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History of Upshur County 

West Virginia 

From its Earliest Exploration and Settlement 
to the Present Time 




The actual history of Upshur antedates the period of recorded events; re- 
lates to the peoples who lived on this continent prior to its discovery ; embraces 
the epochs of settlement, colonization, nationality and disruption of Virgmia ; 
refers more particularly to the early settlers on the waters of the Buckhannon 
and West Fork rivers and their troubles with the Indians, the local political 
agencies which brought about the formation of the county, her complete records, 
including Upshur's share in the Civil and Spanish-American Wars, the life of her 
people, commercial, industrial, economic, social, educational and religious; also 
the family records of a thousand persons who have taken part in the settlement 
and county periods. 

Within this volume will be found a very instructive chapter on the Birds 
of Upshur, by Rev. Earle Amos Brooks, a native bom son who is authority on 
ornithology and whose reputation spreads to the ends of this nation. 

The plan of this history proper embraces three divisions. The first is a 
condensed history of West Virginia ; the second is an elaborate, carefully-prepared 
county history, and part third is a biography. 

Part First was written by Hu Maxwell, author of county histories of Tucker. 
Randolph and Barbour, and joint author of County History of Mineral and a 
text book on History and Government of West Virginia. 

Parts Second and Third in the fall of 1906 and spring of 1907 and the 
material (much of collected years before) was collected from every available 
source. To those who aided in collecting the data for this book we are indebted 
and for the names of those who assisted in the most substantia! way to make the 
History of Upshur a success, particular reference is directed to family history. 
Buckhannon, W. Va., July i, 1907. 

-7 -^ 




Explorations West of the Blue Ridge. 

Capt. Batte's Expedition. .Governor Spotswood Reaches the Base of the 
Alleghanies. .The South Branch Valley Explored. .Washington's Surveying Tour 
Alleganies — The South Branch Valley Explored — Washington's Surveying Tour 
..Settlement Forbidden West of the Alleghanies. .Soldiers Attempt to Drive 
Colonists Out. .Settlements on the Ohio and Monongahela — Population of West 
Virginia. .Land Titles. .19-24. 


Indians and Moundbuilders. 

West Virginia's Territory Uninhabited. .The Mohawk Invasion .. Mound- 
builders and Indians Probably Identical. .Their Origin Unknown. .America Had 
Pre-Historic Inhabitants. .Estimated Number of Indians East of the Mississippi 


The French and Indian War. 

The Scheme of France .. Contest for the Ohio Valley. .The French Build 
Forts — England Interferes. .Washington's Journey to the West. .The French 
Use Force. .English Troops Skirmish with Jumonville. .Battle at Fort Necessity 
..Washington Surrenders. .Braddock's Campaign. .His Defeat and Death- -In- 
dians Attack the Settlements. .Expedition Under Forbes. .Fort Duquesne Falls. . 
France Loses the Ohio Valley. .29-38. 


The Dunmore War. 

Causes Leading to Hostilities -• Forerumier of the Revolution. .England's 
Scheme to Intimidate. .The Quebec Act. .Lord Dunmore. .His Greed for Land. . 
Indians Take Up the Hatchet. .Two Virginia Armies Invade the Indian Coun- 
try.. Battle of Point Pleasant. .Treaty at Camp Charlotte. .Alleged Speech of 
Logan. .The Indians Make Peace. .39-46. 



West Virginia in the Revolution. 

Meeting at Fort Gower. .Resolutions Passed. .Meetings at Pittsburg and 
Hannastown. .Soldiers from the Monongahela. ..\ttempted Tory Uprisings Sup- 
pressed. . Patriotism on the Greenbrier. .Four Indian .Armies Invade West Vir- 
ginia- • Numerous Incursions. .Cornstalk .Assassinated. .First Siege of Fort 
Henry.. Capt. Foreman Ambushed. .Simon Girty Joins the Indians. .Fort Ran- 
dolph Beseiged. .General C'.ark Marches to the West. .Last Battle of the Revo- 
lution. .Expeditions Against the Indians. .General Wayne Conquers the Savages 
• -47-56. 


Subdivision and Boundaries. 

Virginia's Western Territory. .Jealousy of other States. .The Controversy. . 
Virginia Cedes to the General Government Her Territory West of the Ohio.. 
Mason and Di.xon's Line. .Other Boundary Lines. .Contest with Maryland.. 
Virginia's Original Eight Counties. .Table of Population. .57-65. 

The Nnvspapers of West Virginia. 

Humble Beginnings. .The First Newspaper. .Others Enter the Field.. 
Ephemeral Character of Country Journalism. .The Editor's Mistakes and Suc- 
cesses. .6670. 

Geogfapihy, Geology and Climate. 

The Rock-History of West Virginia. . Mountain-Building. . Valley-Sculpture 
. .The Plateau of West Virginia. .Influences Acting on Climate. .How Coal was 
Formed.. The Rain Winds and the Rainless Winds. .Rainfall and Snowfall.. 
Formation of Soil. .Fertility and Sterility. .Fertilizing Agents. ..Altitudes in West 
Virginia. .71-82. 

Among Old La-^^'s. 

Examination of and Extracts from Virginia's Early Statutes. .Death Pen- 
alty for Petty Crimes. .Cruel Punishments. .Condemned Prisoners Forbidden 
Spiritual Advice. .Law Against Gossiping. .Hog Stealing. .Special Laws for 
Slaves .. Horse Thieves "Utterly Excluded". .Pillories. .Whipping Posts. Stocks 
and Ducking Stools. .Fees of Sheriffs and Constables. .Tavern-Keepers. .Ferries 
. .83-88. 

Constitutional History. 

The Bill of Rights. .Constitution of 1776. .Freedom of the Press. .Schools 
not Mentioned. .Restricted Suffrage — Constitution of 1830.. Members West of 
the Mountains .Advocate Greater Liberty. .Overruled. . Education Neglected . .Con- 


stitution of 1852. .Line Drawn Between the East and West .. Property Against 
Men.. West Virginia's First Constitution. .The Slavery Question. .Constitution 
of 1872. .Enlarged Suffrage. .89-104. 

John Brozvn's Raid. 

His Purpose.. The Attempt. .Capture, Condemnation and Execution .. 105- 

The Ordinance of Secession. 

Causes of Beginning. .The Richmond Convention. .Delegates from Western 
Virginia. .Stormy Sessions. .The Vote. .Western Delegates Secretly Leave Rich- 
mond. .Virginia Seizes United States Property. . 109-1 12. 


The Reorganised Government of Virginia. 

Mass Meetings West of the Alleghanies. .First WHieeling Convention .. Its 
Members . . Vote on the Ordinance of Secession . . Second Wheeling Convention . . 
The Delegates. .New Ofificers Chosen for Virginia. .113-119. 


Formatioti of West Virginia. 

The United States Constitution Provided a Way . . The Several Steps . . Pres- 
ident Lincoln's Opinion. .The Bill Signed. .120-125. 


Organising for War. 

Call for V^olunteers by \'irginia. .Troops Sent Across the Alleghanies. .Mus- 
kets Sent to Beverly by the Confederates. .Guns frfom Massachusetts Reach 
Wheeling. .Federals Cross the Ohio. .Fight at Philippi. .Confederates Fortify in 
Randolph. .General Garnett in Command- General McClellan Arrives. .Defeat 
of the Confederates at Rich IMountain. .Gamett's Retreat. .126-137. 


Progress of the War. 

General Lee in West Virginia. .Expedition Against Cheat Mountain and 
Elkwater. .General Loring's Army. .Movements in the Kanawha Valley. .Quar- 
rel Between Generals Wise and Floyd. .Federals Defeated at Cross Lanes- -Con- 
federates Worsted at Gauley Bridge. . Further Fighting. .Contest for the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad. .Governor Letcher's Proclamation. .138-146. 



Anderson, Joseph • • 399 

Ash Camp Rock 230 

Beans' Mill and Bear Den Rock • • 333 

Beer, Dr. O. B 390 

Bennet, Silas 398 

Bennet, Vernon Lee 457 

Boreman, A.I 390 

Brown, Eugene 391 

Bridge, Stone and Dirt Road 203 

Bush's Fort 196 

Carper, W. C Frontispiece 

Carper Church 216 

Clark, A. B 604 

Conference Seminary 271 

College, West Virginia Wesleyan 271 

Courtney, John T 262 

Court House, New 279 

Court House, Old 279 

Cutright, W. B 174 

Cutright, G. S., Family 270 

Cutright, Lyman 190 

Crites' Mill at Selbyville 231 

Dailey, James 605 

Darnall, H. A 391 

Downes, J. M. N 391 

Famsworth, Gov. D. D. T 360 

Farnsworth, J. J 263 

Farnsworth, Thomas J 446 

Farnsworth, Dr. Thomas G 398 

Farnsworth, Professor B. U 190 

Fleming, G. M 391 

Fidler, W. F.'s Family 278 

Fidler's Mill 278 

French Creek Institute 268 

Graham, Sanford 400 

Gould, Aaron, Sr 390 

Gould, Benjamin 456 

Hanging Rock 332 

Hall, D. OB 605 

Hamner, William E 464 

Heavner, Major Jacob 472 

Herd of Graded Cattle 202 

Hiner, Charles E 464 



Hinkle, Job 481 

Hinkle, Margaret Hadden (Jackson) 481 

Hinkle, Foster, and wife 480 

Hyre, Jacob's Grist Mill 276 

Jackson, Minter J 465 

Kiddy, Arthur Glasgow 456 

Leonard, Levi 248 

Leonard, Ebenezer 496 

Leonard, Wealthy Gould 496 

Lewis, H. Q 390 

Ligget, Thomas J 262 

Lorentz, Jacob's Pack Train 319 

Marple, Granville D 465 

Martin, W. T 605 

Mearns, William 263 

Moore, Oscar L 540 

Morgan, Isaac 207 

Morgan, J. J 398 

Neflf, Henry 399 

O'Brien, W. S 54° 

Phillips, Spencer 532 

Phillips, Lothrop 532 

Phillips, Walter 533 

Phillips, Ernest .• 533 

Poe, David 541 

Pringle Bros, and Sycamore Tree 177 

Racoon Meeting House 332 

Regar, John, Sr., Major Abram and John W 544 

Regar, John, Sr., and daughter, Barbara 326 

Rexroad, R. B., and family 206 

Rohrbaugh, Simon 398 

Ross, Charles 541 

Reger Mill on Spruce Run ■. . .231 

Smith, John L 386 

Sexton, F. P 400 

Smith, Joseph C 457 

Stockert, Gustave F. and wife 576 

Strader, Rev. Perry S 54o 

Strader, John, and wife 480 

Southdown Sheep 202 

Talbott, Sen. W. D 604 

Tenney, A. M., Jr 604 

Teter, Alva, and wife 327 

Westf all. Homer, and wife 207 

Young, Hon. U. G 604 

Young, Hon. U. G.'s residence 270 

Zickefoose, A. J 605 


State liistory 



It is impossible to say when and where the first white man set foot on 
the soil of what is now West Virginia. In all probability no record was 
ever made of the first visit. It is well known that adventurers always push 
into new countries in advance of organized exjiloring parties: and it is likely 
that such was the case witli West AHrginia when Tt was onlv an unnamed 
wilderness. Probalily th.- Ir,(li;ius who waged war with the early colonists 
of Virginia carried pii^oncis iiHiMhis region on their hunting excursions. 
Sixty-five years were rc,|uiiv>l tui-th.' colonists of Virginia to become suijer- 
ficially acquainted with the ccunlry as far west as the Blue Ridge, which, 
until .June, 1670, was the .■xiivmr limit of explorations in that direction. 
The distance fj'diii .Iani.'sl;i\vii, Ihc first colony, to the base of the Blue 
Ri(l--i\ was twci hinulivd miles. Nearly three-quarters of a century was 
riMluii'cd In |jus|] llif ()ut|)!)sls <if civilization two hundred miles, and that, 
too, across a country favorable for exploi-atioii, and with little danger from 
Indians during most of the time. In lat.T ihe outposts of civilization 
moved westward at an avei\age yearly rate of se\-e!iteen miles. The people 
of A^nginia were not satisfied to allow the Blue Ridge to remain the bound- 
ary l)ci\\i(ii the known and unknown countries; and in 1670, sixty-thi-ee 
yiMJs alter the first settlement in the State, the Governor of Virginia sent 
out an exploring party under ('ai)tain Henry Batte, with instructions to 
cross the mountains of the west, seek- for silver and gold, and try to dis- 
cover a river flowing into the Pacific Ocean. Early in June of that year, 
1670, the explorers forced tlie lieiglits of the Blue Ridge which they found 
steep and rocky, and descended into the valley west of that range. They 
discovered a river flowing due north. The observations and measurements 
made by these explorei-s ]„M-liaiis satisfied the royal Governor who sent 
them out; but their a.-eura.y may !»■ (|nestioned. They reported that the 
river which they had .lis.'..\ cie.l was Uhw hundred and fifty yards wide; its 
banks in most places one tlioiisaud yards higli. Beyond the river they said 
they i-oiil(l see toweriii,-- iiioiiiilaiiis (iestitute of trees, and crowned by white 
clrits, hidden mueli of llie time in mi.^t, Ijul occasionally clearing sufficiently 
to give a glimpse of their ruggedness. They expressed the o]>inion that 
those unexplored mountains might contain silver and gold. They made no 
atteinj>t to cross the river, but set out on their I'eturii. From their account 
of Ihi' 1)road rivei- ami ds baiik-s llioiisaiids of feet high, one might suppose 
that tliey had dis<-o\-ered I he ( 'anyoii of I lie Colorado; but it was only New 
River, iiie principle i ri bill a iw of the i\aiiawha. The next year, 1671, the 
Governor of Virginia sent explorers to continue the work, and they 
remained a considerable time in the valley of New River. If they penetra- 
ted as far as the present territory of West Virginia, which is uncertain, 


they isrobably crossed the line into what is now Monroe or Mercer Counties. 

Forty five years later, 1716, Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, led an 
exploring party over the Blue Ridge, across the Shenandoah River and to 
the base of the Alleghany Mountains. Daring hunters and adventurers no 
doubt were by that time acquainted with the geography of the eastern part 
of the Slate. Be that as it may, the actual settlement of the counties of 
Jeft'orson, Berkeley, Morgan, Hampshire and Hardy was now at hand. The 
gap ill du' TMui' Ridg.' at Ilai'per-s Perry, made by the Potoinac l>ivaking 
tlir(iii,'_rli lliat ran-c was sdou discovered, and through that i-dcK-y .irali'way 
the early set Hits IuuikI a jiatli into the Valley of Virginia, wlicnci' sdiiic of 
tliem ascciidi'd tln' Shciiaiidoah to Winchester and above, and others con- 
tinued up the I'cldiiiai'. i>ccn|i.\ing Jefferson County and in succession the 
counties aliiixf; and bidurc many years there were settlements on the South 
Branch i>i tlie Potomac. It is known that the South Branch was exjilored 
within less than nine years after Governor Spotswood's expedition, and 
within less than thirteen years there were settlers in that county. 

Lord Fairfax claimed the teri-itory in what is now the Eastern Panhandle 
of West Virginia. But his boundary lines had never been run. The grant 
called for a line drawn from the head of the Potomac to the head of the 
Ra|i|ialiaiin(i(k. Several years passed before it could be ascertained where 
tilt' rmnitaiiis of those streams were. An exploring party under WiUiam 
]\rayc> liacrd tlie Potomac to its source in the year 1736, and on December 
14 of iliai \cai- ascfrtaiucd and niark-cd {]](' sjiot where the rainfall divides, 
pai1 llowinir iido llir I'otoiiiac and |iai1 into Cheat River on the west. This 
spot was sclccli'd as the coiau'i' of Lord Fairfax's land; and on October 17, 
174G, a stone was planted there to iwAvk the spot and has ever since been 
called the l<\iirfa.\ Stone. It stands at the corner of two states, Maryland 
and West \"iii.'inia, and of four counties, Gai-rett, Preston, Tucker and 
Grant. II is alionl lialf a mile north of the station of Fairfax, on the West 
VirginiaCiiiii al and I 'i It sburg Railroad, at an elevation of three thousand 
two liundri'd and sixteen feet above sea level. 

George Washington siient tlie summers of three years surveying the 
estate of Lord Fairfax, partly in West Virginia. He began work in 1748, 
when he was sixteen, and perseciiied it with ability and industry. There 
were other sni-veyors eiiiployi'd in the work as well as he. By means of 

this occupaiicn lie lieca aci|iiaiiited with the fertility and resources of tlie 

newcountrw and lie afterwards lieeaine a large land-holder in West Vir- 
ginia, one of his holdings lyinir as far west as the Kanawha. His knowledge 
of the eoiiiili-y no doubt had soiiielhiiiL;- to do willi t he orLranizal ion of the 
Ohio ('oiii])any in 174U, which was .^--ranted .".()i ),()()() acres hetwe.'ii the Monon- 
gahela ami I he Kanawha. Lawrence Washington, a half brother of Cieorge 
WashiiiLjIon. was a member of the Ohio Company. The granting of land 
in this weshrn country no doubt had its weight in hastening the P''rench 
and Indian War of 17.'^, bv wliich Eiiirland arcinin^d i)ossession of the Ohio 
Vallev. The war would ha\e,-<,ine sooner or later, and England would have 
secured the Ohio \'alh>y in the end, and it would have passed ultimately to 
th<' Ilnile<l Stat.'s: bill the e\ciits wei'e hastened hv Lord Fairfax's sending 
the youthful Washiii-loii to survey his lands near 'the Potcmiac. Whih' en- 
gaged in this work, Washington f reiiuent ly met small parties of friendly 
Indians. The presence of these natives was not a rare thing in the South 
Branch country. Trees are still pointed out as the corners or lines of sur- 
veys made by Washington, 


About this time the lands on the Greenbrier River were attracting 
attention. A large grant was made to the Greenbrier Company; and in 
1749 and 1750 John Lewis surveyed this region, and settlements grew up in 
a short time. The land was no better than the more easily accessible land 
east of the Alleghany Mountains; but the sjiirit of adventure which has 
al\\a\'s liccn characteristic of the American people, led the daring pioneers 
iiilo I he wilderness west of the mountains, and from that time the outjiosts 
of settlements moved down the Greenbrier and the Kanawha, and in twenty- 
two years had reached the Ohio River. The frontiersmen of Greenbrier 
were always foremost in repelling Indian attacks and in carrying the war 
into the enemy's country. 

The eastern counties grew in population. Prior to the outbreak of the 
French and Indian War in 1755, there were settlements all along the 
Potomac River, not only in Jefferson, Berkeley and Hampshire, but also in 
Hardy, Grant and Pendleton Counties. It is, of course, understood that 
those counties, as now named, were not in existence at that time. 

The Alleghany Mountains served as a barrier for awhile to keep back 
the 1i(]c of fiiji;;i'ution from the part of the State lying west of that range; 
but w hell j)i-aif was restoi'ed after the French and Indian War the western 
vallt'ys so<jn had their settlements. Explorations had made the country 
fairly well known prior to that time as far west as the Ohio. Immense 
tracts of land had been granted in that wilderness, and surveyors had been 
sent to mark the lines. About the time of the survey of the Greenbrier 
country, the Ohio Company sent Christoi^her Gist to explore its lands 
already granted and to examine West Virginia, Ohio and Kentucky for 
choice locations in view of obtaining future grants. Mr. Gist, a noted char- 
acter of his time, and a companion of Washington a few years later, per- 
formed his task well, and returned with a rejjort satisfactory to his em- 
ployers. He visited Ohio and Kentucky, and on his return passed up the 
Kanawha and New Rivers in 1751, and climbed to the summit of the ledge of 
rocks now known as Hawk's Nest, or Marshall's Pillar, overhanging the 
New River, and from its summit had a view of the mountains and inhospit- 
able country. 

In speaking of the exploration and settlement of West Virginia, it is 
worthy of note that the Ohio River was explored by the French in 1749; but 
they attempted no settlement within the borders of this State. 

Had Virginia allowed religious freedom, a large colony would have been 
planted on the Ohio Company's lands, between the Monongahela and the 
Kanawha, about 1750, and this would probably have changed the early his- 
tory of that part of West Virginia. A colony in that territory would have 
had its influence in the subsequent wars with the Indians. And when we 
consider how little was lacking to form a new state, or province, west of 
the Alleghanies about 1772, to be called Vandalia, it can be understood what 
the result might have been had the Ohio Company succeeded in its scheme 
of colonization. Its plan was to plant a colony of two hundred German 
families on its land. The settlers were to come from eastern Pennsylvania. 
All arrangements between the company and the Germans wove satisfactory, 
but when the hardy Germans learned that they would be in lln- luoviuce of 
Virginia, and that they must become members of the Eui^'lisli Clmrch or 
suffer persecution in the form of extra taxes laid on dissenters by the Eins- 
copacy of Virginia, they would not go, and the Ohio Company's colonization 
scheme failed. 


Another effort to colonize the lands west of tlie Alleprhanies, and fi-ora 
which much min:ht have come, also failod. This att<Mii]it was miulc l)y Vir- 
ginia. In IT")!; the "House of Hui-.-^-css.'S (.tlrrcd i'i-< -t.^sta ii1 s.-tt I.ts west of 
the Alleglianies, in Au,u:usta c<>un1\-, Icii yi'ai'.s' cxcnipliiiii I'l-oiii taxes: aiid 
the offer was sul)S(H(U('ii1ly incicascil to liilcm ycais' cMMiiiilioii. Tlic wai' 
with the Preneli an.l Indians i.ut a sin], to all coiduiy.alion iM'ojccts. Vir- 
ginia hadenou.<,'h lo do lakiiiL'-carc dl' lici' scH Irincuts aloiiL; \\\r western bor- 
der without inert M si I i,a- 1 \\>- task by advaneiuK tlie frontier sevunty-tive miles 
westward. Tlie Hist settlement, if the occupation by three white men may 
be called a settlt'inent. on the Monongahela was made about 1752. Thomas 
Eckerly and two brolheis, from eastern Pennsylvania, took up their home 
there to escajie military duty, they being opposed to war. They wished to 
live in jjeace remote from civilized man, but two of them fell victims to the 
Indians while the third w^as absent. Prior to 1753 two families had built 
houses on the headwaters of tiie Monongahela, in what is now Randolph 
County. The Indians murdered or drove them out in 1753. The next set- 
tlement was by a small colony near Morgantown under the leadership of 
Thomas Decker. This was in 17."if^, wliile the French and Indian War was 
at its height. The colony was exteiiniiiatid liy Indians. 

In 1763, October 7, a proclamation was issued by the King of England 
forbidding settlers from taking up land or occupying it west of the AUe- 
ghanies until the country had been bought from the Indians. It is not 
known what caused this sudden desire for justice on the ]mrt of the king, 
since nearly half the land west of the Alleiihanies. in tJiis Slate, had already 
been granted to companies or indi\ idn.als; and, since ;he Indians did not 
occupy the land and there was no tribe within reach of it with any right to 
claim it, either by occupation, conquest or discovery. Governor Fauquier, 
of Virginia, issued three proclamations warning settlers west of the moun- 
tains to withdraw from tlie lands. No attention was paid to the proclama- 
tions. The Governors of Virginia and I'ennsyU ania were ordered, 1705, to 
remove the settlers by force. In ITfiii and the next yeai' snldiers from Fort 
Pitt, now Pittsburg, were sent into West Virginia to ili.-5possess the settlers. 
It is not ijrobable that the snldiers were over-zealous in carrying out the 
commands, for the injustice and nonsense of such orders must have been 
apjmrent to the dullest soldier in the West. Such settlers as were driven 
away returned, and affairs went on as usual. Finally I'ennsyvania bought 
the Indian lands within its borders; but Virginia, alter that date, never paid 
the Indians for any lands in West VirgiTiia. Tin- inrenMing order was the 
first one forbidding settlements in West A'irginia noith ol the K'anawliaand 
west of the Alleghanies. Anniher ordei- was is^ned ten years later. Both 
were barren of results. The second will be siwlcen of more at length in 
the account of the incorporation of part of Ohio in the Pi'ovince of Quebec. 
Settlements along the Ohio, above and below Wheeling, were not made 
until six or seven years after the close of tlie French and Indian War. 
About 1769 and 1770 the Wetzels and Zanes tool: np land in that vi.inily, 
and others followed. Within a few years W'heelini^- and t he teiTilni\\ aliove 
and below, formed the most ■i)ros])erous cnnnnunitx west of Iht' Alleghanies. 
That part of the State sntfered from Indians who <anie from Ohio, but the 
attacks of the savages could not lirealc up the settlements, and in 1790, five 
yeai's before the close of the Indian war, Ohio County had more than five 
thousand inhabitants, and Monongalia had nearly as many. 

During the Revolutionary War parts of the interior of the State were 


occulted by white men. Harrison County, in the vicinity of Clarksburg and 
further west, was a tloui-ishing' community four or five years before the 
Revolution. Si't11ci-s pnsli.Ml ii]> the West Pork of the Monongahela, and 
the site of Weston, in Tjcwis ( 'oiuity, was occupied soon after. Long before 
that time frontiiM-sini Ml liad tln/ir cabins on the Tygart Valley River as far 
south as the site of l!i>\rily, in Randolph County. The first settlement in 
Wood County, ncai- I •arl<i'rsburg, was made 1773, and the next year the site 
of St. George, in Tuck-i'i- County, was occupied by a stockade and a few 
houses. Monroe County, in the soutlieasternpart of the state, was reclaimed 
from the wildei'uess fifteen years before the Revolution, and Tyler county's 
first settlement dates bacli to the year 1776. Pocahontas was occuijied at a 
date as early as any county west of the Alleghanies, there being white set- 
tlers in 1749, but not many. Settlements along the Kanawha were pushed 
westward and reached the Ohio River before 1776. 

The population of West Virginia at the close of the Revolution is not 
Icnown. Perhaps an estimati- dl thiiiy-five thousand would not be far out 
of the way. In 1790 the puinilalinn dl' the territory now forming Vir- 
ginia was 55,873; in 1800 it was 7^, •''.)!', a '.rain of nearly forty per cent, in 
ten years. In 1810 the ijopulaiion was in,"i,4ii9, a gain of thirty-five per 
cent, in the decade. The 2J0i)uiati(.)n in l^i'n was 1:!(),7(')H, a gain of nearly 
twenty-three per cent. In 1830 there wi' re I7ii,'.*i'i, a gain in ten yeai's of 
over twenty-two jaer cent. In 1840 the p(>i)nlati(>n was i.'"_'4,ri.';7, a gain of 
more than twenty-one per cent. The population in Is^jO was 30i',313, a gain 
in the decade of more than twenty-five per cent. In i860 the ^jopulation 
was 376,388, a gain of more than twenty-two per cent. In 1870 the popula- 
tion was 442,014, a gain in ten years of nearly fifteen per cent. In 1880 the 
poi)ulation of tlie State was 618,457, a gain of twenty-six per cent. In 1890 
the population of the State was 762,794, a gain of more than twenty-three 
l^er cent, in ten years. 

Land was abundant and cheap in the early days of West Virginia set- 
tlements, and the State was generous in granting land to settlers and to 
companies. There was none of tlie formality required, which has since been 
insisted ujDon. Pioneer's usually located on such vacant lands as suited 
them, and they attendcfl tn securing a title afterwards. What is usually 
called the "touialuiwlc right" was no right in law at all; but the persons 
who had sucli supjiDsi'd i-ights were usually given deeds for what they 
claimed. This process (•(insisted in deadening a few trees near a spring or 
broolc, and cutting tlie claimant's name in the bark of trees. This done, he 
claimed tlic iidjaccnt land, and his right was usually respected l)y the fron- 
tier ijeopie, liut there was very naturally a limit to his pretensions. He 
must not claiui too much; and it was considered in his fa\or it he made some 
improvements, such as jjlanting corn, within a reasonable time. The law 
of Virginia gave such settler a title to 400 acres, and a pre-emption to 1,000 
more, adjoining, if he built a log cal)in on the claim and raised a crop of 
corn. Coiiiuiissioners were a| ipoint ed from time to time, some as early as 
1779, who \isit<'(i <iii1ereni >ei i leiueuis and gave certificates to who 
furnished sati.sfaclory pi'ooi' that they had complied with the law. These 
certificates were sent to Richmond, and if no jirotest oi- contest wa,s filed in 
six months, the settler was given a deed to the hind. It can thus be seen 
that a tomahawk right could easily be merged iuLo a settler's right. He 
could clear a little laud, build his hut, and he usually obtained the land. 
The good locations were the first taken, and the poorer land was left until 


somebody wanted it. The survey.s were usually made in the crudest man- 
ner, often without accuracy and without ascertaining whether they over- 
lapped some earlier claim or not. The foundation was laid for many future 
law suits, some of which may still be on the court dockets of this State. It 
is said that there are places in West Virginia where land titles are live 
deep. Some of them are old colonial grants, stretching perhaps across two 
or three counties. Others are grants made after Virginia became a mem- 
ber of the United States. Then follow sales made subsequently by parties 
having or claiming a right in the land. The laws of West Virginia are such 
that a settlement of most of these claims is not difficult where the metes 
and bounds are not in dispute. 

After the Revolution Virginia sold its public land usually in the follow- 
ing manner: A man would buy a warrant, for say ten thousand acres, and 
was given a certificate authorizing him to locate the land wherever he could 
find it. He could select part of it here, another part there, or he could sell 
his warrant, or part of it, to some one else, and the purchaser could locate 
the land. Land warrants were often sold half dozen times. There were 
persons who grew wealthy buying warrants for large tracts, from fifty 
thousand to one hundred thousand acres, and selling their warrants to dif- 
ferent parties at an advanced price. Nearly all the land in West Vii-ginia 
west of the AUeghanies, if the title is traced back, will be found to have 
been obtained originally on these land warrants. The most of the land east 
of the AUeghanies was originally granted by the King of England to com- 
panies or individuals. This title is called a "Crown Grant." Thei-e are 
also a few "Crown Grants" west of the AUeghanies, but the most of the 
land west of the mountains belonged to the State of Virginia at the close of 
the Revolution. None of it ever belonged to the United States. 



Indians enter largelj' into the early history of the State, and few of the 
early settlements were exemjit from their visitations. Yet, at the time 
West Virginia first became known to white men, there was not an Indian 
settlement, village or camp of any considerable consequence within its 
bcH'ders. There were villages in the vicinity of Pittsburg, and thence north- 
ward to Lake Erie and westward into Ohio; but West Virginia was vacant; 
it belonged to no tribe and was claimed by none with shadow of title. There 
were at times, and i^erhaps at nearly all times, a wigwam here or there 
within the borders, but it belonged to temporary sojourners, hunters or fish- 
ermen, who exjjected to remain only a shoi't time. So far as West Virginia 
is concei-ned, the Indians were not dispossessed of it by the white man, and 
they were never justified in waging war for any wrong done them within 
this State. The white race simply took land which they found vacant, and 
dispossessed nobody. 

There was a time when West Virginia was occupied by Indians, and 
they were driven out or exterminated; but it was not done by the white 
race, but by other tribes of Indians, who, when they had completed the 
work of destruction and desolation, did not choose to settle on the land they 
had made their own by conquest. This war of extermination was waged 
between the years 1656 and 1672, as nearly as the date could be ascertained 
by the early historians, who were mostly missionaries among the tribes 
further north and west. The conquerors were the Mohawks, a fierce and 
powerful tribe whose place of residence was in western New York, but 
whose warlike excursions were carried into Massachusetts, Virginia, Penn- 
sylvania, West Virginia, and even further south. They obtained firearms 
from the Dutch colonies on the Hudson, and having learned how to use 
them, they became a nation of conquerors. The only part of their con- 
quests which comes within the scope of this inquiry was their invasion of 
West Virginia. A tribe of Indians, believed to be the Hurons, at that time 
occupied the country from the forks of the Ohio southward along the 
Monongahela and its tributaries, on the Little Kanawha, on the Great 
Kanawha and to the Kentucky line. During the sixteen years between 
1656 and 1672 the Mohawks overran the country and left it a solitude, ex- 
tending their conquest to the Guyandotte River. There was scarcely a 
Huron left to tell the tale in all this State. Genghis Kahn, the Tartar, did 
not exterminate more completely than did those Mohawks. If there were 
any Huron refugees who escaped they never returned to their old homes to 
take up their residence again. 

There is abundant evidence all over the State that Indians in consider- 
able numbers once made their home here. Graveyards tell of those who 


died in times of peace. Graves are numerous, sometimes singly, sometimes 
in large aggregations, indicating that a village was near by. Flint arrow- 
lioails ar(> round i'\-cry\\ii»'ri', l)Ut ari' iiKirc numerous on rivi'i- bottoms and 
on l(.'\-(.'l lii,nd ncir s|ii-in!4-s, wlici'c Nillan'fs and camps would most lilci'ly be 
located. Tlic houses of th.' t rilx'siiii^ii uciv built of the most lliuisy luate- 
rial, and no traces of them ai-<' loiind, (■xcc])t lircplaci's, which may occa- 
sionally Ijc located on accouii! of chai'i-oal and ashes which i-emain till the 
present dtiy a-nd may be uneailluMl a fool oi- more helow the surface of the 
ground. iJound those tiivs, it the imaM'inal ion nia.v fal<ethe place of his- 
torical records, sal llie wild huntsmen after the chase was over; and while 
they cook. H I theirvenison 1 hey tai lanl ot the past and planned for the future, 
but how long ago no man knows. 

As to who occupied the country before the Hurons, or how long the 
Hurons held it, history is silent. There is not a legend or tradition coming 
down to us that is wortliy of credence. There was an ancient race here 
which built mounds, and the evidence found in the mounds is tolerably con- 
clusive that the peo]ile who built them were hei'e long before any Indians 
with whicli we ai'i' aii|nainted. But the concensus of o]iinion among schol- 
ars of today is ihat the Indians and Moun<ll>uilders were the same people. 
All piisitixc e\idence points to that conclusion, while all negative evidence 
gives way upon being investigated. It th<- (heoi-y of some writers were sub- 
stant iaiecl, namely, that the Moundbuilders wei'e related to the jieoples who 
built thi' pvraniids in Mexico and Central America, it would still show the 
]\1oiiiuil>uil(le,s to have l-.eeii Indians; for, notwithstanding marked differ- 
ences in indiistrv, civilization and languages, the Aztecs and Mayas of 
Mexico were and are Indians as ti'ulyas tlie Turk is a Mongolian. The 
limits of this work will not jiermit an extended discnssi(m of the puzzling 
question of the origin oi the Indians. It is a, question wdiich history has 
not answered, and pei-haps never will answer. It the answer ever is given 
it will prohaldybe by geology, for history cannot reach so far into the past. 
Th.e lavoiit<' conclu.sion of most authors formerly was that America was 
peopled ironi Asia by way of Bei-ings Strait. It could have been done. 
But the hyi)othe.sis is as reasonable that Asia was peopled by emigrants 
from America who crossed Berings Strait. It is the same distance across, 
going west or couiing east; and there is no historical e\ idence that America 
was not ]ieo|ile(| lirst; or that both the old world and lb.' new wei-.. not peo- 
Ijled at the same t i me, or that each was not pen pled independently of the 
other. Since the dawn of history, and as far back- into pichi^torit times as 
the an:ilysis of languages can throw any light, all gi-eal migrations have 
been wesiward. No westward migration would have gi \cn America its in- 
hai>itaids from Asia; but a migration from the west won Id ha\-e [leojjled 
Asia from America. As a matter of fact, Berings Strait is so narrow that 
the ti'ibes on either side can cross to the other at pleasure, and with less 
difticulty tiian the Auiazon river can be crossed near its mouth. It was long 
the opinion of ethnologists that a comparison of the gi-amniatical constiaic- 
tion of a iaiv^e namber ol' the Indian languages would reveal ( hai'acteristies 
showing that all had a. connnou origin. But the studs has been l>ari-en of 
results up to tlie present time. The language of the Indians is a i>uzzle, 
unless it Ije acce])l:ed as true that there is no common Ihread through all 
leading to one .source. Thej'e were eight Indian languages east oi the Mis- 
sissippi at the coming of the Europeans. 

The fact is so well established that it admits of no doubt that America 

St. I.nAv 


til.' S1;|1 

[.".,r w 

all 111.' 



was occupied by man long before the dawn of history in the old world or 
the new. Stone hatchets and other irajilements of war or the chase, now 
found buried in tlu' irrav.'llcft liy i.-i' sheets which covered tlie Ohio and 
the Ui^per Mississippi A':illi'ys sh.iw Unit men were there at a time which, 
at the lowest cstiiiiul.', was tlinnsaiuls ot' before the date i>'iven in 
clii-<)n.)l(.<,'-\- for Ihc i-r.'ali.iii .>r A.laiii. AiiK'i'i.-a hail i..")] il.' who 'were no 
doubl .-.M'val wilh 111.' in-.'lii^M.ri.' sava-.'s wii., lou;,l,i ti-,vs aii.l h venas in 
the cav.'S .)r Kii-land an. I Fi'an..'._'. It is, th.T.jl'.r.j, uu idle waste of time to 
seek in r<'.-.)i(l.'d history for clews to the origin of America's lirst peojjle. 
It would l>t' as protiUible to inquire whether the oak tree originated in the 
old world or th.' n.'W. 

The number of Indians inhabiting a given territory was siii-piisingly 
small. They could hardly be said to occupy the land. Th.'v liad s.'tUe- 
ments here and thei'e. Of the number of Hurons in the limits <<{' this State 
before the Mohawlc in\asion, thor.' is no I'.'.'oi-.l and im est iuiat.'. i^robably 
not more than th.' jtr.'s.'ut nuinli.'r oi' iiiliahilaiils in ihc Slat.' capital, 
Charleston. This \\ill app.'ar ri^'as.inald.j ^\•llen it is staled lluu, aci'ording 
to the missionary .■.'iisiis, iu 1040, the total number of Indians in the terri- 
tory east of the Mississippi, north of the Gulf of Mexico and south of the 
iver, was less than one-fourth of tlie pi-esent population of 
'st Virginia. The total imial:.';- i-. [.la.-! ai Ls(),000. Nearly 
who were concernc.l in ih.' i:..;.!.-!- wars in West Virginia 
livcl ill '• Hii... There were many villay.s in ihat Stat..', and it was den.sely 
poi)ulat.'i] ill (■.)miiai'isoii with soiii.' of t he . .th.^i's; yet there were not, per- 
ha]is. Hfl.'.'ii th.iusaii.l lii.lians in ohi,,, aii'l I h.'y could not jjut three thous- 
and warrioL-s in the ti.'lil. The army ( i.'iii'ral Forbes led against Fort 
Duquesne (Pittsburg) iu 17.'.'- v,as pmhahly larL'cr than could have been 
mustered by the Indians of Ohio, Imliaiia aii.l Illinois combined, and the 
numbtn- did not exceed six th. aisand. Thu Indians were able to harrass the 
fi-onf i.'r of AVcst N'irgiiua for a quarter of a century by prowliag about in 
siiiail bands an. I striking the defenseless. Had they organized an army 
and fought pitehctl battle they would have been subdued in a few months. 

Wliile the Indians roamed over the whole country, hunting and fishing, 
they yet had paths which they followed when going on long journeys. 
Those iiaths were not made with tools, but were simply the result of walk- 
ing uj^on them for gcncralions. Tli.y n.-arly always followed the best 
grades to be found, an<l HKi.l.'rn roa-l-mal: is have profited by the skill of 
savages in selecting th.' most i>!'a.-ti.-al.'l.' r.)nl.'s. Those paths led long dis 
tances, and in one gi'ii.'ral <liivcli.>n, uii\ai'yiiig from beginning to end, 
showing that they wei'.' ii.>l ina.l.' at ha j>haz;oard, but with" design. Thus, 
cros.singWestVii-ginia, tli.' ( 'ala wba vrarijath led from New York to Georgia. 
It entered West Viriiania from i-'ayette County, I^•llns^:l vania, cro.ssed Clieat 
River at theuioulh.)l (ii-assy i;iin, passed in a .lii-. lim south by south- 
west through 1 1;.' Slat.', an. I iva.-li.'d tlip headwai.'rs ul tliu Holsten River 
in Vir-inia, ami tli.'ii.-.' .■..nlinucd Ihrouirh North ('ai-oliua, South Carolina 
and il is said r.'ach.'dj ;.-ii--ia. Th.' jial ii '.vas ■,'>■. II d: dined when the country 
was lirst settled, but at the present lime lew ti'aces of it remain. It was 
never an Indian thoroughfare after white men liad jdaiated settlements in 
West Virginia, for the reason that the Indian tribes of Pennsylvania and 
New York had enough war on hand to keep them busy without making long 
excursions to the south. It is not recoi'ded that any Indian ever came over 
this trail to attack the frontiers of West Virginia. The early settlements 


in Pennsylvania to the north of us cut off incursions from that quarter. A 
second path, called by the early settlers Warrior Branch, was a branch of 
the Catawba path. That is, tliey formed one i.atli soutliward from New 
York to southern Pennsylvania, where they s.'iMialcd, and llio Warj'ior 
Branch crossed Cheat River at McFarland's, u >,< ml liwcst.M-ly direction 
through the State and entci-.-(l sout'iicni Ohio and ]kis>.mI ii Mo Kentucky. 
Neither was this trail mucli iisrd in :iltacking the cailv sell h incuts in this 
State. It is highly probable that l)otli this and i\u- ( 'aiawiM pallj were fol- 
lowed by the Mohawks in their wars a.i^MiiisI (lie JliiiMiis in WCst V'iiicinia, 
but there is no positive proof that such was 1lic .asc Imlian villa-v-, were 
always on or near large trails, and by lollowiny llicsc and llicir !n-anches 
the invaders would be led directly to the homes of the native tribe which 
they were bent on exterminating. 

There were other trails in tlie State, some of them api^avently very old, 
as if they had been used fc»i- many K-ciii'ialions. TItt,' was one, sDnirtimes 
called the Eastern Path, which came Ohio. cros-.c,l il,,- nciilhein part 
of West Virginia, through Pi-.-stoii .uid MondnL^ilia ('oanlies, and c-mliiiued 
eastward to the South Branch of the Potomac. Tliis path v^'as made long 
before the Ohio Indians had any occasion to wage war upon white settlers, 
but it was used in their attacks upon the frontiers. Over it the Indians 
traveled who harrassed the settlements on the South Branch; and later, 
those on the Monongahela and Cheat Rivers. The settlers whose homes 
happened to lie near this trail were in constant danger of attack. During 
the Indian wars, after 1776, it was Ihi' cns1<i!ii \\n- scouts to watch s(nne of 
the li>ading trails near the crossing of th.-i )liio, and when a parly of Indians 
were advan(ang to outrun them and i-cpoit I he dan-'er in lime hir the set- 
tlers to take refuge in forts. Many niassacies were averted in this way. 
There was a trail leading from llie ( )hio i;i\ ei- up the Little Kanawha, to 
and across the AUeghanies, passing tiii-on.s^-h Kandolph County. 

The arms and ammunition with whidi the tmiians longid: the ])ioneers 
of this State were obtained from white traders; or, as li-oin 177(1 to 17^;;! or 
later, were often supplied by British agents. The worst dc>predations which 
West Virginia suffered from the Indians were committed with arms and 
ammunition obtained from the British in Canada. This was during the 
Revolutionary War, when the British made allies of the Indians and urged 
them to harrass the western frontiers, while the British regular army 
fought the Colonial army in the eastern States. 



For the first twenty-five years after settlements were commenced in the 
present territory of West Virginia there was immunity from Indian depre- 
dations There was no occasion for tionlilc No tril)c occupied the South 
Branch Valley when the first colony was inado; and tlie outposts of the 
white man could Jiiive V>een ])uslii'il aii'oss lln' State until the Ohio River 
was i-i'aclicd \\ilhon1 tal\iii,i;»laii!ls claiiiii'd or occupied by Indians, except, 
])cilia|is, in thi' i-asr of 1 wo oi- Dirci' \i'ry small camps; and this most likely 
would lia\i' bi'cn do!ir \\i1lionl coiiflii/t with the Indians, had not Europeans 
stiri'i'd iiji those uiirorliinatc childn'ii of the forest and sent them against 
the i-olonists. This was done l>y two European nations, first by Prance, 
and afterwards 1)\- iMiL'laud. TliiTc were five Indian wars waged against 
AVest Vir.uinia; the \Vai- of 177.'. and Pontiac's War of 1763, the Dunmore 
War (it 17, 1 and \\\f U'e-.olul ionary War ot 1776, and the war which broke 
out ahnni I7'.ii) and ended in I7'.te. in the war beginning in 1755. the French 
ineiie 1 and assisted ihe Indians a.uaiust the English settlements along the 
wliele westei-M border. Ill tile Ivevol lit ioiiary War the British took the 
plaee ol Ihe l''ieiicli as allies of the Indians, and armed the savages and 
sent tlieiii a;j-ains1 the -.ettlers. 

It is |Ho)iei that the causes bringing about the French and Indian War 
he lirielly leeiteif. No State was uiore deeply concerned than West Virginia. 
Had Ihe plan which was oullined i>y the French been successfully executed, 
West \'ir:,'i Ilia, would have heen l''i'eiMli instead of English, and the settle- 
ments by tile Virginians would not h,i\e been carried west of the Alleghany 

Mountains. The eoast of A lica, li-oiii .\hiine to Georgia, was colonized 

by English. The h'reneh eolunized Canada and Louisiana. About the mid- 
dle of the fi,i,dileenth eeiil iiry the design, which was probably formed long 
l)efore, of coiiiieei in-- Canada and Louisiana by a chain of forts and .settle- 
ments, began to he put into execution by the King of France. The cordon 
was ii) ileseeiid 1 h" Alleghany [{iver from Lake Erie to the Ohio, down that 
sli'eaiii to the Missi.-vsippi and theiK'e to New Orleans. The purpose was to 
(■online I he l<]nglish lo t he st rip of country between the AUeghanies and the 
1 would iiK hide New England, the greater part of New 
)elaware, Eastern Pennsylvania, the greater part of 
I'iii conntii's of West Virginia, Virginia, North Caro- 
:nid (e'oigia. The French hoped to hold eveiything 
I Miuntains. The immediate territory to be secured 
Aiissioiiaiies of the Catholic Church were the first 
expicjreis, not only of the Ohio, but of the Mississippi Valley, almost to the 
head springs of that river. The French took formal possession of both 
banlis of the Oh;o in the summer of 1749, when an expedition under Cap- 

Atl.anlie t )e 


York, New 


Marvlaiid, : 


lina. Soiilh 


west ..t Ihe 


was ihe ( )|l 

io V; 


tain Celeron descended that stream and claimed the country in the name of 

The determination of the Virginians to plant settlements in the Ohio 
Valley was speedily observed by the French, who set to work to counteract 
the movement. Tiit\v bpwan the ei'ection of a fort on one of the upper trib- 
utaries of the All.'p-liaiiy I'i\i'r, and no one dduliti'd that they intended to 
move south as ia|ii'lly as llicy cmild ci-rrt their cm-don of forts. Governor 
Dinwiddle, of Vir.Lriuia, decided to send a iiiesseiii^-ei- to the French, who 
already were in the Ohio Valley, to asic Inr wliat |ini-i)nse they were there, 
and 1(1 inlMnii them that the territory Ijeloiiii-ed to l<:ii--laiid. It was a mere 
dildoiiialic formality not expected to do any ^'o;xL This was in the autumn 
of ir.'i;!, and Geory-e Washin£i:ton, then twenty-one years of age, was com- 
missioned to bear the dispatch to the French commander on the Alleghany 
River. Washiti.Lrt'in left A\^illi;Miishui'g, Vir'ginia^, November 14, to travel 
nearly si.x luindi-eil miles IlirDUirli a wilderness in the dead of winter. 
When he readied lli.' sell lemeiil on llie Ah nionirahela where Christopher 
Gist and twelve families had pkuitetl a colony, I\lr. Gist accompanied him 
as a guide. The message was delivered to tte French commandant, and 
the reply liaving been written, Washington and Gist set out upon their re- 
turn, on foot. The boast of the French that they would build a fort the 
next summer on the present site of Pit tshnrii- seemed likely to be carried 
out. Was] ungton counted two hundred canoes at I he French fort on the 
Alleghany River, and he rightly conjectured thai a descent of that stream 
w a s CO n t e m 1 ilated. After many dangers and hardships, Washington reached 
Williamslmrg and delivered to Governor Dinwiddle the reply of the French 

It was now evident that the Frencli intended to resist by force all at- 
tempts by the English to colonize the Ohio Valley, and were resolved to 
meet force with force. (4()vernoi- Diiuviddie called the Assembly together, 
and troops weiv sent into the Ohio Valley. Early in April, 1754, Ensign 
Ward, with a small detachment, reai-hed the forks of the Ohio, where Pitts- 
burg now stands, an<l commenciMl t hi' ei'ect ion of a fort. Here began the 
conflict whicdi ra-ed mr sevei'aj years along the Ix.rder. MMie Fivncdi soon 
appeared in the .\lleuhany with one thonsand men and eighteen cannon 
and gave the English one hour in whit-li to lea\'e. Resistance was out of 
the question, and Ward retreated. The French built a fort which they 
called Duquesne, in honor of the Governor of Canada. 

The EnglLsh were not dis])osed to subunt tamely. Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania took steps to recover llie site at the loi'k-s of the ( )hio, and to build 
a fort there. Troops were raised and placed in command of Colonel Fry, 
while Washington was made lieutenant colonel. The instiaictions from 
Governor Dinwiddie were explicit, ami directed that all persons, not the 
subjects of Great Britain, who should attempt to take possession of the 
Ohio River or any of its tril;u1aries, lie killed, destroyed or seized as pris- 
oners. When the troops under Washington reached the Great Meadows, 
near the present site of l".i-owns\ ille, rennsylvania, it was learned that a 
party of about fifty French were piMwling in the vicinity, and had an- 
nounced their purpose of attacking the tirst English they should meet. 
Washington, at the head of fifty men, left the camp and went in search of 
the French, came upon their camp early in the morning, fought them a few 
minutes, killed ten, including the commander, Jumonville, and took twenty- 
two prisoners, with the loss of one killed and two or three wounded. The 


wounded Frenchmen were tomahawked by Indians who accompanied Wash- 
ington. The prisoners were sent to Williamsburg, and, at the same time, 
an urgent appeal for more troops was made. It was correctly surmised 
that as soon as news of the fight reached Fort Duquesne, a large force of 
French would be sent out to attack- the English. Re-euforcemeuts were 
raised in Virginia and Avcri' ;iil\-;i need as far as Winrl;csi-i-; Imi, with the 
exception of an indeiH •111 lent .(iinpMny from South C'ai:>iiii.i. immIit ('a|itain 
Mackay, no re-enforcciiicnls ivacliiMl ihe Great Mea>i<>\vs wImmv ihr whole 
force under Colonel Fry amounted to less than four hundred men. 

The Indians had been friendly with the settlers on the western border 
up to this time: but the French having supplied them bountifully with 
l)resGnts, induced them to talcc n]i arms against the English, and hencefor- 
ward the colonists were oblis^'fd to tiixlit both the French and the Indians. 
Of the two, the Indians were the more troublesome. They had a deep- 
seated hatred for the English, who had dispossessed the tribes east of the 
Alleghanies of their land, and were now invading the territory west of 
that range. But it is difficult to see wherein they hoped to better their 
condition by assisting tlie Kiench to gain joossession of the country; for the 
Fi-ench were as greedy foi' la ml as were the English. However, the major- 
ity of the nati\'es could not i-eason far enough to see that jiaiut; and with- 
out mucli investigation they took uj:) arms in aid of tlie ]<'i-eiii'Ii. 

After tilt.' Isiaish with Jumonville's party, it was e\| led that the 

French in strong force would nuirch from Fort Da(|Uesiie to di-ive baclc the 
English. Washington built Wnr\ Ne.'essitv ahoin tilty mile-, we.l of ( 'um- 
berland, Maryland, and iMv|,ared lor a tivlit. New,-, was hr..n-lil to him 
that large re-enforcemeids Irom Canada had i-eaehed Foi-t l)iii|uesne: and 
within a few days he was told that the French were on the road to meet 
him. K.x|>ecled re-enforcements from Virginia had not arri\ed, and Wash- 
ington, wli<.> had a<lvanced a few miles toward the Ohio, fell baek- to Fort 
Necessity. There, on the third of .Inly, 1754, was fought a long and obsti- 
nate battle. Many Imliaus wei'e with the French. Washington olfered 
battle in o^jen ground, but the offei- was declined, and the English withdrew 
within the entrenchments. The enemy fouglit from behind trees, and some 
climbed to the top of trees in oi'der ti; get aim at those in the tren(die.s. 
Tlie French were in su]ierior force and hetter armed than t Ih> l-aigiish. A 
I'ain dampened the ammunition and rendei-.'d manv of t h" -nns ( d' 1 he Ru- 
<i:lish iiseh'ss. W'ashin-ton sniavn<liTed uiioii honoraide terms, whieh i)er- 
mitted his soldiers to retain Ih-ar arms and l.aggag.^, lait not the artillery. 
The i-apitiilation oemirred .Inly I, ITTil, just tweuty-iwo y<'ai-s before the 
sinaiiii-' ot the Decdaration of I iide| len.liaiee. Tlie l^'renrh and Indians num- 
bered seven liundr.-d men. loss in killed was t h ree ,)r four. The 
loss of the English was thii-t v. 

When WashiiiL'tuii ■> defeaied army retreated from the Ohio Valley, the 
French were in full iiossessiiai, and no attempt was made that year to re- 
new the war in that quarter; but the jjurpose on the part of the English of 
driving the French out was not abandoned. It was now understood that 
notliing less than a general war could settle the question, and both sides 
I ) re pa red for it. It was with some surprise, in January, I?.'.'., that a jirop- 
osilion was received from Fi-anee that the portion of the(>hio N'alley be- 
tween that river and the AUegluinies be abandoned by both the Fi'en<di and 
the English. The latter, believing that the opi^ortunity had arrived for 
driving a good bargain, demanded that the French destroy all their forts 


as far as the Wabash, raze Niagara and Crown Point, surrender the Penin- 
sula of Nova Scotia, and a strip of land sixty miles wide along the Bay of 
Fundy and the Atlantic, and leave the intermediate country as far as the 
St. Lawrence a neutral desert. France rejected this proposition, and un- 
derstanding the designs of the English, sent three thousand men to Can- 
ada. General Braddock was already on his way to America with two regi- 
ments; yet no war had been declared between England and France. The 
former announced that it would act only on the defensive, and the latter 
affirmed its desire for peace. 

When General Braddock arrived in America he prepared four expedi- 
tions against the French, yet still insisting that he was acting only on the 
defensive. One was against Nova Scotia, one against Niagara, one against 
Crown Point, and the fourth against the Ohio Valley, to be led by Braddock 
in person. This last is the only one that immediately concerns West Vir- 
ginia, and it will he s]»)k-t'ii of somewhat at length. 

Mucli was i'X|icr(c(l (iT Braddock's campaign. He jwomised that he would 
be beyond the AUi'ghanios by the end of April; and after taking Fort Du- 
quesne, which he calculated would not detain him above three days, he 
would invade Canada by ascending the Alleghany River. He expressed no 
concern from attacks by Indians, and showed contempt for American sold- 
iers who were in his own ranks. He expected his British regulars to win 
the battles. Never had a general gone into the tidd with so little compre- 
hension of wliat he was undertaking. He paid for it with his life. He set 
out u]K)n liis march from Alexandria, in Virginia, and in twenty-seven days 
reached Cuinherland with about two thousand men, some of them Virginians. 
Here Wasliington i()in<'d liim as one of his aids. From Cumberland to Fort 
Duquesne tlie distaiire was one hundred and thirty miles. The army could 
not march five miles a day. Everything went wrong. Wagons broke down, and cattle died, Indians hai'rassed the flanks. On June 19, 1755, the 
army was divided, and a little more than half of it pushed forward in hope 
of capturing Fort before the arrival of re-enforcements from Can- 
ada. The progress was yet slow, altogether the heaviest baggage had been 
left with the rear division. Not until July 8 was the Monongahela reached. 
This river was forded, and marching on its southern bank, Braddock de- 
cided to strike terror to the hearts of his enemies by a parade. He drew 
his men up in line and spent an hour marching to and fro, believing that 
the French were watching his every movement from the bluff beyond the 
river. He wished to impress them with his power. The distance to Fort 
Duquesne was less than twelve miles. He recrossed the river at noon. 
This was July 9. Tlie tioops pushed forward toward the fort, and while 
cutting a road througli the woods, were assailed by Fi'ench and Indians in 
ambush. The attack was as iine.\i>eeted as it was violent. It is not neces- 
sary to enter fully into details of the battle which was disastrous in the 
extreme. The regular soldiers were panic stricken. They could do nothing 
against a concealed foe which numt)ered eiglit hundred and sixty-seven, of 
which only two hiindicd and thirty were French. About the only fighting 
on the side of the English was done by the Virginians under Washington. 
They prevented the slaughter of the whole army. Of the three com- 
panies of the Virginians, scarcely thirty remained alive. The battle con- 
tinued two hours. Of the eighty-six olKcers in the army, twenty-six were 
killed, and thirty-seven were wounded. One-half of the army was killed or 
wounded. Washington had two horses killed under him and four bullets 


passed through his coat; yet he was not wounded. The regulars, when 
they had wasted their ammunition in useless firing, broke and ran like 
sheep, leaving everything to the enemy. The total loss of the English was 
seven hundred and fourteen killed and wounded. Braddock had five horses 
shot under him, and was finally mortally wounded and carried from the 

The battle was over. The English were flying toward Cumberland, 
throwing away whatever impeded their retreat. The dead and wounded 
were abandoned on the field. Braddock was borne along in the rout, con- 
scious that his wound was mortal. He spoke but a few times. Once he 
said: "Who would have thought it!" and again: "We shall know better 
how to deal with them another time. " He no doubt was thinking of his re- 
fusal to take Washington's advice as to guarding against ambuscades. 
Braddock died, and was buried in the night about a mile west of Port 
Necessity. Washington read the funeral service at the grave. 

When the fugitives reached the division of the army under Dunbar, 
which had been left behind and was coming up, the greatest confusion pre- 
vailed. General Dunbar destroyed military stores to the value of half a 
million dollars. In his terror he destroyed all he had, and when he recov- 
ered his senses he was obliged to send to Cumberland for provisions to keep 
his men alive until he could reach that place. He did not cease to retreat 
until he reached Philadelphia, where he went into winter quarters. The 
news of the defeat s^jread rapidly, and the frontier from New York to North 
Carolina prepared for defense, for it was well known that the French, now 
flushed with victory, would arm the Indians and send them against the ex- 
posed settlements. Even before the defeat of Braddock a taste of Indian 
warfare was given many outposts. After the repulse of the army there 
was no protection for the frontiers of Virginia except such as the settlers 
themselves could provide. One of the first settlements to receive a visit 
from the savages was in Hampshire County. Braddock's defeated army had 
scarcely withdrawn before the Indians appeared near the site of Romney 
and fired afr some of the men near the fort, and the fire was returned. One 
man was wounded, and the Indians, about ten in number, were driven off. 
Early the next spring a party of fifty Indians, under the leadership of a 
Frenchman, again invaded the settlements on the Potomac, and Captain 
Jeremiah Smith, with twenty men, went in pursuit of them. A fight 
occurred near the source of the Capon, and the Frenchman and five of his 
savages were killed. Smith lost two men. The Indians fled. A few days 
later a second jaarty of Indians made their way into the country, and wex-e 
defeated by Captain Joshua Lewis, with eighteen men. The Indians sep- 
arated into small jsarties and continued their depredations for some time, 
appearing in the vicinity of the Evans fort, two miles from Martinsburg; 
and later they made an attack on Neally's fort, and in that vicinity commit- 
ted several murders. A Shawnee chief named Killbuck, whose home was 
probably in Ohio, invaded what is now Grant and Hardy Counties in the 
sjjring of 1756, at the head of sixty or seventy savages. He killed several 
settlers and made his escape. He appeared again two years later in Pen- 
dleton County, where he attacked and captured Fort Seybert, twelve miles 
west of the jDresent town of Franklin, and put to death more than twenty 
persons who had taken refuge in the fort. The place no doubt could have 
made a successful resistance had not the inmates trusted to the promise of 
safety made by the Indians, who thus were admitted into the fort, and at 


once massacred the settlers. In 1758 the Indians again invaded Hampshire 
County and killed a settler near Porks of Capon. This same year eight 
Indians came into the country on the South Branch of the Potomac, near 
the town of Petersburg, and attacked the cabin of a man named Bingaman. 
They had forced their way into the house at night, and being at too close 
quarters for shooting, Bingaman clubbed his rifle and beat seven of them 
to death. The eighth made his escape. In 1759 the Indians committed 
depredations on the Monongahela River near Morgantown. 

The settlement on the Roanoke River in Virginia, between the Blue 
Ridge and the Alleghany Mountains, was the theatre of much bloodshed in 
1756 by Indians from Ohio who made their way, most jDrobably, uj) the 
Kanawha and New River, over the Alleghanies. An expedition against 
them was organized in the fall of 1756, under Andrew Lewis, who eighteen 
years later, commanded the Virginians at the battle of Point Pleasant. Not 
much good came of the expedition which marched, with great hardship, 
through that jiart of West Virginia south of the Kanawha, crossed a corner 
of Kentucky to the Ohio River, where an order came for the troops not to 
cross the Ohio nor invade the country north of that river. They returned 
in dead of winter, and suffered extremely from hunger and cold. This is 
notable from the fact that it was the first military expedition by an English- 
speaking race to reach the Ohio River south of Pittsburg. 

During the three years following Braddock's defeat the frontier was 
exposed to incessant danger. Virginia appointed George Washington com- 
mander-in-chief of all forces raised or to be raised in that State. He trav- 
eled along the frontier of his State, inspecting the forts and trying to bring 
order out of chaos. His picture of the distress of the people and the hor- 
rors of the Indian warfare is summed up in these words, addressed to the 
Governor of Virginia: "The supplicating tears of the women, and the mov- 
ing petitions of the men, melt me with such deadly sorrow that I solemnly 
declare, if I know my own mind, I would offer myself a willing sacrifice to 
the butchering enemy, provided that would contribute to the people's ease." 
He found no adequate means of defense. Indians butchered the people and 
fled. Pursuit was nearly always in vain. Washington insisted at all times 
that the only radical remedy for Indian depredation was the capture of Port 
Duquesne. So long as that rallying point remained the Indians would be 
armed and would harrass the frontiers. But, in case the reduction of Port 
Duquesne could not be undertaken, Washington recommended the erection 
of a chain of twenty-two forts along the frontier, to be garrisoned by two 
thousand soldiers. 

In 1756 and again in 1757 propositions were laid before the Government 
of Virginia, and also before the commander-in-chief of the British forces in 
America, by Washington for the destruction of Port Duquesne. But in 
neither of these years was his proposition acted upon. However, the British 
were waging a successful war against the French in Canada, and by this 
were indirectly contributing to the conquest of the Ohio Valley. In 1758 
all was in readiness for striking a blow at Fort Duquesne with the earnest 
hope that it would be captured and that rallying point for savages ulti- 
mately destroyed. The settlements in the eastern j^art of West Virginia 
were nearly broken up. Only two frontier forts west of Winchester held 
out, exclusive of military iwsts. Both were in Hampshire County, one at 
Romney, the other on Capon. The savages swarmed over the Blue Ridge 
and spread destruction in the Valley of Virginia. 


General Joseph Forbes was given command of the army destined for 
the expedition against Fort Duquesne. This was early in 1758. He had 
twelve hundred Highlanders; two thousand seven hundred Pennsyl- 
vanians; nineteen hundred Virginians, and enough others to bring the total 
to about six thousand men. Washington was leader of the Virginians. 
Without him, General Forbes never would have seen the Ohio. The old 
General was sick, and his progress was so slow that but for the eilorts 
of Washington in pushing forward, the army could not have reached 
Duquesne that year. A new road was constructed from Cumberland, 
intended as a permanent highway to the West. When the main army had 
advanced about half the distance from Cumberland to Fort Duquesne, Major 
Grant with eight hundred Highlanders and Virginians, went forward to 
reconnoitre. Intelligence had been received that the garrison numbered 
only eight hundred, of whom three hundred were Indians. But a re-inforce- 
ment of four hundred men from Illinois had arrived unknown to Major 
Grant, and he was attacked and defeated with heavy loss within a short 
distance of the Fort. Nearly three hundred of his men were killed or 
wounded, and Major Grant was taken prisoner. 

On November 5, 1758, General Forbes arrived at Hannastown and 
decided to advance no further that year; but seven days later it was learned 
that the garrison of Fort Duquesne was in no condition for resistance. 
Washington and twenty-five hundred men were sent forward to attack it. 
General Forbes, with six thousand men, had spent fifty days in opening 
fifty miles of road, and fifty miles remained to be opened. Washington's 
men, in five days from the advance from Hannastown, were within seven- 
teen miles of the Ohio. On November 25 the fort was reached. The Fi'ench 
gave it up without a fight, set fire to it and fled down the Ohio. 

The power of the French in the Ohio Valley was broken. When the 
despairing garrison applied the match which blew up the magazine of Fort 
Duquesne, they razed their last stronghold in the Valley of the West. The 
war was not over; the Indians remained hostile, but the danger that the 
country west of the Alleghanies would fall into the hands of France had 
passed. Civilization, progress and religious liberty were safe. The gate- 
way to the great West was secured to the English race, and from that day 
there was no pause until the western border of the United States was 
washed by the waters of the Pacific. West Virginia's fate hung in the 
balance until Fort Duquesne fell. The way was then cleared for coloniza- 
tion, which speedily followed. Had the territory fallen into the hands of 
France, the character of the inhabitants would have been different, and the 
whole future history of that part of the country would have been changed. 
A fort was at once erected on the site of that destroyed by the French, and 
in honor of William Pitt was named Fort Pitt. The city of Pittsburg has 
grown up around the site. The territory now embraced in West Virginia 
was not at once freed from Indian attacks, but the danger was greatly 
lessened after the rendezvous of Fort Duquesne was broken up. The sub- 
sequent occurrences of the French and Indian War, and Pontiac's War, as 
they affected West Virginia, remain to be given. 

The French and Indian War closed in 1761, but the Pontiac War soon 
followed. The French had lost Canada and the Ohio VaUey and the English 
had secured whatever real or imaginary right the French ever had in the 
country. But the Indians rebelled against the English, who had speedily 
taken possession of the territory acquired from France. There is no evi- 


dence that the French gave assistance to the Indians in this war; but much 
proof that more than one effort was made by the French to restrain the 
savages. Nor is the charge that the French supplied the Indians with 
ammunition well founded. The savages bought their ammunition from 
traders, and these traders were Froucli, English and American. In Novem- 
ber, 1700, Rogers, an English ot'Hrci-, sailed over Lake Erie to occupy 
French ix)sts further west. While sailing on the Lake he was waited upon 
by Pontiac, who may be regarded as tlu' ahlrst Indian encountered by the 
English in America. He was a Delaware ra|i1i\e who had been adopted by 
the Ottawas, and became their chief, lie liailed IJogers and informed him 
!hat the country belonged neither to the Kieueh nor English, but to the 
Indians, and told him to go back. This Kogers refused to do, and Pontiac 
set to work forming a confederacy of all I lie Indians between Canada on the 
north, Tennessee on the south, the Mississippi on the west and the AUegha- 
nies on the east. His object was to expell the English from the country 
west of the Alleghany mountains. 

The sujieriority of Pontiac as an organizer was seen, not so much in his 
success in forming a confederacy as in kee^Mng it secret. He struck in a 
moment, and the blow fell almost simultaneously from Illinois to the 
frontier of Virginia. In almost every case the forts were taken by surprise. 
Detroit, Fort Pitt and Fort Ligonier were almost the only survivors of the 
fearful onset of the savages. Detroit had warning from an Indian girl who 
boti'ayod tli(> plans of the savages; and wluMi Pontiac, with hundreds of his 
warriors, appeared in person and a1 templed to take the Fort by surprise, he 
found the I'^nglisli i-eady for liinn lie ix'sieLjed the post nearly a year. The 
siege began May 9, ITGci, andtlie ra])idity with which blows were struck 
over a wide expanse of country shows Imw tlioi-ougli were his arrangements, 

and how well the secret Ifad I n K'ejit. l'\irt, near Lake Erie, 

was surprised and ca]3ture(l May Iti, S(n'i;'n days ai'ter Detroit was besieged. 
Nine days later the Fort at the mouth of St. .Joseph's was taken; two days 
later Fort Miami, on the Maumee river, fell, also taken by surjirise. On 
June 1 Fort Ouatamon in Indiana, was surjirised and captured. Machili- 
mackinac, far north in Michigan, fell also. This was on June 2. Venango 
in Pennsylvania, near Lake Erie, was captured, and not one of the garrison 
escaped to tell the tale. Fort Le Boeuf, in the same part of the country, 
fell June 18. On June 22 Presque Isle, now Erie, Pennsylvania, shared the 
fate of the rest. On June 21 Fort Ligonier was attadved and the siege was 
prose(nt(>(l with vigor, but the place held out. It was situated on the road 
betweeii l-'oit Pitt and Cumberland. On June 22 the savages appeared 
beloie t lie w alls of Fort Pitt, but were unable to take the place by surprise, 
allhough it was in ])0(n- condition for defonso. The fnrtiticntions had never 

been tinished, an<l a 11 1 had opened three sides. The coinniandant raised 

a rampart of logs round the lA.ii and pre|,ared tc light till the last. The 
garrison nuniliered three hundred and thiily men. More t hau two hundred 
women and children from the fi'ontiers had talo^i I'efuge there. 

Desi)airin.i,'-or taking theFoj'l l)y force, the savages tried treachery, and 
ask(Ml foi- a pai-ley. When it was granted, the chief told the commandant of 
tile Wort lliat resistance was useless; that all the forts in the North and 
West had lieen taken, and that a large Indian army was on its march to 
Fort. Pitt, wliich must fall. But, said the chief, if the English would aban- 
don the Fort and retire east of the Alleghanies, they would be permitted to 
depart in peace, provided they would set out at once. The reply given by 


the commandant was, that he intended to stay where he was, and that he 
had iDrovisions and ammunition sufficient to enable him to hold out 
against all the savages in the woods for three years, and that English 
armies were at that moment on their march to exterminate the Indians. 
This answer apparently discouraged the savages, and they did not push the 
siege vigorously. But in July the attack was renewed with great fury. 
The savages made numerous efforts to set the Port on fire by discharging 
burning arrows against it; but they did not succeed. They made holes in 
the river bank and from that hiding jjlace ke^it up an incessant fire, but the 
Port was too strong for them. On the last day of July, 1763, the Indians 
raised the siege and disappeai-ed. It was soon learned what had caused 
them to depart so suddenly. General Bouquet was at that time marching 
to the relief of Port Pitt, with five hundred men and a large train of sup- 
plies. The Indians had gone to meet him and give battle. As Bouquet 
marched west from Cumberland he found the settlements broken up, the 
houses burned, the grain unharvestecf, and desolation on every hand, show- 
ing how relentless the savages had been in their determination to break up 
the settlements west of the AUeghanies. 

On August 2, 1763, General Bouquet arrived at Port Ligonier, which 
had been besieged, but the Indians had departed. He left part of his stores 
there, and hastened forward toward Port Pitt. On August 5 the Indians 
who had been besieging Port Pitt attacked the troops at Bushy Run. A 
desperate battle ensued. The troops kejjt the Indians otf by using the 
bayonet, but the loss was heavy. The next day the fight was resumed, the 
Indians completely surrounding the English. The battle was brought to a 
close by Bouquet's stratagem. He set an ambuscade and then feigned 
retreat. The Indians fell into the trap and were routed. Bouquet had lost 
one-fourth of his men in killed and wounded; and so many of his jDack horses 
had been killed that he was obliged to destroy a large part of his stores 
because he could not move them. After a march of four days the army 
reached Port Pitt. 

The effect of this sudden and disastrous war was wide-spread. The 
settlers fled for protection from the frontiers to the forts and towns. The 
settlements on the Greenbi-ier were deserted. The colonists hurried east of 
the Alleghanies. Indians prowled through all the settled portions of West 
Virginia, extending their raids to the South Branch of the Potomac. More 
than five hundred families from the frontiers took refuge at Winchester. 
Amherst, commander-in-chief of the British forces in America, was enraged 
when he learned of the destruction wrought by the Indians. He offered a 
reward of five hundred dollars to any jierson who would kill Pontiac, and 
he caused the otter of the reward to be jiroclaimed at Detroit. "As to 
accommodation with these savages," said he, "I will have none until they 
have felt our just revenge." He urged every measure which could assist in 
the destruction of the savages. He classed the Indians as "the vilest race 
of beings that ever infested the earth, and whose riddance from it must be 
esteemed a meritorious act for the good of mankind." He declared them 
not only unfit for allies, but unworthy of being respected as enemies. He 
sent orders to the officers on the frontiers to take no prisoners, but kill all 
who could be caught. 

Bouquet's force was not large enough to enable him to invade the Indian 
country in Ohio at that time; but he collected about two thousand men, and 
the next summer carried the- war into the enemy's country, and struck 


directly at the Indian towns, assured that by no other means could the sav- 
ages be brought to terms. The army had not advanced far west of Pitts- 
burg when the tribes of Ohio became aware of the invasion and resorted to 
various devices to retard its advance and thwart its purposes. But General 
Bouquet proceeded rapidly, and with such caution and in such force, that 
no attack was made on him by the Indians. The alarm among them was 
great. They foi'esaw the destruction of their towns; and "when all other 
resources had failed, they sent a delegation to Bouquet to ask for peace. 
He signilied his willingness to negotiate peace on condition that the Indians 
surrender all white prisoners in their hands. He did not halt however in 
his advance to wait for a reply The Indians saw that the terms must be 
accepted and be complied with without delay if they would save their 
towns. The army was now within striking distance. The terms were 
therefore accei^ted, and more than two hundred prisoners, a large number 
of whom were women and children, were given up. Other prisoners 
remained with the Indians in remote jjlaces, but the most of them were sent 
to Port Pitt the next spring, according to promise. Thus closed Pontiac's 

An agency had been at work for some time to bring about peace, but 
unknown to the English. It was the P'rench, and without their co-opera- 
tion and assistance it is probable the Indians would not have consented to 
the peace. DeNeyon, the French officer at Fort Chartres, wrote a letter 
to Pontiac advising him to make peace with the English, as the war be- 
tween the French and English was over and there was no use of further 
bloodshed. This letter reached Pontiac in November while he was con- 
ducting the siege of Detroit, and its contents becoming known to his Indian 
allies, greatly discouraged them; for it seems that up to that time they 
believed they were helping the French and that the French would soon 
appear in force and fight as of old. When the Indians discovered that no 
help from France was to be exiiected, they became willing to make peace 
with Bouquet, and for ten years the western frontiers enjoyed immunity 
from war. 



The iM-ogress of the settlement of West Virginia from 1764 to 1774 has 
been noticed elsewhere in this volume. There were ten years of peace; but 
in the year 1774 war with the Indians broke out again. Peace was restored 
before the close of the year. The trouble of 1774 is usually known as Dun- 
more's War, so called from Lord Dunmore who was at that time Governor 
of Virginia, and who took personal charge of a portion of the army operat- 
ing against the Indians. There has been much controversy as to the 
origin or cause of hostilities, and the matter has never been settled satis- 
factorily to all. It has been charged that emissaries of Great Britain 
incited the Indians to take np arms, and that Dunmore was one of the 
moving sjiirits in this disgraceful consijiracy against the colony of Vir- 
ginia. It is further charged that Dunmore hoped to see the army under 
General Andrew Lewis defeated and destroyed at Point Pleasant, and that 
Dunmore's failure to form a junction with the army under Lewis according 
to agreement, was intentional, premeditated and in the hope that the 
southern division of the army would be crushed. 

This is a charge so serious that no historian has a right to put it for- 
ward without strong evidence for its support — much stronger evidence 
than has yet been brought to light. The charge may be neither wholly 
true nor wholly false. There is not a little evidence against Dunmore in 
this campaign, especially when taken in connection with the state of feel- 
ing entertained by Great Britain against the American colonies at that 
time. In order to present this matter somewhat clearly, yet eliminating 
many minor details, it is necessary to sjieak of Great Britain's efforts to 
annoy and intimidate the colonies, as early as 1774, and of the spirit in 
which these annoyances were received by the Americans. 

Many jjeoiole, both in America and England, saw, in 1774, that a revo- 
lution was at hand. The Thirteen Colonies were arriving very near the for- 
mation of a confederacy whose avowed purpose was resistance to Great 
Britain. Massachusetts had raised ninety thousand dollars to buy powder 
and arms; Connecticut provided for military stores and had proposed to 
issue seventy thousand dollars in paper money. In fact, preparations for 
war with England were going steadily forward, although hostilities had not 
begun. Great Britain was getting ready to meet the rebellious colonies, 
either by strategy or force, or both. Overtures had been made by the 
Americans to the Canadians to join them in a common struggle for liberty. 
Canada belonged to Great Britain, having been taken by conquest from 
France in the French and Indian War. Great Britain's first move was 
regarding Canada; not only to prevent that country from joining the Amer- 
icans, but to use Canada as a menace and 'a weapon against them. Eng- 


land's plan was deeijly laid. It was largely the work of Thurlow and Wed- 
derburn. The Canadians were to be granted full religious liberty and a 
large share of political liberty in order to gain their friendship. They were 
mo.stly Catholics, and with them England, on account of her trouble with 
her Thirteen Colonies, tools the tirst step in Catholic emancipation. Having 
won the Canadians to her side, Great Britain intended to set up a separate 
empire there, and expected to use this Canadian empire as a constant threat 
against the colonies. It was thought that the colonists would cling to 
England through fear of Canada. 

The plan having been matured, its execution was at once attempted. 
The first step was the emanciimtion of the Canadian Catholics. The next 
step was the passage of the Quebec Act, by which the Province of Quebec 
was extended southward to take in western Pennsylvania and all the coun- 
try belonging to England north and west of the Ohio River. The King of 
England had already forbidden the planting of settlements between the 
Ohio River and the Alleghany Mountains in West Virginia; so the Quebec 
Act was intended to shut the English colonies out of the West and confine 
them east of the Alleghany Mountains. Had this plan been carried into 
execution as intended, it would have curtailed the colonies, at least Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia, and prevented their growth westward. The country 
beyond the Ohio would have become Canadian in its laws and people, and 
Great Britain would have had two empires in America, one Catholic and the 
other Protestant; or, at least, one composed of the Thirteen Colonies and the 
other of Canada extended southward and westward, and it was intended 
that these empires should restrain, check and threaten each other, thus 
holding both loyal to and dependent upon Great Britain. 

Some time before the passage of the Quebec Act a movement was on 
foot to establish a new province called Vandalia, west of the Alleghanies, 
including the greater part of West Virginia and a portion of Kentucky. 
Benjamin Franklin and George Washington were interested in it. The 
capital was to be at the mouth of the Kanawha. The province was never 
formed. Great Britain was not inclined to create states west of the moun- 
tains at a time when efforts were being made to confine the settlements east 
of that range. To have had West Virginia and a portion of Kentucky neu- 
tral ground, and vacant, between the empire of Canada and the empire of 
the Thirteen Colonies would have pleased the authors of the Quebec Act. 
But acts of Parliament and proclamations by the King had little effect on 
the pioneers who jjushed into the wilderness of the West to find new homes. 

Before proceeding to a narration of the events of the Dunmore War, it 
is not out of place to inquire concerning Governor Dunmore, and whether, 
from his past acts and general character, he would be likely to conspire 
with the British and the Indians to destroy the western settlements of Vir- 
ginia. Whether the British were capable of an act so savage and unjust as 
inciting savages to harrass the western frontier of their own colonies is not 
a matter for controversy. It is a fact that they did do it during the Revo- 
lutionary War. Whether they had adojited this policy so early as 1774, and 
whether Governor Dunmore was a party to the scheme, is not so certain. 
Therefore let us ask, who was Dunmore"/ He was a needy, rapacious Scotch 
earl, of the House of Murray, who came to America to amass a fortune and 
who at once set about the accomplishment of his object, with little regard 
for the rights of others or the laws of the country. He was Governor of 
New York a short time; and, although jDOor when he came, he was the 


owner of fifty thousand acres of land when he left, and was preparing to 
decide, in his own court, in his own favor, a large and unfounded claim 
which he had preferred against the Lieutenant Governor. When he as- 
sumed the office of Governor of Virginia his greed for land and money- 
knew no bounds. He recognized no law which did not suit his jjurpose. He 
paid no attention to positive instructions from the crown, which forbade 
him to meddle with lands in the west. These lands were known to be be- 
yond the borders of Virginia, as fixed by the treaties of Port Stanwix and 
Lochaber, and therefore were not in his jui'isdiction. He had soon acquired 
two large tracts in southern Illinois, and also held lands where Louisville, 
Kentucky, now stands, and in Kentucky ojniosite Cincinnati. Nor did his 
greed for wealth and power stop with a]>i)r(i]iri,iting wild lands to his own 
use; but, without any warrant in law, and in \ iohilion of all justice, he ex- 
tended the boundaries of Virginia north w aid to include much of western 
Pennsylvania, Pittsburg in particular; and he made that the county seat of 
Augusta County, and moved the court from Staunton to that place. He 
even changed the name Fort Pitt to Port Dunmore. He appointed forty- 
two justices of the peace. Another appointment of his, as lieutenant of 
militia, was Simon Girty, afterwards notorious and infamous as a deser- 
ter and a leader of Indians in their war against the frontiers. He appointed 
John Connolly, a physician and adventurer, commandant of Port Pitt and 
its dependencies, which were suppoised to include all the western country. 
Connolly was a willing tool of Dunmore in many a fjuestionable transaction. 
Court was held at Fort Pitt until the spring of I77(i. Tln' name of Pitts- 
burg first occurs in the court recoi'ds on August L't), 177ii. W'lu'n Connolly 
received his appointment he issued a i^roclamation setting forlii liis author- 
ity. The Pennsylvanians resisted Dunmore's usurpation, and arrested Con- 
nolly. The Virginia authorities arrested some of the Pennsylvania officers, 
and there was confusion, almost anarchy, so long as Dunmore was Gov- 

Dunmore had trouble elsewhere. His domineering conduct, and his 
support of some of Great Britain's oppressive measures, caused him to be 
hated by the Virginians, and led to armed resistance. Thereui»n he threat- 
ened to make Virginia a solitude, using these words : " I do enjoin the mag- 
istrates and all loyal subjects to repair to my assistance, or I shall consider 
the whole country in rebellion, and myself at liberty to annoy it by every 
possible means, and I shall not hesitate at reducing houses to ashes and 
spreading devastation wherever I can reach. With a small body of troops 
and arms, I could raise such a force from among Indians, negroes and other 
persons as would soon reduce the refractory people of the colony to obe- 
dience." The laatriots of Virginia finally rose in arms and drove Governor 
Dunmore from the country. Some of these events occnricil after the Dun- 
more War, but they serve to show what kind of a man i la^ ( lovcrnor was. 

Perhaps the strongest argument against the claim tliat Dunmore was 
in league with Indians, backed by Great Britain, to push back the frontier of 
Virginia to the AUeghanies, is the fact that Dunmore at that time was 
reaching out for lands, for himself, in Illinois, Kentucky and Ohio; and his 
land-grabbing would have been cut off in that quarter had the plan of limit- 
ing Virginia to the AUeghanies been successful. He could not have carried 
out his schemes of acquiring possessions in the West had the Quebec Act 
been sustained. Dunmore did more to nullify the Quebec Act than any one 
else. He exerted every energy to extend and maintain the Virginia frontier 


as far west as possible. By this he opposed and circumvented the efforts 
of Great Britain to shut Virginia off from the West. He and the govern- 
ment at home did not work together, nor agree ou the frontier policy; and 
in the absence of direct proof sustaining the charge that he was in con- 
spiracy with the British government and the Indians to assail the western 
frontier, the doubt as to his guilt on the charge must remain in his favor. 
Prom the time of the treaty made by General Bouquet with the Indians, 
1764, to the year 1773, there was peace on the frontiers. War did not break 
out in 1773, but murders were committed by Indians which excited the fron- 
tier settlements, and were the first in a series which led to war. The In- 
dians did not comply with the terms of the treaty witli Gcmeral Bouquet. 
They had agreed to give up all prisoners. It was snhsccincntly ascertained 
that they had not done .so. Some captives were still lidd in bondage. But 
this in itself did not lead to the war of 1774. The froutiiTs, since Bouquet's 
treaty, had been {lushed to the Ohio River, in West Virginia, and into Ken- 
tucky. Although Indians had no right by occupation to either West Vir- 
ginia or Kentucky, and althougli they had given up by treaty any right 
which they claimed, they yet loolcfd with anger ujion the planting of settle- 
ments in those countries. The lirst act of hostility was committed in 1773, 
not in West Virginia, but furthci' snuth. A party of emigrants, under the 
leadership of a son of Daniel Boone, were on their way to Kentucky when 
they were set upon and several were killed, including young Boone. There 
can be no doubt that this attack was made to ijrevent or hinder the coloni- 
zation of Kentucky. Soon aftei* this, a white man killed an Indian at a 
horse race. This is said to have been the first Indian blood shed on the 
frontier of Virginia by a white man after Pontiac's War. In February 1774 
the Indians killed six white men and two negroes; and in the same month, 
on the Ohio, they seized a trading canoe, killed the men in charge and 
carried the goods to the Shawnee towns. Then the white men began to 
kill also. In March, on the Ohio, a fight (X'currcd between settlers and 
Indians, in which one was killed on eacli side, and five canoes were taken 
from the Indians. John Connolly wrote from I'ittshurg on April 21, to the 
peojile of Wheeling to be on their guard, as the Indians were preiaaring for 
war. On April 215, two Indians were killed on the Ohio. On Ajiril 30, nine 
Indians were killed on the same river near Steuben ville. On May 1, 
another Indian was killed. About the same time an old Indian named Bald 
Eagle was killed on the Monongahela River; and an Indian camp on the 
Little Kanawha, in the jjresent county of Braxton, was broken up, and the 
natives were killed. This was believed to have been done by settlers on the 
West Fork, in the present County of Lewis. They were induced to take 
that course by intelligence from the Kanawha River that a family named 
Stroud, residing near the mouth of tln' ( iaulcy Ki\cr had l>(>cn niurdennl, 
and the tracks of the Indians led t<i\\ai'd the Indian camii on the Little 
Kanawha. When this camp was visited \>v tlif pai-lv oT white men from the 
West Pork, they discovered d 
Stroud family. Thereiipon the 
men with Governor Dunmore's 
the Muskingum River. The ivt 
which theinluibitants could find 
to Williamsburg entreating as 

discussed the dangers from Indians ou the frontier, and intimated that the 
militia should be called out. Governor Dunmore ordered out the militia of 

othing and ol hei' ; 
Indians were desti 

irtieK's belonging to the 
oved. A pai-ly of white 

permission dest ro 
mtiers were alaian 
shelt.ei- frmn attac 
sistance. The Vii 

,\-ed an Indian village on 
ed. Forts were built in 
K's. Expresses wen; sent 
•ginia Assembly in May 


the frontier counties. He then proceeded in person to Pittsburg, partly to 
look after his lands, and partly to take charge of the campaign against the 
Indians. The Delawares and Six Nations renewed their treaty of peace in 
September, but the Shawnees, the most jjowerf ul and warlike tribe in Ohio, 
did not. This tribe had been sullen and unfriendly at Bouquet's treaty, and 
had remained sour ever since. Nearly all the captives yet in the hands of 
the Indians were held by this fierce tribe, which defied the white man and 
despised treaties. These savages were ruled by Cornstalk, an able and no 
doubt a good man, opijosed to war, but when carried into it by the head- 
strong rashness of his tribe, none fought more bravely than he. The 
Shawnees were the chief fighters on the Indian side in the Dunmore war, 
and they were the chief sufferers. 

After arranging his business at Pittsburg, Governor Dunmore descen- 
ded the Ohio River with twelve hundred men. Daniel Morgan, with a com- 
pany from the Valley of Virginia, was with him. A second army was being 
organized in the southwestern part of Virginia, and Dunmore's instructions 
were that this army, after marching down the Great Kanawha, should join 
him on the Ohio where he promised to wait. The Governor failed to keep 
his promise, but crossed into Ohio and marched against the Shawnee towns 
which he found deserted. He built a fort and sat down to wait. 

In the meantime the army was collecting which was to descend the 
Kanawha. General Andrew Lewis was commander. The pioneers on the 
Greenbrier and New River formed a not inconsiderable part of the army 
which rendezvoused on the site of Lewisburg in Greenbrier County, In 
this army were fifty men from the Watauga, among whom were Evan 
Shelby, James Robertson and Valentine Sevier, names famous in history. 
Perhaps an army composed of better fighting material than that assembled 
for the march to Ohio, never took the field anywhere. The distance from 
Lewisburg to the mouth of the Great Kanawha was about one hundred and 
sixty miles. At that time there was not so much as a trail, if an old Indian 
path, hard to find, is excejited. At the mouth of Elk River the army made 
canoes and embarking in them, proceeded to Point Pleasant, the mouth of 
the Kanawha, which they reached October 6, 1774. Prior to that date 
Simon Girty arrived at Point Pleasant with dispatches from Dunmore, who 
was then at the mouth of the Little Kanawha with his army. The dis- 
patches oi'dered Lewis to proceed to the mouth of the Hockhocking. When 
Girty reached Point Pleasant, Lewis had not arrived, and the dispatches 
were deposited in a hollow tree in a conspicuous place where they would be 
seen. Girty returned to Dunmore's army, which marched to the Hock- 
hocking. Another messenger was sent to Point Pleasant. Scouts passed 
between the two armies, and on October 13 Dunmore ordered Lewis to pro- 
ceed to the Pickaway towns in Ohio. But, in the mean time the battle of 
Point Pleasant had been fought. On October 10 the Indian army under 
Cornstalk arrived, about one thousand in number. The Virginians were 
encamped on the narrow point of land formed by the meeting of the 
Kanawha and Ohio. The Indians crossed the Ohio the evening before, or 
during the night, and went into camp on the West Vii-giuia side, and about 
two miles from the Virginians. They were discovered at daybreak, October 
10, by two young men who were hunting. The Indians fired and killed one 
of them; the other escaped and carried the news to the army. 

This was the first intelligence the Virginians had that the Indians had 
come down from their towns in Ohio to give battle. By what means the 


savages had i-eceived iulormation of the advance of the army in time to 
collect tlu'ir forces and meet itbofo]-o thoOhio River was crossed, has never 
been iisccrtaincd; but it is probable that Indian scouts had watched the 
progress (il (Jeiieial Lewis from the time he took uji his mai'ch from Green- 
brier. Cornstalk laid well his plans for the destruction of the Virginian 
army at Point Pleasant. He formed his line across the neck of land, from 
the Ohio to the Kanawha, and euclosed the Virginians between his line and 
the two rivers. He posted detachments on the farther banks of the Ohio 
and the Kanawha to cut dlT (ii'iicial Lewis should he attempt to retreat 
across either river. Cornstaliv unaut not only to defeat the army but to 
destroy it. The Virginians numbered eleven hundred. 

When the news of the advance of the Indian army reached General 
Lewis, he prepared for battle, and sent three hundred men to the front to 
meet the enemy. The fight began at sunrise. Both armies were soon 
engaged over a line a mile long. Both fought from behind trees, logs and 
whatever would offer protection. The lines were always near each other; 
sometimes twenty yards, .sometinios less: occasionally near enough to use 
the tomahawk. The battle was remaik-able for its obstinacy. It raged six 
hours, almost hand to hand. Then the Indians fell back a short distance and 
took up a strong jjosition, and all efforts to dislodge them by attacks in 
front failed. Cornstalk was along his whole line, and above the din of 
battle his powerful voice could be heard: " Be strong! Be strong!" The 
loss was heavy among the Virginians, and perhaps nearly as heavy among 
the Indians. Late in the aftei'noon Cciicial Lewis discovered a way to 
attack the Indians in flank. A small stream with high banks empties into 
the Kanawha at that 1 mint, and he sent a dctaehment up this stream, the 
movement being ct)neea led I'l-omlhe Indians, and when an advantageous 
point was reached, the sold iei's emci-.Lced and attack-ed the Indians. Taken 
by surprise, the savages retreale<l. This movemeut decided the day in 
favor of the Virginians. The Indians tied a short distance up the Ohio and 
crossed to the western side, the most ol tln^m on logs and rude rafts, proba- 
bly the same on which they had crossed the stream before the battle. The 
Virginians lost sixty men killed and ninety-six woundeck The loss of the 
Indians was not ascertained. They left thirty-three dead on the field, and 
were seen to throw others into the Ohio River. All their wounded were 
carried off. 

The battle of Point Pleasant was the most stubbornly contested of all 
frontier battles with the Indians; but it was by no means the bloodiest. 
Seveial otlhMs could be named in which the loss jf life was much gi-eater; 
notably UraddocU's defeat, and the defeat of General St. Clair. The battle 
of Point Pleasant was also remai'kable from the number of men who 
took part in it who afterwards became noted. Among them may be men- 
tioned Isaac Shelby, the first Govtu-uor of Kentucky; William Campbell, 
the hero of King's Mountain, and who died on the battlefield of Eutaw 
Springs; Colonel .hihn ,Steel, alteiward Governor of Mississippi; George 
Mathews, afteiwaid (Joxeinor ol (leorgia; Colonel William Fleming, Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, and many others. Nearly all the men who were iu that 
battle and afterwai'd returned to their homes, were subsequently soldiers 
of the American army in the war for independence. 

The Indians posse.ssed soldierly qualities which have generally been 
underestimated. On the battlefield they wei-e brave and confident. In 
their pitched battles with American soldiers on the frontiers they were 


nearly always outnumbered, and yet they were defeated with difficulty. 
With a smaller force they defeated Braddock: a smaller force fought Bou- 
quet and almost defeated him. St. Clairs disastrous i-out was caused by 
aninferior force of Indians. After many (Ideals liniii Indians in the North- 
west, they were whipijed only when (Jiunal Wayne attacked them with 
three men to their one. The loss of llie Indians was nearly always smaller 
than that of the force opposing tliem: soniet iiii(>s, as inthecase of Braddock's 
and of St. Clair's defeats, not raoii' llian one-tenth as great. The Indians 
selected their ground for a tiglit witii cunning judgment, unsurpassed by 
any people. They never fought al'ti-r tliey ))egan to loose heavily, but 
immediately retreated. This was the onlv ])olii-y |>')ssible for them. They 
had few men, and if they lost heavily, the loss was ii-i-e]iai-al)le. 

The day following the battle, C4)lonel ('lnislian anivecl with three 
hundred soldiers from Fincastle. Fort Kandolpli was ImiH at Point Pleas- 
ant; and after leaving a garrison there. General Lewis crossed the Ohio 
October 17, and marched nearly a hundred miles to the Seioto River to join 
Governor Dunmore. Before he arrived at Port C'liarlotte, where Dunmore 
was, he received a message from the Governor, ordeiinir hini to stoiJ, and 
giving as a reason that he was about to negotiate a tieaty with the Indians. 
General Lewis and his men refused at first to obey this order. They had 
no love for Dunmore, and they did not regard him as a friend of Virginia. 
Not until a second express arrived did General Lewis obey. 

After the light at Point Pleasant, Cornstalk, Logan and Red Eagle, the 
three principal chiefs who had taken part in the battle, retreated to their 
towns with their tribesmen. .Seeing that pursuit was swift and vigorous, 
Cornstalk called a council and asked what should be done. No one had any 
advice to olfer. He then j^roposed to kill the old men, women and children; 
and the warriors then should go out to meet the invaders and fight till every 
Indian had met his death on the lield of battle. No reply was made to this 
pi'oposition. Thereupon Cornstalk said that since his men would not tight, 
he would go and make i^eace; and he did so. Thus ended the war. Gover- 
nor Dunmore had led an at-niy of Vii-ginians into Oliio, and assumed and 
exercised authority thei'e, thus setting aside an<l nullifying the Act of Par- 
liament which extende<l t he jurisdiction of (^)uel)ec lo the Ohio River. 

The treaty was made at Camp Charlotte. The Indian Logan, Chief of 
the Mingoes, as is generally stated, but there seems to be no evidence that 
he was a chief at all, refused to attend the conference with Dunmore, but 
sent a speech which has become famous because of the controversy which 
it has occasioned. The speech, which nearly every school boy knows by 
heart, is as follows: 

"I appeal t(j any white man to say, if ever he entered Logan's cabin 
hungry, and he gave him not meat, if ever he came cold and naked, and he 
clothed him not. During the course of the last long and bloody war, Logan 
remained idle in his cabin, an advocate of peace. Such was my love for the 
whites that my countrymen pointed as they passed, and said, -Logan is the 
friend of white men." I had even thought to have lived with you, but for 
the injuries of one man, Colonel Cresap, who last sirring in cold blood and 
unprovoked, murdered all the relatives of Logan, not even sparing my 
women and children. There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of 
any living creature. This called upon me for vengeance. I have sought it. 
I have killed many. I have fully glutted my vengeance. For my country 
I rejoice at the beams of peace. But do not harbor the thought that mine 


is the joy of fear. Logan never felt fear. He will not turn on his heel to 
save his life. Who is there to mourn for Logan? Not one." 

The charge has been made that this speech was a forgery, written by 
Thomas Jefferson. Others have charged that it was changed and interpo- 
lated after it was delivered. The part referring to Cresap, in particular, 
has been pointed out as an interpolation, because it is now known, and was 
then known, that Cresap (Captain Michael Cresap was meant) did not mur- 
der Logan's relatives. The facts in regard to the speech are these : Logan 
did not make the speech in person, and he did not write it, and he did not 
dictate it to any person who wrote it; but the speech, substantially as we 
now have it, was read at the conference at Camp Charlotte. Logan would 
not attend the conference. Simon Girty, who was employed as interpreter, 
but who could neither read nor write, was sent by Lord Dunmore from 
Camjj Charlotte to hunt for Logan, and found him in his camp, which seems 
to have been a few miles distant. Logan would not go to the conference, 
and Girty returned without him. As he approached the circle where the 
conference was in progress. Captain John Gibson walked out to meet him. 
He and Girty conversed a few minutes, and Gibson entered his tent alone, 
and in a few minutes came out with a piece of clean paper on which, in his 
own hand, was written the now famous Logan speech. It is probable that 
in the conversation between Logan and Girty, the former had made use of 
sentiments similar to those in the speech, and Girty repeated them, as 
nearly as he remembered them, to Gibson, and Gibson, who was a good 
scholar, put the speech in classic English. At the most, the sentiment 
only, not the words, wex'e Logan's. 



The territory of the present State of West Virginia was not invaded by 
a British army, except one company of forty, during the war for American 
independence. Its remote position made it safe from attaclf from the east; 
but this very remoteness rendered it doubly liable to invasion from the 
west where Great Britain had made allies of the Indians, and had armed 
and sujiplied them, and had sent them against the frontiers from Canada to 
Georgia, with full license to kill man, woman and child. No jiart of America 
suffered more from the savages than West Virginia. Great Britain's pur- 
pose in employing Indians on the frontiers was to harrass the remote 
country, and not only keep at home all the inhabitants for defense of their 
settlements, but also to make it necessary that soldiers be sent to the West 
who otherwise might be emj^loyed in opposing the British near the sea 
coast. Notwithstanding West Virginia's exjwsed frontier on the west, it 
sent many soldiers to the Continental Army. West Virginians were on 
almost every battlefield of the Revolution. The portion of the State east of 
the Alleghanies, now forming Jeiferson, Berkeley, Morgan, Hampshire, 
Hardy, Grant, Mineral and Pendleton counties, was not invaded by Indians 
during the Revolution, and from this region large numbers of soldiers joined 
the armies under Washington, Gates, Greene and other patriots. 

As early as November 5, 1774, an important meeting was held by West 
Virsrinians in which thoy clearly indicated under which banner they would 
be found fighting, if Great Britain persisted in her course of oi^pression. 
This was the first meeting of the kind west of the Alleghanies, and few 
similar meetings had then been held anywhere. It occurred during the 
return of Dunmore's Army from Ohio, twenty-five days after the battle of 
Point Pleasant. The soldiers had heard of the danger of war with England; 
and, although they were under the command of Dunmore, a royal Governor, 
they were not afraid to let the counti'y know that neither a royal Governor 
nor any oue else could swerve tlicm I'l-om their duty as patriots and lovers 
of liberty. The meeting wns lnhi al l^'ort Gower, north of the Ohio River. 
The soldiers passed resoliUiims wliich had the right ring. They recited 
that they were willing and ahh' In all hardships of the woods; to get 
along for weeks witln ml. bread oi- salt, if necessary; to sleep in the open 
air; to dress in sliins if noiliiiiLr flsr could be had; to march further in a day 
than any other men in tiie wcirld; lo use the ritle with skill and with bravery. 
They affirmed their zeal in llie cause of right, and promised continued 
allegiance to the King of F^ULrlaml, luovided he would reign over them as a 
brave and free people. "But," tlicy continued, "as attachment to the real 
interests and just rights of America outweigh every other consideration, we 
resolve that we will exert every jjower within us for the defence of American 


liberty, when regularly called forth by the unanimous voice of our country- 
men." It was such spirit as this, manifested on every occasion during the 
Revolution, which i^rompted Washington in the darkest year of the war to 
exclaim that if driven from every point east of the Blue Ridge, he would 
retire west of the mountains and there raise the standard of liberty and bid 
defiance to the armies of Great Britain. 

At two meetings held May 16, 1775, one at Fort Pitt, the other at 
Hannastown, several West Virginians were present and took part in the 
proceedings. Resolutions were jmssed by which the people west of the 
mountains pledged their sujaport to the Continental Congress, and expressed 
their purpose of resisting the tyranny of the mother country. In 1775 a 
number of men from the Valley of the Monongahela joined Washington's 
army before Boston. The number of soldiers who went forward from the 
eastern jiart of the State was large. 

There were a few persons in West Virginia who adhered to the cause 
of England; and who from time to time gave trouble to the patriots; but 
the prom]itTioss witli which their attemjited risings were crushed is proof 
that trjiitois wrvi' in :i liopi'li'ss minority. The patriots considered them as 
enemi(-s and dcull liarslily with them. There were two attempted uprisings 
in West Virginia, one in the Monongahela Valley., which the inhabitants of 
that region were able to supjDress; the other uprising was on the South 
Branch of the Potomac, in what is now Hardy and Grant Counties, and 
troops were sent from the Shenandoah Valley to put it down. In the 
Monongahela Valley several of the tories were arrested and sent to Rich- 
mond. It is recorded th^ the leader was drowned in Cheat River while 
crossing under guai-d on his way to Richmond. Two men of the Morgan 
family wtic liis i^niaid. The boat upset while crossing the river. It was 
the gcncial inijni'ssion of the citizens of the community that the upsetting 
was not accidental. The guards did not like to take the long journey to 
Riclundiid while their homes and tlic homes of their neighbors were exposed 
to attacl<s tioni Indians. The toiy uprising on the SouthBranch was much 
more serious. The first indicatit)n of trouble was given by their refusal to 
iniy their taxes, or to furnish their quota of men for the militia. Complaint 
was made by the Sheritf of Hamjishire county, and Colonel Vanmeter with 
thirty men was sent to enforce the collection of taxes. The tories armed 
themseJM's, to the lunnlieidf fifty, for resistance, and j^laced themselves 
under tln' leai!eislii|i of .lolin Brake, a German, whose house was above 
Petersburg, in wJiat is now Grant County. These enemies of their country 
had made his place their rendezvous. They met the militia fi-om Hamp- 
shire, but no fight took place. Apparently each side was afraid to begin. 
There was a ])afley in whicli Colonel Vanmeter pointed out to the tories the 
conse(|nence wliicli must follow, if they persisted in their present course. 
He advised tlieni to disiieise, go to their homes and conduct themselves as 
law ahidinir citizens. He left them and marched home. 

'I'lie dislo\a! elements grew in strength and insolence. They imagined 
Dial the aniliorilies were afraid and would not again interfere with them. 
They organized a tompaiiy, elected John Claypole their captain, and pre- 
pared to march off and join the liiitish forces. General Morgan was at that 
time at his home in Fi-eileiicK- County, and he collected militia to the 
number of four hundred, crusst'd the mountain and fell on the tories in such 
dead earnest that they lost all their enthusiasm for the cause of Great 
Britain. Claypole was taken prisoner, and William Baker, who refused to 


surrender, was shot, but not killed. Later a man named Mace was killed. 
Brake was overawed; and after two days spent in the neighborhood, the 
militia, under General Morgan, returned home. The tories were crushed. 
^ A number of them were so ashamed of what they had done that they joined 
the American army and fought as patriots till the close of the war, thus 
endeavoring to redeem their lost re^jutations. 

The contrast between the conduct of the tories on the South Branch 
and the patriotic devotion of the people on the Greenbrier is marked. 
Money was so scarce that the Greenbrier settlers could not pay their taxes, 
although willing to do- so. They fell delinquent four years in succession 
and to the amount of thirty thousand dollars. They were willing to per- 
form labor if arrangements could be made to do it. Viz'ginia agreed to the 
projDOsition, and the people of Greenbrier built a road from Lewisburg to 
the Kanawha River in jiayment of their taxes. 

The chief incidents in West Virginia's history during the Revolutionary 
War were connected with the Indian troubles. The State was invaded four 
times by forces large enough to be called armies; and the incursions by 
smaller parties were so numerous that the mere mention of them would 
form a list of murders, ambuscades and personal encounters of tedious and 
monotonous length. The first invasion occurred in 1777 when Fort Henry, 
now Wheeling, was attacked; the second, 1778, when Port Randolph, now 
Point Pleasant, was besieged for one week, the Indians moving as far east 
as Greenbrier County, where DonnoUy's fort was attacked; the third inva- 
sion was in August, 1781, when Fort Henry was again attacked by 250 In- 
dians under the leadership of Matthew Elliott. The fourth .invasion 
occurred in September, 1782, when Wheeling was again attacked. The 
multitude of incursions by Indians must be jjassed over briefly. The cus- 
tom of the savages was to make their way into a settlement and either lie 
in wait along i^aths and shoot those who attempted to pass or break into 
houses and murder the inmates or take them prisoner, and then make off 
hastily for the Ohio River. Once across that stream, pursuit was not prob- 

The custom of the Indians in taking prisoners, and their great exertion 
to accomjDlish that purpose, is a difficult thing to explain. Prisoners were 
of little or no use to them. They did not make slaves of them. If they 
sometimes received money as ransom for captives the hojie of ransom money 
seems seldom or never to have promjjted them to carry prisoners to their 
towns. They sometimes showed a liking, if not affection, for captives, 
adopted into their tribes and families; but this kindly feeling was shallow 
and treacherous, and Indians would not hesitate to burn at the stake a cap- 
tive who had been treated as one of their family for months if they should 
take it into their heads that revenge for injuries received from others called 
for a sacrifice. The Indians followed no rule or precedent as to which of 
their captives they would kill and which carry to their towns. Thsy some- 
times killed children and spared adults, and sometimes the reverse. 

When the Revolutionary War began the English and the Americans 
strove to obtain the good will of the western Indians. The Americans sent 
Simon Girty and James Wood on a peaceful inission to the Ohio tribes in 
July, 1775. On February 22 of that year Simon Girty had taken the oath 
of allegiance to the King of England, but when war commenced he took sides 
with the Americans. In July, 1775, Congress created three Indian depart- 
ments, that embracing the portions of West Virginia and Pennsylvania west 


of the Alleghanies, to be known as the Middle .Department. Commissioners 
were appointed to establisli and maintain friendly ri'latioTis with the Indians. 
In October of that year di'lc^Mtcs fi-oni scvituI (if the Ohio tribes visited 
Pittsburg, which, .since Scplriril)ri' hiMorc. had Ikmmi (u-cupied by Captain 4 
John Neville and a garrison of one hundred Amei u-aus. The Indian dele- 
gates made a treaty and agreed to remain neutral during the trouble be- 
tween the colonies and Great Britain. 

The British were less humane. Instead of ui-ging tlie savages to 
remain neutral, as the Americans had done, Ihi'v (■xcilid tln' tiilics to lain' 
up the hatchet against the Americans. The siiIim'(|iiciiI honors of the In- 
dian warfare along the frontier are chargealile to lliu JJiitish, wlni rusm-twl 
to "every means which God and nature had placed in their power" to an- 
noy the Americans. The most industrious of British agents in stirring up 
the Indians was Henry Hamilton, who in Ajiril, ITTf), was a])pointed Lieu- 
tenant-Governor and Indian agent, with heacl(|ua iters a1 Detroit. His sal- 
ary was one thousand dollars a year. He i-eadied liis destination Ni)\'eia- 
ber 9, 1775. The Indians flocked to him and importuned liiin lor jieimission 
and assistance to attack the settlements. But Hamilton had m it yel leceived 
instructions from his government, authorizing him to eajpios- imlians, and 
he did not send them to war at that time. In June, 177(3, lieoige Morgan, 
Indian agent for the Middle I)e])a,rtment, held a conference with some of 
the Ohio tribes and succeinled in keeping them away from Deti-oit at that 
time. The suggestion that Indians be employed against the Americans 
came from Governor Hamilton late in 177(). The proposition was eagerly 
accepted; and on March :L'ti, 1777, Loi'd (leoi'ge Germain gave the fatal order 
that Hamilton assemble all thi' Indians jiossible and send them against the 
frontiers, under the leader.shiji of i)r<i|)er jieisons who could restrain tlieui. 
This order was received by GoviM-nor Hamilton in June 1777, and lielore 
August 1 he had sentout fifteen inarandini,'- parties agirregating i^s'.i Indians. 

The year 1777 is called in boi-der liistory the "hloodv year of tlie three 
sevens." The British sent agaiiiist the IVontiei-s e\ei-y Indian who could Ik> 
prevailed upon to go. Pew settlements from New \nrk to l-'icn-ida esc;i]ied. 
In this State the most harm was done on tlie Mojiongahela and along the 
Ohio in the vicinity of Wheeling. Monongalia County wa.s visited twice by 
the savages that year, and a number of ])ersons were Uilleil. A party of 
twenty invaded what is now I\,andol])h county, killed a numher ol settlers, 
took several prisoners and made their esca-pe. It was on Xo\cml)i'r 10 of 
this year that Cornstalk, the Shawnee chief, was assas.^inated at Point 
Pleasant by niilitiamen who assemhled there from ( ;i-e,-nl)rier and else- 
where for ib<' jiurpose of marching against the Indian towns. Earlier in 
the year Cornstalk had come to Kort Ivandolph, at i'oinf I'leasant, (ni a 
visit, and aLso to inform the commandant of the foil that Hie Hritish were 
inciting the Indians to war, and that his own tribe. Hie Shawmis, would 
likely be swept along with the current, in si)ite of his eihuts to Iceep them 
at home. Under these circumstances the commandant of the fort thought 
it best to detain Cornstalk as a hostage to insui-e the neiit rality of his tribe. 
It does not seem that the venerable Chief was unwilling to remain. He 
wanted peace. Some time after that his son came to see him, and crossed 
the Ohio, after making his preseiic<' Known by hallooing from the other 
side. The next day two of Ine militiainen crossed the Ohio to hunt and 
one was killed by an Indian. The other gave the alarm, and the 
militiamen crossed the river and brought in the body of the dead man. The 


soldiers believed that the Inc^an who had committed the deed had come the 
day before with Cornstalk's son, and had lain concealed until an oppor- 
tunity occurred to kill a man. The soldiers were enraged, and started up 
the river bank toward the cabin where Cornstalk resided, announcing that 
they would kill the Indians. There were with Cornstalk his son and 
another Indian, Red Eagle. A sister of Cornstalk, known as the Granadier 
Squaw, had lived at the fort some time as interpreter. She hastened to the 
cabin and urged her brother to make his escape. He might have done so, 
but refused, and admonished his son to die like a man. The soldiers 
arrived at that time and fired. All three Indians were killed. The leaders 
of the men who did it were afterwards given the semblance of a trial in 
Virginia, and were acquitted. 

