasted about a week of time trying to learn what 
belongs to the college." 

One of the problems of shipping was concerned with sending 
the famous "Daniel Webster plow," which belonged to the col- 
lege, to the World's Columbian exposition at Chicago to be in- 
cluded in the exhibit of the Agricultural colleges and Experiment 
stations. Henry E. Alvord, an official of the newly-formed As- 
sociation of Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, was 
put in charge of the exhibit by the federal department of agricul- 
ture. One incidental service which the college performed in this 
connection was to see that a life-size bust of Senator Morrill of 
Vermont was properly packed and shipped to the fair from the 
senator's birthplace in Strafford, Vermont. Dean Pettee sent John 
Brown, the shop foreman, to do this, in response to a request from 
Mr. Alvord. Mr. Brown was so prompt, however, that he got to 
Strafford before Senator Morrill appeared and, incidentally, im- 
pressed Mr. Alvord very much. 

With the completion of the buildings at Durham, it became 
necessary to examine the financial condition of the college. One 
important source of income, which has not been discussed previ- 
ously, was the money granted by congress in the, so-called, Second 
Morrill act which was passed on August 30, 1890. This act was 
intended to broaden the scope of the land grant colleges and it 
granted $15,000 for the year 1890 to each state and territory 

"... for the more complete endowment and main- 
tenance of colleges for the benefit of agriculture and 
the mechanic arts ... to be applied only to instruction 
in agriculture, the mechanic arts, the English language, 
and the various branches of mathematical, physical, 
natural, and economic sciences, with special reference to 
their applications in the industries of life, and to the 
facilities for such instruction ..." 

This sum was to be increased by $1,000 annually for ten years, 
and thereafter, $25,000 a year was to be paid to each state meet- 
ing the requirements of the act. 

This grant was accepted by the New Hampshire legislature 
six months later, but New Hampshire college did not use the in- 
come from this source while the college was in Hanover since the 
trustees preferred to reserve the money for use in Durham. Dean 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Pettee wrote to Mr. Alvord and asked him to arrange to have the 
money held for the college. Mr. Alvord secured the permission 
of the secretary of the interior to have this done in order "to as- 
sist in a judicious, deliberate and effective expenditure of money, 
rather than encourage undue haste." Dean Pettee also asked for 
a ruling on the meaning of the word, "facilities" in the act and 
got a reply to the general effect that it included equipment but 
not buildings; the state was still responsible for the buildings of 
the institution. 

With the completion of the building program, a complete 
balance sheet was called for and presented to the board of trustees. 
They voted to have the secretary of the finance committee, Albert 
DeMeritt, "approve all Bills against the College until a Purchasing 
Agent should be employed." The increased income and expendi- 
tures of New Hampshire college made necessary the employment 
of some one person to handle the business functions of the insti- 

When New Hampshire college was finally located in its new 
home, the trustees turned their attention to the selection of a 
president. They knew that with the right man to lead the insti- 
tution, New Hampshire college was ready to resume in Durham 
the work which it had started in Hanover and to carry that work 
forward on a much larger scale. The college had more income 
than formerly, an endowment which would be available at a not 
too distant date in the future, and prospects for more students and 
greater success than ever before. 


The Administration of President Murkland 


The election of a president, for which the legislative act of 
1891 had provided, was postponed by the board of trustees because 
of the lack of money for his salary and because of the generally 
unsettled condition of the college during the moving period. After 
the death of George W. Nesmith in 1890, Lyman D. Stevens of 
Exeter, an outstanding leader of the Grange and a prominent po- 
litical leader, was elected to the presidency of the board of trustees 
and of the faculty and served throughout the transitional period as 
actively as his numerous other interests permitted. 

He was succeeded by former governor Benjamin F. Prescott 
of Epping, New Hampshire, who was elected president of the 
board of trustees on July 19, 1893, and continued in that posi- 
tion until his death a little less than two years later. 

Throughout the unsettled period during which the prepara- 
tions for the transfer of New Hampshire college to Durham were 
being made, the question of a president recurred time and again. 
Newspapers and various people interested in the college advanced 
the claims of their candidates. Dean Pettee was the active head 
of the college and received $400 a year over his regular salary, 
"for extra work as Dean up to the time when the College shall be 
located at Durham and a resident President shall be elected." 

By the summer of 1893, the plant at Durham was nearly 
finished, and plans were completed for the opening of the college 
in the fall. The board of trustees moved to elect a president. 
The candidates suggested were numerous and well qualified. Most 
actively supported of all the candidates was Nahum Bachelder. 
He was master of the State grange and chairman of the state 
board of agriculture. The Grange endorsed him and he received 
the support of a number of influential newspapers in the state. 
In fact, his name was actually brought before one meeting of the 
board and voted down on the grounds that there was not enough 
money to pay a salary appropriate to the position. The chief 
argument in his favor was his lifelong interest and activity in 
agriculture and farmers' organizations and his thorough knowl- 
edge of the state. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Mr. I. P. Roberts, director of the Experiment station and pro- 
fessor of agriculture at Cornell, was a prominent candidate. He 
visited the college during the winter of 1892-1893, and at that 
time was urged, possibly by Dean Pettee, to apply to the trustees 
for the appointment. He never did so, and apparently his name 
was never formally considered. Others whose names were sug- 
gested included Jeremiah W. Sanborn and George T. Powell of 
Ithaca, New York. The last of these was endorsed by the New 
England Homestead as "a strong agriculturist . . . just the com- 
bination to fill the bill ..." In every case, the men suggested 
were specialists in agriculture above all else. It was assumed that 
an agricultural background was indispensable for the position. 

It is easy to understand, therefore, the surprise and some- 
what general disapproval which greeted the announcement of the 
final choice of the board of trustees. At the trustees' meeting 
which was held May 18, 1893, the Reverend Charles S. Murk- 
land of Manchester was elected to take office the following July 
third. There is no evidence that his name had ever been men- 
tioned prior to this meeting of the trustees. In fact, Mrs. Pettee 
wrote to her husband on May 19, 1893, "Mr. Murkland's election 
was a great surprise to me for I have never heard his name men- 
tioned. I presume it was not to you." Charles Parsons wrote 
the same day, "I wish you could also give me some information in 
regard to our new President . . . We are all in the dark. Was 
money found to be available for his salary?" This surprise was 
general and was echoed in the newspapers. 

Explanations for this unexpected choice are surprisingly lack- 
ing. Mr. Murkland was pastor of the church which was attended 
by ex-governor Frederick Smyth, a member of the board of trus- 
tees from 1866 to 1897, who nominated him for the presidency. 
Mr. Smyth's prestige and influence on the board were deservedly 
very great, so that his sponsorship of any candidate would carry a 
great deal of weight. There was no question of Mr. Murkland's 
qualifications as a scholar or as an executive. In the minds of 
the people of the state, however, the college was primarily an 
agricultural institution, and they expected an agricultural authority 
of some prominence to be chosen to lead it. According to the 
Enaichsee, Mr. Murkland's name had been actively considered for 
the presidency of Dartmouth before the appointment of President 
Tucker, a fact which the student editor considered indicative of 
his worth. But Dartmouth was an entirely different kind of in- 


The Administration of President Murkland 

stitution, and qualifications which would add much to a man's 
availability for such a position were objects of suspicion and even 
hostility to New Hampshire farmers. 

Mr. Murkland's excellent educational background in the lib- 
eral arts and his thorough theological training counted against 
him with those who had been arguing for years that the objective 
of the college should be to train practical farmers. They did not 
hesitate to state their belief that a mistake had been made. The 
general attitude, reflected in some of the papers and in two letters 
written by Grange leaders, seems to have been one of watchful 
waiting. They were willing to give their support and hope for 
the best, but rather confidently expected the worst. 

Under such circumstances, President Murkland's position was 
at best uncomfortable. His education had given him a strong 
bias in favor of the liberal arts and a profound respect for high 
standards of scholarship. He was a tall, vigorous man with a 
handsome appearance and a striking personality. At the time 
of his election, he was only 37 years old. His truly remarkable 
ability as a public speaker was one of his chief assets in his con- 
tacts with the people of the state, so much so that the College 
Monthly, after remarking on the success of his first year as presi- 
dent, went on to say, 

"Perhaps the only drawback has been that others, 
finding out his lecturing ability, have more and more 
demanded him in the various educational meetings all 
over the state. Hardly a week has passed when he has 
not delivered at least one and sometimes five or six 

Yet all the excellence of his training and personality com- 
bined could not wholly conceal the fact that he was undertaking 
a task which must carry him into unknown fields. Significantly, 
the Enaichsee reported that on his first visit to Durham, he "was 
surprised at the extent of the plant here." Such a lack of ac- 
quaintance with the size and the equipment of the college is not 
so extraordinary, but when added to an unf amiliarity with the sub- 
ject matter of the basic work of the college, it indicates how pro- 
found an adjustment of President Murkland's whole pattern of 
thought was necessary to his success in the new position. He was 
regarded with a great deal of suspicion even by some of his new 
co-workers, and their first impressions of him were bound to have 


History of University of New Hampshire 

an effect upon his later work. Though the editor of the Enaichsee 
predicted that "With Dr. Murkland at its head the institution will 
fully realize the bright hopes which its friends have entertained 
for its future," many in the state were grimly waiting to be shown. 

As might be expected, an excuse for the expression of this 
discontent was soon found. At his inauguration, President Murk- 
land chose for the topic of his address, Educational Methods and 
Ideals. So very important was this address and the principles 
stated in it to the future of the college, and so bitter were the 
controversies that raged around it, that a summary of its chief 
points is necessary to an understanding of later events. 

President Murkland opened his speech with a discussion of 
the meaning and importance of a liberal education as a prepara- 
tion for the business of living. This did not mean just "making 
a living," for only a man of little learning denies the value of cul- 
ture. Breadth and stability of culture have always been a basis 
for entering the learned professions. A changing society had 
caused the old classical colleges to change their curricula, intro- 
ducing modern languages and sciences. To the old ideal of study- 
ing for "knowledge and power" had been added the purpose of 
developing expertness and skill in specific occupations. The two 
kinds of education were basically different and did not belong in 
the same institution. In some schools, the sciences had been 
placed in an inferior position; in others, the elective system gave 
the student an opportunity to incorporate them in a broader classi- 
cal course. The elective system was no solution but it did "at 
least declare the essential dignity of that technical education which 
is not unmindful of discipline and culture." The line would soon 
"be sharply drawn between those studies which are for practical 
utility in direct application, and those which are not." 

A classification of function and purpose would help both 
kinds of schools. Technical education was not a rival, but a 
supplement to classical education, and in the ideal arrangement, 
would follow a thorough college course. The fellowship of in- 
telligence was no longer confined to the learned professions, but 
was "open to any man of any occupation . . . who has the trained 
intellect and the indefinable spirit that come of a liberal educa- 

Much has been expected of the technical schools which was 
impossible. They should make no claim to give a liberal educa- 
tion, but only an opportunity to train for a profession, and the 


The Administration of President Murkland 

student might win intellectual training in proportion as he was 
willing to devote himself to getting it. Farming had been waste- 
ful and extravagant in this country. An agricultural college must 
"teach all that can be taught of that which the scientific spirit 
has to convey to the practical tiller of the soil." In this, the Ex- 
periment station must play a large part. 

Agriculture had been "erroneously supposed to be the great- 
ly predominant element in our college life." This course was 
offered "side by side with four others" of equal importance. It 

"... probable that very few of the students will 
elect the agricultural course with the idea of returning 
to the farm . . . When there shall have utterly ceased 
the cry of him who says that education has no place on 
the farm, then the farmer's boy will not feel driven, 
as he now does feel driven, to choose between farming 
and intelligence." 

Until then, the mechanical and other scientific courses would be 
more popular. In these, thoroughness and freedom and original- 
ity of research were necessary. The courses might be broadened 
and "If the occasion should rise we are not debarred from intro- 
ducing the ancient languages." Military science was to be intro- 
duced, and there were no limits to the expansion of the college 
save those of modern thinking. 

The average student was poorly prepared, and standards 
should be raised to correct this, both in the college and in the 
preparatory schools. Post graduate courses might be given for 
specialists. The benefits of the college should be carried to the 
people through the new "university extension" movement. More 
departments should be added and there must be a firm regard for 
character and active aid for the religious life of the student. If 
all this were kept in mind, the future of the college would be 

The general argument of President Murkland's inaugural 
address would hardly arouse much opposition today, but there was 
material for controversy in it y particularly in the sentence, "If the 
occasion should rise we are not debarred from introducing the 
ancient languages." The state board of agriculture immediately 
met and sent a protest to President Murkland and to the board of 
trustees. This protest was signed by Nahum Bachelder as chair- 
man of the board. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

The Concord Patriot reporting on the matter stated: 

"The New Hampshire College of Agriculture and 
Mechanic Arts has always been the cause of more or 
less contention between those who believed in a school- 
bred farmer and those who did not, and it looks as if 
the legacy of trouble which the institution inherited at 
Hanover had been transmitted to the new location at 
Durham . . ." 

The appointment of Mr. Murkland 

". . . did not meet the ideas of some influential 
agriculturists scattered throughout the state, most of 
whom were members of the State Board of Agricul- 
ture and believed that the energetic Commissioner of 
that body, Hon. N. J. Bachelder of Andover should 
have the place . . . 

"The gentlemen opposed to Dr. Murkland, how- 
ever, bided their time, and now they profess to have se- 
cured evidence that shows he is unfit to manage the in- 
stitution, in the shape of his inaugural address, which, 
they say, indicates that he is going to run the institution 
for educational rather than agricultural purposes. 1 
Those who are in opposition are greatly exercised ..." 
President Murkland's first response to this challenge was a 

statement to the papers in which he displayed a tendency to state 

his opinions bluntly: 

"I understand the reason for this opposition Che 
wrote]. It is purely personal, and will not have the 
slightest weight. Whenever any organization attempts 
to interfere with the higher education of the college, 
that organization is bound to get crushed, and the only 
effect of the opposition is to stimulate the college to 
additional activity. Perhaps that will be the result 
at Durham with reference to the matter. I can only 
say that it is the attempt of a certain party to stir up 
discord because of ill-feeling on his part. I could not 
say anything very different from what I did in an in- 
augural address, but any talk about my being out of 

1 This contraposition of "agricultural" and "educational" purposes was 
rion, particularly among President Murkland's opponents. 

The Administration of President Murkland 

sympathy with the farmers is all bosh, as they will see 
when I speak at the farmers' meeting at Plymouth the 

Whether or not President Murkland was correct about the 
cause of the protest, he vastly underestimated its importance and 
the strength of its supporters. In his personal letter to the state 
board of agriculture several days later, he was much more con- 
ciliatory. He stated that there was "a slight and probably in- 
advertent inaccuracy" in their resolution. It was not true that 
the federal funds could not be used for classical courses, for this 
was specifically provided for in the act of 1862, which was "not 
less comprehensive than my statement." That the college was 
bound by the wills of its benefactors in the use of their gifts, he 
was prepared to admit, but the wills could not change the char- 
acter of the institution. The college had not departed in any de- 
gree from the requirements imposed upon it by congress, the state 
legislature, or any of its benefactors, and he denied any desire 
or intention that it should. 

The board of trustees' answer to the state board of agricul- 
ture was less mildly put. The former declared that they were 
sure the board of agriculture's resolution 

". . . does not represent and could not have been 
intended to represent, the feelings of the men and wo- 
men who make the profession of agriculture honorable 
and honored in our state — the actual farmers and their 
wives and sons and daughters. They have not au- 
thorized such a statement." 

In this form, this part of their letter was taken out of its 
context and quoted in a letter sent out to all the local Granges 
over Nahum Bachelder's signature as master of the State grange. 
In the original, the last sentence quoted did not end at that point, 
but went on to assert that only by misconstruing the president's 
words could any unfriendliness to agriculture have been read into 
them. The college would respond to the needs of the people, as 
with the farmers' institutes which were to be started at President 
Murkland' s suggestion. Finally, the trustees added that the com- 
mittee on curriculum would be instructed to confer with the board 
of agriculture in Durham about the entire course of study and 
present the board's recommendations to the trustees. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

However, the board of agriculture was in no mood for con- 
ferring, but was determined to make a fight on the issue. Mr. 
Bachelder announced the board's intention to stand by its original 
position, and urged the Granges to be prepared to express them- 
selves on the issue at the forthcoming State grange meeting. 

At the Grange convention, in December, 1893, the com- 
mittee on education reported a resolution endorsing the board of 
agriculture's position and quoted with approval the board's de- 
mands that the college "should be chiefly agricultural in its char- 
acter" and that every effort should be made to make the agri- 
cultural course the most popular one offered, while at the same 
time, taking care that it should be "intensely practical, and edu- 
cate towards, instead of away from, the farm." 

At the same Grange convention, another committee, that 
on the Agricultural college, reported with equal emphasis on the 
primacy of the agricultural course, but in a more conciliatory 
tone toward President Murkland. They claimed that the $4,800 
annual income from the land grant of 1862 was the only money, 
any part of which, the college might spend for classical education. 
They further quoted from the act of 1890 and from the wills of 
General Culver, John Conant, and Benjamin Thompson, to prove 
that all of these put agriculture first in interest, and therefore, re- 
quired that the money secured from these sources be used, above 
all, to promote agricultural courses. 

One curious thing in this report of the Grange committee is 
the fact that it quoted President Murkland with approval as an 
advocate of the agricultural emphasis. Whether this was an at- 
tempt to disarm the opponent by overpraise, or merely a move to- 
ward conciliation is not clear. In either case, it failed of its pur- 
pose. The newly elected master of the State grange, William H. 
Stinson, offered a resolution which endorsed his own support of 
the anti-Murkland group, and accused President Murkland of in- 
tending to make agriculture one of five equally important courses, 
thus receiving only one-fifth of the income of the college, in- 
stead of the four-fifths which Mr. Stinson believed it was entitled 
to. Each of these resolutions was adopted by large majorities, in 
spite of their great dissimilarity, both of manner and of content. 
Mr. Stinson was the most vigorous and uncompromising advocate 
of the anti-Murkland point of view from then on, and Mr. Bach- 
elder receded more into the background. 


The Administration of President Murkland 

The defense of the college was led by delegates from the 
Scammell grange of Durham. Before the meeting of the State 
grange, they had had a circular printed and sent to all the local 
Granges, pointing out that eight of the thirteen trustees were 
Grangers, and nine of them were practical farmers. Mr. Murk- 
land had been their unanimous choice for president, and his elec- 
tion was approved by the faculty, students, and townspeople of 
Durham who knew the college best. The Scammell grange ac- 
cused the opposition of desiring to make a "clearly revolutionary" 
change in the established poliq~ of equality between the agricul- 
tural and mechanic arts courses since, 

; 'Chiefly agricultural' must mean the exclusion 
of the Mechanic Arts courses, which policy ... is now 
for the first time called for by an agricultural organi- 
zation in New Hampshire." 

Since no one had any intention of starting a classical course, there- 
fore, "the question of the management of the State College should 
be referred to its Board of Trustees." 

The dispute became public property and was taken into the 
newspapers and all the agricultural organizations of the state. 
The New England Homestead remarked that this was just what 
should have been expected from the election of a "preacher who 
knew nothing about farming and who had no sympathy with it," 
and that all this could have been averted if the trustees had taken 
the Homestead's advice and elected George T. Powell." 

The Cold River Journal, though recognizing President Murk- 
land's ability, which had, "caused general satisfaction with the 
appointment at the outset." felt that 

". . . the interests of the farmers were not subserved 
in the election to the presidency of the college of a 
man whose education and predilections were all in the 

2 The New England Homestead, among others, was fond of citing the 
agricultural school at Storrs, Connecticut, as a model which New Hampshire 
college should follow. In view of this, it is interesting to find that B. F. Koons, 
principal of the school, wrote to Dean Pettee in IS 93 that the Connecticut 
legislature had voted to change the status of the school to that of a land grant 
college, and asked his advice, based on the successful experience of New Hamp- 
shire college, about the best way to carry through the reorganization. The 
Storrs school, a very short time later, dropped the manual labor requirements 
which had been in force since its founding, and likewise, changed its name to 
the Connecticut Agricultural college. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

direction of classicism and whose experience as a moral 
preceptor may have developed a somewhat too dicta- 
torial temperament." 3 

Even Our Grange Homes of Boston, though friendly to 
President Murkland, felt that he had done "a very unwise thing" 
in speaking as he had, because 

". . . the truth ought not to be spoken at all times. 
An idea that fights for no principle but is unpopular, 
or liable to misconstruction had better not be uttered." 
The editors believed that the Grangers were "fighting a man of 
straw," though later they were inclined to take seriously the com- 
plaint that the agricultural course was being reduced to the status 
of one of five equal interests. 

The Enaichsee, the monthly student publication, offered a 
bit of conciliation in the following section of an editorial in its 
issue for February, 1894: 

"In view of the above statement of courses of- 
fered, it is evident that the college is ready to receive 
and take care of all students, desiring an agricultural 
education, whether short or long; whether technical 
or related to the sciences, so close to agriculture, and 
she offers it to the student in the laboratory, class-room, 
and on the farm, if he can come to Durham; and if he 
cannot, she stands ready to help him to make his home 
take the place of the laboratory and class-room, and his 
farm the place of the experiment station. Because of 
this, we feel sure that the College seconds, as we know 
the Enaichsee does, the Worthy Master of the State 
Grange in urging the farmers of the state to send their 
boys to this institution to study agriculture in such num- 
bers as shall compel it to be chiefly agricultural in its 

3 In the same article, it was said that the national master of the Grange, 
J. H. Brigham of Ohio, went to Washington while the act of 1890 was being 
considered, met with the National Association of College Presidents, and with 
their knowledge and consent, had a clause inserted in the bill restricting the 
money to agricultural purposes. The article continued: "On reaching his home 
in Ohio, he received a telegram from guardians of the Grange interests that 
the college presidents had played him false and got the clause stricken out. He 
immediately wired, 'Kill the bill,' and killed it would have been, had not these 
same college presidents implored him to go back to Washington, which he 
finally did, and the bill was passed in its original form." 


The Administration of President Murkland 

character, and demonstrate that an agricultural college 
can be made successful in New Hampshire.' " 

Representative Edward Giles Leach of Franklin, introduced 
a bill into the 1895 legislature to amend the act removing the 
college to Durham in a manner which was designed to correct 
the evils of which the Grangers were complaining. The bill in- 
cluded the following points: 

1. The board of trustees should be reduced to nine, includ- 
ing the governor and the president of the college as ex-officio mem- 
bers, one alumni representative, and six others chosen by the 
governor and council. 

2. The institution should 

"... combine physical with intellectual education, 
in which the graduate of the common school can com- 
mence, pursue and finish a course of study terminating 
in thorough, theoretic, and practical instruction in those 
sciences and arts which bear directly upon agriculture 
and kindred industrial pursuits." 

3. The requirements for admission should be, arithmetic, 
geography, history, grammar, reading, spelling, and penmanship. 
If higher standards were introduced, a one-year preparatory course 
should be organized. 

4. A list of the courses which should be offered. 

5. A two-year course of lectures should be given on the 
literature and science of agriculture in their "application to prac- 
tical farming." 

6. A practical agricultural course of two years, required of 
every agricultural student, should be established and, also, a one- 
month course of lectures, held sometime during the winter, which 
should be designed especially for farmers. 

7. All agricultural students should devote not less than 
two hours a day to 

"... practical labor on or about the farm. Only 
such labor as is of value to the departments shall be 
paid for; other labor that is purely educational in its 
character shall be considered instruction." 

Obviously, the passage of this bill would have made a con- 
siderable change in the history of New Hampshire college. Presi- 
dent Murkland chose to attempt to minimize the changes which 


History of University of New Hampshire 

would be involved if the bill were passed. He had a leaflet 
printed on which the individual provisions of the Leach bill were 
printed in parallel columns with the actually existing conditions 
at New Hampshire college. According to this leaflet, the bill 
would have resulted in only two changes, the board of trustees 
would be reduced to nine from thirteen, and the entrance require- 
ments would be lowered by dropping algebra and plane geome- 
try. Physiology would not need to be dropped since it was re- 
quired by state law in the common schools. The course of study 
would not need to be changed and the farmers' institutes, which 
were planned, would fulfill the requirements for the series of lec- 
tures for the farmers. The labor requirement was somewhat of a 
stickler, but President Murkland claimed that the practical ex- 
perience received by the agricultural students was equal to that 
called for by the Leach bill even though it was not administered in 
the same way. The leaflet contained no comment of any kind 
other than the simple listing of contrasting items. 

The Scammell grange put the point at which the leaflet 
hinted into a resolution passed in January, 1895. They asserted 
that the proposed Leach bill and the current practice would be 
the same, and that the passage of the bill 

"... would involve only a change in the personnel 
of the management which we believe would be detri- 
mental to the agricultural interests of the state." 
The Dover Enquirer went even farther, stating that the 
Grangers could hardly hope to get a better representation on the 
board of trustees than the existing ratio of nine out of thirteen, so 
the Enquirer could only conclude that Mr. Stinson and his as- 
sociates wanted the present trustees removed in order to take their 
places on the board. 

This was countered by the Concord People and Patriot with 
the declaration that, after reading the leaflet, it seemed to them 
that either somebody didn't know what he was talking about or 
President Murkland was lying. They hinted rather broadly that 
the latter seemed more likely. Most of those Granges which took 
action on the matter endorsed the Leach bill although six Granges 
in the southeastern part of the state supported the college or 
laid the matter on the table. 

Leaving out of consideration the various personal conflicts 
and possible clashing ambitions involved in the situation, it is 


The Administration of President Murkland 

possible to see a clear division of opinion in this dispute which 
was of vital importance to the college. It was expressed by Dud- 
ley T. Chase, in a letter to the Claremont Advocate, in which he 
asked if the endowment of the college was given to establish a 
school devoted to agricultural education narrowly construed, or 
". . . to promote the liberal and practical educa- 
tion of the industrial classes in the several pursuits 
and professions, of which agriculture may stand at the 

This argument was not new, but could be traced back to the 
debates over Senator Morrill's original bill. To some of the agri- 
cultural elements, the ideal arrangement would have been a some- 
what superior academy specializing in advanced vocational training 
for future farmers and mechanics. To others, it seemed that a 
full college course should be offered to meet the needs of the 
sons and daughters of the agricultural and industrial working class 
but with care taken to keep the expenses of such an education at a 
minimum, and at the same time, devoting attention to research 
through the Experiment stations as well as to courses for those 
who planned to become farmers. These two procedures were 
hardly compatible, yet opinion on both sides was so strong that it 
was essential that some form of compromise should be found. 

It took some time for that compromise to appear. After a 
year of recriminations, the Peterboro Transcript remarked that 
"one half of the world is considering the other half through a 
misapprehension," and concluded that "we need at the head of our 
educational institutions men of the broadest and truest culture, 
not specialists." 

Similarly, the Manchester Mirror and American, which had 
never been particularly enthusiastic about New Hampshire col- 
lege, urged that the two groups stop fighting and get together. 
Since the legislation desired by President Murkland's opponents 
could not be obtained, this newspaper believed that the opponents 
should give President Murkland a chance to prove his inefficiency, 

"... to show that he intends to make a knowledge 
of Greek and French and dancing and painting and fine 
needlework the chief requisites for graduation honors; 
that he taboos cowhide boots, especially ones with muck 
on them ..." 


History of University of New Hampshire 

The editors added that there had been hostility to President Murk- 
land from the beginning because he was not a farmer, and that 
the dispute had grown from that fact and was kept up by his 
original opponents. However, the important fact, which none 
could deny, was that the college was 

". . . in better shape than has ever been the case 

before and the future of the institution never looked 

so bright." 

The Mirror and American was correct in its contention that 
the original Leach bill could not have been passed. In its place, 
a bill was introduced as a compromise which reduced the pro- 
visions of the original Leach bill, and which was intended to 
solve the chief sources of disagreement. This bill provided that: 

1. There should be established a two-year course in agri- 
culture open to students who could pass an examination in the 
common school subjects. The students should not be required 
to take any higher mathematics or foreign languages. A diploma 
was to be awarded at the end of the two years, after which, the stu- 
dent might continue and complete the requirements for the de- 
gree in the four-year course. 

2. A department of horticulture should be established with 
a specialist in charge. 

3. The two-year men and all other agricultural students 
should be required to devote ten hours a week to manual labor 
and training for two years. One-third of this time might be 
spent in iron or wood working. 

4. Twenty-five hundred dollars a year was appropriated for 
the expenses of the horticultural department and the two-year 

The trustees were reported as willing to accept this com- 
promise, but the advocates of the bill seem to have been over- 
optimistic, for the dispute continued on the specific items. The 
leading objective of the Grange, which was to make it possible 
for boys to enter New Hampshire college directly from the com- 
mon schools, was served by this bill. On this, Mr. Stinson in- 
sisted most vigorously, and since the provision left the college 
free to raise the standards for admission to the regular course, it 
seemed an ideal solution. 

The chief protests came from the Grangers. Some were 
afraid that the two-year students would be the victims of the same 


The Administration of President Murkland 

sort of discrimination that had been the lot of the agricultural 
students in Hanover. One person wrote to Our Grange Homes 
questioning whether the ten-hour labor requirement would make 
the agricultural courses unpopular in comparison with the mechan- 
ic arts courses, and thereby, do more harm than good. Dean Pet- 
tee protested against the labor requirement, claiming that it was 
too strict and the number of hours required should be left to the 
discretion of the faculty. But more important to him was the 
need for a greenhouse. He argued that to establish a full-time 
horticulturist without giving him a greenhouse in which to do 
his work was ridiculous, and the legislature should add a further 
appropriation of $2,000 to the bill for this purpose. Neither pro- 
posal was accepted. 

Albert DeMeritt said that if people wanted to help the col- 
lege, they would do better if they stopped all this pointless criti- 
cism and provided it with proper facilities. What the college 
needed was not a two-year course and a "nonsensical" manual la- 
bor program, but a greenhouse and a women's dormitory. Presi- 
dent Murkland replied that the proposal for a horticultural de- 
partment was an attempt to show that the college did not have 
one; this was untrue, and the horticultural courses were handi- 
capped only by the lack of equipment. 

The Alumni association passed a series of resolutions at its 
meeting in 1895 which pledged support to any measures which 
would give equal facilities to both agriculture and the mechanic 
arts. The alumni stated that, 

". . . while realizing that the present tendency is 
towards the subordination of agricultural instruction, 
nevertheless we do not encourage or approve any tend- 
ency to swing to the opposite extreme, and subordi- 
nate the mechanical to the agricultural." 
This statement was generally interpreted as a victory for Presi- 
dent Murkland although the resolution was somewhat more in 
the nature of a compromise. 

Throughout the debate, the different laws appropriating 
money for the school, as well as the wills of Benjamin Thompson, 
General Culver, and John Conant, were repeatedly cited to prove 
that both sides were right in their conception of the college's 
functions. Mr. Stinson's interpretation of these documents would 
have placed 80 or 90 percent of the income of the college at the 


History of University of New Hampshire 

disposal of a purely vocational course in agriculture. All of these 
concepts were presented at the legislative hearing on the com- 
promise bill. Jeremiah Sanborn, speaking for the bill, endorsed 
each of its points, then added that New Hampshire college was 
"the poorest equipped of any college of the kind in the country." 
Albert DeMeritt seized upon this last statement and wanted to 
know what the bill would do to improve the situation. He thought 
it better to give the college proper equipment instead of this 
". . . scheme of taking the appointive power from 

the hands of the executive and placing it in the hands 

of a secret society ..." 

President Murkland was outspoken in his speech before the 
legislative committee. He said that under the provisions of the 

"... the whole power of the government of the 

college is to be taken from the hands of the executive 

and placed in the hands of a secret society antagonistic 

to the college and hostile to its purposes." 

These words created an uproar. Later, he said that the claim 
that there was no horticultural department was a lie. Mr. San- 
born challenged him on this, and sharp words passed. Then 
President Murkland denounced the lobbying of such secret so- 
cieties as the Grange, calling it a threat to the liberty of the 
people. Against such provocative statements, President Murk- 
land's appeal for better equipment for the college went unnoticed. 

The bill was finally passed on March 27, 1895, and was 
signed by Governor Charles A. Busiel, who was known to favor 
the Grange side of the argument. Reviewing the arguments 
which were used during the controversy, it is noticeable how few 
had any bearing on the final result. The college got a two-year 
course, which has continued to the present. It got a manual labor 
requirement which had to be enforced if it was to mean anything, 
and it got a little more money for certain specified purposes. 

There had been no official decision regarding the general 
purposes and functions of the school. Dr. Murkland's opponents 
had been unable to secure his removal so that with the approval 
of the trustees, he remained in a position to put his ideas into 
practice. This fact, without any official opinions, proved deci- 
sive. The growth of a high school system serving the entire 
state soon made the issue of admission for common school gradu- 


The Administration of President Murkland 

ates a minor matter. The public schools gave their students bet- 
ter preparation for college, with the result that New Hampshire 
college was able to raise its standards without working a hard- 
ship on anyone. 

President Murkland believed, as had Ezekiel Dimond before 
him, that New Hampshire college should be prepared to meet all 
the needs of all the sections of the state's population, which might 
properly be done by an institution of worthy rank. If, therefore, 
students came to the college asking for courses which it had not 
provided, it was the duty of the college to try, within the limits 
set by legislative grants and the wishes of its benefactors, to meet 
those needs. Moreover, since President Murkland thought that 
the purpose of the proponents of the Morrill act of 1862 was to 
provide education for the children of the farmers and of the work- 
ers at a price and in a manner which would be best suited to their 
circumstances, he felt that there was ample legal authority for 
his program. As a result, the college continued to grow and to 
develop in those directions which have made possible the present 
University of New Hampshire. 

George Whitcher, who did not agree with President Murk- 
land on these issues, nevertheless stated in an interview that few 
students came to the college to get an agricultural education; in- 
stead they wanted an inexpensive place to get any kind of educa- 
tion. The course in agricultural chemistry was designed, in part 
at least, to meet this desire, and at the same time, to make it 
possible to list those taking it as agricultural students. It is to the 
credit of these early educators of New Hampshire college that they 
were willing to make such adjustments since by so doing, they 
were able to secure better results, not only in the field of agri- 
cultural education, but in other fields as well. 

*&. ^i, JL 

w TT ^nr 

In his report for 1892, Dean Pettee stated three things which 
he hoped could be accomplished after the college was moved to a 
more advantageous location. First of these was the institution of 
a series of short courses, particularly in dairying and horticulture, 
augmented by lectures and institutes throughout the state. Sec- 
ond, he advocated giving special attention to courses for women 
in order to encourage as many of them as possible to enjoy the 
advantages of the college. A good start had been made on this, 
with the registration of ten women students for regular or special 
courses. Finally, he said, 


History of University of New Hampshire 

". . . in regard to preparation for college, we desire 
that the advantages of the excellent academies and high 
schools, scattered over our State, may be enjoyed and 
utilized by those who propose to study here, in order 
that their progress after entering may be more rapid 
and satisfactory. It is generally unwise to hasten one's 
entrance under eighteen, at the expense of a thorough 

This last was his way of advocating higher standards of ad- 
mission to New Hampshire college. In this, his views were in 
accord with those of President Murkland. Similarly, the other 
two plans were of the greatest importance during President Murk- 
land's administration since much needed to be done in both direc- 

The requirements for admission in 1893 called for examina- 
tions in arithmetic, including the metric system; algebra to quad- 
ratics; plane geometry; political and physical geography; physi- 
ology; American history; English grammar and composition. A 
certificate from any academy or high school was accepted in place 
of the examinations. 

Five years later, the standards were raised to meet the recom- 
mendations of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges 
and Experiment Stations. To the above listed subjects were added 
algebra through quadratics, including radicals and fractional and 
negative exponents; physics based on Gage's Introduction to Phys- 
ical Science, Dolbears' Natural Philosophy, or an equivalent; 
botany based on Gray's Lessons, sections 1-15, 18, and 19, or an 
equivalent, with some knowledge of classification; the history of 
Greece and Rome based on Myers' larger work and Allen's Roman 
People or the equivalents; French grammar and translation of easy 
prose at sight; English based on a thorough knowledge of two 
prescribed sets of books which were changed each year, in addi- 
tion to a thorough knowledge of spelling, grammar, and punctua- 

In 1901, solid geometry was added to the list, and the student 
was given the choice of either French or German for the language 
requirement. Such standards as these departed radically from 
the ideal set by Mr. Bachelder and Mr. Stinson, yet they were in- 
evitable if the college was to maintain any standing and was to 


The Administration of President Murkland 

In the summer of 1894, the first Summer School of Biology 
was held. Classes met from July 5 to August 4. According to 
the announcement of the Summer school, it was intended espe- 
cially for teachers of secondary schools "who feel the new impulse 
given to nature study and desire a more thorough knowledge of 
botany and zoology." The botany classes were conducted by 
Charles H. Clark, principal of Sanborn seminary, and the zoology 
classes by Professor Clarence M. Weed of the college. Facilities 
offered included classrooms in Thompson hall, free use of the li- 
brary, microscopes, aquaria, collections, laboratory instruction, field 
work, lectures and informal discussions. Supplementary lectures 
were given by President Murkland and Mr. Fred Gowing, super- 
intendent of public instruction for the state. About 20 teachers 
attended the first session. According to the College Monthly, 
weekly field excursions were the most thoroughly enjoyed feature 
of the Summer school, the best "being the trip to Kennebunk 
beach, where marine forms were studied." 

In 1897, the name was changed to the New Hampshire 
Summer Institute and School of Science. This year, for the first 
time, the Summer institute, which was directed by the state super- 
intendent of public instruction and which had formerly been held 
at Plymouth, was moved to Durham. Courses in chemistry, phys- 
ics, and mineralogy were added to the curriculum. During the 
mornings, lectures were given from eight to twelve, while the af- 
ternoons were devoted to laboratory work and field trips, and in 
the evenings, more lectures and conferences were scheduled. Al- 
though this schedule appears crowded, the students must have en- 
joyed it, for the growth of the Summer school was steady. It was 
reported that special classes in "vertical writing and drawing met 
with much favor." 

Another development of equal importance was the first 
Farmers' Institute course, which started on January 15, 1894, 
and continued for four weeks. Twelve years before, a similar 
course had been tried at Hanover, "at which one outside student 
was present; it was given up when Professor Sanborn went west 
to teach." The new venture was considerably more successful. 

The purpose of the course as announced was "to prepare 
men for an intelligent home study of practical agricultural prob- 
lems." In addition to members of the faculty, visiting specialists 
were included in the list of speakers. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

"Students will be required to take notes and join 
in the discussions . . . Those interested in particular 
subjects will be given all available facilities to inform 
themselves by means of practical work." 
The Enaichsee gave the program of the institute: 

"The following is a list of the subjects to be con- 
sidered, with the number of lectures upon each: Plant 
Structure, 2; Chemistry of Plant Life, 4; Fertilizers, 6; 
Plant Diseases, 4; Dairying, 6; Stockfeeding, 6; In- 
jurious and Beneficial Insects, 6; Relation of Birds to 
Agriculture, 2; Soils, 3; Drainage, 3; Diseases of Farm 
Animals, 6; Market Gardening, 6; Breeds of Live Stock, 
2; Poultry Keeping, 2; Sugar Making, 2; Weather Serv- 
ice, 2; Household Science, 4; Water, 2." 
The faculty members who lectured during this series in- 
cluded William Rane, professor of agriculture and horticulture; 
Fred W. Morse, professor of organic chemistry; Charles Pettee, 
professor of mathematics and meteorologist to the Experiment sta- 
tion; Charles L. Parsons, professor of analytical chemistry; Clar- 
ence Weed, professor of zoology and entomology; Herbert Lam- 
son, instructor in botany and plant diseases and bacteriologist to 
the Experiment station; Ruel Alden, assistant agriculturist to the 
Experiment station; and Leigh Hunt, assistant horticulturist to 
the Experiment station. These were assisted by B. P. Ware of 
Clinton, Massachusetts, lecturing on market gardening; Austin 
Peters, D.V.S., of Boston, Massachusetts, on diseases of farm ani- 
mals; Mrs. Ellen H. Richards, the noted pioneer in home econom- 
ics of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, on domestic econ- 
omy and farm sanitation; I. K. Felch of Natick, Massachusetts, on 
poultry raising; J. Warren Smith of the Boston Weather bureau, 
on the weather service; George H. Moses, secretary of the New 
Hampshire Forestry commission and, later, United States senator 
for many years, on forestry; W. H. Bowker of Boston, on raw ma- 
terials used in fertilizers; and L. J. Bailey of Cornell, on fruit rais- 
ing. Altogether, 81 lectures were offered, 60 by faculty members 
and the rest by visitors. 

The lectures by Mrs. Richards have a special interest. They 
were one of the first attempts toward developing the present ac- 
tive concern of the institution with home economics and the prob- 
lems of the housewife. 


The Administration of President Murkland 

During this Farmers' institute, regular students were excused 
from shop work and otherwise "given a little let-up," in order 
that they might attend the lectures. The Enaichsee reported that: 
"The course thus far has been a success, although 
the attendance has been small part of the time. Many 
instructive lectures have been given, which pertain to 
the practical as well as the theoretical side of farm- 
ing . . . the object has been ... to give the farming 
people who cannot leave their business for a college 
course an increased knowledge of their work, and a 
practical knowledge of such subjects as the soils, their 
composition, the preparation for crops, use of fertilizers, 
etc. We expect that this course will have to grow slow- 
ly at first, as all other good things do, but the finding 
out by those who have attended what a good thing is 
offered cannot but result in larger numbers attending 
another year. The attendance at the general institutes 
so far has been very good." 

The cost of the entire course was announced at $20 for "railroad 
fares, board and room" for those who stayed in Durham for the 
four weeks. 

Newington supplied more than its share of the attendance, 
for we read that: 

"It was a graceful act of the Newington visitors, 
who attended the Institute course, to send a card of 
thanks to President Murkland, signed by twenty-four 
persons, expressing 'thanks and gratitude for the pleas- 
ure and benefit afforded by the course of lectures' . . . it 
must be understood that the parties came fifteen miles 
and many of them day after day." 

Fifteen miles each way, day after day, in a New Hampshire Janu- 
ary probably in sleighs, would seem to be a thorough test of any- 
one's interest. These visitors might have come by train, but the 
trip would have been long and roundabout, and rather expensive 
if repeated very often. 

In the second Farmers' institute, several changes were made. 
More attention was given to dairying, and there were 

". . . no examinations, no dry text books, but the 
very essence of a subject presented in a clear and forcible 
way by men who know thoroughly their subjects. Such 


History of University of New Hampshire 

a course would be a good thing to carry through a whole 
college year, and in no way could a farmer get more 
out of this department of the college than by attending 
and sending his children to it." ' 

The college officials recognized that it was impossible to consider 
these lecture courses as at all similar to routine undergraduate 
courses. Those who attended were left free to pick and choose at 
will and to derive whatever benefit they might from the lectures 
they chose to attend. 

The special emphasis on practical dairying was designed to 
help the expansion of the industry which had become so important 
to New Hampshire. When the general institute course was 
lengthened to ten weeks in 1896, a special four-week course in 
dairying was offered. J. G. Tallant, of the board of trustees, and 
W. H. Caldwell were the principal lecturers. Only two students 
attended the opening of the first dairy school, and the College 
Monthly complained that: 

"The college is constantly offering these short and 
truly valuable courses, but the farmers of the state do 
not seem inclined to avail themselves of the privileges 

Attendance increased later on, and after two years, the short course 
in dairying was also lengthened to ten weeks. 

In 1897, the college announced that its short courses would 
run from January 14 to March 24, and would include special 
courses in dairying, stock-feeding, winter gardening, wood work- 
ing, forestry, and entomology, in addition to the customary lecture 
topics. For those who were prepared to remain through the en- 
tire course, expenses would include room and board at four dol- 
lars a week, a tuition fee of five dollars, and five dollars for books, 
or a total expense of $50. The longer course, it was claimed, 
would give more opportunities for practice in the creamery, barn, 
greenhouse, and workshops. The number of students enrolled in 
these special courses fluctuated between ten and twenty throughout 
President Murkland's administration. 

Another experiment which was tried at this time and did not 
prove so successful was non-resident instruction. Courses were to 
be conducted chiefly by correspondence, but, 

". . . where several students live near together 

members of the faculty will be able to give lectures in 


The Administration of President Murkland 

person at occasional intervals, thus bringing the course 
into line with both the Chautauqua and University Ex- 
tension movements." 

The courses were given free and were open to persons not resi- 
dents of New Hampshire. Reading assignments were sent out 
by mail to any who applied. Ten pages of reading counted as one 
exercise. When a student had received credit for 600 exercises 
he was awarded a certificate. Examinations, in the subjects of- 
fered, could be taken by mail and a few subjects were required of 
all students. College bulletins could be used free of charge, and 
text books were sent to all students at cost. 

This offer had considerable initial success. It was com- 
mented on favorably by a large number of agricultural papers in 
various parts of the country. During 1894, the first year, 57 
people took the courses. Of these, 38 were from out of state, 
including places as far distant as Florida and California. Great 
hopes were entertained for the project as is shown by the report 
in the Enaichsee of a new class in Newington: 

"A class of ten in the Non-resident Course was or- 
ganized at Newington, April 17, by Professors Weed 
and Wood. The class is to be met by a member of the 
faculty every fortnight, and is the first distinctive step 
in the direction of University Extension work which 
the College has yet taken. It is not improbable that 
other classes will be formed in neighboring towns; and 
that this feature may develop into an important part of 
the work of the institution." 

A few other local groups seem to have been organized, for, 
according to the Enaichsee, 

"Professor Whitcher gave a lecture at Ossipee 
April 27, at Candia May 2, and at Newington, May 11. 
The subject in each place was Tlant Food, Where Ob- 
tained, and How Used.' " 

These groups did not survive for long, and no new ones were or- 
ganized to take their places. Transportation was still too difficult 
for easy access to small towns. The coming of the automobile 
and good roads were necessary to make a thorough program of 
university extension practicable for the small towns. The cor- 
respondence course also dropped off rapidly. In 1896, 29 were 
taking it. Two years later, there were only three, and by 1900, 


History of University of New Hampshire 

the non-resident course was no longer mentioned. The facilities 
of the college were inadequate for such a project, and the pro- 
gram itself lacked means with which to maintain interest. More- 
over, the elaborate standards envisioned at the beginning were 
quite unenforceable. 

It is incorrect to say, as the contemporary accounts quoted 
above do. that this was the first step of New Hampshire college 
in the direction of university extension for the two series of one- 
day institutes organized in 1885 and 1886 were extension work 
of a very modern kind. The correspondence course was not as 
typical a method of the extension work of New Hampshire col- 
lege as were the institutes and the lecture series. 

Individual lecturers were frequently supplied to Granges, 
farmers' clubs, horticultural societies, and other similar organiza- 
tions, in return for the expenses of the lecturer. President Murk- 
land was one of the most popular lecturers. He usually spoke 
on the work of the college and of the Experiment station, or on 
educational policy and practice. In addition to agricultural and 
scientific topics offered. Professor Clarence Scott announced, in 
1895, a "lecture upon Thackeray, suitable for evening audiences." 

The two-year course in agriculture did not achieve an early 
popularity. It was opened in the fall of 1895 to 

"... students who can pass a fair and reasonable 
examination in reading, spelling, writing, arithmetic, 
English grammar, and the geography and history of 
the United States." 
The manual labor requirement was enforced, even to the point of 
ruling that students who were excused from such work at the re- 
quest of parent or guardian, unless because of actual physical dis- 
ability, would not receive their diplomas. Students in the four- 
year course in agriculture were also denied their degrees if they 
failed to do the ten hours weekly of manual labor during their 
first two years. 

The subjects offered in the two-year course included — in agri- 
culture : courses in livestock, tools and equipment, soils, drains and 
fertilizers, crops, markets and accounts, dairying, breeding and 
feeding; in botany and horticulture: classification, nursery and or- 
chard theory and practice, propagation and greenhouse work, and 
small fruits; physics; chemistry; zoology, veterinary science, en- 
tomology and insecticides; English; plane and solid geometry, al- 


The Administration of President Murkland 

gebra, trigonometry, surveying; freehand and mechanical draw- 
ing; and wood and metal shopwork. 

In spite of the widespread publicity which had attended its 
birth, the two-year course did not attract many students. The 
College Monthly remarked, in the fall of 1895 that 

"The attendance of the two years course, the prac- 
tical outcome of the much debated 'Leach Bill' in the 
last legislature, is something of a disappointment. Only 
6 students have entered the course, 4 of whom are resi- 
dents of Durham." 

The following year, the number remained the same but 
dropped to five in 1898. In 1900, the number increased to 20, 
and to 27 in 1902, then dropped again to five the following year. 
In 1900, the trustees reported that the response to the course 
had been rather dubious, and its permanence was not yet estab- 
lished. Not until the following administration did it begin to 
develop a fairly steady attendance. Though special arrangements 
were made to meet the needs of women students in the two-year 
course by substituting more suitable exercises for the manual la- 
bor requirements, none were included among the two-year stu- 

The College Monthly in 1895 advocated the institution of a 
one-year preparatory course for students coming directly from the 
common schools who were unable to meet the higher entrance re- 
quirements of New Hampshire college. At the beginning of the 
following year, 1896, a preparatory course of two years was an- 
nounced for students who were unable to complete their prepara- 
tion in local schools. The entrance examinations for this pre- 
paratory course covered much the same ground as those for the 
two-year agricultural course but with the addition of algebra to 
quadratics. The trustees considered the course, "a temporary ex- 
pedient ... a necessary burden for one or two years at least." 
The attendance varied from seven in 1898 to thirteen in 1900 
and 1902. By 1904, the preparatory course had been dropped 
from the curriculum, for the improvement of the high schools and 
academies of the state had made it no longer necessary. 

One other attempt to start a special course should be men- 
tioned as an indication of the eagerness of the college officials for 
expansion, even though the course failed to be adopted. The trus- 
tees reported in 1902 that there was a bill before congress to es- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

tablish schools of mines and mining in connection with the state 
colleges. They expected enactment of the bill before the state 
legislature met in 1903. "The college has already established 
such a school, and the president of the college is directed to take 
the necessary steps preliminary thereto." Therefore, the trustees 
asked the legislature to appropriate $17,500 for the preliminary 
expenses. The federal bill was expected to furnish $10,000 for 
instruction, but the state would have to supply buildings and 
equipment. This special course failed to materialize. 

Students in any course who planned to teach were given 
certificates, signed by the president and secretary of the board of 
trustees, which read: 

"This certifies that has 

pursued the course in , has completed 

the required work and is qualified to teach 

in the Secondary Schools." 

This certificate was accepted by the state board of education and 
all the secondary schools of the state. The courses in education 
of today were unheard of then. 

Early in President Murkland's administration, a revised 
schedule of the courses offered was issued, and this list remained 
in effect, with few changes, during his period of office. In this 
list an attempt seems to have been made to counteract the claim 
of the leaders of the Grange that too many choices were being of- 
fered in the mechanic arts, and not enough in agriculture. The 
list was as follows: 

"1. Courses in Agriculture. 

A. Technical Course. 

B. Chemical Course. 

C. Biological Course. 

D. Institute Course. 

E. Non-Resident Course. 

2. Courses in the Mechanic Arts. 

A. Mechanical Engineering Course. 

B. Electrical Engineering Course. 

C. Technical Chemistry Course. 

3. General Course." 

During the first two years, students were not specifically 
designated as being in any of the special courses, but all took the 
studies required by the regular course. In other words, electives 


The Administration of President Murkland 

with one or two exceptions, were not offered until the junior year, 
and not even the broad distinction between agricultural and tech- 
nical students was made with any hard and fast clarity during 
the freshman and sophomore years. This created an incidental 
difficulty with the manual labor requirement, since changes of 
course could be made so easily that a number of complex cases 
had to be figured out to see whether or not the rule had been vio- 

In actual practice, the three four-year courses in agriculture 
differed only in a small degree from one another. Specialization 
had scarcely begun in these fields, and even in the engineering 
courses, specialization had not developed to anything like what it 
is today. The civil engineering course which the college had an- 
nounced in Hanover was not mentioned in the catalogue for sev- 
eral years, but finally reappeared with the opening of the new 
century. By 1897, the course in technical chemistry had been 
changed by the addition of a number of new subjects in mathe- 
matics and other engineering fields, to such a degree that it be- 
gan to be referred to as a course in chemical engineering. Orig- 
inally, the difference between this course and the agricultural 
chemistry course had been very slight. In fact, both were quite 
frankly chemistry courses with some sidelines which made it pos- 
sible to list some of the students in the course as agricultural and 
others as technical students. Even at this early stage, the pre- 
eminent excellence of New Hampshire's chemistry department was 
being noted. It was by far the best equipped department of the 
college, and more than one-third of the students were taking 
courses in chemistry at all times. This does not include those 
who took an occasional course or two. It is doubtful if any stu- 
dent graduated without at least one course in chemistry. Fred W. 
Morse, who had come to the college as an assistant chemist in the 
Experiment station in 1888, was made professor of general and 
agricultural chemistry the following year. In 1889, Charles Par- 
sons, then an assistant chemist in the Experiment station, was 
made an instructor in chemistry and was promoted to associate 
professor in 1890. The following year, Mr. Morse was made 
professor of organic chemistry and chemist to the Experiment sta- 
tion and Mr. Parsons was promoted to the position of professor of 
general and analytical chemistry. Both remained with the col- 
lege for a considerable time, then went on to continue distin- 
guished careers elsewhere. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Dean Pettee in 1893 analyzed the amount of duplication in 
the various courses: 

"During the past year, fifty per cent of the col- 
lege exercises have pertained to both agricultural and 
mechanic arts courses; twenty-seven per cent to agricul- 
tural courses alone, and twenty-three per cent to me- 
chanic arts courses alone." 

For some years, this tendency continued and even grew, but by 
the turn of the century, specialization began to increase. 

The agricultural courses underwent some changes during 
President Murkland's administration. In addition to the nor- 
mally expected growth in number and variety of courses in the 
standard subjects of the agricultural curriculum, new work in sheep 
husbandry and poultry raising was introduced. A well-equipped 
soil physics laboratory was planned for the time when a new agri- 
cultural building would be provided. The faculty in agriculture 
increased from one to four, and the number of students, with the 
help of the two-year course, increased to the point where the 
College Monthly was able to boast that there were almost as 
many purely agricultural students at New Hampshire as at all the 
other New England colleges combined. 

The problem of maintaining a balance between instruction 
in agricultural theory and training in agricultural practice became 
increasingly difficult during this period. An increased demand for 
teachers of agriculture caused a leaning toward theory, but the 
militant criticism during and after the controversy over the Leach 
bill inclined the faculty to keep a careful eye on their own tenden- 
cies, in order not to leave the college open to criticism again. 

The study of German was introduced in 1894, and the sub- 
ject was open, at first, to all classes, but later restricted to juniors 
and seniors. In 1902, an evening class in Spanish under Pro- 
fessor Richard Whoriskey was organized, with about a dozen stu- 
dents in attendance. Such innovations as these met with praise 
from the College Monthly, which urged that enough non-techni- 
cal subjects be taught "to broaden the mind and make the student 
familiar with the history and the economical problems of the 
present age." The author of the editorial appears to have con- 
sidered languages and literature part of the "economical prob- 
lems," since he went on to describe the English and language de- 
partments at considerable length. With all the changes made, 


The Administration of President Murkland 

the much-dreaded "dead languages" were not included among the 
new courses. 

The class of 1895 was reported by the College Monthly to 
have 'made a complete survey of the town of Durham in connec- 
tion with their thesis work." Even though this probably means 
only a mapping survey, it still seems regrettable that no remnant 
of this project has been discovered. It could shed considerable 
light on the condition of the town as well as on the skill of the 
students ii it could be found. 

One of the chief difficulties preventing the improvement and 
expansion of the functions of the college was the lack of certain 
kinds of equipment. Repeated appeals were addressed to the leg- 
islature by the board of trustees for badly needed equipment. In 
1894, the trustees estimated that $40,000 would be needed to 
put the mechanic arts courses "on a satisfactory working basis." 
Shop equipment, testing machinery, blue print equipment, books, 
and other supplies were badly needed. The library was hopeless- 
ly inadequate, in fact, they said, "No department of the college is 
so deficient ..." However, they accepted the fact that the state 
probably could not give enough money to solve the problems of 
the library, and expressed a fervent hope that some means might 
be found to secure private endowment. 

In 1900, the trustees' report repeated the biennial request 
for a women's dormitory. Five years before, the legislature had 
voted $25,000 for the construction of a women's building which 
would include complete equipment for "study and demonstration 
in the various branches of domestic economy." Unfortunately, 
Governor Charles A. Busiel vetoed the bill and the measure was 
never brought before the legislature again. Numerous local and 
Pomona granges had pledged money toward the cost of such a 
building, in the meantime, and the trustees pointed out that an 
appropriation of $15,000 would be adequate, if added to the 
pledges, to construct the dormitory. 

The largest sum of money asked for in the 1900 trustees' re- 
port was for an agricultural building. The trustees said that no 
other state provided so complete a course in agriculture at so little 
cost, and no other state spent so little for this purpose in propor- 
tion to its population and valuation. Of those states with a 
smaller valuation, the difference ranged from three times as much 
in North Carolina, to twenty-five times as much in Nebraska. The 
cost of an adequate building would be $60,000. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

The third large request was for a creamery building, which 
was estimated to cost $20,000. This report was the one which 
asked for the money for a school of mines. Altogether the re- 
port indicated needs totaling about $120,000 for new buildings 
and equipment. Although one or two of the requests might have 
been considered unwise, none of them was immediately granted. 

The problem of current expenses, about which President 
Murkland had complained during the hearings on the Leach bill, 
arose repeatedly. The federal funds were used entirely for the 
costs of instruction and equipment. All the income of the Conant 
fund was given out in scholarships, two-thirds of the value of 
which was paid back to the school for tuition and library fees. In 
1896, the trustees' report said that, "Not one student pays the 
tuition fee of $60 without first receiving it in the form of a scholar- 
ship." There was no income to take care of operating expenses 
and incidentals. 

"For all these [the report said] the state must pro- 
vide, or surrender its claim to the generous sums granted 
by the general government . . . Not simply the welfare 
of this institution, but the essential honor of the state 
is at stake." 
Beginning in 1900, the state appropriated $7,500 a year for cur- 
rent expenses. But the college was already so far behind in this 
respect that a debt of $17,000 still remained when President Gibbs 
took office. 4 

On three different occasions, the trustees protested against 
the policy of the state treasurer in selling off the assets of the 
Thompson estate and using the income for current state expenses. 
Although they granted that this had a very satisfactory effect on 
the state tax rate, they held that it would lead to difficulty in the 
future when the state would be forced to pay the stipulated in- 
terest, amounting to nearly $36,000, out of current income. The 
state was required to put aside annually $14,552.93 to meet the 
conditions of the will, but since the Thompson estate had been 
bringing in more than the four percent fixed by the will, the 
trustees suggested that, "All income in excess of this amount 
should be computed at the same rate of interest and the amount 

4 At one time, after stating the need for an agricultural building in 
strongest terms, the trustees added that even if it were built, the college could 
not maintain it from current income. 


The Administration of President Murkland 

credited to the college." If this had been done, the total addi- 
tional income due the college would have amounted to nearly 
$18,000, which would have almost equalled the cost of the an- 
nual appropriations of $3,000 required by the Thompson will. 
Therefore, the cost to the state could have been kept down to 
practically nothing. The trustees felt it was hardly fair to refuse 
the college needed improvements while failing to give it the full 
benefit of its endowment. 

The trustees were also indignant over the fact that the 
$15,000 paid the college by the state to compensate it for Culver 
hall was listed as an appropriation for the state college. Actually, 
it should have been considered a gift to Dartmouth, since the 
latter college was relieved of paying the sum which it properly 
owed. This was not a point of great importance, but it helped 
make a stronger argument for greater generosity to the state 

The greatest need, and the first to be met, was that for an 
agricultural building. The growth of the agricultural courses, 
particularly after the starting of the two-year courses, crowded 
the classrooms and made it difficult to maintain a proper standard 
of work. Not until 1901 was a bill finally introduced in the 
legislature asking for $60,000 for an "agricultural hall." Com- 
mittees of the legislature made three visits to Durham to examine 
the situation. After considerable debate, including violent op- 
position by several leading newspapers, the sum of $30,000 was 
finally granted for the purpose. This was, of course, something 
but not enough to construct the building properly. The next fall, 
work had not yet been begun, due to the uncertainty of the college 
authorities as to the legislature's intentions. The building com- 
mittee met, finally, in March, 1902, at Durham, and decided to 
award the contract for as much of the building as they had money 
for, to Walter H. Sargent, a Concord contractor. They decided 
that the third floor should be left unfinished until enough money 
could be secured to complete the building. 5 

The next legislature relented to the extent of giving $15,000 
more for the building which enabled the college authorities to 
have it completed very nearly in accordance with their original 
plans by practicing rigorous economy. Some of the lumber for 

5 The College Monthly suggested that the third floor might be used as a 
baseball cage. The suggestion was not greeted with enthusiasm. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

the building was cut from the college forest lands, a fact which 
was repeatedly pointed out with great pride. 

According to the College Monthly, the new building included 
— in the basement: a photography room, a lecture room, an ex- 
hibit of agricultural implements, and a workshop; on the first 
floor: two classrooms, a soil physics laboratory, a reading room, 
and five offices; on the second floor: a horticultural laboratory 
and refrigerator, a forestry laboratory, a lecture room, a library, 
a herbarium room, and fcve offices. The third floor was to include 
an agricultural society room equipped with a stage and an archi- 
tectural drawing room but was not entirely completed until 1914. 
The building was finally completed and accepted by the trustees 
in June, 1903. It was dedicated and given the name of Morrill 
hall, in honor of Senator Justin Morrill, at the inauguration of 
President Gibbs, the following October. 

The first greenhouse, 25 by 45 feet, was built in 1895. A 
second unit, 41 by 100 feet, with a potting house and photog- 
raphers' room attached, was constructed in 1897. Both were on 
the site of the barn which had been burned. The smaller of the 
two greenhouses was used chiefly to grow specimens for horticul- 
tural work. By 1903, still further expansion was needed, and a 
new greenhouse, costing $7,000, was built during the summer. 

A small creamery had been built near the original barn in 
1894. The college authorities made repeated requests for suffi- 
cient money to build a larger and better planned building. In 
1898, the trustees reported that the creamery was doing a busi- 
ness of $1,000 a month and was practically self-supporting. A 
short while before this, it had been announced that a new cream- 
ery was to be built between the barn and the shops, and the exist- 
ing building would be divided into rooms for the use of the college 
employees. This plan had to be delayed for lack of funds. 

