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Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1889, by 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washingtoiu 

All Rights Reserved. 





In the history of Utah we come upon a new series 
of social phenomena, whose multiformity and uncon- 
ventionality awaken the liveliest interest. We find 
ourselves at once outside the beaten track of conquest 
for gold and glory; of wholesale robberies and human 
slaughters for the love of Christ; of encomiendas, re- 
partimientos, serfdoms, or other species of civilized 
imposition; of missionary "invasion resulting in cer- 
tain death to the aborigines, but in broad acres and 
well filled storehouses for the men of practical piety; 
of emigration for rich and cheap lands, or for coloni- 
zation and empire alone; nor have we here a hurried 
scramble for wealth, or a corporation for the manage- 
ment of a game |)reserve. There is the charm of 
novelty about the present subject, if no other; for in 
our analyses of human progress we never tire of watch- 
ing the behavior of various elements under various 

There is only one example in the annals of Amer- 
ica of the organization of a commonwealth upon prin- 
ciples of pure theocracy. There is here one example 
only where the founding of a state grew out of the 
founding of a new religion. Other instances there 
have been of the occupation of wild tracts on this con- 
tinent by people flying before persecution, or desirous 



of greater religious liberty; there were the quakers, 
the huguenots, and the pilgrim fathers, though their 
spiritual interests were so soon subordinated to politi- 
cal necessities; religion has often played a conspicu- 
ous part in the settlement of the New World, and 
there has at times been present in some degree the 
theocratic, if not indeed the hierarchal, idea; but it 
has been long since the world, the old continent or the 
new, has witnessed anything like a new religion suc- 
cessfully established and set in prosperous running or- 
der upon the fullest and combined principles of theoc- 
racy, hierarchy, and patriarchy. 

With this new series of phenomena, a new series 
of difficulties arises in attempting their elucidation: 
not alone the perplexities always attending unexplored 
fields, but formidable embarrassments which render 
the task at once delicate and dangerous. 

If the writer is fortunate enough to escape the 
many pitfalls of fallacy and illusion which beset his 
wa}^; if he is wise and successful enough to find and 
follow the exact line of equity which should be drawn 
between the hotly contending factions ; in a word, if he 
is honest and capable, and speaks honestly and openly 
in the treatment of such a subject, he is pretty sure 
to offend, and bring upon himself condemnation from 
all parties. But where there are palpable faults on 
both sides of a case, the judge who unites equity with 
due discrimination may be sure he is not in the main 
far from right if he succeeds in offending both sides. 
Therefore, amidst the multiformity of conflicting ideas 
and evidence, having abandoned all hope of satisfying 
others, I fall back upon the next most reasonable prop- 
osition left — that of satisfying myself. 



In regard to the quality of evidence I here encoun- 
ter, I will say that never before has it been my lot to 
meet with such a mass of mendacity. The attempts 
of almost all who have written upon the subject seem 
to have been to make out a case rather than to state 
the facts. Of course, by any religious sect dealing 
largely in the supernatural, fancying itself under the 
direct guidance of God, its daily doings a standing 
miracle, commingling in all the ordinary affairs of life 
prophecies, special interpositions, and revelations with 
agriculture, commerce, and manufactures, we must ex- 
pect to find much written which none but that sect 
can accept as true. 

And in relation to opposing evidence, almost every 
book that has been put forth respecting the people 
of Utah by one not a Mormon is full of calumny, 
each author apparently endeavoring to surpass his 
predecessor in the libertinism of abuse. Most of 
these are written in a sensational style, and for the 
purpose of deriving profit by pandering to a vitiated 
public taste, and are wholly unreliable as to facts. 
Some few, more especially among those first appear- 
ing, whose data were gathered by men upon the 
spot, and for the purpose of destroying what they 
regarded as a sacrilegious and pernicious fanaticism, 
though as vehement in their opposition as any, make 
some pretensions to honesty and sincerity, and are 
more worthy of credit. There is much in govern- 
ment reports, and in the writings of the later resi- 
dents in Utah, dictated by honest patriotism, and to 
which the historian should give careful attention. 
In using my authorities, I distinguish between these 
classes, as it is not profitable either to pass by any- 
thing illustrating principles or affecting progress, or 

viii PREFACE. 

to print pages of pure invention, palpable lies, even 
for the purpose of proving them such. Every work 
upon the subject, however, receives proper bibliograph- 
ical notice. 

The materials for Mormon church history are 
exceptionally full. Early in his career the first presi- 
dent appointed a historiographer, whose office has 
been continuous ever since. To his people he himself 
gave their early history, both the inner and intangi- 
ble and the outer and material portions of it. Then 
missionaries to different posts were instructed to make 
a record of all pertinent doings, and lodge the same 
in the church archives. A sacred obligation seems to 
have been implied in this respect from the beginning, 
the Book of Mormon itself being largely descriptive of 
such migrations and actions as usually constitute the 
history of a people. And save in the matters of spir- 
itual manifestations, which the merely secular histo- 
rian cannot follow, and in speaking of their enemies, 
whose treatment we must admit in too many instances 
has been severe, the church records are truthful and 
reliable. In addition to this, concerning the settle- 
ment of the country, I have here, as in other sections 
of my historical field, visited the people in person, and 
gathered from them no inconsiderable stores of orig- 
inal and interesting information. 

Upon due consideration, and with the problem 
fairly before me, three methods of treatment pre- 
sented themselves from which to choose: first, to 
follow the beaten track of calumny and vituperation, 
heaping upon the Mormons every species of abuse, 
from the lofty sarcasm employed by some to the vul- 
gar scurrility applied by others; second, to espouse 



the cause of the Mormons as the weaker party, and 
defend them from the seeming injustice to which from 
the first they have been subjected; third, in a spirit of j^ 
equity to present both sides, leaving the reader to 
draw his own conclusions. The first course, however 
popular, would be beyond my power to follow; the 
second method, likewise, is not to be considered; I 
therefore adopt the third course, and while giving 
the new sect a full and respectful hearing, withhold 
nothing that their most violent opposers have to say 
against them. 

Anything written at the present day which may 
properly be called a history of Utah must be largely 
a history of the Mormons, these being the first white 
people to settle in the country, and at present largely 
occupying it. As others with opposing interests and 
influences appear, they and the great principles thereby 
brouofht to an issue receive the most careful considera- 
tion. And I have deemed it but fair, in presenting the 
early history of the church, to give respectful consid- 
eration to and a sober recital of Mormon faith and 
experiences, common and miraculous. The story of 
Mormonism, therefore, beginning with chapter iii., as 
told in the text, is from the Mormon standpoint, and ^'^ 
based entirely on Mormon authorities; while in the 
notes, and running side by side with the subject- 
matter in the text, I give in full all anti-Mormon 
arguments and counter-statements, thus enabling the 
reader to carry along both sides at once, instead of 
having to consider first all that is to be said on one 
side, and then all that is to be said on the other. 

In following this plan, I only apply to the history 
of Utah the same principles employed in all my his- 
torical efforts, namely, to give all the facts on every 


side pertinent to the subject. In giving the history 
of the invasion and occupation of the several sections 
of the Pacific States from Panama to Alaska, I have 
been obliged to treat of the idiosyncrasies, motives, 
and actions of Poman catholics, methodists, presby- 
terians, episcopalians, and members of the Greek 
church: not of the nature or validity of their re- 
spective creeds, but of their doings, praising or blam- 
ing as praise or blame were due, judged purely from 
a standpoint of morals and humanity according to 
the hiofhest standards of the foremost civilization of 
the world. It was not necessary — it was wholly 
outside the province of the historian, and contrary to 
my method as practised elsewhere — to discuss the 
truth or falsity of their convictions, any more than 
when writing the history of Mexico, California, or 
Oregon to advance my opinions regarding the in- 
spiration of the scriptures, the divinity of Christ, 
prophecies, miracles, or the immaculate conception. 
On all these questions, as on the doctrines of the 
Mormons and of other sects, I have of course my 
opinions, which it were not only out of place but 
odious to be constantly thrusting upon the attention 
of the reader, who is seeking for facts only. 

In one respect only I deem it necessary to go a little 
further here : inasmuch as doctrines and beliefs enter 
more influentially than elsewhere into the origin and 
evolution of this society, I give the history of the rise 
and progress of those doctrines. Theirs was not an 
old faith, the tenets of which have been fought for 
and discussed for centuries, but professedly a new reve- 
lation, whose principles are for the most part unknown 
to the outside world, where their purity is severely 
questioned. The settlement of this section sprung 


primarily from the evolution of a new religion, with 
all its attendant trials and persecutions. To give 
their actions without their motives would leave the 
work obviously imperfect; to give their motives with- 
out the origin and nature of their belief would be 

In conclusion, I will say that those who desire a 
knowledge of people and events impartially viewed, 
a statement of facts fairly and dispassionately pre- 
sented, I am confident will find them here as else- 
where in my writings. 



"Brigham Young .... Steel Engraving. Frontispiece. 

Illustrated title page . 

Discovery of Salt Lake by Bridger . . Colored Engraving 20 

Josepti's Vision Photo Engraving 72 

Missionaries received by the Chief of the Delaw^ares . Col. Eng. 79 

Laying the Corner Stone .... Colored Engraving 119 

Assassination of Joseph Smith . . . Photo Engraving 182 

Joseph Smith Steel Engraving 185 

Migration from Nauvoo Photo Engraving 218 

Enrollment of the Mormon Battalion . . Photo Engraving 241 

Corral of "Wagons 255 

Approaching the New Zion .... Colored Engraving 257 

Brigham Young's First View of Salt Lake Valley Photo Engraving 262 

Fort, Great Salt Lake City, 1848 . . . . . . . 277 

Salt Lake City in 1850 ..... Colored Engraving 328 

Tithing House, Salt Lake City . . . . . . . 351 

Hand Cart Migration ..... Colored Engraving 425 

Wilford Woodruff .... . , Steel Engraving 435 

Territorial Seal . . , . 460 

Intercourse with Mormons and Indians . Photo Engraving ill 

Johnston's Army in Utah .... Photo Engraving 515 

Temple, Salt Lake City ..... Photo Engraving 582 

Home of Brigham Young, Salt Lake City ..... 683 

The Three Wife House, Salt Lake City 687 

-Geo. Q. Cannon . . , . . . Steel Engraving 606 

The Funeral Services of Brigham Young . Colored Engraving 670 

-John Taylor . Steel Engraving 682 

Eagle Gate, Salt Lake City, 1889 694 

Great Salt Lake .... . . Photo Engraving 695 

Ogden and Weber River .... Photo Engraving 700 

Salt Lake City from Arsenal Hill . . . Photo Engraving 762 

liiST OP (Daps 


Probable route of Cardenas ........ 5 

Map from Magin, 1611, 6 

Map by John Harris, 1705 7 

Escalante's route from Sante Fe to Utah Lake .... 10 

Timpanogos Valley 13 

Map of Utah, 1826 19 

Green River Country 24 

Bonneville's Map, 1837 2G 

Utah and Nevada, 1795 27 

Rector's map, 1818 27 

Finley's map, 1826 28 

The war in Missouri 121 

Settlements in Illinois 136 

Between the Mississippi and Missouri 222 

About the Missouri 237 

Route of the Mormons 254 

Settlements at the end of 1852 306 

Site of the Gunnison Massacre 469 

The Utah Campaign 513 

Mountain Meadows 650, 

Salt Lake City in 1860 680 

Princinal settlements in 1862 694 







Francisco Vazquez de Coroiiado at Cibola — Expedition of Pedro de Tobar 
and Father Juan de Padilla — They Hear of a Large River — Garcia 
Lopez de Cardenas Sent in Search of It — The First Europeans to 
Approach Utah — Route of Cardenas — Mythical Maps — Part of the 
Northern Mystery — Journey of Dominguez and Escalante — The 
Course They Followed — The Rivers They Crossed — The Comanchea 
— Region of the Great Lakes — Rivers Timpanogos, San Buenaven- 
tura, and Others — The Country of the Yutas — Route from Santa F6 
to Monterey — The Friars Talk of the Lake Country — Return of the 
Spaniards to Zuui and March to Santa F^ 1 



Invasion by Fur-hunters — Baron la Hontan and his Fables — The Popu- 
lar Geographic Idea — Discovery of the Great Salt Lake — James 
Bridger Deciding a Bet — He Determines the Course of Bear River, 
and Comes upon the Great Lake — Henry, Ashley, Green, and Beck- 
•wourth on the Ground — Fort Built at Utah Lake — Peter Skeen Og- 
den — Journey of Jedediah S. Smith — A Strange Country — Pegleg 
Smith — Wolfskin, Yount, and Burton Traverse the Country — 
Walker's Visit to California — Some Old Maps — The Bartleson Com- 
pany — Statements of Bidwell and Belden Compared — Whitman 
and Lovejoy — Fremont — Pacific Coast Immigrations of 1845 and 
1846— Origin of the Name Utah 18 



A Glance Eastward — The Middle States Sixty Years Ago — Birth and 
Parentage of Joseph Smith — Spiritual Manifestations — Joseph Tells 




his Vision — And is Reviled — Moroni Appears — Persecutions — Copy- 
ing the Plates — Martin Harris — Oliver Cowdery — Translation — The 
Book of Mormon — Aaronic Priesthood Conferred — Conversions — The 
Whitmer Family — The Witnesses — Spaulding Theory — Printing of 
the Book — Melchisedec Priesthood Conferred — Duties of Elders and 
Others — Church of Latter- day Saints Organized — First Miracle — 
First Conference — Oliver Cowdery Ordered to the West 36 



Parley Pratt's Conversion — Mission to the Lamanites — The Missionaries 
at Kirtland — Conversion of Sidney Rigdon — Mormon Success at Kirt- 
land — The Missionaries in Missouri — Rigdon Visits Smith — Edward 
Partridge — The Melchisedec Priesthood Given — Smith and Rigdon 
Journey to Missouri — Bible Translation — Smith's Second Visit to 
Missouri — Unexampled Prosperity — Causes of Persecutions — Mob- 
ocracy — The Saints are Driven from Jackson County — Treachery of 
Boggs — Military Organization at Kirtland — The Name Latter-day 
Saints — March to Missouri 71 



President Smith at Kirtland — First Quorum of Twelve Apostles — The 
Kirtland Temple Completed — Kirtland Safety Society Bank — In 
Zion Again — The Saints in Missouri — Apostasy — Zeal and Indis- 
cretion — Military Organization — The War Opens — Depredations on 
Both Sides — Movements of Atchison, Parks, and Doniphan — Atti- 
tude of Boggs — Wight and Gilliam — Death of Patten — Danite Or- 
ganization — Order Lodge — Haun Mill Tragedy — Mobs and Militia — 
The Tables Turned — Boggs' Exterminating Order — Lucas and Clark 
at Far West — Surrender of the Mormons — Prisoners — Petitions and 
Memorials — ^Expulsion — Gathering at Quincy — Opinions Ill 



The City of Nauvoo — Its Temple and University — The Nauvoo Legion — 
The Mormons in Illinois — Evil Reports — Revelation on Polygamy- 
Its Reception and Practice — The Prophet a Candidate for the Presi- 
dency — The Nauvoo Expositor — Joseph Arrested — Governor Ford 
and his Measures — Joseph and Hyrum Proceed to Carthage — Their 
Imprisonment — The Governor's Pledge — Assassination of the Prophet 




and his Brother — Character of Joseph Smith — A Panic at Carthage — 
Addresses of Richards and Taylor — Peaceful Attitude of the Mor- 
mons 143 




rhe Question of Succession— Biography of Brigham Young — His Early 
Life — Conversion — Missionary Work — Made President of the Twelve 
— His Devotion to the Prophet — Sidney Rigdon and Bi'igham Young 
Rival Aspirants for the Presidency — Rigdon's Claims — Public Meet- 
ings — Brigham Elected President of the Church — His Character — 
Temple-building — Fresh Disasters— Jhe Affair at Morley — The Men 
of Quincy and the Men of CafjEage — The Mormons Cons«;nt to 
Abandon their City , 193 




k. Busy City — Meeting in the Temple — Sacrifice of Property — Detach- 
ments Move Forward — A Singular Exodus — The First Encampmeuli 
— Cool Proposal from Brother Brannan — The Journey — Courage and 
Good Cheer — Swelling of their Numbers — The Remnant of the Saints 
in Nauvoo — ^Attitmle of the Gentiles — The Mormons Attacked — 
Continued Hostilities — The Final Departures — The Poor Camp — A 
Deserted City 214 



N'ative Races of the Missouri — The Pottawattamies and the Omahas — 
The Mormons Welcomed as Brethren — War with Mexico — California 
Territory — Mexican Boundaries— Application to the United States 
Government for Aid — An Offer to Serve as Soldiers Accepted — Or- 
ganization of the Mormon Battalion — Departure of the Battalion — 
Bounty Money — ^larch across the Continent — The Battalion in Cal- 
ifornia — Matters on the Missouri 236 



Camp Near the Missouri — Preparations at Winter Quarters — Departure 
of the Pioneer Band— Elkhorn Rendezvous — Route and Routine — 
Incidents of Journey — Approach to Zion — In the Canon — Hosannal 



Hallelujah! — Entry into the Valley of the Great Salt Lake — Plough- 
ing and Planting — Praying and Praising — Site for a City Chosen — 
Temple Block Selected — Return of Companies to Winter Quarters — 
Their Meeting with the Westward-bound — General Epistle of the 
Twelve 252 




Food and Raiment — Houses — Home Manufactures— The Fort — Wild 
Beasts — Cannon from Sutter's Fort — Indian Children for Sale — 
Measles — Population — Mills and Farming Machinery — The Plague 
of Crickets — They are Destroyed by Gulls — Scarcity of Provisions — 
The Harvest Feast — Immigration — Five Thousand Saints Gathered 
in the Valley — Fencing and Farming — Distribution of Lots — Organ- 
ization of County Government — Association for the Extermination 
of Wild Beasts 275 



Food Supply and Shelter — Building Lots — Currency Issue — Bank Notes 
and Coinage — Private and Public Buildings — W^ide Area of the City 
— Second Anniversary of tlie Pioneers — Festivals and Amusements 
— Labor a Duty among the Saints — Effect of the California Gold Dis- 
covery — Immigration — Carrying Company — Calil'ornia-bound Emi- 
grants — Their Traffic with the Mormons — Products and Prices — 
Gold-hunting Frowned upon by the Church 28f 



Founding of Centreville — Bountiful — Ogden — Lynne — Easton — Marriots- 
ville — San Pete — Provo — Indian War — Walled Cities — Evansviile — 
Lehi — Battle Creek — Pleasant Grove — American Fork — Payson — 
Nephi — Manti — Chief Walker — Fillmore — Site Chosen for the Capi- 
tal — Tooele — Grantsville— Kaysville — Little Salt Lake — Parowan — 
Cedar City — Paragoonah — Forts Walker and Harmony — Box Elder 
Creek — Brigham City — Willard City — San Bernardino in California . 30j 



Boundaries and Extent of Utah — Configuration and Physical Features of 
the Country — Its Lands and Waters — Flora and Fauna — State Uni- 



versity — Curriculnm — Educational Ideas — Library — Periodicals — 
Tabernacle and Temple — New Fort — Progress of the Useful Arts- 
Mills, Factories, and Manufactures — Farm Products — Traffic — Popu- 
lation — Revenue — Mortality — Healthful Airs and Medicinal Springs. . 321 



What is Mormonism? — Tenets of the Church — Sacred Books and Person- 
ages — Organization— Priesthood — First Presidency — The Twelve 
Apostles— Patriarchs — Elders, Bishops, Priests, Teachers, and Dea- 
cons — The Seventies — Stakes and Wards — Marriage — Temple-build- 
ing — Tabernacle — Political Aspect — Polygamy as a Church Tenet — 
Celestial Marriage — Attitude and Arguments of Ci%'ilization — Polyg- 
amy's Reply — Ethics and Law — The Charge of Disloyalty — Proposed 
Remedies 333 




Mormon Missionaries — Parley Pratt and his Colleagues — Missionary i 
Labor in Canada — In Great Britain— Missionaries in Europe — And in /^ / 
Other Parts of the World — The Perpetual Emigration Fuud — A Gen- 
eral Epistle of the Twelve — From Liverpool to Salt Lake City for 
Fifty Dollars — Emigrant Ships — Report of a Liverpool Manager — 
The Passage to New Orleans — Overland Travel — Classes of Emi- 
grants — George A. Smith's Companies at South Pass — The Hand- 
cart Emigration — Biographical 397 


1849-1 8 J8. 

STeed of Civil Government — T he State of Des erfit Org^^i^pd. — Memorials yC^ 

for Admission into the Union — Proposed Consolidation with Califor- 
nia — Administration of Justice — Proceedings of the Legislature — 
Babbit's Reception at Washington — The State of Deseret before 
Congress — Act to Establish a Territorial Government — Appointment 
jf Officials — 111 Feeling between Them and the Mormons — The Offi- 
jials Depart for Washington — Measures of the Legislative Assembly 
— Stansbury's Survey — The Gunnison Massacre — Indian Outbreaks — 
The Walker War — Mexican Slave-traders 439 



trigham as Dictator — Uta h Seeks Admission as a St ate — Dissatisfaction 
among the Saints — Conflicting Judiciaries — The New Federal Offi- 
HiST. Utah, h 


xviii CONTENTS. 


cials — Disputes with Judge Drummond — Colonel Steptoe — An Expe- 
dition Ordered to Utah — Official Blunders — The Troops Assemble at 
Fort Leavenworth — Hockaday and Magraw's Mail Contract — The 
Brighani Young Express — Celebration of the Pioneer Anniversary — 
News (if the Coming Invasion — Its Effect on the Mormons — Arrival 
of Major Van Vliet — The Nauvoo Legion — Mormon Tactics 481 



Opening of the Cnmpaign — Burning of Supply Trains — Strategic Move- 
ment of Colonel Alexander — His Ketreat — Arrival of Albert Sidney 
Johnston — The March to Fort Bridger — Winter at Camp Scott — 
Mission of Colonel Kane — Governor Cumming at Salt Lake City — 
Pardon Proclaimed — The Peace Commissioners — The Army of Utah 
Advances on Zion — The City Deserted — The Mormons Return to 
Their Homes — The Troops Cantoned at Camp Floyd — Conduct of 
the Soldiery and Camp Followers — Judges Sinclair and Cradlebaugh. 
— The Reformation in Utali 512 



An Arkansas Emigrant Party Arrives at Salt Lake City — Assassination 
of Parley P. Pratt — III Feeling against the Emigrants — Alleged Out- 
rages — Their Arrival at Mountain Meadows — They are Attacked by 
Indians— A Flag of Trucei — Plan of the Massacre — Surrender of the 
Emigrants— The Butchery — Burial of the Slain — The Survivors — 
Judge Cradlebaugh's Investigation — The Aiken Massacre — John D. 
Lee on Trial— Tlje Jury Disagree — The Second Trial — Lee Convicted, 
and Sentenced — His Confession and Execution 54i 



Brigham Threatened with Arrest — The Federal Judges Reproved — De- 
parture of Governor Cumming — And of the Army of Utah — Popu- 
lation of the Tenitoi-y — Mortality — Wealth — Industries — Prices — 
^Vages— Trade— Salt Lake City in I860— The Temple Block— Social 
Gatherings — Theatricals — Scientific and Other Institutions — Cliar- 
acter of the Population — Carson Valley — San Bernardino — Summit 
County and Its Settlements— Purchase of Fort Bridger — Wasatch 
County — Morgan County— Cache Valley- Settlements in Southern " 
Utah 67 







Gorenior Dawson's (xallantry ^Utah Refused Ad mi ssion as a State — M 
Passage of a Bill against Polygamy — Measures of the Legislature — 
Arrival of Governor Harding — Disputes between Brigham and the 
Federal Officials — Arrival of the California Volunteers — A False 
Alarm — The Morrisite Troubles — Governors Doty and Durkee^The 
Limits of Utah Curtailed — Celebration of Lincoln's Second Inaugu- 
ration — The Brassfield and Robinson Murders — Indian Outbreaks 
— The Battle of Bear River — Disturbances in Southern Utah — Trea- 
ties with Indian Tr.ibes— The Uintah Valley Reservation — Biblio- 
graphical 604 



The Strangites — The Gatherers — Brannan's Followers — The Gladdenites 
— The Reorganized Church of Latter-day Saints — Alexander and 
David Hyrum Smith— The Utah Magazine — Trial of Godbe and Har- 
rison — Success of the Godbeite Movement — The Strugf;;le for Commer- 
cial Control — Persecution of Gentile Merchants — Zion's Cooperative 
I Mercantile Institution — Extent of its Operations — Disastrous Effect 
:—— "' 



Visit of Schuyler Colfax — Godbe's Interview with President Grant — 
Governor Shaffer — Military Riot at Provo — Governor Woods — Judge 
McKean — Burlesque of Justice — Arrest of . Brigham Young and 
Others — G«orge Q. Cannon Chosen Delegate — Axtell's Administra- 
tion—Governor Emery — Death of Brigham — His Obsequies — His 
Charaxiter — His Will 656 




Conference of the Church — Reorganization of the First Presidency — 
John Taylor Appointed President — His Appearance and Mien — The 
Edmunds Bill — Its Penalties — An Ex Post Facto Law — Polygamists 
Disfranchised — Utah agaia Refused Admission aa a State — Opera- A(^ 

tions of the Utah Commission — Governor Murray's Message — His 
Administration 677 




] 862-1886. I 

FAOa ^ 

Population and Statistics — Salt Lake City — The Temple — The New Tab- j 

ernacle — The Museum — Condition of the Inhabitants — Distinctive j 

Features — Salt Lake County — Davis County — Ogden — Cache County : 

— Rich County — Summit County — Brigham City — Nephi — Provo — > 

Uintah, Emery, San Juan, Garfield, and Piute Counties— Sanpete | 

and Sevier Coujities — Iron, Kane, and Washington Counties — •,, 

Schools — The University of Deseret — The Deseret Alphabet — Libra- j 

ries — Journals and Journalism 691 j' 



Agricultural Products and Yield per Acre — Irrigation — Character of the 
Soil— Fruit Culture — Viticulture — Sericulture — Timber and Timber- 
lands — Bunch-grass — Cattle-raising — Dairy Products — Horses — 
Sheep — Woollen Manufactures — Leather — Other Manufactures — 
Iron-mining — Coal-mining — Copper — Sulphur — Gypsum and Mica — 
Other Minerals — Building Stone — Gold and Silver — The West 
Mountain District — The Rush Valley District — The Cottonwood 
District — The American Fork District — The Tintic District — The 
Ontario Mine — Other Mining Districts — Mining Products — Milling, 
Smelting, and Reduction-works 720 



Common Roadways — Railroads — The Union and Central Pacific — The 
Utah Central— The Utah Southern— The Utah and Northern— The 
Utah Eastern— The Salt Lake and Western — The Utah and Nevada 
— The Denver and Rio Grande Western — Imports and Exports- 
Commerce and Trade — Banking — Insurance — Taxation and Revenue 
— Mails and Mail Services — The First Telegraphic Message — The 
Deseret Telegraph Company 751 

Index. ♦^. .h..«...^_ .....^ . ..^« , ...^... 786 



Adams (G, J.), A Few Plain Facts, etc. Bedford (Eng.), 1841; Letter to 
President John Tj'ler. New York, 1844. 

Address by a Minister of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to 
the People of the United States. Printed while the Mormons were at 
Nauvoo. Philadelphia, n.d. 

A Friendly Warning to the Latter-day Saints. London, 1860. 

Albany (Or.), Journal. 

Aldrich (Hazen), The Olive Branch, monthly. Kirtland (0.), 1851-2. 

Alegre, Hist. Comp. Jesus, i. 233-8. 

Alexander (W. C), Princ. Mag., xxiv. 687. 

Alta (Utah), Times. 

Amberley, in Fortnightly Rev., xii. 511. 

American Almanac. Boston and New York, 1830 et seq. 

American Geog. and Statis. Soc. Mag. New York, 1850 et seq. 

American Quarterly Register and Magazine. Philadelphia, 1848 et seq. 

Ameiican Whig Review. New York, 1845-51. 13 vols. 

Among the Mormons, in All the Year Round, x. 1863. 

Among the Mormons, in Gent. Mag., new ser., vii. 

Amp6re (J. J.), Promenade en Am^rique, etc. Paris, 1855. 2 vols. Paris, 
1860. 2 vols. 

Ancient American Records, n.d. 

Ancient and Modem Michilimackinac. (History of James J. Strang's Move- 
ment.) n.d. 

Anderson (R. R.), Salt Lake City Street- Railroad, MS. 

Andouard, Far West. 

Andree (Karl), Die Mormonen und ihr Land. Dresden, 1859, 

An Exposure of Mormonism. Dunstable (Eng.), n.d. 

Anti-MoiTnon Almanac. New York, 1842. 

Antionh (Cal.), Ledger. 

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ion Cyntaf a Gwahoddiadau; Ai duw a Ddanfonodd Joseph Smith; 
Llofruddiad Joseph a Hyrum Smith; Tarddiad Llfyr Mormon; Dammeg 
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Los Angeles Herald; News; Star. 

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Memoir of the Mormons. South. Lit. Messenger, Nov. 1848. 

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Mendocino (Cal.), Democrat. 

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Miles(J.) vsTheU. S. 

Millennial Star. Manchester, 1841; Liverpool, 1842-54; Liverpool and Lon- 
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Miller (Joaquin), Danites in the Sierras. Chicago, 1881; First Families of the 
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Miller (Reuben), James J. Strang Weighed in the Balaaces, etc. Burlington 
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Mines of Utah, List of. Salt Lake City, 1882. 1 

Missions, Reports of the Scandinavian, Italian, and Prussian. Liverpool, 

Mokelumne Hill (Cal. ), Calaveras Chronicle. 

MoUhausen (B.), Tagebauch einer Reise vom Mississippi, etc. Liepzig, 1858; 
Der Halbindianes. Leipzig, 1861; Das Mormonmadchen. Jena and 
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Monogamy and Polygamy. Boston, 1882. 

Montonus (A.), De Nieuwe Weereld. Amsterdam, 1671. 

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Morgan (J. ), Doctrines of the Church; Plan of Salvation, Salt Lake City, n.d. 

Morgan (Martha M.), A Trip across the Plains. San Francisco, 1864. 

Morgan (Wm B. ), Mormonism and the Bible. London and Bristol, n.d. 

Mormon Battalion, Report of the Fii'st General Festival of the Renowned. 
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Mormon Doctrine. Salt Lake City. 

Mormon Hymn-book. Liverpool and London, 1851. 

Mormonism: Additional Articles on in the following magazines: All the Year 
Round, X. 247; Amer. Bib. Repos., 2d ser., ix.; Amer. Ch. Rev., viii. ; 
Amer. Natur., ix.; Bentley, Miscel., xxxviii. 61; Brit. Quart. Rev., 
xxiii. 62, XXXV., cxxii. 450; Chamb. Jour., xxxvii., liii. 193; Christ 
Exam., liii.; Christ. Obser., Ixii. 183; Christ. Rememb., iv. 278, xxxiii, 
257, xlv. 185; Colburn Monthly, cxiv. 239, cxxi. 253, cxxxvi. 369; Cong, 
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Lippincott, Mag., vi. 41; Littell, Liv. Age, xxx. 429, xlii. 99, 147, xlix 
602, 1. 429, Ivi. 494, Ixxviii. 124, 2d ser., xx.; Id., Mus. For. Lit., xlii 
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Rev., clix. 190; Museum For. Lit., xlii. 370; Natl. Mag., iv., v.; Nat! 
Quart. Rev. , xxxix. ; New Englander, xii. ; New Quart. Rev. , iv. ; Nc 
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Westm. Ixxxvii. 401; Westminst. Rev., lix., Ixxvi. 360, Ixxxvii. 

Mormonism. Cuttack (Ind.), 1855. 

Mormonism Examined, etc. Birmingham, 1855. 

Mormonism, Its Character, Origin, and Tendency, n.d. 

Mormonism. London, n.d. 

Mormonism or the Bible, etc. Cambridge and London, 1852, 

Mormonism, Past and Present, Nor, Brit. Review, Aug. 1863. 


Mormonism Self -refuted (by D. K.) London, n.d. 

Mormonism Unveiled. Calcutta, 1852. 

Jilormonism Unveiled, etc. London, 1855. 

^Mormonism Unveiled, Life and Confessions of John D. Lee. St Louis, 1877. 

ilormonismen och Swedenborgianismen. Upsala, 1854. 

Mormon Pamphlets. A collection of thirteen brochures referred to by titles. 

Mormon Politics and Policy in San Bernardino Co. , Cal. Los Angeles, 1856. 

Mormons Bog. n.d. 

Mormons (The), History of their Leading Men, in Phren. Jour., Nov. 1866. 

Mormons (The), in Utah. Bentley's Miscel., Jan. 1855. 

Mormons (The). London, 1851, 1852. 

Mormons: their Politics and Policy. Los Angeles, 1856. 

]\lormon's Wife (The), in Putnam's Monthly, June 1855. 

jNJormon Women in Mass Meeting. Salt Lake City, Nov. 16, 1878. 

Morris (Annie), A Week among the Mormons. Lipp. Mag., July 1870. 

jMorrish (W. J.), Latter-day Saints and Book of Mormon. Ledbury (Eng^.), 

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Mota-Padilla, Conq. N. Gal., iii. 14, 158-69. 

^lountain Meadows Massacre. Trial of John D. Lee. Salt Lake City, 1875. 

Mountain of the Lord's House. Piano (HI.) 

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MuUioUand (James), An Address to Americans. Nauvoo, 1841. 

Murdock (John), Persecutions of the Latter-day Saiuts, etc. ; Sydney (Aoa- 
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Murphy (J. R.), Mineral Resour. of Utah. San Francisco, 1872. 

Murray (Eli H.), Message to the Legislative Assembly, 1884; Remarks on th« 
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Musser (A. M.), Defence of our People. Philadelphia, 1877; Fruits of Mor- 
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Napa County Reporter. 

Narrative of Some of the Proceedings of the Mormons, n. d. 

Narrative of the Massacre of Joseph and Hyrum Smith. (Anon.) n.d. 

Natl. Almanac. Phila., San Francisco, London, and Paris, 1863 et seq. 

Natl. Democ. Quart. Rev. Washington, 1859 et seq., 

Nauvoo (111.), Ensign and Zarahemla Standard; L'Etoile du Deseret; Ex- 
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Nem (E. D.), in Hist. Mag., xvi. 68. 

Nelson's Picture Guide Books. New York, n.d. 

Nevada (Cal.), Journal 

Nevada, Journals of Assembly and Senate, 1864 et seq 

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New Amer., in All the Year Round, xvii. 1867. 

New Amer. Religions, in Lond. Quart. Rev., cxxii. 1867. 

Newman (J. P.), A Sermon with an Answer by O. Pi-att. Salt Lake City, 

Jfew Orleans Picayune. 

Newspapers of Utah and other territories of the Pacific U. S., etc. The 
.most important are cited under the name of the town where published, 
and many of them named in this list. 

New York Courier and Enquirer; Herald; Mail; Mormon Intelligence; Ob- 
server; Prophet; Sun; Times; W^all St Journal. 

Nicholay (C. G.), Oregon Territory. London, 1846. 

Nicholson (John), Comprehensive Salvation. Liverpool, 1880; The Latter- 
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Nickerson (Freeman), Death of the Prophet. Boston, 1844. 


Nidever, Life and Adv. MS. 

Niles' Register, Baltimore, etc., 1847etseq, 

Nineteenth Century. London, 1SS4. 

NordofF (Chas), California for Health, Pleasure, etc. New York, 1873. 

North Anierican Review. Boston, 1850 et seq. 

Noticias, in Doc. Hist. Mex., 671-2. 

Nouvelles Annales des Voyages. Paris, 1847 et seq. 

Oakland Monthly Review; Tribune. 

O'Bit Tauk between Two Berry Chaps obeawt th' Latter-day Saints, etc.! 

Bury (Eng.), 1848. 
Observations in Utah. MS. 

Ogden (Utah), Freeman; Herald; Junction; Times. 
Olive Branch. Kirtland (0.), and Springfield (lU.), 1848-50. 
Olsbausen (Theodor), Geschichte der Mormoneu, etc. Gottingen, 1856. 
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Onderdonk (J. L.), in Nat. Quart. Rev., xxxix. 80. 
Ontario Mining Company, Report, 1881-3. 

Origin and History of the Mormonites, in Eclectic Mag. , Nov. 1850. 
Origin of the Morm. Imposture, in Littell's Liv. Age, xxx. 1851. 
OiT (Adrian), Mormonism Dissected. Bethania (Pa.), 1841. 
Overland Monthly. San Francisco, 1868 et seq. 
Oviedo, iv. 19. 
Oxford, Idaho Enterprise. 

Pacific Railroad Reports. Washington, 1855-60. 13 vols. 

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Zion's Watchman (Australia and New Zealand). 





Francisco Vazquez de Coronado at CrBoiA — ExPEDirioN of Pedro db 
ToBAR AND Father Juan de Padilla — They Hear of a Large 
RrvER — GarcIa Lopez de Cardenas Sent in Search of It — The First 
Europeans to Approach Utah — Route of Cardenas — Mythical 
Maps — Part of the Northern Mystery — Journey of Dominguez 


Crossed — The Comanches — Region of the Great Lakes — Rivers 
Timpanogos, San Buenaventura, and Others — The Country op 
THE YuTAS — Route from Santa Fe to Monterey — The Friars Talk 
OF the Lake Country — Return of the Spaniards to Zuni and 
March to Santa Fe. 

As Francisco Vazquez de Coronado was journeying 
from Culiacan to the north and east in 1540, he rested 
at Cibola, that is to say Zuni, and while waiting for 
the main army to come forward, expeditions were sent 
out in various directions. One of these, consisting 
of twenty men under Pedro de Tobar, and attended 
by Father Juan de Padilla, proceeded north-westward, 
and after five days reached Tusayan, or the Moqui 
villages, which were quickly captured. Among other 
matters of interest, information was here given of a 
large river yet farther north, the people who lived 
upon its banks being likewise very large. 

Returning to Cibola, Tobar reported what had been 
said concerning this river; whereupon Captain Garcia 
Lopez de Cdrdenas 'was sent with twelve men to 
explore it, Pedro de Sotomayor accompanying to 




chronicle the expedition. Obtaining at Tusayan, where 
he was well received, guides and carriers, with an 
ample supply of provisions, Cardenas marched for 
twenty days, probably in a north-westerly direction,^ 

^ I say probably, though in my own mind there is little doubt. The Span- 
iards were exploring northward. They had lately traversed the region to 
their south-west, and instead of wishing to retrace their steps they would be 
likely to keep up well away from their former track. It is true that one nar- 
rative gives the direction as west; but then the same writer places Tusan, or 
Tusayan, west of Cibola, which if the latter be ZuSi, and the former Moqui, 
is incorrect. Then, if their direction from the Moqui towns was the same 
as this writer declares it to have been in travelling to that place, the 
Spaniards at this time certainly struck the Colorado within the limits of the 
present Utah. Escalante, Carta de 2S Oct. 1775, MS., placed Moqui west 
of Zuni, but a little north of west, with the Yutas their neighbor on the 
north. It is suflBciently plaia that Cibola was Zuni, and Tusayan Moqui, 
and as a matter of fact the latter is in a north-westerly direction from the 
former. That they went due west and crossed the Little Colorado without 
any mention of that stream is not likely; because, first, it is not twenty days 
distant from the Moquis, and the stream when reached does not answer to 
their desciiption. It was the great river they wished to find, and a north 
west course would be the most direct. Further than this, it is stated plainly 
that the point at which they discovered the river was much nearer its source 
than where the Spaniards had previously seen it. Upon the direction thenj 
taken hangs the question as to the first Europeans to enter Utah. I deem the] 
matter of sufficient importance to give both the originals and the translations' 
of two of the most complete and reliable narratives of the expedition. The 
first and fullest we find in the Belation de Castaneda of Coronado's expedi- 
tion, Ternaux-Companfi, serie i. torn. ix. 61-5, which reads as follows: 

' Comme don P6di-o de Tobar avait rempli sa mission, il revint sur ses pas 
et rendit compte au g^n^ral de ce qu'il avait vu. Celui-ci fit partir sur-le- 
champ don Garci-Lopez de Cardenas et douze autres personnes pour aljer 
visiter cette riviere ; cet officier fut tr^s-bien reiju et parfaitement traits par 
les indiens de Tusayan, qui lui donnferent des guides pour continuer sa route. 
Nos soldats partirent charges de vivres, les indiens les ayant avertis qu'il 
fe,llait traverser un desert de vingt journees de long avant d'entrer dans un 
pays habits. Aprfes ces vingt joum^es de marche ils arriv6rent en effet k 
cette rivifere, dont les bords sont tellement 6lev6s qu'ils croyaient 6tre h trois 
ou quatre lieues en Fair. Le pays est convert de pins bas et rabougris; il est 
expos6 au nord, et le froid y est si violent, que, quoique Ton ftit en 6t4, ou 
pouvait h peine le supporter. Les Espagnols marchferent pendant trois joura 
le long de ces montagnes, esp6rant tou jours trouver une descente pour arriver 
k la rivifere qui, d'en haut, ne paraissait pas avoir plus d'une brasse de large, 
et qui, selon les Indiens, avait plus d'une demi-lieue; mais il fut impossible 
de s'y rendre. Etant parvenus deux ou trois jours aprfes dans un endroit oil 
la descente leur parut plus facile, le capitaine Melgosa, Juan Galeras et un 
soldat qui ^taient les plus legers de la bande, r^solurent de faire une tenta- 
tive. Ils descendirent jusqu'ii ce que ceux qui ^talent rest^s en haut les 
eussent perdus de ven. lis revinrent vers les quatre heures du soir, disant 
qu'ils avaient trouve tant de difficult^s, qu'ils n'avaient pu arriver jusqu'en 
bas; car ce qui d'en haut semblait facile, ne I'^tait pas du tout quand ©n 
approchait. Ils ajoutferent qu'ils 6taient parvenus k environ un tiers de la 
descente, et que de 1^, la riviere paraissait dej^ tr6s grande, ce qui confirmait 
ce que les indiens avaient dit. lis assur^rent que quelques rochers que I'ou 
voyait d'en haut, et qui paraissait k peine de la hauteur d'un homme 6taient 
plus hauts que la tour de la cath^drale de Seville. Les Espagnols cess6rent 


through a desert country until he discovered the river, 
but from such high banks that he could not reach it. 
It was the river called the Tizon, and it flowed from 
the north-east toward the south-west. It seemed to 
the Spaniards when they first descried it that they 
were on mountains through which the river had cut 

de suivre les rochers qui bordeiit la rivifere, parce qu'on y manquait d'eau. 
Jusque-li ils avaient 6te obliges chaque soir de s'avancer une lieue ou deux 
dans I'int^rieur pour en trouver. Quand ils eurent march^ pendant trois ou 
quatre jours, les guides leur d^clarferent qu'il 6tait impossible d'aller plus 
loin, qu'on ne trouverait pas d'eau de quatre jours; que quand les Indiena 
passaient cette route, ils emmenaient avec eux des femmes charg^es de cale- 
basses remplies d'eau, et qu'ils en enterraient une partie pour les retrouvei 
au retour; que d'ailleurs ils parcouraient en un jour autant de chemin que 
les Espagnols en deux. Cette riviere 6tait celle del Tizon. On arriva beau- 
coup plus prfes de sa source que de I'endroit oii Melchior Diaz et ses gens 
I'avaient travers^e, et Ton sut plus tard que les Indiens dont on avait parl6 
^taient de la meme nation que ceux que Diaz avait vus. Les Espagnols 
revinrent done sur leurs pas, et cette expedition n'eut pas d'autre r6sultat. 
Pendant la marche, ils arrivferent k une cascade qui tombait d'un rocher. 
Les guides dirent que les cristaux blancs qui pendaient k I'entour 6taient du 
seL On en recueillit une quantity que Ton emporta, et qu'on distribua h 
Cibola, oil Ton rendit compte par 6crit au g6n6ral de tout ce que Ton avai» 
vu. Garci-Lopez avait emmen6 avec lui un certain P6dro de Sotomayor, qm 
etait chroniqueur de I'expedition. Tous les villages de cette province sont 
rest6s nos allies, mais on ne les a pas visit^s depuis, et I'on n'a tent6 aucune 
d6couverte de ce c6t6. ' 

As soon as Don Pedro de Tobar had fulfilled his mission, he returned and 
gave the general an account of what he had seen. The latter immediately 
ordered Don Garci-Lopez de Cdrdenas, and 12 other persons, to go and visit 
that river; this officer was well received and politely treated by the Indiana 
of Tusayan, who furnished him with guides to continue his journey. Our 
soldiers departed loaded with provisions, the Indians having notified them 
that it was necessary to travel 20 days through a desert before entering any 
inhabited country. After this 20 days' march, they arrived at that river 
whose banks are of such a height that it seemed to them that they were three 
or four leagues up in the air. The country is covered with low and stunted 
pines, exposed to the north, and the cold is so violent that, although it was 
summer, one could hardly endure it. The Spaniards during three days 
skirted those mountains, always in the hope of finding a descent to reach the 
river, which from above appeared to be no more than a fathom in width, and 
which, according to the Indians, was more than half a league wide; but all 
their efforts were vain. Two or three days later, they arrived at a place 
where the descent seemed easier; Captain Melgosa Juan Galeras and a 
soldier who were the lightest men of the band, resolved to make an attempt. 
They descended until those who had remained on the top had lost sight of 
them. They returned at about four o'clock in the afternoon, saying they had 
found so many difficulties that they could not reach the bottom; for, what 
seemed easy from above was not at all so when approaching the water. They 
added that they came down about one third of the descent, and that even 
from there the river seemed very large. This statement confirmed what 
the Indians had said. The three men affirmed that some rocks seen from 
above and which appeared to be of the height of a man, were higher than 
the tower of the cathedral of Seville. The Spaniards stopped following the 
rocks that bordered the river on account of the lack of water. Until then, 
they had been obliged to advance one or two leagues in the interior to find 


a chasm only a few feet wide, but which if they 
might beheve the natives was half a league across. 
In vain for several days, with their faces toward the 
south and west, they sought to escape from the 
mountains that environed them, and descend to the 
river, for they were suffering from thirst. At length 

some. When they had marched during three or four days, the guides declared 
to them that it was impossible to go further, that water would not be found 
before four days; that when the Indians travelled on tliis road, they took 
with them women who carried calabashes filled with water, and they buried 
a certain part, so that they might find it when returning; and besides they 
made in one day as many miles as the Spaniards would in two. This was the 
river del Tizon. They arrived much nearer to its source than the place 
where Melchor Diaz and his people had crossed, and it was known later that 
the Indians spoken of belonged to the same nation as those seen by Diaz. 
The Spaniards therefore came back, and the expedition had no other result. 
While marching, they arrived at a cascade falling from a rock. The guides 
affirmed that the white crystals hanging around were salt. A quantity of it 
was gathered, carried away, and distributed at Cibola, where a written account 
of all that had been seen was sent to the general. Garci-Lopez had taken 
with him a cei'tain Pedro de Sotomayor, who was the chronicler of the expe- 
dition. All the villages of this province have remained our allies, but they 
have not been visited since, and no attempt at discovery has been made in 
that direction. 

The other is from a relation by an unknown author, found in the archives 
of the Indies, and printed in Pacheco and Cardenas, Col. Doc, xiv. 321-3, 
under title of Relacion del suceso de la Jornada que Francisco Vazquez hizo en 
el descubrlmiento de Cibola, and from which I give the extract covering the 
same incident: 

' Vuelto D. Pedro de Tobar, 6 dada relacion de aquellos pueblos, luego 
despach6 d D. Garcia Lopez de Cardenas, maestre de campo, por el mesmo 
camiuo que habia venido D. Pedro, 6 que pasase de aquella provincia de 
Tuzan, al Poniente, 6 para ida 6 vuelta de la Jornada 6 descobrimiento, le 
senalo ochenta dias de t^rmino de ida 6 vuelta, el qual fu6 echado adelante 
de Tuzan con guias de los naturales que decian que habia adelante, poblado, 
aunque lejos, andadas cincuenta leguas de Tuzan al Poniente, 6 ochenta de 
Cibola, haU6 una barranca de un rio que i\i6 imposible por una parte ni otra 
hallarle baxada para caballo, ni aun para pi6, sino por una parte muy traba- 
xosa, por donde tenia casi dos leguas de baxada. Estaba la barranca tan 
acantillada de pefias, que apenas podian ver el rio, el cual, aunque es segun 
dicen, tanto 6 mucho mayor que el de Sevilla, de arriba aparescia un arroyo ; 
por manera que aunque con harta diligencia se busc6 pasada, 6 por muchas 
partes no se halla, en la cual estuvieron artos dias con mucha necesidad de 
agua, que no la hallaban, 6 la del rio no se podian aprovechar della aunque la 
vian ; 6 a esta causa le hi6 forzado A don Garcia Lopez volverse d donde lial- 
laron ; este rio venia del Nordeste 6 volvia al Sur Sudueste, por manera que 
sin falta ninguna es aquel donde lleg6 Melchor Diaz. ' 

Don Pedro de Tobar having returned, and having made a report concern- 
ing those towns, D. Garcia Lopez de Cdrdenas, maestre de campo, was 
ordered to take the same route by which Don Pedro had come, and to go on 
from the province of Tuzan to the westward. He was given 80 days in which 
to make the journey, from his departure until his return. He went on 
beyond Tuzan, accompanied by Indian guides, who told him that farther on 
there was a settlement. Having gone 50 leagues to the westward of Tuzan, 
and SO from Cibola, he came to the canon of a river adown the side of which 
there was no descent practicable for horse, nor even for those on foot, except 


one morning three of the lightest and most active of 
the party crept over the brink and descended until 
they were out of sight. They did not return till 
toward evening, when they reported their failure to 
reach the bottom, saying that the fiver, and distances 
and objects, were all much larger than they seemed 
to the beholder above, rocks apparently no higher 
than a man being in fact larger than the cathedral at 


Pbobable Route of CAkdenas. 

Seville. Compelled by thirst they retired from the 
inhospitable stream, and finally returned to Tusayan 
and Cibola. 

by a way full of difficulties, and nearly two leagues in length. The side of 
the canon was of rock so steep that the river was oarely discernible, although, 
according to report, it is as great as the river of Seville, or greater ; and from 
above appeared a brook. During many days, aud in many places, a way by 
which to pass the river was sought in vain. During this time there was 
much sufifering from a lack of water, for although that of the river was in 
view, it was unattainable. For this reason Don Garcia Lopez was forced to 
return. This river comes from the north-east, and makes a bend to the 
south-south-eastward; hence, beyond a doubt, it must be that reached by 
Melchor Diaz. 

Thus the reader will be able to determine the matter for himself as clearly 
as may be. For details on Coronado's expedition see the following author- 

., t 



It was not necessary in those days that a country 
should be discovered in order to be mapped; even 
now we dogmatize most about what we know least. 
It is a lonely sea indeed that cannot sport mermaids 
and monsters; it were a pity to have so broad an ex-^ 
tent of land without a good wide sheet of water in it; 
so the Conihas Regio cum Vicinis Gentibvs shows a 
large lake, called Conibas, connecting by a very wide 





Map from Maqin, 1611. 

river apparently with a northern sea. I give herewith 
another map showing a lake large enough to swallow 

ities, though comparatively few of them make mention of the adventures 
of Captain Cdrdenas on the Colorado : Eamusio, Viaggi, iii. 359-63; Hak- 
luyt's Voy., iii. 373-9; Mota-Padilla, Cong. H. Gal, iii. 14, 158-69; To7-- 
quemada, i. 609-10; Herrera, dec. vi. lib. ix. cap. xi.-xii. ; Beaumont, Hist. 
Mich., MS., 407-22, 482-546, 624-5; Oviedo, iv. 19; Villagrd, Hist. JST. 
Mex., 19 et seq.; Gomara, Hist. Ind., 272-4; Bemal Diaz, Hist. Verdad., 
235; Benzoni, Hist. Mundo Nuovo, 107; Rihas, Hist. Triumphos, 26-7; Vene- 
gas. Not. Cal., i. 167-9; Clavigero, Storia Cal., 153; Alegre, Hist. Comp. 
Jesus, i. 233-8; Salmeron, in Doc. Hist. Mex., 3d ser. pt. iv. 7-9; Noticias, in 
Id., 671-2; Cavo, Tres Sighs, i. 127-9; Lorenzana, in Cortes, Hist. Mex., 
325. These might be followed by a long list of modern writers, for which I 
will refer the reader to Hist. North Mexican States, this series. 


Utah and Idaho combined, and discharging its waters 
by two great rivers into- the Pacific. This species of 
geography was doubtless entirely satisfactory to the 
wise men of this world until they came to know bet- 
ter about it. If the reader will look over the chap- 
ters on the Northern Mystery in my History of the 

Map by John Hakkis, 1705. 

Northwest Coast he may learn further of absurdities 
in map-making. 

A more extended and pronounced exploration was 
that of two Franciscan friars, one the visitador comi- 


sario of New Mexico, Francisco Atanasio Dominguez, 
and the other ministro doctrinero of Zuni, Silvestre 
Velez de Escalante, who set out from Santa Fe July 
29, 1776, for the purpose of discovering a direct route 
to Monterey, on the seaboard of Alta California. 
New Mexico had now been known nearly two and a 
half centuries; the city of Santa Fe had been founded 
over a century and a half, Monterey had been occu- 
pied since 1770, and yet there had been opened no 
direct route westward with the sea, communication 
between Mexico and Santa Fe being by land, the 
road following the Rio Grande. In his memorial of 
March 1773, while in Mexico, Father Junipero Serra 
had urged that two expeditions be made, one from 
Sonora to California, which was carried out the fol- 
lowing year by Captain Anza, and one from New 
Mexico to the sea, which Dominguez and Escalante 
now proposed to undertake. Again in 1775 Anza 
made a similar journey, this time leaving at the junc- 
tion of the Colorado and Gila Father Garces who 
ascended the former stream to the Mojave . country, 
whence crossing to Mission San Gabriel he proceeded 
to the Tulare Valley. There he heard from the na- 
tives of a great river coming in from the east or north- 
east.^ Indeed it was long the prevailing opinion that 
there existed such a stream in that vicinity. From 
the Tulare country Garces returned to San Gabriel 
and Mojave, and thence proceeded to the villages of 
the Moquis. ^'rom this place he probably wrote to 
Santa Fe concerning the rumor of this river; for all 
through the journey of Dominguez and Escalante 
they were in search of it.' » 

''On Father Font's map, 1777, are laid down two rivers entering the region 
of the Tulare lakes from the north-east, one the Bio de San Phelipe, and the 
other called the Bio de que se Viene Noticia por el P. Garces. See Font's 
Journal, MS.; Serra, Memorial, March 1773, MS.; Garces, Diario, 246-348; 
Forbes' Hist. Cal, 157-62; Arch. Cal, Prov. Bee, MS., i. 47-8, vi. 59; 
Palou, Not., ii. 281-2; Hist. Cal; Hist. New Mex.j Hist. North Mex. States, 
this series. 

^Probably it was the San Joaquin, or the Sacramento, of which they 
heard. Concemiag a route from New Mexico to California Humboldt says: 
' En consid6rant les voyages hardis des premiers conquerans espagnols au 


The party consisted in all of nine persons. Besides 
the two priests there were Juan Pedro Cisneros, al- 
calde mayor of Zuni, Bernardo Miera y Pacheco, capi- 
tan miliciano of Santa Fe, and five soldiers.* Having 
implored divine protection, on the day before named 
they took the road to Abiquiii, passed on to the Bio 
Chama, and on the 5th of August reached a point 
called Nieves, on the San Juan Biver, three leagues 
below the junction of the Navajo. Thence they 
passed down the north bank of the San Juan, cross- 
ing the several branches, until on the 10th they found 
themselves on a branch of the Mancos, some distance 
from the San Juan, and beyond the line of the present 
state of Colorado.^ The 12th they camped on the 
north bank of the Bio Dolores, in latitude 38° 13',^ and 
were there joined by two natives from Abiquiii, who 
had deserted their homes to follow the expedition.^ 

They now followed the general course of the Do- 
lores^ until the 23d, when they left the San Pedro, 
which flows into the Dolores near La Sal, and crossed 

Mexique, au P^rou, et sur la riviere des Amazones, on est 6towa6 de voir que 
depuis denx sifecles cette meme nation n'a pas su trouver un chemin de terra 
dans la Nouvelle-Espagne, depuis Taos au port de Monterey.' Essai Pol., i. 

* ' Don Joaquin Lain, vecino de la misma villa, Lorenzo Olivares de la 
villa del Paso, Lucrecio Muniz, Andres Muiiiz, Juan de Aguilar y Simon 
Lucero. ' Diario, in Doc. Hist. Mex. , ser. ii. torn. i. 378. 

* At the beginning of the journey their route was identical with what was 
later known as the old Spanish trail from Santa F6 to Los Angeles. Their 
course was at first north-west, but shortly after passing Abiquiu it pointed 
due north into Colorado, then west, and again north-west into Utah, being 
about the same as was later called the old Spanish trail from Santa F6 to 
Great Salt Lake. Captain J. N. Macomb of the topographical engineers has 
surveyed and mapped essentially the same trail. 

^ Probably not so far north by some 40'. 

^ ' Esta tarde nos alcanzaron un coyote y un genlzaro de Abiquiii, nombradoa 
el primero Felipe y el segundo Juan Domingo; por vagar entre los gentiles, 
se huyeron sin permiso de sus superiores del dicho pueblo, pretestando querer 
acompanamos. No necesitdbamos de ellos; mas por evitar las culpas, que 6 
por su ignorancia 6 por su malicia podian cometer andando mas tiempo solos 
entre los yutas, si intent^bamos que regresasen, los admitimos por companeros. ' 
Diario, Doc. Hist. Ilex., ser. ii. tom. i. 392. 

* These streams are doubtless those emptying into the Colorado not far from 
its junction with the Bunkara. Latitude 39° 13' is here given, but that must 
be too high. Philip Harry, in Simpson''s Explor. , 490, says that np to the 
point first touched on the Dolores the priests' path and Macomb's survey are 
identical, but that they here diverge. 



over north-east to Rio San Francisco,^ and again to 
the Rio San Javier^" on the 28th, their course being 
for some distance east of north. 

Not far from their path was a rancherfa of Yutas, 
which the Spaniards visited, endeavoring to obtain 
guides to the land of the Timpanogos, Timpangotzis, 
or Lagunas, where they had been told to look for 

Escalante's Route from Santa Fi to Utah Lake. 

Pueblo towns. A Laguna guide was there, but the 
Yutas did all in their power to dissuade the explorers 

^ An affluent of the San Javier, or Grand River. 

^^ Calle'l by the Yutas Tomiche; to-day Grand River. It may here be 
observed that the route toward this region had been visited by Spaniards 
before, notably by Juan Maria de Ribera in 1761, and Spanish names had 
been given to places, though the present Utah was probably not entered by 
him. Escalante states that the San Javier is formed by four small streams 
coining in above the point at which he crossed, and these, says Harry, Simp- 
KOHS Explor., 490, correspond 'remarkably with the Uncompagre River, 
Grand River, Smith's Fork, and another large fork. . .It seems evident that 
after crossing the San Xavier he follows up stream a different fork from what 
we call Grand River, but which fork he calls the main river, or San Xavier. ' 
Gunnison maps liis explorations, showing the mouth of this last named 
stream. In Simpson's Explor., 489, is given a map of the present expedition, 
but it does not conform in every particular to Escalante's text. 



from proceeding, pretending ignorance of the country 
and danger from the Comanches. But the 3d of Sep- 
tember saw them again on their way. Pursuing a 
north-west course, the second day they crossed and 
camped on the north bank of the Rio San Rafael, or 
Colorado," in latitude 41° 4'. Their course thence 
was north-westerly, and on the 9th they crossed a 
river called San Clemente,^^ flowing west. Signs of 
buffaloes were abundant, and on the 11th they killed 
one. Two days afterward they crossed the Rio de 
San Buenaventura,^^ the boundary between the Yutas 
and the Comanches, in latitude 41° 19', at a place 
which the priests call Santa Cruz. Here were six large 
black poplars, on one of which they left an inscription. 
After resting two days they took the course of the 
San Buenaventura south-west ten leagues, and from 
a hill saw the junction of the San Clemente. Descend- 
ing a little farther they found a river flowing in from 
the west, following which they reached a branch the 
17th, naming it the San Cosme.^* 

From this point they proceeded westward, follow- 
ing up the Uintah, across the Duchesne, and over the 
mountains, with no small difficulty, to a river which 
they called Purisima,^^ and which they followed till 
on the 23d they came in sight of the lake which the 
natives called Timpanogos, but which is known now 
as Utah Lake. 

Several reasons combined to bring the Spaniards 
so far to the north of what would be a direct road 

" Grand River; but the latitude given was about 1° 30' too high. 

*^ White River, the point of crossing being near tlie Utah line. 

" Green River. The latitude given is at least 50' too high. The crossing 
was above the junctions of White River and the Uintah with Green River. 
See Rep. Fr. Alonso de Posada, custodio de JSf. Mex., in Doc. Hist. Mex., i. 

" This is the north branch of the Uintah. Indeed the narrative of the 
explorers makes their route in this vicinity unmistakable. 

^^ Now the Timpanogos. ' Proseguimos al noroeste media legua, pasamos ^ 
la otra banda del rio, subimos una corta cuesta y divisamos la laguna y dila- 
tado valle de Nuestra SeSora de la Merced de los Timpanogotzis — asi lo uom« 
bramos desde aqui.' Diario, Doc. Hist. Mex., s6rie ii. torn. i. 454. 



from Santa Fe to Monterey. First, Escalante enter- 
tained a theory that a better route to the Pacific 
could be found northward than toward the south. 
Then there was always a fascination attending this 
region, with its great and perpetual Northern Mys- 
tery; perhaps the Arctic Ocean came down hereabout, 
or at least an arm of the Anian Strait might be 
found; nor were forgotten the rivers spoken of by 
different persons on different occasions as flowing 
hence into the Pacific. And last of all it may be 
that the rumor of Pueblo villages in this quarter car- 
ried the explorers further north than otherwise they 
would have gone. 

However this may have been, they were now of 
opinion that they had penetrated far enough in a 
northerly direction, and from this point must take a 
southerly course. There were here no town-builders 
like the Moquis and Zunis, as the priests had been 
led to suppose, but there were wild Indians, and the 
first they had seen in this vicinity. At first these 
savages manifested fear, but when assured that the 
strangers had not come to harm them, and were in no 
way leagued with the dreaded Comanches, they wel- 
comed them kindly and gave them food. They were 
simple-minded and inoffensive, these native Yutas, 
very ready to guide the travellers whithersoever they 
would go; but they begged them to return and estab- 
lish a mission in their midst; in token of which, and 
of their desire to adopt the Christian faith, they gave 
the priests a kind of hieroglyphic painting on deer- 

^® The Spaniards asked from them some token to show that they wished 
them to return, and the day after they brought them one ; ' pero al traer la 
sena vio un companero, que no sabia el 6rden dado, A las figuras de ella, y 
mostrdndole la cruz del rosario, les di6 d entender, que la piutasen sobre una 
de las figuras, y entonces la volvieron d Uevar, y sobre cada una pintaron 
una cruz pequeua ; lo demas qued6 como antes y nos la dieron diciendo que 
la figura que por uno y otro lado tenia mas almagre, 6 como ellos decian, 
sangre, representaba al capitan mayor, porque en las batallas con los cuman- 
ches habia recibido mas heridas : las otras dos que no estaban tan ensangren- 
tadas, & los otros dos capitanes inferiores al primero, y la que no tenia sangre 
ninguna, & uno que no era capitan de guerra, pero era de autoridad entre 




Then the Spaniards talk of the country, and of the 
people about them. They are in the valley and by 
the lake of Nuestra Seiiora de la Merced de los Tim- 


ellos. Estas cuatro figuras de hombres estaban rudamente pintadas con tierra 
y aliTiEgre en un corto pedazo de gamuza.' Diario, Doc. Hist. Mex., s6rie ii. 
torn. i. 462-3. 


panogos," and north of the river San Buenaventura are 
the mountains which they have just crossed, extend- 
ing north-edst and south-west some seventy leagues, 
and having a width of forty leagues. From the sur- 
rounding heights flow four rivers of medium size, 
discharging their waters into the lake, where thrive 
fish and wild fowl. The valley which surrounds this 
lake extends from south-east to north-west sixteen 
Spanish leagues; it is quite level, and has a width of 
ten or twelve leagues. Except the marshes on the 
lake borders the land is good for agriculture. Of the 
four rivers which water the valley the southernmost, 
which they call Aguas CaUentes, passes through rich 
meadows capable of supporting two large towns. 
The second, three leagues from the first, flowing 
northerly, and which they call the San NicoMs, fer- 
tilizes enough good land to support one large town 
or two smaller ones. Before reaching the lake it 
divides into two branches, on the banks of which 
grow tall poplars and alders. The third river, which 
is three and a half leagues to the north-east, and which 
they call the San Antonio de Padua, carries more 
water than the others, and from its rich banks, which 
would easily support three large towns, spring groves 
of larger trees. Santa Ana, they call the fourth 
river, which is north-west of the San Antonio, and 
not inferior to the others ^^ — so they are told, fox they 
do not visit it. Besides these rivers, there ath, good 
springs of water both on plain and mountairi-side; 
pasture lands are abundant, and in parts the fertile 
soil yields such quantities of flax and hemp that it 
seems they must have been planted there by man. 
On the San Buenaventura the Spaniards had been 

^' Or, as it was also called, Timpagtzis, Timpanoautzis, 6 Come Pescado. 
Doc. Hist. Mex., s6rie ii. torn. i. 464. 

^^ There is no difficulty in recognizing these land-marks, the Uintah 
Moiintains, the San Buenaventura, or Green River; and in the four streams 
of the valley, their Aguas Calientes is Currant Creek; the second, their San 
Nicolas, though more than three leagues from the first, and not correspond- 
ing in every other particular, is the Spanish River; the San Antonio is the 
Provo; and the Santa Ana, the River Jordan. 


troubled by the cold; but here the cHmate is so 
deHghtful, the air so balmy, that it is a pleasure to 
breathe it, by day and by night. In the vicinity are 
other valleys equally delightful. Besides the jDro- 
ducts of the lake the Yutas hunt hares, and gather 
seeds from which they make atole. They might cap- 
ture some buffaloes in the north-north-west but for 
the troublesome Comanches,^^ They dwell in huts 
of osier, of which, likewise, many of their utensils are 
made; some of them wear clothes, the best of which 
are of the skins of rabbits and antelopes. There are 
in this region many people, of whom he who would 
know more may consult the Native Races. 

The Spaniards are further told by the Yutas of a 
large and wonderful body of water toward the north- 
west, and this is what Father Escalante reports of it. 
"The other lake, with which this communicates," he 
says, "occupies, as they told us, many leagues, and 
its waters are injurious and extremely salt; because 
the Timpanois^'' assure us that he who wets any part 
of his body with this water, immediately feels an itch- 
ing in the wet part. We were told that in the circuit 
of this lake there live a numerous and quiet nation, 
called Puaguampe, which means in our language Sor- 
cerers; they speak the Comanche language, feed on 
herbs, and drink from various fountains or springs of 
good water which are about the lake; and they have 
their little houses of grass and earth, which latter 
forms the roof They are not, so they intimated, 
enemies of those living on this lake, but since a certain 
time when the people there approached and killed a 
man, they do not consider them as neutral as before. 

"This is directly opposite the direction in which we would expect to 
find the Comanches of to-day; but the Utea applied the term comanche to all 
hostile Indians. Buflfaloes were common in aboriginal times in Cache and 
Powder River valleys as well as in eastern Oregon and Bois6 valley. 

*" Yet another form for the name Timpanogos, as indeed before the end of 
the following page we have 'Timpanosis,' 'Timpanogotzis,' and 'Timpanogo.' 
See note 17 this chapter. On Froisett's map, published at Salt Lake City in 
1875, is the ' Provo, or Timponayas ' river. 


On this occasion they entered by the last pass of the 
Sierra Blanca de los Timpanogos, which is the same in 
which they are, by a route north one fourth north-west, 
and by that same way they say the Comanches make 
their raids, which do not seem to be very frequent."'^ 

Continuing their journey the 26th of September 
with two guides, the Spaniards bend their course 
south-westwardlyin the direction of Monterey, through 
the Sevier lake and river region, which stream they 
call Santa Isabel. The 8th of October they are in 
latitude 38° 3' with Beaver River behind them. 
Passing on into what is now Escalante Valley they 
question the natives regarding a route to the sea, and 
as to their knowledge of Spaniards in that direction. 
The savages know nothing of either. Meanwhile 
winter is approaching, provisions are becoming low, the 
way to the sea must be long and difficult; therefore 
the friars resolve to abandon the attempt; they will 
continue south, turning perhaps to the east until they 
come to the Colorado, when they will return to Santa 
¥6 by way of the Moqui and Zuni villages. 

Some of the party object to this abandonment of 

'^ As this is the first account we have of the Great Salt Lake and its people 
I will give the original entire : ' La otra laguna con quien esta se comunica, 
ocupa, segun nos informaron, muchas leguas y sus aguas son nocivas 6 estre- 
madamente saladas ; porque nos aseguran los timpanois que el que se mojaba 
alguna parte del cuerpo con ellas, al punto sentia mucha comenzon en la parte 
niojada. En su circuito nos dijeron habita una nacion nunaerosa y quieta, 
que se nombra Puaguampe, que en nuestro vulgar dice hechiceros ; la cual 
usa el idionia cumanche ; se alimenta de las yervas, bebe de varias fuentes d 
ojos de buena agua, que estdn en el circuito de la laguna, y tienen sus casitas 
de zacate y tierra, que era el techo de ellas. No son enemigos de los lagunas, 
segun insinuaron, pero desde cierta ocasion que se acercaron y les mataron un 
honibre, no los tienen por tan neutx'ales como antes. En esta ocasion entraron 
por la puerta iinal de la Sierra Blanca de los Timpanosis, que es la misma en 
que estdn, por el norte cuarta al noroeste, y por aqui mismo dicen hacer sus 
entradas los cumanches, las que no parecieron ser muy frecuentes. ' Diario, 
Doc, Hist. Mex. , s6rie ii. torn. i. 468. 

Mr Harry is evidently not very thoroughly versed in the Spanish lan- 
guage, or his manuscript copy of Escalante's journey is defective. For exam- 
ple he translates echizeros — which being old Spanish he could not find in his 
modern dictionary — ' throwers or slingers ' when the word ' witches,' or rather 
' sorcerers, ' is clearly implied. Again he queries vacate, not knowing its 
meaning — a common enough Mexican word, formerly written zacate, and sig- 
nifying hay or grass. For further inaccuracies see his summary in Simpson^s 
Explor., 494. Warren, Pacific Railroad Report, xi. 35, examined the same 
copy of Escalante's narrative, then in the Peter Force library, which was 
used by Harry. 


purpose. They have come far; they can surely find a 
way: why turn back? To determine the matter prayers 
are made and lots cast, the decision being against Mon- 
terey. As they turn eastward, the llth, in latitude 
36° 52', they are obliged to make bread of seeds pur- 
chased from the natives, for their supplies are wholly 
exhausted. Reaching the Colorado the 26th, twelve 
days are passed in searching for a ford, which they 
find at last in latitude 37°, the line dividing Utah 
from Arizona. Their course is now south-east, and 
the 16th of November they reach Oraybi, as they call 
the residence of the Moquis. There they are kindly 
received; but when for food and shelter they offer- 
presents and religious instruction the natives refuse; 
Next day the Spaniards visit Xongopabi, and the day 
after Gualpi, at which latter place they call a meeting 
and propose to the natives temporal and spiritual sub- 
mission. The Moquis will be friendly they say, but 
the further proposals they promptly decline. There- 
upon the friars continue their way, reaching Zuni No- 
vember 24th and Santa Fe the 2d of January 1777.^^ 

''^The journey into Utah of Domingnez and Escalante, as given in Poc. 
Hist. Alex., s^rie ii. torn. i. 375-558, under title of Diario y der voter o de los R. B. 
PP. Fr. Francisco Atanasio Dominguez y Fr. Silvestre Velez de Fscalante, para 
descubrir el camino desde el Presidio de Santa F6 del Nuevo Mexico, al de Mon- 
terey, en la California Septentrioyial, is full and clear as to route and informa- 
tion regarding the country and its inhabitants. As must be expected in all 
such narratives it is full of trivial detail which is tiresome, but which we can 
readily excuse for the worth of the remainder. The priests were close and 
intelligent observers, and have much to say regarding configuration, soil, 
climate, plants, minerals, animals, and people. A summary is given in Simp- 
son's Explor., app. R by Philip Harry, from a manuscript copy of the origi- 
nal in the archives in the city of Mexico which answers the purpose therein 
required, but is not sufficiently reliable or exact for historical purposes. The 
map accompanying the summary is better, being for the most part correct. 
Of the two padres and what they saw Humboldt says, Essal Pol.: 'Ce ter- 
rain est la continuation de la Cordill^re des Grues, qui se prolonge vers la 
Sierra Verde et vers le lac de Timpanogos, c6l6bre dans I'histoii-e mexicaine. 
Le Rio S. Rafael et le Rio S. Xavier sont les sources principales du fieuve 
Zaguananas, qui, avec le Rio de Nabajoa, forme le Rio Colorado: ce demir a 
son embouchure dans le golfe de Califomie. Ces regions abondautes en sel 
gemme out 6t6 examinees, en 1777, par deux voyageurs remplis de z6le et 
d'intr^pidit^, moines de I'order de S. Francois, le pfere Escalante et le pere 
Antonio Velez. ' From the last clause it is clear that Humboldt was confused 
as to names, Velez and Escalante belonging to the same person. Simpson, 
Explor., 13, enters upon a long dissertation over a simple and very transpar- 
ent mistake. See also Hist. North Mex, Stages; Hist. New Mex.; and Hisi. 
Cal., this series. 

Hist. Utah. 2 




Invasion by Fur Hunters — Baron la Hontan and his Fables — The Pop- 
ular Geographic Idea — Discovert of the GtReat Salt Lake — James 
Bridger Deciding a Bet — He Determines the Course of Bear River 
and Comes upon the Great Lake — Henry, Ashley, Green, and 
Beckwourth on the Ground — Fort Built at Utah Lake — Peter 
Skeen Ogden — Journey of Jedediah S, Smith — A Strange Coun- 
try — Pegleg Smith — Wolfskill, Yount, and Burton Traverse the 
Country — Walker's Visit to California — Some Old Maps — The 
Bartleson Company — Statements of Bidwell and Belden Com- 
pared—Whitman AND LovEjoY — Fremont — Pacific Coast Immigra- 
tions OF 1845 AND 1846 — Origin op the Name Utah. 

Half a century passes, and we find United States 
fur hunters standing on the border of the Great Salt 
Lake, tasting its brackish waters, and wondering if 
it is an arm of the sea.^ 

* There are those who soberly refer to the Baron la Hontan and his prodi- 
gious falsehoods of 1689 for the first information of Great Salt Lake. Because 
among the many fabulous wonders reported he somewhere on the western 
side of the continent placed a body of bad-tasting water, Stansbury, Exped., 
151, does not hesitate to affirm 'that the existence of a large lake of salt water 
somewhere amid the wilds west of the Rocky Mountains seems to have been 
known vaguely as long as 150 years since.' Perhaps it was salt, and not silver 
that the Winnebagoes reported to Carver, Travels, 33-6, as coming down in 
caravans from ' the mountains lying near the heads of the Colorado River. ' 
Warren, in Pacific Railroad Report, xi. 34, repeats and refutes the La Hon- 
tan myth. He says, * the story of La Hontan excited much speculation, and 
received various additions in his day; and the lake finally became represented 
on the published English maps.' Long before this date, however, reliable in- 
formation had been received by the Spaniards, and the same may have come 
to English trappers; so that by 1826 reports of the existence of such a sheet 
may have reached civilization. It is needless to say that neither La Hontan 
nor Carver ever received information from the natives, or elsewhere, sufficient 
to justify map-makers in placing a large lake in that vicinity. In Gordon's 
Historical and Geographical Memoir of the North American Continent, pub- 
lished in Dublin in 1820, it is written: 'Concerning the lakes and rivers of 
this as yet imperfectly explored region we have little to say. Of the former 




First among these, confining ourselves to authentic 
records, was James Bridger, to whom belongs the 
honor of discovery. It happened in this wise. During 
the winter of 1824-5 a party of trappers, who had 
ascended the Missouri with Henry and Ashley, found 

we have no certain account. Two have been noticed in the western parts, a 
salt lake about the thirty-ninth degree of latitude, the western limits of 
which are unknown, and the lake of Timpanogos, about the forty -first degree, 
of great but unascertained extent. ' 

Map of Utah, 1826. 

In a report submitted to congress May 15, 1826, by Mr Baylies it is stated 
that ' many geographies have placed the Lake Timpanogos in latitude 40, but 
they have obviously confounded it with the Lake Theguayo, which extends 
from 39° 40' to 41°, and from which it appears separated by a neck or penin- 
sula; the two lakes approaching in one direction as near as 20 miles.' 19th 
Con}]., 1st Sess., Home Bept. No. 213. Such statements as this amount to 
nothing— the honorable gentleman, with all due respect, not knowing what 
he was writing about— except as going to show the vague and imperfect im- 
pression of the popular mind concerning this region at that time. 

I will give for what it is worth a claim, set up in this same cougrea- 


themselves on Bear River, in Cache, or Willow Val- 
ley. A discussion arose as to the probable course 
of Bear River, which flowed on both sides of them. 
A wager was made, and Bridger sent to ascertain the 
truth. Following the river through the mountains 
the first view of the great lake fell upon him, and 
when he went to the margin and tasted the water he 
found that it was salt. Then he returned and re- 
ported to his companions. All were interested to 
know if there emptied into this sheet other streams, 
on which they might find beavers, and if there was 
an outlet; hence in the spring of 1826 four men ex- 
plored the lake in skin boats.^ 
'"During this memorable year of 1825, when Peter 

sional report, by one Samuel Adams Ruddock, that in the year 1821 he 
journeyed from Council Bluff to Santa F6, and thence with a trading party 
proceeded by way of Great Salt Lake to Oregon. The report says : ' On the 
9th of June this party crossed the Rio del Norte, and pursuing a north-west 
direction on the north bank of the river Chamas, and over the mountains, 
reached Lake Trinidad; and then pursuing the same direction across the 
upper branches of the Rio Colorado of California, reached Lake Timpanagos, 
which is intersected by the 42d parallel of latitude, the boundary between 
the United States of America and the United States of Mexico. This lake 
is the principal source of the river Timpanagos, and the Multnomah of Lewis 
and Clarke. They then followed the course of this river to its junction with 
the Columbia, and reached the mouth of the Columbia on the first day of 
August, completing the journey from the Council Bluffs in seventy-nine 
days. ' 

^This, upon the testimony of Robert Campbell, Pac. R. Rept., xi. 35, who 
was therejat the time 'and found the party just returned from the exploration 
of the lake, and recollect their report that it was without any outlet. ' Bridger's 
story of his discovery was corrroborated by Samuel TuUock in Campbell's 
counting-room in St Louis at a later date. Campbell pronounces them both 
'men of the strictest integrity and truthfulness.' Likewise Ogden's trappers 
met Bridger's party in the summer of 1825 and were told of the discovery. 
See Hist. Nevada, this series. Irving, Bonneville's Adv., 186, says it was 
probably Sublette who sent out the four men in the skin canoe in 1826. Bonne- 
ville professes to doubt this exploration because the men reported that they 
suffered severely from thirst, when in fact several fine streams flow into the 
lake; but Bonneville desired to attach to his name the honor of an early sur- 
vey, and detract from those entitled to it. The trappers in their canoes did 
not pretend to make a thorough survey, and as for scarcity of fresh water in 
places Stansbury says, Exped., 103, that during his explorations he frequently 
was obliged to send fifty miles for water. Other claimants appear prior to 
Bridger's discovery. W. M. Anderson writing to the National Intelligencer 
under date of Feb. 26, 1860, says that Provost trapped in this vicinity in 
1820, and that Ashley was there before Bridger. Then it was said by Seth 
Grant that his partner, Vazquez, discovered the great inland sea, calling it an 
arm of the ocean because the water was salt. That no white man ever saw 
the Great Salt Lake before Bridger cannot be proven; but his being the only 
well authenticated account, history must rest there until it finds a better one. 



Skeen Ogden with his party of Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany trappers was on Humboldt River, and James P. 
Beckwourth was pursuing his daring adventures, and 
the region round the great lakes of Utah first became 
familiar to American trappers, William H. Ashley, 
of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, at the head of 
one hundred and twenty men and a train of well 
packed horses, came out from St Louis, through the 
South Pass and down by Great Salt Lake to Lake 
Utah}' There he built a fort, and two years later 
brought from St Louis a six-pounder which thereafter 
graced its court. Ashley was a brave man, shrewd 
and honest; he was prosperous and commanded the 
respect of his men. Nor may we impute to him lack 
of intelligence, or of common geographical knowledge, 
when we find him seriously considering the project of 
descending the Colorado in boats, by means of which 
he would eventually reach St Louis. Mr Green, who 
gave his name to Green River, had been with Ashley 
the previous year; and now for three years after the 
establishing of Fort Ashley at Utah Lake, Green with 
his trappers occupied the country to the west and north. ^ 

' See Hist. Northwest Coast, ii. 447-8, this series. T. D. Bonner in Iiis 
Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth, 71-3, gives what purports to be 
an account of Ashley's descent of Green River to Great Salt Lake on a certain 
occasion in Ashley's own language. There may be some truth in it all, though 
Beckwourth is far astray in his dates, as he places the occurrence in 1S22. 
Beckwourth goes on to say that one day in June a beautiful Indian girl 
offered him a pair of moccasins if he would shoot for her an antelope and bring 
her the brains, that with them she might dress a deer-skin. Beckwourth 
started out, but failing to secure an antelope, and seeing as he supposed an 
Indian coming, he thought he would shoot the Indian and take his brains to 
the gu'l, who would not know the difference. Just as he was about to fire he 
discovered the supposed Indian to be Ashley, who thereupon told him of his 
adventures down Green River and through the canon to Great Salt Lake. I 
have no doubt it is three fourths fiction, and what there is of fact must be 
placed forward four years. 'We had a very dangerous passage down the 
river,' said Ashley to Beckwourth, 'and suffered more than I ever wish to see 
men suffer again. You are aware that we took but little provision with us, 
not expecting that the canon extended so far. In passing over the rapids, 
where we lost two boats and three guns, we made use of ropes in letting down 
our boats over the most dangerous places. Our provisions soon gave out. 
We found plenty of beaver in the canon for some miles, and, expecting to find 
them in as great plenty all the way, we saved none of their carcasses, which 
constituted our food. As we proceeded, however, they became more and 
more scarce, until there were none to be seen, and we were entirely out of 
provisions. To trace the river was impossible, and to ascend the perpendicu- 


From Great Salt Lake in August, 1826, Jedediah 
S. Smith sets out on a trapping and exploring tour 
with fifteen men. Proceeding southward he trav- 
erses Utah Lake, called for a time Ashley Lake,^ and 
after ascending Ashley River, which, as he remarks, 
flows into the lake through the country of the Sam- 
patches, he bends his course to the west of south, passes 
over some mountains running south-east and north- 
west, and crosses a river which he calls Adams,^ in 

lar cliffs, which hemmed us in on either side, was equally impossible. Our 
only alternative was to go ahead. After passing six days without food, the 
men were weak and disheartened. I listened to all their murmurings and 
heart-rending complaints. They often spoke of home and friends, declaring 
they would never see them more. Some spoke of wives and children whom 
they dearly loved, and who must shortly become widows and orphans. They 
had toiled, they said, through every difficulty; had risked their lives among 
wild beasts and hostile Indians in the wilderness, all of which they were will- 
ing to undergo; but who could bear up against actual starvation? I en- 
couraged them all in my power, telling them that I bore an equal part in their 
sufferings; that I too was toiling for those I loved, and whom I yet hoped to 
see again; that we should all endeavor to keep up our courage, and not add 
to our misfortunes by giving way to despondency. Another night was passed 
amid the barren rocks. The next morning the fearful proposition was made 
by some of the party for the company to cast lots, to see which should be 
sacrificed to afford food for the others, without which they must inevitably 
perish. My feelings at such a proposition cannot be described. I begged 
of them to wait one day more, and make all the way they could meanwhile. 
By doing so, I said, we must come to a break in the canon, where we could 
escape. They consented, and moving down the river as fast as the current 
would carry us, to our inexpressible joy we found a break, and a camp of 
trappers therein. All now rejoiced that they had not carried their fearful 
proposition into effect. We had fallen into good hands, and slowly recruited 
ourselves with the party, which was under the charge of one Provo, a man 
with whom I was well acquainted. By his advice we left the river and "pro- 
ceeded in a north-westerly direction. Provo was well provided with pro- 
visions and horses, and he supplied us with both. We remained with his 
party until we arrived at the Great Salt Lake. Here I fell in with a large 
company of trappers, composed of Canadians and Iroquois Indians, under the 
command of Peter Ogden, in the service of the Northwest Fur Company. 
With this party I made a very good bargain, as you will see when they arrive 
at our camp, having purchased all their peltry on very reasonable terms.' 

* Jedediah Smith in 1826 calls the lake Utah, and the stream flowing into 
it from the south Ashley River. ' Je traversal le petit lac UtS,, et je remon- 
tai le cours de I'Ashley qu'il recoit. ' Extrait d'une lettre, in Nouvelles An. des 
Voy., XXX vii. 208. For an account of this journey see Hist. Cal., this series, 
where are fully discussed the several conflicting authorities. Warner^s Rem., 
MS., 21-9, dates the journey 1824, and carries the company from Green 
River, south of Salt Lake, and over the mountains near Walker Pass. 
Accounts in Croime's Nat. Wealth Cal; Hutchings' Mag., v. 351-2; S. F. 
Times, Jwne 14, 1867; Randolph's Oratio7i, 313-U; Tuthill's Hist. Cal, 124-5; 
Frignet, La Calif ornie, 58-60; Douglas' Private Papers, MS., 2d ser. i.; 
Victor's River of the West, 34; Hines' Voy., 110, are mentioned. 

° The Sevier; or possibly he crossed from the Sevier to the Virgen and 
supposed them to be one stream. 


honor of the president. After ten days' march, still in 
a south-westerly direction, through the country of the 
Pah Utes, he recrosses the same stream, and after 
two days comes to the junction of the Adams with 
what he calls the Seedskeeder, or Siskadee, river,^ a 
stream full of shallows and rapids and flowing through 
a sterile country. Then he reaches a fertile wooded 
valley which belongs to the Amajabes, or Mojaves, 
where the party rests fifteen days, meeting with the 
kindest treatment from the natives, who provide food 
and horses. Thence they are guided by two neo- 
phytes westward through a desert country, and reach 
the mission of San Gabriel in December, their ap- 
pearance causing no small commotioij in California. 
After many strange adventures, fully narrated in my 
History of California, Smith works his way north- 
ward up the San Joaquin Valley, and in May 1827 
crosses the Sierra Nevada and returns eastward to 
Great Salt Lake. With Jedediah Smith, during 
some part of his stay in Utah, was Thomas L. Smith, 
whom we must immortalize in history as Pegleg 
Smith. He did not possess a very estimable charac- 
ter, as, I am sorry to say, few of his class did in those 
days. The leaders of American fur companies, how- 
ever, were exceptions, and in points of intelligence, 
integrity, and daring were in no wise behind their 
British brethren.^. 

From south-east to north-west a portion of Utah 
was traversed in the autumn of 1830 by a trapping 
party under William Wolfskill. The company was 
fitted out in New Mexico, and the great valley of 
California was their objective point. Wolfskill had 
been a partner of Ewing Young, who was then in 
California. Leaving Taos in September they struck 

* The Adams now is clearly the Rio Virgen, and the Seedskeeder, or Sis- 
kadee, the Colorado. See Hist. Northwest Coast, ii. 583, this series. 

' P. W. Crawford, Nar., M.?., 27, says he saw Pegleg Smith in 1847 
on Ham Fork, in a beautiful valley of the Bear River Mountains, where he 
then lived with his native wife and a few savage retainers. 



north-westerly, crossing the Colorado, Grande, Green, 
and Sevier rivers, and then turned south to the Kio 
Virgen, all the time trapping on the way. Then pass- 
ing down by the Mojaves they reached Los Angeles 
in February 1831. George C. Yount and Louis Bur 
ton were of the party.^ 

'; Geeen River Country. 

'^^ During the winter of 1832-3 B. L. E. Bonneville 
made his canap on Salmon Biver, and in July following 
was at the Green Biver rendezvous.^ Among the 
several trapping parties sent by him in various direc- 

^ There was little of importance to Utah history in this expedition, for full 
particulars of which see Hist. CaL, this series. 

^ For an account of Bonneville and his several excursions see Hist. Northwest 
Coast, ii. chap, xxv.; JJist. CaL, and Hist. Nevada, this series. 


tlons was one under Joseph Walker, who with some 
thirty-six men, among them Joe Meek, went to trap on 
the streams falHng into the Great Salt Lake. ^^ 

Bonneville affirms that Walker's intention was to 
pass round the Great Salt Lake and explore its bor- 
ders ; but George Nidever who was of Walker's com- 
pany, and at the rendezvous while preparations were 
made, says nothing of such purpose, and it was prob- 
ably not thought of by Bonneville until afterward. 
Nidever had sulBfered severely from the cold during 
the previous winter, and had come to the Green River 
rendezvous that season for the express purpose of 
joining some party for California or of forming such 
a party himself, having been informed that the climate 
there was milder than in the mountains where he had 

If the intention was, as Bonneville asserts, that 
this party should pass round the great lake, in their 
endeavor they presently found themselves in the 
midst of desolation, between wide sandy wastes and 
broad brackish waters; and to quench their thirst 
they hastened westward where bright snowy moun- 
tains promised cooling streams. The Ogden Biver" 
region being to them so new, and the thought of Cali- 
fornia so fascinating, they permitted themselves to 
stray from original intentions, and cross the Sierra 
Nevada to Monterey. All that is known of their 
doings before reaching the Snowy Bange is given in 
my History of Nevada, and their exploits after reach- 
ing California are fully narrated in that part of this 
series devoted to the history of the latter country. ^^ 

*" Such being the case he would hardly have joined Walker's expedition 
had it been understood that the exploration of Salt Lake was intended. See 
Nidever^s Life and Adv., MS., 58. 

" Previously called the Mary River, and now the Humboldt. See Hist. 
Nevada; Hist. Northwest Coast; and Hist. Cal., this series. 

^^See Nidever' 8 Life and Adv., MS.; Warner's Mem., in Pac. R. Report, 
xi. pt. i. 31-4. In giving his dictation to Irving, Bonneville professed great 
interest in the exploration of Great Salt Lake though he had done nothing to 
speak of in that direction. Irving, however, humored the captain, whose 
vanity prompted him to give his own name to the lake, although he had not 
a shadow of title to that distinction. 


In Winterbotham's history published in New York 
in 1795 is given a map of North America showing an 
enormous nameless inland sea above latitude 42° with 
small streams running into it, and south of said par- 
allel and east of the meridian of the inland sea is a 
smaller body of water with quite a large stream flow- 
ing in from the west, besides three smaller ones from 
the south and north. As both of these bodies of 

Bonneville's Map, 1837. 

water were laid down from the imaginations of white 
men, or from vague and traditionary reports of the 
natives, it may be that only the one Great Salt Lake 
was originally referred to, or it may be that the origi- 
nal description was applied to two lakes or inland §eas. 
The native village on one of the southern tributaries, 
Taguayo, refers to the habitations of the Timpanogos, 
and may have been derived from the Spaniards; but 
more probably the information was obtained through 



natives who themselves had received it from other 

Utah and Nevada, 1795. 

In the map of WilHam Rector, a surveyor in the 
service of the general government, Utah has open 
and easy communication with the sea by way of the 


Rector's Map, 1818. 


valley of the Willamette River, whose tributaries 
drain the whole of Nevada and Utah. 

Mr Finley in his map of North America claimed 
to have included all the late geographical discoveries, 
which claim we may readily allow, and also accredit 
him with much not yet and never to be discovered. 
The mountains are artistically placed, the streams 
made to run with remarkable regularity and direct- 
ness, and they are placed in positions affording the best 

FiNLEY's Map, 1826. 

facilities for commerce. The lakes and rivers Timpa- 
nogos, Salado, and Buenaventura, by their position, 
not to say existence, show the hopeless confusion of 
the author's mind. 

A brief glance at the later visits of white men to 
Utah is all that is necessary in this place. The early 
emigrants to Oregon did not touch this territory, and 
those to California via Fort Bridger for the most part 
merely passed through leaving no mark. The emi- 
grants to Oregon and California in 1841 came together 
by the usual route up the Platte, along the Sweet- 
water, and through the South Pass to Bear River 
Valley. When near Soda Springs those for Oregon 


went north to Fort Hall, while those for California 
followed Bear River southward until within ten miles 
of Great Salt Lake, when they turned westward to 
find Ogden River. Of the latter party were J. Bar- 
tleson, C. M. Weber, Talbot H. Green, John Bid- 
well, Josiah Belden, and twenty-seven others. Their 
adventures while in Utah were not startling. Little 
was known of the Salt Lake region,^^ particularly 
of the country to the west of it. 

Mr Belden in his Historical Statement, which I 
number among my most valuable manuscripts, says: 
" We struck Bear River some distance below where 
the town of Evanston now is, where the coal mines 
are, and the railroad passes, and followed the river 
down. It makes a long bend to the north there,' and 
comes down to Salt Lake. We arrived at Soda 
Springs, on Bear River, and there we separated from 
the company of missionaries, who-were going off 
towards Snake River or Columbia. There we lost 
the services of the guide Fitzpatrick. Several of our 
party who had started to go with us to California 
also left us there, having decided to go with the mis- 
sionaries. Fitzpatrick advised us to give up our 
expedition and go with them to Fort Hall, one of the 
Hudson's Bay stations, as there was no road for us to 
follow, nothing was known of the country, and we had 
nothing to guide us, and so he advised us to give up 
the California project. He thought it was doubtful 
if we ever got there, we might get caught in the 
snow of the mountains and perish there, and he con- 
sidered it very hazardous to attempt it. Some four 
or five of our party withdrew and went with the mis- 

"' Previous to setting out,' says Bi dwell, California, I84I-8, MS., 24-5, 
* I consulted maps so as to learn as much as possible about the country . . . A3 
for Salt Lake, there was a large lake marked in that Region, but it was several 
hundred miles long from north to south, with two large rivers running from 
either end, diverging as they ran west, and entering the Pacific Ocean. ' It was 
Finley's map of North America, 1826, herein reproduced, which he alludes 
to. ' My friends in Missouri advised me to bring tools, and in case we could 
not get through with our -wagons to build canoes and go down one of these 
rivers. ' The region to the west of Salt Lake was indeed a terra incognita to 
these explorers. 


sionarles. About thirty-one of us adhered to our 
original intention and dedined to give up our expedi- 

While the party were slowly descending Bear River 
four of them rode over to Fort Hall to obtain if pos- 
sible a "pilot to conduct us to the gap in the Cali- 
fornia Mountains, or at least to the head of Mg,ry's 
River," and to make inquiries of Mr Grant, then in 
charge. No guide could be found, and Grant was not 
able greatly to enlighten them. The fur-trader could 
have told them much concerning the route to Oregon, 
but this way to California as an emigrant road-had 
hardly yet been thought of. 

"As we approached Salt Lake," writes Bidwell," 
"we were misled quite often by the mirage. The 
country too was obscured by smoke. The water in 
Bear River became too salt for use. The sage brush 
on the small hillocks of the almost level plain became 
so magnified as to look like trees. Hoping to find 
water, and supposing these imaginary trees to be 
growing on some stream, and knowing nothing about 
the distance to Salt Lake, we kept pushing ahead 
mile after mile. Our animals almost perished for 
want of water while we were travelling over this salt 
plain, w^hich grew softer and softer till our wagons 
cut into the ground five or six inches, and it became 
impossible to haul them. We still thought we saw 
timber but a short distance ahead, when the fact 
really was there was no timber, and we were driving 
straight for the Great Salt Lake." 

The truth is they had wandered from their course; 
they had passed Cache Valley where they intended to 
rest and hunt; they were frequently obliged to leave 

^' California, 1841-8-^ MS., 33-4. The author, then little more than boy, 
being but 21, has a long story to tell about straying from camp one day in 
company with a comrade, James Jolin, bent on a visit to the adjacent heights 
for a liandful of snow ; and how they slept in the mountains in a bear's nest, . 
and reached next day their company, some of whom had spent the night in 
search. They had been given up as slain by the Blackfeet; and there were 
those so ungracious as to say that it would have served them right had it 
been so. 



the river, turned aside by the hills. It was past 
mid-summer, and the sun's rays beat heavily on the 
white salted plain. The signal fires of the Sho- 
shones illuminated the hills at night. " In our des- 
peration we turned north of east a little and struck 
Bear River again a few miles from its mouth. The 
water here was too salt to quench thirst; our ani- 
mals would scarcely taste it, yet we had no other." 
The green fresh-looking grass was stiffened with salt. 
Mr Belden says: ** After separating from the mis- 
sionaries we followed Bear River down nearly to 
where it enters Salt Lake, about where Corinne is 
now. We had some knowledge of the lake from some 
of the trappers who had been there. We turned off 
more to the west and went round the northerly end 
of Salt Lake. There we found a great difficulty in 
getting water for several days, all the water near the 
lake being very brackish. We had to make it into 
strong cofiee to drink it." 

On the 20th of August the company rested while 
two of their number went out to explore. They 
found themselves encamped ten miles from the mouth 
of the river. Thence next day, Sunday, they took a 
north-west course, crossing their track of the Thursday 
previous; on the 23d they were in full view of Salt 
Lake. Men and animals were almost dying of thirst, 
and " in our trouble," says Bidwell, " we turned di- 
rectly north toward some high mountains, and in the 
afternoon of the next day found springs of good water 
and plenty of grass." This was the 27th, and here the 
company remained while two of their number again 
advanced and discovered a route to Ogden River. 
What befell them further on their way across to the 
mountains the reader will find in my History oj 

'^The expedition entire is given in Hist. Cat., this series. See also Bel- 
derCs Hist. Statement, MS.; Hopper's Narrative, MS.; Taylor's Dis. and 
Founders, i. No. 7; Sutter Co. Hist., 17; S. F. Bulletin, July 27, 1868; S. F. 
Aha, Aug. 5, 1856, and Sept. 1868; Santa Cruz Sentinel, Aug. 29, 1868;io.s^n- 
geles News, Sept. 1, 1868; San Diego Union, Jan. 16, 1869; San Jose Pioneer, 



In 1842 Marcus Whitman and A. L. Lovejoy, on 
their way from Oregon to the United States, passed 
through Utah from Fort Hall, by way of Uintah, 
Taos, and Santa Fe. For further information con- 
cerning them, and the object of their journey, I would 
refer the reader to my History of Oregon. 

In 1843 John C. Fremont followed the emigrant 
trail through the south pass, and on the 6th of Sep- 
tember stood upon an elevated peninsula on the east 
side of Great Salt Lake, a little north of Weber 
River, beside which stream his party had encamped 
the previous night. Fremont likens himself to Bal- 
boa discovering the Pacific; but no one else would 
think of doing so. He was in no sense a discoverer; 
and though he says he was the first to embark on 
that inland sea, he is again in error, trappers in skin 
boats having performed that feat while the pathfinder 
was still studying his arithmetic, as I have before 
mentioned. It is certainly a pleasing sight to any 
one, coming upon it from either side, from the cover 
of rolling mountains or the sands of desert plains, and 
under almost any circumstance the heart of the 
beholder is stirred within him. A number of large 
islands raised their rocky front out of dense sullen 
waters whose limit the eye could not reach, while 
myriads of wild fowl beat the air, making a noise 
'' like distant thunder." 

Black clouds gathered in the west, and soon were 
pouring their floods upon the explorers. Camping 
some distance above the mouth on Weber Biver, they 
made a corral for the animals, and threw up a small 
fort for their own protection. Provisions being scarce, 
seven of the party under Fran§ois Lajeunesse were 
sent to Fort Hall, which place they reached with 

Feb. 1877; ShucVs Scrap Book, 182-4; Petaluma Crescent, Sept. 10, 1872; 
Santa Clara News, Feb. 6, 1869; Hayes' Scrap Books, CaL Notes, iiL 171; 
Napa Reporter, March 23, Sept. 21, " 1872; S. F. Bulletin, July 19, 1860; 
Shuck'd Hep. Men, 920-1. 


difficulty, after separation from each other and several 
days' wanderings. 

Leaving three men in camp, with four others, in- 
cluding Kit Carson who was present, Fremont on the 
8th embarked in a rubber boat and dropped down to 
the mouth of the stream, which the party found shal- 
low and unnavigable. Next morning they were out 
on the lake, fearful every moment lest their air-blown 
boat should collapse and let them into the saline but 
beautiful transparent liquid. At noon they reached one 
of the low near islands and landed. They found there, 
washed up by the waves, a dark brown bank, ten 
or twenty feet in breadth, composed of the skins of 
worms, about the size of oats, while the rocky cliffs 
were whitened by incrustations of salt. . Ascending 
to the highest point attainable they took a surround- 
ing view, and called the place Disappointment Island,^* 
because they had failed to find the fertile lands and 
game hoped for. Then they descended to the edge 
of the water, constructed lodges of drift-wood, built 
fires, and spent the night there, returning next day 
in a rough sea to their mainland camp. Thence they 
proceeded north to Bear River, and Fort Hall, and 
on to Oregon.^^ On his return by way of Klamath 
and Pyramid lakes, Fremont crossed the Sierra to 
Sutter Fort, proceeded up the San Joaquin into 
Southern California, and taking the old Spanish trail 
to the Kio Virgen followed the Wahsatch Mountains 
to Utah Lake. 

