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O V T U E 


Bv SaHiiiel KerclieYai. 





Entered according to act of Cong-ress, in the year 1853, in ike Clerk'i 
Omce of ibe Western District of Virginia. 

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Like IVcstor of old, you have lived to see "Hwo generations 
pass away, and now remain the example of the third." You 
saw Diinniore's war with the Indians in 1774; you witness- 
ed the war of the Revolution and the war of 1812, with the 
haughty Briton. In ail these great struggles of our country, 
you have given tlie most conclusive evidence of unbending 
virtue and uncompromising patriotism. The author has had 
the graiihcation of knowing you for a Tail half century. — 
When a small boy ho frequently saw you, though he was 
then too young to attract your notice, and it was not imtil he 
entered upon the active duties of life that he had the high 
satisfaction of a personal acquaintance. 

The author disclaims every thing like insiiicere flattery, 
and feels assured that your candor will readily pardon him 
for the freedom he uses in his dedication of his Flistory of 
the Valley to you. To you, sir, is he indebted for much of 
the valuable information detailed in the following pages. — 
In vou. sir, lie has witnessed the calm, dignined statesman 
and philosopher, the uniform and consistent republican, the 
active and zealous oScer, whether in the field or councils of 
the country. He has witnessed more: he has seen you in 
high pecuniary prosperty ; he has seen you in later years 
struggling witii adverse fortune ; and in all, has discovered 
\\\G calm, dignified resignation to misfortune, which always 
characterises the great and the good man. Yes, sir, you 
have spent at least lifty years of your valuable life in the 
service of vour countrv ; and when vou co hence, that vou 
may enter into thejov of vour Lord, is the fervent praver ol 

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I r^ T M e* S> I" € T 1 O ^ 


From what particular part of the old world the aljorigmals {oiind ihclv 
way to this continent, is a question which has given rise to much pldlo- 
sophical and learned disquisition among historians. It however appears 
now to be the settled opinion that America hrst received its inhabitants 
irom Asia. JNIr. Siiov/den, in his History of America, advances m;u\y 
able and ingenious arguments in support of this opinion. After citing 
many great revolutions which have from time to time taken place in -\ari- 
ous parts of our globe, Mr. Snowden states : 

"In the strait which separates America from Asia, many islands are 
found, which are supposed to be the mountainous parts of land, fbmierly 
swallowed u]) by earthquakes : which appears the more probable, by the 
multitude of volcanoes, now known in the peninsula of Kamtschatka. — 
It is imagined, however, that the sinking of that land and the separation 
of the new continents, has been occasioned by those great earthquakes, 
mentioned in the history of the Americans ; v.hich formed an era almost 
as memorable as that of the deluge. We can form no conjecture of the 
time mentioned in the histories of the Taltecas, or of the year 1, (Tecpatl,) 
when that great calamity happened. 

"If a great earthquake should overwhelm the isthmus of Suez, and 
there should be at the same time as great a scarcity of historians as there 
was in the first age of the deluge, it would be doubted in three or four hun- 
dred years after, vdiether Asia had ever been united by that part of Africa; 
and many Vv'ould finally deny it. 

"Whether that great event, the separation of the continents, took place 
before or after the population of America, it is impossible to determine ; 
but we are indebted to the above-mentioned navigatois, [Cook and others,] 
for settling the long dispute about the point from which it v/as effected. 
Their observations prove, that in one place the distance between conti- 
nent and continent is only thirty-nine miles ; and in the middle of this 
narrow strait, there are two islands, which would greatly fcicilitate the pas- 
sage of the Asiatics into the new world, supposing it took place in ca- 
noes, after the convulsion which rent the tAvo continents asunder, 

"It may also be added, that these straits are, even in the summer, 
often filled with ice; in winter frozen over, so as to admit a passage for 
mankind, and by which quadrupeds might easily cross, and stock the 
continent. But where, from the vast expanse of the north-eastern world, 
1o fix on the first tribes who contributed to people the new continent, 
now inhabited from end to end, is a matter that has baffled hum^n reason. 
The Icarnerd mav make bold and inar-nious conjecture^, but plain ^^ood 
$-^i>.c cannot alwavs accede 1© then. 

vi iNrPvODUCrlON. 

"As mankirrJ i;iCi'eiseJ in numbers, ihej naturally protruded one an#' 
ther forward. Wars might be another cause of migrations. No reason 
a jpears why the Asiatic north might not be an qffiiina vivorum as well as 
the Europcrin. The ovcitecming country to ttie east of the Riphean 
laountains. must have found it necessary to discharge its inhabitants : 
the first great increase of people were forced forwards by tlie next to it ; 
at length reaching the utmost limits of the old world, found a new, with 
ample space to occvipy unmolested for ages; till Columbus, in an evil 
hour for tiiem, discovered their country ; which brought again new sins 
and new deaths to both Avorlds. It is impossible, with the lights which 
we have so recently received, to admit that America could have received 
its inhabitants (that is, the bulk of them,) from any other place than Eas- 
tern Asia. A few proofs may be added, taken from the customs or dres- 
ses, common to the inhabitanis of boih worlds. Some have been long 
extinct in the old, olhers remain in full force in both. 

" The custom of scalping was a barbarism in use among the Scythians, 
who carried about them at all limes this savage mark of triumph. A little 
imao-e found anions; the Kaimucs,* of a Tartarian deitv, mounted on a 
horse, and sitting on a human skin, with scalps pendant from the breast, 
fully illustrates the custom of the ancient Scythians, as described by the 
Greek historian. ' This usage, we v.-ell know by horrid experience, is 
continued to this day in America. The ferocity of the Scythians to their 
prisoners, extended to the remotest part of Asia. The Karatskatkans, 
even at the time of their discovery by the Russians, put their prisoners to 
death by the most lingering and excruciating torments; a practice nov^r 
in full force among the aboriginal Americans. A race of the Scythians 
were named Anthrooophagi, from their feeding on human flesh : the peo- 
ple of Nootka sound still make a repast on their iellow creatures. 

"The savages of North America have been known to throAV the man- 
gled limbs of their prisoners into the horrible cauldron, and devour them 
with the same relish as those of a quadrupid. The Kamtskatkans in tJieir 
marches never went abreast, but followed one another in the same track: 
the same custom is still observed by the uncultivated natives of North 
America. The Tungusi, the most numerous nation resident in Siberia, 
prick their skins witli small punctures, in various shapes, with a needle; 
then rub them with charcoal, so that the marks become indelllble : this 
custom is still observed in several parts of South America. The Tungusi 
use canoes made of birch bark, distended over ribs of wood, and nicely 
put together: the Canadian, and many other primitive American nations, 
use no other sort ofboats. In fine, the conjectures of th" learned, respec- 
ting the vicinity of the old and new world, are now, by the discoveries of 
late navigators, lost in conviction ; and in the place of an imaginary hy- 
pothesis, th:: place of migration is almost incontrovertibly pointed out." 

The Kilinuc Tartars ;ire n-jw siibjpcts (if Rin.jia. 



Having given the foregoing brief sketch of the probable origin of the 
Indians in Arcerica, the author v;ill now turn his attention to the first set- 
tlement of Virginia, a brief history of which he considers will not be un- 
acceptable to the general reader, and as a preliminary introduction to his 
main object, i. e., the history of the early settlement of the Valley of 
Shenandoah in Virginia. 

On the 10th of A.pril, 1606, James I. King of England, granted char- 
ters to two separate companies, called the " London and Plymouth com- 
panies," for settling colonies in Virginia.* The London company sent 
Capt. Christopher Newport to Virginia, December 20, 1606, with a colo- 
ny of one hundred and five persons, to commence a settlement on the 
island of Roanoke, now in North Carolina. By stress of weather, how- 
ever, they were driven north of their place of destination, and entered 
the Chesapeake Bay. Here, \lp a river which the called James river, on a 
beautiful peninsula, they commenced, in May, 1607, the settlement of 
Jamestown. This was the first permanent settlement in the country. 

Several subsequent charters were granted by King James to the com- 
pany for the better ordering and government of the colony, for the parti- 
culars of which the reader is referred to Hening's Statutes at Large. — 
And in the year 1619, the first legislative council was convened at James- 
town, then called 'James citty.' " This council w^as called the General 
Assembly. "It was to assist the Governor in the adm.inistration of jus- 
tice, to advance Christianity among Indians, to erect the colony in obe- 
dience to his majesty, and in m.aintaining the people in justice and chris- 
tian conversation, and strengthening them against enemies. The said 
governor, council, and two burgesses out of every town, hundred or plan- 
tation, to be chosen by the inhabitants to make up a General Assembly, 
who are to decide all matters by the greatest number of voices ; but the 
governor is to have a negative voice, to haA'e power to make orders and 
acts necessary, wherein they are to inaitate the policy of the form of gov- 
ernment, lav.^s, customs, manner of tryal, and other administration of 
justice used in England, as the company are required by their letters 
patents. No law to continue or to be of force till ratified by a quarter 
ftourt to be held in England, and returned under seal. After the colony 
is well framed and settled, no order of quarter court in England shall bind 
till ratified by the General Assembly." *— Dated 24th July, 1621. 


"To keep up religion of the church of England as near as may be; — 
to be obedient to the king and to do justice after the form of the laws of 
England; and not to injure the natives; and to forget old quarrels novr 
buried -.f 

*Hening's Statutes at Larpe, toI. i., p. ] 13, 114. 

fit appears that at a verv early period of the colon}-, tliev wprc dpsirous of cultivating 
aTriendly ursdertanclinsf with tlie natives of Uie countiv. IJnfurliinaiely, however, fur 
vur ancestors, and for the Indians themselves, this friendly disposition was never of lonjj 



" To be industrious, ar.d suppress drunkenness, L,^^minf(, and excess 
in eloaths; not to permit any but the council and heads of hundreds to 
wear gold in their eloaths, or to wear silk till they make it themselves: 

" iS'ot to offend any foreign princes; to punish piracies ; to build for- 
tresses and block-houses at the mouths of the rivers : 

"To use means to convert the heathens, viz. : to converse with some ; 
each town to teach som children fit for the college intended to be built : 

"After Sir George Yeardly has gathered the present year's crop, he is 
to deliver to Sir Francis Wyatt, the hundred tenants belongino; to the 
governor's place: Ycardley's government to expire the 18th November 
next, and then Wyatt to be published governor; to swear the council : 

"George Sandis appointed treasurer, and he is to put in execution all 
orders of court about staple commodities; to whom is allotted fifteen 
hundred acres and fifty tenants. To the marshall, sir William Newce, 
the same. To the physician five hundred acres and twenty tenants ; 
and the same to the secretary : 

"To review the commissions to Sir George Yeardley, governor, and 
the council, dated iSth November, 1618, for dividing the colony into ci- 
ties, boroughs, &c., and to observe all former instructions (a copy where- 
of was sent) if they did not contradict the present; and all orders of court 
(made in England) : 

" To make a catalogue of the people in ever,- plantation, and their con- 
ditions; and of deaths, marriages and christenings: 

"To take care of dead persons' estates for the right owners; to keep a 
list of all cattle and cause the secretary to return copies of the premises 
once a year : 

"To take care of every plantation upon the denlli of their chief; not to 
plant above one hundred pounds of tobacco per head ;* to sow great 
(juantities of corn for their own use, and to support the multitudes to be 
sent yearly; to inclose lands; to keep cows, swine, poultr}-, &,c., and 
particularly kyne, which are not to be killed 3"Ci: 

"Next to corn, plant mulbury trees, and make silk, and take care of 
the French men and others sent about that work; to try silk grass; to 
plant abundance of vines, and take care of tlic vignerors sent: 

"To put prentices to trades, and not let them Ibrsake their trades fi)r 
planting tobacco or any such useless commodity: 

"To take care of the Dutch sent to build saw-mllis, and scat them at 
the falls, that they may bring their timber by the curmit of the water: 

"To build water-mills and block-houses in every plantation: 

"That all contracts in l^ngland or Virginia be performed, and the 
breaches punished according to justice: 

"The tenants not to be enticed away; to take care of those sent about 
an iron work, and especially Mr. John JJerkcley, that they dont miscarry 
again, this being the greatest hope and expectation of the coloiiies: 

"To make salt, pitch, tar, soap, ashes, &,c., so often recommended. 

"This nrdrr slrikos tlio :\ntl)or nt; one nf a sincnlnr r!);\raolor. I: rrrlninlv rpqnircf 
fjreat. jiidrrnioiil and PxpRriet:Oi» of tlin |)lanl(^r to docidn what iiiiiid)er nf pLint"^ Wduk! 
make his KlO lbs. of loliacc", considering the casualiips td which liis crop was liable. 


ithd for ^vhich materials had been sent; to make oyl of walnuts, and em- 
ploy apothecaries in distilling lees of beer, and searching after minerals, 
dyes, gums, and drugs, &c., and send small quantities home:* 

" To make small quantity of tobacco, and that very good; that the hou- 
ses appointed for the reception of new comers and public storehouses be 
built, kept clean, &c.; to send the state of affairs quarterly, and a duplicate 
next shipping : 

"To take care of Captain William. Norton, and certain Italians sent to 
set up a glass house : 

"A copy of a treatise of the plantation business and excellent observan- 
ces made by a gentleman of capacity is sent to lie among the records, 
and recommended to the councillors to study : 

"Mr. William Clayborne, a surveyor, sent to survey the planters-lands, 
and make a, map of the country: 

" To make discoveries along the coast, and find a fishery between 
James river and Cape Cod: 

"As to raising staple commodities^ the chief officers ought to set ex- 
amples, and to aim at the establishment of the colony: 

" Chief officers that have tenants reprimanded for taking fees; but re- 
quire that the clerks have fees set for passes, warrants, copies of orders, &c.: 

"Governor and council to appoint proper times for administration of jus- 
tice, and provide for the entertainment of the council during their session; 
to be together one whole month about state affairs, and law suits ; to re- 
cord plaints of consequence ; to keep a register of the acts of quarter ses- 
sions, and send home copies : 

"If a governor dies, the major part of the council to choose one of 
themselves within fourteen days ; but if voices be divided, the lieutenant 
governor shall have the place ; and next the marshall ; next the treasurer; 
and one of the two deputies next : 

" Governor and chief officers not to let out their tenants as usual : 

"The governor only to summon the council, and sign warrants, and 
execute or give authority to execute council orders, except in cases that 
do belong to the marshall, treasurer, deputies, &c. : _ . 

" The governor to have absolute authority to determine and punisli all 
neglects, and contempts of authority, except the councils, v^^ho are to be 
tried at the quarter sessions and censured. Governor to have but the 
casting voice in council or court, but in the assembly a negative voice: 

" That care be taken that there be no engrossing commodity, or fore- 
stalling of the market : 

" All servants to fare alike in the colony, and their punishment for any 
offences is to serve the colony, in public works: 

" To see that the earl of Pembroke's thirty thousand acres be very good : 

"And lastly, not to let ships stay long, "and to fVeight them with wal- 
nut and any leas valuable commodity: 

" The jTovernor administered the following oath to the council: 

*Sendin^ things to England, was, in the phrase of ihe times, termed sendinjr tliuinra 
home, 'j'ius mode ofexirrtssiun. "ijfoinfx huiiie or sending home,'" was in use wiihin ilif 
recollection of t!ie author. In inUh, the term "going or sending home,"' was never 
abandoned till al'te- ilie war of the revolution. 


" You shall swear to be a true and faithful servant unto the king's ma- 
" jesty, as one of his council for Virginia : You shall in all things to be 
" moved, treated, and debated in that council concerning Virginia or any 
" the territories of America, between the degrees of thirty-four and forty- 
" five from the equinoctial line northward, or the trade thereof, faithfully 
" and truly declare your mind and opinion, according to your heart and 
" conscience; and shall keep secret all matters committed and revealed 
" to you concerning the same, and that shall be treated secretly in that 
" council, or this council of Virginia, or the more part of them, publication 
" shall not be made thereof; And of ail matters of great importance, 'or 
" dilficulty, before you resolve thereupon, you shall make his majesty's 
" priA^ council acquainted therewith, and follow their directions therein : 
" You shall to your uttermost bear faith and allegiance to the king's ma- 
" jesty, his heirs, and la\vful successors, and shall assist and deliend all 
"jurisdictions, preheminences, and authorities, granted unto his majesty 
" and annextunto the crown, against all foreign princes, persons, prelates 
" or potentates whatsoever, be it by act of parliament or otherwise : and 
" generally, in all things, you shall do as a faithful and true servant and 
" subject ought to do. So help you God and the holy contents of this 
" book."— Hening's Stat, at Large, vol. i. p. 114-118. 

It appears the loregoing instructions were drawn up by the council, 
and intended as the general principles for the government of the colony. 

The recommendation "not to injure the natives and forget old quarrels 
now buried," goes far to prove that hopes were entertained that the Indi- 
ans were disposed to be at peace. " To use means to convert the heath- 
en," is another evidence of this amicable state of feeling towards the na- 
tives. But lo ! this state of peace and tranquility, in less than one year 
after, was changed into one of devastation, blood and mourning. On the 
22d of March, 1622, the Indians committed the most bloody massacre 
on the colonists, recorded in the annals of our country.* 

In the following year, to wit, March, 1623, the colonial general assem- 
bly, by statute, directed, "'that the 22d March be yearly solemnized as 
holiiday."! This was done to commemorate the escape of the colony 
from entire extii'pation. This bloody massacre produced, on the part of 
the whites, a most deadly and irreconcilable hatred towards the natives. 
Accordingly, we find that a long continued and unabating state of hostil- 
ity was kept up, and in f\bout one hundred years the Indians were driven 
from the country east of the Blue Ridge. At the same session, to wit, 
1623, the legislature enacted several laws in relation to defending them- 
selves against the savages. In the series are the following : 

" That every dwelling house shall be pallizaded in for defence against 
the Indians : 

" That no man go or send abroad without a snflififiil partie well armed : 

'•This ypar. (lO-jJ), snys Mr. (iorrloii in liis history of tli?, Amfrii'aii revolution, (vol. 
i. p. 43,) ''was rcMiiurkablt! lor n massacrooi iho colonists by liic Indians, wliicli was ex- 
ecuted with the iil'uost snbtilty, and wiihoiitany regard to age, sect, or dignity. A well 
civicorted attack on all tlie seitU-nienls destroyed in uiic hour, and almost at the same iu- 
8t3nt.347 persons who were defeneclegs and ineajiable of iinkin;; resistance." 

+Heuini>*s Statutes at Large, vol. i. p. I'j:!. 


'^'^That people go not to work in the ground without their arms (and a 
<:entinell upon them :) 

" That the inhabitants go not aboard ships or upon any other occasions, 
in such numbers as thereby to weaken and endanger the plantations : 

" That the commander of every plantation take care that there be suffi- 
cient of powder and ammunition within the plantation under his com- 
mand and their pieces fixt and their arms compleate : 
" That there be dew watch kept by night : 

" That no commander of any plantation do either himselfe or suffer 
others to spend pounder unnecessarily, in drinking or entertainment, &c.: 

" That at the beginning of July next the inhabitants of every corpora- 
lion shall go upon their adjoining salvages, as we did the last year." — 
Hen. Stat, at Large, vol. i. p. 127, 128. 

In the year 1629, the legislature again "ordered that every commander 
of the several plantations appointed by commission from the governor, 
shall have power and authoritie to levy a partie of men out of the inhabi- 
tants of that place soe many as may well be spared without too much wea- 
kening of the plantations, and to employ those men against the Indians," 
&c. — Idein, p. 140. 

" It was the opinion of the whole bodie of the assembly that we should 
go three several marches upon the Indians, at three several times of the 
year, viz : first in November, secondly in March, thirdly in July," &c. — 
Idem, p. 141. 

In 1631-32, "it is ordered that no person or persons shall dare to speak 
or to parlie with any Indians, either in the woods or in any plantation, yf 
he can possibly avoid it by any means," &c. — Idem, p. 167. 

The author considers the foregoing extracts sufficient to enable the 
reader to form some opinion of the spirit and character of the early set- 
tlers of our state, particularly as it relates to their sufferings and difficulties 
with the Indian tribes. It is not deemed expedient or necessary to go 
into a detailed history of the first settlement of cur country, as there are 
several general histories of Virginia now to be obtained, written by 
authors, whose abilities and means of information the author could not 
expect to equal. 

The author will close this brief sketch of the first settlement of Virginia, 
with a few general remarks in relation to the first introduction of slavery. 
It appears from our early historians, that negroes were first introduced in- 
to our state from "a Dutch ship in the year 1620." woful day for our 
country ! To use 4ie language of Mr. Snowden, this was "an evil hour" 
for our country — It truly brought ^^new sins and new deaths''^ to the new 
w^orld. The present generation have abundant cause to deplore the un- 
hallowed cupidity and want of all the finer feelings of our nature, mani- 
fested in this baleful and unrighteous traffic. It has entailed upon us a 
heavy calamity, which will perhaps require the wisdom of ages yet to 
come to remove. That it must and will be removed, there can be but lit- 
tle doubt. History furnishes no example of any part of the human race 
being kept in perpetual slavery. Whether the scheme of sending them 
to Africa will ultimately produce the desired effect, can only be tested by 
time : it is liowever most "devoutlv" to be desired. 



The document Avliich follows relaiesto one of the most slnfrular events: 
Avhich ever occurred in Virginia, and its interest is a sufficient induce- 
ment for its insertion in this work. It was published in the Richmond 
Evangelical Magazine many years ago, but is now out of print. The 
editor of that work, (the late revered and highly esteemed Dr. Rice,) in 
introducing it into Ins pages, says : " It was taken verbatim from a copy 
in the library now belonging to congress, but formerly the property of Mr. 
Jefferson. Who the author is we cannot discover. He was certainly a 
man of much cleverness, and wrote well. But our readers will judge for 
themselves. The name of Bacon is very little known to our citizens in 
general: and this part of our history has been veiled in great obscurity. — 
There are two remembrances of this extraordinary man in the neighbor- 
hood of Richmond. A brook on the north-west of the city, wdiich bears 
the name of " Bacon-quarter branch," is said to have received its name 
from the fact, that on that brook Bacon had his quarter. Buck 
says that he owned a plantation on Shockoe creek, of Avhich the stream 
just mentioned is a branch. One of the finest springs in Richmond, or its 
vicinity, is on the east of the city, and is called Bloody-run spring. Its 
name is said to be derived from a sanguinary conflict which Bacon had 
with the Indians, on the margin of the streamlet which flows from this 

The following account of the original from which this document was 
taken, is given by Mr, Jefferson, in his own words : 

" The original manuscript, of which the following is a copy, was com- 
municated to me by Mr. King, our late minister plenipotentiary at the 
court of London, in a letter of Dec. 20, 1803. The transaction which it 
records, although of little extent or consequence, is yet marked on the 
history ofVa. as having been the only rebellion or insurrection which took 
place in the colony during the 168 years of its existence preceding the Am- 
erican revolution, and one lumdred years exactly before that event : in the 
contest with the house of Stuart, it only accompanied the steps of the mo- 
ther country. The rebellion of Bacon has been little understood, its 
cause and course being imperfectly explained by any authentic materials 
hitherto possessed; this renders the present narrative of real value. It 
appear^ to have been written by a person intimately acquainted with its 
origin, progress and conclusion, thirty years after it took place, and when 
the passions of the day had subsided, and reason might take a coo] and 
deliberate review of the transaction. It was written, too, not for tlie pub- 
Jic eye, but to satisfy the desire of minister Lord Oxford ; and the candor 
and "siinplifitv of the narration cannot fiii I to command belief. On the 
outside of the cover of the manuscript is the No. 3947 in one place, and 
5781 in another. Very possibly the one may indicate the place it held in 
Lord Oxford's library, anil the other its number in the catalogue of the 
bookseller to whose hands it came afterwards ; for it was at the sale of the 
stock of a bookseller that Mr. King purchased it. 

" To bring the autiientie.ity of this copy as nenr to that of the original ;is 
J could, 1 have laost carefully copied if with my own hand. The pages 


and lines of the copy correspond exactly with those of the original ; the 
orthography, abbreviations, punctuations, interlineations and incorrect- 
nesses, are preserved, so that it is ?ifac simile except as to the form of the 
letter. The orthography and abbreviations are evidences of the age of 
the writing. 

"The author says of himself that he was z planter; that he lived in North- 
umberland, but was elected a member of the assembly of 1676 for the 
county of Stafford, Colonel Mason being his colleague, of which assembly 
Col. Warner was speaker ; that it was the first and should be the last time 
of his meddling with public affairs ; and he subscrbes the initials of 
his name T. M. Whether the records of the time (if they still exist,) 
with the aid of these circumstances, will shew v.'hat his name was, re- 
mains for farther inquiry." 


To the right hono''ble Robert Harlcy csq''r. her .Mns;'' Principal 
Secretary oj" State, and one of her most IIono''ble Privy Council. 

The great honor of your command obliging my pen to step aside from 
its habitual element of ffigures into this httle treatise of hlslory; which 
having never before experienced, I am like Sutor ultra crepidam, and 
therefore dare pretend no more than (nakedly) recount matters of ffact. 

Beseeching yo'r hono'r will vouch safe to allow, that in 30 years, 
divers occurrences are laps'd out of mind, and others imperfectly retain- 

So as the most solemn obedience can be now paid, is to pursue the 
track of barefac'd truths, as close as my memory can recollect, to have 
seen, or believed, from credible ffricnds with concurring circumstances : 

And whatsoever yo'r celebrated wisdom shall finde amise in the com- 
}->esure, my entire dependence is upon yo'r candor favorably to accept 
these most sincere endeavors of Yo'r Hon'rs 

Most devoted humble serv't. 

The 13th July, 1705. T. M. 

The beginning progress and conclusion of Bacons rebellion in Virginia in 

the year 1675 ^' 1G76. 

About the year 1675, appear'd three prodigies in that country, which 
from th' attending disasters were look'd upon as ominous presages. 

The one was a large comet every evening for a week, or more at South- 
west ; thirty five degrees high streaming like a horse taile westwards, 
untillit reach'd (almost) the horison, and setting towards the North- west. 

Another was, fflic-hts of pigieons in breadth nigh a quarter of the mid- 
hemisphere, and of their length was no visible end; whose weights brake 
down the limbs of large trees whereon these rested at nights, of which 
the ffowlers shot abundance and eat 'em; this sight put the old planters un- 
der the more portentous apprehensions, because the like was seen (as they 
said,)in the year 1640 when th' Indians committed the last massacre, but 
PfOt after, until that present year 1675. 


The third strange appearance was swarms of iilycs about an inch long, 
and big as the top of a man's little finger, rising oat of spigot holes in 
the earth, which eat the new sprouted leaves from the tops of the trees 
without doing other harm, and in a month left us. 

My dwelling was in Nortliumberland, the lowest county on Potomack 
river, Stafford being the upmost, where having also a plantation, ser- 
vants, cattle &,c. ray overseer had agreed with one Rob't. Hen to come 
thither, and be my herdsman, who then lived ten miles above it ; but on 
a sabbath day morning in the sumer anno 1675, people in their way to ■ 
church, saw this Hen lying thwart his threshold, and an Indian without 
the door, both chopt on their heads, arms & other parts, as if done with 
Indian hatchetts, th' Indian Avas dead, but Hen when asked who did that? 
answered Doegs Doegs, and soon died, then a boy came out from under 
a bed where he had hid himself, and told them, Indians had come at 
break of day & done those murders. 

ffrora this Englishman's bloud did (by decrees) arise Bacons rebellion 
with the following mischiefs which overspread all Virginia & twice endan- 
gered Maryland, as by the ensueing account is evident. 

Of this horrid action Coll: Mason who commanded the militia remment 
of ffoot &. Capt. Brent the troop of horse in that county, (both dwelling 
six or eight miles downwards) having speedy notice raised 30, or more 
men, & and pursu'd those Indians 20 miles up & 4 miles over that river 
into Maryland, where landing at dawn of day, they found two small paths 
each leader with his party took a separate path and in less than a furlong 
either found a cabin, which they (silently) surrounded. Capt. Brent 
went to the Doegs cabin (as it proved to be) v.'ho speaking the Indian 
tonffue called to have a " Machacomicha wcewhio" i. e. a council called 
])resently such being the usuall manner with Indians (the king came 
trembling forth, and Vv'ou'd have fled, when Capt. Brent, catciiing hold of 
his twisted lock (which was all the hair he wore) told him he was come 
for the murderer of Rob't Hen, the king pleaded ignorance and slipt 
loos, whom l^rent shot dead with his pistoll, th' Indians shot two or three 
guns out of the cabin, th' English shot into it, th' Indians throng'd out at 
the door and iletl, the English shot as many as they cou'd, so that they 
killed ten, as Capt. Brent told me, and brought away the kings son of 
about 8 years old, concerning whom is an observable passage, at the end 
of this expedition ; the noise of this shooting awaken'd the Indians in 
the cabin, whicli Coll: Mason had encompassed, who likewise vush'd out 
&, (led, of whom his company (supposing from that noise of shooting 
Brent's party to be engaged) shot (as the Coll: informed me) flburteen 
before an Indian came, who with both hands shook him (friendly) by one 
arm saying Susquehanoughs netoughs i. e. Susquehanaugh friends and fled, 
whereupon he ran amongst his men, crying out "(for tlie Lords sake 
shoot no more, these are our friends the Susquehanoughs. 

This unhappy scene ended ; — Collo. Mason took the king of the Doegs 
son home with him, who lay ten dayes in bed, as one dead, with eyes 
and mouth siuilt, no breath disccrn'd, but his body continuing warm, 
they behcved him yett alive; th' albrcnamcd Capt. Brent (a papist) 
coming tliithor on a visit, and scehig his little prisencr thus languishing 


said "perhaps he is pawewawd i. e. bewitch'd, and that he had hoanl 
baptism was an effectual remedy against witchcral't wherefore ad^ is'tl to 
baptise him Collo. Mason answered, no minister cou'd be had in many 
miles ; Brent replied yo'r clerk Mr. Dobson may do that office, which 
was done by the church of England liturgy ; Col: Mason with Capt. 
Brent godfathers and Mrs. Mason godmother, m.y overseer Mr. Pimet 
being present, from whom I first heard it, and which all th' other persons 
(afterwards) affirm' d tome ; the hour men returned to drinking punch, 
but Mrs. Mason stayed & looking on the child, it open'd the eyes, and 
breath'd whereat she ran for a cordial, which he took from a spoon, gap- 
ing for more and so (by degrees) recovered, tho' before his baptism, 
they had often tryed the same meanes but cou'd not by no endeavours 
wrench open his teeth. 

This was taken for a convincing proofe against infidelity. 
But to return from this digression, the Susquehanoughs were newly 
driven from their habitations, at the head of Chesepiack bay, by the Cine- 
la-Indians, down to the head of Potomack, where they sought protection 
under the Pascataway Indians, who had a fort near the head of that 
river, and also were our ffriends. 

After this unfortunate exploit of Mason & Brent, one or two being 
kill'd in Stafford, boats of war were equipt to prevent excursions over the 
river, and at the same time murders being likev.'ise committed in Mary- 
land, by whom not known, on either side the river, both countrys raised 
their quota's of a thousand men, upon whose coming before the ffort, the 
Indians sent out 4 of their great men, who ask'd the reason of that hos- 
tile appearance, what they said more or offered I do not remember to have 
heard ; but our two commanders caused them to be (instantly) slaine, 
after which the Indians made an obstinate resistance shooting many of our 
men, and making frequent, fierce and bloody sallyes ; and when they 
were call'd to, or offered parley, gave no other answer, than "where are 
our four Cockarouses, i. e. great men ? 

At the end of six weeks, march'd out seventy five Indians with their 
women children &c. who by moon light passed our guards hollowing & 
firing att them without opposition having 3 or 4 decrepits in the ffort. 

The next morning th' English followed, but could not, or (for fear of 
ambuscades) would not overtake these desperate fugitives the number we 
lost in that siege I did not hear was published. 

The walls of this fort were high banks of earth, with flankers having 
many loop-holes, and a ditch round all, and without this a row of tall 
trees fastened 3. feet deep in the earth, their bodies from 5. to 8. inches 
diameter, watled 6. inches apart to shoot through with the tops twisted 
together, and also artificially wrought, as our men could make no breach 
to storm it, nor (being low land) could they undermine it by reason of 
water neither had they cannon to batter itt, so that 'twas not taken, untill 
ffamine drove the Indians out of it. 

These escap'd Indians (forsaking Maryland( took their rout over the 
head of that river, and thence over the heads of Rappahonnock & York 
rivers, killing whom they found of the upmost plantations untill they 
came to the head of .James river, vrherc (with Bacon and others) they 


slew Mr. Baron's overseer whom he much loved, mid one of his servants^ 
whose bloud hee vowed to revenge if possible. 

In these frightful times the most exposed small f^imilies withdrew into 
our houses of better numbers, which we fortified with })alisadoes and 
redoubts, neighbours in bodys joined their labours from each plantation 
to others alternately, taking their arms into the ffields, and setting centi- 
nels ; no man stirrd out of door unaim'd, Indians were (ever & anon) 
espied, three 4. 5. or 6. in a party lurking throughout tlie whole land, yet 
[what was remarkable] I rarely heard of any houses burnt, tho' abundance 
was forsaken, nor ever, of any corn or tobacco cut up, or other injury 
done, besides murders, except the killing of a very few cattle and swine. 

Frequent complaints of bloudsheds were sent to Sr. Wm. Berkeley 
(then (jovern'r) from the heads of the rivers, which were as often answer- 
ed Avith promises of assistance. 

These at the heads of James and York rivers (having now most people 
destoyedby the Indians flight thither from Potomack) grew impatient at 
the many slaughters of their neighbours and rose for their own defence, 
who chusing Mr. Bacon for their leader, sent oftentimes to the Govern'r, 
humbly beseeching a commission to go against those Indians at their 
own charge which his hono'r as often promised but did not send ; the 
niisteryes of these delays, were wondered at and v.hich I ne'er 
heard coud penetrate into, other than the effects of his })assion, and a 
new (not to be mentioned) occasion of avarice, to both which he was 
(by the common vogue) more than a little addicted; whatever were the 
po})ular surmizes & murmurins viz't. 

"that no bullets would pierce bever skins. 

"rebells forfeitures would be loyall inheritances &,c. 

During these protractions and people often slaine, most or all of the 
officers, civil & military with as many dwellers next the lieads of 
the rivers as made u}) 300. men taking Mr. Bacoii for their command'r 
met, and concerted together, the danger of going without a commiss'n on 
the one part, and the continuall murders of their neighboi-s on the other 
part (not knowing whose or how many of their own turns might be next) 
and came to this resolution viz't to prepare themselves with necessaries 
for a maich, but interim to send again for a commission, which if could 
or could not be obtayned by a certainc day, they would ju-oceod com- 
mission or ])o commission. 

'J'his day lapsing c^ no com'n come, they marched into the wilderness 
in quest ol' these Indians after whom tlie Govern'r sent his proclamation, 
denouncing all rebells, who should not return within a limited day, 
whereupon those of estates obey'd ; but Mr. Bacon with 67. men pro- 
ceeded until their provisions weif near spent, without finding enemy's 
when coming nigh a fibrt of ffriend Indians, on th' other side a branch of 
James river, they desired reliefe offering paym't. which these Indians kind- 
ly promised to help them with on the morrow, but put them offwith prom- 
ises untill the third day, so as then having eaten their last morsells they 
could not return, but must have starved in the way homeward and now 
'twas suspected, these Jndians had received private messages from the 
Govern'r ic tliosc to be the causes of these delusive procrastinations ; 


whereupon ihc English waded shoulder deep thro' Ihut branch ol' tlu; 
ffort palisade's still intreating and tendering pay, lor victuals ; but that 
evening a shot from the place they left on th' other side of that branch 
kill'd one of Mr. Bacon's men, which made them believe, those in tho. 
tfort had sent for other Indians to come behind 'em & cut 'em off. 

Hereupon they fired the polisado's, storm'd & burnt the ffort and cabr 
ins, and (with the losse of three English) slew 150 Indians. The circum- 
stances of this expedic'ij Mr. liacon entertain'd me with, at his own cham- 
ber, on a visit I made him, the occasion whereof is hereafter mentioned. 

ffrom hence they returned home where writts were come up to elect 
members for an assembly, when Mr. Bacon was unanimously chosen lor 
one, who coming down the river was cornmanded by a ship vyith guns to 
come on board, where waited Major Houe the high sheriff of James town 
^■eady to seize him, by whom he was carrjed down to the Govern'r & by 
him receiv'd with a surprizing pivility in the following words "Mr. Jja- 
,eon you had for got to be a gentleman." No, may it please yo'r hono'r 
answer'd Mr. Bacon; then replyed the Qovern'r I'll take yo'r parol, and 
gave him his liberty: in March 1675-6 writts came up to Stafford to 
<;hoose their two memhers for an assembly to meet in May; when CoUo. 
Mason Capt. Brent and other gentlemen of that county, invited me to 
stand a candidate; a matter I little dreamt of, having never had inclina- 
p^ons to tamper in the precarious intrigues of Govern't. and my hands 
being full of my own business: they press't severall cogent argum'ts. an<l 
I having considerable debts in that county, besides my plantation con- 
perns, wdiere (in one & th' other, I had much more severely suffered, than 
any of themselves by th' Indian disturbances in the summer and winter 
foregoing. I held it not [then] discreet to disoblige the rulers of it, so 
Collo: Afason with myself \j'ere electsd without objection, he at time 
convenient went on horse back; I took my sloop 8>^ the morping I arriv'd 
to James to-jvn after a weeks voyage, was welcom'd with t|ie strangp ac- 
iclamations of AWs Over Bacon is take.'j, having not heard at home of 
these Soutl^ern com'otions, pther than rumours like idle tales, of one 
Bacon risen up in rebellion, no body knew for what, concerning the 

The next forenoon, th' Assembly being met in a chamber over the 
Generah court & our Speaker chosen, the Govern'r sent for us down, 
where his hono'r with a pathetic emphasis made a short abrupt f^peeclj 
wherein were these wojds. 

" If they had killed my grandfather and my grandmother, my father 
^' and mother and all my friends, yet if they had come to treat of peace, 
'" they ouglit to have gone in peace, ap,d sat down. 

The two chief commanders qi the fprementioned seige, who slev," the 
ffour Indiaii great men, being present and part of our assembly. 

The Governor stood up againe and said "if there be joy in the presence 
" of the Angels over one sinner that repententh, there is joy now, for we 
" have a penitent sinner come before us, call Mr. Bacon; then did Mr. 
Bacon upoa one knee at tlic bar deliver a sheet of paper confessing his 
/crimes, and beo-o-jno- pardon of n-od the kitic <nid the Govern'r \\}i.:'reto 



[after a short pause] he answered "God forgive you, I forgive you, 
tiirice repeating" the same words; when CoUo. Cole [one of council] said, 
"and all that were with him, Yea, said the Governor &i all that were with 
him, twenty or more persons being then in irons who were taken coming 
down in the same &, other vessels with Mr. Bacon. 

About a minute after this the Govern'r starting up from his chair a 
third time said "Mr. Bacon! if you will live civilly but till next Quarter 
court [doubling the words] but till next Quarter court, He promise to 
restore you againe to yo'r place, there pointing with his hand to Mr. 
Bacons seat, he having been of the Councill before these troubles, tho' 
he had been a very short time in Virginia but was deposed by the fore- 
said proclamoc'on, and in the allernoon passing by the court door, in my 
way up to our chamber, I saw Mr. Bacon on his quondam seat the Gov- 
ern'r &, councill which seemed a marvellous indulgence to one whom he 
had so lately proscribed as a rebell. 

The Govern'r had directed us to consider of means for security from 
th' Indian insults and to deiray the charge &c. advising us to beware of 
two rogues amongst us, naming Laurence and Drummond both dwelling 
at James town and who were not at the Pascataway siege. 

But at our entrance upon businesse, some gentlemen took this oppor- 
tunity to endeavour the redressing severall grievances the country then 
labor'd under, motions were made for inspecting the publick revenues, 
the Collectors accompts &c. and so far was proceeded as to name part of 
a committee whereof Mr. Bristol [now in London] was and myself anoth- 
er, Avhen we were interrupted by piessing messages from the Govern'r to 
to meddle with nothing until tlie Indian business was dispatch't. 

This debate rose high, but was overruled and I have not heard that 
these ins])ections have since then been insisted upon, tho such of that in- 
digent people as had no benefits from the taxes groaned undr our being 
thus oveiborn. 

The next thing was a Co'mittee for the Indian affaires, whereof in ap- 
pointing members, myself was unwillingly nominated having no knowl- 
edge in martiall preparations, and after our nanu'S were taken, some of 
the house moved for sending 2. of our members to inlreat the Govern'r 
wou'd please to assign two of his councill to sit with, and assist us in 
our debates, as had been usuall. 

When seeino^ all silent looking: at each other with many discontented 
faces, I advenlur'd to offer my humble opinion to the Speaker "for the 
" co'mittee to ibrm methods as agreeable to the sense of the house as we 
" could, and report 'em whereby they would more clearly see, on what 
" })oints to give the Govern'r and Coinuill that trouble il' perhaps it niiglit 
" be needfuil." 

These few words raised an upioar ; one party urging hard "it had been 
customary and ought not to be omitted;" whereto Mr. Presley my neigh- 
bor an old assembly man, sitting next me, rose up, and [in a bluiulering 
manner re]>lied] "tis true, it has been custonuuy, but if we have any bad 
"custoiries amonst us, we are come here to mend 'em" which set the 
liouse ill ;i laughter. 

'I'his w;ls liiuldi'd off willioiit eoniiuj,^ to a \(ite, and so lliv co'mittee 


must submit to be overaw'd, and have every carpt at expression carried 
streio'ht to the Govern'r. 

Our co'mittes beinjj sat, the Queen of Pakunky [descended from Op- 
pechankeiiough a former Emperor of Virginia] was introduced, who en- 
tered the chamber with a comportment graceful to admiration, bringing 
on her right had an Enghshman interpreter and on the left her son a strip- 
ling twenty years of age, she having round her head a plat of black & 
white wampara peague three inches broad in imitation of a crown, and 
was cloathedin a mantle of dress't deerskins with the hair outwards &.the 
edge cut round 6 inches deep which made strings resembling twisted 
fringe from the shoulders to the feet ; thus with grave courtlike gestures 
and a majestick air in her face, she walk'd up our long room to the low- 
er end of the table, where after a few intrealies she sat down; th' inter- 
preter and her son standing by her on either side as they had walk'd up, 
our chairman asked her what men she would lend us for oruides in the 


wilderness and to assist us against our enemy Indians, she spake to th' 
interpreter to inform her what the chairman said, [tho we believe she un- 
derstood him] he told us she bid him ask her son to whom the English 
tongue was familiar, & who was reputed the son oi' an English colonel, 
yet neither wou'd he speak to or seem to understand the Chairmain but 
th' interpreter tokl us he referred all to his mother, who being againe 
urged she after a little musing Vvdth an earnest passionate countenance as 
if tears were ready to gush out and a fervent sort of expression made a 
harangue about a quarter of an hour, often interlacing [with a high shrill 
voice and vehement passion] these words "Tatapatomoi Chepiack, i. e. 
Tatapatomoi dead: Coll: Hill being next me, shook his head, I ask'd 
wliat was the matter, he told me all she said was too true to our shame, 
and that his father was generall in that battle, where diverse years before 
Tatapatamoi her husband had led a hundred of his Indians in help to th' 
English against our former enemy Indians, and was there slaine with most 
of his men; for vrhich no compensation [at all] had been to that day ren- 
dered to her wherewith she now upbraided us. 

Her discourse ending and oui- morose Chairman not advancing one cold 
word towards asswaging the anger and grief of her speech and demean- 
our manifested under her oppression, nor taking any notice of all she had 
said, neither considering that we (then) were in our great exigency, sup- 
plicants to her for a favour of the same kind as the former, for which we 
did not deny the having been so ingrate he rudely push'd againe the 
same question "what Indians will you now contribute &c? of this disre- 
gard she signified her resentment by a disdainful aspect, and turning her 
head half aside, sate mute till that same question hein^ press't a third 
time, she not returning her face to the board, answered with a low slight- 
ing voice in her own language "six, but being further importun'd she 
sitting alittle while sullen, without uttering a word between said "twelve, 
tho she then had a hundred and fifty Indian men, in her town, and so 
rose up and gravely walked away, as not pleased witli her treatment. 

Whilst some dais past in settling the Quota's of men arms and ammu- 
nic'on provisions &c. each county was to furnish oik- morning early a 
i)ruit ran about the town Bacon is fled Bacon is iled, wh^ivujxui \ went 


; Insight to Mr. Laurence, who (formerly) was of Oxford university, and 
for wit learning and sobriety was equall'd tliei-e by few, r.nd who some; 
years before [as Col: Lee tho one of the councill and a friend of the Gov- 
ern'i's informed me] had been partially treated at law, for a considerable 
estate on behalf of a corrupt favourite ; wliich Laurence complaining 
loudly of, the Gorern'r bore him a grudge and now^ shaking his head^ 
said "old treacherous villain, and that his house was seartht that morn- 
" ing, at day break, but Bacon was escaped into the country, having in- 
*' timation tliat the Govern'rs generosity in pardoning him and his foUov.^- 
*' ers and restoring him to his seat in the councill, were no other than 
" previous wheadles to amuse him & his adherents &. to circumvent them 
" by stratagem, forasmuch as the takiiig Mr. Bacon again into the councill 
" was first to keep him out of the assembly, and in the next place the 
" Govern'r knew^ the country })cople were hastning down with dreadful 
" threatnings to double revenge all wrongs shcu'd be done to JMr. 
'^^ Bacon or his men? or whoever shou'd have nad the lehst hand in 'em.' 
And so much was true that this Mr. young Nathaniel Bacon [not yet 
arrived to 30 years] had a nigh relation namely Colo. Nathaniel Bacon of 
long standing in the council a very rich politick man, and childless, de- 
signing this kinsman for his heir, who [not v.dthout much paines] had 
prevailed with his uneasy cousin to deliver the forem.entioned written recan- 
tation at the bar, having compiled it leady to his hand &, by whose meanes 
'twas su))posed that timely intimation was convey'd to the young gentle- 
man to flee for his lift, and also in 3. or four dais after Mr. Bacon was 
first seiz'd I saw abundance of men in town come thithfer from the heads 
bf the rivers, who fii'.dlng him restored «Sc his men at libert.y, return'd home 
s;:->i:\(iM; a few dair, after which, the Govern'r seeing all quiet, gave out 
])rivaic warrants to take him againe, iiitending as was thought to raisti 
the militia and so to dispose things as to prevent his friends from gather- 
ing any more into a like numei'ous body and coming down a second timb 
io save him. 

In three or fToilr dais after tliis escape, upon news that Jilr. Bacon was 
30 miles up the river, at the ht'ad of four hundred men, the Govern'r seilt 
to the parts adjacent, on both sides James river for the ihilitia and all the 
men that roukl be gotten to come and defend the town, expres's came al- 
hiost hourly of th' army's apjh'oaches, whom in less than four dais after 
the first account of 'em att 2. of the clock entered the town, without be- 
ihg withstood, and formed a body upon a green, not a flight >shot from the 
v^nH of the State house bf horse and fioot, as well regular as veteraii troops, 
whb forthwith possesst themselves of all the avehues, disarming all in thd 
towii and coming Ihith'er in boats or by land. 

In half an hour after this the rh-um bent for the house to meet, and id 
le'js than an hoiir more Mr. Bacon came with a file of fTusilecrs on either 
liand near the corner of the State-house where the Govern'r. nnd councill 
v.-ent forth to him ; we saw from the window the Govern'r. open his 
brenst, and Hacon strutting betwixt his two files of men with his left arm 
'on Keiibow fiigning his riuht. arm every way both like men distracted; 
and if in this moment of fury^ that enrnged midtitude had fain upon the 
?>nvernT & ••otmcilJ wc of thi? assembly expected the -'Hmc iinediatc tate j 

Introduction. xxi 

i slept ddwn and amoiigst the crown of Spectators foaad the seaineu of 
my sloop, who pray'd rne not to stir from tht'in, when in tv/o minutes^ 
the Govern'r walk'd towards his private apartni't. a Coits cast distant at 
the other end of the Statehouse, the sendemen of the councill followin<r 
lim, and after them walked Mr. Bacon with outragious postures of his 
head arms body &, legs, often tossing his hands from his sword to hi.; hat 
and after him came a detachment of ffusileers (musketts not being then in 
use) who with their cocks bent presented their ffusib at a window of the 
assembly chamber filled with faces, repeating with menacing voices "wa 
will have it, we will have it," half a minute when as one of our house a 
person kndwn to many of them, shook his handkercher out at the v.dn- 
dow, "saying you shall have it, you shall have it," 3 or 4 time.;; at these 
words they jate down their fusils unbent their locks and stood still untill 
Bacon coming back, they followed him to their main body; in this hubub 
a servant of mine got so nigh as to hear the Govern'rs words, and also 
Followed Mr; Bacon, and heard what he said, who came fctold me, that 
when the Govern'r opened his breast he said, "here! shoot me, foregod 
fair mark, shoot; often rehearsing the same, without any other wonls; 
whereto Mr. Bacon ansvrcred "No may it please yo'r hono'r we will not 
" hurt a hair of yo'r hetd, nor of any other mans, we are come foV a 
" Co'mission to save our lives from th' Indians, which you have so often 
" promised, and now we will hav(^ it before we go." 

But when Mv. Bacon followed the Govern'r &, Councill with the fore- 
mentioned impetuous (like delirious) actions whil'st that party presented 
llisir fFasils at the window full of ffaces, he said " Dam my bloud I'le kill 
" Govern'r Councill assembly & all, and then I'le sheath my sword in my 
^' own hearts bloud;" and afterwards 'twas said Bacon had given a sig- 
nal to his nien v.diO presented their fusils at thost^ gasing out at the win- 
dow that if he should draw his sword, they were on sight of it to fire, and 
slay us, so near was the massacre of Us all that veiry minute, had Bacon in 
that paroxism of phrCntiek fury but drawn his sword, before the pacifick 
handkercher was shaken out at window. 

In an hour or more after these violent concussions Mr. Bacon came up 
to our chamber and desired a co'mission from us to go against the Indians; 
bur Speaker sat silent, when one Mr. Blayton a neighbor to Mr. Bacon 
Selected with him a m-embe'i- of assembly for the same county (w'ao there- 
fore durst speak to him) made answer, " 't\vas not in our province, or 
"power, nor of any other, save the king's viceregent our Govern'r, he 
jiress'd hard nigh half aii hours harangue on the preserving our lives from 
the Indians, inspecting the publick revenues, th' exorbitant taxes and re- 
pressing the grievances and calasnitici of that deplorable country, wliercto 
having no other answer he went away dissatisfied. 

Next day there was a rumour the Govern'r &cauncill had agreed Mr. 
Bacon shou'd have a co'mission to go Generall of the iTorccs, we then 
were raising, whereupon I being a number of St.iTord, the most northern 
frontier, and where the war begun, considering that Mr. Bacon dwelling 
in the most Southern (Frontier, county, might the less regard the parts I 
represented, I v/ent to Coll: Cole (an active member of the councill) desi- 
ring his advice, if appUcic'oni to M;. D.ieon on tint subject v/jre then 


ifeasonabU; auJ sail', which he approving and earnestly advising, I went 
lo Mr. Laurence who was esteemed Mr. Bacon's principal consuhant, to 
whom he took me with him, and there left me where I was entertained 
2 or 3 hours with the particular relac'ons of diverse before recited trans- 
actions ; and as to the matter I spake of, he told me, the Govern'r had 
indeed promised him the command of the forces, and if his hono'r shou'd 
keep his word (which he doubted) he assured me "the like car« should be 
" taken of the remotest corners in the land, as of his own dwelling-house, 
" and pray'd me to advise him what persons in those parts were most fit to 
" bear commands." I frankly gave him ray opinion that the most satis- 
factory gentlemen to govern'r & people, wou'd be co'manders of the militia, 
wherewith he was w ell pleased, and himself v/rote a list of those nomina- 

That evening I made known what had passed with Mr. Bacon to my 
colleague Coll: Mason [whose bottle attendance doubted my task] the 
matter he liked well, but questioned the Govern'rs approbation of it. 

I confess'd the case required sedate thoughts, reasoning, that he and 
such like gentlemen must either co'mand or be co'raanded, and if on their 
denials Mr. Bacon should take distaste, and be constrained to ap- 
point co'manders out of the raljble, the Govern'r himself v.'ith the persons 
it estates ol' all in the land woud be at their dispose, whereby their own 
ruine might be owing to themselves; in this he agreed & said "If 
" the Govern'r woud give his ovrn co'mission he would be content 
" to serve under General Bacon [as now he began to be intituled] but 
" first would consult other gentlemen in the same circumstances ; who all 
concurr'd 'twas the most safe barrier in view against pernicious designes, 
if such should be put in practice; with this I acquainted Mr. Laurence 
•who went [rejoicing] to Mr. Bacon with the good tidings, that the militia 
co'manders were inclined to serve vmder him, as their Generall, in case 
the Governor would please to give them his own co'missions. 

Wee of the house proceeded to finish the bill for the war, which by the 
assent of the Govern'r and councill being past into an act, the Govern'r 
sent us a letter directed to his majesty, wlierein were these words " I have 
" above 30 years governed the most ilourishing country the sun ever shone 
" over, but am now encompassed with rebellion like waters in every re- 
" spect like to that of Massanello except their leader, and of like import 
was the substance of that letter. But v:v diil not believe his hono'r sent 
us all he wrote his majesty. 

Some judi(^ious gentlemen of our house likewise penii'd a letter or re- 
monstrance to be sent his Maj'tie, setting forth the gradations of those 
erupc'ons, and two or three of them with Mr. Minge our clerk brought it 
me to compile a few lines for the conclusion of it, which I did [tho not 
without regr(!t in those watchfull times, when every man iiad eyes on him, 
but what I wrote was with all possible deferrence to the Govern'r and in 
the most soft terms my pen cou'd find the case to admit. 

Col. Spencer being my neighbor & intimate friend, and a prevalent 
member in the council 1 pray'd him to intreat the Govern'r we might be 
dissolved, for that was my fnst and shoidd be my Inst going astray from 
my wonted ^■•phcrc of merchandize i^ other my [private concernments into 


the dark and slippery meanders of court embarrasmcnts, he told mc the 
Govern'rhad not [then] determined his intention, but he \vou'd move his 
houo'r about itt, and in 2 or 3 days we were dissolved, which I was most 
heartily glad of, because of my getting loose againe from being hampered 
amongst those pernicious entanglem'ts in the labyrinths (&, snares of state 
ambiguities, & which untill then I had not seen the practice nor the dan- 
gers of, for it w'as observ'dthat severall of the members had secret badges 
of distinction fixt upon 'em, as not docill enough to gallo}) the future races, 
that court seem'd disposed to lead 'em, whose maxims I had oft times 
lieard whisper'd before, and then found confirm'd by diverse considerate 
gentlem'n viz't. "that the wise and the rich were prone to ffaction &. se- 
" dition but the fools &poor were easy to be governed." 

Many members being met one evening nigh sunsett, to take our leave 
of each other, in order next day to return iiomewards, cams Gen'll. Bacon 
w'ith his handfuU of unfolded papers & overlooking us round, walking in 
the room said "which of these Gentlem'n shall I mterest to write a few 
words for me, where every one looking aside as not willing to meddle ; 
Mr. Lawrence pointed at me saying "that gentleman writes very well 
which I endeavoring to excuse Mr. Bacon came stooping to the ground 
and said "pray S'rDo me the ho'r to write a line for me." 

This surprising accostm't shockt me into a melancholy consternation, 
dreading upon one hand, that Staffbrd county would feel the smart of his 
resentment, if I should refuse him whose favour I had so lately sought and 
been generously promis'd on their behalf; and on th' other iiand fearing 
the Govern'rs displeasure who I knew would soon hear of it ; what 
seem'd most prudent at this hazardous dilemma was to obviate the pre- 
sent impending peril ; So Mr. Bacon made me sit the whole night by him 
fdling up those papers, which I then sav\' were blank co'missions sign'd 
by the Govern'r incerting such names & writing other matters as he dic- 
tated, which I took to be the happy effects of the consult before men- 
tioned, with the com'anders of the militia because he gave me the names 
of very few others to put into these cojn'issions, ami ni the morning he 
left me with an hours worke or more to finish, when came to me Capl. 
Carver, and said he had been to wait on the Generall for a com'ission, 
and that he was resolved to adventure his old bones against the Indian 
rogues with other the like discourse, and at lengdi told me that I was in 

mighty favour and he was bid to tell me, that whatever I desired 

in the Generals power, was at my service, I pray'd him humbly to thank 
his hon'r and to acquaint him I had no other boon to crave, than his pro- 
mis'd kindness to Stafford county, for beside the not being worthy, I never 
had been conversant in military matters, and also having lived tenderly, 
my service cou'd be of no benefit because the hardships and fatigues of a 
wilderness campaigne would put a speedy period to my dais: little ex- 
pecting to hear of more intestine broiles, I went home to Potomack, where 
reports w^ere afterwards various; we had account that Generall Bacon was 
march'd with a thousand men into the fForest to seek the enemy Indians, 
and in a few dais after our next news was, that the Govern'r had sum'on- 
ed together the militia of Gloucester & Middlesex counties to the number 
of twelve hundred men, and pi'oposed to them to follow k and suppr.-ss 


that rebell Bacon, wlitreupon arose a murmuring before his face '•'Bacoq 
Bacon Bocon, and all walked out of the field, muttering; as they went 
^'Bacon liacon Bacon, leaving the Governor and those that came with 
him to themselves, who being thus abandon'd wafted over Chesepiacko 
bay 30 miles to Accomack where are two counties of Virginia. 

Mr. Bacon hearing of this canie back part of the vray, and sent out par- 
tics of horse patrolling through pvery county, carrying away prisoners all 
whom he distrusted might any more molest his Indian prosecuc'on ye^ 
giving liberty to such as pledg'd him their oaths to return home and live 
quiet ; the copies or contents of which oaths I never saw, but lieard wer§ 
very strict, tho' little observed. 

About this time was a spie detected pretendijig himself a deserter who 
had twice or thrice come and gone frojn party tp party and was by council^ 
of war sentenced to death, after which Bacon declared openly to him, 
"that if any one in the army wou'd speak a word to save him, he shou'd 
." not suffer," which no man appearing to do, he was executed, upon this, 
jnanifestation of clemency Bacon was applauded for a mercifull man, not 
willing to spill Christian bloud, nor indeed was it said, that he put any 
other man to death in cold bloud, or plunder any house ; ^ligh the same 
time came Maj'r Langston with his troop of horse and quartered two 
nights at my house who [after high compliments from the (jcnerall] told 
me I was desired "to accept the Lieutenancy for preserving the peace iri 
the 5 Northern counties betwixt Potomack and Rappahannock rivers, I 
humbly thank'd his hon'r excusing myself, as I had done before on that in- 
vitation of the like nature at James town, but did hear lie was mightily 
offended at my evasions and threatened to remember me. 

The Govern'r made 2d. attempt coming over from Accomapk with w^hat 
men he could procure in sloops and bpats, forty jniles up the river to James 
town, which Bacoji hearing of, came againe do^vnfrom his fforest pursuit, 
and finding a bank not a liight shot long, cast up thwart thp neck of the 
ptniiisula llierc in James town, he stormed it, and took thp town, in which 
attack were 12, men slaine & wounded but the Govern'r witii most of his 
followers fled back, down the river in their vessells. 

Here resting a few dais they concerted the burning of the town, whercii] 
Mr. Lawrence and Mr. Drumond owning the two best houses save one, 
;sat fire each to his own house, which examplp the souldiers following laid 
the whole town with church and St-ite house in ashes, saying, the rogue? 
should liaibour no more there. 

On these reiterated molestac'ons Bacon calls a convention at Midlo 
plantation 15. miles from James town in the month of August 1676, 
where an oath with one or more proclamations were formed, and wiitta 
by him issued for an Assembly ; the oaths or writls 1 never saw, but one 
proclamation com'anded all men in the land on ])ain of death to joine him, 
and retire into the wildernesse upon arrival f)f the forces expected from 
England, and oppose them untill they should propose to accept to treat ( f 
an accoin'odntion, which we who lived comfortably coud not have under- 
gone, so as tlie whole land must li;ive become an Aceldama if gods ex? 
feeding mercy had not timely removed liim. 

Pi ]ring tiiese tunndts in \ irginia a 2d. danger menaced Mniyland bv 


cm luRurrcction in thai province, complaining of their heavy taxes &c. where 
2 or 3 of the leading jnalcontents [men otherwise ol' laudable characters] 
were put to death, which stifled the farther spreading of that flame. Mr. 
Bacon, [at this time] press't the best ship in James river, carrying 20 
guns and putting into her his Lieutenant Generall Mr. Bland [a gentle- 
man newly come thither from England to possesse the estate of his de- 
ceased uncle late of the council] and under him the forementioned Capt. 
Carver, formerly a com'ander of Merch'ts ships with men & all necessa- 
ries, he sent her to ride before Accomack to curb and intercept all small 
vessels of war com'ission'd by the Govern'rcom'ing often over and mak- 
ing depredations on the Western shoar, as if we had been fforeign enemies, 
which gives occasion in this place to digress a few words. 

Att first assembly after the peace came a message to them from the 
Govern'r for some marks of distinction to be set on his loyal friends of 
Accomack, who received him in his adversity which when came to be 
consider'd Col: Warner [then Speaker] told the house " Ye know that 
" what mark of distinction his hono'r coud have sett on those of Acco- 
" mack unlesse to jjive them ear marks or burnt marks for robbing; and 
"ravaging honest people, who stay'd at home and preserv'd the estates 
"of those who ran away, when none intended to hurt 'em."- 

Now returning to Capt Carver the Govern'r sent for him to come on 
shoar, promising his peaceable return, who answer'd, he could not trust 
his word, but if he wou'd send his hand &. seal, he wou'd adventure to 
Avait upon his hono'r which was done, and Carver went in his sloop w^ell 
arm'd & man'd with the most trusty of his men where he was caress'd 
w'ith wine &c. and large promises, if he would forsake Bacon, resigne his 
ship or joine w^ith him, to all which he ansvcer'd that "if he served the 
" Devill he would be true to his trust, but that lie was r-csolved to go 
" home and live quiet. 

In the mean time of this recepc'on and parley, an armed boat was })re- 
pared with many oars in a creek not far off, but out of sight, which Avhen 
Carver sail'd, row^d out of the creek, and it being almost calm the boat 
out went the sloop whilst all on board the ship were upon tiic deck star- 
ing at both, thinking the boats company coming on board by Carvers 
invitation to be civilly entertained in requitall for the kindness they sui)- 
posed he had received on slioar, untill coming under the stern, those in 
the boat slipt nimbly in at the gun room ports with pistoils &,c. when 
one courageous gentleman ran up to the deck, &. clapt a pistoll to Elands 
breast, saying you are !uy prisorner, the boats company suddainly follow- 
ing with pistoils swords &c. and after Capt. Larimore (the com'ander of 
the ship before she w-as press!) having from the highest and hindmost 
part of the stern interchangM a signal from the shoar, by flirting his hand- 
kercher about his nose, his ov/n former crew had laid handspikes ready, 
which 1hey [at that instant] caught up &c. so as Bland & Cai'vers men 
were amazed and yielded. 

Carver seeing a hurly burly on th.e ships deck, w-oud have gone away 
V/itli his sloop, but having little wind &. the shi)) threat 'ning to sink him, he 
tamely came on board, wIuto P)lan(! & lic wilh llieir pnr1v were l:;;d in ii-o!)s, 



and in 3. or 4 dais Carver was hang'd on shoar, which S'r Henry Chi- 
chelly the first of the councill then a prisoner, [with diverse other gentle- 
men] to Mr. Bacon, did afterwards exclaime against as a most rash and 
wicked act of the Govern'r he in particular expecting to have been treated 
by way of reprizall, as Bacons friend Carver had been by the Govern'r. 
Mr. Bacon now returns from his last expedic'on sick of filux ; without 
finding any enemy Indians, having not gone far by reason of the vexations 
behind him, nor had he one dry day in all his marches to and fro in the 
Iforest whilst the plantations [not 50, miles distant] had a sum'er so dry 
as stinted the Indian corn and tobacco &c. which the people ascribed to 
the Pawawings i. e. the sorceries of the Indians, in a while Bacon dyes 
& was succeeded by his Lieuten't Gen'll Ingram, who had one "VVakelet 
next in com'and under him, whereupon hasten'd over the Govern'r to 
York river, and with Vv'hom they articled for themselves, and whom else 
they could, and so all submitted and were pardoned exempting those 
nominated and otherwise proscribed, in a proclamac'on of indemnity, the 
])rincipa]l of whom were Laurence and Drum'ond. 

Mr. Bland was then a prisoner having been taken with Carver, as be- 
fore noted, and in a few dais Mr. Drurnond was brought in, when the 
Govern'r iDcing on board a ship came immediately on shore and compli- 
mented him Vvith the ironicall sarcasm of a low bend, saying " Mr. 
" Diummond ! you are very unwelcome, I am more glad to see you, 
" than any man in Virginia, Mr. Drumond you shall be hang'd in half 
" an hour ; who answered What yo'r hono'r pleases, and as soon as a 
council of war cou'd meet, his sentence be dispatchat &, a gibbet erected 
[which took up near two houres] he was executed. 

This Pvlr. Drumond was a sober Scotch gentleman of good repute with 
whome I had not a particular acquaintance, nor do I know the cause of 
that rancour his hono'r had against him other than his pretentions in 
com'n for the publick but meeting him by accident the morning I left the 
town, I advis'd him to be very wary, for he saw the Govern'r had put a. 
brand upon liim, he [gravely expressing my name] answered "I am in 
over shoes, I will be over boots," which I was sorry to heare & left him. 
The last account of Mr. Laurence was ficm an uppermost plantation, 
where he and flour others desperado's with horses pistolis &c. march'd 
away in a snow ancle deep, who were thought to have cast themselves 
into a branch of some river, rather than to be treated like Drum'ond. 

Bacons body was so made away, as his bones were never found to be 
exposed on a gibbet as was purpos'd, stones being laid on his ccffin, 
.supi)oscd to be done by Laurence. 

Near this time arrived a f.rnall flleet with a regiment from England S'r 
.John Berry admirall. Col: Herbert Jefferies com'ander of the land lorces and 
Coljo: Morrison who had one year been a former Govern'r theii', all three 
joined in a com'ission with or to S'r Williina Barclay, soon after when a 
generall court, and also an assembly were held, where some of our former 
assembly [wilh so many others] were put to death, diverse whereof were 
jier'-ons of honest reputations and lirndseme estates, as that the Assembly 
pclilioiied the Govern'r to r,])']\] no mmc lj!ou(i,and Mr. Presly at his coming 
lif ine told me, he believed the Govern'r would have hang'd half the 


couutry, if tliey had let him alone, the first was Mr. Bland whose fi'iends 
in England had procured his pardon to be sent over with the flleet, w^hich 
lie pleaded at his tryall, was in the Govern'rs pocket [tho' whether 'twas 
so, or how it came there, I know not, yet did not hear 'twas openly con- 
tradicted] but he was answered by CoUo. Morrison that he pleaded his 
pardon at swords point, which was look'd upon an odd sort of reply, and 
he was executed ; [as was talked] by private instructions from England 
the Duke of York having sworn "by god Bacon & Bland shoud dye. 

The Govern'r v/ent in the iTieet to London [wdiether by com'and from 
his Majesty or spontaneous I did not hear] leaving Col. Jciferyes in his 
.place, and by next shipping came back a person who waited on his hono'r 
in his voyage, and untill his death, from whom a report was wliisper'd 
about, that the king did say "that old fool had hang'd more men in that 
■" naked country, tiian he had done for the murther of his father, whereof 
the Govern'r hearing dyed soon after without having seen his majesty ; 
which shuts up this tragedy. 


To avoid incumoering the body of the foregoing little discourse, I have 
hot therein mentioned the received opinion in Virginia, which very much 
attributed the prom.oting these pertarbac'ons to Mr. Laurence, & Mr. 
Bacon with his other adherents, were esteemed, as but wheels agitated 
by the weight of his former & present resentments, after their choler was 
raised up to a very high pitch, at having been [so long & often] trifled with 
on their humble supplications to the Govern'r for his im'ediate taking in 
hand the most speedy meanes towards stopping the continued effusions of 
so much English bloud, from time to time by the Indians ; which com'on 
sentim'ts I have the more reason to believe were not altogether ground- 
less, because my self have heard him [in his familiar discourse] insinuate 
as if his fancy gave him prospect of linding (at one time or other) some 
expedient not only to repair his great losse^ but therewith to see those 
abuses rectihed that the country was oppressed with through (as he said) the 
forwardness avarice &french despotick methods of the Govern'r & likewise 
I know him to be a thinking man, and tho' nicely honest, affable, & with- 
out blemish; in his conversation and dealings, yet did he manifest abund- 
ance of uneasiness in the sense of his hard usages, v/hich might prompt 
him to improve that Indian quarrel to the service of his animosities, and 
for this the more fair & fi-equent opportunities offered themselves to him 
"by his dwelling at James town, v^^here w^s the concourse from all parts to 
the Govern'r and besides that he had married a welathy v;idow who kept 
a large house of public entertainm't unto which resorted those of the best 
quality and such others as businesse called to that town, and his parts with 
his even temper made his converse coveted by persons of all ranks ; so 
that being subtile, and having these advantages he might with Icsse difli- 
cuUy discover mens inclinations, and instill his notions where he found 
those woud be imbib'd with greatest satisfaction. 

As for Mr. Bacon fame did lay to his charge the having run out his 
patrimony in Eagland except what he brouglit to Virginia, and for that^ 
■the mo5-t })ivt to be exhausted, rirWicli together made him susj)(.'cting ot 


casting an eye to search for retrievment in the troubled waters ol'populfl 
discontents, wanting patience to wait the death of his opulent cousin, old 
Collo. Bacon, whose estate he expected to inherit. 

But he was too young, too much a stranger there, and of a disposition 
too precipitate, to manage things to that lengtii those were carried, had 
not thoughtfuU Mr. Laurence been at the bottom. 

I S T O M ¥ 

O F 

wmm w Ammm'^ 


' ^SfifffS^^ ■ 



From the best evidence the author has been able to obtain, and to this 
end he has devoted much time and research, the settlement of our fine and 
beautiful valley commenced in the year 1732, about one hundred and 
twenty-five years from the first settlement in Virginia. Before going into 
a detail of the first immigration to and improvement of the Valley, the 
author believes it will not be uninteresting to the general reader, to have 
a brief history of the long and bloody wars carried an between contending 
tribes of Indians. Tradition relates that the Delaware and Catawba tribes 
were engaged in war at the time the Valley was first known by the white 
people, and that that war was continued for many years after our section 
of country became pretty numerously inhabited by the white settlers. 

I shall commence with a narrative of Indian battles fought on the Co- 
hongoruton.* At the mouth of Antietam, a small creek on the Maryland 

*Cohongoruton Is the ancient Indian name of the Potomac, from its 
junction with the Shenandoah to the Allegany mountain. Lord Fairfax, 
in his grants for land on this water course, designated it Potomac ; by 
which means it gradually lost its ancient name, and now is generally 
known by no other name. Maj. H. Bedinger writes the name of this 
river Cohongoluta. It is, however, written in the act laying off the 
county of Frederick in 173S, Cohongoruton. 


side oi ihc iivcr, a most bloody aflair took place between parties of the 
Catawba and Delaware tribes. This was probably about the year 1736. 
The JJehiwares had pejietrated pretty far to the south, committed some 
acts of outrage on the Catawbas, and on their retreat were overtaken at 
the moulh of this creek, when a desperate conflict ensured. Every man 
of the Delaware party was put to death, with the exception of one who 
escaped after the batile was over, and every Catawba held up a scalp but 
one. This was a disgrace not to be borne : and he instantly gave chase 
to the fugitive, overtook him at the Susquehanna river, (a distance little 
short of one hundred miles,) killed and scalped him, and returning, show- 
ed his scalp to several white people, and exulted in what he had done.* 

Another most bloody battle was fought at the mouth of Conococheague,f 
on Friend's land, in which but one Delaware escaped death, and he ran in 
to Friend's house, when the family shut the door, and kept the Catawbas 
out, by which means the poor fugitive was saved. J 

There is also a tradition, and there are evident signs of the fact, of 
another furious battle fought at what is called the Slim Bottom on Wap- 
patoiB''^k'^5§ (the ancient Indian name of the Great South Branch of the 
Potoin<it',) about one and a half miles from its mouth. At this place 
there 'ir^ several large Indian gi-aves, near what is called the Painted 
Rock. Onn this rock is exhibited the shape of a man with a large blotcth, 
intended, probably, to represent a man bleeding to death. The stain, it 
appeared to the author, was made with human blood. The top of the 
rock projects over the painted part so as to protect it from the washings 
of the rains, and is on the east side of the rock. How long the stain of 
human blood would remain visible in a position like this, the author can- 
not pretend to express an opinion ; but he well recollects the late Gen. 
Isaac Zane informed him that the Indians beat out the brains of an infant 
(near his old iron works) against a rock, and the stain of the blood was 
plainly to be seen about forty years afterwards. In this battle it is 
said but one Delaware escaped, and he did so by leaping into the river, 
divinGf under the water, and continuino- to swim until he crossed tlie 

A great battle ])etween these hostile tribes, it is said, was fought at 
what is called the Hanging Rocks, on the Wappatomaka, in the county 

*This tradition was related to the author by Capt< James Glenn, of Jef- 
ferson county, now upwards of 73 years of age, and coniirmed by the ve- 
nerable John Tornlinson, near Cum])er]nnd, Alaryland, now 92 years old. 

|Mr. Tomlinson is of opinion this affair took place at the moulh of the 

:j:Cai)t. James Glenn, confirmed by INIr. Tomlinson, except as to the 
place of battle, 

§The name of this water course in Lord Fairfax's ancient grants is 
written Wappatoinac ; but Mr. Heath and Mr. IMue both stated that the 
proper name was VVajipatomaka. 

||Capt. James Glenn, confirmed by Mr. Garret Bhu', of llaiiq); hire. — 
Indeed, this tradition is familiar to most of the elderly citizens on the 
South Branch, as also the battle of the Hanging Rocks. 


of Hampshire, where the river passes throiig-h the mountain.* A pretty 
large party of the Delawares had invaded the territory of the Catawbas, 
taken several prisoners, and commenced their retreat homewards. When 
they reached this place, they made a halt, and a number of them com- 
menced fishing. Their Catawba enemies, close in pursuit, discovered 
them, and threw a party of men across the river, willi another in 
their front. Thus enclosed, with the rock on one side, a party on the 
opposite side of the river, another in their front, and another in their rear, 
a most furious and bloody onset was made, and it is believed that several 
hundred of the Delawares were slaughtered. Indeed, the signs now to 
be seen at this place exhibit striking evidences of the fact. There is a 
row of Indian graves between the rock and public road, along the margin 
of the river, from sixty to seventy yards in length. It is believed that 
but very few of the Delawares escaped. 

There are also signs of a bloody battle having been fought at the forks 
of the Wappatomaka; but of this battle, if it ever occurred, the author 
could obtain no traditional account. 

Tradition also relates that the Southern Indians exterminated a tribe, 
called the Senedos, on the North fork of the Shenandoah river, at present 
the residence of William Steenbergen, Esq., in the county of Shenandoah. 
About the year 1734, Benjamin Allen, Riley Moore, and William White, 
settled in this neighborhood. Benjamin Allen settled on the beautil'ul 
estate called Allen's bottom. An aged Indian frequently visited him, 
and on one occasion informed him that the " Southern Indians killed his 
whole nadon with the exception of himself and one other youth ; that this 
bloody slaughter took place when he, the Indian, \x:i^ a small boy."* — 
From this tradition, it is probable this horrid affair took place some time 
shortly after the middle of the seventeenth century. Mnj. Andrew Keyser 
also informed the author that an Indian once called at his grandfather's, 
in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, appeared to be much agitated, and 
asked for something to eat. After refreshing himself, he was asked what 
disturbed him. He replied, " The Southern Indians have killed my 
whole nation." 

There are also evident signs of the truth of this tradition yet to be seen. 
On Mr. Steenbergen's land are the remains of an Indian mound, though 
it is now plowed down. The ancient settlers in the neighborhood differ 
in their opinion as to its original height. When they first saw it, some 
say it was eighteen or twenty feet high, others that it did not exceed 
twelve or fourteen, and that it was from fifty to sixty yards in circumfer- 
ence at the base. This mound was literally filled vath human skeletons ; 
and it is highly probably that this was the depository of the dead after the 
great massacre which took plaJle as just related. 

This brief account of Indian battles contains all the traditionary infor- 

*As the author expects to give a detailed description of this extraordi- 
nary place, in his chapter of natural curiostties, he will barely mention 
the fact, tliat this rock, on one side of the river, is a perpendicular wall 
of several hundred feet high, and several hundred yards in lengtli. 

fMr. Israel Allen related this tradition to the author. 


raationthe author has been able to collect, with one exception, which will 
be noticed in the next chapter. There is, however, a tradition, that on 
one particular occasion, a parly oflhirty Delaware Indians, having pene- 
trated far to the south, surprised a party of Catawbas, killed several, and 
took a prisoner. 'J'he party of Delawares, on their return, called at Mr. 
Josc])h Perrill's near Winchester, and exulted much at their success. — 
The next day a party often Catawbas called at Mr. Perrill's in pursuit. — 
They enquired when their enemy had passed. Being informed, they 
])ushed otF at a brisk step, overtook the thirty Delawares at the Cohongo- 
ruton, (Potomac,) killed every man, recovered their prisoner, called at 
Mr. Perrill's on their return, and told what they had done.* But it is 
probable this is the same affair which took place at the mouth of the 
Antietam, though it is possible that it may be a different one. Mr. Tom- 
linson is under the impression that there was an Indian battle fought at 
the mouth of Opequon. 

The author has seen and conversed \\\\h. several aged and respectable 
individuals, who well recollect seeing numerous war parties of the Noith- 
ern and Southern Indians passing and repassing through the Valley. — 
Several warrior paths have been pointed out to him. One of them led 
from the C'nliongoruton, (Potomac,) and passed a little west of Winches- 
ter southwardly. This path forked a few miles north of Vv'inchester, and 
one branch of it diverged }riore to the east, crossed the Opequon, verj' 
near Mr. Carter's paper mill, on the creek, and led on toward the forks 
of the Shenandoah river. Anotlier crossed the North mountain and the 
Valley a fevr miles above the Narrow Passage, thence over the Fort 
mountain to the South river valley. Another crossed from Cumberland, 
in Maryland, and proceeded up the Wappatomaka or Great South Branch 
valley, in the counties of Hampshire and Hardy. 

An aged and respectalile old lady, on Apple-pie ridge, informed the 
author that she had IVequenlly lioard her motlier speak of a party of Dela- 
ware Indians once stopping at her father's, where they stayed all niglit. — 
'f hey had in custody a young female Catawba prisoner, v.lin was one of 
the most beautiful females she had ever seen. Maj. R. D. (Ijass also 
informed the* author that his fithcr, who resided at the head of the Ope- 
quon, stated the same fact. It was remarkable to sec with what resigna- 
tion this liiiforluniUc young jTisoncr submitted lo licr f;ile. li'er unfeel- 
ing tornienlors would tie her, and compel her at night to jay on her hack, 
with the cords distended from her hands and [cct, and tied to branches 
cr what else ihev could get at to make her secure, while a m;in laid on 
each side ofh-^r with the cords passing under their bodies. 

Mr. .John ■"I'omlinson also informed the author, that when about seven 
or eight years of ;;ge, he saw a pjuMy of Delawares pa;;s his father's hf)use, 
with a female Cataw1>n prisoner, wiio lr,ifl an infant child in lirr arms; — 
j:nd that it was said ihey intended to sacrifice lur wiien tli-.-y reached 
llieir t owns. I 

*(!en. .lohn Sniiili rommnnicaif.l lids IrP'iitinn io the anther. 
^.Mr. Tomlinson's father then resided about 7 miles bolow the n;oulli of 
Coiiccoclu-aguc on or near the Polemic, en llie .Maryland side. 


Tradition also relates a very remarkable instanee of the sacrifice of a 
female Catawba prisoner by the DeJawares. A party of Delawares 
crossed the Potomac, near Okhown, in Marylanil, a short distance from 
which they cruelly murdered their prisoner : they then moved on. The 
next day several of them returned, and cut off the soles of her feet, in 
order to prevent her from pursuing and haunting them in their march.*' 

Capt. Glenn informed the author that a Mrs. 5lary Friend, who resided 
on or near the Potomac, stated to him that she once sa^v a body of four or 
five hundred Catawba Indians on their march to invade the Delawares ; 
hut from some cause they became alaimed, and returned without success, 
The same gentleman stated to the author that a Mr. James Hendricks 
informed him that the last sacrifice made by the Delawares, of their 
Catawba prisoners, was at the first run or stream of ^vater on the 
pouth side of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Here several prisoners were 
tortured to death with all the wonted barbarity and cruelty peculiar to 
the savage character. Mr. Hendricks was an eye witness to this scene 
oi' horror. During the protracted and cruel sufferings of these unhappy 
victim's, tliey tantalized and used the most insulting; lanuHiaire to their 
tormentors, threatenins; them with the terrible vensjeance of their jiation 
as long as they could speak. 

This bloody tragedy soon reached the ears of the Governor of PennsvU 
vania, and he forthwith issued his prochimation, commanding and requi- 
ring all the authorities, both civil and military, to interpose, and prohibit 
a repetition of such acts of barbarity and cruelty. 

The author will now conclude this narrative of Indian wars, with a 
few general rellections. 

It is the opinion of some philosophers, that it is inherent in the nature 
of man to fight. The correctness of this opinion Mr. Jefterson seems to 
doubt, and suo-gests that "it gro\vs out of the abusive and not the natural 
state of man." But it really appears there are strong reasons to believe 
tliat there does exist "a natural state of hostility of man against man." — 
Upon what other principle cao we account for the long and furious wars 
which have been carried on, at ililTerent pei'iods, among the aboriginals of 
our country ? 

At an immenre distance apart, f probably little less than six or seven 
hundred miles, without trade, commerce, or clashing of interests — with- 
out those causes of irritation common among civilized states, — we find 
these two nations for a Ions: series of years eniiaoed in the most imuhica- 
ble and destructive wars. Upon what other principle to account lor this 
state of things, than that laid down, is a subject which the author cannot 
pretend to explain. It, however, affords matter of curious specidation 

*Mr. G. Blue, of Hampshire, stated this tradition to the author. 

fThe Catawba tribes reside on the river of that nanie in South Caroh- 
na. Thev were a ])owerlul and warlike nation, but arc now reduced to 
less than iwo lunubed souls. Tiie Delawares resided at that peiiod (mi 
tlu^ Susqurhanna river, in Pennsylvania, and are now far \ve>t of the 
AUeganv mountains. 



and intereslinpj reflection to the inquirinir mind. That nations are fre- 
quently urged to war and devastation by the restless and turbulent dis- 
position so common to mankind, particularly among their leaders, is a 
question of little doubt. The giory and renown (falsely so termed) of 
great achievements in war, is probably one principal cause of the wars 
frequently carried oo hy people in a state of nature. 




The author deems it unnecessary to give a detailed account of all the 
particular places which exhibit signs of the ancient residences of Indians, 
but considers it sufficient to say that on all our water courses, evidences 
of their dwellings are yet to be seen. The two great branches of the 
Shenandoah, and the south branch of the Potomac, appear to have been 
their favorite places of residence. There are more numerous signs of 
their villages to be seen on these water courses, than in any other part of 
our Valley. 

On the banks of the Cohongoruton, (Potomac,) there has doubtless 
been a pretty considerable settlement. The late Col. Joseph Swearen- 
gen's dwelling house stands within a circular wall or moat.* When first 
known by the white inhabitants, the wall was about eighteen inches 
high, and the ditch about two feet deep. This circular wall was made 
of earth — is now considerably reduced, but yet plainly to be seen. It is 
not more than half a mile from Shepherdstown. 

For what particular purpose this wall was thrown up, whether for or- 
namoit or defense, the author cannot pretend to form an oj)inion. If it 
was intended for defense, it appears to have been too low to answer any 
valuable purpose in that way. 

On the Wappatomaka, a few miles below the forks, tradition relates 
that tliere was a very considerable Indian settlement. On the farm of 
Isaac Vanmeter, Es(|., on this water course, in the county of Hardy, 
when the country was first discovered, there were considerable openings 
of the lam), or natural prairies, which are called "the Indian old fields" 
to this day. Numerous Indian graves arc to be seen in the neighbor- 

*Miij. Henry jjedingcr mformetl the author tiiat at his first recollection 
of this pl;ice, the wall or moat was about eighteen inches high, and the 
ditch an)und it about two feet deep. Th^ wall was raised on the out 
side of the diirh. and carefully thrown up. 


hoodv A little above the forks of this river a very large Indian grave is 
now to be seen.* In the bank of the river, a little below the forks, nu- 
merous human skeletons have been discovered, and several articles of cu- 
rious workmanship. A highly finished pipe, representing a snake coiled 
round the bowl, with its head projected above the bowL was among them. 
There was the under jaw bone of a human being of great size found at 
the same place, which contained eight jaw teeth in each side of errormous 
size ; and what is more remarkable, the teeth stood transversely in the 
jaw bone. It would pass over any common man's face with entire ease.f 

There are many other signs of Indian settlements all along this river, 
both above and below the one just described. Mr. Garret Blue, of the 
county of Hampshire, informed the authoK, that about two miles below 
the Hanging Rocks, in the bank of the river, a stratum of ashes, about 
one rod in length, was some years ago discovered. At this place are signs 
of an Indian village, and their old fields. The Rev. John J. Jacobs, of 
Hampshire, informed the author that on Mr. Daniel Cresap's land, on 
the North branch of the Potomac, a few miles above Cumberland, a hu- 
man skeleton was discovered, which had been covered with a coat of 
wood ashes, about two feet below the surface of the ground. An entire 
tlecomposition of the skeleton had taken place, with the exception of the 
teeth : they were in a perfect state of preservation. 

On the tvv'o great branches of the Shenandoah there are now to be 
seen numerous sites of their ancient villages, several of vrhich are so re- 
markable that they deserve a passing notice. It has been noticed, in my 
jireceding chapter, that on Mr. Steenbergen's land, on the North fork of 
ihe Shenandoah, the remains of a large Indian mountl are plainly to be 
seen. It is also su^jfrested that this was once the residence of the Sene- 
do tribe, and that that tribe had been exterminated by the Southern In- 
dians. Exclusive of this large mound, j there are several other Indian 
graves. About this place many of their implements and domestic utensils 
have been found. A short distance below the mouth of Stony Creek, 
(a branch of the Shenandoah,) within four or five miles of Woodstock, 
are the signs of an Indian village. At this place a gun barrel, with sev- 
eral iron tomahnwks, were found long after the Indians left the country. § 

On Mr. Anthony Kline's farm, within about three miles of Stephens- 
burg, in the county of Frederick, in a glen near his mdl, a rifle was found, 
which had laid in the ground forty or fifty years. Every part of this gun, 
(even the stock, which was made of black walnut,) was sound. Mr. 

* William Seymour, Esq., related this fact to the author. 

j Wniiarn Heath, Esq., in the county of Hardy, stated this fact to the 
author, and that he had repeatedly seen the remarkable jav,- bone. 

:j:Mr. Steenbergen inibrmtid the author, that upon looking into this 
mound, it was discovered that at the head of each skeleton a stone was 
deposited: that these stones are of" various sizes, supj)0seil to indicate the 
size of the body buried. 

§Mr. George Grandstaff stated this to the author. Mr. (1. is an -.un-d 
-?^n 1 respectable citizen ol" Sln^nandordi conn'} . 


Kline^s fntluT look ilw. barrel from \}w slock, jtlacecl the britch on the fir^j 
anti it soon dischar<rc'(i with a loud explosion. * 

In the county of Page, on the South fork of Shenandoah river, thertl 
are several Indian burying* grounds and signs of their villages. Thestf 
sifjns arc also to be seen on the Hawksbill creek. A few miles above 
Luray, on the west side of the river, there are three large Indian graves, 
ranged nearly side by side, thirty or forty feet in length, twelve or four- 
teen feet wide, and five or six fel;t high; Around them, in circular form, 
are a number of single graves. The whole covers an area of little less 
than a quarter of an acre. They present to the eye a very ancient ap- 
})earance, and are covered over with pine and other forest growth. T'he 
excavation of the ground around them is plainly to be seen. The three 
fust mentioned graves are in oblong form, probably contain many hun- 
dred of human bodies, and were doubtless the work of ages;f 

On the land of Mr. Noah Keyser, near the mouth of the Ilawksbill 
creek, stand the remains of a large mound. This, like that at Mr. 
Steenbergen's, is considerably reduced by plov.-ing, but is yet some 
twelve or fourteen feet high, and is upwards of sixty yards round at the 
base. It is found to be literally filled with human skeletons, and at every 
fresh plowing ? fresh layer of bones are brought to the surhice. The 
bones are found to be in a calcarious state, with the t^xception of the 
teeth, which are generally sounds Several unusually large skeletons 
have been discovered in this gri-ave. On the lands now tlie t'esidence of 
hiy venerable friend, Johil Gatewood, Esq. the signs of an Indian village 
are yet plainly to be seen. 'J'here are numerous fragments of their pots, 
cups, arrow points, and other implements for domestic use, found tron\ 
time to time. Convenient to this village there are several pretty large 

T'here is also evidence of an Indian town in Poweirs Fort, on the 
lands now owned by Mr-. Daniel JMunch. From appearances, this too 
was a pretty considerable village. A little above the forks of the Shen- 
andoah, on the east side of the South fork, are the appearances of anoth- 
er settlemt-rit, exhibiting the remains of two considerable mounds now en- 
tirely reduced by i)lowing. About this place many pipes, tomahawks, 
?)xes, hommony ])estles, &c. liave been founcL Some four or five miles 
below the forks of the river, on the south-east side, On the lands now 
nwned by Ca])!. Daniel Oliver, is the site of another Indian village. At 
this place a considerable variety of articles have been plowed up. Among 
Ihr number were several whole ])ots, cups, pipes, axes, tomahawks, 
I'.ommony j^estles, &,c; A beautifill pipe of high finish, made of white 
Hint stone, .and several cither articles of Curious workmanship, idl of very 

*Arr. Anthony Uine n latcd tills ot'currence to the author. No man 
'who is acquainted wilh Mr. Kline, vn'iII for nnc moau-ut doubt i)is 
iisserlions, 'i'his vil]f was of a very birg<' calibi-c, and was covered sev- 
*'ra] feel below ilic suri'ace of the grouti'.l, am! doubtless left there by an 

i'rhesr graves arc on the land^ now the rc'^iileni.e of the witloAv l^ong. 
'•»k*<\ apj' iicNcr to have lieen disturbed. 


hard stone, have been found. Their cups and pots -Irere made of a 
hiixture of clay and shells, of rude workmanship, but of firm texture. 

There are many other places on all our water courses, to wit, Stony- 
Creek, Cedar Creek, and Opequon, as well as the larger water courses, 
which exhibit evidences of ancient Indian settlements. The Shawnee 
tribe, it is well known, were settled about the neighborhood of Winches- 
ter. What are called the " Shawrtee cabins," and " Shawnee springs," 
immediately adjoinirigth^ town, are well known. It is also equally "cer- 
tain, that this tribe had a f,onsid^rable village orl Babb's marsh, some 
three or four miles north-West of Winchester.* 

The Tuscarora Indians resided in the neiMiborliood of Martinsburn-, in 
the county of Berkeley,! on the Tusdarora creek. Ort the fine tarm, now 
owned by and the residerice of Matthew Ranson, Esq, (the former resi- 
dence of Mr. Benjanlin Beesort,) are the remains of several Indian graves. 
These, like several others, are now plowed down; but numerous fragments 
of human bones ard to be found mixed with the clay on the surface. Mr. 
Ranson informed the author, that at this place the Under jaw bone of a 
human being was plowed up, of enormous size; the teeth were found in 
a perfect state of preservation^ 

Near the Shannondale springs, on the lands of Mr; Fairfax, an Indian 
grave some years sirtce was opened, in which a skeleton of unusual size 
was discovered;:}: 

Mr. E. Paget informed the author, that on Flint run, a small rivulet of 
the South river, in the county of Shenandoah, a skeleton was found by 
his father, the thigh bone of which measured three feet in length, and 
theunder jaw bone of which would pass over anj^ common man's face 
with ease. 

Near the Indian village described on a preceding page, on Capt. Oli- 
ver's land, a few years ago, some hands in removing the stone covering 
an Indian grave, discovered a skeleton, whose great size attracted their 
attention. The stones were carefully taken off witliout flisturhing the 
frame, when it was discovered, that the l)ody had been laid at full length 
on the ground, and broad fiat stones set round the corpse in the shape of 
a cofiin. Capt, Oliver measured the skeleton as it lay, which was nearly 
seven feet long.|| 

In the further progress of this work the author v/ill occasionally advert 

*Mr. Thomas Barrett, who was born in 1705, stated to the author, that 
within his recollection the signs of the Indian wigwams were to be seen 
On Babb's marsh. 

fMr. .John Shobe, a very respectable old citizen of Maitinsburg, statec 
to tke author, that Mr. Benjamin Beeson, a highly respectal)le (Quaker 
informed him, that the Tuscarora Indians wese living on the Tuscarori 
creek when he (Beeson) first knew the county. 

iMr. George W. Fairfax gave the author this information. 

||Maximus, a Roman Emperor in the third centuiT, "was the son of ii 
Thracian shepherd, and is represented by ]ii?torians as a man of gigantic 
stature and Herculean strength. He was fully eight feet in height, ant 
iberfectly symmetrical in form. Abridged U. History, vol. ii p. 'ib. 


to the subject of Indian anliquiti«s anil traits of the Indian character. — 
This chapter will now be concluded with some i^eneral reflections on tlic 
seemingly hard late of this unCortumite race of people. It appears to the 
author that no reflecting man can view so many burying places broken up 
— their bones torn up with the plow — reduced to dust, and scattered to 
the winds — without feeling some degree of melancholy regret. It is to 
be lamented for another reason. If those mounds and places of burial 
had been permittte I to remain undisturbed, they would have stood as 
lasting monuments in the history of our country. Many of them were 
doubtless the work of ages, and future generations would have contem- 
plated them with great interest and curiosity. But these memorials are 
rapidly disappearing, and the time perha})S will come, when not a trace of 
them will remain. The author has had the curiosity to open several In- 
dian graves, in one of which he found a pipe, of different form from any 
he has ever seen. It is made of a hard black stone, and glazed or rather 
painted with a substance of a reddish cast. In all the graves he has ex- 
amined, the bones are found in a great state of decay except the teeth, 
which are generally in a perfect state (jf preservation. 

It is no way wonderful that this unfortunate race of people reluctantly 
yielded their rightful and just possession of this fine country. It is no 
way wonderful that they resisted with all their force the intrusion of the 
white people (who were strangers to them, from a foreign country,) upon 
their rightful inheritance. But perhaps this was the fiat of Heaven.— 
When God created this globe, he probably intended it should sustain the 
greatest possible number of his creatures. And as the human family, in a 
state of civil life, increases with vastly more rapidity than a people in a 
state of nature or savage life, the law of force has been generally resorterl 
to, and the weaker compelled to give way to the stronger. That a part 
of our country has been acquired by this law of force, is undeniable. It 
is, however, matter of consoling reflection, that there are some honorable 
exceptions to this arbitrary rule. The great and wise William Penn set 
the example of ])urchasing the Indian lands. Several respectable indi- 
viduals of the (Quaker society thought it unjust to take ])Ossession of this 
valley without making tiie Indians some compensation for their right. — 
Measures were adopted to e.'fec^t this great object. But upon inquiry, no 
particular tribe could be found who pretended to have any prior claim to 
the soil. It was considered the common huiiting ground of various tribes, 
and not claimed by any particular nation who bad authority to sell. 

'J'his information was communicated to the author by two aged and high- 
ly resj)ectable nun of the Friends' society, Isaac Brown and Lewis Neill, 
each of them upwards of eighty years of age, and both residents of the 
coimty of Frederick. 

In confirmation of this statement, a letter written by Thomas Chaukley 
to the monthly meeting on Ojxquon, on the 21st of 5th month, 1738, is 
strong circumstantial evidence; of wliich letter the following is a copy: 

"Virginia, at .John Cheagle's, 21st 5th month, 1738. 
'^'Tn the fri/iiuh of the monthl\j meet'wfr at Oppquon: 

"Dea-- friends who iuhnbil Shenandoah and Opcijuon: — Having a con- 


ccrn for your welfare and prosperity, both now and lierfafter, and also 
the prosperity of your chikh-en, I had a desire to see you; but bfin<r in 
years, and heavy, and much spent and fatigued wdth my long journeyings 
in Virginia and Carolina, makes it seem too hard for me to perform a visit 
in person to you, wherefore I take this way of writmg to discharge my 
rnihd of what lies weighty thereon; and 

"First. I desire that you be very careful (being far and back inhabi- 
tants) to keep a friendly correspondence with tlie native Indians, giving 
them no occasion of offense; they being a cruel and merciless enemy, 
where they think they are wronged or defrauded of their rights; as woful 
experience hath taught in Carolina, Virginia and Maryland, and especial- 
ly in New England, &c.; and 

"Secondly. As nature hath given them and their forefathers the posses- 
sion of this continent of America (or this wilderness), they had a natural 
ri^'ht thereto in justice and equity; and no people, according to the law 
of nature and justice and our own principle, which is according to the 
glorious gospel of our dear and holy Jesus Christ, ought to take away or 
settle on other men's lands or rights without consent, or purchasing the 
same by agreement of parties concerned; which I suppose in your case- 
is not yet done. 

"Thirdly. Therefore my counsel and christian advice to you is, my 
dear friends, that the most reputable among you do with speed enck-avor 
to agree with and purchase your lands of the native Indians or inhabi- 
tants. Take example of our worthy and honorable late proprietor Wil- 
liam Penn; w^ho by the wise and religious care in that relation, hath set- 
tled a lasting peace and commerce with the natives, and through his pru- 
dent management therein hath been instrumental to plant in peace one o^ 
the most flourishing provinces in the world. 

"Fourthly. Who would run the risk of the lives of their wives and 
children for the sparing a little cost and pains? I am concerned to lay 
these things before you, under an uncommon exercise of mind, that your 
new and flourishing little settlement may not be laid waste, and (if the 
providence of the Almighty doth not intervene,) some of the blood of 
yourselves, wives or children, be shed or spilt on the ground. 

"Fifthly. Consider you are in the province of V^irginia, holding what 
rights you have under that government; and the Virginians have made an 
agreement with the natives to go as far as the mountains and no farther; 
and you are over and beyond the mountains, therefore out of that agree- 
ment; by which you lie open to the insults and incursions of the Southern 
Indians, who have destroyed many of the inhabitants of Carolina and 
Virginia, and even now destroyed more on the like occasion. The En- 
glish going beyond the bounds of their agreement, eleven of them were 
killed by the Indians while we were travelling in Virginia. 

"Sixthly. If you believe yourselves to be within the bounds of William 
Penn's patent from King Charles the second, which will be hard for you 
to prove, you being far southward of his line, yet if done, that will be no 
consideration with the Indians without a ])urchase from them, except you 
will go about to convince them by fire and sword, contrary to our princi- 


jiU's; aiid it' that wcix' tlone, they would over be implacable enemies, ami 
t'.ie hiiiil cciiKl never be pnjoyed iii ne&ce. 

"Seventhly. Please to note that in Pennsylvania no new settlements 
are made without an agreement with the natives; as witness Lancaster 
county, lately settled, though that is i'ar within the grant of William Penn's 
])atent from'king Charles the second; wherefore you lie open to the insur- 
rections of the Northern as well as Southern Indians; and 

"Lastly. Thus having shewn my good will to you and to your new ViU 
tie settlement, that you might sit every one under your av;n shady tree, 
where none might make you afraid, and that you might prosper naturally 
and spiritually, you and your children; and having a little eased my mind 
of that weight and concern (in some measure) that la) upon me, I at present 
desist, and subscribe myself, in tho love of our holy Lord Jesus Christ, 
your real friend, T. C." 

This excellent letter from this good man proves that the Quakers weiie 
among our earliest settlers, and that this class of people were earl^ dispo-. 
sed to do justice to the natives of the country, 

Had this humane and just policy of pm-chasing the Indian lands been 
first adopted and adhered to, it is highly piobable the white people might 
have gradually obtained possession without the loss of so much blood and 

The ancestors of the Neills, Walkers, Bransons, McKays, Hackneys, Bee-. 
aons, Luptons, J3arretts, Dillons, &c. were air^ong the earliest Quaker im- 
migrants to our valley. Three Quakers by the name of Fawcett settled 
at an early period about 8 or 9 miles south of Winchester, near Zane's 
old iron works, from whom a pretty numerous progeny has descended. — 
They have, however, chiefly migrated to the west. 

Air. JefTerson, in his notes on Virginia, says, "That the lands of this 
country were taken from them (the Indians,) by conquest, is not so gene- 
ral a truth as is supposed. I find in our historians and re^-ords, repeat-, 
ed proofs of purchase, which cover a considerable part of the lower coun- 
try; and many more would doubtless be found on further search. The up- 
per country we know has been acquired altogether by purchase in the 
most unexceptionable form." 

Tradition lelates, that several tracts of land were purchased by Qua-, 
kers from the Indians on Apple-pie ridge, and that the Indians never wero 
Jinown to disturb the people residing on the land so purchased, 




In the year 1732, Joist Hite, with his family, and his sons-in-law, vit:. 
George liowman, Jacoh Chrisman and Paul Froman, wilh their families, 
Robert McKay, Robert Green, William Duff, Peter Stephens, and several 
others, amounting in the whole to sixteen families, removed from Penn- 
sylvania, cutting their road from York, and crossing the Cohongoruton 
about tv.'o miles above Harpers-Ferry, Hite settled on Opequon, about 
live miles south of Winchester, on the great highway from Winchester to 
Staunton, now the rcvsidence of the highly respectable widow of the late 
Richard Peters Barton, Esq. and also the residence of Richard W. Bar- 
Ion, Esq. Peter Stephens and several others settled at Stcphensburg, 
and founded the town; Jacob Chrisman at what is now called Chrisman's 
spring, about two miles south of Stephensburg; Bowman on Cedar creek 
about six miles farther south; and Froman on the same creek, 8 or 9 miles 
north west of Bowman. Robert McKay settled on Crooked run, 8 or 9 
miles south east of vStephensburg. The several other families settled in 
the same neighborhood, wherever they could find wood and water most 
convenient. From the most authentic information which the author has 
been able to obtain, Hite and his party were the first immigrants who set- 
tled west of the Blue ridge. They were, however, very soon followed by 
numerous others. 

In 1734,* Benjamin Allen, Riley Moore, and Wilham Wliite, removed 
from Monoccacy, in Maryland, and settled on the North branch of the 
Shenandoah, now in the county of Shenandoah, about 12 miles south of 

In 1733, Jacob Stover, an enterprising German, obtained from tlu* 
then governor of Virginia, a grant for five thousand acres of land on the 
South fork of the Gerandoj river, on what was called Mesinetto creek.:}: 

Ti-adition relates a singular and amusing account of Stover and hid 

*Mr. Steenbergen informed the author that Hie traditionary account of 
the first settlement of his farm, together with Allen's and Moore's, made 
it about 106 years; butP*Ir. Aaron Moore, grandson of Riley Moore, by 
referring to the family records, fixes the period pretty correctly. Accor- 
ding to Mr. Moore's account, Moore, Allen and White, removed from 
Maryland in 1734. 

fThis water course was first written Gerando, then Sherandoah, now 

^Mesinetto is nov^- called Masinutton. There is a considerable settle- 
ment of highly improved farms, now called "the Masinutton setUement," 
in the new county of Page, on the west side of the South river, on Sto- 
ver's ancient grant, G 


grant.* On his application to the executive for his grant, he was refused 
unless he could give satisfactory assurance that he would have the land 
settled with the requisite number of families within a given time. Be- 
ing unable to do this, he forthwith passed over to England, petitioned the 
king to direct his grant to issue, and in order to insure success, had giv- 
en human names to every horse, cow*, hog and dog he o\vned, and which 
he represented as heads of families, ready to migrate and settle the land. 
By this disingenuous trick he succeeded in obtaining directions from the 
kins: and council for securins; his s^rant: on obtainino; which he immediate- 
ly sold out his land in small divisions, at three pounds (equal to ten dol- 
lars) per hundred, and went off w'ith the money. 

Two men, John and Isaac Vanmeter, obtained a w^arrant from gover- 
nor Gooch for locating forty thousand acres of land. This warrant was 
obtained in the year 1730. They sold or transferred part of their warrant 
to Joist liite; and from this warrant emanated several of Hite's grants, 
which the author has seen. Of the titles to the land on which Hite set- 
tled, with several other tracts in the neighborhood of Stephensburg, the 
originals are founded on this warrant. 

In the year 1734, Richard Morgan obtained a grant for a tract of land 
in the immediate neighborhood of Shepherdstow^n, on or near the Cohon- 
goruton. Among the first settlers on this water course and its vicinity, 
were Robert Harper (Harpers-Ferry), William Stroop, Thomas and Wil- 
liam Forester, Israel Friend, Thomas Shephard, Thomas Swearengen, 
Van Swearengen, James Forman, Edward Lucas, Jacob Hite,t John Le- 
mon, Richard Mercer, Edward Mercer, Jacob Vanmeter and brothers, 
Robert Stockton, Robert Buckles, John Taylor, Samuel Taylor, Richard 
Morgan, John Wright, and others. 

The first settlers on the Wappatomaka (South Branch) were Coburn, 
Howard, Vv'^alker and Rutledge. This settlement commenced about the 
year 1734 or 1735. It does not appear that the first immigrants to this 
fine section of country had the precaution to secure titles to their lands, 
until Lord Fairfax migrated to Virginia, and opened his office for granting 
w^irrants in the Northern Neck. The earliest grant which the author could 
find in this settlement bears date in 1747. The most of the grants are 
dated in 1749. This was a most unfortunate omission on the part of 
these people. It left Fairfax at the discretion of exercising his insatiable 
disposition for the monopoly of wealth.; and instead of granting these 
lands upon the usual terras allowed to other settlers, he availed himself of 
the opportunity of laying off in manors, fifly-five thousand acres, in what 
he called his South Branch manor, and nine thousand acres on Patter- 
son's creek. 

This was considered by the settlers an odious and oppressive act on the 
part of his lordship, and many of them left the country.]: These two gre;it 

*I>tover's grant is described as being in Ihe counly of Spottsylvania, 
St. Mark's Parish. Of course, Spottsylvania at that period, i. e. 1733, 
crossed the Blue Ridge, 

fOnc of Joist llitc's sons. 

ijiVVilliam Heath, Esq. of Hardy, gave the autiior tiiis information. 


surveys were made in the year 1747. To such tenants as remained, his 
lordship granted leases for ninety-nine years, reserving an annual rent of 
twenty shillings sterling per hundred acres ; whereas to all other immi- 
grants only two shillings sterling rent per hundred was reserved, with a 
fee simple title to the tenant. Some further notice of Lord Fairfax and 
his immense grant will be taken in a future chapter. 