On two occasions the college found itself compelled to destroy 
part of its herd of cows because of tuberculosis. About half the 
herd had been sold in 1895 because it was not considered repre- 
sentative of good New Hampshire herds. At that time, tuber- 
culosis was discovered, and about a third of the herd had to be 
killed, resulting in a loss to the school of over $1,000. President 
Murkland wrote a bulletin for the Experiment station about this 
experience. In 1901, there was another outbreak of tuberculosis, 
and 22 cows had to be killed. In spite of these troubles, the dairy 
work of the school increased steadily in importance. 


The Administration of President Murkland 

The model barn, which had so upset the thrifty souls of some 
of the visitors of the college when the barn was first constructed, 
was burned to the ground on November 3, 1894. Students and 
townspeople worked furiously but in vain to save the building. 
The College Monthly praised the efficiency of the students, which 
it ascribed to military drill. The new college fire apparatus was 
used to save Nesmith hall and the creamery by playing water on 
them from four hoses attached to a nearby hydrant. Including 
the loss of tools, hay, and other contents of the barn, the loss 
amounted to over $13,000 of which only $10,000 was covered by 
insurance. The fire started in the hay stored on the third floor. 
The stock, after the fire, was housed in the old Thompson barn 
north of the present Memorial field or in the barns of Albert 
DeMeritt and Deacon Meserve. The model barn was replaced 
by one, designed by James Randlett, which was somewhat less 
expensive than its predecessor had been and lacked some of its 

Housing difficulties continued to perplex both students and 
faculty. Albert DeMeritt built a four-story wooden building on 
Garrison avenue, in 1894, to be used as a dormitory and boarding 
house for students. This building was bought by the college in 
1915 and renamed Ballard hall. It housed about thirty men 
in "very comfortable and pleasant suites." A unique feature of 
this building was a brass rod, like those traditionally associated 
with firehouses, running from the roof to the first floor, by which 
students in a hurry might descend instead of using the stairs. 

The bachelor members of the faculty leased DeMeritt hall, 
later Ballard hall, in 1899, and called it the Durham club. The 
club was abandoned after a few years, and in 1903, the Zeta 
Epsilon Zeta fraternity leased the building as a chapter house. 

The Q. T. V. fraternity, which was established in Hanover 
and was thus the first on the campus in Durham, had a large frater- 
nity house built for them by George Whitcher in the summer of 
1895. It is now owned and operated by the Lambda Chi Alpha 
fraternity. The house contained ten suites of rooms which would 
accommodate 20 men. A "boarding establishment" was to be 
operated in the building and the third floor was devoted to a 
lodge room. A suite included "a well-lighted study, sleeping 
room, and a large closet," all of which was to be "heated by steam, 
but provision will also be made for a stove in each suite." 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Students who were not members of the fraternity appear to 
have been allowed to take their meals there until Q. T. V. became 
a chapter of Kappa Sigma, in 1901, at which time, use of the house 
was restricted to members. 

The Crafts cottage, which now stands behind the Elizabeth 
DeMeritt house, was originally one of a number of buildings on 
Main street west of Garrison avenue. It was called the Orphan- 
age and was used as a small dormitory for many years. At one 
time, six boys banded together to hire the house for the school 
year. By doing their own cooking and all the maintenance of 
the house, they were able to live inexpensively, though not lux- 

The present Curtis house, at the corner of Strafford avenue 
and Garrison avenue, was known as the Nashuway for the obvious 
reason that most of the students who lived there came from 
Nashua. These shortly organized themselves into the Zeta Epsilon 
Zeta fraternity. Before taking this house, they had lived for a 
while in a house on Schoolhouse lane, below the Town hall. 

Numerous private homes took in student roomers, but there 
was always need for more accommodations, which the college was 
unable to supply. An editorial in the College Monthly, printed 
in 1900, said that: 

"We believe there is no place in New Hampshire 
where better interest can be earned on your money than 
by putting up a first-class hotel, boarding-house, or even 
a dormitory, here in Durham, and we would respectfully 
ask all monied men to investigate the matter." 

When the dairy building was first built, five rooms were 
prepared in it for the use of students who worked on the farm. 
Professor Morse lived in the attic of Nesmith hall until his house 
was built, after which, students used the rooms. One student 
wrote of this search for rooms: 

"As we review these days just passed, the first thing 
we recall is the vast amount of trouble we had before we 
got settled in satisf actory rooms, which resulted in find- 
ing them between Broth Hill and Lee, east and west, 
and Dover and Newmarket, north and south." 
In addition to the houses built by Professor Whitcher, six 
others were built by several members of the faculty for their own 
use during the early 1890's. Until these homes were built, sev- 


The Administration of President Murkland 

eral members of the faculty had to commute from Dover because 
of the lack of homes in Durham. Commuting in the nineties 
was considerably more of a problem than it is now, in the era of 
the automobile. The growth of the college has been responsible 
for a continuing process of building, which even today, scarcely 
seems to have kept up with the needs. 

The housing of women students was the most difficult prob- 
lem of all. Until the Thompson house burned down in 1897, it was 
used as a dormitory, with Mrs. George T. Wiggin as the first 
matron. Throughout the rest of President Murkland's adminis- 
tration, the few girls who attended the school had to room with 
various families, principally with members of the faculty. This 
situation had as much as anything else to do with the steady de- 
crease in the number of women students, which continued almost 
up to the opening of Smith hall. Governor Busiel's veto of the 
bill for a women's dormitory in 1895 was said by the College 
Monthly to have "frightened prospective co-eds away." What- 
ever the reasons, the college was unable to increase the attendance 
of women, in spite of rather eager adjustment of courses to meet 
their needs. 

The Whitcher water system, later owned by Dean Pettee, 
was gradually extended to serve all that part of the town which 
was centered around the college. Extension of the pipe lines to 
the old part of town came later. Durham's three water systems 
were all in operation. An artesian well on the Smith estate served 
and still serves Red Tower, now Tower Tavern, and a small group 
of houses nearby. The Whitcher-Pettee or the Hoitt systems 
served most of the rest of the town. According to the College 
Monthly, Professor Whitcher had his "high service water system 
placed on the knoll just back and above his new houses." This 
also drew from artesian wells. The college's own system drew 
partly from the reservoir described in the previous chapter and 
partly from artesian wells in back of the shops. Until the pipes 
of the Durham Spring Water company, as the Whitcher-Pettee 
system was later called, were extended, the rest of the town had to 
depend on their own wells. Even then, pipes frequently froze 
so that on one occasion it was reported that "The DeMeritt hall 
boys may not be 'hewers of wood' but until the water works thaw 
out, they will be 'drawers of water.' " 

It was proposed several times that electric power from the 
college shops be used to light the streets, but the proposal did not 


History of University of New Hampshire 

make much headway. In 1894, members of the faculty individ- 
ually purchased about 20 street lights and kept them in good con- 

During the summer of 1894, a telephone line was constructed 
in Durham, and the central office was located in Caverno's store 
across Main street from Thompson hall. Members of the faculty 
again cooperated in installing phones connecting their homes with 
their offices and the college buildings. 

High boots and overshoes continued to be fashionable wear 
in Durham, especially in the spring, when the roads became mud- 
holes. The cost of building sidewalks was too great for the 
limited resources of the town, but in 1895, a number of residents, 
including members of the faculty 

". . . who had expended several hundred dollars 
in building sidewalks and improvements on their own 
land, raised nearly one hundred dollars with which 
they were going to complete the sidewalks on College 
and Madbury streets, if the road commissioners would 
add about fifty dollars from the town money." 

These sidewalks were surfaced with gravel or cinders. The ef- 
fort to provide sidewalks for "College street," now Garrison ave- 
nue, is still going on. Plank sidewalks were laid between build- 
ings on the campus. 

Other modern improvements were slow in coming. The 
faculty post office was established in Thompson hall in 1894. 
This building itself went through several changes and adjustments 
in order to make the best possible use of its facilities. Not the 
least of its changes occurred in 1902, when the front of the build- 
ing was painted red. A flagpole which had been made in the 
college woodshop was erected in front of Thompson hall in Janu- 
ary, 1897, with appropriate ceremonies which included a patriotic 
speech by President Murkland. 

Even in so short a time, the face of old Durham underwent 
marked changes. Not only the new buildings and the improve- 
ments which followed the coming of the college made a change, 
but also the faculty members and other employees, and above all, 
the first few of the great mass of young people who were to make 
Durham a temporary home, completely transformed the sleepy 
little country town. The shift of the center of population and 
business from the falls toward the campus typified Durham's 


The Administration of President Murkland 

metamorphosis into a college town where the life and problems 
of young men and women dominate every activity. 

# # # 

The first freshman class in Durham numbered 51 students, 
of whom 1 7 completed the required work and received degrees. 
This was by far the largest entering class that had ever come to 
the college. This increase in the student body was convincing 
evidence that greater prosperity probably awaited the college in 
Durham than had been the case in Hanover. With the exception 
of a drop to 27 in the war year, 1898, entering classes continued 
to approximate in number, the first one mentioned above. The 
small percentage of those who graduated, however, was noticeable. 
Only a third of the class of 1897 graduated. The proportion was 
nearer one-half by the end of President Murkland's administra- 
tion. Chief among the causes for this was the lack of money. 
It was comparatively easy then to get jobs, and many students, 
finding that they could not maintain themselves at the institution, 
left to find work, intending to return later to complete their col- 
lege education. Some actually did return, but most of them found 
the process of earning their living so absorbing and demanding 
that they did not finish their education. The number of fail- 
ures was not excessive and transfers to other colleges were not 
especially numerous. 

In 1903, the trustees' report listed a total of 185 students 
registered in all the courses of the college. Of these, 137 were 
candidates for the degree of bachelor of science, of whom 14 
were seniors, 36 were juniors, 41 were sophomores, and 46 were 
freshmen. This represented an increase of more than 100 per- 
cent in the regular four-year curriculum during President Murk- 
land's administration. Registration in the special and short 
courses also increased during the period. The students were older 
than those of the present day; the average age at graduation was 
between 23 and 24 years. 

New Hampshire's second one-man class graduated in 1896. 
Lewis Kittredge of Keene, the first student to take the complete 
course in the department of chemistry, received the only degree 
granted that year. This class of one, which came just before the 
large class of 1897, emphasized the change that had taken place 
in the fortunes of New Hampshire college. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

The first earned advanced degree granted by the college was 
given to Charles H. Clark, principal of Sanborn seminary in Kings- 
ton, New Hampshire. He received the degree of doctor of philoso- 
phy, the only such earned degree ever granted by the college or 
university. His thesis, Outlines of Classifications of Plants, was pub- 
lished as a supplement to the twenty-second trustees' report, which 
covered the academic year 1894-1895; he is listed in the Alumni 
Register as having received the degree in 1896. President Murk- 
land granted an honorary doctor of philosophy degree to John 
Henry Tanner of Ithaca, New York, in 1901. The first earned 
master of science degree was given to Ralph W. Crossman of San 
Francisco, in 1897. Four others received this degree during 
President Murkland's administration; Ned Dearborn of Sackett 
Harbor, New York, who at the time was a bird specialist, received 
the first and only earned degree of doctor of science that the college 
has conferred. President Murkland also introduced the custom of 
giving honorary degrees at New Hampshire. All the recipients 
of such, except John H. Tanner, were residents of New Hampshire 
and received an honorary master of science degree. Sixteen of 
these degrees were conferred at the commencements of either 
1901, 1902, or 1903. 

Dean Pettee, in a letter to the Manchester Union dated May 
23, 1904, gave the following summary of the occupations of grad- 
uates of the college through the class of 1903: 

Men Women 

"Agricultural pursuits 62 

Engineering pursuits 64 

Business pursuits 57 

Teachers 13 10 

Physicians 1 3 

U. S. Army 2 

Other professions 7 5" 

During the early years in Durham, the cost of board and 
other expenses remained very low. Dean Pettee, in the letter 
quoted above, estimated minimum and maximum expenses as 
follows : 

"Board @ $3.00-3.50 per week $105. to $123. 

Room rent with heat @ $.50 to 1.50 

per week 17. to 51. 

Tuition 0. to 60. 

Fees 15. 15. 


President Murkland 

week 12. 













The Administration of 

Washing @ $.35 to .50 per week 


Books, etc. 



In addition to these estimated expenses, the cost of travel 
and clothing had to be added, and since rooms were ordinarily 
unfurnished, ten to twenty dollars was needed to get bedding, 
linen, and second hand furniture. Some money could be recov- 
ered by resale when the student was through with his furniture. 

In some cases, students found ways of reducing the cost of 
board during the early years in Durham. The trustees asked at 
one time for money to build a dining hall which would reduce 
the cost of food for the students. "By actual experience," they 
reported, "students have found that by the club' system they can 
secure good board at a cost barely exceeding two dollars a week." 
Boarding clubs were common. Some of the residents took a 
"table of boarders," while in other cases, students cooperated in 
preparing their own meals or made an arrangement with some 
cook to prepare their meals for them. Harry W. Evans, of the 
class of 1901, says of one such club: 

"During a part of one year I got my meals at an 
eating club that had a room in the Pettee Block. They 
had an arrangement with the woman of a family that 
lived there. One of the members cooked a little and 
the woman cooked the rest. Director John Kendall 
was one of them." 

The College Monthly reported at one time that, 

"The death of Mrs. Foy during vacation has caused 
the giving up of the boarding club that has been carried 
on by her daughter, Mrs. Brown, during her mother's 

The building opposite the end of Mill road, known then 
simply as The Hotel, housed an eating club. Under various 
names, including The Marshall House, The College Inn, and The 
Hi-Hat Club, this building has been used repeatedly by various 
proprietors as a restaurant. The system of eating clubs was a 
carryover from Dartmouth, and in fact, was characteristic of all 
schools which did not have a commons operated by the college. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

The custom of eating clubs has survived at Dartmouth, but has 
been replaced in Durham by fraternities, the University Commons, 
and privately operated restaurants. 

Professor George Whitcher advertised in the College Monthly 
one spring that he had rooms to let for the following year at the 
rate of $.75 to $1.50 a week for furnished rooms, and from $.50 
to $1.00 for those unfurnished. All of these rooms were provided 
with steam heat. He also advertised, at the same time, eight 
rooms with running water and steam heat, a "Great Opportunity 
for a Club of Eight Who Want to Save Money," all of which he 
would rent for $100 for the year, which would be less than 35 
cents a person each week. 

The personal notes in the columns of the College Monthly 
give several hints concerning the methods used by students to 
make a little money in their spare time or during vacations. 
Though these hints are not numerous, they are suggestive. In 
1894, the magazine reported, "Quite a number of students have 
been picking apples for the College. A few falls have resulted." 
A member of the class of 1896, "spent his vacation at work in a 
drug store in Portsmouth." The Misses Mabel Bunker and Mary 
Bartlett, however, 

". . . aspired higher, they having just returned 
from a six-weeks sojourn at Sunset Pavilion, North Con- 
way, N. H., where it is generally supposed they became 
proficient in the art of waiting on table." 

Orrin M. James, of the class of 1893, contributed an article 
called My Strawberry Experience in which he told how he helped 
to pay his way through college by going into the strawberry busi- 
ness. During the college year, work on the college grounds and 
on the farm provided a small income for some students, however, 
this was limited by the lack of surplus funds for improvements. In 
fact, some public spirited students gave their time, without pay, to 
setting out plants and grading and caring for lawns about the col- 
lege buildings. 

The counterpart of the modern salesman of magazine sub- 
scriptions seems to have been the book salesman. Representatives 
of book companies organized crews of college students to sell their 
publications, which consisted chiefly of lavishly illustrated en- 
cyclopedias, histories, and religious books. The College Monthly 
debated the merits and demerits of canvassing as a means of earn- 


The Administration of President Murkland 

ing money during vacations and reached the conclusion that it was 
probably a very honorable thing although there was a danger of 
bad moral effects from the sharp practices of high-pressure sales- 

While many students earned a large amount of their college 
expenses, many also received aid from scholarships. The num- 
ber and value of the scholarships available during President Murk- 
land's administration continued to increase. In 1897, Hamilton 
Smith of Durham gave $10,000, to found the Valentine Smith 
scholarship. The income from this fund was to be given "to the 
graduates of an approved high school or academy who shall, upon 
examination, be judged to have the most thorough preparation for 
admission." This was the first scholarship to which a non-resi- 
dent of the state was eligible. At first, it paid $500, at the rate 
of $125 a year as long as the student maintained a reasonably high 
scholarship. In 1903, the amount was reduced to $400 because 
of a decrease in the income received from the investment. Morris 
Archer Stewart of Dover was the first to win this scholarship which 
was offered for the first time in 1899. The number of scholar- 
ships from the Conant fund was reduced to 25 in 1900, with the 
value remaining at $100. 

The Smyth prizes were continued for a short time after the 
death of former governor Smyth by his widow, Mrs. Marion C. 
Smyth. The competition for these continued to be held in con- 
nection with the commencement exercises. In his will, Mr. Smyth 
left $2,000 to the college, the income "to be annually applied to 
the purchase of books to be given annually to the most meritorious 
students." The Erskine Mason Memorial prize was established, 
in 1894, by Mrs. Erskine Mason of Stamford, Connecticut, who 
". . . invested $100 as a memorial of her son, a 
member of the class of 1893, the income of which is 
to be given for the present, to that member of the Senior 
class who has made the greatest improvement during 
his course." 

In 1897, two medals were offered for the first time, one for the 
best individual drill, and the other to that senior standing highest 
in the military department. 

The College Monthly announced, in May, 1901, that "G H. 
Hood has offered a $50.00 bull from his stock to the student of 
N. H. C. attaining the highest rank in cattle judging for next 


History of University of New Hampshire 

year." Though this offer does not seem to have been repeated, it 
was a forerunner of the later dairy awards established by Mr. Hood. 
A collection of anatomical specimens, prepared by Dr. F. E. Potter 
of Portsmouth, was presented through the generosity of his widow 
to the institution. Pictures of Professor Dimond, Judge Nesmith, 
John Conant, and Frederick Smyth were presented to the trustees 
of New Hampshire college in 1894. 

Jt -X£- .A/- 


As might be expected wherever a large group of American 
students came together, organizations multiplied rapidly. Q. T. 
V., the first fraternity on the campus, took the leadership in social 
affairs from the start. According to the Enaichsee in March, 1894, 
"the event of the season in the line of society [was] the banquet 
given by the Q. T. V. in Thompson Hall." Visitors were present 
from the Boston alumni, Amherst college, and University of Maine 
chapters of the fraternity. In the spring, the society gave a recep- 
tion to the "faculty, lady students, and other specially invited 
guests," at the Grange hall. In 1898, the Grand lodge of Q. T. V. 
met in Durham, and H. F. Moore, of the class of 1898, was elected 
president. This fraternity, which appears to have been limited 
to a few New England schools, gave up its organization after 1900. 
The New Hampshire chapter became the Beta Kappa chapter of 
the Kappa Sigma fraternity in 1901 and celebrated its new affilia- 
tion with a banquet and ball attended by delegates from Bowdoin 
college, the University of Vermont, Brown university, and other 
schools. This was the first national Greek letter fraternity estab- 
lished in Durham. 

The second fraternity, Zeta Epsilon Zeta, was formed in 1895 
from a club composed of students from Nashua. It continued to 
include a predominance of men from Nashua for over a decade 
and remained a local fraternity until 1917, when it became a chap- 
ter of Sigma Alpha Epsilon. 

The New Hampshire College club was organized in 1895 
with a membership of both faculty and students. In its consti- 
tution, the object of the club was declared to be 

". . . to encourage a spirit of fellowship among all 

members of the college, to promote and develop all 

social and artistic tendencies, and wherever possible, to 

cooperate with existing organizations in any project 

which may enlarge and enrich life." 


The Administration of President Murkland 

Dr. Murkland was elected the first president of the club and com- 
mittees of five members each were chosen to be in charge of "So- 
cial Meetings, Art Decoration, Flower Decoration, Music, and 
Lectures and Entertainments." Dues were set at 50 cents a year, 
and regular meetings were held on the second Monday of each 

Activities sponsored by the club included a lecture by Prin- 
cipal Cross of the Robinson Female seminary of Exeter on the 
Splendor of the Alps, an exhibition of the Solderholz collection of 
prints of famous paintings in the chapel, and a concert "of truly 
artistic merit" with Mrs. Lucy Pillsbury, vocalist, Miss Lillian 
Chandler, violinist, and Miss Gertrude Lufkin, pianist. The club 
sponsored a production of The Rivals with an all student cast 
coached by Professor Fred W. Morse, who was assisted by Mrs. 
Murkland. This performance was "greatly appreciated." Most 
popular and frequent were the hops run by the club which were 
"strictly informal" and were "given for the benefit of the students." 
These hops afforded a splendid opportunity for those who had 
not yet learned to dance to do so, particularly since it was the 

"... intention of the social committee to invite a 
sufficient number of ladies to have partners for all who 
may be unprovided, so that none need stay away on that 

The problem of the shortage of women students for dances 
and similar parties was acute. The best proportion was achieved 
by the class of 1900 which had four women among the twelve 
graduates; other classes were less fortunate, however. Daughters 
of faculty members and townspeople were frequently invited to 
dances and girls from out of town were welcomed even by the 
women students for custom dictated that a girl should not dance 
with anybody more than once, except her escort, until she had 
gone through the entire stag line. 

Besides the annual dances of the two fraternities and the 
College Club hops, there was an annual military ball sponsored by 
the New Hampshire college cadet battalion. Although a military 
hop was given in 1895, not until 1900 was the first annual mili- 
tary ball announced. At the earlier affair, "the order [of dances] 
was made up of seventeen numbers, evenly divided between plain 
and fancy dances. For the benefit of those who did not dance 
there were two marches." The two step and waltz were the 


History of University of New Hampshire 

favorites, with variety being secured by an occasional schottische, 
Portland fancy, or galop. The program of a Zeta Epsilon Zeta 
reception, in 1896, listed five waltzes, three schottisches, three 
quadrilles, two "pas deux," two Portland fancies, a galop, a polka, 
and a Duchess, plus the grand march and circle, and various "ex- 

With so many dances to learn there had to be dancing 
schools. The men went to Dover frequently, but this was not as 
easy then as it is now in the day of the automobile and hitch- 
hiking. The College Monthly reported that "some of the boys 
who attend the dancing school in Dover think it rather hard not 
to arrive home till six o'clock in the morning!" A Mr. Hogue 
ran a dancing school at the Grange hall in 1894, and a few years 
later, George DeMeritt, of the class of 1899, gave a course of 12 
lessons on Friday evenings. Captain Stottler of the military sci- 
ence department also conducted a dancing school for two years. 

The women students organized a secret society in December, 
1894, which was known by the initials, W. H. A. It did not have 
a very vigorous or active life through most of President Murk- 
land's administration because of the small number of women reg- 
istered. About once a year, the society gave a reception to the 
men students at which special attention was paid to the heroes of 
the athletic teams. 

A number of societies were organized during President Murk- 
land's term of office to foster special interests in some of the sub- 
jects studied by the students. The first such organization, founded 
in 1894, was restricted to the members of the faculty and the 
Experiment station staff. It was called the New Hampshire Col- 
lege Scientific society. Dean Pettee was the first president, George 
Teeple was secretary-treasurer, and Dean Pettee, President Murk- 
land, and Professor Whitcher made up the executive committee. 
The society planned to meet regularly to hear papers by the mem- 
bers and to run one or two public meetings each year. The stu- 
dents organized the New Hampshire College Engineering society 
in October, 1895, which met fortnightly "to discuss engineering 
problems and achievements" and to hear special papers by the 

In 1898, the agricultural students started the Conant Agri- 
cultural society, to study and discuss agricultural problems. This 
group seems to have been very active; so much so that at one 


Top Left: Elizabeth P. DeMeritt 
Center: John C. Kendall 

Top Right: Charles James 
Lower Right: Clarence W. Scott 
Lower Center: CHARLOTTE A. Thompson 







The Administration of President Murkland 

meeting in 1902, the educational program included the reading 
of no less than 14 short papers. 

In the spring of 1899, Professor Weed sponsored the forma- 
tion of a Biological society which was to meet every two weeks 
under his guidance. The club seems to have lasted less than two 
years for it was revived in 1902 under the name of the Natural 
History society. The program of its second meeting, according 
to the College Monthly, consisted of two papers, one on the Peats 
of Ireland, the other on Birds. 

The Current Events club, organized in 1895, met on alter- 
nate Friday evenings. Its membership was, at first, limited to 
juniors and seniors and non-students, by which term was probably 
meant faculty members, who were allowed to join on invitation. 
These restrictions were soon removed, but even with the larger 
field for membership, the club led an uncertain existence, meet- 
ing at somewhat irregular intervals for discussions and debates on 
topics of current interest. 

Musical organizations were numerous, but not very long- 
lived. A choral society was organized in 1894 under the leader- 
ship of President Murkland. A full slate of officers was elected, 
and it was planned to meet each Tuesday after the Y. M. C. A. 
prayer meeting, thus providing for those who were interested 
"practically a popular course in chorus singing." Again the lack 
of women students complicated matters, so much so that in 1895, 
the "college choir . . . was composed entirely of male voices." 
During this same year, Professor Louis C. Stanton of Newton 
formed a class in harmony consisting of 1 5 students. He also gave 
a lecture on classical music and, in the spring of 1896, at the 
homes of several professors, a "course of recitals on music," with 
"selections from the 'Pilgrim's Chorus.' " 

In the fall of 1896, Professor Stockbridge of Portland con- 
ducted a singing class "which had been formed through the ef- 
forts of Rev. Mr. Sewall." The College Monthly hoped that this 
might improve the singing at chapel for the choir had been quite 
variable both in quantity and quality and suffered from a heavy 
preponderance of basses over tenors as well as from the lack of a 
pianist. A double quartet, which sang both for chapel and the 
Sunday services at the Congregational church, was formed the 
same year. In 1897, a combined Glee and Banjo club was started 
with the college quartet as the nucleus. The quartet continued to 
be a great success and secured engagements to sing in several 


History of University of New Hampshire 

neighboring towns, while the Glee club "did excellent service" as 
a choir for the church. Mr. Hovey, instructor in mandolin, gui- 
tar, and banjo at Harvard, was engaged to organize the banjo sec- 
tion of the club. Less than two years later, however, the College 
Monthly lamented, "Where, oh where is the glee club?" A new 
glee club was started in 1900 under the direction of Ned Dear- 
born, then a graduate student. Ten members joined it and the 
club was successful during that year but did not continue as an or- 
ganization after commencement. 

In 1895, the first college orchestra in Durham was organized. 
Its membership included: 

"W. F. Russell, first violin; H. L. Howe, second 
violin; Professor Whitcher, first cornet; G. H. Chamber- 
lin, first clarinet; H. F. Moore, flute; Mr. Thomas 
Schoonmaker, first trombone; D. B. Bartlett, second 
trombone; F. W. Smith, bass violin." 

Several students played in the Durham town brass band during 
the same school year. 

The Culver Literary society, organized in Hanover, was con- 
tinued at Durham. It sponsored the college paper which was 
called the Enaichsee [pronounced as N. H. C.] during the school 
year of 1893-1894 and renamed the New Hampshire College 
Monthly with the appearance of the first number of volume two. 
The society met on alternate Fridays during the first year in Dur- 
ham, then changed to monthly meetings but these became in- 
creasingly irregular after 1897. Only members of the society 
were eligible to serve as editors of the College Monthly. The 
editor-in-chief was elected from the senior class, and two assistant 
editors were elected from each of the lower classes. These editors 
then selected a business manager, who in turn appointed his as- 
sistant. The associate editor was appointed by the editor-in-chief 
from among the six assistants. 

At the regular meetings of the society, debates and discus- 
sions were held on such subjects as: Military science is necessary to 
a complete college education; The manufacturer of liquor is do- 
ing more injury to the cause of temperance than the consumer; 
There are too many political leaders for the good of the nation; 
and Within twenty-five years the use of electricity will have super- 
seded the use of steam. The society decided against military sci- 
ence and in favor of electricity but the verdict on the temperance 


The Administration of President Murkland 

problem and the politicians is not recorded. At one meeting, a 
student was tried on a charge of tampering with the society's bal- 
lot box, found guilty, and "sentenced to sing a week in the college 

The College Monthly printed pep talks urging the students 
to take part in the society's proceedings, and pointed out the great 
advantages to be gained from membership. In a few cases, mem- 
bers of the faculty or visitors from out of town spoke at meetings. 
Despite every effort, however, interest in the society decreased 
each year. Few took part in the meetings and fewer still were 
willing to prepare topics for discussion. The College Monthly 
recommended more study of the discussion topics as a means of 
improving the meetings but the suggestion was not popular. Final- 
ly, on March 27, 1897, the remaining members voted to discon- 
tinue regular meetings and to meet only at the call of the presi- 

In May, 1897, the society met to elect the editors of the 
College Monthly. The incumbent editors objected to this pro- 
cedure and declared themselves in favor of an open election by 
all the students. "Unless the society is going to stand for some- 
thing besides greed to run the paper," their editorial said, "it 
would seem as though it would be well to give all a chance." Two 
years later, the editors announced that 

"Election by the now almost defunct Culver Lit- 
erary Society would be a farce . . . the Monthly is run 
for the student body, and should represent and be con- 
ducted by them in some way." 

Deprived of its last excuse for existence, the college's first stu- 
dent organization died after a useful career of 28 years. 

The Culver Literary society left one very vigorous offspring, 
the College Monthly. Like most college periodicals of its time, 
it was less a newspaper than a literary magazine. Published only 
once a month, it could hardly contain much news although it 
could be, and was, very much in favor of personal items. Both 
the content and style of its articles and news items reflected the 
literary and journalistic fashions of the time. The stories were 
highly moral. The articles either dealt with scientific subjects or 
were determined efforts at fine writing. 

It is both interesting and instructive to read these old maga- 
zines, not merely because they seem rather quaint and different, 


History of University of New Hampshire 

but because there is also much which is almost identically what 
one might expect to read in the current issue of the New Hamp- 
shire. As an example, in one issue there is a note to the effect 

"The Isolated Order of Big Jays are seen in straw 
hats, seersucker coats, ice cream trousers, russet shoes, 
light outing flannels, and similar seasonable garments." 

There is also found a form of humor which no regular reader of 
the New Hampshire would fail to recognize since there is little 
difference in the rather heavy handed humor which has always 
characterized such efforts. 

The literary offerings were no more imitative of the current 
fashion than they are today. If they were more frankly senti- 
mental and much more naive, they only reflected their time. The 
difference in the size of the college and the degree of preparation 
of the students of the two periods are accurately reflected in the 
literary skill of most of the earlier writers. Practically all the 
material was written by a very few of the editors although occa- 
sional special items were contributed by other students. The fac- 
ulty granted to the editors the privilege of counting a certain 
amount of time spent each week on the magazine as college work, 
with credit equivalent to two recitations a week for the editor, 
and one for the associate editor. Less credit was given later to 
the class editors and business staff. A small room on the second 
floor of Thompson hall was set aside for the use of the staff. 

Editorials touched on many topics, though they were usually 
confined to college matters. The editors were insistent that the 
school be called New Hampshire college instead of the Agricul- 
tural college or Durham college. Twice they argued with the 
Manchester Union over the latter's opinion that Dartmouth was 
more deserving of being known as the New Hampshire college. 
The first time this proposal was made was during the dispute with 
the state board of agriculture. The Union said: 

"It should be suggestive to those of the trustees 
who express astonishment at the position of the board 
of agriculture, and wonder why anybody should appre- 
hend that the time will come when the institution at 
Durham will be the New Hampshire College merely, 
and the agricultural feature have about as much sig- 


The Administration of President Murkland 

nificance as the provision for education of the Indian 
youth in the charter of Dartmouth college." 

To the College Monthly, this point was irrelevant since the col- 
lege was supposed to have a mechanic arts department equal in 
importance with the agricultural department. In 1898, against a 
similar argument, they defended the right of the college in Dur- 
ham to its claim of representing the people of the state far better 
than any private institution. 

The first issue of the Enaichsee announced the recent forma- 
tion of an athletic association. A tennis association was formed 
separately a short time later but united with the general organiza- 
tion in 1898. The first task was to build an athletic field. Al- 
bert DeMeritt took the contract for grading the field which was 
located on the site of the present Memorial field. Practically all 
the male students gave some of their time to the work of im- 
proving the field, and the work was completed in the spring and 
summer of 1894. Each year, the maintenance of the field was 
done largely by volunteer labor. In 1900, the first grandstand 
was erected by the students. It seated nearly a hundred people. 
Shower baths and lockers were installed in the dressing room in 
the basement of Thompson hall. 

In 1896, the treasurer of the Athletic association reported 
that only two-thirds of the men belonged to the association. As 
the tax was less than two dollars a year, and as practically all the 
students received free tuition and half of them received about $30 
a year in cash in addition, the treasurer felt it was pure ingratitude 
not to join the association. The cost of suits, transportation for 
the teams, and all such items had to come out of the students' 
contributions. The association was always a little in debt. The 
trustees voted $200 in 1896 for athletics, and a few other small 
appropriations seem to have been given for this purpose but the 
college had no extra funds to give, and the students were forced, 
for the most part, to rely upon themselves. Faculty members 
were represented on the executive committee and some, like Pro- 
fessor Whoriskey, took a very active part in helping the students. 
Coaches were also usually members of the faculty who gave their 
spare time. 

During the first football season in Durham, a few faculty 
members and townspeople who knew a little about the game 
coached the team that represented New Hampshire college. In 


History of University of Ne\c Hampshire 

1895, C W. Twombly, a former center at Phillips Exeter academy, 
coached, and George Ordway of Bowdoin college was on campus 
for a week in 1896 for the same purpose. Frederic Johnston, as- 
sistant professor of agronomy, coached the team in 1899 and 
1900 and "accomplished wonders" though "styles of playing had 
changed since he was in the arena." 

The football teams were far from successful. In 1893, they 
played only one game and were defeated. The next year, they 
defeated Dover high school and the second team of Phillips Exe- 
ter academy, but lost a second game to Dover as well as games to 
Bates college and St. Anselm's. Against high school teams and 
academies, victories were won but not invariably. In 1895, the 
^ceam went to Wolfeboro to play Brewster academy. Brewster 
won, 14 to 10, but New Hampshire retaliated the following au- 
tumn with a 32 to victory. 

In baseball, the teams were more successful though less in- 
terest was taken in the game. In the fall of 1894, a game was 
played between a scrub nine from the college and the Lee town 
team which resulted in a 17 to 14 victory for the college. In- 
tramural games were common. The first game on the new ath- 
letic field was one between teams representing "Hotel Schoon- 
maker" and DeMeritt hall, with a score of 12 to 5 in favor of the 
former. Teams captained by Professor Parsons and Professor 
Whitcher played on town meeting day in 1894. 

In the spring of 1895, the baseball team was formally or- 
ganized and placed under the guidance of Lieutenant Hodges. Two 
games were lost to Phillips Exeter academy, but town teams from 
Durham and Lee were defeated by large scores. Games were 
scheduled with high schools, academies, town teams, and colleges. 
Charles Dudley of Dartmouth coached the team for two weeks in 
the spring of 1899, but the season was disastrous, with only one 
narrow victory to relieve four straight defeats. Baseball was 
then given up until 1903, in spite of vigorous efforts in 1900 to 
revive interest in it. With the revival in 1903, New Hampshire 
continued to lose, but by smaller scores and in competition with 
much better teams than they had previously played. Games on 
the athletic field, in spite of the work of the students, were com- 
plicated by the roughness of the ground. Spectators sat along 
the sidelines and there was usually no problem in finding a place 
to sit because there was rarely anyone watching the game except 


The Administration of President Murkland 

Basketball was the only other sport in which outside contests 
were held. In 1901, the Unity club of Portsmouth was defeated, 
17 to 16. In 1903, a schedule of eight games played resulted in 
four victories and four losses. Although New Hampshire lost to 
Phillips Andover academy and the Nashua Hobo club, the college 
basketball team defeated Dartmouth, 18 to 13. 

The difficulties under which these teams worked were enor- 
mous. They lacked equipment and the basketball team did not 
even have a regulation court for its games. The coaching was 
at best sporadic and frequently totally absent. Train schedules 
were often very inconvenient, and games occasionally had to be 
curtailed in order to catch a train. 

Some members of the faculty had tennis courts built for 
their own use and the Tennis association, which included both 
students and faculty, supervised the building of two courts near 
the athletic field in 1894. When the Tennis association merged 
with the Athletic association, the College Monthly asked what 
was to be done "about our dilapidated tennis court on the campus." 
Most of the students played the game and all the courts were 
usually kept busy. Occasional tournaments were arranged by the 
Athletic association in the later years of President Murkland's ad- 

Track activities were entirely intramural. A half holiday 
was granted in 1895 by the faculty for a "Hare and Hounds meet"; 
most of the men students took part in this event. Interclass meets 
were started in 1901. Two years later, the College Monthly an- 
nounced that New Hampshire was to have a dual meet with 
Worcester Polytechnic institute but did not report whether or not 
the meet was held. 

Ice polo, now known as hockey, was played by interested 
groups, and competition in this sport was held between class 
teams. Most of the men students played the game during the 
winters but there was no thought of attempting to organize teams 
for intercollegiate competition. Croquet was popular, and a few 
students had small boats in which they sailed on Great Bay. Bi- 
cycles were common in the later years of the eighteen nineties and 
were used for long trips, and week-end excursions were often taken 
by large groups. In the winter, there were usually two or three 
months of good sleighing during which time Frank Morrison 
rented horses and sleighs to those who wanted them. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

There were many other amusements to keep the students 
busy. The traditional rivalry between the freshman and sopho- 
more classes was exciting and often violent. The annual cane 
rush was held on the first Saturday after the opening of college. 
A good account of such a cane rush appeared in the College 
Monthly for October, 1895 : 

"At nine o'clock, both bands gathered on the cam- 
pus. Referees were chosen and the time limited to ten 
minutes. At the end of this time the class having the 
most hands on the cane should have it, and — glory. Al- 
though '98 outnumbered '99 about three to two, the 
latter made up somewhat in size what they lacked in 
number. Both parties lined up, '99 holding the cane, 
and at the signal, rushed together. What took place 
in the next ten minutes is best described as a mingled 
pile of animated legs, arms, heads, and howls, with a 
three foot cane as its centre, attracting all toward it. 

"At the expiration of the time limit, the hands 
which grasped the cane were counted. Each referee 
asserts that the side whose hands he counted had eight 
hands upon the cane, but several different statements 
are current; '99, however, carried away the cane. No 
one was seriously injured, and, though fierce, the entire 
contest was conducted with a spirit of fair manliness 
that is commendable in the participants." 

The rules for the annual cane rush varied and were frequent- 
ly disputed. At one time, the freshmen were conceded to have 
had seven of the thirteen hands grasping the cane, but there were 
four men from each class holding it so the sophomores claimed 
that the men should be counted rather than the hands. The dis- 
pute was not settled. Impromptu rushes often took place. On 
one occasion, the sophomores, after a bitter fight, managed to 
carry off the remains of a tin horn. On another occasion, the 
class of 1900 raised a flag on the pole in front of Thompson 
hall. The sophomores managed to get it down whereupon a 
general fight broke out and continued until a faculty member 
came along, stopped the row, and confiscated the flag. 

The cane rush was abolished in 1902 in favor of a track 
meet, a football game, and a debate. The first event was won 
by the sophomores that year but they forfeited the football game 


The Administration of President Murkland 

to the freshmen by refusing to play it as scheduled. The debate 
was declared a tie! President Murkland was responsible for dis- 
continuing the rushes, and his action was approved by the editor 
of the College Monthly. 

Members of any class that won the cane rush in both the 
freshman and sophomore years were entitled to carry canes during 
the spring of their sophomore year to and from Sunday chapel. It 
was an uncomfortable privilege for it almost invariably stirred 
the freshmen to battle. The class of 1901 won this privilege, 
and as a result, had to fight on three successive Sunday nights to 
defend their canes. Bruises, cuts, bloody noses, black eyes, and 
picturesquely damaged clothing were the result. At best, the 
sophomores were rarely able to preserve more than a piece of their 
canes. Once in a while, a really serious conflict developed be- 
tween individual champions of the classes. 

Another opportunity for rough fun was the picture fight in 
which the freshmen attempted to have a picture of a certain pro- 
portion of the class taken. The sophomores were determined to 
see that some members of the freshman class were absent, prefer- 
ably the president who counted as several ordinary freshmen in 
determining the score. The Boston Globe described this contest 
in the spring of 1904 as follows: 

"The entire class quietly boarded the train at the 
Durham station, many of the members leaving their 
work in the college workshops and coming bareheaded 
in their working togs. The fact that they were not 
dressed for the occasion threw the Sophomores off their 
guard, but the latter saw the game just as the train was 
starting and scrambled aboard, taking the car next to 
the one the Freshmen had boarded. As the train stopped 
there was a rush. Car windows were smashed in the 
frantic efforts of the Sophs to capture Freshmen and 
keep them from leaving the train. Out of the train 
they all got, however, and the liveliest kind of scrim- 
mage was begun in the square in front of the station. 
The police finally charged on the student crowd and 
scattered it. 

"Three luckless Freshmen were captured, however, 
and carried away. The remainder of the class, includ- 
ing three young women, proceeded to a studio on Cen- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

tral avenue, Dover, under police guard, where they had 
a group picture taken. The class waited an hour or so 
in hopes that the three members who had been detained 
might escape from their captors and be in the picture, 
but approaching darkness made it necessary for the cam- 
era to be snapped without them. The Sophomores 
paraded the streets and kept watch in front of the stu- 
dio until the picture was taken. 

"A clothing merchant was called to the studio to 
supply clothing to the partially-stripped and mud-stained 
Freshmen to make them presentable." 

Traveling stock companies frequently visited Dover and drew 
a heavy patronage from the college. A large group of students 
went to see Denman Thompson in The Old Homestead at the 
Dover Opera House. In Old Kentucky and The Country Squire 
were also "much appreciated." The members of Kappa Sigma 
attended one show in a body, 

". . . occupying three rows of seats in the center 
of the house. On entering, all remained standing, and 
gave the college yell, which was well received by the 
At an entertainment given by a traveling company in Scammell 
Grange hall, the student body attended in force, bringing with 
them for refreshments "beans, potatoes, and apples, and surely no 
one could say that they were unwilling to pass them around." 

As early as 1895, the College Monthly could announce "an- 
other long felt want supplied" for a soda fountain had been in- 
stalled in Caverno's store. A bookstore was opened in 1894 by 
Frederic W. Howe, '94, and John L. Caverno, '95, in the small 
building known as the Orphanage opposite Thompson hall. They 
and their successors sold textbooks, stationery, and similar supplies 
for a number of years. As the student owners graduated, they 
were bought out by other students. 

The class of 1899 started the custom of setting out class 
trees on the college grounds, and the first ceremony was held on 
May 2, 1896. The idea took hold, and by 1901, all four classes 
as well as the Grange and the Village Improvement society set 
out trees and had an orator to represent them in the ceremonies. 
College songs and cheers were badly needed but little effort 
was made, at first, to obtain them. The editors of the College 


The Administration of President Murkland 

Monthly offered, in 1898, a prize of ten dollars for the best words 
for a college song. After several months, they announced that 
although some of those submitted 'were very good poetry," they 
lacked snap and swing and none was considered worthy of the 
prize. A song called Hail, New Hampshire, over the signature 
"Found," was printed without comment in 1900, and three years 
later, The Rush Song and The Snipe Song were printed. None of 
these ever became very popular. 

The first college cheer recorded by the College Monthly was: 

"Rick a chick a boom, Hoop la Rah! 

Rick a chick a boom, Hoop la Ree! 

Rick a chick a Hoo Rah, Hoo Rah, 

Rick a chick a N-H-C!" 
Boom boom boom! 

This was followed a year later by a variant, which after the three 
"booms" continued with: 

"Who rah? rah? 

Who rah? rah? 

New Hampshire! New Hampshire! 

Rah! Rah! Rah! 

New Hampshire!" 
Another cheer in use around 1901 was a little less elaborate: 

"E, N, A, I, C, H. 
E, N, A, I, C, H. 
N. H.— N. H. 
E, N, A, I, C, H. 

Rah rah rah, rah rah rah, rah rah rah. 
New Hampshire!" 

A committee was elected during the second year that New 
Hampshire college was in Durham to secure a college pin with a 
distinctive design. A prize was offered for the best design but 
the College Monthly does not record that the prize was ever 
awarded or the pins bought. Many of the male students wore 
the college initials on their sweaters whether they were athletes 
or not until a rule was adopted in 1897 by the Athletic association 
stating that the right to wear the letters had to be won. The offi- 
cial sweaters were blue with a broad white band on the collar 
and cuffs and with white letters. 

The religious life of the students continued to be well super- 
vised during President Murkland's administration. Chapel was 


History of University" of New Hampshire 

held at noon on weekdays and at 4:30, later changed to 5 :05. on 
Sundays. The services, conducted by President Murkland, lasted 
from 10 ro 15 minutes on weekdays and a half an hour on Sun- 
days. Attendance was compulsory for all students. During the 
school year 1896-189". the student monitors who checked attend- 
ance were dispensed with and the honot system was tried. The 
results were considered unsatisfactory, however, and the monitor 
system was restored the following year. 

The Christian Endeavor society oi the Congregational church 
gave a reception to the incoming class each fall. Until the turn 
of the century, a number oi students took part in the work of the 
society. President Murkland conducted a Bible class primarily 
for students at the church; this class was later taken over by Pro- 
fessor Reed. 

This religious instruction did not. however, prevent a num- 
ber of students from attending a lecture by Robert Ingersoll, the 
noted atheist, at the Dover Opera house in 1895. 

Although a few individual students attended conventions 
of the student Y. M. C. A., there was no branch of this organiza- 
tion on the campus until the fall of 1S99- With the organization 
of a local group, interest in the Christian Endeavor society fell off. 
A contributing factor in this was the dirterence in age between 
the students and the young people of the town. The new Y. M. 
C. A. met on Thursday evenings at seven o'clock. The program 
usually consisted of a short talk by a student or a visiting faculty 
member and a number of songs. 

The military uniform adopted for the cadet corps was cadet 
gray and resembled, in style and cut, the regular army uniform of 
the Spanish war. They were made to the measure of the student 
by a Dover tailor, from cloth bought at Sawyer's mills. The fact 
that they were tailormade and, therefore, fitted much better than 
the present day machine-made uniforms may explain why they 
were so much more popular then. The men were said to have 
been so proud of their new uniforms that they wore them almost 
all the time and even discarded their winter overcoats in order 
to display their uniforms better. 

In 1894, Lieutenant H. C Hodges, U. S. A., was detailed to 
New Hampshire college to serve as professor of military science. 
Professor Parsons and others had conducted drill before this, and 
Mr. Parsons again drilled the battalion during the Spanish war 


The Administration of President Murkland 

in the absence of the regular instructor. The College Monthly 
commented on the training: 

"With drill from seven-thirty to eight each morn- 
ing, except Sunday, all should be inspired with a more 
military feeling ... It should be remembered that one 
usually likes to do that which he can do well; hence 
drill well and like it . . . Drill is obligatory and with us 
to stay." 
However, the idea of holding the drill at such an early hour did 
not continue long, for the period for drill was changed the next 
year to from twelve to twelve-thirty, four days a week. Compul- 
sory attendance for ail four classes was enforced until 1901 when 
attendance was made voluntary for the senior class. 

The Alumni association had a rather uncertain existence dur- 
ing the eighteen nineties. Frederick P. Comings of Lee, a mem- 
ber of the class of 1883, was elected the first alumni trustee in 
1893, and was reelected in 1898. At the time of his second elec- 
tion, the College Monthly remarked that the association "has not 
met for so long that its existence is almost forgotten." The fol- 
lowing year a new organization, the Associated Alumni of New 
Hampshire College, was formed on commencement day. Its pur- 
pose was: "At stated intervals to recall the memories and renew 
the friendships of our college days; to counsel and cheer each 
other's endeavors in life"; and "to serve the interests of our Alma 
Mater, and to materially aid in directing its course." Graduates 
of the college could become members by signing the constitution 
and by-laws and paying dues of 50 cents a year. In 1901, the 
membership was 54. 

By 1903, the college had changed greatly from what it was 
when it first came to Durham. The student body had more than 
doubled; the faculty as well as the Experiment station staff were 
about twice the former size; and the course of instruction had 
been enlarged and greatly improved. 

President Murkland, having weathered the early storms of 
his administration and carried out many of his plans for the in- 
stitution, decided that his work in Durham was completed. He 
was not wholly content with his position. The necessity of teach- 
ing classes, in addition to his administrative duties, had never 
suited him. He felt that both he and the college would profit 


History of University of New Hampshire 

from a change, and therefore, he presented his resignation which 
was to take effect on May 1, 1903. 

His work left a deep mark on the college. The importance 
of his liberal culture and broad educational principles on the 
growth of the institution can hardly be overestimated. He came 
to a school which in many ways ranked little higher than an acad- 
emy; a school which had few students, a small faculty, limited 
equipment, and which was uncertain of its own function and pur- 
pose. He left a small but growing technical college with a 
bright future. Whatever his mistakes and faults in handling 
people may have been, New Hampshire men of his time remember 
him as an able executive and an inspiring teacher who had a great 
part in making the University of New Hampshire what it is today. 


The Administration of President Gibbs 


In choosing a successor to President Murkland, the trustees 
were anxious to avoid, in so far as they could, any danger of the 
new president's suffering from the handicaps which had plagued 
President Murkland. Chief among these was the classical back- 
ground which had drawn so much criticism and opposition from 
some agricultural groups in the state. At the same time, the 
trustees wanted to insure as much continuity of policy as possible 
and to maintain and expand the liberal standards which had been 
Dr. Murkland' s great contribution. 

Under these circumstances, William D. Gibbs was a logical 
choice. He had been graduated from the agricultural course at 
the University of Illinois, in 1893, and had devoted himself since 
then to research and teaching in agronomy, first with the federal 
department of agriculture, then at Ohio State university. In 
January, 1902, Mr. Gibbs had been appointed professor of agricul- 
ture and director of the Experiment station at New Hampshire 
college but had resigned in August of the same year to accept a 
position as director of the Texas Experiment station. His back- 
ground, therefore, was unimpeachable from the point of view of 
the agricultural groups in the state. He was also a young man, 
being only 34 at the time of his election; his understanding of 
educational needs, however, both in his particular field and be- 
yond was thorough, and his excellent reputation as an executive 
made a favorable impression on the people of the state. Such a 
combination was precisely what the institution needed; his ac- 
ceptance of the appointment, therefore, was welcomed by all who 
were interested in the college. 

Personally Mr. Gibbs was tall and handsome, possessed of 
great natural dignity, and inclined somewhat to strictness, but 
possessed also with a very lively sense of humor. Mrs. Gibbs was 
a charming and excellent hostess. Mrs. Clarence Scott has said 
of Mrs. Gibbs that she was "the ideal president's wife." There is 
no doubt that this second of the Durham "first ladies" was a very 
valuable help to her impulsive, witty, and not uniformly tactful 


History of University of New Hampshire 

The inauguration of the new president, October 28, 1903, 
was combined with the ceremony of dedicating the new agricul- 
tural building. This was named Morrill hall in honor of Senator 
Justin Morrill of Vermont, the author of the land grant act of 
1862. Governor Nahum J. Bachelder made the opening speech 
and formally presented the new head of the college to the state 
and to the campus. President Gibbs chose as the subject of his 
inaugural address, The Mission of the Land Grant Colleges. He 
discussed with great keenness and objectivity the problem of demo- 
cratic education confronting those publicly supported colleges 
which are charged with the duty of technical and agricultural edu- 
cation. He could do little more than sketch an outline of his 
ideas and opinions in the short space of this speech but his descrip- 
tion of the proper function of a land grant college followed closely 
that given by his predecessor ten years before. Both President 
Murkland and President Gibbs, the one a clergyman and the other 
an agricultural scientist, found essentially the same problems fac- 
ing them, and they turned to essentially the same solutions and 
policies. If anything, President Gibbs was more vigorous than 
President Murkland in his advocacy of a college which would 
meet the full needs of New Hampshire in higher education and in 
his assertion that nothing in the law or in the conditions laid down 
by the benefactors of the college precluded such a development. 
He stood firmly on that platform throughout his presidency. 

The speech of President Gibbs was followed by the address of 
Harvey L. Boutwell, '82, who welcomed the new president on be- 
half of the alumni. A. C. True, director of the office of the Ex- 
periment stations in the United States department of agriculture, 
gave the dedicatory address for the new building, speaking on the 
subject, The New Agricultural Education. The final speaker was 
Joseph B. Walker of Concord, one of the original trustees, who 
read an historical sketch of the college. 

The addition of this large building to the campus added much 
general enjoyment to the inauguration ceremonies. Previously, 
both President Gibbs and the college had suffered a considerable 
loss. The new president had planned to move into the presi- 
dential residence on September 2 1 after the completion of various 
repairs on the house. All the family's furniture and other per- 
sonal belongings had been moved in, preparatory to occupancy. 
About 2:45 a. m. on Sunday, the twentieth, fire was discovered in 
the house. Before it could be controlled, the house and all its 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

contents were totally destroyed. President and Mrs. Gibbs ar- 
rived on the scene to find both their new home and all their per- 
sonal property destroyed. 

Even more important than the loss of the house or its fur- 
nishings was the loss of all President Gibbs' manuscript lectures 
and notes and similar possessions which were irreplaceable. The 
college had insured the house to the amount of about two-thirds 
of its value. When the question of building a presidential resi- 
dence arose, the trustees found that they did not have enough 
money on hand to go ahead without assistance. To solve this 
problem, they accepted an offer from Walter M. Parker of Man- 
chester to build such a house as the trustees might direct, at his own 
expense, providing that the college should have the right to buy 
this building at actual cost plus interest on the investment at four 
percent. Pending purchase, the college would also pay for in- 
surance and repairs. Having accepted this proposal, both parties 
proceeded as agreed, and in 1905, the college paid Mr. Parker 
the price of $5,500 out of a special appropriation. 

The board of trustees underwent a number of important 
changes during or just after the administration of President Gibbs. 
During this period, Warren Brown of Hampton Falls completed 
24 years of service on the board, from 1887 to 1913, with the ex- 
ception of a two-year interval from 1893 to 1895. Mr. Brown 
had been president of the board during his last four years of 
service. Lucien Thompson of Durham also retired in 1913 after 
serving 21 years, during 17 of which he had been secretary. He 
and his family, the only remaining close relatives of Benjamin 
Thompson in Durham, moved to Colorado where he found the 
climate better for his health. 

Charles W. Stone of East Andover had been for 22 years, 
from 1887 to 1909, an important and active member of the board. 
He was its president from 1905 to 1909. Only two years less 
was the term of office of John G. Tallant of Concord who served 
as a trustee from 1892 to 1912. Richard M. Scammon of Strat- 
ham served from 1899 to 1911. The death of George A. Wason 
of New Boston in 1904 brought to an end his 21 years of active 
leadership on the board of trustees, during nine years of which 
he had served as acting president or as president. Another valu- 
able member lost to the board during the administration of Presi- 
dent Gibbs was George B. Williams of Walpole who served from 
1895 to 1906. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Nahum J. Bachelder was appointed to the board in 1903 and 
served one year as president, from 1904 to 1905. Edward H. 
Wason, 1 '86 of Nashua was appointed in 1906, and George H. 
Bingham of Manchester in 1908, Richard W. Sulloway of Frank- 
lin in 1909, and William H. Caldwell of Peterboro in 1912. 
Harvey L. Boutwell of Maiden, Massachusetts, was elected in 1911 
as an alumni trustee. He became president of the board three 
years later and served until his death on February 4, 1929. James 
A. Tufts of Exeter became secretary of the board of trustees in 
1914 and served in that capacity until 1928. 

There were numerous new appointments, and several new 
departments were created during President Gibbs' administration. 
Frederick W. Taylor of Ohio State university was appointed pro- 
fessor of agriculture and head of the department of agriculture in 
1903. In 1908, he became professor of agronomy. Harry A. 
Hayward was appointed associate professor of agriculture in charge 
of animal husbandry and dairying in 1902. He remained only 
one year and was replaced by Edward L. Shaw as assistant pro- 
fessor of agriculture in charge of animal husbandry. With the 
appointment of William H. Pew, in 1907, as assistant professor of 
animal husbandry that department was organized. In 1910, Otto 
L. Eckman was appointed assistant professor of animal husbandry. 
He was promoted, the next year, to the rank of associate professor 
and became a full professor the year after that. His work estab- 
lished the department as a permanent and successful part of the 

Joseph Hawes of the drawing department resigned in 1905 
after nine years of service. His place was taken a year later by 
Frederick W. Putnam. In 1907, Thomas J. Laton, '04, was 
added to the department as an instructor. Charles Brooks was 
appointed instructor in botany in 1905 and promoted to a full pro- 
fessorship in 1908. After his resignation in 1912, his place was 
taken by Ormond R. Butler who remained as head of the botany 
department until his death on October 24, 1940. 

The chemistry department lost two outstanding men by the 
resignation of Fred Morse, in 1909, and Charles Parsons, in 1912. 
The latter resignation was the occasion for a lively discussion of the 
condition of the faculty. Professor Parsons had been one of the 

1 Edward H. Wason was the son of George A. Wason whose long service 
on the board is mentioned above. He was later congressman from New 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

most highly regarded faculty members. He had brought favor- 
able attention to the college by winning the Nichols gold medal 
in 1905 for research on the rare element beryllium. This was 
the more noteworthy because Professor Parsons was the second 
person ever to receive the award in the United States. Though 
he had been the highest paid member of the faculty, the new post 
of chief mineral chemist in the federal bureau of mines carried a 
salary far beyond what New Hampshire could pay. In his letter 
of resignation Professor Parsons said that the salary was not the 
decisive factor causing his resignation. The vital reason was the 
governor's veto of the bill for an engineering building, lacking 
which, he felt that he could not sufficiently develop and expand 
his work. Harvey L. Boutwell, president of the alumni, wrote 
in the third number of the New Hampshire: 

"When an able, experienced, and learned professor 
feels called upon to resign his position because appro- 
priations are not available for the furnishing of proper 
equipment for carrying on instruction in his department 
... is it not fair to say that the state is negligent in its 

The pay of a full professor had remained at $2,000 for more than 
20 years and only two members of the faculty beside the president 
received more than this amount. 

In this case, both the college and the department of chemis- 
try were extremely fortunate in having a brilliant young English- 
man, Charles James, who had come to Durham six years before as 
an instructor in chemistry and was now ready to take Professor 
Parsons' position as head of the chemistry department. He also 
had won the Nichols medal, in 1911, for his research in rare 
earths. Under this new leader, the department grew in a man- 
ner entirely worthy of the tradition established by his predecessors. 

The department of dairy husbandry was placed on a firm 
basis by Fred Rasmussen, a native of Denmark, who came to New 
Hampshire after being associated with Iowa and Purdue. He was 
very popular with the student body, who cherished this story 
about his accent. In common with many Danes, he had trouble 
pronouncing his "r's." One morning he came into the Experi- 
ment station and asked what the meaning was of all the "wow" 
outside. "All the what?" asked Mr. Curry. "The wow," he re- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

plied, "the wacket, the wumpus!" This curious alliteration be- 
came a student singsong for years. 

W. Ross Wilson, who is now connected with the Extension 
service, joined the dairy department in 1912 as an instructor. The 
department of economics was established in 1911 with the ap- 
pointment of associate professor Guy C. Smith. Previously, Pro- 
fessor Scott had given courses in political economy in addition to 
his courses in history. Ernest R. Groves took over President 
Murkland's courses in philosophy and English in 1903, with the 
rank of instructor. He resigned in 1906 to accept a position at 
Dartmouth but returned to New Hampshire two years later with 
the rank of professor. He was made head of the new depart- 
ment of psychology and sociology in 1910. 

Arthur F. Nesbit was head of the combined department of 
physics and electrical engineering from 1895 to 1908. In the 
latter year, the two fields were separated, and Charles E. Hewitt, 
'93, was made professor of electrical engineering. Professor Hew- 
itt, after completing his graduate work at Cornell, had been en- 
gaged in manufacturing electrical equipment, including some de- 
vices of his own invention, until he accepted the invitation to 
teach at his alma mater. 

The place of Clarence M. Weed, professor of zoology and en- 
tomology, was taken, after his resignation in 1904, by E. Dwight 
Sanderson. The latter also became director of the Experiment 
station in 1907 succeeding Director Gibbs. Among those added 
to this department was C. Floyd Jackson who was appointed in- 
structor in 1908. With the resignation of Professor Sanderson 
two years later, the departments were separated and Mr. Jackson 
became professor of zoology and Walter C. O'Kane became pro- 
fessor of entomology. 

A forestry department was established in 1911 with the ap- 
pointment of Professor John H. Foster of the United States forest 
service. Frank W. Rane, professor of horticulture, resigned in 
1906 after 11 years of outstanding work. He was succeeded as 
head of the department by Harry F. Hall. He served for two 
years and was followed in his turn by Bethel S. Pickett. In 1912, 
Joseph H. Gourley took Professor Pickett's place. 

Carleton A. Read, professor of mechanical engineering since 
1899, resigned in 1908 to accept a position at Worcester Poly- 
technic institute. Forrest E. Cardullo was appointed in his place. 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

Richard Whoriskey, who was advanced to a professorship in 
1908, acquired two assistants in the department of languages: 
the Reverend Telesphore Taisne, in 1909, and Frederick W. Whit- 
man, two years later. The former was pastor of the Durham 
Congregational church. Though a native of France, he had re- 
ceived part of his education in America. His untimely death in 
1912, at the age of 35, was mourned by the entire college. 

Captain Vernon A. Caldwell was chairman of the depart- 
ment of military science at the beginning of President Gibbs' ad- 
ministration. He was followed by Captain William E. Hunt who 
served from 1904 to 1909. First Lieutenant G. W. Edgerly was 
in command during the last three years of President Gibbs' term 
of office. 

The position of registrar was created in 1904 with the ap- 
pointment of Miss Mabel E. Townsend. For the first three years, 
it was only a half time position and Miss Townsend was also as- 
sociate librarian. She resigned in 1911 and Miss Florence Trim- 
mer was appointed in her place. Charles W. Stone, a former 
trustee, was appointed superintendent of the college farm in 1909. 