There was a party under Fremont in Utah also in 
1845. Leaving Bent Fort in August they ascended 
the Arkansas, passed on to Green Biver, followed 
its left bank to the Duchesne branch, and thence 
crossed to the head-waters of the Timpanogos, down 
which stream they went to Utah Lake. Thence 

" Now Castle Island, or as some call it Fremont Island. 

" For an account of Fremont's Oregon adventures see Hist. Oregon; and 
for his doings in California see Hist. Cal., this series. We also meet with 
him again in our History of Nevada. 
Hist. Utah. 3 


they passed on to Great Salt Lake, made camp near 
where Great Salt Lake City is situated, crossed to 
Antelope Island, and examined the southern portion 
of the lake. After this they passed by way of Pilot 
Peak into Nevada. ^^ 

Of the six companies comprising the California im- 
migration of 1845, numbering in all about one hun- 
dred and fifty, five touched either Utah or Nevada, 
the other being from Oregon. But even these it is 
not necessary to follow in this connection, Utah along 
the emigrant road being by this time well known to 
travellers and others. With some it was a question 
while on the way whether they should go to Or- 
egon or California. Tustin, who came from Illinois in 
1845, with his wife and child and an ox team, says 
in his manuscript Recollections: '*My intention all 
the way across the plains was to go on to Oregon; 
but when I reached the summit of the Kocky Moun- 
tains where the trail divides, I threw my lash across 
the near ox and struck off on the road to Califor- 

For the Oregon and California emigrations of 1846, 
except when they exercised some influence on Utah, 
or Utah affairs, I would refer the reader to the vol-^ 
umes of this series treating on those states. An 
account of the exploration for a route from southern 
Oregon, over the Cascade Mountains, and by way of 
Klamath and Goose lakes to the Humboldt River, 
and thence on to the region of the Great Salt Lake 
by Scott and the Applegates in 1846, is given in 
both the History of Oregon, and the History of Ne- 
vada, to which volumes of this series the reader is 
referred. ^^ 

^* Fremont's Erpl. Ex., \Z\-^0. Warner m.Pac. R. Rep., p.. ^%-^, 
"The word Utah origiHated with the people inhatitiug that region.. 
Early in the 17th century, when New Mexico was first much talked of by the 
Spaniards, the principal nations of frequent mention as inhabiting the several 
sides of the locality about that time occupied were the Navajos, the Yutas, 
the Apaches, and the Comanches. Of the Utah nation, which belongs to the 
Shoshone family, there were many tribes. See Native Races, i. 422, 463-8, 



this series. There were the Pah Utes, or Pyutes, the Pi Edes, the Gosh 
Utes, or Goshutes, the Uinta Utes, the Yam Pah Utes, and many others. 
Pah signifies water; pah guampe, salt water, or salt lake; Pah Utes, Indiana 
that live about the water. The early orthography of the word Utah is varied. 
Escalante, prior to his journey to Utah Lake, Carta de 28 Oct. 1775, MS., 
finds the ' Yutas ' inhabiting the region north of the Moquis. This was a 
common spelling by the early Spaniards, and might be called the proper one. 
Later we have ' Youta,' ' Eutaw,' ' Utaw,' and ' Utah.' 




A Glance Eastward — The Middle States Sixty Years Ago — Birth and 
Parentage of Joseph Smith — Spiritual Manifestations — Joseph 
Tells his Vision— And is Reviled — Moroni Appears — Persecutions 
— Copying the Plates — Martin Harris — Oliver Cowdery — Transla- 
tion — The Book of Mormon — Aaronic Priesthood Conferred — Con- 
versions — The Whitmer Family — The Witnesses — Spaulding 
Theory — Printing of the Book — Melchisedec Priesthood Con- 
ferred — Duties of Elders and Others — Church of Latter-day 
Saints Organized — First Miracle — First Conference — Oliver Cow- 
dery Ordered to the West. 

Let us turn now to the east, where have been evolv- 
ing these several years a new phase of society and a 
new religion, destined presently to enter in and take 
possession of this far-away primeval wilderness. For 
it is not alone by the power of things material that 
the land of the Yutas is to be subdued; that mysteri- 
ous agency, working under pressure of high enthusi- 
asm in the souls of men, defying exposure, cold, and 
hunger, defying ignominy, death, and the destruction 
of all corporeal things in the hope of heaven's favors 
and a happy immortality, a puissance whose very 
breath of life is persecution, and whose highest glory 
is martyrdom — it is through this subtile and incom- 
prehensible spiritual instrumentality, rather than from 
a desire for riches or any tangible advantage that the 
new Israel is to arise, the new exodus to be conducted, 
the new Canaan to be attained. 

Sixty years ago western New York was essentially 
a new country, Ohio and Illinois were for the most 



part a wilderness, and Missouri was the United States 
limit, the lands beyond being held by the aborigines. 
There were some settlements between Lake Erie and 
the Mississippi River, but they were recent and rude, 
and the region was less civilized than savage. The 
people, though practically shrew^d and of bright intel- 
lect, were ignorant; though having within them the 
elements of wealth, they were poor. There was among 
them much true religion, whatever that may be, yet 
they were all superstitious — baptists, methodists, and 
presbyterians; there was little to choose between 
them. Each sect was an abomination to the others; 
the others were of the devil, doomed to eternal tor- 
ments, and deservedly so. The bible was accepted 
literally by all, every word of it, prophecies, miracles, 
and revelations; the same God and the same Christ 
satisfied all; an infidel was a thing woful and unclean. 
All the people reasoned. How they racked their 
brains in secret, and poured forth loud logic in public, 
not over problems involving intellectual liberty, human 
rights and reason, and other like insignificant matters 
appertaining to this world, but concerning the world 
to come, and more particularly such momentous ques- 
tions as election, justification, baptism, and infant 
damnation. Then of signs and seasons, God's ways 
and Satan's ways; 'likewise concerning promises and 
prayer, and all the rest, there was a credulity most re- 
freshing. In the old time there were prophets and 
apostles, there were visions and miracles; why should 
it not be so during these latter da3'^s? It was time 
for Christ to come again, time for the millennial 
season, and should the power of the almighty be 
limited? There was the arch-fanatic Miller, and his 
followers, predicting the end and planning accordingly. 
"The idea that revelation from God was unattainable 
in this age, or that the ancient gifts of the gospel had 
ceased forever, never entered my head," writes a young 
quaker; and a methodist of that epoch says: *' We be- 
lieved in the gathering of Israel, and in the restoration 


of the ten tribes; we believed that Jesus would come 
to reign personally on the earth; we believed that 
there ought to be apostles, prophets, evangelists, pas- 
tors, and teachers, as in former days, and that the 
gifts of healing and the power of God ought to be as- 
sociated with the church." These ideas, of course, 
were not held by all; in many respects the strictly 
orthodox evangelical churches taught the contrary; 
but there was enough of this literal interpretation and 
license of thought among the people to enable them 
to accept in all honesty and sincerity any doctrine in 
harmony with these views. 

Such were the people and the place, such the at- 
mosphere and conditions under which was to spring up 
the ge.rm of a new theocracy, destined in its develop- 
ment to accomplish the first settlement of Utah — a 
people and an atmosphere already sufficiently charged, 
one would think, with doctrines and dogmas, with vul- 
gar folly and stupid fanaticism, with unchristian hate 
and disputation over the commands of God and the 
charity of Christ. All this must be taken into ac- 
count in estimating character, and in passing judg- 
ment on credulity; men of one time and place cannot 
with justice be measured by the standard of other 
times and places. 

Before entering upon the history of Mormonism, I 
would here remark, as I have before said in the pref- 
ace to this volume, that it is my purpose to treat the 
subject historically, not as a social, political, or relig- 
ious partisan, but historically to deal with the sect 
organized under the name of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints as I would deal with 
any other body of people, thus carrying over Utah 
the same quality of work which I have applied to my 
entire field, whether in Alaska, California, or Central 
America. Whatever they may be, howsoever right- 
eous or wicked, they are entitled at the hand of those 
desirous of knowing the truth to a dispassionate and 



respectful hearing, which they have never had. As 
a matter of course, where there is such warmth of 
feehng, such bitterness and animosity as is here dis- 
played on both sides, we must expect to encounter in 
our evidence much exaggeration, and many untruth- 
ful statements. Most that has been written on either 
side is partisan — bitterly so; many of the books that 
have been published are full of vile and licentious 
abuse — disgustingly so. Some of the more palpable 
lies, some of the grosser scurrility and more blas- 
phemous vulgarity, I shall omit altogether. 

Again, the history of the Mormons, which is the 
early history of Utah, is entitled in its treatment to 
this consideration, as diflPering from that of other sec- 
tions of my work, and to this only — that whereas in 
speaking of other and older sects, as of the catholics 
in Mexico and California, and of the methodists and 
presbyterians in Oregon, whose tenets having long 
been established, are well known, and have no imme- 
diate bearing aside from the general influence of re- 
ligion upon the subjugation of the country, any anal- 
ysis of doctrines would be out of place, such analysis 
in the present instance is of primary importance. Or- 
dinarily, I say, as I have said before, that with the 
religious beliefs of the settlers on new lands, or of the 
builders of empire in any of its several phases, social 
and political, the historian has nothing to do, except 
in so far as belief influences actions and events. As 
to attempting to determine the truth or falsity of any 
creed, it is wholly outside of his province. 

Since the settlement of Utah grew immediately out 
of the persecution of the Mormons, and since their 
persecutions grew out of the doctrines which they pro- 
mulgated, it seems to me essential that the origin and 
nature of their religion should be given. And as they 
are supposed to know better than others what they 
believe and how they came so to believe, I shall let 
them tell their own story of the rise and progress of 
their religion, carrying along with it the commenta- 



ries of their opponents; that is, giving in the text 
the narrative proper, and in the notes further informa- 
tion, elucidation, and counter-statements, according to 
my custom. All this by no means implies, here or 
elsewhere in my work, that when a Mormon elder, a 
catholic priest, or a baptist preacher says he had a 
vision, felt within him some supernatural influence, or 
said a prayer which produced a certain result, it is 
proper or relevant for me to stop and dispute with 
him whether he really did see, feel, or experience as 

As to the material facts connected with the story 
of Mormonism, there is but little difference between 
the Mormons and their opposers; but in the reception 
and interpretation of acts and incidents, particularly 
in the acceptation of miraculous assertions and spirit- 
ual manifestations, they are as widely apart as the two 
poles, as my text and notes clearly demonstrate. And 
finally, I would have it clearly understood that it is 
my purpose, here as elsewhere in all my historical 
efforts, to impart information rather than attempt to 
solve problems. 

In Sharon, Windsor county, Vermont, on the 23d 
of December, 1805, was born Joseph Smith junior, 
presently to be called translator, revelator, seer, 
prophet, and founder of a latter-day dispensation. 
When the boy was ten years old, his father, who was 
a farmer, moved with his family to Palmyra, Wayne 
county, New York, and four years afterward took up 
his abode some six miles south, at Manchester, On- 
tario county. Six sons and three daughters com- 
prised the family of Joseph and Lucy Smith, namely, 
Alvin, Hyrum, Joseph junior, Samuel Harrison, Will- 
iam, Don Carlos, Sophronia, Catharine, and Lucy.^ 

^ Much has been said by the enemies of Mormonism against the Smith 
family. 'All who became intimate with them during this period [1820 to 
1830] unite in representing the general character of old Joseph and wife, 
the parents of the pretended prophet, as lazy, indolent, ignorant, and super- 


There was much excitement over the subject of re- 
ligion in this section at the time, with no small dis- 
cussion of doctrines, methodist, baptist, and the rest; 
and about a year later, the mother and four of the 
children joined the presbyterians. 

But young Joseph was not satisfied with any of the 
current theologies, and he was greatly troubled what 
to do. Reading his bible one day, he came upon the 
passage, "If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of 
God." He retired to the woods and threw himself 
upon his knees. It was his first attempt at prayer. 

While thus engaged a vision fell upon him. Sud- 
denly he was seized by some supernatural power of 
evil import, which bound him body and soul. He 
could not think; he could not speak; thick darkness 
gathered round. Presently there appeared above his 
head a pillar of light, which slowly descended and 
enveloped him. Immediately he was delivered from 
the enemy; and in the sky he saw two bright person- 
ages, one of whom said, pointing to the other, " This 
is my beloved son; hear him." Then he asked what 
he should do; to which sect he should unite himself. 

stitious, having a firm belief in ghosts and witches; the telling of fortunes; 
pretending to believe that the earth was filled with hidden treasures, buried 
there by Kid or the Spaniards. Being miserably poor, and not much dis- 
posed to obtain an honest livelihood by labor, the energies of their minds 
seemed to be mostly directed toward finding where these treasures were con- 
cealed, and the best mode of acquiring their possession.' Howe's Mormonism 
Unveiled, 11. In the towns of Palmyra and Manchester, in 1833, documents 
defamatory to the family were circulated for signature, one receiving 1 1 and 
another 51 names. Given with signatures in Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 
261-2, and in Kidder's Mormonism, 20-1. See also Olshausen, Gesch. d, 
Morm., 9-14, 103-10, 200-1; Gazette of Utah, 1874, 17; Tucker's Origin and 
Prog. Mor., 11-20. In one of these documents, signed and sworn to by Peter 
Ingersoll, he said that the Smith family employed most of their time in gold- 
digging. At one time Joseph Smith senior told Ingersoll to hold a mineral 
rod iu his hand, a piece of witch-hazel, and selected a place to stand where 
he was to whisper directions to the rod; Smith stood apart, throwing himself 
into various shapes, but was unable to produce the desired effect. Again he 
took a stone that Ingersoll had picked up and exclaimed that it was invalu- 
able; looking at it earnestly, he said it revealed to him chests of gold and 
silver at the back of his house; and putting it into his hat, threw himself 
into various attitudes, and soon appeared exhausted; then in a faint voice, 
said, ' If you only knew what I had seen you would believe. ' Some time be- 
fore Joseph's discovery of the gold plates, the elder Smith told Ingersoll 
that a book had been found in Canada in a hollow tree which treated of the 
discover^y of this continent 


And he was told to join none of them, that all were 
corrupt, all were abomination in the eyes of the Lord. 
When he came to himself he was still gazing earnestly 
up into heaven. This was in the spring of 1820, and 
Joseph was yet scarcely fifteen. 

When the young prophet began to proclaim his 
vision, the wise men and preachers of the several sects 
laughed at him; called him a silly boy, and told him 
that if his mind had really been disturbed, it was the 
devil's doing. " Signs and revelations," said they, 
"are of by-gone times; it ill befits one so young to 
lie before God and in the presence of his people." 
"Nevertheless," replied Joseph, "I have had a vision." 
Then they reviled him, and the boy became disheart- 
ened and was entangled again in the vanities of the 
world, under the heavy hand of their oppression. 

But the spirit of the Lord could not thus be 
quenched. The young man repented, and sought and 
found forgiveness. Retiring to his bed, midst prayer 
and supplication, on the night of September 21, 1823, 
presently the room grew light, arid a figure robed in 
exceeding whiteness stood by the bedside, the feet 
not touching the floor. And a voice was heard, say- 
ing, " I am Moroni, and am come to you, Joseph, as a 
messenger from God." Then the angel told the youth 
that the Lord had for him a great work to do, that his 
name should be known to all people, and of him should 
be spoken both good and evil. He told him of a book 
written on plates of gold, and containing an account 
of the early inhabitants of this continent, and the 
gospel as delivered to them by Christ. He said that 
deposited with those plates were two stones in silver 
bows, which, fastened to a breastplate, constituted the 
Urim and Thummim; and that now as in ancient times 
the possession and use of the stones constituted a seer, 
and that through them the book might be translated. 
After offering many scriptural quotations from both 
the old and the new testament, and charging the young 
man that when the book and the breastplate were de- 


livered to him he should show them to no one, under 
pain of death and destruction — the place where the 
plates were deposited meanwhile being clearly re- 
vealed to his mental vision — the lio^ht in the room 
grew dim, as Moroni ascended along a pathway of 
glory into heaven, and finally darkness was there as 
before. The visit was made three times, the last 
ending with the dawn, when Joseph arose greatly ex- 
hausted and went into the field to work. 

His father, observing his condition, sent him home ; 
but on the way Joseph fell in a state of unconscious- 
ness to the ground. Soon, however, the voice of 
Moroni was heard, commanding him to return to his 
father, and tell him all that he had seen and heard. 
The young man obeyed. The father answered that 
it was of God; the son should do as the messenger 
had said. Then Joseph, knowing from the vision 
where the plates were hidden, went to the west 
side of a hill, called the hill Cumorah, near the town 
of Manchester, and beneath a large stone, part of 
whose top appeared above the ground, in a stone 
box,*^ he found the plates,^ the urim and thum- 

' Oliver Cowdery stated that he visited the spot, and that 'at the bottom 
of this [hole] lay a stone of suitable size, the upper surface being smooth. 
At each edge was placed a large quantity of cement, and into this cement at 
the four edges of this stone were placed erect four others, their lower edges 
resting in the cement at the outer edges of the first stone. The four last 
named when placed erect formed a box, the comers, or where the edges of 
the four came in contact, were also cemented so firmly that the moisture 
from without was prevented from entering. It is to be observed also that 
the inner surfaces of the four erect or side stones were smooth. The box 
was sufficiently large to admit a breastplate. From the bottom of the box 
or from the breastplate arose three small pillars, composed of the same de- 
scription of cement as that used on the edges; and upon these three pQlara 
were placed the records. The box containing the records was covered with 
another stone, the lower surface being flat and the upper crowning.' Machaxfa 
The, Mormons, 20. 

'Orson Pratt thus describes the plates, Visiom, 14: 'These records were 
engraved on plates, which had the appearance of gold. Each plate was not 
far from seven bjr eight inclaes in width and length, being not quite as thick 
as common tin. They were fiUed'on both sides with engravings in Egyptian 
characters, and bound together in a volume, as the leaves of a book, and fast- 
ened at one edge with three rings running through the whole. This volume 
was about six inches in thickness, and a part of it was sealed. The char- 
acters or letters upon the unsealed part were small and beautifully engraved. 
The whole book exhibited many marks of antiquity in its construction, as well 


mim,* and the breastplate.^ But when he was about to 
take them out Moroni stood beside him and said, "Not 
yet ; meet me here at this time each year for four years, 
and I will tell you what to do." Joseph obeyed. 

The elder Smith was poor, and the boys were some- 
times oblig-ed to hire themselves out as laborers. It 
was on the 22d of September, 1823, that the plates 
were found. The following year Alvin died, and in 
October 1825 Joseph went to work for Josiah Stoal, 
in Chenango county. This man had what he sup- 
posed to be a silver mine at Harmony, Pennsylvania, 
said to have been once worked by Spaniards. Thither 
Joseph went with the other men to dig for silver,* 

as much skill in the art of engraving.' In the introduction to the Booh of Mor- 
mon (New York ed.), viii., is given essentially the same description. See 
also Bonwick's Mormons and Silver Mines, 61; Bertrand, Mem. d'un Mor., 25; 
Olshausen, Gesch. d. Morm., 12-29; Stenhouse, Les Mormons, i.-vii. ; Ferris^ 
Utah and The Mormons, 58; Mackay's The Mormons, 15-22; Smucker^s Hist. 
Mormons, 18-28. For fac-simile of writing on golden plates, see Beadle's 
Life in Utah, 25. For illustrations of the hill, finding the plates, etc., see 
Mackay's The Mormons, 15; Smzicker's Hist. Mormons, 24; Tucker's Origin 
and Prog. Mor., frontispiece. When sceptics ask, Why are not the plates 
forthcoming? believers ask in turn, Why are not forthcoming the stone tables 
of Moses? And yet the ten commandments are to-day accepted. 

* 'With the book were found the urim and thummim, two transparent 
crystals set in the rims of a bow. These pebbles were the seer's instru- 
ment whereby the mystery of hidden things was to be revealed ! ' Intro- 
duction to Book of Mormon (New York ed. ), viii. ' The best attainable defi- 
nition of the ancient urim and thummim is quite vague and indistinct. An 
accepted biblical lexicographer gives the meaning as "light and perfection," 
or the "shining and the perfect." The following is quoted from BuUerworth's 
Concordance: "There are various conjectures about the urim and thummim, 
whether they were the stones in the high-priest's breastplate, or something 
distinct from them; which it is not worth our while to inquire into, since 
God has left it a secret. It is evident that the urim and thummim were 
appointed to inquire of God by, on momentous occasions, and continued in 
use, as some think, only till the building of Solomon's temple, and all con- 
clude that this was never restored after its destruction.'" Tucker's Origin and 
Prog. Mor., 32. 

* ' A breastplate such as was used by the ancients to defend the chest 
from the arrows and weapons of their enemy. ' Mackay's The Mormons, 20. 

^ ' Hence arose the very prevalent story of my having been a money digger. ' 
Hist. Joseph Smith, in Times and Seasons, May 2, 1842. It seems from this, 
or some other cause, that the followers of Smith have never regarded mining 
with favor, although some of them at times have engaged in that occupation. 
Upon the discovery of gold in California, the Mormons were among the first 
in the field, at Coloma, at Mormon Bar, and elsewhere. Left there a little 
longer, they would soon have gathered barrels of the precious dust; but 
promptly upon the call they dropped their tools, abandoned their brilliant 
prospects, and crossing the Sierra, began to build homes among their people 
in the untenanted desert. 



boarding at the house of Isaac Hale. After a month's 
fruitless effort Steal was induced by Joseph to aban- 
don the undertaking; but meanwhile the youth had 
fallen in love with Hale's pretty daughter, Emma, 
and wished to marry her. Hale objected, owing to 
his continued assertions that he had seen visions, and 
the resulting persecutions; so Joseph took Emma to 
the house of Squire Tarbill, at South Bainbridge, 
where they were married the 18th of January, 1827, 
and thence returned to his father's farm, where he 
worked during the following season.'^ 

Every year went Joseph to the hill Cumorah to 
hold communion with the heavenly messenger, and on 
the 22d of September, 1827, Moroni delivered to him 
the plates,® and the urim and thummim with which 
to translate them, charging him on pain of dire dis- 

'' Among the many charges of wrong-doing ascribed to Smith from first to 
last, was that of having stolen Hale's daughter. In answer it is said that 
the young woman was of age, and had the right to marry whom and as she 

^ ' When the appointed hour came, the prophet, assuming his practised 
air of mystery, took in hand his money-digging spade and a large napkin, 
and went off in silence and alone in the solitude of the forest, and after an 
absence of some three hours, returned, apparently with his sacred charge con- 
cealed within the folds of the napkin. Reminding the (Smith) family of the 
original "command" as revealed to him, strict injunction of non-intervention 
and non-inspection was given to them, under the same terrible penalty as be- 
fore denounced for its violation. Conflicting stories were afterwards told in 
regard to the manner of keeping the book in concealment and safety, which 
are not worth repeating, further than to mention that the first place of secre- 
tion was said to be under a heavy hearthstone in the Smith family mansion. 
Smith told a frightful story of the display of celestial pyrotechnics on the ex- 
posure to his view of the sacred book — the angel who had led him to the dis- 
covery again appearing as his guide and protector, and confronting ten thou- 
sand devils gathered there, with their menacing sulphurous flame and smoke, 
to deter him from his purpose ! This story was repeated and magnified by 
the believers, and no doubt aided the experiment upon superstitious minds 
which eventuated so successfully.' Tucker^s Orig. and Prog. Mor., 30-31. 
'A great variety of contradictory stories were related by the Smith family 
before they had any fixed plan of operation, respecting the finding of the 
plates from which their book was translated. One is, that after the plates 
were taken from their hiding-place by Jo, he again laid them down, looked 
into the hole, where he saw a toad, which immediately transformed itself into 
a spirit and gave him a tremendous blow. Another is, that after he had got 
the plates, a spirit assaulted him with the intention of getting them from his 
possession, and actually jerked them out of his hands. Jo, nothing daunted, 
seized them again, and started to run, when his Satanic majesty, or the spirit, 
applied his foot to the prophet's seat of honor which raised three or four feet 
from the ground.' Hoioe's Mormonism Unveiled, 275-6. The excavation 
was at the time said to be 160 feet in extent, though that is probably an ex- 


aster to guard them well until he should call for 
them. Persecutions increased when it was known 
that Joseph had in his possession the plates of gold, 
and every art that Satan could devise or put in force 
through the agency of wicked men was employed to 

aggeration. It had a substantial door of two-inch plank, and a secure lock. 
Lapse of time and other causes have almost effaced its existence. Tucker's 
Orirjin and Prog. Mor., 48. 'In 1843, near Kinderhook, Illinois, in exca- 
vating a large mound, six brass plates were discovered of a bell-shape four 
inches in length and covered with ancient characters. They were fastened 
together with two iron wires almost entirely corroded, and were found 
along with charcoal, ashes, and human bones, more than twelve feet below 
the surface of a mound oif the sugar-loaf form, common in the Mississippi 
Valley. Large trees growing upon these artificial mounds attest their great 
antiquity. . .No key has yet been discovered for the interpretation of the 
engravings upon these brass plates, or of the strange gylphs upon the 
ruins of Otolum in Mexico.' Daniel Wedderbum, in Popular Science Monthly, 
Dec. 1876; see also Times and Seasons, iv. 186-7, and engraved cuts in Tay- 
lor's Discussioiis, and in Mackay's The Mormons, 26-7. On the authority of 
Kidder, Mormonism, 23-6, Willard Chase, a carpenter, said: 'In the fore 
part of September (I believe) 1827, the prophet requested me to make him a 
chest, informing me that he ddsigned to move back to Pennsylvania, and ex- 
pecting soon to get his gold book, he wanted a chest to lock it up, giving me 
to understand, at the same time, that if I would make the chest he would 
give me a share in the book. I told him my business was such that I could 
not make it; but if he would bring the book to me, I would lock it up for 
him. He said that would not do, as he was commanded to keep it two years 
without letting it come to the eye of any one but himself. This command- 
ment, however, he did not keep, for in less than two years twelve men said 
they had seen it. I told him to get it and convince me of its existence, and 
I would make him a chest; but he said that would not do; as he must have a 
chest to lock the book in as soon as he took it out of the ground. I saw him 
a fews days after, when he told me I must make the chest. I told him plainly 
that I could not, upon which he told me that I could have no share in the book. 
A few weeks after this conversation he came to my house and related the 
following story: That on the 22d of September he arose early in the morning 
and took a one-horse wagon of some one that had stayed over night at their 
house, without leave or license; and, together with his wife, repaired to the 
hill which contained the book. He left his wife in the wagon, by the road, 
and went alone to the hill, a distance of thirty or forty rods from the road; 
he said he then took the book out of the ground and hid it in a tree-top and 
returned home. He then went to the town of Macedon to work. After 
about ten days, it having been suggested that some one had got his book, his 
wife went after him; he hired a horse, and went home in the afternoon, stayed 
long enough to drink one cup of tea, and then went for his book, found it 
safe, took off his frock, wrapt it round it, put it under his arm, and ran all 
the way home, a distance of about two miles. He said he should think it 
would weigh sixty pounds, and was sure it would weigh forty. On his return 
home he said he was attacked by two men in the woods, and knocked them 
both down and made his escape, arrived safe, and secured his treasure. He 
then observed that if it had not been for that stone (which he acknowledged 
belonged to me) he would not have obtained the book. A few days after- 
ward he told one of my neighbors that he had not got any such book, and 
never had; but that he told the story to deceive the damned fool (meaning 
me), to get him to make a chest.' Others give other accounts, but it seema 
to me not worth while to follow them further. 


wrest them from him. But almighty power and wis- 
dom prevailed, and the sacred relics were safely kept 
till the day the messenger called for them, when they 
were delivered into his hands, Joseph meanwhile hav- 
ing accomplished by them all that was required of 

And now so fierce becomes the fiery malevolence of 
the enemy that Joseph is obliged to fly.^ He is very 
poor, having absolutely nothing, until a farmer named 
Martin Harris has pity on him and gives him fifty 
dollars,^" with which he is enabled to go with his wife 
to her old home in Pennsylvania." Immediately after 
his arrival there in December, he begins copying the 

"Soon the news of his discoveries spread abroad throughout all those 
parts. . .The house was frequently beset by mobs and evil-designing persons. 
Several times he was shot at, and very narrowly escaped. Every device was 
used to get the plates away from him. And^being continually in danger of 
his life from a gang of abandoned wretches, He at length concluded to leave 
the place, and go to Pennsylvania; and accordingly packed up his goods, 
putting the plates into a barrel of beans, and proceeded upon his journey. 
He had not gone far before he was overtaken by an officer with a search-war- 
rant, who flattered himself with the idea that he should surely obtain the 
plates; after searching very diligently, he was sadly disappointed at not find- 
ing them. Mr Smith then drove on, but before he got to his journey's end 
he was again overtaken by an officer on the same business, and after ransack- 
ing the wagon very carefully, he went his way as much chagrined as the first 
at not being able to discover the object of his research. Without any fur- 
ther molestation, he pursued his journey until he came to the northern part 
of Pennsylvania, near the Susquehanna River, in which part his father-in- 
law resided.' PraWs Visions, 15. 

^^ ' In the neighborhood (of Smith's old home) there lived a farmer possessed 
of some money and more credulity. Every wind »of doctrine afiected him. 
He had been in turn a quaker, a Wesleyan, a baptist, a presbyterian. Hia 
heterogeneous and unsettled views admirably qualified him for discipleship 
where novelty was paramount, and concrete things were invested with the 
enchantment of mystery. He was enraptured with the young prophet, and 
oflfered him fifty dollars to aid in the publication of his new bible.' l^aylder's 
Mormons, xxviii.-ix, 

" 'Soon after Smith's arrival at Harmony, Isaac Hale (Smith's father-in- 
law) heard he had brought a wonderful box of plates with him. Hale "was 
shown a box in which it is said they were contained, which had to all ap- 
pearances been used as a glass box of the common window-glass. I was 
allowed to feel the weight of the box, and they gave me to understand that 
the book of plates was then in the box — into which, however, I was not al- 
lowed to look. I inquired of Joseph Smith, Jr., who was to be the first who 
would be allowed to see the book of plates. He said it was a young child. 
After this I became dissatisfied, and informed him that if there was any- 
thing in my house of that description, which I could not be allowed to see, 
he must take it away; if he did not, I was determined to see it. After that 
the plates were said to be hid in the woods.'" Howe's Mormonism Unveiled^ 


characters on the plates, Martin Harris coming to his 
assistance, and by means of the urim and thummim 
manag-es to translate some of them, which work is 
continued till February 1828. Harris' wife is ex- 
ceedingly curious about the matter, and finally obtains 
possession through her husband of a portion of the 
manuscript/^ About this time Harris takes a copy 

*^ Martin Harris 'says he -wTote a considerable part of the book as Smith 
dictated; and at one time the presence of the Lord was so great that a screen 
was hung up between him and the prophet; at other times the propliet would 
sit in a different room, or up stairs, while the Lord was communicating to him 
the contents of the plates. He does not pretend that he ever saw the won- 
derful plates but once, although he and Smith were engasfed for months in 
deciphering their contents.' Mormonism Unveiled, 14. 'Harris rendered 
Smith valuable assistance by transcribing for him, since he could not wi-ite 
himself. Poor Martin was unfortunately gifted with a troublesome wife. Her 
inquisitive and domineering nature made him dread unpleasant results from 
his present engagement. His manuscript had reached IIG pages, and he 
therefore begged permission to read it to her ' ' with the hope that it might 
have a salutary effect upon her feelings. " His request was at length granted; 
but through carelessness or perfidy, while in his house, the precious docu- 
ment was irrecoverably lost. Joseph suffered greatly in consequence of this 
hinderance, but more from the anger of heaven which was manifested against 
him. As soon as possible, he resumed his task, having secured the services 
of another scribe, Oliver Cowdery, a school-master in the neighborhood. 
Martin Harris, earnest as he was, had never yet been favored with a sight of 
the golden plates. He had not attained to sufficient purity of mind; but a 
copy of a small portion of their contents was placed in his hands, and this he 
was told he might show to any scholar in the world, if he wished to be sat- 
isfied. Accordingly he started for New York, sought Professor Anthon 
(Charles Anthon, LL. D. , then adjunct professor of ancient languages in Colum- 
bia College), and requested his opinion.' Taylder's Mormons, xxxviii.-ix. 
'She (Harris's wife) contrived in her husband's sleep to steal from him the 
particular source of her disturbance, and burned the manuscript to ashes. 
For years she kept this incendiarism a profound secret to herself, even until 
after the book was published. Smith and Harris held her accountable for the 
theft, but supposed she had handed the manuscript to some "evil-designing 
persons," to be used somehow in injuring their cause. A feud was thus pro- 
duced between husband and wife which was never reconciled. Great con- 
sternation now pervaded the Mormon circles. The reappearance of the myste- 
rious stranger (who had before visited the Smiths) was again the subject of 
inquiry and conjecture by observers, from whom was withheld all explanation 
of his identity or purpose. It was not at first an easy task to convince the 
prophet of the entire innocency of his trusted friend Harris in the matter of 
this calamitous event, though mutual confidence and friendship were ultimately 
restored.' Tucker's Orig. and Prog. Mor., 46. Of this lost manuscript Smith 
afterward wrote: ' Some time after Mr Harris had begun to write for me he 
began to tease me to give him liberty to carry the writings home and show 
them, and desired of me that I would inquire of the Lord through the urim 
and thummim if he might not do so. * To two inquiries the reply was no, but 
a third application resulted in permission being granted under certain re- 
strictions, which were, that Harris might sliow the papers to his brother, 
his wife, her sister, his father and mother, and to no one else. Accordingly 
Smith required Harris to bind himself in a covenant to him in the most 
solemn manner that he would not do otherwise than had been directed. * He 



of some of the characters to New York city, where 
he submits them to the examination of Professor 
Anthon and Dr Mitchell, who pronounce them to 
be Egyptian, Syriac, Chaldaic, and Arabic. ^^ Then 

did so,' says Smith. 'He bound himself as I required ol him, took the 
writings, and went his way. Notwithstanding ... he did show them to others, 
and by stratagem they got them away from him. ' Smith, in I'imes and Sea- 
sons, iii. 7S5-(i. 

1* In a letter to E. D. Howe, printed in his book, and in the introduction 
to the New York edition of the Book of Mormon, Prof. Anthon, among other 
statements, denies that he ever gave a certificate. The letter reads as follows : 

' New York, February 17, 1834. 

' Dear Sir: I received your letter of the 9th, and lose no time in making 
a reply. The whole story about my pronouncing the Mormon inscription to 
be reformed Egyptian hierogj^lphics is perfectly false. Some years ago, a 
plain, apparently simple-hearted farmer called on me with a note from Dr 
Mitchell, of our city, now dead, requesting me to decipher, if possible, the 
paper which the farmer would hand me. Upon examining the paper in ques- 
tion, I soon came to the conclusion that it was all a trick — perhaps a hoax. 
When I asked the person who brought it how he obtained the MTiting, he gave 
me the following account: A gold book consisting of a number of plates, fast- 
ened together by wires of the same material, had been dug up in the northern 
part of the state of New York, and along with it an enormous pair of specta- 
cles. These spectacles were so large that if any person attempted to look 
through them, his two eyes would look through one glass only, the spectacles 
in question being altogether too large for the human face. " Whoever," he 
said, " examined the plates through the glasses was enabled not only to read 
them, but fully to understand their meaning." All this knowledge, however 
was confined to a young man, who had the trunk containing the book and specta- 
cles in his sole possession. This young man was placed behind a curtain in a 
garret in a farm-house, and being thus concealed from view, he put on the 
spectacles occasionally, or rather looked tlirough one of the glasses, deciphered 
the characters in the book, and having committed some of them to paper, 
handed copies from behind the curtain to those who stood outside. Not a 
word was said about their being deciphered by the gift of God. Everything 
in this way was effected by the large pair of spectacles. The farmer added 
that he had been requested to contribute a sum of money toward the publica- 
tion of the golden book, the contents of which would, as he was told, produce 
an entire change in the world, and save it from ruin. So urgent had been 
these solicitations, that he intended selling his farm and giving the amount to 
those who wished to publish the plates. As a last precautionary step, he had 
resolved to come to New York, and obtain the opinion of the learned about 
the meaning of the paper which he brought with him, and which had been 
given him as part of the contents of the book, although no translation had at 
that time been made by the young man with spectacles. On hearing this odd 
story, I changed my opinion about the paper, and instead of viewing it any 
longer as a hoax, I began to regard it as part of a scheme to cheat the farmer 
of his money, and I communicated my suspicions to him, warning him to be- 
ware of rogues. He requested an opinion from me in writing, which, of 
course, I declined to give, and he then took his leave, taking his paper with 
him. TMs paper in question was, in fact, a singular scroll. It consisted of 
all kinds of singular characters disposed in columns, and had evidently been 
prepared by some person who had before him at the time a book containing 
various alphabets, Ureek and Hebrew letters, crosses and flourishes; Roman 
letters inverted or placed sideways were arranged and placed in perpendicular 
columns, and the whole ended in a rude delineation of a circle, divided into 
HiBT. Utah, i 


Joseph buys of his wife's father a small farm and goes 
to work on it. In February 1829 he receives a visit 
from his own father, at which time a revelation comes 
to Joseph Smith senior, through the son, calling him 
to faith and good works. The month following Mar- 
tin Harris asks for and receives a revelation, by the 
mouth of the latter, regarding the plates, wherein the 
said Harris is told that Joseph has in his possession 
the plates which he claims to have, that they were 
delivered to him by the Lord God, who likewise gave 
him power to translate them, and that he, Harris, 
should bear witness of the same. Three months 
later, Harris having meanwhile acted as his scribe, 
Joseph is commanded to rest for a season in his work 
of translating until directed to take it up again. 

various compartments, arched with various strange marks, and evidently 
copied after the Mexican calendar given by Humboldt, but copied in such a 
way as not to betray the source whence it was derived. I am thus particular as 
to the contents of the paper, inasmuch as I have frequently conversed with 
friends on the subject since the Mormon excitement began, and well remem- 
ber that the paper contained anything else but Egyptian iiieroglyphics. Some 
time after, the farmer paid me a second visit. He brought with him the gold 
book in print, and offered it to me for sale. I declined purchasing. He then 
asked permission to leave the book with me for examination. I declined re- 
ceiving it, although his manner was strangely urgent. I adverted once more 
to the roguery which, in my opinion, had been practised upon him, and asked 
him what had become of the gold plates. He informed me they were in a 
trunk with the spectacles. I advised him to go to a magistrate and have the 
trunk examined. He said the curse of God would come upon him if he did. 
On my pressing him, however, to go to a magistrate, he told me he would 
open the trunk if I would take the curse of God upon myself. I replied I 
would do so with the greatest willingness, and would incur every risk of that 
nature, provided I could only extricate him from the grasp of the rogues. He 
then left me. I have given you a full statement of all that I know respecting 
the origin of Mormonism, and must beg of you, as a personal favor, to publish 
this letter immediately, should you find my name mentioned again by these 
wretched fanatics. Yours respectfully, 'Charles Anthon.' 

It is but fair to state that Smith never claimed that the characters were 
the ordinary Greek or Hebrew, but were what he called Reformed Egyptian. 
Harris says: ' He gave me a certificate which I took and put into my pocket, 
and was just leaving the house when Mr Anthon called me back, and asked 
me how the young man found out that there were gold plates in the place 
where he found them. I answered that an angel of God had revealed it unto 
him. He then said imto me, Let me see that certificate. I accordingly took 
it out of my pocket and gave it to him, when he took it and tore it to pieces, 
saying that there was no such thing now as ministering of angels, and that if 
I would bring the plates to him he would translate them. I informed him 
that part of the plates were sealed, and that I was forbidden to bring them; 
he replied, "I cannot read a sealed book." I left him and went to Dr Mit- 
chell, who sanctioned what Professor Anthon had said respecting both the ^ 
characters and the translation. ' Pearl of Great Price, xiii. 54. 


The tenor of the book of Mormon^* is in this wise: 
Following the confusion of tongues at the tower of 
Babel, the peoples of the earth were scattered abroad, 
one colony being led by the Lord across the ocean to 
America. Fifteen hundred years after, or six hundred 
years before Christ, they were destroyed for their 
wickedness. Of the original number was Jared, 
among whose descendants was the prophet Ether, 
who was their historian. Ether lived to witness the 
extinction of his nation, and under divine direction he 
deposited his history in a locality where it was found 
by a second colony, Israelites of the tribe of Joseph, 
who came from Jerusalem about the time of the de- 
struction of the first colony, namely, six hundred 
years before Christ. Thus was America repeopled; 
the second colony occupied the site of the first, mul- 
tiplied and became rich, and in time divided into two 
nations, the Nephites and the Lamanites, so called 
from their respective founders, Nephi and Laman. 
The former advanced in civilization, but the Laman- 
ites lapsed into barbarism, and were the immediate 
progenitors of the American aboriginals. 

The Nephites were the beloved of the Lord. To 
them were given visions and angels' visits; to them 
the Christ appeared with gifts of gospel and prophecy. 
It was, indeed, the golden age of a favored people; 
but in a time of temptation, some three or four cen- 
turies after Christ, they fell, and were destroyed by 

^* ' The word " Mormon," the name given to his book, is the English termi- 
nation of the Greek word mormoo, which we find defined in an old, obsolete 
dictionary to mean bugbear, hobgoblin, raw bead, and bloody bones.' Howe's 
Mormonism Unveiled, 21. 'The word "Mormon" is neither Greek nor de- 
rived from the Greek, but from the "reformed Egyptian."' BeWs Reply to 
Theobald, 2. In Times and Seasons, Mr Smith writes as follows with regard 
to the meaning of the word ' Mormon : ' ' We say from the Saxon, good; the 
Dane, god; the Goth, goda; the German, gut; the Dutch, goed; the Latin, 
bonus; the G^eek, halos; the Hebrew, tob; and the Egyptian, mon. Hence, 
with the addition of more, or the contraction mor, we have the word "Mor- 
mon," which means, literally raorg good.^ 'Joseph Smith, annoyed at the 
profane wit which could derive the word "Mormon " from the Greek mormo, a 
bugbear, wrote an epistle on the subject, concluding with an elaborate display 
of his philological talent, such as he was accustomed to make on every pos- 
sible occasion.' Taylder'a Mormon's Own Book, xxxiv., xxxv. 



the wicked Lamanites. The greatest prophet of the 
Nephites, in the period of their declension, was Mor- 
mon, their historian, who after having completed his 
abridgment of the records of his nation, committed it 
to his son Moroni, and he, that they might not fall 
into the hands of the Lamanites, deposited them in 
the liill of Cumorah, where they were found by Joseph 

On the 5th of April, 1829, there comes to Joseph 
Smith a school-teacher, Oliver Cowdery by name, 
to whom the Lord had revealed himself at the house 
of the elder Smith, where the teacher had been 
boarding. Inquiring of the Lord, Joseph is told that 
to Oliver shall be given the same power to translate 
the book of Mormon,^® by which term the writing on 

" The Booh of Mormon; an account written hy The Hand of Mormon, upon 
plates taken from the plates of Nephi. Wherefore it is an abridgment of the 
record of the people of Nephi, and also of the Lamanites, who are a remnant oj 
the house of Israel; and also to Jew and Gentile; written by way of command- 
ment, and also by the spirit of prophecy and of revelation. Written and sealed 
up, and hid up unto the Lord, that they mifjht not be destroyed; to come forth 
by the gift and power of God unto the interpretation thereof; sealed by the hand 
of Moroni, and hid up unto the Lord, to come forth in due time by the way of 
Gentile; the interpretation thereof by the gift of God. An abridgment taken 
from the Book of Ether also; which is a record of the people of Jar&d; who ivere 
scattered at the time the Lord confounded the language of the people vjhen they 
were building a tower to get to heaven; lohich is to shew unto the remnant of the 
House of Israel what great things the Lord hath done for their fathers; and 
that they may know the covenants of the Lord, that they are not cast off forever; 
and also to the convincing of the Jew and Gentile that Jesus is the Christ, the 
Eternal God, manifesting himself unto all nations. And now if there are 
faidts, they are the inistakes of men; wherefore condemn not the things of God, 
that ye may be found spotless at the judgment-seat of Christ. By Joseph Smith, 
Jim., Author and Proprietor. (Printed by E. B. Grandin, for the author, 
Palmyra, New York, 1830.) Several editions followed. This first edition 
has 583 pages, and is prefaced among other things by an account of 117 
pages, which Mrs Harris burned. This preface is omitted in subsequent 
editions. The testimony of three witnesses, and also of eight witnesses 
which in subsequent editions is placed at the beginning, is here at the end. 
The testimony of witnesses alSrms that the signers saw the plates and the 
engravings thereon, having been shown them by an angel from heaven; they 
knew of the translation, that it had been done by the gift and power of God, 
and was therefore true. The book was reprinted at Nauvoo, at New York, 
at Salt Lake City, and in Europe. An edition printed by Jas 0. Wright & 
Co., evidently by way of speculation, contains eight pages of introduction, 
and an advertisement asserting that it is a reprint from the third American 
edition, and that the work was originally published at Nauvoo, which latter 
statement is incorrect. The publishers further claim that at the time of this 
printing, 1848, the book was out of print, notwithstanding the several pre- 


ceding editions. The edition at present in common use was printed at Salt 
Lake City, at the Deseret Xews office, and entered according to act of con- 
gress in 1879, by Joseph F. Smith. It is divided into chapters and verses, 
with references by Orson Pratt, senior. The aiTangement is as follows: 

The first book of Nephi, his reign and ministry, 22 chapters; the second 
book of Nephi, 33 chapters; the book of Jacob, the brother of Nephi, 7 chap- 
ters; the book of Enos, 1 chapter; the book of Jarom, 1 chapter; the book 
of Omni, 1 chapter; the words of Mormon, 1 chapter; the book of Mosiah, 
29 chapters; the book of Alma, the son of Alma, 63 chapters; the book of 
Helaman, 16 chapters; the book of Nephi, the son of Nephi, who was the 
son of Helaman, 30 chapters; the book of Nephi, who is the son of Nephi, 
one of the disciples of Jesus Christ, 1 chapter; book of Mormon, 9 chapters; 
book of Ether, 15 chapters; the book of Moroni, 10 chapters. In all 239 

I give herewith the contents of the several books. The style, like that of 
the revelations, is biblical. 

' First Book of Nephi. Language of the record; Nephi's abridgment; 
Lehi's dream; Lehi departs into the wilderness; Nephi slay eth Laban; Sariah 
complains of Lehi's vision; contents of the brass plates; Ishmael goes with 
Nephi; Nephi's brethren rebel, and bind him; Lehi's dream of the tree, rod, 
etc.; Messiah and John prophesied of; olive branches bi'oken off; Nephi's 
vision of Mary; of the crucifixion of Christ; of darkness and earthquake; 
great abominable church; discovery of the promised land; bible spoken of ; 
book of Mormon and holy ghost promised; other books come forth; bible and 
book of Mormon one; promises to the gentiles; two churches; the work of 
the Father to commence; a man in white robes (John); Nephites come to 
knowledge; rod of iron; the sons of Lehi take wives: director found (ball); 
Nephi breaks his bow; directors work by faith; Ishmael died; Lehi and Nephi 
threatened; Nephi commanded to build a ship; Nephi about to be worshipped 
by his brethren; ship finished and entered; dancing in the ship; Nephi bound; 
ship driven back; arrived on the promised land; plates of ore made; Zenos, 
Neum, and Zenock; Isaiah's writing; holy one of Israel. 

'Second Book of Nephi. Lehi to his sons; opposition in all things; Adam 
fell that man might be; Joseph saw our day; a choice seer; writings grow to- 
gether; prophet promised to the Lamanites; Joseph's prophecy on brass 
plates; Lehi buried; Nephi's life sought; Nephi separated from Laman; tem- 
ple built; skin of blackness; priests, etc., consecrated; make other plates; 
Isaiah's words by Jacob; angels to a devil; spirits and bodies reunited; bap- 
tism; no kings upon this land; Isaiah prophesieth; rod of the stem of Jesse; 
seed of Joseph perisheth not; law of Moses kept; Christ shall shew himself; 
signs of Christ, birth and death; whisper from the dust; book sealed up; 
priestcraft forbidden; sealed book to be brought forth ; three witnesses behold 
the book; the words (read this, I pray thee); seal uf) the book again; their 
priests shall contend; teach with their learning, and deny the holy ghost; rob 
the poor; a bible, a bible; men judged of the books; white and a delightsome 
people; work commences among all people; lamb of God baptized; baptism by 
water and holy ghost. 

'Book of Jacob. Nephi anointeth a king; Nephi dies; Nephites and 
Lamanites; a righteous branch from Joseph; Lamanites shall scourge you; 
more than one wife forbidden; trees, waves, and mountains obey us; Jews 
look beyond the mark; tame olive tree; nethermost part of the vineyard; 
fruit laid up against the season; another branch ; wild fruit had overcome; 
lord of the vineyard weeps; branches overcome the roots; wild branches 
plucked off; Sherem, the anti-Christ; a sign, Sherera smitten; Enos takes the 
plates from his father. 

'The Book of Enos. Enos, thy sins are forgiven; records threatened by 
Lamanites; Lamanites eat raw meat. 

'The Book of Jarom. Nephites wax strong; Lamanites drink blood; 
fortify cities; plates delivered to Omni. 

L' The Book of Omni. Plates given to Amaron; plates given to Chemish; 


Mosiah warned to flee; Zarahemia discovered; engravings on a stone; Cori- 
antumr discovered; his parents come from the tower; plates delivered to 
King Benjamin. 

' The words of Mormon. False Christs and prophets. 

' Book of Mosiah. Mosiah made king; the plates of brass, sword, and 
director; King Benjamin teacheth the people; their tent doors toward the 
temple; coming of Christ foretold; beggars not denied; sons and daughters; 
Mosiah began to reign; Ammon, etc., bomid and imprisoned; Limhi's procla- 
mation; twenty-four plates of gold; seer and translator. 

' Record of Zeniff. A battle fought; King Laman died; Noah made king; 
Abinadi the prophet; resurrection; Alma believed Abinadi; Abinadi cast into 
l)rison and scourged with fagots; waters of Mormon; the daughters of the 
Lamanites stolen by King Noah's priests; records on plates of ore; last trib- 
ute of wine; Lamanites' deep sleep; King Limhi baptized; priests and teach- 
ers labor; Alma saw an angel; Alma fell (dumb); King Mosiah's sons preach 
to the Lamanites; translation of records; plates delivered by Limhi; trans- 
lated by two stones; people back to the Tower; records given to Alma; judges 
appointed; King Mosiah died; Alma died; Kings of Nephi ended. 

'The Book of Alma. Nehor slew Gideon; Amlici made king; Amlici 
slain in battle; Amlicites painted red; Alma baptized in Sidon; Alma's 
preaching; Alma ordained elders; commanded to meet often; Alma saw an 
angel; Amulek saw an angel; lawyers questioning Amulek; coins named; 
Zeesrom the lawyer; Zeesrom trembles; election spoken of; Melchizedek 
priesthood; Zeesrom stoned; records burned; prison rent; Zeesrom healed 
and baptized; Nehor's desolation; Lamanites converted; flocks scattered at 
Sebus; Ammon smote off arms; Ammon and King Lamoni; King Lamoni 
fell; Ammon and the queen; king and queen prostrate; Aaron, etc., deliv- 
ered; Jerusalem built; preaching in Jerusalem; Lamoni's father converted; 
land desolation and bountiful; anti-Nephi-Lehies; general council; swords 
buried; 1,005 massacred; Lamanites perish by fire; slavery forbidden; anti- 
Nephi-Lehies removed to Jershon, called Ammonites; tremendous battle; 
anti-Christ, Korihor; Korihor struck dumb; the devil in the form of an angel; 
Korihor trodden down; Alma's mission to Zoramites; Rameumptom (holy 
stand); Alma on hill Onidah; Alma on faith; prophecy of Zenos; prophecy 
of Zenock; Amulek's knowledge of Christ; charity recommended ; same spirit 
possess your body; believers cast out; Alma to Helaman; plates given to 
Helaman; twenty-four plates; Gazelem, a stone (secret); Liahona, or com- 
pass; Alma to Shiblon; Alma to Corianton; unpardonable sin; resurrection; 
restoration; justice in punishment; if, Adam, took, tree, life; mercy rob jus- 
tice; ^Moroni's stratagem; slaughter of Lamanites; Moroni's speech to Zera- 
hemnah; prophecy of a soldier; Lamanites' covenant of peace; Alma's proph- 
ecy 400 years after Christ; dwindle in unbelief; Alma's strange departure; 
Amalickiah leadeth away the people, destroyeth the church; standard of 
Moroni; Joseph's coat rent; Jacob's prophecy of Joseph's seed; fevers in the 
land, plants and roots for diseases; Amalickiah's plot; the king stabbed; 
Amalickiah marries the queen, and is acknowledged king; fortifications by 
Moroni; ditches filled with dead bodies; Amalickiah's oath; Pahoran ap- 
pointed judge; army against king-men; Amalickiah slain; Ammoron made 
king; Bountiful fortified; dissensions; 2,000 young men; Moroni's epistle to 
Ammoron; Ammoron's answer; Lamanites made drunk; Moroni's stratagem; 
Helaman 's epistle to Moroni; Helaman's stratagem; mothers taught faith; 
Lamanites surrendered; city of Antiparah taken; city of Cumeni taken; 200 
of the 2, 000 fainted; prisoners rebel, slain; Mantitaken by stratagem; Moroni 
to the governor; governor's answer; King Pachus slain; cords and ladders 
prepared; Nephihah taken; Teancum's stratagem, slain; peace established; 
MoronUiah made commander; Helaman died; sacred things, Shiblon; Moroni 
died; 5,400 emigrated north; ships built by Hagoth; sacred things committed 
to Helaman; Shiblon died. 

'The Book of Helaman. Pahoran died; Pahoran appointed judge; Kish- 
kuraen slays Pahoran; Pacumeni appointed judge; Zarahamia taken; Pacu- 


meni killed; Coriantumr slain; Lamanites surrendered; Helaman appointed 
judge; secret signs discovered and Kishkumen stabbed; Gadianton fled; em- 
igration northward; cement houses; many books and records; Helaman died; 
Nephi made judge; Nephites become wicked; Nephi gave the judgment-seat 
to Cezoram; Nephi and Lehi preached to the Lamanites; 8,000 baptized; Al- 
ma and Nephi surrounded with fire; angels administer; Cezoram and son 
murdered; Gadianton robbers; Gadianton robbers destroyed; Nephi's proph- 
ecy; Gadianton robbers are judges; chief judge slain; Sean turn detected; keys 
of the kingdom; Nephi taken away by the spirit; famine in the land; Gla- 
dian ton band destroyed; famine removed; Samuel's prophecy; tools lost; two 
days and a night, light; sign of the crucifixion; Samuel stoned, etc. ; angels 

'Third Book of Nephi. Lachoneus chief judge; Nephi receives the records; 
Nephi's strange departure; no darkness at night; Lamanites become white; 
Giddianhi to Lachoneus; Gidgiddoni chief judge; Giddianhi slain; Zemna- 
rihah hanged; robbers surrendered; Mormon abridges the records; church 
begins to be broken up; government of the land destroyed; chief judge mur- 
dered; divided into tribes; Nephi raises the dead; sign of the crucifixion; 
cities destroyed, earthquakes, darkness, etc.; law of Moses fulfilled; Christ 
appears to Nephites; print of the nails; Nephi and others called; baptism 
commanded; doctrine of Christ; Christ the end of the law; other sheep spoken 
of; blessed are the Gentiles; Gentile wickedness on the land of Joseph; 
Isaiah's words fulfilled; Jesus heals the sick; Christ blesses children; little 
ones encircled with fire; Christ administers the sacrament; Christ teaches 
his disciples; names of the twelve; the twelve teach the multitude; baptism, 
holy ghost, and fire; disciples made white; faith great; Christ breaks bread 
again; miracle, bread and wine; Gentiles destroyed (Isaiah); Zion established; 
from Gentiles, to your seed; sign, Father's work commenced; he shall be 
marred; Gentiles destroyed (Isaiah); New Jerusalem built; work commence 
among all the tribes; Isaiah's words; saints did arise; Malachi's prophecy; 
faith tried by the book of Mormon; children's tongues loosed; the dead raised; 
baptism and holy ghost; all things common; Christ appears again; Moses, 
church; three Nephitea tarry; the twelve caught up; change upon their 

' Book of Nephi, son of Nephi. Disciples raise the dead; Zarahemia re- 
built; other disciples are ordained in their stead; Nephi dies; Amos keeps the 
records in his stead; Amos dies, and his son Amos keeps the records; prisons 
rent by the three; secret combinations; Ammaron hides the records. 

'Book of Mormon. Three disciples taken away; Mormon forbidden to 
preach; Mormon appointed leader; Samuel's prophecy fulfilled; Mormon 
makes a record; lands divided; the twelve shall judge; desolation taken; 
women and children sacrificed; Mormon takes the records hidden in Shim; Mor- 
mon repents of his oath and takes command; coming forth of records; records 
hid in Cumorah; 230,000 Nepliites slain; shall not get gain by the plates; 
these things shall come forth out of the earth; the state of the world; miracles 
cease, unbelief; disciples go into all the world and preach; language of the 

'Book of Ether. Twenty-four plates found; Jared cries unto the Lord; 
Jared goes down to the valley of Nimrod; Deseret, honey-bee; barges built; 
decree of God, choice land; free from bondage; four years in tents at Morian- 
cumer; Lord talks three hours; barges like a dish; eight vessels, sixteen 
stones; Lord touches the stones; finger of the Lord seen; Jared 's brother sees 
the Lord; two stones given; stones sealed up; goes aboard of vessels; furious 
wind blows; 344 days' passage; Orihah anointed king; King Shule taken cap- 
tive; Shule's sons slay Noah; Jared carries his father away captive; the 
daughters of Jared dance; Jared anointed king by the hand of wickedness; 
Jared murdered and Akish reigns in his stead; names of animals; poisonous 
serpents; Riplakish's cruel reign; Morianton anointed king; poisonous ser- 
pents destroyed; many wicked kings; Moroni on faith; miracles by faith; 
Moroni sees Jesus; New Jerusalen spoken of; Ether cast out; records finished 


in the cavity of a rock; secret combinations; war in all the land; King Gilead 
murdered by his high priest; the high priest murdered by Lib; Lib slain by 
Coriantumr; dead bodies cover the land and none to bury them; 2,000,000 
men slam; hill Ramah; cries rend the air; sleep on their swords; Corian- 
tumr slays Shiz; Shiz falls to the earth; records hidden by Ether. 

'Book of Moroni. Christ's words to the twelve; manner of ordination; 
order of sacrament; order of baptism; faith, hope and charity; baptism sf lit- 
tle children; women fed on their husbands' flesh; daughters murdered and 
eaten; sufferings of women and cMldren; cannot recommend them to God; 
Moroni to the Lamanites; 420 years since the sign; records sealed up (Moroni); 
gifts of the spirits; God's word shall hiss forth.' 

From a manuscript furnished at my request by Franklin D. Richards, en- 
titled The Book of Mormon, I epitomize as follows : Several families retain- 
ing similar forms of speech were directed by God to America, where they 
became numerous and prosperous. They lived righteously at first, but after- 
ward became sinful, and about 600 b. c. broke up as a nation, leaving records 
by their most eminent historian Ether, During the reign of Zedekiah, king 
of Judah, two men, Lehi and Mulek, were warned of God of the approaching 
destruction of Jerusalem, and were directed how they and their families could 
make their escape, and were led to this land where they found the records 
of the former people. Lehi landed at Chili. His people spread to North 
America, became numerous and wealthy, lived under the law of Moses which 
they had brought with them, and had their judges, kings, prophets, and 
temples. Looking confidently for the coming of Christ in the flesh, in due 
time he came, and after his crucifixion organized the church in America as he 
had done in Judea, an account of which, together with their general history, 
was preserved on metallic plates in the language of the times. An abridgment 
was made on gold plates about A. D. 400 by a prophet named Mormon, from 
all the historical plates that had come down to him. Thus were given not 
only the histories of the Nephites and Lamanites — his own people- — but of 
the Jaredites, who had occupied the land before them, and his book was 
called the Book of Mormon. Destruction coming upon the people. Mormon's 
son, Moroni, was directed of God where to deposit the plates, the urim and 
thummim being deposited with them so that the finder might be able to read 
them. And as Moroni had left them so were they found by Joseph Smith. 
The Book of Mormon was translated in 1851 into Italian, iinder the auspices 
of Lorenzo Snow, and into Danish under the direction of Erastus Snow; in 
1852 John Taylor directed its translation into French and German, and 
Franklin D. Richards into Welsh. In 1855 George Q. Cannon brought out an 
edition in the Hawaiian language at San Francisco; in 1878 N. C. Flygare 
supervised its publication in the Swedish, and Moses Thatcher in 1884 in the 
Spanish language. 

In December 1874, Orson Pratt, at that time church historian, prepared 
an article for insertion in the Universal Cyclopedia, a portion of which is as 
follows: 'The first edition of this wonderful book was published early in 
1830. It has since been translated and published in the Welsh, Danish, 
German, French, and Italian languages of the east, and in the language of 
the Sandwich Islands of the west. It is a volume about one third as large as 
the bible, consisting of sixteen sacred books . . . One of the founders of the 
Jaredite nation, a great prophet, saw in vision all things from the foundation 
of the world to the end thereof, which were written, a copy of which was en- 
graved by Moroni on the plates of Mormon, and then sealed up. It was this 
portion which the prophet, Joseph Smith, was forbidden to translate or to 
unloose the seal. In due time this also will be revealed, together with all 
the sacred records kept by the ancient nations of this continent, preparatory 
to the time when the knowledge of God shall cover the earth as the waters 
cover the great deep.' Deseret News, Sept. 27, 1876. Orson Pratt afterward 
stated that the book of Mormon had been translated into ten different lan- 
guages. Deseret News, Oct. 9, 1878. See also Taylder's Mormons, 10. For 
further criticisms on the book of Mormon, see Millennial Star, xix., index v.; 


the golden plates is hereafter known, and that he also 
shall bear witness to the truth. 

Two days after the arrival of Oliver/^ Joseph and he 
begin the work systematically, the former translating 
while the latter writes ;^'' for Oliver has a vision, mean- 

Times and Seasons, ii. 305-6; Pratt^s Pamphlets, i. to vi. 1-96; Hyde's Mor- 
monism, 210-83; Olshausen Gesch. der Mormen, 15-29; Howe's Mormonism 
Unveiled, 17-123; Salt Lake City Tribune, Apr. 11, June 5 and 6, and Nov. 
5, 1879; Juvenile Instructor, xiv. 2-3; Reynolds' Myth of the Manuscript 
Found, passim; Lee's Mormonism, 119-26; Clements' Roughing It, 127-35; 
Pop. Science Monthly, Ivi. 165-73; Bennett's Mormonism Exposed, 103-40. 
See letter from Thurlow Weed, also statement by Mrs Matilda Spaulding 
McKinstry in Scribner's Mag., Aug. 1880, 613-16. 

^^ Oliver Cowdery ' is a blacksmith by trade, and sustained a fair reputa- 
tion until his intimacy commenced with the money digger. He was one of 
the many in the world who always find time to study out ways and means to 
live without work. He accordingly quit the blacksmithing business, and is 
now the editor of a small monthly publication issued under the directions of 
the prophet, and principally filled with accounts of the spread of Mormonism, 
their persecutions, and the fabled visions and commands of Smith. ' He was 
'chief scribe to the prophet, while transcribing, after Martin had lost 116 
pages of the precious document by interference of the devil. An angel 
also has shown him the plates from which the book of Mormon proceeded, 
as he says.' Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 15, 265; see also Pearl of Great 
Price, xiii. 54; Smucker's Hist. Mor., 28; Taylder's Mormons, xxxii. 

^' ' Instead of looking at the characters inscribed upon the plates, the 
prophet was obliged to resort to the old peep-stone which he formerly used in 
money digging. This he i)laced in a hat, or box, into which he also thrust 
his face. . .Another account they give of the transaction is, that it was per- 
formed with the big spectacles,' which enabled ' Smith to translate the plates 
without looking at them.' Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 17-18. ' These were 
days never to be forgotten,' Oliver remarks, 'to sit under the soimd of a voice 
dictated by the inspiration of heaven, awakened the utmost gratitude of this 
bosom! Day after day I continued, uninterrupted, to write from his mouth, 
as he translated with the urim and thummun, or, as the Nephites would 
have said, "interpreters," the history or record called the "Book of Mor- 
mon,"' Pearl of Great Price, 55. See also Mackay's The Mormons, 30-31; 
Millennial Star, iii. 148; Smucker's Hist. Mormons, 35; Pratt's Pamphlets, iv, 
68-9; Ferris' Utah and the Mormons, 61-2. In relation to the peep-stone al- 
luded to, Williard Chase says in his sworn testimony that he discovered a 
singular stone while digging a well in the year 1822. Joseph Smith was as- 
sisting him, and borrowed the stone from him, alleging that he could see into 
it. After he obtained the stone Smith published abroad the wonders that 
he could see in the stone, and made much disturbance among the credulous 
members of the community. See Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 241. 'This 
stone attracted particular notice on account of its peculiar shape, resembling 
that of a child's foot. It was of a whitish, glassy appearance, though opaque, 
resembling quartz . . . He (Joseph Jr) manifested a special fancy for this geo- 
logical curiosity; and he carried it home with him, though this act of plunder 
was against the strenuous protestations of Mr Chase's children, who claimed 
to be its rightful owners. Joseph kept this stone, and ever afterward refused 
its restoration to the claimants. Very soon the pretension transpired that he 
could see wonderful things by its aid. The idea was rapidly enlarged upon 
from day to day, and in a short time his spiritual endowment was so devel- 
oped that he asserted the gift and power (with the stone at his eyes) of re- 
vealing both things existing and things to come.' Tucker's Mormonism, 19-20. 


while, telling him not to exercise his gift of translating 
at present, but simply to write at Joseph's dictation. 
Continuing thus, on the 15th of May the two men go 
into the woods to ask God concerning baptism, found 
mentioned in the plates. Presently a messenger de- 
scends from heaven in a cloud of light. It is John the 
Baptist. And he ordains them, saying, "Upon you, 
my fellow-servants, in the name of messiah, I confer 
the priesthood of Aaron." Baptism by immersion is 
directed; the power of laying-on of hands for the gift 
of the holy ghost is promised, but not now bestowed; 
then they are commanded to be baptized, each one 
baptizing the other, which is done, each in turn lay- 
ing his hands upon the head of the other, and ordain- 
ing him to the Aaronic priesthood. As they come 
up out of the water the holy ghost falls upon them, 
and they prophesy. 

Persecutions continue ; brethren of Christ threaten 
to mob them, but Joseph's wife's father promises 
protection. Samuel Smith comes, and is converted, 
receiving baptism and obtaining revelations; and later 
Joseph's father and mother, Martin Harris, and 
others. Food is several times charitably brought to 
the translators by Joseph Knight, senior, of Coles- 
ville. New York, concerning whom is given a revela- 
tion. In June comes David Whitmer with a request 
from his father, Peter Whitmer, of Fayette, New 
York, that the translators should occupy his house 
thenceforth until the completion of their work, and 
brings with him a two-horse wagon to carry them 
and their effects. Not only is their board to be free, 
but one of the brothers Whitmer, of whom there are 
David, John, and Peter junior, will assist in the writ- 
ing. Thither they go, and find all as promised ; David 
and Peter Whitmer and Hyrum Smith are baptized, 
and receive revelations through Joseph, who inquires 
of the Lord for them by means of the urim and thum- 
mim. The people thereabout being friendly, meetings 
are held, and the new revelation taught, many believ- 



ing, certain priests and others disputing. Three 
special witnesses are provided by Christ, namely, 
Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, and Martin Harris,^^ 
to whom the plates are shown by an angel after much 
prayer and meditation in the woods. These are the 
three witnesses. And there are further eight wit- 
nesses, namely, Christian Whitmer, Jacob Whitmer, 
Peter Whitmer junior, John Whitmer, Hiram Page, 
Joseph Smith senior, Hyrum Smith, and Samuel H. 
Smith, who testify that the plates were shown to 
them by Joseph Smith junior, that they handled them 
with their hands, and saw the characters engraven 

'*The objections raised against this testimony are, first, there is no date 
nor place; second, there are not three separate affidavits, but one testimony 
signed by three men; third, compare with Smith's revelation Doctrine and 
Covenants, p. 173, and it appears that this testimony is drawn up by Smith 
himself. But who are these witnesses ? Sidney Rigdon, at Inclependence, 
Missouri, in 1838, charged Cowdery and Whitmer with 'being connected with 
a gang of counterfeiters, thieves, liars, blacklegs of the deepest dye, to de- 
ceive and defraud the saints.' Joseph Smith {Times and Seasons, vol. i. pp. 
81, 83-4) charges Cowdery and Whitmer with being busy in stirring up 
strife and turmoil among the brethren in 1838 in Missouri; and he demands, 
' Are they not murderers then at the heart ? Are not their consciences seared 
as with a hot iron ?' These men were consequently cut off from the church. 
In 1837 Smith prints this language about his coadjutor and witness: 'There 
are negroes who have white skins as well as black ones — Granny Parish 
and others, who acted as lackeys, such as Martin Harris ! But they are so 
far beneath my contempt that to notice any of them would be too great a 
sacrifice for a gentleman to make.' Hyde's Mormonism, 252-5. Of David 
Whitmer, Mr Howe says: 'He is one of five of the same name and family 
who have been used as witnesses to establish the imposition, and who are 
now head men and leaders in the Mormonite camp. They were noted in 
their neighborhood for credulity and a general belief in witches, and perhaps 
were fit subjects for the juggling arts of Smith. David relates that he was 
led by Smith into an open field, on his father's farm, where they found the 
book of plates Ijdng upon the ground. Smith took it up and requested him 
to examine it, which he did for the space of half an hour or more, when he 
returned it to Smith, who placed it in its former position, alleging that it 
was in the custody of an angel. He describes the plates as being about eight 
inches square, the leaves being metal of a whitish yellow color, and of the 
thickness of tin plates.' Mormonism Unveiled, 16. See also Kidder^ s Mor- 
mons, 49-51; Tucker's Origin and Prog. 21 or., 69-71; Smucker's Hist. Mor., 
29-30; Bertrand's Memoires d'un Mormon, 29-31. 

^' ' It •will be seen that the witnesses of this truth were principally of the 
two families of Whitmer and Smith. The Smiths were the father and broth- 
ers of Joseph. Who the Whitmers were is not clear, and all clew to their 
character and proceedings since this date, though probably knowm to the 
Mormons themselves, is undiscoverable by the profane vulgar. ' Mackay's The 
Mormons, 23. 

The theory commonly accepted at present by those not of the Mormon 
faith, in regard to the origin of the book of Mormon, is thus given in the in- 


troduction to the New York edition of the Booh of Mormon, essentially the 
same as that advanced previously by E. D. Howe, and subsequently elabo- 
rated by others: 'About the year 1809, the Rev. Solomon Spaulding, a clergy- 
man who had graduated from Dartmouth college, and settled in the town of 
Cherry Valley, in the State of New York, removed from that place to New 
Salem (Conneaut), Ashtabula county, Ohio. Mr Spaulding was an enthu- 
siastic archiEologist. The region to which he removed was rich in American 
antiquities. The mounds and fortifications which have puzzled the brains of 
many patient explorers attracted his attention, and he accepted the theory 
that the American continent was peopled by a colony of the ancient Israelites. 
The anjple material by which he was surrounded, full of mythical interest and 
legendary suggestiveness, led him to the conception of a curious literary pro- 
ject. He sefe himself the task of writing a fictitious history of the race which 
had built the mounds. The work was commenced and progressed slowly for 
some time. Portions of it were read by Mr Spaulding's friends, as its dif- 
ferent sections were completed, and after three years' labor, the volume was 
sent to the press, bearing the title of TJie Manuscript Found. Mr Spaulding 
had removed to Pittsburgh, Pa., before his book received the final revision, 
and it was in the hands of a printer named Patterson, in that city, that the 
manuscript was placed with a view to publication. This was in the year 
1812. The printing, however, was delayed in consequence of a difficulty 
about the contract, i;ntil Mr Spaulding left Pittsburgh, and went to Amity, 
Washington county. New York, where in 1816 he died. The manuscript 
seems to have lain unused during this interval. But in the employ of the 
printer Patterson was a versatile genius, one Sidney Rigdon, to whom no 
trade came amiss, and who happened at the time to be a journeyman at work 
with Patterson. Disi^utations on questions of theology were the peculiar de- 
light of Rigdon, and the probable solution of the mystery of the book of Mor- 
mon is found in the fact that, by this man's agency, information of the exist- 
ence of the fictitious record was first communicated to Joseph Smith. 
Smith's family settled in Palmyra, New York, about the year 1815, and re- 
moved subsequently to Ontario county, where Joseph became noted for su- 
preme cunning and general shiftlessness. Chance threw him in the company of 
Rigdon soon after Spaulding's manuscript fell under the eye of the erratic 
journeyman, and it is probable that the plan of foimding a new system of re- 
ligious imposture was concocted by these two shrewd and unscrupulous par- 
ties. The fact that the style of the book of Mormon so closely imitates that 
of the received version of the bible — a point which seems to have been con- 
stantly kept in view by Mr Spaulding, probably in order to invest the fiction 
with a stronger character of reality — answered admirably for the purposes 
of Rigdon and Smith.' Mr Howe testifies that 'an opinion has prevailed to 
a considei-able extent that Rigdon has been the lago, the prime mover of 
the whole conspiracy. Of this, however, we have no positive proof.' Mor- 
monism Unveiled, 100. 

To prove the foregoing, witnesses are brought forward. John Spaulding, 
brother of Solomon, testifies: 'He then told me that he had been writing a 
book, which he intended to have printed, the avails of which he thought 
would enable him to pay all his debts. The book was entitled The Manuscript 
Found, of which he read to me many passages. It was an historical romance 
of the first settlers of America, ' etc. He goes on to speak of Nephi and Lehi 
as names familiar, as does also Martha Spaulding, John's wife. Heniy Lake, 
formerly Solomon's partner, testifies to the same effect; also John N. Miller, 
who worked for Lake and Spaulding in building their forge; also Aaron 
Wright, Oliver Smith, and Nahum Howard, neighbors; also Artemas Cunning- 
ham, to whom Spaulding owed money. To these men Solomon Spaulding 
used to talk about and read from his Manuscript Found, which was an ac- 
count of the ten lost tribes in America, which he wanted to publish and with 
the profits pay his debts. After the book of Mormon was printed, and they 
saw it, or heard it read, they were sure it was the same as Spaulding's Manu- 
script Found. Id. , 278-87. 


Who Wrote the Book of Morrr.on? is the title of a 4to pamphlet of 16 
pages by Robert Patterson of Pittsburgh. Reprinted from the illustrated 
history of Washington county, Philadelphia, 1882. This Patterson is the 
son of printer Patterson, to whose office the Spaulding MS. is said to have 
been sent. Little new information is brought out by this inquisition. First 
he extracts passages from Howe's Moi-monism Unveiled, quoting at second- 
hand from Kidder's Mormonism ajA the Mormons, in the absence of the orig- 
inal, stating erroneously that Howe's book was first printed in 1835. I give 
elsewhere an epitome of the contents of Howe's work. Ballantyne in his 
Beply to a Tract, by T. Richards, What is Mormonism? wherein is advanced 
the Spaulding theory, asserts in answer that Spaulding's manuscript was not 
known to Smith or Rigdon until after the publication of the Book of Mor- 
mon, and that the two were not the same, the latter being about three times 
larger than the former. 'Dr Hurlburt,' he says, 'and certain other noted 
enemies of this cause, having heard that such a manuscript existed, deter- 
mined to publish it to the world in order to destroy the book of Mormon, but 
after examining it, found that it did not read as they expected, consequently 
declined its publication.' The Spaulding theory is advanced and supported 
by the following, in addition to the eight witnesses whose testimony was given 
by Howe in his Mormonism Unveiled. Mrs Matilda Spaulding Davidson, once 
wife of Solomon Spa\ilding, said to Rev. D. R. Austin, who had the statement 
printed in the Boston Recorder, May 1839, that Spaulding was in the habit 
of reading portions of his romance to his friends and neighbors. When John 
Spaulding heard read for the first time passages from the book of Mormon 
he 'recognized perfectly the work of his brother. He was amazed and af- 
flicted that it should have been perverted to so wicked a purpose. His grief 
found vent in a flood of tears, and he arose on the spot and expressed to the 
meeting his sorrow and regret that the writings of his deceased brother should 
be used for a purpose so vile and shocking.' Statements to the same effect 
are given as coming from Mrs McKinstry, daughter of Spaulding, priuted in 
Scribner's Monthly, August 1880; W. H. Sabine, brother of Mrs Spaulding; 
Joseph Miller, whose statements were printed in the Pittsburgh Telegraph, 
Feb. 6, 1879; Redick McKee in the Washington Reporter, April 21, 1SG9; 
Rev. Abner Jackson in a communication to the Washington County Histori- 
cal Society, printed in the Washington Bvporter, Jan. 7, 1881, and others. 
See also Kidder's Mormonism, 37-49; California — Its Past History, 198-9; 
Ferris' Utah and 3fo7-moas, 50-1; Gunnison's Mormons, 93-7; Bertrand's 
Mimoires d'lm Mormon, 33-44; Hist, of Mormons, 41-50; Bennett's Mormon- 
ism, 115-24; Howe's Mormonism, 289-90. 

Robert Patterson, in his pamphlet entitled Who Wrote the Booh of Mor- 
mon? thus discusses the case of Sidney Rigdon: 'It was satisfactorily proven 
that Spauldiug was the author of the book of Mormon; but how did Joseph 
Smith obtain a copy of it ? The theory hitherto most widely published,' says 
Patterson, 'and perhaps generally accepted, has been that Rigdon was a 
printer in Patterson's printing-office when the Spaulding manuscript was 
brought there in 1812-14, and that he either copied or purloined it. Having 
it thus in his possession, the use made of it was an after thought suggested 
by circumstances many years later. More recently another theoxy has been 
advanced, that Rigdon obtained possession of the Spaulding manuscript dur- 
ing his pastorate of the first baptist church or soon thereafter, 1822-4, with- 
out any necessary impropriety on his part, but rather through the courtesy 
of some friend, in whose possession it remained unclaimed, and who regarded 
it as a literary curiosity. The friends of Rigdon, in response to the first 
charge, deny that he ever resided in Pittsburgh previous to 1S22, or that he 
ever was a printer, and in general answer to both charges affirm that he 
never at any time had access to Spaulding's manuscript.' Rigdon denies em- 
phatically that he ever worked in Patterson's printing-office or knew of such 
an esta,blishment; and the testimony, produced by Patterson, of Carvil Rig- 
don, Sidney's brother, Peter Boyer, his brother-in-law, Isaac King, Samuel 
Cooper, Robert Dubois, and Mrs Lambdin points in the same direction. On 


the other hand, Mrs Davidson, Joseph Miller, E«dick McKee, Rev. Cephas 
Dodd, and Mrs Eichbaum are quite positive that either Rigdon worked in the 
printing-ofBce, or had access to the manuscript. 'These witnesses,' continues 
Patterson, 'arc all whom we can find, after inquirif-s extending through some 
three years, who can testify at all to Rigdon's residence in Pittsburgh before 
1816, and to his possible employment in Patterson's printing-office or bindery. 
Of this employment none of them speak from personal knowledge. In mak- 
ing inquiries among two or three score of the oldest residents of Pittsburgh 
and vicinity, those who had any opinion on the subject invariably, so far as 
now remembered, repeated the story of Rigdon's employment in Patterson's 
office as if it were a well known and admitted fact; they could tell all about 
it, but when pressed as to their personal knowledge of it or their authority 
for the conviction, they had none.' Nevertheless he concludes, 'after an im- 
partial consideration of the preceding testimony, that Rigdon as early as 1823 
certainly had possession of Spaulding's manuscript; how he obtained it is 
unimportant for the present purpose; that during his career as a minister of 
the Disciples church in Ohio, he carefully preserved under lock and key this 
document, and devoted an absorbed attention to it; that he was aware of the 
forthcoming book of Mormon and of its contents long before its appearance; 
that the said contents were largely Spaulding's romance, and partly such 
modifications as Rigdon had introduced; and that, during the preparation of 
the book of Mormon, Rigdon had repeated and long interviews with Smith, 
thus easily supplying him with f resli instalments of the pretended revelation. ' 
In a letter to the editors of the Boston Journal, dated May 27, 1839, Rigdon 
says: ' There was no man by the name of Patterson during my residence at 
Pittsbiirgh who had a printing-office; what might have been before I lived 
there I know not. Mr Robert Patterson, I was told, had owned a printing- 
office before I lived in that city, but had been unfortunate in business, and 
failed before my residence there. This Mr Patterson, who was a presbyterian 
preacher, I had a very slight acquaintance with during my residence in Pitts- 
burgh. He was then acting under an agency in the book and stationery 
business, and was the owner of no property of any kind, printing-office or 
anything else, during the time I resided in the city. ' Smiicher^s Mormons, 45-8. 

In Philadelphia, in 1840, was published The Origin of the Spauldinfj 
Story, concerning the Alanuscript Found; with a short biography of Dr P. Hul- 
bert, the originator of the same; and some testimony adducd, showing it to be a 
sheer fabrication so far as its connection with the Book of Mormon is concerned. 
By B. Winchester, minister of the Gospel. The author goes on to say that 
Hulbert, a raethodist preacher at Jamestown, N. Y., joined the Mormons in 
1833, and was expelled for immoral conduct, whereupon he swore vengeance 
and concocted the Spaulding story. Hearing of a work written by Solomon 
Spaulding entitled The Manuscript Found, he sought to prove to those about 
him that the book of Mormon was derived from it, ' not that any of these 
persons had the most distant idea that this novel had ever been converted 
into the book of Mormon, or that there was any connection between them. 
Indeed, Mr Jackson, who had read both the book of Mormon and Spaulding's 
manuscript, told Mr H. when he came to get his signature to a writing testi- 
fying to the probability that Mr S.'s manuscript had been converted into the 
book of Mormon, that there was no agreement between them; for, said he, 
Mr S.'s manuscript was a very small work, in the form of a novel, saying 
not one word about the children of Israel, but professed to give an account 
of a race of people who originated from the Romans, which Mr S. said he had 
translated from a Latin parchment that he had found. ' Winchester states fur- 
ther that Hurlburt, or Hulbert, wrote Mormonism Unveiled and sold it to 
Howe for $500. 

The Myth of the Manuscript Found; or the absurdities of the Spaulding 
story; By Elder George Reynolds, was published at Salt Lake City in 1883. 
It is a 12mo vol. of 104 pages, and gives first the history of the Spaulding man- 
uscript, and names Hurlburt as the originator of the story. Chap. iii. is en- 
titled ' the bogus affidavit,' referring to the alleged sworn statement of Mrs 


The translation of the book of Mormon being fin- 
ished, Smith and Cowdery go to Palmyra, secure the 
copyright, and agree with Egbert B. Grandin to 
print five thousand copies for three thousand dollars. 
Meanwhile, a revelation comes to Martin Harris, at 
Manchester, in March, commanding him to pay for 
the printing of the book of Mormon, under penalty 
of destruction of himself and property. ^° The title- 

Davison, the widow of Spaulding, published by Storrs, but denied by Mrs 
Davison. Rigdon's connection, or rather lack of connection with the manu- 
script is next discussed. Then is answered an article in Scribner's llagazhie 
by Sirs Dickenson, grand niece of Mr Spaulding, and probably the most shal- 
low treatment of the subject yet presented on either side. Further discus- 
sions on the book are followed by an analysis of the life of Joseph, and finally 
internal evidences and prophecies are considered. 'It is evident,' Mr Rey- 
nolds concludes, 'that if Mr Spaulding's story was what its friends claim, 
then it never could have formed the ground-work of the book of Mormon; 
for the whole historical narrative is different from beginning to end. And 
further, the story that certain old inhabitants of New Salem, who, it is said, 
recognized the book of Mormon, either never made such a statement, or they 
let their imagination run away with their memory into the endorsement of a 
falsehood and an impossibility.' 

^"Speaking of Martin Harris, E. D. Howe says: 'Before his acquaintance 
with the Smith family he was considered an honest, industrious citizen by 
his neighbors. His residence was in the town of Palmyra, where he had 
accumulated a handsome property. He was naturally of a very visionary 
turn of mind on the subject of religion, holding one sentiment but a short 
time.' Mortgaged his farm for §3,000, and printed the Book of Mormon, as 
he said, to make money. The price first was $1.75, then $1.25, afterward 
whatever they could get. ' Since that time the frequent demands on Mar- 
tin's purse have reduced it to a very low state. He seems to have been the 
soul and body of the whole imposition, and now carries the most incon- 
testable proofs of a religious maniac . . . Martin is an exceedingly fast talker. 
He frequently gathers a crowd around in bar-rooms and in the streets. 
Here he appears to be in his element, answering and explaining all manner 
of dark and abstruse theological questions . . . He is the source of much 
trouble and perplexity to the honest portion of his brethren, and would un- 
doubtedly long since have been cast off by Smith were it not for his money, and 
the fact that he is one of the main pillars of the Mormon fabric. ' Mormonism 
Unveiled, 13-15. 'The wife of Martin Harris instituted a lawsuit against 
him [Joseph Smith, Jr], and stated in her affidavit that she believed the chief 
object he had in view was to defraud her husband of all his property. The 
trial took place at New York, and the facts, as related even by the mother 
of the prophet, are strongly condemnatory of his conduct . . . Harris denied 
in solemn terms that Smith had ever, in any manner, attempted to get pos- 
session of his money, and ended by assuring the gentlemen of the court that, 
if they did not believe in the existence of the plates, and continued to resist 
the truth, it would one day be the means of damning their souls. ' Tayldcr's 
Mormons, xxxi.-ii. 'In the beginning of the printing the ilormons pro- 
fessed to hold their manuscripts as sacred, and insisted upon maintaining con- 
stant vigilance for their safety during the progress of the work, each morn- 
ing carrying to the printing-office the instalment required for the day, and 
withdrawing the same at evening. No alteration from copy in any manner 
was to be made. These things were "strictly commanded," as they said. Mr 



page is not a modern production, but a literal trans- 
lation from the last leaf of the plates, on the left-hand 
side, and running like all Hebrew writing. 

And now in a chamber of Whitmer's house Smith, 
Cowdery, and David Whitmer meet, and earnestly ask 
God to make good his promise, and confer on them 
the Melchisedec priesthood, which authorizes the lay- 
ing-on of hands for the gift of the holy ghost. Their 
prayer is answered; for presently the word of the 
Lord comes to them, commanding that Joseph Smith 
should ordain Oliver Cowdery to be an elder in the 
church of Jesus Christ, and Oliver in like manner 
should so ordain Joseph, and the two should ordain 
others as from time to time the will of the Lord should 
be made known to them.^^ But this ordination must 
not take place until the baptized brethren assemble 
and give to this act their sanction, and accept the 
ordained as spiritual teachers, and then only after the 
blessing and partaking of bread and wine. It is next 
revealed that twelve shall be called to be the disciples 
of Christ, the twelve apostles of these last days, who 
shall go into all the world preaching and baptizing. 

John H. Gilbert, as printer, had the chief operative trust of the type-setting 
and press-work of the job. After the first day's trial he foiind the manu- 
scripts in so very imperfect a condition, especially in regard to grammar, 
that he became unwilling further to obey the "command," and so announced 
to Smith and his party; when finally, upon much friendly expostulation, he 
was given a limited discretion in correcting, which was exercised in the par- 
ticulars of syntax, orthography, punctuation, capitalizing, paragraphing, etc. 
Many errors under these heads, nevertheless, escaped correction, as appear 
in the first edition of the printed book. Very soon, too — after some ten 
days — the constant vigilance by the Mormons over the manuscripts was re- 
laxed by reason of the confidence they came to repose in the printers. Mr 
Gilbert has now (1867) in his possession a complete copy of the book in the 
original sheets, as laid off by him from the press in working . . . Meanwhile, 
Harris and his wife had separated by mutual arrangement, on account of 
her persistent unbelief in Mormonism and refusal to be a party to the mort- 
gage. The family estate was divided, Harris giving her about eighty acres 
of the farm, with a comfortable house and other property, as her share of the 
assets; and she occupied this property until the tinie of lier death.' Tucker's 
Origin and Prog. Mor., 50-7. 

^^ Speaking of the manner in which Smith delivered these revelations, 
Howe says: ' In this operation lie abandoned his spectacles, or peep-stone, and 
merely delivered it with his eyes shut. In this manner he governs his follow- 
ers, by asking the Lord, as he says, from day to day.' Mormonism Unveiled, 


By the spirit of prophecy and revelation it is done. 
The rise of the church of Jesus Christ in these last 
days is on the 6th of April, 1830, at which date the 
church was organized under the provisions of the 
statutes of the state of New York by Joseph Smith 
junior, Hyrum Smith, Oliver Cowdery, David Whit- 
mer, Samuel H. Smith, and Peter Whitmer. Joseph 
Smith, ordained an apostle of Jesus Christ, is made 
by the commandment of God the first elder of this 
church, and Oliver Cowdery, likewise an apostle, is 
made the second elder. Again the first elder falls 
into worldly entanglements, but upon repentance and 
self-humbling he is delivered by an angel. 

The duties of elders, priests, teachers, deacons, and 
members are as follow: All who desire it, with hon- 
esty and humility, may be baptized into the church ; 
old covenants are at an end, all must be baptized anew. 
An apostle is an elder; he shall baptize, ordain other 
elders, priests, teachers, and deacons, administer bread 
and wine, emblems of the flesh and blood of Christ; he 
shall confirm, teach, expound, exhort, taking the lead 
at meetings, and conducting them as he is taught by 
the holy ghost. The priest's duty is to preach, teach, 
expound, exhort, baptize, administer the sacrament, 
and visit and pray with members; he may also ordain 
other priests, teachers, and deacons, giving a certifi- 
cate of ordination, and lead in meetings when no 
elder is present. The teacher's duty is to watch over 
and strengthen the members, preventing evil speak- 
ing and all iniquity, to see that the meetings are regu- 
larly held, and to take the lead in them in the absence 
of elder or priest. The deacon's duty is to assist the 
teacher; teacher and deacon may warn, expound, ex- 
hort, but neither of them shall baptize, administer 
the sacrament, or lay on hands. The elders are to 
meet in council for the transaction of church business 
every three months, or oftener should meetings be 
called. Subordinate officers will receive from the 
elders a license defining their authority; elders will 

Hist. Utah. 6 


receive their license from other elders by vote of 
church or conference. There shall be presidents, 
bishops, high counsellors, and high priests; the pre- 
siding elder shall be president of the high priesthood, 
and he, as well as bishops, high counsellors, and high 
priests, will be ordained by high council or general 
conference. The duty of members is to walk in holi- 
ness before the Lord according to the scriptures, to 
bring their children to the elders, who will lay their 
hands on them and bless them in the name of Jesus 
Christ. The bible, that is to say, the scriptures of 
the old and new testaments, is accepted wholly, save 
such corruptions as have crept in through the great 
and abominable church; the book of Mormon is a 
later revelation, supplementary thereto. Thus is or- 
ganized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day 
Saints,^^ in accordance with special revelations and 
commandments, and after the manner set forth in the 
new testament. 

The first public discourse, following the meetings 
held in Whitmer's house, was preached on Sunday, 
the 11th of April, 1830, by Oliver Cowdery, who the 

'^ The church was not at that time so called, nor indeed until after the 
4th of May, 1834. See chap, iv., note 50; also Millennial Star, iv. 115; Bur- 
ton's City of the Saints, 671-2. Kidder, Mormonism, 68, affirms that this 
name was not adopted till some years later. Mather is only a year and a day 
astray when he says, 'The conference of elders on May 3, 1833, repudiated 
the name of "Mormons" and adopted that of "Latter-Day Saints.'" Lippin- 
cott's Mag. , Aug. 1880. The term ' Mormons, ' as first applied by their enemies 
to members of the church of Latter-Day Saints, was quite offensive to them, 
though later they became somewhat more reconciled to it. As at present popu- 
larly employed, it is by no means a term of reproach, though among themselves 
they still adhere to the appellation 'Saints,' just as quakers speak of them- 
selves as the 'Society of Friends.' The term 'Mormon' seems to mequite fit- 
ting for general use, fully as much so as presbyterian, reformed Dutch, uni- 
versalist, and others, few of which were of their own choosing. 'Mormon was 
the name of a certain man, and also of a particular locality upon the Ameri- 
can continent; but was never intended to signify a body of people. The name 
by which we desire to be known and to walk worthy of is "Saints."' Bell's 
Heply to Theobald, 2. At the time of the riots in Missouri, in addressing com- 
munications to the governor, and in many other instances, they designate 
themselves as ' members of the church of Christ, vulgarly called Mormons. ' 
See also Z>e Smet's Western Missions, 393; Mackay's The Mormons, 41-2. 
The term 'gentile' was generally applied to unbelievers of the white race. 
The Lidians, originally, were denominated 'of the house of Israel,' 'of the 
house of Joseph,' or 'of the house of Jacob,' also the Lamanitea. 


same day baptized in Seneca Lake several persons, 
among whom were Hyrum and Katherine Page, some 
of the Whitmers, and the Jolly family. The first 
miracle likewise occurred during the same month, 
Joseph Smith casting out a devil from Newel Knight, 
son of Joseph Knight, who with his family had been 
universalists. Newel had been a constant attendant 
at the meetings, and was much interested; but when 
he attempted to pray the devil prevented him, writhing 
his limbs into divers distortions, and hurling him about 
the room. "I know that you can deliver me from 
this evil spirit," cried Newel. Whereupon Joseph 
rebuked the devil in the name of Jesus Christ, and 
the evil spirit departed from the young man. Seeing 
this, others came forward and expressed their belief 
in the new faith, and a church was established at Coles- 

On the 1st of June the first conference as an or- 
ganized church was held, there being thirty members. 
The meeting was opened by singing and prayer, after 
which they partook of the sacrament, which was fol- 
lowed by confirmations and further ordinations to the 
several oflfices of the priesthood. The exercises were 
attended by the outpouring of the holy ghost, and 
many prophesied, to the infinite joy and gratification of 
the elders. Some time after, on a Saturday previous 
to an appointed sabbath on which baptism was to be 
performed, the brethren constructed, across a stream of 
water, a dam, which w^as torn away by a mob during 
the night. The meeting was held, however, though 
amid the sneers and insults of the rabble, Oliver preach- 
ing. Present among others was Emily Coburn, Newel 
Knight's wife's sister, formerly a presbyterian. Her 
pastor, the Rev. Mr Shearer, arrived, and tried to 
persuade her to return to her father. Failing in this, 
he obtained from her father a power of attorney, and 
bore her off by force; but Emily returned. The dam 
was repaired, and baptism administered to some thir- 
teen persons the following morning; whereupon fifty 


men surrounded Mr Knight's house, threatening vio- 
lence. The same night Joseph was arrested by a 
constable on a charge of disorderly conduct, and for 
preaching the book of Mormon. It was the purpose 
of the populace to capture Joseph from the constable 
and use him roughly, but by hard driving he escaped. 
At the trial which followed, an attempt was made to 
prove certain charges, namely, that he obtained a 
horse from Josiah Stoal, and a yoke of oxen from 
Jonathan Thompson, by saying that in a revelation he 
was told that he was to have them; also as touching 
his conduct toward two daughters of Mr Stoal; but 
all testified in his favor, and he was acquitted. As 
he was leaving the court-room, he was again arrested 
on a warrant from Broome county, and taken midst 
insults and buffetings to Colesville for trial. The old 
charges were renewed, and new ones preferred. Newel 
Knight was made to testify regarding the miracle 
wrought in his behalf, and a story that the prisoner 
had been a money digger was advanced by the prosecu- 
tion. Again he was acquitted, and again escaped from 
the crowd outside the court-house, whose purpose it 
was to tar and feather him, and ride him on a rail. 
These persecutions were instigated, it was said, chiefly 
by presbyterians. 

While Joseph rested at his home at Harmony fur- 
ther stories were circulated, damaging to his character, 
this time by the methodists. One went to his father- 
in-law with falsehoods, and so turned him and his 
family against Joseph and his friends that he would 
no longer afford them protection or receive their doc- 
trine. This was a heavy blow; but proceeding in 
August to Colesville, Joseph and Hyrum Smith and 
John and David Whitmer continued the work of 
prayer and confirmation. Fearing their old enemies, 
who lay in wait to attack them on their way back, 
they prayed that their eyes might be blinded; and so 
it came to pass. Then they held service and returned 
safely, although five dollars reward had been offered 


for notification of their arrival. Removing his family 
to Fayette, Joseph encountered further persecutions, 
to which was added a fresh grief Hiram Page was 
going astray over a stone which he had found, and by 
means of which he had obtained revelations at va- 
riance with Joseph's revelations and the rules of the 
new testament. It was thouo^ht best not to aofitate 
the subject unnecessarily, before the meeting of the 
conference to be held on the 1st of September; but 
the Whitmer family and Oliver Cowdery seeming 
to be too greatly impressed over the things set forth 
by the rival stone, it was resolved to inquire of the 
Lord concerning the matter; whereupon a revelation 
came to Oliver Cowdery, forbidding such practice; 
and he was to say privately to Hiram Page that 
Satan had deceived him, and that the things which 
he had written from the stone were not of God. 
Oliver was further commanded to go and preach the 
gospel to the Lamanites,^^ the remnants of the house 
of Joseph living in the west,^* where he was to estab- 

*^ 'The Lamanites originally were a remnant of Joseph, and in the first 
year of the reign of Zedekiah, King of Judah, were led in a miraculous man- 
ner from Jerusalem to the eastern borders of the Red Sea, thence for some 
time along its borders in a nearly south-east direction, after which they altered 
their course nearly eastward, until they came to the great waters, where by 
the command of God they built a vessel in which they were safely brought 
across the great Pacific Ocean, and landed upon the western coast of South 
America. The original party included also the Nephites, their leader being 
a prophet called Nephi; but soon after landing they separated, because the 
Lamanites, whose leader was a wicked man called Laman, persecuted the 
others. After the partition the Nephites, who had brought with them the 
old testament down to the time of Jeremiah, engraved on plates of brass, in 
the Egyptain language, prospered and built large cities. But the bold, bad 
Lamanites, originally white, became dark and dirty, though still retaining a 
national existence. They became wild, savage, and ferocious, seeking by 
every means the destruction of the prosperous Nephites, against whom they 
many times arrayed their hosts in battle; but were repulsed and driven bacK 
to their own territories, generally with great loss to both sides. The slain, 
frequently amounting to tens of thousands, were piled together in great heaps 
and overspread with a thin covering of earth, which will satisfactorily account 
for those ancient mounds filled with human bones, so numerous at the pres- 
ent day, both in North and South America.' Pratt {Orson), Series of Paviph- 
lets, vi. 7-8; Pratt {P. P.), Voice of Warning, 81-117. 

■■'^'The attention of the little band was directed, from the very commence- 
ment of their organization, to the policy and expediency of fixing their head- 
quarters in the far west, in the thinly settled and but partially explored 
territories belonging to the United States, where they might squat upon or 
purchase good lands at a cheap rate, and clear the primeval wilderness. 


lish a church and build a city,^^ at a point to be desig- 
nated later. 

"Behold, I say unto thee, Oliver, that it shall be 
given unto thee that thou shalt be heard by the 
church in all things whatsoever thou shalt teach, them 
by the comforter concerning the revelations and com- 
mandments which I have given. But behold, verily, 
verily, I say unto thee, no one shall be appointed to 
receive commandments and revelations in this church, 
excepting my servant Joseph Smith, Jr, for he re- 
ceiveth them even as Moses; and thou shalt be obe- 
dient unto the things which I shall give unto him, 
even as Aaron, to declare faithfully the command- 
ments and the revelations with power and authority 
unto the church. And if thou art led at any time by 
the comforter to speak or teach, or at all times by the 
way of commandment unto the church, thou mayest 
do it. But thou shalt not write by way of command- 
ment, but by wisdom; and thou shalt not command 
him who is at thy head and at the head of the church; 
for I have given him the keys of the mysteries and 
the revelations which are sealed, until I shall appoint 
unto them another in his stead." 

They required elbow-room, and rightly judged that a rural population would 
be more favorable than an urban one to the reception of their doctrine.' Mack- 
ay's The Mor., 63. 

^^ The most ancient prophecy which the saints are now in possession of 
relating to the New Jerusalem was one delivered by Enoch, the seventh from 
Adam. This was revealed anew to Joseph Smith in December 1830. In it 
the Lord is represented as purposing 'to gather out mine own elect from 
the iowv quarters of the earth unto a place which I shall prepare . . . But this 
revelation does not tell in what part of the earth the New Jerusalem shoi^ld 
be located. The book of Mormon, which the Lord has brought out of the 
earth, informs us that this holy city is to be built upon the continent of 
America, but it does not inform us upon what part of that vast country it 
should be built.' Pratt's Series of Pamphlets, vii. 4; Pratt's Interesting Ac- 
count, 16-25; First Book of Nephi in Book of Mormon. 