Tradition relates that a man by the name of John Howard, and his* 
son, previous to the first settlement of our valley, explored the country, 
and discovered the charming valley of the South Branch, crossed the Al- 
legany mountains, and on the Ohio killed a very large buffalo bull, skin- 
ned him, stretched his hide over ribs of wood, made a kind of 
boat, and in this frail bark descended the Ohio and P.'Iississippi to New 
Orleans, where they were apprehended by the French as suspicious char- 
acters, and sent to France; but nothing criminal appearing against them, 
they were discharged. From hence they crossed over to England, wheie 
Fairfax by some means got to hear of Mr. Howard, sought an interview^ 
with him, and obtained from him a description of the fertility and im- 
mense value of the South Branch, which determined his lordship at once 
to secure it in manors.* Notwithstanding this sehish monopoly on the 
part of Fairfax, the great fertility and value of the country induced nu- 
merous tenants to take leases, settle, and improve the lands. 

At an early period many immigrants settled on Capon, (anciently call- 
ed Cacaphon, which is said to be the Indian name,) also on Lost river. — 
Along Back creek. Cedar creek, and Opequon, pretty numerous settle- 
ments were m/ade. The two great branches of the Shenandoah, from its 
forks upwards, were among our earliest settlements. 

An enterprising Quaker, by the name of Ross, obtained a warrant for 
surveying forty thousand acres of land. The surveys on this warrant 
were made along Opequon, north of ¥/inchester, and up to Apple-pie 
ridge. Pretty numerous immigrants of the Quaker profession rem-ovcd 
from Pennsylvania, and settled on Ross's sm'veys. The reader will have 
observed in my preceding chapter, that as early as 1738, this people had 
regular mo.nthly meetings established on Opequon. f 

The lands on the west side of the Shenandoah, trom a little below the 
forks, were first settled by overseers and slaves, nearly down to the mouth 
of the Bullskin. A Col. Carter,^ of the lower country, _ had obtained 
grants for about sixty-three thousand acres of land on this river. His 
surveys commenced a short distance below the forks of the river, and ran 
down a little below Snicker's ferry, upwards of 20 miles. This fine body 
of land is now subdivided into a great m.any most valuable farms, a con- 
siderable part of which are now owned by the highly respectable families 
of Burwells and Pages. But little of it now remains in the hands of 
Carter's heirs. 

*Also related by Mr. Heath. 

fSec Chaukley's letter to the monthly mee'dng on Opequon, 21st I\Iay, 
1738, page 39. 

jCol. Robert Carter obtained grants in September, 1730, for sixty-throe 

thousand acres. 

44 riRST si:ttlement of Tin: valley. 

Another survey of thirteen thousand acres was granted to another per- 
son, and lies immediately below and adjoinin<^ Carter's line, runnini^ a 
considerable distance into the county of JefTerson. This tine tract of 
land, it is said, was sold under the hammer at Williamsburg, some time 
previous to the war of the revolution. The owner had been sporting, lost 
money, and sold the land to pay his debt of honor. General Washington 
happened to be present, knew the land, and advised the late Ralph Worm- 
ley, Esq.* to purchase it. Wormley bid five hundred guineas for it, and 
it was struck off to him. It is also said that Mr. Wormley, just before or 
at the time of the sale, had been regaling himself with a social glass, and 
that when he cooled off, he became extremely dissatisfied with his pur- 
chase, considering it as money thrown away, Washington hearing of 
his uneasiness, immediately waited on him, and told him he would take 
the purchase offhis hands, and pay him his money again, but advised him 
by all means to hold it, assuring him that it would one day or other be 
the foundation of an independent fortune tor his children; upon which 
Wci/inley became better reconciled, and consented to hold on. And truly, 
as Washington predicted, it would have become a splendid estate in the 
hands oi two orthree of his children, had they known how to preserve 
it. But it passed into other hands, and now constitutes the splendid farms 
of the late firm of Castleman &. .McCormick, HieromeL. Opie, Esq. the 
'honorable judge Richard E. Parker, and several others. In truth, all the 
country about the larger water courses and mountains was settled before 
the fine country about Bullskin, Long marsh. Spot run, &c. 

Much the greater part of the country between what is called the Little ■ 
North mountain and the Shenandoah river, at the first settling of the val- 
ley was one vast prairie, f and like the rich praiiies of the west, afforded 
the finest possible pasturage for wild animals. The country abounded in 
the larger kinds of game. The buffalo, elk, deer, bear, panther, wild-cat, 
wolf, fox, beaver, otter, and all other kinds of animals, wild fowl, &,c., 
common to forest countries, were abundantly plenty. The country jiow 
the county of Shenandoah, between the Fort mountain and North moun- 
tain, was also settled at an early period. The counties of Rockingham 
and Augusta also were settled at an early time. The settlement of the 
tipper part of our valley will be more particularly noticed, and form the 
fcubject of a second volume hereafter, should the public demand it. 

From the best evidence the author has been able to collect, and for this 
purpose he has examined many ancient grants of lands, family records, 
&,c., as well as the oral tradition of our ancient citizens, the settlement 
of our valley progressed without interruption from the native Indians for 
a periofl of about twenty-three years. In the year 1754, the Indians 
suddenly disap])eared, and crossed the Allegan^-. The year preceding, 

*.Mr. Wormly, it is believed, reside 1 at the time in the county of Mid- 

fThci't' ar.'' severjd nged inflividuaU now livi^L,^ who recollect when 
there were large borlics of land in the counties of IJorkeh^y, JpfFerson and 
Frederick, barren of Uiribc;. The b.inen land is iiov\- coverel with the 
best of furest tree.*. 

FIRST sp:ttlement OFTHEVALLEV. 45 

^Rilssaries from the west of the Allegany came among the Valley Indians 
and invited them to move off.* This occurrence excitad suspicion amojif 
the white people that a storm was brewing in the west, which it was es- 
sential to prepare to meet. 

Tradition relates, that the Indians did not object to the PennsyU-anians 
settling the country. From the high character of William Penn, (the 
founder of Pennsylvania,) the poor simple natives believed that all Penn':^ 
men were honest, virtuous, humane and benevolent, and partook of the 
qualities of the illustrious founder of their government. But fatal expe- 
rience soon taught them a very different lesson. They soon found to their 
cost that Pennsylvanians were not much better than others. 

Tradition also informs us that the natives held in utter abhorence the 
Virginians, whom they designated "Long Knife," and were warmly op- 
posed to their settling in the valley. 

The author will conclude this chapter with some general remarks i;i re- 
lation to the circumstances under which the first settlement of the valley 
commenced. Tradition informs us, and the oral statements of several 
aged individuals of respectable character confirm the fact that the Indian > 
and white people resided in the same neighborhood for several years after 
the first settlement commenced, and that the Indians were entirely peace- 
able and friendly. This statement must in the nature of things be true; 
because if it hadbden othervv^ise, the white people could not have succeed- 
ed in effecting the settlement. Had the natives resisted the first attempts 
to settle, the whites could not have succeeded without the aid of a pretty 
considerable army to avre the Indians into submission. It was truly for- 
tunate for our ancestors that this quiescent spirit of the Indians affordeil 
them the opportunity of acquiring considerable strength as to numbers, 
and the accumulation of considerable property and improvemants, before 
Indian hostilities commenced. 

It has already been stated that it was twenty-three years from the first 
settlement, before the Indians committed any acts of outrage on the whhe 
people. During this period many pretty good dwelling houses were c- 
rocted. Joist Hite had built a stone house on Opequon, which house is 
now standing, and has a very ancient appearance;! but there are no mai-ks 
upon it by which to ascertain the time, la 1751, James Wilson erected 
a stone house which is still standini'", and now the residence of Mr. Adam 
Kern, adjoining or near the village of Kernstown. 

Jacob Chrisman also built a pretty large stone house in the year 1751, 
now the residence of Mr. x\braham Stickley, about two miles south of 
Stephensburg. Geo. Bowman and Paul Froman each of them built stone 
houses, about the same period. The late Col. John Hite, in the year 
1753,built a stone house now the dwelling house of Mrs. Barton. This 
building was considered by far the finest dwelling house west of the Blue 

*Mr. Thomas Barrett, an aged and respectable citizen of Frederick 
county, related this tradition to the author. 

fOn the wall plate of a framed barn bnilt by }]]:r^ the figure> 1717 are 
plainly marked, and now to be seen. 


ridge* Lewis Stephens, in the year 175G, built a stone house, the ruins 
of which are now to be seen at the old iron works of the late Gen. Isaac 
Zane. It v/iil hereafter be seen that these several stone buildings became 
of great importance to the people of the several neighborhoods, as places 
of protection and security against the attacks of the Indians. 

The subject of the early settlement of the valley will be resumed in ray 
next chapter. 




Tradition relates that a man by the name of John Vanmeter, from New 
York, some years previous to the fu'st settlemeat of the valley, discovered 
the fine country on the Wappatoniaka. This man w'as akindof wander- 
ing Indian trader, became well acquainted with the Delawares, and once 
accompanied a W'ar party Avho marched to the south for the purpose of in- 
vading the Catawbas. The Catawbas, however, anticipated them, met 
them very near the spot where Pendleton courthouse now stands, and en- 
countered and defeated them with immense slaughter. Vanmeter was 
engaged on the side of the Delewares in this battle. When Vaimieter 
returned to New York, he advised his sons, that if they ever migrated to 
Virginia, by all means to secure a part of the South Branch bottom, and 
described the lands im.mediately above what is called "The Trough," as 
the finest body of land which he had ever discovered in all his travels. — 
One of his sons, Isaac Vanmeter, in conformity with his father's advice 
came to Virginia about the year 1736 or 1737, and made what was called 
a toinahawk improvement on the lands now owned by Isaac Vanmeter, 
Esq. immediately above the trough, where Fort Pleasant was afterwards 
erected. After tliis improvement. Air. Vanmeter returned to New Jersey, 
came out again in 1740, and found a man by the name of Coburn settled 
on his land. Mr. Vanmeter bought out Coburn, and again returned to 
New Jersey, and in the year 1744 removed with his family and settled on 
the land.f Previous to Vanmetcr's final removal to Virginia, several im- 
migrants from Pennsylvania, chie/ly Irish, had settled on the South branch. 

*'l'here is a tradition in this neighborhood that Col. Kite quarried every 
Rtotu! in this buihling with his own hands. Vynmoter, F^-q., of Ilurdy, detailed this tradition to Hie author. 


Howard, Coburn, Walker and Rutlcdge, were the first settlera on the 

William Miller and Abraham Hite were also among the early settlers. . 
When the Indian wars broke out, Miller sold out his right to 500 acres ot^ 
land, and all his stock of horses and cattle in the woods, for twenty-ilve 
pounds,! and removed to the South fork of the Shenandoah, a few miles 
above Front Royal. The 500 acres of land sold by Miller lie within a- 
bout two miles of Moorefield, and one acre of it would now command 
more money than the whole tract, including his stock, was sold for. 

Casey, Pancake, Forman, and a number of others, had settled on the 
Wappatomaka previous to Yanmeter's final removal. 

In the year 1740, the late Isaac Hite, Esq. one of the sons of Joist 
Hite, settled on the North Branch of the Shenandoah, in the county of 
Frederick,^ on the beautiful farm called "Long meadows." This fine 
estate is nov/ owned by Maj. Isaac Hite, the only son of Isaac Hite d-e- 
ceased. t 

About the same year, John Lindsey and James Lindsey, brothers, re- 
moved and settled on the Long marsh, between Ballskin and Berryville, 
in the county of Frederick; Isaac Larue removed from New-Jersey in 
1743, and settled on the same marsh. About the same period, Christo- 
pher Beeler removed and settled within two or three m.iles from Larue; 
and about the year 1744, Joseph Hampton and two sons came from the • 
eastern sliore of Maryland, settled on Buck marsh, near Berryville, and 
lived the greater part of the year in a hollow sycamore tree. They en- 
closed a piece of land and made a crop preparatory to the removal of the 
family. § 

In 1743 Joseph Carter removed from Bucks county, Pennsylvania, and 
settled on Opequon, about five miles east of Winchester. Yery near Mr. 
Carter's residence, on the' west side of the creek, was a beautiful grove 
of forest timber, immediately opposite which a fine limestone spring is- 
sued from the east bank of the creek. This grove was, at the time of 
Mr. Carter's first settlement, a favorite camping ground of the Indians, 
where rmmero us collections, sornetim-es two or three hundred at a time, 
would assemble, and remain for several weeks together. J\Ir. Carter was 
a shoemaker, and on one occasion two Indians called at his shop just as 
he had finished and hung up a pair of shoes, which one of the Indians 
seeino- secretly slipped under his blanket, and attempted to make off. Car- 
ter detected him, and took the shoes from him. His companion manifest- 
ed the utmost indignation at the theft, and gave Carter to understand that 
the culprit would be severely dealt with. As soon as the Indians return- 
ed to the encampment, information was given to the chiefs, and the un- 
fortunate thief was so severely chastised, that Mr. Carter, from )notives 

*Communicated by William Heath, Esq. 

flsaac Yanmetcr, Esq. stated this fact to the author. 

f.Maj. Isaac Hite, of Frederick county, communicated tlii.s information • 
to the author. 

§Col. John B. Larue and William Castlemen, Esq. gave the author this^. 


of humanity, interposed, and begcred that the punishment might cease.* 
Waj. Isaac liite ini'onned the author that numerous parties of Indians, 
in passing and repassing, frequently called at his grandfalher's house, on 
Opequon, and that hut one instance of theft was ever committed. On that 
occasion a pretty considerable party had called, and on their leaving 
the house some article of inconsiderable value \vas missing. A messen- 
ger was sent after them, and information of the theft given to the chiefs. 
Search was immediately made, the article found in the possession of one 
of them, and restored to its owner. These facts go far to show their high 
sense of honesty and summary justice. It has indeed been stated to the 
author, that their travelling parties would, if they needed provisions and 
could not otherwise procure them, kill fat hogs or fat cattle in the woods, 
in order to supply themselves with food. This they did not consider steal- 
ing. Every animal running at large they considered lawful game. 

The Indians charge the white people with teaching them the knowledge 
of theft and several other vices. In the winter of 1815-10, the author 
.spent some weeks in the state of Georgia, where he fell in with Col. Bar- 
nett, one of the commissioners for running the boundary line of Indian 
lands which had shortly before been ceded to the United States. Some 
conversation took place on the subject of the Indians and Indian charac- 
ter, in which Col. B. remarked, that in one of his excursions through the 
Indian country, he met with a veiy aged Cherokee chief, who spoke and 
understood the English language pretty well. 'Vhe colonel had several 
conversations with this aged man, in one of v/hicli he congratulated him 
npon the prospect of his people having their condition greatly improved, 
there being every reason to believe that in the course of a few years they 
would become acquainted with the arts of civil life — would be bettei- 
clothed, better fed, and erect better and more comfortable habitations — 
and what was of still greater importance, they would become acquainted 
with the doctrines and principles of the Christian religion. 'J'his venera- 
ble old man listened with the most profound and respectful attention until 
tlie colonel had concluded, and then with a significant shake of his head 
and much emphasis replied, — That he doubted the benefits to the red peo- 
ple pointed out by the colonel; that before their fathers were acquainted 
with the whites, the red people needed but little, and that little the Great 
Spirit gave them, the forest supj-tlying them with food and raiment: that 
before their fathers were acquainted with the white peojile, the red people 
never got di'unk, because they had nothing to make them drunk, and ne- 
ver committed theft, because they had no temptation to do so. It was 
true, that when parties were out Inniting, and one parly was unsuccessful 
and found the game of the more successful pai'ty hung up, if they needed 
])rovision they look it; and this was not stealing — it was the law and cus- 
tom of the tribes. If they went to war they destroyed each other's pro- 
perty : this was done to weaken their enemy. Red people never swoi-e, 

*The late Mr. .James Carter gave the author this tradition, whirli he re- 
ceived from his father, who was a boy of 12 or IS years old at the time, 
and an eye-witness of the fact. Opposite to this camping ground, on a 
high hill east of tlif> creek, is a large Indian grave. 


because thoy had no words to express an oath. Red people \Vfy{dd not 
cheat, because they had no temptation to commit fraud : they never told 
falsehoods, because they had no temptation to tell lies. And as to reli- 
gion, you go to your churches, sing loud, pray loud, and make great noise. 
The red people meet once a year, at the feast of new corn, extinguish all 
their fires, and kindle up a new one, the smoke of which ascends to the 
Great Spirit as a grateful sacrifice. Now what better is your religion 
than ours? The white people have taught us to get drunk, to steal, to 
lie, to cheat, and to swear; and if the knowledge of these vices, as you 
profess to hold them, and punish by your laws, is beneficial to the red peo- 
ple, we are benefitted by our acquaintance with you; if not, we are greatly 
injured by that acquaintance. 

To say the least of this untutored old man, his opinions, religion ex- 
cepted, were but too well founded, and convey a severe rebuke upon the 
character of those who boast of the superior advantages of the lights of 
education and a knowledge of the religion of the Holy Redeemer. 

From this diirression the author will ao^ain turn his attention to the ear- 
ly history of our country. 

About the year 17G3, the first settlements \vere made at or near the 
head of Bullskin. Two families, by the name of Riley and Allemong, 
first commenced the settlement of this immediate neighborhood. At this 
period timber was so scarce that the settlers v\^ere compelled to cut small 
saplings to enclose their fields.* The prairie produced grass five or six 
feet high;j and even our mountains and hills were covert-d with the suste- 
nance of quadrupeds of every species. The pea vine grew abundantly 
on the hilly and mountainous lands, than which no species of vegetable 
production afforded finer a,nd richer pasturage. 

From this state of the country, many of our first settlers turned their 
attention to rearing large herds of horses, cattle, hogs, &c. Many of 
them became expert, hardy and adventurous hunters, and spent much of 
their time and depended chiefly for support and money-making on the 
sale. of skins and furs. J Moses Russell, Esq. informed the author that 
the hilly lands about his residence, near the base of the North mountain, 
in the south west corner of Frederick, and which now present to the eye 
the appearance of great poverty of soil, within his recollection were cov- 

*Messrs. Christian Allemong and George Riley both stated (liis fact to 
the author. 

jMr. George Riley, an aged and respectable citizen, stated to the author 
that the grass on the Bullskin barrens grew so tall, that he had frequently 
drawn it before him when on horseback, and tied it before him. 

:j:The late Henry Fry, one of the early settlers on Capon river, upwards 
of forty years ago informed the author, that he purchased the tract of laiul 
on which he first setth>d, on Capon river, for which lie engaged to pay 
either -£200 or ,£250, the author does not recollect which sum, ?.iu\ tliat 
he made every dollar of the money by the sale of skins and furs, the game 
beinjr killed or caup-!ii with his own hands. 



ered with a fine r^rowth of pea vine, and that stock of every description! 
grew abundantly fut in the summer season. 

Isaac Larue, wlio settled on the Long marsh ia 174i^, as has been sta- 
ted, soon became celebrated for his nmncfous herds of horses and cattle. 
The author was told by Col. J. B. Larue, who is the owner of part of his 
grandfather's fine landed estate, that his grandfather frequently owned be- 
tv/een ninety and one' hundred head of horses, but it so happened that he- 
never could get his stock to count a hundred. 

The Hites, Frys, Vanmeters, and many others, raised va^t stocks of 
horses, cattle, hogs, &c. Tradition relates that Lord Fairfax, happening 
one day in Winchester to see a large tlrove of unusually fine hogs passing 
through the town, inquired from whence they came. Being inibrmed that 
they were from the mountains west of Winchester, he remarked that wlien 
a new county should be laid off in that direction it ouglit to be called 
Hampshire, after a county in England celebrated for its production of fine 
hogs; and this, it is said, gave name to the })resent county of Hampshire. 

The author will only add to this chapter, that, from the first settlement 
of the valley, to the breaking out of the war, on the part of the French 
and Indians, against our ancestors, in the year 1754, our country rapidly 
increased in nvunbers and in the acquisition of property, without interru])- 
tion from the natives, a j)eriod of twenty-two years. 

In rny next chapter I shall give a brief account &f the religion, habits 
and customs, of the- primitive settlers. 





A large majority of our first immigrants were from Pennsylvania, com- 
posed of native Germans or Gennan extraction. There were, however, a 
number directly from Germany, several I'rom Maryland and Nev/ Jersey, 
and a few frouj New York. These immigrants brought with them the re- 
li2fion, habits and customs, of their ancestors. They were composed 
generally of three religious sects, viz: Lutherans, Menonisls* and! Cahi- 
nists, wiih a few Tunkers. They generally settled in neighborhoods pret- 
ty much together. 

"'Simon Menov.-::.'j one of the earliest German reformers, and the foun- 
der of this '.ect. 


Tlie Icrriiory now composing tho county of Page, Powri'i's fori, and 
the Woodstock valley, between the West l"'ort mountain and North moun- 
tain, extending from the neighborhood of Stephcnsburg for a considera- 
ble distance into the county of Rocicingham, was almost exclusively set- 
tled by Germans. They were very tenacious in the preseivation of their 
language, religion, customs and habits. In what is nov/ Page county they 
were almost exclusively of the Menonist persuasion : biit few Lutherans 
or Caivinists settled among them. In other sections of the territory above 
described, there was a mixture of Lutherans and Caivinists. The Meno- 
nists were remarkable for their strict adherence to all the moral and reli- 
.gious observances required by their sect. Their children were early in- 
structed in the principles and ceremonies of their religion, habits and cus- 
toms. They were generally farmers, and took great care of their stock of 
different kinds. With few exceptions, they strictly inhibited their child- 
ren from joining in the dance or other juvenile amusements common to 
other relifjious sects of the Germans. 

In their marriages much ceremony was observed and great preparation 
-made. Fatted calves, lambs, poultry, the fmest of bread, butter, milk, 
•honey, domestic sugar, wine, if it could be had; with cvciy article neces- 
sary for a sumptuous feast in their plain Avay, were prepared in abundance. 
■Previous to the performance of the ceremony, (the clergyman attending 
"at the place appointed for the marriage,) four of the most respectable 
young females and four of the most respectable young men were selected 
as waiters upon the bride and groom. The several waiters were decorated 
\vith ])adges, to indicate their offices. The groomsmen, as they were termed, 
Were invariably furnished with fine white aprons beautifully embroidered. It 
was deemed a high honor to wear the apron. The duty of the waiters 
consisted in not only waiting on the bride and groom, but they v/cre re- 
quired, after the marriage ceremony was performed, to serve up the wed- 
tling dinner, and to guard and protect ihe bride while at dinner from hav- 
ing her shoe stolen from her foot. This custom of stealing the bride's 
vshoe, it is said, afforded the most heartfelt amusement to the wedding guest. 
To succeed in it, the greatest dexterity was used bv the younger part of 
the company, while equal vigilance was manifested by the waiters to de- 
fend her against the theft; and if they failed, they were in lioaor l)ound 
to pay a penalty for the redemption of the shoe. This penalty was a 
bottle of wine or 'one dollar, which was commonly the price of a bottle of 
wine: and as a punishment to the bride, she was not })ermitted to dance 
until the shoe was restored. The successful thief, on getting hold of the 
shoe, held it up in great trium})h to t'he view of the wlrole assemblage, 
which was generally pretty numerous. This custom v.'as continued areiong 
the Germans from generation to generation, until since the war of tlK» re- 
volution. The author has conversed with many individuals, still living, 
who were eye-witnesses of it. 

Throwin':' the stockin*]: was another custom ainonir the Germans.*— 

*Throwlng the stocking was not exclusively a Germaii 'custom. It ib 
celebrated by an Irish poet, in his "Irish Wedding.^' It is not improba- 
h\e but it was common to the Celtic nations also. 


When the bridge and groom were bedded, the young people were rrdniit- 
ted into the room. A stocking, rolled into a ball, was given to the young 
females, who, one after the other, would go to the foot of the bed, stand 
with their backs towards it, and throw the slocking over their shoulders 
at the bride's head; and the first that succeeded in touching her cap or 
head was the next to be married. The young men then threw the stock- 
ing at the groom's head, in like maimer, with the like motive. Hence the 
utmost eagerness and dexterity were used in throwing the stocking. — 
This practice, as well as that of stealing the bride's shoe, was common 
to all the Germans. 

Among the Lutherans and Calvinists, dancing with other amusements 
was common, at their wedding parties particularly. Dancing and rejoic- 
ings were sometimes kept up for weeks together.* 

The peaceable and orderly deportment of this hardy and industrious 
race of people, together v.'ith their perfect submission to the restraints of 
the civil authority, has always been proverbial. They form at this day a 
most valuable part of our community. 

A.mong our early settlers, a number of Irish Presbyterians removed from 
Pennsylvania, and settled along I3ack cieek, the North mountain and Opc- 
quon. A fev,' Scotch and English families were among them. 

The ancestors of the Glasses, Aliens, Vances. Kerfotts, &c.v.'ere among 
the earliest settlers on the upper waters of the Opequon. The ancestors 
of tlie Whites, Russells, &c. settled near the North mountain. There 
Avere a mixture of Irish and Germans on Cedar creek and its vicinity; the 
Frys, Newells, Blackburns,f Wilsons, &c. were among the number. The 
Irish, like the Germans, brought with them the religion, customs and ha- 
bits, of their ancestors. The Irish wedding was always an occasion of 
great hilarity, jollity and mirth. Among other scenes attending it, running 
for the bottle was much practicerl. It was usual for the wedding parties 
to ride to the residence of the clergyman to have the ceremony performed. 
In their absence, the father or the next friend prepared, at the bride's res- 
idence, a bottle of the best spirits that could be obtained, around the neck 
of which a white ribbon was tied. Returning from the clergyman's, 
when within one or two miles of the; home of the bride, some three or four 
young men prepared to run for the bottle. Taking an even start, their 
horses were put at full speed, dashing over mud, rocks, stumps, and disre- 
garding all impediments. The race, in fact, was ran with as much eager- 
ness and desire to win, as is ever manifested on the turf by oar sj)orting 
characters. The father or n(;xt IVientl of the bride, expecting tlie racers, 
stood with the bottle in his hand, ready to deliver to the successful com- 
petitor. On receiving it, he forthwith returned to meet the bride and groom. 
Wlien met, the bottle was first presented to tlie 'bride, who must taste it at 
least, next to the groom, and then hyiided round to the company, every 
one of wliom was recpiired to swig it. 

Tlie Quakers difTen-d from all other sects in their man'iage ceremony. — 

*Cbristi;in Miller, :in aged and resnerUiL'le uumi lie::: Woodstock, rela- 
ted this riisioiii to llic author. 

jGcn. S.iiiiucl IJI.icKljuni, itis said,d('sc;'ndi\l from this family. 


The parties having agreed ui)on the match, notice was giren to the elders 
or overseers of the meeting, and a strict enquiry followed whether there 
had been any previous engagements by either of the parties to other indi- 
viduals. If nothing of the kind appeared, the intended marriage was 
made known publicly; and if approved by all parties, the couple passed 
meeting. This ceremony was repeated three several times; vvhen, if no 
lawful impediment appeared, a day was appointed for the marringe, which 
took place at the meeting-house in presence of the congregation. A wri- 
ting, drawn up between the parties, purporting to be the marriage agree- 
ment, witnessed by as many of the bystanders as thought proper to sub- 
scribe their names, concluded the ceremony. They had no priest or cler- 
gyman to perform the rite of matrimony, and the whole proceeding was 
conducted with the utmost solemnity and decorum- This mode of mar- 
riage is still kept up, with but litlle variation. 

Previous to the war of the revolution, it v/as the practice to publish the 
bans of matrimony, betv.'een the parties intending to marry, three succes- 
sive Sabbath days in the church or meeting-house; after which, if no law- 
ful impediment appeared, it was lawful for a licensed minister of the par- 
ish or county to join the parties in wedlock". It is probable that this prac- 
tice, which was anciently used in the English churches, gave rise to the 
custom, in the Quaker society, of passing meeting. The peaceable und 
general moral deportment of the Q^i^kers is too generally known to require 
particular notice in this work. 

The Baptists were not among our earliest immigrants. About fourteen 
or fifteen families of that persuasion migrated from the state of New Jer- 
sey, and settled probably in 1742 or 1743 in the vicinity of what is now 
called Gerardstown, in the county of Berkeley.* 

Mr. Sem])le, in his history of the Virginia Baptists, states, that in the 
year 1754, Mr. Stearns, a preacher of this sect, with several others, re- 
moved from New England. "They halted first at Opcquon, in Berkeley 
county, Virginia, where he formed a Baptist church u^iicler the care of tlie 
Rev. John Gerard." This was probably the first Baptist church foundecf 
west of the Blue Ridge in our State. 

It is said that the spot where Tuscarora meeting house now stands, iu 
the county of Berkeley, is the first place where the gos'pel was i)ublicly 
preached and divine service performed west of the Blue ridge. f This was- 
and still remains a Presbyterian edifice. 

*Mr. M' Cowan, an aged and respectable citizen of the neighborhoodj. 
communicated this fact to the author. 

fThis information was communicated to the author by a highly respec- 
table old lady, of the Presbyterian church, in the county of Ik'rkcley. She 
also stated that in adtlition to the general tradition, she had lately heard 
the venerable and reverend Dr. Matthews assert the fact. Mr. Mayers^ 
now in his 87th year, born and raised on the Potonuic, in Berkeley, statecf 
his opinion to lhe author, that there was a house erected for public woiship 
at the Falling Water about the same time that Mic Tuscarora meeting-house 
was bud:. Both these churches arc now under the pastoral care of the 
Rrv. Jiiiucs M. Firown. 


It is not Avilhlii the plan of this work to give a general liisloiy of tlif 
rise and progress of the various religious societies of our country. Il 
may not, hf)\vever, be uninteresting to the general reader to have a brief 
sketch of the diflicultiesand persecutions which the Quakers and Baptists 
hod to encounter in their fust attempts to propagate their doctrines and 
principles in Virginia. 

In ilening's Statutes at Large, vol. i. pp. 032-33, the fcdlowing most 
extraordinary law, if indeed it deserves the name, was enacted by the 
then legislature of Virginia, March, IGGO: 

"^^/i act for the suppressing tlic Qunkrrs. 

"Whereas there is an vnreasonable and turbulent sort of people, corn- 
only called (Quakers, wjio contrary to the law do dayly gather together 
vnto them vnlaw'U assemblies and congregrations of people, teaching and 
publishing lies, miracles, false vision^;, prophecies and doctrines, which 
have influence vj)on the coniunities of men, both ccelesiasticall and civil, 
endeavouring and attempting thereby to destroy religion, lawes, coniuni- 
ties, and all bonds of civil societic, leaveing it arbitrairie to everie vainc 
and vitious j)erson whether men shall lie safe, lawes established, oflenders 
punished, and governours rule, hereby disturbing the pui)lique ])eace and 
just interest : to prevent and restraine which mischiefe, It n ojiacted, 'J'hat 
no master or commander of any shipp or other vessell do bring into this 
i-ollonie any person or persons called Quakers, Vnder the penalty of one 
liundrcd pounds sterling, to be leavied vj:)on him and his estate by order 
from the governour and_ council, or the comissioners in the severall coun- 
ties where such ships shall arrive: That all such Quakers as have been 
qucstiouffi, or sli;ill hereafter ;irrive, slinll be apprehended whercsoevei' 
1heysh;ill be ibund, and they be iinjirisoned without bade or malnpri/e, 
till Ihey do adjure this country, or {)utt in security with all speed to depart 
the collonie and not to return again: And if any should dare to presume 
to returne hither after such departure, to be proceeded against as contem- 
ners of the lawes and magistracy, and puni?^hcd accordingly, and caused 
again to depart the cf)uii'iT, and if they should the third time be so auda- 
cious and impuflent as 1o returne hither, to be jiroceeded against as ffelons: 
'j'liit noe jierson shall ent(Mtain any of the Quakers that liave heretofore 
been questioned by the governour and council, or which shall hereafter be 
questioned, nor permit in or near his house any assemblies of Quakers, in 
the like penally of one hundred pounds sterling: 'That comissioners and 
officers arc iiereby required and authorized, as they will answer the con- 
trary at tlu'ir perill, to take nolie(> of thisa<t, to see it fully edected and 
executed: And that no jierson do j)iesume on their prnW to dis|K)se or pub- 
lish their bookes, jianiphlets or libells, bearing the title of their tenets and 

This highhanded and cruel proceeding toolc 'place in ilii'timr' of Oliver 
CVornwell's usurpation in Kngianil, and at a lime when so?ne glinunering 
of rational, civil, and religious liberty, manifested itself in the mother 
country. The jtre unble to Ihi'^ act is contradicted by the wlioh^ history 
of Quakerism, from its foundation to the present jieriod. In all the writ- 
ten and traditional accounts handed down to u>, the Quakers are repre- 


sertted as a most inofTonsive, orderly, and strictly moral people, in all their 
deportment and habits. 

This unreasonable and unwise legislation, it is presumed, was suffered 
to die a natural death, as, in the progress ot the peopling of our country, 
we fmd that many Quakers, at a pretty early perioel, migrated and formed 
considerable settlements in different parts of the State. 

It has already been noticed that the Baptists were not among the num- 
ber of our earliest immigrants. Mr. Semple says: "The Baptists in Vir- 
nia orio-inated from three sources. The first were immit'rants from En<2-- 
land, who about the year 1714 settled in the south east part of the State. 
About 1^43 another party came from Maryland and founded a settlement in 
the north west.* A third party from New England, 1754." 

This last was Mr. Stearns and his party. They settled for a short time 
on Capon river, in the county of Hampshire, but soon removed to North 
Carolina. Mr. Stearns and his followers manifested great zeal and in- 
dustry in the propagation of their doctrines and principles. Their religion 
soon took a wide range in the Carolinas and Virginia. They met with 
violent opposition from the established Episco])al clergy, and nuich perse- 
cution followed. To the credit of the people of our valley, but few if any 
acts of violence were committed on the persons of the preachers west of 
the Blue ridge. This is to be accounted for from the fact that a great ma- 
jority of the inhabitants were dissenters from the Episcopal church. East 
of the Blue ridge, however, the case was widely different. It was (piite- 
common to imprison the preachers, insult the congregations, and treat 
them with every possible indignity and outrage. Every foul means was 
resorted to, which malice and hatred could devise, to suppress their doc- 
trines and religion. But instead of success this persecution produced di- 
rectly the contrary effect. "The first instance," says Mr. Semple, "of 
actual imprisonment, we believe, that ever took place in Virginia, was in 
the county of Spottsylvania. On the 4th June, 1768, John Vv^allcr, Le- 
wis Craig, James Childs, ifcc, were seized by the sheriff, and hauled be- 
fore three magistrates, who stood in the meeting-house yard, and who 
bound them in the penalty of $1000 to appear at court two days after. At 
court they were arraigned as disturbers of the peace, and committed to 
close jail." And in^December, 1770, Messrs. William Webber and Jo- 
seph Anthony were imprisoned in Chesterfield jail. 

The author deems it unnecessary to detail all the cases of persecution 
and imprisonment of the Baptist preachers. He will therefore conclude 
this narrative with the account of the violent persecution and cruel treat- 
ment of the late Rev. James Ireland, a distinguished Baptist preacher of 
our valley. 

Mr. Ireland was on one occasion committed to the jail of Culpeper 

Tt is probable this is the party who settled in the neighborhood of Ge- 
rardstown. If so, Mr. S. is doubtless misinformed as to the place of their 
origin. The first Baptist immigrants who settled in Berkeley county were 
certainly from New Jersey. 


rniinty," when scvoral attempts were made to destroy him. Of these at- 
tempts he gives the following narrative: 

"A number of my persecutors resorted to the tavern of Mr. Steward^ 
at the court-house, where they plotted to blow me up with powder that 
night, as I was informed; but all they could collect was half a pound. — 
'I'hey fixed it for explosion, expecting I was sitting directly over it^ 
hut in this they were mistak'en. Fire was put to it, and it went 
off with considerable noise, forcing up a small plank, from which I 
received no damage. The next scheme they devised was to smoke me 
with brimstone and Indian pepper. They had to wait certain opportuni- 
ties to accomplish the same. The lower part of the jail door was a few 
inches above its sill. When the wind v.'as favorable, they would get |X)ds 
of Indian pepper, empty them of their contents, and fill them with brim- 
stone, and set them burning, so that the whole jail would be filled \\atlTthe 
killing smoke, and oblige me to go to cracks, and put my mouth to them 
in order to prevent suffocation. At length a certain doctor and the jailor 
formed a scheme to poison me, which they actually effected." 

From this more than savage cruelty Mr. Ireland became extremely ill, 
was attended by several physicians, and in some degree restored to health 
and activity, but he never entirely recovered from the great injury which 
his constitution received. 

The author had the satisfaction of an intimate personal acquaintance 
with Mr. Ireland, and lived a near neighbor to him for several years be- 
fore his death. He was a native Scotsman; of course his })r()imnciatiori 
was a little broad. He had a fine commanding voice, easy delivery, with 
a beautiful natural elocution iir his sermonizing. His language, perhaps, 
was not as purely classical as some of his cotemporaries; but such was 
his powerful elocution, i)articularly on the subject of the crucifixion and 
.sufferings of our Savior, that he never failed to cause a flood of tears to 
/low tVom the eyes of his audience, whenever he touched that theme. In 
his younger years he was industrious, zealous, sparing no pains to propa- 
gate his religious opinions and principles, and was very successful in gain- 
ing proselytes: hence he became an object of great resentment to the es- 
tabhshed clergy, and they resorted to every means within their reach, to 
.silence and put him down. But in this they fiiilcd. He at length tri- 
umphed over his persecutors, was instrumental in founding several church- 


About the year iTTof two travelling strangers called at the residence of 
the late Maj. Lewis Stephens, the proprietor and founder of the town^ 

*In the life of Ireland, no dates are given. The time of liis com- 
mitnient was prol)abIy about the year 1771 or 1772. 

jThe author is not positive that he is correct as to the time (his occur- 
rence took place, l)ut has been informed it was just before the commence- 
ment of the war of the Revolution. The late Dr. Tilden communicated 
this information to the writer — whicii he slated he learneil from Mrs. Ste- 


iM.n\ cll.i,riii<>uislit''cl ill tlio mail establishment as "Newtown StephehsburtT," 
aiui fMcjuircd it' they could obtain quarters for the night. Maj. Stephens 
haj)prii('d [o be absent; but Mrs. Stephens, who was remarkable for hospi- 
ialii\- and leligious impressions, informs them they could be accomodated. 
One of them observed to her, "We are preachers; and the next day being 
Sabbatli, we will have to remain with you until Monday morning, as we 
(h» not travel on the Sabbath." To which the old lady replied, "if youare 
pieacli<^rs, you are the more welcome." 

John llagerly and Richard Owens were the names of the preachers,' — 
The next morning notice was sent through the t'!)wn, and the strangers deli- 
N ered sermons. This was doubtless the first JNIethodist preaching ever heard 
in our valley. It is said they travelled East of the Blue Ridge, (before 
ihey reached Stephensburg,) on a preaching tour, and probably crossed 
the Ridge at some place south of Stephensburg. 

A number of the people were much pleased with them, and they soon 
got up a small church at this place. The late John Hite, Jr., his sister,. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Hughes, (then a widow,) John Taylor and wii'e, Lewis 
Stephens, Sr. and wife, Lewis Stephens, Jr. and wife, and several Others 
joined the church, and in a few years k began to flourish, 'i'he rapid 
spread of this sect throughout our country, need's no remarks from tiie 

The first Camp Meeting held in our Valley, within the author's recol- 
lection, took place' at what is called Chrisman'^ Spring, about tw3 miles 
south of Stephensburg, on the great highway from Winchester to Staun- 
ton. This was probably in the month of August, 1806. It has been 
stated to the author, that the })ractice of Camp Meetings originated with 
a Baptist preacher somevrhere about James River. It is sfiid he was a 
man of great abilities and transcendant elocution; he however became too 
much of an Armenian in his doctiine to please the generality of his bre- 
thren, and they excommunicated him from their church, an-d attempted to 
.silence him, but he would not C''?nsent to be silenced by them, and they 
refused him permission to preach in their meeting houses, and he adopted 
the plan of appointing meetings in the forest, where vast crowds of peo- 
ple attended his preaching, and they soon got up the practice of forming 
■encampments. The author cannot vouch for the truth of this statement, 
but recollects it was communicated to him by a highly respectable mem- 
ber of the Baptist church. 

In the year 183G, the audior traveled through the South west counties 
on a tour of observation — he frequently passed places where Camp Meet- 
ings had been held; they are sometimes seen in dense forests, and some 
of them had the appearance of having been abandoned or (Hsused for a 
considerable time. The author, however, passed on ■ in (liles county 
which was the best fixed for the juu'pose he has ever seen. There is a 
large framed building erected probably s|)acious enough to shelter 2000 
people or upwards, with a strong shingled roof, and some twelve or fifteen 
log houses, covered also with shingles, for the accommodation of visitors. 
A meeting had just been held at this place some two or three days before 
he passed it, at which, he was informed, several thousand people had at- 


tended. It is situated very convenient to a mostcbniming spvin"; o( ('c- 
liohtlul water, and stands on hi oh frround. Its location is certainlv vcrv 
judicially selected for the purpose. 




It has been noticed in a preceding^ chapter, that in the year 1753, emis- 
saries from the Western Indians came amoni^the Valley Indians, invitin;:; 
them to cross the Alleoany mountains, and that in the spring of the year 
1754, the Indians suddenly and unexpectedly moved olT, and entirely lel't 
the valley. 

That this movement of the Indians was made under the influence of 
the French, there is but little doubt. In the year 1753, Maj. Geo. Wash- 
ington (since the illustrious Gen. Washington,) was sent l)y governor 
\ Dinwiddle, the then colonial governor of Virginia, with a letter to the 
French commander on the western waters, remonstrating against his 
encroachments upon the territory of Virginia. This letter of re- 
monstrance was disregarded by the Frenchman, and very soon after- 
wards the war, commonly called "Braddock's war," between the British 
government and France, commenced. In the year 1754, the government 
of Virginia raised an armed force with the intention of dislodging the 
French from their fortified places within the limits of the colony. Th(> 
command of this army was given to Col. Fry, and George Washington 
was appointed lieutenant-colonel under him. Their little army amounted 
to three hundred men. "Washington advanced at the head of two com- 
panies of this regiment, early in April, to ihe Great JMeatlows, v>here he 
was informed by some Iriendly Iniliaiis, that the French were erecting for- 
tifications in the forks between the Allegany and Monongahela rivers, and 
also that a detachment was on its march from that place towards the Great 
Meadows. War had not been formally declared between Franc*' and 
Fngland, but as neither were disposed to recede from their claim to the 
. lands on the Ohio, it was deemed inevitable, and on the point of com- 
mencing. Several circumstances were supposed to indicate a hostile in- 
tention on the part of the French detachment. Washington, under the 
guidance of some friendly Indians, on a dark rainy night suqirised their 
encampment, and firing once, rushfd in anil surrounded tlu in. 'I'he com- 
mander, Dnmonville, was killed, with eight ornine others; one escaped, and 
all the rest immediately surrendered. Soon after this aflair, Col. Fiydicd, 
and the command of the rcfiment devolved on Washinffton. who speedi- 


iy collected liie whole at the Great Meadows, Two independent compa- 
nies of regulars, one from South Carolina, soon after arrived at the same 
})lace. Col. Washington was now at the head of nearly lour hundred 
men. A stockade, afterwards called Fort Necessity, was erected at the- 
Great Meadows, in which a small force was left, and the main body ad- 
vanced widi a vie^y to dislodging the French from Fort Duquesne,* which 
they had recently erected at the confluence of Allegany and Monongahe- 
la rivers. They had not proceeded more than thirteen miles, when they 
were informed by friendly Indians that the French, as numerous as pigeons 
in the woods, were advancing in an hostile manner towards the English 
settlements, and also that Fort Duquesne had been strongly reinforced. — 
In this critical situation a council of war unanimously recommended a re- 
treat to the Great Meadows, which was effected without delay, and every 
exertion made to render Fort Necessity tenable, before the works intend- 
ed for that purpose were completed. Mons. de Villier, with a conside- 
rable force, attacked the fort. The assailants were covered by trees and 
high grass. t The Americans received them with great resolution, and 
fought some within the stockade, and others in the surrounding ditch. — 
Washington continued the whole day on the outside of the fort, and con- 
ducted the defence with the greatest coolness and intrepidity. The en- 
gagement lasted from 10 o'clock in the morning till night, when the French 
commander demanded a parley, and offered terms of capitulation. His 
first and second proposals were rejected, and Washington would accept of 
none but the following honorable ones, which were mutually agreed upon 
in the course of the night: The fort to be surrendered on condition that 
the garrison should march out with the honors of war, and be permitted to 
retain their arms and bai'' o-ao-e, and to march unmolested into the inhal^i- 
ted parts of Virginia."^ 

In 1755 the British government sent Gen. Braddock, at the head of 
two regiments, to this country. Col. Washington had previously resign- 
ed the command of the Virginia troops. Braddock invited him to join 
the service as one of his volunteer aids, which invitation he readily ac- 
cepted, and joined Braddock near Alexandria. § The army moved on for 
the west, and in their march out erected Fort Cumberland. || The cir- 

*Fort Duquesne, so called in honor of the French commander, was, af- 
ter it fell into the hands of the English, called Fort Pitt, and is now Pitts- 

fit is presumable that the grass here spoken of by Dr. Ramsey was of 
the growth of the preceding year. It is not probable that the grass, the 
growth of the year 1754, so early in the season, had grown of sufficient 
height to conceal a man. 

tRamsey's Life of Washmgton. 

§Then called Bellhaven. 

II Fort Cumberland was built in the year 1755, in the fork between Wills 
creek and Nordi branch of the Potomac, the remains of which are yet to 
be seen. It is about 55 miles north west of Winchester, on the Mary- 
land side of the Potomac. There is now a consideral)le towji at this 
place. The garrisoii lefi at ii was connnanded by Maj. Livingston. Mr. 


.cumstantes alleiiding the unfortunate defeat of liradiluck, and tlic drcat(« 
ful slaughter of his army near Pittsburgh, are too generally known to re- 
quire a detailed account in this work: suliice it to say that the defeat was 
■attended with the most disastrous consequences to our country. The 
whole western frontier was left exposed to the ravages of the forct.'s of the 
French and Indians combined. 

After the defeat and fall of Braddock, Col. Dunbar, the next in com- 
mand of the British army, retreated to Philadelphia, and the defence of 
the country fell upon Washington, with the few troops tlj.e colonies wcri> 
able to raise. The people foithwith erected stockade forts in every pajt 
of the valley, ami took shelter in them. Many families Avere driven of!', 
.some east of the Blue Ridge, and others into Maryland and Pennsylvania, 

Immediately after the defeat of Braddock, Washington retreated \i> 
Winchester, in the county of Frederick, and in the autumn of 1755 built 
Fort Loudoun. The venerable and highly respectable Lev.'is Neijl, who 
Avas born on Opoquon, about five miles east of Winchester, in 1747, sta- 
ted to the author, that when he was about eight years of age, his father 
had business at the fort, and that he went with him into it. Mr. Thomas 
Barrett, another aged and resj^octable citizen, states that he has often 
lieard his father say, that Fort Loudoun was built the same year and imme- 
diately after Braddock's defeat. Our highly respectable and venerable 
general, John Smith, who settled in Winchester in 1773, informed the au- 
thor that lie had seen and conversed with some of Washington's oiHcers 
soon after he settled in W^inchestjer, and they stated to him that Washing-- 
ton marked out the site of the fort, and superintended the work; that he 
bought a lot in Winchester, erected a smith's shop on it, and brought from 
Mount Vernon his own blacksmith to make the necessary iron work for 
the fort. 'J'hese officers pointed out to Gen. Smith the s])ot wheic Gen. 
Washington's huts or cabins were ^erected for his residence while in the 
fort. The great highway leading A om Winchester to the north passes 
through the fort precisely where Washington's quarters were erected. J1 
stands at the north end of Loudoun street, and a considerable part ol' 
the walls are now remaining. It covered an area of about half an acre; 
Avithin which area, a well, one hundred and three Icet deep, chieily thro' 
a solid limestone rock, was sunk for the convenience of the garrison.* — 
The labor of throwing u)) this fort was performed 1)y Washington's regi- 
inent; so says Cien. Smith. It mounted six eighteen })ounders, six twel\(^ 
pounders, six six-pounders, ibur swivels, and two howitzers, and contained 

John Tomlinson gave the author this information. On the ancient site 
•of the fort, there are several dwelling houses, aiul a new brick Kpiscoj)al 

*The wairr in Ihisudl iIm'S nearllu' sniface, -And in great floods of 
rain has been known lo r)\ciflo\v anrl discharge a considerable stream cf 
water. The site of the tort is upon more; elevated ground than ihe head 
^'>f any .springs in >ls ncigiiborliood. {'\'t*in what |irincij)le the water 
•r-houJd here rise abwe the siurfacG the aMth<i»r cannot protend to cxplaii>., 


'i\ filroiig garrison.* No ibrinidablo aitcmpts were evtr iiiadu liv the en- 
<iinv at^'tiiiist it. A Freiieli officer once came to reconnoiter, and found il 
loo strong to be attacked \vith any probai)ility of success. f 

For three years after the defeat of ]h-addork, th^^ French and Indians 
ronibined carried on a most destructirc and ^"ruel war upon the wt-stern 
people. The Fi'enchj, however, in about three years after Braddock's de- 
i'eat, abandoned Fort Duquesnc, and it was immediately taken possession 
of by the British and colonial troops uiider the command of Gen. Forbes. 
Washington soon after resigned tlie command of the Virginia forces, and 
reti'-ed to jirivate life. .A predatory warfare was nevertheless continued 
on the jieople of the valley by hostile Indian tribes for several years after 
the French harl been driven from their strong holds in the west; the parli- 
t'wlars of U'hich will form the subject of my next chapter. 




After the defeat of Braddock, the whole western frontier was left expo- 
l^ed to the incursio)is of the Indians and French* In the spring of the year 
175G, a party of about fifty Indians, with a French captain at their head, 
I'rossod the Allf ""any mountains, committino; on the white settlers every 
act of barbarous war. Capt. Jeremiah Smith, raised a party of twenty 
brave men, marched to meet this savage ibe, and fell in with them^ at the 
'head of Capon river, when a fierce and bloody battle was foug!)t. Smitli 
killed the captain with his own hand; five other Indians having fallen, and 
a nund)er \younded, they gave way and fled. Smith lost tv^'o of his men. 
On searching the body of the Frenchman, he was found in possession of 
liis commission and written instructions to meet another party of about fif- 
ty Indians at Fort Frederick,! to attack the fort, destroy it, and blow up 
the magazine. 

*Gen. .John Smith stated this fact to the author. The caimon were re- 
moved from Winchester early in the war of the revolution. Some further 
■account of this artillery will be given in a future chapter. Mr. Henry 
W. Baker, of Winchester, gave the author an account of the number of 
:-caimon mounted on the fort. 

fWillinm L. Clark, Esq., is now the owner of the land including this 
ancient fortification, and has converted a part of it into a beautiful plea- 
sure garden. 

iF'tj-t Fjedcri--,k \v;i.«: connnvaiccd in the xear 1755, undry the direction 


Tlici other party of Indians were cnconnlered])retty low down the Norlb 
liranch of the Capon river, by Ca))t. Joshua Lewis, at the head of eigh- 
teen juen; one Indian was kUled when the otiiers broke anil ran olT. Pre- 
vious to the defeat of this party they had committed considerable destruc- 
tion of the pioperty of the white settlers, and took a Mrs, Horner and a 
g-irl about thincen years of age prisoners. Mrs. Horner was the inoUier 
of seven or ciglit children; she never got back to her family. The girl, 
whose name was Sarah Gibbons, the sister of my informant,* was a ])ri- 
.soner about eight or nine years before she returned home. The iutentioa 
of attacking I'ort Frederick was of course abandoned. 

Those Indians dispersed into small parties, and carried the work of 
death and (hjsolation into several neighborhoods, in the counties now 
Berkeley, Frederick aiul Shenandoah. About eighteen or twenty of tliem 
crossed the North mountain at Mills's gap, which is in the county of 
Berkeley, killed a man by the name of Keliy, and several of Ids family, 
svithin a lew steps of the present dwelling house of the late Mr. William 
Wilson, not more than half a nnle Irom Gerardstown, and from thence 
passed on to l!ie neighborhood of" the present site of Martinsburg, the 
neighboring ]>eople generally taking shelter in John Evans' fort.f A 
tsmali [laity of tlie Indians attack(;d the dwelling house of a Mr. Evans, 
brother to the owner of the fort; but being beaten off, they went in pur- 
siiil of a. reinforcement. In their absence Mr. Evans and his family got 
.^afe to the J'ort. The Indians returned, and set fire to the house, the 
nuns of v.'hich are now to be seen from the great road leading to Win- 
chester, three miles south of Martinsbuig, at the head of what is called 
the ]3ig Spring. 

The same Indians took a female prisoner on the same day at John 
Strode's house. A boy by the name of Hackney, who was on his way 
to the fort, saw her previously, and advised her not to go to the house, 
saying that Strode's family were all gone to the fort, and that he suspected 
the Indians were then in the house. She hov/ever seeing a smoke at the 
house, disregarded the advice of the little boy, went to it, was seized by 
the Indians, taken off, and was about three years a prisoner, but llnally 

of (Jov. Sharp, of Maryland, and was probably finished in 1776. It is 
still standing on tlie Maryland side of the Cohongoruton. Its walls are 
entirely of sKnie, four antl a half I'eet thick at the base, and three at the 
top; they are at least twenty I'ect high, antl have undergone but little di- 
lapidation. Dr. John Hedges, and his son Capl. John C. Hedges, aided 
the author in the examination of thisjilace, and measuring its area, height 
and thickness of the walls. Us location is not more than about twelve 
miles from Martinsburg, in Virginia, and about the same distance from 
Williamsporl, in Maryland. It encloses an area of about one and a half 
acres, exclusive of the bastions or redoubts. It is said the erection of 
this fort cost about sixty-five thousand pounds sterling, 

*Mr. Jacob (iibbons was born lOth Sejit. 1715. Since the author saw 
him, he has (.lep.irled this lite — an honest, good old man. 

fEvaus' fort was erected within about two miles of Martinsburg, a 
blockade. The laud, is now owned by Eryatt, Esq. 


o^ot home. The bov went to the fort, and loid what had hairvriO.I; hul 
the men had ail turned out to bury Kelly and tj^o in pursuit oC Uie lutliaus-, 
k^avinf?; nobody to defend the fort but the women and chiflren. Mrs. K- 
vans armed herseh", and ealled on all the women, Avho had firmness e- 
nouo'h to arm, to join her, and sueh as were too timed slie ordered lo run 
bullets. She then made a boy beat to arms on a drum; on hearing which, 
the Indians became alarmed, set fire to Strode's house,* and moved off. 
They discovered the party of white men just mentioned, and fired upon 
them, but did no injury. The latter finding the Indians too strong ibr 
them, retreated into the fort.f 

From thence the Indians passed onto Opequon, and the next morning 
attacked Neally's fort, massacred most of the people, and took off seve- 
ral prisoners; among them George Stockton and Isabella his sister. — 
Charles Porterfield, a youth about 20 years of age, heard the firing from 
his lather's residence, about one mile from the fort, armed himself and 
set off with all speed to the fort, but on his way was killed. | 

Among the prisoners were a man by the name of Cohoon, his wife, and 
some of his children. Mrs. Cohoon was in a state of pregnancy, and not 
being able to travel fast enough to please her savage captors, they forced 
her husband forward, wliile crossing the North mountain, and cruelly 
murdered her: her husband distantly heard her screams. Cohoon, how- 
ever, that night made his escape, and got safely back to his friends.— 
George Stockton and his sister Isabella, who were also among the priso- 
ners, were taken to the Indian towns. Isabella was eight or nine years 
of age, and her story is as remarkable as it is interesting. She was de- 
tained and grew up among the savages. Being a beautiful and interesting 
firl, they sold her to a Canadian in Canada, where a young Frenchman, 
named Plata, soon became acquainted with her, and made her a tender of 
his hand in matrimony.§ This she declined unless her parents' consent 
could be obtained, — a strong proof of her filial affection and good sense. 
The Frenchman immediately proposed to conduct her home, readily be- 
lieving that his generous devotion and great attention to the daughter 
would lay the parents under such high obligations to him, that they would 
willingly consent to the union. But such were the strong prejudices ex- 
isting at the time against everything French, that her parents and friends 
peremptorily objected. The Frenchman then prevailed on Isabella to 
elope with him; to effect wdiich they secured two of her father's horses 

*The present residence of the widow Showalter, three miles from Alar- 

fMr. Joseph Hackney, Frederick county, stated these facts to tlie au- 
thor. The little boy, mentioned above, grew up, married, was a Quaker 
by profesjnon, and the father of my informant. 

^George Porterfield, Esq. now residing in the county of Berkeley, is a 
brother to the youth who was killed, and stated to the author the particu- 
lars of this unhappy occurrence. Capt. Glenn also stated several of the 
circumstances to the author. 

§Mr. Makers, of Berkeley counly, gave the author the name of this 
young Frenchman. 

tj.} AM) .\l.vS,S,V.(.'Ui:s. 

;iii(l ))ii.-lic.l (tiT. Thcv werr, liowcvcr, piirsut'd l.'V i\V(>' of liri' bi'dliiorSy 
(]V( rlakfii, ;il J Iiiii1<-', l^•lm,^yl\ ;iiiiii, and Isabellii i;<)iril)ly loin iiom 
licr piotrctor and (Icvotf'd lo\cr, and In'onj^-lit bark 1o iicr parents, wliilr 
ilic pool- h'rrnclinian was warned tliat. it' he ever made; any tartlicr altt-nipt: 
to talvi- her off, his lil'e should pay the forfcil. 'I'liis story is fainili'ffr lo 
several aged and respectal)l(' individuals in llic nci^liljoiliond ot' .Marlin>- 
bnrfj^. Isabclhi aCtcrwards niaiiied a man by th<; name ot McClary, re- 
moved andsetth'd in liie neighljorliood of Mor<^anlown, and li^rew weahhv. 
(ieorge, alter an absenee ot" three years, fi;ot hcniie also. 

A party ot" I'ourteen Indians, believed lo be |)art ot" those (b'Tcat'-d b-, 
C'apt. Smith, on their return to the west killed a youn<^ \v6inan, and took 
a Airs. Neft" prisoner. This was on the South t'oik ot" the river Wappato- 
maka. They cut ofl' Mrs. Nen"'s j)e(ti(:oat u[) lo her knees, and LlJive iier 
a pair of moccasins to wear on her feet. 'I'his was done to t"acilitate her 
travelling; but they j)roceeded no further than the vicinity of Tort Plea- 
sant,* where, on the second night, they let"t AFrs. Neli' in the custodv ot" an 
old Indian, and divided themselves into two parties, in ortler to watch the 
fort. At a late hour in the night, Mrs. Ne/T discovering that her guaid 
was pretty soundly asleep, ran oflT. The old fellow very soon awoke, fi- 
red ofT liis gun, and raised a yell. Mrs. N. ran between the two parties 
of Inflians, got safe into Fort Pleasant, and gave notice where the Indians 
were encanijx'd. A small party of men, the; same evening came from 
another small t"ort a few miles above, and joined their friends in Fort 
Pleasant. Th<> Indians, after the escape of Mrs. Net!", had collected into- 
one body in a dee)) glen, near the fort. FOarly the next morning, sixteen 
men, well mounted and armed, left the fort with a view to attack the Indians. 
Th(;y soon discovered their encampment. The whites divided them- 
selves into two parties, intending to inclose the Indians between two tires; 
but unfortunately a small dog which had followed them, starting a ral)bit, 
his yelling alarmed the Indians; upon which they cautimisly moved ofl", 
passed between the two parties of white men unobserved, took a position 
between tiicm and their horses, and opened a most destructive lire. The 
whites returned the fire with great firmness a?Kl bravery, and a desperate 
and bloody contlict ensued. Seven of the whites fell dead, and tour were- 
wounded. Th(! little renmant retreated to the fort, whither the wounded 
also arrived. Three Indians fell in this battle, and several were wounded. 
The victors secured the white men's horses, and took them ofl/f 

Just before the above action commenced, Mr. Vanmet(>r, an old man, 
mounted his horse, rode upon a high ridge, and witnessed the battle. He 

*Fort Pleasant was a strong stockade with block houses, erected on the 
lands now owned by Isaac Vanmeter, Es(|. on the South Branch of Poto- 
mac, a short distance above what is called tlie Trough. 

jThis battle, is called the "Battle of The Trough." Messrs. Vanme- 
ter, McNeill and Heath, detailed the particulars to the author. A block 
house, witli jjort holes, is now standing in Mr. D. McNeill's yard, — part 
of an old fort erected at the ti'nie of Brnddork's war, the logs of which 
are principally sf»und. 

INDIAN rN{'^,l^sl()Ns, r/i'c, &:, 

relumed svhli all speed to the fort, and gave notice of the defoal. The 
old man \v;:s killed by the indinns in 1757, 

Aitvr eonimitting to writing the foregonig account, the author received 
I'loni his I'riend Dr. Charles A. Turley, of ii-ort Pleasant, a more particu- 
lar narrative of the battle, -which the auUior will subjoin, in tin- doctor's 
own words: 

"The memorable battle of The 'i't(mgh (sa)s Dr. Turiey) was preced(;d 
by the following circumstances. On the day previous, two Indim stroll- 
ers, fiojii a large party of sixty or seventy warriors, under the well known 
and ferocious chief Kill-buck, made an attack upon tlie dwelling of a 
Mrs. Brake, on the South fork of the South brancli oi' the Potomac, about 
fifteen miles above Mooreileld, and took Mrs. i3iake and a Mrs. Ne/F pri- 
soners. 'I'he ibrmer not being able to travel iiom Ikt situation, was tom- 
ahawked and scalped, and the latter brought down to Uie vicinity of Town 
Ibrt, about one and a half miles below Moorefield. Ther« one of llie Ir>- 
dians, under the ju-etence of Imnting, retired, and the other laid liimself 
down and pretended to fall asleep, with a view, as was believed, to let 
Mrs. Neff escape to the fort, and give the alarm. Every thing turned out 
agreeably to their expectations; for as soon as she reached the ibrt, and 
related the circumstances of her escape, 18 men from thataixd i^uttermili: 
fort, five miles alx)ve, went in pursuit. They w-ere men notorious lor 
their valor, and who had been Avell tried on many such occasions, 

' "As soon as they came to the place indicated by Mrs. Neff, they found 
a plain trace left by the Indian, by occasionally breaking a biish. x\lr. 
John Harness, who was well acquainted with the manners and mode of 
warfare of the Indians, pronounced that the hunter Indian had not return- 
ed to his comrade, or that they were in great force somewhere near anrl in 
ambush. They however pursued the trace, without discovering any signs 
of a larger party, until they arrived between two mountains, forming what 
from its resen),blance is called The Trough. Here, directly alxv/e a line 
spring about 200 paces from the river, which at that time was filled to an 
impassable stage by a heavy fall of rain, these grim monsters of blood were 
encam])ed, to the number above staled. The western face of J'u; ridge 
was very precipitous and rough, and on i\i(: north of the s[)ring was a 
deep ravine, cutting directly up into the ridge above. Our little band of 
heroes, nothing daunted by the superior numlx-r of the enemy, dismount- 
ed unobserved, and prepared for battle, leaving their horses on the ridgr'. 
But by one of those unlbreseen and almost unaccountable accidents whif.h 
often thwart the seemingly best planned enterprises, a small dog which 
had followed them just at this juncture started a rabbit, and went yelping 
down the ridge, giving the Indians timely notice of their approach. They 
immediat.e!y flew to arms, ar^i fding off up the ravine befoie described, 
passed directly into the r<;ar of our litde band, placing thorn in the very 
situation they had Jioj)ed to find their enemies, between ihc mountain and 
the sv/ollen river. Now came the "tug of war," and both parties rushed 
to tlie onset, dealing death and slaughter at every fire. Afier an lif)ur or 
two hard iif{htiui;, d-arinLT which each of our litth; band had numbered hi^- 
man, ajid more than half their rnmd>er had iaik-n to rise no nuwe, \.lu)i^ 



that ivmuinccT wcrr coiupflli'tl to rctn'ul, whirh cduUt ciiiU be efiocied 'm 
swimmintr tlie livc!'. .Some who IkkI liccii wounded, not bein.f able lo 
do this, determined to sell their lives as deaily as possible; iind delibe- 
rately leading" their rifles, and pla<i'iiig themselves behind som<? cover om 
the river bank, dealt certaiu death to ihe first adversary who made his ap- 
pearance, and then calmly yielded to the tomahawk. 

"We cannot here pass over without mentioning one of the many des- 
potic acts exercised by the then eolonwil provernmcnt and its oificers to- 
\Tards the unoffending colonists. At the time of which we are speaking, 
there were quartered in Fort Pleasant, about one and a half miles above 
the battle ground, and within hearing of every gun, a companv of regu- 
lars, cotnmanded by a British officer naaied Wagner, who not only refused 
to march a man out of the fort, but, when the inhabitants seized their ri- 
fles and determined to rush to the aid of their brothers, ordered the gates 
to be closed, and suffered none to pass in or out. ]^y marching to the 
western bank of the river, he might have eflectually protected those who 
were wounded, without any danger of an a1t;;ck from the enemy. And 
when the few who had escaped the slaughtei', hailetl and demanded ad- 
mission into the ibrt, it was denied them, i^'or this act of Capt. W^ag- 
ner's the survivors of our Spartan band called him a coward; ibr which 
insult he thought it his duly to hunt them down like wolves, and when 
cauglit, to inflict corporal punishment by stripes. 

"The Indian chiel, Kill-buck, afterwards admitted, tliat although he 
had witnessed luany sanguinary contests, this was the most so that he 
had ever experienced for the number of his enemies. Kill-bui'k was a 
ShawneCj a savage of strong meiital powers, and well acquainted with all 
the families in the settlement before tlie war broke out. Ool. V incent 
Williams, whose father was inhumanly uundt red by ]{ill-buck and his 
party on Patterson's creek, became pei-sonally acquainted with him many 
years afterwards, and took the trouble, wlien once in the state of Ohio, to 
visit him. He was far advanced in years, and had become blind. The 
colonel informed ine that as soon as he told Kill-buck his name, the c>nly 
answer he made was, ""^onn" father w'as a brave warrior." 'I'he half bro- 
ther of Col, Williams, Mr. Benjamin Casey, was with him. Mr. Petei' 
Casey had once hired Kill-buck to catch and brin"' ho)ue a runaway nefjro, 
and \v?-s to have given liim fourteen shillings. Me paid him six sliillings, 
and the war breaking out, he never paid him the other eight. At the \\- 
vist spoken of, Kill-buck inquired the nam.e of his other visitor, and when 
the colonel told hirn it was lienjamin Casey, — 'What, Peter C^asey's sonr' 
"Yes." "Your father owes me eight shillings; will you pay it?" said the 
old chief. The colonel at that time got all Ihe particulars of tin- tragical 
death of his father, as well as the great heroism numifestrd by our little 
band at the battle of The Trough.'' 

Dr. Turlev reliers In the ibregoing narrative to the murder of Mj'. Wil- 
liams, on Patterson's creek. I'his melancholy tragtcly the author is ena- 
bled to give, as it was related to him by Mr. James 8. Miles, of Hardy. 

Mr. Williams lived on Patterson's creek, on the farm now occupied by 
his grandson, Mr. Jarnes Williams. Heanng of tin* apjjroach of the In- 
(Jians, hi repaired v.iih his neighbuni to Fort Pkisani (nine miles) for it- 


•"Ciirilv. Al'icr reiihiui.11'4- lu^rc u few diiys. sujijxisin;;- iIk-'ii houses irii'^'lit 
be revisited witli salely, Mr. VV„ with seven olhers crossed the jxioujilain 
lor that purpose. They separated on reaeiiiiiir the creek; and i\ir. VV. 
went aloue to his farm. liaviHg lied his horse to a i)iish, he eommei)<;ed 
Salting bis cattle, when seven Jndians (as vv'as aiierv\-ards said by Kill- 
i)uck) got between him and his horse, and demanded las surrender. Mr, 
W. answered by a ball troni his rifle, which killed one of the Indians, then 
retreated to his house, barricaded the door, and put his enemy at defiance. 
They iired at him at j'andoni through the door and v.'inrlows, until the lat- 
ter were hlled with shot-lioies. For greatej- security, Mr. W. got behind 
a homniony block in a corner, from which he v/ould fire at Jiis assailants; 
throuLih the cracks of the building, as opportunity offered. In this way 
lie killed five out of the scnxn. The remaining two, resolved iiotto give up 
their prey, found it necessary to proceed more cautiously; and going to the 
least exposed side of the house, one was raised upf)n the shoulders of the 
other to an opening in thekgs some distance above the level of Mr. V/., 
who did not, consequently, observe the maiionivre, from whicli he fired, 
and shot Mr. W. de;id. Tiiebody was instantly quartered, aud hung to 
the four corners of the building, antl tiie head sluck npi^n a fence stake in 
jiont of the door. This brave man was the father of tlie venerable Ed- 
ward Williams, the clerk of Hardy county couri-<iutil the election in 1830 
under the new constitution, v.'hen his advanced corapeiled him to de- 
<;iine being a candidate. 

Sometime after the battle of The Trough, a;t :i iorl se\en miles above 
Romney, tAvo Indian boys made their ap[)earance, when some of tiieineu 
went out with the intention of taking them. A grown Indian made h,:s 
■iippearance; but he was instantly shot down by Shadrach W'light. A nu- 
merous party then showed themselves, \vhleh the garrison sallied out and 
.attacked; but they were tlefeated with the loss of several of thoir uicn, 
/and compelled to retreat to the fori.'' 

Kill-buck, the chief before mentioned, used iVe<jiu'!iiiv to command 
these marauding parties. Previous to tin' breaking out of the war, he 
was well acquainted with m:niv of the white settlers on Wappatomaka, 
a,nd lived a good part of his lime among them, Ifis iiilimate acquain- 
tance with the country euiibled him to lead his band oi' murderers iVom 
place to place, and to commit many outrages on the ()ersons and j)roperiy 
of the white inhabitants. In the jjrogress of this W()rk, scnne fiuihei- no- 
tice will be taken of this distinguislied wan-ior. The}'e was anothergieat 
Indian warrior called "Crane;" but the; author iias not been able to collect 
any particular traditionary accounts of the i'eals perl'orined by him. 

In the year 1757, a numerous body of Iiidiaiis ciosst'd the Alleganv, 
mu\, as usual, divided themselve- into small [)ariies, and hovering about 
the dilTerent forts, committed many acts of nuu'der and desi ruction of ])ro- 
jit'rty. ..Vbout thii'ty or Ibrty aj)proachcd JvKvanPs frii-i,| nw Ciipou ri\if, 

*.Mr. James Parsons, ii;.':i.r Uoiiuu'v, 1 ,'aiiq)shirc roun!_\ , i:;i\ c die iiulhi c 
this information. 

TFj<lward's fort wa> jocalfd on i1,h^ west side ol C'a.p'Ui ii\ir. m'! luc:' 
<:haK tkrce (piarte-rs <>[ a mih' above v. here the sta^'e I'oad troui W'iucjic-;!! r 


killed two men at a Mn:ill miJl, took off a parcel ol' corn nical, and re- 
treating- along a path that led between a stream of water and a steep high 
mountain, they strewed the meal in several places on their route. Irn- 
niediateiy between this path and the stream is an abrupt bank, seven or 
eight feet high, ami of considerable length, under which the Indians con- 
cealed themselves, and awailet] the approach of the garrison. Forty men 
under the command of Capt. Mercer, sallied out, with the intention of 
pursuing and attacking the enemy. But oh! fatal day! Piercer's partv, 
discovering the trail of meal, supposed the Indians were making a speedv 
retreat, and, unapprised of their strength, moved on at a brisk step, until 
the whole line was drawn immediately over the line of Indians under the 
bank, when the latter discharged a most destructive fire upon them, six- 
teen falliny; dead at the first fire. The others attempting to save them- 
selves bv night, were pursued and slaughtered in eveiy direction, until, 
out of the Ibrty, but six got ba(;k to the fort. One poor fellow, who ran 
up the side of the mountain, was fired at by an Indian: the ball penetra- 
ted just above his heel, ranged up his leg, shivering the bones, and lodg- 
ed a little below his knee: he slipped under the lap of a fallen tree, there 
hid hiinse]f,and la}" in that deplorable situation for tv;o days and nights belbrc 
he was found by his friends, it being that length of time before the people 
at the fort would venture out to collect and bury the dead. This wounded 
man recovered, and lived many years after, though he was always a crip- 
l)]e from his Vv'ound. Capt. George Smith, who now resides on Back 
creek, informed the author that he was well acquainted with him. 

Sometime afterwards, the Indians, in much greater force, and aided, it 
Avas beli-eved, by several Frenchmen in person, determined to carry this 
■fort by storm. The garrison had been considerably reinforced; among oth- 
ers, bv the late Gen. Daniel i\Iorgan, then a young man. The Indians 
made the assault with great boldness; but on this occasion they met with 
a sad reverse of fortune. The garrison sallied out, and a desperate battle 
ensued. Tlie assailants were defeated v/ith grejit slaughter, while the 
whites lost comnaratively but few men. 

■* * 

The remains of a ""un of hiixh finish, ornamented with silver mounting: 
and gold toiK'h-hole, were plowed up near the battle ground about forty 
years ago. It was suj)posed to have belonged to a French ollicer. Part 
■of a bomb shell was also found. Morgan in this action pcrlbrmed his 
{)art with his usual intrepidity, caution and firmness, and doubtless did 
much execution.* 

Other parties of Indians penetrated into the neighborhood of VVinches- 
ter, and killed several people about the Round hill; among others a man by 
the name of FlauLfhertv, with his wife. Several inmates of a familv bv 

to Homney crosses the river. 

*Mr. VVilliam Carlile, now ninety-fiv<! years of age, and who resides 
near the bntile ground, informed th<' author that he removed and settled on 
(.'apon soon after the battle was fought. He also stated that hi; had fre- 
fjuently heard it asserted that Morgan was in the battle, and acted with 
great braver^■, &c. Mr. CTiarles Carlile, son of this veneral)h' man, sta- 
J/-d ihf fact of the gun :>r)(\ ]'«arf oj' ;i bomb '-hell being Icund. 


'the nsme of M'Crackan, c-n Back creek, about twelve miles from Win- 
chester, were killed, and two of the daughters taken OiT as prisoners. — 
They, however, got back, after an absence of three or lour years. Mr 
Lewis Neill informed the author that he saw^ and conversed v.'ilh these 
women on the subject of their captivity after their return home. Jacob 
Havely and several of his family were killed near the presoit residence of 
Moses Russell, Esq. at the eastern base of the North mountain, fifteen or 
sixteen miles south west of Winchester. Dispennet, and several of his 
family, and Vance and his wdfe,* were also severally killed by the same 
party of Indians, in the same neighborhood. 

The late respectable and intelligent Mrs. Rebecca Brinker, who was 
born 25th March, 1745, and who of course was upwards of ten years old 
w'hen Braddock was defeated, related many interesting occurrences to the 
author ; among others, that a family of eighteen persons, by the name of 
NichoUs, who resided at the present residence of Mr. Stone, a little west 
of Maj. Isaac Kite's, were attacked, the greater number killed, and seve- 
ral taken off as prisoners: one old woman and her grandchild made their 
escape to a fort, a short distance from Middletown. This took place a- 
bout 1756 or 1757, and it is probable by the samepirty who killed Have- 
ly and others. 

In the year 1758, a party of about fifty Indians and four Frenchmen 
penetrated into the neighborhood of Mill creek, now in the county of She- 
nandoah, about 9 miles south of Woodstock. This was a pretty thickly 
settled neighborhood; and among other houses, George Painter had erec- 
ted a large log one, with a good sized cellar. On the alarm being given, 
the Reighboring people took refuge in this house. Late in the afternoon 
they were attacked. Mr. Painter, attempting to fly, had three balls shot 
through his body, and fell dead, when the others surrendered. The In- 
dians dragged the dead body back to the house, threw it in, plundered the 
house of what they chose, and then set fire to it. While the house was 
in flames, consuming the body of Mr. Painter, they forced from the arms 
of their mothers four infant children, hung them up in trees, shot them in 
savage sport, and left them hanging. They then set fire to a stable in 
which were enclosed a parcel of sheep and calves, thus cruelly and wan- 
tonly torturing to death the inoffensive dumb animals. After these atro- 
cities they moved off with forty-eight prisoners; among whom were Mrs. 
Painter, five of her daughters, and one of her sons; a Mrs. Smith and 
several of her children; a Mr. Fisher and several of his children, among 
them a lad of twelve or thirteen years old, a fine well grown boy, and re- 
markably fleshy. This little fellow, it will presently be seen, was destin- 
ed to be the victim of savage cruelty. 

Two of Painter's sons, and a young man by the name of Jacob Myers 

*Moses Russell, Esq. is under the impression that these people were 
killed in the summer or fall of the year 1756. The author i\m\s it im- 
possible to fix the dates of the various acts of war committed by the sava- 
ges. After the most diligent inquiry, he has not been able to finfl any per- 
j^on who mmmittedto writing anything upon the subji-jct Ji* the time the 
.•scvcM'a! ocfMinrivcs tonk j?-lace. 


-escaped Ht-iiig CEpturcd by conccidinciil. One ul" the Paiiilcis, \\i;ii I\ly- 
<TS, ran over iJsat iiiij,htto Powell's toil, a distaneeof at least lii'teen miles, 
and to Keller's ibrt, in (paest of aid. I'liey had neither hat nor shoes, 
noi- any olher clothing; tlum a shirt and trowscrs eacli. A small party of 
jnen set oat early the next morning, well mounted and armed, to avenge 
tlie outrage. They reached Mr. l^ainter's early in the day; but on learn- 
ing their strength, (from the other young Painter, who had remained con- 
cealed all th;it evening and ».»iglit, and by that means was enabled to count 
lhe number of the enemy,) '.hey declined j)ursuit, being too weak in num- 
bers to venture furliierv Thus this savage band got ojf with their prison- 
■ers and booty, without pursuit or interruption. 

After six days' tiavcl they reached their villages west of the Allegany 
mountains, where they held a council, apid determined to sacrilice their 
helpless prisoner Jacob Fishei'. They fir.>i ordered him to collect a quan- 
tity of dry wood, 'i'he poor little fellow shuddered, burst into tears, and 
told his father they intended to Ijurn him. His lather rrj)lied, "I hope 
not;" and advised him to obey. When h.c had collected a sulHcienl rpaan- 
'ii.\- of wood to ans\f;'r their purpose, they cleared and smoothed a ring a- 
round a snpling, to \chich they tied him by one hand, then formed a trail 
of wood around the tree and set it on fire. The poor boy was then com- 
jx^lled to run round in this ring of fire until his rope wound him up to the 
■sapling, and then back until he came in contact with the flame, whilst hi.s 
internal tormentors were drinking, sing^in^- and dancing around him. with 
"horrid joy." This was contiRuedfor several hours; during which time 
the savagi^ men became beastly drunk, and as they fell prostrate to \\w. 
ground, the squjiws would Icvep up the fire. With long sharp poles, pre- 
pared lor the purpose, they would pierce the bodv of their victim whenev- 
er he flagged, until the poor and helpless boy fell and expired with the 
most excruciating torments, whilst his father and brothers were compelled 
to be witnesses of the heart-rending tragedv. 

After an absence of about three years, Mrs. Painter, with her son and 
'two of her flaughtcrs; Mrs. Smith, wdio had the honor, if it could be so 
deemed, of presenting her liusband with an Indian son,* by a distinguish- 
x'd war chief; Fishei' and lii^ remaining sons; and several other prisoners, 
returned home. Tliree ol' Mrs. Painter's daughters remaitied with the In- 
dians. Mnrv, the vounfxesl. was about nine years old wlu'n taken, and 
Tvas I'ighteen years a prisoner: two of the daughters never returned. A 
mm by the name of Michael Copple, who had hiinsclf been a pri.>oner a- 
bout two vf-ars with thi:' Indians, had learnofl their Inniiupge, become an 
Indian trader, and Iravoled much among them, at length found Mary 
Pf'inter with a wandering party of Chcrokees. In conversing" with her^ 
lie discovered who she was — that he was acquainted with her iiuiiily con- 
nections, and proposed to her to accompnny lum homo, to which she re- 

'Siriith received his wife, ;infl never maltreated her 0:1 this accomit; but 
he had a most bitter aversion to the young chief. The boy grew up to 
ni:m!iood, and exhibited ihc appearance and dispositi'^'n c>f hi'> .^^ire. At- 
tempts Were mnde to educate hini, but without 'uci'e^s. He eulisterl in- 
♦^ the army of tli? revolution as a common soldier, nnd never rplarned. 

ASD MA,SSA('K[:S. 71 

tused her assent. He then said that he? brothers- had romovfd to Point 
Pleasant, and were desirous ol' seeing her; npon which she conse'nted to 
accompany him that fai' to see lier brothers; but findinii-, on arriving- at the 
Point, that lie had deceived her, she maniiestcd much dissatisfaction, and 
attempted to go back to the Indians. Copple, however, after much en- 
treaty, and promising to make her his wife, prevailed upon her to return 
home. He performed his promise of marriage, lived several years on 
Painter's land, and raised a family of children. Mary had lost her moth- 
er tung, learned a little English afterwards, but always conversed with 
her husband in the Indian language.* They finally removed to the west. 

The garrison at Fort Cumberland was frequently annoyed by the Indi- 
ans. There are two high knobs of the mouiitain, one on the Virginia side 
of the Cohongoruton on the South, the other on the Alaryland side on the- 
north east within a short distance of the fort. The Indians frequently 
took possession of these hights, and fired into the fort. Although they 
seldom did any injury in this way, yet it was disagreeable and attended 
with some danger. On a particular occasion a large party of Indians had^ 
taken possession of the knob on the Marylaud side, and iired into the fort. 
A captain (the author regrets that he was not able to learn his name) and 
seventy-five brave fellows on a veiy dark night, volunteered to dislodge 
the enemy. They sallied out from the fort, surrounded tlie knob, and 
cautiously ascending until they wcie within reach of the foe, waited for 
tlaybreak to make the attack. Light appearing, they opened a tremen- 
dous fire, which threw the Indians into utter confusion, rendering them 
powerless for defence, while the whites continued from all sides to pour 
in volley after volley, spreading death and carnage. But few of the In- 
dians escaped. The knob is called "Bloody Hill" to this day. This tra- 
dition the author received from several individuals in Cumberland: indeed, 
the story appears to be familiar with every aged individual in the neigh- 

Shortly after this occurrence, Kill-buck attempted to take Fort Ckun- 
berland by stratagem. He approached it at the head of a largr, force of 
warriors; and under the guise of friendship, pretending to wish an ami- 
cable intercourse with the garrison, proposed to Maj. Livingston to admit, 
himself and warriors. Some hints having been given to the commaniler 
to be upon his guard, Livingston seemingly consented to the proposal; 
but no sooner had Kill-buck and liis chief officers enfeicd Ihan the gates 
were closed upon them. The wiley chief l)eing tlius entrajjped, was 
roimdly charged with his intended treachery, of which the circumstances 
were too self evident to be denied. Livingston, however, iiillicled no 
other punisnraent upon his captives than a mark <>i' humiUafini; diso-race, 

*The author deems a particular history of tliis worn^n uecc-jsary, be- 
cause it is one among mnny instances of young white childreji, when ta- 
ken prisoners, becoming attaclied to a savage life, and leaving it with great 
reluctance. -Mr. George Pain!cr, nu aged and rcspeclabic citizen of 
Shenandoah county, who resides on the spot where lids blooriy tragedy 
vvas acted, and is a grandson of the man who was nvurdrrcd :ind burnt, 
detailed these particulars to the author. 

« ^ 


uhich lo nn Indian warrior was more mortifying than dcatl). This stro- 
ma was, it is supposed, dressing them in petticoats, and driving thiem 
out of the fort.* 

It has nh-eady been statpd, that, previous to the breaking out of the 
war, Kiil-buck lived a good part of his time among the white settlers- in 
the neighborhood of Fort Pleasant. An Irish servant, belonging to Peter 
Casey, absconded, and Casey offered a pistolef reward fur his reco-very. 
Kill-buck apprehended the servant, and delivered him to his master; but 
from some cause or other, Casey refused to pay the reward. A quarrel 
ensued, and Casey knocked Kill-buck down with his cane. When the 
war broke out. Kill-buck sought every opportunity to kill Casey, but ne- 
ver could succeed. Many years afterwards, Casey's son obtained a lieu- 
tenancy, and was ordered to Wheeling, where Kill-buck then being, young 
Casey requested some of his friends to introduce him to hini. When 
Kill-buck' heard his name, he paused for a moment, and repeating, 
*'Casey! Casey!" inquired of the young man whether he knew Peter Ca- 
sey. The lieutenant replied, "Yes, he is my father." Kill-buck imme- 
diately exclaimed, "Bad man, bad man, he once knocked me down with 
his cane." On the young man's proposing to make up the breach, the 
old chief replied, "Will you pay me the pistole?" Young Casey refused 
to do this, but proposed to treat with a quart of rum, to which the eld 
warrior assented, saying, "Peter Casey old man — Kill-buck old man:" 
and then stated that he liad frcqiiently watched for an opportunity to kill 
him, "but he was too lazy — would not come out of the fort: Kdl-buck 
now friends with him, and bury the tomahawk.''^ This Indian chief, it 
is said was living about fourteen years ago, but had become blind 
from his great age, being little under, and probably over, one hundred 

"The venerable John Tomlinson related this affair to the author. Mr. 
T. does not recollect the particular mark of disgrace inflicted on these 
Indians. The Rev. Mr. Jacobs, of Hampshire, suggested this as the 
most probable. 

jThe pistole is a piece of gold, equ;il to three dollars and seventy-five 
cents in value. 

tThis anecdote is related, somewhat differently, by Dr. Turley, page 66 
of this work. 




In' a preceding' chapter the erection of several stone dwelluig-houses is 
noticed. These houses generally had small stockade forts about them; 
and whenever an alarm took place, the neighboring people took shel'er in 
them, as places of security against their savage foe.'' 

The men never went cut of the forts without their guns. The enemy 
were frequently lurking about them, and at every opportunity would kill 
som.e of the people. At the residence of Maj. Robert D. Glass, on Ope- 
quon, live miles, south v.*est of "Winchester, part of his dweiling-house 
was erected in the time of the Indian war: the port-holes were plainly to 
be seen before the body was covered with weather-boarding. The people 
w^ere closely "forted" lor about three years. After ' the termination of 
hostilities betvreen England and France, the incursions of the Indians 
were less frequent, and never in large parties; but they were continued at 
intervals until the year 1766 or 1767. 

About the year 1758, a man by the name of John Stone, near v.-hat is 
called the White House, in the Hawksbill settlement, v/as killed by In- 
dians. Stone's wife, with her infant child and a son about seven or eight 
years old, and George GrandstafF, a youth of sixteen years old, were ta- 
ken off as prisoners. On the vSouth Branch mountain, the Indians mur- 
dered Mrs. Stone and her infant, and toolc the boy and GrandstafF to 
their towns. Grandstaff was about three years a prisoner, and then got 
home. The little boy. Stone, grew up wdththc Indians, came home, and 
after obtaining possession of his father's property, sold it, got the money, 
returned to the Indians, and was never heard of JDy his friends afterwards. 

The sam.e Indians killed Jacob Holtiraan's wife and her children, Ilolti- 
man escaping. They plundered old Brewbecker's house, piled up the 
chairs and spinninc: wheels, and set them on fire. A young woman who 
lived with Brewbecker had concealed herself in the garret; and after the 
Indians left the house, extinguished the fire, and saved the house from 
burning. Brewbecker's wile got information that th.e Indians were com- 
ing, and ran ofi' with her children to where several men were at work, who 
conveyed her across the river to a neighboring house. Mr. John Brew- 
becker no vr resides on the farm where this occurrence took place. f 

*The late Mrs. Rebecca Briiiker, one o[ the daugh.ters of George Bow- 
man, on Cedar Creek, informed the author that she recollected when six- 
teen families took shelter in her lather's house. 

t?»Ir.- Brewbecker resides on the west side of the South fork of the 
Shenanrlonh river, on Masinntton creek, in tJie new county of Page, and 
has erected a large and elegant brick house on the snot where the Indiaai 
jilundered hisfath!^r^s dweJiing.. 


The follo-^ing singular tradition, as connected wirli this occurrence, has 
been related to the author: 

About dusk on the evening previous, Mrs. Brcwbecker told her hus- 
band and tamily that the Indians would attack them next morning, saying 
that she could "see a party of them on the side of JNIasinutton mountain, in 
the act of cooking their supper. She also declared that she saw their 
tire, and could count the number of Indians. She pointed to the spot ; 
but no other part of the family saw it; and it was therefore thought that 
she must be mistaken. Persisting in her declarations, she begged her 
liusband to remove her and her children to a place of safety: but she was 
laughed at, told that it was mere superstition, and that she was in no dan- 
ger. It was however afterwards ascertained that the savages liad en- 
camped that night at the place on the mountain pointed out by Mrs. E. 
It was about two miles off.* 

These outrages of the Indians drove many of the white settlers below 
tlie Blue ridge. 

Probably the same year, several Indians attacked the house of a mart 
named Birrgaman, near the present site of New Market. Bingaman, wha 
was remarkably stout and active, defended his family with great resolution 
and firmness, and laid tvvo of the assailants dead at his feet: they suc- 
ceeded, however, in killing his wife and children, Bingaman eseaping with 
several wounds, from which he fmally recovered. The same party took 
Lewis Bingarnan, (a nephew of the one spoken of,) a prisoner. He was 
a boy about thirteen or fourteen years old, grew up with the Indians, and 
became a man of distinction among them. 

About the same time the Indians forcibly entered the house of Mr. 
Young, who resided on the farm now owned by William Smith, Esq. not 
more than a mile from Zanc^s old iron works, and killed several of his 
family. They took an infant, dashed its head against a rock, beat out its 
brains, and left it lying on the ground. Two of Young's daughters, pret- 
ty well grown, were carried off prisoners. Lieutenant Samuel Fry raised 
a force of between thiity and forty men, pursued, and came in sight of 
them, unobserved, at the Short mountain, near the Allegany. Fry's par- 
ty prepared to fire; but unfortunately one of the white girls stepping ac- 
cidentally bdbre their guns, the intention was frustrated, and Fry being- 
discovered the next moment, he ordered his men to charge.. This was 
no done than the Ipdians broke and ran off, leaving their guns, 
prisoners and plunder: the two young females were tlius rescued and 
brought safely home. 

.•Inother family in the same lu-iirhborhood, by the name of Day, were 
attacked, several killed, and two of the daughters taken oflf. A party of 
eighteen or twenty w'hitcs pursued them. Yhe girls, as Ihcy travelled 
through the mountains, exj)ecting pursuit, took the precaution (unobserv- 
ed by their captors) to tear off and frequently drop small scraps of white 
linen, as well as pluck ofl" branches of bushes, and drop them as a trail, 
by which means their friends could readily discover their route. A bro- 

•This tradition was given the author by Mr. Andrew Keyser, jr. who 
married a grand daughter of the woman who saw the Indians. 



ihcr lo llie girls, a young man, was one of the pursuing parly. Tho In- 
dians Avere overtaken on the South Branch mountain; and as soon as seen 
preparations were made to give them a deadly fire. But the youncr Day 
in his eagerness to avenge the death of his father and family, prematurely 
fired, killing the object of his aim, when the others precipitately fled, lea- 
ving every tiling behind them. They had cut off the girls' petticoats at 
the knees, in order that they should be able to make more speed in travel- 
ing. The girls were brought safe home. 

There were several instances of the Indians committing murders on 
the whites about the Potomac and South Branch several years before 
Braddock's defeat. About the year 1752, a man by the name of James 
Davis was killed, pretty high up the Potomac; and in the succeeding year, 
William Zane and several of his family were taken prisoners on the South 
Branch, in the now county of Hardy. Isaac Zane, one of his sons, re- 
mained during his life with the Indians. The author saw this man at 
Chillicothe in the autumn of 1797, and had some conversation with him 
upon the subject of his captivity. He stated that he was captured when 
^!)out nine years old; was four years without seeing a white person; had 
learned the Indian tung quite well, but never lost a knowledge of Eng- 
lish, having learned to spell in two syllables, which he could still do, al- 
diough pretty well advaaeed in years. He also said that a trader came to 
the Indian village four years after his captivity, and spoke to him in Eng- 
lish, of which he understood every word; that when he grew up to man- 
hood, he married a sister of the Wyandott king, and raised a family of 
seven or eight children. His sons were all Indians in their habits and dis- 
positions; his daughters, four of them, all married white men, became 
civilized, and were remarkably fine women, considering the opportunities 
they had had for improvement. 

This man possessed great influence with the tribes he was acquainted 
with; and as he retained a regard for his native countrymen, was several 
times instrumental in bringing about treaties of peace. The government 
of the United States granted him a patent for ten thousand acres of land, 
which he claimed as his private property; and when the author saw him 
.he was on his way to Philadelphia to apply for a confirmation of his title. 
He was a near relation to the late Gen. Isaac Zane, of Frederick county, 

About the same time that ^Ir. Zane's family were taken prisoners, as 
just related, an Indian killed a white man near Oldtown, in Jjaryland, but 
was, in return, killed by the late Capt. Michael Cresap, then a boy, with 
a pistol, while he was in the act of scalping the white man.* 

About the year 1758 there were two white men who di'-guised them- 
selves in the habit of Indians, and appeared in the neighborhood of the 
present site of ^rlartinsburg. They were pursued aufl kiHed, supposing 
t'uMn to be Indians. f It was no inicommon thing for unprincipled scoun- 
drels to act in this manner. Tlieir object was to frii^hten people to leave 
their homc->, in order tliat they might rob and ])lunder them of lht,'ir must 

'.)ai'(">b's Life "^r fn-Niip. 

ill'-lated by f." ipi dn Jauv- (ili'un. 


valuable article?."' The Indians were ircquenily charged witiiout outrages 
they never committed. 

A luan by the name of Edcs, wiili liis family, resided in a cave for se- 
veral years, abont three "hiiles above tiie mouth of Capon. This cave is 
in a larjTe rock, and when oilier people would lake sheiier at a ibrt in the 
neighborhood, Kdcs would remain in his cave. At length the Indians 
found them, by trailing the children when driving; up tiieircows, and took 
Edes and his faiuily jjrisoners.f 

A Mr. Smilh, a bachelor, resided on ihc vresl siae oi Capon river, in 
a small cabin. 'I'hree Indians one morning entered his house, split up his 
wooden bowls and trenchers (plates made of wood,) destroyed his house- 
hold goods generally, and took him otf as a prisoner. They crossed the 
Cohongoruton, and halted at a place called Grass liclc, on the Marvland 
side, with the intention of stealing horses. Two of them went into a 
meadow for this jturpose, while the third remained to guard Smith, The 
two men soon lialtercd a young unbroken horse, delivered him to the 
guard, and went in pursuit of more. The fellow- who held tlie horse dis- 
coverino- the animal was easily frightened, several times scared him for his 
amusement, till at length he became so much alarmed that lie made a sud- 
den wheel, and ran olf with the Indian hanging to the halter, dragging 
him a considerable distance. Smith took this opportunity to escape, and 
succeeded in getting olf. The next morning a party of white men col- 
lected vfith the intention of giving pursuit. They went to Smith's cabin 
and found him mending his bowis and trenchers by sewing them up with 

At Hedges' fort, on the present road from Aiariinsburg to iJath, west of 
Back creek, a man was killed while watching the spiing.§ 

On river there v%-ere two forts, one on the land now the residence 
of Jeremiah Inskeep, Esq. callerl Riddle's fort, wiiere a man nameti Ches- 
mer WH'^ killed; the other called Warden's fort, || where William Warden 
and a Mi-. Tali' v/ere kilied, and the fort I)urnt down. 

Just before (he massacre on Looney's creek, (lelated on the succeeding 
page,) seven Indians surrounded the cabin of Samuel Bingaraan, not far 
distant from the present village of Petersburg, in the county of Harcly. — 
It was just before daybreak, that being the time when the Indians gene- 
rally made their surprises. ?;Ir. Wf^ fsmiiy consisted of himself anrl wife, 
his father and mother, and a hired man. The first four were asleep in the 
room below, and the hired man in (he loft a')ove. A shot was lired into 
the cabin, the ball passing through the fleshy part of the younger Mrs. ' 
Binganiati's loft breast. The family sprung to their feet, Bingaman seiz- 
ing his rille, and ih- Indians at the same moment rushing in at the door. 
Bing'inian told his wile and lather and mother to get out of the way, un- 
der the bed, and called to the j.ian in llie loft to come down, who, how- 

•Hela'.ed by Lewis Ncill. fCapt. CJIenn. 

I Related by (^apt. Glenn. § I ''C s:iiTie. 

1} Warden's fort was at the present residciic*' ol' Mr. Benjamin War- 
den, a pnndson of the mr'ii tli:-;t was kil'ed, about lhi;ty-!ivc miles south 
vest of \N iiif !ir-ter. 


t i 

ie"»Tr, never rAovccl. li was si-ill dark, and the Indians were prevented 
from firing, by a fear of injuring one of their number. Bingaman, unre- 
strained by any fears of this kind, laid about him with (h?s];)fration. At 
the first blow, his rifle broke at the breech, shivering the stock to pieces; 
but with the barrel he continued his blows until he cleared tlie room. — ■ 
Daylight now appearing, he discovered that he had killed five, and that 
the remaining two were retreating across the field. He stepped out, and 
seizin"- a ride Vvhich had been left by the partv, fired at one of the l"ua;}- 
tives, wounded, and tomahawked hun. Tradition relates that the other 
tied to the Indian camp, and told his comrades that they had had a fight 
wdtli a man who was a devil — that he had killed six of them, antl if they 
vv'cnt again, would kill them all. When Bingaman, after the battle, dis- 
covered that his v/ife was wounded, he became frantic with rage at the 
cowardice o( the hired man, and would have dispatched him but for the 
entreaties of Mrs. B, to spare his life. She recovered from her wound in 
a short time.* 

It was the practice of the settlers on the AYappatomaka, in times of 
danger, to leave the forts in numbers, and assist eacii other in harvest. — 
About the year 1756, a party of nine whites left the fort opposite the pre- 
sent village of Petersburg, to assist Mr. Job Vvelton to cut his father's 
meadow and hunt his cattle. They took their rilles with them, as w^as in- 
variably the practice whenever they left the fort. After collecting the cat- 
tle, they turned in and cut a portion of the meaiiow. As night approach- 
ed, a proposition was made by Mr. Welton to return to the fort, which 
was rather opposed by the rest of the p^irty, who, not having been molest- 
ed during the day, were disposed to believe in their perfect security. — 
Thev repaired to the house of the elder Mr. Welton, fronting the 
meadow, and within two hundred yards of the present residence of Aaron 
Welton, Esq. Here they wished to remain, but the determination was 
resisted by Job Welton, who again advised a return to the fort. After 
some consultation it was agreed on to repair to the shelter of a large elm 
tree in tiie meadow^ where thev had been mowing, and where they con- 
■cealed themselves in a winnow of the grass, and soon fell into a sound 
sleep; from wmich they were sometime afterwards roused by the crack of 
a riiie. Mr. Welton was Iving with his brother Jonathan under the same 
blanket, and the latter was shot through the heart. The party sprang to 
their feet and attempted to escape. In his alarm, Mr. W. forgot his rifle, 
and fled in company with a Mr. Delay. They had proceedeb about 200 
yards, pursued Ly an Indian, when Delay wheeled and discharged his ride, 
"which brought his pursuer down. At the same instant that Delay vrheel- 
ed, the Indian threw his tomahawk, wdiich sunk into the back of xMr. Wel- 
ton, severing two of his ribs. He fell to the ground, supposing himself 

*The author received the particulars of this surprising adventure from 
Job Welton a.nd Aaron Welton, Esqrs. of Petersburg. Mrs. Blue, wife 
r)f Mr. Garret l^lue, also told the author, that when she was a small girl 
Bingani;m fi-equcnt'y stopped at father's residence on Cii^at river, and 
she more than once heard him relate the circumstances of thi.j affair, and 
vav ihorc wri'c .'.'■veil Indians. 


innrlallv wounded by a rifle ball, while Delay continued onward pursued 
by another Indian. JNIr. VVelton soon recovered from his surprise, and 
proceeded cautiously in a direction towards tlie fort, very weak from the 
loss of blood. He soon heard Delay and the Indian in a parley; the for- 
mer bein"* exhausted by running and disposed to yield, and the latter de- 
manding iiis surrender. Delay agreed to give up on condition that his 
enemy would spare his life, which being solemnly agreed to, he was re- 
conducted to the elm tree. Here a council was held, and Delay, with 
three others who had been taken, were inhumanly scalped, from which 
they died in two or three days afterwards. Mr. Welton was able to reach 
the fort, he laid three months before his wound healed. Of the 
whole party, but three escaped; four were scalped and died, and two were 
killed at the first surprise. The escape of Mr. Kuykendall was remarka- 
ble. It was a bright moonlight night, while the shade of the elm rcnch-r- 
cd it quite dark under the tree. Mr. K. being an old man, was unable to 
fly with speed, and therefore remained still, while his companions fled 
across the meadow. The Indians passed over him, leaving the rear clear, 
when Mr. K. retreated at his leisure, and reached the fort in safety, one 
and a half miles>* 

On tlie day following, the whites left the fort in pursuit, and overtook 
their enemy late at night on Dunkard bottom, Cheat river, where they had 
encamped. The pursuers dismounted, and the captain ordered Binga- 
inan (the same whose prowess is related in a preceding pnge) to guard the 
horses. He however disobeyed, and loitered in the rear of the party. — 
To make the desti-uction of the enemy more certain, it was deemed advi- 
sable to wait for daylight before they began an attack: but a young man, 
whose zeal overcame his discretion, fired into the group, upon which the 
Indians si)rung to their feet and fled. Bingaman singled out a fellow of 
.giant-like size, whom he pursued, throwing aside his rifle that his speed 
might not be retarded — passed several smaller Indians in the chase — 
•oamc up wit'i him — and with a single blow of his hatchet, cleft his skull. 
When Hingaman returned to the battle ground, the captain sternly observ- 
Td, "I or(k'red you to stay and guard the horses.*' Bingaman as sternly 
replied, '<you are a rascal, sir: you intended to disgrace me; and one more 
insolent word, and you shall share the fate of that Indian," pointing to- 
wards the body he bad just slain. The captain quailed under the stern 
menace, and held his peace. He and Bingaman had, a few days before, 
had a falling out. Several Indians fell in this affair, while the whites lost 
none of their paity. 

Dr. Turley staled to the author thai he had ofien heard Mr. .John Har- 
ness, who was onn of the party that followed the Indians, relate that De- 
lay was taken to Dunkard bottom, and when the Indians were then sur- 
prised, he was shot, but whether by his captors or accidentally, was not 
known. Delay himself not being able to tell. He was conveyed home on 

"Messrs. Aaron mid .Job VVelton related this tradition to the author. If 
•was thought that Delay would have recovered bAit f^r the unskillfulnrss 
of the surgeon (if he deserved the name) wh'"> r^Kend'-d him. The bite 
Gon. Wilb.mi D.nkf imrri'^d Iir~ widow. 


a litter, and died directly afterwards. There were, however, two JJehnvs^. 
and the fast rehitiun may be true. 

INIrs. Shobe, an aged and respectable lady, living on Mill creek, in 
Hardy county, informed the author that Delay was buried on the bankst 
of the South Branch, and some years afterwards his skeleton was washed 
out by a rising of the river. She then heard Job Welton say that Delay 
had saved his life, and he would take care of his bones. 

To show the spirit of the times, the following anecdote is related. Va- 
lentine Powers and his brother, with two or three others, left the fort near 
Petersburg,* on a visit to their farms, when they were fired upon by In- 
dians from a thicket, and the brother of Powers killed. Valentine ran, 
but soon calling to mind the saying, current among them, that "it was u 
bad man who took bad news home," he turned about and gave himself up 
and remained a prisoner live or six 3'ears.f 

jNIartin Peterson was taken a prisoner on the South ]3ranch, and carried 
to the Sandusky towns. He used to accompany the Indians in their 
hunting excursions, and was permitted to have one load of powder and 
ball each day, which he always discharged at the game they met with. — 
As he gained on the confidence of his captors, they increased his allow- 
ance to two loads, and subsequently to three. The same allowance was 
made to two other white prisoners. These three, one day, after receiving 
their allowance, determined to attempt an escape; and left the towns ac- 
cordingly. As they ventured to travel only at night, guided bv the north 
star, their progress was exceedingly slow and difficult. On the second 
day one of their number died from fatigue, and Peterson took his ammu- 
nition. A day or two afterwards, his remaining companion also gave out, 
and Peterson taking his ammunition, left him to perish. He then pur- 
sued his way alone, and after a succession of hardships, came iit length 
in sight of the fort. But here, when within reach of his deliverance, his 
hopes were well-nigh blasted; for the sentry, mistaking him for an Indian, 
fired! Happily the ball missed its aim, and he was able to make himself 
known before the fire was repeated. This fort was on the farm now the 
residence of Mr. John Welton, near Petersburg, Hardy county. J 

Seybert's fort,§ was erected on the South fork of the South branch of 

*Called Fort George. The land is now owned by Job Welton, Esq. 

f Related by Aaron Welton, Esq. 

|Relatedby Aaron Welton, Esq. 