In 1909, the trustees' request "for admission into the bene- 
fits of the Carnegie foundation for the advancement of teaching" 
was granted. This fund was designed to aid aged or otherwise 
incapacitated teachers. This move, theoretically, gave the faculty 
a greater degree of security. No one, however, received any bene- 
fit as none were eligible before 1917 when this fund was incor- 
porated into the present annuity system. 

Some of the changes in courses are indicated above in the 
listing of faculty changes. Entrance requirements were revised 
and made stricter, in 1911, at the request of the State Teachers' 
association, to conform to the new standard of the National Edu- 
cation association. These requirements were the familiar 1 5 units, 
each unit representing a year of high school work in a subject. 
English, algebra, plane geometry, physics, one modern language, 
and one year of history were required of all students, and of those 
electing engineering courses, solid geometry was also required. 
The rest of the 1 5 units could be made up out of a list of electives 
which included vocational subjects. New Hampshire was the 
first college in New England to accept this system. Practically all 
freshmen entered by certificate. 

Greater attention was paid to the needs of the prospective 
teacher through the introduction of such courses as psychology, 


History of University of New Hampshire 

the philosophy of education, or the history of educational theories. 
Professor Groves took the lead in this work. The first announce- 
ment of a course in the teaching of a specific subject was the teach- 
ing of mathematics, offered by associate professor F. C. Moore in 
1912. During the discussion of the establishment of a new nor- 
mal school in Keene, friends of the college made great efforts to 
have a "normal department" added to the college in Durham and 
pointed out the number of factors necessary for the success of 
such a school already in existence here. Among them were the 
courses in education already mentioned. The proposal did not 
meet with favor; instead, a counter proposal was offered, which 
afterward became a more or less unofficial policy, namely that the 
college should prepare teachers for the secondary schools, and the 
normal schools for the pre-secondary grades. A "normal manual 
arts course," to train teachers of manual training was first offered 
in 1911 with the claim that it was unique in the country on the 
ground of the superior training here available. 

The most remarkable change came in the expansion of the 
old general course. Established at first to enable women to at- 
tend the college, it had gradually included some men as well. 
Almost all graduates of this curriculum became teachers. Pro- 
fessor Groves reported in 1911 that: "Its growth has been ham- 
pered by those who see in it only a means of graduating men for 
whom no department wishes to be responsible." The scholar- 
ship, he said, was very poor and the course was, in general, re- 
garded as a sort of poor relation. The name had been changed 
to the arts and science course in 1911, and two years later, the 
college was reorganized into three divisions: the agricultural, the 
engineering, and the arts and science divisions. Many new courses 
were introduced during this period due to the efforts of Professor 
Groves, seconded by President Gibbs, in order to put the instruc- 
tion in this division on a stronger foundation. 

It is a curious bit of irony that it was reserved for President 
Gibbs, the agriculturist, to approve the introduction of courses 
in Latin over which President Murkland had had so much trouble. 
Four semester courses were offered in the 1910 catalogue, includ- 
ing readings in Livy, Pliny, Terence, Tacitus, and Horace. Ap- 
parently no objections were raised by the former opponents of the 
classical languages so the comparison with the storm of protest 
raised only 15 years before is impressive. The physics require- 
ment for admission to the arts and science course was made elec- 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

tive at the same time, and the taking of two years of science dur- 
ing the college course was required in its place. 

The Misses Sarah and Alvena Pettee, daughters of the dean, 
both joined in urging the establishment of courses in domestic 
science at the college in connection with the arts and science divi- 
sion. President Gibbs requested help from the legislature toward 
the organization of such a program several times, but no action 
was taken until the following administration. 

The expansion of the agricultural division staff and the build- 
ing of Morrill hall led to the introduction of a wider variety of 
courses which were grouped under four general heads: "Agron- 
omy, or technical agriculture; Zootechny, or animal industry; Agro- 
techny, or dairying; and Rural Engineering and Farm Economy." 
This department came closer than any other to having adequate 
quarters though it suffered somewhat from lack of equipment. 
In 1910, the department listed as its needs for the ensuing five 
years: a horse barn, toolshed, piggery, poultry plant, more stock, 
cold storage facilities, a milk room, a dairy laboratory, offices and 
fraternity rooms in Morrill hall, and a fund for exhibits at fairs, 
for printing bulletins, and for extension work in the state. 

The chemical, electrical, and mechanical engineering depart- 
ments found their chief difficulty in the lack of room. The ad- 
vanced courses in chemistry were limited to 18 students because 
of the shortage of laboratory space. This worked a considerable 
hardship because of the great popularity of chemistry. 

When a special course of lectures on the automobile was 
offered in 1906, there was an enrollment of more than 80 students. 
Stereopticon lantern slides were used and the agent for the "Olds 
motor car" in Dover agreed to furnish three or four cars of differ- 
ent makes in which students could take rides of an hour or more 
"to give experience in steering under different speeds, turning 
around, backing, etc." Electric, gasoline, and steam models were 
studied. One professor remarked at the time that many more 
such progressive and forward looking steps could be taken if the 
difficulties of filling routine needs were not so great. Leaving all 
that aside, the horseless carriages were hugely enjoyed, even though 
they were already becoming less of a novelty. 

The new forestry department not only gave instruction but 
also undertook the operation of tree nurseries to be used in aiding 
reforestation in the state. Eleven acres of land purchased from 
Charles Hoitt, in 1912, for $10,000, were partly planted with 


History of University of New Hampshire 

seedlings of white pine, European larch, Douglas fir, and Norway 
spruce. The work of the forestry department won immediate 
support from the lumbermen of the state. Davis park, an eight 
acre plot in Lee which was given to the college in 1911 by Thomas 
J. Davis of Duluth, Minnesota, had already been planted with 
chestnut, pine, catalpa, and basswood by Mr. Davis. Professor 
Foster undertook to start conifers on the unplanted part of the 
land. In making this gift, Mr. Davis said that while his first 
purpose was educational, that is, to provide a forestry laboratory, 
he had another of a different nature. That purpose was an an- 
nual nutting party to be known as Davis Park day and to be held 
each October during the lifetime of the trees that he had planted. 
Since such trees usually live for one or two centuries, this me- 
morial to the parents of Mr. Davis was one of at least great en- 
durance, but not so the idea of the nutting party. Unfortunately, 
nutting parties had quite gone out of fashion by the time that the 
bequest was accepted so the college lost, before it ever gained, this 
pleasant custom. 

A proposal made by Professor Cardullo for the establishment 
of a textile school was taken up by the legislature but won little 
support in spite of the importance of the textile industry in New 
Hampshire at the time. 

The long-established custom of requiring a thesis from all 
graduates was modified by a decision in 1911 that the matter 
should be left to the discretion of the department heads in the 
electrical and mechanical engineering courses, but the require- 
ment was still enforced in the other departments. 

On the other hand, regulations regarding absences from 
classes were stiffened. In 1908, the control of class attendance 
was placed in the hands of the individual instructors with the pro- 
vision that any instructor might exclude a student from an ex- 
amination, without the necessity of faculty action, for being ab- 
sent more than 20 percent of the sessions of any course. After 
two years' trial, this system was abandoned and sole authority to 
excuse absences was placed in the hands of the dean. The College 
Monthly announced that one absence would result in the offender's 
being called before the dean, "and more than one is liable to re- 
sult in the probation of the 'cutter.' ' Schedules were very full, 
and with strict enforcement of the rules against absences, it meant 
that most students were in classes from 8:00 in the morning to 
11:50 and from 1:30 to 4:00 practically every day. 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

Increase in the size of the faculty resulted in more efficient 
organization of administrative duties. Committees were organized 
in 1911 and 1912 to subdivide this work. These committees and 
their chairmen were: Administration, President Gibbs; Agricul- 
tural, Professor Taylor; Arts and Science, Professor Scott; Engi- 
neering, Professor Hewitt; Athletics, Professor David; Non-Ath- 
letic Organizations, Professor Putnam; Electives, Professor Scott; 
Entrance, Dean Pettee; Publicity, Professor Groves; Rules and 
Schedules, Dean Pettee; Student Welfare, Professor Cardullo; and 
Lecture Course, Professor Whoriskey. The College Monthly sug- 
gested that the student welfare committee could perform a great 
service by carrying out regular but unannounced inspections of fra- 
ternities and boarding houses. Professor Cardullo thanked the 
editors for the suggestion and urged the students to bring him re- 
ports, "especially complaints" about all matters with which the 
committee was concerned. 

The first addition to the plant of the college during the ad- 
ministration of President Gibbs was the long-awaited gymnasium. 
As late as 1905, Captain Hunt reported to the trustees that the 
college had been placed on probation by the war department be- 
cause of the lack of proper facilities for the military course. He 
stated that the lack of a proper drill hall, the necessity of students 
storing their arms and other equipment in their own rooms, and 
the shortage of suitable office and classroom space would compel 
the government to withdraw its instructors and equipment unless 
something were done very soon to improve matters. 

For years the biggest campaign of the College Monthly was 
for a gymnasium. In 1894, the editors pointed out that it would 
be necessary to have a drill hall for the military exercises and 
urged that a "thorough business" be made of it and that a gym- 
nasium be erected at the same time. However, drills were held 
either out of doors or in the hallways of Thompson hall, and 
there were no signs of any gymnasium. Two years later, it was 
suggested that recipients of scholarships, which included practical- 
ly everyone, should give five percent of the scholarship toward a 
gymnasium fund. Some money was raised and invested in ath- 
letic equipment. The Athletic association advocated "fixing up 
part of the barn as a cage and using the room originally intended 
for a foundry as a gym." 

In 1902, at a meeting of the Athletic association, $530 was 
pledged by students toward a fund for the construction of a gym- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

nasium. Professor Richard Whoriskey was treasurer of the fund 
which grew slowly, at the rate of a little over $500 a year. Presi- 
dent Murkland appealed for $25,000 for a gymnasium in his last 
report, pointing out that the big room in Thompson hall was used 
for chapel, mass meetings, drill, basketball, socials, fraternity par- 
ties, and commencement exercises, which was hardly a proper situ- 
ation. The money raised by the students could be used for equip- 
ment, he said, but they could hardly be expected to raise enough 
to pay for a suitable building. 

By 1905, the joint committee of students, faculty, trustees, 
and alumni had raised over $2,500; obviously, however, though 
this might be enough to equip a proper gymnasium, there was no 
chance of the fund reaching an amount large enough to construct 
the building. This committee went to the legislature of 1905 
with an urgent plea for $25,000 which was finally granted. The 
trustees immediately appointed a building committee including 
President Gibbs, Trustee John G. Tallant, and Walter M. Parker 
of Manchester, treasurer of the college. Randlett and Griffin of 
Concord were the architects in charge of construction. By Janu- 
ary, 1906, the building was completed. It included a large drill 
hall and gymnasium with offices for the military department on 
the first floor and a college club room on the second floor. The 
latter ran across the whole front part of the building. The alumni 
raised money to buy a piano for the club room and President Gibbs 
donated easy chairs and other furnishings. Two tables for billi- 
ards and pool were installed as well as tables for whist and similar 
games. An indoor rifle range was constructed in the basement 
of the gymnasium four years later for the use of the military sci- 
ence department. 

One thousand dollars of the money which was used to equip 
the gymnasium was a gift from the Boston and Maine railroad. 
The St. Johns express was wrecked near the college shops on the 
night of January 20, 1905, because a defective rail gave way. 
Both students and faculty hurried to the scene, broke into the cars, 
and helped the passengers to escape. A number of the badly 
injured were taken to the Zeta house or the home of Dr. Grant 
where they were given emergency treatment. President Tuttle 
of the Boston and Maine railroad sent a check for $1,000 to be 
used as the faculty and students might decide as an expression of 
the company's gratitude for this assistance. 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

The dedication of the gymnasium was held on January 26, 
1906, with a military ball attended by over 400 people. Gov- 
ernor John McLane received the keys of the building, which were 
two feet long and weighed 15 pounds apiece and which had been 
forged in the college shops. He turned them over to President 
Gibbs after making a congratulatory speech. President Gibbs, 
Professor Parsons, and Carl T. Fuller, '06, were the committee in 
charge of buying equipment with the $1,500 raised by the stu- 
dents and alumni and the $1,000 provided by the Boston and 
Maine railroad. 

When the institution moved to Durham, the college library 
was housed in a room on the first floor of Thompson hall, with a 
reading room adjoining for the use of the students. In 1893, the 
college had a total library of 3,500 volumes, with about 2,000 
pamphlets in addition. The Durham town library had about the 
same number of books, which students were permitted to use. 
The Durham Social library was incorporated in 1893 as the Dur- 
ham Library association, and shortly after, made a contract with 
the town to provide public library service. The building in which 
the library was located had been purchased with the money from 
Benjamin Thompson's hay crops which had accumulated at the 
rate of nearly $1,000 annually over a period of years. Out of the 
remainder of these funds after purchasing the building, a small 
endowment fund was established. As a result of Benjamin 
Thompson's generosity, Durham had a rather large and well- 
cared-for library for such a small town, and the collection grew al- 
most as fast as that of the college. 

After the college came to Durham, Professor Scott served as 
librarian on a part-time basis, with some assistance from students. 
According to his account, the condition of the college library was 
extremely bad. After 25 years of the college's existence, he said 
that there were only a little over 300 books in the lot which 
were really usable for the students' purposes. This situation had 
been neglected at Hanover because of the availability of Dart- 
mouth's large library, but now it was necessary for the college to 
start building up its own collection. 

By 1903, the college library was reported to contain 10,000 
books and 5,200 pamphlets. The Durham library had over 
8,000 books. Both libraries were cramped for lack of facilities 
and anxious for expansion. The will of Hamilton Smith, a 
wealthy resident of Durham, had set aside a fund of $10,000 to be 


History of University of New Hampshire 

used to build a new town library, but nothing was done with this 
money immediately. 

Professor Scott was the first librarian to introduce the Dewey 
Decimal system of classifying books in a New Hampshire library. 
This was done when he was librarian of the Dartmouth library 
from 1874 to 1878. This system has always been used in the 
New Hampshire College library, and in 1893, by the use of this 
system of classification as well as a new system of shelving, Pro- 
fessor Scott was able to bring some order into the collection of the 

According to the rules of the library in 1893, students were 
permitted to take not more than four books at a time, "without 
respect to classes," for two weeks. The reading room was sup- 
plied with several newspapers and magazines. The latter might 
also be borrowed by students. Bound volumes of Harper's and 
the Atlantic Monthly and Poole's Index to Current Literature 
were kept on open shelves in the reference room which was the 
same as the reading room. The student magazine frequently in- 
cluded editorials on the need for more books. At the same time, 
it criticized the students even more often for the improper use or 
the lack of use of the library. The reading room, they said, "com- 
pares very favorably with the waiting room of some railway sta- 
tion . . ." Officers of the student battalion were given the job 
of keeping order, under threat of being reduced to the ranks if 
they failed in their duty. The editors waxed ironic over student 
neglect of their library privileges, announcing at one time that 
"... during these few weeks that college has been in 
session twenty-four books and five unbound magazines 
have been taken out ... As our library contains only a 
few over fifty-five hundred books, it is gratifying to see 
what a large proportion are being put to good use . . ." 
Professor Scott demanded that students refrain from using the 
reading room as a social gathering place. As the library grew 
and improved, the students found greater incentive for the proper 
use of the facilities, and the number and vigor of the complaints 

The bequest of Hamilton Smith to the town of Durham for a 
library building was left in trust to Henry C. Perkins and grew 
to $12,888 before it was used. President Gibbs opened negotia- 
tions with both the town library and the Durham Library associa- 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

tion to arrange for a merger of all the libraries in Durham. The 
association had an endowment of about $11,000, the income from 
which had been used to purchase books. Under the agreement 
finally reached by the three groups, the books of all three organi- 
zations were to be united in one library serving the town and the 
college on an equal basis. The board of trustees of the college 
was given control of the library and the management of its af- 
fairs. The income of the association's endowment was to be de- 
voted to the purchase of books, with the provision that the as- 
sociation reserved the title to all of its books and that they be given 
distinctive markings to indicate such ownership. The town agreed 
to appropriate at least $25 a year for new books or magazines. 

Andrew Carnegie gave $20,000 toward the cost of the li- 
brary in 1905, and this sum added to the Smith fund was enough 
to start building operations. The building was planned after a 
standard model provided by the trustees of the Carnegie fund. In 
addition to the reading and reference rooms and a three-story 
stack with a capacity of about 60,000 volumes, plans were made 
for rooms for seminars and study groups, an historical collection, 
and office and catalogue rooms. 

The state appropriated $10,000 for equipment, which was 
not installed until the summer of 1907. Dedication ceremonies 
were held on Monday, June 3, 1907, in connection with the com- 
mencement exercises, although the building was not ready for use 
until the following November. 

The first inventory of the consolidated library showed a total 
of over 22,000 volumes, with 150 periodicals and magazines be- 
ing received regularly. Under the new arrangement, the re- 
sponsibilities and duties of the librarian were so expanded that 
Professor Scott found he would have to give up his teaching if he 
were to continue as librarian. He preferred the teaching and ac- 
cordingly resigned as librarian. Professor Scott took great pride 
in his work as college librarian and was active in planning the 
new building. 

Miss Gertrude Whittemore was appointed librarian but re- 
mained only one year, after which Miss Mabel Hodgkins of Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology was engaged. Miss Charlotte 
Thompson, previously librarian for the town, was appointed as- 
sistant librarian. In this position, she not only performed her duty 
well, but won the regard and affection of students for more than 
two decades. For a large number of the alumni of New Hamp- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

shire, the library will always be associated with "Aunt Lottie 

The third major building constructed while Mr. Gibbs was 
president was the women's dormitory which had been so long an- 
ticipated. Mrs. Hamilton Smith had offered the college $10,000 
to be used for this purpose but unfortunately died before she could 
carry out her plan. Her daughter by a previous marriage, Edith 
Angela Congreve, who became Mrs. Shirley Onderdonk, decided 
to carry out her mother's wishes and gave $16,000 toward the 
construction of Smith hall which was named for her mother. Mrs. 
Smith had also provided that the residue of her estate, after deduc- 
tion of specific legacies, should, upon her daughter's death, be 
divided equally between Dartmouth and New Hampshire colleges 
to be used for their general purposes. This money did not become 
available until 1920 when it was used for the construction of Con- 
greve hall. 

The total cost of Smith hall was $28,500, of which sum, 
$12,500 was appropriated by the legislature. The style of the 
building was called "Old English." The first floor contained a 
dining room, kitchens, reception hall, and the matron's quarters. 
On the second and third floors were rooms for 32 girls. The 
basement contained a boiler room, a laundry, and service rooms. 
The building has since been remodeled to provide rooms for more 
than twice as many girls. The new dormitory was not so suc- 
cessful in bringing more women to the college as had been hoped. 
Later, when further attractions in the form of better courses to 
meet the specific desires of women students had been added, the 
dormitory was filled. A dormitory for men was needed as much 
as one for women. Efforts were made to have as many of the 
freshmen as possible room together in the Pettee block, which was, 
practically, a freshman dormitory. The upperclassmen roomed in 
private homes or in fraternities. Other needs, however, were con- 
sidered much more pressing, though the trustees prepared a plan 
in 1910 for a dormitory to cost $60,000 and which would house 
100 men. In connection with this, they asked the attorney gen- 
eral \i the principal of the Conant fund could be used for such a 
purpose. They pointed out that a larger income could be derived 
from such an investment than from any other. As his answer was 
in the negative, the matter was dropped. 

Several smaller buildings for the use of the agricultural de- 
partment were added during the administration of President Gibbs. 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

A large and well equipped dairy building was completed in 1910 
at a cost of $21,000. This is the present building which stands 
behind Morrill hall. A new range of greenhouses was built be- 
tween Morrill hall and the shops, where James hall now stands. 
Sheep and horse barns were built in 1909 and 1912 respectively, 
at a total cost of $8,000. It was much easier to get money from 
the legislature for the agricultural interests than for any other ac- 
tivity or department of the college. 

Ever since the arrival of the college in Durham, there had 
been complaints concerning the appearance of the buildings and 
land between the sites of Smith hall and the gymnasium. The 
buildings there provided an unpleasant contrast to the new build- 
ings on the campus, though they were considered good enough to 
house students and usually did. This land was purchased in 1912, 
at the time that the Boston and Maine railroad company began to 
carry out its 20 year-old plan to move its tracks. The Pittsburgh 
alumni wrote to the college on receipt of this news and contrasted 
the campus of the future with the one they had known, "divided by 
railroad tracks and blotted by numerous old buildings; an eyesore 
to every alumnus . . " It was the unanimous opinion of the 
Pittsburgh alumni that this purchase was the "biggest move of re- 
cent years." 

The promise of the railroad to move its tracks had been made 
by an official who had since died, and the project had been delayed 
by a series of unfavorable circumstances until the college feared 
the promise would not be kept. The opportunity, however, came 
with the decision to double track this section of the railroad. Ex- 
changes of land between the college and the railroad were ar- 
ranged and damages for the college were fixed. The old railroad 
station was moved down to a lot near the corner of Main street 
and Mill road where it became Runlett's store for many years and 
is now occupied by a chain store. The station at Lynn, Massachu- 
setts, was taken apart and shipped to Durham and reerected. When 
first built, 16 years before, according to the College Monthly, this 
station had cost $10,000 and had been considered a model of its 

One campaign which did not prove successful until later was 
to secure a new engineering building. The need for additional 
space had become acute, but repeated requests to the legislature 
were unsuccessful. Albert DeMeritt was representative to the 
legislature from Durham for the session of 191 1. Requests total- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

ing $163,000 were laid before the house committee on the college 
which visited Durham in February and which was reported to 
have voted unanimously for the entire appropriation. By April 
the bill had been cut down to $31,500, 'eliminating everything 
not strictly relating to agriculture, and providing the necessary 
funds for the establishment of a course in forestry . . ." At first, 
Mr. DeMeritt had asked for $80,000 for the engineering build- 
ing, then had cut his request in half. Both figures were rejected. 
Dean Pettee called a mass meeting of the students and faculty to 
discuss means of getting the appropriation through. Mr. De- 
Meritt spoke and offered to introduce a joint resolution as a final 
effort to get favorable action. Students were urged to cooperate 
by "appealing personally to their representatives in Concord," as 
well as building up support for the college in their home towns. 
Other groups interested in the school were also called upon to 
assist. The joint resolution, calling for $50,000, was passed by 
both the house and senate by overwhelming majorities. So great 
was the margin that it was assumed that Governor Bass would 
sign the bill. The entire student body and faculty met Mr. De- 
Meritt at the railroad station with a brass band to welcome him 
home and to celebrate the victory. Yet, even as he was arriving 
in Durham, word came that the governor had vetoed the bill. The 
students went through with their bonfire just the same. 

There was a great deal of bitterness about the matter and 
many accused the governor of going back on his pledges to the 
college. However, Governor Bass had notified both houses of 
the legislature, a short while before the joint resolution was passed, 
that all income of the state for the next two years had already 
been appropriated and that he would refuse, therefore, to approve 
any further appropriations, no matter what their purpose. The 
representatives and senators knew this when they voted for the 
new building, but Mr. DeMeritt and his friends had assumed that 
the size of the favorable vote would persuade the governor to make 
an exception. Since Governor Bass did not do so, the college had 
to wait another two years for its engineering building. 

The first payment to the college from the Thompson fund 
was made on May first, 1910. There had always been consider- 
able misunderstanding among the people of the state regarding 
this fund. As late as 1907, President Gibbs had to correct mis- 
statements in one of the newspapers concerning the benefits which 
the college was thought to be then receiving. The final value 


Top Left: Memorial Tablet Top Right: Parnell-Corriveau Post, No. 385 

Middle, STUDENT ARMY TRAINING CORPS: Left, Naval Unit; Right, Army Unit 

Bottom: The Armistice Day Celebration 





























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The Administration of President Gibbs 

of the Thompson fund was $797,181.75 from which an annual in- 
come of $31,887.27 was received. 

Another very important addition to the annual income of the 
college was derived from the Nelson act of 1907 which provided 
that the fund from the second Morrill act, of 1890, was to be in- 
creased by $5,000 a year, beginning in 1908, until it reached a 
total of $50,000 in 1912. The college, in need of money for 
both general running expenses and for salaries, found these two 
increases in its income very welcome. Under different circum- 
stances, this increase of income would have solved all problems, 
but new problems were being created at an unusual rate by the 
great increase in the size of the student body as well as by the 
nature of the demands upon the college. Since the time when 
the college had moved to Durham, the student body had doubled 
itself with each decade, but the income did not keep pace with 
the increase of students. Moreover, prices and the cost of living 
also increased and thus lessened the purchasing value of the fixed 
income of the college. 

The income of the Experiment station from the federal gov- 
ernment was likewise increased, by the Adams act of 1906, from 
$15,000 to $30,000. This increase was made gradually, with 
$5,000 added in 1906 and $2,000 more annually until the maxi- 
mum was reached. President Gibbs served as director of the 
station from 1903 to 1907, when his duties as president became 
too great to permit his continuing in the dual capacity. Dwight 
Sanderson, professor of entomology, was then appointed director 
and served for three years. 

John C. Kendall, of the class of 1902, became director in the 
fall of 1910. The wisdom of this appointment has been attested 
by 29 years of successful leadership in the work of the station. 
Cooperative work with departments of the state government be- 
came more frequent during President Gibbs' administration, of 
which an example was the work of Professor O'Kane, who was 
appointed state agent for the suppression of the brown tail and 
gypsy moths. Not only did he direct the work of extermination 
and prevention but also undertook a very important series of ex- 
periments with the breeding of the gypsy moth, which, he an- 
nounced, "would necessitate the rearing of between one and two 
million caterpillars." Work with sheep and poultry received 
more attention than had been possible before, though improve- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

ment of stock feeds and better breeds of cattle continued to be of 
chief importance. 

Mr. Kendall was also appointed director of the extension 
work of the college in 1911 after the state legislature had appro- 
priated money for this purpose. Twenty-five hundred dollars a 
year was provided, with an additional $750 annually for 

". . . publishing and distributing information and other 
helpful literature upon agriculture, in such form as to 
be of the greatest service to the citizens of the state." 

The money became available on September 1, 1911, and thus be- 
gan the formal organized extension work at New Hampshire col- 
lege, although efforts toward dissemination of the benefits of the 
college to the entire state had been going on ever since the earliest 
days in Hanover. The new funds were to be used for demon- 
strations and cooperative experiments with farmers, particularly 
in the improvement of hay and corn crops and orchards, and in 
demonstrating the value of adding lime to the soil. Demonstra- 
tions of cattle testing and organization of testing associations and 
various kinds of agricultural cooperatives were also included in the 
program. These were methods of operation which had not pre- 
viously been practicable for the college. 

The agricultural division started issuing a weekly newsletter 
early in 1911 to all the agricultural magazines of New England 
and to some outside this region. The year before, a general news- 
letter covering the activities of all departments had been started 
which went to all the newspapers of the state and to some of the 
Boston papers. The publicity committee of the faculty, which 
was responsible for this innovation, reported that all the 70 papers 
in the state used the material in part and a few printed it entire. 
The work of President Gibbs as president of the New England 
Conference on Rural Progress which included representatives from 
all the state colleges, Granges, and boards of agriculture in the 
six states, was also of great value to the college. 

The Experiment station and the agricultural division cooper- 
ated in organizing correspondence reading courses in agriculture 
in 1911. These were later administered by the new Extension 
service. A textbook on soils was used the first year as well as 
station bulletins. More than 200 people took the course the first 
year, and plans were made to add reading courses on crops, mar- 
keting, animal husbandry, and other subjects until a three-year 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

course in elementary agriculture was developed. Groups were 
encouraged to form clubs which would be visited by the agricul- 
tural faculty and the station staff. 

Exhibits at fairs continued to be emphasized. At one such 
exhibit, such varied items as fruit, tools, insect boxes, dynamos, 
and Morris chairs were on display. No part of the work of the 
college was neglected in the exhibitions at the fairs since they 
proved to be one of the best methods of advertising the college. 

The Farmers' institutes were also revived, the first of such 
being announced as a "One- Week Course" in 1909. It was 
"planned to suit . . . the everyday practical farmer who cannot 
leave home work for any length of time, but who wishes to get 
some new ideas . . ." This institute, held in mid-winter, was very 
popular, and attendance grew to nearly 300 in four years. A 
women's section was introduced, and the custom of reserving Fri- 
day afternoon and evening for entertainments was established. 
Miss Frances Stern of Massachusetts Institute of Technology gave 
the first lectures on home economics for the women's group in 
1911. On August 15, 1912, the first Farmer's Basket Picnic and 
Educational Meeting was held, with 2,000 in attendance. Or- 
chard day was observed for the first time on May 17 of the same 
year with about 100 present. Fifty poultry raisers who met in 
February, 1912, took the first steps in organizing a state branch of 
the American Poultry association. All of these meetings were 
indicative of the increased interest which the college was to have 
in the life of the rural people of the state. 

The ten-week course in dairying was also offered again dur- 
ing President Gibbs' administration. The course began early in 
January and lasted until the middle of March and was open to 
both men and women without entrance examinations. Students 
had to be 16 years of age or older and possessed of a good com- 
mon school education or its equivalent. A tuition fee of five dol- 
lars was charged. Expenses for room, board, and books amounted 
to about $60. A certificate was awarded at the end of the course 
to those who had completed the work. 

The alumni sponsored two new meetings in 1911 which have 
since become annual affairs. These were a track meet and a prize 
speaking contest for high school students. The class of 191 1 gave 
prizes for the speaking contest and the Alumni association for the 
track meet. About 12 schools from New Hampshire, Massachu- 
setts, and Maine participated in the 13 events of the track meet, 


History of University of New Hampshire 

which was won by Manchester high school with Lynn Classical 
and Boston English schools tied for second place. Five New 
Hampshire schools and one in Massachusetts sent representatives 
to the interscholastic prize speaking contest, which was won by 
Lawrence Mitchell of Medford, Massachusetts, who had also been 
a prize winner for his school in the track meet. Mr. Albert De- 
Meritt and Professor David and Professor Smith were the judges 
of the prize speaking. Both of the events were designed to bring 
leading students from secondary schools to the New Hampshire 
campus to show them the available facilities as well as to encour- 
age athletic and forensic activities in the high schools and acad- 

The Alumni association became firmly established with a 
regular membership which gradually increased year by year. Grad- 
uates of the two-year course and recipients of honorary degrees 
were made eligible for membership and a card index of all gradu- 
ates was made. From this, an alumni register was printed in 
1911, listing 407 graduates with a bachelor of science degree, and 
61 graduates of the two-year course. The list of occupations of 
the graduates showed a considerable change from previous reports. 
Only 51 were engaged in agricultural pursuits, while 76 were in 
business, 26 were chemists, 81 were engineers, 50 were teachers, 
13 were physicians, 6 were lawyers, 2 were in the army, 7 in the 
weather bureau, and 1 was a minister. Sixty-eight were unknown 
or retired and 23 were dead. The drift away from the predomi- 
nantly agricultural college toward the future university was clearly 
shown in these figures. About the same time, a writer in the 
College Monthly defended the college against the charge that her 
graduates left the state to work elsewhere so that New Hampshire 
did not get the benefit of their training. Sixty-three percent of 
the graduates of the agricultural course and 70 percent from the 
arts and science course remained in the state, he reported, but 
most of the engineers had to find employment elsewhere because 
opportunities for them were to be found only in Massachusetts, 
New York, Pennsylvania, and similar centers of heavy industry. 
The opportunity to receive such training should be kept open to 
New Hampshire young people, he argued, for "provincialism has 
been the curse of China, the stagnation of Turkey; and let it not 
hinder the progress of the children of New Hampshire." 

Wherever they went, the alumni maintained their interest in 
their alma mater. During the campaigns to win legislative help 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

for the college, they became a major factor. Officers of the as- 
sociation held the alumni in touch with developments and urged 
them to greater efforts. At the same time that the bill for the en- 
gineering building was before the legislature, a bill was introduced 
to give the alumni the right to elect a second member of the board 
of trustees, who might be chosen from out of the state. It had 
been argued for some time that many of the ablest graduates lived 
in Massachusetts and other states and should be made eligible for 
election to the board. Also, graduates of the engineering courses 
felt that at least one member of the board should be an engineer. 
Seven trustees were required by law to be farmers and not one 
was an engineer, yet over 60 percent of the four-year students were 
taking engineering courses. Twice before, bills to provide for a 
non-resident alumni trustee had been defeated in the legislature, 
but the proposal was passed in 1911. Considering how much 
emphasis had been placed on the need for an engineer on the 
board, it is rather curious that the first non-resident alumni trustee 
elected was Harvey L. Boutwell of Maiden, Massachusetts, who 
was a lawyer. 

The proposal to change the name of the college to the Uni- 
versity of New Hampshire seems to have originated with the 
alumni though it is quite likely that others had the same idea. 
Whatever its source, the idea grew with the growth of the engi- 
neering and the arts and science divisions, whose graduates felt the 
need for a name which would give more recognition and prestige 
to their divisions of the college. Many students, said Dean Hew- 
itt at an alumni banquet, went out of the state for their college 
education because they did not know that "university courses" were 
offered at Durham, and others, who might know of these courses, 
went elsewhere because they were afraid that their work would 
not receive as much recognition if done at an "agricultural col- 

This last was the common name used for the college, which 
was doubly misleading, but the other commonly used named, Dur- 
ham college, was even worse. President Gibbs argued that even 
though New Hampshire did not need and could not afford a great 
university like those of some western states, still it should "have a 
few courses of the highest class," giving "special attention ... to 
those related to the industries of the state; such as forestry, domes- 
tic science, civil engineering and poultry." Furthermore, it would 
not be long before "a law school or a medical school will be es- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

tablished." The State grange led the opposition to this move be- 
cause they feared that it would encourage further expansion of the 
engineering and arts courses at the expense of the agricultural 
division. It was not time for the change and the proposal was 
defeated by the legislature of 1911. In support of the three pro- 
posals before that legislature, namely, the engineering building, 
the second alumni trustee, and the change of name, the Alumni 
association undertook the publication of the December, 1910, is- 
sue of the College Monthly as a special issue. It contained articles 
which described the functioning of the college and appeals to have 
the state meet its most pressing needs. The magazine was widely 
distributed among the legislators. As the alumni guaranteed the 
cost of the issue, the College Monthly was able to pay most of its 

The first New Hampshire night, precursor of the present 
Homecoming day, was held on November 9, 1906, as a rally for 
the Vermont football game. The number of alumni who ap- 
peared was disappointing, though many former football captains 
were present. The event was repeated annually and drew an in- 
creasing attendance of former students. The alumni banquet, 
which was held during commencement week for several years, 
later became the commencement banquet. Mid-winter banquets 
in Boston, sponsored by the Lynn and Boston branches of the 
Alumni association, were more successful. Members of the fac- 
ulty were speakers at these meetings. The annual meeting of the 
alumni continued to be held in Durham during commencement 
week. The first Founder's night was observed March 15, 1912, 
with President Gibbs and Mr. Harvey L. Boutwell, president of the 
board of trustees, as speakers. 

Local branches of the association, outside of the state, were 
organized during President Gibbs' administration. The branch 
at Lynn, Massachusetts, was very successful due to the large num- 
ber of New Hampshire men who were employed at the General 
Electric plants. The Boston group had a more precarious exist- 
ence. The wide diffusion of the graduates is indicated by the fact 
that branches were organized in Pittsburgh, Chicago, and Seattle 
although none of these three had over ten members each. 

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The number of students attending the college increased rap- 
idly. There were 121 students registered in all courses during 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

President Murkland's last year. The figure for the college year, 
1911-1912, was 315 registered in all courses, which indicates that 
the enrollment had nearly tripled in nine years. In the 19 years 
since the college had been in Durham, the enrollment had in- 
creased by almost 500 percent. With the exception of a six-year 
period in the late eighteen nineties, the four-year enrollment had 
increased with every year, but the two-year classes had varied con- 
siderably in size. Of the 1911-1912 total, 133 were taking agri- 
cultural courses, 96 engineering courses, and 83 arts and science 
courses. More than half of the agricultural students were reg- 
istered in the two-year course, so that the agricultural division 
had the smallest number of candidates for degrees of any division 
of the college. 

In 1912, a check of the alumni showed that more than half 
of them had been graduated during Mr. Gibbs' administration. 
The percentage of students who failed to finish their course de- 
creased greatly, though the percentage in both the agricultural 
groups continued to be high. 

During President Gibbs' administration, only six advanced 
degrees were granted; five were master of science degrees and one 
a master of engineering degree. Eight people, most of them trus- 
tees, received an honorary master of science degree in either 1904, 
1905, or 1906, and Harry F. Hall, instructor in horticulture, re- 
ceived an honorary bachelor of science degree in 1906. Presi- 
dent Gibbs then discontinued the custom of granting honorary de- 
grees for the rest of his term of office. 

The two established fraternities, Kappa Sigma and Zeta Ep- 
silon Zeta, did not meet the needs of a student body which in- 
creased so rapidly. Delta Xi, the third fraternity to be organized, 
was founded on October 10, 1903, with a charter membership 
of 11. They took the "old Zeta room" in Thompson hall, at 
first, until a residence could be secured. The building now known 
as the Loveren apartments was their first house. This group was 
granted a charter as Zeta chapter of the Theta Chi fraternity in 

The Beta Phi fraternity was organized in 1906 and occupied 
the house on Ballard street now used by the Student Cooperative. 
Beta Phi later became a chapter of Lambda Chi Alpha. Gamma 
Theta, which later became Alpha Tau Omega, was organized in 
1907. It took the Buzzell house near the Town hall for a few 
years. When Professor Parsons resigned to go to Washington, 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Gamma Theta bought his house, which is now the present Alpha 
Tau Omega house on Main street. 

The two-year men also had a fraternity, Alpha Tau Alpha, 
founded in 1905. They took an unidentified "house in the older 
part of town" the following year. Later, they moved into the 
former Gamma Theta house. 

Casque and Casket, an interfraternity senior and junior so- 
ciety, held its first initiation in the spring of 1905. This was fol- 
lowed by an informal dance. The College Monthly carried a 
complete description of the ceremonies: 

"A solemn procession, marching to the tune of a 
dirge, bore a casket, which was placed upon the plat- 
form, while dim lights were burning. Here a burial 
service was performed, and many of the study-worn 
books were conveyed to their last resting-place." 

The members wore black gowns and hoods. Even the programs 
were black and coffin-shaped. The titles of the officers carried 
out the pattern and included Undertaker, Embalmer, Tombstone, 
and Vault. The members were known as Mourners. The so- 
ciety devoted itself to discussions of student problems and efforts 
to improve student life and emphasized athletics. The annual 
Casque and Casket dance, preceded by their ceremonies, was one 
of the major social events of the spring house party season. This 
organization later became the interfraternity group. 

An indication of the desire to organize and regulate the ac- 
tivities of the fraternities was the first rushing or "chinning" agree- 
ment, which was signed in the spring of 1905 by Kappa Sigma, 
Zeta Epsilon Zeta, and Delta Xi. According to this agreement, 
no freshman was to be rushed before noon of the first Tuesday in 
November, nor pledged until noon of the following day. No 
freshman, or other new student, for the rules applied also to 
transfers, could room or board at a fraternity house until after 
he had been formally pledged and was wearing his pledge pin 
openly. The two older fraternities pledged about 15 new men a 
year and Delta Xi, a smaller number. The Zetas, on one occa- 
sion, initiated two two-year men, but this seems to have been ex- 
ceptional and contrary to the usual custom. 

Senior Skulls was founded in 1909 to 

"... promote brotherly feeling among its members, 

the fraternities, and between faculty and students; to 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

benefit athletics; and to do anything which will benefit 
New Hampshire College and its associations." 

Any member of the senior class was eligible for membership, and 
selection was made on the basis of athletic ability, scholastic 
standing, and leadership in campus activities. The six charter 
members were C. H. Swan, president; F. O. Chase, vice president; 
H. P. Corliss, secretary-treasurer; O. F. Bryant, chaplain; C. E. 
Peel, sentinel; and W. S. Abbott. Additional members were 
elected later in the year. 

The Agricultural club maintained a club room in Morrill 
hall which it used for meetings, debates, and other activities. Cattle 
and fruit judging teams were organized and sent out to some of the 
largest fairs in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. At the Brock- 
ton fair, one of these teams won the first honors of this kind for the 
college. Through the efforts of the club, a stock judging team 
was sent to Chicago in the fall of 1910 to take part in the national 
contest. Although the team did not finish very high in the com- 
petition, they acquitted themselves well enough to encourage the 
students and faculty to continue sending teams in later years. 

Alpha Zeta, honorary agricultural fraternity, was organized 
in 1903. The chapter was known as the Granite chapter and 
met in the Agricultural club rooms. It was proposed, in 1910, 
that the two organizations sponsor the publication of an agricul- 
tural paper, but the project was postponed because of lack of 

An Engineering society was formed in 1907 with J. H. Priest, 
'07, as president, and a branch of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers was organized on February 25, 1909, with 12 
charter members. Professor A. M. Buck was chairman, E. R. 
Fellows, '09, was secretary, and P. F. Ellsworth, '09, was the third 
member making up the executive committee. 

The Chemical Colloquium was founded in 1907 under the 
sponsorship of Professors Parsons and James. It was chartered 
as Mu chapter of Alpha Chi Sigma, national honorary chemical 
fraternity, on April 11, 1911. Twenty-one persons, including the 
two professors, were initiated. 

The youngest division of the college was represented by the 
Arts Course club, organized in 1907 with 20 members. Many 
of its meetings were open to the public, and with the help of Pro- 
fessor Harrison and Professor Groves, the club succeeded in bring- 
ing a number of prominent lecturers to the campus. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

The organizations of the women students increased both in 
number and membership. The W. H. A. society, which had been 
in existence for a number of years, became the most influential of 
these and maintained rooms in Dean Pettee's house. They were 
accused of being a socially ambitious clique by the College Month- 
ly, and another organization, called the W. E. D. club, was formed 
in 1904 to grve them competition. The first group to use a Greek 
letter name was the Pi Kappa society which was first listed in the 
annual directory of the College Monthly in the fall of 1910. W. 
H. A. took the name Alpha Alpha Alpha the following year and 
held its initiations in the Grange hall. 

With the growth of the student body, it became necessary 
to find some means of securing a better and more representative 
organization. A student council was organized in 1907 and con- 
sisted of three seniors and two juniors, not more than one of whom 
might be from a single fraternity. All class contests were to be 
placed under its supervision, and it was to act as a liaison body 
between faculty and students. The efficiency of the council was 
questioned by the College Monthly, in 1909, in an editorial which 
asked, "What use is it?" The faculty, it was claimed, had little 
respect for the council, and the student members lacked leader- 
ship and responsibility. The editorial stated that the faculty had 
made a new rule on scholarships, a short time before, "which seems 
to us inequitable, legally and morally," without consulting the 
student council in any degree, and nothing had been done about 
it. Suggestions for the improvement of the council were made, 
but they were chiefly concerned with such matters as keeping min- 
utes and observing parliamentary procedure. 

Casque and Casket took the initiative in 1912 in the reorgan- 
ization of the council and suggested a plan which was, with a few 
changes, adopted by the faculty. The object of the reorganized 
council was "to act as an advisory committee to the four-year stu- 
dents and to the president on general matters concerning student 
life." The membership included the president and one repre- 
sentative of the faculty, one student from each of the five fraterni- 
ties, and two non-fraternity students. Only seniors and juniors 
were eligible, and the fraternity representatives had to be mem- 
bers of Casque and Casket. A few weeks later, a similar organi- 
zation was provided for the two-year students. A girls' council 
was organized in 1911. One function of this council was to 
supervise the enforcement of the rules for women students. All 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

women students were required to room in Smith hall unless they 
were living at home or had been granted special permission by 
the president to live in a private home. Callers might be received 
only on Friday and Saturday evenings and then only until 10 
o'clock and in the parlors of the houses where the women lived, 
"and not elsewhere." Driving in carriages, boating, and similar 
excursions with men had to be chaperoned. Women students 
could only attend those entertainments approved by the dean, and 
permission had to be secured from the dean for any absence over- 
night. These rules also applied to women students living at 
home "in so far as the college deems wise." 

The College club was revived in connection with the plans 
for the use of the social room in the gymnasium and was open to 
all male students on the payment of the annual dues of $1.50. 
Though the room was comfortably furnished and provided with 
pool tables and other facilities for games, it was difficult to secure 
a large enough membership to pay expenses. President Gibbs 
gave generously to pay for the repairs for both the room and the 
equipment, but the dues received were scarcely enough to pay for 
janitor service and upkeep. There was no money at all to pay 
speakers or provide entertainment or to support smokers. The 
club was finally disbanded in 1911 and its functions were taken 
over by the college social committee, which was made up of ten 
students and five members of the faculty and which supported it- 
self by charging a small admission to its affairs. 

The boarding clubs were very important in the lives of the 
students. The chief ones were the Utopian and the Mystic clubs, 
which had their headquarters in the Pettee block. Rivalry be- 
tween these two clubs was keen, and their annual football game 
was a great, though slightly fantastic, event. It usually ended in 
a tie because no one would admit that the other side could pos- 
sibly have scored. The Utopian club moved to "Sawyer's dining 
hall" in 1908 and its quarters in the Pettee block were taken over 
by a new club known as the Phoenix. In 1912, the Crescent 
club was organized. 

The Mystic club introduced politics to the student body in 
1908. It endorsed the Taft and Sherman ticket and paraded 
through town behind an enormous banner. In retaliation, "dis- 
ciples of the 'Peerless One' [Bryan] also attempted a demonstra- 
tion, but their numbers were few and nothing came of it.*' In 
1912, Taft and Roosevelt clubs were organized, but the supply of 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Democrats seems to have been too limited to produce a Wilson 
club. The Roosevelt club, led by Smith Sanborn, '13, ran a rally 
at Thompson hall which was addressed by Colonel Winston 
Churchill, the author of Coniston, one of the most famous his- 
torical novels that has been written with a New Hampshire set- 
ting. The prominence of the speaker ensured both a large at- 
tendance and a moral victory for the Roosevelt faction. 

The Glee club was the most successful of the musical or- 
ganizations of the college. The College Monthly reported in 
1911 that the club "began as a minstrel troop, then it became a 
semi-concert company, this being followed by a musical comedy 
organization. Last year this became defunct ..." It was then 
reorganized "as a regular concert company." The musical come- 
dies which were presented included songs written by the students 
and a great many jokes at the expense of both students and fac- 
ulty. The profits from the productions of the club were used 
chiefly to encourage athletics. The football men received sweaters 
and football shoes purchased by the Glee club. The members of 
the baseball team were sometimes given sweaters but not base- 
ball shoes or gloves which they claimed to need much more. The 
college band, which claimed to be a brother organization, asked 
for money to hire an instructor and to buy a bass drum. The Glee 
club compromised on this request and gave $25 toward hiring 
an instructor for the band and the same amount to the baseball 
team. The Glee club and the orchestra gave joint concerts in 
Manchester and Concord during the spring of 1912 under the 
direction of their new coach, H. M. Dalglish of Dover. The trip 
was an "unqualified success." 

In the spring of 1909, the Glee club voted to present a gold 
and a silver medal yearly to the college in memory of Carl Chase, 
'09, of Webster, an enthusiastic member of the New Hampshire 
football team and the Glee club, and of John Worthen Davis, '11, 
of Concord, who were drowned in Little Bay on December 7, 
1908, when their canoe was overturned. According to the terms 
of this gift, the gold medal was to be awarded to the senior who 
had won an "N. H." and stood highest in his studies, and the sil- 
ver medal was to be awarded to the senior who had won an 
"N. H." and stood second in his studies. 

The college orchestra, numbering about ten members, and 
the military band, which was formed in 1906 under the sponsor- 
ship of the military department and consisted of about 24 mem- 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

bers, were forced to struggle along with very little help in the 
way of proper instruction or leadership. They maintained their 
organization, however, and took part in many of the college en- 
tertainments. The orchestra provided music for informal dances 
and assemblies while the band played for the student battalion 
and at football games. The Mandolin club, which never had a 
large membership, lasted throughout President Gibbs' administra- 
tion. They filled frequent engagements in towns near Durham. 
A typical concert of the musical clubs was the one given in June, 
1905. It included six songs by the Glee club, three numbers by 
the Mandolin club, and a march and three waltzes by the orches- 
tra. John Whoriskey of Boston, brother of Professor Whoriskey, 
sang a baritone solo which was 'Very well received." A few years 
later, the Glee club's annual commencement show was a musical 
comedy called Pauline\ or, the Belle of Saratoga. At this event, 
a new song written by Florence V. Cole, '12, called The Line-up 
was sung. This song is now familiar to all New Hampshire stu- 
dents with the present title of On To Victory. Dramatic activity 
was confined chiefly to the musical organizations although other 
clubs occasionally sponsored a play. There was no dramatic 
club until 1912 when a temporary one was organized to produce 
The Rivals. 

There were also numerous minor organizations such as the 
Philosophy club which was organized in 1905 and which survived 
only a short time; the Whist and Chess and Checker clubs; the 
Current Events club; and the Rifle club. The last was organized 
in 1910 and soon joined the National Rifle association. It en- 
tered into competition, largely by mail, with a number of other 

The faculty took part in the wave of organization and formed 
the Faculty club in October, 1910, "for social and intellectual 
purposes." Professor Richard Whoriskey was the first president. 
The club met on Tuesday evenings in the College club rooms and 
since then, Tuesday evening has been "faculty night." 

The largest and most active organization on the campus was 
the college Y. M. C. A. The trend during President Gibbs' ad- 
ministration was away from compulsory and formalized religious 
observances and toward the encouragement of voluntary activity. 
Chapel services were reduced first to three times a week, and then 
to once a week by the spring of 1910. These weekly meetings 
were held on Wednesdays and lasted 25 minutes. The programs 


History of University of New Hampshire 

resembled those of modern convocations. The New Hampshire 
contrasted the compulsory chapel attendance with the values of 
the voluntary religious groups and said: 

"Men go there [to chapel] because they have to; 
they slide into their seats at the last moment in many 
places, listen or not to what is being said, and then go 
out with less mental result than if they spent as much 
time in a recitation room, or out of doors." 

Over half the students were said to be members of the Y. M. C. A. 
in October. 1911. This claim is probably excessive for the as- 
sociation's annual report for the same year listed only 86 members. 
Bible classes were popular. As many as 167 students signed up 
for these groups in a single year but only one-third to one-half 
completed the course of study. Instruction was given by both fac- 
ulty members and students. The report of the Y. M. C. A. for 
the school year 1910-1911 listed 27 meetings during the year 
with an average attendance of 35 students. Morning watch serv- 
ices were held twice weekly in the association office at Thompson 
hall with four or five present at each meeting. An office was 
provided during the college year 1910-1911 for the first time 
for the religious work at the college, and that year, the association 
provided two convocation speakers and arranged for a lecturer to 
speak at all the fraternity houses on the moral problems of youth. 
Several men students helped conduct clubs for boys at four 
churches in Dover and other nearby towns, and two deputation 
teams conducted services in a number of churches in Derry, Roch- 
ester, Somersworth, Northwood, and other towns. Three students 
devoted their summer vacation to social work in rural districts 
under the direction of the Y. M. C. A. summer training school. 
Delegates attended several conferences, including the important 
one at Northfield, Massachusetts. 

In addition to its purely religious work, the association car- 
ried on several special activities designed to help the students. 
The annual handbook was issued by the Y. M. C A.; it contained 
information for the entering freshmen and helpful advice con- 
cerning the proper conduct of a college student. A series of lec- 
tures on Your Life's Work was organized with speakers from the 
faculty and from the outside. The annual freshman reception 
at the Durham Community church was sponsored by the Y. M. 
C A. In 1910. the association announced that it was sponsoring 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

a tutoring bureau, "and those of the football squad who need help 
are being cared for." This work was carried on with an annual 
budget of about $300, of which the college provided $100. 

The College Monthly had improved both in size and in con- 
tent during President Gibbs' administration, and the editors con- 
cluded finally that a monthly publication was no longer adequate. 
The new weekly was started in the college year 1911-1912. It 
did not provide much more space than the former College Month- 
ly but as a newspaper, it eliminated the practice of printing stories 
and long articles of a more literary nature and so left more space 
for news. The new venture involved a considerable increase in 
cost but also opened up greater possibilities of income from ad- 
vertising. The College Monthly usually ran into debt each year. 
The alumni issue of December, 1910, already referred to, en- 
abled the College Monthly to pay off all its debts and even to 
turn over a small surplus to the New Hampshire. The new pa- 
per was a four-page sheet with four columns to the page. The 
front page carried most of the news while the second and third 
pages contained some editorials and a little news and much adver- 
tising. The last page was all advertising with the exception of a 
little box which usually contained a series of local items and one 
or two jokes. 

The College Monthly had devoted its June issue to the grad- 
uating class for several years and printed pictures and brief biogra- 
phies of the graduates along with the class will and similar ma- 
terial usually reserved for year books. The class of 1909 decided 
that it was time to start the custom of issuing a junior year book 
and gave a series of entertainments to raise money for the pur- 
pose. Their efforts were successful and the first Granite was 
published in the spring of 1908. The editor was H. P. Corson 
and the business manager was C H. Swan. As compared with 
the books put out today, the first Granite was small and unim- 
pressive, but it represented to the students of that year an achieve- 
ment in which they took the greatest pride. The first issue was 
dedicated to President Gibbs. In the following years, Dean Pet- 
tee and Professor Scott and Professor Groves were selected for 
that honor. 

The Athletic association found it difficult to maintain all 
the sports desired by the students. The college was still unable 
to pay for coaches and for other expenses, so the necessary money 
had to be raised from student dues and from admissions to the 


History of University of New Hampshire 

games. Not even football was self-supporting. The most suc- 
cessful football season of all left the association with a deficit 
of $600 although the total football expenses were only $2,100. 
Of these expenses, only $400 was the salary of the coach for his 
services during the entire season. The rest of the expenses were 
for equipment, guarantees to visiting teams, and similar items. 
Less than half the students belonged to the Athletic association. 
The seniors led with 84 percent and the proportion decreased with 
each class, to only 34 percent of the freshmen and 6 percent of 
the two-year men. 

Several of the graduating classes gave small sums to the 
Athletic association, and occasional entertainments also helped 
to make up deficits. Subscription lists were circulated among 
the students, and fairly good sums were raised among the upper 
classmen but this method was less successful with the lower 
classes. The annual fees were increased from $15 to $20 and 
the extra $5 was turned over to the Athletic association by the 
college. In spite of these measures, the difficulties of the asso- 
ciation continued. The trustees rejected a proposal that the col- 
lege and the association share the expense of a physical education 
director between them on the grounds that such a faculty mem- 
ber should be responsible to the college alone. 

Coaches were hired for short periods for the four sports of 
football, baseball, basketball, and track. The coaches spent from 
one to four weeks coaching the players, after which the teams 
were on their own for the rest of the season. Rarely did one of 
these coaches return for a second year for many schools hired their 
coaches by the week, and it was not always possible for a man to 
arrange the same schedule for successive years. One year, New 
Hampshire had three coaches for the football team. One coach 
left for a better job without any notice, the second one was un- 
satisfactory and had to be discharged, and the third one remained 
only two weeks, for which service he received $200. 

At first, home games were played at Central Park, Dover, 
because it was hoped that gate receipts would be greater there. 
The College Monthly argued that the same returns could be se- 
cured if the games were played in Durham and if higher admis- 
sions were charged equal to the former price plus the train fare 
to Dover and back. The increase was not made but home games 
were played in Durham after improvements were made in the 
athletic field in 1906. 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

New Hampshire followed the lead of other colleges in re- 
fusing to schedule games with Exeter and Andover after 1904. 
It was felt that these schools overemphasized the game to the ex- 
tent that colleges which tried to maintain proper academic stand- 
ards for their football players were unable to give proper com- 
petition. New Hampshire had had little luck against either 
school and had succeeded in beating Andover only twice and ty- 
ing Exeter twice in ten years of competition. Against the smaller 
colleges, however, New Hampshire did much better. 

The first victory over Bowdoin, "the most glorious victory 
ever won in Maine," according to contemporary accounts, was the 
occasion of a tremendous celebration in the usual style. There 
was a bonfire, a parade, the ringing of the college bell through- 
out the celebration, cheering, singing, and speechmaking. During 
the cheering, Professor Charles James appeared and was per- 
suaded to lead the crowd in three English cheers, "two Hips, and 
three long Hurrahs!" The big game of the season was the an- 
nual meeting with Massachusetts State college at Manchester. A 
special train carried most of the students from Durham, and the 
College Monthly, on one occasion, exhorted the rest, "If you can't 
ride, Walk!" A loyal alumnus once sent two dollars from South 
America to pay a student's fare to Manchester to cheer in his place. 

The baseball team was not as successful as the football team, 
and in fact, there was no baseball team for several years. It was 
necessary to choose between baseball and track since the Athletic 
association treasury could not stand the cost of both sports. Even 
though baseball was omitted for several years, regular intercolle- 
giate track meets were not held until 1910. That spring, New 
Hampshire lost a meet to Rhode Island at Kingston. The College 
Monthly attributed the loss to the small size of the team sent 
from Durham. The year before this, the legislature had appro- 
priated $1,000 to improve the athletic field and build a quarter 
mile cinder track. In order to practice on a board track, the men 
had to go to Exeter where the academy allowed them to use its 
track. The team soon improved enough to beat Rhode Island 
and to acquit itself very creditably against other teams in its class. 
There were intramural track meets run almost every year. The 
Glee club gave gold, silver, and bronze medals as prizes for the 
cross country run, and local merchants gave samples of their mer- 
chandise for prizes in other events. Among the latter were such 
items as ten dozen bananas. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Basketball was played with moderate success from 1903 on. 
The first year was marked by a victory over Dartmouth with a 
score of 18 to 13. This accomplishment was not repeated for 
Dartmouth won the next year with a score of 38 to 5. Games 
were played with colleges, academies, and town teams for several 
years. The game dropped off sharply in popularity after a few 
years, and the basketball managers reported difficulty in arrang- 
ing games with other colleges. In its place, Casque and Casket 
proposed that hockey be made a major sport. A dam was built 
under the direction of Dean Pettee on the Hoitt land behind the 
gymnasium. About two acres were flooded during the winter of 
1911 and a series of games between the fraternities was played. 
Each fraternity gave a dollar toward a silver cup to be awarded 
to the winner. Gymnastic contests and track meets between the 
various companies were sponsored by the military department. 
Victory in these meets counted toward the honor of being the 
"color company," and medals were awarded individual winners. 

In 1906, the system of two one-hour drills a week was intro- 
duced to the great satisfaction of everybody. An annual sham 
battle was introduced the same year. In 1909, the military sci- 
ence requirement was lowered from three years of theory and 
three years of drill to two years of theory and two of drill. When 
the gymnasium was completed, the drills were held there during 
the winter instead of in Thompson hall. President Gibbs had to 
make drill compulsory for three years instead of two, in 1910, 
to meet the war department's requirement that not less than 150 
students take drill that year. Drill at seven o'clock in the morn- 
ing was tried for a short time but proved so unpopular that the 
drill period was changed back to the noon hour. By 1912, there 
were four companies in the college battalion. Beginning in 1907, 
three medals were given in the prize drill competition instead of 
the one previously awarded. A prize sword was also given to 
the senior officer winning a prize drill and a medal to the senior 
standing highest in the department. Thomas J. Laton, now as- 
sistant professor of mechanical engineering, won the first sabre in 

The second oldest prizes given at the college, the Smyth 
prizes for public speaking and reading, were given for the last 
time in 1904. Governor Smyth left $2,000 to the college, the 
income of which was to be used for the purchase of books to be 
given annually to the most meritorious students. Rosecrans W. 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

Pillsbury gave $500 in 1903, the income of which was to be used 
to help worthy students from the town of Londonderry. Thomas 
J. Davis, the donor of Davis park, gave $15, in 1910, to buy 
medals for cattle judging contests among the ten-week students 
in dairying. President Gibbs also gave prizes on several occa- 
sions for cattle judging by the agricultural students. 
The board of trustees voted, in 1904, that 

"... each subordinate and Pomona Grange in New 
Hampshire shall have the privilege of appointing one 
student annually to a free scholarship in any of the 
four-year or two-year courses in the college." 

These scholarships could be given to either men or women and 
covered only tuition. Later in the same year, five scholarships 
were made available for the use of the New Hampshire State 
Federation of Women's Clubs on the same basis as the Grange 

The College Monthly announced, in 1905, that there were 
". . . about 300 scholarships available each year, each 
paying at least full tuition, and some forty of these 
paying tuition and other fees, and then handing over 
to the student from $10 to $20 in cash." 

There were then less than 200 students registered at the college 
and the total living expenses were estimated at between $150 and 

Until 1909, the scholastic requirement for retaining a schol- 
arship was to continue in "good standing." In that year, the fac- 
ulty ruled that an average of 70 percent would be required to re- 
tain a scholarship. The condition forbidding the use of tobacco 
was reinterpreted in 1905 to mean "that no student receiving 
money for any scholarship shall use tobacco on the street or in 
public places." Despite this rule, the purchase of senior pipes, 
designed especially for the class and which they carried during 
their last term, came to be a tradition for a time. 

Other traditions, chiefly connected with the contests between 
the freshmen and sophomores, grew up. An attempt was made 
by President Gibbs to discourage the cane rush in his first year. 
He asked the sophomores not to call out the freshmen. They 
agreed, but the freshmen announced that they would be on the 
campus at ten o'clock and would be glad to have company, and 
the usual battle followed. After the fight, "several were too ex- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

hausted to move when their hands had been counted, and two 
fainted, but were soon all right." A four-foot cane was used, 
and as many as 30 men were credited with fastening 48 hands 
on it. By 1910, the classes were so large that new rules were 
adopted which limited the contest to 20 men from each class. 

Opportunities for interclass rivalry were provided by the 
effort to have a full attendance of either class when their group 
picture was taken or at their annual class banquet. If one class 
could prevent ten percent of its opponents from getting to these 
affairs, it counted as a victory. Incredible ingenuity was shown 
in contriving ways to steal out of town unobserved. 

One of the unfortunate incidents in the history of the col- 
lege arose out of one of the class contests. This incident has since 
been known as the student strike and centered around the objec- 
tions of the students to the punishment of William H. L. Brackett, 
the president of the class of 1914. He was an excellent baseball 
and football player and an active leader in class contests. In 
order to assist the members of his class to get away from the cam- 
pus and attend their class banquet, he rang the bell of Thompson 
hall about 9:45 one morning. The students took this to be a fire 
alarm and started towards Madbury where the fire was thought to 
be. In the confusion, the members of the sophomore class were 
able to leave the campus and, subsequently, to hold their banquet 
in Boston. 