Parley Peatt's Conversion — Mission to the Lamanites— The Mission- 

Smith — Edward Partridge — The Melchisedec Priesthood Given — 
Smith and Rigdon Journey to Missouri — Bible Translation — 
Smith's Second Visit to Missouri — Unexampled Prosperity — Causes 
OF Persecutions — Mobocracy — The Saints are Driven from Jackson 
County — Treachery of Boggs — Military Organization at Kirtland 
— The Name Latter-day Saints — March to Missouri. 

One evening as Hyrum Smith was driving cows 
along the road toward his father's house, he wa»si 
overtaken by a stranger, who inquired for Joseph 
Smith, translator of the book of Mormon. "He is 
now residing in Pennsylvania, a hundred miles away," 
was the reply. 

"And the father of Joseph?" 

"He also is absent on a journey. That is his house 
yonder, and I am his son." 

The stranger then said that he was a preacher of 
the word; that he had just seen for the first time a 
copy of the wonderful book; that once it was in his 
hands he could not lay it down until he had devoured 
it, for the spirit of the Lord was upon him as he read, 
and he knew that it was true; the spirit of the Lord 
had directed him thither, and his heart was full of joy. 

Hyrum gazed at him in amazement; for converts 
of this quality, and after this fashion, were not com- 
mon in those days of poverty and sore trial. He 
was little more than a boy, being but twenty-three, 


and of that fresh, fair innocence which sits only on a 
youthful face beaming with high enthusiasm. But it 
was more than a boy's soul that was seen through 
those eyes of deep and solemn earnestness; it was 
more than a boy's strength of endurance that was in- 
dicated by the broad chest and comely, compact limbs; 
and more than a boy's intelligence and powers of 
reasoning that the massive brow betokened. 

Hyrum took the stranger to the house, and they 
passed the night in discourse, sleeping little. The 
convert's name was Parley P. Pratt. He was a na- 
tive of Burlington, New York, and born April 12, 
1807. His father was a farmer of limited means and 
education, and though not a member of any religious 
society, had a respect for all. The boy had a passion 
for books; the bible especially he read over and over 
again with deep interest and enthusiasm. He early 
manifested strong religious feeling; mind and soul 
seemed all on fire as he read of the patriarchs and 
kings of the old testament, and of Christ and his 
apostles of the new. In winter at school, and in 
summer at work, his life passed until he was sixteen, 
when he went west with his father William, some 
two hundred miles on foot, to Oswego, two miles 
from which town they bargained for a thickly wooded 
tract of seventy acres, at four dollars an acre, paying 
some seventy dollars in cash. After a summer's work 
for wages back near the old home, and a winter's 
work clearing the forest farm, the place was lost 
through failure to meet the remaining payments. 
Another attempt to make a forest home, this time in 
Ohio, thirty miles west of Cleveland, was more suc- 
cessful; and after much toil and many hardships, he 
found himself, in 1827, comfortably established there, 
with Thankful Halsey as his wife. 

Meanwhile religion ran riot through his brain. His 
mind, however, was of a reasoning, logical caste. 
"Why this difference," he argued, ''between the an- 
cient and modern Christians, their doctrines and their 



practice? Had I lived and believed in the days of 
the apostles, and had so desired, they would have 
said, 'Repent, be baptized, and receive the holy ghost.' 
The scriptures are the same now as then; why should 
not results be the same ? " In the absence of anything 
better, he joined the baptists, and was immersed; but 
he was not satisfied. In 1829 Sidney Rigdon, of 
whom more hereafter, preached in his neighborhood; 
he heard him and was refreshed. It was the ancient 
gospel revived — repentance, baptism, the gift of the 
holy ghost. And yet there was something lacking — 
the authority to minister; the power which should 
accompany the form of apostleship. At length he and 
others, who had heard Rigdon, organized a society on 
the basis of his teachings, and Parley began to preach. 
The spirit working in him finally compelled him to 
abandon his farm and go forth to meet his destiny, 
he knew not whither. In this frame of mind he wan- 
dered eastward, and while his family were visiting 
friends, he came upon the book of Mormon and Hy- 
rum Smith. Now did his soul find rest. Here was 
inspiration and revelation as of old; here was a new 
dispensation with attendant signs and miracles. 

As he left Smith's house the following morning, 
having an appointment to preach some thirty miles 
distant, Hyrum gave him a copy of the sacred book. 
Travelling on foot, and stopping now and then to rest, 
he read at intervals, and found to his great joy that 
soon after his ascension Christ had appeared in his 
glorified body to the remnant of the tribe of Joseph 
in America, that he had administered in person to the 
ten lost tribes, that the gospel had been revealed and 
written among nations unknown to the apostles, and 
that thus preserved it had escaped the corruptions of 
the great and abominable church. 

Returning to Smith's house, Parley demanded of 
Hyrum baptism. They went to Whitmer's, where 
they were warmly welcomed by a little branch of the 
church there assembled. The new convert was bap- 


tized by Cowdery, and was ordained an elder. He 
continued to preach in those parts with great power. 
Congregations were moved to tears, and many heads 
of families came forward and accepted the faith. 
Then he went to his old home. His father, mother, 
and some of the neighbors believed only in part ; but 
his brother Orson, nineteen years of age, embraced 
with eagerness the new religion, and preached it from 
that time forth. Returning to Manchester, Parley 
for the first time met Joseph Smith, who received him 
warmly, and asked him to preach on Sunday, which 
he did, Joseph following with a discourse. 

Revelations continued, now in the way of command, 
and now in the spirit of prophecy. In Harmony, to 
the first elder it was spoken: "Magnify thine office; 
and after thou hast sowed thy fields and secured them, 
go speedily unto the churches which are in Colesville, 
Fayette, and Manchester, and they shall support 
thee; and I will bless them, both spiritually and 
temporally; but if thej^- receive thee not, I will send 
on them a cursing instead of a blessing, and thou 
shalt shake the dust off thy feet against them as a 
testimony, and wipe thy feet by the wayside." And 
to Cowdery, thus: "Oliver shall continue in bearing 
my name before the world, and also to the church; 
and he shall take neither purse nor scrip, neither 
staves nor even two coats." To Emma, wife of Jo- 
seph: "Thy sins are forgiven thee, and thou art an 
elect lady, whom I have called; and thou shalt com- 
fort thy husband, my servant Joseph, and shalt go 
with him, and be unto him as a scribe in the absence 
of my servant Oliver, and he shall support thee." 
Emma was also further directed to make a selection of 
hymns to be used in church.-"- 

^ The hymn-book of Emma Smith does not appear to have been published, 
but a little book containing hymns selected by Brigham Young passed through 
eight editions up to 1849, the eighth being published in Liverpool in that year. 
Smucker's Hist. ofMor., 57-61; Millennial Star, iv. 150-1. The preface to 
the first edition was signed by Brigham Young, Parley P. Pratt, and Joha 


In the presence of six elders, at Fayette, in Septem- 
ber 1830, came the voice of Jesus Christ, promising 
them every blessing, while the wicked should be de- 
stroyed. The millennium should come; but first dire 
destruction should fall upon the earth, and the great 
and abominable church should be cast down. Hiram 
Page renounced his stone. David Whitmer was or- 
dered to his father's house, there to await further in- 
structions. Peter Whitmer junior, Parley P. Pratt, 
and Ziba Peterson were directed to go with Oliver 
and assist him in preaching the gospel to the Laman- 
ites, that is to say, to the Indians in the west, the 
remnant of the tribe of Joseph. Thomas B. Marsh 
was promised that he should begin to preach. Miracles 
were limited to casting out devils and healing the sick. 
Wine for sacramental purposes must not be bought, 
but made at home.^ 

Taking with them a copy of the revelation assign- 
ing to them this work, these first appointed mission- 
aries set out, and continued their journey, preaching 
in the villages through which they passed, and stop- 
ping at Buflfalo to instruct the Indians as to their an- 
cestry, until they came to Kirtland, Ohio. There 
they remained some time, as many came forward and 
embraced their faith, among others Sidney Rigdon, 
a preaching elder in the reformed baptist church, who 
presided over a congregation there, a large portion of 
whom likewise became interested in the latter-day 

Taylor. The preface to the ninth edition, published at Liverpool and Lon- 
don ia 1851, is by Franklin D. Richards, who states that 54,000 copies of the 
several editions have been sold ia the European missions alone within eleven 
years. Several editions have since been published in Europe and America. 

^ Smith says: ' In order to prepare for this (confirmation) I set out to go 
to procure some wine for the occasion, but had gone only a short distance 
when I was met by a heavenly messenger, and received the revelation. ' Mil' 
lennial Star, iv. 151; Times and Seasons, iv. 117-18. 

'At the town of Kirtland, two miles from Rigdon's residence, was a num- 
ber of the members of his church who lived together, and had all things in 
common, from which circumstance, Smith says, the idea arose that this was 
the case with the Mormon believers. To these people the missionaries re- 
paired and preached with some success, gathering in seventeen on the first 
occasion. Rigdon after spending some time in the study of the book of Mor- 


RIgdon was a native of Pennsylvania, and was now 
thirty-seven years of age. He worked on his father's 
farm until he was twenty-six, when he went to live 
with the Rev. Andrew Clark, and the same year, 1819, 
was licensed to preach. Thence he went to Warren, 
Ohio, and married; and after preaching for a time he 
was called to take charge of a church at Pittsburgh, 
where he met with success, and soon became very 
popular. But his mind was perplexed over the doc- 
trines he was required to promulgate, and in 1824 he 
retired from his ministry. There were two friends 
who had likewise withdrawn from their respective 
churches, and with whom he conferred freely, Alex- 
ander Campbell, of his own congregation, and one 
Walter Scott, of the Scandinavian church of that city. 
Campbell had formerly lived at Bethany, Virginia, 
where was issued under his auspices a monthly jour- 
nal called the Christian Baptist. Out of this friend- 
ship and association arose a new church, called the 
Campbellites, its doctrines having been published 
by Campbell in his paper. During the next two 
years Bigdon was obliged to work in a tannery to 
support his family; then he removed to Bainbridge, 
Ohio, where he again began to preach, confining him- 
self to no creed, but leaning toward that of the Camp- 
bellites. Crowds flocked to hear him, and a church 
was established in a neighboring town through his in- 
strumentality. After a year of this work he accepted 
a call to Mentor, thirty miles distant. Slanderous 
reports followed him, and a storm of persecution set 
in against him; but by his surpassing eloquence and 
deep reasoning it was not only soon allayed, but 
greater multitudes than ever waited on his ministra- 

mon concluded to accept its doctrines, and together with his wife was bap- 
tized into the church, which now numbered about twenty in this section. 
Millennial Star, iv. 181^; v. 4-7, 17; Times and Seasons, iv. 177, 193-4. 
Rigdon had for nearly three years already taught the literal interpretation oi 
scripture prophecies, the gathering of the Israelites to receive the second com- 
ing, the literal reign of the saints on earth, and the use of miraculous gifts in 
the church. Gunnison's Mormons, 101. 


Rigdon was a cogent speaker of imposing mien and 
impassioned address. As a man, however, his charac- 
ter seems to have had a tinge of insincerity. He was 
fickle, now and then petulant, irascible, and sometimes 
domineering. Later, Joseph Smith took occasion 
more than once to rebuke him sharply, fearing that 
he might assume the supremacy. 

Upon hearing the arguments of Pratt and Cow- 
dery, and investigating the book of Mormon, Rigdon 
was convinced that he had not been legally ordained, 
and that his present ministry was without the divine 
authority. In regard to the revival of the old dis- 
pensation, he argued thus: *'If we have not familiar- 
ity enough with our creator to ask of him a sign, we 
are no Christians; if God will not give his creatures 
one, he is no better than Juggernaut." The result was, 
that he and others accepted the book and its teach- 
ings,* received baptism and the gift of the holy ghost, 
and were ordained to preach. 

On one occasion Cowdery preached, followed by 
Rigdon. After service they went to the Chagrin 
River to baptize. Rigdon stood in the stream and 
poured forth his exhortations with eloquent fervor. 
One after another stepped forward until thirty had 
been baptized. Present upon the bank was a hard- 
headed lawyer, Varnem J. Card, who as he listened 
grew pale with emotion. Suddenly he seized the arm 
of a friend and whispered, ''Quick, take me away, or 
in a moment more I shall be in that water 1" One 
hundred and twenty-seven converts at once, the num- 

* Howe intimates that Rigdon knew more of the book and the people than 
he pretended. Of the proselytes made in his church he says; ' Near the res- 
idence of Rigdon, in Kirtland, there had been for some time previous a few 
families belonging to his congregation, who had formed themselves into a 
common stock society, and had become considerably fanatical, and were daily 
looking for some wonderful event to take place in the world. Their minda 
had become fully prepared to embrace Mormonism, or any other mysterious 
ism that should first present itself. Seventeen in number of these persona 
readily believed the whole story of Cowdery about the finding of the golden 
plates and the spectacles. They were all reimmersed in one night by Cowdery. ' 
Mormonism Unveiled, 103. 


ber afterward increasing to a thousand, were here 
gathered into the fold.^ 

After adding to their number one Frederic G. Will- 
iams, the missionaries continued on their way, arriving 
first at Sandusky, where they gave instructions to the 
Indians in regard to their forefathers, as they had 
done at Buifalo, and thence proceeded to Cincinnati 
and St Louis. In passing by his old forest home, 
Pratt was arrested on some trivial charge, but made 
his escape. The winter was very severe, and it was 
some time before they could continue their journey. 
At length they set out again, wading in snow knee- 
deep, carrying their few effects on their backs, and 
having to eat corn bread and frozen raw pork; and 
after travelling in all fifteen hundred miles, most of the 
way on foot, preaching to tens of thousands by the 
way, and organizing hundreds into churches, they, 
reached Independence, Missouri, in the early part of 
1831. There Whitmer and Peterson went to work 
as tailors, while Pratt and Cowdery passed over the 

^ Speaking of the doings at Kirtland after the departure of the Lamanite 
mission, Mr Howe says: 'Scenes of the most wild, frantic, and horrible fanat- 
icism ensued. They pretended that the power of miracles was about to be 
given to all those who embraced the new faith, and commenced communicat- 
ing the holy spirit by laying their hands upon the heads of the converts, 
which operation at first produced an instantaneous prostration of body and 
mind. Many would fall upon the floor, where they would lie for a long 
time apparently lifeless. They thus continued these enthusiastic exhibitions 
for several weeks. The fits usually came on during or after their prayer 
meetings, which were held nearly every evening. The young men and wo- 
men were more particularly subject to this delirium. They would exhibit 
all the apish actions imaginable, making the most ridiculous grimaces, creeping 
upon their hands and feet, rolling upon the frozen ground, go through with 
all the Indian modes of warfare, such as knocking down, scalping, ripping 
open and tearing out the bowels. At other times they would run through 
the fields, get upon stumps, preach to imaginary congregations, enter the 
water and perform all the ceremony of baptizing, etc. Many would have fits 
of speaking all the different Indian dialects, which none could understand. 
Again, at the dead hour of night the young men might be seen running over 
the fields and hills in pursuit, as they said, of the balls of fire, light, etc., 
which they saw moving through the atmosphere. . .On the arrival of Smith 
in Kirtland he appeared astonished at the wild enthusiasm and scalping per- 
formances of his proselytes there. He told them that he had inquired of the 
Lord concerning the matter, and had been informed that it was all the work 
of the devil, as heretofore related. The disturbance therefore ceased.' Mor' 
monism Unveiled, 104, 116. 



border, crossed the Kansas Kiver, and began their 
work among the Lamanites, or Indians, thereabout. 
The chief of the Delawares was sachem of ten 
tribes. He received the missionaries with courtesy, 
and set food before them. When they asked him to 
call a council before which they might expound their 
doctrines, he at first declined, then assented ; where- 
upon Cowdery gave them an account of their ances- 
tors, as contained in the wonderful book, a copy of 
which he left with the chief on taking his depart- 
ure, which soon occurred; for when it was known 
upon the border settlements what the missionaries 
were doing, they were ordered out of the Indian coun- 
try as disturbers of the peace. ^ After preaching a 
short time in Missouri, the five brethren thought it 
best that one of their number should return east and 
report. The choice fell on Pratt. Starting out on 
foot, he reached St Louis, three hundred miles dis- 
tant, in nine days. Thence he proceeded By steamer 
to Cincinnati, and from that point journeyed on foot 
to Strongville, forty miles from Kirtland. Overcome 
by fatigue and illness, he was forced to remain at this 
place some ten days, when he continued his journey 
on horseback. He was welcomed at Kirtland by 
hundreds of the saints, Joseph Smith himself being 

In December 1830 comes Sidney Rigdon to Jo- 
seph Smith at Manchester, and with him Edward 
Partridge, to inquire of the Lord; and they are told 
what they shall do; they shall preach thereabout, and 
also on the Ohio/ 

" 'One of their leading articles of faith is, that the Indians of North Amer- 
ica, in a very few years, will be converted to Mormonism, and through rivers 
of blood will_ again take possession of their ancient inheritance. ' Howe's 
Mormonism Unveiled, 145. 

'' 'We before had Moses and Aaron in the persons of Smith and Cowdery, 
and we now have John the Baptist, in the person of Sidney Rigdon. Their 
plans of deception appear to have been more fully matured and developed 
after the meeting of Smith and Rigdon. The latter being found very inti- 
mate with the scriptures, a close reasoner, and as fully competent to make 


The year 1831 opens with flattering prospects. 
On the 2d of January a conference is held at Fayette, 
attended by revelations and prophecy. James Col- 
ville, a baptist minister, accepts the faith, but shortly 
recants, being tempted of Satan, and in fear of per- 
secution.® Smith and his wife go with Rigdon and 

white appear black and black white as any other man; and at all times pre- 
pared to establish, to the satisfaction of great numbers of people, the negative 
or affirmative of any and every question from scripture, he was forthwith 
appointed to promulgate all the absurdities and ridiculous pretensions of 
Mormonisni, and call on the holy prophets to prove all the words of Smith. 
But the miraculous powers conferred upon him we do not learn have yet been 
put in requisition. It seems that the spirit had not, before the arrival of 
Rigdon, told Smith anything about the promised land, or his removal to Ohio, 
It is therefore very questionable what manner of spirit it was which dic- 
tated most of the after movements of the i^rophet. The spirit of Rigdon, it 
must be presumed, however, generally held sway; for a revelation was soon 
had that Kirtland, the residence of Rigdon and his brethren, was to be the 
eastern border of the promised land, and from thence to the Pacific Ocean. 
On this land the New Jerusalem, the city of refuge, was to be built. Upon 
it all true Mormons were to assemble, to escape the destruction of the 
world which was so soon to take place.' Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 109-10. 
Tucker, Origin and Prog. Mor., 76-8, thus speaks of the first appearance of 
this first regular Mormon preacher before a Palmyra congregation : ' Rigdon 
introduced himself as the messenger of God, declaiming that he was commanded 
from above to proclaim the Mormon revelation. After going through with a 
ceremonious form of prayer, in which he expressed his grateful sense of the 
blessings of the glorious gospel dispensation now opening to the world, and 
the miraculous light from heaven to be displayed through the instrumentality 
of the chosen revelator, Joseph Smith Jr, ... he announced his text as fol- 
lows: First book of Nephi, chapter iv. — "And the angel spake unto me, say- 
ing, These last records which thou hast seen among the gentiles shall estab- 
lish the truth of the first, which is of the twelve apostles of the lamb, and 
shall make known the plain and precious things which have been taken away 
from them; and shall make known to all kindreds, tongues, and i^eople that 
the lamb of God is the son of the eternal father and saviour of the world; and 
that all men must come unto him or they cannot be saved. " The preacher 
assumed to establish the theory that the book of Mormon and the old bible 
were one in inspiration and importance, and that the precious things now re- 
vealed had for wise purposes been withheld from the book first promulgated 
to the world, and were necessary to establish its truth. In the course of his 
argument he applied various quotations from the two books to prove his posi- 
tion. Holding the book of Mormon in his right hand, and the bible in his 
left hand, lie brought them together in a manner corresponding to the em- 
phatic declaration made by him, that they were both equally the word of God; 
that neither was perfect without the other; and that they were inseparably 
necessary to complete the everlasting gospel of the saviour Jesus Christ. ' It 
is said that Rigdon, after his return to Kirtland from his visit to Smith, in 
one of his eloquent discourses on the new faith, 'gave a challenge to the 
world to disprove the new bible, and the pretensions of its authors.' Rigdon's 
old friend, Thomas Campbell, hearing of it, wrote him from Mentor accept- 
ing, at the same time enclosing an outline of what his line of argument would 
be. There the matter dropped. 

^ See Millennial Star, v. 33-5; Times and Seasons, iv. 352-4. Mather, in 
LippincoWs Mag., Aug. 1880, states that to escape persecution sixty believ- 


Partridge to Kirtland, arriving there early in Feb- 
ruary, and taking up their residence with N. K. Whit- 
ney, who shows them great kindness. Among the 
hundred behevers there at the time, certain false doc- 
trines have crept in; these are quickly overcome, and 
a plan for community of goods which the family of 
saints had adopted is abolished. Commandment comes 
by revelation that a house shall be built for Joseph ; that 
Sidney shall live as seems to him good, for his heart 
is pure; that Edward Partridge shall be ordained a 
bishop;^ that all but Joseph and Sidney shall go forth, 
two by two, into the regions westward and preach 
the gospel.^" 

''And now, behold, I speak unto the church : thou 
shalt not kill; thou shalt not steal; thou shalt not lie; 
thou shalt love thy wife, cleaving unto her and to 
none else; thou shalt not commit adultery ; thou shalt 
not speak evil of thy neighbor, nor do him any harm. 
Thou knowest my laws, given in my scriptures; he 
that sinneth and repenteth not shall be cast out. And 
behold, thou wilt remember the poor, and consecrate 
of thy properties for their support, laying the same 
before the bishop of my church, the residue not to be 
taken back, but to be used by the church in buying 
lands and building houses of worship, for I will conse- 
crate of the riches of those who embrace my gospel 
among the gentiles unto the poor of my people who 
are of the house of Israel. Let him that goeth to 

ers abandoned their homes in the Susquehanna valley and moved westward. 
'Some of the followers,' he says, 'were moved by a spirit of adventure, while 
others placed their property in the common lot and determined to accompany 
the prophet to his earthly as well as to his heavenly kingdom. Smith Baker 
was one of the teamsters, and reports that the train consisted of three bag- 
gage and eleven passenger wagons. The exodus was along the old state road, 
north of Binghamton, to Ithaca, and thence across Cayuga Lake to Palmyra. ' 

* ' Smith had appointed as his bishop one Edward Partridge, a very hon- 
est and industrious hatter of Painesville, Ohio, who had withal a comfortable 
stock of the good things of the world. He was stationed at Independence, 
and had the sole control of all the temporal and spiritual affairs of the colony, 
always obedient, however, to the revelations promulgated by Smith.' 

'" ' Some of the members pretended to receive parchment commissions 
miraculously, which vanished from their sight as soon as they had been cop- 
ied.' For a copy of one of these, with seal attached, see Howe's Mormonism 
Unveiled, 107; Kidder's Mormonism, 73. 
_ EiBT. Utah. 6 


the east tell them that shall be converted to flee to 
the west. And again, thou shalt not be proud ; let 
thy garments be plain, the work of thine own hand, 
and cleanly. Thou shalt not be idle. And whosoever 
among you is sick, and has faith, shall be healed; 
and if he has not faith to be healed, but believe, he 
shall be nourished with all tenderness. If thou wilt 
ask, thou shalt receive revelation and knowledge. 
Whosoever hath faith sufficient shall never taste death. 
Ye shall live together in love; that whether ye live 
ye may live in me, or if ye die ye may die in me. So 
saith the Lord." 

Edward Partridge was born at Pittsfield, Massachu- 
setts, August 27, 1793. At the age of sixteen he 
was apprenticed to a hatter. His was an earnest, 
thoughtful nature, and his mind much troubled about 
religion. In 1828 he entered Sidney Rigdon's Camp- 
bellite church, and in that faith remained until met 
by the missionaries Pratt, Cowdery, and the others, 
when he accepted the new revelation, and was subse- 
quently baptized by Joseph in the Seneca River. He 
had a profitable business at the time; but when it was 
revealed that he should leave his merchandise and de- 
vote his whole time to the church, he obeyed without 
a murmur. 

Joseph and Sidney were much together now in their 
revelations and rulings. A woman attempted prophe- 
sying and was rebuked. Sarcasm was employed, and 
scurrilous stories were printed in the newspapers ; an ac- 
count of a great Asiatic earthquake was headed "Mor- 
monism in China." Revelations during March were 
frequent. In one of them John Whitmer was ap- 
pointed church historian; and it was revealed that he 
should keep the church records, write and keep a regu- 
lar history, and act as secretary to Joseph, as had 
Oliver Cowdory formerly." Lands might be bought 

^' 'Since the organization of the church on the sixth day of April, 1830, 
there has been a record kept in our church of ita general transactions, of its 


for immediate necessity; but remember the city to be 
presently built, and be prudent.^^ And now from the 
shaking quakers came one Lemon Copley and accepted 
the gospel, though not in its fullness, as he retained 

persecutions and general history. The one in charge of this duty is called by 
us "the historian and general church recorder." The first who occupied this 
position was John Whitmer, until 1838, when he was excommunicated from 
the church for transgression, and took portions of the church records with 
him.' Richards' Bibliography of Utah, MS., 2. 'The earliest clerk service 
rendered the prophet Joseph, of which there is any account, was by Martin 
Harris; Joseph's wife, Emma, then Oliver Cowdery, who, as is claimed, wrote 
the greater portion of the original manuscript of the Booh of Mormon, as he 
translated it from the gold plates by the urim and thummim which he obtained 
with the plates. In March 1831 John Whitmer was appointed to keep the 
church record and history continually, Oliver having been appointed to other 
labors. Whitmer was assisted, temporarily, on occasions of absence or illness 
by Warren Parrish. At a meeting of high council at Kirtland, Sept. 14, 
1835, it was decided that "Oliver Cowdery be appointed, and that he act 
hereafter as recorder for the church," Whitmer having just been called to be 
editor of the Jilessenger and Advocate. At a general conference held in Far 
West April 6, 1838, John Corrilland Elias Higbee were appointed historians, 
and George W. Robinson "general church recorder and clerk for the first 
presidency." On the death of Elder Robert B. Thompson, which occurred at 
Nauvoo on the twenty-seventh of August, 18-41, in his obituary it is stated: 
" Nearly two years past he had officiated as scribe to President Joseph Smith 
and clerk for the church, which important stations he filled with that dignity 
and honor befitting a man of God." During the expulsion from Missouri, and 
the early settlement of Nauvoo, James Mulholland, William Clayton, and 
perhaps others rendered temporary service in this line until the 13th of 
December, 1841, when Willard Richards was appointed recorder, general 
clerk, and private secretary to the prophet, which offices he occupied until 
his death, in March 1854, when he was succeeded by George A. Smith, who 
held it until his death on the first of September, 1875, with Wilford Wood- 
ruff as his assistant. Soon after, Orson Pratt succeeded to the otiSce, retain- 
ing Woodruff as his assistant, until his demise on the third of October, 1881. 
Directly after President Woodruff was appointed to the office, and in January 
1884, Apostle Franklin D. Richards was appointed his assistant.' See Times 
and Seasons, v. 401; Millennial Star, v. 82; Richards' Narrative, MS., 94-8. 
^^ Of the future of this city there were many revelations and many con- 
jectures. ' It was said that it would in a few years exceed in splendor every- 
thing known in ancient times. Its streets were to be paved with gold; all 
that escaped the general destruction which was soon to take place would 
there assemble with all their wealth; the ten lost tribes of Israel had been 
discovered in their retreat, in the vicinity of the north pole, where they had 
for ages been secluded by immense barriers of ice, and became vastly rich ; 
the ice in a few years was to be melted away, when those tribes, with St 
John and some of the Nephites, which the book of Mormon had immortalized, 
would be seen making their appearance in the new city, loaded with immense 
quantities of gold and silver. Whether the prophet himself ever declared 
that these things had been revealed to him, or that he had seen them through 
his magic stone or silver spectacles, we will not say; but that such stories 
and hundreds of othei'S equally absurd were told by those who were in daily 
intercourse with him, as being events which would probably take place, are 
susceptible of proof.' Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 127-8. 'Kirtland was 
never intended to be the metropolis of Mormonism; it was selected as a tem- 
porary abiding place, to make money in reference to a removal farther west. ' 
Ferris' Utah and the Mormons, T2, 


somewhat of his former faith; whereupon a revelation 
ordered him to go with Parley P. Pratt and preach to 
the shakers, hot according to his old ideas, but as 
Parley should direct. 

''And again, I say unto you that whoso forbiddeth 
to marry is not ordained of God, for marriage is or- 
dained of God unto man; wherefore it is lawful that 
he should have one wife, and they twain shall be one 
flesh. Beware of false spirits. Given May 1831." 

The saints from New York began to come in num- 
bers, and Bishop Partridge was ordered to look after 
them and attend to their requirements. It was or- 
dered that if any had more than they required, let 
them give to the church; if any had less, let the church 
relieve their necessities. The 6th of June a confer- 
ence of elders was held at Kirtland, and several re- 
ceived the authority of the Melchisedec priesthood. 
The next conference should be held in Missouri, 
whither Joseph and Sidney should proceed at once, 
and there it would be told them what to do. And 
to the same place others should go, two by two, each 
couple taking different routes and preaching by the 
way. Among those who went forth were Lyman 
Wight and John Corrill, John Murdock and Hyrum 
Smith by the way of Detroit, Thomas B. Marsh and 
Selah J. Griffin, Isaac Morley and Ezra Booth, David 
Whitmer and Harvey Whitlock, Parley P. Pratt and 
Orson Pratt, Solomon Hancock and Simeon Carter, 
Edson Fuller and Jacob Scott, Levi Hancock and 
Zebedee Coltrin, Beynolds Gaboon and Samuel H. 
Smith, Wheeler Baldwin and William Carter, Joseph 
Wakefield and Solomon Humphrey. With Joseph 
and Sidney were to go Martin Harris and Edward 
Partridge, taking with them a letter of recommenda- 
tion from the church." "And thus, even as I have 

^ ' From this point in the history of this delusion,' says Howe, ' it began 
to spread with considerable rapidity. Nearly all of their male converts, 
however ignorant and worthless, were forthwith transformed into elders, and 
sent forth to proclaim, with all their wild enthusiasm, the wonders and my." 
teries of Mormonism. All those having a taste for the marvellous and de« 


said, if ye are faithful, ye shall assemble yourselves 
together to rejoice upon the land of Missouri, which 
is the land of your inheritance, which is now the land 
of your enemies. Behold, I the Lord will hasten the 
city in its time, and will crown the faithful with joy 
and with rejoicing. Behold. I am Jesus Christ the son 
of God, and I will lift them up at the last day. Amen." 

While preparing for the journey to Missouri, a let- 
ter was received from Oliver Cowdery, reporting on 
his missionary work, and speaking of another tribe of 
Lamanites, living three hundred miles west of Santa 
Fe, called the Navarhoes (Navajoes), who had large 
flocks of sheep and cattle, and who made blankets. 
W. W. Phelps," with his family joining the society, 
was commissioned to assist Oliver Cowdery in select- 
ing, writing, and printing books for schools. Thus 
the move from Ohio to Missouri was begun, Joseph 
and his party starting from Kirtland the 19th of June, 
going by wagon, canal-boat, and stage to Cincinnati, 
by steamer to St Louis, and thence on foot to Inde- 
pendence, arriving about the middle of July. 

lighting in novelties flocked to hear them. Many travelled fifty and a 
hundred miles to the throne of the prophet in Kirtland, to hear from his own 
mouth the certainty of his excavating a bible and spectacles. Many, even in 
the New England states, after hearing the frantic story of some of these 
elders, would forthwith place their all into a wagon, and wend their way to 
the promised land, in order, as they supposed, to escape the judgments of 
heaven, which were soon to be poured out upon the land. The state of New 
York, they were privately told, would most probably be sunk, unless the 
people thereof believed in the pretensions of Smith.' Mormonism, Unveiled, 

i*lIowe writes thus of Phelps: 'Before the rise of Mormonism he was an 
avowed infidel; having a remarkable propensity for fame and eminence, he 
was supercilious, liauglity, and egotistical. His great ambition was to em- 
bark in some speculation where he could shine preeminent. He took an 
active part for several years in the political contests of New York, and 
made no little display as an editor of a partisan newspaper, and after being 
foiled in his desires to become a candidate for lieutenant-governor of that 
state, his attention was suddenly diverted by the prospects which were held 
out to him in the gold-bible speculation. In this he was sure of becoming 
a great man, and made the dupes believe he was master of fourteen dif- 
ferent languages, of which they frequently boasted. But he soon found 
that the prophet would sufi'er no growing rivalships, whose sagacity he had 
not well calculated, until he was met by a revelation which informed him 
that he could rise no higher than a printer,' Mormottism Unveiled, 274. 


" Harken, O ye elders of my churca, saith the Lord 
your God, who have assembled yourselves together, 
according to my commandments, in this land, which 
is the land of Missouri, which is the land which 1 
have appointed and consecrated for the gathering of 
the saints; wherefore this is the land of promise, and 
the place for the city of Zion. And thus saith the 
Lord your God, if you will receive wisdom here is 
wisdom. Behold the place which is now called Inde- 
pendence is the centre place, and the spot for the 
temple is lying westward upon a lot which is not far 
from the court-house: wherefore it is wisdom that 
the land should be purchased by the saints; and also 
every tract lying westward, even unto the line run- 
ning directly between jew and gentile; and also every 
tract bordering by the prairies, inasmuch as my disci- 
ples are enabled to buy lands." 

Further, Sidney Gilbert was made church agent, to 
receive money and buy lands; he was also directed to 
establish a store. Partridge was to partition the 
lands purchased among the people; Phelps was 
made church printer. But the last two becoming a 
little headstrong on entering upon their new duties, 
Joseph found it necessary to reprimand and warn 
them. Harris was held up as an example to emulate, 
for he had given much to the church. It was or- 
dered that an agent be appointed to raise money in 
Ohio to buy lands in Missouri, and Kigdon was com- 
missioned to write a description of the new land of 
Zion for the same purpose. Ziba Peterson was dis- 
possessed of his lands, and made to work for others, 
in punishment for his misdemeanors. 

Thus the latter-day saints had come to the border 
line of civilization, and looking over it into the west 
they thought here to establish themselves forever. 
Here was to be the temple of God; here the city of 
refuge ; here the second advent of the savior. Mean- 
while their headquarters were to be at the town of 


In Kaw township, twelve miles west of Indepen- 
dence, the Colesville branch of the church built a log 
house; the visible head of the church, on the 2d of 
August, laying the first log, brought thither by 
twelve men, in honor of the twelve tribes of Israel. 
Next day the ground for the temple, situated a little 
west of Independence,^^ was dedicated, and the day fol- 
lowing was held the first conference in the land of Zion.^^ 

It was now commanded that Smith, Rigdon, Cow- 
dery, and others should return east, and make more 
proselytes, money for the purpose to be furnished 
them out of the general fund." Accordingly on the 

1* Of Independence one of them says: 'It is a new town, containing a court- 
house built of brick, two or three merchants' stores, and 15 or 20 dwelling- 
houses built mostly of logs hewed on both sides; and is situated on a handsome 
rise of ground about three miles south of Missouri River, and about 12 miles 
east of the dividing line between the United States and the Indian reserve, 
and is the county seat of Jackson county. ' Booth's letter in Howe's Mormonism 
Unveiled, 196. On the south side of the Missouri, Parley Pratt says, Auto- 
hiograx>hy, 78, 'some families were entirely dressed in skins, without any 
other clothing, including ladies young and old. Buildings were generally 
without glass windows, and the door open in winter for a light.' 

^® Booth, in Howe's Mormonism Uiiveiled, 196-9, says: 'The designation of 
the site where the city of Zion was to begin was attended with considerable 
parade and an ostentatious display of talents, both by Rigdon and Cowdery. 
And the next day the ground for the temple was consecrated. Smith claiming 
the honor of laying the corner-stone himself. The location of the stone was 
marked by a sapling from which the bark was removed on the north and east 
sides: on the south side a letter T was cut, which stood for temple, and on 
the east side Zam., for Zomas; which Smith said is the original Avord for Zion. 
This stone was placed near the foot of the sapling and covered with bushes 
cut for the purpose; the spot being on an elevation half a mile from Inde- 
pendence.' 'The Colesville branch was among the first organized by Joseph 
Smith, and constituted the first settlers of the members of the church in 
Missouri. They had arrived late in the summer and cut some hay for their 
cattle, sowed a little grain, prepared some ground for cultivation, and were 
engaged during the fall and winter in building log cabins, etc. The winter 
was cold, and for some time about 10 families lived in one cabin, which was 
open and unfinished, while the frozen ground served for a floor. Our food 
consisted of beef, and a httle bread made of com which had been grated 
into coarse meal by rubbing the ears on a tin grater.' PratCs Autobiogra- 
phy, 76. See also Millennial Star, v. 131. It was revealed through Joseph 
the seer that the property of the Colesville branch should be held in com- 
mon, and that Partridge (its bishop) have charge and distribute from the com- 
munity storehouse according to the needs of each. Smith's Doctrine and 
Covenants (1876), 187-8. Smith in the beginning of the church attempted to 
establish communism, each giving their all to the bishop, and only drawing 
out of the office sufficient to live upon. This was found to be impracticable, 
and it was silently permitted to glide into the payment of tithing. Hyde'a 
Mormonism, 37. 

" 'This year, 1831, passed off with a gradual increase, and considerable 
wealth was drawn in, so that they began to boast of a capital stock of ten or 


9th Joseph and ten elders started down the river in 
sixteen canoes, the leaders arriving at Kirtland 
the 27th/^ after having suffered hardship and mortifi- 
cation through disaffection among the elders. Titus 
Billings, who had charge of the church property there, 
was ordered to dispose of the lands, and prepare to 
remove to Missouri in the following spring, together 
with part of the people, and such money as could be 
raised. It was provided that those wishing to buy 
land in Zion could do so by forwarding the purchase- 
money. The account of the new country written by 
Sidney Kigdon did not please Joseph, and he was or- 
dered to write another; if that should not prove satis- 
factory, he was to be deprived of office.^' 

On the 12th of September Joseph removed to the 
town of Hiram, thirty miles away, and prepared to 
begin again the translation of the bible, with Rigdon as 
scribe. The farm of Isaac Morley was ordered sold, 
while Frederic G. Williams should retain his, for it 
was desirable to keep a footing at Kirtland yet for 

fifteen thousand dollars. Their common-stock principles appear to be some- 
what similar to those of the shakers.' Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 128-9. 

1* Booth intimates that Smith and Rigdon preferred living in Ohio to en- 
during the hardships of Missouri. ' Before they went to Missouri their lan- 
guage was, "We shall winter in Ohio but one winter more;" and when in 
Missouri, "It will be many years before we come here, for the lord has a great 
work for us to do in Ohio." And the great work is to make a thorough al- 
teration of the bible, and invent new revelations, and these are to be sent to 
Missouri in order to be printed.' Letter in Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 

^' 'Some dispute, of which the nature is not clearly known, appears to have 
arisen between Joseph and his friend Sidney Rigdon before their return. It 
is probable, from the course of subsequent events, that Sidney, even at this 
time, aspired to greater power in the church than suited the prophet, . . . 
who saw fit to rebuke him by a revelation accusing him of "being exalted in 
his heart, and despising the counsel of the lord. They afterward became 
reconciled." ' Smucker's Mormons, 75-6, confirmed by Millennial Star, v. 149; 
Times and Seasons, v. 467. From this time till January 1832, Joseph con- 
tinued preaching in various parts of the United States, making converts with 
great rapidity. He found it necessary, however, further to check the pre- 
sumption of some new and indiscreet converts who also had revelations from 
the Lord, which they endeavored to palm oflf upon the public. Among others, 
one W. E. McLellan was rebuked for endeavoring to ' write a commandment 
like unto one of the least of the Lord's. ' Mackay's Mormons, 67-8. See anecdote 
of 'The Swamp Angel;' also account of raising the dead by Smith, about this 
time. Ward's Mormon Wife, 10-11, 15-24. For text of rebuke, where the 
name of the offender is given William E. M'Lellin, see Millennial Star, v. 185- 
6; Times and Seasons, v. 496. 


five years. The store kept by Newel K. Whitney 
and Sidney Gilbert should likewise be continued. A 
system of tithes should be established. Ezra Booth 
apostatized, and wrote letters against the church.^'' 
Orson Hyde, clerk in Gilbert and Whitney's store, 
was baptized, and later make an elder. Phelps was 
told to buy at Cincinnati a printing-press and type, 
and start a monthly paper at Independence, to be 
called the Evening and Morning Star, which was done. 
Oliver Cowdery was instructed in November to return 
to Missouri, and with him John Whitmer, the latier 
to visit the several stations, and gather further 
materials for church history. Newel K. Whitney 

^^ Booth's letters were first printed at Ravenna, in the Ohio Star, and after- 
ward by E. D. Howe in his book, Mormonism Unveiled, 175-221. They are 
nine in number, and are full of general denunciation and sorrow over his past 
blindness, and an account of the hardships and disappointments attending 
his journey to and from Missouri. I quote tlae more pertinent points. 
'When I embraced Mormonism I conscientiously believed it to be of God.' 
'The relation in which Smith stands to the church is that of a prophet, seer, 
revealer, and translator; and when he speaks by the spirit, or says he knows 
a thing by the communication of the spirit, it is received as coming directly 
from the mouth of the Lord.' 'This system, to some, carries the force of 
plausibility, and appears under an imposing form. It claims the bible for its 
patron, and proffers the restoration of the apostolic church, with all the gifts 
and graces with which the primitive saints were endowed.' 'Many of them 
have been ordained to the high priesthood, or the order of Melchisedec, and 
profess to be endowed with the same power as the ancient apostles were. But 
they have been hitherto unsuccessful in finding the lame, the halt, and the 
blind who had the faith sufficient to become the subjects of their miracles, 
and it is now concluded that this work must be postponed until they get to 
Missouri; for the Lord will not show those signs to this wicked and adulterous 
generation. In the commandment given to the churches in the state of New 
York to remove to the state of Ohio, they were assured that these mii-acles 
should be wrought in the state of Ohio; but now they must be deferred until 
they are settled in Missouri.' 'Everything in the church is done by com- 
mandment; and yet it is said to be done by the voice of the church. For 
instance. Smith gets a commandment that he shall be the head of the church, 
or that he shall rule the conference, or that the church shall build him an 
elegant house and give him 1,000 dollars. For this the members of the church 
must vote, or they will be cast off for rebelling against the commandments of 
the Lord.' 'Smith describes an angel as having the appearance of a tall, slim, 
well built, handsome man, with a bright pillar upon his head. ' The bishop's 
'business is to superintend the secular concerns of the church. He holds a 
deed of the lands; and the members receive a writing from him signifying 
that they are to possess the land as their own so long as they are obedient to 
Smith's commandments.' 'The Lord's storehouse is to be furnished with 
goods suited to the Indian trade, and persons are to obtain license from the 
government to dispose of them to the Indians in their own territory; at the 
same time they are to disseminate the principles of Mormonism among 


was appointed bishop, to receive and account for 
church funds collected by the various elders. Many 
of the elders who went to Missouri were by this time 
at work in different parts of the east and the west.^^ 

On the 16th of February, 1832, while Smith and 
Rigdon were translating the gospel of St John, they 
were favored by a glorious vision from the Lord,^^ which 
gave them great comfort and encouragement. The 
revelations about this time were frequent and lengthy, 
their purport being in great part to direct the move- 
ments of missionaries. Simonds Hider and Eli, Ed- 
ward, and John Johnson now apostatized. 

On the night of the 25th of March, Smith and 
Rigdon were seized by a mob, composed partly of the 
Campbellites, methodists, and baptists of Hiram, 
twelve or fifteen being apostate Mormons. The cap- 
tives were roughly treated, and expected to be killed; 
but after they had been stripped, beaten, and well 
covered with tar and feathers, they were released. 
Smith preached and baptized as usual the next day, 
Sunday, but Rigdon was delirious for some time after- 
ward.^^ This broke up for the present the translation 

^^ ' Thirty or forty elders were sent off in various directions in pursuit of 
proselytes, and the year passed off with a gradual increase.' Howe's Mormon- 
ism Unveiled, 128-9. The men, after baptism, are elders, and are empowered 
to perform the ceremony upon others. Carvcdho's Incidents of Travel, 148. 
For names of apostates at this time, see iimucker's Hist. Mor., 77. For iur 
stances of young women induced to unite with the sect about this time, see 
Ward's Mormon Wife, 42-81. Mackay erroneously states that the number 
of saints in KLrtland at this time, including women and children, was but 150. 
The Mormons, 71-2. 

^^In January it was revealed that the work of translating should be pro- 
ceeded with by Smith and Rigdon until finished; and that several of the 
elders, among whom was Orson Hyde, a recent convert, should go forth in 
various directions in pairs as before, and preach. Smith and some of the 
elders attended a conference at Amherst, Loraine Co. , after returning from 
which both himself and Rigdon were shown the devil in a vision, and had the 
revelation of St John explained to them. In March it was revealed that 
steps should be taken to regulate and establish storehouses for the benefit of 
the poor, both at Kirtland and at Zion. More missionaries were sent out, and 
word was received that the emigrants had safely reached Missouri. Tim£8 
aiul Seasons, v. 576-7, 592-6, 608-9. 

'^ Times and Seasoiis, v. 611-12. Mackay, Mormons, 68-71, erroneously 
dates the outrage Jan. 25th. One account says aqua-fortis was poured into 
Smith's mouth. Deseret News, Aug. 6, 1862. Smith says 'they tried to force 
a vial into my mouth, and broke it in my teeth. ' One reason assigned for 
this treatment was that they were attempting to establish communism and 


of the bible ; Rigdon went to Kirtland, and on the 2d 
of April, in obedience to a revelation, Smith started 
for Missouri, having for his companions Whitney, 
Peter Whitmer, and Gause. The spirit of mobocracy 
was aroused throughout the entire country. Joseph 
even feared to go to Kirtland, and escaped by way of 
Warren, where he was joined by Rigdon, whence the 
two proceeded to Cincinnati and St Louis by way of 
Wheeling, Virginia, a mob following them a good part 
of the way. The brethren at Independence and vicin- 
ity welcomed their leaders warmly, but the unbeliev- 
ers there as elsewhere hourly threatened violence.^* 
In May the first edition of the Booh of Command- 
ments'^^ was ordered printed; the following month, pub- 

dishonorable dealing, forgery, and swindling. Burton's City of the Saints, 672. 
Smith merely says that Rigdon was mad; but his mother asserts that he 
counterfeited the madness in order to mislead the saints into the belief that 
the keys of the kingdom had been taken from the church, and would not be 
restored, as he said, until they had built him a new house. This, she says, 
gave rise to great scandal, which Joseph however succeeded in silencing. 
Rigdon repented and was forgiven. He stated that as a punishment for his 
fault, the devil had three times thrown him out of his bed in one night.^s Journey to Great Salt Lake, i. 283 (note). 

'^*The 26th of April Smith called a general council, which acknowledged 
him as president of the high priesthood, to which he had been ordained at the 
Amherst conference in January, and Bishop Partridge and Rigdon, who had 
quarrelled, were reconciled, probably by Smith, as Rigdon was supposed to be 
at Kirtland at the time. This greatly rejoiced Smith; and he immediately 
received a revelation, in which it was announced that the stakes must be 
strengthened, and all property was to be held in common. Times and Seasons, 
v. 624-5; Maclcay^s The Mormons, 71. 

''^ The first edition of Doctrine and Covenants presents the following title 
page: A Book of Commandments for the Government of the Church of Christ 
organized according to law on the 6th of April, 1830. Zion: Published hy W. 
W. Phelps d: Co., 1S33. This edition contains the revelations given up to 
September, 1831. There were 3,000 copies printed of this edition. Then 
there was The Book of Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-Day Saints; Selected from the Bevelations of God. By Joseph Smith, 
President. First European Edition, Liverpool, no date. The preface, how- 
ever, by Thomas Ward, is dated Liverpool, June 14, 1845. There are two 
principal divisions and an appendix. The first consists of seven lectures on 
faith, delivered by Sidney Rigdon before a class of elders at Kirtland; the 
second is called Covenants and Commandments, and consists chiefly of revela- 
tions given 1830-42, to Joseph Smith, the same for the most part that are also 
printed in Times and Seasons, under title of History of Joseph Smith. There 
are also rules, minutes of council, visions, and expositions. The appendix 
contains rules on marriage, a dissertation on government and laws, and a brief 
account of Joseph and Hyrum Smith. 'The book of Mormon, although most 
known, is not the chief book of the sect. The Book of Teachings and Cove- 
nants, containing some of the revelations which Smith pretended to have re 
ceived from heaven, is regarded by his disciples as a book of the law which God 


lished in connection with the Upper Missiouri Adver- 
tiser, appeared the first number of the Evening and 
Morning Star, under the auspices of W. W. Phelps, 
whose printing-press was the only one within a hun- 
dred and twenty miles of Independence. On the 6th 
of May Smith, Rigdon, and Whitney again set out 
on their return to Kirtland.^® On the way Whitney 
broke his leg. Smith was poisoned, and that so badly 
that he dislocated his jaw in vomiting, and the hair 
upon his head became loosened; Whitney, however, 
laid his hands on him, and administered in the namQ 
of the Lord, and he was healed in an instant.^' 

Some three or four hundred saints being now gath- 
ered in Missouri, most of them settled on their own 
inheritances in this land of Zion, besides many others 
scattered abroad throughout the land, who were yet to 
come hither, it was deemed best to give the matter of 
schools some attention. Parley P. Pratt was labor- 
ing in Illinois. Newel K. Whitney was directed in 
September to leave his business in other hands, visit 

has given this generation. Smith also published other revelations, ■which are 
contained in a little book called The Pearl of Great Price.'' De Smefs Western 
Missions, 393. 'This book abounds in grammatical inaccuracies, even to a 
greater extent than the book of Mormon.' Mackay's The Mormons, 43. A 
bungling statement is made by Mather, LippincotVs Mag., Aug. 1880, to the 
effect that in 1835 'Rigdon's Book of Doctrine and Covenants and his Lectures 
on Faith were adopted.' 

^^ Arrangements were early made for the establishment of a store. Ferris' 
Utah anil Mormons, 75. When the printing press was bought — see Deseret 
News, June 30, 1869 — a supply of goods was purchased; and arrangements 
were made at the May council to keep up the supply, which, with few excep- 
tions, were considered satisfactory. On April 27th considerable business was 
transacted 'for the salvation of the saints who were settling among a fero- 
cious set of mobbers, like lambs among wolves. ' On the 28th and 29th Smith 
visited the settlement above Big Blue River in Kaw township, 12 miles west 
of Independence, including the Colesville branch, and returned on the 30th, 
when it was revealed that all minors should be supported by their parents, 
but after becoming of age ' they had claims upon the church, or in other 
words, the Lord's storehouse,' as was also the case with widows left destitute. 
Times and Seasons, v. 625-6. 

^'' On May 6th, leaving affairs as he supposed in a flourishing condition, 
Smith started for Kirtland to look after the mill, store, and farm in that 
neighborhood, but owing to an accident which resulted in the breaking of 
Whitney's leg. Smith was delayed 4 weeks en route. Rigdon, who was also of 
the party, proceeded through without stopping, and the other two arrived 
some time in June. The season was passed by Smith in his work of translat- 
ing the scriptures, and in attending to business affairs. Times and Seasons, 
V. 626. 


the churches, collect money, and administer to the 
wants of the poor. The new translation of the bible 
was again taken up and continued through the winter, 
the new testament being completed and sealed up, not 
to be opened till it reached Zion.^^ 

On January 23, 1833, the ceremony of washing feet 
is instituted after John's gospel. Each elder washes 
his own feet first, after which Joseph girds himself 
with a towel and washes the feet of them all. "Be- 
hold, verily, thus saith the Lord unto you, in conse- 
quence of evils and designs, which do and will exist 
in the hearts of conspiring men in the last days, I 
have warned you, and forewarned j^ou, by giving unto 
you this word of wisdom by revelation, that inasmuch 
as any man drinketh wine or strong drink among you, 
behold it is not good, nor meet in the sight of your 
father. And again, tobacco is not for the body, nei- 
ther for the belly, and it is not good for man. And 
again, hot drinks aro not for the body or belly." 

^ Hardly had President Smith turned his back upon Zion, when dissensions 
broke out among the saints there. He corresponded regularly with the Star, 
giving advice and warning, but matters apparently grew worse, for in Janu- 
ary 1833 a conference of twelve high priests was held at Kirtland, or Kirt- 
land Mills, as they now called their settlement, at which Orson Hyde and 
Hyrum Smith were appointed to write an epistle to the brotherhood of Zion. 
The document was dated Jan. 14th, and began: 'From a conference of 12 high 
priests to the bishop, his council, and the inhabitants of Zion.' After pre- 
mising that Smith and certain others had written on this all-important sub- 
ject, and that the replies received had not given satisfactory assurances of 
confession and repentauce, charges were made that old grievances, supposed 
to be settled, had been again brought up in a censorious spirit, and that they 
had accused Brother Smith of seeking after monarchical power and authority. 
This complaint was made by Carroll in a letter dated June 2d. Again, 
Brother Gilbert, on Dec. 10th, wrote a letter which contained 'low, dark, and 
blind insinuations, which they declined to entertain, though the writer's 
claims and pretensions to holiness were great.' Brother Phelps, Dec. 15th, 
wrote a letter betraying ' a lightness of spirit that ill becomes a man placed 
in the important and re.sponsible station that he is placed in.' To a request 
that Smith should come to Zion, made by Phelps in a previous letter, it was 
answered that 'Brother Smith will not settle in Zion until she repent and 
purify herself . . . and remember the commandments that have been given her 
to do them as well as say them. ' Finally, it was threatened that unless these 
disturbances should cease, they should all be cut off, and the Lord would seek 
another place. Brother Ziba Peterson was delivered 'over to the buffetings 
of Satan, in the name of the Lord, that he may learn not to transgress the com- 
mandments of God.' Times and Seasons, v. 801. 


The first presidency is organized on the 8th of March, 
Sidney Rigdon and Frederick G. WilHams being 
Smith's councillors. Money flows in, and a council 
of high priests, March 23d, orders the purchasing for 
$11,100 of three farms at Kirtland, upon which the 
saints may build a stake, or support, in Zion,^^ and the 
foundations of the temple are laid, for here they will 
remain for five years and make money until the west- 
ern Zion shall be made ready and a temple built 
there also. On the land is a valuable quarry of stone, 
and good clay for bricks; they also buy a tannery. 
In April the school of the prophets closes, to reopen in 
the autumn. Shederlaomach is made by revelation a 
member of the united firm. It is not the will of the 
Lord to print any of the new translation in the Star; but 
when it is published, it will all go to the world together, 
in a volume by itself, and the new testament and the 
book of Mormon will be printed together. Those 
preparing to go to Zion should organize. 

Commandment comes to lay at Kirtland the foun- 
dation of the city of the stake in Zion, with a house 
of the Lord, a school-house for the instruction of 
elders, a house for the presidency, a house of wor- 
ship and for the school of the prophets, an endow- 
ment house with a room for the school of apostles, 
and a house in which to print the translation of the 
scriptures. A church is established in Medina county, 

^ 'The church that was to be established in Jackson county was called Zion, 
the centre of gathering, and those established by revelation in other places 
were called stakes of Zion, or stakes; hence the stake at Kirtland, the stake at 
Far West, etc. Each stake was to liaA'e a presidency, consisting of three high 
priests, chosen and set apart for that purpose, whose jurisdiction was confined 
to the limits of the stake over which they took the watch care. * Kidder's 
Mormonism, 121-2. A stake of Zion is an organization comprising a presi- 
dency, high priests, and its council of 12 high priests. The latter is a tribu- 
nal for the trial of brethren. It is a court of appeal from the bishops, and 
has also jurisdiction in spiritual matters. Richards' Narrative, MS., 55., 
For origin of name, see Doctrine and Convenants (1876), 263. 'The nexta 
year, 1833, commenced with something like a change of operations. In-1 
stead of selling their possessions in Ohio, they again began to buy up im-1 
proved land, mills, and water privileges. It would seem that the Missouri 
country began to look rather dreary to the prophet and his head men, sup- 
posing that they could not enjoy their power there as well as in Ohio.' Howe's^ 
Mormonism Unveiled, 130. 


Ohio, by Sidney Rigdon, who sometimes proves him- 
self unruly. Dr Hurlbut is tried before the bishop's 
council of high priests on a charge of unchristian- 
like conduct with the female sex, and condemned, but 
on confession is pardoned. ^° 

Temples are ordered built in the city of Zion, in 
Missouri, as follow : a house of the Lord for the pres- 
idency of the high and most holy priesthood after the 
order of Melchisedec ; the sacred apostolic repository, 

^° Four years after the first printing of the Book of Mormon, at Palmyra, 
New York, was issued in Ohio the following work: Mormonism Unveiled: 
or, A faithful account of that singular Imposition and Delusion, from its rise to 
the present time. With sketches of the characters of its Propagators, and a full 
detail of the manner in which the famous Golden Bible was brought before the 
World. To which are added inquiries into the probability that the historical 
part of the said bible was written by one Solomon Spaulding, more than twenty 
years ago, and by him intended to have been published as a romance. By E. D. 
Howe. Painesville, Printed and Published by the Author, 1S34- 12mo, 290 
pages. Painesville is situated but a short distance from Kirtland, then the 
headquarters of Mormonism, where about that time was ordained the first 
quorum of the twelve apostles, and Sidney Rigdon was delivering Joseph 
Smith's famous lectures on faith, subsequently printed in Doctrine and Cove- 
nants, already noticed. Here also, shortly afterward, the first Mormon temple 
was dedicated. Great excitement prevailed throughout that section regarding 
religion, and the book was widely circulated. It was a powerful weapon, 
and promptly and skillfully handled; yet it seems to have been no serious bar- 
rier to the dissemination of the new doctrines. The work is well written; 
and while not vehement in its denunciations, it brings forward a large mass 
of evidence to prove, as he says, 'the depths of folly, degradation, and super- 
stition to which human nature can be carried.' He observes that 'the diffi- 
culty of procuring, or arriving at the whole truth, in relation to a religious 
imposition which has from its birth been so studiously veiled in secrecy, and 
generally under a belief that the judgments of God would follow any dis- 
closures of what its votaries had seen or heard, will be readily discovered. ' 
The author begins with some account of the Smith family. Their thoughts 
turned greatly toward gaining possession of hidden treasures. Young Joseph 
'had become very expert in the arts of necromancy, juggling, the use of the 
divining rod, and looking into what they termed a peep-stone, by which 
means he soon collected about him a gang of idle, credulous j'oung men, to 
perform the labor of digging into the hills and mountains, and other lonely 
places in that vicinity in search of gold.' After comments on Cowdery, Har- 
ris, and Whitmer, Mr Howe gives a commentary on the golden bible. Some 
63 pages are devoted to this, and to observations on the credibility of the 
three and the eight witnesses. Sarcasm is the weapon employed, and gen- 
erally with eflfect; the exposition in regard to contradictions and historical 
inaccuries might apply with equal force to the bible, the koran, or any other 
sacred book. Mention is next made of Pratt's conversion, which, he intimates, 
was not accidental, followed by an account of the expedition to the Lam- 
anites. Thus the line of events is followed by Mr Howe to the time of the 
publication of his book, at the end of which are given letters and testimonials 
to disprove the statements and doctrines of the Mormons, and also to prove 
that the book of Mormon was the work of Spaulding. On the whole, besides 
being the first book published in opposition to the Mormons, it is also one of 
the most ably written, the most original, and the most respectable. 


for the use of the bishop; the holy evangelical house, 
for the high priesthood of the holy order of God; 
house of the Lord for the elders of Zion ; house of the 
Lord for the presidency of the high priesthood ; house 
of the Lord for the high priesthood after the order of 
Aaron; house of the Lord for the teachers in Zion; 
house of the Lord for the deacons in Zion; and others. 
There are also to be farms, barns, and dwellings. The 
ground secured for the purpose is a mile square, and 
will accommodate fifteen or twenty thousand people. ^^ 

Affairs in Missouri were very prosperous. "Immi- 
gration had poured into the county of Jackson in great 
numbers," says Parley P. Pratt, ''and the church 

'^ A plan and specifications for the new city of Zion were sent out from 
Kirtland. The plot was one mile square, drawn to a scale of 660 feet to one 
inch. Each square was to contain ten acres, or 660 feet fronts. Lots were 
to be laid out alternately in the squares; in one, fronting north or south; in 
the next east or west; each lot extending to the centre line of its square, with 
a frontage of 66 feet and a depth of 330 feet, or half an acre. By this ar- 
rangement in one square the houses would stand on one street, and in the 
square opposite on another street. Through the middle of the plot ran a 
range of blocks 660 feet by 990 feet set apart for the public buildings, and 
in these the lots were all laid off north and south, the greatest length of the 
blocks being from east to west: thus making all the lots equal in size. The 
whole plot was supposed to be sufficient for tlae accommodation of from 15,000 
to 20,000 people. All stables, barns, etc., were to be built north or south of 
the plot, none being permitted in the city among the houses. Sufficient ad- 
joining ground on all sides was to be reserved for supplying the city with 
vegetables, etc. All streets were to be 132 feet (8 perches) wide, and a like 
width was to be laid off between the temple and its surrounding streets. But 
one house was to be built on a lot, and that must front on a line 25 feet from 
the street, the space in front to be set out with trees, shrubs, etc., according 
to the builder's taste. All houses to be of either brick or stone. The house 
of the Lord for the presidency was to be 61 feet by 87 feet, 10 feet of the length 
for a stairway. The interior was so arranged as to permit its division into 4 
parts by curtains. At the east and west ends were to be pulpits arranged for 
the several grades of president and council, bishop and council, high priests 
and elders, at the west; and the lesser priesthood, comprising presidency, 
priests, teachers, and deacons, at the east. Provision was also made to seat 
visiting officers according to their grades. The pews were fitted with sliding 
seats, so that the audience could face either pulpit as required. There was 
to be no gallery, but the house was to be divided into 2 stciries of 14 feet each. 
A bell of very large size was also ordered. Finally, on each public biiilding 
must be written. Holiness to the Lord. When this plot was settled, another 
was to be laid out, and so on. Times and Seasons, vi. 785-7, 800. Zion City 
— its prototype in Enoch's City. Young's Histonj of the Seventies, 9-15, no. 
10, in Mormon Pamphlets. It was revealed to Smith that the waters of 
the gulf of Mexico covered the site of a prehistoric city, built by and named 
for Enoch; and that it was translated because its inhabitants liad become so 
far advanced that further earthly residence was unnecessary. Zion, Smith's 
ideal city, was finally to reach a like state of perfection. 


in that county now numbered upward of one thou- 
sand souls. These had all purchased lands and paid 
for them, and most of them were improving in build- 
ings and in cultivation. Peace and plenty had crowned 
their labors, and the wilderness became a fruitful field, 
and the solitary place began to bud and blossom as the 
rose. They lived in peace and quiet, no lawsuits with 
each other or with the world ; few or no debts were con- 
tracted, few promises broken; there were no thieves, 
robbers, or murderers; few or no idlers; all seemed 
to worship God with a ready heart. On Sundays the 
people assembled to preach, pray, sing, and receive 
the ordinances of God. Other days all seemed busy 
in the various pursuits of industry. In short, there 
has seldom, if ever, been a happier people upon the 
earth than the church of the saints now were." They 
were for the most part small farmers, tradesmen, and 
mechanics, and were not without shrewdness in the 
management of their secular affairs. 

But all this must now be changed. The saints ot 
God must be tried as by fire. Persecutions such as 
never before were witnessed in these latter days, and 
the coming of which were foretold by Joseph, are 
upon them; they shall be buffeted for five years, and 
the end is not yet. " Political demagogues were afraid 
we should rule the country," says Parley, "and re- 
ligious priests and bigots felt that we were powerful 
rivals. "^^ Moreover, there is no doubt that they were 
indiscreet; they were blinded by their prosperity; 
already the kingdom of God and the kingdom x)f this 
world had come unto them; now let the gentiles 
tremble !^^ 

^''Autobiography, 103. 

*' ' Their prophet had declared that Zion shoiild be established, and should 
put down her enemies under her feet. Why, then, should they hesitate to pro- 
claim their anticipations? They boasted openly that they should soon possess 
the whole country, and that the unbelievers should be rooted out from the 
land.' Edinburgh Review, April 1854. 'We have been credibly iuf Armed 
that Rigdon has given it as his opinion that the Mormons will be able to 
elect a member of congress in five years, and that in three years they would 
take the offices in the town of Kirtland. They say that when they get the 
H18T. Utah. 7 


And the gentiles did tremble, as they saw so rapidly 
increasing their unwelcome neighbors, whose compact 
organization gave them a strength disproportionate 
to their numbers. Since there was no law to stop their 
coming, they determined to face the issue without law.^ 

In April the people held consultations as to the 
best way of disposing of the Mormons; and again 
about the middle of July three hundred persons met 
at Independence to form a plan for driving them out. 
A declaration, in substance as follows, was drawn up 
and signed by nearly all present. The citizens of Jack- 
son county fear the effect upon society of a pretended 
religious sect, fanatics or knaves, settling among them, 
and mean to get rid of them at any hazard, and for 
the following reasons: They blasphemously pretend 
to personal intercourse with the deity, to revelations, 
miracles, healing the sick, casting out devils, and other 
delusions ; they are the dregs of society, held together 
by the acts of designing leaders, and are idle and 
vicious. They are poor. They tamper with the 
slaves and free negroes. They declare the Indian re- 
gion to be theirs by heavenly inheritance. 

In answer, Parley P. Pratt asks if their supernatural 
pretensions are more extravagant than those of the 
old and new testament; if it is anywhere written 
that there shall be no more spiritual manifestations as 
of old ; does the word of God or the law of man make 
poverty a crime? and have they not paid for all the land 
they occupy? They are no more dregs than their 
neighbors, and the charge of fraternizing with the 
blacks is not true; neither is that of vice or crime, as 

secular power into their hands, everything will be performed by immediata 
revelations from God. We shall then have Pope Joseph the First and his 
hierarchy.' Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 145. 

'* 'So early as April 1832, the saints were made to feel themselves unwel- 
come sojourners in Jackson co. Stones and brickbats were thrown through 
the windows of their houses, and they were otherwise annoyed and insulted. 
Meetings were held during that year and the early part of 1833, at which 
resolutions were sometimes passed, and sometimes the assembly indulged in 
a fight among its members; but nothing more serious resulted. Stoning 
houses, however, was resumed in the early summer of the last-mentioned year.' 
Times and Seasons, i. 17; vi. 851. 



the county records will show. In regard to the lands 
of the Indians, no violence or injustice is contemplated ; 
and if it were, what record of robbery, murder, and 
treacherous, betrayal could excel that already made 
by the people of Missouri and others in the United 
States for our example ?^^ 

On the 20th the people again met according to ap- 
pointment. The old charges were reiterated, and the 
old resolutions renewed, with some additions. '^^ To 
put them into action the men of Jackson county 

^^Persecution of the Saints, 21-8. Mackay, The Mormons, 72-4, says 'the 
manner in which the Mormons behaved in their Zion was not calculated to 
make friends. The superiority they assumed gave offense, and the rumors 
that were spread by some false friends, wlio had been turned out of the 
church for misconduct, excited against them an intense feeling of alarm and 
hatred. They were accused of communism, and not simply a community of 
goods and chattels, but of vrives. . .Joined to the odium unjustly cast upon 
them for these reasons, they talked so imprudently of their determination to 
possess the whole state of Missouri, and to suffer no one to live in it who 
would not conform to their faith, that a party was secretly formed against 
them, of which the object was nothing less than their total and immediate 
expulsion from their promised Zion . . . The anti-Mormon press contained at 
the same time an article entitled "Beware of false prophets," written by a 
person whom Joseph called a black rod in the hand of Satan. This article 
was distributed from house to house in Independence and its neighbor- 
hood, and contained many false charges against Smith and his associates, 
reiterating the calumny about the community of goods and wives. ' Smith 
calls this man ' one Pixley, ' and says he was sent by the missionary society, 
to civilize and christianize the heathen of the west, and that he was not only 
a black rod, but 'a poisoned shaft in the power of our foes, to spread lies 
and falsehoods '... It is also probable that the more indolent Missourians 
gazed with jealous eyes as the new-comers exhibited that agricultural thrift 
which has always characterized them as a people; for we find the twelve high 
priests, through Hyde and Hyrum Smith, reprimanding Brother Phelps as 
follows: "If you have fat beef and potatoes, eat them in singleness of heart, 
and boast not j'^ourselves in these things. " ' Times and Seasons, v. 721; vi. 816. 
'It was conjectured by the inhabitants of Jackson county that the Mormonites 
as a body are wealthy, and many of them entertain fears that next Decem- 
ber, when the list of land is exposed for sale, they will outbid others, and 
establish themselves as the most powerful body in the county.' Booth, in 
Hotve's Mormonism Unveiled, 195. 

^•^ It was further declared: '1st, That no Mormon shall in future move 
and settle in this county. 2d, That those now here, who shall give a defi- 
nite pledge of their intention, within a reasonable time, to remove out of the 
county, shall be allowed to remain unmolested until they shall have sufficient 
time to sell their property and close their business without any sacrifice. 
3d, That the editor of the Star be required forthwith to close his office, and 
discontinue the business of printing in this county; and as to all other stores 
and shops belonging to the sect, their owners must in every case comply with 
the terms strictly, agreeably to the 2d article of this declaration; and upon 
failure, prompt and efficient measures will be taken to close the same. 4th, 
That the Mormon leaders here are required to use their influence in prevent- 
ing any further emigration of their distant brethren to this county, and 


sallied forth for the office of the Star,^ and de- 
manded that the publication be discontinued. Com- 
pliance being refused, Phelps' house, containing the 
printing-office, was torn down, materials and paper 
destroyed,^^ and Bishop Partridge and Elder Allen 
were tarred and feathered.^'' Meanwhile, clergymen 
of other denominations, and officers of the state and 
county, looked on, saying, "Mormons are the common 
enemies of mankind, and ought to be destroyed," and 
*'You now know what our Jackson boys can do, and 
you must leave the country."*^ 

Again the mob appeared on the morning of the 23d, 
bearing a red flag, and demanding the departure of 
the Mormons. Seeing no way of escape, the elders 
entered into treaty with the assailants, and promised 
to leave the county within a certain time." Cowdery 

counsel and advise their brethren to comply with the above requisitions. 
5th, That those who fail to comply with the above requisitions be referred 
to those of their brethren who have the gift of tongues, to inform them of the 
lot that awaits them.' Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 141. 

^' 'Six of the principal elders met the mob's committee. The latter de- 
manded that the printing-office, the shops, and the store, be closed forth- 
with, and that the society leave the county immediately. The elders asked 
for three months' delay, which was refused; then for ten days, which was also 
refused; the latter refusal being accompanied with a notification that fifteen 
minutes was the longest time that could be granted. Each elder having de- 
clined to accede to tihe terms, one of the mob remarked on leaving that he 
was sorry, for, said he, "the work of destruction will commence immediate- 
ly.'" Times and Seasons, i. 18. Phelps, the editor. Partridge, the bishop, 
and Gilbert, the store-keeper, are mentioned. S mucker'' s Hist. Mor., 89, 

2^ 'In a short time time hundreds of the mob gathered around the print- 
ing-office (a two-story brick building), which they soon threw down. The 
press was thrown from the upper story, and all the books, stock, and material 
scattered through the streets. After destroying the printing house, they 
proceeded to Gilbert and Whitney's store for the same purpose, but Gilbert 
agreeing to shut it, and box the goods soon, they concluded to let it alone.' 
Times and Seasons, i. 18; Pratt'' s Persecution of the Saints, 29. 

^' 'A number more were taken, but succeeded in escaping through the over- 
anxiety of their keepers, who crowded forward to enjoy the sport. ' Times and 
Seasons, i. 18. Phelps the editor was one. Smucker's Hist. Mor., 89. Par- 
tridge says the mob was led by George Simpson. Times and Seasons, vi, 

*" Spoken by Lilburn W. Boggs, lieutenant-governor, a man who thence- 
forward appears to have persecuted the MormcAis with unrelenting hostility. 
He 'was in the immediate neighborhood of the riot, but declined to take any 
part in preserving the peace.' Smucker's Hist. Mor., 89-90; Times and Sea- 
sons, vi. 819. 

*^ Six persons signed the agreement that one half of the Mormons should 
leave in January and one half in April 1834, the publication of the paper 
to be discontinued. Mackay's The Monnons, 76; Pratt's Persecution, 30. 



was despatched to Kirtland to consult as to what was 
best to be done. Meanwhile, incendiary articles ap- 
peared in the Western Monitor, printed at Fayette, Mis- 
souri. "Two years ago," said that journal, '' some two 
or three of this people made their appearance on the 
upper Missouri, and they now number some twelve 
hundred souls in this county." They look at the 
land as theirs to inherit, by either fair means or foul; 
and when the officers of law and government shall be 
Mormon, we must go. "One of the means resorted 
to by them, in order to drive us to emigrate, is an in- 
direct invitation to the free brethren of color in Illi- 
nois to come up like the rest to the land of Zion." 
True, they deny this, but that is only subterfuge. 
So it is resolved that no more Mormons shall be per- 
mitted to come; that those here must go within a 
reasonable time; and that the Star printing-office 
shall be declared confiscated. 

An appeal was made to the governor, Daniel Dunk- 
lin, for redress, and while awaiting the answer mat- 
ters were continued much in the usual way. The 
brethren were instructed by their elders not to retal- 
iate, but to bear all with meekness and patience. At 
length a letter came from the governor, assuring them 
of his protection, and advising them to resort to the 
courts for damages. The church leaders ordered that 
none should leave Independence except those who 
had signed an agreement to that effect. Four law- 
yers were engaged for one thousand dollars to carry 
the matter into the courts. No sooner was this 
known than the whole country rose in arms and made 
war upon the Mormons. On the nights of October 
30th, 31st, and November 1st, armed men attacked 
branches of the church west of Big Blue, and at the 
prairie unroofed the houses and beat the men. Al- 
most simultaneously attacks were made at other 
points. Stones flew freely in Independence, and 
houses were destroyed and the inmates wounded. 
Gilbert's store was broken open, and the goods scat- 


tered in the streets. On November 2d thirty saints 
retired with their families and effects to a point half a 
mile from town. Next day four of the brethren went to 
Lexington for a peace warrant, but the circuit judge 
refused to issue one through fear of the mob. "You 
had better fight it out and kill the outlaws if they 
come upon you," said the judge.*^ The saints then 
armed, and on the 4th there was a fight, in which two 
gentiles and one Mormon were killed, and several on 
both sides wounded. One of the store-breakers was 
brought before the court, and during the trial the 
populace became so furious that Gilbert, Morley, and 
Corrill were thrust into jail for protection. The morn- 
ing of the 5th broke with signs of yet more bloody 
determination on both sides. The militia were called 
out to preserve the peace, but this only made matters 
worse. The lieutenant-governor, Boggs, pretending 
friendship, got possession of the Mormons' arms, and 
seized a number to be tried for murder.*^ Further 
and yet more violent attacks were made; hope was 
abandoned; the now defenceless saints were forced to 
fly in eveiy direction, some out into the open prairie, 
some up and some down the river. " The struggle 
was over," writes Pratt, "our liberties were gone!" 
On the 7th both banks were lined with men, women, 
and children, with wagons, provisions, and personal 
effects. Cold weather came on with wind and rain, 
to which most of the fugitives were exposed, few of 
them having tents. Some took refuge in Clay county, 
some in Lafayette county, and elsewhere.** 

Throughout all these trying scenes. Governor 

*^ Pratt's Autobiography, 105; Mackay's The Mormons, 77-8; Pratt's 
Persecution, 31-6. 

*^ In a memorial to the legislature of Missouri, dated Far West, Dec. 10, 
1838, and signed by nine prominent Mormons, is this statement: 'A battle 
took place in which some two or three of the mob and one of our people were 
killed. This raised, as it were, the whole county in arms, and nothing could 
satisfy them but an immediate surrender of the arms of our people, and they 
forthwith had to leave the county. Fifty-one guns were given up, which 
have never been returned or paid for to this day.' 

*^ 'About 1,500 people were expelled from Jackson co. in Nov. 1833, and 
about 300 of their houses burned.' Geo. A. Smith, in Desertt News, June 30, 


Dunklin endeavored to uphold the law, but Boggs, 
lieutenant-governor, was with the assailants. Wells, 
attorney-general, wrote to the council for the church, 
the 21st, saying that if they wished to replace their 
houses in Jackson county the governor would send 
them an adequate force, and if the}'' would organize 
themselves into companies, he would supply them 
with arms. Application was made accordingly. *'It 
is a disgrace to the state," writes Judge Ryland, 
"for such acts to happen within its limits, and the 
disgrace will attach to our official characters if we 
neglect to take proper means to insure the punish- 
ment due such offenders." In view of this advice from 
the state authorities, the saints resolved to return to 
their homes as soon as protection should be afforded 
them, and it was ordered by revelation that they 
should do so, but with circumspection and not in 

All this time President Joseph Smith was at Kirt- 
land, harassed with anxiety over affairs in Missouri, 
still pursuing the usual tenor of his way, and not 
knowing what moment like evils might befall him 
and his fold there.*^ It was resolved by the first presi- 
dency that the Star should be published at Kirtland 

1869, 247. 'Several women thus driven from their homes gave birth to chil- 
dren in the woods and on the prairies.' Greene's Facts, 18. Pratt says 203 
houses were burned, according to the estimate of the enemy. 

*^ On Dec. 15th, Phelps writes to Smith from Clay co. : ' The situation of the 
saints, as scattered, is dubious, and affords a gloomy prospect . . . We are in 
Clay, Ray, Lafayette, Jackson, Van Buren, etc. [counties], and cannot hear 
from each other of tener than we do from you . . . The governor is willing to re- 
store us, but as the constitution gives him no power to guard us when back, 
we are not willing to go. The mob swear if we come we shall die ! Our peo- 
ple fare very well, and when they are discreet, little or no persecution is felt. 
The militia in the upper counties is in readiness at a moment's warning, 
having been ordered out by the governor, to guard a court-martial and court 
of inquiry, etc., but we cannot attend a court of inquiry on account of the 
expense, until we are restored and protected. ' Times and Seasons, vi. 944. 

*^ Smith wrote to the saints about this time that he had heard they had 
surrendered their arms and fled across the river. If this report was true, he 
advised them not to recommence hostilities; but if they were still in posses- 
sion, they should ' maintain the ground as long as there is a man left. ' They 
were also advised to prosecute to the extent of the law; but must not look 
for pecuniary assistance from Kirtland, for matters there were by no means 
in a flourishing condition. It was recommended that a tract of land be pur- 
chased iu Clay co. for present necessaries. Times and Seasons, vi. 914-15. 


until it could be reinstated in Missouri ; another jour- 
nal, the Latter-day Samt^ Messenger and Advocate, 
was also established at Kirtland, and a mission or- 
ganized for Canada.^'' 

The work of proselyting continued east and west 
without abatement through the year 1834. Two by 
two and singly the elders went forth: Lyman John- 
son and Milton Holmes to Canada, also Zebedee Col- 
trin and Henry Harriman; John S. Carter and Jesse 
Smith should go eastward together, also James Dur- 
fee and Edward Marvin. Elders Oliver Granger, 
Martin Harris, and Brigham Young preferred to 
travel alone. To redeem the farm on which stood 
the house of the Lord, elders Orson Hyde and Orson 
Pratt were sent east to solicit funds. The movements 
of many others of the brethren are given. Parley 
Pratt and Lyman Wight were instructed not to return 
to Missouri until men were organized into companies of 

*' * Concerning our means of diflfusing the principles we profess, we have 
used the art of printing almost from the beginning of our work. At Inde- 
pendence, Missouri, in 1832-3-4, two volumes of the Evening and Morning 
Star were issued by William W. Phelps and Oliver Cowdery. This was a 
monthly octavo of 16 pages, devoted to the faith and doctrines of the church, 
and was continued from Independence from June 1832 until July 1833, when 
its publication was transferred to Kirtland, Ohio, from whence it was con- 
tinued until September 1834, when it gave place to the Latter-day Saints' Mes- 
senger and Advocate, which continued to cheer tiie persecuted saints until 
August 1837, when there appeared in its columns a prospectus for a new 
paper to be published at Kirtland, called the Elders' Journal of the Church 
of Latter-day Saints, also a monthly, the first number of which bore date 
October 1837. The gathering of the people from Kirtland to Far West in 
Missouri transferred the publication of the journal also to that place, from 
whence it issued uutil stopped by the persecution and extermination of the 
saints in the fall and winter of 1838 from the state of Missouri. The first 
number of the Millennial Star was issued at Liverpool in May 1840, at first a 
monthly, then fortnightly, and for many years a weekly, with at one time a 
circulation of 22,000 copies, edited and published variously by elders appointed 
and sent to edit the paper, manage the emigration, and preside over the 
work generally in the European countries. This work is still issued weekly, 
and greatly aids the cause in Europe. The Skandinaviens' Stjerne has been 
published in Copenhagen nearly thirty years in the Danish language, edited 
by those who have from time to time presided over the Scandinavian missions. 
The first number was issued in 1851, and is well supported, being a great aid 
in the missionary service in northern Europe. For several years a periodical 
entitled the Udgorn Seion was published at Merthyr Tydfil, and was contin- 
ued until the number of saints in the Welsh mission was so reduced by emi- 
gration as to render its further publication impracticable.' Richards' Bibli- 
ography of Utah, MS. , 7-9. 



ten, twenty, fifty, or one hundred. Thereupon these 
and others went out in various directions to raise 
men and means for a rehgio-miUtary expedition to 
Missouri. There were churches now in every direc- 
tion, and the brethren were scattered over a broad 

Several appeals for redress were made by the 
saints at Independence to the governor of Missouri, 
and to the president of the United States. The 
president said it was a matter for the governor to 
regulate, and the governor did not see what could be 
done except through the courts. A court of inquiry 
was instituted, which decided, but to little purpose, 
that there was no insurrection on the 5th of Novem- 
ber, 1833, and therefore the arms taken by the militia 
from the Mormons on that occasion must be restored 
to them.*^ "And now a commandment I give unto 
you concerning Zion, that you shall no longer be 
bound as an united order to your brethren of Zion, 
only in this wise; after you are organized you shall 
be called the united order of this stake of Zion, the city 
of Shinehah,*^ and your brethren, after they are or- 
ganized, shall be called the united order of the city of 

On the 7th of May, 1834, a military company was 
organized at Kirtland under the name of Zion's camp, 
consisting of one hundred and fifty brethren, mostly 
young men, elders, priests, teachers, and deacons, with 

*® 'About this time a court of inquiry held at Liberty for the purpose of 
investigating the action of Col Pitcher, in connection with the expulsion of 
the saints from Jackson co. , found sufficient evidence against that officer to 
result in his being placed in arrest for trial by court-martial. The plant of 
the printing-office was given by the citizens to Davia & Kelly, who removed 
it to Liberty, where they commenced the publication of a weekly paper called 
the Missouri Enquirer. ' ' The citizens also paid §300 on the §1,000 note given 
by the elders to their lawyers, thus acknowledging their action had been 
wrong.' Times and Seasons, vi. 961. ' The governor also ordered them to re- 
store our arms which they had taken from us, but they never were restored. ' 
Pratt's Persecution, 52. See also Taylder's Mormons, xliiL-xlvi. ; Deseret News, 
Dec. 27, 1851, and June 30, 1869; Utah Tracts, no. 4, 56-64; Millennial Star, 
XXV. 535-6, 550-2; Gunnison's Mormons, 104-14; Ferris' Utah and Mormons, 

*' They 'called their Kirtland colony Shinahar.' Gunnison's Mormons, 167. 


F. G. Williams paymaster and Zerubbabel Snow com- 
missary general. They had twenty wagons loaded 
with arms and effects, and next day set out for Mis- 
souri, President Smith joining them, leaving Rigdon 
and Cowdery to look after matters in Ohio. They 
passed through Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, reaching 
Missouri ^° in June, Pratt and others still continuing 

6" ' They were trying times, requiring the combined wisdom of the prophet 
and his head men . . . But the prophet more readily discovered the new advan- 
tages that would ultimately accrue to his cause by a little perseverance. He 
well knew that the laws could not continue to be violated in our country for 
any length of time, and that he and his followers would, in the end, be the 
greatest gainers by the cry of persecution which they could raise ... A revela- 
tion was printed in the form of a handbill. It was taken up by all their 
priests and carried to all their congregations, some of which were actually sold 
for one dollar per copy. Preparations immediately began to be made for a 
crusade to their holy land to drive out the infidels , . . Old muskets, rifles, pis- 
tols, rusty swords, and butcher knives were soon put in a state of repair and 
scoured up. Some were borrowed and some were bought, on a credit if possi- 
ble, and others were manufactured by their own mechanics. . .About the first 
of May the grand army of fanatics commenced its march in small detachments 
from the different places of concentration. On the 3d the prophet, with a life 
guard of about 80 men, the elite of his army, left his quarters in Kirtland 
with a few baggage wagons, containing their arms, ammunition, stores, etc. 
. . .On arriving at Salt Creek, Illinois, they were joined by Lyman Wight 
and Hyrum Smith, brother of the prophet, with a reenforcement of twenty 
men, which they had picked up on the way. Here the grand army, which 
being fully completed, encamped for the space of three days. The whole 
number was now estimated at 220, rank and file. During their stay here the 
troops were kept under a constant drill of manual exercise with guns and 
swords, and their arms put in a state of repair; the prophet became very ex- 
pert with a sword, and felt himself equal to his prototype Coriantumr. He 
had the best sword in the army; probably a true model of Laban's, if not the 
identical one itself, an elegant brace of pistols, which were purchased on a 
credit of six months, a rifle, and four horses. Wight was appointed second 
in command, or fighting general, who, together with the prophet, had an ar- 
mor-bearer appointed, selected from among the most expert tacticians, whose 
duty it was to be in constant attendance upon their masters with their arms. ' 
Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 147-59. 'Cholera broke out in his camp on 
the 24th of June, and Joseph attempted to cure it by laying on of hands and 
prayer. . .Joseph lost thirteen of his band by the ravages of the disease. . . 
He arrived in Clay co. on the 2d, and started back for Kirtland on the 9th . . . 
Short as was the time he stayed, he did not depart without organizing and 
encouraging the main body . . . and establishing the community in Clay co. on 
a better footing than when he arrived.' Mackai/s The Mormons, 85. Churches 
were visited in New York, Pennsylvania, and the New England States, about 
100 recruits obtained, and 50 more in the vicinity of Kirtland. The first de- 
taclmient, about 100 strong, left Kirtland May 5th, and by the next Sunday 
about 60 more had joined, part from Ohio and part from the east. The body 
was organized in companies of tens, each being furnished with camp equipage. 
Messes for cooking purposes were formed, and guards mounted at night. 
JDeseret News, Oct. 19, 1869. These men were well armed. A detachment of 
twenty men had preceded them as an advanced guard. Bemy's Journey, i. 
297. They were divided into companies of 12, consisting of 2 cooks, 2 fire- 
men, 2 tent-makers, 2 watermen, one runner or scout, one commissary, and 2 


their efforts en route as recruiting officers. It was 
an army of the Lord; they would not be known as 
Mormons, which was a name they hated; moreover, 
they would be incognito; and the better to accom- 
plish all these purposes, three days before they started, 
Sidney Rigdon proposed in conference that the name 
by which hereafter they would call themselves should 
be The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 
which proposal was adopted.^^ On the way the breth- 

wagoners. 20 wagons accompanied them, and they had fire-arms and all sorts 
of munitions of war of the most portable kind for self-defence. Smucker's Hist. 
Mor., 95; Times and Seasons, vi. 1074. On June 3d, when in camp on the 
Illinois River, Smith had a mound opened and took out a skeleton, between 
whose ribs an arrow was sticking. A revelation followed, in which the prophet 
was informed that the bones were those of a white Lamanite, a warrior named 
Zelph, who served under the great prophet Omandagus. Times and Seasons, 
vi. 1076; Smucker^s Hist. Mor., 95-6; Eemy's Journey, i. 297; Ferris' Utah 
and the Mormons, 83-4, June 4th to 6th was occupied in crossing the Mis- 
sissippi, there being but one boat. The company now consisted of 205 men 
and 25 wagons, with 2 or 3 horses each. The company camped on Rush 
Creek, Clay co., on June 23d, and on the night of the '24th the cholera broke 
out among them, causing several deaths. On the 25th Smith broke up hia 
command, and the men were scattered among their neighbors. Times and 
Seasons, vi. 1076, 1088, 1 105-6; Beseret News, Oct. 19, 1864. Up to June 22d, 
Smith had travelled incognito, apparently fearing assassination. Times and 
Seasons, vi. 1104. A list of the members of Zion's camp will be found in Deseret 
Fews, Oct. 19, 1864, and those living in 1876 in Id., Apr. 26, 1876. Smith 
disbanded his forces in obedience to a revelation. Doctrine and Covenants, 
345-9. As the prophet approached Missouri he selected a body-guard of 20 
men, appointing his brother Hyrum as theii captain, and another brother, 
George, his armor-bearer. He also appointed a general, who daily inspected the 
army and drilled them. Smucker's Hist. Mor. , 99. On April 10, 1834, the presi- 
dent was again petitioned from Liberty, Mo. (a petition had been sent on in 
October 1833); the persecutions were recounted, it was related that an unavail- 
ing appeal had been made to the state executive, and it was asked that they 
be restored to the lands in Jackson co. thsy had purchased from the U. S. 
For text of correspondence, etc., see Tim^s and Seasons, vi. 1041-2, 1056-9, 
1071-8, 1088-92, 1103, 1107-9, 1120-4. On the march Pratt still acted as 
recruiting officer, and visited the churches in Ohio, Indiana, lUinois, and 
Missouri, obtaining men and money which he forwarded to the main body 
from time to time. Pratt's Autobiog., 122-3. The band finally numbered 205 
in all. Utah Pioneers, 33d Anniversary, 17. The march to Clay co.. Mo., 
occupied 46 days, 9 of which were spent in camp. During the existence of 
the body 2 deserted because they could not fight the mob, and one left with- 
out a discharge; the rest remained faithful. Deseret News, Oct. 19, 1864. 
Further details of the march will be found in Mackay's Mormons, 80-5; 
Kidder's Mormonism, 111-16; Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 156-03. Camp- 
bell and others who threatened to attack Smith were drowned by the up- 
setting of a boat whilst attempting to cross the Missouri. Campbell's vow, 
and what became of it. Smucker's Hist. Mor., 100. When the projihet re- 
turned to Kirtland, in August, the council met and proceeded to investigate 
charges against Smith and others on this march. Deseret News, Nov. 15 and 
29, 1851. 

"^ The society never styled themselves Mormons; it is a name popularly at- 
tached to them. The true name is Latter-day Saints. Pratt's Persecution, 21. 


ren learned of the outrages which had again occurred 
in Jackson county. 

Just before his arrival in Clay county, Missouri, a 
committee of citizens waited on President Smith and 
proposed the purchase of the lands in Jackson county 
from which the Mormons had been driven. The offer 
was declined, the president and council making the 
following proposal in return: Let each side choose 
six men, and let the twelve determine the amount of 
damages due to the Mormons, and also the value of 
the possessions of all those who do not wish to live 
near them in peace, and the money shall be paid with- 
in a year. The offer was not accepted.^^ 

On the 3d of July a high council of twelve was or- 
ganized by the head of the church, with David Whit- 
mer as president and W. W. Phelps and John Whitmer 
as assistant presidents. The twelve were: Simeon 
Carter, Parley P. Pratt, Wm E. McLellan, Calvin 
Beebe, Levi Jackman, Solomon Hancock, Christian 
Whitmer, Newel Knight, Orson Pratt, Lyman Wight, 
Thomas B. Marsh, and John Murdock. Later Phelps 
became president of the church in Missouri. In com- 
pany with his brother Hyrum, F. G. Williams, and 
W. E. McLellan, President Joseph returned to Kirt- 
land, arriving about the 1st of August. 

" Now, that the world may know that our faith in the 
work and word of the Lord is firm and unshaken, and 
to shew all nations, kindreds, tongues, and peoples that 
our object is good, for the good of all, we come before 
the great family of mankind for peace, and ask their 
hospitality and assurance for our comfort, and the pres- 

Hyde, Mormonism, 202, states that the sect was first called The Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints by Sidney Kigdon at a convention at Kirt- 
land May 4, 1834. See chap, iii., note 22. 

^^ When the camp arrived near Salt River, Orson Hyde and Parley P. Pratt 
were despatched to Jefferson City to request militaiy aid from Gov. Dunk- 
lin, in repossessing the saints of their lands in Jackson co., which aid -wij 
refused. Pratt's Autobioff., 123-4. Upon the approach of Smith and his party 
the people of Jackson co. held a meeting and sent a committee to Smith with 
proposals to buy all the Mormon property in the county. The offer was de- 
clined, and the Mormons in turn offered to buy out the Missourians. See 
correspondence in Howe's Mormonism, 164-76. 


ervation of our persons and property, and solicit their 
charity for the great cause of God. We are well aware 
that many slanderous reports and ridiculous stories 
are in circulation against our religion and society; but 
as wise men will hear both sides and then judge, we 
sincerely hope and trust that the still small voice of 
truth will be heard, and our great revelations read and 
candidly compared with the prophecies of the bible, 
that the great cause of our redeemer may be supported 
by a liberal share of public opinion, as well as the un- 
seen power of God. The faith and religion of the 
latter-day saints are founded upon the old scriptures, 
the book of Mormon, and direct revelation from God." 
Thus far have I given the History of Joseph Smith, 
in substance as written by himself in his journal,^^ and 

^ The most complete history of the early Mormon church is the Jozirnal 
of Joseph Smith, extracts from which were made by himself, so as to form a 
consecutive narrative, under title of History of Joseph Smith, and published in 
Times and Seasons, beginning with vol. iii. no. 10, March 15, 1842, and 
ending Feb. 15, 1846, after the prophet's death. The nari'ative would fill a 
good-sized 12mo volume. It is composed largely of revelations, which, save 
in the one point of commandment which it was the purpose specially to give, 
are all quite similar. Publication of the Times and Seasons was begun at 
Commerce, afterward called Nauvoo, Illinois, Nov. 1839, and issued monthly. 
The number for May 1840 was dated Nauvoo. Later it was published semi- 
monthly, and was so continued till Feb. 1840. It is filled with church pro- 
ceedings, movements of officers, correspondence of missionaries, history, and 
general information, with some poetry. To write a complete history of the 
Mormons down to 1846 without these volumes would not be possible. The 
names of E. Robinson and D. C. Smith first appear as publishers, then Robin- 
son alone, then D. C. Smith, then E. Robinson and G. Hills, next Joseph Smith, 
and finally John Taylor. The organ of that branch of the church which re- 
mained in Iowa was the Frontier Guardian, published by Orson Hyde at 
Potawatamie, or Kanesville, 1849-52, and of the church in Utah the Deseret 
News, which was first issued at Salt Lake City in June 1850. 

'At the organization of this church, the Lord commanded Joseph the 
prophet to keep a record of his doings in the great and important work that 
he was commencing to perform. It thus became a duty imperative. After 
John Whitmer and others had purloined the records in 1838, the persecution 
and expulsion from Missouri soon followed. When again located, now in 
Nauvoo, Illinois, and steamboat loads of emigrants were arriving from Eng- 
land via New Orleans, the sound thereof awakened an interest in the coun- 
try that led Hon. John Wentworth, of Chicago, to write to the prophet, 
Joseph Smith, making inquiries about the rise, progress, persecution, and 
faith of the Latter-day Saints, the origin of this work, the Book of Mormon, 
the plates from which the record was translated, etc. ; and it is the answer to 
this letter contained in Times and Seasons, March 1, 1842, that precedes 
or prefaces the present history of Joseph Smith, which is the history of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. This request of Mr Went- 
worth'a seemed to forcibly remind the prophet of the importance of having 
the history of his wonderful work restored to such a condition that correct 


printed in the Times and Seasons, which ends here. 
It is taken up in the Millennial Star, in diary form, 
beginning with volume xv. and continuing to the day 
of his death. 

inforrnation could be given to editors, authors, publishers, and any or all 
classes of inquirers that might apply, and he undertook with his clerks, re- 
corder, and all available aid from private journals, correspondence, and his 
own indelible memory, and made it a labor to get his own history, which was 
indeed that of the church in all the stages of its growth, while he remained 
with his people, compiled and written up to date, which with his own cur- 
rent journal enabled the historian to complete the history to the time of his 
assassination, with the utmost fidelity to facts as they occurred. Our method 
of verification, after compilation and rough draft, was to read the same be- 
fore a session of the council, composed of the First Presidency and Twelve 
Apostles, and there scan everything under consideration. ' Richards' Bibliog- 
raphy of Utah, MS., 2-6. 





Peesident Smith at Kirtland — First QtroEUM of Twelve Apostles — ThjB 
KiRTLAND Temple Completed — Kirtland Safety Society Bank — In 
ZioN Again — The Saints in Missouri — Apostasy — Zeal and Indis- 
cretion — Military Organization — The War Opens — Depredations 
ON Both Sides — Movements of Atchison, Parks, and Doniphan— 
Attitude of Boggs — Wight and Gilliam — Death of Patten — Danite 
Organization — Order Lodge — Haun Mill Tragedy — Mobs and 
Militia — The Tables Turned — Boggs' Exterminating Order — Lucas 
and Clark at Far West — Surrender of the Mormons — Prisoners — 
Petitions and Memorials — Expulsion — Gathering at Quincy — 

Meanwhile, althougli the frontier of Zion was re- 
ceiving such large accessions, the main body of the 
church was still at Kirtland, where President Smith 
remained for some time. 

On the 14th of February, 1835, twelve apostles 
were chosen at Kirtland, Brigham Young, Orson 
Hyde, and Heber C. Kimball being of the number; 
likewise a little later Parley P. Pratt. Thence, the 
following summer, they took their departure for the 
east, holding conferences and ordaining and instruct- 
ing elders in the churches throughout New York and 
New England, and the organization of the first quorum 
of seventies was begun. Classes for instruction, and 
a school of prophets were commenced, and Sidney 
Rigdon delivered six lectures on faith, of which Joseph 
Smith was author.* Preaching on the steps of a 

'They were printed and bound in Doctrine and Covenants. See Hyde^a 
Mormonism, 202; Remy^a Journey, 504; PratVs Autobiography, 139. Mather, 
in Lippincott'a Mag., Aug. 1880, states that the twelve apostles started in 



Campbellite church at Mentor, Parley P. Pratt 'waa 
mobbed midst music and rotten eggs. 

The temple at Kirtland being finished, was dedicated 
on the 27th of March, 1836, and on the 3d of April 
Joseph and Oliver had interviews with the messiah, 
Moses, Elias, and Elijah, and received from them 
the several keys of priesthood, which insured to their 
possessors power unlimited in things temporal and 
spiritual for the accomplishment of the labors assigned 
by them for him to perform.^ The building of this 
structure by a few hundred persons, who, during the 
period between 1832 and 1836, contributed voluntarily 
of their money, material, or labor, the women knitting 
and spinning and making garments for the men who 
worked on the temple, was regarded with wonder 
throughout all northern Ohio. It was 60 by 80 feet, 
occupied a commanding position, and cost $40,000. 