§The author, on a visit to Franklin, obtained some additional particu- 
lars in relation to the attack on Seybert's fort: — The party of Indians was 
commanded by the blood-thirsty and treacherous chief. Kill-buck. Sey- 
bert's son, a lad about fifteen years of age, exhibited great firmness and 
bravery in the defence of ihe post. He had with his rifle brought down 
two of his assailants, when Kill-buck called out to old Seybert, in Eng- 
lish, to surrender, and their lives should be spared. At that instant young- 
Seybert, having charged his rifle, v.-as in the act of presenting it at Kill- 
buck, when his father seized the gun, and took it from him, observing: — 
"We cannot defend the fort: we must surrender in order to save our 
lives," confiding in the assurances of the faithless Kdl-biick. The first 


ilic Pc'oma;', on the land now owned bv Mr. Fordm;Hid Liiir, twelve niilei; 
norlli enst oi" Franklin, ihc prevent county seat oi" Pendlevon. In the 
year I7i>8, n. party of Indians surprised the tort, in which were thirty per- 
sons. They bound ten, \vhorn they conveyed without the I'ort, and then 
jirocecded to massacre the others in the loUowing manner: They seated 
them in a row upon a log, with an Indian standing behind each; and at a 
given signal, each Indian sunk his tomahawk into the head of his victim: 
an additional blow or two dispatched them. The scene was v;-itnessed 
bv James Dver, a lad fourteen years old, who, not liavinn: been removed 
v.ithout the fort, supposed that he was to be massacred. Ke was how- 
ever spared, and taken to Log town, sixteen miles below Fort Pitt, thence 
to the mouth oi' the Muskingum river, and thence to the spot where Cliil- 
icothe now stands, where he remained a prisoner one year and ten months. 
lie had by this lime gained the entire confidence of his captors, and was 
j)ermitted to accompany, them to Fort Pitt on a trading expedition. — 
When there he planned his escape, and happily succeeded.. Being sent 
out for some bread with an Indian lad, he slipped into a hovel, unobserv- 
ed by his companion, and implored the protection of the poor woman who 
occupied it. She told him to get behind a chest, the only furniture in the 
room, and threw upon him a bed. The Indians, on missing him, spent 
the afternoon i)i search, during which thev looked into the very hovel 
where he was, and left the place the next morning on their return. Fort 
Pitt being then in possession of the English, a trooper very kindly con- 
veyed him six or seven miles behind him, whence he jnade his way to his 
friends in Pennsylvania, where he remained two years longer, and then 
returned to South Fork.* 

Another tradition says that Seybert's fort was not surprised. It had 
been invested for two or three days, and at'ter two Indians had becm killed, 
the garrison agreed to surrender on condition that their lives should be 
spared, which was solemnly pledged. The gate vv'as then- opened, and 
the Indians rushed in with demoniac yelis. The whites fled with pre- 
cipitation, but were retaken, with the exception of one man. The mas- 

salutation he received, after surrendering ihe fort, wjis a stroke on his 
mouth from the monster, Kill-buci:, with the pipe-end of his tomahawk, 
dislocating several of the old man's V(?th; and immediately after he was 
massacred with the other viclims. Younfr Sevbeit was taken off amonc; 
the prisoners. He told Killbuck /tc had minrd his gun in Icill him; but 
thnt hi^ fiitlivr hiid wrcatcd it frovi him The savage laughed, and re- 
plied, "You' little rascal, if you harl killed me vou would have saved the 
ibrt: lor harl I ia1!en my warriors would have immediately lied, and given 
up the siege in despair." 

It is said there were three men in the fort, not one of whom manifested 
a disposition to aid its defence. Had they joined young Seybert, and 
acterl with the snme intrepidity and coolnc.'s, the plare might have been 
sa\ed,and the awful siirrificf' rif the inmates avoided. 

^Related by Zf>!)ulon Dyer, Fsq. clerk of Pendleton county, and son of 
the Jamis Dver mentioned. 

And massacres. si 

sari'P then took place, ns brlorc related, and ten were taken ofl'as pris- 

Another tradition says, that, on the fort's being given up, tlie Indian-^ 
seated twenty ot the garrison in two rows, all of whom they killed ex- 
cept the wife of Jacob Peterson. When they reached her, an Indian in- 
terposed to save her life, and some altercation ensued. The friendly In- 
dian at length prevailed ; and thiowing her a pair of nrorcasons, told her 
to march oif with the prisoners. How long she remained in captivity is 
not remembered.* 

The f ndians killed John Crake';3 wife on the South fork of the Wapp, - 
tomaka. John Brake became conspicuous in the war of the revohuion, 
which will be noticed hereaftei-. Fredrick J ice had his wliole family kill- 
ed, with the exception of himself and one son. A ma!i named Williams 
and his wife were also killed. Richard Williams and his wife were ta- 
ken prisoners : the latter w^as only eighteen months old when taken, re- 
mained with the Indians; until she was Ihrirteen, and was then brought 
home. She had learned the Indian language perfectly; afterwards learned 
to speak English, but there were some words she never could pronounce 
})laiidy.~ She married Uriah Ijlue, on the South J3ranch. 

About eight miles below Romney stood a tort. In time of harvest a 
Mrs. Hogeland went out about three hundred yards to gather beans, two 
men accompanying her as a guard. While gathering the beans, 8 or ten 
Indians made their appearace. One of the guarde instantly Hed ; the oth- 
er, whose name was Hogeland, called to the woman to I'un to the fort ; 
and placing himself betw^een her and the enemy, with his rille cocked and 
presented, retreated from tree to tree until both entered it. Some old 
men in the fort fired off their guns to alarm the harvest hands, who ran 
into it, the Indians from the side of the mountain firing upon them, but 
doing no ijljury. The same day the harvest hands were w^aylaid as they 
returned to their work, fired upon, and Henry Newkirk wounded in the 
hip. The whites returned the fire, and w^ounded an Indian, who dropped 
his gun and tied. The others also made oif, and the harvest hands pro- 
ceeded to their work. 

In 1756, while the Indians were lurking about Fort Pleasant, and con- 
stantly on the w^atch to cut off all communication therewith, a lad named 
Pliggins, aged about twelve years, was directed by his mother to go to 
the spring, about a quarter of a mile without the fort, and bring a bucket 
of water. He complied with much trepidation, and persuaded a compa*- 
nion of his, of about the same age, to accom.pany him. They repaired 
to the spring as cautiously as possible, and after filling their buckets, ran 
w^ith speed towards the fort, Higgins taking the lead. When about half 
way to the fort, and Higgins had got about thirty yards before his com- 
panion, he heard a scream from the latter, which caused him to increase 
his speed to the utmost. He reached the fort in safety, while his coui- 
panion was ca})tured by the Indians, and taken to their settlements, where 

*Mrs. Shobe informed tlie aut'iov that slie had lienrd Vnc wife of Jacob 
Peterson frequently relate this, 



he remained until the peace, and was then restored. The young Hig-- 
gins subsequently because the active Capt. Robert Hiu'^ins in our revolu- 
tionarv army, and aJtor raising a numerous i'amily in Virginia, remo\ed 
Avith them to the west." 

In the neighborhood of Moorefield a paity of men were mowing for 
Peter Casey. They had placed their guns under a large tree in the edge 
of the meadow, and old Peter stood sentinel to watch and give the alarm 
should the enemy make their appearance. In a short time a party of In- 
dians discovered the hands at work; and cautiously crept through the 
brambles and slirubbery in order to get a position to make a deadly fire. 
One of them was in front of the others, aiul had approached very near 
old Peter before the latter saw him, ^vheu the old man Hew at him with 
his cane raised, crying out, "By the Lord, boys, here they come!" The 
Indian, desperately frightened, took to his heels,' the men flew to their 
guns; and the skulking savages retreated precipitately, without llring a 
single shot. It is not improbable that Casey still used the same stick 
with which he '-knocked Kill-buck down."! 

The author finding this chapter running to a tedious and perhaps tire- 
some length to the reader, will give his pen a short respite, and rosuui-o 
his narrative of Indian outracfes in the next chapter. 




On Stony ('.'-eek, five or six rnilcs s()ulli-wcst of Woodstock, tlicre was a 
a fort called "Wolfe's tori," where the people took shelter from the In- 
dians for several years, Mr. Wolfe would sometimes venture out lor llie 
purpose of killing game, and was always accompanied by a favorite dog. 
On one particular occasion, this faithful animal saved his master's life. — 
Mr. W. walked out with his gun and dog, but had not jn'oceed*^! far be- 
fore the latter manifested great alarm, and used all his ingenuity to imluce 
his master to return. He repeatedly crossed his path, endeavoring to ob- 
struct his walk; would raise himself uj), and place his feet against his 
master's breast, and strive to push him back; would run a few steps to- 
wards the foit, and then return whining. From the extraordinary mani- 
festation of uneasiness on the part of the dog, Mr. Wolfe began to sus- 
pect there was some lurking danger, of course kept a sharp look out, and 
soon discovered an Indian at some distance behind a tree, watching and 

•Relate*! by Col. Isaac \'atimeler. t The same. 


Avaitinn; until he should come near eiiouofh to be a sure mark. Mr. W. 
STiade a safe retreat into the fort, and ever after felt the highest gratitude 
to his honest and faithful dog. The dog lived to be twenty-one years of 
age, and probably more,* Ulysses's dog "Argus" is much celebrated iu 
history; but it is very questionable whether Argus ever rendered more im- 
portant services to his lord and master. Ulysses was one of the command- 
ing generals of the Greeks in the Trojan war, and was absent twenty 
years, it is said, from his home. The story of his dog is related by Ho- 
raer in the following beautiful poetical eiTusionif 

Thus near the gates conferring as they drew, 
Argus, the dog, his iincient master knew; 
He, not unconscious of the voice and tread. 
Lifts to the sound his cur, and rears his head; 
Bred by Ulysses, nourish'd at his board, 
But ah! not fated long to please his lord! 
To him, his swiftness and his strength were vain; 
The voice of glory callM him o'er the main: 
Till then in every sylvan chase renown'd, 
With Argus, Argus, rung the woods around: 
With him the youth pursu'd the goat or fawn, 
Or trac'd the mazy leveret o'er the lawn. 
Now left to man's ingratitude he lay, 
Unhous'd, neglected in the public way; 
And where on heaps the rich manure was spread, 
Obscene with reptiles, took his sordid bed. 

He knew his lord; he knew, and strove to meet; 
In vain he strove to crawl, and kiss his feet. 
Yet (all he could) his tail, his ears, his eyes, 
Salute his master, and conless his joys. 
Soft pity touch'd the. mighty master's soul; 
Adown his cheek a tear unbidden stole. 
Stole unperceiv'd: he turn'd his head, and dried 
The drop humane: then thus impassion'd cried: 

"What noble beast in this abandon'd state, 
Lies here all helpless at Ulysses' gate." 
His bulk and beauty speak no vulgar praise; 

*Moses Russell, Esq. of the county of Frederick, gave (he author n 
detail of the particulars of this extraordinary story, and stated, that when 
he was a young man he once called at Mr. Wolfe's house and saw the dog. 
He appeared to be decrepit and suffering pain, and he asked Mr. VVolle 
if he had not better kill the dog, and put him out of misery. Mr. Wolfe 
with much empliasis replied, "No, T would as readily consent to be killed 
myself as to kill that dog, or sutler him to be killed; he once saved my 
lite;" and Mr. \V. then related t]K above story. . The dog was then twen- 
ly-onr years olti. 

fit is siiid thu Argus v.-;is llip oniv crrHlure that iminedi;)lt'lv rfcnguix' d 
bis )^»>^l(■:■ nil h]^ icturii to his palace from his twenty years' jib-^nice. 


Jl', Hs he bccins, he was in bcUer diiys, 

Some care his age deserves: or was he priz'if 

For worthless beauty, therefore now despised? 

Sudi dogs, and men there arc, mere things of stato. 

And always chcrish'd by their tVicnds, the great." 

"Not Argus so, (Erama^us thus rejoiuM) 
But scrv'd a master of a nobler kind, 
Who never, never, shall behold him more! 
Long, long since perish'd on a distant shore! 
O had you seen him, vigorous, bold and young, 
Swift as a stag, and as a lion strong; 
llim no fell savage on the plain withstood. 
None scap'd him, bosom'd in the gloomy wood: 
His eye how piercing, and his scent how true, 
To wiiul the vapor in the tainted dew? 
Such, when Ulysses left his natal toast, 
Now years unnerve him, and his lord is lost, 
'I'he women keep the generous creature bare, 
A sleek and idle race is all iheir care: 
'I'he nuister gone, the servants what restrains? 
Or dwells humanity where riot reigns? 
Jove lix'd it certain, tliat whatever day 
Makes man a slave, takes half his worth away.'' 

This said, the honest herdsman strode before: 
The musing monarch pauses at the door. 
The dog whom fate had granted to behold 
His lortl wlien twenty tedious years had roM'd, 
Takes a last look, ami having seen him, dies; 
So clos'd forever f;ii;hful Argus' eyes! 

There was no poet at the time to transmit tiu- name and fame of Mr. 
Wolfe's dog to ])ostcrity. European authors, in their picjudices, have on 
various occasions endeavored to disparage every thing of American pio- 
ductioii. 'I'he Count de liufTon is among the number. Englishmen de- 
light in the disj>aragement of American quadrujieds. In the Family En- 
cyclopedia, an English work, under the article "dogs," it is asserted that 
"when Engii.ih dogs are transpoited lo other countries, they degoneralc, 
and become comparatively worthless!" It is believed the annals of tlio 
world may be safely challenged to produce an instance of greater mani- 
festation of sagacity and faithful affection towards a master, than was ex- 
hibited by Mr. Wolfe's dog on the occasion spoken of. But to return. 

At the Forks of Capon stockade. The men who occupied it liad to 
go about four miles to cultivate a fine fertile field of low ground, to pro- 
(hice bread for their support. In the year 1757 or 1758, two men, one 
named Bow«ms, lln- other York, walked to the field to see how things 
were going on. On their return in lln' eNcniii'j: llicy were waylaid by se- 
ven Indians. Iiowers was sliol and fi.-ll dciid; Vmk r;in, was pin'.Micd by 
tlu'ce lndian>, and took across a hijih ridge. One of his pursuers tired 
liefor'' li<' pMclicd tlie lf)n; the otheis <'(uilinued ihccliaM. Ai'lc:' innniii "" 


a considerable distance, a second gave out. The third got so near that he 
several times extended, his arm to seize York, but failed, and York got 
safe into the fort.* 

On Patterson's creek, at the present site of Frankfort, Ashby's fort was 
erected. It was at this pLice that the celebrated race took })lace between 
the late Capt. John Ashby and three Indians. Capt. Ashby had walked 
out from the fort with his gun, and after proceeding some distance dis- 
covered three Indians, who knew him, but a little way off. He turned 
and ran: two of the Indians iired, but missed him: they all three then gave 
chase, but Ashby was too swift for them; and when they saw they could 
not overhaul hirn, one of them called out, "Run, Jack Ashby, run!" He 
replied, looking over his shoulder, "You fools, do you think I run booty.'"' 
— [with boots.] 

Near the fort, Charles Keller was killed, the grandfather of ^Ir. Charles 
Keller, the present proprietor of the Frankfort flotel.j 

About the year 175G, Daniel Sullivan, at nine years of age, vv-as taken 
prisoner by the Indians, with whom he remained nine years, when he was 
brouofht home. For some time he manifested a desire to return to the 
Indians,. but at leno-th became reconciled, and was afiewards their deter- 
mined enemy. In his last battle with them, becoming desperately wound- 
ed, and his entrails falling out and in his way, he tore them off, and con- 
tinued to fight until he fell and expired. The Indians after this consider- 
ed him something more than man.j 

At the Rev. Mr. Jacob's present residence, on North Branch, a man by 
the name of Wade was killed. 

Logan, the celebrated Indian, killed Benjamin Bowman, and tool: 
Humphrey Worstead prisoner. He compelled the latter to halter several 
of his own and Bowman's horses, and took them off.§ 

At a battle at Oldtown, John Walker killed an Indian and wounded 
another. Walker cutout a part of the dead Indian's flesh from the thick 
part of his thigh, and threw it to his dog, who ate it. He otherwise mu- 
tilated his body; and thrust parts of it into his mouth. 

Thomas Higgins was one of the earliest settlers on the Cohongf)ruton. 
He lived about four miles from Bath, but was driven thence, and removed 
to the neighborhood of Gerardstown, in the county of Bei'keley. After 
his re-noval, three of his sons were taken off as prisoners, and never re- 
turned. At the close of Dunmore's war, one of them was seen at Wheel- 
ing by a man who was acquainted with his family, and asked why he did 
not come home, since his father had left him a good tract of land, lie 
rcj)lied that he did not wish to live with white people; they v.'ould always 
cidlhim Indian; and he had land enough. || 

The Wife of the late Walter Denny, of Frederick county, was taken by 

* Related by Mr. John Largent. 
f Mr. Keller stated this fact to the author. 

|Isaac Kuykendall, Esq. of the South Branch, near Romiiey, staled dii^ 
fact to the author, and added that Sullivan was his near relation. 
^Related by-\[r. (ierrit Blue, of tht^- North Branch. 
lUvehiicd !)■>• Mr. James Higgiui., of the North Branch. 


the Indians whni a small child, and grow up among lliem. IK-r mai- 
den name was FlaughcrU . After returning from her captivity, she mar- 
ried Walter Denny, who resided some time after his marriage in the neigh- 
borhood of Pittsburgh. In 1774 the Indians advised him to move oir,as 
thev intended to go to war with the whites. Mi: Denny removed and 
settled in the eountv oi' Frederick'. The author recollects frequently seeing 
this man. A Miss Williams was also taken about the same time: she, too, 
grew up with the Indians. These two female children were taken on 
Patterson's i"reek. 

There is a tradition of a battle fnu2.-ht on Patterson's creek, lictween the 
whites and Indians, the sj)ring before Braddock's defeat; but the author 
was not able to obtain the particulars, except that the Indians were de- 

The Indians killed Oliver Kvemcr, in Short (lap, and took his wife pri- 

In the year 1764, a parly of eighteen Delawares crossed the moun- 
tains. Furman's fort was about one mile above the Hanging Rock, on 
the South Branch. William Furman and Niinrod Ashby had gone out 
from the fort to watch a deer lick in the Jersev mountain.* The Indians 
discovered and killed them both, and passed on into the county of Frede- 
rick, where they di viewed into two parties. One party of eight moved on 
to the Cedar creek settlement; the other of ten attacked the peoj)le in the 
neighborhood of the present residence of Maj. John White. On this 
place Dr. White, the ancestor of the White family, had settled, and on 
his land a stockade was erected. The people in the neighborhood had ta- 
ken the alarm, and were on iheir way to the fort, when they were assault- 
ed by these ten Indians. They killed David Jones and his wife, two old 
people. Some of Mrs. Thomas' family were killed, and siie and one 
daughter taken off. An old man by the name of Llyod, and his wife, 
and several of his children, were killed. Esther Lloyd, their daughter, 
about tliirteen \ ears old, received three tomahawk wounds in the head, 
was scalped, and left lying, supposed to be dead. Henry Clouser and 
two of his sons were killed, and his wife and four of his daughters taken. 
The youngest daun^hter was about two vears old; and as she impeded 'he 
mother's travelling, when they reached the North mountain, the poor little 
innocent babe was taken l>v its heels, its head dashed again^i a tree, and 
the brains lie.iien out, and left lying on th»^ ground. .Mrs. Thomas was 
taken to the \N'appatomaka; but the river being pretty full, and deep ford- 
ing, they encamped near Furman's fort for the ni^xh'- l'h(i next morning 
a partv of white men fired off their guns at the fort, which alarmed tin; 
Indians, anrl thev hurrierl across the river, assisting all their female pri- 
soners except Mrs. Thomas, who being quite stout and strong, was left to 
shift for hersell". 'Che current, however, pro\ed loo stron!]; for her, and 
<he Hoatcfl flown the river — but lodged against a rock, upon wiiich she 
crawled, and s.iveil herself from drowning. Before her capture she had 
concealed half a lopf of bread in her bosom, which, during her strugeles 
in the w.Tler w.i^lieil out, and, on her rrachiu'T 'h'' rock, Mo;ifed to lier 

'S<» r;d!ei| limn lis lii'iii',;- t'list '■cltled b\ immi'ii"'*!'-''^ fron» New .fersev. 


again. In this instance, the text ot" scriplure, " thy bread upon the 
waters, lor thou shalt hud it al'ier niujiy days,"* might luive souic apjilica- 
tion. It was not "many days," bui there appears to have been some- 
thing providential in it, tor ii saved iiei Irom extreme suffering. 'I"he next 
morning Mrs. Thomas made her way to Williani's fort, iibout two miles 
below the Hanging Rock, on the South Branch. f 

The author has received from Maj. John White, of Frederick, another 
account of the foregoing outrages, which he will give in Maj. VV'.'s own 

"In July, 1763, information was i-eceived by the late Maj. Robeit 
White, (wJio had a small fort around iiis house as an asylum tor the peo- 
ple in the neighborhood,) that Indians had been seen on that or the prece- 
ding day on Capon. He immediately went to the several families living 
near the base of the North mountain, as far as to Owen Thomas', live or 
six miles from the fort, told them of the report, and advised them to go 
into the fort until the (huiger should be over. It being harvest time, 
Owen Thomas was unwilling 1o leave home, and mounted a horse to go 
to his neighborjJacob Kackley's, who had several sons grown, to propose 
to arm themselves and work together in their respective grain fields; but 
on his wav to Mr. Kackley's he was shot dead and scalped, the Indians 
liaving concealed themselves behind two logs that lay one across the other 
near the road. 

"In June, 17^4, similar information of Indians being seen was receiv- 
ed at the fort. Maj. White, as on the former occasion, went in the after- 
noon to warn the people of their danger; when the widow Thomas, Mr. 
Jones and Mr. Clouser, set off with their families for the fb'-t; but night 
cominsr on when they reached Mr. Lloyd's, (about two miles from the 
fort,) they (loncluded to stay there all night. In the morning, as soon as 
day appeared, they resumed their journey; but before they were out of 
sight of the house, the Indians attacked them, and killed, wounded, or 
took prisoners twenty-two or twenty-three persons. Evan Thomas, a 
son of the man killed the preceding summer, a boy of seven years old, ran 
back into the house, and hid himself behind some puncheons that he pla- 
ced across a corner of the room, and remained concealed, notwithst-anding 
the Indians brought the prisoners into the house, among whom were his 
mother and sister, both tied, and kept them there till they fried bacon and 
ate their breakfast; they then set fire to the house in two places, and went 
awav. Evan said he continued in the house as long as he coidd on ac- 
count of the lire; that he saw through a chink in the wall tiie direction 
the Indians went; and not knowing which way to go, he concluded to 
take the contrary course from the one taken by them. He rambled about 
all that day and the most of the next before he found any person, the hou- 
ses which he passed having been abandoned by their owners goinjj to the 
fort. The Indians encamped the first night at a spring: on the Roraney 
road, between the North river and Little Capon; and on the next da)- 

* Ecclesiastics, 11th chap. 1st verse. 

|Mr. Gerrit Blue stated to the author that he was then a small !>ny, but 
well recollects seeing Mrs. 'l'hon\as when she got into the lort. 


thoy stnppod on the bnnk of \ho Sniilh l^ranch, near wliore ^omn^y r\t)\v 
stands, lo cat \hv\v dinner. AVliile thus enoa^od, a party avIio were sta- 
tioned in a fort a mile or two lower down the river, ajid wlioliad just re- 
turned from a scout, discharged their guns in order to clean them, which 
pJarmed the Indians, and they hurried across the river, assisting all their 
J'emale prisoners excejiting Mrs. Thomas, who being a large fat woman, 
it was supi)osed would perish, as the water was rapid and deep. She 
floated down the stream, however, until almost exhausted, wlien she had 
the o^ood loi'luneto "-et on a rock, and save herself iVom di'owninii^ She 
had put a piece of bread in her bosom the morning she was taken, and 
lost it in the water; but it happened to float so near her wliile on the rock- 
that she caught it and ate it; Avhich, as she said, so revived and strength- 
ened her that she plunged into the water again, and providentially got out 
on the east side of the river. She reached Williams' fort, two miles be- 
low the Hanging Rock, on the same day. It was often remarked by 
Mrs. Thomas' acquaintances, that after fier return she would minutely re- 
late the circumstances attending the murder of her husband viud children, 
and her own sufl'crings, without shedding a tear. Either five or seven of 
the persons wounded by the Indians, were taken to the fort at A[nj. Rob- 
ert White's, and attended by I3r. M'Doiuild, though but one recovered, 
Hester Lloyd, who had two scalps taken from hei-." 

Mrs. Thomas' daughter, and Mrs. Clouser and her tlircc small daugh- 
ters, were taken to the Indian towns, and after an absence of about six 
months, were released from ca})tivity, and all returned home safely. 

There is something remarkable in the history of the three Miss Clou- 
scrs, who were all prisoners at the same time. The eldest was about t(>n 
years old, the next eldest about seven, and the youngest between five and 
six. Thev all returned home from their captivity, grew up, were married, 
raisetl families of children, and are now widows, living in the rame neigh- 
borhood, not more than five or six miles apart. Two of them, Mrs. 
Shidt/ and Mrs. Snapp, reside about one and a half miles from the resi- 
dence of the author, and the third, Mrs. Fry, not exceeding six miles. 

Miss Lloyd, who was "tomahawked aiid scalped," was soon discover- 
ed not to be dead. The laic Dr. M'Donald was sent for, who ticpaiiiu'd 
licr ill llie several fractures in her head. She recovered and lived many 
years after. There are several respectable indi\i(!nals now li\iiig who 
knew this woman.* 

'I'he other party of ciglit Indians committed several murders on Cedar 
rreek. It is probable this party killed a Mr. Lyle, a Mr. Rutler, and 
some others. Mr. Ellis Thomas, the liusband of the woman whose sto- 
ry has j\ist beeen given, was killed the harvest jireccding. This party of 
eiglit Indians tof)k ofT two female prisoners, were pursued by a party of 
white men, overtaken in the South Rrancli mountain, and Cncd upon, 
when one of the lndla?is was killed. Tlu' others (led, leaving their guns, 

*(reneral Smith, Maj. K. I), (llass, Miss Susan fJlass, Mrs. Shultz,. 
and Mrs. Snapp, severally stated to the author that they frequently saw 
this woman after she recovered from h»r wounds. Mrs. Shultz states that 
it was on the first day of .June the fniiraixe was romndltcd. 


prisoners, and plunJei'.* 'i'he prisoners ami properly ivere bi'ouo'ht home, 
'i'wo ol' the fugitives overtook tlie j^arly in the Aheganv mountain who 
had Mrs. Clouser, her daughters, and other prisoners, in eustody. 'I'he 
fugitives appeared in desperate ill humor, and proposed lo nuiidertlie pri- 
soners; but the others peremptorily objected, and would no! suff-r their 
prisoners to be injured. f 

'I'he same year, 1764, a party of eight Indians, with a while man by 
the name of Abraham Mitchell, killed George Miller, his vnfe and two 
children, within about two miles of Strasburg. They also the same day 
killed John Dellinger on the land now the residence of Capt. Anthony 
Spengler, adjoining the town, and took Rachel Dellinger, with her inlant 
child, prisoners. It was a male child, very stout, and heavy of iis ao-e. 
In crossing Sandy ridge, west of Capon river, this child had its brams 
beaten out against a tree. A party of white men pursued tliem, over- 
took them in the South Branch mountain, fired upon them, and killed one, 
when the others fled, leaving every thing behind, Rachel Dellinger was 
brought home, and stated that the unprincipled scoundrel Mitchell was 
with the Indians. About twelve months before, IMitchell had been pun- 
ished for a petty act of theft, while the ]-)eople were at Bowman's fort. — 
Miller and Dellinger inflicted the punishmcnt.:|: 

At the massacre of the people near White's fort, one of Mrs. Thomas' 
daughters, when the people were ])reparing lo go to the foil, Avas request- 
ed by Mrs. Clouser to take a bottle of milk in her liand, and carry it to 
the fort. When the Indians assailed them, this young woman concealed 
herself behind a tree, and linally escaped. As soon as she could run ofi* 
without being discovered, she started and ran eight or nine miles with the 
bottle of milk in her hand. She was met by two of the Fawcetts, near 
their residence, informed them of what had liappencd, and tliey forthwith 
removed their families to Stephens' fort.§ 

A little son of Mrs. Thomas concealed liimself under a pile of tlav, 
which the Indians set on hre. As the fire progressed, the little fellow 
Icept in a direction to avoid it, while the smoke concealed liim from the 
sight of the enemy, and he got safe to the foi-|. 

'I'homas Pugh resided at the tim.e on liic farm, late tlic residence of Mr, 
John M'Cool, eight or nine miles north west of Winchester. The same 
party of Indians wd)0 cemraitted the outi'age near White's fore, on the 
night after were lurking about Mr, Pugh's house. His dog gave the alarm; 
and from his singular behavior, and n-ianifest.itions of rage, (as if he were 

*Moses Russell, Esq, 

I Mrs. Siuiltz and Mrs. Snap p. 

i'Yhc late Mrs, Brinker related the particulars of tiiese occurrences lo 
the author. Major Isaac I lite recojlefis when Miller and Dellinger were 

§Stepiien's fort was at ti)? spot where Zane's iron works were after- 
wards erected on Cedar creek. Mr. Elisha Fawcetl, a near neighbor oi' 
the author, a highly respectable and intelligent man, stattnl to the author 
that he had frequently heard his father and unclf^ speak of this occorrence. 



tngoged in a i'uinou.'^ battle,) Mr. Fugh raviliously looked out at a -wintlow 
und akliougli it was rather a dark night, he discovered several Indians 
looking ovi;r a rl'.ister of briars but a short distance from his house. He 
and his wife and chikh-en imincdiatcly retreated through aback door and 
pushed off. They had not gone far, before Pugh recollected his money; 
he turned back, got into the house, secured his money, took it with him, 
and saved himself and family from injury. During the whole time Pugh 
and his family were making their escape, the dog continued his uproar, 
and as soon as they were out of danger, followed them.* The Indians 
broke into the house, robbed it of what they chose, and destroyed the 
furniture; but they did not burn the building. It is said they burnt 
comparatively but a few houses, because they expected to reconquer the 
country, and return to inhabit it ; in which event they would have comfor- 
table houses ready built to their hands ; hence they generally spared the 

About the year 1765, the Indians made their appearance in the neigh- 
borhood of Woodstock, in the county of Shenandoah. On Narrow Pas- 
sagecreek, eighteen or twenty women and children had collected together, 
in order to go to the fort at VVoodstock. An old man by the name of 
George Sigler was with them. Five Indians allacked them. Sigler, af- 
ter firing, and wounding one in the leg, clubbetl his gun and fought to 
desperation. While he was thus engaged, the women and children made 
their escape, and got safe from the fort. Sigler broke his gun over the 
Ireads of the enemy, wounded several of them pretty severely, and re- 
ceived himself several wounds, but continued the fight until he fell from 
the loss of blood, when his merciless enemies mangled his body ina man- 
ner shocking to behold. f 

In 1760 the Indians made another visit to the neighborhood of Wood- 
stock. Two men, by the nanie of Sheetz and Taylor, had taken their 
wives and children into a wagon, and were on their way to the fort. At 
the Narrow Passage, three miles south of Woodstock, five Indians attack- 
ed them. The two men were killed at the first onset, and the Indians 
rushed t(» seize the women and children. The women, instead of swoon- 
ing at the sight of their bleedirrg, exjiiring husbands, seized their ax(>s, 
anil with Amazonian firmness, and strcngdi :ilmost superhuman, defend- 
ed themselves and children. One of the Indians had succeeded in getting 
hohl of one of iMrs. Shcclz's children, and altemjilcd to drag it o\it of 
the wagon ; but with the (piickness of lightning she caught her child in 
one hand, and witii the other made a blow at the head of the fellow, which 
caused him 1<> ([lilt his licdd to save his life. Several ol' the Indians re- 
ceived jjretty sore wounds in this desperate conflict, und all at last ran ofl^, 
leaving the two women willi their childr* n 1o pursue their way to the tort 

•Mr. Joseph Hackney informed the author that he had frequently heard 
Mr. Putrh relate this occurrence. This is another instance of the extra- 
ordinary evidence of the sagacity and affection of thedoff, and is little ir- 
ferior to the story of Mr. Wolfe's do"'. 

fMr. Christian Miller, a very aged and intelligent man, gave the author 
this nurritive. 


Ih tlie hiUcrpart of August, Ihc same year, a party of cii^ht Indians 
■aud a worthless villian ol' a white man crossed Powell's Fort luoautaii], 
to the South fork of the Shenantloah, at the late residence of John Gate- 
Avood, Esq. where the Rev. John Roads, h Menonist preaclier of the Gos- 
pel, then lived. Mr. R., his wife, and three of his sons, were murdered. 
Mr. Roads was standing in his door, when he w^as shot and fell dead. — 
Mrs. Roads and one of her sons were killed in the yard. One of the 
young men was at the distance of about one hundred and fifty yards from 
the house, in a corn field. Hearing the report of the guns at the house, 
he ascended a pear tree to see what it meant, where he was discovered by 
an Indian and instantly killed. The third poor young lad attempted to 
save himself by flight, and to cross the river, but was pursued anrl killed 
in the river. The, place is called the Bloody ford to tliis day. The ene- 
my demanded of the youth who was killed in the yard, where his lather 
kepthis money ; and was told'fhat if he did not immediately point out 
tie place, Ihey would kill him ; but if he vrould show them the money, 
his life should be spared. On his declaring he could not tell them, he 
was instantly shot and fell dead. Mr. Roads' eldest daughter Elizabeth 
caught up her little sister, a child about sixteen or eighteen months old, 
ran into the barn, and secured the door. An IiKlian discovered and pur- 
sued her, and attempted to force open the door ; 'but not succeeding, he 
with many oaths and threats ordered her to open it. Cn her refusing, the 
fellow ran back to the house to get fire ; and v.'hile he was gone, Eliza- 
beth crept out a hole on tho opposite side of the barn, with her little sis- 
ter in her arms, ran through a field of tall hemp, crossed the river, and 
■got safe to a neighboring house, and thus saved herself and sister. 

After j)lu)idering the house of such articles as tkey chose to take, the 
Indians set fire to all the buildinss, and left the dead bodv of Mr. Roads 
to be consumed in the tlames.* They then moved off, taking with iheiTi 
two of the sons and two of the daughters ])risoners. The youngest pri- 
soner was a weak, sickly little boy, eight or nine ye ro of age : he of 
course was not able to stand the fatigue of traveling ; and crossing the 
head of Powell's fort, they killed him. His two sisters then refusing to 
go any farther with them, were barbarously murdered, and their bodies 
■L'ft a prey to wolves and other wild beasts. The other boy was taken 
off and remained about three years in captivity before he returned lionie. 
It was generally believed at the time, that the white scoundrel who was 
with the Indians, induced them, to commit this horrid murder, in order to 
rob .Mr. Roads of his money ; but he missed his object. Mr. Roads kept 
hiti money and title papers in a niche in the cellar wall, the dampness and 
coolness of which preserved them from injury. They were all found safe. 

It was quite a common thing with the Germans to have garners fixed 

*Mrs. Stover, the mother of Daniel Stover, Esq., nov>'of Page county, 
stated to the author that she was then about fifteen years old, and dis- 
tinctly saw the houses in flames from lier father's residence, about two 
miles off, on the opposite side of the river: and the next day lh<' neigh- 
boring people collecliim- to bury the dead, found "Mr. R'oads' knly about 
half consumed. 


in ihcir garrt-ls to pn'isrrve their i^;i;iin. 'I'Irtc aviis a quanlity of rye aloft 
in the dwelling" house, which was huriu to eoal ; and as the iioors gave 
way to the llames, the rye fell in a eonsidenible body into the eellur. At 
any time upon digging into the' ruins of the eellur, the grains of rye, or 
rather coal, caji be found — the shape of the grain being as perfect as 
when in its natural state. 

Willi this bloody tragedy ended the irruptions of the savages upon the 
people of the valley. This was the last great outrage of savage warf;ire 
eonmiittcd east of the North mountain. 

There are several other interesting occurrences which the author over- 
looked and omitted to record in due order of time. They are of a char- 
acter too interestini'- lo be lost in the history of our countr\ . He will 
therefore proceed to I'elate them. 

About the year 1760, two Indians v.-eie discovered lurking in the 
neighborhood of .Mill creek. JMatthias Painter, John Painter and William 
Moore, armed themselves and went in pursuit. They had not proceeded 
far, before thev approached a large fallen pine, with a very bushy top. — 
As they neared the tree, ^latthias Painter observed, "We had better look 
sharp ; it is quite likely the Indians are concealed under the tops of this 
tree." He had scarcely uttered the words before one of the Indians rost! 
vip and lirt.'d. The ball grazed the temple of John Painter. .Moore and 
Painter iired at the same in.stanl ; one of their balls passed through the 
Indian's body, and he i'ell, they su[)posed dead enough. 'I'he other I'ellow 
iled, leaving his gun and ever}- thing else behind. The white men pur- 
sued him s )me distance, but the fugitive was too (leet for them. Finding 
they could not overhaid him, tluy gave up the chase and returned to the 
pine tree: but to their astonishment, the supposed dead had mo- 
ved ofi" will) both guns and a large pack ol' skins, cNc. They pursued his 
trad, nmi when he found they v/erc gaining upon him, he got into a sink 
hole, and as soon as they apj)roached pretty near, commenced hring at 
them. He had pouretl out a quantity of jiowder on dry leaves, iilled his 
mouth with bullets, and using a nuisket which was a self-primer, he was 
rnablefl to load with astonishing quickness. He thus fiicd at least thirty 
times before they could get a chance to dispalch him. At last Mr. IMocre 
got an opportunity, and shot him through the head. iMoctre and Painter 
had many disj)utes which give the fellow the liist wound. Painter, at 
length, yielded, v.iid Moore got the ])remiu:n ;dlowid b\- law fci' Indian 

The fulfil ivc who niach' his escaix', unfortuiialely niel with a \oun<'- wo- 
man on hcrstback, named Seehon, whom he tore from her horse, and for- 
cerl off with liiiii. This occurred near the |)ic>int site oi" \cwuiarket, in 
the co'iiitv of Shenandoah. Alter traveling about twenty miles, chiefly 
in llie I'iglil, and getting iieaily ojtposite Kei^-leiown, in the county ot' 
Kockiiighan!, it i.> sup[)0sfd the pof>r girl broke (iown fmm fiiticTue, and 
the «in\a«re tnonster beat her to ilea'h wiih a hcavv uine Knot. Her 
screams were hf;'r(i In sonv people that li\(^d upwards <'l a mile from the 

* M ■. ri'M'-'^'c Painle; fo'iiinunienlrd litis luk, eiituic lo liie r-uilinr. 


scene of horror, and who next day on going to the place to iisccrtain the 
cause, found her stripped naked, and weltering in lier blood.* 

At the attack on George Miller's family, the persons killed were a short 
distance from the house, spreadhig Hax in a meadow. One oi Miller's 
little daughters was sick in bed. Hearing the firing, she jumped up, and 
looking through a window and seeing what was done, immediately pass- 
ed out at a back w'indow, and ran about two or three miles, down to the 
present residence of David Stickley, Esq. and from thence to Geo. How- 
man's on Cedar creek, giving iiotiee at each place. Col. Abraham Bow- 
man, of Kentucky, then a lad of sixteen or seventeen, had !)ut a few nii- 
nutes before passed close by Miller's door, and at first doubted the little 
girl's statement. He however armed himself, mounted his horse, nnd in 
riding to the scene of action, Y.-as joined by several others who had turn- 
ed out for the same purpose, and soon found the information of tlie little 
girl too fatally true. 

The late Mr. Thomas Newell, of Shenandoah county, informed the au- 
thor that he was then a young man. His father's residence was ai)out one 
n^le from ^liller's house ; and hearing the firing, he instantly took his ri- 
fle, and ran to see what it meant. When he arrived at the spot, ln' found 
Aliller, his wile, and two children, weltering in their blood, and still ))l('ed- 
ing. He was the first person who arrived ; and in a very few minutes 
Bowman and several others joined him. From the scene of murder they 
went to the house, and on the sill of the door lay a large folio German Bi- 
ble, on which a fresh killed cat was thrown. On taking up the indole it 
was discovered that fire had been placed in it; but after burning through 
a few leaves, the weight of that part of the book Avhich lay uppermost, 
together with the weight of the cat, had so compressed the leaves as to 
smother ;ukI extinguish the fire.f 

In the year 1768, Capt. William White, a brave and active Indian 
fighter, made a visit to Col. Wm. Crav/ibrtl, vrho had removed and siettled 
at the Meadows in the Allegany mountains. White lived on Cedar creek, 
and Crawford had lived on Bull-skin. They had been out togeth«n- »n 
[ndian expeditions ; of course vrere well acquainted. Crawfonl had an 
Irish servant, a pretty stout and active man, who was permitted to ac- 
company White on a hunting excursion. They had not hevn out long 
before they discovered two Indians in the glades. The latter, the mo- 
ment they discovered the two white men, flew behind trees, and prej)ared 
for battle. W'hite and his Irishman, however, soon out- generaled tliem, 
and killed them both. They were soon after apprehended, and commit- 
ted to Winchester jail on a charge of murder. But White had rendered 

*Mrs. Branaman, an aged and respectable old lady near Pennybackcrr, 
iron works, gave the author this information. 

fThis Bible is now in the possession of Mr. George Miller, of She- 
nandoah county, about one a half miles south of Zane's old iron works. 
The author saw and examined it. The fire had been placed about the 
cemre of lUe 2d book of Samuel, burnt throurrh fourtf^en leaves, and en- 
I'rely out a1 one end. It is preserved in the .Miliar fantiiy, ns a sacred re- 
iic or iiTcinento of the sacrifice of their ajicestors. 


hi > iifighbors loo lUiuiy important sc'ivices, and was too popular, to lie 
p"riuitled to languish loadocl with irons in a dungeon lor killing Indians. 
Although tiie Indian hostilities had entirely eeased, too many individuals 
were smarting under a reeolleetion of the outrages tliey had but reeenlly 
experienecd at the hands of their merciless, savage, and implacable foe. 
Soon aficr White and his partner in the charge were committed to jail, 
Capi. .\t)ialuun Fry raised a party of iitty-five or sixty volunteers, well 
armed and mounted, to eiTert their i-escue. They dismounted n€ir the 
present site of .Mr. Isaac Hollingsworth's dwelling house, where they leit 
tlieir horses under a guard of a Jew men, and marched into Winchester 
about daybreak next morning. They repaired directly to the jail door, 
knocked up the jailer, and demanded the keys. The jailer hesitated, 
and aliempted to remonstrate. Fry presented his riile, cocked it, and 
peremptorily demanded the keys, telling the jailer he would be a dead 
man in one minute if he did not deliver them. The jailer quailed under 
the fiery countenance and stern menaces of Fry, and complied. Fry pla- 
'Ced a guard at the door, went in, knocked off their irons, and took the 
prisoners out. The late Robeit Rutlierford attempted to harangue the 
mob upon the impropriety and danger of their proceedings ; but he might 
as well have addressed himself to so many lions or tigers. As Fry's par- 
ity mirched into the (own, it created considerable alarm and excitement. — 
'I'he women, liall" tlressed, were seen running from house to house and 
calling out, "Well done, brave fellows, good luck to you brave boys,"" — 
This clie'-ring of Fry's party at once convinced them that the public sym- 
giithy and good fueling were on their side. The prisoners were taken off 
-and set at liberty. Capt. White afterwards distinguished himself at the 
bloody battle of the Point, under Col. Sevier. 

The author had heard something of this story mare than fcity years 
ago. The late Capt. .James Wilson, of the neighborhood of Stephens- 
burg, had stateil some of tlu- particulars, but not sulliciently connected to 
give to the world. 'J'he author was therefore apprelK?nsive that he would 
not be able at this late period to collect the facts. Whilst engaged in ob- 
taining materials for this work, he called on 1\k late Thomas Newell, of 
■vShenandoali, and among other things in(niii'ed of him whether he liad any 
knowledge or recollection of the afTair, This venerable man, then ninet}- 
three years of age, in his second childhood, and recollection of recenl 
events entirely gone, the moment the inquiry was made, with much ani- 
mation and a cheerful countenance, rej)licd, "Yes, my friend, J reckon I 
can tell you, when I was one of the wvy boys." The author then asked 
the old gentleman whether he would have any objection to his name be- 
ing given as authority, and as one of Fry's party. He replied with (-(pial 
arinnati'm and emphasis, "No, my friend, I always gloried in what 1 diil." 
Moses Uu^se I, Ksq. informed the author that his two elder brothers 
were of Fry's ])arly, and that il" he had been old enough, he would doubt- 
less liave been among them. J^ul he had more than once heard oik; oC 
his brother's speak of this occurrence with great regret, inid lanunl lln' 
pari he had taken in it. Oen. Smilh rcedjleets hearing much said on ihis 
siibjeel soon altei- Ik eiiine to Winrh(.;4er to li\e. Ti' sty the least of it, 
it was a dau'j'erou.'i preeedent in a eivilizejij soeiely. There is another in- 


tUviLlual, now liviiig ill the neighborhood of the aiitlior"'? residence, who 
was ot" Fry's party, und is now about eighty years of age, who w^.s an 
active and useful character in the war of the revoUition, and from hirn t])e 
author obtained many particulars of this occurrence ; but as he never for- 
mally authorized the use of his name publicly, it is withheld. ]t was 
from the information of this individual that the author was enabled to find 
the year when this important occurrence took place. 

After the most diligent inquiry, the author could not ascertain whether 
the murder of these two Indians was followed by any acts of retaliation 
on the part of the savages. 

The same 5'ear (1768) a worthless character by the name of John Price 
committed a most vvanton and unprovoked murder on the body of a pop- 
ular young Indian chief. Price had resided several years in the Hawks- 
bill settlement. He went out to the Indian country under the character of 
an Indian trader, and soon formed an acquaintance with this young war 
chief. Price was an expert marksman and experienced hunter, and soon 
acquired the confidence and attachment of the young warrior. They fre- 
quently took hunting excursions ; in the last of wdiich, having wandered 
a considerable distance from the Indian habitations, Price shot the young 
man dead, robbed him of his rifle, a few^ silver ornaments and hunting- 
dress, and left him lying in the wilderness ; then pushed home, boasting 
of what he had done, and showed his ill-gotten booty. 

A few days after Price's return home, Lewis Bingaman, who was taken 
prisoner when a boy, and who grew up and became a distinguished man, 
(which has been heretofore noticed,) came in at the head of thirty war- 
riors in pursuit of Price. He made himself knowm to Frederick Offen- 
berger, and told what Price had done ; said that he would go to Price, and 
propose to take a hunt ; that his warriors were concealed in the Masinut- 
ton mountain ; and if he succeeded in decoying Price into their hands, 
they would be perfectly satisfied, and do no injury to any other person ; 
but if they did not succeed in getting Price, they would revenge the death 
of their young chief upon the first white persons they could find, and 
the lives of many innocent women and children would be sacrificed to ap- 
pease their vengeance. OfTenberger kept Bingaman's communication to 
himself, believing that Price deservtd punishment. He was accordingly 
decoyed into the hands of the thirty -warriors, and never heard from after- 
wards ; of course he expiated his base and treacherous murder of the 
young Indian, by the most lingering an'l painful death whic'ii savage in- 
genuity could devise. 

Tradition relates a story of a Mr. Hogeland, wlio on n certain occasion 
killed an Indian in the following manner. Hogeland went out in t!ie eve- 
ning from Furman's fort, in pursuit of the milch cows. He heard the 
bell in a deep glen, and from its peculiar sound, suspecled some strata- 
gem. Instead of pursuing the hollow therefore, he took up a high ridge, 
and passed the spot wdiere the bell \vas ringing : then cautiously desccnd- 
ino" the hollow, he discovered an Indian w-ith the bell (which lie had ta- 
ken from the cow,) suspended to a small sapling, wriich he shook gently 
to keep the bell in motion. Whilst the savage was thus engagefi with a 
view to decoy the owner within the reach of his rifle, Hogeland took de- 


liboiiito -alia :ii hlin, and sliot him ilirough the body; upon which another. 
Indian started uj), ran, and g-ot off. Thus tliis wiley savage foil into the 
snare lie bflievcd lie had adroilly prepared for killing the owner of the 

The author has heard another version of this story. It is said there 
was a youuiT man with Hoticland ; and when the Indian was seen 
with the bell, Hogeland at the same instant discovered the other 
standing at a tree, with his gun raised ready to fire at whoever shoulfl 
come for the cows. Hogeland pointed him out to the young man, and ob- 
served, "Now take deliberate aim, whilst I take the fellow witli the bell." 
They bnth tiretl and both Indians fell dead. f 

Thus ends the author's narrative of the many important occurrences 
and great events from the commencement of Indian hostilities, in the year 
1754, until their final termination in 1166, a period of twelve years. 

From the termination of liostilities in 1766, until tlie commencpinent 
of Dunmore's war in 1774, the people of the valley enjoyed unintenuj)t- 
ed peace and tranquility, and the country settled and increased with great 
rapidity. Several families of distinction removed from the lower country 
and settled in the valley. The ancestors of the Waslungtons, Willeses, 
Throckmortons, and Wdiitings, severally settled in the neighborhood of 
Long marsh and Bull-skin. 

The author did not find it convenient to ohtain theseverallreaties made 
with the Indian tribes during the period from the commencement of Brad- 
dock's war until the final termination of hostilities. Nor does he consi- 
der it very material, as those treaties were no sooner made than broken. 
Should this be deemed a material defect, he will endeavor to supply it in 
another edition. 

The commencement and termination of Dunmore's war will form the 
subject of the next chapter. 

*Samuel ICerchcval, jr. of Romney, related this tradition to the author. 
fWilliara Nay.'or, Ksq. gave the author this version of the story. 

DVNMoilK'ii WAR.. «;7 

ij. I 



In the year 1773, llie Indians killed two Vvhite men on the Hockhock-' 
ing river, to--\vit, John Iviartin and Guy Meeks, (Indian traders,) and rob>- 
bed them of about .£200 worth of goods. About the 1st of May, 1774, 
they killed two other men in a canoe on the Ohio, and robbed the cance 
of its contents.* There -were other similar occurrences, which left r.o 
doubt upon the minds of the western people, that the savages had deter- 
mined to make w^ar upon them ; and of course acts of retaliation weie 
resorted to on the part of the whites. 

Tlie late Col. Angus M'Donald, near Winchester, and several other in- 
dividuals, went out in the spring of 1774, to survey the military bounty 
lands, lying on the Ohio and Kanawha rivers, allowed by the king's pro- 
clamation to the ofiicers and soldiers of the army, for their services in a 
preceding war with the Indians, but were driven off. 

Col. M'Donald forthwith w^aited on Gov. Duuraore in person, and irave 
him an account of ihe hostile disposition of the Indians, 'i'he governor 
authorized hira to raise a regiment of four hundred men, and immediately 
proceed to punish the enemy. Ke soon succeeded in raising his little ar- 
ray, and in the month of June marched into the Indian country, destroyed 
several of their viJlac-es, cut off their corn, and returned. He h.adiWo cr 
three runnnig fights with the Indians, bat there was little blond sht-d on 
either side. 

This act of war produced a general combination of the various nations 
north-west of the Ohio ; and hence arose the necessity of speedily raising 
a powerful army to save the western people from being entirely cutoff, or 
driven from their habitations. 

Lord Dunmore issued his orders to Col. A. Lewis, of Augusta county, 
to raise a body of one thousand men, and immediately proceed to (he 
Ohio river, where he (Dunmore) would join him with an equal number, 
to be raised in the iiorthern counties of Virginia. Dunmore very S'lon raised 
the requisite numbei* of raen,piiucipally volunteers frcra the counticj of Bsi- 
keley, Hampshire, Frederick and Shenandoah. f Capt. Daniel Cresap 
w'ent to South Carolina, and brought in one hundred and twenty Cata%\'1)a 
Indian warriors at his own expense and responsibility, which he intended 
employing against the western enemy. He soon after marched at the 
head of this band of warriors, with the addition of sixteen white volun- 
teers,- with the design of breaking up and destroying the Moravian Li- 
dian towns on Cheat river. Tliese people professed chrii'ti;!niH" svA neu- 

*Mr. Jacob's Life of Cresap. 
^General John Smith- 


9sr [)LNMu]a:'s war. 

nalitv ill ilie WLir then going on between the red and while people. But 
they were charged by tlie white people with secretly aiding and abetting 
the hostile Indians ; hence Cresap's determination to break up their set- 
tlements and drive thera off. In crossing the vMlegany, 7 Indians under 
the guisj of friendship, t^^ll in with Cresap's parly and inthemost treach( - 
rous manner contrived to kill seven of the white volunteers, and then iled. 
They were instantly pursued by the Catawbas, and two of them taken 
prisoners and delivered up to Cresap, who, after reproaching them with 
their base treachery, discharged them, and retreated into the settlement 
with his Indians and remaining white volunteers. The Catawba Indians 
soon after left Cresap and returned lo their nation. The late generals, 
Daniel Alorgan and James Wood, were captains in Uunrnore's campaign, 
each of whom had served under M'Donald as captains the preceding 

For further particulars of this war, the author will give copious extracts 
from Mr. Doddridge's "Notes on the v\'ars west of the Allegany," and 
from Mr. Jacob's "Life oi' Cresap." These two authors have detailed 
the causes which led to this disastrous and destruclive war, and are di- 
rectly at issue on some of the most important particulars. In this con- 
troversy the author of this work will not partake so far as to express an 
opinion which of these two divines have truth on their side ; but he con- 
siders it is his duty, as an impartial and faithful historian, to give both 
tliese reverend gentlemen's accounts, at full lengtl;. of the original causes 
and consequences of this war. 

It appears however evident, that the late Capt. Michael Cresap has had 
injustice done lo liis charncter, both by Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Doddridge. 
Mr. Jefferson, in his "Notes on Virginia," charges Cresap with being "in- 
famous for his many Indian murders, and murdering Logan's family in 
cold blood." Mr. Doddridge repeats the charge of the murder of Lo- 
gan's family, and adds the further charge "that Cresap was the cause of 
Dunmore's war." How far these charges arc refuted by Mr. Jacob, an 
impartial world will determine. 

It is to be regretted that Mr. Jacob's vindication of the character of his 
friend Cresap cannot Juive a circulation co-extensive with Mr. Jeflerson's 
charges against liim. The ci.'lebrity of Mr. Jefferson's character, togeth- 
er with the beautiful specimen of Indian oratory in the Logan speech, has 
probably caused his work to be circulated and read all over the civili:ied 

The liuthor will only add that he has obtained j)ermission, from the pro- 
prietor.-, of those works, to use them as lie diu-ms proper. The Hon. 
Philip Doddridge, shortly before his death, in a letter to the author, slated 
that he considered there would be no impropriety in ajipending any part 
of his brother's book to this publication; anil Mr. Jacob, in the most li- 
beral and uiicjualilied terms, permits him to append the whole or anv pail 
of liis "Lite of Cresa[). 


*Mr. John 'I'omlinson related the particulars of these occurrences to the 
author, and added that he himself was one of Cresap's party, and that he 
■u'as then a\outh of seventeen or eighteen vears of i;re. 



Aflrr the conclusion of the Indian wars, by tli(; treaty made with the 
chiefs by Sir William Johnson at the German flats, in the latter part of 
1764, the western settlements enjoyed peace until the sprin;^ of 1774. 

During this period of time, the settlements increased with great rapidi- 
ty along the whole extent of the western frontier. Even the shores of the 
Ohio, on the Virginia side, had a considerable population as early as the 
year 1774. 

Devoutly might humanity wish that the record of the causes v.hich led 
to the destructive war of 1774, might be blotted from the annals of our 
■<:ountry. But it is now too late to elTace it ; the "black-lettered list" must 
remain, a dishonorable blot in our national history. Good however may 
spring out of evil. The injuries inflicted upon the Inciians, in early times 
by our forefathers, may induce their descendants to shew justUe and m?r^ 
cy to the diminished posterity of those children of the wilderness, whose 
ancestors perished, in cold blood, under tlio tomahawk and scalping knife 
of the white savages. 

In the month of April, 1774, a rumor v,-as circulated that tiic Indians 
had stolen several horses from some land jobbers on the Ohio and Kana- 
wha rivers^ No endences of the fact having been adduced, led to the 
conclusion that the report was false. This report, however, induced a 
pretty general belief that the Indians were about to make war upon th<5 
frontier settlem.ents , but for this apprehension there does not appear t{> 
have been the slightest foundation-, 

In consequence of this apprehension of being attacked by the Indians, 
the land iobbers ascended the river, and collected at Wheelin.g. On the 
27th cf April, it was reported in. VVijeeling that a canoe, ^containing two 
Indians and some traders, v,-as coming down the river, and then mot far 
from the place. On hearing this, the -commandant of the station, Capt, 
Cresap, proposed to go up the river and kill the Indians, This project 
was vehemently opposed by Col, Zane, the proprietor of the place, lie 
stated to the captain that the killing of those Indians would inevitably 
bring on a war, in which ranch innocent blood would be shed, and that 
the fict in itself would be an atrocious murder, and a disgrace to his name 
forever. His good counsel was lost. The party went up the river. On 
being asked, at their return, what had become of the Indians ? they coolly 
answered that "they had fallen overboard into the river!" Their canoe, 
on being examined, was found bloody, and pierced with bullets. Tlii.s 
was the first blood which was sh'-d in thii war, and terrible v.-as the ven- 
geance which followed. 

In the evening of the same day, the party, henring that there Avas an 
encampment of Indians at the mouth of Captina, went down the river to 
the place, attacked the Indians, and killed several of them. In this atTair 
one of Gresap's porfv was severely wounded. 

The massacre at 'Captina, and that which tocV pbc^- -1 Baker''-, riboMf 
fnrtv miles above Wheeling, after that at Captina, were unqncstinnably 
the sole causes of the war of 177-1. Thn Inst wan prrpeUnlfd hy thirtv- 
two m'-'n, under ihe command of D.niirl ( irral'iousc-. The uhnh-" uuia- 


bfr killod at this place, and on the river opposite to it, \vr.ft twelve, be- 
sides several wounded. 'J'his horrid massacre was ofTected by an hypo- 
critical stratagem, which reflects the deepest dishonor on the r»emory 
of those who were agents in it. 

The report of the murders committed on the huiians near AVheeling, 
induced a belief that thev would immediately commence hostilities: and 
this apprehension furnislicd the pretext for the mmxler above related. The 
ostensible object for raising the party under Greathouse, was that of de- 
fending the family of Baker, whose house was opposite to a large encamp- 
ment of Indians, at the mouth of Big Yellow creek. The party were 
concealed in ambuscade, v.'hile their commander went over the river, under 
the mask of friendship, to the Indian camp, to ascertain their number. — 
While there, an Indian woman advised him to return home speedily, say- 
iiic: that the Indians were drinking and angry on account of the murder of 
t'leir people down the river, and migiit do him some misciiief. On his re- 
turn to his party, he reported that the Indians were too strong for an open 
attack. He returned to Baker's, and requested him to give any Indians 
who rniglit come over, in the course of the day, as much rum as they 
might call for, and get as many of them drunk as he possibly could. The 
plan succeeded. Several Indian mefi and women came over the river to 
Baker's, who had previously been in the habit of selling rum to the In- 
dians. Tlie men drank freely, and became intoxicated. In this state 
they wer .' all killed bv Greathouse and a few of his partv. I say a few of 
hi; party; for it is but justice to stale, ihat not more than live or six of 
the whole number had any participation in the slaughter at the house. — 
The rest protested against it as an atrocious murder. From their number, 
being by far the majority, they miyht have prevented the deed ; but alas ! 
they did not. A Hide Indian girl alone was saved from the slaughter, by 
the humanity of some of tl'.e party, whose name is not now known. 

The Indians in the camp, hearing the firing at the bouse, sent a canoe 
with tAvo men in it to inquire wdiat had liappened. These two Indians were 
both shot down as soon as they landed on the beach. A second and lar- 
g3r canoe wa«^ then manned with a number of Indians in arms ; but ia 
attempting to reach the shore, some distance hciow the house, they were 
received by a well directed fire from the party, which killed the greater 
number of them, and compelled the survivors to return. A great number 
of shots were exchanged across the river, but with.out damage to the 
white party, not one of whom was even wounded. The Indian men who 
were murdered were all scaincd. 

The wom'rin who gave the friendly advice to liie corainandc- of the par- 
ty when in the Indian camp, was amongst the shin at Baker's house. 

The rnns'acres of the Indians at Capiina nnri Yellow creek, compre- 
lionderl the whole of the lamiiv of the famous biit unforlunate Logan, 
who before tliese events had been a lover of the Avhifes, a ctrcnuous ad- 
vocate for jieace ; but In the conflict wliieh foilov;ed them, by way of re- 
venge for the death of his people, he bcc.ime a brave and sanguinary chief 
among the warrior?. 

The «;ettlers along the frontiers, knowing that the Indian'^ would make. 
yvn\ up'm llirm for \\;r nnirHpr rif tln-ir people, rillier !Tin\ "r| off to tlir iii- 


terioi, or took up iheir residence in forts. The apprehen'Sion of war was 
soon realized, in a short time the Indians commenced hostiiiiies along- 
the whole extent of our frontier. 

Express was speedily, sent to Williamsburg, the then seat of govern- 
ment of the colony of Virginia, communicating intelligence of the cer- 
tainty of the commencement of an Indian war.. The assemhly was then 
in session. 

A plan for a campaign, for the purpose of putting a speedy conclu- 
sion to the Indian hostilities, w-as adopted between the earl of Dunmore, 
governor of the colony, and Gen. Lewis, of Botetourt county. General 
I^ewis was appointed to the command of the southern division of the for- 
ces to be employed on this occasion, with orders to raise a large body of 
volunteers and drafts from the south-eastern counties of the colony with 
all dispatch. These forces were to rendezvous at Camp Union, in the 
Greenbrier country. The earl of Dunraore was to raise another army in 
the northern counties of the colony, and in the settlements wt-st of the 
mountains, and assemble them at Fort Pitt, and from thence descend the 
river to Point Pleasant, at the mouth of the great Kanawha, the place ap- 
pointed for the junction of the two armies, for the purpose of invading- 
the Indian country and destroying as manv of their villa£:es as thev could 
reach m the course of the season. 

On the 11th of September, the forces under Gen. Lewis, amounting to 
eleven hundred men, commenced their march from Camp Union to Point 
Pleasant, a distance of one hundred and sixty miles. The space of coun- 
try between these two points was at that tim.e a trackless desert. Capt. 
Matthew- Arbuckle, the pilot, conducted the army by the nearest and best 
route to their place of destination. The flour and ammunition were whol- 
ly transported on pack horses, as the route was impassable for wheel car- 
riages. After a painful march of nineLeen days, the army arrived, on the 
1st of October, at Point Pleasant,* where an encampment was made. 

*0f the battle of the Point, the author has obtained some further par- 
ticulars, which may not be uninteresting to the reader. He saw and con- 
versed w^ith three individuals who participated in that desperate struggle, 
viz : — Joseph Mays, Andrew Reed, and James Ellison. 

The two first named informed the author that Col. Lewis ordered out 
a body of three hundred men to meet and disperse the Indians as they 
were approaching his encampment. The detachment v%-as overpowered 
by the numerical force of the Indians, not less than a thousand strong ;; 
the wliites, contending, however, for every- inch of ground in their re- 
treat. They w-ere driven back several hundred yards, when Col. Lewis 
ordered forward a second detachment of three hundred men, who rushed 
forward with impetuosity to the relief of the first, which movement at once 
checked the savages, and partially changed the aspect of the fight. Col. 
Chas. Lewis, who had arrayed himself in a gorgeous scarlet w-aistcoat, 
against the advice of his friends, thus rendering himself a conspicuous 
mark for the Indians, was mortailv wounded early in the action : yet was 
able to walk back after rf:^cpiving the wound, into his own lent, wh<?ro he 
f.xpired. He wa*- r\^o{ nn hi^ wnv !>v thr (>o)Timandrr-in-r hief, his 


(jfii. Lcu'is ^\'as cxcecdint^Iy disappointed at hearing no ti<jlngs of thf* 
carl ot JJurunorc, who, accoriling to previous arrangements, was to form 
a junction with him at this place, lie immediately dispatched some 
scouts, to go by land in the direction of Fort Pitt, to obtain intelligence 
of the route which the earl had taken, and then return with the utmost; 
dispatch. On the 9th, three men, who had formerly been Indian traders, 
arrived in the camp, on express from the earl, to inform Lewis that he had 
<:hanged his plan of operations, and intended to march to the Indian towns 
by the way of Hoclchocking, and directing Gen. Lewis to commence his 
march immediately tor the old Chilicothe towns. 

Verv early in the raorninsf of the 10th, two vounjx mfn s^et out from the 
camp to hunt up the river. Having gone about three miles, they fell up- 
•on a camp of the Indians, who were then in the act cf preparing to march 
to attack the camp ot Gen. Lewis. The Indians fired on them and killed 
■one of them ; the oiher ran back to the camp with the intelligence that 
the Indians, in great force, would immediately give battle. 

Gen. Lewis immediately ordered out a detachment of the Botetouit 
troops under Col. Fleming, and another of the Augusta troops under Col. 
Charles Lewis, remaining himself with the reserve for the defence of the 
■camp. The detachment marclied out in two lines, and met the Indians 
in the same order about 400 yards from the camp. The battle commenc- 
ed a little after sunrise, bv a heavy firino- from the Indians. At the onset 
Dur troops gave back some distance; until met by a reinforcement, on the 
arrival of which the Indians retreated a little way and formed aline be- 
hind logs and trees, reaching from the bank of the Ohio to that of the 
Kanawh-cT, By this maneuver, our army and camp were completely in- 
vested, being inclosed between two rivers, with the Indian line of battle 
in front, so that no chance of retreat was left. An incessant fire was kept 
up on both sides, with but little change of position until sundown, when 
the Indians retrea^efl, and in the night recrossed the Ohio, and the next 
<lay commenced their march to their towns on tlie Scioto. 

brother, Col. Andrew Lewis, who remarkerl 1o him, "[ rxpected some- 
thing fital would befall you," .'o wliirh ihc wnuiuli'd oilicor calmly re- 
plied, "It is the fate of war." About two o'l-lock, (.'ol. (.'hristie arrived in 
the field at the head of five hundrerl men- — llie britlh^. still racking — a re- 
inforcement which decided the issue almost immediately. The Indians 
fell back about two miles, obstinately fighting the whole distance; and 
such was the persevering spirit of the savages, thou<;h they were fairly 
beaten, that the contest was not entirnly closed till th'^ setting ot" the sun, 
when they relinquished the field. Shortly after the battle, several tradf^r*; 
with the Inflians, regarded as neutral in war, called at the Point, and in- 
formed Captain Arbuckle, commandant of the station, that there were not 
less than twnlve hundred Indians in this memorable nction. Cornstalk, 
ronfirlent of success, had placed a body of some two hundred Indians on 
the opposite bank of the Kan'iwha, to cut off the retreat rX ihr whites ; 
and that the loss of iIt^ Indians \\\ killerl and wounded ^va- not, short of 
♦ hre.r hunrlf^'d mm. 


Oirr loss in this destructive battle was seventy-five kilUjJ, and one hun- 
dred and forty wounded. Among the killed were Col. Chas, Lewis, Co!. 
Fields, Captains Buford, Murray, Ward, Wilson and iM'Clenachan; lieu- 
tenants Allen, Goldsby and Dillon, and several subaltern officers. 

Col. Lewis, a distinguished and meritorious ofiicer, was mortally woun- 
ded by the first fire of the Lidians, but walked into the camp and expired 
in his own tent. 

The number of Indians engaged in the battle of the Point was never 
ascertained, nor yet the amount of their loss. On the morning after the 
engagement, twenty-one were found on the battle ground, and twelve 
more were afterwards found in the different places where they had been 
concealed. A great number of their dead w^ere said to have been thrown 
into the river during the engagement. Considering that the whole num- 
ber of our men engaged in the contli(;t were riflemen, and' from habit sharp 
shooters of the first order, it is presumable that the loss on the side of the 
Indians was at least equal to ours. 

The Lidians during the battle were commanded by the Cornstalk w^ar- 
rior, the king of the Shawnees. This son of the forest, in his plans of 
attack and retreat, and in all his maneuvers throughout the engagement, 
displayed the skill and bravery of the consummate general. Duiing the 
whole of the day, he w^as heard from our lines, vociferating, with the 
voice of a Stentor, "Be strong ! be strong !" It is even said that he kill- 
ed one of his men with his own hand for cowardice. 

The day following the battle, after burying the dead, entrenchments 
were thrown up round the camp, and a competent guard were appointed 
for the care and protection of the sick and wounded. On the succeeding 
day Gen. Lewis commenced his march for the Shawnee towns on the Scio- 
to. This march was made through a trackless desert, and attended with 
almost insuperable difficulties and privations. 

In the meantime the earl of Dunrnore, having collected a force and pro- 
vided boats at Fort Pitt, descended the river to Wheeling, wliere the ar- 
my halted for a few days, and then proceeded down the river in about one 
hundred canoes, a few keel boats and perouges, to the mouth of Hock- 
hooking, and from thence over land until the array had got within eight 
miles of the ShaAvnee town Chilicothe, on the Scioto. Here the army 
halted, and made a breastwork of fallen trees and intrenchments of such 
extent as to include about twelve acres of ground, \vith an inclosure in 
the center containing about one acre, surrounded by intrenchments. This 
was the citidal which contained the raarkees of the earl and his superior 

Before the army had reached that place, the Indian chiefs had sent sev- 
eral messengers to the earl asking peace. With this request he soon de- 
termined to comply, and therefore sent an express to Gen Lewis with an 
order for his immediate retreat. This order Gen. Lewis disregarded, and 
continued his march until his lordship in person visited his carnp, was 
formally introduced to his officers, and gave the order in person. The 
array of Gen. Lewis then commenced their retreat. 

It was with the greatest reluctance and chagrin that the troops of Gon. 
Lewis returned from the enterprise in wiilch they were engaged. The 


massacres of iheir relatives and friends at tiie Big Levels aiid .Muddj' 
creek, and above all their recent loss at the battle of the Point, had inspi- 
red these "Big-knives," as the Indians called the Virginians, with an in- 
veterate thirst for revenge, the gratification of which they supposed was 
shortly to take place, in the total destruction of the Indians and their 
towns along the Scioto and Sandusky rivers. The order of Dunniore 
was obeyed, but with every expression of regret and disap})ointment. 

The earl with his officers having returned tO his camp, a treaty with the 
Indians was opened the following day. 

In tills treaty, every precaution was used on the part of our people to 
prevent the Indians from ending a treaty in the tragedy of a massacre. — 
Only eighteen Indians, with their chiefs, were permitted to pass the outer 
gate of their fortified encampment, after having deposited their arms with 
the guard at the gate. 

The treaty was opened by Cornstalk, the war chief of the Shawnees, 
in a lengthy speech, in which he boldly charged the white people with 
having been the authors of the commencement of the w^ar, in the massa- 
cres of the Indians at Captina and Yellow creek. This speech he deliv- 
ered in so loud a tone of voice, that he was heard all over the camp. — 
The terms of the treaty were soon settled and the prisoners delivered up. 

Logan, the Cayuga chief, assented to the treaty ; but still indignant at 
the murder of his family, he refused to attend with the other chiefs at the 
camp of Dunmore. According to the Indian mode in such cases, he sent 
his speech in a belt of wampum by an interpreter, to be read at the treaty. 

Supposing that this work may fall into the hands of some readers who 
have not seen the speech of Logan, the author thinks it not amiss to in- 
sert the celebrated morsel of Indian eloquence in this place, with the ob- 
servation that the authenticity of the speech is no longer a subject of 
doubt. The speech is as follows ; 

"I appeal to any white man to say, if he over entered Logan's cabin 
hungry, and he gave hirn not meat: if ever he came cold and naked, and 
he clothed him not. During the course ol the last long and bloody war, 
Logan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my 
love for the whites, that my countrymen pointed as tliey passed, and said, 
'Logan is the friend of the white men.' I had even thought to have liv- 
ed with you, but for the injuries of one man. Col. Cresap, the last spring 
in cold blood, and unprovoked, murdered all the relations of Logan, not 
even sparing rny women and children. There runs not a drop of my blood 
in the veins of anv living creature. This called on me for revenge. I 
have sought it: I have killed many : I have fully glutted my verifjeancc; 
for my country f rejoice at the beams of peace. J'Jut do not harbor a 
thought that mine is the joy of fear. Logan never felt fear. He will not 
turn on his heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for Logan ? — 
Not one.^' 

Thus ended, at the treaty of Camp Charlotte, in the month of Novem- 
ber, 1774, the disastrous war of Dunmore. Ii bntjan in tJie wanton and 
iinprovokwl murders of the Indians at Captina and Yellow creek, and end- 
«d with an awful sacrifice of life and property to the dcaion of revenge. 


On our part we obtained at the treaty a cessation of liostllitici and a .sur- 
render of prisoners, and nothing' more. 

The phm of operations adopted by the Indians in the war of Dunmore, 
sliews very clearly thut tlieir chiefs were by no means deficient in the fore- 
t;ight and skill necessary for makino- the most prudent military arran"-e- 
ments for obtaining success and victory in their mode of warfare. At an 
f irly period they obtahied intelligence of the plan of the campaign against 
ihem, concerted between the earl of ])uumore and Gen. Lewis. With a 
view therefore, to attack the forces of these commanders seperately, they 
speedily collected their warriors, and by forced marches reached the Point 
before the expected ;irrival of the troo})s under Dunmore. Such was 
the privacy with which they conducted their nrsarch to Point Pleasant, that 
Gen. Lewis knew nothing of the approach of the Lidian army until a ft?w 
nunutes before the commencement of the battle, and it is very i>robable, 
that if Cornstalk, the Lidian commander, had had a little larger force at 
the battle of the Point, the whole army of Gen. Lewis would have been 
cut off, as the wary savage had left them no chance of retreat. Had the 
army of Lewis been defeated, the army of Dunmore, consisting of little 
more than one thousand men, M'ould have shared the fate of those armies 
which at different periods have suffered defeats in consequence of ventur- 
ing too far into the Indian country, in numbers too small, and with muni- 
tions of war inadequate to sustain a contest with the united forces of a 
number of Indian nations. 

It was the general belief among the officers of our army, at the time, 
that the earl of Dunmore, while at W^heeling, received advice from his 
government of the probability of the approaching war between England 
and the colonies, and that afterw^ards, all his measures, with regiird to the 
Indians, had foilheir ultimate object an alliance with those ferocious war- 
riors tor the aid of the mother country in their contest with us. This sup- 
position accounts for his not forming a junction with the army of Lewis 
at Point Pleasant. This deviation from the origiiial j)lan of the campaign 
jeopardized the arniy of Lev.ds, and well rdgh occasioned its total destmc- 
tion. The conduct of the earl at the treaty, shews a good understanding 
between him and the Indian chiefs. lie did not suffer the army of Lewis 
to form a junction v.dtli his own, but sent them back before the treaty 
was concluded, thus risking the safety of his own forces; for at the time 
of the treaty, the Indian warriors were about his cnrnp m foicc sufficient 
to have intercepted his retreat and dcsti'oyed his whole army. 


At this period, to wit, in the commencement of the year 1774, there 
existed between our p.eople and the Indians, a kind of doubtful, ])recari- 
ous and suspicious peace. In the ^ear ]7'i3, lliey killed a certain John 
Martin and Guy Meeks, (Indian traders,) on the Hockhocking, hiid rc-h- 
bed them of about iJ200 worlh of goods. 

They were much irritated with our people, who were about this time 
begT.ninr to settle Iventurkv, ;;,'d with llicm ihev wa'.'-cd nn wll(■l■•.l^.inl•• 


105 .i.U'OirS A( (Ul Nl 

and (leiilnuiivf prt'iUduir w;ii- ; wnd whot-ver baw an Indian in Kf-ntiicky, 
>-a\v an t'ueniy ; no (incstioMs were asked dii ciiln-r sicl«; but from the nui/.- 
y.les of llioir rifles. Maiiv otlier firtMimsianccs al this pciriod rombined U) 
show that our peace widi tiie Indians rested upon such (hibious and un- 
certain ground, thai it must soon be dispersed by a whirlwind of carnaj^e 
and war.. Ami as I consider this an a.ll-impoilant )u)inl in the thread. of 
our liistorv, and an interestlno- ludv in the cliain of causes combining' to 
produce iJunmore's war, I will jiresent the reader with ar<other fact di- 
rectly in j)olnt. It is extractctl from the jourjial of a 'squire M'Connel, 
in my possession. Tlie writer says that about the 3d day of March, 1774, 
while himself and six other men, who were in company with him, were 
asleep in theii c.unp in the night, they were awakened by the fierce bark- 
ing of their dogs, and thought they saw sometliinglike men creeping to- 
wards them. Alarmed at this, they sprang up, seizt^d their rifles, and 
flew to trees. By this time one Jndiaii had reached tlieir fire; but hear- 
ing tiiem cock their guns, lie drew back, stum!)led and fell. 'J'he whole 
j)arty now came up, and appearing friendly, lie ordt.'red his men not to 
fire, and shook hands with his new- guests. They tarried all niglit, and 
appearing so friendly, prevailed with him and one of his men to go Nvitli 
them to tlieir town, at no great distance from their camji ; but when they 
arrived he was taken with his conijKinlon to tlieir council, or war house', 
a war dance performed around them, the war club- shook at or over them, 
and thev detained close-prisoners ami nairowlv guarded ibr two oi' three 
(lavs. A council was then held over them, and it was decreed that tht^' 
iihould be threatened severely and discharged, provided they would giv(> 
their women some Hour and salt. !-yeing dismissed, they set out on their 
journey to the cam[j, but met on their way about twenty-five w'arriors and 
some boys. A second council was held over th<;m, and it was decreed 
that they should not be killed, bnt robbed, which was accordingly done ; 
and all their flour, salt, powder and lead, and all their rilles that were 
good, weretakcn from tliei-.i ; and being further threatened, the Indians 
left then., as already noticed. This p;;rlv consisted of seven men, vi/. 
'squire M'Connel, Andrew M'Connel, Lawrence Darnel, William (Janet, 
Matthew Riddle, John l^aferly, and Thos. Canady. 

We have also in reserve some more material facts, th:it go to sliow the 
aspect of aflaiis at ibis period, iiWil that may be considered as evident pre- 
cursors to an inijiending war. And it is certiiiuK not a trilling item in 
tlie catalogue of these events, that early in the s|<ring of 1774, whether 
precedent oi subsequent to C'onnoly's llimous circular letter I am not ])re- 
pared to say, Iraving no ))osilf\<- data r but it was, however, about this 
time that the Indians killed two men in a r;i;it)e belonging to a Mr. But- 
ler, of Pittsburgh, nnd ifibbed the caiit)e ol' the jjrojierty therein. This 
was about tiie first of .May, 1774, and! took place iit'ar the moulli of Lit- 
tle lii-aver, a small creek thai empties into the Ol'no between Pittsburgh 
and Wheeling; and this l;icl is so certain and well established, that Henj. 
Touilinson, Ivsq. who is now living (1.S2G,) and who assisted in burying 
tlie daai, can and will bear testimony to its truth. And it is presumed it 
Vf-as ihu; clreum.stance whii'h pioducetl that proMq)t ami terrible \ engeance 
tkikcii wU :ho liidians aL Vellum* crecL iiunu'diatelv afterwards, to wit, ovu 

nV DI;NM0UK\^ war 1Q7 

ihe .j'J day o( :Mhv, \\ii!('li j^hyi' rist^ to, and furnishfid niallertbr, llic pre- 
tended lying speech of J^ogao, which 1 shall hereafter [)rovo a c(mnlcrfeil, 
and if it was genuine, yet a genuine fabrication of lies. 

I'luis we find from an (examination into the state of affairs in the west, 
that there was a predispf)sition to war, at least on the part of the Indian?-. 
But may we not suspect that other latent causes, working behind tlic 
SOCrtes and in the dark, wore silently marching to the same result? 

Be it remembered, then, that tins Indian war was but as a portico to 
oiJT revolut-ionary war, the; fuel for which was ih-on preparing, and which 
burst into a flame the ensuing year. 

Neither let us forget that the earl of Dunmore was at this time gover- 
nor of Virginia; and that he was acquainted with the views and designs 
of the British cabinet, can scarcely be doukted. What then, suppose ye, 
Would be the conduct of a man possessing his n.ieaiis, iiiling a high offi- 
cial station, attached to the British government, and juaster of consum- 
mate diplomatic skill ? 

Dunrnore's penetrating eye could not but see, and lie no dou!)t did see, 
Iv.-o all-important objects, that, if accomplished, would go to subserve and 
promote the grand object of the British cabinet, namely, the establishment 
of an unbounded and unrestrained authority over our North American con- 

'i'hese two objects were, hrst, seltiKg liie new settlers on the West side 
of the Allegany by the ears'; and secondly, embroiling the western people 
iii a war with the Indian;-?. These two objects accomplished, would put 
it in bis po\\er to direct the storm to any anti evtrv point conducive to the 
grand object he liad in view. IJut as in the nnture ef the thing he could 
not, and policy forbidding that ho siiould, always api'/car personally in pi o- 
moting and effectuating these oi>jects, it was necessary he should obtain a 
confidential agent attached to his person and to the British go\ ernment, 
and one that would promolo his views eiliier publicly or covertly, as cir'- 
cumslances required. 

The materials ibr his hrst object v»erc abundan!, i.hi} alieady prepared, 
I'he emioTants to the v.esteiii countr\' VNX^re almost all from the three 
states of Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. The line between the 
two states of Vir.crinia and Pennsvlvania was unsettled, and botli tliese 
States claimed the vdioie of the western country. This motley mixtun^ 
of men from different States did not harmonize. The Virginians and Ma- 
lylanders disliked the Pennsylvania laws, nor did the P>;nnsvlv:inian ; re- 
lish those of Virginia. Thus many tii'-putes, much warm blood, broils, 
anil sometimes battles, called fisllcujf;:^ followed. 

The earl of Du'nmore, with becoming zeal for the honor of the "ancient 
tlominion," seized upon this sta'e of things so propiiious to his views ; 
and having found Dr. .John Connoly, a Pennsylvanian, with whom I think 
he could not have had much previous acquaintance, by the art of hocus- 
pocus or some other art, converted him into a staiicii V irgiiiian, and ap- 
pointed him vice governor and commandant (.f Pittsburgh and its defXMi- 
ilencies, that is to say, ''•f all tlir western country. Affair:; on that -ide 
M lite mountain begati to wear '\ serious aspect ; at(emj)ts weic made by 
both States to ^Piifore.- ilieir b.'.ws ; -.■nA li,;' - Ir.uig ai'Ui of poWer ;.:jd eoe^* 


cion was h.-t ioose by Virginia. Some magistrates acting under the au- 
thority of Pennsylvania were arrested, sent to Virginia, and imprisoned. 

]3ut tliat the reader may be well assured that the hand of Dunmore was 
in all this, I present him with a copy of his proclamation. It is howev- 
er deficient as to date : 

"Whereas, I have reason to apprehend that the government of Penn- 
sylvania, in prosecution of their claims to Pittsburgh and its dependen- 
cies, will endeavor to obstruct his m:^jesty's government thereof, under my 
administrution, by illegal and unwarrantable commitment of the ofhcers 1 
have appointed for that purpose, and that seitlement is in some danger of 
annoyance from the Indians also ; and it being necessary to support the 
dignity of his majesty's government and protect his subjects in the quiet 
and peaceable enjoyment of their rights ; I have therefore thought proper, 
by and with the consent and advice of his majesty's council, by ■ihis 
proclamation in his majesty's name, to order and require tire otTicers of 
the militia in that ciislrict to embody a sufficient number of men to re- 
pel any insult whatsoever ; and all his majesty's liege subjects within this 
colony are hereby strictly required to be aiding and assisting therein, or 
they shall answer the contrary at their peril ; and I further enjoin and re- 
quire the seveial inhabitants of the territories aforesaid to pay his majesty's 
quitrents and public dues to such officers as are or shall be appointed to 
collect the same v/ithin this dominion, tmtil his majesty's pleasure therein 
shall be known." 

It is much to be regretted that my copy of this proclamation is without 
date. There can, however, be no doubt it was issued either in 1774 or 
early in 1775, and I am inclined to think it was issued in 1774 ; but 
it would be satisfactor)' to know precisely the day, because chronology is 
the soul of history 

Eut this state of things in the west, it seems from subsequent events, 
was not the mere efFervescence of a transient or momentary ex'cilemcnt, 
but continu(-'d a long season. The seeds of discord had fallen unhapj-iily 
on ground too naturally productive, and weie also too well cultivated by 
the earl of Dunm.ore, Connoly, and the Pennsylvania officers, to evapo- 
rate in an instant. 

We find by recurring to the history of our revolutionary war, that that 
awful Ifjrnado, if it luul not the elfect to sweep away disputes about state 
rights anfl local interests, yet it had the eiTecl to silence and suspend eve- 
ry thing of that nature pending our dubious and arduous struggle for na- 
lionid existence: but yet we find, in fact, that whatever conciliatory erTcrt 
this statf.' of things had uj)on other sections of the country, and upon the 
nation a( largo, it was not sufficient to cxtingursh this fire in the west. — 
For in the latter end of the year 1770, or in the year 1777, we find these 
])eop!(; petitioning Congress to interpose their authority, and redress their 
grievances. I have this petition bel'orc me, but it is too long to copy: I 
therefore only giv(; a short abstrart. 

It begins with stating that whereas Virginia and Pennsylvania both set 
up claims to the western country, it was j)rodu(;tive of the most serious 
and distressing conficfjuences : that as each State pertinaciously support- 


€d their respective pretensions, the result was, as described by themselves, 
"frauds, impositions, violences, depredations, animosities," &e. &.c. 

These evils they ascribe (as indeed the fact was) to the conflicting claims 
of the two States ; and so warm were the partisans on each side, as in 
some cases to produce battles and sheddinoof blood. i5ut they superadd 
another reason for this ill-humor, namely, the proccedino's of Dunniore's 
warrant officers, in laying;; land warrants on land claimed by others, and 
many other claims for land granted by the crown of England to individu- 
als, companies, &c., covering a vast extent of country, and including most 
of the lands already settled and occupied by the greatest part of the in- 
habitants of the western country ; and they Anally pray Congress to erect 
them into a seperate State and admit them into the Union as a fourteenth 

As the petition recites the treaty of Pitt;l?urgh, in October 1775, it is 
probable we may fix its date (for it has none,) to the latter part of 1 T76 or 
1777. I rather think the latter, not only from my own recollection of the 
circumstances of that period, but especially from the request in the peti- 
tion to be erected into a new State, which certainly would not have been 
thought of before the Declaration of Independence- 

But the unhappy state of the western country will aj^^icar still more ev- 
ident, when we advert to another important document whi'-h I have also 
before me. It is a proclamation issued by tlie delegates in (Jongi-ess fron^ 
the States of Pennsylvania arid Virginia, and bears date Philadelphia, Ju- 
ly 25, 1775. 

But the heat of fire, and inflejtible obstinan' of the parties engaged in 
this controversy, will appear in colors still stronger, wlicn we see tiie un- 
availing efforts made by the delegates in Congress from the two Slates oiT 
Virginia and Pennsylvania in the year 1775, These gentlemen, it war^ 
obvious, under the influence of the best of motives, and certainly wilh ;? 
view to the best interests, peace, and liappiness of the westirn people,, 
.sent them a proclamation, couciied in terras diieetly calculated to restore 
tranquillity and harmony among tbem : but the little effect produced by' 
this proclamation, their subsequent petition just recited, and sent the next 
year or year after to Congress-, fully demonstrates. 

But as I consider this proclamation an important document, and as it is 
nowhere recorded, I give it to- the reader entu'e : 

"To the Inhobitanfs nf^ania and Virgiuin^ 

mi the rnesf side f>f tlie I^urrl llill. 
"FrieN'OS and Countrymen : — It gives us much concern to find that 
disturbances have arisen, and still continue among you, concerning the 
l)oundaries of our colonies. In the character in which we now address 
you, it is unnecessary to inquire into the origin of those unhappy dis- 
putes, and it woukl be improper for us to express our approbation or cen- 
sure on either side ; but as representatives of two of the colonies, united 
among many others for the defence of the liberties^ of America, we think 
it our duty to remove, as far as lies in our power,- every obstacle that may 
prevent her snm^ from co-operating as vigorously as they would wish to do 
towards tlie attainment cvf this great and importaii't end. Influenced sole- 

no .jAroi]\s Accoi Nr 

Ir by tills motive, our joint and earnest request to you is, tlial all ammns* 
iiies, which have iierelotbre among you, as iiiliabitants of dis- 
tinct colonies, may now j^'ive plae*' to jtjenerous and concurrinpj ofl'orl.s for 
t!ie preservation oi' every tiiinothat can make our common country dear 
lo lis. 

"We arc i'allv jiersiuidcd that ynvi, a« woU as we, wish to see your dif- 
feiCMces terminate in this happy issue. For tiiis desirable purpose we re- 
conimend it to you that ail bodies of nnned meii, Icppt under either pro- 
V'lKf, he dismissed ; that ;dl iIk^sc on cither side, vho are in conjinenieut^ 
i,r iin-lrrLhiil tortakini^ a part in the contest, be discharged; and that un- 
til the dis;)ule bt; dcciticd, every }>ersoii be permitted to retain his posses- 
sions unmolested. 

"Bv observinii; tliesc directions, the j)ublic tranquillity will be secured 
without injury to thi; titles on eitjicr side. The period, we Hatter our- 
selves, will soon r.rrixi, wlicn this unrortunate dispute, which has produ- 
ceil much mischiel', and a:: I'ar as we can learn no good, v.ill he peaceably 
and constiltitionally determined. 

"W'c are your tVirwuls and countrymen, 

••y^ U nrjj, IVuknrd Henri/ Lte, Bevjan in Harrison, Th. 
Jpjferxon, John Dickinson, (tea. Ross, B. Franklin, Jus. 
]\ ii'xnh, Chivrlea lluinphreya, 

"riii!:ulelp!ii:i, July -lb, 1775." 

l)iit ir) conclude this jinrt of our subject, I think the reader cannot but. 
sc(! iVohi Diimnorc's prnelriiaation, the violent measures of his lieutciianl 
Connolv and the Virginia oIHc(ts, and from the com])le\ion of the tiuics, 
iiud the subsequ(>nt conduct of both Dumiiore and Comioly, as we siiall 
see liereaflcr ; that this unhap})y state of things, it" not actually jiroducetl, 
was certainly impioved by Dunmorc lo subserve tiie views of the Hiitish 

We now proc( el to examine the ([uos'iion, how far iV.cts and circun - 
stances jiislil'v us in supposing the eail of Dunmore himself iuslrumental 
III producing the Indian war of MIA. 

it has been already remarked th;U this Indian war was but the precur- 
sor lo our revolutionary war of \~i'ib — that Dunmorc, the then governor of 
\'irginia, one of the most iuvclerale and determined enemies to llie 
revolution — that \\v wns a man of higli talents, especially for intrigue and 
diplomatic skill — tliat occup'.ing tlie station of commander-in-chief of the 
large and respectable State of \ irginia, lie possessed maauo and power to 
do mu(di to serve the views of Clrc^nt iiritain. And we have seen, froiii 
the preceding pages, how e/Tectually lie })Iayed his part among the inhab- 
itants of the western country. 1 was present myself when a Pennsylvanii 
mai;istratp, of the name of Scott, w.ns taken into custody, and brought 
before iJunmore, at Freslone old fort ; he was severely threatened and dis- 
missed, perhaps on bail, hut I do not recollect how ; another Pennsylva- 
nia magistrate was sent to Staunton jail. And f have already shewn in 
the preceding pag«^s, th:^t there wa.'i a tulricient preparation o{ materials 
lor this war in the predisposition ami ho.ti'e attitudj of our affairr, with 
thi- lii.liau*: ili:it ii wnv conseqaen^K- m niiticuit mittrr vath a Vjrguiii 

OF Dl'NMOliK'S WAK. Ill 

governor to direct the incipient state of t}iiii<2;;-; lo r,n\ point nior-i condii- 
cive to the grand end he had in view, ri'imi\iy, ^vc;d^'eninf;' our naMoii;:! 
strength in some of its best and iao.sL ciricient parts. Jf, ihen, a war 
with the Indians might have a tendency to produce ihis result, it appears 
perfectly natural and reasonable to suppose that Dunmore v.'ould liiake 
use of all his jjower and influence to promote it ; and altliough llie whv of 
1774 was brought to a conclusion before the year was out, yet we know 
that this fire was scarcely extinguished before it burst out into a ilanK^ with 
tenfold fury, and two or three armies of tlie vrhites were sacrificed before 
we could get the Indians subdued ; and this unhappy state of our affairs 
with the Indians happening during the severe conllicl of our revolulionary 
war, had the very effect, I suppose, Dunmore had invievr, namely, divid- 
ing our forces and enfeebling our aggregate strength ; nwl that the seeds 
of these subsequent wars with the indians were sown in 1774 and 1775, 
appears almost certain. 

Yet still, however, we admit that W(> are not in possession of materials 
to substantiate this charge against the earl ; and all we can do is to i:iro- 
duce some facts and circumstances that deserve notice, and have a strong 
bearing on the case. 

And the first we shall mention* is a circular letter sent by Maj. Conno- 
]y, his proxy, early in the spring of the year 1774, warning the inhal/i- 
itants to be on their guard — that the Indians were very angry, and mani- 
fested so much hostility, that he was apprehensive they would strike 
somewhere as soon as the season irould perinit, and enjoining the inhabi- 
tants to prepare and retire into forts, &,c. It might be useful to collate 
and compare this letter with one he wrote to Capt. Cresap on the 14th 
July following ; see hereafter. In this letter he declares there is war (ir 
danger of war, before the war is properly begun ; in that to Capt. Cre- 
sap he says the Indians deport themselves peaceably, when Dunracu-e and 
Lewis and Cornstalk are all on their march for battle. 

This letter was sent by express in every direction of the country. Un- 
happily we have lost or mislaid it, and consequently are deficient in a 
most material ]^;oint in its date. But from one expression in the letter, 
namely, that the Indians will strike when the season permits, and this 
season is generallv understood to merui when the leaves are out, we may 
fix it in the month of ^lay. We find, from a su1)scquent letter from Pente- 
cost and Connoly lo Capt. Reece, that this assumed fact is proved : see 

Thereibre this letter cannot be of a later date than sometime in lltr' 
month of April ; and if so, before Ijutler's men were killed on Little Den- 
ver ; and before Logan's family were killed on Yellow creek, and was in' 
fac' the fiery red-cross and harbinger of Avar, as in days of yore among 
the Scottish clans. That this was the fact is I think absolutely certain, 
because no mention is made in Connoly's letter of this aflair, wlilcli cei-- 
tainlv would not have been omitted, if precedent to his letter. 

*The remark, as it should seem incidentally made, in T/unm'»iv's ]-):n- 
clamation, as to the Indian war, (see page 108,) deser\es uMtl^-e, ui it 
iuis no connoct'oiij with the subirct of that i>;'Oclam:ition. 

112 JACO irs AcroiNT 

Tills letler produced its natural result. The jK'opk' fled into forts, arul 
put iheiuselves into a posture of defence, and tlu* tocsin of war resound- 
ed from Laurel hill to the banks of the Ohio. Capt. Cresap, who was 
j)eaceahly at this time eujployed in buildinj^ houses and in>j)rovin<>- lands 
on the Oliio, received tiiis letter, accompanied, it is i)eli;!\i-d, with a con- 
finnatorv messajre lioin Col. Cro<rhan and Mai-AI'Gee^ Indian a<rents and 
interpreters ;* and he thereupon imnu'diately broke up his camp, and as- 
cended the I'iver to VViieelinn^fort, i he nearest place of safety, from whence 
it is ijelieved he intended speedily to return home ; but during, his stay at 
this i)lace, a repoit was brought into the fort that two Indians were com- 
ing dov.ii tin- river. Capt. Cresap, supposing iVom every crircumstanct, 
and tlie general aspect of affairs, that war was inevitable, and in fad al- 
ready begun, went up the river wiih his party ; and two of his men, of 
the name of Chenoweth and Brothers, killed these two Indians, Jk'yond 
controversy this is the only circumstance in the history of this Indian 
Avar, in which his name can in the remotest degree be identified with luiy 
measure tending to ]iroduce this war ; and it is certain that the guilt or 
innocence of this afHiir will a[)pear iVom its (Late-. It is notorious, then, 
that those Indians weie killed not only after Capt. Cresap had received 
Connoly's letter, and after Butler's men were killed in the canoe, but al- 
so after the afVair at Yellow creek, and after 'die peoi)le had fled into forts, 
lint more of this hereafter, when we take up Mr. Doddrige and his book; 
simply, however, remarking here, that this alTair of killing these two In- 
dians has the same aspect and relation to Dunmore^s war that the battle 
of Lexington has to the v/ar of the revolutsion, 

jiut to ])roceed. Permit us to remark, that it is very diflicult at this late 
prriod to form a correct idea of these times, unless we can bring distinct- 
ly into view the real state of our frontier. The inhabilants of the wes- 
tern country were at this time thinly scattered from the Allegany moun- 
tain to tlie eastern banks of the Ohio, and most thinly near that river. — 
In this state of things, it was natural to sujvpose that the few settlers in 
the vicinity of WheeHng, who had colhicted into that Ibrt, would feel ex- 
tremely solicitous to detain captain Cresap and his iiicn as long as j)ossi- 
l)le, especially until they could see on what })oint the storm would fall. — ■ 
Capt. Cresap, the son of a hero, and a hero himself, felt for their situa- 
ation ; and getting together a few more men in addition to his own, and 
Jiot rejisliing the limits of a little fort, nor a life of inactivity, set out on 
what was called a s(;outing party, that is, to reconnoiter and scour the 
frontier border ; and while out and engaged in this business, fell in with 
and had a running liglit with a jiarty of Indians, nearly about his equal in 
numbers, when one Indian was killed, and Cresap had oneman wounded. 
'I'his affair look j)lace somewhere on the banks of the Ohio. Doddridge' 
says it was at the mouth of Captina: be it so — it matters not ; but he adds, 
it was on the same day the Jiidians were killed in the canoe. In this the 
doctor is most egregif)usly mistaken, as I shall j)rove liereafter. 

But mav we not ask, what were these Indians doing here at this time, 
on the banks of the Ohio? Tliev had no town near this pi. 

'1 iiad tlii-; from C.\p' . Cre^aji him-iclf, a short tliue after it oceiincd. 


it theii- hunting season, as it was about the 8lh or 10th of May. Is it 
not then probable, nay ahnost certain, that this straggling banditti -svere 
prepared and ready to fall on some parts of our exposed frontier, and that 
their dispersion saved the lives of many helpless women and children.'' 

But the old proverb, cry mad-dog and. kill him ! is, I suppose, equally 
as applicable to heroes as to dogs. 

Capt. Cresap soon after this- returned to his family in Maryland ; but 
feeling most sensibly for the inhabitants on the frontier in their perilous si- 
tuation, immediately raised a company of volunteers, and raarclied back 
to their assistance; and having advanced as far as Catfish camp, the place 
where Washington, Pa., now stands, he was arrested in his progress by a 
peremptory and insulting order from Connoly, commanding him to dis- 
niiss his men and to return home. 

This order, couched iu offensive and insulting language, it may be well 
supposed, was not very grateful to a man of Captain Cresap's high 
sense of honor and peculiar sensibility, especially conscious as he was 
of the purity of his motives, and the laudable end he had in view. He 
nevertheless obeyed, returned home and dismissed his men, and with the 
determination, I well know from what he said after his return, never again 
to take any part in the present Indian war, but to leave Mr. Commandant 
at Pittsburgh to fight it out as he could. This hasty resolution was how- 
ever of short duration. For however strange, contradictory, and irrecon- 
cilable the conduct of the earl of Dunmore and his vice-governor of Pitts- 
burgh, &c. may appear, yet it is a fact, that on the lOth of June, the earl 
of Dunmore, unsolicited, and to Capt. Cresap certainly unexpected. Sent 
him a captain's commission of the militia of Hampshire county, Virginia^ 
notwithstanding his residence was in Maryland. This commission reach- 
ed Capt. C. a few days after his return from the expedition to Catfish 
camp, just above mentioned; and inasmuch as this commission, coming 
to him in the way it did, cairied with it a tacit expression of the gover- 
ner's approbation of his conduct — add to which, that about the same time 
his feelings were daily assailed by j)etItion after petition, from almost eve- 
ry section of the western country, praying, begging, and beseeching him 
to come over to their assistance — it is not surprising that his- resolution 
should be changed. Several of these petitions and Dunmore's commis- 
sion have escaped the wreck of time and are in my possession. 

This commission coming at the time it did, and in the way and under 
the circumstances above recited, aided and strengthened as it was by the 
numberless petitioners aforesaid, broke down and so far extinguished all 
Capt. Cresap's personal resentment against Connoly Jiat he once more 
detemiined to exert all his power and influence in assisting the distressed 
inhabitants of the western frontier, and accordingly immediately raised a 
company, placed himself under the command of Maj. Angus IVI'Donrdd, 
and marched with him to attack the Indians, at their town of Wappato- 
machie, on the Muskingum. His popularity, at this time, was su'ch, and 
so many men flocked to his standard, that he could not consistently wirh 
the rules of an army, retain them in his company, but was obliged to 
transfer them, ijiuch against their wills, to other captains, and the result 



was, that after retaining in his own company as many men as he could 
consifitenlly, lie filled completely the company ol his ne])hew Capt. Mi- 
chael Cresap, and also partly the company of Capt. Hancock Lee. 'i'liis 
little army of about four liundred men, under Maj. M'Donald, penetrated 
the Indian country as far as the Muskin<Tum ; near which they had a skir- 
mish with a party of Indians under Capt. Snake, in which M'Donald lost 
six men, and killed the Indian chief Snake. 

A little anecdote here will cfo to show what expert and close shooters 
Ave had in those days among our riflemen. When M'Donald's little array 
arrived on the near bank of the Muskingum, and while lying there, an 
Indian on the opposite shore got behind a log or old tree, and was lifting- 
lip his head occasionally to view the white men's army. One of Ca})t. 
Cresap's men, of the name of John Harness, seeing this, loaded his ritio 
with two balls, and placing himself on the bank of the river, watched the 
opportunity when the Indian raised his head, and firing at the same in- 
stant, put both balls through the Indian's neck, and laid him dead ;* which 
circumstance no doubt had great influence in intimidating the Indians. 

M'Donald after this had another running fight with the Indians, drove 
them from their towns, burnt them, destroyed their provisions, and, re- 
turning to the settlement, discharged his men. 

]jut this affair at Wappatomachie and expedition of McDonald were on- 
ly the prelude to more important and efficient measures. It was well un- 
derstood that the Indir.ns were far from being subdued, and tliat they would 
now certainly collect all their force, and to the utmost of power return the 
compliment of our visit to their territories. 

'J'lie governor of Virginia, whatever might liave been his views as to 
the ulterior measures, lost no time in })re|)aring to meet this storm. He 
sent orders imn\ediat(.'ly to Col. Andrew Lewis, of Augusta county, to 
raise an army of about one thousand men, and to march with all expedi- 
tion to the mouth of the Great Kanawha, on the Ohio river, where, or nt 
some other point, he would join liiin, after he had got together another 
army, which he intended to raise in the northwestern covmties, and com- 
mand in person. Lewis lost no time, but collected the number of men 
required, and marched without delay to the appointed place of rendez- 

iiut the carl was not fpiite so rapid in his movements, which circum- 
stance the eagle eye of old Cornstalic, the general of the Indian army, 
saw, and was determined to avnil himself of, foreseeing that it would be 
much (tasier to destroy two separate columns of an mvading array before 
than after their jimclion and consolidntlon. With this tIcw he mnrched 
with all (•xj>edition lo attack Lewis, before he was joined by the carPs ar- 
my from the north calculating, confidently no doubt, that if he could de- 
stroy Lewis, he would be able to give a good account of the army of the 

'I'he |»lans of Cornst;dk ajipcar to have been those of a consummntc 
and skillful general, and the prompt and rapid execution of them display- 
ed the energy of a warrior. He therefore, without loss of time, attack- 

* The Muskingum at this jdace is said to be about 200 yards wide. 


ed Lewis at liis post. The attack was sudden, viole]it, and I believe un- 
expected. It was neverthelesss well fought, very obstinate, and of lon<'- 
continuance : and as both parties fought with rifles, the conliict was dread- 
ful ; many were killed on both sides, and the contest was only finished 
with the approach of night. The Virginians, however, kept the field, but 
lost many valuable officers and men, and among the rest. Col. Charlci 
L«wis, brother to the commander-in-chief. 

Cornstalk and due Jacket, the two Indian captains, it is said, perform- 
ed prodigies of valor ; but finding at length all their elTorts unavailing, 
drew off their men in good order, and with the determination to fight no 
more, if peace could be obtained upon reasonable terras. 

This battle of Lewis' opened an easy and unmolested passage for Dun- 
more through the Indian country ;* but it is proper to remark here, how- 
ever, that when Dunmore arrived v\-ith his wing of the army at the mouth 
of Hockhocking, he sent Capt. White-eyes, a Delaware chief, to invite 
ihii Indians to a treaty, and he remained staticnaiy at that place until 
White-eyes returned, who reported that the Indians would not treat about 
peace. I presume, in order of time, this must have been just before Le- 
wis' battle ; because it wdll appear in the setjuel of this story, that a great 
revolution took place in the minds of the Indians after the battle. 

Duiimore, immediately upon the report of White-eyes that the Indians 
were not disposed for peace, sent an express to Col. Lewis to move on 
and meet him near Chilicothe, on the Scioto, and both wings of tlie ar- 
my were put in motion. But as Dunmore aj)proached the Indian towns, 
he was met by flags from the Indians, demanding peace, to Vvdiich he ac- 
ceded, halted his army, and runners were sent to invite the Indian chiefs., 
who cheerfully obeyed the summons, and came to the treaty — save only 
Logan, the great orator, who refused to come. It seems, however, that 
neidier Dunmore nor the Indian chiefs considered his presence of much 
importance, for they went to work and hnished the treaty without him — 
referring, I believe, some unsettled points for future discussion, at a treaty 
to be held the ensuing summer or fall at Pittsburgh. 'I'his treaty, the ar- 
ticles of which I never saw, nor do I know that they were ever recorded, 
concluded Dunmore's war, in September or October, 1774. After the 
treaty w^as over, old Cornstalk, the Shawnee chief, accom})anied Dun- 
more's army until they reached the mouth of Hockhocking, on the Ohio ; 
and what was most singular, rather made his home in Capt. Cresjip's tent. 
With whom he continued on terms of the most friendly funiliarity. I con- 
sider this circumstance as positive proof that the Indians themselves nei- 

*A little anecdote will pro\e that Dunmore was a gener.d, and also the 
high estimation in w'hich he held Capt. C'-esap. While the army was 
marcliing through the Indian country, Dunmore ordered Capt. Cresap 
with his company and some more of his best troops in tlie rear, 'fhis 
displeased Cresap, and he expoatulated witli the eai!, w};o re[)!!t'(l, that 
the reason of this arrangement was, because lie Lnew thi;1 it' l;e. was at- 
tacked in front, all those men would soon rush forward ifito the engage- 
ment. This reason, which was by the by a handsome com[.'l:ment, v'--.ius- 
iied Cresap, aud all the rear guard. 


ther considered Capt. Cresap the murderer of Loi^-.urs fainilr, nor the 
cause of the war. It appears, also, that at this place the earl of Dun- 
raore received dispatches from England. Doddridge says he received 
these on his inarch out. 

But \ve ought to have mentioned in its proper place, that aflerthe trea- 
ty between J3unmore and the Indians commenced near Chilicothe, Lewis 
arrived with his army, and encamped two or three miles from Dunmore, 
which greatly alarmed the ladians, as they thought he was so much irri- 
tated at losing so many men in the late battle that he would not easily be 
pacified ; nor would they be satisfied until Dunmore and old Cornstalk 
went into Lewis' camp to converse with him. 

Doct. Doddridge represents this affair iu different shades ©f light from 
this statement, I can only say I had my information from an oHicer who 
was present at the time. 