At this banquet, the class voted to assume full responsibility 
for the action of their class president in ringing the bell. When 
Brackett was suspended by President Gibbs for ringing a false fire 
alarm and not reporting to the president's office when told to do 
so, the sophomore class voted to cease attending recitations until 
the matter of Brackett's suspension was adjusted to what they con- 
sidered a fairer punishment. The freshman class, soon followed 
by the junior class, also voted to follow the action of the sopho- 

Some of the trustees came to Durham and after consultation 
with President Gibbs and the class representatives, Brackett's pun- 
ishment was reduced to suspension for two weeks and probation 
for the rest of the college year. The students returned to classes 
and the student strike was over. While this incident aroused 
considerable interest at the time, it seems now to be chiefly sig- 
nificant as an illustration of the change which has taken place in 
the nature and extent of class loyalty. 


The Administration of President Gibbs 

Freshman rules, during President Gibbs' administration, were 
more numerous although little more ingenious than in recent 
years. Freshmen were forbidden to carry a cane, to wear a "stiff 
hat," to go bare-headed on the street, to wear any but New Hamp- 
shire emblems, or to wear their uniforms outside of Durham. 
Later, they were also forbidden to enjoy the favorite stunt of resi- 
dents of the Pettee block, which was rolling an ash can down the 
main stairway. There was one job for which the freshmen might 
not apply; this was the janitorship of Smith hall. The strang- 
est rule of all forbade the freshmen to turn up their trouser cuffs. 
There was at least one terrific fight over this issue from which the 
badly out-numbered freshmen were rescued by the timely arrival 
of Dean Pettee swinging an umbrella to enforce the peace. 

Freshman "skimmers," which were navy blue with a large 
white button, first appeared in 1910 and were made compulsory, 
even for two-year men, two years later. The Pettee block was 
the favorite spot for hazing but shared honors with various wooded 
spots on the outskirts of town. The "walk to Dover" made its 
first appearance around 1908 but was not regularly enforced. 
Several times, the students took official action and condemned haz- 
ing and declared their intention of preventing it, but their good 
resolutions were largely ineffective. 

Some other customs which appeared during President Gibbs' 
administration included the rule of seniority in leaving chapel, 
the wearing of caps and gowns by the seniors during the last few 
days of classes, and the holding of a "most popular" poll of the 
senior class. In the first vote, held in 1912, Ernest R. Groves 
was the most popular professor, and Chester Holden, '12, and 
William Brackett, '14, were tied for the honor of the most popu- 
lar student. The class will and the class history as well as the 
various student orations connected with commencement were also 
introduced although in varying forms. 

# # # 

In January of 1912, President Gibbs was offered the position 
of field manager of a company of Boston business men who were 
going into the business of buying and operating large tracts of 
farm land in Ohio. As he had been contemplating a change 
from college work, he felt this would be a congenial employment. 
During his administration, according to President Gibbs' report 
in his letter of resignation, the number of students increased from 


History of University of New Hampshire 

111 to 315, the faculty from 20 to 48, the Experiment station 
staff from 13 to 23, the courses offered from 120 to 276, the 
buildings from 6 to 15, the value of the plant from $135,000 to 
$500,000, and the library from 9,000 volumes to 30,000. The 
standards were generally raised, the debt cut in half, and the col- 
lege, in every way, raised to a much more prosperous condition. A 
great deal of the credit for this must be ascribed to President Gibbs. 
His administrative talent and his enthusiasm for the college were 
invaluable assets and his accomplishments entitle him to a high 
place in the regard of New Hampshire men and women. 


The Administration of President Fairchild 


The sixth president of New Hampshire college and the third 
since its coming to Durham was Edward Thomson Fairchild, who 
had previously been superintendent of public instruction for the 
state of Kansas and president of the National Education associa- 
tion in 1912. The appointment of President Fairchild was a 
change from the policy of choosing young men in their thirties, 
though in his policies he was no less progressive and friendly to 
innovations than his predecessors had been. Coming to Dur- 
ham at the age of 58, he brought with him a long-continued in- 
terest in agricultural education, represented by his success in in- 
troducing the subject into almost all the secondary schools of 
Kansas. State aid had been secured in Kansas for all high 
schools maintaining courses in agriculture and domestic science, 
and a uniform course of study was adopted under his direction 
in all the public schools of the state. Special aid was given to 
the rural schools in achieving standards in the general courses 
comparable to those of the wealthier cities; vocational courses 
suited to the special needs of country-bred students were also in- 
troduced in the rural schools. President Fairchild had also served 
for eight years as trustee of the Kansas State Agricultural college. 

His inaugural address indicated that this special interest in 
agricultural education would not interfere with his willingness 
to advance the other lines of study which a state college might 
be expected to offer. The address was devoted chiefly to a dis- 
cussion of the benefits which the state colleges had brought to the 
science of agriculture and to the farmers through instruction and 
experimental work, and finally through extension work. In con- 
clusion, he visualized these colleges as a public trust, "not an in- 
stitution for a few of the youth of a few of the people," and 
quoted Ezra Cornell's famous comment, "I would found an in- 
stitution where any person can find instruction in any study." It 
was President Fairchild's hope and belief that the state colleges 
were "closely approaching this ideal." During his brief admin- 
istration, nearly as much was done to raise New Hampshire col- 
lege to this stature as during any of the longer administrations. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Although President Fairchild assumed his office on Decem- 
ber 1, 1912, his formal inauguration did not take place until May 
21, 1913. It was the most impressive ceremony of its kind in 
the history of the college and reflected the greatly improved status 
of the state colleges in general, and of New Hampshire in particu- 
lar. The presidents of Dartmouth college, Boston university, 
Ohio State university, Kansas State Agricultural college, and Kan- 
sas State Normal school and the president of the National Educa- 
tion association took part in the ceremonies. Representatives of 
numerous other institutions also attended. George H. Bingham, 
judge of the New Hampshire Supreme court, presided and Har- 
vey L. Boutwell greeted the new president on behalf of the trus- 
tees and turned over to him the charter of the college. The 
honorary degree of doctor of laws was given to President Henry 
J. Waters of Kansas State Agricultural college, President Ernest 
F. Nichols of Dartmouth, Carroll G. Pearse of Milwaukee, Lucius 
Tuttle, former president of the Boston and Maine railroad, Gov- 
ernor Samuel D. Felker, Dean Pettee, and Professor Scott. The 
last two received enthusiastic ovations from the students for each 
man had served the college for 40 years. 

Upon his arrival in Durham, President Fairchild found a 
school that was going through rapid changes. The student body 
had increased each year to an extent that taxed all the facilities 
of the college. The faculty were constantly overworked in spite 
of frequent additions to their number. New departments were 
badly needed, equipment could not be supplied fast enough to 
keep up with the demand, and every effort to maintain or im- 
prove standards placed a still heavier burden on both men and 
equipment. To meet this situation, President Fairchild had quali- 
ties which were invaluable. He possessed great energy, a fine or- 
ganizing mind, a free-spoken, good-humored manner that won 
him immediate popularity with the students, strong convictions 
which he was ready to defend, and a sound business sense that 
gave him the necessary leadership and prestige in his work with 
the trustees and with the legislature. His ability and good will 
won him loyal support in all departments and a greater degree of 
harmony than either of his predecessors had been able to secure. 

One of the first problems which President Fairchild had to 
solve was the need for new buildings. The request for an engi- 
neering building, lost two years before, was brought before the 
legislature of 1913. Albert DeMeritt again represented Durham 


The Administration of President Fairchild 

in the legislature, and again he led the effort to secure the new 
building. He was vigorously supported by President Fairchild. 
Governor Bass, whose unexpected veto had been such a blow be- 
fore, urged the legislature to approve the appropriation for an 
engineering building, which was ". . . sorely needed, and should 
be one of the earliest calls on the state this year . . ." Eighty 
thousand dollars was finally assigned for this purpose in the spring 
of 1913, and the building was completed and ready for use in 
the fall of the next year. 

Mr. DeMeritt did not live to see the completion of the build- 
ing which his efforts had done so much to make possible. He 
went out of his house early one morning to hunt woodchucks. 
While climbing a fence, he was killed by the accidental discharge 
of his gun. His sudden death was keenly felt by both the col- 
lege and the town. He was born in Durham, August 26, 1851. 
Besides caring for a farm of 300 acres, he held many public of- 
fices, including two terms as representative from Durham in the 
legislature, where he served on the standing committee on the 
Agricultural college and on the committee on appropriations. In 
appreciation of his work in the legislative session of 1911, the 
faculty and trustees of New Hampshire college each unanimously 
passed resolutions of commendation. Mr. DeMeritt was a mem- 
ber of the Constitutional convention in 1889 and again in 1912. 
He served on the state board of agriculture for nine years and was 
a trustee of the college from 1892 to 1895. He drafted the free 
text book bill which became a law in 1887 and which many 
other states have adopted. New Hampshire college conferred 
upon him the honorary degree of master of science in 1904. As 
a memorial to him, the new building was given his name at the 
dedication ceremonies which were held December 16, 1914. 1 

The new building housed all the engineering departments 
and the physics department. The chemistry department was giv- 
en the full use of Conant hall, and a great amount of new equip- 
ment was installed in the laboratories formerly occupied by the 
other departments. One of the first effects of the European war 

1 This celebration was the first at which Clement Moran, the indefatigable 
photographer of the university, offered "photographs by Moran." He made a 
souvenir folder containing views of the building and some descriptive matter. 
It was bound in cardboard covers and tied with blue and white ribbons. Mr. 
Moran had come to the college as instructor in physics the same fall and entered 
immediately upon his 25 year photographic history of the college. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

felt in Durham was the long delay in receiving some new equip- 
ment from London. Two years later, a small fire-proof brick 
building was constructed behind Conant hall. This was used to 
store platinum, rare earths, and other valuable materials used in 
the research and experimentation of the chemistry department 
and particularly in the special research by Professor James. 

Money was secured from the legislature in 1915 to build the 
badly-needed men's dormitory for which President Gibbs had 
asked. The dormitory was constructed at a cost of $60,000 and 
was planned to accommodate 105 men. This number has since 
been increased. Construction was started in the spring of 1915, 
and it was hoped that the building might be ready for use that 
fall. When school opened, however, over 50 men had to live in 
the basement of DeMeritt hall for more than a month while the 
work was being completed. Fairchild hall was opened officially 
in the latter part of October, 1915, but even then only the eastern 
part was ready, and all of the work was not completed until after 
Thanksgiving. The following spring, the trustees provided $100 
for a recreation room in the basement of the new dormitory, and 
the students were each assessed 35 cents toward the cost of rent- 
ing a piano for the room. Such luxury was in decided contrast to 
some of the quarters in which students had been forced to live 
previously. Rooms cost from $65 to $90 for the school year, 
and this scale of prices reflected the rising cost of living in Dur- 

The proposal to name the new building for President Fair- 
child, though it may not have originated there, was first made 
publicly by the New Hampshire in an editorial comment which 
said simply, "What shall we name the new dormitory? — 'Fair- 
child Hall/ ' That this proposal was immediately accepted al- 
most everywhere is the best possible indication of the impression 
which the president had made upon the college and upon the 
state in scarcely three years. 

Ballard hall was leased for a short time by the college as 
a women's dormitory and was bought from the DeMeritt heirs in 
1915. The present Bickford house was also used to accommodate 
the overflow from Smith hall until the former was made over into 
an infirmary and then into the Hostess house during the war. 

Due to the differences in the comfort provided by the three 
women's dormitories, a certain proportion of girls from each class 
were required to live in each building, and rooms were assigned 


The Administration of President Fairchild 

by the drawing of lots. The arrangement was not entirely popu- 
lar, but it did eliminate some of the difficulty in making equitable 
assignments. Moreover, so many other things had to come be- 
fore the construction of a new dormitory for women, the avail- 
able rooms had to be assigned in this manner. 

As a further aid to the solution of the housing problem, the 
college trustees decided, in 1913, to lease land to fraternities and 
faculty members on which they might build. The Thompson 
land, plus later purchases, included practically all the land near 
enough to the college to be suitable for homes and fraternity 
houses. A row of fraternity houses constructed in a style that 
would harmonize with the college buildings was planned for the 
section of the campus around Bonfire hill. These were to be 
built on land leased from the college. Kappa Sigma was the 
first and only fraternity to take advantage of this opportunity and 
built its present house in 1916-17. The house was designed to 
harmonize with Fairchild hall. According to the New Hamp- 
shire, it presented an "imposing appearance," and its interior ar- 
rangements were distinguished by the fact that the study rooms 
had only two men in each and that there was, in the basement, a 
large comfortable lounging room with a fireplace. This building 
and Fairchild hall aided greatly in improving the living condi- 
tions of the men students. 

In addition to the money for new buildings, the college was 
able to secure larger appropriations from the state legislature to 
meet its other financial needs. The legislature of 1915 set a new 
record by appropriating $178,000 for the following biennium. 

The first full and detailed financial report of the college was 
made in 1917. It was then reported that the state had increased 
its support from 8 percent to 37 percent of the total income. This 
included the cost of the three buildings mentioned above. Even 
if the money spent for new buildings be left out, the college en- 
joyed steadily increasing support from the state from then on. 
This increase was needed because in 1915 New Hampshire was 
spending only $121 per student, as against $469 spent by Massa- 
chusetts. Even if the greater size and wealth of our neighbor 
state be considered, the two figures indicate one handicap under 
which New Hampshire college suffered. 

The following tables of the proportions of the total income 
from all sources in the years 1914-15 and 1939-40 are interesting 


History of University of New Hampshire 

as an indication of the difference in the support of the institution 
then and now: 



Federal Funds 






Sales and Miscellaneous Income 



Student Payments 



State Aid for Maintenance 



100. 100. 

The annual expenditures of the college increased to more 
than $160,000 a year, not including money spent on construction. 
The difference between such a sum and the income from the fed- 
eral government and the endowments could only come from the 
state. Yet, despite the increased annual expenditure of the col- 
lege, the net cost per student for instruction, which was $302 in 
1913, was reduced to $220 four years later. 

The need for a Commons was urged before the legislature 
both in 1915 and 1917. The second plea for a combination 
Commons and men's dormitory was successful in securing an ap- 
propriation of $100,000. The plans for the new building were 
drawn by Professor Huddleston of the department of architecture 
and construction was begun in the late spring. Though the work 
was completed in the following administration, to President Fair- 
child is due the credit for securing this important addition to the 

The girls' council began a campaign for a women's gymna- 
sium in 1915 and set aside the money in their treasury to be used 
for that purpose. The top floor of Thompson hall was remodeled 
for their use and with this, they had to be content. 

In 1916, a new deep well was drilled behind the shops to 
increase the water supply, and in the same year, a new wooden 
tank, with a capacity of 6,000 gallons and supported by a 40-foot 
steel tower, was erected on the knoll behind Nesmith hall. The 
number of other improvements made during President Fairchild's 
administration is too great to list, but it covered many things 
from a garage for the president's house, a sign of the growing 
inevitability of the automobile, to a 'carriage road" in the college 

The library received a gift of 2,000 books from Lu- 
cien Thompson shortly after his departure for Colorado. In- 


The Administration of President Fairchild 

eluded among these were many that had belonged to Miss Mary P. 
Thompson, his aunt. She was an enthusiastic student of the his- 
tory of the Piscataqua region and had written a good deal of in- 
teresting material on the subject. Her best known publication is 
Landmarks in Ancient Dover, New Hampshire. 

The reorganization of the college into three divisions, which 
was the major achievement of President Fairchild's administra- 
tion, was completed in 1915 with the appointment of deans head- 
ing each division. Frederick W. Taylor was made dean of the 
agricultural division, Charles E. Hewitt of the engineering division, 
and Ernest R. Groves of the arts and science division, with Dean 
Pettee retaining his position as dean of the college. The term 
"course" was applied only to a full course of study covering many 
"subjects." The divisions with the "courses" included in each 

"Agricultural Division 

Animal Husbandry and Dairying 



General Agriculture 

Two- Year Agriculture 

Arts and Science Division 

General Arts and Science 
Home Economics 
Mechanic Arts 

Engineering Division 

Electrical Engineering 
Mechanical Engineering 
Two- Year Industrial Mechanical Engineering 
Two- Year Industrial Electrical Engineering" 

Physical education for men and military science were not 
included in any of the divisions, but had an independent existence 
and were responsible only to the dean and the president of the 
college. The departments were not of great importance in the 
planning of "courses," but the heads of the departments consti- 
tuted the "division committee" under the chairmanship of the 
dean. This was a step toward the division into the three colleges 
which later became the chief units of the university. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

New courses were introduced under the combined stimulus of 
more students and better equipment. Several additions were also 
made to the faculty. The new engineering building made pos- 
sible the long-discussed two-year course in agricultural and indus- 
trial engineering, which had been projected by President Fairchild. 
In 1915, the first class, consisting of 36 men, registered for this 
new work to which Dean Hewitt gave the name of "industrial 
mechanics." Requirements for admission resembled those for the 
two-year agricultural course. Emphasis was placed on practical 
work in the college shops. A correspondence course in the use 
of measuring instruments was also started. 

The agricultural division offered four one-week courses dur- 
ing the winter. Tuition was free to residents of the state and was 
only two dollars for non-residents. The subjects in 1915 were: 
1. Corn and Potatoes, 2. Orcharding, 3. Poultry, 4. Farm Man- 
agement and Forestry. More than 300 attended during this series. 
These winter short courses had undergone many changes over a 
period of decades, but they were repeatedly successful in achieving 
their objectives. The Extension service began within a short time 
to take over the work previously done by these courses. 

The home economics department was established in 1913. 
Within a short time, two-thirds of the women in the college were 
enrolled in this department. Two rooms in the basement of 
Thompson hall were assigned for a laboratory and a lecture room. 
The effect of this new course on the enrollment of women in the 
college was marked. There was only one instructor in this de- 
partment at first, but an assistant was added shortly. For the first 
six years, the three successive heads of the department also served 
as dean of women. 

The education department, which started in 1915 under the 
direction of Charles L. Simmers, was still another change intro- 
duced by President Fairchild. Professor Groves had formerly of- 
fered courses in education as part of his work in psychology, but 
the new departure made possible the working out of a full teach- 
er-training curriculum. This had a noticeable effect in drawing 
women students to the college. Five courses in education were 
offered in 1915-16 with a combined enrollment of more than 100 

A new department of economics was created, in 1913, by sep- 
arating that subject from the department of history and political 


The Administration of President Fairchild 

science. Guy Smith, previously an associate professor, was pro- 
moted to professor and head of the new department. A number 
of new courses were introduced in this department, some of which 
included the work needed in preparation for accountancy. 

The language department added more courses in German, 
French, and Spanish. Most of the changes were made in the lib- 
eral arts division. However, one new department was set up in 
the agricultural division with the appointment of Robert V. Mitch- 
ell as professor of poultry husbandry in 1916. The department 
of physical education for men was established in 1915 and that for 
women in 1916. 

In addition to the heads of new departments already named, 
a number of other people were added to the faculty. Among 
these were: Alfred E. Richards, professor of English, 1912; Harold 
H. Scudder, 2 instructor in English, 1913; Oren V. Henderson, bet- 
ter known as "Dad," who became business secretary in 1914; Ford 
Prince, instructor in agronomy, 1914; E. G. Ritzman, research 
professor in animal husbandry in the Experiment station, 1914; 
Eric T. Huddleston, professor of architecture, 1914; Karl W. 
Woodward, professor of forestry, 1915; Conda J. Ham, instructor 
in economics and registrar, 1915; John M. Fuller, professor of 
dairy husbandry, 1916. 

Professor Guy Smith of the economics department was placed 
in charge of a College Bureau of Recommendations in 1914. This 
bureau undertook, at first, only to help graduates secure teaching 
positions, but later, it cooperated with the heads of departments 
in securing agricultural and engineering employment for gradu- 

The Extension service developed its present form during this 
pre-war period. In the early days, extension work had taken the 
form of occasional lectures by members of the college faculty or 
Experiment station staff before farmers' institutes, Granges, fairs, 
and other gatherings. Other activities included answering letters 
of inquiry; identifying plants, weeds, fruits, insects, or diseases; 
recommending remedies for disease control, or insecticides for 
holding in check insect depredations; contributing to the agricul- 
tural press; preparing and distributing publications, and such 
other activities as the duties of the staff would permit. 

2 Mr. Scudder was an assistant chemist for the Experiment station in 


History of University of New Hampshire 

The first sum specifically for the Extension service was an 
appropriation of S2,500 made by the state in 1911. This fund 
was not considered large enough to allow the use of any part of it 
for salaries, so the money was devoted to supplementing the work 
of the college and station staffs and for issuing publications. Mem- 
bers of the Experiment station staff undertook farm demonstrations 
concerned with the value of different crops as well as the value of 
various cover crops. Orchard demonstrations of the mulch sys- 
tem; pruning, spraying and thinning; tests of field corn; and 
tests of the value of lime for different lands were other activities 
of the Experiment station. The first Dairy Cow Test association 
was organized at South Lyndeboro in 1911. Eight agricultural 
reading courses were offered, and special Orchard, Dairy, and 
Poultry days were held in Durham. Press bulletins, circulars, and 
information bulletins were issued, and a mailing list of thousands 
of farmers was gradually accumulated. 

As a result of this beginning, some features of which could be 
traced a long way back in the history of the college, the work in 
New Hampshire was drawn to the attention of the General Edu- 
cation board of New York City. This board had been carrying on 
a special type of farm demonstration work in the South in co- 
operation with the federal department of agriculture. Lengthy 
conferences between Director Kendall and Secretary Wallace But- 
terick of the board resulted in an appropriation of §7,500 a year, 
starting in July, 1913, to be used for farm demonstrations and 
boys' and girls' club work in New Hampshire. 

This appropriation, added to other sources of income, en- 
abled the Extension service, for the first time, to employ full-time 
workers to give demonstrations. Special attention was given to 
dairying. A. W. Benner was placed in Grafton county in Sep- 
tember, 1913, to help dairy farmers keep records of their herds 
and to assist them in weeding out unprofitable animals, raising 
better stock, feeding their herds more economically and efficiently, 
and raising more feed for their stock on their own land. Another 
demonstrator, C. W. Stone, was assigned to Rockingham county 
in September, 1913, to conduct soil fertility and crop rotation 
demonstrations. Methods of restoring the fertility of worn-out 
fields were shown on plots located at suitable places near the high- 
ways so that they could be easily inspected. Hillsboro was the 
leading orchard county of the state. Accordingly, a third dem- 
onstrator, B. B. Richardson, was located there, in 1914, to make 


The Administration of President Fairchild 

a survey of the orchards and to carry on demonstrations of ap- 
proved orchard practices. He also conducted reading clubs in 
marketing and other problems during the winter months. 

Work with the farm boys of the state was started in Janu- 
ary, 1914, under the direction of Lawrence A. Carlisle. Members 
of the clubs were to grow commercial size plots of corn and pota- 
toes, and keep careful records of all labor and expenses. Samples 
of the crops were to be exhibited in local and county competitions 
along with financial statements covering the season's work. County 
winners attended the Farmers' One Week course at Durham where 
the state winners were determined. The prize for the champion 
was a four-year scholarship at the college. It was first won by 
R. Towle Child of Pembroke, a member of the class of 1921, who 
raised 42.5 bushels of shelled corn on a half acre of land at a 
cost of 28 cents a bushel. During the first year, 240 boys joined 
the clubs and the next year, more than 600. 

In 1914, the General Education board's appropriation was 
increased to $10,000. This enabled the Extension service to em- 
ploy Miss Mary L. Sanborn as director of girls' club work in the 
four southern counties. During the first year, 328 girls grew 
tomatoes and string beans of which some were marketed and the 
surplus, canned. 

Further aid to the extension program came from the federal 
government with the passage of the Smith-Lever act on May 8, 
1914. This bill provided funds for cooperative extension work 
in agriculture and home economics between the land grant col- 
leges and the United States department of agriculture. The sum 
of $10,000 was allotted to each state, plus a share in increased 
appropriations reaching a maximum sum at the end of seven 
years, in the proportion which the rural population of each state 
bore to the total rural population of the country, providing that 
the state should appropriate a sum equal to the additional appro- 
priation. This would bring to New Hampshire a maximum in- 
come of $24,572 annually at the end of the seven-year period. 
With the help of this income, it was possible to organize dem- 
onstration work on a county basis. Care was taken, however, not 
to place an agent until a county farmers' association had been or- 
ganized and had requested that the work be carried on. These 
farmers' associations were made third partners in the scheme of 
cooperative organization with the Extension service and the United 


History of University of New Hampshire 

States department of agriculture. Director Kendall's first report 
said of these organizations: 

"It is the plan before putting a county agent into 
any county to have the farmers of the county well or- 
ganized and behind the movement. It is the intention 
to keep the farmers' county organizations entirely free 
from politics or any other organization that would tend 
to divert their interest and weaken their effectiveness. 
. . . they should be representative, and include among 
their membership the best farmers of the county . . . 
As rapidly as it can be brought about, each community 
should have a local farmers' club . . . which will ap- 
point ... its representatives in the County Association 
. . . Such a plan will tend to utilize the county farmers' 
organization to the best advantage, and keep it inter- 
ested in the work which the county agent is attempt- 
ing to do. To be sure it is necessary that the work 
shall have a certain amount of supervision by the State 
Leader of County Agent Work, and the advice and help 
of departments in the college and the Experiment Sta- 
tion, but that can usually be easily adjusted through a 
properly conceived and workable organization of the 
Extension Service." 

The first county agent, M. Gale Eastman, 3 entered upon his 
work in Sullivan county, August 16, 1913. His headquarters 
were at Newport. Associations were formed and county agents 
were appointed shortly in Cheshire, Belknap, Coos, and Merri- 
mack counties. J. B. Abbott was the first state leader of county 
agent work. 

The extension work in home economics was begun in 1915 
under the direction of Miss Sarah L. Bates, who organized 14 
clubs which had a total membership of 398 during her first year; 
she delivered lectures and demonstrations before these clubs each 
month before taking up special subjects with them. The first 
county home demonstration agent was Miss Kathryn E. Woods, 
who took up her work in Sullivan county in 1916. 

3 Mr. Eastman graduated from New Hampshire college in 1913. He 
has served both the state and the college in various capacities and is now dean 
of the College of Agriculture and director of the Agricultural Experiment 


The Administration of President Fairchild 

Several agents continued to carry on special lines of work 
on a state-wide basis. These included the organization of Dairy 
Cow Test associations, orchard work, vegetable garden demonstra- 
tions, and the conduct of "movable schools." These schools were 
held for four days at a time and were under the direction of R. E. 
Batchelder. The pioneer work of these schools was useful in 
opening up communities to later organization for the different 

lines of extension work. 

Part of the special significance of the extension work is to 
be seen in the distinctive methods which the agents found it nec- 
essary to employ. This has been explained by Henry B. Stevens 
in an article in the Granite Monthly. 

"In two respects the technique of extension work 
differs fundamentally from that of the class-room . . . 
In the first place, it is more of a cooperative enter- 
prise, in which distinctions between teacher and student 
vanish. The extension agents act rather as leaders than 
as teachers; they organize the rural people into groups, 
and encourage them to work together toward the solu- 
tion of the problems with which they are confronted 
. . . There is no tuition . . . There are no examinations 
except those which Mother Nature conducts of each 
farmer. If the extension agent arouses the interest of 
his county in its problem, he is held to succeed; if the 
people are apathetic, he has failed . . . 

"The second distinction of extension teaching is 
that it forsakes the word for the act. In the old days, 
lecturers went out to farm meetings and delivered 
speeches on farm practice . . . There was a world of 
difference between admitting that 'it was a good speech' 
and actually putting into practice the principles which 
the speech advocated. It was the same with bulletins. 
Some farmers will spend all their evenings and winters 
reading, yet not translate the printed word completely 
into their lives. With the extension demonstration it 
is different. You cannot look at an alfalfa plot on 
your neighbor's farm and suspect that it is all talk. 
You cannot count the eggs laid by a pen of cull hens 
selected as 'boarders' by the specialist and whisper that 


History of University of New Hampshire 

'he is a pretty slick feller, but — ' . . . You have to be- 
lieve, and, if you are human, act on your belief." 

By 1917, there were agricultural agents in every county, 
and a further increase in the annual appropriation of the General 
Education board to $15,000 provided each county with a boys' and 
girls' club leader. The home demonstration agents were also 
increased. The Farmers' associations became County Farm Bu- 
reaus and were coordinated into a state Farm Bureau federation. 
This has remained the basic pattern of extension work throughout 
its 25 years of activity. 

Aid in the form of county appropriations for support of the 
work was secured largely through the efforts of the Farm Bureaus. 
These appropriations increased rapidly and became one of the 
chief sources of income for extension work. The assistance and 
cooperation of the state department of agriculture and other state 
departments, as well as of the Grange, the New Hampshire Horti- 
cultural society, the Granite State Dairymen's association, the 
Sheep Breeders' association, the Poultry Growers' association, the 
State Lumbermen's association, and the Federation of Women's 
Clubs, have been extremely helpful. From its headquarters on 
the top floor of Morrill hall, the Extension service reached out 
into the remotest parts of the state and brought the work of the 
college and university to every door. 

# # # 

The short period of President Fairchild's administration in- 
cluded the greatest single increase in the student enrollment in 
the history of the school. During the school year 1912-1913, the 
enrollment was 354; in 1916-1917, it had increased to 666. The 
college, located in a small town which lacked the facilities to ab- 
sorb so great an increase, had to exhaust every possible means to 
meet the new situation. As fast as new buildings were erected, 
they were filled. As fast as new courses were offered and new 
sections created in old courses, new students crowded the class- 
rooms and the laboratories. The work of a long line of devoted 
and far-sighted men, at last, found that great response among the 
young people of the state for which New Hampshire college had 
been preparing for half a century. New Hampshire's fiftieth 
year was the last year of President Fairchild's administration. It 
was a time of great change in every department of the college, a 
time when the University of New Hampshire which was to be, 


The Administration of President Fairchild 

was taking inevitable and insistent form. This was the work, 
not of propaganda or administrative decree, but of the wise plan- 
ning of able educators who were meeting the needs of many 

The proportion of women in the student body increased with 
each year and reached nearly 22 percent of the total by the fall of 
1916. The liberal arts division, by then, included more four- 
year students than the other two divisions combined. The two- 
year agricultural course had 118 students in 1915-1916 but de- 
creased rapidly in enrollment during the war years. The two-year 
engineering course had 39 students in 1915-1916, and 23 stu- 
dents in 191 6- 1917, the last year of its existence. The freshman 
class, in the fall of 1915, had an enrollment of 162 students which 
was 28 more students than the total enrollment during President 
Gibbs' first year. In the fall of 1916, the freshman class num- 
bered 256. Every year during President Fairchild's administra- 
tion, New Hampshire ranked among the first four or five colleges 
in the country in the percentage of increase of its student body. 

Students preparing to teach were an important factor in this 
increase. A survey, taken in 1914, showed that New Hampshire 
was tenth among all colleges in the number of alumni teaching in 
the state. Forty-five Bates graduates were teachers in New Hamp- 
shire schools that year while only 16 graduates of New Hampshire 
college held such positions. Prospective teachers, both men and 
women, responded to the opportunities offered by the new educa- 
tion courses and the special curricula such as that offered by the 
home economics department. Forestry, chemistry, and the rapid 
expansion of the liberal arts division were chiefly responsible for 
most of the rest of the growth. 

Typical of the optimism and enthusiasm was an editorial in 
the Manchester Union on the growth in size and prestige of the 
state colleges in New England. 

"In the West, [said the Manchester Unions the 
State universities have been the whales for several 
years and it will not be many decades before New 
Hampshire, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and (remote 
possibility of Connecticut) State colleges will battle 
on even terms with Dartmouth, Brown, Harvard 
and Yale for the supremacy of their respective com- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

monwealths, just as Perm. State does with the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania now." 

Although this editorial underestimated the competition of the 
older institutions, it represented a widespread sentiment. 

Much remained to be done, however, to raise the standards 
to the level of today. Entrance requirements were changed and 
it became easier to enter the college. All students with high 
school diplomas were admitted without examination under a rul- 
ing which eliminated the necessity of certification by the principal 
of the high school. New Hampshire was the last state college in 
New England to do this. This change was due to the improve- 
ment of the secondary schools of the state. To retain a scholar- 
ship, it was still only necessary to maintain an average of 60, al- 
though the passing grade in the liberal arts division was raised to 
70. A student who was deficient in 15 or more hours was 
dropped. Since a normal semester's work did not ordinarily ex- 
ceed 18 hours, this requirement was not too rigorous. Even then, 
it was possible to be reinstated in a lower class or to arrange a 
change of courses. In 1915, the practice of having students in 
the liberal arts division choose a major in one department and a 
related minor by the middle of their sophomore year was intro- 
duced. This had not been feasible until the growth of the divi- 
sion gave greater possibilities of choice. The number of credits 
required for graduation was frequently changed for each of the 
divisions and varied from 140 to 150 in the agricultural division, 
from 132 to 136 in the arts and science division, and from 144 
to 152 in the engineering division. The difference in the num- 
ber of credits was to be equalized by "some qualitative standard." 
The object of this change was to secure greater concentration and a 
more uniform program of study. 

A curious rule related to the matter of absences. In the 
spring of 1913, a new arrangement went into effect whereby each 
student was allowed to be absent from a course as many times as 
the number of credits given for the course. All unexcused ab- 
sences in excess of this had to be made up and might count against 
a student's grade. Two unexcused absences resulted in proba- 
tion. The distinctive thing about this system was the fact that 
each total accumulation of 15 unused "allowed" absences was to 
be rewarded by one credit toward graduation. One student ac- 
tually accumulated enough unused absences to earn four credits 


The Administration of President Fairchild 

toward graduation in the three semesters during which this sys- 
tem lasted. A student with a perfect attendance record for four 
years could receive the equivalent of half a semester's work as his 
reward. This interesting possibility impressed President Fair- 
child so that he had the reward abolished, and the responsibility 
for absences was placed on the student with the exception of the 
requirement of attendance at the last class before and the first 
class after a holiday, absence from either of which was punished 
by a fine of five dollars. 

New Hampshire continued to be a 'poor man's college." 
Nearly 60 percent of the students came from farms. A fourth of 
the student body were entirely self-supporting, and half of them 
earned a major part of their college expenses. Such summer 
jobs as that of life guard, forest fire watchman, railroad brakeman, 
book agent, bell boy, waiter, farm hand, mechanic, garage at- 
tendant, musician, street car conductor, and many others helped 
pay expenses. One girl made doughnuts for two restaurants and 
a hotel during her vacation because she had learned the art in her 
home economics course and earned enough to cover all her ex- 
penses for the following year. 

The College Christian association organized an employment 
bureau in 1912 to help students secure work both during the 
school year in Durham and elsewhere during the summer. The 
service was free and was conducted by the volunteer work of stu- 

About half the men and two-thirds of the women belonged 
to fraternities. Part of the men and all of the women patronized 
boarding clubs or worked for their meals in private homes. George 
Brackett opened a lunch room in the basement of Pettee block 
which was patronized by the men. The initials H. C. L. became 
increasingly important in student life as the High Cost of Living, 
caused by the European war, became both a political and a per- 
sonal issue. The catalogue for 1916 estimated the average ex- 
penses for a year at $416, but a similar estimate could not be 
given the following year because the excessive fluctuation of food 
costs made a fair estimate for board out of the question. The 
boarding clubs raised the price of board fifty cents a week in the 
spring of 1917, in spite of loud protests, and one of these, the 
Union club, abandoned its weekly rate altogether, to serve lunches 
throughout the day in "restaurant style." 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Even with the new dormitories, rooms were still at a prem- 
ium. The New Hampshire reported one fall that all the dormi- 
tories were crowded, and that, although 15 houses had been built 
during the previous summer, some of the faculty were still un- 
able to find homes. The gymnasium, after only ten years, was 
so completely filled for convocation that any further growth of the 
student body would tax it beyond its capacity. 

Although the fraternities grew in size, there was only one 
new one organized. This was Phi Mu Delta organized in 1918. 
As the construction of Fairchild hall made more rooms available 
for the freshmen, the New Hampshire and Casque and Casket 
joined in urging that rushing be put off until spring instead of 
coming only a few weeks after the arrival of the freshmen in Dur- 
ham. Rushing was postponed until May and was more carefully 
supervised. The second oldest fraternity on the campus, Zeta 
Epsilon Zeta, was granted a charter as New Hampshire Beta 
chapter of Sigma Alpha Epsilon in December, 1916. The in- 
stallation of 20 active and 8 alumni members was held the fol- 
lowing March at Dartmouth. The Delta Kappa chapter of the 
National Federation of Commons Clubs was installed at New 
Hampshire on December 19, 1914, with 14 charter members. 
Four years later, this chapter, with two others, formed the Phi Mu 
Delta fraternity. Alpha Tau Alpha, the two-year fraternity, spon- 
sored a Beta chapter at Rhode Island State college in 1915, and it 
was announced that a third chapter was to be founded at Connecti- 
cut. Most of the officers of the new Grand Chapter were from 
New Hampshire with Edwin H. Anderson, ex- 1906 as president. 

Three sororities, Alpha Alpha Alpha, Pi Alpha Phi, and Phi 
Delta, formed an intersorority council called Sphinx in June, 1914. 
During the following year, two of these sororities joined national 
organizations. Where two national sororities existed on a cam- 
pus the regulations of the sororities required that a chapter of the 
national Pan Hellenic society be formed. This was accordingly 
done in the fall of 1915 with one senior, one junior, and one 
alumna from each sorority on the council. Phi Delta was the 
first local sorority to receive a national charter. It was installed as 
Tau chapter of Alpha Xi Delta in the fall of 1914. Alpha Alpha 
Alpha became Mu chapter of Chi Omega the next spring. The 
Pi Delta society was organized in December, 1917, with seven 
charter members, and later became a chapter of Phi Mu. 


The Administration of President Fairchild 

A group of alumni presented a cup in 1914 to be awarded 
each year to the fraternity with the highest scholastic average. 
Beta Phi won it the first two years. Alpha Xi Delta also offered 
a cup for which the sororities were to compete on the same basis 
for five years, at the end of which time, the most frequent winner 
was to retain it permanently. In 1916, Chi Omega first offered 
its prize of $10 for the best sociology thesis written by a woman. 

The Women's league was organized in June, 1913, "to pro- 
mote better fellowship and closer feeling between the women un- 
dergraduates." Alumnae, wives of alumni, women members of 
the faculty, wives of the faculty members, and women students 
were eligible for membership. This organization is still func- 
tioning as the Folk club. Their first undertaking was to furnish 
a girls' rest room in Thompson hall especially for the use of com- 
muters. Card parties and two plays, Rebecca's Triumph and Mice 
and Men, were sponsored in 1913 and 1914 to raise money. The 
latter play was directed by a professional coach from Boston, and 
its performance at the Dover Opera house was an outstanding suc- 
cess both financially and socially. 

A Dramatic club was organized by "the principals of Mice 
and Men." A number of faculty members were included in this 
group, most of them ladies, and the initiative seems to have come 
from them rather than from the students. Other organizations 
had, for years, sponsored plays for various purposes. Alpha Al- 
pha Alpha's presentation of Pygmalion and Galatea to raise money 
for more bleachers on the athletic field was an example of such 
effort. The leading parts in Pygmalion and Galatea were taken 
by "P. A. Foster and Miss (Marion) Gillespie, who gave a non- 
pareil portrayal of the vivified statue." The Dramatic club was 
the first organization wholly devoted to dramatics. Their first 
play, The Private Secretary, was given in January, 1916, with a 
cast of both students and faculty. Their next choice, The Magis- 
trate, by Pinero, had to be given up, "owing to its failure to meet 
the approval of the authorities in all respects." In its place, a 
group of one-act plays was offered which, the New Hampshire 
said, were "acted with ease and conscientiousness." The club ob- 
served the three hundredth anniversary of the death of Shakes- 
speare by giving a pageant which included scenes from his plays 
and morris dancing. Over 200 students took part in the pageant. 
The home economics classes, on this occasion, made nut-honey 
cakes from an Elizabethan recipe and served them to the audience. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

The Dramatic club took over some of the activities previ- 
ously within the sphere of the Glee clubs. The latter had pre- 
sented musical comedies and minstrel shows as well as the usual 
concerts. During commencement week in 1914, Pinafore was 
performed in the gymnasium by the members of the Glee clubs. 
Two years later, an abbreviated version of As You Like It was 
produced on the lawn in front of Morrill hall by the Girls' Glee 
club. There was aesthetic dancing between the acts, and a liberal 
use of spotlights and Japanese lanterns produced an effect of fairy- 
land. Between the income from concerts on campus and the 
profits made on trips in the state, the Glee clubs managed to 
build up a good treasury out of which was paid the salary of a 
coach as well as other expenses. 

Practically all the clubs organized on the campus in the 
years before the war had to be revived or reorganized anywhere 
from one to four times, so that very few of the current organiza- 
tions can trace their history back in a continuous line. Lapses of 
one to ten years in an activity were common. Intense interest 
on the part of a few students, expert and successful faculty spon- 
sorship, and changes in college fashions were some of the f actors 
that made a club successful. 

The Liberal Arts club, which was organized in 1915 to take 
the place of the defunct Arts and Science club, sponsored debating. 
This promoted a revival of the activity which had been a very 
popular phase of intramural competition in the decade of the 
nineties but which had declined in popularity after the turn of 
the century. A team, coached by Professor Alfred E. Richards 
and composed of G G Bond, R. J. Bugbee, R. J. McCartney, and 
V. W. Batchelder, debated at Rhode Island in May, 1916, on the 
question, "Resolved: That the Swiss military system should be 
adopted by the United States." Rhode Island won, but the New 
Hampshire team felt that the decision might have been due to the 
fact that two of the judges were ministers and so possibly opposed 
to compulsory military training. Intercollegiate debating was 
given up during the period of the war activities and did not re- 
appear for some time after. Dr. Richards also sponsored inter- 
class debates and was placed in charge of the work with the state 
Interscholastic Debating league when the college accepted the 
leadership of that organization in 1914. 

Other organizations started or reorganized during President 
Fairchild's administration were: the Economics club; the N. H. 


The Administration of President Fairchild 

club, organized by the letter men in all sports in 1917 to en- 
force training rules and aid athletics; Pi Gamma, an honorary so- 
ciety for students in zoology; Alpha Chi Sigma, an honorary chem- 
istry fraternity organized in 1911; the New Hampshire Union, 
organized by non-fraternity men in 1914, "to create a more demo- 
cratic spirit" on the campus; and the Outing Club, started in 1914. 
Carl S. (Gus) Paulson was the leader in organizing an Out- 
ing club. He was a phenomenally successful skier. At the 
Dartmouth winter carnival, in 1915, which the New Hampshire 
said was, "As far as is known, . . . the first intercollegiate meet of 
its kind held anywhere," he won several events, including the 
cross country and jumping competitions and displayed spectacular 
"somersets in mid-air" and landed safely after jumps of over 40 
feet. The chief purpose in organizing the Outing club was the 
encouragement of winter sports, although cross country running 
and swimming were also discussed. The organization was not 
completed until 1917, when Prescott Torrey became president of a 
charter membership of 12. The club was inactive during the 
war and had to be revived later. 

The student council was expanded in 1915 to admit repre- 
sentatives of the two-vear men, and it undertook to reform haz- 
ing. For years, an unofficial and mysterious group known as the 
Order of the Dogs had taken charge of this matter. At one time, 
a corresponding group among the women students, known as the 
Order of the Cats, had appeared but it failed to survive. The stu- 
dent council abolished the Order of the Dogs and placed the fresh- 
men on their honor to obey the rules. Six weeks after the open- 
ing of school, a "minstrel show" starring the hapless freshmen was 
conducted in the gymnasium. Only such freshmen as seemed to 
deserve it were hazed. Juniors and seniors watched from the bal- 
cony, and the former were equipped with ropes and other means 
by which they rescued the freshmen from the floor and hustled 
them out by the fire escape. After one of the roughest of these 
affairs, the New Hampshire complained that it was hardly funny 
to damage college property by throwing water and vegetables 
around and breaking chairs. After the "minstrel show," the fresh- 
men were sent home, and any caught on the streets were tied up 
and stowed away somewhere for the night. The following morn- 
ing, the sophomores put up their posters with the freshman rules, 
and the freshmen tried to tear them down before seven o'clock. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

A rope pull across Beard's creek was substituted for the former 
cane rush and the class banquets were removed from the list of 
contests, but the freshman class picture, the poster fight, the intra- 
mural athletic contests, and impromptu disagreements still pro- 
vided opportunities to settle class differences. 

A constructive form of mass endeavor was the annual New 
Hampshire day which was first observed on November 21, 1916. 
The entire student body and faculty devoted the day to labor on 
improvements on the athletic field which is now Memorial field. 
One group built bleachers, while another dug ditches in which 
tile drains were laid across the field. A letter was sent out to the 
alumni asking for contributions with which to purchase materials, 
and a fund of more than $450 was received. The surplus which 
remained from this fund was carried over to be used the follow- 
ing year for similar work. 

The wood for the bleachers had been cut in advance so the 
group assigned to construct them, assembled the bleachers in the 
shop the night before, in order to be able to finish early and 
loaf and laugh at the others. Unfortunately for this plan, the 
paint was late in arriving and delayed them so much that they 
finished at just the same time as the others. The girls prepared 
a lunch which was served in the gymnasium and consisted of 
oyster stew, rolls, ham sandwiches, doughnuts, and coffee. A 
barrel of oysters and 100 pounds of ham were used. 

In the evening, the entire college population celebrated with 
a minstrel show at the gymnasium. A Charlie Chaplin comedy 
was shown between the acts and later, there was informal dancing. 
The idea of the whole college, students and faculty alike, doing a 
day's work together and celebrating a cooperative accomplishment 
for the general good took the imagination of everyone. Even a 
newsreel camera man appeared and took motion pictures of the 
work and of the group at lunch. The annual New Hampshire 
day continued to be celebrated until 1924 when the last one was 

Two motion picture theatres had been opened in Dover, and 
those students lucky enough to be able to get over there on Mon- 
day or Tuesday evenings during 1914 could enjoy the Perils of 
Pauline and a vaudeville show for only ten cents at the Lyric. The 
student council took over the old college club rooms and ran pool 
and billiard tournaments. Thomas Schoonmaker, known to the 


The Administration of President Fairchild 

students as "Tommy" Schoonmaker, moved his barber shop and 
poolroom to a building erected south of his house where he in- 
stalled two bowling alleys. Samuel Runlett triumphed over 
George Brackett in the ice cream business by installing a "large 
and modern soda fountain." 

Several experimenters installed wireless equipment in their 
rooms, on which they could get time signals, weather predictions, 
and news broadcasts from the Wellfleet radio station on Cape 
Cod before the stories even went to press in the cities. Trans- 
mitting sets chattered back and forth, and the New Hampshire 
announced with pride that it was sending assignments to reporters 
and collecting news through a network of sets in two fraternities, 
the Pettee block, and the rooms of several individual enthusiasts. 
The military department promptly sponsored a wireless squad 
which started making sets for use in the field. 

The lecture and concert course was increased to six programs 
a year at a total cost of one dollar to students and a dollar and 
a half to others. Among the lecturers were Thomas Brooks 
Fletcher who lectured on A Martyrdom of Fools one year, and the 
following year on Tragedies of the Unprepared, John Kendrick 
Bangs who lectured on Salubrities I have Met, and former Presi- 
dent William Howard Taft. The Ben Greet players presented A 
Comedy of Errors. Musical groups such as the Dunbar Male 
Quartet and Bellringers, White's Boston Octette, Parker's Boston 
Imperials, and Rogers and Grilley, harp soloist and monologuist, 
filled out a varied program. 

The custom of having two houseparty week-ends was aban- 
doned in 1916, in favor of a Junior Prom in May. A full week- 
end was planned. It started with the Dramatic club play, The 
Importance of Being Earnest, on Thursday night, followed by a 
track meet on Friday afternoon, and the Prom on Friday night. A 
ball game was played on Saturday afternoon and house dances 
were held that evening. 

The girls' council sponsored the publication of a New Hamp- 
shire songbook in 1913. Alumni and students were solicited for 
advance subscriptions and for contributions. In the course of the 
year, enough money was raised to justify publication in time for 
the 1913 commencement. Dr. Richards assisted the young wom- 
en both in the preparation of the book and with a loan against 
future sales. The book sold for one dollar and contained about 


History of University of New Hampshire 

20 New Hampshire songs and 30 others, mostly old college 

In the work of the College Christian association, social serv- 
ice grew more important. Students examined social and economic 
conditions in nearby towns and participated more than before in 
efforts to alleviate these conditions. The deputation teams con- 
tinued to go out to neighboring churches, and campus work was 
still largely concerned with services of worship. The broaden- 
ing of student interests became more apparent. An exchange of 
letters printed in the New Hampshire during the spring of 1916 
went into the question of possible overemphasis of the "spiritual 
side of the Y triangle." County work with the Y. M. C. A., con- 
ceived as a kind of rural social service, was strongly emphasized. 
Speakers brought to the campus by the association discussed prob- 
lems of social importance as well as religious and moral topics. 

The organization of a branch of the Y. W. C. A. occurred on 
February 3, 1913, when Mrs. Fairchild, Mrs. Pettee, Miss Hodg- 
kins, and Mrs. Sanders met with the women students to hear Miss 
Mary J. Corbett of New York speak about the association. Miss 
Helen Plumber was elected the first president of the campus group 
and Miss Hodgkins became the first adviser. 

During President Fairchild' s administration, the college be- 
gan gradually taking over more of the responsibilities which had 
been previously assumed by the Athletic association. The total 
income of the association in 1912 had been only $2,300, of which 
$1,500 had come from student fees, $600 from dues, and $200 
from the college. The income was divided as follows: hockey, 
$100; basketball, $150; baseball, $600; track, $550; football, 
$900. The football season of 1912 ended with a deficit but the 
receipts of the basketball team just about equaled its expenses. As 
a result, it was possible to hire a coach for baseball during the 
following spring since the appropriation for basketball helped to 
reduce the deficit of the football season. A blanket tax plan, 
similar to that which is now in effea, was proposed by the New 
Hampshire in 1914 and again two years later but was not adopted. 
The student council undertook to sell $1,500 worth of Athletic 
association tickets in 1915 but failed to achieve the desired result. 
The interest in and support of track and hockey increased. A 
board track was built behind the gymnasium, and a dam was 
constructed to back up water enough in the nearby brook to form 


The Administration of President Fairchild 

a hockey rink. Tennis grew in importance as an intramural 
sport, and a varsity tennis team played Connecticut State college 
in 1915. 

During President Fairchild's administration, the football 
teams were not very successful. In one entire season, not a single 
point was scored by the New Hampshire team. Other seasons 
were, at best, even breaks for New Hampshire although there 
was at least the consolation that the defeats were at the hands of 
colleges rather than of preparatory and high schools. The situa- 
tion was not as bad as the New Hampshire editorials might lead 
one to believe. We were meeting not only teams like those of 
the Maine colleges, which are now considered in our class, but 
also teams from Boston college, Dartmouth, and other schools 
which would today be considered as outranking us. Not until 
1915, did New Hampshire finally secure a full-time athletic 
director in the person of William H. Cowell, affectionately re- 
membered by 25 classes of New Hampshire men as "Butch" 
Cowell. Under his direction, the athletic prestige of New Hamp- 
shire began to rise. Although the war interrupted this, the im- 
provement continued and reached its peak in the splendid foot- 
ball teams of the early twenties. 

An instructor in physical education for women was added to 
the faculty in 1916. Teams representing the various women's 
classes played basketball that year on the top floor of Thompson 
hall. All male spectators were excluded, except the faculty mem- 
bers. This seems to have been the first athletics for women at 
New Hampshire. The next fall, a girls' hiking club was or- 

The student body took a considerable interest in the presi- 
dential campaign of 1916. During the campaign, rallies for both 
candidates were addressed by important political leaders, including 
the governor of New Hampshire and the candidates for senator 
and congressman. A straw vote gave Hughes 222 votes and Wil- 
son 205. The women were allowed to vote and gave Wilson a 
slight margin over Hughes, perhaps because the suffragists had 
more hope of favorable action from Wilson. On election night, 
returns were flashed on a screen in the gymnasium as fast as they 
were received from Foster's Daily Democrat in Dover. After 
the national election, a group of women students, with the as- 
sistance of some faculty members, formed a chapter of the Na- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

tional College Equal Suffrage league and announced their inten- 
tion of holding public meetings to discuss women's rights. 

This growth of interest in events outside of the college was 
slow. References to the war in the student publications of 1914 
and 1915 are not numerous. Professor James asked the students 
to be especially careful of laboratory glassware because the supply 
of the best varieties, made in Germany and Austria, had been cut 
off. A few months later, he received word from England that an 
order for a rather large quantity of mercury, which he had sent 
for in order to forestall a sharp rise in price, could not be filled 
for fear that it might be used to manufacture explosives. Presi- 
dent Wilson proclaimed October 4, 1914, as Peace Sunday and 
the Protestant churches of Newmarket invited Dean Groves to 
speak to them that day on the subject of The Possibility of Peace. 

During the next year, speakers visiting the campus spoke on 
the Necessity of Military Preparedness, not for war, but to insure 
peace. One of the speakers was Major Frank Knox who was 
later the publisher of the Manchester Union. He maintained 
that only a much larger navy as well as military training, especial- 
ly in the schools, could protect America from the necessity of en- 
tering the war. 

The students, in response to a suggestion by Professor Fisher 
of the physics department, took up a collection for Belgian relief 
and sent it with a letter of sympathy signed by all the students 
and the faculty to the king and queen of Belgium. About $130 
was collected. The letter was sent in a hand-made blue leather 
cover as a Christmas greeting. A letter of thanks was received 
from the king's secretary and it was decided to frame the letter 
and keep it in the library "as a souvenir of the great war." 

The ladies of Durham organized a branch of the Surgical 
Dressings committee, which sent medical supplies to the Allies. 
Mrs. Pettee asked each student to contribute ten cents to help this 
work along. The Red Cross became extremely active in Durham 
and raised money and collected clothes and other supplies for the 
people of Europe. 

By 1917, the inevitability of American intervention had be- 
come so generally accepted that students and faculty alike were 
prepared to change their mode of life to meet the new situation 
created by the declaration of war. The entire college battalion, 
augmented by almost all of the seniors and the faculty, marched 


The Administration of President Fairchild 

in a preparedness parade in Portsmouth a week before the declara- 
tion of war. During the same week, the administration co mm ittee 
met and voted, in the event of a declaration of war, to give sen- 
iors in good standing, who enlisted before commencement, their 
degrees without examination. During the same week, an alumni 
issue of the New Hampshire was published. It contained a series 
of articles dealing with the departments of the college and pro- 
posed and debated a dozen improvements in their work. Among 
these proposals were a summer school, graduate courses, more and 
better athletics, and a more active and spiritually lively religious 
effort. All these proposals and many others were possibilities of 
the near future, attainable by a college growing both in size and 
in social value. The next week America went to war, the plans 
to improve the college were put aside, and the efforts of students 
and faculty were turned to a different task. 

President Fairchild did not take part in that work. He suf- 
fered from ill health and offered to resign, but the trustees re- 
quested that he continue in office as long as he was able to do so. 
He, therefore, insisted on trying to keep up with his duties in 
spite of an illness which he knew was certain to be fatal. In 
December, 1916, Dean Taylor was appointed assistant to the 
president, giving up the teaching of classes in order to relieve 
President Fairchild of some of his duties. It was too late, how- 
ever, for even this assistance to mean much for a month later, 
January 23, 1917, the president died. He was widely and sin- 
cerely mourned for he had been no less successful as a man in 
winning the regard of students and faculty, than he had been as an 
executive in increasing the prosperity and influence and prestige of 
the college. 

Although President Fairchild' s administration covered only a 
little more than four years, New Hampshire college was a vastly 
changed place at the end of that time. The student body had 
doubled, and this increase had been so rapid that efforts to keep 
the growth of the faculty even with the demand on them had been 
in vain. DeMeritt and Fairchild halls had been built, Ballard 
hall had been purchased, and Bickford hall, leased. The educa- 
tion and home economics departments and the two-year engineer- 
ing course had been added, and many other changes in the offer- 
ings of the college had been made. The college was rapidly 
growing toward the university, in fact so rapidly, that many could 


History of University of New Hampshire 

see the campaign just ahead for the recognition and acceptance of 
a greater field of service. The war was, in some respects, an in- 
terlude in the process, yet not wholly so, for the growth of the 
college was an organic part of the life of the state and that had to 
go on as it had been going, no matter what interferences might 
appear from the outside. 


The War Years 


When congress, on April 6, 1917, declared a state of war 
existing between the United States and Germany, New Hampshire 
college found itself peculiarly ready to serve in two lines, military 
science and scientific agriculture. Military science and drill had 
always been required subjects for male students, under the direc- 
tion of regular army officers detailed to the college by the war 
department, and agriculture had been taught by the college since 
its foundation in 1866. 

Although the immediate problem was to intensify the work 
in these lines, it soon became evident that the restlessness of 
the students was making it impossible for them to take more than 
casual interest in their studies. They were constantly urged to 
be patient until the war department had announced its policy with 
regard to students in land grant colleges. For a while, this advice 
had a quieting effect, but soon groups of students could be seen 
walking to the railroad station. They had the enthusiastic spirit 
of young America. They were determined to enlist. As the year 
went on, the members of the faculty felt they had to issue more 
warnings than usual. Absences from class were more and more 
frequent and classes were disorganized and maintained little in- 
terest and did little work. With such great events, both pend- 
ing and current, the humdrum routine of class work held little 
attraction for students whose eyes were fixed on a titanic struggle 
across the water. 

The faculty had less difficulty in maintaining the interest 
of the students in agriculture because of the early realization 
that food would be an important factor in winning the war. The 
boys saw definite work immediately ahead of them and could hold 
their restlessness in restraint. About the first of May, agricultural 
seniors and a few underclassmen who seemed particularly capable 
were allowed to take their final examinations in order that they 
might accept positions as community or factory garden supervisors. 
Dean Taylor was unable to fill all the requests that came to his 
office for agricultural students to work in various phases of the 
campaign to increase the food supply. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

New Hampshire college was not long in getting onto a war 
basis. Athletic schedules were abandoned. Leaves of absences 
were granted to members of the faculty who were called on to do 
special war work. Class schedules were rearranged and com- 
mencement exercises were advanced two weeks. Those members 
of the faculty who remained in Durham soon realized that a 
heavy burden had been placed upon them as well as upon the 
men in the army, but they bore it cheerfully and were ready for 
service of any kind. 

Both because of the labor scarcity and the necessity of sup- 
plying war industries and Europe, there was a shortage of coal 
for domestic use in this country throughout the war. In order to 
meet this, the strictest economy had to be practiced. To save 
both coal and electricity, the library was closed every night at 
six o'clock, except on Wednesday and Saturday. The gymnasium 
was closed altogether. Students were even requested to keep the 
radiators in their rooms in the dormitories turned off during their 
absence. At one time, the coal supply was so low that the col- 
lege would have had to close altogether if a special carload of 
coal had not arrived just in time. Eight carloads of coal were 
supposed to be on the way, but they could not be found. Wood 
was liberally used as a substitute for coal. Members of the fac- 
ulty turned out during the Christmas vacation to chop wood in 
nearby woodlots for the use of the college. They were divided 
into three competing groups on the basis of the three divisions of 
the college. Dean Taylor announced that the agricultural divi- 
sion under his direction would cut more wood than the other two 
combined. Under the stimulus of this challenge, all three divi- 
sions worked valiantly during the vacation. President Hetzel an- 
nounced a plan under which the students were divided into groups 
for wood-cutting according to the counties from which they came. 
Each group was assigned a quota which was invariably exceeded. 
A total of over 200 cords of wood was cut for the college by this 
cooperative effort. 

As a further evidence of practicing what they preached, the 
faculty gave a demonstration of the benefits to be derived from 
cooperation by planting a large crop of potatoes in the spring of 
1917. During the first year, 260 bushels of potatoes were grown 
on a one and one-half acre lot at a cost of about 80 cents a 
bushel. Enough potatoes were grown to supply the needs of the 


The War Years 

entire faculty during the winter. The following year was even 
more successful, for 324 bushels of potatoes were raised. 

By no means the least important activity in the town was 
that of raising money for the government to use in the successful 
prosecution of the war. Both students and faculty freely con- 
tributed their money, and the faculty also did important service in 
the management of the Liberty Loan campaign. The local cam- 
paigns were managed by Professor M. O'K. McKay so ably that 
Durham went over the top every time. Professor McKay and 
Mrs. Annie Morgan, sister of Professor Whoriskey, were awarded 
medals and German helmets by the New England Liberty Loan 
committee as souvenirs of their successful work in obtaining sub- 
scriptions to the fifth Liberty loan. 

Under the direction of the New Hampshire college branch 
of the National Red Cross, which was organized in May, 1917, 
with Professor C. Floyd Jackson as chairman, the women students 
made sweaters and other woolen garments for the men in service, 
and in 1918, they made clothing for the European refugee chil- 
dren. Dean C. E. Hewitt and Professor C. L. Simmers were in 
charge of the drives for the Red Cross and the Welfare societies. 

The first formal action by New Hampshire college with re- 
gard to the World war was taken by Acting President Pettee when 
he called the administration committee together on April 7, 1917, 
and that body ordered a week of intensive military training. In 
accordance with the resolutions adopted by the committee, the 
whole program of study at the college was temporarily changed. 
Members of the cadet battalion drilled from seven to nine hours 
a day and attended special evening lectures. As a substitute for 
drill, the women students reported at four o'clock each day for 
a brisk hike. A guard of one cadet officer, three cadet sergeants, 
four cadet corporals, and thirteen cadet privates maintained an 
all night vigil at the gymnasium which served as the armory. The 
guard was changed every two hours, and those not on duty tried 
to snatch a little sleep in the college club rooms which were lo- 
cated on the second floor. 

This early intensive training was under the direction of Cap- 
tain Charles A. Hunt of the regular infantry, a New Hampshire 
alumnus who was stationed here in charge of the college military 


History of University of New Hampshire 

courses. 1 At the annual inspection, on April 24, 1917, Colonel 
Edward Powers, U. S. A. inspection officer, highly complimented 
the college upon the work accomplished. 