During its erection the saints incurred heavy debts 
for material and labor. They bought farms at high 
prices, making part payments, and afterward forfeit- 
ing them. They engaged in mercantile pursuits, 

^ 'A square mile was laid out in half -acre lots, and a number of farms 
were bought, the church farm being half a mile down one of the most beauti- 
ful valleys which it is possible to conceive in a range of country so uniformly 
level.' Mather, in LipphicoWs Mag., Aug. 1880. In May 1833 it was revealed 
that building should begin. Two houses 55 by 65 feet each were ordered, 
one for the presidency, the other for printing. Hyrum Smith and two others 
Vere presented with lots, and directions were sent to the faithful to subscribe 
money to aid in building a temple at Kirtland. Times and Seasons, vi. 769-70. 
Before its completion, private assemblies were held at the houses of the faith- 
ful, frequently at Smith's. When partly finished, schools were opened in 
several of the apartments. It was begun in June 1833, and dedicated March 
27, 1836. A brief description of the building, arrangement of interior, etc., 
and a full account of the dedication and ordinary services are given in Tul- 
lidge's Women, 76, 80-95, 99-101. Daniel Tyler, in Juvenile Instructor, xiv. 
283; Busch, Oesch. dcr Morm., 74; Kidder's Mormonism, 124-6. Probably but 
little work was done on it in 1833, for about the front entrances the gilded 
inscription,* Built by the church of Jesus Christ, 1834,' still shines bright as 
ever. Salt Lake Herald, June 6, 1877. See also Smith's account in Times 
and Seasons, vi. 708-11, 723-6, and Eemy's Journey, i. 302-4. For cuts 
of building, see Young's Hist, of the Seventies, 8; Juvenile Instructor, xiv. 283; 
Pratt's Autobiog. , 140. When nearly finished there was a debt on the building 
of from $15,000 to|20,000. Kidder's Mormonism, 124-6. Most of the work- 
men were dependent upon their labor for their daily food, which often con- 
sisted of corn meal alone, and that had been donated. J uveidle Instructor, 2S3. 
Writing in 1880, Mather says: 'The residences of Smith and Rig.lon are al • 
most under the eaves of the temple, and the theological sem nary is now occu- 
pied by the methodists for a church. ' Lippincott's Mag. , Aug. 1880. 


buying merchandise in New York and elsewhere in 
excess of their ability to pay. They built a steam- 
mill, which proved a source of loss, and started a 
bank, but were unable to obtain a charter; they is- 
sued bills without a charter, however, in consequence 
of which they could not collect the money loaned, 
and after a brief struggle, and during a period of 
great apostasy, the bank failed. It was called the 
Kirtland Safety Society Bank, of which Rigdon was 
president and Smith cashier. All this time, writes 
Corrill, "they suffered pride to arise in their hearts, 
and became desirous of fine houses and fine clothes, 
and indulged too much in these things, supposing for 
a few months that they were very rich." Upon the 
failure of the bank in 1838, Smith and Kigdon went 
to Missouri, leaving the business in the hands of others 
to wind up.^ 

' ' They also suffered jealousies to arise among them, and several persons 
dissented from the church, and accused the leaders of the church with bad 
management, selfishness, etc. . . .On the other hand, the leaders of the church 
accused the dissenters with dishonesty, want of faith and righteousness, . . . 
and this strife or opposition arose to a great height, . . . until Smith and llig- 
don were obliged to leave Kirtland.' Corrill, in Kidder's Mormonism, 126-7. 
'Subsequently they had a revelation,' another says, 'comman.ding them to 
establish a bank, which should swallow up all other banks. This was soon 
got into operation on a pretended capital of four millions of dollars, made up 
of real estate round about the temple.' John Hjde, 3Iormonism, 201, says 
that the bank, a store, and mill were started in Aug. 1S31.. Before me is 
one of their bills, dated Jan. 17, 1837, paj-able to C. Scott, or bearer. 
Mather says, Lippincoti's Mag., Aug. 1880: 'Richard Hilliard, a leading 
merchant of Cleveland, received their bills for a few days, and then took 
possession of all their available assets. They were also in debt for their 
farms, and for goods bought in New York. The bubble burst, and many in 
the \icinity of Kirtland were among the sufferers. Smith and Rigdon fled 
to Far West, after having been tarred and feathered for their peculiar the- 
ories of finance.' 'Chauncey G. Webb (father of Ann Eliza Young) assisted 
in founding this bank, giving Smith all he possessed outside of his house and 
shop toward completing the amount necessary for a capital on which to start 
the new enterprise. W^'ith the failure of the bank Webb lost everything.' 
Young's Wife No. 19, 33, 40-41; see account of formation of bank in Ben- 
nett's Mormonism, 135-6. 'Smith had a sort of bank, issue on what was then 
called the wild-cat principle. His circulating medium had no redeeming 
basis, and was worthless in the hands of the people.' Tucker's Mormonism, 
154-5. ' Smith had a revelation from the Lord,^ to the effect that his bank 
would be a pattern of all the banks in the United States, that it would 
speedily break, and that all the rest would follow the example. The bank 
was closed the same day.' Hall's Mormonism, 19» The bank failed iu Nov. 
1837. Bemy's Journey, i. 504; Busch, Gesch. der Morm., 84. 'By means of 
great activity and an actual capital of about §5,000, they succeeded in set- 
ting afloat from $50,000 to §100,000. The concern was closed up after 
Hisx. Utah. 8 


An endowment meeting, or solemn assembly, held 
in 1836 in the temple at Kirtland, is thus described 
by William Harris: "It was given out that those who 
were in attendance at that meeting should receive an 
endowment, or blessing, similar to that experienced 
by the disciples of Christ on the day of pentecost. 

flourishing 3 or 4 weeks.' Kidder's Mormonism, 128. The building is now 
occupied by a private family. Salt Lake 8. W. Herald, June 6, 1877. 
'In order to pay the debt on the temple, they concluded to try mercantile 
business, and ran in debt in New York and elsewhere some $30,000 for 
goods, and shortly after, $50,000 or $60,000 more. In consequence of their 
ignorance of business and extravagance, the scheme proved a failure.' Kid- 
der's Mormonism, 126, 128; Sinueker's Hist. Mor., 76. 'Gilbert and Whit- 
ney's store is still used for original purposes.' Salt Lake Herald, June 0, 1877. 
'A poorly furnished country store, where commerce looks starvation in the 
face.' Id., Nov. 17, 1877. 'Smith's store was seized and goods sold in Nov, 
1839.' Hyde's Mormonism, 203; Bennett's Mormonism, 135. They also spent 
some thousands of dollars in building a steam-mill, which never profited 
them anything. Kidder's Mormonism, 126. 'The skeleton of a superannu- 
ated engine and its contrivances half buried in a heap of ashes — the shed that 
covered it having recently burned to the ground — marks the spot where stood 
the ashery and its successor, the Mormon saw-mill, at the foot of Temple 
hill.' Salt Lake Herald, Nov. 17, 1877. Heber C. Kimball, who went to 
Nauvoo in 1839, built a pottery at Kirtland, the ruins of which were to be 
seen in 1877. Ihid. 'After the temple was dedicated, the Kirtland high 
school was taught in the attic story by H. M. Hawes, prof, of Greek and 
Latin. There were from 130 to 140 students, divided into three depart- 
ments — the classic, where only languages were taught; the English, where 
mathematics, common arithmetic, geography, English grammar, and read- 
ing and writing were taught; and the juvenile department. The last two 
departments were under assistant instructors. The school was begun in Nov. 
1836.' Tidlidge's Women, 99. 'On the 3d floor are a succession of small 
rooms containing crippled benches, blackboards, ruined walls, and other 
paraphernalia, which indicated that at some period of the temple's histoiy 
this part had been used as a primary school. ' Salt Lake S. W. Herald, June 
6, 1877. A Hebrew professorship is also mentioned. JRemy's Journey, i. 504. 
' Immediately after the closing of the bank, and before the news of its fail- 
ure had time to spread. Smith with some 4 or 5 terriers (understrappers in 
the priesthood) went to Toronto, Canada, where he preaclied, whilst his fol- 
lowers circulated the worthless notes of the defunct bank. Brigham Young 
also succeeded in spreading about $10,000 of the paper through several 
states. ' Hall's Mormonism, 19-20. ' In January 1838 Smith and Eigdon, being 
at Kirtland together, were both arrested on charges of swindling in connec- 
tion with their worthless paper bank,' etc. 'The prisoners, however, es- 
caped from the sheriif in the night and made their way on horseback to Mis- 
souri. ' Tucker's Mormonism, 155-6. Smith and Rigdon ran away on the night 
of Jan. 12, 1838. Hyde's Mormonism, 203. 'A new year dawned upon the 
church at Kirtland,' writes Smith, 'in all the bitterness of the spirit of 
apostate mobocracy, which continued to rage and grow hotter and hotter, 
until Elder JRigdon and myself were obliged to flee from its deadly influence, 
as did the apostles and prophets of old, and as Jesus said, ' ' AVhen they per- 
secute you in one city, ilee ye to another;" and on the evening of the 12th of 
January, about ten o'clock, we left Kirtland on horseback to escape mob 
violence, which was about to burst upon us, under the color of legal process 
to cover their hellish designs and save themselves from the just judgment of 
the law.' 


When the day arrived great numbers convened from 
the different churches in the country. They spent 
the day in fasting and prayer, and in washing and 
perfuming their bodies; they also washed their feet, 
and anointed their heads with what they called holy 
oil, and pronounced blessings. In the evening .they 
met for the endowment. The fast was then broken." 
Midsummer of 1837 saw Parley P. Pratt in New 
York city, where he printed the first edition of his Voice 
of Warning,^ and where he labored with great earnest- 
ness, at first under many discouragements, later with 
signal success. After that he went once more to 
Missouri. Others were going in the same direction 
from Kirtland and elsewhere during the entire period 
between 1831 andl838. The Messenger and Advocate 
having been discontinued, the Elder s Journal was 
started by Joseph Smith in Kirtland in October 

After the emeutes which occurred in Jackson county 
in the autumn of 1833, as before related, the saints 
escaped as best they were able to Clay county, where 
they were kindly received. Some took up their abode 
in Lafayette and Van Buren counties, and a few in 
Pay and Clinton counties.^ For their lands, stock, 
furniture, buildings, and other property destroyed in 
Jackson county, they received little or no compensa- 
tion; on the contrary, some who went back for their 
effects were caught and beaten.^ Nevertheless, there 

* It consisted of 4,000 copies. The author states that * it has since been 
published and republished in America and Europe, till some 40,000 or 50,000 
copies have not been sufficient to supply the demand.' Pratt's Autobioyrajjhy, 

*Most of these fled into Clay co., where they were received with some 
degree of kindness, and encamped on the banks of the Missouri. Those who 
went into Van Buren and Lafayette counties were soon expelled, and had to 
move. Pratt's Persecution, 51; Mackay's Mormons, 78; Times and Seasons, 
vi. 913. The Missouri River bends to the east as it enters the state, and runs 
in a generally east direction through the western counties. Jackson co. is 
immediately south of Clay — the river being the dividing line — and Van 
Buren lies next south of Jackson. All west of the state line was Indian ter- 
ritory, as I have said. See map, p. 121 this vol. 

® The Jackson co. exiles being in a destitute condition, a conference waa 


were three years of comparative rest for the people of 
God, the effect of which soon appeared in Zion's 

The men of Missouri were quite proud of what they 
had done; they were satisfied on the whole with the 
results, and though their influence was still felt, no 
further violence was offered till the summer of 1836. 
Then the spirit of mobocracy again appeared. The 
Jackson-county boys had served themselves well; 
why should they not help their neighbors? So they 
crossed the river, in small squads at first, and began 
to stir up enmity, often msulting and plundering their 
victims, until the people of Clay county, fearing 
actions yet worse, held a meeting, and advised the 
saints to seek another home.^ 

For their unrelenting hostility toward the latter- 
day saints, for the services rendered to their country 
in defying its laws and encouraging the outrages upon 
citizens at Independence and elsewhere during the 
first Mormon troubles in Missouri, Bog^ofs was made 
governor of that state, Lucas major-general, and 
Wilson brigadier-general.^ After his election, as be- 
fore, Boggs did not hesitate to let it be known that 

held at P. P. Pratt's house in Clay co. (some time during the winter of 1833- 
4 — date not given), at which it was resolved to appeal to Smith, at Kirtland, 
for aid and counsel; and P. P. Pratt and Lyman Wight, having volunteered 
their services, were despatched with the message. Starting from Liberty on 
Feb. 1, 1834, on horseback, but penniless, on a journey of from 1,000 to 1,500 
miles, through a country but partially settled, they arrived at their destina- 
tion early in the spring with plenty of money received from friends along their 
route. Pratfs Autobiog., 114-16; Utah Pioneers, 33d Aniversary, 17; Home's 
Migrations, MS., 3; Young's Woman's Experiences, MS., 2. 

"From threats, public meetings were called, resolutions were passed, ven- 
geance and destruction were threatened, and affairs again assumed a fearful 
attitude.' Cor. Joseph Smith, etc., 5. See also Greene's Facts, 12. 'A meet- 
ing of the citizens was held at Liberty on the 29th of June, 1836, in which 
these matters were taken into consideration. The Mormons were reminded 
of the circumstances under which they were received, and requested to leave, 
time l)eing given them to harvest their crops and dispose of their property. 
Fortunately for all concerned, the saints. . .agreed to leave on the terms pro- 
posed, denying strenuously that they had ever tampered with the slaves, or 
had any idea of exciting an Indian war. ' Ferris' Utah and the Mormons, 82-3. 

^ These officers 'all very readily received their commissions from their ac- 
complice, Gov. Boggs; and thus corruption, rebellion, and conspiracy had 
spread on every side, being fostered and encouraged by a large majority of 
the state; and thus treason became general. ' Pratt's Persecution, 55-6. 


any reports of misconduct, however exaggerated, would, 
if possible, be accepted as reliable. Such reports were 
accordingly circulated, and without much regard to 
truth. Right or wrong, law or no law, and whether 
in accord with the letter or spirit of the constitution 
or government of the United States or not, the peo- 
ple of Missouri had determined that they would go 
any length before they would allow the saints to 
obtain political ascendency in that quarter. It was 
well understood that war on the Mormons, war on 
their civil, political, and religious rights, nay, on their 
presence as members of the commonwealth, or if need 
be on their lives, was part of the policy of the admin- 

Thereupon the Mormons petitioned the legislature 
to assign them a place of residence, and the thinly 
populated region afterward known as Caldwell county 
was designated. Moving there, they bought the claims 
of most of the inhabitants, and entered several sections 
of government lands. Almost every member of the 
society thus became a landholder, some having eighty 
acres, and some forty. A town was laid out, called 
Far West, which was made the county seat; they were 
allowed to organize the government of the county, and 
to appoint from among their own people the officers.^ 
Again they found peace for a season, during which 
their numbers increased, while settlements were made 
in Daviess county and elsewhere.-^'' Those in Daviess 
county were on terms of amity with their gentile neigh- 
bors. Wight was there, and when Smith and Rigdon 
arrived from the east they laid out a town named Diah- 
man,^* which soon rivalled Gallatin, and gradually the 

® John Hyde, Mormonism, 203, says that on their arrival in Missouri, 
Smith and Rigdon began ' to scatter the saints in order to obtain political 
ascendency in other counties. ' 

^^ Of the officers then appointed, two of the judges, thirteen magistrates, 
all the military officers, and the county clerk were Mormons. 'These steps 
were taken, be it carefully observed, by the advice of the state legislature, 
and the officers were appointed in the manner directed by law.' Greene's 
Facts, 18. The gentiles murmur because of their being under Mormon rule. 
Hyde's Mormonism, 203. 

'^ ' Smith gave it the name of Adamondiamon, which he said was formerly 


people of Daviess, like the rest, began to war upon 
the Mormons.^^ 

To add to the ever-thickening troubles of the 
prophet, a schism broke out in the church about this 
time, and there were apostates and deserters, some 
because of disappointed ambition, and some from shame 
of what they now regarded as a delusion, but all carry- 
ing away with them vindictive feelings toward their 
former associates, whom they did not hesitate to de- 
nounce as liars, thieves, counterfeiters, and everything 
that is vile. Among these were Joseph's old friends 
Martin Harris, Oliver Cowdery, and David Whitmer, 
the three witnesses to the book of Mormon; Orson 
Hyde, Thomas B. Marsh, and W. W. Phelps also 

given to a certain valley where Adam, previous to his death, called his chil- 
dren together and blessed them. ' CorrilVs Bnef History, in Kidder'' s Mormon- 
ism, 131. 'The earth was divided,' says Mr Richards, 'all the land being 
together and all the water. Adam dwelt there with his people for some time 
previous to his death. Adam constructed an altar there, and it was there 
that he bestowed his final blessings upon his descendants. ' The place was 
also called Adam-On-Diahman, Adam-on-di-ahman, and again Diahman. The 
second of these names appears to have been the one in use among the saints. 
After the foundations of the temple at Far West were relaid, between mid- 
night of the 25th and dawn of the 26th of April, 1839, the quorum sang the 
song which they called Adam-on-di-ahman. Tullidge's Life of Brigham 

^^ They were afraid the Mormons would 'rule the county, and they did 
not like to live under the laws and administration of Jo Smith.' Ibid. 

" Tlie first three were themselves accused of counterfeiting coin, and de- 
faming Smith's character; and others charged Smith with 'being accessory to 
several murders and many thefts, and of designing to rule that part of the 
state of Missouri, and eventually the whole republic' Hyde's Mormonism, 
204; Mackafs The Mormons, 86. 'At Independence, Rigdon publicly 
charged Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer with being connected with a 
gang of counterfeiters, etc. Cowdery was afterward arraigned before the 
church, and found guilty of "disgracing the church by being connected with 
the bogus business, as common report says."' Tucker^s Origin and Prog. 
i/or., 158-9. ' Brother Turley could not be surpassed at "bogus." A press 
was prepared, and the money, composed of zinc, glass, etc., coated with sil- 
ver, was executed in the best style. Imitations both of gold and silver were 
in general cu'culation and very diSicult to detect. In fact, for a time, scarcely 
any other circulating medium was to be found among them. ' When leaving 
Illinois for Council Bluffs, Hall carried in his wagon for some distance on the 
way a bogus press, which was afterwards sold on credit in Missouri, but the 
seller never got his money, being afraid to go for it. HaWs Mor., 20-1. 
Hall, who was a Mormon from 1840 to 1847, mentions this counterfeiting in 
connection with the Kirtland bank swindle, but does not state when the work 
was begun. It may liave originated in Kirtland, but probably was not car- 
ried on to any great extent before the migration to Illinois. These rambling 
and general charges should be received with every allowance. ' From some 




At Far West on the 4th of July, 1838, assemble 
from the surrounding districts thousands of the saints, 
to lay the corner-stone of a temple of God, and to de- 
clare their rights as citizens of the commonwealth to 
safety and protection, as promised by the constitution. 
They are hated and despised, though they break not 
the laws of God; they are hunted down and killed, 
though they break not the laws of the land. To 
others their faith is odious, their words are odious, 
their persons and their actions are altogether detest- 
able. They are not idlers, or drunkards, or thieves, 
or murderers; they are diligent in business as well 
as fervent in spirit, yet they are devils ; they worship 
what they choose and in their own way, like the dis- 
senters in Germany, the quakers in Pennsylvania, and 
the pilgrims from England, yet their spiritual father is 
Satan. And now, though thus marked for painful 
oppression by their fellow-citizens, they come together 
on the birthday of the nation to raise the banner of 
the nation, and under it to declare their solemn pre- 
rogative to the enjoyment of life, liberty, and the 
pursuit of happiness, to the maintainance of which 
they stand ready to pledge their lives, their fortunes, 
and their sacred honor. This they do. They raise 
the pole of liberty; they unfold the banner of liberty; 
they register their vows. Is it all in irony? Is it all 
a mockery^ Or is it the displeasure of omnipotence, 
which is now displayed because of the rank injustice 
wrought by the sons of belial under this sacred em- 
blem? God knoweth. We know only that out of 
heaven comes fire, blasting the offering of the saints !^* 

distant bank,' continued Hall, 'they would buy quantities of its unsigned 
bank notes, which they took home, and after having them signed by com- 
petent artists, placed in circulation. In procuring these bills, no persons met. 
The package would be left by a window of the bank, with a pane out, and 
the package taken and its price left by the purchaser.' 

^* 'In a day or two after these transactions, the thunder rolled in awful 
majesty over the city of Far West, and the arrows of lightning fell from the 
clouds, and shivered the liberty pole from top to bottom; thus manifesting to 
many that there was an end to liberty and law in that state, and that our 
little city strove in vain to maintain the liberties of a country which was ruled 
by wickedness and rebellion.' Pratfs Persecution, 57. 


Sidney Rigdon delivered the oration on this occa- 
sion; and being an American citizen, and one of the 
founders of an American religion, it was perhaps nat- 
ural for him to indulge in a little Fourth-of-July ora- 
tory; it was natural, but under the circumstances it 
was exceedingly impolitic. *'We take God to wit- 
ness," cries Sidney, " and the holy angels to witness 
this day, that we warn all men, in the name of Jesus 
Christ, to come on us no more forever. The man or 
the set of men who attempt it, do it at the expense of 
their lives ; and that mob that comes on us to disturb 
us, there shall be between us and them a war of ex- 
termination, for we will follow them till the last drop 
of their blood is spilled, or else they will have to exter- 
minate us; for we will carry the war to their own 
houses, and their own families, and one party or the 
other shall be utterly destroyed." 

On the 8th of July there was a revelation on tithing. 
Early in August a conference was held at Diahman, 
and a military company, called the Host of Israel, 
was organized after the manner of the priesthood, in- 
cluding all males of eighteen years and over. There 
were captains of ten, of fifty, and of a hundred; the 
organization included the entire military force of the 
church, as had the Kirtland army previously a part 

At length the storm burst. The state election of 
1838 was held in Daviess county at the town of Gal- 
latin on the 6th of August. Soon after the polls 
were opened, William Peniston, candidate for the leg- 
islature, mounted a barrel and began to speak, attack- 
ing the Mormons with degrading epithets, calling 
them horse-thieves and robbers, and swearing they 
should not vote in that county. Samuel Brown, a 
Mormon, who stood by, pronounced the charges un- 
true, and said that for one he should vote. Im- 
mediately Brown was struck by one Weldin, whose 
arm, in attempting to repeat the blow, was caught by 

^* 'Every man obeyed the call.' Lee's Mormonism, 57. 



another Mormon, named Durfee. Thereupon eight 
or ten men, with clubs and stones, fell upon Durfee, 
whose friends rallied to his assistance, and the fight 
became general, but with indecisive results. The 
Mormons voted, however, and the rest of the day 
passed quietly. 

G R iV /N/D Y) I Yah 

The War in Missocbi. 

On the next day two or three of Peniston's partj , 
in order it was said to stir up the saints to violence, 
rode over to Far West, one after another, and re- 


ported a battle as having been fought at Gallatin, in 
which several of the fraternity were killed. Consider- 
able excitement followed the announcement, and sev- 
eral parties went to Diahman to learn the truth of 
the matter. Ascertaining the facts, and being desir- 
ous of preventing further trouble, one of the brethren 
went to the magistrate, Adam Black, and proposed 
bonds on both sides to keep the peace. The proposition 
was accepted, Joseph Smith and Lyman Wight sign- 
ing for the Mormons, and Black for the gentiles. 
The Mormons then returned to Far West; but the 
people of Daviess county, not approving the ac- 
tion of the magistrate, disputed Black's right to bind 
them; whereupon, to appease them. Black went to 
the circuit judge and obtained a writ for the arrest 
of Smith and Wight on a charge of having forced him, 
by threats of violence, to sign the agreement. Brought 
before Judge King at Gallatin, Smith and Wight 
were released on their own recognizances. 

Nevertheless the excitement increased. In Daviess 
and adjacent counties, three hundred gentiles met and 
armed. The Mormons say that the gentiles made 
prisoners, and shot and stole cattle, and the gentiles 
say that the Mormons did the same.-^^ Finally affairs 
became so alarming that Major-General Atchison con- 
cluded to call out the militia of Ray and Clay coun- 
ties, under command of generals Doniphan and Parks, 
the latter being stationed in Daviess county.^^ Their 
purposes in that quarter being thus defeated, the men 
of Missouri threw themselves on a small settlement of 
saints at Dewitt, where they were joined by a party 
with a six-pounder from Jackson county. Setting fire 

'^In Daviess county the saints killed between 100 and 200 hogs and a 
number of cattle, took at least forty or fifty stands of honey, and at the same 
time destroyed several fields of com. The word was out that the Lord had 
consecrated through the bishop the spoils unto his host. Harris" Mormonism 
Portrayed, 30-1. 

^"One thousand men were then ordered into service under the command 
of Major-General Atchison and brigadier-generals Parks and Doniphan. 
These marched to Daviess co., and remained in service thirty days. But 
judging from the result, they had no intention of coming in contact with the 
mob, but only to make a show of defending one neighborhood while the mob 
was allowed to attack another.' Pratt's Autobiography, 191. 


to the houses, they drove off the inmates and destroyed 
their property. General Parks then moved his troops 
to Dewitt, but found the mob too many for him. They 
openly defied him, would make no compromise, and 
swore ''they would drive the Mormons from Daviess 
to Caldwell, and from Caldwell to hell." General 
Atchison then went to Dewitt and told the Mormons 
that his men were so disaffected^^ that they had better 
apply for protection to Governor Boggs. This official 
returned answer that, as they had brought the war 
upon themselves, they must fight their owm battles, 
and not look to him for help. Thereupon they aban- 
doned the place, and fled to Far West. 

In order to intercept the mob General Doniphan 
entered Daviess county with two hundred men, and 
thence proceeded to Far West, where he camped for 
the night. In consultation with the civil and military 
officers of the place, who, though Mormons, were 
nevertheless commissioned by the state, Doniphan 
advised them to arm and march to Daviess county 
and defend their brethren there. Acting on this ad- 
vice, all armed, some going to Daviess county and 
some remaining at Far West.-^^ The former were met 
by Parks, who inquired of them all particulars. 
Shortly afterward some families came in from beyond 
Grand Piver, who stated that they had been driven 
away and their houses burned by a party under C. 
Gilliam.^ Parks then ordered Colonel Wight, who 
held a commission under him as commander of the 

18 'At length the general (Atchison) informed the citizens that his forces 
■were so small, and many of them so much in favor of the insurrectionists, 
that it was useless to look any longer to them for protection . . . After the 
evacuation of Dewitt, when our citizens were officially notified that they must 
protect themselves, . . . they assembled in Far West to the number of one 
thousand men, or thereabout, and resolved to defend their rights to the last. ' 
PratVs Autobiography, 192-3. 

'"The Mormons in Caldwell were the regular state militia for that county, 
and were at the time acting under the legal authorities of the county.' Chreene^s 
Facts, 20. 

''■^ 'A noted company of banditti, under the command of Cornelius Gilliam, 
who had long infested our borders and been notorioiis for their murders and 
daring robberies, and who painted themselves as Indian warriors, came 
pouring in from the west to strengthen the camp of the enemy.' Pratfs AU' 
tobiography, 202. 


Mormon militia, to disperse the party, which was 
done, and the cannon in their possession seized, with- 
out firing a shot. Spreading into other counties, Gil- 
liam's men raised everywhere the cry that the Mor- 
mons were killing people and burning property. 

Soon afterward the Mormon militia returned from 
Daviess county to Far West, where they learned that a 
large force under Samuel Bogart, a methodist clergy- 
man, was plundering and burning houses south of 
that point, in Ray county, and had taken three men 
prisoners, one only of whom was a Mormon. Elias 
Higbee, county judge, ordered the Mormon militia 
under Captain Patten '^^ to retake the prisoners. In 
passing through a wood Patten came without know- 
ing it upon the encampment of Bogart, whose guard 
fired without warning, killing one of Patten's men. 
Patten then attacked, routing Bogart's force, but not 
preventing the shooting of the Mormon prisoner, 
though he afterward recovered. In the charge one 
man was killed, and Patten and one other were mor- 
tally wounded. The company captured forty wagons.^^ 

About this time arose the mysterious and much 
dreaded band that finally took the name of Danites, 
or sons of Dan, concerning which so much has been 
said while so little is known, some of the Mormons 
even denying its existence. But of this there is no 
question. Says Burton: ''The Danite band, a name 
of fear in the Mississippi Valley, is said by anti- 
Mormons to consist of men between the ages of sev- 
enteen and forty-nine. They were originally termed 
Daughters of Gideon, Destroying Angels — the gentiles 
say devils — and, finally, Sons of Dan, or Danites, from 
one of whom was prophesied he should be a serpent in 
the path. They were organized about 1837 under D. 

^^ Pratt, Persecution, 68, says that the detachment was under the com- 
mand of Captain Durphey, aided by Patten. 

^'^ ' The enemy had left their horses, saddles, camp, and baggage in the con- 
fusion of their flight, which fell into our hands. ' Pratfn Persecution, 72. ' We 
delivered the horses and spoils of the enemy to Col. Hinckle, the command- 
ing officer of the regiment.' Id., 74. 


W. Patten, popularly called Captain Fearnot, for the 
purpose of dealing as avengers of blood with gentiles; 
in fact, they formed a kind of death society, despera- 
does, thugs, hashshashiyun — in plain English, assas- 
sins in the name of the Lord. The Mormons declare 
categorically the whole and every particular to be the 
calumnious invention of the impostor and arch apos- 
tate, Mr John C. Bennett."^' 

John Hyde, a seceder, states that the Danite band, 
or the United Brothers of Gideon, was organized on 
the 4th of July, 1838, and was placed under the com- 
mand of the apostle David Patten, who for the pur- 
pose assumed the name of Captain Fearnot.^* 

*■* John Corrill says that some time in June a secret society was formed of 
a few individuals who should be agreed in all things, and stand by each other, 
right or wrong, under all circumstances. Next to God was the iiirst presi- 
dency; and they bound themselves by the most solemn covenants before the 
almighty that the presidency should be obeyed. ' Who started this society 
I know not,' writes Corrill; 'but Doctor Samson Arvard was the most promi- 
nent leader and instructor, and was assisted by others. The first presidency 
did not seem to have much to do with it, . . .but I thought they stood as wire- 
workers behind the curtain.' 'Arvard was very forward and indefatigable in 
accomplishing their purposes, for he devoted his whole talents to it, and spared 
no pains; and, I thought, was as grand a villain as his wit and ability would ad- 
mit of . . . They ran into awful extremes, ' seeming to think that they were called 
upontoexecutethejudgmentsof God on all their enemies. 'DrAivard received 
orders from Smith, Pdgdon, and company to destroy the paper containing the 
constitution of the Danite society, as, if it should be discovered, it would be 
considered treasonable. He did not, however, obey the orders, bat after he 
was made prisoner he handed it to General Clark.' Kidder^s Mormonism, 143. 
The constitution is published in Bennett'' s Mormonism Exposed, 265. 'The 
oath by which the Danites were bound in Missouri was altered in a secret 
council of the inquisition at Nauvoo so as to read: "In the name of Jesus 
Christ, the Son of God, I do solemnly obligate myself ever to regard the 
prophet and first presidency of the church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day 
Saints, as the supreme head of the church on earth, and to obey them in all 
things the same as the supreme God; that I will stand by my brethren in 
danger or difficulty, and will uphold the presidency, right or wrong; and that 
I will ever conceal, and never reveal, the secret purposes of this society, 
called the Daughter of Zion. Should I ever do the same, I hold my life as 
the forfeiture, in a caldron of boiling oil."' Id., 267. The origin of the name 
Daughter of Zion may be found in Micah iv. 13. 

"^^ Hyde's Mormonism, 104. In Id., 104-5, Hyde writes as follows: 'When 
the citizens of Carroll and Daviess counties. Mo. , began to threaten the Mormons 
with expulsion in 1838, a death society was organized under the direction of 
Sidney Kigdon, and with the sanction of Smith. Its first captain was Captain 
Fearnot, alias David Patten, an apostle. Its object was the punishment of the 
obnoxious. Some time elapsed before finding a suitable name. They desired 
one that should seem to combine spiritual authority with a suitable sound. 
Micah iv. 13, furnished the first name. ' 'Arise and thresh, daughter of Zion ! 
for 1 will make thy horn iron, and thy hoofs brass; and thou shall beat in 
pieces many people; and I will consecrate their gain unto the Lord, and 
their substaiice unto the Lord of the whole earth." This furnished them with 


It is the opinion of some that the Danite band, or 
Destroying Angels as again they are called, was or- 
ganized at the recommendation of the governor of Mis- 
souri as a means of self-defence against persecutions 
in that state. -^ Thomas B. Marsh, late president of 
the twelve apostles, and president of the church at 
Far West, but now a dissenter, having "abandoned 
the faith of the Mormons from a conviction of their 
immorality and impiety," testifies that in October, 
1838, they "had a meeting at Far West, at which they 
appointed a company of twelve, by the name of the 
Destruction Company, for the purpose of burning and 
destroying." ^^ 

The apostate Bennett gives a number of names by 
which the same society, or divisions of it, were known, 
such as Daughter of Zion, Big Fan,^^ "inasmuch as it 
fanned out the chaff from the wheat," Brother of 
Gideon, Destructive, Flying Angel. The explana- 
tion of Joseph, the prophet, was that one Doctor 
Sampson Arvard, who after being a short time in the 
church, in order to add to his importance and influence 
secretly initiated the order of Danites, and held meet- 

a pretext; it accurately described their intentions, and they called themselves 
the Daughters of Zion. Some ridicule was made at these bearded and bloody 
daughters, and the name did not sit easily. Destroying Angels came next; 
the Big Fan of the threslier that should thoroughly purge the floor was tried 
and dropped. Genesis, xlix. 17, furnished the name that they finally assumed. 
The verse is quite significant: ' ' Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in 
the path, that biteth the horse's heels, so that his rider shall fall backward." 
The sons of Dan was the style they adopted ; and many have been the times 
that they have been adders in the path, and many a man has fallen backward, 
and has been seen no more.' 

^See S mucker's Hist. Mor., 108. 

^® 'The members of this order were placed under the most sacred obliga- 
tions that language could invent ... to stand by each other unto death, ... to 
sustain, protect, defend, and obey the leaders of the church under any and 
all circumstances unto death.' To divulge a Danite secret was death. There 
were signs and tokens, the refusal to respect which was death. 'This sign 
or token of distress is made by placing the right hand on the right side of the 
face, with the points of the fingers upwards, shoving the hand upwards until 
the ear is snug up between the thumb and forefinger.' Lee's Mormonism, 57-8. 

^' 'The society was instituted for the purpose of driving out from the 
holy land, their earthly paradise, in Missouri, all apostates or dissenters. . . 
They make no scruple whatever to commit perjury, when deemed requisite 
for the welfare of their church. . .The number of Danites is now, 1842, about 
2,000 or 2,500. From the elite of the Danites, or Daughters of Zion, twelve 
men are selected, who are called Destructives, or Destroying Angels, or Fly- 
ing Angels.' Mormonism Exposed, 265-9. 


ings organizing his men into companies of tens and 
fifties, with captains. Then he called the officers 
together and told them that they were to go forth 
and spoil the gentiles; but they rejected the proposal, 
and Arvard was cut off from the church. All the 
present leaders of the Mormon church deny emphat- 
ically the existence of any such band or society as a 
part of or having anything to do with their organiza- 

*^'It was intended to enable him,' Smith, 'more effectually to execute 
his clandestine purposes.' "'Milking the gentiles " is a kind of veiaacular 
term of the Mormons, and signifies the obtaining of money or property from 
those who are not members of the Mormon church.' Id., 272-8. 'In an ex- 
amination before Judge King, Samuel (Samson?) Arvard testified that the 
first object of the Danite band was to drive from the county of Caldwell all 
those who dissented from the Mormon church, in which they succeeded admir- 
ably . . . The prophet Joseph Smith, Jr, together with his two counsellors Hyrum 
Smith and Sidney Rigdon, were considered the supreme head of the church, 
and the Danite band felt themselves as much bound to obey them as to obey 
the supreme God.' John Corrill swore: 'I think the original object of the 
Danite band was to operate on the dissenters; but afterwards it grew into a 
system to carry out the designs of the presidency, and if it was neces- 
sary, to use physical force to uphold the kingdom of God.' John Cleminson 
said: 'Whoever opposed the presidency in what they said or desired done 
should be expelled the county or have their lives taken.' Wm W. Phelps, 
for a season an apostate, testified: 'If any person spoke against the presi- 
dency they would hand him over to the hands of the Brothers of Gideon.' 
'The object of the meeting seemed to be to make persons confess and repent 
of their sins to God and the presidency.' ' Wight asked Smith, Jr, twice if 
it had come to the point now to resist the laws. Smith replied the time had 
come when he should resist all law.' Ferris' Utah and the Monnons, 92-3. 
Arvard 'swore false concerning a coustitution, as he said, that was introduced 
among the Danites, and made many other lying statements in connection 
therewith.' Mem. to Leg., in Greene's Facts, 32-3. Says John Corrill in his 
Brief History, 'A company, called the Fur Company, was raised for the pur- 
pose of procuring provisions, for pressing teams, and even men sometimes, 
into the army in Caldwell. ' Reed Peck testified that small companies were 
sent out on various plundering expeditions; that he 'saw one of these com- 
panies on its return. It was called a fur company. Some had one thing, 
some another; one had a feather-bed; another some spun yarn, etc. This fur 
they were to take to the bishop's store, where it was to be deposited, and if 
they failed to do this it would be considered stealmg.' Kidder's Mormonism, 
147-8. Affidavit of the city council, Nauvoo: 'We do further testify that 
there is no such thing as a Danite society in this city, nor any combination 
other than the Masonic of which we have any knowledge.' Signed by Wil- 
son Law, John Taylor, Wilford Woodruff, and 10 others. AHllennial Star, xix. 
614. References to authorities speaking of the Danites: Mackay's The Mor- 
mons, 89-90, 116; Lee's Mormoyiism, 57-8, 156-60; Olshausen, Gesch. d. Morm., 
48; Ferris' Utah and the Mormons, 89; Beadle's Life in Utah, 389-90; Burton's 
City of the Saints, 359; Smucker's Hist. Mor., 108-9; Young's Wife No. 19, 
47-8, 268; Bmch, Gesch. der Morm., 87; Marslmll's Through Am., 215-16; 
Hyde's Mormonism, 104-5; Bennett's 3Iormonism Exposed, 263-72; Miller's 
First Families, 64-5; Hickman's Brigham's Destroying Angel; Hall's Mormon- 
ism, 94-5; E. M. Webb, in Utah County Sketches, MS., 49-50, the last named 
referring to the rules and principles of the order of Enoch. 


Meanwhile was being matured the bloody tragedy 
which occurred on the 30th of October near Haun's^' 
mill, on Shoal creek, about twenty miles below Far 
West. Besides the Mormons living there, were a num- 
ber of emigrants awaiting the cessation of hostilities 
before proceeding on their journey. It had been 
agreed between the Mormons and Missourians of that 
locality that they would not molest each other, but 
live together in peace. But the men of Caldwell and 
Daviess counties would not have it so. Suddenly 
and without warning, on the day above mentioned, 
mounted and to the number of two hundred and forty, 
they fell upon the fated settlement. While the men 
were at their work out of doors, the women in the 
house, and the children playing about the yards, the 
crack of a hundred rifles was heard, and before the 
firing ceased, eighteen of these unoffending people 
were stretched dead upon the ground, while many 
more were wounded. I will not enter upon the sick- 
ening details, which are copious and fully proven; 
sufiice it to say, that never in savage or other war- 
fare was there perpetrated an act more dastardly and 
brutal.^*' Indeed, it was openly avowed by the men 
of Missouri that it was no worse to shoot a Mormon 
than to shoot an Indian, and killing Indians was no 
worse than killing wild beasts. 

A somewhat singular turn affairs take at this junc- 
ture. It appears that Boggs, governor, and sworn 
enemy of the saints, does not like the way the war is 
going on. Here are his own soldiers fighting his own 
voters, the state forces killing the men who have put 

"^^ Spelled also Hahn, Hohn, Hawn. 

^^ ' Immediately after this, there came into the city a messenger from 
Haun's mill, bringing the intelligence of an awful massacre of the people 
who were residing in that place, and that a force of two or three hundred, 
detached from the main body of the army, under the superior command of 
Col. Ashley, but under the immediate command of Capt. Nehemiah Compstock, 
who, the day previous, had promised them peace and protection, but on re- 
ceiving a copy of the governor's order to exterminate or to expel, from the 
hands of Col. Ashley, he returned upon them the following day, and surprised 
and massacred the whole population, and then came on to the town of Far 
West, and entered into conjunction with the main body of the army.' 
Mackay's The Mormons, 88-9. 


him in office ! This will not do. There is bad blun- 
dering somewhere. It is the Mormons only that are 
to be killed and driven off, and not the free and loyal 
American Boggs voters. Ho, there! Let the state 
arms be turned against these damned saints 1 On 
what pretext? Any. Say that they are robbing, and 
burning, and killing right and left, and that they swear 
they will never stop until they have the country. 
Easy enough. No doubt they do kill and burn; 
the men of Missouri are killing them and burning; 
why should they not retaliate? No doubt there are 
thieves and bad men among them, who take advan- 
tage of the time to practise their vile calling. No 
doubt there are violent men among them, who swear 
roundly at those who are hunting them to death, who 
swear that they will drive them off their lands and 
kill them if they can. But this does not make insur- 
rectionists and traitors of the whole society. No 
matter; down with the Mormons 1 And so Boggs, the 
governor, seats himself and coolly writes off to his 
generals to drive out or exterminate the vermin.^^ 

^^ Several of them write to Boggs: 'There is no crime, from treason down 
to petit larceny, but these people, or a majority of them, have been guilty of; 
all, too, under the counsel of Joseph Smith, Jr, the prophet. They have com- 
mitted treason, murder, arson, burglary, robbery, larceny, and perjury. 
They have societies formed under the most binding covenants in form, and 
the most horrid oaths, to circumvent the laws and put them at defiance; and 
to plunder and burn and murder, and divide the spoils for the use of the 
church.' Tucker^ s Mor monism, 164. 

And thus Boggs makes answer, Oct. 27th: ' Since the order of the morn- 
ing to you directing you to cause four hundred mounted men to be raised 
within your division, I have received by Amos Rees, Esq., and Wiley E. Will- 
iams, Esq. , one of my aids, information of the most appalling character, which 
changes entirely the face of things, and places the Mormons in the attitude of 
an open and avowed defiance of the laws, and of having made open war upon 
the people of this state. Your orders are therefore to hasten your operations, 
and endeavor to reach Richmond in Ray county, with aU possible speed. 
The Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven 
from the state if necessary, for the public good. Their outrages are beyond 
all description. If you can increase your force, you are authorized to do so 
to any extent you may think necessary. I have just issued orders to Maj.- 
Gen. WoUock of Marion county to raise 500 men, and to march them to tbe 
northern part of Daviess, and there unite with Gen. Doniphan of Clay, who 
has been ordered with 500 men to proceed to the same point for the purpose 
of intercepting the retreat of the Mormons to the north. They have been 
directed to communicate with you by express. You can also communicate 
with them if you find it necessary. Instead, therefore, of proceeding as at 
first directed, to reinstate the citizens of Daviess in their homes, you will pro- 
HisT. Utah. 9 


Thus it appears that the Missouri state miUtia, called 
out in the first instance to assist the Mormon state 
militia in quelling a Missouri mob, finally joins the mob 
ao-ainst the Mormon militia. In none of their acts 
had the saints placed themselves in an attitude of un- 
lawful opposition to the state authorities; on the other 
hand, they were doing all in their power to defend 
themselves and support law and order, save in the 
matter of retaliation. 

The first the saints of Caldwell county know of the 
new tactics is the appearance, within half a mile of 
Far West,^^ of three thousand armed men, under Gen- 
eral Lucas, generals Wilson and Doniphan being pres- 
ent, and General Clark with another army being a few 
days' march distant. General Lucas states that the 
main business there is to obtain possession of three in- 
dividuals, whom he names, two of them not Mormons; 
and for the rest he has only to inform the saints that 
it is his painful duty either wholly to drive them from 
the state or to exterminate them.^^ Gilliam and his 
comrades, who as disguised Indians and white men 
had been fighting the Mormons, now that the state es- 
pouses their cause, join Lucas. ^* General Atchison 
was. at Kichmond, in Ray county, when the gover- 
nor's exterminating order was issued. **I will have 
nothing to do with so infamous a proceeding," he said, 
and immediately resigned. 

ceed immediately to Richmond and there operate against the Mormons. Brig.- 
Gen. Parks of Ray has been ordered to have 400 men of his brigade in readi- 
ness to join you at Richmond. The whole force will be placed under your 

^^ 'The governor's orders and these military movements were kept an entire 
secret from the citizens of Caldwell and Daviess. . .even the maU was with- 
held from Far West.' PraWs Autobiography, 200. 

^^ 'This letter of the governor's was extremely unguarded, and seems to 
have been too literally construed. . .Making all due allowance for the exas- 
perated state of the public mind, these threats of extermination sound a lit- 
tle too savage in Anglo-Saxon ears. . .But they were impolitic, because they 
gave plausibility to the idea that the saints were the victims of a cruel and 
unrelenting religious persecution, and furnished them with one of the surest 
means of future success.' Ferris' Utah and the Mormons, 90-1. 

^* 'About the time that Lucas came out to Far West, Smith assembled the 
Mormon troops, and said that for every one they lacked in number of those 
who came out among them, the Lord would send angels, who would fight for 
them, and they should be victorious.' Kidder's Mormonism, 143. 


The day following his arrival General Lucas orders 
George M. Hinckle, colonel commanding the Mormon 
militia, to bring before him Joseph Smith, junior, 
Hyrum Smith, Lyman Wight, Sidney Rigdon, Parley 
P. Pratt, Caleb Baldwin, and Alexander McRae, 
which is done, though not without charge of fraud and. 
treachery on the part of Hinckle. A court-martial 
is immediately held; the prisoners are all condemned, 
and sentenced to be shot next morning at eight o'clock. 
"In the name of humanity I protest against any 
such cold-blooded murder," says General Doniphan 
who further threatens to withdraw his men if such 
a course is persisted in; whereupon the sentence i? 
not executed. All the Mormon troops in Far West, 
however, are required to give up their arms and con- 
sider themselves prisoners of war.^^ They are furthei 
required to execute a deed of trust pledging all 
Mormon property to the payment of the entire cost 
of the war, and to give a promise to leave the state 
before the coming spring. 

Thus in the name of law and justice the Mormon 
soldier}'', whose chief crime it would seem was that, in 
common with the rest of the militia, they had assisteo 

^^ They were ' confined to the limits of the town for about a week.' During 
this time much property was destroyed, and women abused. The number of 
arms taken was 630, besides swords and pistols, worth between $12,000 and 
$15,000. Mem. to Leg., in Greene's Facts, 15. 'General Lucas demanded the 
Caldwell militia to give up their arms, which was done to the number of up- 
ward of 500, the rest of the troops having fled during the night. After the 
troops had surrendered, the city of Far West was surrounded by the robbers, 
and all the men detained as prisoners, none being permitted to pass out oi 
the city, although their families were starving for want of sustenance.' 
Pratt's Persecution, 84. 'We determined not to resist anything in the shape 
'of authority, however tyrannical or unconstitutional might be the proceed- 
ings against us. With this request (to surrender ourselves as prisoners), we 
readily complied as soon as we were assured by the pledge of the honor of 
the principal ofBcers that our lives should be safe. . .We were marched into 
camp, surrounded by thousands of savage-looking beings, many of whom 
were painted like Indian warriors. These all set up a constant yell, like so 
many blood-hounds let loose on their prey ... A hint was given us that the 
general officers held a secret council . . . iji which we were all sentenced to be 
shot.' Pratt's Persecution, 80-2. 'If the vision of the infernal regions could 
suddenly open to the mind, with thousands of malicious fiends, all clamoring, 
exulting, deriding, blaspheming, mocking, railing, raging, and foaming like 
a troubled sea, then could some idea be formed of the hell which we had en- 
tered.' Pratt's Autobiography, 204. See Young's Woman^s Experience, MS.; 
Home's Migrations, MS. 


the state in putting down a mob, were forced at the 
point of the bayonet to sign an obUgation, binding 
not only themselves but the civilians within their 
settlements to defray the entire expense of the war. 
This proceeding was sufficiently peculiar; but, as a 
climax to their conduct, some of the officers and men 
laid hands on the Mormons' property wherever they 
could find it, taking no thought of payment. 

General Clark ^^ now comes forward, and entering 
the town of Far West, collects the saints in the pub- 
lic square, reads them a lecture,^'' and selecting fifty 
of their number, thrusts them into prison. Next day 
forty-six of the fifty are taken to Richmond,^^ and 
after a fortnight's confinement half are liberated,^^ 

^^ Pratt says that Clark has been commended by some •writers for his 
heroic, merciful, and prudent conduct toward the Mormons, but that the 
truth is that he openly avowed his approval of all the proceedings of Gen. 
Lucas, and said that he should not alter his decrees. Autobiofp-aph;/, 227-8. 

^' It runs as follows: 'Gentlemen, You whose names are not attached to 
this list of names will now have the privilege of going to your fields to ob- 
tain corn for your families, wood, etc. Those that are now taken will go 
fi'om thence to prison, to be tried, and receive the due demerit of their crimes, 
but you are now at liberty, all but such as charges may be hereafter preferred 
against. It now devolves upon you to fulfil the treaty that you have entered 
into, the leading items of which I now lay before you. The first of these you 
have already complied with, which is, that you deliver up your leading men 
to be tried according to law. Second, that you deliver up your arms; this 
has been attended to. The third is, that you sign over your property to de- 
fray the expenses of the war; this you have also done. Another thing yet re- 
mains for you to comply with, that is, that you leave this state forthwith, 
and whatever your feelings concerning this affair, whatever your innocence, 
it is nothing to me. Gen. Lucas, who is equal in authority with me, has 
made this treaty with you. I am determined to see it executed. The orders 
of the governor to me were, that you should be exterminated, and not al- 
lowed to continue in the state, and had your leaders not been given up and 
the treaty complied with before this, you and your families would have been 
destroyed, and your houses in ashes.' 

^^ Pratt says in his A utohiography, p. 210, that a revelation to Joseph Smith 
buoyed up their spirits continually during their captivity. 'As we arose and 
commenced our march on the morning of the 3d of November, Joseph Smith 
spoke to me and the other prisoners in a low but cheerful and confidential 
tone; said he, "Be of good cheer, brethren; the word of the Lord came to me 
last night that our lives should be given us, and that whatever we may suffer 
during this captivity, not one of our lives should be taken."' 'When we ar- 
rived in Richmond as prisoners there were some fifty others, mostly heads 
of families, who had been marched from Caldwell on foot, distance thirty 
miles, and were now penned up in a cold, open, unfinished court-house, in 
which situation they remained for some weeks, while their families were 
suffering severe privations.' Id., 227. 

^^A court of inquiry was instituted at Richmond before Judge Austin 
A. King, lasting from the 11th to 28th of November. Pratt says: 'The judga 
could not be prevailed on to examine the conduct of the murderers and rob- 


most of the remainder being set free a week later on 
giving bail. Lucas *° then retires with his troops, 
leaving the country to be ravaged by armed squads 
that burn houses, insult women, and drive off stock 
ad libitum}^ The faint pretext of justice on the part 
of the state, attending forced sales and forced settle- 
ments, might as well have been dispensed with, as 
it was but a cloak to cover official iniquity.^^ 

bers who had desolated our society, nor would he receive testimony except 
against us. . .The judge in open court, while addressing a witness, proclaimed 
that if the members of the church remained on their lands to put in another 
crop they should be destroyed indiscriminately, and their bones be left to 
bleach on the plains without a burial... Mr Doniphan, attorney for the 
defence, and since famed as a general in the Mexican war, finally advised the 
prisoners to offer no defence; "for," said he, "though a legion of angels from 
the opening heavens should declare your innocence, the court and populace 
have decreed your destruction.". . .Joseph and Hyrum Smith, Sidney Rig- 
don, Lyman Wight, Caleb Baldwin, and Alexander McRay were committed 
to the jail of Clay co. on charge of treason; and Morris Phelps, Lyman Gibbs, 
Darwin Chase, Norman Shearer, and myself were committed to the jail of 
Richmond, Ray co., for the alleged crime of murder, said to be committed in 
the act of dispersing the bandit Bogart and his gang. ' Id. , 230-3. 

^^ Ingloriously conspicuous in the Missouri persecutions were generals 
Clark, Wilson, and Lucas, Colonel Price, Captain Bogart, and Cornelius Gil- 
liam, 'whose zeal in the cause of oppression and injustice, ' says Smith, 'was 
unequalled, and whose delight has been to rob, murder, and spread devasta- 
tion among the saints. . .All the threats, murders, and robberies which these 
officers have been guilty of are entirely ignored by the executive of the state, 
who to hide his own iniquity must of course shield and protect those whom 
he employed to carry into effect his murderous purposes.' Times and Sea- 
sons, i. 7. 

*^ Pages of evidence, both Mormon and anti-Mormon, might be given, and 
can indeed at any time be produced, to prove the commission of innumerable 
wrongs and revolting atrocities on the part of the people of Missouri, while 
abetted therein by state forces, commanded by state officers, and all under 
guidance of the state governor. 

*^ There is abundance of testimony from disinterested sources, even from 
the opposers of Mormonism themselves, to prove the persecution on the part 
of the people of Missouri unjust and outrageous. I will quote only three from 
many similar comments that have been made on this subject, and all, be it re- 
membered, emanating from the open and avowed enemies of this religion. 

Says Prof. Turner of Illinois college: 'Who began the quarrel? Was it 
the Mormons? Is it not notorious, on the contrary, that they were hunted 
like wild beasts, from county to county, before they made any desperate re- 
sistance? Did they ever, as a body, refuse obedience to the laws, when 
called upon to do so, until driven to desperation by repeated threats and 
assaults from the mob ? Did the state ever make one decent effort to defend 
them as fellow-citizens in their rights, or to redress their wrongs ? Let the 
conduct of its governors, attorneys, and the fate of their final petitions an- 
swer. Have any who plundered and openly massacred the Mormons ever 
been brought to the punishment due to their crimes ? Let the boasting mur- 
derers of begging and helpless infancy answer. Has the state ever remuner- 
ated even those known to be innocent, for the loss of either their property or 
their arms? Did either the pulpit or the press through the state raise a note 
of remonstrance or alarm? Let the clergy .nen who abetted and the editors 


It did not seem possible to a community convicted of 
no crime, and living in the nineteenth century, under 
the flag of the world's foremost republic, that such fla- 
grant wrongs as the Boggs exterminating order, and 
the enforced treaty under which they were deprived of 
their property, could be carried into effect. They ap- 
pealed, therefore, to the legislature,^^ demanding jus- 
tice. But that body was too much with the peo- 
ple and with Boggs to think of justice. To make a 
show of decency, a committee was appointed and sent 
to Caldwell and Daviess counties, to look into the 
matter, but of course did nothing. Another was 
appointed with like result. Debates continued with 
more or less show of interest through the month of 
December. In January, 1839, the Mormons were 
plainly told that they need expect no redress at the 
hand of the legislature or other body of Missouri. 

who encouraged the mob answer.' Correspondence Joseph Smith, 2. On the 
16th of March, 1839, the editor of the Quincy Argus wrote as follows: 'We 
have no language sufficiently strong for the expression of our indignation and 
shame at the recent transaction in a sister state, and that state Missouri, a 
state of which we had long been proud, alike for her men and history, but 
now so fallen that we could wish her star stricken out from the bright con- 
stellation of the Union. We say we know of no language sufficiently strong 
for the expression of our shame and abhorrence of her recent conduct. She 
has wi-itten her own character in letters of blood, and stained it by acts of 
merciless cruelty and brutality that the waters of ages cannot efface. It will 
be observed that an organized mob, aided by many of the civil and military 
olHcers of Missouri, with Gov. Boggs at their head, have been the prominent 
actors in this business, incited, too, it appears, against the Mormons by polit- 
ical hatred, and by the additional motives of plunder and revenge. They 
have but too well put in execution their threats of extermination and expul- 
sion, and fully wreaked their vengeance on a body of industrious and enter- 
prising men who had never wronged nor wished to wrong them, but on the 
contrary had ever comported themselves as good and honest citizens, living 
imder the same laws, and having the same right with themselves to the sacred 
immunities of life, liberty, and property.' 'By enlightened people the Mor- 
mons were regarded as the victims of misguided vengeance in Missouri. The 
ruffianly violence they encountered at the hands of lawless mobs, in several 
instances eventuating in deliberate murder, finds no extenuation in any alleged 
provocation. The due process of law might have afforded adequate redress 
for the criminalities of which they should be found guilty on legal trial. 
Such was the view of the subject rightly taken by the people of Illinois and 
of the M'orld, though it may have been wrongfully applied in favor of the 
cause of the persecuted.' Tuclcer's Mormonism, 166. 

*^ A memorial was sent to the legislature of Missouri, dated Far West, 
Dec. 10, 1838, setting forth these facts, and praying that the governor's 
novel, unlawful, tyrannical, and oppressive order be rescinded. It was 
signed by Edward Partridge, Heber C. Kimball, John Taylor, Theodore 
Turley, Brighara Young, Isaac Morley, George W. Harris, John Murdock, 
John M. Burk. 



There was no help for them; they must leave the 
state or be killed; of this they were assured on all 
sides, publicly and privately. 

And now begins another painful march — painful in 
the thought of it, painful in the telling of it. It is 
midwinter; whither can they go, and how? They 
have homes, but they may not enjoy them; land 
which they have bought, houses which they have 
built, and barns and cattle and food, but hereabout 
they are hunted to death. Is it Russia or Tar- 
tary or Hindostan, that people are thus forced to fly 
for opinion's sake? True, the people of the United 
States do not like such opinions; they do not like a 
religious sect that votes solid, or a class of men whom 
they look upon as fools and fanatics talking about 
taking the country, claimed as theirs by divine right; 
but in any event this was no way to settle the diffi- 
culty. Here are men who have been stripped in a 
moment of the results of years of toil — all that they 
have in the world gone; here are women weighed 
down with work and care, some whose husbands are 
in prison, and who are thus left to bear the heavy 
burden of this infliction alone; here are little chil- 
dren, some comfortably clad, others obliged to en- 
counter the wind and frozen ground with bare heads 
and bleeding feet. 

Whither can they go? There is a small following 
of the prophet at Quincy, Illinois; some propose to 
go there, some start for other places. But what 
if they are not welcome at Quincy, and what can 
they do with such a multitude? There is no help 
for it, however, no other spot where the outcasts 
can hope for refuge at the moment. Some have 
horses and cattle and wagons ; some have ■ none. 
Some have tents and bedding; some have none. But 
the start is made, and the march is slowly to the 
eastward. In the months of February and March^ 

** 'On the 20th of April, 1839, the last of the society departed from Far 
West. Thus had a whole people, variously estimated at from ten to fifteen 


over one hundred and thirty famihes are on the west 
bank of the Mississippi unable to cross the river, 
which is full of floating ice. There they wait and 
suffer; they scour the country for food and clothing 
for the destitute; many sicken and die. 

Finally they reach Quincy, and are kindly received. 
Not only the saints but others are there who have 
human hearts and human sympathies. Indeed, upon 
the expulsion of the Mormons from Missouri the 

Settlements in Illinois. 

people of Illinois took a stand in their favor. The 
citizens of Quincy, in particular, offered their warmest 
sympathy and aid, on the ground of humanity. A select 
committee, appointed to ascertain the facts in the case, 
reported, on the 27th of February, 1839, "that the 

thousand souls, been driven from houses and lands and reduced to poverty, 
and had removed to another state, during one short winter and part of a 
spring. The sacrifice of property was immense.' Pratt's Autobiography, 245. 


strangers recently arrived here from the state of Mis- 
souri, known by the name of latter-day saints, are 
entitled to our sympathy and kindest regard." The 
working-men of the town should be informed "that 
these people have no design to lower the wages of 
the laboring class, but to procure something to save 
them from starving." Finally it was resolved: "That 
we recommend to all the citizens of Quincy, in all 
their intercourse with the strangers, that they use 
and observe a becoming decorum and delicacy, and 
be particularly careful not to indulge in any conver- 
sation or expressions calculated to wound their feel- 
ings, or in any way to reflect upon those who, by 
every law of humanity, are entitled to our sympathy 
and commiseration."*^ 

How in regard to neighboring states ? In case the 
people of Illinois soon tire of them, what will they 
then do? From Commerce, Isaac Galland writes to 
Robert Lucas, governor of Iowa, asking about it. 
The answer is such as one would expect from the 
average American citizen — neither better nor worse. 
It is such, however, as to condemn throughout all 
time the conduct of the people of Missouri.*^ 

*5 PratVs Persecution of the Saints, 185. 

*^ 'On my return to this city,' writes Lucas from the executive office at 
Burlington, Iowa, 'after a few weeks' absence in the interior of the terri- 
tory, I received your letter of the 25th ult. [Feb. 1839], in which you give 
a short account of the sufferings of the people called Mormons, and ask whether 
they could be permitted to purchase lands and settle upon them in the terri- 
tory of Iowa, and there worship Almighty God according to the dictates of 
their own consciences, secure from oppression, etc. In answer to your inquiry, 
I would say that I know of no authority that can constitutionally deprive 
them of this right. They are citizens of the United States, and are all 
entitled to all the rights and privileges of other citizens. The 2d section 
of the 4th article of the constitution of the United States (which aU 
are solemnly bound to support) declares that "the citizens of each state 
shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the 
several states;" this privilege extends in full force to the territories of the 
United States. The first amendment to the constitution of the United States 
declares that "congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of re- 
ligion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. " The ordinances of congress 
of the 13th July, 1787, for the government of the territory north-west of the 
river Ohio, secures to the citizens of said territory and the citizens of the 
states thereafter to be formed therein, certain privileges which were by the 
late act of congress organizing the territory of Iowa extended to the citizens 
of this territory. The first fundamental article in that ordinance, which is 



During these trying times the prophet was moving 
about among his people, doing everything in his power 
to protect and encourage them. Late in Septem- 
ber he was in the southern part of Caldwell county, 
whence in October he passed into Carroll county, 
where he soon found himself hemmed in by an en- 
raged populace. He appealed to the people, he ap- 
plied to the governor, but all to no purpose. After- 
ward he went to Daviess county, and then back to Far 
West, where he was arrested and incarcerated with 
the others. Shortly afterward the prisoners, now 

declared to be forever unalterable except by common consent, reads as fol- 
lows, to wit : No person demeaning himself in a peaceable and orderly man- 
ner shall ever be molested on account of his mode of worship or religious 
sentiments in said territory. These principles I trust will ever be adhered 
to in the territory of Iowa. Tiiey make no distinction between religious 
sects. They extend equal privileges and protection to all; each must rest 
upon its own merits ami will prosper in proportion to the purity of its prin- 
ciples, and the fruit of holiness and piety produced thereby. With regard to 
the peculiar people mentioned in your letter, I know but little. They had a 
community in the northern part of Ohio for several years, and I have no rec- 
ollection of ever having heard in that state of any complaint against them of 
violating the laws of the country. Their religious opinions I conceive have 
nothing to do with our political transactions. They aro citizens of the United 
States, and are entitled to the same political rights and legal protection that 
other citizens are entitled to. The foregoing are briefly my views on the sub- 
ject of your inquiries.' 

In a memorial sent to Washington in the autumn of 1839, it was claimed 
by the ^Mormons that their property destroyed in Jackson co. was worth 
$120,000; that 12,000 souls were banished; that they purchased and improved 
lands in Clay co., and in three years were obliged to leave there with heavy 
loss; that they then purchased and improved lands in Daviess and Carroll 
counties; that for the most part these counties were wild and uncultivated; 
tliat they had converted them into large and well improved farms, well 
stocked, which were rapidly advancing in cultivation and wealth; and that 
they were finally compelled to fly from these counties. In a petition pre- 
sented by Sidney Rigdon to the state of Pennsylvania, it is stated that ' Lil- 
burn Boggs, governor of the state, used his executive influence to have us all 
massacred or driven into exile; and all this because we were not lawless and 
disobedient. For if the laws had given them a sufficient guaranty against 
the evils complained of. . .then would they have had recourse to the laws. If 
we had been transgressors of laws, our houses would not have been rifled, our 
women ravished, our farms desolated, and our goods and chattels destroyed, 
our men killed, our wives and children driven into the prairies, and made to 
sufl'er all the indignities that the most brutal barbarity could inflict; but 
would only have had to sufler that which the laws would inflict, which were 
founded in justice, framed in righteousness, and administered in humanity. . . 
Why, then, all this cruelty ? Answer : because the people had violated no law; 
and they could not be restrained by law, nor prevented from exercising the 
rights according to the laws, enjoyed, and had a right to be protected in, in 
any state of the Union.' Mr Corrill remarks: 'My opinion is, that if the 
Mormons had been let alone by the citizens, they would have divided and 
subdivided, so as to have completely destroyed themselves and their power 
as a people in a short time. ' 

m PRISON. 139 

consisting of the prophet Joseph Smith, with Sid- 
ney Rigdon, Hyrum Smith, Parley P. Pratt, Lyman 
Wight, Amasa Lyman, and George W. Robinson, 
were removed to Independence; why they did not 
know, but because it was the hot-bed of mobocracy, 
they said, and peradventure they might luckily be 
shot or hanged. A few days later they were taken 
to Pichmond and put in irons, and later to Liberty 
jail in Clay county, where they were kept confined 
for four months. Habeas corpus was tried, and many 
petitions were forwarded to the authorities on their be- 
half, but all to no purpose. At length they obtained a 
hearing in the courts, with a change of venue to 
Boone county where they were still to be incarcerated. 
Pigdon had been previously released on habeas corpus, 
and one night, when the guard was asleep, Smith and 
the others escaped and made their way to Quincy. 

"I was in their hands as a prisoner," says Smith, 
"about six months; but notwithstanding their deter- 
mination to destroy me, with the rest of my brethren 
who were with me, and although at three different 
times we were sentenced to be shot without the least 
shadow of law, and had the time and place appointed 
for that purpose, yet through the mercy of God, 
in answer to the prayers of the saints, I have been 
preserved, and delivered out of their hands. "*^ 

■" In 1839 Carlin was governor of Illinois, and on him the governor of 
Missouri made a formal demand for the surrender to the authorities of Smith 
and Rigdon, but little attention was paid to it. One of the most complete 
documents extant covering this period is, Facts Relative to the Expulsion oj 
the Mormons, or Latter-day Saints, from the State of Missouri under the Ex- 
terminating Order. Bi/ John P. Greene, an authorized representative of the 
Mormons (Cincinnati, 1839). The work consists of 43 Svo pages, and was 
written for the purpose of showing to what wrongs the Mormons had been 
subjected at the hands of the people and politicians of Missouri, and also 
to obtain contributions for the destitute. The contents are laigely documen- 
tary, and if we allow for some intensity of feeling, bear the impress of truth. 

Pointing in the same direction but less pretentious and less important is 
Correspondence between Joseph Smith, the prophet, and Col. John Wentworth, 
editor of the ^Chicago Democrat,^ and member of congress from Illinois; General 
James Arlington Bennett, of Arlington House, Long Island; and the Honor- 
able John C. Calhoun, Senator from South Carolina, in ivhich is given a sketch 
of the life of Joseph Smith, Rise and Progress of the Church of Latter-day 
Saints, and their persecution by the state of Missouri; with the peculiar views 
of Joseph Smith in relation to Political and Religious matters genn-ally; to 
which is added a concise account of the present state and prospects of the city of 


Notwithstanding their enormous losses, and the ex- 
treme indigence of many, the saints were not all as 
destitute of credit as they were of ready means, if 
we may judge by their business transacted during 
the year 1839. Bishop Knight bought for the church 
part of the town of Keokuk, Iowa, situated on the 
west bank of the Mississippi, forty miles above Quincy, 
Illinois. He also purchased the whole of another 
town-site called Nashville, six miles above Keokuk. 
Four miles above Nashville was a settlement called 
Montrose, part of which Knight bought, together 
with thirty thousand acres of land.^ 

Opposite Montrose, on the east bank of the Mis- 
sissippi where was a good landing, stood a village 

Nauvoo. (New York, 1844), With a title-page from which so much infor- 
mation is to be derived, we must not expect too much from the book itself. 
A portion of this correspondence was published in the Times and Seasons. 

Late Persecution of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Ten 
thotisand American citizens robbed, plundered, and banished ; others impris- 
oned, and others Tnartyred for their Religion. With a sketch of their Rise, Prog- 
ress, and Doctrine. By P. P. Pratt, Minister of the Gospel. Written in prison 
(New York, 1840). This is a 16mo vol. of 215 pages, most of which is devoted 
to the Missouri persecutions, with but little other history, except what is thrown 
in incidentally. An appendix of 37 pages is made up mostly from Greene's 
Facts. Pratt gives a graphic account of his life in prison, aud of the means 
whereby, with the cooperation of his wife, he rescued from jail the manuscript 
of this book, which was written there. After mentioning them, he says: 
'Thus, kind reader, was this little book providentially, and I may say mirac- 
ulously, preserved, and by this means you have it to read.' The first edition 
was published at Detroit, Michigan, the book consisting then of 84 pages. 

Full reference for the persecutions of the Mormons in Missouri, 1831-39. 
Memorial to Legislature Mass. in 1844, against such conduct, in Times and 
Seasons, i. 17-20, 33-6, 49-56, 65-6, 81-6, 94, 97-104, 113-16, 128-34, 145-50, 
161-7, 177; V. 514-19; Pratt's Persecution of the Saints, 21-215; Utah Tracts, 
no. 4, 56-64; Pratt's Autobiography, 190-237, 311-22, 336-40; Smucker's Hist. 
Mor., 86; Deseret News, Dec. 27, 1851, Nov. 29 and Dec. 27, 1851, June 
30, 1869; Mackay's The Mormons, 106-14; Tucker's Origin and Prog. Mor., 
160-6; Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 138-76; Ferris' Utah and the Mormons, 
87-8, 90; White's Ten Years in Or., 144; Taylder's Mormon's Own Booh, xliii.- 
xlvi.; Gunnison's Mormons, 104-14; Millennial Star, xx v., 535-6, 550-2, 599- 
600, 614-16, 631; Burnett's Rec, 56; Beadle's Life in Utah, 60; Lee's Mor- 
monism, 55-96; TuUidge's Women, 116-74; Richards' Narrative, MS., 6-9; 
Young's Wife No. 19, 43-53; Atlantic Monthly, Dec. 1869; Stenhouse, Les 
Mormons, 154-71; Liberty Tribune; Margaret Smoot's Experiences of a Mor- 
mon Wife, MS., 2-3: Farnham's Travels Rocky Mts., 6; Bertrand's Mem. 
Mor., 51; Busch, Gesch. der Mor., 85-7, 90-7; Juvenile Instructor, xv. 78; 
Kidder's Mormonism, 133-5; Iowa Frontier Guardian, March 21, 1849; Rabbi- 
son's Growth of Towns, MS., 2-5. 

*^ ' Since their expulsion from Missouri a portion of them, about one hun- 
dred families, have settled in Lee county, Iowa Territory, and are generally 
considered industrious, inoffensive, and worthy citizens.' Letter from Robert 
Lucas, governor of Iowa, to A. Ripley, dated Jan. 4, 1840. 



called Commerce, where were some twenty houses. 
This was purchased by the saints, with the lands sur- 
rounding, and a town laid out which was named 
Nauvoo, "from the Hebrew, which signifies fair, very 
beautiful, and it actually fills the definition of the 
word; for nature has not formed a parallel on the 
banks of the Mississippi from New Orleans to Ga- 
lena." The post-office there was first called Com- 
merce, after the Mormons had purchased the village, 
but the name was changed to that of Nauvoo in May, 
1840.*^ The place was started by a company from New 
York, but it was so sickly that when the agent for the 
Mormons came they were glad to sell. The Mormons 
drained it and made the place comparatively healthy. 
On his escape from prison. Smith visited Commerce 
among other places, and seeing at once the advan- 
tages of its site, determined to establish there the 
headquarters of the church. For so great had his 
power now become, so extensive his following, that he 
might choose any spot whereon to call into existence 
a city, had but to point his finger and say the word 
to transform a wilderness into a garden. During the 
winter of 1840 the church leaders applied to the leg- 
islature of Illinois for several charters, one for the 
city of Nauvoo, one for agricultural and manufactur- 
ing purposes, one for a university, and one for a mili- 
tary body called the Nauvoo Legion. The privileges 
asked were very extensive, but were readily granted; 
for the two great political parties were pretty equal in 
numbers in Illinois at this time, and the leaders of 
the party in office, perceiving what a political power 
these people were, determined to secure them. 

*^ ' Nauvoo was one of the names of one of the numerous petty chiefs in 
British India.' Ferris' The Mor., 97. 'Nauvoo is a Hebrew word, and sig- 
nifies a beautiful habitation for man, carrying with it the idea of rest; it is 
not, however, considered by the Mormons their final home, but a resting 
place only; for they only intend to remain there until they have gathered 
force sufiEicient to enable them to conquer Independence in Jackson co. , Mis- 
souri, which is one of the most fertile, pleasant, and desirable countries on 
the face of the earth, possessing a soil unsurpassed in any region. Indepen- 
dence they consider their Zion, and there they intend to rear their great tem- 
ple, the comer-stone of which is already laid. There is to be the great gath- 


There were now saints everj^where, all over the 
United States, particularly throughout the western 
portion ; there were isolated believers, and small clus- 
ters, and small and great congregations. There were 
also many travelling preachers, men full of the holy 
ghost, or believing themselves so, who travelled 
without purse or scrip, whom no buflPetings, insults, 
hunger, or blows could daunt, who feared nothing 
that man could do, heaven's door being always open 
to them. See now the effects of these persecutions 
in Missouri. Twelve thousand were driven from 
their homes and set moving by Boggs and his gen- 
erals; three fourths of them found new homes at 
Quincy, Nauvoo, and elsewhere; but three thousand, 
who, but for the persecutions, would have remained 
at home and tilled their lands, were preaching and 
proselyting, making new converts and establishing 
new churches wherever they went. One of their 
number, William Smith, was a member of the Illi- 
nois legislature. In the very midst of the war they 
were preaching in Jackson county, among their old 
enemies and spoilers, striving with all their souls to 
win back their Zion, their New Jerusalem. From 
New York, February 19, 1840, Brigham Young, H. 
C. Kimball, Orson Pratt, and Parley P. Pratt indited 
a letter to the saints at Commerce, speaking of the 
wonderful progress of the faith, and of their own in- 
tended departure for England. ^° 

Thus, despite persecution, the saints increased in 
number year by year. Before the end of 1840 there 
were fifteen thousand souls at Nauvoo, men, women, 
and children, not all of them exiles from Missouri, 
but from every quarter, old believers and new con- 
verts from different parts of the United States, from 
Canada, and from Europe; hither came they to the 
city of their God, to the mountain of his holiness. 

ering place for all the saints, and in that delightful country they expect to find 
their Eden, and build the New Jerusalem.' Bennett's Mormonism Exp., 192-3. 
^"See J. D. Hunter's letter of Dec. 26, 1839, from Jackson county, 111., in 
Times and Seasons, i. 59. 




The City of Nauvoo — Its Temple and University — The Nauvoo Le- 
gion — The Mormons in Illinois — Evil Reports — Revelation on 
Polygamy — Its Reception and Practice — The Prophet a Candi- 
date for the Presidency — The 'Nauvoo Expositor' — Joseph Ar- 
rested — Governor Ford and his Measures — Joseph and Hyrum 
Proceed to Carthage — Their Imprisonment — The Governor's 
Pledge — Assassination of the Prophet and his Brother — Char- 
acter of Joseph Smith — A Panic at Carthage— Addresses of Rich- 
ards and Taylor — Peaceful Attitude of the Mormon& 

To the saints it is indeed a place of refuge, the 
city of Nauvoo, the Holy City, the City of Joseph.^ 
It stands on rolling land, covering a bed of limestone 
yielding excellent building material, and bordered on 
three sides by the river which here makes a majestic 
curve, and is nearly two miles in width. The abo- 
rigines were not indifferent to the advantages of the 
spot, as the presence of their mounds testifies. In 
area it is three miles by four. The city is regularly 
laid out in streets at right angles, of convenient width, 
along which are scattered neat, whitewashed log cabins, 
also frame, brick, and stone houses, with grounds and 
gardens. It is incorporated by charter,^ and contains 
the best institutions of the latest civilization; in the 

^ 'Among the more zealous Mormons, it became the fashion at this time 
(1845) to disuse the word Nauvoo, and to call the place the holy city, or tho 
city of Joseph.' Machay's The Mormons, 191. 

"^ The charter granted by the legislature was signed by Gov. Carlin Sept. 
16, 1840, to take effect Feb. 1, 1841. 'So artfully framed that it was found 
that the state government was practically superseded within the Mormon cor- 
poration. Under the judicial clause its courts were supreme.' McBride in 
International Review, Feb. 1882. Charters were also granted to the university 
aajd the Nauvoo legion. Times and Seasons, ii. 281. 



country are hundreds of tributary farms and planta- 
tions. The population is from seven to fifteen thou- 
sand, varying with the ebb and flow of new converts 
and new colonizations.^ 

Conspicuous among the buildings, and chief archi- 
tectural feature of the holy city, is the temple, glisten- 
ing in white limestone upon the hill-top, a shrine in 
the western wilderness whereat all the nations of the 
earth may worship, whereat all the people may in- 
quire of God and receive his holy oracles.* Next in 

' The blocks contain ' four lots of eleven by twelve rods each, making all 
comer lots . . . For three or four miles upon the river, and about the same dis- 
tance back in the country, Nauvoo presents a city of gardens, ornamented 
with the dwellings of those who have made a covenant by sacrifice. . .It will 
be no more than probably correct, if we allow the city to contain between 
700 and 800 houses, with a population of 14,000 or 15,000.' Times and Sea- 
sons, iii. 936. A correspondent of the J^ew York Herald is a little wild wher 
he writes about this time: 'The Mormons number in Europe and America 
about 150,000, and are constantly pouring into Nauvoo and the neighboring 
country. There are probably in and about this city and adjacent territories 
not far from 30,000.' Fifteen thousand in 1840 is the number given in 
Mackay's The Mormons, 115, as I mentioned in the last chapter. A corre- 
spondent's estimate in the Times and Seasons, in 1842, was for the city 7,000, 
and for the immediate surroundings 3,000. Phelps, in The Prophet, estimates 
the population during the height of the city's prosperity in 1844 at 14,000, of 
whom nine tenths were Mormons. Some 2000 houses were built the first year. 
Joseph Smith in Times and Seasons, March 1842, says: 'We number from six 
to eight thousand here, besides vast numbers in the county around, and in 
almost every county in the state.' 

*The structure was 83 by 128 feet, and 60 feet high. The stone was quar- 
ried within city limits. There was an upper story and basement; and in the 
latter a baptismal font wrought after the manner of King Solomon's brazen 
sea. A huge tank, upon whose panels were painted various scenes, and ascent 
to which was made by stairs, was upborne by twelve oxen, beautifully carved, 
and overlaid with gold. ' The two great stories, ' says a Mormon eye- 
witness, 'each have two pulpits, one at each end, to accommodate the Mel- 
chizedek and Aaronic priesthoods, graded into four rising seats, the first 
for the president of the elders and his two counsellors, the second for the 
president of the high priesthood and his two counsellors, and the third for 
the Melchizedek president and his two counsellors, and the fourth for the presi 
dent of the whole church and his two counsellors. There are thirty hewn 
stone pilasters which cost about §3,000 apiece. The base is a crescent new 
moon; the capitals, near 50 feet high; the sun, with a human face in bold re- 
lief, about two and a half feet broad, ornamented with rays of light and 
waves, surmounted by two hands holding two trumpets. ' All was crowned 
by a high steeple surmounted with angel and trumpet. The cost was nearly 
$1,000,000, and was met by tithes contributed by some in money or produce, 
and by others in labor. The four comer-stones of the temple were laid with 
much ceremony on the 6th of April, 1841, on the celebration of the anniver- 
sary of the church. Sidney Rigdon delivered the address, and upon the 
placing of the first stone, said: * May the persons employed in the erection of 
this house be preserved from all harm while engaged in its construction, till the 
whole is completed — in the name of the father, and of the son, and of the holy 


NAUVOO. 145 

the City of Joseph in prominence and importance is 
the house of Joseph, hotel and residence, called the 
Nauvoo House,^ which is to the material man as the 

ghost; even so, amen.' Times and Seasons, ii. 376. A revelation was published 
in Jan. 1841. ' Let all my saints come from afar, and send ye swift messen- 
gers, yea, chosen messengers, and say unto them: " Come ye with all your gold 
and your silver and your precious stones, and with all your antiquities, and with 
all who have knowledge of antiquities, that will come, may come; and bring 
the box-tree and the fir-tree and the pine-tree, together with all the precious 
trees of the earth, and with iron and with copper and with brass and with 
zinc and with all your precious things of the earth, and build a house to my 
name for the most high to dwell therein."' Smucker's Hist. Mor., 132- For 
reference notes on temple: minutes of conference, relating to building a 
church, etc. , see Times and Seasons, i. 185-7. Laying the foundation stone, Id., 
ii. 375-7, 380-2; Mackaifs The Mormons, 118-20; Smuckers Hist. Mor., 133. 
Laying of the capstone, Times and Seasons, vi. 926. Progress of its building, 
Id., iii. 775-6; iv. 10-11; The Prophet, in Mackaifs The Mormons, 189-91. 
Description of the temple with cut, Smucker^s Mormons, 129; Ferris' The Mor- 
Tnons, 137-9; Pratt's Autobiography, 378; without cut, Smucker's Mormons, 
202-4; Bertrand Mem. Morm., 61; Cincinnati Times; Deseret News, March 
22, 1876; church claims. Times and Seasons, iii. 735-8; 767-9; v. 618-20; Kim- 
ball, in Times and Seasons, vi. 972-3; misappropriation of funds, HaIVs Mor- 
monism Exposed, 7-8. ' One of the most powerful levers which he had in- 
vented for moving his disciples in temple building was the doctrine of baptism 
for the dead... which baptism must be performed in the temple; no other 
place would give it the requisite efficacy.' Ferris' The Mormons, 97-8. 'An- 
other mode of making the dimes was that of giving the blessing, as it was said, 
from heaven. This was the sole province of the patriarch, which office, till 
his death, was exercised by Hiram Smith. No blessing could be obtained for 
less than one dollar; but he frequently received for this service twenty, 
thirty, and even forty dollars. ' HcdVs Mormonism, 22. 

^It was ordered by revelation given to Joseph Smith, Jan. 19, 1841, that 
a hotel should be built and called the Nauvoo House; that it should be 
erected under the supervision of George Miller, Lyman Wight, John Snider, 
and Peter Haws, one of whom should be president of a joint-stoclc company 
to be formed for the purpose, and tliat stock subscriptions should be for not 
less than fifty dollars nor more than fifteen thousand dollars by any one 
man, and that only by a believer in the book of Mormon. Vinson Knight, 
Hyrum Smith, Isaac Gallaud, William Marks, Henry G. Sherwood, and Will- 
iam Law were directed by name to take stock. 'And now I say unto you, 
as pertaining to my boarding-house, which I have commanded you to build 
for the boarding of strangers, let it be built unto my name, and let my name 
bo named upon it, and let my servant Joseph and his house have place therein 
from generation to generation.' The Nauvoo House Associaton was incor- 
porated Feb. 23, 1841, by George Miller, Lyman Wight, John Snider, and 
Peter Haws, and associates. Copy of act in Bennett's Hist. Saints, 204-5. 
Plan of city, with cuts of temple, baptismal font, and Nauvoo Legion, 
with description, in Bennett's Hist. Saints, 188-91, which is quite erroneous, 
the building being then not completed. I have taken this account chieily 
from Phelps' description in The Prophet. The Nauvoo House, says Bennett, 
'though intended chiefly for the reception and entertainment of strangers 
and travellers, contains, or rather when completed is to contain, a splendid 
suite of apartments for the special accommodation of the prophet Joe Smith, 
and heirs and descendants forever. ' Cut of temple, and best description of 
Nauvoo institutions, in Mackaifs The Mormons, 115, 190-1. The Nauvoo 
House, in form of an L, had a frontage on two streets of 120 feet each, 
by a depth of 40 feet; the estimated cost was $100,000. Times and Seasons, 
ii. 369. Another building opened in Nov. 1843 was the Nauvoo mansion. 
Hist. Utah. 10 


temple to the spiritual man. Unfortunately both the 
one and the other are destined to an occupancy and 
enjoyment all too brief in view of the vast labor be- 
stowed upon them. Besides these buildings are the 
Hall of Seventies, in which is a library, the Masonic 
Hall, and Concert Hall; also there a university and 
other institutions are established, though having as 
yet no separate edifices. 

The president of the university and professor of 
mathematics and English literature is James Kelly, 
a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, and a ripe 
scholar; Orson Pratt, a man of pure mind and high or- 
der of ability, who without early education and amidst 
great difficulties had to achieve learning as best he 
could, and in truth has achieved it; professor of lan- 
guages, Orson Spencer, graduate of Union College 
and the Baptist Theological Seminary, New York; 
professor of church history, Sidney Bigdon, versed 
in history, belles-lettres, and oratory. In the board 
of regents we find the leading men of the church;® 
connected v/ith the university were four common- 
school wards, with three wardens to each. 

In 1840 all the male members of the church be- 
tween the ages of sixteen and fifty were enrolled in 
a military organization known as the Nauvoo Legion, 
which eventually numbered some four thousand men, 
and constituted part of the state militia. It was di- 
vided into two cohorts, and then into regiments, bat- 
talions, and companies. Lieutenant-general Joseph 
Smith being commander-in-chief. '^ The organization 

'Chancellor, John C. Bennett; registrar, William Law; regents, Joseph 
Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Hjn-um Smith, William Marks, Samuel H. Smith, 
Daniel H. Wells, N. K. Whitney, Charles C. Rich, John T. Barnett, Wilson 
Law, John P. Greene, Vinson Knight, Isaac Galland, Elias Higbee, Robert 
D. Foster, James Adams, Samuel Bennett, Ebenezer Robinson, John Snider, 
George Miller, Lenos M. Enight, John Taylor, Heber C. Kimball. The 
tuition fees were five dollars per quarter, payable twice each quarter in ad- 

'Among his generals were Robert D. Foster, George W. Robinson, Charles 
C. Rich, W. P. Lyon, Davison Hibbard, Hirum Kimball, A. P. Rock wood; 
majors, Willard Richards, Hosea Stout; colonels, John F. Weld, Orson Pratt, 
Francis M. Higbee, Carlos Gove, C. L. Higbee, James Sloan, George Schindle, 
Amasa Lyman, D. B, Smith, George Coulson, Alexander McRea, J. R. Back- 


was modelled after the Koman legion. The men were 
well disciplined, brave, and efficient. These troops 
carried their name to Utah, where they were reor- 
ganized in May 1857. 

Though all are soldiers, there are no dandy warriors 
in their midst. Each one returns after drill to his 
occupation — to his farm, factory, or merchandise. 
Among other workshops are a porcelain factory es- 
tablished by a Staffordshire company, two steam saw- 
mills, a steam flouring-mill, a foundry, and a tool- 
factory. A joint-stock company is organized under the 
style of the Nauvoo Agricultural and Manufactur- 
ing Association. Just outside the city is a commu- 
nity farm, worked by the poor for their own benefit; 
to each family in the city is allotted one acre of 
ground; the system of community of property does 
not obtain. 

Most of the people in and about Nauvoo are 
Mormons, but not all. The population is made up 
chiefly from the farming districts of the United States 
and the manufacturing districts of England; though 
uneducated, unpolished, and superstitious, they are 
for the most part intelligent, industrious, competent, 
honest, and sincere.^ With a shrewd head to direct, 

enstos, L. Woodworth; captains, D. B. Huntington, Samuel Hicks, Amos Da- 
vis, Marcellus Bates, Charles Allen, L. N. Scovil, W. M. Allred, Justus Morse, 
John F. Olney, Darwin Chase, C. M. Kreymyer, and others. 'Col. A. P. Rock- 
wood was drill-master. Rockwood was then a captain, but was afterward pro- 
moted to colonel of tlie militia, or host of Israel. I was then fourth corporal 
of a company. The people were regiilarly drilled and taught military tactics, 
so that they would be ready to act when the time came for returning to Jackson 
county, the promised land of our inheritance.' Lee's 2Iormonisin, 112. 'Re- 
views were held from time to time, and flags presented, and Joseph appeared 
OQ all those occasions with a splendid stafl", in all the pomp and circumstance 
of a full-blown military commander.' Ferris' Utah and the Mormons, 100-1. 
'At the last dress parade of the legion, he was accompanied in the field by a 
display of ten of his spiritual wives or concubines, dressed in a fine uniform, 
and mounted on elegant white horses.' Tucker's Mormonism, 170. After the 
force reached Utah it was 'regularly drilled by competent officers, many of 
whom ser^-ed in Mexico with the Mormon battalion under Gen. W. Scott. 
They are well armed, and perfectly fearless.' Hyde's Mormonism, 183. See 
further Times and Seasons, ii. 321-2, 417-18, 435, 517; iii. 654, 700-1, 718, 
733-4, 921; Stenhouse's TeU It All, 306; Deseret Kews, April 15 and July 1, 
1857, July 6, 1859; Gunnison's Mormons, 133; Smucker'ts Hist. Mor., 149; 
Kidder's Mormonism, 182-9. 

^Says the St Louis Atlas of September 1841: The people of Nauvoo 'have 


like that of the prophet, a wisdom like his to concen- 
trate, a power like his to say to ten thousand men, do 
this, and it is done, with plenty of cheap, virgin land, 
with a collective knowledge of all arts, and with hab- 
its of economy and industry, it were a wonder if they 
did not rapidly accumulate property, and some of 
them acquire wealth. This they do, though tithed 
by the church, and detested by the gentiles, and they 
prosper in a remarkable degree. Of course, in po- 
litical, as in spiritual and pecuniary affairs, the proph- 
et's word is law. 

"Nauvoo is the best place in the world!" exclaims 
an enthusiastic saint. Nauvoo, the beautiful indeed! 
And ''as to the facilities, tranquillities, and virtues of 
the city, they are not equalled on the globe." Here 
the saints find rest. "No vice is meant to be toler- 
ated; no grog-shops allowed; nor would we have any 
trouble, if it were not for our lenity in suffering the 
world,^ as I shall call them, to come in and trade, and 

been grossly misunderstood and shamefully libelled . . . The present population 
is between eight and nine thousand, and of coui'se it is the largest town in 
Illinois. The people are very enterprising, industrious, and thrifty. They 
are at least quite as honest as the rest of us in this part of the world, and 
probably in any other. Some peculiarities they have, no doubt. Their relig- 
ion is a peculiar one; that is, neither Buddhism, nor Mahometanism, nor 
Judaism, nor Christianity, but it is a faith which they say encourages no 
vice nor immorality, nor departure from established laws and usages; neither 
polygamy, nor promiscuous intercourse, nor community of property ... Ar- 
dent spirits as a drink are not iu use among them. . .Tobacco, also, is a weed 
which they seem almost universally to despise. We don't know but that the 
Mormons ought to be expatriated for refusing to drink whiskey and chew 
tobacco; but we hope the question will not be decided hastilj', nor until their 
judges have slept off the fumes of their own liquor and cigars.' 'They have 
enclosed large farms on the prairie ground, on which they have raised corn, 
wheat, hemp, etc., and all this they have accomplished within the short 
space of four years. I do not believe there is another people in existence 
who could have made such improvements in the same length of time under 
the same circumstances. And here allow me to remark, that there are some 
here who have lately emigrated to this place, who have built themselves 
large and convenient homes in the town; others on their farms on the prairie, 
who, if they had remained at home, might have continued to live in rented 
houses all their days, and never once have entertained the idea of building 
one for themselves at their own expense.' Smucker's Mormonism, 159. 

' Gentiles were not excluded from the holy city. In Bennett's Hist. Saints, 
158,, is given an ordinance, dated March 1, 1841, running as follows: 'Be it 
ordained by the city council of the city of Nauvoo, that the catholics, pres- 
byterians, methodists, baptists, latter-day saints, quakers, episcopalians, 
universalists, imitarians, mohammedans, and all other religious sects and de- 
nominations whatever, shall have toleration and equal privileges in this city; 


enjoy our society, as they say." "They are a wonder- 
fully enterprising people," writes a gentile. "Peace 
and harmony reign in the city. The drunkard is 
scarcely ever seen, as in other cities, neither does the 
awful imprecation or profane oath strike upon your 
ear; but while all is storm and tempest and confusion 
abroad respecting the Mormons, all is peace and har- 
mony at home."^*' 

About this time there comes to Joseph Smith a 
somewhat singular individual making somewhat singu- 
lar advances. He is a yankee huckster of the first 
class, only for his merchandise, instead of patent 
clocks and wooden nutmegs, he offers for sale theol- 
ogy, medicine, and a general assortment of political 
and military wares. The thing is a fraud, and be- 
fore long he openly announces himself as such. As 
his manhood is far inferior to his duplicity, so his 
name — the Reverend General John C. Bennett, M. 
D,, U. S. A., president, chancellor, and master in 
chancery — as we may observe, is subordinate to his 
titles. He has ability, he has brains and fingers ; but 

and should any person be guilty of ridiculing, abusing, or otherwise depre- 
ciating another in consequence of his religion, etc., he shall be fined and 
imprisoned.' On the 17th of March, 1842, the Female Relief Society of Nau- 
voo was organized. 

1" In the Salem Advertiser was published an account of the visit to Nauvoo 
in 1843 of one Newhall, a lecturer, who says: 'I sought in vain for anything 
that bore the marks of immorality, but was both astonished and highly pleased 
at my ill success. I could see no loungers about the streets nor any drunk- 
ards about the taverns. I did not meet with those distorted features of I'uf- 
fians, or with the ill-bred and impudent. I heard not an oath in the place, I 
saw not a gloomy countenance; all were cheerful, polite, and industrious.' 
Smucker's Mormons, 154^5. 'The mayor of Nauvoo deserves praise for the 
stand he has taken in favor of temperance. The retailing of ardent spirits is 
not permitted within the bounds of the corporation.' Kidder's Mormons, 189. 
For city ordinance prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors in less quantity 
than a quart except as a physician's prescription, see Bennett's Hist. Saints, 27. 
On the 12th of Nov. 1841, B. Winchester writes from Nauvoo: 'You would 
be astonished, if you were here, at the vast improvement made in so short a 
space of time . . . You will see nothing like idleness, but will hear the lium of 
industry, nay, may I not say more, the voice of merriment. ..Now as to the 
morality of the people here: . . .you know if you should throw cold water into 
melted iron the scene would be terrific, because the contrast would be so 
great; so it is with the saints: if a small portion of wickedness happens among 
them, the contrast between the spirit of Christ and that of darkness is so 
great that it makes a great upstir and tremendous excitement; this is the case 
here; but in other communities the same amount of crime would hardly be 
noticed. ' 


he has no soul. He comes to Joseph and says, 
**Hail, master!" and worships him. He professes all 
that the Mormons profess, and more; he does all 
that the Mormons do, and more. So the prophet 
makes him general of his legion, mayor of the city, 
chancellor of the university, not to mention his func- 
tions as attorney, doctor, and privy counsellor. All 
this is done with quick despatch; and the result 
is that the great man soon tires of his greatness, 
or thinks to become yet greater by turning rene- 
gade, and writing a book against his late friends and 

" Representative of a class of anti-Mormon literature, not altogether 
creditable to either its authors or supporters, are the following: 

7'Ae History of the Saints; or. An Expos6 of Joe Smith and Mormonism. 
By John G. Bennett. (Boston, 1842.) 

The Abominations of Mormonism, Exposed; containing many Facts and 
Doctrines concerning that singular people daring seven years' membership with 
them, from IS40 to 1847. By William Hall. (Cincinnati, 1852.) 

Mormonism: Its Leaders and Designs. By John Hyde, Jun., formerly a 
Mormon elder and resident of Salt Lake City. (New York, 1857.) 

Mormonism Unveiled; or, The Life and Confessions of the late Mormon 
bishop, John D. Lee; Written by Himself; Embracing a history of Mormonism 
from its inception down to the present time, with an exposition of the secret his- 
tory, signs, symbols, and crimes of the Mormon Church; also the true history 
of the horrible butchery known as the Mountain Meadow Massacre. (St Louis, 

The role of traitor is not one which in any wise bricgs credit to the 
performer, either from one side or the other. However great the service he 
may render us, we cannot but feel that he is false-hearted and vile. Many 
of the apostates, though they may not have written books, declare that they 
joined the sect only to learn their secrets and then expose them. These are 
the most contemptible of all. There may be cases where a young or inex- 
perienced person, through ignorance or susceptibility, has been carried away 
for a time contrary to the dictates of cooler judgment; but the statements of 
such persons are justly regarded with more or less suspicion. Far better is 
it, far more honest and praiseworthy, for him who, having unwittingly made 
a mistake, seeks to rectify it, to go his way and say nothing about it; for if 
he talks of writing a book for the good of others, as a warning, and that 
they may avoid his errors, few will believe him. ' If he has proved traitor 
once,' they say, 'he will deceive again; and if he is sincere, we cannot more 
than half believe him, for such an individual is never sure of himself.' John 
C. Bennett, general, doctor, methodist preacher, and quack, is from his own 
showing a bad man. He devotes some fifty pages to the vindication of his 
character, which would not be necessary were he honest; other fifty are 
given to defaming his late worshipful patron Joseph Smith, which would 
never have been written were he true. When a man thrusts in your face 
three-score certificates of his good character, each signed by from one to a 
dozen persons, you may know that he is a very great rascal. Nor are we 
disappointed here. This author is a charlatan, pure and simple; such was 
he when he joined the Mormons, and before and after. We may credit him 
fully when he says, ' I never believed in them or their doctrines;' although 
in a letter to Dr Dyer, dated Nauvoo, Jan. 20, 1842, he declares: ' My heart ia 


There is another individual of similar name, and 
yet more similar character, James Arlington Ben- 

filled with indignation, and my blood boils withia rae, when I contemplate 
the vast injustice and cruelty which Missouri has meted out to the great 
philanthropist and devout Christian, General Joseph Smith, and his honest 
and faithful adherents. ' When, however, he affects patriotism and lofty devo- 
tion to the welfare of his fellow-men, pretending to have joined the society 
in order to frustrate 'a daring and colossal scheme of rebellion and usurpa- 
tion throughout the north-western states, ... a despotic military and religious 
empire, the head of which, as emperor and pope, was to be Joseph Smith,' 
we know that the writer is well aware that it is all nonsense. Nor do we be- 
lieve that he was induced to print his book ' by a desire to expose the enor- 
mous iniquities which have been perpetrated by one of the grossest and 
most infamous impostors that ever appeared upon the face of the earth.' 
We have heard and are still hearing so much of that kind of talk from some 
of the worst men in the community that it is becoming somewhat stale, and 
if the general really does not know better than this why he wrote his book, 
perhaps he will excuse me for telling him that it was, first, for notoriety; sec- 
ond, for money; and third, in order to make people think him a better and 
greater man than he is. When a man's ambition is pitched so low, it is 
a pity that he should not have the gratification of success. Bravely, then, the 
general proceeded to offer himself on the altar of his country, 'to overthrow 
the impostor and expose his iniquity ' by ' professing himself a convert to hia 
doctrines; ' for ' the fruition of his hopeful project would, of course, have 
been preceded by plunder, devastation, and bloodshed, and by all the count- 
less horrors which invariably accompany civil war.' We are still more im- 
pressed when we read: 'I was quite aware of the danger I ran' — that of 
being kicked out of some back door — 'but none of these things deten-ed me.' 
Without wasting more time and space upon the man, we are well enough pre- 
pared to place a proper estimate upon his statements, particularly when we 
take into account that, in May of the very year in which his book was pub- 
lished, he went before Alderman Wells and made affidavit that Joseph Smith 
was an honest, virtuous, sincere, high-minded, and patriotic man. He says 
himself that he solemnly swore to be true to the Mormons and not reveal 
their secrets, and now in breaking that oath he has the audacity to ask us to 
regard him as an honest and truthful man! In some measure, at least, the 
statements of such men as this, taken up by the press and people, and reiter- 
ated throughout the land, have given the latter-day saints a worse name 
than they deserve. Some of his charges are too coarse and filthy for repe- 
tition. I will cite a few specimens, however, to show how far mendacity 13 
sometimes carried in this direction. 

Joseph Smith is a 'monster who is using the power he possesses to gratify 
a brutal lust;' 'a Giovanni of some dozens of mistresses;' 'must be branded 
as a consummate knave;' one 'of the most heaven-daring liars the world ever 
saw;' 'notoriously profane;' 'gets most gloriously drunk,' etc. In the moat 
vulgar and licentious language, he goes on to describe what he calls the ' Mor- 
mon seraglio,' 'the female inquisition,' 'Joe's cloistered, chambered, and cy- 
prian maids. ' He revels in all the wickedness of this kind during past ages 
which he can make up, rolling it as a sweet morsel under his tongue, finally 
affirming that ' the holy Joe outdoes them all ! ' He says that any woman be- 
longing to the society who lapses from virtue is condemned to a life of se- 
cret prostitution, the most trustworthy members of the church having knowl- 
edge of it; another class indulge in illicit intercourse by special permission of 
the prophet; another class are the spiritual wives. All this is said, be it re- 
membered, mthia two or three months of the time he made oath that Smith 
was one of the besb and purest of men. Next comes an expose of several se- 
cret societies, the Danites, Desti'oying Angel, etc., and finally a list of mur- 
ders and robberies perpetrated ia that section during a certain time, all of 


nett, also called general, whom Mackay, Smucker, 
a reviewer in the Edinburgh, and others have mis- 

which are charged to these agencies. Sidney Rigdon is praised by Bennett; 
80 much the woi'se for Sidney. Doubtless this book played its part in bring- 
ing about the assassination of Joseph Smith. Says John Taylor of John C. 
Bennett: 'At one time he was a good man, but fell into adultery, and was 
cut off from the church for his iniquity;. . .he was also expelled from the mu- 
nicipal court, of which he was a member. ' Public Discussion, 5-6. 

William Hall was an old gentleman of simple mind and manners when he 
wrote his book; he appears to be earnest and truthful. As he says of the 
saints, so I should say of him: he meant well, but he should beware of bad 
leaders. Hall was not a great man in the church, like Bennett; nevertheless, 
like Bennett he wrote a book, but unlike Bennett's, his book reads like that 
of an honest man, although it is full of bitter accusations against the Mor- 
mons. All such works should be taken with some degrees of allowance; for 
when a person begins to rail against any people or individual, he is apt to be 
cai'ried away and misrepresent, intentionally or unintentionally. The period 
that Hall's experiences cover is quite an important one, including as it does the 
Illinois expulsion and the exodus to Great Salt Lake, 

Quite different from any of his brother apostates is John Hyde, Jr, who 
cannot by right be placed in the category of vulgar ranter or hypocritical re- 
former. I regard him as an able and honest man, sober and sincere. He 
docs not denounce the sect as hypocrites. ' I know your sincerity; I know 
also your delusion,' he writes. He does not even denounce all the leaders; 
even to Brigham Young, whom he mercilessly scourges, he gives credit for 
ability and sincerity. 'That you are sincere in your confidence in Joseph 
Smith, and in your own pretensions,' he writes to him, 'I believe and ac- 
knowledge; but at the same time, that you are leading confiding thousands 
to misery and ruin is evident ... I admire your genius, but I deplore its exercise. 
... I admire the industry of your people, their notable labors, and their general 
eincerity; but I deplore their delusion, and I denounce their deceivers.' His 
book is dedicated 'To the honest believers in Mormonism,' and he says to 
them: 'In writing the following work I was not actuated by the base design 
of helping to malign an unpopular people, nor by the unworthy one of ad- 
ministering to a mere idle curiosity. ' John Hyde was bom in England, in 
1833, and joined the Mormons there when fifteen years of age. He was al- 
most immediately ordained a priest and began to preach. In 1851 he was 
ordained one of the seventies, an office of equal power but inferior jurisdic- 
tion to that ot one of the twelve, and joined John Taylor in France. With 
about 400 Mormon converts he sailed from Liverpool in Feb. 1853, visited Nau- 
voo, and thence crossed the plains in company with 2,500 brethren to Salt Lake 
City, where he married and began teaching school. In Feb. 1854 he was 'in- 
itiated into the mysteries of the Mormon endowment,' became shaken in the 
faith, and the following year, having accepted a mission to the Hawaiian Isl- 
ands, he threw off Mormonism and preached and wrote against it instead of 
for it. In his book he gives a description of Salt Lake City in 1853-4, a chap- 
ter entitled 'Practical Polygamy,' and others on Mormon Mysteries, Educa- 
tion, Brigliam Young, Book of Mormon, Theoretical Polygamy, and Sup- 
pression of Mormonism. Hyde's book would be quite useful were he not so 
loose about his dates; it would appear from the way he throws statements 
together that in the absence of a date he guessed at it. 