Jiut it is time to remind the reader, that, although I have wandered into 
such a minute detail of the various occurrences, facts and circumstances 
of Dunmore's war ; and all of which as a history mav be interesting to 
the present and especially to the rising generation ; yet it is proper to re- 
mark that I have two leading objects chiefly in view — first, to convince 
the world, ihat whoever and whatever might be the cause of the Indian 
war of 1774, it was not Capt. Cresap; secondly, that from the aspect of 
our political affairs at that period, and from the known hostility of Dun- 
more to the American revolution, and withal from the subsequent conduct 
of Dunmore, and the dreadfid Indian war that commenced soon after the 
beginning of our war with Great Britain — [ say, froni all these circum- 
stances, we have infinitely stronger reasons to suspect Dumnore than Cre- 
saj); and I may say that the dispatches above mentioned that were re- 
ceived by Dunmore at Hockhocking, ahhough alter the treaty, were yet 
calculated to create suspicion. 

J^ut il', as we suppose, Dunmore was secretly at the bottom of this In- 
dian war, it is evident that he could not with projiriety appear personally 
in a biisiness of tliis kind ; and we have seen and shall see, how effectu- 
ally his sub-governor played his part between the Virginians and Penn- 
sylvanians; and it now renniiis for us to examine how far the conduct of 
tjiis man ((,'onnoly) will bear us out in the supposition that there was also 
some foul i)lav, some dark intritruintr work to embroil the western coun- 
try in an Jndian war. 

And r think it best now, as we have introduced this man Connoly again, 
to give the reader a short condensed history of his whole proceedings, 
that we may jiave him in full view at once. We hav(> already ])resented 
the reader with his circular letter, and its natural result and consequences 
anfl aJs/i witli his insulting letter imd mandatorv order to Capt. Cresap, at 
Catfish camp, to dismiss his men and i,') hf)iu<' ; and that the reader may 
now see a little nl' the cli;ir;icter of this man, and tniderstand him, if it is 
|)ossiblp to understand liim, I present him with the copy of a letter to 
Capt. Recce. 

"As I have received intelligence tli:i1 Logan, n Mingo Indian, with 
jibout twenty Shawnee?* and others, were to .^et off for war last Monday, 
t'.iul I haverc.ison to believ/r that thev may c<tine uporj the inhabitants n- 


bout Wheeling, I hereby order, require anti commajid you, \vitli all the 
men you can raise, immediately to march and join any of the mmpiinif's 
already out and under the pay of government, and upon joining your j)ar- 
ties together, scour the frontier and become a barrier to our settlements, 
and endeavor to fall in with their tracks, and pursue them, using your ut- 
most endeavors to chastise them as open and avowed enemies. 

"I am, sir, your most humble servant, 
"DoRSEY Pentecost, for 


"To Capt. Joel Reece, use all expedition. May 27, 1774." 

Now here is a fellow for you. A very short time before this, pcrhapr. 
two or three days before the date of this letter, Cajit. Cresap, who had a 
fine conipany of volunteers, is insulted, ordered to dismiss his men and 
go home ; and indeed it appears from one expression m this letter, name- 
ly, "the companies who are already out," that these companies must have 
been actually out at the very time Cresap is ordered home. 

Now if any man is skilled in the art of legerdemain, let him unriddle 
this enigma if he can. 

But as so many important facts crowd together at thi? eventful period, 
it may be satisfactory to the reader, and have a tendency more clearly to 
illustrate the various scenes interwoven in the thread of this history, to 
present to his view a chronological list of these facts ; and I think the first 
that deserves notice is Connoly's circular letter, wdiich we date the 25th 
day of April; secondly, the two men killed in Butler's canoe we know 
was the first or second day of May ; thirdly, the affair at Yellow creek 
was on the third or fourth day of May ; fourthly, the Indians killed in 
the canoe above Wheeling the fifth or sixth day of May ; fifthly, the 
skirmish with the Indians on the river Ohio, about the eighth or Icuth day 
of May; after which, Capt. Cresap returned 1o Catfish camp about the 
twenty-fifth of May. Indeed this fact speaks for itself; it could not bo 
earlier, when it is considered that he rode home from the Ohio, a distance 
of about one hundred and forty miles, raised a company and marched 
back as far as Catfish, through bad roads, near one hundi'cd and twenty 
miles ; and all, agreeably to my statement, in seventeen days : then it is 
BAddent that he was not at Catfish camp sooner than the 25lh of May ; 
and if so, he was ordered home at the very time when scouts were out, 
and the settlement threatened with an attack from the Indians, as is man- 
ifest from Connoly's own letter to Capt. Reece, dated May 27, 1774. 

But the hostility of Connoly to Capt. Cresap was unremitting and 
without measure or decency ; for on the 14th of July, of the same 
year, we find one of the most extraordinary, crooked, malignant, Cruh- 
street epistles, that ever appeai'ed ui)on paper: but let uk see it. 

'■'■Fort Dnmnor p.'-' July 14, 177'j. 

"Your whole proceedings, so far as relate to our disturbances willi the 
Indians, iiave been of a nature so extraordinary, that I am much at a loss 

*During the government of Connoly in this place, he chnngcd the name 
from Pitt to Dunmore ; but subsequent events have blotted outDunmnre's 


t ) account for the cause; but when I CDu.siiler your late steps, lend- 
ing (.lircciiy to ruii the service here, by inveigling away the mihtia of this 
garrisou by _>'our preposterou:^ proposals, and causing them thereby to 
embe/zle the anus ot' government, purchased at an enormous expense, 
and at du' same time to rellect intinite disgrace upon the honor of this 
colony, by attaciving .1 set of people, which, notwithstanding the injury 
they have sustained by you in the loss of their people, yet continue to re- 
ly upon the professions of friendship which I have made, and deport 
themselves accordingly; I say when I consider these matters, I must con- 
clude you are actuated by a spirit of discord, so prejudicial to the peace 
and good order of society, that the conduct calls i'or justice, and due ex- 
t:eution thereof can only check. I must once again order you to desist 
iiom your periiicious designs, and require of you, if you are an officer of 
iniliti;), to send the deserters from this place back with all expedition, that 
;they may be dealt with as their crimes merit. 

"I am, sir, your servant, 


This letter, allauugh short, contains so nianj things for remark and an- 
imadversion, that we scarcely know^ where to begin. It exhibits, howAv- 
er, a real picture of the man, and a mere superficial glance at its phrase- 
ology will prove that he is angry, and his nerves in a tremor. It is, in 
fact^, an incoherent jumble of words and sentences, all in the disjunctive. 

I3;ii it is a perfect original ajid anomaly in the epistolary line ; and con- 
tains in itself internal marks of genuine authenticity. 

The Hrst thing in this letter tliat calls for our attention is the language 
lie uses towards the people he calls ^hnililia dene iter a.'''' That they may 
be dealt with, he says, as their crimes merit. Now I pray you who were 
those people? Doubtless the respectable farmers and others in the vicin- 
ity of Pittsburgh. And what does this .Mogul of the west intend to do 
v.'ith them ? VVhy hang them, to be sure ; Un' this is military law. But 
t'.ie true state of this case dou!)tless is, that tliese militia considered them- 
selves free men ; that tliey wore not well pleiised either with Connoly or 
g;:rrison duty; that viewing theircountry in danger, and their wives and 
•children exposed to savage barbarity, they preferred more active service, 
and joined the standard of Capt. Cresnp. And is this a new thing, or 
rej)rehensible ? How often do our militia enter into the regular army, 
and whoever dreamed of hanging theru for so doing? 

iJut, secondly, we say it is possible Capt. Cresap did not know from 

whence the'e men came ; and if he did, he deserves no censure for re- 

<-eiving them; and as to the charge of inveigliig away the militia from 

•the g:irrison, we know this must be positively lalse, because he was not 

•in Pittsburgli in the year 1774, either personnlly or by proxy. 

As to the genenil charge agiinst C.ipt. Cresap, of atlncking the fn- 
tliaiis, and the great injiny he had done them, I \wo\\ only say that this 
«cli;irgt; is reiiiteil ;ig:iin iuid ag:iiii in the course of this history, audits un- 
pai'aileled impuilence especially, or llie date of this letter, merits the deep- 
<*st contempt, lint tin; most extraordinary feature in this most extraor- 
dii>arv letter is cmucIk-I in these word.T, nnm-h : "Thnt t!ie Indians re- 


lied upon the expressions of friendship lie made them and deported them- 
selves accordingly." 

Be astonished, ye nations of the e?ir;h, and all ye kindreds of pet;})Je 
at this ! For be it remembered this is the ]4th day of July J774, v.hcn 
Connoly has the unblushing impudence to assert that the Indians relied 
upon liis expressions of friendsliip, and deported themselves accordinclv, 
when at this very time we were engaged in the hottest part of Dunmoie's 
war; when Dunmore himself was raising an army and personally on Ins 
way to take the command ; when Lewis was on his march from Augusta 
county, Virginia, to the Ohio ; when Cornstalk, with his Indian army, 
was in motion to meet Lewis ; and when Capt. Cresap was actually rais- 
ing a company to join Dunmore when he arrived. And it was while en- 
gaged in this business, that he received this letter from Connoly. 

Now if any man can account for this strange and extraordinary letter 
upon rational principles, let him do so if he can : he has more ingenuity 
and a more acute discernment than I have. 

Soon after receiving this letter, Capt. Cresap left his company on the 
west side of the mountain and rode home, where he met the earl of Dun- 
more at his house, and where he (the esrl) remained a few days in habits 
of friendship and cordiality with the family. One day while the earl was 
at his house, Capt. Cresap, finding him alone, introduced the subject of 
Connoly's ill treatment, with a view, I suppose, of obtaining redress, or 
of exposing the character of a man he knew to be high in the estimation 
and confidence of the earl. But what effect, suppose ye, had this remor- 
strance on the earl ? I'll tell you ; it lulled him into a profound sleep. Ave, 
aye, thinks I to myself (young as I then was,) this will not do, captain ; 
there ai-e wheels within wheels, dark things behind the curtain between 
this noble earl and his sub-satellite. 

Capt. Cresap was himself open, candid and unsuspicious, and I do not 
know Vvhathe thought, but I weh remember ray own thoughts upon this 

But let us, as nearly as possible, finish our business with Connoly, al- 
though we must thereby get a little ahead of our history : yet, as already 
remarked, we think it less perplexing to the reader, than to give him here 
a little and there a little of this extraordinary character. 

We find, then, that in the year 1775, Connoly, discovering that his 
sheep-skin could not cover him much longer, threw off the mask and fled 
to his friend Dunmore, who also, about the same time, was obliged to 
take sanctuary on board a British ship of war in the Chesapeake bay. — ■ 
From this place, i. e. Portsmouth in Virginia, Connoly wrote the follow- 
ing letter to Col. John Gibson, who, no doubt, he supposed possessed 
sentiments congenial to his own. It happened, liowever, that he was mis- 
taken in his man , for Gibson exposed him, and put his letter into tlie 
hands of the commissioners who were holding a treaty with the Indians. 
But let us see this letter : it is dated Portsmouth, August 9, 1775. 

"Dear Sir : I have safely arrived here, and am happy in the greatest 
degree at having so fortunately escaped tlie narrow inspection of my ene- 
mies, the enemies to their countrj-'s good order and goveTnme«it. I shf)rild 


cuteom mysolf tU'rect-ive in point of fiicndship towards you, ghould I ne^ 
•j^lcct to caution you to avoid an over zealous exertion of what is now ri- 
diculously called jiatriotic spirit, but on the contrary to deport yourself 
with that moderation for which you have always been so remarkable, and 
which must in this instance tend to your honor and advantage. You may 
rest assured from me, sir, that the greatest unanimity now prevails at home, 
and the innovating spirit among us here is looked upon as ungenerous 
and undutiful, and that the utmost exertions of the powers in government 
(if necessary) will be used to convince the infatuated people of their 

"•i v/ould, I assure you, sir, give you such convincing proofs of what I 
assert, and Irom which every reasonable person may conclude the effects, 
that nothing but madness could operate upon a man so far as to overlook 
his duty to the present constitution, and to form unwarrantable associa- 
tions witli eiithiisiosls, whose ill-timed folly must draw down upon them 
inevitable destruction. His lortlshi}) desires ynu to present his hand to 
Captain White-eyes, [a Delaware Iiulian chief,] and to assure him he is 
sorry he had not the pleasure of seeing him at the treaty, [a treaty held 
by Connoly in his name,] or that the situation of affairs j)revented him 
from coming down. 

"Believe me, dear sir, that I have no motive in writing my sentiments 
thus to you, i'urllier than to endeavor to steer you clear of the misfortunes 
wliich I am confident must involve but unhappily too many. I have sent 
you an address from the jieople of Great jiritain to the ])eo{)le of Ameri- 
ca, and desire you to consider it attentively, which will I Ihitter myself 
convince you of the idleness of many determinations and the absurdity of 
an intended slavery. 

"Give my love to George, [his brother, afterwards a colonel in the re- 
volutionary war,] and tell him he shall hear from me, and I hope to his 
advantage. Interpret the inclosed speech to Capt. White-eyes from his 
lordshi|). Be prevailed upon to shun the popular error, and judge for 
yourself, as a good subject, and expect the rewards due to vour services. 

"I am, cV. JOHN CONNOLY." 


The inclosed speech to White-eyes "we shall see in its proper place, af- 
ter we have finished our business with Connoly. It seems, then, that ei- 
ther a mistaken notion of his inlluence, or greatly deceived by his calcu- 
lations on the su|)|)ort of ('ol. (libson, his brother and friends, or in obe- 
dience to the solicitations o|" his friciid Duinnore, he undertakes (incoff.) 
a liMzardous journey from the Chesajieake bay to Pittsburgh, in com])any, 
if 1 recollect right, with a certain Doct. Smith ; but our Dutch re|)ubli- 
cans of l''redericl<to\vn, Maryland, smelt a rat, seized, and imprisoned 
him, from whence he was removed to the Philadelpliia jail, where we will 
leave him awhile to cool. 

But let us now look at these two characters ; Connoly uses every effort 
to destroy us and subvert our liberties, and Cresap marclies to JJoston with 
a com{)any of riflemen to defend his country. If then men's actions af- 
ford us the true and best criterion to judge of their merit or demerit, we 
can be at no loss to decide on this occasion. Nor can there be laiv doubt 

OF DUNMatlE'S WAR. 121 

that this mrin, so full of tender sensibility and sympathy for the suffei'ings 
of the Indians, when arrested with his colleague (Smith) in Frederick, 
liad a Pandora's box full of fire-brands, arrows and death, to scatter among 
the inhabitants of the vv'est. 

But it is probable the reader, as well as the writer, is weary of such 
company : we therefore bid him adieu, and once more attend his e?tcel- 
lency the governor of Virginia, whom we left, I think, on board a British 
sloop of war, in the Chesapeake bay* 

The reader has not forgotten, that we long since stated it as our opin- 
ion, that it was probable, and that we had strong reg-sons to believe, that 
Dunmore himself, from political motives, though acting behind th* scenes^ 
was in reality at the bottom of the Indian war of 1774. 

We have already alluded to several circumstances previous to and du- 
ring that war ; but we have in reserve several more evincive of tlie same 
fact subsequent to the war. 

It may be remembered, that at the treaty of Chilicothe, il was remark- 
ed that some points were referred for future discussion at Pittsburgh, in 
the ensuing fall ; and it appears that a treaty w^as actually held by Con- 
noly, in' Dunmor6's name, vrith the chiefs of the Delaware, and some 
Mingo' tribes in the summer ensuing. This is historically a fact, and mat- 
ter of record, which I extract from the minutes of a treaty, held in the' 
autumn of the same year, with several tribes of Indians, by coriimissidn- 
ers frdrA the Congress of the United States and from Virginia.* 

But to understand this perfectly, the reader must be informed, that, pre- 
viou's'to this treaty, Capt. Jas. Wood, afterwards governor of Virginia, 
was sent by that State as the herald of peace, with the olive branch in 
his hand, to invite all the Indian tribes bordering on tlie Ohio and its wa- 
ters, to a treaty at Pittsburgh, on the 10th day of September following. 
Capt. Wood kept a journal, which is incorporated in the proceedings of 
the treaty, from which journal I copy as follows : "July the 9th, I arri- 
ved (says' he) at Fort Pitt, where I received information that the chiefs of 
the Delawafes and a few of the Mingos had lately been' treating with 
Maj. Connoly agreeably to instructions from lord Dunmore, and that the' 
Shawnees had not come to the treaty," &c. 

Capt. Wood however acknowledges, in a letter he wrote to the conven- 
tion of Virginia from this place, that this treaty held by Connoly was m 
the most 6pen and candid manner^ that it vjaa held in the presence of ihe 
committee, and that he laid the governor'' s instructions hefore them. Very 
good. But why these' remarks respecting Connoly and Dunmore ? Does 
not this language imply jealousy and suspicion, which- Capt. W^ond,who 
certainly was deceived, was anxious to remove ? But to proceed. He' 
says : 

"July 10. White-eyes came with an interpreter to my lodging. He 

*The original minutes of ihis treaty are In my own possession. They 
were presented to me by my friend John Madison, secretary to the com* 
missioners, with I think this rer>iark, that they were of no use tf;' ihf m* 
but might be of some to me.- 


informed m«.' lie was desirous of going to Williamsburg witli JSIr. Conno- 
ly to see lord Dunmoro, wlio had promised him his interest in procuring 
a grant from the king for the lands claimed by the Delawares ; 
that they were all desirous of living as the wiiilc people do, and under 
their laws and protection ; that lord Dunmore had engaged to make him 
some satisfaction for his trouble in going several times to the Shawnee- 
towns, and serving with him on the campaign, &c. &c. He told me he 
Hoped I would advise him whether it was projier for him to go or not. I 
was then under the necessity of acquainting him with the disputes sub- 
sisting between lord Dunmore and the people of Virginia, and engaged, 
whenever the assembly met, that I would go with him to Williamsburg, 
&c. &c. He was very thankful, and appeared satisfied." 

The reader mus't observe this is July the 10th, 1775, and he will please 
to refer to pages 119 and 120, where he wil see from Connoly's letter of 
Aug. 9th, how much reliance was to be pliaced on his candor and sinceri- 
ty, as stated by Capt. W^ood to the convention on the 9th day of July. 
Thus we find that about thirty days after Capt. Wood's testimony in his 
favor, Connoly threw away the mask, and presented himself in his true 
character ; and from his own confession and the tenor of his letter to 
Gibson, it is plain that the current of suspicion ran so strongly against 
him that he declared himself "most happy in escaping the vigilance of 
his enemies." 

We owe the reader an apology for introducing this man agaiii ; but 
the fact is, that Dunmore and Connoly are so identified in all the political 
movements of this period, that we can seldom see one without the other ; 
and Connoly is the more prominent character, especially in the affairs of 
the west. 

But v:c now proceed with Capt. Wood's journal. He tells us that on 
the 20th July, he met Gerrit Pfendei^grass about 9 o'clock ; that he had 
just left the Delaware towns ; that two days before, the Delawares had 
just returned from the W^yandott towns, where ihcy had been at a grand 
council with a French and English officer, and the Wyandotts ; that Yion- 
sieur Baubec and the English officer told them to be on their guard, tliat 
the white people intendcdto strike them very soon, &c. &c. 

July 21. At 1 o'clock, arriving at the Moravian Indian town, exami- 
ned the minister (a Dutchman), concerning tlie council lately held with 
the Indians, &c. who confirmed the account before stated. 

July 22. About 10 o'clock, arrived at Coshocton, (a chief town of 
the Delawares,) nnff delivered to their council a speech', wliich they an- 
swered on the 23d. Alter expressing their thankfulness for the sjieech 
and wi]lingne«;s to attend the proposed treaty at Pittsburgh, they deliver- 
ed toCapt. Wood n l)clt and string they said was sent Ui them by an En- 
glishman and Frenchman from Detroit, accompanied with a message that 
the people of Virginia were determined to strike them ; that they would 
come upon them two different ways, the one by the way of the lakes, and 
the other by the way of the Oliio, :uid to take llieir lands, that they must 
be constantly on their guard, and not to give any credit to whatever you 
said, as you were a people not to be depended upon ; that the Virginians 
Tcould uivite thenj to a treaty, but that they m'.i'rt not go at any rate, aiU' 


to take particular notice of the advice they gave, \vhicli proceeded from 
.molive.s of real friendship, 

^.'ow by comparing- and collating this with the speech sent by])unmore, 
K^nclosed in Connoly's letter, it will furnish us with a squinting at the 
game that was playing with the Indians by the earl of Dunmore and other 
Jiritish officers ; to be convinceel of which, read the following speech 
.from Dunmore, which was enclosed in a letter to Gibson : 

"Brother CapL White-eyes, -I am glad to hear your good speeches as 
sent to me by Maj. Connoly, and you may be assured J shall jmt one end 
of the belt you have sent me into the Jiands of our great king, who will 
be glad to hear from his brothers the Delawar<?s, and will take stronghold 
of it. You may rest satisfied that our ibolish young men shall never be 
permitted to have your lands ; but on the contrary the great king will pro- 
tect you, and preserve you in the possession of them. 

"Our young people in tkis country liave been very foolish,, and done 
many imprudent things, for v.'hich they must soon be sorry, and of which 
1 make no doubt they have acquainted you; but must desire you not to 
listen to them, as they would be willing you should act foolishly with 
themselves ; but rather let what you hear pass in at one ear and out of 
the other, so that it may make no impression on your lieart, tivHl you hear 
J'rom ruefully, which shall be as soon as I can give lurlher information. 

"Capt. Waite-eyes will please acquaint the Cornstalk with these my 
iscntiments, as well as the chiefs of the Mingos. and^other six nations. 
(Signed) ' "DUNMORE." 

It is scarcely necessary to remark here, that the flight of Dunmore from 
Williamsburg, of Connoly from Pittsburgh, thus speech of Dunmore's, 
.and the speech of the Delawares to Capt. Wood, are all nearly -cotenipo- 
raneous, and point the reader pretty clearly to the aspect of our affairs 
with the Indians at this period. Dunmore's speech, as you have it above, 
idih&ugh pretty explicit, is yet guarded, as it had to pass through an equi- 
vocal medium ; but he tells Capt. White-eyes he shall hear from him kere- 
cfter, and this hereafter speech was no doubt in Connoly's portmanteau 
v.dien he was arrei^^ted in Frederick. 

But to conclude this tedious chapter, nothing more now seems iTcces- 
j^ary tlian to call the attention of the reader to those inferences that the 
facts and circumstances detailed in the foregoing pages seem to warrant. 

The first circumstance in the order of events seems to be the extraor- 
\linary and contradictory conduct of Dunmore and Connoly respecting 
Captain Cresap. They certamly understood each other, and had one iii- 
tiniate end in view; yet we find on all occasions Dunmore treats 'Cresaj) 
with the utmost confidence and cordiality, and that Connoly's ronducL 
was contijiually the reverse, even (uitrageously itisulfing him, v>'hiIo un- 
der the immediate orders of Dunmore himself. 

Secondly, we find Dunmore acting witli duplicity and (lecej)ti^•vfl witli 
'Col. Lewis and his brigad-e, from Augusta county. So says Doddridge. 

'!"*";■ 'Mv, wr fi;v' r'-.--^ r;-;.. ..•;;),'-; >i,u;ie foistod int(t T,o"-;m'.-' pvelendc;! 


speech, wlion it is evident, as wc shall hereafter prov.o, that no names 
at all were mentioned in the original speech made I'or Logan. 

Fourthly, it appears ])retty plainly that much pains were taken by Dun- 
more, at the ti'eaty of Chilicothe, to attach the Indian chiefs to his person, 
as appears from facts that afterwards appeared. 

Fifthly, the last speech from Dunmore to Capt. White-eyes and other 
Indian chiefs, sent in Connoly's letter to Gibson ; to all which we may 
add, his lordship's nap of sleep while Cresap was stating his complainis 
against Connoly, and all Connoly's strange and unaccountable letters to 

I say, from all which it will aripear that Dunmoie had his views, and 
those views hostile to the liberties of America,in his proceedings with the In- 
^dians in the war of 1774, the circumstances of the times, in connection wilh 
his equivocal conduct, lead us almost naturally to iiifer that he kricw pret- 
ty well what he was about, and among otkcr things, that he knew a war 
.with the Indians at this time would materially subserve the views and in- 
terest of Great Britain, and consequently he perhaps might fee! it a duly 
to promote said war, and if not, why betray such extreme solicitude to 
single out some consjiiruous character, and make him the scape-goat, tq 
bear all the blame of this war, tiiat he and his friend Connply might es- 



WAR uF tul: revolltiun. 

ii ;is not vvithui thr phm of this )vork, to go iuto a ge/ieral dilai^ of lliG 
•war of the revolution. The author will only give an account of it so far 
as it is connected with the immediate history of the valley. 

At the beginning of the war the late Daniel Morgan was appointed a 
captain, and very soon raised a company of brave and active young men, 
willi wluim he niarchf. (I to join Gen. Washington at Roston. John Hum- 
phreys was 3.lorgan'.s fust lieutenaiit. Morgan was sooji promoted to tl;e 
jrank of major, and Kumphjeys was made his captain. It is believed this 
wa,s one, of tlic fust regular companies raised in Virginia, which marched 
iX) t^ie uvrlh. -Morgan with his company was ordi'red to join (ii-n. Mont- 
Ifomery, and march to tlie attack on (Quebec; in which attack Montgome- 
ry was killed, and .Morgan, after i)erff)rniing prodigies of valor, compelk-d 
Jo surrender himself and his brave lrooj)s prisoners of war. (';i|)i. Ilum- 
^ilueys was killed in t^he ass;i(i;lt. 'J'lic .revercnr! Mr. Pet/'r .Muhlenburg, a 


^•lergyman of the Lutheran* profession, in the county 04' Shenandoah, laid 
off his gown and took up the sword. He was appointed a eolouel, and 
soon raised a regiment, called the 8th, consisting chiefly of young men of 
German extraction. Abraham Bowman was appointed to a majoialty in 
jt, as was also Peter Helphinstine, of Winchester. It was frequently cal- 
led the "German regiment." JNluhlenburg was ordered to the south in 
1776, and the unhealthiness of the climate proved fatal to many of his 

James Wood, of Winchester, was also appointed a colonel. He soon 
raised another regiment, marched to the north, and joined Gen. AYushing- 
ton's main army. 

Maj. Morgan, after several months' captivity, was exchanged together 
with his troops, promoted to the rank of colonel, and again joined his 
.country's standard in the northern army. Muhlenburg returned from his 
southern campaign, and in 1777 also joined the northern army. He was 
promoted to the rank of brigadier-general, and Abraham Bowman to the 
rank of colonel. Helphinstine contracted a lingering disease in the south, 
returned home on furlow, and died in Winchester in the autumn of 1776. 
Col. ^lorgan, with a picked regiment of riflemen, was ordered to join 
Gen. Gates, to meet and oppose Gen. Burgoyne. It is universally ad- 
mitted that Morgan, with his brave and expert rifle regiment, contributed 
much towards achieving the victorywhich Ibllowed. 

After the capture of Burgoyne and his army, (17th Oct. 1777,) ^^lor- 
gan, lor his great personal bravery, and superior military talents displayed 
on all occasions, was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general. He 
joined the standard of Washington, and soon distinguished himself in 
harassing the British army in the neighborhood of Pliiladelphia. 

Numerous calls for the aid of the militia were made from time to time 
to assist our country in the defence of its rights and liberties ; which calls 
were generally promptly obeyed. The spirit of patriotism and love ol 
country was the prevailing passion of a vast majority of the people ot 
the valley ; and with one exception, which will be noticed hereafter, our 
character was not tarnished by any thing like a tory insurrection. The 
author most devoutly wishes, for the honor of his native country, that this 
exception could be blotted out of our history, and consigned to eternal 

Our valley, at the commencement of the war, was comparatively thinly 
jiopulated. The first official return, for the county of Frederick, of the 
effective militia, to the executive of Virginia, amounted only to 923 ; the 
whole number of people in Winchester was SOO, probably a small frac- 
tion over. This return and enumeration was made in the year 1777. 

In 1777 Gen. Sullivan "gained possession of some records and i)apers 
belonging to the Quakers, which, with a letter, were forwarded to Con- 
gress, and referred to a committee." On the 28th of August, the com- 
mittee reported, "That the several testimonies which have been published 
since the commencement of the present contest betwixt Great Brilaui and 
America, and the uniform tenor of the conduct and conversation of a rmm- 

"Tlic author is mistaken; lie was an Episcopalian. 


Ijcr of persons ol" (.onsiderable Avealth, avIio profess themselves to belong 
lo the society of people commonly called Quakers, render it certain and 
notorious that those })ersons are with much rancor and bitterness disafTect- 
ed lo tie American cause ; that as those persons will have it in their jinw- 
ei, so there is no doubt it will be their inclination, to communicate intelli- 
gence to the enemy, and in various other ways to injure the councils and 
arms ol" America ; that when the enemy, in the month of December, 
1776, were bonding their progress towards tiie city of Philadelphia, a cer- 
tain sediiious })ublication, addressed 'To our friends and brethren in reli- 
gious profession, in these and the adjacent provinces,' signed John Pem- 
berlon, 'in and on behalf of the meeting of sufferers, held at Philadelphia, 
for Pennsylvania and New Jersey, the 26th of the 12th month, 1776,' 
Avas pub'islicd, and as your committee is credibly informed, circulated 
amongst m;uiy members of the society called Quakers, throughout the 
ilirlcrent States ; that the seditious paper aforesaid originated in Philadel- 
lihia, and as the persons' names who are under-mentioned, have uniform- 
ly miuiifested a disposition highly inimical to the cause of America ; 
thereiore. Unsolved. That it be earnestly recommended to the supreme ex- 
ecutive council oJ" the iitatc of Pennslvania, forthwith to ajiprehend anil 
secure t'lc persons of Joshua Fisher, Abel James, James Pemberton, Ilen- 
ly Drinker, Israel Pemberton, John Pemberton, John James, Samel Plea- 
.sants, Thomas Wharton, sen., Thomas Fisher son of Joshua, anc] Samuel 
Fisher son of Joshua, together with all such papers in their possession as 
may be of a politic;d nature. 

'^Vud whereas there is strong reason to apprehend that these persons 
maintain a correspondence and connection highly jirejudicial to the pub- 
Ji<- safety, not only in this State, but in the sevei-al States of America ; 
Ri'soloidj That it be recommended to the executive powers of the respec- 
tive States, forthwith to apprehend and secure all persons, as well among 
the Quakers as others, who have in their general conduct and conversa- 
tion evinced a disposition inimical to the cause of America ; and that the 
persons so seized be confined in such places, and treated in such manner, 
as shall l)e consistent with their respective characters and security of ilieir 
persons: tliatthc records and papers of the meetings of sufferings in the 
respective Slati :^, be forthwith secured and carefully examined, and that 
such parts ol' them as may be ot' a political jmture, be forthwith transmit- 
ted lo ( "ongi'ess." 

The saiil report being read, and several the paragraphs consideicd and 
ilebatcd, and ibe question put severally thereon, tlie same was agreed lo. 
OiiJcrcd, 'J'hat the board of war reuiove under guard lo a place of securi- 
ty out of tjie State of Pennsylvania, the Hon. John Penn, Esq. ^and Ben- 
jamiii Chew, ICscp; and tbat ihey give orders for having them safely secu- 
icd and I'ntertainid agreeal)lt; to their rank and station in life." A nunr- 
Iht of (imikcrs besitles those mentioned, and several persons of a differ- 
<'nt denomination, were taken up by the supreme executive council of 
Pennsylvania, conixMiiing whom Congress resolved, on the Slh of Scp- 
Ifmbcr, "'J'hat it be recommended to the said council to order the imrne- 
liialG de])aitu:c ol' such of said pristncrb as refuse to t>wear o; alhrm alio- 


glance to the State of Pennsylvania, to Staunton, in Au!T;usta county, 

In conformity with the recommendation of Congress, a numl^er of Qua- 
kers, together with one druggist and a dancing master, were sent to Win- 
chester under guard, with a request from the executive of Pennsylvania, 
directed to the county lieutenant of Frederick, to secure them.. General 
John Smith was then the county lieutenant. When the prisoners were 
delivered into his custody, he proposed to them, that if they would pledgt^ 
their honors not to abscond, they should not be placed in confinement.— 
Among the prisoners were three of the Perabertons, two of the Fishers, 
an old Quaker preacher named Hunt, and several others, amounting in all 
to tw^elve, and, with the druggist and dancing master, fourteen. One of 
the Fishers was a lawyer by profession. He protested in his own name, 
and on behalf of his fellow prisoners, against being taken into custody by 
Col. Smith : stated that they^ had protested against being sent from Phila- 
delphia; that they had again protested at the Pennsylvania line, against 
being taken out of the State ; had repeated their protest at the Maryland 
line, against being taken into Virginia ; that there was no existl«ng law 
which justified their being deprived of their liberty, and exiled from their 
native homes and families, and treated as criminals. To which Colonel 
Smith replied, "It is true that I know of no existing law which will jus- 
tify your detention ; but as you are sent to my care by the supreme exe- 
cutive authority of your native State, and represented as dangerous char- 
acters and as havmg been engaged in treasonable practices with the ene- 
my, I consider it my duty to detain you, at least until I can send an ex- 
press to the governor of Virginia for his advice and direction what to do 
in the premises." He accordingly dispatched an express to W^illiams- 
burg, with a letter to the governor, who soon returned with the orders of 
the executive to secure the prisoners. Col. Smith again repeated that "ff 
they would pledge themselves not to abscond, he would not cause thein; 
to be confined." Upon which one of the Pembertons spoke and observ- 
ed to Fisher, "that his protpst was unavailing, and that they must patient- 
ly submit to their fate." Then addressing himself to Col. Smith, he ob- 
served, "they would not enter into any pledges, and he must dispose of 
them as he thought proper." The colonel then ordered them to be plac- 
ed under sfuard. 

Shortly before this, three hundred Hessian prisoners had been sent to 
Winchester ; there was consequently a guard ready prepared to receive 
these exiles, and they remained in custody about eight or nine months ; 
during which time two of them died, and the whole of them became much 
dejected ; and it is probable more of them would have died of broken 
hearts, had they not been permitted to return. 

Some time after the British left Philadelphia, these exiles employed the 

*See Gordon's History of the American Revolution, vol. 11. pp. 22-2, 

It was at the instance of the late General Isaac Zane, of Frederick 
county, Virginia, that the place of exile was changed from Staunton to- 


late Alexander White, Esq. a lawyer near Winchester, for which they 
])ai(l him one hundred ])Ounds Virirlnia currency in gold coin, to go to 
Philadelphia, and negotiate with the executive authority of the State to' 
]nTmit thcui to return to their families and friends ; in which negotiation 
White succeeded ; and to the great joy and heartfelt satisfaction' of these" 
c'apti\ es, they returned to their native honl'es. 

In the abserpce of the exiles, Sir William Howe, the British general^ 
had taken up Hs head quarters in" John Pcmbcrlon's dwelling house. It 
was a splendid buikling, and had been much abused by the British, who" 
also occupied several other houses belonging to Pemberton, which were 
nnich injured. Pemberton ownbd an elegant carriage, which Sir William 
had taken the liberty of using in his parties of pleasure. When Pem- 
berton saw the situation of his property,- he obtained permission from' the 
pr0[)er authority, and waited on Sir William Howe, and demantlcd in- 
demnification for the injury done to his buildings and carriage. The 
plain nnd independent language he used to the British general on this 
subject, \vas as remarkable for its bluntness, as it was for its f(>arless cha- 
racter. "Thee has (said he) done great damage to my buildings, and 
thee suffered thy w****s-to ride in my carriage, and my wife will not use' 
it since : thee must pay me for the injury, or I will go to thy master (mean- 
in'gthe king of England,) and lay my c'^mplaint before him." Sir Wil- 
liam could l)ut smile at the honest bluntness of the in-in, and thought it 
best to compromise, and pay him a sum of money, v>-itii which the old' 
(junker was satisfied.* 

In 1779 there was a considerable increase of British prisoners at Win- 
che!^tcr, and in 1780 btirracks were erected al)out four miles west of the 
town, to which the {)risoners were removed, and a regular guard kept 
over them. In 1781 the number of jirisoners increased to about 1600. 

It was this year, in the month of January, that (>en. Morgim, ;it the 
l)altlc'of the Cowpens, in South Carolina, gave the British Col. 'i'arltou' 
a most sigiud dei'eal. In this action Morgan displayed the most con- 
summate military skill and bravery. Whilst the two armies were closely 
en""aged, Morgan, discovering the enemy were thrown into some confu- 
sion, (ailed out iu his usiral stentorian voice, "Hurra, my brave boys ! 
another close fire, and the day is ours. Remembp7\ .Morton has never 
been hr all' nV^ The auliior cannot now recollect his authority for this 
stateineiii, but has repeatedly heard itassertedby different individuals Avho 
were acquainted with the fact. 

In the year 181'} the author travelled tludugh South Carolina, and railed 
to see Mr. William Caluu'S, with whom he had an intimate acquaintance 
when quite a youth, having been school-fellows in this county (Frederick.) 
Mr. Calmes was well accpiainted with Gen. Morgan, and related the fol- 
lowing anecdote, in relation to Morgan and Tarlton: 

Tiiere were two brothers, by the name of , citizens of South 

Carolina, men of considerable wealth and respectability, who joined the 
British standnril, and both obtainerl colonel's commissions. One of them 
was at Cornwallis' he;i(l-(|ii;irlers thc(I;iy Tarlton set out determined to 

*(,ien. .John Smitli detailed the foregoing j^.'irliculars to the author. 


take Morn-an nl nil li.iznrd.^. Meeluu' v.iili Cal. , lie {icrosisd hi'.75, 

to the following cfFeot : "Well, colonei, if you will be at his lordship's 
head-quarters (naming the day,) you shall have the pleasure of dining 

Avith the old wagoner." To which Col. — replied, "1 wish you 

success, Col. Tarllon, hut })ennit me lo caution you: you will find Mor- 
gan hard to take." On wliich Tarlton flew iiiloa passion, and thre'dten-- 
ed to arrest the colonel for using such language in hearing of his officers.- 
The latter calndy replied, "Col. Tavlton, I liave staked every thing dear 
to me in this life upon the issue of the present contest. J own a fine es- 
tate. My family and my personal liberty are in danger. If America 
succeeds in establishing her independence, my estate v.dll be forfeited, my 
family reduced to beggary and the least I can expect, (if I escape Avitii 
my life,) will be perpetual exile. Hence, sir, I ino'st ardently Vvdsh you 
success. But permit me again to caution }'ou. ATorgan is a cunning, 
artful officer, and you will find him hard to tak(\" Tarlton, however, 
pushed off in high glee, determined at every risk to capture Morgan and 
his little band of warriors. The result was soon known at his lordship's- 

head-quarters; and it so happened, when Tarlton returned, Col. 

was present. The moment Tarlton saw him he apologized to him for 

the harsli language he had used towards him, and e:lclaimed, "By ! 

Morgan is truly a great man !" This extorted praise from this haughty 
Britisli officer speaks volumes for the high military talents of General 

At the close of the Avar this refugee colonel tonk shelter for himself 
and family in the British dominions of Canada, and liis fine estate was 
confiscated. He hoAvever petitioned the' government of South Carolina; 
and from his general good character in private life, an act of pardon, to- 
gether Avith the restoration of his estate, Avas passed, and he returned to 
its enjoyment Avith all the privileges of a free citiz:en. After his return- 
Mr. Calmes became acquainted Avitli him, and leceived the above state- 
ment of facts from him.- 

The brother of this officer, from some acts of ferocious cruelty practic- 
ed upon the friends of the American cause, had his estate also confiscated,- 
The goverment refused to restore it, and passed an- act of perpetual ban- 
ishment against him. 

In 1781 CornAvallis cnte'-ed Virginia at the head o[ a large army, and 
m the month of June a party of tories raised the British standard'on Lost 
river, then in the county of l'iarapsh:re'(no\v Hardy.) John Claypole, n 
vScotsman by birth, and his tAVo sons, ATere at the head of the insurrection.-* 
Claypole had the address to draAv over to his party a considerable' majori- 
ty of the people on Lost river, and a number on the South fork of the 
Wappatomaka. They first manifested symptoms of rebellion by refusing: 

*Moses Russell, Esq., informed the author, that it Avas reported and' 
believed at the time that Claypole's t\ro sons wi-ni to North Carolina, and 
had an intervicAv Avith Lord Cornwallis, Avho appointed and commission-' 
cd them both captain* in th^ British srrvice, and sent the commi.ssinn oC 
colonel tx) their father. 



to pay their taxe^ and refusing to furnish their quota of men to serve in 
the militia. The sheriffs, or collectors of the revenue, complained to Coi. 
Vanmeter, of the county of Hampshire, that tliey Avcre resisted in their 
attempts to discharge their ollicial duties, ^vhen the colonc! ordered a 
captain and thirty nien to their aid. The insurgents armed themselves, 
and determined to resist. Anioiig them was John Brake, a German of 
considerable wealth, wdio resided about fd'teen miles above Moorelield, on 
the South fork of the river, and whose house became the place of ren- 
dezvous for the insurgents. When the sheriff went up with the militia 
posse, fifty men appeared in arm?. The posse and tories unexpectedly 
met in the public road. Thirty -five of the latter broke and ran about 
one liundred yards, and then formed, while fifteen stood firm. The cap- 
tain of the guard called out for a parley, when a free conversation took 
place, in which this dangerous proceeding on the part of the tories was 
pointed out, with the terrible consequences which must inevitably follow. 
It is said that had a pistol been fired, a dreadful scene of carnage would 
have ensued.* The tv.'o parties, however, parted without bloodshed. — 
But instead of the tory party retiring to their respective homes and at- 
tending to their domestic duties, the spirit of insurrection increased. — 
They began to organize, appointed officers, and made John Claypole 
their commander-in-chief, v/ith the intention of raarchin!i;off in a bodv to 
Cornwallis, in the event of his advancing into the valley or near it. 

Several expresses were sent to Col. Smith, requesting the aid of the 
militia, in the counties immediately adjoining, to quell this rebellion. He 
addressed letters to the commanding officers of Berkeley and Shenandoah, 
beat up for volunteers in Frederick, and in a few days an army of four hun- 
dred rank and file were well mounted and equipped. Gen. Morgan, 
who, after the defeat of Tarlton and some other military services, had ob- 
tained leave of absence from the army, and was now reposing on his 
farm (Saratoga) in Frerlerick, and whose name was a host in itself, was 
solicited to take th(; command, with wiiich he readily complied. About 
the 18th or SOth of .June the army marched fiom Winchester, and in two 
days arrived in the neighborhood of this tory section of Hardy county. — 
They halted al Clavpole's house,! and took him prisoner. Several young 
men fled ; among them William Baker. As he ran across Clay[)ole's 
meadow he was hailed and ordered to surrender ; but disregarding the 
command, Capt. Abraham Byrd, of Shenandoah county, an excellent 
marksman, rais(?d his rille, fired, and wounded him in the leg.:}: He fell, 
and several of Morgan's party went to him to see the result. The ball 
had penetrated just above the heel, ranged up the leg, and shivered the 

•Isaac Vanmeter, Esq., then about eighteen years of age, was one of 
the posvf, and related these iiiets to the author. 

|('laypole's I'orrncr residence is now owned by Mr. Miller, and is about 
forty-five or iifty miles south-west of Winchester, on Lost river in Hardy 

jThc spot was poinfi^l out to the aulhor, by Mr. Miller, where Byrd 
stood when he h.^'d at Baker, anl where Ba!:.'r fell. The diataruie is 
-.Lout four hundred vards. 


bones. As the poor fellow begged for mercy, he was taken lo the house, 
and his wound dressed by the surgeon ol" the regiment. He recovered, 
and is still living. They took from Claypole provisions for themselves 
and horses, Col. Smith (who was second in command,) giving liim a cer- 
tificate for their value. 

From Claypole's the army moved up Lost river, and some young men 
in the advance took a man named Matthias ^Vilkins prisoner, placed a 
rope round his neck, and threatened to hang him.. CoJ. Smith rode u}), 
saw what was going on, and ordered them instantly to desist. They al- 
so caught a man named John Payne, and branded him on the posteriors 
wnth a red hot spade, telling him they would make him a freemason. — 
Claypole solemnly promised to be of good behavior, gave bail and was 
;set at liberty. 

The army thence crossed the South Branch mountain. On or near the 
summit they saw a small cabin, which had probably been erected by some 
hunters. Gen. Morgan ordered it to be surrounded, observing, "It is 
probable some of the tories are now in it." As the men approached the 
(Cabin, ten or a dozen fellows ran out and fled. An elderly man, named 
Mace, and two of his sons, Vv'ere among them. Old Mace, finding him- 
self pretty closely pursued, surrendered. One of the pursuers was Capt, 
William Snickers, an aid-de-camp of Morgan, who being mounted on a 
fme horse, was soon alongside of him. One of Mace's sons looking 
round at this instant, and seeing Snickers aiming a blow with a drav>-;i 
sword at his father, drew up his ritie and fired at him. The ball passed 
through the crest of his horse's neck; he fell, and threw the rider over his 
Jiead. Snickers was at first thought by his friends to be killed ; and in 
the excitement of the moment, an Irishman, half drunk, who had been 
with Morgan for some tim.e as a waiter, and had seen much tory blood 
shed in the Carolinas, ran up to the prisoner (Mace) with a cocked pis- 
tol in his hand, and shot the poor man, who fell, and instantly expired. 
Capt. Snickers soon recovered fron» the bruises received in his fall, as did 
his horse also from the VvOund in his neck. 

The army proceeded on to pay their respects to Mr. John Brake, an 
old German, who had a fine farm with extensive meadov.'S, a mill, large 
distillery, and many fat hogs and cattle. He was an exception, in his po- 
litical course, to his countrymen, as they were almost to a man, true 
whigs, and friends to their country. Brake, as before observed, had join- 
"^d the tory band, and liis house was their place of rendezvous, where 
they feasted on the best he had. All this appearing unquestionable, Mor- 
gan marched his army to his residence, ihere halted, and spent two days 
and nio;hts with his reluctant host. His troops lived on the best his fine 
farm, mill and distillery afforded, feasting on his pigs, fatted calves, young 
beeves, lambs, poultry, &c., vrhile their horses, fared no less luxuriously 
upon his fine unmown meadows, oat fields, &,c. As Brake had enter- 
tained and feasted the tories, Morgan concluded that he should feast them 
MX turn. 

'.ri'e third day, in 1he morning, tiic army moved on down Ihc livcr,. 
passed by Moorefiekl, and returned to Winchester, where it was disbsnid- 
edj after a service of only about eight or ten days. Thus was this tory 


iiisunociiou 1 1111.11641 in tjiu bud. The puity ihcmselvcs became asliained 
.of their conduct, and in some de;:^ree to ulone for it, and wipe off the stain, 
several of the young men volunteered tlieir services and rnniched to aid 
in the capture of Cornwall is. 

Within three or four days after these men were disbanded, two expres- 
ses in one day arrived at Winchester, and informed Col. Smith thatTarl- 
ton was on his way to rescue the British prisoners at the Winchester bar- 
racks. Col. Smith had again to call out the militia; and ordering four 
hundred men as a guard, removed the prisoners to Fort Frederick, in Ma- 
ryland, at which jilace they remained to the end of the war.* 

The summer of 1781 v/as emphaticaliy the summer of militia cam- 
paigns. There were frequent alarms that Tarlton and his legion (of de- 
vils, some people termed them,) were on tjieiv v\-ay to visit our valley ; 
and sometimes it was reported that Cornwallis and his whole army would 
be upon us. The militia was almost constantly marching and counter- 

It however pleased Heaven so to order things, tjiat Cornwallis and his 
large army should be entrapped and captured at Yorktown, in Virginia. — 
This put an end to the scourge of the war ; and our people being permit- 
ted to enjoy the blessings of peace and agriculture, commerce and the 
mechanical arts improved in a most astonishing degree. The French and 
British armies circulated immense sums of money in gold and silver coin, 
which had the effect of driving out of circulation the wretched paper 
currency which had till then prevailed. Immense quantities of British 
and French goods were soon imported: our people imbibed a taste for 
foreiy^n fashions and luxurv ; and in the course of two or three ^ ears, from 
the close of the war, such an entire change had taken place in the habits 
and manners of our inhabitants, that it almost appeared as if we had sud- 
denly become a different nation. The staid and sober habits of our an- 
cestors, with their plain home-manufactured clo'.hing, were suddenly laid 
aside, and European goods of fme quality adopted in their stead. Fine 
ruiHes, powdered heads, silks and scarlets, decorated the men; while the 
most costly silks, satins, chintzes, calicoes, muslins, iLc, 8iA\, decorated 
our females. Nor their diet less expensive ; for su})eib plate, for- 
eign spiiits, wines, &,{*., &,<:., sparkled on the sideboards of many farmers. 
The natural result of this change of the habits andcustomsof the people 
— this aping of European manners and morals, — was to suddenly drain 
our country of its ciifulating specie ; and as a necessary cnnsequeiu^e, 
th<' })eople ran in debt, times became dilHrult, and money hard to raise. 

'f'he sufferiiijcs and hard dealings witli the Quakers deserve some notice 
in this place. Tlie unftutunate proceedings of the Philadelphia Quakers 
drew down upon tlu- v.holr- order the strong prejudices and even hatred 
o\' the friiTuls to the .•.Vmerican cause. The treasonable prcjceedings of a 
few individuals ought not to have been visited upon the wlu^le order of 
(^uaki I-. it must be admitted, hf)\ve\er, that this proceeding was a great 

*(jtii, .Jolm Smitli CMiiiiiiiiiiicatrd all the jiartinilars of the tbregoing 
narratiw to the author, wiiii the exception of br;dmding Fayne with the 
rsjjade; this f.:ct was .stated by .Mr. Chrisrnwion Lost River, 


Llot U})oii Quaker cliaracter, and stamped tlie individuals concerned iu it, 
with base hypocrisy, and gave the lie to their reUgious professions. — 
Whilst they professed to hold it unlawful to shed human blood ; whilst 
they disclaimed all concern with the war ; they were secretly giving in- 
telligence to the enemy, and aiding and abetting them in every way they 
could, except resorting to arms. But it is again repeated that it was un- 
just with one fell sweep to condemn the whole order, for the malconduct 
of a lev/ individuals. The Quakers in the valley, notwithstanding their 
entire neutrality, were unquestionably the greatest sufi'erers by the war. — 
They refused to bear arms, they refused to pay war taxes, and hence the 
sheriffs or collectors were compelled to destrain and sell their property to 
raise their respective proportion of the public burthens. 

At the beginning of the war, attempts were made to compel them to 
bear arms, and serve in the militia ; but it was soon found unavailing. — 
They would not perform any military duty required of them : not even the 
scourge would compel them to submit to discipline. The practice of co- 
ercion was therefore abandoned, and the Legislature enacted a law to levy 
a tax upon their property to hire substitutes to perform militia duty in then' 
stead. This, with other taxes, bore peculiarly heavy upon them. Their 
personal property was sold under the hammer to raise these public de- 
mands ; and before the war was over, many of them were reduced to 
great distress in their pecuniary circumstances. 

There is an amusing story told of James Gotharp, who resided on 
Apple-pie. ridge. He was forced to march with a militia company, and 
on one particular occasion was placed as sentry at a baggage wagon, 
with oiders to suffer no man to go into the wagon without a written order 
from the commanding officer. One of the oiiicers walking to the wagon 
to go in, Gotharp demanded his written authority : the officer cursed him 
and stepped upon the houns of the wagon. Gotharp seized him by his 
legs and pulled his feet off the houns. The officer fell with his face upon 
the houns and had his nose and mouth sorely bruised. 

This selling of Quakers' property afforded gieat opportunity for design- 
ing individuals to make protitable speculations. They continued to re- 
fuse to pay taxes for several years after the war, holding it unlawful to 
contribute their money towards discharging the v/ar debt. This being 
at length adjusted, no part of our citizens pay their public demands with 
more punctuality, (except their muster fines which the}' still refuse to pay.) 
Owning to their industrious and sober habits, they soon recovered from 
their pecuniary distress produced by the war, and are generally speaking 
the most independent part of our community. Vast numbers of them 
have migrated to the western country, and several of their meetings are 
entirely broken up. There is however, still a considerable number of 
them in the counties of Frederick and Berkeley. They continued then- 
ancient practice of depending upon their household manufactures for their 
clothing; and it was a long time before they gave into the practice of 
purchasing European goods. A few of them entered into the mercantile 
business ; several others erected fine merchant mills ; others engaged in 
mechanical pursuits; hut the great body of them arc farmers, and are ge- 
nerally most exccllcnl cultivators of the soil. 


The greater p.irt of llie Germans, also, were a long time dependent up- 
on their domestic manufaetures for their elothirig; but they, too, have 
imbibed a taste for foreign finery. They however manage to effect their 
purchases by liartering, in a considerable degree, their own household 
manufactures in exchange. 

Some three or four years ago the author called at the house of a farmer 
in the southwest part of Shenandoah county, where he saw five spinning 
wheels at work. The old lady, three of her daughters, and a hired girl, 
were busily engaged in spinning finely prepared hemp. The author en- 
quired of the old lady, whether she sold any part of her domestic goods. 
To which she replied, "-Yes ; when de gals wants to puy some fine dings 
in de sthore, dey bay for it in linen und linsey ; und I puy sugar and gof- 
fee, und salt, u;ul any dings we wants, und I bay for it all in our own 

The author stopped at a neighboring house, and inquired of the in- 
mates how their neighbor I got along. "0," replied the man, "Mr. 

J. l)uys a plantation every four or five years, and always pays the money 




Tmt. first houses erected by the primitive settlers were log cabuis, Vvith 
rovers of split cla[)boards, and weight poles to keep them in place. They 
were frequently seen with earthen floors; or if wood floors were used, 
they were made of split puncheons, a little smoothed with the broad-axe. 
These houses were jiretly generally in use since the author's recollection. 
There were, however, a few framed and stone buildings erected previous 
to the war of the revolution. As the country improved in population and 
wealth, there was a corresponding improvement in the erection of build- 

VVhrn this improvement commenced, the most general mode of build- 
inc: was with hfwn logs, a shingle roof and plank floor, the plank cutout 
with a whip saw. As it is jirobablc some of my young readers have ne- 
ver seen a whip saw, a short description of it may not be uninteresting. 
It was aliout the length of the common mill saw, with a handle at each 
f-nd transversely fixed to it. The timlier intended to be sawed was first 
squared with the broad-axe, and then raised on a scaffold six or seven feet 
high. Two able-bodied men then took hold of the saw, one standing on 
the lop ol' the log and tlie other under it, and commenced sawing. The 


labor was excessively fatiguing, and about one hundred feet of plank or 
scantling was considered a good day's work for tlie two hands. The in- 
troduction of saw mills, however, soon superseded the use of the whio- 
saw, but they were not entirely laid aside until several years alter the war 
of the revolution. 

The dress of the early settlers was of the plainest materials — general- 
ly of their own manufacture; and if a modern "-belle" or "beau" were 
now to witness the extreme plainness and simplicity of their fashions, the 
one would be almost thrown into a ht of hysterics, and the other light- 
ened at the odd and grotesque appearance of their progenitors. 

Previous to the war of the revolution, the married men generally sha- 
ved their heads, and either wore wigs or white linen caps. When the 
war commenced, this fashion was laid aside, partly from patriotic consid- 
erations, and partly from necessity. Owing to the entire interruption of 
the intercourse wdth England, wigs could not easily be oblained, nor white 
linen for caps. 

The men's coats were generally made with broad backs, and straiglit 
short skirts, with pockets on the outside having large flaps. The waist- 
coats had skirts nearly half w^ay down to the knees, and vei-}" broad pock- 
et flaps. The breeches w^ere so short as barely to reach the knee, with it 
band surrounding the knee, fastened with either brass or silver buckles. — 
The stocking was drawn up under the knee-band, and tied with a garter 
(generally red or blue) below the knee, so as to be seen. The shoes were- 
of coarse leather, with straps to the quarters, and fastened with either 
brass or silver buckles. The hat was either wool or fur, with a round 
crown not exceeding three or four inches high, with a broad brim.* The' 
dress for the neck w^as usually a narrow collar to the shirt, with a white- 
linen stock drawn together at the ends, on the back of the neck, with a- 
broad metal buckle. The more wealthy and fashionable were sonietimess- 
seen with their stock, knee and shoe buckles, set either in gold or silver 
with brilliant stones. The author can recollect, when a child, if he hap- 
pened to see any of those finely dressed "great folk," as they were then 
termed, he felt awed in their presence, and viewed them as something 
more than man. 

The female dress was generally the short gown and petticoat made of 
the plainest materials. The German women mostly wore tight calico 
caps on their heads, and in the summer season they were generally seeii 
with no other clothing than a linen shift and petticoat — the feet, hands, 
and arms bare. In hay and harvest time, they joined the men in the la- 
bor of the meadow and grain fields. This custom, of the females labor- 
ing in the time of harvest, was not exclusively a German practice, but 
was common to all the northern people. Many females were most expert 
mowers and reapers. Within the author's recollection, he has seen sev- 
eral female reapers who were equal to the stoutest males in the harvest 
field. It was no uncommon thing to see the female part of the family at 

*The Quakers were remarkable for their broad brim hats. They were 
sometimes called "Broadbrims," by u-ay of distinguishing thcin from oth'- 
er people. 


the hoc or plow ; and some oi" our now wealthiest citiz'ens frequently 
boast of their grandmothers, aye mothers too, performing this kind of 
heavy labor. 

The natural result of this kind of rural life was, to produce a hardy 
and vigorous race of poo|.)le. It was this race of })eople who had to 
meet and breast the various Indian wars and the storms of the revolu- 

The Dutchman's barn was usually the best building on liis farm. He 
was sure to erect a fine large barn, before he built any other dwt.'lling- 
house than his rude log cabin. There were none of our primitive immi- 
grants more uniform in the form of their buildir>gs than the Germans. — 
Their dwcllinix-houses were seldom raised more than a siriHe sloiy in 
height, with a large cellar beneath ; the chnnney in the middle, v/ith a 
very wide fire-place in one end for the kitchen, in the other end a stove 
room. Their furniture was of the simplest and plainest kind; and there 
was always a long pine table fixed in one corner of the stove room, with 
permanent benches on one side. On the upper floor, garners for holding 
grain were very common. Their beds were generally filled with straw or 
chaff, with a fine fi-ather bed for covering in the winter. The author has 
several times slept in this kind of a bed ; and to a ))erson unaccustomed 
to it, it is attended not unfrequcntly with danger to the health. The thick 
covering of the feathers is pretty certain to })roduce a profuse perspira- 
tion, which an exposure to cold, on rising in the morning, is apt to check 
suddenly, causing chillness and obstinate cough. The atithor, a few 
years ago, caught in this way the most severe cold, which \ras followed 
by a long and distressing cough, he was ever aillicted with. 

Many of the Germans have what they call a drum, through which the 
stove pipe passes in their upper rooms. It is made of sheet iron, some- 
thing in the shape of the military drum. It soon fills with heat from the 
pipe, by which the rooms become agreeably warm in the coldest weather. 
A piaz/a is a very common appendage to a Dutchman's dwelling-house, 
in which his saddles, bridles, and very frequently his wagon or plow har- 
ness are hung up. 

The Germans erect stables for their domestic animals of every species : 
even their swine are housed in the winter season. Their barns and sta- 
bles are well storcid with provender, particularly fine hay : hence their 
quadrupeds of all kinds are kept throughout the year in the finest possi- 
ble order. This practice of housing slock in the winter season is un- 
questionably great economy in husbandry. Much less food is required to 
sustain them, and the animals come out in the spring in fine health and 
condition. It is a rare occurrence to hear of a Dutchman's losing any 
part of his stock with poverty. The practice of housing stork in the 
winter is not exclusively a Cierman custom, but it Is common to most of 
the nf)rth('rn people, and those descended from immigrants from the north. 
The author recollects once seeing the cow stalls adjoining a farmer's 

The (lerman women, many of them, are remarkably neat housekeep- 
ers. Th*^re arc some of them, however, extremely slovenly, and their 
dwellings are kept in the worst possible condition. The effiiivla arising 


ffon this want of cleanlines is in the highest degree disgusting and offen- 
sive to persons nnaccustoined to such fare. The same remarks are appli- 
eable to the Irish ; r^ay to some native Virginians, The Germans are 
remarkable for their tine bread, milk and butter. They consume in their 
diet less animal flesh, and of course more vegetables, than most other peo- 
ple. Their "sour krout"* in the winter constitutes a considerable part of 
their living. They generally consume less, and sell more of the product 
of their labor, than any other class of our citizens. A Dutchman is pro- 
verbial for his patient perseverance in his domestic labors. Their farms- 
are generally small and nicely cultivated. In his agri."ultural pursuits, 
his meadows demand his greatest care and attention. His littie farm is 
laid off in fields not exceeding ten or twelve acres each. It is rarely seen 
that a Dutchman will cultivate more than about ten or twelve acres in In- 
dian corn any one year. They are of opinion that the corn crop is a great 
exhauster of the soil, and they make but little irsc of corn for any other' 
purpose than feeding and fattening their swine. 

Previous to the war of the revolution, and tor f^veral years after, con- 
siderable quar?tities of tobacco were raised in the lower counties of the 
valley. The cultivation of this cro'p was first introduced and pursued by 
immigrants from the eastern counties- of Virginia. From the newly 
cleared lands, two crops of tobacco in succession were g(;iierally taken, 
and it was then appropriated to the culture of other crops. The crop of 
tobacco left the soil in the finest possible state for the production of other 
crops. Cor«, wheat, rye, flax, oats, pota'toes, and every thing elsp, were 
alraost certain to produce abundant crops, after the crop of tobacco. 

In the year 1794 the Fj-encli revolution broke out, when bread stuffs of 
every kind suddeiTly became enonnously higli ; in consequence of v.-hich 
the farmers in the valley abandoned the cultivation of tobacco, and turned 
their attention to wheat, which 1hey raised in vast quaiitiii<:'s for several 
years. It was no uncommon thing for the farmer, for several years after 
the commencement of the French revolution, to sell his crop'-^ of wheat 
from one to^ two, and sometimes at tvro and a half dollars per bushel, and 
his flour from ten to fourteen dollars per barrel in our seaport towns. 

In the year 1796, the Hessian fly first made its appearance in Virginia. 

*"Sour krout'' is made oT the best of cabbagp. A box about three 
feet in length, and six or seven inches wide, with a sharp bladp fixed 
across the bottom, something on the principle of the jack plane, is used 
for cutting the cabbage. The head bein,T separated from the stalk, and 
stripped of its outer leaves, is placed in this box, and run back and forth. 
The cabbage thus cut up is placed in a barrel, a little salt sprinkled on 
from time to time, then pressed down very closely, and covered over at 
the open hend. in the course of three or four weeks it acquires a sour- 
ish taste, and to persons accustomed to the use of it, is a A-erv agreeable 
and wholesome food. It is said that the u.h-. of it, within ihe last few 
years, onboard of ships, has proved it to be the best preven;i\-e known 
for the scurvy. The use of it is liccomin'j,- pretty general nmnn'/ nil rks- 
*?s of people in the vailcv. ■-- 

. s • • • ■ ■ • 


Us ravagos that year were liinlte<l, and IhU liiile (hmiage was iir 
the crops of wheat. The crop of 1797, m the counties contiguous to the 
Potomac, was generally destroyed, and the same year partial injury was 
discovered in Frederick county. The crop of 1798, throughout the coun- 
ty of Frederick, was nearly destroyed. Isver since which time the far- 
mers have annually suffered more or less from tiie ravages of this destruc- 
tive destroyer. This insect had prevailed in some of the northern States 
for several years before it reached Virginia. It is said it first appeared on 
Long Island, and was believed to have been imported by the Hessian 
troops in their straw bedding in the time of the war of the revolution. — 
If this be true, it was a w^oful curse upon our country — of which it pro- 
bably will never be relieved. The present generation have abundant 
cause to execrate the inhuman policy of our parent vState in bringing up- 
on us this heavy calamity, and all future generations Avill probably join in 
condemning thf British ministry who forced upon our ancestors that un- 
righteeus and disastrous war. 




Charles IT., king of England, granted to the ancestors of the late lord 
Fairfax all the lands lying between the hearl waters of the Rappahannock 
and Potomac to the Chesapeake bay. This immense grant included tlic 
territory now comprising the counties of Lancaster, Northumheiland, 
Richmond, Westmoreland, Stafford, King George, Prince William, Fair- 
fax, Loudon, Fauquier, Culpeper, Madison, Page, Shenamloah, Hardy, 
Hampshire, Morgan, Berkeley, .Jefferson and Fretlerick. It is said thai 
the grant to the ancestors of Fairfax was only intended to include 
the territory in the Northern Neck east of the Blue ridge; but after Fair- 
fax discovered that the Potomac river headed in the Allegany mountains, 
he returned to England, .ind instituted hi^ petition in the court of 
kmg's bench for extending his grant into li\e Allegany mountains, so as 
to inclutie the territory composing the present counties of Page, Shenan- 
doah, Hardy, Hampsliire, Morgan, Berkeley, .Jefferson and Frederick. — 
A compromise took place between Fairfax and the crown : but ])revious 
to the institution of Fairfax's suit, several individuals had obtained grants 
ibr large bodies of land west of the Blue rid^re, from the colonial govern- 
ment of Virginia. In the compromise it was expressly stipulated that 
the holders o( lands, under what were then called the king's grants, wera 
xa be quiet€<] in th*!!! right of possessicr. 



Joist .Hite and his partners had obtained grafts for a large body. Fair- 
tax, under tlie pretext that Hite, &c., had not complied with the terms of 
their grants, took it upon himself to grant away large quantities of these 
lands to other individuals. This arbitrary aji(J high-lianded proceeding 
on the part of his lordship, produced a lawsuit, which Hite and his part- 
ners instituted in the year 1736, and in the year 1786 it was decided. — 
Hite and partners recovered a large amount of money for the rents and 
profits, and a considerable quantity of land.* 

The immense Fairfax estate has passed out of the hands of Fairfax's 
heirs. The lands (as observed in a preceding chapter) were granted liy 
Fairfax in fee simple to his tenants, subject to an annual rent of two shil- 
lings sterling per hundred acres.. This small rent amounted in the aggre- 
gate to a very large sum ; added to which, i-'airfax required the payment 
of ten shillings sterling on each hfty acres, (what he termed composition 
money,) which was paid on issuing the grant. 

About the year 1742, his lordship opened his office in the county of 
Fairfax for granting out the land. A few years after, he removed to the 
county of Frederick, and settled at what he called "iJreenway-Court," 
about 12 or 14 miles south-east of VVincheeter, where he kept his land 
office during his life. He died in the autumn of 17'8l, very soon after 
the surrender of Cornwallis. It is said that as soon as he heard of the 
<:^pture of Cornwallis and his army, he called to his servant to assist hiiu 
to bed, observing, "It is time for me to die ;" and truly the old mini m;- 
ver again left his bed until he was consigned to the tomb. His body was 
deposited under the communion table in the then lipiscopai church in 

*Tn the year 1736, Fairfax entered a caveat against Hite, &.c., aUedg- 
ing that the lands claimed by them were withm the bounds of the North- 
•era Neck, and consequently his property. 'J nis was the beginning ot 
the controversy, and led to the suit instituted by Hite and partners against 
him. All the })arttes died before the suit was decided. Hite in 1731 
purchased from John and Isaac Vanmeter their right or warrant for lo(;a~ 
ting 40,000 acres : Hite and McKay obtained a w^arrant for locating 100,- 
00(3 acies more in their own names : and in order to obtain settlers, look 
in Robert Green and William Duff as partners. Hence tiie firm of .Joisi 
Hite, Robert McKay, Robert Green, and William DuiT. i.iieen and Dulf 
settled in Culpeper county, and are the ancestors of the families of tlior,e 
names in that'county, and of Gen. Duff Green, of W^^shington City. 

fLord Fairfax made a donation to the Episcopal society, of a lot of 
land, upon which a large stone building v/as erected as a place of worslii]). 
The lot is in the center of the town : and, attached to the church, was a 
large burial ground, in which a great number of bodies were de])0sited. 
The Episcopal society lately sold at auction this ancient building and lot 
for twelve thousand dollars. The purchasers caused the skeh^tons to be 
removed, and there are now three elegant brick houses erected on the lot. 
WTth the money arising from the sale the Ej)iscopal society ])urcl!ased a 
lot on Boscowenajid Washington streets, and have built a splendid nevv' 
church. Itii. to be recrrctlcd that no ucco'.;iit was taken of the number 


In the year 1785 the Le^n^^l-jim-cof Virjrinia pa.'^secl :iii act wliicli among 
other provisions (in rehitiou to the Nortliera Neck,) is the I'ollowinir : 

"And be it further enacted, that the hmdhohler.s witliin the said dis- 
trict of llie Northern Neck shall be forever hereafter exonerated and dis- 
charged from comi)osition and quiti-ents, any law, custom or usage, to tiie 
contrary notwithstanding."* This act of the iitate lieed the peoj)le from 
a vexatious and troublesome kind of taxation. Fairfax's re])resentatives 
.soon sold out their interest in his private estate in this country, and it is 
■ believed there is no ])art oi' this vast landed estate remaining in the hands 
of any branch of the Fairfax family. Chief Justice iMarshaJl, the late Ra- 
leigh Colston, Esq., and the late Gen, Henry Lee, purchased the right of 
Fan-fax's legatees (in England) to what is cailed the iManor of Leeds,! 
South Branch Manor, Patterson's Creek Manor, and various other tracts 
of land of immense valuc^ — the most of which had been leased out for 
long terms or lives. This estate has been the cause of more litigation 
probably than any other estate in Virginia. Suits growing out of the case 
of Hite, &.C., against Fairfax, are yet depending in our courts — and some 
of the tenants in the iManor of Leeds have lately taken it in their heads 
that the Fairfax title is defective, and lefuse to pay rents to the jiresent 
<'laimants. This refusal has produced a lawsuit, whit^h will doubtless be 
along time pending. 

This profligate manner of granting aw;iy lands in immense bodies wns 
un(|uesiioiiably foundted in the most unwise and unjust poli<-v. Instead of 
promoting the speedy s-'ttlement and in)pi'ovement ot' the country — in- 
stead of holding out to the bulk of society every possible encouragement 
lonjake the most speedy settlement and improvement of the new counliy 
— monopolies in several instances were given, or pretended to be sold to 
a few favorites of the governing powers, whereby these favorites were 
e'nabled to amass vast estates, and to lord it over the great majority of 
their I'ellow men. Such are the blessings of kingly gmermnents. Hut 
the jieople of this I'vitc and happy re])ul)lic have abundant cause to rejoice 
and bless their God that lliis wretched kind of jiolicy and bigh-haiuk'd 
injustice is done away, in the freedom and wisdom of our institutions, 
and that we have no longer our ears assailed, noroni- understandings out- 
rigeil, with the disgusting, high sounding title of "My lord !" applied to 
])oorirail human beings. 

Lord Fairiax was the coiiiity lioutenant for Frederick for several years. 

of skeletons removed. The author inquired of several persons, who wore 
t'oncorned in the removal, no one of whom could give aiiv account of the 
number. It is probable there weiv: not less than 1,0UU — the .skeleton of 
Jvord Fairfax among thmi. 

*See Revised Code of tiic I>aws oi' \ irginia, \(>l. i. |). 3.")]. 

t'i'he Manor of Leeds is hji-ated in the counties of ('ulpcper, Fanqn'cr 
and Frederick, and contains about >15U,()00 acres; the South P>ranrh Ma- 
nor in Hardy, f).'), 000 ; l-*atterson'sr(,-ri'ek in Hampshire, L>,CCO acres. — 
(Joony-liun .Manor, whicli adjoins The .Manor of Leed''^ contains about 
JO. 000 acres, and her- chic^^ m Slrnnndocdi count\. 

or \"IR(;]N!A. J41 

<J\.\ looking into {hi', record ol' the jJroccetUngs ui" the coaii-iiuiniiil, the 
author found the following entry : 

"At a council of war, held for regulatijigthe isiiliiiii of Frederick <'oun- 
fy, in order to take such steps as shall be thought most exj,cdient in the 
present critical conjuncture, the 14th day of Apiil, 1'75G ; present, tlie 111, 
Hon. the lord Fairfax, county lieutenant; John Hite, major ; John Lind- 
•s€y, Isaac Parkins, Richard .Aloigan, Sanil. Odell, Fdward Rodgers, Je- 
remiah Smith,* Thoinas Caton, Paul Long, captains. 

"Proposals having been sent to the several captains o[' ilic militia, sign- 
«d by the commanding officer of the said militia, and (kn^'d the 7th day 
of April, 175b, to get what volunteers they could encouraf-e to go in 
search of the Indian enemy who are daily ravaging fuir iVoiitiers and com- 
mitting their accustomed cruelties on the inhabitants^ ; and the aforesaid 
officers beinsr met to^'tther, and fmding the imniber oj' men insufficient to 
g;o against the enemy, it is considered that the uicn be discharged, being 
onlv fifteen. FAIRFAX," 

From this it appeals tliat lord Fairfax, among others, was an attentive 
officer in the time of the Indian wars. In trull; it behooved liis lordship 
to be active. He had more at stake, and the command of greater funds, 
than anv other individual member of society, 'j'he Indian hoslilities re- 
tarded the settlement of his large domain, and of course lessened liis rev- 
enue. It is said that his lordship was remarkable for his eccentricities 
and singularity of disposition and character, and iha.t he Imd an insatiable 
passion for hoarding up English gold.f He never married ; of course 
lefi no child to inheiit his vast estate ; but devised his })ro[rcrty, or a large 
portion of it, to the Rev. Denny Martin, his nephev/ in Fngland, on con- 
dition that he would apply to the parliament of Great ]]rit;tin for an art 
to authorize him to take the name oi lord Fairfax. Tliis was done ; and 
Dennv Lord Fairfax, like his uncle, never marrying, he devised the es- 
tate to Gen. Philip Martin, v/ho, never marrying, and dying without is- 
sue, devised the estate to tvso old maiden sisters, who sold it to Messrs. 
Alarshall, Colston and Lee. 

He devised that part of his estate on which he resided, and which he 
•<:alled "Greenway-Court Manor," (containing ten thousand acres, with a 
large part of his slaves, &,c.,) to another nephew, the late Col. Thomas 
Bryan Martin, who had resided with him for many yeai's jjrcA ious to his 
death. Col, Martin, like the others, never married. ]5ul he con1ri\cd to 
make a daughter by a Mrs. Crawford, who Lord Fairfax had employed as 
a liousekeeper. Al'tei- Fairfax's death, Martin kept this woman as a mis- 
tress for several years : she died, and the daughter grew up and married 

*Capl. Jeremiah Smith, llie same v>ho defeated tiic j)arty of fifty In- 
dians, and killed the French ca])tain, noticed in a preceding chapter. 

fSome four or five years ago the slaves of the Rev. Mr. Kennerly, the 
present proprietor of "Greenway-Court," in ([unrrying slone, not far from 
Fairfax's ancient dwellinL''-house, found about !^250 w(3rth of gold coin, 
supposed to have been hidden there by his lord' hi2K 

142 X-OilTiiEi?N \ECK. 

Ihc irile i-'rancis (iokrart, vvlio was a captain in ihe Brilibh service m the 
war <){" the revohilioa. She died soon ai'ter her marriage without issue. 
Martin gave Gekiart about one thousand acres of land, part ol" "Green- 
Avay-Court Alanor," wiih a niimber of slaves, &c. CoL Martin, after the 
• ieathof his dau^^htcr, employed a white housekeeper, a Miss Powers, to 
whom he devised Greenway-Court, with one thousand acres of land, a 
number of slaves, and all the residue of his personal estate of every de- 
-•scription, (with the exception of part of his stock, slaves, and money.) 
Miss Powers, after the death of Martin, married the late Air. W. Carna- 
gy, by wiiom she had an only (kiughter, who is now the wife of the Rev. 
Mr. Thomas Kennerly. Col. Martin dir-ected by his will the sale of all 
the residue of his estate, and the money arising from the sale to be remit- 
ted and paid to his two maiden sisters in Enghmd.* Shortly after his 
death an attempt was made to escheat the landed estate, and the suit Avas 
depending some sixteen or eighteen years before its final decision. The 
Court of Ajipcals at length decided the question in favor of Martin's leg- 

It is proper, before the subject of lord Fairfax's immense grant is dis- 
irassed, to intbrjn the reader, that a few years after the war of the revolu- 
tion an attempt was made to confiscate ail that part of his landed estate 
devised Id his iie[)hew Denny Martin (afterwards Denny Lord Fairfax.) 
But Messrs, Marshall, Colston and Lee, having purchased the estate, a 
compromise took place between them and the state govei'nment, for the 
])articuiars of which the reader is referred to the first volume of the Re- 
vised Code of the Lav^-s of Virginia, pp. 352, 353. 

The sale of the estate of lord Fairfax by his legatees in England, and 
the devise and sale of the estate of the late Col. T. B. Martin, is the last 
c lajjter in die history of the Fairfax interest in the Northern Neck, a 
territory comprising about one fourth of the whole of the present limits of 

The State of iMaryland has lately set up a claim to a considerable tract 
-of territory on tiie north-west border of Virginia, including a part of the 
Northern Neck. As the claim was pushed with much earnestness, the 
•executive of our State appointed Charles James Faulkner, Esq., oi' Mar- 
tinsburg, a commissioner to collect and embody the necessary testimony, 
on belialf of Virginia, on this interesting question. Mr. Faulkner's able 
report the author deems of sulficient interest to his readers generally to 
insert in this work. It follows : 


MAirriNSBUUf;, Nov. 6, 1S32. 
Sir: In execution of a commission addressed to me by your excellen- 
•cy, and mach* out in pursuance of a joint resolution of the General As- 
sembly of this State, of the 2Cth of March last, I have directed my at- 

'Tiie estate sold lor about one hundretl thousantl dollars. 


tcntion tO' the collection of such testiraonev as the hipso oi lime aiul the 
nature of the inquiry have enabled nie to procure touchinj:^ "the settlement 
and adjustment of the western boundary of Maryland." The division 
line which now separates the two States on the west, and which has here- 
tofore been considered as fixed by positive adjudication and long acquics-- 
cence, commences at a point where the Fairfax stonp. is planted, at the- 
head spring of the Potomac river, and runs thence due north to the Penn- 
sylvania line. This is the boundary by which Virginia has held for near 
a century; it is the hne by Avhich she held in 1786, when the compact 
made by the Virginia and Maryland commissioners was salemnly ratified 
by the legislative authorities of the two States. 

An effort is now maide by the General Assembly of Marykmd, to enlarge • 
her territory by the establishment of a different division line. We have- 
not been informed which fork of the South Branch she Avill elect as the 
new boundary, but the proposed line is to ran from one ol" the forks of tlie 
South Branch, thence due north to the Pennsylvania terminus. It is 
needless to say that the substitution of the latter, no matter at which fork 
it may commence, would cause an important diminution in the ah"eady 
diminished territorial area of this State. It vrould deprive us of large 
portions of the counties of Hampshire, Hardy, Pendleton, Randolph and 
Preston, amounting in all to almost half a million of acres — a section of 
the conrmonwealth which, from the quality of its soil, artd the character 
of its population, might well excite the cupidity of a government resting 
her claims upon a less substantial basis than a stale and groundless pre- 
tension of more than a century's antiquity. Although my instructions 
have directed my attention more particularly to the collection and preser- 
vation of the evidence of sucii living witnesses "as might be able to testi- 
fy to any facts or circumstances in relation to the settlement and ailjust- 
raent of the western boundary," I have consumed Init a very inconsidera- 
ble portion of my tune in any labor or inquiry of that sort, fdr who in- 
deed, now living, could testify to any "facts or circumstances" which oc- 
curred nearly a century since? And if suchindividii'ds were i\ow living, 
why waste time in taking depositions as to those "facts," in proof of 
Avhich the most ample and authentic testimony was taken in 1736, as 
the basis of a royal adjudication i* I havcconsequenlly dcemefl it of more 
importance to procure the original docuuT-ents where possible, if not, au- 
thentic copies, of such papers as would serve to exhibit a connected view 
of the origin, progress and termination' of that controversy with the 
crown, which resulted, after the most accurate and laborious surveys, in 
the ascertainment of those very "lacts and circumstances" which are now 
sought to be made again the subjects of discussion and inquiry. In tliis 
pursuit I have succeeded far beyand what I had any ground for anticipa- 
tion ; and from the almost forgotten rubbish of past years, have been ena- 
bled to draw forth documents and papers whose interest may survive the 
occasion which redeemed them from destruction. 

To enable your excellency to form a just conception of the weight and 
importance of the evidence herewith accompanying this report, I beg 
leave to submit with it a succinct statement of the question ni issue be- 
+^ween the governments of Virginia and ^Myryland, v,-\^h. .-onnn libiprvationS- 


sliewlni;- tiie P.-Io; iiiicv of uio evidence to tlie ([ueslion lliu.s prcsrnteJ- 
Th(.' territory of MarylniKi granted by Charles I. to lord Bailiinore m 
June H)'i2, \v;is described in the grant as "that region bounded by a Hne 
drawn from Watkias' point on Che.s;ipeake bay to the ocean on the east ; 
thericu 1o that part of the estu;Tir\' of Dehiware on the north which hetli 
under the iOth ilci^ree, where New lilnglatid is tenninated ; thence in a 
ri^it line bv the de^i^ref aforesaid, lo the. inpridiaa of the fountain of the 
Piilomar ; thicncc following its course by its farther liank to its conflu- 
p'nce." {.MaraliiiU'h- Life of Washington, vol. ],chup. ii, p/>.78 — Si, 1st 
edition ) 

It is plain thai the western boundary of this grant was the meridian of 
tihc fountaii> of tlie Potomac, from the point where it cut tlie 40th degree 
of north latitude to the fountain of the river; and that the extent of the 
grant deiiended upon the question, what strean« was the Potomac? So 
That the questi<Mi now in controversy grows immediately out of the grant. 
The territory granted to lord Baltimore was undoubtedly within the char- 
tered limits of Virgln-ia : (See 1>-^ chnrter of Jlpril 1606, sfc. 4, and the 
2d ch'irter of May ICO'J, sec. 6, 1.^/ Hen. Slat.' at Large, pp. 58 — 88 ) — 
And Mar^'lniil savs that the grant "was the first example of the dismem- 
bcrmMit of a cflonv, an-d the creation of a new o-ne within its limits, by 
the mere act of the crown;" and that the planters of Virginia presented a. 
petitif)n a.gainst it, "which was heard before the privy council (of Eng- 
faud) in Jidy lG3o, whon it was declared that lord Baltimore should re- 
tain his patent, and the- petitioners their remedy at law. 'Co this n.Mned}' 
thev ne\er thniight propter to resort." 

\\'hrther there be any record of this proceeding extant, T have never 
h(^cn able to learn. Tlie- civil war irs- England broke out about ten years 
after, a.'id [)erha[»s the join-nals of the proceedings of the privy council 
were-d'estroycfl. Suiisequentlv to this, wo are informed by Graham, the 
planters, "fortified by the opinion of eminent Inwyers whom they consult- 
ed, arxl who- scrupled not to assure them that the ancient patents of Vir- 
C^Inia siill remaiie^d in force, and \]r,tt the grant of .Mnri/land, as derngafo- 
ry to them, wan ufferly void,\\\c.y presented an application to the parliament 
complaining: of tiiC unjust invasion which their privileges had undergone." 
(Graham's IHsfury, vol. 2. p. 12.) But as the parliaments of those days 
were but the obsequious ministers of the crown, that apj)lication, it is 
prcjwmicd, likewise sharv\'i the fate of their former petition ^to the privy 


The present claim of ^Faryland, then, raust be founded on the sup|)osi- 
tion that the stream which ?/'.? call the Potomac was not ,- and that the 
stream now called the South Brancdi of the Potomac, wan in fact the Po- 
tomac intended i;> iho grant to lord Baltimore. I have never been inform- 
ed which fork of the South Branch she claims as the Potom-iic (for there; is 
a North and a South Ibrk of the South Branch) ; neither have T been able 
to learri what is the evidence, or kind of evidence, on which she relies to 
aRCcrtain that si ream which is now called tin; South Branch of the 
Potomac, but whic'i nf the date (if the grant to lord Baltimore was not 
known at all, ami ^vhen known, known for many years only as the JVap- 
pncmnn, was f'ic P'-^'omac int<'n h'd by lord Baliimore's gr;:u<. For tlu-s- 


important geographical fact, I refer to tlie numerous early maps of the 
chartered limits of Virginia and Maryland, some of which are to be seen 
in the public libraries of Washington and Richmond. 

The question, which stream was the Potomac? is simply a question 
which of them, if either, bore the name. The name is matter of general 
reputation. If there be any thing which depends wholly upon general 
acceptation, which ought and must be settled by prescription, it is this 
question, which of these rivers was and is tlip. Potomac? The accompa- 
nying papers, it is believed, will ascertain this fact to the satisfaction of 
every impartial inquirer. 

In the twenty-first year of Charles II. a grant was made to lord Hop- 
ton and other's, of what is called the Mart kern A^edc of Vir-ginia, which 
was sold by the other patentees to lord Culpeper, and confirmed to him 
by letters patent in the fourth year of James II. This gi'ant carried with 
it nothing but the right of soil and the incidents of ownership; for it 
was expressly subjected to the juiisdiction of Ihe gover-nment of Virginia. 
Of this earlier patent 1 believe there is no copy in Vii'ginia. The original 
charter from James II. to lord Culpeper accompanies this report, mai-ked 
No. 1. They are both recited in the colonial statute of 1736. (1 Rev. 
Code, di. 89.) The tract of country ther-eby granted, w^as "all that entire 
tract, territory and parcel of land, lying and being in America, and boun- 
ded by and v\-ithin the heads of the rivers Tappahannock ulins Rappa- 
hanrrock, and Quiriough alias Potomac r'iveis, the course of said rivers as 
they ai'e commonly called and known by the inhabitants, and description 
■of their parts and Chesapeake bay." 

As early as 1729, in consequence of the eagerness with which lands 
wer-e sought on the Potomac and its tributary streams, and IVom the difh- 
culties growing out of conflicting gr-ants from lord Fairfax and iheci-own, 
the boundaries of the Northern Neck propr-ietary became a subject which 
attracted deep and earnest attention. At this time the Potonrac had been 
but little explored; and although the stream itself above its confluence 
Avith the Shenandoah was knowir as the Cohongoioota, or U]i)per Poto- 
mac, it had never been m^de the subject of any very accru-at(! surveys and 
examinations, nor had it yet been settled, by any competent authority, 
which of its several tributaries was entitled to be regarded as the rnaiir 
or principal branch of the river. It became important, therefore, to re-. 
move all furtlier doubt upon that question. 

In June, 1729, the lieutenant-governor of Virginia addressed a com- 
munication to the lords commissioners of trade arrd plaiitatrotr affaiis, 
in which he solicits their attention to the ambiguity of the lo'-d })ropi-ie- 
tor's charter, growing out of the fact that there were sevei'al streams 
which might be claimed as the head springs of Potomai; river, among 
which he enumerates the Shenandoah, and expi-esses his deteirnination 
*'to refuse the suspension of granting of patents, until the case should be 
fairly stated and determined according to the gerruine consti'uction of the 
proprietor's charier." This was followed by a petition to the king in 
council, agreed to by tup house of burgesses of Virginia, in .June, 1730, 
in which itis set forth, among othci' matters of (•f)mn!aint, "tlial the head 



springs of tlic- Rappahannock and Potomac are not yet known to any of 
your majesty's subjects ; lliat much iiiconvenience hlid resulted to gran- 
tees therelVorn, and prayhig tlie adoption of such measiires as might lead 
to its ascertainment to the satisfaction of all interested. Lord Fairfax, 
who, by his marriage with the only daughter of lord Culpeper, had now 
succeeded to the proprietorship oi" ihe Northern Neck, feeling it likewise 
due to //is grantees to have the question lelieved from all further diffi- 
culty, prct'eired liLs petition to the king in 1733, praying that his majesty 
would be pleased to order a commission to issue, ibr running out, mark- 
ing, and ascertaining the bounds of his patent, according to the true in- 
tent and meaning of his charter. An order to ilns effect was accordingly 
directed by the king ; ami three commissioners were appointed on behalf 
of the crovv-n, and the same num.ber on behalf of lord Fairfax- The du- 
ty which devolyed upon them was to a>;cert:ain, by actual examination 
and survey, the true fountains of the Rappahannock and Potomac rivers. 
To enable them more perfectly to discharge the important trust confided 
to them, they were authorised to summon j'^ersons before them, to take 
depositions and affidavits, to search papers, and employ surveyors, chain- 
carriers, markers, and other necessary attendants. The com.missioners 
convened in Fredericksburg, on the 2Gt}i of .September, 173G, and pro- 
ceeded to discharge their duties, by taking depositions, appointing sur- 
veyors, and making every needful and requisiio preparation for the sur- 
vey. They commenced th.eir journey of observation and survey on the 
r2th day of Odober, 1736, and finished ir. on the i4th of December, of 
the same year ; on which day they discovered vrhat they marked 
and reported to be lli^.' first fountain of the Potomac river. Separate re- 
ports were made by the conanissioners, whicl) reports, v.'ith all the ac- 
companying documents, papers, surveys, plans, &.C., were, on the 21st 
of Dec-ember, 3 738, referred to tlie council for plantation afToirs. That 
boani, after hearing counsel, made a report on the Gth day of April, 1745, 
in which they stale, "ihat having examined into the several rejiorts, re- 
turirs, plans, and other papers transmitted to them by the commissioners 
appointed on behalf of the crown, as likewise of lor^l Fairfax, and having 
been attended by council on behalf of your laajt'sty, as likewise of lord 
Fairfax, and havingheard' all that lliev had 1o ofler thereupon, and the que.s- 
tic-n being concerning that boundary which cught to be drawn from the first 
h(rtid or sj)ring of t)ie iiv(>r Rappahannock to ihe first head or spring ot" the 
river Potomac, the cornmitlee do agree liumbly to report to your ma jesty as 
their opinion, that wiihin the \vords and meaning of the letters jialent, gran- 
tod l>y kingJamc-^ I!, bearing date the '27th day of Sf;ptember, in the ionrth 
year of his leign, the said boundary onoht to lu-n-in at the first spring of 
the Soutii branch of the liver Rappahannock, and that the said boundary 
be from thence (hav.n in a straight line north-west io the pJacp. in ihe Al- 
leghcinj mountains rchrre l/iat pin-f, of' the Potomac rivei\, ivliich is voio 
called Cohnncrnrorfn^ first riVcv." The Cohongoroota is knov»'n to be 
the stream which the .Maryland writers term the .Xcrth branch of the 
Potomac, but which is recognised in Virc';inia, and described on all the 
maps and surveys v.-hich I liave ever vet seen, aa tJie Potomac river y 
froui its first fQ.virt;iin, wL^'^tLe FaL-liX stone is Icjated; to it£ confluence 


A\Hii the Siicniindoah ; thfic Ijciug, jjioperly spcakinn-^ no f,uch stream as 
tiie North branch of the Potomac. This report of the council tor phuita- 
tion affairs was submitted to the king in council on the 11th of April, 
1745, and fully confirmed by him, and a further order made, directing the 
appointment of commissioners to run and m^^rk the dividing line agreea- 
bly to his decision thus made. Commissioners were accordingly appoin- 
ted, who, having provided themselves with surveyors, chain-carriers, 
markers, Lc, commenced their journey on the iSth of September, 1746. 
On the 17th of October they planted the Fairfax stone at the spot which 
had been described and marked by the preceding commissioners as the 
true head spring of the Potomac liver, an-d which has continued to be re- 
garded, from that }>eriod to the present time, as the southern point of the 
western boundary between Maryland -and Virginia. A joint report of 
these proceedings was made by the commissioners to the king, 
accompanied with their field notes ; wliicfi report was received and 
ordered to be filed away among the records of his majesty's privy 
council. Thus terminated, after a lapse of sixteen years, a ])roceeding,, 
which had for its object, among other mailers, the ascertainment of the 
Jirat J'liinitiiin of the Potomac river, and which result-od in the establish- 
ment of that "fact"" by a tribunal of cnnipeterat jurisdicticDn. This de- 
cision has DOW been ac<3uiesced in for noar a cciitury, and all topo- 
graphical description and sketches oi'tlif coiintrv liavc been made to con- 
form to it. 1 say acquiesced ?'», for it is iiniiossib'e 1c regard llie varv- 
ing, fluctuating legishitiun -of Aiarylaiid upi):i [\\v subject, at one scssicm 
of her genenii assembly recognizing; Ilie itnc as now estabftfrhed, (see 
compact of 1785, Session Acts of lSO-"j, IS] 8, and others,) at ,uiollier 
authorizing the appointjiient of commi5.sioners xo adjust the boundary, as 
a grave resistance of its cojiclHsivcness,. or sucii a f.c/iliynial tliritn, as un- 
der the usages of interuation;?] law, would h.ii- an application oi ino prin- 
cipU's (){' usucapfinn m\d i)resciif)li.(')i. (Sec \'ai:t':i, p. 251. (.irolius, lib. 
2, cap. 4. WoltiusJus. Nat. par. 3.) 

Jurisdiction in all cases relalinji to bouudarit'S beiwoen piovincps, tlie 
dominion and proprietaiy govtrnnienl, is by the couirnon lavv of Kngland 
exclusively vested in the /cint^ (iml. tuartfU. (I \ <"<. stii. p. 117.) Awil 
notwithstanding it uiav b<; a (jaestion of boundary biMween the crown and 
the lord proprietor of a pro\inc(', (such as tlpit beUveon lord Fan'fax a.n'l 
the crown,) the king is the only jmlge, and is presumed to act with cntir*' 
impartiality and justice in rcfert^nce to all persons concerned, as Nxell 
those Avho are parties to the proccfdin.o' b.'lore him, as others not parti(r> 
who may yet be interested in tli'> adjusUnent. (Vescy, ib.) Such is tire 
theory nnd practice of the English constitution; and although it may n«M 
accord precisely v.'ith our improved conceptions of juridical practice, it is 
nevertheless the law whieh ruust now L'^overn and control the legal aspeirt 
ofthe territoriol disinite between Viro-iula aud Maryland. 

T ^ "^ , ' 111' 

It docs not appear bv the accompanying papers, that Ohanes !or<i 
Baltimore, the then proprietor of Maryland, deputed an agent to aticnd 
upon /lis part in the exmninntion rtnd survey of llip Potorivic rivr. Il i- 
possiblc he co,iceivcd hit- iater^^ts sulTicicn;ly protected in tlic n.-pict 
\^h:ch the <;oRtrovcr"iv had tli-'u assaaie 1 befwe-ni loi.] r,i:rr,'\ and lie. 


crown. Certain it is, that it nowhere appears that he e\'er coRsicIered 
himself aggrieved by the result of that adjustment. That his government 
was fully apprised of what was in progress, can scarcely admit of a ra- 
tional doubt. For it is impossible to conceive that a controversy so 
deeply afl'octing not only tlie interests of lord Baltimore, but all who were 
concerneil in the purchase of land in that section of the country, and con- 
ducted with so much solemnity and notoriety, could have extended through 
a period of sixteen years without attracting the attention of the govern- 
ment of Maryland — a government ever jealous, because ever <!oubtful of 
the original tenure by which her ehaj'ter was held, i3ut had lord Balti- 
more even considered himself aggrieved by the result of that settlement, 
it is difficult now to conceive upon what ground he would have excepted 
to its justice, or question its validity. Could he have said that the 
infonmition upon which the decision was founded was imperfect.'* Or 
that the proceedings of the commissioners Avere cliaracterized by haste, 
favoritism or Jiaiul ? This, the proceedings of that board, still preserved, 
would contrridict. For never was there an examination conductetl witJi 
more deliberation, prosecuted with more labor, or sci'utanised witli a 
more jealous or anxious vigilance. Could he have .shewn that some oth- 
er stream ourrht to have beeen fixed upon as the true head spring of the 
Potomac? 'J'his, it is believed, is impossible; ibr although it raay be 
true tliAt the South branch is a longer stream, it neveithclcss wants those 
more important characteristics which were then considered by the com- 
missioners, and have been subsequently regarded by esteemed geogra- 
phers as essential in distinguishing a tributary from the main branch of a 
river. (See Flint's Geography, voL 2, p. 88.) Lastly, would ha have 
questioned the authority of the crowu to settle the boundaries of lord 
Fairf ix's charier, without having j)reviously made him a party to the 
proceeding. -^ 1 have before shewn the futility ol" such an idea. ]3esides, 
this would have been at once to question the authority under which he 
held his own grant ; for jialtimore held by virtue of an arbitrary act of 
the second Charles. His grant was manilestly made in violation of the 
chartered rights of Virginia, and carried into efl'cct not only without the 
accpiiescencc, but against the solemn jmhI repeated renionstrances of her 
goverunuMil. Was Virginia (consulted in the |"dismeniberu>ent" of her 
territory.' \V;>s she mar'e a party to that proceeding, by which, "for the 
first lime iti colonial Jiistory, one new province was created within the 
chartered limits of another i)v the mere act of the crown.'"' Jkit the fact 
is, that Charles lord Jialtimorc, lohn lived for six yenrs after tiie adjust- 
ment of this (prcstion, never did contest the propriety of the i)oundary as 
settled by the c()nMnissioners, but from all that remains of his views and 
proceeding-^, fully acj|uiesced in ils accurary and jusiice, (See the 
trealv with the Six Nali(ms of fiulians, ;it Fiafu-aster, in .June, 1744.) 

'I'hc first cvideiu'c of dissa'isfaciiou with the boundarv as established, 
which the researches ot' the iMaryland writers have enabled tliem to ex- 
hibit, arc* certain instructions from Frederick lord Baltimore (successor 
of (y'hailes) to (Governor Sharp, which were ju'csented i)y tlic latter to his 
I'ouncil in August, 175.1, I have not been able ti> procure a 'copy of 
those inst.-uclions, but a r. cr)>) hislorian of ,Mar}r|;ind, and an ingenious 


advocate of lier present claim, referring to tlicm, says, '• His Instructions 
were predicated upon the supposition that the survey might possibly have 
heen made with (he knowledge and concurrence of /us predrressor^ and 
hence lie denies the poiver of the latter to enter into cniy arr(in<remefit. as- 
to the boundarie.<i, which could extend beyond his llfi' estaU, or conclude 
those in remainder." (See M'Mahon's History of Maryland, p. 53.) 

What were the precise limitations of those conveyances made by the 
proprietors of Maryland, and under which Frederick lord l^altimore de- 
nies the power of his predecessor to enter into any arrangement as to the 
"boundaries, which could extend beyond his life estate, I am unable to 
say— my utmost researches have failed to furnish me with a copy of them, 
—but they were so far satisfactory to his lordship'^; legal conceptions, a& 
to induce him to resist even the execution of a decree pronounced by 
■lord Hardwicke, in 1750, (1 Ves. sen. pp. 444-46) upon a written com- 
pact as to boundaries, which had been executed by his ])redeeessor and 
the Penns, in 1732. To enforce submission to that decree, the Penns 
filed a bill of reviver in 1754, and after an ineffectual struggle of six: 
years, lord Baltimore was compelled with a bad grace to submit, and 
abide by the nrranoemevf. as to the boundaries which had been made by 
his predecessor. To this circumstance, in all probability, was hml Fair- 
f^ix indebted for his exemption from the further demands of the i>roprietoF 
of Maryland. For lord Frederick, no ways averse to litigation, had by 
this time doubtless become satisfied that the power of his }nedccessor 
<lid extend beyond his life estate, and might even conrlnde those in 
remainder. Be that as it may, however, certain it is that the records 
of Maryland are silent upon the subject of this pretension, from Septem- 
ber, 1753, until ten years subsequent to the compact between Virginia 
and Mary-land in 1785, 

An opinion prevails among our most disting^iished jurists, resting- 
solely upon traditionary information, that about 1761, Frederick lord 
]3alt!more presented a i)etition to the king and council, praying a revis- 
ion of the adjustment made in 1745, which petition was rejected, or after 
a short time abandoned as hopeless. If there ever was such a i)r()ceed- 
ing, I can find nothing of it in the archives of Virginia. 

Be that as it may, it is certain that ever since 1745 lord Fairfax claimed 
and held, and the commonwealth of Virginia constantly to this day has 
claimed and held by the Cohongoroota, that is by the northern branch, as 
the Potomac , and whatever lord Baltimore or his heirs, and the State of 
Maryland may have claimed, she has held by the same boundary. There 
was no reason why lord Fairfax, being in actual possession, should have 
controverted the claim of lord Baltimore, or Maiyland. If lord Balti- 
more, or Maryland, ever controverted the boundary, ihe questifui must, 
and either has been decided against them, or it must have been aban(h)n- 
ed as hopeless. If they never controverted it, the omission to do so, carr 
only be accounted for, upon the supposition that they knew it to be hope- 
less. If Maryland ever asserted the claim — seriously asserted it [mean — 
it must have been before the revolution, or at least during it, when we all 
know, she was jealous enough of the extended teri'itory of Virg-niji. The 
tlaim must hace hod its origin h^Jore. the roinprtcl beficeenthe two states, oy 


Mini, 17^5, (I Rev. CoJe, ch. 18.) We then held by the same boun- 
dary by which we nnv hold ; we held l.o what vp. called and now call the 
Potomac : she tlien held to what we call the Potomac. Ls it possiole to 
doubt that this is the Potomac recognised by the compact') That com- 
pact is now f.)rty-i;evea years old. 

I have dilit^-onl'y inquired whether, as the Potomac above the conflu- 
ence ot" the Slienanrloah was called the Cohongoroota, the stream nov,- 
calleJ the South bf.uicli of the Potomac ever had any peculiar name, 
known to a!\d established among the English settlers — for it is well knowi\ 
it bore the Lulian name of Wappacomo. 1 never could learn that it was 
known by any other name, but that which it yet bears, the Soutii brant^h 
of the Potomac. Now that very name of itself sufficiently evinces, that 
it was regariled as a tribuf.iirj/ stream of another river, and that river the 
Potomac ; and that the river of which the South branch was the tributary, 
was regar'Jetl as the main stream. 

But let us for a moment concede that the decision of the king in coun- 
cil was not absolutely conclusive of tJie present question ; let us concede 
that the long acquiescence of Maryland in that adjustment has not pre- 
clude! a further discussion of its merits; let us even suppose the com- 
pact of 17S5 thrown out of view, with all the subsequent recognitions of 
the present boundary by the legislative acts of that state, and the question 
between the two streams now for the first time presented as an original 
question of preference ; — what are the facts ui)on v^-hich Maryland would 
rely to sliow that any other stream, than the one bearing the name, is 
entitled to be regtrded as the main branch of the Potomac? It were idle 
to say that the Soutli branch is the Potomac, because the South branch 
is a lon""(>r or even Iircrer stream than tlu- Xorlli branch which Virginia 
claims to hold by. According to that sort of reasoni)ig, the Missouri, 
above its confluence M-ith the Mississippi, is the Mississippi, being 
beyond comparison the longer asid larger streani. The claim ot the 
South brancli, tiicn, would rest s )li'Iy upon its great length \n opposi- 
tion to this it iiii'^-ht be s;iid th;it the (-ohongoroota is more frequently 
navigable — that it has a larger vohnne of water — that the valley of the 
South branrh is, in the Q;rni\d scale of con/orni'i.lion, secondary to that 
of th-- Potoni'ir. — that th" South branch has not the general direction ot' 
that rioer, lohlch it joins nenrlij ot rifi^ht anglrs — th^'t th': rnllci/ of the 
Pof.OiWic is wider than that of th" South branch, as is also the river 
hco'i-lrr tlinv the other. And lastly that the course of th;- river and (he 
direction of the valley are the same above and below the junction of the 
South branch. (See letters accompanyidg this report, \o. 2{).) These 
considerations have beeti deemed sufficient to establish the title to the 
"father of waters," to t!ie name which he has so long borne. (See His- 
tory and fieogiaphy of Western States, vol. L>, Missouri.) And as they 
exist in an equal extent, so should they equally confirm the pre-eminence 
v.'hicli the Cohongoroota has now for near a century so i)roudly andpeace- 
fullv enjf>yed. 

The claim of Maryland to tlie territory in question, is by no means so 
reasonable as the claim of the great Frederick of Pnjvsia to Silesia.whieh 
that pr::ij2 assortci airl niiintainedj but which he tells us him^.elf he ne- 


rev would have thought of asserting, il" his lather had not Icfi hhn an o- 
verflowing treasury and a powerful arrny. 

With this brief historical retrospect, presented as explanatory of ihe ac- 
companying testimony, I will now lay before your excellency, in chrono- 
logical order, a list of the documents and papers referred to in my prece- 
ding observations. 

No. 1. Is the original grant from king James II. to Thomas lord Cul- 
peper, made on the 27th September, in the fourth year of his reign. 

No. 2. Copy of a letter from Major Gooch, lieutenant governor of Vir- 
ginia, to the lords commissioners for trade and plantations, dated at Wil- 
liamsburg, June 29, 1729. 

No. 3. Petition to the king in Council, in relation to the Northern 
Neck crrants and their boundaries, aj^reed to by the house of burQcsses. 
June 30th, 1730. 

No. 4. The petition of Thomas lord Fairfax, to his majesty in council^ 
preferred in 1733, setting forth his grants from the crown, asid that there 
had been divers disputes between the governor and council in Virginia 
and the petitioner, and his agent Robert (.'artcr, Esq., touching the boim- 
daries of the petitioner's said tract of land, and praying that his majesty 
would be pleased to order a commission to issue for running out, marking 
and ascertaining the bounds of the petitioner's said tract of hind. 

No. 5. A copy of an order of his majesty in his privy council, bearing 
date 29th of November, 1733, directing William Gooch, Esq. lieutenant- 
governor of Virginia, to appoint three or more comnussioners, (not ex- 
ceeding five) wdio in conjunction with a like number to be named and 
deputed by the said lord Fairfax, are to survey and settle the marks and 
boundaries of the said district of land, agreeably to the terms of the pat^ 
ent under which the lord Fairfax claims. 

No. G. Copy of the commission from lieutenant-governor Gooch to 
William Byrd of Westover, John Robinson of l^Iscataway, and ,/o///i 
Gryriies of Brandon, appointing them commi:>sioners on behalf of his ma- 
jesty, with full power, authority, &c. 

[I have not been able to meet with a copy of the commission o^ lord 
Fairfax to his commissioners — they were \Vi!li(irii Beverh;^ WiUinin Fnir- 
fax and Char/cs Carter. It appears by the accompanying report of their 
proceedings, that "his lordship's commissioners delivered to the king's 
commissioners an attested copy of their commission," which having been 
found upon examination more restricted in its autliority than that of the 
commissioners of the crown, gave rise to some little difficulty which w'as 
subsequently adjusted.] 

No. 7. Copy of the instructions on behalf of the right honoroble lord 
Fairfax, to his commissioners. 

No. S. Minutes of the proceedings of the commissioners apppointcd on 
the part of his ?najesty and the right honorable Thomas lord Fairfax, from 
their first meetin£: at Fredericksburg, September '25th, 1736. 

No. 9. Original correspondence between the coiBmissoners during the 
years 1736 and 17*'7, in reference to the examinatiou nnd survey of the 
Potomac river. 

No- 10. The original field notes of the survey of the Polomi^c river^ 


the mouth of the Slieiiandoah to the head spring of said Potomac river, by 
j\lr, Renjamiii Winslow. 