It is the opinion of those acquainted with border history that the mur- 
der of Cornstalk brought more suffering upon the West Virginia frontier 
than any other event of that time. Had he lived, he would perhaps have 
been able to hold the Shawnees in check. Without the co-operation of that 
bloodthirsty tribe the border war of the succeeding years would have been 
different. Four years later Colonel Crawford, who had been taken 
prisoner, was put to death with extreme torture in revenge for the murder 
of Cornstalk, as some of the Indians claimed. 

Fort Henry was besieged September 1, 1777, by two hundred Indians. 
General Hand, of Fort Pitt, had been informed that the Indiaias were pre- 
paring for an attack in large numbers upon some point of the frontier, and 
the settlements between Pittsburg and Point Pleasant were placed on their 
guard. Scouts were sent out to discover the advance of the Indians in time 
to give the alarm. But the scouts discovered no Indians. It is now known 
that the savages had advanced in small parties, avoiding trails, and had 
united near Wheeling, crossed the Ohio a short distance below that place, 
and on the night of the last day of August approached Fort Henry, and 
setting ambuscades near it, waited for daylight. Port Henry was made of 
logs set on end in the ground, in the manner of jjickets, and about seven- 
teen feet high. There were port holes through which to fire. The garrison 
consisted of less than forty men, the majority of whom lived in Wheeling 
and the immediate vicinity. Early in the morning of September 1 the 
Indians decoyed Captain Samuel Mason with fourteen men into the field 
some distance from the fort, and killed all but three. Captain Mason alone 
reached the fort, and two of his men succeeded in hiding, and finally 
escaped. When the Indians attacked Mason's men, the firing was heard at 
the fort, together with the yells of the savages. Captain Joseph Ogle with 
twelve men sallied out to assist Mason. He was surrounded and nine of his 
men were killed. There were only about a dozen men remaining in the 
fort to resist the attack of four hundred Indians, flushed with victory. 
There were perhajis one hundred women and children in the stockade. 

In a short time the Indians advanced against the fort, with drum and 
fife, and the British flag waving over them. It is not known who was 
leader. He was a white man, or at least there was a white man among 
them who seemed to be leader. Many old frontier histories, as well as the 
testimony of those who were present, united in the assertion that the In- 
dians at this siege were led by Simon Girty. It is strange that this mistake 
could have been made, for it was a mistake. Simon Girty was not there. 
He was at that time, and for nearly five months afterwards, near Port Pitt. 
The commander of the Indian army posted himself in the window of a house 


within hearing of the fort, and read the proclamation of Governor Hamil- 
ton, of Detroit, offering Great Britain's protection in case of surrender, but 
massacre in caseof resistance. Colonel Shepherd, commaiidaiit of the; fort, 
replied that the garri.son would not surrender. The Icadn- was insisting 
upon the impossibility of holding out, when his words were cut short by a 
shot fired at him from the fort. He was not struck. Thr ludiaus began 
the a,ssault with a rush for the fort gate. They tried to break- il open; and 
failing in this, they endeavored to push the posts of the .stockade down. 
They could make no impression on the wall. The lire of the garrison was 
deadly, and the savages recoiled. They charged again and again, some 
times trying to break down the walls with battering rams, attempting to set 
them on fire; and then sending their best marksmen to pick off the garrison 
by shooting through the i^ort holes. In course of time the deadly aim of 
those in the fort taught the savages a wholesome caution. Women fought 
as well as men. The siege continued two nights and two days, but all at- 
tempts of the Indians to burn the fort or break into it were unavailing. 
They killed many of the cattle about the soltlcunent, partly for food partly 
from wantonness. They burned nearly all the houses and barns in Wheel- 
ing. The savages were preparing for auot hei- assault when Colonel Andrew 
Swearengen, with fourteen men, landed near the fort and gained an en- 
trance. Shortly afterwards Major Samuel McColloch, at the head of forty 
men, arrived, and after a severe fight, all reached the fort excejit McCol- 
loch, who was cut off, but made his escape. The Indians now despaired of 
success, and raised the siege. No person in the fort was killed. The loss 
of the Indians was estimated at forty or fifty. 

In September of this year, 1777, Captain William Foreman, of Hamp- 
shire County, with about twenty men of that county, who had gone to 
Wheeling to assist in fighting the savages, was ambushed and killed at 
Grave Creek, below Wheeling, by Indians suj^iJosed to have been a portion 
of those who had besieged Fort Henry. 

On March 28, 1778, Simon Girty ran away from Pittsburg in company 

with Alexander McKee, Robert Surphitt, Matthew Elliott, Higgins 

and two negroes belonging to McKee. It is misleading to call Girty a 
deserter, as he was not in the military service. He had formerly been an 
interpreter in pay," but he was discharged for unbocoming behavior. He 
had two brothers, James and George, who also joined the I'.ritish and did 
service among the Indians; and one brother who reniaiued i iiie to the Amer- 
icans. Simon Girty reached Detroit in June, 177^, after a. loitei-ing journey 
through the Indian country, during which he busied himseir stining up 
mischief. He was employed by the British as interiueter at two dollars a 
day, and was sent by Hamilton to work among the Ohio ludiaus. His influ- 
ence for evil was great, and his character shows few redeeming traits. 

The year 1778 was one of intense excitement on the frontier. An In- 
dian force of about two hundred attacked Fort Randolph, at the mouth of 
the Kanawha, in May, and besieged the place one week. The savages made 
several attempts to carry it by storm. But they were unsuccessful. They 
then moved off, up the Kanawha, in the direction of Greenbrier. Two 
soldiers from Fort Randolph eluded the sa\a,i:es, o\eilooU- them within 
twenty miles of the Greenbrier settleuieut, passed tliem tiuit night, and 
alarmed the peojjle just in time for theui to llee Lu the blockhouses. Don- 
nally's fort stood within two miles of the present village of Frankfort, in 
Greenbriei- County. Twenty men, with their families, took shelter there. 


At Lewisburg, ten miles distant, iDerhaps one hundred men had assembled, 
with their families. The Indians apparently knew which was the weaker 
fort, and accordingly proceeded against Donnally's, upon which they made 
an attack at daybreak. One of the men had gone out for kindling wood 
and had left the gate open. The Indians killed this man and made a rush 
for the fort and crowded into the yard. While some crawled under the 
floor, hoping to gain an entrance by that means, others climbed to the roof. 
Still others began hewing the door, which had been hurriedly closed. All 
the men in the fort were asleeja except one white man and a negro slave. 
As the savages were forcing open the door, the foremost was killed with a 
tomahawk by the white man, and the negro discharged a musket loaded 
with heavy shot into the faces of the Indians. The men in the fore were 
awakened and fired through the jwrt holes. Seventeen savages were killed 
in the yard. The others fell back, and contented themselves with firing at 
longer range. In the afternoon sixty-six men arrived from Lewisburg, and 
the Indians were forced to raise the siege. Their expedition to Greenbrier 
had been a more signal failure than the attempt on Port Randolph. 

The country along the Monongahela was invaded three times in the 
year 1778, and once the following year. Pew settlements within one hun- 
dred miles of the Ohio River escaped. In 1780 Greenbrier was again paid 
a visit by the savages; and m this year their raids extended eastward into 
Randolph County, and to Cheat River, in Tucker County, to the very base 
of the Alleghany Mountains. The Monongahela Valley, as usual, did not 
escape, and ten settlers were killed. 

In this year General George Roger Clark, with a small but excellent 
army, invaded Illinois to break up the British influence there. He left 
Captain Helm in charge of Vincennes, Indiana. No sooner had Governor 
Hamilton heard of the success of Clark than he set out from Detroit to re- 
establish the British prestige. He took with him thirty-five British regu- 
lars, forty Idtir irregulars, seventy militia and sixty Indians. He picked 
other Indians up an the way, and reached Vincennes December 17. Cap- 
tain Hehii suiicndcred. Hamilton then dismissed the Indians, ordering 
them to re-assemble the next s^jring with large reenforcements. His 
designs were ambitious, embracing conquests no less extensive than the 
driving of the Americans out of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, West Virginia, 
and the capture of Pittsburg. But General Clark destroyed all of these 
high hopes. Marching in the dead of winter he captured Vincennes, Peb- 
ruary 25, 1779, after a severe tight, and released nearly one hundred white 
prisoners, chastised the Indians, captured stores worth fifty thousand 
dollars, cleared the whole country of Bi'itish from the Mississippi to Detroit; 
and, most important of all, captured Governor Hamilton himself, and sent 
him in chains to Richmond. This victory secured to the United States the 
country as far as the Mississij^iii; and it greatly damjjened the ardor of the 
Indians. They saw for the first time that the British were not able to pro- 
tect them. 

Fort Mcintosh was built in 1778 on the north bank of the Ohio, below 
the mouth of Beaver, and the headquarters of the army were moved from 
Pittsburg to that place, October 8, 1778. In the same year Port Laurens 
was built on the west bank of the Tuscarawas, below the mouth of Sandy 
Creek, and Colonel John Gibson was placed in command with 150 men. On 
March 2!^, 1779, Captain Bird, a British officer from Detroit, and Simon 
Girty, with 120 Indians and seven or eight British soldiers, besieged the 


fort and remained before it nearly a month, but failed to take it, although 
they 'killed a number of soldiers. 

In April, 17H1, General Brodhead, with 150 regulars and 150 militia, 
crossed the Ohio at Wheeling and led an expedition against the Delawares 
at Coshocton. He killed or captured thirty Indians and destroyed a few 
towns. He suffered little loss. In 1782 occurred the massacre of the Mora- 
vian Indians in Ohio. They lived under the care of missionaries, and 
claimed to be at peace with all men. But articles of clothing were discov- 
ered among them which were recognized as belonging to white settlers who 
had been murdered in West Virginia. This confirmed the suspicion that 
the Moravian Indians, if they did not take part in raids against the settle- 
ments, had a good understanding with Indians who were engaged in raiding 
They were therefore put to death. The act was barbarous and inexcusable. 

The third and last siege of Wheeling occurred in September 1782. The 
British planned an attack on Wheeling in July of that year, just after 
Crawford's defeat which had greatly encouraged the Indians. They had 
scarcely ended the torture of prisoners who had fallen into their hands, 
including Colonel Crawford, when they clamored to be led against the 
settlements. The British were only too willing to assist them; and in July 
a number of British soldiers and 300 Indians, under command of a white 
man named Caldwell, moved toward Wheeling. Simon and George Girty 
were in this force. Before the army had faii'ly set out, news came that 
General Clark was invading the Indian country. The army on the march 
to Wheeling halted. At the same time a rumor was sjjread that General 
Irvine was marching toward Canada from Pittsburg. Re-inforcements for 
Canada were asked for, and 1400 Indians assembled. Subsequently it was 
learned that the reports of invasions were unfounded, and the Indian army 
dispersed. Caldwell with George and Simon Girty and 300 Indians invaded 
Kentucky and attacked Bryant's station August 14, 1782. The British and 
Indians did not give up the proposed exjiedition against Wheeling, and Capt. 
Pratt with 40 British regulars and 238 Indians marched against the place and 
attacked it September 11. James Girty was with this expedition but had no 
command. Simon Girty was never present at any attack on Wheeling. 

There were fewer than twenty men in Port Henry at Wheeling when the 
Indians api^eared. The commandant, Captain Boggs, had gone to warn the 
neighboring settlements of danger. The whole attacking force marched 
under the British flag. Just before the attack commenced, a boat, in 
charge of a man named Sullivan, arrived from Pittsburg, loaded with 
cannon balls for the garrison at Louisville, Kentucky. Mr. Sullivan and 
his party seeing the danger, tied the boat and made their way to the fort 
and assisted in the defense. The besiegers demanded an immediate surren- 
der, which was not complied with. The attack was delayed till night. The 
experience gained by the Indians in the war had taught them that little is 
gained by a wild rush against the walls of a stockade. No doubt Captain 
Pratt advised them also what course to pursue. When night came they 
made their assault; More than twenty times did they pile hemjJ against 
the walls of the fort and attempt to set the structure on fire. But the 
hemp was damp and burned slowly. No harm was done. Colonel Zane's 
cabin stood near the stockade. His house had been burned at the siege in 
1777; and when the Indians again appeared he resolved to defend his build- 
ing. He remained in the cabin with two or three others, among them a 
negro slave. That night an Indian ci-awled up with a chunk of fire to burn 


the house, but a shot from the negro's gun crippled him and he gave up his 
incendiary project. Attempts were made to break down the gates, but they 
did not succeed. A small cannon mounted on one of the bastions was occa- 
sionally discharged among the savages, much to their discomfiture. On 
one occasion when a number of Indians had gathered in a loft of one of the 
nearest cabins and were dancing and yelling in defiance of the garrison, the 
cannon was turned on them, and a solid shot cutting one of the joists, pre- 
cijiitated the savages to the floor beneath and put a stop to their revelry. 

The Indians captured the boat with the cannon balls, and decided to 
use them. They jirocured a hollow log, plugged one end, and wrapped it 
with chains stolen from a neighboring blacksmith shop. They loaded the 
laiece with powder and ball, and fired it at the fort. Pieces of the wooden 
cannon flew in all dii'ections, killing and maiming several Indians, but did 
not harm the fort. The savages were discouraged, and when a force of 
seventy men, under Captain Boggs, approached, the Indians fled. They 
did not, however, leave the country at once, but made an attack on Rice's 
fort, where they four warriors and accomplished nothing. 

The siege of Fort Henry is remarkable from the fact that the flag 
under which the army marched to the attack, and which was shot down 
during the fight, was the last British flag to float over an army in battle, 
during the Revolution, within the limits of the United States. West Vir- 
ginia was never again invaded by a large Indian force, but small parties 
continued to make incursions till 1795. The war with England closed by a 
treaty of peace in 1783. In July of that year DePeyster, Governor at 
Detroit, called the Indians together, told them that the war between Amer- 
ica and Great Britain was at an end, and dismissed them. After that date 
the Indians fought on their own account, although the British still held 
posts in the Northwest, under the excuse that the Americans had not com- 
plied with the terms of the treaty of peace. It was believed, and not with- 
out evidence, that the savages were still encouraged by the British, if not 
directly supplied with arms, to wage war against the frontiers. In the 
autumn of 1783 there was 'a large gathering of Indians at Sandusky, 
where they were harangued by Sir John Johnson, the British 
Superintendent of Indian affairs. Simon Girty was present and was using 
his influence for evil. Johnson urged the Indians to further resistance. 

In February, 1783, while the English Parliament was discussing the 
American treaty, about to be ratified, Lord North, who opposed peace on 
the proposed terms, insisted that the Americans should be shut away from 
the Great Lakes; the forts in that vicinity should be held, and Can- 
ada should be extended to the Ohio River. He declared that 
the Indian allies of Great Britain ought to be cared for, and that 
their independence ought to be guaranteed by Great Britain. In 
the autumn of that year, 1783, when the order was given for the 
evacuation of New York by the British, Lord North, on the petition of 
merchants and fur traders of Canada, withheld the order for the evacua- 
tion of the posts about the lakes. On August 8 of that year Baron Steuben, 
who had been sent for that purpose by the Americans, demanded of Gover- 
nor Haldimaud of Canada, that British forces be withdrawn from the posts 
in the Northwest. Governor Haldimaud rei)lied that he had received no 
instructions on that subject, and he would not surrender the posts. The 
British, in 1785, claimed that they continued to hold the jDosts in Ohio, 
Indiana and beyond because some of the states, and especially Virginia, 


had not yet opened their courts to British creditors for the collection of debts 
against Americans incurred before the war. Thus the British continued to 
occujiy posts clearly within the United States, much to the irritation of the 
American people. The Indians were restless, and the belief was general, 
and was well founded, that the British were encouraging them to hostility. 
They became insolent, and invaded the settlements in West Virginia and 
Kentucky, and in 1790 the United States declared war upon them and took 
vigorous measures to bring them to terms. General Harmar invaded the 
country north of the Ohio at the head of a strong force in 1790. He 
suffered his army to be divided and defeated. The next year General St. 
Clair led an army into the Indian country, and met with one of the most 
disastrous defeats in the annals of Indian warfare. He lost nearly eight 
hundred men in one battle. General Wayne now took charge of the cam- 
paign in the Indian country. When he began to invade the northeim part 
Ohio, the British about Lake Erie moved south and built a fort on the 
Maumee River, opposite Perrysville, Ohio. This was in the summer of 
1794. The object in building the fort was clearly to encourage the Indians 
and to insult the Americans. On August 20, 1794, General Wayne found 
the Indians within two miles of the British fort, jjrepared for battle. He 
made an attack on the savages, routed them in a few minutes and drove 
them. They were crushed and there was no more fight in them for fifteen 

General Wayne was a Revolutionary soldier, and had little love for the 
British. The sight of their fort on American soil tilled him with impatience 
to attack it; but he did not wish to do so without a pretext. He hoped to 
provoke the garrison to attack him, to give him an excuse to destroy the 
fort. He therefore cam^Ded his army after the battle within half a mile of 
the fort. The commandant sent a message to him saying: "The comman 
dant of the British fort is sur^jrised to see an American army advanced .so 
far into this counti-y," and "why has the army had the assurance to camp 
under the very mouths of His Majesty's cannon?" General Wayne answered 
that the battle which had just taken place might well inform the British 
what the American army was doing in that country, and added: "Had the 
flying savages taken shelter under the walls of the fort. His Majesty's 
cannon should not have jirotected them. " Two days later General Wayne 
destroyed everything to within one hundred yards of the fort, and laid 
waste the Indian fields of corn, pumpkins and beans for miles around. The 
country was highly cultivated, there being thousands of acres in corn and 
vegetables. Finding that his elTorts thus far had failed to jirovoke an 
attack by the garrison. General Wayne led his soldiers to within jiistol 
shot of the walls, in hoiie of bringing a shot from his inveterate enemies. 
But the only reply General Wayne received was a flag of truce with another 
message, which stated that "the British commandant is much aggrieved at 
seeing His Majesty's colors insulted. " Wayne then burned all the houses 
and destroyed all the property to the very walls of the fort. This cam- 
paign ended the depredation of the Indians in West Virginia. 



West Virginia's boundaries coincide, in part, with the boundai-ies of five 
other States, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and Kentucky. Some 
of these lines are associated with events of historical interest, and for a 
number of years were subjects of controversy, not always friendly. It is 
understood, of course, that all the boundary lines of the territory now em- 
braced in West Virginia, except the line between this State and Vii'ginia, 
were agreed to and settled before West Virginia became a seperate State. 
That is, the lines between this State and Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ken- 
tucky and Ohio were all settled more than one hundred years ago. To 
speak briefly of each, the line separating West Vii-ginia from Ohio may be 
taken first. 

At the time the Articles of Confederation were under discussion in 
Congress, 1778, Virginia's territory extended westward to the Mississippi 
River. The government of the United States never recognized the Quebec 
Act, which was passed by the English Parliament before the Revolutionary 
War, and which extended the province of Quebec south to the Ohio River. 
Consequently, after the Declaration of Independence was signed, Virginia's 
claim to that territory was not disputed by the other colonies; but when 
the time came for agreeing to the Articles of Confederation which bound 
the states together in one common country, objection was raised to Vir- 
ginia's extensive territory, which was nearly as large as all the other states 
together. The fear was expressed that Virginia would become so power- 
ful and wealthy, on account of its extent, that it would possess and exer- 
cise an influence in the affairs of government too great for the well-being 
of the other states. 

Maryland appears to have been the first state to take a decided stand 
fhat Virginia should cede its territory north and west of the Ohio to the 
general government. It was urged in justification of this course that the 
territory had been conquered from the British and the Indians by the blood 
and treasure of the whole country, and that it was right that the vacant 
lands should be appropriated to the use of the citizens of the whole 
country. Maryland took this stand June 22, 1778. Virginia refused to 
consent to the ceding of her western territory; and from that time till Feb- 
ruary 2, 1781, Maryland refused to agree to the Articles of Confederation. 
On November 2, 1778, New Jersey formally filed an objection to Virginia's 
large territory; but the New Jersey delegates finally signed the Articles of 
Confederation, expressing at the same time the conviction that justice 
would in time remove the inequality in territories as far as jjossible. On 
February 22, 1779, the delegates from Delaware signed, but also remon- 
strated, and presented resolutions setting forth that the United States Con- 


gress ought to have power to fix the western limits of any statn flaiming 
territory to the Mississippi or beyond. On May 21, 1770, the dclogates 
from Mai'yland laid before Congress instructions i-eceived by tlifui Ironi the 
General Assembly of Maryland. The point aimed at in insl ructions 
was that those states having almost boundless western tei-ritoiy had it in 
their power to sell lands at a very low price, thus filling their treasuries 
with money, thereby lessening taxation; and at the same time the cheap 
lands and the low taxes would draw away from adjoining states many of 
the best inhabitants. Congress was, thei-efore, asked to u,se its influence 
with those states having extensive territory, to the end that they would 
not place their lands on the market until the close of the Revolutionary War. 
Virginia was not mentioned by name, but it was well known that reference 
was made to that State. Congress passed, October 30, 1779, a resolution 
requesting Virginia not to open a land office till the close of the war. On 
March 7, 1780, the delegates from New York announced that State ready to 
give up its western territory; and this was formally done on March 1, 1781. 
New York having thus opened the way, other states followed the example 
and ceded to the United States their western territories or claims as follows: 
Virginia, March 1, 1784; Massachusetts, April 19, 1785; Connecticut, Sep- 
tember 14, 1786; South Carolina, August 9, 1787; North Carolina, February 
25, 1790; Georgia, April 24, 1802. 

Within less than two months after Virginia ceded her northwest terri- 
tory to the United States, Congress i^assed an ordinance for the govern- 
ment of the territory. Thedecd ofci'ssion was made by Thomas Jefferson, 
Arthur Lee, Samuel Hardy and .hiincs Monroe, delegates in Congress from 
Virginia. The boundary line brfwi'di Vii'ginia and the territory ceded to 

the general government was tin ilhwcsl bank of the Ohio River at low 

water. The islands in the stream hrldiii^'i'd to Virginia. When West Vir- 
ginia became a separate State, tlic boundary remained unchanged. 

The line between West Virginia and Kentucky remains the same as 
that formerly separating Virginia from Kentucky. The General Assembly 
of Virginia, December 18, 1789, passed an act authoi-izing a convention to be 
held in the District of Kentucky to consider whether it. was expedient to 
form that district into a separate State. The convention decided to form a 
State, and Kentucky was admitted into the Union in 1792. Commissioners 
were appointed to adjust the boundary line between Virginia and Kentucky, 
and agreed that the line seiaai-ating the two states should remain the same 
as that formerly separating Virginia from the District of Kentucky. The 
line is as follows so far as West Vli-ginia and Kentucky are contiguous: 
Beginning at the northwestern point of McDowell County, thence down Big 
Sandy River to its confluence with the Ohio. 

The line dividing the northern limits of West Virginia from the south- 
ern limits of Pennsylvania was for many years a matter of dispute. Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania had nearly a century of bickering concerning the 
matter before Virginia took it up in earnest. It is not necessary at this 
time to give the details of the controversy. A few facts will suffice. Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland having contended for a long time over tlieir common 
boundary line, two eminent astronomers, Charles Mason and .Jeremiah 
Dixon of England, were employed to mark a line five degrees west from 
the Delaware River at a point where it is crossed by the parallel of north lati- 
tude 39 degrees, 43 minutes, 2(3 seconds. They commenced work in the lat- 
ter part of 1763, and completed it in the latter part of 1767. This line, 


called Mason and Dixon's line, was accepted as the boundary between 
Pennsylvania and Maryland, and the controversy was at an end. But 
beyond the west line of Maryland, where Virginia's and Pennsylvania's 
poses.sions came in contact, a dispute arose, almost leading to open hostili- 
ties between the people of the two states. Virginia wanted Pittsburg, and 
boldly and stubbornly set up a claim to territory, at least as far north as 
the fortieth degree of latitude. This would have given Virginia part of 
Fayette and Greene Counties, Pennsylvania. On the other hand, Penn- 
sylvania claimed the country south to the thirty-ninth degree, which 
would have extended its jurisdiction over the present territory of West Vir- 
ginia included in the counties of Monongalia, Preston, Marion, Taylor, 
parts of Tucker, Barbour, Upshur, Lewis, Harrison, Wetzel and Randolph. 
The territory in dispute was about four times as large as the State of 
Rhode Island. It was finally settled by a comprormise. It was agreed that 
the Mason and Dixon's line be extended west live degrees from the Dela- 
ware River. The commissioners ajipointed to adjust the boundary were 
Dr. James Madison and Robert Andrews on the part of Vii'ginia, and David 
Ritenhouse, John Ewing and George Bryan on the part of Pennsylvania. 
They met at Baltimore in 1779 and agreed ujaon a line. The next year the 
agreement was ratified, by Virginia in June and Pennsylvania in Septem- 
ber. A line was then run due north from the western end of Mason and 
Dixon's line, till it reached the Ohio River. This completed the boundary 
lines between Virginia and Pennsylvania; a.nd West Virginia's territory is 
bounded by the same lines. 

The fixing of the boundary between Virginia and Maryland was long a 
subject of controversy. It began in the early years of the colony, long 
before the Revolutionary War, and has continued, it may be said, till the 
present day, for occasionally the agitation is revived. West Virginia inheri- 
ted most of the subject of dispute when it set up a sej^arate government. 
The controversy began so earJy in the history of the country, when the 
geography of what is now West Virginia was so imperfectly understood, 
that boundaries were stated in genei-al terms, following certain rivers; and in 
after time these general terms were differently understood. Nearly two hun- 
dred years ago the Potomac River was designated as the dividing line between 
lands granted in Maryland and lands granted in Virginia; but at that time 
the upper tributaries of that river had never been exj^lored, and as no one 
knew what was the main stream and what were tributary streams. Lord 
Fairfax had the stream explored, and the explorers decided that the main 
river had it.^ source at a point where the Fairfax Stone was planted, the 
present corner of Tucker, Preston and Grant Counties, in West Virginia. 
It also was claimed as the southwest corner of Maryland. It has so 
remained to this day, but not without much controversy on the part of 

The claim was set up by Maryland, in 1830, that the stream known as 
the South Branch of the Potomac is the main Potomac River, and that all 
territory north of that stream and south of Pennsylvania, belonged to 
Maryland. A line drawn due north from the source of the South Branch to 
the Pennsylvania line was to be the western boundary of Maryland. Had 
that State succeeded in establishing its claim and extending its jurisdiction, 
the following territory would have been transferred to Maryland : Part of 
Highland County, Virginia; portions of Randelph, Tucker, Preston, Pen- 
dleton, Haz'dy, Grant, Hampshire and all of Mineral Counties, West Vir- 


ginia. The claim of Maryland was resisted, and Governor Floyd, of Vir- 
ginia, appointed Charles J. Faulkner, of Martinsburg, to investigate the 
whole matter, and ascertain, if possible, which was the main Potomac, and 
to consult all available early authorities on the subject. Mr. Faulkner tiled 
his report November ti, 1W32, and in this rcpoi-t he showed that the South 
Branch was not the main Potomac, and ttml Ihc line as fixed by Lord Fair- 
fax's surveyors remained the true and i)i(iii('r boundary between Virginia 
and Maryland. The line due north from ilie Fairfax Stone to the Pennsyl- 
vania line remains the boundary in that quarter between West Virginia and 
Maryland, but the latter State is still disputing it. 

When West Virginia sejsarated from Virginia and took steps to set up 
a government for itself, it was at one time proposed to call the State 
Kanawha; and its eastern boundary was indicated so as to exclude some of 
the best counties now in the State. The counties to be excluded were 
Mercer, Gi-eenbrier, Monroe, Pocahontas, Pendleton, Hardy, then including 
Grant; Hampshire, then including Mineral; Morgan, Berkeley and Jeffei^ 
son. It was jDrovided that any adjoining county of Virginia on the east 
might become a part of the State of West Virginia whenever a majority of 
the people of the county expressed a willingness to enter the new State. 
But, before the State was admitted the boundary line was changed and was 
fixed as it now is found. 

As is well known, the territory which now forms West Virginia was a 
portion of Virginia from the first exploration of the country until separated 
from the State during the Civil War, in 1863. For a quarter of a century 
after the first settlement was planted in Virginia there were no counties; 
but as the country began to be explored, and when the original settlement 
at Jamestown grew, and others were made, it was deemed expedient to 
divide the State into counties, although the entire jjopulation at that time 
was scarcely enough for one respectable county. Accordingly, Virginia 
was divided into eight counties in 1634. The western limits were not 
clearly defined, except that Virginia claimed the land from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific, and it was no doubt intended that the counties on the west 
should embrace all her territory in that direction. The country beyond the 
Blue Ridere was unexplored, and only the vaguest ideas existed concerning 
it. There was a prevailing belief that beyond the Blue Ridge the country 
sloped to the Pacific, and that a river would be found with its source in the 
Blue Ridge and its mouth in that ocean. 

The eastern portion of West Virginia, along the Potomac and its tribu- 
taries in 1735, was no longer an unbroken wilderness, but settlements existed 
in several places. In 1738 it was urged that there were peojile enough in 
the territory to warrant the formation of a new county. Accordingly, that 
portion of Orange west of the Blue Ridge was formed into two counties, 
Augusta and Frederick. Thus Orange County no longer embraced any 
portion of the territory now in this State. Frederick County embraced the 
lower, or northern part of the Shenandoah Valley, with Winchester as the 
county seat, and Augusta the Southern, or Upper Valley, with Staunton as 
the seat of justice. Augusta then included almost all of W<'st Vii-ginia and 
extended to tl^e Mississii^pi River, including nhio, KciiliicU-y, Michigan, 
Indiana and Illinois. From its territoi-y all the ((Mmlics ol West \'ii-ginia, 
except Jefferson, Bei'keley and part of Morgan, ha\e been lormed, and its 
subdivision into counties will be the subject of this chapter. No part of 
West Virginia retains the name of Augusta, but the county still exists in 



Virginia, part of the original county of that name, and its county seat is the 
same as at first — Staunton. 

In 1769 Botetourt county was formed from Augusta and included the 
territory now embraced in McDowell, Wyoming, Mercer, Monroe, Raleigh 
and portions of Greenbrier, Boone and Logan. No county in West Vir- 
ginia now has the name Botetourt. It is thus seen that no one of the first 
counties in the territory of West Vir^nia retains -any name in it. Essex, 
Spotsylvania, Orange, Augusta and Botetourt, each in its turn, embraced 
large jaarts of the State, but all the territory remaining under the original 
names is found in old Virginia, where the names are preserved. The Dis- 
trict of West Augusta was a peculiar division of West Virginia's present 


territory. It was not a county. Its boundary lines as laid down in the Act 
of Assembly in 1776, failed to meet — that is, one side of the District was 
open and without a boundary. Yet counties were formed from West 
Augusta as if it were a county and subject to division. Prom it Monongalia 
was taken, yet part of Monongalia was never in -the District of West 
Augusta. The confusion was due to the ignorance of the geography of the 
region at. that time. The boundary lines, from a mathematical standpoint, 
enclosed nothing, or, at any rate, it is uncertain what they enclosed. The 
act of 1776, declaring the line between Augusta County and the District of 
West Augusta reads as follows : 

"Beginning on the Alleghany Mountain between the heads of the Potomac, Cheat 
and Greenbrier Kivers, thence along the ridge of mountains which divides the waters of 


Cheat from those of G^reenbrier, and that branch of the Monongahela called Tygart's. 
Valley River to the Motioii^Mhela River, thence uii the said river and the west fork 

thereof Ui Hiiiuenian's ( 'ivcK, (in tlic iKirthwcsl side (if llirs:iicl west fork, thvurv up the 
s:il(lcrcck Id llic licad I, rli.Micr in a (iiivct c.Mirsc tiilli.' Iicail (if llic Middle Island 
Creek, a liranch (if llie ( )lii(., ineludine all Ihe ualers dl' said creek in llie aforesaid Di.s- 
trict (if West AuKusta. All lliat lervilnry Id llie iidrtliward df Ihe aforesaid boun- 
dary, and to tlie westward of the states of Pennsylvania and Marykiiid, shall be deemed, 
and is hereby declared to be in the DisI rict of West Augusta." 

The territory so laid off would include of the present counties of West 
Virginia a narrow strip through the center of Randolph, east of Cheat 
Mountain, one fourth of Tucker, the western half of Preston, nearly all of 
Marion, and Monongalia, Wetzel, Mit.rsliall, Ohio, Brooke and Hancock, part of 
Tyler and Pleasants, a .small ((hikm- of Doddridge, and an indefinite part of 
the present State of Peimsyh ania. The eastern jiarts of Tucker, Ran- 
doli)h and Preston, outside the boundaries of West Augusta, were subse- 
quently included in Monongalia County, under the apparent presumption 
that they had belonged to West Augusta. 

Following is a list of the counties of West Virginia, with the date of 
formation, area and from whom named: 

Hampshire, 6JJ0 square miles: formed 17.'J4 from Augusta; named for 
Hampshire, England; settled about 1730. 

Berkeley, 320 square miles; formed 1772 from Frederick; named for 
Governor Berkeley, of Virginia; settled about 1730. 

Monongalia, 360 square miles; formed 1776 from West Augusta; 
named for the river; settled 1758. 

Ohio, 120 miles; formed 1776 from West Augusta; settled 1770; named 
for the river. 

Greenbrier, 1000 miles; formed 1777 from Botetourt; settled 1750; 
named for briers growing on the river bank. 

Harrison, 450 miles; formed 1784 from Monongalia; settled 1770; 
named for Benjamin Harrison, Governor of Virginia. 

Hardy, 700 miles; formed from Hampshire 1785; settled 1740; named 
for Samuel Hardy, of Virginia. 

Randolph, loso miles; formed 1786 from Harrison; settled 1753; named 
for Edmund Randolph. 

Pendi>eton, li.'iO Tiiiles; formed 1787 from Augusta, Hardy and Rocking- 
ham; settled IT.'id; iinnicd for Edmund Pendleton. 

Kanawha, '.i^ii miles: formed 1789 from Greenbrier and Montgomery; 
settled 1774: named lor the river. 

Brooke, 80 miles; formed from Ohio 1796; settled about 1772; named 
for Robert Brooke, Governor of Virginia. 

Wood, 375 miles; formed from Harrison 1798; settled about 1778; 
named for James Wood, Governor of Virginia. 

Monroe, 460 miles; formed 1799 from Greenbrier; settled about 1760; 
named for .lames Monroe. 

Jefferson, 250 yiiles; formed 1801 from Berkeley; settled about 1730; 
named for Thomas .lett'erson. 

Mason, 430 miles; formed 1804 from Kanawha; settled about 1774; 
named for George Mason, of Virginia. 

Cabell, 300 miles; formed from Kanawha 18(;)9; settled about 1790; 
named for William H. Cabell, Governor of Virginia. 

Tyler, 300 miles; formed from Ohio 1H14; settled about 1776; named 
for John Tyler. 


Lewis, 400 miles; formed from Harrison 1H16; settled about 1780; 
named for Colonel Charles Lewis. 

Nicholas, 720 miles: formed IHIH from Kanawha, Greenbrier and 
Randolph; named for W. C. Nicholas, Governor of Virginia. 

Preston, 650 miles; formed IKIH from Monongalia; settled about 1700; 
named for James P. Preston, Governor of Virginia. 

Morgan, 300 miles; formed 1830 from Hampshire and Berkeley; 
settled about 1730; named for Daniel Morgan. 

Pocahontas, 820 miles; formed 1821 from Bath, Pendleton and Ran- 
dolph; settled 1749; named for Pocahontas, an Indian girl. 

Logan, 400 miles, formed from Kanawha, Giles, Cabell and Tazwell, 
1824; named for Logan, an Indian. 

Jackson, 400 miles; formed 1831 from Kanawha, Wood and Mason; 
settled about 1796; named for Andrew Jack.son. 

Fayette, 750 miles; formed from Logan, Kanawha, Greenbrier and 
Nicholas 1831; named for Lafayette. 

Marshall, 240 miles; formed 1835 from Ohio; settled about 1769; 
named for Chief Justice Marshall. 

Braxton, 620 miles; formed 1836 from Kanawha, Lewis and Nicholas; 
settled about 1794; named for Carter Braxton. 

Mercer, 400 miles; formed 1837 from Giles and Tazwell; named for 
General Hugh Mercer. 

Marion, 300 miles; formed 1842 from Harrison and Monongalia; 
named for General Marion. 

Wayne, 440 miles; formed 1841 from Cabell; named for General 
Anthony Wayne. 

Taylor, 150 miles; formed 1844 from Harrison, Barbour and Marion; 
named for John Taylor. 

Doddridge, 300 miles; formed 1845 from Harrison, Tyler, Ritchie and 
Lewis; named for Philip Doddridge. 

Gilmer, 360 miles; formed 1845 from Kanawha and Lewis; named for 
Thomas W. Gilmer of Virginia. 

Wetzel, 440 miles; formed 1846 from Tyler; named for Lewis Wetzel. 

Boone, 500 miles; formed 1847 from Kanawha, Cabell and Logan; 
named for Daniel Boone. 

Putnam, 320 miles; formed 1848 from Kanawha, Cabell and Mason; 
named for Israel Putnam. 

Barboitr, 360 miles; formed 1843 from Harrison, Lewis and Randoliah; 
named for James Barbour, governor of Virginia. 

Ritchie, 400 miles; formed 1844 from Harrison, Lewis and Wood; 
named for Thomas Ritchie of Virginia. 

Wirt, 290 miles; formed 1848 from Wood and Jackson; settled about 
1796; named for William Wirt. 

Hancock, 100 miles; formed 1848 from Brooke; settled about 1776; 
named for John Hancock. 

Raleigh, 680 miles; foi-med 1850 from Payette; named for Sir Walter 

Wyoming, 660 miles; formed 1850 from Logan; an Indian name. 

Pleasants, 150 miles; formed 1851 from Wood, Tyler and Ritchie; 
named for James Pleasants, governor of Virginia. 

Upshur, 350 miles; formed 1851 from Randolph, Barbour and Lewis; 
settled about 1767; named for Judge A. P. Upshur. 


Calhoun, 260 miles; formed 1h:j6 from Gilmer; named for J. C. Cal- 

Roane, 350 miles; formed 1856 from Kanawha, Jackson and Gilmer; 
settled about 1791; named for Judge Roane of Virginia. 

Tucker, 340 miles; formed 1856 from Randol^ih; settled about 1774; 
named for Judge St. George Tucker. 

Clay, 390 miles; formed 1858 from Braxton and Nicholas; named for 
Henry Clay. 

McDowell, 860 miles; formed 1858 from Tazwell; named for James 
' McDowell, governor of Virginia. 

Webster, 450 miles; formed 1860 from Randolph, Nicholas and Brax- 
ton; named for Daniel Webster. 

Mineral, 300 miles; formed 1866 from Hampshire; named for its coal. 

Grant, 620 miles; formed 1866 from Hardy; named for General U. S. 
Grant; settled about 1740. 

Lincoln, 460 miles; formed 1867 from Kanawha, Cabell, Boone and 
Putnam; settled about 1799; named for Abraham Lincoln. 

Summers, 400 miles; formed 1871 from Monroe, Mercer, Gfeenbrier 
and Payette; named for Lewis and George W. Summers. 

Mingo, about 400 miles; formed 1895 from Logan; named for Logan 
the Mingo. 











1840 1850 1860 1870 

1880 1 1890 



Monongalia .. 

Oliio " 





En. ok,. 













1101 Id 



























1 l'l(H 














201. Si 















Fayette . . . 

ll.ViO 20542 












Dnddlili'^c . 






Boone . 


Putnam . 




Ritchie .... 


















McDowell . 














Newspaper history commenced in the territory now forming West Vir- 
ginia nearly one hundred years ago; that is, in 1803. The beginning was 
small, but ambitious; and although the first journal to make its aijpearance 
in the State, ceased to pay its visits to the pioneers generations ago; yet, 
from that small beginning has grown a j^ress which will rank with that of 
any State in the Union, if population and other conditions are taken into 
account. West Virginia has no large city, and consequently has no paper 
of metropolitan pretensions, but its press fulfills every requirement of its 
people; faithfully represents every business interest; maintains every hon- 
orable political princijile; upholds morality; encourages education, and has 
its strength in the good will of the jieople. This chapter can do little more 
than present an outline of the growth of journalism in this State, together 
with facts and figures relating to the subject. 

The first paper published in West Virginia was the Monongalia Gazette, 
at Morgantown in 1803. The Farmer's Register, printed at Charlestown, 
Jefferson County, was the next. These were the only papers in the State 
in 1810. The oldest jjaper still being published in West Vii'ginia is the 
Virginia Free Press, printed at Charlestown. It was founded in 1N21. The 
Monongalia Gazette was perhaps an up-to-date journal in its day; but it 
would be unsatisfactory at the pi-esent time. It was in four page fdrm, 
each page sixteen inches long and ten inches wide. There were four col- 
umns to the page. Its editors were Campbell and Briton; its subscription 
rate was six cents a copy, or two dollars a year. It was impossible that a 
weekly paper so small could efliciently cover the news, even though the 
news of that day was far below thestandard set forthe iti-.-sciil time Yet, 
had such a paper been edited in accordance with modcin i<lias, it could 
have exerted a much wider influence than it did exert. Ni 
near enough to make inroads upon its field of circiilatio 
it mighthavehad the whole region to itself. Butil did ii 
have been expected; on the contrary, within three ycai 
about one-half. More space in it was given to foiciLr 
happenings of County, State and Nation. Before tii 
steamboats and telegraphing, it may readily be uudcrsi 
recorded from foreign countries were so stale at the d: 
tion in the backwoods pajjer that they almost desei- 
ancient history. The domestic news, partieidarly tlia 
states, was usually several weeks old before it found place in the Gazette. 
County occurrences, and happenings in the neighboring counties, were 




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given little attention. Many a valuable scrap of local history might have 
been permanently preserved in that pioneer journal; but the county his- 
torian looks through the crumpled and yellow files in vain. But, on the 
other hand, he encounters numerous mentions of Napoleon's movements; 
the Emperor of Russia's undertakings, and England's achievements; all of 
which would have been valuable as history were it not that Guizot, Ram- 
baud and Knight have given us the same things in better style; so that it is 
labor thrown away to search for them in the circumscribed columns of a 
pioneer paper printed on the forest-covered banks of the Monongahela. 
Joseph Campbell, one of the editors and proprietors of the Gazette, had 
learned the printing trade in Philadelphia. It is not known at what date 
the paper suspended publication. It was customary in early times, as well 
as at the present day, to incorporate two or more papers into one, drop the 
name of one and continue the publication. The Gazette may thus have 
passed quietly out of its individual existence. 

Monjngalia County fostered the first newspaper west of the AUegha- 
nies in the State, and it also has had perhaps as niany papers as any county 
of West Virginia. The full list, from the first till the present time, num- 
bers between thirty and forty. The list comjiiled by Samuel T. Wiley, the 
historian of Monongalia, shows that the County had thirty-one papers prior 
to 1880. Nearly all of these suspended after brief careers. It would be 
diificult to compile a list of all the papers established in this State from the 
earliest times till the present. It would perhaps be impossible to do so, for 
some of them died in their infancy, and a copy cannot now be found. 
There were, no doubt, many whose very names are not now remembered. 
It would not be an extravagant estimate to place the total number of papers 
published in this State, both those still in existence and those which are 
dead, at five hundred. It would be a surprise to many persons to learn 
how ephemeral is the average newspaper. It comes and goes. It has its 
beginning, its prosperity, its adversity, its death. Another follows in its 
path. Few can be called relatively permanent. There are now more than 
one hundred newspapers published in West Virginia. Only nine of these 
were in existence in 1863, when the State was admitted into the Union. 
These nine are the Wheeling Intelligencer, Wheeling Register, Clarksburg 
Telegram, Charlestown Free Press, Charlestown S^iirit of Jeffei'son, 
Shepherdstown Register, Barbour County Jeffersonian, Wellsburg Herald 
and Point Pleasant Register. Of the papers in existence in this State in 
1870 only sixteen have come down to the present day. The cause of the 
early death of so many papers which begin life in such earnest hope is that 
the field is full. Two newspapers try to exist where there is room for only 
one. It does not require an evolutionist to foretell the result. Both must 
starve or one must quit. If one quits there is always another anxious to 
push in and try its luck. 

West Virginia's experience does not differ from experience elsewhere. 
Journalism in country towns is much the same the country over. In cities 
the business is more stable, because conducted on business principles. 
Men with experience and business training accustom themselves to look 
before they leap. The inexperienced man who is ambitious to crowd some 
one else out of the newspaper business in the interior towns is too prone to 
leap first and do his looking afterwards. There is no scarcity of good news- 
paper men outside the cities, and West Virginia has its share, but at the 
same time there are too many persons who feel themselves called 


upon to enter the arena, although unprepared for the fray, and who can- 
not hold their own in competition with men of training in the profession. 
To the efforts and failures of these latter persons is due the ephemeral 
character of the lives of newspapers, taken as a whole. Country journal- 
ism comes to be looked ui^on as a changing, evanescent, uncei'tiiin thing, 
always respectable; only moderately and occasionally succcssrnl: iiumgura- 
ted in hope; full of i^romise as the rainbow is full of gold; soinctiirics mate- 
rializing into things excellent; now and then falling like Lucili'i-. Iml always 
to hope again. There is somethiiii,'- stililimc in the rural juuiualisls faith 
in his ability to push forward. TIkhii.'-Ii I allures have been many, country 
journalism has builded greater tliaii it K-iic\v. West Virginia's dcN^'ltipnient 
and the rural press have gone hand in liaml. h'.vci-y raili-dad pushing into 
the wilderness has carried the civ ili/.ini,^ cd itdi- and his on I 111. lie goi^s with 
an unfaltering belief in printer's ink and conlidrnri' in its conciurring power. 
He is ready to do and suffer all things. The mining- town and the hitest 
county seat; the lumber center and the oil belt; the niannlactuiiiiir village 
and the raih'oad terminus; these are the fields in wliicli ln' casts his lot. 
Here he sets up his press; he issues his paper; he booms the town; he 
records the births, marriages and deaths with a monotonous faithfulness; 
he expresses his opinion freely and generously. In return he expects the 
town and the surrounding country to support his enterprise as liberally as 
he has given his time, talent and energy in advancing the interests of the 
town. Sometimes his exi^ectations are i-ealized; sometimes not. If not, 
perhaps he packs his worldly assets and sets out for another town, richer 
in experience but pooi'er in cash. There are men in West Virginia who 
have founded a number of newspapers, usually selling out after a year or 
two in order to found another joiiiaial. 

This is the class of editois who blaze the way into the woods. They 
bear the same relation to the JouinarKsm which follows as the "tomahawk 
right" bore in early days to the plantations and estates which succeeded 
them. After the adventurous and restless journalist has passed on, then 
comes the newspaper man who calculates before he invests. He does not 
come in a hurry. He is not ad-aid some one will get ahead of him. He does 
not locate before he has cai. dully surveyed the lield, and has satisfied him- 
self that the town an<l the suirounding country are able to support such a 
joniaial as he pro]ioses establishing. His aim is to ineiat an<l receive the 
palrona,i,'e of the people. This becomes the solid, sulistanlial paper, and 
its ('diloi' wields a pi'iaiianeid intluence for good. Such papers and such 
editors are found all o\'ei- West \'ii'ginia. 

Journalism : mir businesses is like poetry among the tine arts -the 

most easily dai>l)le<l in Iml the most dil'ticult to succeed in. It may not ap- 
pear to the casual (ihsei'vei- thai Ihe ne\vspa]ier business is nearly always 
unsuccessful, oral least, thai nearly all Ihe papers which come into exist- 
ence meet untiimdy dealli in the very blossom ot llieii' youth. An examina- 
tion of the hist.iry of newspain-rs in nearly any town a half century old will 
show tliat ten haxc failed wlii'i<' one has succeedc<l. The history of journal- 
ism in Monongalia Cotndy, alivady alluded to, dilfers little from the iiistory 
of the papers in any county ol eipial age and population. 

In 1851, when lloi'ace (ircciey was asked by a Parliamentary Conninl- 
tee from England "at what amouid of population of a town in .\mei-ica do 
they first begin the i)ublication of a weekly newspaper^" lie re|)lied that 
every county will have one, and a county of twenty thousand p(>|)ulation 


usually has two weekly papers; and when a town has fifteen thousand peo- 
ple it usually has a daily paper. This rule does not state the in West 
Virginia today. The average would probably show one news^japer for each 
six thousand people. In the small counties the average is sometimes as 
low as one pajier to two thousand people, and not one-fourth of these peo- 
ple subscribe for a paper. It is not difficult to see that the field can be easily 
ovei'-suppliod; and among newspapers there must be a survival of the fittest. 

The caily journals published in this State, as well as those published 
elsewhci-c at iliat lime, say seventy or eighty years ago, were very differ- 
ent in a]i])(urau(i' i'rom those of today. The pajier on which the lirinting 
was done was rough, rugged and discolored, harsh to the touch, and of a 
quality inferior to wra|i|iiiig jiapcr of the jn-esent time. Some of them ad- 
vertised that they would takr clean rags at four cents a pound in payment 
of subscriptions. At that linn' paper was made from rags. It is now mostly 
made from wood. Tlir publishers no doubt shipped the rags to the jDaper 
mills and received credit on their jiaper accounts. Some of these early 
journals clung to the old style of punctuation and capitalization; and some, 
to judge by their api)earance, followed no style at all, but were as out- 
landish as possible, particularly in the use of capital letters. They capital- 
ized all nouns, and as many other words as they could, being limited, ap- 
parently, only by the number of capital letters in their type cases. 

As late as 1835 all the printing jjresses in the United States were run 
by hand power. On the eaidiest press the pressure necessary was obtained 
by means of a screw. Fifty papers an hour was fast work. The substitu- 
tion of the lever for the screw increased the capacity of the press five fold. 
This arrangement reached its greatest development in the Washington 
Hand Press, patented in 1829 by Samuel Rust. This press is still the stand- 
by in many small offices. The printing done with it is usually good; but 
the sjieed is slow, and two hundred and fifty impressions an hour is a high 
average. Printers call this pveas "The Man-Killer," because its operation 
requires so much physical exertion. 

The early newspapers in backwoods towns attempted to pull neck and 
neck with the city journals. They tried to give the news from all over the 
world; and the result was, they let the home news go. They were long in 
learning that a small paper's field should be small, and that the readers of 
a local i)aper expect that paper to contain the local news. Persons who 
desired national and foreign news subscribed for metrojjolitan papers. This 
was the case years ago the same as now. In course of time the lesson was 
learned; the local papers betook themselves to their own particular fields, 
with the result that the home paper has become a power at home. The 
growth of journalism has a tendency to restrict the influence of individual 
great pai:)ers to smaller and smaller geographical limits. All round the 
outer borders of their areas of circulation other pajiers are taking posses- 
sion of their territory and limiting them. No daily paper now has a gen- 
eral and large circulation farther away from the place of publication than 
can be reached in a few hours. This is not so much the case with small 
jiapers. When once firmly established they can hold their small circulation 
and local iniluence much more securely than large circulation and large in- 
fluence can be held by metropolitan papers. The trouble with the country 
papers is that the most of them die before they can establish themselves. 

Some of the earliest statesmen feared danger from what they termed a 
newspaper aristocracy, formed by the concentration of the influence of tha 


press about a comparatively few journals advantageously located in com- 
mercial centers. This danger is feared no more. The power of the press 
has been inlinitesimally divided; among the metropolitan paper.s first; then 
among those in th6 smaller cities; lastly, among in the smaller towns, 
until all fear of concentration is a thing of the past. The fundamental law 
of evolution, which rules the influence of the press as it rules the destinies 
of nations, or the growth and decline of commerce and political power, ren- 
ders it impossible that any aggregate of newspapers, acting in concert, can 
long wield undisputed influence over wide areas. They must divide into 
smaller aggregate, and subdivide again, each smaller aggregate exercising 
its peculiar power in its own aj^propriated sjihere and not trespassing 
upon the domains of others. The lowest subdivision is the country paper; 
and so secure is it from the inroads of the city journals that it can hold 
its ground as secui-ely as the metropolitan journal can hold its field against 
the paper of the interior. 



In this chapter will be presented facts concerning West Virginia's 
geography, climate, soil and geology. Its geography relates to the surface 
of the State as it exists now; its geology takes into account not only the 
IDresent surface, but all changes which have affected the surface in the past, 
together with as much of the interior as may be known and understood. 
The climate, like geography, deals chiefly with present conditions; but the 
records of geology sometimes give us glimpses of climates which jirevailed 
ages ago. The soil of a State, if properly studied, is found to depend upon 
geography, geology and climatology. The limits prescribed for this 
chapter render impossible any extended treatise; an outline must suffice. 

Reference to the question of geology naturally comes first, as it is older 
than our present geography or climate. We are told that there was a time 
when the heat of the earth was so great that all substances within it or 
upon its surface were i,n a molten state. It was a white-hot globe made of 
all the inorganic substances with which we are acquainted. The iron, sil- 
ver, gold, rock, and all else were liquid. The earth was then larger than 
it is now, and the days and nights were longer. After ages of gi-eat length 
had passed the surface cooled and a crust or shell was formed on the still 
very hot globe. This was the first ajipearance of "rock," as we understand 
the word now. The surface of the earth was no doubt very rough, but with- 
out high mountains. The crust was not thick enough to support high 
mountains, and all underneath of it was still melted. Probably for thous- 
ands of years after the first solid crust made its appearance there was no rain, 
although the air was more filled with moisture then than now. The rocks 
were so hot that a drop of water, upon touching them, was instantly turned 
to steam. But they gradually cooled, and z-ains fell. Up to this point in 
the earth's history we are guided solely by inductions from the teachings 
of astiDiKiiiiy, assisted to some extent by well-known facts of chemistry. 
Any (lfs(iipii(jn of our world at that time must be speculative, and as ap- 
l)licable to one part as to anothei'. No human eye ever saw and recognized 
as such one square foot of the original crust of the earth in the form in 
which it cooled irom the molten state. Rains, winds, fi-osts and fire have 
broken up and worn away some parts, and with the sand and sediment thus 
formed, buried the other i)arts. But that it was exceedingly hot is not 
doubted; and there is not wanting evidence that only the outer crust has 
yet reached a tolerable degree of coolness, while all the interior surpasses 
the most intense furnace heat. Upheavals and dejiressions affecting large 
areas, so often met with in the study of geology, are supposed to be due to 


the settling down of the solid crust in one place and the consequent up- 
heaval in another. Could a raUroad train run thirty minutes, at eCn ordi- 
nary speed, toward the center of the earth, it would probably reach a tem- 
perature that would melt iron. And it may be stated, i^arenthetically, could 
the same train run at the same speed for the same time away from the cen- 
ter of the earth, it would reach a temperature so cold that the hottest day 
would show a thermometer one hundred degrees below zero. So narrow is 
the sphere of our existence — below us is fire; above us "the measureless 
cold of space. " 

When we look out upon our quiet valleys, the Kanawha, the Potomac, 
the Monongahela, or contemplate our mountains, rugged and near, or robed 
in distant blue, rising and rolling, range beyond range, peak above peak; 
cliffs overhanging gorges and ravines; meadows, uplands, glades beyond; 
with brooks and rivers; the landscape fringed with flowers or clothed with 
forests, we are too apt to jiause before fancy has had time to call up that 
strange and wonderful panorama of distant ages when the waves of the sea 
swept over all, or when only broken and angular rocks their should- 
ers through the foam of the ocean as it broke against the nearly submerged 
ledges where since have risen the highest peaks of the Alleghanies and the 
Blue Ridge. Here where we now live have been strange scenes. Here 
have been beauty, awfulness and sublimity, and also destruction. There 
was a long age with no winter. Gigantic ferns and rare palms, enormous 
in size, and with delicate leaves and tendrils, flourished over wide areas and 
vanished. And there was a time when for ages there was no summer. But 
we know of this age of cold from records elsewhere, for its record in West 
Virginia has been blotted out. Landscapes have disappeared. Fertile val- 
leys and undulating hills, with soil deep and fruitful, have been washed 
away, leaving only a rocky skeleton, and in many places even this has been 
ground to jjowder and carried away or buried under sands and drift from 
other regions. 

An outline of some of the changes which have atfected the little spot in 
the earth's surface now occu^jied by West Virginia will be presented, not 
by any means complete, but sufficient to convey an idea of the agencies 
which enter into the workings of geology. It is intended for the young 
into whose hands this book will come, not for those whose maturer years 
and greater opportunities have already made them acquainted with this 
sublime chai^ter in the book of creation. 

When the crust of the earth had cooled sufficiently rains washed down 
the higher portions, and the sands and sediment thus collected were spread 
over the lower parts. This sand, when it had become hai'dened, formed 
the first layers of rock, called strata. Some of these very ancient forma- 
tions exist yet and have been seen, but whether they are the oldest of the 
layer rocks no man knows. Some of the ancient layers of great thickness, 
after being deposited at the sea bottoms, were heated from the interior of 
the earth and were melted. In these cases the stratified appearance has 
usually disappeared, and they ai-e called metamorphic rocks. Some geolo- 
gists regard most granite as a rock of this kind. 

As the earth cooled more and more it shrank in size, and the surface 
was shriveled and wrinkled in folds, large and small. The larger of these 
wrinkles were mountains. Seas occupied the low places, and the first 
brooks and rivers began to appear, threading their way wherever the best 
channels could be found. Rains, probably frost also, attacked the higher 


ridges and rocky slopes, almost destitute of soil, and the washings were 
carried to the seas, forming other layers of rocks on the bottoms, and thus 
the accumulation went on, varying in I'ate at times, but never changing the 
general plan of rock-building from that day to the 23resent. All rock, or 
very nearly all, in West Virginia were formed at the bottom of the ocean, 
of sand, mud and gravel, or of shells, or a mixtuz'e of all, the ingredients of 
which were cemented together with silica, iron, lime, or other mineral sub- 
stance held in solution in water. They have been raised up from the water, 
and now form diy land, and have been cut and carved into valleys, ridges, 
gorges and the various inequalities seen within our State. These rocks are 
sometimes visible, forming cliffs and the bottoms and banks of streams and 
the toi^s of peaks and barren mountains; but for the greater part of West 
Virginia the underlying rocks are hidden by soil. This soil, however, at 
the deepest, is only a i'ew feet thick, and were it all swept off we should 
have visible all over the State a vast and comi)licated system of ledges and 
bowlders, carved and cut to conform to every height and depression now 
marking the surface. The aggregate thickness of these layers, as they 
have been seen and measured in this State, is no less than four miles. In 
other words, sand and shells four miles deeji (and perhaps more) were in 
jiast time spread out on the bottom of a sea which then covered West Vir- 
ginia, and after being hardened into rock, were raised up and then cut into 
valleys and other inequalities as we see them today. The rockbuilding was 
not all done during one uninterrupted period, nor was there only one up- 
heaval. West Virginia, or a portion of it, has been sevei-al times under and 
above the sea. The coast line has swep! back and forth across it again and 
again. We read this history from the rocks themselves. The skilled geol- 
ogist can determine, from an examination of the fossil shells and plants in 
a stratum, the period of the earth's history when the stratum was formed. 
He can determine the old and the youngest in a series of strata. Yet, not 
from fossils alone may this be d-etermined. The position of the layers with 
regard to one another is often a sure guide in discovering the oldest and 
youngest. The sands having been spread out in layers, one above the 
other, it follows that those on top are not so old ;is those below, exce^jt in 
cases, unusual in this State, where strata have been Idldcd so sharply that 
they have been broken and turned over. Thus the older rocks may lie 
above the newer. 

Unmeasured as are the ages recorded in the mountains and cliffs of 
West Virginia, yet the most ancient of our ledges are young in comparison 
with those of other parts of the woz'ld, or even of neighboi'ing provinces. 
North of us is a series of rocks, the Laurentian of Canada, more than five 
miles thick, formed, like ours, of the slow accumulation of sand. Yet that 
series was finished and was probably partly worn away before the first 
grain of sand or the first shell, of which we have any record, found a rest- 
ing place on the bottom of the Cambrian sea, which covered West Virginia. 
If the inconceivable lajjse of years required for accumulating shell and sand 
four miles deej) in the sea bottom, where we now live, amazes us, what must 
we say of that vaster period reaching back into the cycles of the infant 
world, all of which were and gone before the foundations of our moun- 
tains were laid! Nor have we reached the beginning yet. No man knows 
whether the Laurentian rocks are oldest of the layers, and if they are, still 
back of them stretches that dim and nebulous time, unrecorded, uncharted, 
penetrated only by the light of astronomy, when the unstratified rocks were 


taking form, from whose disintegrated material all subsequent formations 
have been built. 

Let us begin with the Cambrian age, as geologists call it. Within the 
limits of our State we have little, if any, record of anything older. Were a 
map made of eastern United States during that early jjeriod it would show 
a mass of land west of us, covering the Middle States, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois and beyond. Another mass of land would lie east of us, occupyinsr 
the Atlantic Coastal Plain, from New England to South Carolina, and 
extending to an unknown distance eastward, where the Atlantic Ocean now 
is. Between these two bodies of land spread a narrow arm of the sea, from 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Alabama. West Virginia was at the bottom of 
that sea, whose eastern coast line is believed to have occujiied nearly the 
position, and to have followed the general direction, of what is now the 
Blue Ridge. Sand washed from this land east of us was sjiread upon the 
bottom of the sea and now forms the lowest layers of rocks met with in 
West Virginia, the foundations of our mountains. But this rock is so deep 
that it is seen only in a few places where it has been brought up by folds 
of the strata, and where rivers have cut deep. For the most part of the 
State these Cambrian rocks lie buried, under subsequent formations, thous- 
ands of feet deep. 

There were mountains of considerable magnitude in that land east of 
the sea. The country west of the sea must have been low. During the 
immense time, before the next great change, the eastern mountains were 
worn down and carried, as sand and mud, into the sea. The Silurian age 
followed, and as it drew near, the region began to sink. The sea which had 
covered the greater part of West Virginia, or at least the eastern part of it, 
began to overflow the country both east and west. The watez'S spread 
westward beyond the jiresent Mississippi. The land to the eastward had 
become low and not much sediment was now coming from that direction. 
The washings from the rounded hills were probably accumulating as a deep 
soil in the low plains and widening valleys. Over a lai'ge part of West Vir- 
ginia, during the Silurian age, thick beds of limestone were formed of 
shells, mixed with more or less sediment. Shell-fish lived and died in the 
ocean, and when dead their skeletons sank to the bottom. It is thus seen 
that the origin of limestone differs from that of sandstone in this, that the 
former is a product of water, while the material for sandstone is washed 
into water from land. 

The character of rocks usually tells how far from land they were" 
formed, and if sandstone, what kind of count rv fui'uished the material. The 
coarsest sandstones were deposited near sin uc, li:irk of which the country 
was usually high and steeji. Pine-graiin'd samlstones, or shales, wei-e 
probably laid down ahmg flat shon's. alxivc which Ww land had little eleva- 
tion. Or they may have l)i'i'u (h'])()si1tMl I'l'din Hue scdiinciit which drifted a 
considerable distance from laud. IT liincstoiu' is i)un>, it is proof that little 
sediment from the land reached it while being formed. The limestone de 
posited over a considerable part of West Virginia during the closing of the 
Cambrian and the beginning of the Silurian age forms beds from three 
thousand to four thousand feet thick. During the long period required for 
the accumulation of this mass of shells, the land to the east remained com- 
paratively flat or continued slowly to sink. We know this, because there 
is not much sediment mixed with the limestone, and this would not be the 
case had large quantities been poured into the sea from the land. 


Anothei- great change was at hand. The land area east of us began to 
rise, and the surface became steep. What perhaps had been for a long 
time low, rounding hills, and wide, flat valleys, with a deejj accumulation 
of soil, was raised and tilted; and the stronger and more rapid current of 
the streams, and the rush of the rain water down the more abrupt slopes, 
sluiced off the soil into the sea. The beds of limestone were covered two 
thousand feet deep beneath sand and mud, the spoils from a country which 
must have been fertile and jaroductive. The land was worn down. Ages 
on ages passed, and the work of grinding went on; the rains fell; the winds 
blew; the floods came; the frost of winter and the heat of summer followed 
each other^ through years surpassing recoi"d. Near the close of the Silurian 
time the store of the continent to the east rose and sank. The vertical 
movements were perhaps .small; they may have been just enough to sub- 
merge the coastal jilain, then raise it above water, repeating the operation 
two or more times. The record of this is in the alternating coarse and fine 
sediments and sand composing the rocks formed during that time. At the 
close of the Silurian period the continent east of us was worn down again 
and had become low. The sea covering West Virginia had been cut off 
from the Gulf of St. Lawrence by an upheaval in the State of New York. 
The uijlift of the land seems to have been much greater during this time 
north of us than south. The Devonian age followed, which was a great 
rock-builder in the North. The aggregate thickness of the Devonian rocks 
in Pennsylvania is no less than nine thousand feet. Prom there to south- 
ward it thins out, like a long, sloping wedge, until it disappears in Ala- 
bama, after thinning to twenty-five feet in southern Tennessee. In some 
parts of West Virginia the Devonian rocks are seven thousand feet thick. 
The sediments of which these strata were made were usually fine-grained, 
forming shales and medium sandstones, with some limestones here and 
there. The long, dreary Devonian age at drew to a close, and an 
epoch, strange and imperfectly understood, dawned upon the earth. It was 
during this age that the long summer prevailed; the winterless climate over 
the northern hemisphere; the era of wonderful vegetation; the time of plant- 
growth such as was perhajis never on earth before, nor will be again. It 
is known as the Carboniferous age. 

During that jjeriod our coal was formed. The rocks deposited on the 
sea bottom in the Carboniferous age range in thickness from two thousand 
to eight thousand feet in different parts of West Virginia. During this time 
there is evidence of the breaking up and re-distribution of a vast gravel bar 
which had lain somewhere out of reach of the waves since earlier ages. 
This bar, or this aggregation whether a bar or not, was made up of quartz 
pebbles, varying in size from a grain of sand to a cocoanut, all worn and 
polished as if rolled and fretted on a beach or in turbulent mountain 
streams for centuries. By some means the sea obtained possession of them 
and they were spread out in layers, in some i)laces 800 feet thick, and were 
cemented together, forming coarse, hard rocks. We see them along the 
summits of the Alleghanies, and the outlaying spurs and ridges, from the 
southern borders of our State, to the Pennsylvania line, and beyond. The 
formation is called conglomerate; and the popular names are "Bean Rock," 
"Millstone Grit," etc. A heavy stratum of this stone forms the floor of the 
coal measures. The pebbles probably represent the most indestructible 
remnant of mountains, once seamed with quartz veins, but degraded and 
obliterated before the middle of the Carboniferous era, perhaps long before. 


The quartz, on account of its hardness, resisted the grinding process which 
pulverized the adjacent rock, and i-emained as pebbles, in bars and beds, 
until some great ch an, <ri' s\\i'iit tlicin inln llic sea. Tlicir quantity was enor- 
mous. The rocks ('oiiiposcd oT tlicin imw cdx-ci' tliousands of square miles. 

As the Carboniferous a^'e i)!d the sea which had covered the 
greater part of West Vii-giuia since Cambrian time, was nearing its last 
days. It had come down from the Cambrian to the Silurian, from the 
Silurian to the Devonian, from the Devonian to the Carboniferous, but it 
came down through the ages no furthei*. From that area where the waves 
had rolled for a million years they were about to recede. With the pas.sing 
of the sea, rose the land, which has since been crossed by ranges of the 
Alleghany, Blue Ridge, Laurel Ridge, and all their spurs and hills. Prom 
the middle of the Carboniferous epoch to its close was a period of disturb- 
ance over the whole area under consideration. The bottom of the sea was 
lifted up, became dry land, and sank again. It seemed that a mighty effort 
was being made by the land to throw back the water which had so long held 
dominion. It was a protracted, jjowerful struggle, in which first the land 
and then the water gained the mastery. Back and forth for hundreds of 
miles swejit and receded the sea. Years, centuries, millenmals, the 
struggle continued, but finally the land prevailed, was lifted up and the 
waves I'etreated westward and southward to the Gulf of Mexico, and West 
Virginia was dry land, and it has remained such to this day. 

Beds of coal, unlike layc^rs of rock, are made ahovn water, or at its 
immediate surface. While t lu' oscillation hd ween sea ainl laud was going 
on, during the Carboniferous a.i."', W'csl \'ir,i,nuia's roal fields were being 
formed. Coal is made of wood and plauls ol' \arious Iciud, which grew with 
a phenomenal luxuriance during a long pciiod of suiuiuit that reigned over 
the northern half of the earth. Each bed olCoal icpicscnts aswamji, large 
or small, in which plants grew, fell and were burieil for centuries. The 
whole country in which coal was forming was probably low and it was 
occasionally submerged for a few thousand years. During the submergence 
sand and mud settled over it and hardened into rock. Then the land was 
lifted up again, and the material for another bed of coal was accumulated. 
Every alternation of coal and rock marks an elevation and subsidence of 
the land — the coal formed on hind, the rock under water. This was the 
period when the sea was ad\au(iuu and needing across West »Virginia, as 
the Carboniferous age was drawing lo a close. 

Other ages of geology succeei'ded the Carboniferous; but little record 
of them remains in West Virginia. The land here was above the sea; no 
sediment could be deposited to form rocks, and of course there was little on 
which a permanent record could he written. The strata underlying the 
gi'<'a1cf |iaf1 of oui' State grew thicKci' and deeper from tlie Caiul>i-ia,n age 
to till' CarlMUiilerous: tlieii tlu^si'a receded, and from that time to thei)res- 
ent the layers of rocU have been umlergoiug the wear and t<Mr ot the ele- 
ments, and the aggi-egate has been i,'-i-owin,ir thinner. The strata have been 
folded, upraised by suliterraneau I'orce and cut llii-ough l>y rivers. In .some 
places the Carboniferous I'ocks ha\-e not yid Ijeeii w(_)rn away; in other 
places the river gorges haxc reached the bottom of the Devonian rocks; in 
still other localities thegii'at Silurian la\ius have been cut through; and 
in a few places the cutting has gone down deep into the Cambrian rocks. 
The Glacial age, the empire of "steadfast, inconceivable cold," which fol- 
lowed the warm period in which coal was formed, did not write its history 


in West Virginia as indelibly as in some other parts of our country. The 
great morains and bowlders so conspicuous in other localities are not 
found with us. No doubt the cold here was intense; perhaps there were 
glaciers among the high lands; but the evidence has been well-nigh oblit- 

Land seems to have been lifted up in two ways, one a vertical move- 
ment which elevated large areas and formed jilateaus, but not mountains; 
the other, n lioriznntal movement which caused folds in the strata, and 
these folds, if larir<" i-nough, are ranges of mountains. In West Vii-ginia 
we havclioth aiding in the same area. Independently of the mountains. 
West Virghiia lui.s a rounding form, sloping gradually upward from three 
directions. Imagine the mountain ranges sheared off until no irregular 
elevations exist in the State. The resulting figure would show West Vir- 
ginia's surface as it would be presented to us if no strata had been folded to 
make mountain ranges. This is the shajie given by the vertical upheaval 
since the Carboniferous age, uninfluenced by the horizontal thrust of strata. 
The figure would show a great swell in the surface, the highest portion at 
the interlocking sources of the Greenbrier, the Elk, the Potomac, the east 
fork of the Monongahela, and Cheat. Prom that highest point the sui'face 
slopes in eVery direction, as shown by the course of the rivers. There is a 
long, curved arm of the plateau, thrust out toward the southwest, reaching 
around through Pocahontas, Greenbrier, Monroe and McDowell Counties, 
and overlapping into the State of Virginia. The New River, from the 
highlands of North Carolina, cuts through tliis ]i]ateau to join the Kanawha 
on the western side. The highest jjart of lliis I'ounded area is perhaps 
three thousand feet above sea level, not counting the mountains which 
stand upon the plateau, for, in order to make the matter jilain, we have 
supposed all the mountains sheared off level with the surface of the plateau. 

Having now rendered it clear that portions of West Virginia would be 
high if there were not a mountain in the State, let us proceed to consider 
how the mountains were formed and why nearly all the highest summits 
are clustered in three or four counties. We have already observed that 
ranges of mountains, such as ours, were formed by the folding of layers of 
rocks. This is apjiarent to any one who has seen one of our mountains cut 
through from top to bottom, such as the Npw Creek Mountain at Green- 
land Gap, in Grant County. Place seveiiil layers of thick cloth on a table, 
l^ush the ends toward each other. Tln^ middli' of the cloth will rise in 
folds. In like manner were our mounlaiiis formed. The layers of rock 
were pushed horizontally, oih' foiic ailiiii-'- fi'om the southeast, the other 
from the northwest. Rivers and rain-. Iia\ >■ carved and cut them, changing 
their original features soincwhal: Iml their I'liiof charactei-istics remain. 
The first upheaval, wliieh was \- Mtical, raised tlie West X'irginia |ilati.'au, as 
we believe; the next iipiieaAal, wliieli was eansed by lioi-i/.oula! tlii-ust, 
folded the layers of rocks and maile monntain ranires. From this viewit is 
not difficult to account foi- so inan\' liie-li peaJvs in one small area. The 
mountain ranges cross tite |ilaleau, luninng up one slope, across the sum- 
mit, and down the opijosite slojje. ranges are from one thousand to 
nearly two thousand feet high, measuring from the general level of the 
country on which they stand. But that general level is itself, in the 
highest part about three thousand feet above the sea. So a mountain, in 
itself one thousand feet in elevation, may stand upon a plateau three times 
that high, and thus its summit will be four thousand feet above the sea. 


The highest peaks in the State are where the ranges of mountains cross the 
highest part of the jilateau. There are many other mountains in the State 
which, when measured from base to summit, are as high as those just men- 
tioned, but they do not have the advantage of resting their bases on ground 
so elevated, consequently their summits are not so far above sea level. To 
express it briefly, by a homely comparison, a five-foot man on three-foot 
stilts is higher than a six-foot man on the ground; a one thousand-foot moun- 
tain on a three thousand-foot plateau is higher than a two thousand-foot 
mountain near the sea level. 

Exact measurements showing the elevation of West Virginia in various 
parts of its area, when studied in connection with a map of the State, show 
clearly that the area rises in altitude from all sides, culminating in the nest 
of peaks clustered around the sources of the Potomac, the Kanawha and 
Monongahela. The highest point in the State is Spruce Mountain, in Pen- 
dleton County, 4,S60 feet above sea level; the lowest point is the bed of the 
Potomac at Harper's Perry, 260 feet above the sea; the vertical range is 
4,600 feet. The Ohio, at the mouth of Big Sandy, on the boundary between 
West Virginia and Kentucky, is 500 feet; the mouth of Cheat, at the Penn- 
sylvania line, is 775. The general level of Pocahontas County is about 
3,000 above the sea. The bed of Greenbrier River where it enters Poca- 
hontas is 3,300 feet in elevation. Where Shaver's Fork of Cheat River 
leaves Pocahontas its bed is 3,700 feet. A few of the highest peaks in Po- 
cahontas, Pendleton, Randolph and Tucker Counties are: Spruce Knob, 
Pendleton County, 4,860 feet above sea level; Bald Knob, Pocahontas 
County, 4,800; Spruce Knob, Pocahontas County, 4,730; High Knob, Ran- 
dolph County, 4,710; Mace Knob, Pocahontas County, 4,700; Barton Knob, 
Randolph County, 4,600; Bear Mountain, Pocahontas County, 4,600; EUeber 
Ridge, Pocahontas County, 4,600; Watering Pond Knob, Pocahontas Coun- 
ty, 4,600; Panther Knob, Pendleton County, 4,500; Weiss Knob, Tucker 
County, 4,490; Green Knob, Ivjindolph County, 4,485; Brier Patch Moun- 
tain, Randolph County, 4, IsO; Yokum's Knob, Randolph County, 4,330; 
Pointy Knob, Tucker County, 4,-86; Hutton's Knob, Randolph County, 

We do not know whether the vertical upheaval which raised the 
plateau, or the horizontal compression which elevated the mountains, has 
yet ceased. We know that the work of destruction is not resting. Whether 
the uplift is still acting with sufficient force to make our mountains higher, 
or whether the elements are chiseling down rocks and lowering our whole 
surface, we cannot say. But this we can say, if the teachings of geology 
may be taken as warrant for the statement, every mountain, every hill, 
every cliff, rock, upland, even tli<> valleys, and the whole vast underlying 
skeleton of rocks must ultiiiiulrly ])ass away and disappear beneath the sea. 
Rain and frost, wind and llic uusi'cn themical forces, will at last complete 
the work of destruction. EvLuy rock will be worn to sand, and the sand 
will go out with the currents of our rivers, until the rivers no longer have 
currents, and the sea will flow in to cover the desolation. The sea once 
covered a level world; the world will again be level, and again will the sea 
cover it. 

There is greater diversity of climate in West Virginia than in almost 
any other area of the United States of equal size. The climate east of the 
Alleghanies is different from that west of the range; while that in the high 
plateau region is different from both. The State's to^jography is responsi- 


ble for this, as might be expected from a vertical range of more than four 
thousand feet, with a portion of the land set to catch the west wind, and a 
portion to the east, and still other parts to catch every wind that blows. 
Generally speaking, the country east of the AUeghanies has the warmer 
and dryer climate. In the mountain regions the summers are never very 
hot, and the winters are always very cold. The thermometer sometimes 
falls thirty degrees below zero near the summit of the AUeghanies, while 
the highest summer temperature is seldom above ninety degrees, but the 
record shows ninety-six. The depth of snow varies with the locality and 
the altitude. Records of snow six and seven feet deep near the summits of 
the highest mountains have been made. At an elevation of fifteen hundred 
feet above the sea there was snow forty-two inches deep in 1856 along the 
mountains and valleys west of the AUeghanies. In 1831, at an elevation of 
less than one thousand feet, snow accumulated three feet deep between the 
mountains and the Ohio River. Tradition tells of a snow in the northwest- 
ern part of the State in 1780 which was still deeper; but exact measurements 
were not recorded. The summers of 1838 and 1854 were almost rainless 
west of the mountains. In the same region in 1834 snow fell four inches 
deep on the fifteenth of May; and on June 5, 1859, a frost killed almost every 
green thing in the central and northern part of the State. 

The average annual rainfall for the State of West Virginia, including 
melted snow, is about forty-seven inches. During some years the rainfall 
is three or four times as great as in other years. The precipitation is 
greater west of the AUeghanies than east, and greatest near the summit of 
these mountains, on the western side. Our rains and snows come from two 
general directions, from the west-southwest and from the east. Local 
storms may come fi'om any direction. Eastern storms are usually confined 
to the region east of the AUeghanies. The clouds which bring rains from 
that quarter come from the Atlantic Ocean. The high country following 
the summits of the Appalachian range from Canada almost to the Gulf of 
Mexico is the dividing line between the two systems of rains and winds 
which visit West "Virginia. Storms from the Atlantic move up the gentle 
slope from the coast to the base of the mountains, 2M-ecii3itating their mois- 
ture in the form of rain or snow as they come. They strike the abrupt east- 
ern face of the AUeghanies, exi^ending their force and giving out the 
remainder of their moisture there, seldom crossing to the west side. The 
Blue Ridge is not high enough to interfere seriously with the jiassage of 
clouds across their summits; but the AUeghanies are usually a barrier, 
especially for eastern storms. As the clouds break against their sides there 
are sometimes terrific rains below, while very little and perhaps none falls 
on the summit. On such an occasion an observer on one of the Alleghany 
peaks can look down upon the storm and can witness the play of lightning 
and hear the thunder beneath him. Winds which cross high mountains 
seldom dejjosit much rain or snow on the leeward side. 

Whence, then, does the western part of our State receive its rains? Not 
from the Atlantic, because the winds which bring rain for the country west 
of the AUeghanies blow towards that ocean, not from it. No matter in what 
part of the world rain or snow falls, it was derived from vapor taken up by 
the sun from some sea or ocean. An insignificant portion of the world's rain- 
fall is taken up as vapor from land. Prom what sea, then, do the winds blow 
which bring the rain that falls against the western slopes of the mountains 
and waters the country to the Ohio river and beyond? 


Take the back track of the winds and follow them to their starting 
point and that will settle the question. They come from a direction a little 
west of That course will lead Id tho Pacific Ocean west of 
Mexico. Go on in the .same dirci-liou twn thousand or three thousand miles, 
and reach the erfuator. Then tuin al liiclit au,i,'les and go southeast some 
thousand inilcs further and readi thai wide domain of the Pacific which 
stretches IVdin South America to Australia. There, most probably, would 
be found the startin.s? ]X)int of ihf winds w liich bi'ing us rain. The evidence 
to substantiale t his statement is too elahi .rate and coin] ilex to Ix'iriven here; 
suffice it that theLcreat wind systems of the world, with t hei r circuits, cur- 
rents and countei' currents, have l.eeii ti'aced and charted until they are 
almost as well known as are the rivers of 1 he world." Not only is the great 
distance from which our rains come an astonishing theme for contempla- 
tion, but the immense quantity transimrted is more amazing — a sheet of 
water nearly four feet thick and covering an area of twenty thousand square 
miles, lifted by the sun's rays every year from the South Pacific, carried 
through the air ten thousand miles and sprinkled with a bountiful profu- 
sion ujion our mountains, hills, vales, meadows and gardens to make them 
pleasing and fruitful. 

The soil of a country is usually understood to be the covering of the 
solid rock. It is very thin in comjiarison with the thickness of the subja- 
cent rock, not often more than four or five feet and frequently less. This 
is not the place for a chemical discussion of soils; but a few plain facts may 
be given. What is soil? Of what is it made? In the first place, leaving 
chemical questions out, soil is siniplv pidscrized rock, mixed with vegetable 
or animal remains. The rocky ledires umlerlying a country, become disin- 
tegrated near the surface; they decom|iose; the sand and dust accumulate, 
washin.i,'- iido the low phu-cs and lea\in,ir the hiirh jKiints more or less bare, 
and a. soil of sufticieni ilepth is foi'med to support vegetation. A soil in 
which little or no \-e,iretal)le humus is intermixed, is poor, audit produces 
little growth. Sand alone, no matter how linely pulverized is not capable 
of supporting vegetation, except a, few peculiar si>ecies or varieties. This 
is why hillsides are so often nearly bare. The soil is deep enough, but it is 
poor. The state of being poor is nothing moi-e than a lack of humus, or 
decaying ve.sretation. Those jwor hillside soils either never had humus in 
them, or it has Ihmui waslied out. A soil tolerahle fertile is .sometimes made 
miserably pooi' by heini,'- burned over each year wlien the leaves fall. The 
supply of vegetaitle matter which Avould have e;(ine to furnish what the soil 
needed, is thus Imnied and desti'oyed: ami in coui'se of time that which was 
already in the soil is consumeil oi' waslu'd out, and instead of a fertile wood- 
land, there is a blasted, lifeless ti-act. Examples of this are too often met 
with in West N'iririnia. 

Excessixe tillage of land exhausts it, because it takes out the organic 
matter and puts nothing back. It does not exhaust the disintegrated rock 
- the sand, I he clay, the dust; but it lak-esout the \itai part, the mold of 
vee-etalion. h'ertili/.ers are used to restore the Icrtiliiy of exhausted land. 
Thai process is misleading, in many cases. Too often the fertilizing mater- 
ial is a stimulant rather than a foo(l to the lan<l. It often adds no element 
of fertility, but, by a chemical process, compels the soil to give up all the 
remaining humus; and when the vegetal)le uuitter is all gone from the soil, 
all the fertilizers of that kind in the world would not cause the land to pro- 

♦ See Maury's Physical Geography of the Sea. 


duce a crop. The intelligent farmer does not need be told this. His experience 
has taught him the truth of it. No land is ,so completely sterile as that 
which, through excessive use of fertilizers, has been compelled to part with 
its vegetable matter. Something cannot be created from nothing. If a 
soil has no plant food in it, and a fertilizer contains no plant food, the 
mixing of the two will not produce plant life. 

A crop of clover, of buckwheat, of rye, or any other crop, plowed under, 
fertilizes land because it adds vegetable matter to the soil. Then if the soil 
is stubborn about yielding up its fertility, a treatment of the proper fertil- 
izing agent will compel it to do so. Bottom lands along the rivers and 
creeks are usually more fertile than lands on the hills because rains leach 
the uplands and wash the decaying leaves and the humus down upon the 
lowlands. The soil along the river bottoms is often many feet deep, and 
fertile all the way down. This is because the washings from the hills have 
been accumulating there for ages faster than the vegetation which annually 
drew from it could exhaust the supply. It sometimes happens that the 
surface of a deep soil is exhausted by long cultivation; and that a sub-soil 
plow, which goes deejier than usual, turns up a new fertile soil which had 
lain beyond the reach of plant roots for ages. Occasionally a flood which 
covers bottom lands leaves a deposit of mud which is full of humus. This 
enriches the land where it lodges, but the mountain districts from which it 
was carried wei-e robbed of that much fertility. 

Disintegrated rock of all kinds cannot be made fertile by the usual 
addition of vegetable humus. Certain chemical conditions must be complied 
with. Limestone generally forms good soil because it contains elements 
which enter into plants. Strata of rock, as we now see them, were once 
beds of sand and sediment. They hardened and became stone. Sandstone 
is formed of accumulations of sand; shale is made from beds of clay or 
mud; limestone was once an aggregation of shells and skeletons of large 
and small living creatures. When these rocks are broken up, disintegrated 
and become soils, they return to that state in which they were before they 
became rock. The limestone becomes shells and bones, but of course pul- 
verized, mixed and changed; sandstone becomes sand again; shale becomes 
mud and clay as it originally was. This gives a key to the cause of some 
soils being better than others. A clay bank is not easily fertilized; but a 
bed of black mud usually possesses elements on which plants can feed. So, 
if the disintegrating shale was originally sterile clay, it will make a poor 
soil; but if it was originally a fertile mud, the resulting soil will be good. 
If the disintegrating sandstone was once a jjure quartz sand, the soils will 
likely be poor, but if it was something better, the soil will be better. The 
fertility of limestone soil is mainly due to the animal matter in the rock. 
It should always be borne in mind, however, that the difference of soils is 
dependent not so much upon their chemical composition as upon the 
physical arrangements of their particles. 

Plants do not feed exclusively upon the soil. As a matter of fact, a 
large part of the material which enters into the construction of the stems 
and leaves of some plants is derived from the air. Some plants prosper 
without touching the soil. A species of Chinese lily flourishes in a bowl of 
water with a few small rocks in the bottom. On the other hand there are 
plants that will wither in a few minutes if taken from the ground. This 
shows that some plants extract more material from the soil than other. It 
is a common saying that buckwheat rapidly exhausts land. 


Some lands are more affected by drought than others, when both 
receive the same rainfall. This may be due to the character of the under- 
lying rocks, although usually due to a diflViiMit cause. If the soil is 
shallow and the subjacent rocks lie oblique ami <in cilLTf, they are liable to 
carry the water away rapidly by receiving it iiilo ihcir npiMiings ami crevi- 
ces, thus draining the soil. But if the sulijaccni idcKs lie liorizontally, 
water which sinks through the soil is prc\ ciilcil lidiii .•sc,i|iiiiLr. and is lield 
as in a tub, and is fed gradually upward thiuiigli the soil Ijy eapilliary 
attraction. This land will remain moist a long time. But the more usual 
reason that one soil dries more rapidly than another, is that one is loose 
and the other compact. The comi>act soil di-ies qniclcpst. The smaller the 
interspaces between the ultimate particles winch Mialce iip tln' soil, the more 
rapidly water raises from the wet subsoil liy capilliai'y attraction, and the 
supply is soon exhausted. The more com|iac1 the soil the smaller the 
spaces between the particles. In loose ground tin' inters|iaces are larger, 
the water i-ises slowly or not at all, and the dam]iiiess i-emains longer 
beneath the surface. In the western countiies where the sunnuers are hot 
and rainless, the farmers irrigate their land, thoroughly .soak in. tr it from a 
neighboring canal. If they shut the watei- off and leave the land alone, in 
a few days it is baked, parched, hard and as dry as a bone. I'.ul the farmer 
does not do this. As soon as the water is turned o-lf, he plows and hai-rows 
the land making the surface as loose as possible. The result is, the imme- 
diate top becomes dry, but a few inches below the surface the soil remains 
moist for weeks. The water cannot escape through the porous surface. 
The same rule applies everywhere. If two cornlields lie side by side, 
especially in a dry season, and one is carefully tilled and the surface kept 
loose, while the other is not, the difference in the crops will show that in 
one case the moisture in the soil was prevented from escaping and was fed 
to the corn roots, while in the other case it rose to the surface and was 
blown away by the wind, leaving the corn to die of thirst. 



" Yet I doubt not through the ages one increasing purpose runs, 
And the thouglits of men are widened with the process of the suns." 


The settlement of the territory now embraced in West Virginia com- 
menced about 1730, and before the close of the eighteenth century there 
were cabins or colonies in the valleys of all the principal rivers of the State. 
The first settlers were governed by the laws in force in Virginia from the 
earliest occupation of our territory until 1863. A proper consideration of 
the history of our State requires that mention be made of some of the old 
laws. They should be studied to show the progress of society during the 
past century. There are persons who speak of the "good old times" as 
though everything were better than now, and who speak of the people of a 
liundred years ago as if they were greater, purer, nobler than the men of 
today, and as if, when they died, wisdom died with them. The historian 
knows that this belief is erroneous. Not only are there men now living 
who are as upright, wise and patriotic as any who ever lived, but society, 
in all its branches and departments, has grown better. Only the pessimist 
refuses to see that the human race is climbing to a higher level, and not 

To bring this truth nearer home to the people, let a retrospective view 
of the customs and laws prevailing here a century ago be taken. That the 
people of Virginia tolerated barbarous laws long after the close of the Rev- 
olutionary War is proof that the laws were not obnoxious to a majority of 
the ])e()])le, otherwise they would have changed them. Before proceeding 
to ;i sliiti'inciit of the Acts Of tlir VirLMiii;t Ijfgislature, let it be remembered 
ilial ;it lliitt time Washington w.-is I'lvsidciii, of the United States and the 
great men of Virginia, at tlie dosi' ol' the last century and the beginning of 
this, were in their prime. They were responsible for the bad laws as well 
as for the good; if not directly, at least indirectly, for they were looked 
upon as leaders. Patrick Henry, who had exclaimed, "give me liberty or 
give medi'atli," was yd living' and ]ii-acticing law; John Randolph, of Roan- 
'Oke, was cntiTini;- his .■arrcr (if -real ncss; James Monroe, soon to be Presi- 
dent of the rniti'd Slati's, was a hauler in Virginia; George Mason, the 
author ol I he I '.ill (if Rights, had not yet lost his influence; James Madison, 
also ti) be I'loidiMit of the United States, was a leader among the Virgin- 
ians; William Wilt, one of Virginia's greatest lawyers, was in his prime; 
Edmunfl Randolph, Governor of Virginia, was in politics; John Marshall, 
the famousChief Justice, was practicing in the courts; Thomas Jefferson, 
the author of the Declaration of Independence, was in the height of power; 


and the list might be extended much further. Yet, with all of truly 
great men in power in Virginia, the Legislature of that State passed such 
laws as will be found below: 

On December 26, 1792, an Act was pas.sed for the purpose of suppress- 
ing vice, and provided that for swearing, cursing or being drunk th(> fine 
should be eighty-three cents for each offense, and if not paiil. tlic (itl't'uder 
should have ten lashes on the bare back. For working on Sumlay the fine 
was one dollar and sixty-seven cents. For stealing a hogshead or cask of 
tobacco found lying by the public highway, the punishment was death. 

On December 19, 1792, an Act was passed by the Virginia Legislature 
providing that any person found guilty of forgery must be put to death; and 
the same punishment was provided for those who erased, defaced or changed 
the inspector's stamp on flour or hemjj. No less severe was the punish- 
ment for those who stole land warrants. But for the man who made, x»assed 
or had in his possession counterfeit m(niey, knowing it to be such, the pen- 
alty of death was not enough. He was not only to be put to death, but was 
forbidden the attendance of a minister, and must go to execution "in the 
blossom of his sin." The design of the law-makers evidently was to add to 
his punishment not only in this life, but, if possible, send him to eternal 
punishment after death. It is not in the province or jsower of the writers 
of history to ascertain whether the Virginia Assembly ever succeeded in 
killing a man and sending him to eternal torment in the lake of fire and 
brimstone because he had a counterfeit dime in his jaocket, but the proba- 
bility is that the powers of the law-makers ceased when they had hanged 
their man, and a more just and righteous tribunal then took charge of 
his case. 

It is evident that the early Virginia law -makers laid great stress on the 
idea of clergy to attend the condemned man. If they wished to inflict 
extreme punishment they put on the finishing touches by denying the priv- 
ilege of clergy. On November 27, 1789, an Act was passed by the Legisla- 
ture segregating crimes into two classes, one of which was designated as 
"clergyable," and the other as "unclergyable." It was provided that the 
unclergyable crimes were murder in the first degree, burglary, arson, the 
burning of a Court-House or prison, the burning of a clerk's office, felone- 
ously stealing from the church or meeting-house, roV)bing a house in pres- 
ence of its occupants, breaking into and robbing a dwelling housr by day, 
after having put its owner in fear. For all tlu'si' olTciui's tlir iM>iialty was 
death. A provision was made in some cases lor clcigy; but, lest the con- 
victed man's punishment might not thereby be too much lightened, it was 
stipulated that he must have his hand burned before he was hanged. 
The same law further provided that, although a man's crime might not 
be unclergyable, yet if he received the benefit of clergy, and it was subse- 
quently ascertained that he had formerly committed an unclergyable 
offense, he must then be ^jut to death without further benefit of clergy. In 
this law it was expressly ^jrovided that there should be no mitigation of 
punishment in case of women. 

By an Act of December 26, 1792, it was provided that the man who 
apprehended a runaway servant and put him in jail was to receive one 
dollar and forty-seven cents, and mileage, to be paid by the owner. This 
law was, no doubt, intended to a^ijily chiefly to slaves rather than to white 
servants. If the runaway remained two months in jail unclaimed, the 
sheriff must advertise him in the Viryhiia Gazttte, and after putting an iron 


collar on his neck, marked with the letter "F," hire him out, and from his 
wages pay the costs. After one year, if still unclaimed, he was to be sold. 
The money, after the charges were paid, was to be given to the former 
owner if he ever proved his claim, and if he did not do so, it belonged to 
the State. 

The law-makers believed in discouraging gossip and tattling. A law 
passed by the Virginia Legislature, December 27, 1792, was in the follow- 
ing language: "Whereas, many idle and busy-headed people do forge and 
divulge false rumors and reports, be it resolved by the General Assembly, 
that what person or persons soever shall forge or divulge any such false 
report, tending to the trouble of the country, he shall be by the next Jus- 
tice of the Peace sent for and bound over to the next County Court, where, 
if he produce not his author, he shall be fined forty dollars or less if the 
court sees fit to lessen it, and besides give bond for his good behavior, if it 
appear to the court that he did maliciously publish or invent it. " 

There was a studied effort on the part of the Legislators to discourage 
hog- stealing. It is not ajiparent why it should be a worse crime to steal a 
hog than to steal a cow; or why the purloining of a pig should outrank in 
criminality the taking of a calf; or why it should be a greater offense to 
appropriate a neighbor's shoat than his sheep. But the early law-makers 
in Virginia seem to have so considered it and they provided a law for the 
special benefit of the hog thief. This law, passed by the Legislature 
December 8, 1792, declared that "any person, not a slave, who shall steal _a 
hog, shoat or pig," should receive thirty-five lashes on the bare back; or if 
he preferred to do so, he might escape the lashing by paying a fine of thirty 
dollars; but whether he paid the fine or submitted to the stripes, he still 
must pay eight dollars to the owner for each hog stolen by him. This much 
of the law is coraiiaratively mild, but it was for the first offense only. As 
the thief advanced in crime the law's severity increased. For the second 
offense in hog-stealing the law provided that the person convicted, if not a 
slave, should stand two hours in a pillory, on a public court day, at the 
Court-House, and have both ears nailed to the pillory, and at the end of two 
hours, should have his ears cut loose from the nails. It was expressly pro- 
vided that no exception should be made in the case of women. If the hog 
thief still persisted in his unlawful business and transgressed the law a 
third time, he was effectually cured of his desire for other people's hogs by 
being put to death. 

The slave had a still more severe punishment for stealing hogs. For 
the first olfense he received "thirty-nine lashes on the bare back, well laid 
on, at the public whippingpost. " For the second offense he was nailed by 
the ears to a post, and after two hours of torture, had his ears cut off. For 
the third olfense he was put to death. The law provided that if a negro or 
Indian were put on the stand as a witness against a person accused of steal- 
ing hogs, and did not tell the truth, he should be whipped, nailed to a post, 
his ears cut, and if he still testified falsely, he paid the isenalty with his 
life. It is not jDrovided how the court shall be led to the knowledge 
whether or not the witness had told the truth. It appears that the judge 
was presumed to be infallible in separating false from true testimony in 
trials for hog-stealing. After a hog had been stolen and killed, the relent- 
less law still followed it to try to discover if some one else might not be 
punished. If a person bought, or received into his possession, a hog from 
which the ears had been removed, he was adjudged guilty of hog-stealing, 


unless he could prove that the hog was his own ]>roi)ei'ty. There was also 
a law forbidding any one from iiurcliasing porlv of Indians unless the ears 
went with the pork. There would he soiin' iiicoiwcnicncc in retailing pork 
under this restriction, as it would rc(|uirc a skilllul butcher to so cut up a 
hog that each ham, shoulder, side and the sausage should rotMin tlic ears. 

If stealing hogs was a crime too hemous to lie :iiliMiiiat<'ly jjun- 
ished in this world, horse-stealing was so much worse thai ilic law makers 
of Virginia would not undertake to i^rovide a law to reach tin- case. They, 
therefore, enacted a law, December 10, 1792, that the convicted horse-thief 
must be put to death; and, in order that he should certainly reach eternal 
punishment beyond death, he was forbidden to have s]iii-itnal advice. The 
language of the law is that the horse thi( 'I' shall he "iiiicrly '■xchidcd." 

An Act of unnecessary severity was jiassi'd Dccciuhrr I'l', 17'.>i', against 
negroes who should undertake to cure the sii-k. It is nasdiiahlt' and right 
that the law should carefully guard the jjeople against haim from those 
who ignorantly practice medicine; but to us of the present day it appears 
that a less savage law would have answered the purpose. It was provided 
that any negro who prepared, exhibited, or administered medicine should 
be put to death without benefit of clergy. It was provided, however, that 
a negro might, with the knowledge and consent of his master, have medi- 
cine in his jiossession. 

The law of Virginia required every county to provide a Court-House, 
Jail, Pillory, Whipping Post, Sitocks and a Ducking Stool. But the Duck- 
ing Stool might be dispensed with if the County Court saw fit to do so. The 
Whipping Post was the last of these relics of barbarism to be removed. So 
far as can be ascertained the last public and legalized burning of a convicted 
man in West Virginia occurred in July, lb28, in the old ( 'omt llcmse in 
Hampshire County. A negro slave, named Simon, the i)i(iii(ity of David 
Collins, was tried on a charge of assault. The record does not show that 
he had a jury. The court found him guilty and ordered the Sheriff to burn 
him on the hand and give him one hundred lashes, chain him, and keej) 
him on "coarse and low diet." The minutes of the court state that the 
Sheriff " immediately burned him in the hand in the presence of the court," 
and gave him then and there twenty-five lashes. The remaining seventy- 
five were reserved for future days. 

It is but justice to the law-makers of Virginia, and the jjeople at that 
time, to state that nearly all of those severe laws came from England, or 
were enacted in the colony of Virginia many years before the Kcvolutionary 
War. Some of them date back to the time of Cromwelh (ii<'\en earliei*. 
Although the people of Virginia took the lead in the moxcnieut lor greater 
liberty, both mental and physical, tliey conld not all at once cul loose from 
the wrecks of past tyranny. They advanced rapidly along sonu' hn.'s, but 
slowly along others. They fountl those old laws on the statute hooks, and 
re-enacted them, and suffered them to exist for a generation or inoiv. But 
we should not believe that such men as I'atiiek- Henry, I'ldniuud Kaiidolph, 
Thomas Jefferson, George Washington and the othei- statesmen and patriots 
of that time believed that a man should be nailed to a post for stealing a 
pig, or that the crime of stealing a hymn book from a church should be jjun- 
ished with death without benefit of clergy. 

A law passed near the close of the last century, and still in force in 
1819, provided Sheriff's fees on a number of items, among which were the 
followmg: For making an arrest, sixty-three cents; for pillorying a crimi- 


nal, fifty- 'wo cents; for putting a criminal in the stocks, twenty -one cents; 
for clucking a criminal in pursuance of an order of court, forty-two cents; 
for putting a criminal in prison, forty-two cents; for hanging a criminal, 
five dollars and twenty-five cents; tor whipping a servant, by order of 
court, to be ]iaid by tbc iiKislcr and repaid to him by the servant, forty-two 
cents: for whijijiiiig a rice i»'is(in, by order of court, to be paid by the per- 
son who receiv I'll tiic w liipiiing, forty-two cents; for whipping a slave, by 
order of coui-t, to be paid by the county, forty-two cents; for selling a ser- 
vant at public outcry, forty-two cents; for keeping and providing for a 
debtor in jail, each day, twenty-one cents. 

It was more expensive to be whipped or pilloried by the Sheriff than by 
a Constable, although there is no evidence that the Sheriff did the work 
any more effectively. Since the person who received the punishment usu- 
ally paid the fees of tlie ofticer who performed the service, it is probable 
that such person prelViicd hcing whipjied or nailed to a post by a Consta- 
ble, because it was less expensive. S(mie of the Constable's fees are shown 
below: For putting a condemned man in tiio stocks, twenty-one cents; for 
whipping a servant, twenty-one ceuls: lor wliijiping a slave, to be paid by 
the master, twenty-one cents; for ichkix ini,'- a person likely to become a 
charge on the county, jjer mile, four cents. 

Within tlie past centui-y several important changes have taken place in 
the laws under which West Virginia has been governed. An Act of As- 
sembly, passed November 29, 1792, provided that in cases where a person 
is susjiected of having committed a murder, and the Coroner's jui-y recom- 
mend that he be held for trial, and he eludes arrest, the Coroner must seize 
his house and projierty and hold them until he surrenders himself or is 
arrested. Where a defendant was found guilty the costs of the ^prosecution 
was collected by sale of his projierty, if he had any property; but he might 
pay cost and thus save his property. No Constable, miller, surveyor of 
roads or hotel-keeper was eligible to serve on a gi'and jury. A law passed 
January 16, IKOl, provided a line of five dollars as a penalty for killing deer 
between January 1 and August 1 of each year. A law enacted January 26, 
1.S14, provided that sheep-killing dogs should be killed. If the owner pre- 
vented the execution of the law upon the dog he was subject to a fine of two 
dollars for each day in which he saved the life of the dog. The bounty on 
wolves was made six dollars for each scaljj, by a law ]jassed Pebi'uary 9, 
1M19. But the bounty was not always the same, nor was it uniform through- 
out the counties of Virginia. Each county could fix the bounty within its 
jurisdiction. A law of January 16, 1802, provided a fine of tlairty dollars 
for setting the woods on tire; and a law of January 4, 1805, punished by a 
fine of ten dollars the catching of fish in a seine between May 15 and 
August 15. 

There was a severe law passed by the Virginia Legislature February 
22, 1819, for the benefit of tavern-keepers. It provided a fine of thirty dol- 
lars for each olfense, to be levied against any person not a licensed tavern- 
Ifeeper, who sliould take jaay from a traveler for entertaiment given. Not 
only was this law in I'orci' in and near towns, but also within eight hundred 
yards of any pui>lic load. There was a law enacted by the Assembly of 
Virginia Decemljcr 21, 179(i, which was intended to favor the poor people. 
It is in marked contrast with many of the laws of that time, for they were 
generally not made to benefit the poor. The law had for its object the aid- 
ing of persons of small means in reaching justice through the courts. A 



man who had no money had it in his power to prosecute a suit against a 
rich man. He could select the court in which to have his case tried; the 
court furnished him an attorney free; he was charged nothing for his sub- 
pcEnas and other writs; and he was not charged with costs in case he lost 
his suit. A law similar to that is still in force in West Virginia. 

In 1792 an Act was passed by the Virginia Legislature establishing fer- 
ries across the principal streams of the State, and fixing the rate of toll. 
The State was in the ferry business strictly for the money in it. The law 
provided that no person should operate a private ferry for profit where he 
would take patronage from a public ferry. The penalty for so doing seems 
unnecessarily severe. The person who undertook to turn a few dimes into 
his own pocket by carrying travelers across a river, where those travelers 
might go by public ferry, was fined twenty dollars for each offense, half of 
it to go to the nearest jjublic ferryman and the other half to the pei'.son who 
gave the information; and in case the public fei-ryman gave the informa- 
tion, the entire fine went into his pocket. It will readily be surmised that 
the public ferryman maintained a sharp lookout for pinvate boats which 
should be so presumptuous as to dare enter into competition for a portion 
of the carrying ti'ade, and it is equally probable that competition with jjub- 
lic service soon became unpopular, when a man might receive five cents for 
carrying a traveler across a river and to be fined twenty dollars for it. 

Messengers and other persons on business for the State were not 
required to pay toll, and they must be carried across immediately, at any 
hour of the day or night. But, as a precaution against being imposed upon 
by persons falsely claiming to be in the service of the State, the ferryman 
was authorized to demand proof, which the applicant was obliged to fur- 
nish. This proof consisted of a letter, on the back of which must be writ- 
ten "public service," and must be signed by some officer, either in the civil 
or military service of the State. Inasmuch as the punishment for forgery 
at that time was death, it is improbable that any person would present 
forged documents to the ferryman in order to save a few cents toll. The 
men who kept the ferries enjoyed some immunities and privileges denied to 
the masses. They were exempt from work on the public roads. They 
were not required to pay county taxes, but whether this privilege was ex- 
tended only to poll tax, or whether it applied also to personal property and 
real estate, is not clear from the reading of the regulations governing the 
business. They were exempt from military service due the State, and they 
were excused from holding the office of Constable. 

Hampshire County. 



The territory now embraced in the State of West Virginia has been 
governed under five State constitutions, three of Virginia's and two of West 
Virginia's. The first was adopted in 1776, the second in 1830, the third in 
1851, the fourth in 1863, the fifth iii 1872. The first con.stitution was passed 
by the Vii'ginia Convention, June 29, 1776, live days before the signing of 
the Declaration of Independence. Virginia had talcen the lead in declaring 
the United States independent and capable of self-government; and it. also 
tool£ the lead in preparing a system of government for itself. The consti- 
tution passed by its convention in 1776 was one of the first documents of 
the kind in the world, and absolutely the first in America. Its aim was 
lofty. It had in view greater liberty than men had ever before enjoyed. 
The document is a masterpiece of statesmanship, yet its terms are simple. 
It was the foundation on which nearly all the State constitutions have been 
based. It was in force nearly fifty years, and not until ex^jerience had 
shown wherein it was defective was there any disposition to change it or 
form a new constitution. Viewed now in the light of nearly a century and 
a quarter of progressive government, there are features seen in it which do 
not conform to the ideas of statesmen of today. But it was so much better, 
at the time of its adoption, than anything gone before that it was entirely 

A Bill of Rights preceded the first constitution. On May 15, 1776, the 
Virginia Convention instructed its delegates in Congress to propose to that 
body to declare the United Colonies indeijendent, and at the same time the 
Convention appointed a committee to prepare a Declaration of Rights and 
a plan of government for Virginia. On June 12 the Bill of Rights was 
passed. The document was written by George Mason, member of the com- 
mittee. This state paper is of interest, not only as being one of the earliest 
of the kind in America, but because it contains inconsistencies which in 
after years clung to the laws of Virginia, carrying injustice with them, un- 
til West Virginia, when it became a State, refused to allow them to become 
part of the laws of the new Commonwealth. The chief of these inconsis- 
tencies is found in the just declaration at the outset of the Bill of Rights, 
"that all men are by nature equally free and independent;" and yet further 
on it paves the way for restricting the privilege of suffrage to those who 
own property, thereby declaring in terms, if not in words, that a poor man 
is not as free and independent as a rich man. Here was the beginning of 
the doctrine so long held in Virginia by its law-makers, that a man without 
property should not have a voice in the government. In after years this 
doctrine was combated by the people of the territory now forming West 


Virginia. The inhabitants west of the Blue Ridge, and esi^'cially west of 
the Alleghanies, were tlie ohani])ions of universal snffi-age, and lln'v labored 
to attain that end, l)n1 with lilllc success until tlu'v wo-c able tn set up a 

government for theniselxcs, in wliicli i,'-(i\'eiiiineiil n were [ilaceil al)ove 

l^roperty. Further on in thi.s chapter souieUiing uiori; will be lound on this 

The Bill of Rights declares that the freedom of the press is one of the 
chief bulwarks of liberty. This is in marked contrast with and a noticeable 
advance beyond the doctrine iield l)ySii- William lii'i-iceley. one of Vii^'inia's 
i-oyal governors, who solemnly deciai-ed, "I thank" ( iod wi' \\u\f not free 
schools or printing, and I hope we will not lia\e these iiundred \-ears, for 
learning has brought disobedience and heresy and sects into the world, and 
l)i'inting has divulged them and libels a,i,Minst the go\crnm<>nt. Cod keep 
us from both." This solemn protest of \'ii-,iriiiia's ( H.vernor was made 
nearly forty years altei- the fonndini,' of llar\ard Kni\ersity in Massa- 
chusetts. It has been soinelimes cited as an illnsi rat ion of t he difference 
between the Puritan t-i\ilizati<jn in Massachusetts and tlie Caxalier civiliza- 
tion of Virginia. But the comparison is unfair. Itwasuo test of Virginia's 
civilization, for the Governor was canyini,'- out in.structions from England 
to .sujopress printing, and he did not consult the people of the colony 
whetTier they wanted ]irinling presses or not. But when a printer, John 
Buckner by name, ten \-ears allei- (hivernor Berkeley asked divine i^rotec- 
tion against schools and juinlinii-. \entured into Virginia with a press he 
was promptly brought before the ( lovei-iior and was com]ielled to give bond 
that he would jjrint nothing until the King of I'ingland ga\e consent. 

In view of this i_'.\i>erii.'nc(.' it is not lo he wondered at, thai the Virgin- 
ians were i:)romi3t in declaring in their Hill of Wights that the ])ress should 
be free. But they did not embrace that excellent opiioriunity to say a word 
in favor of schools. Nor could they, at one sweep, l)ring themselves to the 
broad doctrine that property does not round off and comjjlete the man, but 
that "a man's a man for a' that," and capable, competent and trustworthy 
to take full part in the affairs of govei-nment. This Bill of Rights was 
brought into existence in tlie early jiart of the Ivevolutionary War, and at 
that very time the bold, patient, pat riot ic and jxku- hack- woodsmen from the 
frontiers were in the American ainiies, tighting and dying in the cause of 
liberty and equal rights; and yet, by laws then being enacted, these same 
men were denied the right to take part in the management of the govern- 
ment which they were fighting to establish. It was for no other reason 
than that they were not assessed with enough i^roiiei-ty to gi\<' "sufficient 
evidence of i^ermanent common interest with and allachment to the com- 
munity." This notion had been brought from England, and had been fast- 
ened ujion the colony of Virginia so firmly that it could not be shaken off 
when that State severed the political ties which bound it to the mother 
(H)untry. The idea clung to the constitution passed in 1776; to that of 1H30; 
to that' of hsr,i; but senliuKMil against the property (pialiticat ion for suffrage 
conslanllv Uivw, and pari icniarl v anionic: llie people nf Weshnai \'iri,'inia, 
until it manilesleil its.^lf in striking the obnoN ions cla us,> fioni the.-onsti- 
lution when the Stale of W.^st \'iri;-iina came into separate .■xislence. 