The women students were kept busy every day during the 
week learning something of the important services which the 
women of our country could render during the great war. Lec- 
tures were given each forenoon by members of the faculty and in 
the afternoon, emphasis was placed upon practical work in con- 
nection with the Red Cross. The subjects treated in the several 
lectures related, in the main, to relief work, food production and 
conservation, chemistry in modern warfare, thrift, and various 
economic aspects of the war. During these stirring days, many 
cities throughout the country held monster preparedness parades, 
ending as a rule, with patriotic addresses. The city of Portsmouth 
arranged for such a parade and extended to New Hampshire col- 
lege an invitation that the cadet battalion take part. A special 
train was chartered to carry the command which, headed by the 
college band, marched in the parade and received loud cheers 
from the spectators. The activities of the week not only greatly 
impressed the students with the terrible seriousness of the hour, 
but through them reached the entire people of the state and con- 
vinced them that our entrance into the great war laid a solemn 
obligation upon every citizen. 

When the public safety committee of the state appointed a 
committee of seven to make a report on food supply, conservation, 
and distribution, two of the appointees were members of the New 
Hampshire college faculty, Director J. C. Kendall, class of 1902, 
of the Agricultural Experiment station and Professor W. C. 
O'Kane, head of the department of economic entomology. On 
the recommendation of this group, a central committee on food 
production, conservation, and distribution was appointed. Pro- 
fessor O'Kane was vice-chairman of the latter committee and was 
in charge of the division of finance and publicity. Dean Taylor 
had charge of the division of farm production, and Professor C. C. 
Steck, head of the department of mathematics, was the office mana- 
ger. Of the ten county organizers selected by Chairman Huntley 
N. Spaulding to be the media of contact between the central com- 

1 Captain Hunt afterward rendered eminent service on the Western Front 
as colonel of the 18th U. S. Infantry, First Division. He received the Disting- 
uished Service Cross for his services there. 


The War Years 

mittee and the local food committees, three were members of the 
faculty of the college and six were graduates of the agricultural 
course of the college. The faculty members were W. Ross Wil- 
son of the dairy department, H. P. Young of the department of 
agronomy, and C. J. Fawcett of the animal husbandry depart- 
ment. O. E. Huse, '12, A. H. Brown, '1 1, A. E. Smith, '16, V. H. 
Smith, '16, R. J. Bugbee, '16, W. J. Nelson, '16, and L. B. Robin- 
son, '16, who later took the place of A. E. Smith, were the mem- 
bers of this group who were graduates of the college. 

These organizers worked indefatigably to arouse public in- 
terest through mass meetings and frequent conferences. They 
did a tremendous amount of work and achieved remarkable suc- 
cess in stimulating and directing the work of the local committees 
and the various local supervisors. It was largely through their 
persistent enthusiasm that the men, women, and children of the 
state produced more food than they needed for their own use. 
These organizers were presented with automobiles purchased pri- 
vately and were thus enabled to travel hundreds of miles every 
week and to reach even the remotest communities. 

The county agricultural agents of the Extension staff, in 
addition to carrying on their regular work in their respective 
counties, also cooperated, under the direction of their leader, M. C. 
Wilson, with the county organizers by giving them office room 
and by frequently addressing mass meetings. Professor J. H. 
Gourley of the department of horticulture, Professor Ford S. 
Prince of the department of agronomy, Professor W. C. O'Kane 
of the department of entomology, and Professor Richard Whoris- 
key of the department of languages, also traveled through the 
state to address mass meetings held to stimulate production and 
conservation. As the labor problem became acute, Ralph F. Ta- 
ber, farm management demonstrator on the staff of the Extension 
service, cooperatively employed with the United States department 
of agriculture, was assigned to work in the office of the central 
food committee on this problem. His special task was the plac- 
ing of help on farms. 

On May 21, 1917, Director J. C. Kendall of the college 
Extension service and Miss Helen Knowlton, the dean of women 
and professor of home economics, attended a meeting of the cen- 
tral food committee together with Commissioner Andrew L. Fel- 
ker of the state department of agriculture, Superintendent H. C. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Morrison of the state department of public instruction, and Chair- 
man John B. Jameson of the public safety committee to consider 
the selection of 30 women as canning demonstrators. The selec- 
tion of the women was left to G. H. Whitcher, '81, of the state 
department of public instruction. During the week of June 18 
to 23, these young women attended a conference at the college. 
The mornings were devoted to lectures and the afternoons were 
spent in the laboratories. The lectures and demonstrations were 
given by members of the Extension staff, the home economics de- 
partment, and experts from outside the state. The women roomed 
and boarded in Smith hall. The instruction they received at the 
college was of great help to them in the demonstrations they gave 
later in all the towns of the state. 

Among the many important tasks assigned to members of the 
faculty was the preparation of several press bulletins and leaflets 
to meet the war emergency. Some of these were ready for dis- 
tribution on May 3, 1917. Altogether, sixteen bulletins were is- 
sued on various phases of food production. Several one-page 
leaflets on the best methods of canning fruits and vegetables and 
on thrift were written by members of the home economics de- 
partment and the Extension staff. These were distributed by the 
central food committee. Again during the 1918 campaign, mem- 
bers of the college staff and Experiment station prepared 24 press 
bulletins and extension circulars. Nine leaflets were also pub- 
lished under the direction of Dean Knowlton and Miss Bertha E. 
Titsworth in connection with the food conservation demonstra- 
tions. Seventeen agents of the Extension service also conducted 
numerous demonstrations on canning and conservation of food. 
Further, students of the college were enabled to take special war 
courses in the production of food. These included work in fer- 
tilizers for staple crops, war gardening, and practical fruit grow- 
ing. These courses were organized before the instruction work 
sponsored by the government had gotten under way. 

When Mr. Huntley N. Spaulding was appointed federal food 
administrator for New Hampshire in August, 1917, he made 
Professor W. C. O'Kane a member of his staff and retained Pro- 
fessor C. C. Steck as office manager, until the latter returned to 
take up his college work, October 1. The following spring, Pro- 
fessor H. H. Scudder joined the staff taking charge of publicity 
and Professor C. C. Steck was made chief of the division of manu- 


The War Years 

factures. James W. Tucker, '09, was made executive secretary, 
serving until the office was closed July 15, 1919. In the early 
summer Professor Richard Whoriskey, one of the regular speak- 
ers of the central food committee, was put in charge of the divi- 
sion of cooperative agencies. 

The committee on food production for 1918 had as its chair- 
man, Huntley N. Spaulding, D.Sc, 1918, and two others of the 
committee of six were President R. D. Hetzel, the executive mana- 
ger, and deputy superintendent of public instruction G. H. Whitch- 
er, '81, who had charge of school gardens. Headquarters was 
established at the college, and to President Hetzel was delegated 
the task of directing the food production campaign. The first 
thing he did was to appoint the following committees: 

"Administration — Executive Manager, President R. D. 
Hetzel; Assistant Managers, Professor W. C. 
O'Kane, Director John C. Kendall. 

Publicity — Professor W. C. O'Kane and Professor 

H. H. Scudder. 
Field Crops — Dean F. W. Taylor. 
Machinery and Finance — Mr. B. E. Curry. 
Farm Labor — Mr. F. C. Bradford. 

Livestock — Director J. C. Kendall, Mr. E. G. Ritzman, 
Professor O. L. Eckman, Professor J. M. Fuller, 
Professor A. W. Richardson. 

War Gardens — Professor J. H. Gourley. 

School Gardens — Deputy Superintendent of Public In- 
struction G. H. Whitcher. 

Women and Food Production — Miss Elizabeth C. Saw- 

The county agricultural agents of the Extension service repre- 
sented the state committee in their respective counties. These 
agents helped materially in organizing local committees, arranged 
for mass meetings, and through several surveys, kept in active 
touch with the progress of production in their counties. The 
effectiveness of the campaign is evident in the answers to the 
questionnaires sent out by the county agents early in the season. 
The replies received from 6,447 farms indicated an increased 
yield of 32.6 percent over 1917 in the combined acreage of po- 
tatoes, corn, oats, and wheat. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Mass meetings were held in every county to stir up enthusi- 
asm and among the speakers were President Hetzel, Director Ken- 
dall, Professor O'Kane, and Major Guy Boyer of the Canadian 
army who had just returned from three years of active service on 
the Western Front, and who was especially invited to speak by 
President Hetzel. Following these county meetings, local gather- 
ings were held in practically every community in the state and 
were addressed by county agents and other speakers. In order to 
keep the need of increased production before the people, articles 
and notices were sent to the newspapers, and posters, information 
sheets, and press bulletins were distributed throughout the state. 

Other work of the committee on food production concerned 
itself with farm labor, war gardens, school gardens, posters and 
circular letters sent out under the direction of the staff. The tasks 
of this committee were so effectively performed and the coopera- 
tion of the farmers so thorough that they were main factors in 
giving New Hampshire an excellent showing in the United States 
crop report for December, 1918. 

Not all the work of the land grant colleges was in food pro- 
duction, however. In the spring of 1918, they were assigned the 
task of training 300,000 men in dozens of important trades in 
which a shortage of skilled labor was being felt. Especially im- 
portant was the training of enlisted men in a number of branches 
of vocational work for service in the army overseas. This short- 
age of skilled mechanics was to be met by a system of intensive 
short courses. 

A committee on education and special training was organized 
by the war department, April 1, 1918. The United States was 
divided into nine districts, each in charge of a district educational 
director. New Hampshire college was one of the first of these 
institutions to undertake this work. On April 17, 1918, Presi- 
dent Hetzel appointed a committee of seven men, with Dean C. E. 
Hewitt as chairman, to take charge of this vocational work in the 
college. It was immediately decided to close the college on May 
1 in order to get ready for the first detachment of men who were 
due to arrive May 16, 1918. 

Work was begun, May 6, on a new kitchen at the north end 
of the gymnasium. This work was all done by members of the 
faculty and special instructors. The building was erected, all 
cooking equipment delivered and installed, and the first mess was 


The War Years 

actually served at noon, Thursday, May 16. Everything had been 
so carefully worked out for the systematic feeding of the men that 
more than 300 of them were marched in, seated, and served in 
exactly 17 minutes. Other preparations were made with com- 
parable speed and exactitude. 

The first detachment, consisting of 341 men from the state 
of New Hampshire, arrived on the 9:23 a. m. train, May 16, 
1918. Due to some misunderstanding, there were no regular 
army officers in Durham to receive them on their arrival, nor for 
the first three days of their life here. During this period, the men 
were kept busy under the direction of Dean Hewitt who, in a 
series of lectures, outlined the general plan of instruction and or- 
ganized the men into several instructional divisions. The new- 
comers were to receive eight weeks intensive training as auto me- 
chanics, carpenters, concrete construction men, electricians, gas 
engine men, machinists, blacksmiths, draftsmen, or cooks and 

Dean Hewitt rapidly devised a plan for making certain that 
a man should be assigned to the group for which his previous 
training and instruction best fitted him. To do this, the men were 
taken into a classroom and each man was interviewed by an in- 
structor. A selection blank was filled out by the instructor for 
each recruit, and from the information so secured, the assignments 
were made. Few changes had to be made after the first assign- 
ments. Before the blanks were filled out, Dean Hewitt always 
gave a lecture to each of the new detachments, explaining the ob- 
ject of the training, the general plan of the work, and the neces- 
sity of making a careful choice of courses so that each man might 
be able to give his best services to his country. 

During the period from May 16, 1918, to December 21, 
1918, in which the vocational work was carried on at the college, 
a total of 1,269 men were trained and equipped. The number of 
men trained during the period, listed by occupations, was as fol- 
lows: auto truck, 308; concrete, 197; carpenters, 339; electricians, 
206; blacksmiths, 50; machinists, 87; gas engine, 42; draftsmen, 
7; cooks and bakers, 17; clerks, 16. 

The first, second, third, and fifth detachments were from 
New Hampshire; the fourth detachment came from New York 
state. Twenty-three instructors, some of whom were members 
of the college faculty, were used in this work in addition to Dean 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Hewitt and the regular army officers in command of the men. 
Certain of the students were selected as foremen or group leaders. 
In order to provide practice in some of the trades, men began 
construction on the college campus itself. The largest and best 
remembered contribution of these men to the equipment of the 
college was the barracks which were built behind the site of 
the Commons and are now used by the university as men's dormi- 
tories and named East and West halls. The carpenter division 
built and finished one of these barracks in just 39V^ working 

Another piece of work which was done by the carpenter 
division was to build the wagon storage shed for the farm de- 
partment in one working day of six hours. While the building 
was being erected, photographs were taken at one-hour intervals 
to show the speed of the work. A kitchen had to be built to ac- 
commodate the increased number of men being sent to Durham. 
The work had to be done on extremely short notice, but the car- 
penters and electricians were equal to the task and they had the 
building ready when the next detachment arrived. Other construc- 
tion work by the carpenter division included a fire house, a store 
house, a poultry house, a piggery, a two-story and basement an- 
nex to Smith hall, and an addition to the original mess hall. They 
also repaired a large number of freight cars for the Boston and 
Maine railroad. This particular activity won special praise from 
General Grant when he visited New Hampshire college to in- 
spect the work carried on here. He remarked at the time that 
there was a special need for the repairing of several thousand rail- 
road cars in France which could be placed in service in a short 
time if a sufficient number of soldiers trained in this special work 
were available. 

The concrete division laid 2,742 square yards of sidewalk, 
a large proportion of which is to this day being used in Durham. 
They also laid down 1,143 cubic yards of concrete for foundations 
or special jobs such as the ornamental circle around the flag pole 
in front of Thompson hall. This concrete work can be identified 
today by the bronze plates which are inserted in it which carry 
the inscription, "N H C Training Detachment N A 19 18." 

The electricians rewired Conant hall. They also wired Smith 
hall annex, the two barracks, the mess hall, and a large number 
of other jobs illustrating almost every type of wiring construc- 


The War Years 

tion. The work of these divisions is a sample of the accomplish- 
ments of the soldiers during their training period. 

About the middle of June, 1918, orders were received from 
the committee on education and special training to establish lec- 
tures on morale at the various training detachments and directing 
New Hampshire college to take steps at once to provide a course 
of weekly lectures during the period of the detachment's stay in 
Durham. Professor Richard Whoriskey was at the time working 
with Mr. Huntley N. Spaulding, federal food administrator for 
New Hampshire as head of the division of cooperating agencies. 
President Hetzel, after a conference with Mr. Spaulding, requested 
that Professor Whoriskey devote half of his time each week to 
giving these lectures. They were begun about July first. A 
month later, Professor Whoriskey was directed to give all of his 
time to this work, at which he was extremely successful. In 
addition to the time spent in lecturing, a great deal of his time was 
spent with the men when they were off duty, especially in the 
barracks during the evenings. These private conferences were 
of great value in keeping up the morale. The lectures were ar- 
ranged so that men from each instructional division could attend 
in a body. Dr. A. E. Richards, professor of English, led the group 
in mass singing of war songs at each lecture period. 

So great was the demand for the services of the trainees, 
that not all of them were able to complete even the brief eight- 
week training period. Six weeks after the arrival of the first de- 
tachment, the war department asked that some of them be quali- 
fied for active duty and many left immediately for France. Ninety- 
three men of this first detachment were on the way to France in 
less than seven weeks after they had started their training. Even 
with their incomplete preparation, they were able to qualify for 
higher ratings than had been assigned to them by the instructors 
at the college. 

Life in the New Hampshire college camp in 1918 offered 
many interesting experiences. When the men arrived in Dur- 
ham, the commanding officer, Captain Dan T. Dixon, U. S. A., 
took charge of them at once. First, they were registered, then 
they reported to the doctor, First Lieutenant T. M. Toler of the 
medical corps, for a physical examination and inoculation. Their 
blankets, mattresses, and other equipment were issued to them at 
headquarters, and in the course of the day, long lines would be 


History of University of New Hampshire 

seen coming from the barn where they stuffed their mattresses 
with straw. The soldiers were kept busy from 6:30 a. m., when 
they had setting up exercises and drill, to 6 : 00 p. m. All through 
the day, there was more drill, vocational work, and attendance at 
their courses. Usually the evenings were left free from work 
and entertainments were provided for the men. Twice a week, 
moving pictures were presented in the gymnasium. Dances and 
Sunday evening picnics were arranged by the women of Durham, 
and members of the Dover Girls' club came to Durham frequently 
to assist in making these dances a success. As a gesture of ap- 
preciation for the efforts of the faculty and townspeople in pro- 
viding them with amusement, the men themselves put on a min- 
strel show on a stage built in front of Morrill hall. This show 
was a remarkable success for there were many professional enter- 
tainers in the first detachments. A second minstrel show was 
given later by the fourth and fifth detachments. 

There was always a harmonica player, or a violinist, or a 
guitar player in a detachment. Whenever the whim struck one of 
the men, and this happened very frequently, he called for a tune. 
The musician never refused. The first note was a signal for a 
crowd to gather. Soon a buck and wing dancer would appear and 
perform amid the shouts of his mess mates. Then they would 
call on the "sweet yodeler from Berlin," "Skinny" Light, or the 
minstrel, Charlie Early of Nashua or Joe Tremblay of Manchester. 
Usually the whole crowd would soon be singing, led by Sergeant 
John Rollins, '17, or Sergeant Leo Dowd of Nashua. 

When the New York contingent arrived during the summer 
of 1918, several stars were found among them. Jack White, a 
singer and comedian of New York City, was the most versatile of 
all. He was discovered the first day the New York group was in 
town. The leader of the singing had just taught the men "Good 
Morning, Mr. Zip-Zip-Zip" and found that they were soon sing- 
ing it with great zest. Sergeant Haley of Manchester told the 
leader about White's ability, and he was invited to the platform 
where he led the 200 men for 20 minutes. Thompson hall had 
never before heard such singing. White played on the baseball 
and football teams of his company, took part in boxing and 
wrestling matches, and was the star leader in the singing in the 
evening assemblies in the gymnasium. A group known as the 
"White Pals Stock Company of New York City" was formed and 
provided a great deal of impromptu entertainment for the men. 


The War Years 

During the summer of 1918, there were three special cele- 
brations in which the men took part. The first was held on July 
4 under the auspices of the town of Durham. President Ralph D. 
Hetzel presided and Colonel John H. Bartlett, later governor of 
the state of New Hampshire, and Professor Richard Whoriskey 
were the speakers. The second celebration came on July 14 in 
honor of the French holiday, the anniversary of the fall of the 
Bastille. Professor Whoriskey presided and the Reverend Archi- 
bald Black of Concord was the speaker. 

A patriotic field day which took place on August 22 was 
the most important celebration held, and it is estimated that there 
were close to 5,000 people in Durham for the occasion. The pro- 
gram lasted throughout the day and included an address by Gov- 
ernor Henry W. Keyes, the dedication of the flag pole 2 which 
stands before Thompson hall, a review of the training detach- 
ment, an exhibition guard mount, a baseball game between a 
team made up of sailors of the Portsmouth Navy yard and one 
composed of members of the New Hampshire training detach- 
ment, and a minstrel show given by the men. 

In addition to these celebrations, a series of informal talks 
was instituted to break the monotony of camp life. Outstanding 
among these were one by Ralph D. Paine of Durham, well known 
author and war correspondent, and one by Professor Whoriskey. 
Mr. Paine's subject was Running the Spanish Blockade to Cm 
Prize Sword to General Gomez of the Cuban Army. Professor 
Whoriskey spoke on Personal Experiences in Germany at the Out- 
break of the World War. 

Most of the soldiers were having a reasonable amount of 
diversion when the influenza epidemic struck the camp. Over- 
night, the whole atmosphere of the town was filled with gloom as 
one man after another reported to the doctor. Bickford house 
was soon filled with patients, then the Sigma Alpha Epsilon house, 
which is now the Theta Kappa Phi house, and the Kappa Sigma 
house had to be taken over as hospitals. Precautions were taken 
by the military and medical authorities to prevent the spread of the 
epidemic. All entertainments were discontinued. Guards were 
placed on all the buildings and along all the streets. Everybody in 

2 The lower part of the flag pole was cut in the college woods and was 
hewn down to its present size before being erected; the upper section is a part 
of the original flag pole erected in 1897. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

town had to have a pass to walk along the main street. Dun: lg 
the epidemic, Captain Dixon, the commanding officer. Lieutenant 
Barnwell of the medical corps, and Private Miller won the last:: ig 
gratitude of the soldiers by their tireless work with the men in the 
hospital but in spite of such efforts, 1 1 oi the men died in Dur- 

- hostess house for the men was opened about a month be- 
fore the demobilization of the soldiers and proved to be a great 
boon to the men in the last days of the war when the morale was 
lowest. The building later used as a fraternity house by S. A. E. 
and now known as Bickford hall was used for this purpose. Al- 
though the project had been suggested early in the year and was 
rejected because financing seemed impossible, the New Hampshire 
Federation of Women's Clubs, whose president at the time was 
Mrs. Alpha H. Ham'man of Laconia, raised $2,000 by >er:ember. 
The Y. W. C A. agreed to pay the salary of the hostess. Furni- 
ture and equipment was bought or borrowed. Besides the hostess, 
a hoosekeere: was employed. The house was immensely popular 
from the beginning; some days more than 200 soldiers used it. 
They seemed to have a persistent craving for ham and eggs, dough- 
nuts, pie, and coffee. This great demand for food could never 
have been satisfied if the soldiers themselves had not volunteered 
to help the housekeeper and hostess in preparing it and in wash- 
ing the dishes. The house was particularly necessary for the 
housing of visiting wives and sweethearts since Durham at the 
time boasted no hotel or other sleeping accommodations for visi- 
tors. Through most of the period, Miss Annie L. Sawyer served 
as hostess to those who used the house. 

The Y. M. C A. built a hut here for the use of the students; 
it is now the Faculty dub. It was built after a regulation pattern 
with an aud^rfuru, stage, offices, storeroom, pool room, and a 
writing and reading room. At the hut. the Y. M. C A. supplied 
the local papers for officers and men. free of charge. A canteen 
was organized during the influenza epidemic as a temporary 
measure because the quarantine regulations made it impossible for 
the men to go down town to the stores. The service was so suc- 
cessful that it was put on a permanent basis as a fully equipped 
store, the profits of which were used to provide entertainment for 
the men. 

The Reverend Robert C Falconer. Y. M. C A. secretary, 
who had seen service in France, proved to be most energetic and 


The War Years 

efficient when assigned to the New Hampshire College camp. He 
and his successor, Robert Watson, organized boxing and other 
sports, especially impromptu affairs in the barracks, to provide en- 
tertainment for an hour in the evening. 

When the college reopened in the fall of 1918, a section of 
the Student Army Training corps was organized with Dean Ernest 
R. Groves in charge of the instructional program. President Het- 
zel attended a meeting of college presidents at Plattsburg, New 
York, just before the opening of the academic year. At this 
meeting, a program of study was drawn up which emphasized 
English, French, and mathematics. Before this program could be 
adopted, however, definite instructions came from the war de- 
partment and a new program was devised. Major Stanley G. 
Eaton was detailed to New Hampshire college and relieved Cap- 
tain Dixon. Upon their induction into the S. A. T. C, students 
became a part of the military service of the United States and 
were under military discipline. They could be assigned to schools 
either for non-commissioned or commissioned officers, or could 
be sent immediately to a cantonment for work as privates. Their 
studies might be continued at the school in which they were orig- 
inally enrolled or in any other school which offered technical 
training. Thirty-four men of the New Hampshire college S. A. 
T. C contingent withdrew to enter officers' training camps. The 
expense of quarters, subsistence, and military training was paid 
by the war department in addition to a monthly pay of $30 to 
each student which was the equivalent of a private's pay. 

The college year was divided into three quarters in place of 
the former two semesters. A fourth quarter was to be conducted 
during the summer. Engineers working four quarters a year 
were to cover the usual four-year course in two years and receive 
their bachelor degrees. The students were to take 14 hours of 
class work and 28 hours of supervised study each week in addi- 
tion to 11 hours of strictly military work. Among the subjects 
taught were military science, problems and issues of the war, mili- 
tary law and practice, English, French, German, chemistry, survey- 
ing and map making, sanitation and hygiene, meteorology, the 
geography of Europe, descriptive geometry and drawing, trigo- 
nometry, logarithms, United States history, and international law. 

Under this plan, those students who were 20 years of age 
were to be permitted only three months of training; those who 


History of University of New Hampshire 

were 19, six months; and those who were 18, nine months. In 
actual fact, the Armistice came so soon that the entire force was 
demobilized before the completion of the first term's work. In 
addition, about a month's work was lost by the entire body due to 
the influenza epidemic. The regular college faculty, the army 
officers, and special instructors brought in from outside had to 
work out many complicated problems of administration and teach- 
ing in order to carry out this new form of instruction. 

The number of men inducted into the Student Army Training 
corps was 464, of which number 75 were in the naval unit. About 
500 men were also enrolled in the fall of 1918 in the vocational 
unit which has been discussed before. Distinct from all these 
were the regular students of the college numbering 155 women, 
and 35 men ineligible for military service. There were no men 
at all registered in the senior class. When this total of 1,154 is 
compared with the enrollment of 543 students in the previous 
year, it can be seen that the resources of Durham were taxed to 
the utmost. 

When word of the Armistice was officially verified early on 
the morning of November 11, 1918, President Hetzel and the 
commanding officer, Major Eaton, declared a holiday. A bonfire 
was immediately lighted and the men gathered around the flag 
pole in company formation and listened to an address by Presi- 
dent Hetzel. Professor Whoriskey presided and Sergeant Jack 
White acted as song and cheer leader. The men voted to parade 
to Dover rather than to have a field day and at one o'clock the 
procession started. The Dover band met the company at Saw- 
yer's and led the parade through the main streets to the City hall. 
A thanksgiving service was held in one of the churches after which 
the city provided the men with refreshments. After a brief rest, 
the company then marched back to Durham. 

Instructions were received from the war department to con- 
tinue the military and academic work without interruption in 
spite of the Armistice. The spirit of the men changed consider- 
ably. It was a bitter disappointment to many of them that they 
had not been able to get into the war, but now that it was over 
they were impatient to return home. Orders for demobilization 
finally came at the end of November. This was to take place 
over a period of three weeks for both the S. A. T. C. and the vo- 
cational units. In announcing the demobilization, President Het- 


The War Years 

zel urged the men to return to college and take up their work 
where they had left off. It was planned to resume the usual col- 
lege schedule after the Christmas vacation. 

With the time of demobilization approaching, the different 
companies increased the money in the company funds by enter- 
tainments and benefit dances. This money was used for farewell 
banquets. When the profits made at the canteen were divided, 
it was found that there was a sum of about $300 belonging to the 
S. A. T. C. headquarters fund. This sum was donated to the col- 
lege as a gift to be used to purchase a medal each year to be 
awarded to that student of New Hampshire college who, having 
taken military training during the preceding year, had proved him- 
self, in the opinion of the board, to be the best soldier. 

New Hampshire college will always have a souvenir of the 
military occupation of Durham, in such permanent improvements 
as the concrete walks, the flagpole, and buildings constructed by 
the soldiers. Future college generations should take a keen pride 
in the thought that this state college was rated among the best of 
the colleges in the country, not only in its hearty cooperation with 
the war department, but also in the results it achieved in training 

Eighteen men who had been closely associated with New 
Hampshire college lost their lives in military service during the 
World war; seventeen of these were graduates or former students 
and one was associated with the staff of the athletic department 
when he was called into the service. The names of these New 
Hampshire men have since been engraved on the plaque which 
marks the entrance to Memorial field in memory of the sacrifice 
which they gave for their country. The list of these men and 
their record follows: 

Forrest Eugene Adams, x'15, of Westbrook, Maine; assigned to 
Camp Devens for training, June, 1918; died there of in- 
fluenza, September 24, 1918. 

Frank Booma, x'20, of Portsmouth; member of Kappa Sigma and 
an excellent athlete; appointed to first training camp at 
Plattsburg; commissioned second lieutenant; killed by an 
airplane bomb in the trenches. 

Armand Alfred Brien, '17, graduate of the two-year course in 
engineering, of Manchester; died of influenza in France, 
October 8, 1918. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Paul Edward Corriveau, '15, of Concord; an honor student, cap- 
tain of the football team, winner of the Chase Davis me- 
morial medal, and member of Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Sigma 
Xi, Alpha Zeta, Sigma Kappa Zeta; master of science, Uni- 
versity of Missouri; member of the faculty of Rhode Island 
State college; commissioned in the Marines; promoted to 
first lieutenant; killed in action in France, October 6, 1918. 

George Henry Elam, two-year x'16, of East Canterbury; enlisted 
early in the war and died of pneumonia in Washington, 
D. C. 

John Humiston, two-year, x'16, of East Jaffrey; killed in action 
in France, June 15, 1918. 

Cyril Thomas Hunt, x'19, of Cornish Flat; honor student, mem- 
ber of Lambda Chi Alpha and Alpha Chi Sigma; commis- 
sioned lieutenant in the aviation service; killed in an air- 
plane accident at Carlstrom field, Arcadia, Florida. 

Donald Whitney Libby, x'17, of Dover; member of Theta Chi; 
enlisted as a private in the First Maine heavy artillery, pro- 
moted to corporal, then sergeant, finally to second lieutenant; 
died at a base hospital in France of pneumonia. 

Earle Roger Montgomery, '15, of Contoocook; honor student, 
member of Alpha Tau Omega, Casque and Casket; enlisted 
in the army soon after the declaration of war; promoted to 
corporal; killed by a premature explosion of dynamite at 
North Charleston, South Carolina. 

George Downes Parnell, '17, of Manchester; member of Kappa 
Sigma; applied for first officers' training camp at Plattsburg, 
but was rejected; enlisted in New Hampshire National Guard 
and received appointment to the second camp at Plattsburg, 
there commissioned second lieutenant, promoted to first 
lieutenant; killed in action while leading his men in an at- 
tack, September 27, 1918. 

John William Power, of Milford, Massachusetts; track coach at 
New Hampshire college during the season of 1914-1915; 
trainer at the college when the war broke out; enlisted and 
promoted to sergeant; killed in action, July 20, 1918. 

William Henry Robinson, two-year, '13, of Elmwood; commis- 
sioned second lieutenant at Plattsburg, promoted to first 
lieutenant at Camp Upton, transferred to Camp Perry, Ohio, 


The War Years 

for special training where he received orders to proceed over- 
seas; died of influenza in Ohio on October 5, 1918. 

Ralph Wellington Shirley, x'19, of Fryeburg, Maine; member of 
Lambda Chi Alpha; enlisted in engineers, promoted to ser- 
geant; killed in action, July 13, 1918. 

Otis Edmund Soper, x'20, of Nashua; member of Lambda Chi 
Alpha; killed during a counter attack at Beaux, July 13, 

Daniel Chase Stinson, two-year, x'05, of Goffstown; enlisted in 
the Marine corps as a private; took part in the great battle 
of Belleau Wood where he was killed, June 7, 1918. 

Fred Weare Stone, x'21, of Andover; member of Lambda Chi Al- 
pha; enlisted in Merchant Marine service; died of exposure 
off Sable island when the vessel on which he shipped had to 
be abandoned, January 13, 1919. 

William Hervey Thomas, '17, of Candia; honor student, mem- 
ber of Lambda Chi Alpha; attended officers' training school 
at Plattsburg; commissioned lieutenant; killed August 9, 
1918, leading his men in an attack at the North Vesle river, 
east of Bazoches. 

Pitt Sawyer Willand, '16, of Dover; member of Theta Chi and 
Alpha Chi Sigma; won commission as second lieutenant at 
Plattsburg, assigned to chemical warfare service; died of in- 
fluenza at Tuscumbia, Alabama, October 10, 1918. 


The College Becomes the University 


The close of the World war left New Hampshire college 
with a vast problem of readjustment. This applied not only to the 
administration of the college but also to all the individuals con- 
nected with it. All the college services had been adjusted to 
meet war needs and now nearly all of these changes had to be 
done away with in order to resume and extend the functions for 
which the institution had been created. 

Under the guidance of the new president, Ralph Dorn Het- 
zel, who had assumed office August 15, 1917, and thus was in 
charge during most of the war period, the entire organization and 
management of the institution was critically examined and many 
needed improvements were made. The editors of the 1921 Gran- 
ite have described the problems which President Hetzel met on his 
arrival in Durham: 

"The first year of his presidency, Mr. Hetzel was 
put to the crucial test of making an institution equipped 
for barely seven hundred students and financed on a 
war economy basis, take care of more than double that 
number for the Student Army Training Corps. There 
were barracks, mess hall, and additional shop build- 
ings to be erected, something like one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars worth of additional equipment needed, 
and an appalling amount of auxiliary expenditure abso- 
lutely necessary. It took vast courage and herculean 
effort to surmount the obstacles and shoulder the load. 
Yet President Hetzel did it, and brought the college 
through with flying colors." 

The college can always be proud of the way in which this 
great task was completed, but a still greater job of reconstruction 
awaited the new president. In many ways, New Hampshire col- 
lege after the war was a far different institution from what it had 
been. Joseph Conrad once wrote of the shadow line that sep- 
arates youth from maturity, a line marked in the life of each in- 
dividual by the meeting of a great crisis and the successful sur- 
mounting of it. Much the same thing was now happening in the 


History of University of New Hampshire 

life of the college. It was, in most respects, the same institution 
that it had always been, yet much had changed and the conse- 
quences of those changes were far reaching. Ultimately, the in- 
teracting factors of permanency and growth, both in the lives of 
the students and in the functioning of the institution produced 
the University of New Hampshire as an inevitable outgrowth of a 
changed world. 

Both students and faculty had to bring themselves back to 
peacetime ways of living. The excitement, the urge to self-sacri- 
fice, all the special demands of the war had left a heritage of rest- 
lessness and dissatisfaction with humdrum ways of life. It seemed 
to President Hetzel that the readjustments should be made quickly 
and decisively. He was asked by the federal government to ac- 
cept a position with the Army Overseas Educational commission, 
but rejected the honor because he felt that a bigger and more im- 
portant undertaking awaited him in Durham. Dean Hewitt was 
granted a year's leave of absence to go to Washington and take 
charge of the organization of vocational training camps in differ- 
ent sections of the country, but as for the rest of the faculty, 
their duty lay in Durham. 

There were many students on the campus who had served in 
either the army or the navy during the World war. A group of 
these organized the Overseas club which shortly received a charter 
from the Veterans of Foreign Wars as Parnell-Corriveau Post No. 
385. With a group of members of the Overseas club participat- 
ing in the ceremony, the students assembled in the natural amphi- 
theatre below Bonfire hill, on Arbor day, Saturday, April 26, 1919, 
while 18 trees were planted as a memorial to the men of the col- 
lege who had lost their lives in the service. The town of Dur- 
ham voted a memorial tablet for its own gold star men, which 
now stands near the town hall, but students, faculty, and alumni 
all concurred in the feeling that the college should erect another 

That memorial was to take the form of a new athletic field 
and the task of financing it was assumed by the Alumni associa- 
tion. The association was in a more prosperous condition than 
it had ever been before, though it still had a membership of less 
than half the graduates. In the fall of 1919, great interest had 
been shown in the election of alumni trustees and a very heavy 
vote cast. Nevertheless, the construction of a new athletic field 


The College Becomes the University 

in only one year seemed an incredible undertaking. The response 
of the alumni was amazing, even to the sponsors of the plan. All 
graduates of the college were circularized. In numerous towns all 
over the country wherever graduates could be brought together in 
sufficient numbers, new alumni clubs were formed and committees 
took charge of the drive. 

The Boston club sent in word that it would raise $4,000 and 
kept its promise. Quotas were assigned to all the other clubs 
and to the separate classes. Class after class was reported to 
have achieved its quota. The class of 1920 declared its intention 
of doubling the amount assigned. By January, 1921, about 
$16,000 of the amount needed had been pledged. The directors 
of the drive became worried as the last few weeks of the cam- 
paign passed without pledges arriving in sufficient amounts to 
meet the final quota. A last appeal brought a sharp increase 
with the result that on the last day of the campaign, the committee 
was able to announce that $25,250.20 had been pledged. This 
large scale collective effort of the alumni to help the college was 
an outstanding success. The bell in Thompson hall tolled, and 
the students lighted a bonfire and cheered and sang to celebrate 
the victory. 

Construction began immediately with the $15,000 in cash 
which had already been collected. The original plans were com- 
pleted well within the proposed budget of $26,000, but it soon be- 
came clear that additional construction would be necessary, and in 
order to do the job properly, about $5,000 more would be needed. 
The class of 1921 promptly pledged $2,000 and a "Stick-To-It-ers 
Club" of alumni who had already contributed and were ready to 
contribute again in order to see the job finished, made up the 
balance. Sixty-eight percent of the four-year alumni and 42 per- 
cent of the two-year alumni contributed to the fund. The final 
total reported by the association was $27,238.72 according to 
the Alumnus for June, 1922, and March, 1925. Although the 
committee in charge had succeeded in securing money from 940 
alumni, the campaign expenses were kept extremely low in order 
to obtain the maximum possible benefit for the college from the 
gifts of her graduates. 

A bronze tablet bearing the names of the 18 New Hamp- 
shire men who died during the war was placed near the entrance 
of Memorial field. The field itself was presented to the college 
by the officers of the Alumni association at commencement on 


History of University of New Hampshire 

June 10, 1922. A year later, the association participated in the 
unveiling of the memorial tablet on Alumni day. Today, Me- 
morial field still remains a tribute not only to the men who died 
during the last war, but also to the 1,100 New Hampshire alumni 
who entered the service of their country during that struggle. In 
a different but scarcely less honorable way, it also commemorates 
the hundreds of loyal alumni all over the country who cooperated 
in making this splendid gift to the college, for the field was not 
only a memorial of past achievements, but a guarantee of support 
and encouragement for the future. 

The enrollment of students increased rapidly under Presi- 
dent Hetzel's leadership. With the demobilization of the S. A. 
T. C. in December, 1918, the college closed until the beginning 
of the next month. About 500 students were enrolled in the sec- 
ond and third terms of that academic year. The next fall, 746 
students were enrolled including 557 men and 189 women. Three 
years later, the total enrollment reached 1,000 for the first time 
in the history of the college. Of these, 140 were in the agricul- 
tural division, 289 were engineers, and 550 were in the division 
of arts and sciences. Forty-five were members of the two-year 
agricultural course, 15 were graduate students, 41 were special 
students, of whom 1 1 were special forestry students. As can be 
seen from these figures, the phrase, agricultural and mechanical, 
in the name of the college, actually described the courses taken 
by less than half of the total student body. Men out-numbered 
women students in a ratio of nearly three to one. The follow- 
ing year, the agricultural division actually lost in the size of its en- 
rollment, while the division of arts and sciences gained a number 
almost equal to the total increase in enrollment, giving them a 
total of 687 out of 1,121 students in the college. This fact pro- 
vided an argument which President Fairchild had been unable to 
make in favor of changing the college into a university. 

With the growth of the student body, the number of fra- 
ternities multiplied rapidly. In 1921, a new local fraternity, 
Gamma Gamma Gamma, was organized; this was followed in a 
short time by another local, Delta Pi Epsilon. In the same year, 
Sigma Beta accepted a charter from a new national fraternity, 
Theta Upsilon Omega. Later, it returned its charter and became 
a local fraternity again. A Jewish fraternity, organized under 


The College Becomes the University 

the name of Tau Gamma Phi in 1922, received its charter as 
Omicron chapter of Phi Alpha two years later. 

A group of Catholic boys organized Nu Sigma Mu in 1924 
and were chartered as Upsilon chapter of Theta Kappa Phi the 
same year. Also in 1924, a local group called Beta Sigma Alpha 
was installed as Omega chapter of Alpha Gamma Rho, a national 
fraternity of agricultural students. Only one new sorority ap- 
peared, Delta Kappa, a local organized in 1919. 

A new sophomore honorary society, Sphinx, was founded in 
1921. It announced its function to be the providing of accom- 
modations for all visiting athletic teams, organizations, alumni, 
and other visitors to the different college functions and ushering at 
all athletic contests. Later, it added to its duties the direction 
of and assignment of work around the campus, to be done by 
members of the freshman class. Such jobs as shoveling snow, 
collecting material for bonfires, and ringing the Thompson hall 
bell were among those under the direction of the society. In the 
same year, Blue Key was organized as a senior honorary society 
with eight charter members. Stunt night, now sponsored by Blue 
Key, was started under the direction of the N. H. club. It was 
successful from the beginning and drew entries from practically 
all the fraternities and sororities on campus, as well as from a few 

Phi Kappa Phi, honorary scholastic fraternity, was established 
at New Hampshire in 1922. According to the New Hampshire, 
"Unlike Phi Beta Kappa, it takes in those of high scholastic stand- 
ing in both general arts, agriculture and engineering courses." 
The highest fifteen percent of each class was to be eligible for 
membership at the end of the junior year. The first group, con- 
sisting of 23 faculty members and 15 students, was installed by 
Dr. Edwin E. Sparks, former president of Pennsylvania State col- 
lege. The first president of the new chapter was Dr. Henry R. 
Kraybill, professor of agricultural and biological chemistry. In 
honor of the new society, a special convocation was held at which 
Dr. Sparks spoke on American scholarship. 

The number of new organizations based upon special inter- 
ests increased rapidly. The Girls' Dramatic club, organized im- 
mediately after the war, decided after a year to admit men to 
membership. In 1922, dramatic activities on the campus were 
concentrated in the hands of Mask and Dagger, admission to 
which was on an honorary basis. A debating club was organized 


History of University of New Hampshire 

by Professor Frederick A. Pottle in 1921, and two years later, an 
honorary debating fraternity, known as Phi Delta, was organized. 
In 1925, this latter group received a charter from Tau Kappa 
Alpha, the national honorary forensic society. Clubs having as 
their chief purpose the practice of conversation in their respective 
languages were organized for students of French, in 1919, and of 
Spanish, in 1924. 

The Big Sister group, initiated before the war, was revived 
under the direction of Dean Elizabeth P. DeMeritt, in 1921, with 
the purpose of assigning older girls to advise and assist freshman 
girls during their first few weeks at the college. Even the girls' 
Athletic association was turned into an honorary society, admis- 
sion being granted on the basis of points gained by participation 
in the different women's sports. The Wireless club was revived 
and in a short time acquired nearly 100 members. The tower of 
Nesmith hall was, for a time, used by the members as a labora- 
tory. The seven local correspondents for different daily news- 
papers formed a New Hampshire College Press club which was 
planned to be a local version of the Associated Press. Each week, 
one of its members was assigned to a certain class of news, and 
the assignments were changed each week. Membership was lim- 
ited to those of good scholastic standing who were representatives 
of newspapers belonging to the Associated Press. 

As the Outing club had been inactive during the war, pro- 
posals to revive it were made as early as 1920, but the organiza- 
tion was not finally reestablished until 1924. In the meantime, 
the Forestry club sponsored a winter carnival, which was held 
February 11, 1922. The competitions, almost all in skiing, were 
held at Garrison hill during the afternoon. So far as is known, 
there were no competitors entered in the events from outside Dur- 
ham. The third winter carnival, in 1924, was sponsored by the 
Outing club. 

The ski jump which had been erected on Beech hill before 
the war was improved. The college appropriated $750 to be 
used to double the height of the jump, and some of the work was 
done by students on New Hampshire day, May 10, 1924. A new 
hockey rink was built near the college reservoir so that skating 
events could be held there. 

Gunnar Michelson, three times intercollegiate skiing cham- 
pion of the United States and Canada, should receive much of the 
credit for the rapid advance in interest in winter sports at New 


The College Becomes the University 

Hampshire. He led the first New Hampshire team at the Lake 
Placid Winter Carnival, in 1922, and won five medals himself 
although the team placed third in the meet. At the third Winter 
Carnival in Durham, in 1924, the Outing club introduced the cus- 
tom of having a Carnival ball. They also sponsored trips of the 
winter sports team to carnivals at Dartmouth, the University of 
Vermont, Williams college, and at Manchester. 

The student council, reestablished after the war, undertook 
to regulate class competitions and took charge of minor problems 
of discipline. The girls' council also resumed activities and in- 
troduced a point system which limited the number of leading 
positions in campus activities which a girl might hold. Their 
example was soon followed by the men. Dean Elizabeth P. De- 
Meritt organized a Girls' Student Advisory council composed of 
one representative from each class, girls' organization, and sorority, 
which met once a month to discuss the problems of the women 

The Y. M. C. A. hut, which was built during the war, was 
taken over by the campus Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. before it 
became the Faculty club. It was designed to serve as a club 
room for men students. On Sunday afternoon, religious services 
were held there followed by a brief social period. Discussion 
groups were formed in the fraternities and dormitories to discuss 
both campus and off campus problems. Among the special func- 
tions sponsored by the Christian association were the raising of 
money for the Friendship fund to aid European children, and la- 
ter, assistance in the raising of money for remodeling the church 
in Durham. Deputation work developed to the point that in 
1924, a special drive was conducted to raise money to buy a tour- 
ing car for the use of students going to outside towns to carry on 
social and religious work. 

The Northern New England School of Religious Education 
was held on the college campus, for the second time, during the 
week of August 11 to 17, 1919. The program included a series 
of lectures, vesper services, and pleasure trips around Durham. 
Students took an active part in helping with the arrangements 
for this event. 

A faculty committee on student organizations was set up in 
1923 to regulate the activities of the clubs and fraternities. Their 
published rules provided that new organizations must petition the 
committee for permission to carry on their activities. Social af- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

fairs were permitted only on Fridays or Saturdays, or on the eve- 
ning before a holiday. Dances were required to end at 1 1 o'clock; 
the only exceptions to this rule were the senior and sophomore 
hops, which might continue until 12, and the junior prom, until 
one. Only one house party a year, which was scheduled to be 
held during junior prom week, might be given by each fraternity. 
The fraternities might give one evening and one Sunday dinner 
party a month to which women were invited. All dances were 
required to be chaperoned by not less than three couples including 
one member of the student organization committee. 

The financial problems of the Athletic association were 
somewhat alleviated by the imposition of a five-dollar tax payable 
by every student upon registration. The sports which had been 
sponsored before the war continued with greater success than 
before. The most spectacular improvement was in football. The 
teams of 1920 and 1921 made records which are remembered to 
this day. The successes of the 1920 season secured for the New 
Hampshire team games with such powerful opponents as Army, 
Holy Cross, and Dartmouth. At West Point in 1921, Dutch 
Connor booted a sensational field goal that secured the victory 
over the Army team. Later in the same season, 12,000 people 
packed the Textile field in Manchester to see New Hampshire de- 
feat Holy Cross by a score of 13 to 7. Dartmouth had the only 
team on the schedule that was able to stop Dutch Connor, Cy 
Wentworth, and other wearers of the blue. In spite of this one 
loss in 1921, New Hampshire was ranked tenth by one New York 
paper and fourteenth by another in the ranking of all the football 
teams of the country. The New York Tribune called New 
Hampshire, "the king of the small college elevens." 

Leaving out of consideration this extraordinary team, New 
Hampshire was beginning to occupy a far more prominent place 
in the athletic world than it ever had before. By 1924, five new 
varsity sports were added to the list, boxing, soccer, hockey, ten- 
nis, and winter sports. Cross country was separated from track, 
and a letter specifically for that sport was granted. 

The N. H. club showed a great deal of enthusiasm in spon- 
soring and fostering sports on the campus. They raised money to 
give gold footballs to the members of the championship team of 
1920 and undertook the task of bringing up to date the record of 
all those former students who had participated in athletics and 
were, under the then current rules, entitled to wear the insignia of 


The College Becomes the University 

the college. Certificates were made out in the name of the N. H. 
club and sent to all of the former students who were eligible who 
could be discovered. The 1921 football team had the distinction 
of being the first to attend a training camp before the opening 
of college. For ten days under the direction of Coach Cowell 
and his assistants, 44 men prepared themselves at Ocean Park, 
Maine, to participate in football that year. 

As the staff of the men's physical education department was 
increased, k became possible to introduce a program of recreation- 
al physical education. All male students, except those who were 
required to take corrective work, might elect classes in any one 
of a number of sports. 

New Hampshire college was admitted into membership in 
the National Collegiate Athletic association in 1918. Under the 
leadership of Coach Cowell and President Hetzel, the New Eng- 
land Conference on Intercollegiate Athletics was organized in 
1922 and 1923 and included in its membership five of the six 
state colleges in New England. Rules which were adopted for 
competition in this group limited the eligibility of players much 
more than had previously been the case. By eliminating pro- 
fessionalism and other evils, this organization was instrumental in 
improving the standards of intercollegiate competition. 

The Women's Athletic association was recognized and placed 
on an equal standing with the men's association. At first, there 
was difficulty in providing funds for the use of the girls' athletic 
teams. This deficiency was gradually made up and the girls' bas- 
ketball team engaged in games with out-of-town teams during the 
academic year, 1921-1922. At the end of the season, varsity let- 
ters were awarded for the first time to women students. Miss 
Mayme MacDonald, assistant professor of physical education for 
women, decided against continuing outside competition and the 
trips were given up. In place of this, the point system was es- 
tablished which enabled a girl to win her numerals or, if she were 
particularly proficient, an N. H. by getting the required number 
of points. 

By the developments described above, the college recognized 
and accepted its responsibility for the physical welfare and im- 
provement of the student body. It succeeded in a few years in es- 
tablishing a program of physical education as a recognized part 
of the educational work of the institution. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

The student body voted, in 1920, to make all students auto- 
matically subscribers to the New Hampshire, and thus gave it a 
guaranteed support for which it had long sought. Until 1919, 
the paper had been a four-page sheet, but that year, it was in- 
creased to six pages. However, as problems of folding and trans- 
portation became expensive, it was decided to return to the four- 
page format but in a much larger size so that the same amount 
of news could be printed. 

The publication of the student directory was one of the proj- 
ects undertaken by the New Hampshire. When the student body 
had been smaller, it had been possible to publish the names of 
the students and their addresses in the pages of the paper. Be- 
cause of the increased number of students, it became necessary 
to print a booklet which sold for ten cents. Efforts to improve 
the Granite soon led to excessive expenditures. The 1924 Gran- 
ite, for example, cost $4,000 for 500 copies. By action of the 
student council, it was decided that hereafter the expense of the 
Granite would be limited to $2,500 for the same number of copies. 

The first number of a new publication was offered to the 
student body in June, 1920. The Profile, an illustrated literary 
magazine, proposed to publish short stories, articles, and poems 
written by students, members of the faculty, or friends of the col- 
lege. The magazine appeared monthly until May, 1921, when it 
was forced to suspend publication due to lack of financial support. 
Its circulation had been large enough and the difficulty and com- 
plexity of editing it were sufficient to justify assignment of office 
space for the staff of the magazine in Thompson hall next to the 
New Hampshire office. 

The traditional College day, now known as University day, 
was first observed on September 28, 1921. It was an attempt to 
substitute for the hazing of the past a more constructive and better 
controlled form of interclass competition. All the classes parti- 
cipated in intramural sports during the first College day, but spe- 
cial prominence was given to competition between the freshmen 
and sophomores. The highlight of the events was the traditional 
rope pull across Beard's creek. The 1923 Granite stated that 
"due to a ruling of the Student Council abolishing the custom of 
forcing the freshmen to kiss the rope after the pull, the contest 
passed without the usual fist fight." Slowly, one by one, the op- 
portunities for hazing, formerly characteristic of the relations be- 
tween the two lower classes, were being eliminated. 


Student Activities 






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The College Becomes the University 

Competition between the girls of the two lower classes was 
introduced on College day in 1923 with a cage ball contest which 
was won by the freshmen. Special convocations were held on 
these days with speeches by the president, and by either members 
of the faculty or prominent alumni for the purpose of acquainting 
the freshmen with the traditions and rules of life in the institu- 

The first May festival was presented by the women students 
in the spring of 1919 and included a pageant during which the 
May Queen was crowned. Although the festival has not been 
held every year since 1919, it is now an annual event. Con- 
sidering Durham's climate, it is not surprising that this celebra- 
tion has usually been held nearer the end of the month rather 
than on May day. The first house parties and junior prom in 
three years were held again in 1919, and the sophomore and sen- 
ior hops were also revived the following spring. 

The custom of choosing some of the most attractive women 
students as sponsors of the R. O. T. C. battalion was initiated in 
1921, with the election of five women who were to be guests of 
honor at the Military ball and who presented the awards to the 
winning students in military science. The women chosen were 
given a ribbon with the insignia of their rank in a brief cere- 
mony conducted by the head of the military science department. 

An attempt was made to establish the custom of having a 
bonfire in the spring at which the freshman caps and the posters 
containing the freshman rules were burned. The first time the 
event was held, in the spring of 1921, somebody lighted the fire 
ahead of time so that both freshmen and sophomores had to ac- 
cumulate another pile in order that the event might be held as 
planned. President Hetzel spoke briefly at the celebration and 
said that the custom thus initiated should be observed every year. 
However, the relaxation of freshman rules which has taken place 
since then has made the termination of the rules somewhat less 
of an event and the celebration initiated in 1921 has not been 

The R. O. T. C. unit, in 1923, held a spring training camp at 
Barbadoes pond, where they stayed for two days, living in pup 
tents. The men had a dress parade and the annual spring inspec- 
tion at the camp and then were given the rest of the time for 
fishing and whatever amusements they could find there. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

The following year, 400 men in uniform went by a special 
train to Manchester where they encamped at the Amoskeag recrea- 
tion grounds. A very full program of activity kept the interest of 
the men alive from the time they arrived Wednesday afternoon 
until their departure, Saturday morning. The college band gave 
a concert at the grounds which drew a large crowd of townspeople. 
The following day, the regiment was inspected and went through 
a series of drills and a sham battle. The last of these annual 
encampments was held in 1928 at Keene. 

# # # 

The great financial crisis faced by the college just after the 
World war made immediate action by the state legislature abso- 
lutely essential. For the biennial period, 1919-1921, the legis- 
lature appropriated $267,275 for all purposes. An unexpectedly 
large enrollment of students as well as abnormally high prices 
made this sum inadequate. The governor and council, there- 
fore, appropriated out of the governor's emergency fund 
$33,720.75 during the two-year period, and in addition, the legis- 
lature, in 1921, provided $112,318 as deficiency appropriations 
for the college. To help meet the increased cost of running the 
institution, tuition was increased from $60 to $75 in 1920, and in 
1921, non-resident tuition was increased to $150; the special in- 
cidental fees for all students were raised from $36 to $50 a year 
at the same time. As a result of this action, New Hampshire 
college, with but one exception, was charging the highest tuition 
rate of any state college in the country. 

Problems caused by the growth of the institution continued 
to multiply. A large amount of equipment and supplies were 
still needed. The college had an extremely low salary level and 
was repeatedly losing instructors because of this fact. The stu- 
dents numbered three times as many as they had ten years before 
but nothing like a comparable increase had been made in appro- 
priations for operating expenses. Buildings were crowded and 
students had to be denied laboratory work in several courses. The 
heating plant was inadequate and wasteful. 

The barracks and other construction done by the New Hamp- 
shire college training detachments in Durham created another 
problem. The War department offered to sell all of this to the 
college at prices ranging from one-third to one-tenth of their ac- 
tual cost. While this was undoubtedly a bargain, the college 


The College Becomes the University 

could hardly take advantage of the offer unless it had the money 
to spend. Eventually all this property was turned over to the 
institution for $34,903. Included in the purchase were the bar- 
racks, which would house 140 men, a wing on Smith hall, which 
would house 36 girls, an annex to the shop, the poultry plant, a 
house for military equipment, and the concrete walks. 

President Hetzel submitted a special report to the legislature 
of 1921 describing in detail the financial needs of the college. 
The emergency appropriations, already mentioned, were provided 
to meet the deficit, so that President Hetzel was able to announce 
in June, 1921, that the sharpest financial crisis in the history of 
the college had been successfully passed. This special appropria- 
tion, however, was far from settling the financial needs of the 
college, so the 1921 legislature appropriated $638,705 for the 
succeeding two years. This very generous appropriation, designed 
to be used both for general expenses and for building purposes, 
when added to the emergency appropriations already made, cre- 
ated a vastly more favorable atmosphere for all the activities of 
the college. 

The students received the announcement of the appropria- 
tion at a convocation and responded with a torrent of applause and 
cheers for both President Hetzel and Governor Albert O. Brown. 
To celebrate the event, the students paraded through the streets 
of Durham until everybody had heard the good news, then 
marched back to the flag pole in front of Thompson hall where 
President Hetzel made a speech. This was the first of a series of 
biennial celebrations, as the campaign to bring the college to new 
levels of strength and prosperity continued. 

The continuation of the campaign had two aspects. One of 
these was the effort to secure recognition of the fact that the 
college in Durham was no longer properly described by its old 
name, the New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the Me- 
chanic Arts. Twice before, vigorous campaigns had been waged 
to secure for the institution the right to the name of the Univer- 
sity of New Hampshire. Both times, these efforts had failed, 
largely because the agricultural organizations of the state had 
feared that such a change would mean subordination of the divi- 
sion of agriculture to the other divisions. 

Yet the trend of events was settling this problem regardless 
of the opinions of anyone involved. While the agricultural 


History of University of New Hampshire 

division was still growing, the needs of hundreds of other stu- 
dents had to be met and were being met through the expansion 
of the other divisions. In actual fact, three distinct colleges under 
the name of divisions were functioning in Durham side by side, 
making up a whole which could only be described as a univer- 
sity. Graduates of New Hampshire College of Agriculture and 
the Mechanic Arts found that the name gave people a less favor- 
able opinion of their alma mater than the actual facts justified. 
This was especially true with those who had received the bachelor 
of arts degree. 

Women students found their position particularly incongru- 
ous since most of them received the bachelor of arts degree and 
practically all were registered in the division of arts and sciences. 
Educators, both those connected with the college and others in in- 
stitutions through the state, complained that it was difficult to 
persuade New Hampshire boys and girls that the college really 
did offer courses in as many fields as it did and that these courses 
were worthy of the patronage of any student. As a result, hun- 
dreds of students who might have received their training in New 
Hampshire went to outside colleges, often spending more money 
than would have been necessary at the state college. It was 
pointed out that the change of name would not create a new 
institution, but it would provide official recognition of the fact 
that the institution already existed and that New Hampshire could 
boast of a finer school than it ever had before, one worthy in every 
way of the title of university. 

The old argument about the intent of the authors of the 
Morrill act and of those who had left money to the college was 
heard again. In reply to this, it was pointed out that except in 
some of the larger western states, where both a college of agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts and a state university were main- 
tained, all other states, except three, had changed their state col- 
leges into state universities. These reasons and many more were 
advanced in favor of the change of name. Trustees, faculty, alum- 
ni, and students were unitedly behind the proposal. 

When the bill to change the name of the college finally 
reached the floor of the house, only one voice was raised against 
it. It was generally recognized, however, that the speaker was 
against a change that had already taken place, a change to which 
the legislature could only give its official stamp of approval. The 


The College Becomes the University 

men who had built a university on Benjamin Thompson's farm 
had done so because the young people of New Hampshire wanted 
and needed a university. By keeping their eyes fixed, first of all, 
upon just those wants and needs, the teachers and administrators 
of the past had made an institution which was its own best advo- 
cate. The bill was passed overwhelmingly in both houses of the 
legislature and received the signature of Governor Fred H. Brown 
on April 23, 1923. 

President Hetzel was in Concord when the bill was signed. 
He brought the charter of the University of New Hampshire back 
to Durham with him and was met at the station by a wildly en- 
thusiastic group of students. He was escorted to the Tom Thumb 
coach 1 and some students seized the shafts and drew him in tri- 
umph through the town, followed by a long line of undergraduates 
performing a snake dance. 

The change of name did not go into effect until July 1, 1923, 
so the members of the class of 1923 were unable to have the new 
name on their diplomas. As some consolation for this disappoint- 
ment, President Hetzel arranged to have a statement printed on 
their diplomas explaining that the college had become a university 
in the year in which the diplomas were granted. The Dover 
Chamber of Commerce, as an indication of their approval of the 
change, gave the university a large blue flag with the university 
seal printed in white in the center. This flag was for years flown, 
on all special occasions, from the university flag pole in front of 
Thompson hall until it had to be replaced by a duplicate. 

The second phase of the campaign to bring the institution to 
new levels of strength and prosperity was concerned with the 
problem of an adequate income. This aspect of the program 
was continuous with the effort to secure recognition as a univer- 
sity. In his report for 1922, President Hetzel pointed out that 
the state and national funds received by the college amounted to 
only 54.7 percent of its annual income as compared with a na- 
tional average of 72.8 percent. Moreover, the state provided 
only 44 percent of the income of the Extension service and 9 per- 
cent of the income of the Experiment station. If appropriations 

1 This coach was made in England and was presented to Mr. and Mrs. 
Tom Thumb by Queen Victoria. It had been presented to the college in 1922 
by William G. Smalley of Walpole, New Hampshire, in honor of his son, 
Maxwell W. Smalley of the class of 1917. The coach has now been placed, 
by action of the trustees, in Henry Ford's museum in Dearborn, Michigan. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

for building were also taken into consideration, then New Hamp- 
shire was even more below the average obtaining in the country 
as a whole. In other words, great increases in service had been 
made without correspondingly greater calls on the state. 

In this same report for 1922, President Hetzel stated that 
tuition and fees had increased from $17,066 for the year ending 
June 30, 1918, to $81,030 for the year ending June 30, 1922. As 
a result, this part of the income of the college was proportionally 
higher than in any other state-supported college but one, though 
the burden on the students was somewhat mitigated by the schol- 
arships available. This was obviously a sharp reversal from pre- 
war conditions, when scholarships were plentiful and student ex- 
penses generally very low. 

The legislature which chartered the university voted 
$670,000 to maintain it during the first two years of its new ex- 
istence. The senate, in addition, passed a bill to raise $91,000 
through a bond issue to provide new buildings for the university. 
However, this proposal was voted down by the house because the 
house committee on the university recommended the defeat of 
this measure on the grounds that it was inexpedient at the time. 

In his report for 1924, President Hetzel pointed out that the 
serious overcrowding at the institution and the greater services re- 
quired made it advisable 

"... for the state to give careful consideration to 
an adequate program for the maintenance and physical 
development of its university for a reasonable period 
of years." 

These points were more thoroughly developed in a special report 
prepared for the 1925 legislature by President Hetzel under 
authorization of a vote of the trustees. In this latter report, he 
showed the need of special appropriations, or what was better, an 
annual permanent income in order to provide adequate equipment 
for the work of the university. 