No. 11. The oriu'inal plat oftlie survey of the Potomac river. 
No. 1-2. Original letter from John .Savage, one of the surveyors, dated 
January 17, 1737, stating tJie grounds upon which the commissioners had 
decided in favor of the Coiiongoroota over the Wappacomo, as the main 
S)raneh of the Potomac. The former, lie says, is both wider and deeper 
than the latter. 

No. 13. I.etter from Chailes Carter, Esq. dated January 20, 17.37, ex- 
hibiting the result of a comparative examination of the North and South 
branches of the Potomac. The North Branch at its mouth, he says, is 
Iwcnty-thiXM' poles wide, the South branch sixteen, &c. 

No. 14. A printed iu;ip of (he fvorlhern Neck of Virginia, situate be- 
twixt the rivers Potomac and Rappahannock, drawn in the year 1737, 
by William Mayo, on<!' of the king's surveyors, according to his actual 
survey in tiic jirecedini^ year. 

No. 15. A printed map of the course of the rivers Rappahannock and 
Potomac, in Virginia, as surveyed according to order in 1736 and 1737, 
(■supposed to \)v by lord Fairfax's surveyors.) 

No. 16. A ropy of the separate report of the commissioners appointed 
on the jiart of the crowu, [I have met with no copv of the separate re- 
|iort«f lord Faii-fax's commissioners.] 

No. 17. (.'n[)y n[' lord Fairfax's observations upon and exceptions to 
the report of tlie commissioners of the crown. 

No. 18. A copy of the report and opinion of the right honorable the 
lords of the committee of council lor platation alfairs, dated 6th Ajiril, 

No. 19. The decision of his majesty in council, made on the 11th of 
April, 1745, conlirmiug the report of the council for })lantalion afliiirs, 
and further ordering the lieutenant-governor of Virginia to nominate three 
or more persons, (not exceeding live,) wdro, in conjunction willi a like 
»iund)er to be named and deputed by lord Fairfax, are to run and mark 
out the boundary and dividing line, a<cording to liis decision lluis 

No. 20. 'J'lie original commissioners from Tliomas li)r<l Fairfax to 
the lionoraHIe VVm. Fairfax, Charles Carter and William Beverly, Fsqrs.^ 
dated 11 th June, 1745. 

[Col. Joshua Fry, C-ol. Lunsford Lomax, and \l;\]. Peter Iledgeman, 
were appointed commissioners on tlu.' part ot' the ciown.] 

No. 21. Original agreement entered into by the commissioners, j)re- 
paratorv to their examination of the river. 

No. '22. The original journal of the journey of the commis.sioiiers, 
surveyors, .ifcr., from the head sj)iing ol the R.ipjiahannocdc to the head 
spring of the Potomac, in 1746. [This is a curious and valuable docu- 
ment, and gives the onl} authentic narrative now extant of llie planting 
of the Fairfax stone. ] 

No. 23. The joint report of the commissioners ajipointed as well on 
the part of the crown as of lord Fairfax, in obedience to liis majesty's 
order ol 11th April, 1735. 


No. 24. A manuscript mnp of thr head spring of ihc Polomae riv* r, 
executed by Col. George Mercer of the regiment commanded in 1756 by 
General Washington. 

No. 25. Copy of an act of the general assemhly of Maryland, passed 
February 19, 1819, authorizing the appointment of commissioners on the 
part of that state, to meet such commissioners as may be appointed fcr 
the same purpose by the commonwealth of Virginia, to settle and adjust, 
by mutual compact between the two governments, the western limits of 
that state and the cominonwerJth of Virginia, to conunence at the most 
western source of the Korth branch of the Potomac river, and to run a 
due north course thence to the Pennsylvania line. 

No. 26. Letters from intelligent and well informed individuals, resi- 
ding in the country watered by the Potomac and its branches, addressed 
to the undersigned, stating important geographical facts bearing upon 
the present confroversy. 

There are other papers in rny possession, not listed nor referable to 
any particular head, yet growing out of and illustrating the controversy 
between lord Fairfax and the crown ; these are also heiewilh transmit- 

There are' other documents, again not at all connected with my present 
duties, whicn chance has thrown in my way, worthy of preservation in 
the archives of the state. Such, for example, as the original '■■plan of the 
line between Virsinia and JYorth Carolina, tvhich was run in the year 
1728, in the sprins and fall, from the sea to Peler\^ creek, bij the Hon. 
William Byrd, Wni. Dandridgc and Richard Fitzwilliams, Esqrs. com- 
missioners, and J\lr. jHex'r Irvine and Mr. Wni. Mayo, S'irveyors — and 
from Peter^s creek to Steep rock creek, was continued in ths fill of the 
year 1749, by Joshua Fry, and Peter Jefferson.^'' Such documents, 
should it accord with the views of your excellency, might be deposited 
with '-the Virginia Historical and Philosophical Society," an institution 
of recent origin, yet founded upon the most expanded views of })ublic 
utility, and which is seeking by its ])atriotic appeals to indivickial 
liberality, to wrest from the ravages of time the fast perishing r-cords 
and memorials of our early history and institutions. 

With sentiments of regard, I am, very respectfully, your obedient 

To John Floyd, Esq. Governor of Virginia. 

controversy is stiil pending, and, in addition to i\ir. rauiKuei, i^oi. jonu 
B. I). Sm"ith, of Frederick, and John S. Gallaher, Esq. of .JcfhTM n^ 
have been a])pointed commissioners on tlic narl ol' \ iruinia. 




'l^ViE two couiitit's of Frederick and Aiigaista were laid off at the saiae' 
i;^ssiori of the eoloiiial h^^islatiire, in the year 1738, and included all the' 
vastreri-ion of conntrv west of the Blue Uidj^e. Previous to that time- 
the Cduntf- of Orange included all the territory west of the mountams. — 
Orange was taken from Spoltsylvania in the year 1734, Spotlsylvania 
having previousl v crossed the Blue Ridge, and took in a considerahle 
part of wliat is now the county of Page, Previous to laying of!" the 
county of Orange, the territory, west of the Blue Hidge, ex^^iept the small 
part which lay in Spottsylvania, dbes not appear to have been' included in 
auv county. »SpoUsylvania vras laid ofT in the year 1720; the acl for 
"vdiich is worded as follows : 

" Preamble. That the frontiers tovrards the high mountains are ex- 
posed to danger from the Indians, and the late sertleraents of the French 
10 the v,-estward of the said mountains : Enacted, Spotsylvania county 
Loarids upon Snow creek up to the mill ; thence by a southwest line to; 
the River Xortli Aiinii ; thence up the said river as far as convenient, and' 
thence by a line to be run over tiu high mountains to the river on the.' 
north west side thereof,* so as to include- the northern passage through 
the said mountains ; thence down the said river until it comes against the 
liead of the Rappahannock ; thence by a line tu the head oi' Rappahan- 
/lock river ; and down that river to the n)outh of Snow creek; which 
tract of land, from the first of May, 2721, shall become a county, .by the 
/lArne of Spatsylvaiiia county." 

Thus it appejrs that a little more than one hundred years ago Spotsyl- 
vania was a frontier coanly, and the viist region v%'est of the Blue 
rillge, with its millions of people, has been settled and improved from an 
entire wilderness. The country for more than a thousand miles to the 
we^t has been within this short period rescued from a state of bar- 
C^irism, and is now tiie seat of the fine arts and sciences, of countless mil- 
lions of wealth, and the abode of freedom, both religious and politi- 
cal. Judging from tlie past, what an immense prospect opens itself to 
our view lur the future. Within the last half century, our valley has pf«u- 
red oat thousands of emigrants, who have contributed towarils peo|)ling 
the Carolinas, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, and titlu-r regions 
south and west, and niigrations still continue. 

It has alreadv been stated that h'lederick cnimty was laid off in the 
vear 1738. The flrit court of justice held in the county was in the year 
1743. This delay, itMr. pre^u-nable, arose, hum the war>t of a sunicient. 

^Sou'.h fork of the Shenan'iv.-^ah. 


.■number of Magistrates to form a quorum for the legal transaction of busi- 
ness. The first court was composed of the following justices, to wit : 
Morgan Morgan, David Vance, Marquis Calmes, Thomas Rutherford, 
William M'Mahon, Meredith Plelm, George Hoge and John White. — 
James Wood, clerk. Thi.s court sat the first time, on Friday 11th day of 
November, 1743. At this term of the court is to be found on record "the 
following entry : 'Ordered, that the sheriff , of this county build a twelve 
foot square log house, logged above a^id below, to secure his prisoners, 
he, agreeing to be satisfied with what shall be allowed him for such build- 
ing by two of the.court, and he not to be answerable for escapes.' This 
was the first jail erected in the county of Frederick. 

The county of Hampshire was the next laid off, and was taken fmm 
Frederick and Augusta. This was done 'm the year 1753. The.first 
court held in tliis -county was in December, 17 57. Thomas B. Martin, 
James Simpson, William Miller, Solomon Hedges and Nathaniel Kuy- 
kendall, justices, composed the court, and Gabriel Jones the clerk. 

Berkeley and Dunmore were taken from Frederick in the year 1772. — - 
In October, J777, the legislature altered the name. of Dunmore county (o 
Shenandoab' It floes not appear, from the language of the law, for what 
particular reasons this aheration was made. It had been >nafmed after and 
in honor of lord Dunmore, the then governor.under the royal government. 
But his lordship took a most decidedly active part in opposition to the A- 
merican revolution ; and in order to have the liberty of <WT?aring his head, 
took shelter op board of a British armed ve>;sel. His conduct is pretty 
fully related in Mr. Jacob's account of Dunmore's war, given in the pre- 
ceding pages ; and it was doubtless owing to this cause that the name yf 
Dunmore county was altered to that of Shenandoah. 

In the yeai 1769, Botetourt county was taken from Augusta. In the 
act is to be found the following clause : "And whereas the-pe^'ple situat- 
ed on the Mississippi, in the said county of Botetourt, will be very remote 
from the court house, and must necessarily become a separate county, igs 
soon as their numbers are sufficient, which prntbably will hap})cn in:,ia 
short time ; He it therefore enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that the 
inhabitants of that part of the said county of Botetoiirt, whic;h lies op tV; 
said waters., shall be exempted from the ^layment.of any levies \o \m' lakl 
by the said ceunty court for tlie purpose of building a, court house aivd pri- 
son for the said county." Thus it appears that Virginia, at that period, 
claimed the jurisdiction and territory of that vast rtgion of -country west- 
ward to the Mississippi. 

In 1772 the county t-f Fineastle was taken from Botetoui-t ; and in 
1776 Finca^tie was divided iato the •counties of Kentucky, Washington 
and Montgomery, and the name of Fiucaslle became extinct. 

In the year 1777 Rockbridge county was taken from Augusta and Bo- 
tetourt. Rockingham county, the same year, was taken IVom Augusta, 
and Greenbrier from Augusta and ]ioteti»urt. 'I'he years 1776 and 17'77 
were remaikable for the manv divisions of the western coutuies. West 
Augu.sta, in the year 17f75, by the /janvfcntion asscnihlcd lor ilic jiurpuse 
of dcvi'vinof a plan for resi'^tiiiLf iHc oppivssinns oftlic tuoili'T ccuiilry, a- 
jMiong other [.i(M;eo(ii!igs,dclt'nrii}.(;vi,-til{;il 'MIm hiMdhoiiici' ciil.t t!ivt.-:i,:t 

15j .LAYL\(. OFi- TiiE C0U1ST:1ES< 

of West AufTusla shall be considered as a distinct county, and have the 
liberty of sending two delegates to represent them in a-eneral convention 
as aforesaid." 

This is the first account which the author has been able to find in out 
ancient statutes in relation to West Augusta as a separate district or 
county. In fact, it does not appear that we ever had a county legally es- 
.tablished by this name. It is presumable that it acquired the name by 
general usage, from its remote and western locality from the seat of jus- 
.tice. Be this as it may, it appears that the district of West Augusta ne- 
ver had its bounds laid ofT and defined until the month of October 1776, 
when it was divided into three distinct counties, viz : Ohio, Yoliogania, 
and Monongalia. 15y the extension of the western boundary between 
Pennsylvania and Virginia, the greater part of the county Yohogania fall- 
ing within the limits of Pennsylvania, "the residue was, by an act of as- 
,sembly of 1785, added to Ohio, and Yohogania became extinct. 

Harrison county was established in 1784, tafen from Monongalia. In 
-1785 Hardy county was laid off, taken from Hampshire. In 1786 Ran- 
dolph county was laid off, taken from Harrison. In 1785 Russell county 
was taken from Washington. In 1787 Pendleton county was taken from 
Augusta, Hardy and Rockingham. In 1788 Knawha was taken from 
'Greenbrier and Montgomery. ' In 1789 Wythe county was taken from 
Montgomery, and a part of Botetourt added to Montgomery. Jn 1790 
Bath county was t^iken from Augusta, Botetourt <\nd Greenbrier. In 1792 
Lee county was tak"n fioin Russell; and in tlie same year, Grayson coun- 
ty was taken from W'ythc. 

The author has deemed it an interesting part of his work to give a par- 
ticular history of the establishment of our counties, because it goes to shew 
the rapifl Increase of our populalion, and improvement of our country, 
since the termination of tiie war of the revolution. To an individual born 
and raised in ihe valley, and who is old enough to recollect the passing 
events for thf last half century — wlio was acquainted with the state of our 
country fifty years ago, its sparse population, rude log ^i^iiblings, and un- 
cultivated manners and customs of our ancestors- —the great im})rovement 
"of every thing calculated to better the condition of hinnan Hit — the aston- 
ishing change in the appearance of our country — its elegant buildings, 
finely cultivated farms, improved stale of society, Ik-c. — are calculated al- 
most to rai'c doubts in his mind whether these vast changes could possi- 
'bly have taken j)lace within his little span of e;t.istence. The autiior's 
destiny, when a youth, thcw him into a business which gave him an op- 
])ortunily of exploring a considerable p^irt otilie lower counties of the val- 
ley, and he lias lately made it his business again to explore the same 
■counties ; and if he had been for the last forty years shut uj) in a dun- 
geon, and recently set at libeitv, he would almost doubt his own senses 
and l)elieve himsell" in another eoimtry. A great part of our vrdley may 
be said to be elegantly imj)rovcd* 

*(yajit. .James Russ('!l, of Berkeley, sonic years ago built a brick baiu 
150 t'ci't lorrjf and 55 v/ide. 

The late Mr. John Hile, in the vcar 1785, built 'he iirst brick houi^e e- 




About the year 1738, there \vere two cabins crcctedncur liic run in Wiii- 
Chester. t I'lie author regrets that he has not been able to aj-certain ilic 
names of the first settlers in this town. Tradition hoAvever relates thai 
they were German families. 

In the year 1752 the legislature passed "an act for the establishing of 
the town of Winchester." In the preamble are the I'ollowini;' words : 

"Whereas it has been represented to this general assembly, that James 
Wood, gentleman, did survey and lay out a parcel of land at the couit 
housej in Frederick county, in twenty-six lots, of half an acre each, wilh 
streets for a town, by the name of Winchester, and made sale of the said 
lots to divers persons who have since settled and built and continue build- 
ing and settling thereon ; but because the same was not laid ofTand erec- 
ted into a town by act of assembly, the I'reeholders and inhabitants thereof 
will not be entitled to the like privileges enjoyed by the freeholders and 
inhabitants of other towns in this colony, Be it enacted, &.c. that the saic! 
parcel of land lately claimed by the said James Wood, lying and being in 
the county of Frederick aforesaid, together wuth hfty-four other lots of 
half an acre each, twenty-four thereof in one or two streets on the east 
side of the former lots, the stieet or streets to run parallel with the street 
already laid off, and the remaining thirty lots to be laid off' at the north 
end of the aforesaid twenty->^lx, with a commodious street or street ,s in 
such manner as the ])roprietor thereof, the right honorable Thojuas U»rd 
Fairfax, shall see fit, be and is hereby constituted, enacted, and establish- 
ed a town, in the naanner already laid out, to be called by and retain tlie 

ver erected west of the j31ue ride. This is but a small f)ne story building, 
and is now owned by the heirs of the late Mr. A. Neill, at the north end 
of Stephensburg, in the county of Frederick. In 1787 Mr, Hite built a 
merchant mill, which was at that time considered the finest mill in the 
valley. It is now hardly considered a second late mill. 

jA very aged w^oman, by the name of S})errv, informed the author that 
when she first saw the place where Winchester now stands, she was 22 
years of age, and from her age at the time the author conversed wllh her, 
(which was in 1S09,) he found the year in which she first saw Winclies- 
ter to be in 1758, at which time she stated there were but two small log 
cabins, and those near the run. 

IMr. Jacob Gibbon informed the author that lie was in Winchester in 
1755, and that the court was a small cabin, and tliat he saw (he 
court iiltinirin this cabin. 

107 ESl'AIU.ISlLMlLXT O'F Till: TO\T?nS. 

name ol' Wiuchcsler, and ihnt tlic iVctlioldors of the said town .^liall foitv 
VLT hereafter enjoy the snnie j)rivileges which the ireeiioklers of other 
towds erected by act of assembly enjoy." This act further provides that 
fairs may be lichl in the town twice in each year. 

Thus it ajipears that the late Col. .James Wood was tlie founder of 
Winchester, and not lord Fairfax as has jrencrally been believed. The, 
latter made an addition to the town. Tradition relates that Fairfax was 
nuich moie partial to StephensburL!; than he was to Winchester, and used 
all his iunuence to make Stephensburg the seat of justice, but that W'ood 
()ut-!j^eneraled his lordship, and by treatin^^ one of tlie justices with a 
bowl of toddy secured his vote in favor of VVinchester, which settled the. 
(piestion, and that Fairl'ax was so offended at the magistrate who thus 
sold his vote, that he never after spoke to inm.* 

The late Robert Rutheribrd, Escp opened the first store ever establish- 
ed in Winchester. There was soon a niixetl population of Germans, 1- 
risli, and :i few Fnglish and Scotch. The national prejudices which ex- 
isted between the Dutch antl Irish produciwl much disorder and many ri- 
ots. It was customary for the Dutch, on St. Patrick's day, to exhibit the 
eihgy of die saint, with a stringof Irish potatoes around his neck, and his 
wife Sheeley, with her apron loaded also with potatoes. This was al- 
ways followed by a riot. The Irish resented the indignity offered to their 
saint and his holy spouse, and a battle followed. On St. Michael's day 
the Irish wouid retort, and exhibit tlie saint with a rojic of '*.vo»/?- /ivo;//" 
about Ids ne(-k. Then the Dutch, like the Yankee, '■'felt chock full of 
Ji.nfif,^ and at it they went, {)ell mell, and many a l)lack eye, bloody nose, 
and broken head, Avas the result. f The author recollects one of these ri- 
ots since the war of the revolution. The practice was at last put down 
by tlie rigor with which our courts ofjustice punished the rioters. 

In the month of Sej){ember, 1758, the town of Stepiiensburg, in the 
county of l-'rederick, was established. This town was first foimded by 
Peter St< p' en^, who came to Virginia wiih Joist Hite, in tlie year 1732. 
The ruins of Stephens's first cabin are yet to be seen. Lewis Stei>hens, 
the late proprietor of the town, was the .<:on of Petfr Stephens. He laid 
out the town in form, and applied to the general assembly to have it vsU\- 
blished by law, which was done in the year 1758. 

This town was first settled almost exclusively by (icrmans ; and the 
religion, habits and customs, of their ancestors, were jireserved with great 
tenacity for manv vcars. 'I'he (lerman languac^c was generally used in 
this village since the author's acquaintance wiih it, which ac{|iiaintancc 
commenced in the vear 178}. 

In the nionth of Nf)vember, 17G1, Strasbnrg, (c(unm(Hdy calh'd Sto- 
ver's town,) was established by law. Thi^i town was settled entirely by 

* The late. John S. Wooflcork, ]:>Sf|. communicatrd this fart to the au- 
thor, ati'l s ated that lie had the information from the late C'ol. Martin. 

fCron. Smith infornT^d the author that this practir-.e was kept up for se- 
veral years lifter he setil^d in \\ in^ ltcsl< r, nnd that sever. d \eiy dangerous 
riots took place, in nhich ho with other ningistrales U.mI to inlerposc, to 
prCicrve the pc:i( e. 


fxonnans, and to lliis day the (Icrman langunf^e is in g'cueral use, tliotiL;-h 
the English language is now generally understood, and also spoken by 
the inhabitants. It was laid ofi'by Peter Stover. 

Staunton, in the eounty of Augusta, was laid off by William Beverly, 
Esq. and established by aet of the general assembly in Novcndjer, 1761. 
'i'he lirsit settlers were princi})ally Irish. 

In March, 1761, Woodstock, then in the county of Fredeiick, was es- 
tablished by law. Jacob Miller laid off twelve hundred acres oi' land, 
Mnety-six of which were divided into half acr3 lots, making one humlred 
and ninety-two building lots — the remainder into stieets and live acre 
lots, commonly called out lots. This town appears to h^ive been origi- 
nally laid out upon a larger scale than any of our ancient villages. Like 
fhe most of our towns it was settled exclusively by Germans, and their re- 
ligion', customs, habits, manners and language, were for a long time pre- 
servedV «^rrd to this day the German language is generally in use by the 

Mecklenburg (vShepherdstown,) tlien in the county of Fredei'ick, now 
m .Jefferson, v\'as established by law in the month of November, 17(32, — 
This village is situated immediately on the bank of the Cohongoroota 
f. Potomac) about twelve miles above Harpers-Ferry. It was laiti olf by 
the late Capt. 'I'homas Shepherd, and was first settled chiefly by German 
rnechanics. It is I'eaiarkable for its being the place where (he Jlrst sleom 
bniit was ever coiifitrucled in. iheicorld. Mr. James Ramsey, in the y(;ar 
17SS, built a boat, which was propelled by steam ag-iinsl a brisk curi-ent. 
There are some of the reinnants of the machinery now to l)e seen, in the 
possession of Capl. Haines, in that pla(-e. 

Romney, i]i the county of llampshiie, was laid off i>y the V\\v lord 
Fairfax, and established by law in the month of November, 17(r2. His 
1-ordship laid off fifty acres into streets and half acre lots ; but the town 
improved but slowly. It does jvot contain more than fifty families at this 
firne. It is nevertheless a place of considerable business ; has a bank, 
iSrintinf'- office, several stores and taverns. 'J'he new l\irkersburfr turn- 

^ ... . 

]nke road passes through it, which will doubtless, when completed, give 
it many great advantages. 

In February, 1772, Fincastle, in the county of Retetourt, was estab- 
lished. Israel Christian mule a present of forty acres of land to the jus- 
tices of Botetourt court, for the use of the county, '("he court laid olf the 
said forty acres of land into lots, and applied to the legisLiturc to have 
the town established by law, which was done accordingly. 

In October, 1776, first year of the cniTimonwedth, the town of fiath, 
at the warm springs, in the cmtnty of F^erkeley, (now the seat of justice 
for Morgan county,) was established, and I.'ud off by act of asseml)ly. 

Preamble. ""Whereas it hath been represented to this general assem- 
bly, that the laying off fifty acres of land in lots and streets for a town at 
the warm springs, in the county of Berkc'py, will be o^ great utility, by 
encouraging the purchasers thereofto hinld convenient houses for accom- 
modating numbers of infirra persons, who frequent those springs yearly 
for the recovery oi their he lUh ; Be it enacted, &^. fifty acres of 
land adjoining the said sprluirs.. being pun of ;; l,)rt;-p:- tri;c! of I;'.iid, the 


prnperty of iho rij^ht honorable Thnmns lord Fairfax, or other person or 
persons lioiiiing- the same by a grant or conveyance Irom him, be and the 
sam;» i-i here;)y vested in Jiryiin Fairfax, 'Thomas Bryan Martin, Warner 
Washinjjton, the lleverend Charles Mynn Thruston, Robert Rutherford, 
Thomas Rutiierford, Alexander White, Philip Pendleton, Samuel Wash- 
ington, William Ellzey, Van Swearino-cn, Thomas Hite, James EdmuncN- 
son, atid James Nourse, gentlemen, Iriistees, to be by them, o^ any seven 
of them, laid out into lots oi' one quarter of an acre each, ^vith convenient 
streets, which shall be and the same is hereby established a town, by the 
name of Bath." 

The author has been the more ])articular in makinix the foretroinfr ex- 
tract from the act of the legislature, because this appears to be the first 
instance under our republican government in which the legislature took 
the authority of establishing and laying out a town upon the land, of pri- 
vate individuals, without the consent of the owner of tlie land. It is pos-' 
sible lord Fairfax assented to the laying off of this town ; but if he did, 
there is nothiuLT in the lanfjuafre of the act wlaich cfoes to show it. 

In the month of October, 1777, Lexington, in the county of Rock- 
bridge, was establis/ied. Extract from the law : "And be ii lurther en- 
acted, that at the place which shnll be appointed for holding courts in the 
said county of Rockbridge, there shall be laiil olT a town, to be called 
Lexington, thirteen hundred feet in length and nine hundred in width.* — 
And in order to make satisfaction to the jiroprietors of the said land, the 
clerk of the said county shall, by order of the justices, issue a writ direc- 
ted to the sherilT, commanding him to summon twelve able and disinter- 
ested t"re('hf>idcrs, to meet fur the said land on a certain day, not under 
five nor over ten davs from the date, who shall upon oath value the said 
lantl, in so many parcels as there shall be separate owners, wliich valua- 
tion the sheriflf shall return, uii ler the hands and seals of the said Jurors, 
to the clerk's oliice ; and the justices, at laying their first county levy, 
shall make provision for paying the said proprietors their respective pro- 
portions thereof; ami llic property of the said land, on the return of the 
sai<l valuation, shall be vested in the justices and their successors, one 
acre thereof to be reserved for the use of the said county, and the residue 
to he sold and convayed by the said justices to any persons, and the 
money arising fiom such sale to be appHed towards lessening the county 
levy: and the public bulldinu-s tor the said county shall be erected on 
the land reserved as aforesaid." From this it appears that tlie name of 
the town was fixed by law befon- the site is marked out. 

Moorefield was also established in ihc inontii nf ()(:tob( r, 1777, in the 
county of II impshire, now the seat of justice for the county ol Ilaidy. — 
Extract from the act of as-.<'mblv : " W' liereas it hath been re|irt'scnle(l to 
this pH'sent gein-ral assembly, that the establishing a town on tlu; lands 
of Conrad Moore in the county of Hampshire, would be (>!' great advan- 
1'i|;e to the inhabitants, by encourat^in'.;- tradesmen to settle amongst 
them; He it therefore enhcted, &,c. that sixty-two acres of land belong- 
ing to the said Conrad Moore, in the most convenient place for a town. 

*This was truly upon a small scale. 


Be, and the same is lieroby vested in Garret Vannieter, Abel Uandall, 
Moses Hutton, Jacob Read, Jonathan Weath, Daniel M'Neil, and 
George Rennock, gentlemen, trustees, to be by them, or any ibur of 
them, laid out into lots of half an acre each, with convenient streets, 
which shall be and the same is hereby established a town, by the name 
of iMoorefield." 

Martinsburg was established in the month of October, 1778. Extract 
fl'om the law : " Whweas it hath' been represented to this present general 
assembly, that Adam Stephen, Esq. hath lately laid off' one hundred 
and thirty acres of land in the county of Berkeley, where the court 
house now stands, in lots and streets for a towii, &.C.; Be it enacted, &.c. 
that the said one hundred and thirty acres of land laid out into lots and 
streets, agreeable to a plan and survey thereof made, containing the num- 
ber of two hundred and sixty-nine lots, as, by the said plan and survey, 
relation thereunto being had, may more fully appear, be and the same is 
hereby vested in James M'Alister, Joseph Mitchell, Anthony Noble, Jas. 
Strode, Robert Carter Willis, William' Patterson arid Philip Pendleton, 
gentlemen, trustees, and shall be established a town' by the name of Mar- 
tinsburg." This towirwas named after the late Col.T. Ji.' Martin. 

Tradition relates that an animated contest took place between the late 
Gen. Adam Stephen and Jacob Kite, Esq., in relation to fixing the seat 
of justice for this county; Hite contending for the location thereof on his 
own land, at what is now called Leetowh, in the county of Jefierson, Ste- 
phen advocatin,!^ Martinsburg. Stephen prevailed, and Hite became so 
disgusted and dissatisfied, that he sold out his fine estate, and removed to 
the frontier of South Carolina. Fatal remove! , He hatl not been long 
settled in that state, before the Indian?? murdered'him and several of his 
family in the most shocking and barba!ou?5 manner.* It is said that the 
evening before this Ltoody massacre took place, an Indian sqUaw, whrt 
was much attached to Mrs. IIite,t caRed on her g;nd warned her of the 
intended massacre, and advised her to remove with her little children to a 
})lace of safety. Mrs. Hite immediately communicated this intelligence 
to her husband, who disbelieved the infcJrmation, observing^ "the Indians 
wui-e too much attached to him to do him' any injury." The next morn- 
ing, however, when', it was fatally too kite to esca})e, a party of Indians, 
armed and painted in their usual war dress, called on Hite, and told him 
they had determined to kill him;' It was in vain that he pfeiufed his 
friendsjiip for thtnn, and the many services he. had rendered thfeir na.tion :' 
their fell purpose was fixed, and nothing covdd a})pease them but his bhiod, 
and that of his innocent, unoffencHirg and helpless wife and children.' 
They commenced their operations by the most cruel tortures u{)On Mr. 
Hite, cutting him to pieces, a joint at atime ; ajid whilst he was thus in" 
tlie most violent agonies, they barb;m>u.dymardered his wile and several' 

*Col. James Hite', of JefTcrson ' county, ri'lated this tradition' to' tlie 

..jMrs. Hltewiistlie sisicr of tlie late Col. J. Madison, of Oi'an^'e county, 
\irgii)i;i, p.ii,'l of coiirsf :u;iit td cv-DiT-.idcii! Madison. 



of her little offspring. After Mr. Hite, his wife, and several of the chif- 
dren were dispatolicd, they took two of his iluughters, not quite grown, 
and all his slaves as prisoners. They also earried ofT what })lunder they 
chose, and their booty was considerable. 

Mr. Hite kept a large retail store, and dealt largely with the Creek and 
Cherokee tribes. It is said a man by the name of Parish, who went 
to (Carolina with Hite, and to whom Hite had been very friendly, growi'ng 
ietdous of' Hite's popularity with the Indians, instigated the savages to 
commit the murder. About the year 178-4 or 1785, the author saw the 
late Capt: George Hite, (who had been an olficer in the revolutionary 
armv,) and who had just returned from an unsuccessful search after his 
two young sisters, who were taken captives at the time of the murder o[" 
his father. He had traversed a great part of the southern country, among 
the various tribes of Indians, but never could hear any thing of them, 
Capt. Hite, some short time after the war of the revolution, recovered a 
part of his father's slaves, who had been taken off by the Indians, one of 
whom is now owned by Maj.- Isaac Hite, of Frederick county. This; 
woman brought home an Indian son, whom the author has frequentliy 
seen, and who had all the featwes of an Iiwlian. A part of Hite's slaves 
are to this day remaining with the Indians, and are kept in rigorous 
slavery. In the winter of 1815-16, the author fell in with Col. Williant 
Triplett, of Wilkes county, (Georgia, wiio informed him, that in the 
autuuni of the year 1800 he was traveling, through the Creek country, 
and saw an old negro mar.- who told hint he was one of .lacob Hite's 
slaves, taken when his master and fiunily v/ere murdered in South Caro-^ 
lina. He further irdbiined' Col. Triplett, that there were then sixty 
negroes in possession of the Indians, descended fronn slaves taken froni 
Hite, the greater inuulHr of whom were claimed by the little Tallapoosa 

In October, 1778, the town of Abingdon' was established in Washing- 
ton county. 

In the month of May, 1780, the town of Harrisonburg, in the county 
of Kockiiigham, was established. It apj)ears that Mr. Tluunas Hiu'rison 
had laid od'lirty acres of his land iiit(j lots uiid streets, and the legislature 
simply condrmed what Mr. Harrison had don*;, without apj)ointing trus- 
tees for the town, as was the practice. The privileges, however,, 
granted by law to the cili/cens of otliei' incorporated towns, weic given to 
llic' irdiabitants of llarrisoidfurt^-. 

In the month of Orlober, 17S-2, the town of Lewisburg, iu the county 
of ( Ii'eeiihiiei-, was cslabhshed. The act of asseiably aj)pr()pri;ites iWrty 
acres of land at the c-oupt hcuise, to he laid nil' into half acre lots and streets. 
Samuel Lewis, .James' Keid, Samuel l»rown, Andiew Donnelly, .John 
Stuart, Aicher .Matthews, William Ward, and Tlujinas Edgar, gentlemen, 
were appointed trustees. 

hi October, 1785, Clarksburg, in the eounly df Harrison, was estab* 
li-;he:l. Wui. Ha>uion(l, Nicholas Carpinert, .John Myers, .John M'Ally, 
and Jolin Davison, gentlemen, were appointed In stees. 

In the same month an J year, Morgantowii, in the county of Monon- 
galia, was eslab!i:ihed. Tiie act. appropriaWs -'Itty acres of land, thf? 


Ypropert}v of Zackquell Morgan, to be laid off into, lots and streets for a 
town: Samuel Hanway, John Evans, David Scott, Michael Kearnes, and 
James Daugherty, trustees. 

In October, 1786, Charlestown, in the county of Berkeley, (now the 
seat of justice for the county^of Jefferson,) was established. This town 
was laid off by the late Col. Charles Washington, a brother to the illustri- 
.ous Gen. George Washingtot., on his own land. Eighty acres were 
• divided into lots and streets; and John Augustine Washington, William 
Drake, Robert Rptherford, James Crane, Cato Moore, MagKus Tale, 
Benjamin Rankin, Thornton Washington, Wm. Little, Alexand<"r White, 
and Richard Ranson, were .appointed trustees. This town bears the 
christian Rame of its proprietor. 

In the year 1787, Franktbrt, in Hampshire county, was established. 
One hundred and thirty-nine acres of land was laid off into lots and streets, 
with out-lots, by John Sellers. John Mitchell, Andrew Cooper, Ralph 
Humphreys, John Williams, sen., James Clark, Richard Stafford, Heze- 
kiah VVhiteman, and Jacob Brookhart, trustees. 

In the month of October, 1787, the town of West- Liberty., in the 
county of Ohio, was established. Sixty acres of land was laid off into 
lots and streets by Reuben Foreman and Providence Mounts. Moses 
Chaplinc, George M'Cullough, Charles Willis, Van Swearingen, Zach- 
ariah Sprigg, James Mitchell, and Benjamin liriggs, were appointed 

In the same month and year, Middletown, in the county of Berkeley, 
(commonly called Gerrardstown,) was established. This town was laid 
off by the late Rev. Mr. David Gerrard, and contained one hundred lots. 
William Henshaw, James Haw, John Gray, Gilbert M'Kewan, and Robt. 
Allen, were appointed trustees. 

The same year and month, the town of Watson, (commonly called 
Capon Springs,) in the coanty of Hampshire, was established — twenty 
acres of land to be laid off in lots and streets. Elias Poston, Henry Fry, 
Isaac Hawk, Jacob Hoover, John Winterton, Valentine Swisher, Rudolph 
Bumgarner, Paul M'lvor, John Sherman Woodcock, and Lsaac Zane, 
gentlemen, trustees. 

In 1788, Front Roya.1 was established, in the county ■fif Frederick. 
Fifty fK;res of land, the property of Solomon Vanmeter, Jiunes Moore, 
Robert Haines, William Cunningham, Peter Halley, John Smith, Allen 
Wiley, Original Wroe, George Chick, William Morris, and Henry MVout, 
was laid out into lots and streets; and Thomas Allen, Robert Russell, 
William Headly, William Jennings, John Hickman, Thomas Hand, a;id 
Thomas Buck, gentlemen, trustees. 

The same year and month, Pattonsburg, in the county of Botetoiu't, on 
James river, was established. Crowsville, in Botetourt, was established 
at the same time. 

In 1790, lieverly was laid off and established a town at Randolph 

Frontville, at the Sweet Springs, and Springfield, in ihe coimty of 
Hampshire, were severally laid off and established iu October, 17*J0. 

In October, 1791, Darksvtlle iu Berkeley, Kcisldcnvn in Kockintrhaju, 

163 ■ESTAJ3LlSllAIK\'r OK rill-: TOWNS. 

and Cliarlcstowii in Ohio, wt-rc severally cstahlisiicd. This toncludc? 
the author's account of the establishment of the various towns west of 
the Blue ridge, within the present western hmils of Vircrinia, tVoiu the 
earliest settlement of the country to the year 1792 inclusive. 

This history of the establishment of the towns in Western \'irginia, 
from the earliest settlement of the country, to the year 1792 inclusive, is 
gathered Irom Hening's Statutes at Large, yv'hich brings the acts of tlu- 
legislature no further than that period. To continue the list to the ])re- 
sent time, would require an examination of the various session acts since 
.1792, which it would be difficult to obtain, perhaps, except in Richmoiul, 
,to which place it would not suit the author's present convenience to make 
a journey. As he confidently anticipates a demand for a second edition 
of this work, he will in the mean time make perfect this portion of the 
history of our country for futu'x insertion. 

i^^j^ A. Mii^ 


or THE 


From the year 1763 until the year 1783 inclusive. 



BY THP: rev. DK. .I'JSKri! DODDUlUOt;. 




Tins is a .subject which presents human nature in its most revohing fea- 
tures, as subject to a vindictive spirit of revenge, and a thirst of human 
blood, leading to an indiscriminate slaug'hler of an ranks, ages and sexes, 
by the weapons of war, or by torture. 

The history of man is, for the most part, one continued detail of bloot!- 
shed, battles and devastations. War lias been, from the earliest periods 
of history, the almost constant employment of individuals, elans, tribes 
and nations. Fame, one of the most potent obiects of Inunan rnnl)ition, 
has at all times been the delusive, but costly rewartl of militarv achieve- 
ment. The triumph of conquest, the epithet of grc.itness, the throiu' and 
the sceptre, have uniformly been })urc]iased by the eonilirt of battle wnd 
garments rolled in blood. 

If the modern European laws ol' warfare have softened in some degree 
the horrid features of national conflicts, by respecting the rights of j)ri- 
vate pro])erty, and extending humanity to the sick, wouwded ',uu\ prison- 
ers ; we ought to reflect that this amelioration is the efTect of civili/atiorj 
only. The natural state of war knows no such mlxlufc of mercy with 
cruelty. In his primitive state, njan knows no object in his wars, but 
that of the extermination of his eneroies, either by (h-alli or captivity. 

The wars of the Jews iwere exterminatory in their object. The de- 
struction of a whole nation was often the result of a single cnrniiaign. 
Even the beaS'ts themselves were sometimes included in the general 
mass? ere. 

The present war between the Greeks and Turks- is a upon the 
ancient model— -a war of utter cxterirrination. 

It is, to be sure, much to be regretted, that our people so often fol- 
lov>-ed the cruel examples of the L"i';.!(ia:ii>, in the shughicr of prisoners, 


and soraetimcj women and <'lii!ili-('n : vet lot them receive a randiil lu ar-' 
in^ at the har of reason and jusliec, Ijeloie they are condemned as bar- 
haiiaiiii, equally with the Indians themselves. 

llistoi'v scaieelv presents an ex,ini]>le ot" a civilized nation carrvinij; ort' 
a war with barliaiians without adopting the n!6de of warfare of the bar- 
barous uatioii. The ferocious Suwari'ow, when at war w'ith the Turks, 
was a>; murh of a savage as llie 'I'urhs themselves.' His sliiughters were 
as indif^i rinnnate as tlieirs ; but (hiri-r)]^ his wars ai^ainst the French, in ' 
Italy, he failhtidly observed the laws of civilizetl \varf'are. 

Were the Greeks now at war with a civilized nation, ^v'e shoidd hear 
notiiing' n/' the harbarities whi( li tliwy have committed on ihe Turks; l)ut 
being at war with barbarians, tlip ji'^inl'iple of self defence compels them 
to retaliate on the 'I'urks the barbarities which they commit on them. 

la liie l^ist rebellion in Ireland, that of the I'nitcd Irishmen, the gov- 
ernment party were not much behind the rebels in acts of ISNvless cruelty. 
It was not by tlie hamls of the executioner alone they perished. Sum- 
mary justice, as it was called, was sometimes inllicted. How many 
perished untier tlie toiluring scourge' of the drummer lor the [jurpose of 
extorting confessions ! Tliese extia-judic ial executions •were attempted 
to be juhtilied on the ground of the necessity of the case. 

Our revolwlicuiary war has a double aspect : on the onv hand we car- 
ried on a war witli Ihe English, in which we observed the maxims of 
civilized warfare with tlie utfuost slrictiu'ss; but the brave, the potent, 
the magnanimous nation ol' our tort^fathers iiad associated witli them- 
selves, as aiixiliaiies, the murdeious tomahawk and scalping knife of the 
Indian nations around our defenseless frontiers, leaving those barbarous 
sons ol'ihe fijjTst to their (can savage mode of warfare, to the full indul- 
gence of all their native thirst loi' human iilood. 

On them, tiicn, be the blaiMC ol' all lli<' horrid features of tliis wai' be- 
tween civilized and savage men, in wliii h tlu' lormer was conii)ellcd, by 
everv |)rinciple of self dei"eii'>e, to adopt th'e Indian mode of warl'aic, in 
.dl its revolting; and destructisc l'eatur(\s. 

Were those who were engaged in the war agninsi the Indians, less 
humane than those who cari'led on the war against their lOnglish idbu'S.- 
No, they W(*4(' not. H'llh parlies c.irrled on the war on the s ime prlnci- 
j»lc of rrciprocilN ol advantages and disadvantages. l-'or example, the 
Knglish and Ann'iicans take eacii one tliousiind prisoners: thc\ are ex- 
changed : neitli T arms is wcake'ie:! !)V this airaiigenieiit. A sacrifice is 
indee I in-idc to liinn iiiilv, in liie expense of taking care of the sick, 
wounded and prisoii'jrs; but this cvpense is mutual. No disadvantagi-s 
result from all the cleai "ncy of m > le;ii wai'farc, excepting an augmenta- 
tion of the evp/n-ics of war. in this in »de i»f warfare, those oi" tlu; nation, 
n »t in arm-;, are safe' from deidi hv the hinds of soldiers. No civilized 
AV.irrior dis!r)n MN hi-; sword widi th' bloo 1 ol' helpless infancy, old age, ■ 
or that ill til" f.iir s'\. II.' aiin> his blows only al tho>e wh )m he {\in\:i 
m arm ■; ag linst him. 'I"he Inlian kills iiKHscriiiviiiaieK . His object is 
the, total extermin ition of hi^ e-i -mie-:. Children are victiin> of his veil- , 
giMMCi', h.'cmse, it' III lie-;, they in ly here.iber bee )m.' waniors, or if 
le.nih'>, t!i.'v 111 i\ h •.■.!. 11 • in »th 'i'-:. i^^'en tl;>' lel.vl sta!i' i> in 


his vit'W. 1 1 is nal enough tliiit tin- ictus should perish with thr laur- 
tlered mother; it is lorn from her pregnant womb, and elevated on a stick 
or pole, as a trophy of victory and an object of horror to the survivois of 
ihe slain. 

If the Indian takes prisoners, mercy has but little contsern in t'ae trans- 
saction. He spares the lives of those who lall into jiis hands, for the pur- 
pose of feasting the feelings of ferocious vengeance of himself and his 
comrades, by the torture of his captive; or to increase the strength of his 
nation by his adoption into an' Indian family; or for the purj)ose of gain, 
by selling liim for an higher price, than his scalp would fetch, to his 
christian allies of, Canada; for be it known that those allies were in the 
constant practice of making prcserits for scalj)s and prisoners, as well as 
finiiishing the means for carrying on the Indian war, which for so many 
years desolated our (.lefcnseless frontiers. No lustration can ever wash 
out this national stain. The foul blot must remain, as long as the page 
of history shall convey the record of the foul transaction to future gejiera- 

The author would not open wounds which liave, alas! already bled so 
long, but for the purpose of doing justice to.. thw meinoiy of his forefathers 
and relatives,, many of whom perished in the defense ot' their country, by 
the hands of the merciless Indians, 

llow is a war of extermiuration, an'd accompanied with such acts of 
atrocious cruelty, to be met by those pn wliom it is inflicted.^ Must it be 
met by the lenient maxims of civilized warfare .^ •, Must the Indian caj)- 
tive be spared his life? What advantage would be gainecl by this.course? 
The young white prisoners, adopted into Indian families, often become 
complete Indians; but in how few instances did ever an Indian become 
civilized. Send a cartel for an exchange of prisoners; the Indians know 
nothing of this measure of clemency in war; the bearer of the white flag 
for the purpose of effecting the exchange would have exerted his humanity 
at the forfeit of his life. 

Should my countrymen be still charged with barbarism, in t^e prosecu- 
tion of the Indian war., let him who harbors this unfavorable impression, 
concerning them, portray in imagination the horrid scenes of slaughter 
which freq^uently met their vievv m the course of the Indian war. , Let 
him, if he can bear the reflection, look at helpless infancy, virgin beauty 
and hoary age, dishonored by the ghastly wounds of the tomahawk and 
scalping knife of the savage. Let him hear the shrieks of the victims ot^ 
the Indian torture by fire, and srnell the surrounding air, rendered sicken- 
ing by the effluvia of their burning flesh and blood. Let him hear the 
yells, and view the hellish features of the surrounding circle of savage 
warriors, rioting in all the luxuriance of vengeance, while applying the 
flaming torches to the parched limbs of the sufferers, and then suppose 
those murdered infants, matrons, virgins and victims of torture, were his 
friends and relations, the wife, sister, child or brother ; what woidd be 
his feelings! After a short season of grief, he woidd .say, "I will now 
think only of revenue." 

Philosophy shudders at the destructive aspect of war in any shape v 


169 INDIAN WAR tare:. 

Christianity, by teaching^ the religion ot' the good Samaritan, altogether" 
forbids it: but the original settlers of the western regions, like the greater 
part of the world, were neither philosophers nor saints. They were 
"men of like passions with others ;'^ and therefore adopted the Indian- 
mode of warfare from necessity and a motive of revenge; with the excep- 
tion of burning their captives alive, v^'hieh they never did. If the bodies 
of savage enemies were sometimes burned, it was not until after they 
were dead. 

Let the voice of nature and the law of nations plead in favor of the 
veteran ■ pioneers af the desert regions of the west. War has hitherto 
been a prominent trait in the moral system of human nature, and will 
continue such, until a radical change shall be effected in favor of science, 
morals and piety, on a general scale. 

In the conflicts of nations, as well as those of individuals, no advanta- 
ges are to be conceded. If mercy may be associated with the carnage 
and devastations of war, that mercy must be reciprocal ; but a war of utter 
extermination must be met by a war of the same character, or by an 
overwhelming force which may put on end to it, without a sacrifice of 
the helpless and unoffending part of the hostile nation. Such a force 
was not at the command of the first inhabitants of this country. The 
sequel of the Indian war goes to show that in a war with savages the 
choice lies between extermination and subjugation. Our government 
has wisely and humanely pursued the latter course. 

Tho author begs to be understood that the foregoing observations are 
not intended as a justification of the whole of the transactions of our 
people with regard to the Indians during the course of the war. Some 
instances of acts of wanton barbarity occurred on our side, which have 
received and must continue to receive the unequivocal reprobration ot 
all the civilised world. In the course of this history, it will appear that 
more deeds of wanton barbarity took place on our side than the world 
is now acquainted with. 

*WAll (?F 1763. 170 



'The treaty of peace between his British majesty and the kings of France, 
^pain and Portugal, conchided at Paris on the 10th of February, 1763, 
<iid not put an end to the Indian war against the frontier parts and back 
settlements of the colonies of Great Britain. 

The spring and summer of 1763, as well as those of 1764, deserve 
to be memorable in history, for the great extent and destructive results 
<of a war of extermination, carried on by the united force of all the 
Indian nations of the western country, along the shore of the northern 
Jakes, and throughout the whole extent of the frontier settlements of 
PennsyLyania, Viiiginia and North Carolina. 

The events of this war, as ^Ihey relate to the frontier of Pennsylvania 
and the shores of the lakes, are matt^ers of history already, and therefore 
shall be no farther related here than is necessary to give a connected view 
-of the militarj^ events of those disastrous seasons. The massacres by the 
Indians in the southwestern part of Virginia, so far as they have come to 
the knowlenge of the author, shall be related m-ore in detail. 

The English historians (Hist, of England, vol. x. p. 399,) attribute 
this terrible war to the influen^ce of the French Jesuits over the Indians; 
-but whether with much truth and candor, is, to say the least of it, ex- 
Iremely doubtful. 

The peace of 1763, by w-hich the provinces of Canada were ceded to 
Britain, was offensive to the Indians, especially as they very well knew 
that the English government, on the ground of this treaty, claimed the 
juiisdiction of the western country generally; and as an Indian sees no 
4i(rerence between the right of jurisdiction and that of possession, they 
considered themselves as about to be dispossessed of the whole of tlieir 
country, as rapidly as the English might find it convenient to take jios- 
session of it. In this opinion lliey were confirmed by the building of 
forts on the Susquehanna, on lands to which the India'ns laid claim. 
The forts and posts of Pittsburg, Bedford, Ligonier, Niagara, Detroit, 
Presque Isle, St. Joseph and Michilimackinac, were either built, or im- 
proved and strengthened, with additions to their garrisons. Thus the 
Indians saw themselves surrounded on the north and east by a strong line 
of forts, while those of Bedford, Ligonier and Pittsburg, tlireatened an 
extension of them into the heart of their country. Thus circumstanced, 
the aboriginals of the country had to choose between the pros]K'Ct of 
being driven to the inhospitable regions of the north and west, of negoti- 
ating with the British government for continuimce of the possession of 
th.eir ov»-n land, or -of taking up arm"^' for its defense. They chose iIm- la! 

ni .:»VAR OF 1703. 

ter course, in wlilcli a view of the sinallness of their niimhers, and tiic 
scantiness of their resources, ought to have taught them, that ahhough 
lliey might do much mischief, they coukl iiot ijltilj'iately succeed; hut tii'e 
Indians, as well as their brethren of the white skin, are often driven by 
their impetuous passions to rash and destructive enterprises, wliich rea- 
son, -were it permitted to give it coimsels, wouhi disapprove. 

The plan resolved on l)y the Indiiuis ihr the prosecution of tlie \var, 
Avas that of a general'massacre of allihe inhabitants of the English set- 
llemOhts in the western country, as well as of those on the lands on tiie 
Susquehanna, to which they laid clain''. 

Never did mililary commanders of any nation display more skill, or 
their troops more steady and determined bravery, than did those red men 
'of the wilderness in the prosecution of their gigantic plan for the ref^overy 
of their country from the possession of the English. It was indeed a war 
of utter extennination on an extensive scale,— a conflict whioh exhibited 
human nature in its native state, in which the cunning of the fox is asso- 
ciated with the ^hielly of the tii^er. We read the history oi'this war with 
feelings of the deepest horror; but why? On the part v)f the savages, 
theirs was the ancient mode of warfare, in whi/h there was nothing of 
mercy. If science, associated with the benign influence oY .the christian 
system, has limited tlie carnage of war to those ir. arm's, so as to give the 
right of life and hospitality to women, infancy, olcl age, the sick, wounded 
and prisoners, m'ay not a farther extension of the influence of those pow- 
erfid but salutary agents put an end to war altogether? J\ lay not fiiture 
gener&ti.oii:.s read ^he history of our civilized warl'are witli equal horror and 
wonder, fhat with our science and piety we had wars at all ! 

The ICnglish traders among the Indians were the Hrst victims in tliis 
contest. Out of one hundred and twenty of them, among the flifferent 
nations, only two or three esoai)ed being murdered. The forts ot' Prcsfpie 
Isle, St. Joseph and Michilimackinac were taken, with a general slaugh- 
ter of their garrisons. 

The fortresses of Bedford, .Ligonier, Niagara, Detroit and Pitt, were 
with diiriculty preserved from i)eing taken. 

Jt was a priru'i|)al objeet with the Indians to get possession of Dctrnit 
anri Fort Pilt, either. by assault or f-uninc. The former was atteniplctl 
with regard to Detroit. Fort Pitt, being at a considerable distance froui 
the settlements, v/liere alone supplies c6\dd be obtained, determined the 
savages to aitempt its reduction by famine. 

In their first 'attempt on Fort Detroit, the TndianF ralculatcd on taking 
possession of jt by stratagem. A large riUiiibcr of I'lidians appeared bf- 
fore the place under ot' holding a congress with ]\Jaj. rilladwiii, 
'the eDminand-uit. He was on his guarrl and irfused tlien\ admittance. 
On the next day, about fivcliundred mor( fil'thc ludiiuis ;uTi\fd in arms, 
and demanded leave lo go into the fmt, 1(. Imld a lieat\ . 'I. he command- 
ant tefiiscd to admit a greater lunnlxr tlian forty The Indians tirider- 
'jitoofl bis design of detaining them as lu.'stages, for the good conduet nf 
their eomr.ulc^ on the nulsidf nf ihc t'lrt, and thcrffore did not send them 
>nto \\\f |)l,!(-r. The whnic iiumbf r of men in the ti>rl and <in luinrd \\\a 
.".cssels of wnr in tliP I'ivrr, flid not exceed cnr Lundre'.i ••md ten crlurlvej 

WAR OF 17(i.^. 17-2 

flwl'bv mcuns of ijio riumon ilirv yiossrsscd, llicv ni;u!o shi.'i \a kocM tlie 
Indians at a distance, ajitl C()n\inr-e them that ;hey couid not take the 
place. Wlien the Indians were about to retire, Capt. Dalyel arviveil at 
'ihe fort Nvidi a considerable reinforcement for the relief of di(> place. He 
made a sortie against the breaslworjvs which the Iii(li;ii)s li;i<! ihicwn up, 
with two hundred and forty-five men. This detachmeiit was driven h;u:k 
yvith the loss of seventy men killed and (brty-two wounded. Capt. 
liialyel was among the slain. Of one liundied men who were escorting 
a large quantity of provisions to J)etroit, sixty-seven were massacred. 

Fort Pitt had been invested for some time, belbre Capt Fcayer had the 
.Jcast prospect of reJief. In this situation he and his garrison liad resolved 
\o stand a out to tJie Inst extremity, and even perish of famin<', rather 
than fall into the hands ot'tlie savages, notwithstanding the fort was a bad 
one, tiie garrison weak, anil the country between the fort and Ligonier in 
possession of tlie savaifcs, and his messengers killed or compelled to 
jeturn buck. In this sjkiation. Col, Jjouquet w,is sent liy CJicn 
^to the relief of the place, \\idi a large quantity of provisions under a strong 
escort. This escort was attackt-d by a large body df Indians, in a nar- 
row defile on Turtle creek, and would have been entirely defeated, had it 
not been for a successful stratagem employed by the commander for ex- 
tricating thcjiaselves from tlie savage army. After sustaining a furious 
contest from one o'clock till night, and for several hours the next morn- 
ing, a retreat was pretended, widi a view to draw the Indians into a close 
engagement. Previous to this nio\ement, four companies of inCiintiy and 
grenadiers were placed in aiabusc.a(K\ 'J'hc plan succeedetl. When the 
retreat commenced, the Indians thought themselves secure ot" victory, and 
pressing forv.'ard with great vigor, fell into the ambuscade, and were dis- 
persed Avith great slaughter. The loss on the side of the English was 
above one Inmdred killed and wounded; that of the Indians coidd not 
have been less. 'J'he loss was severely felt by the Indians, as in addition 
to the number of warriors who fell in the enfrasement, several of the most 
distinguished chiefs were amonof the slain. Fort Pitt, the reduction of 
v/hich they had much at heart, was now placed out of their reach, by 
being effectually relieved and supplied with the munitions of war. 

The historian of the Avestern region of our country cannot help regard- 
ing Pittsburg, the present flourishing emporium of the nordiern pnrt of 
■that region, and its immediate neicrhborhood, as classic ground, on ac- 
count of the memorable battles which took ))lace for its possession in the 
infancy of our settlements. Braddock's defeat, Maj. (irant's defeat, its 
conquest by Gen. Forbes, the victory over tlie Indians above related by 
iMaj. Houquet, serve to show the imi)ortance in whicli this jiost was held 
■io car-y times, and that it was obtiiiacd and supported by the Knglish 
government, at the p.rice of no sm.all amount of blood and treasure. In 
the neighborhood of tjiis place, as well as in the war-worn regions of the 
old world, the plowshare of the farmer turns up from beneath the surface 
of the eaith, tlie broken and luslv implements of wnr, and the bones of 
the shin in battle. 

li vwi!- i'l the course ol'luls war 'hat lac dreadful massacre at Wyoming 

i'/3 ^^A^ oi* ncpj. 

Icok jjliici', ,-111,1 dt;:-(>l:tl cd the fine scUlemcjils o.l' the Xew-England jteo 
pie al',)u<( the Sus(jii«li;iiiii:i. 

'Die exleiisi\e and indi.s('iiiiiiu;ile slawghler of l)olh sexes and all ages 
by the Indians, at Wyoming and other places, so exasperated a large 
jiumbfM- f)!' men, denominated the "PaKton boys," that they rivalled the 
most ferocious of ihe Indians themselves in deeds of cruelty, wliich have 
•lishonored the history of our country, by the record of tlic shedding of 
innocent i)lood without the slightest provocation — deeds of tlie most atro 
cious barbarity. 

The Conestoga Indians had lived in peace for more than a century in 
the neigliborhood ol' Lancaster, Pa. Their number did n^'^t exceeil forty. 
Against diese unotTending descendants of the first friends of the famous 
William Penn, the Paxton boys first directed their more than savage ven^ 
geance. Fifiy-seven of them, in military array, poured into their little 
\illagc, and instantly murdered all whom they found at home, to the 
nuiiil)cr of fourteen men, women and children. Those of them who did 
not lia})i)en to be at home at tiie massacre, were lodged in the jail of 
LancasU'i' for safety. But alas! this precaution was unavailing. The 
i'axton boys broke open tlie jail door, and murdered the whole of them, 
in number about fifteen to twenty. It was in vain that these poor d<'.- 
ffnseless people jirotested their innocence and begged for mercy on their 
knees. I51ood was the order of the day with those ferocious Paxton 
boys. The deiilh of tlu! victims of their cruelties did not satisfy their 
i"a<re for slauLihter; they mangled the dead bodicis of the Indians witli 
their scalpini; knives ami tomahawks m the most shocking and brutal 
manner, sca][)ing even the children and chopping off tlie hands and feet 
of most of them. 

The next object of those Paxton boys was the murder of the christian 
Indians of the villages of We()uetank and Nain. From the execution 
of this infernal design they were prevented by the humane interference of 
the government of Pennsylvania, which removed the inhabitants of bolh 
places under a strong guard to Philadel})liia for protection. They re- 
Muiined under <i-uard from November, 1763, until the close of the war in 
l)cce!iib('r, 17()4 : the greater })art of this time they occupied the barracks 
of that city. I'hc I^ixton boys twice assembled in great force, at no 
great distance from the city, wilh a \i(!\v to assauh tlie barracks and iiini- 
der the Indians; but owing to the military preparations made for their re- 
r('j)tion, they at last reluctantly di-sisteil from the enter})rise. 

While we read, with fi-elings of the deepest horror, the record of l!ie 
murders which have at difrercnt ))eriods been inflicted on the unoffending 
christian Indians of the Moravian prMtession, it is some consolation to 
reflect, tliat our government has liad no jiarlicijiation in those murders ; 
but on the contrary, has at all times afforded them all the jirolection which 
circunistanres aIlow(?d. 

The principal setllemenls in Cireenbricr were those of Muddy Creek 
aiul the I}i^ L(.'vels, distant about fifteen or twenty miles from each other. 
Befi)rc these settlers were aware of the existence of the war, and suppo- 
sing that the peace made with the French comprehended their Inriian 
allies also, ;iboul sixty Indians visited the scltleincnt on Muddy Creek. 

WAR OK r/G.I, . IT! 

Tliey made tlic visit under the mask of iVieiulsliip. They were cor(]iall\- 
received and treated witli all the hospitality which it was in the power of 
these new settlers to bestow u])on them; but on a sudden, and withfuit 
any previous intimation of any thing like an hostile intention, th^ Indians 
murdered, in cold blood, all llie men belonging to the settlement, and 
made prisoners of the women and children. 

Leaving a guard with their prisoners, they then marched to tln^ settle- 
ments in the Levels, before the fate of the Muddy Creek settlement was 
known. Here, as at Muddy Creek, they were treated with the most 
kind and attentive hospitality, at the liouse of Archibald Glendennin, who 
gave the Indians a sumptuous feast of three fat elks, which he luu! re- 
cently killed. Here a scene of slaughter, similar to that wliich had re- 
cently taken place at Muddy Creek, occurred at the conclusion of the 
feast. It commenced with an old woman, who having a very sore letr, 
showed it to an Indian, desiring his advice how she might cure it, 'J'his 
request he answered with a blow of the tomahawk, which instantly killed 
her. In a fe^v minutes all the men belonging to the place shared the 
same fate. The women and children were made prisoners. 

In the time of the slaughter, a negro woman at the spring near the 
liouse where it happened, killed her own child for fear it should fall into 
the hands of the Indians, or hinder her from making her escape. 

Mrs. Glendennin, whose husband was among the slain, and herself 
with her children prisoners, boldly charged the Indians with perfitly and 
cowardice, in taking advantage of the mask of friendship to comrmt mur- 
der. One of the Indians exasperated at her boldness, and stung, no 
doubt, at the justice of her charge against thern, brandished his toma- 
hawk over her head, and dashed her husband's scalp in her face. In 
defiance of all his threats, the heroine still reiterated the charges of per- 
fidy and cowardice against the Indians. 

On the next day, after marching about ten miles, while passing through 
a thicket, the Indians forming a front and rear guard, Mrs, Glendennin 
gave her infant to a neighbor woman, stepped into the bushes without 
being perceived by the Indians, and made her escape. The cries of tlio 
child made the Indi.ans inquire for the mother. She was not to be found. 
•i'Well," says one of them, "I will soon bring the cow to her calf;" and 
taking the rliild by the feet, beat its brains out against a tree. Mrs. 
Glendennin returned home in the course of the succeeding night, and 
covered the corpse of her husband with fence rails. Having performed 
this pious office for her murdered husband, she chose, as a place of safety, 
a cornfield, where, as she related, her heroic resolution was succeeded by 
cl paroxysm of grief and despondency, during which she imagined she 
saw a man with tlie aspect of a murderer standing within a few steps of 
her. The reader of this narrative, instead of regarding this fit of despon- 
dency as a feminine weakness on the part of this daughter of affliction, 
■will commissorate her situation of unparalleled destitution and distress. 
Alone, in the dead of night, the survivor of all the infant settlements of 
that district, while all her relatives and neighbors of both settlements were 
either prisoners or Ivlng dead, dishonored by ghastly wounds of the toma- 


hawk Hill I scalping knitc of the savages, lif^r luisl):ih({ an;l her i*hlhh-eh 
amongst the shiin. 

It was some days bofore a Ibrce could he collected in tiic eastern part 
of Botetourt and the adjoining country i'v: the {)urpose of burying the 

Of the events of this war, on tlie southwestern iiontier ot Virginia, and' 
in the country of llolstein, tlie then western part of North Carolina, tlit; 
iiuUior has not been inrt^Vmed, farther than that, on the jiart of the In- 
dians, it was carried on with tlie greatest activity, and its course marked 
with many deeds of the most atiocious cruelty, until late in the year ITG-^,' 
when a period was put to this sanguinary contest, by a treatyniade with 
the Indian nations by Sir William Johnston, at the German I'lats. 

The perfidy and cruelties practiced by the Indians during the war of 
1763 and 17C4, occasioned the revolting and sanguinary character of the 
Indian wars which took jilace afterwards. 'I'lie Indians liad resolved on 
tlie total extermination of all the settlers of our north and southwestern 
frontiers, and being no longer under the control of their former allies, the 
French, they weix; at lull liberty to exercise all their native ferocity, and 
riot in the iudula-ence of their innate thirst for blood. 

[Next follows, in Dr. Doddrige's work, liis account of Dunmore's war, 
wliich the author of this liistory has transferred to the chapter under that 
liead in the preceding pages. The chapter which follows lelates to an' 
event which occurretl during that war.] 




Tins was one of the most atrocious murders committed by the wiiites 
during the whole course of the [Dunmore's war.] 

In the summer of 1777, when the confederacy of the Indian nations, 
under the inlluence of the IJritish government, was formed, and began to 
commit hostilities along our frontier settlements, (Cornstalk, and a young 
chief of the iiame of Retl-hawk, with anotluu- Indian, made a visit to the 
garrison at the Point, commanded a) that time by Capt. Arbuckle. Corn- 
stalk stated to the captain, that, with the exception of himself and the 
tribe to which he belonged, all the nations liad joined the Fnglisli, and 
that unless protected by the whites, "they would have to run with tlie 

Capt. Arbuckle thought proper to detain the Cornstalk chief and his 
two i onipanions as hostages for the gooil conduct of the tribe to which 


they belonged.' They had not been long- in thi;i situation bcforr i» mmi of 
Cornstalk, concerned for the safety of his father, came to the opposite 
side of the river and hallooed; his father knowing his voice, answered 
him. He was brought over the river. The fatlier and sou mutually 
embraced each other with the greatest tenderness. 

On the day following, two Indians, who had concealed themselves in 
tlie weeds on the bank of the Kanawha opposite the fort, killed a man 
of the name of Gduiore, as he w<is returiiiug I'rom hunting. As soon as 
tire dead body was broujibt over the river^ there was a "'eneral cry ainon'>-st 
the men who were present, "Let us kill the Indians in the fort." They 
immediately ascended the bank of the river with Capt. Hall at their head, 
to execute their hasty resolution. Ou their way they were met by ('apt. 
Stuart and Ca})t. Arbuckle, wJio endeavored to dissuade them from kill- 
ing the Indian hostages, sayingthat they, certainly had no concern in the 
murder of Gilmore; but remonstrance was in vain. P.dc as death with 
r\ge, they cocked their guns and threatened the captains wi'Ji instant 
death, if they should atteiiipt to hinder theai from executing their pur- 
Y>oHe. .. , . 

. When the murderers arrived at the house where the hostages were con- 
fined, Cornstalk rose up to meet them at the tloor, but instantly received 
seven bullets through his body; his son and hi.-, other two fellow-hostiiges 
'were instantly despatdied with bullets ami tomahawks. 

Thus fell the Shawnee war chief Cornstalk, who, like Logati, his com- 
panion in arms, was conspicuous tor intellectual talent, brav(>ry and mis- 

The biography of Cornstalk, as far as it is now known, goes to show 
that he, was no way deficient in those mental endow'ments which consti- 
f^ate true greatness. On the evening preceding the battle of Point Plea- 
sant, he proposed going over the river to the camp of Gen. Lewis, for the 
l^urpose of making pcare. The majority in the council ot" warriors votedi 
against the measure. "Well," said Cornstalk, " since you liave resol- 
ved on fightiug, you shall fight, although it is likely we shall have hard 
work to-morrow ; but if any man shall attempt to run away from- the bat- 
de, I will kill him with my own hand," ami ar-cordingly iulfdled his 
direat with regard to one cowardly fellow. 

After the Indians had returned trom the battle. Cornstalk callecl a 
council at the Chillicothe tov/n, to consult what was to !;<< clone next. 
In this council h'^, reminded the Vv'ar chiefs of folly in preventing him 
from making peace, betbrc the fatal battle of Point Pleasant,, ajid asked, 
"What shall we do no\v ? The Long-knives are coming upon- us by two 
routes. Shall we turn' out and fight them?" All were silenl. He then 
asked, " Shall we. kill our squaws and children, and, then' figl>t until we 
shall all be killed ourselves?" To this no reply was made. He then 
rose up and struck his. tomahawk in the war ]) in the middle of the 
council house, saying, " Since you are not inclined to fight, I will go 
and make peace ;" and acsordingly did so. 

On the morning of the day of his death, a council was held in the fort 
at the Point, in which he was prcictit. During the sitting of <!i'i r.vjry.- 



ci), il is snld 1]in1 lie .^ocincd lo liiivc n. ]iicscntli!iciit of liis .'ijjjrroacliin^'' 
fate. In one of his speeches, he remarked to ihe council, "AVhcn I ^vas ' 
vouiif^, evory liint I \venl, to war 1 thought itlikely that 1 might return no 
more; hull >slil! lived. I am now in\your hands, and you may kill me 
if you choose. I can die, once, and it is alike" to me Avhether I die 
now or at another time." When the' men presentf^d themsclve?; hefoic 
the door, for the purpose of killing the Indians, Cornstalk's son mani- 
fested signs of fear, on ohserving which, liis father said, "Don't I)e afraid, 
my son; the Great- Spirit sent you hereto die Avilh mt, and ^ve must sub- 
mit to his will. It is all fyr the best. '^ 




1 NUKR t!ie command of Col. Angus W'Donald, four hahdred n-.en were 
collected from the western part of Virginia by the order of the earl of 
Diinrnore, the then governor of Virginia. The place of rendezvous was 
AVheelinii;, some time in the month of June, 1774. Thev went down the 
ri\ er in l.ioats and canoes to the rnouth of Ca{>tina, from thence by the 
shortest route to Wappatomica town, about sixteen miles belo'^' the pre- 
sent (-oshocton. The pilots were Jonathan Zane, Thomas Nicholson 
and Tady Kelly. About six miles frorti the town, the army were met by 
a party of Indians, to the number of forty or fifty, who gave a skirniish 
by the way of ambuscade, in which two of otir men were killed and eight 
or nine wounded. One Indian was killed and several wounded. It was 
supposed that several more of them were killed, but they were carried off. 
When the army came to the town, it was found evacuated. The Indi- 
ans had retreated to the of)posite shore of the river, where they had 
i'ormed an ambuscade, supposing the j)arly would cross the river from the 
town. This was imirediately discovered. The commanding officer then 
sent sentinels up and down the river, to give lujtice, in case the Indians 
.sliould attempt to cross above or below the town. A pnvate in the com- 
pany of Capt. Cresap, of the nAm"^ of John Harnes^, one of the sentinels 
below the town, displayed the skill of a backwoods sharpshooter. See- 
ing an Indian behind a blind across the river, raising up his head, at 
lime-;, to look over the river. Harness charged his rille with a second ball, 
and taking deliberate aim, passed both balls through the neck of the In- 
diin. 'I'lie Indians dra?!jed ofT the body and buried it with the honors 
cf It was found the next morning and scalped by Harness. 

SoMi ufitir the town woi ".aken, the- Indian* from the opposite shore 


..sued for peace. The comiaunder oO'cit'd them peace on coiidilioii or' 
then* sendias^ over their chiefs as hostafres. Five of them came over th(i 
river and were put iiuder guard as liostages. lu the morning they were 
marched in front of the army over the river. When the party liad reached 
'';he western bank of the Muskingum, the Indians represented that th.-y 
could not make peace without the presence of the chiefs of the other 
towns: on which one of the chiefs was released to bring in the others. 
He did not return in the appointed time. Another chief was perfiiittcd to 
go on the same errand, who in like mq,nner did not return. The ])arty 
then moved up the riv«r to the next tow^u, which was aLout a mile above 
the first, and on the oppositf. shore. Here we iiad a slight skirmish v>ith 
the Indians, in which one of them was killed and one of our men wound- 
ed. It was then discovered, that during all the time spent in the nego- 
tiation, the Indians were employed in removing their women and chil- 
,dren, old people and effects, i'rom the upper towns. Tiie towns were 
•burned and the corn cut up. The \mri^- then returned t(^ the place from 
which tliey sat out, bringing with them the three remaining chiefs, who 
were sent to Williamsburg. They were released at the peace the suc- 
^.■ceeding fall. 

Tlie army were out of })rovislt)ns before ttiey lei'i the towns, and hiid 
to subsist on weeds, one efu' of corn e;icii day^ v.ith a \ery scanty supply 
^of jram.e. The corn was obljiined at oni cf the ludian tc-wns. 



iN-the spring of the year -1773, govcrnmejit having sent a small force oi' 
regular troo})S, under the comniarid of (S-cn. iM'Intosh, for tht: defcnst- of 
the western frontier, the general, with the regulars and miJilia front Fori 
Pitt, descended the Ohio about thirty miles, and built I'ort'jVI'[ntosh, on 
the site of the present Be;iver town. 'Ihe fort was ma(i<; with strong 
stockades, furnished >vith bastions, and mounted with one G-pounder. 
This statioii was weil selected as a point for a small rnihtary force, al- 
\vvvys in rcadiiUess to ij-ursuc or intercept the war parties of Indiana, who 
frequently r^ade hicursions into the settlements on the opposite si(h' o( 
the river in its immediate neighborhood The fort was well giuiisoned 
and supplied with provisions during the summer. 

Sometime in the fall of the same year, Gen. M'lntosli received an or- 
,der from goveinment to make a campaign against the Sanchisky towns. 
This order he attempted to obe\ with one ihousaiid men; hut owni'/ to 
jJio delay in m:!kiiig mcess;irv t-iiliits I'or the cxoi'diiiun, tlu olhct i>., on 


rc.-itiiiinr Tuscarawa, lliduoht it l)csl to hall at that plac:c, build and nar- 
rison a ioit, ajid delay the farther prosecution ol' the campaiL!;n until llic 
next spring. Accordingly they erected Fort Laurens on the bank ol' the 
Tuscarawa. Some time after the completion ol' the fort, the general re- 
turned with the army to Fort Pitt, leaving ,Col. John (Jlibson with a com- 
mand of one luuuhed and fifty men to j)rolect tlie fort until spring. The 
Indians were soon acquainted with the existence of the fort, and soon 
convinced our })eo})lc, by sad expeiience, of the -bad })olicy of building 
and attempting to hold a fort so far in advance of our settlements aiul 
other Ibrts. 

Tlie lirst annoyance the gajrison rtjceived from th*,' Indians was some 
lime in the month of January. In the night time they caught most of 
the horses belonging to the fort, and taking them ofT some distance into 
the woods, they took off their bells, and formed an andyu.scade by the 
side of a ])ath leading through the high grass of a prairi*; at a little dis- 
tance fi'om the fort. In the morning the Indians rattled the liorse bells 
afthe fui'tlier end of the line ol' the ambuscade. '^I'he plan succeeded; a 
I'atigufe o.f sixteen men out for th4' horses aiid iill into the snarci. 
Fourteen were killed on the spot, two were take;i prisoner,';, one of whom 
was given up at the cloi;e of the war, the other was never afterwards 
lieard of. 

Gen. Ijerjjaanin Biggf^, t^hen a cajulaln in tlie fort, ^being officer of the 
day, requested leave of the colonel to go out with the fatigue party, which 
fell into tlie ambuscade. "No," said the colonel, "this fatigue party 
does not belong to a captain's command. When I shall have occa.siou 
to employ oiie of that ni^mber, I shall be thankful for }()ur service; at pre- 
sent you miist atterul td your duty in the foit.'" On what trivial circum- 
stances (!o life aiuf death sometimes depeiul! 

In l!:e exeninj: of the dav of the ambuscade, the wh'^le Indian army, 
in fidl vyar dress and p;iiiited, mhrclied in single file through a j)rairie in 
view of die I'oi't. Theii- iiiiiid)er, as counted from oiu' oi" the bastioiisj 
>\as ciglit hundred aiul lorly-seven.. They then took Uj) their encamp- 
inent on an elevated piece of groiuid at a'sinalj d'istaiu,-e Irom the fori, on 
the opp(!sitc sifle of tiie river. From this (."imp they I'requcntly lu'ld con- 
'versatio'ua .v.'illi die [x ojile of our garrison. In these conversations, they 
seiMued 'to deplore die long continuance of the war and hoped for peace; 
but were iiiUcli e\asp( rated at the Anu'ricans for alteiuptinn" to )>ei)elra{(; 
so far int(>' their couudv. This great body of Indians continued the in- 
vestment (;f the fort, iiS long as they could obtain subsistence, which v\as 
alxiiM six wct'ks. 

Au rild Indian i)y tiic name of John Thomjison, -who was with the 
Airierieiii army in the fort, frequently went (Mil among the Jndians dur- 
ing their stay' at then eiicamjtuu^nl, with the mutual consent of both )iar- 
lies. A short liine befoi* tin' Indians Ini llir place, they sent word to 
Col. Gibson, bv the old Indian, that they were desirous of jieaee, and 
that if he would send theni a barrel f)f (lour they would send in their pro- 
posals the next day; t)iit altt)oiiL:h the colonel complied with their request, 
,lJie\' iiv,ii-clie(| oil' widioMi Inirilliiiu' their engagenienl. 

riiL c'tjunjander, f5iij»po.>iiig d.e whole iiumbei ol the Indians, had gone 

^E\. ^riNTUSirs CAAlPAiCN. m) 

,..eff, -gave jicnaissioii to Col. Clark, of the Pennsylvania lino, io escort liie 
invalids, to the number ©i' elesen or twelve, to Fort M'liilosli. 'J'lip 
whole number of this de'tachment was fifteen. The wars Inilians had 
left a party behind, for the purpose of doing mischief, 'i'lu'si- attacked 
this party of invalids and the escort, about tvro miles from their iort, and 
killed the whole of them with the exception of four, amongst whom was 
the captain, who ran back to the fort. On the same d.iy a detachment 
went out from the fort, brought in the dead, and buried llicm with the 
honors of war, in front of the fort gate. 

In three or four days after this disaster, a relief of seven iiundrt-d men, 
under Gen. M'Intosh, arrived at the fort with a sup})!y of provisions, a 
great part of which was lost by an untoward accident. WJien the relief 
had reached within about one hundred yards of the fort, the irarrison "mvc 
them a salute of a general discharge of musketry, at (!;e re[)ort of which 
the pack horses took fright, broke loose and scattered the jirovisions in 
every direction through the woods, so that the greater jiart of them could 
never be recovered again. 

Among other transactions which took place about this time, was that 
of gathering up the remains of the fourteen men for interment, who had 
fallen in the ambuscade daring the winter, and which could not be done 
during the investment of the place by the Indians. They were found 
inostly devoured by the wolves. The fatigue party dug a pit large 
enough to contain the remains of all of them, and after depositing them in 
the pit, merely covering them witli a little earth, with a view to have re- 
venge on the wolves for devouring their companions, they covered the 
pit with slender sticks, rotten wood antl bits of bark, not of sufficient 
strength to bear the Aveight of a wolf. On the top of this covering they 
placed a piece of meat, as a bait for the Avolves, The next morning seven 
of them weie found in the pit. They were shot and the pit filled up. 

For about two weeks before the relief arrived, the gairisou liati been 
put on short allow^ance of half a pound of sour flour and an e(iual weiglit 
of stinking rrieat for every two days. Tiie greater part of the last week, 
they had nolliing to subsist on but such roots as they could find \n tjie 
woods and prairies, and raw hides. Two men lost their lives by eating 
wild parsnip roots by mistake. Four more nearly shared the same fate, 
but were saved by medical aid. 

On the evening of the arrival of the relief, two days' raticms were issued 
to each man in the fort. Theses rations were intejxled as their allowance 
during their march to Fort M'Intosh; but many of the men, suj)})0sing 
them to have been back rations, ate up the whole of their allowance be- 
fore the next morning. In consequence of this im[)rudence, in eating 
immoderately after such extreme starvation from tlie waiit of provisions, 
about forty of the men became faint and r;ick during the first day's inarch. 
On the second day, liowever, lh(^ suiTerers were met by a great number 
of their friends from the seltlcnicnts Io which they belonged, by whom 
they were amply supplied Avlth provisions, and thus saved from purish- 

.Nfaj. A enion, wlio siiccceded Col. Cibsou in the cninmnnd of Fort 
Laurens, contiibueij iis possession un'il ilic ivxl fdl, when the garrison, 

1 S I ^MOIU \ i A \ .X"'A.MPAiG.S . 

aflcr !ji'in;jj,'Ukt: llicir predecessors, reduced almost to starvation, evacu-g 
ted tlie })!aee. 

Thus ended tlic disastrous business of Fort Laurens, in whieli muck 
fatigue an-1 suiTeting were endured and many lives lost, but without any 
beuelieial result to ihe country. 




This ever nu-niorable rampaign took phice in the month of March, 
1782. The weather, chiring' the greater part of the month of February, 
h.ul been uncommonly fine, so that the war parties from Sandusky visited 
the set'dements, and committed, ch'predations earlier than usual. The 
f.iinily ol' a William Wallace, consisting of his wife and live or six chil- 
'Iren, were killed, and John ('arpenter taken prisoner. These events 
look j)lace in the latter part of February. The early period at which 
those fatal visitations of the Indians toc>k |»lace, led to the conclusion that 
the murderers were either Moravians, or that the warriors had had their 
winter ((uarters at their towns on the Muskingum. In either case, the 
M(^ravi;ins l)cing in fault, the safety of the frontier settlements required 
the destruction of their establishments at that place. 

Accordinfily, between eighty and ninety men were hastily collected to- 
gether for ihf fatal enterprise. They rendezvoused and encamped the 
lirst night on the Mingo bottom, on the west side of the Ohio river. 
Each man furnished hiiAself with his ov.'n arms, ammunition and provi- 
sion. Many of tlicni had horses. The second days march brought thenr 
witliin one mile of the middle Moravian town, where they encamped tor 
ill'.' niglit. In ihi^ mornin;-'; \\\r nien wrw divided into two ef(nal [)arties, 
c)ne ot' whieh was to cross the river ahout a mile above the town, their 
videttes h ivinjj; rej);)rfed that there were Indians on both sides of the river. 
The other party was dividerl into three divisions, one of which was to 
take a circuit in the woods, and reach the v'wcv a little distance below the 
town, on the east side. Another division was to tall into t!ie middle of 
ihe town, and the third at its upper end. 

WluMi th(' party which designed to make tho attack on the west side 
had reached the river, they foimd no craft tr) inkc them over, but some- 
thing likf a canoe was sr-en on thf opposite bank. The river was high 
with some llfKiting ice. A young man of the name of Slaughter swam the 
river and brought over, not a canor, but a trough designed for liolding 
sugar water. This trough could carry but two men at a time. In order 
to cxnc;'.ile their passi^^'j '^ number of men stripped off their clothes, put 


'iicm into the Irdugli, togeOier v.'ltli llieir guns, ;;r.J s\v.;ivi Iv, ii> suies,' 
holding its edges with tlieir liruuls. When about sixteen IkkI crossed 
the river, their two sentinels, who had l)een posted in advance, discovered 
an Indian whose name was Shabosh. One ot" them broke one of his 
nrms by a shot. A shot from the other sentinel killed lii'm. These heroes 
then scalped and tomahawked him. 

By this time about sixteen men had got over the river, and suppr?Ving_ 
that the firino: of the smns whicdi killed Sliabosh woukl lead 1o an instant' 
discovery, they sent word to the party" designed to attacn the (own on the 
east side of the river to move on instantly, which they did. 

In the mean time, the small party Vfhich had crossed the river, marched 
with all speed to the main town on tire west side of the river. Here they 
found a large company of Indians gathering the coin which they had left 
in their fiekls the preceding fall when they removed to Sandusky. On 
the arrival of the men at the town, they professed peace and good will to 
the Moravians, and informed them that they had come to take them to ' 
Fort Pitt for their safety. The Indians surrendered, delivered up their 
arms, and appeared highly delighted with the prospect of their removal, 
ajui began whh all speed to prepdre victuals for the white men and for 
themselves on their journey. 

A party of white men and Indians \vas immediately dispatched to Sa^ 
lein, a short distance from Gnadenhutten, where the Indians were iruthcr- 
ing in their corn, to bring them into GnadenhQtten. The party soon arri- 
ved with the whole number of the Indians from Salem. 

In the mean time the Indians from Gnadenhutten were confined in two ' 
iiouses some distance apart, and placed under guard; and when those 
from Salem arrived, they were divided, and placed in the same houses 
with their brethren of Gnadenhutten, 

The prisoners being thus secured, a council of war w^as held to decide 
on their fate. The officers, uhwilling to take on themselves the whole 
responsibility of the decision, agreed to refer the question to the whole 
number of the men. The men were accordingly drawn up in a line, 
'j'he commandant of the party, Col. David Williamson, then put the ques- 
tion to them in form, "Whether the Moravian Indiaris should be taken 
prisoners to Pittsburg, or put to death, and requested that all those who 
were in favor of saving their lives should step out of the line and form a 
second rank." On this sixteen, some say eighteen, stepped out of the 
rank, and formed themselves into a second line; but alas! this line o[ 
mercy was far too short for that of vengeance. 

The fate of the Moravians was then decided on, and tiuw were told to 
prepare for death. 

The prisoners, from the time they were placed in the guard-l)Ouse, fore- 
saw their fate, and began their devotions by singing hymns, praying, and 
exhorting each other to place a hrm reliance in the mercy of tiie Savior of 
men. When their fate was announced to them, these devoted ])eople 
embraced, kissed, and bedewing each others' faces and bosoms with 
their mutual tears, asked pardon of the brothers and sisters for any ofTense 
they might have given them tlirough life. Thus, at peace with their God 
and each other, on bein<->- a'-Tred" bv those wh'o were iinpatif^nt for tiic 

slaunliler.-'' Whelliicr they were rcafJy to die?" thev answcreil "tliat thev^ 
had cominftidrd their souls to God, and were ready to die." 

The parlicidjrs of this dreadful catastrophe are too horrid to relate. ' 
SuUice it to say, that in a few minutes these two slaujrhter-houses, as 
they wereUlKMi- called, exhibited in their ghastly interior, the mantrled, 
bleeding remain^, of th(?se poor an fortuftnte people, of all ages and sexes, 
fi-oui the aged uraylieaded ])aront, down to the hrlpless infant at the moth-- 
er\s breast, dishonored by the iaial wounds of the tonraliawk, n.'.ullel, war 
club, spear and scalping-knife. 

Inus, (>' Bvaiuard and Zeisberger! fditlifnl missionaries, v.'hn deyoted 
your whole lives to incessant toil and sufierings in your endeavors to make 
the wilderness of paganism "rejoice and blossom as the rose," in faith 
and piely to f'bd! thus perished your faitlil'ul followers, l)y the murder- 
ous hands of ih" more than savage white men. Faithful pastors! Your 
spirits are again associated with those of your flock, " v^here the Avicked' 
cease from troubling and the weary are at rest !" 

The number of the slain, as reported by the men on their return from' 
the campaign, was eighty-seven or eighty-nine; but the Moravian account, 
which no doubt is correct, makes the number ninety-six. Of these, sixty- 
two were grown persons, one-third of whom •^vere women; the remaining 
thirty-four v/ert.- childreli. All these, with a- few exceptions, were killed 
in tiie liOusfS.- Shabosh was killed about a mile above the town, on the . 
west side' of the' riv<M-. His wife was killed wliile entleavorinof to conceal 
herself in a bunch of bushes at the water's edire^ on the arrival of the 
men at ti^e town, on the east side of the river.- A man at the same time 
was shot ill' a can^c, while attemj)ting to make his escape from ihe east 
to the west sirleof the river. Two others were'shot while attempting to 
esca|>e by swimming the river. A few men, who were supposed to be 
warriors, were lied and takeii some distance from the slaughter houses, 
to be tomuha'A'ked. One of these liad like to have made liis escape at 
the expense of the life of one of the murderers. The rope by which he 
was led was of some length. The two men who were conducting him to 
death fell into a dispute who sliould have the scalp. The Indian, while 
marc'iing with a kind of dancing motion, and singing his death sonoT, 
drew a knife front a scabbard suspended round his neck, cut the rope, 
and aimed at stabbing one oi'the men; but the jerk of the rope occasion- 
ed the men to look round. The Indian then lied towards the woods, and 
wliile running, dexterouf^ly untied the rope from his wrists. He was in- 
stantly pursued by several men who fired at him, one of wliom wounded 
liim in the arm. After a few shots the firing was forbidden, for fear the 
men might kill eaidi othi r as tlu^y W(,'n' running iu a straggling manner. 
A young rnan then mounted on a liorse and jiursued the Indian, who 
when overtaken struck the horse on the he.'ul with a clu!). 'I'he rider 
sprang from the horse, on which the Intlian seized, threw him down and 
drew his tomahawk to kill him.- At that instant, one of the party got 
near enough to shoot the Indian, wliich he did merely in time to save the 
life of his com[)anion. 

Of the whole niimber of the Indians at Gnidenhutten an'l Salem, only 
tw 1 m uir: their c.?cape. These w?re two lads of fourteen or fifteen years 


61 age. Ojie of them, 'al'lcr being knoe.keJ clown and ftealped, i)iit not 
killed, had the presence of muid to lie still among the dead, until the dusk 
ot" the evening, when he silently crept out of the door and iniule his es- 
cape. The other lad slipped throutrh a trap door into the cellar of one 
of the slaughter houses, from' which life made his escape through a small 
cellar window. 

These two lads were fortur'iate in getting together in the woods the 
same night. Another lad, somewhat largei", in attcm])tingto pass throu<'li 
the same window, it is supposed stuck fast and \"/as burnt alive. 

The Indians of the upper town were apprised of their danger in due 
time' to make their escape, two of them having found the mangled boilv 
of Shabosh. Providentially they all made their escape, ahhough thcv 
niight have been easily overtaken by the party, if they had undeilaken 
their pursuit. A division of the'men were ordered to go to Shonbrun; 
biit finding' the place deserted, they took what plunder they could find, 
and returned to their companions without looking farther after the In- 

, After the wxnk of death wnas finished, and tlie plunde'r secured, all the 
buildings in the town were set on fire and the slauirhter houses amonf 
the rest. The dead bodies were thus consumed to ashes. A rapid re- 
treat to the settlements finished the campaign. 

Such were tlm principal events of this horrid affair.' A massacre of 
innocent, unoffending people, dishonorable not only to our country, but 
human nature itself. 

Before making any reinarks on the causes which led to the disgraceful 
events under consideration, it may be proper to notice the manner in 
which the enterprise was conducted, as furnishing evidence that the mur- 
der of the Moravians was intended, and that no resistance from them was 

In a mditary point of view, the Moravian campaign was conducted in 
the very worst manner imaginable. It was undertaken at so early a 
period, that a deep fall of snow, a thing very common in the early part of 
Alarcli in former times, would have defeated the enterprise. When the 
army came to the river, instead of const'"ucting a sutlicient number of 
rafts to transport the requisite number over the river at once, they com- 
menced crossing in a sugar trough, which could carry only two men ;it a 
timfe, thus jeopardizing the safety of those who first went over. 'I'he 
two sentinels who shot Shabosh, according to mililary law ought lo have 
been executed on the spot for having fired without orch^rs, tiierchy giving 
preinature notice of the approach of our men. The truth is, nearly the 
whole number of the army ought to have been transported over the river; 
ibr after all their forces employed, and prcciiution Used in getting posses- 
sion of the town on the east side of the river, there were but one mun ;ind 
one squaw found in it, all. the others being on the other side. This cir- 
cumstance they ought to have known beforehand, and acted nfrnrflingly. 
The Indians on the west side of the rive: amounted to about nighly, 
and among them above; thirty men, l)esides a number of young lads, all 
possessed of guns and well accustomed to the use of them; vet this lai'ge 


1 S5 Ai OiiA \ 1 AN CA'MPA'IGK.' 

number was attacked by about sixteen men. If they had really anticipa-' 
ted resistance, they deserved to lose their lives for their rashness. It is 
presumable, however, that having full confidence in the pacific principles 
of the Moravians, they did not expect resistance; but calculated on blood 
and plunder v/ithout having a shot fired at them. If this was really the 
case, the author leaves it to justice to find, if it can, a name for the trans- 

One can hardly h^lp reflecting with regret, that these Moravians did 
not I'or the moment lay aside tlnnr pacific principles and do themselves 
justice. With a mere show of defense, or at most a few shots, they might 
have captured and disarmed those few men, and held them as hostages 
for the safety of theirpeople and prr)perty until they could have removed 
them out of their way. This they might have done on the easiest terms, 
as the remainder of the army could not have crossed the river without their 
permission, as there was but one canoe at the place, and the river too high 
to be forded. But alas ! these truly christian people suffered themselves 
to be betrayed by hypocritical ju'ofessions of friendship, until "they were 
led as sheep to the slaughter." Over this horrid deed humanity must 
shed tears of commisseration, as long as the record of it shall remain. 

Let not the reader suppose that I have presented him with a mere im- 
aginary possibility of defense on the part of the Moravians. This defense 
would hiive been an easy task. Our people did not go on that campaign 
with a viev*' of fighting. There may have been some brave men among 
ihem; but they were far from being all such. For rn^ part, I cannot sup- for a moment that any white man, M'ho can harbor a thought of 
using his arms for the killing of women and children in any case, can be 
a brave man. No, he is a murderer. 

Tlie history of the Moravian settleraents on the Muskingum, and the 
peculiar circumstances of their inhabitants during the revolutionary con- 
test between Great Britain and America, deserve a place here. 

In the year 1772, the IMoravian villages were commenced by emigra- 
tions from Friedensludten on the Big Beaver, and from Wyalusing and 
Sheshequon on the Susquehanna, In a short time they rose to consider- 
able extent and prosperity, containing uj)wards of four hundred people. 
During the summer of Dunmorc's war, they were much annoyed by war 
])arties olthe Indians, and disturbed by perpetual rumors of the ill inten- 
tions of the white peoj)le of the frontier settlements towards them ; yet 
their labors, schools aiul religious exercises, went on without inleirup- 

In the revolutionary war, which began in 1775, the situation of the 
Moravian selllcnKiits was truly deplorable. The English had associated 
with their own means of warfare against the Americans, the scalping 
knife and tomahawk of the merciless Indians. These allies of England 
(•(•mraiited the most horrid depredations along the whole extent of our 
defenseless frontier. From cnrly in the spring until late in the fill!, the 
early settlers of the western ])art:- of Virginia and Pennsylvania liad to 
submit to the severest liardshijjs and privations. Cooped up in little 
stockade forts, they worked their littl^^ fields in parties under arms guard- 
ed bv sentinels, and vv*re doomed from d:jy to i!ay to wiluw-^ or lienr i;e- 


•ports of the murders or captivity of their people, the burning of tlieir 
houses, and the plunder of their property. 

The war with the English lleets and armies, on the other side of the 
mountains, was of such a character as to engage the whole attention and 
resources of our government, so that, poor as the first settlers of this coun- 
try were, they had to bear almost the whole burden of the war during the 
revolutionary contest. They chose their own officers, furnished their 
own means, and conducted the war in their own way. Thus circumstan- 
ced, "they became a law unto themselves," and on certain occasions 
perpetrated acts which government was compelled to disapprove. This 
lawless temper of our people was never fully dissipated until the conclu- 
sion of the whiskey rebellion in 1794. 

The Moravian villages were situated between the settlements of the 
whites and the towns of the warriors, about sixty miles from, the foiiner, 
and not much farther from the latter. On this accoimt they were deno- 
minated "the half-way houses of the warriors.*? Thus placed between 
two rival powers engaged in furious vvarfare, the preservation of their 
neutrality was no easy task, perhaps impossible. If it requires the same 
physical force to preserve a neutral station among belligerent nations that 
it does to prosecute a war, as is unquestionably the,-case, this pacific peo- 
ple had no chance for the preservation of theirs. The very goodness of 
their hearts, their aversion to the shedding of human blood, brought them 
into difficulties with both parties. When they sent their runners to Fort 
Pitt, to inform us of the approach of the war parties, or received, fed, se- 
creted and sent home prisoners, who had made their escape from the sava- 
ges, they made breaches of their neutrality as to the belligerent Indians. 
Their furnishing the warriors with a resting place and provisions was 
contrary to their neutral engagements to us ; but their local situation ren- 
dered those accommodations to the warriors unavoidable on their part, as 
the vvarnors possessed both the will and the means to compel them to 
.give whatever they wanted from thenn. 

The peaceable Indians first fell under suspicion with the Indian war- 
riors and the EngKsh commandant at Detroit, to whom it was reported 
that their teachers were in close confederacy v,'ith the American congress, 
fcxr preventing not only their own people, but also the Delawares ancl 
some other nations, from associating their arras with those of the British 
for .carrying on the war against the American colonies. 

The frequent failures of the war expeditions of the Indians was attribu- 
ted to thf: Moravians, who often sent runners to Fort Pitt to give notice 
of their approach. This charge against them was certainly not without 
foundation. In the spring of the year 1781 the war chiefs of the Dela- 
wares fully apprised the missionaries and their followers of their danger 
both from the whites and Indians, and requested them to remove to a 
])lace of safety from both. This request was not complied with, and the 
almost prophetic predictions of the chiefs were literally fidnlied. 

In the fall of ^he year 17S1, the settlements of the Moravians wei'e 
broken up by upwarcls of three himdred warriors, and the missionaries 
taken prisoners, after being robbed of almost every thing. The In^hans 
were left to shift for theniKcIves in th(- !)anr:i j)!:iins o[' S;iri(luskv, where 


most ot' tliL'ir horses c:\i\\v ])('rislied Iroin liiminc diuirig the \viiitiJ(" 
'The missionaries were taken prisoners to Detroit ; but after an examina- 
tion bv the governor, were permitted to return to their beloved people 

In the latter [)art of February, a party, of about one hundred and fifty of 
the Moiavi;in Indians returned to their deserted villages on the Muskin- 
gum, to procure corn to keep their families and cattle from starving. Of 
these, ninety-six fell into the hands of Williamson and his party, and were 

The causes which led to the murder of the Moravians are now to be 

The pressure of the Indinn war along the whole of tlie western frontier, 
for several years {)receding the event imder consideration, had been dread- 
fully severe. From early in the spring, until the commencement of win- 
ter, from day to day murdcis were committed in eveiy direetjon by the 
Indians. The people lived in forts which were in the higliest degree 
uncomfort;ri)le. ' The men were harrassed continually with tiie duties of 
going on scouts and campaigns. There was scarcely a family of the hrst 
settlers who did not, at some time or oilier, lose more or less of their 
<iumber by tliP merciless Indians. Their cattle w;ere killed, t^eir cabins 
burned, and their horses carried off. These losses jwere severely felt by 
a people so poor as we were at that time. Thus circumstanced, our peo- 
])le were exas])erated to madness by the extent and s<-'verity of the war. 
The unavailing endeavors of the American congress to prevent the Indi- 
ans from taking u]) the hatchet against .either side in "the rcyolutionaiy 
contest, contributed mueh to increase the general indignation against 
them, at the same time those pacific enrleavors of our government divided 
the Indians amongst themselves on the question of war or peace with 
ihe, whites. The Moravians, part of the Delawares, and some otheis, 
iaithfuiiv endeavored to preserve peace, but in vain. The Indian maxim 
was, "he that is not for us is against us.'-' Hence the Moravian missicui- 
aries and their followers were several tinies on t4ie point of being mur- 
dered by the warriors. This would have bc^n done had it not been for 
the })nidciit cnndurt of some of the war chiefs. 

On the other hand, the local situation of the Moravian villages excited 
•the jealousy of tlie M'hite ])eoj,le. W they took no direct agency in the 
war, yet thev were, ?i?< they were llien called, "half-way houses" between 
.us and tlje 'warrior.i, at which the latter cniild slop, rest, refresh *them- 
.i^elvcs, and tralTick off tlieir i)luiidrr. Whether these aids, thus, given to 
our enemies, were contrary to tlie l-iws of neutrality between .iK-Hlgerenls, 
is a question which I willingly leave to the decision of ciytliaiis. On the 
part of the Moravians they Avere unavoidable. If they did not give or 
sell prrtvisions to the warriors, lliey would take them ;by force. 'I'hc- laiilt 
was ill ttieir situation, not in themselves. 

The longer the war continnerl, the more our people comjilained of the 
,«;itualion of the.'^e Moravian villnges. It was said that it was owing to 
■their being sf) near us, that the warriors commenced their depredations 
jjo farlv in itie spring, and roniinncd thejn nnlil so late in the tall. 

in liic latter end of i)ir year ]7Ki, tJLr nrJitia ol" the frontier came to d 


, determination to break up the IMoravian villages on the MusL-ingum. 
For this purpose a detachment of our UiCn went out under the conjmand 
.01 Col. David Williamson, lor the purpose of inducing the Indians \vii.h 
their teachers to move farther off, or bring them prisoners to Fort Pitt. 
When ihey arrived at the villages they found but few Indians, the greater 
number of them having removed to Sandusky. These few were well 
treated, taken to Fort Pitt, and delivered to the commandant i^' that sta- 
tion, who after a short detention sent them home again. 

This procedure gave great offense to the people of the country, who 
.thought the Indians ought to jiave been killed. Col. Williamson, who, 
before this little campaign, had been a very popular raan, on account of 
his activity and bravery in war, now became the subject of severe ani- 
madversion on account of his lenity to the Moravian Indians. In justicu 
^to his memory J have to say, that although at that time very young, I was 
personally acquainted with him, and from my recollection of his conver- 
sation, I say with confidence that he was a brave man, but not cwiel. 
He wpuld meet an enemy in battle, and fight like a soldier, but not mur- 
,der £ prisoiier. Had he possessed the authority of n superior oflicer in a. 
regular army, I do not believe that a single Moravian Indian would have 
lost his life; but he possessed no such authority. He was only a militia 
officer, who could advise, but not command. His only fault w a.s that of 
too easy a compliance with popular ojiinion and popular prejudice. On 
;lhis account his memory has been loaded with unmerited reproach. 

Several reports unfavorable to the Moravians had been in circulation 
•for some time before the campaign against them. One v,-as, that the 
night after they were liberated at Fort Pitt, they crossed the river ami 
killed or made prisoners a family of the name of Monteur. A family on 
Buffalo creek had been mostly killed in the summer or fall of 1781 ; and 
it was said by one of them, who, after being made a prisoner, made his 
escape, that the leader of the parly of Indians who did the mischief was 
a Moravian. These, with other reports of similar import, h^rverl as a 
pi-etext for their destruction, although no doubt they were utterly false. 

Should it be asked what sort of people composed tJie bami of murder- 
ers of these unfortunate people? 1 answer, they were not miscieants or 
vagabonds; many of theni were men of the first standing in the country : 
many of them vrere men who had recently lost relations by the hands of 
the savages. Several of the latter class found articles which ]•...(] been 
plundereil from their own houses, or those of their relations, inth- houses 
of the Moravians. One man, it is said, found the clothes of his v.ifc and 
><r1tiildren, who had been murdered by the Indians a few days belbre : they 
were still bloody ; yet there was no unequivocal evidence that these peo- 
ple had any direct" agency in the war. Whatever of our property was 
found with"thcm had been left by the warriors in exchange for the provi- 
sions which th<'y took from them. When attacked by cur f>eo])le, al- 
though they might have defended themselves, they did not : thc^ never 
■fired a single shot. They were prisoners, and had been promised pro- 
tection. Every dictate of justice and humanity required that their lives 
should be spared. The complaint of their villages being "half-way hou- 
ses for the warrior-^,"' was at an end, ai they had been re^no^cd to Sa»- 


dusky Ihc full bclore. It was therefore an atrocious and unqualified mut-- 
der. But by whom committed — by a majority of the campaign? For 
the honor of my country, I hope I may safely answer this question in the 
negative- It was, one of those convulsions of the moral state of society, 
in which the voice of the justice and humanity of a majority is silenced 
by the clamor and violence of a lawless minority. Very few of our men 
imbrued their hands in the blood of the Moravians. Even those who 
had not voted for saving their lives, retired from the scene of slaughter 
with horror and disgust. Why then did they not give their votes in their 
lavor? The fear of public indignation restrained them from doing so. 
They thought well, but had not heroism enough to express their opinion. 
Those who did so, deserve honorable mention for their intrepidity. So 
far as it may hereafter be in my power, this honor shall be done them^ 
while the n;anes of the murderers shaH not stain the pages of history,, 
fi'oin jny pen at least. 




As connected wilh tlu; history of the Indian wars of the western country, 
it may not be amiss to give an explanation of the term "Indian summer." 

This expression, like many others, has continued in general use, not- 
withstanding its original imi)ort has been forgotten. . A backwoodsman 
seldom hears this expression without feeling a chill of horror, because it 
brings to his mind the painful recollection of its original application. 
Such is the force of the faculty of association in haman nature. 

The reader must here be reminded, that, ckning the long continued In- 
dian wars sustained by the first settlers of the west, they enjoyexl no peace 
excepting in the winter season, when, owing to the seventy of the weath- 
er, the Inflians were unable to make their excursions into tlie settlements. 
The onset of winter was therefore hailed as a jubilee by the early inhab- 
itants of the country, who, throughout the sjjring and early part of tlie 
fall, had been coope(l up in their little uncomtbrtable forts, and subjected 
to ail the distresses of the Indian war. 

At the approach of win1(^r, therefore, all tlie fiirmers, excepting the 
owner of the lort, removed to tlieir cabins on tlieir farms, with the joyful 
feelings of a tenant of a prison, recovering his release from confinement. 
All was bustle and hilarity in preparing for winter, by g.ithering in the 
corn, digging potatoes, fattening hogs, and repairing the cabins. To our 
forefdlhers the gloomy months of winter w< re I'.uirc. ])!e.isaMt than the 
zephyrs and the Howers of .May. 


It llo\ve^el• somelirnes happened, after tlie apparent onstl ni' winter, 
the weather became warm; the smoky time commenced, ami lasted for a 
Considerable number of days. This was the Inchan summer, because it 
atforded the Indians another opportunitj- of visiting the settlements with 
their destructive warfare. The melting of the snow saddened every 
countenance, and the genial warmth of the sun chilled every heart with 
horror. The apprehension of another visit from the Indians, and of being 
driven back to the detested fort, was painful in the highest degree, and 
the distressing apprehension was frequently realized. 

Toward the latter part of February we commonly had a line spell of 
open warm Aveather, during which the snow melted away. This was dc 
nominated the "pawwawing days," from the supposition that the Indians 
were then holding their war councils, for planning off their spring cam- 
paigns into the settlements. Sad experience taught us that in this con- 
jecture we were not often mistaken. 

Sometimes it happened that the Indians ventured to make their excur- 
sions too late in the fall or too early in the spring for their own conve- 

A man of the name of John Carpenter v/as taken early in the month of 
March, in the neighborhood of what is now Wellsburg. There had been 
several warm days, but on the night preceding his capture there was a 
heavy fall of snow. His two horses, which they took with him, nearly 
perished in swimming the Ohio. The Indians as well as himself suffered 
severely with the cold before they reached the Moravian towns on the 
Muskingum. In the morning after the first day's journey beyond the 
Moravian towns, the Indians sent out Carpenter to bring in the horses, 
which had been turned out in the evening, after being hobbled. The 
horses had made a circuit, and fallen into the trail by which they came, 
and were making their way homewards. 

When Carpenter overtook them, and had taken off their fetters, he had, 
as he said, to make a most awful decision. He had a ciiance and barely 
a chance to make his escape, with a certainty of death should he attempt 
it without success; while on the other hand, the horrible prospect of be- 
ing tortured to death by lire presented itself. As he was the first pris- 
oner taken that spring, of course the general custom of the Indians, of 
burning the first prisoner every spring, doomed him to the flames. 