If theWarof the iv'evoluli.ui did not leach the statesmen of Virginia 
tliat the poor man can be a. pat riot , and if the I hirty tix'e or more yeai's intei'- 
vening between the adoption of the constitution of 1770 and the second war 
with England had not sufficed to do so, it might be sujjposed that tht new 


exjierience of the War of 1812 would have made the fact clear. But it did 
not convince the law-maker. Virginia was spoodily invadcnl by the British 
alter the declaration of war, and some of (lie inost xaliiiihlc property in the 
State was destroyed, and some of the hrsl icriiloiy was overrun by the 
enemy. The city of Washinijrtori, just across the I'oiomac from Vii-ginia, 
was captured and burned. An ex I'lcsident of the United States was com- 
jjelled to hide in the woods to a\iiicl <:ipture by the enemy. In this critical 
time no soldiers fought more valiautly, none did more to drive back the 
invader, than the men from Western Virginia, where lived most of those 
who were classed too i^oor to take part in the affairs of government. It is 
said that sometimes half the men in a company of soldiers had never been 
permitted to vote because they did not own enoii.uli inoiuMty. 

The people of Western Virginia felt the injustice kceuly. They never 
failed 1o rc^spond jjromptly to a call when their services were needed in the 
tield, l)iit ill time of peace they sought in a lawful and decent manner the 
redress of tlieir grievances. They could not obtain this redress under the 
constituUou then in force, and tlio War of 1812 had scarcely come to a close 
when the subject of a new const it iit ion Ijegan to be spoken of. It was agi- 
tated long in vain. Nor was the lest liction of suifrage the only wrong the 
l^eople of Western Virginia endured, somewhat impatiently, but always with 
full resjject for the laws then in force. 

The eastern j^art of Virginia had the majority of inhabitants and the 
largest i^art of the property, and this gave that ijortion of the State the 
majority in the Assembly. This ]30wer was used with small respect for the 
rights of the people in the western part of the State. Internal improve- 
ments were made on a large scale in the east, but non(^ wore made west of 
the mountains, or veryfew. Men in the western counties had litth:- encour- 
agement to aspire to political distinction. The door was shut ( m t hem. The 
State offices were filled by men from the wealthy eastern districts. At 
length the agitation of the question of a new constitution ripened into 
results. The Assembly of Virginia in 1828 passed a bill submitting to a 
vote of the peojilc whether they would have a constitutional convention 
called. At the election there were 38,542 votes cast, of wliich 21,896 were 
in favor of a conslit ntional convention. By far the ]iea\ lest \ote favoring 
the convention \\as cast \\<.'st of the Blue Ridge. Tlie wc^i It li\- slave-owners 
of the lower conn lies w a n t ed no change. The const it nl ion had been framed 
to suit them, and the\ wanted nothing better, 'i'liey feared that any change 
would give them something less suitable. Ne\eit heless, when the votes 
were counted and it was ascertained that a new constit iition was inevitable, 
the representatives of the wealth of the State set to worlc to guard against 
any invasion of the privileges they had so long enjoyed. 

The delegates from what is now West Virginia elected to this conven- 
tion were: E. M. Wilson and Charles S. Morgan, of Monongalia County; 
William McCoy, of Pendleton County; Alexander Cam^iboll and Philip Dod- 
dridge, of Brooke County; Andrew Beirne, of Monroe C'ounty; William 
Smith, of Greenbrier County; John Baxter, of Pocali<intas; H. L. Opie and 
Thomas Griggs, of .Toffe)-s(m: William Navlor and William Donaldson, of 
Hampshire; Philip Pendh>ton and fllisha I'.oyd, of I'.erkdey; E. S. Duncan, 
of Harrison; .lohn Laidh'v, of Caliell; Lewis Siuiniieis, of Ivanawha; Adam 
See, of Raudoljjb. The leader of tho westeiii (ielegates in the convention 
was Philip Doddridge, who did all in his jiower to have the jjroperty qualifi- 
cation clause omitted from the new constitution. 


The convention met at Richmond, October 5, 1829. From the very first 
meeting the western members were slighted. No western man was named 
in the selection of officers of the convention. It was seen at the outset that 
the property qualification for suffrage would not be given up by the eastern 
members without a struggle, and it was soon made plain that this qualifica- 
tion would have a majority. It was during the debates in this convention 
that PhiliiJ Doddridge, one of West Virginia's greatest men, came to the 
front in his full stature. His opponents were Randolph, Leigh, Upshur, 
Tazewell, Standard and others, who supported the doctrine that a voter 
should be a property-owner. One of Doddridge's colleagues was Alexander 
Campbell, the founder of the Church of the Disciples of Christ, sometimes 
known as the Christian Church, and again called, from its founder, the 
Campbellite Church. Here were two jiowerful intellects, Doddridge and 
Campbell, and they chamiiioned the cause of liberty in a form more ad- 
vanced than was then allowed in Virginia. Doddridge himself had followed 
the plow, and he felt that the honest man does not need a certain number 
of acres before he can be trusted with the right of suffrage. He had served 
in the Virginia Legislature and knew from observation and experience the 
needs of the people in his part of the State. He was born on the bank of 
the Ohio River two years before the backwoodsmen of Virginia annulled 
the Quebec Act, passed by the Parliament of England, and he had grown 
to manhood in the dangers and vicissitudes of the frontiers. He was but 
five years old at the first siege of Port Henry, and was ten years old at the 
second siege; and the shot which brought dnwn tlic last British flag that 
floated above the soil of Virginia during the lIcvDlutioiiary War was fired 
almost within hearing of liis home. Anioiii,'- his nuighbors were Lewis 
Wetzel, Ebenezer Zanc Saiiiml Itiady ami the iiifu who fought to save the 
homes of the frontier si'ttliMs iluiiim- Wu' \i>\\'j: and anxious years of Indian 
warfare. Although Doddridge dicil two yeais aili'i- this convention, while 
serving in Congress, he hatl done enougli tn i,M\ e Wi'sl Virginia reason for 
remembering him. The work of Cami)liell does iidt stand out in sd e<.nspic- 
uous a manner in the proceedings of the cKUventiun, but his influence for 
good was great; and if the delegates from west of the mountains labored in 
vain for that time, the result was seen in later years. 

The work of the convention was brought to a close in 1830, and a new 
constitution was given to the voters of theState Utv theii' api>roval orrejec- 
tion. The western members had failed to stiiUe out the clislasteful prop- 
ei'ty qualification. They had all voted against it except Doddridge, who 
was unable to attend that ses.sion on arcount of siclaiess, no doulit due to 
overwork. His vote, however, would ha\ e changed notliing, as the eastern 
members had a large majority and canied e\ciy ineasuie they wanteil. In 
the dissatisfaction conse(inent upon the laihii-e ol' tlie western counties to 
secure what they considerei I justice hei,^^ tlie moxeiuenl tor a new State. 
More than thirty years elapsed helore the oliject was attained, and it was 
brought about by means and Iroui causes whicli not thi' wisest statesman 
foresaw in 1830, yet the sentiment luid h<.en growine; all the yeai-s. The old 
State of Virginia was never h)rgi\-eii tlu' olTense and injury done the west- 
ern district in the constitutional convention ot IsL'ii |s:;o. If thc> injustice 
was partly removed by the enlargi'd sultrage gianted in the constitution 
adopted tweiaty years after, it was tlien too late Un- the atonement to be 
accepted as a blotting out of past wrongs; and in 1801 the people of West 
Virginia replied to the old State's long years of oppression and tyranny. 


The constitution of 1830 adopted the Bill of Rights of 1776 without 
amendment or change. Then followed a long preamble reciting the wrongs 
under which Virginia suffered, prior to the Revolutionary War, before inde- 
pendence was secured. Under this constitution the Vii-ginia House of Del- 
egates consisted of one hundred and thirty-four members, of which twenty- 
six were chosen by the counties lying west of the AUeghenies; twenty-five 
by the counties between the Blue Ridge and the Alleghanies; forty-two by 
the counties between the Blue Rirtgf mid tidewater, and thirty-six by the 
tidewater counties. The Senate ccuisi-^tcil i if Ihirty-two members, of which 
thirteen were from the counties wi-sl ol tlic Blue Ridge. No priest or 
preacher was eligible to the Legislature. The right of suffrage was based 
on a property qualification. The ballot was forbidden and all voting was 
viva voce. Judges of the supreme court and of the superior courts were 
not elected by the people, but by the joint vote of the Senate and House of 
Delegates. The Attorney General was chosen in the same way. Sheriffs 
and Coroners were nominated by 'the county courts and appointed by the 
Governor. Justices of the Peace were appointed by the Governor and the 
Constables were aj^pointed by the Justices. Clerks were appointed by the 
courts. The State Treasurer was elected by the joint vote of the Senate 
and House of Delegates. It is thus seen that the only State officers for 
which people could vote directly were Senators and members of the House 
of Delegates. Such an arrangement would be very unsatisfactory at the 
present day among people who have become accustomed to select their 
officers, almost without exception, from the highest to the lowest. The 
growth of the Reijublican principle of Government has been gradual. It 
was not all grasped at once; nor has it reached its fullest developement yet. 
The Bill of Rights and the first constitution of Virginia were a great step 
forward from the bad Government under England's Colonial system; but 
the gathered wisdom of more than a century has discovered and corrected 
many imperfections. 

It is noticable that the constitution of 1830 contains no provisions for 
public schools. It may be stated generally that the early history of Vir- 
ginia shows little development of the common school idea. The State 
which was satisfied for seventy-tive years with suffrage denied the poor 
would not be likely to become famous for its zeal in the cause of popular 
education. The rich, who voted, could afford schools for their children; 
atid the father who was poor could neither take part in the Government nor 
educate his children. Virginia was bcliiiul most of tlio old states in free 
schools. At the very*time that (idvcrnor ncrl^rlcy lli.'iukcd God that there 
were neither free schools nor |iriiiliii-- incssrs in Vii-giiiia,, Connecticut was 
devoting to education one foui-th of its revenue iiom taxation. As late as 
1857 Virginia with a population of nearly a million and a half, had only 
41,008 children in common schools. When this is comjiared with other 
states, the contrast is striking. Massachusetts with a smaller poi^ulation 
had live times as many children in the free schools; New Hampshire with 
one-tifth the pojiulation had twice as many; Illinois had nearly eight times 
as many, yet a smaller population; Ohio with a population a little larger 
had more than fourteen times as many children in public schools as Vir- 
ginia. The following additional states in 1857 had more children attending 
common schools than Virginia had in proportion to their jjopulation: 
Maine, Vermont, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, Delaware, Indiana, Michigan, Iowa, Wisconsin, Missouri, Kentucky, 


Maryland, Louisiana, Tennessee, North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama. The 
states with a smaller percentage of children in the common schools than 
Virginia's were South Carolina, California and Mississiii|)i. \<\>f the 
remainder of the states, the statistics for that year were hdI coinpilcil. 

The showing is bad foi' Virginia. Although the ]nck of piuvision for 
jjopular education in the coiucntiini ol ls:;() (Iocs iiol a]i)icar to have caused 
opi30.sition from the westcni ini'inln'is, yd 1lic |iroiiiiitiicss with which the 
State of West Virginia ]iic)\ iilcd fur public .school.s a.s soon as it had a 
chance, is evidence tlmt 1iic sentiment west of the AUeghanies was strong 
in favor of pojuihir edncaliou. 

■LTiiles i-pturned home after completing their 

r |si".l |s:',(), 1liev found that their constituents 

th.' constilution. The chief Ihiiii: contended 

lire, had been retused, MUd tile m ■«' col 1st i t utioU, 

■r than the ohh i-etained llieiiiost ol)iectionable 
e ele,-tioii h.-ld .-arly in i>:'.ii toi- ratifying or 
lion, ll.Gl.s votes were cast, of wliich, l't),055 
r),5Uo against. The eastern part of the State 
voted strongly for ratiticati(jn; the western jsart against it. Only two 
counties in what is now West Virginia gave a majority for it; and only one 
east of the Blue Ridge voted against it. The vote by counties in West 
Virginia was as follows: Berkeley, for 95, against 161; Brooke, the home 
md Cani|)bell, for 0, 371; Cabell, for 5, against 334; 
r ;'. I, aLiainst 464; Hampshire, for 241, against 211; Hardy, 
t J I'll; Hai-rison, for 8, against 1,112; Jefferson, for 243, 
anawlia, h)r 42, against 266; Lewis, for 10, asrainst 546; 
li,^linst L'.'.."i: Mason, for Ml, airainst IJCi'.t; Mononiralia, for 305, 
roe, for ill, against 4.-.!; Moj'gan, for l^'.l, against 156; 
against 325; Ohio for 3, against ()43; Pendleton, for 58, 

When the western del 
labors in the conxcntion o 
were much dissatistied will 
for, less restriction on sLdfr; 
while in some respects b( d 1 1 
feature of the old. At th 
rejecting the new constitii 
were for ratification and 1 

of Doddrid,ge 

Greenbrier, for 

for 63, against 

aerainst 53; K'ai 

Logan, for 2, ai^ 

against 460; Ah 

Nicholas, for 2'- 

against 219; Pocahontas, for 9, against 288; Preston, for 121, against 357; 

Randolph, for 4, against 567; Tyler, for 5, against 299; Wood, for 28, 

against 410. Total, for 1,383, against 8,375. 

Although the constitution of 1830 was unsatisfactory to the people of 
the western counties, and they had voted to reject it, it had been fastened 
upon them by the vote of the eastern counties. However, the matter was 
not to end there. In a Republican ( loveriiiiient the way to ivacdi a redress 
of grievances is to keep the pro] losed relorin coiistaidly before the people. 

If right, it will finally pn?vai]. in all rcdonii xi'IikmUs oi' ([uestions, the 

right is nearly always in tlie minorily at lirsl; perhaps it is always so. The 
Western Virginians had been voted <h)wn, Iml they at once heura^nto agitate 

the question of c; 
for twenty years. 
tion on liie suhji 
Legislature was i 

was held I,, choo: 

Alle-hani<'s. and 
tains, were .bdii 
Deneale, G. I!. S; 
Allen T. Capert,, 
ner, William Luc 




y lce]it at :t 
lied an elec- 
lority of the 
an election 
west of the 
hose moun- 


■Is, Will 

rer, Cleorge E. 
uel C. Williams, 
Alhert (;. l',-iidleioii, .\. A. Cliaiaiian, CharlesJ. Paulk- 
DennisAlurphy, Andrew Hunter, TlK.anas Sloan, James 
E. Stewart, Richard E. Byrd, Charles Blue, Jefferson T. Martin, Zachariah 
Jacob, John Knote, Thomas Gaily, Benjamin H. Smith, William Smith, 


Samuel Price, Geors^e W. Summers, Joseph Johnson, John F. Suodgrass. 
Gideon D. Camden, Peter G. Van Winkle, William G. Brown. Waitman T, 
Willey, Edward J. Armstrong, James Neeson, Samuel L. Hayes, Joseph 
Smith, John S. Carlile, Thomas Bland, Elisha W. McComas, Henry J. 
Fisher, and James H. F(M-.u:usnn. 

One of these (lelei,Mtrs, Joseph Johnson, of Harrison County, was the 

only man up to that ti e\('r<hosen Governor from the district west of 

the' Alli'.trhaiiies: iiinl in tlie t hi'ee-quarters of a century since the adoption 
of Viririiiia's lirst coiistit lit ion. no man from west of the Allegbanies had 
ever lieen sent to tlie I'liited States Senate; and only one had been elected 
from the country of the Blue Ridge. Eastern property had out-voted 
western men. Still the people west of the mountains sought their remedy 
in a new constitution, just as they had sought in vain nearly a generation 

The constitutional convention met and organized for work. The dele- 
gates from the eastern part of the State at once showed their hand. They 
insisted from the start that there should be a property qualification for suf- 
frage. This was the chief point against which the western people had been 
so long contending, and the members from west of the Alleghanies were 
there to resist such a provision in the new constitution and to tight it to the 
last. Lines were drawn ujjon this issue. The contending forces were at once 
arrayed for the fight. It was seen that the western members and the 
members who took sides with them were not in as hopeless a minority as 
they had been in the (■(invention oF Isiii). Still they were not so strong as 
to assure victory, and the hat tie was to be long and hard-fought. If there 
was one man amoTig tlie westeiai memhers more conspicuous as a leader than 
the others, that man was Wail man T. Willey, of Monongalia County. An 
unswerving advocate of lihei-ty in its widest intei'))ret.ation, and with an un- 
compromising hatre(_l of tyraiuiy and oppression, he had prepared himself 
to fight in the front when the quest ion ol restriction of sutt'rage should 
come up. The eastern members foiced the issue, and he met it. He denied 
that pro])ei-tv is the true source of political power; but, I'ather, that the true 
source should lie son,i,dit in \vis(k)m, virtue, patriotism; and that wealth, 
while not had in itself, I riMiueiit ly becomes a source of political weakness. 
The riglits of jiersons are aliove ilie i-iirhts of property. Mr. Scott, a dele- 
gate frcjm Fau(|iiier County, declared that this movement by the western 
members was simply an elTort to ^-et their hands on the pocket books of the 
wealthy east. M i-. Willey re|ie||cd this imjieachuKMit of the iiitegrity of the 
west. Other memliei's in sympathy- with the |ii(iperty (|ualitication took uji 
the cue and the assault upon the moli\c_'S(if tlie peo|ile of the w'(,'st became 
severe and unjust-. But the memhers from Lhat part of the State defended 
the honor of its peojile \\ it h a ^ igor and a success which defeated the prop- 
erty qualification in the constitution. 

It was not sihaiced howexcr. It was put forward and carried in another 
form, by a proviso that luemliers of the Assi^ulily and Senate should be 
elected on an arliiti-ar\- hasis until the year P^i>."i, and at that t ime t he (pies- 
tion should be submitted to a Xdle of the people whethel- their delegates in 
theLegislatui-e should he apportioned on what was called the ■• wliile hasis" 
or the "mixed basis." The lirst proviih'd thai membei's of the Le.icisla- 
ture should be a()p()rtioned according to the number of while inhabitants; 
the second, that they should be ajJiJortioned according to both jiroperty 
and inhabitants. The eastern member's believed that in lyB5 the vote of 


the State would favor the mixed basis, and thus the property qualification 
would again be in force, although not in exactly the same form as before. 

The proceedings of tln' coiuculion had not advanced far when it be- 
came apparent that a sentiiin'iit in that body was in favor of electing many 
or all of the County and Stale (itticiTs. The sentiment favoring electing 
judges was particularly strong. Prior to that time the judges in Virginia 
had been chosen by the Legislature or appointed by the Governor, who was 
a creature of the Legislature. The members from Western Virginia, under 
the leadership of Mr. Willey, were in favor of electing the judges. It was 
more in conformity with the principles of i-epublican government that the 
power which selected the makers of laws should also select the interjareters 
of those laws, and also those whose duty it is to execute the laws. The 
power of the peojile was thus increased, and with increase of power there 
was an increase also in their responsibility. Both are wholesome stimu* 
lants for the citizens of a commonwealth who are rising to new ideas and 
higher principles. The constitution of I8.1O is remarkable for the general 
advance embodied in it. The experience of nearly half a century has shown 
that many improvements could be made, but at the time it was adopted its 
landmarks were set on higher ground. But as yet the idea that the State 
is the greatest beneficiary from the education of the people, and that it is 
the duty of the State to provide free schools for this purpose, had not 
gained suflicient footing to secure so much as an expression in its favor in 
the constitution of 1850. 

The work of the convention was completed, and at an election held for 
the purpose in 1852 it was ratified and became the foundation for State gov- 
ernment in Virginia. The Bill of Rights, passed in 1776 and adopted with- 
out change as a preamble or introduction to the constitution of 1830, was 
amended in several jjarticulars and prefixed to the constitution of 1850. The 
constitution of 1830 required voting by viva voce, without exception. That 
of 1850 made an exception in favor of deaf and dumb persons. But for all 
other persons the ballot was forbidden. The property qualification for suf- 
frage was not placed in the constitution. Although a provision was made 
to foist a projierty clause on the State to take effect in 1865, the great and 
unexpected change made by the Civil War before the year 1865 rendered 
this provision of no force. The leading features of the "mixed basis" and 
"white basis," as c<)ii1iMii]ilati'ii l>y tlie constitution, were: In 1865 the peo- 
ple, by vote, were to (I(m ide whithiT the members of the State Senate and 
Lower House should !)(> aii[ioiti()n('d in accordance with the number of 
voters, without regard to jjroperty, or whether, in such apiiortionment, 
property should be represented. The former was called the white basis or 
suffrage basis; the latter mixed basis. Under the mixed basis the appor- 
tionment would be based on a ratio of the white inhabitants and of the 
amount of State taxes paid. Provision was made for the apportionment of 
Senators on one basis and members of the Lower House on the other, if the 
voters should so decide. The members of the convention from West Vir- 
ginia did not like the mixed basis, but the clause making the provision for 
it went into the constitution in s^nte of them. They feared that the popu- 
lous and wealthy eastern counties would outvote the counties beyond the 
AUeghanies and fasten the mixed basis upon the whole State. But West 
Virginia had separated from the old State before 1865 and never voted on 
that measure. There was a clau?;e which went so far as to provide that the 


members of the Senate might be apportioned solely on the basis of taxa- 
tion, if the people so decided by vote. 

Under the constitution free negroes were not permitted to reside in "Vir- 
ginia unless free" at the time the constitution went into effect. Slaves there- 
after manumitted forfeited their freedom by remaining twelve months in 
the State. Provision was made for enslaving them again. 

For the first time in the history of the State the Governor was to be 
elected by the jieople. He had before been appointed by the Legislature. 
County oflBcers, clerks, sheriff, prosecuting attorney and surveyor, were now 
to be elected by the people. The county court, composed of not less than 
three or more than five justices of the j^eace, held sessions monthly, and 
had enlarged jurisdiction. This arrangement was not consistent with the 
advance made in other branches of County and State government as pro- 
vided for in the constitution. That county court was not satisfactory, and 
even after West Virginia became a State, it did not at first rid itself of the 
tribunal which had out-lived its usefulness. But after a number of years a 
satisfactory change was made by the new State. Under Virginia's consti- 
tution of 1^50 the Auditor, Treasurer and Secretary were selected by the 

The first constitution of West Virginia was a growth rather than a crea- 
tion by a body of men in one convention. The history of that constitution 
is a part of the history of the causes leading up to and the events attending 
the creation of a new State from the counties in the western part of Vir- 
ginia, which had refused to follow the old State when it seceded from the 
Union. Elsewhere in this volume will be found a narrative of the acts by 
which the new State was formed. The present chapter will consider only 
those movements and events directly related to the first constitution. 

The efforts of the Northern States to keep slavery from spreading to 
new territory, and the attempts of the South to introduce it into the West; 
the passage of laws by the Northern States by which they refused to deliver 
runaway slaves to their masters; decisions of courts in conflict with the 
wishes of one or the other of the great parties to the controversy; and other 
acts or doctrines favorable to one or the other, all entered into the presi- 
dential campaign of 1860 and gave that contest a bitterness unknown before 
or since in the history of American politics. For many years the South 
had been able to carry its points by the ballot-box or by statesmanshiiD, but 
in 1860 the jjower was slipping away, and the North was in the ascendancy 
with its doctrines of no further extension of slavery. There were four can- 
didates in the field, and the Reiiublicans elected Abraham Lincoln. Had 
the Southern States accepted the result, acquiesced in the limitation of 
slavery within those States wherein it already had an undisputed foothold, 
the Civil War would not have occuri-ed at that time, and perhaps never. 
Slavery would have continued years longer. But the rashness of the South- 
ern States hastened the crisis, and in its result slavery was stamped out. 
South Carolina led the revolt by a resolution December 20, 1860, by which 
that State seceded from the Union. Other Southern States followed, 
formed "The Confederate States of America," and elected Jefferson Davis 

Virginia, as a State, went with the South, but the people of the western 
part, when confronted with the momentous question, "Choose ye this day 
whom ye will serve," chose to remain citizens of the United States. Gov- 
ernor Letcher, of Virginia, called an extra session of the Legislature to 


meet January 7, 1861, to consider public affairs. The Legislature passed a 
bill calling a convenion of the people of Virginia, whose delegates were to 
be elected February 4, to meet in Kicliinond, February 13, 1H61. A substi- 
tute for this bill, offered in the Lower House of the Legislature, providing 
that a vote of the people of the State should be taken on the question of 
calling the convention, was defeated. The convention was thus convened 
without the consent of the people, a thing which had never before been 
done in Virginia. 

Delegates were chosen for Western Virginia. They were nearly all 
opposed to secession and worked to defeat it in the convention. Finding 
their efforts in vain, they returned hoiin', soino of them escaping many 
dangers and overcoming much clirticuHv on tln' way. The action of the 
Virginia Convention was kept secret toi' seme time, while State troops and 
troops frjm other States were seizing United States arsenals and other 
government property in Virginia. But when the delegates returned to their 
homes in Western Virginia with the news that Virginia had joined the 
Southern Confc'deracy there was much excitement and a widespread deter- 
mination amoiiir the iieople not to be transferred to the Confederacy. 
Meetings were held, delegates were chosen to a convention in Wheeling to 
meet June 11 for the 'purpose of j-e-oi'gaiiizing tlie government of Virginia. 

Owing to the peculiar circunistaiucs in which the State of Virginia was 
placed, part in and part out of tlie Sdutheiii Conlederacy, the constitution 
of 1850 did not apply to the case, and certainly did not authorize the re-or- 
ganization of the State Government in the manner in which it was about to 
be done. No constitution and no statute had ever been framed to meet such 
an emergency. The proceeding undertaken by the Wheeling convention 
was authorized by no written law, and so far as the statutes of the State 
contemplated such a condition, they forbade it. But, as the gold which 
sanctified the Temple was greater than the Teriiiile, so men who make the 
law are gi'eater than the law. The principle is dangerous when acted upon 
by bad men, but patriots may; in a'crisis which aihnits of no delay, be a law 
unto themselves. The people of Western Virginia saw the storm, saw the 
only salvation, and with promptness they seized the helm and made for the 

The constitution of Virginia did not apply. The Wheeling Convention 
passed an ordinance for the government of the re-organized State. This 
ordinance could scarcely be called a constitution, yet it was a good tempo- 
rary substitute for one. It authorized the convention to appoint a Governor 
and Lieutenant Governor to seiveiinlil I heii- successors were elected and 
qualified. They were to admiuistei- the exist intc laws of Virginia. The 
General Assembly was called to meet ill Wliec' 
for the election of a Governor and Lieiiteiiai 
Virginia was thus changed from Richmoud to 
vention could change it. The Senators and 
chosen at the preceding election were to co 
Council of Five was appointed by the convention to assist the (Jovernor in 
the discharge of his duties. An allusion to tlie State Constitution, made in 
this ordinance, shows that the convention considered the Viririnia CVm.sti- 
tution of IHfiO still in force, s) far as it was applicable to the cliaiiged condi- 
tions. There was no general and immediate change of county and district 
officers provided for, but an oath was required of them that they would sup- 
port the Constitution of the United States. Provision was made for remov- 

liiiK, wher 

tit ( JoX'eriK 

e it was to provide 
)r. The capital of 

listilute 11 

so far as that- con- 
nen who had been 
le Le<,'islatnre. A 


ing from office such as refused to take the oath, and for aiipointing others 
in their stead. 

Under and by virtue of this ordinance the convention elected Francis 
H. Pierijont Governor of Virginia, Daniel Polsley Lieutenant Governor, and 
James S. Wheat Attorney General. Provision having been made by the 
General Assembly which met in Wheeling for an election of delegates to 
frame a constitution for the State of West Virginia, provided a vote of the 
people should be in favor of a new State, and the election having shown 
that a new State was desired, the delegates to the Constitutional Conven- 
tion assembled in Wheeling November 26, 1861. The purpose at first had 
not been to form a new State, but to re-organize and administer the govern- 
ment of Virginia. But the sentiment in favor of a new State was strong, 
and resulted in the assemblimg of a convention to frame a constitution. The 
list of delegates were, Gordon Batelle, Ohio County; Richard L. Brooks, 
Upshur; James H. Brown, Kanawha; John J. Brown, Preston; John Boggs, 
Pendleton; W. W. Brumfield, Wayne; E. H. Caldwell, Marshall; Thomas R. 
Carskadon, Hampshire; James S. Cassady, Payette; H. D. Chapman, Roane; 
Richard M. Cooke, Mercer; Henry Dering, Monongalia; John A. Dille, Pres- 
ton; Abijah Dolly, Hardy; D. W. Gibson, Pocahontas; S^. P. Griffith, Mason; 
Stephen M. Hansley, Raleigh; Robert Hogar, Boone; Ephraim B. Hall, 
Marion; John Hall, Mason; Thomas W. Harrison, Harrison; Hiram Hay- 
moiid, Marion: James Hervey, Brooke; J. P. Hoback, McDowell; Joseph 
Hul)l)s, I'lcasiiiils: Uobert Irvine, Lewis; Daniel Lamb, Ohio; R. W. Lau'ck, 
Wc(/,i'l: h]. S. Maliiiii, .Jackson; A. W. Mann, Greenbrier; John R. McCutch- 
eou, Xicholas; Dudli'v S. Montague, Putnam; Emmett J. O'Brien, Barbour; 
Granville Parker, Cabell; James W. Parsons, Tucker; J. W. Paxton, Ohio; 
David S. Pinnell, Upshur; Joseph S. Pomeroy, Hancock; John M. Powell, 
Harrison; Job Robinson, Calhoun; A. P. Ross, Ohio; Lewis Ruffner, Kana- 
wha; Edward W. Ryan, Payette; George W. Sheets, Ham23shire; Josiah 
Simmons, Randolph; Harmon Sinsel, Tavlor; Benjamin H. Smith, Logan; 
Abraham D. Soper, Tyler; Benjamin L. Stephenson, Clay; William E. Steven- 
son, Wood; Benjamin F. Stewart, Wirt; Chajsman J. Stewart, Doddridge; 
G. P. Taylor, Braxton; M. Titcbonell, Marion; Thomas H. Trainer, Mar- 
shall; Peter G. Van Winkle, Wood; William Walker, Wyoming; William W. 
Warder, Gilmer; .Joseph S. Wheat, Moi'gan; Waitman T. Willey, Mononga- 
lia; A. ,J. Wilson, Ritchie; Samuel Young, Pocahontas. 

Tlicie were Iwo sessions of this convention, the first in the latter jmrt 
of l."^()l, till' SI "(•(111(1 beginning February 12, 1863. The constitution was 
coiii|i1i'1imI ai llii' first session, as was supposed, but when the question of 
adinittin,!^-- IIk.' Slate into the Union was before Congress that body required 
a cliange of one section regarding slavery, and the convention was re-con- 
vened and made the necessary change. 

When the convention assembled November 15, 1861, it set about its 
task. The first intention was to name the new State Kanawha, but there 
being objections to this, the name of Augusta was suggested; then Alle- 
ghany, Western Virginia, and finally the name West Virginia was chosen. 
Selecting a name for the new State was not the most difficult matter before 
the convention. Very soon the question of slavery came up. The senti- 
ment against that institution was not strong enough to exclude it from the 
State. No doubt a majority of the peojale would have voted to exclude it, 
but there was a strong element not yet ready to dispense with slavery, and 
a division on that question was undesirable at that time. Accordingly, the 


constitution dismissed the slavery question ■\^ith the provision that no slave 
should V)(^ bTon<xht into tho State nor frot^ n(^irv(>os coiin' into tlic State after 
the adoiifMin of llie coiistilul ion. IJcrcnv lli,' r(iii.,tit iitioii was sul.inittud to 
a vote of the iicoplc it \v;is cluiii.triMi lo |Md\ ide lor I he ciiKiiiciiialioii of slaves. 

The new constitution iiad a, |Md\isio)i w hicli was iic\it coidaincd in the 
constitutions of Virginia; itattirincd thai West \'ii;j-iiiia sliall remain a mem- 
ber of the United States. When tliis constil nlion was IVanied it did not 
regard Hampshire, Hardy, Pendleton and Moi-,ica,n as pails ol ttie St;ite, but 
pi'ovided that they might become parts of West Vii-ginia 11 tiny voted in 
favor of adopting the constitution. They .so voted ami tliiis eaiu'' into the 
State. The same i)rovision was made in regai-d to h'Tedi'iicIs ('ouiii>-, but it 
chose to remain a jwrtion of Virginia. It was declareil ihal there sliould 
be freedom of the press and of speech, and the law ol liliel was given a lib- 
eral interpretation a.Tid was I'ejidennl ]X)werle^'s to curtail the freedom of the 
press. It was i^rovided that in snilsol lihei I he tiaith could be given in 
evidence, and if it^ appeared that the matter charged as libelous was true, 
and was publish(^d with good intentions, the judgement should be for the 
defendant in tlie suit. Tlie days of viva voce voting were past. The con- 
stitution providi'd tliat all voting should be by ballot. The Legislatm-e was 
required to meet e\'ei-\' yeai-. 

A clause was inserli'd declaring that no person who had aided or abet- 
ted the Southern Con ledcracy should become citizens of the State unless 
such persons had suhsecpienlly voluntetM-ed in the ar'my or tlie navy of the 
United States. Tiiis measure seems harsh when \iewcd from aftei- years, 
when the passions k-indled hy lhe('i\-il War ha\ecoole(i and the prejudice 
and hatriMl have l.eiduie things of the past, it must he ivnieiiii)ered that 
the constitution came into existence during the war. Tlie hetti'r judgment 
of the people at a later day st rucJN out 1 hat. (dause. But at thewoi'stthe 
mea.sui-e was onl.\- oiu' ol i-elalialion. in rememlirance of tlie l.\'raiiny reciJiitly 
shown within this State toward loyal citizens and oflice holders hy .sympa 
thizers ol' the Southern Con le.lera»-y. The o\crl .earing spirit of the politi- 
cians of liichmond found its echo westot t he .\ I leglianies. I loi'ace ( ireeley 
had been deterred from deli\'eriiig a lec-ture in Wheeliiii: on the Issues of 
the day, because his lectui'e contained relerences to the slavery (pK.'stion. 
In Ohio County, at tlial time, those wlio opposeci slavei-y were in the ma- 
jority, but not in power. 'I'here were not lilly slave hohiers in the county. 
Horace Greeley was indicted in liai-i-ison County because he had caused the 
Tribune, his newsj)a.per, lo he circulated there. The agent of the Tribune 
fled from the State to escape arrest. I'osI nuistcrs, acting, as tliey claimed, 
under the laws of Vii-^inia, I'elused to deli\ cr to suhscrihers such impers as 
the New York Tribmi, and the New Voi'l< chnsii,,,, .l<lr<K;itv. A Baptist 
minister who had taught colored children in Sum lay .school was for that act 
ostracized and he left Wheeling. Newsdealers in Wheeling were afraid to 
keep on tlieir sliehes a statistical hook writlen hy a North Carolinian, be- 
cause it treated of slax'ery in its economic aspect. Dealers were thi-eatened 
with indictment if they hamlled the \hh,U. Cassias Clay, of K'entucKy, was 
threatened witii violence lor coming to Wheeling to didiver a lecture which 
he had delivered in his own State. The newspapers of Richmcmd reproached 
Wheeling for permitting such a paper as the JntcUigenver to be published 

These instances of tyranny from Southern sympathizers are given, not 
so much for their value as simple history as to show the circumstances un- 

UplU'ld t 

lie llni< 

become t 


tioii and 


not be n 

iiid.' a 

siuMiors 1 


tlH' lialri 

■d and 


■s pivs, 


Im' w..r 




del' which West Vii'srinia's first constitution was made, and to give an in- 
si.o-lit into Ihi' jiai-tisan feclinET which led to the insertion of the clause dis- 
francliisintc those wIki IouK- |iait, against the United States. Those who 
had in I In' nn'antime come into power, and in turn had 
^sdis. Iv'i'laliation is never right as an abstract proposi 
)rNl as a pMliiical measure. An act of injustice should 
Mi<l('nl Ml an excuse for a wi'ong i:)erpetrated upon the 
list acl.. Tinif has done its jiart in committing to oblivion 
(■ wi-ong which grew out of the Civil War. Under West 
(•(institution no man has lesser or greater political powers 
lie hhio or tlio gr(^y. 

u in llic Sla1e Senate and House of Delegates was in pro- 
poi-tiim t(i the nunihei- (if jieople. 'J' lie ({uestionof the "white ba.sis" or the 
"Dii.xed basis," as contaiue.d in tlie Virginia constitution of 1850, no longer 
troubled West Virginia. Suffrage was extended until the people elected 
their officers. State, County and District, including all judges. 

The constitution jn'ovided for free schools, and authorized the setting 
apart of an irreducealjle fund for that purpose. The fund is derived from 
the sale of deliiKiuent lands; from grants and devises, the proceeds of estates 
of persons who die without will or heirs; money paid for exemption from 
military duty; such sums as the Legislature may appropriate, and from 
other sources. This is invested in United States or State securities, and 
the interest is annually appropriated to the su^jport of the schools. The 
Ijrincipal must not be expended. 

The constitution was submitted to the people for ratification in April, 
1863, and the vote in favor of it was 18,862, and again,st it 514. Jefferson 
and Berkeley Counties did not vote. They had not been represented in the 
convention which formed the constitution. With the close of the war Vir- 
ginia claimed them and West Virginia claimed them. The matter was 
finally settled by the Sujirame Court of the United States in 1870, in favor 
of West Vii'ginia. It was at one time considered that the counties of North- 
ampton and Accomack on the eastern shore of Virginia belonged to the new 
State of West Virginia, because they had sent delegates to the Wheeling 
Convention for the reorganization of the State government. It was once 
projiosed that these two counties be traded to Maryland in exchange for the 
two western counties in that State which were to be added to West Virginia, 
but the trade was not consummated. 

Under the constitution of 1863 the State of West Virginia was governed 
nine years, and there was general prosperity. But experience demonstra- 
ted that many of the provisions of the constitution were not perfect. 
Amendments and improvements were suggested from time to time, and 
there gradually grew up a strong sentiment in favor of a new constitution. 
On February 23, 1871, a call was issued for an election of delegates to a 
constitutional convention. The election was held in August of that year, 
and in January, 1872, the delegates met in Charleston and began the work. 
They comiileted it in a little less than three months. 

The following delegates were elected by the various senatorial and 
assembly districts of the State: Brooke County, Alexander Campbell, 
William K. Pendleton; Boone, William D. Pate; Braxton, Homer A. Holt; 
Berkeley, Andrew W. McCleary, C. J. Faulkner, John Blair Hoge; Barbour, 
Samuel Woods, J. N. B. Grim; Clay, B. W. Byrne; Calhoun, Lemuel Stump; 
Cabell, Evermont Ward, Thomas Thornburg; Doddridge, Jeptha F. Ran- 


dolph; Payette, Hudson M. Dickinson; Greenbrier, Henry M. Mathews, 
Samuel Price; Harrison, Bejamin Wilson, Beverly H. Lurty, John Bassel; 
Hampshire, J. D. Armstrong, Alexander Monroe; Hardy, Thomas Maslin; 
Hancock, John H. Atkinson; Jefferson, William H. Travers, Logan Osburn, 
William A. Morgan; Jackson, Thomas R. Park; Kanawha, John A. Warth, 
Edward B. Knight, Nicholas Pitzhugh; Lewis, Mathew Edmiston, Black- 
well Jackson; Logan, M. A. Staton; Morgan, Lewis Allen; Monongalia, 
Waitman T. Willey, Joseph Snider, J. Marshall Hagans; Marion, U. N. Ar- 
nett, Alpheus P. Haymond, Pountain Smith; Mason, Charles B. Waggoner, 
Alonzo Gushing; Mercer, Isaiah Bee, James Galfee; Mineral, John A. Rob- 
inson, John T. Pearce; Monroe, James M. Byrnsides, William Haynes; Mar- 
shall, James M. Pipes, J. W. Gallaher, Hanson Griswell; Ohio, George O. 
Davenport, William W. Miller, A. J. Pawnell, James S. Wheat; Putnam, 
John J. Thompson; Pendleton, Charles D. Boggs; Pocahontas, George H. 
Moffett; Preston, William G. Brown, Charles Kantner; Pleasants, W. G. H. 
Care; Roane, Thomas Perrell; Ritchie, Jacob P. Strickler; Randolph, J. P. 
Harding; Raleigh, William Price, William McCreery; Taylor, A. H. Thayer, 
Benjamin P. Martin; Tyler, Daniel D. Johnson, David S. Pugh; Upshur, D. 
D. T. Parnsworth; Wirt, D. A. Roberts, David H. Leonard; Wayne, Charles 
W. Ferguson; Wetzel, Septimus Hall; Wood, James M. Jackson, Okey 

The new constitution of West Virginia enters much more fully into the 
ways and means of government than any other constitution Virginia or 
West Virginia had known. It leaves less for the courts to intiTpi'd mikI 
decide than any of the former constitutions. The details arc •■luliDiatdy 
worked out, and the powers and duties of the three departmenis ol' State 
government, the Legislative, Judicial and hlxcciitive, are stated in so pre- 
cise terms that there can be litlli' LriKiiiid tor cdiitroversy as to what the 
constitution means. The terms of t he Stale Dlticers were increased to four 
years, and the Legislatux'e's sessions were eh an, i,'ed IVoin yearly to once in 
two years. Amarked change in the tone ol the eiiii-.tiiution regarding jaer- 
sons who took part in the Civil War against the irii\ ciimient is noticeable. 
Not only is the clause in the former ('(institulion dislraiieliising those who 
took part in the Rebellion not found in the new e(insliliili(in, hut in its stead 
is a clause which repudiates, in expi-ess terms, tin' sentiment on this sub- 
ject in the former constitution. It is staled that " political tests recpii ring 
persons, as a pre-requisite to the enjoyment of their civil ami pohtieal 
rights, to purge themselves, by their own oaths, of past alleged ott'eiises, 
are reiougnant to the principles of free government, and are cruel and op- 
pressive. " The ex-Confederates and those who sympathized with and 
assisted them in their war against the United States could have been as 
effectively restored to their riglits hy a sinii)le elajise lo that effect as by the 
one emjiloyed, which passes judgmeni upon a pari of the former constitu- 
tion. The language on this subje<'t in tlie new <-onstitution may, therefore, 
be taken as the matured judgment and as an expression of the purer con- 
ception of justice by the peojole of West Virginia when the passions of the 
war had subsided, and when years had giveii time for reflection. It is pro- 
vided, also, that no person who aided or loarticipatccf in the Kebellion shall 
be liable to any proceedings, civil or criminal, foi' any a<t done by him in 
accordance with the rules of civilized warfare. It was provided in the con- 
stitution of Virginia that ministers and priests should not be eligible to seats 
in the Legislature. West Virginia's new constitution broke down the bar- 


rier against a worthy and law-abiding class of citizens. It is provided that 
' ' all men shall be free to profess, and, by argument, to maintain their opin- 
ions in matters of religion, and the same shall in no wise affect, diminisli or 
enlarge their civil cajDacities. " 

A change was made in the matter of investing the State School Fund. 
The first constitution authorized its investment in United States or West 
Virginia State securities only. The new constitution provided that it might 
be invested in other solvent securities, provided United States or this 
State's securities cannot be had. The provision for courts did not meet 
general approval as left by the constitution, and this dissatisfaction at 
length led to an amendment which was voted upon October 12, 1880, and 
was ratified by a vote of 57,941 for, to 31,270 against. It jirovides that the 
Supreme Court of Ajipeals shall consist of four judges who shall hold office 
twelve years, and they and all other judges and justices in the State shall 
be elected by the people. There shall be thirteen circuit judges, and they 
must hold at least three terais of court in every county of the State each 
year. Their tenure of office is eight years. The county court was remod- 
eled. It no longer consists of justices of the peace, nor is its power as 
large as formerly. It is comi^osed of three commissioners whose term of 
office is six years. Four regular terms of court are held yearly. The pow- 
ers and duties of the justices of the peace are clearly defined. No county 
shall have fewer than three justices nor more than twenty. Each county 
is divided into districts, not fewer than three nor more than ten in number. 
Each district has one justice, and if its i)oi3ulation is more than twelve hun- 
dred it is entitled to two. They hold office four years. 

There is a provision in the constitution that any county may change its 
gounty court if a majority of the electors vote to do so, after the forms laid 
down by law have been complied with. It is left to the people, in such a 
case, to decide what shall be the nature of the tribunal which takes the 
place of the court of commissioners. 

The growth of the idea of liberty and civil government in a century, as 
expressed in the Bill of Rights and the Virginia Constitution of 1776, and 
as embodied in the subsequent constitutions of 1830, 1850, 1863 and 1872, 
shows that the most sanguine expectations of the statesmen of 1776 have 
been realized and surpassed in the jiresent time. The right of suffrage has 
been extended beyond anything dreamed of a century ago, and it has been 
demonstrated that the people are capable of understanding and enjoying 
their enlarged liberty. The authors of Virginia's first constitution believed 
that it was unwise to entrust the masses with the powers of government. 
Therefore the chief part taken by the jjeojile in their own government was 
in the selection of their Legislature. All other State, County and District 
offices were filled by appointments or by elections by the Legislature. 
Limited as was the exercise of suffrage, it was still further restricted by a 
property qualification which disfranchised a large iwrtion of the people. 
Yet this liberty was so great in comparison with that enjoyed while under 
England's colonial government that the people were satisfied for a long 
time. But finally they demanded enlarged rights and obtained them. When 
they at length realized that they governed themselves, and were not gov- 
erned by others, they speedily advanced in the science of government. The 
property qualification was abolished. The doctrine that wealth is the 
true source of political power was relegated to the past. From that it was 
but a step for the people to exercise a right which they had long suffered 


others to hold — that of electing all their officers. At first they did not elect 
their own governor, and as late as 1850 they acquiesced, though somewhat 
reluctantly, in the doctrine that they could not be trusted to elect their own 
judges. But they have thrown all this aside now, and their olficei's are of 
their own selection; and no man, because he is poor, if capable of self-sup- 
port, is denied an equal voice in government with that exercised by the 
most wealthy. Men, not wealth; intelligence, not force, are the true sources 
of our political power. 



The attempt of John Brown to free the slaves; his seizure of the United 
States Armory at Harper's Ferry; his capture, trial and execution, form a 
page in West Virginia's history in which the whole country, and in a lesser 
degree the whole civilized world, felt an interest at the time of its occur- 
rence; and that interest will long continue. The seizure of the Govern- 
ment property at that place by an ordinary mob would have created a stir; 
but the incident would have lost its interest in a short time, and at a short 
distance from the scene of disturbance. But Brown's accomplices were no 
ordinary mob; and the jiurpose in view gave his attempt its great impor- 
tance. In fact, much more imiaortance was attached to the raid than it 
deserved. Viewed in the light of history, it is plain that Brown could not 
have freed many slaves, nor could he have caused any wide-spread uprising 
among them. The military resources of the Government, or even of the 
State of Virginia, were sufficient to stamia out in short order any attempted 
insurrection at that time. There were not enough ^^eople willing and ready 
to assist the attempt. There were too many willing and ready to put it 
down. Brown achieved about as much success as he could reasonably 
expect, and his attempt at emancipating slaves i-an its logical course. But 
the extreme sensitiveness of the slave holders and their fears that aboli- 
tionists would incite an uprising, caused Brown's bold dash to be given an 
importance at the time far beyond what it deserved. 

John Brown was a man of great courage; not easily excited; cool and 
calculating; not bloodthirsty, but willing to take the life of any one who 
stood between him and the accomplishment of his purj^ose. ,He has been 
very generally regarded as a fanatic, who had followed an idea until he 
became a monomaniac. It is difficult to prove this view of him to be incor- 
rect; yet, without doubt, his fanaticism was of a superior and unusual kind. 
The dividing line between fanatics and the highest order of reformers, those 
who live before their time, who can see the light touching the peaks beyond 
the valleys and shadows in which other men are walking, is not always 
clearly marked. It is not for us to say to which class of men Brown 
belonged; and certainly it is not given us to set him among the blind 
fanatics. If he must be classified, we run less risk of error if we place him 
with those whose prophetic vision outstrips their physical strength; with 
the sentinel on the watch tower of Sier, of whom Isaiah speaks. 

What he hoped to accomi)lish, and died in an attempt to accomplish, 
was brought about in less than five years from his death. If he failed to 
free the slaves, they were speedily freed by that sentiment of which he was 
an extreme representative. It cannot be said that Brown's efforts were the 


immediate, nor even the remote, cause which emancipated the black race in 
the United States; but beyond doubt the affair at Harper's Perry had a 
powerful influence in two directions. I'ith.T of which worked toward eman- 
cipation. The one influence oix'ialfd in the Xoitli iiiioii those who desired 
emancipation, stimulating them to rcncwi'it ctToits: the other influence had 
its efl'ect among the Southern slave owners, kindling their anger and their 
fear, and urging them to acts by which they hoped to strengthen their gi-ip 
upon the institution of slavery, but which led them to war against the 
Government, and their hold on slavery was shaken loose forever. John 
Brown was born in Connecticut, went to Kansas with his family and took 
part in the contention in that state which occurred between the slave fac- 
tion and those opposed to the spread of slavery. Brown affiliated with the 
latter and fought in more than one armid encounter. He was one of the 
boldest leaders, fearless in fight, stubborn in defense, and relentless in 
pursuit. He hated slavery with an inappeasable hatred. He belonged to 
the party in the North^ called Abolitionists, ' whose avowed object was to 
free the slaves. He was 'perhaps more radical than the majority of that 
radical party. They hoped to accomplish their purjiose by creating a sen- 
timent in its favor. Brown api^ears to have been impatient at this slow 
process. He believed in uniting force and argument, and he soon became 
the leader of that wing of the Ultra Abolitionists. On May 8, 1858, a secret 
meeting was held in Chatham, Canada, which was attended by delegates 
from difl'erent states, and from Canada. The object was to devise means of 
freeing the slaves. It is not known exactly what the proceedings of the 
meeting were, excejit that a constitution was outlined for the United States, 
or for such states as might be taken possession of. Brown was comman- 
der-in-chief; one of his companions named Kagi was secretary of war. 
Brown issued several military commissions. 

Harper's Perry was selected as the point for the uprising. It was to 
be seized and held as a jolace of rendezvous for slaves from Maryland and 
Virginia, and when a sufficient number had assembled there they were to 
march under arms across Maryland into Pennsylvania and there disperse. 
The negroes were to be armed with tomahawks and spears, they not being 
sufficiently acquainted with firearms to use them. It was believed that the 
slaves would eagerly grasj:) the opportunity to gain their freedom, and that 
the movement, begun at one point, would sjuinicI and grow until slaveiy 
was stamped out. Brown no doubt inc-oni'cti.v cslimated the sentiment in 
the North in 'favor of emancipation by loicc of arms. In company with his 
two sons, Watson and Oliver, Brown rented a farm near Sharpsburg, in 
Maryland, from Dr. Kennedy. This was within a few miles of Harper's 
Perry, and was used as a gathering point for Bi'own's followers, and as a 
place of concealment for arms. Brown repicsmlcd that his name was 

Anderson. He never had more than twenty I w cii about the farm. 

Prom some source in the East, never certainly ascritained, arms were 
shipped to Brown, under the name of J. Smith & Sou. The boxes were 
double, so that no one could suspect their contents. In this manner he 
received two hundred and ninety Sharp's rifles, two hundred Maynard 
revolvers and one thousand spears and tomahawks. Brown expected from 
two thousand to five thousand men, exclusive of slaves, to rise at his word 
and come to his assistance. In this he was mistaken. He knew that 
twenty-two men could not hold Harper's Perry, and without doubt he calcu- 
lated, and expected even to the last hour before capture, that his forces 


would rally to his assistance. When he found that they had not done so, 
he concluded that the blow had been struck too soon. 

About ten o'clock on the night of October 16, 1859, with seventeen 
white men and five negroes. Brown ijroceeded to Harper's Perry, over- 
I30wered the sentry on the bridge, seized the United States arsenal, in 
which were stored arms sufficient to equip an army, took several persons 
prisoner and confined them in the armory; visited during the night some of 
the farmers in the vicinity, took them prisoner and declai-ed freedom to 
their slaves ; cut the telegrajih wires leading from Harper's Perry ; seized 
an eastbound train on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, but subsequently 
let it i^roceed, after announcing that no other train would be permitted to 
pass through Harper's Perry. 

The peoi^le in the town knew nothing of what was taking place until 
daybreak. At that time a negro porter at the railroad station was shot and 
killed because he refused to join the insurgents, and an employe at the 
armory was shot at when he refused to be taken prisoner. A merchant 
witnessed the shooting, and fired from his stbre at one of Brown's men. 
He missed, but was shot dead in return. When workmen belonging to the 
armory appeared at the hour for beginning their daily labors they were 
arrested and confined in one of the Government buildings as a prison. The 
village was now alarmed. The mayor of the town, Pontaine Beckham, and 
Captain George Turner, formerly of the United States Army, apjieared on 
the scene, and were fired uj^on and killed. The wii-es, having been cut, 
news of the insurrection was slow in reaching the surrounding country; but 
during the forenoon telegrams were sent from the nearest offices. The 
excitement throughout the South was ti'emendous. The people there 
believed that a gigantic uprising of the slaves was at hand. The meagre 
information concerning the exact state of affairs at Harper's Perry caused 
it to be greatly over estimated. At Washington the sensation amounted to 
a shock. General Robert E. Lee was ordered to the scene at once with one 
hundred marines. 

Military companies began to arrive at Harper's Perry from neighboring 
towns. The first upon the scene was Colonel Baylor's company from 
Charlestown. Shortly afterwards two companies arrived from Martins- 
burg. A desultory fire was kept up during the day, in which several per- 
sons were killed. An assault on one of the buildings held by Bi-own was 
successfully made by the militia. Pour of the insurgents were killed and a 
fifth was made prisoner. Brown and the remainder of his men took refuge 
in the engine house at the armory, except four who fled and escaped to 
Pennsylvania. Two of them were subsequently cai^tured. Two of Brown's 
men came out to hold a jiarley and were shot and taken prisoner. One was 
killed in revenge for the death of Mayor Beckham; the other was subse- 
quently tried, convicted and hanged. About three o'cloclv in the afternoon 
of October 17, about twenty railroad men made a dash at the engine house, 
broke down the door and killed two of Brown's men. But they were 
repulsed with seven of their number wounded. 

Before sunset there were more than one thousand men in Harijer's 
Perry under arms, having come in from the surrounding country; but no 
further assault was made on Brown's ^josition that day for fear of killing 
the men whom be held i^risoner in the building with him. That night R. 
E. Lee arrived from Washington with one hundred marines and two pieces 
of artillery. Lieutenant J. E. B. Stuart was with him. Early Tuesday 


morning, October 18, Stuart was sent to demand an unconditional surren- 
der, promising only that Brown and his men should be protected from 
immediate violence, and should have a trial under the laws of the country. 
Brown refused to accept these terms, but demanded that he and his men be 
permitted to march out with their prisoners, cross the Potomac unpui'sued. 
They would then free their piisoners and would escape if they could; if not 
they would tight. Of course Stuart did not accept this ofRer. Preparations 
were made for an attack. The marines brought up a heavy ladder, and 
using it as a battering ram, broke open the door of che engine house and 
rushed in. Brown and his men fought till killed or overpowered. The 
first man who entei-ed, named Quinn, was killed. Brown was stabbed twice 
with bayonets and then cut down by a sabre stroke. All of his men but two 
were killed or wounded. These were taken prisoner. Of the whole band 
of twenty-two, ten white men and three negroes were killed; three white 
men were wounded; two had made their escape; all the others were cap- 

It was believed that Brown's injuries would prove fatal in a few hours, 
but he rallied. Within the next few days he was indicted for murder, and 
for treason against the United States. In his case the customary interval 
did not elapse between his indictment and his trial. He was captux'ed 
October 18, and on October 26 his case was called for ti'ial in the county 
court at Charlestown, in Jefferson County. Brown's attorney asked for a 
continuance on the ground that the defendant was physically unable to 
stand trial. The motion for a continuance was denied, and the trial jiro- 
ceeded. Brown reclined on a cot, being unable to sit. The trial was 
extremely short, considering the importance of the case. Within less than 
three days the jury had brought in a verdict of guilty, and Brown was sen- 
tenced to be hanged December 16. Executive clemency was sought. 
Under the law of Vii'ginia at that time the Governor was forbidden to grant 
pardon to any one convicted of treason except with the consent of the 
Assembly. Governor Henry A. Wise notitied the Assembly of Brown's 
application for pardon. That body passed a resolution, December 7, by 
which it refused to interfere in Brown's behalf, and he died on the scaffold 
at the appointed time. Six of his companions were executed, four on the 
same day with their leader, and two in the following March. 

The remains of Brown were taken to North Elba, New York, where 
Wendell Phillips pronounced a eulogy. Perhaps Brown contributed more 
to the emancipation of slaves by his death than by his life. 



Although West Virginia at the time was a part of Virginia, it refused 
to go with the majority of the people of that State in seceding from the 
United States and joining the Southern Confederacy. The circumstances 
attending that refusal constitute an imiDortant chapter in the history of 
West Virginia. Elsewhere in this book, in speaking of the constitution of 
this and the mother State, reference is made to the differences in sentiment 
and interests between the people west of the AUeghanies and those east of 
that range. The Ordinance of Secession was the rock upon which Virginia 
was broken in twain. It was the occasion of the west's separating from the 
east. The territory which ought to have been a separate State at the time 
Kentucky became one seized the opjiortunity of severing the political ties 
which had long bound it to the Old Dominion. After the war Virginia in- 
vited the new State to reunite with it, but a polite rejjly was sent that West 
Virginia preferred to retain its statehood. The sentiment in favor of sep- 
aration did not spring up at once. It had been growing for three-quarters 
of a century. Before the close of the Revolutionary War the subject had 
attracted such attention that a report on the subject was made by a com- 
mittee in Congress. But many years before that time a movement for a 
new State west of the AUeghanies had been inaugurated by George Wash- 
ington, Benjamin Franklin and others, some of whom were interested in 
land on the Kanawha and elsewhere. The new State was to be named Van- 
dalia, and the capital was to be at the mouth of the Great Kanawha. The 
movement for a new State really began there, and never afterwai-ds slept; 
and finally, in 1863, it was accomplished, after no less than ninety-three 
years of agitation. 

The Legislature of Virginia met in extra session January 7, 1861. The 
struggle had begun. The Confederates had not yet opened their batteries 
on Port Sumpter, but the South had plainly spoken its defiance. The 
Southern Confederacy was forming. The elements of resistance were get- 
ting together. The storm of war was about to break upon the country. 
States further South had seceded or had decided to do so. Virginia had 
not yet decided. Its peojile were divided. The State hesitated. If it joined 
the Confederacy it would be the battle ground in the most gigantic war the 
world ever saw. It was the gateway by which the armies of the North 
would invade the South. Some affected to believe, perhaps some did be- 
lieve, that there would be no war; that the South would not be invaded; 
that the North would not go beyond argument. But the people of better 
judgment foresaw the storm and they knew where it would break. The 
final result no man foresaw. Many hoped, many doubted, but at that time 


no man saw what four years would bring forth. Thus Virginia hesitated 
long before she cast her fortunes with the States already organized to op- 
pose the government. When she took the fatal step; when she fought as 
only the brave can fight; when she was crushed by weight rather than van- 
quished, she accepted the result and emerged from the smoke of battle still 
great; and like Carthage of old, her splendor seemed only the more con- 
spicuous by the desolation which war had brought. 

The Virginia Legislature called a convention to meet at Richmond Feb- 
ruary 13, 1861. The time was short, but the crisis was at hand. The flame 
was kindling. Meetings wei'e being held in all the eastern i)art of the State, 
and the people were nearly unanimous in their (IcmaiKl that the State join 
the Confederacy. At least few opposed this (li'iiiaiid, luit at that time it is 
probable that one-half of the people of the Stall' oiiposctl secession. The 
eastern part was in favor of it. West of the Alleghany Mountains the case 
was different. The mass of the people did not at once grasp the situation. 
They knew the signs of the times were strange; that currents were drifting 
to a center; but that war was at hand of gigantic magnitude, and that the 
State of Virginia was "choosing that day whom she would serve," were 
not clearly understood at the outset. But, as the great truth dawned and 
as its lurid light became brighter. West Virginia was not slow in choosing 
whom she would serve. The people assembled in their towns and a num- 
ber of meetings were held even before the convening of the si^ecial session 
of the Legislature, and there was but one sentiment exj^ressed and that was 
loyalty to the government. Preston county held the first meeting, Novem- 
ber 12, 1860; Harrison County followed the twenty-sixth of the same month; 
two days later the people of Monongalia assembled to discuss and take 
measures; a similar gathering took place in Taylor County, December 4, and 
another in Wheeling ten days later; and on the seventh of the January fol- 
lowing there was a meeting in Mason County. 

On January 21 the Virginia Legislature declared by resolution that, 
unless the differences between the two sections of the country could be 
reconciled, it was Virginia's duty to join the Coiifi'dcracy. Tliat ifsolntion 
went side by side with the call for an election ol' clclciralrs hi the Iviclnnond 
Convention, which was to "take measures." The rlrctiwu was held l''cl)ru- 
ary 4, 1861, and nine days later the memorable convention assembled. Lit- 
tle time had been given for a campaign. Western Virginia sent men who 
were the peers of any from the eastern part of the State. The following 
delegates were chosen from the territory now forming West Vii-ginia: Bar- 
bour County, Samuel Woods; Braxton and Nicholas, B. W. Byrne; Berke- 
ley, Edmund Pendleton and Allen C. Hammond; Brooke, Campbell Tarr; 
Cabell, William McComas; Doddridge and Tyler, Chapman J. Stuart; Fay- 
ette and Raleigh, Henry L. Gillespie; Greenbrier, Samuel Price; Gilmer and 
Wirt, C. B. Conrad; Hampshire, David Pugh and Edmund M. Armstrong; 
Hancock, George M. Porter; Harrison, John S. Carlile and Benjamin Wil- 
son; Hardy, Thomas Maslin; Jackson and Roane, Franklin P. Turner; Jef- 
ferson, Alfred M. Barbour and Logan Osburn; Kanawha, Sj^icer Patrick 
and George W. Summers; Lewis, Caleb Boggess; Logan, Boone and Wyom- 
ing, James Lawson; Marion, Ephraim B. Hall and Alpheus S. Haymond; 
Marshall, James Burley; Mason, James H. Crouch; Mercer, Napoleon B. 
French; Monongalia, Waitman T. Willey and Marshall M. Dent; Monroe, 
John Echols and Allen T. Caperton; Morgan, Johnson Orrick; Ohio, Ches- 
ter D. Hubbard and Sherard Clemens; Pocahontas, Paul McNeil; Preston, 


William G. Brown and James C. McGrew; Putnam, James W. Hoge; Ritchie, 
Cyrus Hall; Randolph and Tucker, J. N. Hughes: Taylor, John S. Burdette; 
Upshur, George W. Berlin; Wetzel, L. S. Hall; Wood, General John J. Jack- 
son; Wayne, Burwell Spurlock. 

When the convention met it was doubtful if a majority were in favor of 
Secession. At any rate the leaders in that movement, who had caused the 
convention to be called for that express purj^ose, appeared afraid to push 
the question to a vote, and from that day began the work which ultimately 
succeeded in winning over enough delegates, who at first were opposed to 
Secession, to carry the State into the Confederacy. 

There were forty-six delegates from the counties now forming West 
Virginia. Nine of these voted for the Ordinance of Secession, seven were 
absent, one was excused, and twenty-nine voted against it. The jirincipal 
leaders among the West Virginia delegates who opposed Secession were J. 
C. McGrew, of Preston County; George W. Summers, of Kanawha County; 
General John J. Jackson, of Wood County; Chester D. Hubbard, of Ohio 
County, and Waitman T. Willey, of Monongalia County. Willey was the 
leader of the leaders. He employed all the eloquence of which he was mas- 
ter, and all the reason and logic h^ could command to check the rush into 
what he clearly saw was disaster. No man of feeble courage could have 
taken the stand which he took in that convention. The agents from the 
States which had already seceded were in Richmond urging the peojile to 
Secession. The convention held out for a month against the clamor, and 
so fierce became the populace that delegates who opposed Secession were 
threatened with personal assault and were in danger of assassination. The 
peril and the pressure induced many delegates to go over to the Confeder- 
acy. But the majority held out against Secession. In the front was Gen- 
eral John J. Jackson, one of West Virginia's most venerable citizens. He 
was of the material which never turns aside from danger. A cousin of 
Stonewall Jackson, he had seen active service in the field before Stonewall 
was born. He had fought the Seminoles in Florida, and had been a mem- 
ber of General Andrew Jackson's staff. He had been intrusted by the Gov- 
ernment with imi^ortant and dangerous duties before he was old enough to 
vote. He had traversed the wilderness on horseback and alone between 
Florida and Kentucky, jierforming in this manner a circuitous journey of 
three thousand miles, much of it among the camjjs and over the hunting 
grounds of treacherous Indians. Innured to dangers and accustomed to 
peril, he was not the man to flinch or give ground. He stood up for the 
Union; spoke for it; urged the convention to pause on the brink of the abyss 
before taking the leajo. Another determined worker in the famous conven- 
tion was Judge G. W. Summers, of Charleston. He was in the city of Wash- 
ington attending a " Peace Conference " when he received news that the 
people of Kanawha County had elected him a delegate to the Richmond 
Convention. He hurried to Richmond and opposed with all his powers the 
Ordinance of Secession. A speech which he delivered against that measure 
has been pronounced the most ])owerful heard in the convention. 

On March 2 Mr. Willey iii:i(li> ;i i-iMiKirk.-il)li' speech in the convention. 
He announced that his purpose \v;i-, not lo re]ily tn t he arguiiieuts of the 
disunionists, but to defend the i-ig]il of Iree speech wliicli KichiiKind, out of 
the halls of the convention and in, was trying to stille by thfeats and deri- 
sion. He warned the people that when free speech is sileiu'ed liberty is no 
longer a realty, but a mere mockery. He then took- up the Secession ques- 


tion, although he had not intended to do so when he began speaking, and 
he prosontod in so forcible a manner the av,ijnm<»nts against Secession that 
he made a. pi-ofdiiiid impression ujion ilic idiivcnlion. During the whole of 
that niontli tlic Secessionists were unalile lo eairy their measure through. 
But when Fort Sumpter was fired on, and vvheu the President of the United 
States called for 75,000 volunteers, the Oi-dinance of Secession passed, April 
17, 1861. 

The next day, A]tril IS, a numbei' of delegates from Westei-n Virginia 
declareil tliat Miey would not abidi' liy llie arlimi nl' I Ik- coiucntion. Amid 
the I'oar (it Ivii-liiiioud run mad, 1 liey lie.Lraii Id cDiisult aiiiong themselves 
what course to pui'sue. On April l!() several ot I he West Virginians met in a 
bed-room of the Powliatan hotel and decided that nothing more could be 
done by them at Richmond to hinder or defeat liie Secession movement. 
They agreed to return home and urge their constituents to vote against the 
Ordinance at the election set for May 24. Tliey Ijegaii to depart for their 
homes. Some had gotten safely out of Richmond and beyond the reach of 
the Confederates before it became known tluit the western delegates were 
leaving. Others were still in Richmond, aiid a plan was formed to keep 
them prisoners in the city — not in jail»-but they were required to obtain 
passes from the Governor before leaving the city. It was correctly sur- 
mised that the haste shown by these delegates in taking their departure 
was due to their determination to stir up opposition to the Ordinance of 
Secession in tlu> western part of the State. But when it was learned that 
most of the western delegates had already left Richmond it was deemed un- 
wise todetain the tew who vet I'eiiiai iuhI, and they wore permitted to depart, 
which they did without loss of tiuu'. 

Before the |ieople knew that all ( )rd i nance of Secession had passed, the 
convention he^^Mii to le\v war ujion the United States. Before the seal of 
secrecy luwl been removed rr(jin the proceedings of that body, large ajjpro- 
priations for military purjioses had l)een ma<le. Officers were appointed; 
troops were armed; forts and arsenals belonging to the Government had 
been seized. The arsenal at Harper's I'eiry anil that at Norfolk had fallen 
before attacks of Virginia troo^^s before the people of that State knew that 
they were no longer regarded as citizens of the United States. The con- 
vention still in secret session, without the knowledge or consent of the 
people of Virginia, had annexed that State to the Southei-n Confederacy. 
It was all done with the pi-esum[ition that the |ieo|ile of the State would 
sustain the Ordinance of Secession when they had learned of its existence 
and when they were given an opportunity to\(ite upon it. The election 
came May i24, 1861; and before that day thei-e were tliiity thousand soldiei'S 
in the State east of the Alleghanies, and trotjps had been jmshed across 
the mountains into Western \'irginia. The majority of votes cast in the 
State were in favor ol latilying the Ordinance of Secession; but West Vir- 
ginia voted against it. Eastern Virginia was carried by storm. The 
excitement was intense. The cry was for war, if any attempt should be 
made to hinder Virginia's going into the Southern Confederacy. Many 
men whose sober judgment was opposed to Secesssion, were swept into it 
by their surroundings. 



The officers and visible government of Virginia abdicated when they 
joined the Southern Confederacy. The people reclaimed and resumed their 
sovereignty after it had been abdicated by their regularly constituted 
authorities. This right belongs to the jseople and can not be taken from 
them. A public servant is elected to keep and exercise this .sovereignty in 
trust, but he can do no more. When he ceases doing this the sovereignty 
returns whence it came — to the peoj)le. When "Virginia's public officials 
seceded from the United kStates and joined the Southern Confederacy they 
carried with them their individual persons and nothing more. The people 
of the State were dejirived of none of the rights of self-government, but 
their government was left, for the time being, without officers to execute it 
and give it form. In bi'ief , the people of Virginia had no government, but 
had a right to a government, and they proceeded to create one by choosing 
officers to take the i^lace of those who had abdicated. This is all there was 
in the j-e-organization of the Government of Virginia, and it was done by 
citizens of the TTnitoil States, proceeding under that clause in the Federal 
Constitution which ilrclaics: "The United States shall guarantee to every 
State in this Uiiidii a- lu'|)iil)lican form of government." 

The Covei'nuient of Virginia was re-organized; the State of West Vir- 
ginia was created, and nothing was done in violation of the letter 
and spirit of the United States Constitution. The stejis were as follows, 
stated briefly here, but more in detail elsewhere in this book. The loyal 
people of Virginia reclaimed and resumed their sovereignty and re-organized 
their government. This government, through its Legislature, gave its 
consent for the creation of West Virginia from a part of Virginia's territory. 
Delegates elected by I he people of the proposed new State prepared a con- 
stitution. The ]i(Mi[i|c (if the proposed new State adopted this constitution. 
Congress admitted the State. The President issued a proclamation declar- 
ing West Virginia to be one of the United States. This State came into the 
Union in the same manner and by the same process and on the same terms 
as all other States. The details of the re-ox'ganization of the Virginia State 
Government will now be set forth more in detail. 

When Virginia passed the Ordinance of Secession the territory now 
forming West Virginia refused to acquie.sce in I hat measure. The vote on 
the Ordinance in West Virginia was about ten to one against it, or forty 
thousand against four thousand. In some of the counties there were more 
than twenty to one against Secession. The sentiment was very strong, and 
it soon took shape in the form of mass meetings, which were largely atten- 
ded. When the delegates from West Virginia arrived home from the Rich- 


mond Convention and laid before their constituents the state of affairs there 
■was an immediate movement having for its object the nullification of the 
Ordinance. Although the peo2ile of Western Virginia had long wanted a 
new State, and although a very general sentiment favored an immediate 
movement toward that (^id, yot h conservative course was pursued. Haste 
and rashness gavo way to malnic judgment, and the new State movement 
took a course sti'iith- i-otisiii uiidiial. The Virginia Government was first 
re-organized. Tliat (lone, ihc Constitution of the United States provided a 
way for creating the m-w Slato, for when the re-organized government was 
recognized by tln' T'nilcil States, and when a Legislature had been elected, 
that Legislature could give its consent to the formation of a new State from 
a portion of Virginia's territory, and the way was thereby provided for the 
accomplishment of the object. 

On the day in which the Ordinance of Secession was passed, April 17, 
18fil, and before the people knew what had been done, a mass-meeting was 
held at Morgantown which adopted resolutions declaring that Western Vir- 
ginia would remain in the Union. A division of the State was suggested 
in case the eastern part should vote to join the Confederacy. A meeting in 
Wetzel County, April 22, voiced the same sentiment, and similar meetings 
were held in Taylor, Wood, .TacK-son, Mason and elsewhere. But the move- 
ment took detinite foi-iii at a mass meet inir of the citi/.eiis ol' Uai'rison 
County, held al ClarK-sluir.j-, Ajnal I'L', whieii \va,> altendeil hy twelve hun- 
dred men. Nt,)t <july ilid this mei;tiiig 2>rolest against the ediiist' whieli was 
hurrying Virginia out of the Union, but a line of ad ion was suggested for 
checking the Secos.sion movement, at least in the western part of the State. 
A call was sent out for a, general meeting, to be held in U'lieeling, May li!. 
The counties of Westeiai VirgiTila \vei-e'as!ced lu .d.'et their wisest niea to 
this convention, its ohjecis were staled in general I.m ms to l)e the discus- 
sion of ways and means for pro\idiug for llie State's best interesls in the 
crisis which had arrived. 

Twenty-five counties responded, and the delegates who assembled in 
Wheeling on May 13 were representatives of the people, men who were de- 
termined that the portion of Viigini;i west of the Alleghany Mountains 
should not take part in a war againsl the Union without the consent and 
against the will of the people o I' the atl'eeted territory. Hampshire and 
Berkolev Counties, easi of the Alleghanies, sent deh-gates. Many of the 
men wlio attended tlie i-on\ ention were the best known west of tlie Alle- 
ghanies, and in the suhse(iuent histoi-y of Wm'sI Virginia thei)- names have 
become household words. The roll of the convention was as follows: 

Barbour County — Silencer Dayton, E. H. Manatee, J. H. Shuttleworth. 

Berkeley County — 1. W. Dailey, A. R. McQuilkin, J. S. Bowers. 

Broo! e County M. Walker, Bazael Wells, J. D. Nichols, Eh Green, 
John G. Jacoi;, .iosei'h (list, Robert Nichols, Adam Kuhn, David Hervey, 
Campbell Tarr, Nathaniel Wells, J. R. Burgoine, James Archer, Jesse Edg- 
ington, R. L. Jones, James A. Campbell. 

Doddridge County — S. S. Kinney, J. Cheverout, J. Smith, J. P. F. Ran- 
dolph, J. A. Foley. 

Hampshire County Ceor-e W. Broski, O. D. Downey, Dr. B. B. Shaw, 

Geor-e W. Sheet/, (HMM-e-e \V. Kizei'. 

Hancock- County Thomas Andenson, W. C. Murray, William B. Free- 
man, George M. Porter, W. L. Crawford, L. R. Smith, J. C. Crawford, B. 
J. Smith, J. L. Freeman, John Gardner, George Johnston, J. S. Porter, 


James Stevenson, J. S. Pomeroy, R. Breneman, David Donahoo, D. S. 
Nicholson, Thayer Melvin, James H. Pugh, Bwing Turner, H. Parnsworth, 
James G. Marshall, Samuel Freeman, John Mahan, Joseph D. Allison, John 
H. Atkinson, Jonathan Allison, D. C. Pugh, A. Moore, William Brown, Wil- 
liam Hewitt, David Jenkins. 

Harrison County— W. P. Goff, B. P. Shuttleworth, William Duncan, L. 
Bowen, William E. Lyon, James Lynch, John S. Carlile, Thomas L. Moore, 
John J. Davis, S. S. Fleming, Felix S. Sturm. 

Jackson County — G. L. Kennedy, J. V. Rowley, A. Plesher, C. M. Rice, 
D. Woodruff, George Leonard, J. F. Scott. 

Lewis County— A. S. Withers, F. M. Chalfant, J. W. Hudson, P. M. 
Hale. J. Woofter, J. A. J. Lightburn, W. L. Grant. 

Marshall County — Thomas Wilson, Lot Enix, John Wilson, G. Hubbs, 
John Ritchie, J. W. Boner, J. Alley, S. B. Stidger, Asa Browning, Samuel 
Wilson, J. McCondell, A. Bonar, D. Price, D. Roberts, G. W. Evans, Thos. 
Dowler, R. Alexander, E. Conner, John Withers, Charles Snediker, Josejah 
McCombs, Alexander Kemple, J. S. Riggs, Alfred Gaines, V. P. Gorby, 
Nathan Pish, A. Francis, William Phillii)s, S. Ingram, J. Garvin, Dr. Marsh- 
man, William Luke, William Baii'd, J. Winders, P. Clement, James Camp- 
bell, J. B. Hornbrook, John Parkinson, John H. Dickey, Thomas Morrissa, 
W. Alexander, John Laughhn, W. T. Head, J. S. Parriott, W. J. Purdy, H. 

C. Kemjjle, R. Swan, John Reynolds, J. Hornbrook, William McFarland, 
G. W. Evans, W. R. Kimmons, William Collins, R. C. Holliday, J. B. Mor- 
ris, J. W. McCarriher, Joseph Turner, Hiram McMechen, E. H. Caldwell, 
James Garvin, L. Gardner, H. A. Francis, Thomas Dowler, John R. Mor- 
row, William Wasson, N. Wilson, Thomas Morgan, S. Dorsey, R. B. Hunter. 

Monongalia County — Waitman T. Willey, William Lazier, James Evans, 
Leroy Kramer. W. E. Hanaway, Elisha Coombs, H. Dering, George 
McNeeley, H. N. Mackey, E. D. Fogle, J. T. M. Laskey, J. T. Hess, C. H. 
Burgess, John Bly, William Price, A. Brown, J. R. Boughner, W. B. 
Shaw, P. L. Rice, Josepli JollilT, William Anderson, E. P. St. Clair, P. T. 
Lashley, Marshall M. Dent, Isaac Scott, Jacob Miller, D. B. Dorsey, Daniel 
White, N. C. Vandervort, A. Derranet, Amos S. Bowlsby, Joseph Snyder, 
J. A. Wiley, John McCarl, A. Garrison. E. B. Taggart, E. P. Finch. 

Marion County — F. H. Pierpont, Jesse Shaw, Jacob Streams, Aaron 
Hawkins, James C. Beatty, William Beatty, J. C. Beeson, R. R. Brown, J. 
Holman, Thomas H. Bains, Hiram Haymond, H. Merryfield, Joshua Carter, 
G. W. JoUiff, John Chisler, Thomas Hough. 

Mason County— Lemuel Harpold, W. E. Wetzel, Wyatt Willis, John 
Goodley, Joseph McMachir, William Harper, William Harpold, Samuel 
Davis, Daniel Polsley. J. N. Jones, Samuel Yeager, R. C. M. Lovell, Major 
Brown, John Greer, A. Stevens, W. C. Starr, Stephen Comstock, J. M. 
I'helps, Charles B. Waggener, Asa Brigham, David Rossin, B. J. Rollins, 

D. C. Sayre, Charles Bumgardner, E. B. Davis, William Hopkins, A. A. 
Rogers, John O. Butler, Timothy Russell, John Hall. 

Ohio County— J. C. Orr, L. S. Delaplain, J. R. Stifel, G. L. Cranmer, 
A. Bedillion, Alfred Caldwell, John McClure, Andrew Wilson, George 
Forbes, Jacob Berger, John C. Hoffman, A. J. Woods, T. H. Logan, James 
S. Wheat, George W. Norton, N. H. Garrison, James PauU, J. M. Bickel, 
Robert Crangle, George Bowers, John K. Botsford, L. D. Waitt, J. Horn- 
brook, S., A. Handlan, J. W. Paxton, S. H. Woodward, C. D. 
Hubbard, Daniel Lamb, John Stiner, W. B. Curtis, A. F. Ross, A. B. Cald- 


well, J. R. Hubbard, E. Buchanon, John Pierson, T. Witham, E. McCaslin. 

Pleasants County — Friend Cochran, James Williamson, Robert Parker, 
R. A. Cramer. 

Preston County— R. C. Crooks, H. C. Hagans, W. H. King, James W. 
Brown, Summers McCrum, Charles Hooten, William P. Portney, James A. 
Brown, G. H. Kidd, John Howard, D. A. Letzinger, W. B. Linn, W. J. 
Brown, Reuben Morris. 

Ritchie County — D. Rexroad, J. P. Harris, N. Rexroad, A. S. Cole. 

Roane County — Irwin C. Stump. 

Taylor County — J. Means, J. M. Wilson, J. Kennedy, J. J. Warren, T. 
T. Monroe, G. R. Latham, B. Bailey, J. J. Allen, T. Gather, John S. Bur- 

Tyler County — Daniel Sweeney, V. Smith, W. B. Kerr, D. D. Johnson, 
J. C. Parker, William Pritchard, D. King, S. A. Hawkins, James M. Smith, 
J. H. Johnson, Isaac Davis. 

Upshur County— C. P. Rohrbaugh, W. H. Williams. 

Wayne County— C. Spurlock, P. Moore, W. W. Brumfield, W. H. Cop- 
ley, Walter Queen. 

Wirt County— E. T. Graham, Henry Newman, B. Ball. 

Wetzel County— Elijah Morgan, t! E. Williams, Joseph Murphy, Wil- 
liam Burrows, B. T. Bowers, J. R. Brown. J. M. Bell, Jacob Young, Reu- 
ben Martin, R. Reed, R. S. Sayres, W. D. Welker, George W. Bier, Thos. 
McQuown, John Alley, S. Stephens, R. W. Lauck, John McClaskey, Richard 
Cook, A. McEldowney, B. Vancamp. 

Wood County— William Johnston, W. H. Baker, A. R. Dye, V. A. Dun- 
bar, G. H. Ralston, S. M. Peterson, S. D. Compton, J. L. Padgett, George 
Loomis, George W. Henderson, E. Deem, N. H. Colston, A. Hinckley, Ben- 
nett Cook, S. S. Sjjencer, Thomas Leach, T. E. McPlierson, Joseph Dagg, 
N. W. Warlow, Peter Riddle, John Paugh, S. L. A. Burche, J. J. Jackson, 
J. D. Ingram, A. Laughlin, J. C. Rathbone, W. Vroman, G. E. Smith, D. 
K. Baylor, M. Woods, Andrew Als, Jesse Burche, S. Ogden, Sardis Cole, 
P. Reed, John McKibben, W. Athey, C. Hunter, R. H. Burke, W. P. Davis, 
George Compton, C. M. Cole, Roger Tiffins, H. Rider, B. H. Bukey, John 
W. Moss, R. B. Smith, Arthur Drake, C. B. Smith, A. Mather, A. H. 
Hatcher, W. E. Stevenson, Jesse Murdock, J. Burche, J. Morrison, Henry 
Cole, J. G. Blackford, C. J. Neal, T. S. Conley, J. Barnett, M. P. Amiss, 
T. Hunter, J. J. Neal, Edward Hoit, N. B. Caswell, Peter Dils, W. F. Henry, 
A. C. McKinsey, Rufus Kinnard, J. J. Jackson, Jr. 

The convention assembled to take whatever action might seem proper, 
but no detinite plan had been decided upon further than that Western Vir- 
ginia should protest against going into Secession with Virginia. The ma- 
jority of l!;o members looked forwai'd to the formation of a new State as 
the ultimate tiud chief purpose of the convention. Time and care were 
necessary for the accomplishment of this object. But there were several, 
chief among whom was John S. Carlile, who boldly proclaimed that the 
time for forming a new State was at hand. There was a sharp division in 
the convciitiDii iis to tlio host iiipthod of attaining that end. While Carlile 
led thosi' who wric foi- iniiiii'iliiitc .■idioii, U'ail man T. Willey was among 
the foiTiiiosl of tlidsc who i'lsislod ih;il ( he hiisiuess must be conducted in 
a business I il<o \\ay, first by rL-oi\i?;uii/>iug Iho Guvt'rnment of Virginia, and 
then obtaiuiug the consent of the Legislature to divide tlic State. Mr. 
Carlile actually introduced a measure providing for ;i, new State at once. 


It met with much favor. But Mr. Willey aud others ijointed out that pre- 
cipitate action would (lel'eat the object in view, because Congress would 
never recognize llic Slalc so created. After much controversy there was a 
compromise rcaclu'd, wlii.-h was not difficult, where all parties aimed at 
the greatest good, and dilfered only as to the best means of attaining it. 

At that time the Ordinance of Secession had not been voted upon. Vir- 
ginia had already turned over to the Southern Confederacy all its military 
supplies, public ]>ro])crty, troops and iiiati'rials, stipulating that, in case the 
Ordinance of Stn-.'ssioii should \h' (IcI'imIciI at I lie pulls, the property should 
revert to the Stale. The Wliceliag Convrnlion t(.)uk steps, pending the 
election, recommending that, in case Secession carried at the polls, a con- 
vention be held for the jwrpose of deciding what to do — whether to divide 
the State or simjily re-organize the Government. This was the com23romise 
measure which was satisfactory t(.) both parties of the convention. Until 
the Ordinance of Secession had l)eeii latiiied by the people Virginia was 
still, in law if not in fact, a member of the l'\'deral Union, and any step was 
premature looking to a division of .the State or a re-or*anization of its Gov- 
ernment before the election. P. H. Pierpont, afterwards Governor, intro- 
duced the resolution which provided for another convention in case the 
Ordinance of Secession should be ratified at the polls. The resolution j)ro- 
vided that the counties rej^resented in the convention, and all other counties 
of Virginia disposed to act with them, appoint on June 4, 1861, delegates to 
a convention to meet June 11. This convention would then be prepared to 
proceed to business, whether that business should be the re-organization of 
the Government of Virginia or the dividing of the State, or both. Having 
finished its work, the convention adjourned. Had it rashly attempted to 
divide the State at that time the effort must have failed, and the bad effects 
of the failure, and the consequent confusion, would have been far-reaching. 
No man can tell whether such a failure would not have defeated for all time 
the creation of West Virginia from Virginia's territory. 

The vote on the Ordinance of Secession took place May 23, 1861, and 
the peoi^le of eastern Virginia voted to go out of the Union, but the part 
now comprising West Virginia gave a large majority against seceding. 
Delegates to the Assembly of Virginia were elected at the same time. Great 
interest was now manifested west of the Alleghanies in the subject of a new 
State. Delegates to the second Wheeling Convention were elected June 4, 
and met June 11, 1861. The members of the tii-st convention had been ap- 
pointed by mass-meetings and otherwise, but those of the second conven- 
tion had been chosen by the suffrage of the people. Thirty counties were 
represented as follows : 

Barbour County — N. H. Taft, Spencer Dayton, John H. Shuttleworth. 

Brooke County — W. H. Crothers, Joseph Gist, John D. Nichols, Camp- 
bell Tarr. 

Cabell County — Albert Laidly was entered on the roll but did not serve. 

Doddridge County — James A. Poley. 

Gilmer County — Henry H. Withers. 

Hancock County — George M. Porter, John H. Atkinson, William L. 

Harrison County — John J. Davis, Chapman J. Stewai't, John C. Vance, 
John S. Carlile, Solomon S. Fleming, Lot Bowers, B. P. Shuttleworth. 

Hardy County — John Michael. 


Hampshire County — James Carskadon, Owen J. Downey, James J. Bar 
racks, G. W. Broski, James H. Trout. 

Jackson County — Daniel Frost, Andrew Plesher, James P. Scott. 

Kanawha County — Lewis Rutt'ner, Greenbury Slack. 

Lewis County — J. A. J. Lightburn, P. M. Hale. 

Monongalia County — Joseph Snyder, Leroy Kramer, R. L. Berkshire, 
William Price, James Evans, D. B. Dorsey. 

Marion County — James O.Watson, Richard Past, Pontain Smith, Pran- 
cis H. Pierpont, John S. Barnes, A. P. Ritchie. 

Marshall County — C. H. Caldwell, Robert Morris, Remembrance Swan. 

Mason County — Lewis Wetzel, Daniel Polsley, C. B. Waggener. 

Ohio County — Andrew Wilson, Thomas H. Logan, Daniel Lamb, James 
W. Paxton, George Harrison, Chester D. Hubbard. 

Pleasants County — James W. Willauison, C. W. Smith. 

Preston County — William Zinn, Charles Hooten, William B. Crane, John 
Howard, Harrison Hagans, John J. Brown. 

Ritchie County — William H. Douglass. 

Randolph County — Samuel Crane. 

Roane County — T. A. Roberts. 

Tucker County — Solomon Parsons. 

Taylor County — L. E. Davidson, John S. Burdette, Samuel B. Todd. 

Tyler County — William I. Boreman, Daniel D. Johnson. 

Upshur County — John Love, John L. Smith, D. D. T. ParnsAvorth. 

Wayne County— William Ratclilf, William Copley, W. W. Brumtickl. 

Wetzel County — James G. West, Reuben Martin, James P. Pencil. 

Wirt County — James A. Williamson, Henry Newman, E. T. Graham. 

Wood County — John W. Moss, Peter G. VanWinkle, Arthur I. Bore- 

James T. Close and H. S. Martin, of Alexandria, and John Hawxhurst 
and E. E. Mason, of Pairfax, were admitted as delegates, while William P. 
Mercer, of Loudoun, and Jonathan Roberts, of Pairfax, were rejected be- 
cause of the insufticieilcy of their credentials. Arthur I. Boreman was 
elected president of the convention, G. L. Cranmer, secretary, and Thomas 
Hornbrook, sergeant-at-arms. 

On June 13, two days after the meeting of the convention, a committee 
on Order of Business reported a declaral k m 1 )y lln • | mo] ilc of Virginia. This 
document set forth the acts ol the Sect'ssioiiisls oi \'ii>rinia, declared them 
hostile to the welfare of the people, done in vit)lation of the constitution, 
and therefore null and void. It was further declared that all offices in Vir- 
ginia, whether legislative, judicial or executive, under the government set 
up by the convention which passed the Ordinance of Secession, wei-e vacant. 
Thenextday the convention began the work of re-ori,Mni/.iii'j: Hie Stale Gov- 
ernment on the following lines: A Governor, LiciiliMKinl GoMTiiDr and 
Attorney General for the State of Vii'ginia weie to be appointed by 
the convention to hold office until their successors should be elected and 
qualified, and the Legislature was required to provide by law for the elec- 
tion of a Governor and Lieutenant Govei-noi- by the jieojile. A Council of 
State, consisting of tive members, was lo ]»• a|.|i(iinlc(l to assist the Gov- 
ernor, their term of office toexjiireat tin' sanic lime as that ol' t lie ( Jovci-nor. 
Delegates elected to the Legislature on Alay 'S.i, l.^til, ami Senators entitled 
to seats under the laws then existing, and who would take the oath as 
required, were to constitute the re-organized Legislature, and were required 


to meet in Wheeling on the first day of the following July. A test oath was 
I'equired of all officers, whether State, County or Municipal. 

On June 20 the convention proceeded to choose officers. Praacis H. 
Pierpont was elected Governor of Virginia; Daniel Polsley was elected 
Lieutenant Governor; James Wheat was chosen Attorney General. The 
Governor's council consisted of Daniel Lamb, Peter G. VanWinkle, William 
Lazier, William A. Harrison and J. T. Paxton. The Legislature was re- 
quired to elect an Auditor, Treasurer and Secretary of State as soon as pos- 
sible. This closed the work of the convention, and it adjourned to meet 
August 6. 

A new Government existed for Virginia. The Legislature which was 
to assemble in Wheeling in ten days could complete the work. 

This Legislature of Virginia, consisting of thirty-one members, began 
its labors immediately upon organizing, July 1. A message from Governor 
Pierpont laid before that body the condition of alTairs and indicated certain 
measures which ought to be carried out. On July 9 the Legislature elected 
L. A. Hagans, of Preston County, Secretary of Virginia; Samuel Crane, of 
Randolph County, Auditor; and Campbell Tarr, of Brooke County, Treas- 
urer. Waitman T. Willey and John S. Carlile were elected to the United 
States Senate. 

The convention which had adjourned June 20 met again August 6 and 
took up the work of dividing Virginia, whose government had been re-or- 
ganized and was in working order. The j^eople wanted a new State and 
the machinery for creating it was set in motion. On July 20 an ordinance 
was passed calling for an election to take the sense of the people on the 
question, and to elect members to a constitutional convention at the same 
time. In case the vote favored a new State, the men elected to the consti- 
tutional convention were to meet and frame a constitution. The conven- 
tion adjourned August 2, lb61. Late in October the election was held, 
with the result that the vote stood about twenty-five to one in favor of a 
new State. 



The Re-organized Government of Virginia made all things ready for 
the creation of the new commonwealth. The people of Western Virginia 
had waited long for the oiDportunity to divide the State. The tyranny of 
the more powerful eastern part had been borne half a century. When at 
last the war created the occasion, the people were not slow to profit by it, 
and to bring a new State into existence. The work began iii earnest August 
20, 1861, when the second Wheeling Convention called upon the jieople to 
vote on the question; and the labor was completed June 20, 1863, when the 
officers of the new State took charge of affairs. One year and ten months 
were required for the accomplishment of the work; and this cha^jter gives 
an outline of the proceedings relative to the new State during that time. It _ 
was at first proposed to call it Kanawha, but the name was changed in the " 
constitutional convention at Wheeling on Dcfciiibcr :!, Ii-iiil, to West Vir- 
ginia. On February 18, 1862, the consliliilioiial coiixcnliou ;i<lj()urned, .sub- 
ject to the call of the chairman. In Ajuil of thai ycaillic people of the 
State voted upon the ratification of the ccjnstitutioii, and I In- \(ite in favor 
of ratification was 18,862, and against it, 514. Govcrnoi' I'iriiiont issued a 
proclamation announcing the result, and at the same tinn' called an extra 
session of the Virginia Legislature to meet in Wheeling May 0. That body 
met, and six days later passed an act by which it gave its consent to a divi- 
sion of the State of Virginia and the creation of a new State. This was 
done in order that the constitution might be complied with, for, before the 
State could be divided, the Legislature must give its consent. It yet 
remained for West Virginia to be admitted into the Union by an Act of 
Congress and by the President's proclamation. Had there boon no ftpposi- 
tion, and had there not been such press of other business this iuii,'hl have 
been accomplished in a few weeks. As it was there was a Itaig ((nili'st in 
the Senate. The opposition did not come so much 1 luin outside the State 
as from the State itself. John S. Carlile, one of the Senators elected by 
the Legislature of the Re-organized Oovernment of Virginia at Wheeling, 
was supposed to be friendly to the cause of the new State, but when he was 
put to the test it was found that he was strongly opjiosed to il, and he did 
all in his power to defeat the movement, and almost aeeomplislied his pur- 
pose. The indignation in Western Virginia was great. The Legislature, 
in session at Wheeling, on December 12, 1862, by a resolution, requested 
Carlile to resign the seat he held in the Senate. He refused to do so. He 
had been one of the most active advocates of the movement for a new 
State while a member of the first Wheeling Convention, in May, 1861, and 
had been a leader in the new State movement before and after that date. 


Why he changed, and opposed the admission of West Virginia by Congress 
has never been satisfactorily explained. 

One of the reasons given for his oppasition, and one which he himself 
put forward, was that Congress attempted to amend the State constitution 
on the subject of slavery, and he opposed the admission of the State on 
that ground. He claimed that he would rather have no new State than 
have it saddled with a constitution, a i^ortion of which its people had never 
ratified. But this could not have been the .sole cause of Carlile's opposition. 
He tried to defeat the bill after the proijosed objectionable amendment to 
the constitution had been satisfactorily arranged. He fought it in a deter- 
mined manner till the last. He had hindered the work of getting the bill 
before Congress before any change in the State Constitution had been 

The members in Congress from the Re-organized Government of Vir- 
ginia were William G. Brown, Jacob B. Blair and K. V. Waley; in the Sen- 
ate, John S. Carlile and Waitman T. Willey. In addition to these gentle- 
men, the Legislature appointed as commissioners to bring the matter before 
Congress, Ephraim B. Hall, of Marion County, Peter Van Winkle, of Wood 
County, John Hall, of Mason County, and Elbert H. Caldwell, of Marshall 
County. These commissioners reached Washington May 22, 1H62. There 
were several other well-known West Virginians who also went to Washing- 
ton on their own account to assist in secui'ing the new State. Among 
them were Daniel Polsley, Lieutenant Governor of Virginia; Granville 
Parker and Harrison Hagans. There were members of Congress and Sen- 
ators from other States who performed special service in the cause. The 
matter was laid before the United States Senate May 29, 1862, by Senator 
Willey, who presented the West Virginia Constitution recently ratified, and 
also the Act of the Legislature giving its consent to the creation of a new 
State within the jurisdiction of Virginia, and a memorial requesting the 
admission of the State. In presenting these documents. Senator Willey 
addressed the Senate and denied that the movement was simply to gratify 
revenge upon the mother State for seceding from the Union and joining 
the Southern Confederacy, but on the contrary, the people west of the AUe- 
ghanies had long wanted a new State, and had long sulfered in consequence 
of Virginia's neglect, and of her unconcern for their welfare. Mr. Willey's 
address was favorably received, and the whole matter regarding the admis- 
sion of West Virginia was laid before the Committee on Territories, of 
which Senator John S. Carlile was a member. It had not at that time been 
suspected that Carlile was hostile to the movement. He was expected to 
prepare the bill. He neglected to do so until nearly a month had passed 
and the session of Congress was drawing to a close. But it was not so 
much the delay that showed his hostility as the form of the bill. Had it 
been passed by Congress in the form proposed by Carlile the defeat of the 
new State measure must have been inevitable. No one acquainted with the 
circumstances and conditions had any doubt that the bill was prepared for 
the express purpose of defeating the wishes of the people by whom Mr. 
Carlile had been sent to the Senate. It included in West Virginia, in addi- 
tion to the counties which had ratified the constitution, Alleghany, Augusta, 
Berkeley, Bath, Botetourt, Craig, Clark, Frederick, Highland, Jefferson, 
Page, Rockbridge, Rockingham, Shenandoah and Warren Counties. The 
hostility in most of those counties was very great. The bill provided that 
those counties, in conjunction with those west of the Alleghanies, should 


elect delegates to a constitutional convention and frame a constitution 
which should provide that all children born of slaves after 1863 should be 
free. This constitution was then to go back to the people of the several 
counties for ratification. Then, if the Virginia Legislature should pass an 
Act giving its consent to the creation of a now State from Virginia's terri- 
tory, and the Governor of Virginia certify the same to the President of the 
United States, he might make proclamation of the fact, and West Virginia 
would become a State without further prot^i'^dings by Congress. 

Senator Carlile knew that the counties he had added east of the Alle- 
ghanies were ojjposed to the new State on any terms, and that they would 
opjjose it the more determinedly on account of the gradual emancipation 
clause in it. He knew that they would not appoint delegates to a constitu- 
tional convention, nor would they ratify the constitution should one be sub- 
mitted to them. In short, they were strong enough in votes and sentiment 
to defeat the movement for a new State. All the work done for the crea- 
tion of West Virginia would have been thrown away had this bill prevailed. 

Three days later, June 26, the bill was called up, and Charles Sumner 
proposed an amendment regai'ding slavery. He would have no slavery at 
all. All indications were that the bill would defeat the measure for the new 
State, and preparations were made to bi>gin the fight in a new quarter. 
Congressman Wm. G. Brown, of I'l-.'slon C'ounty, projiosed a new bill to be 
presented in the House of Repi(S(iil;ili\ is. But the contest went on. In 
July Senator Willey submitted an ainiiKliin'nt, which was really a new bill. 
It omitted the counties east of the Allci-Hianics, and provided that all slaves 
under twenty-one years of age on July I, I Mi:;, should be free on arriving 
at that age. It now became ai)])aj'ent to ( 'aililc tliat his bill was dead, and 
that West Virerinia was likely to be admitted. As a last resort, he proposed 
a postponement till December, in order to gain time, but his motion was 
lost. Carlile then opposed the bill on the grounds that if passed it would 
impose ujjon the jjeople of the iirw State a clause of the constitution not of 
their making and which they had not ralitied. But this argument was de- 
prived of .its force by offering to siihniil tlio jirojiosed amendment to the 
people of West Virginia for iJicir apinovai. Fort unat(>ly the constitutional 
convention had adjourned suljjcct to tlu' (mII <if tlic cliuir. The members 
were convened; they included tlio anicndincnf in tin' constitution, and the 
people apiH'oved it. However, before this was done the bill took its coui'se 
through Congress. It passed the Senate July 14, 1^62, and was immedi- 
ately sent to the Lower House. But Congress being about to adjourn, 
further considei'ation of the bill went over till the next session in Decem- 
ber, 1862, and on the tenth of that month it was taken up in the House of 
Representatives and after a discussion continuing most of the day, it was 
passed by a vote of ninety-six to fifty- five. 

The friends of the new State now felt that their efforts had been suc- 
cessful; but one more step was necessary, and the whole work might yet 
be rendered null and void. It depended (m President Lincoln. He might 
veto the bill. He requested the opinion of his cabinet. Six of the cabinet 
ofiicei's complied, and three favored signing the bill and three advised the 
President to veto it. Mr. Lincoln took it under advisement. It was be- 
lieved that he favored the bill, but there was much anxiety felt. Nearly 
two years befoi'e that time Mr. Lincoln, through one of his cabinet officers, 
had promised Governor Pierpont to do all he could, in a constitutional way, 
for the Re-organized Government of Virginia, and that promise was con- 


strued to mean that the new State would not be opposed by the President. 
Mr. Lincohi was evidently undecided for some time what course to pursue, 
for he afterwards said that a telegram received by him from A. W. Camp- 
bell, editor of the Wheeling Intdliyevcer, largely influenced him in deciding 
to sign the bill. On December 31, 1862, Congi-essman Jacob B. Blair called 
on the President to see if any action had been taken by the Executive. The 
bill had not yet been signed, but Mr. Lincoln asked Mr. Blair to come back 
the next day. Mr. Blair did so, and was given the bill admitting West Vir- 
ginia into the Union. It was signed January 1, 1863. 

On December 31, 1862, President Lincoln gave his own views on these 
questions in the following language:* 

" The consent of the Legislature of Virginia is constitutionally necessary to the Bill 
for the Admission of West Virginia becoming a law. A body claiming to be such Legis- 
lature has given its consent. We cannot well deny that it is such, unless we do so upon 
the outside knowledge th:it (lie Imd.v \\;is ilmscn at elections in which a majority of the 
qualified voters of Virginia did nut pari icipate. But it is a universal practice in the 
popular elections in all tlicsr Slates \u ^\\i- n<i legal consideration whatever to those who 
do not choose to vote, as against tlie elVect of those whf) do choose to vote. Hence it is 
not the qualilied voters, but the qualified voters who clincise to vole, that (Muist it iite tlie 
political power of the State. Much less than to n<in-viiteis slicmld any cunsideiation be 
given to those who did not vote in this case, because it is also matter of outside knowl- 
edge that tliey were not merely neglectful of tlieir rights under and duty to this(iovern- 
ment, but were also engaged in open rehelliou against it. |)(Jiditless among these non- 
voters were some t^ni(iii men w liose voices were smot lieicd li\' the more numerous Seces- 
sionists, but we know too little ot their uundjer to assii^rj \\\i-u\ aiiv appreciable value. 

•'Can this Government stand it it indidges const it ul ional (•oustructi(ins by which 
men in open rebellion against it .ire to \>v accoiuited. man for man, llie equals of 
who maintain their loyalty to it ? ,\re tliey to he acc(imited even liettcr citizens, and 
more worthy of consideration, than those who merely neglect t<i vote y I f so. theirtre;ison 
against the Constitution I'ldianccs their constitutional \alue. Witliout hraving these 
absurd conclusions we cannot den\ that tlie lioih- which consi'uts to the admission of 
West Virginia is the Lcgislat uri' ot \irginia. I do not think the plural form of tlie 
words ' Li'gislatuivs ', and 'States' iii the phrase of tli<' constitution ■without the con- 
sent of the Legislatures of the States concerned ' has anv r.derence to the new State 
concerned. That plural form siirang from t he conti'm|ilatiou ot two or mi >re old States 
c<)ntrihut ing to form a new one. 1'he idea that the new State was in danger of being 
admitted without its own con.sent was not provided against, because it was not thought 
of, as I conceive. It is .said 'the Devil takes care of his own.' Much more should a good 
spirit the spirit of the Constitution and the Union — take care of its own. 1 think it 
cannot do less and live. 

"But is the admission of West Virginia into the Union expedient? This, in my 
general view, is more a ipiestion for Congress than for the Executive. Still I do not 
evade it. More than on anything else, it depends on whether tlie admission or rejection 
of the new State would, under all the circumstances, tend the more stroiiglv to tlie 
restoration of the Nati.mal ant horitv throughout the Union. That which helps most in 
this direction is the most expi'dient at this time. Doubtless in remaijiing Vir- 
ginia would rci urn to I he t'nion, so to speak, less reluctantly without the division of the 
old St.ili' than with it, hut- 1 think we could not savi- as much in this quarter by reject- 
ing t he new Slate as we should lose liy it in West \iiginia. We can scarcely dispense 
with the .lid oi \Vest N'irginia in this stiaiggle: much less can we afford to have her 

against us, in ( 'oiigicss and in the tield. Her hrave and g I men regard her admission 

into the linion as a matter of life and death, 'f'hey have been true to the Union under 
very severe trials. We liave so acted as to justify their hopes, and we cannot fully retain 
their conlideuce and co-ojierat ion if we seem to lireak faith with thi'm. In fact they 
could hot do so much fur us if tliey would. Agiiin, the adiuLssiun of the new State turns 
that much slave .soil to free, and this is a certain and irrevocable encroachment upon 
the cause of the rebellion. The division of a State is dreaded as a precedent. But a 
measure made expedient by a war is no precedent in times of peace. It is said that the 
admission of West Virginia is secession. Well, if we call it by that name, there is still 

* See " Worlcs of Abraham Lincoln," by Johu Nicolay and John Hay, vol. 3, p. 285. 


difference enough between secession against the constitution and secession in favor of 
the constitution. I believe the admission of West Virginia into the Union is expedient. " 

However, there was yet something to be done before West Virginia 
became a State. The bill passed by Congi-ess and signed by President 
Lincoln went no further than to provide that the new State should become 
a member of the Union when a clause coiiccrning slavery, contained in the 
bill, should be made a part of the constiluMon and he ratified by the peoiile. 
The convention which had framed the State Constitution had adjourned to 
meet at the call of the chairman. The memljers came together on Febru- 
ary 12, 1863. Two days later John S. Carlile, who had refused to resign 
his seat in the Senate when asked by the Virginia Legislature to do so, 
made another effort to defeat the will of the j^eople whom he was sent to 
Congress to represent. He presented a supplementary bill in the Senate 
providing that President Lincoln's proclamation admitting West Virginia 
be withheld until certain counties of West Virginia had ratified by their 
votes the clause regarding slavery contained in the bill. Mr. Carlile be- 
lieved that those counties would not ratify the constitution. But his bill 
was defeated in the Senate by a vote of 2b to 12. 

The clause concerning slavery, as adopted by the constitutional con- 
vention on re-assembling at Wheeling, was in these words: "The children 
of slaves, born within the limits of this State after the fourth day of July, 
1863, shall be free, and all slaves within the said State who shall, at the 
time aforesaid, be under the age of ten years, shall be free when they arrive 
at the age of twenty-one years; and all slaves over ten and under twenty- 
one years shall be free when they arrive at the age of twenty-five years; 
and no slave shall be permitted to come into the State for permanent resi- 
dence therein. " The people ratified the constitution at an election held for 
that purpose. The majority in favor of ratification was seventeen 

President Lincoln issued his proclamation April 20, 1863, and sixty 
days thereafter, that is June 20, 1863, West Virginia was to become a State 
without further legislation. In the meantime. May 9, a State Convention 
assembled in Parkersburg to nominate officers. A Confederate force under 
Geuei-al Jones advanced within forty miles of Parkersburg, and the con- 
vention hurried through with its labors and adjourned. It nominated 
Arthur I. Boreman, of Wood County, for Governor; Campbell Tarr, of 
Brooke County, for Treasurer; Samuel Crane, of Randolph County, for 
Auditor; Edgar J. Boyers, of Tyler County, for Secretary of State; A. B. 
Caldwell, of Ohio County, Attorney General; for Judges of the Supreme 
Court of Appeals, Ralph L. Berkshire, of Monongalia County; Janies H. 
Brown, of Kanawha County, and William A. Harrison, of Harrison County. 
These were all elected late in the month of May, and on June 20, 1863, took 
the oath of office and West Virginia was a State. Thus was fulfilled the 
prophecy of Daniel Webster in 1851 when he said that if Vii-ginia took sides 
with a secession movement, the result would be the formation of a new State 
from Virginia's Transalleghany territory. 

The creation of the new State of West Virginia did not put an end to 
the Reorganized Government of Virginia. The otficers who had held their 
seat of government at Wheeling moved to Alexandria, and in 1865 moved 
to Richmond, where they held office until their successors were elected. 
Governor Pierpont filled the gubernatorial chair of Virginia about seven 


In the summer of 1864 General Benjamin F. Butler, in command of 
Union forces in eastern Virginia, wrote to President Lincoln, complaining 
of the conduct of Governor Pierpont and the Secretary of State, intimating 
that they were not showing sufficient devotion to the Union cause. On 
August 9, 1864, Lhicohi replied, and in the following language put a squelch 
on General Butler's iiu'ddling; 

"I surely need [Kit Ioiissiht you, and I iiiiisl icll von tlial I 
pont and the Altonirv (Jnicnil. 'I'lir 
Kinia. iiieludiiiu Uiat wliii-h il now \V 
and in all oilier proper nialtiTS was: 
means as any other loyal (iovernor. * 
known to be relieved from all question"* 


• In 
IS 1 


It 1 have no doubt of your loyalty and devoted 
ive no less eonlidenee in those of Governor Pier- 

iiMMr :il lirsl as the loyal (iovernor of all Vir- 

\'irL;iiii:i, III nryaiij/.iii^r ;i,|(| furnishitit; 1 rooiis, 

■aiiH'sl. hoiirsl and rllich'nt to Ihei'Xteiit of his 

■ Till' Attorney fietieral needs only t(i be 

to loyalty and thorough devotion to the national 

' Worlis of Lincoln, vol. 3, p. 



In a work ol' this sort it should not be expected that a full account of 
the Civil War, as it affected West Virginia, will be given. It must suffice 
to present only an outline of events as they occurred in that great struggle, 
nor is any iiretence made that this outline shall be comi^lete. The vote on 
the Ordinance of Secession showed that a large majority of the people in 
this State were opjiosed to a separation from the United States. This vote, 
while it could not have been much of a surprise to the jwliticians in the 
eastern part of Virginia, was a disapixiiiitincnt. It did not jjrevent Vir- 
ginia, as a State, from joining the Soullici'u Confederacy, but the result 
made it plain that Virginia was divided against itself, and that all the part 
west of tht' Allcgliany Mountains, and much of that west of the Blue Ridge, 
would not lake up arms against the general government in furtherance of 
the intcicsts of the Southern Confederacy. 

It therefore became necessary for Virginia, backed by the other South- 
ern States, to conquer its own transmontane territory. The commencement 
of the war in what is now West Vii"ginia was due to an invasion by troops 
in the service of the Southern Confederacy in an effort to hold the territory 
as a part of Virginia. It should not be understood, however, that there 
was no .sympathy with the South in this State. As nearly as can be esti- 
mated the number who took sides with the South, in jiroportion to those 
who upheld the Union, was as one to six. The people generally were left 
to choose. Efforts were made at the same time to raise soldiers for the 
South and for the North, and those who did not want to go one way were 
at liberty to go the other. In the eastern jiart of the State considerable 
success was met in enlisting volunteers for the Confederacy, but in the 
western counties there were hardly any wlm went wit)h the South. That 
the government at Richmond felt the ilisa|i]>iiiiittiient keenly is evidenced 
by the efforts put forth to organize coniiianics of volunteers, and the dis- 
couraging reports of the iccniiliiii: ottiicrs. 