Still another style of book is that of John D. Lee, purporting to have 
been written by him, but as a matter of fact written for the most part by 
W. W. Bishop while Lee was in prison condemned to death. The work, there- 
fore, though the story of a Mormon, and of one who under the circumstances 
could not be expected to be veiy friendly, is not by a Mormon. The book 
is not essentially different from the matter published in the newspapers about 
the time of Lee's execution, under the title of ' Confessions.' Lee gives the 


taken for the original. The quahty of impudence 
appears as fully in the second Bennett as in the first. ^^ 

As I have before observed, the misfortunes of the 
saints by no means dampened their ardor, or impov- 
erished them as a society. Some lost their all; in 
that case the others helped them. Old scores were 

story of his life, simply and honestly enough; to this is added an account of 
the Mountain Meadow massacre, and of the arrest, trial, and execution of 
Lee. He was a native of Illinois, bom in 1812, worked hard and with suc- 
cess while a young man, became an enthusiastic Mormon in 1837, and went 
to Missouri. With everything there he was highly delighted; he attended 
devoutly all the services of the church, and was duly promoted. He was 
with his people at Nauvoo, migrated with them to Utah, and was adopted 
by Brigham Young. In 1877 he was executed for participation in the Moun- 
tain Meadow massacre, excusing himself while cursing others. 

Mormonism and the Mormons; A Historical Vieio of the rise and progress 
of the sect self-styled Latter-day Saints; by Daniel P. Kidder, is the title 
of a 16mo vol. of 342 pages, published in New York, and bearing no date, 
though entered for copyright in the year 1842. Mr Kidder certainly wrote 
a book on short acquaintance with the subject; as he says up to Nov. 1840, 
he knew little about it. On the 13th of that month he found himself 
on board a Mormon steamboat called the Fulton City, on the Mississippi River, 
bound for Nauvoo. Nearly all the passengers and crew were Mormons. 
Desirous of knowing more of them, and holding to the maxim that by teach- 
ing most is to be learned, he procured copies of the Book of Mormon, Doc- 
trine and Covenants, Howe^s Mormonism Unveiled, and Corr ill's Brief His- 
tory, and seating himself before them made his book, which consists chiefly 
of extracts from the above sources tied together with occasional remarks 
neither startling nor original. In Nauvoo, without date, but probably about 
1841, were published two chapters of nonsense about women and their relations 
and duties to men, entitled. An Extract from a Manuscript entitled The 
Peace-maker, or the Doctrines of the Millennium, being a Treatise on Religion 
and Jurisprudence, or a New System of Religion and Politics. For God, my 
Country, and my Rights, By Adney Hay Jacob, an Israelite, and a Shepherd 
of Israel. Nauvoo, III. J. Smith, Printer. In a preface the reader is told: 
' The author of this work is not a Mormon, although it is printed by their press. ' 

^^In a letter to the prophet dated October 24, 1843, which has become 
quite famous, James A. Bennett pretends to have been baptized by Brigham 
Young, a ceremony that he alludes to as 'a glorious frolic in the clear blue 
ocean' with 'your most excellent and worthy friend. President B. Young.' 
'Nothing of this kind,' he goes on to say, 'would in the least attach me to 
your person or cause. I am capable of being a most undeviatLng friend, 
without being governed by the smallest religious influence . . .Isay, therefore, 
go ahead, you have my good wishes. You know Mahomet had his right-hand 
man,' etc. Smith replied at length in a religio-philosophic strain. More has 
been made of this correspondence than it deserves. It was printed in Times 
and Seasons, iv. 371-3, in Cor. betiveen Joseph Smith. .. Wentworth. . .and 
. . .Calhoun, as well as in Mackai/'s The Mormons, and Smucker's Hist. Mor. 
See also Edinburgh Review, April 1854, 334. Mackay observes: 'Joseph's re- 
ply to this singular and too candid epistle was quite as singular and infinitely 
more amusing. Joseph was too cunning a man to accept, in plain terms, the 
rude but serviceable offer; and he rebuked the vanity and presumption of 
Mr Bennett, while dexterously retaining him for future use.' All this 
would have some significance if Smith had been in the least deceived, or 
had the writer of this letter and the original rascal been one. 


cancelled, old debts forgiven.^^ There were no great 
riches among them; yet he who had nothing could 
not be called jooor amid such surroundings. Head 
over all, temporal and spiritual, was Joseph Smith, 
not only prophet and president, but general and 
mayor. ^* He had now approached the summit of his 
career, and for a brief space was permitted to enjoy 
his fame, wealth, and power in some degree of quiet. 
They were salutary lessons that the prophet and 
his people had received in Missouri, and for a time 
their speech and manner were less arrogant than of 
old. But soon prosperity was far greater here than 
ever before, and as with Israel of old the chastise- 
ments of the Lord were soon forgotten. From the 
moment they crossed the river from . Missouri into 
Illinois their position as men and members of the 
commonwealth was changed. In the one state they 
were regarded as fanatics, dangerous to the govern- 
ment and to the people, having associated assassins to 
do their bidding, and holding to a doctrine of divine 
inheritance with regard to all that country; in the 

" 'At the conference in April 1840, the prophet delivered a lengthy ad- 
dress upon the history and condition of the saints. He reminded the breth- 
ren that all had suffered alike for the sake of the gospel. The rich and the 
Eoor had been brought to a common level by persecution; that many of the 
rethren were owing debts that they had been forced to contract in order to 
get out of Missouri alive. He considered it was unchristian-like for the 
brethren to demand the payment of such debts; that he did not wish to 
screen any one from the just payment of his debts, but he did think that it 
would be for the glory of the kingdom if the people would, of their own will, 
freely forgive each other for all their existing indebtedness, one to the other, 
then renew their covenants with almighty God and with each other; refrain 
from exal, and live their religion; by this means, God's holy spirit would sup- 
port and bless the people. The people were then asked if they were in favor 
of thus bruiging about the year of jubilee. All that felt so inclined were 
asked to make it known by raising their hands; every hand in the audience 
was raised. ' The prophet then declared all debts of the saints, to and from 
each other, forgiven and cancelled. He then gave the following words of 
advice to the people: 'I wish you all to know that because you were justified 
in taking property from your enemies while engaged in war in Missouri, 
which was needed to support you, there is now a ditferent condition of things 
existing. We are no longer at war, and you must stop stealing. When the 
right time comes we will go in force and take the whole state of Missouri. It 
belongs to us as an inheritiuce; but I want no more petty stealing.' Lee^a 
Mormonhin, 110-11. 

^* Smith was first mayor. Feb. 1, 1841, Bennett was elected mayor and 
80 continued till May 19, 1S42, when Smith again assumed the office. 


other they were esteemed as hard-working and thrifty 
American citizens, whose votes, to the party in power, 
were worth as much as those of the baptist or the 

Such was their past and present status in the com- 
munity. They were now treated, poHtically and 
socially, with consideration, especially by politicians. 
Thomas Carlin, governor of Illinois, was their friend, 
and granted them all the privileges they asked; Rob- 
ert Ijucas, governor of Iowa, was their friend, and 
promised them the protection due to every citizen of 
the United States, of whatsoever religion, creed, 
superstition, fanaticism, craze, or whatever people 
might choose to call it. 

But soon there came a governor, named Thomas 
Ford, who knew not Joseph. He was a well meaning- 
man enough, not blood-thirsty like Boggs, nor strong 
and cool-headed like Carlin, nor yet a man of positive 
action and opinion like Lucas; still, Ford was not a 
bad man, and if the saints had conducted themselves 
according to the wisdom of the world, they might in 
time, perhaps, have overcome the prejudices of the 
people. But prosperity seemed as fatal to them as 
adversity was profitable. All the best of heaven and 
earth was now theirs, and again Jeshurun waxed fat 
and kicked, revelations becoming less frequent as the 
cares of this world, the lusts of the flesh, and the 
pride of life crept in among the people. 

The city charter of Nauvoo-^^ allowed the enact- 
ment of any laws not in conflict with those of the 
state or of the United States, and particularly that a 
writ of habeas corpus might be issued in all cases aris- 
ing under city ordinance. In the interpretation of this 

^^ Describing Nauvoo at this period, Linforth remarks: ' Before the close 
of 1842 a vast improvement had taken place. The city, which then extended 
3 or 4 miles on the river, and about the same distance back, had been regu- 
larly laid off into blocks, containing 4 lots of 11 by 12 rods each, between 700 
and 800 houses had been erected, and the population numbered about 15,000. 
Two Rteam-mills and 2 printing-presses existed, and buildings for various 
manufactures were rapidly gouig up. In the mean time the temple and 
Nauvoo House were progressing.' Route from Liverpool to G. S. L. Valley, 62. 


provision the saints allowed themselves rather a wide 
latitude, even assuming authority opposed to superior 
powers, and sometimes questioning the validity of state 
documents not countersigned by the mayor ofNauvoo. 
The counties surrounding Hancock, in which was Nau- 
voo, were fearful of the prosperity of the saints, and of 
their political influence; there were angry words and 
bickerings between the opposing societies, and then 
blows. The old Missouri feud was kept alive by suits 
instituted against Smith and others.-^^ An attempt 
made to assassinate Governor Boggs was, of course, 
charged to the Mormons, and probably with truth. 
In fact, if we may believe their enemies, they did not 
deny it. Boggs had unlawfully ordered all the Mor- 
mons in Missouri killed if they did not leave the 
state: why had not they the same right, they argued, 
to break the law and kill him V^ 

Among the reports circulated, besides those of 
assassination and attempted assassination, the follow- 
ing will serve as specimens: That the plan of Smith 

'^ When on his return from Quincy, to which place he had accompanied 
Hyrum Smith and William Law, who were on a mission to the east, Joseph 
was arrested the 5th of June, 1841, on a warrant from Gov. Carlin to deliver 
him to the Missouri state authorities. In return, Joseph Smith brought suit 
against J. H. Re3aiold3 and H. G. Wilson for false imprisonment. This as 
well as other affairs of the kind kept up a bitter excitement. 

^^On the 6th of May, 1842, Gov. Boggs was fired at through a window, 
and narrowly escaped being killed. The crime was charged to 0. P. Rock- 
well, ' with the connivance and under the instructions of Joseph Smith. ' Hyde's 
Mormonism, 105, 206. Boggs swore he believed Smith a party to the at- 
tempted assassination, and instituted legal proceedings. Machay's The Mor- 
n>,ons, 139. Bennett, Hist. Saints, 281-2, labors hard to prove that Smith 
wanted Boggs killed, and said as much, which it seems to me few would deny, 
Bennett states that in 1841 Smith prophesied that Boggs would die by violent 
hands within a year. ' In the spring of the year 1842 Smith offered a reward of 
$500 to any man who would secretly assassinate Gov. Boggs. ' Joseph O. Boggs, 
brother of the governor, writes Bennett, Sept. 12, 1842, 'We have now no 
doubt of the guilt of Smith and Rockwell.' Id., 286. Rockwell was arrested, 
discharged, and went to Utah. ' Brigham has had him into the pulpit,' says 
Hyde, ' to address the meetings.' We read: ' Grin Porter Rockwell, the Islor- 
mon confined in our county jail some time since for the attempted assassination 
of ex-governor Boggs, was indicted by our last grand jury for escaping from the 
county jail some weeks since, and sent to Clay county for trial. Owing, how- 
ever, to some informality in the proceedings, he was remanded to this county 
again for trial. There was not sufficient proof adduced against him to justify 
an indictment for shooting at ex-governor Boggs; and the grand jury, there- 
fore, did not indict him for that offence.' Independent Expositor; Nilea' Regis- 
ter, Sept. 30, 1843. 


was to take the county, then the state, after that the 
United States, and finally the whole world; that any 
section making a move against the saints should be 
destroyed by the Danites; that Smith declared his 
prophecies superior to law, and threatened that if not 
let alone he would prove a second Mahomet, and send 
streams of blood from the Rocky Mountains to the 

In an address to the saints at Nauvoo, September 
1, 1842, Joseph stated that on account of the enemies 
in pursuit of him, both in Missouri and in Illinois, he 
deemed it best to retire for a time, and seek safety.^^ 
He ordered his debts paid as they fell due, his prop- 
erty to be sold if necessary to meet requirements, 
and exhorted all officers to be faithful to their trust. 
''When the storm is past I will return," he said; ''and 
as for perils, they seem small things to me, for the 
envy and wrath of man have been my common lot all 
the days of my life." And again: "Verily thus saith 
the Lord, let the work of my temple, and all the works 
which I have appointed unto you, be continued and 
not cease. Let all the records be had in order, that 
they may be put in the archives of my holy temple. 
I will write the word of the Lord from time to time 
and send it to you by mail. I now close my letter for 
the present, for the want of more time, for the enemy 
is on the alert; and as the savior said, the prince of 
this world cometh, but he hath nothing in me." 

Five days later the prophet sent an address to the 
saints, mainly touching the baptism for the dead, of 
which more hereafter. "Now what do we hear in the 
gospel which we have received ? A voice of gladness ! 
A voice of mercy from heaven; and a voice of truth 
out of the earth, glad tidings for the dead; a voice 
of gladness for the living and dead ; glad tidings of 
great j oy . And again what do we hear ? Glad tidings 
from Cumorah! Moroni, an angel from heaven, de- 
claring the fulfilment of the prophets — the book to 
be revealed. A voice of the Lord in the wilderness 


of Fayette, Seneca county, declaring the three wit- 
nesses to bear record of the book. The voice of Mi- 
chael on the banks of the Susquehanna, detecting the 
devil when he appeared as an angel of light. The 
voice of Peter, James, and John in the wilderness be- 
tween Harmony, Susquehanna county, and Colesville, 
Boone county, on the Susquehanna River, declaring 
themselves as possessing the keys of the kingdom, 
and of the dispensation of the fulness of times. And 
again, the voice of God in the chamber of old Father 
Whitmer, in Fayette, Seneca county, and at sundry 
times and in divers places, through all the travels 
and tribulations of this church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints." 

We come now to a most momentous epoch in the 
history of the church, to the most important act of 
the prophet during the entire course of his wonderful 
life, to the act of all others pregnant with mighty 
results, if we except the primary proceedings relative 
to the sacred book and its translation. 

Twenty years had passed since the plates of Mor- 
mon had been revealed to Joseph, during which time 
he had suffered divers and continued persecution. 
He and his followers had been reviled and spit upon 
from the beginning; some of them had been robbed, 
and beaten, hunted down, imprisoned, and slain. 
Yet they had prospered; the church had rapidly 
increased, and its members were blessed with plenty. 
Their neighbors spoke much evil of them and com- 
mitted many violent acts. The saints were exceed- 
ingly annoying; they voted solid and claimed the 
whole world as theirs, including Jackson county, 
Missouri ; they were wild in their thoughts, extrava- 
gant in their pretensions, and by no means temperate 
in the use of their tongues; they were not always 
prudent; they were not always without reproach. 

Just how far certain members or leaders erred, 
bringing evil on all, it is impossible at this day to 


determine. The evidence comes to us in the form 
of rumors, general assertions, and bold statements 
from the mouths of men filled with deadly hate, and 
cannot be altos^ether trusted. Some of these have said 
that the leaders of the church, finding their power 
over the minds and bodies of their female associ- 
ates so greatly increased, so rapidly becoming abso- 
lute, could not resist temptation, but fell into grievous 
sins like Jeroboam and David, and were thereby 
obliged to adopt some plan either to cover or make 
right their conduct. 

It was easy for the gentiles to make such a charge 
appear plausible, in view of the fact that about 
this time the doctrine of plurality of wives as prac- 
tised and promulgated in the scriptures attracted 
much attention. Most of the other acts, customs, 
and ordinances of the old and new testaments had 
been adopted in common with those contained in the 
book of Mormon by the latter-day church; why 
should not this? Wives and concubines without re- 
striction had been permitted to the worthy men of 
old; the holy scriptures had nowhere condemned the 
custom; God had at no time ordered otherwise. On 
the contrary, it seemed in the line of example and 
duty; it seemed necessary to make the holy fabric 
symmetrical and complete. True, it was not now in 
vogue with either Jews or Christians; but neither 
were miracles nor special revelations. Surely, if God 
disapproved, he would have so declared; his com- 
mands he makes clear; particularly acts heinous in his 
sight he denounces loudly and with many repetitions. 

Thus argued the elders. They did not consider, nor 
indeed care for, the fact that, viewed from the stand- 
point of intellectual progress, the revival of polygamy, 
or concubinage, in common with other practices of 
the half-savage Hebrews, was a retrogression, a turn- 
ing back toward savagism. They found it sanctioned 
in the holy book in use by the most civilized nations 
of the earth, and they felt themselves able to make 


it appear plausible. If any had the right to adopt part 
of the bible as their rule of conduct, accepting it all as 
true, they claimed the right to adopt the whole of it 
for their rule of conduct if they chose. It was civil- 
ization, and not the holy scriptures, that forbade* 
polygamy, and they cared very little comparatively 
for civilization. 

Finally, on the 12th of July, 1843, while the chief 
men of the church were thinking the matter over, 
though saying little even among themselves, it is 
stated that there came to Joseph a revelation, the last 
of the prophet's revelations of which there is any 

"Verily, thus saith the Lord unto you, my servant 
Joseph, that inasmuch as you have inquired of my 
hand to know and understand wherein I, the Lord, 
justified my servants Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; as 
also Moses, David, and Solomon, my servants, as touch- 
ing the principles and doctrine of their having many 
wives and concubines: Behold! and lo, I am the Lord 
thy God, and will answer thee, as touching this matter. 

"Abraham received concubines, and they bare him 
children, and it was accounted unto him for righteous- 
ness, because they were given unto him, and he abode 
in my law; as Isaac also, and Jacob, did none other 
things than that which they were commanded. 
David also received many wives and concubines, as 
also Solomon, and Moses, my servant, as also many 
others of my servants, from the beginning of creation 
until this time, and in nothing did they sin, save in 
those things which they received not of me. 

"David's wives and concubines were given unto him 
of me by the hand of Nathan, my servant, and others 
of the prophets who had the keys of this power; and 
in none of these things did he sin against me, save in 
the case of Uriah and his wife ; and, therefore, he hath 
fallen from his exaltation, and received his portion; 
and he shall not inherit them out of the world, for I 
gave them unto another, saith the Lord. 


"Verily, I say unto you, a commandment I give 
unto mine handmaid, Emma Smith, your wife, wiiom 
I have given unto you, that she stay herself, and par- 
take not of that which I commanded you to offer unto 
her; for I did it, saith the Lord, to prove you all, as 
I did Abraham, and that I might require an offer- 
ing at your hand by convenant and sacrifice; and let 
mine handmaid, Emma Smith, receive all those that 
have been given unto my servant Joseph, and who 
are virtuous and pure before me. 

"And I command mine handmaid, Emma Smith, to> 
abide and cleave unto my servant Joseph, and to none 
else. And again, verily, I say, let mine handmaid' 
forgive my servant Joseph his trespasses, and then 
shall she be forgiven her trespasses, wherein she hath; 
trespassed against me ; and I, the Lord thy God, will 
bless her and multiply her, and make her heart to re- 

"And again, as pertaining to the law of the- priest- 
hood: if any man espouse a virgin, and desire to espouse 
another, and the first give her consent; and if he 
espouse the second, and they are virgins, and have 
vowed to no other man, then he is justified; he can- 
not commit adultery, for they are given unto him; 
for he cannot commit adultery with that belonging 
unto him, and to none else; and if he have ten virgins 
given unto him by this law he cannot commit adultery, 
for they belong to him, and they are given unto him ; 
therefore he is justified." 

It is said that as early as 1831 the will of the Lord 
in this respect had been revealed to Joseph. In 
translating the bible he had come upon the passages 
relating to plural wives and concubines, and had in- 
quired of the Lord what he should do. He was told 
to wait, and not make the matter public then, the peo- 
ple not yet having faith to receive it. It was one of 
the severest trials the church had yet been called upon 
to undergo, and the wisest circumspection was neces- 
sary lest Joseph should be repudiated by his followers 

Hist. Utah. 11 


as a false prophet. So he approached persons singly, 
first the man of the family and then the woman. In 
1841 Joseph began to take to himself plural wives, 
and his example was followed by some of the others. 
Finally, in order that all might know that he was not 
acting on his own responsibility alone, the revelation 
came, sanctioning and enforcing the system. This, as 
I have given it, is the orthodox and authorized ex- 
planation of the matter. 

Thus came to the saints the doctrine of polygamy, 
first to the leaders and for a time kept secret, and 
finally to the whole church, as one of its most prom- 
inent tenets.-^^ For years it was known only to a few, 
and it was not formall}^ promulgated until after the 
great exodus, when the church had become well es- 
tablished in the valleys of the Yutas.-^^ 

There were several reasons for adopting this course. 
First, the hate and obloquy which would be engendered 
by its publication, and the wide-spread and bitter oppo- 
sition it would meet. The work of missionaries in the 
field would greatly suffer. Many in the church would 
oppose it; women would rebel, while their sisters 
throughout Christendom would hold them in derision. 
It was all so new and strange. Even in theory it 
was startling enough; but put it in practice, and who 
could foretell the result? The very foundations of 

'^ John Hyde mentions a previous revelation. He says that about the 
year 1838 'Smith pretended to obtain a revelation from God authorizing him 
to practise polygamy, and began to practise it accordingly. ' Mormonism, 20.3. 
See also Slater^s Mormonism, 84, and Deseret News, Oct. 22, 1879. There is 
no truth whatever in this assertion. And yet John Hyde is regarded as pretty 
good authority; but in this loose way thousands of false statements have 
been made regarding the secrets of the saints. 

^'This revelation was first published in the Deseret News in 1852, and 
next in the Millennial Star at Liverpool, England, in 1853. It is given entire 
elsewhere in this volume. The Edinburgh Rfview of April 1854, 335, says, 'Nob 
many months have yet passed since the Mormon leaders have decided on a 
bolder policy and have publicly avowed this portion of the system,' which 
shows that the fact of publication was not generally known to the gentile Euro- 
pean world until two years after the official notice in Salt Lake City appeared. 
Copies of it will also be found in Doc. and Gov., 423-32; Young's Wife No. 
19, 77-86; Ferris' Utah and the Mormons, app. ; Burton's City of the Saints, 
451-7; Tucker's Mormonism, 172-82; Smith's Rise, Prog, and Travels, 42-8; 
Pfarl of Great Price, 64-70; Stenhouse's Tell It All, 135-8; and Stenhouse'a 
Expos6 of Polygamy, 207-15. 


the church might thereby be broken up. If It must 
needs be, then let discretion be used. Let the mat- 
ter be broken to the church as it is able to receive it; 
let the system be introduced gradually, and practised 
secretly; by the chief men at first, and later by all.-'' 
It was indeed a heavy load that the saints thus took 
upon themselves, willingly or unwillingly, in the ser- 
vice of God or in the service of Satan. Up to this 

^^ It is denied by some that polygamy was practised by the Mormons at 
this date. In the Dcscret News of Oct. 22, 1879, are several statements under 
oath to the effect that between 1840 and 1843 Joseph taught the doctrine of 
celestial or plural marriage, that several women were sealed to him according 
to this doctrine, and this with the consent of Joseph's wife, Emma Smith. 
On the other hand, it is stated in the Scdt Lake Gilij Tribune, Oct. 3, 1879, 
tiiat Emma denied that her husband was ever married to another, or that, so 
far as she knew, he ever had improper relations with any woman. Elder Pratt 
reported at Piano, 111., in the summer of 1878* several instances of Joseph's 
having had wives sealed to him, one at least as early as April 5, 1841. 'Smith 
introduced (at Nauvoo) the system of spiritual wifeism, and had largely in- 
creased his household by celestial ensealment. This was tlie preliminary step 
of polygamy, or its practical adoption, though it had not yet been revealed 
as a tenet in the Mormon creed.' Tucker' ti Mornwnlsm, 170. The revelation 
was written after he had taken other wives. Stenhotise's Expos6 of Polnqamy, 
70. Jos. Smith adopts it and is sealed to Eliza vSnow. TuUidf/e's Life of 
Young, Suppl. 22. In a letter to the Desertt Neios, Oct. 22, 1879, Eliza R. 
Snow signs her name as 'a wife of Joseph Smith the propliet.' 'Brigham 
Young delivered over to Jo Smith all his wives except one, and soon after 
Smith had a revelation that Young should be his successor as head of the 
clmrch.' Slater's Mormonism, 84. John D. Lee says: *I understood that 
Brig. Young's wife Avas sealed to Joseph. After his death Brig. Young told 
me that Joseph's time on earth was short, and that the Lord allowed him 
privileges that we could not have.' Mormonism, 147. Jos. Smith had taken 
some more wives, but the revelation required that he should do it without 
publicity (for fear of the mob). Richards' Remimscences, MS., 18. 'Joseph 
Smith lost his life entirely through attempting to persuade a Mrs Dr Fostei-, 
at Nauvoo, that it was the will of God she should become his spiritual wife; 
not to the exclusion of her husband, Dr Foster, but only to become his in 
time for eternity. This nefarious offer she confessed to her husband. Some 
others of a similar nature were discovered, and Dr Foster, William Law, and 
others began to expose Smith. Tlieir paper was burned, type and press de- 
molished, for which Smith was arrested, and afterward shot by Missourians, 
at Carthage, 111.' Hyde's Mormonism, 85. 

' Smith and Noble repaired by night to the banks of the Mississippi, where 
Noble's sister was sealed to Smith by Noble, and the latter to another woman 
by Smith. These were the first plural marriages, and a son born to Noble 
the first child born in polygamy.' Young's Wife No. 19, 72-3. ' That l^olyg- 
amy existed at Nauvoo, and is now a matter scarcely attempted to be con- 
cealed among the Mormons, is certain.' Gunnison's Mormons, 120. On the 
other side, in Times and Seasons, iv. 143 (March 15, 1843), we read, 'The 
charge of advocating a plurality of Avives is as false as the many other ridicu- 
lous charges brought against us.' In Id., v. 474 (March 15, 1844), Hyium 
Smith declares that no such doctrine is taught or practised; and on p. 715 it 
is declared that 'the law of the land and the rules of the church do not allow 
one man to have more than one wife alive at once.' For additional denials 
by Parley Pratt, John Taylor, and others, see S. L. Tribune, Nov. 11, 1879. 


time, though citizens of the commonwealth, they had 
not been in sympathy with other citizens; though 
rehgionists, they were in deadly opposition to all other 
religions; as a fraternity, bound by friendly compact, 
not alone spiritually but in temporal matters, in buying 
and selling, in town-building, farming, and stock-rais- 
ing, in all trades and manufactures, they stood on vant- 
age-ground. They were stronger than their immediate 
neighbors — stronger socially, politically, and indus- 
trially ; and the people about them felt this, and while 
hating, feared them. 

It is true, that on their first arrival in Zion they 
were not wealthy ; neither were their neighbors. They 
were not highly educated or refined or cultured; 
neither were their neighbors. They were sometimes 
loud and vulgar of speech; so were their neighbors. 
Immorality cropped out in certain quarters; so it did 
among the ancient Corinthians and the men of mod- 
ern Missouri; there was some thieving among them; 
but they were no more immoral or dishonest than 
their persecutors who made war on them, and as 
they thought without a shadow of right. 

There is no doubt that amongf the Mormons as 
among the gentiles, perhaps among the Mormon 
leaders as among the gentile leaders, fornication and 
adultery were practised. It has been so in other ages 
and nations, in every age and nation; it is so now, 
and is likely to be so till the end of the world. But 
when the testimony on both sides is carefully weighed, 
it must be admitted that the Mormons in Missouri 
and Illinois were, as a class, a more moral, honest, 
temperate, hard-working, self-denying, and thrifty 
people than the gentiles by whom they were sur- 
rounded. Says John D. Lee on entering the Mis- 
souri fraternity and, at the time of this remarking, by 
no means friendly to the saints, "The motives of the 
people who composed my neighborhood were pure; 
they were all sincere in their devotions, and tried to 
square their actions through life by the golden rule . . . 


The word of a Mormon was then good for all it was 
pledged to or for. I was proud to be an associate 
with such honorable people." And thus Colonel 
Kane, a disinterested observer, and not a Mormon: 
As compared with the other "border inhabitants of 
Missouri, the vile scum which our society, like the 
great ocean, washes upon its frontier shores," the 
saints were "persons of refined and cleanly habits and 
decent language." 

Nevertheless the sins of the entire section must be 
visited on them. Were there any robberies for miles 
around, they were charged by their enemies upon the 
Mormons; were there any house-burnings or assas- 
sinations anywhere among the gentiles, it was the 
Danites who did it. Of all that has been laid at their 
door I find little proved against them. The charges 
are general, and preferred for the most part by irre- 
sponsible men; in answer to them they refer us to the 
records. On the other hand, the outrages of their 
enemies are easily followed; for they are not denied, 
but are rather gloried in by the perpetrators. To 
shoot a Mormon was indeed a distinction coveted by 
the average gentile citizen of Illinois and Missouri, 
and was no more regarded as a crime than the shoot- 
ing of a Blackfoot or Pawnee. Of course the Mor- 
mons retaliated. 

Polygamy was a heavy load in one sense; in another 
sense it was a bond of strength. While in the eyes 
of the world its open avowal placed the saints outside 
the pale of respectability, and made them amenable 
to the law, among themselves as law-breakers, openly 
defying the law, and placing themselves and their 
religion above all law, the very fact of being thus 
legal offenders, subject to the penalties and punish- 
ments of the law, brought the members of the society 
so acting into closer relationship, cementing them as 
a sect, and making them more dependent on each 
other and on their leaders. It is plain that while 
thus bringing upon themselves ignominy and reproach. 


while laying themselves open to the charge of being 
law-breakers, and assuming an attitude of defiance 
toward the laws and institutions of the country in 
which they lived, this bond of sympathy, of crim- 
inality if you will, particularly when made a mat- 
ter of conscience, when recognized as a mandate from 
the almighty, higher than any human law, and in 
whose obedience God himself was best pleased, and 
would surely afford protection, could but prove in the 
end a bond of strength, particularly if permitted to 
attain age and respectability among themselves, and 
assume the form of a concrete principle and of sacred 

If instead of falling back upon the teachings of the 
old testament, and adopting the questionable practices 
of the half-civilized Jews; if instead of taking for their 
models Abraham, David, and Solomon, the saints at 
Nauvoo had followed the advice of Paul to the saints 
at Ephesus, putting away fornication and all unclean- 
ness, and walking worthy of their vocation, in all 
lowliness and meekness, as children of light, they would 
probably have remained in their beautiful city, and 
come into the inheritance of their Missouri Zion as 
had been prophesied. Had they consulted more 
closely the signs of the times, had they been less 
orthodox in their creed, less patriarchal in their prac- 
tices, less biblical in their tenets, less devoted in their 
doctrines — in a word, had they followed more closely 
the path of worldly wisdom, and, like opposing chris- 
tian sects, tempered religion with civilization, giving 
up the worst parts of religion for the better parts of 
civilization, I should not now be writing their history, 
as one with the history of Utah. 

But now was brought upon them this overwhelming 
issue, which howsoever it accorded with ancient scrip- 
ture teachings, and as they thought with the rights 
of man, was opposed to public sentiment, and to the 
conscience of all civilized nations. Forever after they 
must have this mighty obstacle to contend with; for- 


ever after they must live under the ban of the chris- 
tian world; though, with unshaken faith in their 
prophet and his doctrine of spiritual wedlock, they 
might scorn the world's opinion, and in all sincerity 
and singleness of heart thank God that they were 
accounted worthy to have all manner of evil spoken 
of them falsely. 

During this period of probation the church deemed 
it advisable to deny the charge, notably by Elder 
Pratt in a public sermon, and also by Joseph Smith. 
''Inasmuch as this Church of Christ has been re- 
proached with the crime of fornication and polygamy, 
we declare that we believe that one man should have 
one wife, and one woman but one husband, except in 
case of death, when either is at liberty to marry 
again."^^ In the Times and Seasons of February 1, 
1844, we have a notice signed by Joseph and Hyrum 
Smith: "As we have lately been credibly informed 
that an elder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints, by the name of Hiram Brown, has been 
preaching polygamy and other false and corrupt doc- 
trines in the county of Lapeer, state of Michigan, this 
is to notify him and the church in general that he 
has been cut of from the church for his iniquity." 

Notwithstanding these solemn denials and denun- 
ciations in high places, the revelation and the prac-' 
tices which it sanctioned were not easily concealed. ^'^ 
As yet, however, the calumny of the gentiles and 
the bickering of the saints vexed not the soul of Jo- 
seph. He was now in the zenith of his fame and 
power; his followers in Europe and America numbered 

*^ Doctrine and Covenants, app. 331. 

^'^ 'It is believed,' writes Governor Ford not long afterward to the Illinois 
legislature, 'that Joseph Smith had announced a revelation from heaven 
sanctioning polygamy, by some kind of spiritual-wife system, which I never 
could well understand; but at any rate, whereby a man was allowed one 
wife in pursuance of the laws of the country, and an indefinite number of 
others, to be enjoyed in some mystical and spiritual mode; and that he him- 
self, and many of his followers, had practised upon the precepts of this 
revelation, by seducing a large number of women.' Message to III. Sen., 14th 
Ass. 1st Sess., 6. A copy of Ford's message will be found iu Utah Tracts, 
no. 11. 


more than a hundred thousand; his fortune was es- 
timated at a milhon dollars; he was commander- 
in-chief of the Nauvoo Legion, a body of troops 
"which," remarks an artillery officer, from his own 
observation, "would do honor to any body of armed 
militia in any of the states, and approximates very 
closely to our regular forces;" he was mayor of the 
city; and now, as the crowning point of his earthly 
glory, he was announced in February 1844 as a candi- 
date for the presidency of the United States, while Sid- 
ney Rigdon was named for vice-president. Whether 
this was done for effect or in earnest is somewhat 
doubtful, for it appears that the prophet's head was 
a little turned about this time; but it is certain that 
the people of Illinois and Missouri believed him 
to be in earnest. Addressing letters to Clay and 
Calhoun, near the close of 1843, he asked each of 
them what would be his rule of action toward the 
Mormons as a people should he be elected to the 
presidency. The reply in both cases was non-com- 
mittal and unsatisfactory;^^ whereupon Joseph issues 
an address setting forth his views on the government 
and policy of the United States, and foreshadows his 
own policy, in which we find many excellent features 
and many absurdities. "No honest man can doubt 
for a moment," he says, " but the glory of American 
liberty is on the wane; and that calamity and con- 
fusion will sooner or later destroy the peace of the 
people. Speculators will urge a national bank as a 
savior of credit and comfort. A hireling pseudo- 
priesthood will plausibly push abolition doctrines 
and doings and 'human rights' into congress, and 
into every other place where conquest smells of fame 
or opposition swells to popularity."^* 

^^ Copies of the correspondence may be found in Times and Seawns, v. 
393-6, 544-8; Mackay's The Alormons, 151-62; Olshausen, Geschichte der 
Mormonen, 202-19. 

^^ 'Now, oh people!' he continues, 'turn unto the Lord and live; and re- 
form this nation. Frustrate the designs of wicked men. Reduce congress 
at least one half. Two senators from a state and two members to a million of 
population will do more business than the ai-my that now occupy the halli 


The aspirations of the prophet, pretended or other- 
wise, to the highest office in the repubhc, together 
with renewed, and at this juncture exceedingly dan- 
gerous, claims, pointing toward almost universal em- 
pire,^^ brought upon him afresh the rage of the 
surrounding gentile populace, and resulted in an 
awful tragedy, the circumstances of which I am now 
about to relate. "The great cause of popular fury," 
writes Governor Ford shortly after the occurrence, 
" was that the Mormons at several preceding elections 
had cast their vote as a unit; thereby making the 
fact apparent that no one could aspire to the honors 
or offices of the country, within the sphere of their 
influence, without their approbation and votes." 

Indeed, a myriad of evils about this time befell the 
church, all portending bloody destruction. There were 

of the national legislature. Pay them two dollars and their board per 
diem, except Sundays; that is more than the farmer gets, and he lives hon- 
estly. Curtail the offices of government in pay, number, and power, for 
the philistine lords have shorn our nation of its goodly locks in the lap of 
Delilah. Petition your state legislature to pardon every convict in their 
several penitentiaries, blessing them as they go, and saying to them in the 
name of the Lord, Go thy way and sin no more . . . Petition also, ye goodly in- 
habitants of the slave states, your legislators to abolish slavery by the year 
1850, or now, and save the abolitionist from reproach and ruin, infamy 
and shame. Pray congress to pay every man a reasonable price for his slaves 
out of the surplus revenue arising from the sale of public lands, and from the 
deduction of pay from the members of congress. . .Give every man his con- 
stitional freedom, and the president full power to send an army to suppress 
mobs; and the states authority to repeal and impugn that relic of folly 
which makes it necessary for the governor of a state to make the demand of 
the president for troops in cases of invasion or rebellion. The governor him- 
self may be a mobber, and instead of being punished as he should be for 
murder and treason, he may destroy the very lives, rights, and property he 
should protect. Like the good Samaritan, send every lawyer as soon as he 
repents and obeys the ordinances of heaven, to preach the gospel to the des- 
titute, without purse or scrip, pouring in the oil and the wine ... Were I 
the president of the United States, by the voice of a virtuous people, I 
would honor the old paths of the venerated fathers of freedom; I would 
walk in the tracks of the illustrious patriots, who carried the ark of the gov- 
ernment upon their shoulders with an eye single to the glory of the people . . . 
When a neighboring realm petitioned to join the union of the sons of liberty, 
my voice would be, Come; yea, come Texas; come Mexico; come Canada; and 
come all the world — let us be brethren; let us be one great family; and let 
there be universal peace. ' A full copy of the address is given in Times and 
Seasons, v. 528-533; Mackay^s The Mormons, 141-51; Jiemy's Jour, to O. S. 
L. (My, 353-71. 

^ Two months after announcing himself a candidate for the presidency, 
Joseph again publicly declared that all America, from north to south, consti- 
tuted the Zion of the saints, theirs by right of heavenly inheritance. 


suits and counter-suits at law ; arrests and rearrests ; 
schisms, apostasies, and expulsions; charges one against 
another of vice and immorality, Joseph, himself being 
imj)licated. Here was one elder unlawfully trying 
his hand at revelations, and another preaching polyg- 
amy. Many there were whom it was necessar}'" not 
only to cut off from the church, but to eradicate with 
their evil influences from society. Among the proph- 
et's most inveterate enemies were William Law, who 
sought to betray Smith into the hands of the Mis- 
sourians, and almost succeeded — Doctor Foster and 
Francis M. Higbee, who dealt in scandal, charging 
Joseph, Hyrum, Sidney, and others with seducing 
women, and having more wives than one. Suits of 
this kind brought by the brethren against each other, 
but more particularly by the leaders against high 
officials, were pending in the Nauvoo municipal court 
for over two years. 

Early in June 1844 was issued the first number of 
the Nauvoo Expositor, the publishers being apostate 
Mormons and gentiles. ^^ The primary object of the 
publication was to stir up strife in the church, and 
aid its enemies in their work of attempted extermina- 
tion. Its columns were at once filled with foul abuse 
of the prophet and certain elders of the church, 
assailing their character by means of affidavits, and 
charging them with all manner of public and private 
crimes, and abusing and misrepresenting the people. 
The city council met, and pronouncing the journal 
a nuisance, ordered its abatement. Joseph Smith 
being mayor, it devolved on him to see the order 
executed, and he issued instruction to the city mar- 
shal and the policemen accordingly. The officers 
of the law forthwith entered the premises, and de- 

2® In Remy^s Jour, to G. S. Lalce City, i. 388, it is stated that, among others, 
a renegade catholic priest, J. H. Jackson by name, ' conceived the idea of 
starting at Nauvoo a newspaper called the Expositor, with the avowed object 
of opposing the Mormons.' I find no confirmation of this statement. The 
first number of the Nauvoo Neighbor had been issued May 3, 1843, in place 
of the Wasp, suspended. 


stroyed tbe establishment, tearing clown the presses 
and throwing the type into the street."^ For this act 
the proprietors obtained from the authorities of the 
town of Carthage, some twenty miles distant, a war- 
rant for the arrest of Joseph Smith, which was placed 
in the hands of the Carthagfe constable to be served. 

It was a proceeding not at all to the taste of the 
Mormons that their mayor should be summoned for 
misdemeanor before the magistrate of another town, 
and Smith refused to go. He was willing to be tried 
before a state tribunal. Meanwhile the offenders 
were brought before the municipal court of Nauvoo, 
on a writ of habeas corpus, and after examination 
were discharged. The cry was then raised through- 
out the country that Joseph Smith and associates, pub- 
lic offenders, ensconced among their troops in the 
stronghold of Nauvoo, defied the law, refusing to re- 
spond to the call of justice; whereupon the men of 
Illinois, to the number of two or three thousand, some 
coming even from Missouri, rallied to the support of 
the Carthage constable, and stood ready, as they said, 
not only to arrest Joe Smith, but to burn his town and 
kill every man, woman, and child in it. 

As the forces of the enemy enlarged and grew yet 
more and more demonstrative in their wrath, the town 
prepared for defence, the Nauvoo Legion being called 
out and placed under arms, by instructions from Gov- 
ernor Ford to Joseph Smith, as general in command. 
This gave rise to a report that they were about to 
make a raid on the neighboring gentile settlements.^^ 

2' Letter of John S. Fullmer to the New York Herald, dated Nauvoo, Oct. 
30, 1844 (but not published until several years later). A copy of it will be found 
iu Utah Tracts, ix. p. 7. Smith had been elected mayor on the resignation of 
JolinC. Bennett Aprill 9, 1842. Mackay, The Mormons, 168, says: 'A body of 
the prophet's adherents, to the number of two hundred and upward, sallied forth 
in obedience to this order, and proceeding to the office of the Expositor, speedily 
razed it to the ground. ' Remy states that ' an order to destroy the journal signed 
by Joseph was immediately put into execution by a police officer, who pi'o- 
ceeded the same day to break up the presses.' Journey, i. 389. Ford declares 
that the marshal aided by a portion of the legion executed his warrant by de- 
stroying the press and scattering the type and other materials of the office. 
Message to III. Sen., 14th Ass. 1st Sess., 4. 

^^ 'At a meeting of the citizens of Hancock co. held at Carthage, on the 


In consequence of these rumors and counter-rumors 
the governor went to Carthage. Previous to this, 
frequent communications were sent to him at Spring- 
field by Joseph Smith, inf(3rming him of the position 
of affairs in and around Nauvoo. The governor in 
his History of Illinois, referring to these times, writes: 
"These also were the active men in blowing up the 
fury of the people, in hopes that a popular movement 
might be set on foot, which would result in the expul- 
sion or extermination of the Mormon voters. For this 
purpose public meetings had been called, inflammatory 
speeches had been made, exaggerated reports had been 
extensively circulated, committees had been appointed, 
who rode night and day to spread the reports and 
solicit the aid of neighboring counties, and at a public 
meeting at Warsaw resolutions were passed to expel 
or exterminate the Mormon population. This was 
not, however, a movement which was unanimously 
concurred in. The county contained a goodly num- 
ber of inhabitants in favor of peace, or who at least 
desired to be neutral in such a contest. These were 
stigmatized by the name of Jack Mormons, and there 
were not a few of the more furious exciters of the 
people who openly expressed their intention to involve 
them in the common expulsion or extermination." 

Thomas Ford, governor of Illinois, was as a man 
rather above the average politician usually chosen 
among these American states to fill that position. 
Not specially clear-headed, and having no brain power 
to spare, he was quite respectable and had some con- 
science, as is frequently the case with mediocre men. 
He had a good heart, too, was in no wise vindictive, 
and though he was in no sense a strong man, his sense 
of right and equity could be quite stubborn upon oc- 

6th inst, it was resolved to call in the people of the surrounding counties and 
states, to assist them in delivering up Joe Smith, if the governor of Illinois 
refused to comply with the requisition of the governor of Missouri. The meet- 
ing determined to avenge with blood any assaults made upon citizens by the 
Mormons. It was also resolved to refuse to obey officers elected by the Mor- 
mons, who have complete control of the country, being a numerical majority.' 
Missouri Reporter, in Niles Register, Ixv. 70, Sept-. 30, 1843. 



casion. Small in body, he was likewise small in mind; 
indeed, there was a song current at the time that 
there was no room in his diminutive organism for such 
a thing as a soul. Nevertheless, though bitterly cen- 
sured by some of the Mormons, I do not think Ford 
intended to do them wrong. That he did not believe 
all the rumors to their discredit is clearly shown in 
his statement of what was told him during the days 
he was at Carthage. He says : "A system of excite- 
ment and agitation was artfully planned and executed 
with tact. It consisted in speading reports and rumors 
of the most fearful character. As examples: On 
the morning before my arrival at Carthage, I was 
awakened at an early hour by the frightful report, 
which was asserted with confidence and apparent con- 
sternation, that the Mormons had already commenced 
the work of burning, destruction, and murder, and that 
every man capable of bearing arms was instantly 
wanted at Carthage for the protection of the county. 
We lost no time in starting; but when we arrived at 
Carthage we could hear no more concerning this 
story. Again, during the few days that the militia 
were encamped at Carthage, frequent applications 
were made to me to send a force here, and a force 
there, and a force all about the country, to prevent 
murders, robberies, and larcenies which, it was said, 
were threatened by the Mormons. No such forces 
were sent, nor were any such offences committed at 
that time, except the stealing of some provisions, and 
there was never the least proof that this was done 
by a Mormon." 

On the morning to which he refers, the report was 
brought to him with the usual alarming accompani- 
ments of fears being expressed of frightful carnage, 
and the like. Hastily dressing, he assured the crowd 
collected outside of the house in which he had lodged 
that they need have no uneasiness respecting the mat- 
ter, for he was very sure he could settle the difficulty 
peaceably. The Mormon prophet knew him well, 


and would trust him. What he purposed doing wag 
to demand the surrender of Joseph Smith and others. 
He wished them to promise him that they would lend 
their assistance to protect the prisoners from violence, 
which they agreed to do. 

After his arrival at Carthage the governor sent two 
men to Nauvoo as a committee to wait on Joseph 
Smith, informing him of his arrival, with a request 
that Smith would inform him in relation to the diffi- 
culties that then existed in the county. Dr J. M. 
Bernhisel and Elder John Taylor were appointed as a 
committee by Smith, and furnished with affidavits and 
documents in relation both to the proceedings of the 
Mormons and those of the mob; in addition to the 
general history of the transaction they took with them 
a duplicate of those documents whicli had previously 
been forwarded by Bishop Hunter, Elder James, and 
others. This committee waited on the governor, who 
expressed an opinion that Joseph Smith and all par- 
ties concerned in passing or executing the cit}^ law in 
relation to the Dress had better come to Carthao^e: 
however repugnant it might be to their feelings, he 
thought it would have a tendency to allay public ex- 
citement, and prove to the people what they professed, 
that they wished to be governed by law. The next 
day the constable and a force of ten men were de- 
spatched to Nauvoo to make the arrests. The accused 
were told that if they surrendered they would be pro- 
tected; otherwise the whole force of the state would 
be called out, if necessary, to take them. 

Upon the arrival of the constable and his posse, the 
mayor and the members of the city council declared that 
they were willing to surrender. Eight o'clock was the 
hour appointed, but the accused failed to make their 
appearance; whereupon the constable returned, and 
reported that they had fled. The governor was of opin- 
ion that the constable's action was part of a plot to 
get the troops into Nauvoo and exterminate the Mor- 
mons. He called a council of officers and proposed to 


march on the town with the small force under his 
command, but was dissuaded. He hesitated to make a 
further call on the militia, as the harvest was nigh and 
the men were needed to gather it. Meanwhile, ascer- 
taining that the Mormons had three pieces of cannon 
and two hundred and fifty stand of arms belonging to 
the state, the possession of which gave offence to the 
gentiles, he demanded a surrender of the state arms, 
again promising protection. 

On the 24th of Jiine^'' Joseph and Hyrum Smith, 
the members of the council, and all others demanded, 
proceeded to Carthage, gave themselves up, and were 
charged with riot. All entered into recognizances 
before the justice of the peace to appear for trial, 
and were released from custody. Joseph and Hyrum, 
however, were rearrested, and, says Ford, were charged 
with overt treason, having ordered out the legion 
to resist the posse comitatus, though, as he state°, 
the degree of their crime would depend on circum- 
stances. The governor's views on this matter are 
worthy of note. *' The overt act of treason charged 
against them," he remarks, "consisted in the alleged 
levying of war against the state by declaring martial 
law in Nauvoo, and in orderinof out the leacion to resist 
the posse comitatus. Their actual guiltiness of the 
charge would depend upon circumstances. If their 
opponents had been seeking to put the law in force in 
good faith, and nothing more, then an array of a 
military force in open resistance to the posse comitatus 
and the militia of the state most probably would 
have amounted to treason. But if those opponents 
merely intended to use the process of the law, the 
militia of the state, and the posse comitatus as cat's- 
paws to compass the possession of their persons for 
the purpose of murdering them afterward, as the 

*' Report, ut supra, 10-11. In Times and Seasoiis, v. 560, it is stated that ' on 
Monday, June 24tla, after Ford had sent word that eighteen persons demanded 
on a warrant, among whom were Joseph Smith and Hyrum Smith, should be 
protected by the militia of the state, they in company with ten or twelve 
others start for Carthage. ' 


sequel demonstrated the fact to be, it might well be 
doubted whether they were guilty of treason." 

With the Nauvoo Legion at their back, the two 
brothers voluntarily placed themselves in the power of 
the governor who, demanding and accepting their 
surrender, though doubting their guilt, nevertheless 
declared that they were not his prisoners, but the pris- 
oners of the constable and jailer. Leaving two com- 
panies to guard the jail, he disbanded the main body of 
his troops, and proceeding to Nauvoo, addressed the 
people, beseeching them to abide by the law. "They 
claimed," he says, "to be a law-abiding people; and 
insisted that as they looked to the law alone for their 
protection, so were they careful themselves to observe 
its provisions. Upon the conclusion of my address, I 
proposed to take a vote on the question, whether they 
would strictly observe the laws, even in opposition to 
their prophet and leaders. The vote was unanimous 
in favor of this proposition." The governor then set 
forth for Carthage, and such in substance is his report 
when viewed in the most favorable light. ^^ 

It is related that as Joseph set forth to deliver 
himself up to the authorities he exclaimed: "I am 
going like a lamb to the slaughter; but I am calm as 
a summer's morning; I have a conscience void of 
offence toward God and toward all men. I shall 
die innocent, and it shall yet be said of me, He was 
murdered in cold blood, "^^ Nevertheless, for a moment 
he hesitated. Should he offer himself a willing 
sacrifice, or should he endeavor to escape out of their 
hands? Thus meditating, he crossed the river thinking 

^^ Message, ut supra. The above appear to be the facts of the case, so far 
as they can be sifted from a lengthy report, which consists mainly of apology 
or explanation of what the governor did or left undone. 

^^ Smith's Doc. and Cov., app. 335. The same morning he read in the 
fifth chapter of Ether, 'And it came to pass that I prayed unto the Lord that 
he would give unto the gentiles grace, that they might have charity. And it 
came to pass that the Lord said unto me, If they have not charity it mattereth 
not unto you, thou hast been faithful; wherefore thy garments are clean. 
And because thou hast seen thy weakness, thou shalt be made strong, even 
unto the sitting down in the place which I have prepared in the mansions of 
my father.' 


to depart. On reaching the opposite bank he turned 
and gazed upon the beautiful city, the holy city, his 
own hallowed creation, the city of Joseph, with its 
shining temple, its busy hum of industry, and its 
thousand happy homes. And they were his people 
who were there, his very own, given to him of God ; 
and he loved them! Were he to leave them now, to 
abandon them in this time of danger, they would bo 
indeed as sheep without a shepherd, stricken, and 
scattered, and robbed, and butchered by the destroyer. 
No, he could not do it. Better die than to abandon 
them thus! So he recrossed the river, saying to his 
brother Hyrum, "Come, let us go together, and let 
God determine what we shall do or suffer." 

Bidding their families and friends adieu, the two 
brothers set out for Carthage. Their hearts were 
very heavy. There was dire evil abroad; the air was 
oppressive, and the sun shot forth malignant rays. 
Once more they returned to their people; once more 
they embraced their wives and kissed their children, 
as if they knew, alas! that they should never see 
them asfain. 

The party reached Carthage about midnight, and 
on the following day the troops were formed in 
line, and Joseph and Hyrum passed up and down in 
company with the governor, who showed them every 
respect— either as guests or victims — introducing them 
as military officers under the title of general. Pres- 
ent were the Carthage Greys, who showed signs of 
mutiny, hooting at and insulting the prisoners — for 
such in fact they were, being committed to jail the 
same afternoon until discharged by due course of law. 

A few hours later Joseph asked to see the governor, 
and next morning Ford went to the prison. "All this 
is illegal," said the former. " It is a purely civil matter, 
not a question to be settled by force of arms." " I know 
it," said the governor, "but it is better so; I did not 
call out this force, but found it assembled; I pledge 
you my honor, however, and the faith and honor of 

Hist. Utah. 12 


the state, that no harm shall come to you while un- 
dergoing this imprisonment." The governor took his 
departure on the morning of the 27th of June. 
Scarcely was he well out of the way when measures 
were taken for the consummation of a most damning 
deed. The prison was guarded by eight men detailed 
from the Carthage Greys, their company being in 
camp on the public square a quarter of a mile dis- 
tant, while another company under Williams, also 
the sworn enemies of the Mormons, was encamped 
eight miles away, there awaiting the development of 

It was a little after five o'clock in the evening. Jo- 
seph and Hyrum Smith were confined in an upper 
room. With the prisoners were John Taylor and Wil- 
lard Richards, other friends having withdrawn a few 
moments before. At this juncture a band of a hun- 
dred and fifty armed men with painted faces appeared 
before the jail, and presently surrounded it. The 
guard shouted vociferously and fired their guns over 
the heads of the assailants, who paid not the slightest 
attention to them.^^ I give what followed from 
Burtons City of the Saints, being the statement of 
President John Taylor, who was present and wounded 
on the occasion. 

"I was sitting at one of the front windows of the 
jail, when I saw a number of men, with painted faces, 
coming around the corner of the jail, and aiming 
toward the stairs. The other brethren had seen the 
same, for, as I went to the door, I found Brother 
Hyrum Smith and Dr Richards already leaning 
against it. They both pressed against the door with 
their shoulders to prevent its being opened, as the 
lock and latch were comparatively useless. While in 
this position, the mob, who had come up stairs, and 
tried to open the door, probably thought it was 

'* Littlefield says the Carthage Greys were marched in a body, ' within about 
eight rods of the jail, where they halted, in plara view of the whole transac- 
tion, until the deed was executed. ' Narrative, 9. 


locked, and fired a ball through the keyhole; at this 
Dr Richards and Brother Hyrum leaped back from 
the door, with their faces toward it; almost instantly 
another ball passed through the panel of the door, 
and struck Brother Hyrum on the left side of the 
nose, entering his face and head. At the same 
instant, another ball from the outside entered his back, 
passing through his body and striking his watch. 
The ball came from the back, through the jail window, 
opposite the door, and must, from its range, have been 
fired from the Carthage Greys, who were placed there 
ostensibly for our protection, as the balls from the 
fire-arms, shot close by the jail, would have entered 
the ceiling, we being in the second story, and there 
never was a time after that when Hyrum could have 
received the latter wound. Immediately, when the 
balls struck him, he fell flat on his back, crying as he 
fell, 'I am a dead man!' He never moved after- 

" I shall never forget the deep feeling of sympathy 
and regard manifested in the coantenance of Brother 
Joseph as he drew nigh to Hyrum, and, leaning over 
him, exclaimed, *OhI my poor, dear brother Hyrum!' 
He, however, instantly arose, and with a firm, quick 
step, and a determined expression of countenance, ap- 
proached the door, and pulling the six-shooter left by 
Brother Wheelock from his pocket, opened the door 
slightly, and snapped the pistol six successive times; 
only three of the barrels, however, were discharged. 
I afterward understood that two or three were 
wounded by these discharges, two of whom, I am in- 
formed, died.^^ I had in my hands a ''arge, strong 
hickory stick, brought there by Brother Markham, 
and left by him, which I had seized as soon as I saw 
the mob approach; and while Brother Joseph was 
firing the pistol, I stood close behind him. As soon 

" 'He wounded three of them, two mortally, one of whom, as he 
rushed down out of the door, was asked if he was badly hurt. He replied, 
••Yes; my arm is shot all to pieces by old Joe; but I don't care, I've got re- 
venge; I shot Hyrum ! " ' Id., 11. 


as he had discharged it he stepped back, and I im- 
mediately took his place next to the door, while he 
occupied the one I had done while he was shooting. 
Brother Richards, at this time, had a knotty walking- 
stick in his hands belonging to me, and stood next to 
Brother Joseph, a little farther from the door, in an 
oblique direction, apparently to avoid the rake of the 
fire from the door. The firing of Brother Joseph 
made our assailants pause for a moment; very soon 
after, however, they pushed the door some distance 
open, and protruded and discharged their guns into 
the room, when I parried them off with my stick, 
giving another direction to the balls. 

"It certainly w^as a terrible scene: streams of fire 
as thick as my arm passed by me as these men fired, 
and, unarmed as we were, it looked like certain death. 
I remember feeling as though my time had come, but 
I do not know when, in any critical position, I was 
more calm, unruffled, energetic, and acted with more 
promptness and decision. It certainly was far from 
pleasant to be so near the muzzles of those fire-arms 
as they belched forth their liquid flames and deadly 
balls. While I was engaged in parrying the guns. 
Brother Joseph said, 'That's right, Brother Taylor, 
parry them off as well as you can.' These were the 
last words I ever heard him speak on earth. 

"Every moment the crowd at the door became 
more dense, as they were unquestionably pressed on 
by those in the rear ascending the stairs, until the 
whole entrance at the door was literally crowded with 
muskets and rifles, which, with the swearing, shout- 
ing, and demoniacal expressions of those outside the 
door and on the stairs, and the firing of the guns, 
mingled with their horrid oaths and execrations, made 
it look like pandemonium let loose, and was, indeed, 
a fit representation of the horrid deed in which they 
were engaged. 

"After parrying the guns for some time, which now 
*rotruded thicker and farther into the room, and 


seeing no hope of escape or protection there, as we 
were now unarmed, it occurred to me that we might 
have some friends outside, and that there might be 
some chance to escape in that direction, but here 
there seemed to be none. As I expected them every 
moment to rush into the room — nothing but extreme 
cowardice having thus far kept them out — as the 
tumult and pressure increased, without any other 
hope, I made a spring for the window which was 
right in front of the jail door, where the mob was 
standing, and also exposed to the fire of the Carthage 
Greys, who were stationed some ten or twelve rods 
off. The weather was hot, we had our coats off, and 
the window was raised to admit air. As I reached 
the window, and was on the point of leaping out, I 
was struck by a ball from the door about midway of 
my thigh, which struck the bone and flattened out 
almost to the size of a quarter of a dollar, and then 
passed on through the fleshy part to within about 
half an inch of the outside. I think some prominent 
nerve must have been severed or injured, for, as soon 
as the ball struck me, I fell like a bird when shot, or 
an ox when struck by a butcher, and lost entirely and 
instantaneously all power of action or locomotion. I 
fell upon the window-sill, and cried out, *I am shot!' 
Not possessing any power to move, I felt myself fall- 
ing outside of the window, but immediately I fell 
inside, from some, at that time, unknown cause. 
When I struck the floor my animation seemed re- 
stored, as I have seen it sometimes in squirrels and 
birds after being shot. As soon as I felt the power 
of motion I crawled under the bed, which was in a 
corner of the room, not far from the window where I 
received my wound. While on my way and under 
the bed I was wounded in three other places; one ball 
entered a little below the left knee, and never was 
extracted; another entered the forepart of my left 
arm, a little above the wrist, and passing down by the 
joint, lodged in the fleshy part of my hand, about 


midway, a little above the upper joint of my little 
finger; another struck me on the fleshy part of my 
left hip, and tore away the flesh as large as my hand, 
dashinsf the mangled fras^ments of flesh and blood 
asfainst the wall. 

"It would seem that immediately after my attempt 
to leap out of the window, Joseph also did the same 
thing, of which circumstance I have no knowledge 
only from information. The first thing that I noticed 
was a cry that he had leaped out of the window. A 
cessation of firing followed, the mob rushed down 
stairs, and Dr. Richards went to the window. Im- 
mediately afterward I saw the doctor going toward 
the jail door, and as there was an iron door at the 
head of the stairs adjoining our door which led into 
the cells for criminals, it struck me that the doctor 
was going in there, and I said to him, 'Stop, doctor, 
and take me along.' He proceeded to the door and 
opened it, and then returned and dragged me along to 
a small cell prepared for criminals. 

"Brother Richards was very much troubled, and 
exclaimed, 'Oh! Brother Ta3dor, is it possible that 
they have killed both Brothers Hyrum and Joseph ? 
it cannot surely be, and yet I saw them shoot them;' 
and, elevating his hands two or three times, he ex- 
claimed, 'Oh Lord, my God, spare thy servants!' 
He then said, 'Brother Taylor, this is a terrible 
event;' and he dragged me farther into the cell, saying, 
*I am sorry I can not do better for you;' and, taking 
an old filthy mattress, he covered me with it, and 
said, 'That may hide you, and you may yet live to 
tell the tale, but I expect they will kill me in a few 
moments.' While lying in this position I suffered 
the most excruciating pain. Soon afterward Dr. 
Richards came to me, informed me that the mob had 
precipitately fled, and at the same time confirmed my 
worst fears that Joseph was assuredly dead." It ap- 
pears that Joseph, thus murderously beset and in dire 
extremity, rushed to the window and threw himself 





out, receiving in the act several shots, and with the 
cry, "0 Lord, my God!" fell dead to the ground.^ 
The fiends were not yet satiated; but setting up the 
hfeless body of the slain prophet against the well- 
curb, riddled it with bullets. ^^ 

Where now is the God of Joseph and of Hyrum, 
that he should permit this most iniquitous butchery? 
Where are Moroni and Ether and Christ? What 
mean these latter-day manifestations, their truth and 
efficacy, if the great high priest and patriarch of the 
new dispensation can thus be cruelly cut ofi" by 
wicked men? Practical piety is the doctrine ! Prayer 

'* Joseph dropped his pistol, and sprang into the window; but just as he 
was preparing to descend, he saw such an array of bayonets below, that he 
caught by the window casing, where he hung by his hands and feet, with his 
head to the north, feet to the south, and his body swinging downward. He 
hung in f^a*- position three or four minutes, during which time he exclaimed 
two or th^^^ "les, '0 Lord, my God !' and fell to the ground. While he was 
hanging in that situation. Col. Williams halloed, 'Shoot him! God damn 
him ! shoot the damned rascal ! ' However, none fired at him. He seemed to 
fall easy. He struck partly on his right shoulder and back, his neck and 
head reaching the ground a little before his feet. He rolled instantly on his 
face. From this position he was taken by a young man who sprung to him 
from the other side of the fence, who held a pewter fife in his hand, was 
barefooted and bareheaded, having on no coat, with his pants rolled above his 
knees, and shu't-sleeves above his elbows. He set President Smith against 
the south side of the well-curb that was situated a few feet from the jail. 
While doing this the savage muttered aloud, 'This is old Jo; I know him. 
I know you, old Jo. Damn you ; you are the man that had my daddy shot' 
— intimating that he was a son of Boggs, and that it was the Missourians who 
were doing this murder. Littlefield' s Narrative, 13. 

^^ After President Taylor's account in Burton's City of the Saints, the 
best authorities on this catastrophe are: Assassination of Joseph and Ilyrum 
Smith, tlie Prophet and the Patriarch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints; also a Condensed History of the Expulsion of the Saints from 
Xauvoo, by Elder John S. Fullmer (qf Utah, U. S. A.), Pastor of the Man- 
chester, Liverpool, and Preston Conferences. Liverpool and London, 18.55; 
Message of the Governor of the State of Illinois, in relation to the disturbancta 
in Hancock County, December 23, ISIi-If. Springfield, 1844; Aufxd assassina- 
tion of Joseph and Hyrum Smith; the pledged faith of the Stale of Illinois 
stained with innocent blood by a mob, in Times and Seasons, v. 560-7o; A 
Narrative of the Massacre of Joseph and Hyrum Smith by an Outsider and an 
Eye-ioitness, in Utah Tracts, i. ; and The Martyrdom of Joseph Smith, by Apos- 
tle John Taylor, a copy of which is contained in Burton's City of the 
Saints, 625-67. Brief accounts will be found in Utah Pamphlets, 23; Lee's 
Mormoiiism, 152-5; Remy's Jour, to G. S. L. City, 388-96; Hall's Mormoni^m 
Exposed, 15-16; Green's Mormonism, 36-7; Tidlidje's Women, 297-300; Ols- 
hausen, Gesch. der Mor., 100-3; Tucker's Mormonism, 189-92; Mackay's The 
Mormons, 169-72; Smucker's Hist. Mor., 177-9; Ferris' Utah and Mormons, 
120-5, and in other works on Mormonism. Li the Atlantic Monthly for Dec. 
1869 is an article entitled ' The Mormon Prophet's Tragedy,' which, however 
justly it may lay claim to Boston ' smart ' writing, so far as the facts are con- 
cerned is simply a tissue of falsehoods. 


and faith must cease not though prayer be unan- 
swered ; and they ask where was the father when the 
son called in Gethsemane ? It was foreordained that 
Joseph and Hyrum should die for the people ; and the 
more of murder and extermination on the part of their 
enemies, the more praying and believing on the part 
of saints, and the more praise and exultation in the 
heavenly inheritance. 

The further the credulity of a credulous people is 
taxed the stronger will be their faith. Many of the 
saints believed in Joseph; with their whole mind 
and soul they worshipped him. He was to them as 
God; he was their deity present upon earth, their 
savior from evil, and their guide to heaven. What- 
ever he did, that to his people was right; he could 
do no wrong, no more than king or popO; no more 
than Christ or Mahomet. Accordingly t'ney obeyed 
him without question; and it was this belief and 
obedience that caused the gentiles to fear and hate. 
There are still open in the world easier fields than this 
for new religions, which might recommend themselves 
as a career to young men laboring under a fancied in- 
exorable necessity. 

Whatever else may be said of Joseph Smith, it 
must be admitted that he was a remarkable man. 
His course in life was by no means along a flowery 
path; his death was like that which too often comes 
to the founder of a religion. What a commentary on 
the human mind and the human heart, the deeds of 
those who live for the love of God and man, who die 
for the love of God and man, who severally and col- 
lectively profess the highest holiness, the highest 
charity, justice, and humanity, higher far than any 
held by other sect or nation, now or since the world 
began — how lovely to behold, to write and meditate 
upon their disputings and disruptions, their cruelties 
and injustice, their persecutions for opinion's sake, 
their ravenous hate and bloody butcheries! 

'^^eA-A ^2y?TU- 



The founder of Mormonism displayed a singular 
genius for the work he gave himself to do. He 
made thousands believe in him and in his doctrines, 
howsoever good or evil his life, howsoever true or 
false his teachings. The less that can be proved 
the more may be asserted. Any one possessing the 
proper abilities may found a religion and make pros- 
elytes. His success will depend not on the truth or 
falsity of his statements, nor on their gross absurdity 
or philosophic refinement, but on the power and skill 
with which his propositions are promulgated. If he 
has not the natural and inherited genius for this work, 
though his be otherwise the greatest mind that ever 
existed, he is sure to fail. If he has the mental and 
physical adaptation for the work, he will succeed, 
whatever may be his abilities in other directions. 

There was more in this instance than any consid- 
eration short of careful study makes appear: things 
spiritual and things temporal; the outside world and 
the inside workings. The prophet's days were full of 
trouble. His people were often petulant, his elders 
quarrelsome, his most able followers cautious and 
captious. While the world scoffed and the neighbors 
used violence, his high priests were continually ask- 
ing him for prophecies, and if they were not fulfilled 
at once and to the letter, they stood ready to apostatize. 
Many did apostatize ; many behaved disgracefully, and 
brought reproach and enmity upon the cause. More- 
over, Joseph was constantly in fear for his life, and 
though by no means desirous of death, in moments 
of excitement he often faced danger with apparent 
indifference as to the results. But without occupy- 
ing further space with my own remarks, I will give 
the views of others, who loved or hated him and 
knew him personally and well. 

Of his physique and character. Parley P. Pratt re- 
marks: "President Joseph Smith was in person tall 
and well built, strong and active; of a light complex- 
ion^ light hair^ blue eyes, very little beard, and of an 


expression peculiar to himself, on which the eye natu- 
rally rested with interest, and was never weary of be- 
holding. His countenance was ever mild, affable, 
and beaming with intelligence and benevolence, min- 
gled with a look of interest and an unconscious smile 
of cheerfulness, and entirely free from all restraint, or 
affectation of gravity; and there was something con- 
nected with the serene and steady, penetrating glance 
of his eye, as if he would penetrate the deepest abyss 
of the human heart, gaze into eternity, penetrate the 
heavens, and comprehend all worlds. He possessed 
a noble boldness and independence of character; his 
manner was easy and familiar, his rebuke terrible as 
the lion, his benevolence unbounded as the ocean, 
his intelligence universal, and his language abounding 
in original eloquence peculiar to himself." 

And thus a female convert who arrived at Nauvoo 
a year or two before the prophet's death: "The first 
time I ever saw Joseph Smith I recognized him from a 
vision that once appeared to me in a dream. His coun- 
tenance was like that of an angel, and such as I had 
never beheld before. He was then thirty -seven years 
of age, of ordinary appearance in dress and manner, 
but with a child-like innocence of expression. His hair 
was of a light brown, his eyes blue, and his complex- 
ion light. His natural demeanor was quiet; his char- 
acter and disposition were formed by his life-work; he 
was kind and considerate, taking a personal interest in 
all his people, and considering every one his equal. "^^ 

On the other hand, the author of Mormonism Un- 
veiled says: "The extreme ignorance and apparent 
stupidity of this modern prophet were by his early 
followers looked upon as his greatest merit, and as 
furnishing the most incontestable proof of his divine 
mission . . . His followers have told us that he could 
not at the time he was chosen of the Lord even write 
his own name. But it is obvious that all these defi- 

^® Another account says that at 36 he weigLed 212 lbs, stood 6 feet in his 
pumps, was robust, corpulent, and jovial, but when roused to anger his ex 
pression was very severl. 


clencies are fullj supplied by a natural genius, strong 
inventive powers of mind, a deep study, and an unusu- 
ally correct estimate of the human passions and feel- 
ings. In short, he is now endowed with all the re- 
quisite traits of character to pursue most successfully 
the humbug which he has introduced. His address 
is easy, rather fascinating and winning, of a mild and 
sober deportment when not irritated. But he fre- 
quently becomes boisterous by the impertinence or 
curiosity of the skeptical, and assumes the bravado, 
instead of adhering to the meekness which he pro- 
fesses. His followers, of course, can discover in his 
very countenance all the certain indications of a di- 
vine mission." 

One more quotation will serve to show the impres- 
sion that Joseph Smith's doctrines and discourse made 
not only on his own followers but on the gentiles, and 
even on gentile divines. In 1843 a methodist minis- 
ter, named Prior, visited Nauvoo and was present 
during a sermon preached by the prophet in the tem- 
ple. '*I took my seat," he remarks, "in a conspicu- 
ous place in the congregation, who were waiting in 
breathless silence for his appearance. While he tar- 
ried, I had plenty of time to revolve in my mind the 
character and common report of that truly singular 
personage. I fancied that I should behold a counte- 
nance sad and sorrowful, yet containing the fiery marks 
of rage and exasperation. I supposed that I should 
be enabled to discover in him some of those thought- 
ful and reserved features, those mystic and sarcastic 
glances, which I had fancied the ancient sages to pos- 
sess. I expected to see that fearful faltering look of 
conscious shame which from what I had heard of him 
he might be expected to evince. He appeared at last; 
but how was I disappointed when, instead of the head 
and horns of the beast and false prophet, I beheld 
only the appearance of a common man, of tolerably 
large proportions. 

"I was sadly disappointed, and thought that, al- 


though his appearance could not be wrested to indi- 
cate anything against him, yet he would manifest all I 
had heard of him when he began to preach, I sat 
uneasily and watched him closely. He commenced 
preaching, not from the book of Mormon, however, 
but from the bible; the first chapter of the first of 
Peter was his text. He commenced calmly, and con- 
tinued dispassionately to pursue his subject, while I 
sat in breathless silence, waiting to hear that foul 
aspersion of the other sects, that diabolical disposi- 
tion of revenge, and to hear that rancorous denuncia- 
tion of every individual but a Mormon. I waited in 
vain; I listened with surprise; I sat uneasy in my 
seat, and could hardly persuade myself but that he 
had been apprised of my presence, and so ordered 
his discourse on my account, that I might not be 
able to find fault with it; for instead of a 'umbled 
jargon of half-connected sentences, and a vclley of 
imprecations, and diabolical and malignant denuncia- 
tions heaped upon the heads of all who differed from 
him, and the dreadful twisting and wresting of the 
scriptures to suit his own peculiar views, and attempt 
to weave a web of dark and mystic sophistry around 
the gospel truths, which I had anticipated, he glided 
along through a very interesting and elaborate dis- 
course, with all the care and happy facility of one 
who was well aware of his important station and his 
duty to Grod and man." ^^ 

No event, probably, that had occurred thus far in 
the history of the saints gave to the cause of Mor- 
monism so much of stability as the assassination of Jo- 
seph Smith. Not all the militia mobs in Illinois, in 
Missouri, or in the United States could destroy this 
cause, any more than could the roundheads in the 

*^ Machay^s The Mormons, 131-3. Of course views as to Joseph Smith's 
character are expressed in nearly all the works published on Mormonism. 
With the exception, perhaps, of Mahomet, no one has been so much bespat- 
tered with praise by his followers and with abuse by his ad\'^rsaries as the 
founder of this faith. 


seventeenth century destroy the cause of monarchy. 
The deed but reacted on those who committed it. 

When two miles on his way from Nauvoo, the gov- 
ernor was met by messengers who informed him of the 
assassination, and, as he relates, he was " struck with a 
kind of dumbness." At daybreak the next morning ail 
the bells in Carthage were ringing. It was noised 
abroad throughout Hancock county, he says, that the 
Mormons had attempted the rescue of Joseph and Hy- 
rum ; that they had been killed in order to prevent their 
escape, and that the governor was closely besieged at 
Nauvoo by the Nauvoo Legion, and could hold out 
only for two days. Ford was convinced that " those 
whoever they were who assassinated the Smiths 
meditated in turn his assassination by the Mormons," 
thinking that they would thus rid themselves of the 
Smiths and the governor, and that the result would 
be the expulsion of the saints, for Ford had shown a 
determination to defend Nauvoo, so far as lay in his 
power, from the threatened violence. Arriving at 
Carthage at ten o'clock at night, he found the citi- 
zens in flight with their families and effects, one of 
his companies broken up, and the Carthage Greys also 
disbanding, the citizens that remained being in instant 
fear of attack. At length he met with John Taylor 
and Willard Kichards, who, notwithstanding the ill- 
usage they had received, came to the relief of the 
panic-stricken magistrate, and addressed a letter to 
their brethren at Nauvoo, exhorting them to preserve 
the peace, the latter stating that he had pledged his 
word that no violence would be used. 

The letter of Kichards and Taylor, signed also by 
Samuel H. Smith, a brother of the deceased, who a 
few weeks afterward died, as the Mormons relate, of a 
broken heart, prevented a threatened uprising of the 
saints.^^ On the 29th of June, the day after the news 
was received, the legion was called out, the letter read, 

'^ To the letter was appended a postscript from the governor, bidding the 
Mormons defend themselves until protection could be furnished, and one from 


and the fury of the citizens allayed by addresses from 
Judge Phelps, Colonel Buckmaster, the governor's 
aid, and others. In the afternoon the bodies of 
Joseph and Hyrum arrived in wagons guarded by 
three men. They were met by the city council, the 
prophet's staff, the officers of the legion, and a vast 
procession of citizens, crying out "amid the most 
solemn lamentations and wailings that ever ascended 
into the ears of the Lord of hosts to be avenofed of 
their enemies." Arriving at the Nauvoo House, the 
assemblage, numbering ten thousand persons, was 
again addressed, and " with one united voice resolved 
to trust to the law for a remedy of such, a high-handed 
assassination, and when that failed, to call upon God 
to avenge them of their wrongs. Oh I widows and 
orphans ! Oh Americans 1 weep, for the glory of free- 
dom has departed!" 

Meanwhile the governor, fearing that the Mormons 
would rise in a body to execute vengeance, issued an 
address to the people of Illinois, in which he attempted 
to explain his conduct,^^ and again called out the 
militia. Two officers were despatched to Nauvoo, 
with orders to ascertain the disposition of the citizens, 
and to proceed thence to Warsaw, where were the 
headquarters of the anti-Mormon militia, and forbid 
violent measures in the name of the state. On arriv- 
ing at the former place they laid their instructions 
before the members of the municipality. A meeting 
of the council was summoned, and it was resolved that 
the saints rigidly sustain the laws and the governor, 
so long as they are themselves sustained in their 
constitutional rights; that they discountenance ven- 
geance on the assassins of Joseph and Hyrum Smith ; 
that instead of an appeal to arms, they appeal to the 
majesty of the law, and, should the law fail, they 

General Deming, telling them to remain qniet, that the assassination would 
be condemned by three fourths of the people of Illinois, but that they were 
in danger of attack from Missouri, and 'prudence might obviate material 
destruction.' Times and Seasons, v. 561. 

^^ Copies of it will be found in Id., v. 564-5; Mackay's The Mormons, 178- 
9; and iHmucker's Hist. Mor., 186-7. 


leave the matter with God; that the council pledges 
itself that no aggressions shall be made by the citizens 
of Nauvoo, approves the course taken by the gov- 
ernor, and will uphold him by all honorable means. 
A meeting of citizens was then held in the public 
square; the people were addressed, the resolutions 
read, and all responded with a hearty amen. 

The two officers then returned to Carthage and 
reported to the governor, who was so greatly pleased 
with the forbearance of the saints that he officially 
declared them "human beings and citizens of the 
state." He caused writs to be issued for the arrest of 
three of the murderers — after they had taken refuge 
in Missouri.^" The assassins escaped punishment, 
however; and now that order was restored, the chief 
magistrate disbanded the militia, after what he termed 
*'a campaign of about thirteen days." 

On the afternoon of July 1st a letter was addressed by 
Richards, Taylor, and Phelps to the citizens of Nau- 
voo, and a fortnight later, an epistle signed by the same 
persons and also by Parley P. Pratt was despatched 
to all the saints throughout the world. "Be peace- 
able, quiet citizens, doing the works of righteousness; 
and as soon as the twelve and other authorities can 
assemble, or a majority of them, the onward course 
to the great gathering of Israel, and the final con- 
summation of the dispensation of the fulness of times, 
will be pointed out, so that the murder of Abel, the 
assassination of hundreds, the righteous blood of all 
the holy prophets, from Abel to Joseph, sprinkled 
with the best blood of the son of God, as the crim- 
son sign of remission, only carries conviction to the 
business and bosoms of all flesh, that the cause is just 
and will continue; and blessed are they that hold out 
faithful to the end, while apostates, consenting to the 
shedding of innocent blood, have no forgiveness in 
this world nor in the world to come , . . Let no vain 

*" In Message to TIL Legis., 20, it is stated that some of the murderers aftpr- 
ward surrendered on the understanding that thej' should be admitted to bail. 
There was not sufficient proof to convict them. 


and foolish plans or imaginations scatter us abroad 
and divide us asunder as a people, to seek to save our 
lives at the expense of truth and principle, but rather 
let us live or die together and in the enjoyment of 
society and union."^^ 

At this time the saints needed such words of ad- 
vice and consolation. Some were already making 
preparations to return to the gentiles; some feared 
that their organization as a sect would soon come to 
an end. To reassure them, one more address was 
issued on August 15th, in the name of the twelve 
apostles,*^ and signed by Brigham Young, the presi- 
dent of the apostles. The saints were told that 
though they were now without a prophet present in 
the flesh, the twelve would administer and regulate 
the affairs of the church ; and that even if they should 
be taken away, there were still others who would 
insure the triumph of their cause throughout the 

In 1830, as will be remembered, the church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was organized in a 
chamber by a few humble men; in 1844 the prophet's 
followers mustered scores of thousands. Speedy dis- 
solution was now predicted by some, while others 
argued that as all his faults would lie buried in the 
tomb, while on his virtues martyrdom would shed its 
lustre, the progress of the sect would be yet more 
remarkable. The latter prediction was verified, and 
after the Mormons had suffered another period of per- 
secution, Joseph Smith the martyr became a greater 
power in the land than Joseph Smith the prophet. 

*' The full text of both letters is given in Times and Seasons, v. 568, 586- 
7; Mackay's The Mormons, 180-2; Smucker's Hist. Mormons, 189-92. 

*"'' Who are thus described in a letter addressed by Phelps to the editor of 
the New York Prophet, a small journal established to promulgate the views 
of the sect: ' Brigham Young, the lion of the Lord; Heber C. Kimball, the her- 
ald of grace; Parley P. Pratt, the archer of paradise; Orson Hyde, the olive 
branch of Israel; Willard Richards, the keeper of the rolls; John Taylor, 
the champion of right; William Smith, the patriarchal staff of Jacob; Wilford 
Woodruff, the banner of the gospel; George A. Smith, the entablature of 
truth; Orson Pratt, the gauge of philosophy; John E. Page, the sun-dial; 
and Lyman Wight, the wild ram of the mountains. They are good men; 
the best the Lord can find.' See Mackay's The Mormons. 186. 




The Question op Succession — Biography of Brigham Young — His Early 
Life — Conversion — Missionary Work — Made President of thb 
Twelve — Hi.s Devotion to the Prophet — Sidney Rigdon and Brig- 
ham Young Rival Aspirants for the Presidency — Rigdon's Claims 
— Public Meetings — Brigham Elected President of the Church— 
His Character — Temple-building — Fresh Disasters — The Affair at 
MoRLEY — The Men of Quincy and the Men of Carthage — The Mor- 
mons Consent to Abandon their City. 

Upon the death of Joseph Smith, one of the ques- 
tions claiming immediate attention was, Who shall 
be his successor? It was the first time the question 
had arisen in a manner to demand immediate solution, 
and the matter of succession was not so well deter- 
mined then as now, it being at present well established 
that upon the death of the president of the church 
the apostle eldest in ordination and service takes his 

Personal qualifications would have much to do with 
it; rules could be established later. The first consid- 
eration now was to keep the church from falling in 
pieces. None realized the situation better than Brig- 
ham Young, who soon made up his mind that he him- 
self was the man for the emergency. Then to make 
it appear plain to the brethren that God would have 
him take Joseph's place, his mind thus works: "The 
first thing that I thought of," he says, "was whether 
Joseph had taken the keys of the kingdom with him 

Hist. Utah. 13 ( 193 ) 


from the earth. Brother Orson Pratt sat on my 
left; we were both leaning back on our chairs. Bring- 
ing my hand down on my knee, I said, 'The keys of 
the kingdom are right here with the church.'" But 
who held the keys of the kingdom ? This was the all- 
absorbing question that was being discussed at Nauvoo 
when Brigham and the other members of the quorum 
arrived at that city on the 6th of August, 1844. 

Brigham Young was born at Whitingham, Wind- 
ham county, Vermont, on the 1st of June, 1801. His 
father, John, a Massachusetts farmer, served as a pri- 
vate soldier in the revolutionary war, and his grand- 
father as surgeon in the French and Indian war.^ In 
1804 his family, which included nine children,^ of whom 
he was then the youngest, removed to Sherburn, 
Chenango county. New York, where for a time hard- 
ship and poverty were their lot. Concerning Brig- 
ham's youth there is little worthy of record. Lack 
of means compelled him, almost without education, 
to earn his own livelihood, a'o did his brothers, finding 
employment as best they could. Thus, at the age of 
twenty-three, when he married he had learned how 
to work as farmer, carpenter, joiner, painter, and 
glazier, in the last of which occupations he was an ex- 
pert craftsman. 

In 1829 he removed to Mendon, Monroe count}'', 
where his father then resided; and here, for the first 
time, he saw the book of Mormon at the house of his 
brother Phineas, who had been a pastor in the re- 
formed methodist church, but was now a convert to 

* Waite''s The Mormon Prophet and his Harem. Linforth, Boute from 
Liverpool, 112, note, states that his grandfather was an officer in the revolu- 
tionary war; this is not confirmed by Mrs Waite, who quotes from Brigham'a 
autobiography. Again, Nabby Howe was the maiden name of Brigham's 
mother, as given in his autobiography; while Linforth reads Nancy Howe; and 
Remy, Jour, to G. S. L. City, i. 413, Naleby Howe. 

^Born as follow: Nancy, Aug. 6, 17S6, Fanny, Nov. 8, 1787, Rhoda, Sept. 
10, 1789, John, May 22, 1791, Nabby, Apr. 23, 1793, Susannah, June 7, 179.5, 
Joseph, Apr. 7, 1797, Phineas, Feb. 16, 1799, and Brigham, June 1, 1801. Two 
others were born later: Louisa, Sept. 25, 1804, and Lorenzo Dow, Oct. 19, 

'In Ibid., it is mentioned that before th3 organization of the latter-day 


About two years later he himself was converted* by 
the preaching of Elder Samuel H. Smith, brother of 
the prophet; on the 14th of April, 1832, he was bap- 
tized, and on the same night ordained an elder, his 
father^ and all his brothers afterward becoming pros- 
elytes. During the same month he set forth to meet 
the prophet atKirtland, where he found him and 
several of his brethren chopping wood. " Here," says 
Bfigiiam, **my joy was foil at the privilege of shak- 
ing the hand of the prophet of God. . .He was happy 
to see us and bid us welcome. In the evening a few 
of thel)rethren came in, and we conversed tosrether 
upon the things of the kingdom. He called upon me 
to pray. In my prayer I spoke in tongues. As soon 
as we rose~from our knees, the brethren flocked 
around him, and asked his opinion. . .He told them 
it was the pure Adamic language;. . .it is of God, and 
the^time wilt' come when Brother Brigham Young 
will preside over this church." In 1835 he was chosen, 
as will be remembered, one of the quorum of the 
twelve, and the following spring set forth on a mis- 
sionary tour to the eastern states. Returning early 
in the winter, he saved the life of the prophet, and 
otherwise rendered good service during the great 
apostasy of 1836, when the church passed through its 
darkest hour.^ 

Brigham was ever a devoted follower of the prophet, 
and at the risk of his own life, shielded him against 
the persecutions of apostates. At the close of 1837 
he was driven by their machinations from Kirtland,^ 

church, Phineas had wrought a miracle, 'whereby a young girl on the point of 
death had been restored to life. ' Remy does not give his authority. 

* At a branch of the church at Columbia, Penn. TuUidge's Life of Young, 78. 

* John Young was made first patriarch of the church. He died at Quincy, 
III, Oct. 12, 1839. Waiters The Mormon Prophet, 2. 

« TuUidge's Life of Brigham Young, 83. In a speech delivered after he 
became president, Brigham says: 'Ascertaining that a plot was laid to waylay 
Joseph for the purpose of taking his life, on his return from Monroe, Michi- 
gan, to Kirtland, I procured a horse and buggy, and took brother William 
Smith along to meet Joseph, whom we met returning in the stage-coach. 
Joseph requested William to take his seat in the stage, and he rode with me 
in the buggy We arrived at Kirtland in safety. ' 

' 'On the morning of Dec. 22d I left Ivirtland in consequence of the fury 


and took refuge at Dublin, Indiana, where he was soon 
afterward joined by Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon. 
Thence, in company with the former, he went to Mis- 
souri, arriving at Far West a short time before the 
massacre at Haun's Mill. Once more Brigham was 
compelled to flee for his life, and now betook himself 
to Quincy, where he raised means to aid the destitute 
brethren in leaving Missouri,^ and directed the first 
settlement of the saints in Illinois, the prophet Joseph, 
Parley P. Pratt, and others being then in prison. 

By revelation of July 8, 1838,^ it was ordered that 
eleven of the quorum should " depart to go over the 
great waters, and there promulgate my gospel, the 
fulness thereof, and bear record of my name. Lot 
them take leave of my saints in the city Far West, on 
the 26th day of April next; on the building spot of my 
house, saith the Lord." As the twelve had been ban- 
ished from Missouri and could not return with safety, 
many of the church dignitaries urged that the latter 
part of this revelation should not be fulfilled. "But," 
says Brigham, " I felt differently, and so did those of 
the quorum who were with me." The affairs of the 
church were now in the hands of the twelve, and their 
president was not the man to shrink from danger. 
" The Lord had spoken, and it was their duty to obey." 

The quorum started forth, and reaching Far West 
toward the end of April, hid themselves in a grove. 
Between midnig-ht of the 25th and dawn of the 2Gth 

of the mob, and the spirit that prevailed in the apostates, who threatened to 
destroy me because I would proclaim publicly and privately that I knew, by 
the power of the holy ghost, that Joseph Smith was a prophet of the most 
high God, and had not transgressed and fallen, as apostates declared.' Id., 84. 

® ' I held a meeting with the brethren of the twelve and the members of 
the church in Quincy, on the 17th of March, when a letter was read to the 
people from the committee, on behalf of the saints at Far West, who were 
left destitute of the means to move. Though the brethren were poor and 
stripped of almost everything, j'et they manifested a spirit of willingness to 
do their utmost, offering to sell their hats, coats, and shoes to accomplish the 
object. At the close of the meeting $50 was collected in money and several 
teams were subscribed to go and bring the brethren. ' Id. , 89-90. 

^This is the date given in Doctrine and Covenants, 381 (ed. S. L. City, 
1876). See also Linforth's lioute jfoni Liverpool, 112, note. Tullidge gives 
July 8, 1836. Life of Brigham Young, 90. 


they held a conference, relaid the foundation of the 
house of the Lord,^*^ and ordained Wilford Woodruff 
and George A. Smith as apostles in place of those 
who had fallen from grace. "Thus," says Brigham, 
"was this revelation fulfilled, concerning which our 
enemies said, if all the other revelations of Joseph 
Smith came to pass, that one should not be fulfilled." 

Upon the excommunication of Thomas B. Marsh, 
in 1839, the office of president of the twelve devolved 
by right on Brigham by reason of his seniority of 
membership. On the 14th of April, 1840, he was 
publicly accepted by the council as their head, and at 
the reorganization of the church councils at Nauvoo 
he was appointed by revelation on the 19th of Janu- 
ary, 1843, president of the twelve travelling council. 

After the founding of Nauvoo, the president, to- 
gether with three others of the quorum, ^^ sailed for 
Liverpool, where they arrived on the 6th of April, 
1840, the tenth anniversary of the organization of 
the church. Here he was engaged for about a year 
in missionary work, of which more hereafter. Taking- 
ship for New York on the 20th of April, 1841, he 
reached Nauvoo on the 1st of July, and was warmly 
welcomed by the prophet, who a few days afterward ^^ 
received the following revelation: "Dear and well- 
beloved brother Brigham Young, verily thus saith 
the Lord unto you, my servant Brigham, it is no more 
required at your hand to leave your family as in times 
past, for your oflPering is acceptable to me; I have 
seen your labor and toil in journeyings for my name. 
I therefore command you to send my word abroad, 
and take special care of your family from this time 
henceforth and forever. Amen." 

Already the mantle of the prophet was falling upon 
the president of the twelve; already the former had 

'" 'Elder Cutler, the master workman of the house, recommenced laying 
the foundation by rolling up a large stone near the south-east corner.' Id., 'J2. 

" Heber C.Kimball, George A. Smith, and Parley P. Pratt. Reuben 
Hedlock also accompanied them. 

'^On July 9th. JJoctriiie and Cove^wits, 409. 


foretold his own death ; but notwithstanding the rev- 
elation, Brigham was sent as a missionary to the 
eastern states, and at Peterborough, New Hampshire, 
received news of the tragedy at Carthage jail. 

When Governor Ford and bis militia were prepar- 
ing to march on Nauvoo for the purpose of forestall- 
ing civil war, the only course open to the prophet 
and his followers was a removal from Illinois. In 1842 
an expedition had been planned to explore the coun- 
try toward or beyond the Rocky Mountains; but 
when Joseph Smith put himself forward as a candi- 
date for the presidency of the United States, all 
other matters were for the time forgotten. Brigham 
claimed that had he been present the assassination 
would never have occurred; he would not have per- 
mitted the prophet's departure for Carthage: rather 
would he have sent him to the mountains under a 
guard of elders. But Brigham had no reason to 
complain of the dispensation of providence which was 
now to bring his clear, strong j udgment and resolute 
will to the front. 

Prominent among the aspirants for the presidency 
of the church was Sidney Rigdon, one of the first and 
ablest to espouse the cause, and not altogether without 
grounds for his pretensions. He had performed much 
labor, had encountered many trials, and had received 
scanty honors, being at present nothing more than 
preacher, and professor of history, belles-lettres, and 
oratory. By revelation of January 19, 1841, he had 
been offered the position of counsellor to the prophet,^^ 

^^ Doctrine and Covenants, 406. In this same revelation the oflficers of 
the priesthood were likewise named: Hyrum Smith, patriarch; Joseph Smith, 
presiding elder over the whole church, also translator, revelator, seer, and 
prophet, with Sidney Rigdon and William Law as councillors, the three to 
constitute a quorum and first presidency. Brigham Young, president over 
+he twelve travelling council, who were Heber C. Kimball, Parley P. Pratt, 
Orson Pratt, Orson Hyde, William Smith, John Taylor, John E. Page, Wilford 
Woodruff, Willard Richards, George A. Smith, and some one to be appointed 
in place of David Patten; a high council, Samuel Bent, H. G. Sherwood, 
George W. Harris, Charles C. Rich, Thomas Grover, Newel Knight, David 
Dort, Dunbar Wilson, Aaron Johnson, David Fulmer, Alpheus Cutler, Will 


if he would consent to humble himself. But Sidney- 
would not humble himself. Soon after Joseph's 
death, at which he was not present, he had a revela- 
tion of his own, bidding him conduct the saints to 
Pittsburgh.^* Visiting that citj, he found the time 
not yet ripe for this measure ; and meanwhile return- 
ing to Nauvoo, the 3d of August, he offered himself 
on the following day as a candidate for the presidency, 
aided by Elder Marks. 

Sidney now put forth all his strength to gain influ- 
ence and secure retainers. He must have Joseph's 
mantle; he must have the succession, or henceforth he 
would be nothing. It was a momentous question, not 
to be disposed of in a day. To substantiate his claim, 
Sidney could now have visions with the best of them ; 
on various occasions he told how the Lord had throusfh 
him counselled the people to appoint him as their guar- 
dian. He requested that a meeting should be held 
on the following sabbath, the 8th of August, for the 
further consideration of the matter. But prior to this 
meeting Parley Pratt and two others of the twelve 
bade the candidate go with them to the house of John 
Taylor, who yet lay prostrate with his wounds. Tay- 
lor expostulated with him, but to no purpose." Sidney 
continued to press his claims, even assuming the sacred 
office, prophesying and ordaining. On the sabbath 
named, according to appointment^ Sidney and his sup- 
porters met in the grove near the temple; but were 
confronted by the apostles, with Brigham at their 
head. Standing before them, Sidney addressed the 

iam Huntington; president over a quorum of high priests, Don Carlos Smith, 
with Amasa Lyman and Noah Packard for counsellors; a priesthood to pre- 
side over the quorum of elders, John A. Hicks, Samuel Williams, and Jesse 
Baker; to preside over the quorum of seventies, Joseph Young, Josiah But- 
terfield, Daniel Miles, Henry Herriman, Zera Pulsipher, Levi Hancock, 
James Foster — this for elders constantly travelling, while the quorum of 
ciders was to preside over the churches from time to time; to preside over 
the bishopric, Vinson Knight, Samuel H. Smith, and Shadrach Roundy, and 

^* See his memorial to- the Pennsylvania legislature, in Times and Seasons, 
V. 418-23. Remy says that he was also instructed to pay a, visit to Queen 
Victoria, and overthrow her if she refused to accept the gospel. Jour, to G. 
8. L. City, i. 411; a statement for which I find no authority. 


brethren for nearly two hours. Yet he seemed to 
make no impression. "The Lord has not chosen 
him," said one to another. The assembly then ad- 
journed to two o'clock, when the saints in and about 
Nauvoo gathered in great numbers. After singing 
and prayer, through the vast assemblage was heard a 
voice, strikingly clear, distinct, and penetrating.^^ It 
was the voice of Brigham, who said: "Attention, all! 
For the first time in my life I am called to act as chief 
of the twelve; for the first time in your lives you are 
called to walk by faith, your prophet being no longer 
present in the flesh. I desire that every one present 
shall exercise the fullest liberty. I now ask you, and 
each of you, if you want to choose a guardian, a prophet, 
evangelist, or something else as your head to lead you. 
All who wish to draw away from the church, let them 
do it, but they will not prosper. If any want Sidney 
Kigdon to lead them, let them have him; but I say unto 
you that the keys of the kingdom are with the twelve."^* 

It was then put to vote, Brigham meanwhile say- 
ing, "All those who are for Joseph and Hyrum, the 
book of Mormon, book of Doctrine and Covenants, the 
temple, and Joseph's measures, they being one party, 
will be called upon to manifest their principles boldly, 
the opposite party to enjoy the same liberty." ^^ The 
result was ten votes for Sidney, the quorum with 
Brigham at their head getting all the rest. Elder 
Philips then motioned that all "who have voted for 
Sidney Bigdon be suspended until the}'' can have a 
trial before the high counciL"^^ 

The truth is, Sidney was no match for Brigham. 
It was a battle of the lion and the lamb; only Brig- 

^* 'He [Brigham] said, as he stood on the stand, he would rather sit in sack- 
cloth and ashes for a month than appear before the people, but he pitied their 
loneliness, and was constrained to step forward, and we knew he was, because 
he had the voice and manner of Joseph, as hundreds can testify. ' BeminisceHces 
of Mrs F. D. Richards, MS., p. 14. 

'* Woodruffs Journal, MS., Aug. 8, 1844. 

^T Hist. Brigham Yoimg, 1844, MS., 25. 

'^Wilford Woodruff states that Rigdon did not receive a single vote. 
Remiaiscences, MS., 2. 


ham did not know before that he was a lion, while 
Sidney received the truth with reluctance that he was 
indeed a lamb. Something more than oratory was nec- 
essary to win in this instance; and of that something, 
with great joy in his heart, Brigham found himself in 
possession. It was the combination of qualities which 
we find present primarily in all great men, in all leaders 
of men — intellectual force, mental superiority, united 
with personal magnetism, and physique enough to give 
weight to will and opinion; for Brigham Young was 
assuredly a great man, if by greatness we mean one 
who is superior to others in strength and skill, moral, 
intellectual, or physical. The secret of this man's 
power — a power that within a few years made itself 
felt throughout the world — was this : he was a sincere 
man, or if an impostor, he was one who first imposed 
upon himself He was not a hypocrite; knave, in 
the ordinary sense of the term, he was not; though he 
has been a thousand times called both. If he was a bad 
man, he was still a great man, and the evil that he did 
was done with honest purpose. He possessed great ad- 
ministrative ability ; he was far-seeing, with a keen in- 
sight into human nature, and a thorough knowledge of 
the good and evil qualities of men, of their virtues and 
frailties. His superiority was native to him, and he 
was daily and hourly growing more powerful, develop- 
ing a strength which surprised himself, and gaining con- 
stantly more and more confidence in himself, gaining 
constantly more and more the respect, fear, and obe- 
dience of those about him, until he was able to con- 
sign Sidney to the buffetings of Satan for a thousand 
years, while Brigham remained president and supreme 
ruler of the church. ^^ 

" Sidney had a trial, and was convicted and condemned. Sidney Rigdon 
was a native of Saint Clair, Penn., where he was born in 1793. Until his 26th 
year he worked on his father's farm, but in 1819 received a license to preach, 
from the society known as the regular baptists, being appointed in 1822 to the 
charge of the first baptist church iu Pittsburgh, where he became very popu- 
lar. In 1824 he resigned his position, from conscientious motives, and joined 
the Campbellites, supporting himself by working as a journeyman tanner. 
Two years later he accepted a call as a Campbellite preacher at Bainbridge, 0., 


Thus Brigham Young succeeded Joseph Smith. 
The work of the latter was done. It was a singular 
work, to which he was singularly adapted; the work yet 
to be done is no less remarkable, and a no less remark- 
able agent is raised up at the right moment. Mat- 
ters assume now a more material turn, and a more 
material nature is required to master them — if coarser- 
grained, more practical, rougher, more dogmatical, 
dealing less in revelations from heaven and more in 
self-protection and self-advancement here on earth, 
so much the better for the saints. ''Strike, but hear 
me!" Joseph with Themistocles used to cry; "I will 
strike, and you shall hear me," Brigham would say. 