After spending a few minutes in making his decision, he resolved on 
attempting an escape, and effected it by way of forts Laurens, M'lntosh 
and Pittsburg. If I recollect rightly, he brought both his horses home 
with him. This happened in the year 1782. The capture of Mr. Car- 
penter, and the murder of two families about the same time, that is to 
say, in the two or three first days of March, contributed materially to the 
Moravian campaign, and the murder oi that unfortunate people. 




Tims, in one point ol" view at least, is to ha considered as a second .Afu-' 
ravlan campai<;n, as one of its objects was that of finishinL^ tiie work of 
murder and plunder with the christian Indians at their now establislunenl 
on the Sandnsky. The next object was that of destroyintr i}i(> Wvandot 
towns on tiie same river. It was tlie resolution of all those concerntnl in' 
this expedition, not to spare the life of any Inilians that nii^-ht fall into 
their hands, whether friends or foes. It will be seen in the sequel that 
the result of this campaign was widely different from tiiat of the IMora 
vian canipnii^ii the preceding March. 

It should seem that the long continuance of the Indian war had deba- 
sed a considerable portion of our population to the savage state of our 
nature. Having lost so many relatives by the Indians, and witnessed 
their horrid murders and other depredations on so extensive a scale, they 
bccnrne subj.'cts of that indiscriminate thirst for revenge, which is such a 
prominent feature in the savage character; and having had a taste of 
blood and plunder, without risk or loss on their part, they resolved to go 
on anfl kill every Indian they could find, whether friend or foe. 

Prrp;irations for this campaign commenced soon after the close of tlic 
Moravian campaign, in the month of March; and as it was intended to 
make what was called at that time "a dash ," that is, an enterprise con- 
ducted with secrecy and despatch, the men were all mounted on the best 
horsrs they couM procure. They furnlsheil themselves witli all their out- 
fits, exci'pt some ammunition, which was fuinished by the lieutenant 
colonel of Wa.shington county. 

On the 25th of May 1782, four liLindred and eighty men nuistered at 
the old Mingo towns, on the western side of the Ohic river. Tiiey were 
all volunteers froiri the immediate neighborhood ol' the (Jlilo, with tin' ex- 
ception of one company from Ten Mile, in Washington county. Here' 
an clfM'tion was held Un- the ollice of coinraander-in-cliief for the expedi- 
tion. The candidates were Col. Williamson and Col. Crawlonl. The 
latter was the successful candidate. When notifietl of his ap]K)intment, 
it is said that he acce[)ted it with apparent rehuMance. 

The army marched along "Williamson's trail," as it was then called, 
until they arrived at the u[>per Moravian towii, in the ilelds belonging to 
v,-l)ifh there was still pU-aty of corn on the stalks, with which their horses 
wrie plentifully fed during the night of their encampment there. 

Shortly after the army halted at this place, two Indians were discov- 
ered by three men, who had wallvcd some distance o\it of the camp, 
Thvc'.- shots were, fired at one of them, but without hurting him. As 
3'jon u" tlic nev.'^ of tlie di'-coverv of lndi:ui>^ hud rearhed the caui[), more 

(han one' half of the men rusheci out, wilhout coiniiiand, and in the most 
lumultuous maunor, to see what h.ippened.- l-'ioia that time, CoL Craw- 
ford fell ci presentiment of the defeat w hieh followed.- 

'I'lie truth is, that notwithstanding tlie secrecy and dispatch of the en- 
terprise, the Indians weie beforehand with our people^ 'J'iiev saw the 
retidezvous on th'e Mingo bott6ni, and knew tlioir mimher and destina- 
tion. They visited e\er\ cncatV.pment iinm«dial-elv Ofi their leavinsr it, 
and saw from th'eir writing on the trees an^ sei'aps of paper, that "no 
quarter was to be' givei^ to any Indian, whether man, woman, or child.'" 

Nothing material haj)pened during their march until the 6th of June, 
when their guides^ conducted them to the site of the Moravian villaoes, on 
■one of the upper branches of the Sandusky rivei- ; bnl here, instead of 
meeting with indi'ans and plunder, they me^t with nothing but vestiges of 
desolation. The place was covered with high grass; and the remains of 
a few huts alone announced tlial the placf!^ had b^en thi' I'esidence of the 
people whom they intended tCi destroy, but who had moved off fo Scioto 
some time before. 

la this dilemma, what was to be'done? The officcVs held a council, in 
which it was determined to inarch one day longer in the direction of Up- 
iDer Sandusky, and if they should not. reac^h thf^ totvn iti the course of the 
day, to make a retreat with all spesd. 

The march was commenced on the next morning through' the plains of 
Sandusky, and continued until about two o'clock, when the ad"\ancc 
guard was attacketl and driven in by the Indians', who wCre (lisco\ered 
ki larsre numbers in the Jiip'h ^-rass with Avhi<^di tlie place was covered. 
'l"he Indian army was at that moment about entering a piece of woods, 
almost eiitirelv s'Hrrounded by plains; but in this they wci'e di'sapjiointeil 
by a rapid movement of out men. The battle tlien cdmrnenCed by a heavy 
fire from both sides. Frorti a paitial possession of the woAds which thev 
had gained at the onset of the Ijattle, tllfe' Indian's were socui dislodgtHl. 
They then attempted to gain a small skirt of v/ood on oui- right ilank, birt 
were prevented I'rom doing so by the vigi-rance aYid bra\cry of Maj. Leet, 
who commanded the right wing of theariYiy at that time. The firiilg was 
incessant and heavv until dark. When it ceased.- Both armies ?ay on theii- 
arms during the rtight. i^iith adot)ted the policy of kindlinj-; la;'g> fires 
along the line of ijattlc, and fhen retiring sOme distance in the leai-of them, 
to prevent being sur[)rised by a night attack.- During the contlic.1 of the 
ai'ternoon three of our men weie kiHed and several AV^oailded.- 

In the morning our army Sccupivd the battle ground of the preceding 
day. The' India:1s made no attack during the (hiy, until late i'n the even- 
ing, but were seen in lar*e liodies tiavcMsing the plains in various direc- 
tions. Some of them appeared to be employed in Carrying off their dead 
and wounded. 

In the morrunG: of tins day 'i council of the ofiicers was Ixeld, in whicli 
a retreat was resolved on, as the only means of saving their army, the In- 
v*fians appearing to increase in n\imbers every hour. During the sitting of 
Liiis council, f'oi. Williamson proposed taking one hunoKd '.^nd fifty vo'-- 
•Miteers, an<} ma->chi«u- directly to I pper NaRdusky '(-'his ^rDDCsHioK' 


the comiuaiider-ia-chief prudently rejected, saving, "I have no do.'Lt buv 
that you wouUl reach the town, but yon woukl find nothing there hut 
empty xvigwains; and lia-hig taken off so many of our best men, you 
would leave the rest to be destroyeti by the liost of Indians with whiclr 
we are now surrounded, and on your return tliey would attack and de- 
stroy you. They care nothing about defending- their towns — they are 
worth nothin-g. Their sqyaws, children and property, have been removed 
from them long since. Our lives and baggagt are whaf'they want, and 
if they can get us divided they will soon have them. We must stav to- 
gether and do the best we can." 

During this day preparations were made for a retreat by burying the 
dead and burning iires over their graves to prevent discovery, and prepa- 
ring means for carrying off the wounded. The retreat was to commence 
in the course of the lught. The Indians, however, became apprised of 
the intended retreat, and about sundov/n attadced the army with great 
force and fury, in every direction excepting that of Sandusky. 

When the line of march was formed by the commander-in-chief.^ and 
the retreat commenced, our guides prudently took the direction of San- 
dusky, which afforded the only 0[)eniiig in the ludiarr'lines and the only 
chance of concealment. After marching about a mile in this direction, 
the army wheeled about to the left, and by a circuitous route gained the 
trail by which they came, before day. They continued their march the 
whole ol" the next day, with a trilling anjioyanco from the Indians, who 
fired a few distant shots at the rear guard, which slightly wounded two 
or three men. At night they built fires, took their suppers, secured the 
horses and resigned themselves to repose, without placing a single senti- 
nel or vidette for safety. In this caieless situation, they might haveb^en 
surprised and cut off by the Indians, who, however, gave them no ilistur- 
bance during the night, nor afterwards during the whole of their retreat. 
The number of those composing the main body in the reti^eat was suppo- 
sed to be about three hundred. 

Most unfortunately, when a retreat was resolvetl on, a dilTcrence of 
opinion prevailed concerning the best mode of effecting it. The greater 
number thought it best to keep iu a liody and u'treat as fast as possible, 
while a considerable number thoutrht it sai'est to break off in small par- 
ties, and make their way home in different directions, avoiding the route by 
which they came. Accordingly many attem])ted to do so, calculating that 
t'le whole brjdy uf the Indians would foll(Avlhc main army. In this they 
were entirely mistaken. Tht* Indians paid but litile atlenlion to the main 
body of the army, but j)ursued the small ));irties with suc-h activity, that 
but very few of those who composetl thern maile their escape. 

The only successful parly wlio Avere detached from the main army, was 
that of about forty men under the command of a Capt. Williamson, who, 
pictty late in the night of the retreat, broke through the Indian lines under 
.1 fevere fire and with some l(;ss, an<l overtook ihe main army on the 
morning of the second day of tlie retreat. 

For several days after the retreat of our army, tlie Indians were spread 
o^er the whole countiy, from Samiusky to the Muskingum, in pursuit of 
the atrngglir.g puitie<, u.ost uf whc :n wet>.'- killed i/n the spot, 'i'h'i'y evenT) 

<€K'A\VFORlJ'S C'AMPaRI.N. 194 

rjMarsued ihcMi, almost to the bunks of the Ohio. A man oT the name of 
Mills was killed, two miles to the eastward o( tlie site of St. Clairsvilii;, 
in the direction of Wheeling- from that place. The number killed in this 
way must have been very great: the precise amount, however, was never 

. fairly ascertained. 

At the commencement of the retreat, Col. Ci-awford placed himself at 
the head of the army, and continued there until they had gone about a 

r-quarter of a mile, when missing his son John Crawford, his son-in-law 
IMaj. Harrison, and his nephews iVIaj. Rose and William Crawford, he 
halted and called for them as the line passed, but withoxit findir.g them. 
After the army had passed him, he was unable to overtake it, owiirg to 
the weariness of his horse. Falling in company with Dr. Knight and 
two others, they traveled all the night, first nortli, and then to the east, to 
avoid the pursuit of the Indiaiis. They directed th^eir coures during tlie 
night by the north star. 

On the next day they fell in with Capi. John Biggs and 'Lieut. Ashley, 
the latter of whom was severely wounded. There were two others in 

.company with Biggs and Ashley. They encamped together th-e succeed- 
ing night. On the next day, while on their march, they were attacked 
by a party of Indians, who made Col. Crawford and J)r. Knight prison- 

:-ers. The other four nia^fie their escape; hut Capt. .Biggs and Lieutenant 
Ashley were killed the next day. 

Col. Crav\-ford and Dr. Knight were immedlat<;]y taken to an Indian 
iT-ncarnpment, at a short distance from the place whc-re they were captured. 
Here they faund nine fellow priso'^icrs and sevent-een Indians. On the 
iiext day they were marched to the old W^yandot town, and on the next 
rrxornin^ were paraded, to set off, as tliey were told, to go to the new 
town. But alas! a very different destination awaited the-se captives! 
Nine of the prisoners were marcht;d oft" sonie distance before the colonel 
find the doctor, who were conducterl by Pipe and Wiagemond, two Dela- 
ware chiefs. Four of the prisoners were tomahawked and scalped on the 
y.ay, at different places. 

Preparations had been made for the ^oxecution of Col. Crawford, by 
setting a post about Lfteen feet hwgh in the ground, and making a large 
fire of hickory poles About six yards from it. About half a mile from the 
f)lacc of execution, the remaining five of the nine prisoners weie toma- 
hawked and scalped by a number of squaws and boys. 

W^hen arrived at the fire, the colonel was stripped and ordered to sit 
down. He was then severely beaten with sticks, and afterwards tied to 
the p.ost, by a rope of such length as to allow him to walk two or three 
times round it, and then back again. Tills done, they began the torture 
by discharging a great number of loafls of powder upon 'him, from head 
to foot; after which they begun to apply the burning cmds of trie iuckory 
poles, the squaws in the mean tijne throwing coals and hot ashes on his 
body, so that in a. little time he hfid nothing but coals to walk on. In the 
mid>>t of his surTerino's, he bc'-'^n-ftd o\' the noted Simon Girtv to take pity 
■on him and shoot him. Girty triuntinily answered, "You see I ho^e n"^ 
j^un, I cannot shoot;" and huiglied hcnrtilv nt the scene. After sufTi'Tinj: 
aboiit three Louis he became faint and fell down on his f;ice. An Indiav. 

<))c;t .«;c5ilt>f-u Inm, iind ap, old squaw threw a yuantitv nrijuriirfiii" rn:il$. oi*- 
the place from wliich the scalp was taken. M'iev l!ii» he rose and walkofi 
rnuiifl tlie post a little, but did not live murh longer. After he expired, 
liis body .was llirowii into the fne and coiisuuicd lo ashes. Col. (,'rawr 
ford's son and son-in-law yi'ere exec'uted at tlie Shawnee towns. 

Or. Knight was doonjed to be burned at a town about forty miles di?-- 
tant from Sandusky, and committed to tlie care of a young Indian to be 
taken there. 'I'he first day they traveled about twenty-five miles, and en- 
cainpcd lor tlic niglit. jn the morning, the gn<sts being very tronblesoine, 
the doctor requested the Indian to untie him, that he might help him to 
ni-dcc a fire ilo keep .Ihejii off. iVilh this rc(jiiest the Indian complied, 
N\ hile the Indian was on his knees and elbows, blowing the fir*:, the doo 
tor caught \ip a pieee of a lent })ole which hari ;heen burned in ;two, about 
«"!ghlcon inches ioug, with whick he struck thf Indian on the head with 
all his might, so as to knock hi;,-n forward into the lire.. The stick hov\-- 
evcr brok<', so thi^i tlu^ JncUan, although severelv hurt, was not killed, but 
niiuiediately sprajig lip. T^n tnis the (hicior ^-aught up the Indian's gun 
to shoot hin.), but drew back the rock witli so much viok'nec that he 
broke the main spriuir. The Iiuiian ran ofr'wiih a hideous velliii"-. Dr. 
Ivnighl then made the best of his -way home, which he reac-hed in tw.cnty- 
one days, almnsi famislied to death. 'I'iie gun being of no use, after 
rarrvinjx i< a dav or two he left it behind. On his iournev he subsisted 
on roots, a few youKg birds and l*<-rries. 

A Mr. Slover, who had been a j)risoner auK!!-.g the Indians, and was 
one of the pilots of the armv, was also taken prisoner to oi^eof the Shaw^ 
iicc towns on the Scioto. After bt-iug there a lew days, and as h** thouglit, 
in favor \vi,th tlu; Indians, a. council of the ^-htefs was hdd, in v.hich it 
was resolved that he should 'be burned. The lircs were kindled, and lip 
was blackencfl and^ied to a stake, in an unef>Aered end of the council- 
hoijse, .Just as they were K'bout C6»fcwmencing the lorlurf<, llierr came n\\ 
.■suddenly 'i hea\y tlttinrler gust, with a great taJI of raii>, which put out 
the fires. Aficr the rain was o'.er the Indians conchided that it was then 
too late to commence^ and fiwish the ^ortnr<. that day, and thereloi-e jTost- 
poned it till tlu next day. S[o^■er was then loosed frou) the stake, oon- 
^lucted to ;iri empty lu>usc, tn ;i ln'.r of which lie was I'astened with a buf- 
falo tug »;ound his nerk, wiiil-r his arms v.'ere pinioned behind him with a 
.corfl. I ntil lal(^ in Ihe ni^ht the Ji^dians sat up sm(^kin": ''nd talkiiiji. 
'l\\p\ frei.pientlv asked 8lo\er how hr- would like to eaf lire the oevt dav. 
At length one of thcni fiid flov\ii and went to sici^p; ific f)dicr .'nntiniii'.t 
'•j'noking iHv'i talking with Sjic, rr. S.^u7)elim'> afl^'r midi-iglit, h<' also laid 
f^lown and w<"nl t<i slr-»-n. She, cr th(?n rc^olvcrl to inaKv ;;n cfTojt to oe-f 
^oose if po-cibtc, ap() soon cxMri^'atcrl one of his Iianris frnvj the corrl, and 
ihfu fell lo wnrk wilh the 'u-^ round his nc.r\^. h\\\ wit'iont eflVct. II<- 
had 4iot h"'^n long pugagcri ip these efforts, before one ol the Indians got 
•yp nn(\ '^moked his pip'- nwhile. Pu'itig this li:iie kept ' erv stilt 
for fear of nn evaniination. The Indian layin:; down, the prisoner re,. 
fiCWfd his efforts, but for some time without effect, and he resirriicd hipi" 
sejl to bi<: fate. After r'^sfin;^ fu nwld'c, he ies:)j\ed tn make another and 
i". laM rfi(i;i, niid ;c-. he related, |it;i hr* linnd I'l the iMj;. :^nd without diL 

.tTvAWFORirS r^vMPATGX. 1^6 

ifiCjillly slippeil il over his licud. The dny was ju:>l then brcakiii.^'. lie 
sprang over a fence into a cornlicki, but !i;id proceeded but a little diitnucc 
iH the field, before he caiac acros:* a h-.f]ua\v and several childrci), Ivihs; 
asleep under a mulberry tree. He then changed his course i'or part of 
the commons of the town, on vvliicli he sav.' some horses leeding, Pa.«s- 
•'ing over the fence from the field, he found ;i piece of an old quilt. Thiii 
he took -willi him, and v,-as Ithe only covering he had. He then untied 
ihe cord from the other aim, --.vliicl! bv this time was a cry much swelled. 
JIavinrr selectefl, as he thought, the best horse on the commons, he tied 
the cord to his lower jaw, uioutited him and rode off at full speed. The 
Jiorse gave out v^oout 10 o'cloelv, so that he had to leave him. lie theM 
•traveled on foot "with a stick in one haiul, v."ith whicii he put the Vv'eeds 
ibehmd him, for fear c^ being tracked by the Indian^, In the other he 
earned a bunch of bushes to bi'ush the jjnats and musketoes frowi h'vn 
naked body. .Being perfectly ac(pKiin1od with the route, he i cached the 
river Ohio in a sfe«rt time, almost famished v.iili hu);gcr «nd exliaust'ed 
swith fatigue. 

Thus ended thiis disastrous canipaign. It was the last one which loalc 
place in this sectioft of the cou.ntry durin;.; the revolutionarv contest; of the 
Americans with th-c mother country, it was ynder taken with the very 
worst of views, those of murder and nJunder. it was conducted without 
STiiticicnt means to encounter, with amy prosper-t of success, the large 
force of Indians ojiposed to ours in the plains of Sandusky. It was con- 
<jucted without that subordination and discipline, so requisite to insure 
-%^ucc8ss in any hazardous enlernrisc, and it oided in a total discomfiture. 
Never did aK enterprise more >jompletely fail of ;;l.taintng its objeef. 
Xcvcr, on any occasion, had the ferocions savage's more ample reveng? 
for tl)e murder ni' tlieir pacific friends, than that v/hich they obtained on 
this occasion. 

Should I be asked v.drat cnrisiderations led so great a number of p'^niilc 
into this desperate enterpi'isc? — why with so small a ibi-ce and such slen- 
der means thev pushed oji so far as the plains of Sandusky? - I reply, 
that many believed that tlig Moravian Indians, taking no part in the war, 
.Tud having given oflense to the warriors on several occasjrns, their bel- 
ligerent friends would not take up arms in their behalf. In this cnnjrr- 
tuie thev were sadiv mistaken. They flid defend them with all the force 
at theii' command, and. no wonder, for notwithstanding their christian and 
pacific priiwij)Ies, the wari'ioi-s '.;tili regarfletl the Moravians as thrir rela- 
tioRs, whom it was thrir i\;\\.v to dcfeiid. 

The refltclions which naturally arise out of the jilslory of the Inriinn 
vrar in tjie western covjntrv, during our revolutionary contest with Crr«-at 
Britain, are not calculated to do honor to human nature, ovc-n in its eiv- 
ilized sta-tc. On our side, indeed, as to our infant go\ernment, the casp 
is not so bad. Our con^Tess fai-'tfullv endeavored to prevent the Indian^ 
iVoni takinc^ part in the war on cither side. The English government, on 
the other band, made allies of as many of the Indian nations as they rould, 
and they imposer! no restraint, on their savage morle of ^varf,;^'". On the 
'■onfrarr, the eommandants at their posts along our wr-stern frontier re- 
Q€-.ivff!.;'.nd paid the ,Jnf!ia!,i5 tor sc.sslps aj^d ])risoncrs. Thus the skin oi a 

rl^l -Vi rACK.-UN RICE S -i'Oltr. 

■iwliilc ia.ia\> or ctca ;i woman's liead served in the handsx.of -llie InduiR 
;w current coin, which he exchjiif^ed lor arms and arnmuiiition, tor the 
•jarthor prosJecution of his barjjarous warlare, and clothing to cover his 
half irdc^d body. Were not ^hese rewards the price of blood? — of blood, 
^hcd in a cruel m inner, on an extensive scale; but without advantage to 
that government whicli employed the savages in their warfare against their 
relatives and fello^v-christians, and paid for their murders by the piece! 

The enlightened, historian must view the whole of the Indian war, froni 
.the coninicncenienl of the revolutionary contest, in no other light than a 
.succession of the most wanton murders of all ages, frora helpless infancy 
10 decrepit old age, and of both sexes, without object and without effect. 

On our side, it is tr^e, the pressure of the war along our Atlantic bor- 
der was such that our 2"overnment coidd^not furnish the means for raakintr 
a conquest of the Indian jiatiojiS at war against us. The people of tjie 
w'estern cguntry, poor as thev were at that time, and unaided by 
government, could not subdue them. Our c«nipaigns, hastily ijinderta- 
l:en, v.-ithoiit suttlcient Ibrce Jjnd means, and illy executed, residted ici 
iiothing benellcial. Ojt the other hand, the Indians, with the aids thetr 
allies could give them in tiie -vvestcrn country, were not able to make a 
.vonquest of the settlement on this side of the mountains. On the con 
trary, our settlements and thg .forts belonging to tjiem became stronger 
and stronger from year to year during the whole continuance of the wars. 
It was therefore a \v?.r of mutual, but uaavailing slaughter, devastat'wn 
,Hnd revenge, f)vc) v/hose rcccrd humanity stil: dropi, a tear of regret, fcul 
fihat tear ca.unot CiTace its disiiraceful hislorv. 



AT r.\cs: OS n'cr.'s voirr. 

This fort coniistcd of some crd)ins and a small block-huusc, and -was, iri 
Jlangerftus limes, the residrncc anrl place of refuge for twelve families of 
■its immediate neighborhood, ll was situated on ijutfalo creek, about 
twelve or tifleeri suiies from its junction with the river Ohio, 

Previously to the attack on this tort, which took place in the month of 
Sf-piL-mber, ilH'2, several of the lew men belonging to the fort had ^^one 
io llagcrstowrt, to exchange their peltry and furs for salt, iron and arnmti- 
nition, as was tlic usual custom of those times. 'J'hey had gone on this 
journev somewhat cirlier that .seuson than usual, because there had been 
"a still time," tlini h, no recent alarms of the Indians. 

A few (la\s bclbre the attack on this fori, about thrcf? hundred Indians 
)ind made their las'. ;ittack on \V'hcclieg fort. On the third night cf ithe 

ATTACK 0\ iaCE% it'OHT. 1^15' 

inVt*<jtm?'iit of Whcelinn-, the Indian chiefs held a council, in '.vhloh it ^\•[is 
(ietennined that the siege of Wheeling should be raised, two hundred of 
the warriors return home, and the reniainlng hundred of picked men make 
a dash into the country and strike a heavy blow somewhere before their 
return. It was their deteVmination to take a fort somewhere and massa- 
cre all its people, in revenge for fheir defeat at Wheeling. 

News of the plan adopted by the Indians, was given by two white men, 
who had been made prisoners ^vhen lads, raised among the Indians and 
taken to war with them. These men deserted from them soon after their 
(Council at the close of the siege of Wheeling. The notice Vv'as indeed but 
short, but it reached Rice's fort about half an h-'Jur before the commence- 
ment of the attack. The intelli^-ence was brought by Mr. Jacob iMiller, 
who received it at Dr. Moore's in the neighborhood of Washino-ton. 
AFaking all speed home, he fortunately arrived in time to assist in the de- 
fense of the place. On'receiving this news, the people of the fort ielt as- 
sured that the blow was intended for them, and in this conjecture they 
were not mistaken. But little time'"\^'as allov«'ed thein for preparation. 

Tl*e Indians had surrounded the place before they v%-ere discovered; 
but they were sti!i at sotne distance.- W^hcn disco^-ered, the ahirm was 
given, on which every man ran to his cabin for his gun, and took refuge 
in the block-hous?. The Indians, answering the alarm with a war whoop- 
from their whole line, commentced firing and running t':Jwards the fort 
from every direction. It was evidently their intention to take the place 
by assault; but the fire of the In<lians was answered by that of six brave 
and skillful sharpshooters. This unexpected reception prevented (he in- 
tended assault, and made the Indians take ret'tge behind logs, stumps 
and trees. The firinor Continued with little intermission for about four 

In the intervals of '.he firing, the Indians frequently called out lo the" 
people of the fort, "Give up, give up, too many Indian; Indian too big;' 
no kill." They were answertid with defiance, "Come on, you cowartis ;- 
Ave are ready for you; — shew us your yel!o^^* hides,- and we will make' 
holes in them for you. 

Durinir the eveninfr, many of the Indians, at sorne distance from the' 
fort, amused themselves' by shooting the hois-rs, catf!^, hogs and sheep" 
until the bottom was st:"<('wcd wifh'tlipir dead bodies. 

About ten o'clock at night the Tnriians set fire to a barn 'ji)'^ut thiifv' 
yards from the fort. It was targe and full of grain and hay. The (laric 
was frightful, and at first it seemed to endanger the hdrning of the fort, 
but the iDarn stood on low^r ground than the fort. The night was calm, 
with the exception of a slight breeze up the creek. 'V\\h cairied the 
flame and burning splinters in a diflerent direction, so that the burning of 
the barn, which at first was regarded as a dangerous, if not tVital oc(uir- 
rence, proved in the issue the means of throwing a strong light to a great 
distance in every direction, so that tlie Indians durst not approach the 
fort to set fire to the cftbins, which they might have done at little risk, ur>- 
der the cover of darkness. 

After the barn was set on fire, the Indians collected on the ?,i(le of the 
fore opipositc'the bai*^, so i.'S to hn--e the 'advantage of- the light, -and k^'pt 


^p a protly constant tire, v.hlt'h was as steadily answered In ilinl of the? 
fori, until iibciit two u'elock, when the Indian^ left the place and made a' 
hasty retreat. 

'Thus v\is thi'; little ])l;iee defended l/v a Spartan band of six rnen;-i 
Against one hundred oiioscn wan-iors, exaspveratCvl to iriadness by their 
faiiuie at \Viieelin[^ fort. Their names shall be inscribed in the list oi-' 
heroes of our early times. 'J'hey were Jacob Miller, (ieorge LeHtr, Peter 
Fullenw-clder, Daniel llice, George Felebaum and Jacob Leller, junr. 
Gjorge Felebaum Was shot in the forehead, through a port-hole, at tiie 
second fire of the Indians, and instantly expired; so that in reality the de- 
fense of the place was made by only five men. 

The loss of the Indlhiis was fcur, three of whc^in were killed at the tirst' 
fire, from the fort, the other was killed about sundown. 'I'here can be ikv 
doubt but that a number more were killed and" wounded in the engage-' 
ment, but were conceided or carried off. 

A large division of these Indians, on their rtitreat, passed within a little 
distance of my father's fort. In following their trail, a few days after-' 
-A'ards, I Ibund a large poultice of chewed sassafras leaves.- 'i'his is the 
dressing wli-'ich the Indians usually apply to recent gunshot Avounds. 'I'lie 
poultice which I found liaving bec^oiae too cid and drv, was- removed and 
replaced with a new one. 

Examples of personal bravery and hair breadth escapes arealways ac- 
reptable to readers of history.- A-?! instanceof both of these happened 
durin*!' the attack on'thi>fort, which may be worth recording, 

Abraham' Rice, one of the principal men belonging to the fort of that 
name, on hearing the report of the deserters from the Indians, mounted a 
very strong active mare a.nd rode inniU haste to another lort, about tiiree 
and a half rndes distant iVotn ins own, for further news, if any coivhl b(; 
had, concerning the presence of a body of Indians in the neighborhood. 
Just as he readied the ])'ace he heard the report of the guns at his own' 
tf)rt. lie instantly rdu rued as- fast as- possible, until lie arrived within 
sight ol' the Ibrt. Finding that it still held out. .he d'eterii>ined to reach if 
and as.>ist In its defense, or pensh in the attempt. In dorng this, he had 
tij cross the creek, the fort being some distance from it on die opposite; 
bank.- lie saw no Indians until his inare sprang down the bank of the 
creeii, at wITudi instant ab:)ut fourteen oi' them jumped up from among' 
the weeds and bnshe's and discharged th^ir guiis at Inni. One bullet' 
wounded him in the lleshy jiart of ihv, rigJit ai'm above the elbow. Ry 
this lime several more of the Itidians came up and shot at him. .V sec-- 
ond ball wounfled liiin in the thigh a little aln.Vc, ihe kn('e, but without 
breaking the bone, and th€ ball passed tr<u»sverse!v through iln- neck oi' 
the inure. She however sprang up the bank of the creek, lell to licf 
knees, and sluniblrd aloiig about a rod before slu; recovered. During 
this lime scvieral Indians caine running up to tomahawk him. Vet he 
made ids escape, after having about thirty shots fired at him from a very 
short distance. ,\ft(!r ridinf^ about four iniles, he reached f^aiub's fort, 
much exhausted with the loss of blood. After getting his wounds dressed- 
and resting awhile, he sat off late in the evening with twelve men, deter- 
mined if possible, to reach *i\e fort under cover r f^lh'» ni[;ht. When-the]/; 


^o't wiiiiin about two hundred yanis ot'it, thoy lialtcd : the firuig still cou- 
tinueil. Ten of the mci"*; thinking the enterprise too hazardous, refused 
to go any further, and ri^treafed. Rice and two other men crept silently 
along towards the fort; but had not proceeded far before they came close 
Upon an Indian in his concealment. He gave the alarm yell, wdiich was 
instantly ptissed round the lines with the utmost regularity. Tiiis occa- 
sioned the" Indians to make their last effort to take the place and make 
tlieir retreat under covei- of the night. Rice and his two companions re- 
turned in safety to Lamb's fort.- 

About ten o'clock next morning, sixty merv' collected at Rice's fort for 
the relief of the place. They pursued the Indians, who kept in a body 
for about two miles. The Indians had then divided into small parties 
and took over the hills in different directions, so that they could be tracked 
no farther. The pursuit was of course given up. 

A small division of the Indians had not proceeded far after their sepa- 
ration, before they discovered four men coming from a neighboring fort 
in the' direction of that which the)' had left. The Indians waylaid the 
path, and shot two of them dead on the spot: the others fled. One of 
them being swift on fool', soon made his escipe: the other being a poor 
runner, wa;-; pursued by an Indian^ who after a smart chase came close to 
him. The man then wlieeled roiind and snapped his gun at the Indian. 
This he repeated several times. The Indian then threv/ his tomahawk at 
his head, biif missed him. He then caught hold 6f the ends of his belt 
Avhich was tied behind in a bow knot. In this again the" Indian was dis- 
appointed, for the knot came loose, so that he' got the belt, but not the 
man, who Vv%eeled round and tried his gun' agfiin, ^>diich hijlpc.'ucd to go 
iff and laid the Indian dead at his foot.- 




When we recpived advice, at my father's fort, of the atfaclc on Rice's 
block-house, which was but a few m.ilcs distant, we sent word to all thosf- 
families who' were' out on their farms, to Come immediately to the fort. 
It became nearly dark before the two runners had time forgive the alann 
to the family of *a Mr. Charles Stuart, who lived abou't three quarters o|' 
a mile off from the fort. 
. They returned in great hasie, saying that Stuart's house was burnc V; 
down, and that they had seen two fires between that and the fort, at 
vvhich the Indians were encamped. There was therefore no floubt that 
tti attack would be made on our fort early in the morning. 



In>ov(lor lo oive the reader a corrct-t idoa of the military tactics of oiit 
oariy times, 1 will p;ivp, m detail, the whole progress of tl^c preparations 
^vhich■ were made lor the expected attack, and, as nearly as 1 can, I will 
give tlw commands of Capt. Teter, our ollicer, in his own words. 

In the first place he collected all our men together, and related the bat- 
tles and skirmishes he had been in, and really they were not few in num- 
l)er. lie was in Braddock's defeat, Grant's defeat, the taking of Fort 
Pitt, and nearly all the battles which took place between the English, and 
the French and Indians, from Braddock's defeat until the capture of that 
place by Gen. Forbes. He reminded us, "that in case the Indians 
should succeed, we need expect no mercy: that every man, woman and 
child, would be killed on the spot. They have lieen defeated at one fort, 
and now they are mad enough. If they should succeed in taking ours, 
all their vengeace will fall on our heads. We must fight for ourselves 
and one another, and for our wives and children, brothers and sisters. 
We must make the best preparations we can; a little after daybreak we 
shall hear the crack of their truns." 

He Ihon made a requisition of all the powder and lead in the fort. 
The aramunition was accurately divided amongst all the men, and the 
amount supposed to be fully suiricicnt. When this was done, "Now," 
says the captain, "when you run your bullets, cutoff the necks very close, 
and scrape them, so as to make them a little less, and get patches One 
hundred finer tluni those you commonly use, and have them v,-ell oiled, 
for if a rifle happens to be choked in the time of battle, there is one gun 
and one man lost for the rest of the battle. You will have no time to un- 
britch a gun and get a plug to drive out a bullet. Have the locks well 
oiled and your flints sharp, so as not to miss fire." 

Such were his orders to his men. He then said to the women, "These 
yellow fellows are very handy at setting fire to houses, anrl water is a very 
good thing to put out fire. You must fill every vessel with water. Our 
fort is not well stockaded, and these ugly fellows may rush into the mid- 
dle of it, and attempt to set fire to our cabins in twenty places at once." 
They foil to work, and did as ho had ordered.- 

The men having put their rifies in order, "Now," says he, "let every 
man gather in his axes, mattocks and hoes, and place them inside of his 
door; for the Indians may make a dash at them with their tomahawks to 
cut theiTi down, and an axe in that case might hit, wdien a gun would 
miss fire." 

Like a good commander, our captain, not content with giving orders, 
went from house to house to see that every thing was right. 

The ladies of the ])resent day will suppose that our w^omen were fright- 
'•ncd half to death with the near prospect of such an attack of the Indians. 
On the contrary, I do not know that I ever saw a merrier set of women 
in my life. Tliey went on with their work of carrying water and cutiing 
bullet patches for the men, apparently without the least emotion of fear; 
and I have every reason to l)elieve that Ihey Avould have been pleased 
with the crack of the guns in the morning. 

During all this time we had no sentinels placed around the fort, so 


• confident whs our captain that the attack would not be made betbie day- 

I was at that thne thirteen or fourteen years of age, but ranked as a 
fort soldier. After getting my gun and all things else in orile'-, I went 
up into the garret lott of my father's house, and laid down about the mid- 
dle of the floor, with my shot pouch on and ray gun by my side, expect- 
ing to be waked up by the report of the guns at daybreak, to take my 
station at the port-hoje assigned me, which was in the second story of 
the house. 

I did not awake till about sunrise, when the alarm was all over. The 
family which we supposed had been killed, had come into the fort about 
daybreak. Instead of the house being burnt, it ^vas only a large old log, 
on fire, near the house, whiih had been seen by our expresses. If they 
had seen any thing like fire between that and the fort, it must have been 
fox fire. vSucJi is the creative power of imagination, when under tlie in 
Jluence of fear* 




'This campaign took place in the summer of 1780, and Vvas directed 
against the Indian villages at the forks of the Muskingum. 

The place of rendezvous was Wheeling; the number of regulars and 
militia about eight hundred. From Wheeling they made a rapid march, 
by the nearest route to the place of their destination. Wlien the army 
reached the river a little below Salem, the lower Moravian town. Col. 
Broadhead sent an express to the mlssic-nary of that place, the Rev. John 
Heckewelder, informing him of his arrival in his neighborhood, with his 
army, requesting a small supply of provisions, and a visit fnnu him, ir. 
his camp. When the missionary arrived at the camp, the general in- 
formed him of the object of the expedition he was engaged in, and incpii- 
red of him whether any of the christian Indians vrere hunting, or engaged 
in business m the direction of his march. On being answered \n tht 
negative, he stated that nothing v/ould give him greater pain than to hear 
that any of the Moravian Indians had been niolested by the troops, as 
these Indians had always, from the commencement of the war, con- 
ducted themselves in a manner that did them honor. 

A part of the militia had resolved on going up the river 1o dcslrrw ih' 
Moravian villages, but were prevented IVom extcutin^- iheir prnjcrt l)\ 
^.Gen. Broadhead and Col. Sheplierd of Wheeling. 

At While-eye's plain, d. few miles from Coshoeton, an lnd>;t!i prisoupi 


Avas taken. Scjon afierwards two more Indians were discovered, (me oi 
whom was wounded, but both made their escape. 

The commander, knowing tiiat these two Indians would make the ut- 
most dispatch in going to the town, to give notice of the appi'oach of the 
army, ordered a rapid march, in the midst of a heavy fall of rai]i, to reach 
the tov\-n before therp, and take it by surprise, The plan succeeded. 
The army reached the place in three divisions. The right and lelt wings 
approached ihe river a little above and below the town, while the centie 
marched directly upon it. The whole number of the Indians in the \il- 
lafje, on the east side of the river, tojrether with ten or twelve from a lit- 
lie village some djstance above, were made prisoners without firing a sin- 
gle shot. The river having riseia to a gteat height, owing to the recent 
fall of rain, the army could not cross it. Owing to this, the villages with 
their inhabitants ,on the west side of the river escaped destruction. 

Among t]ie prisoners, sixteen warriors were pointed out by Pekiilpn, a 
friendly Delawan;, chief, who was with the army of Eroadhead. 

A little after dark, a council of war was held to determine on the fate 
,of the warriors in custody. They were doomed to death, and by the or- 
der of the commander were bound, taken a little distance bel.ow the town, 
and dispatched with tomahawks and spenrs, and scalped. 

Early the next morning, an Indian i)resentcd himself on ,ihe opposite 
bank of the river and asked for the big captain. Broadhead pvesented 
himself, and asked the Indian what he wanted. To Avhich he replied, 
"I want peace." "Sevid over some .of your chiel's," said Hroadhead. 
".May be you kill," said the Indian. Me was ans,,A'ered, '-'They shall 
not be killed." One of the chiefs, a well looking man, canie over the 
•river and entered into conversation with the comnjander in the slreel; 
but while en^-noed in conversation, a man of the name of Welzel came 
up behuid h'nn, with a tpm.ahawk concealed \\\ the bosom /pf his liunting 
shirt, and struck him on tho back of his head. He fell and instanlly ex- 

A bout eleven ox twelve o'clock, the army Gommenced ilf> retrc^K from 
■Coshocton. Gen. Broadhend committed the care of the j)ris()ners lo ihe 
jnilitia. 'i'hey were about twnty ii.i nundjcr. Alter marching about half 
a mile, the men commenced killipg them. In a short time they were all 
(iis|)atclied, excel)! a few womcu and children, who were spared and taken 
to Fori I^itf, and aft/;r ^onieUmc exchanged for an eijual manbcr of tin li 

^^PTivrry of Mm. erowjv, 20^ 

-:o: 1- 



<<i)N thu •2'7Ui (Igy of M9.reh, 17S9, about ten o'clock in the torciioon, as 
Mrs. Brown was spinning' in her, house, her black woman, wlio li;ic! step- 
,pcd out to gather sugar -^vater, screamed out, "Here are Indians." — 
She juniped up, ran to the window, ai:d tiien to the door, wliere she was 
met by one of the Jndia&s presenting his gua. She caught hokl of the 
muzzle, and turning it aside, begged liim not to kill lier, but t?ke her pri- 
soner. The other the mean time cajUght the negro woman and 
her boy about four years ,old, and brought them into the house. They 
then opened a chest and took out a small hox and some articles of 
clothing, and without doing any fu;:t.her dannage, or setting hre to the 
house, set off with herself and son, iibout tw.o years and a half old, the 
black woman and her tw'^ children, '.the oldest four years and the young- 
est one year old. After goinu" about one and a half miles they halted and 
l|eld a coysultariou, as she supposed, about killing the children. This 
she understood to be the subject by their gestures and frequently pointing 
at the children. To one of die Indians who could speak English, she 
|?eld out h^i^r little boy afcd begged him not to kill him, as he would make 
a fine little Indian after awhile^ The Indian made a motion to her to 
-walk on with her child,, The oUier Indian then struck the negro boy 
-\yith the pipe cud of his tomahawk, which knocked bim down, and then 
.dispatched him b\- a blov-' with the edge across the back of the neck an;l 
scalped him,. 

About four o'clock in the evening, they reached the river, about a mile 
above Wellsburg, and carried ?i canoe, which had been thrown up in 
some drift wood, into the river. They got into this canoe, and vv'orkcd 
it down to the mouUi of Brush run, a distance of about live miles. 'I'liey 
pulled 'up the canoe into the mouth of the run, as far as they could, then 
V.eiit up the run about a mile, and c-itcampcd for the uight. The Indians 
gave till ])risoners all their own clothes for covering, and a<l(led one of 
their owii blnukels. Awhile before daylight, the Indians got up and [)ut 
itiiother blankel o\er diem. 

About siiniise ihey beg.ui their march up a very steep hill, and about 

■two ()~'clock hailed on Short creek, about twenty miles from the place 

whence thev hat! I'l out in die morning. The place where they halted 

had been an ••ncampmcnt shortly bel'ore, as well as a place of deposit for 

-lie plunder which Uiey Ijad recently taken from the house of a Mr. Van- 


meter, whose llunily had been killed. The plunder was depo.siled in v\ 
sycamore tree. Here they kindled a fire and put on a brass kettle, with 
a turkey which they had killed on the way, to boil in sugar water. 

Mr. Glass, the first husband of Mrs. Brown, v'^-s working with a hired 
man in a field, ubout a quarter of a inile from the house, when his wile 
and family were taken, but knew nothing of the event until two o'elqck. 
After searching about the place, and going to several houses in ([uest of 
his family, he w.ent to Mr. Wells's fort, collected ten men besides himselij 
and the same ijiy'ht lodged i:i a cabin on the bottom on which the town 
now stands. 

Next morning they <liscovy3red the place from which the Indians had 
taken the canoe /rom the drift, and their tracks at the place of their, em- 
barkation. Mr. Glass.could distinguish the track of his wife by the print 
<3f the high heel, of her shoe. They crossed over the river and went down 
on the other side until they came near the mouth of Rush Run; but dis- 
<covering no tracks of ythe Indians, most of the men concluded that they 
would go to the mouth of Muskingunj., by water, and therefore wished to 
turn back, Mr. Glas;.s begged of theiyi to go as far as the mouth of Short 
-creek, which was oply two or three ijiiles fiirther. To this they agreed. 
When they got to i\ie mouth of Rush run, they found the canoe of the In- 
dians. This was identified by a proof, which goes to shew the presence 
of mind of Mrs. Brown. WliLie going down the river, one of the Indi- 
ans threw into the water several papers, which he had taken out of Mr. 
Glass's trunk, iiome of .v.'hich sh- picked up out of the v.ater, and unilet 
pretence of giving them to the child, dropped them into the bottom of the 
jcanoc. These left no doubt. The trail of the Indians and their prison- 
ers up the run to their camp, and then up the river hill, was soon discov- 
ered. The trail at the time, owisig to tlie softness of the ground and the 
height of the weeds, was easily iollowcd. 

About au hour alter the Indians had halted, Mr. Glass and his men 
came williin sight of the smoke of their camp. The object then was to 
save the lives of the prisoners, by attacking the Indians so unexpectedly, 
as not to allow them time to kill them. With this view they crept as 
slyly as they could, till they got» within something more than one hundred 
yards I'rom the camp. Fortunately, Mrs. Brown's little son had gone to a 
sugar tree to get some water* but not beiiig able to get it out of the bark 
trough, his mother had stepped out of the camp to get it lor idm. The 
net^ro woman was siHin^j some distance from the two Indians, who were 
looking allentfvflv at a scarlet jacket which ihey hud taken some ti:ne 
before. On a sudden they dropped the jacket, and turned their eyes 
towards the men, who sujiposing they were discovered, immediately dis- 
charged several guns, and rusluid upon them, at full speed, with an 
Indian yell. One of the Indians, it was supposed, was wounded the 
first fire, as he fell and dropped his gun and shot pouch. After running 
about one hundred yards, a second shot wa^ fired after hiin, by Major 
M'(iuire, which brought him to his hands and knees; but there was no 
time for pinsnit, as the Indians had informed Mrs. Brown that there 
WH^ another encampment close by. They therefore returned home widi 
all speed, and reached the Beach bnt'.om fort that niglH. 


The other Indian, at the' first, fire, ran a liltlo distanrc beyond Mrs. 
Brown, so that she Avas in a right line between him and the while men. 
Here he baked for a little to put on hiNS shot pouch, which Mr, Glass, for 
the moment, mistook for an attempt to kill his wife with a tomaluiwk. 

This artful maneuver no doubt saved the life of the savage, as his pur- 
suers durst not shoot at him/ without risking tfee life of Mrs. Urown. 




TifE following narrative goes- to shew how njueh may be cfTeeted hy the' 
skill, bravery, and physical activity of a single individual, in the partisan' 
■\Varfare carrietl on against the Idians, on the western frontier. 

Lewis Wet/el was the son of John Wet^^el^ a German, who settled on' 
Bisf Wheeling, about fourteen miles from the river. He was amoirjjstthe 
first adventnrers into that part of the country^ His ediicati<on, like that 
of his cotemporaries, was that of the himter and A^arrior. When a boy 
be adopted the practice of loading and firing his rifle as he ran. This 
was a means of making hira so destructive to the Indians afterwai'ds. 

When about thirteen years old, he was taken prisoner by the Indians, 
together with his brother Jacob, about eleven years old. Before he was 
taken he received a slight wound in the breast from a bullet, which car- 
ried off a snrall pieQp of hi's breast bone. The second night after they 
were taken, the Indians encamped at the Big Lick, twenty miles froiP; the 
river, on the waters of M'Mahan's creek. The boys were not confined.' 
After the Indians had fallen asleep, Lewis whispered to his brother Jacob 
that he must get up and go back home with him. Jacob at first objected, 
but aftervv'ards got up and went along with him. When they had got 
about one hundred yards from the camp, they sat down on a log. " Well,"' 
said Lewis, "we can't go home baretooted; I will go back and get a pair 
of moccasons for each of us;" and accordingly did so, and returned. 
After sitting a little longer, "Now," says he, "I will go back and get 
father's gun, and then we'll start." This he effected. They had not. 
traveled far on the trail by which they came, before they heard the In- 
dians coming after them. It was a moonlight night. When the Indians 
eame pretty nigh them, they stepped aside into the bushes, let them pass, 
then fell into their rear and traveled on. On the return of tlie Indians 
they did the same. They were then pursued by two Indians on horse- 
Back, whom they dodged in the same way. The next day they reached 
Wheeling in safety, crossing from the Indian shore to Wheeling island, 

on a rnft (if thck" own'making. By this lime J cwis lual become almost* 
spent from liis ^vouiul. 

In the year l'lS'2, after Cra'.vforcrs defeat, L^fwis Aveiit with a 'I'homas" 
Mills, who had been in the campaig-itr, to get his horse, which he liad left 
near the place where St.- Clairsville no'.v stands.- At the Indian springs, 
two miles from St. Clairsville^ on the Wheeling road, they wdre met by 
about forty Indians, who were' in pursuit of the stragglers iVom the cam- 
paign.- The Indians and white men discovered each otherabout the same 
momeiit. Lewis llred first and killed an Irvdian, while tlie Indians 
wounded Mills in the heel, who v\'as sodfh ovo'taken dnd killed. Four of 
the Indian's then singled out, dropped their guns, and pursued Wetzel. 
Wetzel loaded his rifle as he ran. After running about half a rrile, one 
of thelndians liaving got within-eight or ten steps of him, VVctzel- Avheel- 
ed round art'd shot him dWn, ran, and loaded his gun as before.- After 
going abovit three quarters of a mile farther, a second Intlian came .so' 
close to him', that when he turned to fire, the Indian caught the muzzle' 
of the guil', and as he expressed it, ''he and the Indian had a severe 
wrinfT." He however succeeded in brinii'ino; the nuizzle to the Indians 
breast, and killed him on the spot. ]>y this time, he as well as the In- 
dians were pretty well tired;' yet the pursuit was continued by the two 
remaining Indians.- Wetzel, as before, loaded his gun, and stopped sev- 
eral times during this latter chase: when he did so, the Indians treed' 
themselves.- After going something more than a mile, Wetzel took ad- 
vantage of a little' open piece of ground over ivlii( h the Indians were' 
passing, a short distance behind him, to make a suddc-u st(vp for ihc pur- 
pose of shooting the ibremost, who got behind a little sajjling, which was 
too small to covef his body. Wct/el shot an(f broke his tliigh. The 
wound, in the issue, proved fatal. The last of the Indians then gave a 
little yell, and said, "No catch dat man, gun always loaded," and gave 
up the chase, glad no dou]:)t to get off with his life. 

It is said that Lewis Wetz(.'l, in tiie course of the Indian wais in tjjis 
part of ihc coutilry, killed twenty-seven Indians, besides a nundtrr nu^re 
along <he frontier scttleinenls of Kentucky. 

A-DAAr poi:. '^oi 




Ix the summer of \1S2, a ])ariy oC sr'Vf>n Wyandols Hiacle nii incuisi(;n 
into a settlement s;ome distance beknv Fort Pitt, arul sev«»ral miles from 
ihe Ohio river. Here i^nding' an old man alone, in a (•••ihin, they killed 
him, packed up what jvlunder they could find, and commenced ih<'ir re- 
treat. A-m-on'ti-st their uartv \va:« a eelehralod VVvandot chief, who, iii- ad- 
dition to his iarne as a warrior and rounsellor, was, at- to his .size and 
strength-, a real giant. 

The Kews of the visit of the In'diares soon spread through the neighbor- 
hood, and a }?arty of eight good rhlemen was collecteil in a iew hours for 
the purpose of pursuing the Indians. In this party were two brothers of 
the names of Adam and Andrew Pbe. Tiwy were feoth famous for coin- 
age, si:i^e and activity. 

This little ])arty commenced the pursuit of the Indians, witli a deler- 
mination^, if p-ossible, not to suffer them to escape^ as- they usually tlid on 
such occasion's, by making a speedy ftight to the river, crossing it, ami 
then divkHng into small parties, to a meet at a distant point in a giv(m 

The pursuit was continued the greater paiH of flie Jiight after the In 
dians had done the mischief. In the m'orning, the party found themselves 
on the trail of the Indians, which led to the river. When arrived within 
a little distance of the river, Adam Poe, fearing an ambuscade, left the 
party, who followed directly on the trail, to creep along the brink of the 
river bank, under cover of the weeds and bushes, to fall on the rear of 
the Indians, should he find them in ambuscade. He had not gone far 
before he s&\7 the In'dian: rafts at the water's edge. Not seeing any In- 
dians, he stepped noftly down the bank Avith his rifle cocked. When 
about halfway down, he discovered the large Wyandot chief and a small 
Indian within a few steps of him. They were stamling with their guns 
cocked, and looking in the direction of our party, who by this time had 
gone some distance lower down the bottom.. Poe took aim at the large 
chief, but his rifle m.isscd fire. The Indians hearing the snap of the gun- 
lock, instantly turned round and discovered Poe, who being too near 
them to retreat, dropped his gtin ami sprang from the bank upon them, 
and seizing the large Indian by the clothes on his breast, and at the same 
time embracing the neck of the small one, threw them both down on tlic 
ground, himself being uppermost. The small Indian soon extricated 
iiimself, ran to the rafh got his tomahawk, and attempted io dispatch 


Poc, the lar'4'e Indian lioUlinr; him fast in his aims wltli all Wis mio;hf, trie- 
better to enable liis ieliow to effect his purpose. Poe, however, so well 
watched the motions of his assailant, that, when in the act of aiming his- 
blow at his head, by a vigorous and well-directed kick with one of his 
feet, he staggered the savage, and knocked the tomahawk out of his 
liand. This failure, on the part of the small Indian, was reproved by an 
exclamation of contempt from the large one. 

In a moment the Indian caught up his tomahawk again, approached 
more cautiously, brandishing his tomahawk, and making a number of 
feigned blows in defiance and derision. Poe, however, still on his guard, 
averted the real blow from his head, by throwing up his arm, and receiv- 
ing it on his wrist in wliich he was severely wounded; but not so as to 
lose entirely the use of his hand. 

In this perilous moment, Poe, by a violent effort, broke loose from the 
Indian, snatched up one of the Indian's guns, and shot the small Indian 
through the breast, as he ran up the third time to tomahawk him. 

The large Indian was now" on his feet, and gi'asping Poe by a shoulder 
and leg, threw him down on the bank. Poe instantly disengaged himself 
and got on his feet.. The Indian then seized him again, and anew^ strug- 
gle ensued, which, owing to the slippery stats of the bank, ended in the 
iali of both combatants into the water. 

In this situation, it was the object of each to drown the other. Their 
efforts to effect their purpose were continiu'd for some time with alternate 
success, sometimes one being under the water and sometimes the other.. 
Pea at length seized the tuft of hair on the scalp of the Indian, with which 
he held his head under water, until he supposed him drowned. 

Relaxing his hold too soon, Poe instantly ibund his gigantic antagonist 
on his feet ag^ain, and ready for another combat- In this they were car- 
ried into the water beyond their depth. In this situation they were com- 
pelled to loose their hold on each other and swim for mutual safety. Both 
sought the shore, to seize a gun and end the contest with bullets. The 
Indian being the best swimmer, reached the land first. Poc seeijig this, 
immediately turned back into the water, to escape, il' possible, being shot, 
by diving. Fortunately the Indian caught up the rille with which Poe 
had killed the other warrior. 

At this juncture, Andrew Poe, missing his brother f)cm the party, rnd 
supposing iVom the report of the gun which he slut, that he was (i'her 
killed or engaged in conflict with the Indians, hastened to the spot. On 
seeing him, Adam called out to hira to "kill tlie big Indian on shore." 
But Andrew's gun, like that of the Indian's, was empty. The contest 
was now between the wliite man and the Indian, who should load and 
fire first. Very l<utunately for Poe, the Indian, in loadijig, drew the ram- 
rod from the thimbles of the stock of the gun with so mu(;h violence, that 
it slipped out of his hand and fell a little distance from him. He quickly 
caught it up, and rammed down his bullet. Tiiis little delay gave Poe 
the advantage. He shot the Indian as he was raising his gun to take 
aim at him. 

As soon as Andrew had shot the Indian, he jumped into tiio river to 
ussist his wounded brother to shore; but Adaiu, thinking more of the 

-ADAM PGE. 210 

feonor of carrying the scalp of the big Indian home as a trophy of victory 
tlian of his own safety, urged Andrew to go back and prevent the strng- 
ghng savage from rolling himself into the river and esca])ing. Aridrcw's 
solicitude for the life ©f his brother prevented him from comi)lying wiih 
this request,. 

In the mean time, the Indian, .jealous of the honer of his scalp even in 
the agonies of death, succeeded in reaching the river and getting into the 
•current, so that his body was never obtained. 

An unfortunate occurrence teok place during this conflict. Just as 
Andrew arrived at the top of the bank for the relief of his brother, one of 
the party who had follovred close behind him, seeing Adam in the river, 
and mistaking him for a wounded Indian, shot at him and wounded him 
in the shoulder. He however recovered from his wounds. 

During the contest between Adam Poe and the Indians, the party had 
overtaken the remaining six of them. A desperate conflict ensued, in 
which Jive of the Indians were killed. Our loss was three men killed and 
Adam Poe severely wounded. 

Thus ended this Spartan conflict, with the loss of three valiant men (^n 
our part, and with that of the v.'hoie Indian party excepting one warrior. 
Never on any occasion was there a greater display o!l desperate braveiy, 
and seldom did a conflict talce place, which, in the issue, proved fatal to 
■so great a proportion of those engaged in it. 

The fatal result of this little campaign, on the side of the Indians, occa- 
sioned a universal mourning among the Wyandot nation. The big In- 
dian and his four brothers, all of whom were kiUed at the same place, 
were amongst the most distinguished chiefs and warriors of their nation. 

The big Indian was magnanimous as vcell as brave. He, more than 
any other individual, contributed, by his example ami inlluence, to the 
good character of the Wyandots for lenity towards tiieir piisoners. He 
"would not suffer them to be killed or ill treated. This mai'cy to captives 
was an honorable distinction in the chai'acter of the V%';yandots, and was 
well understood by our first settlers, who, in .case of captivity, thought il 
a fortunate circumstance to fall into their hands. 

It is consoling to the historian to find instances of those endowments 
•of mind which constitute human ijreatness even amoncr savao;es. The 
-original stamina of those enciowments, or what is called genius, are but 
thinly scattered over the earth, and there can be little doubt but that the 
dower grades of society possess their equal proportion of the bases of 
moral greatness, or in other words, that there is as much of native geyiiiis, 
m proportion to numbers, amongst savages, as there is amongst civilized 
people. The difference between these two extremes of society is merely 
the difference of education. This view of human nature, philosophically 
correct, is well calculated to increase the benevolence of even the good 
Samaritan himself, and encourage his endeavors for thr instruction of the 
most ignorant, and the reformation of tlie most baibarojis. 

Had the aboriginals of our country been possessed ol scicnrc lo onal>lc. 
them to commit to the faithful page of history the events of thcii' iiilci- 
<;ourse with us since the discovery and settlement of ihcir native land by 
nhe Europeans, what would be the contents of this histo)-y! Not such as 

2U THE joriNso-Ns. 

it is li'uiH i1h-' hands ul our iiisluiiaiis, who havt; prcsenlcd iiunglit 'bul liie 
woisi I't'iitures oi' tlie Indian character, as exhibited in the course ot' their 
^viu•s against the invaders of their country, while the wrongs inflicted on 
ihem by civilized men have occupied but a very small portion of the re- 
cord. Their suil'erings, their private virtues, their bravery and magnan- 
imity in war, together with their individual iiistances of greatness of mind, 
heroism, and clemency to captives in the midst of the cruelties of their 
barbarous warfare, must soon be buried with themselves iu the tomb oj' 
Uieir national cyisteucc. 



'J'lli: JOilNSONS. 

TtiF. foliowing hnrrativt; goes to show that the long continuance of the 
'liiflian war had ins})!red even thv young lads of our country not only with 
all ihebi-avery but all the subtilty of" the Indians themselves. 

In the fall of the year 1793, two boys of the name of John and Henry 
Johnson, the first thirteen aiul the latter eleven years old, whose p/arents 
lived in Carpenter's station, a little distance above tl>€ mouth of Shoi-t 
creek, on the east side of the Ohio river, were sent out in the evening to 
hunt the cows} At tlu' loot ol" a hill, at the back of the bottom, tliev sat 
down under a hickory tree to crack some nuts. They soon saw two men 
coming towards them, one of whom IukI a bridle in his Jiand. Jk-ing 
•dressed like white men, they mistook them ibr llieir father and an unclfc 
in search of horses. When they discovered Ihelr mistake and attempted 
lo run of^", the Indians, pointiKg their gvins ai them, told them to stop or 
tliey woidd kill them. 'I'hey halted ;md were taken prisoners. 

The Indians, benig in jiin-'-'uit of horses, conducted the boys by a cir- 
cuitous route over the Short creek hills in starch of them, until laie in 
tlie (MCning, v/hen Ihey lialicd a! a spring iu a h.ollow plact, about three 
Auiles from the fori. Here llie\ kindled a small fire, cooked and ate some 
■■victuals, and prepared to icpose for tlu' night. 

Ijeni'v, the voungest of the lio\s, during the i-amble had affected the 
•gieatest satisfaction at ha\ ing !)(■( ii taken iirisouei-. 1 le said his fath(>r 
was a hard Uiasfcr, who ki'pt him al\va\s al hard work, and allowed him 
no [)hi\ ; but that for his part he wished to li\f in the woods and be a huti- 
icr. This de[)ortmcnt sofui brought him into iniimncy with on(> of the 
Indians, w!io could speak ver\ good Kn'^lish. The Indians frerpiciilly 
.ii^lscd l!ic bi)\'- if llic\ knew of au\ l;iio(| hoisc- riitiiiiii'_^' m the woods. 
3*^w.Ii;cUiJ3i' bcloic ♦|ic\ h;dtcd. one of the Indi.iu^ ^';mi- I lie laiMCsl ,oi" th*: 

'THE JOHxNisONS. 2^» 

■boji a little ba<^, Avhirh lie supposed contained raoney, and nuide liini 
carry it. 

When night came on, the tire was covered up, the boys pinioned, 
and made to lie down together. The Indians then placed their 
straps over them, and laid down, -one on each side of them, on the ends 
•of the straps. 

Pretty late in the night .the Indians fell asleep, and one of them becom- 
ing cold, -caught hold of John in hie; arms, and turned him over on the 
'Outside. In this situation, the boy, who had kept awake, found i^neans 
to get his hands loose. He then whispered to his brother, made him get 
up, and untied his arms. This done, Heery thought of nothing but rui>- 
ning off as fast as possible; but when about to start, John caught hold of 
■him, saying, " We must kill these Indians befoce w-e go."'" After some 
hesitation, Henry agreed to make the attempt. John then took one of the 
rifles of the Indians, and placed it on a log with the muzde close to the 
head of one of th«m. Hei then cocked the gun, and placed his little 
brother at the britch, with Kis finger on the trigger, -with instructions to 
pull it as soon as he should strike the oth-er Indian. 

He then took one of the Indian's tomaha\<^ks, and standintr astraddle 
of the other Indian, struck him with it. The blow, however, fell on th(? 
'back of the neck and to one side, s© as not to be fatal. The Indian then 
attempted to spring up; but theplittle fellow repeated h-is blows with such 
force and rapidity on the skull, that, as he expressed it, "the Indian laid 
■still and began to quiver." 

At the ittoraent of the first stroke given by the elder brother with the 
tomahawk, the younger one pulled the trigger, and shot away a consider- 
able portion of the Indian's lower jaw. This Indian, a moment after re- 
ceiving the shot, 'began to flounce about and yell in t'he most frightful 
manner. The boys then made the best of their way to the fort, and 
reached it a little before daybrealc On getting near the fort they found 
the people all up and in great agitation on their account. On hearing a 
v.-onian exclaim, "Poor little fellows,, they are killed or taken prisoners !" 
the oldest one answered, " No mother, we are here yet.'" 

Having brought nothing away with them from the Indian camp, their 
relation of what had taken place between them and the Indians was )iot 
fully creditecL A small party was soon made up to go and ascertain the 
truth or falsehood of their report. This party the boys conducted to thf^ 
spot by the shortest route. On arriving at the place, they found the In- 
dian whom the oldest brother had toruhawked, lying dead in the camp ; 
the other had crawled away, and taken 'his gun and shot-pouch with him. 
After sf:alping the Indian, the party returned to the fort, and the same 
day a larger party went out to look after the wounded Indian, who had 
crawled some distance from the camp and concealed himself m the top of 
a fallen tree, where, notwithstanding the severity of his wound, with a 
Spartan bravery he determined to sell his life as dearly as possible. 
Having fixed his gun for the purpose, on the approach of the men to a 
proper distance, he took aim at one of them, and pulled the trigger, lint 
his gun missed fire. On hearing the snap of the lock, one of the men 
exclaimed, "I ^^houId not like to be killed bv a dead Indian!" The 



pvirty concluding thai the ludiiui would die ill auy rale, ihought best to 
retreat, and return and look for him after some time. On returning, how- 
'Cver, he could not be found, having crawled away and concealed himself 
in some other place. His skeleton and guu were found sometime after- 

The Indians who were killed were great warriors and very wealthy. 
The bag, which was supposed to contain money, it was conjectured was 
got by one of the party, who went out iirst in the morning. On hearing 
the report of the boys, he slipped off by himself, and reached the place 
before the party arrived. For some tinie afterwards he appeared to have 
■a greater plenty ol'nioney than his neighbors. 

The Indians themselves did honor to the bravery of tliese two boys. 
After their treaty with Gen. Wayne, a friend of the Indians who were 
killed made inquiry of a man from Short creek, what had become of the 
boys who killed the Indians? He was answered that they lived at the 
■same place with their parents. The Indian replied, "You have not done 
Tiglit: yoK should make kings of those boys." 

,.,. 55 




'Having thus given to the reader, in the preceding pages, a ronnecled 
history of the wars with the Indians, from the earliest settlement of the 
'countiy until the treaty of peace made by Gen. Wayne in 1794, I will go 
back to the year 1772, and trace the various steps by which our settie- 
.ments advanced to their present vigorous state of existence. 

The settlements on this side of the mountains commenced along the 
Moiiongahela, and between that river and the Laurel ridge, in the year 
1772. In the succeeding year they reached the Ohio river. The greater 
number of the first settlers came from the upper parts of the then colonics 
of Maryland and Virginia. Braddock's trail, as it was called, was the 
route by which the greater number of them crossed the mountains. A 
less number of them came by the way of Bedford and Fort Ligonier, the 
military road from Eastern Pennsylvania to j^ittsburg. They effected 
their removals on horses furnished with pack-saddles. This was the 
more easily done, as but few of these early adventurers into the wilder- 
ness were encumbered witli much baggage. 

Land was the object which invited ihe greater number of these people 
to cross the mountain; for as the saying then w;is, " it was to be had here 
for taking up." That is, building a cabin and raisin^r a f'op of grain, 
however sm;ill, of any kind, eutltlet! the occupant to four bundled acres 


of land, and a pre-emption right to one thousand acres more adjoining', 
to be secured by a land oifice warrant. This right was to take oiTect if 
there happened to be so much vacant land, or any part thereof, adjoining 
the tract .secured by the settlement right, - 

At an early period the government of Virginia appointed three com- 
missioners to give certificates of settlement rio:hts. These certificates, to-- 
gether with the surveyor's plat, were sent to the land office of the state, 
where they laid six months, to await any caveat which might be offered., 
If none was offered the patent then issued. 

There was, at are early period of our settlements, an inferior kind of 
land title, denominated a "tomahawk right," which was made by dead- 
ening a few trees near the head of a spring, and marking the bark of 
some one or more of them with the initials of the name of the person who 
made the improvement. I remember having seen a number of those 
"tornahawdi: rights" when a boy. For a long time many of them bore 
the names of those who made them. I have no knowledge of the efficacy 
of the tomahawk improvement, or whether it conferred any right what- 
ever, unless followed by an actual settlement. These rights, however, 
were often bought and sold. Those who wished to make settlements on 
their favorite tracks of land, bought up the tomahawk improvements,, 
rather than enter into quarrels with those who made them. Other im- 
provers of the land with a view to actual settlement, and who happened 
to be stout veteran fellows, took a very different course from that ot' pur- 
chasing the tomahawk rights. When annoyed by the claimants under 
those rights,, they deliberately cut a few good hickories, and gave them 
what was called in those days "a laced jacket," that is, a sound whip- 

Some of the early settlers took the precaution to come over the moun- 
tains in the spring (leaving their families behind), to raise a crop of corn, 
and then return and bring them out in the fall.- This I should think was 
the better way. Others, especially those whose families were small,, 
brought them with them in the spring. My father took the latter coui-sc. 
His family was biit small, and he brought them^ all with him. The In- 
dian meal which he brought over the mountain was expended six weeks 
too soon, so that for that length of time we had to live without bread. 
The lean venison and the breast of the wild turkeys we were taught to 
call bread, and the flesh of the bear was denominated meat. Tins arti- 
fice did not succeed very well; for after living in this way some time we 
became sickly, the stomach seeming' to be always empty and tormented 
with a sense of hunger. I remember how narrowly the children watched 
the growth of the potatoe tops, pumpkin and squash vines, hoping from 
day to day to get something to answer in the place of bread. How de- 
licious was the taste of the young potatoes when we got them ! What a 
jubilee when vfe were permitted to pull the young corn for roasting ears! 
still more so when it had acquired sufficient hardness to be made into 
jonny-cakes by the aid of a tin grater! We then became healthy, vi ^'or- 
ous, and contented with our situation, poor as it was. 

My father, with a small number of his neighbors, made their settle- 
ments in the spring of 1773.. Though they were in a poor and destitute 

2io sr.r'rLi:ME%'i of 

Kifuation, they ncvenheless lived in peace; but ilieir tranquil it v was nW' 
of long continuance. Those most atrocious murders of the peaceable in-- 
offensive Indians at CaptLna and Yellow creek, brought on the war of 
lord Dunmore in the spring of the year 1774. Our little settlement then' 
broke up. The women and children were removed to Morris's fort, in 
Sandy creek glade, some distance 1o the east of Uniontown. Tlie fort- 
consisted of an assemblage of small hovels, situated on the margin of a 
large and noxious marsh, the etllu-via of which gave most of the women' 
and children the fever and ague. The men w^ere compelled by necessitv 
to return home, risking- the tomahawk and scalping knife of the Indians, 
to raise corn to keep their families from, starvation the succeeding winter. 
Those sufferings, dangers and losses, were the tribute we had to pay to 
t-hat thirst for blood which actuated those veteran- murderers who brought 
the war upon us ! The memory c/f th€ sufferers in this war, as well as 
that of their descendants, still looks back upon them with regret and ab- 
horrence, an-d the page' of history will consign their names to posterity 
with the fuil weight of infamy they deserve. 

A correct and detailed view of the origin of so-'ietics, and their pro- 
gress from- one condition or point of wealth, science anrl civilization, to 
another, is always highly interesting, even when* received througli the 
dusky medium- of history, oftentinws but poorly and partially written ; but 
when this retrospect of things past and gone is drawn from the recollec- 
tions of experience, the impressions which it makes on the bx'art are of 
the most vivid, deep and lasting kind. 

The following, history of the state of society, manners and customs of 
our forefathers, is to be drawn' from* the latter- source: and it is «iven to 
the world with the' recollection that many of my cotemporaries, still liv- 
ing, have; as well as myself, witnessed all the scenes and events herein' 
described, and whose memories woidd speedily detect and expose any 
errors the work may contain. 

The municipal, as well as ecclesiastical ins^titu^ions of society, Avhether 
good or bad, in consequence of their long continued use, give a corres- 
ponding cast to the public character of society whose conduct they direct,, 
and the more so because in the lapse of lime the observance of them be- 
comes a matter of conscience. 

This observation ap[)lies in full force to that influence of our carlv land 
laws which allowed foiu" hundred acres and no more to a settlement right. 
Many of our first settlers seemed to regard this amount of the surface of 
the earth as the allotment of Divine Providence for one family, and be- 
lieved that any attempt to get more would be sinful. Most of lliem,- 
therefore, contentcfl tliernsclves witji that araoufit, although they might 
have evaded the law, which allowed but one settlement right to any one 
individual, by taking out the title papers in the names of others, to be 
afterwards transferred to them, as if by purchase. Some few indeed pur- 
sued this practice, but it was held in detestation. 

My father, like many others, believed, that having secured his legal 
allotment, the resl «f tJie country belonged of right to thc^se who chose to 
settle in it. 'I'here was a piece of vacant land adjoining his tract, amotmt- 
itig to ai)out tv.o hundred acres. !'<• (his tract of land he had the pre- 

fiTE country'. 2iG 

f'liVptibri riglit, and acrordingly srfiireu it by wairant; but iiis conscience 
would not permit liiin 1o retain it in his family: he therefore gave it fo an 
apprentice lad whom he had rai^^ed in his house, 'j'his lad sohl it to an 
uncle M" mine lor a cow and calf, and a wo6l hat. 

Owing to the equal distribution' of real property directed by our land 
laws, an'd the sterliifg inlegrity of our forefathers in their observance of 
them, we have no districts of "sold land," as it is called, that is, large 
tracts of land in the hands of in'dividuals or comp'anies who neither sell 
lior improve thorn, as is the case' in Lower Canada and the' northwestern 
wart of Pennsylvania,- These unsettled tracts m-ake huo-e blanks in the 
population of the country wherever they exist. 

The division lines between those whose lands adjoined, were generally 
made in an an^icable manner by the parties concerned, before any survey 
of them was m.ade. In doing this they were guided mainly by the tops 
t)t' ridges and water courses, but particularly the former. Hence the 
greater nunitfer of farnts in the western parts of Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia b'ear a striking resenYblante to ari amphitheater. The buildings 
6ccupy a low situation, and the tops of the surrounding hills are the 
bountlaries of the trart to \thich the family mansion belonw-s. 

Our forefathers were fond of farms of this description, because, as they 
^aid, they are attended with this convenience, "that everything comes to 
t'he house down hill."' In the hilly parts of the state of Ohio, the land 
?iaving been laid off in an arbitrary manner,' by straight parallel lines, 
"X'ithout regard to hill or dale, the' farms present a different aspect from 
those on the east side of the river opposite. There the buildings as fre- 
■ijuently occupy the tops of the hills as any other situation. 

Our people had becom'c' so accustomed to the mode of "getting land 
for taking it up, ' that for a long time it was generally believed that the land 
On the west side of the Ohio Would ultimately b'e disposed of in that way. 

Hence almost the wholfe tract of Country between the Ohio and Mus- 
kingum was ]^arceled oitt in tomahawk improvements; but these latter 
improvers did hot content themselves with a single fotir hundred acre 
tract apiece. Many of them owned a great number of tracts of the best 
land, and thus, in imagination, were as "wealthy as a South Sea dream.'* 
Many of the larid-jolj'be'rs of this class did not content themselves with 
marking the trees, at the usual height, with the initials of their names; 
but climbed tvp the large beech trees, and cut the letters in their bark, 
from twenty to forty feet from the ground. To enable them to identify 
those trees, at a future period, they rftade marks on other frees around 
them as references. 

Most of the early settlers considered their land of little value, from an 
apprehension that after a few^ years' cultivation it would lose its fertility, 
at least for a long time. I have often heard them say that such a field 
would bear so many crops, and another so many more or less than that. 
'I'he ground of this belief concerning the short-lived fertility of the land 
in this country, was, the poverty of a great proportion of the land in the 
lower parts of Maryland and Virginia, which, after producing a i'cw crops, 
became unfit for use, and was thrown nut into common^. 


In their unfavorable opinion of the nature ol'tlie soil of our country our 
forefathers were utterly niislaken. 'I'he native weeds were scarcely de- 
stroyed before the white clover and dilferent kinds of grass made their ap- 
pearance. These soon covered the ground, so as to afford pasture for the 
cattle by the time the wood range was eaten out, as well as pi'otect the 
soil from being washed away by drenching rains, so often injurious in 
hilly coxmtries. 

Judging from Virgil's* test of fmitful and barren soils,, the g.reater part 
of this country must possess every requisite for fertility.. The test is this.. 
Dig a hole of any reasonable dimensions and depth: if the earth which 
was taken out, when thrown lightly back into it does not fill up the hole, 
the soil is fruitful; but if it more than (ill it up, the soil is barren. 

Whoever chooses to try this experiment will find the result indicative 
of the richness of o\ir soil. Even, our graves, notwithstanding the size 
of the vault, are seldom, finished with the earth ihrowii out uf them, and. 
ihey soon siivkbt-low the surrounding surface.. 



The settlement of a new country, in tho immediate neighborhood of art 
(lid one, is not attended with much ditiioulty, because supplies can be 
readilv obtained from the latter; bvit the settlement of a' country very I'e- 
mote "from any cultivated region, is a very dlffei-ent tliin^g; because at the 
outset, food, raiment, and the implements of husbandry, are obtained only 
in small supplies and with great difliculty. The task of niaking new es- 
tablishments in a remote wilderness, in time of proibuntl peace, is suffi- 
ciently difficult ; but when, in addition, to all the unavoidable hardships 
attendant on this business, those resulting from an extensive and furious 
warfare with savages are superadded; toil, privations and sufferings, are 
then carried to the full extent of the capacity of men to endure du>m. 

*Antc locun^ capies oculis, alteque jubebis 
In solido piiteum demitti, oninemtjue repones 
Rursus humuin, et ptulibus summas a!(|uabis arenas. 
Si deerunt: rarum, pccorique et vitibus almis 
Aptius uDer erit. Sin in sua posse ncgabunt 
Ire loca, et scrobibus superablt terra repletis, 
Spissus ager: glebas cunctantes crassaque terga 
Expecta, et vulidis terram proiciude juvencis. 

■ r.u: Geo. lib. 2, /. >230, 


Sacli was the wretched coiulilion ot"our foretatbers in making their scl- 
'4lements here. To all llu'ir ditViculties and privations, the Indian war 
Avas a weighty addition. This destructive warfare they were compelled 

'to sustain almost sinf^e-handcd, because the revohitionaiy contest with 

o ... • 

England gave full employment for the military strength and resources on 
the east side of the mountains. 

The following history of the .poverty, labors, sufferings, manners and 
r.ustoins, of our forefathers, will appear like a collection of "tales of olden 
times," without auy garnish of language to spoil the original portraits, 
'by giving them shades of coloring whicli they did not possess. 

1 shall follow the order of things as they occurred during the period fif 
lime embraced in these narratives, beginning with those rude accommo- 
ilations with which our first adventurers into this 'country furnished them- 
selves at the commencement of their establishineRts. It will be a homely 
narrative, yet valuable on the ground of its being real history. 

If my readei', when viewing, through the medium whicli 1 hcit? present, 
the sufferings of human nature in one of its most depressed and danger- 
ous conditions, should drop an involuntary tear, let him not blame me lor 
the sentiment of sympathy which he feels. On the contrary, if he should 
sometimes meet with a recital calculated to excite a smile or a laugh, fJ. 
claim no credit for his enjoyment. It is the subject matter of th-e history, 
and not the historian, which makes those widely different improssiorrson 
the mind of the reader. 

In this chapter it is my design to give a l^rief account of the household 
furniture and articles of diet w'hich were used by the first inha"bitants of 
'oar country. A description of their cabins and half-faced camps, and 
their manrier of buiMing them, will be found elsewhere. 

The furniture for the table, for several years after the settleme'nt of this 
country, consisted ©f a few pew'tcr dishes, .plates and spoons, but mostly 
of wooden bowls, trenchers and noggins. If these last were scarce, 
gourds and hard-shelled squashes made up the dGficiency, 

The iron pots, knives and forks, were brought from the east side of the 
mountains, along with the salt and iron, on pack-horses. 

These articles of furniture correspond very well with the articles of did 
on which they were em]:)}oyed. "Hog and hoir^mony" were proverbial 
for the dish of which they were the component parts. J-ourneycake and 
pone were, at the outset of the settlements of the country, the only forms 
of bread in use for breakfast and dinner. At supper, m.ilk and mush were 
the standard dish. When milk was not plenty, which was often the case, 
owinf to the scarcity of cattle or the want of proper pasture for them, the 
substantial dish oi" hommony had to supply the place of tliem. iMiisli 
was frequently eaten with sweetened water, molasses, bear\s'oil, or the 
gravy of fried meat. 

Everv family, besides a little garden for the few vegetables which they 
cultivated, had another small inclosure containing from half an acrf to an 
acre, which they called a "truck-patch," in which Ihey raised corn for 
roasting-cars, pumpkins, squashes, beans and potatoes. These, in lli^ 
latter part of the summer and fall, Avere cooked with their pork, veiiis( 
and bear meat, for dinner, -^nd made very wholesome and well taste 



(lislic'S. 'I'hc slaiiilanl tlitiner dish lor every log-rolling, house'-niismg 
ami harvest-day, was u pot-pie, or ^vhat in other countries it; called " sea- 
])ie." This, beside;? answering for dinner, served l.v?r a part of the sup- 
])er also,— T-the remainder of it from dinner hcing eaten with milk in the 
evening, fitter the GOi\cl.usion of the labor ol'the day. 

In our whole display of furniture, tjie delf, china, ^nd silver were un- 
known. It did not then, as now, require contributions from the four 
(juarters of the globe to furnish the breakfast table, viz; the silver ironi 
Mexico, the cofl'ee fiom the W.est Indies, the tea from China, and the 
de'f and porccLiin from Europe or ^,>^'\i\. Yet our honicly {'are, and un- 
iiightly cabins and furniture, produ(!ed a hardy, veteran race, who planted 
the first footsteps of society and civihzation in the injmense regiojis of 
the west. Inured to hajdihood, bravery and labor, from their early 
youth, they sustained witi^ manly ibriitude th.e fatigue of the chase, the 
campaign and s^out, and with strong arms "iurned the wilderness into 
iVuitfu] helds,''' and have left to tijeir descendants the ri,c-h inheritance of 
an immense empire blessed with peace and wealth. 

I well recollCjCt the first time I ever saw a tea-cup and saucer, and 
tasted coffee. My mother died wh^en I was ahout six pv v^even years old, 
and my father then sent m^ to Maryland with a brothc^r of my grandfatlier, 
Mr. Alexander Wells, to school. 

At Col. lirown's, in the mountains, (at Stony creek glades,) I fivr the 
first time saw tame geese ; and by l:)antering a ])et gander, I got a severe 
biting by his bill, and beaten by his wings. I wondered very much that 
birds so large and strong should be so much tamer than the wild turki-ys, 
At this phice, however, all was right, excepting the large bii'ds which they 
citlled geese. 'J'he cabin and its fumituie were such as I had beejj ac- 
cuslomed to sec in the backwoods, as my country was Ihj&n called. 

At ]3edford every thing was changed. Tim tavern at whicli my ancle 
put up was a stone Imuse, and to make the change more ,?omj)lete, it was 
plastered in the inside both as to the walls and ceiling. On going inlo 
ihe dining room, I was struck with astonishrat'ul at the appearance of the 
housf. I had no idea that thert; Avas any house in the world which was 
not built of logs; but here I louked round the house and could see no 
logs, and above l could HCsi iio joists; whether such a thing had been 
made by the hands of man, or had growii so of itself, I could not cojijec- 
Uire. I hail not the courage; to inquire any thing about it. 

When supper came on, "my confusion was worse confouiKlcHl." A 
little cup stood in a bigger j)ne, with som.e brownish looking stulf in it, 
whioh was neither inilk, honnnony nor broth. What to do with these 
little c.u\i9. and lUe little spo«.m belonging to them, I could x»ot tell 5 and 1 
»vas afraid to ask any thing concerning the use ot'lheni. 

It was in llie lime of the war, and the comjiany were giving aticounts 
ji)f catching, wiiip|)ing, and lianging the tories. The wovd jail frequently 
occurred. This word] had never heard ])efore; but I so(^n discovered its 
irieaning, was much terrili^'d, and supposed thai we were in danger of 
I he fate of the tories; for 1 ihruiglit, as we had come from the backwoods, 
if was altogetlier likely that we must i;e lories loo. For I'car ol' being dis- 
(i'o.\.\er,e.<l I durst iiol ultci' a single v.ord. I tlicjcfoicf watched allcntivciy 

DaESS. '220 

io see what llie big {'oiks would do with llicir liiile cups iind .s|toons. I 
imitated them, and I'ound the laste of the coffee nauseous l)eyo!id any 
thing 1 ever had tasted in my life; I continued to drink, as the rest of the 
company did, with the tears streaming from my eyes, but when it was 
to end I was at a loss to know, as tlie little cups were filled inimedialely 
after being emptied. This circun>stance distressed me very much, as 1 
jdurst not say I Ijad enough. Looking attentively at the grown persons, 
1 saw one nian turn his little cup bottom upwards and put his little spoon 
across it; I observed that after this his cup was not filled again; I follow- 
ed his example, and to my great satisfa.ction, the result as to my cup was 
the same. 

The introductioij of delf -v^fare was considered by many of the back- 
woods people as a culpable innovation. It Vv'as too easily broken, and 
the plates of that ware dulled their scalping and clasp knives; tea ware 
was too sniall for 7?it;?i, but m.ight do for wonjeu and children. Tea and 
cojffee were only slops, which in the adage of the day, ''did not stick by 
die ribs." The idea was, they were designed only for peojile of (juality, 
who do not labor, or the sick- A genuine backwoodsman would have 
ihought himself disgraced by showing a fondness for those slops. Indeed, 
ify^fiy of thgm have to this day very litti^ respect ibr them, 




On the frontiers, and particularly amongst those who were much ui the 
habit of hunting, and going on scouts and campaigns, the dress of the 
men was partly Indian and partly that of civili>jetl nations. 

The hunting shirt was universally worn. This was a kind of loose 
i'rock, reaching half way down the thighs, with large sleeves, oj)en be- 
fore, and so wide as to lap over a loot or more when belted. The cape 
was large, and sometimes handsomely fringed with a ravelled ])iece of 
cloth of a (lifTerent color from that of the hunting sliirt itself. The bo- 
som of this dress served as a wallet to hold a chunk of bread, cakes, jerk, 
tow for wiping the barrel of the rifle, or any other necessary fi>r the hun- 
ter or wariior, The bait, which wms always tied behind, answered for 
several purposes besides that of holding the dress together. In cold 
weather the mittens, and sometimes the bullet-bag, occu})ied tlie front 
part of it; to the right side was suspended the tomahawk, and to the left 
the scalping knife in its leathern shealh. The hunting shirt was generally 
made of linsey, sometimes of coarse hnen, and a few of dressed deer 
ilvins, These last were veiy cold and ujiconilbrlablc iii Met v;eathcr. 

2>1 DRESS. 

^riie shirt iiiid jacket were ot" ilie common fa!?i)Ioii. A pair of ilrawers trr 
'breeches, atid leggins, were (he dress of the thighs and legs, A pair of 
moccasons answered for the feet much better than shoes. These were 
made of dressed deer skiii. Tbey were mostly made of a single piece, 
with a gathering seam along the top of the foot, and another from the 
bottom of the heel, with gaiters as high as the ankle joint or a little higher. 
Flaps were left on each side to reach some distance up the legs. Tliese 
were nicely adaj)ted to the ankles and lower part of the leg by thongs of 
deer skin, so that no dust, gravel or snow, could get within the moccason. 

The moccasons in ordinary use cost but a few hours labor to make 
them. 'J'his was done by an instrument denominated a moccason awl, 
which was made of the back spring of an old clasp knife. This awl, with 
its buckhorn handle, was an appendage of every shot pouch straj), to- 
gether with a roll of buckskin tor mending the moccasons. 'i'his was 
the labor of almost every evening. They were sewed together and 
pat:;hed with deer skin thongs, or whangs as they were commonly called. 

In cold weather the moccasons were well stuffed with deer^'s hair or 
dry leaves, so as to keep the feet comfortably -Avarm ; but in wet weather 
it was usually said that wearing them was "a decent way of going bare- 
footed;" and such was the fact, owing to the spongy texture of tne leather 
of which ihey were made. 

Owing to this defective covering of the feet, more than to any other 
circumstance, the greater number of our hunters and warriors were afllict- 
cd with the rheumatism in their limbs. Of this disease they were all a])- 
})rehensive in wet or cold weatlier, and therefore always slept with their 
feet to the fire to prevent or cure it as well as they could. This practice 
unquestionably had a very salutary effect, and prevented many of them 
from bei oming confirmed cripples in early life. 

In the latter years of the Indian war our young men became more en- 
amored of the Indian dress throughout, Avith the exception of the match 
•coat. 'J'he drawers were laid aside and the leggins made longer, so as 
to reach the upper jiart of the thigh. The Indian breech clout was 
arlopted. This was a piece of linen or cloth nearly a yard long, and 
eight or nine inches broad. This passed under the belt before and be- 
hind, leaving the ends for flaps, hanging before and behind over the belt. 
These belts were sometimes ornamented with some coarse kind of em- 
broidery work. 'I'o the same belts wliich secureil the bi-eech clout, strings 
whi'jh supported the long leggins were attached. When this belt, as 
was often the ease, passed over the hunting shirt, the upper part ol' the 
thighs and jiart of the hips were naked. 

The young warrior, instead of being abashed by this nudity, was jiroiid 
of his Indi.m-like dress. In some few instances I have seen tlicm go in- 
to places of public worship in this dress. Their appearance however did 
not arid much to the devotion of the young ladies. 

The linspv petticoat and bed gown, which were the universal dress of 
our women in early times, would make a strange figure in our days. A 
small hfuiK'-madc handkerchief, in point of elegance, would illy supply 
the place of that profusif»u of ludle^ with v.hich the necks of our ladies 
iire riow oninrnejiird. 


Thf-y went barefooteil in warm weather, and in cold iluir feet woyh 
aoveieii with moccasons, coarse shoes or shoe packs, which would make 
but a sorry figure beside the elegaut morocco slippers often embossed with 
bullion, which at present ornament tlie feet ol' their daughters and grand- 
da ut>-hters. 

The coats antl bed gowns of the vv'omen, as well as the liuntino; shirts 
of the men, were hung, in full display on wooden pegs around the walls of 
their cabins, so that while they answered in some degree the place of paper- 
hangings or tapestry, they announced to the stranger as well as neighbor 
the wealth or poverty of the family in the articles of clothing. This prac- 
tice has not yet been wholly laid aside amongst tlie backwoods families. 

The historian would say to the ladies of the present time, Our ances- 
tors of your sexknew nothing of the ruffles, leghorns, curls, combs, rings, 
and other jewels with which their fair daughters now decorate themselves. 
Such things v/ere not then to be had, j\Iany of the younger part of them 
were pretty well grown up before they ever saw the inside of a store 
room, or even knew there was such a thing in the world, unless by hear- 
say, and indeed scarcely that. 

Instead of the toilet, they had to handle the distaff or shuttle, the sickle 
or weeding hoe, contented if they could obtain their linsey clothing and 
i!Over their heads with a sun bonnet niade of six or seven hundred linen, . 




My render will understand by this term, not only a place of defense, Buf 
the residence of a small number of familicvs^ belonti'ing' to the same nemh- 
borhood. As the Indian mode of warfare Avas an indiscriminate slaugh- 
ter of all ages and both sexes, it was as requisite to provide for the safety 
of the women and children as for that of the men. 

The fort consisted of cabins, block-houses and stockades. A range of 
cabins commonly formed one side at least of the fort. Divisions, or par- 
titions of logs, separated the cabins from each other. The walls on the 
outside were ten or twelve feet high, the slope of the roof being tu^-ned 
wholly inward. A very few of these ca}>ins had puncheon floors: the 
greater part were earthen. 

The block-houses were built at the angh^s ot the fort.- They- [jrojected 
about two feet beyond the outer walls of the cabins and stockades. 
Their upper stories were about eighteen inches every way larger in di- 
mension than the under one, leaving an opening at the cornrnenc-iement ol' 
the second story, to prevent the enemy from making a- lodguunt und«M. 

223 The FORt.- 

iluMr walls. In some forts, instead of block-houses, (he angles of the 
fort were i'tu'iiished with bastions. A large folding gate made of thick 
slabs, nearest the spring, closed the fort. The stockades, bastions, cab-' 
ins and bloclc-house walls, were furnished with port-holes at: proper 
heights and distances. The whole of the outside was niade completely 

It may be truly said tkit necessity is the mother of iiiVenticli, for the 
whole of this work was made without the aid of a single nail or spike of 
iron, and for this reason, such things were not to be had.- 

In som^' places less o'^posed', a single blo'ik-house with a cabin or two- 
constituted the \yhole fort. 

Such places of refuge may appear very trifling to those who have hVcn 
in the habit of seeing the formidable military garrisons of Europe ai:d 
America; but they answered the purpose, as the Indians had no artillery.- 
Tliey seldom attacked, and scarcely ever took one of them. 

The tV.niilies belonging to these forts were so attached to their own 
t-abins on their farms, that they seldom moved into the fort in the spriti'g 
tmtd compelled by sonre alarm-, as they called it; that is, when it was an- 
nounced by some mm-der that the Indians were in the' settlement* 

The tbrt to which my father belonged, was, during the iirst years of the' 
war, three quarters of a mile from his farm; but when this fort went to 
flecay, and became unfit for defense, a new one was built at his o\vu' 
house. I well renx'mber that when a little b'oy the family were sometin\^s 
waked up in the dead of night by an express with a report that the In- 
dians were at hand. The express came softly to the door or back win- 
fiow, and by a ge"ntle tapping waked thei^imily ; this was easily clone, as 
?vn habitual fear made us ever watchful and sensible to the slifrhtest alarm, 
'Ihc whole famny were m^tantly in motion: my father seized his gun and 
other implements of war ; my step mother vtaked up ami dressed the chil- 
dren as .veil as she could ; and being myself the oldest of the children, 1 
had to take my share of the burthens to Ije carried to the tort. TImu'C!' 
was no possibility of gcttiirg a horse in the night to aid i?s in removing to" 
the fort ; be.vide.s the little cliildren, we (*aught up what articles of cloth- 
ing and provision we could get hold of in the dark, for -%Ve dursc not light 
a candle or even stir the fire". All this was done with the utmost dispatch 
and the silence of death; the greatest care Was taken not to awaken the 
youngest child : to the rest it was enough to say Indian, and iibt a whim-' 
per was he?rd afterwards. Thus it often happened that the whole luim- 
ber of families belonging to a fort, who were in the evening at their 
homes, were all in their little fortress before th(> dawn oi' the next morn- 
ing. In the course of the' succeeding day, their household furniture was 
brought in by f)arties of the men under arms. 

Some families belonging to each fort, were much less under the in- 
fluence of fear than others, and who' after an alarm had subsided, in si)ite 
of every remonstrance would remove home, while their more ])ru(lent 
neighbors remained in the foit. Such families were denominated "fool- 
liardy," and gave no small amount of trouble by creating such fre(]uent 
necessities of sending ruiuuu's to warn them of ihcir danger, and some- 
times parties nl'our nu'u In nrotcet them during llieir removal. 

CAllAVAN;;*- Q?- 




Tnic acquisition of the indispensable articles of salt, iron, steel and cast- 
insTS, presented oreat diiiiculties to the first settlers of the vrestern coun* 
try. They had no stores oi any kind, no salt, iron, nor iron works ; nor 
had they money to make purchases where those articles were to be ob- 
tained. Peltry and furs were their only resources, before they had time 
to raise cattle and horses for sale in the Atlantic states. 

Every family collected what peltry and fur they could obtain through- 
out the year for the purpose of sending thera over the mountains for barter. 

In the fall of the year, after seeding time, every family formed an asso- 
ciation with some of their neighbors for starting the little caravan. A 
master driver was selected from among them, who was to be assisted by 
one or more young men, and sometimes a boy or two. The horses were 
fitted out w'lih. pack-saddles, to the hinder part of whirh was fastened a 
pair of hobbles made of hickory withs: a bell and collar ornamenterl his 
neck. The bags provided for the conveyance of the salt were filled with 
feed for the horses: on the journey a part of this feed was left at conve- 
nient stages on the way down, to supjiort the return of the caravan. 
Large wallets, well filled with bread, jerk, boiled ham and clieesc, fur- 
nished provision for the drivers. At night, after feeding, the horses, 
whether put in pasture or turned out into the woods, -were hobbled, and 
the bells were opened. The barter for salt and iron was made first at 
Baltimore. Frederick, Hagerstown, Oldtown and Cumberland, in suc- 
cession, became the place of exchange. Each horse carried two bushels 
of alumn salt, weighing eighty-four pounds the bushel. Tiiis, to be sure, 
was not a heavy load for the horses, but it was enough considering the 
scanty subsistence allowed them on the journey. 

The common price of a bushel of alumn salt at an early period was a 
good cow and calf; and untu weights were introduced, the salt was raea- 
s'ured into the half bushel by hand as lightly as possible. No one was 
permitted to walk heavily over the floor while the operation was going on. 

The following anecdote will serve to shew how little the native sons of 
the forest knew of the ctiqiiet of the Atlantic cities. 

A neighbor of my father, some years after the settlement of the coun- 
try, had collected a small drove of cattle for the Baltimore market. 
Amongst the hands employed to drive them wa*; onp who had never sce^u 
any condition of society but that of wondsrnen. 

225 Ili;N'nN(.. 

At one of tlieir lo(li>-ing places iii the mountain, the Innillord and iiisi' 
hired man, in tlio course of the night, stole two of the bells belonging to 
the flrove, and liid them in a piece of woods. 

The drove had not gone far in the morning before the bells were missed, 
and a detachment went back to recover the stolen bells. The njen were 
found reaping in the field of the landlord; they were accused of the theft, 
but they denied the charge. The torture of sweating, according to the 
custom of that time, that is, of suspension by the arms pinioned behind 
their backs, brought a confession. The bells were procured and hung 
around the necks of the thieves: in this condition they w^ere driven ort 
foot before the detachment until they overtook the drove, which by this 
time had gone nine miles. A halt was called and a jury selected to try 
the culprits. They were condemned to receive a certain number of lashes 
on the bare back from the hand of each drover. The man above alluded 
to was the owner ol" one of the bells. When it came to his turn to use 
the hickory, "Now," says he to the thief, "you infernal scoundrel, I'll 
work your jacket nineteen to the dozen. Oidy think what a rascally 
figure I should make in the streets of Baltimore without a bell on my 
horse." The man was in earnest: having seen no horse used witliout 
bells, he thought they were requisite in every situation. 




Tills was an important part of the employment of the early settlers of 
this country. For some years thr woods supplied them with the greater 
amount of tlieir sulisistenee, and with re<r:u(l to some families in certain 
times, the whole of it; for it was no uiu-onimon thing fiir families to live 
several monllis without a mouthful of bread. It frequently happened that 
there was no breakfast until it was obtained from the woods. Fur and 
])(ltry were the ])eopIe's nioriey ; they had nothing else to give in exchange 
for rides, salt and iron, on the other side of the mountains. 

The fall aiid early part of the winter was the season for hunting the 
deer, and the whole of the winter, including part of the spring, for bears 
and fur skitmed animals. Tt was u eiistoiuary saying that fur is good 
(hiring every month in the name of which the letter u occurs. 

The class of hunters with whom I was best acquainted were those 
whose hunting ranges were on the western sidi' of \]\r liver and at the 
tlistance of eight or idne miles from it. As soon as the leaves were 
pretty well down, and the weather became rainy accompanied with light 
snows, these men, after acting the part of liuiikindmen, so far as the state 

llU^sTING. 226 

^>1 ^^al'lare ])ennitlt!J them to do so, soon bt,'g-an l9 feel Uiat tlicy were 

luiulers. They became uneasy at home ; every thin<^ about them became 

'disagreeable ; the house was too warm, the feather bed loo soft, and even 

the good wile was not thought for the time being a proper companion ; 

rthe mind of the hunter was wholly occupied with the camp and chase. 

I have often seen them get up early in the morning- at this season, walk- 
hastily out and look anxiously to the woods, and snuff the autumnal 
winds with the highest rapture, then return into the house and cast a 
-quick and attentive look at the rille, iwhich was always suspended to a 
joist by a couj)le of buck's horns or little forks ; his hunting dog under- 
standing the intentions of his master, would wag -his tall, and by every 
blandisiiment in his power express Ins readiness to accompany him to the 

A day was soon appointed for the maich of the little cavalcade to the 
camp. Two or three horses furnished with pack-saddles were loaded 
with tlour, Indian meal, blankets, and every thing else requisite for the 
use of the hunter. 

A hunting camp, or what was called a half-faced cabin, was of the fol- 
lowing form: the back part of it was sometimes a large log: at the dis- 
tance of eight or ten feet from this two stakes were set in the ground a 
■few inches apart, and at the distance of eight or ten feet from these two 
more to receive the ends of the poles for the sides of the camp ; the whole 
slope of the roof was from the front to the back ; the covering was made 
-of slabs, skins or blankets, or, if in the spj'ing of the year, the bark of 
hickory or ash trees ; the front was left entirely open ; the fii'e was built 
directly before this opening; the cracks between the logs were filled with 
moss, and dry leaves served for a bed. It is thus that ti couple of men 
in a few hours will construct for themselves a temporary but tolerably 
comfortable defense from Ihe inclemencies of the weather; the beaver, 
■otter, muskrat and squirrel are .scarcely their equals in dispatch in ftibrica- 
ting for themselves a covert from the tempest ! 

A little more pains would have made a hunting camp a defense against 
the Indians. A cabin ten feet square, bullet proof and I'uriiished with port 
holes, would have enabled two or three hunters to hold twenty Indians ui 
bay for any length of time ; bat this precaution I believe was never at- 
tended to; hence the hunters were oilen surprised and killed in their 

The site for the ca'np was selected with all the sagaciiy of the woods- 
men, so as to have it sheltered by the suri'ounding hilis from every wind, 
but more especially from those of the north and west. 

An uncle of mine, of the name of Samuel Teter, occupied the same 
camp for several years in succession. It was situated on one of the south- 
ern branches of Cross creek. Although I 'had lived many years not more 
than fifteen miles from the place, it v,;is not till within a very few years 
that I discovered its situation, when it was shewn to me by a gentleman 
living; in the neighborhood. Viewing the hills round about it, I soon 
perceived the sagacity of the hunter in tlie site for his camp. Not a wind 
.-could touch him, and Imlc-is liv 'lie renort of his gun or the soumi oi' his 

227 MLNTlNCi. 

7\XP., It Vvould liiive beeu by lucrc acclclt'.'jt if an luuian iiad discovered li'o 

Hunting was not a mere ranibie in pursuit of game, in whicdi there wTis 
nothincr of skill and calculation; on the contrary, the iiunter before he f?et 
out in the morning- was informed by the state of the weather in what situ- 
ation he might reasonably expect to meet with his game, whether on the 
bottoms, sides or tops of the hills. In stormy weather the deer always 
seek the most sheltered places and the leeward sides of the hills. In 
rainy weather in which there is not much wind, they keep in the open 
woods on the higliest ground. 

In every situation it was requisite for the hunter to ascertain the course 
of the wind, so as to get to the leward of the game. This he effected by 
putting^ his lir.ger in his mouth and holding it thereuntil it became warm; 
then holding it above his head, the side which first becomes cold sliews 
wiiich way the wind blows. 

As it was requisite too for the hunter to know the cardinal points, he 
had only to olbserve the trees to ascertain them. The bark of an aged 
tree is thicker and much rougher on the north thaii on the south side. 
The same thing niay be said of i!ie moss, it is thicker and strvmger on the 
north than on the south side of the trees, 

'I'he whole business of the hunter consists of a succession of mtrigues. 
From morniniz to ni^ht he was on the alert to i^nin the wind of his 'fame, 
and approach thern without being discovered. If he succeeded in killing 
a deer, he skinned it and hung it up out of the reach «f the wolves, and 
immediately resumed the chase till the close of the evening, when he bent 
liis course towards his camp; when arrived llur^*, he kindled up his fire, 
and together with his iellow hunter cooked his supper. The supper fin- 
ished, the adventures of the day furnished the tales i'or the evening; the 
s})lke buck, the two and three proniicd buck, the doe and the barren doe, 
fmured through their anecdotes witli CTcat advantas^e. It should seem 
that after hunting awhile on the same ground, thi' hunters became ac- 
(piainted with nearly all the gangs of deer within their range, so as to 
know each flock of them when they saw them. Often some old buck, by 
the means of Ins superior sagacity and v*-atchfulness, saved his little gang 
from the liunter^'s skill, bv giving timely notice of his ajiproach. The 
<"unning of the hunter and that of the old bu(;k were staked against each 
other, and it frequently happened that at tiie conclusion of the hunting 
season, the old fVllow was left the tvee uninjured tenant of his forest ; l^it 
if his rival succeeded in bringing him down, the victory was followed by 
no small amount of [)oasling on the part of the concpieror. 

When the weather was not suitable for iiunting, the skins and carcasses 
of the game v.crc brought in and dispos"d f<f. 

-Mans of the huntris rested from their labors on the Sabbath day, some 
'f om a motive of piety, others saifl that wh"ncvcr iIk v Inintcrl on Sun- 
.<!;iv, l|i> V vric «.iire tn'h.'i\c hn-u ;ill llv rc-sl o*" llv week- 

TI1F> WEDDING. ;228 




For a long time after the first settlement of this country the iiili;il)ltnnts 
m general married young. There was no distinction of rank, and very 
little of fortune. On these accounts the first impression of love resulted 
m marriage, and a family establishraent cost but a little labor and noth- 
ing elf^c. 

A description of a wedding, from the beginning to the end, will serve 
to shew the manners of our forefathers, and mark the grade of civilization 
which has succeeded to their rude state of society in the course of a few 

At an early period the practice of celebrating tbe marriage at the house 
nf the bride began, and it should seem with great propriety. She also 
Las the choice of the priest to perform the ceremony. 

In the first years of the settlement of this coimtry, a wedding engaged 
the attention of a whole neighborhood, and the frolick was anticipated by 
•old and young with eager anticipation. This is not to be wondered at, 
when it is told that a wedding was almost the only gathering which was 
not accompanied vrlth the labor of reaping, log-rolling, building a cabin, 
■or planning some scout or campaign. 

In the morning of the wedding day, the groom and his attendants as- 
sembled at the house of his father, for the purpose of reaching the man- 
sion of his bride by noon, which was the usual time for celebrating the 
■nuptials, which for certain must take place before diimer. 

Let the reader imagine an assemblage of people, without a store, tailor 
or raantuamaker, within an hundred miles, and an assemblage of horses, 
without a blacksmith or saddler within an equal distance. The gentle- 
men dressed in shoe-packs, moccasons, leather breeches, leggins, and 
linsey hunting shirts, all home-made. The ladies dressed in linsey petti- 
coats and linsey or linen bed gowns, coarse shoes, stockings, handker- 
chiefs, and buckskin gloves, if any; if there were any buckles, rings, but- 
tons or raffles, they were the relics of old times, family pieces from pn- 
rents or p^rand-parents. The horses were caparisoned with old saddles, 
■old bridles or halters, and pack-saddles, with a bag or blanket thrown 
over them: a rope or string as often constituted the girth as a piece of 

The march, in double file, was often interrupted by the narrowness and 
obstructions of our horse-paths, as they were called, for we had no road*:; 
?.nd these HiffiriiUips vrm^ often increased, sornetimes by (he gnor!, .-ind 
•^.ometimf^'- li\ ihf ill '.viil of n<'-ighbnrs, liv f;iIlinL'. Uvf- ''ncl iyiii;T grape 


vines across the way. Sometimes an ambuscade was formed by the way 
side, and an unexpected discharge of several guns took place, so as to 
cover the wedding company with srnoke. Let the reader imagine the 
scene which followed this discharge, the sudden spring of the horses, the 
shrieks of the girls, and the chivalric bustle of their partners to save them 
from fcdiing. Sometimes, in spite of all that could be done to prevent it, 
some were thrown to the ground ; if a wrist, elbow or ankle happened to 
be sprained, it was tied with a handkerchief, and little more was thought 
or said about it. 