Robert E. Lee was a]i|Hiiiiti'(l coiimiaiider-in-chief of the military and 
naval forces of Virginia, /Vpiil -'■'<. I>i(il, and on the same day he wrote to 
Governor Lclclici- accepting the oftice. Six days later he wrote Major A. 
Loring, at Wlll'l■litl^,^ urging him to muster into the service of the State all 
the volunti'i'r coiiipauit's in that vicinity, and to take command of them. 
Loring was asKcd 1o report what success al tended his efforts. On the same 
day Lieutenant Colonel John McCauslaiid, al ivichuiond, received orders 
from (Jeneral Lee to proceed at once to the K'anawha Valley and muster 
into service the volunteer comiKinies in that quarter. General Lee named four 
companies already formed, two in Kanawha and two in Putnam Counties, 


and he expressed the belief that others would offer their services. McCaus- 
land was instructed to organize a company of artillery in the Kanawha Val- 
ley. On the next day, Ajiril 30, General Lee wrote to Major Boykin, at 
Weston, in Lewis County, ordering liim to muster in the volunteer com- 
panies in that part of the State, and to ascertain how many volunteers could 
be raised in the vicinity of Parkersburg. General Lee stated in the letter 
that he had sent two hundred ilint-lock muskets to Colonel Jackson (>Stone- 
wall) at Harper's Perry, for tlie use of the volunteers about Weston. He 
said no better guns could be had at that time. The next day, May 1, Gov 
ernor Letcher announced that arrangements had been made for calling out 
fifty thousand Virginia volunteers, to assemble at Norfollv, Richmond, Alex- 
andria, Fredericksburg, Harper's Ferry, Ciiifldii, Parkersburg, Kanawha 
and Moundsville. On May 4 General Lci' > mi Icni I Colonel George A Por- 
tei'tield toGrafton to take chai-ge of thetro-n)-; in iIulI quarter, those ah'eady 
in service and those who were expected to volunteer. Colonel Porterfield 
was oi-dered, by authority ol' tlie Governor of Virginia, to call out the vol- 
unteers in the countii's of Wood, Wirt, Roane, Calhoun, Gilmer, Ritchie, 
Pleasants and Doddridge, to rendezvous al I'liilciMsljufg; and in the coun- 
ties Ol IJraxton, Lewis, Harrison, Monon;_';tlia, 'i'nyior, Harbour, Ujoshur, 
Tucker, jMacion, Kandol])!) and Preston, to j'cir.l('/,\ mis ut Cirafton. General 
Lee said he did not Iviiow iiow iniinv iih'U could he mli^-li d, l)ut he supposed 
five reginii'iils roul<l he iiiiishMcd into scrxiiM' in tliat |>,ii-l ot the State. 

In thesi' orders sriil out (J.'u^tuI L<'i' c.xpi-css.'d a (Irsiri" to 1)6 kept in- 
formed of the success attemling the call for volunteers. Replies .soon be- 
gan to arrive at Richmond, atitl they were uniformly discouraging to Gen- 
eral Lee. It was early ai)parent that the people of Western Virginia were 
not entliusia'^lii- in 1a\in.v'-u}) arms for the Soutlicni ( 'onfcderacy. Major 
Boykin wrol' ( iiMii'ial l.i'o tluitthe call for voluiitvci,-, was not meeting with 
success. To this iritiM- ( ;cneral Lee re])lied on May II, and urged Major 
Boykin to piMscNcrc and call out tlic (■oni])anii's for such ciiunties as were 
not so hostile lo ilic South, and to eonciMilrafc Uiciu al (Irafton. He stated 
that four hundred I'illes had been foi'wai'dcd IVoin Staunton to Beverly, in 
Randolph County, where Major Gofl' would receive and hold them until 
further oi'ders. Major Boykin requested that companies from other parts 
of the State be sent to Grafton to take the places of companies which had 
been counted upon to oiijani/.c in that vicinity, but which had failed to ma- 
terialize. To this suggest ion ( Mncial Lee replied that he did not consider 
it advisable to do so, as tlu' incscncc of outside companies at Graf ton would 
tend to irritate the |)im)|.Ic instead ot conciliating tli<>in. 

On May ItJ Colonel I'oiteilield had arii\-ed at C i 'a f ton and had taken a 
hasty survey of the situation, and his conclusion was tliat the cause of the 
Southern Confedei-acy in lliat \iciintv was not i)i-oniising. ( »n tluit day he 
made a report to \l. S. Caiaietl. at 1,'icliniond, Adjutant ( leneral of the Vir- 
ginia army, and stated that the rilles oi-dered to i;ev(.'rly from Staunton had 
not arrived, nor had they been heard from. It appears frt>m this report 
that no volunteers had yet assembled at Grafton, but Colonel Porterfield 
said a company was organizing at Pruntytown, in Taylor County; one at 
Weston, under Captain Boggess; one at i'hiiiinii, another at Chirksburg, 
and still another at Fairmont. Only two (d Ihi'se coniiiani<'s had guns, flint- 
locks, and no ammunition. At that time all of those companies had been 
ordered to Grafton. Colonel Porterfield said, ifl a tone of discouragement, 
that those troops, almost destitute of guns and ammunition, were all he had 


to depend upon, and he considered the force very weak compared with the 
strength of those in that vicinity who were prepared to oppose him. He 
complained that lie had found much diversity of opinion and "rebellion" 
among the people, who did not believe that the State was strong enough to 
contend against the Government. " I am, too, credibly informed," said he, 
"to entertain doubt that they have been and will be supplied with the 
means of resistance. * * * * Their efforts to intimidate have had their 
effect, both to dishearten one party and to encourage the other. Many good 
citizens have been dispirited, while traitors have seized the guns and am- 
munition of the State to be used against its authority. The force in this 
section will need the best rifles. * * * * There will not be the same use 
for the bayonet in these hills as elsewhere, and the movements should be 
of light infantry and rifle, although the bayonet, of course, would be 
desirable. " 

About this time, that is near the middle of May, 1861, General Lee 
ordered one thousand muskets sent to Beverly for the use of the volunteer 
companies organizing to the northward of that place. Colonel Heck was 
sent in charge of the guns, and General Lee instructed him to call out all 
the volunteers possible along the route from Staunton to Beverly. If the 
authorities at Richmond had learned by the middle of May that Western 
Virginia was not to be depended upon for tilling with volunteers the ranks 
of the Southern armies, the truth was still more apparent six weeks later. 
By that time General Garnett had crossed the AUeghanies in person, and 
had brought a large force of Confederate troops with him and was en- 
trenched at Laurel Hill and Rich Mountain, in Randolph County. It had 
been claimed that volunteers had not joined tlie Confederate standard be- 
cause they were afraid to do so in the face of IIh- strongtu- Union companies 
organizing in the vicinity, but that if a Confcilciiilc miiiy were in the coun- 
try to overawe the advocates of the Union cuusc then large numbers of 
recruits would organize to help the South. Thus (iann'tt iiiiirched over the 
AUeghanies and called for volunteei"s. The result was diM'jiIy mortifying 
to him as well as discouraging to the authorities at Uirhnioiid. On June 
25, 1861, he wrote to General Lee, dating his letter at Laurel Hill. He 
complained that he could not find out what the movements of the Union 
forces were likely to be, and added that the Union men in that vicinity were 
much more active, numerous and zealous than the secessionists. He said 
it was like carrying on a campaign in a foreign country, as the people were 
nearly all against him, and never missed an opportunity to divulge his 
movements toMcCldlan. but would give him no inloi inationof whatMcClel- 
1 an was doing. " My hdjic," he wrote to Lee, "of inci-easing my force in 
this regicjn has so iar lieen sailly (lisa.pi)()inteil. Only eight men have Joined 
me here, and only tilteen at Coldiiel Heck's camp — not enough to make up 
my losses liy ilisehaiges. The jieoplo are thoroughly imbued with an igno- 
rant anil l)i.L,'ole(l Union sentiment." 

ir moi'e time was required toast ■<M'ta.iti the sentiment in the Ivanawha Val- 
ley than had l)een necessary in the northern and eastern part of tlu' State, it 
was nevei-theless .seen in due time that the Soiit hern Con fedei-acy'ssuiiporters 
ers in that quarter were inahopidess minority, (ieneral Ih'nry A. Wise, ex 
Governor of Virginia, had been sent into the Kanawha X'alley early in 1861 
to organize such forces as could lie mustered for the Southern army. He 
was one of the most fiery leaders in the Southern Confederacy, and an able 
man, and of great influence. He had, perhaps, done more than any other 


man in Virginia to swing that Sjate into the Southern Confederacy. He it 
was who, when the Ordinance of Secession was in the balance in the Rich- 
mond Convention, rose in the convention, drew a hoi-se-pistol from his 
bosom, placed it upon the desk before him, and proceeded to make one of 
the most impassioned speeches heard in that tumultuous convention. The 
effect of his speech was tremendous, and Virginia wheeled into line with 
the other Confederate States. General Wise hurried to the field, and was 
soon in the thick of the fight in the Kanawha Valley. He failed to organize 
an army there, and in bis disappointment and anger he wrote to General 
Lee, August 1, 1861, saying: "The Kanawha Valley is wholly disaffected 
and traitorous. It was gone from Charleston to Point Pleasant before I 
got there. Boone and Cabell are nearly as bad, and the state of things in 
Braxton, Nicholas and part of Greenbrier is awful. The militia are nothing 
for wai'like uses here. They arc worthless who are true, and there is no 
telling who is true. You cannot persuade these people that Virginia can 
or will reconquer the northwest, and they are submitting, subdued and de- 
based. " General Wise made an ui-gent request for more guns, ammunition 
and clothing. 

While the Confederates were doing their utmost to organize and equip 
forces in Western Virginia, and were meeting discouragements and failure 
nearly everywhere, the people who upheld the Union were also at work, 
and success was the rule and failure almost unknown. As soon as the fact 
was realized that Virginia had joined the Southern Confederacy; had seized 
upon the government arsenals and other property within the State, and 
had commenced war upon the government, and was preparing to continue 
the hostilities, the people of Western Virginia, who had long suffered from 
the injustice and oppression of the eastern part of the State, began to pre- 
pare for war. They did not long halt between two opinions, but at once 
espoused the cause of the United States. Companies were organized every- 
where. The spirit with which the cause of the Union was upheld was one 
of the most discouraging features of the situation, as viewed by the Con- 
federates who were vainly trying to raise troops in this part of the State. 
The people in the Kanawha Valley who told General Wise that they did 
not believe Virginia could re conquer Western Virginia had reasons for their 
conclusions. The people along the Ohio, the Kanawha, the Monongahela; 
in the interior, among the mountains, were everywhere drilling and arming. 

There was some delay and disappointment in securing arms for the 
Union troops as they were organized in West Virginia. Early in the war, 
while there was yet hope entertained by some that the trouble could be ad- 
justed without much lighting, there was hesitation on the i^art of the Gov- 
ernment about sending guns into Virginia to arm one class of the people. 
Consequently some of the first arms received in Western Virginia did not 
come directly from the Government arsenals, but were sent from Massa- 
chusetts. As early as May 7, 1861, a shipment of two thousand stands of 
arms was made from the Watervleit arsenal. New York, to the northern 
Panhandle of West Virginia, above Wheeling. These guns armed some of 
the first soldiers from West Virginia that took the field. An effort had been 
made to obtain arms from Pittsburg, but it was unsuccessful. Campbell 
Tarr, of Brooke County, and others, went to Washington as a committee, 
and it was through their efforts that the guns were obtained. The govern- 
ment officials were very cautious at that time lest they should do something 
without express warranty in law. But Edwin M. Stanton advised that the 


guns be sent, promising that he would find the law for it afterwards. Gov- 
ernor Pierjiont bad written to President Lincoln for help, and the ri-ply 
' had been that all help that could be given under the constitution would be 

The Civil War opened in West Virginia by a conflict between the Con- 
federate forces in the State and the Federal forces sent against them. The 
first Union troops to advance came from Wheeling and beyond the Ohio 
River. Colonel Benjamin F. Kelley organized a force at Wheeling, and was 
instructed to obey orders from General McClellan, then at Cincinnati. 

The first order from McClellan to Kelley was that he should fortify the 
hills about Wheeling. This was on May 26, 1861. This ajjpears to have 
been thought necessary as a precaution against an advance on the part of 
the Confederates, but McClellan did not know how weak they were in West 
Vii'ginia at that time. Colonel Porterfield could not get together men and 
ammunition enough to encourage him to hold Grafton, much less to advance 
to the Ohio River. It is true that on the day that Virginia passed the Ordi- 
nance of Secession Governor Letcher made an effort to hold Wheeling, but 
it signally failed. He wrote to Mayor Sweeney, of that city, to seize the 
postoflice, the custom house, and all government property in that city, hold 
them in the name of the State of Virginia. Mayor Sweeney replied: "I 
have seized upon the custom house, the postoffice and all public buildings 
and documents, in the name of Abraham Lincoln, President of the United 
States, whose i):oin":'ly tli.'V are." 

Colonel K'cllcy, when In- i-cceived the order to fortify the hills about 
Wheeling, rciilirl tlnit he did not believe such a stejj was necessary, but 
that the projjer thing to do was to advance in Grafton and drivf the Con- 
federates out of the country. McCli'llan a<ri'iitod the suggestion, and 
ordered Kelley to move to Grafton witli tln' ftn-ci' undei- his orders. These 
troops had enlisted at Wheeling and had been drilled for service. They 
were armed with guns sent from Massachusetts. They carried their am- 
munition in their pockets, as they bad not yet been fully equipiied with the 
accoutrements of v.'ar. They were full of enthusiasm, and were much grat- 
ified when the orders came for an advance. The agent of the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad at Wheeling refused to furnish cars for the troops, giving 
as his reason that the railroad would remain neutral. Colonel Kelley an- 
nounced that if the cars were not ready by four o'clock next morning he 
would seize them by force, and take military possession of the railroad. 
The cars were ready at four the next morning.* While Kelley 's troops 
were setting out from Wheeling an indei^endent movement was in jarogress 
at Morgantown to drive the Confederates out of Grafton. A number of 
companies !iad been organized on the Monongahela, and they assembled at 
Morgantown, whei'e they were joined by three companies from Pennsyl- 
vania, and were about to set out for Grafton on their own responsibility, 
when they Icai-iird tliaf ('(ihnicl K'i'llcy had already advanced from Wheel- 
ing, and that t he ('.iiilcdci'ati's had relreiited. Colonel Poi'tei-tield h-arued 
of the adva-nee I mm Wdieeliug and saw that he would be attaclced before his 
looked- foi' reiiilorcemeuts and arms could arrive. The poorly -equipi)ed 
force under his command were unable to succes.sfully resist an attack, and 
he prepai-ed to reti'eat southward. He oi'dered two railroad bridges burned, 

* •• Loyal West Virginia." by T. F. Liiug. 


between Fairmont and Mannington, hoping thereby to delay the arrival of 
the Wheeling troops. 

At daybreak on May 27 Colonel Kelley's troops left Wheeling on board 
the cars for Grafton. When they reached Mannington they stopjjed long 
enough to rebuild the burnt bridges, which delayed them only a short time. 
While there Kelley received a telegram from McClellan informing him that 
ti'oops from Ohio and Indiana were on their way to his assistance. When 
the Wheeling troops reached Grafton the town had been deserted by the 
Confederates, who had retreated to Philippi, about twenty-five miles south 
of Grafton. Colonel Kelley at once planned pursuit. On June 1 a consid- 
erable number of soldiers from Ohio and Indiana had arrived. Colonel R. 
H. Milroy, Colonel Irvine and General Thomas A. Mori'is were in command 
of the troops from beyond the Ohio. They were the van of General McClel- 
lan's advance into West Virginia. When General Morris arrived at Grafton 
he assumed command of all the forces in that vicinity. Colonel Kelley's 
l)lan of pursuit of Colonel Porterfleld was laid before General Morris and 
was approved by him, and preparations were immediately commenced for 
carrying it into execution. It appears that Colonel Porterfleld did not ex- 
jject pursuit. He had established his camp at Philippi and was waiting for 
reinforcements and supplies, which failed to arrive. Since assuming com- 
mand of the Confederate forces in West Virginia he had met one diappoint- 
ment after another. His force at Philipiii was stated at the time to number 
two thousand, but it was little more than half so large. General Morris 
and Colonel Kelley prepared to attack him with three thousand men, ad- 
vancing at night by two routes to fall upon him by surprise. 

Colonel Kelley was to march about six miles east from Grafton on the 
morning of June 2, and from that jioint march across the mountains during 
the afternoon and night, and so regulate his movements as to reach Philippi 
at four o'clock the next morning. Colonel Dumont, who had charge of the 
other column, was ordered to repair to Webster, a small town on the Pai'k- 
ersburg branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, four miles west from 
Grafton, and to march from that point toward Philippi, to appear before 
the town exactly at four o'clock on the morning of June 3. Colonel Kelley's 
task was the more difficult, for he followed roads that were very poor. Gen- 
eral Morris suspected that spies in and about Grafton would discover the 
movement and would carry the news to Colonel Porterfleld at Philippi, and 
that he would hurriedly i-etreat, either toward Beverly or eastward to St. 
George, on Cheat River. Colonel Kelley was therefore ordered, in case he 
received positive intelligence that Porterfleld had retreated eastward, to 
follow as fast as possible and endeavor to intercept him; at the same time 
he was to notify Colonel Dumont of the retreat and of the movement to in- 
tercept the Confederates. 

Colonel Kelley left Grafton in the early morning. It was generally 
supposed he was on his way to Harper's Ferry. Colonel Dumont's column 
left Grafton after dark on the evening of June 2. The march that night 
was through rain and in pitch darkness. This delayed Dumont's division, 
and it seemed that it would not be able to reach Philippi by the appointed 
time, but the men marched the last five miles in an hour and a quarter, and 
so well was everything managed that Kelley's and Dumont's forces arrived 
before Philipjii within fifteen minutes of each other. The Confederates had 
not learned of the advance and were ofE their guard. The pickets flred a 
few shots and fled. The Union artillery opened on the camp and the utmost 


confusion prevailed. Colonel Porterfield ordered a retreat, and succeeded 
in saving the most of his men, but lost a considerable jwrtion of the small 
supply of arms he had. He abandoned his camp and stores. This action 
was called the "Philip]ii Races," because of the haste with which the Con- 
federates Hod and the Union forces pursued. Colonel Kelley, while leading 
the pursuit, was shot through the breast and was supposed to be mortally 
wounded, but he subsequently recovered and took an active part in the war 
until its close. 

General McClellan, who had not yet crossed the Ohio, was much 
encouraged by this victory, small as it apjiears in comparison with the mo- 
mentous events later in the war. The Union people of West Virginia were 
also much encouraged, and the Confederates were correspondingly 

Colonel Portei'field's cuji of disappointment was full when, five days 
after his retreat from Philii^pi, he learned that he had been sniicrsoded by 
General Robert S. Garnett, who was on his way from RicluiKnul to assume 
command of the Confederate forces in West Virginia. Colonel Porterfield 
had retreated to Huttonsville, in Randolph County, above Beverly, and 
there turned his command over to his successor. A court of inquiry was 
held to examine Colonel Porterfield's conduct. He was censured by the 
Richmond jjeople who had sent him into West Virginia, had neglected him, 
had failed to supply him with arms or the adciiuate means of defense, and 
when he suffered defeat, they threw the l)laine on him when the most of it 
belonged to thciiischcs. Little more than one month elapsed from that 
time before the Confeileiate authorities had occasion to understand more 
fully the situation beyond the Alle^-ha-uies: and the general who took Colo- 
nel Porterflelds place, with seven or eight times his force of men and arms, 
conducted a far more disastrous retreat, and was killed while bringing off 
his broken troops from a lost battle. 

Previous to General McClellan's coming into West Virginia he issued a 
proclamation to the i^eople, in which he stated the purpose of his coming, 
and why troops were about to be sent across the Ohio river. This procla- 
mation was written in Cincinnati, May 26, 1861, and sent by telegraph to 
Wheeling and Parkersburg, there to be printed and circulated. The peojile 
were told that the army was about to cross the Ohio as friends to all who 
were loyal to the Government of the United Stati's: to prevent the destruc- 
tion of property by the rebels; to preseiNi' Older, to eoii))i'rate with loyal 
Virginians in their efforts to free the State from the Confederates, and to 
punish all attempts at insurrection among slaves, should they rise against 
their masters. This last statement was no doubt meant to allay the fears of 
many that as soon as a Union army was upon the .soil there would be a 
slave insurrection, which, of all things, was most dreaded by those who 
lived among slaves. On the same day General McClellan issued an address 
to his soldiers, informing them that they were about to cross the Ohio, and 
acquainting them with the duties to be performed. He told them they were 
to act in concert with the loyal Virginians in putting down the i-ebellion. 
He enjoined the sti-ictest discipline and warned them against interfering 
with the rights or i>roperty of the loyal Virginians. He called on them to 
show mercy to those ca pill ri'd in arms, for many of them were misguided. 
He stated that, when the Coni'Mleratcs hail been driven from northwestern 
Viz-ginia, the loyal people of that part of the State would be able to organize 
and arm, and would be competent to take care of themselves, and then the 


services of the troops from Ohio and Indiana would be no longer needed, 
and they could return to their homes. He little understood what the ne#t 
four years would bring forth. 

Three weeks had not elapsed after Colonel Porterfield retreated from 
Philiiipi before General McClellan saw that something more was necessary 
before Western Virginia would be pacified. The Confederates had been 
largely reinforced at Huttonsville, and had advanced northward within 
twelve miles of Philippi and had fortified their camp. Philippi was at thkt 
time occupied by General Morris, and a collision between his forces and 
those of the Confederates was liliely to occur at any time. General 
McClellan thought it advisable to be nearer the scene of oiaerations, and 
on June 22, 1801, he crossed the Ohio with his staff and proceeded to Graf- 
ton, where he established his headquarters. He had at this time about 
twenty thousand soldiers in West Virginia, stationed fi-om Wheeling to 
Grafton, from Parkersburg to the same place, and in the country round 

Colonel Porterfield was relieved of his command by General Garnett, 
June 14, 1861, and the military affairs of northwestern Virginia were looked 
after by Garnett in jjerson. The Richmond Government and the Southern 
Confederacy had no intention of abandoning the country beyond the Alle- 
ghanies. On the contrary, it was resolved to hold it at all hazards; but 
subsequent events showed that the Confederates either greatly underesti- 
mated the strength of McClellan's army or greatly overestimated the 
strength of their own forces sent against him. Otherwise Garnett, with a 
force of only six thousand, would not have been pushed forward against 
the lines of an army of twenty thousand, and that, too, in a position so 
remote that Garnett was practically isolated from all assistance. Rein- 
forcements numbering about two thousand men were on the way from 
Staunton to Beverly at the time of Garnett's defeat, but had these troo^js 
reached him in time to be of service, he would still have had not half as 
lai-ge a force as that of McClellan opi:)osed to him. Military men have 
severely criticised General Lee for what they regard as a blunder in thus 
sending an army to almost certain destruction, with little hope of perform- 
ing any service to the Confederacy. 

Had the Confederates been able to hold the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road, the disaster attending General Garnett's campaign would probably 
not have occurred. With that road in their hands, they could have thrown 
soldiers and supplies into Grafton and Clarksburg within ten hours from 
Harrier's Perry. They would thus have had quick communication with 
their base of supplies and an open way to fall back when compelled to do 
so. But they did not hold the Baltimore and Ohio Road, and their only 
practicable route into Western Virginia, north of the Kanawha, was by 
wagon roads across the AUeghanies, by way of the Valley of Virginia. This 
was a long and diflicult route by which to transi^ort supplies for an army; 
and in case that army was compelled to retreat, the line of retreat was lia- 
ble to be cut by the enemy, as it actually was in the case of Garnett. 

On July 1, 1861, General Garnett had about four thousand five hundred 
men. The most of them were from Eastern Virginia and the States further 
south. A considerable part of them were Georgians who had recently 
been stationed at Pensacola, Florida. Reinforcements were constantly 
arriving over the AUeghanies, and by July 10 he had six thousand men. 
He moved northward and westward from Beverly and fortified two iwints 


on Laurel Hill, one named Camp Rich Mountain, six miles west of Bevei-ly, 
the other fifteen miles north by west, near Belington, in Barbour County. 
These positions were naturally sti-ong, and their strength was increased by 
fortifications of logs and stones. They were only a few miles from the out- 
posts of McClellan's army. Had the Confederate positions been attacked 
only from the front it is probably that they could have held out a con- 
siderable time. But there was little in the way of flank movements, and 
when McClellan made his attack, it was by flanking. General Garnett was 
not a novice in the field. He had seen service in the Mexican War; had 
taken jDart in many of the hardest battles; had fought Indians three years 
on the Pacific Coast, and at the outbreak of the Civil War he was traveling 
in Europe. He hastened home; resigned his position in the United States 
Army and joined the Confederate Army, and was almost immediately sent 
into West Virginia to be sacrificed. 

While the Confederates were fortifying their positions in Randolph and 
Barbour Counties, the Union forces were not idle. On June 22 General 
McClellan crossed the Ohio River at Parkersburg. The next day at Graf- 
ton he issued two proclamations, one to the citizens of West Virginia, the 
other to his .soldiers. To the citizens he gave assurance again that he came 
as a friend, to ujihold the laws, to protect the law-abiding, and to punish 
those in rebellion against the Government. In the proclamation to his 
soldiers he told them that he had entered West Virginia to bring peace to 
the peaceable and the sword to the rebellious who wei"e in arms, but mercy 
to disarmed rebels. He began to concentrate his forces for an attack on 
Garnett. He moved his headquarters to Buckhannon on July 2, to be near 
the center of operations. Clarksburg was his base of supplies, and he con- 
structed a telegraph line as he advanced, one of the first, if not the very 
first, military telegraph lines in America. Prom Buckhannon he could move 
in any desired direction by good roads. He had fortified posts at Webster, 
Clarksburg, Parkersburg and Grafton. Eight days later he had moved his 
headquarters to Middle Pork, between Buckhannon and Beverly, and in the 
meantime his forces had made a general advance. He was now within sight 
of the Confederate fortifications on Rich Mountain. General Morris, who 
was leading the advance against Laurel Hill, was also within sight of the 
Confederates. There had already been some skirmishing, and all believed 
that the time was near when a battle would be fought. Colonel John 
Pegram, with thirteen hundred Confederates, was in command at Rich 
Mountain; and at Laurel Hill General Garnett, with between four thousand 
and five thousand men, was in command. There were about six hundred 
more Confederates at various points within a few miles. 

After examining the ground McClellan decided to make the first attack 
on the Rich Mountain works, but in order to divert attention from his real 
purjjose, he ordered General Morris, who was in front of General Garnett's 
position, to bombard the Confederates at Laurel Hill. Accordingly shells 
were thrown in the direction of the Confederate works, .some of which ex- 
ploded within the lines, but doing little damage. On the afternoon of July 
10 General McClellan prepared to attack Pegram at Rich Mountain, but 
ujDon examination of the aiiproaches he saw that an attack in front would 
probably be unsuccessful. The Confederate works were loc^ated one and a 
half miles west of the summit of Rich Mountain, where the Staunton and 
Parkersburg pike crosses. When the Union forces reached the open coun- 
try at Roaring Creek, a short distance west of the Confederate position, 


Colonel Pegram planned an attack upon them, but upon mature reflection, 
abondoned it. There was a path leading from Roaring Creek across Rich 
Mountain to Beverly, north of the Confederate position, and Colonel Pegram 
guarded this path with troops under Colonel Scott, but he did not know that 
another path led across the mountain south of his jjosition, by which 
McClellan could flank him. This path was left unguarded, and it was in- 
strumental in Pegram's defeat. General Rosecrans, who was in charge of 
one wing of the forces in front of the Confederate i^osition, met a young 
man named David Hart, whose father lived one and a half miles in the rear 
of the Confederate fortifications, and he said he could pilot a force, by an 
obscure road, round the southern end of the Confederate lines and reach his 
father's farm, on the summit of the mountain, from which an attack on 
Colonel Pegram in the rear could be made. The young man was taken to 
General McClellan and consented to act as a guide. Thereupon General 
McClellan changed his plan from attacking in front to an attack in the rear. 
He moved a portion of his forces to the western base of Rich Mountain, 
ready to sujiport the attack when made, and he then dispatched General 
Rosecrans, under the guidance of young Hart, by the circuitous route, to 
the rear of the Confederates. Rosecrans reached his destination and sent 
a messenger to inform General McClellan of the fact, and that all was in 
readiness for the attack. This messenger was captured by the Confeder- 
ates, and Pegram learned of the new danger which threatened him, while 
McClellan was left in doubt whether his troops had been able to reach the 
Ijoint for which they had started. Had it not been for this perhaps the 
fighting would have resulted in the cajiture of the Confederates. 

Colonel Pegram, finding that he was to be attacked from the rear, sent 
three hundred and fifty men to the point of danger, at the top of the moun- 
tain, and built the best breastworks possible in the short time at his disposal. 
When Rosecrans advanced to the attack he was stubbornly resisted, and 
the fight continued two or three hours, and neither side could gain any ad- 
vantage. Pegram was sending up reinforcements to the mountain when 
the Union forces made a charge and swept the Confederates from the field. 
Colonel Pegram collected several companies and prepared to renew the 
tight. It was now late in the afternoon of July 11. The men were panic- 
stricken, but they moved forward, and were led around the mountain with- 
in musket range of the Union forces that had remained on the battle ground. 
But the Confederates became alarmed and fled without making an attack. 
Their forces were scattered over the mountain, and night was coming 
on. Colonel Pegram saw that all was lost, and determined to make his way 
to Garnett's army, if iMSsible, about fifteen miles distant, through the 
woods. He commenced collecting his men and sending them forward. It 
was after midnight when he left the camp and set forward with the last 
remnants of his men in an effort to reach the Confederate forces on Laurel 
Hill. The loss of the Confederates in the battle had been about forty-five 
killed and about twenty wounded. All their baggage and artillery fell into 
the hands of the Union army. Sixty-three Confederates were captured. 
Rosecrans lost twelve killed and forty-nine wounded. 

The retreat from Rich Mountain was disastrous. The Confederates 
were eighteen hours in groping their way twelve miles through the woods 
in the direction of Garnett's camp. Near sunset on July 12 they reached 
the Tygart River, three miles from the Laurel Hill camp, and there learned 
from the citizens that Garnett had already retreated and that the Union 


forces were in pursuit. There seemed only one possible avenue of escape 
open for Pegram's force. That was a miserable road leading across the 
mountains into Pendleton County. Pew persons lived near the road, and 
the outlook was that the men would starve to death if they attempted to 
make their way through. They were already starving. Accordingly, Col- 
onel Pegram that night sent a flag of truce to Beverly, offering to surren- 
der, and at the same time stating that his men were starving. Early the 
next morning General McClellan sent several wagon loads of bread to them, 
and met them on their way to Beverly. The number of prisoners surren- 
dered was thirty officers aiid five hundred and twenty-five men. The 
remainder of the force at Rich Mountain had been killed, wounded, cap- 
tui-ed and scattered. Colonel Scott, who had been holding the path leading 
over the mountain north of the Confederate position, learned of the defeat 
of Pegram and he made good his retreat over the AUeghanies by way of 

It now remains to be told how General Garnett fared. The fact that 
he had posted the greater part of his army on Laurel Hill is proof that he 
exjaected the principal attack to be made on that place. He was for a time 
deceived by the bombardment directed against him, but he was undeceived 
when he learned that Colonel Pegram had been defeated, and that General 
McClellan had thrown troops across Rich Mountain and had successfully 
turned the flank of the Confederate position. All that was left for Garnett 
was to withdraw his army while there was yet time. His line of retreat 
was the pike from Beverly to Staunton, and the Union forces were pushing 
forward to occupy that and to cut him off in that direction. On the after- 
noon of July 12, 18151, Garnett retreated, hastening to reach Beverly in ad- 
vance of the Union forces. On the way he met fugitives from Pegram's 
army and was told by them that McClellan had already reached Beverly, 
and that the road in that direction was closed. Thereupon Garnett turned 
eastward into Tucker County, over a very rough road. General Morris 
pursued the retreating Confederates over the mountain to Cheat River, 
skirmishing on the way. General Garnett remained in the rear directing 
his skirmishers, and on July 11, at Corrick's Ford, where Parsons, the 
county seat of Tucker County, has since been located, he found that he 
could no longer avoid giving battle. With a few hundred men he opened 
fire on the advance of the pursuing army and checked the pursuit. But in 
bringing off his skirmishers from behind a jjile of driftwood, Garnett was 
killed and his men were seized with panic and fled, leaving his body on the 
field, with a score or more of dead. 

When it was found that the Confederates were retreating eastward 
Federal troops from Grafton, Rowlesburg and other points on the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad were ordered to cut off the retreat at St. George, 
in Tucker County. But the troops could not be concentrated in time, and 
the concentration was made at Oakland, in Maryland, with the expectation 
of intercepting the retreating Confederates at Red House, eight miles west 
of Oakland. 

Up to the time of the fight at Corrick's Ford the retz'eat had been 
orderly, but after that it became a rout. The roads were narrow and 
rough, and the excessive rains had rendered them almost impassible. 
Wagons and stores were abandoned, and when Horse Shoe Run, a long and 
narrow defile leading to the Red House, in Maryland, was reached inform- 
ation was received that Union troops from Rowlesburg and Oakland were 


at the Red House, cutting off retreat in that direction. The artillery was 
sent to the front. A portion of the cavalry was piloted by a mountaineer 
along a narrow jDath across the Backbone and Alleghany Mountains. The 
main body continued its retreat to the Red House, and pursued its way un- 
molested across the Alleghanies to Monterey. Two regiments marching 
in haste to reinforce Garnett at Laui-el Hill had reached Monterey when 
news of Garnett's retreat was received. The regiments halted there, and 
as Garnett's stragglers came in they were re-organized. 

The Union army made no pursuit beyond Corrick's Ford, except that 
detachments followed to the Red House to pick up the stores abandoned by 
the Confederates. Garnett's body fell into the hands of the Union forces 
and was prejjared for burial and sent to Richmond. It was carried in a 
canoe to Rowlesburg, on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, thirty miles be- 
low, on Cheat River, in charge of Whitelaw Reid, who had taken part in 
the battle at Corrick's Ford. Reid was acting in the double capacity of cor- 
respondent for the Gineinnati Gazette and an aid on the staff of General Mor- 
ris. When Rowlesburg was reached Garnett's body was sent by express to 
Governor Letcher, at Richmond. 

This closed the camjiaign in that part of West Virginia for 1861. The 
Confederates had failed to hold the country. On July 22 General McClellan 
was transferred to Washington to take charge of military operations there. 
In comijarison with the greater battles and more extensive campaign later 
in the war, the affairs in West Virginia were small. But they were of great 
importance at the time. Had the result been different, had the Confeder- 
ates held their ground at Gi-afton, Philipiii, Rich Mountain and Laurel Hill, 
and had the Union forces been di-iven out of the State, across the Ohio, the 
outcome would have changed the history of the war, but probably not the 



After Garnett's retreat in July, 1861, there were few Confederates in 
"West Virginia, west of tlie AUeghanies, except in the Kanawha Valley. 
But the Government at Richmond and the Confederate Government were 
not inclined to give up so easily the jiart of Virginia west of the mountains, 
and in a short time preparations were made to send an army from the east 
to re-conquer the territory beyond the Alleghanies. A large part of the 
army with which McClellan had defeated Garnett had been sent to other 
fields; the terms of enlistment of many of the soldiers had expired. When 
the Confederates re-crossed the mountains late in the summer of 1861 they 
were opposed by less than ten thousand Federals stationed in that moun- 
tainous part of West Virginia about the sources of the Greenbrier, the 
Tygart Valley River, Cheat, and near the source of the Potomac. In tha: 
elevated and rugged region a reinarlcubli' campaign was made. It was not 
remarkable because of hard liglitiiig, for there was no pitched battle; but 
because in this campaign the Confcdi'iatcs were checked in their purjjose 
of re-conquering the ground lost by Garnett and of extending their con- 
quest north and west. This campaign has also an historical interest 
because it was General Lee's first work in the field after he had been 
assigned the command of Virginia's land and sea forces. The outcome of 
the campaign was not what might be expected of a great and calculating 
general as Lee was. Although he had a larger army than his opi^onents in 
the field, and had at least as good ground, and although he was able to hold 
his own at every skirmish, -yet, as the campaign progn'ssod he constantly 
fell back. In September he fought at Elkwater and t!heat Mountain, in 
Randolph County; in October he fought at Greenbrier river, having fallen 
back from his first position. In December he had fallen back to the summit 
of the Alleghanies, and fought a battle there. It should be stated, however, 
that General Lee, although in command of the army, took part in person 
only in the skirmishing in Randolph County. The importance of this cam- 
paign entitles it to mention somewhat more in detail. 

General Reynolds succeeded General McClellan in command of this 
part of West Virginia. He advanced from Beverly to Huttonsville, a few 
miles above, and remained in peaceful possession of the country two 
months after Garnett's retreat, except that his scouting parties were con- 
stantly annoyed by Confederate irregulars, or guerrillas, usually called 
bushwhackers. Their mode of attack was, to lie concealed on the summits 
of cliffs, overhanging the roads or in thickets on the hillsides, and fire uixm 
the Union soldiers passing below. They were justly dreaded by the Union 
troops. These busliwhackers were usually citizens of that district who had 


taken to the woods after their well-known southern sympathies had ren- 
dered it unsafe or unpleasant to remain at home while the country was 
occupied by the Union armies. They were excellent marksmen, minutely 
acquainted with all the ins and outs of the mountains and woods; and, from 
their manner of attack and flight, it was seldom that they were captured or 
killed. They hid about the outposts of the Union armies; picked off senti- 
nels; wayland scouts; ambushed small detachments, and fled to their moun- 
tain fastnesses where jjursuit was out of the question. A war is considered 
severe in loss of life in which each soldier, taken as an average, kills one 
soldier on the other side, even though the war is prolonged for years. 
Yet, these bushwhackers often killed a dozen or more each, before being 
themselves killed. It can be readily understood why small detachments 
dreaded bushwhackers more than Confederate troops in pitched battle. 
Nor did the bushwhackers confine their attacks to small parties. They 
often tired into the ranks of armies on the march with deadly effect. While 
in the mountains of West Virginia General Averell's cavalry often suffered 
severely from these hidden guerrillas who fired and vanished. The bush- 
whacking was not always done by Confederates. Union soldiers or sympa- 
thizers resorted to it also at times. 

General Reynolds, with headquarters at Beverly, spent the summer of 
1861 in strengthening his i^osition, and in attempting to clear the country 
of guerrillas. Early in September he received information that large num- 
bers of Confederates were crossing the AUeghanies. General Loring 
established himself at Huntersville, in Pocahontas County, with 8500 men. 
He it was who had tried in vain to raise recruits in West Virginia for the 
Confederacy, even attempting to gain a foothold in Wheeling before 
McClellan's army crossed the Ohio River. He had gone to Richmond, and 
early in September had returned with an army. General H. R. Jackson 
was in command of another Confederate force of 6000 at Greenbrier River 
where the pike from Beverly to Staunton crosses that stream, in Pocahontas 
County. General Robert E. Lee was sent by the Government at Richmond 
to take command of both these armies, and he lost no time in doing so. 
No order sending General Lee into West Vii-ginia has ever been found 
among the records of the Confederate Government. It was probably a 
verbal order, or he may have gone without any order. He concentrated 
his force at Big Spring, on Valley Mountain, and prepared to march north 
to the Baltimore and Ohio Road at Grafton. His design was nothing less 
than to drive the Union army out of northwestern Virginia. When the 
matter is viewed in the light of subsequent history, it is to be wondered at 
that General Lee did not succeed in his purpose. He had 14500 men, and 
only 9000 were opposed to him. Had he defeated General Reynolds; driven 
his army back; occupied Grafton, Clarksburg and other towns, it can be 
readily seen that the seat of war might have been changed to West Virginia. 
The United States Government would have sent an army to oppose Lee; 
and the Confederate Government would have pushed strong reinforcements 
across the mountains; and some of the great battles of the war might have 
been fought on the Monongahela river. The camjiaign in the fall of 1861, 
about the head waters of the principle rivers of West Virginia, therefore, 
derives its chief interest, not from battles, but from the accomislishment of 
a great jDurpose — the driving back of the Confederates — without a pitched 
battle. Virginia, as a State, made no determined effort after that to hold 
Western Virginia. By that time the campaign in the Kanawha Valley was 


drawing to a close and theConfederates were retiring. Consequently, Vir- 
ginia's and the Southern Confederacy's etforts west of the AUeghanies in 
this State were defeated in the fall of 1801. 

General Reynolds sent a regiment to Elkwater, and soon afterwards 
occupied Cheat Mountain. This jDoint was the highest camp occupied by 
soldiers during the war. The celebrated "Battle Above the Clouds," on 
Lookout Mountain, was not one-half so high. The whole region, including 
pai-ts of Pocahontas, Pendleton and Randoljih Counties, has an elevation 
above three thousand feet, while the summits of the knobs and ridges rise 
to heights of more than four thousand, and some nearly five thousand feet. 
General Reynolds fortitierl his two advanced positions, Elkwater and Cheat 
Mountain. They were seven miles apart, connected by only a bridle path, 
but a circuitous wagon road, eighteen miles long, led from one to the other, 
passing around in the direction of Huttonsville. No sooner had the United 
States troops established themselves at Elkwater and Cheat Mountain than 
General Lee advanced, and skirmishing began. The Confederates threw a 
force between Elkwater and Cheat Mountain, and posted another force on 
the road in the direction of Huttonsville. They were attacked, and for 
three days there was skirmishing, but no general engagement. On Sep- 
tember 13 Colonel John A. Washington, in the Confederate service, was 
killed near Elkwater. He was a relative of President Washington, and also 
a relative General R. E. Lee, whose family and the Washingtons wei-e 
closely connected. General Lee sent a flag of truce and asked for the body. 
It was sent to the Confederate lines on September 14. That day the Con- 
federates concentrated ten miles from Elkwater, and the next day again 
advanced, this time threatening Cheat Mountain, but their attack was un- 
successful. In this series of skirmishes the Union forces had lost nine 
killed, fifteen wounded and about sixty prisoners. The result was a defeat 
for the Confederates, who were thwarted in their design of penetrating 
northward and westward. The failure of the Confederates to bring on a 
battle was due to their different detachments not acting in concert. It was 
Lee's plan to attack both positions at the same time. He sent detachments 
against Elkwater and Cheat Mountain. The sound of cannon attacking one 
position was to be the signal for attacking the other. The troops marched 
in rain and mud, along paths and in the woods, and when they found them 
selves in front of the Federal position, the detachment which was to have 
begun the attack failed to do so. The other detachment waited in vain for 
the signal, and then retreated. General Lee was much hurt by the failure 
of his plan.* 

General Loriner's army of 8,500, which was camped at Hunters ville, in 
Pocahontas County, was sent to that place for a jjarticular purpose. He 
was to swee^j round toward the west, then march north toward Weston and 
Clarksburg, strike the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and by threatening or 
cutting off General Reynolds' line of communication with his base of sup- 
plies, compel him to fall back. This plan was General Lee's. He left its 
execution to General Loring, who moved slowly, halted often, camped long, 
hesitated frequently, and consumed much valuable time. His men became 
sick. Rains made progress difficult, and he did not seem in a hurry to get 
along. General Lee waited but Loring still failed to march. He was an 
older officer than Lee, and although Lee had a right to order him forward, 

* See H, A. White's Life of Kobert E. Lee. 


he refrai^ied from doing so for fear of wounding Loring's feelings. The 
time for executing the movement passed, and the flank movement, which 
probably would have succeeded, was given uj}. 

The Confederates were not yet willing 'to abandon West Virginia. They 
fell back to the Greenbrier River, thirteen miles from the Union camp, on 
Cheat Mountain, and fortified their jaosition. They were commanded by 
General H. R. Jackson, and their number was believed to be about nine 
thousand. On October 3, 1861, General Reynolds advanced at the head of 
five thousand troops. During the first part of the engagement the Union 
forces Avere successful, driving the Confederates nearly a mile, but here 
several batteries of artillery were encountered, and reinforcements arriving 
to the supijort of the Confederates, the battle was renewed and General 
Reynolds was forced to fall back, with a loss of nine killed and thirty-five 
wounded. On December 10 General Reynolds was transferred to other 
fields, and the command of the Union forces in the Cheat Mountain district 
was given to General R. H. Milroy. Within three days after he assumed 
command he moved forward to attack the Confederate camp on the summit 
of the AUeghanies. The Confederates had gone into winter quai'ters there; 
and as the weather was severe, and as the Union forces appeared satisfied 
to hold what they had without attempting any additional conquests in mid- 
winter, the Confederates were not expecting an attack. However, on 
December 13, 1861, General Milroy moved forward and assaulted their posi- 
tion. The fighting was severe for sevei-al hours, and finally resulted in the 
retreat of the Union forces. The Confederates made no attempt to follow. 
General Milroy marched to Huntersville, in Pocahontas county, and went 
into winter quarters. The Rebels remained on the summit of the AUegha- 
nies till spring and then went over the mountains, out of West Virginia, 
thus ending the attempt to re-conquer northwestern Virginia. 

It now remains to be seen what success attended the eiforts of the Con- 
federates to gain control of the Kanawha Valley. Their campaign in West 
Virginia for the year 1861 was divided into two parts, in the northwest and 
in the Kanawha Valley. General Henry A. Wise was ordered to the Kana- 
wha June 6, two days before General Garnett was ordered to take command 
of the trooijs which had been driven .south from Grafton. Colonel Tomp- 
kins was already on the Kanawha in charge of Confederate forces. The 
authorities at Richmond at that time believed that a General, with the 
nucleus of an army in the Kanawha Valley, could raise all the troops neces- 
sary among the people there. On Ajjril 29 General Lee had ordered Major 
John McCausland to the Kanawha to organize companies for the Confed- 
eracy. Only five hundred flint-lock muskets could be had at that time to 
arm the troops in that quarter. General Lee suggested that the valley 
could be held by posting the force below Charleston. Very poor success 
attended the efforts at raising volunteers, and the arms found in the district 
were insutticieut to equip the men. Sujiplies were sent as soon as possible 
from Virginia. 

When General Wise arrived and had collected all his forces he had 
8,000 men, of whom 2,000 were militia from Raleigh, Payette and Mercer 
Counties. With these he was expected to occupy the Kanawha Valley, and 
resist invasion should Union forces attempt to jjenetrate that part of the 
State. General John B. Floyd, who had been Secretary of War under Pres- 
ident Buchanan, was guarding the railroad leading from Richmond into 
Tennessee, and was posted south of the present limits of West Virginia, but 


within supporting distance of General Wise. In case a Union army invaded 
the Kanawha Valley it was expected that General Floyd would unite his 
forces with those of General Wise, and that they would act in concert if 
not in conjunction. General Floyd was the older officer, and in case their 
forces were con.solidated he would be the commander in-chief. But Gen- 
eral Floyd and General Wise were enemies. Their hatred for the Yankees 
was less than their hatred for each other. They were both Virginia politi- 
cians, and they had crossed each other's paths too often in the past to be 
reconciled now. General Lee tried in vain to induce them to work in har- 
mony. They both fought the Union troops bravely, but never in concert. 
When Wise was in front of General Cox, General Floyd was elsewhere. 
When Floyd was jiitted in battle against General Rosecrans, General Wise 
was absent. Thus the Union troops beat these quarreling Virginia Briga- 
dier Generals in detail, as will be seen in the following narrative of the 
campaign during the summer and fall of 18G1 in the Kanawha Valley. 

When Generals Wise and Floyd were sent to their districts in the West 
it was announced in their camps that they would march to Clarksburg, 
Parkersburg and Wheeling. This would have brought them in conllict with 
General McClellan's army. On July 2 McClellan i^ut ti'oops in motion 
against the Confederates in the Kanawha Valley. On that date he appoint- 
ed General J. D. Cox to the command of regiments from Kentucky and 
Ohio, and ordered him to cross the Ohio at Gallipolis and take possession 
of Point Pleasant, at the mouth of the Kanawha. On July 23 General Rose- 
crans succeeded McClellan in command of the Dei^artment of Ohio. Rose- 
crans pushed the preparation for a vigorous campaign, which had already 
been commenced. He styled the troops under General Cox the Brigade of 
Kanawha. On July 17, in Putnam County, a fight occurred between de- 
tachments of Union and Confederate forces, in which the latter ai:)peared 
for the time victorious, but soon retrea^^ed eastward. From that time until 
September 10 there was constant skirmishing between the armies, the ad- 
vantage being sometimes on one side, sometimes on the other; but the 
Union forces constantly advanced and the Confederates fell back. On 
August 1 General Wise was in Greenbrier County, and in a report made to 
General Lee on that date, be says he fell back not a moment too .soon. He 
complained that his militia were worthless as soldiers, a*l urged General 
Lee to send him guns and other arms, and clothing and shoes, as his men 
were ragged and barefooted. On August 20 General Rosecrans was at 
Clarksburg preparing to go in person to lead reinforcements into the Kana- 
wha. He issued a proclamation to the people of West Virginia, calling on 
them to obey the laws, maintain order and co-operate with the military in 
its efforts to drive the armed Confederates from the State. 

Prior to that time Colonel E. B. Tyler, with a Federal force, had ad- 
vanced to the Gauley River, and on August 13 he took up a iwsition at 
Cross Lanes. He thus covered Carnifex Ferry. General Cox was at that 
time on the Gauley River, twenty miles lower down, near the mouth of that 
stream, nearly forty miles above Charleston. General Floyd advanced, and 
on August 2(5 crossed the Gauley at Carnifex Ferry with 2,500 men, and fell 
upon Colonel Tyler at Cross Lanes with such suddenness that the Union 
troops were routed, with fifteen killed and fifty wounded. The latter fell 
into the hands of the Confederates, who took fifty other prisoners also. The 
remainder of Tyler's force made its retreat to Charleston, and General 
Floyd fortified the position just gained and prepared to hold it. On Sep- 


tember 3 General Wise made an attack on General Cox at Gauley Bridge, 
near the mouth of the river, twenty miles below Carnifex Perry. The at- 
tack failed. The Confederates were beaten and were vigorously pursued. 
Had Wise held Gauley Bridge, Ployd already being in possession of Carni- 
fex Perry, they would have been in i^ositions to dispute the further advance 
of the Union forces up the Kanawha Valley. 

General Rosecrans left Clarksburg September 3, with re-inforcements, 
and after a march of seven days reached Carnifex Ferry, and that same 
evening began an attack upon the Confederates under General Ployd, who 
were entrenched on top of a mountain on the west bank of the Gauley 
River, in Nicholas County. General Ployd had about 4000 men and sixteen 
cannon, and his position was so well jjrotected by woods, that assault, with 
chance of success, was considered exceedingly difficult. He had fortilied 
this naturally strong position, and felt confident that it could not be cap- 
tured by any force the Union general could bring against him. The fight 
began late in the afternoon, General Rosecrans having marched seventeen 
miles that day. It was not his purpose to bring on a general engagement 
that afternoon, and he directed his forces to advance cautiously and find 
where the enemy lay; for the position of the Confederates was not yet 
known. While thus advancing a camp was found in the woods, from which 
the Confederates had cvid.'utiv tied in haste. Military stores and i^rivate 
property were scatt'Tcd in ((infusion. Prom this fact it was supposed that 
the enemy was in retreat, and the Union troops pushed on through thickets 
and over ridges. Presently tln-y dis(;overed that they had been mistaken. 
They were fired upon by the C'onfederate army in line of battle. From 
that hour until dariinoss ])ut a stop to the fighting, the battle continued. 
The Union troops had not been able to carry any of the Rebel works; and 
General Rosecrans withdrew his men for the night, prepared to renew the 
battle next morning. But during the night General Ployd retreated. He 
had grown doubtful <if liis ability to holdout if the attack was resumed with 
the same imix'tuisity us on the preceding evening. But he was more fear- 
ful that the Union iroops would cut off his retreat if he remained. So, 
while it was yet time, he withdrew in the direction of Lewisburg, in Green- 
brier County, destroying the bridge over the Gauley, and also the ferry 
across that stream. General Rosecrans was unable to pursue because he 
could not cross the river. It is a powerful, turbulent stream, and at this 
place flows several miles down a deep gorge, filled with rocks and cataracts. 
Among spoils which fell into the hands of the victors was General Floyd's 
hospital, in which were fifty wounded Union soldiers who had been captured 
when Colonel Tyler was di-iven from this same place on August 26. Gen- 
eral Rosecrans lost seventeen killed and one hundred and forty-one wounded 
The Confederate loss was never ascertained. 

After a rest of a few days the Union army advanced to Big Sewell 
Mountain. The weather was wet, and the roads became so muddy that it 
was almost imjiossible to haul supplies over them. For this reason it was 
deemed advisable to fall back. On October 5 General Rosecrans began to 
withdraw his forces to Gauley Bridge, and in the course of two weeks had 
transferred his command to that place, where he had water communication 
with his base of supplies. 

On November 10 another action was fought between General Ployd and 
General Rosecrans, in which the Confederates were defeated. This virtu- 
ally closed the campaign for the year 1861 in that quarter, and resulted in 


the occupation of all the lower Kanawha Valley and the greater part of the 
upper valley. The Confederates were finally driven out, and never again 
obtained a foothold in that part of the State, although large bodies were at 
times in the Valley of the Kanawha, and occasionally remained a con.sider- 
able time. 

The Confederate Government, and the State of Virginia as a member of 
that Government, had an object in view when they sent their forces into 
West Virginia at the commencement of the Civil War. Virginia as a State 
was interested in retaining the territory between the Alleghany Mountains 
and the Ohio River and did not believe she could do so without force and 
arms, because her long neglect and oppression had alienated the western 
counties. Virginia correctly judged that they would seize the first opiDor- 
tunity and organize a separate State. To prevent them from doing so, and 
to retain that large pai"t of her domain lying west of the Alleghanies, were 
the chief motives which promj^ted Virginia, as a State, to invade the west- 
ern part of her own territory, even before open war was acknowledged to 
exist between the Southern Confederacy and the United States Government. 
The jjurposc which prompted the Southern Confederacy to push troops 
across the Alleghanies in such haste was to obtain possession of the coun- 
try to the borders of Ohio and Pennsylvania, and to fortify the frontiers 
against invasion from the north and west. It was well understood at the 
headquarters of the Southern Confederacy that the thousands of soldiers 
already mustering beyond the Ohio River, and the tens of thousands who 
would no doubt soon take the field in the same quarter, would speedily cross 
the Ohio, unless prevented. The bold move which the South undei'took 
was to make the borders of Ohio and Pennsylvania the battle ground. The 
southern leaders did not at that time appreciate the magnitude of the war 
which was at hand. If they had understood it, and had had a military man 
in the place of Jefferson Davis, it is probable that the battle ground would 
have been different from what it was. Consequently, to rightly understand 
the early movements of the Confederates in West Virginia, it is necessary 
to consider that their purpose was to hold the country to the Ohio river. 
Their effort was weak, to be sure, but that was partly due to their miscal- 
culation as to the assistance they would receive from-the jieople of West 
Virginia. If they could have organized an army of forty thousand West 
Virginians and reinforced them with as many moi-e men from the South, it 
can be readily seen tliiit McClellan could not have crossed the Ohio as he 
did. But the scheme failed. The West Virginians not only would not 
enlist in the Confederate army, but they enlisted in the opposing force; and 
when Garnett made his report from Laurel Hill he told General Lee that, 
for all the help he received from the peojile. he might as well carry on a 
campaign in a foreign country. From that time it was regarded by the Con- 
federates as the enemy's country; and when, laler in the war, Jones, Jack- 
son, Imboden and others made raids into West Virginia they acted toward 
persons and projierty in the same way as when raids were made in Ohio and 

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, crossing West Virginia from Har- 
per's Ferry to Wheeling, and from Grafton to Parkersburg, was considered 
of the utmost importance by both the North and the South. It was so near 
the boundary between what was regarded as the Southern Confederacy and 
the North that during the early part of the war neither the one side nor the 
other felt sure of holding it. The management of the road was in sympa- 


thy with the North, but an effort was made to so manage the property as 
not to give cause for hostility on the part of the South. At one time the 
trains were run in accordance with a time table prepared by Stonewall 
Jackson, even as far as Locust Point.* It was a part of the Confederate 
scheme in West Virginia to obtain jDOssession and control, in a friendly way 
if possible, of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The possession of it would 
not only helji the Confederacy in a direct way, but it would cri^jple the Fed- 
eral Government and help the South in an indirect way. Within six days 
after General Lee was ajipointed Commander-in-Chief of the Virginia armies 
he instructed Major Loring, at Wheeling, to direct his military operations 
for the protection of the terminus of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on 
the Ohio River, and also to protect the road elsewhere. Major Boykin was 
ordered to give protection to the road in the vicinity of Grafton. General 
Lee insisted that the peaceful business of the road must not be interfered 
with. The branch to Parkersburg was also to be protected. Major Boy- 
kin was told to " hold the road for the benefit of Maryland and Virginia." 
He was advised to obtain the co-operation of the officers ot the road and 
afford them every assistance. When Colonel Porterfield was ordered to 
Grafton, on May 4, 1861, among the duties marked out for him by General 
Lee was the holding of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and to prevent its 
being used to the injury of Virginia. 

No one has ever supposed that the Southern Confederacy wanted the 
Baltimore and Ohio Road protected because of any desire to befriend that 
company. The leaders of the Confederacy knew that the officers of the 
road were not friendly to secession. As soon as Western Virginia had 
slipped out of the grasp of the Confederacy, and when the railroad could 
no longer help the South to realize its ambition of fortifying the banks of 
the Ohio, the Confederacy threw off the mask and came out in open hostil- 
ity. George Deas, Inspector General of the Confederate Army, urged that 
the railroad be destroyed, bridges burned along the line, and the tunnels 
west of the Alleghanies blown up so that no troops could be carried east 
from the Ohio River to the Potomac. This advice was j^artly carried out 
by a raid from Romney on June 19, 1861, after Colonel Porterfield had 
retreated from Grafton and had been driven from Philippi. But the dam- 
age to the road was not great and repairs were speedily made. Governor 
Letcher, of Virginia, had recommended to the Legislature a short time be- 
fore, that the Baltimore and Ohio Road ought to be destroyed. He said: 
" The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad has been a positive nuisance to this 
State, from the opening of the war till the present time. And unless the 
management shall hereafter be in friendly hands, and the government un- 
der which it exists be a part of our Confederacy, it must be abated. If it 
should be permanently destroyed we must assure our peojjle of some other 
communication with the seaboard, "f Fi'om that time till the close of the 
war the Confederacy inflicted every damage possible upon the road, and in 
many instances the damage was enormous. 

When General Garnett established himself in Randolph and Barbour 
Counties, in June, 1861, he made an elaborate plan of attack on the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad. He intended to take possession of Evansville, in 
Preston County, and using that as a base, destroy east and west. The high 


trestles along the face of Laurel Hill, west of Rowlesburg, and the bridge 
across Cheat River at Rowlesburg, and the long tunnel at Tunnelton were 
selected for the first and iirinciijal destruction. General Garnett had the 
road from Rowlesburg up Cheat River to St. George surveyed with a view 
to widening and improving it, thereby making of it a military road by which 
he could advance or fall back, in case the road from Beverly to Evansville 
should be threatened. General Imboden twice made dashes over the Allo- 
ghanies at the head of Cheat River and struck for the Rowlesburg trestles, 
but each time fell back when he reached St. George. In the spring of lHtJ3, 
when the great raid into West Virginia was made under Jones, Imboden and 
Jackson, every possible damage was done the Baltimore and Ohio Road, 
but again the Rowlesburg trestles escaped, although the Confederates ap- 
proached within two miles of them. 

It is proper to state here that an effort was made, after fighting had 
commenced, to win the West Virginians over to the cause of the South by 
promising them larger privileges than they had ever before enjoyed. On 
June 14, 1861, Governor Letcher issued a iDroclamation, which was pub- 
lished at Huttonsville, in Randol^ih County, and addressed to the jieople of 
Northwestern Virginia. In this proclamation he promised them that the 
injustice from unequal taxation of which they had complained in the jjast, 
should exist no longer. He said that the eastern jiart of the State had 
expressed a willingness to relinquish exemptions from taxation, which it 
had been enjoying, and was willing to share all the burdens of government. 
The Governor promised that in state affairs, the majority should rule; and 
he called upon the people beyond the AUeghanies, in the name of past 
friendship and of historic memories, to espouse the cause of the Southern 
Confederacy. It is needless to state that this proclamation fell flat. The 
people of Western Virginia would have hailed with delight a prospect of 
redress of grievances, had it come earlier. But its coming was so long 
delayed that they doubted both the sincerity of those who made the prom- 
ise and their ability to fulfill. Twenty thousand soldiers had already 
crossed the Ohio, and had penetrated more than half way from the river to 
the AUeghanies, and they had been joined by thousands of Virginians. It 
was a poor time for Governor Letcher to apjjeal to past memories or to 
promise justice in the future which had been denied in the past. Coming 
as the promise did at that time, it looked like a death-bed repentance. The 
Southern Confederacy had postponed fortifying the bank of the Ohio until 
too late; and Virginia had held out the olive branch to her neglected and 
long-suffering peoi)le beyond the mountains when it was too late. They 
had already cast their lot with the North; and already a powerful army had 
crossed the Ohio to their assistance. Virginia's day of dominion west of 
the AUeghanies was nearing its close; and the Southern Confederacy's hope 
of empire there was already doomed. 



In this chapter will be given an outline of the progress of the Civil War 
on the soil of West Virginia or immediately affecting the State. As there 
were more than three hundred battles and skirmishes within the limits of 
the State, and numerous scouts, raids and campaigns, it will be possible in 
the brief space of one chapter to give little more than the date of each, with 
a word of explanation or descrijition. In former chapters the history of the 
opening of the war and accounts of the leading campaigns have been given. 
It yet remains to pi-esent in their chronological sequence the events of 
greater or lesser importance which constitute the State's war record. 


Airril 17. The Ordinance of Secession was adopted by the Virginia 
Convention at Richmond. 

April 18. Harper's Ferry was abandoned by the Federal troops. 
Lieutenant Roger Jones, the commandant, learning that more than two 
thousand Virginia troops were advancing to attack him, set fire to the 
United States armory and machine shops and retreated into Pennsylvania. 
Fifteen minutes after he left Harper's Ferry the Virginia forces arrived. 

April 23. General Robert E. Lee assigned to the command of Virginia's 
land and naval forces. 

April 27. Colonel T. J. Jackson assigned to the command of the Vir- 
ginia forces at Harper's Ferry. 

May 1. Governor Letcher calls out the Virginia militia. 

May 3. Additional forces called for by the Governor of Virginia. The 
call was disregarded by nearly all the counties west of the Alleghanies. 

May 4. Colonel George A. Porterfleld assigned to the command of all 
the Confederate forces in Northwestern Virginia. 

May 10. General Robert E. Lee assigned to the command of the forces 
of the Confederate States serving in Virginia. 

May 13. General George B. McClellan assigned to the command of the 
Department of the Ohio, embracing West Virginia. 

May 14. The Confederates at Harper's Ferry seized a train of cars. 

May 15. General Joseph E. Johnston assigned to the command of Con- 
federate troops near Harper's Ferry. 

May 22. Bailey Brown was killed by a Confederate picket at Fetter- 

I'nili'd States 

ird.riilf. have 
y nr ilufuat ol 


man, Taylor County. Brown was the first enlisted man of the United States 
volunteer service killed in the war. 

May 26. Federal forces from beyond the Ohio and those about Wheel- 
ing began to move against Grafton where Confederates, under Colonel Por- 
tertield, had established themselves. 

May 27. Captain Christian Roberts was killed by Federals under 
Lieutenant West, in a skirmish at Glover's Gap, between Wheeling and 
Fairmont. Captain Roberts was the first armed Confederate soldier killed 
in the war. 

May 30. Grafton was occupied by Federal forces, the Confederates 
having retreated to Philippi. 

Jime 3. Fight at Philippi and retreat of the Confederates into Ran- 
dolph County. 

June 6. Ex-Governor Henry A. Wise was sent to the Kanawha Valley 
to collect troops for the Confederacy. 

June 8. General R. S. Gaijnett su^jerseded Colonel Porterfield in com- 
mand of Confederate forces in West Virginia. 

June 10. A Federal force was sent from Rowlesburg to St. George, in 
Tucker County, capturing a lieutenant and two Confederate flags. 

June 14. Governor Letcher, of Virginia, published at Huttonsville, 
Randolph County, a proclamation to the people west of the Alleghanies, 
urging them to stand by Virginia in its Secession, and promising them, if 
they would do so, that the wrongs of which they had so long complained 
should exist no more, and that the western counties should no longer be 
domineered over by the powerful eastern counties. 

June 19. Skirmish near Keyser. Confederates under Colonel John C. 
Vaughn advanced from Romney and burned Bridge No. 21 on the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad, and defeated the Cumberland Home Guards, capturing 
two small cannon. 

June 23. Skirmish between Federals and Confederates at Rightor's. 

June 26. Skirmish on Patterson Creek, Hampshire County, in which 
Richard Ashby was killed by thirteen Federals under Corporal David Hays. 

June 29. Skirmish at Hannahsville, in Tucker County, in which Lieu- 
tenant Robert McChesney was killed by Federals under Cajitain Miller. 

July 2. Fight at Falling Waters, near Martin sburg. Colonel John C. 
Starkweather defeated Stonewall Jackson. This was Jackson's first skir- 
mish in the Civil War. 

July 4. Skirmish at Harrier's Perry. Federals under Lietenant Gal- 
braith were fired upon from opposite bank of the river. The Federals fell 
back with a loss of 4. 

July 6. The forces under McClellan which were advancing upon Rich 
Mountain encountered Confederate outjjosts at Middle Pork Bridge, eighteen 
miles west of Beverly. The Federals fell back. 

July 7. The Federals drove the Confederates from Middle Fork 

July 7. Skirmish at Glennville, Gilmer County. 

Jxdy 8. Skirmish at Belington, Barbour County. General Morris with 
the left wing of McClollan's army attempted to dislodge the Confederates 
from the woods in the rear of the village, and was repulsed, losing 2 killed 
and 3 wounded. 

July 11. Battle of Rich Mountain. The Confederates under Colonel 
Pegram were defeated by General Rosecrans. 


Jul 11 12. General Garnett, with 4,585 Confederates, retreated from 
Laurel Hill through Tucker County, pursued by General Morris with 3,000 

July 12. Beverly was occupied by McClellan's forces, and a Confeder- 
ate force, under Colonel Scott, retreated over Cheat Mountain toward 

July 13. Colonel Pegram surrendered six miles from Beverly to 
McClellan's army. 

July 13. Battle of Corrick's Ford, in Tucker County. Garnett was 
killed and his army routed by Federals under General Morris. 

July 13. General Lew Wallace with a Federal force advanced from 
Keyser and captured Romney. 

July 15. Harper's Ferry was evacuated by the Confederates. 

July 16. Skirmish at Barboursville, Cabell County. The Confederates 
were defeated. 

July 17. Scarry Creek skirmish. Colonel Patton, with 1200 Confeder- 
ates, defeated an equal number of Federals under Colonel Norton. 

July 20. General W. W. Loring was placed in command of the Confed- 
erate forces in Northwestern Virginia. 

August 1. General R. E. Lee was sent to take command of Confederate 
forces in West Virginia. 

Auf/iiM 11. General John B. Floyd took command of Confederate 
troops in the Kanawha Valley. 

August 13. A Federal force was sent from Grafton into Tucker 
County, capturing 15 prisoners, 90 guns, 150 horses and cattle and 15000 
rounds of ammunition. 

August 25. The Confederates were defeated in a skirmish at Piggot's 

August 26. Fight at Cross Lanes, near Summerville. While the Fed- 
erals were eating breakfast they were attacked and defeated by General 

September 1. Skirmish at Blue Creek. 

September 2. Skirmish near Hawk's Nest in Fayette County. General 
Wise with 1,250 men attacked the Federals of equal force, but was repulsed. 

September 10. Battle of Carnifex Ferry. 

Septeiaher 12. Skirmish at Cheat Mountain Pass, near Huttonsville. 
The Confederates under General Lee were repulsed in their attempt to fall 
upon the rear of the Federals. 

September 13. Fight on Cheat Mountain. The Confederates were de- 
feated. General Lee was foiled in his attempt on Elk Water. 

September 14. Second skirmish at Elk Water. The Confederates were 
again unsuccessful. 

September 15. The Confederates again were foiled in their attempt to 
advance to the summit of Cheat Mountain. 

September 16. Skirmish at Princeton, Mercer County. 

Septetiiljer 24. Skirmish at Hanging Rocks, in Hampshire County. The 
Federals were defeated. 

September 24. Skirmish at Mechanicsburg Gap, Hampshire County. 
The Federals were defeated. 

September 25. Colonel Cantwell defeated the Confederates under Col- 
onel Angus McDonald and captured Romney, but was afterwards forced to 


September 27. Captain Isaiah Hall was defeated by Confederate guer- ''• 
rillas at High Log Cabin Run, Wirt County. 

October 3. Fight at Greenbrier River. The Federals were repulsed 
after severe fighting, but the Confederates fell back to the summit of the 

October 16. Skirmish near Bolivar Heights. About 500 Confederates 
under Turner Ashby attacked 600 Federals under Colonel John W. Geary. 
The Confederates were defeated. 

October 19. There was skirmishing on New River, with various results. 

October 23. Skirmishing on the Gauley between detachments of Fed- 
erals and Confederates. 

October 23. Colonel J. N. Clarkson, with a raiding force of Confeder- 
ates, unsuccessfully attacked a steamer on the Kanawha. 

October 26. Colonel Alexander Monroe, with 27 Hampshire County 
militia, attacked and defeated a large Federal force at Wire Bridge, on 
South Branch of the Potomac. 

October 26. General Kelley with 3,000 Federals defeated Colonel _ 
McDonald's militia and captured Romney. 

November 1. Commencement of a series of skirmishes for three days, 
near Gauley Bridge. 

November 10. Skirmishes at Blake's Farm and Cotton Hill, with attend- 
ant movements, occupying two days. 

November 10. Fight at Guyandotte. J. C. Wheeler, with 150 recruits, 
was surprised and cut to pieces by Confedei-ate raiders under J. N. Clark- 
son. Among the Union prisoners was Uriah Payne, of Ohio, who was the 
first to piant the United States flag on the walls of Monterey, Mexico. 
Troops soon crossed to Guyandotte from Ohio and the Rebels retreated. A 
portion of the town was burned by the Federals. 

November 12. Skirmish on Laurel Creek. 

November 14. Skirmish near McCoy's Mill. 

November 30. A detachment of Union troojjs was attacked by guerrillas 
on the South Branch, above Romney. The Federals retreated, with three "~ 
wounded and a loss of six horses. 

November 30. Skirmish near the mouth of Little Capon, in Morgan - 
County. Captain Dyche defeated the Rebels. 

December 13. Battle at Camji Alleghany. The Federals were defeated 
with a loss of 137 in killed and wounded. 

December 15. Major E. B. Andrews set out on an expedition of six days 
to Meadow Bluff; defeated the Confederate skirmishers and captured a large 
amount of property. 

December 28. Union forces occupied the county seat of Raleigh. 

December 29. Sutton, Braxton County, was captured by 135 Rebels. 
The Union troops under Captain Rawland retreated to Weston. The Con- 
federates burned a portion of the town. 

December 30. Expedition into Webster County by 400 Union troops under 
Captain Anisansel. He pursued the Confederates who had burned Sutton; 
overtook them at Glades; defeated them; killed 22 and burned 29 houses be- 
lieved to belong to Rebel bushwhackers. 

January 3. Fight at Bath, in Morgan county, continuing two days. 
The Confederates under Stonewall Jackson victorious. 


January 3. Major George Webster, with 700 Union troops, marched 
from Huttonsville to Huntersville, in Pocahontas County, drove out 250 
Confederates, captured and destroyed military stores worth $30,000. These 
were the iirst Federals in Huntersville. 

Jamiary 4. Skirmish at Sir John's Run, Morgan County. The fight 
continued late into the night. The Federals retreated. 

January 4. Skirmish at Slanesville, Hampshire County. A squad of ^ 
Union troops under Captain Sauls was ambushed and routed. Captain Sauls 
was wounded and taken prisoner. The Confederates were under Captain 
Isaac Kuykendall. 

January 5. On or about January 5 the village of Prenchburg, six miles 
from Romney, was burned by order of General Lander on the charge that 
the peojjle harbored Rebel bushwhackers. 

January 5. Big Capon Bridge, on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was - 
destroyed by Confederates under Stonewall Jackson. 

January 7. Fight at Blue's Gap, Hamjishire County, in which the Con- - 
federates were defeated and lost two cannon — the same guns captured at 
Bridge No. 21 by the Confederates, June 19, 1861. 

January 10. The Federal troops evacuated Romney. '^ 

January 11. Romney occupied by troops under Stonewall Jackson. 

January 14. The seat of Logan County was burned by Union troops 
under Colonel E. Siber. 

Jamiary 31. Confederates evacuated Romney by order of the Seci'etary ^ 
of War of the Confederate States. 

January 31. Stonewall Jackson, indignant at the interference with his . 
plans by the Secretary of War, in recalling troops from Romney, tendered 
his resignation. He was persuaded by Governor Letcher, General Johns- 
ton and others to recall it. 

February 2. Confederates at Springfield, Hampshire County, were de- - 
feated by General Lander. 

February 8. Skirmish at the mouth of Blue Stone. Colonel William E. 
Peters, with 225 Confederates, was attacked by an equal force. The Fed- 
erals retreated. 

Februari/ 12. Fight at Moorefield, in which the Confederates retreated. 

February 14. Confederates driven from Bloomery Gap, in Morgan 

February 16. The Union troojjs were defeated at Bloomery Gap and 
compelled to retreat. 

February 26. The Patterson Creek Bridge, in Mineral County, was ' 
burned by Rebel guerrillas. 

March 3. Skirmish at Martinsburg. 

Ajwil 12. Raid from Fairmont to Boothville by Captain J. H. Showal- 
ter, who was ordered by General Kelley to capture or kill John Righter, 
John Anderson, David Barker, Brice Welsh, John Lewis, John Knight and 
Washington Smith, who wei'e agents sent by Governor Letcher into north- 
western Virginia to raise recruits for the Confederacy. Captain Showalter 
killed three men of Righter's company. 

April 17. Defeat of the Webster County guerrillas, known as Dare 
Devils, by Major E. B. Andrews, who marched from Summerville to Addi- 
son with 200 Federals. There were several skirmishes between April 17 
and April 21. Several houses belonging to the guei-rillas were burned. 


Ajtril 18. An expedition was sent by General Schenck to clear the 
North Fork and Senaca in Pendleton County of Rebel bushwhackers. 

April 18. Colonel T. M. Harris skirmished with Rebel bushwhackers 
in Webster County, killing 5 and burning 5 houses. 

Ajjril 23. Skirmish at Gra.ssy Lick, in Hampshire County. Confeder- 
ate bushwhackers under Captain Umbaugh, who held a commission from - 
Governor Letcher, concealed themselves in the house of Peter Poling and 
fired upon Colonel S. W. Downey's scouting party, killing three. Troops 
were sent from Romney and Mooretield and burned the house, after mor- 
tally wounding its owner. 

May 1. Lieutenant Fitzhugh with 200 Federals was attacked near 
Princeton, Mercer County, and fought thirteen hours while retreating 23 
miles, losing 1 killed, 12 wounded. 

May 1. Skirmish at Camp Creek on Blue Stone River. Lieutenant 
Bottsford was attacked by 300 Rebels and lost 1 killed and 20 wounded. 
The Confederates were repulsed with 6 killed. 

May 7. Skirmish near Wardensville, Hardy County. Troops under 
Colonel S. W. Downey attacked Captain Umbaugh a Rebel guerrilla, killing 
him and 4 of his men, wounding 4 and capturing 12. The fight occurred at 
the house of John T. Wilson. 

May 8. Major B. F. Skinner led a scouting party through Roane and 
Clay counties from May 8 to May 21, skirmishing with Rebel guerrillas. 

May 10. Federal scouts were decoyed into a house near Franklin, 
Pendleton County, and were set upon by bushwhackers and defeated with 
one killed. Two days later re-enforcements arrived, killed the owner of 
the house, and burned the building. 

May 15. Fight at Wolf Creek, near New River, between Captain E. 
Schache and a squad of Confederates. The latter were defeated with 6 
killed, 2 wounded and 6 prisoners. 

May 16. The Confederates captured Princeton, Mercer County. 
May 16. Skirmish at Wytheville Cross Roads. The Federals were 
attacked and defeated. 

May 17. Federals captured Princeton with 15 prisoners. 
May 23. Battle of Lewisburg, Greenbrier County. General Heth with 
3000 Confederates attacked the forces of Colonel George Crook, 1300. The 
Confederates were stampeded and fled in panic, losing 4 cannon, 200 stands 
of arms, 100 prisoners, 38 killed, 66 wounded. The Union loss was 13 killed 
53 wounded. 

May 26. Skirmish near Franklin, Pendleton County. 
May 29. Fight near Wardensville. Confederates were attacked and 
defeated with 2 killed, by Colonel Downey. 

May 30. A Federal force under Colonel George R. Latham attacked 
guerrillas on Shaver Fork of Cheat River, defeating them, killing 4 and 
wounding several. 

June 8. Major John J. Hoffman attacked and defeated a squad of Con- 
federate Cavalry at Muddy Creek, near Blue Sulphur Springs, killing 3. 

June 24. At Baker's Tavern, Hardy County, Capt. Chas. Farnsworth 
was tired upon by Rebel bushwhackers. He burned several houses in the 
vicinity as a warning to the people not to harbor bushwhackers. 

June 24, Colonel J. D. Hines started upon a three days scout through 
Wyoming County. He defeated and dispersed Confederate guerrillas 
known as Flat Top Copperheads. 


July 25. Lieutenant J. W. Miller, at Summerville, was attacked at 
daybreak by 200 Confedei-ate cavalry and nearly all his men were captured. 

Av(/v.<it 2. A scouting jiarty of Federals under Captain I. Stough left 
Meadow Bluff for the Greenbrier river. On August 4, near Haynes Ferry, 
he was defeated by the Confederates, losing 2 wounded. The Rebels had 
5 killed. 

August 5. Federals under Lieutenant Wlntzer invaded Wyoming 
County. In a fight at the county seat he was defeated with a loss of 19 

August 6. Rebels attacked Pack's Ferry, near the mouth of Blue 
Stone, and were driven off by Major Comly. The Confederates, 900 in num- 
ber, were commanded by Colonel G. C. Wharton. 

August 7. Rebel cavalry was defeated in a skirmish at Horse Pen 

Augxist 14. General John D. Imboden, with 300 Confederates, set out 
from Franklin, Pendleton County, on a raid to Rowlesburg to destroy the 
railroad bridge across Cheat River. His advance was discovered and he 
did not venture beyond St. George, in Tucker County, where he robbed the 
postoffice and set out on his retreat. 

August 18. Skirmish near Coi-rick's Ford, in Tucker County, between 
Federal scouts and Confederates under Captain George Imboden. 

August 22. The Confederate General, A. J. Jenkins, with 550 men, set 
out from Salt Sulphur Springs, in Monroe county, on an extensive raid. 
He passed through Greenbrier and Pocahontas Counties into Randolph, 
through Upshur, Lewis, Gilmer, Roane, Jackson, crossed the Ohio, and 
returned through the Kanawha Valley, marching 500 miles, capturing 300 
prisoners and destroying the public records in many counties. 

August 30. The Confederates under General Jenkins captured Buck- 
hannon after the small Federal garrison fled. He secured and destroyed 
large quantities of military stores, including 5,000 stands of arms. He had 
intended to attack Beverly, but feared his force was too small. He crossed 
Rich Mountain to the head of the Buckhannon River, traveling 30 miles 
through an almost pathless forest and fell on Buckhannon by surprise. 

August 31. Weston, in Lewis County, was captured by Confederates 
under General J'enkins. 

- September 1. General Jenkins captured Glenville, Gilmer County, the 
Federal garrison retreating after firing once. 

September 2. Colonel J. C. Rathbone, with a Federal force stationed at 
Spencer, Roane County, surrendered to General Jenkins without a fight. 

September 3. At Ripley, in Jackson County, General Jenkins captured 
$5,525 belonging to the United States Government. The Union soldiers 
stationed at the town retreated as the Confederates apjii'oached. 

September 11. General W. W. Loring, with a strong force of Confeder 
ates, having invaded the Kanawha Valley, attacked the Federal troops un- 
der General J. A. J. Lightburn at Fayetteville and routed them. This was 
the beginning of an extensive Confederate raid which swept the Union 
troops out of the Kanawha Valley. Military stores to the value of a mil- 
lion dollars fell into the hands of the Rebels, who destroyed what they 
could not carry away. 

Sejiteinber 13. General Lightburn, in his retreat down the Kanawha 
Valley, was overtaken at Charleston by General Loring and was compelled 
to abandon large stores in his flight to the Ohio. 


September 15. General Loring, at Charle.ston, issued a proclamation to 
the people of the Kanawha Valley and neighboring parts of the State, in- 
forming them that the armies of the Confederacy had sot them free from 
the danger and oppression of Federal bayonets, and he called on them to 
rise and maintain their freedom, and su^jport the Government which had 
brought about their emancipation. 

Septettiber 20. General Jenkins' forces, having re-crossed the Ohio 
River into the Kanawha Valley, skirmished with Federals at Point Pleas- 

September 27. Skirmish at Buffalo, twenty miles above Point Pleas- 
ant. Colonel John A. Turley attacked and defeated the Confederates, a 
portion of the force under Jenkins. 

September 28. Skirmish at Standing Stone. 

September 30. Fight at Glenville. Fifty Fedei-als attacked and defeated 
65 Confederate cavalry. 

October 1. Fight near Shepherdstown between Federals under Gen- 
eral Pleasanton and Confederates under Colonel W. H. F. Lee. Both sides 
claimed the victory. 

October 2. Federals under Captain W. H. Boyd attacked and 
destroyed General Imboden's camp at Blue's Gap, in Hampshire County. 

October 4. Confederates were captui'ed at Blues" Gap. 

October 4. General Imboden attacked and defeated the Federal Guard 
at Little Capon Bridge, in Morgan County and destroyed the bridge. 

October 4. The Federal guard at Pawpaw, Morgan County, was cap- 
tured by Imboden. 

October 6. Slfirmish at Big Birch. 

October 16. General Loring was superseded by General John Echols as 
commander of Confederate forces in West Virginia. 

October 20. Skirmish at Hodgeville. 

October 29. Fight near Petersburg, Grant County, between Federals 
under Lieutenant Quirk and Rebel cattle raiders who were endeavoring to 
drive stock out of the South Branch Valley. The raiders were defeated, 
and lost 170 cattle. 

October 31. Skirmish near Kanawha Falls. 

November 9. St. George, Tucker County, was captured by Imboden 
together with the garrison of 31 Federals under Captain William Hall.- 
Imboden had set out, November 9, from South Fork, in Pendleton county, 
to destroy the railroad bridge at Rowlesburg, but learning that troops from 
Beverly were moving in his rear, he retreated, passing up Glade Fork of 
Cheat River, through a dense and pathless wilderness. He reached South 
Fork November 14. He had 310 men, and carried howitzers on mules. 

November 9. Skirmish on South Fork. Genei-al Kelley moved from 
Keyser and destroyed Imboden's camp, which he had left in charge of Lieu- 
tenant R. L. Doyle while Imboden was absent on his raid toward Rowles- 

Niyvember 9. Captain G. W. Gilmore with a Federal force invaded 
Greenbrier County, capturing a wagon train and 9 men. He returned 
November 11. 

November 24. A force of 75 Federals under Captain Cogswell marched 
from Sbarpsbui'g to Shephei'dstown and captured Burke's guerrillas, killing 

November 26, An expedition moved forward under W. H. Powell 


from Summerville to Cold Knob, and with only 20 men defeated the Confed- 
erates at Sinking Creek and took 500 prisoners. 

December 3. Confederates at Moorefield were defeated with loss of 12 by 
Lieut H. A. Myers with 100 men. 

December 11. Lieutenant R. C. Pendergrast with 27 men defeated a 
detachment of Confederates at Darkesville, Berkeley County. 

December 12. In a skirmish near Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, a 
squad of Federals cajjtured 12 of Ashby's cavaliy. 

December 22. General Imboden attacked a supply train near Wardens- 
ville. Hardy County, capturing it. He lost six men. The Federals lost 20. 

December 25. Sixty Confederates under Captain Boyle were defeated by 
Lieutenant Vermilyea, with 10 men, at Charlestown. 


Jamim'v 3. Fight near Moorefield. Federals under Colonel James 
Washburn were attacked by Genei-al William E. Jones. A second Union 
force, under Colonel James Mulligan, advanced from Petersburg, attacked 
the Confederates in the rear and defeated them. 

January 3. Petersburg, Grant County, was occu]jied by Confederates 
after it was evacuated by the Federals, who burned military stores to the 
value of $20,000, which they could not move. 

January 5. A supply train belonging to General Milroy's army was 
attacked and partly destroyed by Confederates under Captain John H. 
McNeill, four miles from Moorefield. 

Janvarij 20. General Lee wrote to Imboden, outlining a policy of war 
for West Virginia and urged him to carry it out. Among other things, the 
municipal officers of the Re-organized Government of Virginia, called by 
Lee "the Pierpont government," were to be captured whenever possible; 
and Imboden was instructed to ' ' render the position of sheriff as dangerous 
a position as possible." 

January 22. Skirmish in Pocahontas County between Federals under 
Major H. C. Flesher and Confederates under Colonel Fontaine. Success 
was equally divided. 

February 5. Scout by 70 Federals under Major John McMahan from 
Camp Piatt through Wyoming County. The men were out three days and 
nearly froze to death. 

February 10. Captain C. T. Ewing left Beverly with a Union force of 
135 for a two days' scout through Pocahontas County. He captured 13 
prisoners, 15 horses and 185 cattle. 

February 12. Skirmish near Smithfield, Jefferson County. A Union 
scouting party w as attacked by Captain R. W. Baylor's cavalry, and lost six 
men, killed, wounded and captured. Federal reinforcements came up and 
retook the prisoners and captured Lieutenant George Baylor and several 

February 12. Major John McMahan set out for a four days' scout from 
Camp Piatt through Boone, Logan and Wyoming Counties. He captured 
four prisoners. 

February 16. Confederate guerrillas captured a wagon train and guard 
near Romney. 

March 2. General John D. Imboden wrote General Lee, outlining his 
plan for invading West Virginia. The formidable raids under Imboden and 
Jones in April and May, 1863, were planned by Imboden, and the first men- 


tion of the plan to Lee seems to have been in the letter to that General on 
March 2. There was a three-fold object in view. First, it was designed to 
destroy as much of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad as possible, and Im- 
boden believed he could destroy nearly all of it. Second, he expected to 
enlist "several thousand" recruits in West Virginia. Third, he wanted to 
establish Confederate authority in as much of the northwest as possible and 
retain it long enough to enable the people to take part in the Virginia State 
election in May. No hint is found in the letter that the Confederates would 
be able to establish themselves permanently west of the AUeghanies. Ex- 
cept the partial destruction of the railroad and the carrying away of several 
thousand horses and cattle, the great raid was a failure so far as benefit to 
the Confederacy was concerned. 

March 7. Skirmish at Green Spring Run, in Hampshire County. - 

March 28. Confederates were defeated at Hurricane Bridge, near the 
Kanawha, by Captain J. W. Johnson. 

March 30. Skirmish at Point Pleasant. Captain Carter, with a Union 
force of 60 men, was attacked by Confederates and besieged several hours 
in the CourtHouse. The Rebels retreated when Federal reinforcements 
appeared upon the opposite bank of the Ohio. 

April 5. Skirmish at Mud River. Captain Dove attacked and defeated 
Confederates under Captain P. M. Carpenter. 

April 6. Lieutenant Speer, with live wagons and 11 men, was captured 
near Burlington, Mineral County, by Confederates under McNeill. 

April 7. Federals under Captain Moore attacked the Confederates at 
Going's Ford, Hear Mooretield, defeated them and retook the wagons lost 
by Lieutenant Speer the day before. 

April 11. Colonel G. R. Latham moved from Beverly toward Franklin, 
Pendleton County, and occupied the town without opposition. He returned 
to Beverly after an absence of seven days. 

April 18. Fight in Harrison County. Colonel N. Wilkinson with a 
squad of Union troops captured Major Thomas D. Armstrong at Johnstown 
and scattered his forces on the head of Hacker's Creek. 

April 20. Imboden set forward with 3000 men on his great raid. Gen- 
eral W. E. Jones was sent through Hardy County to Oakland, Maryland, 
thence to move westward, destroying the railroad, while Imboden advanced 
through Randolph County toward Grafton, expecting to form a junction 
near that place with Jones, whence they would move west. The plan was 
•generally carried out. 

April 21. General Jones with 1300 men set forward on the great raid. 

April 24. Beverly was captured by Imboden. Colonel Latham with 
900 Federals retreated to Philippi, in Barbour County, over roads almost 
impassable for mud which in places was up to the saddle skirts. Imboden 
was unable to follow with artillery, but pursued with cavalry. General 
Roberts in command of the Union forces in the northwestern part of the 
State, called in all his outlying garrisons and retreated to Clarksburg. 
Colonel James Mulligan marched from Grafton with a Federal force and 
fought Imboden's troops in Barbour County, but hearing that General Jones 
was threatening Grafton, Mulligan fell back to defend that point. Im- 
boden moved slowly toward Buckhannon over roads so bad that in 
one day he could advance only two miles. 

April 25. Fight at Greenland Gap in Gi-ant County. Captain Mai'tin 
Wallace with less than 100 Federals held the pass five hours against the 


Rebel army, and surrendered only when driven into a church and the build- 
ing set on fire. 

Ajiril 26. General Jones attacked and captured Cranberry Summit, 
now Terra Alta, in Preston County. 

April 26. The Confederates attacked Rowlesburg for the jjurpose of 
destroying the railroad bridge and trestles. The town was defended by 
Major J. H. Showalter and 252 Union troops. General Jones did not 
lead the attack in person but remained at the bridge five miles above 
Rowlesburg where the Northwestern Pike crosses, for the purpose of burn- 
ing the structure as soon as the town was taken. But his attacking parties 
were rejiulsed, and he abandoned the attack and marched to Evansville, in 
Preston County, not knowing that the Federal garrison of Rowlesburg was 
in full retreat toward Pennsylvania. Thus the town escaped capture, 
although defenseless; and the great trestles, for the destruction of which 
General Lee had jjlanned so carefully, and the tunnel at Tunnelton, then 
the largest in the world, were saved; and the blow which would have jDara- 
lyzed the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad for months, was not struck. 

April 27, The suspension bridge across Cheat River at Albrightsville, 
three miles from Kingwood, was cut down by the Confederates. The 
cables were severed with an axe. 

Ajn-il 27. Bridges and trestles on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
near Independence, Preston County, were burned by General Jones. 

April 27. Morgantown, Monongalia County, was surrendered to Gen- 
eral Jones by the citizens. Three citizens were shot near town by the 

April 28. The susjiension bridge across the Monongahela river at Mor- 
gantown was set on tire by the Confederates, but they permitted the 
citizens to extinguish the fire before much damage was done. 

April 29. The Confederates under Imboden advanced to and occupied 
Buckhannon, in Upshur County. 

April 29. General Jones attacked and captured Fairmont, Marion 
County, after a sharp skirmish. He captured 260 prisoners. 

April 29. The large iron railroad bridge across the Monongahela above 
Fairmont, which cost over $400,000, was blown down with powder. The 
first blast of three kegs of powder placed under a pier, failed to move it, 
and the Confederates proceeded to burn the wood-work, considering it 
impossible to destroy the iron superstructure. But after several hours of 
undermining, a charge of powder threw the bridge into the river. 

April 29. Governor Pierijont's library at his home in Fairmont was 
burned by the Rebels. 

April 29. Colonel Mulligan, who had been in Barbour County fighting 
Imboden, came up and attacked the Confederates under Jones, while they 
were destroying the bridge above Fairmont, and sharp fight ensued. Mul- 
ligan saw that he could not save the bridge, and fell back to Grafton. 

Aiiril 30. Imboden lost 200 soldiers at Buckhannon by desertion, be- 
cause he would not permit them to steal horses for their private benefit. 

April 30. Skirmish at Bridgeport, Harbison County. General Jones 
captured 47 prisoners, burned a bridge and trestle, and run a freight train 
into the creek. 

May 2. General Jones occupied Philiiipi, and from there sent across 
the Alleghanies, by way of Beverly, several thousand cattle and horses 


taken from the people. On the same day he formed a junction with Im- 
boden's troops. 

May 2. Lieutenant G. M. Edgar, with a detachment of Confederates, 
was attacked by Federals at Lewisburg, Greenbrier County. He defeated 

May \. General Jones invested Clarksburg, where several thousand 
Union trooj^s had collected from the counties south of that place, but he did 
not make an attack. 

May 5. Imboden skirmished with a small Union force at Janelew, 
Lewis County. 

May 6. Imboden moved from Weston toward the southwest, Jones 
having moved west from Clarksburg toward Parkersburg. Uji to that 
time Imboden had collected 3,100 cattle from the country through which he 
had raided. 

May 6. Jones moved against West Union, in Doddridge county, but 
upon approaching the town he saw that the Union troops collected there 
were prepared to make a stand and fight, and he declined battle and moved 
on west. 

May 7. Jones cajitured Cairo, Ritchie County, and the small garrison 
at that place. 

May 8. Colonel James A. Galliher was tired upon by bushwhackers at 
Capon Bridge, Hampshire County. 

May 9. Jones burned 100,000 barrels of oil at the oil wells in Wirt 
County. The tanks broke and the crude peti-oleum flowed into the Little 
Kanawha River, took tire and the spectacle of a river in flames for miles 
was never before seen. The destruction of evci-y thing combustible along 
the river was complete. The Confederates advanced no nearer the Ohio. 
Both Imboden and Jones turned southward and eastward and recrossed the 
AUeghanies late in May. Instead of procuring "several thousand" 
recruits, as Imboden had expected, more soldiers were lost by desertion 
than were gained by recruits. General Lee expressed disappointment with 
the result, and Imboden excused the failure to increase his army by saying 
that th(> inhabitants of West Virginia were a "conquei-ed people," in fear 
of Northci'n bayonets, and not daring to espouse the Confederate cause. 

Mail 11'. Imboden defeated a small Union force near Summerville. 

Maij 19. Fayetteville, in Fayette County, was attacked by General 
McCausland, but after bombarding two days the Federals forced him to 

May 23. General B. S. Roberts was superseded by General William W. 
Averell in command of the Federal forces in the northern part of West Vir- 
ginia. General Roberts was relieved because he offered so little opposition 
to the advance of Jones and Imboden. When Imboden cx'ossed the moun- 
tains and took Beverly, the war department at Washington urged General 
Roberts to collect his forces and tight. To this General Roberts replied 
that the roads were so bad he could not move his troops. The answer from 
Washington was sarcastic, asking why the roads were too bad for him and 
yet good enough to enable the Rebels to move with considerable rapidity. 
From all accounts, the roads were worse than ever before or since. Imbo- 
den left Weston with twelve horses dragging each cannon, and then found 
it necessary to throw away ammunition and the extra wheels for the guns, 
in order to get along at all, and then sometimes being able to make no more 
than five miles a day. When General Averell took command he changed 


3000 infantry to cavah-y, and trained it to the highest proficiency, and with 
it did some of the finest fighting of the war. The Confederates feared him 
and moved in his vicinity with the greatest caution. His headquarters at 
first were at Weston. 

June 7. General Lee ordered Imboden into Hampshire County to 
destroy railroad bridges, jireliminary to the Gettysburg camjiaign. 

June 10. General Averell urged that the mass of mountains forming 
the great ramjiart overlooking the Valley of Virginia should be fortified 
and held. He referred to the Alleghany, Cheat Mountain, Rich Mountain 
and others about the sources of the Greenbrier, Cheat, Tygart and Elk 
Rivers. In his letter to General Schenck he said: "It has always ap- 
peared to me that the importance of holding this mass of mountains, so full 
of fastnesses, and making a vast re-entrant angle in front of the enemy, has 
never been aiDjireciated. " 

June 14. A portion of General Milroy's forces were captured by Con- 
federates at Bunker Hill, near Martinsburg. 

June 14. Martinsburg was captured by Confederates under General A. 
G. Jenkins. General Daniel Tyler, who had occui3ied the town, retreated. 

June 16. Romuey was captured by Imboden. 

June 17. South Branch Bridge, at the mouth of South Branch, was 
burned by Imboden, who advanced through Hampshire County, forming 
the extreme left of General Lee's army in the Gettysburg cam^iaign. 

June 24. A Union scouting party from Grafton to St. George had a 
skirmish with guerrillas, killing five and cai^turing several horses. 

June 26. Skirmish at Long Creek, in the Kanawha Valley. Captain 
C. E. Hambleton, with 75 men, was attacked and defeated by Confederates 
under Major R. A. Bailey, with a loss of 29 prisoners and 45 horses. 

June 29. General William L. Jackson, with 1,200 Confederates, moved 
against Beverly to attack the forces under Averell. 

July 2. The Confederates under Jackson attacked the troops at Beverly 
and were repulsed. 

July 4. The Confederates under W. L. Jackson, who had fallen back 
from Beverly, were attacked and routed at Huttonsville by General 

July 13. An expedition set out from Payetteville, crossed into Virginia 
and cut the railroad at Wythville, being absent twelve days, skirmishing 
with small parties of Confederates. 

JuUj 14. Skirmish on* the road between Harper's Perry and Charles- 
town, resulting in the defeat of the Confederates. 

July 14. Confederates defeated in a skirmish at Falling Waters. 

July 15. Colonel C. H. Smith defeated Confederates near Charlestown. 

July 17. Skirmish at North Mountain, Berkeley County. The Rebels 
were defeated, with 17 captured. 

July 19. Fight near Martinsburg, in which General Bradley T. John- 
son was defeated by General Averell, who had just arrived from Beverly 
and was opiwsing the western wing of General Lee's army retreating from 
Gettysburg. Johnson was destroying the railroad when Averell drove him 
away, capturing 20 prisoners. 

August 5. General Averell moved from Winchester through Hardy 
County on his expedition to Greenbrier County. 

August 5. Skirmish at Cold Spring Gap, in Hardy County, by a portion 


of AverelFs force under Captain Von Koenig, and a detachment of Im- 
boden's command. The Confederates lost 11 men cajitured. 

Auffiist 6. Averell sent a squad of cavalry to Harper's Mill, from Lost 
River, Hardy County. Several prisoners were taken, but the Federals 
subsequently fell into an ambuscade and lost the jirisoners and had 13 men 
captured and 4 wounded. The Confederates had 3 killed and 5 wounded. 

Aufjvst 19. The Federals destroyed the saltpeter works near Franklin. 

Avffust 21. Wilkinson's Brigade skirmished with Confederate guer- 
rillas near Glenville, killing 4. 

AuguM 22. Confederates were defeated by Averell near Huntersville. 

AvfjKut 25 Averell crossed fron. Huntersville to Jackson River and 
destroyed saltpeter works. 

Avr/ust 26. Battle of Rocky Gap, in Greenbrier County. Averell with 
1300 men fought General Sam Jones With over 2000. The battle continued 
two days, when Averell's ammunition ran short and he retreated to Bev- 
erly. His loss in the battle was 218, the Confederate loss 162. This was 
one of the most hotly contested battles in West Virginia. Captain Von 
Koenig was killed. It has been said it was done by one of his men whom 
he had struck while on the march. It is also said that this soldier did not 
know Averell by sight, and supposed it was Averell who had struck him, 
and when he shot Von Koenig, sujoposed he was shooting Averell. 

Avfiunt 26. Lieutenant Dils with 40 Federals killed 3 bushwhackers 
ten miles from Sutton, Braxton County. 

August 26. Union troops were fired uj^on by bushwackers on Elk 
River, five miles below Sutton. 

August 27. Forty guerrillas under Cunningham attacked a Federal 
detachment under Captain C. J. Harrison, on Ellc River, near Sutton. The 
guerrillas were defeated. 

August 27. In a skirmish with Confederate guerrillas on Cedar Creek, 
fifteen miles from Glenville, Gilmer County, Captain Simpson defeated 
them, killing 4. 

September 4. Skirmish at Petersburg Gap, in Grant County. A Union 
detachment marching from Petersburg to Moorefield was defeated. 

Septeniljer 11. Confederates under McNeill made a daybreak attack 
upon Major W. E. Stephens near Moorefield and defeated him, killing or 
wounding 80 men and taking 138 prisoners. The Federals were endeavor- 
ing to surprise McNeill, but were surprised by him. The Rebels had 3 

September 15. One hundred Federals under Captain Jones attacked 70 
Confederates atSmithfield, caiituring 11. Cajjtain Jones was wounded. 

Septemljer 20. A Federal picket on the Senaca Road, where it crosses 
Shaver Mountain, was attacked and defeated by the Confederates who 
lost 4. 

September 24. A scoutitig jiarty of 70 sent from Beverly by Averell lost 
2 men in a skirmish at Grcciiljiicr Bridge. 

September 25. Sixty CoiilVdfiatos under Major D. B. Langof Imboden's 
command, surprised and caiilured 30 of Averell's men at the crossing of 
Cheat River by tlic Sciiai.i I rail. 

October 2. A in'tilion was signed and forwarded to the Confederate 
Government, asking lor the removal of General Sam Jones from the com- 
mand in Western Virginia, and the assignment of some o^her General in his 
place. Among the signers were members of the Virginia Legislature from 


the West Virginia counties of Mercer, Roane, Putnam, Logan, Boone and 
Wyoming. There were many other signatures. Those counties were rep- 
resented in the Virginia and the West Virginia Legislature at the same 
time. The jjetition charged incomjietency against General Jones. He was 
soon after relieved of command in West Virginia. 

October 7. Confederates under Harry Gilmor defeated Captain G. D. 
Summers and 40 men at Summit Point, Jefferson County. Captain Sum- 
mers was Icilled. 

October 13. Fight at BuUtown, Braxton County. Confederates under 
W. L. Jackson were defeated with a loss in killed and wounded of 50 by 
Captain W. H. Mattingly, who was sverely wounded in the action. 

October 14. When Jackson retreated from Bulltown he was pursued by 
Averell's troops, who came up with him; and defeated him at Salt Lick 

October 15. Twenty-seven of Harry Gilmor's men who had been sent 
to burn the Back Creek Bridge, were captured in a skirmish near Hedge- 
ville by Federals under Colonel Pierce. 

October 18. Attack on Charlestown by 1200 men under Imboden. The 
Confederates cajitured 434 of Colonel Simpson's command and then retreat- 
ed, hotly pursued. Some of Imboden's infantry marched 48 miles on the 
day of the tight, thus beating the record made by Napoleon's soldiers, who 
marched 36 miles and fought a battle in one day. 

NoL-cinbcr 1. General Averell moved from Beverly into Pocahontas 
County with about 2,500 men, and General Duflie moved from Charleston 
to co-operate with him. They expected to form a junction in Greenbrier 

November 3. Skirmish at Cackleytown, Pocahontas County. Confed- 
erates were defeated by Averell. 

November 5. Confederates were defeated by Averell at Hillsboro, Poca- 
hontas County, and at Mill Point. 

November 6. Battle of Droop Mountain, Pocahontas County. Averell 
attaclfed General Echols, who had 1700 men strongly posted on the summit 
of a mountain. It was a stubborn contest and the Federals gained the day 
by a flank movement, Echols retreating with a loss of 275 men and three 
cannon. Averell's loss was 119. The Confederates made their escape 
through Lewisburg a few hours before General Duffle's army arrived at 
that i^lace to cut them off, while Averell was pursuing. By blockading the 
road, Echols secured his retreat into Monroe County. Averell attempted 
pursuit, but received no support from Duffle's troops, who were worn out, 
and the pursuit was abandoned. 

November 6. Confedei-ates at Little Sewell Mountain wei'e defeated by 
General Duffle. 

Ntivemtjer 7. Lewisburg was occupied by General Duffle. 

Ndvcmbrj' 7. In a night skirmish at Muddy Creek the Confederates 
were defeated by General Duffle's troops. 

November 8. A squad of Confederates driving cattle was attacked on 
Second Creek, on the road to Union, in Monroe County, and lost 110 cattle. 

November 12. The Saltpeter Works in Pendleton County, used by the 
Confederates in making gunpowder, were destroyed by Averell's ti'oops. 

November 15. General Imboden sent Captain Hill into Barbour County 
to waylay wagon trains on the road from Philippi to Beverly. 

November 16. At Burlington, in Mineral County, 100 Confederates un- 


der McNeill captured a train of SO wagons and 200 horses, killing two men, 
wounding 10 and tal<in,Lr 20 jtrisoners. The wagon train was under an 
escort of 90 men, coiiiiiiaiult'd by Cajitain Jetfers. 

December H. Axi'icjl inovtMl from Keyser with Federal troops upon his 
great Salem raid, which he concluded on Christmas Day. He had 2500 cavalry, 
and artillery. It was a momentous issue. General Burnsides was besieged 
at Knoxville, T('nnes«(»e, by General Longstreet, and it was feared that no 
re-inforcemcnts cdiild i-cacli P>\iinsid(\s in time to save him. The only hope 
lay in cutting Fjciiij^'-sI rrct's line of supplies and compi'lling him to raise the 
siege. This was the riiilroad troiu Richmond to Knoxville, passing through 
Salem, .sixty miles west Lynchburg. Averell was ordered to cut this road 
at Salem, no matter what the result to his army. He must do it, even if he 
lost every man he had in the execution of his work. An army of 2500 could 
be sacriticcd lo save Burnsides' larger army. With his veteran cavalry, 
mostly Wi'sl X'iiLriiiians, and equal to the the world ever saw, Averell 
left Kcysci- Di'ccuiber s, isC.;!, and moved through Petersburg, Monterey, 
Back Creek, Gatcwood's, Callighan's, Sweet Sulphur Springs Valley, New- 
castle to Salem, alnidsl as straight as an arrow, for much of the way fol- 
lowing a route nearly iiaralii-l with the summit of the AUeghanies. Four 
ConlcdiTate armies, any of them larger than his, lay between him and 
Sahiii, and to the number of 12,000 they marched, counter-marched, and 
iiiancux-ercd to etfect his capture. Still, eight days he I'ode toward Salem 
in terrible stoinis, lording and swimming overflowing mountain streams, 
crossing mounlains and pursuing ravines by night and by day, and on 
December 10 he st luclc Salem, and the blow was felt throughout the South- 
ern Confederacy. The last halt on the downward march was made at Sweet 
Sulphur Valley. The horses wei'e fed and the soldiers made coffee and 
rested two hours. Then at 1 o'clock on the afternoon of December 15, they 
mounted for tbe dash into Salem. 

Prom the top of Sweet Springs Mountain a splendid view was opened 
before them. Averell, in his official report, speaks of- it thus: "Seventy 
miles to the eastward the Peaks of Otter reared their summits above the 
Blue Ridge, and all the space l)etween was tilled with a billowing ocean of 
hills and mountains, while behind us the great AUeghanies, coming from 
north with the grandeur of innuniei-able tints, swept past and faded in the 
southern horizon." Newcastle was passed during the night. Averell's ad- 
vance guard were mounteil on licet horses and carried repeating rifles. 
They allowed no one to go ahead of them. They captured a squad of Con- 
federates now and then, and learned from these that Averell's advance was 
as yet unsuspected in that quarter. It was, however, known at that time at 
Lynchburg and Richmond, but it was not known at what i)oint he was 
striking. Valuable military stores were at Salem, and at that very time a 
train-load of soldiers was hurrying up from Lynchburg to guard the place. 
When within four miles of Salem a troop of Confederates were captured. 
They had come out to see if they could learn anything of Averell, and from 
them it was ascertained that the soldiers from Lynchburg were hourly ex- 
pected at Salem. This was 9 o'clock on the morning of December 10. Aver- 
ell's men had ridden twenty hours without rest. Averell saw that no time 
was to be lost. Prom this point it became a race between Averell's cavalry 
and the Lynchbui'g train loaded with Confederates, each trying to i-each 
Salem first. The whistling of the engine in t he distance was heard, and 
Averell saw that he would be too late if he advanced with bis whole force. 


So he set forward with three hundred and fifty horsemen and two rifled 
cannon and wei^t into Salem on a dead run, people on the road and streets 
mS ri"ht and left to let the squadron pass. The tram loaded with Con- 
Federates was approaching the depot. Averell wheeled ^ cannon mtopos,- 
tfon and fired tivee times in rapid succession, the ^^s* b^" -J^Jf,',^/^* i^_ 
next mssine through the train almost from end to end, and tlie tnuci loi 
Lwin- cTosVXr The locomotive was uninjured, and it reversed and 
Wked ui) the i"al in a hurry, disappearing in the direction whenc^e it had 
come A^ierel cu hJ telegraph wiJes. of destroying the mi 1^ 
Swaf begun. When the remainder of the force came up, detachments 
were lent four miles east and twelve miles west to destroy the railroad and 
Sges The destruction was complete. They burned 100-000 1. i,els of 
shelfed corn; 10,000 bushels of wheat; 2,000 barrels of fiour; 50,000 bushels 
of oats-ToOO sacks of salt; 100 wagons; large quantities of clothing, eatlier 
cottS'barness shoes; and the bridges, bndge- timber, trestles tjej 
everything that would burn, even twisting the rails, up and down the laii 

'"'^tCm™ December 16, Averell set out upon his return. Confeder 
■^ i ' , •, .. £ „ii e.;^r.o t^ r^nt. h m off. Crenerals i-i itzhugi 

Such a storm liaa seiciom or uevt^i ucci^ a^^^ mi —^ \ .,-, .„„. 
soldiers' feet froze till they could not wear boots. They wrapped then fee 
in sacks Averell among the rest. For sixty miles they followed a loacl 
which w^s one unbroken sheet of ice. Horses fell and -'^PP ^f l-mse^^^^^^^ 
or broke the riders' legs. The artillery horses could not pull the cannon, 
and the soldiers did that work, 100 men dragging each gun up the moun- 
Sis Gohig down the mountains a tree was dragged behind each cannon 
o hold U in 'the road. The Confederates were hard in pursuit and tW 
was fighting nearly all the way through Pocahontas County, and at Ediay 
^ b J , Ravrpi-lv was reached December 24, and 

o- down tne mountains a wwtj waa ixiagg^^^ ^^^...^ -— - 

to hold it in "the road. The Confederates were hard in pursuit and there 
was fighting nearly all the way through Pocahontas County, and at Ediay 
r severe skirmish was fought. Beverly was reached December 24, and 
thence the army marched to Webster, in Taylor County, and was carried 
lueiice ''"« ^'i'^ ^J _ __, .^ ,, ,,-,^,t^ 11Q ™<^n on the expedition, one am- 

thence the armv marcnea to vveusiei, m xajn^j- v^v^^^-j, --. 

by tiain to Marthisburg. Averell lost 119 men on the expedition, one am- 
V.iilance and a few wagons, but no artillery. , ^^ , i 

XeS« 11 Confederates under Captain William Thurmond attacked 
General Scammon at Big Sewell and were repulsed. General Scammon 
was marchhig to attract the attention of the Confederate General Echols, 
and thereby assist Averell on his Salem raid. ^ ^ , i ^- + i 

D^ember 11. Confederates under General W. L. Jackson were defeated 
at Marlin Bottom, Pocahontas County, by Colonel Augustus Mom- who 
marched into that cou.ntry to assist Averell, by attracting the attention of 

*^^ SSer 12. Lewisburg was taken by General Scammon, General 
Echols retreating. 


December 12. Troops sent by General Scammon drove Confederates 
across the Greenbrier River. 