No wonder the American Israel received Brigham 
as the gift of God, the Lion of the Lord,^" though 
the explanation of the new ruler himself would have 
been nearer that of the modern evolutionist, who 
would account for Brigham's success as the survival 
of the fittest. It was fortunate for the saints at this 
juncture that their leader should be less prophet than 
priest and king, less idealist than business manager, 
political economist, and philosopher, Brigham holds 
communion with spiritual powers but distantly, per- 
haps distrustfully; at all events, he commands the 
spirits rather than let them command him; and the 
older he grows the less he has to do with them; and 
the less he has to do with heavenly affairs, the more 
his mind dwells on earthly matters. His prophecies are 
eminently practical; his people must have piety that 
will pay. And later, and all through his life, his posi- 
tion is a strange one. If the people about Nauvoo are 
troublesome, God orders him west; and then he tells 

and afterward built up churches at Mantua and Mentor in that state. In 
1830 he joined the Mormon church, being converted by the preaching of Par- 
ley. Further particulars will be found in Times and Seasons, iv. 177-8, 193-4, 
209-10; Cohh''s Mormon Problem, MS., 12; Tucker's M or monism, 123-7; Pitts- 
burgh Gaz., in S. F. Bulletin, Aug. 4, 1876. Returning to Pittsburgh after 
his excommunication, Sidney led a life of utter obscurity, and finally died 
at Friendship, Alleghany County, N. Y., July 14, 1876. Lippincott's Mag., 
Aug. 1880. 

""See note 41, p. 192, this vol. 


him if roads are opened and canals constructed it will 
please him. From these practical visions come ac- 
tions, and on a Sunday the great high-priest rises 
in the tabernacle and says: "God has spoken. He 
has said unto his prophet, 'Get thee up, Brigham, and 
build me a city in the fertile valley to the south, 
where there is water, where there are fish, where 
the sun is strong enough to ripen the cotton plants, and 
give raiment as well as food to my saints on earth. 
Brethren willing to aid God's work should come to 
me before the bishop's meeting.'" "As the prophet 
takes his seat again," says an eye-witness, "and puts 
on his broad-brimmed hat, a hum of applause runs 
around the bowery, and teams and barrows are freely 

To whatsoever Brigham applied himself he directed 
his whole strength, proTided his whole strength was 
necessary to the accomplishment of his purpose. 
There were others in the field against him, aspirants 
for the late prophet's place, besides Sidney ; but direct- 
ing his efibrts only against the most powerful of them, 
the president of the twelve summoned the quorum and 
the people, as we have seen, crushed Rigdon and his 
adherents by one of the master-strokes which he was 
now learning, declared the revelations of Rigdon to be 
of the devil, cut him ofi", cursed him, and was himself 
elected almost without a dissenting voice, giving all 
ostensibly the fullest liberty to act, yet permitting 
none of them to do so, and even causing ten to be tried 
for dissenting. Henceforth none dared to gainsay his 
authority; he became not only the leader of the Mor- 
mons, but their dictator; holding authority for a time 
as president of the twelve apostles, and finally in the 
capacity of the first presidency, being made president 
of the whole church in December 1847. 

Brigham Young was now in his forty-third year, in 
the prime of a hale and vigorous manhood, with ex- 
uberant vitality, with marvelous energy, and with un- 
swerving faith in his cause and in himself In stat- 


ure he was a little above medium height; in frame 
well-knit and compact, though in later years rotund 
and portly; in carriage somewhat stately; presence 
imposing, even at that time, and later much more so; 
face clean shaven now, but afterward lengthened by 
full beard except about the mouth; features all good, 
regular, well formed, sharp, and smiling, and wearing 
an expression of self-sufficiency, bordering on the su- 
percilious, which later in life changed to a look of sub- 
dued sagacity which he could not conceal; deep-set, 
gray eyes, cold, stern, and of uncertain expression, 
lips thin and compressed, and a forehead broad and 
massive — his appearance was that of a self-reliant and 
strong-willed man, of one born to be master of him- 
self and many others. In manner and address he was 
easy and void of affectation, deliberate in speech, con- 
veying his original and suggestive ideas in apt though 
homely phrase.^^ When in council he was cool and 
imjDerturbable, slow to decide, and in no haste to act; 
but when the time for action came he worked with an 
energy that was satisfied only with success. 

Like his predecessor, he was under all circumstances 
naturally a brave man, possessing great physical 
strength, and with nerves unshaken by much excess 
or sickness. That he was given to strong drink has 
often been asserted by his enemies, but never by his 
friends, and rarely by impartial observers. He was 
always in full possession of himself, being far too 
wise a man to destroy himself through any indiscre- 

He was undoubtedly the man for the occasion, 
however, for no other could, at this juncture, save 
the Mormons from dissolution as a sect and as a 
people. If the saints had selected as their leader a 
man less resolute, less confident, less devoted to his 
cause and to his people, a man like Sidney Rigdon, 

*^ Bowles, Aa'oss the Continent, 86, says that even at 64 he spoke ungram- 
matically. This criticism is a fair commentary on the difference between a 
Bowles and a Brigham. 


for example, Mormonism would have split into half a 
dozen petty factions, the strongest of which would 
hardly be worthy of notice. 

Discussing the great Mormon leaders, Hyde, who 
though an apostate was one of the most impartial of 
writers, says: ''Brigham Young is far superior to 
Smith in everything that constitutes a great leader. 
Smith was not a man of genius; his forte was tact. 
He only embraced opportunities that presented them- 
selves. He used circumstances, but did not create 
them. The compiling genius of Mormonism w^as 
Sidney Rigdon. Smith had boisterous impetuosity, 
but no foresight. Polygamy was not the result of his 
policy, but of his passions. Sidney gave point, direc- 
tion, and apparent consistency to the Mormon system 
of theology. He invented its forms and many of its 
arguments. He and Parley Pratt were its leading 
orators and polemics. Had it not been for the acces- 
sion of these two men, Smith would have been lost, 
and his schemes frustrated and abandoned. That 
Brighara was superior not only to Smith but also to 
Bigdon is evident." 

Burton says: "His manner is at once affable and 
impressive, simple and courteous, . . . shows no sign of 
dogmatism,. . .impresses a stranger with, a certain 
sense of power; his followers are, of course, wholly 
fascinated by his superior strength of brain." Temper 
even and placid, manner cold, but he is neither morose 
nor methodistic. Often reproves in violent language ; 
powers of observation acute; has an excellent mem- 
ory, and is a keen judge of character. "If he dis- 
likes a stranger at the first interview, he never sees 
him again. Of his temperance and sobriety there is 
but one opinion. His life is ascetic; his favorite food 
is baked potatoes with a little buttermilk, and his 
drink water. "'^'^ 

** City of the Saintx, 292-3; Mormonism, 170. Hyde is by no means one of 
Brigham's flatterers, but appears to speak from conviction. Ou the same 
page he remarks: ' Brigham may be a great man, greatly deceived, but he 


Further: though he made his people obey him, he 
shared their privations. Soon we shall find him 
rousing his followers from the lethargy of despair, 
when their very hearts had died within them, and 
when all cheeks blanched but his; speaking words of 
cheer to the men, and with his own sick child in his 
arms, sharing his scant rations with women and 
children who held out their hands for bread. 

For a brief space after the election of Brigham the 
saints had rest. The city of Nauvoo continued to 
thrive;^' a portion of the temple was finished and 
dedicated,^* the building of the Nauvoo house and 
council-house was progressing rapidly. 

Their buildings were erected with great sacrifice 
of time, and amidst difficulties and discouragement in 
consequence of poverty. Money was exceedingly 
scarce.^^ The revelation requiring tithing, made in 
1838, was first practically applied in Nauvoo; the 
tenth day was regularly given to work on the temple ; 
the penny subscriptions of the sisters are mentioned, 
which was a weekly contribution, and was intended 
for the purchase of glass and nails. Every effort was 
made to encourage manufacture, and to utilize their 
water-power. At a meeting of the trades delegates 

is not a hypocrite;' and on the next page: 'Brigham, however deceived, is 
still a bad man, and a dangerous man; and as much more dangerous, being 
sincere in thinking he is doing God's work, as a madman is than an impostor. ' 
In Id., 136-40, we have a short and succinct narrative of Brigham 's career 
up to the assassination of Joseph Smith, probably the best that has yet been 
written in such brief space. 

^^ 'Almost every stranger that enters our city is excited with astonish- 
ment that so much has been done in so short a time. ' Likewise there was 
always work enough for them among the gentiles, who ' did not know how to 
make a short johnny-cake until our girls taught them.' Speech of Elder 
Kimball, April 8, 1845, in Id., vi. 973. Says John Taylor: 'When we first 
settled in Nauvoo, . . .farming lands out of the city were worth from $1.25 to 
$5 per acre; when we left they were worth from $5 to $50 per acre. We 
turned the desert into a city, and the wilderness into a fruitful field or fields 
and gardens. ' Millennial Star, viii. 1 15. Bennett mentions a community farm 
near Nauvoo, which was cultivated in common by the poorer classes. History 
of the Saints, 191. 

^* It was dedicated May 1, 1846, by Wilford Woodruff and Orson Hyde. 
Two days later they held their last meeting there. Woodruff's Rem., MS., 3. 

^' 'When corn was brought to my door at ten cents a bushel, and sadly 
needed, the money could not be raised.' Utah Notes, MS., p. 6. 



there was intelligent discussion as to the place becom- 
ing a great manufacturing centre.^' 

In January 1845 it was proposed that a building 
for the high-priests should be erected, to cost $15,000, 
and the work was cheerfully undertaken. There were 
frequent entertainments given in the way of dances 
and public dinners in the Nauvoo mansion and in the 
bowery six miles out of the city.^^ At their confer- 
ence in April, thousands gathered. The temple was 
pushed forward, as the people were counselled to re- 
ceive their endowments there as early as possible. On 
the 24th of May the walls were finished, and the 
event was duly celebrated. ^^ On the 5th of October 
their first meeting in the temple was held.^^ From 
mites and tithings it was estimated that a million dol- 
lars had been raised. Brigham, Parley, and others 
of the quorum administered in the temples to hun- 
dreds of people, the services often continuing all day 
and night.^" At the end of December one thousand 
of the people had received the ordinances. And all 
this was done midst renewed persecutions, and while 
the people were making preparations to evacuate the 

The masons withdrew the dispensation previously 
granted to Nauvoo, and to this day they refuse to 
admit Mormons into their order. 

*® There was $500 or $600 already collected from the penny subscriptions, 
which was drawn by order of Brigham to meet a debt on laud which must be 
immediately paid. Ilisi. D. Young, MS., Dec. 5, 1844. John Taylor says it 
was intended to establish manufactures at Nauvoo on a large scale, for which 
the services of English emigrants were to be secured. At the head of tho 
rapids, near Nauvoo, stood an island, to which it was proposed to build a 
dam, leaving spaces for water-wheels, and thus securing power for mills. 
Rem., MS., 19-20. 

"' In Hist. B. Young, MS., July 9, 1845, is a description of a public dinner 
for the benefit of the church, where Young, Kimball, Taylor, and others offi- 
ciated at the table. 

** At six o'clock in the morning the people assembled. The ' Cap-stone 
March,' composed for the occasion, was played by Pitt's band; Brigham laid 
on the last stone, and pronounced the benediction, and the whole congregation 
shouted, ' Hosanna ! hosanna to God and the lamb I amen, amen, and amen !' 
Hist. B. Young, MS., 83. 

"The first stone was laid April 6, 1841. 

'" ' I commenced administering the ordinances of endowment at five o'clock 
and continued until half-past three in the morning.' Id., MS., Dec. 10, 1845. 


Fresh disaster now approached Nauvoo. Th"* 
whigs and the democrats of Ilhnois had both sought 
to secure the Mormon vote, until finally they began 
to declare that l^.Iormonism signified a government not 
in accord with that of the United States. The city 
charter had been repealed in January 1845, and Dan- 
iel Spencer, who had been elected to fill the remain- 
der of the term of the murdered mayor, was deposed, 
as were all the other city ofiScers; a new charter was 
before the legislature, but never granted. These and 
like measures, followed as they were by the discharge 
of Joseph Smith's assassins, imparted to the gentiles 
renewed courage. The crimes of the whole country 
were laid at the door of the saints. Nauvoo was de- 
nounced as a den of counterfeiters, cattle-thieves, and 
assassins,^^ the leaders of the gang being men who in the 
name of religion outraged all sense of decency. The 
saints retaliated in kind ; and shortly it came about that 
in sections settled by Mormons gentiles feared to travel, 
and in sections settled by gentiles Mormons feared 
to travel. In view of this state of affairs, which w^as 
more like old-time feudalism than latter-day repub- 
licanism. Governor Ford made an inspection of the 
city, and declared that fewer thefts were committed 
in Nauvoo in proportion to population than in any 
other town in the state. The cause of this, however, 
may have lain in the fact that the population of Nau- 
voo was chiefly Mormon, and whatever might be their 
depredations upon the gentiles, the saints were not 
accustomed to steal from each other. 

At a place called the Morley settlement, in Han- 
cock county, in September 1845, the people held a 
meeting to devise means for the prevention of thievery. 
Though few definite charges were advanced, there 
was much said derogatory to Mormon honesty. 
Presently the discharge of a gun was heard, once or 
twice, perhaps more. It was said the shots were fired 

'^ For specimens of the accusations brought against them, see HcdVs Mor- 
manism Exposed, 24-34. 


by Mormons, and that they took aim at the house in 
which the meeting was held. Soon the cry went 
abroad that the Mormons were in arms, and there 
were quickly volunteers at hand to help the men of 
Morley. A meeting was held, and it was resolved to 
expel the saints. At the time appointed, armed bands 
appeared and burned some twenty Mormon dwellings, 
driving the inmates into the bushes.^^ The people of 
Illinois were evidently now determined to adopt the 
previous policy of the men of Missouri. This was not 
all. Word had come that forces from Nauvoo were 
moving to the aid of the Mormons at Morley, where- 
upon the gentiles throughout all that region banded, 
threatening to burn and drive out the saints until not 
one should remain. As a beginning, Buel's flouring 
mill and carding machine, near Lima, the property of 
a Mormon, was reduced to ashes. ^^ 

And now the men of Quincy, their old friends and 
benefactors, turned against them; and though not 
manifesting the deadly hate displayed in some quar- 
ters, were nevertheless resolved that the Mormons 
should depart from the state. On the 22d the citi- 
zens met and agreed that further efforts to live in 
peace with the Mormons were useless.** 

Indeed, the saints themselves had reached the 

'^ Says the Quincy Whig: ' If the Mormons have been guilty of crime, why, 
punish them; but do not visit their sins on defenceless women and children. 
This is as bad as the savages. ' Sheriff Backenstos thus testifies: ' It is proper 
to state that the Mormon community have acted with more than ordinary for- 
bearance, remaining perfectly quiet, and offering no resistance when their 
dwellings, other buildings, stacks of grain, etc., were set on fire in their 
presence, and they have forborne until forbearance is no longer a virtue.' 
Fullmer'' K Expulsion, 19. 

*' ' Mobs commenced driving out the Mormons in the lower part of Han- 
cock CO. , and burning their houses and property . . . The burning was con- 
tinued from settlement to settlement for ten or eleven days without any re- 
sistance whatever. The people at Nauvoo sent out wagons and teams to 
bring those people in whom the mob had driven out of their homes. ' Wells' 
Narrative, MS. , 35-6. ' The mob said they would drive all into Nauvoo, and 
all Nauvoo into the Mississippi.' Richards, Rem., MS., 16. 

3* ' It is a settled thing that the public sentiment of the state is against 
the Mormons, and it will be in vain for them to contend against it; and to 
prevent bloodshed and the sacrifice of so many lives on both sides it is their 
duty to obey the public will, and leave the state as speedily as possible. 
That they will do this, we have a confident hope, and that, too, before the 
last extreme is resorted to, that of force.' Fullmer'a Expulsion, 20. 
Hist. Utah. 11 


same conclusion. It was no new idea to them, seek- 
ing a home elsewhere. It was a rough element, that by 
which they were surrounded, an element which brought 
upon them more of evil than of good. Compara- 
tively few additions were made to their number from 
the bold border men of Missouri and Illinois, most 
of their proselytes coming from other parts of the 
United States and from Europe. The whole great 
west was open to them; even during the days of 
Joseph there had been talk of some happy Arca- 
dian retreat far away from every adverse influence;*''^ 
and in the fertile brain of Brigham the idea assumed 
proportions yet broader and of more intensified form, 
significant of western empire and isolation somewhere 
in California or the Pacific isles, with himself as 
leader, and followers drawn from every quarter of 
the globe. 

A general council was held on the 9th of Septem- 
ber, at which it was resolved that a company of fifteen 
hundred men be selected to go to Salt Lake Valley, 
and a committee of five was appointed to gather in- 
formation relative to the subject. ^° There were fre- 
quent meetings of the authorities and consultations in 
regard to emigratino' to California. ^^ 

The saints would go, they said, but they must have 
a reasonable time in which to dispose of their prop- 

^^On the 20th of Feb., 1844, according to the Millennial Star, xxii. 819, 
Joseph counselled the twelve to send out a delegation and ' investigate the 
locations of California and Oregon, and hunt out a good location where 
we can remove to after the temple is completed, where we can build a city 
in a day and have a government of our o wn. ' In Taylor's Reminiscences, MS. , 
19, is the following: 'A favorite song in Nauvoo, and of my own composi- 
tion, was entitled "The Upper California, that's the land for me!" what 
is now Utah being known by that name. Joseph Smith was the first ^;\ho 
talked of the latter-day saints coming to this region. As early as August 
1842 he prophesied that the saints would be driven to the Rocky Mountains, 
and there become a mighty people. ' 

s^See Hist. B. Young, 1845, MS., 19. 

^' F. D. Richards read Fremont's Journal to the twelve, and later Hastings' 
account of California was read. Hist. B. Young, MS., 308-16. A letter was 
also read to the authorities from Brother Sam Brannan, stating that the secre- 
tary of war and others of the cabinet were planning to prevent their moving 
west — alleging that it was against the law for an armed body to go from the 
U. S. to any other government; that it would not do to let them go to Cali- 
fornia or Oregon, but that they must be obliterated. Hist. B. Young, MS., 305. 



erty and leave the country.'^ The meeting at Quincy, 
notice of which with a copy of the resolutions was sent 
to Nauvoo, named six months as the time within 
which the Mormons must depart. In answer, the 
council of the church replied, on the 24th of Septem- 
ber, that they could not set forth so early in the spring, 
when there would be neither food for man or beast, 
nor even running water, but that it was their full in- 
tention to depart as soon as possible, and that they 
would go far enough, God helping them, forever there- 
a,fter to be free from their enemies. Meanwhile all 
they asked was that they should not be further mo- 
lested by armed bands or suits at law, but rather 
assisted in selling their property and collecting their 
effects. ^^ 

To this the men of Quincy gave assent; at the same 
time pledging themselves to prompt action in case of 
failure on the part of the saints to keep their promise, 
and taking measures to secure a military organization 
of the people of Adams county.^ 

It was not to be expected that Carthage would 
remain idle while other towns were actinor. A con- 
vention of delegates from nine surrounding counties . 
was held there about the end of September, and 
four commissioners, among whom were Hardin, com- 
mander of the state mihtia, and Douglas, senator," 
were sent to Nauvoo to demand the departure of the 
Mormons. The deputation was met by the council 
of the twelve with the president at their head, and 
answer was promptly made that the removal would 

'*One thousand families, including 5,000 or 6,000 souls, would remove in 
the spring. Hist. B. Young, MS., 1845, 134. Hundreds of farms and some 
2,000 houses were offered for sale in Nauvoo city and county. 'There was 
grain enough growing within 10 miles of Nauvoo, raised by the Mormons, to 
feed the whole population for two years, if they were to do nothing but gather 
it in and feast upon it.' Id., MS., 35. 

*^ A lengthy communication to this effect was drawn up and signed by Brig- 
ham Young, president, and Willard Richards, clerk. Printed in full in Full- 
trier's Expulsion, 20-1. 

*" Answer in full in Id., 22. 

*^ The other two were W. B. Warren and J. A. McDougal. Tidlidge'i 
Life of Young, 8. 


take place as speedily as possible. " What guarantee 
will you give us?" asked Hardin. "You have our 
all as guarantee," answered Brigham. "Young is 
right," said Douglas. But this reply would not sat- 
isfy all the commissioners, and the twelve were re- 
quested to submit their intentions in writing, in order 
that they might be laid before the governor and 
people of the state. This was done.*^ 

The commissioners then returned home; but not 
even yet were the men of Carthage content. To the 
resolutions passed at Quincy were added others of 
similar nature, and the whole adopted. A plan of 
organization was agreed upon, and arrangements were 
made for calling meetings and securing volunteers, 
who were to select their own officers and report to the 
Quincy military committee. The judge of Hancock 
county was requested by this convention not to hold 

*^ In answer to the letter of the commissioners, the saints on the same 
day said, after referring to their communication of the 24th to the Quincy 
committee: ' In addition to this, we would say that we had commenced 
making arrangements to remove from the country previous to the recent dis- 
turbances; that we have four companies of 100 families each, and six more 
companies now organizing, of the same number each, preparatory to a removal. 
That 1,000 families, including the twelve, the high council, the trustees, and 
general authorities of the church, are fully determined to remove in the 
spring, independent of the contingencies of selling our property; and this 
company will comiDriae from 5,000 to 6,000 souls. That the church, as a 
body, desire to remove with us, and will if sales can be effected so as to raise 
the necessary means. That the organization of the church we represent is 
such that there never can exist but one head or presidency at any one time. 
And all good members wish to be with the organization; and all are determined 
to remove to some distant point, where we shall neither infringe nor be 
infringed upon, so soon as time and means will permit. That we have some 
hundreds of farms and some 2,000 houses for sale in this city and county, 
and we request all good citizens to assist in the disposal of our property. 
That we do not expect to find purchasers for our temple and other public 
buildings; but we are willing to rent them to a respectable community who 
may inliabit the city. That we wish it distinctly understood that although 
we may not find purchasers for our property, we will not sacrifice it, nor 
give it away, or sufiFer it illegally to be wrested from us. That we do not 
intend to sow any wheat this fall, and should we all sell, we shall not put in 
any more crops of any description. That as soon as practicable we will 
appoint committees from the city. La Harpe, Macedonia, Bear Creek, and 
all necessary places in the country, to give information to purchasers. That 
if these testimonies are not sufficient to satisfy any people that we are in 
earnest, we will soon give them a sign that cannot be mistaken — we will 
leave them.' In Hist. B. Young, MS., Nov. 1845, it is stated that there 
were families organized 3,285: wagons on hand 1,508; wagons commenced 


court during that autumn, for fear of collision between 
saints and gentiles, and the governor was recommended 
to station in that vicinity a small military force to 
keep peace during the winter. 

During the height of the troubles at Nauvoo, Orson 
Pratt was in New York, where on the 8th of No- 
vember, 1845, he addressed a farewell message to the 
brethren in the east, calling upon such of them as 
had means to sell their property, buy teams, and join 
the overland emigration, and those who had none to 
take passage in the ship Brooklyn, chartered for the 
purpose by Elder Samuel Brannan, and which was to 
sail round Cape Horn, via the Hawaiian Islands, for 
California. Shortly after, the Broohlyn sailed with 
238 emigrants, the price of passage being $50 for 
adults, with $25 additional for subsistence. The de- 
tails of this expedition, with names of the emigrants, 
their doings in California, and the departure for the 
Great Salt Lake of a large portion of them, is given 
in volume V. chapter XX. of my Histoiy of California. 
Upon his return to Nauvoo, Pratt brought $400 worth 
of Allen's six-shooting pistols. 




A Busy Citt — Meeting in the Temple — Sacbifioe of Pbopektt — Detach- 
ments Move Forward — A Singular Exodus — The First Encampment 
— Cool Proposal from Brother Brannan — The Journey — Courage 
AND Good Cheer — Swelling of their Numbers — The Remnant ov 
THE Saints in Nauvoo — Attitude of the Gentiles — The Mormons 
Attacked — Continued Hostilities — The Final Departures — Thb 
Poor Camp — A Deserted City. 

The holy city now presented an exciting scene. 
Men were making ready their merchandise, and fami- 
lies preparing to vacate their homes. Hundreds were 
making tents and wagon covers out of cloth bought 
with anything they happened to have; companies were 
organized and numbered, each of which had its own 
wagon-shop, wheelwrights, carpenters, and cabinet- 
makers, who were all busily employed.^ Green timber 
was prepared for spokes and felloes, some kiln-dried, 
and some boiled in salt and water. At the Nauvoo 
house shops were established as well as at the mason's 
hall and arsenal. Iron was brought from different 
parts of the country, and blacksmiths were at work 
night and day.^ 

Some three years previous, the prophet Joseph had 
ordered that there should not be another general con- 

^ Parley Pratt's '^Iculation for an outfit of every family of 5 persons was 
1 good wagon, 3 yoke cattle, 2 cows, 2 beef cattle, 3 sheep, 1,000 lbs flour, 
20 lbs sugar, 1 rifle and ammunition, a tent and tent-poles, from 10 to 20 lbs 
seed to a family, from 25 to 100 lbs tools for farming, and a few other items, 
the cost being about $250, provided they had nothing else but bedding and 
cooking utensils. Hist. B. Young, MS., 125. 

^ In December the drying-house of emigrating company no. 18 was burned 
to the ground, consuming $300 worth of wagon timber. Id., MS., Dec. 1845. 



ference until it could be held in the temple. And 
now, on the 5th of October, 1845, five thousand per- 
sons assembled, and on the following day began the 
great conference, which lasted three days. The saints, 
however, were permitted but short enjoyment of their 
beautiful structure, a meagre reward for all the toil 
and money expended. Holiness to the Lord was the 
motto of it; and there was little else they could now 
carry hence ; the hewn stone, the wood-work, and the 
brass they must leave behind. This building was to 
them as a temple "where the children of the last 
kingdom could come together to praise the Lord." 
As they cast one last gaze on their homes and the 
monuments reared to their faith, the}^ asked, "Who is 
the God of the gentiles ? Can he be our God ?"^ 

In the same number of the Times and Seasons in 
which appeared a notice of this meeting was pub- 
lished a circular signed by Brigham Young, and ad- 
dressed to the brethren scattered abroad throughout 
America, informing them of the impending change. 
" The exodus of the nations of the only true Israel 
from these United States to a far distant region of 
the west, where bigotry, intolerance, and insatiable 
oppression will have lost its power over them, forms 
a new epoch, not only in the history of the church, 
but of this nation."* 

' Kane, with the carelessness usual in his statements, says that the temple 
was completed and conseci-ated in May, and that the day after its consecration 
its ornaments were carried away. ' For that one day the temple shone re- 
splendent in all its typical glories of sun, moon, and stars, and other abound- 
ing figured and lettered signs, hieroglyphs, and symbols; but that day only. 
The sacred rites of consecration ended, the work of removing the sacrasancta 
proceeded with the rapidity of magic. It went on through the night; and 
when the morning of the next day dawned, all the ornaments and furniture, 
everything that could provoke a sneer, had been carried off; and except some 
fixtures that would not bear removal, the building was dismantled to the 
bare walls. It was this day saw the departure of the last elders, and the 
largest band that moved in one company together. The people of Iowa have 
told me that from morning to night they passed westward like an endless 
procession. They did not seem greatly out of heart, they said; but at the 
top of every hill, before they disappeared, were to be seef looking back, like 
banished Moors, on their aoandoned homes and the far-seen temple and its 
glittering spire.' The Mormons, 21. 

* Times and Seasons, vi. 1018. In this number is a notice, signed by Willard 
Richards, cutting off William Smith, the prophet's brother, for apostasy. 


The arbitrary acts of the people of Illinois in forc- 
ing the departure of the saints lays them open to the 
grave charge, among others, of a desire to possess 
their property for less than its value. Houses and 
lots, farms and merchandise, could not be turned into 
money, or even into wagons and live-stock, in a moment, 
except at a ruinous sacrifice. Granted that the hier- 
archy was opposed to American institutions, that the 
Mormons wished to gain possession of the United 
States and rule the world : no one feared the immediate 
consummation of their pretentious hopes. Granted 
that among them were adulterers, thieves, and mur- 
derers: the gentiles were the stronger, and had laws 
by which to punish the guilty. It was not a noble 
sentiment which had actuated the people of Missouri ; 
it was not a noble sentiment which now actuated the 
people of Illinois, thus to continue their persecutions 
during the preparations for departure, and drive a 
whole cityful from their homes out upon the bleak 
prairie in the dead of winter. 

In January 1846 the council ordered that a de- 
tachment should set forth at once, and that the re- 
mainder of the saints should follow as soon as possi- 
ble. "Beloved brethren," said their leader, "it now 
remains to be proven whether those of our family 
and friends who are necessarily left behind for a 
season, to obtain an outfit through the sale of prop- 
erty, shall be mobbed, burned, and driven away by 
force. Does any American want the honor of doing 
it? or will any Americans suffer such acts to be done, 
and the disgrace of them to remain on their char- 
acter, under existing circumstances. If they will, 
let the world know it." 

The world was soon to know it. Driven almost at 
the point of the sword, a large number of the saints, 
soon afterward followed by the president, the twelve, 
the high council, and other companies, gathered on 
the eastern bank of the Mississippi early in February. 

There was but little money in circulation through- 


out the west at this time. Over vast wild sections 
skins were the only currency, and at the settlements 
traffic for the most part assumed the form of barter 
or exchange of labor. It was, therefore, exceedingly 
difficult, as I have said, for the saints to get their 
property into portable form, even after selling their 
lands at half or quarter their value. The gentiles, 
of course, could pay what they pleased, being the only 
buyers, and the saints being forced to sell. More- 
over, there was more property thrown upon the 
market than could be taken at once, and the depart- 
ure of so large and thrifty a portion of the popula- 
tion was of itself sufficient to depreciate property. 
The best they could do was to exchange their lands 
for wagons and horses and cattle, and this they did 
to as large an extent as possible, scouring the coun- 
try for a hundred miles around in search of live-stock.^ 

And now, putting upon their animals and vehicles 
such of their household effects as they could carry, in 
small detachments the migratory saints began to leave 
Nauvoo.* Before them was the ice-bound river, and 
beyond that the wilderness. 

There is no parallel in the world's history to this 
migration from Nauvoo. The exodus from Egypt 
was from a heathen land, a land of idolaters, to a fer- 
tile region designated by the Lord for his chosen peo- 
ple, the land of Canaan. The pilgrim fathers in flying 
to America came from a bigoted and despotic people — 

' ' The Mormons went up and down with their furniture, etc., and traded 
for anything that cou'.d travel, such as an animal or a wagon . . . Another 
company went out in May, but they did not sell their property, leaving it 
in the hands of trustees to sell.' Wells' Narraiive, MS., 37. Their two- 
story brick house, which they had occupied but three months, and which 
they had denied themselves in every way to build, Mrs Richards says was 
sold for • two yoke of half -broken cattle and an old wagon. ' Heminiacences, 
MS., 20. 

6 * When we were to leave Mo. , the saints entered into a covenant not to 
cease their exertions until every saint who wished to go was removed, which 
was done. . .We are better off now than we were then;. . .he [B. Y.] wants 
to see this influence extend from the west to the east sea.' Brigham moved: 
' That we take all the saints with us, to the extent of our ability, that is, our 
influence and property; seconded by Elder Kimball, and carried unanimously. * 
This covenant was entered into Oct. 6, 1845. Times and Seasons, vi. 1011. 


a people making few pretensions to civil or religious 
liberty. It was from these same people who had fled 
from old-world persecutions that they might enjoy 
liberty of conscience in the wilds of America, from 
their descendants and associates, that other of their 
descendants, who claimed the right to differ from them 
in opinion and practice, were now fleeing. True, the 
Mormons in various ways had rendered themselves 
abominable to their neighbors: so had the puritan 
fathers to their neighbors. Before this the Mormons 
had been driven to the outskirts of civilization, where 
they had built themselves a city; this they must now 
abandon, and throw themselves upon the mercy of 

The first teams crossed about the 10th, in flat 
boats, which were rowed over, and which plied forth 
and back from early dawn until late into the night, 
skiffs and other river craft being also used for 
passengers and baggage. The cold increased. On 
the 16th snow fell heavily; and the river was frozen 
over, so that the remainder of the emigration crossed 
on the ice. Their first camp, the camp of the congre- 
gation, was on Sugar Creek, a few miles from Nauvoo 
and almost within sight of the city.^ All their move- 
ments were directed by Brigham, who with his family 
and a quorum of the twelve, John Taylor, George A. 
Smith, Heber C. Kimball, Willard Richards, Orson 
Hyde, Orson Pratt, Parley P. Pratt, and Amasa 
Lyman, joined the brethren on Sugar Creek on the 
15th. Wilford Woodruff, who had been sent to pre- 
side over the mission to England, joined the emigra- 
tion later at Mount Pisgah. 

On the morning of the 17th, all the saints in camp 
being assembled near the bridge to receive their lead- 
er's instructions, the president stood upright in his 
wagon, and cried with a loud voice, "Attentionl the 

' ' We encamped at Sugar Creek, in the snow, while two of my children 
were very ill. We slept in our wagons, which were placed close to our tents.* 
Uome's Migrations, MS., 16. 


whole camp of Israel."^ He then went on to say that 
as the Lord had been with them in times past, how- 
soever singular had been his method of proving his 
presence, so would he be with them in the future. 
His empire, the empire of his people, was established, 
and the powers of hell should not prevail against it.® 

After this, with comparatively light hearts, they 
broke camp, and slowly wending their way westward, 
disappeared at length beyond the horizon, in pursuit 
once more of the ever-mocking phantom of home. 
Whither they journeyed they were as yet uncertain. 
They knew only that they were to search out, prob- 
ably beyond the Rocky Mountains, if not indeed 
among them, some isolated spot, where, far away from 
the land of boasted freedom, the soil, the skies, and 
mind and manners were free. If they were offensive 
to the laws, if the laws of the land were offensive to 
them, they would go where they might have land and 
laws of their own. 

Considering their situation, and what they had been 
lately called to undergo — ignominy, insult, the loss of 
property, the abandonment of home — there was little 
complaint. It was among their opponents, and in the 
midst of a general recital of their wrongs, that the 
saints were accustomed to put on a long face and strike 
into a doleful strain. Among themselves there were 

^ The camp of Israel was wherever the president and apostles were. 

*It has been stated that after dismissing his congregation on the 17th the 
president led several of the twelve aside to a valley east of the camp, and held 
a council. A letter was then read from Samuel Brannan, a Mormon elder 
then in New York, together with a copy of an agreement between him and 
one A. G. Benson. Brannan was at that time in charge of a company of saints 
bound for the Pacific coast by way of Cape Horn, and the agreement which 
he forwarded for Brigham's signature required the pioneers to transfer to A. 
G. Benson and company the odd numbers of all the town lots that they might 
acquire in the country where they settled. 'I shall select,' writes Brannan, 
' the most suitable spot on the bay of San Francisco for the location of a commer- 
cial city.' The council refused to take any action in the matter. In case 
they refused to sign the agreement, Tullidge soberly relates, Life of Brigham 
Young, 19-23, the president, it was said, would issue a proclamation, setting 
forth that it was the intention of the Mormons to take sides with either Mex- 
ico or Great Britain against tlie United States, and order them to be disarmed 
or dispersed ! Further mention of this matter is made in History of Gal for- 
Ilia, vol. V. cap. xx., this series. 


few people more free from care, or more light-hearted 
and happy. 

In the present instance, though all were poor and 
some destitute, and though man and beast were ex- 
posed to driving rain and hail, and the chill blasts of a 
western winter often sweeping down upon them un- 
checked from the limitless prairie, they made the best 
of it, and instead of wasting time in useless repining, 
set themselves at work to make the most of their 
joys and the least of their sorrows. On the night of 
March 1st, when the first camp was pitched beyond 
Sugar Creek, after prayer they held a dance, and 
as the men of Iowa looked on they wondered how 
these homeless outcasts from Christian civilization 
could thus praise and make merry in view of their 
near abandoning of themselves to the mercies of sav- 
ages and wild beasts.^" Food and raiment were pro- 
vided for all; for shelter they had their tents and 
wagons, and after the w^eather had spent somewhat of 
its ruggedness, no extreme hardships were suffered. 
Without attempting long distances in a single day, 
they made camp rather early, and after the usual 
manner of emigrants, the wagons in a circle or semi- 
circle round the camp-fire, placed so as best to shield 
them from the wind and wild beasts and Indians, 
with the animals at a convenient distance, some staked, 
and some running loose, but all carefully guarded. 
The country through which they passed was much of 
it well wooded ; the land was fertile and afforded abun- 
dant pastures, the grass in summer being from one to 
ten feet high. Provisions were cheap: corn twelve 
cents and wheat twenty-five to thirty cents a bushel, 

^° ' In the latter part of March we started for Council Bluffs, 400 miles dis- 
tant, and were three months on the way. Crossing a long prairie in a fearful 
storm, the mud became so soft that we could not travel, and we were obliged 
to encamp; the water was several inches deep all over our camping-ground; 
we had no wood for a fire, and no means of drying our soaked clothing. In 
the morning everything was frozen fast; and a squirrel was found frozen . . . 
Frequently boughs were laid on the ground before the teams could pass . . . 
We had to camp in mud until the roads were dry enough to travel.' Home's 
Migrations, MS., 18-19. 


beef two cents a pound, and all payable in labor at 
what was then considered good wages, say forty or 
fifty cents a day. 

Into the wilderness they went, journeying day 
after day on toward the setting sun, their hearts 
buoyant, their sinews strengthened by a power not of 
this world. Forever fades the real before the imag- 
inary. There is nothing tougher than fanaticism. 
What cared they for wind and rain, for comfortless 
couches or aching limbs? — the kingdom of the Lord 
was with them. What cared they for insults and in- 
justice when the worst this world could do was to 
hasten heaven to them ? So on toward the west their 
long train of wagons rolled, leaving each day farther 
and farther behind the old, cold, fanatical east, with 
its hard, senseless dogmas, and its merciless civilization, 
without murmurings, without discord, the man above 
any other on earth they most loved and feared riding 
at their head, or standing with uplifted and extended 
hands as his people passed by, blessing and comforting 
them. '*We were happy and contented," says John 
Taylor, " and the songs of Zion resounded from wagon 
to wagon, reverberating through the woods, while the 
echo was returned from the distant hills."" 

There were brass or stringed instruments in every 
company, and night and morning all were called to 
prayers ^^ at the sound of the bugle. Camp-fires 
drew around theru the saints when their day's work 
was finished, and singing, dancing, and story-telling 
enlivened the hour. 

As they wer<.t on their way their ranks were swelled 
by fresh bands, until there were brought together 
3,000 wagon's, 30,000 head of cattle, a great number 
of mules a\id horses, and immense flocks of sheep. 

" * It is trn e,' he writes, ' that in our sojonming we do not possess all the 
luxuries and c',elicacic8 of old-established countries and cities, but we have 
abundance of the staple commodities, such as flour, meal, beef, mutton, pork, 
milk, butter., and in some instances cheese, sugar, cofifee, tea, etc' Letter ia 
Millennial I- Jtar, viii. 114. 

" Each family had prayers separately. Taylor's Rem., MS., 9. 


Richardson Point ^^ they made their second stationary 
camp, the third at Chariton River, the fourth at 
Locust Creek, where a considerable time was spent. 
Then there were — so named by the saints — Garden 
Grove,^* a large timbered tract which had been burned 
over, Mount Pisgah/® and finally Winter Quarters, in 
Nebraska, on the west side of the Missouri, a little above 
the modern Omaha, on the site of the present town 
of Florence. ^^ At Garden Grove and Mount Pisgah 
were established farming settlements for the benefit 
of those who weire to follow. In July the main body 
reached the Missouri at the spot now known as Council 
Bluffs, and soon afterward many crossed the river in a 
ferry-boat of their own construction, and pitched their 
tents at Winter Quarters. Other large encampments 

Between the Mississippi and Missouri. 

^' In Lee County, Iowa, three weeks from itheir starting-point. 

^* About 150 miles from Nauvoo, on the east fork of the Grand River. 
' Many located there, ploughing and sowing, and preparing homes for their 
poor brethren for a longer period.' Home's Migrations, MS., 19. 'On the 
morning of the 27th of April the bugle sounded at Garden Grove, and all 
the men assembled to organize for labor. Immediately hundreds of men 
were at work, cutting trees, splitting rails, making fences, cutting logs for 
houses, building bridges, making ploughs, and herding cattle. Quite a num- 
ber were sent into the Missouri settlements to exchange horses for oxen, val- 
uable featlier-beds and the like for provisions and most needed in the 
camp, and the remainder engaged in ploughing and pilanting. Messengers 
were also despatched to call in the bands of pioneers scattered over the coun- 
try seeking work, with instructions to hasten them up to'jhelp form the new 
settlements before the season had passed; so that, in a sd\arcely conceivable 
space of time, at Garden Grove and Mount Pisgah, industrious settlements 
Bprung up almost as if by magic' TuUidge's Life of Brighani Young, 41. 

^' This site was discovered by Parley, who was sent forwar-'d to reconnoitre 
by Brigham. It was situated on a branch of Grand River, aiid for years was 
the resting-place for the saints on their way to Utah. Autohiog. P- Pratt, 381. 

_^^ Here 700 log cabins and 150 dugouts (cabins half under ground) were 
btiilt. A large quantity of hay was cut, and a flouring mill erected. Id., 383. 


were formed on both banks of the river, or at points 
near by, where grass was plentiful. In early autumn 
about 12,000 Mormons were assembled in this neigh- 
borhood, or were on their way across the plains. 

Leaving here the advance portion of the emigra- 
tion, let us return to Nauvoo and see how it fared 
with those who were still engaged in preparations for 
their pilgrimage. It had been stipulated, the reader 
will remember, that the Mormons should remove from 
the state in the spring, or as soon afterward as they 
could sell their property, and that meanwhile they 
should not be molested. Long before spring, thou- 
sands had crossed the Mississippi, among whom were 
all the more obnoxious members of the sect. Mean- 
while, how had the gentiles kept their faith ? 

But passing the cause, what a picture was now 
presented by the deserted city and its exiled inhabi- 
tants! — the former, as Colonel Kane viewed it — but 
which view must be regarded as ideal rather than 
strictly historical — with "its bright new dwellings 
set in cool green gardens, ranging up around a stately 
dome-shaped hill, which was crowned by a noble 
marble edifice, whose high tapering spire was radiant 
with white and gold. The city appeared to cover 
several miles ; and beyond it, in the background, there 
rolled off a fair country, checkered by the careful lines 
of fruitful husbandry." 

To the Nauvoo Eagle Major Warren sent notice 
from Carthage, on the 16th of April, that he had been 
directed by the governor to disband on the 1st of May 
the force which had been kept there ostensibly for 
the protection of the saints, as the time appointed for 
their departure would expire on that day.^' The day 
arrived, and there were yet many Mormons remaining, 
many who had found it impossible to remove on ac- 

'" 'The removal of the entire population,' the major adds, 'has been looked 
forward to as an event that could alone restore peace and quiet to this por- 
tion of our state.' FiUlmer's Expulsion y 24. 


count of sickness, failure to dispose of their property, 
or other adverse fortune; whereat the men of lUinois 
began to bluster and threaten annihilation. Warren, 
who had disbanded his troops on the 1st, received an 
order from the governor on the following day to mus- 
ter them into service again. This he did; for he 
would, if possible, see the treaty between the Mor- 
mons and the governor faithfully carried out, and 
while urging the saints to haste, he endeavored to 
stand between them and the mob which now threat- 
ened their lives and the destruction of their prop- 
erty. ^^ 

Major Warren appears to have performed his duty 
firmly and well, and to have done all that lay in his 
power to protect the Mormons. In a letter to the 
Quincy Whig, dated May 20th, he writes: "The Mor- 
mons are leaving the city with all possible despatch. 
During the week four hundred teams have crossed at 
three points, or about 1,350 souls. The demonstra- 
tions made by the Mormon people are unequivocal. 
They are leaving the state, and preparing to leave, 
with every means God and nature have placed in 
their hands." It was but the lower class of people 
that clamored for the immediate expulsion of the 
remnant of the saints — the ignorant, the bigoted, the 
brutal, the vicious, the lawless, and profligate, those 
who hated their religion and coveted their lands. 

'* 'Thus while with one hand he pushed the saints from their possessions 
across the river to save their lives, with the other he kept at bay the savage 
fiends who thirsted for blood, and who would fain have washed their hands 
in tlie blood of innocence, and feasted their eyes on the smoking ruins of their 
martyred victims.' Id., 24-5. From Nauvoo, May 11, 1846, Warren wTites: 
'To the Mormons I would say, Go on with your preparations, and leave as 
fast as you can. Leave the fighting to be done by my detachment. If we are 
overpowered, then recross the river and defend yourselves and property. The 
neighboring counties, under the circumstances, cannot and will not lend their 
aid to an improvoked and unnecessary attack upon the Mormons at this time; 
and without such aid the few desperadoes in the county can do but little mis- 
chief, and can be made amenable to the law for that little. The force under 
my command is numerically small; but backed as I am by the moral force of 
the law, and possessing as I do the confidence of nine tenths of the respect- 
able portion of the old citizens, my force is able to meet successfully any 
mob which can be assembled in the county, and if any such force does assem< 
ble, they or I will leave the field in double-quick time.' 


On the 6th of June the people of Hancock county 
met at Carthage to arrange for celebrating the 4th of 
July. One of the citizens rose and said that since 
the Mormons were not all removed they could not 
rejoice as freemen. Mormon affairs then took prece- 
dence, and another meeting was appointed for the 12th, 
an invitation being sent to the gentiles at Nauvoo who 
had occupied the deserted dwellings of the saints. It 
happened that this was the day appointed for the 
assembling of the militia, with a view to raise volun- 
teers for the Mexican war; and now, it was thought, 
was a good opportunity to show the Mormons the 
military strength of the county. The officers con- 
ferred, and without authority from the governor, 
marched their troops, some three or four hundred in 
number, to a place called Golden Point, five miles 
from Nauvoo, where they encamped, and opened com- 
munication with the city. It happened, however, at 
this juncture, that Colonel Markham and others had 
returned with teams from Council Bluffs for some of 
the church property, and arming a force of six or eight 
hundred, prepared to sally forth ; the name of Colonel 
Markham was a terror to evil-doers, and the militia 
fled, no one pursuing them. 

There were yet remaining, as late as August, cer- 
tain sturdy saints who, having committed no crime, 
would not consent to be driven from their homes or 
barred from their occupations. Among these was a 
party engaged in harvesting wheat at a settlement eight 
miles from Nauvoo, in company with one or two of the 
gentiles, although it was forbidden by the men of Illi- 
nois that any Mormon should show himself outside the 
city, except en route for the west. The harvesters 
were seized and beaten with clubs, whereupon the 
people of Nauvoo, both Mormons and gentiles, took 
up the matter. Some arrests were made, and the 
culprits taken to Nauvoo, but by writ of habeas cor- 
pus were removed to Quincy, where they met with 
little trouble. While in Nauvoo, a gun in the hands 

Hist. Utah. 15 


of a militia officer was recognized by William Pickett 
as belonging to one of the harvesters. Pickett took 
possession of the weapon, and a warrant was issued 
against him for theft: when an officer came to arrest 
him, he refused to surrender. As the Mormons stood 
by him in illegal attitude, the affair caused consider- 
able excitement. 

In short, from the 1st of May until the final evac- 
uation of the city, the men of Illinois never ceased 
from strife and outrage. Of the latter I will mention 
only two instances: **A man of near sixty years of 
age," writes Major Warren in the letter just referred 
to, "living about seven miles from this place, was 
taken from his house a few nights since, stripped of 
his clothing, and his back cut to pieces with a whip, 
for no other reason than because he was a Mormon, 
and too old to make a successful resistance. Conduct 
of this kind would disgrace a horde of savages." In 
August a party consisting of Phineas H. Young, his 
son Brigham, and three others who were found out- 
side the city, were kidnapped by a mob, hurried into 
the thickets, passed from one gang to another — men 
from Nauvoo being in hot pursuit — and for a fort- 
night were kept almost without food or rest, and 
under constant threat of death. 

Fears are now entertained that, by reason of the 
popular feeling throughout the country, Nauvoo city 
will be again attacked; the gentile citizens therefore 
ask Governor Ford for protection, whereupon Major 
Parker is sent to their relief. ^^ All through August 

" 'Sir — I have received information that another effort is to be made on 
Monday next to drive out the inhabitants of Nauvoo, new as well as old, and 
destroy the city. I am informed that it is believed in the surrounding coun- 
ties that the new citizens in Nauvoo are all Mormons, and that the remnant 
of the old Mormon population are determined to remain there, although I am 
assured that the contrary in both particulars is the truth. You are there- 
fore hereby authorized and empowered to repair to Nauvoo, and there remain 
until you are relieved. You will immediately inquire how many of the in- 
habitants are new citizens, and how many of them are Mormons; how many 
of the old Mormon population remain, and what the prospect is of their re- 
moval in a reasonable time; and in case an attack on the city should be at- 
tempted or threatened, you are hereby authorized to take command of such 


troubles continue, the anti-Mormons almost coming 
to blows among themselves. ;( Before the end of the 
month about six hundred men are assembled at Car- 
thage, by order of Thomas Carlin, a special consta- 
ble, ostensibly to enforce the arrest of Pickett, but 
in reality to enforce the expulsion of the Mormons. 
Major Parker orders the constable's posse to dis- 
perse, otherwise he threatens to treat them as a mob. 
The constable replies that if the major should at- 
tempt to molest them in discharge of their duty he 
will regard him and his command as a mob and so treat 
them. *'Now, fellow-citizens," declares a committee 
selected from four counties,^" in a proclamation issued 
at Carthage, "an issue is fairly raised. On the one 
hand, a large body of men have assembled at Carthage, 
under the command of a leofal officer, to assist him in 
performing legal duties. They are not excited — they 
are cool, but determined at all hazards to execute 
the law in Nauvoo, which has always heretofore de- 
fied it. They are resolved to go to work systemati- 
cally and with ample precaution, but under a full 
knowledge that on their good and orderly behavior 
their character is staked. On the other hand, in 
Nauvoo is a blustering Mormon mob, who have de- 
fied the law, and who are now organized for the pur- 
pose of arresting the arm of civil power. Judge ye 
which is in the right." 

Intending, as it seems, to keep his word, Carlin 
places his men under command of Colonel Singleton, 
who at once throws off the mask, and on the 7th of 
September announces to Major Parker that the Mor- 
mons must go. On the same day a stipulation is 
made, granting to the saints sixty days' extension of 
time, and signed by representatives on both sides. ^^ 

volunteers as may offer themselves, free of cost to the state, to repel it and 
defend the city.' FuUmer's Expulsion, 29-30. 

■■"• Among the members was the Rev. Thomas S. Brockman, who afterward 
took command of the posse. 

•"Hostilities to cease; the city to be evacuated in 60 days, 25 men re- 
maining to see the stipulation carried out. Id. , 3i-5. 


But to the terms of this stipulation the men of Illi- 
nois would not consent. They were sore disgusted, 
and rebelled against their leaders, causing Singleton, 
Parker, and others to abandon their commands, the 
posse being left in charge of Constable Carlin, who 
summoned to his aid one Thomas Brockman, a clergy- 
man of Brown county, and for the occasion dubbed 
general. On the 10th of September the posse, now 
more than a thousand strong, with wagons, equip- 
ments, and every preparation for a campaign, ap- 
proached Nauvoo and encamped at Hunter's farm. 

At this time there were in the city not more than 
a hundred and fifty Mormons, and about the same 
number of gentiles, or, as they were termed, 'new citi- 
zens,' capable of bearing arms, the remainder of the 
population consisting of destitute women and children 
and of the sick. Many of the gentiles had departed, 
fearing a general massacre, and those who remained 
could not be relied upon as combatants, for they were 
of course unwilling to risk their lives in a conflict 
which, if successful, would bring them no credit. 
Nothing daunted, the little band, under command of 
colonels Daniel H. Wells ^^ and William Cutler, took 
up its position on the edge of a wood in the suburbs 
of Nauvoo, a.nd less than a mile from the enemy's 

Before hostilities commenced, a deputation from 
Quincy^* visited the camp of the assailants, and in 
vain attempted to dissuade them from their purpose. 
No sooner had they departed than fire was opened on 
the Mormons from a battery of six-pounders, but 
without effect. Here for the day matters rested. 
At sunrise the posse changed their position, intending 
to take the city by storm, but were held in check by 

*^ Who afterward became lieut-gen. of the Nauvoo legion in Utah. 

*' There were about 300 Mormons and new citizens who could then bear 
arms against the mob, but on the day of the fight no more than 100 could 
be found to go, as the Mormons were continually leaving.' Wells^ Narrative, 
MS., 39. 

"* John Wood, the mayor, Major Flood, Dr Conyers, and Joel Rice. See 
Wells' Narrative, MS., passim. 


Captain Anderson ^^ at the head of thirty -five men, 
termed by the saints the Spartan band. The enemy 
now fired some rounds of grape-shot, forcing the be- 
sieged to retire out of range; and after some further 
cannonading, darkness put an end to the skirmish, 
the Mormons throwing up breastworks during the 
night. 2' 

On the morning of the 12th the demand of uncon- 
ditional surrender was promptly rejected; where- 
upon, at a given signal, several hundred men who had 
been stationed in ambush, on the west bank of the 
river, to cut oflP the retreat of the Mormons, appeared 
with red flags in their hands, thus portending massacre. 
The assailants now opened fire from all their batter- 
ies, and soon afterward advanced to the assault, 
slowly, and with the measured tramp of veterans, 
at their head being Constable Carlin and the Rev- 
erend Brockman, and unfurled above them — the 
stars and stripes. When within rifle-range of the 
breastworks the posse wheeled toward the south, at- 
tempting to outflank the saints and gain possession 
of the temple square. But this movement had been 
anticipated, and posted in the woods to the north of 
the Mormon position lay the Spartan band. Leading 
on his men at double-quick, Anderson suddenly con- 
fronted the enemy and opened a brisk fire from re- 
volving rifles.^^ The posse advanced no farther, but 
for an hour and a half held their ground bravely 
against the Spartan band, the expense of ammunition 
in proportion to casualties being greater than has yet 
been recorded in modern warfare. Then they re- 
treated in excellent order to the camp. The losses 
of the Mormons were three killed and a few slightly 
wounded; the losses of the gentiles are variously 

*' He was more than brave, he was presumptuous. Wells, in Utah Notes, 
MS., p. 7. 

^® 'Many of our log houses were torn down by the mob, which numbered 
1,000 men; we made barricades of corn-stalks stacked up.' Wells, in Utah 
Notes, MS., 7. 

" Elder John S. Fullmer, then a colonel in the Nauvoo legion, claims that 
he directed this movement. Expulsion, 38. 


stated.^^ Among those who fell were Captain Ander- 
son and his son, a youth of sixteen, the former dying, 
as he had vowed that he would die, in defence of the 
holy sanctuary. 

The following day was the sabbath, and hostilities 
were not renewed; but on that morning a train of 
wagons, despatched by the posse for ammunition and 
supplies, entered the town of Quincy. It was now 
evident that, whether the men of Illinois intended 
massacre or forcible expulsion, it would cost them 
many lives to effect either purpose. With a view, 
therefore, to prevent further bloodshed, a committee 
of one hundred proceeded to Nauvoo and attempted 
mediation. At the same time the Reverend Brock- 
man sent in his ultimatum, the terms being that 
the Mormons surrender their arms, and immediately 
cross the river or disperse, and that all should be 
protected from violence.^^ There was no alternative. 
The armed mob in their front was daily swelling in 
number, while beyond the river still appeared the 
red flag; their own ranks, meanwhile, were being 
rapidly thinned by defection among the new citi- 

^* 'But three in all were killed. . .Meetings were held to stop the eflFusion 
of blood, . . .but there was no necessity for such action, when no blood was 
shed.' Wells, in Utah Notes, 7. 

^' ' 1st. The city of Nauvoo will surrender. The force of Reverend Brock- 
man to enter and take possession of the city to-raorrow, the 17th of Septem- 
ber, at three o'clock P. m. 2d. The arms to be delivered to the Quincy com- 
mittee, to be retiirned on crossing the river. 3d. The Quincy committee 
pledge themselves to use their iutiuence for the protection of persons and 
property, and the officers of the camp and the men likewise pledge them- 
selves. 4th. The sick and helpless to be protected and treated with humanity. 
5tli. The Mormon population of the city to leave the state or disperse as soon 
as they can cross the river. 6th. Five men, including the trustees of the church, 
and five clerks with their families (William Pickett not one of the number), 
to be permitted to remain in the city for the disposition of property, free from 
all molestation and personal violence. 7th. Hostilities to cease immediately, 
and ten men of the Quincy committee to enter the city in the execution of their 
duty as soon as they think proper.' It will be observed that nothing is said 
about the surrender of Pickett. He was not even arrested. 

^"'The mob entered the temple, instituted an inquisition, and regardless 
of the Mormons or new citizens, went from house to house plundering cow- 
yards, pig-pens, hen-roosts, and bee-stands indiscriminately; thus turning some 
of their best friends into enemies, bursting open trunks and chests, searching 
for arms, keys, etc' p. 343. 'In the temple ringing the bells, shouting, and 



On the 17th of September the remnant of the 
Mormons crossed the Mississippi, and on the same 
day the gentiles took possession of Nauvoo.^^ 

It was indeed a singular spectacle, as I have said, 
this upon the western border of the Avorld's great 
republic in the autumn of 1846. A whole cityful, 
with other settlements, and thousands of thrifty agri- 

hallooing; they took several to the river and baptized them, swearing, throw- 
ing them backward, then on to their faces, saying: "The commandments must 
be fulfilled, and God damn you." ' Hist. B. Young, MS., 345. 

^^ The best narrative, and indeed the only one that enters circumstantially 
into all the details of the expulsion from Nauvoo, is contained in the Assassina- 
tion of Joseph and HyTum Smith, the Prophet and the Patriarch of the Church 
of Latter-day Saints. Also a Condensed History of the Expulsion of the Saints 
from Nauvoo by Elder John S . Fullmer (of Utah, U. S. A.), Pastot of the Man- 
chester, Liverpool, and Preston Conferences. Liverpool and London, 1855. The 
work is written from a Mormon standpoint, but including as it does copies of 
the despatches of Illinois officers and officials, of the stipulations between the 
belligerents, and of some comments made by the Quincy Whig, appears in 
the main reliable. The author's comments on the gentiles are sufficiently 
bitter, and his description of the fight at Nauvoo and the valor of the saints 
militant must of course be taken with due allowance. For instance: 'Seeing 
our men take possession of some vacant buildings on the line of their ap- 
proach, they took a position on an elevated spot of ground, and opened a 
heavy cannonade at a distance of something less than half a mile. This was 
returned with great spirit on our part from guns made of steam shafts that 
carried six-pound balls. Many were the balls that we picked up as they 
came rolling and bounding among us, and we sent them back with as much 
spirit and precision as they were first sent.' p. 37. Col Kane says: 'A vin- 
dictive war was waged upon them, from which the weakest fled in scattered 
parties, leaving the rest to make a reluctant and almost ludicrously una- 
vailing defence.' The Mormons, 54. In the General Epistle of the Twelve, 
Dec. 23, 1847, in Snow's Voice of Joseph, 14-15, we read: ' In September 
1846 an infuriated mob, clad in all the horrors of war, fell on the saints who 
had still remained in Nauvoo for want of means to remove, murdered some, 
and drove the remainder across the Mississippi into Iowa, where, destitute of 
houses, tents, food, clothing, or money, they received temporary assistance 
from some benevolent souls in Quincy, St Louis, and other places, whose 
names will ever be remembered with gratitude. Their property in Hancock 
CO., Illinois, was little or no better than confiscated; many of their houses 
were burned by the mob, and they were obliged to leave most of those that 
remained without sale; and those who bargained sold almost for a song; for 
the influence of their enemies was to cause such a diminution in the value of 
property that for a handsome estate was seldom realized enough to remove 
the family comfortably away; and thousands have since been wandering to 
and fro, destitute, afflicted, and distressed for the common necessaries of life, 
or unable to endure, have sickened and died by hundreds; while the temple 
of the Lord is left solitary in the midst of our enemies, an enduring monu- 
ment of the diligence and integrity of the saints.' Mention of the expulsion 
from Nauvoo is of course made in most of tlie books published on Mormon- 
ism, but in none of them, except perhaps in one or two of the most rabid 
anti-Mormon works, which I have not thought it worth while to notice, is 
the conduct of the Illinois mob defended. 


culturists in the regions about, citizens of the United 
States, driven beyond the border by other citizens : not 
by reason of their rehgion alone, though this was made 
a pretence; not for breaking the laws, though this was 
made a pretence; not on account of their immorality, 
for the people of Illinois and Missouri were not im- 
maculate in this respect; nor was it altogether on 
account of their solid voting and growing political 
power, accompanied ever by the claim of general in- 
heritance and universal dominion, though this last 
had more to do with it probably than all the rest 
combined, notwithstanding that the spirit of liberty 
and the laws of the republic permitted such massing 
of social and political influence, and notwithstanding 
the obvious certainty that any of the gentile political 
parties now playing the role of persecutors would 
gladly and unscrupulously have availed themselves of 
such means for the accomplishment of their ends. It 
was all these combined, and so combined as to engen- 
der deadly hate. It gave the Mormons a power in 
proportion to their numbers not possessed by other 
sects or societies, which could not and would not endure 
it; a power regarded by the others as unfairly acquired, 
and by a way and through means not in accord with 
the American idea of individual equality, of equal 
rights and equal citizenship. In regard to all other 
sects within the republic, under guard of the consti- 
tution, religion was subordinated to politics and gov- 
ernment; in regard to the Mormons, in spite of the 
constitution, politics and government were subordi- 
nated to religion. 

And in regard to the late occupants of the place, 
the last of the Mormon host that now lay huddled to 
the number of 640 on the western bank of the river 
in sight of the city :^^ if the first departures from Nauvoo 
escaped extreme hardships, not so these. It was the 

** A few mouths before, Nauvoo with the neighboring Mormon settlements 
had contained some 20,000 saints, of whom in July about 15,000 were encamped 
on the Missouri River, or were scattered through the western states in search 
of employment. 


latter part of September, and nearly all were pros- 
trated with chills and fevers ;^^ thereat the river bank, 
among the dock and rushes, poorly protected, without 
the shelter of a roof or anything to keep off the force 
of wind or rain, little ones came into life and were left 
motherless at birth.^ They had not food enough to 
satisfy the cravings of the sick, nor clothing lit to 
wear. For months thereafter there were periods 
when all the flour they used was of the coarsest, the 
wheat being ground in coffee and hand mills, which 
only cut the grain; others used a pestle; the finer meal 
was used for bread, the coarser made into horainy. 
Boiled wheat was now the chief diet for sick and well. 
For ten days they subsisted on parched corn. Some 
mixed their remnant of grain with the pounded bark 
of the slippery elm which they stripped from the 
trees along their route. 

This encampment was about two miles above 
Montrose on the Mississippi, and was called the 
Poor Camp. Aid was solicited, and within three 
weeks a little over one hundred dollars was collected, 
mostly in Quincy, with provisions and clothing, 
though the prejudice against them was deep and 
strong.^^ Some of the people were crowded into 
tents, made frequently of quilts and blankets; others 
in bowers made of brush ; others had only wagons for 
shelter. They suffered from heavy thunder-storms, 
when the rain was bailed out with basins from their 
beds. Mothers huddled their children in the one 
dress which often was all they possessed, and shaking 
with ague or burning with fever, took refuge from 
the pitiless storms under wagons and bushes.^^ 

** While at Montrose, Heber C. Kimball writes thus ia his journal of the 
condition of his family, his wife having a babe a few days old, and he himself 
ill with ague. ' I went to the bed; my wife, who was shaking with the ague, 
having two children lying sick by her side;. . .the only child well was little 
Heber Parley, and it was with difficulty he could carry a two-quart pail full 
of water from a spring at the bottom of the hill. ' 

^* ' Such deaths occurred from exposure and fright in Nauvoo. The camp 
journalist recorded: Effect of persecution by the Illinois mob.' 

'^ The trustees from Nauvoo also distributed clothing, and molasses, salt, 
and salt pork. Hht. B. Young, MS., 1846, 383. 

^^Mrs Clara Young^s Experience, MS., 3. 


" While the people for the most part were ill with 
chills and fever," says Wells, "quail fell into camp and 
were picked up with ease.^'' This supply was looked 
upon as miraculous by the half-famished people. So 
long had they been lashed by the fierce winds of 
misfortune, that now they accepted with gratitude 
this indication of providential care. 

Wagons were sent from Winter Quarters for the 
removal of the people from Poor Camp; and gradually 
all reached the various stations in which the Mormons 
had gathered.^ 

Of their long journey many painful incidents are 
recorded. Weakened by fever or crippled with rheu- 
matism, and with sluggish circulation, many were 
severely frost-bitten. Women were compelled to 
drive the nearly worn-out teams, while tending on 
their knees, perhaps, their sick children. The strength 
of the beasts was failing, as there were intervals when 
they could be kept from starving only by the browse 
or tender buds and branches of the cotton-wood, felled 
for the purpose.^^ 

At one time no less than two thousand wagons 
could be counted, it was said, along the three hundred 
miles of road that separated Nauvoo from the Mor- 
mon encampments. Many families possessed no wag- 

^' ' On the 9th of October, while our teams were waiting on the banks of the 
Miss, for the poor saints. . .left without any of the necessaries of life,. . .and 
nothing to start their journey with, the Lord sent flocks of quail, which lit 
upon their wagons and on their empty tables, and upon the ground within 
their reach, which the saints, and even the sick, caught with their hands 
until they were satisfied.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1847, 9. This phenome- 
non extended some 30 or 40 miles along the river, and was generally observed. 
The quail in immense quantities had attempted to cross the river, but it being 
beyond their strength, had dropped into the river boats or on the bank. ' 
Wells, in Utah Notes, MS., 7. 

^^ See The Mormons: A Discourse delivered before the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania, March 26, 1S50, hy Thomas L. Kane. Philadelphia, 1850. A 
copy of it will be found at the end of Orson PratVs Works, and in Mackay'a 
The Mormons, 200-45. The story of the Mor.mon exodus, as handed down 
to us by a man of Colonel Kane's powers of observation, would have been a 
valuable record were it not plainly apparent that truth is too often sacrificed 
to diction. Among Mormon writers we find no detailed narrative of this 
exodus, and among others little that is not borrowed from the colonel's dis- 

^^S?ioiv's Biography, 89. 


ons, and in the long procession might be seen vehicles 
of all descriptions, from the lumbering cart, under 
whose awning lay stretched its fever-stricken driver, 
to the veriest makeshifts of poverty, the wheelbarrow 
or the two-wheeled trundle, in which was dragged 
along a bundle of clothing and a sack of meal — all of 
this world's goods that the owner possessed. 

On arriving at the banks of the Missouri, the 
wagons were drawn up in double lines and in the form 
of squares. Between the lines, tents were pitched at 
intervals, space being left between each row for a 
passage-way, which was shaded with awnings or a 
lattice-work of branches, and served as a promenade 
for convalescents and a playground for children. 

And what became of Nauvoo? The temple was 
destroyed by fire and tempest,^*' and all the wood-work 
consumed, while the rock was utilized for miles around 
as foundations of houses, for door-steps, and other pur- 
poses. A French company coming in later bought the 
stone from those in possession, and built wine-vaults. 
Foundations of buildings were broken up, and houses 
once surrounded by carefully tended flower-gardens, 
pillaged of all that was valuable, were now abandoned 
by their ruthless destroyers.^^ "At present," writes 
Linforth, "the Icarians form the most important part 
of the population of Nauvoo . . . They live in a long 
ugly row of buildings, the architect of which and of 
the school-house was a cobbler." In the house built 
for the prophet and his family dwelt in 1854 the 
prophet's widow, his mother, and his family.^'' 

**'The temple was half destroyed by fire ou Nov. 19, 1848. Nauvoo Pa- 
triot, in Millennial Star, xi. p. 46; and on May 27, 1850, further damaged 
by a tornado. Hancock Patriot, in Mackay^s The Mormons, 210. For cut of 
remnants, see Linforth's Route from Liverpool to Q. S. L. Valley, 62, and 
Hyde's Mormonism, 140. See also George Q. Cannon, in Juvenile Instrvctor, 
vol. ix. no. 5, and Wells' Na^n-ative, MS., 41; Deseret News, Aug. 24, 1850; 
Frontier Guardian, July 24, 1850. 

*i As James Linforth describes in writing of Nauvoo in 1858. 

^"^ Route from Liverpool to G. S. L. Valley, 63. 




Native Races of the Missouri — The Pottawattamies and the Omahas— 
The Mormons Welcomed as Brethren — ^War with Mexico — Califor- 
nia Territory — Mexican Boundaries— Application to the United 
States Government for Aid — An Offer to Serve as Soldiers Ac- 
cepted — Organization of the Mormon Battalion — ^Departure oir 
the Battalion — Bounty Money — March across the Continent — 
The Battalion in California — Matters on the Missouri. 

Among the savages on either side of the Missouri, 
the Pottawattamies on the east side and the Omahas 
on the west side, the outcasts from Nauvoo were 
warmly welcomed. "My Mormon brethren," said 
the chief Pied Riche,^ "the Pottawattamie came sad 
and tired into this unhealthy Missouri bottom, not 
many years back, when he was taken from his beauti- 
ful country beyond the Mississippi, which had abun- 
dant game and timber and clear water everywhere. 
Now you are driven away in the same manner from 
your lodges and lands there, and the graves of your 
people. So we have both suffered. We must help 
one another, and the great spirit will help us both." 

Extreme care was taken not to infringe in any way 
upon the rights of the Indians or the government. 
Brigham counselled the brethren to regard as sacred 
the burial customs of the natives; frequently their 
dead were deposited in the branches of trees, wrapped 
in buffalo robes and blankets, with pipes and trinkets 

* Surnamed Le Clerc, on account of his scholarship. 




beside them. At Cutler Park there were friendly 
negotiations made with Big Elk, chief of the Omahas, 
who said: "I am willing you should stop in my coun- 
try, but I am afraid of my great father at Washing- 

As the United States pretended to hold the title 
to the land, it was thought that the Pottawattamies 
had no right to convey their timber to others; so 
Brigham enjoined that there should be no waste of 
timber within these limits, but that as much as was 
necessary might be used. A permit for passing 
through their territory, and for remaining while 

About thb Missouri. 

necessary, was obtained from Colonel Allen, who 
was acting for the United States.' 

Although it was late in the season when the first 
bands of emigrants crossed the Missouri, some of them 
still moved westward as far as the Pawnee villages on 
Grand Island, intending to select a new home before 
winter. But the evil tidings from Nauvoo, and the 
destitute condition in which other parties of the 

* ' The Omahas caused them some trouble, as they would steal with one 
hand while we fed them with the other.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 4G, Oct. ISth. 

^ Hist. B. Young, MS., 1846, 98-9. Maj. Harvey brought the Mormons 
at Winter Quarters letters from Washington, expecting them to leave the 
Pottawattamie lands in the spring. See cor., Hist. B. Young, MS., 441-52. 


saints reached the Mormon encampments, forbade 
further progress, and all prepared to spend the winter 
on the prairie. To the Mormon encampment on the 
site of the present town of Council Bluffs was after- 
ward given the name of Kanesville.* 

While the saints were undergoing their infelicities 
at Nauvoo, war had broken out between the United 
States and Mexico. At that time New Mexico and 
California were a part of Mexico, and Utah and Ne- 
vada were a part of California.^ Journeying west 
from Nauvoo, California or Oregon would be reached. 
The latter territory was already secured to the United 
States; people were there from the United States, 
composing religious sects and political parties as jeal- 
ous of their holdings as any in Missouri or Illinois. 
Vancouver Island^ was practically unoccupied, but 
the Hudson's Bay Company would scarcely regard 
with favor its occupation by a large body of American 
citizens whose government was at that moment crowd- 
ing them out of the Oregon territory and across the 
Columbia River. 

But had the Mormons known their destination, 
had they known what point among the mountains or 

* So called after Thomas L. Kane. Here was first issued on Feb. 7, 1849, 
the Frontier Guardian, and its publication was continued till March 22, 1852. 
Richards' Narr., MS., 65; Richards' Bibliog. of Utah, MS., 13. The paper 
was edited by Orson Hyde, and makes a very creditable appearance. The 
subscription was %2 per year. In the second number we read: ' Flour nicely 
put up in sacks of from 50 to 100 lbs each will be received in exchange for 
tlie Guardian at the rate of $2 per hundred pounds, if good.' The last num- 
ber of the Times and Seasons bears date Feb. 15, 1846. 

^ I frequently find California and Utah confounded by writers of this early 
period. The limits of California on the east were not then defined, and it 
was not uncommon, nor indeed incorrect, to apply that term to territory east 
of the sierra. I find this written in Snoid's Voice of the Prophet, 15: 'The 
pioneers discovered a beautiful valley beyond the pass of the great Rocky 
^Its, being a portion of the great basin of Upper California. ' As we shall see 
later, the Mormons knew even less about Utah than they did about California. 

^ Brigham Young at first suggested Vancouver Island. * There are said 
to be many good locations for settlements on the Pacific, especially at Van- 
couver Island.' Circular to the brethren, in Times and Seasons, vi. 1019. 
In 1845 the report was current that the Mormons of Illinois had chosen V. I. 
as their future home, the metropolis to be situated at Nootka. Xiles' Register, 
Ixix. 134. The Quincy Whig thinks the Mormons intend to settle at Nootka 
Sound. Polynesian, ii. 1846. 



"beside the sea was to be their final resting-place, they 
would not have told it. When they turned their 
back on Nauvoo, the whole western coast was before 
them, with its multitudinous mountains and valleys, 
its rivers and lakes, and long line of seaboard. Of the 
several parts of this immense territory, ownership 
and right of occupation were not in every instance de- 
termined. The question of the boundary line between 
England's possessions and those of the United States 
had stirred up no small discussion and feeling, and 
out of the present war with Mexico would doubtless 
arise some changes,^ It was a foregone conclusion in 
the minds of many, before ever the migratory saints 
had reached the Missouri River, that when the pres- 
ent troubles with Mexico were ended the United 
States would have California. But however this might 
be, the saints had a firm reliance on an overruling 
providence, and once adrift upon the vast untenanted 
west, their God and their sagacity would point out to 
them their future home. Thus it was that while the 
Mormons in the western states took the route over- 
land, another portion living at the east took passage 
round Cape Horn, the intention being that the two 
bodies of brethren should come together somewhere 
upon the Pacific slope, which indeed they did.^ 

The national title to what is now the Pacific United 
States being at this time thus unsettled, and the 
Mormons having been driven from what was then 

^In a letter to Pres. Polk, dated near Council Bluffs, Aug. 9, 1846, the 
determination was expressed, 'that as soon as we are settled in the great basin, 
we design to petition the U. S. for a territorial govt, bounded on the north by 
the British and south by the Mexican dominions, east and west by the sum- 
mits of the Rocky and Cascade Mts. ' And again elsewhere: ' We told Col Kane 
we intended settling in the great basin on Bear River Valley; that those who 
went round by water would settle in S. F. That was in council with the 
twelve and Col Kane.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 133, 140. 

8 In his address to the saints in Great Britain, dated Liverpool, 1849, Elder 
John Taylor says: 'When we arrive in California, according to the provisions 
of the Mexican gorernment, each family will be entitled to a large tract of 
land, amounting to several hundred acres; but as the Mexican and American 
nations are now at war, sliould Cal. fall into the hands of the American 
nation, there has been a bill before congress in relation to Or., which will 
undoubtedly pass, appropriating 640 acres of land to every male settler.' 
MiUennicd Star, viii. 115. 


the Unifed States, it was considered but natural, as 
indeed it seemed to be a necessity, that they would 
take possession of such unoccupied lands in the region 
toward the Pacific as best suited them. But it was 
not necessary that they should hold possession of such 
lands in opposition to the government of the United 
States, as they have been charged with doing. 

They now applied to the government at Washing- 
ton for work, offering to open roads, transport mili- 
tary stores, or perform any other service which the 
government might require in this farthest west, even 
to assist in fighting its battles. Such occupation 
would be of the greatest advantage to them in this 
new country, where land was fertile and plenty and 
free, and possessing as they did large herds of cattle 
and horses and sheep, with no market and but little 
money. And on the other hand, being on the ground, 
accustomed to work, and having every facility at 
hand without long and expensive transportation, they 
could give more and better work for the pay than 
the government could obtain by any other means. 

They even asked for aid direct about the time the 
exodus began, being represented at Washington by 
Elder Jesse C. Little,^ who, aided by Colonel Kane, 
Amos Kendall, and others, brought the matter before 
President Polk. While negotiations were yet in 
progress, news arrived that General Taylor had al- 
ready won two victories over the Mexicans; where- 
upon the elder addressed a petition to the president, 
stating that from twelve to fifteen thousand Mormons 
had set forth from Nauvoo for California, while some 
had departed by sea, and in Great Britain alone were 
forty thousand converts, all resolved to join the saints 
in their promised land. Many of them were without 
means; they were compelled to go; they wanted as- 

• In the letter appointing and giving instructions to Elder Little is the 
following: 'If our government should offer facilities for emigrating to the 
western coast, embrace those facilities if possible. As a wise and faithful 
man, take every advantage of the times you can,' Tullidge's Life of Brigham 
Young, 48. 


sistance either in the way of work or otherwise. The 
Mormons were true-hearted Americans, the memo- 
rial went on to say, and if the government would 
assist them in their present emergency, the petitioner 
stood ready to pledge himself as their representative 
to answer any call the government might make upon 
them for service on the field of battle. 

Elder Little was taken at his word. At a cabinet 
meeting, held a day or two after his petition was pre- 
sented, the president advised that the elder be sent 
at once to the Mormon camps, and there raise a 
thousand men to take possession of California in the 
name of the United States, while a thousand more 
be sent by way of Cape Horn for the same purpose, 
on board a United States transport. It was finally 
arranged that the elder, in company with Kane, should 
proceed westward, the latter bearing despatches to 
Kearny, then at Fort Leavenworth, with a view to 
raising a corps of about five hundred men. 

On the 19th of June, Kearny issued an order to 
Captain James Allen of the 1st dragoons to pro- 
ceed to the Mormon camp, and there raise four or 
five companies of volunteers, to be mustered into the 
service of the United States and receive the pay 
and rations of other infantry volunteers. They were 
then to be marched to Fort Leavenworth, where they 
would be armed; after which they would proceed to 
California by way of Santa Fe. They were to enlist 
for twelve months, after which time they were to be 
discharged, retaining as their own property the arms 
furnished them. 

In pursuance of his orders, Captain Allen proceeded 
to Mount Pisgah, where on the 26th he made known 
his mission. After a conference with the church 
council at that point, Allen went to Council Bluffs, 
where on the 1st of July it was determined by 
President Young that the battalion should be raised. 
In two weeks the corps was enrolled, and mustered 
in on the 16th of July, the president of the church 

HiBT. Utah. 16 


promising to look after the wants of the families of 
those enlisting. 

Though in reality a great benefit to the brethren, 
there were some hardships connected with the meas- 
ure. ^^ As Brigham and others were on their way from 
Council Bluffs to Pisgah to aid in obtaining these 
recruits, they passed 800 west-bound wagons. At 
their encampments on each side the river there was 
much serious illness, and as many of the teamsters 
had been withdrawn for this campaign, much heavy 
work fell upon the women and children, and the aged 
and infirm. ^^ 

After a ball on the afternoon of the 19th, the vol- 
unteers next day bade farewell to their families and 
friends, and accompanied by eighty women and chil- 
dren,^^ set forth on their march, ^^ on the 1st of August 
arriving at Fort Leavenworth. Here the men re- 

^° So ingrafted in their minds was the idea of persecution, and so accus- 
trtmed were they now to complaining, that when the government acceded to 
their request, there were many who believed, and so expressed themselves, 
that this was but an act of tyranny on the part of the United States, whose 
people, after drivuig them from their borders, had now come upon them to 
make a draft on their healthiest and hardiest men, forcing them to separate 
from their wives and children now in the time of their extremest need, under 
penalty of extermination in case of refusal. And this idea, which was wholly 
at variance with the facts, is present in the minds of some even to this day. 
Li order to facilitate enlisting, or for some other cause best known to himself, 
Brigham deemed it best to preserve this idea rather than wholly disabuse 
their minds of it; for in his address to the brethren on the 15th of July he 
said: ' If we want the privilege of going where we can worship God accord- 
ing to the dictates of our consciences, we must raise the battalion.' In his 
address at the gathering of the pioneers on the 24th of July, 1880, Wilford 
Woodruff said: 'Our goverument called upon us to raise a battalion of 500 
men to go to Mexico to fight the battles of our country. This draft was ten 
times greater, according to the population of the Mormon camp, than was 
made upon any other portion of our nation . . . Whether our government ex- 
pected we would comply with the request or not, is not for me to say. But 
I think I am safe in saying that plan was laid by certain parties for our de- 
struction if we did not comply.' Utah Pioneers, S3d Ann., 20. 

" ' Most of our people were sick ; in fact, the call for 500 able-bodied men 
from Council Bluffs for Mexico, by the government, deprived us of about all 
our streugth.' Richards' Rem., MS., 25. 

^''Compare oiScial report in U. S. House Ex. Doc, no. 24, 31st Cong., 
1st Sess., and Tylej-'s Hist. Mormon Battalion, and note discrepancies in regard 
to numbers enlisted and discharged. The names of those who reached Cali- 
fornia will be found in my pioneer register. Hist. Cal., this series. 

*' ' The members started upon their pilgrimage cheerfully, ' says Woodruff, 
* understanding that they occupied the place of a ram caught in a thicket, and 
were making a sacrifice for the salvation of Israel. ' Utah Pioneers, 20. 



ceived their arms and accoutrements, and to each was 
given a bounty of forty dollars, most of the money be- 
ing sent back to the brethren by the hands of elders 
Hyde, Taylor, and others, who accompanied the bat- 
talion to that point, and there bade them God speed. ^* 

About the middle of August the corps resumed its 
march toward Santa Fe, a distance of seven hundred 
miles, arriving at that place in tv/o parties on the 9th 
and 12th of October. There eighty-eight men were 
invalided and sent back to Pueblo for the winter, and 
later a second detachment of fifty-five, being found 
unfit for service, was also ordered to Pueblo. ^^ Many 
of them found their way during the following year to 
the valley of Great Salt Lake. 

From Santa Fe the remainder of the troops set 
forth for San Diego, a journey of more than eleven 
hundred miles, the entire distance between that town 
and the Mormon camps on the Missouri exceeding 
two thousand miles. Much of the route lay through 
a pathless desert; at few points could food be obtained 
in sufficient quantity for man or beaiit, and sometimes 
even water failed. Wells were sunk in the wilderness; 
but on one occasion, at least, the men travelled for a 
hundred miles without water. ^^ Before leaving Santa 

**'Here they received 100 tents, one for every 6 privates.' 'The pay- 
master remarked that every one of the Mormon battahon could write his own 
name, but only about one third of the volunteers he had previously paid could 
do so.' Hial. B. Young, MS., 1846, 18. 'Five thousand eight hundred and 
sixty dollars was brought in by Parley Pratt from Ft Leavenworth, being a por- 
tion of the allowance for clothing paid the battalion. It was counselled that 
this money be expended in St Louis for the families; three prices have to be 
paid here;. . .we wish they should all act voluntaril}', so that they may have 
no reflections to cast upon themselves or counsellors.' Id., MS., 1846, 150. 
' When the goods were bought, prices had advanced and fen-iage was very 
high, all of which brought the goods higher than was anticipated, and pro- 
duced some grumbling in camp.' Id., MS., 1847, 12. 

'* Families accompanying the battalion were ordered to Pueblo for winter 
quarters. Hi>it. B. Young, MS., 1846, 260. A detachment was sent to Pueblo 
consisting of 89 men and 18 laundresses. Later in this vol., I refer to affairs 
at Pueblo as furnished me in a very valuabLs manuscript by Judge Stone of 

" In a general order issued at San Diego on Jan. 30, 1847, by command of 
Lieut-col St George Cooke, then in charge of the battalion, vice Col Allen, de- 
ceased, the men are thus complimented on their safe arrival at the shores of 
the Pacitic: ' History may be searched in vain for an equal march of infan- 
try; nine tenths of it through a wilderness, where nothing but savages and 


Fe rations were reduced/' and soon afterward further 
reduced to one half and finally to one quarter allow- 
ance, the meat issued to the troops being the flesh of 
such animals as were unable to proceed further, though 
their hides and entrails were eagerly devoured, being 
gulped down with draughts of water, when water 
could be had/^ While suffering these hardships the 
men were compelled to carry their own knapsacks, 
muskets, and extra ammunition, and sometimes to 
push the wagons through heavy sand, or help to drag 
them over mountain ranges. 

Passing through a New Mexican pueblo on the 
24th of October, some of the men were almost as 
naked as on the day of their birth, except for a breech- 
clout, or as their colonel termed it, a 'centre-clothing,' 
tied around the loins. In this plight, near the middle 
of December, the battalion reached the San Pedro 
River, some three hundred and forty strong, and here 
occurred the only battle which the saints militant 
fought during their campaign — an encounter with a 

wild beasts are found; or deserts where, for the want of water, there is no 
living creature. There, with almost hopeless labor, we have dug deep wells, 
which the future traveller will enjoy. Without a guide who had traversed 
them, we have ventured into trackless prairies, where water was not found 
for several marches. With crowbar and pickaxe in hand, we have worked 
our way over mountains which seemed to defy aught save the wild goat, and 
hewed a passage through a chasm of living rock, more narrow than our wagons. ' 
Smith's Rise,, and Travels, 10. 

" ' Until further orders, three fourths pound of flour, also three fourths 
rations sugar and coffee will be issued. Beef, one and a half pounds will be 
issued for a day's ration.' Order No. 11, Headquarters Mormon Battalion, 
Santa F6. A copy of it will be found in Tyler's Hist. Mor. Battalion, 1 75-6. 

'^ During the march from Santa FtS to San Diego a song was composed by 
Levi W. Hancock, a musician belonging to company E. It was entitled the 
'Desert Route,' and commences: 

While here beneath a sultry sky. 
Our famished mules and cattle die; 
Scarce aught but skin and bones remain. 
To feed poor soldiers on the plain. 
Otorus: How hard to starve and wear ua out 
Upon this sandy desert route. 

We sometimes now for lack of bread. 
Are less than quarter rations fed, 
And soon expect, for all of meat, 
Naught else than broke-down mules to eat. 

Now half-starved oxen, over-drilled, 
Too weak to draw, for beef are killed; 
And gnawing hunger prompting men, 
To eat small entrails and the skin. 

Id., 181-2. 



herd of wild bulls. Thence, without further adventure 
worthy of note, they continued their march, and reach- 
ing the Pacific coast on the 29th of January, 1847, 
found the stars and stripes floating peacefully over the 
town of San Diego.^^ 

A more detailed account of the career of the Mor- 
mon battalion will be found in my History of Cali- 
fornia. It remains only to add here that about one 
hundred of the men reached Salt Lake City in the 
winter of 1847, while some remained on the Pacific 
coast. ^ 

. The alacrity displayed by the Mormon president in 
raisino; this battalion has been ascribed to various 
causes; to the fear of further persecution should the 
levy be refused, and to a desire of showing that, not- 
withstanding their maltreatment, the saints were still 

^' In A Concise History of th^ Mormon Battalion in the Mexican War, 1S4S 
-1S47, by Sergeant Daniel Tlyer, (Salt Lake City,) 1881, 8vo, 376 pp., we 
have a most valuable book, and one that forms the leading authority on 
this subject. Though written, of course, from a Mormon standpoint, and 
marked by the credulity of his sect, the execution of the work is all that its 
title-page promises. In the introduction, occupying 109 pages, we have 
President John Taylor's account of the martyrdom of Joseph Smith, Colonel 
Kane's discourse on the Mormons, and a poem by Eliza R. Snow, entitled 
The Mormon Battalion, and First Wagon Load over the Great American Desert. 
The remainder of the volume consists of original matter. Tyler was a mem- 
ber of company C in the battalion, and no doubt speaks the truth when he 
says in his preface that ' neither labor, pains, nor expense has been spared in 
the effort to make this a just and authentic history.' Among other authori- 
ties may be mentioned Hornets Migr. and, Setttem't, L. D. Saints, MS., 32-3; 
Neheker's Early Justice, MS., 3; Woodruff's Rem., MS., 76; Henry IF. Big- 
lei-'s Diary of a Mormon in California, MS., in which last we have a faithful 
and interesting record of the Mormon battalion and !Mr Bigler's account of 
the discovery of gold in California. The Conquest of New Mexico and Califor- 
nia: an Historical and Personal Narrative, by P. St. George Cooke, Brigadier 
and Brevet Major-general U. S. A., N. Y., 1878, 12mo, gives some additional 
matter, as do the journal and report of that officer in U. S. Sen. Doc. No. 2, 
30th Cong., Special Sess. , and in House Ex. Doc, 30th Cong., IstSess., no. 41, 
pp. £49-63. Cooke, it will be remembered, was in command of the battalion. 
Items have also been gathered from U. S. House Ex. Doc, 31st Cong., 1st 
Sess. , no. 24, p. 22; Apostle Wilford Woodruff's Speech, in Utah Pioneers, 
33d ann., 19-22; Smith's Rise, Progress, and Travels, 8-11; Tullidge's Life of 
Brigham Young, 41-76; Olshavjien, Gesch. de Mor., 142-4; and Kane's The 
Moj-mons, 27-9. Biographical notices of some of the members, and the names 
of the women who accompanied the battalion, are given in Tullidge's Women, 
427, 432, 443-4. 

*°In the Frontier Guardian, March 7, 1849, is a notice copied from the St 
Joseph Gazette, stating that the members of the batta ion can at once receive 
their extra pay at Fort Leavenworth. The notice ij signed by Paymaster 
Thos S. Bryant. 


unswerving in their loyalty to the United States. 
While all this carried weight, the bounty of twenty 
thousand dollars was no insignificant consideration, 
nor the hope that this battalion might serve as van- 
guard to Brigham's host, provided he carried out his 
partially formed purpose to settle in California. 

At the close of 1846, about twelve thousand souls 
had assembled in the Mormon camps, a portion of 
them being yet stationed as far eastward as Garden 
Grove. Of the rest a few had made their way 
to some Atlantic port and taken ship for Califor- 
nia; many had dispersed throughout the country, 
some of whom were now gathering at the ren- 
dezvous. Though the first bands that crossed the 
Mississippi encountered no very severe hardships, as 
I have said, the sufferings of those who set forth later 
have few parallels, even among the pioneers, who, a 
year or two afterward, followed their track westward 
in search of gold.^^ 

Mount Pisgah, the next encampment west of Gar- 
den Grove, was on the middle fork of Grand River. 
Through this winter of 1846-7, which was one of 
severest struggle, there was great lack of food and 
clothing. They could not go on because they had 
no teams, most of them being employed in bringing 
forward the emigration from the Mississippi. Many 

^' Instance the experiences of Mrs Richards, Reminiscences, MS., passim. 
While on their journey toward the Missouri, having parted from her husband 
who was about starting on a mission to England, her little daughter was taken 
dangerously ill, and the mother was prematurely confined in a wagon with a 
son, who died soon after. 'Our situation was pitiable; I had no suitable food 
for myself or my child; the severe rain prevented our having any fire; on 
the third day we resumed our journey. In ten days we reached Mt Pisgah; 
my little girl was very ill, and I was also. We continued our journey till we 
reached my mother at Cutler Park, and here, after weeks of almost incred- 
ible suffering, my little daughter died. A few days pi'eviously she had asked 
for some potato soup, the first thing she had shown any desire for for weeks, 
and as we were then travelling, we came in sight of a potato-field. One of the 
sisters eagerly a?ked for a single potato. A rough woman impatiently heard 
her story throug i, and putting her hands on her shoulders, marched her out 
of the house, sayuig, "i won't give or sell a thing to one of you damned Mor- 
mons." I turned on my bed and wept, as I heard them trying to comfort 
my little one in her disappointment. When she was taken from me I only 
lived because I could not die. ' 



families were entirely out of provisions, and their des- 
titute neighbors were sorely taxed. ^^ A fatal sick- 
ness swept through the camp, and soon there were 
not suflScient persons to nurse the sick; frequently 
burials were hastened with little ceremony. In the 
spring of 1847, Lorenzo Snow was made president of 
the camp. The men were put to work wherever they 
could get it. Seed was planted, and the result was 
enough not only for themselves, but they were enabled 
to send supplies to the camp at Council Bluffs.^ 
Snow instituted religious ceremonies and amusements 
to briofhten and encouraofe them. He describes a dance 
in his log cabin, where clean straw was spread over 
the ground floor, and the walls draped with sheets. 
Turnips were scooped out and in them were placed 
lighted candles, which, suspended from the ceiling of 
earth and cane, or fastened on the walls, imparted a 
picturesque effect. Dancing, speeches, songs, and 
recitations varied the exercises, which opened and 
closed with prayer. 

On each side of the hills where now stands Council 
Bluffs could be seen the white canvas tents of a Mor- 
mon encampment, from which arose at sunrise the 
smoke of hundreds of fires. After the morning meal, 
the men employed themselves in tending herds, in 
planting grain and vegetables, or in building houses 
for winter. Many of them were excellent craftsmen, 
and could fell a tree, and split its trunk into boards, 
scantling, rails, posts, or whatever were needed, as 

*^ It cannot be said that any considerable number died of starvation. 
•Only those died of it outright,' says Kane in The Mormon x, ' who fell in out- 
of-the-way places that the hand of brotherhood could not reach. . .If but part 
of a group were supplied with provisions, the whole went on lialf or quarter 
ration.' 'Articles of diet, such as tea, cofifee, sugar, with every species of 
clothing, were eagerly stored up, as possibly the last we should ever see. * 
Brown's Testimonies, MS., 24. ' When starting from Nauvoo, a gentile neigh- 
bor gave me a pound of tea, which through sickness and great suflFering was 
about all the sustenance I had for some time.' Mrs Richards' Rem., MS., 20. 

^ ' Parties were sent to the gentile settlements to look for work, food, and 
clothing, and elders Dana and Campbell collected about §600 from the licii 
gentiles in Ohio and elsewhere.' Snow's Biography, 91. 



readily as the most expert backwoodsmen of their 

During the summer and autumn months of 1846, 
the Papillon camp, near the Little Butterfly River, 
in common with the others, was stricken with fever, 
and with a scorbutic disease which the Mormons 
termed the black canker. In the autumn drought, the 
streams that discharge into the Missouri at this point 
are often little better than open sewers, pestilential 
as open cesspools, and the river, having lost more than 
half its volume, flows sluggishly through its channel 
of slime and sedge. Of the baked mud on either bank 
is formed the rich soil on which lay the encampments, 
the site being called, in their own phrase. Misery 
Bottom. In the year previous the Indians in this 
neighborhood had lost one ninth of their number; 
and now that the earth was for the first time upturned 
by the plough, the exhalations from this rank and 
steaming soil were redolent of disease and death. % 

In the camp nearest to Papillon more than one 
third of the company lay sick at the beginning of 
August; elsewhere matters were even worse; and as 
the season advanced there were in some of the en- 
campments not one who escaped the fever, the few who 
were able to stagger from tent to tent carrying food 
and water to their comrades. For several weeks it 
was impossible to dig graves quickly enough for the 
burial of the dead,^^ and one might see in the open 
tents the wasted forms of women brushing away the 
flies from the putrefying corpses of their children. 

Through all these months building was continually 
going on at Winter Quarters.'^^ The axe and saw were 

^* ' There were among them many skilled mechanics, who could work at forge, 
loom, or turning- lathe. A Mormon gunsmith is the inventor of the excellent 
repeating rifle that loads by slides instead of cylinders; and one of the neat- 
est finished fire-arms I have ever seen was of this kind, wrought from scraps 
of old iron, and inlaid with the silver of a couple of half-dollars.' Kane's The 
Mormons, 36. 

■■'° At the camp situated on the site of the town of Florence, there were over 
600 burials. Kam's The Mormons, b\. 

'^^ 'Here we suifered terribly from scurvy, for want of vegetables. I was 
a victim, and even my little children as young as three years of age. The 


incessantly at work night and clay. It was a city of 
mud and logs; the houses had puncheon floors and 
roofs of straw and dirt, or of turf and willows; they 
were warm and not unwholesome, but would not en- 
dure the thaw, rain, and sunshine.^^ 

There was a camp at Cutler Park which was moved 
to Winter Quarters. Great difliculty was experi- 
enced in getting flour and meal; a little grain was 
ground at the government mill, and the rest was ob- 
tained in Missouri, a hundred and fifty miles distant.'^^ 
Brigham kept everybody busy, and everything was 
well organized and systematically executed.^^ Schools 
were soon established, officers of the church appointed, 
and men sent on missions. The whole machinery was 
apparently in as active operation as it had been at 
Nauvoo. The gathering continued through the sum- 
first relief experienced was when a bag of potatoes was brought in from 
Missouri. . .It was observed that those who had milk escaped the trouble.' 
Home's Migrations, MS., 20. 

^' ' The buildings were generally of logs from 12 to 18 feet long, a few 
were split, and made from lynn and cotton-wood timber; many roofs were 
made by splitting oak timber into boards, called shakes, about 3 ft long and 
6 in. wide, and kept in place by weights and poles; others were made of 
willows, straw, and earth, about a foot thick; some of puncheon. Many 
cabins had no floors; there were a few dugouts on the sidehills — the fire- 
place was cut out at the upper end. The ridge-pole roof was supported by 
two uprights in the centre and roofed with straw and earth, with chimneys 
of prairie sod. The doors were made of shakes, with wooden hinges and 
string latch; the inside of the log houses was daubed with clay; a few had 
stoves.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1846, 534. ' The roofs were made of logs laid 
across with flags spread over them, and earth spread over these. This was 
partial protection from the rain, but when once it was soaked through in a 
heavy storm, we were at the mercy of the rain.' Richards' Rem., MS., 27. In 
Dec. 1846, at Winter Quarters there were '538 log houses and 83 sod houses, 
inhabited by 3,483 souls, of whom 334 were sick.' Church Chronology, 65. 

** ' $8,000 was sent by Whitney to St Louis to purchase stones and machin- 
ery for flouring mills; and through A. H. Perkins a carding machine was 
ordered from Savannah.' Hist, B. Young, MS., Aug. 30, 1846. 'Sugar and 
cofi'ee were 16§ cts per lb. ; domestics and calicoes from 18 to 25 cts; $3 a cwt. 
for flour,' etc. ; all of which could be purchased in St Louis for a third of these 
rates. Tliese prices seemed exorbitant to the Mormons, though in reality 
they were not unreasonable. In transporting the goods from St Louis later, 
ferriage became so high and prices were so advanced that the brethren burst 
forth : ' Woe unto you, Missourians ! but we are independent of them and 
can live without them, for we have thousands of cattle left.' 

'* 'At a meeting of the council July 14th, it was voted that colonies be 
established on the east side of the river to put in buckwheat, and winter; 
that a fort be built on Grand Island and a settlement made there; and that 
Bishop Miller and a company go over the mountains.' Hisl. B. Young, MS., 
1846, 50. 


mer, but it was deemed inexpedient to move forward 
that year. Some twelve hundred cattle were herded 
on the rush bottoms, about a hundred miles up the 

The building of a water flouring mill was in process 
of construction, and Brighara superintended the work. 
As the camp journalist writes: "He sleeps with one 
eye open and one foot out of bed, and when anything 
is wanted he is on hand." The tithing collected was 
distributed among the destitute at Mount Pisgah. 
To the gentiles who visited their camps such hospitality 
was extended as their means permitted, which though 
often scant was never stinted. 

Within the camp the women attended not only to 
their ordinary household duties, but were busily occu- 
pied spinning, knitting, making leggings from deer and 
elk skins, and in weaving willow baskets for market.^" 
With cheerfulness and courage they adapted them- 
selves to their many vicissitudes, their faith in their 
religion never swerving, and supported by it to a pa- 
tient endurance beyond human strength. Most of 
them had exchanged their household treasures and 
personal effects, even to their table and bed furniture, 
for stores of maize or flour, which with milk were 
their only articles of diet. As evening approached, 
the tinkling of cattle bells announced the return of the 
men, when the women went. forth to meet them, and 
welcome them back to their log hut and frugal meal. 
Then a little later all sounds were hushed, save that on 
the still night arose the strains of the evening hymn 
and the murmur of the evening prayer, the day 
closing, as it had commenced, with a supplication for 
the blessing of the Almighty, and with heartfelt 
thanksgiving that he had been pleased to deliver his 
people from the hands of their persecutors. 

During the latter part of the winter and toward 
the early spring matters assumed a brighter look. 

^^ Several loads of willow baskets were manufactured. Hist. B. Young, 
MS.. 534. 


New-year's day was ushered in at Winter Quarters by 
the firing of cannon.^^ There were frequent assem- 
bhes for dancing, and in February several picnics 
were held. In inaugurating these festivities, Brig- 
ham told the people he would show them how to go 
forth in the dance in an acceptable manner before the 
Lord,^ and to the sound of music led the dance. A 
picnic lasting for three days was also given, at which 
three hundred of the poor were feasted.^ 

'1 The thermometer was during that week from 2° to 8° below zero, later 
falling several degrees lower. 