The proper housing of the students was one of the most 
pressing needs. Double rooms in dormitories were made to ac- 
commodate three or four students, and single rooms almost always 
had two people assigned to them. The rooms were too small and 
too crowded for such use, so that unsanitary and unsafe conditions 
prevailed in almost all the dormitories. As a natural result of 


The College Becomes the University 

this condition, the students found that the crowding interfered 
seriously with studying. 

In this special report, a sum of $405,950 was requested for 
the construction of dormitories for men and women, a classroom 
building, and for improving the barracks. The Commons, of 
which the first unit was completed in 1919, did not provide as 
much dormitory space as had been originally expected. Due to 
the increase in building costs after the war, it had been necessary 
to eliminate some of the accommodations which had originally 
been planned. To compensate for this, it was first proposed to 
build a wing between the Commons and Fairchild hall. An al- 
ternate plan called for the construction of a wing to complete the 
Commons building and also for a new dormitory for men as well 
as for a classroom building and improvements to the barracks. 

From the time of the construction of the Commons until 
1925, only one major addition was made to the housing facilities 
of the institution. This was the first unit of Congreve hall, which 
was built in 1920. Mrs. Alice Hamilton Smith had provided 
that a part of her estate was to go to the college after the death of 
her daughter, Mrs. Edith Congreve Onderdonk. After the death 
of Mrs. Onderdonk in 1919, the legacy, amounting to over 
$120,000, became available. The trustees voted to use this money 
to build a women's dormitory but since the fund had been given 
to be maintained permanently for the general purposes of the col- 
lege, it was voted, in 1923, that $3,000 from the income of Con- 
greve hall should be set aside each year until the principal of the 
fund was restored to its original amount. At first, it was pro- 
posed to name the new building Hamilton hall, after Hamilton 
Smith, but finally the name Congreve hall was chosen because 
Congreve had been Mrs. Onderdonk's maiden name. 

Sixty-five women moved into the nearly completed dormi- 
tory in the fall of 1920, but for a number of weeks, they were in- 
convenienced by the necessity of remaining outside the building 
during the day so that the workmen could finish the construction. 
President Hetzel had hoped to be able to include a Women's 
Commons in Congreve hall but the plans were changed in order 
to use the full amount of space for rooms. This proved to be a 
wise decision for in 1920 even the dormitory rooms in the Com- 
mons had to be used for women students. 

As an alternative to the biennial appropriation for the main- 
tenance and development of the university, President Hetzel re- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

newed the suggestion which he had made in his report for 1924, 
and in the special report of 1925 enlarged upon the theme of a 
permanent policy: 

"It seems that the time has arrived when it is 
necessary for the state to give careful consideration to 
the needs of its State University. In view of the edu- 
cational traditions of our people, the increasing impor- 
tance of higher education, the growing need for scien- 
tific investigation, the decreasing opportunity for col- 
legiate training in the endowed colleges of the coun- 
try, the maintenance and continued development of the 
university on a sound and conservative basis is impera- 
tive. It would appear, therefore, that a comprehen- 
sive plan for the support and development of the Uni- 
versity over a period of years would be economical, 
efficient and statesmanlike. The Trustees of the Uni- 
versity, looking ahead, have estimated that within a 
period of fifty years the University will have an en- 
rollment of from 2,000 to 2,500 students. Just when 
these figures will be reached it is impossible to pre- 
dict, but in all probability the rate of increase will be 
progressively smaller as time goes on. To meet this 
situation intelligently and efficiently, the Trustees, with 
the aid of an expert landscape architect, have laid out a 
plan for the development of the physical plant of the 
University. It would be sound public policy for the 
legislature of the state to provide for the maintenance 
of the University and for its development in accord- 
ance with such plan over a period of years. This could 
be done in any one of several ways, but probably best 
by following a plan now in effect in several states, by 
which there would be set aside each year from the in- 
come of the state, an amount of money bearing a definite 
ratio to the assessed valuation of the property of the 
state. While accurate figures are not available, it is 
estimated that an allowance at the rate of approximate- 
ly one mill on a dollar would provide sufficient funds 
for the maintenance of the University and, together 
with such private gifts as may be expected, would pro- 
vide for the gradual and adequate development of the 


The College Becomes the University 

physical plant. Such a policy would seem to repre- 
sent an economical, efficient procedure, and would have 
the additional virtue of representing a policy of pay-as- 
you-go.' " 

The trustees' meeting in Concord on January 16, 1925, voted 
to authorize and instruct President Hetzel and the legislative 
committee on the university to introduce into the legislature, 
measures calling for appropriations necessary to provide the in- 
stitution with the needed buildings. On January 27, 1925, James 
S. Chamberlin, representative from Durham, introduced House 
Joint resolution No. 54, appropriating money for the University 
of New Hampshire, and the same day, House Joint resolution 
No. 59, authorizing a special joint committee of investigation, 
was approved and referred to the committee on appropriations. 
This second resolution was accepted by the senate, and the com- 
mittee, thus created, consisted of Senators Guy E. Chesley, Samuel 
T. Ladd, and William Weston, and Representatives George A. 
Blanchard, Percy W. Caswell, Milan A. Dickinson, George H. 
Duncan, and Charles B. Ross. 

The special joint committee reported to the house on March 
25, 1925, and begged: 

"... leave to unanimously submit its recommenda- 
tions in the form of a bill, House Bill, No. 403, en- 
titled 'An act providing for a fund to be known as the 
"University of New Hampshire fund" and regulating 
the enrollment of students at the University of New 
Hampshire' with the recommendation that the bill 
ought to pass." 

Governor John G. Winant gave his support to the measure and 
President Hetzel and others had so thoroughly prepared the minds 
of the people for such a procedure that there was little opposition 
to the passage of the act. 

The committee on appropriations, to which House Joint 
resolution No. 54 had been referred, reported on April 16, 1925, 
that it was inexpedient to legislate because the subject matter 
of House Joint resolution No. 54 was covered by another bill, 
House bill No. 403 which was then before the legislature. The 
way was thus cleared for the passage of the bill providing for 
a mill tax, and so rapidly was this done, that the bill was signed 
by Governor John G. Winant on April 22, 1925. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

This act, Chapter 111, Laws of 1925, created a fund, known 
as the University of New Hampshire fund, which is credited an- 
nually with one mill on the dollar of the valuation of property 
locally assessed in the state. All sums credited to this fund are 
appropriations for the support and maintenance of the university, 
except that no part of the sum can be used to pay the salaries or 
expenses of agents resident in the counties of the state and en- 
gaged in agricultural and home economics extension work. 

The trustees, by and with the consent of the governor and 
council, may borrow on the credit of the university in anticipa- 
tion of income, not to exceed $100,000 in any one fiscal year, 
in order to forward the building program, but all amounts so 
obtained must be repaid during the succeeding fiscal year. The 
act provided that income received and due to the university from 
all other sources shall be retained by the university and be used 
as the trustees determine, "or as is provided by law or by the 
conditions incident to trusts, gifts, or bequests/* 

Enrollment of students from out of the state was limited by 
the act. Beginning with July 1, 1925, the number of new stu- 
dents entering the university from Maine, Massachusetts, and 
Vermont could not exceed eight percent of the total enrollment 
of the entering class of the four-year course of the preceding aca- 
demic year. The enrollment of new students, exclusive of those 
from New Hampshire, Maine, Massachusetts, and Vermont, could 
not exceed four percent of the total enrollment of the entering 
class of the four-year course of the preceding academic year. 

Another far-reaching action taken by the 1925 legislature 
was the passage of the measure for the stabilization of cooperative 
extension work on the basis of public funds. Hitherto, a part of 
the county support for this work had come from Farm Bureau 
membership fees. With the encouragement of Governor Winant, 
House bill 60 (Chapter 244, Laws of 1925 ) was drawn up by Di- 
rector J. C. Kendall and received the hearty endorsement of the 
legislature. The bill set up a state fund of $1,200 per agent to 
be supplemented by $200 from federal funds per agent. These 
combined sums were to be offset by a county appropriation of 
$1,800 per agent. As a result of this act, New Hampshire was 
the first state in the union to have county agricultural home dem- 
onstration and boys' and girls' club agents in each of its counties. 

Similarly important was the passage by congress, in 1925, 
of the Purnell act for state Agricultural Experiment stations. This 


The College Becomes the University 

measure provided increasing funds for several years for agricul- 
tural research, making possible, for the first time, economic and 
sociological studies. It brought the annual appropriation for agri- 
cultural research to an eventual total of $90,000 a year. Under 
this fund, New Hampshire was able to develop a comprehensive 
series of soils experiments in different parts of the state to make 
the important economic studies and to improve greatly the entire 
agricultural foundation of the university's work. 

By the passage of the act which has become commonly 
known as the Mill Tax law the state guaranteed its new univer- 
sity a dependable and substantial income, which with careful plan- 
ning and budgeting over a period of years, has enabled the in- 
stitution to meet the needs of New Hampshire youth. President 
Hetzel succeeded during his administration in securing for the 
institution, not only recognition of its status as a university, but 
also an assured and dependable means of support, and thus had 
the satisfaction of being its head at a time when significant and 
far-reaching changes took place. 


The Present University 


True history requires perspective, and the events which have 
so quickly filled the university life since the passage of the mill tax 
legislation in 1925 are too recent for a detached viewpoint. Ob- 
viously, also, they are of such importance and of such far-reaching 
extent that they might well take another volume for a complete 
rehearsal. This concluding chapter is not meant, therefore, as 
more than an epilogue to the preceding pages. 

The change of name in 1923 and the passage of the mill tax 
law in 1925 marked one of the two or three most important mile 
posts in the history of the university. Since that time much of 
great interest and significance has occurred; there has been change 
and growth in every part of the complex organism which the uni- 
versity has become. But it is only possible for those who are liv- 
ing in the midst of these things to attempt an approximate esti- 
mate of the relative value of individual practices and policies. 

President Hetzel, during whose administration the change of 
name and the passage of the mill tax act took place, resigned in 
1927 to accept the presidency of Pennsylvania State college. His 
nine years in Durham had been productive of many important 
changes, an impressive record of progress. But, as he said in his 
letter of resignation, he felt that the university was "now in con- 
dition to experience a change of administration with the least 
possible chance of impairment of its interests," and both his duty 
and his interest called him to work in other fields. He was suc- 
ceeded by Edward Morgan Lewis, previously president of Massa- 
chusetts State college, who took office September 1, 1927, and 
served until his death on May 24, 1936. 

During President Hetzel's administration, the increase of the 
student body had out-stripped the growth of the university's facili- 
ties, creating those crucial problems of housing, shortage of equip- 
ment and strain on the teaching staff which he had described in 
his arguments for the mill tax. The completion of a men's dormi- 
tory, Hetzel hall, in 1925, only partly relieved the housing situ- 
ation. The enrollment continued to increase until 1927, when 
it reached 1680, but then became more or less stabilized in the 
vicinity of 1600 for nine years. The immediate cause of this was 


History of University of New Hampshire 

the action of the trustees in voting to limit the registration, begin- 
ning with the fall of 1928, to 1600. This was not an iron-clad 
limit, for it was occasionally exceeded because of factors hard to 
predict exactly, such as the number of those accepted for the fresh- 
man class who later found it impossible to enter college. Further- 
more, it had been the fixed policy of the college to admit all New 
Hampshire residents who could offer a high school diploma and a 
record of courses passed which covered the required subjects under 
the point system. Some maintained that the university now had 
no right to reject any New Hampshire boy or girl who had com- 
pleted a secondary school course satisfactorily and wanted to con- 
tinue with collegiate work. In 1926 and 1927, no in-state ap- 
plicants were rejected, but the following year 15 were denied ad- 
mission. At the same time, between 250 and 300 out-of-state 
applications were being refused each year. The first result of 
these decisions was an amazing drop in the size of the entering 
class; from 520 in 1927 to 370 the next year. 

President Lewis analyzed this drop at considerable length in 
his report, giving in all, seven reasons. The tuition had been 
increased a short time before. The increase was comparatively 
small, but by including all the fees, which were previously listed 
separately, in the tuition, the increase had been made to appear 
larger than it actually was. Some had been deterred by the pub- 
licity given the decision to limit the enrollment; others had been 
drawn by the advantages of competing institutions. A depres- 
sion, forerunner of the impending disaster, had already set in, in 
the textile centers, but, said President Lewis: 

"Most important of all is the fact that we are 
probably at about the crest of the wave of increase in 
college attendance which has swept the whole United 
States since the war. About half the colleges report 
decreases in attendance this year/' 

The committee on admissions was enlarged and the work of 
passing on applications was assigned to Dean Pettee. He informed 
President Lewis that this work was 

"... a slight extension of his life-long practice of 
sending discouraging letters to prospective students 
whose records indicated that they could not carry on 
unless better prepared." 


The Present University 

The distinguishing feature of President Lewis' administra- 
tion was the effort to raise the scholastic standards of the univer- 
sity. After the onset of the depression, it became necessary to 
examine and re-examine curricula, eliminating duplications, weigh- 
ing the relative worth of every innovation, testing procedures and 
policies, and doing everything possible to guarantee maximum re- 
sults from the expenditures of time, money, and energy. Every 
part of the university's structure and functioning had to justify 
itself in terms of the new situation. Moreover, as economic and 
social changes created new demands or re-enforced old ones, it 
was necessary to consider substitutions as well as the former free 
habit of simply making additions. Fortunately, New Hampshire 
had been relatively conservative in expansion and experimentation 
during the era of prosperity so that the readjustment was less 
difficult. But the plans of prosperity years had to be changed, 
and conservation of the university's resources became a major 

This did not occur through any large scale changes, but only 
through an infinite series of small adjustments. Some courses 
were dropped; others were added. New curricula were developed. 
Much had to be worked out by trial and error. If a committee 
failed to produce results, or a new grouping of departments did 
not eliminate duplication, another means had to be attempted to 
secure the desired result. 

It would be fruitless to attempt to follow all the changes 
that were made or proposed during the last 15 years or to weigh 
and examine all the theories and practices that were debated or 
tried out. Many are still moot questions, largely because the 
only laboratory which can produce valid proof in the field of edu- 
cation is the life and work of the student. For this reason, ex- 
treme caution is necessary lest the student be the victim of pos- 
sible failure. 

Specific new curricula introduced, mostly within the last 
few years, were chiefly confined to the College of Liberal Arts. 
The teacher training curriculum was the only innovation in the 
College of Agriculture, similar in character to the teacher training 
program in the Liberal Arts college. Both required majors and 
minors in subject matter fields in addition to a required amount 
of work in the department of education. Opportunities for prac- 
tice teaching during the senior year were secured, and credit to- 
ward graduation was given those chosen for this work. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

The College of Technology, likewise, added only one new 
department. A course in civil engineering was developed, be- 
ginning in 1926, under the direction of Dean George W. Case 
and Professor Edmond W. Bowler. 

In the College of Liberal Arts, special curricula added in- 
cluded general business, pre-medical, social service, secretarial, 
hotel administration, general teacher training, and teacher train- 
ing in physical education for men and women. 

The two-year agricultural course was lengthened to cover the 
full three terms each of the two years, instead of the two terms 
a year which had been the practice since the war. The standards 
of instruction were improved, and provision was made to permit 
students who wished to continue their work in the four-year course 
to count toward their degrees all credits in which they had re- 
ceived a grade of 75 or better. 

Beginning with a freshman orientation course in the social 
sciences, which was introduced during President Hetzel's admin- 
istration, the use of such survey courses during the freshman and 
sophomore years has continued. Though the practice of allow- 
ing considerable latitude in the choice of electives was continued, 
freedom of choice was controlled by the desire to see that the 
student received both a broad cultural background, thus introduc- 
ing him to a variety of fields of human thought during his first 
two years, and an opportunity to master a special field of con- 
centrated interest during his junior and senior years. 

The income of the university naturally suffered seriously dur- 
ing the depression. The board of trustees voted in 1925 that 
$200,000 annually from the mill tax fund should be devoted to 
building funds, to carry out President Hetzel's plan of expansion. 
They decided to reduce this to $170,000 in 1930 and to $150,000 
the following year. Increase of operating expenses was chiefly 
responsible for this trend, which the trustees expected to see con- 
tinue. The millage did not start to decline, due to decreased 
valuations, until 1933, but in the next two years, it dropped 
nearly $70,000. The trustees in 1933 voted to return to the 
state a part of the income of the university from the mill tax in 
order to help relieve the very serious tax problem of the state. 
This contribution amounted to about $133,000 annually in 1933 
and 1934 and to about $104,000 annually for the two following 
years. These figures represent approximately the amount that 
would otherwise have been used for building. In all, some 


The Present University 

$598,525 was returned to the state during the four-year moratori- 
um on building. 

President Lewis, for the benefit of the legislature of 1933, 
undertook a comparative study of the New England colleges and 
universities and stated, among other things, the following results 
in his report for 1932: 

1. The investment per student in grounds, buildings, and 
equipment was less at New Hampshire than at any other New 
England state college with one possible exception. 

2. The cost to the state per student was the least of all. 

3. The cost to the state per student was slightly less than 
it had been the year before the mill tax law was passed. 

4. New Hampshire charged the highest out-of-state tui- 
tion of all but three of the state colleges in the country. 

5. Salaries were comparatively low, and the ratio of stu- 
dents to teachers was higher than the accepted standard. 

He concluded that the university was as near its minimum 
operating costs as it could get without seriously endangering its 
work, and that less harm would be caused by suspension of the 
building program than by a decrease in the income for mainte- 
nance. In fact, maintenance and operating expenses were bound 
to increase somewhat, due to the necessity of introducing some 
new services and equipment required by changing times. 

When the Public Works administration was established in 
1933, the university prepared a series of projects which were sub- 
mitted to the Washington officials. In preparing these projects, 
it was necessary to consider not only the value of the construction 
to the university but also its value as a relief project in providing 
work and a market for the products of the heavy industries. The 
items listed included a water system, a sewer system, a dormitory, 
recreation fields, bleachers and stands, a sports building and cage, 
including an indoor swimming pool, and an agricultural building. 
Plans for each of these projects were drawn up by the university 
architects with help from a number of other departments. Other 
projects, available and needed for proper equipment of the uni- 
versity, but for which plans had not been prepared, included an 
auditorium, a home economics building, and additions to the li- 
brary. Unfortunately, the state's policy on disposition of P. W. A. 
funds made it impossible to allow any of these projects, so that 
New Hampshire was not so fortunate as most of the other New 


History of University of New Hampshire 

England institutions in securing P. W. A. assistance in improving 
the plant. 

In 1937, the full income under the mill tax again became 
available to the university, and funds for building purposes could 
be set aside. It had been necessary to resort to salary cuts for all 
contract employees of the university for a four-year period prior to 
1937 when the salaries were restored to their 1933 level. 

Money was later secured from Civil Works administration, 
Emergency Relief administration, and Works Progress administra- 
tion for projects which included the construction of Lewis fields, a 
reservoir, and the outdoor swimming pool. These grants provided 
a larger proportion of the labor costs but less of the cost of the 
materials. Students at a National Youth administration resident 
training center which was established in Durham built a new 
hockey rink and did considerable work in improving the university 
grounds in 1938. Students of the university also worked on the 
grounds and were paid out of money supplied by the N. Y. A. 

Restoration of the full millage in 1937 permitted resumption 
of the interrupted building plans which had, however, lagged to 
such an extent that it became necessary to provide some extra 
assistance so that the needs of the university might be more 
quickly provided for. Accordingly, the legislature of 1939 au- 
thorized a bond issue of $250,000 to be liquidated in ten years 
out of current income, which sum made possible a very necessary 
increase in construction. 

The first new building completed during the last 15 years 
was Murkland hall which has since served as the center for the 
Liberal Arts college. Finished in September, 1927, the 20 class- 
rooms and 18 offices in the building did much to relieve the pain- 
ful lack of space under which the Liberal Arts college had been 
suffering. The library was thus able to recover the use of one 
floor which had been occupied by Liberal Arts' departments; classes 
were also transferred from rooms, partitioned off with wallboard, 
in the Shops building. Mr. Murkland was informed of the plan 
to honor him by giving this building his name, and according to 
"Dad" Henderson who conveyed the news, was deeply moved by 
this act of remembrance. Mr. Murkland did not live to see the 
finished building, but died nearly a year before it was completed. 

The urgent need for a chemistry building was the next to be 
met by the building program. The department, developed to a 
high level of efficiency by a succession of brilliant men, had been 


The Present University 

forced to limit its enrollment for years by the lack of adequate 
quarters. Professor Charles James, known as "King" James by 
his admiring students, had repeatedly brought the attention of 
chemists throughout the world to New Hampshire by his remark- 
able research with rare earths. Plans for a new building, pre- 
pared under his supervision, had been accumulating for several 
years. Finally, in 1927, it was announced that construction would 
soon start, but Professor James did not have the joy of seeing the 
completed building. An attack of pneumonia following an op- 
eration brought about his death in a Boston hospital at the age of 
47. The steel girder which forms the ridge pole of the new chem- 
istry building was actually being lowered into place at the mo- 
ment when the Durham church bell was being tolled for the 
funeral service of "King" James. At any age, his death would 
have been a shock and a sharply felt loss both to the college and 
to the thousands who had worked with him or known him, but 
the suddenness and untimeliness of the end accentuated the sor- 
row of his friends and co-workers. No more fitting memorial 
could have been found for this brilliant scientist and teacher than 
the splendid new chemistry building which received his name. 

At the dedication ceremonies, November 9, 1929, a capacity 
crowd filled Murkland auditorium to hear speakers representing 
every field of chemical science pay their tribute to Professor 
James. Charles James hall, completed at a cost of $487,000, 
provided modern equipment for all the chemistry courses as well 
as a handsome, well appointed building of which all the scientific 
departments could be proud. All these departments gained, in- 
directly, in the assistance given by more efficient work in chemis- 
try, and directly through release of space in other buildings for 
their use. 

The need of a new heating and power plant had been made 
inescapable with the expansion of the university. Construction 
was begun on the present power plant in 1927. It was put into 
operation even before completion, which was not achieved until 

The following year, only a brick rifle range and a bath house 
were built, but 1931 saw the beginning of three buildings. The 
first was the Elizabeth DeMeritt house, a model Cape Cod cottage 
used by the home economics department as a practice house. The 
old practice house was moved in 1932 from Main street in front 
of Scott hall to its present location behind Smith hall, where it 


History of University of New Hampshire 

is used as an arts and crafts cottage. DeMeritt house was named 
for Elizabeth P. DeMeritt, dean of women from 1919 until her 
death in 1931. 

The second project undertaken in 1931 was a group of new 
dairy barns to replace the old one which, after 1932, was converted 
to the use of the departments of military science, agricultural 
engineering, and forestry, the Farm Security administration, and 
the fire department until it burned in 1937. The new barns were 
placed in a better location near the east end of the college reser- 
voir, which freed the section near the dairy building for later 

The most important building started during 1931, however, 
was the Charles Harvey Hood house. The university's need of 
long standing for an adequate infirmary was answered by a gift 
of $125,000 from Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Hood of Boston. In 
addition, a fund of $75,000 was established, the income of which 
was to be applied to the maintenance of the building. The year 
when the gift was made, 1930, was the fiftieth anniversary of Mr. 
Hood's graduation from the little New Hampshire College of 
Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts in Hanover. It is a curious 
thing that this gift would nearly equal the total value of the prop- 
erty and endowment of the college at the time of Mr. Hood's grad- 
uation. The new infirmary contains accommodations for 30 pa- 
tients, although that number could be expanded if the need arose. 
In this building, the university health service, employing the serv- 
ices of a doctor and several graduate nurses, is fully equipped to 
take care of the normal demands of the student body. 

Scott hall, a dormitory housing 120 women, was completed 
in 1932. The Commons and Ballard hall were released for the 
use of men students although Ballard ceased to be used as a dormi- 
tory in 1934 and was assigned to the use of student organizations 
and the departments of music and education. The new women's 
dormitory was named for Professor Clarence W. Scott, first li- 
brarian of the college, instructor and professor of English, 1878- 
1886, and professor of history and political science, 1879-1930. 

Professor Scott's 54 years of service to the college and uni- 
versity have made him a figure equalled only by Dean Pettee in 
the memories of New Hampshire men and women. Many former 
students still carry a memory of the unfailing courtesy, gentle- 
manly bearing, and dignity which characterized Dr. Scott's asso- 
ciation with the undergraduates. Others will recall his keen in- 


The Present University 

terest in American history and American literature or the services 
he rendered while librarian. A short time before his death, Dr. 
Scott had undertaken the writing of a history of the university, 
upon which much of the materials in the early chapters of this 
volume are based. Unfortunately, death prevented his comple- 
tion of this work to which his long personal association with the 
events narrated would have given a special and irreplaceable 

In spite of a four-year period of restricted income, a sewage 
disposal plant was built in 1932 and 1933, and a water supply 
system, including a new reservoir, was finished with W. P. A. 
assistance in 1935. These, with the athletic fields and stadium, 
were the only important additions to the plant during the four 
years from 1932 through 1936. The new athletic area included 
six fields for football, soccer, and lacrosse, four baseball diamonds, 
one of the best running tracks in New England, pits for jumping 
and vaulting, 20 tennis courts, a concrete stadium seating over 
5,000 persons, and baseball bleachers seating 1,750. With the 
cooperation of the Civil Works administration, the Emergency Re- 
lief administration, and the Works Progress administration, 
$218,000 was spent on the completion of this area devoted to 
recreation and physical education. 

President Lewis, who had been an excellent athlete in his 
youth, 1 took a special interest in the completion of this work. 
Some students were employed in the construction work during the 
summer, receiving a weekly wage of $18.90, a portion of which 
in excess of their living expenses was deducted by the university 
and applied to their tuition in the fall. Rooms in the dormi- 
tories were furnished free, and special meals planned by the uni- 
versity dietitian to meet the requirements of boys engaged in man- 
ual labor were provided at a minimum cost. Most of the work 
was done by hand in order to fulfill the purpose of the relief 
projects in supplying the maximum of employment for the money 
spent. The Alumni association gave $15,000 which was used to 

1 President Lewis had been the captain of the baseball team in his senior 
year at Williams college and during one of the years that he pitched for his 
college team, it defeated Yale, Harvard, and Princeton. After graduation, in 
1896, he pitched for the Boston Braves for four years and then for the Red 
Sox for one year. In addition, he coached the Harvard baseball team from 
1897 to 1901. His contracts in the major leagues provided that he need not 
play Sunday games. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

buy the materials for the concrete stands. Under these stands, 
lockers and dressing rooms were built for the use of visiting 
teams. While some of this construction was going on, the state 
highway department built the present bridge over the railroad 
tracks where they crossed the Concord road. While the road was 
torn up, a tunnel was built under it connecting the athletic fields 
with a parking space on the other side. 

In the spring of 1936, the baseball diamond and the con- 
crete stands around it were dedicated to the memory of William 
H. L. Brackett, 1914, of Greenland, one of New Hampshire's finest 
athletes, whose untimely death in 1921 was largely due to the 
after-effects of wounds received during the World war. The 
American Legion post of Portsmouth, of which Mr. Brackett had 
been a member, gave the university a large American flag which 
was raised on the new pole on the field as part of the dedication 

The entire plant was named Lewis fields in memory of Presi- 
dent Lewis, who died unexpectedly on May 24, 1936. The cere- 
monies, which were held October 10, 1936, preceded a football 
game with the University of Maine. Governor H. Styles Bridges, 
President Arthur Hauck of the University of Maine, and Mrs. 
Lewis took part in the dedication which was broadcast over a New 
England network. Work was begun on the university field house 
in 1937 and was completed the following year. The area of the 
main floor enclosed nearly half an acre. On the dirt floor, base- 
ball, football, and track practice can be held during inclement 
weather, and during the basketball season, a movable wooden floor 
and bleachers, seating 2,500, can be installed. The offices and 
almost all the equipment of the men's physical education depart- 
ment have thus been concentrated in the area just beyond the 
railroad. Upon completion of this plant and the removal of 
physical education for men to the new area, the department of 
physical education for women moved from their former quarters 
in Thompson hall to the old gymnasium. Memorial field was 
also assigned to the use of the women students. 

In the summer of 1940, extensive alterations were made in 
the old gymnasium; the interior was enlarged, a stage and dressing 
rooms were added, the old towers were torn down, and a new front 
was constructed in a style which harmonized better with the other 
buildings on campus. The new and enlarged auditorium, which 
has been named New Hampshire hall, is now used for women's 


The Present University 

indoor athletics, convocations, entertainments, dramatics, and mu- 
sical programs. 

Upon the restoration of the university's full income from 
the mill tax, a new building program was initiated under the direc- 
tion of President Fred Engelhardt who took office on April 1, 
1937. Two wings, consisting of a basement and one story each, 
were added to the library in 1937 and 1938; this addition pro- 
vided double the previous floor space. The top floor was devoted 
to the fine arts, with a large room for art exhibits, and three music 
listening rooms. The Carnegie foundation gave the university 
one of its standard sets of about 1,000 records, 250 books and 
miniature scores, and a phonograph. The largest of the music 
rooms has been named for Philip Hale, the noted Boston music 
critic, and the room contains his desk, chair, and some of his books 
which were given to the university by his widow. In 1940, an- 
other wing, to enlarge the stacks, was added to the rear of the 
building to provide additional space for the university's rapidly 
growing collection of books. 

Pettee hall, built in 1938, houses the departments of home 
economics, agricultural engineering, and military science. It was 
named for Dean Pettee, who died March 23, 1938, at the age of 
85 years, after 62 years of devoted service to the college and the 
university. In April, 1937, he had relinquished his position as 
dean of the faculty and had been elected dean emeritus and uni- 
versity historian. The board of trustees adopted this resolution 
on April 22, 1938, concerning Dean Pettee and his work with 
the university history: 

"Most unfortunately for the university, he had but 
started on the assembling of material for the writing 
of the history of the university, a work which must now 
be undertaken by persons who are but poorly equipped 
in contrast. Dean Pettee had addressed himself to 
the task with enthusiasm and up to the hour of his last 
illness was engaged in the preparation of a document 
which would have been of inestimable value. 

"Charles Holmes Pettee, with his proud record 
of service to this institution lived and died a continuing 
force whose counterpart may never again be seen in 
American higher education. His life was built into 
the life of the university in a manner which time cannot 
easily erode." 


History of University of New Hampshire 

How great a part Dean Pettee played in the history of this 
institution can be seen, in some degree at least, by the purely 
mechanical process of looking back through this book and noting 
how often his name appears, in fact must appear, because he was 
so actively a part of all the university affairs. Even more impor- 
tant, however, is the record he left in the lives of thousands of 
students, a record of hard-headed Yankee benevolence. He was 
an incurable individualist, with stern ideas of right and wrong, 
yet capable of so much understanding and liking for young people, 
that every generation from the first to the last that knew him 
felt the same reserved half -shy affection for him which is youth's 
rarest tribute. 

Aside from those buildings mentioned above, most of the 
recent construction on the campus has taken the form of additions 
and alterations to existing buildings. Two wings have been added 
to Congreve hall, the west wing in 1938 and the north wing in 
1940. A two-story wing was built in the rear of the Commons to 
provide more space for larger crowds, both in the cafeteria and 
in the freshman dining hall. Nesmith hall, remodeled in 1932 
and shorn of its tower, acquired two wings in 1939 which quad- 
rupled its size and transformed one of the oldest buildings on the 
campus into an impressive and modern home for the animal and 
plant sciences. The departments of agronomy, animal husbandry, 
botany, bacteriology, entomology, forestry, horticulture, poultry 
husbandry, and zoology have been brought together in this build- 
ing under the name of the Biological institute, which is directed 
by Professor C. Floyd Jackson. Upon the transfer of these de- 
partments, Morrill hall was taken over by the social science de- 
partments and Murkland hall was assigned to the use of the de- 
partments of English, languages, and education. The Extension 
service was moved to the second floor of Thompson hall, while 
the third floor was completely renovated to provide rooms for the 
musical organizations and a radio studio. 

To list all the changes and improvements in the university 
plant would be tedious; it has been only possible to mention the 
more important of them. Yet these indicate how rapidly the uni- 
versity is still changing and how much growth and improvement 
is still going on. 

The increase in the size and the functions of the university 
has resulted in the development of a more adequate business or- 
ganization than was necessary in the earlier years. The business 


The Present University 

functions of the university are now centralized in a business office 
where a variety of activities are concerned with accounting, pur- 
chasing supplies, managing endowments, planning budgets, super- 
vising student housing and the dining halls, and the many other 
matters involved in the program of a university. The business 
office is under the able direction of Raymond C. Magrath who be- 
came business secretary in 1923, treasurer and business secretary 
in 1927, and treasurer in 1938. 

The Extension service has not lagged in its work of carrying 
the educational work of the university into the daily lives of 
the people of the state. Since the beginning of the depression, 
it has cooperated with the relief agencies in a large number of 
special projects, including, among others, such things as emer- 
gency gardens, rural housing surveys, rural rehabilitation, canning 
projects, rural electrification, and group leadership developments. 
The largest of these projects has been the work in rural organiza- 
tion and recreation, which has been conducted through workers in 
the various counties supplied through the relief agencies and di- 
rected by a specialist employed by the university. Assistance has 
been secured from several of the counties which seems to indi- 
cate a tendency toward making this a permanent extension activ- 
ity. In all such cooperative enterprises, the University Extension 
service provides leadership and some materials, and the relief 
agencies provide workers. 

The usual work of the Extension service has gradually ex- 
panded as both the available means and the demands have grown. 
Agents in all the counties, under the direction of state leaders in 
Durham, carry to the rural people information on the best prac- 
tices in all phases of rural life. Agricultural demonstrations, lec- 
tures, and experimental projects bring the farmers the latest and 
best scientific information in the field of agriculture. Home dem- 
onstration agents advise and assist housewives in all the complex 
arts of homemaking. Rural boys and girls are prepared for bet- 
ter living in the country by participation in the numerous projects 
of the 4-H clubs. In Durham, specialists in farm management, 
agricultural engineering, horticultural improvement, poultry im- 
provement, forestry, dairying, crop improvement, home manage- 
ment, and marketing supply the agents with new information, 
and work directly with the groups whose special interests lie in 
those fields. All these workers draw on the information prepared 
by the Experiment station in New Hampshire and in other states, 


History of University of New Hampshire 

as well as all the resources of modern research, in order to ad- 
vance living in rural New Hampshire. 

The General Extension service, organized in 1938, has 
brought under one head all the adult education and off -campus ac- 
tivities of the university. John C. Kendall served as director un- 
til his untimely death on March 16, 1941. By means of this or- 
ganization, the News bureau, the Visual Education service, and 
the radio broadcasting activities of the university have been co- 
ordinated with the established extension work. In addition, the 
resources of the Colleges of Technology and of Liberal Arts are 
being used to provide the maximum possible educational assist- 
ance to those thousands unable to attend classes at Durham who 
can and should benefit from the work of a state university. As 
in the past, emphasis is placed on the desirability of developing 
local leadership. Approximately 400 people attend leader train- 
ing schools and accept some degree of responsibility for local com- 
munity leadership in extension projects. It would be impossible 
to give the exact figures of the number of people directly affected 
by extension projects, but we do know that tens of thousands have 
attended meetings, participated in demonstrations, adopted prac- 
tices recommended, joined youth clubs, or derived help from the 
work of the recreational workers. President Engelhardt has re- 
ferred to these people as "the university's farm and home students 
at large," a student body vastly exceeding in size, though not nec- 
essarily in importance, the enrollment in Durham. 

Daily broadcasts from the new campus studio through the 
Portsmouth station bring agricultural bulletins, university news, 
book reviews, and a varied program of educational material to the 
people of the state. Students participate in this work as an- 
nouncers as well as in all-student broadcasts prepared by their 
radio club. Other New England stations also carry programs 
prepared in Durham. By radio, the voice of the university is car- 
ried hundreds of miles from the campus and into many states. 

The university campus has also become an important center 
at which people of the state can gather to discuss and plan and 
organize their varied interests. Dozens of conferences, training 
schools, athletic tournaments, and institutes meet in Durham every 
year. These are not the least of the contributions of the univer- 
sity to the welfare of the state. 

The Agricultural Experiment station has worked on hundreds 
of problems affecting the prosperity of New Hampshire farmers 


The Present University 

during its existence, exactly how many, we will probably never 
know. Nearly 100 projects at a time are being worked out, some 
dealing with fundamental principles of agricultural science, others 
directed to the solution of specific practical problems. Through 
the station's publications, regular bulletins, special technical bulle- 
tins, circulars, and scientific contributions on many subjects, the 
products of this research are distributed throughout America and 
to foreign countries. Outstanding among the investigations now 
being carried on is the work of Professor E. G. Ritzman in animal 

The Engineering Experiment station was established by the 
trustees in 1929 to work on industrial problems of importance to 
the state. Funds provided by the state under a law passed in 1925 
were being used for this purpose and the station was thus or- 
ganized to ensure the best possible use of this income. Many of 
the smaller industries of the state which cannot afford independent 
research find this station of invaluable assistance to them in the 
improvement of old products or the discovery and development of 
new ones. Better information on raw materials and markets is 
supplied as well as suggestions for more efficient and economical 
operation of manufacturing plants. 

Graduate study at New Hampshire dates back to 1893, the 
same year that the New Hampshire College of Agriculture and 
the Mechanic Arts moved from Hanover to Durham. Up to 1921, 
the catalogues carried a brief announcement with slight variations 
from year to year, that: 

"The College offers opportunity for post-graduate 
study and upon the successful completion of a course 
of graduate study pursued in residence and approved by 
the faculty of the college, and upon the preparation of 
an original thesis satisfactory to the faculty of the col- 
lege, the degree of Master of Science will be conferred." 
The total enrollment for graduate study during the years 1903- 
1921 was 18 and the college conferred 11 advanced degrees. 

From 1921 to 1925, under a committee on graduate de- 
grees, graduate requirements were more specifically stated in the 
catalogues in terms of credit hours, majors and minors, and the 
required comprehensive oral examination. In addition to the 
degree of master of science, the degree of master of arts was also 
offered at this time. The total enrollment for these four years 


History of University of New Hampshire 

was 50 and the college granted the degree of master of science to 
1 1 and the degree of master of arts to one. 

In the 23 years from 1903 to 1925, the college had a total 
enrollment of 90 graduate students and granted the master of sci- 
ence degree to 22 and the master of arts degree to one. These 
degrees were given in the following departments: 

Master of Science Master of Arts 

Chemistry 10 English 1 

Education 5 

Entomology 1 

Zoology 4 

Horticulture 1 

Agronomy 1 

In spite of the informality of the administrative organization of 
graduate study during these years, a relatively large number of 
the few graduates continued their studies at noted universities 
and became active research workers in their respective fields. 

The year 1925 marks the beginning of the publication of a 
little bulletin of graduate study, detailing the requirements for the 
advanced degrees and listing departments, courses, and faculty. 

In 1928, graduate study was given formal organization as a 
Graduate school. The administrative functions were delegated to 
a director and an executive committee designated as the council. 
Dr. Hermon L. Slobin was appointed as the first director, a posi- 
tion which he continues to hold at the present time. It was the 
increased enrollment of graduate students in the Summer schools 
that gave impetus to the expansion in enrollment and services of 
the Graduate school. By 1930, about one-third of the enrollment 
of the Summer school was made up of secondary school teachers 
and administrators seeking advanced degrees. In 1930, also, the 
Graduate school added the degree of master of education. 

In 1939, due to the influence of President Engelhardt, the 
graduate study was organized into six divisions, each division made 
up of related departments, and each under a division chairman; the 
divisions are as follows: 

1. Biological sciences: Agronomy, Animal Industry, Botany 
and Bacteriology, Entomology, Horticulture, Poultry Husbandry, 
and Zoology. 

2. Education. 


The Present University 

3. Engineering: Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, 
and Mechanical Engineering. 

4. Language and Literature: English, French, German, and 

5. Physical Science: Chemistry, Geology, Mathematics, and 

6. Social Studies: Economics, Government, History, Phil- 
osophy, and Sociology. 

To meet the needs of students with different objectives, the 
Graduate school permits a student either to concentrate in a sub- 
ject or diversify his interests in several subjects of a division. In 
each case, a small number of approved electives outside of the 
division in which the student takes the major portion of his 
work are permitted. 

To date, the University of New Hampshire has granted 505 
advanced degrees: 196 master of science, 138 master of arts, and 
171 master of education. These degrees have been conferred 
in the following fields: 

Master c 

?/ Science 


and Bio- 



logical Chemistry 











Mechanical Engineering 








Poultry Husbandry 






Civil Engineering 













of Arts 







Political Science 




Social Science 






Although the cost of the Graduate school is very small, the 
contribution of the University of New Hampshire in giving oppor- 
tunities for graduate study is not to be minimized. Graduate 
students in the fields of biological and physical sciences, both pure 


History of University of New Hampshire 

and applied, have aided in important investigations and discoveries. 
About 300 teachers of the state of New Hampshire have received 
advanced degrees and are the better prepared to serve our school 
systems. Indeed, even the level of undergraduate education of the 
university has been elevated by virtue of the existence of a modest 
program of graduate study. 

The university will now inaugurate the publication of a small 
annual booklet of the abstracts of the theses of candidates for the 
advanced degrees. The complete theses will be available in the 
university library and should prove of considerable value to work- 
ers in the respective fields. 

Graduate school scholarships, carrying exemption from tui- 
tion, have been granted for a small number of New Hampshire 
residents. In addition, graduate assistantships in a number of de- 
partments have been made available which require half-time serv- 
ice at a stated salary. Enrollment in the school now numbers 
about 130 with a gradual increase keeping step with the improve- 
ment of facilities for graduate study. A considerable number of 
students, particularly in the field of education, are engaged in 
graduate work in the Summer school every year. 

The Summer school, which began in 1921, was placed under 
the direction of Dr. Slobin the next year and so remained until 
1927 when he resigned in order to devote all of his time to the 
Graduate school. In his place, Justin O. Wellman, professor of 
education, was appointed and served until his death in 1933, at 
which time Dr. Slobin took over the position again. Edward Y. 
Blewett was appointed chairman of the committee on the Summer 
school for 1938 and 1939 after which Dr. Arwood S. Northby 
has held the position. The school expanded rapidly during its 
first years, but the depression restricted its registration to a little 
over 300 for some time. Recently, the enrollment has increased 
to about 500 students. The largest enrollment is in the depart- 
ment of education, and a large number of courses are offered which 
are of special interest to teachers desirous of using their summer 
vacations for professional improvement. 

In connection with the Summer school, a number of insti- 
tutes and conferences are ordinarily conducted, some of special in- 
terest to groups of students and others drawing people who are not 
registered in the Summer school. The annual Library school 
provides training for librarians of towns in the state who are un- 
able to secure professional training, as well as for school librarians 


The Present University 

and others connected with library work. The Writers' conference 
has become an established annual event, with a special staff of 
leading American writers providing instruction and advice for 
young writers and teachers of writing. 

The Marine laboratory at the Isles of Shoals was established 
in 1928 following a suggestion by Dean C. Floyd Jackson that a 
group of buildings on Appledore island which was formerly con- 
nected with a summer hotel would make an ideal center for the 
study of marine life. Opportunities for research are offered to 
both graduate and undergraduate students, since the variety of 
specimens which can be secured from the neighboring waters and 
the laboratory equipment permit work along a number of different 
lines. Work in dissection and anatomy is offered for pre-medical 
students as well as special work for biology teachers. The number 
of students has grown from 14 during the first year to nearly 50. 

The Forestry Summer camp located in the White Mountains 
at Passaconaway provides accommodations for 30 students who 
take special courses in practical forestry and conservation. A for- 
mer summer hotel provides living accommodations as well as a 
laboratory and other equipment. The ideal location of the camp 
provides opportunities for the study of most of the northern for- 
est types. 

The university returned to the semester system in 1936, re- 
placing the three term system which had been in force since the 
war. Freshman week, started in 1924, has become an increas- 
ingly important part of the student's preparation for college life. 
During this period, the members of the incoming class who have 
not taken the tests during the summer are given a series of tests 
which are used by faculty advisers in helping the student plan his 
work. By means of lectures and tours, the student is acquainted 
with the university, its traditions, its demands on the student, and 
the opportunities it offers. Professor George N. Bauer was ap- 
pointed officer in charge of freshmen in 1928 and served until 

Freshmen have been required to eat in the freshman dining 
halls since 1926, and the men have been assigned to rooms in 
Fairchild and East halls. Parties, guest nights, and other class 
enterprises have served to acquaint members of the class with one 
another and to improve class spirit. Hazing of freshmen has been 
opposed by the student council and is rapidly being eliminated 
altogether from the university. An open break with the past was 


History of University of New Hampshire 

the abolition of the sophomore court by the student council in 
1938. Five years before, the freshman exodus to Dover, with 
its usual battle at the bridge in Durham, and the poster fight were 
abolished. The supervised competitions of University day now 
take the place of the unrestricted hazing of the past. 

Faculty-student cooperation has been improved by such means 
as the student advisory board which includes representative stu- 
dents from each department. The student council and other rep- 
resentative groups also cooperate with the administration in pre- 
senting the student point of view and advancing student needs and 

The university faculty was reorganized in 1937, and its leg- 
islative functions were transferred to the senate, composed of the 
principal administrative officers and elected representatives of each 
department of the university. The old administrative committee 
was also replaced by a university council of 21 members, includ- 
ing 15 administrative officers and 6 representatives elected by col- 
lege caucuses in the senate. 

The Alumni association still continues to be the major or- 
ganization keeping the graduates in touch with their alma mater. 
Through the Alumni Fund plan, the Alumni college, Alumni day 
in June, Homecoming day in the fall, and Alumni Interviewing 
committees for prospective students, the association has proved of 
great value to the university. Since 1936, Eugene K. Auerbach, 
of the class of 1928, has been Alumni secretary and director of 
the Bureau of Appointments. 

TP ^F X 

The basic pattern of student life changes little, but such 
changes as do occur are significant of trends both in the university 
and in the world surrounding it. Of course, such an occurrence 
as the depression had a decided effect on student life. It has fre- 
quently been pointed out that young men and women graduating 
from high school and finding fewer opportunities than was the 
rule before 1929 have turned to higher education as a means to 
better preparation for the sharpened competition for employment. 

The university undertook to meet the increased financial 
needs of the students. In this, it has had the generous assistance 
of alumni and others who have made gifts for scholarships or to 
the loan fund, as well as assistance from federal relief agencies. 
The forms which student aid has taken include the following: 


The Present University 

1. Tuition grants, 250 in number, given to freshmen who 
are residents of New Hampshire and who show need of financial 
assistance. These grants are for $75 and are good only for the 
one year. 

2. Scholarships, endowed by private donors and awarded 
to students whose scholastic records or general achievement de- 
serve recognition. 

3. Student employment paid for from university funds; this 
employment includes such jobs as janitors, waiters, proctors, as- 
sistants in laboratories, and faculty assistants. 

4. Student employment paid for from funds provided by 
the federal relief agencies, such as, at present, the National Youth 
administration. These are largely jobs that would not ordinarily 
be done under the usual university routine, but which involve a 
genuine extra service to the university. 

5. Student loans from a fund built up from university ap- 
propriations, private gifts, and from a few special sources such as 
the profits of the bookstore. 

6. Deferred payments, permitting the student to pay his 
semester's expenses in installments instead of in a lump sum on 
registration day. While this does not effect any reduction in the 
amount to be paid, it does permit students to budget their ex- 
penses more evenly, a privilege particularly valuable to those 
who are earning their own way. 

The number of scholarships available has increased greatly 
during the past 15 years. Added to the Conant, Lougee, and 
Valentine Smith scholarships have been the following: 

1. The class memorial scholarships, from the income of 
funds donated by 18 classes, beginning with the class of 1922, each 
scholarship to be dedicated to the memory of one of the New 
Hampshire men who died in the service of his country during 
the World war. 

2. The Ralph D. Hetzel interscholastic debating scholar- 
ships, three in number, established by the trustees. 

3. The Hunt scholarship, established by the trustees at the 
request of the war department, in memory of Colonel William E. 
Hunt, '99, and Colonel Charles A. Hunt, '01, for the benefit of 
soldiers, or sons and daughters of soldiers in the United States 

4. The Frank B. Clark fund of $10,000, given by Frank 
B. Clark of Dover. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

5. The Edmund L. Brigham scholarships, two in number, 
given by Edmund L. Brigham of the class of 1876. 

6. The New Hampshire Branch of the National Civic Fed- 
eration scholarship, the income of a fund of $1,100 given by the 

7. The S. Morris Locke memorial scholarship, the income 
of a fund of $3,000 given by Mary D. Carbee of Haverhill as a 
memorial to Mr. and Mrs. S. Morris Locke. 

8. The Cogswell scholarships, 20 scholarships of $200 each 
and 10 of $100 each given annually by the trustees of the Cogs- 
well Benevolent trust of Manchester. 

9. The Hood scholarships, five in number, worth $200 
each, given by Charles H. Hood, '80. 

10. The George H. Williams fund of $9,900, given by 
George H. Williams of Dover, the income of which is divided in- 
to four equal scholarships. 

1 1. The Ordway fund of $2,000, given by Martha H. Ord- 
way of Hampstead, the income of which is used for a scholarship. 

12. The Charles H. Sanders fund of $3,000, given by 
Charles H. Sanders, 71, the income of which is used for a scholar- 
ship given in memory of the class of 1871, the first to be gradu- 
ated from the institution. 

13. The John N. Haines scholarship, the income from a 
fund of $2,475 given by John N. Haines of Somersworth. 

14. The Harvey L. Boutwell scholarship, the income of a 
gift of $3,000 by Harvey L. Boutwell, '82, of Maiden, Massa- 

15. The Currier-Fisher fund of New Hampshire's Daugh- 
ters, the income of a gift of $3,500 by New Hampshire's Daugh- 

In addition to the scholarships listed, about 30 prizes of 
money, trophies, medals, or other forms of recognition are awarded 
annually to students who show special proficiency in various fields. 

The loan fund has also received gifts from the following 
sources : 

1. The John H. Pearson trust, a student loan fund estab- 
lished in cooperation with the trustees of the John H. Pearson es- 
tate of Concord. 

2. The James B. Erskine loan fund, a gift of $3,642 given 
by Dr. James B. Erskine of Tilton. 


The Present University 

3. The S. Morris Locke loan fund, a gift of $20,000 given 
by Mary D. Carbee of Haverhill, in memory of Mr. and Mrs. S. 
Morris Locke. 

4. The R. C. Bradley loan fund, established by the New 
Hampshire Poultry Growers' association. 

The present regulations regarding repayment of student loans 
were put in effect in 1928 and provide that interest be charged 
at the rate of two percent until graduation, and five percent there- 
after, and that the loans be repaid at the rate of five dollars a 
month beginning a year after graduation, ten dollars during the 
second year, and fifteen dollars a month thereafter, until the debt 
is paid. The amount of the loans doubled and redoubled dur- 
ing the early thirties although the percentage of students in the 
various classes who received loans increased only gradually, and 
not at all evenly. The size of the average loan per student did, 
however, increase markedly. In spite of hard times, the vast ma- 
jority of borrowers have met their obligations quite promptly. 

Both the supply of money available for student jobs and the 
demand for them have increased. The university has found em- 
ployment of student help for certain kinds of work desirable both 
as an assistance to the students and as a means of securing excellent 
service. Funds supplied by the National Youth administration 
have nearly doubled the amount available for student employ- 

Students also obtain many jobs beside those supplied by the 
university, which tries to keep in touch with the various employ- 
ment opportunities offered to students, both to help them secure 
the positions and to see that conditions of employment are proper 
and suitable. New Hampshire students have not lost either in 
ambition or ingenuity in discovering ways to make money, as 
some of the interesting jobs taken during recent years would show. 
The summer is still the time in which to earn and save for the 
coming year. Over half the student body have to earn a large 
part of their expenses, and do so while carrying a full load of 
scholastic work. 

Student organizations have flourished with the increase in 
enrollment and the greater opportunities for exercising special in- 
terests. National honorary or professional societies having 
branches on the campus include Phi Kappa Phi, scholastic honor 
society; Alpha Chi Sigma, chemistry; Alpha Kappa Delta, sociol- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

ogy; Alpha Sigma, architecture; Alpha Zeta, agriculture; the Eco- 
nomics club; Gamma Kappa, geology; Kappa Delta Pi, educa- 
tion; Phi Lambda Phi, physics; Phi Sigma, biology; Psi Lambda, 
home economics; and Tau Kappa Alpha, debate and oratory. 

Musical organizations include the men's and women's glee 
clubs, the band, the symphony orchestra, the choir, the madrigal 
group, and Granite Varieties. Mask and Dagger admits to mem- 
bership students who have participated in the production of two 
or more plays, and sponsors the production of three plays a year. 

The departmental clubs include student branches of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers, and the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers; the Classical club; the Engineers club; the Forestry 
club; the French club; the Graduate Science society; the Inter- 
national Relations club; the Minnesaenger, a club for students of 
German; the Poultry club; the Psychology club; Scabbard and 
Blade, a national honorary society for students of military science; 
the Secretarial club; and the Sociology club. 

Blue Key and Senior Skulls are social honorary societies for 
senior men. Mortar Board is an honorary society for senior wom- 
en. Sphinx, organized originally by sophomores, has become an 
honorary society for junior men, limited to one member from each 
fraternity and one from the non-fraternity group. 

One of the largest and most active organizations on the cam- 
pus is the Outing club, which sponsors winter sports, mountain 
climbing and similar out-door activities and conducts the winter 
carnival and the annual horse show. It has acquired cabins at 
Mendum's pond, in Franconia notch, and at Jackson. Regular 
trips are taken for out-door recreation throughout the school year. 

Folio is the successor to Book and Scroll. It is an entirely 
informal group of students who meet to read and discuss literature. 
The Poetry workshop, equally informal, has replaced Erato. Its 
meetings are devoted to the reading and discussion of poetry by 
students and by modern poets. 

The Lens and Shutter club, the Yacht club, the Flying club, 
and Mike and Dial provide opportunities for students interested 
in these activities to secure the necessary equipment and enjoy 
the use of it. The Barnacles is a club of students and faculty 
members of the Marine laboratory at the Isles of Shoals. The 
university 4-H club includes students who have taken part in 4-H 


The Present University 

work before coming to Durham, and who wish to continue their 

There has been a slight increase in the number of fraternities 
and sororities on campus. Only one fraternity was discontinued 
during the depression, while Gamma Gamma Gamma was char- 
tered as Gamma Mu chapter of Pi Kappa Alpha in 1929 and 
Delta Sigma Chi was chartered as Alpha Mu chapter of Tau Kappa 
Epsilon in 1932. Among the sororities, Delta Kappa received a 
charter from Kappa Delta in 1929; Sigma Omicron became Tau 
chapter of Theta Upsilon in 1930; and Epsilon chapter of Pi 
Lambda Sigma, a national Catholic sorority, was chartered in 1929. 

A group of student organizations formed the Associated Stu- 
dent organizations in 1930 in order to improve the financial prac- 
tices of the groups and insure a sound financial standing to all 
taking part. A faculty committee was appointed in 1934 to ad- 
vise and help the fraternities in securing better management, col- 
lecting outstanding bills, meeting obligations, and planning a 
financial policy. The percentage of fraternity members on the 
campus is high compared to many similar institutions. The in- 
troduction of a quota system in pledging which gives due regard 
to the size of the fraternity house and its customary membership 
has improved the process of pledging. The women's organiza- 
tions also pledge under a quota system. Casque and Casket, now 
called the Interfraternky council, has taken leadership in regulat- 
ing campus interfraternky relations. 

A blanket tax plan, covering subscriptions to the New Hamp- 
shire and the Granite and student government and class dues, was 
put into operation in 1934. By requiring all students to pay this 
tax before registering, it has been possible to spread the expense 
over a larger group so that the guaranteed income needed can be 
secured at a considerably smaller charge to each individual. The 
first year the tax was imposed it totaled $4.25, as compared with 
$10.50 which the same things would have cost under the old sys- 
tem. A committee of three faculty members and three students 
administer the tax and approve the budgets of the organizations 
operating under the tax. The student body votes annually on the 
acceptance of the tax for the following year. 

Attempts to bring the commuting students into closer con- 
tact with campus life have led to the organization of the Associa- 
tion of Women Day Students and of the Men Commuters' club, 
both of which organizations participate in intramural competitions 


History of University of New Hampshire 

and sponsor social affairs for their members. Women commuters 
have a recreation room set aside for them in the basement of Smith 
hall and there is a similar room for men in Murkland hall. 

The Omvila club, an association of women students living off 
campus, has recently been formed to provide these women with 
opportunities for more social life and representation in student 
activities. The Cauldrons is an organization of non-fraternity 
men which participates in intramural activities and has representa- 
tion in Sphinx and the student council. The Student Coopera- 
tive was organized in 1936 to provide board, and as the organiza- 
tion grew, rooms to students on a cooperative basis. 

The annual Student Writer, an anthology of the best stu- 
dent writing of the year, was first published in 1928. The re- 
markable success which New Hampshire students have had in 
literary competitions has given this annual a special value and in- 
terest. New Hampshire has won the great majority of the Tri- 
State contests initiated in 1926 with the Universities of Maine 
and Vermont. Each university gives an equal sum toward prizes 
for the contests in story, essay, and verse. New Hampshire stu- 
dents have also won a good share of prizes in national competitions 
for college students. Since their graduation, several alumni have 
already begun to fulfill the promise of their undergraduate days 
with the publication of novels and volumes of poetry. 

The older publication, the New Hampshire, started publish- 
ing two issues a week in 1935, a procedure made possible by the 
regular income guaranteed by the blanket tax. The Granite, like- 
wise, has been able to introduce many improvements due to its 
improved financial position. 

The religious life of the student body is organized and stimu- 
lated through Christian Work, the Newman club, and the Men- 
orah society. Christian Work is a cooperative undertaking of a 
number of protestant denominations, as well as the state Y. M. C. 
A. and the Y. W. C. A., and the New England Student Christian 
movement. The organization maintains a resident pastor, under 
whose direction services of worship, social work, conferences, lec- 
tures and other activities are carried on. The Newman club, with 
the assistance of the priest of a neighboring parish, performs a 
similar function for Catholic students. The Menorah society, 
though not a strictly religious organization, provides a cultural 
center for Jewish students. 


The Present University 

The improvement of athletic facilities by the construction 
of Lewis fields, the university field house, the swimming pool, 
and other equipment has not been the only factor in bettering 
the program of physical education at the university. Sports and 
athletics have been increasingly incorporated into the regular 
educational work of the university. The Athletic association, a 
relic of the days when the students and alumni were forced to 
accept the responsibility for all student athletics, was abolished 
and a student advisory committee on athletic awards was given the 
responsibility of representing student opinion on athletic prob- 
lems, and of participating in such matters as awarding athletic 
insignia, the selection of managers and cheerleaders, and ratifica- 
tion of athletic records. Required physical education for men stu- 
dents during their first two years, and women during their first 
three years in Durham has produced very beneficial results. Stu- 
dents have their choice of over a dozen different sports, which are 
taught and directed by an enlarged staff. Carefully correlated 
with this program has been the work of the teacher training cur- 
riculum for teachers and coaches of physical education. As the 
university accepts greater responsibilities in this field, the degree 
of benefit to the individual student can be expected to increase 

In intercollegiate sports, the competitions which occupy so 
prominent a place in the popular conception of college life, New 
Hampshire has won a firm standing among the smaller New Eng- 
land colleges. None of her teams win all the time, yet all of 
them win often enough to indicate that the level of competition 
is fair and beneficial both to the home teams and to the oppo- 
nents. In winter sports, New Hampshire has always ranked 
among the strongest colleges in the country, a result which is 
scarcely surprising in view of the outstanding opportunities for 
this form of recreation which exist in the state. Intercollegiate 
leagues in which New Hampshire holds membership have been 
formed in baseball, basketball, and hockey. 

To William H. Cowell, who served the university for 25 
years as coach and director of men's athletics, must be given a 
great part of the credit for the establishment of high standards 
both in competition and in the betterment of student lives. His 
death in 1940 was mourned by students and alumni throughout 
the country and by those who had enjoyed the privilege of work- 
ing with him in the intercollegiate athletic bodies in which he had 


History of University of New Hampshire 

been so prominent. During his later years, when he was handi- 
capped by illness, much of his work was delegated to a new foot- 
ball coach, George Sauer, and to Carl Lundholm, now director 
and associate professor of physical education and athletics. 

The nickname of "Wildcats" for the New Hampshire ath- 
letic teams was selected by a vote of the student body in 1926 
after a long period of discussion in the pages of the New Hamp- 
shire. "Maizie," the first of a long series of mascots, made her 
debut at the homecoming game in the fall of 1927. Hers was a 
brief and melancholy history for she died in a few months. The 
student council had her stuffed and mounted in a glass case, then 
wrote to other colleges which had wildcats as mascots for in- 
formation on the care and nurture of the animals. A wildcat 
named "Bozo" was bought in 1932 and it was agreed that he 
would be named for the first player to score for New Hampshire 
against Harvard. Unfortunately, no one accomplished that feat. 
The third wildcat, bought in 1934, was to be named for the first 
man to score for New Hampshire in the Maine game but the 
first score was a field goal, so that there was some dispute as to 
whether the wildcat should be named Henry for the man who 
kicked the goal, or Charles for the man who made the first touch- 
down. Blue Key, which had charge of the wildcat, compromised 
by naming it "Butch," after Coach Cowell, and this has remained 
the official name for New Hampshire's mascots to this day. 

The mayoralty campaign, a colorful interlude of frantic po- 
litical monkeyshines, was first introduced in 1926 under the spon- 
sorship of Blue Key. Five candidates vied for the honor and ap- 
pealed to the "cit-i-zens of Dm-ham," in a style since made dear 
by tradition, to vote for a bewildering variety of dubious reforms. 
The first mayor was Laurence V. Jensen, of the class of 1927, who 
ran on a platform of: 

"Individual Liberty, Less restrictions, Less Units, 
No Women Matrons in Men's Dormitories, A Voice 
in the Government of Your Affairs for each and every 
Citizen of Durham, regardless of sex and social affilia- 

Succeeding campaigns have only added variants in extravagant 
promises, fantastic costumes, or new versions of outworn jokes. 

* # # 


The Present University 

Three presidents have exercised the responsibilities of leader- 
ship during the last 15 years: Ralph Dorn Hetzel, who resigned 
in 1927, Edward Morgan Lewis, who served from September 1, 
1927, until May 24, 1936, and Fred Engelhardt, who took office 
on April 1, 1937. In the interim between the death of President 
Lewis and the assumption of office by President Engelhardt, Roy 
D. Hunter, president of the board of trustees since 1931, was act- 
ing president of the university. 