Deremher 13. Skirmish at Hurricane Bridare. Confederates attacked a 
small force of Federals under Captain Yoiiui,'. Rolh sidos retreated. 

December 14. Skirmish on ihr I'.lii- Siili-lmr lioa.l, near Aicadow Bluff. 
Lieutenant H. 6. Otis, with 29 un'ii \v:l^ ;i1l,i.Kc(l by Kcix'! .;riiiTrillasunder 
William Thurmond. The guerrilia.s llcil, haviutc kiiloil 2 and wounded 4 
Union soldiers, while their own loss was 2. 

January 2. Confederates under General Fitzhugh Lee invaded the 
South Branch Valley. This raid, following so soon after Averell's Salem 
raid, was meant as a retaliation for the destruction at Salem. The weatber 
was so cold and the Shenandoah Mountains so icy that Lee could not cross 
with artillery, and he abandoned his guns and moved forward with his 

Jduiiiiri/ 3. Petersburg, Grant County, besieged by Fitzhugh Lee. 

.laiiuani '6. An empty train of 40 wagons, returning from Petersburg 
to Keysor, was cajiturpd by ( 'onfodcrates. 

Jauitanj (i. Roniiicy was (ircn|iii'd by Fitzhugh Lee. 

Jdiiiiarij 'o. S))rinu'li<'lil, in IJainpshire County, was capturel by Con- 
federates under MfN< 'ill and (;iliut)r. 

January 30. Gi'ii"r:il K'osscr, with a strong Confederate force, (japtured 
a train of 93 wagdn.-., :;n() mules and 20 prisoners, at Medley, Mineral 
County. Among tlu.' [uisouurs taken was Judge Nathan (-l,)lf, of West Vir- 
ginia, whose horse fell on him and held him. He wa^ I hen twenty years 
old. The wagon train was in charge of Colonel Joseph Snyder. 

Jamtary 31. Petersburg, Grant County, was evacuated by Pedeials 
under Colonel Thoburn upon the advance of an army under General Early. 
Colonel Thoburn retreated to Keyser by way of Greenland Gai>. 

February 1. General Early advanced and attacked the fort near Peters- 
burg, not knowing that Colonel Thoburn had retreated and that the fort 
Avas empty. 

February 2. General Rosser destroyed the railroad bridges across the 
North Branch and Patterson Creek, in Mineral county. 

Febnutry 3. Forty Rebels under Major J. H. Noun nan attacked and 
captured the steamer Tjovi on the Kanawha, at Red Hi>use. General Scam- 
mon was on board and was lalcen prisoner. 

Fcbriiiuii \\. ("(.nledeiales under Gilmor tl new a Baltimore and Ohio 
passenger train from the track near Kearney.s\'ille, and robbed the pas- 

February 20. Twenty Federals under Lieuteniinl Henry A. Wolf were 
attacked near Hurricane Bridge. Lieutenant Wolf was Ivilled. 

February 25. General John C. Breckeniitlgo was assigned to the com- 
mand of the Confederate forces in West Vii-ginia, relieving General Sam 
Jones. General Breckenridge assumed command March "j. 

March 3. Colonel A. I. Root marched from Pi-tei-sburg and destroyed 
the Saltpeter Works operated by Confedeiates in Pendleton County. 

March 3. Skirmish in Grant County. Lieutenant Denney with 27 Fed- 
erals was attacked and defeated near Petersliurg witli a loss of 7 men and 
13 horses. 


March 10. Major Sullivan was killed by Mosby's guerrilla.s in a skirm- 
ish at Kabletown. 

March 19. Eight men, of Imboden's command, who had been in Bar- 
bour County attempting to waylay a wagon train, crossed into Tucker 
County and robbed David Wheeler's Store, three miles liom St. George. 

March 20. Skirmish at the Sinks of Gandy in Kaiiildlpli County. The 
Rebels who had robbed Wheeler's store were jjursufd l)y {lieutenant Val- 
entine J. Gallion and Captain Nathaniel J. Lambert and defeated, with 3 
killed, 2 captured, and the stolen property was recovered. 

April 19. Confederates were attacked and defeated at Marlin Bottom, 
Pocahontas County. 

Maij 2. An expedition moved from the Kanawha Valley under Generals 
Crook a»d Averell against the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad. This is 
known as the Dublin Raid, so called from the village of that name in 
Pulaski County. The cavalry was under the command of General Averell, 
while General George Crook was in command of all the forces. On May 9 
occurred a desperate battle on Cloyd Mountain, near the boundary between 
Giles and Pulaski Counties, Virginia. General Crook commanded the 
Union forces, and the Confederates were under General Albert G. Jenkins. 
For a long time the issue of the battle was doubtful; but at length General 
Jenkins fell, and his army gave way. He was mortally wounded, and died 
soon after. His arm had been amputated at the shoulder by a Federal 
surgeon. In the meantime General Averell, with a force of cavalry, 2000 
strong, advanced by wretched roads and misei-able paths through Wyoming 
County, West Virginia, into Virginia, hoping to strike at Saltville or 
Wytheville before the Confederates could concentrate for defense. When 
the troops entered Tazewell County they had numerous skirmishes with 
small parties of Confederates. When Tazewell Court House was reached it 
was learned that between 4000 and 5000 Confederates, commanded by 
Generals W. E. Jones and John H. Morgan, had concentrated at Saltville, 
having learned of Averell's advance. The defences north of that town 
were so strongly fortified that the Union troops could not attack with hope 
of success. Averell turned, and made a rapid march toward Wytheville, to 
prevent the Confederates from marching to attack General Crook. Arriv- 
ing near Wytheville on May 10, he met Jones and Morgan, with 5000 men, 
marching to attack General Crook. Averell made an attack on them, or 
they on him, as both sides appeared to begin the battle about the same 
time. Although out-numbered and out-flanked, the Union forces held their 
ground four hours, at which time the vigor of the Confederate fighting 
began to slack. After dark the Confederates withdrew. The Union loss 
was 114 in killed and wounded. Averell made a dash for Dublin, and the 
Confederates followed as fast as possible. The bridge across New River, 
and other bridges, were destroyed, and the railroad was torn up. Soon 
after ci-ossing New River on the morning of May 12, the Confederates 
ari'ived on the opposite bank, but they could not cross the stream. They 
had been unable to prevent the destruction of the railroad property, 
although their forces out-numbered Averell's. The Union cavalry rejoined 
General Crook, and the army returned to the Kanawha Valley by way of 
Monroe County. 

May 3. Bulltown, Braxton County, was captured and the barracks 
burned by Confederates under Captains Spriggs and Chewings. 

May 4. Captain McNeill with 61 Confederate cavalry captured Pied- 


mont, iu Mineral County, and burned two trains, machine shops, and cap- 
tured 104 prisoners. 

Mail 6. Lieutenant Blazer's scouts attacked and defeated a troop of 
Confederates near Princeton, Mercer County. 

MtiijH. Fifty Confcdciiiti's attacked a Federal post at Halltown, 
Jefferson County, and were (Ideal cd. 

Mail 9. Skirmish on the .summit of Cheat Mountain between a scouting 
party from Beverly and 100 Rebels. 

M<nj 10. The Ringgold Cavalry was attacked and defeated at Lost 
River C!ap, Hardy County, by Imboden. The Federals wei-e hunting for 
McNeill's men, and Imboden had hurriedly crossed from the Valley of Vir- 
ginia to assist McNeill to escajie. 

Mdij 11. Romney was occupied by General Imboden. 

Mdij 15. A scouting party moved from Beverly under Colonel Harris 
against Confederate guerrillas in Pocahontas, Webster and Braxton Coun- 
ties, capturing 36 prisoners, 85 horses, 40 cattle, and returning to Beverly 
May 30. 

May 19. General David Hunter was appointed to the command of Fed- 
eral foi'ces in West Virginia. He assumed command May 21. 

Mail 24. In a skirmish near Charlestown the Confederates under 
Mosby wore defeated. 

,fnnc 6. Skirmish at Panther Gap. Rebels were defeated by Colonel 
D. Frost. 

June 6. Fight near MoorefieM. Eighty Federals under Captain 
Hart were attacked and lost four killed and six wounded, but defeated the 

June 10. Colonel Thompson was defeated near Kabletown by Major 

June 19. Captain Boggs, with 30 West Virginia State troops from Pen- 
dleton County, known as Swamp Dragons, was attacked near Petersburg 
by Lieutenant Dolen, with a portion of McNeill's comijany. The Confed- 
erates were at first successful, but finally were defeated, and Lieutenant 
Dolen was killed. 

June 26. Captain McNeil], with 60 Confederates, attacked Cai^tain 
Law and 100 men at Springfield, Hamjishire County. The Federals were 
defeated, losing 00 prisoners and 100 horses. 

June 28. A detachment of Federals was defeated at Sweet Sulphur 
Springs by Thurmond's guerrillas. 

Jvhj 3. Skirmish at Leetown. Confederates under General Ransom 
attacked and defeated Colonel Mulligan after a severe fight. A large Con- 
federate army under (ieiieral iCarl,\- was iiu-adiiig West Virginia and Mary- 
land, penetrating as lai- as Cliaiiiliershiirir, I 'eiiusylvania. 

Jtilji'd. Confederates under ( lil iikh- at lacked Union troops at Darkes- 
ville, Berkeley County, and wei<> delealed. 

Jh/// 3. General Early cap! ii red Maitinsburg. 

Jiihi 3. Skirmish at North Ki\<T iMilLs, Hampshire County. 

Jiilil 4. General Imlxxleii altaeUed an armored car and a blockhouse at 
the South Branch Bridge, in llamiishlre County. He blew the car up with 
a shell, and attempted to destroy the bridge, but the blockhouse could not 
be taken, and he retreated. 

July 4 Rebels under Captain McNeill burned the railroad bridge across 
Patterson Creek, Mineral County. 


July 4. An attack on the North Branch Bridge, in Mineral County, was 
repulsed by the Federals. 

Juhj 4. Harper's Ferry was invested by Confederates. They besiared 
the place four days, but the heavy guns on the heights drove them back 
and shelled them to the distance of four miles. General Franz Sigel was 
in command at Harper's Ferry. 

July 6. General Imboden attacked Sir John's Run, Morgan County, 
and burned the railroad station-house, but was driven off by iron-dad cars. 

July 6. Big Capon Bridge, Morgan County, was attacked by Imboden. 
He was driven off by iron-clad cars. 

July 14. Romney was occupied by McNeill. 

July 23. Romney was taken by McNeill and Captain Harness. 

July 25. Federals under General George Crook were defeated at 
Bunker Hill, Berkeley County. 

Julij 25. Fight at Martinsburg. The Confederates in strong force 
fought General Duttie all day. 

July 30. Confederates under General W. L. Jackson were defeated near 

Aiir/ufil 2. The Confederates under General Bradley T. Johnson cap- 
tured Green Spring, Hampshire County, Colonel Stough being in command 
of the Federals. The Rebels had advanced toward Cumberland, and made 
an attack on the Federal defenders, but did not push the attack. These 
Confederates were retuinini.'- fioni their plundering raid in Pennsylvania. 

Avf/ufit 2. Confodciati's uniler McNeill destroyed thi'ee railroad cul- 
verts between Keyser and ( 'mnlicrland. 

■August 2. Tlie suspension bridge across the vSouth Branch of thePoto- ■ 
mac near Springfield was cut down by order of General Early. 

Avgusf 4. Confederates under Generals Bradley T. Johnson and John 
McCausland attacked Keyser and were i-epulsed. 

August 7. General Averell overtook and routed the forces of McCaus- 
land and Johnson, near Moorefipld. These Confederates had burned Cham- 
berslmrg. l^cnnsvlvaiiia. Ix'cansc tlir |)(>oplo would not pay .'SlOO, 000 ransom. 
Avrivll .■iilrnMl Cliainh.';,' witliin two hours after 111.' ( "onlcMlerates left, 
and he ]iursncil tlicm tlii-onirh Mai-ylinid into West Vii'giiiia, and came upon 
them at daybreak near Moo)-efield and surprised them, captured all their 
artillery, 420 prisoners, 400 horses, retook the plunder carried from Penn- 
sylvania, and drove the disorganized forces ten miles into the mountains. 
The Rebels Ixdicvcd that no quarters would be given them because they 
had burni'd ( 'hainhcrsburg. 

August tt\. Skirmish at Summit Point between a detachment of Con- 
federates and the New York Dragoons. 

August 21. General Sheridan was defeated at Welch's Spring with a 
loss of 275. 

August 22. Confederates at Charlestown were defeated by Colonel 
Charles R. Lowell. 

August 22. General Sheridan's troops defeated the Confederates at 

August 29. The Confederates were defeated four miles from Charles- 
town. This fighting, and that which followed and preceded it in the same 
vuiiiily. was between the armies of General Sheridan and General Early. 

Srjiiciiihrj- 1. Martinsburg was captured by General Early's troops, 
Avi'ndl retreating. 


Scpfnnbcr 2. Confederate cavalry under Vaughn was defeated by Averell 
at Bunker Hill. 

Scpfcniber 3. Federals under General Crook defeated General Kershaw 
near Berryville, killing and wounding 200. 

Srptrmber 3. Averell defeated McCausland at Bunker Hill. 

Scjitcmber 4. Cavalry tight near Berryville between Mosby's and 
Blazer's men, in which Mosby lost 19 men, kill(>d and captured. 

Sepfoitber 14. Skirmish near Ci'iitci\illi', TT]).shur County, between Fed- 
erals under Captain H. H. Hagans and ;;(> Ikij'sc tliieves. 

Hvptvmber 17. Confederates under Colonel V. A. Witcher, to the num- 
ber of 523, among them Captain Phili]> J. and Captain William D. Thur- 
mond's guerrillas, moved from Tazewell County, Virginia, upon a raid into 
West Virginia, returning September 28 with 400 horses, 200 cattle, and hav- 
ing lost only one man. 

September 18. General Early's troops recaptured Martinsburg. 

September 23. Confederates under Major James H. Nounnan moved 
f I'om Tazewell County upon a raid into the Kanawha Valley. They returned 
to Tazewell October 1. 

September 26. Colonel Witcher captured Weston and robbed the Ex- 
change Bank of $5,287.85; also captured a number of Home Guards. 

September 26. Captain William H. Payne, of Witcher's command, occu- 
pied Janelew, Lewis County. 

September 27. Witcher defeated Fedei-al cavali'y at Buckhannon and 
captured the town. 

September 28. The Rebels having moved up the river from Buckhan- 
non, and Federals, under Major T. F. Lang, having ()((\i|iiiMl lln- town. 
Colonel Witcher made adash and recaptured the placeaml took- Mnjor Lang 
and 100 men jiri.soner, and destroyed a large. quantity of mililaiy .stores. 

September 30. Skirmish at the mouth of Coal River. Rebels under 
Major Nounnan were defeated. 

October 11. Skirmish two miles south of Petersburg between 198 
Home Guards under Captain Boggs and Rebels under Harness. 

October 26. Colonel Witcher attacked the town of Winfield and was 
defeated. Captain P. J. Thurmond was mortally wounded, taken prisoner, 
and soon after died. 

October 29. Major Hall, with 350 Rebels, attacked Beverly and was 
repulsed with a loss of 140, Hall being mortally wounded and taken pris- 
oner. The Federals, 200 in number, were in command of Colonel Youart. 
He lost 46. The Confederate attacking force was made up of men from 21 

November 1. Green Spring, Hampshire County, was captured by Con- 
federates under Captain McNeill; about 30 Federals were taken pri.soner. 

November 5. Colonel V. A. Witcher captured and burned the st(>a.mers 
Barnum and Fawn at Buffalo Shoals, Big Sandy River. 

November 7. Colonel George R. Latham, with 225 Federals, defeated 
McNeill at Mooreti<"ld, taking 8 prisoners. 

Xorniihrr L'7. Colonel R. E. Fleming with a small force attacked 2,000 
Conlcdciatcs uiuln- ixosser at Mooretield, and was defeated, with a loss of 
20 men and one caunon. 

Novi'iiilirr I's. Major Potts, with 1.").') nu>n, was del'eatod by Conf(>derales 
of Kosscr's conuuand at Mooretield. 

Noccmbcr 28. General Rosser surprised Keyser, cai)tur)ug or dispors- 


in.£c the Federal garrison of 800, and taking several cannon, burning gov- 
ernment and railroad property, and carrying away hundreds of horses. 

November 28. Confederates under Major McDonald were defeated at 
Piedmont by 27 men under Captain Fisher. 


January 11. General Rosser captured Beverly. The Federals were in 
command oif Colonel R. Youart. They lost 6 killed, 23 wounded and 580 

Jmtnanj 11. A Federal scouting party, under Major E. S. Troxel, •• 
moved from Keyser, passing through Pendleton County. 

January 15. Skirmish at Petersburg. Major Troxel defeated McNeill. 

Jamiary 19. Rebel guerrillas wrecked a train on the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad near DufReld. 

Febrvanj 4. Train thrown from track and robbed by Confederates near 
Harper's Ferry. 

February 5. Major H. W. Gilmor was captured by Federals under 
Colonel Young, near Moorefield. 

Febniary 21. Generals Crook and Kelley were captured at Cumberland 
by 61 Confederates under Lieutenant Jesse McNeill, son of Captain J. H. 
McNeill. There were 3500 Union ti-oojis in Cumberland at the time. 

February 26. General Winfield S. Hancock was assigned to the com- 
mand of the Federal forces in West Virginia. 

Mareh 15. Rebel guerrilas were defeated on the South Pork, above 
Moorefield, by Captain McNulty. 

March 22. Lieutenant Martin defeated Confederates of McNeill's com- 
mand on Patterson Creek, in Mineral County, killing 2, wounding 3. 

March 30. A railroad train was derailed and robbed near Patterson 
Creek Bridge, in Mineral County, by McNeill's command. 

Airril 2. General W. H. Emory was assigned to the command of Union 
forces in West Virginia. 

April 6. Confederates under Mosby captured Loudoun County Rangers 
near Charlestown. 

April 10. General Emory proposed to Governor Boreman that the West 
Virginia civil authorities resume their functions, re-open the courts and 
dispense justice, inasmuch as "no large bodies of armed Rebels are in the 

April 12. Lieutenant S. H. Draper raided a Rebel rendezvous on Tim- 
ber Ridge, Hampshire County. 

April 15. Captain Joseph Badger moved from Philippi with a scouting 
party, passing through Randolph and Pocahontas Counties, returning to 
Philippi April 23. 

May 8. McNeill's company surrendered at Romney. 

June 1. Colonel Wesley Owens left Clarksburg with 400 men and made 
a twelve days expedition through Pocahontas and Pendleton Counties, 
hunting for Governor William Smith, of Virginia, who had not .surrendered. 
He was also collecting Government property, mostly horses, scattered 
through those counties. No trace was found of the fugitive governor. 
The country was exhausted and desolated. Only two families were found in 
Huntersville, Pocahontas County. The paroled Confederate soldiers were 
coming home and were trying to plant corn with but little to work with. 
By the terms of surrender granted Lee by Grant, the Confederate soldiers 


who had horses or mules were permitted to keep them. Old cavalry horses 
and artillery mules were harnessed to plows, and peace again reigned in the 
mountains of West Virginia. 

West Virginia furnished 36,530 soldiers for the Union, and about 7000 
for the Confederate armies. In addition to these there were 32 companies 
of troops in the stJite service, some counties having one company, some 
two. Their duty was to scout, and to protect the people against guer- 
rillas. The majority of them were organized in 1SG3 and 1864. These com- 
panies with their captains were as follows: 
Captain M. T. Haller Barbour County. 

' ' A. All top Marion County. 

" H. S. Sayre Doddridge County. 

" J. C. Wilkinson Lewis County. 

" George C. Kennedy Jack.son County. 

" John Johnson " " 

" William Logsdon Wood County. 

" William Ellison Calhoun County. 

' ' Alexander Donaldson Roane County. 

' ' Hiram Chapman " " 

" H. S. Burns Wirt County. 

" John Boggs Pendleton County. 

M. Mallow " " 

' ' John Ball Putnam County. ^ 

" J. L. Kesling Upshur County. 

' ' William R. Spaulding Wayne County. 

" M. M. Pierce Preston County. 

" William Gandee Roane County. 

" Nathaniel J. Lambert Tucker County. 

" James A. Ramsey Nicholas County. 

" John S. Bond Hardy County. > ' 

" William Bartrum Wayne County. 

' ' Ira G. Copeley " " 

" William Turner Raleigh County. 

" Sanders Mullins Wyoming County. 

" Robert Brooks Kanawha County. 

" B. L. Stephenson Clay County. 

" G. P. Taylor Braxton County. 

W. T. Wiant Gilmer County. 

" Isaac Brown Nicholas County. 

" Benjamin R. Haley Wayne County. 

" Sampson, Snyder Randolph County. 

Part Second 

County History 





The occasion of the first settlers coming into the present Hmits of Upshur 
County is uncertain as to time and reasons. The best evidence we can gather 
leads us to believe the following story : Anxiety to settle in the New World 
was possessing the English Plebeian at the middle of the i8th century. Old 
and young alike wanted to reach American shores and find a home of religious 
peace and politic freedom. It mattered little to them in what capacity they 
came, whether as indented land tenants, house servants, or as soldiers in the 
King's arniy. The goal of an Englishman's ambition was to get to America, 
where freedom of personal action was as boundless as the forests the country 
maintained ; thus the cause of the great immigration from England in the i8th 
century. In addition to the foregoing reasons the French and Indian War 
might be added. It was during this war that William Childers, John 
Lindsey, John Pringle, and Samuel Pringle first saw the shores of 
America, on which they were to serve and did serve in the royal army, and it 
was during their service in that army, garrisoned at Ft. Pitt, now Pittsburg, that 
they, tired of martial life, deserted the Fort in 1761 or '62 and ascended the 
Monongahela river to the mouth of Georges Creek, afterwards selected by 
Albert Gallatin as the site for the town of New Geneva, Pa. Not liking this 
location, they remained but a short time. They then traveled eastward and 
crossed over to the head waters of the Youghiogheny, and camping in the glades 
continued to live there about twelve months. In one of their hunting trips, 
Samuel Pringle wandered away from his companions and while alone, pursuing 
the swiftest deer, came on a much traveled path which he supposed joined Ft. 
Pitt to the nearest inhabited portion of Virginia. Returning to camp, he made 
known to his companions his discovery and supposition, and asked them to join 
him in tracing the path down. His comrades acceded to his request and at once 
set about making ready for their journey. They easily found the trail at the 
place Samuel Pringle discovered it, and following it eastwardly, reached 
Looney's Creek, then the most remote western settlement (on South Branch). 
Looney's Creek heads in Grant County against the east face of the Allegheny 
mountains about 15 miles from Bayard. It flows through May's Gap in a south- 
easterly direction and empties into South Branch one-half mile below Petersburg. 
This stream lies ten miles west of Moorefield and has a total length of about 
fifteen miles. While living among the settlements of Looney's Creek, the quar- 


tette of deserters were apprehended. The Pringle brothers escaped and returned 
to their camp in the glades where they remained until some time in the 
year 1764. A few months after their return to their camp in the glades, the 
Pringles were employed by John Simpson, a trapper, to hunt, kill, and prepare 
the pelt of fur animals for market. While thus engaged they decided to prevent 
possible detection by going deeper into the forest, and sought to take with them 
their employer. They had little trouble in persuading Simpson to go with them, 
as the glades were becoming common hunting grounds for the South Branchers. 
Sin.pson's motive for moving was the prospect of enjoying woods, free from the 
intrusion of other hunters. 

The three started out together and while journeying through the boundless 
forest, a violent dispute arose between Simpson and one of the Pringles. Failing 
to compromise their trouble and knowing peace would be necessary to their 
safety, they separated. This quarrel and separation took place on Cheat river at 
the Horse Shoe. 

Simpson left his employees and crossed over the ferry near the mouth of 
Pleasant creek and on to the head of another stream which he named Simpson's 
creek. Thence he traveled westward until he came to another stream and gave 
it the name of Elk. Following this stream to its mouth, he built a camp here 
and lived there about a year. During the year he resided at the mouth of Elk 
he saw neither Pringles nor any other human being. After twelve months of 
this lonely life he set out for the South Branch to dispose of the furs which he 
had collected and prepared by his industry. He sold his furs and skins and 
returned to his encampment at the mouth of Elk where he continued to live 
until permanent settlements were made in the vicinity. 

The Pringles after Simpson left them at the Horse Shoe took up the Valley 
river and followed that stream until they came to a large right-hand fork. They 
forsook the main stream here, and kept up the branch, now Buckhannon river, 
for several miles, when they came to a branch of the branch which was subse- 
quently called Turkey Run on account of the great abundance of wild turkeys 
found and killed by the pioneers. 

In 1765 they encamped in the cavity of a large sycamore tree at the mouth 
of Turkey Run. This specific tree, the subject of so many fire-side chats and the 
cause of so much earnest veneration among the early settlers and their immediate 
offspring, has long ago died. Its descendant, however, still survives and stands 
on the land of Webster Dix, who respects it highly and will not destroy it. 
Yearly large numbers of close and hard students of West Virginia history visit 
the site of the parent sycamore where they are greeted and welcomed by the 
grandchild of the parent tree. 

The situation of these men during a residence of three years, although 
made necessary by their previous treasonable conduct, could not have been very 
enviable. Runaways from the King's army, composure of mind was impossible. 
The constant fear of discovery must have haunted them ; savages on all sides, 
the tomahawk, and scalping knife were ever present to their imaginations. The 
dull hoot of the owl, the fierce shriek of the panther, and the hideous howling 
of the wolf hourly disturbed Jheir solitary serenity and made them often long 
for civilized man's companionship, sympathy and help. 

Buffalo, elk, and deer were abundant in large numbers and gamboled 
sportively around their camp. These animals enabled them to supply their 
larder easily, but the absence of salt, bread, and every species of garden vegetable 



most certainly abated their relish for the delicious loin of the one, and the haunch 
of the other. 

The home of John and Samuel Pringle, for the first two years of their life on Turkey Run. 

The scarceness of ammunition, which was their only source of subsistence in 
their vicarious life, limited their hunting to the getting of what was absolutely 
needed and also forced upon them the shrinking thought of being driven to the set- 
tlements which might discover and apprehend them. They resisted the idea of 
returning to the South Branch until they were actually reduced to two loads 
of powder. Necessity then induced John Pringle to leave his brother and make 
for a trading post on the Shenandoah where discovery and identity would be at 
the minimum. The fall of 1767 saw his departure; the spring of 1768 witnessed 
his return, several months after the period appointed to join his brother. Samuel 
Pringle suffered not a little mentally and physically by his brother's prolonged 
absence. His provisions were nearly exhausted. Oiie load of powder was 
lost in a fruitless attempt to fell a buck, and his mind was uneasy because his 


brother's delayed return might be taken as recognition, apprehension, court- 
martial and death. However, he determined to brave the perils of the forest as 
long as he could, hoping that relief might come. With his last load of powder 
he killed a large fine buffalo ; soon thereafter, John returned with the news of peace 
both with the Indians and the French and a total cessation of hostility. Indians 
broke up their camp in a day or two. 

The two brothers now agreed to leave their exile in the wilderness and 
seek the settlements where trials and vicissitudes of frontier life were shared in 
common. They no doubt left their forest habitation with some regret. They 
had become attached to every object around them. They could see "tongues in 
trees, books in the running brooks, semions in stones, and good in everything." 

The tree in whose cavity they had sheltered from storm and winter's cold, 
always offered safe protection, and was honored by them with so much adoration 
that they determined to come back to it as soon as they could prevail upon a few 
others to accompany them and share this bountiful forest and this asylum of 
their exile. 

Among the classes of people who composed the frontier settlements of that 
day, the task of inducing some to remove was not difficult. To acquire land was 
a great motive which made the settlements of the South Branch, and many had 
failed entirely in locating and holding their claims; others had to occupy poor 
and broken situations off the river on what seemed barren mountains — all on 
account of prior locations and surveys taking up the fertile bottoms and the 
more desirable uplands. The second motive for removing, was the passion 
for hunting (which was a ruling one with many) and the domain of its satisfac- 
tion was the plentifulness of game. Both of these objects could be attained in 
the country whence the Pringle brothers proposed to form the settlement. 

There can be no doubt that the Pringles were greatly assisted in their 
endeavors by the sympathy and encouragement of a woman, one Charity Cut- 
right, between whom and Samuel Pringle an abiding affection, which terminated 
in a marriage and a happy family, had sprung up at the time the four deserters 
were living among the settlers on Loony's Creek. Their marriage occurred after 
the return of the Pringle brothers to the South Branch settlements. This woman 
enlisted the aid of her brother, John Cutright, and he in turn interested his 
youthful friends and neighbors. The contagion spread from one to another until 
when the time of immigration arrived, so many had enlisted that the precaution 
of sending out a committee of several persons to examine the country, its fertility, 
game and bread producing capacity was made advisable. 


Aaron Pringle, of Fair Plain, Jackson county, has seen fit to contribute a 
most valuable bit to Upshur county history. We print it in full. 

1. One Simpson accompanied the Pringle brothers to Upshur county. He 
quarreled with them and left them to go to Harrison county. He trapped on 
what is now known as Simpson's creek for a year and no one seems to know what 
became of him after this. 

2. The Pringle brothers encamped in a sycamore tree at the mouth of 
Turkey Run below Buckhannon town about three miles. 

3. John Pringle, the younger, migrated to Kentucky, married a Kentucky 


lady and left children who are worthy in the various walks of life. Dr. Pringle 
of Kentucky, is a grandson of John Pringle. 

4. Samuel Pringle married Charity Cutright, sister to John Cutright, who 
was the father of Jacob, Isaac, William, Christopher and John, jr. There were 
bom to Samuel Pringle and wife, three sons and two daughters, viz : William, 
John, Samuel, the three sons, Elizabeth and another whose name I cannot recall, 
but who married a man by the name of Wolf who went to Ohio, settling about 
Letart Falls. Mr. Wolf and wife left one daughter who married Isaac Westfall 
who lived afterwards in the State of Indiana. 

William Pringle and wife, Nellie, had fifteen children whose names are as 
follows: Hettie, who married William Weatherholt, Sinai, who married Chris- 
topher Cutright, Wealthy, who married Abraham Crites, Alminy, who married 
Isaac W. Simon, Mahala, who married Jacob Crites, Susanna, who married 
George Cutright, Rachel, who married Hiram Rollins, John, who married Rhoda 
Casto, sister to David Casto, James, who married Mary Ann Wejitherholt, Isaac 
married Easter Rodgers, David and Elias died about the age of 20 with con- 
sumption, Gilbert died in infancy, Chaney, who married Melvina Crites and Joel 
who had three wives. 

John Pringle, the second son of Saaiuel, married Mary Cutright, sister to 
Andrew Cutright. Eight children were born to them. Barbary, who married 
John Hunt, Kate, who married John House, Elizabeth, who married Daniel 
Phipps, Christian, Hepsy and Fanny were never married, Andrew who was never 
married and Miles who married a Miss Rowan. 

Samuel Pringle, son of Samuel of sycamore fame, was never married. 

Elizabeth, elder daughter to Samuel Pringle married Andrew Cutright. 
Yours truly, 

Aaron Pringle. 


As has been previously mentioned, the land grants, surveys, and claims 
on the South Branch had terminated prejudicial to the interest of the pioneer 
settlers. They were looking and wishing for other cheap lands which they 
hoped to find but a little distance away westward, but not across the mountains. 
This hope could not be fulfilled to their satisfaction, therefore they were restless. 

The great drawback to inducing settlers to emigrate from the valleys of the 
Shenandoah and Potomac, was the Alleghany mountains, which to the pioneers 
seemed almost impassable. In this day of practical annihilation of distance and 
physical obstacles, when engineers have found good grades for railroads and 
turnpikes through the highest mountains, and when electricity bids defiance to 
steepness, the mountain barrier objection seems very trifling. But it was other- 
wise with the first settlers of Upshur. To them the forests were universal, the 
wilderness unknown, and the mountains an inhospitable cemetery. 

To these physical difficulties add the certainty of prowling savages, whose 
hostility was always murderous, and you have a condition which only the bravest 
mind would surmount, therefore only few gave up the fertile fields of William 
Penn or the tidal lowlands of the Potomac for the declivitous trails and doubtful 
goals of the Trans-Appalachian wilderness. 

The Pringle brothers combatted these ideas with vehemence, saying to some 
with La Salle, the woods were "so beautiful and so fertile; so full of brooks and 


rivers ; so abundant in fish and venison, that one can find there in plenty and 
with Httle trouble, all that is needful for the support of flourishing colonies." To 
others they argued that fields could be had for the clearing and tilling, and they 
would not be put in prison for debt and religion, and there they and their children 
would have greater advantages and freedom in life. They also preached the 
influence of pure air, the refreshments of the clear sparkling waters full of spotted 
trout, the sweet odor of the wild mountain laurel and its mighty friends, the 
hemlock and poplar, the grandeur of the rocks, hills and mountains, all of which 
would conspire to make a beautiful world in the wilderness ; therefore the propo- 
sition of the Pringle brothers to form a. settlement on the Buckhannon river, was 
agreeable to many under such flattering representations. The committee, which 
has heretofore been mentioned, was sent out in the year 1768 with Samuel 
Pringle as their guide. Who composed this committee other than Samuel Pringle 
is mere conjecture. Perhaps John Jackson, John Hacker, and Jessie Hughes 
were in the party. No records tell us that these leaders went out with Samuel 
Pringle to examine the country in 1768. We arrived at this conjecture by means 
of the course'these men afterwards took in the formation of the settlement. Being 
pleased with the country, these persons in the following spring, with a few others, 
repaired to Buckhannon river with a view to raising as much corn as would serve 
their families the first year after their arrival. They examined the country for 
the purpose of choosing the most fertile and most desirable situation ; some went 
to work at once to improve the spots of their choice. "Wither's Chronicles of 
Border Warfare" tells us who composed this first train of emigrants. "John 
Jackson and his sons, George and Edward Jackson, settled at the mouth of 
Turkey Run where his daughter, Mrs. Joseph Davis now lives" (1904 property 
of Mrs. Anna Carper and daughter, Mrs. W. B. Cutright). John Hacker settled 
higher up on the Buckhannon river where Bush's Fort was afterwards established 
and Nicholas Heavner now lives (1904 a part of the Heavner Cemetery). 
Alexander and Thomas Sleeth located near to John Jackson's on what is now 
known as the Forenash plantation (1904 the fann of Isaac Post). The others 
of the party (William Hacker, Thomas and Jessie Hughes, John and William 
Radcliflfe, and John Brown) therefore employed their time exclusively in hunting; 
neither of them making any improvement of lands for his own benefit, yet were 
they of very considerable service to the new settlements. Those who commenced 
clearing land were supplied by them with an abundance of meat ; while in their 
hunting excursions through the country, a better knowledge of it was obtained 
than could have been acquired had they been engaged in making improvement. 
These persons also made important discoveries. In one of their expeditions they 
discovered and named Stone Coal Creek, coursing its head waters from the head 
waters of Brushy Fork. This stream flows westwardly and induced a supposition 
that it discharged itself directly into the Ohio. They descended this creek and 
came to its confluence with a river which they called, and has since been known 
as the West Fork. They did not return by the same route which they took, but 
struck across the country to the settlement on the Buckhannon river." They were 
well pleased with the fertility of the land on Stone Coal and the West Fork, and 
decided to move there as soon as possible. Their judgment on the richness of 
the soil was good, as can be attested by every farmer and live stock man in 
Upshur and Lewis counties of today. 

At this juncture we desire to interpose a short traditional history of each 
member of this first immigrant train to the Buckhannon river settlement. The 


reader will understand that we do not claim perfection for these notes, they are 
simply based upon the word and memory of others. If they do no other good, 
it is hoped for them that they will stimulate a spirit of research from those who 
are by blood, nature or education interested in genealogy. 

John Jackson, senior, had a most remarkable posterity. His wife was a 
Miss Cummins of London, England. Their children were, Joseph Jackson, John 
Jackson, Samuel Jackson, Col. Edward Jackson, the surveyor, Samuel Jackson, 
Mrs. Abraham Brake, Mrs. Philip Reger, Mrs. George Davis, and Henry 

Joseph Jackson, the eldest son of Mr. and Mrs. John Jackson, senior, 
married a Miss Brake of Harrison County, and soon moved to Clarksburg. He 
left Clarksburg and went to Zanesville, Ohio, where he died. He was a brilliant 
man, a lawyer and a statesman, having served his district in Congress. He was 
the father of Judge John G. Jackson of Clarksburg, well known to the older 
citizens of this country. 

John Jackson, junior, was married twice. His first wife was a Miss Hadden. 
Their children were, Edward H. Jackson, Dr. David Jackson, and Mrs. Sallie 
Ireland. This is the John Jackson that made Buckhannon Island by digging 
across the narrowest place between the two bends and making a mill race, which 
is used to this day. He dug this race about one hundred years ago, when the 
first mill was constructed on the present sight of the Farnsworth Star Mill. His 
second wife was Betsy Cozard. The children of this marriage were, Jacob J. 
Jackson, George R. Jackson, Samuel Jackson, Major William W. Jackson, Mrs. 
Betsy Gibson, and Mrs. Joseph Cushman. 

Col. Edward Jackson was perhaps the first surveyor in Upshur county. He 
also married a Miss Hadden and moved to the West Fork river where he built 
a grist mill which is still known as Jackson's Mill, near the mouth of Hacker's 
creek. Their children were, Mrs. Polly Brake, Mrs. Rachel Brake, Mrs. Laura 
Arnold, the mother of Stark W. Arnold, and the grandmother of Gohen Arnold ; 
and Jonathan Jackson who was the father of Stonewall Jackson, the pride of the 
army of the southern Confederacy. His second wife was a Miss Brake. The 
most important issue of this marriage was Cummins Jackson, the notorious 
widely known counterfeiter. They had other children. 

Samuel Jackson married a Miss Reger on the waters of the Tygarts Valley. 
He went West soon after his marriage and has no posterity here. 

Henry Jackson, the youngest child, also had two wives. His first wife was 
Miss Hyre, daughter of Jacob Hyre, who lived on Fink's Run just above its 
mouth. One of the children by his first wife was Hyre Jackson, who moved to 
Texas in young manhood, studied law, was admitted to the bar, beacme an 
eminent jurist, and served as judge of his Judicial District. Some one has fitly 
said that there is a streak of eminence and brilliancy running entirely through 
this Jackson family, and every once and awhile it comes forth in a brilliant son. 
This is one of the instances. Henry Jackson's second wife was Miss Betsy 
Shreve. The best known child of this marriage is the Honorable S. D. Jackson, 
of Warren District, this county. 

The second member of this first band of emigrants to which we call attention 
is John Hacker. He was born near Winchester, Va., about 1743, served in Col. 
G. R. Clark's Illinois campaign of 1778. He died at his home on Hacker's Creek, 
April 20, 182 1, in his 82nd year. After he left the waters of the Buckhannon 
river and moved on to the waters of Hacker's Creek, he began the trade of a 


blacksmith. His neighbors found out his ability to make the simple tools with 
which they felled the forests, grubbed the saplings, break the turf, till the soil, 
and kill the weeds. So great became the demand for his services, both in the 
Buckhannon river settlement and Hacker's creek settlement, that business judg- 
ment advised him to open up a shop at Lorentz, a small place four miles west of 
Buckhannon town on the summit of the divide between the waters of Hacker's 
creek and Buckhannon river. Who his wife was we do not know. It is certain 
that he was married, because Withers in his "Border Warfare" tells us of the 
killing of Mrs. Edmund West, junior, by the Indians in one of their raids into 
Western Virginia. Mrs. Edmund West, junior, and a younger sister, a girl of 
eleven years old, and a brother of her husband's, a young Mr. West, were the 
only occupants of the house when the Indians under Schoolcraft entered. One 
savage immediately broke the skull of Mrs. West. The boy was hauled from 
under the bed by the heels and the savage tomahawk was sunk twice into his 
forehead directly above each eye. Miss Hacker, the girl of eleven, while standing 
by the door saw her sister and young Mr. West killed. The fierce eye of a 
savage saw her and aimed a blow at her head. She tried to evade it, but it 
struck on the side of her neck. It did not kill her, although she simulated 
death. The little girl observed all that transpired and was congratulating herself 
that she had certainly escaped to tell of the savage wickedness in her sister's 
home, but her hopes were to be suddenly dissipated. When the savages had 
plundered the house, eaten the milk, the butter, and the bread of the pantry, and 
had otherwise satisfied their fiendish foraging disposition, they departed, drag- 
ging the little girl by the hair of the head thirty or forty and some say even fifty 
yards. They threw her over the fence, scalped her, and thinking that not suffi- 
cient to kill her, they thrust a knife into her side. It struck a rib and failed to 
accomplish the mission whereupon it was sent. The little girl recovered, grew 
up, was married, had a family of ten children, and died a happy Christian life. 

William Hacker was a hunter by birth, by training, and by profession. He 
pursued small and large game alike with the same strenuousness, spirit of sport, 
and love of adventure. He bore an eternal hate toward an Indian and whenever 
and wherever opportunity offered, he maimed if he could not kill the savages. 
With Jacob Scott and Elijah Runner, he killed the notable Indian, Bald Eagle. 
He was a member of that party that clandestinely and shamefully killed the five 
free families of Indians who lived at Bull town on the Little Kanawha river. His 
wife was one of those three ladies who was pursued by the Indians near West 
Fort, when they were returning to the home after a visit to the work of their 
husbands in the field. Mrs. Freeman was the one of the three that was injured 
by having a long spear thrust through her body, entering below the shoulder 
blade in the back, piercing the lung and coming out at the breast, and killed her. 

Thomas Hughes, the second of the quartette of the hunters, returned to the 
South Branch after a few months sojourn in the Buckhannon settlement. There 
he joined a party of emigrants destined for the Monongahela river valley, 
wherein they settled. This was in 1769 or 70 and the settlement was made near 
.vhere Carmichaels town now stands. We next see him as a member of a hunting 
party searching the woods for the lost members of the household of Henry 
Fletcher, whose house stood where Weston now stands. Members of the family 
had been attacked in 1784 by the Indians and had scattered in every direction to 
avoid detection and escape death at the hands of the Indians. Mr. Hughes went 
forth to find those who were secreted in the forest and tell them that danger was 


past. Thomas Hughes was shot down in cold blood on his farm on Hacker's 
creek by the Indians whom he had so long and so bitterly hunted and killed. His 
death occurred about the year 1788. in the month of April, while building fence 
with Jonathan Lowther. 

Jessie Hughes, a brother of Thomas, was a more noted border scout than 
his brother. He had a fierce, irascible, uncontrollable temper, and was so confirmed 
a hater of the Indians that none of them, however peaceful his record or amiable 
his disposition, was safe in his presence. Perhaps the first Indian he shot was 
one of the two Indians that had made an attack on West Fort. He was so 
anxious to kill them both that he joined his companions, hunting the one that 
was nmning and let go the one he had shot. He was a member of the West 
hunting party when Mrs. West and sister, and a young Mr. West were toma- 
hawked on Hacker's creek He was left by Lowther to watch the Indians on 
West Fork near the mouth of Isaacs creek, while he, Lowther, went to the settle- 
ments to give notice and to get reinforcements. He was the one of a party 
of four that escaped from the Indians near the Ohio river, the occurrence being 
that Mr. Nicholas Carpenter and son, George Ligget and Jessie Hughes were 
driving a drove of cattle to ^larietta, where Mr. Carpenter, the owner, had found 
a market for them. Some miles from the Ohio river they encamped for the 
night. In the early morning, while the owner and drivers were preparing to 
continue their journey with their cattle, they heard the discharge of guns and saw 
one of their party fall. The others endeavored to save themselves. Carpenter, 
the owner of the cattle, being a cripple, could not run, and crawled into a pond 
of water where he fondly hoped he should escape destruction. The father and 
the son were both killed. George Liggett was never heard of. Jessie Hughes 
succeeded in getting away through advantageous circumstances, that is to say 
he had long leggings which was a great obstacle and hindrance to his sprinting. 
He saw it was necessary to rid himself of these incumbrances if life was to be 
saved. He took his chances, stopped by the path, broke the strings which tied 
the leggings to his belt, and was pulling them off when the savages approached 
and hurled the tomahawk at him. It creased his head and Jessie Hughes betook 
himself as fast as heels would carry him to surroundings more safe and com- 
fortable. He perfonned the feat of ransoming his daughter who had been kid- 
naped by the Indians and carried beyond the great Ohio. Two bodies of water 
are named after him. Jessies Run in Lewis county, which has his Christian 
name, and Hughes river, which is in Ritchie county after his surname. These 
two streams then commemorate his full name. Jessie Hughes died in Jackson 
county. West Virginia. 

Both William Radcliffe and John Brown, whose names appear in the list 
of the first settlers, must have taken up their residence on the West Fork river, 
for the author has not been able to find a person or a record tending to show that 
they lived among the settlers of the Buckhannon river. 

"Soon after this, other emigrants arrived under the guidance of Samuel 
Pringle. Among them were John and Benjamin Cutright, who settled on Buck- 
hannon river where John Cutright, the younger, now lives (1904 the Nathaniel 
Cutright farm, now owned by Cain Hinkle) ; and Henry Rule who improved just 
above the mouth of Fink's Run (1904 the farm of William Farnsworth). Before 
the arrival of Samuel Pringle, John Hacker had begun to improve the spot which 
Pringle had chosen for himself which (as formerly mentioned) is near the site 
of the present Heavner Cemetery. To prevent any unpleasantness, Hacker agreed 


that if Pringle would clear as much land on a creek, which had recently been 
discovered by the hunters, as he had on Buckhannon river, that they would then 
exchange places. Complying with this condition, Pringle took possession of the 
farm on Buckhannon river and Hacker, the land improved by Pringle on the 
creek which was by himself called Hacker's creek (the Indian name for this 
creek signifies muddy waters which was appropriate, as we know the creek today.) 

John and William Radcliflf then likewise settled on this stream — the former 
on the farm, where the Rev. John Mitchel now lives ; the latter at the place now 
owned by William Powers, Esq. These comprise all the improvements which 
were made on the upper branches of the Monongahela in the year 1769." 

Benjamin Cutright, the brother of John Cutright here mentioned, might 
have returned to the South Branch, might have died, and might have emigrated 
to the great unknown West. Sure it is that none of his family in Upshur county 
know anything about him, except that he came here once about the year 1770. 

Alexander and Thomas Sleeth lived here later, and settled in Lewis county 
on Hacker's creek. 

Among this small crowd of first settlers on the Buckhannon River was 
young John Cutright. Cutright is a corruption of the name Cartright. His 
ancestry is unknown, further than we can trace back the Cutright family to the 
South Branch of the Potomac. 

We, also, have from authentic sources a date in early Virginia history which 
gives us a clue to the first person by that name. Hotten in his Lists of Emigrants 
to America, gives us these facts : First, William Cartright emigrated and set- 
tled in the James City Colony in the year 1616. Second, Phillipp Cartright, 
whose age was twenty, embarked on the ship Hopewell, February 17, 1634. The 
intended destination of this good ship under Captain Tom Hood, was the Barba- 
does Islands. Third, the emigrant ship Falcon, under the management of Theo- 
dore Irish, embarked December 19, 1635, for the Barbadoes Islands, and had as 
a passenger one William Cartright, twenty-three years of age. According 
to custom he was examined before embarkation by the minister of the town 
Gravesend. All of these seemed never to have reached their destination, or if 
reaching it, were lost in subsequent listings of the population. The real source 
of the Cutright or Cartright family is one named John Cartright, whom Hotten 
in his "Living and Dead," says lived at James City and within the corporation 
thereof, February 16, 1623. 

Lyon G. Tyler, president of William and Mary College, editor of the "Wil- 
liam and Mary Quarterly and Historic Magazine," has devoted ten years in 
researches and publications of genealogical and patriotic data in this maga- 
zine. He is regarded as a specialist in genealogy. He writes us that there can 
be no question of the fact that John Cartright mentioned in Hotten's "Living and 
Dead," is the ancestor of all the American Cartrights, Cutrights and Courtrights. 
The next fact which convinces our belief in his theory is that a John Cartright 
was one of the loyal soldiers under Nathaniel Bacon in 1675, when a righteous 
rebellion of a large number of citizens of Virginia, against heavy taxation and 
insecure protection from Indian invasion, occurred. 

A strong assumption from these historical facts is taken. That is, a subse- 
quent oppression and unjust punishment by Governor Berkeley, of Virginia, 
drove many of Bacon's rebels northward into Maryland and South Pennsylvania. 
This would account for the Cartright family getting on to the waters of the Poto- 
mac. How the name was corrupted from Cartright to Cutright was this way — 


There came to Virginia, settling on the water of the Rappahanoc, a man by 
the name of Roger Cutts, wiho raised a large family of girls, one of these mar- 
ried a Cartright. This might explain the corruption. 

Whatever may be our beliefs, opinions and theories concerning the origin 
and name of the Outright family on the Buckhannon River, one fact is undisputed, 
that John Outright, Sr., came to the settlement with the Pringle brothers, about 
the year 1770, that he married Rebecca Truby and was peculiarly identified with 
the opening up and growth of the settlement along the Buckhannon River. 
Uncle Henry Westfall in his notes says that John Outright was a little boy, small 
of stature and martial in action. He was an Indian hater, always ready and 
anxious to do scouting and to shoot to death the savage. For years he was 
associated with the great scouts, William White, Jessie Hughes and Paul Shaver. 

William 0. Oarper tells us that when a boy he often saw and talked with 
John Outright, his youthful mind craving storfes of courage and heroism, and 
always implored Mr. Outright to tell him about his scouting in the year 1770 
and again in the year 1777, and his participation in the Bull Town massacre 
in the year 1772. Mr. Carper informs us that Outright was a profane man 
and always swore when relating the incident of his bein^ wounded by an Indian. 
The shot entered one side and came out on the other, going around the ribs. 
Where the bullet entered there seems to have been a sinking in of the flesh caused 
by deficient healing and when relating the circumstances of the fight with the 
Indian Outright would have the hearer feel the hole where the bullet entered, 
uttering, "There is where the damned 'Injun' shot me." 

John Outright was in the employ of the Oontinental Oongress during the 
Revolutionary War, as a scout, and for his services during the years from 1775 
to 1781 he afterwards received a pension. 

The census of pensioners of 1841, shows that John Outright was eighty- 
seven years old ; Philip Hunt, eighty-seven ; James Tenney, seventy-five years 
old; Jacob Hyre, eighty-three, and John Rains, eight-four years, were all, Revo- 
lutionary pensioners. 

John Outright lived most of life near the mouth of Outright's run four miles 
south of Buckhannon town. His children, Jacob, Ann, John, Jr., William, Isaac • 
and Ohristopher T. lived near him. He died in the year 1852 at the ripe old 
age of 105. At the time of his death he was at the home of his son William 
and had to be taken across the Buckhannon River in a canoe for burial. His 
remains were entered in the family graveyard by those of his wife and on what 
is now known as the Theodore Outright farm on the west side of the Buckhannon 
River, a short distance from the run which bears his name. 

Up to this time no woman was living in Buckhannon settlement. These 
back-woodsmen who dared to cross the forest-clad Alleghenies and plant frontier, 
settlements on the Buckhannon, had left the female and better half of their 
families in places of greater security and of more certainty of living. The men 
had come simply to raise a sufficiency of corn and other provisions to make 
certain that their depending ones would not suffer from hunger. Knowing that 
they were going to push past the settled regions and were plunging into a wilder- 
ness as leaders of the white advance, this action on their part was very wise, 
prudent and praiseworthy. So after the crops had been cultivated and laid by, 
many of these bold and hardy pioneers returned to their families on the South 
Branch on a visit; when they returned their crops were destroyed. The shaggy 


mained buffalo no longer awed by the presence of the white man had entered 
into the fields, ate up and destroyed what promised to be a very large harvest. 

The removal of their families on account of forage of the herd of buffaloes 
must need to be postponed until 1770. But the stout hearted settler is not a 
victim of despair of such unfortunate circumstances as the loss of a crop. The 
winter was spent in clearing more acres by their axes and in holding them with 
their rifles, as well as providing meat and game for their sustenance. When plant- 
ing time came the acreage of forest was less, the land of cultivatTon was more. 
This summer's work brought forth abundant harvests which were garnered in 
and stored away in rude, wooden, temporary graineries. All were anxious and 
eager to return to the settlements on the South Branch, some to visit their former 
friends and others to bring back to their wilderness home the wife and children 
left behind a year ago, due to the exigencies of fate. Some were compelled to 
remain to guard and protect the gathered crops, while most hied away across the 
mountains to see their loved ones. After a short visit among the Trans-Appala- 
chian lowlands of the Potomac, the families of those bold men who had come 
after them bid a fond good-bye to their neighbors and started on their weary 
journey to their forest home. The road was rough, in places rocky and steep; 
the streams were deep and swift, and great fortitude was exhibited by women 
and children in reaching the small one-story, one-roomed cabin which was to be 
hereafter called, and known as their home. This cabin was made of round and 
unhewn logs. There was no floor at all in many ; puncheons or great slabs of wood, 
carefully hewed out, made the floor in those cabins whose owners were better off 
and more fortunate in worldly possessions, and the roof was constructed of clab- 
boards rived with an instrument called a frow. The home had been previously 
furnished with a table which was puncheon or a wide, long clabboard set on four 
wooden legs, some three legged stools and a couch or two whose coverings were 
mainly deer hides and bear skins. The clearings had been made in the most 
fertile portion of their land and were frequently far away from the house. There- 
fore, up to the very door sill the solemn and illimitable forest came ; there were 
ever present continuous, and endless woodlands. Large and towering trees 
whose lofty heads were lost in the intermingling foliage above impended their 
homes. Such was the gloomy welcome and aspects which confronted the ever- 
lasting view of the good house-wife, who was the mother of the sons and 
daughters whose great-great-grandchildren would see this very country teaming 
with toiling thousands, working in rich meadow land and on grassy hillsides or 
burrowing into the bowels of the earth to bring forth for man's comfort minerals, 
whose value transcends in richness and wealth the dazzling splendors of the 

Very few additions to the population to the settlement was made in the year 
1 77 1, but 1772 witnessed considerable accessations to the Buckhannon and 
Hacker's Creek settlement. 

Samuel Oliver, planted his clearing on Cutright's run, on the John Burr, 
now D. D. T. Farnsworth heirs' land. Mr. Oliver had the first negro slave in 
Buckhannon valley. Thomas Carney, Zachariah Westfall and George Casto built 
their homes on Stony run about two miles south of Buckhannon. Joel Westfall 
on the river north of them and opposite the mouth of Ratcliffe's run ; Abraham 
Carper still lower down on the land now known as the Boom or South Buck- 
hannon ; Jacob Brake built his cabin north of the mouth of Fink's run, now in 
the limits of North Buckhannon. 


Henry Jackson about a mile further north on the river; Edward Jackson 
near where the first M. E. Church now stands ; Jacob Hyre and Henry Fink, on 
Fink's run ; Mr. William Allman, Jacob Lorentz, and John Bozarth higher up on 
Fink's run, near the village of Lorentz ; John Hyre, Phillip Reger, John Tingle, 
Jacob Schoolcraft, Leonard Simon and Solomon Collins on Brushy Fork of Fink's 
run ; Jacob Post on the east side of Buckhannon river near the mouth of Little 
Sand run ; John Strader, John and Abraham Crites, Abraham Post, John Jack- 
son, Anthony Rhorbough and George Bush lived on either side of the Buckhannon 
river two or more miles north of Buckhannon with farms adjoining each other; 
Joseph Davis lived a short distance up Turkey run ; David Casto and the Sleeths 
planted themselves on the hilltop overlooking Turkey run. This increased 
population in Buckhannon settlement, early portended suffering on account of 
the small crops of the preceeding season. One informant tells us, that the bread 
stuff could be consumed before one-third of the winter had passed. Everybody 
expected the worst and laid himself to any labour whatsoever that promised 
relief or an extension of the time when their cornmeal would be exhausted. 
Meats of wild animals made up the major portion of the pioneers' bill-of-fare, and 
salt being scarce this diet became nauseous and demoralizing to good digestion. 
Such indeed was the state of suffering among the inhabitants consequent upon 
the scarcity of bread, salts, and vegetables, that the year 1773 is known in local 
traditionary legend as the starving year. Indeed had it not been for that bold, 
reckless and undaunted spirit, William Lowther and his neighbors, who desired 
to supply the starving settlers on the Buckhannon or at least to mitigate their suf- 
fering, many would have perished from hunger, fatigue and cold. His brave little 
band went from fort to fort on the West Fork. Elk and Tygarts valley rivers beg- 
ging for food or seizing it if it was not voluntarily given and carried it to the unsat- 
isfied, unhappy and needy settlers on the Buckhannon. So great was the success 
of the efforts of Mr. Lowther that his name has been transmitted to the descend- 
ants and posterity of those suffering families, hallowed by the blessings of those 
whose wants he contributed so largely to relieve. He was indeed a benefactor 
and perhaps a savior to Buckhannon settlement in its incipiency. 

Now William Lowther was the son of Robert and came with his father to 
the Hacker creek settlement in 1772. He soon became one of the most con- 
spicuous men in that section of country, while his private virtues and public 
actions endeared him to every individual of the community. During the war of 
1774 and subsequently, he was the most active and efficient defender of that 
vicinity, against the insidious attacks of the savage foe ; and there were very 
few, if any, scouting parties proceeding from thence, by which the Lidians were 
killed or otherwise much annoyed, but those which were commanded by him. 


The first mention of the name of William White, a famous border scout, 
is in Samuel Kercheval's History of the "Valley of Virginia." The year 1734, 
witnessed his removal from Monoccacy, a fort town in Maryland about fifty 
miles east of Cumberland, on the Potomac River. His companions were Benja- 
min Allen and Riley Moore. They settled on the North Branch of the Shenan- 
doah, now in the county of Shenandoah, about twelve miles south of Woodstock. 
His physique, his courage and bravery induced him to enter into martial service, 
viz. : Protection to border settlers and even joining the invading armies against 


the French. In the year 1768, we find him a captain and known as a brave and 
active Indian fighter. In that year he made a visit to his old friend and superior, 
Colonel William Crawford, who had moved and settled at the Meadows on the 
Allegheny Mountains. They had been neighbors. White living on Cedar Creek 
and Crawford on Bull Skin, and had been out together on Indian expeditions ; of 
course were well acquainted, good friends. 

One day White signified his desire to go on a hunt, and Crawford sent 
with him his Irish servant, a stout and active man. They had not been out long 
before they discovered two Indians in the glade. The Indians of course as 
soon as they saw them, flew behind trees and prepared for battle. White and 
the Irishman readily out-generaled and killed both. For this crime they were 
apprehended and committed to the Winchester jail, on the grave charge of mur- 
der in the first degree, but White had rendered his neighbors too many important 
services and was too popular to be allowed to languish loaded with irons in a 
dungeon, for killing an Indian. 

Although there seemed to be a cessation of Indian hostilities too many peo- 
ple were smarting under the recollection of outrages committed and experienced 
by and at the hands of the merciless savage. Captain Abraham Frye readily 
enlisted a party of fifty or sixty followers, well armed and mounted, to eft'ect 
the rescue of these prisoners. This little band of volunteers rode up to Isaac 
Hollingsworth's home, a short distance out of Winchester, a couple hours before 
daylight, and they left their horses under guard there and proceeded to Win- 
chester, reaching the jail about daybreak. They presented themselves to the jailor 
and demanded the keys. The jailor hesitated and began to remonstrate, but the 
rescuers were in no condition to hear remonstrances. Frye, the leader, presented 
his rifle, cocked and peremptorily demanded the keys, telling the custodian of 
the prisoners that one minute of time would be given him to deliver them. 
The jailer seeing the fierce determination and countenance and hearing the stern 
menances of Frye, complied. The doors were knocked oflf their hinges, the 
pvjsoners set free. 

William White now left this community to rid himself of further prosecu- 
tion, knowing that his absence from the town of Winchester and his home, would 
in time cause the dismissal of the charge of murder against him. 

We next find him among the settlers along the Tygart's \'alley and Buck- 
hann'n Rivers. He was employed to watch the paths and trails which the mur- 
derous Indians followed, in their invasions eastward and westward. During 
the time he was an Indian scout, he was exceeding useful to new settlers, was 
joyful in deceiving, escaping from and killing Indians. He loved to thwart the 
murderous designs of the savage, on the peace-loving whites. His most noted 
service? to tlie settlers were the following incidents. 

'i he oicHsion when William White, Thomas Drennen, Paul Shaver, and 
John Cutright and others were sent out by the settlers to watch the coming 
approach of the Indians in 1770; again his participation in the killing of Captain 
Bull's five families on the Little Kanawha in June. 1772, as a revenge of the 
n;assacre of Adam Stroud, his wife and seven children on Elk River, his capture 
with Leonard Petro by the Indians in 1777 while watching the paths leading up 
the Little Kanawha. 

Mr. L. V. McWhorter informs us of the following incident of his life : 
White and several of his neighbors were on a hunting expedition and ran into a 
small party of Indians. Several were killed by the hunters, one active young 


savage ran away. White took after him. They had it neck and neck. White 
was pushing his Indian foe so hard that he leaped from a precipice and alighted 
in a quagmire up to his waist. White with his tomahawk, jumped after him, 
a struggle ensued. White buried his tomahawk in the red man\ skull. The 
victim's father was among those who escaped and for several years this father 
lurked about the settlements trailing White. Finally he succeeded in finding 
an opportunity to shoot his man. 

On the 8th of March, 1782 or 1795, William White in company with Timothy 
Dornian and his wife, were crossing the Buckhannon River at the Heavner ford 
below the town of Buckhannon, when some guns were discharged at them. They 
were fired upon by a party of Indians in ambush ; and White being shot through 
the hip soon fell from his horse. The avenging Indian tried to get his scalp 
but an attacking party from Bush's Fort, having been on the outlook all day 
for something of this kind to happen, was so close upon the Indian avenger 
that he fled before accomplishing his object. 

The reason of the two dates above is that Henry Westfall in his notes says 
it ocurred in 1782, while the tombstone over the grave of White in the Heavner 
cemetery bears the date 1795. 


William White, the Indian scout, left a son by the name of William White, 
and a daughter who married Joel Westfall, to survive him. This son was known 
throughout the settlements in Randolph county by his half woman, half man, half 
monster eccentric characteristics. He was as beardless as a babe in swaddling 
clothes and as tender and harmless as a youth just about to enter on the age of 
responsibility. He had small hands and small feet and was as poor as a church 
mouse. He spurned the possession of riches and lived and died in harmony 
with that sentiment. He might be properly called a vagabond traveling from 
house to house bartering his laurel root pipes, brass rings, darning needles, pewter 
buttons for anything which would satisfy the wants of his vicarious life. He 
was always followed by two or more docile dogs, ever smoked a laurel-root or 
corncob pipe and carried with him one or more for sale or traffic. 
Along late in the winter and during the spring he would beg garden seed 
and beg only for he never planted them or gave them away. He carried his 
seeds and goods in a reticule and never would sleep in a bed, much preferring 
the hard floor near an open door in summer and by the fire in winter, yet with 
all these aforenamed weaknesses and singular habits, "Bill" White possessed some 
admirable traits of character. He was apt, quick, knew the Bible by heart and 
delighted to contend with divines upon any theological question. This exorbi- 
tant desire for debate was stronger than his conscientious opinions, therefore 
he took any side of a question. He had a good mind and poetic temperament. 
William C. Carper relates this story in support of this last quality. "Bill" \\'hite 
had dug potatoes for Zed Lanham. the blacksmith at the town of Buckhannon, 
several days. Mr. Lanham became indebted to him for this work and for some 
reason deferred payment to White, who despairing of ever getting his hire, 
sought to even up with his bad paymaster by reciting this stinging epitaph: 

"Here lies a human prod, 

There lives no damneder dog. 

His head lies low, his body level. 

His soul hath gone to the devil." 



He attended school very little. The spirit of revenge was inherited and 
occasionally satisfied by William White, Jr. As an evidence of this, the tradi- 
tional story comes to us that a Mr. Buckey, of Beverly, had done him on one 
occasion an injustice and he wreaked his revenge on Mr. Buckey by throwing 
a dead dog into his well. He was never desirous to violate law, nor anxious to 
be apprehended by civil authorities so in this instance he covered his vindictive 
action by walking through to the town of Buckhannon after he had committed 
the aforesaid crime, reaching here early in the morning. 

William White, Sr.'s daughter married Joel Westfall, and their children 
were Henry F. Westfall, Wesley Westfall, Isaac Westfall and Polly Westfall, 
who married a Mr. Hughes of Lewis county. All the Hughes of Lewis county, 
can trace their genealogy back to White, the great Indian scout. 


Many of the most thrilling incidents in the pioneer settlement on the waters 
of the Buckhannon, are like unto the common laws of England, unwritten, tradi- 
tional, handed from generations unto generations in fireside stories. Therefore 
many must be the names of heroes lost in the oblivion of bygone years because no 
one cared, peradventure was not able, to enroll them on the annals of the past, 
Such a chapter is the following : We know it only through traditional sources. 
Paul Shaver tells it to Colonel Henry F. Westfall, in 182 1, and he in turn con- 
verts it into notes and communicates it to the older citizens now living. 

Soon after the first settlement of the year 1770 had been made on the Tygarts 
Valley, Buckhannon and West Fork rivers and their tributaries and before many 
inroads and invasions had been made by the merciless savages on these pioneers 
for the purpose of killing and scalping men, women, and children or carrying 
them into captivity, arrangements were made by which spies or scouts were sent 
out to watch the movements and approach of the Indians, and to report same 
to the settlers. Indeed companies of these scouts or spies were organized and 
commanded by proper officials and were obliged to serve alternately by squads. 
Such military organizations were obtained in the summer of 1770, when a detach- 
ment of six men were sent out from Randolph County to spy on the maddened 
Indians. Four of this small company were, William White, Thomas Drenncn, 
Paul Shaver and John Cutright, the other two are unknown. 

John Cutright was youn^, a mere boy, small of size but not a drop of 
cowardly blood coursed his veins. The scouts went through the boundless forests 
following the meanderings of the Little Kanawha river to its conjunction with 
the Ohio. They descended this latter stream as far as the mouth of the Great 
Kanawha. Af*er a season of inspection, scouting and spying near the famous 
battle grounds of Point Pleasant they began their homeward journey, passing 
through the trackless wilderness country now embraced in Mason. Jackson, 
Roane, Calhoun, Gilmer, Braxton and Lewis Counties. They reached the head 
waters of the Little Kanawha river without having seen any trace of the savage. 
Game being bountiful along this river they resolved to spend a few days on a 
hunt. They pitched their camp on Stewart's Creek. Indian Summer was now on 
and the weather was all that could be desired by our scouts (now termed hunters). 
They never forgot themselves so much as to neglect watching the trail leading 



up the little river near which they were camping, and over to the settlement on 
the West Fork. 

One evening after having spent a full day hunting deer, several of which 
they had killed and the haunch of one they were now roasting in their camp fire, 
they heard a noise, at first supposed to be calling of turkeys going to roost. Cut- 
right thinking that a variety of meat would be spice to their simple life, seized 
his gun saying he would get a turkey for supper. He walked very briskly 
toward where the turkey calling was heard ; he had not gone far before the 
turkeys were answering each other in different directions. This fact appealed 
to the strong perceptive faculties of White and aroused his suspicion that all was 
not right. He called to Cutright to return and let him go and discover the roost- 
ing place of the turkeys. He went but a short distance before he returned with 
the thrilling news that they were nearly surrounded by a band of Indians. The 
situation was dangerous and the camp fire by means of which the savage had 
located them was put out. An escape must be now efifected or in a short time 
the scouting party would be attacked. White was the leader, the rest were his 
followers. They stole away and traveled at a rapid gait over rocks, hills, and 
small streams for four miles before a halt was made. On the summit of a ridge 
they stopped to reconnoiter and to ascertain whether they were pursued or not. 
Hearing and seeing no signs of the pursuing Indians they rested here for an hour, 
during which time most of the party went to sleep. White alone being awake 
and on the lookout. Suddenly he called to his companions, "The Indians are upon 
us." He heard the whine of a dog. They took to their heels again till out of 
danger then walked on for several miles until they came to a creek of considerable 
size (most probably Leading Creek). Knowing the keen scent of the Indian 
canine and the impossibility of being traced in water they waded up this stream 
a mile and a half or more, coming out on the same side they had entered the 
stream. They now ascended a hill some distance to its summit, then turned down 
the stream, keeping about half a mile from it and going about the same distance. 
Here they halted once more for the purpose of rest and observation. The Indians 
must have pursued them uncomfortably close, for soon White detected their 
approach again. This time they descended the hill, crossed the stream behind 
the Indians, ascended the opposite elevation and took a course along the ridge 
which led in the direction they wished to go to find the path leading over onto the 
West Fork. The path could not be found and White concluded that in the dark- 
ness they had missed it. They decided to wait the coming of day. To afford 
themselves the most advantages, they ascended a high bluff to await the action 
of their pursuers. Again they were driven from their resting place out into the 
darkness of the night and forced to travel until about sunrise, when they de- 
termined to stop and if the Indians were not too many to give them battle. The 
most suitable position around them was selected and here they had to wait but 
for a short time before three Indians were seen on a neighboring hill. Seventeen 
others joined these three shortly afterwards and all seated themselves upon a 
fallen tree resting and talking and counselling. Presently they separated, twelve 
forming the pursuing party, eight returning. Six white men confronted by 
twelve red men ready for battle would be an easy proposition to wager money 
upon. Other things being equal superior numbers will win. Therefore our 
scouting party took themselves to flight rather than fight. Cutright being a mere 
boy and having traveled all day and night, now showed sign of great fatigue, 
but the others urged him on. White carried his gun and two others assisted 


him up the steepest hills, hoping thus to be able to bring him to the Buckhannon 
river where they thought the Indians would discontinue their pursuit. Cutright 
held out until the river was reached, when exhausted and crying he lay down and 
could not go farther. He said to his companions that he could welcome a natural 
death, but to be tomahawked and scalped by the savage was too hard to bear. 
■"Save yourselves by flight, but leave me to my fate," was the answer to the urgent 
appeals of his companions to proceed. But White said, "No, John, we will 
never leave you ; if one is left all will stay, fight and die together." White being 
a man of wonderful strength and endurance gave his gun to one of his com- 
panions, took Cutright upon his back and bore him beyond the river. Two other 
companions carried him to the summit of the river hill opposite the mouth of a 
run which was then named Cutright's run, and which was afterwards John Cut- 
right's home. Here all the party fell asleep, but White and Drennen, who stood 
on guard watching to see their pursuers cross the river. Soon three Indians 
approached the river on the opposite side and began to cross the stream. A 
battle was imminent and necessary. Drennen rushed back and aroused his com- 
panions. All returned except Cutright, who was too exhausted to do anything. 
They took their position and waited orders from White to fire. .A^t last the 
moment came. The three Indians were in a row. The report of the rifles rang 
out upon the air, two of the savages were killed and the third was anxious to 
retreat, but he was not to make his escape for White snatchd the gun which had 
failed to fire and shot the Indian just as he leaped the bank of the river. 

Now for the first time it was known to a certainty why the Indians were 
able to follow the trail so well. They had a dog which went in advance of his 
red master. This dog fell into the hands of the victors and became the property 
of White, who used him to good account afterwards, for it is said that White 
exchanged the same dog and gun for the Heavner farm, upon which the Buck- 
hannon or Bush Fort was afterward erected. 


In the year 1772 when so many new settlers came, the very atrocious act of 
murdering all the warriors, women and children of that Indian town on the Little 
Kanawha was perpetrated. 

Bulltown, for that was the name of this Indian village, was inhabited by 
five families, who were in habits of social and friendly intercourse with whites 
on Buckhannon and on Hacker's creek; frequently visiting and hunting with 
them. There was likewise residing on Gauley river, the family of a German by 
the name of Straud. 

In the summer of that year, Mr. Straud being from home his family were all 
murdered, his house plundered and his cattle driven oflf. 

The trail of the murderers leading in the direction of Bulltown, induced the 
supposition that the Indians of that village had been the authors of the outrage 
and caused several to resolve on avenging it on them. 

A party of five men, William White, William Hacker, Jessie Hughes, John 
Cutright and another expressed a determination to proceed immediately to Bull- 

The remonstrance of the settlement generally could not operate to effect a 
change in that determination. 


They went, and on their return, circumstances justified the belief that the 
pre-apprehension of those who knew the temper and feelings of White, Hacker 
and the others, had been well founded, and that there had been some fighting 
between them and the Indians ; notwithstanding that they denied ever having seen 
an Indian in their absence, yet it was the prevailing opinion that they had de- 
stroyed the men, women and children at Bulltown and threw their bodies into 
the river. Indeed, one of the party is said to have inadvertently, used expressions 
confirmatory of this opinion, and to have then justified the deed by saying that 
the clothes and other things known to have belonged to Straud's family were 
found in the possession of the Indians. 

The village was soon after visited and found to be entirely desolate and 
nothing being ever after heard of its former inhabitants there can remain no 
doubt but that the murder of Straud's family was requited on them. Here then 
was a fit time for the Indians to commence a system of retaliation and war, if 
they were disposed to engage in hostilities. 

Captain Bull had been a Delaware chief on the headwaters of the Susque- 
hanna river in the now state of New York. 

His attempt to unite the Delaware to Pontiac's conspiracy (1763), caused 
a strong party of whites and friendly Indians to seek, capture and convey him 
in irons to New York City. 

He was eventually discharged from prison. On reaching the Delaware 
towns he found them burned. His family of relatives moved with him to what 
the whites called Bulltown. on the Little Kanawha. Here was a saft spring to 
which the pioneer settlers went for salt. 

Captain Bull and his people did not murder the Stroud family — wife and 
seven children, and there was no ground for an attack upon him and his people. 
The Shawnees were the murderers of the Stroud family. 


Withers's Chronicles says that in September of the year 1777 Leonard Petro 
and William White, being engaged in watching the path leading up the Little 
Kanawha, killed an Elk late in the evening ; and taking part of it with them, 
withdrew a short distance for the purpose of eating their suppers and spending 
the night. About midnight. White, awaking from sleep, discovered by the light 
of the moon that there were several Indians near, who had been drawn in quest 
of them by the report of the gun in the evening. He saw at a glance, the impossi- 
bility of escaping by flight; and preferring captivity to death, he whispered to 
Petro to lie still, lest any movement of his might lead to this result. In a few 
minutes the Indians sprang on them ; and White, raising himself as one lay hold 
on him, aimed a furious blow with his tomahawk, hoping to wound the Indian 
by whom he was beset, and then make his escape. Missing his aim he affected 
to have been ignorant of the fact that he was encountered by Indians, professed 
great joy at meeting with them, and declared that he was then on his way to their 
towns. They were not deceived by the artifice ; for although he assumed an air 
of pleasantness and gaity. calculated to win upon their confidence, yet the woeful 
countenance and rueful expression of poor Petro, convinced them that White's 
conduct was feigned ; that he might lull them into inattention, and then be enabled 
to effect an escape. They were both tied for the night ; and in the morning White 
being painted red, and Petro black, they were forced to proceed to the Indian 


towns. When approaching a village, the whoop of success brought several to 
meet them ; and on their arrival at it, they found that every preparation was 
made for their running the gauntlet ; in going through which ceremony both 
were much bruised. White did not however remain long in captivity. Eluding 
their vigilance he took one of their guns and began his flight homeward. Before 
he had traveled far, he met an Indian on horseback, whom he succeeded in shoot- 
ing; and mounting the horse from which he fell, his return to the Valley was 
much facilitated. Petro was never heard of afterwards. The painting of him 
black had indicated their intention of killing him ; and the escape of White 
probably hastened his doom. 

The William White mentioned in this and succeeding narrations by Withers, 
was killed by the Indians at or near the Heavner ford below the town of Buck- 
hannon about the year 1795, at least the rough headstone of his grave bears that 

William White was Indian scout during the entirety of his long and useful 
life and the incident of his life here related, signifies the kind of man he was, 
his usefulness to new settlements and his professed great joy in deceiving 
and escaping from the Indians in order that he might be able again to thwart 
their evil designs upon the peace loving whites. 


The avenging spirit of the savage over the massacre of Capt. Bull, exhibited 
itself in the Spring of 1778, when a party of t\yenty Indians made an attack 
upon the Hackers Creek and West Fork neighborhoods. The setttlers expecting 
such an invasion of the Indians they had taken the wise precaution in the winter 
preceeding, to move to West's Fort on the waters of Hackers Creek and to 
Richard's Fort on the waters of the West Fork river. These forts were the 
winter homes of the pioneers as well as the sure protection from the Indian 
ravages. They also afforded the families inhabiting them during the winter a 
splendid opportunity for social intercourse, cultivating a communistic and 
altruistic spirit of mind. The men would hunt game, bring it to the fort and 
share' it with all the inhabitants thereof. Spring approaching the women and 
children were left in these safe retreats during the day under the protection 
of a few men while the majority would perform the usual labors of their farms 
in companies, so as to preserve theirs and themselves from an attack of the 
Indians. Such companies of men were thus engaged during the first week in 
May, some fencing, others clearing, some plowing, and others rolling, when they 
were unexpectedly fired upon by the Indians. Thomas Hughes and Jonathan 
Lowther were shot down, the others being unarmed fled for safety. Two of the 
number being so situated as to have the Indians between them and West's Fort 
ran directly to Richard's Fort. The news of the approach of the enemy had 
already preceded them and every preparation possible had been made for defence 
and security. This news to the inhabitants of Richard's Fort was communicated 
in this way. Some hunters the day before had found the mangled remains of 
one, Isaac Washburn, who had been to mill on Hackers Creek and returning 
to Richard's Fort was shot from his horse, tomahawked and scalped. The 
Indians observing the ample preparations for defense and security of the forts 
and their inhabitants, refrained from further attacks and in a day or so left the 
neighborhood. The whites were too weak to go in pursuit and molest them. 



Again in the month of June, 1778, as three women from West's Fort were 
peacefully gathering greens in the adjoining field, four vindictive Indians lying 
in wait, fell upon them, one shot only was fired, and it passed through the bonnet 
of Mrs. Hacker, who was afifrighted, screamed and ran toward the fort with all 
her might. Another Indian carrying a long staiif with a spear in one end pursued 
the fleeing woman closely and thrust his staf? at Mrs. Freeman with such force 
and violence that when it struck her in the back below the shoulder it pierced 
the body through, coming out at the left breast. Falling she was immediately 
set upon and tomahawked by her Indian pursuers, who cleft the upper part of 
her head oflf and carried it away by the hair to save the scalp. Just before this 
occurred the men who had been alarmed at the fort by the wild screams of Mrs. 
Hacker, ran out with their guns and fired just as Mrs. Freeman fell. They did 
not preventj:he Indian from getting her scalp. The shots served however to 
warn the men who were out of the fort that danger was at hand ; and they quickly 
came in. 

Jesse Hughes, a man of fierce and unbridaled passions, a confirmed Indian 
hater and most cruel in his punishment of the savage, and John Schoolcraft, 
with almost the opposite human attributes and temperament, while making their 
way to the fort saw two Indians standing by the fence. So intently watching the 
movements of the men at the fort were they that they succeeded in passing them 
unseen, their entrance to the fort being undiscovered. Hughes, as soon as he 
could get his gun, proposed to go out and get the corpse of Mrs. Freeman. 
Others went with him. Now a pursuing party was made up consisting of 
Charles and Alexander West, Charles Hughes, brother of Jesse's, John Brown, 
John Sleeth and Jesse Hughes. They started to the place where Hughes had 
seen the two Indians leaning on the fence. Before reaching the place an Indian 
was heard to howl like a wolf. (A signal among the savages). And this call 
was answered by a similar howl ; and the men proceeded in the direction from 
whence the sound came. Nearing the spot where the sound appeared to be 
Jesse Hughes also howled, was instantly answered, and he with his companions 
ran to a summit of the hill and looking over it saw two Indians coming towards 
them in answer to Hughes' signal. Hughes fired and an Indian was killed, the 
other took to flight. The fugitive sprang into a thicket of laurel and underbrush. 
His pursuers proceeded to surround the hiding place of their foe and especially 
put forth every efifort to intercept him in coming out on the opposite side. The 
Indian was too cunning for the white man for he came out where he entered 
and made his escape. In their anxiety to catch and kill the fugitive Indian they 
neglected the wounded one. It is said that one of the men stopped when near 
by the fallen Indian and was for finishing him ; but Hughes imperatively called 
to him. "He is safe, let us have the other." And they all obeyed Hughes. The 
wounded Indian recovered his feet and was making tracks for his escape. 
His bleeding wounds enabled the pursuers to follow him some distance, but 
presently a heavy rain fell, rapidly obliterating the trail and trace of blood and 
they were obliged to give up the chase. 

These were some of the invasions made by the savage in 1778. Many others 
of greater consequence, of more murder and of wider devastation were made, 
but they were in other sections of Northwest Virginia than the locality with which 
this annal deals. 

Built in reply to the warning letter of Major Connolly, proxy of Earl of Dunmore, sent 
out in 1774 to build and retire into forts as the Indians were mad. 

These frequent inroads of small parties of Indians resulted in much harm 
to the many settlements which they attacked. They required if fhe settlements 
were to be maintained, greater preparations for security by the settlers or they 
were implored by the suffering from these renewed hostilities, fo make a total 
abandonment of their pioneer homes. This last occurred with the settlement 
on Hackers Creek in 1779. when some of its inhabitants forsook the country and 
returned to the waters of the Potomac : while others went to the Bushes Fort 
on the Buckhannon and to Nutters Fort near Clarksburg, to aid in resisting the 
foe, and in retaining possession of the country. The other settlements were 
strengthened by the accession of emigrants from Hackers Creek and the east, 
which enabled them to enter the campaign of the next year better prepared to 
protect themselves from invasion and shield the inhabitants from the wrath of 
the savage enemy. 1780 found forts in every settlement to which the settlers could 
flee when danger threatened and which were strong enough to withstand the 
assaults of the Indians however furious they might be. It was very fortunate 
for the country that such was the case and that a paucity of number was in great 
part made up by the strength of fortification. 

The Heroine, Mrs. Boz.-\rth. In month of April, 1780. two or three families 
on Dunkard's Creek, hearing of the violent movement of the Indians against 
Pricket's Fort, decided to collect themselves at the house of Mr. Bozarth, thinking 
that they would be more safe when together than apart. One day two children ran 
into the house from their play exclaiming to Mr. Bozarth and his two neighbors 
that there were "ugly red men coming." One of the neighbors on going to the 
door to see if the children had given a true alarm, received a glancing shot in 
his breast from one of the Indians. This caused him to fall back and the Indian 


who shot him immediately sprang after the wounded man. He was checked by 
the other white man and was thrown on the floor. The victor in the contest 
having no weapon with which to wound the Indian, called to Mrs. Bozarth for 
a knife. There was none handy ; but an axe was seized by her and at one blow 
the brains of the prostrate savage were let out. And now a second Indian entered 
the door and shot dead the man astride the Indian on the floor. Mrs. Bozarth 
turned her wrath on him and with a well directed blow emboweled and caused 
him to bawl out for help. Other Indians endeavored to enter the home. The 
first that stuck his head through the door had it cleft by the axe of Mrs. Bazarth. 
The second, seeing the violent desperation of the inmates seized his wounded, 
yelling companion and drew him from the house. When Mrs. Bozarth and the 
white man who had been first wounded, closed and made fast the door. The 
children playing in the open yard were all killed. But for the heroism of Mrs. 
Bozarth and the wounded white man the attempts of the Indians to force open 
the door and take possession of the house would have been successful. 

A relief party from the neighboring settlement soon gave the inmates liberty. 
Withers says that from the first alami from the children to the closing of the 
door consumed only three minutes and in this time Mrs. Bozarth with infinite 
coolness, deliberation and intrepidity killed three Indians. 


A short time only elapsed before other Indian ravages were perpetrated. 
The presence of the savage foe during this year was constant. They were fre- 
quently seen by hunters and settlers going from settlement to settlement, some- 
times very near the barricades and forts which gave the settlers protection. One 
of these parties of Indians was loitering about the Buckhannon settlement in the 
month of May, when they made prisoner Leonard Schoolcraft, a youth of about 
sixteen, who had been sent out from the fort on some business. They carried 
him away to their town and there made great preparations to test his courage, 
strength and endurance. He was informed that he must run the gauntlet, which 
in this case was to defend himself against the vigorous blows of the young 
Indians who would be placed in a circle to pursue him and to beat him. School- 
craft was active, energetic and athletic and was glad of the opportunity to have 
his fate settled in this way. He defended himself with remarkable coolness and 
bravery by well timed blows, frequently knocking down those young Indians who 
came near him. This struggle afforded much entertainment and amusement to 
the warriors present and watching. On account of his able defense Leonard 
Schoolcraft was adopted into the tribe and afterwards became a guide and leader 
to the Indians. His knowledge of the locality of the settlements and the country 
round about them made him a very useful guide to the savages in making suc- 
cessful incursions upon the country. 


The capture of young Schoolcraft induced the Indians to make another in- 
vasion at once. The families who had been living during the winter in Bushes 
Fort were anxious to get to their respective plantations for spring work. Several 
of them had gone out to their homes under the belief that the season was so far 
advanced that the Indians would not again come among them. Disappointment 
met them. For on a day when the men of the families in and out of the fort had 


met at the fort for the purpose of electing a captain and otherwise completing 
their military organization, some Indians fell upon the family of John Schoolcraft, 
killing the wife and eight children, and carrying into captivity two children, boys, 
who perhaps were made members of the tribe, and in subsequent years led many 
Indian parties against the settlements. A small girl, one of the eight children, 
who had been tomahawked and scalped most brutally, was found the next day yet 
alive with her brains oozing out. She was taken to her home and lived several 
days before dying from the fatal fracture of the skull. 


With the abandonment of West's Fort in 1779, came its total destruction by 
the Indians. Mr. L. V. McWhorter says that this fort stood on an eminence where 
is now the residence of Minor C. Hall. He also says that the fort was destroyed 
with fire. In the spring of 1780, the whites again returned to their clearings on 
Hackers Creek and the new fort had to be erected, locally called Beech Fort, 
"because built entirely of beech logs — beech trees standing very thick in this 
locality." This new fort however, was only a few hundred yards from the old 
and was in a low marshy place as compared with the sight of the old fort. On 
account of its proximity to the old fort the new one was generally known by the 
same name. These returning families went into the new fort upon its completion, 
but were not there very long before the savages made their appearance and 
entered upon a siege against it. The inhabitants incarcerated in the fort seeing 
the superior number of the Indians rightly decided that they were too weak to 
go out and give battle to the investing foe. Neither did they know when or 
how soon relief to their situation could come. Their store of provisions ran 
down and despair stared them in the face, when Jesse Hughes, a benefactor in 
all such trying circumstances, resolved to have assistance to drive off the enemy. 
Going out of the fort one exceeding dark night he eluded the Indian sentinels 
and made his way to Bushes Fort on the Buckhannon river. He appealed to the 
settlers to go to the rescue of his imprisoned neighbors and his appeal was met 
by a ready response. An efficient and daring relief party was soon organized 
and went out by night to drive off the besiegers. The Indians gave them no 
battle, but allowed them to enter the fort and give rescue to the hungry inhabi- 
tants. A decision was there and then made to abandon the place once more and 
remove to Buckhannon. The savages observed their determination to leave the 
fort and waited for them to take their departure. On their way over to Bushes 
Fort every device known to savage cunning and audacity was put into operation 
to effect the division of the company so that the retreating settlers might be made 
weak enough to fall victims to a vigorous attack. The white men were too 
cautious and well organized to fall into any such trap and they all reached the 
fort in safety. 

Withers says, "Two days after this, as Jeremiah Curl. Henry Fink and 
Edmond West, three old men, and Alexander West, John Cutright and Simon 
Schoolcraft, were returning to the fort with some of their neighbors' property, 
they were fired at by the Indians who were lying concealed along the run bank. 
Curl was slightly wounded under the chin, but disdaining to fly without making 
a stand he called to his companions, "stand your ground, for we arf able to whip 
them." At this instant a lusty warrior drew a tomahawk from his belt and rushed 
toward him. Nothing daunted by the danger which seemed to threaten him. Curl 


raised his gun ; but the powder being damp from the blood from his wound, did 
not fire. He instantly took up West's gun (which he had been carrying to relieve 
West from part of his burden) and discharging it at his assailant, brought him to 
the ground. The whites being by tfcis time rid of their encumbrances, the Indians 
retreated in two parties and pursued different routes, not, however, without being 
pursued. Alexander West being swift of foot, soon came near enough to fire, 
and brought down a second, but having only wounded him, and seeing the Indian 
spring behind trees, he could not advance to finish him ; nor could he again shoot 
at him, the flint having fallen out when he first fired. John Jackson (who was hunt- 
ing sheep not far off) hearing the report of the guns, ran towards the spot and being 
in sight of the Indian when West shot, saw him fall and afterwards recover and 
hobble off. Simon Schoo'.traft, following after West, came to him just after 
Jackson with his gun cocked, and asking where the Indians were, was advised 
by Jackson to get behind a tree, or they would soon let him know where they 
were. Instantly the report of a gun was heard, and Schoolcraft let fall his arm. 
The ball had passed through it, and striking a steel tobacco box in his waistcoat 
pocket, did him no further injury. Outright, when West fired at one of the In- 
dians, saw another of them drop behind a log, and changing his position, espied 
him, where the log was a little raised from the earth. With steady nerves, he 
drew upon him. The moaning cry of the savage, as he sprang from the ground 
and moved haltingly away, convinced them that the shot had taken effect. The 
rest of the Indians continued behind trees, until they observed a reinforcement 
coming up to the aid of the whites, and they fled with the utmost precipitancy. 
Night soon coming on, those who followed them had to give over the pursuit. 

A company of fifteen men went early next morning to the battle ground, and 
taking the trail of the Indians and pursuing it some distance came to where they 
had some horses (which they had stolen after the skirmish) hobbled out on a 
fork of Hacker's creek. They then found the plunder which the savages had 
taken from neighboring houses, and supposing that their wounded warriors were 
near, the whites commenced looking for them, when a gun was fired at them by 
an Indian concealed in a laurel thicket, which wounded John Cutright. The 
whites then caught the stolen horses and returned with them and the plunder to 
the fort. John Cutright was wounded on Laurel Lick near Berlin, W. Va. 

Austin Schoolcraft and Niecb Killed. For some time after this there 
was nothing occurring to indicate the presence of Indians in the Buckhannon set- 
tlement, and some of those who were in the fort, hoping that they should not 
be again visited by them this season, detennined on returning to their homes. 
Austin Schoolcraft was one of these, and being engaged in removing some of his 
property from the fort, as he and his niece were passing through a swamp on their 
way to his house, they were shot at by some Indians. Mr. Schoolcraft was killed 
and his niece taken prisoner. 

These are some of the outrages committed by the savages against pioneers 
of Buckhannon and West Fork, since the arrival of the Pringle brothers at the 
mouth of Turkey Run and extending over a period of more than ten years. No 
wonder that so many of these early settlers turned scouts, and with an immeasura- 
ble hatred, hunted down and killed with impunity the savage or any of his kin 
who had inflicted these uncalled for devastations and murders. To the settlers 
"War was indeed hell," but war if it must be, would terminate with them only 
when might made right. Accordingly renewed efforts were successfully made 


laying in ammunition, installing stronger defenses and getting ready to conquer 
the impending peril to their homes. 

Finale of the Schoolcr.xft Family. No family that settled in Western 
Virginia suffered so much from Indian atrocities as did this one. The reader is 
already aware of some brutal ravages made upon the Schoolcraft family. In April 
of 1781, its total extinguishment from the settlements in this part of the country 
occurred, when on the occasion of Matthias, Simon and Michael Schoolcraft 
being observed by lurking Indians were killed and captured. Withers claims 
that these three brothers had gone onto the waters of Stone Coal Creek, to catch 
pigeons and Henry F. Westfall takes issue with Withers's cause for their absence 
from the fort and says that they had gone down the Buckhannon river on a hunt. 
The latter seems the more probable reason and direction of the going of the 
brothers when they were attacked by Indians, Matthias being killed, the other two 
being taken captives. These were the last of this remarkable family. All told 
fifteen members of this family had come into the settlements and in a few short 
years had been either killed or taken prisoners. Those who were carried away 
never returned. It is believed that they became members of the Indian tribes 
which captured them and as members of these tribes they acquired by association 
the same savage habits, custom and love for war. It is also known that three of 
this captured family accompanied war parties in their incursions into the settle- 
ments, and were heinous in their treatment of the whites who fell into their 
hands in their skirmishes and attacks. The founder of this family is said to 
have come originally to New York state and from there moved onto the upper 
Monongahela induced by an over zealous propensity to possess large landed 
properties. LTn fortunately this family early fell a prey to the relentless and ever 
vigilant savage. It is also known that this Virginia family was distantly con- 
nected with that of the distinguished author, Henry R. Schoolcraft, whose notable 
work published in 1851 is both creditable to him and the cause of American 
literature. How divergent were the aims, intentions, and action of these two 
branches of one family in the ninteenth century, the first engaged in the nefarious 
business of deceiving, intriguing and killing white people, the last devoted to a 
study of the means for the bettering and promotion of good conditions among 
those very people (Indians) whom his nephews were leading in their efforts to 
exterminate totally the white race. 

Fatalities to the Fink Family. About the year 1772, Henry Fink in 
company with Robert Cunningham, John Goff and John Minear, settled in the 
Horseshoe bottoms of the Cheat river in the neighborhood of Parsons, W. Va. 
Fink for good reasons did not live in this settlement very long, but soon came to 
the Buckhannon settlement. He chose for his home here a site a half mile above 
the mouth of the creek that now bears his name. This land is now owned by 
, William D. Famsworth, and his heirs. Fink was an industrious and progressive 
citizen. He worked with a vigor and determination that accomplished much good 
to himself and to his neighbors, his clearings were the largest and best in the 
settlement, consisting largely of improvements of the beautiful bottoms around 
his home. His crops were large, general, and various, for a new settlement. 
Especially was this so with his corn crops whose size both delighted him and 
interested his neighbors. To make the Indian corn of his own and his neighbors 
farm more palatable he built the first grist mill in the Buckhannon settlement. 
But Henry Fink, like his neighbors suffered from the revengeful spirit of the 
savage. On the fourth of February, 1782, while he and his sons were engaged 


in the peaceful happy labor of drawing rails and fencing their corn field several 
guns were fired at them. The hour of the day was early morning, just as the 
sun was rising over the eastern hill tops, and telling the inhabitants of the new 
World that Old Sol was coming to gladden and to make happy. Things at this 
hour of the day are not as distinct as they might be and Henry not seeing his 
son called to him, but before John, the son, could make reply to his father's 
inquiry whether he was hurt, another and fatal shot was fired and he fell lifeless. 
His remains lie interred in the Heavner Cemetery, the site of the old fort, where 
a rough stone stands bearing his name, by whom killed and the date, February 
4th, 1782. The elder Fink seeing what happened and unfastening as fast as he 
could the log chain which held in its cold embrace the rails at one end and was 
fastened to the horse at the other, betook himself in perilous rapidity on a 
frightened horse away from Indian sight, aim, and danger. Arriving at his home 
safely and quickly, he commanded his family to move immediately to the fort. 
In fear, and trembling and excitement the next twenty-four hours were spent by 
the settlers. The lifeless body of John was brought to the fort on the succeeding 
day, and on examination it was found that he had a ball in one arm and a second 
one had passed through his heart. Of course he was scalped and one more trophy 
was added to the list of rewards for savage bravery. 

Providence decreed that Henry Fink was too valuable a man to fall in death 
at the hands of a ferocious Indian at that time, but subsequently the same fate 
befell him as that of his son. He was laying down a pair of bars leading from 
one field to another, near where the Beverly Pike crosses the Buckhannon and 
Clarksburg Pike in the town of Buckhannon, when a party of Indians in ambush 
shot and killed him. We know not what became of the other members of this 

John Jackson and Son Fired Upon. During the summer of 1782, as John 
Jackson and his son George were returning to the fort from a hunting expedition, 
they were fired at by some Indians loitering in the neighborhood. Their shots 
went wild and no damage was done. But George Jackson being on his guard was 
carrying his gun with an expectation of either seeing some game or observing 
these very terriors to his neighbors. He discharged his gun at one of them peep- 
ing from behind a tree, and came so near shooting him that it alarmed him and 
he ran ofif, followed by the rest of his party at utmost speed. 

Murder of Edmond West. On the fifth day of December, 1787, a party of 
Indians led by the unscrupulous Leonard Schoolcraft, made an attack on the 
Hackers Creek settlement, first by taking captive Jesse Hughes's daughter, and 
second by making prisoner Edmond West, Sr., who was feeding his stock at the 
time the Indians came upon him. This old man begged for mercy, but mercy 
droppeth not like the gentle dew from heaven out of an Indian's nature, and his 
appeal was answered by harsh blows of the tomahawk, killing the old man. The 
several Indians who had been hunting for victims to vent their ferocity upon, 
now came together and went to the home of Edmond West, Jr., where Mrs. 
West, a Miss Hacker, daughter of John Hacker, and the youngest brother of 
Edmond West, a lad of twelve, were. Schoolcraft and two Indians broke dow-n 
the barricaded door and entered the home. Full vent was given to their fiendish 
natures, first by the killing of Mrs. West, then the boy, both of whom were toma- 
hawked. Miss Hacker was struck at and received a glancing lick on her neck. 
She lay as if dead, but the reverse was true and after the invaders of this home 
had gotten all the milk, butter, bread and meat, which their hungry appetites 


craved and after emptying the bedticks of their feathers and bagging them for 
exportation, scalping the woman and boy, they dragged Miss Hacker forty or 
fifty yards by the hair of the head, threw her over a fence and scalped her. 

Schoolcraft now saw that she was simulating death and was showing 
vigorous signs of life. He commanded one of the Indians to thrust the knife into 
her and it struck a rib, not inflicting a fatal wound. Old Mrs. West and her two 
daughters, Elizabeth and Hada, who were alone when the old gentle- 
man was taken, became uneasy that he did not return, and fearing that he had 
fallen into the hands of savages (as they could not otherwise account for his 
absence) they left the house and went to Alexander West's, who was then on a 
hunting expedition with his brother Edmond. They told of the absence of old 
Mr. West and their fears for his fate, and as there was no man here, they went 
over to Jesse Hughes's who was himself uneasy that his daughter did not come 
home. Upon hearing that West too was missing, he did not doubt but that both 
had fallen into the hands of Indians ; and knowing of the absence from home 
of Edmond West, Jr., he deemed it advisable to apprize his wife of danger, and 
remove her to his house. For this purpose and accompanied by Mrs. West's two 
daughters, he went on. On entering the door, the tale of destruction which had 
been done there was soon told in part. Mrs. West and the lad lay weltering in 
their blood, but not yet dead. The sight overpowered the girls, and Hughes had 
to carry them off. Seeing that the savages had but just left them, and aware of 
the danger which would attend any attempt to move out and give the alarm that 
night, Hughes guarded his own house until day, when he spread the sorrowful 
intelligence, and a company were collected to ascertain the extent of the mischief 
and try to find those who were known to be missing. 

Young West was found — standing in the creek about a mile from where he 
had been tomahawked. The brains were oozing from his head, yet he survived in 
extreme suffering for three days. Old Mr. West was found in the field where 
he had been tomahawked. Mrs. West was in the house; she had probably lived 
but a few minutes after Hughes and her sister-in-law had left there. Their 
little girl (Hacker's daughter) was in bed at the house of old Mr. West. She 
related the history of the transactions at Edmond West's Jr., and said that she 
went to sleep when thrown over the fence and was awakened by the scalping. 
After she had been stabbed at the suggestion of Schoolcraft and left, she tried 
to recross the fence to the house, but fell back. She then walked into the woods, 
sheltered herself as well as she could in the top of a fallen tree, and remained 
there until the cocks crew in the, morning. Remembering that there was no 
person left alive at the house of her sister, a while before day she proceeded to 
old Mr. West's. She found no person at home, the fire nearly our, but the hearth 
warm and she laid down on it. The heat produced a sickly feeling, which caused 
her to get up and go to bed, in which she was found. She recovered, grew up, 
was married, gave birth to ten children, and died, as was believed, of an affec- 
tion of the head, occasioned by the wound she received that night. Hughes' 
daughter was ransomed by her father the next year, and is yet living (1831) in 
sight of the theater of those savage enormities. 


The same John Bush, after whom the fort on Buckhannon River was named, 
removed after some years of residence in this section to Freeman's Creek, Lewis 





County, and there on the 24th of April, 1791, met his death at the vile hands of 
the Indians. On that morning he sent his two children to drive up the cows and 
was alarmed by their screams soon after their departure. He got up and took 
down his gun and hastened to leave the house to ascertain the cause of the 
children's screams, when he was met at the door by an Indian, who seized the gun, 
wrenched it from his strong grip, and shot him. Bush fell dead on his own 
threshold and an attempt was made to scalp him. But it was thwarted by the 
heroism of Mrs. Bush, who, like a fierce tigress, made after the Indian with a 
sharp axe. He pulled the axe away from her, but she withdrew into the house 
and secured the door. The Indians bombarded the home with everything they had 
at their command, they fired eleven shots through the frock of Mrs. Bush, some 
grazing the skin. One savage stuck his gun through a hole between the logs and 
shot, hoping thus to more certainly kill the woman, but she fought them off in 
one way and another until the approaching steps of a relief party were heard 
by the savages. It was Adam Bush who, hearing the screams of the children 
and the firing of the gun rushed post haste to learn what had happened. His 
dogs in crossing the Creek made the noise that was the alarm to the savages. 
The two children were carried away and brutally slaughtered and scalped by 
their captors. The pursuing company which went forth for the two-fold purpose 
of avenging Bush's death and rescuing his children were once so close upon the 
Indians that they were forced to fly precipitately, leaving the plunder and seven 
horses which they had taken from the settlement. This event occurred near the 
mouth of Little Kanawha. The horses and plunder were brought home. 


In the month of September, 1791, Nicholas Carpenter set off to Marietta 
with a drove of cattle to sell to those who had established themselves there ; and 
when within some miles from the Ohio river, encamped for the night. In the 
morning early, and while he and the drovers were yet dressing, they were alarmed 
by a discharge of guns, which killed one and wounded another of his party. The 
others endeavored to save themselves by flight ; but Carpenter being a cripple 
(because of a wound received some years before) did not run far, when finding 
himself becoming faint, he entered a pond of water where he fondly hoped he 
should escape observation. But no, both he and a son, who had likewise sought 
security there, were discovered, tomahawked and scalped. George Legget, one 
of the drovers, was never after heard of. But Jesse Hughes succeeded in getting 
off though under disadvantageous circumstances. He wore long leggins, and 
when the firing commenced at the camp, they were fastened at top to his belt, 
but hanging loose below. Although an active runner, yet he found that the pur- 
suers were gaining and must ultimately overtake him if he did not rid himself 
of this incumbrance. For this purpose he halted somewhat and stepping on the 
lower part of his leggins, broke the strings which tied them to his belt ; but before 
he accomplished this, one of the savages approached and hurled a tomahawk at 
him. It merely grazed his head, and he then again took to flight and soon got off. 

It was afterwards ascertained that the Indians by whom this mischief was 
effected, had crossed the Ohio river near the mouth of Little Kanawha, where 
they took a negro belonging to Captain James Neal, and continued on towards 
the settlements on West Fork, until they came upon the trail made by Carpenter's 
cattle. Supposing that they belonged to families moving, they followed on until 


they came upon the drovers; and tying the negro to a sapling made an attack 
on them. The negro availed himself of their employment elsewhere, and loosing 
the bands which fastened him, returned to his master. 

It is said that General Tecumseh, the justly celebrated Indian chief, was 
with the party of Indians in May, 1792, which came into the Hackers Creek 
settlement and totally destroyed the Waggoner family either by instant death or 
by captivity. And some even go the extent to say that Tecumseh was born on 
Jesse's run and came back there for the purpose of avenging the outrage which 
the whites had committed against his copper colored race in taking and settling 
their land. 


For years after the capture of Timothy Dorman the settlers on the Buck- 
hannon lived in constant dread. The foundation of their fear was well founded 
in their knowledge of the disposition and character of their once neighbor whose 
enmity toward certain settlers was well known and would in time bring him back 
to plunder, destroy and murder. Therefore, the brave settlers who formed the 
vanguard of the army of settlers who were later to take, possess and hold tl;e 
numerous hills and valleys in this county, rightfully acted in leaving the fort. 
Their departure was not quiet for on one occasion when the inhabitants were mov- 
ing their property to a fort on Tygart Valky, a party of savages attacked them 
and Michael Hagle and Elias Painter were killed. The small ill-fed horse of 
John Bush was brought down by a shot, and he was near being caught while 
extricating himself from under the fallen animal. With a desperation of death 
staring him in the face, he crawled out from under his animal and ran off with 
such perseverance and indefatigable continuance that the pursuing Indians soon 
gave up hope of captivity. Edward Tanner, a mere boy, was taken prisoner and 
while on his way to the Indian town was met by twenty or more savages under 
Timothy Dorman intending to attack the Buckhannon fort. Dorman learned of 
him that the inhabitants were abandoning the settlement and purposed to be out 
of danger before the arrival of his followers to accomplish the bloody deed of 
destruction. All were safe within other fortresses ere the coming of Donuan 
and his party into the country. Some days after the evacuation of the fort some 
former inmates thereof came from Clarksburg to carry away the gram and other 
provisions they had left here. On coming in sight of their former protection 
a horrible sight met their eyes. The fort had been completely destroyed by fire 
and the Indians were lurking in the neighborhood. Being discouraged but not 
despairing they proceeded from farm to farm, collecting the grain with the utmost 
vigilance and caution. The night they stayed in the house which Bush had 
vacated they found a paper with the name of Timothy Dorman, and containing 
much information about the location and persons of Buckhannon settlement. This 
disciivery made them more apprehensive and cautious and turning what way they 
may it would have been no surprise to have been attacked by Dorman and his band. 
Indeed the next morning they had to make a bold stand of fight to the Indians 
who, seeing the inhabitants coming in twos and fours from the vacant house 
hastily withdrew into the dense forest. That night Captain George Jackson 
went on double quick time all the way to Clarksburg to get defenders 
which on their arrival scared away Dorman and the Indians and enabled the 
provision grain under the escort to leave the place unharmed and unhurt. Dorman 
and his band went directly to Tygarts \'alley where between \\'etsfall and \\'illson 


forts they came upon John Bush and his wife, Jacob Stalnaker and his son Adam. 
The only fatahty resulting from this encounter was Adam Stalnaker. This was 
perhaps in 1782. 


This year witnessed Waynes rebellion in western Pennsylvania and made 
thirsty the revengeful spirit of every savage connected therewith. A dozen 
years of quiet and repose must now be followed by a period of aggression, de- 
struction and murder. During that famous summer the trail of a band of 
savages was first observed on Leading Creek, leading in the direction of the 
settlements on West Fork, Buckhannon or Tygarts \'alley. Familiarity with 
the uncertain minds of the Indians led the detectives of this trail to at once ap- 
prise the settlement of their intelligence. A messenger on the swiftest horse 
'was sent to these settlements and advice of measures of defense and protection 
were freely communicated. Immediate and vigorous action was taken by all 
except those on the Buckhannon. They had been left so long in peace and 
quietness that they could not think that danger was apparent. They treated the 
ir.essage as a false alarm and no precautionar\- means were observed. They 
continued to pursue their usual avocation without cessation and with impunity when 
on the day following the express while John Bozarth, Sr., and his sons George 
and John, engaged in hauling grain from the field to the house on their farm 
near Lorentz, W. Va., heard agonizing screams at their home and they hastened 
to ascertain the cause and remove it if possible. George Bozarth while being 
very fat and carrying a weight of over three hundred pounds, was yet more 
agile and active than his father or brother. He reached the house first, followed 
closely by his paternal ancestor. Zed Bozarth, a simple and idiotic member of 
this family, was cursing the Indians and accusing them of all the foul crimes 
known to border warfare. Neither command of father nor persuasion of brother 
could close his insane mouth. The father with true parental solicitude on seeing 
an Indian approach George cried to him, "See, George, an Indian is going to 
shoot you." George seeing the drawn rifle and the proximity of his foe to him 
could not withdraw, but instead gazed intently and fiercely upon the murderous 
savage watching every movement of his hand and fingers. At the instant the 
trigger was about to be pulled he fell to the ground and simulated death, the 
ball whizzing by him in the air The savage passed by him, thinking him dead 
and proceeding to get the father. The old gentleman being no drone in sprinting, 
outran and outwitted his pursuer so badly that the Indian, despairing of overtak- 
ing him, threw with terrific -force his tomahawk at his head. It went amiss its 
mark ; the old gentleman got safely off. Mental actions like streams of lightnino' 
were pouring through young George's mind as he watched the footrace. Of one 
thing he was certain that the savage would return and tomahawk him were he to 
remain where he fell. So preferring, under the circumstances to be a live coward 
than a dead hero, he arose and took to his heels. On his way he came on one of 
his brothers who was lame and gave him every aid in his power to facilitate his 
flight until he saw another savage coming closely upon him. One thing was 
certain, that odds of death were against them both if they remained together. 
Separated he might escape and beHeving it no disgrace to run when you are 
scared he left his brother to his own fate and hied away to the dense woods. 
Going on deeper and deeper into the places of security he met up with his father, 
who. thinking him dead, exclaimed. "Why, George, I thought you were dead." 


While the father and son were expressing to each other their joy of escaping, the 
Indians were committing tortures, inexpressible upon the innocent and helpless 
ones at home. The hobbling Bozarth was lolled, soon after George left him, 
and three small children were dragged from their home and tomahawked in the 
yard. Mrs. Bozarth and two boys were taken prisoners and carried off to the 
Indian towns, from whence they were turned over as captives to Gen. Wayne. 

These are some of the outrages suffered by the inhabitants of this section 
of the country during the past twenty years. A respite eternal and everlasting 
from the horrors of savage warfare and the woes which spring from the un- 
curbed indulgence our barbarous vindictive and revengeful passion was now 

John Bozarth in his effort to escape his inveterate foe, the pursuing Indian, 
made every tree trunk a breastwork, every bush a defense and every stone and 
boulder a place of refuge. Dodging around these several helps he discomfitted 
and mixed up his pursuer so much that in a short distance from where the race 
began, (near where Jacob Allman's house now stands) his advance was sufficient 
to warrant the risk of going in haste to Bush's Run at a point whose width was 
about twenty feet and whose banks were high, soft and murky. He had calcu- 
lated that the Indian seeing his destination would slacken his step thinking the 
usual would happen between the high banks of that small stream. Bozarth's 
judgment was well taken and instead of doing what the Indian had expected 
as he neared the banks, he ran like wild, and jumping like a deer, was instantly 
on solid ground on the other bank. His pursuer seeing the unparalleled jump 
made tremendous effort to gather himself and do likewise, but instead of landing 
where the paleface did his leap brought him into the soft, treacherous mud by the 
waters edge, which held him in its sandy grasp long enough to allow Bozarth to 
get out of danger's way. It was upon his reaching the bank and making a sudden 
and powerful dash to catch up with his rival he gave up the chase and hurled 
his deadly tomahawk at Bozarth with terrific force. 

The older men now living in the community of Lorentz know well the Locus 
of this saving pond and many of them used it for years and years as a swimming 
hole because it was deeper and wider than any other in the creek at that place. 


While the roots for a permanent settlement had become firmly attached to 
the soil by the sturdy, rough and untutored backwoodsmen who braved the 
hardships and discouragements of the past twenty years, and while their numbers 
were few, yet their fortitude and persistence was such as would establish homes in 
any wilderness, in any forest and in any woodland ; to another and greater influx 
of immigrants was committed the important task of working a higher civilization 
through church and school. 