"^ 'I then knelt down and prayed to God in behalf of the meeting, . . .and 
dedicated the meeting and house to the Lord, . . . and led forth in the dance. ' 
Hint. B. Young, MS., 1847, 27. In an address Brigham said: 'For some 
weeks past I could not wake up at any time of the night but I heard the axe 
at work, . . .and now my feelings p,re, dance all night if you desire to do so.' p. 
48. 'The "Silver Greys " and epectacled dames, .. .some nearly a hundred 
years old, . . . dancing like ancient Israel. ' p. 49. 

'^ ' There were 117 poor adults, . . . divided into three wards . . . Shortly after 
noon I met with 66 of my family, including my adopted children.' Id., p. 53. 





Camp Near the Missouri — Preparations at Winter Quarters — Depart- 
ure OF the Pioneer Band — Elkhorn Rendezvous — Route and Rou- 
tine — Incidents of Journey — Approach to Zion — In the CaSon — 
Hosanna! Hallelujah! — Entry into the Valley of the Great 
Salt Lake — Ploughing and Planting — Praying and Praising — Sitb 
FOR A City Chosen — Temple Block Selected— Return of Companies 
TO Winter Quarters — Their Meeting with the Westward-bound 
— General Epistle of the Twelve. 

In the spring of 1847 we find the saints still in camp 
in the vicinity of the Missouri. Considering what 
they had been called upon to undergo, they were in 
good health and spirits. There is nothing like the 
spiritual in man to stimulate and sustain the physi- 
cal ; and this result is equally accomplished by the 
most exalted piety of the true believer, or by the 
most stupid fanaticism or barbaric ignorance; for 
all of us are true believers, in our own eyes. There 
is nothing like religion to sustain, bear up, and carry 
men along under trying circumstances. They make 
of it a fight; and they are determined that the world, 
the flesh, and the devil shall not conquer. 

In the present instance it was of course a miracle 
in their eyes that so many of their number were pre- 
served; it was to this belief, and to the superhuman 
skill and wisdom of their leader, and partly to their 
own concert of action, that their preservation was due. 

Frequent meetings had been held by the council to 
consider plans for further explorations by a pioneer 



band.^ A call was made for volunteers of young and 
able-bodied men, and in April a company was or- 
ganized, with Brigham Young as lieutenant-general, 
Stephan Markham colonel, John Pack major, and 
fourteen captains. The company consisted of 143 
persons, including three women, wives of Brigham 
Young, Lorenzo Young, and Heber C. Kimball. They 
had 73 wagons drawn by horses and mules, and loaded 
chiefly with grain and farming imj)lements,^ and with 
provisions which were expected to last them for the 
return journey. 

Early in April a detachment moved out of Winter 
Quarters for the rendezvous on the Elkhorn, and on 
the 14th the pioneer band, accompanied by eight mem- 
bers of the council,^ began the long journey westward 
in search of a site for their new Zion. If none were 
found, they were to plant crops and establish a settle- 
ment at some suitable spot which might serve as a 
base for future explorations.* 

The route was along the north branch of the Platte, 
and for more than 500 miles the country was bare of 

* The octagon house of Dr Richards in which the council met is described 
as a queer-looking thing, much resembling a New England potato-heap in 
time of frost. ' Council voted a load of wood for each day they met in his 
house.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1S47, 2. 

* Woodruff's Journal, MS., Apr. 17, 1847. 

' John Taylor, Parley Pratt, and Orson Hyde were engaged in missionary 
work abroad. Pratfs AiUoblog., 383. 

* The impression was that they would reach as soon as possible * the foot of 
the mountains somewhere in the region of the Yellowstone River, perhaps at 
the fork of Tongue River, say 2 days' ride north of the Oregon road, and a 
week's travel west of Ft Laramie. . .1 informed Bishop Miller that when we 
moved hence it would be to the great basin.' Hist. B. Youufj, MS., 79. No 
one knew whither they were going, not even the leaders. ' We have learned 
by letter to Elder G. D. Watt that a company left Council Bluffs for the 
mountains on the r2th of April to seek a location for a stake in Zion.' Mil- 
lennial Star, ix. 235. ' The pioneers started for the mountains to seek out a 
resting-place for the saints.' Brown's Testimonies for the Truth, 26. In Xiles' 
Register, lx.x:ii. 206 (May 29, 1847), we read: 'Their intention is to proceed as 
far as possible up to the period of necessary planting-time, when they will 
stop and commence a crop. The leaders will make but a short delay at this 
point, and will proceed over into California and communicate with or join the 
disbanded forces of the Mormon battalion, whose period of service \vill expire 
about the 1st of July next.' '^\^len President Young was questioned by any 
of the pioneers as to the definite point of our destination, all he could say to 
them was, that he would know it when he should see it.' Erastus Snow, in 
Utah Pioneers, 33d ami. , 44. 



vegetation. Roused by the call of the bugle at five 
o'clock in the morning, they assembled for prayers; 
then they breakfasted, and upon a second call of the 
bucrle at seven o'clock they started, and travelled 
about twenty miles for the day. At night the note 
of the bugle sent each to his own wagon to prayers 
and at nine o'clock to bed. They rested on Sunday, 
giving up the day to fasting and prayer. They were 
careful in marching to preserve order, with loaded guns 
and powder-horn ready. And the better to present a 
compact front, the wagons were kept well together, 
usually two abreast where the ground would permit, 
and the men were required to walk by the wagons. 
They felled cotton-wood trees for their horses and 

Route of the Mormons. 

cattle to browse upon, and at last were obliged to feed 
them from the grain, flour, and biscuit they carried, 
subsisting meanwhile themselves on game and fish. 
In the valley of the Platte roamed such vast herds of 
buflaloes that it was often necessary to send parties in 
advance and clear the road before the teams could 
pass. At night the wagons would be drawn up in a 
semicircle on the bank, the river forming a defence 
upon one side. The tongues of the wagons were on 
the outside, and a fore wheel of each was placed 
against the hind wheel of the wagon before it; all the 
horses and cattle were brought inside of the en- 
closure. The corral thus formed was oblong, with an 



opening at either end, where was stationed a guard. 
The tents were pitched outside of the corral.^ 

In crossing the Loup River on the 24th, they used 
a leathern boat made for this expedition, and called 
The Revenue Cutter. On the 4th of May letters were 
sent back to Winter Quarters by a trader named 
Charles Beaumont. On the 22d they encamped at 
Ancient Bluff Ruins. Here the spirits of the people 
reached such high hilarity that their commanding 

Corral of Wagons. 

officer was obliged to rebuke them, whereupon all 
covenanted to humble themselves.*^ 

Early in June they reached the Black Hills by way 
of Forfc Laramie.^ Here they rested for two or three 

• Woodruff's Journal, MS., April 19, 1847. On May4tli they 'established 
a post-office and guide system for the benefit of the next camp following. 
Every ten miles. . .we put up a guide-board.' 

^ ' I have told the few who did not belong to the church that they were 
not at liberty to introduce cards, dancing, or iniquity of any description.' 
Hist. B. Young, MS., 1847, 90. 

'Fort John, or Laramie, was occupied by 'James Bordeaux and about 
eighteen Fi'ench half-breeds and a few Sioux. . .There had been no rain for 
the last two years . . . Two or three of us visited Mr Bordeaux at the fort. 


weeks to build ferry-boats and recruit their animals. 
Grass was now plentiful; most of the brethren de- 
pended upon their rifles for food, and after having 
prepared sufficient dried meat for the rest of the jour- 
ney, they continued on their way. 

No sooner had they crossed the river than a horse- 
man, who had followed their trail from Laramie, rode 
up and begged them to halt, as near by was a large 
company bound for Oregon, for which he asked con- 
veyance over the stream. The pioneers consented, 
stipulating that they should receive payment in pro- 
visions. Other parties following, the larder of the 
saints was replenished.^ 

Travelling rapidly, and a little to the south of what 
was known as the Oregon track,^ the Mormons ar- 
rived at South Pass in the latter part of June, about 
the time when the tide of emigration usually passed 
the Missouri. Thence skirting the Colorado desert 
and reaching the Green River country, the monotony 
was broken. Here the brethren were met by Elder 
Brannan, who had sailed from New York for Califor- 
nia in the ship Broohlyn, the previous February, with 
238 saints, as before mentioned. He reported that 
they were all busy making farms and raising grain on 
the San Joaquin River. -^^ As several of the present 

We paid him $15 for the use of his ferry-boat. Mr Bordeaux said that this 
was the most civil and best-behaved company that had ever passed the fort.' 
Id., MS., 1847,91. 

8 Snow, in Utah Pioneerx, 44. ' Capt. Grover and eight others of the pion- 
eers were left at North Platte ferry and ford to ferry the companies that 
should arrive, and especially to ferry the emigration from Winter Quarters.' 
Hist. B. Young, MS., 1847. 

' ' Making a new road for a majority of more than one thousand miles 
westward, they arrived at the great basin in the latter part of July. ' General 
Epistle of the Tuoelve, in Millennial Star, x. 82. 'He [Brigham] and the com- 
pany arrived on the 24th of July, having sought out and made a new road 
650 miles, and followed a trapper's trail nearly 400 miles. Smith's Rise, Prog- 
ress, and Travels, 16; see also Tullidge's Life of Young, 161. Remysays that 
an odometer was attached to a wheel of one of the wagons, and careful notes 
taken of the distances. Jour, to O. S. L. City, i. 433-4. 'As I remember, 
there was no trail after leaving Laramie, going over the Black Hills, except 
very rarely. For a short distance before reaching the Sweetwater, we saw a 
wagon track; it was a great surprise and a great curiosity.' Hist. B. Young, 
MS., 1848, 7. 

^'>Hist. B. Young, MS., 1847, 95; TulUdge's Life of Young, 166. 



company were ill with mountain fever, they encamped 
for a few days. Thirteen battalion brethren who were 
out searching for stolen cattle now surprised them, 
and Brigham led in three hearty cheers.-*^ Again en 
route, passing through the Green River country, they 
reached Fort Bridger. Soon after leaving this point 
the real difficulties of the journey commenced. Led, 
as the saints relate, only by the inspiration of the 
Almighty, ^"^ Brigham and his band crossed the rugged 
spurs of the Uintah range, now following the rocky 
bed of a mountain torrent, and now cleavinsf their 
way through dense and gnarled timber until they 
arrived at Echo Canon, near the eastern slope of the 
Wasatch Mountains, where for a brief space the main 
body rested, the president and many others being 
attacked with mountain fever.^^ 

Impatient of the delay, Brigham, after a formal 

^^ 'I exclaimed, "Hosanna! hosanna! give glory to God and the lamb, 
amen!" in which they all joined.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1S47, 96. 'Left 
Phineas Young and four others, who had volunteered to return to guide the 

^^ Smith's Bise, Progress, and Travels, 16. ' For,' says the author, 'no one 
knew anything of the country.' Snow, in Utah Pioneers, SSdann., 44, remarks: 
'The president said we were to travel "the way the spirit of the Lord should 
direct us."' Snow states that James Bridger, who had a trading post which 
still bears the name of Fort Bridger, when he met the president on the Big 
Sandy River about the last of June, and learned that his destination was the 
valley of Great Salt Lake, ofifered §1,000 for the first ear of corn raised tliere. 
'Wait a little,' said the president, 'and we will show you.' Again, on p. 4.5 he 
says that, being encamped on what is now known as Tar Springs, the pioneers 
were met by a mountaineer named Goodyear, who had wintered on the site of 
the present city of Ogden, after planting grain and vegetables in the valley, but 
with meagre results. The mountaineer's report was very discouraging, but 
to him also Brigham replied, 'Give us time and we will show you.' There is 
no evidence that as j'et the president knew anything about the Salt Lake 
Valley except what he heard from Bridger and Goodyear, or had gleaned 
from the reports of Fremont's expedition. 'On the loth of June met James 
H. Grieve, Wm Tucker, James Wood rie, James Bouvoir, aud six other French- 
K men, from whom we learned that Mr Bridger was located about 300 miles 
■ west, that the mountaineers could ride to Salt Lake from Fort Bridger in two 
u days, and that the Utah country was beautiful.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1847, 
92. 'Half-mile west of Fort Bridger some traded for buckskins, their cloth- 
ing being worn out.' Id., 97. Xote also the following: 'Met Capt. Bridger, 
I who said he was ashamed of Fremont's map of this country. Bridger con- 
sidered it imprudent to bring a large population into the great basin until it 
was ascertained that grain could be raised. ' 
'^ ' We had to stop at Yellow Creek aud again at the head of Echo Canon, 
stopping and travelling as the sick were able to endure the journey, until we 
reached the Weber at the mouth of Echo Canon, and struck our camp a few 
miles below the present railroad station.' Utah Pioneers, 33d ann., 45. 
Hist. Utah. 17 


meeting, directed Orson Pratt'* to take the strong- 
est of their number and cut through the mountains 
into the valley, making roads and bridges as they 
went. After crossing what were designated as Big 
and Little mountains, the party, consisting of some 
forty-two men having twenty-three wagons, encamped 
in Emigration Canon.^^ 

Thus the saints are reaching their resting-place. 
Their new Zion is near at hand; how near, they are 
as yet all unaware. But their prophet has spoken; 
their way is plain; and the spot for them prepared 
from the foundation of the earth will presently be 
pointed out to them. The great continental chain is 
penetrated. In the heart of America they are now 
upon the border of a new holy land, with its Desert 

'* ' Voted, that Orson Pratt take charge of an expedition to go on and make 
a road down the Weber River.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1847, 97. 0. Pratt was 
appointed to take 23 wagons and 42 men, and precede the main company. 
Church Chron., 65. Erastus Snow says, in a discourse on the Utah pioneers, 
delivered in the tabernacle July 25, 1880: ' I well remember, as we called at 
the wagon to bid the president good-by. Brother Willard Richards. . .asking 
if he had any counsel to give to guide our movements . . . Resting his elbow 
on the pillow with his head in his hand, he spoke feebly, ..." My impressions 
are, "' said he, ' ' that when you emerge from the mountains into the open 
country you bear to the northward, and stop at the first conyenient place for 
putting in your seed." ' 

^^ ' The emigration route previous to 1847 was via Laramie through South 
Pass to Big Sandy River. Then to avoid a desert stretch, down the Big 
Sandy to its junction with Green River, and across, then up Black's Fork to 
junction witli Ham's Fork, and thence up Black's Fork to FortBridger. The 
Mormons here took the road made by Hastings and the Donner company in 
1846, bearing almost due west, crossing Bear River, down Echo Canon to 
junction with the Weber. The Mormons here chose the Donner trail, which 
passed up the Weber southerly from Echo about twelve miles, then westerly 
into Parley's Park, then across the hills northerly to the head of Emigration 
Canon, then into the valley. As the Donner company had passed over this 
route more recently than any other, it seems to have been followed as 
probably the best, and was usually travelled for many years. In 1847, when 
the Mormons entered the valley, there were three wagon routes into it. The 
first, down Bear River from Soda Springs, through Cache Valley — Capt. Bart- 
lett's route in 1841, followed by Fremont in 1843; the second, Hastings' 
California emigration through Echo and Weber canons in 1846; and the third, 
the Donner route of 1846, described. The Mormons found a plain road into 
a fertile, unoccupied country;. . .its isolation alone was the cause of its non- 
occupation.' 31cBride's Route of the Mormons, MS. This manuscript, to 
■which among other favors I am indebted to Judge McBride, throws fresh 
light on the question of passes and routes in early times. The author, one of , 
the first to enter Utah, was second to none in ability and position at a lat 


and Dead Sea, its River Jordan, Mount of Olives, and 
Gallilee Lake, and a hundred other features of its 
prototype of Asia. 

Throuofh the western base of the mountains extends 
the canon, the two sides of which are serrated by a 
narrow stream, which along the last five miles flings 
itself from one side to the other a score or two of 
times, in places tumbling over bowlders, again quietly 
threading its way over a pebbly bottom, but every- 
where cutting up the narrow and rugged gorge so as 
to make it most difficult and dangerous of passage. 

The primeval silence is now broken; the primeval 
songs are now disturbed by sounds strange to the 
surrounding hills, accustomed only to the music of 
running water and the notes of birds and wild beasts. 
There is the rumbling of the caravan as it comes 
slowly picking its way down the dark ravine, the 
tramping of the horses upon the hard ground, and the 
grinding of the wheels among the rocks as they plunge 
down one bank and climb another, or thread their way 
along the narrow ledge overhanging an abyss, the 
songs of Israel meanwhile being heard, and midst the 
cracking of whips the shouts now and then breaking 
forth of a leader in Israel awe-struck by the grandeur 
of the scene, "Hosanna to the Lord! hosanna to the 
creator of alll hallelujah! hallelujah!" 

Emerging from the ravine upon a bench or terrace, 
they behold the lighted valley, the land of promise, 
the place of long seeking which shall prove a place of 
rest, a spot whereon to plant the new Jerusalem, a 
spot of rare and sacred beauty. Behind them and 
on either hand majestic mountains rear their proud 
fronts heavenward, while far before them the vista 
opens. Over the broad plain, through the clear thin 
air, bathed in purple sunlight, are seen the bright 
waters of the lake, dotted with islands and bordered 
by glistening sands, the winding river, and along 
the creek the broad patches of green cane which look 
like wavinof corn. Raisinsr their hats in reverence 


from their heads, again hosannas burst from their lips, 
while praise to the most high ascends from grateful 

It was near this terrace, being in fact a mile and a 
half up the canon, that Orson Pratt and Erastus 
Snow, with their detach^ment of pioneers, encamped 
on the 20th of July, 1847. Next day, the ever-mem- 
orable 21st, to reach this bench, whence was viewed 
with such marvellous effect the w^arm, pulsating pano- 
rama before them, Pratt and Snow crept on their 
hands and knees, warned by the occasional rattle of a 
snake, through the thick underbrush which lined the 
south side of the mountain and filled the canon's 
mouth, leaving their companions on the other side of 
the brush. After drinking in the scene to the satis- 
faction of their souls, they descended to the open 
plain, Snow on horseback, with his coat thrown loosely 
upon his saddle, and Pratt on foot. They journeyed 
westward three miles, when Snow missing his coat 
turned back, and Pratt continued alone. After trav- 
ersing the site of the present city, and standing where 
later was temple block, he rejoined his comrade at the 
mouth of the canon. Together they then returned to 
camp late in the evening and told of their discoveries. 

The following morning the advance company, com- 
posed of Orson Pratt, George A. Smith,-^'' and seven 
others, entered the valley and encamped on the bank 
of Canon Creek. They explored the valley toward 
the lake, and about three miles from the camp found 
two fine streams with stony bottoms, whose banks 
promised sufficient pasturage. Proceeding northward, 
they found hot springs at the base of the mountain 
spur. Upon their return they were greeted by the 
working camp five miles from the mouth of the canon, 
at what was subsequently known as Parley Canon 

^* Geo. A. Smith says in his autobiography that on this journey he "walked 
1,700 miles and rode some 800 miles on horseback. He had 25 lbs of flour, 
which he used by the cupful for those who were ill; for six weeks he was 
without bread, and like the rest of the company, lived on buffalo meat and 
other game. 



creek.*^ \j On the 23d the camp moved some two or 
three miles northward, the site chosen beins: near the 
two or three dwarf cotton-woods/^ which were the only 
trees within sight, and on the bank of a stream of pure 
water now termed City Creek, overgrown with high 
grass and willows. Pratt called the men together, 
dedicated the land to the Lord, and prayed for his 
blessing on the seeds about to be planted and on the 
labors of the saints. Before noon a committee re- 
turned a report that they had staked off land suitable 
for crops; that the soil was friable, and composed 
of loam and gravel. The first furrow was thereupon 
turned by William Carter, and through the afternoon 
three ploughs and one harrow were at work. A dam 
was commenced and trenches cut to convey water to 
the fields. Toward evening their energetic labors 
were interrupted by a thunder-storm.^^ The ground 
was so dry that they found it necessary to irrigate it 
before ploughing, some ploughs having been broken; 
and it was not until after the arrival of Bri^ham that 
planting was begun. 

The coming of the leader had been impatiently 
awaited, althouQ-h in their ambition to have as much 
as possible accomplished, the time quickly passed. 
Brigham was slowly following with the remainder of 
the company, and was still so weak as to be obliged 
to be carried on a bed in Wilford Wordruff's carriage. 
As they reached a point on Big Mountain where the 
view was unbroken, the carriage was turned into 
proper position, and Brigham arose from his bed and 
surveyed the country. He says: "The spirit of light 
rested upon me and hovered over the valle}^ and I 
felt that there the saints would find protection and 

^^ Parley was always quite popular among the brethren, though his judg- 
ment was not always the best. 

^^ 'My poor mother was heart-broken because there were no trees to be seen; 
I don't remember a tree that could be called a tree.' Cku-a Youivfs Experi- 
ence!^, MS., 5. 

1' "July 'JSd, 96° Fah. A company commenced mowing the grass and pre- 
paring a turnip-patch.' Hht. B. Young, MS., 1847, 99. 


safety."^*' Woodruff in describing the scene says of 
Brigham: "He was enwrapped in vision for several 
minutes. He had seen the valley before in vision, 
and upon this occasion he saw the future glory of 
Zion. . .planted in the valley."^^ Then Brigham said: 
"It is enough. This is the right place. Drive on." 
Toward noon on the 24th they reached the encamp- 
ment. Potatoes were planted in a five-acre patch of 
ploughed ground, and a little early corn.^ 

Their first impressions of the valley, Lorenzo Young 
says, were most disheartening.^^ But for the two or 
three cotton-wood trees, not a green thing was in sight. 
And yet Brigham speaks almost pathetically of the 
destruction of the willows and wild roses growing 
thickly on the two branches of City Creek, destroyed 
because the channels must be changed, and leaving 
nothing to vary the scenery but rugged mountains, 
the sage bush, and the sunflower. The ground was 
covered with millions of black crickets which the 
Indians were harvesting for their winter food.'^* An 
unusual number of natives had assembled for this pur- 
pose, and after dinner gathered about the new-comers, 
evincing great curiosity as to their plans. 

Lumber was made in the canons, or from logs drawn 
thence, with whip-saws, through the entire winter; 

^^Hist. B. Young, MS., 1847, 99. 

" WoodrafiF, in Utah Pioneers, 1S80, 23. See also Woodruff's Journal, MS. ; 
Clara Youiv/s Experiences, MS.; Utah Early Becord, MS.; Pioneer Women, 
MS.; Taylor's Rein., MS. 

2^ ' I had brought a bushel of potatoes with me, and I resolved that I would 
neither eat nor drink until I had planted them. ' Woodruff, in Utah Pioneers, 
1880, 23. ' I planted the first potato. . .in Salt Lake Valley,' says Geo. A. 
Smith in his autobiography. 

-^ Mrs Clara Decker Young speaks of the distress she suffered at leaving 
"Winter Quarters, where there were so many people and life so social; but that 
when she finally reached her destination she was satisfied. ' It didn't look 
so dreary to me as to the other two ladies. They were terribly disappointed 
because there were no trees, and to them there was such a sense of desolation 
and loneliness.' Experience of a Pioneer Woman, MS., 5. 

^* ' The Indians made a corral twelve or fifteen feet square, fenced about 
with sage brush and grease-wood, and with branches of the same drove them 
into the enclosure. Then they set fire to the brush fence, and going amongst 
them, drove them into the fire. Afterward they took them up by the thou- 
sand, rubbed off their wings and legs, and after two or three days separated 
the meat, which was, I should think, an ounce or half an ounce of fat to each 
cricket.' Early Experiences of Lorenzo Yoimrj, MS., 4. 

''■■-■' 'IP»"='1'!»{«E? 


afterward, on account of alarm at the apparent scarcity 
of timber, restrictions were put upon the manner of 
cutting and quantity used. Certain fines were im- 
posed as a penalty for disobedience; for fuel only dead 
timber was allowed, and while there was sufficient, 
the restraint excited some opposition.^ 

The next day was the sabbath; and as had been 
the custom at Nauvoo, two services were held, George 
A. Smith, followed by Heber C. Kimball and Ezra 
T. Benson, preaching the first sermon, and in the 
afternoon the meeting was addressed by Wilford 
Woodruff, Orson Pratt, and Willard Kichards. One 
•cause for thankfulness was that not a man or an ani- 
mal had died on the journey. The sacrament was 
administered, and before dismissing the saints, the 
president bade them refrain from labor, hunting, or 
fishing. "You must keep the commandments of God," 
he said,'' or not dwell with us; and no man shall buy 
or sell land, but all shall have what they can cultivate 
free, and no man shall possess that which is not his 

On the 27th,^ the president, the apostles, and six 
others crossed a river which was afterward found to 
be the outlet of Utah Lake, and thence walked dry- 
shod over ground subsequently covered by ten feet of 
water to Black Bock, where all bathed in the lake, 
Brigham being the first to enter it.^^ The party re- 
turned to camp on the following day, when a council 
was held, after which the members walked to a spot 
midway between the north and south forks of a 
neighboring creek, where Brigham stopped, and strik- 
ing the ground with his cane, exclaimed, " Here will 

*^ ' Taylor and Pratt took the lead; through them this understanding about 
the timber occurred.' Nebeker^s Early Justice, MS., 4. 

'•^* On Monday, the 26th, the president and his apostles ascended Ensign 
Peak, so called on account of a remark made by Brigham : * Here is a proper 
place to raise an ensign to the nations.' Ibid. See also Utah Early Records, 
MS., 4; Woodruff's Journal, MS.; Nebeker's Early Justice, MS. Woodruff 
was the first who stood on the top of the peak. 

" On this day was commenced the first blacksmith's shop, the property of 
Burr Frost. 


be the temple of our God."^^ This was about five 
o'clock in the afternoon. An hour later it was agreed 
that a site should be laid out for a city in blocks or 
squares of ten acres, and in lots of an acre and a 
quarter, the streets to be eight rods wide, with side- 
walks of twenty feet. 

At eio^ht o'clock on the same evenino: a meetinof was 
held on the temple square, and it was decided by vote 
that on that spot the temple should be built/^ and from 
that spot the city laid out. 

On the 29th of July a detachment of the battal- 
ion, which had wintered at Pueblo,^" to the number of 
150, under Captain James Brown, arrived in the val- 
ley; they were accompanied by fifty of the brethren 
who had started the year previous from the Missis- 
sippi. On the following evening a praise service for 
their safe arrival was held in the brush bowery ,^^ has- 

2^ ' This was about the centre of the site of the Temple we are now build- 
ing.' Utah Pioneers, o3d ami., 23. 

^^ ' Some wished for forty acres to be set apart for temple purposes, but it 
was finally decided to have ten acres;. . .the base line was on the south-east 
corner, and government officials afterward adopted it as the base meridian 
line.' Taijlor's Reminiscences, MS., 21. When the elders arrived from England 
they brought with them to Winter Quarters, just before the starting of the 
pioneers, ' two sextants, two barometers, two artificial horizons, one circular 
reflector, several thermometers, and a telescope.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1847, 
82. Th\is Orson Pratt was enabled to take scientific observations. He reported 
the latitude of the north line of temple square, which was ten acres in size, to 
be 40" 45' 44" n., and its longitude 111° 26' 34" w. From George W. Dean's 
observations in 1S69, taken at the temple block, the results were lat. 40" 46' 
2", long. 11 r 53' 30". Rept Coast Survey, 1869-70. In taking lunar dis- 
tances for longitude, it is usual to have four observers, but Orson Pratt had no 
assistant; hence probably the discrepancy. On August 16th it was deter- 
mined that the streets around the temple block should be called respectively 
North, South, East, and West Temple streets, the others to be named, as re- 
quired, First North street, Second North street, First South street, Second 
South street, etc. 

^"^ Says Mrs Clara Young: 'Before reaclaing Laramie three of the pioneers 
were sent to Pueblo to tell the families there to strike their trail and follow 
them to their settlement.' Ex. of a Pioneer Woman, MS., 7. ' The men of 
this detachment were on their way to San Francisco, but their wagons break- 
ing down and their cattle being in very poor condition, they were compelled 
to turn aside and await further orders.' Utah Early Records, MS., 8. 

^' For many years these boweries of trees and brush had been constructed 
when any large number of the peojole needed a temporai-y place of shelter. 
This one was 40 X 28 feet. Col Markham reported at this meeting 'that 13 
ploughs and 3 harrows had been stocked during the j^ast week, 3 lots of ground 
broken up, one lot of 3.5 acres planted in corn, oats, buckwheat, polatjes, 
beans, and garden seed.' Hist. B. Yohikj, MS., 1S47, 103-4. 'On the 2Jth 
H. G. Sherwood, in returning from an excursion to Cache Valley, brought an 


tily constructed for the purpose by the battalion 

During the next three weeks all were busily at 
work, tilling the soil, cutting and hauling timber, 
making adobes, and building, ambitious to accom- 
plish as much as possible before the main body of 
the pioneer band should start on its return journey to 
report to the brethren and to promote further emi- 
gration. The battalion brethren moved their wagons 
and formed a corral between the forks of City Creek. 
Brigham exhorted the brethren to be rebaptized, him- 
self setting the example, and reconfirming the elders. 
On the 8th of August three hundred were immersed, 
the services commencing at six o'clock in the morning. 
During the month twenty-nine log houses had been 
built, either with roofs or read}'' for the usual substi- 
tute, a covering of poles and dirt. These huts were so 
arranged as to carry out their plan of forming a rect- 
angular stockade,^^ the president and Heber C. Kim- 
ball being the first to take possession of their dwellings. 

On the 17th of August twenty-four pioneers and 
forty-six of the battalion set out on their return to 
Winter Quarters.^"'^ 

On the afternoon of the 2 2d a conference was held, 
at which it was resolved that the place should be 
called the City of the Great Salt Lake. The term 
'Great' was retained for several years, until changed 
by legislative enactment. It was so named in con- 
tradistinction to Little Salt Lake, a term applied 

Englishman with him, named Wells, who had been living in New Mexico for 
some years.' Hist. B. Yotmg, MS., 1S47, 109. On the 2ist A. Carrington, J. 
Brown, W. W. Rust, G. Wilson, and A. Calkins made the ascent of the Twin 
Peaks, 15 miles south-east of the stockade, and the highest mountain in the 
AVasatch Range, its elevation being, as they reported, 11,219 feet. These 
were probably the first white men who ascended this mountain. 

^^ They were 8 or 9 feet high, and IG or 17 feet long, by 14 wide. Hid. B. 
Young, MS., 1847, 110. 'We were the first to move into the fort; our house 
had a door and a wooden window, which through the day was taken out for 
light, and nailed in at night. . .There was also a portdiole at the east end of 
the fort, which could be opened and closed at j)leasure. . .We had adobe chim- 
neys and a fire-place in the corner, with a clay hearth.' Youmfs Pionevr 
Women, MS., (5. 

^^ '\Viih .34 wagons, 92 yoke of oxen, 18 horses, and 14 mules, in charge of 
Shadnich Rcnindy and Tunis Rappelye. Lt Wesley Willis was in charge of 
the battalion men.' Ilkhards' Narr., MS., 13-14. 


to a body of water some two hundred miles to 
the south, situated in what was later known as Iron 
county, near Parowan, and which has since almost 
disappeared. The stream connecting the two great 
lakes was named the Western Jordan, now called the 
Jordan, and the whole region whose waters flow into 
the lake was distinguished as the great basin. ^* On 
the 26th a second company, consisting of 107 per- 
sons,^^ started for Winter Quarters. Brigham Young 
and Heber C. Kimball set forth on horseback a little 
in advance of the others, but turning back, they waved 
their hats with a cheery "Good-by to all who tarry," 
and then rode on. 

"We have accomplished more this year," writes 
Wilford Woodruff, " than can be found on record con- 
cerning an equal number of men in the same time 
since the days of Adam. We have travelled with 
heavily laden wagons more than a thousand miles, 
over rough roads, mountains, and canons, searching 
out a land, a resting-place for the saints. We have 
laid out a city two miles square, and built a fort of 
hewn timber drawn seven miles from the mountains, 
and of sun-dried bricks or adobes, surrounding ten 
acres of ground, forty rods of which were covered 
with block-houses, besides planting about ten acres of 
corn and vegetables. All this we have done in a 
single month. "^^ 

At Winter Quarters active preparations had been 
making for following the pioneers at the earliest op- 
portunity. Throughout the spring all was activity. 
Every one who had teams and provisions to last a 
year and a half was preparing to move, and assist- 
ing those who were to remain to plough and sow. 
Parley P. Pratt, having returned'*'' from England short- 

'* 'It was also called The Great North American Desert.' Taylor^ Hem., 
MS., 22. 

^^ With 36 wagons, 71 horses, and 49 mules. 

'^ Woodruff's Journal, MS., 78. 

^' ' I found my family all alive and dwelling in a log cabin; they had, how- 
ever, suffered much from cold, hunger, and sickness . . . The winter had been 




ly before Brigham's departure, was left In charge of 
the first companies ordered westward. On the 4th of 
July, 1847, they set forth for the Rocky Mountains, 
numbering in all 1,553 persons.^^ 

A complete organization of the people was effected, 
according to a revelation of the Lord made through 
Brigham on the 14th of January, 1847.^^ They 
were divided into companies, each with one hundred 
wagons, and these into companies of fifty wagons, 
and ten wagons, every company under a captain or 
commander. Two fifties travelled in double columns 
if practicable. When a halt was called the wagons 
were arranged as in the march of the pioneers, form- 
ing a temporary fort, with its back opening upon the 
corral formed by the two semicircles. The cattle 
were then driven into^the corral under charge of the 
herdsmen. When ready to march, the captain of 
each ten attended to his company, under the super- 
vision of the captain of fifty. Advance parties each 
day selected the next camping-ground. In the ab- 
sence of wood, fires were made from buffalo chips and 
sage brush. The wagons had projections extending 
over the sides, making the interior six feet wide. 
Hen-coops were carried at the end of each wagon, 
and a few young pigs were brought for use in the 
valley. Great care was used to prevent a stampede 
of the animals, as they appeared to recognize the 
peculiarities and dangers of the new country and 

very severe, the snow deep, and consequently horses and cattle had been lost. 
. . .My wagons were overhauled and put in order, tires reset, chains repaired, 
yokes and bows arranged in order, wagon bows made and mended.' Pratt's 
Autobiog., 397-8. 'The companies were organized by Elder P. P. Pratt and 
myself, as near as we could in accordance with instructions left by Pres. 
Young. ' Taylor's Rem. , MS. , 7. 

^8 This company is distinguished as the first immigration. It was supplied 
with 580 wagons, 2,213 oxen, 124 horses, 887 coavs, 358 sheep, 716 chickens, and 
35 hogs. Utah Early Records, MS., 17. Smith says about 700 wagons. Rise, 
Progress, and Travels, 16. Kearny's and Fremont's parties met Pratt's com- 
panies at Loup River; and according to Martin's Narr., '4'2 in Cid., MS., 
122, John Young was appointed president and John Van Cott marshal. 

^' This was called ' the word and will of the Lord concerning the camp 
of Israel.' Like all revelations, it was in scriptural phraseology, and very 
explicit in its directions. It was also read by Brigham to his people in Salt 
Lake City on the 1st of August. 


were easily alarmed. The organization and order in 
the camp was so perfect that not unfrequentl}^ half 
an hour after a halt the people sat down to a com- 
fortable meal of fresh bread and broiled meat.^" 

At the beginning of their journey, jealousy, bicker- 
ing, and insubordination arose among them, and a halt 
was called for the purpose of holding a council and 
adjusting matters. For several hundred miles they 
followed the trail of the pioneers, and now were ap- 
proaching the president and his men, who, encamped 
between Green River and the Sweetwater, had sent 
forward two messengers^^ to ascertain the progress 
and condition of the company. Upon hearing of the 
difficulties that had arisen, Brigham sent for Pratt 
and censured him severely for defects in the manage- 
ment of the party at the start, and for misunderstand- 
ings on the road. Pratt humbly acknowledged his 
faults and was forgiven. While the president and 
council were at prayer, the Sioux improved the occa- 
sion by stealing a number of horses, which proved a 
serious loss. 

Pratt now returned to his command, and without 
special incident reached the Salt Lake settlement on 
the 19th of September; the companies arriving in de- 
tachments at intervals of several weeks. 

Brigham's band was scantily provisioned for the 
journey to Winter Quarters.*^ The number that had 
already gathered at Salt Lake had drawn heavily on 
the pioneers' resources, and they set out depending for 
subsistence on game and fish. They travelled more 
rapidly in returning,*' although most of them were 
compelled to walk. A few days after the Indian dep- 

^'From account of their joumeyings furnished me in Taylor's Rem., 7-12. 

" 0. P. Rockwell and E. T. Benson. 

*^ Among them was a party of battalion men who were entirely destitute 
except for a verj'^ small quantity of beef, which was soon exhausted. General 
Epistle of the Twelve, in Mi/feniiial Star, x. 83. 

*^ 'Camped on the south side of the Platte. We were 42 days in going to 
the valle}^ from this point, and only 23 days in returning. ' Hint. B. Youny, 
MS., 18-17, 115. 


redation mentioned during the council, the Mormons 
were attacked by a large war party of Sioux, who again 
carried off many horses. The meeting of the battal- 
ion and pioneer brethren with Parley Pratt's company 
was an occasion of rejoicing to all.** On the 7th of Sep- 
tember the former arrived at the Sweetwater. Here, 
with the assembled companies, a jubilee was held and 
a feast of good things prepared. While the men cut 
down brush and constructed a bowery^ the women, 
with great trouble, unpacked their dishes and table 
furniture, delighted at the opportunity of assisting 
at such an event. A fat heifer was killed, and what- 
ever luxuries were in camp were now produced. A 
slight snow fell, but in no degree marred their merri- 
ment; the feast was followed by music and dancing, 
and by accounts of the pioneers' experiences in en- 
tering upon and settling their new Zion; after prayer 
the company dispersed.*^ The remnants of the ban- 
quet were left with the eastern-bound train, and as 
they separated each bade the other God speed. A 
fortnight before reaching Winter Quarters a small dele- 
gation met Brigham's company with most welcome 
supplies. On the 31st of October, when within one 
mile of the settlement, Brigham called his men to- 
gether, praised them fortheir good conduct, blessed and 
dismissed them. They drove into town in order an 
hour before sunset. The streets were crowded, and 
friends pressed forward, shaking hands as they passed 
throuojh the lines. *^ 

During this season an abundant harvest had been 
gathered by the brethren at their encampments near 

** 'Met Spencer's advance company Sept. 3d, with 7G wagons; we had a 
joyful meeting; on the 4th met encampment of 75 wagons; on the 5th 1G2; 
and on the 8th met the last company of saints.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1847. 

*° 'Ail felt greatly encoura.ged. We now knew for the first time our des- 
tination; wc had tallied of Caluornia, and knew not until now where we should 
settle.' Home's Migrations, MS., 22. 

^8 ' We were truly rejoiced once more to behold our wives, children, and 
old friends, after an absence of six months, having travelled over 2,000 miles . . . 
and accomplished the most important mission in this last dispensation.' Hist. 
B. Yoany, MS., 1847, 122, 


the Missouri, though sickness was an ever-present 
guest; and many of their number who could least be 
spared were scattered throughout the world as mis- 
sionaries in Europe, and as far westward as the Sand- 
wich Islands, as soldiers in California, or as laborers 
wherever they could find a livelihood in the western 
states. The winter was passed quietly and in content, 
most of the saints preparing for their migration in the 
spring. Meanwhile, on the 23d of December, 1847, 
a general epistle of the twelve was issued to the 
brethren and to the gentiles. In this it was stated 
that they were at peace with all the world, that their 
mission was to extend salvation to the ends of the 
earth, and an invitation was extended to " all presi- 
dents, and emperors, and kings, and princes, and no- 
bles, and governors, and rulers, and judges, and all 
nations, kindreds, tongues, and people under the whole 
heaven, to come and help us to build a house to the 
name of the God of Jacob, a place of peace, a city of 
rest, a habitation for the oppressed of every clime." 
Then followed an exhortation for the saints to gather 
unto Zion, promising that their reward should be a 
hundred-fold and their rest glorious. They must 
bring " their gold, their silver, their copper, their 
zinc, their tin, and brass, and iron, and choice steel, 
and ivory, and precious stones; their curiosities of 
science, ... or anything that ever was, or is, or is to 
be for the exaltation, glory, honor, and salvation of 
the living and the dead, for time and for all eternity. "^'^ 
Such a gathering of saints and gentiles would of 
itself have constituted an earthly Zion, especially for 
the president and the twelve, who held virtual control 
over their brethren's property. Among the gentiles 
one would think that such rhodomontade could not 
fail to brinof discredit on the Mormon faith and the 
Mormon cause, but no such result followed. As will 
be mentioned later, their missions were never more 
prosperous than during the years when at their new 

*' The full text of this epistle is given in the Millennial Star, x. 81-8. 


fitake of Zion the saints were employed, not in adorn- 
ing their temple with gold, silver, and precious stones, 
but in building' rousfh shanties, hewingf timber, hoeingf 
corn, and planting potatoes. 

The trite maxim commencing jEquam memento was 
one which the saints had taken well to heart, and on 
few was the mens cequa in arduis more firmly stamped 
than on the brow of him who, on christmas eve, the 
day after his invitation to the princes and potentates 
of all the earth, was appointed president of the church 
of Jesus Christ of latter-day saints. And while in 
adversity there were none more steadfast, it must be 
admitted there were few in whom success developed 
so little of pride and of vainglory. From this time 
forth Brigham Young was to the saints as a prophet 
— ^yea, and more than a prophet: one on whom the 
mantle had fallen not unworthily. By his foresight 
he had saved his people from dispersion, and per- 
chance his faith from annihilation. Hounded by a 
mob, he had led his followers with consummate tact 
throughout their pilgrimage, and in a wilderness as 
yet almost untrodden by man had at length estab- 
lished for them an abiding-place. 

After the departure of Brigham from Salt Lake, 
John Smith, the prophet's uncle, was nominally pres- 
ident of the camp;*^ but upon the arrival of John 
Taylor and Parley P. Pratt their precedence was ac- 
knowledged and they were placed in charge.*^ There 
were no laws until the latter part of this year, though 
certain penalties were assigned for certain crimes and 
executed by the people. As there was no jail, the 
whipping-post was substituted, but used only two or 
three times. In such cases the high council tried the 

"Aflfe,!™ were controlled by the high council, consisting of twelve high- 
priests. Salt Lake City was a stake of Zion, with president and other officers. 
'At the conference on Oct. 3d Father John Smith was elected president of 
the stake of Zion and patriarch of the church. Brigham Young was sus- 
tained as president of the whole church.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 117. 

** A'efteier's Early Justice, MS., 4. 


prisoner, and sentenced him. "President Young was 
decidedly opposed to whipping,"^*^ says George Q. 
Cannon, "but matters arose that we considered re- 
quired punishment at the time."^^ 

During this period men and women voted by ballot 
in matters relating to government. Women had 
already voted in religious meetings by the. uplifted 
hand, but this is probably the first instance in the 
United States where woman suffrage was permitted. 
Utah at that time, however, was not a part of the 
United States, and before its admission as a ter- 
ritory the privilege was withdrawn. ^^ 

o" ' I had to chastise one in that way for stealing.' Id., MS., 4. 

^' ' For instance, one of our best men now, who was then j'oung, was ac- 
cnsed of riding on horseback with a girl in front of him. This was looked 
upon as indecorous. He and others guilty of the same thing were sevei-ely 
reprimanded.' G. Q. Cannon, in Taylor's Rem., MS., 12-1.3. 

^'^ Taylo7-'s Bern., MS., 14. Herewith I give a list of the Utah pioneer9 
of 1847: Adams, Barnabas L.; Angel, Truman O.; Allen, Rufus; Attwood, 
Millen; Badger, Rodney; Barney, Lewis; Barnham, Charles D. ; Benson, 
Ezra T. ; Billings, Geo. P.; Boggs, Francis; Brown, Geo.; Brown, John; 
Brown, Nathaniel Thomas; Bullock, Thos; Burke, Charles; Burnham, Jacob 
D. ; Byard, Robert; Carrington, Albert; Carter, William; Case, James; 
Chamberlin, Solomon; Chessley, Alexander P.; Clayton, William; Cloward, 
Thos P.; Coltrin, Zebedee; Craig, James; Crosby, Oscar; Curtis, Lyman; 
Gushing, Hosea; Davenport, James; Dewey, Benjamin F.; Dixon, John; 
Driggs, Starling; Dykes, William; Earl, Sylvester H. ; Eastman, Ozro; Egan, 
Howard; Egbert, Josepli; Eldredge, John S.; Ellsworth, Edmund; Empey, 
William A.; Ensign, Datus; Everett, Addison; Fairbanks, Nathaniel; Farr, 
Aaron; Fitzgerald, Perry; Flake, Green (coloi-ed); Fowler, John S.; Fox, 
Samuel; Freeman, John M.; Frink, Horace M. ; Frost, Burr; Gibbons, An- 
drews.; Gleason, John S.; Glines, Eric; Goddaixl, Stephen H. ; Grant, David; 
Grant, Geo. R. ; Greene, John Y. ; Grover, Thomas; Hancock, Joseph; Hanks, 
Sidney A. ; Hanson, Hans C. ; Harmon, Appletou M. ; Harper, Charles A. ; 
Henrie, William; Hewd, Simeon; Higbee, John S. ; Holman, John G. ; Ivory, 
Matthew; Jackman, Levi; Jacobs, Norton; Johnson, Artemas; Johnson, Luke; 
Johnson Pliilo; Kelsey, Stephen; Kendall, Levi N. ; Kimball, Ellen S. (wife 
of H. C. K.); Kimball, Heber C. ; King, William A.; Klineman, Conrad; 
Lark, Hark (colored); Lewis, Tarlton; Little, Jessie C. ; Losee, John G. ; 
Loveland, Chancey; Lyman, Amasa; Marble, Samuel H.; Markham, Stephen; 
Matthews, Joseph; Mills, Geoi'ge; Murray, Carlos; Newman, Elijah; Nor- 
ton, John W. ; Owen, Seely; Pack, John; Pierce, Eli H. ; Pomeroy, Francis 
M. ; Powell, David; Pratt, Orson; Reddin, Jackson; Rappelye, Tunis; Rich- 
ards, Willard; Rockwell, Orrin P.; Rockwood, Albert P.; Rolfe, Benjamin 
W. ; Rooker, Joseph; Roundy, Shadrach; Schofield, Joseph S. ; Sclioles, 
George; Sherwood, Henry G. ; Shumway, Andrew P.; Shumway, Charles; 
Smith, George A.; Smoot, Wm C. A.; Snow, Erastus; Stevens, Roswell; 
Stewart, Benjamin F.; Stewart, James W.; Stringham, Briant; Summe, Gil- 
burd; Taft, Seth; Tanner, Thomas; Taylor, Norman; Thomas, Robert T. ; 
Thornton, Horace M.; Thorpe, Marcus B.; Tippitts, John H.; Vance, Will- 
iam P.; Walker, Henson; Wardel, George; Weiler, Jacob; Wheeler, John; 
Whipple, Edson; Whitney, Horace K. ; XVhitney, Orson K. ; Williams, Al- 
mon L.; Woodard, George; Woodruff, Wilford; Woolsey, Thomas; Words- 


On the 16th of November, O. P. Rockwell, E. K. 
Fuller, A. A. Lathrop, and fifteen others set forth 
for California to buy cows, mules, mares, wheat, and 
seeds. They bought two hundred head of cows at 
six dollars each, with which they started from Cali- 
fornia, but lost forty head on the Mojave; being 
ninety days on the return trip. During the autumn, 
several parties of the battalion men arrived from 
California, bringing a quantity of wheat. Captain 
Grant came to Salt Lake City from Fort Hall in 
December to arrange for opening trade between the 
two points. After due discussion, the matter was 
referred to the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay 

In regard to affairs at Pueblo and on the Missouri, 
I am indebted for further and later information to my 
esteemed friends Wilbur F. Stone and William N. 
Byers of Colorado. A detachment of the Mormons 
that wintered at Pueblo underwent many hardships, 
and there have been found relics in that vicinity, in 
the shape of furnace and cinders, significant of their 
industrial occupation at the time. 

9n the Missouri, the Indians, who at first had so 

Artily welcomed the saints during the year 1847, 
complained to the government that they were intrud- 
ing on their domain. The government therefore 
ordered away the Mormons, but gave them permis- 
sion to occupy lands on the east bank of the river 
for five years. There they built a town, named 
Kanosville, opposite Omaha, and occupied the best 
part of the country up and down the left bank of the 
river for a distance of twenty miles in each direction. 
Many of them lived in dugouts, that is, artificial 
caves made by digging out a space for occupancy in 
the bank of the river or on the side of a blufil Most 

worth, William; Young, Brigham; Clarissa D. (wife of B. Y.); Young, Har- 
riet P. (wife of Lorenzo D.); Young, Isaac P. D. ; Young, Lorenzo D. ; Young, 
Lorenzo Z. ; Young, Phineas H. 
Hut. Utah. 18 


of them were farmers, and they had three or four 
grist-mills and two or three saw-mills. 

The first emigrants did not stop on the east side of 
the river, but passed over at once on arrival, making 
their first settlement, as before mentioned, at Winter 
Quarters, situated six miles from the present city of 
Omaha, at the north end of the plateau, nearly all of 
which they ploughed up in the spring of 1847, and 
planted seed corn brought by those who the pre- 
vious winter had returned to the Mississippi to work 
for wages. Hereabout they built many log houses, 
Brigham having a little cluster of them for his wives 
in a cosey nook apart from the others. 

On their final departure for the west, the Mormons 
left a few of their number under A. J. Mitchell, who 
was assisted by A. J. Smith. They lived on the east 
side of the Missouri at first, and had a ferry across 
the river as early as 1851, with other ferries west, 
one at Loup Fork, and one on the Elkhorn. A large 
emigration up the river from New Orleans set in about 
this time. In the spring of 1852 the steamboat Sa- 
luda, having six hundred souls on board, was blown 
up at the mouth of the Platte. 

In 1854 the lands of the Omahas, on the west side 
of the river, came into market, through a treaty made 
during the summer of that year with the natives, who 
ceded that section to the United States. Mitchell 
and Smith then moved to the western side, and 
changed the name of Winter Quarters to that of 
Florence, at the same time selling their interests on 
the eastern side to the gentiles, who changed the 
name of Kanesville to that of Council Bluffs. 




Food axd Raisient — Houses — Home Maxufactukes — The Fort — Wild 
Beasts — Cannon from Sdtter's Fort — Indian Children for Sale — 
Measles — Population — Mills and Farming Machinery — The Plaoub 
OF Crickets — They are Destroyed by Gulls — Scarcity of Provisions 
— The Harvest Feast — Immigration — Five Thousand Saints Gath- 
ered in the Valley — Fencing and Farming — Distribution of Lots — 
Organization of County Government — Association for the Exter- 
mination OP Wild Beasts. 

At the opening of January 1848, the saints were 
housed, clad, and fed in moderate comfort, and general 
content prevailed.-^ The season was exceptionally 
mild; there were occasional light falls of snow, but 
not enough to interfere with ploughing and sowing,^ 
and a large tract of land was partially enclosed and 
planted with wheat and vegetables. 

So many people were now in the valley that not- 
withstanding the abundant crops food at length be- 
came scarce. Families weighed out their flour and 
allowed themselves so much a day. The wheat was 
ground at a mill on Gity Creek, but as there was no 
bolting'cloth, the shorts and bran could not be sepa- 
rated. The beef was very poor,' as most of the cattle 

^ Parley P. Pratt says: ' Here life was as sweet as the holidays, as merry 
as in the Christian palaces and mansions of those who had driven us to the 
mountains. ' 

■^ * It was a strange sight to see sometimes furrows on one side and snow 
on the other. In Feb. men worked out of doors in their shirt sleeves.' Home's 
Migrations, MS., 24. 

' ' It was so tough that Brother Taylor suggested we must grease the saw 

to make it work.' Home's Migrations, MS., 26. 

( 275 ) 



had been worked hard while driven to the valley and 
after their arrival, while those turned out to range did 
not fatten quickly. Butter and tallow were needed. 
One wild steer, well fattened, was brought in from 
Goodyear's rancho. A herd of deer crossing from one 
range of mountains to another was startled by the 
unexpected obstruction of the fort, and one sprang 
into the enclosure and was killed. Wild sago and 
parsnip roots constituted the vegetable food of the 
settlers. A f)£w deaths occurred from poisonous 
roots. The bracing air and hard work stimulated 
appetite as stores decreased. For coffee parched bar- 
ley and wheat were used, and as their sugar gave out, 
they substituted some of home manufacture.* In the 
spring thistle tops were eaten, and became an impor- 
tant article of diet.^ 

Anxiety began to be felt about clothing, and the 
hand-looms were now busily at work, although wool 
was scarce.^ As shoes wore out, moccasins were sub- 
stituted, and goat, deer, and elk skins were manu- 
factured into clothing for men and women, though 
most unsuitable for use in rain and snow. 

At the time of Parley P. Pratt's arrival, the city 
of Great Salt Lake consisted of a fort enclosing a 
block of ten acres, the walls of part of the buildings 
beino^ of adobes and lo^s. There were also some 
tents.^ As additional companies came in, they ex- 

* ' We manufactured our own sugar and molasses from beets, corn-stalks, 
and watermelons, and made preserves for winter, which were excellent, by 
boiling the rinds of the melons in this molasses.' Jforne'n Migrations, M.S., 
30. ' I attempted to make sugar out of com. A rude apparatus was made 
to squeeze the corn stalks, but the manufacture was not altogether a success. 
After this, beet molasses followed. The boiler I used this time I made out 
of some stove piping and lumber. Brother Cannon and I assisted to saw our 
lumber.' Taylor's Eeminincences, MS., 16. 

''Geo. Q. Cannon, in Jiiv. I7isi., xix. no. 5, 68. 

' ' They collected the hair of the buffalo from the sage brush as they 
travelled, and used also the hair of cows.' Hartleys 3Ii(jriitioii8, MS., 35. 
From this blankets were woven and used in exchange with the Indians. Mrs 
Home remarks that ' in Nauvoo there was a man dressed througliout in a suit 
made from the curly hair of his dog, which was sheared annually.' 

' It stood on what was later known as the 6th \Vard Square. 



tended the south divisions, which were connected with 
the old fort by gates. Wao^on-boxes were also brought 
into line, and served for habitations until better accom- 
modations were provided. The houses were built of 
logs, and were placed close together, the roofs slanting 
inward, and all the doors and windows being on the 
inside, with a loop-hole to each room on the outside. 
As everything indicated a dry climate, the roofs were 
made rather flat, and great inconvenience resulted. 
In March the rains were very heavy, and umbrellas 
were used to protect women and children while cook- 
ing, and even in bed. The clay found in the bottoms 
near the fort made excellent plaster, but would not 
stand exposure to rain, and quickly melted. All bread- 
stuffs were carefully gathered into the centre of the 
rooms, and protected with buflalo skins obtained from 
the Indians. The rooms in the outer lines all ad- 
joined, and many of the families had several rooms. 
On the interior cross-lines rooms were built on both 
sides, the streets being eight rods wide. 


Fort, Great Salt Lake City, 1848. 

There were serious depredations committed by 
wolves, foxes, and catamounts, an4 great annoyance 
occasioned by the howling of some of these animals.^ 
Further discomfort was caused by innumerable swarms 
of mice. Digging cavities and running about under 
the earthen floor, they caused the ground to tremble, 
and when the rain loosened the stones of the roofs, 

* ' One night soon after our an-ival I spread some strychnine about, and in 
the morning found fourteen white wolves dead.' Lorenzo Young's Ex., MS., 8. 


scampered off in hordes. Frequently fifty or sixty 
had to be caught and killed before the family could 

The furniture was home-made, and very little of it 
at that. The table was a chest, and the bedstead 
was built into thti corner of the house, which formed 
two of its sides, rails or poles forming the opposite 
sides; pegs were driven into the walls and rails, and 
the bed-cord tightly wound around them.^** The chim- 
neys were of adobe, and sometimes there was a fire- 
place in the corner wioh a clay hearth. 

In the early part of the year two brass cannon were 
purchased at Sutter's Fort for the church, by the 
battalion brethren." 

During the winter of 1847-8, some Indian children 
were broug^ht to the fort to be sold. At first two 
were offered, but the settlers peremptorily refused to 
buy them. The Indian in charge said that the chil- 
dren were captured in war, and would be killed at 
sunset if the white men did not buy them. Thereupon 
they purchased one of them, and the one not sold was 
shot. Later, several Indians came in with two more 
children, using the same threat; they were bought and 
brought up at the expense of the settlers.*"^ 

Measles now appeared for the first time among the 
natives, who did not know where the disease came 
from or what to do. They assembled in large num- 
bers at the warm springs, bathed in the waters, and 

" ' One contrivance for catching them was a bucketful of water with a board 
sloping at each end, greased and balanced on the edge. The first cat and her 
progeny were invaluable. The green timber from the mountains was full of 
bed-bugs, another serious trouble.' Home's Migrations, MS., 31. 

'" This describes the furniture of the first house occupied in the fort by , 
Brigham Young's family. Mrs Clara Young's Pioneer Ex., MS., 8. 

" Forty-five of the battalion brethren contributing $ol2 for the purpose. 
Hist. B. Young, MS., 1848, 35. 

'^ ' Charles Decker bought one of the prisoners, a girl, who was afterward 
brought up in President Young's family. She married an Lidian chief 
named Kanosh.' WelW Narr., MS., 48. 

" ' Some they buried, but not all. We buried thirty-six in one grave. 
They killed their dogs when their masters died.' Nebeker's Early Justice, 
MS.. 2. 


Public meetings were generally held near the lib- 
erty-pole in the centre of the fort; religious and secu- 
lar meetings were also held in private houses. In 
March 1848 the population of the city was reported 
at 1,671, and the number of houses 423.^* Bridges 
were built over Mill Creek and Jordan River. Daniel 
Spencer was appointed road-master, and authorized 
to call on men to assist in making roads. In order 
that the burden might fall equally on all, a poll and 
property tax were instituted. 

There were several mills soon in working order. 
A small grist-mill on City Creek was built by Charles 
Crismon near the pioneer garden; then there were 
Chase's saw-mill and Archibald and Robert Gardiner's 
on Mill Creek, and Nebeker, Riter, and Wallace's in 
a canon ten miles north of the city. A carding 
machine was erected near Gardiner's saw-mill by 
Amasa Russell, and a flouring mill during the summer 
by John Neff. Leffingwell constructed a threshing 
machine and fanning mill on City Creek, with a ca- 
pacity of two hundred bushels per day. Mill-stones 
cut out of the basalt in the valley were of very good 
quality. Mill-irons, mill-stones, printing-presses, type, 
paper, and the carding machine were brought by the 
first bands of emigrants in 1848.^^ 

The spring saw everybody busy, and soon there 
were many flourishing gardens, containing a good va- 
riety of vegetables. In the early part of March plough- 
ing commenced. The spring was mild and rain plenti- 
ful, and all expected an abundant harvest. But in 
the latter part of May, when the fields had put on 
their brightest green, there appeared a visitation in 
the form of vast swarms of crickets, black and bale- 
ful as the locust of the Dead Sea.^^ In their track 

^*Juv. Inxt., ix. no. 1, 9. 

^^ JJist. B. Young, MS.; Hornets Migrations, MS.; Geo. Q. Cannon, in Juv. 
Inst.; Taylor^s Reminiscences, MS.; Woodruff's Journal, MS.; Young's Ex., 
MS.; Wells' Narr., MS.; RicharcW Narr., MS.; Nebeker's Early Justice, 
MS.; Jfnuing's Material Progress, MS., passim. 

" Utah Early Records, MS., 29-30. 


they left behind them not a blade or leaf, the ap^ 
pearance of the country which they traversed in 
countless and desolating myriads being that of a land 
scorched by fire/'^ They came in a solid phalanx, 
from the direction of Arsenal Hill, darkening the 
earth in their passage. Men, women, and children 
turned out en masse to combat this pest, driving them 
into ditches or on to piles of reeds, which they would 
set on fire, striving in every way, until strength was 
exhausted, to beat back the devouring host. But in 
vain they toiled, in vain they prayed; the work of 
destruction ceased not, and the havoc threatened to 
be as complete as was that which overtook the land 
of Egypt in the last days of Israel's bondage. "Think 
of their condition," says Mr Cannon — "the food 
they brought with them almost exhausted, their grain 
and other seeds all planted, they themselves 1,200 
miles from a settlement or place where they could get 
food on the east, and 800 miles from California, and 
the crickets eating up every green thing, and every 
day destroying their sole means of subsistence for the 
months and winter ahead."^^ 

I said in vain they prayed. Not so. For when 
everything was most disheartening and all effort 
spent, behold, from over the lake appeared myriads 
of snow-^5yhite gulls, their origin__and_ their purpose 
alike unknown~to the~ne w-comers ! Was this another 
scourge God was sending them for their sins? Wait 
and see. Settling upon all the fields and every part 
of them, they pounced upon the crickets, seizing and 
swallowing them. They gorged themselves. Even 
after their stomachs were filled they still devoured 
them. On Sunday the people, full of thankfulness, 
left the fields to the birds, and on the morrow found 
on the edges of the ditches great piles of dead crick- 
ets that had been swallowed and thrown up by the 

^'' Autobiog. P. P. Pratt, 405; Smith's Rise, Progress, and Travels, 17. 
^^Juv. Inst., ix. no. 2, 22. 


greedy gulls. Verily, the Lord had not forgotten to 
be gracious! 

To escape the birds, the crickets would rush into 
the lake or river, and thus milHons were destroyed. 
Toward evening the gulls took flight and disappeared 
beyond the lake, but each day returned at sunrise, 
until the scourge was past.^^ Later grasshoppers 
seem to have taken the place of crickets. They were 
of a kind popularly called iron-clad, and did much 

Though the crops of this year of 1848 were thus 
saved from total destruction, fears were entertained 
that there would not be food enough for those already 
in the valley, and the expected arrival of large 
additional numbers was looked upon as a calamity. ^^ 
The stock of provisions was therefore husbanded 
with care, many living principally on roots and 

" Kane says that the gulls soon grew to be as tame as poultry, and that the 
children called them their pigeons. They had clear, dark eyes, small feet, 
and large wings that arched in flight. The Mormons, 67. ' No one is allowed 
to kill a gull in Utah, and they are consequently very tame.' Jenning's Ma- 
terial Progress, MS., 7. 'I am sure that the wheat was in head, and that it 
averaged two or three crickets on every head, bending them down. One 
couldn't step without crushing under foot as many as the foot could cover.' 
Mrs Clara Young's Experiences of a Pioneer, MS., 9. 'Channels were dug 
and filled with water to prevent their travel, but they would throw them- 
selves across; it was impossible to fight them back.' Kebeker's Early Justice, 
MS., 2. 'In the spring, when thousands of young trees had been started and 
were several inches in height, came the crickets. The wheat, too, was well 
in head.' Home's Migrations, MS., p. 28. 

^''Says Mr Jennings: 'They would devastate hundreds of acres, and as 
they would rise and fly high in the air, the air would be darkened with them. 
They seemed to be massed together, and to take but one direction, flying eight 
or ten miles perhaps, then settling upon another field . . . The only extermi- 
nator seems to be the sea-gulls. They gorge themselves on this rich diet; 
they suddenly appear in the wake of the grasshoppers, and will swallow them, 
throw them up, and swallow them again. . .Sometimes the grasshoppers come 
like a cloud, and apparently alighting not knowing where; on one occasion a 
quarter of their number perhaps di'opped into the lake, and were blown on 
shore by the wind, m rows of sometimes two feet deep for a distance of two 
miles.' Material Progres*, MS., 6-7. 

*' ' Word was sent back that probably no crops could be raised that year, 
and advising that no further emigrations should come in that season.' Mrt 
Clara Youmfs Experiencen of a Pioneer, M S. , 9. John Young wished to send an 
express to his brother, the president, advising him not to bring any more peo- 
ple to the valley, as there was danger of starvation. Utah Early liecords, MS., 
30-2. Parley P. Pratt writes: 'I had a good harvest of wheat and rye with- 
out irrigation, but those who irrigated had double the quantity. Wheat 
harvest commenced early in July. . .Oats do extremely weU, yielding sixty 
bushels for one.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1848, 54. 


thistles, to which fare was sometimes added a little 
flour or milk. The wheat crop, however, turned out 
better than was expected, and pumpkins, melons, and 
corn yielded good returns.^^ 

On the 10th of August, however, the harvest being 
then gathered, a feast was held in the bowery, at 
which the tables were loaded with a variety of viands, 
vegetables, beef, and bread, butter and cheese, with 
cakes and pastry. Sheaves of wheat and other grain 
were hoisted on harvest poles; "and," says Parley, 
"there was prayer and thanksgiving, congratulations, 
songs, speeches, music, dancing, smiling faces, and 
merry hearts." 

The rendezvous for westward-bound brethren in the 
spring of 1848 was the Elkhorn River, and thither at 
the end of May came the president, who organized the 
people and gave them instructions to be observed on 
the way. Good order was to be preserved in camp; 
there must be no shouting; prayers were to be at- 
tended to, and lights put out at 9 o'clock. Drivers 
of teams must walk beside their oxen, and not leave 
them without permission. Brigham was general super- 
intendent of the emigrating companies, with Daniel 
H. Wells as aide-de-camp, H. S. Eldredge marshal, 
and Hosea Stout captain of the night-guard. Mov- 
ing west early in June, on the 14th the emigrants 
were fired on by Indians, two being wounded. At 
this time also there was sickness in the camp. To 
secure grass and water, the emigration was sepa- 
rated into divisions, of which there were two principal 

**' Wheat harvest good. COi.^ crop good. The worms ate some in the 
ear. Price of wheat, $2 a bushel. Population, 1,800; n.aiu fence, 12 miles 
long. Had a surplus of bread-stuff this year.' I/i^t. B. Young, MS., Aug. 
1, 1848, 52. Parley states that he and his family, in common with many 
others, suffered much for want of food. He had ploughed and planted, 
in grain and vegetables, nearly 40 acres, nearly every women and child in his 
family toiling in the field so far as their age and strength would permit. 
Autobiog., 405. 'One family had nothing but milk to live upon;... they 
would let a portion thicken, and then roix it with new milk and eat it for 
bread. They lived upon it for six weeks, and thrived. ' Eliza Snow, in Utah 
NoLea, MS., 6. 



ones, under Brigham Young and H. C. Kimball, with 
several subdivisions.^ 

The first letters received at Great Salt Lake City 
from Brigham came twelve months after his departure 
from the valley, and were sent on in advance from the 
encampments. The excitement was great as Taylor 
and Green rode into the city and distributed the 
letters, without envelopes, tied round and round with 
buckskin thongs, and bearing the cheering news that 
a large body of brethren was on the way, and bring- 
ing plenty of food.^* 

In June and July two small parties left the city to 
meet the immigration, and another in August. In 
September Brigham and the first companies arrived; 
and under the organization of the president and his 
two counsellors, Willard Bichards and Heber C. Kim- 
ball, during the autumn months most ofthelSfe^Iiren 
from Winter Quarters and other camps reached the 
valley. ^^ 

Before the expiration of the year, there were nearly 

^' The first division consisted of 1,229 persons, with 397 wagons, 74 horses, 
91 mules, 1,275 oxen, 699 cows, 184 loose cattle, 411 sheep, 141 pigs, 605 
chickens, 37 cats, 82 dogs, 3 goats, 10 geese, 2 hives of bees, 8 doves, and I 
crow; the second of 662 persons, with 226 wagons, 57 horses, 25 mules, 737 
oxen, 284 cows, 150 loose cattle, 243 sheep, 96 pigs, 299 chickens, 17 cats, 52 
dogs, 3 hives of bees, 3 doves, 5 ducks, and 1 squirrel. 

*^ As recorded in Mrs Clara Decker Young's very valuable manuscript. 
She shows now the first letter received, still tied with buckskin thongs. 

"^The first companies under Brigham arrived on Sept. 20th; Kimball's 
party reached the valley a few days later. At the beginning of Augu''t 
Lorenzo Snow, A. 0. Smoot, and others, with 47 wagons and 124 yoke of oxen, 
were sent from Salt Lake City to assist the emigrants. On the 28th of the 
same month a party well supplied with wagons and cattle was sent back 
to Winter Quarters from the camp of the president, then on the Sweet- 
water. Utah Early Records, MS., 33. The companies under Richards 
reached their destination toward the end of October. RichariW Narr., 
MS., 38. In relating the incidents of his journey, Richards states that his 
was the last party to leave Winter Quarters during that summer. His men 
were ill supplied with provisions; feed was scarce, and many of the cattle died 
from drinking alkali w ater, so that he was compelled to yoke to the wagons 
even his yearlings and his milch-cows. Many families, including the children, 
were compelled to walk the entire distance; yet notasingle death occurred. Id., 
34-5. ' The companies behind were kept well informed of the progress of those 
in advance. . .Sometimes a copy of the camp journal was written and placed 
in a notch in a tree, . . .sometimes in a post stuck in the ground; but whenever 
a large buffalo skull or other suitable bone was found, . . .some particulars were 
written on them.' Cannon, in Juv. Inst., xix. no. 3, 36. 


three thousand,^^ and including the pioneers, the bat- 
taUon men, and the companies that arrived under 
Parley, at least five thousand of the saints assembled 
in the valley. 

Thus about one fourth of the exiles from Nauvoo 
were for the present beyond reach of molestation. 
That five thousand persons, including a very large 
proportion of women and children, almost without 
mone}^, almost without provisions, excepting the milk 
of their kine and the grain which they had raised near 
their own camps, should, almost without the loss of a 
life, have accomplished this journey of more than 
twelve hundred miles, crossing range after range of 
mountains, bridging rivers, and traversing deserts, 
while liable at any moment to be attacked by roam- 
inof bands of savao^es, is one of the marvels that this 
century has witnessed. To those who met them on the 
route, the strict order of their march, their coolness 
and rapidity in closing ranks to repel assault, their 
method in posting sentries around camp and corral, 
suggested rather the movements of a well-organized 
army than the migration of a people; and in truth, 
few armies have been better organized or more ably 
led than was this army of the Lord.^^ To the skill 
of their leaders, and their own concert of purpose 
and action, was due their preservation. And now, at 
length, they had made good their escape from the 
land of their bondage to the promised land of their 
freedom, in which, though a wilderness, they rejoiced 
to dwell. 

In a private letter written in September 1848, 
Parley writes: "How quiet, how still, how free 
from excitement we livel The legislation of our 
high council, the decision of some judge or court of 

*^ White persons 2,393, and 24 negroes, with 792 wagons, 2,527 oxen, about 
1,700 cows, 181 horses, 1,023 sheep, and other live-stock. IJtah Early Bee- 
ords, MS., 41. 

^' ' So well recognized were the results of this organization, that bands of 
hostile Indians have passed by comparatively small parties of Mormons to 
attack much larger but less compact bodies of other emigrants.' Kane's The 
Mormons, 34. 



the church, a meeting, a dance, a visit, an exploring 
tour, the arrival of a party of trappers and traders, a 
Mexican caravan, a party arrived from the Pacific,-^ 
from the States, from Fort Bridge r, a visit of Ind- 
ians, or perhaps a mail from the distant world once or 
twice a year, is all that breaks the monotony of our 
busy and peaceful life . . . Here, too, we all are rich — 
there is no real poverty; all men have access to the 
soil, the pasture, the timber, the water power, and all 
the elements of wealth, without money or price." ^^ 

On his arrival in the autumn, Brigham stirred up 
the people to the greatest activity. Fencing material 
being scarce, and the city lands all appropriated, it was 
proposed that a large field for farming purposes adjoin- 
ing the city should be selected and fenced in com- 
mon. By October there were 863 applications for 
lots, amounting to 11,005 acres. 

A united effort was made to fence the city, which 
was done by enclosing each ward in one field, and re- 
quiring the owner of every lot to build his proportion 
of the fence.^*' No lots were allowed to be held for 
speculation, the intention, originally, being to assign 
them only to those who would occupy and improve 
them. The farming land nearest the city was sur- 
veyed in five-acre lots to accommodate the mechanics 
and artisans; next beyond were ten-acre lots, followed 
by forty and eighty acres, where farmers could build 
and reside. All these farms were enclosed in one 
common fence, constituting what was called the 'big 
field,' before mentioned.^^ 

*^ ' In July 1848, William and Nathan Hawks, Sanford Jacobs, and Rich- 
ard Slater came from California with copies of Brannan's Star of April 1st, 
and tidings that the brethren at San Francisco were doing well, and that 
those who had settled on the San Joaquin River had vacated in favor of the 
mosquitoes.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1848, 46. 

** The letter was afterward published in part in Snow^s Voice of Joseph, 
16, and portions copied into Utah Early Pioneers, MS., 34-5. 

*" ' Every man is to help build a pole, ditch, or a stone fence. . .in propor- 
tion to the land he draws, also a canal on each side for the purpose of irriga- 
tion.' Hist. B. Youufj, MS., 1849, 55. 

*i 'The fence will be 17 miles and 53 rods long, and 8 ft high.' Hist. B. 
Young, MS., 1848, 68-9; Juv. Inst.,ix. no. 3, 34. It had been decided by the 
high council in Jan. that fencing be commenced, and that the farm lauds be 


The streets were kept open, but were barely wide 
enough for travel, as the owners cultivated the space 
in front of their houses. At a meeting on the 24th of 
September, permission was granted to build on the lots 
immediately, all buildings to be at least twenty feet from 
the sidewalk; and a few days later it was voted " that 
a land record should be kept, and that $1.50 be paid 
for each lot; one dollar to the surveyor and fifty 
cents to the clerk for recording." A council-house 
was ordered to be built by tithing labor; and it was 
suggested that water from the Big Cottonwood be 
brought into the city; the toll for grinding grain was 
to be increased,^^ and a resolution was passed against 
the sale or use of ardent spirits. That all might be 
satisfied, the lots were to be distributed "by ballot, 
or casting lots, as Israel did in days of old."^' 

On the 1st of October Brigham called the battalion 
brethren together, blessed them, and thanked them 
for the service they had rendered. "The plan of rais- 
ing a battalion to march to California," he said, "by a 
call from the war department, was devised with a view 
to the total overthrow of this kingdom, and the de- 
struction of every man, woman, and child. "^* 

Winter was now at hand, and there was sore need 
that the saints should bestir themselves. The presi- 

located as near together as possible, and immediately south of the city. The 
line of the fence began at a steep point in the bluffs just south of the warm 
springs, thence straight to the north-west corner of the fort, then from the 
south-east corner of the fort, east of south, to some distance south of Will 
Creek, thence east to the bluffs again, its entire length, including two sides 
of the fort, being 3,638 rods. Utah Early Records, MS., 20-1. The entire 
tract was 5,153 acres, of which 872 acres were sown with winter-wheat, the 
remainder being intended for spring and summer crops. 

'^ 'Chas Crismon petitions that it be increased from 1-16 to 1-10; granted.' 
Hist. B. Young, MS., 1848, 64. 

'''The city plat is already allotted, and many families are at present 
without lots; therefore we have deemed it expedient to run off an addition to 
the city, commencing at the eastern line of the city and running east as far 
as the nature of the land will allow for building purposes. Not only is this 
addition necessary, but we are going to lay off a site for a city about ten miles 
north, and another site about ten miles to the south of our city.' Hist. B. 
Young, MS., 1848, 69. 

»*//«■«<. B. Young, MS., 1848, 65. This was not the case. See Hist. Cal., 
vol. V. chap, xviii., this series. 


dent and others of the church dignitaries worked in- 
defatigably with their people, carrying mortar and 
making adobes, hauling timber and sawing it. There 
were but 450 log cabins within the stockade, and 
one thousand more well-filled wagons had arrived this 

A county government was organized, and John D. 
Barker elected sheriff, Isaac Clark judge of probate, 
and Evan M. Green recorder and treasurer. ^^ Two 
hunting companies in December were formed, under 
the leadership of John D. Lee and John Pack, for 
the extermination of wild beasts. There were eighty- 
four men in all, and their efforts were successfid.^^ 
From the 1st of December until the end of February 
there were heavy snow-storms. On the coldest day 
the mercury fell below zero,^^ and on the warmest 
marked 21° of Fahrenheit. On account of the snow 
in the canons it was difficult to bring in the necessary 
fuel. As the previous winter had been warm, the 
settlers were unprepared for such cold weather, and 
there was much suffering.*^ 

'5 ' George Coulson, Andrew H. Perkins, and David D. Yearsley, county 
commissioners; James Sloan, district clerk; Jacob G. Bigler, William Snow, 
Levi Bracken, and Jonathan C. Wright, magistrates.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 77. 

^® ' The two hunting companies organized last Dec. report that they have 
killed 2 bears, 2 wolrerenes, 2 wild-cats, 7S3 wolves, 409 foxes, .31 minks, 
9 eagles, 5.30 magpies, hawks, and owls, and 1,026 ravens.' Hist. B. Youmj, 
MS., March 1849. 

'' ' To 33° below freezing-point on Feb. 5th. ' General Epistle of the Twelve, 
in Frontier Guardian, May 30, 1849. 

'^ 'At Fort Bridger the winter had been unusually severe, and the traders, 
it was reported, had suffered almost starvation.' It was resolved that no 
com should be made into whiskey, and that if any man was preparing to distil 
com into whiskey or alcohol, the com should be taken and given to tlie poor. 
HLit. B. Young, MS., 1849, 4. 




Food Supply and Shelter — Building Lots — Cubkency Issue — Bank 
Notes and Coinage — Pkivate and Public Buildings — Wide Area of 
the City — Second Anniversary of the Pioneers — Festivals and 
Amusements — Labor a Duty among the Saints — Effect of the Cali- 
fornia Gold Discovery — Immigration — Carrying Company — Cali- 
fornia-bound Emigrants — Their Traffic with the Mormons — Prod- 
ucts AND Prices — Gold-hunting Frowned upon by the Church. 

Throughout the winter of 1848-9 food was scarce 
among the settlers. Many still subsisted mainly on 
roots, thistles, and even on rawhides.-^ Milk, flesh, 
and the small quantity of breadstufis that remained 
were, however, distributed among the poor in such 
quantities as to prevent actual starvation. On April 
1, 1849, each household was required to state the 
smallest allowance of breadstuffs that would suffice 
until the forth-coming harvest. Some received half 
a pound a day, and others four ounces.^ 

* * Many were necessitated to eat rawhides, and to dig sago and thistle 
roots for mouths to subsist upon.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1849, 95. 

^ The committee on breadstuffs reported on the 8th of Feb. that there 
was iM lb. per capita for the next five months. Utah Early Records, MS., 45. 
' In the former part of Feb. the bishops took an inventory of the breadstuff 
in the valley, when was reported a little moro than f lb. per day for each 
soul, until the 9th of July; and considerable was known to exist which was 
not reported. Hence while some were nearly destitute others had abundance. 
The price of corn since harvest has been $2; some has sold for $3; at present 
there is none in the market at any price. Wheat has ranged from $4 to $5, 
and potatoes from $6 to $20, a bushel; and though not to be bought at pres- 
ent, it is expected that there will be a good supply for seed by another 
year. ' General Epistle of the Twelve, in Frontier Guardian, May 30, 1 849. 
' Those persons who had imparted measurably to those who had not, so that 
all extremity of suffering from hunger was avoided.' Uist. D. Young, MS., 
1849, 95. 




Until the first fruits were reaped the famine con- 
tinued, but the harvest of 1849 was a bountiful one,^ 
and for six years thereafter none wanted for bread in 
the city of Salt Lake.* 

During part of this season many women and chil- 
dren were without shelter or fuel. To each family as 
it arrived was given a city lot, until the site was 
exhausted, as we have seen; but for most a wagon 
served for dwelling during the coldest months, and 
later an adobe hut, roofed with unseasoned lumber, 
and thatched with hay or frozen mud.^ Before sum- 
mer all were housed in log or adobe dwellings/ the fort 

' It was not injured by crickets. Kane^s The Mormons, 67. ' Our prophet 
predicted thg,t if we would exercise patience under our difficulties during 
the immediate future, our necessities would be supplied as cheaply as they 
could be in the city of St Louis; and this proved to be true, for in 1849 we 
raised fair crops.' Smoot's Mormon Wife, MS., 5-6. 

* The peculiar chemical formations in earth and water proved of great prac- 
tical value when once understood. ' For two years all the saleratus used was 
obtained from Saleratus Lake, near Independence Rock; the salt from the 
lake became an article of value in local use and among their exports. The 
alkali swept down from the mountains, and composed of a great variety of 
ingredients, tuch as magnesia, soda, salt, etc., when once subdued, makes the 
most durable of soils, which needs no enriching.' Richards, in Utah Notes, 
MS., 8. 

'' ' Now as regards my beginning at Salt Lake. Soon after my arrival a 
city lot was assigned to me for a home and residence, on which I placed my 
wagon box or wagon bed, which contained our provisions, bedding, and all 
our earthly goods, placed them upon the ground, turned away our stock upon 
the winter range, and looked about us. 1 soon disposed of some of my cloth- 
ing for some adobes, and put the walls up of a small room, which we covered 
with a tent-cloth, that answered us during the winter, until lumber could be 
procured next spring.' Richards' Nan:, MS., 38; Early Records, MS., 36-8. 

^ On Feb. 18th the people began to move out of the fort to their city lots. 
Id., 47. A number of temporary farm buildings had been completed before 
this date. Pratt's Autobiography, 406; Millennial Star, x. 370. A correspond- 
ent of the New York Tribune, writing from Salt Lake City, July 8, 1849, gives 
an exaggerated account of the place, which has been copied by several writers 
on Mormonism. ' There were no hotels, because there was no travel; no bar- 
bers' shops, because every one chose to shave his neighbor; no stores, because' 
they had no goods to sell nor time to traffic; no centre of business, because 
all were too busy to make a centre. There was abundance of mechanics' 
shops, of dressmakers, milliners, and tailors, etc.; but they needed no sign, 
nor had they time to paint or erect one, for they were crowded with business. 
I this day attended worship with them in the open air. Some thousands of 
well-dressed, intelligent-looking people assembled, some on foot, some in car- 
riages, and on horseback. Many were neatly and even fashionably clad. 
The beauty and neatness of the ladies reminded me of some of our congre- 
gations in New York.' The letter is in Mackay's The Mormons, 282. It is 
unnecessary to expose the absurdity of this description, as the reader is well 
aware that hundreds of California-bound emigrants passed through the valley 
this year. Harvesting began July 9th, and until that date the Mormons were 
Hist. Uxah. 19 


being rapidly broken up by the removal of the houses 
on to the city lots. The city was divided into nine- 
teen bishops' wards ;^ the ten-acre blocks were divided 
into allotments of an acre and a quarter, the five-acre 
lots in similar proportion, each building facing the 
garden of the one adjoining, the space of twenty feet 
left between the houses and the surrounding fence 
being afterward planted with trees and shrubbery.® 

The need of a circulating medium had been felt 
ever since the valley had been settled.^ Their cui- 
rency was blankets, grain, and seeds; and even after 
gold-dust was brought in by the miners great incon- 
venience was experienced in its use, and many re- 
fused to take it, as there was a waste in weighing it. 
To meet this emergency, bank bills for one dollar 

often without their daily bread, as we have seen. The following is probably 
much nearer the truth: 'The houses are small, principally of brick (adobe), 
built up only as temporary abodes, until the more urgent and important mat- 
ters of enclosure and cultivation are attended to; but I never saw anything to 
surpass the ingenuity of arrangement with which they are fitted up, and the 
scrupulous cleanliness with which they are kept. There were tradesmen and 
artisans of all descriptions, but no regular stores or workshops, except forges. 
Still, from the shoeing of a horse to the mending of a watch there was no dif- 
ficulty in getting it done, as cheap and as well put out of hand as in any other 
city in America.' Kelly' x Excursion to California, 226. 

' The bishops were David Fairbanks, John Lowry, Christopher Williams, 
William Hickenlooper, William J. Perkins, Addison Everett, Seth Taft, Da\'id 
Pettigrew, Benjamin Covey, Edward Hunter, John Murdock, Abraham 0. 
Smoot, Isaac Higbee, Joseph L. Heywood, James Hendrix, Benjamin Brown, 
Orville S. Cox, and Joel H. Johnson. Utah Early Records, MS., 47-8, 69. 
The valley is settled for 20 miles south and 40 miles north, and divided into 
19 wards. Hist. B. Yoiuig, MS., 1849, 67. 

^ At a council held Feb. 17, 1849, the committee on fencing reported that 
the enclosure termed the big field would include 291 ten-acre lots, 460 five- 
acre lots, the church farm of 800 acres, and 17 acres of fractional lots, the 
whole requiring 5,240 rods of fencing, of which it was recommended that 
3,216 should be of adobes, 663 of adobes or stone, and 1,361 of ditch, posts, 
and rails. 'When the Mormons first arrived they did not quarrel for 
best lands, but cultivated a whole district in common, dividing the harvest 
according to work done, seed supplied, and need of family. On dividing the 
town into lots, each received his plat, and so with fields, for south of the town 
lay a field of 6 square miles, cultivated in common; this was divided into 5- 
acre square lots and given to heads of families, by lot or distributioii, in tracts 
of one to eight lots each. After the distribution some began to speculate with 
their lots, but to this the church objected, saying that none should sell his 
land for more than first cost and improvements, for it belonged to God, and 
was merely Iield in use by the holder. Still, secret speculations occurred. ' 
Olshau.sen's Mormonen, 166-7. 

® ' Owing to the absence of small change, the tax collector was instructed 
to give due-bills for sums less than a dollar, and redeem them when presented 
in sufficient amount.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1849, 23. 


were issued on the 1st of January, 1849, signed by 
Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and Thomas 
Bullock, clerk. In September, Brigham had brought 
eighty-four dollars in small change into the valley, 
which had been distributed, but was no longer in cir- 
culation. On the 6th of January, resolutions were 
passed by the council to the effect that "the Kirtland 
bank bills be put into circulation for the accommodation 
of the people, thus fulfilling the prophecy of Joseph, 
that the Kirtland notes would one day be as good as 
gold." The first printing was in connection with the 
manufacture of paper money. ^" 

Previous to the issue of this currency an attempt 
was made by John Kay to coin gold-dust, but the 
crucibles broke in the attempt. All the dies and 
everj^thing connected with the coining were made in 
Salt Lake City.^^ Subsequent attempts were more 
successful. The coin was made of pure gold, without 
alloy, which made it deficient in weight; it was there- 
fore sold as bullion. Brigham then proposed the issue 
of paper currenc}'- until gold could be coined. ^"^ There 
v/as also a paper currency issued some years later 
by a company in Salt Lake City known as the Des- 
eret Currency Association, its capital being in cattle, 
but this was merely a temporary convenience." Cur- 

'*• Fifty -cent and one-dollar paper currency was issued. Hist, B. Young, 
MS., 1849, 3. On the 22d, type was set for 50-cent bills — the first type- 
setting in the city. Id., 42-3; S. L. C. Contributor, ii. 209. 

" 'Robert Campbell engraved the stamps for the coin.' Wells' Narr., 
MS., 42. Brigham says, 'I ofifered the gold-dust back to the people, but 
they did not want it.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1849, 1. 'Thos L. Smith, a 
mountaineer, wrote me from Bear River Valley, offering to sell me §200 or 
$300 in small coin. . .and take our currency for the same, and he would trade 
his skins, furs, robes, etc., with us.' Id., 79. 

'^ 'John Kay coined $2.50, $3, and $20 pieces.' Neheker's Early Justice, 
MS., 3. A description is given in Juv. Inst, of coins with beehive and spread 
eagle on one side, with inscription 'Deseret Assay Office, Pure Gold,' and at 
the base '5 D.' On the reverse is a lion, surrounded by 'Holiness to the 
Lord,' in characters known as the Deseret alphabet. Vol. ix. no. 4, p. 39. In 
1849 and 1850, coins of the value of $20, $10, $5, and $2.50 were struck off. 
Their fineness was 899-1000, and no alloy was used except a little silver. S. 
L. C. Contributor, ii. 209. 'The gold-dust was sufficient in quantity for all 
ordinary purposes ... In the exchange the brethren deposited the gold-dust 
with the presidency, who issued bills or a paper currency; and the Kirtland 
safety fund re-signed it on a par with gold. ' Id. , 56. 

" See Taylor's Reminiscences, MS. , 23. 


rency, in either gold or paper, was afterward desig- 
nated as valley tan, a name synonymous with home- 
made or of Utah manufacture, the origin of which 
will be explained later. ^^ 

Of the houses built early in 1849, few had more 
than two rooms, many had only board windows, and 
some were without doors. Several of the adobe 
houses in the fort had fallen down from the effects of 
the thaw. When at last they had learned how to make 
adobes, they were of the best kind. Alkali at first 
was mixed with the clay, which, when exposed to rain, 
would expand and burst the bricks. After this year 
more commodious structures were erected for public 
and private use, the means being supplied in part by 
traffic with emigrants for California. Conspicuous 
among them was the council-house on East Temple 
street, a two-story stone edifice, forty-five feet square, ^^ 
used originally for church purposes, and afterward 
occupied by the state and territorial legislatures. In 
front of the council-house was temple block, on the 
south-west corner of which stood the tabernacle, built 
in 1851-2, on the ground now occupied by the assem- 
bly hall, with accommodation for 2,500 persons, ^^ and 
consecrated on April 6th of the latter year." Dur- 

^* See chap, xix., note 44, this vol. 

'^ ' I was appointed superintendent of public works in the fall of 1848. 
The first house that was built was a little adobe place that was used for the 
church office. . .The little office that was the first place built was one storj', 
about 18 by 12 feet, slanting roof covered with boards and dirt. This re- 
mained the church office fur about two years . . . The foundation of the council - 
house was laid in the spring of 1849, and then the first story put up.' Wells^ 
Narr., MS., 41-2. Built by tithing. Hist. B. Young, MS., 1849, 55. At a 
meeting held Oct. 1, 1848, it was resolved to build a council-house, and on 
the 7th of November masons commenced laying the foundation. Utah Early 
Records, MS., 36, 38. 

'^ Linforth gives its dimensions at 126 ft by 64, and states that the roof 
was arched, without being supported by pillars. Roxite from Liverpool, 109. 
In Utah Early Becords, MS., 125, 127, it is stated that the dimensions were 
120 by 60 ft, and that work was begun May 21st. See also Deseret News, 
May 17, 1851; The Mormons at Home, 112-13, 147-9; Burton's City of the 
Saints, 270. 

•' At a general conference, the proceedings of which are related in the 
Contributor, ii. 333. The conference lasted several days, and at its conclusion 
a collection was made to provide funds for a sacramental service, $149 being 
given in coin, together with several pounds' weight of silver watch-cases, 
spoons, rings, and ornaments. From the silver, cups were made, which are 
still in use at the tabernacle. 



ing its construction, the saints in every part of the 
world were urged to self-denial, and it was voted to 
dispense with the use of tea, coffee, snuff, and tobacco, 
the sums thus saved to be also used for the building 
of the temple, which was to stand on the same block. 
The latter was to be built of stone quarried in the 
mountains, and a railroad from temple block to the 
quarry was chartered for the conveyance of building 

Adjoining the tabernacle was the bowery, 100 by 
60 feet, made of posts and boarding, completed three 
or four years later, and large enough to contain 8,000 
people, a temporary structure having been erected in 
1848. Among other buildings may be mentioned the 
tithing office, the social hall, and the seventies' hall of 
science. Several bridges were also built, which were 
paid for by the one per centum property tax.^^ 

Thus at the western base of the Wasatch Moun- 
tains was laid out the city of Great Salt Lake, its 
buildings being distributed over a greater area than 
that on which stood, in 1850, the commercial metrop- 
olis of the United States.-^^ Its site was on a slope, 
barely perceptible except toward the north, where it 
was enclosed by the Wasatch Range and a spur trend- 
ing to the westward. Resting on the eastern bank of 
the Jordan, it was watered by several creeks; a canal, 
twelve miles long, crossing three streams, being pro- 
posed to convey the waters of the Big Cottonwood 
to the farm-lands south of the city; and through 
each street flowed a rivulet of pure water, which was 
thence diverted into the garden plats. 

On the 24th of July, 1849, was held the second 
anniversary of the arrival of the pioneers.^'' At day- 

^* Resolved that a tax of one per ct per annum be assessed on property to 
repaii- public highways. Iliist. B. Young, MS., 1849, 5. 

i« Kane'.i The Mormons, 74; New York Tribune, Oct. 7, 1849. 

'•'''The 4th and 24th of July were at first celebrated together, but on t^e 
latter date because bread and vegetables were more plentiful at the end of tbia 
montl than at the beginning. Utah Early Records, MS., 91, 


break cannon were fired and bands of music passed 
through the city, arousing the citizens for the great 
events of the day. A flag brought from Nauvoo was 
prominently displayed, and a larger flag was hoisted 
from the liberty-pole. A procession was formed of 
young men and maidens, who in appropriate costumes, 
bearing banners and singing, escorted Brigham to the 
bowery. They were received with shouts of "Ho- 
sanna to God and the Lambl" While the governor 
and the church dignitaries were passing down the aisle 
cheers and shouts of " Hail to the governor of Des- 
eret!" greeted them on every side. The declaration 
of independence and the constitution were then read, 
followed by patriotic addresses. The procession was 
then re-formed and marched to the feast served on 
tables fourteen hundred feet in length. "The tables 
were heavily loaded," says Brigham, "with all the lux- 
uries of field and garden, and with nearly all the vege- 
tables of the world; the seats were filled and refilled 
by a people who had been deprived of those luxuries 
for years, and they welcomed to their table every 
stranger within their border. "^^ A greater variety 
was provided, as the saints had exchanged for many 
luxuries their flour, butter, potatoes, and other pro- 
duce, with passing emigrants. 

Not only on the pioneer anniversary but on the 
4th of July,^^ at christmas week, and on other occa- 

^^ 'The hospitalities of the occasion were not confined to the saints alone, 
but included several hundreds of California emigrants who had stopped to 
recruit, as well as threescore Indians, ' says Eliza Suow. See Snow's Biographi/, 
95-107, for description of the celebration; also Kane's J'he Mormons, 80-1; 
Hist. B. Young, MS., 108-116, 143; Mrs Home's Migrations, MS., 30; Frontier 
Guardian, Sept. 19, 1849. After dinner four and twenty toasts were drunk, fol- 
lowed by volunteer toasts. President Young declared that he never saw such 
a dinner in his life. One of the elders remarked that 'it was almost a marvel- 
lous thing that everybody was satisfied, and. . .not an oath was uttered, not a 
man intoxicated, not a jar or disturbance occurred to mar the union, peace, 
and harmony of the day.' Frontier Guardian, Sept. 19, 1849. Among the 
guests was the Indian chief Walker, who, accompanied by Soweite, chief of 
the Utahs, and several hundred Indians, men, women, and children, had ris- 
ited the city in Sept. 1848. Utah Early Records, MS., 33. 

^^ For a description of 4th of July festivities, see Frontier Guardian, July 
10, 1850, Oct. 3, 1851; Deseret News, July 12, 1851, July 10, 1852; S. L. C. 
Contributor, ii. 271. 



sions festivities were held.'^' Sometimes the guests 
contributed toward the expense of the entertainment, 
the amount that each one was expected to pay being 
stated on the card of invitation.^* 

In winter, theatrical performances were given by 
the Deseret Dramatic Association at the social hall, 
and in summer at the bowery, the parts being well 
sustained and the orchestra and decorations well ap- 
pointed.^^ At the former, private parties were given 
when the gathering was too large for the residence of 
the host; in the basement were appliances for cooking, 
and adjoining was a dining-room with seats and tables 
sufficient for three hundred persons. All entertain- 
ments were opened with prayer; then came dancing, 
songs, and music, followed by supper, the guests being 
dismissed with a benediction at an early hour. 

The public festivities of the Mormons were always 
conducted under the auspices of the church, and none 
were allowed to join in them who were not in good 
standing. To sing, dance, and rejoice before the 
Lord was regarded almost as a religious duty, but 
only those must rejoice w^hose hearts were pure and 
whose hands were clean. Thus, toward christmas of 
this year, 1849, regulations were issued by the high 
council for the observance of the approaching holi- 
days. They were to commence on the 20th of De- 
cember and last until the council should declare them 
at an end, officers being appointed to preside over the 
dances. No person who had been disfellowshipped 

^^ The-christmas festival of 1851 is described in the Deseret News, Jan. 
24, 1852. ' On the 24th,' writes Brigham in regard to another occasion, 'I in- 
vited the wives of the twelve apostles, and other elders who were on missions, 
with a number of my relatives, to dine at my house. Seventy ladies sat down 
at the first table. I employed five sleighs to collect the company; the day 
was stormy; near my house the snow drifted three feet deep.' Hist. B. Young, 
MS., 1850, 2. 

^* Contributions were often made in the shape of eatables, and an in-door 
picnic extemporized. Ferris' Utah and the Mormons, 306. 

■■'* In May 1851, the second act of ' Robert Macaire' was performed at the 
bowery, the performance concluding with the farce of ' The Dead Shot.' Con- 
tributor, ii. 271. 


or excommunicated was allowed to go forth to the 
dance. Those who had sold liquor for gain, thereby 
corrupting the morals of society, were also disquali- 
fied. All friends and well-VA^shers to society, all who 
remembered the poor and needy,'^^ were invited to 
participate, though not members of the church. But 
declares the council : "Woe unto them that dance with 
guile and malice in their hearts toward their neigh- 
bor! Woe unto them that have secretly injured their 
neighbor or his or her property! Woe unto them 
that are ministers of disorder and of evil ! If these 
shall go forth in the dance without confessing and 
forsaking their guilt, the faith of the council is that 
they seal their doom by it." 

After their festivities the people returned, each to 
his calling, with renewed zest. It was an article of 
faith among them that labor was honorable, and all 
who were not missionaries were expected to do their 
part. By revelation, Joseph Smith was released from 
this obligation, but Brigham Young worked as a car- 
penter in his own mills. Labor was regarded as a 
duty no less than prayer or temple service, each one 
working with his hands at whatsoever he found to 
do, and cheerfully contributing his tithes toward the 
church revenues, which were expended for public im- 
provements, for the support of missions, and the re- 
lief of the sick and destitute.^^ 

^^ ' Bring all your tithes and oflferings to the proper place for the poor, 
that there be none hungry among us, and let the poor rejoice; and then you 
may rejoice in the dance to your heart's content.' Regulations of the High 
Council, in Frontier Guardian, Nov. 28, 1849. Brigham, in an address at the 
state-house in 1852, at a party given to the legislature, said: 'I want it 
distinctly understood that fiddling and dancing are no part of our worship. 
My mind labors like a man logging. This is the reason why I am fond of 
these pastimes; they give me a privilege to throw everything off and shake 
myself, that my body may exercise and my mind rest.' And again: 'This 
company is controlled like the ship by the rudder in a gentle breeze, that can 
be turned hither and thither at the will and pleasure of him who com- 
mands.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1852, 22. 

'^'' Olshausen^s Mormonen, 164—5. On July 28, 1850, the president writes to 
Orson Hyde, then at Kanesville. ' Our celebration was well attended. It is 
a general time of health with the saints, and peace and plenty of hard work, 
as every one has been so busy that they can hardly get time to eat or sleep. 
You speak about hurry and bustle at Kanesville; butif you were here, to see, 
feel, and realize the burdens, labors, and responsibilities, which are daily. 


Among the causes that led to the prosperity of the 
people of Utah at this period was the migration of 
gold-seekers to California. Hundreds of emigrants, 
turning aside to Salt Lake City, wearied and dis- 
pirited, their cattle worn out and their wagons broken, 
were glad to exchange them, together with their tools, 
household furniture, and spare clothing, for provisions 
and pack animals at very low rates.^^ Many were 
glad to remain during winter, and work for their liveli- 
hood. Though reports were freely circulated to the 
contrary, there is sufficient evidence that as a rule 
they were kindly treated, and not a few abandoned 
their search for gold to cast in their lot with the 

The arrival in November of the first pack-mule train 
from California, laden with many luxuries and neces- 
sities, was an important event. The people formed 
in line, waiting hours for their turn to buy the limited 
amount allowed.^^ When a sack of potatoes was 

hourly, momentarily, rolling, piling, tumbling, and thundering upon us, you 
would at least conclude that there was no danger of our getting the gout 
from idleness or too much jollity.' Frontier Guardian, Sept. 18, 1850. Men- 
tion of cholera on the Mississippi and Missouri rivers in the spring of 1849 is 
made by Brigham. ' Many Mormon brethren and sisters emigrating on those 
rivers died; 60 died going from St Louis to Kanesville, mostly from England 
and Wales, under Capt. Dan. Jones.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1849, 85. 

^^ Horses, harnesses, carriages, wagons, etc., were bought of eager emigrants 
at one fifth of their cost in the states. Utah Early Records, MS., 113. 

^^ In the autumn of 1849 many emigrants, while resting in Salt Lake City, 
wrote letters to their friends, in which they acknowledged the kindness and 
hospitality shown them by the saints. Extracts from these letters were pub- 
lished in newspapers throughout the states. Gunnison, The Mormons, 65, 
says: ' Their many deeds of charity to the sick and broken-down gold-seekera 
all speak loudly in their favor, and must eventually redound to their praise. ' 
See also Kane's The Mormons, 76-7; Stansbury's Expedition to O. S. Lake, i. 
134. In March 1851, numbers of emigrants were baptized, and most of them 
remained in Utah. Id., 123. D. J. Staples, who remained at S. L. City for 
two or three weeks with a Boston party bound for California in 1849, says: 
• The Mormons showed their kindness in every possible way, supplying all 
wants and taking care of the sick.' Incidents and Inform., in Cat., MS., D. 
1-3. See also Van Dyke's Statement, in Id., 1. Among later instances may 
be mentioned that of John C. Fremont, who with nine white men and twelve 
Indians arrived at Parowan Jan. 7, 1854, in a starving condition. He was 
supplied with provisions and fresh animals, setting forth eastward on the 

^^ Brown sugar was $1 a lb.; and everything else in proportion. No one 
was allowed more than one pound of anything. Mrs Home's Migrations, 
MS., 30. 


brought into the valley in the spring, they were 
eagerly bought at any price. From four small ones, 
costing fifty cents, was obtained a bushel of good-sized 
potatoes which were saved for seed. 