During President Lewis' administration, the university 
weathered the most difficult years of the depression, and due large- 
ly to his careful conservation of all available resources, succeeded 
in doing so, not only without any impairment of its services to 
students and the state, but with a very gradual and valuable im- 
provement in standards of scholarship, teaching, and administra- 
tion. President Lewis had declared it to be his chief purpose in 
accepting the presidency to work with the trustees and faculty 
in bringing about such improvements, an objective which was 
most successfully accomplished. 

At President Engelhardt's inauguration on October 9, 1937, 
representatives of the students, faculty, trustees, state government, 
numerous colleges and universities, and a wide cross-section of all 
the organized interests of the state joined in welcoming the new 
president to New Hampshire. The number and variety of these 
representatives were indicative of the position which the univer- 
sity has come to occupy as well as recognition of the university's 
value and importance to the state which had been won by three- 
quarters of a century of patient service. 

The University of New Hampshire is more than an institu- 
tion of higher learning providing a liberal and professional educa- 
tion for the youth of the state. In the words of President Engel- 
hardt's first report: 

"The state university of today is functionally con- 
scious of its place as a public service institution in many 
fields of human endeavor. In so far as it is within its 
legitimate scope it must disseminate the truth among 
the people; it must contribute to truth finding, as well 
as to the preservation of the truth. The university does 
not deal in books alone, nor are its researches carried 
on solely in the library and the laboratory; for in real- 
ity it finds its laboratories and classrooms in many parts 
of the state. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

"The university deals with human nature in many 
forms, with human problems, human aspirations, ac- 
complishments, and failures. There is no work so plain 
and no interest so remote and yet within its jurisdiction 
but that the university registers concern for it . . . 

'The state university of today endeavors to create 
an environment from which shall emanate understand- 
ing, appreciation, and betterment to reach an ever 
widening circle of citizens. Thus the university looks 
upon the wide spread application of the services of its 
scholars, of its researches, and of its extension workers 
as a most serious and important function." 

In its seventy-fifth anniversary year, the University of New 
Hampshire can well be proud of the contrast between its present 
condition, its numerous active functions, its great annual contri- 
bution to the wealth and happiness of the state, and Ezekiel Di- 
mond's struggling little trade school in Hanover. The ideal of 
democracy in education has been faithfully served throughout 
these years, and the soundness of that ideal has been demon- 
strated in the building of an institution which can and does offer 
every citizen an opportunity for self-betterment. The historian 
can predict only in the most general terms, but it can safely be 
predicted that as long as the ideal of democracy guides its work, 
the university will continue to advance and will continue to do 
its share in the task of making New Hampshire a better state in 
which to live. 



Abbott, J. B., 216. 

Abbott, W. S., 191. 

Absences, 174, 220. 

Act, of New Hampshire legislature 
authorizing the governor to accept 
land scrip, 9; of New Hampshire 
legislature to accept provisions of 
Thompson will, 93. 

Adair, Rollin Kirk, 59. 

Adams Act of 1906, 183. 

Adams, Forrest Eugene, 249. 

Adams, Isaac, 2. 

Administration Committee, votes to 
grant degrees to seniors who enlist, 
231 ; abolished, 294. 

Administrative Functions, of New 
Hampshire college, carried out by 
others than the president of Dart- 
mouth, 50; Administrative Work, 
efficiently organized, 175. 

Advanced Degrees, granted before 
1903, 144; granted 1903-1912, 189; 
summary 1903-1940, 289-292. 

Aegis, quoted on officers of Culver 
Literary society, 43. 

Agricultural Building, I35"i37> 2 79 5 
Agricultural Club, 191; Agricultural 
College, not a favored name, 154; 
Agricultural Division, changes in, 
173; publicity of, 184; Agricultural 
Education, and Mr. Morrill, 7; 
Agricultural Education Historically 
Considered, by Dr. Scott, quoted on 
finances, 34. 

Agricultural Experiment Station, es- 
tablished in New Hampshire, 55; 
early activity of, 58 ; board of con- 
trol supervise construction of Nes- 
mith hall, 99; staff of, increased, 
163; Gibbs director of, 165; work 
of, 183-184, 287-289; Agricultural 
Experiment Stations, mentioned as 
of great assistance when they were 
to come in 20 years, 18; created by 
the Hatch act, 54-55; Purnell act 
for, 272-273. 

Agricultural Fairs, early, 4; Agricul- 
tural Society, in Rockingham coun- 
ty, 3- 

Agriculture, four-year courses in, 133. 

Agronomy, department of, 286. 

Alaska, colleges in, 8. 

Alden, Ruel, 126. 

Allen Hall, built, 33; at move to Dur- 
ham, 97. 

Allen, Ira, 15. 

Allen Lot, purchased, 31. 

Alpha Alpha Alpha, 192, 222; Alpha 
Gamma Rho, 257; Alpha Zeta, 191, 
298; Alpha Kappa Delta, 297; Al- 
pha Xi Delta, 222; offers cup to 
highest ranking sorority, 223 ; Al- 
pha Sigma, 298; Alpha Tau Alpha, 
190, 222; Alpha Tau Omega, 189, 
190, 222; Alpha Chi Sigma, 191, 
225, 297. 

Alumni, of Dartmouth college, discon- 
tent of, with President Bartlett, 70. 

Alumni of New Hampshire: toast of- 
fered to, 66 ; of Pittsburgh compli- 
ment action of the college, 181; 
sponsor track meet and prize speak- 
ing contest, 185-186; proportion con- 
tributing to fund for Memorial field, 
255; Alumni Association, early, 65- 
66; prizes given by, 65; three-fold 
resolution on removal from Han- 
over, 95 ; passes resolution concern- 
ing the status of agricultural and 
mechanic arts courses, 121 ; until 
1903, 163; 1903-1912, 186-187; and 
Memorial field, 254-256; gives gift 
for stands for Lewis fields, 283, at 
present, 294; Alumni Banquet, 188; 
Alumni College, 294; Alumni Cup, 
223; Alumni Day, 294; Alumni 
Fund, 294; Alumni Interviewing 
Committees, 294; Alumni Register, 
144, 186; Alumni Trustee, first pro- 
vision for, 96; first elected, 163; sec- 
ond elected, non-resident, 187. 

Alumnus, the, reports total collection 
from the alumni for Memorial field, 

Alvord, Henry E., 105, 106. 

American Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers, 191, 298; American Legion 
Post of Portsmouth, 284; American 
Literary, Scientific and Military 
University, founded, 5; American 
Society of Civil Engineers, 298 ; 
American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, 298. 

Anatomical Specimens, given to trus- 
tees, 118. 

Anderson, Edwin H., 222. 

Animal Husbandry, department of, 

Appledore Island, 293. 

Armistice, of World War, 248. 

Army Overseas Educational Commis- 
sion, 254. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Arts Course Club, organized. 191. 

Arts and Science Club, becomes Lib- 
eral Arts club, 224. 

Associated Alumni of New Hampshire 
College, organized. 163. 

Associated Press 25I 

Associated Student Organization, 209. 

Association of Agricultural Colleges 
and Experiment Stations. 105. 124. 

Association of Women Day Students. 

.-Is You Like It, 224. 

Athletic Association, formed, 155: 
adopts rule limiting the right to 
wear the insignia of the college, 
161 ; advocates remodeling the barn 
for a cage and gymnasium, 175; ac- 
tivity of 1903-1912. 197-200; finances 
of, 228; activity of 1917-1925, 260- 
261 ; abolished. 301 ; Athletic Con- 
tests, intramural, 226 ; of college, 
228-229, 301-302 ; Athletic Field, 
first job of the Athletic association. 
155; Athletic Tournaments, meet in 
Durham, 288. 

Atkinson, Langdon, 93. 

Auditorium, 279. 

Auerbach, Eugene K., 294. 

Automobile, lectures on. 173. 


Bachelder, Nahum J., active candidate 
for presidency of the college, 107 ; 
signs protest sent to President Murk- 
land, in: sends letter to Granges as 
state master, 113; mentioned, 124; 
as governor at inaugural cere- 
monies of President Gibbs, 166; as 
trustee, 168. 

Bachelor of Agricultural Science, an- 
nounced in twelfth report of the 
trustees, 39; Bachelor of Philosophy, 
announced in third report of the 
trustees, 39. 

Bacteriology, department of, 289. 

Bailey, Dr.'C. H., 65. 

Bailey, E. A., 65. 

Bailey, L. J., 126. 

Bailey Chemical Prize, first given, 65. 

Ballard Hall, history of until 1903, 
139; leased and bought by the col- 
lege, 208 ; use of since 1932, 282. 

Ballard, William P., graduate of the 
first class, 22 ; officer of Alumni as- 
sociation, 1885, 66. 

Band, military, organized 1906, 194- 
195; of University, 298. 

Bangs, John Kendrick, 227. 

Barbadoes Pond, military spring train- 
ing camp at, 263. 

Barn, new in 1875, 33; on college farm 
in Hanover, 48 ; of first group of 
buildings in Durham, 98 ; commence- 
ment exercises in. 100; mentioned in 
quotation on early controversies in 
Durham, 102; burns in 1894, 139; 
built, 181. 

Barnacles. 298. 

Barnard. Daniel, 1. 

Barnard, H. L., 56. 

Barnwell, Lieutenant, 246. 

Barracks, built, 242; a problem, 264- 

Bartlett, D. B.. 152. 

Bartlett, Colonel John H., 245. 

Bartlett, Mary, 146. 

Bartlett, Dr. Samuel Colcord, admin- 
istration of as president of Dart- 
mouth college, 16, 47-74; and Dart- 
mouth student body, 33; elected 
president of the faculty of New 
Hampshire college, 49; New Hamp- 
shire college under care of, 51; per- 
sonality of, 69; dispute with, 69-72; 
and scientific education, 70; charges 
against, 71 ; mentioned, 92 ; con- 
cerning moving New Hampshire 
college, 95 ; mentioned, 96. 

Baseball, team of college formally or- 
ganized, 156; 1903-1912, 199; game 
between sailors from Portsmouth 
Navy Yard and training detachment 
team, 245. 

Basketball, before 1903, 157; 1903- 
1912, 200; for girls, 261. 

Bass, Governor Robert P., 182. 

Batchelder, R. E., 217. 

Batchelder, V. W., 224. 

Bates College, plays in football, 156. 

Bates, Sarah L., 216. 

Bath House, built, 281. 

Bauer, Dr. George N., 293. 

Beard's Creek, rope pull across, 226. 

Beech Hill, ski jump erected on, 258. 

Belgium, gift to, 230. 

Ben Greet Players, 227. 

Benner, A. W., 214. 

Beta Sigma Alpha, 257; Beta Phi, his- 
tory of, 189; wins Alumni cup for 
first two years, 223. 

Bickford House, history of, 208 ; as 
infirmary, 245 ; as hostess house, 246. 

Bicycling, before 1903, 157. 

Big Jays, order of, 154. 

Big Sister Group, revived after the 
war, 258. 

Bingham, George H., 168, 206. 

Biological Institute, 286; Biological So- 
ciety, 151. 

Birds, 151. 



Bissell Gymnasium, in Hanover, 15. 

Blanchard, George A., 271. 

Blanket Tax, plan proposed in the 
New Hampshire, 228 ; adopted, 299. 

Blanpied, Benjamin T., added to the 
faculty, 39; takes over Professor 
Dimond's duties, 47; represents col- 
lege on institute tours, 57; testifies 
against President Bartlett, 71 ; men- 
tioned, 96. 

Bleachers and Stands, 279. 

Blewett, Edward Y., 292. 

Blue Key, organized, 257; mentioned, 
298 ; in charge of the wildcat, 302 ; 
sponsors mayoralty campaign, 302. 

Board of Agriculture, of New Hamp- 
shire: is second state board in the 
country, 3 ; meets in Culver hall, 
28; is determined to fight, 114; 
Board of Control, of the Agricul- 
tural Experiment station, first 
elected, 55-56; directs the building 
of Nesmith hall and the new barn, 
99; Board of Trustees, of Dart- 
mouth: not in favor of establishing 
a separate college, 11; committee 
from New Hampshire college asks, 
for a building, 23 ; protests against 
the act increasing the board of trus- 
tees of New Hampshire college, 78; 
Board of Trustees, of New Hamp- 
shire college: first chosen, 12; presi- 
dency of, not given to President 
Bartlett, 49; limit the amount of in- 
struction by non-faculty members, 
50; dissatisfaction with, in the dis- 
pute with Dartmouth, 78; change 
of election of and composition of, 
in the act to remove the college, 95; 
legislature provides for the election 
of Alumni trustees, 96, 163, 187; 
quoted in responding to the state 
board of agriculture, 113; changes 
in to 1914, 167; vote to have a bill 
of a permanent financial policy in- 
troduced into the legislature, 271 ; 
vote to return part of the mill tax 
appropriation to the state to relieve 
the tax problem, 278 ; quoted on the 
work of Dean Pettee, 285. 

Boarding Clubs, 1903-1912, 193; 1912- 
1917, 221. 

Bond, C. C, 224. 

Bond Issue, in 1939 for buildings, 280. 

Bonfire Hill, mentioned, 209 ; tree 
planting ceremony in 1919 below, 

Book and Scroll, 298. 

Book Salesmen, 146-147. 

Bookstore, in the Orphanage, 160; 
profits of, 295. 

Booma, Frank, 249. 

Boston Alumni Club, makes promise 
to raise monej 7 for new athletic 
field, 255; Boston Braves, 283; Bos- 
ton College, football games sched- 
uled with, 229: Boston English 
School, ties for second place in the 
first track meet, 186; Boston Journal, 
on percentage of agricultural gradu- 
ates, 67; on Thompson will, 93: 
Boston and Maine Railroad, Benja- 
min Thompson's agreement with, 
86; shares in, 87; move tracks, 99, 
181; gives money to college, 176; 
Boston Globe, quoted on picture fight 
in 1904, 159; Boston to Portland 
Stage, 84; Boston University, presi- 
dent of, at inauguration of President 
Fairchild, 200. 

Botany, department of, 286. 

Boutwell, Harvey L., at inauguration 
of President Gibbs, 166; as Alumni 
trustee, 168; quoted on resignation 
of Professor Parsons, 169; elected 
first non-resident Alumni trustee, 
187; at first Founders' night, 188: 
greets President Fairchild on be- 
half of the trustees, 206; gives to 
scholarship fund, 296. 

Bowdoin, football games with, 199. 

Bowker, W. H., 126. 

Bowler, Edmond W., 278. 

Boxing, 260. 

Boyer, Major Guy, 240. 

"Bozo," 302. 

Brackett, George, opens lunch room, 
221 ; mentioned, 227. 

Brackett, William H. L., and the stu- 
dent strike, 202; most popular stu- 
dent. 1912, 203; baseball fields 
named for, 284. 

Brackett Fields, dedicated. 2S4. 

Bradford, F. C, 239. 

Brewster Academy, football with, 156. 

Bridge, over railroad tracks, 284. 

Bridges. Governor H. Styles, 284. 

Brien. Armand Alfred, 249. 

Brigham, Edmund L., 296. 

Brigham. J. H., 116. 

Brockton Fair, 191. 

Brooks, Charles, 168. 

Brown, A. H., 237; Brown, Governor 
Albert O., 265; Brown. Delia, sec- 
ond woman student, 64; Brown, Ed- 
ward H., 9; Brown, Elisha R., 88; 
Brown, Governor Fred H.. 867 
Brown, John, shop foreman. 105 ; 
Brown, Warren, first president of 
the board of control of the Agricul- 
tural Experiment station, 56: as 
trustee, 167. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Brown University, comparing with 
state colleges, 219. 

Bryan, William Jennings, 193. 

Bryant, O. F., 191. 

Buchanan, President James, vetoes a 
land grant bill, 8. 

Buck, A. M., 191. 

Bugbee, R. J., 224, 237. 

Building, four-year moratorium on, 
278-279; new program of, initiated 
under direction of President Engel- 
hardt, 285. 

Buildings, of Dartmouth in 1868, 15- 
16; Buildings, of New Hampshire 
college: needed in first year accord- 
ing to the trustees' report, 21 ; second 
of, 31; in Hanover, used at the 
present time, 32; two of the first 
three built after 1867 in Hanover 
because of the agricultural college, 
35; toast offered to, 66; first, in 
Durham, 98; bond issue for, 280. 

Bulletins, to meet the war emergency, 

Bunker Hill, 84. 

Bunker, Mabel, 146. 

Bureau of Appointments, 294. 

Burleigh, George W., 9. 

Burleigh, Robert F., represents the col- 
lege on institute tours, 57 ; officer of 
Alumni association in 1885, 66. 

Busiel, Governor Charles A., vetoes 
bill for women's building, 135; signs 
compromise Leach bill, 122; vetoes 
bill for women's dormitory, 141. 

Business Office, 287. 

Bussey, Benjamin, 4. 

"Butch," 302. 

Butler, Ormond R., 168. 

Butterick, Secretary Wallace, of Gen- 
eral Education board, 214. 

Buzzell House, 189. 

Caldwell, Captain Vernon A., 171. 

Caldwell, William H., lectures in In- 
stitute course in 1896, 128; as trus- 
tee, 168. 

Calendar, Academic, of Dartmouth, 
revised in 1866, 37; Calendar, Aca- 
demic, of New Hampshire college: 
how divided, 36; until 1877, 37; 
changed in 1877, 51. 

Campus Studio, 288. 

Cane Rush, before 1903, 158-159; 
1903-1912, 201-202; rope pull sub- 
stituted for, 226. 

Canning Demonstrators, selected for 
work in the state, 238. 

Carbee, Mary D., 296, 297. 

Cardullo, Forrest E., appointed to fac- 
ulty, 170; chairman of committee on 
student welfare, 175; suggests es- 
tablishing a textile school, 174. 

Carlisle, Lawrence A., 215. 

Carnegie, Andrew, 179. 

Carnegie Foundation, and teachers' se- 
curity, 171 ; gift of, to the art divi- 
sion of the library, 285. 

Carney, Albert, 23. 

Carnival Ball, custom of, introduced, 

Cartland, Charles S., 90. 

Case, George W., 278. 

Casque and Casket, organization of, 
190; reorganizes the student coun- 
cil, 192; becomes Interfraternity 
council, 299. 

Caswell, Percy W., 271. 

Catalogue for 1883-1885, quoted on 
entrance requirements, 52. 

Cate, Asa P., 21. 

Cattle, gifts of blooded stock, 48 ; 
of college, 138. 

Cauldrons, 300. 

Caverno, John L., 160. 

Caverno's Store, housed central office 
of telephone line in Durham, 142; 
soda fountain installed in, 160. 

Celebrations, of men of the training 
detachments, 245 ; biennial of stu- 
dents, 265. 

Central Park, Dover, home football 
games played at, 198. 

Certificates, given to students who had 
completed a satisfactory teacher 
training course, 132; given to those 
completing the ten-week course in 
agriculture, 185 ; sent to all former 
eligible student athletes, 261. 

Chamberlin, G. H., 152. 

Chamberlin, James S., 271. 

Championship Team of 1920, gold 
footballs given to, 260. 

Chandler, Abiel, 5. 

Chandler, Lillian, 149. 

Chandler Scientific School, early course 
of study at, 4-5 ; Visitors of, object 
to the first contract, 13 ; location in 
1868, 15-16; adversely compared to 
New Hampshire college, 39, 51; en- 
trance requirements of, 52-53. 

Change of Name, 266-267, 2 75- 

Chapel, required daily at Hanover, 
62; until 1903, 162; requirements 
reduced, 195-196. 

Charles H. Sanders Fund, 296. 

Charles Harvey Hood House, built, 

Charlie Chaplin Comedy, given on 
first New Hampshire day, 226. 



Charter, of the University of New 
Hampshire, brought to Durham, 267. 

Chase, Carl, 194; Chase-Davis Me- 
morial Medals, 194; Chase, Dudley 
T., endorses college, 60; quoted on 
the purposes of the college, 119; 
Chase, F. O., 191; Chase Farm, pur- 
chased by Professor Dimond to hold 
for the college, 29. 

Cheer, first of the college, 161. 

Checker Club, 195. 

Chemical Colloquium, founded, 191. 

Chemistry, department of: early ex- 
cellence of, 133; need for building 
for, 280. 

Cheshire County, and Conant scholar- 
ships, 33 ; carefully canvassed each 
year, 34. 

Chesley, Guy E., 271. 

Chess Club, 195. 

Child, R. Towle, 215. 

Chi Omega, history of campus chap- 
ter of, 222 ; offers prize for sociol- 
ogy thesis, 223. 

Choir, 298. 

Choral Society, 151. 

Christian Association, organizes em- 
ployment bureau, 221 ; activity of, 
1912-1917, 228; activity of, 257; 
Christian Endeavor Society, until 
1900, 162; Christian Fraternity, or- 
ganized, 60-61; records of, 61; 
Christian Work, 300. 

Churchill, Colonel Winston, lectures at 
Roosevelt club rally, 194. 

Civil Engineering, courses in early, 
133; course in developed, 278. 

Civil Works Administration, 280, 283. 

Clark, Charles H., lectures in 1894 
Summer school, 125; earns first ad- 
vance degree granted by the college, 
144; Clark, Frank B., 295; Clark, 
Morris, 9; Clarke, Greenleaf, 75; 
Clarke, John B., 12. 

Class, first in Hanover, 22-23; fi fSt 
in Durham, 143 ; Class Banquet, 
1903-1912, 202-203; abolished, 226; 
Class Contests, 1903-1912, 201-203; 
1912-1917, 225-226; 1917-1925, 262- 
263; the mayoralty campaign, 302; 
Class Dues, covered by blanket tax, 
299; Class Memorial Scholarship, 
295; Class of 1880, history of, 58- 
59; Class of 1892, commencement 
of, 100; Class of 1893, commence- 
ment of, 100, 101 ; Class of 1895, 
make survey of the town of Dur- 
ham, 135; Class of 1896, second one- 
man class, 143; Class of 1899, set 
out the first class trees, 160; Class of 

1901, win privilege of carrying 
canes to Sunday chapel, 159; Class 
of 1914, and the student strike, 202; 
Class of 1920, plan to double its 
quota for new athletic field, 255; 
Class of 1923, and change of name, 
267; Class Picture, of freshmen: in 
1904, 159-160; continued after 1917, 
226; Class Trees, set out after 1896, 
160; Classes, size of between 1877 
and 1892, 59. 

Classical Club, 298. 

Clough, D. M., 26. 

Coaches, of athletic teams before 1903, 


Coal, shortage of, 234. 

Codicils, of Benjamin Thompson's 
will, 87-90. 

Cogswell Benevolent Trust, 296; Cogs- 
well Scholarships, 296. 

Cohos, County of, 83. 

Colby, Anthony, a member of com- 
mittee to investigate possible pro- 
cedures of founding the college, 9 ; 
appointed by Dartmouth trustees to 
be on first board of trustees of New 
Hampshire college, 12. 

Cold River Journal, quoted on contro- 
versy with the Grange, 115. 

Cole, Florence V., 195. 

College Bureau of Recommendations, 
213; College Club, revived, 193; 
College Day, 1921-1923, 262-263 ; 
College Farm, in Hanover, descrip- 
tion of, 47-48 ; College Funds, ad- 
ministration of, 50-51; College Inn, 
The, 145; College of Liberal Arts, 
new curricula introduced, 277, 278 ; 
housed in Murkland hall, 280; aids 
in Extension work, 288; College of 
Technology, new curricula intro- 
duced, 278 ; aids in Extension work, 
288 ; College Monthly, The, quoted 
on Murkland's successful first year 
as president, 109; quoted on field 
excursions of the Summer school, 
125 ; quoted on lack of students at 
Institute courses, 128; quoted on 
lack of students in two-year course, 
131; advocates a one-year pre- 
paratory course coming directly 
from common schools, 131; boasts 
of the number of agricultural stu- 
dents at New Hampshire college, 
134; quoted in praise of the intro- 
duction of non-technical subjects, 
134; quoted on surveys made by the 
class of 1895, 135; on facilities of 
Morrill hall, 138; praises efficiency 
of students in fire -fighting, 139; 
quoted on need of a hotel in Dur- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

ham, 140; quoted on women stu- 
dents after 1895, 141; quoted on the 
Whitcher water system, 141 ; quoted 
concerning an eating club, 145 ; 
rooms advertised in, 146; quoted on 
student labor, 146-147; on merits 
and demerits of canvassing to earn 
college expenses, 146-147; quoted on 
early prize given by C. H. Hood, 
147; quoted on difficulty of return- 
ing from dancing schools in Dover, 
150; on a meeting of the Natural 
History society, 151; on the quality 
and quantity of the singing in chap- 
el, 151; on the Glee club, 152; 
quoted on tennis courts, 157; quoted 
on the cane rush in 1895, 158; 
quoted on military drill, 163; quoted 
on new regulations for absences, 
174; quoted on possible actions for 
the student welfare committee, 175; 
on graduates working out of the 
state after graduation, 186; special 
alumni issue, 188; quoted on first 
ceremonies of Casque and Casket, 
190; quoted on the history of the 
Glee club, 194; history of, 1903- 
1911, 197; College Pin, 161; Col- 
lege Songs and Cheers, need for, 
160-161; College Street, now Garri- 
son avenue, 142; College Year, re- 
division of, 247. 

Colorado, 94. 

Commencement, of class of 1892, of 
class of 1893, 100; Commencement 
Banquet, 188. 

Committees, of the board of trustees: 
of two to go over the college ac- 
counts in 1877, 45; on building, 
102; on building the gymnasium, 
176; Committees, of the faculty of 
New Hampshire college: to go to 
meeting of the Dartmouth trustees 
to ask for a building for the col- 
lege, 23 ; on building an Experiment 
station building, 55 ; Examining, 
quoted on women students, 64; of 
seven in charge of vocational work 
in the college, 240; on student or- 
ganizations, 259; on admissions, en- 
larged, 276 ; Committees, of the 
Grange : on the propriety of mov- 
ing New Hampshire college from 
Hanover, 75, 78-82; on Education, 
114; on the Agricultural college, 
114; Committees, of the legislature: 
to investigate possible procedures 
for establishing a college, 9, 11; on 
propriety of moving New Hampshire 
college from Hanover, 74-77; of ten 
to investigate the problem of the 

will, 93 ; special on removal to Dur- 
ham, 95; on Appropriations con- 
cerning the mill tax plan, 271; of 
investigation, joint, concerning the 
mill tax, 271 ; Committee of Three, 
to supervise the building of Culver 
hall, 24; Committee on Education 
and Special Training, organized, 
240; Committee on Food Production, 
239, 240. 

Communications, between Wilder and 
Thompson, 6. 

Commuting, difficult in early days, 141. 

Comings, E. S., 66. 

Comings, Frederick P., first alumni 
trustee, 163. 

Commons, mentioned, 146; built, 210, 
269; released for the use of men, 
282; wing added to, 286; and Fair- 
child hall, wing proposed between, 

Competitions, literary, 300. 

Conant, John, gift of, mentioned at 
dedication of Culver hall, 26; visits 
Hanover and plans for gifts to the 
college, 29-31; death of, 44-45; let- 
ter quoted on criticism of Professor 
Dimond, 45 ; mentioned, 95 ; will of 
cited in controversy, 114, 121; pic- 
ture of given to the trustees, 148. 

Conant Agricultural Society, 150; Co- 
nant Hall, in Hanover: legislature 
votes appropriation for, 31; built, 
31; dining room in, 31-32; free 
rooms provided in, from the surplus 
income of the Conant fund, 32 ; 
bought by Dartmouth, 32; superior 
accommodations of, 39; at move to 
Durham, 97; Conant Hall, in Dur- 
ham: of the first group in Durham, 
98, 99; chemistry department given 
full use of, 207; small fire-proof 
building behind, 208 ; Conant 
Scholarships, history of, 32-33 ; 
limited to agricultural students, 32 ; 
basis upon which given, 33; in 
1890, 61 ; all income used yearly, 
136; reduced in number, 147; men- 
tioned, 180, 295. 

Concord, first meeting of the board of 
trustees held in, 12; first New 
Hampshire turnpike to, 84; Concord 
Independent Statesman, on accept- 
ance of the Thompson will, 92 ; 
quoted on undesirability of President 
Murkland's appointment, 112; op- 
poses President Murkland in the 
Leach bill controversy, 118. 

Concrete Division, work of, 242 ; Con- 
crete Walks, built, 242; bought, 265. 

Conferences, held on campus, 288. 



Congregational Church, of Durham, 
and Benjamin Thompson, 86-87. 

Congress, of United States: passes the 
land grant bill, the Morrill act, 7- 
8; passes the Hatch act, 54; men- 
tioned, 89; passes Second Morrill 
act, 105; passes the Purnell act, 

Congreve, Edith Angela, Mrs. Shirley 
Onderdonk, 180; Congreve Hall, 
built, 180, 269; wings added to, 

Connecticut Agricultural College, early 
set up as a model for New Hamp- 
shire college, 115; mentioned in 
quoted passage on the growth of 
state colleges, 219; Alpha Tau Al- 
pha chapter sponsored at, 222; 
schedules tennis matches with, 229. 

Connecticut River, population shifts 
toward, 83. 

Conner, J. M., 79. 

Coniston, 194. 

Connor, Dutch, 260. 

Conrad, Joseph, 253. 

Construction, on the campus, 242. 

Contract, first, signed by Dartmouth 
and New Hampshire college, 12; 
second, with Dartmouth, 13; with 
Dartmouth, said to be broken by 
act increasing the board of trustees 
of New Hampshire college, 78. 

Corbett, Mary J., 228. 

Corliss, H. P., 191. 

Cornell, Ezra, quoted on the purposes 
of colleges, 205 ; Cornell University, 
organization of, 34; admits women, 

Correspondence Courses, in reading 
organized, 184-185; in use of meas- 
uring instruments started, 212. 

Corriveau, Paul Edward, 250. 

Corson, H. P., 197. 

Country Squire, The, 160. 

County Agents, in New Hampshire: 
early, 214-217; in home demonstra- 
tion and boys' and girls' club work 
in each county, 272. 

Course, optional, established in 1881, 
52; regular, increased to four years, 
52; of study in Hanover, 54; 
Courses, schedule of, 132; offered, 

I32-I35- t 

Cowell, William H., appointed to fac- 
ulty, 229; and the Intercollegiate 
Athletics conference, 261; at first 
football training camp, 261; wild- 
cats named after, 302; death of, 

Crescent Club, organized, 193. 

Creamery Building, 136, 138. 

Crafts Cottage, history of, 140. 

Crop Report, of the United States for 
19 1 8, 240. 

Croquet, 157. 

Crosby, Thomas R., 23. 

Crosby Street, in Hanover, originally 
part of the Allen lot, 31. 

Cross Country, separated from track, 

Cross, Principal, 149. 

Crossman, Ralph W., 144. 

Culver, General David, member of in- 
vestigating committee, 9; offer of, 
9; death of and trouble over the 
estate of, n, 24; hall named for, 
24; will of, in controversy over the 
chief activity of the college, 114, 
121 ; Culver, Mrs. David, bequest 
of, 24; Culver Estate, agreement of, 
with Dartmouth, 13; Culver Farm, 
in Lyme, offered as a possible site 
for the college, 9; Culver Hall, 
planned to be the best on campus 
at Hanover, 25; erected, 25; dedi- 
cated, 25-27; pride of the college in, 
27; eventual uses and fate of, 27- 
28; Q. T. V. meetings held in, 61; 
dispute over the use of, 68, 74; 
settlement concerning, 97; indigna- 
tion over settlement of, 137; Culver 
Literary Society, in Hanover, 43-44; 
toast offered to, 66; history of, 152- 
153; Culver Literary Journal, com- 
piled by Culver Literary society, 44. 

Current Events Club, 151, 195. 

Currier-Fisher Fund, 296. 

Curry, B. E., 169, 239. 

Curtis House, present, history of, 140. 


Dairy Barns, built, 282; Dairy Cow 
Test Association, organized, 214, 
217; Dairy Building, built, 181. 

Dalglish, H. M., 194. 

Dances, in the eighteen nineties, 149- 
150; rules concerning, 260; Danc- 
ing Schools, numerous before 1903, 

Daniell, Warren F., 75. 

Dartmouth, The, quoted on the dedi- 
cation of Culver hall, 26-27; men- 
tions the first gas light used in Han- 
over, 28; prints article concerning 
the removal of New Hampshire col- 
lege, 35; criticises the agricultural 
course, 36; censored because of the 
criticism of the agricultural students, 
36; editors of, 43; on the property 
of New Hampshire college, 97. 

Dartmouth College, founded, 2; early 
graduates, 2; offer in regard to the 


History of University of New Hampshire 

establishment of the college, 9 ; 
buildings of, 15-16; as New Hamp- 
shire's only college, 18; appropri- 
ates from Culver fund for the build- 
ing, 24; buys Conant Hall, 32; settle- 
ment with, concerning Culver hall, 
137; plays New Hampshire college 
in basketball, 157; president of, at 
inauguration of President Fair- 
child, 206 ; compared with state col- 
leges, 219; winter carnivals at, 225, 
259; football games scheduled with, 
229, 260; Dartmouth College Li- 
brary, at beginning of President 
Smith's administration, 41-42; Dart- 
mouth Hall, 15; Dartmouth Hotel, 

David, Professor, chairman of com- 
mittee on athletics, 17s; a judge of 
the first prize speaking contest, 186. 

Davis, Gilman W., 43 ; Davis, Jeffer- 
son, trial of, 1 ; Davis, John Worth- 
en, 194; Davis, Lucetta M., provi- 
sion in will concerning, 87; letter 
to quoted, 103; Davis Park, 174; 
Davis, Thomas J., gives land to the 
college, 174; gives gift for medals 
for judging teams of ten-week stu- 
dents, 201. 

Dean of Women, 212. 

Dearborn, Ned, receives only earned 
doctor of science degree ever 
granted by the college, 144; directs 
Glee club, 152. 

Debates and Discussions, of Culver 
Literary society, 152; Debating, 
1915, 224; Debating Club, organized, 

Deferred Payments, 295. 

Degrees, bachelor of philosophy and 
bachelor of agricultural science an- 
nounced, 39; early granted, 144; 
granted, 1903-1912, 189; granted to 
seniors who enlist, 231; and the 
change of name, 266; granted for 
graduate study, 289-292. 

Delta Kappa, 257, 299; Delta Xi, 189; 
Delta Pi Epsilon, 256; Delta Sigma 
Chi, 299. 

DeMeritt, Albert, water system of, 
101 ; as secretary of the finance 
committee, 106 ; on the controversy 
on the Leach bill, 121 ; opposes the 
Leach bill, 122; builds building later 
known as Ballard hall, 139; barn of, 
housed stock of college after fire, 
139; contracts to grade the athletic 
field, 155; tries to get an engineer- 
ing building for the college, 182; 
a judge of first prize speaking con- 

test, 186; gains engineering building 
for the college, 206-207; death of, 
207; DeMeritt, Elizabeth P., revives 
Big Sister committee, 258 ; organizes 
Girls' Student Advisory Council, 
259; practice house named for, 282; 
DeMeritt, George, 150; DeMeritt 
Hall (Ballard hall), mentioned, 97; 
built, 139; boys of, mentioned, 141; 
baseball team plays "Hotel Schoon- 
maker," 156; DeMeritt Hall, built, 

Demobilization of Student Army 
Training corps and vocational units, 

Departmental Clubs, 298. 

Deputation Work, 259. 

Derry, deputation teams visit, 196. 

Detachments, first of vocational, ar- 
rives, 241. 

Dewey Decimal System, first used in 
state by Dr. Scott, 178. 

Dewey, E. P., and the Christian fra- 
ternity, 60; officer of Alumni as- 
sociation, 66. 

Dickinson, Milan A., 271. 

Dimond, Ezekiel, recommended for 
professorship at the college, 12 ; ap- 
pointed first professor of New 
Hampshire college, 13; arrives at 
Hanover and takes up his new work, 
15; task that faces him at outset, 
16; his work as first professor, 19; 
commended President Smith on his 
work with the school, 19; quoted on 
beginnings of land grant colleges, 
20; quoted on differences between 
New Hampshire college and the 
Dartmouth schools, 20; quoted on 
purpose of the college, 21; had cir- 
culars printed to attract students, 
22 ; on first faculty, 23 ; and the 
legislature of 1869, 24; at dedica- 
tion of Culver hall, 27; memorial 
sketch of life by Walker quoted, 31; 
supervises construction of small 
buildings, 32-33 ; conducted all 
chemistry courses in Hanover, 35; 
asks Pettee to teach in New Hamp- 
shire college, 38-39; last years and 
death of, 44-45 ; criticised by Conant, 
45 ; leave of absence, request volun- 
tary, 46 ; death of, 47 ; mentioned, 
96, 123 ; picture of given to trus- 
tees, 148; little trade school in Han- 
over of, compared with present uni- 
versity, 304; Dimond, Mrs., tea 
service of impressed Mr. Conant 
much, 30; receives what was due 
to the estate by the college, 45. 



Divisions, of graduate study, 290-291 ; 
list of "courses" quoted, 211. 

Dixon, Captain Dan T., in charge of 
training detachments in Durham, 
243 ; during influenza epidemic, 246. 

Dormitories, need for early, 98 ; for 
women requested, 135; built, 269, 

Double Quartet, 151. 

Dover, Durham early a part of, 83; 
Dover Chamber of Commerce, pre- 
sents flag to University, 267; Dover 
Daily Democrat, quoted on accept- 
ance of the will, 91, 92; Dover En- 
quirer, quoted on estate of Benja- 
min Thompson, 90, 92; opposes the 
Leach bill, 118; Dover High School, 
New Hampshire college plays in 
football, 156; Dover Opera House, 

Dow, Edward, builds Culver hall, 25. 

Dow and Randlett, architects of first 
group of buildings in Durham, 98- 
99, 102. 

Dowd, Sergeant Leo, 244. 

Drake, George W., 79. 

Drama, stock companies visit Dover, 
160; Dramatic Club, non-existant 
until 1912, 195; organized, 223-224; 
girls organized, 257. 

Dresden, Germany, 13. 

Dudley, Charles, 156. 

Dunbar Male Quartet and Bellringers, 

Duncan, George H., 271. 

Durham, early settlement of, 83 ; pop- 
ulation of, 84; dispute over moving 
to, 94-95 ; home of New Hampshire 
college in fall of 1893, 102; survey 
made of town of, 135; changes in 
town in the eighteen nineties, 142; 
Durham College, not a favored 
name, 154; Durham Library Associ- 
ation, and Benjamin Thompson, 85- 
86; incorporated, 177; Durham So- 
cial Library, 177; Durham Spring 
Water Company, formerly the 
Whitcher-Pettee System, 141 ; Dur- 
ham Town Library, 177. 


Early, Charlie, 244. 

East Hall, freshmen assigned to rooms 
in, 293 ; East Wheelock Street, Dart- 
mouth hotel on corner, 15; on one 
end of Crosby street, 31. 

Eastman, E. G., 95 ; Eastman, Ira A., 
12; Eastman, M. Gale, 216. 

Eating Clubs, 145-146. 

Eaton, Hosea, 2; Eaton, Major Stan- 
ley G., in charge of S. A. T. C, 
247; declares a holiday after Armis- 
tice is signed, 248. 

Eckman, Otto L., promotion of, 168; 
on committee on livestock of the 
committee on food production, 239. 

Economics, department of, 212; Eco- 
nomics Club, 224, 298. 

Edgerly, First-Lieutenant George W., 

Edmund L. Brigham Scholarship, 296. 

Education, courses in mentioned, 132; 
department of, 212; use of Ballard 
hall, 282, 286; Educational Meth- 
ods and Ideals, inaugural address, 

Elam, George Henry, 250. 

Elective Courses, in 1883, 53. 

Electricians Division, work of, 242- 


Electricity, introduced in Hanover, 28; 
early, 101 ; early in Durham^ 141. 

Eliot, Charles, 99. 

Elizabeth DeMeritt House, 140; built, 

Ellsworth, P. F., 191. 

Embargo of 1807, 84. 

Emergency Fund, of Governor, money 
appropriated from, 264; Emergency 
Relief Administration, 280-283. 

Emerson, Charles F., Dartmouth in- 
structor teaches at New Hampshire, 
23 ; faculty member, 50. 

Enaichsee, Murkland a former candi- 
date as president of Dartmouth, 108; 
quoted on Mr. Murkland's first visit 
to Durham, 109; quoted to defend 
New Hampshire college in Grange 
controversy, 116; quoted on program 
of Institute in 1894, 126; quoted on 
success of first Farmers' Institute 
in 1894, 127; quoted on non-resi- 
dent courses in 1894, 129; history 
of, 152. 

Engelhardt, President Fred, adminis- 
tration of, 285-304; is appointed 
president, 285 ; quoted on those who 
are helped by the Extension service, 
288; influences reorganization of 
graduate study into six divisions, 
290; takes office, 303; inauguration 
°f> 3°3 > quoted on purpose of state 
universities, 303-304. 

Engineering Building, need for, 181- 
182; built, 206-208; Engineering De- 
partment, suffers from lack of room, 
173 ; Engineering Experiment Sta- 
tion, established, 289; Engineering 
Society, organized, 191; Engineers 
Club, 298. 

English, department of, 286. 

Enrollment, of students 1893-1912, 188- 
189; 218-219; 256; from out of state, 
272; 1925-1941, 275-276. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Ensilage, one of first four bulletins of 
Experiment station, 58. 

Entering Class, first, 22; 1925-1928, 

Entomology, department of, 286. 

Entrance Requirements, of Chandler 
school, 69; of New Hampshire Col- 
lege, 36; standards for revised, 
1883-1885, 52; compared with those 
of Chandler Scientific School, 53, 
171; 1912-1917, 220. 

Equipment, first bought by Dimond in 
Europe, 13; bought in Europe, the 
entire physical property of the col- 
lege, 15; certain kinds of, lacking, 


Erato, 298. 

Erskine, Dr. James B., 296; Erskine 
Mason Memorial Prize, established, 

Evans, Harry W., quoted on an eat- 
ing club, 145. 

Executors, of Benjamin Thompson's 
will, 88. 

Exhibits, at fairs, 185. 

Exodus to Dover, 294. 

Expenses, of students: earned by stu- 
dents in summer and winter, 36- 
37; of college year 1890-91, 61; 
early years in Durham, 144, 146-147. 

Experiment Station Building, at Han- 
over: still in use, 32; erected, 55; 
cornerstone laid, 56-57; bought by 
Thayer school, 97. 

Experimental Farm, needed first year, 
22 ; one of chief needs of college, 
28 ; Experimental Machine Shop, 
needed during first year, 22. 

Experimental Work, Mr. Sanborn 
quoted on, 48 ; Experiments, series 
of under Sanborn, 47. 

Extension Service, 54, 57 ; formally or- 
ganized, 184; 1912-1917, 213-218; 
act concerning, 272 ; moved to 
Thompson hall, 286 ; recent work 
of, 287-288. 

"Facilities," defined for Dean Pettee, 

Faculty of New Hampshire College: 
first professor appointed, 13, 15; 
first year, 23; list quoted from trus- 
tees' report for 1879, 50; increase in, 
163, 168-171 ; reorganization of, 294; 
Faculty Club, mentioned, 99; or- 
ganized, 195; building of, 259; Fac- 
ulty Row, new houses built along, 
103 ; Faculty-Student Cooperation, 

Fairchild, Edward Thomson, admin- 
istration of, 205-232; appointment 
of, 205 ; administration of, summary 
of accomplishments, 231; death of, 
231; mentioned concerning change 
of name, 256; Fairchild, Mrs., Y. 
M. C. A., 228; Fairchild Hall, built 
208 ; freshmen assigned to rooms in, 


Fairs, exhibits at, 1903-1912, 185; agri- 
cultural exhibits, 191. 

Falconer, Reverend Robert C, 247. 

Farm Bureaus, 218, 272; Farm Bureau 
Federation, 218; Farm Labor, com- 
mittee on food production con- 
cerned with, 240; Farmers' Associa- 
tions, become Farm Bureaus, 218; 
Farmers' Council, 94; Farmers' In- 
stitutes, beginnings, 57; first years 
of, 125-127; revived in 1909, 185; 
Farmhouse, mentioned, 48. 

Farrington, E. H., 56. 

Fawcett, C. J., 237. 

Federation of Women's Clubs, 218. 

Feeding Experiments, 58. 

Felch, J. K., 126. 

Felker, Commissioner Andrew L., 237; 
Felker, Governor Samuel D., 206. 

Fellows, E. R., 191. 

Fenian Raids, 1. 

Field Days, in summer of 1918, 245; 
Field House, built, 284. 

Fiftieth Reunion, of first graduating 
class, 23. 

Finances, condition of, in land grant 
colleges quoted from Dr. Scott, 34; 
current expenses a problem, 136; 
1912-1917 reports, 209-210; of col- 
lege 1917-1926, 264-265, 267, 273. 

First Class, of college, 22; First Con- 
tract between Dartmouth and New 
Hampshire college, 13; First Meet- 
ing, of board of trustees of New 
Hampshire college, 12; First Pro- 
fessor of New Hampshire college 
appointed, 13. 

Fisher, Professor, fosters collection for 
Belgian relief, 230. 

Flag, American, given by American 
Legion post of Portsmouth for 
Brackett field, 284; with seal given 
by Chamber of Commerce of Dover, 
267; Flag Pole, erected in 1897, I 4 2 "> 
repaired in 1918, 245. 

Flanders, William W., 79. 

Fletcher, Thomas Brooks, 227. 

Flint, William F., 58. 

Flood, hinders building of Culver hall, 

Flying Club, 298. 

Fogg, George G., Senator, 1. 



Folk Club, 223. 

Folio, 298. 

Football, first seasons in Durham, 155- 
156, 1903-1912, 198-199; 1912-1917, 
229; 1917-1925, 260; first training 
camp, 261. 

Ford Museum, 267. 

Forest Lands, of college, lumber from, 
138; Forestry Club, sponsors a win- 
ter carnival, 258, 298; Forestry, 
course in provided for in 1911, 182; 
Forestry Department, established, 
170; activities of, 173-174, 286; 
Forestry Summer Camp, 293. 

Forrestall, Henry E., 93. 

Fort William and Mary, 84. 

Foster, John H., 170; Foster, Judge, 
93 ; Foster, William A., 95 ; Foster's 
Daily Democrat, 229. 

Founders' Night, first held, 188. 

Four-H Club, 298. 

Fox Point, bridge to, 83. 

Franconia Notch, 298. 

Frank B. Clark Fund, 295. 

Franklin City, 84. 

Fraternities, 1903-1912, 189-190; mem- 
bership of, 221; 1912-1918, 222; 
1918-1925, 256-257; faculty commit- 
tee to advise, 299. 

French, not taught during first twenty 
years, 38 ; French Club, organized, 
258, 298; French, A. E., 60. 

Freshmen, 1925-1940, 293-294; Fresh- 
man Bonfire, 263 ; Freshman Dining 
Halls, 293 ; Freshman Reception, 
196; Freshman Rules, 1903-1912, 
203; Freshman Week, 293. 

Frink, Mr., council for W. H. Thomp- 
son, 94. 

Fuel, supply of, 1893, 101 ; 1917-1918, 

Fuller, Carl T., 177; Fuller, John M., 
station farmer, 56; bought part of 
farm, 97; appointed to faculty, 213; 
on committee on livestock of the com- 
mittee on food production, 239. 

Gamma Gamma Gamma, organized, 
256, 299; Gamma Theta, history of, 
189; Gamma Kappa, 298. 

Garage, built for president's house, 

Gardiner Lyceum, purpose of estab- 
lishing, 3. 

Gardiner, Thomas Hallowell, founder 
of Gardiner Lyceum, 3. 

Garrison Avenue, old and new roads 
of this name, 103 ; Curtis house on 
corner of, 140; sidewalks for built 

irt 1895, 142; Garrison Hill, skiing 
competition at, 258. 

Gas Light, first in Hanover, 28; Gas 
System, in Hanover, developed by 
Dimond, 28. 

General Business Course, 278; General 
Course, changes in, 1903-1912, 172- 
173; General Education Board, and 
the Extension service, 214; appro- 
priation of increased, 218; General 
Extension Service, organized, 288. 

George H. Williams Fund, 296. 

German, study of, introduced, 134; 
German Helmets, 235. 

Gibbs, President William David, ad- 
ministration of, 165-204; inaugura- 
tion of, 138, 166; director of Ex- 
periment station, 165; chosen as 
president, 165 ; approves Latin in 
1910, 172; chairman of committee 
on administration, 175; prizes given 
by, for cattle judging, 201 ; resig- 
nation of, 203 ; Gibbs, Mrs., as pres- 
ident's wife, 165. 

Gifts to New Hampshire college: of 
John Conant, 29-32; of cattle, 48; 
given for prizes and scholarships, 
65, 147-148, 194, 200-201, 223, 249; 
of anatomical specimens, 148 ; of pic- 
tures, 148; of Davis park, 174; from 
Boston and Maine railroad, 176; for 
the library, 177-179, 210-211, 285, 
294-297; for women's dormitories, 
180, 269; by Alumni, 175-176, 254- 
256, 283, 284; of Tom Thumb coach, 
267 ; of university flag, 267 ; for in- 
firmary, 282; of flag, 284. 

Gilmore, Governor Joseph A., 9. 

Girls' Athletic Association becomes 
honorary, 258 ; competition among 
girls on College day, 263 ; Girls' 
Council, organized, 192; reestab- 
lished after the war, 259; sponsor 
New Hampshire songbook, 227; cam- 
paigns for women's gymnasium, 210; 
Girls' Student Advisory Council, 

Glee Club, 1903-1912, 194; girls', 1912- 
1917, 224; men's and women's, 298; 
Glee and Banjo Club, 151. 

Goat Island, bridge crossed, 83. 

Good Morning, Mr. Zip-Zip-Zip, 244. 

Gorman Block, mentioned, 102-103. 

Gourley, Joseph H., faculty, 170; ad- 
dresses mass meetings to stimulate 
production and conservation, 237; on 
war gardens committee of the com- 
mittee on food production, 239. 

Gowing, Fred, 125. 

Graduates, of Bates, teaching in the 
state, 219; of New Hampshire col- 


History of University of New Hampshire 

lege: only a third become farmers, 
32; first meeting of, 65-66; and 
school's development in Hanover, 66- 
67; occupations of through class of 
1903, 144; activity of, 186-187, 189; 
teaching in New Hampshire, 219; 
dissatisfied with name, New Hamp- 
shire College of Agriculture and the 
Mechanic Arts, 266. 

Graduate School, organized formally, 
290; work of 290-292; Graduate 
School Scholarships, 292; Graduate 
Science Society, 298; Graduate 
Study, at New Hampshire, 289-292. 

Graduation, requirements for, com- 
pared with Chandler school, 53 ; 
Graduation Exercises, to occur at 
same time as those of Dartmouth, 52. 

Grafton Star Grange, 56-57. 

Grandstand, first one erected, 155. 

Grange, of great assistance, 57; inter- 
est in moving the college, 74-75, 
78; members of, frequent visitors in 
Durham, 104; controversy with col- 
lege, 113-123; set out trees in 1901, 
160; cooperation with Extension, 

Granite, The, early publication of, 
197; quoted on problems which Pres- 
ident Hetzel had to face, 253; 1920- 
1925, 262; blanket tax covers sub- 
scription to, 299; aided by blanket 
tax, 300. 

Granite State Dairymen's Association, 
218 ; Granite Varieties, 298. 

Grant, Dr., 176 ; Grant, General, in- 
spects work of detachments, 242. 

Great Bay, region around, 83. 

Green, The, at Dartmouth in 1868, 15. 

Greene, Frank, 93. 

Greenhouses, first built, 138; range of 
built, 181. 

Groves, Ernest R., takes over Presi- 
dent Murkland's courses in philoso- 
phy and English, 170; takes lead in 
introducing courses primarily for the 
teacher, 172; chairman of committee 
on publicity, 175; in Arts Course 
club, 191; Granite dedicated to, 197; 
most popular professor in 1912, 203 ; 
made dean of arts and science divi- 
sion, 2ii ; courses in education, 212; 
speaks in Newmarket on Peace Sun- 
day, 230; in charge of instructional 
program of Student Army Training 
corps) 247. 

Gymnasium, building of, 175-177; 
dedication of, 177; alterations made 
in, 284. 


Hail, New Hampshire, 161. 

Haile, William H., 2. 

Haines, John N., 296. 

Hale, Philip, 285. 

Haley, Sergeant, 244. 

Hall, Harry F., 189; Hall, Joshua, 99. 

Hallgarten, annex to only survivor of 
college buildings, 32; name changed 
from Conant hall, 12. 

Ham, Conda J., 213. 

Hamilton Hall, proposed name, 267. 

Hamlin, Wolcott, 2. 

Handbook, Annual, issued by Y. M. 
C. A., 196. 

Hanover, New Hampshire, possible lo- 
cation of college, 9; boarding houses 
of and belles of, toast offered to, 66 ; 
Hanover-Norwich Station, Dimond 
arrives at, 15. 

Hardy, Millard F., 43. 

Hare and Hounds Meet, 157. 

Harriman, Mrs. Alpha H., 246. 

Harrison, Professor, Arts Course club, 

Harvard University, institutes course 

in agriculture, 3 ; compared with 

state colleges, 219; baseball team of, 

Harvey L. Boutwell Scholarship, 296. 
Hatch Act, mentioned, 48; passed, 54; 

provisions of, 55. 
Hauck, President Arthur (Maine), 284. 
Hawaii, colleges in, 8. 
Hawes, Joseph, 168. 
Hayward, Harry A., 168. 
Hazing, Culver Literary society and, 

44; 1912-1917, 225; being eliminated, 

1925, 262; recently, 293-294. 
"Hellgate," nickname of Hallgarten, 


Henderson, Oren V., appointed to staff, 
213; tells Murkland of plan to name 
hall after him, 280. 

Henry, J. G., 66. 

Hetzel Hall, built, 275. 

Hetzel, President Ralph D., adminis- 
tration of, 233-273; announces plan 
for wood-cutting, 234; on committee 
on food production, 239; on admin- 
istration committee of the committee 
on food production, 239; speaks at 
mass meetings, 240; presides at field 
day on July 4, 1918, 245 ; attends 
meeting of college presidents, 247; 
is appointed president, 253; and the 
New England Conference on Inter- 
collegiate Athletics, 261; speaks at 
freshman bonfire, 263 ; cheered for 
gaining special appropriation, 265; 
submits special report to the legis- 



lature of 1921, 265 ; administration 
of, accomplishments of, 273-275; 
resignation of, 275; interscholastic 
debating scholarship named for, 295 ; 
resigns, 303. 

Hewitt, Charles E., professional life 
of, 170; chairman of committee on 
engineering, 175; quoted on criticism 
of name of college, 187; made dean 
of engineering division, 211; two- 
year engineering course, 212; and 
the Red Cross, 235; in charge of 
getting the men of the detachments 
settled, 241 ; granted a year's leave 
of absence, 254. 

Hibbard, Ellery A., member of special 
committee to incorporate college, 2 ; 
on committee regarding moving to 
Durham, 95. 

High Cost of Living, 1916, 221. 

High Schools, early work in technical 
field, 4. 

Hi-Hat Club, The, 145. 

History of Agricultural Education, 
quoted on early agricultural societies 
in New Hampshire, 3. 

History of Dartmouth College, on 
Chandler school requirements, 52- 


Hitchcock, Edward, 6. 

Hockey, before 1903, 157; 1903-1912, 
200; interest in increased, 228; 
added, 260; Hockey rink, built, 258. 

Hodges, Lieutenant, directs first base- 
ball team of the college, 156; de- 
tailed to New Hampshire college as 
professor of military science, 162. 

Hodgkins, Mabel, 179; Y. W. C. A., 

Hogue, Mr., runs a dancing school, 150. 

Hoitt Water System, served some of 
Durham, 141. 

Hoitt, Charles, land purchased from, 


Holden, Chester, 203. 

Holy Cross, football game with, 260. 

Homecoming Day, 294. 

Home Economics, courses in, urged, 
173; department of, 212; building, 

Honorary Degrees, granted before 
1903, 144; granted, 1903-1912, 189; 
1913, 206; granted, 1904, 207. 

Hood, Charles Harvey, in class of 
1880, 59; early offers prize to high- 
ranking agricultural student, 147; 
gives scholarships, 296; gives for 
infirmary, 282; Hood, Mr. and Mrs. 
Charles Harvey, gift of, 282; Hood 
Scholarships, 296. 

Horticulture, department of, 286. 

Horton, Henry A., 93. 

Hostess House, mentioned, 208 ; history 
of, 246. 

Hotel Administration Course, 278 ; 
"Hotel Schoonmaker" baseball team, 
plays DeMeritt hall team, 156; 
Hotel, the, 145. 

House Bill, No. 403, 271; House Joint 
Resolution No. 54, 271 ; House Joint 
Resolution No. 59, 271. 

House Parties, 227; regulations con- 
cerning, 260; revived after war 
years, 263. 

House of Reformation, suggested lo- 
cation for college, 9. 

Housing, in Durham, 1893, 102; prob- 
lems of, 139; student quoted on his 
long search for rooms, 140; for 
women students, 141; student, 180; 
208-209; I 9 I2_I 9 I 7> 222 > 264, 268- 

Hovey, Mr., organizes banjo section of 
Glee and Banjo Club, 152. 

Howe, Frederic W., 160. 

Howe, H. L., 152. 

Huddleston, Eric T., plans Commons 
building, 210; appointed to faculty, 

Hughes, Charles Evans, 229. 

Humiston, John, 250. 

Hunt, Leigh, 126; Hunt, Captain 
Charles A., early intensive training 
under direction of, 235-236; Hunt, 
Colonel Charles A., scholarships, 
295; Hunt, Cyril Thomas, 250; 
Hunt, Captain William E., faculty, 
171 ; reports to trustees inadequacy 
of drill facilities, 175; Hunt, Colo- 
nel William E., scholarship, 295. 

Hunter, Roy D., as acting president, 

Huse, O. E., 237. 
Hutchins, Chester C, appointed to first 

board of trustees by governor and 

council, 12; death of, 44. 


Ice Polo, (hockey), 157. 

Importance of Being Earnest, The, 

Inauguration, of President: Murkland, 

iio-iii; Gibbs, 166; Fairchild, 205- 

206 ; Engelhardt, 303. 
Incidental Fees, increased 1921, 264. 
Income, of University, 267, 273 ; dur- 
ing the depression, 278-279. 
Independent Statesman, quoted on 

acceptance of will, 93. 
Industrial College, name preferred by 

Dimond, 20; Industrial Revolution, 



History of University of New Hampshire 

Influenza Epidemic, in Durham, 245. 

Ingersoll, Robert, 162. 

In Old Kentucky, 160. 

Institutes, meet in Durham, 288 ; In- 
stitutes and Conferences, conducted 
with the Summer School, 292. 

Instruction, arrangements with other 
schools for part-time, 23 ; of non- 
faculty members limited, 50. 

Intercollegiate Leagues, 301 ; Intercol- 
legiate Sports, 301. 

Interfraternity Council, 299. 

International Relations Club, 298. 

Interscholastic Debating League, 224. 

Intramural Athletics, 199-200. 

Introduction to Physical Science, by 
Grey, physics based on for admis- 
sion, 124. 

Inventory, of New Hampshire college, 
quoted from Joseph B. Walker, 16- 

Jackson, C. Floyd, appointment to fac- 
ulty, 170; and the Red Cross, 235; 
directs Biological Institute, 286 ; sug- 
gests Marine Laboratory, 293. 

Jackson, N. H., 298. 

Jaffrey, and Conant Scholarships, 33. 

James, Charles ("King"), as faculty 
member, 169; sponsors Chemistry 
Colloquium, 191; leads cheering, 
199; special research of, 208; asks 
students to be careful of laboratory 
glassware due to scarcity, 230; death 
of, 281; James Hall, built and dedi- 
cated, 281; James, Orrin M., 146. 

James B. Erskine Loan Fund, 296. 

Jameson, John B., 238. 

Jenkins, Ephraim, agent for Pettee in 
buying land, 99; quoted on advis- 
ability of acquiring the tavern for 
the college, 104. 

Jensen, Laurence V., 302. 

Jesup, Henry C, promoted, 49 ; offers 
first gift for prizes given by college, 
65 ; testifies against President Bart- 
lett, 71. 

John N. Haines Scholarship, 296. 

John H. Pearson Trust, 296. 

Johnston, Frederic, 156. 

Joy, James F., executor of will, 88; at 
hearing, 93. 

Joy of the Absent, The, a poem in the 
Culver Literary Journal, 44. 

Junior Prom, 1916, 227; revived after 
war years, 263. 


Kansas State Agricultural College, 
Fairchild a trustee of, 205 ; presi- 

dent of, at inauguration of Fairchild, 
206 ; Kansas State Normal School, 
president of, at inauguration of 
Fairchild, 206. 

Kappa Delta, 299; Kappa Delta Pi, 
298 ; Kappa Sigma, and Q. T. V., 
61, 140, 148; attend a show in a 
body, 160, 189; build house, 209; 
house of, taken over as a hospital 
during influenza epidemic, 245. 

Keene, New Hampshire, last R. O. T. 
C. encampment at, 264; Keene Nor- 
mal School, established, 172. 

Kendall, John, as student, 145; in Ex- 
tension service and Experiment sta- 
tion, 183-184; confers with secretary 
of General Extension board, 214; 
first report of, as director, 216; on 
committee to report on food supply, 
conservation, and distribution, 236; 
attends meeting to consider the se- 
lection of canning demonstrators, 
237; on committee of committee on 
food production, 239; speaks at mass 
meeting, 240; draws up Extension 
work bill, 272; director of General 
Extension service, 288 ; death of, 

T ~eyes, Governor Henry W., 245. 

Kidder, Joseph, quoted on election of 
first alumni trustee, 96. 

Kimball, W. W., 66. 

Kingsbury, Albert, faculty member, 
54; in charge of construction of 
heating system, 100. 

Kinkaid, Lieutenant Thomas W., on 
faculty, 53 ; secretary of first board 
of control, 56 ; consulting engineer, 

Kitchen, built, 240, 242. 

Kittridge, Lewis, 143. 

Kivel, Mr., counsel for W. H. Thomp- 
son, 94. 