Prior to the nineteenth century not a few persons in New England had taken 
out letters patent for large acreages of land in that part of Virginia, west of 
the Allegheny Mountains, and were earnest and anxious to send out settlers to 
their land grants. Some of these land grabbers had claims in these parts and 
prominent among them was Dr. Daniel Stcbbins, of Northampton, Mass., who 
called frequent meetings of his townsmen and portrayed to them in glowing 
description the advantages and opportunities of this new country. 

UNCLE ISAAC MORGAN and Faithful Horse, "Old Bill," who was once 
Stolen and Found After an Absence of 4 years and 7 months. 

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Mr. Patrick Peebles, of Pellham, Mass., acquired some interest in land here 
and made the first visit to this country. He went back, made a report to his 
neighbor, Zedckiah Morgan whose family returned with him and made settle- 
ment in 1801. Patrick Peebles built the first saw-mill on Saw Mill run near its 
mouth, which was swept away by high waters. This misfortime discouraged him 
so much that he returned to Massachusetts and did not return to his Virginia 
lands until 1819, when he came back bringing his entire family. 

Zedekiah Morgan located on the Buckhannon River at the place now called 
Sago, and on the lands now owned by George W. Burner, who married his 
granddaughter, Frances Roxane, daughter of Alfred Morgan, born 1804. 

This Morgan family came direct from Connecticut here and has many living 
decendants in Upshur to-day. 

In 1808 Aaron Gould, Sr., came from Charlemont, Mass., and selected as his 
future home the farm no owned by Randolph See. His family consisted of a wife 
and eleven children, three of his sons being unmarried. ]\lost of this large family's 
posterity went west years and years ago, locating principally in the State of 

The glowing letters of the members of Aaron Gould's family to their Charle- 
mont neighbors induced Robert Young and Gilbert Gould in the year 181 1 to 
move here with their families. They went deeper into the wilderness than any 
others had heretofore gone, settling on the lands once owned by Rev. James 
Young, near Hollygrove. The nearest improvement to their place of settle- 
ment was Haymond's Salt Works, or Bulltown. 

Jonathan x'\ldan came from the same town in Massachusetts in 1816. 
The next Massachusetts town to make large contributions to the population 
of the unbroken forests was Florida. From this place in 1814 came John Loomis, 
a single man, Elijah Phillips and his family; the next year his brother, David 
Phillips, with his large family also came, and the two went deeper into the forest 
southward. Elijah Phillips made improvments on the land once owned by his 
son Edward. And David Phillips on that now owned by R. A. Darnall. Abieser 
and Anzel Phillips, sons of Elijah and married, brought their families the same 
time. Three-fourths of the people residing in and around French Creek have 
sprung or can trace a relationship back to either Robert Young, Gilbert Gould, 
Elijah Phillips or David Phillips. 

Montgomery, Mass., was another New England town to give up its resi- 
dence to swell the population in the new country. This town gave us Daniel 
Barrett, Martin Root and Joshua Bosworth, all of whom settled on lands below 
the present town of Buckhannon, mainly on the waters of Turkey Run. 

In 1816, Nathan Gould, Jr., and family came from Charlemont, Mass.; John 
Burr, Noah Sexton and Ebenezer Leonard and their families, from Worthington ; 
Mr. Daniel Haynes came from Monson ; Gould and Alden families settled on 
Bull Run and two weeks after their advent to their new home, Nathan Gould, Sr., 
eighty-three years of age, made his demise, having traveled that long, weary, 
journey over hill and valley to find a grave in the wilderness. 

Burr, Sexton and Leonard families settled first on the middle fork of Buck- 
hannon River, not far from Queens, West Virginia. 

Later they removed to the waters of French Creek, where they and some of 
their decendants have nearly all lived since. 

In the late fall of 1816, young Asa Brooks was sent out by the Central 
Missionary Association of Hampshire county, Mass., to preach for the settlers 


who had lately come from New England, and to establish a church in the new- 
settlement, which would promulgate and perpetuate th faith of John Calvin. 
His advent into the forest wild was hailed with delight, and was an omen of 
increment and strength to the settlement. His brothers, Ezra Brooks, Amos 
Brooks and John Brooks, of Halifax, Mass., came out the next year. 

Then came Roswell and Warren Knowlton, who settled near the Frenchton 
postoffice as, also, did James Bartlett and Mr. Ferry. These four people prior 
to the date of their emigration were citizens of the town of Belcher, Mass. About 
the same time came Elias Perry, Sr., Sylvanus Rice, Joseph Howes and the 
Shurtliffs, who planted their settlement in what is now known as the Wm. 
Smallridge community ; Alpheus Rude, Jacob Hunt, Ezra Morgan, Asa Boynton, 
Job and Murray Thayer, who settled on the John Hull farm, that land being a part 
of a tract of 1650 acres staked and patented by a Mr. Whttmore. Others came 
from time to time afterwards from New England and elsewhere, among whom 
were Wm. Smallridge, William Henderson, James Lemon, from Pendleton in 
1830; Ebenezer Phillips and Moses Ward, from Charlemont, Alass., and lived 
where Andy Buchanan now lives". 

To this yoemanry of Puritan belief and practice on the waters of French 
Creek may be added the settlers from other parts of Virginia who found homes, 
lived among, intermarried and became competent parts of this New England set- 
tlement ; Valentine Powers, on farm of Foster Wilson ; Samuel Talbot, who came 
from Harrison county, on farm of David Talbott; Abraham, James and Daniel 
Wells and Joseph McKinney and located on J. S. Douglass fann, and William 
Clark with his sons who emigrated from Albermarle county, \'a., settled in the 
vicinity of Beechtown ; afterwards he moved to Cutright's Run. John Vincent 
and \'an Devanters, Abner Rice and the Conkeys came a little later on from New 
England and made their home in the same vicinity with those who had preceded 
them. Isaac Parker built his rude cabin on the H. Armstrong place. 

Owing to the defects of the land system of Virginia, great uncertainty and 
much injustice resulted to the early settlers in this county. Long before the 
Revolution, shrewd and far-sighted speculators who saw the wild lands must 
grow in value, had organized land companies and real estate monopolies for the 
purpose of acquiring large stretches of western land. These companies employed 
surveyors, scouts or backwoodsmen to stake offand locate claims pursuant to 
ihe real property laws of Eng'Jand as executed by the Colonial officers of \'irginia. 
These agents, ignorant of prior locations, paid little attention to the rights of 
others, seeking only the benefit of their employes by choosing the most fertile and 
best laying wild lands. This course of action must needs in time produce endless 
controversies, and in 1789, after all real danger of the Indians driving the whites 
from the land had passed, the Virginia assembly enacted some remedial legisla- 
tion looking to and providing for more protection to individuals who had acquired 
by possession, by grant, patent or other title, rights to certain tracts of land. At 
the same session all titles to ground regularly surveyed and claimed under char- 
ter, military bounty and old treasury rights, to the extent of 400 acres each, was 
ratified. Each family of actual settlers was given the opportunity by the same 
law to a "settlement right," costing about $9 and securing a title for 400 acres, 
and if the settlers were too poor to pay the required $9, provision was made 
whereby he could get it on time. This law of land protection to the actual settler 
allowed him a preemptive right by which on the payment of 40 cents per acre 
he could increase his holding an additional 1,000 acres. Thus it is plain to 


be seen that many land warrants applied to no particular spot; and there were 
often two or three titles to each patch and the surveys crossed each other in hope- 
less tangles. 

Under such loose and haphazard laws as these much of the territory acquired 
and settled upon by this New England yoemanry was later involved in endless 
controversy and law suits; and the judgments and decrees of the courts were gen- 
erally adverse. Many of these quiet, peaceable New Englanders soon tired of 
the dilatory action of the courts and its adverse decision to their titles, resolved 
to quit the ceaseless and grinding frontier life in the woods and go to a country 
richer in soil and freer from the entanglements of conflicting titles. Therefore, 
the trouble over the titles to the lands, locally, caused an emigration westward 
about the year 1830. Dr. Loyal Young, D. D., thinks that fully one-half of the 
New Englanders who came into this county went west about this time, most of 
them going to Illinois and founding a New England settlement near the town 
of Assumption, where many of their descendants still live. Some went to Penn- 
sylvania and some went back to New England. This loss was very heavy and 
hindered the progress and growth of this new settlement very materially, but it 
was a great gain to the State in which they located. 

Great discouragement possessed those who remained. They had either to 
purchase their land again or be ejected by the strong arm of the law, and be com- 
pelled to go forth to buy elsewhere. Consequetly, feeble efforts were put forth 
by these despairing ones to make improvements, not knowing how soon some other 
soulless land company might come forth and make claim of priority of survey 
and grant to that which was held by the company lately selling. Indeed, these 
things really did occur and some had to purchase their farms for the third time, 
which was sufficient to drive into despair the most hopeful and buoyant among 
their numbers. 

W. D. Talbot informs us that his grandfather, Samuel T. Talbot, living in 
the vicinity of Beechtown, had first j)urchased his title from a "squatter" and later 
was compelled to buy it a second time from the McCall heirs, assigns or agents, 
the McCall survey embracing all the land occupied and settled upon by Talbot, 
Wells, JNlcKinney and others. 


People of this day often wonder by what roads the early settler reached the 
goal of his ambition on the upper waters of the Monongahela. The woods were 
everywhere, their density only excelled by their loftiness. To the weak and cow- 
ardly they presented an uncomparable, impassable difficulty which could be 
removed by myriads of expert axemen applying their strength and dexterity to 
the swamping of passage-ways. This was a task hardly to be thought of on 
account of its immensity and duration. Those who had for years been innured 
to frontier life and by force of circumstances had become apt students in appro- 
priating everything found available and useful in the forest, adopted the more 
practical and less laborious, but more dangerous expedient of traveling to their 
new settlements over game paths and Indian trails. These game paths were 
the beaten tracks usually of large herds of Buffalo which led from one large 
pasturage to another. Some of them were more than a rod in width, and all 
of them were on grades sufficiently good for horses to travel. And if these led 
in a direction contrary to that which the settlers wanted to go, the other expedient 


was adopted and the backwoodsman with his horses, cattle and family sojourned 
toward his destination by an Indian war path of which there were many. These 
Indian trails antedate in their establishment authentic history. Evidently their 
origin, judging from their unused and neglected condition goes back to the time 
when the northern tribes of the United States were making raids and actual 
warfare on the southern Indians or vice versa. 

With dread and apprehension and constant watchfulness, these first settlers 
traveled these trails which eliminated the absolute necessity and great labor of 
swamping out new and less desirable roads. 

West Virginia seems to have been at one time, nearer the great battle ground 
of contending Indian tribes, and was on that account cut up in every direction by 
Indian war paths of which the brave, the courageous and the fearless men and 
women, who sought homes in the western wilderness, made use of in their emi- 
gration from the tidal lowlands of Virginia and Maryland. 

Through the Courtesy of Hugh Maxwell who has studied these Indian 
trails for many years and has prepared a map showing the streams they follow, 
the mountains they cross and the general direction they take we give the following 
from his history of Barbour county. 

"Having thus spoken of the highways and the proposed highways between 
the Potomac and the Upper \'alley of the Ohio, it remains to be shown that those 
were not the only paths across the mountains. The paths yet to be mentioned 
were more local, but, within a narrower sphere, were of no less importance. So 
far as Randolph, Tucker. Barbour and Uphur Counties were concerned, the 
paths amounted to more than the great highways through Pennsylvania, for the 
early settlers came over the trails of which there were three important ones and 
a fourth (McCullough's) of lesser importance. The McCuIlough trail passed 
from Moorefield to Patterson Creek, up that stream to Greenland Gap in Grant 
County; crossed a spur of the Alleghanies to the North Branch, following the 
general course of the Northwestern Pike to the head of the Little Youghiogheny, 
in Garret County, Maryland ; thence to the Youghiogheny, west of Oakland, and 
on to Cheat River, near the Pennsylvania line. But a branch of it led down 
Horse Shoe Run to the mouth of Lead Mine Run, where it intersected another 
path to be spoken of later. Another trail led up the North Branch of the Potomac 
striking the face of Backbone ^Mountain near where Bayard now stands ; thence 
reaching the summit near Fairfax Stone. Passing to the western slope, it de- 
scended to the mouth of Lead Mine, ten miles east of St. George. It reached 
Cheat River at the mouth of Horse Shoe Run, three miles above St. George. 
Thence one branch led down Cheat, across Laurel Hill to the \'alley River below 
Philippi, and thence westward to the Ohio. The other branch followed up Cheat, 
reaching the head of Leading Creek, in Randolph County, and after joining the 
Seneca Trail, near the present village of Elkins, passed up the river to its source, 
where dividing, one part led down Elk River, one down the Little Kanawha and 
a third crossed to the Greenbrier. The majority of the settlers on Cheat, above 
and below St. George, came to the country over the North Branch Trail, as did 
many of those on Leading Creek, and the early settlers on the Buckhannon. 
There is no record of the marking of the trail near Fairfax Stone. It was there 
at the earliest visit of white men. and was no doubt an Indian trail antedating 
historv. The first white jnan to follow the trail was probably William Mayo in 
1736." He ascended the North Branch that year and discovered the tributaries of 
Cheat. History does not say how far westward and northward he followed the 


stream; probably not far. In 1745 other explorers, following the same route, 
reached the present territory of Tucker County, and a map made of the region 
soon after is fairly accurate. 

Twenty miles south of Fairfax Stone, another path crossed the Alleghanies, 
the most important in West Virginia north of Greenbrier. It was called the 
Seneca Trail, or the Shawnee Trail. The latter name was given it because it 
was traveled by Shawnee Indians, notably by Killbuck's bands in raiding the 
South Branch settlements. It was called the Seneca Trail, because, after crossing 
the Alleghany Mountains at the head of Horse Camp Creek, it passed down 
Seneca Creek, in Pendleton County, to the North Fork. The Shawnee Trail, or 
a continuation of it, was an old Indian war path, perhaps used centuries ago. It 
came from Pennsylvania, passed through Maryland, crossed the Potomac at the 
mouth of South Branch, ascended that stream to Moorefield where the McCul- 
lough Trail struck off ; thence it ascended the river to the mouth of the North 
Fork ; up that stream to the mouth of Seneca ; thence across the mountains and 
the tributaries of Cheat to Tygarts Valley at Elkins, from there it became one 
with the trail, coming by way of Fairfax Stone. The Shawnee Trail was the 
chief highway between Tygart's Valley and South Branch for a century. In 
the early times, hundreds of pack horses, loaded with salt, iron and merchandise, 
passed over it every year, and many a drove of cattle went by that route to the 
eastern markets. During the Civil War it was frequently used by soldiers. Many 
of the horses and cattle captured by the Confederate Generals, Jones and Imboden, 
were sent across the mountains by that trail. General Averell, who had command 
of the Federal forces in this part of West Virginia, found it necessary to post 
strong pickets on the path. A wagon road has since been made following the same 
general course, and the old trail is no longer used, but sections of it remain, 
deeply worn through the wilderness of pine and laurel. A century will not 
suffice to destroy the old highway over which Indians passed before a white man 
had seen the valleys of the West. Killbuck's Indians retreated by that trail after 
the Fort Seybert massacre in 1758. 

Thirty miles south of the Shawnee Trail was another path leading from the 
South Branch of the Potomac into Pocahontas County, and thence into Tygart's 
Valley. It was a branch of the Shawnee Trail, and instead of crossing the 
mountains at Seneca, it continued up the North Fork to Dry Run in Pendleton 
County ; passed up Laurel Creek into Highland County, Virginia, and crossed 
the mountain on the general route of the Staunton and Parkersburg Pike, coming 
into Tygart's Valley probably at the mouth of Riffle's Run or Becca's Creek, 
where it joined the trail up the valley already described. Many of the settlers 
in the upper end of Randolph came over this trail. Thus the routes by which 
emmigration entered the upper valleys of the Monongahela were three ; that down 
Horse Shoe Run, in Tucker County; that by way of Seneca Creek, and that 
through northern Pocahontas County. The majority of the settlers on Cheat, 
Tygart's, Buckhannon and the upper West Fork, traveled these trails. A few 
worked their way up the river from the vicinity of Brownsville, Pennsylvania." 

The Indians must, at one time, have inhabited Upshur county. The Indian skull 
unearthed in the year 1892 under the Indian Camp rock, by L. V. McWhorter, 
Ernest Phillips and others, and sent to Washington, D. C, would prove it tenta- 
tively. But the finding of spear-heads, stone hatchets, flints and earthen pots 
covered with three feet of wood ashes under this same projecting rock and at Ash 


Camp rock near by, reinforces the first proof so abundantly that it would be 
folly to controvert the habitancy of Upshur by the Indians. 

What tribe or tribes lived and hunted here is unknown. How long they lived 
here or how often they came to hunt, is uncertain. All we know is that tons 
and tons of ashes have been hauled away from under these two rocks and spread 
upon near-by farms, and the supply is not yet exhausted. 


There are no records which indicate the means of connection between the 
various settlements on the Buckhannon River, Tygart's Valley, Hacker's Creek, 
and West Fork, other than what has come to us by tradition. Maxwell in his 
History of Randolph County mentions Pringle's Trail, which led down the 
Tygart's Valley and up the Buckhannon River. This is the only evidence we have 
that there was a path or road over which the pioneers traveled to reach Buck- 
hannon settlement. This road or path followed the water course, and while it was 
too narrow for wagons it served for many years the purpose of the settler in 
going from and coming to his home. The first roads established in this county 
did not regard grade, but led directly over mountains and valleys from settlement 
to settlement. The early settler ignored that old adage, "that a pot bail is as long 
lying as standing." In fact why should they regard it because all of their travel 
was on horseback or by foot and both horse and man being strong, sinewy and 
supple they adopted the shortest route because it was the quickest. A few roads 
were surveyed and brushed out which will interest our readers and among them 
are the following: 

In 1787 "A road from John Cutright's along the northwest side of Buck- 
hannon River, by John Jackson's to Pringle Ford, at the same time an order was 
passed establishing 'a road' from the head of Elk up the Buckhannon River to 
John Cutright's." 

In 1798 the Court established "a road" from Beverly to Wolfs and the foot 
of Rich Mountain toward Buckhannon. These are the beginning of the great 
and complex system of highways which are the avenues of travel to all parts of 
Upshur County. 

In 1814 the County Court of Randolph County passed an order to brush out 
and make passable on horseback and pack horses the road from Beverly to Buck- 
hannon. This was afterwards widened and graded and made into the Parkersburg 
and Staunton Turnpike. 


The first session of the County Court of Upshur County met on Thursday 
the 24th day of July, 1851. Present: George Clark, George Bastable, David 
Bennett, John W. Marple, Amos Brooks, Adam Spittler, Simon Rhorbough, 
William W. Foster, Anthony B. See, Willis H. Woodley, A. M. Bastable, Alva 
Teter and Jacob Lorentz. Gentlemen justices of the peace composing the County 
Court (at the time of the formation of the County, up to 1864 the County Court 
was made up of the several justices of the peace, in the various townships of the 

The first order passed by the Court was that Jacob A. Hyre, Josiah Abbott, 
and Thomas Hamner, mark out a way for a road from Atwell Dowell's house to 


the road on the Glady Fork of Stone Coal to where said road crosses that water 
leading to Bull Run and by way of David S. Pinnell's Mill on Glady Fork. 

Thomas Rothwell was appointed in the place of Lair Dean to review a road 
from Hinkle's mill by way of John B. Shreaves to . 

On petition of Robert McCray, David Bennett, W. M. Raymond and Henry 
Boggs were ordered to mark out a road from the mouth of Buffalo of the Little 
Kanawha River by way of Honey Camp Run to W. M. Raymond's. 

On motion of James Lemmons, Elmer Hyre, is appointed surveyor of the 
road leading from John W. Abel's, by way of Peter Hyer to Captain Gilbert 
Gould's on Bull Run and that "William S. Brady, Stuart Hyre, Turner Hyre, 
and John S. Lemmons be his hands to work and prepare said road." 

It was ordered that Nicholas Dean, Valentine Dickinson, William Griffith be 
surveying committee to mark out a road from Ryland R. Alexander by Isaac 
Warner and intersect the "Yankee Road" going from the Buckhannon River at 
Andrew Lewis's on to Stevenville. 

John Weatherholt, Abram Wolf, and Frederick Willfong, were appointed to 
survey a road from John Weatherholt's on Ten Mile to A. C. Queen's Mill on 

On petition of John Jackson and others, S. C. Tenney, William Goodwin, 
John M. Haney, Watson Westfall and John G. Jackson, or any three of them 
are appointed a committee to review a road from the mouth of John G. Jackson's 
lane to Armsey's Run and one from John G. Jackson's lane to the Middlefork 

A road was also ordered reviewed from John Jackson's to the Staunton and 
Parkersburg Turnpike "on motion of James Cutright order that Jacob Cutright, 
Lot Cutright and Elmor Cutright be appointed reviewers, to review and mark a 
road from the Ford at Elmor Cutright's along Buckhannon river between 
Nathaniel and Elmor Cutright through said Nathaniel Cutright's place and John 
Wilfong's land along E. D. Rollin's line to intersect the Big Road near Hiram 

FRIDAY, JULY 2$, 185I. 

James Reed is appointed surveyor of the road from Daniel Knight's to the 
Lewis County line and Richard Altop, John Heavner, and Burket Jett be assigned 
to him as hands. That William Freymyer is appointed surveyor and that part of 
the County taken from Barbour and the same hands be attached to his precinct 
that he had when surveyor before the formation of the County. 

On petition of R. L. Brown, Lot Cutright. Jacob Cutright and Edmond 
Rollins were appointed commissioners to mark out a road from Theodore Cut- 
right's to the Philadelphia Church. 

John Swick precinct was laid out as the highway from the line between 
William Herschman and William Busley to upper Hacker's Creek, from John 
Marples to the top of the mountain going to Rooting Creek and half way up the 
hill toward Turkey Run. 

In the town of Buckhannon over the road leading from the turnpike at D. 
S. Pinnell's house to John Davis's farm Charles D. Trimble' was appointed sur- 
veyor in repair : John Davis, George W. Berlin, David S. Pinnell and hands ; D. T. 
Farnsworth, James L. Will, C. W. McNulty, Selden Harrison, John O. Core, 


William Jennings, George C. Ackle, Levi Ackle, James Willson, Jackson Shultz 
and hands ; Geo. W. Miller, Isaac Teeter, John Hurst and hands ; K. Hopkins, 
John Maxwell and hands : M. J. Fog, C. W. Russell, L. L. D. Loudin, A. Spittler, 
C. G. Miller and hands ; L D. Rapp, John L. Smith and hands, Miflin Lorentz, 
John White and hands ; H. C. Middleton, Samuel Spittler, George Ambrose, 
Joseph B. Ambrose, George F. Cooper and hands, A. N. Bastable and hands, 
C. C. Williams and hands ; John Thurman ; Nathaniel Farnsworth, W. D. 
Farnsworth, Calvin Farnsworth, Thomas Farnsworth, Leonard Farnsworth, 
Moses Marple, and his son, Silas Martin and hands ; T. A. Janey and hands ; W. 
E. Balsley, Geo. Balslev, Geo. Nicholas, Geo. Bastable, James Muliins, A. Pound- 
stone, John W. Blagg, Daniel Rollins, Jacob M. Hyre, J. O. Fretwell, W. H. 
Williams, Henry McFadden, James Farnsworth, John Baker and hands: B. 
Hawks, S. F. Paren, E. Wertenbaker Geo. W. Honchens, E. Johnson, Robert 
Jiurst, Robert Coyner, Joseph Coyner, Jerome Reger, W. B. Brown, Edwin 
Maxwell, Asa Carper, and all other citizens of Buckhannon and Charles Trem- 
ble's hands. 

The Court ordered the establishment of a road from John Davis's farm to 
Jacob Crites's blacksmith shop, and hands to work it. Peter Barb was appointed 
surveyor of the road, from John Light's lane on Grassy Run to the turnpike 
at the farm of James Griffin. 

John Strader was appointed surveyor of the road from Stony Run to Cut- 
right's Run and from Jasper N. Lorentz's to Jacob Crites's blacksmith shop. 
Aquilla Osborne was made surveyor of the highway from Queen's Mill down 
the River to tlie turnpike. 

SEPTEMBER i8, 185 1. 

The Court ordered Pascal P. Young, Peter Hyre and Jonathan Heffner 
reviewers to mark out a way from Elias Simmons's passing down by Slab Camp, 
at or near Abram Hosaflook's. W .M. Haymond, William McNulty arid Geo. 
Rexroad were ordered to view out a road from near Jacob Strader's by way of 
Andrew Bogg's and Jonathan Reese's to intersect the Hyre road ; on motion of 
James Lenlmons, William Reed, James Pritt and W. ]\L Haymond were appoint- 
ed to view out roads from William Props' farm to the Randolph line crossing the 
right hand fork of the Buckhannon river. A road was ordered reviewed up Little 
Sand Run to Joseph Howser's mill and along the ridge by M. L. Humphreys to 
Fleming's house, and on to the Big Sand Run road. A review of a new road 
was ordered from Lair Dean's to Valentine Hinkle's mill, and one from Amos 
Sample's to the head of Straight Run. One down Sand Run up Laurel Fork and 
across the Hill to E. C. Bridge's farm ; also one from Turkey Run below Isaac 
Brakes' by way of Timothy Mick's to xA.nthony Strader's mill on Hacker's creek. 

OCTOBER 23, 1 85 I. 

On motion of Lindsay Sandridge, Isaac Warner, John Kesling and Moses 
Roberts were appointed reviewers to establish a road from the Proudfoot road 
passing said Sandridge's house to intersect the Decker road near Adam Rada- 
baugh's. The court on the same day authorized the establishment of a road from 
the house of John J. Burr to the bridge across French creek and from the top of 
the Meeting House hill to James P. Sexton's. 


DECEMBER l8, 185I. 

On the petition of Phillip Smith reviewers were appointed to mark out a 
road from Benjamin Rohrljough's house to C. W. Hemdon's house. At the same 
session the road was ordered from the Strange Ford through Ehiior Cutright's 
meadow up Strange Run and to Chipp's mill, and one from Nathan Ligget's 
store on Finks Run bridge to Sandy Leonard's, and one from the head of Cub 
Run on the road leading from William Rude's to William Hyres' and ending 
near Peter Johnson's, and one from Enoch Gibson's house to Howser's mill, and 
•on to the forks of the road at Isaac Strader's, and one from the church at the top 
of the hill between Grassy Run and Truby's Run to John Tenney's mill by way of 
Abram Our's. 


The religious life of the backwoodsman was unavoidably neglected. The 
strenuous and oftimes desperate contest with the external phenomena gave him 
little time or opportunity for self inspection. The outside world was his battle- 

Life depended upon the issue of his fight with dense forests, wild beasts and 
vindictive savages. All his mental and physical faculties were brought into con- 
stant training by the vicarious contingencies ever before him. There was no break 
in the continuity and therefore no change in the activity of his life struggle. By 
day and by night he labored to keep the prowling wolves of want and treacherous 
devils of destruction from his cabin door. There was no oasis of rest, abiding 
peace and moral self inspection. His call to duty led. yea, forced him to cultivate 
the baser passions of human nature. Annihilation was the goal of his 
ambition ; by it frontier life would be transformed into the unattainable 
dreamland of perfect contentment and earthly bliss. The seductive evil passions 
of harm, such as way-laying, torturing and evil pursuits were the dangerous 
weapons of this total extermination. 

His martyrdom was one of physical defense and self preservation. Like 
Moses coming from Egypt these two lessons were to him "pillar of cloud by day 
and pillar of fire by night." No sound escaped his keen ear, no object lost his 
peering eye, and few experiences avoided his sense of fast. "The forest was his 
home. There he loved to roam," not for what it now gave, but what it promised. 

Then can it be any wonder that little time is given in frontier settlements to 
contrasting vice and virtue, good and evil, sin and holiness? Religious freedom 
they had, governmental protection they wished for. Possessing the former, they 
sought to live to enjoy the latter. Understand that these backwoodsmen were not 
lacking in ethics. Far be it from us to so indict them. Their laws of dealings 
with one another were unwritten, few and rarely violated. With all mankind 
right was right with them shorn of all the contrivances to evade and defer its im- 
mediate good. The magistrate ferreting out the shades and degrees of crime had 
no work in the bosom of such a society. 

His expositions were as "sounding brass and tinkling cymbals." The laws 
of. nature are higher than the laws of man; and they were the unchangable decis- 
ions along which the pioneer's path led. At first much silent comtemplation 
abounded over the loss of the church's refining influence as it was being estab- 
lished and promulgated by John Wesley and George Whitefield. Their trumpet 



like appeals had already reached and effected them ere they took their departure 
from the South Branch. But now they did neglect the seeds of evangelical faith 
and purer life sown by apostles of these two reformers, and contented themselves 
in an exhausting controversy with the most numerous unforseen difficulties ever 
confronting the physical man. 

As passing time separated them more and more from the benign influences 
of church organization, our readers can well understand that our forefathers had 
conformed their lives to the broader theology of the Ten Commandments as 
against the dissenting, quarrelsome and destructive denominational doctrines which 
are more often the "Synogogues of Satin than the Temples of God." 

In this respect the settlement for the first twenty-five years of its existence 
went through its golden age. 

The need of religious teaching from the view-point that personal activity 


leads to growth, consecration and rectitude in all things, was very apparent. 
There was a beginning of the preached word in 1781, according to an article writ- 
ten years ago by Rev. John W. Reger, by Rev. Bozeman at the home of John 
Reger near Volga. Mr. Reger is mistaken in part about this. He says the mem- 
bers were John Reger and wife, Abram Casper and wife. The latter family did 
not come here until the spring of 1800. In 1800 Shadrack Tappan, a Methodist 
minister of the Baltimore conference, ventured into the settlement and proclaimed 
the mission of the Master. His sermon was delivered in the home of Abram 


Carper, whose anxiety for the church was second only to his love and knowledge 
of the Word upon which the church was superstructed. This service caused a rip- 
ple of excitement and speculation which waned with procrastination. No class 
was formed. No church house was built. The devout satisfied their religious 
cravings in the sacred halls of home for ten more long years or until 1810. This 
year witnessed the formation of the first society at the house of John Reger. Steps 
were then and there taken to provide a home for the society. This particular 
society can have no more significance in the annals of church chronology than it 
was the parent church after and to which the multitude of succeeding Methodist 
churches should follow and look. As if by accident, mayhaps by Providence, the 
number of members of this first Methodist class corresponded with the number 
of the commandments and agreed with the casting of the characters in which all 
computations must be expressed. The names of this holy band were Abram Car- 
per and wife, Anthony Rohrbough, John Strader, Henry Reger, George Bush, 
Joseph Hall and wife, Catherine Hall. John Reger and Nancy Bennett. From the 
good works of this first Methodist class of ten went out great constructive influ- 
ences. Here and there whenever a few could assemble regularly other classes 
were organized and churches were built. Nothing impeded this building up pro- 
cess, and today the Methodist Episcopal church has thirty-five hundred communi- 
cants, forty working classes and as many edifices in the limits of tlie county. 
With so many forts at which spiritual ammunition may be had and with such an 
army properly using these exhaustless supplies, this division of God's church 
ought to see, meet and conquer "with the sword of the spirit," not only its own 
land, but others as well. But the Methodist alone has not grown and worked here 
for the religious man. Other demoninations have found this a good field of labor. 


Third denomination in point of time to establish and conduct religious exer- 
cises was the Presbyterian. Rev. Thomas Hunt, once pastor of the Second Pres- 
byterian church of Pittsburg, delivered the first sermon on Calvinistic theology. 
The second minister of the gospel to visit the settlement on French creek was 
Rev. Moses Allen, for many years pastor of the church at Raccoon, Pa. These 
two divines delivered an address each in the home of Aaron Gould, where for 
years a few families met every Sabbath for worship, especially reading sermons. 
The first reader of these sermons was Robert Young, esq. 

Jonathan Alden, Pascal P. Young, Augustus W. .Sexton, William Phillips, 
succeeded him in this commendable practice. The first resident minister of the 
Presbyterian church was Rev. Asa Brooks, who was sent out as a missionary by 
the Hampshire County Missionary Society of Massachusetts in the fall of 1816. 

This society promised to make good his salary of $400.00, or as much of it 
as the settlers failed to pay. He established missions at French Creek, Buck- 
hannon and Beverly, where he expounded the Word on every third Sunday. 

During the week he oftimes would have appointments at points between 
these places. The mid-week visit at Philippi was successful and did much good. 
Rev. Brooks labored hard for one year before he went back East. On this first 
visit home he married Miss Polly Sumner, a woman of strong mind and great 
excellence, and returned to Virginia in 1818. The next year he became a member 
of the Presbytery of Redstone and was immediately asked Jo accept a call from 
French Creek and Buckhannon congregations. Without hesitancy or delay he 
assumed the work. The Presbyterian church at French Creek was really org^n- 


izcd on September lo, 1819. The first minutes of the Sessional Records contain 
these important words: "French Creek, Lewis county, Virginia. There being in 
this settlement a number, both male and female, having letters of recommendation 
from different congregational churches in Massachusetts, with which they were 
united previous to their emigrating to this place, and wishing again to be favored 
with church privileges, a time was appointed for the election of Ruling Elders." 
Time set for the election of Ruling Elders was July 5, 1819. Aaron Gould and 
Robert Young were chosen without opposition to be the responsible dignitaries. 
The organization of the church was not completed until September 10 of this 
year, when several of the grace-full worshipers met at the house of Samuel Gould, 
close to the present residence of Alva Brooks, and finished the noble preliminary 
work by receiving on certificate Nathan Gould and wife, Esther, Mrs. Lydia 
Gould, wife of Aaron, Mrs. Lydia Young, wife of Robert Young, Zedekiah Mor- 
gan's wife, Rebecca, Samuel Gould, Aaron Gould, jr., and Mrs. Polly Brooks, 
wife of Rev. Asa Brooks ; and on examination David Phillips and Anna Phillips, 
his wife. Captain Gilbert Gould's wife, Mehitabel Gould, and Mrs. Lucy Alden, 
wife of Jonathan Alden. The next year the membership increased more than 
100 per cent and Captain Gilbert Gould, Jonathan Alden, Daniel Gould and wife, 
Margaret, Pascal P. Young and wife, Cynthia, the wives of James and Samuel 
and Aaron, jr., Gould, Rhoda and Esther, and niece, Mrs. Mary Knowlton, wife 
of Warren, Chloe Conkey, Anna Young, Misses Sallie, Nancy, Martha and Eliza- 
beth Gould and Sarah Peebles and Roswell Knowlton and Prudence, his wife, 
joined the church. 

A Presbyterian class was organized on the river some miles below the present 
county seat of Upshur county, at the home of Martin Root, in 1819. Dr. Loyal 
Young spells the new missionary station "Buchanon," and says it was thus spelled 
at that time, before the town of Buckhannon was in existence. Martin Root and 
Dr. Elisha D. Barrett were chosen as Ruling Elders. The class afterwards made 
the town its center of activity, building a church on a lot near the present residence 
of Captain A. M. Poundstone. 

Revs. A. J. Fairchilds, Ezekiel Quillin, Edward Brooks, Ebenezer Churchill, 
Orr Lawson, C. P. French, administered the Lord's Supper and expounded the 
Word at French Creek and Buckhannon until after the civil war. 

The first house of Presbyterian worship at French Creek was near where ftie 
present one stands, and was built of logs, and in 1823 or '24. The three things 
peculiar about this building was the ladies' contribution of linen sufficient when 
sold by Augustus W. Sexton at Frazier's store, to pay for the nails and window 
glass for the house ; second, the then common act of some one on the completion 
of the roof of new building to stand on the ridge-pool thereof and christen to 
its proper use the new house, not by breaking the bottle filled with sparkling 
champaign, but by drinking its contents to the health and prosperity of the 
church, and third, the high pulpit, such as prevailed in those days, and were 
reached only by flights of stairs. 

Today the Presbyterian denomination has three churches in the county, 
Buckhannon, French Creek and McCue. 

Rev. Elisha Thomas carried a petition to the Greenbrier presbytery, signed 
by Robert Coyner, Elizabeth Coyner, Mary Cooper, T. E. Janney, Caroline A. 
Janney, Ann Little, Caroline McFadden, David Little, W. A. Patrick, Sarah 
Trimble and Abbey D. Wood, which gave creation to the local church on Novem- 
ber 6, 1849. 



The United Brethern in Christ church began its career in this county in the 
year 1846, at Peeks Run, where a class under the direction and authority of 
Brother Benjamin Stickley of Hardy county was organized. Some of the charter 
members were Mrs. Rebecca Gerald, daughter of Jacob Brake ; JMoses Marple, 
father of G. D. Marple; Henry Neff and Henry Neff James in 1847. John P. 
White was the first class leader. 

The second class organized was at Mt. Washington, Hickory Flat, in the 
same year the county was formed. The ministers who are entitled to praise for 
zeal and fidelity to the U. B. church in its youthful days in these parts were Revs. 
Benjamin Stickley, John Haney, Brashear, L K. Staten and Isiah Baltzel. This 
denomination has for its meritorious work for the past sixty years fourteen 
churches and classes in flourishing condition. 

The greatest stimulus in the Linited Brethren church's growth was 1880, 
when the Normal and Classical Academy was established in the town of Buck- 
hannon. It brought into this field students, scholars and devoted workers, who 
labored assiduously for the strengthening of the society which promoted, guarded 
and supported the struggling school. 

The first society formed by this denomination at Buckhannon was perfected 
in the year 1871, with a membership of twelve. A house of worship was begun, 
and amid many discouragements continued to completion, and dedicated Novem- 
ber 22, 1873. 

The ministers who lent their energy and ability to the building up of this 
local church were : Revs. A. L. Moore, H. L. Poling, J. W. Boggess, D. Barger, 
C. Hall, J. W. Shumaker, G. W. Weekly, J. O. Stephens and .Martin Weekly. 


The initial step for the organization of an Episcopal church in Upshur county 
was taken during 1852, when Robert A. Castleman, resident minister at Clarks- 
burg, and Rev. James Page, a missionary, held various periodical services in 
Buckhannon town. 

The next year Rev. Page was stationed at Weston and held services more 
frequently. His zealous efiforts bore their fruit in due time, and now we have 
two Episcopal churches in the county, one at Buckhannon and one on the plantation 
of the late William T. Higginbotham. 

The Buckhannon church was purchased from the Southern Methodist, re- 
paired, remodeled and named by Rev. T. H. Lacy "The Transfiguration." 

The first time a minister of the Episcopal church was at Spruce was in 1848 
Services were held in the log school house, and the frame one supplanted the log 
house in 1895. when the present building was so nearly completed as to permit 
of occupancy. 

In 1895 the Rev. A. K. Fenton was placed in charge and in July, 1897, 
Spruce Chapel was consecrated under the supervision of Bishop G. W. Peterkin. 

There are at this time fifteen communicants and twenty-eight baptized per- 
sons who look to the church for ministrations. 

A small" rectory was built on the church land in 1897 by Rev. A. K. Fenton, 
the minister in charge. 



The German Baptist, commonly known as "Dunkards," planted their first 
organization and church during the early years of the rebellion on the head 
waters of Big Sand Run. 

Their first church house was a log structure, which was abandoned for an 
elegant new frame building in 1888. This first class was organized by the devotion 
and energy of Rev. Joseph Houser. The mantle of construction fell from Rev. Jos. 
Houser on the shoulders of our estimable countryman, D. J. Miller, who has 
pushed forward the work of recruit, organization and establishment. He builded 
a church at Indian Camp more than a score of years ago, and in 1903 removed the 
class from that place to Bean's Mill on the B. & O. railroad, where a new and 
handsome home had been previously provided. The third and last class to be or- 
ganized by Rev. Miller was at Goshen, where a strong class meets and worships 
according to the edicts of that organization. 


The first church organization at Frenchton was the Baptist in 1816. Rev. 
James Wells preached here and at Buckhannon. 

Robert B. Semple, in his History of the Baptist in Virginia, gives a table 
of Union Association, to which the Buckhannon Baptist church belonged for 
many years. In this he states that the church at Buckhannon was constituted in 
1786, with five members, by Rev. J. W. Loveberry. Uncle Henry Westfall main- 
tains that the Baptist church was organized about the year 1814, and a log house 
was built on the south hill side facing Fink's Run, the present site of the Baptist 
cemetery. After a very thorough investigation of records we are prone to accept 
the later date as the correct one. The members of this first Baptist class were 
Jacob Hyre, John Hyre, John Brake, Jacob Brake and Major Jackson. 

The growth of this church has not been phenomenal, but marked by a regu- 
larity and gradation that is the pride of its members. The Baptist denomination 
now has as the tangible fruition of a century's labors six churches, to which a 
large and appreciative membership and friends weekly repair and pay just devo- 
tion to that God, who is the source of all blessings, temporal and eternal, of earth 
and heaven. 

The present church on Locust street was built in , and its principal sup- 
porters are Senator T. J. Farnsworth, D. C. Hughes, Dr. C. E. White, the Drum- 
mo'nds, Colwes, Sanford Graham. 


Some ten years elapsed after the great schism in the Protestant denomination 
of 1830, before this branch endeavored to effect any organization in this county. 
As is well known, the differences which resulted in the creation of this denomi- 
nation was the manner of government, the contention being to take power from 
the deacons, elders and other high church officers, and lodging it with the people, 
the real bone and sinew of any church. 

The first class was organized at Lorentz, about the year 1837 ; the second 
class was organized at or near the mouth of French Creek. Todaj; this denomi- 
nation is the third strongest in the county, having at least eight churches within 
the county limits. 



Our native ancestors lived very simple lives. They were held together by 
the bands of mutual protection and mutual helpfulness, and were shiftless and 
in some instances lazy and vicious. Their greatest aim was to perform the three- 
fold task of building their cabins, clearing the land and planting corn ; and the 
extent of their improvements was gauged largely by the indefinite measure of nec- 
essity. Some would not even enter upon strenuous life of husbandry long enough 
to provide themselves and theirs with bread and meat to sustain them. To these 
the passion of hunting, rambling, visiting and often times pillaging was stronger 
than the love of domestic duty; and they yielded willingly to the sinful tempta- 
tions of gratifying their own inclinations, leaving their helpless and dependent 
families to shift for themselves. 

Our forefathers were backwoodsmen in deed and in truth. Their environ- 
ments, habits, if their parents and birth did not make them so, was fertile soil 
to generate within their breasts those elements and characteristics that style the 
true American. They were virile, inured to all kinds of hardships, expectant of 
any contingency. They were the kernel and seed of the American citizenship 
of today. 

They readily caught on to the ways of their inveterate foe, the savage, who 
by nature never was a husbandman, and imitated him in every thing that guar- 
anteed them less work, more pleasure and greater protection. The five senses of 
the frontier settler were as acute and keen as the hostile Indian to whom the 
wilderness was an open book. 

The Pringle brothers. John Cutright, William White and the Hughes rev- 
elled in abundant story of how they excelled the aborigines in detecting and in- 
terpreting signs, in watching and in trapping game and in seeing and tracking 
the unusual visitors to their little plantations. They could tread the dry leaves 
and dead limbs of the boundless forest as stealthily and silently as the mountain 
panther, and they excelled him, if need be, in cunning and ferocity. Why should 
it not be thus? The child at a very early age accompanied his father in hunt 
and in field, learning by observation how to handle a gun, the wiles of the savage 
and the necessity of quick, rapid action of defense. 

The four walls of the pioneer home were made of unhewn poles, 
uniform in size and similar in length. The roof was cut in pieces 
of bark, usually birch or hickorj' or clap boards. These were held in 
position on the rough horizontal rafters by means of tie poles ; these tie 
poles lay on the lower half of the roofing material sections and directly over the 
rafter. They were kept in place by staves placed between them. Doors were 
hung on wooden hinges, fastened with a latch string and locked with a timber 
button : floors and ceilings of puncheon, rived boards and strong bark made ready 
for habitation the original cabin. As time passed the continuity of life was as- 
sured the rock-based, "cat and clay" chimneys, hewn logs, four-panel windows, 
obtained in buildings and added to home comfort. There were no outbuildings 
other than the bush-covered rail pens known as the stable. It was just strong 
enough to protect animals from harshments of wild beasts. The first painted 
house was built by Jacob Lorentz, and was a sign of wealth, an object of envy 
and an ornament of admiration. The furnishings of the house consisted of a 
cupboard in the corner nearest the fire, a table used for dining and stand pur- 


poses and some rough knife-made chairs and bedsteads ; this latter article had 
two end pieces, fastened to the side of the log house and to the front railing, 
which was attached to legs at either end. Other poles or hickory withes were 
used as slats, and upon them was placed the straw and feather ticks, or more 
often the pallet of furs and skins. The turning lay came later on and improved 
very much the ornamental appearance of the household furniture. With its 
introduction came the use of flax ropes as bedcords. 

The culinary apparatus was of the rudest. Alany substitutes were forced by 
necessity and few vessels oftimes served many purposes. The journey cake was 
baked in cabbage leaves, the sweet pone in large skillets, as was the wheat bread. 

No article of food debated the supremacy of Indian corn as the staple diet, 
but meat, pumpkins and beans were in continued strife to hold their respective 
positions. These digestibles were prepared in frying pans, Dutch ovens and 
large pots by the artful house wife, taken up in pewter basins or wooden trays, 
and served on flat boards or pewter plates. 

No rugs or carpets hid the rough surface of the floor and augmented per- 
sonal comfort untii 1828, when the Goulds and Youngs made in partnership the 
first bolt of rag carpet, using flax for chain and rags for filling. 

The dress of our forefathers was in great part borrowed from the Indian 
The fur cap was the man's headgear. It was made grotesque by leaving the tail 
of the wild animal hang from the crown, making its wearing have a weird, fierce 
look. Samuel Oliver made some ill-shaped headgear, but the first real wool liats 
were made by Abraham Carper, who came here soon after serving an apprentice- 
ship in Pennsylvania. The main part of the body was covered with the fringed 
hunting shirt, homespun or buckskin. It was a loose cloak or smock reaching to 
the knees and held in at the waist by a belt from which hung the tomahawk, 
bowieknife or other sharp instruments. Many preferred the shorter coat of 
homespun jeans, called the "wamus." It was tied around the body just below 
the waistband of the breeches. This was another absolute article of male attire, 
made of deerskin or linsey woolsey. The feet were protected by moccasins made 
of tanned horsehide, cowhide, buffalo or deerskin. They were light, loose, elastic 
when wet and rasping when dry. 

The most intricate machine of the home was the loom, an appliance for the 
weaving of cloths and carpets. By means of this instrument and the growing 
of a few sheep and a small acreage of flax, the good housewife was able to man- 
ufacture linsey woolsey, a kind of cloth known as the warmest and strongest. 
Toe was the warp and yarn was the woof of this cloth. Many of our grandma- 
mas were experts in weaving, putting out in one day's full work many yards. 

The one other article of great usefulness to the pioneer was the gun ; it is a 
firearm. The first of that class was called flintlock, so named because the user 
had to touch off the powder with a spark produced by steel coming in violent 
attack with a flint. The second is known as the percussion lock guns, the powder 
of which was exploded by a hammer sent forth by a strong spring and striking 
a small copper cap containing fulminating powder. These weapons were mu»zle 
loaders, very accurate and very long, compared with the present firearms. Some- 
times from dampness of cap or weakness of strike guns failed to fire, and this 
was great argument against their use at first. Abraham Crites once having an 

experience of this kind declared his gun was not worth a d . Hunters were 

adepts in the use of these guns, always boasting and tormenting each other about 
the excellency and accurateness of their own. It is remarkable that many pio- 


neers could shot, load, fire and reload those old percussion muzzle loaders with 
a quickness that would astound the living Nimrod. 

In the hands of the true backwoodsman the gun subserved two ends. It 
was a weapon of defense and protection, and it was an instruments of supply 
and furnishing. Its function in this latter case was facilitated, yea compelled 
when the scarcity of grain and other provisions was general. The failure of 
the corn crop drove the pioneer to the expedient of a substitute for bread, and 
this could be found only in the dense, fertile, boundless forest, which shrowded 
his home and contained game. The Pringle brothers saw, met and killed two 
or three shaggy-maned buffalos who were feeding on the wild sweet peas 
and other nutritious plants on the fertile lands along which the beaten buffalo 
path lead. Wild turkeys were also plentiful and furnished the first settlers with 
many delectable roasts. The lordliest game of all the forest here about was the 
round-horned deer, whose antlers spread out like producing apple trees, and whose 
numbers were great. This animal saved many a poor family from starvation, 
scurvey and disease, and the home was safe when a goodly amount of jerk, dear 
meat dried in the sun or by the fire, was on hand. The bear abounded where 
chestnuts, haws and persimmons abounded, and was another standby to the 
pioneer. Whenever the larder was deficient of hog grease, butter or other short- 
ening or seasoning, the man went forth on the beloved bear ground to kill one 
of its inhabitants in order that fat and oil for cooking might be had. The pigeons 
at times filled the woods, and came down on the improvements in such large 
flocks that their coming was like unto impending clouds ; and when they came 
down on a plantation they spread devastation and desolation in their way. 

The black and gray squirrel made inroads on the corn field and had to be 
repulsed and driven away continuously to save the crop. 

Besides these animals might be mentioned the woodchuck, whose habitation 
was under an old stump in an old field and whose fur was warm and desirous 
for head covering : the panther or American lion, whose nature was vicious and 
whose invasions were frequent. Nor must we forget the wolf, whose sheep 
killing proclivities were only satisfied with a full and complete gratification of their 
blood-thirsty appetite. 

The frontiersmen lived in a stage of independent economy. Everything 
from bread to sandals was produced or manufactured by members of the 
household. The grubbing of a few acres for a corn patch was usually done by 
the man in the open days of winter ; and if the approach of spring found little 
work done on the intended clearing a general invitation was sent to neighbors to 
come in and make up the backwardness. These gatherings were largest at chop- 
pings and rollings. The married and unmarried women were visitors at the 
home of the maker of these parties on the same day. passing their time in the use- 
ful labor of quilting a bed cover or separating dirt from sheep's wool and spin- 
ning it into available yarn. That night men and women made merry in dance, 
song, drink and story ; these social exercises both terminated and dominated the 
separate day gatherings. They were called "frolics," and are known to this day 
as such. Oftimes a full month in spring was given to attendance on these frolics ; 
mutual helpfulness was the motive back of them. He who rolled logs for an- 
other fould have help in rolling his own logs. During autumn a repetition on a 
smaller scale occurred with those who wanted to sow wheat. 

With the single exception of these grubbing, chopping and rolling frolics 
the frontiersman relied exclusively upon his own help and ingenuity. With the 


ihand-made plow, all wood but the broad shovel or narrow colter fastened at the 
lower end of the beam, he weaved in and out among the roots andl stomps across- 
the cleared patch until the tough turf was well broken. The power drawing the- 
,plow was either the horse harnessed with home-made straw collar, wooden 
hames, leather back-bands and hemp traces, or a pair of cattle joined together,, 
side by side, by hickory bows passing around the neck and up through holes in 
•a wooden beam laying just behind the bovine's ears. A wooden key was thrrnst 
through a small aperture in the end of the inside prong of the bow, holding it in 
place on the neck and in the beam. The Pringle brothers did their plowing and 
hauling with a milch cow, harnessed like a horse. The animal served the double 
purpose for years of a beast of burden and a producer of food. 

John Hacker, at Lorentz, was the first blacksmith on the waters of the Bitck- 

Prior to his cobbling in iron the frontiersmen had to use withes for chains, 
for bolts and for ropes. The singletree was a three-foot stick of toagh wood, with 
a hole through the center and another at the end. 

Clips were unknown. The doubletree was like the singletree and larger. 

The saddle was a typical pack saddle, made of dogwood forks and slats of 
■wood. Blankets of rags or sheepskin were put under this rough make-shift to 
lessen the injury to the animal's back and skins of fur and wool were put over 
it to lessen injury to the rider's stern. 

Horses, cattle and hogs were fed out of soft wood troughs of every size 
and length ; and oftimes the larger troughs were used as grain bins, pickling 
"barrels and swill tubs. Milk pails and water buckets were wooden, manufactured 
■of dressed staves and hickory hoops. When these vessels were distinct the former 
■was called a "keeler," the latter a "piggin," but the rule was that multiplicity 
■produced confusion and one was sufficient for both purposes. 

Sleds were exclusively used until the dawn of the nineteen centun-. 
Messrs. Jacob Lorentz, Abraham Carper and Abe Post transported their goods 
irom Beverly on a wagon in 1800, the first seen on the Buckhannon. The first 
■wagon brought here permanently was the one carrying the goods of Messrs. 
Robert Young and Gilbert Gould. The paths were so narrow and steep, it fell 
into disuse and decay. 

Hogs and cattle date their presence with the beginning. The rich mast and 
nutritious range kept the swine in a growing, healthy condition, such as insured 
and encouraged rapid multiplication. Shortly the woods were full of them. If 
hog meat was craved the pioneer had no trouble to satisfy his craving. As time 
went on a market for savory mountain ham was found and the hog trade became 
a paying business. 

The demand for hogs was responsible for infinite and sometimes menacing 
disputes over ownership. The cause of these disputes was removed by the custom 
of a system of markings, ear cuttings, nose lashings and tail trimmings. Messrs. 
James' Smith, Abram Reger, James Teeter and J. Wesley Westfall were some 
of the first hog merchants. The hogs brought a certain ])rice per head, were col- 
lected in one large herd at the home of the buyer, and started off on foot to mar- , 
ket. Men were hired to follow them to Richmond, Winchester or Cumberland 
and watch that none escaped. The owner usually followed soon after his drove 
in a wagon loaded with corn and carrying an empty box to rest and help the tired 
or injured which fell by the way. 


Chester W. Morgan was employed to assist in driving a herd of 937 to 
Richmond, which place was reached with the full number. 

Wandering away from improvements and staying away for a term of years 
effected the hog's tameness and reduced him in many instances to his former 
wild and ferocious state. 


This political division of the commonwealth of West Virginia hangs like an 
elongated diamond on the thirty-ninth parallel of north latitude. About four times 
as much territory lies south of this parallel as lies north of it. Its width being 
about one-third of its length. It lies between the eightieth and the eightieth and 
thirty minute's meridens of longitude east of Greenwich. 

The surface of Upshur county is undulating and bordering upon the rough. 
This surface lies above the sea level at a height ranging from eleven hundred 
to three thousand feet, a sufficient variation to cause a very perceptible difference 
in temperature and in the ripeness of fruits and vegetables. 

The streams of Upshur county are such as are found at the head waters of 
all the principal rivers of this continent. Away up against the mountain side 
beyond the confines of LTpshur county there bursts forth a perennial stream of 
water which flounders around in the porous soil thereabout and finally .starts off 
down the western slope. As this tiny stream goes on, it receives additions, branches 
and divisions which make it stronger and stronger; it creeps, silently, toward the 
father of waters until it becomes a river, silvery in its appearance, sinuous in its 
direction and rich in its blessings. The beauty of this principal river through 
the central portion of LTpshur county transcends that beautiful river of which 
long ago it was sung in most delightful poesy, 

"Onward ever, lovely river. 

Softly falling to the sea. 

Time that scars us, maims and mars us. 

Leaves no track or trench on thee." 

In many places along the course of this river there are positive geological 
testimonials of its prehistoric origin and work. The broad alluvial valleys, and 
• the wide fertile plateaus through which this stream flows, is proof ample and 
abundant that some time in the ages of the past its banks extended from hill top 
to hill top; geological up-hcavals, the ocean's receding action, and the erosion 
caused by these streams, have wrought the change whereby these waters are more 
limited and less dangerous. From the northern to the southern end of the 
county streams of lesser size empty their water into the bosom of this beautiful 
river. On the west side commencing in the northern end of the county and 
proceeding toward the southern extremity, are Peck's Run, Turkey Run, Fink's 
Run, Cutright's Run, French Creek, and Big Run pouring their sparkling waters 
into the Buckhannon. On the east side commencing at the north and going 
southward. Big Sand Run, Little Sand Run, Truby's Run, Grassy Run, Panther 
Run and the Left Fork empty their contents into the same stream. 

In the southern portion of Washington District a score of intermittent streams 
give rise to small rivulets which course their way down different vales toward 
a common valley where they can all unite their waters and proceed toward the 


illimitable ocean ; from where these streams come together on to its junction 
with the Buckhannon River the name Middle Fork River is given to these waters. 
This stream is of most importance to the count}' in that it makes a natural 
boundery line between Ulpshur and Randolph counties for fully one-half of the 
distance of their contiguity. In the most extreme southern magisterial district 
on the west side of the county one of the leading rivers of the State has its source. 
The river alluded to is the Little Kanawha, whose Left Fork and Right Fork 
and Cherry Fork all have their headsprings in Bank's District. 

The West Fork has but two streams worthy of mention arising in Upshur 
county ; the names of these streams are Straight Fork and Hacker's Creek in the 
southern and northern portions, respectively. 

Of- all the affluents of the Buckhannon River the largest is French Creek, 
which has a total length of sixteen miles, with Bull Run, Grand Camp, Laurel 
Fork, Bush Run, Slab Camp and Sand Run as its principal tributaries. 

Soil. — The soil of Upshur county is as varied as its surface. Its nature, 
fertility and depth depend upon geographic and geological conditions that effected 
their work millions of years ago. It is a well known fact that soil and climate 
effect more readily the higher life of man than any other animal ; therefore, these 
geographic circumstances have much to do with the vocations of the people living 
upon any particular division of surface. If a man is a farmer the crops which 
he cultivates will depend entirely upon the nature of the soil and the character 
of the climate — the amount of heat the sun sends him and the quantity of rain 
which falls on his fields. He must raise those grains and vegetables which the 
heat, the rain, and the nature of the earth around him will grow and produce. 
The character of this soil and climate, makes the occupation of farming most 
general among our people. The history of this soil is simple and yet ver\- won- 
derful. Shaler in his "Story of Our Continent," tells us that soils of North 
America are of three classes. First, on the northern part that soil which is 
produced during the period of geology known as the glacial period, in which the 
pebbles and sand and finer particles are pushed some distance away from the bed 
rocks from which they came. Second, that soil which is directly derived from 
the rocks immediately beneath the surface, that is, the fine particles of sand and 
vegetable matter are washed down from a steep slope and caught and held on a 
more level surface. With such a soil it is possible for the close observer to readily 
detect the differences of the underlying rock. Third, that soil which is produced 
by deposit made on the banks of rivers and oceans at the time of their overflow 
or by their incoming tides. 

The soil of Upshur county was formed principally according to the second 
method. The fine pieces of rock, the particles of clay and sand which have been 
torn and worn from the firm under-rock, by the action of rain, frost, rivers, waves 
and the roots of plants as well as by the decay which all rock material is heir to, 
are mingled n one conglomerate mass. Mixed with this fine stony substance 
are leaves, decayed underbrush, roots and other stems which when finely divided 
and abundantly distributed, give the soil a dark color. The rain falls on this 
surface and percolates through it, seizing on its way downward such elements 
as will combine with it in solution. This solution is food for the plant which 
springs up and covers the surface. "On the proportion of lime, potash, phosphatic 
matter, soda, and various materials found in this soil water, depends the fertility 
of the soil ; that is, its fitness to nourish crops ; whether those of wild nature 
or of the tilled fields." 


All our rocks were produced on old sea-floors and these sea-floors are of 
diflferent ages as evidenced by the nature of the rock. In the northern part of the 
county we have the youngest of these surface rotks and from its nature it forms 
the richest soil. As we go southward and eastward these surface rocks are 
older and less fertile, due to the action of the natural elements and their age. 
The soil of Upshur county on the whole is fertile. Yet, there is a wide difference 
between one section and another section of the county in the fertility of its 
respective soils. 

The climate of this county is wholesome, ranging in temperature from 20' 
Fahrenheit below zero to 100° above. The winters are colder and the summers 
are hotter than localities in the same latitude in the Old World. The contrast 
of temperature on the same parallel east and west of the Alleghenies is very 
noticeable. These alternations seem to be helpful to the health of the human 
body, serving to beget activity and exercise, which strengthen and invigorate the 
whole system, and resulting in a degree of vital energy and healthful persever- 
ance that frustrate disease, bestows happiness and gives long life. 

Upshur is most suitable to the life of man and the domesticated animals 
which contribute most to the happiness of man. 

The annual precipitation of rain varies between 42 and 52 inches and the 
distribution of rain as regards the seasons is generally favorable to the needs of 
the husbandman and stockraiser. 

There are but few periods of scorching drought and so brief is their duration 
that little permanent damage results. The same is true as respects the excesses 
of rainfall. So that the average return from the soil, is uniform and not sub- 
jected to dangerous fluctuations. Our proximity to the mountains and our 
dense forests, have made us immune from the serious dangers of a famine and 
the great sufifering of a drought. No sterile fields and long-faced farmers need 
exist in Upshur. The United States Weatherman tells us that one year the 
average temperature was 49.9, precipitation 48.63. 

The wide range of climate has the advantage of producing manifold variety 
of crops. It also determines the kind, and number of animals which inhabit the 
air, the land and the water. Our fields have but one product that enter into the 
economics of the world ; our live stock is sufficient to produce a tiny ripple on the 
great export markets of New York and Liverpool. The possibilities of small 
fruits, orchards and dairy products entering into (intcr-state commerce, are 

The principal productions of the soil in Upshur county consists of the great 
variety of grasses which are converted into hay and pasture, and when properly 
and judiciously fed to cattle and sheep, make those animals fat. The county is 
peculiarly adapted to grazing purposes. Upon the clearing awa\- of the forests 
and the breaking of the wooded turf and even without this last process there will 
spring up voluntarily and luxuriantly grasses most nutritious and most valuable. 

Nature advises the limitations of grain growing. Without consulting the 
forces of nature which conduce to the growth of grains, such as the altitude above 
the sea level and propitious climate, the grain grower is liable to meet with failure. 
Government statistics inform us that 60 per cent of the grain grown in the 
United States is produced on the soil below the level of 1,000 feet and 90 per 
cent of grain of the United States is grown on land below 1,500 feet. So that 
being the case, the altitude of the surface of Upshur county can never be made 
fo contribute very much to the grain products of the country. With 1,500 feet 


elevation above the sea as the Hne of demarcation of profitable grain growing 
the labor of the husbandman who attempts and expects good returns for his 
labor, must confine himself to that section of the county which is north of the 
mouth of Grassy Run. While the 1,500 foot contour line extends up the Buck- 
hannon River and over to the mouth of Grassy Run, it must also be observed 
that the portion of the county which lies below diis level to any important degree 
is very small ; and therefore the topography of Upshur county is decidedly unfa- 
vorable to the production of grain. 

Apples, pears and peaches thrive in this upland country and more attention 
and consideration should be given to their growing and product. 

The facts clearly indicate that Upshur county has not a tilable soil and that 
farming operation must be very limited whatever may have been the results of 
former days when the soil was newer and the prospects more promising. The 
business of this county for a score of years past and for time to come has been 
and will be reduced to four principal pursuits : grazing, forestr}', mining and 
fruit growing. 

The forests of Upshur county are only a section and small part of that great 
Appalachian woodland whose timber has been the source of a profitable income 
to land owners for the past half-century. Every acre of territory in this county 
was once covered with valuable trees which, had they been left growing until the 
present time, would have yielded the handsome price of at least $80 per acre 
on the average. So dense were these forests that the pioneers regarded them 
as a serious obstacle in the establishment of settlements. The ground 
upon which they grew and flourished, had to be cleared for agricultural pur- 
poses ; and so thick and so high were the trees that it was utterly impossible and 
impracticable for the pioneer soil-tiller to remove, as did his English brother, all 
the stumps and roots from the soil before he tilled it. So the Indian custom of 
taking out the underbrush and girding the trees to deaden them, was adopted. 
Later those girdled trees were felled to the ground and destroyed by the consum- 
ing flame. Yet the roots were in the way of the plow, and however fertile the soil, 
it was often a life-time before the farmer had smooth fields. 

The natural use of the wood is to store up the rainfall in the decaying vege- 
up and held in abeyance, yielding slowly to the stream, thus diminishing the force 
table matter which lay around the roots of the giant trees. This water is taken 
of the winter torrents and maintaining a constant flow through the summer 
season. The forests are most important to man when the population is dense 
and many and varied buildings are needed. Then it is that a general demand 
for lumber makes timber valuable and profitable to both the forest owner and 
the manufacturer. 

The great majority of trees comprising the forests of this county are the 
broad leaf deciduous tree, such as the beech, the giant oak, the hickory, the wal- 
nut, the magnolia and the noble tulip tree, or more commonly known as the pop- 
lar. The lumber manufactured from these trees is very valuable for building 
purposes for furniture and for finishing. In addition to the broad leaf trees we 
have the pine, hemlock, spruce, and other narrow leaf growths which mingle 
their towering tops with those of the broad leaf, making the general appearance 
of the forests one of beauty and attraction. This latter class of trees is also 
valuable for the lumber which they produce. The mills which have operated 
and are now operating in the limits of Upshur county are numerous and varied 
in the capacity of their production. Among the saw-mills worthy of notice 


which have manufactured lumber of priceless value and general usefulness are 
the following, 

The Buckhannon River Lumber Company, whose chief mill was located 
in the town of Buckhannon and began operations under that noted lumberman, 
A. H. Winchester, in the early eighties. 

The Alexander Company, whose magnitude of forest acreage and lumber 
operations the past sixteen years on the Buckhannon river some twenty-five miles 
south of the county seat, is yet attracting the attention of lumbermen all over 
the country, and the Stockert Lumber Company whose plant was built on a 
the country, and the Stockert Lumber Company, whose plant was built on the 
branch of the Buckhannon river east of Alton ten years ago, put out a quality 
and quantity of lumber that made its promoter and builder, G. F. Stockert, a 
man of means and affluence. 

Besides these large saw-mills before mentioned there is a multitude of porta- 
ble mills which have done and are still doing manufacturing business of good 
quality and great value. The lumber interests of this county for the past twenty 
years transcend in their value and worth all other business combined. 


1900. 1890. 1880. 1870. i860 

Upshur county ' 14,696 12,714 8,498 7,292 

Banks district 3.201 2,577 1,272 

Buckhannon district 1,674 

Including Buckhannon town 3)489 2,542 

Buckhannon town 1,589 1,403 473 

Meade district 2,316 2,124 1,284 

Union district 2,115 ^,941 1,176 

Warren district 1,239 I,4i8 1,601 

Washington district 2.336 2,112 1,016 


1900. 1890. 1880. 1870. i860 

Males 7_j433 6,412 5,194 4,027 

Females 7,263 6,302 5,055 3,996 

Native Bom — Females 7,221 

Foreign born 107 138 127 91 

White 14,473 12,458 10,048 7,851 7,064 

Negroes 221 256 201 172 *2I2 

*i6 free colored; 212 slaves. 


Native born — Males 7,368 

Natve born — Females 7,221 

Foreign born — Males 65 

Foreign born — Females 42 

Native parents — Males 7,1 1 1 

Total white in 1870 8,279 

Foreign parents 284 

Males - 152 

Females 132 


Foreign white io6 

Males 64 

Females 42 

Total colored in 1870 219 

Males 106 

Females 117 

From the above table two strong inferences are drawn, first, that the in- 
crease of population from one decade to another has been constant, uniform and 
about the same rate as the national increase ; second, that the native born portion 
of the population in comparison with the foreign born bears the ratio of 99 to i. 
A third lesson can be drawn from this table in the fact that the whites con- 
stitute 98 per cent of the population and the negroes about 2 per cent. This rela- 
tion has existed ever since the importation of the first negro into this county with 
the per cent decreasing the further we go back into the annals and records of 
local population. 

The people of Upshur county are frugal, industrious and honest. No 
where in West Virginia and mayhap, no where in the United States on 360 
square miles of farming and agricultural lands, can there be found a population 
in which these characteristics are so uniformly marked. While this poeple lack 
the desperate energy and killing activity of the western promoter, business man 
and farmer, they are blessed with an abiding desire for that uniformity of labor 
and continuance of quietude that lengthen their lives and insures earthly peace 
and contentment. 

This people is abstemious in all things, yet possessed of such foresight as 
enable them to struggle continually to lay up such treasures on earth as to meet 
the accidents of climate and the exigencies of health. And when these purposes 
are filled their ambitions run toward higher, nobler, and grander attainments 
such as the acquisition of knowledge, the experimentation with natural forces 
and the contemplation of states of mind and conditions of heart that reap their 
reward in telling to others the glad story of how contentment maybe secured 
and must be attained, whether in a hut or in a palace. For such people the 
glitter of gold itself stimulates not to action. 

In a previous paragraph the general elevation of the county was given, and 
now more specific places of elevation throughout the county are given. Bob 
Peak, or Mt. Bob, near Rock Cave, above the sea 2161 feet; Beverage Knob, 
near Stillman, 1,675 ^^et ; Willson Knob, near Frenchton, 1,609 feet; Church 
Knob, near Queens, 2,222 feet; Buckhannon town, 1,405 feet; Lorentz, 1,435 
feet; Mick Hill, 1,810 feet; Rural Dale, 1,122 feet; Peck's Run, 1,419 feet; 
Hinkle, 1,431 feet; Swamp Run, 1,721 feet; Hemlock, 2,461 feet; Palace Valley, 
2,506 feet; Alexander, 1,817 feet; Alton, 1,809 f^^^; Sago, 1,422 feet; mouth of 
French creek, 1,412 feet; Overhill 1,432 feet; Newlonton, 1,910 feet; Kanawha 
Head, 1,903 feet; Pickens, 2,672 feet. 

These elevations when studied closely and comparatively, impress upon 
the mind the conviction that the topography of the county was that of a plain 
or plateau at some time in the past ; that this land stood at a much lower altitude 
than now, in fact was sea-bottom for ages. It has since been raised gradually 
to its present elevation. The high hills which are noted in the list of elevations 
preserved because of the fact that the rocks forming them were unusually hard, 
and therefore, they were protected from erosion. The uneven surface was 
produced by the uneven density and hardness of the rocks. 


TAXBARK SHED, at the William Flaccus Oak and Leather Tannery. 




"The whole is equal to the sum of all its parts." Within thirty years after 
the founding of Jamestown, Virginia was divided into eight counties and shires. 
These were the first counties organized in the New World and were similar in all 
respects, except size, to the counties or shires of England. They were named 
James City, Henrico, Elizabeth City, Warwick River, Warrosquiyoake (Isle oi 
Wight, Charles River and Acomack. Charles City and Warwick River, North- 
ampton, Gloucester, Northumberland, Sussex, New Kent, Staflford, Middlesex, 
Norfolk, Princess Anne, King, Queen, Richmond, King William, Prince George, 
Spottsylvania, King George. Hanover, Brunswick, Goochland, Caroline, Amelia, 
Orange, Frederick and Augusta were formed during the next hundred years at 
liifferent times, for the one purpose to make provision for good civil and police 
government for the daring pioneers. 

Of Frederick and Augusta counties, Henning's statutes say that all that 
territory and tract of land at present (1738- deemed to be part of the county oi 
Orange, lying on the northwest side of the top of the said Blue Ridge moun- 
tains), extending from thence northerly westerly and southerly beyond the said 
mountains, to the utmost limits of Virginia, be separated from the rest of said 
county, and erected into two district counties and parishes ; to be divided by a 
line to be run from the head spring of Hedgman river to the headspring of the 
liver Potomac, and that all that part of said territor>' lying to the northeast of the 
said line beyond the top of the said Blue Ridge, shall be one district, count and 
parish, to be calld Fredrick, and the other side to be one district, county and 
parish, to be called Augusta. 

Note the limitable boundary of these two counties — northerly, westerly and 
southerly. A glance at your map will show that these counties embrace the 
plateau valley of the Shenandoah, commonly styled the Valley of Virginia, and all 
that portion of country known as the Northwest territory, including Kentucky 
on the south. 

An examination of historical maps will show the reader about what por- 
tions of West Virginia were embraced in the above mentioned counties. , 

Before proceeding to the further history of the divisions and sub-divisions 
of counties, till we reach the formation of Upshur, it is very proper that we should 
explain the term "District of West Augusta." 


This term was used in contradistinction to East Auguta or that part of 
Augusta County between the Blue Ridge and Allegheny mountain ranges. Boun- 
dries for this Western county or district were given in 1776, when the Virginia 
Assembly said "Beginning on the Allegheny mountains between the heads of 
Potowmack, Cheat and Greenbrier rivers, thence along the ridge of mountains 
which divides the waters of Cheat river from those of Greenbrier, and that branch 
of the Monongahela river called Tygarts Valley river, to the Monongahela river ; 
thence up the said river and the West Fork thereof to Bingamon's creek, on the 
northeast of the said West Fork, thence up the said creek to the head thereof; 
thence in a direct course to the head of Middle Island creek, a branch of the 
Ohio, and thence to the Ohio, including all the waters of the aforesaid creek in 
the aforesaid District of West Augusta, all that territory lying to the northward 
of the aforesaid boundary and to the westward of the states of Pennsylvania and 
Maryland, shall be deemed and is hereby declared to be within the District of 
West Augusta." 

The boundaries of the District of West Augusta would be about as follows : 
Beginning on the top of the Alleghenies at the northeast corner of Pocahontas 
county and nmning thence southwesterly to Mingo Flats in Randolph county; 
thence, from source to mouth of the Tygarts Valley river; thence up the West 
Fork river to mouth of Bingamons Creek to the head waters of Middle Island 
creek in Doddridge county ; thence with said stream northwesterly to Central 
Tyler county ; thence west to the Ohio river ; thence up said Ohio river to Pitts- 
burgh ; thence up the Monongahela river to the Cheat river mouth and up Cheat 
river to the beginning. 

Ohio, Yohogatiia and Monongalia. — After October, 1776, this District of 
"West Augusta" disappears, being distributed among the three counties, Ohio, 
Yohogania and Monongalia. The first and last of these three counties we still 
have, though greatly diminished and limited in their boundaries. The greater 
part of Yohogania, after the westward extension of the Mason and Dixon line 
in 1784. fell to Pennsylvania, and whatever residue remained was, by act of as- 
sembly in 1785, added to Ohio county. Thus Yohogania went off the map by 
substitution and displacement. 

The boundaries of Monongalia established by this act of 1776 were defined 
as follows: "All that part of the said district lying to the northward of the 
county of Augusta, to the westward of the meridian of the fountain of the 
Potomack, to the southward of the county of Yohogania and to the eastward of 
the county of Ohio, shall be one other district county, and shall be called and 
known by the name of Monongalia." 

In May of 1784 Harrison county was formed from Monongalia, with boun- 
daries delineated as follows : From and after the 20th day of July next the 
county of Monongalia shall be divided into two distinct counties by a line begin- 
ning on the Maryland line at the Fork Ford on the land of John Goff ; thence down 
the said creek to Tygarts \''alley Fork of the Monongahela river ; thence down 
the same to the mouth of the Bingamons creek ; thence up said creek to the line 
of Ohio county ; and that part of the said county lying south of the said line 
shall be called and known by the name of Harrison. The territory now embraced 
in Upshur county must be included in this new county of Harrison, for the crea- 
tive act provides that the first court of Harrison county should be held at the house 
of George Jackson at Bush's Fort, on Buckhannon river. So the present county 


seat of Upshur was county seat of Harrison county for at least one year after 
its formation. 

Randolph county was formed in October, 1786, the act stating "that 
from and after the first day of May, one thousand seven hundred and 
eighty-seven, the county of Harrison shall be divided into two distinct counties, 
that is to say, so much of said county lying on the southeast of the following 
lines beginning at the mouth of Sandy creek; thence up Tygarts Valley river to 
the mouth of Buckhannon river ; thence up the said river, including all the waters 
thereof; thence down Elk river, including the waters thereof, to the Greenbrier 
line, shall be one distinct county, to be called and known by the name of Ran- 
dolph ; and the residue of the said county shall retain the name of Harrison. 
This act is additional proof that this (Upshur- territory was a part of Harrison, 
and that part east of the Buckhannon river was included in Randolph on its for- 
mation, and it was even thought that Buckhannon settlement or the territory 
in and around the present site of Buckhannon was included in Randolph county. 
To substantiate that contention we quote a subsequent act of the assembly. The 
act was styled "Addition to Harrison" ; that all that part of the county of Ran- 
dolph called Buckhannon settlement. 

Beginning on the dividing ridge at the head of Stone Cole ; thence running 
down Bull Run to French creek; thence with said creek to Buckhannon river; 
thence down the same to the lines of Christopher Strader's survey ; thence with 
the same reversed to John Jackson's lines and with the same to a fourteen-hun- 
dred-acre survey of George Jackson's ; thence down Buckhannon river to the 
line of Harrison county and with said line to the beginning. This act passed 
January 2nd, 1802. 

A new factor now enters into our boundary question, and we are made to 
ask what becomes of Buckhannon settlement. December 18, 1816, the Virginia 
Assembly passed the act forming the county of Lewis and defining its boundaries 
as follows, viz : Beginning at the head of the left hand fork of Jesse's Run ; 
thence a straight line to the mouth of Kinchloes creek; thence up said creek to 
the dividing ridge ; thence a west course to the Wood county line ; thence to in- 
clude all the south part of Harrison down to the mouth of Buckhannon river; 
thence a straight line to the beginning. It is evident from this act that the por- 
tion of Upshur west of Buckhannon river was in Lewis county. We proceed 
now to give the boundaries of Barbour county, which was formed by act of 
Assembly IMarch 3, 1843, and the limits were delineated as follows : Beginning 
opposite the mouth of Sandy creek on the east side of the Valley river, in the now 
county of Randolph : thence down said Valley river with the several meanderings 
thereof to M. Daniel's ferry ; thence a straight line to the dividing ridge on the 
waters of Simpson creek and Bartlett's Run (so as to include Reuben Davisson) ; 
thence a straight line to the old farm now occupied by Samuel Bartlett ; thence 
to the head of Goodwin's Run ; thence a straight line to the mouth of Matthew's 
Camp Run on Elk creek ; thence a straight line to William Bean's on Gnatty 
creek ; thence a straight line to the head of Peck's Run ; thence with the dividing 
ridge between the head of Peck's Run ; thence with the dividing ridge between 
the head of Peck's Run and Hacker's creek to the gap of said ridge where the 
road crosses leading down to Hacker's creek; thence a straight line to Samuel 
Black's residence (including him) on Buckhannon river; thence a straight line 
to the mouth of Sarvis Run on the Middle Fork of the Valley river; thence a 
straight line to the gap of Laurel Hill mountain, where the Widow Corley's comer 



tree stands ; thence with the top of said mountain until where it comes to the 
Preston county line; thence with the Preston-Randolph line to the beginning. 
From these acts it is plain that the territory now embraced in Upshur county was 
parts of three counties — east of the Buckhannon river belonging to Randolph, 
west of the river to Lewis and the northern part to Barbour. 

The first petitioned legal efifort for the establishment of the new county, 
which was afterwards called Upshur, was made in the year 1848, when, pursuant 
to sections one, two and three of chapter fifty-seven, page fifty-five, of the Virginia 
code of 1846-47, a vote was taken. It will be recalled that the time of holding 
an election upon the intention of parties to petition the general assembly to create 
a new county was the same as for the election of delegates — the fourth Thursday 
of April of every year. So at the regular election of the spring of 1848 proper 
books were made in due fonn, with the caption stating the counties from which 
the new county is supposed to be formed, the seat of justice, and with the two 
columns on opposite sides of the same page, bearing at the head of one : "For the 
new county," at the head of the other, "Against he new county." 

Authentic copies of these poll books, at the voting precincts of Buckhannon 
town and Beech Town, now Frenchton, are here given to indicate the strength 
of the movement at these respective points, which were the only places in the 
present bounds of Upshur where elections were held. 

Poll at Buckhannon for and against a new county out of parts Lewis, Har- 
rison, Randolph and Barbour, with the county seat at Buckhannon Town : 


Elmore Brake 
Wm. W. Jackson 
W. C. Carper 
Benjamin Radabaugh 
Archibald Hinkle 
Thorn. Farnsworth 
Elijah Hyre 
Thos. Deen 
Jac Clark 
Leonard Crites 
Joel Pringle 
Wm. Bennett 
Nathan Leggett, alive 
E. J. Colerider 
C. W. McNulty 
John Ireland 
Melvel Brake 
C. D. Tremble 
Isaac Brake , 

Jac Paugh 
Jno. N. Londin 
Sam'l Spitler 
O. B. Loudln 
Lot Cutrlght 
Jacob S. Strader 

Geo. W. Miller 
Nicholas McVaney 
Benj. Rohrbough 
Henry Reger 
Wm. L. Anderson 
B?. J. Burr 
Robert Pritt 
Wm. R. Starcher 
Abram Post, Jr. 
Wm. Mick 
Amos C. Pringle 
John H. Rohrbough 
David Curtis 
Jas. M. Wolf 
Geo. Post 
D. J. Casto 
D. M. Bennett 
Sam'l C. Tenney 
Lair Dean 
Peter Hyer 
James Dicks 
Isaac Casto 
John Strader 
John O. Core 
Isaac Reger 


FOR THE COUNTY— Continued. 

Goodwin Reger 

Jac Strader, jr. 

Abel Strader 

Charles Mick 

David D. Caste 

Jac Owens 

Benj. Archer, brother-in-law 

law of M. J. Jackson. 
Washington Ratcliff, alive 
Biven Abbott 
Nimrod Reger 
Joseph Liggett 
Absolem Shrieve 
Isaac Strader 

Martin Casto, coffee Martin 
John R. Abbott 
Wm. S. Sumner 
Teter Lewis 
J. D. Rapp 
Wm. R. Weatherholt 
Simon Rohrbrough 
Isaac Owens 
L. L. D. Loudin 
John Reger, sr. 
Edw'd Wertinbaker 
James Mullins, father of 

Jennie Mullins 
A. R. Ireland, father of Mrs. 

D. D. T. Parnsworth 
Henry C. Middleton 
Geo. Hurshman 
Isaac Dix 
Isaac W. Simnon 
C. J. Dickinson 
Geo. Alman 
Enoch Cutright 
Henry Colerider 
Ebenezer Leonard 
Anthony Reger 
Jac L. Crites 
Jno. D. Hyre 
H. M. Rollins 
John M. Rohrbough 
Gideon Martin 
Geo. C. Moore 
Daniel Carper 
Jacob Crites 
Martin Strader 

Geo. Clark 
Walter Loudin 
James Griffith 
C. Cutright 
John L. Boggess 
Nathaniel Farnsworth 
Daniel Night 
Abram Crites 
Isaac Strader 
Anthony Strader 
Stewart Bennett 
M. J. Jackson, 
Geo. Cutright 
John W. Abbott 
Nelson Robinson 
Isaac Post 
Daniel Spitler 
Jacob Cutright 
Perry Lorentz 
Thom. Lonchie 
A. C. Queen 
Wm. Cutright 
Elias Heavner 
John Hurst 
Isaac Cutright 
J. L. Smith 
Wm. Sexton 
Joel Casto 
Jacob Lorentz 
Wm. Goodwin 
John Brown 
Job Hinkle 

C. Kiner 
John Deen 

D. D. T. Farnsworth 
Silas Bennett 
Jacob Stealty 

Wm. Beesley 
Josiah Abbott 
Peter Hyre 
Salathiel Cutright 
Jacob A. Hyre 
John G. Jackson 
H. G. Pinnell 
Solomon Suder, alive 

Swamp Run 
Jesse Lemmon 
Jacob M. Hyre 


FOR THE COUNTY— Continued. 

Jeremiali Conley, Roane Co. 

Isaac Martin 

Nathaniel CutrigUt 

Adam Carper 

Lemuel Brake 

Geo. Nicholas 

Nathan Hefner 

Isaac White 

Henry O. Middleton 

Richard Fretwell 

A. Poundstone 

K. Hopkins 

Daniel Phipps 

Geo. Basstable 

Levi Black 

Watson Westfall 

Festus Young 

Adam Spitler, physician, 

married Miss Jennie 
A. T. Howe 
John B. Longette 
Geo. W. Houcher, carpenter 
Bushrod Rust, physician 
John Ours 
H. F. Westfall 
Thos. O. Staten 
Abram Reger. 
John J. Burr 

Jonas Martin 

A. W. C. Lemmon 

Geo. Warner 

M. J. Fogg 

C. G. Miller 

Asahel Cutright 

John Maxwell 

Abram Strader 

Elisha Tinney 

A. G. Reader 

Ellas Bennett 

Elijah Johnson 

M. T. Humpfries 

Ezra Morgan 

G. T. Gould 

Washington Summers 

Marshall Lorentz 

Wm. Warner 

Valentine Strader 

Eli F. Westfall 

Richard Philips, father of 
S. B. Philips 

Daniel Sumner, father-in- 
law of Capt. S. B. Phlllit 

Jas. Lemmons 

Abijah Hinkel 

Jacob Rohrbough 

John Davis, blacksmith 


Wm. Rude 
John Philips 
Walter Wilson - 
Jasper N. Lorentz 
Sam'l Meakan 
Wm. Holland 
Joshua Morgan 
D. B. Goutel 
John B. Henderson 
Martin Burr 
Wm. A. Gould 
Geo. W. Lorentz 
James Hirshman 
Coonrad Shoulder 

A. Morgan 

C. W. Morgan 

John Key 

Wm. Linger 

Isaac A. Morgan 

L. W. Ferrell 

E. D. Rude 

John S. Thomas 

Jacob Crites 

Joseph Flint 

Wm. Hurshman 

Jonas Smith 

Wm. S. Hlgglnbotham 

Mifnin Lorentz 

We, John Lorentz, deputy for Jacob Lorentz, Sheriff of Lewis county, Adam 
Carper, .\. R. Ireland and Henry F. Westfall, superintendents having been duly 



sworn according to law, certify that the foregoing poll, taken at the separate elec- 
tion at Buckhannon on the 4th Thursday in April, 1848, for and against a new 
county, with the county seat at Buckhannon Town, is correct. Given under our 
hands this 27th day of April, 1848. 

John Lorentz, D. S. for J. Lorentz, S. L. C. 
Adam Carper, A. R. Ireland, Henry F. Westeall. 

I, Watson Westfall, appointed by John Lorentz, deputy for Jacob Lorentz, 
sheriff of Lewis county, and being duly sworn by him according to law, certify 
that the foregoing poll, taken at the separate election at Buckhannon Town, for 
and against a new county, as above described, with the county scat at Buckhannon 
Town, on the 4th Thursday of April, 1848. Given under my hand, etc., 

Watson Westfall, 
A Copy Teste : John Morrow, Clk. L. C. C. 


For and against the new county out parts of Lewis, Harrison and Randolph, 
with the county seat at Buckhannon Town : 


Ebenezer Leonard, Jr. 
John Pringle 
David Bennett 
Elijah Phillips 
John Smith 
Gillett Young 
George Lowden 
George H. Wilson 
George H. Anderson 
Anson Young 
Harrison Wingrove, i 
Simon P. Young 
Adam P. Rusmisel 
John Duglass 
Thomas W. Vincent 
Ezekiel Townsend 

Jasen Loomis 
mond Sprini 
David Waggy 
Henry Jones 
John McCoy 
Benjamin Mills 
Robert McAvoy ^ 
Edwin Philips 
Peter Flesher 
Benjamin Gould 

alive, Dia- 

George Armstrong 
Jonathan Heafner 
Thomas Rexroad 
John T. Vincient 
William Propts 
Jothan Bell 
Israel P. Young 
Taylor Townsend ' 
James McAvoy - 
Amos Brooks 
Noah WinemlUer 
L. T. Rude 
Jared M. Armstrong 
George Talbert 
Isaac Wilson • 
John Armstrong 
George Dean 
John Wilson ' 
Caleb Smith 
Nimrod S. Brake 
David T. Tolbert 
John D. Simons 
James Curry, sr. ■ 
William Henderson 
Rice W. Vincent 
Henry Winemiller 
Peter L. Smith 



Samuel T. Talbert Alfeus H. Upton 

Elbridge Burr William M. Childers 

David S. Haselden 



Henry D. Hardman John S. Hall - 

John Wilson • David Hall ■ 

Peter Harper Nicholas Linger 

Abraham R. Hall - Robert Johns 

Charles West 

We, Alonzo A. Lorentz, deputy for Jacob Lorcntz. sheriff of Lewis county, 
and Amos Brooks and Taylor Townsend, superintendents having been duly sworn 
according to law, certify that the foregoing poll, taken at the separate election at 
Beech Town on the 4th Thursday in Apri*, 1848, for and against the new county, 
is correct and true. Given under our hands this 27th day of April, 1848. 

A. A. Lorentz, D. S. for J. Lorentz, S. L. C. 

Amos Brooks. 

I, L. T. Rude, apointed by Alonzo A. Lorentz, deputy for Jacob Lorentz, 
sheriff of Lewis county, and duly sworn by him according to law, certify that the 
foregoing poll taken at Back Town for and against the new county, on the 4th 
Thursdav in April, 1848, is just and true. Given under mv hand this 27th day 
of April,' 1848. ' L. T. Rude. 

A Copy Teste: John Morrow, Clk. 

The law governing the voting, one of the preliminary antecedents to peti- 
tioning the General Assembly, being complied with, four separate petitions were 
prepared and circulated, were generally signed and sent to Jonathan I\L Bennett, 
delegate-elect of Lewis county, to present to the annual session of the General 
Assembly. On December 20, 1849, Mr. Bennett presented the first petition, 
which was renewed by another of January 3, 1850, and another of January 8, 
1850, and still another on January 24, 1850. With the introduction of these 
petitions Mr. Bennett immediately received letters from his neighbors at home 
protesting against his action toward the formation of the new county, and in 
order to hold his friends, on January 26, 1850, he introduced into the General 
Assembly a strong memorial of the citizens of the county of Lewis, principally 
of the town of Weston, remonstrating against the formation of the new county 
out of parts of Lewis, Barbour and Randolph. This remonstrance prayer or pe- 
tition, on motion of Mr. Bennett, was then and there laid on the table. 

In the senate the petitions for the new county were placed in the hands of 
Mr. Jones of Chesterfield, who presented them to that body on January 21. 1850, 
and asked for an immediate report to the senate from the committee to which it 
was referred. One month and four days afterwards the committee on proposi- 


tions and grievances of the senate made its report, which said : "That they have, 
according to order, had under consideration the petitions and documents of citi- 
zens of the counties of Lewis, Randolph and Barbour, to them referred, praying 
the estabhshment of a new county of a portion of each of said counties, accord- 
ing to certain boundar>- hues in said petition described with the seat of justice 
in Buckhannon Town in the county of Lewis ; whereupon. Resolved, as the opin- 
ion of this committee. That the prayer of said petitioners be rejected for irreg- 
ularity in proceedings and insufficiency of notice." 

The insufficiency of notice here meant was the violation of the staute which 
requires a notice of 'at least sixty days next preceding the annual election to be 
posted at the front door of court house of the counties from which the new 
county is proposed to be formed, which notice shall set forth the names of such 
counties, the metes and bounds proposed for the new county, and the place at 
which it is proposed to establish the seat of justice. It also lacked the affidavit 
of such notice, and its posting, which was required to be made to the sheriff of 
every county from which the new county is proposed to be formed. Another 
reason for the rejection of the petition was the irregularity, that the caption of 
the poll books did not contain the metes and bounds which was required by the 
third section of this chapter of the Virginia code. Thus the first attempt to form 
the new county was destined to defeat, and was disposed of regularly and by par- 
limentarv usages on Alarch 15, 1850, by a motion from Mr. Bennett in the house, 
bringing' up the question and insisting upon a vote, which was taken— the deter- 
mination being negatively. , , • r 
Hope was only deferred by this action, for at the regular annual election of 
the delegate on the fourth Thursday of April, 1850, those citizens favorable to 
the new county supported with might and main Samuel Hays, who was in sym- 
pathy with their efforts. Air. Hays was elected. 

The first Monday in December being the day fixed by law for the opening 
of the annual session' of the General Assembly of Virginia, that day in the year 
1850 was December second, and as usual in legislative bodies the first day was 
taken up with the organization of the two houses— no other business was done. 
At the morning session of the third of December Mr. Hays began to make good 
his promise by presenting petitions of citizens of Barbour, Lewis and Randolph 
for the formation of a new county. Nothing more was heard of the new county 
movement until after the holiday vacation. 

Meanwhile the enthusiastic supporters of the new county around Buck- 
hannon Town had a public meeting and decided to send a helper, more properly 
called a lobbyist, to Richmond. Clinton G. Miller, lately a resident of Buck- 
hannon Town, formerly of Augusta county, Virginia, on account of his wide 
acquaintance and thorough knowledge of the public men at the State House in 
Richmond, was chosen and ordered in behalf of the petitioners to go to Richmond 
and assist Mr. Hays in getting immediate action of the General Assembly on 
the act for the formation of the new county. No doubt some money was pro- 
vided for Mr. Miller's expenses by the people who sent him there, and we are 
told that a Mr. Joe Houser, as part of his contribution, furnished the horse 
which was to carry Mr. Miller to Richmond and back. 

Mr. Jones on January 28, 185 1, introduced into the senate a bill to create 
Upshur county. This bill was the same as that introduced into the lower house 
by Mr. Hays.' The act of the General Assembly establishing Upshur county, as 
passed by the senate March 26, 1851, is as follows: 


Chapter 36. — An act to establish the county of Upshur out of parts of the 
counties of Randolph, Barbour and Lewis. 

Be it enacted by the General Assembly, That so much of the counties of 
Randolph, Barbour and Lewis as is contained within the following boundarj' 
lines, to-wit : Beginning at a rock or milestone on the Staunton and Parkersburg 
turnpike road, ten miles east of Weston, in Lewis county, running thence a 
straight line to the head of Saul's Run, a branch of Finks* Run ; thence to the 
incuth of Pringle"s fork of Stone Coal creek; thence up said fork to the forks 
of said fork; thence with the ridge dividing the waters of said forks to their 
headwaters, and with said ridge to the head of French creek above Taylor Town- 
send's farm ; thence to the mouth of Cherry camp fork of the little Kanawha 
river, thence to the mouth of the Bufifalo fork of said river to the Bra.xton county 
line, and with said line to the head of the right hand fork of said river; thence 
to the three forks of the right hand fork of Buckhannon river; thence to the 
head nearest branch of Middle Fork river ; thence down said river to the fording 
where the road leading from Teter's on the Valley river to House's mill on the 
Buckhannon river, crosses said Middle Fork; thence to the fording of the Buck- 
hannon river, at or near Henry Jackson's ; thence to Michael Strader's on Peck's 
Run, including said Strader's ; thence with the ridge dividing the waters of the 
main Peck's Run from the waters of the branch on which Colonel John Reger 
now resides ; thence with said ridge so as to divide the waters of Peck's Run 
from Big Run to Gnatty Creek mountain ; thence to the mouth of the run on 
-which John Low resides, so as to include all the waters of said run to Peel Tree 
mountain, thence running west to the Harrison county line ; thence with said 
line to a stone standing on the line of Lewis and Harrison counties and on the 
dividing line between Lost creek, Rooting creek and Jesse's Run ; thence a 
straight line to the mouth of Rover's Run, a branch of Hacker's creek and thence 
to the beginning shall form one distinct and new county, and be called and known 
by the name of Upshur county. 

Second — The boundary line of said county of LTpshur as above designated 
shall be run and in pursuance of the 47th chapter and 7th section of the Code of 
Virginia, and the surveyors shall proceed to run and mark said boundary lines 
within one month after the court of said Upshur count}- shall have appointed a 

TiiirtJ — The powers and duties of the courts and officers of the counties of 
Randolph, Barbour and Lewis, from which the said county of Upshur is formed, 
shall discharge all the respective duties in said counties as is provided for in the 
9th, loth and nth sections of the 47th chapter of Code of Virginia; Provided, 
that nothing therein shall be so construed as to authorize the courts or officers 
•of the several counties aforesaid to lay or collect any county levy or other public 
dues for the present year within the prescribed boundaries of said new county. 

Fourth — The governor shall commission as justices of peace twelve persons 
in and for the said county of Upshur, all of whom shall, before entering upon 
and exercising any of the duties of said office, take the several oaths now re- 
quired by law of persons commissioned as justices of peace, which oaths may 
be administered by any justice of peace remaining in commission in and for 
either of the counties of Randolph, Barbour and Lewis, who shall grant a certifi- 
cate to the justice qualified, to be recorded in the clerk's office of the county of 


Fifth — The court for the county of Upshur shall be holden on the first 
Thursday after the third Monday of every month, and the court of quarterly 
sessions shall be holden in the months of March, June, August and November 
in each year, and the permanent place for holding the courts of said county shall 
be in the town of Buckhannon. 

The justices of the peace commissioned and qualified as aforesaid shall meet 
at the house, now the residence of Andrew Poundstone, in the town of Buckhan- 
non. on the first Thursday after the third ]\Ionday in April next, and, a majority 
of them being present, shall proceed to appoint a clerk of the county court, and 
such other officers as are now required by law, shall nominate suitable persons 
as sheriff and coroner, to be commissioned as such by the governor, and shall 
fix upon a place in said town for holding the courts until the public buildings 
shall be erected. 

Seventh — The county court of the county of Upshur, at its first meeting, 
shall make an order summoning all the justices of the peace in and for said county 
to meet at the succeeding term for the purpose of procuring a lot of land in the 
town of Buckhannon on which to erect the public buildings, as required by the 
first section of the fifteen chapter of the Code of Virginia. 

Eighth — The superior court of the county of Upshur shall be holden on the 
seventeenth day of June and the seventeenth clay of November in each year, and 
shall be attached to the same judicial circuit as the county of Lewis. 

Ninth — The county of Upshur for all purposes of representation, shall be 
attached to the same district as the county of Lewis, and also to the regiment 
in the said county. 

Tenth — The treasurers of the school commissioners in the several counties 
out of which the county of L^pshur is formed are required to pay to the com- 
missioners of said county such sums of money arising out of the school quota 
agreeably to the respective numbers of whites tithables takes from each. 

Eleventh — This act shall be in force from its passage. 

The incident of naming the new county was peculiarly a political movement, 
arising out of the necessity for more votes to pass the act. Mr. Hays and Mr. 
Jones, the champions of the bill in the lower and upper houses, were conscious 
of the great hold that the lamented Abel P. Upshur had upon the people of lower 
Virginia. Many indifferent delegates and senators were warm friends of his 
and would do anything honorable tending to perpetuate his name. So as to 
make the new county movement stronger and more popular the name Upshur 
was inserted in the bill. This action caught his life-long friends, who regarded 
their support then as a compliment to this excellent neighbor, friend and states- 
man, and made them think that the establishment of the county would be a mon- 
ument to his life. 


He was born in Northampton county, Virginia, on the 17th day of June, 
1790, was educated at the College of New jersey, read law in the office of William 
Wirt, in the city of Richmond, where, in the year 1810, at the age of twenty years, 
he was admitted to the bar. Here he successfully practiced his profession until 
1824, when he returned to his native county, which, in 1826, he had the honor 
to represent in the General Assembly. 

The same year he was appointed a judge of the general court of \"irginia, 
and in 1829 was made a member of the convention which framed the celebrated 


constitution of 1830. Under it he sat upon the Supreme bench until 1841, when 
he entered the cabinet of President Harrison as Secretary of the Navy. In 
1843, John Tyler, who had succeeded to the presidency upon the death of Har- 
rison, transferred him to the Department of State, and in his stead, in the Navy 
Department, placed Thomas W. Gilmer, of Virginia. 

It was on the 28th day of February, 1844, that an excursion from Wash- 
ington to Mount Vernon took place. The steamer was the Princeton, one of 
the finest vessels in the American navy. She had just arrived home from an 
extended cruise in foreign waters, and was armed with the celebrated Paixhan 
guns. About noon, having on board the President, his cabinet, many members 
of Congress, and others, to the number of five hundred, she steamed down the 
Potomac to the place of destination, where after a few hours sojourn amid the 
beautiful scenery, the party re-embarked. The big gun on the forecastle was 
heavily loaded to give a parting salute to the shades of the illustrious dead repos- 
ing there. The Secretary of the Navy gave the order to discharge the gun, the 
match was applied and the gun burst into a thousand fragments. The report 
died away in long echoes along the shores of the Potomac, the smoke was wafted 
along by the breeze, and Abel P. Upshur, Secretary of State; Thomas W. Gil- 
mer, Secretary of the Navy ; Virgil Ma.xey, late United States Minister to Bel- 
gium ; Colonel Gardener, member of Congress from New York ; Commander 
Kennon, and several others, were still in death. Thomas H. Benton, United 
States Senator from Missouri, and Captain Stockton were severely wounded. 

It will be noticed that the second section of the aforesaid act provides for a 
survey of the new county of Upshur. The chapter and section of the code of 
Virginia herein mentioned deals with the manner in which said survey shall be 
made. According to the law of the code of Virginia the commission of sur- 
veyors shall consist of the surveyor of each county out of which the new county 
is formed, and the surveyor of the new county of Upshur. A Mr. Wilson, county 
survey of Barbour county ; a Mr. Logan, county surveyor of Randolph county, 
and James Bennett, county surveyor of Lewis county, and L. L. D. Loudin, the 
surveyor appointed by the court of Upshur county for the new county of Upshur, 
composed the commission of surveyors. This commission did its work in 1851 
or 1852. The only known living member of this surveying party is Honorable 
O. B. Loudin, who now lives on the head waters of Sugar Creek of Turkey Run. 
He infonns us that he was employed as a helper and subordinate, and knows that 
the work was done in one of these years. In compliance with the third section, 
the Governor commissioned in and for the said county of L^pshur the following 
Justices of Peace : Adam Spitlcr, Simon Rohrbough, George Bastable, James T. 
Hardman, Jacob Lorentz, Daniel Bennett, K. Hopkins, George Clark and John 
W. Marple. These gentlemen, in their official capacity, met at the house of 
Andrew Poundstone, in the town of Buckhannon, on the first Thursday after 
the third Monday in April, 185 1. They appointed as clerk of the court, Miflin 
Lorentz. John Reger was then recommended to his excellency, the Governor, 
as a very suitable person to be commissioned High Sheriff of the county, and 
Stewart Bennett was nominated as Commissioner of the Revenue. Then and 
there the county court proceeded to comply with that section of the act which 
required them to fix upon a place, in said town of Buckhannon, for holding 
the courts until the public building can be erected. A committee of three, con- 
sisting of Messrs, Spitler, Rohrbough. and Bastable were appointed as a com- 
mittee to secure a suitable lot upon which to erect the public building. .After the 


transaction of miscellaneous business, incident to the formation of a new county, 
the court adjourned. 


The first Circuit Court for Upshur county was held on the seventeenth day 
of June, 1851. The temple of justice was the dwelling house of Andrew Pound- 
stone, in the town of Buckhannon, it having been designated by the court as the 
place for holding its sessions until the erection of the county building. High 
Sheriff John Reger opened the court with the usual audible proclamation, with 
Hon. George H. Lee, judge of the twenty-second circuit of Virginia, on the 
bench. The first entries in the records of the term are as follows : "The Court 
doth appoint George W. Miller clerk of this Court to perform all the duties of 
said office according to law, and t otake all the fees and emoluments thereof, and 
by law provided." Mr. Miller now appeared in court, and together with his 
neighbors, A. M. Bastable, William Sexton, Leonard L. D. Loudin, Clinton G. 
Miller, D. D. T. Famsworth, David Bennett, and Miflin Lorentz as his bondsmen, 
"entered into a bond in the penalty of $8,000, condition as law directs." Judge 
Lee appointed Matthew Edmiston, of Lewis ounty, father of Honorable Andrew 
Edmiston, of the same county, State's Attorney for the time being. William 
A. Harrison, Caleb Boggess, Jr., Matthew Edmiston, John McWhorter, William 
D. Williams, Benjamin Wilson, George W. Berlin, Richard L. Brown, Samuel 
Crane, Uriah M. Turner and Robert Irvine were admitted to practice in this 
court. The first commissioners of chancery of Upshur county Circuit Court 
were Alvin M. Bastable and Richard L. Brown. They were appointed by the 
court at this term. Gibson J. Butcher, on motion of Chief Circuit Clerk George 
W. Miller, was permitted to qualify as deputy circuit clerk. 

Second day, June 18, 1581.— Daniel Goff, Edwin Maxwell and Benjamin 
Bastable were admitted to practice in this court, and Miflin Lorentz was qualified 
as second deputy circuit clerk. The first civil case ever tried in the county was then 
called. It was an action of debt in which Thos. S. Pri mand Thos. B. Curtis were 
plaintiffs and Isaac W. Simons was defendant. The defendant came into court 
without counsel and confessed judgment in the sum of $1,077.77. The declara- 
tion of the plaintiff set up a debt of only $421.20. This discrepancy, at this day 
and date, is explicable on the grounds that Prim and Curtis in their declaration 
claimed that Isaac W. Simons had notes and accounts as offsets which he (Simons) 
had not. 

The first grand jury of Upshur county was impaneled at this session of the 
court. Then as now they sat as a jury of inquest and inquiry for the protection 
of the body politic of Upshur county. The grand jurors were: Alvin M. Basta- 
ble, foreman ; Tilletson Janney, Clinton G. Miller, Daniel D. T. Farnsworth, 
George Ambrose, John Lewis, John L. Smith, Elias Bennett, David Bennett, 
Lewis Karickhoff, William E. Basley, Henry Reger, David Haselden, Wilson M. 
Haymond, Archibald Hinkle, and O. B. Loudin. The clerk swore them, the 
judge instructed them, they retired to consider of their presentments after hear- 
ing the witnesses before them. They returned into court and presented six true 
bills of indictment. Of these sixteen sovereign citizens eligible to serve as grand 
jurors of the first circuit coiurt of Upshur, but one is still alive — he is the last 
named on the above list. He informs us that the first circuit court on June 17, 
185 1, opened its session in the street near where Main street crosses Kanawha 
street, but soon thereafter the county officials made arrangements to hold the 
remainder of the term in the dwelling house of Andrew Poundstone. 



The judges of the Upshur County Circuit Court in the past half-centur\' have 
been few but were some of the ablest and most illustrious lawyers of West Vir- 
ginia. The first judge was George H. Lee, who held his first term on June 17, 
185 1, at the house of Andrew Poundstone. On the Chancery side of the court the 
only order recorded was the appointment of T. ^I. Bastable. R. L. Brown, and 
Jacob Lorentz, Commissioners of Chancery. The same Judge held the second 
term on November 17, 1851, in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the dura- 
tion of this court was the same as the one preceding and the one followmg, namely, 
two days. 

Gideon D. Camden became Judge in 1852 and served in that capacity until 
1861. During the tenure of his office David McComas, Judge of the Ninth Judi- 
cial Circuit and Edward P. Pitts, Judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit, held a term 
each for him. The court held its sessions after the court house fire of September 
8, 1855, in the Baptist Church. 

William A. Harrison was the next Judge of the Circuit Court of Upshur 
county, and he was succeeded by Robert Irvine, who held his first court in this 
county on September 15, 1863. The caption of the Chancery order book among 
other things, says: "And in the first year of the state." He served until 1873, 
holding his last term in this county October 19, 1872. 

John Brannon began his term of Judgeship in 1873 and ended it with 
December, 1880. 

Henry Brannon now of the Supreme Court of West Virginia, was Judge 
of the Eleventh Judicial Circuit for eight years, from January, 1881, until 
Januan-, 1889. While he was on the bench Robert F. Fleming, of the Sixth Ju- 
dicial Circuit, held two terms for him. 

W. G. Bennett began his term of Judgeship January i, 1889, and ended it 
with January i, 1905, when J. C. McWhorter succeeded him as Judge of the 
Thirteenth Judicial Circuit. 


The Circuit Court of the county, formerly sometimes called the Superior 
Court, has had clerks as follows: 

George Miller, 1851 ; Andrew Poundstone, 1861 ; Jacob Waugh, 1866; John 
L. Hurst, 1873 ; John A. Hess, 1879 ! C. W. Heavener, 1902 ; A. J. Zickefoose, 


The majority of lawyers who have practiced at the bar of the Circuit Court 
of Upshur county were non-residents and includes in its list many who have 
achieved reputations extending beyond the state. 

Following is a list of lawyers with the date when the name of each first ap- 
peared on the court records : 

1851. William A. Harrison, Caleb Boggess, Jr., Matthew Edmiston, John 
McWhorter, William D. Williams, Benjamin Wilson, George W. Berlin. Richard 
L. Brown, Samuel Crane, Uriel M. Turner, Robert Ervin, David Goff. Edwin 
Maxwell, Benjamin Bassell, William E. Arnold, Benjamin W. Byrne. George 
J. Arnold, John Brannon, Burton Despard, Gideon D. Camden, E. S. Duncan, 
Jonathan M. Bennett. 


1852. Spencer Dayton, Albert G. Reger, John S. Carlisle, Matthew W. Har- 
rison, Lewis Maxwell, Edgar M. Davisson, John S. Huffman. 

1854. John S. Fisher, Frederick Berlin, Robert Johnson, William C. Car- 
per, Samuel Woods, Enoch Withers. 

1855. George W. Duvall, Charles S. Lewis, Nathan S. Taft, H. G. Pinnell. 

1856. James B. McLain, E. B. Hall. - 

1857. John N. Hughes, Camden Goff, Homer A. Holt. 

1858. W. H. Gibson, G. H. Smith, Gideon D. Camden, Jr., Douglas M. Bai- 
ley, Morris Taylor. 

1859. Richard W. Barton. 
i860. James E. IMiddleton. 
1862. Thomas W. Harrison. 

1865. James William Dunnington. W. G. L. Totten, Alexander C. Moore, 
David H. Lilly. 

1866. George Cozad, Alexander M. Poundstone, Joseph A. Thompson, T. 
B. Taylor, William D. Hoff, George R. Latham. 

1871. Louis Bennett. 

1873. Clinton G. Rapp, George E. Bennett, Albert G. Reger, Henry Bran- 
non, Coleman C. Higginbotham, L. D. Strader, Stark W. Arnold. 
1875. C. J. P. Cresap. 

1877. B. L. Butcher, Tames Woodzell, C. W. Rohrbough, Shelton L. Reger, 

1878. Claudius Goff."A. G. Dayton. 

1879. A. C. Moore, Thomas A. Bradford, William Dawson Talbot, Leland 
Kittle. E. T. Somerville. 

1880. W. W. Brannon, F. C. Pifer. 

i88r. John M. Brake, G. M. Fleming, Miflin Lorentz, A. L. Hustead, 

Cyrus H. Scott. 

1882. Samuel A. Miller, Eugene Lutz. 

1883. George H. Moffatt, A. F. Havmond, C. F. Teter. 

1884. C. P. Snvder, George C. Cole,' C. P. Dorr. 

1885. F. J. Baxter, i\L T. Frame. 

1886. T. H. Brown, John J. Davis. 

1887. Melville Peck. 

1888. G. W. Smith, W. H. Fisher, U. G. Young. 

1889. D. W. Gall. R. F. Kidd, S. A. Hays, A. T- Salsberrv. 

1890. E. D. Talbott, W. S. Stuart, W. L. Kee, W. L. G. Corlev. 

1891. C. W. Lvnch. 

1892. W. S. O'Brien. 

1893. T- D. Ewing. 

1894. J. C. McWhorter, W. B. Nutter. J. Frank Wilson. ' 

1895. Samuel V. Woods, C. J. Poe. 

1896. Tames M. Morris, F. O. Blue, Floyd J. Strader. 

1897. W. T. Talbott, Charles W. Murphv, Ralph W. Heavner, W. B. Kit- 
tle, W. T. George. 

1898. J. M. Foster, J. B. Bennett, W. B. Cutright. 

1899. M. H. King. 

1900. Clay N. Pew. 

1901. J. il. N. Downes, Lyman Cutright. 

1902. Carry C. Hines, E. G. Rider, Lee Roy See, J. Russell Trotter. 


1903. P. J. Crogan, Will E. Morris. 

1904. L. H. Barnett, A. L. Holt, Claude S. Phillips, M. B. Morris, R. F. 
Kidd, J. M. Hamilton, R. G. Linn, H. Roy Waugh, John W. Davis, H. C. 
Thurmond, Alex Dulin, E. B. Carlin, L. H. Kelley. 