Anodier ceremony took place before the party reached the house of the 
bride, after the practice of making whiskey began, which was at an early 
period. When the party were about a mile from the place of their desti- 
nation, two young men would single out to run for the bottle : the worse 
the path, the more logs, brush end deep hollows, the better, as these ob- 
stacles afforded an opportunity for the greater display of intrepidity and 
horsemanship- The English lox chase, in point of danger to the riders 
and their liorses, was nothing to this race for the bottle. The start was 
announced by an Indian yell, when logs, brush, mud holes, hill and glen, 
were speedily passed by the rival ponies. The bottle was always hlled 
for the occasion, so t!hat there was no use for judges; for the first who 
reached the door was presented with the prize, with which he returned 
in tr'umph to the company. On approacliing them he announced his 
victory over his lival by a shrill whoop. At th€ head of the troop he 
rgave the bottle to the groom and his attendants, and^then to each pair in 
succession, to the rear of the line, giving each a (h-ai:j ; and then putting 
the bottle in the bosom of his hunting shiit, took his station in the com- 

The ceremony of the marriage preceded the dinner, which was a sub- 
stantial backwoods feast of boef, pork, fowls, and sometimes venison nnd 
bear meat, roasted and boiled, with plenty of potatoes, cabbage and other 
vegetables. During the dinner the greatest hilarity always prevailed, al- 
though the table might be a large slab of timber, hewed out with a broad- 
axe, supported by four sticks set in auger holes, and the furniture some 
old pewter dislies and plates, the rest wooden bowls and trenchers. A 
few pewter spoons, much battered about the edges, were to be seen at 
some tables; the rest were made of horns. If knives were scaree, the de- 
ficiency was made up by the scalifing knives, which were -carried in 
shenths suspended to the belt of the hunting shirt. 

After dinner the dancing commencdd, and generally lasted until llie 
next morning. The figures of the dances were three and four handed 
recli, or square sets and jigs. The commencement was always a square 
four, whicii was foHowed by what was calletl jiguing it off, that is, two 
of the four would single out for a jig, and were followed by the remain- 
ing couple. The jigs were often accompanied with what was called 
cutting out, that is, when any of the parties became tired of the dance, on 
intimation, tlit; ))lace was supplied by some of the company, without any 
interruption of the dance; in this way a dance w;is often c(uitin\icd till 
ilie musician was heartily tired of ids situation. 'I'owm-d the latter part of 
the nighl, if any of the comp:uiy through weakness ademptrd to cojiccul 


themselves for the purpose of sleeping, they were hunted up, paraded on 
the iloor, and the fiddler ordered to play "hang out till morning." 

About nine or ten o'clock a deputation of young ladies stole off the 
hride and put her to bed. In doing this it frequently happened that they 
had to ascend a ladder instead of a pair of stairs, leading from the dining 
and ball room to the loft, the floor of which was made of clapboards \yuvx 
loose and vrithout nads. This ascent one might think woukl put the 
bride and her attendants to the blush ; but as the foot of the ladder was 
commonly behind the door, which was purposely open for the occasion, 
and its rounds at the inner ends were well hung with hunting shirts, pet- 
ticoats and other articles of clothing, the candles being on the opposite 
side of the house, the exit of the bride was noticed but by a fev^. This 
done, a deputation of young men in like manner stole off the groom and' 
placed him snugly by the side of his bride.- The dance still continued, 
and if seats happened to be scarce, which was often the case, every young 
man when not engaged in the dance was obliged to offer his lap as a seat 
for one of the girls, and the offer was sure to be accepted. In the midst 
of this Inlarity the bride and groom were not forgotten. Pretty late in 
the night some one would remind the company that the new couple must 
stand in need of some refreshment ; Black Betty, which was tlie name of 
the bottle, was called for and sent up the ladder. But sometimes. ]]iack 
Betty did not go alone. I have many times seen as much bread, beef, 
pork and cabbage, sent along with her, as would afford a good meal for' 
half a dozen of hungry n_ien. The young couple were compelled to eat 
more or less of whatever was offered them. 

In the course of the festivity, if any wanted to help himself to a dram 
and the young couple to a toast, he would call out, "Where iyy Black 
Betty? I v/ant to kiss her sweet lips." Black Betty was soon handed to 
him, when, holding her up in his right hand, he would say, '"Here's 
liealth to the groom, not forgetting myself, and here's to the bride, thump- 
ing, luck and big chddren!" This, so far from being taken amiss, was 
considered as an expression of a very proper and friendly wish ; for big- 
children, especially sons, were of great importance, as we were few in 
number and engaged m perpetual hostility with the Indians, the end of 
which no one could foresee. Indeed many of them seemed to suppose 
that war was the natural state of man, and therefore did not ;uiticipate 
any conclusion of it; every big son was thei'efore consideicd as a young' 

But to return. It often happened that sora-e neighbors or relations, not 
being asked to the wedding, took offense ; and the mode of revenge 
adopted by them on such occasions, was tliat of cutting off the manes, 
foretons, and tails of the horses of the wedding company. 

Another method of revenge which was adopted when the ciiaslily of 
the bride was a little suspected, w'as that of setting up a pair of horns on 
poles or trees, on the route of the wedding company. This was a hint to 
the groom that he might expect to be complimented with a pair of horns 

On returning to the infare, the order of procession and tJie race for 
Black Betty was the same as before. The least irif: <\nd dancing oficri 

'->3f \1\L HO USE WAUMI.'f(J'. 

lasted sevenil d-iys, at the end of which the whole company were so ex- 
hausted with loss of sleep, that several days' rest were requisite to lit 
ihem to return to their ordinary- labors. 

Should I be asked why I have presented this unpleasant portrait ol'the- 
rude manners of our forefathers? I in ray turn would ask niv rea(ier, why 
are you pleased with the histories of the blood and carnage of batth.'S ? 
Why are you delighted with the fictions of poetry, the novel and romance?" 
I have related trutia, and only truth, strange as it may seem. I have de- 
picted a state of society and manners which are fast vanishing frnia the- 
memory of man, witli a view to give the vouth of our countrv a knowl- 
edge of the advantage of civilization, and to give contentment to the aged 
by preventing ^hem iVota saying, "that former times were better than the- 




I will proceed to- state the usual manner of settling a young couple in tli-e' 

A spot was selected on a piece of land of one of the parents for their 
habitation. A day was appointed shortly after their marriage for com- 
mencing the work of building their cabin. The fatigue party consisted 
■of choppers, wliose business it was to fall the trees and cut them off at 
proj)cr lengths — a man with his team for hauling them to the place, and 
arranging them, properly assorted, at the sides and ends of the building 
— and a carpenter, if su<;h he might be calle(!, whose business it was to 
search the woods for a proper tree for making clapboards for the roof. 
T'he tree for this purpose must be straight-grained, and from three to four 
feet in diameter. The hoards were split four i'eet long, with a large Irow, 
and as wide as the timber would allow. They were used without planing 
or shaving. Another division were employed in getting puncheons for 
the floor of the cabin; this was done by splitting trees about eight(>en 
inches in diameter, and hewing the faces of them with a broad-axe. 
They were half the length of the floor fiiey were intended to make. 

The materials for the cabin were mostly prepared on the first day, and 
soraeJimes the foundation laid in the evening; the second day was allot- 
ted for the raising. 

In the moriiing of \hc nfit^ day tJie neighbors collected for the raising. 
Thr: first thing to b«'. done was the election of four corner-men, whose 
business it was to notch and place the logs, the rest of the company fur- 
l)i^hing them Nvilh the timbers. In Ihc mean lime the boards and pun- 

Till': HOLS I:: vvAiiMiNa. 232 

cheons were collecting for the floor and roof, so that hy iho. time the 
cabhi was a few rounds high, the sleepers and floor began to be laid. 
The door was made bv cuttinir or sawino; the lo£(s in one side so as to 
make an opening about three feet wide; this opening was secured by up- 
right pieces of timber about three inches thick, through which holes were 
bored into the ends of the logs for the purpose of pinning them fiist. A 
similar opening, but wider, was made at the end for the chimney. This 
was built of logs, and made large, to admit of a back rtnd jambs of stone. 
At the square two end logs projected a foot or eighteen iiic-hes beyond 
the wall, to receive the butting poles as they were called, against which 
the ends of the first row of clapboards was supported. The roof was 
formed by making the end logs shorter until a single log form.ed the comb 
of the roof. On these legs the clapboards v;ere placed, the ranges of 
them lapping some distance over those next below them, and kept in 
their places by logs placed at proper distances upon them. 

The roof and sometimes the floor WfM'e finished on the same day of the 
raising; a third day was commonly spent by a few caipenters in leveling 
off the floor, making a clapboard door, and a table. This last was made 
of a split slab, and supported by four round legs set in auger holes; some 
three-legged stools were made in the same manner. Some pins, stuck in 
the logs at the back of the house, supported some clapboards which ser- 
ved for shelves for the table furniture. A single foik, placed with its 
lower end in a hole in the floor, and the upper end fastened to a joist, ser- 
ved for a bedstead, by placing a pole in the fork with one end through a 
crack between the logs in the wall. This front pole was crossed by a 
shorter one within the fork, with its outer end through anoth^n- crack. 
From the front pole, through a crack between the logs of the end of the 
house, the boards were put on which formed the bottom of the bed. 
Sometimes other poles were pinned to the fork a little distance between 
these, for the purpose of supporting the front and foot of the bed, while 
the walls were the support of its back and head. A few pegs around the 
walls, for the display of the coats of the women and hunting shirts of the 
men, and two small forks or buck's horns to a joist for the rifle and shot 
])Ouch, completed the carpenter work. 

In the mean time masons were at work. With the heart pieces of the 
timber of which the clapboards were made, they made billets for chunk- 
ing up the cracks between the logs of the cabin and chimney. A large 
])ed of mortnr was made for daubing up these cracks ; and a few stones 
formed the back and jambs of the chimney. 

The cabin being finished., the ceremony of iiousc warming took place, 
before the young couple were pcrmilted to move into it. This was a 
dance of the whole night's conlinuance, made up of tlie relauons of the 
bride and groom and their neighbors. On the day folhjwing, the yuuug;^ 
couple took possession of their new mansion. 


2S3 WuKklNC\ 




The iiccessarj' labors of the farms along the frontiers wore performed 
with every danger and difficulty imaginable. The whole population of 
the frontiers, huddled together in their little forts, left the country with 
every appearance of a deserted region; and such would have been the 
opinion of a traveler concerning it, if he had not seen here and there some 
small fields of corn or other grain in a grov/ing state. 

It is easy to imagine what losses must have been sustained by our first 
settlers owing to this deserted state of their farn^is. It was not the full 
measure of their tn^uble that they risked their lives, and ot"ten lost them, 
in subduing the forest and turning it into fruitful fields ; but compelled to 
leave them in a deserted state during the summer season, a great part of 
the fruits of their labors was lost by this untoward circumstance. The- 
sheep and hogs were devoured by the wolves, panthers and bears. Hor- 
ses and cattle were often let into their fields, through breaches made in 
their fences by the falling of trees, and frequently almost the whole of a 
little crop of corn was destroyed by sqtdrrels and> raccoons, so that many 
families, even after an hazardous and laborious spring and sunniicr, had 
but little left for the comfort of the dreary winter. 

The early settlers on the frontiers of this country were like Arabs of 
tljic desert of Africa,, in at least two respects,. Every man was a soldier, 
and from early in the spring till late in the fall was almost continually in- 
arms. Their work was often carried on by parties, each one oi" whom 
had iiis ride and every thing else belonging to his war dress. These 
were deposited in some central place in the field. A sentinel was sta- 
tioned on the outside of the fence, so that on the least alarm the whole 
company repaired to their arms, and were ready for combat in a moment. 

Here again the rashness ol" some laiuilies proved a soun.-e of difilculty. 
instead of joining the v/orking parties, they went out and attended their" 
farms by themselves, and in case of alarm, an express was sent for them, 
and sometimes a piirty of men to guai-<l them to the fort. These lamilies,. 
in some instances, could boast that they had better crops, and wert- every 
way better provided for in the winter than then' neighbcrs: in other in- 
stances their temerity cost them their lives. 

In military affairs, when every one concerned is left to his own will, 
matters were sure to be badly managed. The whole frontiers of Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia presented a succession of military camps or forts.,. 
We had military officers, that is to say, captains and colonels; but they in 
many respeclswere orJy nominally such. They could advise, bat not 

?^lECli:VXJC ARTS. 53'4 

*f!ommaiK], Those who chose to follow their advice did so, lo such rin 
^extent as suited their fancy or interest. Others were refractory and Ihere- 
■'by gave much trouble. These officers would leave a scout or campaign, 
Avhile those who thought proper to accompany them did so, and those who 
did not remained at home. Public odium, was the only punishment for 
their laziness or cowardice. There was no compulsion to the perfor- 
mance of military duties, and no pecuniary reward when they were per- 

It is but doing justice to the first settlers of this country to say, that in- 
stances of disobedience of families and individuals to the advice of our 
'sfficers, were by no means numerous. The greater number cheerfully 
submitted -to their directions with a prompt and faithful obedience. 




In giving a history of the slate cf the mechanic arts, as (hey were exerci- 
sed at an early period of the settlement of this countrv, I shall present a 
people, driven by necessity to perform works of mechanical skill, far 
'beyond what a person enjoying all the advantages of civilization, would 
■expect from a population placed in such destitute circumstances. 

My reader will naturall}' ask where were their mills lor grinding grain 
— -where their tanners for making leather — where their smith shops for 
making and repairing their farming utensils? Who were their carpenters, 
tailors, cabinet w^orkmen, shoemakers and weavers .*' The answer is, 
those manufacturers did not exist, nor had they any tradesmen who were 
iprof-issedly such. Every family were under the necessity of doing every 
thing for themselves as well as they could. 

The hommony blocks and hand mills were in use in most of our bou- 
rses. The first was made of a large block of wood about three feet long, 
with an excavation burned in one end, wide at tlie top and narrow at the 
"bottom, so that the action of the pestle on the bottom threw the corn up 
to the sides towards the top of it, from whence it continually fell down 
into the centre. In consequence of this movement, tlreAvhole mass of the 
■grain was pretty e(|ually subjected to the strokes of the pestle. In the 
■fall of the vcar, Avhilst the Indian corn was soft, the block and pestle did 
very well for making meal for journeycakc and mush, but were rather 
■Tslow when the corn became hard. 

The sweep was sometimes used to lessen the toil of pounding grain 
^nlc meal This v.ns a pole ol :;om.c springy clastic wood, thirty feet long 


or more, tlip bul. cu.l of which was ploced under ihe sitle of a liouse. or a 
large stump. TliLs pole was supported by two forks, placed about one 
third of its lena;Sh from its but end, so as to elevate the small end about 
fifteen feet from ihe ground. 'J'o this Avas attached, by a large mortise, a 
piece of sapling' about five or six inches in diameter, and eight or ten feet 
long, the lower end of which was shaped so as to answer for a pestle, and 
a pin of wood was put through it at a proper height, so that two persons 
ould work at the sweep at onre. 'I'his siiiiple miichljie very much les- 
sened the labor and exj)edited tiie v^'ork. 

I remember that when a boy I put up an excellent sweep at my father's. 
It was made of a sugar tree sapling, and was kept going almost const.anly 
from laoniing till night bv our neighbors for several weeks. 

In the Greenbrier country, where they had a number of saltpetre caves, 
the first settlers made plenty of excellent gunpov/iier by means of these 
sweeps and mortars. 

A machine still more simple than the mortar and pestle was used for 
making meal when the corn was too soft to be beaten. It was called a 
grater. This was a half circular piece of tin, perforated with a punch 
iVom the concave side, and nailed by its edges to a block of wood. The 
ears of corn were rubbed on the rough edges of the holes, while the meal 
fell throurjh Ihem on the board or block to which the grater was nailed, 
which belnc; in a slanting direction, discharged the meal into a cloth or 
bowl placed fi)r its reception. This, to be sure, was a slow way of 
making meal, but necessity has no law. 

The hand mill was better than the mortar and grater. It was madp of 
two circular stones, the lowest of which was called the bed stone, the up- 
per one the runner. These were placed in a hoop, with a spout for dis- 
charging the meal. A staff was let into a hole in the upper siuface of the 
runner, near the outer edge, and its upper end through a hole in a board 
fastened to a joist above, so that \\vo persons could be employed in turn- 
ing the mill at the same time. 'I'he grain was put into the opening in 
the runner by h:md. These mills are still in use in Palestine, the ancient 
country of iIh' Jews. To a mill of this'sort our Saxirir nlbided, when, 
with rcfer-Ticc! to the riestruction of .lerusah-.n, he said, "'I'wo women 
shall be grinding at a mill, the one shall be taken and other left." 

This mill is much preferable to that used at present in upper Egypt for 
making the dlmnrra brea.l. Fr is a smooth stone, |)lace(l on an inclined 
plane, upon which the irr-iin is spread, wiii;h is made into by rub- 
binrj anotiier stone; up and down upon it. 

Our i'lrsl water mills were of that description denominated tub mills. 
It consists of a perpendicular shaft, to the lo'.vrr rnd oj" which a horizon- 
tal wheel of about four or five fi^et m diameter is aUnchefl: the upper end 
passes through the bed stone and carries the runner, after the manner of a 
trundlehead.' These mills were built with very lirile expense, and many 
of them an^we■.•ed lb" purpose very wril. Ii>'»cid of bolting cloths, sift- 
ers were in general ust*. '["h^-se were made of deer skins in the state of 
parchment, stretched ovf;r a lioop and perforated with a hot wire. 

Our clothing was all of domfstir manufacture. We hat! no other tp- 
soui'fo lor clothing, and this indeed was a poor one. The crops of flax 



often firiiled, and the sheep were destroyed by the wolves. Linsey, \vhi<'h 
is made of ri;ix and wool, the former the chain, and the latter the fillhig, 
was the wannest and most substantial cloth we could make. Almost 
every house contained a loom and almost every woman was a weaver. 

Every farailv tanned their own leather. The tan vat was a larcre 
trough sunk to the upper end in the ground. A quantity of hark was 
easily obtained everv sprintj in clearinfjc and fencinfr land. This, after 
drvinsr, was brouorht in, and in wet days was shaved and pounded on a 
block of wood with an axe or mallet. Ashes was used in place of lime 
for taking off the hair. Bear's oil, hog's lard and tallow, answered the 
jdace of fish oiL The leather, to be ^ure, was coarse; but it was sub- 
stantially good. The operation of currying was performed by a drawing 
knife with its edge turned after the manner of a currying knife. The 
blacking for the leather was made of soot and hog's lard. 

Almost every family contained its OAvn tailors and slioemakers. Those 
who could not make shoes could make shoe-packs. These, like mocca- 
sons, were made of a single piece of leather, with the exception of a 
tongue piece on the top of the foot, which was about two inches broad 
and circular at the lower end, and to which the main piece of leather was 
sewed with a gathering stitch. The seam behind was like that of a moc- 
cason, and a sole was sometimes added. The women did the tailor 
work. They could all cut out and make hunting shirts, leggins and 

The state of society which existed in our country- at an early period of 
its settlement, was well calculated to call into action every native me- 
chanical genius. There was in almost every neighborhood, some one 
whose natural ingenuity enabled him to do man}- things for himself and 
his neighbors, far above what could have been reasonably expected. 
With the very few' tools which they brought with them into the country, 
they certainly performed wonders. Their plow's, harrows with their 
wooden teeth, anrl sleds, Avere in many instances well made. Their 
cooper-ware, which comprehended every thing for holding milk and 
water, was generally pretty well executed. The cedar- ware, by having 
alternatelv a white and red stave, was then thought beautitul. Many of 
their puncheon floors were very neat, their joints close, and the top even 
and smooth. Their looms, although heavy, did very well. Those who 
rould not exercise these mechanic arts were under the necessity of giving 
labor or barter to their neighbors in exchange for the use of them, so far 
as their necessities required. 

An old man in rnv father's neighborhood had the art of turning bowls, 
from the knots of t.-ees, particularly those of the ash. In what way he 
•did it I do not know, or whetlier there was much mystery in his art. Be 
that as It may, the old man's skill was in great request, as well-turned 
wooden bowls w-ere amongst our first-rate articles of household furniture. 

My brothers and myself once undertook to procure a fine suit of these 
howls nipde of the best wood, the ash. We gathered rdl we could find 
■on our father's land, and took them to ihe artist, who was to give, as the 
saying was, one half for the other. He put the knots in a branch before 
;tltc door, when a freshet cDnif nnd swrpf thrm al! ;nvny, not mif r\^ them 

r:j; :\;)r:(n.\M( arts. 

"beini;- e\ci i'ounQ. Tills was ii (!rc:uiful luislbrtunc'. Our aniiclpalion of 
an eleii^^nt (lisi)lay of new bowls was utterly blasted in a moment, as the 
poor old Mjan was not aljle to rfjiair our loss or any part of it. 

My I'alhfM- [)ossessed a mechanical genius of the highest order, and ne- 
'Cessity, wliidi is llic mother of invention, occasioned the full exercise of 
liis talents. His farming utensils were the best in the neighborhood. 
After malving his loom lie often used it as a weaver. All the shoes be- 
longing to the family were made by himself. He always spun his own 
shoe-thread, saying that no woman could spin shoe-thread as well as he 
•could. His cooper-w^are was made by himself. I have seen him make 
a small, neat kind of wooden ware, called set work, in which the staves 
^vere all attached to the bottom of the vessel, by means of a groove cut in 
them by a strong clasp k'nife and a small chisel, before a single -hoop was 
put on. He was suificiently the carpenter to build the best kind of 
houses then in use, that is to say, first a cabin, and afterwards the hewed 
log house, with a shingled root^ In his latter years he became sickly, 
and not being able to labor, he amused himself with tolerably good imi- 
tations of cabinet work. 

Not possessing sulllcient health for service on the scouts and cam- 
paigns, his drjy was that of repairing the rifles of his neighbors when 
they needed it. In this business he manifested a high degree of inge- 
.nuity. A small depression on the surface of a slump or log, and a wooden 
mallet, were his instruments for straightening the gun barrel when crook- 
•cd. Without the aid of a bow string he could discover the smallest liend 
in a barrel, and with a bit of steel he could make a saw for deepening the 
.furrows wdien requisite. A few shots determined whether the gun might 
be trustcfl. 

Althou'^h he never had been more than six weeks at school, he was 
^nevertheless a first rate penman and a good arithmetician. His penman- 
ship was of great service to his neighbors in writing letters, bonds, deeds 
<of conveyance, &.c. 

Young as I was, I was possessed of an art which was of great use, 
x'lz: that of weaving shot pouch straps., belts and garters. I could make 
mv loom anri weav(,' a belt in less than one day. Having a piece of 
'board about ioui- fcrt long, an inch auger, sjiike glinlel, and a drawing 
knife, I needed iif) ollif- tools or materials for making my loom. 

It freciueiitlv happen(>d that my weaving proved serviceable 1o the 
family, as I oftMi sold a belt for a day''s work, or making an hundred 
rails; so that although a Sov, I ef)uld evchange my labor for tlaat oT a full 
grown j)erson ("or an eijual length of time. 

MFJMfTNf:. '2-SS- 




Tins amongst a ruda and illiterate people csnsisted mostly of 3pe.?iii3s,.. 
As i'ar as 1 can recollect them, they shall be enumerated, together ^vith the 
diseases for which they were used.- 

The diseases of children were mostly ascribed to worms ; for the expul- 
sion of which a solution of Gommon salt was given, and the dose was al- 
ways large. I well remember having been compelled to take half a table 
spoonful when quite small. To the best of my recollaction it generally 
answered the purpose. 

Scrapings- of pewter spoons was another remedy for the worms. This 
dose was also large, amounting, I should think, from twenty to Ibrty 
grains. It was commonly given in sugar. 

Sulphate of iron, or green copperas, v\ras a third remedy for the worms,.. 
The dose of this was also larger than we should venture to give at this 

For burns, a poultice of Indian meal was a common remedy- A poul- 
tice of scraped potatoes Avas also a favorite remedy with some people. — 
Roasted turnips, made into a poultice, was used by others.. Slippery 
elm bark was often used in the same way.- I do not recollect ihat any 
internal remedy or bleeding was ever used for burns. 

The croup, or what was then called the " bold hives," was a common* 
disease among the children, many of w?hom died of it. For the cure of 
this, the juice of roasted onions or garlic- was given in large doses. — - 
Wall ink was also a favorite remedy with many of the old ladies. For 
fevers, sweating was the general remedy. This was generally })orformed' 
by means of a strong decoction of Virginia snake root. The dose was 
always very large. If a purge w\as used, it was about half a pint of a 
strong decoction of walnut bark. This, when intended for a purge, was 
peeled downwards; if for a vomit, it was peeled upwards. Indian phy- 
sic, or bowman root, a species of ipecacuanha, was frequently used for a 
Tomit, and sometimes the pocoon or blood root- 

For the bite of a rattle or copper-snake, a great variety of specifics 
were used. I remember when a small boy to have seen a man, bitten by 
a rattle-snake, brought into the fort on a man's back. One of the com- 
pany dragged the snake after him by a forked stick fiistenerl in its head. 
The body of the snake was cut into pieces of about two inches in length, 
split open In succession, and laid on the wound to draw out the poison, 
as they expressed it. When this was over, a fire was kindled in the fort 
aiuL the whole of the serpent burnt to 3i:h€5, hj w?5y of rev.?ng<5 for the* 

2;J9 MElJiCIN'fJS'. 

injury he had done. After Uii? process wai over, n Inr^e qiianlitv of 
chestnut leaves was collected and boiled in a pot. The whole of" the 
wounded man's leg and part of his thigh were placed in a piece of chest- 
nut bark, fresh from the tree, and the decoction was poured on the leg so 
as to run down into the pot a<^ain. After continuing this process for some 
time, a quantity of the boiled lenves were bound to the leg. This was 
repeated several times a day. The man got well ; but whether owing to 
the treatment bestowed on his wound, is not so certain, 

A number of native plants v/ere used for the cure of snake bites, — 
Among them the white plantain held a high rank. This was boiled in 
milk, and the decoction given the patient in large quantities. A kind of 
fern, which, from its resemblance to the leaves of the walnut, was called 
walnut fern, was another remedy. A plant with fibrous roots, resemblino- 
tiie seneca snake root, of a black color, and a strong but not disagreeable 
smell, was considered and relied on as the Indian specific for the cure of 
the sting of a snake. A decoction of this root was also used for the cure 
for colds. Another plant, which very much resembles the one above 
mentioned, but which is violently poisonous, was sometimes mistaken 
for it and used in its place. I knew two young women, who, in con- 
sequence of being bitten by rattle-snakes, used the poisonous plant in- 
stead of the other, and nearly lost their lives by the mistake. The roots 
were applied to their legs in the form of a poultice. The violent burning 
and swelling occasioned by the inflammation discovered the mistake in 
time to prevent them from taking any of the decoction, which, had they 
clone, would have been instantly fatal. It was with difficulty that the 
part to which the poultice was applied was saved from mortification, so 
that the retnedy was worse than the disease. 

Cupping, sucking the wound, and making deep incisions which were 
filled with salt ami gun-power, were also amongst the remedies for snake 

It does not appear to me that any of the internal remedies, used bv the 
Indians and the first settlers of this country, were well adapted for the 
cure of the disease occasioned by the bite of a snake. The poison of a 
snake, like that of a bee or a wasp, must consist of a highly concentrated 
and very poisonous acifl, which instantly inilaraes the part to which it is 
applied. That any substance whatever can act as a spernfic for the de- 
composition of this polsfjn, seems altogether doiil)iiul. The cure of the 
fever occasioned by this animal poison, must be elTected with reference 
to those general indications which are regarded in the cure of other fevers 
of equal force. The internal remedies alluded to, so far as I am acquain- 
ted with thcin, are possessed of little or no medical elacacy. They are 
not emetics, cathartics, or sudorifica. What then.* They are harmless 
Biibstances, which do wonders La all those cases in which there is noth- 
ing to be done. 

The truth is, the bite of a rattle or roppcr-snake, in a llcshy or tendin- 
ous part, where the blood vessels are neither niimorous or largo, soon 
healed under any kind of treatment. But when the fangs of the serpent, 
which are hollow, and eject the poison through an orifice near the points, 
ijenelrate a blood vessel of any cousidwrLtble i;ize, a malii^nunl tun.! inca- 

faille fever was g'enerally the immediate consequence, and the patient 
often expired in tlie first j)arox}"sm. 

'Die Stiine observations apply to the effects of the hite of serpents when 
inHicted on beasts. Horses were frequently killed 1)V them, as; they were 
commonly bitten somewhere about the nose, in which the blood vessels 
are numerous and larire. I once saw a horse die of tlie bite of a rattle- 
snake : the blood for some time before he expired exuded in great quan- 
tity through the pores of the skin* 

Cattle were less frequently killed, because their noses are of a grislv 
texture, and less furnished with blood vessels than those of a horse. — 
Dogs were sometimes bitten, and being naturally {ihysicians, they com- 
monly scratched a hole in some damp place, and held the wounded part 
in the ground till the inflammation abated. Hogs, when in tolerable ortler, 
were never htirt by them, owing to the thifk substratum of fat between the 
skin, muscular flesh, and blood vessels. The hog generally took imme- 
diate revenge ibr the injury done him, by instantly tearing to pieces and 
devouring the serpent which inOicted it. 

The itch, which was a very comriion disease in early times, was com- 
monly ciu'ed by an ointment made of brimstone and hog's lard. 

Gun-shot and other wounds \vere treated with slippery elm bark, flax- 
seed, and other such like poultices. Many lost their lives from wounds 
which would noAv be considered tiifling and easily cured. The use ot' 
the lancet, and otlier means of depletion, in the treatment of wounds, 
constituted no part of their cure in this country, in early times. 

My mother died in early life of a wound from the tread of a horse, 
which any person in the habit of letting blood miglit have cwred by two 
or three bleedino;s, without anv other remedy. The wound was dou1« 
ticed with spiken^rtrd root, ami soon terminated in an extensive mor- 

Most of the men of ihe earlv settlers of this country were aff'ected M-ith 
the rheumatism. For relief from this disease, the hunters generally slept 
with their feet to the fire. From this practice they certainly derived 
much advantage. The oil of rattle-snakes, geese, wolves, bears, rac- 
coons, ground-hogs and pole-cats, was applied to the swelled joints, and 
bathed in before the fire. 

The pleurisy was the only disease whicli was supposed to require blood 
letting; but in many cases a bleeder was not to be had. 

Coughs and pulmonary consumptions were treated with a great variety 
of syrups, the principal ingredients of which were spikenard and elecam- 
pane. These syrups certainly gave but little relief. 

Charms and incantations vrere in use for the cure of many diseases. — 
I learned, when young, the incantation, in German, for the cure of burns, 
Slopping blood, tooth-ache, and the charm against bullets in battle; 
but for the want of faith in their efficacy, I never used any of them. 

The eiysipelas, or St. Anthony's fire, was eircuinscribed by the blood 
of a black cat. Hence there was scarcely a black cat to be seen, whose 
ears and tail had not been frequently cropped off ibr a ronlribution »)l' 


Whether the medical profession is productive of most good or harni>- 
mzy still be a matter of dispute with some philosophers, who never saw 
■ any condition of society in which there were no physicians, and therefore 
could not be furnished with a propei test tor deciding the question. — 
Had an unbeliever in the healing art been amongst the early inhabitants 
of tfiis country, he would have been- in a^ proper situation to witness the 
consequences of the want of the exercise of this art. For many years in 
succession there was no person who bore even the name of a doctor with- 
in a considerable distance of the residence of my father. 

For the honor of the medical profession, I must give it as my opinion- 
that many of our people perished for want of medical skill and attention. 

The pleurisy was the only disease which was, in any considerable de- 
gree, understood by our people.. A pain in the side called tor the use of 
the lanoet, if there was any to be had ; but owing to its sparing use, the 
patient was apt to be left witli a spitting of blood, which sometimes ended 
m consumption. A great number of children died of the croup. Re- 
mittent and intermittent fevers were treated with warm drinks for the 
purpose of sweating, and the patients were denied the use of cold water 
and fresh air; consequently many of them died. Of those who escaped, 
not a few died afterwards of the dropsy or consumption, or were left with 
paralytic limbs. Deaths in childbed were not uniiequent. Many, no 
doubt, died of the bite of serpents, in consequence of an improper reli- 
ance on specifics possessed of no medical virtue. 

My father died of an hepatic complaint, at the age of about forty-six. — 
He had labored under it for thirteen years. The fever which accompa- 
nied it was called "the dumb ague," and the swelling in the region of 
the liver, "the ague cake." The abscess burst, and discharged a large 
quantity of matter, which put a period to his life in about thirty hours 
after the discharge. 

Thus I for one may say, tliat in all human probability I lost both my. 
parents for want of medical aid. 

^STORTS §42 



These were such as might be expected among a people, who, owing to 
their circumstances as well as education, set a higher value on physical 

■ than on mental endowments, and on skill in hunting and bravery in war, 
Jihan on any polite accomplishments or fine arts. 

Amusements are, in many instances, either imitations of the business 

■ of life, or at least of some of its particular objects of pursuit. On the 
part of young men belonging to nations in a state of warfare, many 
amusements are regarded as preparations for the military character which 
they are expected to sustain in future life. Thus the war-dance of sava- 
ges is a pantomime of their stratagems and horrid deeds of cruelty in war, 
and the exhibition prepares the minds of their young men for a participa- 
tion in the bloody tragedies which they represent. Dancing, among ci\'-- 
ilised people, is regarded, not only as an amusement suited to the youth- 
ful period of human life, but as a means of inducing urbanity of manners 
and a good personal deportment in public. Horse racing is regarded Isy 
the statesman as a preparation, in various ways, for the equestrian de- 
partment of warfare: it is said that the English government never posses- 
sed a good cavalry, until, by the encouragement given to public races, 
their breed of horses was improved. Games, in which there is a mixture 
of chance and skill, are said to improve the understanding in mathemati- 
cal and other calculations. 

Many of the sports of the crn-ly settlers of this country were imitative 
of the exercises and stratagems of hunting and war. Boys are taught the 
use of thebow and arrow at an early age ", but although they acquired 
considerable adroitness in the use of them, so as to kill n bird or squirrel 
■^-sometimes, yet it appears that in the hands of the white people, the bow 
and arrow could never be depended upon for v.-arfare or hunting, unless 
made and managed in a different manner from any specimens of them 
which Tever saw. 

In ancient times, tjie bow and arrow must have bf^en deadly instru- 
ments in the hand<; of the barbarians of our country; but I much doubt 
whether any of the present tribes of Indians could make much use of the 
•flint arrow heads, which must have been so generally used "by their 

Fire arms, wherever they can be obtained, soon put an f-nd to the use 
-ot the bow and arrow ; but independently of this circumstance, military, 
■^s well as other arts, sometime? grow out of date and vanish from th« 

243 SPORTS. 

Avorld, Many cculurifs have elapsed since the \vo:hl has witnessed the 
destructive accuracy of the Benjaniinites in tiieir use oi' the sling and 
stone ; nor does it appear to nie that a diminution, in the size and 
slren2:th of the ahorijrinals of this country, has occasioned a decrease oi" 
accuracy and effect m their use of the bow and arrow. From all the 
ancient skeletons which have come untie i my notice, it does not appear 
that this section of the globe Avas ever inhabited by a larger race of hu- 
man beings than that which possessed it at the time of its discovery by 
the Europeans. 

One im[)ortant pastime of our boys was that of imitating the noise of 
«very bird and beast in the woods. This faculty w;is not merely a pas-- 
time, but a very necessary part of education, on account of its utility in 
certain circumstances. The imitations of the o-obblino; and other sounds 
of wild turkeys, often brought those keen eyed and ever watchful tenants 
of the forest within reach of tlie rifie. The bleatinc; of the fawn brouo;ht 
its dam to her death in the same way. The hunter often collected a com- 
pany of mopish owls to the trees about his caujp; and while he atnused him- 
self w'ith their hoarse screaming, his howl would raise and obtain respon- 
ses from a pack of wolves, so as to inform him of their neighborhood, as 
well as guard him against their depredations. 

This imitative faculty was sometimes recpiisite as a measure of precau- 
tion in war. The Indians, when scattered about in a neighborhood, 
often collect together, by imitating turkeys by day, and wolves or owls 
by night. In similar situations our people did the same. I have often 
witnessed the consternation of a whole neighborhood in consequence of 
a few screeches of owls. An early ami correct use of this imitative 
faculty was considered as an indication that its jiossessor would become 
in due time a good hunter and a valiant warrior. 

Throwing the tomahawk was another boyish sport, in Aviiich many 
acquired considerable skill. 'J'he '.omihawk, with its handle of a (-(.'rtain 
lenLjth, will make a given number of turns in a given distance. Say at 
live stops, it will strike with the edgt, the handle downwards; at the 
<iistancc of seven and a half, it will strike w ith the vdu;^., the handle up- 
wards ; ared so on. A little experience enabled the boy to measure the 
distancf; with his e\e, when walking through the woods, and strike a tree 
Avith lik-> tomahawk in anyway he chose. 

The athletic sports of running, jumping and wrestling, were tlie pastime 
of boys, in common with the men. 

A w'vW frown bnv, id the aoe of twelve or thirteen years, was fiurtislied 
with a small rifle and shot pouch. lie then became a fort soldier, and 
liad his po!t hole assiinied him. lluntiny; squirrels, turkeys and raccoons, 
.soon made him expert in the use oihi^ gun. 

Dancing was the principal amusr-ment o!" our yoiuig people of both 
spyes. Their dances, to be s\ire, were of the simplest forms — three and 
four handed rp'ds and jigs. Country dances, rotilions and minuets, were 
•nlll^•n^^vll. I remember tn have seen, oriee or twice, a dance which was 
<a]]''.c\ ^'thr frish trot:" but 1 ha\e l^ng since forgo;tc-;n its figure. 

Sh?o'incr ?' marks was a common diversion among the men, when 
!*hrir st'^ck ^r ammunition avouM all-'-w it, which, however, wa? Jar from 


l^fiiu," always the case. The presctil. mode oi shooting' ofT-liaiui \v;\s iiol 
then in ptactice : it was not considered as any trial of the viduc of a gviii, 
nor indeed as much of a test ol' the skill of a n\ark>inan. Their shooting- 
Avas from a rest, an.d at as o-real a (iisiance as the UaiLith and woisdil '>[' 
the barrel of the gun would throw a ball on a horizontal Icveh Sucii was 
their regard to accuracy, iu those sportive trials of their rillcs, and of 
their own skill in the use of them, ihat they often put moss, or some 
other soft substance on the log or sturiqi from which they shot, for fear 
•of having the bullet thrown from the mark, by the spring of the barrel. — 
When the rifle was held to the side of a tree for a rest, it was }»ressed 
against it as lightly as possible for the same reason. 

Rifles of former times were different from those of modcin <late ; few 
•of them carried more than forty-five bullets to the pound, and bullets of a 
less size were not thought sulficiently heavy for hunting or war. 

Dramatic narrations, chieily concerning Jack and the Giant, funsished 
"Our young people with another source of amusement during their leisure 
hours. Many of those tales were lengthy, and embraced a considerable 
range of incident, o^ack, always the hero of the slory, after encountering 
many difficulties, and performing many great achievements, came o,'] 
conqueror of the Giant. Many of these stories were tales of knight- 
errantry, in which case some captive virgin was released from captivity 
and restored to her lover. 

These dramatic narrations concerning .lack and the Giant bore a strong 
resemblance to the poems of Ossian, the storv of the Cyclops and Ulysses iii 
the Odyssey of Homer, and the talc of the Giant and Great-heart in the 
Pilgrim's Progress, and were so arranged as to the different incidents of 
the narration, that they were easily committed to memory, 'i'hey cer- 
tainly have been handed down from generation to generation Irom time 
immemorial. Civilization has indeed banished the use of those ancient 
tales of romantic hei-oism ; but vohat then ? It has substituted in their 
})lace the novel and romance. 

It is thus that in every state of society the im;ig:natlon of man is eter- 
nally at war with reason and truth. That fiction should i)e acceptable to 
nn unenlightened people is not to be wondered at, asthr treas'ares cf truth 
have never been unfolded to their mind; but that a civilised peo[)le them- 
selves should, in so many instances, like barbarians, prefer the iairy re- 
gions of ficti(m to the august treasures of truth, developed in the sciences 
of theology, history, natural and moral phKosophy, is truly a sar<-asm on 
human nature. It is as rauclr as to say, that it is essential to our amuse- 
ment, that, for the time being, we must suspend the exercise of reason, 
and submit to a voluntary deception. 

Singing was another but not verv common amusement ainoMg o!ir fir-1 
settlers. The'r tunes were rude enough, to be sure. R(>l)in Hood fur- 
nished a number of our songs; tlie balance wiae mostly tragical, and 
were denominatC'l "love songs about murder." As !o cards, dice, back- 
gammon, aj'id other g^mes of chance, wc knew nnihiuj: about 'htni. — 
Tkese are amongst tht: blessed gifts of civili/a'.ion. 

54;> AMirHCRATT 



\vi rcucRAF:.!'. 

1 SH\LL not hv. Iriinihy oji tliis subject. The belief in witchcrafl, wat 
.prevalent ;imon|Tst the early .settlers of the western country. To the 
witch was ascribed the tr'-mcnflous power el' inflicting strange and in- 
■c.urablc diseases, particularly on children— of destroying cattle by shoot- 
ing them with hair balls, and a great varictv of other means of destruction 
— oi' intlicting spells and curses on guns and other things — and lastly, of 
•changing men into horses, and after bridling and saddling them, riding 
them in full speed over hill and dale to their frolics and other places of 
reiuiezvous. More ample powers of mischief than these cannot be im- 

Wizards were men supposed to be possessed of the same mischievous 
power as the witches ; but it was seldom exercised for bad purposes, — 
The power of the wizards was exercised almost exclusively for the pur- 
jiose of counteracting the malevolent influence of the witches of the other 
•sex. f have known several of those witch-masters, as they were called, 
who made a public profession of curing the diseases inflicted by the in- 
ilucnce of witches ; anrl I have known respectable ph^^sicians, who had 
no greater portion of businnss in the line n\ tb.t'ir profession, than many 
nj those wiich-masteis bad in theirs. 

The means by which the witch was supposed to inflict diseases, 
•ru 'se"-', and spells, I never cotdd learn. They were occult sciences, 
which no one was supposed to unrlerstand excepting the witch herself, 
and no wonrler, as no surh arts ever existed in any country. 

The diseases of children, supposed to br- inflicted by witchcraft, were 
lho«:e of the internal dropsy of the brain, and the rickts. The symptom's 
and cure of these destructive diseases wct utterly unknown in former 
limes in this country. Diseases which couli*! neither "be accounted for 
nor curefl, were usually ascribed to som^^ svipernatural agency of a ma- 
lignant kind. 

For the cure of diseas«^s infticted bv v.-itrbrraft, the picture of th'- 
'•upposed witch was drawn on a stump or pieoe of board, and shot at with 
a bullet containing- a littlr bit of silver. This bullet transferred a painful 
and sometimes a mortal sp^^ll on that p.irt of the witch corresponding 
with the part of the portrait fjtruck by the btillel. Another method of 
cure was that of g^'tting some of tlv rhilfP'^ water, which was closely 
corked up in a vial aiul hun:: up in a chimney. This complimf'nted the 
M itrh with .': 5.tfanc:uarv. whi'-h laj^tfd as long as the vinl rrmainc! in the 

WI'l*CHCRAF'r: ^6^ 

C'himuev. The vriich hud but one wuv til' reheviiii' licraeh huui any sneil. 
inflicted on her in any way, which was that of borrowing' s'lmething-, no 
matter w"hat, of the family lo which the subject of the exercise of hei- 
witchcraft belonged- 

I haye kno%yn several poor old women much .surprised at being relused 
requests which had usually been grant^sil williout liesitation, and almost 
heart broken when informed of the cause of the refusal. 

When cattle or dogs were supposed to be under the influence of w^itch' 
craft, they were burnt in the forehead by a branding iron, or when dead, 
burned wholly to ashes. This inflicted a spell upon the witch which 
could only be removed by borrowing, as above stated. 

Witches were often said to milk the cows of their neighbors. This 
they did by fixing a new pin in a new towel for each cow intended to be 
milked. This towel was hung over her own docvr,. and by ujcans of cer- 
tain incantations, the milk was extracted i'rorn the fringes of the towel 
after the roanner of milking a cow. This happened when the cows wei^ 
too poor to give much milk. 

The first German glass-blowers in this country drove tlur witches out 
of their furnaces by throwing living puppies into them. 

The greater or less amount of belief in witchcraft, necromancy ami- 
astrology, serves to show the relative amount of philosophical scien<ve in 
any country. Ignorance is always associated with superstition, which, 
presenting' an endless variety of sources of hope and fear, with regard to 
the good or bad fortunes of life, keep the benighted mintl continually ha- 
rassed with groundless- and delusive, but strong and often deeply dis- 
tressing impressions of a false faith. For this dis^s-ase of the mind there 
is no cure but that of }Dliilosophy,. This scienee shows to the enlightened 
reason of man, that no effect whatever can be produced in the physittat 
world without a corresponding cause,. This science announces that the 
death bell is but a momentary morbid motion of the nerves of the aar, 
and the death watch the noise of a bug in the w'all, and that the howling 
of tlie dog, and the croaking of the raven, are but the natural languages 
of the beast and fowl, and no w^ay prophetic of the death of the sick. — 
The comet, which used to shake pestilence and war from its fiery train, 
is now viewer] with as little emotion as the movements of Jupiter and 
Saturn in their respective orbits. 

An eclipse of tlie sun, and an unusual freshet of the Tiber, shortly 
after the assassination of Julius Ctesar by Cassius and Brutus, threw the 
whole of the Roman empire into consternation. It was supj)0sed that all 
the gods of heaven and earth wore enraged, and about to take reveng-e 
for the murder of the emperor ; but since the science of astronomy fore- 
tells ia the calendar the time and the extent of tlie eclipse, the phenome- 
non is not viewed as a miraculous and portentous, but as a common and 
natural event. 

That the pythoness and wizard oi' the Hebrews, the monthly sooth- 
sayers, astrologers and prognosticators of the Chaldeans, and the sybils 
of the Greeks and Romans, were mercenary impostors, there can be 
no doubt. 

To say that tb.e pythoness, and all others of hfir class, were aided 'm. 

247 ^Vr'lTHCiiAF'i'. 

tlicir fupcratiMi^:? by tlio eutcrventioii of larailiar spirits, does iijt luenJ tlic 
)nattcr ; for spirits, whether L(oud or bad, possess not the power of lile 
and death, liealth and disease, Avith regard to man and beast. Prescience 
is an inrnunnunicable attribute of God, and therefore spirits caimot 
ib ret ell future events. 

The afflictions of .Job, thronp-h t!ic intervention of SatniT, were miracu-- 
I'oiis. The possessions mentioned ir; the New Testameirt, in all hnmait 
probabilty, were maniacal dise-ases, ami if, at their cures, the supposed 
evil spirit spoke with an audiljle voice, these events were als'o miraculous, 
and effected lor a sj)ecial purpose. i3ut from miracles, no general con- 
clusion can be draTyn with regard to the divine jjovernment of the world. 

The conclusion is, that the powers professed to be exercised bv the 
occult science of necromancy and other arts of divination, were neithei' 
more nor less than impostures. 

Amongst the He-brews, the profession of arts of divination was thought 
deserving of capital punishment, because the profession was of Pagan 
origin, and of course incompatiWe with the jirofession of theism, and a 
theocratic form of government. These jugglers perjK'trated a debasing 
su])erstition among the people. They were also swindlers, who divesteci 
their neighbors of large sums of money and valuable presen'ts without ai> 

On the ground then of frau(^ alone, according to the genius of the 
criminal codes of tfre ancient governments, the ofll^nsc deserved ca})ital 

Hut is the present time better than'the past with regard to a supersti- 
tious belief in occult rnfluences.-* Do no traces of the jvilytheism of our 
forefathers remain among their christian descendants ? This inquiry must 
be answered in the alBrmative. vShould an alrnanac-maker venture to srivc 
out the christian calendar without the column containing the signs of the 
zodiac, the calendar would be condemned as totally deficient, and the 
wiiole impression would remain on his hands. 

But what arc those signs? They arc the constellations of the zodiac,, 
that is, clusters of stars, twelve in number, within and including the 
tropics cA' Cancer ami Capricorn. These constellations resemble the 
animals after which they are named. But what influence do these clus- 
ters of stars exert on tire animal and the plant? Certaiidy none at all; 
and yet wc have been taught that the northern constellations govern tlie 
divisions oi' living bodies alternately from the head to the reins, and in 
like mann-er the southern from the reins to the feet. 'I'he sign then makes 
a skip from the feet to Aries, who again assumes the government of the 
})cad, and so on. 

About half these constellations are friendly divinities, and exert a sal- 
utary influence on the animal and the plant. The others are malignant 
in their temper, anfl govern only for evil purposes. They blast during 
their reifrn the seed sown in the earth, and render medicine and the 
operations of surgery unsuccessful. 

Wc have read of the Hebrews worshipping the liosts of heaven when- 
ever lliey relapsed into idolatry ; anrl these same constellations were the 
hosts of heaven which they worshipped. We, it is true, makr no offering 

.\rORALS. 24S 

fo Xhc^e- hosts of lieaven, but we c^ive them our laith and ronfiih^uce. — 
We hope lor ])hysica! benellts IVoiu tliose of iheni whoso doiuinioa is 
Jrieii-dJy to our uilerests, wliile the reign of the malignant ones is an object 
of dread and painful apprehension. 

Let us not boast very much of our science, civilization, or even Chris- 
tianity, while this coUunn of the relies of paganism still disgraces the 
christian calendar. 

I have made these observations with a view to discredit the remnants 
of superstition still existing among us. While dreams, the howling of 
the dog, and the croaking of the raven, are prophetic of future events, 
we are not good christians. While we are dismayed at the signs of 
keaven, we are for the time being pagaHS. Life lias real evils enough 
to eontemi with, ^vithout imaginary ones. 




In the S'?ction of the country where my fatlier lived, there was, for many 
years after the settlement of the country, "neither law nor gospel." Our 
want of legal government was owing to the uncertainty whether we be- 
longed to the state of Virginia or Pennsylvania. The line wdiich at pre- 
sent divides the two states, was not run until some time after the con- 
clusion of the revolutionary war. Thus it happened, that d\n-ing a long 
period of time we knew nothing of courts, lawyers, magistrates, sheriffs 
or constables. Every one was therefore at liberty "to do whatsoever 
was right in his own eyes." 

As this is a stale of society which few of my readers iiave ever WMt- 
nessed, I shall describe it as minutely as I can, and give in detail those 
moral maxims which in a great degree answered the important j)urposes 
of municipal jurisprudence. 

In the first place, let it be observed that in a sparse population, where 
all the members of the community are well known to each other, and 
especially in a time of war, where every man capable of bearing arms is 
considered highly valuable as a defender of his country, public opinion 
has its full effect, and answers the purposes of legal government better 
than it would in a dense population in time of peace. 

Such was the situation of our people along the frontiers of our set- 
tlements. They had rm civil, military or ecclesiastical laws, at least 
none that were enforced ; and yet "thev were a law nnio themselves," as 

249 MORALS. 

to all tire leading obligations ol" our nature in all tiie relations in whirh. 
they stood to each other. The turpitude of vice and the majesty of mor- 
al virtue were then as apparent as they are now, and they were then re- 
gardeil wi:h the same sentiments of aversion or respect which they in- 
spire at the present time. Industry in working and hunting, bravery in 
war, candor, honesty, hospitality, and steadiness of deportment, received 
their full reward of public honor and public confidence among our rude 
forefathers, as well as among their bi'tter instructed and more polished 
descendants. The punishments wh.ich they inllictcd upon offenders by 
the imperiiil court of public opinion, were well adapted for tlie reforma- 
tion of the culprit, or Ids expulsion from the community. 

The punishment for idleness, lying, dishonesty, and ill fame generally,, 
was that of "hating the offender out," as they expressed it. This mode 
of chastisf>ment was like the athnm of the Greeks. It was a public ex- 
t>ression, in various ways, of a general sentiment of indignation against 
such as transgressed the moral maxims of the community to which they 
belonged, and commonly resulted either in the reformation or banishment 
of the person against whom it was directed. 

At house-raisings, log-rollings, and harvest-parties, every one was ex- 
pected to do his duty faithfully. A person who did not perform his share- 
of labor on these occasions, was designated by the epitliet of "Lawrence," 
or some other title still more opprobrious ; and wh?;n it came to his turn 
to require the like aid from his neighbors, the idler felt his punishment 
in their refusal to attend to his calls. 

Although there was no legal compulsion to the performance of military 
duly; yet every man of full age and size was expected to do his full 
share of public service. If he did not do so, he was "hated out as a 
coward." Even the want of any article of war equipments, such as am- 
munition, a sharp flint, a priming wire, a scalping knife, or tomahawk, 
was thought highly disgraceful. A man, who without a reasonable ex- 
cuse failed to go on a scout or campaign when it came to his turn, met 
with an expression of indignation in the countenances of all his neighbors,. 
and epithets of hishonor were fastened upon him without mercy. 

Debts, which make such an uproar in civilised life, were but little 
known among our forefathers at an early settlement of this country. — 
After the depreciation of the continental paper, they had no money of 
any kind ; every thing purchased was paid for in produce or labor. A 
good cow and calf was often the price of a bushel of alum salt. If a 
contract was not faithfully fulfilled, the credit (•!' the delinquent was at an 

Any petty theft was punished with all the infamy that could be heaped 
on the offender. A man on a campaign stole from his comrade a cake 
out of the ashes in which it was baking. He was immediately named 'ihe 
Bread rounds.' This epithet of reproach was bandietl about in this way. 
When he came in sight of a group of men, one of them would call, 'Who 
coincs there ?' Another would answer, 'The Bread-rounds.' If any 
one meant to be more serious about the nratter, he w'ould call out, 'Wha 
stole a cake out of tlu; ashes ?' Another rej)lio(l by giving the name f/f 
tjif u'uivln Cull. 'I'd this a tlurd wduh' <riv.,' exclaiminir^ 


"'Tliat is true and no lie.' This kind of 'tong-ue-lashine' he was doomed 
to bear for the rest of the campaign, as well as for years after his return 

If a theft was detected in any of the frontier settlements, a summary 
mode of punishment was always resorted to. The first settlers, as far as 
I knew of them, had a kind of innate or hereditary detestation of the 
crime of theft, in any shape or degree, and their maxim was that 'a thief 
must be whipped,' If the theft was something of some value, a kind of 
jury of the neighborhood, after hearing the testimony, would condemn the 
■culprit to Moses's law, that is, to forty stripes save one. If the theft was 
of some small article, the offender was doomed to carry on his back the 
flag of the United States, which then consisted of thirteen stripes. In ei- 
ther case, some able hands were selected to execute the sentence, so that 
the stripes were sure to be well laid on. 

This punishment was followed by a sentence of exile. He then was 
infoimed that he must decamp in so many days and be seen there no more 
on penalty of having the number of his stripes doubled. 

Formally years after the law was put in operation in the western part of 
\irginia, the magistrates themselves were in the habit of giving those 
who were brought before them on charges of small thefts, the liberty of 
being sent to jail or taking a whipping. The latter was commonly cho- 
sen, i.nd was immediately inflicted, after which the thief was ordered to 
■clear out. 

In some instances stripes were inflicted ; not for the punishment of an 
offense, but for the purpose of extorting a confession from suspected per- 
sons. This was the torture of our early times, and no doubt sometimes 
very unjustly inflicted. 

If a woman was given to tattling and slandering her neighbors, she 
was furnished by common consent with a kind of patent right to say 
whatever she pleased, without being believed. Her tongue was then 
said to be harmless, or to be no scandal. 

With all their rudeness, these people were given to hospitality, and 
freely divided their rough fare with a neighbor or stranger, and would 
liave been offended at the v^lfer of pay. In their settlements and forts, 
they lived, they worked, they fought and feasted, or suffered together, 
in cordial harmony. They were warm and constant in their friendships. 
On the other hand they were revengeful in their resentments ; and the 
point of lionor sometimes led to personal combats. If one man called 
another a liar, he was considered as having given a challenge which the 
person who received it must accept, or be deemed a cowtird, and the 
charge was generally answered on the spot with a blow. If the injured 
person was decidedly unable to fight the aggressor, he might get a friend 
to do it for him. The same thing took place on a cliarge of cowardice, 
or any other dishonorable action. A battle must follow, and the person 
who made the charge must fight either the person against whom he made 
it, or any champion who chose to espouse his cause. Thus circum- 
stanced, our peo))le in early times were much more cautious of sjicaking 
-evil of their neighbors than they are at present. 

.iJometimes pitched battles occurred, in which lime, place,, and seconds 

25«I MORALS,, 

Avere appointed bcforcliiiiid. T rciueraber liavinijj set'u nn? of t'liesp 
]iitclied battles in my lallici's Tort, when a l)()y. One of the youn<jj niei* 
knew very well belbreiiand that he shonld get the worst of the battle^ 
and no doubt repented the engagement to fight ; but there was no getting 
over it. The point of honor demanded tlie risk of battle. He got his 
whipping ; they then shook hands, and were good friends afterwards. 

'I'lie mode of single combat in those days was dangerous in the ex- 
treme. Altliough no weapons were used, fists, teeth and feet were em- 
ployed at will; but above all, the detestable practice of gouging, by 
which eyes were sometimes put out, rendered this mode of fighting 
frightful indeed. It was not, however, so destructive as the stiletto of 
an Jtalian, the knife of a Spaniard, the small sword oi" tlie Frenchman, 
or the pistol of the American or English duelist. 

Instances of seduction and bastardy did not frequ€nt]y happen in our 
•early times. I remember one instance of the former, in which the lifi; 
of the man was put in jeopardy by the resentment of the family to which 
the girl belonged. Indeed, considering the chivalrous temper of our peo- 
ple, this crime could not then take place without great jiersonal danger from 
the brothers or other relations of the victims of seduction, family honor 
being then estimated at a high rate. 

1 tlo Hot recollect that profane language was much more prevalent m 
our early times than at ])reseiit. 

Among the people with whom I was conversant, there was no ather 
vestige ot the christian religion than a faint observance «f Sunday, and 
that merely as a day of rest tor the aged and play-ilay for the young. 

The first christian service I ever heard was in th* Garrison church i« 
Baltimore county, in Maryland, where my fatkf i- had sent me to school. 
1 was then ol)out ten years old. The appearance of the church, the 
windows of which were Gothic, the white surplice of the nunister, and 
the responses in the service, overwh<dnied me with surprise. Among my 
school-fellows ill that place, it was a matter of rejiroach to nic that I was 
not baplizefl, -dud why? iJecause, as they said, I had no jianic. Such 
*va.s their notion of ihc rn')( ;irv of b;i})tism. 

TFiT. •KE\Ol.rTi0X. TjI 





The Ainerlt fill re\oIuik)?i w<is llie coininrncrmrnt of ii nr \v cia m 1'lie 
Jiistory of the world. Tlie issue ol' llial eveattlil coiiifst siiiitclicd the 
sceptre from the hands of the monarch, and placed it, where it ought to 
be, in the hands of the people. 

On the sacred altar of liberty it consecrated the ri^^hls of man, surren- 
dered to him the right and power of gv^verning himself, and placed in his 
hands the resources of his country, as munitions of war for his defense. — 
The egcperiment was indeed bold and hazardous; but success has hither- 
to more than justified the most sanguine anticipations of those who made 
it. The world has witnessed, with astonishment, the rajiid growth and 
-confirmation of our noble fabric of freedom. From our distant jiorizon, 
we ha\^ reflected a strong and steady blaze of light on ill fated i^urope, 
from tune immemorial involv-ed in the fetters and gloom of slavery. — 
Our history has excited a generad and ardent spirit of inquiry into the 
nature of our civil institutions, and a strong wish on the part of the 
PEOPLE in distant countries, to participate in our blessings. 

But will an example, so portentous of evil to the chiefs of despotic 
institutions., Ije viewed with indifPjrence by those who now sway the 
sceptre with unlimited power, over the many millions of their vassals ? — 
Will they adopt no measures of defense against the inlluence of that 
freedom, so widely diffused and so rapidly gaining strength throughout 
■their empires ? Will they make no effort to remove from the worjrl those 
iree governments, whose example gives them such annoyance:' The 
m^aS'Ui^es of defense will be adopted, the effort will be made; for power 
is Rever surrendered wdthout a struggle. 

Already nations, which, from the the earliest period of fhfir history, 
have constantly crimsoned the earth with each other's blood, have 
become a band of brothers for the destruction of every germ of 
human libcrly. Every year witnesses an association of the monarch? 
of those nations, in unhallowed conclave, for the purpose of concertmg 
measures for effecting their dark designs. Hitherto the execution of 
'hose measures has been, alas! too fatally successful. 

It wftuld be impolitic and unwise in us to calculate on escaping the 
hostile notice of the despots of continental Europe. Already we hear, 
like distant thunder, their expressions of indignation and threats of ven- 
geance. We ought to anticipate the gathering storm without dismay, 
"but not with indifference. In viewing the dark side of the ])rospcct he- 
/Are us-, nnr source of con'rolation, of mubh magnitud«, presents itself. — 

253 nv] Li z:\riux 

It is conlideiitly expected, that the brave and potent nation, with wliom 
M'e have common origin, will not risk the loss of that portion of liberty, 
which at the ex})cnse oi' so much blood and treasure, they have secured 
Ibr theinselves, by an unnatural association witli despots, for the unholy 
purpose ©f making war on the few nations of the earth, which possess 
any considerable portion of that invaluable blessing ; on the contrary, it 
is lioped by us tliat they will, if necessity should require, employ the 
bravery of their people, their immense resources, and the trident of the 
ocean, in defense of their own liberties, and by consequence those of 

Legislators, fathers of our coutitry ! lose no time, spare no cx})ense in 
liastening on the requisite means of defense, for meeting with safety and 
with victory the impending storm, which sooner or later jnust fall upon us. 




The causes which led to the present state of civilization hi the western 
•coimtry, are subjects which deserve some consideration. 

The state of society and manners of the early settlers, as presented in 
these notes, shews very clearly that their grade of civilization was indeed 
low enough. The descendants of the English cavaliers from Maryland 
and Virginia, who settled mostly along the rivers, and the descendants of 
the Irish, who settled in the interior parts of the country, were neither 
romarkal)le for science or urbanity of manners. The former were mostly 
illiterate, rough in their manners, and addicted to the rude diversions of 
horse racing, wrestling, shooting, dancing, &c. These diversions were 
often accompanied with personal combats, which consisted of blows, 
kicks, biting, and gouging. This mode of fighting was what they called 
rouph and lumhle. Sometimes a previous stipulation was made to use 
the fists only. Yet these people were industrious, enterprising, generous 
in their hospitality, and brave in the defense of their countiy. 

These people, for the most part, formed the cordon along the Ohio riv- 
er, on the frontiers of Pennsylvania, Virginia and Kentucky, Avhich de- 
fended the country against the attacks of the Indians during the revolu- 
tionary war. They were the janizaries of the country, that is, they were 
soldiers when they chose to lie so, and when they chose laid down their 
arms. Tiuir military service was voluntary, and of course received no 

With the descendants of the Irish I had but )iltl<*'' acquaintance, 


nkhough r lived near tliern. At an early period they wor? comprehended 
in the Presbyterian church, and were more reserved in tlien* deportment 
than their frontier neighbors, and from their situation being less exposexl 
to the Indian warfare, took less part in that war. 

The patriot of the western region fnids his love of country and nr^tional 
pride augmented to th-e highest grade, when h*; compares the j)olitical,, 
moral, and religious character of his people, with that of the inhabitants 
of many large divisions of the old world. In Asia and Africa, genf-ration 
after generation passes without any change in the moral and religious 
character or physical condition of the people. 

On th-e Barbary coast, the •traveler, if a river lies in his way and hap- 
pens to be too high, must either swin it or wait until it subsides. If the 
traveler is a christian, he must have a firman and a guard. Yet this was 
once the country of the famous Cathagenians. 

In- Upper Egypt, the people grind meal for their dhoura bread, by rub- 
bing it between two flat stones. This is done by women. 

In Palestine, the grinding of grain is still performed by an ill-constiiic- 
ted hand mill, as in the days of our Savior. The roacb to the famous 
eity of Jerusalem are still almost in the rude state of nature. 

In Asiatic Turkey, merchandise is still carried on by caravans, which 
are attended with a military guard ; and the naked walls of the caravan- 
sera is their fortress and place of repose at night, instead of a place of" 
entertainment. The streets of Constantinople, instead of being paved,, 
are in many places almost impassable from mud, fdth, and the carcasses 
of dead beasts. Yet this is the metropolis of a great empire. 

Throughout the whole of the extensive regions of Asia and Africa,, 
roan, from his cradle to his grave, sees no change in the aspect of any 
thing around him, unless from the desolations of war. His dress, his 
ordinary salutations of his neighbors, his diet and his mode of eating it,, 
are prescribed by his religious institutions ; and his rank in society, as 
well as his occupation, are determined by liis birth. Steady and unva- 
ryhig as the lapse of time in every department of life, generation after 
generation beats the dull monotonous round. The Hindoo would sooner 
die a martyr at the stake, than sit on a chair or eat with a knife and fork.. 

The descendant of Ishmacl is still "a wild m?n'." ' Hungry, thirsty 
and half naked, beneath a burning sun, he traverses the immense and' 
inhospitable desert of Zahara, apparently without any object, because his 
forefathers did so bafore him. Throvighnut life he subsists on camel's 
milk and flesh, while his only covering from the inclemency of the wea- 
ther is a flimsy tent of camel's hair. His single, solitary virtue, is that 
of hospitality to strangers: in every other respect he is a thief and a 

The Chinese still retain their alphabet of thirty-six thousand Hiero- 
glyphics. They must never exchange it for one of twenty letters, whicb 
would answer an infinitely better purpose. 

Had we pursued the course of the greater number of the nations of the 
earth, we should have been this day treading in the footsteps oi"our fore- 
fathers, from whose example in any respect we should have thought it 
srirainal to- depart in the .'^lightert degree.- 

25r; 'JlVJLIZATrON. 

Instead of a blind .ir supei-.-titious imitation of tlie manners and ciif;* 
toms of our forelathers, we have tliought and acted for ourselves, and we 
have (^.hanged ourselves and everything around us. 

The linscy and coarse linen of the first settlers of the country, have 
been exchanged for the suhstantial and fine fabrics of Europe and Asia — 
the hunting shirt for die fashionable coat of broad cloth — and the mocca- 
son for boots and shoes of tanned leather. The dresses of our ladies 
are equal in beauty, fineness and fashion, to those of the cities and 
countries of Europe ai>d Atlantic America. 

It is not e-nough that persevering industry has enabled us io ])urchase 
t-he "purple and fine linen" from foreigner, and to use their porcelain 
and glass-ware, whether ])lain, engravetl or gilt ; we have nobly dared' 
to fabricate those elegant, comfortable, and valuable pmdiiclions of 
art for ourselves. 

A well f<^unded prospect of large gains from useful arts and honest 
labor has ilrawn to our country a large number of tlie best artisans of 
flther countries. Their mechanic arts, immensely improved by American 
genius, have- hitherto realised the hopeful prospect which imlured their 
emigration to our infant country. 

The horse paths, along which our forefathers made their laborious 
journeys over the mountains ior salt and iron, were soon' succeeded by- 
wagon roads, and those again by substantia! turnpikes, which, as if by 
magic enchantment, have brought the distant region, not many years ago 
denominated ''Me backwoods,'^ into a close and lucrative connection with' 
our great Atlantic (-ities. The journey over the mountains, formerly con- 
sidered so long, so expensive, and even perilous, is iu)\v made in a very 
few days, and witli accommodations not displeasing to the ej)icure himself.. 
Those giants of North America, the different mountains composing the 
great chain of the Allegany, formerly so frightful in their aspect, and 
presenting so many difficidties in their passage, are now scarcely noticed 
by the traveler, in li;s jotiriu-y along the gradurated highways by which 
they are crossed. 

'I'he rude sports of fonuer times have been discontinued. Athletic trials 
of mus("ular strength ar»tl activity, in which there certainly is not much of 
nierit, haye given way to the more noble ambition for nuiital endowments 
and >klll in uset'id arts. To tin; rude and ol'ten indecent songs, but 
roughly anrl unskilifully sung, have succeeded the psalm, the hymn, and 
swelling anlhem. To the clamorous boast, the provoking" banter, the- 
biting sarcasm, the horrid oath and imprecation, have succeeded urbanity 
ot )nariners, and a course of conversation enlightened by science and 
fchastenetl by inental attention and respect. 

Above all, the direful spirit of revenge, the exercise of which so mmh 
approximated the character of many of the first settlers of our country to 
that of the worst of savages, is now unknown. The Indian might |)ass 
in safety among those, whose reinembran( e still bleeds at the recollcctioii 
of the loss of their relatives, who have perished under the tomahawk and 
scalping knilV of the savages. 

The Moravian lirethren may dwell in safety on the sites of the villages 
dcsoL^.ted, and over the bone'; of their brethren and forefathers murdered, 

en fhl/A 1 iu\. 256 

by ihe more than savage ferocity ol" the whites. Nor let it he supposed 
that the return of peace produced this sakitary change of ffollng towards 
the tawney sons of the forest. The thirst for revenge was not vvliolly a!- 
hiyed by the bahn of peace: several Indians fell vii^tinis to the private 
vengeance of tliose who had recently lost their relations in the war, for 
some years after it had ceased. , 

If the stale of socieiy and manners, from the conimenrement of the set- 
tlements in this country, during the lapse of many years, owing to the 
sanguinary character of the India?! mode of warfare and other circum- 
stances, was in a state of retrogression, as was evidently the case — if 
ignorance is more easily induced than science — if society more speedily 
deteriorates than improves-— if it be much easier for the civilised man to 
become Avild, than for the wild maji to become civilised; — J ask, what 
means have arrested the progress of the early inhabitants of the western 
region toward barbarism ? — What agents have directed their influence in 
favor of science, morals, and piety? 

The early introduction of commerce was among the first means of 
changing, in some degree, the existing aspec*^ of the population of the 
country, and giving a new current to publle feeling and individual pur- 

The huntsman and warrior, when he had exchanged his hunter's dress 
for that of civilised man, soon lost sight of his former occuj)ation, and 
assumed a new character and a new line of life, — -like the soldier, who,, 
when he receives his discharge and lays aside his regimentals, soon 
loses the feeling of a soldier, and even forgets in some degree his maima! 
exercise < 

Had not commerce' furnished the means of changing the dresses of our 
people and the furniture of their house — had the hunting shirt, niocca^on, 
and leggins, contijuied to be the dress of our men — had the three-legged 
stool, the noggin, the trencher and wooden bowl, continuetl to be the 
furniture of our houses, — our progress towards scieme and civilization 
would have been much slower. 

It may seem strange that so much importance is attached to the influ- 
ence of dress in giving the moral and intellectual character of society. 

In all tiie inslilulions of despotic governments we discover evident 
traces of the highest grade of human sagacity and foresight. It must 
have been the object of the founders pf those governments to repress the 
genius of man, divest the mind of every sentiment of ambition, and pre- 
vent the cognizance of any rule of life, exce])ting that of a bhnd obedience 
to the despot and his established institutions of religion and government : 
hence the canonical laws of religion, m all governments despotic in prin- 
ciple, have prescril)«l ihe costume of each class of society, their diet and' 
their manner ci eating )t; and even their household furniture h in like 
i:\anner presoribed \x\ \?..\y. In all these departments, no deviation frora 
t'.:ie hiw or custom is permitted o!r even thought of. 'J'he whole science 
zi ku'uz.xi nature, under \\xr:h governments, is that of a knowledsje of th^ 
dalie>j of the ^tiiiicv. of Are prescribed i)y parentage, and the whole fluty 
t.' rrtan that of a /igld performance af thfin : while renson, having nothing 


•25T ClVirj/A'CrONT. 

to do with eltlier the one or the ctlier, is never cultivatetT. 

Even among christians, those I'ounders of religious societies have 
succeeded hest who have prescribed a professional costiune for their 
followers, because every tiroc the disciple looks at his diess he is put 
in mind of his obligations to the society to which he belongs, and he 
is therefore the less liable to wander into skange pastures. 

The English government conld never subdue the esprit <lu cour of the 
north of .Scotland, until, after the rebellion of '45, the prohibition of 
wearing the tartan plaid, the kilt and the bonnet amongst the Highlan- 
ders, broke down the spirit of the clans. 

I have seen several of the Moravian Indians, and wondered that they 
were permitted to wear the Indian dress. Their conduct, when among 
the white people, soon convinced me that the conversion of those wliom 
I saw was far from being complete. 

There can be little doubt but that, if permission should be given by 
the supreme power of the Mussulman faith, h^r a change, at the will of 
each individual, in dress, household furniture, and in eating and drink- 
ing, the whole Mohammedan system would be overthrown in. a few 
years. With a similar permission, the Hindoo superstition w^ould 
share the same fate. 

We have yet some districts of country where the costume, cabins, anti 
in some measure the household furniture of their aiicestor.s, are still in 
use. The people of these districts are far behind their neighbors in every 
valuable endowment of human nature. Among them the viitues of chas- 
tity, temperance, anrl industry, bear no great value, arul schools and 
places of worship are but little regarded, in. general, every one "does 
what is right in his own eyes.." 

In short, why have w^e so soon forgotten oin* forefathers, and every- 
thing belonging to our former state? 'i'he reason is, evervthino- belonsi'- 
ing to our former state lias vanished from our view, and we meet with 
nothing in remembrance of them. The recent date of the settlement of 
our country is no longer a subject of reflection. Its imnu-nse imj)rove- 
ments present to the imagination the results of the lalx)rs of several cen- 
turies, instead of the Work of a few years ; and we do not oi'ten take the 
trouble to correct tiie false impression. 

The introduction of the mechanic arts Ikis certainly contributed not a 
little to the morals and scientific improvement of the country. 

The carpenter, the joiner and mason, have displaced the rude, unsight- 
ly and uncomfortable cabins of our forefathers, by comfortable, and in 
many instances elegant mansions of stone, brick, hewn and sawn timbers. 

The ultiniate objects of civilization are the moral and physical hap])i- 
r.css of man. To the latter, the commodious manj^ion liouse, with its 
lurniturc, contri])utes essentially. '.I'he f;imily mansions of the nations 
of the earth furnish the criteria of the different grades of their moral and 
mental condition. The savavages universally live in tents, wigwams, 
or lodges covered with earth. Barbarians, next to these, may indeed 
have habitations something better, but of nn value and indifferently fur- 
nished. Such are the h:tbitations of the Rassuiu Taitar :ind Turkiiih 

TTVlUZAliON. 258. 

'Sudi IS the effect of a large, elegaiil, and well funiUhcd house, on the 
feehngs and deportment of a lamiiy, that if you were to build one for a 
family of savages, by Ihe occupancy of it they would lose their savage 
■character ; or if they did not choose to make the exchange of that char- 
acter for that of civilization, they would Ibrsake it foi- the wifwam and 
-the "woods. 

This was done by many of the early stock of backwoodsmen, even 
after they built comfortable houses for themselves. They no lon^-er had 
the chance of "a fall hunt;" the woods pasture was eaten up; they 
wanted "elbow room." They therefore sold out, and fled to the forest 
of the frontier settlements, choosinL"" rather to encounter the toll of tuni-- 
.ing the wilderness into fruitful helds a second time, and even risk an 
Indian war,, than endure the inconveniences of a crowded settlement. 
Kentucky first offered a resting place for those pioneers, then Indiana, 
and now the Missouri ; and it cannot be long before the Pacific ocean 
will put a hnal stop to the westward march of those lovers of .the wil- 

Substantial buildings have the effect of giving value to the soil and 
creating an attachment for the family resiaence. Those who have been 
accustomed to poetry, ancient or modern, need not be told how hnely 
and how impressively the household gods, the bla7:ing hearth, the plen- 
tiful boartl, and the social fireside hgure in poetical imagery. And this 
IS not "tying up nonsense for a song." They are realities of life in its 
•most polished states : they are among its best and most rational enjoy- 
ments : they associate the little family community in parental and filial 
alTectiou and duty, in which even the well clothed child feels its impor- 
tance, claims and duties. 

The amount of attachment to the family mansion furnishes the critc- 
:rion of the relative amount of virtue in the members of a family. If the 
head of a family shoidd wander fiom the path of paternal duty, and bc- 
•coine addicted to vicious habits, in proportion as his virtue sulTcrs a de- 
clension, his love of his home and family abates, until, any place, how- 
ever base and corrupting it may be, is more agreeable to him than the 
once duke domuhi.. If a similar declension in \ irluc iiappens on the 
part of the maternal chief of the family mansion, the first effect of her 
deviation from the path of maternal virtue is, that "her feet abideth not 
in her own house." The same observations apply to children. When 
the young man or woman, instead of manifesting a stroiig attacliment to 
the family mansion, is "given to outgoing," to places of licentious resort, 
their moial ruin may be said to be at no great dis1aii( e. 

Architecture is of use even in the important province of veiiglon. — 
Those who build no houses for themselves, Vjuild no temples Cor the ser- 
vice of God, and of course derive the less beiiefit from tiie institutions 
of religion. While our people lived in cabins, their places of worship 
Avere tents, as they were called, their seals logs, their communion tables 
rough slabs of hewn timber, and the covering cf the worshippers the 
leaves of the forest trees. 

Churches have succeeded to tents with tlicu rude accoinnii)dati(jn> for 
^■)ublic v/orship. The very aspect of those sacred edifices fills llie mlufj 

2515 xu lMz,\•tlOi^^ 

x*f (he belioldi r will,- a religious awe, and as to the laost lielicvincj ;md 
sincere, it servi-s to inerease the I'ervor of devotion, i'atriolisni is nug- 
m?nte 1 by the sight of the niajestic Ibrum ol' justice, the subslanliHl 
pubhc highway, and the bridge with its long succession ol' ponderous 

llouie and Greece would no doubt have fallen much sooner, had it not 
been for tiie patriotism inspired by their magnificent public edifices. — 
But lor these, their histories would have been less complete and lasting 
than they have been. 

Kraigration has l)roug}it to tjie western regions the wealth, sciejice 
and a ts of our eastern brethren, and even of Europe. Th.ese we hope 
Jiave suffered no tleterioration in the western country. They have con- 
tributed much to the cha/ige which has been effected in the moral and 
5cienti:ic character of our country. 

The ministry of the gospel has contri!)uted no doubt i'av.nensely to the 
happy change which has been eftectcd in the state of our western society. 
At an early period of our settlements three Presbyterian clergymen com- 
jneiiced their clerical labors in our iiilant settlements, — the Rev. Joscjih 
Smith, the Rev. John M'Millan, and the Rev. Mr. Jiowers, the two 
latter of whom are still living. Tliev were jjious, j)aticnt, laborious men, 
who collected their jieapie into regular congregations, and tlid all tor 
them w'hich their circumstances would allow. It was no disparagement 
to tlicm that their first churches were the shady grove, and their first 
}iu!pits a kind of lent, cotistructed of a few rough slabs, and covered Avitli 
■eiapboar is. " He who dwelleth not exclusively in temples matle with 
lui?ids," propitious to their devotions. 

From the outset thev jirudently resolved to ci-eale a ministry in the 
.country, and accordingly established little grammar schools at tlioir own 
houses or in their immediate neighboi hoods. 'J'he course of education 
wiiich they gave their })up!ls, was indeed not (>\'tcnsive; but the piety 
of those who entered into tlie ministry more than made up tlie di^ficiency. 
They formed societies, most of wliich are now large and it^spectable, aud 
in })oint of educniion their ministry has much iinjiroyed. 

About the year 1792, an academy was established at (Janonsburg, in 
VVaf;hington county, in the western ])7iv{ of Pennsylvania, which was 
afterwards incorporated under tiu; name of JefF'erson (^illege. 

The meafis possessed l)v the society i'or the imdertakint;' ^vere indeed 
b;it small ; but thev not only erected a tolerable editioc for the academy, 
but created a \'nn(\ for the e'hicaiion of such ])ious young jnen as wpre 
flesirous of entering inio tlie ministry, but were unable to defray the 
expenses of their educaticui. 'i'liis iiistituiiou has been remarkably suc- 
ffssfal in its operation-;. It has jjroducefl a large number of goorl 
scholars in all the literar\' ])rori"^Nl'itis, and added immiMi^elr 1o the sci- 
ence of the country. 

Nevt to this, Washinjrlou (-'olle-re, sitiintetl in the cnuntN town of the 
'•onnty of that niuT'^, has been the mpan> of diffusiug much nf the light 
'^f sci.»nce through the wesfern country. 

Trio much pr.'ii.sf cannni be brstowed on lIio<;r good inf^n whn opener] 
thesr frui'TuI source- of insirudion for our iidajit country, at so parly 3 


perit)d of its seUlenieut. They have immensely improved ihe depart- 
jnents of theology, law, medicine and legislation, in the western I'cgions. 

At a later period the Methodist societ}- began their labors in the west- 
ern parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania. Tiieii' jirogress at first was 
slow, but their zeal and perseverance at length overcame every obstacle, 
so that they are now one of the most numerous and respectable societies 
in this country. The itinerant plan of their ministry is well calculated to 
convev the gospel throughout a thinly scattered poi)ulation. Accordingly 
their ministry has kept pace with the extension of our settlen^e nts. The 
little cabin was scarcely built, and the little held fenced in, before these 
'evangelical teachers made their appearance amongst them, collected 
tliem into societies, and taught them the worship of God. 

Had it not been for the labors of these indefatigable men, our country, 
as to a great extent of its settlements, would have been at this day a 
■semi-barbaric region. How many thousands and tens of thousands of 
the most ignorant and licentious of our population have they instructed 
and reclaimed from the error of their ways ! They have restored to so- 
.<-iety even the most worthless, and made them valuable and respectable 
as citizens, and useful in all the relations of life. 'I'hcir numerous and 
zealous ministry bids fair to carry on the good work to any extent which 
our settlemenls and population may require. 

Wi*h the Catholics 1 have but little acquaintance, but have every rea- 
son to believe, that in proportion lo the extent of their flocks, they have 
done well. in this country they have received the episcopal visitations 
of their bishops. In Kentucky they have a cathedral, a college and a 
bishop. In Indiana thev have a monastery of the order of St. Trap, 
which is also a college, and a bishop. 

Their clergy, with apostolic zeal, but in an unostentatious manner, 
have soujjht out and ministered to their scattered flocks throughout the 
country, and as far as I know, with good success. 

The societies of P'riends in the western country a'-e numerous, and 
their estabhshments in good order. Although they are not much in fa- 
vor of a classical education, they are nevertheless in the habit of giving 
their peoj>le a substantial English education. Their habits of industiy 
and attention to useful arts and improvments are highly honorable to 
themselves and worthy of imitation, 

M'he Baptists in the state of Kentucky took the lead in the ministry, 
h.nd with s:reat success. Their establishments are, as 1 have been in- 
formed, at present numerous and respectable in that state. A great and 
salutary revolution has taken jilacc in this comn^.unity of people. Their 
ministry was formerly <|uite illiterate ; but they have turned their attention 
to science, and have already erected some xcry respectable literary es- 
tablishments in different parts of America. 

The German Reformed and Lutheran churches in our country, as far 
as ] know of tbem, are doins: well. The number of the Fjitheran con- 
gregations is said to be at least one hundred; that of the Reformed, it is 
presumed, is about the same amounu 

It is remarkable that throughout the whole extent nf the IJnited States, 
*rb€ Germans, in proportion t^ their wealth, have the best ciiurche.s, or- 

261 CniLlZATlOX 

gans and grave-yards. It is a forluiiale circumstance thai those of oirr 
citizen:! wlio labor under the disadvantage of speaking a ibreign language, 
are blessed with a minislry so evangelical as that ol these very nuinerou:. 
and resj;ectable couHnuuiiies. 

The Episcopalian church, which ought to liave been foremost in gath-^ 
enng tiieir scattered flocks, have been the last, and done the least ot any 
christian cnmnumity in the evangelical work. 'i'aking the western 
country in its whole (^xtejat, at least one half of its population was ori- 
ginally of Episcopalian parentage ; but thr want of a ministry of their 
own they have associated with other communities. They had no alter- 
native but that of c'langing their profession or living and dying without 
the ordinancLti of religion. It can be lao subject of regret that tliose or- 
dinances were placed within their reach by other hands, whilst they were 
withheld by those, by whom, as a matter of right and duty, they ought 
to have been given. One single chorea eplscopu.-s, or sufiragan bisho]), 
o' a faithful spirit, who, twenty years ago, should have "ordaiiuid them 
elders in every place" where they were needed, would have been the 
instrument of forming Ejiiscopal congregations over a great extent of 
country, and wliich by this time would have become large, numerous 
and resj)cctable ; but the opportunity was neglected, and the consequeKl 
loss to this church is irreparable. 

ISo total a neglect of the spiritual ijitercsts of so many valuable ])eo])Ie, 
for so great a iength of time, by a ministry so near at hand, is a singular 
.'Mid unprecedented fact in ecclesiastical histoiy, the like of which never 
o(c tried before. 

It seems to me, that if the twentieth part <,)f their number of christian 
people, of any other community, had been placed in Siberia, and depen- 
dent on anv other ecclesiastical authority in this countiy, that that au- 
thority would have reached them many years ago with the ministration 
ol the gospel. With the earliest and most numerous Episcoi)acy in 
America, not one of the eastern bishops has yet crossed the Allegany 
mountains, althougli the dioceses of two (.f them comprehended large 
tracts of country on the western side of the mountains. It is l)oped that 
the future diligence of this community will make up, in some degree, foi 
the negligence of the past. 

There is still an immense ^■oid in \\\\> eountiy which it is their duty to 
fdl up. From their respectability, on the ground of antiquity among the 
reformed churches, the science of their jiatriarchs, who have been the 
lights of the world — from their number and great resources, even in 
America — she ought to hasten to fulfd the just expectations of her own 
people, as well as those of other communities, in contributing her full 
share to the science, piety, and civilization of our country. 

From the whole of our ecclesiastical history, it appears, that, with the 
exception of the Episcopal church, all our religious communities have 
done well for their country. 

The author beers that it mnv be understood, thai with ilie di^tinguish- 
in'r tenet;; of our rrli^iou'- societies he has nothing to do, nur yet v.itli 
the ex'.olleiicics nor defects of their ccclesiajtieal ln^UtutlOJl^. They are 


noticed on no other ground than that of their respect ivp contilbiitions to 
the science ami civilization of the country. 

The last, but not the least of the means of our present civilization, arc 
our excellent forms of government and the administratit)n of the laws. 

In vain, as means of general information, are schools, colleges, and 
a ministry of the gospel of the best order. A land oi' liber'.y is a land 
of crime, as well as of virtue. 

It is often mentioned, as a matter of reproai-h to K-ngland, that, in 
proportion to her population, they have more convictions, ex-ecutions,. 
and transportations, than any other country in Europe,- Should it be 
asked, what is the reason of the prevalence of crime in England ? Is it, 
that human nature is worse there than elsewhere ? We answer, no.. — 
There is more liberty there than elsewhere in Europe, and that is the 
tnie and only solution of the matter in question. Where a people are at 
liberty to learn what they choose, to think and act as they please, and 
adopt any profession for a living or a fortune, they arc much more liable 
to fall into the commission of crimes, than a people who from their infan- 
cy have been accustomed to the dull, monotonous march of despotism, 
which chains each individual to the rank and profession of his forefathers, 
and does not permit him to wander into strange and devious paths of 
hazardous experiments. 

In America, should a stranger read awhile our numerous publications 
of a religious nature, the reports of missionary and Bible societies, at 
first blush he would look upon the Americans as a nation of saints ; let 
him lay these aside, and read the daily newspapers, he will change his 
opinion, and for the time being consider them as a nation abounding in 
crimes of the most atrocious dye. Both portraits are true. 

The greater the amount of freedom, the gi'eater the necessity of a 
steady and faithful administration of justice, but more especially of crimi- 
nal justice; because a general difTusion of science, while it produces the 
most salutary efTects, on a general scale, produces also the worst of 
crimes, by creating the greater capacity for their commission. There is 
.scarcely any art or science, which is not in some hands and under cer- 
tain circumstances made an instrument of the most atrocious vices. — 
The arts of navigation and gunnery, so nccessiir)- for the wealth and de- 
fense of a nation, have often degenerated into the crime of piracy. The 
beautiful art of engraving, and the more useful art of writing, have bee:i 
used by the fraudulent for counterfeiting all kinds of public iiiid private 
documents of credit. Were It not for science and freedom, the impor- 
tant professions of theology and physic would not be so t'requently as- 
sumed by the pseudo priest and the quack without previous acqiurements, 
without right, and for purposes wholly base and tnnvarrantable. 

The trath is, the western country is the region of adventure. If wp 
liave derived some advantage from the importation of science, ^^rts and 
v^-eahh ; we have on the other hand been much annoyed and endangered, 
as to our moral and political state, by an immense importation of vice, 
associated with a high grade of science and the most consummate art in 
the pursuit of wealth by every description of imlawfid means. The 
steady adimnl--;traiion. of justice has been our only safety from destruction,. 

i2G3 (•f\ irJZATlO.V. 

iy the pestilential influence of t-o great an amount of moral depratlty iri^ 
our infant country. 

Still it may he asked whether facts warrant the belcif that the scale is 
fairly turned h\ favor of science, piety and civilization — whether in re- 
gard to these important endowments of our nature, the present time is 
better than the past — whether we may safely consider our poUtical insti- 
tutions so matured and settled that our personal liberty, property and 
sacred honor, arc not only secured to us for the present, but likely to re- 
main the inheritance of our children for generations yet to come. Socie- 
ty, in its best state, lesembles the sleepping volcano, as to the amount of 
latent moral evil which it always contains. It is enough for public safety, 
and all tiiat can reasonably be expected, that the good predominate over 
the evil. The moral and political means,' which have been so successfully 
employed for preventing a revolutionary explosion, have, as we trust, 
procrastinated the danger of such an event for a long time to come. If 
we have criminaJs, they are speedily pursued and brought to justice. 

The places of our country, which still remain in their native state of 
wilderness, do not, as in many other countries, afford notorious lodg- 
raents for thieves. Our hills are not, as in the wilderness of Judea, 
"hills of robbers." The ministry of the holy gospel is enlightening the 
minds of our people wdth the best of all sciences, that of God himself, his 
divine government anil man's future state. 

Let it not be thought hard that our forums of justice are so numerous, 
the style of their architecture so imposing, and the business which occu- 
pies them so multifarious ; they are the price which tVeedom nnist pay for 
Its protection. Commerce, circulating through its million channels, will 
create an endless variety of litigated claims. Crimes of the deepest dye, 
springing from science and liberty themselves, require constantly the vi- 
gilance and coercion of criminal justice. Even the poorest of our people 
aie solicitous for the education of their children. Thus the great sup- 
(.(vrts of our moral and political state, resting on their fimest bases, public 
opinion and attachment to our government and laws, promise stability for 
^•. nciations yet to come. 




"Thk author of the History of the Valley had intended lo posipouc ih?. 

subject of the following pages, and give the subject matter tliereof in a 

■second edition ; but at the request of a highly respectable subscriber, and 

•on consulting the printer, it is found that" this addition to his work will 

not greatly increase the 'expense of the present volume. It is therefore 

-deemed expedient to gratriy publit; curiosity by giving the following 

sketches. If any one -Should be found incredulous enough to doubt the 

-correctness of his statements, he can only say to such individuals, that 

•they can have occular proof of the iruth ef each by taking the trouble tc 

<<;xamine for themselves. 


Tint portion of the Valley lying between the Blue Ridge and J^ittlft 
Korth Mountain, is generally about an average of twenty-five miles wide, 
commencing at tlie Cohongorutou (Potomac,) and running from thence 
a southerly course to the commencement of the northern termination of 
Powell's Fort mountains, a distance of about forty-five miles. 

This region, it has already been stated in a preceding chapt-^r, when 
the country was first known to the white people, was one entire and 
beautiful prairie, with the exception of narrow fringes of timber irnme- 
tliately bordering on tiie water courses. The Opeipmn, (pronounced 
Opeckon) heads at the eastern base of the Little North Mountain, and 
thence passing through a fine tract of limestone country seven or eight 
miles, enters into a region of slate. This tract oi' slate country com- 
mences at the northern termination of Powell's Fort mountains, and is 
six or eight miles In width east and west, and continues to the Potomac 
a distance of about forty-five miles. 'I'he Opeq^ion continues its •serpen- 
tine course through the slate region, and empties. into the Potomac about 
fifteen or sixteen miles above tlarjieis-Ferry. It is thought by sonic in- 
iiulividuflls that this water course is susceptible of navigation for small 
• craft, twenty-four or twenty-five miles from its moulli. 'J'his slate region 
of country is comparatively poor, unproductive land ; y'l in ihe hands o( 
infhistrious anrl skilful farmers, many very valuable and iKiiutif'ul f'wrms 
are to be seen in it. Abi-Mit Iwmfv vears ago a ^cicntifif I'lcnchinan 
-^•u^crestcd to the liuilior .l-lic H^'/minn "7Jiat this leQ-ion of shiit cninHtv 


was, at some rcinole period of the world, covered with a niounlain, nn 
abrasion of whicli had taken place by some great convulsion of natuie. — 
Tiiis he inferred from an examination of the base of the Fort Mountain — 
the stratum of the slate at the foot of which being- precisely similar to that 
of the slate at the edges of the region of this slate country." The author 
will not venture an opinion of his own on this subject, but has given that 
of an individuui who it was said iit the tune was a man of considerable 
philosophical and scientific acquirements. 

East of lliis slate countrv comniences another reii'ion of fine limestone 
land, averaging ten or twelve miles in width, and for its extent certainly 
unsurpassed in point of natural beauty, fertility and value, by any section 
of country in Virginia. 

Powe'l's Fort presents to the eye much gradeur and sublimity. Tra- 
dition informs us that an Englishman by the name of Powell, at the early 
settlement of our country, discovered silver ore in the West Fort Moun- 
tain, and comm.enced the busmess of money coining; and when any at- 
tempts were made to arrest him, he would escape into the mountain and 
concenl himself. From this circumstance it acquired the name of Pow- 
ell's Fort. The late Capt. Isaac Ijowman, about thirty years ago, pointed 
out to the author the site of Powell's shop, where it was said he wrought 
his metal, the ruins of which were then to be seen. Capt. Bowman also 
informed the author that several crucibles and other instruments, which he 
liad frequently seen, had bexin foimd about the ruins of this shop, so that 
there is no doubt of the truth of the tradition that this man Powell was in 
the practice ol' melting down some sort of meUd, if he did not actually 
counterfeit money. 

The jrrandeur and sublimity ol^ this extraordinarv work of nature consist 
iir its tremen(h)us height and singular formation. On enternig the mouth 
of t!ie Fort, we are struck with tlie awful height of the mountains on eacli 
side, probably not less than a thousand feet. Through a very narrow 
passage, a bold and beautiful str-i^ani of water rushes, called Passage 
creek, which a short, distance bidow works sevei'al fine merchant mills, — 
AiVr travelling two or three miles, the valley gradually widens, and for 
^upwards of twenty miles furnishes arable hu'd, and atTords settlements for 
eighty or ninety families, several of whoui own very valuable farms. — 
The two mountains run paralhd about twenty-four av twenty-fi\c miU'S, 
and are cahcd the East and West Fort mountains, and then are merged 
into one, anciently called Masinetto, now Masinutton mountain. 'I'lio 
Masinutton mountain continues its ^-ourse a'bcmt thirty-five or thirty-six 
jniles soatherly, and a'bruptly terminates nearly ojoposite Keisletown, in 
the countv of Rockingham, 'i'his r<inge of mountains divides the two 
'■'•roat branches of the Shenandoah river, called the S(nith and North lorks. 
This mountam, upon the whole, prt'sents to the ■^^ye s«imelhing ot' the 
■fihape (tfthe k«tter Y, or pfrhaiis more the slia[)c ol the houas and tongue 
r)f a WHgom 

■Phe turnpike road from New-Market, crossing Masinutton and Rlue 
Ridge into the comity of Culpeper, is held as private property. 'i'he 
'■Iwf'IliiK^-liousc where the toll is received stannds on thp summit n)' Mjisi ■ 
i;uii'i|i, frnin uhicji ca<]j of the vyfiJeNS -^i "hf Ntath and J>outh ii\ers 


presents to the delighted vision of the trnveler a most enehanling view of 
the country for a vast distance. The little thrilty villajje cf New-Market, 
with a great number of farms and their various improvements, are seen 
in full relief. On the east side of the mountain, on the South river and 
Ilawksbill creek, are to be seen a number fine farms, many of them stud- 
den with handsome brick buildings. Upon the wliole, tlie traveler is am- 
ply rewarded, by this gratifying sight, for his labor and fatigue in ascen- 
ding the mountain, which is said to be two miles from its base to its 
summit. There is a considerable depression where the road crosses at 
this place, called Masinutton gap. 

From the East Fort mountain, at a point nearly op])osite Woodstock, 
the South ri\er presents to the eye precisely the a})pearance of three dis- 
tinct streams of water crossinii; the valley from the western base of the Blue 
Ridge to the foot of the Fort mountain. At the northern end of the West 
Fort mountain, from an eminence, Winchester can be distinctly seen, at a 
distance of not less than sixteen miles, air measure, and a great portion 
of the county of Frederick can be overlooked from this elevated point. — 
There is also an elevated point about five miles south of Front Royal, 
on the road leading from thence to Luray, from which there is a most 
ravishino" view of the eastern section of the county of Frederick, and the 
tops of the mountains bordering on the north side of the Cohongoruton. 

Alter leaving this eminence, and proceeding southerly towards Luray, 
from the undulating form of the country between the South river and 
Blue Ridge, for a distance of fourteen or Hfteen miles, it appears constant- 
ly to the traveler as if he wei'e nearly approaching the foot of a consider- 
able mountain, and yet there is none to cross his way. The South river, 
for seventy or eighty miles on each side, affords large propoi'tions of fine 
alluvial lands — in manv parts of it fu'st-iate high lands, which are gener- 
ally finely improved, and owned by many wealthy and highly respectable 
}Hoprietors. The new county of Page, for its extent, contains as much 
intrinsic wealth as any county west of the Blue Ridge, with the excepticnx 
of Jefferson. 

The valley of the North river, from the West Fort mountain to tlie 
eastern base of the Little North mountain, is generally fine limestone 
land, v;ndulating, and fin-dy watered. It is* also higlil_\ nnpioxcd, with a 
density of population perhaps unecpuded by any section of Virginia ; and 
it is believed there is more cash in the hands of its citizens than in any 
part of the state for the same extent. 

It is hardly necessary to state that the three counties of .JefT'erson, 
Berkeley and Frederick, contain a greater proportion of fertile lands than 
any other section of the state ; but unfortunately, it may with truth be 
affirmed that it is a badly watered country. There are many jieighbnr- 
hoods in which nothing like a spring of water is to be seen, it is hnw- 
evertrue, that there are many fine large limestone springs, remarkable Ibr 
the great quantity of water which is discharged iVom them. Hut natuie 
appears to have distributed her favors in this resjiect unefiually. 

The counties of Morgan, Hampshire and Hardy, are remarkable frir 

their mountains and fine freestone water. From the mountainous charae- 

^cter of this section, it is but sparsely inhabited in many jiarts of it. The 

i6> ArrLMn:\. 

SoutJi ;ii)il \(.>ini Ijiaiiclio ul' the (.'ohuiigoiuiou (Potomac) nlTonl ropt 
sidcriible (juanlitie.s of us iinc terlilc Hlluvial land us any pail ol' the Ij. S- 
Puttorson's cvcvV also fiirnishes-a considetabte body of fine land. ()a])ow 
river. Lost river, and Ikick creek, furnish much line land, and are all 
thickly populated. 

The western })arl of Frederick, Berkeley and Shenandoah, include 
considerable portions of raouatainous couiury. The Little North moun- 
tain commences near the Cohom^'oruton, having jiack creek valley on the 
west, which extends about thirty-live miles into the interior, to the head 
waters of the creek. This mountain runs a southerly course, parallel 
with the Great North mountain, passing through the three counties just 
mt-ntioned. This tract of mountain land is comparatively poor and un- 
productive. It is, however, pretty thickly populated, by a hardy race 
of people. Li our mountains generally, wherever spots of arable land 
are to be found, (which are chiefly in the glens,) there scattered settlers 
are to be found also. 

East of the Shenandoah river the Blue Ridge is thickly popukited, and 
many fine protluctive farms are to be seen. The vast ([uantity of loose 
stone thickly scattered over the s'.irfaee of this mountain, one wf)uld be 
ready to believe, would deter individuals from attempting its cultivation; 
but it is a coinmon saying among those people, that if they can only ob- 
tain as much eaith as will cover their seed grain, they are always sure 
of good crops. 

The public road crosses tlie Blue Ridge, from the South river valley 
into the county of Madison. From the western base of the u^ounlain to 
io the summit, it is said to be five miles. On the top of the nKnintain, at 
this place, there is a large body oi" level land, covered almost exclusively 
with large chestnut timber, having the appearance of an extensive 
swamp, and i)roducing great quantities of the skunk cabbage. But little 
of it has been reclaimed and brought into cultivation. It produces fine 
crops of grass, rye, oats, potatoes and tui-nips; but it is said to be entire- 
Iv too moist for the production of wheat, and too cool for the growth of 
Indian i:orn. Tiie people in its neighborhood say that there is not a 
week throughout the spring, summer and autumn, without jik-ntiful falls 
of rain, and abundant snows in the winter. In the time of long dioughts 
on each side of the mountain, this elevated tract of country is abundantly 
supplied with rains. It is also said, that from this great height nearly 
the whole county of Madison can be seen, presenting to the eye a most 
fascinating and delightful view. 

On the summit of the West Fort mountain, about fifteen miles south 
of Woodstock, there is also a small tract of^and, remarkable for its depth 
of line rich soil, but inaccessible to the approach of man with injplements 
of husbundiv. 'Ibis traet produces immensf- quantities of the fuK-st chp^t- 
nut, though from the great dilHcully of asceialing the mountain, but little 
benefit is derived I'rora it to the neighboring people. 

fn our western mountains small bodies <5»f limestone lands are to lie 
mt't with, one of the most remarkable of which iv what i'^' callerl the 
'< Sugar flillv,'' j.retty high up the C-cdar creek valh-y. This tract is 
fcaid )u C'uUain fonr or five hundred acres, and lies at the e-astcrw bast 

^f PaJdy's inounlaln. It derives its name iVoin uvo causes: tir>t, \vhen 
discovered it was covered chieriy with the sugar maple ; and .secondly, 
several of its knobs resemble in shape the sugar loaf. Its soil is pecu- 
liarly adapted to the production of wheat of the finest quality, of which, 
let the seasons he as they may, the land never fails to produce great 
crops, which generally commands seven or eight cents per bushel more 
ihan any other wheat grown in its neighborhood. The Hessian fly has 
Jiot yet been known to injure the crops while growing. 

Paddy's mountain is a branch of the Great North mountain, and is 
about eighteen or twenty miles long. It takes its name from an Irish- 
(uan, whose name was Patrick Black, who first settled at Avhat is now 
called Paddy's gap in this mountain. This fat-t vvas couimunicmed to- 
the author bv .Closes Russell, fusq. 

XA T I K A ] . r ( ; R 1 C:) S I Tl E S , 

1 1 would require perhaps several volumes to give a minute descrlption- 
of all the natural and interesting curiosities of our country. The inquisi- 
tive individual can scarcely travel more than a mile or two in any direc- 
tion among our mountains, but some sublime and grand work of nature 
presents itself to the eye, which excites his wonder and admiration. — 
The author must Iheretbre content himself with a brief description of 
comparatively a few of the most remarkable. He will commence his 
narrative with Harpers-Ferry. 'ITris wonderful work of nature has been 
so accurately described by Mr. Jefferson, that it is deemed unnecessary 
to give a detailed description of it. Suffice it to say, that no stranger 
can look at the passage of the waters of the Potomac and Shenandoah, 
rushing through the yawning gap of the mountain, without feeling awe at 
the grandeur and sublimity of the scene, and ready to prostrate himself 
in adoration before that onmipotent God whose almighty arm halh nuide 
all things according to his own wisdom and power. 

It is much to be regretted that a Captain Henry, during the administra- 
tion of the elder Adams in 1799, when what was called the provisional 
iirmy was raising, and a ])art of which was stationed at Harpers-Ferry, 
greatly injured one of the most interesting curiosities of this place. A 
rock of extraordinary shape and of considerable size stands on the brink 
of a high hill, on the south side of the tung or point of land immediately 
in the fork of the river. The apex of this rock was a broad (lat table, 
supported on a pivot, on which Mr. Jefferson, during his visit to this 
place, inscribed his name, from which it took the name of Jefferson's 

The years 179S and 1799 were a period of extraordinary political ex- 
citement. The two great political parties, federal and democratic, of our 
country, were at this period completely organised, and an intt^resttng 
struggle for which party should have the ascejidancy was carried on. — 
This same Capt. Henry, whether actuated by the same motive which im- 
pelled the Macedonian youth to murtler Philip his king-, or whether he 


liopcd to ar(jiilrc' populiirilv with his purty, (ho calling liimsolf a rrdoiTilist,)* 
or whether from motives purely hostile towards Mr. Jefli-rson ami all the 
democratic party, placed himself at the head of a band of soldiers, and 
■with the aid of his myrmidons, hurled off the apex of this rock, tlius 
wantonly, and to say the least, unwisely destroying the greatest beauty 
of this extraordinary work of nature. By this illiberal and unwise act,- 
<Japt. Henry has "condemned his name to everlasting i^inie.'" 


About seven or eight miles above Harj)crs-Ferry, on the wi-st side of 
the Shenandoah, nearly opposite the Shannondale springs, from a quarter 
to a half mile from the river, a limestone cave has been discovered, whielh 
contains several beautiful incrustations or stalactites ibrmed froni the fil- 
tration of the water. 

Near Mecklenburg, (Shepherd^tewn,) another cave has been found, 
out of which considerable quantities of hydraulic limestone is taken, and 
when calcined or reduced to lime, is found to make a cement little if any 
inferior to plaster of paris. Out of this cave a concreted limestone was 
taken, which the author saw in the possession of Dr. Boteler of Shep- 
herdstown, which at first view presents to the eye, in shape, a striking' 
resemblance to that of a fish of considerable size. A smaller one was 
found at the some time, which has a strong resemblance to a mink. — 
Several intelligent individuals were induced to believe they were gen nine 


In the county of Frederick are to be seen five or six of those caves. — < 
Zane's cave, now on the lands owned by the heirs of the late Maj. .Ja.naes 
Bean, is the one described by the late Mr. Jefiferson, in his " Notes on 
Virginia." This cave the author partially explored about eighteen 
montiis ago, but found it too fatiguing to pursue hi.^ examination to any 
extent. The natural beauty f)f this ])lace has of late years been greatly 
injured froni the smoke of the numerous pine torches used to light it. — 
All the incrustations and spars are greatly darkened, giving the cnve a 
somber and dull ai)pearance. The author was intbrmed, on his visit to 
this place, that Maj. JJean, shortly before his death, cut out several of 
the spars, reduced tliern to lime, sprinkled it over some of his gi-owing 
crops, and found that it produced all the effects of g>-psum. 