Knowlton, Helen, attends meeting to 
consider the selection of canning 
demonstrators, 237; directs publish- 
ing of leaflet for war emergency, 

Knowlton, Moses F., 93. 

Knox, Major Frank, 230. 

Kraybill, Dr. Henry R., first presi- 
dent of Phi Kappa Phi, 257. 

Labor, student, 42-43, 146, 221 ; Labor 
Requirements, in early agricultural 
schools, 3; in Leach bill, 117-118, 
120-122; in 1895, 130, 133. 

Ladd, Samuel T., 271. 

Lake Placid Winter Carnival, 259. 

Lambda Chi Alpha, present house of, 



built by Whitcher, 102; house of, 
139, 189. 

Lamprey River, mills along, 84; mill 
privilege on, 101. 

Lamson, H. H., microscopist, 56 ; lec- 
tures at Institute course 1894, 126. 

Land, grants of, in West, 7; purchased 
in Hanover, 29; of New Hampshire 
college at move to Durham, 97; in 
Durham, Pettee authorized to buy, 
99; purchased from Charles Hoitt, 
175; plan to lease to fraternities, 
209; Land Grant Bill, before Con- 
gress, 7-8; Land Grant College, ob- 
jectives of the, 18; Land Script, re- 
ceived by governor and sold, 9; sale 
of, brings disappointingly small re- 
turn, 11. 

Landmarks in Ancient Dover, New 
Hampshire, 211. 

Langley, Jeremiah, on committee to 
investigate will, 93 ; agent for Pet- 
tee in buying land, 99; blacksmith 
shop of, 103. 

Language Requirement, 124; Lan- 
guages, department of, 213, 286. 

Latin, approved by President Gibbs in 
1910, 172. 

Laton, Thomas J., appointed to faculty, 
168; wins first prize sabre, 200. 

Laws of 1925, Chapter in, 272; Chap- 
ter 244, 272. 

Leach, Edward G., 117-122; Leach 
Bill, in legislature, controversy over, 
117-122, 134; compromise, provisions 
of, 120. 

Lebanon Street, one end of Crosby 
Street, 31. 

Lecture and Concert Course, 1912-1917, 
227; Lectures, supplied by college 
to organizations, 130. 

Ledyard Bridge, 15. 

Legislature, action concerning the 
Land Grant Act, 9; appropriation 
for Conant hall, 31; appropriation 
for new barn, 33; appropriation in 
J 877, 51; sessions of importance to 
the college, 51; appropriation for 
shop building, 53; interest in mov- 
ing the college, 74-77 ; act increas- 
ing board of trustees by three mem- 
bers, 78 ; pass bill of acceptance, 
93 ; pass bill providing for removal 
of college, 95 ; appropriations for 
removal, 96 ; accepts grants from 
Second Morrill Act, 105 ; passes 
compromise Leach bill, 122; makes 
yearly appropriations for current ex- 
penses, 1900 on, 136; appropriates 
$10,000 for library equipment, 179; 
passes proposal for second alumni 

trustee, 187; first appropriation for 
Extension service, 214; appropria- 
tions of, 264-265 ; passes bill to 
change name of college, 267; passes 
Mill Tax law, 272; passes act for 
further Extension work, 272-273. 

Lens and Shutter Club, 298. 

Lessons, Gray, botany based on for 
admission, 124. 

Letters, athletic, 1877, 161. 

Lewis, Edward Morgan, becomes 
president, 275 ; administration of, 
275-284; analyzes drop in enroll- 
ment of entering class, 276; makes 
comparative study of New England 
colleges, 279; early athletic career, 
283; death of, 284; athletic area 
named for, 284; administration of, 
accomplishments of, 303 ; Lewis, 
Mrs. Edward, at dedication of Lew- 
is fields, 284; Lewis Fields, built, 
280; includes, 283; dedicated, 284. 

Libby, Donald Whitney, 250. 

Liberal Arts Club, (Arts and Science 
club), 224. 

Liberal Arts Division, 219. 

Liberty Loan Campaign, 235. 

Libraries, in Hanover, 41-42; Library, 
of Culver Literary society started, 
43; of college 1893, 112; rules of in 
1893, 178; first inventory of consol- 
idated, 179; 1912-1917, 210-211; 
additions to, 279, 285 ; Library Build- 
ing, dedication of, 179; Library 
School, 292. 

Life, in New Hampshire camp during 
war years, 243-247. 

Light, "Skinny," 244. 

Lincoln, President Abraham, signs 
Land Grant Bill, 8-9. 

The Line-Up , (On to Victory), 195. 

Liquor, intoxicating: in early years in 
Hanover, 41 ; concerning student aid, 

Literary Competitions, 300. 

Loan Fund, 294-297. 

Location, suggested by the investigat- 
ing committee for college, 7 ; of New 
Hampshire College, dissatisfaction 
with, 67 ff. 

Locke, Mr. and Mrs. S. Morris, stu- 
dent aid in memory of, 296. 

Lougee Scholarships, 295. 

Lufkin, Gertrude, 149. 

Lundholm, Carl, 302. 

Lyman, John D., appointed on first 
Board of Trustees by governor and 
council, 12 ; quoted on acceptance 
of will, 93 ; committee to investi- 
gate will, 93. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Lyme. N. H., home of General Cul- 
ver, possible location of college, 9- 

Lynn Classical School, 1S6. 


McCartney. R. J.. 224. 

McDaniel, Charles. 102. 

MacDonald. Mavme. 161. 

McKay. M. OK.. 235. 

McLane, Governor John, at dedication 
of gym. 177. 

Madrigal Group. 298. 

Magistrate, The, 223. 

Main Street, Caverno's store on, 142. 

'"Maizie," 302. 

Magrath. Raymond C, 287. 

Majors and Minors in subject matter 
fields required in teacher training 
curriculum, 277. 

Manchester, carnival at, 259; R. O. T. 
C. encampment at, 269; Manchester 
High School, won first track meet, 
186; Manchester Mirror and Ameri- 
can, quoted on purposes of the col- 
lege, 1 19-120; Manchester Press, 
quoted on acceptance of the will, 
92; Manchester Union, letter to, 
from Dean Pettee mentioned, 144; 
quoted on agricultural phase of the 
college. 154; quoted on growth and 
prestige of state colleges in New 
England, 219. 

Mandeville, 59. 

Mandolin Club, 1903-1912, 195. 

Mann, Horace, 4. 

Marine Laboratory, 293; Barnacles 
club, those of, 298. 

Marshall House, The, 145. 

Marston, F. P., 66. 

Mask and Dagger, 257, 298. 

Mason, and the Christian fraternity, 
60; Mason, Mrs. Erskine, establishes 
Erskine Mason Memorial prizes, 


Mass Meetings, held in every county, 

Massachusetts, many students from, 
34; state of. provisions of will, 88; 
Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy, first woman student at New 
Hampshire college preparing for, 
63; official visits to, 104; Massachu- 
setts State College, Q. T. V. chap- 
ter there, 61 ; football games with, 
199; growth of state college, 219; 
Lewis, president of, 275. 

Mathes. Augustus, 90. 

May Festival, 1919-1925, 263; May 
Queen, first crowned, 263. 

'Mayor,'' first in Durham, 302 ; May- 
oralty Campaign, 302. 

Meader's Neck, bridge from, 83. 

Mechanic Arts Courses, in 1883, 53. 

Memorial Field, mentioned, 139, 155; 
plaque with names of college dead, 
at entrance of, 249; built, 254-256; 
presented to college, 255-256; as- 
signed to use of women students, 

Memorial Tablet, for gold star men 
of Durham, 254. 

Men Commuters' Club, 299. 

Mendum's Pond, 298. 

Menorah Society, 300. 

Merrimack River, population shift to, 

Meserve, Winthrop, appointed to ap- 
praise estate, 90; barn of, housed 
stock of college after fire, 139. 

Mess Hall, built, 242. 

Meteorology, taught by Dean Pettee 
while he was still a student at 
Thaver School of Civil Engineering, 
38. ' 

Mice and Men, 223. 

Michelson, Gunnar, advances interest 
in winter sports at New Hampshire, 

Michigan, state of, provisions in will, 
88 ; Michigan State College. 5. 

Mike and Dial, 298. 

Military Ball, 149-150; 1921, 263; Mil- 
itary Equipment, house for, bought, 
265; Military Science, prizes in, 147; 
before 1903, 162; requirements of, 
1901, 163; 1903-1912, 200, 211; med- 
al given by Student Army Training 
corps headquarters fund, 249; Mili- 
tary Tactics, required but not 
taught until removal to Durham, 
38; Military Training, intensive af- 
ter declaration of war, 235; Military 
Uniform, before 1903, 162. 

Mill Tax policy, 270273 ; law, 273 ; 
part of, returned to relieve tax prob- 
lem of the state, 278 ; full income 
restored, 280. 

Miller, Private, 246. 

Mills. John B., 79. 

Mines and Mining, schools of, 131- 

Minnesaenger, 298. 

Minstrel Show, hazing, 225 ; given by 
detachments, 244. 

Mirror and American, quoted on ac- 
ceptance of will, 91, 92. 

Mission of Land Grant Colleges, The, 

Missouri, Sanborn accepts offer in, 49. 

Mitchell, Lawrence, won first prize 



speaking contest. 186. 

Mitchell, Robert V., appointment to 
faculty, 213. 

Montgomery, Earle Roger, 250. 

Moor's Indian School, 16. 

Moore, F. C, offers first course of- 
fered in specific teaching field, 172 : 
Moore. H. F., elected president of 
Grand Lodge of Q. T. V., 148; 
plays in first college orchestra, 152: 
Moore, Humphrey, sponsor of estab- 
lishment of first board of agriculture 
in New Hampshire. 4. 

Morale, lectures on, by Richard Whor- 
iskey, 243. 

Moran. Clement, 207. 

Morgan, Mrs. Annie. 235. 

Morrill, Senator Justin S., influenced 
by President Partridge, 6; biography 
and land grant act, 7; land grant 
bill of, before congress, 8; regard- 
ing bust of. 105 ; original bill of, 
origin of debates concerning pur- 
pose of the school, 119; Morrill 
hall named for, 138, 166. 

Morrill Act, passed, provisions, 8-9: 
signed by President Lincoln. 9; 
quoted on courses to be taught in 
land grant colleges, 19-20: and Ben- 
jamin Thompson, 86; quoted in con- 
troversy, 114; mentioned. 123; in- 
tent of authors of, 266. 

Morrill Hall, built, 137-138; dedica- 
tion of, 166; aids in expanding agri- 
cultural division, 173; taken over 
by social science departments. 286. 

Morrison. Frank, rents horses and 
sleighs, 157. 

Morrison, Superintendent H. C. at- 
tends meeting of central food com- 
mittee, canning demonstrators :;: 

Morse. F. W.. assistant chemist, 56; 
lectures at Institute course in 1894. 
126; becomes professor. 133; lives 
in attic of Nesmith hall. 140; 
coaches The Rivals, 149 ; resignation 
of, 168. 

Mortar Board. 298. 

Moses. George H., lectures at Insti- 
tute course in 1894, 126. 

Mount Monadnock, essay in Culver 
Literary Journal, 44. 

Murkland, Charles Sumner, adminis- 
tration of, 106-164; first president 
of college, 96 ; elected president. 
10S ; educational background, 109 : 
inauguration of, iio-iii: quoted, re- 
sponds to challenges of papers and 
societies. 112; opposes the Leach 
bill. 11S; speaks before the legisla- 
tive committee denouncing the 

Grange and similar lobbyists, 122: 
beliefs of, concerning purposes of 
the school, 123 ; lectures in Summer 
school of 1894, 125: writes bulletin 
on tuberculosis in college herd, 138; 
on executive committee of New 
Hampshire College Scientific society. 
150; resignation of, 164; mentioned. 
166. 172; is told of plan to name 
hall after him, 280; Murkland, Mrs. 
Charles, assists in producing The 
Rivals, 149; Murkland Hall, built. 
280; assigned to use of English, lan- 
guages and education, 286. 

Murray, George N., 2. 

Museum, illustrating geology at N 
Hampshire and Vermont in plans 
for Culver hall, 25. 

Music Department, use of Ballard hall. 

Musical Organizations, 151-152, 194- 
195 : on third floor of Thompson 
hall, 286, 298. 

Myers, on Greece and Rome, history 
based on. for admissions. 124. 

Mystic Club. 1903-1912, 193. 

Mf Strawberry Experience, 146. 


N. H. Club. The, organized. 224. 257 : 
activity of. 1917-1925, 260-261. 

Name of College, proposal to change. 
187-1SS; before legislature, 266-267, 


Nashua, students from, form Nashu- 
way. 140: Saskua Gazette, on ac- 
ceptance of will, 92: Nashua Hobo 
Club, played New Hampshire col- 
lege in basketball in 1903, : : - 
Nashuway, history of. 140. 

National Association of College Pres- 
idents, concerning passage of Mor- 
rill act of 1890. 116; National Col- 
lege Equal Suffrage League. 230: 
National Collegiate Athletic Asso- 
ciation, 261 ; National Education As- 
sociation. 205 ; president of at in- 
auguration of President Fairchild. 
206: National Federation of Com- 
mons Clubs, organized and installed. 
222: National Rifle Association, 
joined by Rifle club. 195 : National 
Youth Administration, training cen- 
ter of, 2S0, 297. 

Natural History Society, 151; Satural 
Philosophy, by Dolbears, physics 
based on for admission. i:_ 

Necessity of Military Preparedness, 

Nelson. W. J.. 237. 

Nelson Act of 190-. passed, it^ 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Nesbit, Arthur F., 170. 

Nesmith, George W., one of the com- 
mittee of two to go over college ac- 
counts in 1877, 45; as president of 
board of trustees, 49; the college 
under care of, 51; toast offered to, 
66; chief advocate of New Hamp- 
shire college and on both boards, 
78 ; mentioned, 96 ; death of, 107 ; 
picture of, given to trustees, 148. 

Nesmith Hall, of first group in Dur- 
ham, 98, 99; Wireless club head- 
quarters in tower of, 258 ; remod- 
eled, 286. 

New Agricultural Education, The, 166. 

New England Colleges, comparative 
study of, 279; New England Con- 
ference on Intercollegiate Athletics, 
261 ; New England Conference on 
Rural Progress, of great value to 
the college, 184; New England 
Homestead, on acceptance of gift, 
92; quoted on qualifications for 
president, 108; quoted on fallacy of 
Murkland's election, 115; New Eng- 
land Liberty Loan Committee, 235; 
New England Student Christian 
Movement, 300. 

New Hampshire, state of, provisions 
of will, 87-88; high in United States 
crop report for December, 19 18, 240. 

New Hampshire, The, mentioned, 154; 
quoted on chapel attendance, 196; 
1911-1912, 197; quoted on Dart- 
mouth Winter carnival, 1915, 225; 
announces use of wireless in its pub- 
lication, 227; proposes a blanket tax 
plan, 228; alumni issue contains 
proposals for changes in college, 
231; all students made subscribers 
to, 261; blanket tax covers subscrip- 
tions to, 299 ; on nickname for ath- 
letic teams, 302; bi-weekly, 1935, 

New Hampshire Branch of the Na- 
tional Civic Federation Scholarship, 
296; New Hampshire College, cor- 
rect name according to College 
Monthly, 154; New Hampshire Col- 
lege Club, organized, 148 ; New 
Hampshire College Engineering So- 
ciety, 150; New Hampshire College 
Press Club, formed, 258 ; New 
Hampshire College Monthly, his- 
tory of, 152; New Hampshire Col- 
lege of Agriculture and the Me- 
chanic Arts, incorporated, 2; es- 
tablishment of, 9; Dimond becomes 
first full-time professor of, 15; li- 
brary of, not stored with other col- 
lections, 42; lack of understanding 

of, 63; mentioned, 89; financial con- 
dition of, 106; proposal to change 
name to University of New Hamp- 
shire, 187-188; expansion of, 1903- 

1912, 203-204; reorganization into 
three divisions, 211; fiftieth year 
of, 218; ranking in country in in- 
crease of students, 219; in the war, 
233-252; name no longer adequate, 
265-266; new curricula introduced, 
277-278 ; New Hampshire College 
Scientific Society, organized, 150; 
New Hampshire Day, history of, 
226; work done on ski jump on, 
258; New Hampshire's Daughters, 
296; New Hampshire Federation of 
Women's Clubs, aids in hostess 
house, 246; New Hampshire Hall 
(gymnasium), 284; New Hampshire 
Horticultural Society, 218; New 
Hampshire Museum of General and 
Applied Science, plans for room de- 
voted to, 21 ; New Hampshire 
Night, first held, 188; New Hamp- 
shire Poultry Growers' Association, 
297 ; New Hampshire Songbook, 

1913, 227; New Hampshire Summer 
Institute and School of Science, 
name changed in 1897 to, 125; 
New Hampshire Union, organized, 

Newington, bridge to, 83; representa- 
tives at Farmers' institute in 1894, 

New London Academy, Conant has 
promised gift to, 30. 

Newman Club, 300. 

News Bureau, 288. 

New York Tribune, The, quoted on 
rating of 1921 football team, 260; 
New York Contingent, 244. 

Nichols, President Ernest F., of Dart- 
mouth, receives honorary degree, 
206; Nichols Gold Medal won by 
Parsons and James, 169. 

Non-Resident Courses, 128-130. 

Norris, Ziba A., 60. 

North Carolina, in comparison on ba- 
sis of money spent for agriculture, 


Northby, Arwood S., chairman of the 
committee on the Summer school, 

Northern New England School of Re- 
ligious Education, 259. 

Northwood Academy, students of, visit 
Durham, 104. 

Norwich University, name changed to, 

Noyes, Daniel J., 50. 
Nu Sigma Mu, 257. 



Nutting Party, suggested by Mr. Da- 
vis, 174. 


Objectives of Land Grant Colleges, 18. 

Ocean Park, Maine, first training 
camp held at, 261. 

Ohio State University, President 
Gibbs, 165; president of, at inaugu- 
ration of President Fairchild, 206. 

O'Kane, Walter C, given professor- 
ship, 170; special work in brown 
tail moths, 183; on committee to re- 
port on food supply, conservation, 
and distribution, 236; addresses 
mass meetings to stimulate conser- 
vation and production, 237; becomes 
member of staff of Spaulding, 238; 
on administration committee of com- 
mittee on food production, 239; on 
publicity committee of committee on 
food production, 239. 

Old Homestead, The, 160. 

"Old Row," composed of, 15. 

Omvila Club, 300. 

On To Victory {The Line-up), 195. 

Onderdonk, Mrs. Shirley (Edith An- 
gela Congreve), 180; Smith hall, 

One-Week Course, 212; One-Year Pre- 
paratory Course, 1895-1904, 131. 

Orchestra, first in college, 152; 1903- 
1912, 194. 

Order of the Cats, hazing, 225; Order 
of the Dogs, 225. 

Ordway, George, 156; Ordway, Mar- 
tha H., 296; Ordway Fund, 296. 

Oread Institute, 12. 

Orientation Courses for freshmen, 278. 

Orphanage, the Crafts cottage once 
called, 140; bookstore in, 160. 

Our Grange Homes, quoted in contro- 
versy with Grange, 116; on labor 
requirement of the Leach bill, 121. 

Outing Club, organized, 225; sponsors 
third Winter carnival, 258; rees- 
tablished, 258, 298. 

Outlines of Classifications of Plants, 
thesis published as supplement to 
trustee's report, 140. 

Out-of-State Students, not eligible for 
early scholarships, 34, 272. 

Overseas Club, organized, 254. 

Oyster River Plantation, early name 
of Durham, 83 ; Oyster River Falls, 
business center at, 84; Oyster River 
Tavern, burned, 104. 

Packers' Falls, mill privileges near, 

Paine, Ralph D., gives informal talk 
to men of training detachments, 245. 

Pan Hellenic Society, organized, 222. 

Parker, Walter M., 167; on gymnasi- 
um building committee, 176; Park- 
er's Boston Imperials, 227. 

Parnell, George Downes, 250; Parnell- 
Corriveau Post No. 385, 254. 

Partridge, Alden, military academy, 
5 ; suggestions for federal grants of 
money for schools — curriculum 
quoted, 5-6. 

Parsons, Charles L., assistant chem- 
ist, 56; early residence of in Dur- 
ham, 103 ; takes trip through South, 
104; quoted on surprise at Murk- 
land's election, 108 ; lectures at In- 
stitute course in 1894, 126; in chem- 
istry department, 133; captain of a 
baseball team which played on town 
meeting day, 1894, 156; conducts 
drill, 162; resignation of, 168; on 
committee in charge of buying 
equipment for the gymnasium, 177, 
190; sponsors Chemistry Colloquium, 

Passaconaway, New Hampshire, 293. 

Pauline; or, The Belle of Saratoga, 

Paulson, Carl S. (Gus), 225. 

Peace Sunday, proclaimed, 230. 

Pearse, Carroll G., of Milwaukee, re- 
ceives honorary degree, 206. 

Pearson, John H., estate of, 296. 

Peats of Ireland, 151. 

Peel, C. E., 191. 

Pennsylvania State College, 5 ; Presi- 
dent Hetzel, becomes president of, 

People and Patriot, on acceptance of 
will, 92. 

Pep Talks, in favor of Culver Literary 
society, 153. 

Perils of Pauline, 226. 

Perkins, Henry C, bequest of Hamil- 
ton Smith left in trust to, 178 ; Per- 
kins, Lewis, graduate in first class, 

Personal Experiences in Germany at 
the Outbreak of the World War, 

Peterboro Transcript, quoted on the 
controversy, 119. 

Peters, Austin, 126. 

Pettee, Charles H., commends Presi- 
dent Smith, 19; name to be remem- 
bered for his endless devotion to 
school, 19; canvassing for students, 
33; and meteorology teaching, 38; 
quoted on student life in Hanover, 
39-41; biography, 49; manages 


History of University of New Hampshire 

farm, 54; on building committee, 
55; meteorologist, 56; a member of 
the Grange, 57; represents college 
on institute tours, 57 ; letters of, 
concerning students, 62 ; testifies 
against President Bartlett, 71 ; and 
Bartlett dispute, 72-74; mentioned, 
92; in favor of acceptance, 93; at 
hearing, 93 ; speaks before Farmers' 
council, 94; mentioned, 96; quoted 
on policy regarding dormitories, 98 ; 
steam system, 100; water system, 
101 ; on building committee of 
board of trustees, 102; house of, 
built by Whitcher, 102; quoted from 
letter to Miss Davis asking for use 
of the Thompson house for the col- 
lege, 103 ; asks for definition of 
"facilities" in Second Morrill act, 
106; head of college during transi- 
tional period, 107; Roberts urged by, 
to apply for presidency, 108 ; op- 
poses provisions of the Leach bill, 
i2i ; states in report for 1893, three 
hoped-for accomplishments, 123 ; lec- 
tures at Institute course in 1894, 126; 
quoted on amount of duplication in 
the various courses, 134; quoted on 
occupations of graduates, through 
class of 1903, 144; quoted on stu- 
dent expenses, 144-145; and New 
Hampshire College Scientific socie- 
ty, 150; chairman of committees on 
entrance and on rules and schedules, 
175 ; calls mass meeting of students 
for engineering building, 182; Gran- 
ite dedicated to, 197; enforces peace 
at class fight, 203 ; receives hon- 
orary degree, 206 ; retains position 
as dean of the college after reor- 
ganization, 2ii ; quoted on his new 
work of passing on admissions, 276; 
mentioned, 282; death of, 285; board 
of trustees' resolution quoted con- 
cerning, 285; Pettee, Mrs., quoted 
on surprise at Murkland's election, 
108 ; Y. W. C. A., 228 ; on surgical 
dressings committee, 230; Pettee, 
Sarah and Alvena, urged the estab- 
lishment of domestic science courses, 
173 ; Pettee Block, built by Whitcher, 
102; for freshmen, 180; Pettee 
Brook, dam on, 101 ; Pettee Hall, 
built, 285. 

Pew, William H., 168. 

Phi Alpha, 257; Phi Beta Kappa, 257; 
Phi Delta (debating society), 258; 
Phi Delta (sorority), in Sphinx, 
1914, 222; becomes Alpha Xi Delta, 
222; Phi Kappa Phi, organized, 257, 
297; Phi Lambda Phi, 298; Phi Mu, 

222; Phi Mu Delta, 222; Phi Sigma, 

Philadelphia Society for Promoting 
Agriculture, founded, 3. 

Philip Hale Room, 285. 

Phillips Andover Academy, plays New 
Hampshire college in basketball in 
1903, 157; in football, 199; Phillips 
Exeter Academy, plays New Hamp- 
shire college in football, 156; foot- 
ball games with, 199. 

Philosophy Club, organized, 195. 

Phoenix Club, 1908, 193. 

Physical Education, for men, 211; es- 
tablished for men, 213; for women 
established, 213; for women, 1916, 
229 ; recreational program intro- 
duced, 261; teacher training in, 
278 ; improvement in with new 
plant, 301; requirements in, 301. 

Pi Alpha Phi, in Sphinx, 1914, 222; 
Pi Gamma, organized, 225 ; Pi Del- 
ta becomes Phi Mu, 222 ; Pi Kappa 
Alpha, 299; Pi Kappa Society, or- 
ganized, 192; Pi Lambda Sigma, 

Pickett, Bethel S., 170. 

Picture Fight, in 1904, 159-160. 

Pike, Austin F., 1. 

Pillsbury, Mrs. Lucy, 149; Pillsbury, 
Rosecrans W., gift of, 201. 

Pinafore, 224. 

Piscataqua Bridge, 83-84; Piscataqua 
River, bridge across, 83; woodlands, 
provided shafts for Royal navy, 83. 

Plumber, Helen, Y. W. C. A., first 
president, 228. 

Plymouth, Pilgrims at, 83. 

Poetry Workshop, 298. 

Point System, established in Women's 
Athletic association, 261. 

Politics, among students, 193; student 
interest in, 229. 

Population, of Durham, 84. 

Portsmouth, ships of, 83 ; prepared- 
ness parade in, 236; radio station, 
288; Portsmouth Journal, quoted on 
acceptance of will, 91 ; Portsmouth 
Navy Yard, 245. 

Possibility of Peace, The, 230. 

Post Office, for faculty in Thompson 
hall, 142. 

Poster Fight, 226, 294. 

Posters and Circular Letters, commit- 
tee on food production concerned 
with, 240. 

Potatoes, raised by faculty, 234. 

Potter, Dr. F. E., 148. 

Pottle, Frederick A., organizes debat- 
ing club, 258. 



Poultry Club, 298; Poultry Growers' 
Association, 218; Poultry Husband- 
ry, department of, 286 ; Poultry 
Plant, bought, 265. 

Powell, George T., considered a can- 
didate for presidency, 108 ; men- 
tioned as possible candidate for 
presidency, 115. 

Power, Colonel Edward, inspection of- 
ficer after early intensive training, 
236; Power, John William, 250. 

Practice House, built, 281 ; Practice 
Teaching, opportunity for, 277. 

Pre-Medical Course, 278. 

Preparedness Parade, in Portsmouth, 

Prescott, Benjamin, on building com- 
mittee of board of trustees, 102; 
president of the board of trustees, 

President of the College office created, 

Presidential Campaign of 1916, stu- 
dent interest in, 229. 

President's House, destroyed by fire, 

Preston, John, member of investigat- 
ing committee, 9. 

Priest, J. H., 191. 

Prince, Ford, appointed to faculty, 
213 ; addresses mass meetings to 
stimulate production and conserva- 
tion, 237. 

Private Secretary, The, 223. 

Prize Speaking Contest, sponsored by 
Alumni, 1911, 185-186; Prizes, early, 
65; 1903-1912, 200-201, 296; Prizes 
and Scholarships, before 1903, 147- 

Professor of New Hampshire college, 
first appointed, 13. 

Profile, The, published, 262. 

Programme of the Several Terms, 
quoted, 37. 

Psi Lambda, 298. 

Psychology Club, 298. 

Public Safety Committee, of state, 236- 
237; Public Works Administration, 

Puerto Rico, colleges in, 8. 

Purnell Act, 272-273. 

Putnam, Frederick W., appointment of 
to faculty, 168; chairman of com- 
mittee on non-athletic organizations, 

Pygmalion and Galatea, 223. 


Q. T. V. Fraternity, early history, 61 ; 
chapter house, 139-140; history, 148. 
Queen Victoria, 267. 
Quota System of Pledging, 299. 


R. C. Bradley Loan Fund, 297. 
Radio Broadcasting Activities, 288; 

Radio Studio, 286. 
Railroad, first transcontinental, 1 ; 

Railroad Station, new from Lynn, 

Mass., 181; moved, 181. 
Randlett, James, designs new barn, 

139; Randlett and Griffin, architects 

of the gymnasium, 176. 
Rane, Frank W., 170; Rane, William, 

Rasmussen, Fred, 169-170. 
Read, Carleton A., 170. 
Rebecca's Triumph, 223. 
Recreation Fields, 279. 
Red Cross, active in Durham, 230; 

New Hampshire branch of Nation- 
al, 235 ; Red Sox, 283 ; Red Tower, 

now Tower tavern, 141. 
Reed, Professor, teaches Bible class 

at church, 162; Reed Hall, in 1868, 


Registrar, position created, 171. 

Religion, discussion on, 61 ; Religious 
Life, of students in Hanover, 62; 
of students until 1903, 161; 1941, 

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, early 
program, 4. 

Report, of Agricultural Experiment 
Station, first, quoted, officers, 56 ; 
second, article on shrubs and trees 
of New Hampshire forests in, 58; 
Report of President, for 1922, 267- 
268; for 1924, quoted on adequate 
income, 268; Report of the Trustees, 
third, discussion by Dimond of ob- 
jectives and methods of the col- 
lege, 19; for 1869, floor plans of 
Culver hall, 25; 1869, quoted on 
need for experimental machine shop, 
33; first, quoted on admission re- 
quirements, 36; second, academic 
year divided therein, 36; second, 
quoted on programme of studies, 37; 
third, bachelor of philosophy degree 
announced, 39; twelfth, bachelor of 
agricultural science announced, 39; 
for 1875, quoted on sum paid to 
students of various schools, 42; 1876, 
quoted on Mr. Dimond's honesty, 
45; 1879, listed faculty members, 
50; quoted on officers of Alumni as- 
sociation, 66; 1893, quoted on occu- 
pations of graduates, 67; 1900, need 
of new college buildings pointed out, 
135-136; 1896, quoted on lack of 
money to meet operating expenses, 
136; 1895, supplement of, 144; 1903, 
listed number of students registered 


History of University of New Hampshire 

in all courses of college, 143. 

Requirements, scholastic, 1909, 201. 

Research Work, first in New Hamp- 
shire college, 48. 

Reserve Officers Training Corps, 1920- 
28, 263-264. 

Reservoir, built, 280. 

Revolutionary War, Durham during, 


Rhode Island State College, track 
meet with, 199; concerning the 
growth of state colleges, 219; Alpha 
Tau Alpha chapter sponsored at, 

Richards, Alfred E., appointed to fac- 
ulty, 213; coaches debating team, 
224; helps with publication of song- 
book, 227; leads mass singing, 243; 
Richards, Mrs. Ellen H., 126; Rich- 
ards, Dexter, 2. 

Richardson, A. W., 239; Richardson, 
B. B., 215; Richardson, Leon B., 
History of Dartmouth College, on 
Chandler school requirements, 52- 
53 ; on President Bartlett, 69. 

Rifle Club, 195; Rifle Range, built 281. 

Ritzman, E. G., appointed to faculty, 
213; on livestock committee of com- 
mittee on food production, 239; 
works in animal nutrition, 289. 

Rivals, The, 149, 195. 

Robb, Christopher, 93. 

Roberts, I. P., regarding steam sys- 
tem, 100; visits Durham, 104; can- 
didate for presidency in 1895, 108. 

Robinson, L. B., 237; Robinson, Wil- 
liam Henry, 250. 

Rochester, deputation teams visit, 196. 

Rockingham County, early agricultural 
society there, 3. 

Rogers and Grilley, 227. 

Rollins, Sergeant John, 244. 

Roman People, Allen, history for ad- 
mission based on, 124. 

Roosevelt Club, organized, 193. 

Rope Pull, substituted for cane rush, 
226; 1920-1925, 262. 

Ross, Charles B., 271. 

Rubber, essay in Culver Literary Jour- 
nal, 44. 

Ruevsky, Belezar Stoianoff, 59. 

Rules, of women students, 193. 

Runlett, Samuel, ice cream business, 
227; Runlett's Store, mentioned, 99; 
in old railroad station building, 181. 

Running the Spanish Blockade to Car- 
ry a Prize Szvord to General Gomez 
of the Cuban Army, 245. 

Rural Progress, New England Confer- 
ence on, of great value to the col- 
lege, 184. 

Rush Song, The, 161. 

Rushing Agreements, first, 190; Rush- 
ing, rules of changed, 222. 

Russell, W. F., 152. 

Rust, Alphonzo H., member of investi- 
gating committee, 7. 

Rye, New Hampshire, agricultural 
fair at, 4. 


S. Morris Locke Loan Fund, 297; S. 
Morris Locke Memorial Scholar- 
ship, 296. 

Sailing, 157. 

Salary, of full professor, early, 169; 
level low, 264; cuts made, 280. 

Sanborn, Edwin O., 23; Sanborn, 
Jeremiah W., chosen farm super- 
intendent, 47 ; quoted on experiment- 
al work, 48; resignation, 54; con- 
sidered as candidate for presidency, 
108 ; advocates compromise Leach 
bill, 122; mentioned regarding 
Farmer's Institute course, 125; San- 
born, Mary L., 215; Sanborn, Smith, 

Sanders, Charles, graduates in first 
class, 23, 296; Sanders, Mrs., Y. W. 
C. A., 228. 

Sanderson, E. Dwight, as faculty mem- 
ber, 170; is appointed director of 
Experiment station, 183. 

Sargent, Cyrus, 93 ; Sargent, Walter 
H., 137. 

Sauer, George, 302. 

Sawyer, Annie L., 246 ; Sawyer, Gov- 
ernor Charles H., at laying of cor- 
nerstone of Experiment station 
building, 56; Sawyer, Elizabeth C, 
on committee on women and food 
production of committee on food 
production, 239; Sawyer, Harry A., 
vice-president of Culver Literary so- 
ciety, 1872-73, 43; officer of Alumni 
association, 66; Sawyer's Mills, 
bought cloth for military uniforms 
from, 162. 

Scabbard and Blade, 298. 

Scammell Grange, leads defense of 
college at State grange meeting, 115; 
quoted in opposition to the Leach 
bill, 118; sponsors entertainment by 
traveling stock company, 160. 

Scammon, Richard M., 167. 

Scholarships, John Conant, 32; Co- 
nant, on basis given, 33 ; state, for 
tuition, 34; in 1890, 61; before 1903, 
147-148; 1903-1912, 201; Graduate 
school, 292, 294-296 ; endowed by 
private donors, 295. 

Scholastic Standards, effort to raise, 
President Lewis, 277. 



School Gardens, committee on food 
production concerned with, 240. 

Schoolhouse Lane, members of Nashu- 
way club have house on, 140. 

Schoonmaker, Thomas, plays in first 
college orchestra, 152; business es- 
tablishment of, 227. 

Science and Practice of Stock Feeding, 
one of the first four bulletins of the 
Experiment station, 58. 

Sciences, of agronomy and agricultural 
chemistry, mentioned, 18. 

Scientific Education and President 
Bartlett, 70. 

Scott, Clarence W., quoted on value 
of Dartmouth's offer, 10-n; name to 
be remembered for his endless de- 
votion to school, 19; quoted on need 
of more help in securing students, 
22; quoted on celebration at dedi- 
cation of Culver hall, 25; canvas- 
sing for students, 33 ; Agricultural 
Education Historically Considered 
quoted, 34; quoted on establishing 
land grant colleges beside existing 
colleges, 35; made first librarian at 
Dartmouth under new arrangement, 
42; faculty member, 50; represents 
college on institute tours, 57; early 
residence of, in Durham, 103 ; in 
charge of shipping property of the 
college to Durham, 104; offers lec- 
ture on Thackeray, 130; had taught 
economics as well as history, 170; 
chairman of committees on arts and 
sciences and on electives, 175 ; as 
librarian, 177; Granite dedicated to, 
197; receives honorary degree, 206; 
dormitory named for, 282; writing 
of a history of the university, 283; 
Scott, Mrs. Clarence, quoted on Mrs. 
Gibbs, 165; Scott Hall, built, 282. 

Scudder, Harold H., appointed to fac- 
ulty, 213; joins staff of Spaulding 
in charge of publicity, 238 ; on pub- 
licity committee of committee on 
food production, 239. 

Second Contract between Dartmouth 
and New Hampshire college, 13; 
Second Morrill Act, 105-106; adds 
to income of college, 183. 

Secretarial Club, 298 ; Secretarial 
Course, 278. 

Semester System, returned to, 293. 

Senior Skulls, founded, 190, 298. 

Sewall, Mr., aids in forming singing 
class, 151. 

Sewer, 279, 283. 

Shakespeare, 300th anniversary of 
death of, 223. 

Shaw, Edward L., 168. 

Sheep Breeders' Association, 218. 

Sherman, Frank A., 50. 

Shipbuilding, along Piscataqua, 83. 

Shirley, Ralph Wellington, 251. 

Shop, annex to, bought, 265; Shop 
Building, built and equipped, 53 ; of 
first group in Durham, 98, 99. 

Short Course, hoped-for addition to 
college, 123 ; Short Courses in agri- 
culture, 125-128, 212. 

Sidewalks, early, in Durham, 142. 

Sigma Alpha Epsilon, 148, 222; house, 
filled with patients in influenza epi- 
demic, 245; Sigma Beta, 256; Sigma 
Omicron, 299. 

Simmers, Charles L., 212; Red Cross, 


Sinclair, John E., 23. 

Ski Jump, erected, 258. 

"Skimmers," freshman, 203. 

Sleighing, before 1903, 157. 

Slobin, Dr. Hermon L., appointed first 
director of Graduate school, 290; 
directs Summer school, 292. 

Smalley, Maxwell W., 267; Smalley, 
William G., 267. 

Smith, Asa, president of Dartmouth, 
proposal to postpone establishment 
of college, ii ; not enthusiastic about 
final arrangements to establish col- 
lege in Hanover, 11; appointed by 
Dartmouth trustees to be on first 
board of New Hampshire college, 
12; on relationship of two schools, 
18; disliked arrangement, 19; dis- 
agreement with Dimond, 21 ; at ded- 
ication of Culver hall, 26-27 ; ad- 
dress of welcome, 27 ; meets Mr. Co- 
nant at Mr. Dimond's home, 30; 
letter from Conant mentioned, 32; 
Dartmouth student body number, 33; 
cooperation evident between colleges, 
35; revises academic calendar in 
1866, 37; quoted on desirability of 
student labor from all departments 
working together, 43 ; resignation 
as president and death of, 44; res- 
ignation of, 47; toast offered to, 66; 
mentioned, 96, 237; Smith, F. W., 
152; Smith, Guy C, 170, 213; Smith, 
Hamilton, estate of, supplied by wa- 
ter from artesian wells, 141 ; gives 
money to found Valentine Smith 
scholarship, 147; will of, 177-179; 
(Congreve hall) 269; Smith, Mrs. 
Alice Hamilton, gift for woman's 
dormitory, 180; estate of, 269; 
Smith, Isaac, letter from Pettee 
about Bartlett, 73 ; on committee of 
two of Dartmouth to negotiate with 


History of University of New Hampshire 

New Hampshire college concerning 
use of Culver hall, 78; Smith, J. 
Fred, president, Culver Literary so- 
ciety for 1872-1873, 43; officer of 
Alumni association, 1885, 66; Smith, 
J. Warren, 126; Smith, Professor, 
a judge of first prize speaking con- 
test, 186; Smith, V. H., 237; Smith, 
Valentine, Scholarship, first offered, 
147; Smith Hall, mentioned, 103 ; 
opening of, mentioned, 141 ; built, 
180; janitorship of, reserved for up- 
perclassmen, 203 ; wing of, bought, 
265; Smith Hall Annex, constructed, 
242; Smith-Lever Act, passage of, 

Smyth, Frederick, as governor when 
the college was incorporated, 2; ap- 
pointed by Dartmouth trustees to 
be on first board of trustees of New 
Hampshire college, 12; speaks at 
dedication of Culver hall, 26 ; gift 
for prizes, 65; nominates Murkland 
for president, 108; Smyth, Mrs. Ma- 
rion C, continues to give Smyth 
prizes after her husband's death, 
147 ; Smyth Prizes, continued after 
Governor Smyth's death, 147 ; for 
public speaking and reading, 200. 

Snipe Song, The, 161. 

Soccer, added, 260. 

Social Friends, a model of Culver Lit- 
erary society, 43 ; Social Science, de- 
partments in, 286 ; Social Service 
Course, 278. 

Sociology Club, 298. 

Soil Physics, laboratory for, planned, 


Soils Experiments, provided for by 
Purnell act, 273. 

Solderholz Collection of Prints of Fa- 
mous Paintings, 149. 

Soper, Otis Edmund, 251. 

Sophomore Court, 294; Sophomore 
Privileges, 159. 

Sororities, 1912-1917, 222. 

South Carolina, state of, bonds of, 90. 

South Main Street, Dartmouth hotel 
on corner of, 15; in 1868, 16. 

Spalding, Edward, on committee of 
two to go over college accounts in 
1877, 45 ; on committee of two of 
Dartmouth to negotiate with New 
Hampshire college over use of Cul- 
ver hall, 78. 

Spanish, study of, introduced, 134; 
Spanish Club, organized, 258 ; Span- 
ish War, 162. 

Sparks, Dr. Edwin E., 257. 

Spaulding, Huntley N., chairman of 
public safety committee, 236; ap- 

pointed federal food administrator, 
238; chairman of committee on food 
production, 239. 

Special Joint Committee, legislative, 
1925, 271. 

Special Report to the Legislature of 
1921, 265; of President, shows need 
of special appropriations, 268; 
quoted, 270-271. 

Specialization, early, 133. 

Sphinx, organized, 222, 257, 298 ; 
Cauldrons have representation in, 

Splendor of the Alps, 149. 

Sports Building and Cage, 279. 

Spring Training Camp, R. O. T. C, 

Standards of Admission, raised, 124; 
1912-1917, 220. 

St. Anselm's, New Hampshire college 
plays in football, 156. 

Stanton, Louis C, forms classes in 
harmony and a course of recitals in 
music, 151. 

State Board of Agriculture sends pro- 
test to President Murkland's ad- 
dress, in J State College, name pre- 
ferred to agricultural college by Di- 
mond, 20; State Federation of 
Women's Clubs, New Hampshire, 
scholarships made available, 210; 
and Hostess house, 246 ; State 
Grange at laying of the cornerstone, 
56; State Industrial College, name 
preferred by Dimond, 20; State 
Lumberman's Association, 218; State 
Scholarships, covering tuition, 34; 
in 1891, 61. 

Stearns, Governor Onslow, lays cor- 
nerstone of Culver hall, 25. 

Steck, C. C, office manager of public 
safety committee, 236; retained as 
office manager by Spaulding, 238. 

Stern, Frances, lectures at Institute in 
1911, 185. 

Stevens, Ezra A., member of commit- 
tee to incorporate college, 2; Stev- 
ens, Henry B., quoted on Extension 
service, 217; Stevens, Lyman, men- 
tioned, 96 ; on building committee 
of board of trustees, 102 ; elected 
president of board of trustees, 107. 

Stewart, Morris Archer, receives Val- 
entine Smith scholarship the first 
time it is offered, 147. 

"Stick-To-It-Ers" Club, 255. 

Stinson, Daniel Chase, 251; Stinson, 
William H., quoted as master of 
State grange, 79; master of the State 
grange and leading advocate of 



anti-Murkland viewpoint, 114, 120, 
121 ; mentioned, 124. 

St. Johns Express, wrecked near shops, 

Stockbridge, Professor, conducts sing- 
ing class, 151. 

Stone, C. W., on building committee, 
55; as trustee, 167; 1909 appointed 
superintendent of college farm, 171 ; 
employed by Extension department, 
214; Stone, Fred Weare, 251. 

Stottler, Captain, conducts a dancing 
school, 150. 

Strafford Avenue, three houses on, 
built by Whitcher, 102; formerly 
Faculty row, 103 ; Curtis house on 
corner of, 140. 

Student Aid, 1890, 61; requirements 
of, 62, 294-297 ; Student Advisory 
Board, 294; Student Advisory Com- 
mittee, on athletic awards, 301 ; 
Student Army Training Corps, num- 
ber in, 248, 247-249; demobilization 
of, 256; Student Cooperative, 300; 
Student Council, early existence, 192; 
expanded (1915), 225; reestablished 
after war, 257, 294; Cauldrons has 
representation in, 300; Student Di- 
rectory, 262; Student Employment, 
2 95> 2 97l Student Government, 
blanket tax covers dues of, 299 ; 
Student Life, in Hanover, quoted 
from Pettee's account, 39-41 ; Stu- 
dent Loans, 295 ; regulations regard- 
ing repayment of, 297; Student Or- 
ganizations, use of Ballard hall, 
282; Student Strike, 1912, 202; Stu- 
dent Writer, 300; Students, first 
year, 22; contest for i87o's-8o's, 33; 
at Dartmouth, under Smith and 
Bartlett, 33 ; numbers compared with 
scholarships before 1880, 34; from 
out-of-state not eligible for scholar- 
ships, 34; of Dartmouth, prepara- 
tion compared with New Hampshire 
college, 51; preparation of compared 
with Dartmouth and Chandler Sci- 
entific school, 51; securing of, a 
problem, 58 ; association with, of 
Dartmouth, 60; in early 1890's, 62; 
first woman, 63-64; enrollment of 
1893-1912, 188-189; enrollment of, 
218-219, 2 56; from out-of-state, 272; 
employed during construction of 
Lewis fields, 283. 

Stunt Night, first given, 257. 

Suffolk National Bank, shares in, 87. 

Sullivan, General John, during Revo- 
lution, 84. 

Sulloway, Richard W., as trustee, 168. 

Summer Institute, moved in 1897 t0 

Durham, 125 ; Summer Recess, new, 
37; Summer School, 292; institutes 
and conferences conducted in con- 
nection with, 292 ; Summer School 
of Biology, first held, 125 ; Summer 
Term, common, 37. 

Surgical Dressings Committee, 230. 

Survey Courses, 278. 

Swallow, Frank, brother of first wom- 
an student, 63 ; Swallow, Lucy, first 
woman student, 63. 

Swan, C. H., 191, 197. 

Swimming Pool, indoor, 279 ; outdoor, 
built, 280. 

Symphony Orchestra, 298. 

Taber, Ralph F., worked with central 
food committee placing help on 
farms, 237. 

Tablet, bronze, at entrance of Me- 
morial field, 255. 

Taft, William Howard, visit of, 227; 
Taft and Sherman, endorsed by Mys- 
tic club, 193; Taft Club, organized, 

i # 93. 

Tailor, Dover, made military uniforms 
for cadet battalion, 1890's, 162. 

Taisne, Telesphore, on faculty, 171. 

Tallant, J. G., lectures in Institute 
course in 1896, 128; as trustee, 167; 
on gymnasium building committee, 

Tanner, John Henry, receives first 
honorary degree granted by the col- 
lege, 144. 

Tau Gamma Phi, organized, 257; Tau 
Kappa Alpha, national forensic so- 
ciety, 258, 298; Tau Kappa Epsilon, 

Taylor, Frederick W., promotions of, 
168; chairman of committee on agri- 
culture, 175 ; made dean of agricul- 
tural division, 211; appointed assist- 
ant to president, 231; has many re- 
quests for agricultural students, 233 ; 
in charge of division of farm pro- 
duction, 236; on committee on farm 
crops of committee on food produc- 
tion, 239; Taylor, J. M., 79. 

Teacher Training Curriculum, intro- 
duced, 277; general, 278; in physi- 
cal education, 301 ; Teachers, stu- 
dents preparing for, 219. 

Teeple, George L., faculty member, 
54; becomes first secretary-treasurer 
of New Hampshire College Scientific 
society, 150. 

Telephone Line, in Durham, early, 


History of University of New Hampshire 

Tennant, James B., on committee to 
investigate will, 93. 

Tennis, becomes important, 229 ; 
added, 260; Tennis Association, 
155; merges with Athletic associa- 
tion, 157; Tennis Courts, before 

1903, 157- 

Ten-Weeks Course, first offered, 128; 
in dairying, 1903-1912, 185. 

Texas Experiment Station, 165. 

Textile School, suggested, 174. 

Thackeray, lecture on, offered by Pro- 
fessor Scott, 130. 

Thayer School of Civil Engineering, 
Dean Pettee, a student in, 38; buys 
Experiment station building, 97. 

Theatres, Motion Picture, opened in 
Dover, 226. 

Thesis, requirement of, modified, 174; 
of candidates for advanced degrees, 

Theta Kappa Phi, 245, 257; Theta 
Upsilon, 299; Theta Upsilon Ome- 
ga, 256; Theta Chi, 189. 

Thomas, William Hervey, 251. 

Thompson, Benjamin, agricultural 
background, 6-7; biography, 85-87; 
benefactions of, 85-87; will of, 87- 
95 ; will of, cited in controversy, 
114, 121; hay crops of, 177; Thomp- 
son, Charlotte, librarian, 179-180; 
Thompson, Denman, 160; Thomp- 
son, Ebenezer, grandfather of Ben- 
jamin Thompson, 84; Thompson, 
John W. E., 87, 88; Thompson, 
Lucien, quoted on his uncle, 85-87; 
on terms of will, 93; as trustee, 167; 
gift to library, 210-21 1; Thompson, 
Mary P., terms of will, 94; library 
of, given to library of college, 211; 
Thompson, William Hale, contests 
will, 94; Thompson Barn, stock 
housed in after fire, 139; Thompson 
Estate, assets of, 136; Thompson 
Fund, first payment from, 182-183; 
Thompson Hall, of first group con- 
structed in Durham, 98, 99; com- 
mencement in 1893, 100; Caverno's 
store opposite, 142; 1894-1902, 142; 
first baths and lockers in basement 
of, 155; women's physical education, 
move from, 184; Extension service 
moved to, 286; Thompson House, is 
used by college, 103; burns in 1897, 

Thornton Hall, in 1868, 15. 

Tickle Point, bridge from, 83. 

Tilton, Charles E., offer of, 77; pro- 
posal of, acceptance advocated by 
Mr. Stinson, 79 ; mentioned by New 
England Homestead, 92. 

Titsworth, Bertha E., 238. 

Toasts, offered at first Alumni meet- 
ing, 66. 

Tobacco, concerning student aid, 62; 
use of forbidden holders of schol- 
arships, 201. 

Toles, First Lieutenant T. M., of med- 
ical corps, 243. 

Tom Thumb Coach, 267. 

Tontine, 16. 

Topliff Hall, on site of Conant Hall, 
31; annex to Hallgarten in back of, 


Torrey, Prescott, 225. 

Tower Tavern, 141. 

Townsend, Mabel E., appointed regis- 
trar and associate librarian, 171. 

Track, before 1903, 157; 1903-1912, 
199; interest in increasing, 228; 
Track Meet, sponsored by Alumni, 
1911, 185-186. 

Traditions, 1903-1912, 201-203. 

Train Wreck, near college shops, 176. 

Training Detachments, work done by, 
a problem, 264; Training Schools 
meet in Durham, 288. 

Trees, essay in Culver Literary Jour- 
nal, 44; Trees, 18 planted for college 
gold star men, 254. 

Tremblay, Joe, 244. 

Trimmer, Florence, registrar, 171. 

Tri State Contests, 300. 

True, A. C, author of History of Agri- 
cultural Education, 3 ; at dedication 
of Morrill hall, 166. 

Trustees of Dartmouth, appoint first 
trustees of New Hampshire college, 

Tucker, Charles H., 43 ; Tucker, James 
W., 239; Tucker, W. J., President, 
mentioned, 108 ; present size ap- 
proached during his administration, 


Tufts, James A., as trustee, 168. 

Tuition, in 1890, 61; increased, 1920- 
1921, 264; Tuition and Fees, income 
of increased, 268 ; Tuition Grants, 

Turner, Jonathan B., proposal, 6. 

Turnpike, first in New Hampshire, 84. 

Tuttle, Governor Hiram A., signs bill 
of acceptance, 93 ; signs bill remov- 
ing college, 95 ; Tuttle, Lucius, re- 
ceives honorary degree, 206 ; Tuttle, 
President of Boston and Maine rail- 
road, 176. 

Twombly, C. W., 156. 

Two-Year Course in agriculture, 1895, 
130-131, 278; in agricultural and 
industrial engineering, 212; Two- 
Year Students, possible discrimina- 
tion in Leach bill, 121, 122. 




Union Club, changes policy of serving 
meals, 221. 

United Fraternity, a model of Culver 
Literary society, 43. 

Unity Club, plays New Hampshire col- 
lege in basketball in 1901, 157. 

University Council, 294; University 
Day, 263, 294; University Extension, 
early steps toward, 130; University 
Field House, built, 284; University 
History, Scott, 283 ; Pettee, 285 ; 
University of Illinois, Mr. Gibbs, 
165; University of Maine, dedication 
of Lewis fields precedes football 
game with, 284; participates in Tri- 
State contests, 300; University of 
Maryland, 5 ; University of New 
Hampshire, 254; charter of, 267; 
University of New Hampshire Fund, 
271-272; University of Vermont, car- 
nival at, 259; participates in Tri- 
State contest, 300; University Senate, 
organized, 294. 

Utopian Club, 1903-1912, 193. 

Vacations, to coincide in all schools, 52. 
Valentine Smith Scholarship, 295. 
Vermont, many students from, 34. 
Veterans of Foreign Wars, 254. 
Village Improvement Society, set out 

trees in 1901, 160. 
Visitors, of Chandler school object to 

first contract, 13. 
Visual Education Service, 288. 
Vocational Detachments, history, 241- 

247; Vocational Units, numbers 

trained, 241. 


Wade, Senator, introduced Land Grant 
Bill in Senate, 8. 

Wadleigh, John, 9. 

Wagon Storage Shed, built, 242. 

Walker, Horton D., 9; Walker, Joseph 
B., member of special committee to 
draw up bill to incorporate a land 
grant college, 2; appointed on first 
board of trustees by governor and 
council, 12; quoted on inventory of 
college in 1868, 16-17; letters from 
President Smith, 18; quoted on John 
Conant, 29 ; quoted on visit of Con- 
ant to Hanover, 30; quoted from 
memorial sketch of Dimond's life, 
31; on committee of legislature, 75; 
at hearing, 93 ; at dedication of 
Morrill hall, 166. 

War Department, offers to sell work of 
training detachments, 264-265; War 
Gardens, committee of food produc- 
tion concerned with, 240; War of 
1812, 84. 

Ware, B. P., 126. 

Warner Farm, of Benjamin Thompson, 
85, 87. 

Wason, Edward H., as trustee, 168; 
Wason, George A., on first Board 
of Control, 56; as trustee, 167. 

Water, company developed early by 
Whitcher, 103 ; Water Supply, in 
Hanover, 28; 1893, 101, 210; Water 
System, in Durham, 141, 279; built, 

Waters, President Henry J., of Kansas 
State Agricultural college, 206. 

Watson, Robert, 247. 

W. E. D., organized, 192. 

Webster, Daniel, plough of, at dedi- 
cation of Culver hall, 26; exhibited 
at World's Columbian exposition, 

Weed, Clarence M., lectures in Sum- 
mer School, 1894, 125; lectures at 
Institute course in 1894, 126; spon- 
sors Biological society, 151; resig- 
nation of, 170. 

Wellfleet Radio Station, 227. 

Wellman, Justin O., appointed director 
of Summer School, 292; death of, 

Wentworth, Cy, 260. 

Wentworth Hall, in 1868, 15. 

West Point, founded, 4; football game 
with, 260. 

Weston, Governor, speaks at dedica- 
tion of Culver hall, 26; Weston, 
Senator William, 271. 

W. H. A., organized, 150; accused of 
being socially ambitious, 192. 

Wheeler, William P., member of in- 
vestigating committee, 9 ; appointed 
on first board of trustees of New 
Hampshire college by governor and 
council, 12; at dedication of Culver 
hall, 26; speaks at dedication of 
Culver hall, 31; agreement made 
with Conant concerning scholarships, 
32; death of, 44. 

Wheelock Street, 15. 

When to Cut Corn for Ensilage, one 
of the first four bulletins of Ex- 
periment station, 58. 

Whitcher, George H., appointed first 
director, 50; becomes faculty mem- 
ber, 54; on first board of trustees 
and first director, 56 ; represented 
college in Institute tours, 57 ; plan 
of research outlined by, 58 ; on Q. 


History of University of New Hampshire 

T. V., 61 ; wins first prize in essay 
contest, 65; officer of Alumni Asso- 
ciation, 66; speaks before Farmers' 
council, 95 ; directs building of 
Nesmith hall, 99; water system of, 
101 ; constructs several houses in 
Durham, 102; attends convention in 
New Orleans, 104; presents definite 
pro-agriculturist view point in op- 
position to Murkland, 123 ; builds 
present Lambda Chi Alpha house, 
139; six houses in early 1890's be- 
sides those built by, 140; has rooms 
for rent, 146 ; on first executive com- 
mittee of New Hampshire college 
Scientific Society, 150; plays in first 
college orchestra, 152; captain of 
baseball team which played on town 
meeting day, 156; selects canning 
demonstrators, 238; on committee on 
food production, 239; on school gar- 
dens committee on food production, 


Whitcher-Pettee Water System, served 
much of Durham, 141. 

White, F. A., 66. 

White, Jack, 244; White Mountains, 
population shift to, 83 ; White Pals 
Stock Company of New York City, 
244; White's Boston Octette, 227. 

Whitman, Frederick W., 171. 

Whitney, William C, 33. 

Whittemore, E., 66 ; Whittemore, Ger- 
trude, 179; Whittemore, S. B., on 
building committee, 55 ; on first 
board of control, 56. 

Whist Club, 195. 

Whoriskey, John, 195; Whoriskey, 
Richard; active in helping students 
in Athletic association, 155; chair- 
man of committee on lecture course, 
175 ; treasurer of gymnasium fund, 
176; brother of Mrs. Annie Morgan, 
235; addresses mass meetings to 
stimulate conservation and produc- 
tion, 237; in charge of division of 
cooperative agencies, 239 ; speaks at 
field day, July 4, 1918, 245; gives 
informal talk to men of the training 
detachment, 245. 

Wiggin, Mrs. George T., matron of 
Thompson house, 141. 

Wildcats, mascots, 302. 

Wilder, Marshall P., leader in move- 
ment for land grant colleges, 6; cor- 
responds with Benjamin Thompson, 

Will, original of Benjamin Thompson, 

Willand, Pitt Sawyer, 251. 

Williams College, carnival at, 257; 
Williams, George B., 167; Williams, 
George H., 296. 

Wilson Club, not organized, 194; Wil- 
son Library, constructed, 42 ; Wil- 
son, M. C, leader of county agents 
in Extension service, 237; Wilson, 
W. Ross, as faculty member, 170; 
county organizer and on public 
safety committee, 237; Wilson, 
Woodrow, 229. 

Winant, Governor John G., 271. 

Wing, between Commons and Fair- 
child proposed, 267. 

Winter Carnival, at Dartmouth, 225; 
sponsored by Forestry Club, 258; 
Winter Sports, added, 260, 301. 

Wireless Club, early equipment of, 
227; revived after war, 258. 

Wiswall Paper Mill, privilege of, 101. 

Women, courses for, hoped-for addi- 
tion to college, 123 ; proportion in 
student body, 219; in old college of 
Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, 266 ; 
sponsors of R. O. T. C. battalion 
chosen for military ball, 263 ; Wom- 
en's Athletic Association, reorgan- 
ized, 261 ; Women's Commons, pro- 
posed in Congreve, 269; Women's 
Dormitory, Smith hall built, 180; 
Women's League, reorganized, 223 ; 
Women Students, general course in- 
troduced for, 54; first 63-65; short- 
age of, 149; rules of, 193; training 
for war work, 236; 1919, 256. 

Wood, chopped by faculty and stu- 
dents for use of the college, 234. 

Wood, Albert, hired as assistant su- 
perintendent of farm, 56. 

Woodbridge, S. H., 100. 

Woodman Garrison House, mentioned, 

Woods, Kathryn E., 216. 

Woodward, C. M., 66] Woodward, 
Karl W., 213. 

Worcester Polytechnic Institute, dual 
track meet with announced, 157; 
Reed accepts position at, 170. 

Works Progress Administration, 280, 

World War, 207-208 ; influence of, 
230-231; declaration of, 231; first 
formal action of N. H. C. in re- 
gard to, 235. 

World's Columbian Exposition, Daniel 
Webster plow exhibited at, 105. 

Wright, Irwin O., 43. 

Writer's Conference, 293. 



Y. M. C. A., meeting of choral so- 
ciety after prayer meeting of, 151; 
organized on campus, 162; activi- 
ties 1903-1912, 195-196; emphasizes 
rural social work, 228 ; builds hut 
during World War, 246; activities, 
of, 259, 300. 

Y. W. C. A., branch organized on 
campus, 228; pays salary of hostess, 
246 ; activities of, 259, 300. 

Yacht Club, 298. 

Yale University, compared with state 
colleges, 219. 

Young, Charles A., 23. 
Young, H. P., 237. 
Your Life's Work, 196. 

Zeta Epsilon Zeta, organized, 140, 148 ; 
gives reception, 150; lease Ballard 
hall, 139; mentioned, 189; becomes 
S. A. E., 222; Zeta Room, taken by 
Delta Xi as chapter room in 1903, 

Zoology, department of, 286. 











Thompson Hall 
Murkland Hall 
DeMeritt Hall 
James Hall 
Morrill Hall 
Dairy Building 
Nesmith Hall 
Nutrition Lab. 
Pettee Hall 
Shops Buildings 
Conant Hall 
Poultry Plant 
Fire Station & Shop 
Power Plant 

16. Field House 

17. Livestock Barn 

18. Racing Commission 

19. Piggeries 

20. B&M Station 

21. New Hampshire Hall 

22. Faculty Club 

23. Con gr eve Hall 

24. Scott Hall 

25. Smith Hall 

26. Crafts Cottage 

27. Home Management 

28. Ballard Hall 

29. President's R01 

30. Commons 

31. Fair child Hall 

32. He*z*/ Ha// J 

33. Ear/ Ha// 

34. West Hall 

35. Hoo*/ House! 

36. Hamilton SfMt, wy 

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