1905. J. W. F. Stone, Osman E. Swartz, John T. Cooper, Roy Reger, 
Jake Fisher, Haze Morgan, Thomas Jefferson Peddicord. 

1906. B. P. Hall, A. G. Hughes, O. W. O. Hardman, E. A. Bowers, Ira 
E. Robinson, James Ewing. 


Matthew, Edminston, 1851; George W. Berlin, 1852; John S. Fisher, 1856; 
Nathan S. Taft, 1861 ; A. M. Poundstone, 1867; W. G. L. Totten, 1877; Stark 
W. Arnold, 1881 ; A. M. Poundstone, 1885; W. D. Talbot, 1889; W. B. Nutter, 
1901 ; H. Roy Waugh, 1905. 


In the compilation of the list of constables no regard is given to classification 
by districts. At first they were appointed by the County Court. They have al- 
ways depended upon fees for their pay and the emoluments of the office were 
usually small. Their duty with limitations was similar to the duty of the sheriff; 
but for the same work they received smaller fees. There were always persons 
willing to fill this office. Names of Constables by years follow : 

185 1. Gilmer F. Sines, William Hirschman, George F. Cooper, James Kes- 
ling, William Loudin, Alfred D. Woodley, Jacob Rohrbough, James Lemmons, 
John O. Core, David D. Casto, W. N. Gillum, Jacob Cutright, Wm. L. Anderson, 
Adam C. Shrieve, Jacob Kesling, Bolivar Hanks. 

1852. M. J. Fogg, John O. Core. Garland T. Ferrill, David Little, William 
Henman, C. P. Rohrbough, A. D. Woodley. James Q. Harvey. 

1854. John O. Core, James Q. Harvey, G. W. Ratliflf, Charles S. Haynes, 
Adam C. Shrieve. M. J. Fogg, Granville Marple. 

i8s6. James Q. Harvev, John L. Oueen, A. D. Woodier, G. W. Ratliff, 
Adam C. Shrieve, C. S. Haynes. M. J. Fogg. 

1858. Morgan A. Darnall, James Q. Harvey, M. J. Fogg. 

i860. David J. Brake, Isaac Wamsley, James P. Curry. L. L. D. Loudin, 
John W. Rohrbough, T. S. Heavner. 

1863. Thaddeus S. Heavner. Jacob W. Lorentz. D. J. Brake, Job Ward, 
Edward J- Brown, Calvin L. Cutright, Nimrod D. Foster, Gideon H. Wilson, 
Martin Westfall. 

1865. David J. Brake, John Ward, Issac N. Kesling, Geo. W. Currence, 
T. S. Heavner, Elmor Brake, Gideon H. Wilson, Wm. W. Warner, Wirt Phillips. 
John W. Rohrbough. 

1867 Lewis Sutton, Geo. H. Clark. Samuel Karickhoff, Adam Mick. ^^'. 
R. Lowe, Geo. W. Currence, Stillman Young, Perry Talbott, Wm. B. Goodwin, 
Wayne Love. 

1870. Wm. A. McNulty, C. W. Hart, Jonathan Hefner, L. J. B. Smith, 
Joseph H. Elbon, Thomas Jack. Abram Bennett, Martin Queen. 

1872. Isaac Carter. 

1874. Geo. W. Stewart. 

1876. Wm. C. Gum, W. R. Lowe, Caswell E. Brady, Anderson Smallridge, 
J. S. Windell, Francis Reeder, D. W. Armstrong, John M. A. Jackson. 


1878. D. M. Reed, Elijah Goodwin. 

1880. J. J. Trussler, J. L. Sandridge, J. C. Brady, W. S. Harper, O. A. 
Mosby, Joseph C. Bailey, G. M. Heavner, Philip Reger, James McAvoy, Gran- - 
ville Warner, Hiram Piles. 

1882. Hiram Piles. A. J. Hoffman. 

1884 Wm. H. Hillery, David Strader, J. J. Moss, A. M. Tenney, Jr., 
Josiah Martin, J. W. Windle, Adolphus Sharps, Anderson Smallridge, C. P. 
Tallman, Jesse Sandridge, T. E. Kidd, J. M. A. Jackson. 

1888. W. K. Findley. A. C. Cutright, J. N. Shaw, A. M. Curry, J. A. 
Smallridge, David Phillips, J. J. Moss, M. Osburn, C. P. Tallman, J. H. Griffith, 
Gideon Marple, I. M. Hartman. 

1890. J. M. Shiimaker, J. S. Kesling. 

1892. L. D. Rollins, Phillip Reger, David Phillips, A. D. Cutright, S. S. 
Moore, Sol Williams, David Maher, Silas Gooden, L. M. Dean, C. P. Tallman, 
I. N. Hartman, Gran. Reynolds. 

1894. E. C. Young, R. B. Lynch, G. H. Spiker. 

1896. W. A. McNulty, Davton Cutright, E. V. Brown, T. J. Newcome, 
R. B. Rexroad, W. E. Haynes. J. S. Quick, John W. Bailey, Noah Messman, 
C. P. Tallman, Thomas Post, Simon Hickman. 

iqoo. B. F.Malone, A. L. Reese, T. J. Newcome, A. B. Simon, G. M. 
Warner, M. V. Lance, Lloyd Miller, J. J. Moss, W. E. Haynes, R. B. Rexroad, 
J. H. Shipman, Austin Smith. 

1902. B. M. Riggleman. 

1904. G. A. Smith, U. G. Black, Sydney E. Phillips, Warren Haynes, 
A. B. Simon, George Hasaflook, Willie Norman, Noah Messman, Sanford 
Wentz, T. J. Newcome, A. L. Reese. 

1906. Harry Jenkins, G. L. Crites, E. L. Coburn. 


1863. Thomas J. Farnsworth, Ormsby B. Loudin, Cyrus R. Wiches, Gran- 
ville D. Marple, Lare Dean, Jared Armstrong, George Clark in '64 in place of 
C. R. Wiches. 

1864. O. B. Loudin, G. D. Marple, Benjamin Gould, Jared Armstrong, 
Marshall L. Rohrbough, Lare Dean. 

1865. O. B. Loudin, Lare Dean, G. D. Marple, Marshall L. Rohrboubh, 
Benjamin Gould, John W. Wilson. 

1866. Andrew Poundstone, O. B. Loudin, Solomon Day, John W. Wilson, 
Adam Rohrbough, Watson M. Bunten. 

1867. John J. Reger, O. B. Loudin, Lare Dean, Solomon Day, Elbridge 
Burr, John W. Wilson. 

1868. O. B. Loudin, Lare Dean, Elbridge Burr, Solomon Day, John J. 
Reger, John W. Wilson. 

1869. John J. Reger, O. B. Loudin. Solomon Day, C. B. Mayo, Jared Arm- 
strong. Elbridge Burr. 

1870. O. B. Loudin, Thomas J. Farnsworth, Benjamin Gould, Jared M. 
Armstrong, Solomon Day, C. B. Mayo. 

1871. O. B. Loudin, John J. Reger. C. B. Mayo, Solomon Day, George W. 
Simon, Isaac W. Vincent. 


1872. O. B. Loudin, Andrew Poundstone, B. F. Armstrong, Isaac VV. Vi 
, Nicholas Ours, Ashley Gould. 




Ashley Gould. 


O. B. Loudin, B. F. Armstrong, and Ashley Gould. 
O. B. Loudin, Ashley Gould, and L. D. Casto. 
O. B. Loudin, L. D. Casto, and O. W. Bunner. 
91. O. B. Loudin, O. W. Bunner, and J. W. Morrison. 
O. W. Bunner, J. W. Morrison, and A. W. C. Lemmons. 
A. W. C. Lemmons, J. W. Morrison, and Joseph S. Reger. 
J. S. Reger, J. W. Morrison, and Granville Teter. 
J. S. Reger, Granville Teter, and R. A. Darnall. 
J. S. Reger, R. A. Darnall, and Granville Teter. 
R. A. Darnall, Granville Lanham, and J. S. Reger. 
R. A. Darnall, Granville Lanham, and W. M. Day. 
W. M. Day, Granville Lanham, and G. A. Fitzgerald. 
G. A. Fitzyerald, Granville Lanham, and W. P. Crites. 


Col. John Reger, 1851 ; Tobias Hopkins; 1852; Washington Summers, 1856; 
Geo. Bastable, i8'^58: Alva Teeter, i860; Levi Leonard, 1864; T. S. Heavner, 
1868 ; Jacob W. Heavner, 1869 ; C. F. Ridgway, 1877 ; Granville D. Marple, 1881 ; 
J. J. Morgan, 1885 ; Walter Phillips, 1889 ; Albert J. Maple, 1893 ; W. P. Fowkes, 
1897; A. M. Tenney, 1901 ; H. F. Ours, 1905. 


L. L. D. Loudin, 1851; W. T. Higginbotham, 1858; Col. Watson Westfall, 
1861; Festus Young, 1864; J. W. Wilson, 1880; Lynn T. Phillips, 1884; John 
V. Tenney, 1892; Joseph C. Smith, 1904. 


Miflin Lorentz, 1851 ; Richard Fretwell, 1866; I. M. Bennett, 1872; C. C. F. 
McWhorter, 1876; J. J. Morgan, 1890; Eugene Brown, 1902. 


Samuel L. Hayes, 1851 ; Samuel L. Hayes, 1852; Samuel L. Hayes, 1853; 
Washington Summers, 1854; W. C. Carper, 1855; W. C. Carper, 1856; Washing- 
ton Summers, 1857; Richard L. Brown, 1858, 1859; Benjamin Bassell. Sr., i860; 
D. D. T. Farnsworth, 1861 ; R. L. Brooks (resigned), 1862; Jacob Teter, 1863; 
Alva Teter, 1864; David S. Pinnell, 1865; David S. Pinnell, 1866; David S. Pin- 
nell, 1867; David S. Pinnell, 1868; David S. Pinnell, 1869; Thomas G. Farns- 
worth, 1870; A. B. Clark, 1871 ; A. M. Poundstone, 1872 ; Thomas G. Farnsworth, 
1872 ; Thomas J. Farnsworth, 1875 ; Thomas J. Farnsworth, 1877 ; A. M. Pound- 
stone, 1879; David Poe, 1881 ; J. J. Morgan, 1883; J. S. W. Dean, 1885; Still- 
man Young, 1887; Stillman Young, 1889; Stillman Young, 1891 ; A. B. Clark, 


LEVI LEONARD was born ou French Ci-eek, September IG, 1S29. 
He was the sou of earnest Christian parents who came to Virginia 
from Bridgewater, Mass., in 1816. In 1851 Mr. Leonard married Mary 
E. Cooper, from Staunton, Va., who died, leaving a son and a daughter. 
In 1871 Mr. Leonard married Elizabeth Coplin, of Harrison county, W. 
September 22, 1897. He was a man of integrity and honor, whose 
Va. Of this marriage one daughter is still living. He passed away 
influence was always for righteousness, on the side of temperance, 
morality and Christianity. He was actively identified with every 
movement for the development and progress of his county, and was at 
one time sheriff. 


1893: A. B. Clark, 1895; Henry Colerider, 1897; W. B. Cutright, 1899; W. D. 
Talbott, igoi ; Henry Colerider, 1903 ; Robert A. Reger, 1905 ; J. M. Curry, 1907. 

site; of court piouse. 

The special committee named by the Justices of the Peace at their April 
term for selecting a suitable site for the public buildings of the county, made 
its report on June 19, 1851. The lots selected by this committee were on the 
comer of Locust and Main streets. The Justices were unable to purchase the 
lots of ground near the four selected. This day the Justices of the Peace pur- 
fronting on the Staunton and Parkersburg turnpike road, running north 81 E., 8 
chased of Henr\- F. Westfall two lots of ground in the town of Buckhannon 
poles and 23 links to James Mullins' line and with his line south 9 E. 9 poles to 
a stake, thence S. 81, W. 7 poles and ten links to a stake, thence N. i8>^ W. 9 
poles to the beginning, at the price of $750 ; $2.50 of which to be levied for and 
paid out of the levy for the present year, and the residue in two equal annual 
payments, without interest, said sums to be chargeable to the said county of 

The said Henry F. Westfall was present in court and consented thereto. 

A committee was then appointed to draft specifications for the court house 
and advertise bids for the building of the same. 

The contract was let to Thos. S. Prim and W. W. Craver, the lowest bidders, 
who gave a bond in the penalty of $10,000 to build the court house according to 
specifications. The bid of the contractors was $7,300. 

Robert Maxwell was made architect of the construction work August 22, 
185 1, the day that the contract was awarded to Prim & Craver. 

The contractors sublet the different parts of the building to individuals in 
and about the county seat. Abraham Reger did the mason work on the founda- 
tion and jail of the old court house. 


After the year 1852 the Justices of the Peace were elected by the people. 
Prior to that time they were appointed by the Governor and held office for life 
if they chose to do so. The following shows the names of the Justices of the 
Peace and the year when they first appeared on the records of the court : 

185 1. Adam Spitler, Simon Rohrbough, George Bastable, James T. Hart- 
man, Jacob Lorentz, David Bennett, Kosciusko Hopkins, George Clark, John M. 
Marple, Willis H. Woodley, A. M. Bastable, David Bennett, Anthony B. See, 
Alva Teter, William Bennett, Wilson M. Havmond, Anson Young, Wm. T. 
Higginbotham, Daniel D. D. T. Farnsworth, Clinton G. Miller, W. W. Foster, 
Elias Bennett. 

1852. Simon Rohrbough, A. M. Bastable, Alva Teter, Elias Bennett, George 
Clark, C. G. Miller, Adam Spitler, Anthony B. See, David Bennett, W. T. Higgin- 
botham, John W- Marple, William Bennett, James T. Hartman, W. W. Foster, 
Willis H. Woodley, Amos Brooks, Anson Young. 

1853. John B. Shreves, James Mullin, Tazewell Marshall, Riley Reger, 
Joseph Flint, George N. Talbot. 

1854. William S. Sumner, Joseph Flint, Gilbert T. Gould, George N. Tol- 
bert, Riley Reger, John W. Marple, John B. Shrieve, Tazewell Marshall, A. M. 


Bastable, George Clark, Anson Young, Alva Teter, James Mullins, James C. 
Tallman, Silas Bennett, Simon Rohrbough, Watson Westfall, David Bennett. 

1856. John B. Shreve, Watson Westfall, John Lynch, S. Rohrbough, Alva 
Teter, Silas Bennett, John W. Marple, Joseph Flint, A. M. Bastable, Riley Reger, 
Edward J. Colerider, Abram Reger, Erasmus A. Cease, David Bennett, Anson 
Young, Samuel Wilson, Watson Westfall, George Bastable, Alva Teter. 

1858. John N. Loudin. 

1859. David D. Casto. 

i860. Benjamin Tallman, Valentine Hinkle, Jr., J. B. Shreve, S. Rohr- 
bough, Silas Bennett, Joseph Flint, Job Casto, John N. Loudin, Robert Coyner, 
Jr., Riley Reger, David D. Casto, N. H. Hannah, David Bennett, Anson Young, 
Charles S. Haynes, E. A. Cease. 

1861. Noah B. Wamsley, W. B. Goodwin, Elmore Brake, E. D. Boyles. 

1862. Richard Fretwell, J. L. D. Brake. 

1863. Simon Rohrbough, Joseph D. Rapp, John N. Loudin, Jacob L. D. 
Brake, Ashley Gould, Noah B. Wamsley, Valentine Hinkle, Samuel Wilson, 
Elmer Brake, Wm. B. Goodwin. 

1865. David D. Casto, Anson Young, Richard Fretwell, Benjamin Tall- 
man, Job Casto. 

1867. J. D. Rapp, A. B. Clark, Benjamin Conley, Jacob L. D. Dean, Val- 
entine Hinkle, G. D. Marple, Walter Phillips, Charles S. Haynes, Noah B. Wams- 
ley, Ashley Gould, Edward J. Brown, Thomas W. Vincent. 

1873. O. B. Loudin, A. G. Osborne, Daniel Cutright, John N. Loudin, Job 
Casto, M. A. Darnall, Jesse Lemmons, C. S. Haynes, Robert Curry, Nicholas 
Ours, Jr., C. B. Mayo. 

1877. D. D. T. Farnsworth, Jacob Waugh, R. M. Norman, Daniel Cutright, 
R. T. H. Benson, S. D. Jackson, C. W. Gibson, Stillman Young, Wm. Meams, 
Festus Young, H. F. Bryan, L. D. Westfall. 

1880. John W. Hinkle, G. Austin Newlon, R. T. H. Benson, Granville 
Lanham, Jacob Waugh. S. Young, Festus Young, R. M. Norman, C. S. Havnes, 
J. L. D. Brake, William Bean, A. W. Tenney. 

1882. William Loudin, O. F. Hodges, L. D. Westfall. 

1884. William Loudin, S. L. Loudin, O. W. Bunner, G. W. Ratliflf, Still- 
man Young, Wm. Mearns, W. L. Sextton, J. R. Russell, Granville Lanham, G. 
W. Dawson, A. C. Hinkle, J. L. D. Brake. 

1888. John W. Hinkle, S. L. Loudin, L. P. Brooks, R. A. Herring, A. J. 
Gladwell, W. L. Sexton, J. C. Bailev, R. T. H. Benson, Granville Lanham, 
G. W. Dawson, A. C. Hinkle, Adam Mick. 

1892. William Loudin, Dexter W. Cutright, W. L. Sexton, G. A. Fitz- 
gerald, D. M. Reed, A. J. Zickefoose, Thomas Avington, Granville Lanham, 
W. S. Harper, S. B. Gawthrop, A. C. Hinkle, E. S. Queen. 

1896. L. D. Rollins, Daniel Cutright, R. P. Young, C. W. Waid, W .S. 
Harper, Charles Bunner, R. T. H Benson, Lafayette Westfall, Harr>' Jenkins, 
Bezalee Radabaugh, J. L. Casto, A. C. Hinkle. 

1900. L. D. Rollins, Daniel Cutright, C. Waid, G. E. Boseley, J. L. Casto, 
T. P. Dawson, Bezalee Radabaugh, J. W. Miles, G. B. Brown, J. L. Queen, Silas 
Gooden, R. T. H. Benson. 

1906. Silas Gooden, Daniel Pence, L. C. Haymond, G. B. Brown, A. J. 


Gladwell, C. W. Waid, A. C. Hinkle, T. P. Dawson, B. Radabaugh, Luther 
Shreve, James Dailey, L. D. Rollins. 


On July 31, 1863, the West Virginia Legislature passed an act for the sub- 
dividing of the counties into magisterial districts. To carry out this provision 
of the act, commissioners were appointed in each county of the state. In Upshur 
county, James Kesling, C. S. Haynes, O. B. Loudin and John J. Burr were named 
as commissioners to sub-divide Upshur county into not less than three, nor more 
than ten magisterial districts. The act empowered these commissioners to em- 
ploy the services of a surveyor whose duty it shall be to go with the commis- 
sioners, survey the various proposed districts and make at least two maps to 
accompany the report. One of these maps shall be sent to the Secretary of the 
State and the other shall be recorded in the County Clerk's office. 

Festus Young, of French Creek, was selected by the commissioners to do 
the surveying. 

The commissioners proceeded to the task of surveying the entire county and 
then to sub-dividing it into districts. Their work having been ended, they re- 
ported the sub-division of Upshur into six districts and named them as follows: 

Buckhannon, Banks, Meade, Union, Warren and Washington. 

A short history of the naming of these magisterial districts and the estab- 
lishment of the most important towns, mills, churches, etc., follows : 

The map made by Festus Young, was handed to the County Court in 1869, 
and an order was spread upon the minutes of the court for the recordation of 
the same and the making of a plate of said original map. 


Buckhannon district takes its name from the river which makes its eastern 
boundary and the town which still is a part of the district for magisterial and 
civic purposes. It was named by John J. Burr. 

Within this district was located Bush's Fort, sofnetimes called Buckhannon 
Fort, around which lingers many daring adventures during the early days when 
settlements were sought to be established in the Buckhannon valley. At one time 
no less celebrated chieftain than Tecumseh was before the walls of the old Fort. 
In this district also was another strong Indian fort which was erected by the 
settlers in and around the present village of Lorentz. Here also occurred the 
massacre of the Bozarth family. The name of this fort was Jackson and stood 
on the elevated ground near where the palatial residence of Jacob Allman now 

The first settlers were Samuel Pringle, John Pringle, William Pringle, John 
Outright and Samuel Oliver. The first improvement was made on Cutright's 
Run, four miles south of the present town of Buckhannon, in the year 1786. 
John Hacker was the first settler, but owing to the fact that the land which he 
had selected was claimed by the Pringles, he removed farther west and built 
his permanent cabin on the head waters of that stream which has ever since 
borne his name and thus he became the first settler in what is now Lewis county. 
Other settlers were John Jackson, Abraham Carper, Jesse Hughes, William 
Hacker, Abraham Brake, William Radcliff, Alexander Sleeth, Thomas Sleeth, 


John Brake and Joel VVestfall, who came in the first years of the nineteenth 

The first saw-mill was erected by John Strader and Henry Reger in the year 
1806. It was a small water mill with a tub wheel, grinding some corn. It stood 
on Spruce Run about where the Clevenger residence now is. The second was 
built by John Jackson in 1810 on the present site of the Anchor mill in the town 
■of Buckhannon and cut the race which now makes the Island. It was the first 
frame mill building in the county as well as the best one in the interior of the state 
at that dty. The following year i\lr. Jackson added to his grist mill machinery 
which enabled ihim to saw the timber of his neighbors into building lumber. 
This was the first saw mill in the county. Both were swept away by a violent 
fiood on the 27th day of July, 1837. 

The first portorable steam saw-mill to manufacture lumber for market, was 
brought into this district on the head waters of Cutright's Run in the year 1867, 
by Abraham Hinkle. This mill sawed its first set on the farm now owned by 
Benjamin Allies and sawed its second set on the farm now owned by Anthoney 
Neely, one mile east of the village of Hinkleville. The postoftice at Hinkleville 
was named after the owner of this first portable steam saw mill in the cuunty, 
Abraham Hinkle, who was its founder and used much of the lumber sawed at 
this second set in constructing dwelling house, a country inn or tavern, store 
hou-f^e and stables. 

In the year 1832, Eldridge Burr, Jr., and Martin Burr., erected a grist mill 
in the district outside of the county seat. It was built on the waters of French 
Creek, about a mile from its mouth, and served the people around many years 
with good corn meal. This mill was a water mill, having the old tub wheels 
fed by a deep race which furnished sufficient water not only to run corn burrs, 
but wheat burrs as well and saw-mill. The next water mill built in this district 
was in the year 1848 on Spruce Run by Jacob A. Hyre. This mill is still standing 
near the postoffice of Atlas and is doing trade grinding as it did in the year of 
its prime. The striking feature of this mill is its large wheel which is some 
thirty feet in diameter, the circumference of the wheel is filled with triangular 
Avooden troughs into which pours water from an artificial lake sufficient to give 
momentum and rapidity to the over-shot wheel to do the neighbors' grinding. It 
is owned by Marcellus Reger. The Aaron Ligget grist and .saw water mill on 
the waters of Glady Fork was built by Dr. David Pinnell in 1853. 

Lorentz in this dstrict was the first postoffice in the county, established some 
time prior to the war of 1812 and named after its founder and principal citizen, 
Jacob Lorentz, who for many years kept the only store in the valley and did 
a large mercantile business. In fact his store business was so extensive and 
profitable that for half a century he was regarded as the wealthiest man in all 
these parts. 

The first house erected for the sole purposes of education was built in this 
district in 1790; it was on Glady Fork Run near where Daniel Cutright, Esq., 
now lives. It was a rude cabin of logs ; the roof of clabboards was held in place 
by weight polls ; the floor was mother earth ; a huge fire-place occupied one end, 
while from the other was chopped a log and over the aperture was pasted greased 
paper as a substitute for glass. The seats were constructed by splitting small 
logs in halves, and inserting wooden pins or legs into divergent holes in either 
■end of the oval side, thus leaving the flat side as a seat. 


The churches in this district number seven, and the denominations having 
churches number four. 

Methodist Protestant. — The oldest church outside of the town Buck- 
hannon, is Mt. Pleasant or Philadelphia Chapel, which was first organized about 
the year 1817. It was then a Methodist class, but after the rupture of 1830 and 
formation of the Methodist Protestant denomination, this class built a log church 
at the forks of the road on the hill above the home of Jacob E. Cutright. This 
house served its usefulness and was supplanted by the present one on the present 
site in 1869. Some of the members belonging to this class in this last year 
were Isaac Cutright, Christopher Cutright, William Cutright, William Pringle, 
Jacob Cutright and Joel Pringle. 

The Lorentz, M. P. Church was first built in the year 1837 and was a rude 
structure adapted to the convenience and comfort of those who worshipped 

The second M. P. Church at Lorentz was built in 1884, the old one having 
been burned by an incendiary on the same night that President James A. Garfield 
fell a victim of death from Giteau's bullet, July 2, 1881. 

Pleasant Dale Chapel was built in 1865 and was the result of a continued 
anxiety upon the part of a few of the faithful who refused to join the new 
sex or denomination, the Methodist Protestant, in the year 1830 when most 
all of Mt. Pleasant membership affiliated themselves with this new division. For 
some time prior to the building of this church Abraham Strader and Catharine, 
his wife ; Simon Rohrbough and Margaret, his wife ; Frank Boyles, Samuel 
Boyles and some others , thinking the "Old Side" good enough for them, had 
held meetings in Abraham Strader's log laundry, and under the direction of a 
Rev. Powell, had organized the class which brought about the construction of 
the present church on the hill, a mile south from where the pike crosses Cut- 
right's run. 

Reger Chapel. — Reger Chapel was organized and built about the year 1840. 
Philip Reger, Anthony Reger, John J. Reger, and others holding a life belief 
as to church government, set on foot a movement which resulted in the con- 
struction of the first church on the hill near by the home of the late John J. Reger, 
on Brushy Fork. In time the original house became weather beaten, dilapidated, 
rickety, rotten and dangerous, and 1890 a new edifice was built on the site of the 
old church. 

United Brethen. — Mt. Olivet Chapel, one-half mile south of the village 
of Hinkleville, was built in 1868. The leading members of this church were 
Samuel Lane and Elizabeth, his wife ; Enoch Cutright and Catharine, his wife. 
An interesting incident connected with the dedication of Mt. Olivet was the 
presence of Rev. Weaver, who afterwards became one of the strongest and most 
spiritual bishops in the United Brethren Church. 

Rocky Ford Chapel was built in the year 1872. The principal supporters 
of this local church then and now are the families of Daniel Cutright,. Amos 
Cutright, George L. Crites, A. W. C. Lemons and Isaac Lewis. 

Jacob Lorentz was the first blacksmith as well as the first store-keeper in 
the district and county; he lived at the present village of Lorentz. 

James Raines, who lived on the now Widow Taylor farm, opposite Joseph 
E. Newlon dairy farm, was the second blacksmith in the district, doing for 
several years the cobbling for the people at Buckhannon and on Cutright's run. 


The village of Hampton, on the B. & O. R. R. at the mouth of French Creek, 
was laid ofif by Dr. G. A. Newlon in 1891, and named after his son-in-law, W. 
Hampton Fisher, attorney at the Buckhannon bar. 

The first jeweler in the county was Samuel Meerbach, who came here direct 
from London in the 2o"s, and lived as a hermit a mile south of the postoffice of 
Ivanhoe, most generally called Hampton. 


George Gordon Meade was born at Cadiz, Spain, December 30, 1815. He 
was raised in the society and atmosphere of the United States Navy, to which 
his father belonged. Young Meade did not like navy life, and entered West 
Point, from which he graduated in 1835, to follow the other great division of 
Uncle Sam's military, the army. One year's service after graduation, satisfied 
him with army life. 

He resigned to begin practice as a civil engineer. His work as assistant 
engineer in the survey of the dozen mouths of the Mississippi River and the 
Texas boundary line recommended him so strongly to the government that he 
was employed to settle the boundary line in the northeast between United States 
and Canada. 

In 1842 he re-entered the army and served with distinction on the staffs 
of Taylor and Scott in the Mexican war. He labored for years on the Light 
House corps of the United States and for four years prior to the civil war 
had charge of the geodetic survey of the Great Lakes. At the outbreak of the 
Rebellion he was placed in command of a brigade of volunteers and soon was 
promoted to the command of a division of the army of the Potomac. He was 
in the engagements, "Seven days battle" in the wilderness, Antietam and Freder- 
icksburg. At Chancellorsville he commanded the Fifth corps and succeeded 
Hooker as commander of the entire army, hastening North to check Lee's inva- 
sion. He was succeeded by Grant as general commander, who treated him with 
such signal equality that the pangs in his reduction were greatly alleviated and 
mutual good feeling always existed between them. 

In 1864 Meade's abilities were most conspicuous and brilliant and his serv- 
ices were recognized by his promotion to the rank of Major General, in August, 

At the close of the war he was placed in command of the Atlantic division 
of the United States Army, a post which he filled until his death in Philadelphia, 
November 6, 1872. 

Festus Young, the surveyor, being an official member of the committee to 
divide the county into magisterial districts, was, also, the only member of the 
committee representing the New England contingent of Upshur county citizen- 
ship, and had the privilege and honor of naming this district in commemoration 
of the distinguished services and pure character of the above-portrayed hero and 

Zedekiah Morgan and Patrick Peebles in the year 1801 moved out frpm 
Massachusetts and made a settlement at Sago. Both were actual settlers and 
both found what they were in search of — permanent homes. 

Three years after making their settlement, or 1804, was born Alfred Mor- 
gan, the father of Mrs. George W. Burner. 


The first saw and grist mill built in this district was at or near Sago in the 
year 1810. It was erected by Zedekiah Morgan and Patrick Peebles. Soon after 
its completion a violent freshet swept it down and carried it away. The second 
saw mill in this district was built by Aaron Gould on the waters of French 
Creek, near where Meadville now stands. This was a short time after the war 
of 1812. 

In 1825 there came from Massachusetts, James Bunten, who located on 
the Buckhannon River near where Morgan lived. With eagerness and solicitude 
he listened to the story of the destruction of his neighbors' saw and grist mill in 
1810, and being somewhat of a millwright himself, determined to replace it with 
a new and better one. Bunten's mill stood on the left bank of the Buckhannon 
River opposite the residence of George Moore, near Sago. In time this mill 
was incapacitated by age and lack of repair to accommodate the increasing popu- 
lation thereabouts. 

Cornelius Clark built a grist mill about one mile south of Bunten's mill in 
the year 1847, which has been out of use for some ten years, and is nov/ totally 
destroyed. At the same time he bored a salt well nearby and for years made 
salt as well as linseed and castor oil from the beans grown on the river bottom 
and hillside. 

The Pringle flour and grist mill at Alton was built by Walker Priiigle in 
1876. It still stands and does grinding for the neighborhood. 

The Aaron Gould saw mill at French Creek was improved and enlarged 
by the addition of grinding processes both for wheat and com in the year 
1820. This old water grist mill was some years ago abandoned and the only 
evidences of there ever being one there are the mill dam and the two-story frame 
building on the bank of French Creek. 

Marshall Gould some years later built a grist and saw mill three miles 
north of French Creek, now near the present postoffice of Adrian, on the C. & 
C. R. R. 

Perry Talbot after disposing of his interest in the French Creek Water, Saw 
and Grist Mill, of which mention has been made, set about the building of an 
up-to-date steam' grist mill in the same village. He completed this mill in 1892. 

The first school was taught by Miss Anna Young, who afterwards became 
the wife of Augustus W. Sexton, in 1822. This school was held in a barn 
owned by Aaron Gould, who lived near the present postoffice of French Creek. 
Miss Amy Burry was the second teacher. She married a Mr. Bradley. The 
first building erected for school purposes was a small log cabin which the settlers 
united in building in the year 1824. 

The first sermon preached in the district was by Rev. James Strange, a 
Methodist minister, in the year 1812. The first religious society formed was 
that of the French Creek Presbyterian Church in 1819. The first place of wor- 
ship was the private residence of Samuel Gould ; but in 1823 a log church was 

The second church organization was probably that of the Universalists, about 
the year 1825. It ceased to exist long since. There are at the present time 
thirteen church organizations in the district. 

Methodist Episcopal. — Point Pleasant organized in 1847: French Creek 
organized in 1882 ; Ebenezer Chapel, Tenmile, and Center Chapel. — French Creek organized 1819; Lebanon Chapel. 


United Brethen. — Indian Camp, Waterloo, Big Bend, Alton. 
Baptist. — Sago organized in 1856 by Rev. Aaron Bennet, phurch built in 1873; 
■second church built in 1896. 

German Baptist or Dunkard, at Bean's Mill, built in 1903. 
Meadville, or more commonly known as French Creek, is the oldest village 
an the district. It was named by Festus Young. 


"The Union, one and indissoluble!" The commemoration and fidelity of a 
loyal people at this most trying time must be indelibly fixed on the pages of local 
history. Therefore the naming of this magisterial district reflects the faith and 
hope of Upshur's people in 1863 in the ultimate triumph of the perpetuation of 
the nation. James Kesling, the commissioner from this section of the couiitr\-, 
acted most wisely and far-sightedly when in reply to the interrogation, "What 
shall you name your district?" answered, "Union, the personification of truth 
and the vindication of right." 

The first settlers were Jacob Post, near the mouth of Little Sand Run ; John 
Strader, John and Abram Crites, Abraham Post, John Jackson, Anthony Rhor- 
bough and George Bush, lower down on the Buckhannon River and adjoining 
farms each to the other. 

The first grist mill was erected in the year 1841 by Solomon Day at Dayville, 
near the Overhill postoffice. This mill is still standing although many im- 
provements have been made upon it since the time it was first erected. William 
F. Hollen built the first circular saw mill in 1877. Steam was the propelling 

The Harris grist mill on Handy Camp Run of the Buckhannon River was 
iuilt in 1881. 

The Hinkle Grist Mill on Big Sand Run, a mile east of the Shreve School or 
Hinkle Postoffice, was built by Valentine Hinkle in 1878. It was a water mill 
and had machinery for sawing lumber attached to it. 

The Pifer Grist Mill on the Buckhannon River was built in 1874. This mill 
is noted today for the good quality of corn meal it produces. 

The Lewis or Forneash grist and saw mill on Big Sand Run, a mile above 
ats mouth, was built in 1874. 

Homer Kesling built a two-sory flour and grist mill on the waters of Big Sand 
Hun near the postoffice of Bonn, in 1903. This mill is fitted up with the most 
modern machinery of any country mill in the county ; it is run by steam. 

The first school was taught in 1828 at what is now known as the Shreve's 
School House. There were sixteen pupils in attendance, who came from several 
miles around. The house was a small, log building twenty by twenty-four feet. 
It was private property. 

The first school house erected for schood purposes was in the year 1830; 
it was a small frame building and stood where the Leonard school has since 
been located. The first teacher is not known, but we are informed that John 
B. Shreves was among the primitive pedagogues in this district. 

There are nine churches in this district divided among the denominations as 
follows : 

Methodist Episcopal. — Kesling Chapel, organized and built in the year 
1858; Mt. Nebo, Low Gap Chapel, and Mt. Rupert. 


Methodist Protestant. — Rock Spring and Mt. Zion. 

United Brethern. — Mt. Hermon or Ours Chapel and Sand Run Chapel. 

Baptist. — Sand Run, and a Catholic. 


How fitting the nomenclature of this magisterial district ! It was the last 
portion of the county to be permanently settled, _\et, was the first in which set- 
tlements were attempted. George Washington, the father only of his country, 
the creator of an imperishable republic, the arch-builder of an indissoluble union, 
has fame, name and work, perpetuated in this district. 

Born February 22 1732, in Tidewater, Virginia, his fiery ambitious youth 
gave singular manifestations of a leader of men and a maker of history. In 
the friendly "bouts" on school play-ground, in the laborious engagements of 
land surveying, and in the fiercer struggles of bloody warfare, he convincingly 
proved his supremacy over his contemporaries. 

His promotion began early in life; and he gradually went higher and higher 
until an appreciative populace sang in concert, "The first, the last, the best 'The 
Cincinnatus of the West.' " He died at Mount Vernon, December 14, 1799. 

At the time the Pringles and Cutrights settled at the mouth of Cutright's 
Run, an effort was made to establish a home or two across the river, on the 
ground that the river was a barrier to the Indians going eastward and a cabin 
on the hills overlooking that stream might become a place of personal security, 
a fort of family safety. True it is the Cutrights' early made settlement in Wash- 
ington district. In 1816 the Burr-Sexton-Leonard settlement on Leonard Creek 
of the Middlefork River was made. James Tenney, Sr., the foreparent of the 
large Tenney family in the county, settled permanently above Queens, in 181 7. 

A man by the name of Hewins built the first cabin and was the first actual 
settler in the district. 

The Strader settlement, named after Isaac Strader, was made in 1820, and 
the Tenmile settlement was made in 1830. 

The first settlers in this district were Isaac Strader, John Strader, Michael 
Strader, Jacob Strader, Samuel C. Turney, William Wooden and John Weather- 
holt, all of whom lived in the lower part of the district and constituted a large 

The first grist mill was built on Middlefork, in 1818, by James Tenney, Sr. 
It was a rudely constructed building with but one very small run of stone. It 
could grind fifteen bushels per day and the patience of the farmer was sorely 
tried in waiting his "turn" at Tenney 's mill. 

The first saw mill was built in 1854 by F. W. Chipps and Isaac Wamsley. It 
was located near the mouth of Grassy Run and cut 600 feet per day during 
the time of plentiful water. 

The Tenney grist mill on the Buckhannon River near Tenmile was built 
in 1867. 

The Queens or Hollen grist mill was built by Armstead Queen in 1845. 

The second postoffice established in the township was that of Queens, and 
named after the founder of the village and the builder of the first" grist mill. 
The first postoffice was named Middlefork and was kept at the Groves farm in 


The Nixon or Ours grist and saw mill on the Buckhannon River, one of the 
best country mills in the county, was built by Nicholas Ours in 1883. 

The Kedron grist mill was built by George Steele, Sr., in 1886. 

The first election was held at Chesney's precinct, 1858, at which election 
twenty-four persons exercised the right of suffrage, the following being the 
voters : Isaac Strader, David and Samuel Reese, George Warner, Peter and 
Jonathan Tinney, George ]\Ioore, Hazeldon and Nicholas Ours, Sr. and Jr., 
Elijah Rollins, Solomon Reese, Wm. Dunbar, Nathaniel Cutright, James M. 
Black, Benjamin Tallman, Granville D. Marple, N. B. Warmsley, Nathan Ligget, 
Peter Barb, Soloman Day, Peter Tenney, Sr., Elijah and W. B. Goodwin, Meer- 
bach Ours, J. H. Sharps, Wm. Tallman, A. C. Queen, Geo. I. Herndon, Robert 
Wingfield, Howard Roan and Simon Strader. 

This township supports fourteen churches divided among the various denomi- 
nations as follows : 

Methodist Episcopal. — Mt. Carmal, Mt. Harmony at Queens, Mt. Union 
at Kedron, Mt. Olive at Hemlock, Mt Hope Chapel, Simmons Chapel. 

Methodist Protest.'^nt. — (Mt Carmel)- — Queens Chapel, Hemlock Chapel, 
class meets in Carpenter's school house ; Fairview Chapel. 

Baptist. — Carter Chapel at Tallmansville. 

The leading members and supporters of this church were T. A. Carter and 
Page Carter. 

Tenney Chapel above Tenmile, organized and built in 1885. 

United Brethern. — Mt. Washington was first organized and built in the 
year 1847. The original house of worship was log. small in size and inade- 
quate for its growing membership. Cutright Chapel, near Bean's mill. 

German Baptist or Dunkard. — Sand Run Chapel was first organized in 
the early years of the Rebellion. The present house of worship was erected 
in 1888. 

An old resident informs us that the first school in this township was taught 
by Simon Strader in a log cabin on Grassy Run in the year 1842. The enroll- 
ment must have been twenty-five or thirty, for our informant tells us that the 
daily attendance was eighteen. 

Governor Kemble Warren was distinctly a soldier. His birth occurred at 
Cold Springs, New York, January 8, 1830. He completed his course at West 
Point at the age of twenty years and went West as a member of the U. S. topo- 
graphical engineering corps. He worked in the Western States and Territories 
from 1850 to 1859; in this last year he was called to West Point to be assistana 
professor of mathematics. He taught in his alma mater two years and then went 
to the front as colonel of the Fifth New York Volunteers. He distinguished 
himself at the battles of Malvern Hill, Manassas and Fredericksburg. 

In 1863 he was chief of topographical engineers under Hooker and later 
held the same position in the army of the Potomac. He fought most bravely 
at Gettysburg and immediately was brevetted colonel of the U. S. Anny. He 
was in the battles of the Wilderness, in the siege of Petersburg and the contest 
of Five Forks in 1865, when for assuming to be omnipotent. General Sheridan 
relieved him of command. He was afterwards placed in command at Peters- 


burg and later of the Department of the Mississippi. He resigned his volunteer 
commission in May, 1865, and was brevetted major-general in the United 
States Army. As major of engineers he remained in the regular army in charge 
of surveys, harbor improvements, the construction of fortifications, etc. He was 
a member of the National Academy of Sciences and other scientific associations, 
He died at Newport, Rhode Island, August 8, 1882. 

O. B. Loudin being a member of the committee to divide the county into 
townships and a resident of tliis most northern district, named this township. 

The first cabin erected in this district was in the year 1780, by a man whose 
name was Hammon, but the first actual settlers were Jacob Reger, Isaac Pringle 
and John Reger, unless the reader prefers to call the Pringle brothers, who set- 
tled at the mouth of Turkey Run, actual settlers. 

In the year 1798 a man named Daniel Peck built a cabin on that branch of 
the Buckhannon River now known as Peck's Run, and from him the stream 
takes its name. This man Peck subsequently moved to the southern end of the 
county and built a mill on the waters of the Little Kanawha River. 

The first frame house in the district and in the county was built in this 
township. The site was on land now owned by S. D. Jackson. It is said that it 
was constructed in the year 1800. Among the early settlers in this district were 
the Straders, Rohrboughs, Post, Hyres, Rollins, Wolfs, Marples, Westfalls and 

The first election ever held in the district was at the store of John Marple, in 
the year 1863, upon the question of the reorganization of the government of 
Virginia and the construction of the new State of West Virginia. John M. 
Loudin and J- L. D. Brake were the first and last supervisors. The first grist mill 
was built by Jacob Hyre, about the year 1812. It was a log structure with an 
over-shot wheel forced into action by water led through a mill race. It stood on 
Peck"s Run. There was but one run of buhrs and the bolting was done by hand. 

There are nine church buildings in the district at the present time. 

Methodist. — Macedonia, organized and built in 1852; Mt. Lebanon, 1850; 
Heaston Chapel, Pleasant Valley, in 1838: Oakington Chapel. 

Methodist Protestant. — Mick Hill Chapel, Pleasant View Chapel and 
Westfall Chapel, 1844. 

United Brethern. — Mt. Zion Chapel was organized and built in 1843. 

The Strader grist mill on Hacker's Creek, near Rural Dale, was built in 1844. 

The Post mill on the Buckhannon River was erected by Abraham Post 
about 1825. 


Nathaniel Prentiss Banks was a native of Massachusetts, born in the well- 
known time factory town, Waltham, January 30, 1816. His paternal ancestor 
being a superintendent of a local cotton mill, made his son an apprentice under 
the chief machinist. He soon learned this trade and quitted it soon to follow 
some other activity more congenial to his nature and habits. He was a finished 
orator and went upon the platform for a time to instruct and to entertain. 

The opportunity of becoming an editor was opened up to him and he could 
not resist the occupation of pushing a pen. He studied law, was admitted 
to the bar while conducting this local paper and in 1849 was chosen to represent 


his local town in the Legislature of Massachusetts. During his services in the 
the law-making body from 1849 to 1853, his occupancy of the speaker's chair for 
the sessions of '51 and '52 is the strongest attestation of his popularity and 
brains. He went to Congress first in 1853 as a Democrat and during his tenn 
identified himself with the American or Know Nothing Party, and by virtue of 
this flop he was returned to Congress. The most significant political victory of 
his life was that protracted and bitter contest over the slavery question in the 
pre-organization days of the Thirty-fourth Congress that made him the first 
Republican Speaker of the House of Representatives. He was elected governor 
of Massachusetts three consecutive terms and did much to raise the efficiency of 
the Massachusetts' militia which filled an important role in the Civil war. 

On laying down the duties of a commonwealth's chief executive he as- 
sumed the greater responsibilities of the presidency of the Illinois Central Rail- 
road, but soon resigned to be commissioned major-general of volunteers, and 
went to the front in Virginia. 

He was in the battles of Winchester, March 23, 1862 ; Front Royal, May 23, 
1862; Cedar Mountain, August 9, 1862, and at the capitulation of Port Hud- 
son, July, 1863. 

He resigned his commission in May, 1864, and returned to his native State, 
where an admiring constituency biennially elected him to Congress until 1877, 
failing only in 1872. 

After a recess of eleven years his friends called him again into political serv- 
ice by a nomination and election to Congress. He died September i, 1894, much 
respected and much honored by his State and nation. 

C. S. Haines was the gentlman on the committee created by an act of the 
West Virginia Legislature past July 31, 1863, from this section of the county; 
and he it was after counseling and advising with his most worthy and intellec- 
tual neighbors recommended that this magisterial district be named Banks 
after the hero and statesman herein before portrayed. 

The first settler in this district was \alentine Powers, who erected the cabin 
near where the Frenchton postoffice now is : the second settler was Leonard 
Crites, who came from Brushy Fork. They were soon followed by Abram Wells, 
Joseph McKinney, Isaac Parker, Samuel T. Talbot, Rice Vincent and James Bart- 
lett. All were actual settlers. William Clark, the son of William and Eve 
(Powers) Clark, was the first white child born in the district. The first grist 
mill was built by Daniel Peck at the upper falls of the little Kanawha River about 
the year 182 1. The lumber for the mill was sawed at the Gould's saw mill at 
Meadville, and withed together and carried on horse by a Mr. Peck to the site 
of his* new mill. The second grist mill was built in 1825 by Valentine Powers. 

The buhrs were cut from a quarry in a neighboring hill and the building was 
a mere shed supported by four posts. Samuel Talbot erected the first saw mill 
in the year 1825; it was a good substantial frame building; the saw, the old sash 
pattern, was propelled by an under-shot wheel. This mill is now known as the 
Wingrove mill. Since the building of Daniel Beck's mill at Arlington and Pow- 
er's mill on French Creek, there has been constructed many others in various 
parts of the district. The site of the Peck mill is now the site of the up-to-date 
flour and grain mill of E. G. Wilson, who purchased the land around the Falls 
and including them from the Fidlers. The Wilson mill at Stillman was built by 


Gideon Wilson. This mill furnished all the flour and meal for the inhabitants 
in and around Rock Cave. 

The Crites mill at Selbyville was built in 1855-6, by Leonard Crites, whose 
settlement was made in the same year. Thomas Selby lived at this place in the 
year 1873 and gave name to the postoffice as we now have it. 

Newlonton and the station at Newlonton was opened on May 6, 1891, the 
date of the first ticket sold over the extension of the West Virginia and Pittsburg 
Railroad from Buckhannon. 

The Moore mill at Hollygrove was built in the year 1867, it is still in opera- 
tion. About a half a mile above this grist mill was the first saw mill in this 
section, it was built by Mr. Ligget and had an up and down saw forced into 
action by water into an over-shot wheel. 

The first election in this district was held in Beechtown at the time a vote 
was taken for and against the formation of the new county of Upshur out of 
parts of Randolph, Lewis and Barbour. For more particular mention of that 
vote, look at the chapter on the formation of the county. The second election 
was held at Centreville in 1866, at which time fifty votes were cast; among 
those who then exercised the right of suffrage were: Samuel Wilson, Samuel 
Talbot, John Douglass, David Bennett, James Curry, Jerad Armstrong, James 
Smallridge, James Blagg, C. S. Haynes, W. H. Curry, John McDowel, Daniel 
Haynes. Robert Curry, John Smith, James Hull, Daniel and George Talbot. 

The Baptist Church was the first denomination to effect an organization 
in this district. It was made in the year 1815, at Frenchton under the ministry 
of Rev. James Wells. The second society formed was that of the Methodist in 
1816. Warren Knowlton and wife, and Rice Vincent and wife and mother were 
among those composing the first class. 


Methodist Episcopal. — Beechtown Chapel first organized in 1816, a churcb 
was built in 1837, and the present house of worship was erected in 1863, 

CentervillE Chapel was organized in 1850 and house was built in 1851, 
Kanawha Run Chapel, Mt. Zion Chapel, Salem Chapel, Canaan Chapel, Brooks 
Chapel, Newlonton Chapel, Shinar Chapel, Marple. 

Pleasant Dale. — Boreman, Heaston, Eden, Wilson, Union M. P. and 
M. E. South on Straight Fork. 

United Brethern. — Cow Run Chapel, Cherry Fork Chapel. 

Baptist Churches.— Rock Cave, organized on April 15, 1849, and Provi- 

At Goshen there is a Dunkard class and a Dunkard Church which was 
organized by D. J. Miller in 1901. 

The first school was taught about 181 5, by a man named George Dawson, 
in a log cabin on the waters of French Creek. The first school house was built 
in the year 1818 near the postoffice of Frenchton on what is now known as 
the Walter Phillips farm. This postoffice is the oldest in the district. 

To this district belongs the great honor of having grown one of the largest 
walnut trees in the United States. We dare say that ink of lumber history never 
penned a more gigantic walnut tree than the one cut by Robert Darnell in the 
year 1882. When felled it measured across the stump seven feet and six inches 


one way, and eight feet four inches the other. The body was seventy-five feet 
long and the top end measured three feet four inches in diameter. Mr. Darnell 
sold it for $600. about one-tenth of its actual worth, but it enabled him to pay 
for the farm on which it grew. 


William Loudin settled at the mouth of Cherry Fork on the Little Kanawha 
River on the place now owned by his relative and descendant, Thomas Samples. 

Daniel Peck built the first grist mill at the upper Falls on the Little Kanawha 
River in 1828. He sold it to Robert Clark, whose dreams of success and content- 
ment were dissipated by the immediate death of four children. The rough 
tombstone in the Centreville Cemetery marks the date of birth and death of 
these children. 

Alpheus Rude, of Massachusetts, settled on Kanawha at the Falls of Flat- 
woods Run, now owned by Wilson ; and he, his wife, his son William and his 
wife and^children lived and died there. The land that Mr, Rude owned was sold 
first to William Hefner by his son Edwin ; Hefner sold it to George White ; White 
sold it to R. H. Townsend, who sold it to E. E. Curry. Mr, Curry, on account 
of its easy approach for the people on the Kanawha and its tributaries, constructed 
there a grist mill, known for some time as the Curry Mill, later as the Wilson 
Mill, It was burned down in 1893, Patrick Peebles, of ^lassachusetts, settled 
on Kanawha Run on the farm now owned by King Jones; he sold it to Zacheriah 
Rollins ; Rollins to Isaac Parker ; Parker to Benjamin Eckle, whose son sold it 
to A. M. Smith. 

Job Thayer settled on a Knob farm near Rock Cave, now owned by John Hull, 

Murray Thayer settled on a second Knob farm near by. 

George Nicholas settled on the James Donley place, which was acquired from 
Thomas McVincent. 

Henry Winemiller settled on the farm now owned by John Hyre. Captain 
Gilbert Gould once lived near Rock Cave on a tract of land subsequently sold to 
him by J. J. McVincent, who died in Andersonville, 

Samuel T, Talbot built the first frame house in the township, on the Talbot 
plantation, in 1832. It is still standing in a fair state of preservation. 

Three brothers from Boston, Mass., Anson, Gilbert and Pascal Young, 
settled on what is now the Brake and Helmick Farms. 

David Cochran and sister Ann, first settled in Centerville, Rock Cave, in 
James Curry's horne. 

The first winter school taught at Centerville was by Festus Young, in a little 
house near John MacAvoys, When the owner of this little house could no longer 
spare it for educational purposes a second house was secured just below Benjamin 
Paughs. It was burned in 1844 and the citizens united in building a hewn log 
house where the M. E. Church now stands. 

The first business house in Centerville was the Morrison & Curry millinery 
store. It was a cheap structure, built by a William Curry and J. J. McVincent, in 
26 days. Thomas Desper used it as a store room and sold it to William H. Curry 
in 1855. 


The history of Upshur county, in its educational growth, is in general the 
history of Virginia and West Virginia repeated. The retarding influence of Gov- 


ernor Berkeley's speech, when he thanked God that Virginia 'had no tfree 
schools, indicated the true and popular sentiment of her well-to-do people, and 
was not overcome until one hundred and twenty-five years had elapsed. Seven 
years after the adoption of the Constitution of the United States, Thomas Jefifer- 
son. that great apostle of Democracy, influenced the Virginia Assembly to insert 
in her code the first school laws pertaining to a passive careless regard for and a 
nominal oversight over only a few schools without donating funds to aid and 
assist them. In this legislative act a germ of perennial duration was planted, and 
in time germinated and grew into the Virginia University (1819). and later into 
the Jeffersonian ideal of free common and free high schools. 

Early educational opportunities in the settlements of the Buckhannon River 
Valley were very meager. What there were, were most energetically improved 
by the children of the first settlers. Children were needed at home to assist 
parents in clearing forests, in cutting fire wood, and doing other chores which 
saved steps for parents ; very few schools were kept, indeed, none were held for 
twenty-five years after the first settlement at the mouth of Turkey Run. 

The school houses were of a primitive style of architecture, bearing a very 
small resemblance to Grecian or Roman order. They were constructed of logs 
notched at the coners, and daubed with clay. Before this last process was entered 
upon the cracks between the logs were filled with mountain moss and pieces of 
split wood. The roof was of split boards, kept in their position by weighty poles 
laid across them to the full length of the building. Light was provided, not by 
transparent window glass but by translucent paper covering an aperture made 
by sawing out a log. This paper was greased, in order to make it 
more translucent, and was provided with a plank cover suspended by leather 
hinges, so that it protected the paper and the children during a dashing rain or 
heavy storm. The chimneys were large and wide. Puncheon benches without 
backs, ten and twelve feet long, were the uncomfortable seats that pupils were 
required to sit upon during the long school day. A chair and a table, for the 
teacher, with one or more good birch rods in the corner, completed the furniture 
of the school room. 

School books were also scarce, and of diverse kinds — sometimes every pupil 
would bring a dififerent book. Columbian Orator, Arabian Knights, Robinson 
Crusoe, the Bible or the New Testament were the original books ; later on. Green 
and Davy's arithmetic, 'Webster's readers and spellers were used. This outfit, 
meager as it was, was quite equal to the demands of the curriculum which com- 
prehending only reading, writing, and ciphering as far as the rule of three. 
Mathematics was taught at first only by means of a manuscript book, belonging 
to the teacher, in which arithmetical questions were not only propounded, but the 
process of their solution must be fully recorded in figures. This was the pupils 
only source for sums, and to the teachers standard of calculation answers must 
conform. Pupils after toiling days, or weeks over a sum in long division would 
go up to the teacher to report their answers, and would hear the appalling words — 
"not right." They would then have to go over the tedious and perplexing calcu- 
lation again with the probability, staring them in the face, of arriving at the same 
result, and receiving the same answer. 

The rod bore an important part in the discipline of these primitive schools. 
Fortunately or unfortunately, the forest furnished switches, which for toughness 
and punitive power, threw into the shade the far famed birchen rod. The vir- 


tues of the hickory were understood by all the disciplinarians of the school room, 
and its penal application was held in extreme horror by all of the unruly, naughty 
urchins of the region. It was employed with more or less freedom and severity 
according to the temper and virus of the pedagogue. Some irascible teachers 
used it with unquestionable cruelty, while others employed it to terrify rather 
than to punish. 

Castigation was inflicted usually by retail, but in some cases by wholesale. 
Ten or a dozen were often called upon at once, and each in turn received his 
share of the whipping. Sometimes when the violators of school rules were of 
unequal size the smaller boy was put upon the back of the larger, and then 
the teacher used a goad long enough to go around both. In this way the larger 
boy would receive the greater amount of punishment from the small end of the 

The first school in the Buckhannon River valley was taught by a Mr. Had- 
dox, in a primitive log cabin near the mouth of Radclifif's Run, about two miles 
south of the present town of Buckhannon. This school was begun in December 
in the year 1797, and was supported by private subscriptions. The interest mani- 
fested in this school, at this time, can best be measured by the amount of contri- 
bution made up and paid over to the first jolly pedagogue. It has been handed 
down from generation to generation that Mr. Haddox's salary was $16 and 
board per month. The latter half of this consideration was by compliance with 
the condition that the teacher go home in turn with the pupils of each parent and 
supporter of the school. The attendance of this first school was regular, large 
and wide. Such great interest was taken in the novelty of school life, that the 
average daily attendance kept up to almost a hundred during the term of school 
which was three months. Children within a circuit of five miles of the school 
attended, and were eager and anxious to gain bits of information to help them 
in their after life. Upon information, such as is received and passed from gen- 
eration unto generation, we venture to name some of the children who attended 
this first school : From Cutright's Run were Jacob, John, William and Isaac 
Cutright and their sister Ann. There were also the Oliver children. There were 
William, John and Samuel Pringle, Jr., sons of Samuel Pringle of Sycamore 
fame. The children of the Ours' and Jackson's, from the present site of Buck- 
hannon, were also in attendance, and the Tingles, the Finks, the Hyers, and 
Schoolcrafts from Fink's Run answered present to the roll call. School con- 
tinued to be kept at varying periods, in this log hut, for a score and more of 
years. The second school was taught in the present town of Buckhannon in 
1807. The school house was a vacant residence on the place of Job Hinkle — 
Samuel Hall was the teacher. 

These early schools received no state aid. The teacher had to depend upon 
his subscription paper which was circulated among the numerous families withirr 
reach of the proposed school, and each family signed whatever number of pupils 
it felt able to send. In case too few signers were secured the school would not 
begin, and the teacher went on to a more populous neighborhood to try his luck 
again. Salaries were, indeed, low, and the meager pay received was made to go 
further by "boarding 'round." 

In 1810 the General Assembly of Virginia created what was known as the 
literary fund. By this act all "escheats, confiscations, fines, and pecuniary penalties^ 


and all rights in personal property accruing to the Commonwealth as dereljct, and 
having no rightful proprietor, should be used for the encouragement of learn- 
ing." An account by the auditor was obtained under the literary fund. The Gov- 
ernor, Lieutenant Governor, Treasurer, Attorney General and President of the 
Court of Appeals were made trustees and managers of this fund. We are not 
able to say whether the citizens in the Buckhannon River valley settlements re- 
ceived anything from this fund. The act of 1810 was amended by the act of 
1818 which latter act provided that, " It shall be the duty of the courts of the 
several counties, cities and corporated towns in the month of October, or as 
soon thereafter as may be. appoint not less than five or more than fifteen dis- 
creet persons to be called school commissioners. The duty of these commission- 
ers was to disburse for the county its pro rata share of this literary fund annually. 
This fund, as will be recalled, was used to pay the tuition of the children of poor 
parents. The commissioners selected these children out of the applications made 
to them. This literary fund law applied only to poor white children, and did 
not include the children of the negro. It is, indeed, a lamentable fact that pride, 
in almost all instances, overpowered good judgment and very few parents availed 
themselves of the benefits offered by this fund. Of course, by a later amendment 
to the provision connected with the distribution of the literary fund, the com- 
missioners were given power to select children, and when selected it was the 
duty of the parents or guardians to send such children to school. If they failed 
to comply with this semi-compulsory provision, a penalty, in a sum equal to the 
tuition, was inflicted. Commissioners as well as parents objected to this system 
because it seemed to place their poor neighbors in the light of paupers. They 
did not look at it, as we do to-day, that there is no child either too rich or too 
poor to receive an education at the hands of the State. From 1819 to 1845 very 
little change was made in the school system of A'irginia. In the latter year an 
act was passed authorizing the County Court to re-district the counties, and ap- 
point a school commissioner for each district. These school commissioners were 
required to assemble at the court houses of their respective counties in the month 
of October and elect tVT'o z'oce a county superintendent of schools. His duties 
were to keep a register of the children in his county, and report annually on the 
literary fund — how it was distributed, who received it, and its effect upon the 
schools under his care. Again on March 5, 1846, an act for the establishment 
of district public schools was passed. By this law one-third of the voters of a 
county could petition the county court to submit to the voters, at the next general 
election, the question of establishing district public schools. A two-thirds ma- 
jority of the votes cast were necessary for their establishment. Upon the estab- 
lishment of public schools "a uniform rate of increase taxation" upon the tax- 
able property in the county was provided for the support of these schools. This 
additional levy was placed by the school commissioners upon the taxable property 
in their jurisdiction. By the same law three trustees in each district could be 
had, two to be elected by the voters of the district, and one to be chosen 
by the board of commissioners. It was the duty of theSe trustees 
to select a site for a school house, to build and furnish the same, and 
to employ the teacher. The law gave the trustees power to discharge 
this teacher for good cause. They had also "To visit the school at least once 
in every month, and examine the scholars and address the pupils if they see fit, 
and exhort them to prosecute their studies diligently, and to conduct themselves 


virtuously and properly." There were many objections to the manner of the 
distribution of financial aid to the first schools in Upshur county. The committee 
which divided these funds oftimes gave assent to a distribution, unequal and 
unjust. A strong magnetic solicitor always received, on account of his influence, 
more than his due share of the funds. One teacher tells us that he, on one 
occasion, had thirty-five pupils and got $36 from the literary fund, and at the 
same time knew of his uncle's keeping a school with fewer students, and receiv- 
ing $60 of the literary fund. The law as a whole tended in the right direction, 
its spirit was good, although its intent be occasionally broken. The law of 1845, 
as amended by the law of 1846, remained practically the school la^N- of Virginia 
and West Virginia until the breaking out the war. It must also be remembered 
that as far as Upshur county was concerned there was not a single school house 
built out of public funds prior to the Civil war, and there was no other, but the 
composite — school, religious, and political structures, in the county. That is to 
say, that the people in a neighborhood united in a common eiTort to construct 
log houses of hewn or unhewn timber with the full intention that they should be 
used as a school house, church and political forum. 

This brings us to the war of the rebellion in which Mrginia, the mother 
State, was delivered of a child. This child broke away from maternal precept 
and example, and greatly improved upon the old order of educational affairs. 
West Virginia, from the beginning, turned her face toward the bright star of 
free public schools. The free school system was not an experiment, for the 
neighboring states of Pennsylvania and Ohio had already tested it. When those 
men who refused to follow the old State, on the secession and State rights ques- 
tion, met to frame a constitution for the new State, they were determined to have 
a uniform system of free education. Therefore, they inserted in the first consti- 
tution this declaration : "The Legislature shall provide, as soon as practical, for 
the establishment of a thorough and efficient system of free schools by appropriat- 
ing thereto the interest of the invested school fund, the net proceeds of all forfeit- 
ures, confiscations and fines accruing to this State under the laws thereof, and 
by general taxation on persons or property or otherwise. They shall also pro- 
vide for raising in each township (district) by the authority of the people thereof, 
such a proportion of the amount required for the support of free schools therein 
as shall be prescibed by general laws." 

On December 10, 1863, the Legislature of West Virginia passed an act enti- 
tled, "An act providing for the establishment of a system of free schools." This 
act was in conformity with the tenth article of the constitution. By this act 
three school commissioners were to be elected on the fourth Thursday in April, 
1864, for each township district. The commissioners so elected, when qualified, 
together with the clerk of the township constituted the Board of Education whose 
duty it is to take the control and management of schools within their district. 
By the same act, and at the same time, a county superintendent of free schools 
was elected. His duties were to examine all candidates for the profession of 
teacher, to visit the schools, to encourage institute work, etc. 

The first county superintendent of Upshur was A. B. Rohrbough, elected 
on the first Thursday in April, 1864. His term of service began on the tenth 
day succeeding his election. Mr. Rohrbough later gave up educational work 
and went into the ministry where he remained until his death in 1901. We have 
been unable to find a report from him, telling how many, and what condition 


the schools of Upshur county were in when he retired in 1864. We presum^ 
his work must have been hard, earnest, and laborious. The county superintend- 
ents of Upshur since 1865 have all made reports to a State superintendent. 


D. D. T. Farnsworth, 1851 ; Clinton G. Miller, 1852: Simon Rohrbough, 
1853: Simon Rohrbough, 1854; Tilletson Jenney, 1857; Henry Simpson, 1861 ; 
Asbun' Rohrbough, 1864; J. Loomis Gould, 1867; L. B. Moore, 1872; H. D. 
Clark,' 1873; T- F. Hodges, 1873: George R. Latham, 1875; Joseph S. Reger, 
1877: Charles" L. Brown, 1879: R. A. Armstrong, 1882; L. P. Brooks, 1883; F. 
P. Sexton, 1885: W. B. Cutright, 1889: N. W. Loudin, 1891 ; E. H. Knabenshue,, 
1899 ; W. S. Mick, 1902 ; J. H. Ashworth, 1907. 


The first legal action toward making provisions for greater educational 
facilities in the present bounds of Upshur county was made in 1847. Several 
prominent citizens in and around the town of Buckhannon asked the Virginia 
Assembly to pass an act creating them a body politic, to have perpetual succes- 
sion and a common seal to purchase, receive, and hold to them and their succes- 
sors, forever, any lands, rents, goods and moneys of whatsoever kind to be used 
to the advantage of education in their midst. On February ist, 1847, the Gen- 
eral Assembly of \'irginia passed an act entitled, "An act to incorporate the male 
and female academy of Buckhannon." The incorporators, according to the 
terms of the act, purchased a lot near where the Episcopal Church now stands on 
Main street in the town of Buckhannon, and built thereon a comfortable two-story 
school house. The first principal of this school was J. Wesley Webb, who was 
succeeded by Mr. Young, of Virginia. Augustus Sexton was also a teacher in 
this school. Some of the pupils who attended this school were Dr. Thomas 
G. Farnsworth, Nicholas C. Loudin, Mrs. J. W. Heavner, M. J. Jackson and 
Dexter W. Cutright. 

The interest and influence of this school was great considering the limited 
field in which it operated and the meager means with which it endeavored to 
aiifect its work. It was a lamentable fact that after several years of success this 
male and female academy of Buckhannon was suspended, the building was allowed 
to decay, the lot was turned out to the common, and thus it remained until 
February 23, 1866, when the Legislature of West Virginia, by an amendment to 
the act passed February i, 1847, made David S. Pinnell, Levi Leonard, Joseph 
D. Rapp, Nicholas C. Loudin, Thomas G. Farnsworth and Marshall Rohrbough 
trustees. The same act empowered them "to lease, sell, rent, or otherwise dis- 
pose of the same in such manner as shall seem most conducive to the advantage 
of said academy." These trustees sold it and put the money on interest until 
a time when another high school shall be established in their midst, then the 
principal and accrued interest shall be donated for the aid and support of said new 
high school. Marshall Rohrbough was chosen secretary, and delegated by the 
board of trustees to negotiate a loan of this money. We are not able to say was ever given to the Normal and Classical Academy, the first high- 
school at Buckhannon, or any other school. 




Just prior to the outbreak of the war in 1861 the Presbyterians endeavored 
to establish a high school at Buckhannon. They were under the leadership of 
Rev. R. Lawson, an earnest educator, who persuaded his parishioners to name 
the school after Richard Baxter, whom Dean Stanley styles "the chief of English 
Protestant school men," and as all know the author of "Saints' Everlasting Rest," 
at one time a widely read theological work. A committee was appointed to 
select a site, to purchase lumber, and to make a contract for building. The site 
selected was the oak grove near the present West Virginia Methodist Episcopal 
Conference Seminary. Lumber was hauled on the ground, and the contract 
for building was let. War came on, McClellan's army invaded the county, ap- 
propriated the lumber for camp and camp fires, and Presbyterian hopes for a 
high school had to be deferred. 

In 1905 Congress awarded the local Presbyterian Church $1,431 damages 
for the destruction of the Baxter Institute. At a special term of Circuit Court 
June, 1905, at which Capt. A. M. Poundstone was elected special judge, the court 
named A. M. Legget, S. B. Phillips, J. J. Morgan, W. G. L. Totten and .\. .\. 
Simpson to be the trustees to receive the fund. 

,. .^^"^^ 

_> ^ '_ 


The Presbyterians in and around French Creek were immigrants from the 
New England States, and were always energetic and progressive in educational 


affairs. On February 23, 1871, they met in their church house and prepared 
papers, asking for the incorporation of the French Creek Institute. They secured 
their charter on March 2, 1871. It is now on record in the Upshur county 
clerk's office in deed book H, page 507. The purposes of this institute are set 
forth in this charter document, and among them are the following: "It is to be 
a male and female academy to train up teachers and promote education generally." 
The patrons of the school subscribed, at the time they asked for the charter, 
$400. and requested the privilege of increasing the capital stock to $30,000. The 
charter 11. embers were Benjamin Gould, Ebenezer Leonard, Loyal Young, Ashley 
Gould, Alpheus Brooks, Freeman F. Sexton, Morgan A. Darnell, N. M. Ferrell 
and J. K. P. Koon. The first principal was Dr. Loyal Young; other principals 
were: Myra Brooks, J. Loomis Gould and R. A. Armstrong. The last is now 
professor of English in the West \'irginia University. This school wielded a 
wide, beneficient and salutary influence upon the future school history and 
growth of education in this and adjoining counties. 


This institution was incorporated in 1882 as the West Virginia Academy. 
The United Brethern in Christ's Church, locally, a very strong denomination, was 
its founders, promoters, and guardian. Those foremost in the church in encour- 
aging the matter were Rev. Zebidee Warner, D. D., of Parkersburg; Revs. W. M. 
Weekley, Columbus Hall; J. O. Stevens and L. F. John, all of the Parkersburg 
Conference. The last two of these had just completed their regular college 
course at Otterbein University, Westerville, Ohio, and had received special 
training in school work, therefore, they were full of enthusiasm, tireless energy 
and a lofty purpose to attain the goal of their ambition, namely, to make their 
church and church school as influential in West \'irginia as it was and is in the 
State of Ohio. 

Prof. J. O. Stevens for some time had been in charge of the Buckhannon 
public schools, wherein he proved himself an efficient educator and saw unmis- 
takable evidence of an unworked field ready for great educational results. It 
was due to his influence that such prominent laymen as Levi Leonard and Dr. 
G. A. Newlon, and others of Buckliannon town and surrounding country were 
interested. At first they encountered more obstacles than they had anticipated. 
The fair prospects which prompted them to such great efforts turned ino dark 
grounds and friends which before had not taken any active interest, had to be 
called upon to rally about the institution and give it the support that it needed 
to start it. 

A commodious building of ten rooms was erected, five courses of study 
were arranged and a respectable show of students entered upon their work. 
The classical course and the philosophical course were arranged with a view 
to fit young men and young women for the sophomore year in college. The 
teachers' course was intended to qualif}^ students for work as teachers in the 
public schools of the State, and the musical course provided an opportunity for a 
general musical education. The commercial course was afterwards added to the 
curriculum. The students enrolled were soon organized into two literary socie- 
ties, the Philomatheon and Philadelphian. Each was furnished a hall where 


they held their weekly meetings, and each became strong factors in training the 
students for successful life after their school days. 

The first principal was Prof. J. O. Stevens. He was succeeded by Prof. L. F. 
John. At commencement in June of 1885, Prof. John resigned the principalship 
for the purpose of taking post-graduate work at Yale, and W. S. Reese, Ph. M., 
of Otterbein, was elected to the vacant place. Prof. Reese remained but one 
year. He was succeeded by Rev. W. O. Fries, A. M., of Lebanon Valley Col- 
lege of Pennsylvania, who continued at its head during three years. It was 
during his administration that the commercial course was started with Prof. F. 
P. Sexton, now a successful merchant and insurance agent in the town of Buck- 
hannon, at its head. This course gave a large number of young men and young 
women an opportunity for a business education, and it was improved by them. 
From the beginning the musical course was under the supervision of Mrs. Sue B. 
Hall, a graduate of Otterbein University, in both the scientific and musical 

At the opening of the school year, 1889, Prof. W. O. Mills, Ph. B.. a graduate 
of Otterbein University, took charge of the school. Prof. Mills is now professor 
of mathematics in the West Virginia Conference Seminary, where he has been 
since 1897. Professor Mills did not enter upon his work without previous ac- 
quaintance with it. His first experience during the previous year of 1888 availed 
him much in the management of the school. He served as principal only one 
year at this time and was succeeded by Prof. U. S. Fleming, A. M., formerly 
principal of the Fairmont State Normal School and principal of the Grafton 
Public Schools, and assistant editor of the Methodist Protestant Advocate, pubr 
lished at Pittsburg, and superintendent of the City Public Schools of Parkersburg, 
who had the management of the school for the years 1889 and 1890. 

In 1891, Prof. W. O. Mills found himself again at the head of the school 
and continued to be its principal until 1897, when it was moved to Mason City, 
Mason county, W. Va. 

The school was supported by tuition and voluntary contributions of friends. 
The U. B. Conference did not increase its membership as rapidly as was hoped 
by the founders of this institution and, therefore, the financial support which 
was expected did not materialize. Considering that the membership of the U. B. 
Church in the Parkersburg Conference was never more than 11,000, and consid- 
ering the wealth and means of that membership, the laity and nobility, the school 
succeeded admirably. 

The enrollment began with 93 in the year 1882 and continued to increase 
until it reached 186, its maximum. The work done by this academy cannot be 
measured by dollars and cents. It was the pioneer in the work of higher educa- 
tion in this part of the State. It had its own way to make. Every dollar had 
to be personally solicited from the people scattered over the territory in the 
Parkersburg Conference. Thic work was arduous and sacrificing upon those 
who undertook it. Rev. C. E. Hall worked continuously from the beginning of 
the school in 1882 to the year 1889, traveling to and fro over the State making 
private and public appeals to the membership of his church for financial assist- 
ance and aid to keep the school on its feet. Rev. S. A. Shanabarger succeeded 
him as financial agent, and his task was no less tiresome. Indeed it was a 
harder one, for the State Normal Schools had taken on new life and were being 
provided for by larger appropriations by the Legislature to enable them to reach 
out and do the kind of work and do it with better and more equipments than 



MR. AND MRS G. S. CTTRIGHT and sons D H.. W. B. I. G., A. H. 
and C. B.. and daughters Iva and Coiienne. 

lUOSlDK.XCK l)K .SK.\AT01{ 1. (i. 'iOLM 


could be had in the West Virginia Academy. The tide was too strong, the 
church would not stem it, the financial supporters of the school refused to do- 
more, local creditors were urging the payment of their debts, and the school 
property had to be sacrificed at a public sale. It was bought by the corporation 
of Buckhannon and converted into the public school building for the inde- 
pendent school district of Buckhannon, where it will always remain. 


This educational institution at Buckhannon, maintamed by the West Virginia 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, is one of the finest educational 
institutions of our state. The Methodist Church has always been a great friend 
to education, especially in its more popular forms. The Methodist Episcopal 
Church alone is at present conducting 133 schools with 3,000 teachers and 47,000 
students of all grades. 

In Western Virginia many years ago the Methodists supported an academy 
at Clarksburg. The unhappy misunderstanding and division of 1844 proved fatal 
to this school, and for over forty years the Methodists of the State were without 
a school of their own. After the Civil war was over and the new State firmly etab- 
lished, American Methodism celebrated its centennial in 1866. At this time much 
work for education was done in the country and West Virginia Methodists began 
the efifort for a school which never entirely ceased until after years of waiting 
it was rewarded with great success. 

In 1876 Buckhannon presented to a committee of the West Virginia Confer- 
ence a subscription of $6,750 for the location of a seminary in the town, but the 
Conference did not accept the offer then. Ini883 the Conference appointed 
a committee on the centennial observance of the formal organization in 
1784 of the Methodist Episcopal Church. This committee recommended 
the establishment of a seminary as an important object for the gifts of 
the people. In 1884 the Conference was held at Buckhannon, and it appointed 
a board of trustees for the proposed seminary. This consisted of A. J. Lyda, 
chairman ; L. L. Stewart, secretary ; D H. K. Dix, treasurer ; T. H. Hughes and 
Samuel Steele. 

This board received contributions during the year and in i885 the conference 
elected a board of eight ministers and eight laymen whose duty it was to receive 
proposals for the erection and endowment of a seminary, the coference to decide 
where it should be located. The ministers were A. J. Lydia, L. H. Jordan, T- A. 
Fullerton, Samuel Steele, E. H. Orwen, L. L. Stewart, H. J. Boatman and A. B, 
Rohrbough. The laymen were H. C. McWhorter, H. K. List, J. C. McGrew, A. 
M. Poundstone, B. F. Martin, Samuel Woods, Henry Logan and Nathan Goff. 
In 1886 death removed Dr. Samuel Steele and Hon. Nathan Gofif. Rev. J. W. 
Reger. D. D., was chosen in place of Dr. Steele, and his name is very closely con- 
nected with the whole history of the Seminary. In place of Mr. Goff, John A. 
Barnes was chosen, and he is still on the board. 

Various places in the state were desirous of securing the location of the semi- 
nary with them. Parkersburg and Elizabeth may be mentioned among these. On 
July 13, 1887, the trustees met at Philippi to decide upon the place and the vote 
was in favor of Buckhannon. Two days later the trustees proceeded to Buckhan- 
non. to select a site, but did not succeed. On August 29 they met again and 
purchased a tract of a little over forty-three acres for $5,551.87. In October, 1887, 


the conference met at Parkersburg and these proceedings were ratified. The 
trustees were also directed to proceed with the erection of buildings. The main 
building was finally completed during the summer of 1890, and on September 3 
of that year the school was opened. A month later the conference, which was in 
session at Weston, came in a body to Buckhannon, and the building was dedi- 
cated by Bishop Cyrus D. Foss. From the opening to the present the school has 
moved forward in a career of unbroken prosperity. 

The first president of the institution was Rev. B. W. Hutchington, A. M.. D. 
D. Mr. Hutchinson was a native of Pennsylvania. He graduated at Ohio 
Wesleyan University and then entered the ministry. While a pastor in Provi- 
dence, R. I., he was chosen president of the new institution. Early in 1898 he 
resigned to accept a similar position at Lima, N. Y. 

President Hutchinson began with a faculty of three teachers besides himself. 
During the first year three more were added. Seventy pupils were enrolled 
during the first term. During the year 201 diflferent students received instruction. 
Since then until the fire in February, 1905, which destroyed the main building, 
every year had a larger enrollment, since the fire and recovery the enrollment 
has again continued to increase. 

The work of the shool has been continuously increasing. At first it was con- 
fined to common English branches and the elementary classics pursued in prepa- 
ration for college. Then a musical department was added and a deparment of art 
followed. In the spring term of the first year a business department was added and 
all these varieties of work have been constantly maintained. 

The tendency has been to raise the standard for admission and constantly 
add studies of higher and higher grades. The school was chartered with full 
powers but not until June, 1903, did the Board of Trustees raise the courses to 
full college grade. The standard is that prescribed by the University Senate of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, and listed as a college. 

In 1891 five persons, one man and four women, received diplomas as the 
^rst graduating class. The first male graduate was William B. Cutright, now a 
lawyer in Buckhannon. The class of 1906 numbered 69. There have been 
in all 536 graduates from the various courses. Nineteen hundred and five saw 
■.the first graduates in regular college work. 

In 1895 the state legislature passed a law which authorized the State Board 
dI Examiners to grant teachers' certificates to graduates of the seminary. This 
to some extent makes it a State Normal School, but there is no connection with 
the state government e.xcept by this recognition of its work. It has sent out a 
large number of teachers to the public school of the state besides those who are 
teaching in private schools in other states. In the Seminary diplomas are 
given in the Classical, Scientific. Literary. Normal, Musical. Engineering and 
Commercial courses. Besides these, certificates are given to the students of the 
Business Colleges whenever they complete their shorter courses. 

In the College the usual degrees are conferred. 

The institution is co-educational. Ladies and gentlemen are admitted on 
terms of perfect equality and work together in the classes without an\' unpleasant 
results. A reasonable amount of very pleasant romance has grown out of this 
fact, and thus far the history is free from any tale of scandal. 

The moral and religious tone of the school has always been high. While it 
was established and is controlled by one religious denomination it has never been 
sectarian. Several different churches have been represented in its faculty, and 


its students have been from a great variety of denominations. Even Jewish pupils 
have been received and treated with perfect courtesy in the work of school. No 
institution could be more free from religious bigotry, and the clergymen of all the 
Buckhannon churches are in most pleasant relations with the school. The students 
themselves choose which church they will attend in the town and on any Sunday 
in term time students can be found in every local congregation. 

The buildings are on a hill rising with a gentle slope in the southeast part of 
the town. They consist at present of the Administration Building, the Ladies' 
Hall, Conservatory of jNIusic, the President's residence and Power House. The 
first is an imposing edifice built of brick. It contains the necessary offices, many 
recitation rooms, two halls for literary societies and a chapel which will seat 1,500 
people. The Seminary began with one building and its students found homes as 
they could, among the families in town. This proved more and more inconvenient 
for the lady students as their number increased. In 1893 the project of a Ladies' 
Hall was adopted and in September, 1895, the finished building was ready for 
occupancv. It is built of brick and is so planned as to allow of building on of 
a wing, which will greatly increase its capacity. It contains parlors, a convenient 
kitchen and dining room and rooms for 80 young ladies. It is supplied with 
modern conveniences and is a healthful and pleasant home for its residents. 
When President Hutchinson took charge of the school he built a residence for 
himself some rods to the eastward of the Seminary building. The house was 
afterwards purchased from him by the trustees and has since been steadily used 
as the President's home. The spacious Music Hall constructed of brick and stone 
was added in 1902. 

The Library of the school consists of some 7,000 volumes. These books 
are chiefly the donations of friends. In 1901, through the influence of Miss 
Adelaide R. Thompkins, of Pittston, Pa., the reading room was refurnished and 
a goodly number of volumes added to the Library. 

The Presidents of the institution since the retirement of Dr. Hutchinson 
in 1898 have been Rev. S. L. Boyers, elected in June, 1898, and Dr. John Weir, 
the present incumbent, elected in June, 1900. During the interim between the 
incumbency of Drs. Hutchinson and Boyers, Prof. Frank B. Trotter was Acting 

In 1903 through the generosity of Dr. D. K. Pearsons, of Chicago, the school 
provided a good foundation for endowment. Dr. Pearsons gave $25,000 toward 
the fund. 

On the 4th of February, 1905, a fire totally destroyed the main College build- 
ing. The loss of such a building to many a school would mean the virtual ces- 
sation of its work. In the case of the College temporary quarters were forthwith 
procured, and not a day was lost, not a student retired, not a class was dropped. 
The cost of the lost sructure was some $34,000. The sound value of the building 
was placed by the adjusters at $29,000. The insurance was $16,000, all of which 
was allowed. A fund for restoration was at once started. Generous friends 
promptly contributed. The result is the splendid edifice which now adorns the 
campus. The new building is twice the size of the old, and of design and 
appointments of the most modern and approved kind. A central power house, 
to heat all the buildings of the College and entirely apart from them, has also 
been provided. Hereafter no heating apparatus will be within any building. 
The cost of the new building, with power house, heat and light installation, 
furniture, etc., is $81,000. Among the larger contributors to the fund for 


restoration are Dr. D. K. Pearsons, of Chicago, $10,000; Andrew Carnegie, of 
New York, $27,500; John D. Archbold, of New York, $5,000, and Mrs. E. S. 
Stone, of Wheeling. Granville Strader, of Upshur county. West Virginia, who 
died a few days before the fire, left a bequest to the University of some fifty acres 
of coal. 

The Board of Trustees comprises twenty-eight men of high standing and wide 


^lost new towns now-a-days are named after the capitalist, the niannfac- 
turer or speculator who founds directly or indirectly, the means and reasons for 
establishing such congregated place of abode. When Buckhannon was founded 
the prevailing method of naming a new town was different. The discoverers 
and explorers and pioneers were numerous enough to furnish abundant names for 
every new villige. ilost every adventurous spirit of the i8th century, has his 
family name perpetuated in some river, town or city. 

Buckhannon takes its name from the river whose head-waters are in the 
hemlock forests of the .\llegheny and whose mouth is near the northern boundary 
of the county. The river was so named on account of this historical fact. The 
family document of Jacqueline Ambler, Treasurer of the State of \'irginia several 
years before and at his death in 1707, contains this entry. "There was living 
(1785) in Richmond a poor old Scotch clergyman, named John Buchannon, 
whom I invited to make my house his home until he should be able to have 
better support and care." Taking this entry as a starting point, my researches 
led me into the early church history of the Mother State. We learn by reading 
widely that John Buchannon was a missionary minister and teacher for several 
years after his arrival in this country, that he was very active in his work, brav- 
ing sore trials and privations in order that he might do good for his fellow-man. 
be he a pioneer white or vindictive red. On one occasion his bishop sent him 
to the head- waters of the Monongahela on a tour of inspection and a mission of 
help. He crossed the mountains to Tygart's \"allcy and from thence was going 
to a mission which he learned was on the West Fork near where the town of 
Weston now is. We are unable to find whether he made more than this one 
trip, as we are unable to possess facts of his discovery and exploration. 
Our personal opinion is that he thought that the river which runs from south to 
north through Upshur county, had not been discovered, naaned and explored 
by any white man, thoroughly. He assumed to do both and being desirous to 
perpetuate the deed, called the river after his own name. You will notice that 
Dr. Buchannon's name was spelled with an "o" and not an "a" like the \'irginia 
family of English descent and prominent in our state and national history. The 
word has been corrupted in its spelling by the insertion of a letter "k" after "c." 
Now this is the author's theory for the name of Buckhannon as it now is. 

While we are satisfied with the foregoing origin of the name of our county 
seat and the principal stream in the county, we call attention to another name 
which might have been the foundation for the same word. General George 
Washington had many friends in England who were Lords and Earls inheriting 
their titles from their fathers, grandfathers and great-grandfathers who had 
honorably and chivalrously won distinction. One of these friends was the Earl 
of Buchan who on solicitation of a comnnniication of General \\'nshington 
interested himself in Rev. Brvan Fairfax, who laid claim to the title after the 


death of the original Lord Fairfax as known in this country. Lexicographers 
and philologists tell us that the suffix "en" and "on" to an original name would 
give the name to a town or village or city. Such as, "Weston" is the combination 
of the primitive word "West" and the suffix "on," meaning a town to or in the 
west. Now if you add the suffix "on" to the last part of the aforesaid Earl's 
name you would have the word Buchanon. With Buchanon as the pure name of 
a town or village it would only be a slight feat of the recorder, lawyer, or 
writer to corrupt it in its spelling so that it would be Buckhannon. 

The first settler in the present limits of the corporation of Buckhannon was 
Edward Jackson who moved his family into a rude log hut on the river bank 
in the fall of 1770. The land upon which most of the town has been built wab 
granted originally to Elizabeth Cummins who became the wife of John Jackson ; 
she sold it to John Patton of Fredericksburg, Va., who in 181 5 sent Benjamin 
Reeder, his attorney, in fact, to lay out the town. Mr. Reeder secured the ser- 
vices of Jacob Lorentz, John Jackson and Joel Westfall, the latter two were 
surveyors. Thirty lots were surveyed, eighteen of which were sold at $25.00 
each. Patton soon after sold his land to Joseph Ward who in turn sold it to 
Daniel Farnsworth in 1821. Mr. Farnsworth was a citizen of Staten Island, 
N. Y., at the time of this purchase. He came here with his family to make the town 
his future home. The purchasers of lots in the embr3-o town had not occupied 
them. The marks indicating their location had disappeared and Mr. Farnsworth 
cultivated the land ; but in 1824 the owners became uneasy and demanded a resur- 
vey. John W. Westfall, Daniel Farnsworthj and Augustus W. Sexton, a 
surveyor, re-located the lots. 

Daniel Farnsworth erected the first house in 1822; it was a two-story hewed 
structure built on contract by Joel Westfall. It yet stands (1905) on lot No. 27, 
and is occupied by J. J. Farnsworth, grandson of the original owner. The second 
was a small log house erected by George Nicholas on the lot now owned by Misses 
Florence and Olive Leonard. The third was built by Levi Paugh who soon 
after its erection sold it to Zedekiah Lanham who was a blacksjnith by trade 
and succeeded the town's first blacksmith, Isaac Farnsworth, who began business 
here in 1822, shoeing horses, making hoes, plow shares, and other instruments. 
Levi Paugh was the first shoemaker; Waldo P. and Nathan Goff were the first 
machinists, commencing business in 183 1 ; Weedon Hoffman and Richard P. 
Comden, partners, doing business under the firm name of Hoffman and Comden, 
succeeded the Goffs in the machinerj' business. 

The first election was held in the house of Daniel Farnsworth in 1829. 

The first school was conducted by Samuel Hall in 1807 in a vacant house 
on depot street where now stands the palatial residence of Prof. Frank B. Trotter. 

The first house of worship, known as the old "Carper Church," was erected 
in 1822 by the Methodists under the ministrj' of Henry Comden who occupied 
that pulpit for several years. He was a man of much power and considerable 
eloquence but like many in his vocation had periods of stammering and dullness. 
It was on one such an occasion that his wife, Mary, being very versatile with the 
Bible, seeing that the* congregation was. not satisfied with her husband's exposition 
of the text', weitt. forwand, fook.her position in the pulpit and delivered one of the 
most able discourses ever heard within the walls of the old church. This old 
"Carper Church" was the second Methodist Church in the county and stood on 
the lot now owned and occupied by Abram Rollins. 



The act of incorporation of the town of Buckhannon passed the Virginia 
Assembly on May 12, 1852. 

At the first session of the county court held in April 1851 after the passage 
of the act forming Upshur county the lot on which the old court house was erected, 
was purchased and in 1854 the first court house was finished, a structure which 
after being repaired from the fire of 1855 served the county as a Temple of 
Justice until 1899 when the old court house was torn down and the present im- 
posing building was begun. The County Court increased the size of the original 
court house lot by the purchase of a small additional lot to the south on which 
the Jail and Sheriff's residence now stand. The present court house cost the county 
$37,500 in 20-year bonds. 


The first water mill in the Independent School district of Buckhannon, was 
built by Jacob Hyre, called "Shaking Jake," above the mouth of Fink's Run on 
the land now owned by the heirs of William D. Farnsworth. This mill was 
the first in the county and was constructed in the year 1783 and was the only mill 
in the Buckhannon Valley for a score of years. At the time of its building it 
attracted a great deal of attention and some wonder from the men, women and 
children in the neighborhood. It was a corn crusher, simple and pure, the use 
of home-made buhrs being employed to crush the grain. It was a one-story mill ; 
the buhr stones were small and the grinding capacity limited, so much so that it is 
said by one of our informants that often it took a day to grind a grist. 

The second mill was built by Col. Edward Jackson, about the year 1821. 
This mill of Tackson's was swept away by a flood in 1837 ; it stood on the river 
bank opposite where the Star Mill now stands. The Anchor Mill was first built 

by George Jackson in . The present Anchor Mill has a capacity of 60 barrels 

per day and is owned by C. I. Farnsworth. 


The Star Mill was built in the year 1848 and was remodeled in 1894. Its 
present capacity is 50 barrels per day and its owners are O'Brien Hall, Jacob Hall 
and Lee Hall. 


Within the walls of this beautiful city of Buckhannon lives a population 
whose percentage of church attendance is greater than that of any town of 
like size in the United States. The people who have liyed here since birth 
are greatly attached to church organizations and much interested in church 
work ; those who have come into the town readily acquire the enthusiastic habit 
and go-to-church habit which is so strong, noticable and useful in this town. 
Indeed, for one to be a regular attendant at church either as a member or a 
worker therein, insures passports to local financial and social organizations. 

The oldest and strongest denomination is the Methodist Episcopal which 
as heretofore mentioned in these pages was organized and housed in the old 
"Carper Church." After its desolate destruction the class built a more modern 
building on the lot where the present one now stands, and in 1887 the present 
house was built. The parsonage of this church was built in 1897. 

The second M. E. Church in north Buckhannon was built under the 
pastorage of Rev. A. Mick. The leading spirit in its construction was a student 
of the Serninary by the name of Archer. 

The Baptist denomination moved from its original house of worship in 
the cemetary north of town to and within the city limits. This congregation 
acquired a lot on Locust street and built thereon in the year 1888 one of the best 
churches in town. This church is kept in good repair and is yet commodious,, 
comfortable, convenient and invitable to members and visitors thereof. 

The present Presbyterian Church was built in the year 1891. It is located 
on Kanawha street opposite the front entrance of the Sheriff's home. 

After the organization of the U. B. Class in 1871 the first noticable figure 
who had much to do with the refitting and improving the building was J. O. 
Stevens, the first principal of the West Mrginia Academy. The house was again 
greatly improved, while under the charge of Rev. George A. Doyle. At present 
they have a very commodious and attractive house of worship. The parsonage 
of this church was built under the pastorage of Rev. G. W. Burdette. It stands 
on the Island in the O'Brien and Shipman addition. 

Methodist Protestent church was late in gaining a foothold among the local 
churchgoers, although many citizens held to that belief contributing to the 
support of their home church until a time came when the Methodist Protestant 
was sufficiently strong in numbers and finances to erect an elegant one-story 
brick church on Florida street. 

The catholic church, a good one-story frame building was erected in the 
year 1894 on a vacant lot ne.xt to the residence of B. F. Fallon, its principal 
financial supporter. The most enthusiastic worker of this church is the family 
of George L. Munday. 

Boggs Chapel, a general missionary church located in South Buckhannon, 
was built in 1904 under the supervision, guidance and power of Rev. Boggs. 
This building is one-story frame and has a capacity of two hundred. 

The West Virginia and Pittsburg Railroad Company received from the 
county sixty-five thousand dollars and made its entry in the town of Buckhannon 
in the year of 1881. The first passenger train came here over this narrow-gauge 


road from Weston. In the year 1899 after the B. & O. R. R., had become 
owners of the West Virginia and Pittsburg hne this road was extended to 
Newlonton and Pickens. W. P. Fowkes was the first local agent of the railroad 

The fir*t electric light plant was built on a lot in the rear of the Valley 
House in the year 1888. T. J. Farnsworth, G. A. Newlon, G. M. Fleming and 
J. Earl Newlon were among the strong stockholders of this plant. It was burned 
in the year 1891 and immediately there rose a brick building better adapted for 
the purpose of housing electrical machines. The present water and light power 
company was organized in 1902 and completed its plant in 1904. The principal 
stockholders are G. F. Stockert, F. C. Pifer, A. I. Boreman and C. F. Teter. 

The first woolen mill was built by the Parker Brothers in 1887. It was burned 
1902 and was rebuilt by G. F. Stockert and John Parker in the year 1903. 

Buckhannon River Boom and Lumber Company was organized by A. H. 
Winchester in the year 1884 and built large mills on the Buckhannon River 
just above the town to which its logs were shipped and floated to be sawed 
into lumber before shipping to a foreign marKet. This business adventure was 
not the most successful and A. G. Giffin, the company's strongest competitor, 
became owner of these mills. 

The William Flaccus Oak Leather Company of Pittsburg, Pa., built a 
tannery in Buckhannon in the year 1889. 

The Upshur Glass Company, whose buildings are along by the 'switches of 
the B. & O. R. R. across Finks Run. began operations in the town the year 1902. 

The Steimer Glass Company, whose magnificient plant stands on the Buck- 
hannon river a mile and a half south of town proper, first opened its doors for the 
employment of labor and the productions of glass, such as tumblers, dishes, 
and table wear in the year 1903. 

The following is a list of persons serving as Mayor and Recorder of the 
town of Buckhannon from the year 1853 to 1907 (54 years) as appears from the 
town record, viz : 

1853— J- O. Core President. W. H. Shuey Clerk. 

1854— J. Mullin " Mifflin Lorentz " 

1855— John L. Smith. . . " D. D. T. Farnsworth " 

1856— John L. Smith. . . " John W. Blagg : " 

1857— E. J. Colerider.. " j'. B. McLean " 

1858— J. Rohrbough... " J. B. McLean " 

1859— L. L. D. Loudin. " Wm. H. Gibson " 

i860— L. L. D. Loudin. " Wm. H.Gibson " 

1861— L. L. D. Loudin. " Wm. H. Gibson " 

1862— D. S. Pinnell.... " C. P. Rohrbough " 

T863— E. J. Colerider.. " Beth Williams " 

1864— E. J. Colerider. . " J. D. Rapp " 

1865— T. J. Farnsworth. " J. D. Rapp " 

1866— T. J. Farnsworth. " J. D. Rapp " 

1867— T. J. Farnsworth. " J. D. Rapp " 

1868— W. G. L. Totten. " J. D. Rapp " 

1869— H. D. Murphv.. " J. D.. Rapp " 

1870— J. H. Rohrbough. " P. M. Boggess " 

WILLIAM F. FIDLER, Family and Residence. 











Osborne ... " 




Newlon... " 








Newlon ... " 




Newlon. . . " 



F. McWhorter " 




Farnsworth. .Mayor, 







McWhorter. . " 

1880— T. 


A. Jackson. . . ' 




Phillips " 




Phillips " 




Hanson " 




Phillips " 







Phillips " 




Phillips " 




Hanson ' 




. Findley " 

1890 — D. 


Hughes ■' 




Hughes " 




Hughes " 




. Findlev 




. Findlev 

189 s- 



Burnside. ... " 

I8q6— W 


Burnside. ... " 




. Fisher " 




. Fisher " 

1S99— A. 


Clark " 

1900 — T- 


Hurst " 




Hurst " 












N. Downes. . " 




Farnesworth. . " 



Farnsworth . . " 




Morgan " 

C. p. Rohrbough " 

C. W. Hart " 

Jacob Waugh " 

Jacob Waugh " 

Jacob Waugh " 

Jacob Waugh " 

C. C. F. McWhorter " 

C. C. F. McWhorter " 

C. C. F. McWhorter " 

Jacob Waugh " 

Jacob Waugh " 

Jacob Waugh " 

Jacob Waugh " 

A. A. Simpson Recorder. 

A. A. Simpson 

A. B. Clark 

A. B. Clark 

A. B. Clark 

E. B. Morris 

E. B. Morris 

U. G. Young 

U. G. Young 

L. B. Stevens 

L. B. Stevens 

Loomis Brake 

Loomis Brake 

O. L. Robinson 

O. L. Robinson 

W. B. Nutles 

W. G. L. Totton 

W^ G. L. Totton 

G. E. Drummond 

W^ H. Young 

W. G. L. Totton 

D. E. Scott 

J. T. Morgan 

Thos. W. Curry 


Buckhannon has been the county seat of Harrison county and Upshur county. 
The bill providing for the formation of Harrison county, names the house of 
George Jackson at Bush's Fort as the place for holding the first session of the 
Court of Harrison. This was in 1784. 

Upshur county has held its Courts in nine houses and has had. two Court 

County seat of Upshur county, till the present time, Buckhannon, . . 185 1 

First Court House, Andrew Poundstone's residence 1851 

Second Court House, Methodist Episcopal Church 185 1 


Third Court House, Court House 1854 

Fourth Court House, Baptist Church 1856 

Fifth Court House, John ^laxwell's shop 1856 

Sixth Court House, Baptist Church 1857 

Seventh Court House, Court House 1857 

Eighth Court House, Pifer Building 1899 

Ninth Court House, New Court House 1901 

The contract for the present Court House was awarded Feb. 17, 1899 to 
A. F. Withrow and Company of Charleston, W. Va., at the price of $37, 650.00. 
The County Court held the contractors closely to this contract, neither raising 
nor decreasing the price. The architect of the new building was Harrison 
Albright, of Charleston, W. Va. 

The corner stone of the new Court House was laid by Franklin Lodge No. 
7, A. F. & A. M., of Buckhannon on June 5, 1899. The speech was made by 
Rev. A. W. Lane, pastor of the Baptist Church. 

In the cavity of the corner stone was deposited, in an air-tight box, 
a photograph of the old court house, a photograph of the original designs of the 
new building, a copy of the contract between the County Commissioners, Archi- 
tect and Superintendent, specifications of the new court house, a certified list 
of proposals received from all contractors, as prepared by J. J. Morgan, Clerk 
of the County Court, the message by Gov. Geo. W. Atkinson to the Legislative 
body, 1899, M. A. Kendall, State Treasurer's biennial report. Prof. J. Russell 
Trotter's biennial report of free schools, L. M. La Follett's biennial report as 
Auditor, Edgar P. Rucker as Attorney General, a copy of the laws of West Vir- 
ginia, inaugral of Gov. Geo. W. Atkinson, blue prints of the West Virginia 
Asylum for Incurables at Huntington, blue prints of the Annex of the State 
Capitol, the latest copies of the Buckhannon Delta, Buckhannon Banner and 
Knight-Errant, copy. Stone Cutter's Journal, copy of the Charleston Daily 
Gazette and Daily Mail Tribune, Photograph by W. G. L. Totten, Confederate 
bill of the denomination of $100, with historical facts by Master Walter D. 
Phillips, a list of contractors and all the stone cutters and masons employed on 
the new court house, a list of all the National, Congressional and State officials, 
a list of the officials of the town of Buckhannon, a copy of the proceedings of the 
M. W. Grand Lodge of A. F. and A. M., of the State of West Virginia, for the 
year 1898, a list of all the officers of Franklin Lodge No. 7 : P. V. Phillips, W. AI. ; 
C. N. Pew, S. W. ; Henry Trask, J. W. ; W. D. Talbott, Treas. ; W. G. L. Totten, 
Sec. ; C. C. Higginbotham, S. D. ; A. B. Clark, J. D. ; L. S. S. Farnsworth, Tiler. 


Election returns for the past 43 years are incomplete. The records do not 
show what may be wished. In many instances there are no records whatever 
of the number of votes cast and for whom cast. We give only of what could 
be found. 

1864— NOVEMBER 8. C. P. Snvder 747 

1888— NOVEMBER 6. 


Republican 1.717 

Republican 658 Democratic S41 

Democratic 46 Prohibition 18 



1866— OCTOBER 25. 


B. M. Kitchen 727 

E. W. Andrews 235 

1868— NOVEMBER 3. 


Republican 799 

Democratic 47 

i87c^OCTOBER 7. 


James C. McGrew 787 

A. D. Downey 347 

1872— NOVEMBER 5. 


Republican 835 

Democratic 299 


1872— OCTOBER 24. 


D. D. T. Farnsworth 403 

B. F. Martin 200 

A. R. Boteler 3 

J. Nelson Wisner 2 

1876— NOVEMBER 7. 




i88c^NOVEMBER 2. 





1882— OCTOBER 10. 


E. L. Buttrick 746 

John E. Kenna 383 

P. B. Reynolds 58 

1884— NOVEMBER 4- 


Republican 1,258 

Democratic 683 

Greenback 28 

Prohibition 16 

1886— NOVEMBER 2. 


James H. Brown 1,396 

i89c^NOVEMBER 4- 


Theophilus Gaines 1,463 

John D. Alderson 787 

J. E. Middleton 27 

1892— NOVEMBER 8. 


Republican 1,851 

Democratic 938 

Prohibition 83 

1894— NOVEMBER 6. 


Tames H. Huling .'1,911 

John D. Alderson 813 

1896— NOVEMBER 3- 


Republican 2,281 

Democratic 949 

Prohibition 36 

National Democratic 18 

1898— NOVEMBER 8. 


William Seymour Edwards. . 1,672 

David E. Johnson 751 

James W. Davis 8 

1900— NOVEMBER 6. 


Republican 2,400 

Democratic 866 

Prohibitionist 5 

Peoples Party 6 

1902— NOVEMBER 4- 


Joseph H. Gaines 1,725 

James H. Miller 594 

Squire Halstead 68 

1904— NOVEMBER 8. 


Republican 2,407 

Democratic 826 

Prohibitionist 103 

Peoples Party 3 

1906— NOVEMBER 6. 


Joseph H. Gaines 1,580 

George Byrne 498 

F. H. Montgomery 154 

Thomas Swinburne 3 



The records of Randolph County from 1788 to 1817 contain the original 
grant of marriage licenses to the following persons ; by whom married and the 
year. Only those are selected who are and were residents of that part of Ran- 
dolph County which was later included in Upshur County. 


John Outright 
Zacariah Westfall 
Cottrill Tolbert 
Philip Reger 

Hez. Rosekranz 

Cornel's Westfall 
John Hacker 

Joel Westfall 
Issac White 
William Clark 


Rebeccah Tniby 
Hannah Woolf 
Elizabeth Reger 
Sarah Jackson 


John Truby 
Christianna Woolf 
Jacob Reger 
John JacKson 


Susannah Cutright Benj. Cutright 

Nansy Simpson John Simpson 


Elizabeth Helmlck Jacob Helmick 

Sussannah Smith David Smith 


Elizabeth White 
Margaret Hadden 
Barbara Helmlck 

William White 
David Haddan 
Jacob Helmick 


Isaac Edwards 
J. W. Loofborougl 
Isaac Edwards 
Isaac Edwards 

Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 

Phinehas Wells 
Jos. Cheaveront 

Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 

John Cutright 
Leonard Hire 

Jacob Lorentz 
William Booth 
Michael Westfall 
Gaulaudat Oliver 

Samuel Channel 
Christian Bickle 

Isaac Westfall 

William Lynch 
Thomas Butcher 

Basil Hudkins 
John Hfllder 
John Brady 

Deborah Osborn George Osborn 
Dolly Phyman 


Rebecca Stalnaker Val. Stalnaker 

Deborah Hart Edward Hart 

Mary Helmick Adam Helmick 

Mary Ann Bogard Cornelius Bogard 


Sarah Hornbeck 
Hannah Spillman 

Benj. Hornbeck 
John Spillman 

Catharine Shreery Joseph Shreery 

Nancy Hill 
Susanna Petro Henry Petro 

Nancy Skidmore Andrew Skidmore 

Mary Lewis John Lewis 

Susanna Ware 

Robert Maxwell 

Robert Maxwell 

Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 

Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 

Robert Maxwell 

John Skidmore 
Robert Maxwell 

Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 

Henry Wilfong 
Jacob Teter 
Joshua Morgan 

Christiana Wees 
Nancy Cade 
Hannah Gould 

Jacob Wees 
Moses Cade 
Aaron Gould 

John Carney 
Phinehas Wells 
Henry Camden 

Benj. Phillips 
Martin Miller 

John Rowan 
Robert Maxwell 




woman's name daughter of 



Solomon Yeager 

Mary Teeter 

Jacob Teeter 


Simeon Harris 

Archibald Eaiie 

Mary Buckey 

Peter Buckey 

John Rowan 

Jacob Westfall 

Sarah Hinckle 

Justice Hinckle 

John Rowan 

Willis Taylor 

Sarah Clark 


John Rowan 

Abraham Wolf 

R. McLaughlin 


John Rowan 

William J. Davis 

Lydia Gould 

Aaron Gould 

Simeon Harris 

James Shreeve 

Lydia Smith 

Jonathan Smith 

John Rowan 

John Shreeve 

Susanna Wamsley 

James Wamsley 

Asbery Pool 


1785. Simon Harris and Christian Westfall. Jolin Little and Elizabeth 
Wells, John Hadden and Isabelle Elliott, John Phillips and Catherine Isener. 

1784. James Bodkin and Mary Westfall. 

1786. John Jackson. Jr., and Rebecca Hadden. 

1787. James Westfall and Ann Truden, Edmund West, Jr., and Ann 
Hacker, William Roberts and Hannah Fink, William Low and Elizabetl: West- 
fall, William Martin and Hester Cheney. 

1788. John Reger and Elizabeth West. 

1790. Henry Bukel and Sarah Rees, James Kelly and Elizabeth Swiger. 

1791. William Hacker and Hada West, David Bennett and Christina 
Bumgardner, Job Hughes and Mary Hamm, George Critzer and Hester Moore, 
Jesse Lowther and Mary Cagan, Frederick Salor and Barbara Strader. 

1792. Arthur Thomas and Mary Haynes, Archabald McKinney a. d Mag- 
dal ]\IcKoon, James Smith and Sarah Cutright, John Arnold and Jemina Jackson, 
David Hull and Mary Wamsley. 

1793. William Huff and Mary Kelley, John Greathouse and Mary Gillespie, 
Abraham Cutright and Susanna Cutright, John Phillips and j\Iary Geaspell. 

1794. William Cottrall and Rachel Hughes. 

1795. Benjamine Cox and Mary Hughes, William Bibby and Deborah 
Hughes, Joseph Koon and Sarah Brown, John Coon and Catrina Coon, Samuel 
Hall and Alexander Ireland and Elizabeth Kegan, John Ross and Zepolah Webb, 
James Schoolcraft and Mary Carpenter, George Maxson and Anne Heavens, 
James Davis and Elizabeth Davis. 

1796. William White and Anne Swearingin, John Cain and Nancy White, 
Jacob Jackson and Sudna Lowther, Charles Parson and Nancy Sleeth, Anthony 
Smith and Agnes Reader. 

1797. John Jackson and Elizabeth Cozad, George Reed and Sarah Denham, 
Edward Goodwin and Lany Davis, Peter Hirdman and Margaret Hacker, Abra- 
ham Reager and Mary Reder. 

1798. Elija Rees and Phoebe Roan, William Jackson and Anna Bennett, 
Joseph Koon and Sarah Brown, John Cutter and Catrina Coon, Samuel Hall and 
Catrina Foweler, Jacob Cutter and Nancy Rowen, John Wolf and Mary McCally, 


Jacob Means and Elizabeth Jackson, James Hull and Hannah Lambert, Ebenezer 
Chaney and Elizabeth Queen, Henry Hyre and Catherine Loudin. 

1799. John Queen and Elizabeth White, Edward Jackson and Elizabeth 
Brake, Jacob Swisher and Rachel Casto, Samuel Jones and Elizabeth Wade, 
Anthony Coon and Sarah Piles, Henry Waldeck and Mary Sleeth. 

1800. William Williams and Catherine Jackson, John Wolf and Elizabeth 
Ireland, Amor Piles and Mary Shaver, James Stanley and Elizabeth Huse, 
Jesse Huse and Susana Mock, Jacob Woolf and Mary Wagner, Daniel Carr and 
Mary Evans, Joseph Koon and Elizabeth Slackhouse, Robert Fitsgerald and 
Litice Roby, James Reder and Margaret Nutt. 

1801. Abraham Bennett and Martha Hull. 

1802. Levi Queen and Catherine Lowther, William Hull and Sarah Town- 
send, Marshall Rees and Sarah Morrison, Abraham Wells and Massey Chidister, 
William Wade and Nancy Robins, Eppa Bartlett and Rebecca Barnes, Benja- 
min Ni.xon and Joanna Clark. 

1803. Enoch Legget and Margaret Davisson, Nathan Rees and Issabelle 
Harbert, Morris Rees and Unice Tutle,-John Nutter and Mary Mount, John 
Bartlett and Sarah Silvey, David Casto and Elizabeth Radcliff, John Reynolds 
and Anna Rogers. 

1804. George Hull and Hannah Rees, John Waterman and Jemina Ireland, 
Alexander Hacker and Betsy McNamar, Thomas Lynch and Prudence Tolbert, 
John Wilson and Catherine Ash, Philip Crites and Elizabeth Reder. 

1805. Asel Philips and Hannah Nixon, Thomas Ice and Druzilla White, 
\\'iliam Nichols and Polly Wolfter, Stephen Martin and Catherine Reger, Thomas 
Hall and Elizabeth Tolbert, Robert Childs and Mary Tolbert, EHsha Hall and 
Nancy Conoly. 

1806. David Little and Mintie Lang, Isaac Beer and Elizabeth Dixon, 
James .Stuard and Sarah Richards, William Ireland and Elizabeth Wood, Moses 
Bennet-) and Mary Queen, David Hues and Mary Thomas, Isaac Kane and 
Priscilla Ireland, Daniel Kinsaloe and Sarah Jackson. 

1807. William Baccus and Dolla Drummond, Vincent Glover and Lidia Cut- 
right, John Clark and Matilda Warner, Samuel Clark and Elizabeth Shinn, 
Levi '^/atkins and Polly Goodwin. 