The immigration during the season numbered some 
1,400 souls, who were added to the settlers in the 
valle}',^^ and who, with the number remaining of 
those originally bound for California, made a large 
population to clothe, feed, and shelter. 

A carrying company was also established^^ in De- 
cember for the purpose of conveying passengers and 
goods from the Missouri River to the gold regions of 
California. In their prospectus, the proprietors set 
forth that, residing as they did in the valley, and be- 
ing acquainted with the route, they could provide 
fresh animals as they were needed and save the loss 
of hundreds and thousands of dollars that had been 
incurred by former parties through inexperience. 
For passengers to Sutter's Fort, the rate was $300, of 
which $200 must be paid in advance, and the remain- 
der on reaching Salt Lake City. For freight, the 
terms were $250 per ton, of which two thirds must 
also be paid in advance. 

A small company under Captain Lamoreaux left 
the valley for Green Kiver, and there established a 
ferry and trading post; among them were wagon- 
makers and blacksmiths, whose services would be in- 

When the immigrants of this year arrived in the 
valley of the Great Salt Lake, many of them were 

'' ' Our cattle stampeded, and at the south pass of the Platte vre were 
overtaken by a heavy storm, in which 70 animals were frozen. We made our 
journey to Salt Lake City, 1,034 miles, in 145 days, arriving Oct. 27th.' Geo. 
A. Smith's Autobiog., in TulUdije's Mag., July 18S4. The cattleof theCalifor- 
nia Enterprise Company, under Judge Thos K. Owen of 111., stampeded near 
the forks of the Platte and ran back 130 miles in about 26 hours; they were 
brought aloi'g by Capt. Allen Taylor's company, which received from their 
owners a series of resolutions expressive of their gratitude. Hist. B. Yovwj, 
MS., 1849, 157-8. 

^'■^ Termed the Great Salt Lake Valley Carrying Company. The proprie- 
tors were Shadrach Roundy, Jedediah M. Grant, John S. Fullmer, George 
D. Grant, and Russell Homer. Utah Early Records, MS., 101; Hist. B. 
Young, MS., 1849, 108. 



almost destitute of clothing,^^ bedding, and household 
furniture, such articles as they possessed having been 
exchanged for food during their journey. In 1848 
it had been prophesied by Heber C. Kimball that the 
commodities, known among the brethren as 'states 
goods,' would be as cheap in Salt Lake City as in New 
York; while Brigham Young, soon after setting forth 
from Nauvoo, had made a similar prediction, declaring 
that within five years his people would be more pros- 
perous than they had ever been. Both prophecies 
were fulfilled,^* when, during the first years of the 
gold fever, company after company came pouring into 
Utah, which might now be termed the half-way house 
of the nation. Several hundred California-bound emi- 
grants arrived in the valley in 1849, too late to con- 
tinue their journey on the northern route, and proposed 
to spend the winter in the valley. There was scarcely 
provision enough for those already there, and as Jeffer- 
son Hunt of the battalion offered to pilot the company 
over the southern route, they decided to undertake 
the trip, and started on the 8th of October, arriving 
in California on the 22d of December. ^^ On the 1st 
of December nineteen men came into the city on 
foot, nearly famished, having been two days making 
their way over Big Mountain. Their wagons had 
been left on Echo Creek, and their animals at Wil- 
low Springs, where the snow, they said, was six feet 
deep on a level. Though many of these adven- 
turers were poor, some of the trains were loaded 
with valuable merchandise, for which their owners 

'^ Parley relates that during 1848 he and his family were compelled to go 
barefooted for several mouths, reserving their Indian moccasins for extra 
occasions. Autobiog., 405. 

'*In the summer of 1849, almost every article except tea and coffee sold at 
50 per cent below the prices ruling in eastern cities. Frontier Guardian, Sept. 
5, 1849. 

^* ' The company became dissatisfied at the continued southern direction. 
At Beaver Creek, one Capt. Smith came up with a company of packers, say- 
ing that he had maps and charts of a new route, called Walker's cut-olT. All 
the packers and most of Capt. Hunter's co. joined Smith. After wandering 
about the mountains for a time many turned back and took the southern 
route, while Capt. Smith and a few others struggled through and arrived in 
California on foot.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1849, 167. 


expected to find a ready market on reaching their 
destination. But while sojourning in the valley, news 
arrived that vessels laden with similar merchandise 
had arrived in San Francisco, or were far on their 
way, and that already the market was greatly over- 
stocked.^® The emigrants were therefore glad to 
exchange their costly outfits and their trading goods 
for whatever they could get in exchange, a single 
horse or a mule, with a small stock of provisions, be- 
ing sometimes accepted as an equivalent for property 
that had cost the owner thousands of dollars. The 
cattle thus obtained by the settlers, in barter, after 
being fattened on the nutritious grasses of the valley, 
were driven to California, where a sure and profitable 
market was found. 

As a result of the California-bound migration, there 
followed an enormous advance in the price of provi- 
sions, flour selling before the harvest of 1850 at one dol- 
lar per pound, and after harvest at tw^enty-five dollars 
per cental, y' Throughout the autumn of this year the 
grist-mills were run to their utmost capacity, grinding 
wheat for the passing emigrants, who at any cost 
must procure sufficient to carry them to the gold 
mines. Some other articles of food were for a time 
equally scarce, sugar selling at the rate of three pounds 
for two dollars ;^^ though beef was plentiful, and 
could be had for ten cents per pound.^^ It is probable, 

'* ' Thousands of emigrants. . . have passed through Salt Lake City this sea- 
Bon, exchanging domestic clothing, wagons, etc., for horses and mules.' Hist. 
B. Young, MS., 1849, 143. 

*' Utah Early Records, MS., 112; Contributor, ii. 240. See also Frontier 
Guardian, Sept. 18, 1850, where is a copy of an address delivered by Brigham 
Young at the bowery, S. L. City. ' I say unto you, farmers, keep your wheat, 
for I foresee if you are not careful starvation will be on our heels.' It was 
not intended, however, that food should be withheld from the destitute; in 
another address from Brigham, published in the same paper, we read: ' I say 
to you, latter-day saints, let no man go hungry from your doors; divide with 
them and trust in God for more.' 'Emigrants, don't let your spirits be worn 
down; and shame be to the door where a man has to go Imngry away.' 

^''OnNov. 21, 1849, Mr Vasquez opened a store in Salt Lake City, and 
met with ready sale for his sugar at this rate. Utah Early Becordti, MS., 100. 

"'Fuel and building material were costly, firewood being worth, in 1850, 
ten dollars per cord, adobe bncks a dollar a hundred, and lumber five dollars 
the hundred feet. Two years later, 'states goods' had also become scarce 
throughout the territory, linen selling for 20 to 30 cents per yard, flannel for 


however, that these rates represent the prices charged 
to passing emigrants, for at this period the wages of 
laborers did not exceed $2 per day, and of skilled 
mechanics $3. The saints prided themselves upon 
their honorable dealings with these strangers, and 
the moderate prices demanded, though frequently 
charged with swindling.*" They could afford to part 
with their produce, because they had learned to dis- 
pense with many articles which among other com- 
munities were considered necessaries. For men who 
had fed during their first winter in the valley on hides 
and roots, it was no great hardship to dispense for a 
season with a portion of their provisions, their grain, 
beef, and butter, their coffee and sugar, in return for 
which they received such value. 

It was not of course to be expected that while thou- 
sands of California- bound emigrants were passing 
each year through the Mormon settlements, the saints 
should themselves entirely escape the gold fever. In 
November 1848, several small parties of the battalion 
found their way to Salt Lake City," some of them 
bringing considerable quantities of gold-dust, which, 
as they relate, had come into their possession in this 

In September 1847 about forty of the battalion 
men arrived at Sutter's Fort in search of employment 
and were hired by Sutter to dig the races for a flour 
mill about six miles from the fort and for a saw-mill 
some forty-five miles distant.*'^ The latter work be- 
ing completed in January 1848, and the frame of the 

30 to 40 cents, prints for 25 to 50 cents, and jeans for 75 cents to $1.25; while 
a bottle of ink cost $2, and a ream of writing-paper $10 to $12. Deseret News, 
Nov. 6, 1S52, where it is stated that on some classes of goods traders realized 
from 200 to 10,000 per cent profit. 

*" ' I saved straw that spring and braided forty hats. . .1 made one to order 
and sold to an emigrant at the nsnal price, $1. He was surprised at its cheap- 
ness, but in all our dealings with emigrants we took no advantage of them. 
I took boarders at five or six dollars a week.' Mrs liichards' Rem., MS., 36. 

" others had already arrived in June and Sept. of this year. Utah Early 
Records, MS., 30-1. 

** Their pay was to be 12A cents per cubic yard, with rations and free pasture 
for their stock. Tyhr's Hist. Mormon Battalion, 332. 


building erected, water was turned into the flume 
on the 24th, and the fall being considerable, washed 
out a hole near the base of the mill on reachinof the 
tail-race, whereupon Marshall, Sutter's partner, and 
superintendent of the party, examined the spot, fear- 
ing that the water would undermine the foundations. 
While thus engaged, he observed there pieces of yel- 
low glistening metal, and picking up a handful put 
them in his pocket, not knowing what they were, and 
supposing probably that he had found nothing more 
valuable than iron pyrites. 

They were no iron pyrites, however, that Marshall 
had found, but, as it proved, nuggets of gold, the 
largest of them being worth about five dollars. The 
discovery was revealed in confidence to three of the 
saints, who unearthed a few more specimens, and soon 
afterward removed to a sand-bar in the Sacramento 
river, since known as Mormon Island. Here was gold 
in paying quantities, the average earnings of each 
man being twenty to thirty dollars per day. But 
though dust and nuggets were freely shown to the 
brethren, there were few who would believe their 
senses, and for weeks the matter caused no excitement. 
At length, however, the secret was disclosed, which 
soon transformed the peaceful valleys of California into 
busy mining camps, changing as if by magic the entire 
face of the country. How throughout the settlements 
on seaboard and on river the merchant abandoned his 
wares, the lawyer his clients, the parson his flock, the 
doctor his patients, the farmer his standing grain — all 
making one mad rush for the gold-fields, some on 
horseback, some with pack-mules, some with wheel- 
barrows, some with costly outfits, and some with no 
outfit save the clothes on their backs — is fully set forth 
in my History of California. 

When the disbanded soldiers arrived in the valley 
of the Great Salt Lake and displayed their treasures, 
a cry was raised among the saints, "To California; to 
the land of Ophir that our brethren have discovered!" 



But from the twelve came a stern rebuke. "The 
true use of gold is for paving streets, covering houses, 
and making culinary dishes; and when the saints 
shall have preached the gospel, raised grain, and built 
up cities enough, the Lord will open the way for a 
supply of gold to the perfect satisfaction of his peo- 
ple. Until then, let them not be over-anxious, for 
the treasures of the earth are in the Lord's store- 
house, and he will open the doors thereof when and 
where he pleases."*^ 

President John Smith wrote to the saints in Cali- 
fornia in March 1848, urging them to gather at the 
Great Salt Lake, "that they might share in the bless- 
ings to be conferred on the faithful; and warned them 
against settling down at ease in California with an 
eye and a half upon this world and its goods, and 
half an eye dimly set towards Zion on account of the 
high mountains and the privations to be endured by 
the saints." 

"If we were to go to San Francisco and dig up 
chunks of gold," said Brigham to the returned 
battalion on the 1st of October, 1848, "or find it in 
the valley, it would ruin us." In an address on the 
sabbath he said: "I hope the gold mines will be no 
nearer than eight hundred miles. . .There is more 
delusion and the people are more perfectly crazy on 
this continent than ever before... If you elders of 
Israel want to go to the gold mines, go and be damned. 
If you go, I would not give a picayune to keep you 
from damnation."** "I advise the corrupt, and all 
who want, to sfo to California and not come back, for 
I will not fellowship them. . .Prosperity and riches 
blunt the feelings of man. If the people were united, 
I would send men to get the gold who would care no 
more about it than the dust under their feet, and 
then we would gather millions into the church . . . 

« Second General Epistle of the Twelve, dated Salt Lake City, Oct. 12, 
■(849, in Frontier Guardian, Dec. 26, 1849. 
*^llist. B. Young, MS., 1849, 100-2, 123. 


Some men don't want to go after gold, but they are 
the very men to go."*" 

Thus the threatened migration was stayed; a few 
companies departed/^ and were asked in all kindness 
never to return. "If they have a golden god in their 
hearts," said Brigham, "they had better stay were 
they are." But the majority of the settlers were 
well content to abide in the valley, building up towns, 
planting farms, and tending stock in their land of 

*5 On the 7th of December, 1848, Brigham writes in his journal: ' Some 
few have caught the gold fever; I counselled such, and all the saints, to re- 
main in the valleys of the mountains, make improvements, build comfort- 
able houses, and raise grain against the days of famine and pestilence with 
which the earth would be visited. ' 

»*The gold fever first broke out in June 1848, news of the discovery be- 
ing brought by a party of battalion men that arrived from California in that 
month. In March 1849, about a dozen families departed or were preparing 
to depart for the mines. Li March 1851, about 520 of the saints were gath- 
ered at Payson, Utah county, most of them for the purpose of moving to 
California. Utah Early Records, MS., 31, 69, 122. 





Founding of Centreville — Bountiful — Ogden — Ltnne — Easton — Mab- 
RIOTS viLLE — San Pete — Provo — Indian War — Walled Cities— Ev- 


— Payson — Nephi — Manti — Chief Walker — Fillmore — Site Chosen 
FOR the Capital — Tooele — Gkantsvillh — Kaysyille — Little Salt 
Lake — Parowan — Cedar City — Paragoonah — Forts Walker and 
Harmony — Box Elder Creek — Brigham City — Willard City — 
San Bernardino in California. 

In the autumn of 1847 one Thomas Grover arrived 
with his family on the bank of a stream twelve miles 
north of Salt Lake City, and now called Centreville 
Creek. His intention was to pasture stock for the 
winter; and for this purpose a spot was chosen where 
the stream spreading over the surface forms plats of 
meadow-land, the soil being a black, gravelly loam. 
Here Grover, joined by others in the spring, resolved 
to remain, though in the neighborhood were encamped 
several bands of Indians, and this notwithstanding 
that as yet there was no white settlement north of 
Salt Lake City. Land was ploughed and sown in 
wheat and vegetables, the crops being more promising 
than those to the south. But in May of the follow- 
ing year the settlers were startled, not by the war- 
whoop of the Utahs, but by hordes of black monster 
crickets, swarming down from the bench-lands, as at 
Salt Lake City, and bringing destruction on field and 
garden. They turned out to do battle with the foe; 
ditches were dug around the grain-fields, and the 

Hist. Utah. 20 ( 305 ) 


water of the stream diverted into them, while mefn, 
women, and children, armed with clubs, checked the 
advance of the devouring host. Enough of the crop 
was saved to supply the wants of the settlers, and 
their energy, on this occasion, coupled with a supposed 

Settlements at the End of 1852. 

miraculous visitation of gulls, probably saved a fore- 
taste of the disaster of 1848.^ A site for a town was 

^ After this incident ths water in the creek began to fail, thus for a time 
preventing the growth of the settlement. In 1880 there was a good flow of 
water, sufficient for the wants of forty families, with their orchards, gardens, 
and farm lands. N. T. Porter, in Utah Sketches, MS., 177. 


surveyed in the autumn of 1849, and the place was 
named Centreville. 

Near Centreville, in what was afterward Davis 
county, a settlement was begun in the spring of 1848 
by Peregrine Sessions, the place being called Boun- 

As early as 1841 the country round where the city 
of Ogden was laid out was held as a Spanish grant by 
Miles M. Goodyear, who built a fort, consisting of a 
stockade and a few log houses, near the confluence 
of the Weber and Ogden rivers.^ On the 6th of 
June, 1848, James Brown, of the battalion, coming 
from California with $5,000, mostly in gold-dust, pur- 
chased the tract from Goodyear.* As it was one of 
the most fertile spots in all that region, grain and 
vegetables being raised in abundance, not only num- 
bers of the brethren from Salt Lake City, but after 
a while gentiles from the western states, settled 
there. In August 1850 Brigham Young, Heber C. 
Kimball, Orson Hyde, and others laid out the city of 
Ogden, so called from the name of the river.^ The 

* A little to the south of Centreville was a small settlement which at first 
went by the name of Call's settlement, afterward taking the name Bountiful 
Utah Early Records, MS., 132. In Sloan's Utah Gazetteer, 130-1, it is stated 
that there were three settlements of this name — East, West, and South Boun- 
tiful — West Bountiful being settled in 1848 by James Fackrell and his fam- 
ily. South Bountiful by George Meeyers and Edwin Page. All are now on 
the line of the Utah Central railroad. In January of this year Sessions also 
founded a settlement which bore his name, about 15 miles north of S. L. City. 
Harrison's Crit. Notes on Utah, MS. , 45. 

' The tract is described as commencing at the mouth of Weber Canon, 
following the base of the mountains north to the hot springs, thence westward 
to the Great Salt Lake, along the southern shore of the lake to a point opposite 
Weber Canon, and thence to the point of beginning. Stanford's Ogden City, 
MS., 1; Richards' Narr., MS., passim. 

*Some say for $1,950; others place the amoimt at $3,000. See Richards' 
Narr., MS.; Stanford's Ogden City, MS. 

'"Utah Early Records, MS., 112. See also S. L. C. Contributor, ii. 240; 
and Deseret Neios, Sept. 7, 1850. Stanford's Ogden City, MS., 1-2. The 
site was selected as early as Sept. 1849, on the south side of the Ogden River, 
at the point of bench-land between the forks of the Ogden and Weber rivers, 
80 that water from both streams might be used for irrigation. Utah Early 
Records, MS., 94. North Ogden, formerly called Ogden Hole, once the resort 
of a noted desperado, was laid out in 1851. Amos Maycock, in Utah Sketches, 
MS., 114. 'Heber C. Kimball, Willard Richards, J. M. Grant, Brigham 
Young, and several others ascended a sand hill, Sept. 3d, to discover the l*st 
location for a town, which we finally decided should be on the south sicu df 


president urged the people to move at once to their city 
lots, and to build for themselves substantial dwellings, 
a meeting-house, and a school-house, to fence their 
gardens and plant fruit-trees, so that the place might 
become a permanent settlement, and the headquarters 
of the northern portion of the territory. Before the 
end of the year a log structure was finished, which 
served for school and meeting house, and soon after- 
ward the settlers commenced to build a wall for pro- 
tection against the Indians, completing it about three 
years later at a cost of some $40,000.^ So rapid was 
the growth of the town, that in 1851 it was made a 
stake of Zion,'^ divided into wards, and incorporated 
by act of legislature.^ • 

In 1848 Isaac Morley and two hundred others set- 
tled in the southern part of the valley of the San 
Pete^ — particulars to be mentioned hereafter. 

In the spring of 1849 a stockade was built and log 
houses erected by the pioneer settlers of U%ah county, 
numbering about thirty families,^" near the Timpano- 
gos or Provo River, and below the point where a small 
creek issuing from it discharges into Lake Utah. To 

Ogden. . .A dance "w&s instituted in the evening.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1849, 

^Raised by taxation. Stanford's Ogden City, MS., 4. 

^Of which Lorin Farrwas appointed president, and R. Dana and David B. 
Dillie councillors. Id., 3. 

* The first municipal election was held on Oct. 23d, Farr being chosen mayor, 
Gilbert Belnap marshal, David Moore recorder, and William Critchellow jus- 
tice of the peace. Four aldermen and twelve councillors were also elected. 
Id. , 4. According to the statement of John Brown, a resident of Ogden in 
1S84, there were 100 families in Ogden in 1852. Brown, a native of York- 
shire, England, came to Winter Quarters in 1849, remained in the church for 
21 years, and was then cut off at his own request. In 1883 he was the propri- 
etor of the hotel which bears his name. Two miles north of Ogden a settle- 
ment named Lynne was formed in 1849. Stanford's Weber Co., SiS., 1. Near 
Lynne a few families formed a settlement named Slaterville in 1852-3, but 
on account of troubles with Indians, moved into Lynne in 1854. Id. , 3. Eight 
miles south-east of Ogden, at the mouth of Weber Canon, on the line of the rail- 
way, a small settlement named Easton was formed in 1852, a branch of the 
church organized, and A. Wadsworth appointed bishop. Three miles north- 
west of Ogden a settlement named Marriotsville was formed in 1850 by three 
families. The neighborhood was infested with wolves and bears, and near by 
were the lodges of 200 Indian warriors. Id., 10. 

' So called from the name of an Indian chief. Richards' Narr., MS., 66. 

*° Under the leadership of John and Isaac Higbee and Jefferson Hunt of 
the battalion. Albert Jones, in Utah Sketches, MS., 54. 




this settlement was given the name of Fort Utah. 
Within the space enclosed by the stockade was a 
mound, the top of which was levelled, and on a plat- 
form built thereon were mounted several twelve- 
pounders for the purpose of intimidating the Indians. 
But the Indians were not to be thus intimidated. In 
the autumn they began to steal the grain and cattle 
of the white men, and one of their number being killed 
while in the act of pilfering, hostilities broke out and 
the fort was soon in a state of siege. 

Indeed, ill feeling on the part of the Indians had 
begun to show itself the previous year. Vasquez and 
Bridger wrote to Brigham on the 17th of April, 1849, 
that the Utes were badly disposed toward Americans, 
and that chiefs Elk and Walker were urging the Utes 
to attack the settlements in Utah Valley. The 
brethren were advised to protect themselves, but 
if the Indians were friendly, to teach them to raise 
grain, and "order them to quit stealing." Brigham 
was persuaded that Bridger was his enemy, and ex- 
pressed the conviction that he and the other moun- 
taineers were responsible for all the Indian trouble, 
and that he was watching every movement of the 
Mormons and reporting to Thomas H. Benton at 
Washington." Alexander Williams and D. B. Hunt- 
ington were empowered by the council to trade ex- 
clusively with the Indians on behalf of the community. 

On the 31st of January, 1850, Isaac Higbee, of 
Fort Utah, reported at Salt Lake that the Indians 
of Utah Valley had stolen fifty or sixty head of cattle 
or horses, threatening further depredations, and asked 
permission to chastise them, which was granted. Gen- 
eral Daniel H. Wells then called for volunteers from 
the militia, and on the 4th of February Captain 
George D. Grant started with a company for Utah 
Fort, followed soon after by Major Andrew Lytic. 

" 'I believe that old Bridger is death on us, and if he knew that 400,000 
Indians were coming against us, and any man were to let us know, he M'ould 
cut his throat. . .His letter is all bubble and froth. . .Vasijuez is a different 
sort of man.' But. B. Young, MS., 1849, 77. 


The Indians were attacked on the 8th, and took 
refuge in a log house, whence they were dislodged 
next day, and driven into the thicket along the Provo 
River. In this encounter Joseph Higbee was killed, 
and Alexander Williams, Samuel Kearns, Albert 
Miles, Jabez Nowland, and two men named Orr and 
Stevens were wounded. 

On the 11th the Indians fled from the thicket to 
Rock Canon, whither the volunteers pursued them; 
but failing to find them, the white men proceeded to 
the west and south sides of Utah Lake, and shot all 
they could find there. 

During the expedition twenty-seven warriors were 
killed. The women and children threw themselves 
upon the settlers for protection and support, and were 
fed and cared for in Salt Lake City until spring. 
Thus Utah Valley was entirely rid of hostile Indians. 
Until 1852 there was no further trouble with them 
of a serious nature ;^^ and thus ended the first Indian 
war of Utah, which like all the others was rather a 
tame affair. It was the mission of the Mormons to 
convert the Indians, who were their brethren, and not 
to kill them. 

Later in the year was founded the city of Provo,^' 
somewhat to the eastward of Fort Utah, near the 
western base of the Wasatch Mountains, on a site 
where timber and pasture were abundant,^* and where 
the gradual fall of the Timpanogos affords excellent 
water-power. In March 1851 it was organized as a 
stake of Zion. The settlement was pushed forward 
with the energy characteristic of the settlers. Be- 
fore the close of 1850 more than twenty dwellings 

^ ' I was ordered not to leave that valley until every Indian was out of it.' 
Wells' JSTarr., MS., 45-6. 

^* At a general conference of the church, held in October 1849, it waa 
ordered that a city be laid out in the Utah Valley, and called Provo. Utah 
Early Records, MS., 97. 

" A heavy growth of cotton- wood and box elder covered the river bottom, 
with a large belt of cedar extending some four miles north from the river 
and about half a mile in width. Bunch graas was very plentiful. Albert 
Jones, in Utah Sketches, MS., 55. 


had been completed ;^^ and before the end of 1851 
the place began to wear the appearance of a town, 
among the buildings in course of erection being a 
flouring-mill and two hotels; manufactures were 
started; all were busy the livelong day at farm or 
workshop, and in the evening, writes Elder Isaac 
Higbee, in February 1852, "We have on Monday 
singing-school, on Tuesday lyceum, on Wednesday 
seventies' meeting, on Thursday prayer-meeting, on 
Friday spelling-school, and on Saturday the meeting 
of the lesser priesthood. "^^ 

On Dry Creek, near the head of Lake Utah and about 
sixteen miles northwest of Provo, a settlement was 
formed in 1851, named Evansville." The neighbor- 
ing lands were surveyed in lots of forty acres, and to 
each new settler as he arrived was given a plat of this 
size until the tract was exhausted. The soil was rich ; 
but here, as elsewhere in the northern part of Utah 
county, water was scarce. A supply was obtained by 
diverting a portion of the waters of American Fork 
creek,^^ and thereafter the affairs of the settlement 
prospered so rapidly that, in February 1852, the place 
was incorporated under the name of Lehi, or as it is 
sometimes written, Lehigh. 

South-east of Lehi, on a plain about three miles 
east of Lake Utah, was founded, in 1850, a settle- 

'^ Deseret News, Jan. 24, 1852. Rosa R. Rogers V uilt the first adobe 
house in 1851. Albert Jones, in Utah Sketches, MS., 53. A large building 
was erected in 1852 for George A. Smith, the prophet's cousin, then president 
of Utah CO. stake. It was afterward used as a school-house and known as 
the seminary. In 1851 an adobe wall was commenced, 14 feet in height 
and four feet at the base. Three sides of it, with bastions, port-holes, and 
gates, were completed in 1855, the finished length being then two and a half 
miles. A portion of this wall remained in 1880. Id., 57. These walls 
were built about several of the settlements. ' It was usual for our people 
to protect themselves by building what we call a fort — a place the people 
could get into in the event of a raid- Our wall was a kind of concrete. 
In ilount Pleasant their walls were buUt of cobble rock, parts of which 
are now standing. At that place they put a grist-mill inside, so the Indians 
couldn't cut them oflf. At Nephi the Indians did cut them off from their 
grist-miU.' Wells' Narr., MS., 60. 

>« Letter in Deseret News, Feb. 21, 1852. 

^' A few houses were built on an adjacent site by David Savage and others 
in 1850. David Evans, in Utah Sketches, MS., 37. 

*8 By a ditch seven miles in length. 


ment first known as Battle Creek, and afterward called 
Pleasant Grove. It was here that the first engage- 
ment with the natives occurred. Captain Scott with 
a band of thirty or forty men started south in pursuit 
of Indians who had stolen fourteen horses from Orr's 
herd, on Wilson Creek, in Utah Valley, and several 
cattle from Tooele Valley. The band was found en- 
camped on a creek in the midst of willows and dense 
brushwood in a deep ravine. After a desultory fight 
of three or four hours, four Indians were killed, but 
none of the settlers. As was their custom, the women 
and children of the slain followed the victorious party 
to their camp.-^^ 

In the neighborhood of Pleasant Grove were good 
farming land, good range for stock, and water-power, 
inducements which quickly attracted emigrants, and 
caused the place to thrive rapidly. In 1853 the pres- 
ent site was laid out,^*' and to this spot were transferred, 
on July 24th of that year, the effects of the commu- 
nity, then numbering seventy-five families. 

Between Lehi and Pleasant Grove the village of 
American Por-k was founded in 1850, on a site where 
were farming and grazing land of fair quality, a little 
timber, springs of fresh water, and a stream that could 
be easily diverted for purposes of irrigation. ^^ 

About twenty miles south of Provo the settlement 
of Payson was laid out on the banks of the Peteetneet 
Creek ;^^ a few miles to the north-east of Payson was 
founded a village named Palmyra, containing, at the 
close of 1 852, fifty families; and in 1851, on Salt Creek, 

"//is<. B. Young, MS., 1849, 24-5; John Brown, in Utah Sketches, MS., 
30. The first Indian trouble was a little skirmish between some sheep-herdera 
and Indians. Wells' Narr., MS., 43. 

^"By George A. Smith and Ezra T. Benson. 

2" The site was laid out by George A. Smith, assisted by L. E. Harrington, 
Arza Adams, Stephen Chipman, William Greenwood, and Stephen Mott. A. 
J. Stewart was the surveyor. The first house was built by Adams and Chip- 
man in 1850; the first grist-mill by Adams in 1851; and the first store was 
opened by Thomas McKenzie in the same year. L. E. Harrington, in Utah 
Sketches, MS., 121. 

^2 The first settlers were James Pace, Andrew Jackson Stewart, and Johi^ 
C. Searle. Joseph S. Tanner, in Utah Sketches, MS., 3. 


twenty-five miles to the south, the site of Nephi, in 
Juab county, was first occupied by Joseph L. Hey- 
wood. Nephi was surveyed in the autumn of 1852, 
the spot being selected on account of its beauty and con- 
venience. A fort was afterward built, surrounded by 
a wall twelve feet in height and six feet at the base.'^ 
Through this town passed the old California or south- 
ern road made by the pioneers in 1849; and here, in 
cabins built of mud and willows, lived, at the close of 
1852, more than forty families.^* 

I have mentioned that Isaac Morley with two 
hundred settlers went into the San Pete country in 
1848. On the 14th of June, 1849, a council was held 
at Salt Lake City, at which were present a Ute chief 
named Walker,^^ and twelve of his tribe. After the 
pipe of peace had been passed around. Walker declared 
himself a friend of the settlers, and asked their sachem 
to send a party southward to the valley of San Pete, 
where they might teach his people how to build and 
farm. "Within six moons," answered Brigham, "I 
will send you a company." In the spring of this 
year the party sent to explore this valley had already 
selected the site of the present town of Manti, on a 
branch of the San Pete Creek, though there was little 
in the neighborhood to invite the settler, sage brush 
and rabbit brush, the red man and the coyote, being 

*^ Its length was 420 rods, and its cost $8,400. Portions of it remained in 
1880. Geo. Teasdale, in Id., 111. 

■■'* The first settler was Timothy B. Foote, who, with his wife and six chil- 
dren, took up his abode in this neighborhood in the autumn of 1851. Before 
the end of the year he was joined by seven other families. Id., 107; and be- 
fore the end of 1852, 35 additional families settled at Nephi. Deseret News, 
Dec. 11, 1852. 

^ ' Walker was the chief of the Ute Indians . . . Uinta was the great chief 
of this region, and Ora was the head chief of the Ute nation . . . Walker's head- 
quarters were the Sevier, generally; he would paj' a visit to San Pete once a 
year.' Wells' Narr., MS., 48, 56. 'Walker used to go into California to steal 
horses; had a place of concealment among the mountains. At one time, while 
there, people were so incensed that they turned out to capture hiin and hia 
band. In the dead of night he quietly took possession of their horses and 
trappings and came into Utah triumphant. He would boast of his proceed- 
ings some time later. He never brought stolen goods into the settlementa, 
but secreted them among his people.' Utah Notes, MS., 8. 


the principal features. In November the town was 
laid out.^^ The name of Manti was suggested by 
Brigham, who declared that on this spot should be 
raised one of the cities spoken of in the book of Mor- 
mon, and here he built with his own hands an adobe 
house, which in 1883 was still pointed out to visitors 
as one of the curiosities of the place.^^ 

On Chalk Creek, in Pahvan Valley, south-west of 
Manti and about a hundred and fifty miles from Salt 
Lake City, a site was chosen by Brigham, in October 
1851, for the capital of the territory, and named Fill- 
more, in honor of the president. ^^ During 1852 the 
foundations of the state-house were laid, and many 
private buildings erected, the settlement numbering 
about seventy families at the close of the year. 

In the autumn of 1849, John Rowberry, Cyrus 
Tolman, and others set forth from Salt Lake City to 
explore the country west of the Jordan Valley, in 
search of grazing lands whereon to pasture their 
stock. Crossing the mountain range which forms the 
western boundary of Cedar and Jordan valleys,^ 
they discovered a spot where grass, timber, and water 
were abundant, and encamped for the winter on the 
banks of a stream now called Emigrant Canon creek. 
Returning in the spring, they made their report to 
Brigham, who recommended them to form a settle- 
ment in that neighborhood. To this the men con- 
sented. "By what name will you call it?" asked the 

^® Including 110 blocks, each 26 rods square, with eight lota to each block. 
Utah Early Records, MS. ,111. The site was surveyed by Jesse W. Fox, un- 
der Brigham 's direction. J. B. Maiben, in Utah Sketches, MS., 172. 

^' In June 1852 a fort was completed, the walls being eight feet high and 
two feet thick. Deseret News, July 10, 1852. 

''■^ In the Deseret News of Jan. 24, 1852, is a letter to Brigham from Anson 
Call, one of the first settlers, dated Nov. 24, 1851. 'We have had an addi- 
tion of three to our camp since you left; have built a corral according to your 
instructions, including about two and a half acres of ground. We found, upon 
trial, that the ground was so dry and hard, being also rocky, that it was next 
to an impossibility to stockade or picket in our houses with the tools we have 
to work with; so we have built our houses in close order, having ouf doors or 
windows on the outside. ' 

^ Now called the Oquirrh Mountains, Oquirrh being probably au Indian 



■president. Tolman suggested Cedar Valley, a large 
belt of cedar having been found there ; but Brigham 
recommended Tule, as reeds were plentiful in that 
neighborhood. And so it was ordered ; and this word, 
spelled Tooele by Thomas Bullock, the president's 
private secretary, is still applied to the town, the 
site of which was discovered by Rowberry and his 

•In the winter of 1849-50, Edward Phillips and 
John H. Green proceeded northward from Salt 
Lake City, intending to settle in the neighborhood 
of Ogden. When within twelve miles of that place, 
the snow-drifts prevented further progress, and turn- 
ing aside to Sandy Creek, or as it was later termed, 
Kay Creek, where the land was covered with bunch- 
grass, they resolved to take up their abode in that 
neighborhood. After passing the winter in Salt Lake 
City, the two men set forth in the spring of 1850, ac- 
companied by William Kay and others, and founded 
the settlement of Kaysville.^^ In September it was 
organized as a ward, Kay being appointed bishop, 
with Green and Phillips as councillors.^^ 

In the winter of 1849-50, it was ordered by the 
first presidency that Parley P. Pratt, with a company 
of fifty men, should explore the southern part of the ter- 
ritory in the neighborhood of Little Salt Lake. They 
found the brethren at Manti well pleased with their 
location, there being a good stone quarry and an abun- 

'" The site was surveyed by Jesse W. Fox, under Rowberry's direction. 
The first house was built by Tolman, who in partnership with Rowberry 
erected a saw-mill nine miles north of the settlement. The first grist-mill 
was built by Ezaias Edwards, and the first store opened by Isaac Lee. John 
Rowberry and F. M. Lyman, in Utah Sketches, MS., 150. A meeting-house 
24 feet square had been finished in March 1852. Deseret Neios, April 17, 1852. 
Twelve miles to the west of Tooele was a small settlement named Grantsville. 

"1 From 5 bushels of club-wheat, planted during this year, 250 bushels 
were raised. Edward Phillips, in Utah Sketches, 81-2. 

"' A mile and a half south of Sandy Creek was a herd-house, the property 
of S. O. Holmes. Near this spot a fort was buUt, surrounded with a mud 


dance of cedar at hand. At the Sevier River they met 
Charles Shumway, James Allred, and EHjah Ward; 
also Walker, the Utah war chief, and his people, many 
of whom were sick with the measles. They proceeded 
to explore the country for some distance round. On 
the 1st of January, 1850, they were on Virgen River, 
whence they passed up the Santa Clara, and came to 
"the valley subsequently named Mountain Meadows," 
One division of the party explored Little Salt Lake. 
-Beaver Creek was pronounced an excellent place for 
a settlement. In a half-frozen condition they reached 
Provo the 30th, and next day some of them were in 
Salt Lake. 

The report of Parley being favorable, a party of 
about one hundred and seventy persons, well sup- 
plied with wagons, implements, live-stock, seeds, and 
provisions,^^ set forth, in charge of George A. Smith, 
on the 7th of December, 1850, toward the south; 
and on Centre Creek, in a valley of the Wasatch 
Range, about two hundred and fifty miles from Salt 
Lake City, built a fort near the site of the pres- 
ent town of Parowan.^* Pasture and timber were 
plentiful, the soil was of good quality, and in the sea- 
son of 1851 a bountiful harvest was gathered from 
about one thousand acres of land.^^ The main attrac- 
tion, however, was the immense deposits of magnetic 
iron ore found in the neighboring mountains. In 
May, Brigham and others visited Parowan and ad- 
dressed the people in the fort. The Indian name 
Parowan was then recommended and adopted. Brig- 

^' John Urie, in Utah Sketches, MS., 88, says that there were 119 men 
and 48 women and children, with 101 wagons, .368 oxen, 146 cows, and about 
22 tons of seed; that they were well supplied with implements, and had 300 
lbs of flour per capita. Richards, in Lftah Early Records, MS., 117, men- 
tions 1G3 souls, of whom 30 were women. 

3* James G. Bleak, in Utah Sketches, MS., 67-8. On the south-east corner 
of the fort a meeting-house in the shape of a St Andrew's cross was built of 
hewn logs. Utah Early Records, MS., 163. The name was first spelt Paroan. 
Frontier Guardian, Aug. 8, 1851. A view of the fort, with Little Salt Lake 
iu the distance, painted by W. Majors, was presented by Brigham Young to 
the Deseret University in 1870. Contributor, ii. 270. 

*''Iu the De-'^eret News of March 6, 1852, is an account of the pioneer anni- 
versary celebrated at Parowan on July 24, 1851. 


ham urged the people to buy up the Lamanite children 
as rapidly as possible, and educate them in the gospel, 
for though they would fade away, yet a remnant of 
the seed of Joseph would be saved. ^^ 

At Cedar City — or, as it was then called. Cedar 
Fort — seventeen miles to the south-west of Parowan, 
a furnace was built in 1852, but at the close of the 
year stood idle for lack of hands. ^'^ Here, in May 1851, 
coal had been discovered near what was then known 
as the Little Muddy, now Coal Creek. In November 
of that year the site was occupied ^^ by a company 
from Parowan. The winter was passed amid some 
privation, mainly from lack of warm clothing; but 
on the 30th of January a dry -goods pedler making 
his appearance — probably the first who had ventured 
so far south into the land of the Utahs — the settlers 
were soon clad in comfort.^^ In October it was re- 
solved to move the settlement to a point farther to 
the west and south, and before the end of the year a 
number of iron-workers and farmers arrived from Salt 
Lake City.'*^ 

In 1851 a party under Simeon A, Carter, sent to 
explore the country north of Ogden, founded a small 
settlement at Box Elder Creek.*^ The soil was of the 

*^Hist. B. Young, MS., 1851, 46. On the same page is mentioned the 
first use in the country of the stone-coal at Parowan, used in blacksmith 

"'George A. Smith, in Frontier Guardian, Aug. 8, 1851, and in Deseret 
News, Dec. 11, 1852. 

'^This valley had been explored as early as 1847. In December of that 
year, a party of the pioneers passed through it, as already mentioned, on 
their way to California to purchase live-stock and provisions. 

^'Building progressed rapidly, and during the following summer one Burr 
Frost, a blacksmith from Parowan, started the manufacture of iron, making 
nails enough to shoe a hovse. Deseret News, Nov. 27, 1852. 

^''John Urie, in Utah Sketches, MS., 93^. See also Deseret News, July 
24, 1852. The scarcity of nails hindered building. Workmen were brough.'; 
from England to manufacture them from native ore, but the experiment failed; 
as the work could not be done on a sufficiently large scale to make it profit- 
able, and it was abandoned. Years later, when the soldiers were ordered away 
from Camp Floyd, the settlers bought old iron cheap, and nails were manu- 
factured to advantage. The price in market then was 30 or 40 cts a lb.; 
afterward the railroad brought them in and they were sold at 3 to 5 cents a 

" About 60 miles north of Salt lake City. A. Christensen, in Utah Sketch^^, 
MS., 102. 


poorest, but near by were a few spots of meadow and 
farm land, on which, with irrigation, a fair crop could 
be raised. A number of emigrants, principally Welsh 
and Scandinavian, joined the party, and two years 
later a new site was surveyed*^ under the direction of 
Lorenzo Snow. To the town then laid out was after- 
ward given the name of Brigham City. 

A few weeks later a small settlement was formed 
about five miles south of this point, and in 1853 was 
removed to the present site of Willard City.^^ 

On Red Creek, about twenty miles north of Cedar 
City, a small settlement was formed in the autumn of 
1852, named Paragoonah, the Pi-Ede name for Little 
Salt Lake.** Six miles south of Cedar City, Fort Walk- 
er was built, containing at the close of 1851 only nine 
men capable of bearing arms; and on Ash Creek, nine- 
teen miles farther south, was Fort Harmony, the 
southernmost point in the valley occupied by white 
men,*^ and where John D. Lee loca4;ed a rancho in 

*'^ In blocks of six acres, each lot being half an acre. 

*' The first settlers on the old site were Jonathan S. Wells, who built the 
first house, and was the first to commence farming, Elisha Mallory, who wiih 
his brother Lemuel built the first grist-mill, M. McCreary, Alfred Walton, 
and Lyman B. Wells. George W. Ward, in Utah Sketches, MS., 44-5. The 
city was named after Willard Richards. Bichards' Narr., MS., 67. 

^* In December, 15 or 20 families had settled there. Deseret Neios, Dec. 11, 
1852. On June 12, 1851, a company with a few wagons started for this point 
from Salt Lake City. Utah Early Records, MS., 128. 

** This settlement was 20 miles north of the Rio Virgen. It was thought 
that the route to California might be shortened by way of the fort about 35 
miles. Deseret News, Dec. 11, 1852. In addition to those mentioned in the 
text, a number of small settlements had been made in various parts of the ter- 
ritory. Farmington, now the county seat of Davis co., and on the line of the 
Utah Central railroad, was first settled in 1848 by D. A. Miller and four 
others. In 1849 it was organized as a ward. Mill Creek, in S. Lake co., was 
settled in 1848-9 by John NefFand nine others; Alpine City and Springville, 
in Utah co., in 1850, the former by Isaac Houston with ten others, the latter 
by A. Johnson and three comrades. Santaquin, in the same county, was set- 
tled in 1852; abandoned in 1853 on account of Indian raids, and reoccupied 
in 1856 by B. F. Johnson and 23 associates. The site of Harrisville, a few 
miles north of Ogden, was occupied in the spring of 1850 by Ivin Stewart, 
abandoned the same autumn on account of an Indian outbreak, and resettled 
in 1851 by P. G. Taylor and others. In 1883 Taylor was bishop of this ward. 
SlaterA'ille, in Weber county, was first settled in the fall of 1850 by Alex, 
Kelley, who was soon afterward joined by several families; in 1853 — the year 
of the Walker war— it was abandoned, the inhabitants taking refuge in Bing- 
ham Fort, but was again occupied in 1854. South Weber, in the same county. 


Thus we see that within less than two years after 
the founding' of Salt Lake City, the population there 
had become larger than could be supported in com- 
fort on the city lots and the lands in their vicinity, and 
it had been found necessary to form new settlements 
toward the north and south, the latter part of the 
territory being preferred, as water, pasture, and land 
fit for tillage were more abundant. Instead of merely 
adding suburb to suburb, all clustering around the par- 
ent centre, as might have been done by other com- 
munities, the church dignitaries, while yet Salt Lake 
City was but a village, ordered parties of the brethren, 
some of them still barely rested from their toilsome 
journey across the plains, to start afresh for remote 
and unprotected portions of a then unknown country. 
As new locations were needed, exploring parties were 
sent forth, and when a site was selected, a small com- 
pany, usually of volunteers, was placed in charge of an 
elder and ordered to make ready the proposed settle- 
ment. Care was taken that the various crafts should 
be represented in due proportion, and that the expe- 
dition should be well supplied with provisions, imple- 
ments, and live-stock. 

When, for instance, at the close of 1850, it had 
been resolved to form a settlement in the neighbor- 
hood of Little Salt Lake, a notice appeared in the 
Deseret News of November 16th, giving the names of 
those who had joined the party, and calling for a hun- 
dred additional volunteers. They must take with them 
30,000 pounds of breadstuffs, 500 bushels of seed wheat, 
34 ploughs, 50 horses, 50 beef-cattle, 50 cows, and 25 
pairs of holster pistols; each man must be supplied with 
an axe, spade, shovel, and hoe,*® a gun and 200 rounds 

was located in 1851 by Robt Watts and nine others. Uintah, at the mouth 
of Weber Canon, was settled in 1850 by Dan. Smith and a few others. It 
was first called East Weber, and received its present name on the 4th of 
March, 1867, at which date the Union Pacific railroad was finished to this 
point. Sloan's Utah Gazetteer, 1884, passim. Of the above settlements, those 
which became prominent will be mentioned later. 

*« The party must also have 17 sets of drag teeth, and of grain and grasa 
scythes, sickles, and pitchforks, 50 each. 


of ammunition. Among them there should be five 
carpenters and joiners, a millwright, a surveyor, and 
two blacksmiths, shoemakers, and masons. Thus 
equipped and selected, the settlers, with their marvel- 
lous energy and thrift, made more progress and suf- 
fered less privation in reclaiming the waste lands of 
their wilderness than did the Spaniards in the garden 
spots of Mexico and Central America, or the English 
in the most favored regions near the Atlantic sea- 

A company was organized in March 1851, at the 
suggestion of Brigham, to go to California and form 
the nucleus of a settlement in the Cajon Pass, where 
they should cultivate the olive, grape, sugar-cane, 
and cotton, gather around them the saints, and select 
locations on the line of a proposed mail route.*^ The 
original intention was to have twenty in this company, 
with Amasa M. Lyman and C. C. Rich in charge. 
The number, however, reached over five hundred, and 
Brigham's heart failed him as he met them at start- 
ing. "I was sick at the sight of so many of the 
saints running to California, chiefly after the god of 
this world, and was unable to address them."*^ 

*'In Hist. B. Young, MS., 1851, 85, it is stated that, at the next session 
of congress, it was expected that a mail route would be established to San 
Diego by way of Parowan. At this date there was, as we shall see later, a 
monthly mail between S. L. City and Independence, Mo. There was also a 
mail to Sacramento, leaving that and S. L. City on the 1st of each month, a 
bi-monthly mail to The Dalles, Or., a weekly mail to the San Pete valley, and 
a semi-weekly mail to Brownsville. 

*" Hist. B. Young, MS., 1851, 14. The object of the establishment of this 
colony was that the people gathering to Utah from the Islands, and even 
Europe, might have an outfitting post. In 1853, Keokuk, Iowa, on the Mis- 
sissippi Kiver, was selected by the western-bound emigrants as a rendezvous 
and place of outfitting. 




URES OF THE Country — Its Lands and Waters — Flora and Fauna 
— State University — Curriculum — Educational Ideas — Library — 
Periodicals — Tabernacle and Temple — New Fort— Progress of the 
Useful Arts — Mills, Factories, and Manufactures— Farm Products 
— Traffic— Population — Reyenus — Mortality — Healthful Airs 
and Medicinal Springs. 

In the year 1850 Utah, bounded on the south and 
east by New Mexico, Kansas, and Nebraska, on the 
west by CaUfornia, on the north by Oregon, which then 
included Idaho, was one of the largest territories in 
the United States. Its length from east to west was 
650 miles, its breadth 350 miles, and its area 145,- 
000,000 acres. The portion known as the great 
basin, beyond which were no settlements in 1852, 
has an elevation of 4,000 to 5,000 feet, and is sur- 
rounded and intersected by mountain ranges, the high- 
est peaks of the Humboldt Range near its centre be- 
ing more than 5,000 feet, and of the Wasatch on the 
east about 7,000 feet, above the level of the basin. 

For 300 miles along the western base of the 
Wasatch Range is a narrow strip of alluvial land.^ 
Elsewhere in the valley the soil is not for the most 
part fertile until water is conducted to it, and some of 
the alkali washed out. Rain seldom falls in spring 

* Gunnison's The Mormons, 15. 

HiflT. Utah. 21 (*?l) 


or summer, and during winter the snow-fall is not 
enough to furnish irrigating streams in sufficient num- 
ber and volume. Throughout the valley, vegetation 
is scant except in favored spots. With the exception 
of the Santa Clara River in the south-west, the Green 
River in the east, the Grand and other branches of 
the Colorado in the south and east, the streams all 
discharge into lakes or are lost in the alkali soil of 
the bottom-lands. On the hillsides bunch-grass is 
plentiful the year round, and in winter there is pas- 
ture in the canons. Around Salt Lake the soil is poor ; 
in the north and east are narrow tracts of fertile land ; 
toward the valleys of the Jordan and Tooele, sepa- 
rated by the Oquirrh Range, and on the banks of the 
Timpanogos and San Pete, is soil of good quality, 
that yielded in places from sixty to a hundred bushels 
of grain to the acre. 

The Jordan and Timpanogos furnished good water- 
power, and on the banks of the latter stream was 
built a woollen-mill that ranked as the largest fac- 
tory of the kind west of the Missouri River. In 
the Green River basin, immense deposits of coal 
were known to exist, and the Iron Mountains near 
Little Salt Lake were so called from the abun- 
dance of ore found in their midst. Other valuable 
minerals were afterward discovered, among them being 
gold, silver, copper, zinc, lead, sulphur, alum, and borax ; 
the waters of Great Salt Lake were so densely impreg- 
nated that one measure of salt was obtained from five 
of brine.^ 

In the streams were fish of several varieties;' in 

' An analysis of the mineral matter forty years ago showed 97.8 per cent 
of chloride of sodium, 1.12 of sulphate of lime, .24 of magnesium, and .23 
of sulphate of soda. Linforth's Route from Liverpool, 101. The specific grav- 
ity of the water is given by L. D. Gale, in Stansbury^s Expedition to O. 8. Lake, 
at 1.117. Out of 22.422 parts of solid matter Gale found 20.196 of common 
salt, 1.834 of soda, .252 of magnesium, and of chloride of calcium a trace. 
See also Sloan's Utah Gazetteer, 1884, 177-8; Hist. Nev., 11, this series. In 
chap. i. of that vol. is a further description of the great basin, its topography, 
climate, soil, springs and rivers, fauna and flora, 

' ' The angler can choose his fish either in the swift torrents of the canons, 
where the trout delights to live, or in the calmer currents on the plains, 


the mountains roamed the deer, elk, antelope, and 
bear, and on the marshy flats amid the plains were 
smaller game.* Timber was scarce and of poor quality, 
except in places difficult of access;^ but with this ex- 
ception there was no great lack of resources in the 
territory which the saints had made their abode. 

During the first years that followed their migration, 
while yet engaged in building houses, fencing lands, 
planting crops, and tending herds, the Mormons pro- 
vided liberally for the cause of education. In the 
third general epistle of the twelve, dated the 12th of 
April, 1850, it is stated that an appropriation of $5,000 
per annum, for a period of twenty years, had been 
made for a state university^ in Salt Lake City, 
branches to be established elsewhere throughout the 
territory as they were needed. In the curriculum the 
Keltic and Teutonic languages were to rank side by 
side with the Romanic, and all living languages spoken 
by men were to be included. Astronomy, geology, 
chemistry, agriculture, engineering, and other branches 
of science were to be studied; for having sought first 
the kingdom of heaven, the saints were now assured 
that knowledge and all other things should be added 
unto them/ The world of science was to be re vol u- 

where he will find abundance of the pike, the perch, the bass, and the chub. 
Gunnison's The Mormons, 20. 

*Wild ducks and geese were abundant in 1852. Ibid. There were also 
quail and herons. In summer, boys filled their baskets with eggs found among 
the reeds on the banks of streams or on the islands in the Great Salt Lake. 

* ' Hidden away in the profound chasms and along the streams, whose 
beds are deeply worn in the mountain-sides, are the cedar, pine, dwarf-maple, 
and occasionally oak, where the inhabitants of the vale seek their fuel and 
building timber, making journeys to obtain these necessaries twenty to forty 
miles from tlieir abodes.' Id., 21. 

* Under the supervision and control of a chancellor, twelve regents, a sec- 
retary, and a treasurer. Frontier Guardian, June 12, 1850. 

' ' But what,' says Phelps in an oration delivered July 24, 1851, 'will all the 
precious things of time, the inventions of men, the records, firom Japheth in 
the ark to Jonathan in congress, embracing the wit and the gist, the fashions 
and the folly, which so methodically, grammatically, and transcendeutaily 
grace the liljraries of the 6lite of nations, really be worth to a saint, when our 
father sends down his regents, the angels, from the grand libraiy of Zion 
above, with a copy of the history of eternal lives, the records of worlds, the 
genealogy of the gods, the philosophy of truth, the names of our spirits from 


tionized ; the theories of gravitation, repulsion, and 
attraction overthrown, the motion of atoms, whether 
single or in mass, being ascribed to the all-pervading 
presence of the holy spirit. The planetary systems 
were to be rearranged, their number and relations 
modified, for in the book of Abraham it was revealed 
that in the centre of the universe was the great orb 
Kolob, the greatest of all the stars seen by that pa- 
triarch, revoking on its axis once in a thousand years, 
and around w hich all other suns and planets revolved 
in endless cycles.^ 

At first, however, education among the settlers 
was mainly of an elementary nature. There were 
many, even among the adults, who could not write or 
spell, and not a few who could not read. A parents' 
school was therefore established at Salt Lake City, 
for the heads of families and for the training of 
teachers, among the pupils being Brigham Young.^ 
Primary and other schools were opened in all the 
principal settlements,^'' and for those who were suflS- 
ciently advanced, classes were organized as early as 
the winter of 1848-9, for the study of ancient and 
modern languages," 

the Lamb's book of life, and the songs of the sanctified?' Deseret News, July 
26, 1S51. 

* ' I saw the stars that they were very great, and that one of them was 
nearest unto the throne of God; and there were many great ones that were 
near it; and the Lord said unto me, These are the governing ones: and the 
name of the great one is Kolob, because it is near unto me, for I am the Lord 
thy God; I have set this one to govern all those which belong to the same 
order of that upon which thou standest. And the Lord said unto me. By the 
urim and thummim, that Kolob was after the manner of the Lord, according 
to its times and seasons in the revolution thereof, that one revolution was a 
day unto the Lord, after his manner of reckoning, it being one thousand years 
according to the time appointed unto that whereon thou standest.' Reynolds' 
Book of A braham, 29. See also Orson Pratt's lecture on astronomy in Deseret 
Neiv.% Dec. 27, 1851. 

' The parent school is in successful operation in the council-house, and 
schools have been built in most of the wards. Hist. B. Young, MS., 1851, .'^2; 
Gminison's The Mormona, 80; Utah Early Records, MS., 115. Lyons Collins 
was appointed teacher by the chancellor and board of regents. 

'"Jesse W. Fox taught the first school at Manti in 1850. Utah Sketches, 
MS., 172. The first school at Nephi was opened in 1851, Id., 111. The 
best school-house in Utah county was at Palmyra; at Provo, Evan M. Greene 
opened a select school in the second ward. Deseret News, Dec. 11, 1852. 

'' ' There have been a large number of schools the past winter, in which 
the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, German, Tahitian, and English languages 



In 1850, by vote of congress, twenty thousand dollars 
were appropriated for the building of a state-house, and 
the sum of five thousand dollars was appropriated for 
the foundation of a library in Salt Lake City. The 
delegate from Utah was authorized to make a selection 
of books, and several thousand volumes were forwarded 
from the east during this and the following year.^^ 
Rooms were prepared in the council-house for their 
reception, and many periodicals, both Mormon and 
gentile, were added to the stock of reading matter. 
Among the former was the Millennial Star, already 
mentioned, and the Frontier Guardian, published 
bi-monthly at Kanesville, Iowa, between February 
1849 and March 1852, and afterward as a weekly 
paper under the style of the Frontier Guardian and 
Iowa Sentinel}^ 

have been taught successfully. First General Epistle of the Twelve, in Utah 
Early Records, MS., 74, and Frontier Guardian, May 30, 1849. 'German 
books were bought in order that the elders naiight learn that language. ' Hist. 
B. Young, MS., 1849, 3. 

1^ Dr Bernhisel was appointed by the president of the U. S. as special 
agent to expend the U. S. appropriation of $5,000. Hist. B. Young, MS., 80. 
Many valuable donations of maps, papers, etc., were received. Contributor, 
270; Gimnison's The Mormons, S^; Utah Early Eecords, MS., 130; Millennial 
Star, xii. 330-1. William C. Staines was appointed librarian. Deseret News, 
Feb. 21, 1852. 

1* Of the Frontier Guardian, brief mention has already been made. The 
first number, published Feb. 7, 1849, with Orson Hyde as editor and proprietor, 
will bear comparison with mauy of the leading newspapers in eastern or Euro- 
pean cities. In the prospectus Mr Hyde states that 'it will be devoted to the 
news of the day, to the signs of the times, to religion and prophecy, both an- 
cient and modern; to literature and poetry; to the arts and sciences, together 
with all and singular whatever the spirit of the times may dictate.' Published, 
as was the Guardian, on the extreme frontier of the states, Mr Hyde was 
enabled to furnish the latest news from Salt Lake City, and many valuable 
items have been gleaned from its pages. Glancing at them for the first time, 
one asks, How did he contrive to bring out his newspaper in such creditable 
shape, at a place which one year before was only an encampment of emigrants 
en route for the valley? During this year, however, Kanesville— later Flor- 
ence — had made very rapid progress, due, in part, to the migration to Califor- 
nia. Glancing over the first numbers of the Guardian, we find advertised for 
sale dry goods, groceries, provisions, hardware, clothing, and most of the 
commodities needed by emigrants. There was a hotel, a fashionable tailor, a 
lawyer, a doctor, and of course a tabernacle, which served for ^.ocial parties 
and religious worship. Provisions rose to very high rates, tXv ^gh not to the 
prices demanded in Salt Lake City. On Feb. 7, 1849, flour, beef, and pork 
were selling at Kanesville for about $2 per 100 lbs. On May 1, 1850, flour 
was worth $6 to $6.50, beef .$3.50 to $4.50, and pork $5 to $G. Potatoes Iiad 
risen meanwhile from 25 cents to $1, corn from 20 cents to $2.25, and wlieat 
from 50 cents to $1.75, per bushel. On March 4, 1852, appeared the first num. 


On the 15th of June, 1850, was published at Salt 
Lake City, under the editorship of Willard Richards, 
the first number of the Deseret News, a weekly paper, 
and the church organ of the saints.^* In this num- 
ber, a copy of which I have before me, is a report of 
the conflagration which occurred in San Francisco on 
Christmas eve of 1849, and of Zachary Taylor's mes- 
sage to the house of representatives relating to the 
admission of California as a state. 

ber of the Frontier Guardian and Iowa Sentinel, the paper having then passed 
into the hands of Jacob Dawson & Co. 

"Until Aug. 19, 1851, it was issued as an eight-page quarto, the pages 
being about 8 J by 6^ in., and without column rules. After that date it waa 
suspended for want of paper until Nov. 19th. ' We got short of type, and 
I happened to have some stereotyped plates, . . .which we melted down and 
used for type. We were short, too, of paper, and all went to work to make it. 
We collecte(\ all the rags we could and made the pulp, sifted it through a sieve, 
and pressed it as well as we could.' Taylor's Rem., MS., 17. The terms were 
$5 per year, payable half-yearly in advance, single copies being sold for fifteen 
cents. There seems to have been some difficulty in collecting subscriptions, 
for in the issue of November 15, 1851, the editor states that pajrment will be 
due at the office on receipt of the first number, ' and no one need expect the 
second number until these terms are complied with, as credit will not create 
the paper, ink, press, or hands to labor.' In his prospectus, Richards said 
that the Deseret News is designed ' to record the passing events of our state, 
and in connection refer to the arts and sciences, embracing general education, 
medicine, law, divinity, domestic and political economy, and everything that 
may fall under our observation which may tend to promote the best interest, 
welfare, pleasure, and amusement of our fellow-citizens . . . We shall ever take 
pleasure in communicating foreign news as we have opportunity; in receiving 
communications from our friends at home and abroad; and solicit ornaments 
for the News from our poets and poetesses.' In the first issue is the following, 
perhaps by Beta, who afterward wrote a number of papers styled the Chron- 
icles of Utah in the Salt Lake City Contributor: 

To my Friends in the Valley. 

Let all who would have a good paper, 
Their talents and time ne'er abuse; 
Since 'tia said by the wise and the humored, 
That the best in the world is the Newt. 

Then ye who so long have been thinking 

What paper this year you will choose. 
Come trip gayly up to the office 

And subscribe for the Deseret News. 

And now, dearest friends, I will leave you; 

This counsel, I pray you, don't lose; 
The best of advice I can give you 

Is, pay in advance for the News. 

Fortunately for the prospects and reputation of the paper, such effiisions were 
rare even in its early pages. The Deseret News was at first less ably edited, 
and inferior, as to type and paper, to the Frontier Guardian. It appears, 
indeed, to have lacked support, for in the first number are only two adver- 
tisements, one from a blacksmith and the other from a surgeon-dentist, who 
also professes to cure the scurvy. In Nov. 1851 it appeared in folio and in 
gi-eatly improved form; for years it was the only paper, and is still the lead- 
ing Mormon journal, in the territory. 


At Salt Lake City and elsewhere throughout the 
country manufactures began to thrive. Isolated, poor, 
having brought little or nothing with them, these set- 
tlers were peculiarly dependent for necessaries and 
comforts upon themselves, and what they could do 
with their hands. And it would be difficult to find 
anywhere in the history of colonization settlers who 
could do more. Among them were many of the best 
of Europe's artisans, workers in wood, iron, wool, 
and cotton, besides farmers, miners, and all kinds of 

At Tooele and several other settlements grist- 
mills and saw-mills were established before the close 
of 1852.^^ Near Salt Lake City, a small woollen- 
mill was in operation.^^ At Parowan and Cedar 
City, iron-works were in course of construction; 
at Paragoonah, a tannery had been built; and at 
Salt Lake City, in addition to other branches of man- 
ufacture, flannels, linseys, jeans, pottery, and cutlery 
were produced,^^ and sold at lower prices than were 
asked for eastern goods of inferior quality. " Produce 
what you consume," writes Governor Brigham Young 
in his message of January 5, 1852; "draw from the 
native elements the necessaries of life; permit no viti- 
ated taste to lead you into indulgence of expensive 
luxuries which can only be obtained by involving 
yourselves in debt; let home industry produce every 
article of home consumption,"^^ This excellent advice 

"The first grist-mill built at Tooele was erected by Ezaias Edwards; in 
1849 a saw-mill was built at Provo by James Porter and Alex. Williams, and 
in 1850 a grist-mill, by James A. Smith and Isaac Higbee. At American Fork 
Azra Adams built a grist-mill in 1851; at Manti a grist-mill was built by 
Brigham Young and Isaac Morley, and a saw-mill by Charles Shumway; in 
1848 Samuel Parish built a grist-mill at Centreville. Utah Sketches, MS., 
passim. In Salt Lake county there were, in the autumn of 1851, four grist- 
mills and five eaw-mills. Utah Early Records, MS., 158. Near Ogden, Lorin 
Farr built a grist-mill and saw-mill in 1850. Stanford's Ogden City, MS., 3. 

'"In March 1851 the general assembly appropriated |2,000 for this pur- 
pose. Utah Early Records, MS., 123. 

"'Our pottery is nearly completed;. . .cutlery establishments are com- 
pleted.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1851, 26. 

"In Id., Nov. 6, 1852, similar advice is given to the saints: 'Buy noarti 
cle from the stores that you can possibly do without. Stretch our means, 
akill, and wisdom to the utmost to manufacture what we need, beginning with 


was not unheeded; but the supply of home-manufac- 
tured goods did not, of course, keep pace with the de- 
mand. Such commodities as were not the products 
of home industry were, for the most part, obtained by 
barter with passing emigrants, or were brought in 
wagon trains by way of Kanesville;^^ though already 
traffic had been opened with regions far to the west- 
ward on either side of the Sierra Nevada.^'' 

According to the United States census returns for 
the year 1850, the population of the valley of Great 
Salt Lake mustered 11,354 persons, of whom about 
53 per cent were males, and 6,000 residents of Salt 
Lake City.^^ There were 16,333 acres under culti- 
vation, on which were raised 128,711 bushels of grain. 
The value of live-stock was estimated at $546,698, 
and of farming implements at $84,288. At the close 
of 1852, the total population was variously estimated 
at from 25,000 to 30,000,^^ of whom perhaps 10,000 
resided in the metropolis. The assessed value of 

a shoestring (if we cannot begin higher).' 'When we have manufactured an 
article, sell it for cash or its equivalent, as low, or lower, than it can be 
bought for at the stores. ' In the fifth general epistle is the following: ' Beach 
and Blair have opened a general manufacturiag establishment; . . . are now 
making molasses and vinegar. Several grain and lumber mills have been 
erected in the various settlements, . . .chairs and various articles of furniture 
are multiplying, . . . two or three threshiag-machines have been in successful 
operation.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1851, 24. 'We are going in extensively 
for home manufactures. My own family alone have this season manufactured 
over 500 yds of cloth, and the home-made frequently makes its appearance in 
our streets' — a great blessing, 'if it will prove an inducement to the people 
to depend and rely upon their own resources for their own supplies.' Id., 
1852, 16. 

^' On May 1, 1851, the first train of merchandise for the season arrived in 
the city, laden partly with sugar, coflfee, and calicoes. Utah Early Records, 
MS., 127. 

^"On Nov. 19, 1848, Capt. Grant of the Hudson's Bay Company arrived 
from Fort Hall with pack-horses laden with skins, groceries, and other goods. 
On April 17, 1851, a small party arrived from Fort Hall in search of provi- 
sions and Indian ti^ading goods. On the 10th of the same month. Col Reese 
sent ten or twelve wagon-loads of flour to Carson Valley for trading purposes. 
Id., 39, 125, 127. 

^^ The returns were made under the direction of Brigham Young, who 
was appointed census ageut. Utah Early Records, MS., 112; Deseret News, 
Oct. 5, 1850. 

'* Early in 1853 the Deseret Almanac places the number at 30,000, while 
in Orson Pratt's Seer it is given at 30,000 to 35,000. Olshausen's Mormoncn, 
192. At this date it was estimated at 25,000 by the gentiles. Burton's City 
of the Saints, 3j7. Probably the Mormons exaggerated, as they desired to 


taxable property at the latter date was $1,160,883.80, 
or an average of more than $400 per capita. The 
entire revenue amounted to $26,690.58,^^ of which sum 
$9,725.87 was expended for public improvements, the 
encouragement of industries, or educational purposes. 

Little more than five years had elapsed since the 
pioneer band entered the valley of Great Salt Lake, 
and now the settlers found themselves amidst plenty 
and comfort in the land of promise, where until their 
arrival scarce a human being was to be seen, save 
the Indians whose clothing was the skins of rabbits 
and whose food was roasted crickets.^* There was 
no destitution in their midst ;^^ there was little sick- 
ness.'^® In these and some other respects, the wildest 
misstatements have been made by certain gentile 
writers, among them Mr Ferris, who, as we shall see, 
was appointed secretary for Utah.'^^ In this pure 

show as soon as possible a population of 100,000, which would entitle them 
to claim admission as a state. 

^'Not more than one tenth was collected in cash, payment being usually 
made in grain. Contributor, 332. ' Securing a territorial revenue of $23,000, 
including merchants' licenses and tax on liquors.* Hist. B. Young, MS., 1852, 2, 

** Tlie most exposed parts of the country are annually run over by the 
fires set by the Indians to kill and roast the crickets, which they gather in 
summer for winter food.' Gu7inison's The Mormons, 21. 

** The country was canvassed to ascertain how many inmates there would 
be for a poor-house, then projected. Only two were found, and the Mormons 
concluded that it was not yet time for such an institution. Id. , 34. 

"^The number of deaths in the territory during the year ending June 1, 
1850, was 239. IT. S. Census, 1850, 997; and in Salt Lake county, which vir- 
tually meant Salt Lake City, 121; in both, the mortality was therefore less 
than 20 per thousand, or about the average death-rate in San Francisco dur- 
ing recent years. Moreover, the population of Utah included a very large 
proportion of infants. Of 64 deaths reported in the Deseret News of March 
8, 1851, 34 occurred between the ages of one and ten. 

'^ Utah and the Mormons; the History, Oovernment, Doctrines, Customs, 
and Prospects of the Latter-day Saints; from personal observation during a 
six months' residence at Great Salt Lake City. By Benjamin G. Ferris, late 
secretary of Utah Territory, New York, 1854. Mr Ferris is not the tirst one 
whom in his own opinion a six months' residence in the west justifies in writ- 
ing a book. It was the winter of 1852-3 which he spent there, and while 
Erofessing that he writes wholly from an anti-Mormon standpoint, as a rule 
e is comparatively moderate in his expressions. The illustrations in this 
volume are many of them the same which are found in several other works. 
Beginning with the physical features of Utah, he goes through the whole 
range of Mormon history, and concludes with chapters on government, doc- 
trines, polygamy, book of Mormon proselytizing, and society. While some- 
times interesting, there is little original information; and aside from what 
the author saw during his residence in Utah, the book has no special value. 


mountain air, with its invigorating embrace, the aged 
and infirm regained the elasticity of a second youth. 
Here was no rank vegetation, here were no stag- 
nant pools to generate miasma, no vapors redolent of 
death, like those amid which the saints encamped on the 
banks of the Missouri. In the valley were mineral 
springs, the temperature of which ranged from 36° to 
1 50° of Fahrenheit, some of them being prized for their 
medicinal properties. From the warm spring ^^ in the 
vicinity of Salt Lake City, waters which varied be- 
tween 98° in summer and 104° in winter ^^ were con- 
ducted by pipes to a large bath-house in the north- 
ern part of the city.^° 

*^The water was analyzed in 1851 by L. D. Gale. Its specific gravity was 
found to be 1.0112; it was strongly impregnated with sulphur, and 100 parts 
of water yielded 1.082 of solid matter. The specific gravity of the hot 
spring in the same neighborhood was 1.013, and 100 parts yielded 1.1454 of 
solid matter. Detailed analyses are given in Stansbury's Expedition to O. S. 
Lake, i. 419-20. An analysis of the warm spring given by Joseph T. Kingsbury 
in Contributor, iv. 59-GO, differs somewhat from that of Gale. Further in- 
formation on these and other springs and mineral waters will be found in Id., 
iv. 86-9; Hist. Nev., 17, this series; Salt Lake Weekly Herald, July 29, 1880; 
S. L. C. Tribune, Jan. 5, 1878; Wheeler^s Surveys, iii. 105-17; HoUister's He- 
sources of Utah, 83-5; Hardy^s Through Cities and Prairie, 121; Burton^a 
City of the Saints, 222; Sac. Union, Aug. 7, I860. 

^^ Contributor, iv. 59. One of the brethren, writing to Orson Hyde from 
Salt Lake City, Sept. 10, 1850, says that the temperature stands, winter and 
summer, at about 92°. Frontier Guardian, Jan. 8, 1851. 

^^ On Nov. 27, 1850, the warm-spring bath-house was dedicated and opened 
with prayer, festival, and dance. Utah Early Records, MS., 116. 

The material for the preceding chapters has been gathered mainly from a 
number of manuscripts furnished at intervals between 1880 and 1885. As I 
have already stated, to F. D. Richards I am especially indebted for his un- 
remitting effort in supplying data for this volume. The period between Feb. 
1846 and the close of 1851^ — say between the commencement of the exodua 
from Nauvoo and the opening of the legislature of Utah territory — is one of 
which there are few authentic printed records. From Kane^s The Mormons, 
from FuUmer's Expulsion, and other sources, I have gleaned a little; but as 
far as I am aware, no work has yet been published that gives, or pretends to 
give, in circumstantial detail the full story of this epoch in the annals of Mor- 
monism. In the Utah Early Records, MS., I have been supplied with a brief 
but full statement of all the noteworthy incidents from the entrance of Orson 
Piatt and Erastus Snow into the valley of the Great Salt Lake to the close 
of the year 1851. In the Narrative of Franklin D. Richards, MS.; the Remi- 
niscences of Mrs F. D. Richards, MS. ; Inner Facts of Social Life in Utah, MS., 
by the same writer; History of Brig ham Young, MS., which is indeed a con- 
tinuation of the History of Joseph Smith, or the history of the church; Mar- 
tin's Narrative, MS. — I have been kindly furnished with many details that 
it would have been impossible to obtain elsewhere. Some of them I have al- 
ready noticed, and others I shall mention in their place. 

In Reminiscences of President John Taylor, MS., we have an account of the 
migration from Nauvoo to Winter Quarters, the organization of the varioua 


companies, and much information of a miscellaneous nature, relating to house- 
building in Salt Lake City, the first manufactures, the location of the temple, 
and other matters. The manuscript also makes mention of his visit to Eng- 
land as a missionary in 1846, in company with Parley P. Pratt and Orson Hyde. 
The Narrative of General Daniel H. Wells, MS., gives an account of the 
disturbances in Hancock county, the troubles at Nauvoo before the exodus, 
the journey to Winter Quarters, the organization of the Nauvoo legion, and 
of the state of Deseret; but perhaps the most valuable portion is a condensed 
narrative of all the Indian outbreaks between 1849 and 1864, a task for which 
General Wells, who during this period had charge of the Nauvoo legion and 
aided in suppressing some of the disturbances, is specially qualified. 

Wilford Woodrvff's Journal, MS., commencing with the claims of Sidney 
Eigdon to the guardianship of the church, in 1846, and closing with a sum- 
mary of the operations of the pioneers in the following year. Mr Woodruff 
gives some valuable details concerning this most interesting period in the an- 
nals oi Mormonism. Being himself a pioneer, he furnishes minute particu- 
lars as to their journey and their early labors in the valley. 

In A Woman's Experiences with the Pioneer Band, by Mrs Clara Decker 
Young, MS., we have also some information as to the work accomplished 
during the single month that the pioneers remained in the valley, among 
other matters being the building of the old fort. Items of interest are also 
given concerning those who were left alone in the valley after the pioneers' 
departure, until the arrival of Parley Pratt's companies. Clara Decker Young, 
a native of Freedom, N. Y., moved with her parents to Daviess co., Mo., in 
1837, the family being driven, during the persecutions of that year, to Far 
West, whence they removed to Quincy, and later to Nauvoo. When 16 years 
of age she became the fifth wife of Brigham Young. 

From the Material Progress of Utah, by William Jennings, MS., I have 
gathered many details as to the industrial condition of the Mormons from the 
earliest settlement of S. L. City up to a recent date, among them being items 
relating to manufactures, agriculture, stock-raising, the grasshopper plague, 
and the influence of the railroad on the population of Utah. 

Early Justice, by John Nebeher, MS., besides describing the punishment of 
offenders in the days of 1847, v.'hen, as I have already stated, the whipping- 
post was substituted for imprisonment, furnishes other material of value 
relating to early times. In his capacity of public complaiuer, Mr Nebeker 
prosecuted one culprit before the high council for stealing, and himself ad- 
ministered the flogging. Mr Nebeker, a native of Delaware, came to Nauvoo 
in the winter of 1846; crossed the plains with the first companies, and left 
Winter Quarters with Parley Pratt's detachment. 

In The Migration and Settlements of the Latter-day Saints, by Mrs Joseph 
H. Home, MS. , is an account of her conversion, her experiences at Far West, 
Quincy, and Nauvoo, and the hardships suffered during the migration. Then 
follows a description of the first years in S. L. City, the food, dress, and 
dwellings of the saints, their make-shifts and privations, with some mention 
of the Mormon battalion, and the ill feeling caused by the withdrawal of 500 
able-bodied men at this crisis in their affairs. Mrs Home, a native of Rain- 
ham, England, moved with her parents to New York (now Toronto, Canada) 
when ten years of age. In 1836, the year of her marriage, she was converted 
by the preaching of Parley and Orson Pratt, her house being afterward open 
to the elders, who frequently held meetings there. 

From the Utah Sketches, MS., I have gathered much information as to the 
founding of various settlements and their progress up to the year 1880, of 
which mention will be made later. Most of them were written by persons 
who were themselves among the earliest settlers, and of whom some are still 
prominent members of the several communities among which their lot was 
cast. In this connection may be mentioned the Brief Historical Sketch of the 
Settlements in Weber County, by Joseph Stanford, MS., and the Historical Sketch 
of Ogden City, by the same author. 

In addition to the manuscripts and journals constituting the vast original 


sources upon which I have drawn, I would mention also the following printed 
and secondary authorities: Millen. Star, iv. 187-90, v. 174-7, vi. 41-2, vii. 
71-2, 87-9, 10:3-4, 149-53, viii. 68-71, 97-8, 102-3, 113-21, 149-58, ix. 11-22, 
xi. 46-7; Times and Seasons, i. 30-1, 44, 185-7, 517, ii. 273-4, 281-6, 309, 319, 
321-2, 336, 355-6, 370-1, 375-7, 380-2, 417-18, 435, 517, 567-70, iii. 630-1, 
066, 638, 654, 683-6, 700, 718, 733-4, 743, 767-9, 775-6, 806-7, 831-2, 902-3, 
919-21, 936-7, iv. 10-11, 33-6, 65-71, 154-7, 198-9, 241-78, v. 392-6, 418- 
23, 455, 471-2, 536-48, 560-75, 584-99, 618-22, vi. 762, 773-80, 926, 972-3; 
Beadle, Life in Utah, 58-9, 63-121, 125-54, 161-2, 280; Bennett, Morm. Ex- 
posed, 5-10, 140-62, 188-214, 278-302, 307-40; Bertrand, Mem. Morm., 61, 
65-70; Bonwick, Morm. and Silv. Mines, 3; Burton, Citi/ of Saints, 183-4, 43.3, 
i^■2o-Ql•, Busch, Gesch. Morm., ^Z-o, 97-113, 125-30, 205-17, 254-98; Dialh 
of the Prophets, with Offic. Doc, no. 23, in Utah Pamph. Relig.; Deseret News, 
1851, Apr. 8, Nov. 29, Dec. 13, 27; 1867, July 24; 1868, July 1, Dec. 16, 30; 
1869, Apr. 7, Sept. 1; 1876, Mar. 22; 1877, Nov. 14; Hall, Morm. Exposed, 7- 
8, 15-16, 24-7, 28-34, 55-70, 91-9, 106-7; Tucker, Morm., 37, 167-207; Tul- 
Itdge, Life of Young, 6-191. 204; Wom^n of Morm., 297-300, 425-32, 443-4, 
488-95; Edinburg liev., Apr. 1854, 319-83; Ford ( Thos, Gov. Ill), in Utah 
Tracts, no. 11; Ferris, Utah and Morm., 51, 92-107, 114-15, 137-46, 151-4, 
120-30; Gunnison, Morm., 133, 115-39; Stansbury, Exped., 135-7; Green, 
Morm., 28-9, 36-7, 54-64; Hickman, Destroying Angel, 41-5; Hyde, Morm., 
140, U4-6, 152-3, 155-7, 172-5, 183-5, 189-92; Kidder, Morm., 157-9, 182- 
92; Kanesville (la). Front. Guard., 1849, Feb. 7, 21, Mar. 7, June 27, Aug. 
8, Nov. U;Id., 1850, May 1, 29, Oct. 2, 30; Id., 1852, Mar. 18, 25; Linforth, 
BoiUefrom Liverpool, 61-9, 72-5; Lee, Morm., 109-12, 144-8, 152-5, 167-8, 
173-4, 179-80; J/ac/tay, The Morm., 115-206; Mies' Peg., Ixix. 70, 134, Ixx. 
208, 211, 327, Ixxii. 206, 370, Ixxiii. 6; Olshausen, Gesch. Mormonen, 59-65, 
88-90, 100-3, 144-51, 202-34; Hon. Polynesian, ii. 1846, 91; Pratt (P.), Au- 
tohiog., 378, 398-401, 405-6; Remy, Journey to G. S. L. City, i. 336-406, 434-8, 
ii. 258-63; Smucker, Hist. Morm., 119-34, 148-276, passim; Snow (Eliza), in 
Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., 41-50, in Times and Seasons, iv. 287; Snow (Lo- 
renzo), with Taylor, Govt of God, no. 12, 9-11; Stenhouse, Tell It All, 306; 
Crimes of L. D. Saints, 11-15; Dunbar, Romance of Age, 45; Ebberts, Trapper's 
Life, MS., 18; Fullmer, in Utah Tracts, no. 9. 1 40; Mather, in LippincotVa 
Mag., Aug. 1880; McGlashen, Hist. Donner Party, 34-56; Spence, Settler's 
Guide, 268-9; Sa,la, Amer. Revisited, ii. 289; Salt Lake City, (Contributor, ii. 86, 
134-7, 195-8, 239, 301, 354-6, 366, iii. passim, iv. 370-6; Salt Lake City, Deseret 
News, 1850, July 27; 1851, July 26, Aug. 19; 1852, Feb. 7, Aug. 7, 21; 1854, 
July 27, Aug. 3; 1855, Sept. 26; 1857, July 29, Aug. 5; 1858, June 30; Salt Lake 
City, Hercdd, 1880, July 3, 29; Salt Lake City, Telegraph, 1868, May 30, Oct. 
10, 12-14; Smith, Ris", Progress, etc., 6-18, 314-22, 334-6; Smoot (Margaret 
S.), Experience, etc., MS., 4-5; Cal., Its Past Hist., 218-19; Tracy (Mrs N. 
N.), Narr., MS., 10-19; Thornton, Or. aiul Cal.., i. 158-9; Utah Pioneer, 33d 
Ann., 50-2; Narrative of the Murders of the Smiths, ia Utah Tracts, no. 1, 
passim; The Murder of Jos Smith, in Utah Tracts, no. 1, 54-5; Tyler, FW 
Morm. Battalion, passim; U. S. Ex. Doc., 24, 31 Cong. 1st Sess.; Fes T^a,^ 
Adoentures, 313-38; Woodruff (W.), in Utah Pion., 33d ^?i7i., 19-24; Wara, 
Mormon Wife, 81-4, 109-40, 165; White ( Mrs G. V.), The Mormon Prophet, 
etc., 4-8; Young ( Ann Eliza), Wife No. 19,54-1; Marshall, Through Amer., 
184; Murphy, Mineral Resour., 84-5; Miller (J.), First Families, etc., 65-73; 
Martin (Thos S.), Narrative, etc., MS., 42; San Francisco, Alta Cal., 1851, 
Aug. 8; Id., Cal. Star, 1848, Feb. 26; Id., Call, 1869, Sept. 5, 1877, Aug. 31; 
Id., Chronicle, 1881, Jan. 9; Id., Herald, 1851, Oct. 12, 1859, Nov. 15; Sacra- 
mento, Placer Times, 1849, May 26; Id., Union, 1855, Sept. 10, 27, 1859, 
Aug. 24; Portland (Dr.), Telegram, 1879, Mar. 15; Salem (Or.), Argus, 1858, 
Feb. 13, Aug. 28; Id.. Statesman, 1851, Dec. 23; Or. City (Or.), Spectator, 
1846, July 4; Ogden (Utah), Freeman, 1879, May 2; Gold Hill (Nev.), News, 
1872, May 1, Oct. 24; Eureka (Nev.), Leader, 1880, July 24; Carson (Nev.), 
State Register, 1872, Nov. 24; Roe, Westward by Rail, 125-7. 




What is Mormonism ? — Tenets op the Chttech — Sacred Books and Pebsok* 
AGES — Organization — Priesthood — First Pbesidenct — Thb Twblvk 
Apostles— Patriarchs — Elders, Bishops, Priests, Teachers, and 
Deacons — The Seventies — Stakes and Wards — Marriage — Templk 
Building — Tabernacle — Political Aspect — Polygamy as a Church 
Tenet — Celestial Marriage — Attitude and Arguments of Civili- 
zation — Polygamy's Reply — Ethics and Law — The Charge of Dis- 
loyalty — Proposed Remedies. 

We are now prepared to ask the question with some 
degree of intelligence, What is Mormonism? In for- 
mulating an answer, we must consider as well the 
political as the rehgious idea. I will examine the 
latter first. 

Mormonism in its religious aspect is simply the ac- 
ceptation of the bible, the whole of it, literally, and 
folio wins: it to its logfical conclusions. 

As the Christian world has advanced in civilization 
and intelligence these two thousand years or so, it has 
gradually left behind a little and a little more of its 
religion, first of the tenets of the Hebraic record, and 
then somewhat even of those of the later dispensation. 
Long before religionists began to question as myths 
the stories of Moses, and Jonah, and Job, they had 
thrown aside as unseemly blood-sacrifice and burnt- 
offerings, sins of uncleanness, the stoning of sabbath- 
breakers, the killing in war of women, children, and 
prisoners, the condemnation of whole nations to per- 
petual bondage, and many other revolting customs of 
the half-savage Israelites sanctioned by holy writ. 



This they did of their own accord, not because they 
were so commanded, but in spite of commandments, 
and by reason of a higher and more refined culture — a 
culture which had outgrown the cruder dogmas of the 
early ages. Then came the putting away of slavery 
and polygamy, the former but recently permitted in 
these American states, and the latter being here even 
now. Among the discarded customs taught and en- 
couraged by the new testament are, speaking in 
tongues, going forth to preach without purse or scrip, 
laying on of hands for the healing of the sick, rais- 
ing the dead, casting out devils, and all other miracles ; 
and there will be further repudiations as time passes, 
further ignoring of portions of the scriptures by ortho- 
dox sects, a further weeding out of the unnatural and 
irrational from things spiritual and worshipful. 
The tenets of the Mormon church are these : 
The bible is the inspired record of God's dealings 
with men in the eastern hemisphere; the book of 
Mormon is the inspired record of God's dealings with 
the ancient inhabitants of this continent; the book 
of Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints consists of revelations 
from God concerning the present dispensation to 
Joseph Smith, who was inspired to translate the book 
of Mormon and organize the church of Christ anew. 
Joseph Smith to the present dispensation is as Moses 
was to Israel; there is no conflict, either in per- 
sonages or books. The statements, assertions, prom- 
ises, and prophecies of the books, and the precepts 
and practices of the personages, are accepted, all of 
them, and held to be the revealed will to man of one 
and the same God, whose will it is the duty and en- 
deavor of his people to carry out in every particular 
to the best of their ability. 

There are more gods than one. There are spirit- 
ual gifts. Not only must there be faith in Christ, but 
faith in the holy priesthood, and faith in continual 


revelation.* Man is a free agent. The laying on of 
hands for ordination, and for the healing of the sick, 
descends from the early to the later apostles.^ There 
will be a resurrection of the body and a second coming 
of Christ. Israel is a chosen people; there has been 
a scattering of Israel, and there will be a gathering. 
Joseph Smith was the fulfiller not only of bible proph- 
ecies, but of the book of Mormon prophecies, and of 
his own prophecies. Foreordination, election, and 
dispensation of the fulness of times are held. There 
was an apostasy of the primitive church, and now 
there is a return. There was the Jerusalem of the 
eastern hemisphere ; on the continent of North Amer- 
ica is planted the new Jerusalem. Miracles obtain; 
also visions and dreams, signs and tokens, and angels 
of light and darkness. There are free spirits and 
spirits imprisoned; the wicked will be destroyed, and 
there will be a millennial reign. The saints are largely 
of the house of Israel, and heirs to the promises made 
to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The aboriginal in- 
habitants of America and the Pacific isles were the 

*In 1853, Benjamin Brown, high-priest, and pastor of the London, Read- 
ing, Kent, and Essex conferences, published at Liverpool a tract entitled, 
Testivwnies for the Truth; a Record of Manifestations of the Power of Ood, 
Miraculous and Providential, witnessed by him in his travels and experiences. 
The author was a native of New York, and born in 1794. He was a firm be- 
liever in latter-day revelations from God, and that the ancient gifts of the 
gospel still remained, long before he joined the Mormons. He labored long 
and in various places. He held property in Nauvoo when the saints ^vere 
driven out, and was obliged to take $250 for what was worth $3,000. After- 
ward he underwent all the sufferings and vicissitudes of the overland journey 
to Salt Lake. Mr Brown was an earnest and honest man; his book is the 
record of his life, and is simple and attractive in style and substance. 

* Healing the sick. Joseph early laid it down as a rule that all diseases 
and sickness among them were to be cured by the elders, and by tiie use of 
herbs alone. Physicians of the world were denounced as enemies to mankind, 
and the use of their medicines was prohibited. Afterw, id, anointing with oil, 
prayer, and laying on hands were resorted to in addi 'on to the llrst men- 
tioned. Says Mrs Richards, ' In all sicknesses we useu no medicines, with 
the exception of herb teas that we ourselves prepared, trusting exclusively 
to the efficacy of the anointing with oil and prayer.' Reminiscences, MS., 34. 
Joseph said, 'AH wholesome herbs God hath ordained for the constitution, 
nature, and use of man. Every herb in the season thereof, and every fruit 
in the season thereof.' The use of flesh was not forbidden, but rather re- 
stricted to seasons of cold and famine. All grain was pronounced good for 
man, but wheat was particularly recommended, with com for the ox, oats for 
the horse, rye for fowls and swine, and barley for all useful animals, and for 
mild drinks; aa also other grain. Times and Seasons, v. 736. 



seed of Joseph, divided into numerous nations and 
tribes. The Lamanites were of the house of Ma- 

We believe, say their articles of faith, in God the 
father, in Jesus Christ the son, and in the holy ghost. 
For their own sins, and not for any transgression of 
Adam, men will be punished; but all may be saved, 
through the atonement, by obedience to the ordi- 
nances of the gospel, which are : faith in Christ, re- 
pentance, baptism by immersion,^ and laying on of 

'Baptism, a prerequisite to church membership, as well as to final salva- 
tion, to be of avail, must be by immersion, and performed by one of the sect. 
The person who is called of God, and has authority from Jesus Christ to bap- 
tize, shall go down into the water witli the person to be baptized, and shall say, 
calling him or her by name: ' Having been commissioned of jfesus Christ, I 
baptize you in the name of the father, and of the son, and of the holy ghost. 
Amen.' Doctrine and Covenants, 115, 118. Baptisms are entered in the gen- 
eral church records, giving the name, place, and date of birth, quorum, date 
of baptism, first time or re-baptism, by whom baptized, when and by whom 
confirmed. Beneret Neivs, Feb. 22, 1851. In 1844, complaints were made that 
members of the church, dismissed by the council, had been re-baptized by 
elders wlio were themselves excluded, and declaring such baptisms invalid. 
I'imes and Seasons, v. 458-9. 

In 1836, Joseph introduced the ceremony of anointing with consecrated cil. 
He first anointed his father, who, having been blessed by the first presidency, 
anointed them in turn, beginning with the eldest. The bishops of Kirtland 
and Zion, together with their counsellors, were next anointed, and after- 
ward the presiding oflScers of each quorum performed tlie ceremony on their 
subordinates, assisted in some instances by the Smith brothers. Joseph de- 
scribes the ceremony of consecrating the oil, as follows: ' I took the oil in my 
left hand. Father Smith being seated before me, and the remainder of the 
presidency encirclud him round about. We then stretched our right hands 
towards heaven, and blessed the oil, and consecrated it in the name of Jesus 
Christ.' Mil. Star, xv. 620. Olive-oil is commonly used. Mis Richards, 
Reminiscences, MS., 34. Many remarkable cures are mentioned. A sea- 
man, belonging to H. B. M. ship Terror, was rendered deaf and dumb by 
a stroke of lightning, at Bermuda. Several years after, he was baptized 
by elders in a canal in England, and instantly recovered both speech and 
hearing. Frontier GiLardian, Jan. 23, 1850. In 1840, a young woman then 
living at Batavia, N. Y., who had been deaf and dumb for four and one 
half years, was first restored to her hearing by the laying on of the 
hands of the elders of the church, and a second ministration, some time 
afterward, enabled her to speak. Times and Seasons, ii. 516-17. During 
the building of Nauv ., nearly every one was attacked with malarial fever, 
caused by breaking up the new land, and even the prophet himself suc- 
cumbed for a time. But hearing the voice of the Lord calling on him, 
he arose and went through the camp healing all to whom he drew near. 
WoodrvJ'(Mrs), Autohiog., 2-3. Brigham declares he was among the num- 
ber healed at this time. Mil. Star, xxv. 646. While Joseph was in the midst 
of his sick, an unbeliever, living a few miles distant, came to him, beseeching 
him to come and heal his twin children, who were near death's door. The 
prophet was unable to go himself, but sent Wilford Woodruff m his place. 
Says the latter, ' He [Joseph] took a red silk handkerchief out of his pocket 
and gave it to me, and told me to wipe their faces with the handkerchief 


hands for the gift of the holy ghost. We beheve in 
the same organization and powers that existed in 

when I administered to thera, and they should be healed.' He also said untc 
me: "As long as you will keep that handkerchief, it shall remain a league 
between you and me." I went with the man, and did as the prophet com- 
manded me, and the children were healed. I have possession of the hand- 
kerchief unto this day [1881].' Leaves from Ttiy Journal, 65. F. D. Richards, 
who had been sick for several months, was baptized, anointed, and confirmed; 
immediately after which he was restored to health. Some time afterward, 
being then an elder, he cured a severe toothache by touching the tooth with 
his finger. Narrative, MS., 15-16. Mrs Richards' brother, afterward Elder 
Snyder, was raised from a sick-bed after having been baptized and adminis- 
tered to by Elder John E. Page. Mrs Richards was taken by her brother 
from a sick-bed to a lake from the surface of which ice more than a foot thick 
had been removed, and there baptized, whereupon she immediately recovered. 
Similar cases might be given by the score. 

Baptism for the dead is first alluded to by the prophet, who, in a revela- 
tion dated Jan. 19, 1841, declares, 'A baptismal font there is not upon the 
earth, that they, my saints, may Joe baptized for those who are dead.' It is 
intimated that a reasonable time will be allowed in which to build a temple 
and a permanent font, and that during this time a temporary substitute 
for the font may be employed; but after the completion of the temple, no 
baptisms for the dead will be of avail unless conducted within the build- 
ing. See Doctrine and Ctyvenants, 392, 395. Brigham says he first heard of 
the new doctrine when he was in Europe (1840), and that he believed in it 
before anything was said or done about it in the church. Times and Season<, 
vi. 954. Daniel Tyler says the doctrine was first taught in Nauvoo, although 
Joseph told some of the elders in Kirtland that it was part of the gospel, and 
would yet be practised as such. Juvenile Instructor, xv. 56. He also says 
that before other provision was made, many were baptized in the Mississippi 
River. The first baptismal font, a temporary structure, intended for use only 
until the completion of the temple, was erected in the basement of that build- 
ing, and dedicated on Nov. 8, 1841, Josej^h being present and Brigham deliv- 
ering the address. Joseph thus describes the font: It is constructed of pine 
staves, tongued and grooved, and is oval-shaped, 'sixteen feet long east and 
west, and twelve feet wide, seven feet high from the foundation, the basin 
four feet deep; the mouldings of the cap and base are formed of beautiful 
carved work in antique style. The sides are finished with panel-work. A 
flight of stairs in the north and south sides lead up and down into the 
basin, guarded by a side railing. The font stands upon twelve oxen, four on 
each side and two at each end, their heads, shoulders, and fore legs project- 
ing out from under the font; they are carved out of oak plank, glued togethoi 
and copied after the most beautiful five-year-old steer that could be found in 
the country, and they are an excellent striking likeness of the original; the 
horns were geometrically formed after the most perfect horn that coultl be 
procured. The oxen and the mouldings were carved by Elder Elijah Ford- 
ham, from the city of New York, the work occupying eight months. The 
whole was enclosed in a temporary frame building.' MU. Star, xviii. 744. On 
Sept. 6, 1842, Joseph writes to the church that all baptisms must be re- 
corded by a person appointed for the purpose, and whose duty it will be to 
note every detail of the ceremony in each case. One of the officials is to 
be appointed in each ward, and his returns properly certified to are to be 
forwarded to the general recorder, who will enter them on the church records, 
together with the names of all witnesses, etc., and finally add his own certifi- 
cate as to the genuineness of the signature of the ward recorder. This detail 
is necessary for the proper identification hereafter of those baptized, for the 
authority for which the prophet quotes Bevelations, xx. 12. 'And I saw tho 
HiBT. Utah. 22 


the primitive church, namely, apostles, prophets, pas- 
tors, teachers, evangelists; in the gift of tongues,* 

dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened,' etc. 
He also states that it was revealed to him on Sept. 1, 1842, that a general re- 
corder must be appointed. Mil. Star, xx. 5-6; Doctrine and Covenants, 409- 
1.3. For the ceremony itself, he finds warrant in 1st Cor., xv. 29. 'Else 
what shall they do wlio are baptized for the dead ? If the dead rise not at 
all, why are they then baptized for the dead?' 

Confirmation follows baptism, with frequently an interval of a few days. 
Baptism may take place on any day in the week, and the confirmation be de- 
ferred until the church assembles on the following, or even a later, Sunday. 
Two or more elders commonly attend, all taking part in the ceremony. Mrs 
Stenhouse thus describes her own confirmation: 'Four elders placed their 
hands solemnly upon my head, and one of them said: "Fanny, by virtue of 
the authority vested in me, I confirm you a member of the church of Jesus 
Christ of latter-day saints; and inasmuch as you have been obedient to the 
command of God, through his servants, and have been baptized for the re- 
mission of your sins, I say unto you that those sins are remitted. And in the 
name of God I bless you, and say unto you, that inasmuch as you are faithful 
and obedient to the teachings of the priesthood, and seek the advancement 
of the kingdom, there is no good thing that your heart can desire that the 
Lord will not give unto you. You shall have visions and dreams, and angels 
shall visit you by day and by night. You shall stand in the temple in Zion, 
and administer to the saints of the most high God. You shall speak iu 
tongues and prophecy; and the Lord shall bless you abundantly, both tempo- 
rally and spiritually. These blessings I seal upon your head, inasmuch as 
you shall be faithful; and I pray heaven to bless you; and say unto you, be 
thou blessed, in the name of the father, and of the son, and of the holy ghost. 
Amen."' Englishwoman in Utah, 19-20. 

*The gift of tongues is the power to speak in a strange language, but 
not to translate. It first appeared about 1830, when it was pronounced of 
the devil. Howe says it was revived in the early part of 1833, and that at 
one meeting Joseph passed around the room laying his hand upon each one, 
and speaking as follows: 'Ak man, oh son, oh man, ah ne commene en holle 
goste en haben en glai hosanne en holle goste en esac milkea Jeremiah, eze- 
kiel, Nephi, Lehi, St John,' etc. Mormonism Unveiled, 132-6. In this year, 
it was suggested that 'no prophecy spoken in tongues should be made public, 
for this reason: many who pretend to have the gift of interpretation are liable 
to be mistaken, and do not give the true interpretation of what is spoken;. . . 
but if any speak in tongues a word of exhortation or doctrine, or the princi- 
ples of the gospel, etc., let it be interpreted for the edification of the church.' 
Times and Seasons, vi. 865. The gift was not confined to men; many women 
were noted for eloquence when thus inspired. Says Mrs Stenhouse of a Sister 
Ellis: 'Her hands were clenched, and her eyes had that wild and supernatural 
glare which is never seen save in cases of lunacy or intense feverish excite- 
ment. Every one waited breathlessly, listening to catch what she might say; 
you might have heard a pin drop. They [her utterances] seemed to me chief- 
ly the repetition of the same syllables, something like a child repeating la, la, 
la, le, lo; ma, ma, ma, mi, ma; dele, dele, dele, hela; followed, perhaps, by 
a number of sounds strung together, which could not be rendered in any 
shape by the pen.' Englishwoman in Utah, 27-8. Says Orson Hyde: 'We 
belie\ e in the gift of the holy ghost being enjoyed now as much as it was in 
the apostles' days, and that it is imparted by the laying on of hands of those 
in authority; and that the gift of tongues, and also the gift of prophecy, 
are gifts of the spirit, and are obtained through that medium.' Frontier 
■Guardian, Dec. 12, 1849. Mrs Stenhouse remarks that 'in later days, the exer- 
cise of this gift has been discouraged by the elders, and especially by Brigham.' 
Going to the Lion House one day, she was blessed by one of Brigham 's wives, 


prophecy, revelation, and visions. In the scriptures 
is found the law of tithing, which law is now revived, 
and the keeping of it made one of the first duties of 
the saints. The ten commandments, and all other 
commandments, ordinances, promulgations, and possi- 
bilities, are in force now as at the time they were 
given. Marriage is a sacred and an eternal covenant. 
Plural marriage, sanctioned under the old dispensa- 
tion and revived under the new, is open to all, and is, 
in some instances, commanded, when it becomes a 
sacred obligation. 

Seldom does a good Mormon appear in