1S08. William Linsey and Barsheba Nutter. Daniel Brown and Nan 
Davis, Samuel Childers and Rebecca Hughes, John Sharp and Barbara Criss, 
Jesse Reese and Jane Kirk, Henry Herdman and Elizabeth Hacker, Hezekiah 
Hess and Sarah Lyons, Cornelias Queen and Mary Ann Race, George Sheets 
and Catherine Sheets, Jacob Sheets and Ann Ireland. 

181 1. Moses Loonier and Lucy Higginbotham, Hiram Lynch and Ann Sum- 
merville, George White and Rebecca Jackson, Jonathan Curry and Mary Mason, 
David Calhoun and Mary Cross, John Hanline and Peggy Roniine, Robert Cal- 
houn and Nancy Goff. 

1812. Alexander Louther and Sarah Ireland, Benjamine Bazel and Susanna 
Jackson, Jonathan Wolf and Bridget Runyun, William Clevelandar and Mary 
Night, John Nay and Phebe Stormes. 

1813. John Brake and Rachel Hyre, George Casto and Sarah Ours, John 
Oliver and Mary Allman, Jacob Cutright and Elizabeth Westfall, John Bozarth 
and Mary Forenash, John Sleeth and Elizabeth Wolf, Stephen Bennett and 
Catherine Huff. 


1814. Abraham Reger and Leona Brake, John Lynch and Eva Pose, 
Joseph Hartman and EHzabeth Smith, Isaac Docks and EHzabeth Reger, Nicholas 
Linger and Elizabeth Seelez, Alexander Ireland and Sarah Jackson, James Queen 
and Rachel W. Cullough. Jacob Mark and Ann Young, John W. Hacker and 
Marv Ann Rains, Peter Wagner and Catherine Hvre, Moses Royland and Nancy 

1815. Thomas Loudin and Honora Conoly, John Loudin and Elizabeth 
Carpenter, James Clandening and Mary Dianna VanHorn, Jacob Brake and 
Rachel Jackson, Jeremiah Dean and Catherine Solomen, Michael Reese and 
Elmora Poland, Nicholas C. Sleeth and Catherine Collins, David Wolf and 
Elizabeth Ireland, Andrew Miller and Elizabeth Ford, George Davis and Milly 
Midleton, John Suter and Elizabeth Leankan, Phinias Wells and Jane Clark, 
Zacheriah Robins and Elizabeth Howell, Cornelias Westfall and Edith Wilson, 
Nathan Davisson and Elizabeth Carper, Joseph Hall and Catherine Radabaugh,- 
Isaac Haskins and James Mowery, Henry Reger and Elizabeth Rohrbaugh, 
Christina Smith and Sarah Carbin, Henry Ours and Sarah Strader, Nicholas 
Ours and Mary Ann Casto, John Boreman and Margaret Beach. 

1816. William Oliver and Sally Reger, Jacob Wolf and Sarah Paugh, John 
Cockes and Polly Conoly, William Childers and Nancy Hughes, Jonathan 
Ireland and Aliza Reboreal, Henry Wiant and Sarah M. Sleeth, James RadclifT 
and Lienor Boring, Samuel Shaw and Atlantic William, Joseph Low and Sarah 
]\IcCaly, Levi Hayes and Anna Jack, Adrian Coon and Susan Saop, ]\Iartin 
Strader and Mary Rohrbaugh, Henry Colerider and Lienor Love. ■ 

1817. William Windroe and Malinda Lanham, Thomas Huflf and Isabell 
Bartlett, George Westfall and Lydia Cutright, Peter Cutright and Nancy West- 
fall, Samuel Tenny and Dorcas Rohrbaugh, John Cutright and Christina Wether- 
holt, Silvanius Seeni and Mary Jackson, Samuel Hayes and Roama Arnold, 
William Prim and Rebecca Curry, John Young and Uthamias Jarvis, Alexander 
Sleeth and Captain Wjoolf, Benjamine Caper and Lucy Hickman, David Decks 
and Mary Bond, Jacob Stump and January Boggs. 


1817. Abraham Helmlick and SabraConoly. Jacob Bush and Hannah Fisher, 
Jacob Gibson and Eva Lough. Philip Reger and Elizabeth Wolf, Jonas Crites 
and Catherine McVany, John Curtis and Prudence Cutright, Jonathan Wamsley 
and Hannah Newlon, George Rohrbaugh and Sarah Davis, Abraham Carper 
and Margaret Stewart. Mathew Neely and Mariah Newlon. 

1818. Walter Loudin and Nancy Conaway, William Morrison and Polly 
Bray, Richard Louden and Nancy Lowery, Israel Curry and Fanny Night. 
Silas Bennett and Lucinda Wine, Daniel Hurst and Olive Powers, George Rada- 
baugh and Sarah Heavner, William Davisson and Sarah Carper. Philip Swiger 
and Sarah Cutright, David Jackson and Louise Ball, John W. Westfall and 
Elizabeth Simon. Abraham Stump and Margaret Bush. 

1819. James Pringle and Mary A. Wetherholt, Daniel Haynes and Hannah 
\\'elden, William Cutright and Elizabeth Cutright, Benjamine Baviot and Polly 
Kesling. Thomas C. Roan and Margaret Clark, Jacob Post and Mary Heffner, 
William Lanes and Nancy Lanham, David Hall and Elizabeth Forenash. Pendle- 
ton Drummond and Naomi William, William L. Jackson and Harriet B. Wilson. 

1820. Isaac Allman and Dorothy Malcom, Saul Reger and Mariah Dobson, 


John Simson and Elizabeth Snider, Augustus Young and Anna Young, Jacob 
Crites and Lucinda Gillet, Daniel Shields and Elizabeth Mills, Joseph Wilson 
and Catherine Holbert, James Teter and Barbary Reger, Thomas Hintzman 
and Deborah Starcher, Soloman Allen and Elizabeth Brady, Henry Lance and 
Elizabeth Radabaugh, George Allman and Barbary Westfall, Henry Peterson and 
Eliza Allan, James Barnes and Rachel Reger. 

1821. Henry Westfall and' Mary Simons, Ananias Crites and McElvaney, 
Zachariah Curtis and Sarah Cutright, Christian Radabaugh and Anna Rohrbaugh, 
Joel Westfall and Priscilla Rollings, Samuel Brannon and Catherine Sleeth, 
Issac Cutright and Casana Cutright, JMartin Burr and Samantha Phillips, 
Joshua Bozworth and Fanny Pemy, Anson Young and Ruhama Barrett, John 
Warner and Ruthy Westfall, Ezra Waid and Sally Gould, Elisha D. Ba'rrett 
and Sarah Peebles. 

1822. George H. Cunningham and Catherine Smith, Benjamine Davis 
and Nancy Brown, Jesse Davis and Abigail Huffman, Alpheus Spore and 
Temperance Bozarth, William McKinley and Anne B. Stringer, Noah Hyre and 
Catherine Kesling, William Hyre and Amelia X'andeavanter, Jacob \'andeavanter 
and Elizabeth Wells, Joseph Gussman and Mary Jackson, Thomas Farnsworth 
and Catherine Simon, William Warner and Obediner Davis, Thomas Aloney- 
penny and Rebecca Waldeck, Thomas Boilen and Nanc}' McNemar. 

1823. William Wetherbolt and Hetty Pringle, Nimrod Reger and Polly ]\Iason, 
John Morrison and Susannah Black, George Nicholas and Laura Allen, Robert 
Dooley and Mary Warner, William Carline and Delila Black, John Hinckle 
and Catherine Strader, Theodore Morgan and Lidia Rude, Oliver House and 
Nancy Gould, William Hall and Lucinda Davis, John Strader and Elizabeth 
Tressel, Joseph Davis and Peggy Clark, Nathaniel Farnsworth and Susanna 
B. Simon, Robert Love and Hannah Westfall, James Malone and Susana Woolf, 
John Bush and Catherine Snider, Sylvanus Rice and Martha Gould. ■*• 

1824. James Ward and Barbara Radabaugh, Elmore Hart and Permelia 
Carper, Aaron Shurtleff and Eliza Gould, Jacob Hefner and Mary Alartin, John 
Reger and Margaret McCoy, Benjamine Radabaugh and Fanny Post, Joseph 
McKinney and Mary Jones, Isaac \'andeavanter and Jane W^ells, Isaac Bozarth 
and Susanna Clark, Daniel Hire and Jane Wells, John Black and Susanna Trich- 
cock, James Clark and Mahala Bozarth, James Kesling and Mary Warmsley, 
John Wetherbolt and Elizabeth Strader, John Thompson and Susanna Melcom, 
John White and Catherine Jackson, Josiah Abbott and Edith Peterson, Elias 
Heavner and Elizabeth Martin, Thomas M. Haymond and Jane Bailey. 

1825. Philip Reger and Rachel Yandeavanter, George Conelly and Mar- 
garet Booliver, James Smith and Mary Clark, John Lorentz and Rachel Reger, 
Gilbert Young and Amaryllis Barrett, George Davis and Sarah Barnett, Jacob 
Rohrbaugh and Elizabeth Hire, Isaac Reger and Eliza McCoy, Daniel Snider 
and Jane Simpson. 

1826. •Benjamine Rohrbaugh and Lucinda Hire, Jacob Reger and Nancy 

1827. Simon C. Bennett and Mary Post, Henry Radabaugh and Glory 
Post, W. D. Smith and Z. McWhorter, W. Abraham Reader and Phoebe Bennett, 
John W. Marple and Ruth Reger, W. W. Gilsen and Jane Malcome, .-Xbraham 
Allman and Winney Crites, Joseph Howes and H. Sinirtliff, ^\'illiam George 
Simons and Elizabeth Foy, James B. Comins and Rachel Westfall. William 


Jackson and Sarah Lewis, Martin Strader and Elizabeth Kesling, Jacob Lang 
and Esther Gould. 

1828. Daniel R. Helmick and Mary McNemar, Kinsley Ward and Phebe 
Hevener, James Posey and Barbara Riffle, Isaac Reger and Fanny Love, John 
Howse and Catherine Pringle, Andrew Casto and Rachel Cutright, William 
Lewis and Catherine Simon, Nathan Gould and Semantha Prim, Enoch Cutright 
and Catherine Warner, John W. Gibson and Dorcas Rice. 

1829. John Simons and Barbara Dean, Jeremiah Lanham and Fanny 
Lance, John Shours and Sarah Michel, James Drinnen and Mary Wolf, Henry 
Riffle and Mary Wilson, Jole Kanada and Elizabeth Davis, Abel C. Hickman and 
Rachel Shore, Moses Marple and .lizabeth Bennett, Levi Black and Mary Cut- 
right, John White and Mary Reger, Minter Baily and Sarah Bastable, Arthur 
Bastable and Mrs. Jane Smith, David Bennett and Sarah Hire, Jesse Smith and 
Mary Bennett, William Strader and Fanny Rains, Elicum Warner and Mary 
Slaughter, George Post and Comfort Simons, Bozel Knowlton and Elizabeth P. 
Gould, William Hyre and Lucy M. Reede. 

1830. Adison Neff and Ruth Flesher, Andrew Wolfe and Lydia Smith, 
John Simon and Rachel Hyre, Jacob Strader and Rebecca Kepel, John Shreves 
and Anna Havener, Daniel Phipps and Elizabeth Pringle, Jacob Butt and 
Jemisha Rohrbaugh, Anthony Rohrbaugh and Elizabeth Love, Amos F. Marple 
and Jerminia Currence, Orvin Warner and Betsy Davis, John Kesling and 
Elizabeth Cox. James Black and Laone Shrieve, James Comings and Octaves- 

183 1. Richard Williams and Phebe Harris, Hiram Gould and Devina 
Black, William Morrison and Alercy Cozad, Nicholas McVaney and Rebecca 
Reger, Acquilla Osburn and Margaret Hacker, Jacob Starcher and Jane Wolf,. 
John B. Pifer and Rebecca Kesling, Lawrence Mitchel and Drusilla Rohrbaugh, 
Isaac Casto and Dorcas Cutright, Paschal W. Hauerell and Eliza Marple, Abe 
Clark and Charlottte Cutright, A. H. Boggs and lasole Shock, Allen Simpson 
and Nancy Sleeth, John Wilson and Lucy Vincent. 

1832. David D. Casto and Frances Abbott, Samuel H. Wilson and Margaret 
Sims, Edward Moneypenny and Elizabeth Brake, W. D. Radclifif and Margaret 
Brown, Nathaniel Cutright and Naoma Cutright, Joseph Lewis and Susanai 
Parker, Abraham Reger, Jr., and Jemima McCoy. 

1833. A. Armstrong and Margaret Lawson, Marshall Lorentz and Marietta 
McNulty, William M. Haymond and Sarah McCartney, Stephen Hughes and 
Mary Westfall, Isaac Simon and Elima Pringle, Anson Young and Anna Brake, 
G. W. Caplinger and Jane Havener, Jacob Kesling and Charlotte Lanham,. 
William Kesling and Permelia Jack, Levi Radclifif and Nancy Birkhamer. 

1834. Lorentz Bunten and Sarah Parker, Joseph Walker and Mary Fisher, 
William Sextton and Sarah Ann Jackson, David W. Sleeth and Mrs. Susana 
Simpson, John W. Hags and Mary J. Jackson, David O. Haseldon and Louise 
Burr, Aaron Mowry and Sarah Black, Philo Tenny and Rebecca Casto, Henry 
Winemiller and Susanna Westfall, E. G. Burr and Emily Jane Morgan, David 
Fisher and Lydia Springston, John Tenny and Margaret Ours, Peter Lynch 
and Mary Ours. 

1835. Lair Dean and Mahala Crites, C. W. McNulty and Katherine Hyre,. 
Isaac Westfall and Mary Wolf, Jacob Cozad and Laury Eagle, John R. Cunning- 
ham and Elizabeth Wolfe, Moses Bennett and Catherine Crites, Jacob M. Hyre 


and Malinda Havener, Job Hinkle and Margaret H. Jackson, Abraham Reger 

• and Permelia Rohrbaugh 

1836. William Wi. Brake and Nancy C. Norris, Henry I. Jackson and 

-Lyda Reger, Alfred Morgan and Martha Henderson, Anthony Reger and Mrs. 
Mary Lynch, Nicholas Ours and Avis Tenny, Joseph Lance and Mary Crites, 

'George Cutright and Susanna Pringle, Silas Bennett and Rebecca Crites, Alphra 
Costrite and Easter Casto, Gilbert T. Gould and Elizabeth Loomis,Loren M. 
Shurtliff and Electa Philips, Ebenezer Leonard and Wfeathy Gould, John M. 
Rohrbaugh and Matilda Bott, Henry Jackson and Elizabeth Shrieves, Silas Cade 

;and Elizabeth Westfall. 

1837. George Simons and Celia Reger, William Dean and Anna Keisling, 
Michael Strader and Eva Rohrbaugh, John Strader and Mary B. Wolf, Valen- 
tine Strader and Mary Jackson, Abraham Rohrbaugh and Julia Ann Deen, 
John B. Brake and Sophia Loomis, Cyrus Brake and Sarah McAvoy, William 
Butt and Susan Reger, Nathan Reger and Mary Lorentz. 


1839. David T. Wolfe and Elizabeth Keger, George Rohrbough and 
Emily E. Curtis, John Johnson and Catherine Campbell, William O. Gould and 
Rebecca Smith, Benjamin Bassell and Lucinda Norris, John D. Linger and 
ILucinda Crites, Elisha Tenny and Sylva Hows, Abram Crites and Magdaline 
IPringle. Hiram G. Rollins and Rachel Pringle, Owen Westfall and Arena For- 
:inash, John M. Shield and Catherine Hebner, Horace A. Phillips and Susan 

1840. David Morrison and Helen Shreve, George Dean and Kiturah Win- 
-grove, Abram Furr and Barbara Pifer, Watson Westfall and Rachel Tenny, 
Joel Casto and Jemima Post, Elmore Cutright and Nancy A. Wolfe. Jehu Ours 
and Drusella Hess, William Warner and Rachael Hess, Robert Curry and Sarah 
Wilson, Martin Westfall and Rebecca Warner, Jesse Lemmons and Rhuama 
Hyer, John T. Davis and Mary Loudin, John J. Vincent and Elizabeth Wilson. , 

1841. Jacob Clark and Susannah Crites, Isaac Rohrbough and Margarett 
Linger, James J. Mooney and Elizabeth P. Westfall, Peter Lewis and Elizabeth 
Abbott, Isaac Post and Emily Carper, John Jack and Catherine Westfall, .\bram 
J. Post and Mary S. Hinzman, David Cutright and Rachael Strader. Forbes 
W. Chipps and Eliza A. Wamsley, Henry Simson and Mary E. Leonard, Henry 

"Wilfong and Catherine Mowry, Elbridge Burr and Jane Jack. 

1842. William S. Brady and Frances J. Lemmons, John W. Abbott and 
Ruth Brady, Jonas Strader and Elizabeth Hinkle, James Herman and Margaret 
Casto, Thomas W. Vincent and Jane Wilson, Zedick Lanham and Elizabeth 
Talbott, Edward Davis and Christena Strader, Robert MacAvoy and Margaret 
Wilson, x\bram Post and Barbary Lance, Abram Hess and Elizabeth Lewis, 
Washington Radclifif and Catherine Hess, Frederick Wilfong and Magdaline 
Cutright, John M. Strader and Rebecca Radabough, Robert Cranville Shannon 
and Rachael Rollins, Archibald Chenoweth and Margaret M. Hyer, George 
A. We-stfall and Mary Ann Cutright, Hezekiah H. Boggess and Mercia Leonard, 
E. J. Colerider and Jemima Reger, Anthony Teets and Emma Dicks, David 
Neely and Susanah Kesling, Amziah Dawson and Sarah .\. L Loudin. Toel 

■W. Westfall and Eliza B. Mills. 


1843. Anthony Rohrbough and Mary Clark, James Curry and Sarah M. ' 
McAvoy, Levi Legget and Rebecca Reger, John C. Cunningham and EHzabeth 
Armstrong, Joseph Fhnt and Sarah J. Hinzman, Jacon Loomis and Chloe Ann 
PhilHps, Abram Hudkins and Mariah L. Morgan, Benjamin Gould and Eliza 

D. Morgan, John Crawford and Mary Wilson. 

1844. George W. Mills and Mary Liggett. Joel P. Crites and Susan Strader, 
Sampson Huffman and Mary Dean, Eli F. Westfall and Rhuhama Cutright, 
James Wells and Louis Havener, George Westfall and Rhuamey Cutright, Mar- 
shall Dean and Alcinda Butcher, Peter L. Smith and Catherine Eskew, Uriah 
Phillips and Mary Rebecca Young, James Dix and Rachel E. Brake, John B. 
Morrison and Polly Heavener. 

1845. James Dix and Rachel E. Brake, Stephen Curtis and Josenah Rhine- 
hart, John B. Morrison and Polly Hersman, Blackwell Jackson and Emily Bird 
Lorentz, Joseph Flint and Mary B. Wolfe, Adam Rohrbough and Susanah Curtis, 
William Mick and Susanah Cutright, Absalom P. Hanney and Dorcas Tenney, 
Salathael Cutright and Bridget Wolfe, Chaney Pringle and Malvina Crites, 
George Talbott and Lavina Wilson, Valentine Hinkle and Matilda Dean, John 
W. Casto and Mary Strader, Edmund D. Rollins and Sarah Reese, George 
W. Miller and Winfred E. Jackson, Reason Queen and Catharine Reed, Wash- 
ington Summers and Samantha Crites. 

1846. Jared Armstrong and Eliza Bennett, Nimrod C. Brake and Mary 
J. Curry, William Curry and Mary C. Wilson, Peter Rusmisell and Cecilia Eagle, - 
Ephriam Thompson and Minerva Jane Dean, Jeremiah Brown and Jemimia Mc- 
Cord, James McGee and Susan A. C. Talbott, Newton B. Barnes and Mary A. 
Wilson, Robert Whitney and Sarah J. McCray, Lewis Maxwell and Sophrona M. ■ 
Wilson, William Winemiller and Martha Abbott, Samuel Armstrong and Anne 
Clark, Simon Roberts and Elizabeth Casto, Anthony Tenny and Rebecca Strader, 
Jacob Ours and Rebecca Casto, Alpheus H. Upton and Elizabeth M. Howell, John 
D Loudin, and Mary Pickens, Nathan Cutright and Susannah Hinkle, Jeremiah 
Lance and Elizabeth Paugh, Peter B. Williams and Sarah E. Lemmons, Samuel 
Winemiller and Louisa Abbott. Philip Reger and Jane McCoy, James Morrison 
and Rachel West, Henry J. :\IcCally and Jane Blagg, David B. Smith and Prucilla 
Smallridge, Major Thorp and Lyda Morgan, Benjamin Chesney and Sindie 
Ann Barb. 

1847. John S. Rohrbough and Nancy A. B. White, John Nelson Loudin and 
Diadena Brake, Joseph D. Rapp and Virginia C. Miller, Earl E. Young and Mary 
Armstrong, Joseph Flint and Sarah J. Hinzman, Jason Loomis and Chloe Ann 

E. Clark, A. W. C. Lemmone and Margaret Hosaflock, David Phillips and 
Esther Etha Gould. George W. Tenney and Ruhama Barb, James W. Wilson 
and Rebecca Westfall, Washington Boggs and Barbara Loudin, Henry Mont- 
gomery and Ours. Isaac Montgomery and Barbara Westfall, David D. Smith and 
Susan Farnsworth, John M. McWhorter and Cozetta Marple, Powell Gould 
Shultz, Mathew W. Bradley and Ann E. C. Wertenbaker, Isaac Ours and Phebe 

1848. William J. Reade and Rachael Dix, William Draw and Sarah F, 
Kiddy, Jacob Teeter and Catherine Loudin. Chapman Herndon and Parmelia 
E, Rohrbough, Warwick G. Harper and Jane Hyre, Eliah W. Bright and Susanah 
Chandler, J. B. Casto and Samantha Marple, James S. Wilson and Ann C. Ferrell, 
Alonzo A. Young and Martha A. Clark. Christian Smith and Jane Carper. 
Nicholas D. Linger and Sarah Clark. Jonathan Jack and Martha McCann. 


FROM 1851 TO i860. 

185 1. Moses H. Bennett and Hannah Warner, Christian Post and Mary 
Marple, Henry W. White and Mary A. Paugh, Lemuel Rollins and Lucinda 
Chipps, William R. Foster and Edith Martin, Adolphus Brooks and Lydia 
Young, Washington M. Gladwell and Mary J. Phipps, Adam Spitler and Caro- 
line A. Janney, Jonathan K. Hedges and Sallie H. Anderson, George Hoback 
and Mary Winemiller, William Casto and Rebecca Westfall, John Hoover and 
Hester A. Wymer, Henry Wilfong and Catherine Cochran, David Little and 
Harriet E. Shreckhise, Michael Hoover and Elizabeth McElvany, Asbury Chipps 
and Elizabecca Cutright, Benjamin Strader and Mary Susan Foster, Solomon 
Dean and Ruth Kesling, Michael B. Wolfenbargerand Mary E. Eakle, Christian 
S. Eakle and Mary Ann Egle, Fenton Payne and Elsy Bunton, Zacariah Harris 
and Mary C. Rowan, William E. Balsley and Mary A. Woods, George Linger 
and Elizabeth Crites, Philander Howes and Cyntha A. Gould. Peter S. Smith and 
Mary A. Wilson, Marshall Tenney and Elmira A. C. Tenney, Charles W. 
Everett and Jemima Fornash, Dana West and Barbara Hyer, Harrison Fury 
and Mary I. Brown, William A. Johnson and Catherine Millee, Ely Wilfong 
and H. E. Vaulters, Archibald Pumphry and Hannah Wilfong, Moses Marple 
and Jane Alexander, Oliver Westfall and Laura Cutright, Marshall Hyer and 
Malissa Simms, Garland I. Ferrell and Celina Sexton. 

1852. Nelson Jones and Martha J. Hinkle, Abraham L. Crites and Mary 
L. Simmons, Thomas Bonor and Catherine Maxwell, John Cutright, Jr., and 
Louisa Cutright. Simon Strader and Parmelia E.Tenney, Simon Howse and 
Ruhamah Cool, James E. Carroll and Ann Lewis Patterson, N. M. Ferrell and 
Caroline Townsend, Henry H. Lewis and Martha A. Harria, A. J. Houghton 
and Sarah A. Crawford, Jonathan Hefner and Angalina Jack, William J. Cal- 
houn and Mary S. Rohrbough, Solomon William and Rachiel Hyer. James H. 
Eskew and Lucinda Crites, Peter Gum and Estaline Johns, Richard H. Parrack 
and Mary F. Wertenbaker, Joseph Jones and Elizabeth A. Smith. John R. 
Foke and Jemimah Bargerhoff, Preston Taylor and Elizabeth Gooden, John 
R. West and Elizabeth Hyre, William H. Williams and Mary S. Colerider. 
James S. Will and Catherine Berlin, Goodman Reger and Juda Kesling, James 
Lawhon and Lorinda Parrack, Nathan S. Hollen and Mary Ann Matheny, 
Mathias J. Mick and Eliza Queen, William F. Haney and Barbara J. Crites. 
George G. Westfall and Drusila S. Williams. James Lewis and Louisa Wood, 
Cornelius Clark, Jr., and Lucinda Young, R. R. Alexander and Mahala Harper. 
Henry J. Taylor and Lona Young, John A. Fester and M. E. Strader, Dexter 
W. Cutright and Julia Ann Kiddy, Chester W. Morgan and Nancy Talbot, 
Joseph Crawford and Lydia M. Eagle, William C. Jones and Susan Celia Rob- 
inson, Jefferson C. Vincent and Leana L. Damron, Thomas P. Desper and 
Roberta J. Clarkson, Clark M. Gooden and Torsey Jane Barb. Thamar Cutright 
and Fanny Lovina Crites, Sylvester B. Phillips and Marcia L. Sumne. 

1853. Asberry L. Crites and Mary E. Horsaflook, John A. Cunningharn 
and Rebecca J. Fleming, Jacob Hare and Annie Young, Samuel Neely and 
Margaret Maxwell, William H. Gregrey and Elizabeth A. Simon, William A. " 
Bostic and Mary Jane Eskew, Joseph Wicks and Rachael C. Miller, William Miles 
and Mary Pumphrey, Thomas A. Reed and Rebecca A. Crites, Benjamin Lance 


and Mary Hinckle, Jr., James W. Johnson and Amanda L. Bond, Riley Clark ' 
and Jemima Rohrbough, Nimrod Reger and Ann Brown, Armsted L. Queen 
and Julia A. L,ewis, William White and Sarah D. Simon, James D. Simon and 
Martha Lemmons, Joshua Woods and Jemima Reger, Danuel Phipp and Eliza- 
beth Howes, Jacob Ours and Malinda Radebaugh, Jacob Lance and Cinia Post, 
Valerous I. Fiddler and Sarah E. Clarkson, Joseph B. Ambrose and Mary E. 
Hyre, Edward I. Brown and Margaret P. Young, Stephen Norman and Susannah 
Beesley, Jerome B. Williams and Martha A. Hyre, John Dean, Jr., and Salina 
F. Marshall, Elijah Phillips and Alargarette E. Bond, Thomas Vogle and Mary 
Ann Gregory, Hubbard Perry and Harriet Phillips, John G. Dix and Olive 
Brake, William Lawhorn and Carolina M. Gibson, John G. Camp and Mary Ann 
Shores, Jacob Post and Rebecca A. Casto. C. P. Rohrbough and Mary Martha 
Haselden, Henry Wilfong and Martha Pritt, Jonathan Smith and Demeries 
Haskins, William Howlett and J. B. Patterson, Edward Miller and Rachel Bar- 
rickman, Benjamin Stout and Martha Clark, Calvin Boyd and Louisa Curry, 

D. D. L Farnsworth and Mary J. Ireland. William C. Barnett and Mary M. 
Fleming, William W. Warner and Sella Casto, Anthony J. Huffman and 
Lucinda Casto, Jonas McConkey and Sally Ann Lynch, Gilmore Simons and 
Samaria J. Smith. 

1854. Christopher O. Cutright and Barbara A. Crites, Marcellus Hardman 
and Mahala Hyre, John Conrad and Jane V. Perkins, Frederick Hefner and 
Lydia Warner, Anthony Oldacre and Jane Carpenter, Isaac D. Warner and Milla 
Casto, Francis Reeder and Phobe Cutright, Edmund D. Boyles and Nancy 
Romine, John H. Boyles and Ellen Reed, Peter Zinn and Barbara Teter, James 

E. Slaughter and Susan Haskins, E. A. Ceose and Isabella Birch, Abijah Hinkle 
and Jerusha E. Gray, Addison Tenny and Lucinia Ann Tenney, Jacob Fronsman 
and Katherine Kelly, Adolphus Brooks and Josephine Phillips, Simon J. Rohr- 
bough and Margaret Haselden, Jonathan Reese and Sarah E. Grubb, S. D. 
Marten and Mary Susan Browing, Isaac Rollins and Rachel Wamsley, Richard 
White and Barbara Lanham, D."j. Brake and Mary Abel, B. M. Waugh and 
Emily R. Harris, Noah Westfall and Matilda Ann Evans, Philip F. Pinnell 
and Secilia A. Lorentz, Josiah F. Bond and Amanda J. Bond, John Friend and 
Mary Ann Collins, Charles W. Townsend and Frances B. Trimble, Elias Wilt 
And Nancy Westfall, Benj. Rohrbough and Lydia Fultz. John Thurman and 
Margaret M. Carpenter, John D. Tenney and Prudence Reed, Jacob Talbot, 
Jr., and Jenetta F. Ray, Danuel Howes and Rhoda Hunt, Abel Lanaham and 
Nancy Reed, Jacob Conrad Smith and Elizabeth Willoughby, Annanias J. Mont- 
gomery and Amanda Shoulder, Jesse I. Peterson and Martha A. Anderson, 
George W. Mealy and Mary Peck, Levi Clark and Elizabeth Ann Liggett, John 
S. Riblet and Mary Cntes, Philip Eagle and Mrs. Sarah A. Houghton, Randell 
Bartlett and Susannah W. Gawthiop, John W. Eskew and Elizabeth Boggs. 

1855. John J. Miles and Mary Miller, Thomas Grubb and Jane V. jNIaxin, 
George W. Burner and Frances R. Morgan, Creed J. Regney and Rebecca 
Bennett, Henry Cutlip and Elizabeth Burrough, James J. Griffith and Maty 
Alfred Day Woodley and Lavernia A. Lorentz, Marshall Gould and Celestia 
E. Harris, Albinus ]\Iarple and Mary Jane Post, Clark Hess and Keziah Oldacre, 
Perry, George Allman and Mildred C. Brown, Thomas Bise and Mrs. Emily 
E. Wilson, Worthington Sexton and Jane Wingrove, John Dean, Jr., and 
Malildy Fury, Cyrus Chenowith and Susan Reeder, Charles D. Hess and Mary 
Casto, Annanias Casto and Mary Jane Suddarth, John W. Riggleman and M. 


W. Read, Howard B. Stewart and Susana Kidd. Lorenzo D. Ciitright and 
Malissa Cutright, John L. Smith and Elen E. Clark, John I. Starcher and Susan 
E. Ferrill. Jacob J. Smallridge and Mary E. Johnson. WilHam H. Trask and 
Cornelia E. Wertenbaker, John Casto and Camantha Ann Cutright, James 
Beverly Foster and Meriam Diannah Waugh, Samuel Westfall and Almira Casto, 
Lorenzo D. Lorentz and Ann E. Burr, Moses Greathouse and Eliza J. E. Alex- 
ander, Joseph W. Humphrey and Barbara B. Riffle, Nimrod G. Monday and Jane 
M. Bodkins, Stephen H. Nicholas and Sarah A. Bailey, Daniel S. Squires and 
Amelia Burr, Ira Grave and Sarah Ann McCann, Jacob Bonnett and Jane Warner, 
John W. Browing and and Mary C. C. Shoemaker, William Hornbeck and 
Frances Woods, Danuel H. Sheumaker and Margarett A. E. Pence, James 
Sexton and Lucinda Leonard, Norman E. Elknap and Parthena A. Haymond, 
Lewis E. Price, Jr., and Elizabeth Casto, Elijah Harper and Barbara Strader,- 
Leonard R. Howell and Jemina Wetherholt, Perry S. Crislep and Barbara A. 
Marple, Newton Hess and Carey Ann Oldacre, William Perkins and Sarah A. 
Gould, George M. Shumaker and Mary J. Foster, William M. Martin and G. 
E. Jennings, Silas H. Bailey and Mahala Brake. 

1856. Daniel D. Havener and Barbara Strader, John L. Queen and Mary 
Jane Casto. Granville D. Marple and Eliza Loudin. William W. Jackson and Lucy 
S. Parrack. Alarcellus Smith and Mary M. Ware, Marcellus Lewis and Mary I. 
Johnson, Silas Barb and Anna Roan, Samuel R. T. Alexander and Rebecca 
Deuley, Philo L. Tenney and Olive Black, Lafayette Hinkle and Louisa I. Post, 
William F. Green and Lucy M. Anderson, Jacob Simmons and Sarah Ellen 
Harvey, Mathew J. Kidd and Sarah J. Hodges, Perry Smith and Elizabeth 
Holbert, William B. Gooden and Magdalene Tenney, Wellington B. Loudin and 
Caroline E. Jackson, Jacob Keesling. and Lucy J. Woods, Sam W. Harper and 
Louisa Chipps. George Warner and Rebecca Rohrbough, Almandus Young and 
Caroline Simons, Salathiel Strader and Elizabeth Peck, John B. Ward and Jane 
Waugh, Granville Strader and Sarah Ann Hinkle, William T. Smith, and 
Lucinda Bargerhoff, Eugene T. Summerville and Hester M. Henderson, George 
H. Clark and Eliza S. Wood, Samuel Abel and Mariam Westfall, Peter Tenney, 
Jr., and Mary Jane Moody, Edwin Young and Rebecca H. Bartlette, Marshall 
Smith and Ruth Ware, C. S. Haynes and Rachel Ann Cochran. Howard Rowan 
and Catherine .oilman, James M. Woodson and Elizabeth A. Harrison, Jesse 
S. Cummings and Rebecca Shreve, Branson R. Simon and Elizabeth M. Matheney, 
John H. Hodges and Malissa M. Humphrey, Cyrus Armstrong and Elizabeth M. 
Strader, Seth Williams and Elizabeth Rohrbough, William Hawkins and Caroline 
E. Farnsworth, Henry M. Douglass and Nancy J. Smallbridge, Perry Lewis 
and Isabella W. Harris, Lemuel Rollins and Elizabeth Reese, Abraham A. Smith 
and Nancy Osborne, Nicholas Ours, Jr., and Hettie Ann Bryan, Richard H. 
B. Day and Martha J. Woods, George Hepner and Martha E. Lovett, George 
W. Martin and Rebecca A. Hyre, William Loudin and Laura L. -Anderson, 
John Paugh and Catherine Warner, Adam P. Faught and Jane L. Coiner. Wyatt 
Fitzgerald and Mary Jane Marble, Thomas A. Norvell and Ellen Bean, Byron 
Love and Mary Jane Arnold. Joseph Gould and Lois Howes, Loyal Y. McXvoy 
and Margaret E. Windle, Jacob Waggner and Sarah M. Reynold. 

1857. Nathaniel Marker and Rebecca J. Grimm, James Woods and Juda 
S. Pritt. James W. Hickman and Mary A. Marley, Joseph Sheehan and Elizabeth 
Fogel, Thomas K. Kerr and Louisa V. Hilleary, Martin Hinkle and Olive 

Keesling, Jacob Grifeth and Rebecca Dean, Thomas A. Gegroe and Jane K. 


Young, Henry Ours, Jr., and Almira Field, Patrick Durkin and Margaret King, 
David A. Casto and Angelina F. Carickhoff, Andrew Hinkle and Clarissa E. 
Cutright, Patrick Flannigan and Bridgett McDermott, Samuel H. Loudin and' 
Margaret I. Marley, Joseph Little and Catherine Boon, Richard Dodson and Mary 
Barnsgrove, Danuel S. Beahler and Rhuhama Westfall. John Miller and Barbara 
I. Ours, John W. Moody and Julia A. Campbell, Charles W. Queen and Edith 
Hannah, John Paugh and Mary I. Newcom, Alfred Waggoner and Phobe 
McFadden, Nicholas C. Loudin and Mary Jane Reger, James Jones and Ann E. 
Hooker, Salathiel Cutright and Camantha Warner, Francis M. Slaughter and 
Caroline Dean, James Young and Rose Anna McAvoy, Douglass Fitzgerald' 
and Rebecca Brake, Hanson Zickefoose and Margaret Gooden, Danuel Bassel' 
and Louisa M. Burr, Asa Strader and Nancy D. Barr, Edward E. Curry and' ^ 
Lucetta Wilson, Jacob R. Morrison and Hester Cutright, Charles Fomash and' 
Eliza Wood, W. D. Farnsworth and Lucinda Reger, Reuben Lowe and Atlanta 
Kisby, John Ward and Elizabeth Strader, Marshall L. Slaughter and Lottie* 
Hornbeck, John Davis and Eliza Ann Green, Asa Fomash and Louisa Keesling,. 
John M. Pinnell and Catherine L. Farnsworth, Ashley Gould and Rowens M. 
Sexton, William Tenney and Arcadevere Currence, Abram M. Wolf and Tamer- 
Bond. Anthony Simon and Virginia Wetherholt, Marshal! Robeson and Sarah' 
Floyd, John J. Reynold and Barbara Rohr, Anthony Pifer and Harriet V. Heck, 
John Brooks and Pauline Olive Haney, John S. Tenney and Elizabeth Allmari, 
T. A. Chipps and Sarah B. Moss, Peachy H. Reeves and Mary C. Neff, Julius 
Vawter and Emily Smith, John Pringle and Rachiel Cutright, John J. Lemons 
and Elizabeth Crites, A. R. Chipp and Mary J. Cool, Benjamin Harvey and' 
America Stump, William A. Horsaflook and Rebecca A. Simon, John Vande- 
vender and Catharine Hyre, Squire B. McCan and Roxany Gould, Lothrop- 
Phillips and Charlotte Bean, William Bargerhoflf and Sallie Casto, Martin H. 
Black and Catharine E. Currence, Reason D. Queen and Rebecca Clark, Jacob' 
Miller and Sarah Pumphrey. 

1858. George W. Currence and Rebecca A. Tenny. William Bryan and' Julia' 
Ann Ours, James Lowe and Malissa Jackson, Samuel Bowyer and Mary A. 
Bambridge, Stephen W. Marteny and Sarah S. Boatwright, Marshall Reger 
and Mary Elizabeth Hinkle, Sampson M. Gordon and Nancy Keesling, Edwin- 
Perry and Ann M. Thomas, Joseph Lewis and Nancy Crislip, William L. Barb 
and Ann E. Riggs, G. M. Heavener and Barbara Ann Neff, Jacob Sargent and 
Letha E. Simon, Jacob Rohr and Docia A. Reynolds, Chapman McCoy and Maria 
S. Douglass. C. W. Armstrong and Eliza Curry. Blackwell Sims and Hannah 
Rise, Nathan W. Perrine and .lizabeth Brown, Nebemiah Carper and Abizaell 
Bennett, Alex Whitley and Sophia L. Neely. James W. Wentz and Lucy P. C. 
Harris, Wilmot Starthy and Anna Bowers, George Phillips and Olive B. Reed, 
Nekerva Hartwell Gocke and Mary Virginia Mullins. Stuart Hyre and Martha 

E. Crites. Philo L Tenney and Ruth Dernass. David Queen and Rebecca Love, 
Amos Samples and Caroline M. Cunningham, Alfred M. Smith and Martha 

F. Willoughby, Francis S. Kittle and Eliza Jane Tenny, William G. Ward and 
Sarah Brooks, Benj. Conlev and Lydia Westfall. Greenberv F. Broging and 
Eliza Ann Breeder. Edwin C. Hyre' and Mary E. Rakes, C. G. Von Bonhirst 
and Olive Lorentz, A. W. Cunningham and Frances A. Clarkson, Daniel J. Carper 
and Sarah E. Ireland, Giedon Hoover and Sarah J. Browing, Mearbeck Ours 
and Martha Bryan, William Lowther and Martha Hop, Marshall L. Rohrbough 
and Margaret McNulty, Robert C. Ferrill and Louisa D. Young, Benjamin 


F. Oriidoff and Amanda Crawford, X. R. Borough and Sarah M. Snider, Enoch 
W. Post and Sarah F. Hotsepiller, John M. Cunimings and Sallit A. Strader, 
Amoc C. Cutright and Elizabeth Simon, Anson Rice Jack and Emily Hefner, 
Jeremiah Paugh and Jane Neel}-, Abram Bennett and Elizabeth Meek, Marshall 
Strader and Lydia Lamb, Clayton P. Cutright and Catharine Crites, Benjamin 
F. Clarkson and Mary A. Bartlett, John T. Hyer and Elizabeth C. Hotsepillar, 
Haseldon Ours and Christena Rowan. 

1859. James H. Keen and Jane Cox, Samuel Lane and Louisa Weather- 
holt, Montiville Reger and Sarah Carper, Perry C. Lewis and Margaret Johnson, 
Job Simon and Elizabeth Cutright, Wiliam S. Loudin and Mary V. Brake, Naihan 
Smith and Barbara Westfall, James Green and Minerva A. Riffle, George W. 
Foster and Melvina Reed, Davis K. Johns and Elizabeth Lunceford, Granville 
Post and Rachael C. Conley, Enoch Westfall and Emma V. Conley, James 
Long and Ellen Winemiller, Robert C. Shakleford and Lucy Hodges,' William 
Cunnington and Eda Finley, James Jannett and Irmino C. Wilson, Thos. J. 
Farnsworth and Mary E. Carper, Oliver Abels and Rebecca J. Grimes, Calvin 
Cutright and Amanda Cutright, Joseph B. Peters and Harriet Murphy, Peter 
A. Folks and Margaret Simmons, Levi Curkendall and Kezarah Greathouse, 
Aaron Ligget and Sarah E. Hammer, William L. Simmons and Sarah J. Fret- 
well, James Gower and Rebecca Warner, Nath. Rohrbough and Pricilla Warner, 
Addison E. Marple and Marietta Casto, Jacob Hunt and Jane Crites, .Alex. 
A. Haughton and Ann S. Phillips, Leonard J. Rexroad and Sally A. Phillips, 
Henry Williams and Virginia Hyre, James W. Windle and Elizabeth McAvoy, 
Frances Gilmore and Lucy Jackson, Marcellus Bennett and Christena E. Eakle, 
Joseph Little and Elizabeth F. Hays, Columbus Phillips and Elizabeth Thomas, 
Moses H. Bennett and Mary Barton, Philip Crites and Barbara J. Simon, New- 
ton G. Shreve and iMartha Harper, James A. Watson and Amanda Shreve, 
Douglass Johns and Elizabeth Fleming, Gideon Wilson and Lydia M. Curry, . 
George Phipps and Margaret Smallridge, Elza Garrett Oldacre and Sarah E. 
Reed, Nelson W. Wingfield and Selvina Harlin, Abraham S. Blagg and Emily 
M. Armstrong, George M. Shumaker and Virginia Stump, Thomas Bise and 
.Mary Meek, Egbert Reed Watson and Bettie Kent, F. H. Martin and Mary 
Smith, John J. Wyatt and Celia J. Gould, Granville D. White and Rebecca 
Matheney, John Hinkle and Celia Warner, Perry Simon and Eliza Young, James 
W. Smith and Nancy Garvin, . 

i860. Samuel Morrison and Henrietta Graves, Johnson Smith and Eliza- 
beth IMorrison, Allen J. Keesling and Louisa J. Dean, Henry E. Carter and 
Samantha Reed, Samuel Toppen and Mary A. Coyner, John W. Alexander 
and Catherine R. White, George ]\I. Horner and Roanna Oldacre, M. J. Fogg 
and Susan E. Fretwell, Noah S. Hyre and Martha EKnkle, Mathew Davis and 
Ann Bready, Solomon Holland and Helen M. Janney, Fieldon Reed and Sarah 
C. Dunbar, Nathan Heavner and Sidney June Strader, Jacob Hanline and Hester 
A. Lemon, Richard Warner and Mary S. Alexander, George ^^^ Haskins and 
Sarah J. Harris, Samuel Smallridge and Nancy Smith, John C. Robinson and 
Lydia A. McDonald, Stephen M. Casto and 2\Iary Black, E. C. Robinson and 
Almira A. Marple, Robert A. Curry and Margaret E. Bartlett, Morrison Cayton 
and Susan Reger, James Green and Maria Loudin, William R. Lowe and 
Marietta Mowery, John Simmons and Nancy Killingsworth, John W. Mick 
and Mary A. Price, W. W. Killingsworth and Marth I. Bryan, John Fultz and 
Leah Waugh, William C. Bennett and Mary Reeder, Thomas A. Grove and 


Nancy M. Foster, Jasper Lanham and Sarah Radabaugh, Taylor Hyre and Mary 
Williams, Jasper N. Marteney and Barbara Harris, Burget Jett and Sarah Ann 
Oldacre, William Wentz and Cornelia F. Sandridge, George S. Riffle and Martha 
Ann Strader, Jacob Heavner and Lydia A. Foster, Minor Keesling and Lucinda 
Radabaugh, David Fitzpatrick and Louisa Keesling, William L. Tenney and 
Nancy Moody, Granville Dean and Sally A. Lewis. Daniel Lee and Mary Jane 
Eakle, John Ware and Malinda J. Pritt, Aquilla Osborne and Mary E. Tallman, 
William Wilfong and Lucy J. Shipman, Isaac White and Mary V. Day, Henry 
F. Eagle and Julia S. Childress, Peter T. Lynch and Elizabeth A. Tallman, 
John N. Tenny and Rachel Demoss, Jacob Radabaugh and Nancy Bezlee, Jacob 
D. Warner and Sarah E. Lawman, John C. Murphy and Mary Cox, Henry O. 
Hyre and Emma J. Brown, Benj. C. Wyatt and Deborah M. Crites, Samson 
Hinkle and Sarah Jane Musgrave, James Freil and Elizabeth Post, Jacob C. 
Keister and Inababa Brake, Robt. R. Winfield and Sarah J. Harlam, Minter J. 
Jackson and Harriet Cummings, Herbert Phillips and Mary F. Carter, Homer 
Crites and Thankful Tenney, Mathew A. Manley and Delea A. Floyd, Noah 
McCally and Phoebe Bennett, Jasper N. Westfall and Jane Reese, Robert P. 
McAvov and Martha See. 



Upshur county people held firm convictions against the institution of slavery. 
The economic condition and the political beliefs of these our countrymen embar- 
rassed its spread and early uprooted its weak hold in our midst. 

The first and largest slave holders in the country were Jacob Lorentz, whose 
acute financial observation among the plantations of Virginia told him of the gain 
and profit of slave labor, and Abram Carper, whose wife, a Miss Harness of near 
Moorefield, received from her parental ancestors through and by the laws of in- 
heritance, two black men and black women. 

Mr. Lorentz kept his negroes until the violence of the approaching war 
advised him to make sale of them. Mr. Carper being religiously opposed to slave- 
dom, sought an opportunity to free his blacks and when, in 1833, permission 
of all parties interested was secured, Mr. Carper gave the negroes their freedom. 

The strong infusion of puritan immigration, its unchangeable affinity for 
everything in yankeedom, and its amplitude of courage and ability to contend for 
the right, gave believers and actors in the slave business here their roughest 
sailing and hottest pursuit. 

The children of the first settlers as their parents had revelled for decades 
in wild personal liberty. They would not give up their personal freedom, neither 
would they ask any other human to do it. Passive in their opposition, they were 
ready on notice to join hands with the yankees and uphold the integrity of the 

An incident occurred in the election of 1856 that exposed the smouldering 
live coals of the "Yanks." Some nine or ten citizens of French Creek cast their 
ballots for John C. Freemont and Free Socialism. This commendable act brought 
into print in the Herald of Weston, Va., whose publishers were H. J. Tapp and 
B. P. Swayne, an article condeming vehemently the action of these voters. To 
give the generations unacquainted with these opposing local sentiments at the time, 
some knowledge of their acidity and bitterness we produce in toto the article 
written December i, 1856, and reply thereto: 

(Article copied from The Her.^ld published in Weston, Va., by H. J. Tapp 
and B. P. Swayne. Written December i, 1856.) 

We give below the names, not of the sacred nine, but of the infamously 
immortal nine who at the late election on French Creek in Upshur county cast 


their votes for the Freemont Electors. Such flagrant anti-slavery action here 
in Virginia was unexpected to us. That there should be residents amongst us 
who have imbibed the abolition sentiment elsewhere, and still retain them in 
acquiescent silence is no matter of surprise. 

"For Faith, fanatic faith, once wedded fast to some black falsehood hugs 
it to the last." But that they should come out thus boldly and avow their ad- 
herence to principles and men so odious to public sentiment, and so inimical to 
our interests, is a matter of astonishment, and exhibits a fanatic recklessness, 
a total disregard for our institutions, and a social and political depravity which 
must arouse the indignation of the people and visit them with the burning rebuke 
of public contempt. 

Inflated with vanity which ever flows from ignorance, and with hearts pul- 
sating in unison with those in the north professing a melting sympathy for the 
African in the south, whose condition is frequently, if not generally better than 
their own, they publicly exhibit their odious sentiments, and disgrace the county 
and state by the record of such votes as must elicit the praise of such scoundrels 
as Greely, Smith, Sumner, and their beloved brother Fred Douglass. 

The fact of their not being citizens of our state by birth, is no paliation. 

They have seen fit to take up their residence in Virginia, a state whose loyalty 
to the constitution stands pre-eminent in the history of our country, and of which 
they should be proud, and they are bound by common courtesy, and by the duty 
which involves upon strangers in any community, to sacrifice such of their 
prejudices as may be repugnant to those whose home they have voluntarily sought ; 
and more particularly here in Virginia to sacrifice those fanatic opinions which 
are at variance with our laws and opposed to the institutions of a portion of our 
country, existing as they do under the sanction of the constitution. 

We regret, deeply regret, that there should be in our midst those who sym- 
pathize with a sectional party in the north, whose greatest ambition is to encroach 
upon our institutions, and who, in the madness of their fanatic hate, stealthily 
seek to jeopardize a property guaranteed to us as sacredly by the constitution, 
as is the right to them and to us of worshiping God according to the dictates 
of our own conscience. 

Adopting this in their home, they are bound by everything that is honorable 
among men, socially, morally and politically, to acquiesce in our laws, and to 
do no violence to them by conservation, or exercising their right of suffrage in 
favor of a party composed of all the antagonistic elements of the south, and whose 
energies have ever been directed against our interest, is little short of treason to the 
state, and merits and must receive the condemnation of all good citizens. 

Educated in the fanatic schools of Yankeedom, imbued with the prejudices 
which are the disgusting characteristics of those agitators who disclaim all 
allegiance to the constitution and aspire to illegal power through a triump over 
the south, they have the imprudence — the brazen-faced effrontery, here in Virginia, 
to speak their odious and seditious sentiments through the ballot box, and attempt 
to infuse their abolition poision into the minds of our people. 

Should such incendiary manifestations be tolerated in our midst? Can our 
interests thus openly be attacked by those emissaries of northern fanatics who 
reflect the worst features of abolitionism, and who have no sympathy with our 
institutions? These are questions which we as one, were it not for our belief that 
their present insiginificance number, and that their influence will be confined by 


the intelligence of our people to its present contemptible limit, would have no 
hestitancy in answering the negative. But still 

"Their names — their human names — to every eye 
The climax of all scorn should hang on high, 

Exalted above their less abhorred compeers, 
And festering in the infamy of years." 

Dr. Amos Brooks, Alva Brooks, John Phillips, Jason Loomis, Franklin 
Phillips, Gilbert Young, Adolphus Brooks, William Loomis, David Phillips 
and J. T. Brooks. 

A reply to this editorial written by Dr. Amos Brooks. 

Messrs Editors: 

A few weeks ago I was shown an editorial in your dirty sheet with the word 
INFAMOUS for a caption. You profess to give the names of nine who voted 
the Republican ticket, and then give ten. In the first place let me say to you 
that I do not nor can not object to having my name published thus, and am so 
far satisfied. But your remarks thereon deserve a passing notice. I regret that 
I am not at liberty to answer you in courteous language, and reason the case 
with you. 

You have taken a position outside of civilization, and to do so might be 
casting "pearls before swine." 

Let me tell you that had you read the Republican platform you might have 
seen that it was only advocating "Free Soil" for the Territories. I suppose 
you had not seen it and may be properly called a Political Blockhead. If you had 
read it and knew what it contained, perhaps you might with propriety be called 
a Political Knave. After letting off a shower of gas, which shows your depravity, 
ignorance, and want of truth and accuracy, you threaten us with Judge Lynch ! 
This shows your ignorance of the nature of things. Just as though Judge Lynch 
could hold jurisdiction in such a place as French Creek! You might possibly 
steal a march on~some of us as Cain did Abel, or Bully Brooks did Sumner. 

It seems the south is influenced by "Higher Law,, with a vengeance. It ap- 
pears that if any one independently uses his constitutional and legal prerogatives 
he may be in danger of being lynched. He offends against "Higher Law." Yes, 
Higher law of the south is far above civilization, constitution, and civil law. It is 
savage despotism. Witness the cases of Strickland & Co., New Orleans, and 
Prof. Heddreck and numerous other cases. The thousands of Republicans 
were in danger of being lynched if they attempted to form Republican tickets 
of election in all the southern states. Is not this "Higher Law"? 

You speak of the "interests of the south," of the institutions of the south, 
in the plural number. I know that the one institution of slavery exists in the 
south, but what is the other, or others? Now, Sirs, you ought to know that the 
great majority of Republicans do not wish or propose to interfere with slavery 
in the states ; therefore, slavery is not in danger. But I ask again, what other 
"institution" is in danger? 

Is the pleasure of producing and raising yellow boys and girls for the southern 
market in danger? Is it not a fact that sexual intercourse prevails to a consider- 
able extent in Virginia? Note the high prices of the half-bloods, the three- 


quarter-bloods, etc. Will Freesoilism curtail the profits? Did not the RiclTmond 
Enquirer, in an editorial a few years since, say that if all the slaves that were 
three-fourths white were set at liberty, three-fourths of the slaves in Virginia 
would be freed? Well, Virginia must be a dignified and notable state, if a large 
share of her income arises from the sale of the base admixture. The press of 
Virginia must surely be the palladium of Liberty if she advocates such liberty. 

Are you too thick-skulled to know that if the freedom of speech, and of the 
press, and of the Ballot Bo.x is taken from the people, then there can be no repub- 
licanism ? But it seems you are striving to have it so. Are you then not a traitor ? 
If so, do you not deserve the fate of traitors? If Arnold deserved to be shot, 
do you not deserve to be hung? If Arnold deserved the leather, do you not 
deserve the gibbet? 

I wish you to ptiblish the above as a reply to the article in the Herald of 
December i. But if you decline doing so, please keep it carefully and read it 
attentively two or three times per week. Please read it to the officers of the bank. 

Let me just make you one offer, to wit : If you will come and sit at my 
feet, I will endeavor to teach you the first principles of civilization and Repub- 
licanism on condition of being well paid. 

The sentiment of the "immortal nine" as expressed in the voting at French 
Creek in the general election of 1856 was seed sown in a fertile soil. The 
scandulous and unwarranted attack upon these gentlemen in the exercise of 
their sovereign rights brought out their virtues and the virtues of the cause 
which they represented. Agitation became rife. Debates were frequent. Dis- 
cussion was continuous. So that in the election of i860 the feelings and opinions 
of the citizens of Upshur county were pre-eminently favorable to the principles and 
platform of the Republican party. To the partisan in a greater degree than to 
the statesman and publicist, this new party was the wooden horse that would 
enter the gates of the south and destroy the bullwarks of slavery. In it and 
through it, their highest hopes for unity of the nation and the perpetuity of our 
country would be attained. While the local vote for Abraham Lincoln, for Stephen 
A. Douglass, for John C. Breckenridge, for John Bell of Tennessee would give no 
sign as to the results of the presidential contest, yet the results were duly antici 
pated, and the great commoner for whom the poet of that day sings : 

The uncleared forest, the unbroken soil, 

The iron bark, that turns the lumberer's axe. 

The rapid that o'erbears the boatman's toil, 

The prairie, hiding the mazed wanderer's tracks. 

The -Ambushed Indian, and the prowling bear ; 

Such were the needs that helped his youth to train : 
Rough culture ! — but such trees large fruit may bear. 
If but their stocks be of right girth and grain ! 
was elected. 

From the time of Lincoln's election until the date of his inauguration general 
apprehension obtained throughout the nation. And those sections which had most 
earnestly and vehemently supported their candidate and favorite were worked 


up into paroxysms of fear and trembling. Rumors of secession were borne 
irom the southland on the wings of the wind. War, dreadful war, was threatened, 
if an effort should be made by the incoming administration to uphold the consti- 
tution and maintain the national integrity. Abraham Lincoln in his long, thought- 
ful inaugural address stated emphatically, yet modestly, his intention to enforce 
the law, to stand by the Constitution and to preserve the integrity of the union. 

Upon this declaration, and fanciful ideas of the future course of the adminis- 
tration toward the institution of slavery, the southern confederacy was formed 
and sectional prejudice was ablaze. War was inevitable. And Upshur's people 
stood loyally for the continuity of the nation saying ever in their actions and in 
their deeds, give us union or give us nothing ! 

The first manifestation of suppression to the union sentiment in Upshur 
country occurred in the month of May, 1861, when Maj. Albert Reger, of Philippi, 
in command of a confederate force came to Buckhannon and made threats that 
the star and stripes that proudly floated to the May breezes from the court house 
tower must be handed down. This effort to pull down old glory which reflected the 
•sentiment of Upshur's citizenship met with defeat through the wise and sagacious 
intervention of Rev. John W. Reger and band of loyal union supporters. This 
action on the part of the southern sympathizers from the adjoining county of 
Barbour, produced results, immediate in action and far reaching in consequence. 
Our people rose up as a solid phalanx against the intrusion upon their rights. 
Bitter passion was begotten in the breasts of the contending parties, so that when 
•Col. Turk made his entry into the county on June 25, 1861, and reached Buck- 
hannon on the following day he was greeted with shot and shell that indicated 
the full intention of this people to fight for the integrity of the union. At the 
Hidgeway grist mill, now the Anchor Mill, the home guard, organized by Capt. 
Henry F. Westfall and N. G. Munday, contested very bitterly the invasion of 
the confederates upon this soil. Our forces were overpowered and had to seek 
safety in retreat. In the effort to hie away from the confederates' superior num- 
"bers and seek protection from them, two of the home guards were captured on 
the Clarksburg and Buckhannon turnpike on the hill above the present home 
of Luther Martin. A. G. Kiddy and James L. Jennings were taken prisoners 
there on the 26th day of June, 1861, and rushed away to Tygarts Valley, 
McDowell and Staunton where they were incarcerated in a southern prison, 
"held as homages for a northern favor. (The story of their imprisonment as 
told by A. G. Kiddy is given in full in another place.) As Col. Turk departed 
from this scene of action he was embarrassed at frequent points along the road 
by a guerillla warfare, which reached its climax on the mountain going down 
to the Middlefork river. There a number of citizens had gathered for 
the purpose of making one final effort to rescue their friends and neighbors 
who had lately been captured. The effort failed. The only damage done was the 
killing of two or three confederates which so aroused the entire confederate 
escort of the prisoners that all that day the citizen-body was pursued with blood- 
hounds and unfriendly foes. The next military demonstration occurred in the 
first days of July, when a strong Federal force, fully ten thousand, landed in the 
town of Buckhannon and remained here a few days to insure our people their de- 
sire to protect their property and person. This force encamped in that part of the 
town of Buckhannon now know as Quality Hill. The headquarters of Gen. W. 
S. Rosecranz and Geo. B. McClellan were near by the large chestnut tree in 
the back yard of Geo. L. Munday. They remained over the nation's natal birth- 


day, the Fourth of July, which was celebrated with a pageantry of military power 
and a simplicity of service that burned deep into the heart and memories of the 
youth who attended it. 

On the 7th or 8th of this month this large military force left the county, 
going in the direction of Beverly and reaching Rich Mountain on the loth of 
July, where they had a bitter encounter with the Confederate force under Gen. 
John Pegram. 


In the months of August and September, 1862, the brilliant Confederate 
Cavalryman, General A. G. Jenkins, with five hundred and sixty horsemen made 
a dashing raid through West Virginia and Ohio. The first point of attack con- 
templated was Beverly. But the Federal forces learning of his approach on that 
place made preparations and re-enforcements to give him ample reception, if 
not an ignominous defeat. Before his arrival at that town Jenkins learned of the 
plan to destroy and if possible annihilate his force and he abandoned this plan 
and moved to Buckhannon. Of his contemplated attack and march to Buckhannon 
his report of the expedition written September 19, 1862, says: 

"I was at the time under the impression that the enemy had but 450 men 
at Beverly, and intended to attack him at that point ; but hearing that General 
Kelly had reached there with 1500 men, I determined, if possible, to ascertain 
its correctness. For this purpose we used every effort to capture some of the 
enemy's scouts as we approached Huttonville, and when within five or six miles 
of the latter place, we succeeded in doing so. Of the enemy's scouting party of 
six we captured two and killed one, the latter being one of the two brothers named 
Gibson. We endeavored to take him alive, but he refused to surrender and resisted 
to the last. From the two prisoners I learned that General Kelly was certainly 
in Beverly with some 1,500 men. In the meantime I had been communicating 
with Imboden who was at Cheat Mountain with a small force, and with whom 
I had contemplated a co-operation. But the enemy's force being nearly twice 
as large as ours, made even a combined attack impracticable. I now determined, 
if possible, to throw my force in General Kelley's rear, and learning that an 
immense amount of supplies, and several thousand stands of arms had been 
collected at Buckhannon, I concluded to strike at that point. To effect this we 
had to cross Rich Mountain by a mere bridle path, or rather trail, which was 
often undiscoverable, and which for thirty miles passed through the most perfect 
wilderness I ever beheld. It was indeed an arduous task for men and horses. 
Some of the latter were completely broken down and left behind, and a few of 
the men were also physically unable to make the march and returned to General 
Loring's camp. After twenty-four hours of continuous marching, with intervals 
for rest, we suddenly entered upon the fertile country watered by the tributaries 
of the Buckhannon river. Here we halted, and after a few hours for rest and food, 
we proceeded down French Creek toward the town of Buckhannon. The popula- 
tion along this creek is among the most disloyal in all Western Virginia. We 
emerged so suddenly from the mountains, and by a route hardly known to exist, 
and if known, deemed utterly impassable for any number of men, that the inhabit- 
ants could scarcely comprehend that we were Southern troops." 

For several days prior to Jenkin's arrival rumor of his coming had spread 
over the entire county and the nervous tension and excitement of the people were 


great. This anxiety had continued so long and so often before his coming that 
the people had branded the reports as false and settled down to quietude and peace. 
On August 29, definite information was received at headquarters in Buckhannon 
that Jenkins was really coming. Hasty preparations were made for his reception. 
The forces called into service on this occasion were Company E, Tenth Virginia, 
afterward the Tenth West Virginia Infantry, numbering about sixty men, under 
Capt. Marsh, and the Upshur Battery and Company E, West Virginia Light 
Artillery and the Home Militia under Capt. N. G. Munday, field operations under 
Lieut. T. G. Farnsworth. This last Military corps was not equipped regularly 
because they were not in regular service. Like Cincinnatus of old, they came up 
from their fields of corn and grass with their shot guns, muskets and rifles on 
their shoulder to fight for their homes. 

On the morning of August 30, these Federal forces moved out to entrench 
themselves on Battle Hill (where the water tank now stands), and were surprised 
to find that eminence in possession of the Confederates. Immediately, they re- 
ceived orders to throw up temporary breastworks of rails, logs straw stacks, 
and other material and present themselves for battle. Jenkins seeing the disposi- 
tion and intention of the Federal forces to fight, ordered an attack. Volley after 
olley was poured into the Federal ranks as they stood behind their temporary 
protection and reciprocated by shot ; dauntlessly they held their positions en- 
deavoring to drive back Jenkin's men. Mounted and unmounted they fought 
until a time when the Confederate fire was too hot for them to further withstand 
it and they beat a hasty retreat. The wounded of this battle were Henery Dight, 
regimental clerk of Company E, a little Englishman, Marion Rose, Daniel Cut- 
right, Henry Reger, and Andrew Black, of the Upshur Battery. For the purpose 
of caring for these wounded the new residence of Miflin Lorentz, county clerk of 
Upshur county, on Locust street, now the residence of Hiram Piles, was converted 
into a hospital and Dr. J. R. Blair, assistant surgeon of the Tenth, now acting as 
surgeon, was left to give them medical attention. Rose and Black died in twenty- 
four hours. Dight lived about ten days. 

Our troops were overpowered and scattered in every direction, usually going 
in spuads of four to ten, in all haste to avert a wholesale and complete destruction. 
Some plunged in and swam the river above Buckhannon near where the Gififin 
Saw Mill now stands, others hied away to the woods and still others down the 
road leading in the direction of Clarksburg, which they hoped to reach and secure 
help and succor. *One bunch of five or six of the Upshur Battery ran across the 
hil! by Jacob Dean's, contemplating striking the Buckhannon and Clarksburg 
turnpike at the Dix farm and hasten on to Clarksburg. These were 
intercepted by a few cavalrymen who rushed their horses at full speed 
down pike and returned through the fields by the Dean place The 
Upshur Battery boys saw their danger and readily concluded that their 
safety lay in throwing their guns into the Buckhannon river and betaking 
themselves as rapidly as they could swim to the other shore. This feat of swim- 
ing while it lost them their guns and come near losing one of their lives by drown 
ing took them out of sight of the enemy and saved them from capture. 

* William Hornbeck, William Burr, John Tenney and G. S. Outright composed 
this bunch. William Burr was seized by a cramp when midway of Buckhannon river, 
and G. S. Outright brought him to shore with the help of a white walnut pole, pulled 
him behind some trees and went on. 


The town was turned over to Jenkin's men who searched, pillaged, piled 
up and burned all the arms and ammunition left by the Federals in the basement 
of the court house which was the depot of supplies. The stores were ransacked 
and everything of value was either carried away or destroyed. Our informant 
tells us that at numerous points on Main street bonfires were had and guns, 
goods, furniture, boxes, wagons and every discription of personal property was 
contributed to increase and continue the blaze during the night of August 31. 
It was on this occasion that the brass cannon of which our older citizens have 
heard and know much about was thrown into the court house well by some of 
Jenkin's men. As late as 1886, Sheriff J. J. Morgan while cleaning out the court 
house well took out from the bottom fully one-half gallon of niinnie balls which 
had been rusting in the wet quick sand for twenty-five years. 

Quite a number of the Federals engaged in this conflict were captured, 
among them being Capt. Marsh who was at once paroled by Jenkins. 


The raid under J. D. Imboden, impetuous, cunning and destructive, was 
the largest military parade of Confederates that entered the confines of Upshur 
county. General Roberts was in command of the Federal forcers in and around 
Buckhannon. On learning of the intention of Imboden to make a dash through 
this section of the country and knowing that his numbers were far superior 
to those under his immediate commandment, he hastened to do everything that 
would check and defeat the success of Imboden. After his victory over the 
Federals of Beverly, General Roberts issued an order before his advent into the 
county that upon his arrival the covered bridge leading from the main town 
of Buckhannon to the Island and the one at Post's Mill should be burned. Of 
this manoeuvring, skirmishing, purchasing and driving away stock and other 
depredations committed during this campaign no better or more authorative 
account can be given than that in the words of Colonel George R. Latham in 
his official report before Beverly and of Colonel John D. Imboden, the comman- 
dant of the raid. Therefore we give and append their official report . 

In his official report Colonel Latham says: 

"I took a strong position on the south side of the town of Beverly, command- 
ing the entire valley and the Staunton turnpike above, but flanked by back ridges 
on each side. About 2 o.clock the action was opened with artillery and infantry 
skirmishing at long range. A large force of the enemy's cavalry and part of his 
artillery were now seen advancing on the back road west of the valley, toward 
the road leading from Beverly to Buckhannon, and actually turning our right. 
This movement it was impossible for us to counteract, though the river intervening 
we were not in much danger of an actual attack from this force. The object of 
this movement was to prevent our retreat toward Buckhannon. Three regiments 
of his infantry were at the same time continually advancing through the woods, 
pressing back our skirmishers toward our front and left, his artillery playing 
directly in front, with two regiments of infantry in reserve. At 4 p. m. the 
action had become quite brisk along our line ; our skirmishers were driven in 
on our front, and the enemy had advanced within canister range. The commands 


of his officers could be distinctly heard, and he was pressing well beyond our 
left. Shortly after this I received orders to fall back. I immediately set my 
train in motion; destroying my public stores of all kinds, and about 5 p. m. 
drew off my forces. The movement was executed in perfect order, and though 
the enemy pressed our rear for six miles, and twice charged us with his cavalry, 
there was no confusion, no hurry, no indecent haste. His cavalry charges were 
handsomely repulsed and he learned to follow at a respectful distance. We 
marched nine miles, and having gained a safe position, rested for the night, 
our pickets and those of the enemy being a mile apart." 

The next morning the Federals continued their retreat to Belington, thence 
to Philippi where they camped over night, and the next day. April 26, reached 
Buckhannon, where other Union forces were gathered, making a total of 2,800, 
which was sufficient to have stopped the advance of Imboden, especially as Gen- 
eral Mulligan was holding his own in Barbour county, and keeping back the 
Confederates who were trying to reach Philippi. But the Union troops at Buck- 
hannon were ordered by General Roberts to retreat to Clarksburg, and the way 
was open for Imboden to advance, and he was not slow in taking advantage 
of it. No better history of the raid, as it affected Randolph and Upshur counties, 
had been written than that contained in General Imboden's official report from 
which the following somewhat lengthy extract is taken, beginning with the 
march from Huttonsville toward Beverly: 

"It continued to rain all night, and the morning of the 24th was one of the 
most gloomy and inclement I ever saw. At an early hour I started all my in- 
fantry down through the plantations on the east side of the river, where they 
were joined by four guns of my battery seven miles above Beverry. The cavalry 
and a section of artillery took the main road on the west side of the river, under 
Colonel George W. Imboden with orders as soon as they discovered the enemy 
to be in Beverly to press forward and gain possession of the road leading to 
Buckhannon, and cut off retreat by that route. About five miles above Beverly 
the cavalry advance met a man, who, as soon as he saw them, tied. They fired 
upon him, but he escaped. It turned out to be the bogus state sheriff of Randolph 
county, named J. F. Phares, who, though shot through the lungs, succeeded in 
reaching Beverly and gave the alarm. 

"About the same time on the east side of the river we captured a storage 
train and its escort. I learned from the prisoners that the enemy was in ignorance 
of our approach; but as soon as Phares reached town and gave the alarm, the 
whole force was drawn up to fight us. About a mile above the town they opened 
upon the head of my column with artillery. On reconnoitering their position, 
I found them strongly posted on a plateau fifty or sixty feet above the river bottom 
and commanding it and the road for more than a mile so completely that an attack 
then would probably involve the loss of hundreds of my men before I could reach 
them. I at once resolved to turn their position by making a detour of over two 
miles across a range of steep and densely wooded hills, and attempt to get round 
to the north of the town. To occupy their attention I placed a rifle piece on the 
first hill and engaged their battery. The cavalry, under a dangerous fire, dashed 
forward and gained the Buckhannon road west of the river, and cut off retreat 
by that route. The enemy immediately began to fall back below the town, leaving 
a strong force of skirmishers in the woods, which my infantry had to pass. A 


running fight was kept up more than two miles through these woods, and a Httle 
before sunset I had succeeded in gaining the north side of the town but too late 
to cut off retreat toward Philippi. The enemy was in full retreat and about 
one third of the town in flames when I gained their original flank. We pursued 
until dark but could not overtake them. My cavalry attempted to intercept 
them from the west side of the river at or near Laurel Hill, but the difficulty 
and depth of the ford and the lateness of the hour prevented it. 

"I have been thus minute in these details to explain why we did not capture 
the whole force at Beverly. Slayton was unable to cross Cheat river, owing 
to the high water, and they were really ignorant of our approach until the 
wounded man gave the alarm. We found him in almost a dying condition, 
though he will probably recover. The attack was so sudden that the enemy 
could not remove his stores or destroy his camp. His loss was not less than 
$100,000, and about one-third of the town was destroyed in burning his stores. 
I lost three men, so badly wounded that I had to leave them in Beverty. The 
enemy's loss was trifling. 

"On the morning of the 25th my cavalry reported the road toward Philippi 
impracticable for artillery or wagons, on account of the depth of the mud in places 
coming up to the saddle-skirts of the horses. I also ascertained that General 
Roberts, with a considerable force, was at Buckhannon, and I doubted the pru- 
dence of going directly on to Philippi until this force was dislodged from my flank. 
I sent off two companies of cavalry, under Major D. B. Lang, to try to open 
communication with General Jones, from whom I had not heard anything, and 
resolved to cross Rich mountain, and either move directly on Buckhannon, 
or by a country road leaving the turnpike four miles beyond Roaring creek, 
get between Philippi and Buckhannon and attack one or the other, as circum- 
stances might determine. 

"On the evening of the 26th I crossed Middle fork and encamped about 
midway between Philippi and Buckhannon, some twelve miles from each, sending 
all my cavalry forward to seize and hold the bridge across Buckhannon river, 
near its mouth. Considerable cannonading was heard at this time in the direction 
of Philippi, which I supposed to proceed from the enemy we had driven from 
Beverly, in an attempt to prevent Major Lang from going toward the railroad, 
where I expected to find General Jones ; but at 11 p. m. Colonel Imboden 
informed me that the Beverly force had passed up toward Buckhannon at sun- 
rise that morning, and that there was a fresh brigade at Philippi reported by 
citizens to have arrived the night before from New Creek, under command of 
General Mulligan, and that the cars had been running all the night previous, 
and other troops were in the vicinity. He requested me to send two regiments 
of infantry and a section of artillery to the bridge that night, as he was appre- 
hensive of attack. He also informed me that he had captured a courier from 
Buckhannon, and that two others had escaped and gone back to the place. This 
information was all confirmed by two citizens who arrived at my camp from 
Webster. I resolved to send forward the reinforcements asked for, and as my 
troops were all very tired, I sent for my colonels to ascertain which regiments 
were in the best condition to make the march that night. Knowing that General 
Mulligan was east of the Alleghanies when our expedition set out, and not hearing 
from General Jones, it was the opinion of all present that he had failed to reach 
or interrupt communication on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, and that our 


position was exceedingly critical if the enemy had control of that road as he 
could throw the whole division upon us in a few hours, and if we were beaten, 
could cut oflf our retreat at Laurel Hill, Beverly and at Buckhannon or Weston. 
I concurred in the opinions of my colonels that in the face of this new information 
it would be extremely imprudent to advance farther or to remain where we were, 
with the danger of being overwhelmed and cut off in a few hours, and that the 
safety of the command required that we should fall back to a position where 
escape would be possible if we were overpowered. Accordingly we marched back 
to Roaring Creek on the 27th. The road was so bad that from 5 a. m. until 2 p. m., 
nine hours to accomplish two miles, and the command did not reach the camp 
until in the night. Having recalled my cavalry from Buckhannon bridge, I 
sent forward a scout that night toward Buckhannon, which returned after midnight 
reporting that the enemy had burned the bridges across Middle Fork and Buck- 
hannon rivers, and retreated that night from Buckhannon, blockading the road 
behind them. 

"On the 28th I passed on to within four miles of Buckhannon, and the next 
morning took possession of the town with a regiment which I crossed over on the 
debris of the burnt bridge. The enemy had burned all his stores here and 
destroyed two pieces of artillery, which he was unable to move. On account of 
the extraordinary bad roads, I had been compelled to leave at Greenbrier river, 
east of Cheat mountains, forty-odd barrels of flour, and also several barrels in 
Beverly. Our horses were giving out in large numbers and some dying from 
excessive labor and insufficient sustenance. Not being able to cross my artillery 
and horses over the river, on my arrival I ordered a raft to be constructed and 
the country to be scoured in every direction for corn and wTieat ; impressed 
two mills, Ridgway and Post, and run them day and night. Grain was very 
scarce and had to be procured in small quantities, sometimes less than a bushel 
at a house. I employed a considerable portion of my cavalry in collecting cattle 
and sending them to the rear. I required everything to be paid for at fair prices, 
such as were current rates before we arrived in the country. This gave 
general satisfaction in the country, and our currency was freely accepted. On 
the 29th I received my first information from General Jones, and on the same 
day I ascertained that the enemy was massing his troops at Janelew, a village 
about midway between Buckhannon and Clarksburg, and fortifying his position. 
The 30th was spent in collecting corn and cattle. 

"On May i, hearing nothing further from General Jones, I sent Colonel 
Imboden to Weston with his regiment of cavalry. He found that place evacuated 
and the stores destroyed, but got confirmation of the fact that the enemy was at 
Janelew. Fearing that General Jones had been cut ofif in his eflfort to join me, 
I gave orders that night to move early the next morning to Philippi. My raft 
was completed and I was ready to cross the river. Just as we commenced movmg 
on the morning of the 2nd, a courier arrived with the intelligence that General 
Jones was within six miles. On receiving this information I changed my direction 
of march toward Weston, feeling confident that with General Jones' brigade and 
my own force united we would be strong enough to hold our own and probably 
defeat the enemy at Janelew or Clarksburg." 

In 1864 Col. Vincent A. Witcher. of the 34th Battalion, Virginia Cavalry, 
started from Levvisburg on September 22, of that year, through West X'irginia 


to buy and capture all the horses and cattle it was possible for him and his forces 
to take back to Eastern Virginia. After leaving Lewisburg the first point taken 
was Bulltown, Braxton, on the 25th day of the same month. He left here on 
the 26th for Weston, which place he reached and captured about midnight of 
the same day. On the 27th he left Weston for Buckhannon, reaching that town 
the same day and camped several miles out on the Buckhannon and Little 
Kanawha turnpike. The older citizens about Frenchton and French Creek 
recall very vividly the manoeuvring and passing of Witcher's forces through 
their community. Numerous efforts on the part of private citizens were made 
to stop this raid. Bushwacking and ambuscading on the part of private citizens 
was attempted along the route of his forces but with no success. After spending 
the night and part of the next day along this turnpike he ordered his forces back 
to Buckhannon where he had learned Major T. F. Lang of the 3rd (6th) Vir- 
ginia Cavalry was in camp with his force of a hundred men. Witcher surprised 
and captured Lang and his men and horses, destroyed the government stores 
including quartermasters, commissary and medical stores and one thousand 
stands of arms. It is not known how or when this noted Confederate colonel 
received the nickname of "Clawhammer." 


Captain, P. J. Potts ; first lieutenant, Bart Clark ; second lieutenant. Marshall 
Gould; sergeant, Chapman McCoy; Franklin Phillips, wounded in thigh in action 
at McDowell ; G. L. Fortney, James A. Ingle, taken prisoner at Martinsburg, 
May 4, 1864; Joseph W. Janes; WilHam R. McClain, captured near Covington, 
Va., December 19, 1863 ; A. J. Shinn ; Moses A. Sandy, wounded in action at 
Springfield, Va., June 26, 1864: Watson Gould, P. G. Stealey, Mathias Wright, 
William H. Bosely, John H. Hellans ; S. B. Phillips, resigned captain's commission 
November 8, 1862; C. B. See, resigned first lieutenant's commission March 
22, 1862 ; Randolph See resigned second lieutenant's commission September, 
1862; Benjamin McCoy, Jerrad A. Douglass, George W. Gladwell, James P. 
Currey, B. W. Phillips, Walter D. Phillips, William Nay, Jr., Watson W. Cut- 
right, J. E. Montgomery, Jacob Wease, Benjamin A. Reeder, Daniel Sumner, 
Abraman S. Blagg, George W. See, discharged because of wounds received at 
Bull Run, August 29, 1862; Andrew Gladwell, Samuel A. Lane, John Crawford; 
W. B. Smallridge, discharged December 31, 1863, because of wounds received 
in action September i, 1861 ; Alfred A. Gillum ; J. W. Rohrbough, discharged 
March 27, 1863, because of wounds received in action at Bull Run, August 29, 
1863 ; A. J. Bryan ; Elisha M. Martin, discharged May 4, 1863, because of wounds 
received in action at Bull Run August 29, 1862 ; W. H. Madden, John H. Smith, 
J. D. Gould, Robert W. Varner, Reason A. Patterson, Frederick A. Story, 
Elmore E. Casto, died at Flaswoods, Va., October 12, 1861 ; Henry B. Bunten, 
died at Flatwoods, November 16, 1861 ; R. B. Tallman, died at Flatwoods, Nov- 
ember 6, 1861 ; Francis A. Blagg, died November 29, 1861, m Lewis county; 
Burnham A. Bunten, died January 14, 1862, at Buckhannon, W. Va. ; John J. 
White, died May 12, 1862, of wounds received at McDowell, Va. ; George B. 
S. Dorsey, killed by guerrillas in Pocahontas county, April 30, 1862 ; James S. 
Phillips, killed in action at Cross Keys, Va., June 8, 1862 ; Elijah Smallridge, 
died cit \\'inchester : S. H. Willfong. died September 29, 1862, of wounds received 
in action at Bull Run, August 29, 1862 ; Herbert Phillips, taken prisoner May 


25, 1862, and died in Richmond; Elijah Phillips, died at Grafton, W. Va., May 
4, 1864. The company received the following veterans: A. G. Bunten, William 
W. Brown, H. H. Armstrong, H. F. Bryan, J. T. Haskins, R. L. Stealey, L. J. 
Rexroad, H. C. Boggess, George W. Phillips, F. W. Bond, William J. Brown, 
C. D. Gould, R. D. Beer, W. B. D. Bunten. Rufus Brain, M. W. Cutright, Gran- 
ville Cutright, William T. Duke, Issac Fleming, B. P. Gould, Henry Geyer, 
Andrew Howes, H. A. Horseflock, Abner Hunt, R. V. Haskins, J. W. Hess, 
George W. Harrison, William H. Lemons, James P. McGee, John McGahn, 
B. W. McDaniel, W. H. Martin, R. W. Moody, Joseph Markley, Andrew Moore, 
Oliver Nay, Simeon Phillips, Spencer Phillips, Lafayette Phillips, F. M. Rex- 
road, A. G. Rollins, William M. Riggs, John Strader, Jr., W. L. Sumner, John 
Suddarth, George Smith, John L. Smith, Issac L. Stealey, J. D. Simons. Job 
Simons, David Thrasher, J. B. Tenney, Isaac Tenney, David Wright. Aggregate 
113 men. ? 

Company E was made up in Upshur county in 1861 and met at Clarksburg 
in July of that year with Company A, recruited from Monongalia county ; Com- 
pany B, Harrison county; Company C, Preston county; Company D. Preston 
county; Company F, Taylor and Harrison counties; Company G, Monongalia 
county and Pennsylvania ; Company I, Marshal county ; and Company K. Richie 
county. From and until the date of muster and until its abswrption into Sixth 
West Virginia Cavalry, this regiment was known and designated as the Third 
West Virginia Infantry. This was the second regiment recruited under the three 
years call of President Lincoln. The roster of officers of the regiment were: 
David F. Hewes, colonel ; Frank W. Thompson, lieutenant colonel ; Charles E. 
Swearingin, major; Theodore F. Lang, adjutant; John H. Shuttleworth, regi- 
ment quartermaster ; D. B. Dorsey, surgeon ; Rev. James W. Curry, chaplain. 

Without the ceremony of a regular muster in, due to the fact that no author- 
ized mustering officer could be had, the regiment proceeded of itself to get ready 
for active work. Each company selected its own officers by nomination and vote, 
and privates went then straightway to A. Weringer, Clarksburg's Justice of the 
Peace, who administered the oath to support the Constitution of the United 
States. Springfield muskets with its complements of ammunition were supplied. 
The regiment hurried away to perform the most dangerous and most exacting 
duty known to the military service — scouting and outposting. 


The first active work of Company E, was at Elk Water, W. Va., under 
command of General Milroy. It left Elk Water on the 7th of April, 1862, and 
marched to McDowell, Va., participating in the fight there on the 8th. From 
McDowell it went to Franklin, where it joined the command of General Freemont, 
hastening to the relief of General Banks in the Shenandoah valle}'. It took part 
in Fremont's race up the Shenandoah in hot pursuit of Stonewall Jackson. It 
was in the battles of Cross Keys, January 8, 1862, Crooked Creek, Sulphur 
Springs, Rappahanock Station, Freemans Ford, Hedges River, Waterloo Bridge, 
August 25, 1862, Warrenton Springs, Broad Run, Gainesville, Manassas or 
second Bull Run, August 29, August 30. 

After defeat at the latter place it went into camp at Fort Ethan Allen near 
Washington City. It left Fort Allen September 30 and arrived at Clarksburg 
the following day. From Clarksburg this company was sent out to Buckhannon 


and Bulltown to perform outpost duty. From Bulltown it was ordered back to 
the defense of Clarksburg, which was threatened by the Confederate forces under 
General Jones, the famous raider. Doing outpost work it was in the brigades of 
General Milroy, Col. A. C. Moore and General B. S. Roberts. On May i6,. 
1863, Brigadier General W. W. Averell was placed in command of the Fourth- 
Separate Brigade with headquarters at Weston. By him the Third regiment 
was called together and in November, 1864, was mounted and in January, 1864,. 
became the Sixth Virginia Cavalry. This company served with Averell through- 
out the war. It was in the daring raids to Rockey Gap, Droop Mountain, Salem 
and Moorfield. In all the charges and raids it was directly commanded by Col. 
Thompson from the formation of the Mountain Department in May, 1862, under 
Freemont until after the battle of Cloyd Mountain in 1864. 

The Second and Third infantries were in the same brigade. The Second 
afterward became the Fifth West Virginia Cavalry and the Third the Sixth West 
Virginia Cavalry. Being together for more than two years, ties of friendship' 
and sympathy became very strong; so long had they shared each others joy's 
and sorrows, that on the expiration of time of their enlistment the veterans 
and recruits of the two regiments were consolidated taking the name of the Sixtb 
West Virginia Veteran Cavalry and went west to guard and protect the frontiers 
from the murderous invasions and attacks of the Indians. 


Commissioned Officers — Captain, A. C. Moore; first lieutenant, George 
W. Burner; first lieutenant, Francis Lowry ; second lieutenant, John T. Latham; 
second lieutenant, M. J. Fogg. 

NoN-CoMMissiONED OFFICERS— Orderly sergeant, Wm. A. McNulty; 
quartermaster, Edmond D. Boyles ; duty sergeants, Sam'l A. Rapp, John W. 
Rohrbough, John H. Colburn, Edgar F. Boyles, Dan'l H. Shumaker, Robt. P. 
Trimble ; corporals, Creed W. Hart, Cesbastian Lang, Jerome B. Williams, 
Wm. Reger, Abram S. Rollins. Daniel Cutright, wounded at Buckhannon, Squire 
B. Hart, James H. Miller, Solomon Williams, Granville S. Cutright, Thomas A. 
George, Stephen W. Alatheney, wounded at Buckhannon ; buglers, Geo. W. Simon, 
Wm. H. Lemmon ; artificers, Nicholas Ours, Gideon M. Heavner, Abraham 
Horsaflook; privates, Michael Boyles, Wm. F. Bryan, Wm. H. Bowyer, John N. 
D. Brown, Elijah Bennett wounded at Winchester, Elias Bennett, Abraham Ben- 
nett, Wm. Burr, Robt. S. Bosely. Andrew Black, wounded at Buckhannon, Wm. 
Blagg, Benj. F. Bailey, Gabriel Bean, Michael Burke, Wm. S. Colerider, John 
M. Colerider, Clayton P. Cutright, Gideon M. Cutright, Jacob W. Cutright 
Amos C. Cutright, Jasper Carter, Jeremiah C. Conley, Morrison Cayton, James 
D. Dean, Wm. S. Dean, Perry Dean, James Douglass, Joseph E. Davis, George 
W^ Dayton, Lewis A. Eskew, Frank W. Fretwell, Dan'l M. Farnsworth, John A. 
Foster, Gilmer C. Fletcher, Thomas M. Gaston, Joseph Hart, John W. Hyre, 
Henry O. Hyre, Jacob Hanlim, Wm. Hornbeck, Chapman W. Herndon, Wm. 
F. Haney, John M. A. Jackson, Sam'l C. Jones, Elias Kidd, Sam'l Night, John 
S. Lawman, Wm. R. Lowe, Jasper N. Lorentz, Lafa L. Lorentz, Geo. C. Lorentz, 
wounded at Winchester, Robt. A. F. Little, Jesse Lemmoms, Wm. Leonard, 
Flavius N. Lowry, Joseph Lowther, Isaac Lowther, Henry Lowther, John W. 
Moody. Solomon Mick, Wm. M. Mick, W^n. H. Morris, Er\-in H. McWhorter, 
Jacob R. Morrison, Thomas J. Moreland, Alva Neely, John Pringle, Wm. M. 


Price, Francis M. Peters, Joshua G. Peters, Burton Phillips, Wm. O. Phillips, 
John Perry, Benj. F. Paugh, Levi J. Queen, Gran. Queen, Bolivar I. Reger, 
Henry Reger, wounded at Buckhannon ; Jacob M. Rohrbough, Jacob Rohr, An- 
drew Robinson, Stephen W. Reynolds, Isaac Radabaugh, Jacob N. Radabaugh, 
Jonathan Roach, John C. Rexroad, Asberry Reed, Sam'l Smallridgc, Wm. B. 
Smith, Wm. E. Smallridge, Seymour Simon, Aaron Strader, John Stilts, James 
Sexton, Peter Tenney, Jonathan Tenney, John C. Tenney Josiah Tenney, Geo. W. 
Thrasher, John M. Tyre, Joseph R. Thompson, Frederick Vangilder, Julius 
Vawter, Enoch L. Waugh, John S. Weaver, John W. Weaver, Jonathan Wing- 
field, Stillman Young, wounded at Winchester, Rich P. Young, James G. Young, 
Isarael B. Young. 

DiscHARGBD FOR DISABILITY — Andrew J. Bennett, James L. Fitzgerald, 
Adam Gregory, Francis S. Kittle, Andrew Kerns, John J. Lemmon, Wm. More- 
land, Merback Ours, Lathrop Phillips, John D. Teeney. 

Death List— Abram Cutright, Chapman C. Cutright, Simon Casto, Henry 
Farrar, Geo. Harvey, Pleasant P. Lowe, wounded at Buckhannon, Charles E. 
Neal, Lafavette Reed, Geo. W. Rusmisel, John W. Sandy, Hhomas Sleter, James 
S. Swisher, Eldridge V. Shobe, Philip T. Teets, John L. Tenney. 

Captured at Buckhannon, 1862 — Solomon Williams, Thomas A. George, 
Wm. H. Lemmon, Gideon M. Heavner, Jeremiah C. Conley, Wm. F. Haney, 
Wm. R. Lowe, Robt. A. F. Little, Lemeul E. Robinson, Jacob N. Rohrbaugh, 
Seymour Simon, John N. Tyre, Joseph R. Thompson, Julius Vawter, Henry O. 

Engagements — Buckhannon, August 31, 1862; Moorfield, April 8, 1863; 
Percyville, Va., July 16, 1864; Snickers Gap, July 18, 1864; Winchester, \'a., 
July 24, 1864; Bunkers Hill, Va., July 25, 1864; Martinsburg. July 25, 1864; 
Cedar Creek, August 12, 1864; Cedar Creek, August 14, 1864; Charlestown, 
August 21, 1864; Halltown, August 22, 24, 1864; Berryville, September 3, 


Loomis J. Gould, captain, transferred from the Third West Virginia In- 
fantry : Henry G. Lewis, first lieutenant ; David J. Ezekiel, second lieutenant, 
severely wounded in right arm and chest at Maryland Heights, July 7, 1864; 
David F. Peterson, first sergeant, wounded in the leg at Kernstown, Va., July 24, 
1864; John D. Crites, second sergeant; John T. Smith; John A. Grose; Bronson 
R. Simon, shot through the left shoulder at Kernstown; William M. Crites, 
lost his right arm at Kernstown ; Jonathan Gould, severely wounded in the hip 
at Kernstown ; George J. Brake, wounded in the back, arm and leg at Kernstown ; 
Salathiel Strader; Jacob Lewis; John W. Alexander, severely wounded at 
Cedar Creek, Va., October 19, 1864; John L. Loudin ; Thomas A. Carter, 
wounded through the shoulder at Kernstown ; Benjamin F. Brown ; George 
Been ; William D. Bruch : James H. Browning, wounded in the heel at Winchester, 
Va., September 19, 1864; Stillman Crites; Isaac N. G. Crimes; Joseph Crites; 
James K. P. Koon, wounded at Winchester, September f^. 1864; Perry Cutright; 
Noah Crawford, wounded in foot at Kernstown ; Ba.muel V. Collins ; Henry M. 
Douglass ; James W. Douglass ; Edmund F. Duke ; Samuel P. Eagle ; Christian 
S. Eagle; John Fisher; Austin Griffin; Ambrose Goodwin; Abraham M. Geyer; 
David C. Gladwell, severely wounded in the leg at Winchester, Sept. 19, 1864; 


John D. Hyer; Edward A. Hamper; Andrew M. Jackson; John J. Love; John 
Lewis ; James W. Duncan, wounded in head by a shell at Winchester ; Allen 
Lewis ; David C. Loudin ; Samuel T. Lanham ; Ephram Lanham, wounded in 
the leg at Snickers Ferry, Va., July 17, 1864; Daniel C. Lee, James Longanetta, 
David H. Morrison; David C. Morgan; Obediah W. Martin; Morgan Morrison, 
James L. McFadden ; George W. McCloud ; William McCann ; Lorenzo B. 
Moore ; James L. More ; Jasper N Marteney ; Wilbur Perry ; David Phillips ; 
Mathew Quick; Benton Queen; Abraham Rucker, lost a leg at Cedar Creek; 
Samuel Rucker; David M. Staten, Thomas Shaw; Frederick Snyder; Thomas 
G. Smith ; Joseph A. Thompson ; George W. Waggy ; Henderson Westiall ; 
Alexander Wood ; Richard Wood ; James A. Wolf ; Salathiel Winemiller, 
wounded in the leg at Winchester, September 19, 1864 ; Noah Winemiller, 
wounded in the face at Winchester, September 19, 1864; William W. Wine- 
miller; J. E. Williams; Reuben Mahar, shot at W^inchester, September 19, 1864. 

William H. H. Young, Jacob L. Crites, discharged for disability, July 17, 
1862, at Buckhannon, West Virginia; Andrew J. Gunn, for disability, September 
17, 1862, at Beverly, West A'irginia ; Josiah Martin, for disability, Septembei 
17, 1862, at Beverly; Michael Geyer, William Lewis, George S. Riffle, Henry 
E. Canton ; Benjamin F. Gunn, transferred to Company H, Tenth West Virginia 
Infantry ; John G. Phillips ; Wesley Depew, killed at Winchester, September 
19, 1864 ; William Littlefield, killed by guerrillas in Webster county, W. Va., 
October 25, 1864; Job Loudin, died April 18, 1864; William Maher, died of fever, 
January 14, 1862, at camp Cannan, Virginia; Manly C. Morrison, died of fever, 
April 10, 1862, at Camp Canaan ; Albert Queen, died January 3, 1862, at Buck- 
hannon, West Virginia; George S. Strader, died March 12, 1863, at Romney, 
West Virginia ; Elnathan Strader, killed in action at Winchester, September 
19, 1864; Jacob Tolbert, died October 23, 1864, at Cumberland, Maryland ; Dwight 
G. Bunton ; Fenton H. Martin, died in hospital of wounds received in action in 
September, 1864; Washington M. Garvin, killed in action in Kernstown ; Wilson 
W. Wolf, died January, 1862, at Camp Canaan ; James B. Bennett, deserted 
at Camp Cannan, April 7, 1862 ; L. D. Cartwright, deserted at Camp Canaan, 
April 13, 1862; Aaron Kerns, deserted at Webster, West Virginia, May 17, 1864; 
Josiah Vandegraft, deserted at Valley Moutain, West Virginia, September 13, 
1862. Aggregate 112 men. 

This company was mustered in during the early summer of 1862, at Buck- 
hannon and was the result of the enthusiastic labors of Captain J. Loomis Gould, 
Lieutenant H. H. Lewis, Surgeon Jonathan R. Blair and others. It was the tenth 
part of the Tenth Regiment West Virginia Volunteer Infantry, which was re- 
cruited by Dr. T. M. Harris, of Glenville, Gilmer county. West Virginia. 

Governor Pierpont had given Mr. Harris his consent to make up a regiment ; 
and had also promised him the colonelcy of it if success crowned his efforts. 
He entered upon his work August 3, 1861, and received a colonel's commission to 
command the Tenth, about the 3rd day of May, 1862. In this same regiment 
was Morgan A. Darnall, captain of Company A ; promoted to lieutenant colonel 
March 24, 1865, and commissioned colonel June 29, 1865, and Minter F. Marple 
who became second lieutenant of Company H on September 27, 1864. 

After the organization of the regiment in May, 1862, Company B continued 
recruiting, drilling and outposting at Buckhannon until September of the same 
year when its headquarters were removed to Bulltown where with six other 
companies of the Tenth the first muster work of regimental tactics was done. 


These six companies were ordered late in October to join General ]Milroy and orr 
November 4. broke camp and set out for Beverly, whence they moved by way of 
Webster and New Creek to Winchester, arriving there January i, 1863. 

While camping at Winchester, Company B was sent out on several expedi- 
tions up the Shenandoah Valley and being composed of hardy, brave moun- 
taineers, their service was very acceptable and satisfactory. 

May 10, 1863, it was ordered back to West Virginia, was added to General 
William W. Averill's brigade and returned to Buckhannon; and on June 7 was 
sent to Beverly. 

Colonel William L. Jackson, commanding a strong Confederate force, fell 
upon the Tenth regiment at this latter place on July 2, and kept it busy two days, 
defending and resisting his attacks. 

Reinforcements arrived and gave the Tenth relief and respite on June 15, 
1864. It was ordered to Martinsburg, West Virginia, and was incorporated 
into the brigade being formed to check the enemy's threatened advance down 
the Shenandoah Valley. It finally became a part of the command known in army 
orders as the ".\rmy of West Virginia," under General Crook. 

While at Martinsburg, Company B assisted in the encounter between General 
Early's advance and the Federals at Leetown, Virginia. On the 6th and "th of 
the same month it took an active part in the skirmishes at Maryland Heights 
and for several days retreated before Early, who was invading Maryland and 
dashing toward the national capital. 

On July 17, it participated with the regiment in the battle at Sinchers Ferry, 
Virginia, and on the 24th, in that at Winchester. 

At this latter engagement it was under command of Colonel Mulligan, who 
fell mortally wounded on that bloody field. It participated in the battles of Berry- 
ville, Virginia, and Opequen river; and at Fisher's Hill, on September 23, the 
Tenth Virginia first planted the stars and stripes on the Confederate fortifications. 

Company B was in the advance. It was also in the battles of Strassburg, 
Virginia, October 13, 1864. and Cedar Creek, October i, 1864. On December 
19, 1864, the company was ordered to Washington City; from thence it proceeded 
to join the Twety-fourth Army Corps, before Richmond, going into camp seven 
miles from the Confederate capital, on Christmas day, 1864. It served in this 
corps during the remainder of its term of service. Company B was noted for its 
power, courage, intrepidity and general reliability during the war. It returned 
to Wheeling after the close of the war and was mustered out August 9, 1865. 


Captain, Danial Gould ; lieutenat, Harvey Geyer ; George W. Sharps, married, 
paroled at Richmond, Va, and arrived home October 20, 1863 ; Loyal U. McAvoy, ' 
married, conscripted at Richmond, deserted and arrived home December 19, 
1863; James W. Windle, married; James M. Bennett, married; John T. Starcher, 
widower; Thomas Gawthrop, married; David Fairbarn, married, parolled at 
Richmond, March 7, 1864 ; James F. Friel, married, parolled at Richmond and 
arrived home April 24, 1864 ; Taylor Hyre, married ; Elmer Hyer, married ; Martin 
Rice, single, parolled at Richmond and arrived home .April 25, 1864; Jacob J. 
Brake, Jr., single ; Perry Talbot, single ; Henry J. Hefner, single ; Bryant T. 
Moore, married, parolle at Richmond April 16 and arrived home from Baltimore 
June 3, 1864; Bezaleel Geyer, married, arrived home May 6, 1864; Stalnaker 


RIarteny, escaped from Salisbury, N. C, November i, 1864 and arrived home 
December, 1864; Captain Daniel Gould, parolled at Charleston, S. C, and arrived 
home December 29, 1864 ; Taylor Brown, single, arrived home December 29, 
1864; Joseph Crawford, married, arrived home December 31, 1864; Lieut. Harvey 
Geyer, single, arrived home April 3, 1864; Hiram Bean, Company D, single; 
Peter Hoffman, married, died in Wheeling, W. Va., March 29, 1865, left three 
children: Benj. J. Clarkson. married, died in Salisbury, N. C, between the ist 
of December, 1864, and the last of December, 1865; Isaac Carter, Company D, 
parolled at Richmond April 16 and arrived home from Baltimore May 15, 1864; 
James S. Wilson, married, died in Richmond December 22, 1863, left a widow «^ 
and ten children ; Andrew W. Cunningham, married, died in Richmond December, 
■ 1863, and left stepmother with two children ; Harvey Long, single, died December 
26, 1863; Samuel Rice, single, died in Richmond December 27, 1863; Josiah B. 
Bennett, married, died in Richmond December, 1863, left six children; Ezra S. 
Waulrus, married, died in Richmond January, 1864, left stepmother and two 
children; William Cunningham, married, died in Richmond January 15, 1864; 
William Fleming, married, died in Richmond February, 1864; James Clarkson, 
single, died in Richmond February 26, 1864; David H. Cochran, single, died 
March, 1864; Martin Curry, died March 30, 1864; James Fairbarn, died March -■ 
19, 1864; Marshall Smith, died March 1864; Adam Peck, married, died RIarch, 
1864. left a widow and three children; Jacob C. Smith, died in 1864; Samuel 
Wallridge, died in 1864, left one child; William Townsend, died April 16, 1864, ' 
left widow and two children ; Jesse B. Nixon, married, parolled in Richmond, 
died in Baltimore April 22, 1864, left eight children ; Ezra Morgan, single, died 
in Annapolis April, 1864; Henderson Jack, died in 1864; Lewis F. Corbit, married, 
died in Camp Sumpter March 25, 1864, left widow and one child ; George M. 
Douglass, single, died March 27, 1864; John J. Vincent, married, died March 
28, 1864, left widow and three children; Samuel A. Burns, died March 29, 1864, 
left widow and three children; Douglas Johns, died April i, 1864, left widow and 
two children ; David K. Johns, died April 2, 1864, left widow and two children ; 
William Baker, died April 3, 1864, left stepmother and one child ; Robert A. Curry, - 
widower, died April 4, 1864 ; Amandas Young, married, died in Camp Sumpter 
April 6, 1864, left widow and three children ; Asa B. Young, single, died April 
8, 1864; Edwin Young, married, died April 22, 1864, left widow and two children; 
George Armstrong, married, died May 3, 1864, left widow and three children ; 
Jacob Brake, married, died May 6, 1864, left widow and three children; Henry 
Lanham, single, died June i, 1864; Granville B. Armstrong, single, died June 10, 
1864; John A. Cunningham, married, died July, 1864, left widow and five 
children; Manuel Simmons, married, died July, 1864; Closson E. Simmons, 
single, died July, 1864; Anson R. Jack, married, died in July, 1864, left widow 
and two children ; John W. Armstrong, died August 10, 1864, left widow and 
eight children ; Calvin Boyd, married, died in Salisbury, N. C, July 6, 1864, left 
widow and six children ; Jacob C. Simmons, single, died in Charleston, S. C, 
September 20, 1864. 

This company of 70 members was captured at Centreville, September 12, 
1863, and taken to Richmond, Virginia, where they were imprisoned. Seven of 
them escaped, twenty-five were parolled and the rest died at Richmond, Camp '' 
Sumpter, Wheeling, Saulsbury and Charleston, S. C, leaving behind them zj 
widows and 83 children. Rev. A. J. Lida, in 1866, preached in the M. E. church, 
at Centreville, a funeral sermon of those who died in Southern prisons. 




Officers. — John C. Higgnbotham, captain ; Daniel Brown, first lieutenant, 
died at McDowell ; Warren \\hite, second lieutenant, resigned ; Jerome Reger, 
third lieutenant, killed at Allegheny mountain; Charles Ridgway, fourth lieuten- 
ant; \\'. H. Fichett, orderly sergeant; Wm. McFadden, second sergeant; James 
Mullan, third sergeant; "Gam" Bastable, corporal. 

Priv.\tes. — N. B. Reger, color bearer or ensign; Frank Suderth, Noah 
Haskins, promoted color bearer; Perry Summers, Chas Hodges, killed at Gettys- 
burg: Philip Krise, discharged, '62 ; "Tif" Krise, killed at Antietam ; Joseph Paugh, 
Elam Crites, Philip Crites, died in hospital at Staunton ; G. P. Shreve, A. J. Kidd, 
Clay Jackson, killed at Rich Mountain ; Oscar Sherwood, killed at Rich Mountain , 
William Gibson, Geo. B. King, Henry Hoover, killed at Mine Run; 
George Hoover, Sherman Cummings, killed at Lynchburg ; Ezra Woodson, 
Nathan Ligget, Dr. Sam. J. Cabell, died at McDowell; Dr. Isaac White, Willis 
Woodley, Col. Woodley, Geo. ^^". Dawson, Rigg Hilleary, Jerry Paugh, Benj. 
M. Patterson, John Owen Tillman, killed at Gettysburg; William Hamner, 
Melville Johnson, Richard Wingfield, killed at Mine Run ; Wm. Wingfield, John 
L. Fitzgerald, Herndon Dowel, Bruce IMiddleton, Rufus King, Cyrus King, 
John Hay Reger, joined in '62 ; James W. Gawthrop, John Dawson, James 
Dawson, John W. Dowell, joined in '62; Augustus Hilleary, Benj. Garroll, killed 
accidentiy at Sherando; Edward Moon, James Woodson, William Lawhorn, 
Daniel Bassell, Joseph Bassell, A. J. Reeder, ^Monroe Reger, joined in '62 ; Wm. 
}iIcFadden, Thomas Surgner, killed at Beverly; Charles William Wurtenbaker, 
John W. Crisman, Jacob D. Warner, IMartin D. Wingfield, Charles AIcFadden. 

The strong Union sentiment of Upshur county did not deter the Southern 
sympathizers from agitation and action in the ear>- years of the w-ar. With some 
degree of reserve they manifested their desire and sentiment for the southern 
people, yet they manifested that sentiment in unmistakeable terms and with a 
valor that redounded eminently to their credit. The most forceful and active 
organization in advertising the bravery and courage of the southern element of 
our population was the Upshur Grays, a local company, organized in the early 
months of 1861 and numbering 67 young, active and stalwart citizens when 
mustered into service ^lay 7, 1861. 

The officers of this Confederate company were John C. Higginbotham, 
captain ; Daniel Brown, first lieutenant ; Jerome Reger, second lieutenant. Captain 
Higginbotham was the elder son of William T. Higginbotham, was eighteen years 
of age when he went to war, was the inspiring spirit in the organization of the 
company, as well as the inspiring spirit in the many conflicts of the company. 

Ere a month had elapsed after the company was mustered in a call to come 
to Philippi was made and strict obedience to that call resulted. On June 2, 
1861, Captain Higginbotham arrived in the town of Philippi and ordered the 
bag and baggage of his company unpacked and remained there several days, 
until the retreat of Colonel Porterfield. The day before the retreat, Porterfield 
ordered the companies to pack their wagons. Later in the same day he ordered 
the companies to unpack, but Captain Higginbotham told his men not to unpack, 
as if there was reason for packing, there was no reason to unpack. The next 
morning Porterfield was surprised, and ordered a retreat. The Upshur Grays 


alone saved their baggage. On the retreat firing was heard and it was supposed 
that a Braxton company had been cut oflf. Captain Higginbotham took a vote 
of his company whether they would go to the relief of that company. Every 
man voted to do so. They started bacl< and after going some distance learned 
that the Braxton company had escaped, and that the Federal troops were fighting 
among themselves. The Upshur Grays then continued their retreat to Beverly, 
w-here they remained a few days, when they were ordered to Rich mountain. 
Col. Pegram was in command at that point. It was reported that the Federal 
troops would cut off their retreat by cutting the pike at the top of the mountain. 
The night before the battle, Col. Pegram held a council of war. Capt. Higgin- 
botham insisted that as AlcClellan had been in their front for several days, 
he did not intend to attack them in their trenches, but would rely on the attack 
at the top of the mountain, and that at least 500 men with two pieces of artillery 
should be sent to that point. However, he was overruled, and only 250 men and 
one piece of artillery were sent to that point. The Upshur Grays were among 
the number and took an active part in the battle of Rich mountain. 

Therefore Captain Higginbotham was right when he admonished Colonel 
Pegram to place 500 men on top of Rich mountain to do the fighting. Only 250 
Confederates were placed in line of battle near the Joe Hart residence and they 
were the Upshur Grays, Hampden-Sidney Boys and the Buckingham Lee Guards. 
The issue of this battle was favorable to the Federal forces. Of the Upshur 
Grays, Oscar Sherwood and H. Clay Jackson were killed and several were 
wounded. From Rich mountain this already illustrous company went into 
camp at Monterey where they remained for a short time before going into 
winter quarters at Camp Barto on the Greenbrier river, which camp was composed 
of the L'pshur Grays, of the First and Twelfth Georgia, the Twenty-second, 
Twenty-third, Twenty-fifth, and Thirty-first Virginia, and the Third Arkansas. 
A battle occurred here and the L^pshur Greys were ordered to Allegheny moun- 
tain to rest and repair until the following spring. From Allegeny mountains, 
the Upshur Grays took up their weary march to Staunton. Twelve miles west 
of Staunton, at West ^'iew, they planted their tents and waited the arrival of 
"Stonewall" Jackson. From this point they learned that McDowell was occupied 
by Milroy and commanded the force with which they desired an encounter. So, 
they betook themselves, under Stonewall Jackson and Edward S. Johnson, west- 
ward toward the Federal forces and reached McDowell to engage Milroy and 
Schenck on I\Iay 8, 1862. The battle was a stubborn one, lasting fully five hours 
and ending only with darkness. The Federals finding their position untenable 
and dangerous, withdrew during the night and took up their retreat to Franklin. 
The Confederates followed and returned thence to Jennings Gap, preparatory 
to going down the valley. 

The L^pshur Grays were under that inimitable and impetuous "Stonewall" 
in the engagements at Mt. Jackson, the first of a series of battles down the valley 
which were the most disastrous and direful to the L^nion cause for a like time 
during the war, commencing as it did on May 24 and terminating August 30 
with the second battle of Bull Run, or, as the Confederates prefer to call it, the 
second Manassas. 

On this illustrous march, the Federals learned the painful truth that Stone- 
wall Jackson was a quantity that needed their most careful consideration and their 
best judgment. The Upshur Grays under his sagacious and tactful command 
worked proud honor to their native soil in the battles of Front Royal. May 23, 


and Winchester, June i. The Upshur Grays were in the front in the battle of 
Cross Keys and Port Republic, June 8 and 9, respectively. From this latter 
battle Jackson's army retreated "over the hills and far away" toward Richmond, 
where they were engaged for seven days in a continuous bloody warfare, partici- 
pating in the battle of Seven Pines, Gains's Mill, Frazier's Farm and Malvern 
Hill, from June 27