On the lands late the residence of Captain Edward MrGuire, dec'd, 
is another cave of some considerable ext(;nt ; but its incrustations and 
spars are of a muddy yellowish color, and not considered a very interes- V 
ting curiosity. 

Adjoining the lands of Mr. James Way, the former residence of the 
late Col. C. M. Thruston, an extensive cave of very singular and curious 
formation was discovered many years ago. On exploring it with the aid 
of a pocket compass, the needle was found running to every part of it. 

On the east side of the Shenandoah Fiver, some two or three miles 
below Berry's Ferry, at die base of the Blue Ridge, a cave of considera- 
te extent has been discovered, containing several c itiositics. About two 


miles below thl:s cave on the same side of ihe nver, is to be seen what 
was anciently called Redman's tishery. At the base of" a rock a large 
sublcrianeous stream ot" water is discharged into the river. At the ap- 
proach of winter myriads of hsh make their way into this subterraiu'ous 
stream, and take up their winter quarters. In the sprijig they return into 
the river. By placing a fish-basket in the moutli of the cavern, great 
quantities of tine fresh-water fish are taken, both in the autiunn and sprimr 
of the year. The author recollects being at this place upwards of titty 
years ago, just after iVIr. Redman had taken up his fish-basket, and can 
safely affirm, that he drew out of the v>fater from two to three bushels of 
fish at a sincj^le haul. 

On Crooked run, near Bethel meeting house, on the lands now owned 
by Mr. Stephen Grubb, is a limestone cave, which the author has more 
than once been in. It does not exceed one hundred yards in length, and 
is remarkable only for its production of saltpetre, and preserving fresh 
meats in hot weather. 

The Panther cave, on the north bank of Cedar creek, owned by Major 
Isaac Hite, about a half or three-fourths of a mile west of the great high- 
way from Winchester to Staunton, is a remarkable curiosity. Nature 
has here formed a most beautiful and solid upright wall of gray limestone 
rock, of about one hundred yards in length, near the west end of which 
is to be seen an elegant arch, of about sixty feet in front, ten or twelve 
feet high in the center, and extending twenty-five or thirty feet under the 
body of the wall. There are two circular apertures running into the body 
of the rock from the arch, one about twelve inches in diameter, the other 
somewhat smaller. Whether these openings do or do not lead into large 
apartments or caverns in the body of the rock, is not and probably never 
will be known. Tradition relates that at the early settlement of the 
country this place was known to be the haunt and habitation of the pan- 
ther, from which it derives its name. 

We have two natural wells in this county ; one at what is called the 
Dry marsh, a drain of the Opequon, about two miles east of the creek, 
not more than a quarter of a mile north of the road leading from Winches- 
ter to Berryville. This natural well in dry seasons furnishes several con- 
tiguous families with water. It is formed by a natural circular opening 
in an apparently solid Hmestone rock. Its walls are undulating, and m 
times of dry seasons the water sinks some sixteen or eighteen feet below 
the surface, but at all times furnishes abundant supplies. In the winter, 
no matter how great the degree of cold, small lish are frequently drawn 
up with the water from the well. In times of freshets, the water rises 
above the surface, and discharges a most beautiful current for several 
weeks at a time. Tradition relates that this well was discovered at the 
first settlement of the neighborhood. 

The other natural well is the one described by Mr. Jeflferson. This 
natural curiosity first made its appearance on the breaking u)) xii' the hard 
winter of 1789-80. All the old people of our country doubtless recollect 
the great falls of snow and severity of this remarkable winter. The au- 
thor was born, and lived with liis father's family until htrwas about thir- 


teen years of age, williin one and a half miles of this natural well. — 
The land at that period was owned by the late Feilding Lewis, of 
Fredericksburg, Va., but is now the property of the heirs of the late 
Mr. Thomas Castleman, in the neighborhood of Berryville. Nature had 
here formed a circular sink of a depth of some fourteen or fifteen feet, 
and fifty or sixty feet in diameter at the surface. In the spring of the 
year 1780, the earth at the bottom of this sink suddenly gave way and 
fell into the cavity below, forming a circular aperture about the ordinary 
circumferenee of a common artificial well. It was soon discovered that 
a subterraneous stream of water passed under the bottom. There being 
no artificial or natural means to prevent the earth immediately about the 
well from falling in, the aperature is greatly enlarged, forming a sloping- 
bank, by which a man on foot can easily descend within eight of ten feet 
of the water. The current of water is quite perceptible to the eye. The 
whole depth of the cavity is thirty or thirty-five feet. 


Within two or three miles of Woodstock, on the lands of the late 
William Payne, Esq., is an extensive cavern, which it is said has never 
yet been explored to its termination. It contains many curious incrus- 
tations, stalactites, &,c. From the mouth of this cave a constant current 
of cold air is discharged, and the cavern is used by its owners as a place 
to presei-ve their fresh meats in the hottest seasons of the year. 

On the east side of the South fork of the Shenandoah river, three or four 
miles south of Front Royal, there are two caves but a short distance 
apart, which, like all other caves, contain beautiful curiosities. One of 
them many years ago was visited and explored by the late celebrated 
John Randolph of Roanoke ; but the author has never been able to learn 
whether he committed to writing his observations upon it. One of its 
greatest curiosities is an excellent representation of the hatter's kettle. 

Within about three miles north-west of Mt. Jnekson, Shaffer's cave is 
situated. It has been explored about half a mile. It is not very re- 
maikable for its production of natural curiosities. Tradition relates an 
amusing story in connection with it. A very large human skeleton was 
many years ago found in this cavern, the skull bone of which a neighbor- 
ing man had the curiosity to take to his dwelling house. This aroused 
tiie ghost of the dead man, who, not being pleasetl with the removal of 
his head, very soon appenred to the depredator and harassed him until he 
became glad to return the skull to its ibriner habitation. The ghost 
then became appeased and ceased liis visits. It is said that there are 
many persons to this day in the neighborhood, who most religiously bo 
lieve that the gliost did really and truly compel the ofiender to return his 
skull. The author saw in the possession of l3r. Wetherall, of Mt. Jack- 
son, one of the arm bones of this skeleton, that part extending from the 
shoulder to the elbow, which was nemarkablo fi;r its thickness, but was 
not of very uncommon length. At that time he had not been visited by 
the ghost to demand his arm ; but perhaps he was not so temicious of it 
as he was of his head. 

In the county of Page, within about three miles of Luray, a cave, but 


lilUe inlci'ior to Weyer's cave, was some years ago discovered, a graphic 
description of which was written by W. A. Harris, Esq., and published 
in the Woodstock Sentinel of the Valley, and copied pretty generally 
throughout the Union. 


Pretty high up Cedar creek there is a beautiful spring of clear moun- 
tain water, issuing from the western side of the Little North mountain, in 
a glen, which ebbs and flows twice in every twenty-four hours. It rises 
at ten o'clock in the morning, and ebbs at four in the evening. It is in 
a perfect state of nature, has considerable fall immediately from its mouth, 
so that it cannot conveniently be ascertained precisely what is its greatest 
rise and fall. When the author saw it it was down, and he could not 
conveniently spare the time to wait to see it rise. But the author's in- 
formant (Mr. J. Bond) went with him to the spring, and assured him 
that he has repeatedly seen it rise. The author is also informed that 
theie is a salt sulphur spring, on the land late the property of Mr. John 
Lee, but a short distance from where the Staunton stage road crosses 
Cedar creek, which has a dairy erected over it. The respectable widow 
of Mr. Lee informed the author that this spring ebbs and flows twice in 
every twenty-four hours, and that if care is not particularly taken at ev- 
ery flow, its current is so strong as to overset the vessels of milk placed 
in the water. 


Some thirteen or fourteen miles south-west of Winchester, and within 
about two miles of the residence of Moses Russell, Esq., in the county 
of Frederick, is to be seen what is called the Falling run. Between what 
the neighboring people call Falling ridge (the commencement of Paddy's 
mountain) and the Great North mountain, pretty near the summit, on 
the east side of the mountain, a line large spring rises, forming a beauti- 
ful lively stream of sufficient force to work a gi'ist mill. This stream inir- 
sues its serpentine course thro' a glen several hundred yards in width, ni' 
gradual descent, between the mountain and Falling ridge. Pursuing its 
course in a northerlv direction from its fountain, for about one and a half 
miles, it makes a pretty sudden turn to the east, and shoots over a solid 
granite rock probably not less than one hundred feet high, 'jfhc first 
eighteen or twenty feet of the rock over which the water passes is a lilli(! 
sloping, over which the water sjireads and covers a surface of fifl(M'!i or 
sixteen feet, from whence the fall is entirely perpendicular, and strikes on 
a mass of solid rock ; it then forms an angle of about forty-five degress, 
rushing and foaming over an undulating surface of about ninety or one 
hundred feet; from thence is a third fall of about the same length, and 
then pitches into a hole of considerable depth; from thence it escapes 
down a more gradual descent, and suiidenly becomes a gentle, smooth, 
placid current, as if it is pleased to rest from tiie violent agitations and tur- 
moils throtigh which it had just jiassed. At the first base reached by the 
water, a perpetual mist arises, which, viewed on a clear sunr-hiny day, 


presents 1o ihe eye n most interesting and beautiful sight. 'i'lie whole 
I'all is little if any less than three hundred feet. 

A short distance to the south of this place, at the junction of tlie F.tII- 
ing ridge with the North mouutnin, is to be seen wha+ the neigliboring 
people call "the Pinnacle." The apex of this pinnacle is a flat, broad 
table, supjiorted on a pivot, and can be set in motion by the hands of a 
man, and will continue to vibrate tor several lainutes. There are sevenil 
small caverns in this rock, and it is known to be the abode of the turkey 
buzzards in the winter, where they remain in a state of torpitude. Mr. 
Russell informed tlie author tliat he once took out a torpid buzzard in tin- 
winter, laid it on the sunny side of the rock, and it very soon regained 
life and motion. 


In the county of Hardy, about eight or nine miles south of the late 
residence of Janifs Sterrett, .Ksq. deceased, and a little east of Thornbot- 
tom, is situated a most beautiful miniature lake, called the Trout pond. 
A large spring rises near the summit of the Great North mountain, de- 
scending on the west side into a deep glen, between the mountain and a 
very high ridge immediately east of Thoinbottom, in wdiich glen nature 
has formed a receptacle of unknow-n depth for diis stream of water. This 
stream forms an area of about one and a half acres, nearly an oblong 
square. Nature never presented to the eye a more perfectly beautiful 
sheet of water. It is as transparent as crystal, and abounds Avith fuic 
trout fish. 

The late Col. 'i'avcrner I>cale, ujiwards of lo!-ty years ago, described 
this place to the author, and stated that he could safely affirm that he believ- 
ed he had seen ten ihousand trout at a single view in this pond. Col. Beale 
also informed the author that himself and a friend of his orice made a raft, 
and floated to the centre of the pond, where they let down a plumb and line, 
(the author does not now recollect the length of the line, though, it Avas 
certainly not less than forty feet,) but did not succeed in reaching the 
bottom. A Mr. Ciochenour, wdio resides near this place, informed the 
ai tho- tliat he had hearrl it was fathomed many years ago, and Avas found 
to tie sixlv feet dee]), but did not know" the certainty or truth of this 
rfpr>rt. The water is di.scluirged at the ndrlh-east comer of the noiifl, 
a 1(1 allrr descending aliout two uulcs, works a saw mill, and thirty or 
i.nty yards from the mill falls into a sink and entirely disai)pf'ars. This 
sink is in the edge of Thorrd)ottom, a pretty narrow sti'i)) of limestone 
land, whici) affoids bdween the mounlains a residence lor fom- or five 
families, racli (if whom lias a fine s})ring oi' water, all which, after run- 
ning a short distance, also disa))|)ear. The stream of water from thr> 
pond, doubtless <-(uisiderahlv increased liy the waters of 'J'hornboltom, 
atjain appears at the nortlnTn terminal ion of a very high ridge called 
'MJir I}f\ iTs ^r;^,i-,I,.||/'' It JHiists (lilt ill OIK' of the finest and largest springs 
the author has ever seen. It is said that this subteri'anean passage of 
t.hc water is fiillv eiglil miles in lentrth. This spring is within abont onp 
<jijarler oi a mile finirj Mr. Slrrrrtt's flwcllinrr house, an«l loi'ins a heauti- 

A1>!M::XDIX. 270 

.ful .slrenm of waltT called Trout miii, -which is a, \;i]uiili:: irnmlarv ol' the 
Capon river. 

"The pevtt.'s garden" is truly a Avonderful \vork of nature. ]?e- 
tween two lofty ridges of the Sandy ridge and Noilli mounlain n strip 
of ground, about a n\iie in width, commences rising gently from the head 
of Trout run, and pursues its regular ascent for three miles, -when it ab- 
ruptly terminates, at its southern extremity, in a vast pile of granite rocks, 
having a perpendicular height of some four or tive hundred feet. This 
immense pile is entirely separated from and itidependent of its neighbor- 
ing mountains, having a vast chasm on its two sides and southern ter- 
mination. At its south end it is covered with nearly level rocks, torming 
a floor of about an acre. This floor is curiously marked with fissures on 
the surfice of various distances apart. On the eastern side stands a 
statue, or perhaps it may more appropriately be called a bust, about sev- 
en feet high : the head, neck and shoulders bear a strong resemblance to 
those of a man, and from the breast downwards it gradually enlarges in 
size from two and a half to three feet in diameter. It is without arms. — 
It stands on a level table of rock, is of a dark color, and presents to the 
eye a frowning, terrific appearance. "When this singular curiosity was 
first discovered, some superstitious ]u;ople concluded it was tlu; image 
of the Devil; and hence the name of "The Devil's garden." Near his 
Satanic majesty anciently stood a four-square stone pillar, of about two 
and a half feet diameter, and ten or twelve feet high. This pillar is broken 
off at its base, crosses a chasm, and reclines, something in the ibrm of an 
arch, against the opposite rock. 

About one hundred feet below the stand of the statue, a door lets into 
numerous caverns in the rock, the first of which forms a hanflsome room 
of moderate size, the floors above and below being tolerably smooth and 
level. From this room there is a handsome flight of stone steps ascend- 
ing into a room of larger size, until twelve different apartments are pass- 
ed through, and then reaches the top of the rocks. 'J'lie late Mr. Sterrett, 
in riding^ with the author to view this extraordinarv work of nature, said 
that it was difficult for an old man to get access to the inlet, of course I 
did not attempt it. Mr. Ba!)b, who resides in its neighborhood, informed 
the author that he had frequently explored the cavern ; and tlm yoiing 
people of the neighborhood, m.ale and female, frequently, in parties of 
pleasure, visit and pass through its various apartments. 


Here again the eye is presented with another evidence of the all-pow- 
erful arm of (Jod ! This river heads in several small springs, on a high 
ridge of land near Brock's gap, v.diich divides the waters of the North 
fork of the Shenandoah fiom the waters cCthe ].,ost river. This water 
course meanders througli a beautiful valley of fine alluvial lanrl, a distance 
of about twenty-five miles. On its west side, some ten or IavpIvc miles 
below its head springs, is a cavern at the eastern base of " J^ost iivc¥ 
mountain," which has been explored about ftne hundred yards (some say 
more) from its month. 0\fr the inlet is a handsomely turned nrch twelve 
or /burteen feet wide, and six or seven high. From this caA-ern is dis- 


charged a stream of hcaulil'ul water, remarkable for its degree oi" coldness. 
It is called "the cold spring cave." The mouth of this cave effectually 
preserves fresh meats of every kind from injury in the hottest seasons. — 
This cave exhibits but few curiosities. 

Some ten or twelve miles further down, the river comes in contact 
with Lost river mountain, (which is of considerable magnitude,) has cut 
its way through the mountain, and about two miles further down has to 
encounter a second mountain called Timber ridge, through which it has 
forced its way, and one and a half or two miles further has to contend 
with Sandy ridge, a mountain of considerable height and width. Here 
the water and mountain appear to have a mighty struggle for the ascen- 
dency. In flood times, Mrs. River, despising all obstructions, forces her 
\vay through a yawning, frowning chasm. But at times of low water, 
when her ladyship is less powerful, his giantship, the mountain, defies all 
her power to remove a huge mass of adamantine rocks, which obstructs 
her passage in the gap; l)ut to remedy this evil, Mrs. River has adroitly 
and cunningly undermined the mountain, formed for herself a subterrane- 
ous j)assage, and generously supplied her sister Capon with all the water 
she has to spare. It is impossible for the inquisitive eye to view this 
mighty work of nature without being struck with the idea of the great 
obstruction and mighty difficulty this water had to contend with in for- 
cing a passage through this huge mountain. The author viewed this 
place with intense interest and curiosty. At the western base of the 
mountain, the water has found various apertures, one of which is under 
the point of a rock, of seven or eight feet wide, which appears to be the 
largest inlet. For the distance of about a quarter of a mile from the sink, 
not a drop of water is to be seen in times of drought. There are several 
large springs which issue from the mountain in the gap, forming a small 
stream, which always runs through it. The water of the river has a sub- 
terraneous passage of full three miles, and is discharged in several very 
large springs at the eastern base of the mountain. These several springs 
form the great fountain head of Capon river. 

An old man and his son, (their names not recollected,) whose dwelling 
is very near the sink, related a very singular occurrence which they rep- 
resented as having happened a few days before the author's visit to this 
place. Thev stated that several dogs were in pursuit of a deer on the 
mountain — that the deer ran to the brink of a rock, at least one hundred 
feet high, which is very near the sink, and the poor animal being jiretty 
closely pursued, leaped from the rock, and falling on a very rough, stony 
surface, was terribly crushed and bruised by the I'all, and instantly expired. 
They immediately ran to it and opened the large veins in the neck, but 
little blood was discharged. They took off the skin and cut up the flesh; 
but most paits of it were so much bruised and mangled as to be unfit for 

Capon river exhil'its several great natural curiosities. Near its head 
waters is a rock called "the Alum rock," from which exudes native alum, 
and forms a beautiful incrustation on its fare, which the neighboring 
people collect in small quantities, but often sufficient foi their domestic 
nurnoscs ot staining their cloths. 


About two miles above the forks of this river is situated "Caudy's cas- 
tle," a most stupendous work of nature. It is said by tradition tliat in 
the time of the wars between the white and red people, a man ])y the 
name of James Caudy, more than once took shelter on the rock from the 
pursuit of the Indians, from vrhence its name. It consists of a fragment 
of the mountain, separated from and independent of the neighboring- 
mountains, forming, as it were, a half cone, and surrounded with a 
yawning chasm. Its eastern base, washed by the Capon river, rises to 
the majestic height of four hundred and fifty or five hundred feet, while 
its eastern side is a solid mass of granite, directly perpendicular. A line 
drawn round its base probably would not exceed one thousand on twelve 
hundred yards. From its western side it may be ascended by a man on 
foot to within about ninety or one hundred feet of its summit. From 
thence the rock suddenly shoots up something in the form of a comb, 
which is about ninety or one hundred feet in length, eight or ten feet in 
thickness, and runs about north and south. On the eastern face of the 
rock, from where the comb is approached, a veiy narrow undulating path 
is formed, by pursuing which, active persons can ascend to its summit. 
The author called on Mr. John Largent, (from whoru he received much 
kindness and attention,) and requested Mr. L. to be his pilot, which re- 
quest was readily acceded to. Mr. L.'s residence is less than half a mile 
from the spot. In his company the author undertook to ascend this aw- 
ful precipice. Along the path a few laurel shiubs have grown out of the 
fissures of the rock. With the aid of the shrubbery, the author succeeded 
in following Mr. Largent until they reached within twenty or twenty-five 
feet of the summit, where they found a flat table, four or five feet square, 
on which a pine tree of five or six inches diameter has grown some ten or 
twelve ieet high. This afforded a convenient resting place. By sup- 
porting myself with one arm around the body of the tree, and a cane ire 
the other hand, I ventured several times to look down +he precipice, but 
it produced a disagreeable giddiness and painful sensation of the eyes. — 
From this elevated situation an extensive view of what is called the white 
mountain presents itself for a considerable distance, on the east side of 
Capon river. The beautiful whiteness of this mountain is produced by a 
considerable intermixture of fine M'hite sand with the rocks, which almost 
exclusively form the west side of Capon moimtain for several miles. 

Nine or ten miles below this place, in a deep rugged glen three or four 
miles east of Capon, on the west side of the mountain, the "Tea table" 
is to be seen, than which nature in her most sportive mood has seldom 
performed a more beautiful work. This table presents the form of a 
man's hat, with the crown turned downwards. The stem (if it may be 
so termed) is about four feet diameter and about four feet high. An oval 
brim, some seven or eight feet in diameter, and seven or eight inches 
thick, is formed around the top of the stem, through which a circular 
tube arises, twelve or fourteen inches in diameter. Through this tube a 
beautiful stream of transparent water arises, and regularly flows over the 
whole surface of this large brim, presenting to the eye one of the most 
beautiful fountains in nature's works. 




This most extraordinary and woiuUirlul work of God's creation certain* 
\y deserves the highest rank in the history of the natural curiosities ot' 
our country. This mountain is washed at its western base by the North 
river, a branch of the Capon. It is not more than one quarter of a mil& 
north of the residence of Christopher Heiskell, Esq., at North river mills, 
in the county of Hampshire, twenty-six miles north-west of Winchester. 
The west side of this mountain, for about one mile, is covered with loose 
stone of various size, many of which are of a diamond shape. It is pro- 
bably six or seven hundred feet high, very steep, and presents to the eye 
a most grand and sublime spectacle. 

At the base of the mountain, on the western side, for a distance of 
about one hundred yards, and ascending some twenty-five or thirty feet, 
on reraoviiig the loose stone, which is easily done with a small prise, the 
most ])erfectly pure and crystal looking ice, at all seasons of the year, is 
to be found, in blocks of from one or two pounds to fifteen or twenty in 
weight.* At the base of this bed of ice a beautiful spring of pure water 
is discharged, which is by rnanv degrees colder than any natural spring 
water the author has ever seen. It is believed that its natural tempera- 
ture is not many degrees above the freezing point. Very near this spring 
the owner of the property has removed the stone, and erected a small log 
dairy, for the preservation of his milk, butter, and fresh meats. When 
the author saw this little building, which was late in the month of April, 
the openings between the logs, (on the side next the cavity from which 
the stone had been taken out,) for eighteen inches or two leet from the 
floor was completely filled with ice, and above one half the iloor was cov- 
ered with ice several inches thick. This is the more remarkable from its 
being a known fact that the sun shines with all its force from eight or 
nine o'clock in the morning until late in the evening, on the surface cov- 
ering the ice, but the latter defies its po\\«-'r. Mr. Deevers, who is the 
owner of tlic proj)erty, informed the author that milk, butter, or fresh 
meats of every kind, are perfectly safe from injury for almost any length of 
time in the hottest weather. If a fly venture in, he is immediately stif- 
fened witii the cold and becomes torpid. If a snake in his randjles hap- 
pens to pass over the rocks covering the ice, he soon loses all motion, 
and dies, ('hristopher Heiskell, Esq. Informed the author that several 
Instanc(^s had occurred of the snakes belnij found dead auioni^ the rocks 
covering the Ice. An intelligent young lady at the same time stated that 

*The neighboring people assert, that at the sotting in of the winter 
season, the ice commences melting, and soon disappears, not a particle 
of which is to be found while the winter remains. If this be true, it ren- 
ders this place still more remarkable and extraordinary. "^rhe order of 
nature, in this immediate locality, seems to be reversed : for, when it is 
summer all around this singular spot, here it is covered with the Ice of 
winter, und vux versa. We cannot account for this effect, except the 
cause bo some chemical laboratory under the surface, opera; ing from the 
influence of the external atmo'^plierc but in op[>osition to it. 


she had seen instanres of this character. In truth, it was upon her first 
suggesting the tact, that the author was led to make inquiry of Mr. Heis- 
kelL Mr. Devers stated that he had several times removed torpid Hies 
from his dairy into a more temperate atmosphere, when they soon recov- 
eied life and motion and flew off. 

Nature certaiidy never formed a better situation for a fine dairy estab- 
lishment. But it will probably be asked by some persons, where is the 
milk to come from to furnish it ? The time will probably come, and 
perhaps is not very distant, when our mountains will be turned to good 
account. Their sources of wealth are not yet known ; but the spirit of 
enterprise and industry is abroad, and the present generation will hardly 
pass away before the most astonishing changes will be seen in eveiy pait 
of our happy country. 


These, or, as they are sometimes called, " Blue's Rocks," are another 
wonderful work of nature. They are situated on the Wappatomaka, 
about four miles north of Romney, the seat of justice for the county of 
Hampshire. The author has several times viewed this place with exci- 
ted feelings and admiration. The river has cut its way through a moun- 
tain probably not less than five hundred feet high. By what extraordina- 
ry agency it has been able to do this, it is impossible conceive, unless 
we look to that almighty power whose arm effects all his great objects at 
pleasure. On the east side of the river is a huge mass of rocks which 
forms a perpendicular wall several hundred yards in length, and not less 
than three hundred feet high. The opposite point of the mountain is more 
sloping, and luay be ascended by a man on foot. On the top of the 
mountain is a level bench of land, pretty clear of stone, and fine rich soil,- 
upwards of one hundred yards in width ; but, from the difficulty of ap- 
proaching it, it remains in a state of nature. It would, if it could be 
brought into cultivation, doubtless w'ell reward the husbandman for his 

The public road, leading from Romney into the great western highway, 
passes between the margin of the river and the great natural wall formed 
by the rocks. The center of the rocks for about eighty or one hundred 
yards, is composed of fine gray limestone, while on each side are the 
common granite mountain stone. 

The reader will recollect that this is the place where a most bloody 
battle was fought between contending parties of the Catawba and Dela- 
ware Indians, noticed in a preceding chapter of this volume. 

One other natural curiosity remains to be noticed, and that is, what is 
called the "Butterfly rocks." These rocks are to be seen in Fry's gap, 
on Cedar creek, in the county of Frederick. The whole mass of rocks 
are intermixed whh petrified flies, of various sizes. The entire shape of 
the wings, body, legs, head, and even the eyes of the flies, are distinctly 
to be discovered. The rocks are of deep brown color, and of the slate 

Tie author will conclude this- section with a brief notice of an avalaii- 


the or moirnlani slide, which he has oniitted to notice in its proper pla( e- 
In the monUi of June, in the renr\arkable wet spring; and summer of the 
year 1804, during a most tremendous and awful llood of rain, near the 
summit of the Little North mountain, a vast column of water suddenly 
gushed from the eastern side, and rapidly descending;, \vilh its tremen- 
<lous current, tore away every tree, of whatever size, rocks of eight or 
ten tons weight, hurling them into the level lands below, and threatening 
desolation awl destruction to everything which was within the limits ol 
its vortex. In its passage down the mountain it opened a chasm from 
ten to fifty y:\n\s. in width, and from eight or ten to twelve or fifteen feet 
in depth. The farm of Mr. David Funkhouser, which the flood took in 
ks course, was greatly injured, and a beautiful meadow covered over 
wuth the wood, stone, and other rubbish. The flood ran into the lower 
floor of his dwelling house, thi' foundation of w-hioh is elevated at least 
three feet above the surface of the grctund. This rent m the side of the 
mountain, at the distance of five or six miles, presented for many years 
the appearance of u very wide road. It is now grown up thickly with 
young pine timber, and so crowded that there is scarcely room for a man 
Xo pass between them. 



Our country abounds in medical waters. Numerous sulphur springs ex- 
ist, particularly in the slate lands and mountains. Springs, of various 
qualities of water, arc also to be seen, several of which are remarkable 
for their superior virtues in the cure of the various disorders of the human 

It is not within the plan of this work to notice all the me<lical springs 
which the author has seen and heard of. He will content himself with a 
brief account of those deemed most valuable, beginning with Bath, in 
the county of Morgan. 

This is doubtless the most ancient watering place in the valley. Tra- 
dition relates that those springs were known to the Indians as possessing 
valuable medical properties, and were much frequented by them. They 
were anciently called the " Berkeley Warm Sj)rings," and have always 
kept their character for their medical virtues. They are much resorted to 
not only for their value as medicinal waters, but as a place (in the season) 
of recreation and pleasure. Bath has become a considerable village, is 
the scat of justice for Morgan county, and has several stores and boarding 
jiouscs. It is too publicly known to require further notice in this work. 


It is not more than twelve or fourteen years since this spring was first 
resorted to as a watering place, though it was known for some years be- 
fore to possess some peculiar medicinal qualities. A few extraordinary 
eures were ofTected by the use of the water, of obstinate scorbutic com- 
T>laints. and !< s-uUlenly acquir'^d n high reputation. A company of gen- 


tlcmen in its neigliborkood joined and purchased the site, and torthwUh 
4^rected a large brick bnaiding hou.'^e, and ten or twelve small buildinps 
for the accommodation of visitors. For several years it held a high rank 
among our watering places. 


Thes«i arc situated between the Little North mountain and Paddy'.s 
mountain, forming the head fountain of Cedar creek, and about twenty- 
tight or thirty miles south-west of Winchester, and seven or eight miles 
north-west of Woodstock. These springs are acquiring a high character 
for their valuable medical qualities, though it is only lour or five years 
since they have been resorted to. It is well ascertauied that the water 
from at least one of them has the powerful quality of expelling the hots 
from the horse. 

Another of the springs is called "the Poison spring," and it is asserted 
by the people of the neighborhood that by drinking the water freely, and 
bathing the part wounded, it will immediately cure the bite of any poi- 
sonous snake. 

There arc five or six beautiful transparent springs within a circumference 
of one hundred and fifty or two hundred yards, several of which are yet 
unimproved. Nature has seldom done more for an advantageous water- 
ing place than she has exhibited at these springs. No place the author 
has ever seen presents more conveniences for the construction of baths. — 
One of the springs is discharged from an elevated point of a ridge, and 
has fall and water enough to construct any reasonable number ol' sliowei 
baths. It is asserted by those who attend the springs, that several great 
cures of obstinate scorbutic complaints have been made by the use of the 
water. One remarkable instance was related to the author. A little 
boy, of eight or nine years of age, had become dreadfully disordered by 
eruptions all over his body, which formed large running ulcers. The 
complaint baffled all the efforts of the most skillful phisicians in the neigh- 
borhood, and continued for about twelve months, when the child's life 
was despaired of. An uncle of the child, who was accpiainted with the 
valuable quality of these waters, took him to the springs, dnd by repeat- 
edly washing his body with the water of the poison spring, and also his 
freely drinking it, in ten or twelve days the child was perfectly cured, and 
has ever since remained in fine health. Within one and a (piarter miles 
from this place there is a fine white sulphur spring, which is said to pos- 
sess very active cathartic qualities. It is also said thai the water has a 
sweetish taste, and is by some called the sweet sulphur spring. The wa- 
ter has a pure crystal look, and is discharged from a spring at the l)ase 
of Paddy's mountain. Plunging baths may be multiplied at pleasure. — 
The waters are pretty cool ; a handsome bath house is erected, and the 
visitors use it freely. 

Sixteen neat looking dwelling house's have been erected by as many 
proprietors within the last four or five years ; but unfortunately there is 
no regular boarding house estabiishetl, which has licretofore prevented 
much resort to thi^ j)lace. In the hands of a man of capital and entrr- 
piise, i» doubtless raight be made one of the most charming rural summer 


retreats west of the Blue ridge. It has the advantage of a most l)Paiiti- 
ful summer road much the greater part of the whole route from Winclies- 
ter; what is called Frye's gap, within twelve miles of Winchester, heing 
by far the worst part of it ; and an excellent road can be made at inconsid- 
erable expense across the Little North mountain. Travelers passing up 
or down the valley, would in the summer season fuid this a delightful 
resting place, if it was put in a proper state of improvement for their accom- 
modation, nor is it more than seven or eight miles out of the direct road. 
The present buildings are arranged so as to leave in the center a beautiful 
grove of young oak and other timber, wliieh affords a lovely shade in hot 
weather, Near Capt. J. Bond's dwelling house, within three hundred 
}-Hrds of the mineral springs, there ir a fine large limestone spring. 


TJiese springs arc near the head waters of Stony creek, about seventeen 
or eighteen miles south-west of Woodstock. The waters are composed 
of several lively springs, are strong chalybeate, and probably impregnated 
with some other mineral besides iron. Every thing the water passes 
through or over is beautifully lined with a bright yellow fringe or moss. 
The use of this water is found very beneficial for the cure of several 
complaints. There are ten or twelve small buildings erected by the 
neighboring people for their private accommodation. 

The iiiithor visited this watering place about four years ago. A Mr. 
Kaufman had brought with him, the day preceding, the materials for a 
small framed dwelling house. He reached the place early in the day, 
raised his house, had the shingles and weatherboarding nailed on, the 
floor laid, and doors hung, and ate his dinner in it the next day at one 
o'clock. The author had the pleasure of dining with the old gentleman 
and lady, when they both communicated the foregoing statement of facts 
to him. A free use of this water acts as a most powerful cathartic, as 
does also a small quantity of the fwnge or moss mixed with any other 
kind of water. 


The late Henry Frye, of Capon, upwards of forty years ago, informetl 
the author that lie was the first discoverer of the valuable ])roj)erties of 
this celebated watcrinnr place. He staled that he was huntintr, and killed 
a large bear on the side of the mountain near the springs, and becoming 
dry, lie descended the glen in search of water, where he found a large 
•spring, but it was thickly covered with moss and other rubbage ; on re- 
moving which, he drank of the water, and found it disagreealily warm. 
It at once occurred to him that it possessed some valuable medical qual- 
ities. The next summer his wife got into bad liealth, and was afllicted 
with rheumatic and probably other debilitating disorders. He went and 
cleared out the springs, erected a small cabin, removed his wife there, 
and remained four or five weeks, when the use of the waters had restored 
1ii'=; wife to a state of fine health. From this occurrence it took the name 
<■,(■ <« Frvp'- .':]irings," .ind wa^ called l.ty that namf for many year.';. By 
vv:liat whiiii nr fiq)rice llie name was changed 1e that of '« C'Rpnn," tlic 


author cannot explain. It is situateil four miles east of Capon river, .ind 
with what propriety it has taken the narnc of that river, tlic reader can as 
readily determine as the author. This place is too publicly known to re- 
quire a minute description in this work ; suffice it to say, that it is located 
in a deep narrow glen, on the west side of the Great North mountain. — 
The road across the mountain is rugged arwl disagreeable to travel, but 
money is now raising by lottery to improve it. The trustees for several 
years past have imposed a pretty heavy tax upon visitors for the use of 
the waters. This tax is intended to raise funds for keeping the baths, 
&c. in repair. There are seventeen or eighteen houses erected without 
much regard to regularity, and a boarding establishment capable of ac- 
commodating fifty or sixty visitors, which is kept in excellent style. 

The waters at this place are a few degrees cooler than the waters of 
Bath ; but it is believed by many that they possess some qualities far 
more powerful. There is no fact better known, than that an exclusive 
use of the water for five or six days, (like the waters at Salus,) will expel 
-the bots from, horses. This place is twenty-two miles siouth-west of 


This fine white sulphu'- spring lies about four miles west of Lo«t river, 
in a most romantic retired glen in the mountains. It is almost wholly in a 
state of nature, the nearest dwelling house to it being about two miles, 
and is but little known and resorted to as a watering place. The spring 
has been cleaned out, and a small circular wall placed around it, and a 
beautiful lively stream of water discharged. It would probably require a 
tube of one and a half or two inches diameter to vent the water. Every 
thing the water passes over or touches is pretty thickly incrusted with 
pure white sulphur. The water is so highly impregnated as to be quite 
unpleasant to the taste, and can be smelled thirty or forty feet from the 
spring. The use of the water is found very eflricacious in several com- 
plaints, particularly in autumnal bilious fevers. The people in the neigh- 
borhood say, that persons attached with bilious complaints, by a single 
dose of Epsom salts, worked off with this water, in three or four days axe 
entirely relieved and restored to heath. The author cannot pretend to 
express his own opinion of the valuable properties of this water, merely 
liaving seen it as a transient passenger. Jiut he has no hesitation in 
saying that it presents to the eye the appearance of by far the most val- 
uable sulphur water he has ever yet seen. There is level land enough 
around it for the erection of buildings sufficient for the accommodation of 
a great, many visitors. A fine and convenient road can be had 1o it from 
'Lost river, a gap in the mountain iearlingto it being generally quilw level, 
and wide enough for the purpose. It is probably twenty-three or twen- 
four miles south-west of Capon springs. 

paddy's cap, or maurer's white sulphur spring. 

This is a small pure white sulphur spring, and i!<; said to possess some 
valuable medicinal qualities. It lief in Paddy's gap, about halfway bc- 
•lAvecn Capon ^nd Salus springs. 



Tliosc arc situnted about one mile .south ol' the n\si(k'iice nt Moses Rus- 
soil, Es(j., neventecn miles nortli-wcst of Winchester. Tlic waters are 
considered too cold to bathe in. A bath house has been erected, but it 
is little used. The waters arc pure and salubrious, discharged from the 
base of the North mountain, and if i^ood accommodations were kept, it 
would doubtless become a resting place for travelers in the season for 
visiting the Capon springs. Mr. George Ritenour has lately erected a 
tajuiery at this place, and it will probably become a place of business. 

Williams's white sulphur springs, formerly DuvAtL's. 

These arc situated about six miles north-east of Winchester, A 
commodious boarding house has been erected by Mr. Williams, who is 
going on yearly with additional improvements, to meet the increasing 
pf^l)uhirity of the establishment. 

There are three or four other sidphur springs which were formerly pla- 
ces of considerable resort, but the}) have fallen into disrepute. The au- 
tliur therefore considers it unnecessary to give them any parlicular notice 
in this work. Many chalybeate springs are to be met with in our moun- 
tains, but it is not deemed necessary to describe them. 


The author will conclude with a ])rief notice of a light gray earth of 
singular texture, and probably containing some highly valuable properties. 
A considerable bank of this earth or clay is to be seen about two miles 
below Salus springs. When dissolved in water it makes a beauliful 
whitewash, and is said to be more adhesive than lime. It is remarkably 
»soft, being easily cut with a knife, has an unatuous or rather soapy feel 
when pressed between the fingers, and when mixed with a small quanti- 
ty of water, forms a tough adhesive consistence, very much resembling 
dough made of wheat Hour. 

Tile author, when he fust heard of this bank of earth, concluded it was 
probably fuller's earth, so highly prized by the manufacturers of cloth, 
&c. in England ; but upon an examination of it, it does not appear to 
answer the description given by chemists of that earth. It is highly pro- 
bable thai it would be i'ound a )uost vidiiable manure, and in all likeli- 
hood would on trial make a beautiful ware of the pottery kind for domes- 
tic use. It would, in the opinion of the writer, be well worth while for 
jnauufiicturers and others to visit this pi, ice and examine for themselves. 
The author has no |)retensions to a knowledge of chemistry, and tlu^relore 
cannot give anything like an analytical dcsuiption of this singular and 
curious khid of earth. 



l$i'$€iiptioii of Weyer's Cave. 

BY H. L. COOKE, A. M. 

Weykh's Cave is situated near the noTthern extremity of Augusta ronn- 
ty, Va., seventeen miles north-east of Staunton, on the eastern side oi 
the ridcre running nearly N. and E. parallel to the P.luc Ridge, and some- 
what more than two miles distant from it. 

The western declivity of this ridge is very gradual, and the visitor, as 
he approaches from that direction, little imagines from its appearance that 
it embowels one of Nature's masterpieces. The eastern declivity, how- 
ever, is quite precipitous and difHcult of ascent. 

The Guide's house is situated on the northern extremity of this ridge, 
and is distant eight hundred yards from the entrance of the Cave. In- 
going from the house to the Cave, you pass the entrance of Madison's 
Cave, which is two hundred and twenty yards from the other. Madison's 
Cave was known, and visited as a curiosity, long before the discovery of 
Weyer's, but it is now passed by and neglected, as unworthy of notice, 
compared with its more imposing rival, although it has had the pen of a 
Jefferson to describe its beauties. 

Let me remark here, that the incurious visitor, who goes because oth- 
ers go, and is but slightly interested in the mysteries of Nature, may re- 
tain his usual dress when he enters the Cave which I am attemjiting to 
describe; — ])ut if he is desirotis of prying into every recess, — climbing 
every accessible precipice, — and seeing all the beauties of this sublcrni- 
ncan wonder, I would advise him to provide himself with siuh habili- 
ments as will withstand craggy projections, or receive no detriment from 
a generous coating of mi5d. 

The ascent from the bottom of the hill to tlie mouth of the Cave is 
steep, but is rendered less fatiguing, by the zigzag course of the ])ath, 
which is one hundred and twenty yards in length. 

Before entering the Cave, let us rest ourselves on the benches before 
the door, that we may become jicrfectly cool, while the Guide unlocks 
the door, strikes a light and tells the story of its first discovery. 

It seems that about the year 1804, one Bernnrd Wcyor ranged tliesc 
hills as a hunter, V/hile pursuing his daily vocation, he (iiiind Ids match 
in a lawless Ground Hog, whicli not only eliided all his efforts, but 
eventually succeeded in carrying off" the traps which hod been set f'oi- bis- 


rapture. Enraged at the loss of his traps he made an assa>dt tipon the 
doraicil of tlie depredator, witli spade and mattock. 

A few moments hibor broufjht him to the ante-chamber of this stupen- 
dous Cavern, where he found his traps safely deposited. 

The entrance originally was small and difficult of access; hut the enter- 
prise of the Proprietor has obviated these inconveniences: it is now en- 
closed hy a wooden w'all, having a door in the centre, which admits you to 
the Ante-Chamber. 

At fus-t it is about eight feet in height, but after proceeding a few yards, 
iji a S. W. direction, it becomes contracted to the space of three or four 
feet square. 

At the distance of twenty-four feet from the entrance, — ^descending at 
an angle of nineteen degrees, — you reach the Dragon's Room, so called 
irom a stalactitic concretion, which the Nomenclator undoubtedly suppos- 
ed to resemble that nondescript animal.. , 

Above the Dragon's room there is an opening of considerable beauty, 
but of small size, called the Devil's Gallery. 

Leaving this room, which is not very interesting, you proceed in a more 
southerly direction, to the entrance of Solomon's Temple, through a 
high but narrow passage, sixty-six feet in length, which is by no means 
difficult of access. Here you make a perpendicular descent of thirteen 
feet, by means of an artificial bank of earth and rock, and you find your- 
self in one of the finest rooms in the whole Cave. It is irregular in shape, 
being thirty feet long, and forty-five broad — runing nearly at right angles 
to the main course of the Cave. As you raise your eyes, after descend - 
ingthe bank before mentioned, they rest upon an elevated seat, surround- 
ed by sparry incrustations, which sparkle beautifully in the light of your 

This is not unaptly styled Solomon's Throne. Every thing in this 
room, receives its name from the Wise Man; immediately to the left of 
the steps, as you descend, you will find his Meat-house; and at the east- 
ern extremity of the room, is a beautiful pillar of white stalactite, some- 
what defaced by the smoke of candles, called by his name. With strange 
inconsistency, an incrustation resembling falling water, at the right of the 
btejjs, has obtained the name of the Falls of Niagara. 

Passing Solomon's Pillar, you enter another room, more irregular than 
the first, but still more beautiful. It would be impossible adequately to 
describe the magnificence of this room. I shall iherefore merely observe, 
that it is thickly studded with beautiful stalactites, resembling, in Ibrm 
and color, the roots f)f radishes, which have given the appellation of 
Radish Room to this delightful place. 

I cannot refrain from reprobating here, the vandal spirit of some visi- 
tors, who rcgarflless nf all prohibitions, will persist in breaking off and 
defacing, these splendid specimens of Nature's workmanship, forgetting 
that a single blow may destroy the work of centuries. 

The main passage to the rest f)f the Cavern is immediutely opposite to 
(he entrance to Solomon's Temp|f% and you reach it by an ascent of 
twelve feet, to what is called Tii»! Porter's Lodge. From this place, pur- 
.suing the same course, yiu pass along a passage varying from ten to- 


tliirly feet in lieiglit — iVom tea to fifteen in breadth — ^and fifty-eight in 
length, until yoii reach Barney's Hall, which receives its name from 
the fancied resemblance of a prostate stalactite, at the base of one that is 
upright, to old Com. Barney, and tlie cannon that he used at the "Bla* 
densburgh races." 

Near the centre of the room, which is small and scai'cey deserves the 
name, an upright board points ©ut to the visitor the main path of the 
Cave, which runs to the right. Two passages run off to the left — the 
first one to a large, irregular room, called the Lawyer's Office, in 
which is a line spring, or rather a reservoir where the droppings from 
the ceiling have collected ; — the other, through a passage to what is 
called The Armory, from an incrustation that has received the name of 
Ajax's Sheild. Between the Lawyer's Office and the Armory, and com- 
municating with both, is another large, irregular apartment, which is 
named Weyer's Hall, after the original discoverer of the Cave, who 
together with his dog, stands immortalised in one corner. 

Before we get bewildered and lost in this part of the Cave, which is 
more intricate than any other, let us return to the guide board in Bar- 
ney's Hall, and pursue the route usually taken by visitors. Following 
the right hand opening mentioned above, which is rather low, being not 
more than five feet high, you pass into the Twin Room, taking heed lest 
you fail into the Devil's Bake Oven, which yawns close by your feet, — • 
This room is small, and communicates directly with the Bannister 
Room, which is fifty-nine feet from the guide board. The arch here sud- 
denly expands, and becomes elevated to the height of thirty feet, and by 
dint of hard climbing you may return to the Porter's Lodge, through a 
passage directly over the one which you have just passed. 

A descent of thirty-nine feet due west from the Twin Room, brings 
you to the Tanyard, which contains many beauties. The floor is irre- 
gular; in some places sinking into holes somewhat resembling tan vats, 
which together with several hanging stalactites resembling hides, have 
given a name to this immense apartment. On the S. E. side of the 
room, immediately to the left of the main path, is a large opening, which 
admits you at once into the Armory. 

It may be well to remark here, that a notice of many beautiful appear- 
ances in the different rooms has been omitted, because they are noted 
upon the Map of the Cave, lately published by the author of this sketch. 

Changing your course to the N. W. you leave the Tanyard by a rough 
but not difficult ascent of twenty feet, at an angle of eighteen degrees, 
into what may be considered an elevated continuation of the same room, 
but which has been deservedly digiiilied with a distinct a|)pellation. 

To your right, as you step upon level ground, you will observe a per- 
pendicular wall of rock, rising with great regularity ; if you strike upon 
it with your hand, it sends forth a deep, mellow sound, strongly resemb- 
ling: the tones of a Bass Drum, whence the room has received the name 
of the Drum Room. Upon a closer examination, this apparent wall will 
be found to be only a thin stalactitic partition, extending irom tlie criling' 
to the iloor. 



You leave the Drum Room by a flight of natural steps, seven feet in 
perpendicular height. A large opening now presents itself, which ex- 
pands to an extensive apartment, to reach which it is necessary to make a 
nearly perpendicular descent of ten feet, by means of substantial stone 
steps. This apartment is the far-famed Ball Room. It is one hundred 
feet long, 36 wide, and about twenty-five high, running at right angles 
to the path by which you entered it. The general course of this room is 
from N. to S. — but at the northern extremity, there is a gradual ascent, 
bearing round to the east, until you reach a precipice of twenty or thirty 
feet, from which you can look down into the Tanyard. 

Near the center of the Ball Room, is a large calcareous deposit, that 
has received the name of Paganini's Statue, from the circumstance that 
it furnishes a good position for the music, whenever balls are given in 
these submundane regions. Tlje floor is sufliciently level to admit of 
dancing upon it, and it was formerly common to have balls here. The 
ladies are accommodated with a convenient Dressing Room, the only 
opening to which communicates directly w^ith the Ball Room. 

You leave this room by a gradual ascent of forty-two feel at the south- 
ern extremity. This acclivity is called The Frenchman's Hill, from the 
following circumstance : — Some years since, a French gentleman visited 
the Gave, accompanied only by the Guide ; they had safely gone 
through, and returning, had reached this hill, when by some accident 
both their lights were extinguished, and they were left in Egyptian dark- 
ness, without the means of relighting them. Fortunately, the Guide, 
from his accurate knowledge of localities, conducted him safely to the en- 
trance — a distance of more than five hundred feet. 

Another gentleman by the name of Patterson, has immortalised his 
name by attempting the same feat, although it was a complete failure. — 
Hearing of the Frenchman's adventure, he sent his company ahead, and 
undertook to find his way back without a light, from the Ball Room to 
tiie entrance. He succeeded in ascending the steps, but had proceeded 
only a few paces farther^ when his feet slipped from' under him, and he 
was laid prostrate in an aperture, where he lay unliurt until his compan- 
ions, akirmed at his protracted absence, returned for him. His resting 
})lace is called Patterson's (jrave, to this day. 

From the Froich Hill, a long, irregular passage extends, in a N. W. 
direction, which is denominated the is arrow Passage. This passage is 
fifty-two feet long — from tliree to five feet wide — and from four to eiglit 
high. It leads you to the brink of a precipice twelve feet liigh. 

Natural indentations in ihe face ot this precipice, afford a convenient 
means of descent, and these natural steps have received the name of Ja- 
cob's Ladder. To correspond with this name, as in Solomon's Temple, 
everything is namerl after the Patriarch; a ll;it rock opposite to the end of 
the Narrow Passage, is Jacob's Tea Table! ;>iu\ a deep, inaccessible per- 
foration in the rock by its side, is Jacob's Ice house! ! Descending the 
Ladder, you turn to the left, and pass through a nnrrovv oj^ening, still con- 
tinuing to descend though less perpendicularly, to the centre of a small 
apartment called the Dcjngeon. 

This roDu; commuiiiwittei immediitslv with the !^enate Cha^mber, 


over nearly half of which stretches a thin fldl rock, at the height of 
six or eight feet from the the floor, forming a sort of gallery, which prob- 
ably suggested the name which has been given to the room. 

The Senate Chamber communicates by a high, broad opening, with a 
much larger apartment, called Congress Hall, — an appellation bestow- 
ed ratheE on account of its proximity to the last mentioned room than 
from any thing particularly appropriate in the room itself. It is long, and 
like the Ball Room runs at right angles to the main path, which winds to 
the left, as you enter. Its course is nearly N. & S. and a wall, perfora- 
ted in many places, runs through its whole length. Instead of pursuing 
the customary route, w^e will turn to the right and explore the dark recess 
that presents itself. 

The floor of Congress Hall is very uneven, and at the northern extrem- 
ity rises somew^hat abruptly. If you climb this j^cent, and pass through 
one of the perforations in the wall above mentioned, you can see through 
the whole extent of the other half of the room, — but cannot traverse it, 
on account of two or three deep pits that occupy the whole space be- 
tween the western side of the room and the wall. 

Turning to the right of the opening through which you just passed, 
your eye vainly attempts to penetrate the deep, dark abyss that is present- 
ed to view, and you hesitate to descend. Its name — The Infernal 
Regions! — does not offer many inducements to enter it: in addition to 
this, the suspicion that it contained fixed air, for many years deterred the 
curious from visiting it, and consequently it has not until recently, been 
thoroughly explored. 

In the spring of 1883, 1 determined at all hazards to explore this room — 
for I doubt the existence of any bad air, as I had never detected any in 
the course of extensive researches in almost every part of the Cave. My 
brother and the guide accompanied me, each carrying two candles, and 
thus prepared we descended twenty feet before we reached a landing 
place. Here our candles burned dimly, and great care w^as necessary to 
prevent them from going out entirely; yet we experienced no difheulty ol" 
breathing,or any other indication of the presence of this much dreaded gas. 
The floor is not horizontal, but inclined at an angle of fifteen or twenty 
degrees, and when we emerged from the pit into which we had first en- 
tered, our candles shone brightly, and displayed to our view a room 
more extensive than any that 1 have yet described. Its greatest length 
was from W. toE. and it seemed to run nearly parallel to the path over whic*!i 
we have just travelled. From its length we are induced to believe that it 
approached very near the Ball room with which it might communicate, by 
vsorae yet undiscovered passag«e. So strongly were we impressed with this 
idea, that wedetermincd, if practicable, to ascertain how far we were correct. 
For this purpose I set my watch exactly with my brother's, and requested liim 
to go to the Ball room and pursue as Gir as possible, a low passage that 
leads to the right, from the foot of the Frenchman's hill, while I went to 
the eastern extremity of this immense apartment. At an appointed mo- 
ment I fired a pistol — but the owly answer was the dt^afening reverbera- 
tions of the sound rolling like thunder along the lofty arches. I sIk'h)- 
■ed — but no return met my ear save the hollow echo of my own voico^ ancJ 


1 began to (liink we had been hasty in our opinion. At this moment a 
beautiful stalactite sparkled in the light of the candle, and I forgot my 
desire to discover an unknown passage, in my anxiety to secure this prize. 
Taking the butt of the pistol, I hammered gently upon it to disengage it 
irom the rock where it hung. I was surprised to hear the taps distinctly 
answered apparently from the centre of the solid rock, and a repetition 
of the blow brought a repetition of the answer. After comparing our impres- 
sions, we weresatisfied tliere could l)ebut little space between thetwo rooms. 

We have lingered so long in these Infernal Regions,* that we 
must hasten back to the spot whence we diverged in the centre of 
Congress Hall. Our course now lies to the S. W. up a perpendicular 
ascent of seventeen feet to what is called the Lobby. From this place, 
an expert climber may pass through secret passages and bye rooms to tiie 
end of the Cave, without once entering the main path. You have as- 
cended to the Lobby only to descend again on the other side, when you 
rqach the most magnificent apartment in the whole Cave. 

This is' Washingtons' Hall, so called in token of respect for the 
memory of our Country's Father, and is worthy of bearing the name. — 
Its length is two hundred and fifcy-seven feet — its breadtli from ten 1o 
twenty — its height thirty-three, and it is remarkably level and straight 
through the whole length. Not far from the centre of this room, is an 
immense deposite of calcareous matter rising to the height of six or seven 
fdet, which strikingly resembles a statue clothed in draperv. 'I'his is 
Washington's Statue, and few can look upon it as seen by the dim light 
of two or three candles which rather stimulate than repress the imagina- 
tion, without experiencing a sensation of solemnity and awe, as if (hey 
were actually in the presence of the mighty dead. 

Ev ascending a bank, near the entrance, of five or six feet perpendicu- 
lar height, _you cn'er another room called the Theatre, from the fact that 
difTerent parts of it corr»€pDnd to the stage, gallery and pit. I notice 
this room, which is otherwise uninteresting, for the purpose of mention- 
ing a circumstance, related to me by Mr. Bryan a former guide, which 
confirms an o|)inion that I have long entertained, that the whole Cave is 
thoroughly ventilated l)y some unknown communication with the n]-)per 
air. About six years since, during a heavy anri protracted rain which 
raised the waters of the South River that flows at the bottom 
of the cave-hill, to an unprecedented height, Mr. B. conducted a 
comnanv throuofh the Cave. As he ascenrled the stairs that lead to the 
Lobby, he heard the rush of water; fearing that the Cave was flooding, 
lie directed the visitors to remain in Congress Hall, while he investigated 
the cause of the unusual and alarming noise. Cautiously descending in- 
to Washington's Hall, he f'lllowed the sound until he arrived opjiosite to the 
entrance of the 'J'lieatre, in which he saw a column of water pouring from 
the ccilincr into the pit, and losing itself in the numerous crevices that a- 
l)oiind. Whf'ti the rain ceased, the floorl was staverl, ruid it has ne\cr 
been repeated; but even al lh<' present liiru', small jicliliies and gravel, 

*For an aircounl of snnv rrr-pn! inlere-<fiiig discoveries in' this room. 
sec note 'ui jifigc -20(5. 


resembling ilial found on the top of the hill, may he seen in the Theatre. 
No aperture is visible from within, neither has any perforation been disf-over- 
ed on the surface of the hill — yet beyond a doubt, some conununication 
with the exterior does exist. 

I have said that the breadth of WashinQ-ton's Hall is from ten to 
twenty feel; this must be understood as applying to the lower part of 
the room, for the arch stretches over a rock twenty feet hi^h, which 
forms the left wall, and embraces another room called Lady Washing- 
ton's room. The entrance to this apartment is opposite to the Statue, 
and is on a level Avith the Hall. The wall that separates the two rooms, 
is ten feet thick, and is named The Rock of Gibraltar. One or two 
candles placed upon this rock, produce a fine effect, particularly if every 
other light is extinguished; for it shows you the arch, spreading out 
with beautiful regularitv, until it is lost in the surrounding dai'kness, 
and imagination, supplying the deficiency oi' vision, peoples the dark 
recesses with hosts of matterless phantoms. You leave this splendid 
apartment at the S. W. extremity, by a rough and narrow, but high 
passage, running at the foot of the Pyramids of Egypt and Cleojiatra's 
Needle! At the end of this passage, in a recess to the right is another 
spring or reservoir, similar to the one in the Lawyer's Office. A de- 
scent of eio-ht or ten feetbrin<i:s vou into the Diamond Room, which mnv 
be considered as forming a part of The Church, a long, irregular 
room more lofty than any that we have yet entered. Its length is one 
hundred and fif.y-two feet — its breadth from ten to fifteen — and its 
lieight fifty! At the farthest extremity, a beautiful white spire shoots ii]> 
to a considerable height, which is appropriately styled The Stecjilc, and 
has no doubt, suggesteil the name of the room. Nearly opposite to the 
centre of the Church, is a recess of considerable extent and elevation, 
which forms a very good Gallery; in the rear of the Gallery, and in full 
view from below, is a great number of pendant stalactites several ievt 
long and of various sizes, ranged like the pipes of an organ, and bear- 
ino: a strikino; resemblance to them. If these stalactites are struck bv 
any hard substance, they send forth sounds of various })itches, accord- 
ing to their sizes, and if a stick be rapidly run along several of them 
at once, a pleasing variety of notes is produced. This formation is call- 
ed the Organ. 

Passing under the Steeple, which rests on an arch elevated not morp 
than ten feet, you enter the Dinino Room. This room is named from a 
long natural table, that stands on the left, and is -not quite as large as the 
Church, though its heijxht is sixty feet. But for the sort of wail which 
the Steeple makes, it mi<2:ht be considered as a continuation of the Church. 
A little to the left of the table, you will see a small uninviting opening; 
if you are not deterred by its unpromisingappearance,we will enter and see 
Aviiither it will If;ad us. Proceeding only a few paces you wll sufldenly 
find yourself in an immense apartment, ]):iral!el to the Dining room, ex- 
lending to the Gallery in the Church, with which it communicates. This 
is .Jackson's Room, and is rather uninteresting on rccou'it of it«; irregu- 
larity, but it leads to one that deserves notice. Directly opposite (o the 
little pa^'sage which conducted you hither, i*; n. largt; opening; passing 


this, the walls contract until only a narrow pass a few feet long, is Jefl, 
which coMclucts ytKi, if not to the most magnificent, at least to one of the 
m-ost beautiful and interesting portions of the w^hole Cavern. There is 
but one apartment, and that is small, but the Garden of Eden, for so it 
is called, derives its beauty from the singular arrangement of the im- 
mense stalactites, that hang from the roof, and unite with the stalagmites 
which have ascended from the floor to meet them: or in few words, it 
seems as if at some former period, a sheet of water had poured dow-n from 
the roof and by some wonderful operation of Nature had become sudden- 
Iv petrified. This sheet is not continuous, but strongly resembles the 
folds of heavy drapery, and ycni may pass among its windings as through 
the mazes of a labyrinth, and the light of a candle shines distinctly 
through any part of it. A portion of the lloor of this room is composed 
of beautiful fine yellow sand; the floor of most, if not all other portions of 
the Cave, is a stiff clay, with very few indications of sand. 

We must now retrace our steps to the Dining Room, for there is no oth- 
er place of egress; but as we return, let us make a short digression to the 
left, into a small passage that does not appear to extend very far. Be 
cart ful! — there is a deep hole just before you! — now hold your candle above 
your head and look through the opening, which is large enough to admit 
the body of a man; you will see a deep unexplored abyss, 
^* Where the footstep of mortal has never trod.'''' 

No man has yet ever ventured into this forbidding place, for it can be 
entered only by means of a rope ladder, but it is my intention if my courage 
does not fail me, to attempt at no distant period, to explore the hidden 
mysteries of the apartment. 

Once more in the Dining Room, let us hasten to the completion of our 
task. The main path pursues the same course from this room, that it has 
done ever since you entered Washington's Hall; but your way nowlies up a 
sort of hill, in the side of which, is the opening through which you are to 
pass. If you are adventurous, you will follow me above the opening, up 
the nearly perpendicular face of the rock, to the height of fifty feet, 
where a ledge of rock extends itself, forming the left sicle of the Dining 
Room. From this eminence, called the Giant's Causeway, you can look 
down into the Dining Room, on one side, and Jackson's Room on the 

Great rautinn is necessary in climbing this height, lest too much con- 
fidence be reposed in the projecting stalagmites, that offer a conveni- 
ent and seemingly a secure foot hold to the incautious adventurer. Jt 
must be remembered that they are formed by droppings from the roof, 
and are gLMifrally based on the mud. Ry cautiously desceiuling the ledge 
a few fert on the opposite side to that which we ascenderl, we shall be 
enabled to reach with ease, the room which has already been attained by 
the rest of the company, who have been less adventurous than ourselves 
and passed through tlie opening already pointed out, in ascending the 

This room, or pofhajis it should b? called passatje, is denominated 
Tiir. Wir.DBRNESS, from the roughness of the path-way, and is only 
Ten f«pt wirle, but it rise* to the iramenNc height of ninety or one hundred 


feet! As we come along the Causeway, and look down upon our right, 
\ve shall see our company forty or fifty feet below us, while our eyes can 
scarcely penetrate through the darkness, to the ceiling above our heads. 
Upon the very verge of the rock on which we are standing, are several 
beautiful white stalagmites, or rather columns, grouped together, among 
which one stands pre-eminent. This is Bonaparte with his body-guard, 
crossing the Alps! The effect is peculiarly fine when viewed from be- 

Without descending from our dangerous elevation, w-e will go on our 
way a little further. Proceeding only a few paces from the Emperor, 
you find yourself upon an arch under which your company is passing, 
which is very appropriately called The Natural Bridg-e; but it should 
be crossed with great caution — if at all — for foot hold is insecure, and 
there is danger of being precipitated to the floor beneath. Retracing our 
steps nearly to Bonaparte's statue, we will descend an inclined plane on 
the left, and by a jump of six feet, rejoin our friends at the end of the 

You are now upon the lowest level of the Cave, and at the entrance of 
the farthest room. This is Jefferson's Hall — an extensive and level 
but not very elevated apartment. Before 1 describe this room, we must 
diverge a little and visit one or two rooms that branch off from the main 
path. Directly to your right, as you emerge from the Wilderness, there 
rises an immense mass, apparantly of solid stalagmite, thirty-six feet long 
— thirty feet broad — and thirty feet high; this mass is beautiful beyond 
description; very much resembling successive stories, and is called ihe 
Tower of Babel! The most magnificent portion of the Tower is on the 
back or northern part, but it is difficult of access, for it is necessary to 
climb up the surface of the rock to the height of fifteen or twenty feet ; 
the view however amply repays you for the labor. For a few moments, 
you can scarcely convince yourself that an immense body of water is not 
pouring over the precipice, in a foaming torrent — so white, so dazzling is 
the effulgence of the rock, and when this impression is effaced, the words 
of the pious Bard rush into the mind, where he describes the awful effects 
that will follow the consummation of all things; 

^The Cataract, that lilce a Giant wroth^ 
'Rushed dovm impetuously, as seized at once 
^By sudden frost, vjith all his hoary locks , 
'Stood still!." 
One might almost imagine that Pollock had visited this wonder, and 
caught the idea so forcibly expressed above, from viewing this magnift- 
cent scene. 

We have already so much exceeded our intended limits, that wc can 
only look into the large apartment that occupies the space behind the 
Tower, which is called Sir Walter Scott's Room, and then hasten 
back to the main path. 

Jefferson's room, that we left some time since, is very irreguJEr in 
shape, and is two hundred and thirty-five feet long, following the vari- 
ous windings. What is commonly called the end of the Cave, is dii- 
tino-uished bv two smirular, thin, lamellar rocks, five or six feci ni diamc- 

295 ' APPENDIX. 

ler-, united at their bases, but spreadinir out so that the outer edges are 
several feet apart; this 'is calU^d the Fly Trap ! To the left of tlie Fly 
Trap, is a large recess, where you will liind a fine spring of water, at which 
the weary visitor is glad to siake his thirst, after the fatigues of his ardu- 
ous undertaking. 

Very many visitors have thfcir curiosity satisfied long before they have 
gone o\«€r the ground that we have, but I am writing for those only, who 
like me, are not satisfied until everything ii; seen that is worthy of no- 
tice. Such would not excuse me, did I not mention one more curiosity, 
that few are inclined to visit. A few yards beyond the Fly-trap, there is 
an opening in the solid wall, at the height of about twelve feet, through 
whicli you are admitted by a temporary ladder. By hard climbing, you 
soon penetrate to the end of the recess, where you fmd the source of the 
Nile! This is a beautiful, limpid spring, covered over with a thin pelli- 
cle of stalagmite, yet sufliciently strong to bear your weight; — in this 
crust, there is a perforation that gives you access to the w^ater beneath. 

I have thus very cursorily described, as far as it is practicable, this 
wonderful cavern, but I feel convinced* tliat no pen can adequately de- 
scribe an object so extensive, so magnificent, and so varied in tis beau- 
ties. I shall only add a few remarks in explanation of the motives that 
induced me to prepare this sketch, and some general tacts that could not, 
with propriety, have been stated in the description of individual portions 
of the Cave. To settle a dispute relative to its depth, I was induced to 
make a full and accurat*:; survey of the whole Cavern, which I found had 
never been done. Tins was undertaken solely for my own gratification, 
but the solicitations of the Proprietor, and others, have induced me to con- 
struct a sort of Map, which is now before the public. This Description 
therefore, may be depended upon, as being as accurate as posisible, for 
the distances, heights, elevations, &c. are given from actual measurement. 
The dotted line in the map, represents what h;is so often been called the 
"main j)ath," and if we measure this line the length of the Cave is one 
thousand six hundred and fifty feet. By following its windings, the dis- 
tance inavbe more than doubled. 

At alt times, the air of the Cave is damp, but the damjniess of the floor 
depends much upon the seasons; if you except a moist place near the 
Fly-trap, there is no standing water in all the Cave. The temperature 
remains invariably at lifty-six degrees, in all parts, from which it follows 
that the air feels (piite warm, to a visitor in winter, and directly the re- 
verst: in summer, and it is therefore important that in the summe.i he 
should become perfectly cool before he enters, and in winter, before lie 
leaves it. The spring and fall are the best seasons fos visiting the Cave, 
for then the atmosphere without, is nearly of the same temperature with 
that within, and it is more dry at these times. 

The question is often asked — which of the two great curiosities of Vir- 
ginia is the greatest, Weyer's Cave or the Natural l^ridge? This is not 
a fair question, neither can it be easily answered; for they are totally dif- 
ferent in themselves, and in their effects upon observers. You visit the 
Natural Bridge in the full blaze of noon-day, and when you reach the ob- 
ject of your curiosity, it bursts at onr^e upon your view, in all its magu'dV 


cence an.l granUcur, you comprehend at once llie mao-nltiulc ofthe scene, 
and you turn away, overpowered with a sense of the majesty of Him who 
has spanned that gulf, and thrown His arch across it. Visit it as often as 
you please, this feeling returns upon you with unabated force — lint nf 
new impressions are made— you have seen the whole. 

\ ou visit the Cave by the dim light of a few candles; of course no impres- 
sion will at first be produced, or if any, an unfavorable one. As success- 
ive portions of the Cavern are presented to view, they produce success- 
ive and varied emotions. Now you are filled with delight at the beauty 
ofthe sparkling ceilings; — again, this feeling is mingled with admiration, 
as some object of more than ordinary beauty presents itself; — and anon 
you are filled with awe at the magnitude of the immense chambers, the 
hollow reverberations of the lofty arches, and the profuse display of the 
operations of an omnipotent hand, indistinctness of vision, allows free 
scope to the imagination, and consequently greatly enhances your pleat;- 

Many persons go away from the Cave disappointed; they hear of 
rooms and ceilings, and if they do not expect to see them plaistered and 
white washed, they think at least that they will be mathematically regu- 
lar in form, and that they will be able to walk in them with as much ease 
and see as many wonders as they would in a visit to Aladin's palace! A 
visit to the Cave is not unattended with fatigue, but the pleasure you de- 
I'ive from it, is ample compensation. 

[The author of this pamphlet has omitted to notice what I consider oiu' 
of the greatest and most beau+lful of nature's curiosities in this grarui 
work of nature, i. e., what is called the rising moon. ]n a dark recess, 
on the Eastern side ofthe cave, this curiosity aj^pears in full relief. It is 
a very natural representalion of the moon in lu'r last qunrlcr, rising in 
the morning.] 

(xotp: a.) 

Since the publication ofthe first edition of this DeisCrlption, a discov- 
Giy of great interest has been made in the Infernal Regions, whicli de- 
serves notice, on account of its extraordinary richness and rarity. Thv. 
floor of this apartment, \intil recently, has been supposed to be solid rock^ 
but it isn ow ascertained to be a rich mnie of calccU'cous depositcs, .surpass- 
ing in beauty anvthinf ever yet discovered in this or any other Cavern. By 
perforating "the floor with a crow bar, it was found to consist of successive 
layers of brilliant white crystals, to the depth of three -feet — the layers 
being often interrupted, and varying in width. 

The cjystals are usually pendctit from the lower surfaces of the layers, 
though very many of them serve as pillars to support the supcincumbenl 
mass. After penetrating through the layers, a large gcode or hollow 
space was discovered, extending many yards horizontally, but only three 
feet deep, which was half full of very limpid water. In this cavity the 
crystals assume the form of well-defined dog-tooth spar,and arc nnrivalled 
in brilliancy ajid beauty. In the course of extensive and minute explora- 
tions ill diffcrcnl Caves in thi> a?i(l other States, I have never met with :i 


similar formation, or "\fcith crystals of such transcendent beaut j. By the" 
kindness of the Proprietor, I have been enabled to make a choice collec- 
tion of specimens, embracing almost every variety. For one of these I' 
have refused $100. 

(NOTE B.) 

Much has been said of late, of another Cave that has been discovered 
within two years, in the immediate vicinity of Weyer's. A few words 
respecting it may not be uninteresting. You gain admittance by a long 
flight of steps, and immediately find yourself in a large apartment, the first 
veiw of which, (under the circumstances in which I first saw it — by the 
light of several hundred candles,) is very imposing. 

Pillars and enormous pendent stalactites impart an air of wildness and 
irregularity to the scene, that is not observable in the other Cave. There 
are few narrow passages; — the cavern seems to be comprised in one im- 
mense room, its lloor however being so uneven and rugged, and the view 
so much curtailed by pillars and stalactites that extend nearly to the floor, 
that the effect which otherwise would be produced by its vastness, is very 
sensibly diminished. I have not space to describe this Cave more mi- 
nutely, but will briefly give my impressions of the comparative merits of 
these rival claimants of our admiration. We are immediately struck with 
astonishment and pleasure, at the general view that is presented to us in 
Weast's Cave, as long as we look at it at a little distance — but our emo- 
tions arc not very varied; and when we examine closely the objects of 
our admiration, our emotions subside, for their beauty is gone. 

As we enter Weyer's Cave, we are not transported with those violent 
yet agreeable emotions, but as we proceed, new and richer beauties rise 
successively before us, and our feelings rise with tliem, until they reach an 
almost painful degree of intenseness, nor is the eflect lessened by the most 
minute examination of the objects of our admiration. Weast's Cave richly 
deserves a visit from all who love to contemplate the works of Nature, 
but in variety, 'in beauty, and in general effect, it must yield ihe palm to 







The great reputation Avliich the ^lineral Springs of Virginia have of late 
years acquired, causes them to be resorted to, in great numbers, not only 
^y invalids from every section of the U- S. and foreign parts, but also by 
individuals of leisure and fashion, whose principal object is, to pass the 
summer in an agreeable manner. The properties of the Warm, Hot, Sweet, 
White Sulphur, Salt Sulphur, and Red Sulphur Springs, are generally 
known. Those of the Grey Sulphur having been ascertained only within 
the two last years, have yet to be made public, and in order to do so, we 
are induced to give, in this form, an account of the situation and medical 
properties, together with a statement of some of the cases benefited by 
the use of the waters. 

The Grey Sulphur Springs are situated near the line, dividing the coun- 
ties of Giles and Monroe, Va., on the main road leading from the court- 
house of the one to that of the other. They are 3-4 of a mile from Peters- 
town, nine miles from the Red Sulphur, and by the county road, twenty 
and a quarter miles from the Salt Sulphur Spring. In traveling to the 
Virginia Springs, by either the main Tennessee or Goodspur Gap road, 
and crossing the country from Newbern, by the stage road to the Sulphur 
Springs, the Grey Sulphur are the first arrived at. They are thirty miles 
distant from Newbern. The location is such as to admit of many and 
varied improvements, which when completed, will render this spot an el- 
egant and desirable resort during the summer months, independent of the 
high medicinal properties of the Mineral Waters. 

The present improvements consist of a brick Hotel ninety feet long and 
thirty-two wide; two ranges of cabins one hundred and sixty-two feet long 
each, which, with other buildings in connexion, afford accommodation for 
from ninety to one hundred visitors. 

There are two springs at this establishment, situated within five feet of 
each other and inclosed in one building. Although rising so near to each 
other, yet they differ most materially in their action on the system. J3oth 
appear to be peculiarly serviceable in dyspeptic cases, and in such as orig- 
inate in a disorderefl state of the stomach — the one in those, in which in- 
flammation exists, the other in such as proceed from torj)idity. They have 
hitherto been known as Large and Small Springs; but having succeeded 
towards the close of the last season in procuring a much larger sujiply of 

•2'.}u ai'1m:m)JX. 

Avaler at llic .Small Spring, than i:5 afforded Ly the Large, a change of 
iiamcs became necessary. The large will hereafter be l^nown as the An- 
ti-Dyspeptic, and the Small as the Aperient, which names will serve to 
point out their peculiar characteristics. 

These Springs have been classed by Professor Shepard, as '■'■Jilkalino 
Sulphurous^'' a variety so rarely met with, that another is not known in 
the United States. The waters arc beautifully clear, and highly charged 
with gas, which render them light and extremely pleasant, especially that 
of the Anti-Dyspeptic Spring, wkich ])roduccs none of those unpleasant 
sensations so frequently felt on the first drinking of Mineral Waters. 

When first purchased some of the water was submitted to a chemist for 
analysis; the quantity, however, was too small for him to ascertain all its 
ingredients. A more recent examination has been made by Professor C. 
\'. Shepard, wdio has iurnished us with the following abstract of an arti- 
cle which appears in the April Number (1836) of Professor Silliman's 
Journal of Science and arts. 

"The following is the most satisfactory view which my experiments 
■enable me to present of the condition of these Waters, 
Specific gravity, 1,003. 



Hydro -Sulphuric acid, 

I'i-Carbonate of Soda, 

A Super Carbonate of Lime, 

(•hloride of Calcium, 

Chloride of Sodium, 

Sul])hate of >»oda. 

An Alkaline or earthy Crenate, or both, 

Silicic acid. 


Sulphuret of Iron, 

Crenate of Per Oxide of Iron, 

l^ilicic acid, 


Silicate of Iron. 
.My experiments do not permit iny to point out the differences between 
the two Springs with precision. The new Spring a})pears to give rise to 
a greater amount of hydro-sulphuric acid, as will us of iron and silicic 
acid. Proliably it may differ in still other respects. I have not examin- 
ed it for Iodine orj^romine." 

As no regular anaUsis was altemptc.'d, the quantities in which these 
.<;everal im^^rdients exist, still remain iir)deteriiiincd. That thev are in 
diflTcnnt proportions in the two Sj)rings, is evident not only from their de- 
posii»'s, but also from their a(;tion on the system. 'J'he action of the Anli- 
Dyspcptic Spring is diuretic and gentjy aperient, tending to restore llic 


'Ii '^annot be determined whether free cdrbonir acid exists in these wa- 
ters \vii!i«i,it <z^<)\\vz into a quaiilituti\c analysis. — C. V. 6*. 


healthy performance of the functions, and reduce or diffuse the local irri- 
tation of disease. The Aperient Spring while it possesses all the alka- 
line properties of the other, has an aperient and alterative action. Pos- 
sessing more iron, (of which the other has but a trace,) it acts more pow- 
erfully as a tonic, whilst its other ingredients cause it to act in some cases 
as a very powerful aperient. 

As these Springs have been visited by invalids, only during the two last 
seasons, it is reasonable to suppose that all their properties have not yet 
been discovered, nor all the cases ascertained in whicli they can be bene- 
ficially used. In fact, owing to the small quantity of water furnished 
hitherto by the Aperient Sprmg, its qualities have been but little tested, 
and there can be no doubt, (judging from its constituents) that it will be 
found equally salubrious as the Anti-Dyspeptic Spring, only better adap- 
ted to another class of cases. To give a general idea of the properties of 
these watei's, we might say that they are peculiarly serviceable in those 
diseases which originate in a disordered state of the stomach and bowels, 
and also in hepatic affections. It is proper,however, to enter more into de- 
tails, and we therefore, submit the following synopsis of the medical prop 
crties of ihe ^inti- Dyspeptic Spring. 

JMedical Properties. 

1. It relieves nausia and headaches, arising from disordered stomachs. 

2. Neutralizes acidity, and if taken at meals, or nnmediatcly after, it 
has a tendency to prevent those unj)leasant sensations so often experienced 
by invalids, from indiscretion in dieting. 

3. Is an excellent tonic, exciting appetite and imparting strength to 

4. Quiets irritation of the alimentary canal. 

5. Controls and lessens the force of the circulation when unnatur.iily 
excited by disease, and often in this way, is remedial in internal inllani- 
mation of the organs. 

6. It tranquilixes nervous irritability. 

7. Is a mild and certain expectorant, often eillaying dyspno.'f, and })ro- 
moting recovery from chronic ailments of the chest or wind pipe. 

8. It alters the action of the liver, where this has been previously de- 
ranged, in a manner peculiar to itsslf, and under circumsiances in which 
the ordinary alteratives are forbidden by reason of their excitive or other- 
wise irrelevant properties. 

9. It is also sudorific or diaphoretic; and 

10. When taken at bedtime, often proves itself soporific; apparently 
stilling that indescribable, but too well understood inquietude whicJi so 
frequently and unhappily interrupts or prevents the repose of the invalid, 
and especially of the dyspeptic. 

Having thus briefly stated the properties of this Spring, we sui)mit tlie 
following statement of cases, treated at the Gray Sulphur, illustrative of 
the effect of the waters, and in corroboration of what has been advanced. 
Kxrept those which are noticed in their proper places, all v:e either di- 
rectly from the pen of the sufferers themselves, or were immediately dic- 
tated by them iji the form in which they appear in tht, notes. The orig- 


inals ire in our possession, signed by the individuals whose cases aic re- 
ferred to. 

No. 1. 

Dear Sir, — ■! take pleasure iti stating that tlie waters of the Grey Sul- 
pliur have proved quite beneficial, during a visit of ten days, both to Mrs. 
S. and myself. We have both been suffering with that distressing mala- 
dy, Dyspepsia, for a long time, and in my case with a general nerTOUs 
debility, a weak and torpid state of the stomach and the bowels, and at 
times great distress of the head and mind, and nervous excitement, even 
to spas/ns. After drinking freely of the JInti- Dyspeptic Spring, even at 
meals, the water produced a fine glow and perspiration, suspended the 
nervous irritation and distress, and acting as a tonic for the stomach, cre- 
ated a strong appetite and enabled me to partake, with impunity, of any 
or alt the solid and delicate dishes with which your table abounded. The 
water of the Anti-Dyspeptic Spring, corrected and prevented acidity of 
the stomach, and seemed to give activity and strength to that organ — but 
we required a free use of the Jiperient Spring, in the mornings, to pre- 
vent a constipation of the bowels, which ihc Anti-Dyspeptic Spring seem- 
ed k) produce.* A glass or two of the Anti- Dyspeptic S])rm^^, on xeixx- 
ing, produced a glow, allayed nervous irritation, and induced a fine 
night's sleep; aiid we have, as well as our servant woman, who was in a 
debilitated skite of health, experienced more benefit here than from any of 
the Waters we have as yet visited. 

Respectfully yours, &,c. 

No. 2. 

Dear Sir, — It gives me great pleasure to inform you oi"the general ef- 
fects of your Anti-Dyspeptic Spring, in my case. During the three day's 
trial of the waters, I am convined of its diuretic and diaphoretic qualities, 
and in one instance it acted as an alterative on my liver, producing a free 
di^'charge of blllious matter. IVIy general health has improved, the symp- 
toms of my disease (Neuralgia) have mitigated, my appetite increased, my 
pulse has become more tranquil and regular, and my slee]) more contin- 
ued and refreshing. I have also gained strength and weight, (three 
pounds in three days,) during my short sojourn with you. 

Yours respectfully. 

No. 3. 

On the 6th of August, 1S35, I arrived at the Gray Sulphur Springs, in 
a state of mu('h dq)ression, accompanin^d by a fever and a rapid pulse — 
both arising irom a complication of disorders belonging to the throat, the 
stomach and bowels. In the afternoon I drank of the Anti-])yspeptic 
Spring, and its immediate effwct was to produce a gentle moisture of the 
'skin, and to re(hice the pulse from an hundred beats in a minute to about 

*Jn a few instances this effect was cnm])lained of, but we found it was 
onlv III those cas(*s where habitual costiveness existed, crnd this was eas- 
ily ife.'nedicd by making use of the Aperient Spring before breakfast. 


eighty. In the evening',my system generally was relieved. On going to 
bed I drank of the same spring, and on the following morning felt aconlin- 
uanee of the same agreeable influence, and an improved appetite. In the 
afternoon there was a further reduction of pulse, and my fever entirely 
.subsided, but partially returned in the night, with quickness of pulse, but 
by IK) means accelerated as it was when I came. In the course of the 
second day, the pulse beat sixly per minute, but quickened again. The 
first twenty -four or thirty-six hours experience was followed by similar 
effects, the two following days, one of which I confined myself to the 
Aperient Spring, and perceived no difference. Neither of them had the 
effect to move my bowels, but on the contrary to constipate them. I am 
much inclined to believe, that a continuance of these waters might have 
a salutary influence upon my very singular, very troublesome, and vaiy 
obstinate case, if I can judge of their agreeable effect upon my skin, 
my spirits and system generally, in so short a time as three days. There 
was a continued reduction of the pulse from an accelerated action, pro- 
duced at the Sulphur Spring, by drinking its waters; but it varied, 

being considerably quickened in the evening and during the night. The 
appetite was much improved and continued uniform. I regret that I 
could not remain long enough at the Grey Sulphur to test its effects upon 
my chronic complaints. 

No. 4. 

Mr. H had had frequent hemorrhages, accompanictl with a pain 

in the chest — his cough w^as slight, but he suffered much from phlegm. 
Twenty-four hours after being at the Grey Sulphur, on examining his 
pulse, it was found to be about one hondred. Made use of the Anti-Dys- 
peptic Spring, taking about three tumblers per diem. Threo days after, 
(about the same hour of the day,) his pulse was again examined and 
found to be reduced to seventy-six beats per minute, and he felt much 

better. Having left home for Spring, he thought it his duty to go 

there. About a month after, he returned. He had gradually improved 
in health, and looked much better, and was evidently so. His pulse, 
however, was much too frequent, and he could not get it lowered. After 
leaving the Grey Sulphur, it had risen up, to from eighty-five to ninety, 
and in the afternoon was frequently at one hundred. In the afternoon of 
the ds^' he arrived, his pulse w'as counted, and found to be one hundred. 

After remaining five days, he again left for the Spring, his pulse 

varied, during his stay at the Grey, from seventy-five to ninety, but 
never reached so high as one hundred. His complexion became clearer, 
his spirits better, and his cough entirely left him. It had been gradually 

lessening at the Spring, but he could not get rid of it altogether, 

and was, moreover, veti'y annoying to him early in the mornings. In re- 
ply to an enquiry, he stated, -after a little reflection, "that he had not 
coughed once, that he could recollect, since his (recent) arrival at the 
Grey, and expectorated with more ease the })hlegm which collected in his 

Note. — The above is extracted from notes we kept of a few cases du- 
ring last Not intending, at first, to publish them, we did not 


ask tlie consent of Mr. H., nnd Ave hope he will pardon the liberty we 
jiave taken. 

The three following cases, which occurred in 1834, we give from hotes 
made soon after, and whilst the circumstances were fresh in our meraor}', 
and for the correctness of which we hold ourselves responsible. 

No. 5. 

Mr. A. W. of Pjaltimore, arrived at the Grey Sulphur, in August, 1834- 
His health had been feeble for some time, though in appearance he looked 
but little like an invalid. On the morning of the second day after his ar- 
rival at Ihe Grey Sulphur, he had, whilst standing at the Spring house, a 
considerable hemorrhage — a half pint of blood, at least, was ^)\i up in a 
very short time. A little common salt was administered, which had the 
effect of stopping it. It being deemed improper for him to move immedi- 
ately, he was induced to lie down on one of the benches. About half an 
hour after this occurrence, his pulse was felt for the first time. It then 
beat one hundred and eighteen per minute; nor did it vary for the next 
half hour. He was persuaded to take some of the Water of the Anti- 
Dyspeptic Spring, which he was loth at first to do, lest a recurrenr^e of 
the hemorrhage shoidd take place. He took about a half pint of water, 
in small quantities at a time, with intervals of from fifteen to twenty min- 
utes between eaah. In about an hour from the drinking of the first por- 
tion of the water, the pulse was reduced to ninety-eight beats per minute. 
Soon after, he was assisted up to his room and put to bed. His pulse 
was not again examined until about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, (the hem- 
orrhage had occurred about 10 o'clock, A. M.) it was then found to have 
fallen to eighty-six. In the course of the day, he had taken about a pint 
of water, in quantities of about a half tumbler at a time. The next morn- 
ing his pulse war; again examined, and found to have fallen to eighty-four 
beats per minute. In the course of the day, he left his bed and came 
down stairs, and the day following, he left the Grey for the Red Sulphur, 
to obtain Medical advice. His pulse was not examined after he left his 

No. C. 

Mr. M., of South-Carolina, had been long a dyspeptic, and had suffer- 
ed, for many years, from Chronic Dinrrlicpa. Early irt the season of 1834, 
iiC visited the vSaraloga vSprings — the water proved injurious 1o him. — 
From thence he visited the White Sulphur, Salt Sulphur, and Red Sul- 
phur Springs, without experiencing material benefit. When he arrived 
at the Grny Sulphur Springs, he was exceedingly feeble and had to be as- 
sisted about, and for several days scarce ever left his rhamber, except at 
mo d times. His passages were very frequent, from eight to ten during 
the night, and about the same number during the day. He had entirely 
lost tlie power of secreting urine, and all liquids which he drank passed 
ihrougli his bowels mivfd up with undigested food. His passages were 
thin and of a whitish clay color, apparantly made up of water and undi- 
gested food, the latter so litile changed as to be easily recognised. In 
three days, his passages wore reduced to from two to tjiree each night. 


riiKl about tlie same number during the day, the consistency and color also 
changed. In a week's time, this change was still greater. The number 
of passages were about the same, but they became of a bright yellow col- 
or, and similar to a child's in consistency. He moreover secreted urine 
freely, and on one occasion he informed us, that he had passed a large 
quantity of "pure bile." His bowels remained nearly in this state, du- 
ring the time he remained at the Spring, (about a fortnight,) but he im- 
proved greatly in bodily health, walked out, was cheerful, and in every 
respect appeared better. The intended stoppage of the stage hurried 
him off earlier than he wished. He left the Gvej Sulphur with the belief 
that he had derived considerable benefit from the use of the Waters. It 
is proper to remark, that his appetite was enormous, and that he did not 
restrict himself in his diet. 

Note. — There were several other cases of Diarrhoea at the Grey Sul- 
pher, in 1834; all were materially benefited by the use of the Anti-Dys- 
peptic Spring. 

No. 7. 

Mr. L arrived at the Grey Sulphur Springs about 4 o'clock in 

the afternoon. He had been for sometime in a delicate state of health 
and had suffered much during the day. Early in the morning he had 
been seized with nausea, which brought on vomiting. The irritation in- 
creased during the day, and the vomiting became frequent and easily ex- 
cited — -all food was immediately rejected, and so irritable became the 
stomach, that two mouthfuls of water, taken a short time before reaching 
the Grey Sulphur, were thrown up before he could recline back in hii? 
carriage. He was very much exhausted when he arrived, but without sit- 
ting down, requested to be shown to the Spring. We accompanied him 
down. He took a glass of the Anti-Dyspeptic Spring, paused for a few 
seconds, then took another. A minute or two elapsed, and he then drank 
several in quick succession. The precise properties of the water had 
not then been ascertained, and we felt bound to caution him against ma- 
king such free use of an untried water, although we then knew nothing of 
his case. He laid down the glass and walked up to the house with us. — 
On the way, he mentioned the particulars already given^in continua-' 
tion, he stated, that on drinking the first tumbler of water, he experienced 
a slight nausea, as the first of it reached the coat of the stomach, but that 
this wore off almost instantaneously. Being much exhausted and ex- 
ceedingly thirsty, he determined to venture a second, although he firmly 
believed that both would be thrown up. Not the slightest nausc a Avas 
experienced on drinking the second tumbler of water. Surprised at this 
effect, he determined to ascertain what would be the effect of taking it in 
larger quantities, and for this purpose he drank about four tumblers more, 
when he was prevented from proceeding further by our remarks. The 
great quantity he had taken, not only produced no unpleasant sensations, 
but on the contrary, removed those he had previously experienced, and 
served to revive him. In the course of the afternoon, he took two or 
three glasses more of tlu water. About 7 o'clock, suj)per was servi'd, of 


which he partook iVeely, making choice of substantial food, such as boil- 
ed chicken, bread, rice, &c. Not the slightest nausea was produced. — 
Fearing a recurrence the next morning, lie was advised to take some of 
the water before he left his bed. We were informed, that a slight nau- 
sea was felt, but it immediately wore off on drinking a glass of water. — 
In similar attacks, which this gentleman had previously had, each was 
succeeded by such costiveness that medicine had to be resorted to. In 
the present one, there was no occasion for medicine ; the evacuations were 
large and the bowels continned regular during the time he remained ; nor 
did he at any time thereafter, experience any nausea, with which wc 
were made acquainted. 

No. 8. 

Extract of a letter, dated JVeiw York, Jan, 21, 1836. 

"It gives me great pleasure to inform you, that I fully realized all the 
benefit I had been led to anticipate from the use of the Waters of the 
Grey Sulphur (Anti-Dyspeptic) Spring, with which you so kindly pro- 
vided me. On Monday morning, I was very sea sick, so that I could not 
leave my berth without vomiting, but on taking half a tumbler of the wa- 
ter, I was sensibly relieved. I continued to use it agreeably to your di- 
rections, taking half a tumbler at intervals of fifteen minutes, till the bot- 
tle was exhausted. By that time, I had so far recovered as to be able to 
go about the deck with great comfort, and took a heartji meal, both at 
dinner and supper. The next morning, however, the weather having be- 
come more boisterous, and the sea running high, I was again very sicky 
but my resource had failed me, and I had only to yield myself quietly to 
the influence of that most distressing affection. From the result of the 
experiment, I am satisfied that it is the best remedy for sea sick7iess that I 
have ever heard of, and that, had not the supply of water failed, I should 
not have lost one meal during the voyage. 

The following note which has been kindly furnished us, refers to the 
same subject: — 

Dear Sir, — The following is an extract of a letter received by me, from 
Mr. .J. H., who went passenger by the Steam Boat Wm. Gibbons, in. Jan- 
uary last, showing the very beneficial effects of the Grey Sulphur Water, 
m relieving him from sea sickness. 

"The effects of the water on me, were most beneficial, and while the 
supply lasted, relieved me entirely of nausea, so that I was enabled to eat 

Having been at sea with Mr. II., I bear testimony that he is a com- 
plete victim to sea sickness, and I do not know any one on whom the 
effects of that water could be better tested. 

No. 9. 

Sir, — It affords me pleasure to bear testimony to the efficacy of the wa- 
ters of the Grey Su!i)luir Spring in my case. 1 have been suffering from 
Dyspepsi;), for at least fifteen years, during which time it has made fear- 
ful inroads on a naturally delicate constitution. Tlu; disease had pro- 
gressed so far fa fev.- years ago) that the slight stimulus of food, produc- 


cd an immediate evacuation after every meal. This state of things coiild 
not last, and a most violent inflammation of the bowels ensued, which 
brought me to the borders of the grave, and eventuated in the formalion 
of a fistula in anno. The sinusses spread so f\ir, and l)ecame so numer- 
ous, that I was forced to have some of them laid open, but having a pre- 
disposition to pulmonary affections, it was not deemed prudent to operate 
on all of them. My digestive organs had not recovered their strength, 
and the irritation of undigested food, (though I had lived extremely low) 
kept up the inflammation, and this at last extended to the neck of the 
bladder, and became extremely distressing. To remove the inflamma- 
tion and obtain relief, I had recourse to mustard poultices and opiates, but 
the relief was very temporary. Whilst suffering much from this cause, I 
was induced to set ofTfor the Virginia Springs, At that time, my bodily 
health was so much impaired, that I w^as almost incapable of transacting 
business': all employmennt, (even reading) was irksome to me. My di- 
gestion was so bad that I scarce knew what to live on; every thing, liow- 
ever plain, appeared to disagree with me, and I was at times truly w^eari- 
ed of life, for I looked forward only to a life of pain and suffering. Such 
was my situation, when in 1834, I left my home for the Springs. On 
my journey, I did not improve in health, but on the contrary, had a slight 
attack of diarrhoea. The irritation around the bladder continued, or rath- 
er increased, so that I was obliged to make use of opiates daily, aiul 
sometimes, two or three times in the course of the day. The first Spring 
I arrived at, was the Grey Sulphur. This I consider fortunate, as I found, 
on trial, that all of the others were too stimulating for me, with the ex- 
ception of the Red Sulphur, and from that, I am not aware of experien- 
cing any material benefit. Be this as it may, it enabled me satisfactorily 
to ascertain that the waters of the Grey Sulphur Spring, were decidedly 
beneficial in my case. I can scarcely describe my situation when I ar- 
rived at your Spring. I was weak, feverish, and laboring under a kind 
of nervous excitement, whilst the inflammation had evidently increased, 
and I suffered much from it, especially towards evening. I have been 
thus particular, that the action of the water may be more distinctly under- 
stood. The first day of my arrival, I drank freely of tht; Anti-J)yspep- 
tic Spring. I took no note of the quantity, but drank whenever I felt 
thirsty, or had an inclination, and I must confess, with but little expecta- 
tion of finding relief, or at least, not immediate, for your Spniig had not 
then obtained that celebrity, which I am glad to find it has since ac(juir- 
ed. Judge, then, of my very agreeable surprise, at finding in the eve- 
ning, (the time when the paroxisms of pain were usually the most violent,) 
that they were so slight that I had no need of medicine. I retired to 
rest and slept soundly. The next day I was not at all annoyed, and at 
the usual time, I scarcely perceived that there was any initation ;it all. — 
The third day I was entirely relieved, and had no return during my stay 
at the Spring, nor had I occasion once to use any medicine. 

Other changes not less important, also took place. The diarrhoea ceas- 
ed on the second day, and in the course of the week the evacuations, 
from being thin and of a whitish clay colour, became of an orange colour, 
and acquired considerable firmness, and in a short tunc afterwards, ac- 


fiuircd all the characleristics of healthy passages. It is needless to say tliat 
jiiy digestion had improved. One thing is worthy of remark, and that is, 
that I found myself able to digest, not only plain food, but also the richer 
kinds, ami even desserts; and this without suffering, and even witlK)ut 
experiencing any unpleasant feeling after nreals. I should here state, 
however, that I invariably took from one to two tumblers of the water af- 
ter each meal, and I found this peculiarly serviceable after breakfast, when 
the tea (or coffee) became (almost invariably at first) acid. During my 
sojourn with you, I improved in every respect, and even the discharge 
from the fistulas ceased nearly altogether, and I retur-ned home in (com- 
paratively) excellent health, which I enjoyed, until unfortunately I w^as 
attacked with the inllueirza during the last winter. Fr'om that time I be- 
gan to retrograde, and when summer arrived, I was in almost as bad con- 
d tion as the ye; r previous. The inflammation and irritation were quite as 
violent, and my digestion had again become disordered. I had experi- 
enced too much relief at the Grey Sulphur, to hesitate long as to the 
course proper to be pursued, and I again had the pleasure of visiting 
them the last season. I have only to say, that the same happy effects 
were produced, the only difference I observed was, that these were not so 
immediate as the year previous, but I amply compensated for this by their 
])ermanency. And I have now the i)leasure of stating to you, that I have 
enjoyed, and am now enjoying (February 12th) better health than I have 
known for the last ten or twelve years, and most happy am I to state to 
you, that I have not had the slightest indication of inflammation in those 
regions where I had suffered so much. 

I remain, Dear Sir, yours, &.c. 

No. 10. 

Mr. 13. has had a bronchial affection for many years, which at times, 
was so distressing as to compel liim to remain pro])ped up in a sittins;- 
]iosture, in bed, the whole night, and in this mode obtain some sleep. -^ 
To obtain relief fVom this affection, he now travelled. When he first ar- 
rived at the Guey Sulj)hur, the cough was very troublesome. Made use 
of the Anti-Dyspeptic Spring, which had the effect of producing a gentle 
perspiration, es])ecially at night, and which effect was continued whenev- 
er the water was taken, during the whole time of his stay. 'J'he cough 
gradually diminished, ujilil it almost disappeared altogether. At first 
there was considerable tlillicultyin getting up the phlegm, but after drink- 
ing the water a short time, it was expectorated with ease. During the 
lime he was at the Grey Suljjhur, he slept well — had an excellent appe- 
tite, and could easily digest whatever he partook of. J3. 

The above statement of cases, was submilled 1o Professors .lames Moul- 
trie, jun., and S. Henry Dickson, of /he Medical College of the Slate of 
Soulh-Carolina. Tlie following letters will show the opinion enter- 
tained by these gentlemen relative to the medic .i! properties of these wa- 

Charle^lon, Ftbruari/ 11 /A, 1836. 

Denr 6Vr, — T have overlooked your intended publicalioti, together 
<«-iih the accompdiiying documents. 1 ihmk die statement.^ furnished by 


the latter, fully authorise you to put forth what you propose. The amount 
of experience with the waters is very small, to be sure, but such as it is, 
it is calculated to excite strong presumption in their favor. Indeetl, con- 
sidering tlu'ir analysis, jointly with the facts furnished in your documents, 
I have confident expectations that they will prove among the most useful 
discoveries of that sort, yet made in our country. All thus early known 
of them, encourages us to look for future corroboration of the impression 
you have im])ibed respecting their virtues. Considering their elements, 
they cannot be nugatory, and must, therefore, be productive of benefit 
or mischief. Reasoning from W'hat we already know, the evidence ap- 
pears to be altogether in favor of a salutary result. 

Very truly, yours, 
J. D. Legare, Esq, 

February llM, 1S36. 

Dear Sir, — I have perused with attention and interest the papers sent 
me, containing reports of cases in which the Waters of your Virginia 
Spring have been tried ; and do not hesitate to express the opinion, that 
they fully justify the statements made in your proposed publication. Pro- 
fessor Shepard's analysis exhibits a singular combination oi' ingredients, 
and prepare us to anticipate striking and gratifying results from the use 
of Waters containing remedies of such obvious efhciency. I confess, I 
am led to entertain sanguine expectations of benefit to a large class of 
patients, from these fountains, and shall be much disappointed if tlie 
"Grey Sulphur Springs" do not soon attain a high rank among the sum- 
mer resorts of invalids, and of the fashionable w^orld. 

With great regard, I remain, Dear Sir, yours, fiiithfully, 


J. D, Legare, Esq. 

We here close for the present, our account of the Medical Proi)erties of 
the Grey Sul])hur S})rings. The report of cases might have been more ex- 
tended, had we ajiplied to all of the individuals, who have been benefit- 
ed by the use of these Waters. It was not deemed necessary to do so. 
Invalids, with strongly marked cases, will in all proljability, visit these 
Springs, during the next and succeeding seasons, and it is our intention 
to preserve a record of such as may be communicatcid to us, 





The reader will doubtless recellect that this flourishing town was estab- 
lished by law in the year 1752. In 1738, there were but two cabins 
erected near the run. It is now a very wealthy corporate town — has its 
own court of justice — is the seat of justice for the county of Frederick — 
is the place where the supreme courts of chancery and law are held for 
the county — the residence of many distinguished lawyers and physicians 
— has a flourishing academy and numerous classical and English schools 
— many mechanical establishments of first order — some thirty or forty 
retail stores — a number of taverns kept in best style — several confection- 
ary shops — several merchant tailors, and almost every variety of business 
done in our seaport cities. Its buildings are many of brick of superior 
order. Taylor's Hotel is conspicuous for its great size and elegance of 
structure. Its front on Loudon street is ninety feet and runs its wings 
one hundred and thirty back — contains seventy rooms — is calculated to 
entertain numerous companies of visitors and boarders, and is kept in 
sujierb style. This building is three stories ; the basement story is divi- 
ded into cellars and several rooms furnished in the neatest manner ; the 
attic is divided into lodging rooms, which are also furnished in neat style. 
It commands an immense business. 

Within the last five or six years a rail-road has been constructed from 
Winchester to Harper's Ferry, on the Baltimore highway ; six or seven 
spacious warehouses erected at the commencement of the road, and is 
the place of deposit of vast quantities of merchandise and produce of 
every variety. It now contains upwards of 4,000 inhabitants, and is a 
place of great business. Several gcnllemi^n, descended from German 
ancestors, who have accumutated considerable wealth, are among them. 
It has two Presbyterian edifices, handsomely built, as places of public 
worship; one Catholic chapel; two Methodist meeting houses, and a 
splendid Episcocal church lately erected; the Baptists have a meeting 
house, as also the German Lutherans ; and the Friends have a neat brick 
building. The people are divided into various religious sects, and it is 
believed much piety prevails. It is doubtless one of the finest watered 
towns in the valley, and a place of general good health. Fine water is 
conveyed through iron pipes to almost every part of the town ; there arc 
many hydrants erected in the streets ; and many of the citizens have the 
water conveyed into their yards. This water is taken from a fine lime- 
stone spring about lialf a mile west of the town. There is a regular or- 
ganised Fin; rfuiipany, remarkable for their excellent discipline and ac- 
tivity. I5ut t'cw houses have ever been destroyed by fire. 'I'lie author 
ecollects seeing an old house on Louflon street destroyed by fire upwards 


of thirty years ago ; the ^Yin(l blew a strong gale from the N. W., and 
notwithstanding the opposite side of the street was closely built with 
wooden houses, such was the activity of the fire company and other citi- 
zens, that every building was saved except the one which first took fire. 
Several years afterwards, a fire broke out in a wooden building at the N. 
end of the town, and the flames spread with great rapidity. It was said 
that twenty-two buildings took fire at the same time, and but two small 
buildings consumed; those two belonged to an old gentleman by the 
name of Benjamin Rutherford, and stood about one hundred and fifty 
yards apart. The astonishing exertions and activity of the fire company, 
together with the aid of every citizen, and even ladies, saved twenty out of 
the twenty-two buildings on fire atthe same time ; and whatwas remarkable, 
but little damage was done the buildings were saned. A few years ago, 
there were three old wooden buildings on Loudon street burnt down, but 
the flames were so kept under, that no other dameges were which done, — 
About sixty years ago, a framed building on Loudon street,which was called 
the "Long Ordinary," was destroyed by fire, and an old building on the 
west side of the town, called " The Brewery," was destroyed by fire. — 
The author recollects seeing this building on fire. It is believed that the 
foregoing statement contains a true account of all the houses destroyed by 
fire for the last sixty or seventy years. So that it may truly be said, that 
Winchester has heretofore been very fortunate. 


This town may with truth be said to be classical ground. In the war 
of the Revolution, the Legislature had assembled at Richmond — the en- 
emy advanced to the seat of government, and the Assembly adjourned 
and met at Charlottesville — Tarlton pursued them thither, and they again 
adjourned and met at Staunton — here they finished their session. Tarl- 
ton did not dare to interrupt them there, for the best of all reasons : the 
people of Augusta and adjoining counties were a brave, hardy, and active 
race, well acquainted with the use of the rifle ; and if Tarlton had ventured 
to pursue them to Staunton, he would in all probability have met with an- 
other "Cowpen defeat." The citizens turned out manfully, well armed, 
and determined to contest his march to that place, and protect their leg- 
islators in their deliberations. 

Staunton, like Winchester, has incorporated privileges, its own court o. 
justice, is the seat of justice for Augusta county, and the place for holding 
the Superior courts of law and chancery for the county, — is the residence 
of several distinguished lawyers and physicians, and is the site of a Lu- 
natic Hospital of great reputation. It has several beautiful edifices erec- 
ted for public worship, and fifteen or twenty retail stores, Avith four or 
five taverns kept in good style. It is surrounded by many valuable farms, 
and a considerable number of elegant brick dwelling houses, has several 
turnpike roads leading to East and West, North and South, from which 
it derives great advantages, and of course is a place of extensive busi- 
ness. In all human probability, it is destined at some future day to be- 
come the site of our State government. Its central situation — the fine 
health of the country — its contiguity to the numerous mineral springs — 


its safety from danger of invasion from a foreign enemy in time of war, 
present most cogent arguments in its favor; and whenever our western 
counties shall be fdled with population, we will have a considerable ma- 
jority of the free white po})ulation west of the Blue Ridge, and it appears 
to the mind of the author, that the people of the west will not rest satis- 
fied with their seat of government in its present situation. 

Staunton has become conspicuous in the history of our State for other 
important reasons. It is the place where two large conventions of 
citizens were held some years ago, for deliberating on the great ques- 
tion of reforming our S:tate Constitution. The last of which conventions 
was held in the month bf July, 1S25. In this convention upwards of one 
hundred members attended. Their proceedings were characterized by 
great temperance, but much energy. A most solemn appeal was made to 
the Legislature on this vital question, and at the ensuing session, an act 
passed submitting this question to the lawful voters of the State, Avhich 
resulted in a majority of the citizens in favor of the necessity of calling a 
convention for the purpose of revising and amending the organic law of 
our State. This body was elected in the spring of 1826, and assembled 
at the capital in the city of Richmond, the ejisuing autumn, and drew up 
certain amendments to the original constitution, which were submitted 
to the people for their final ratification or rejection. There were many of 
our ablest statesmen opposed to its ratification, but a majority of our citi- 
zens voted for its adoption. 


This is a thriving village in the county of Greenbrier, west of the Al- 
legany mountains. It is yet but a small village, but the seat of justice 
for the county. There is a superior court of law and chancery and a 
court of appeals. It has become conspicuous in the history of the State, 
from the circumstance that a convention was lately held there of the citi- 
zens of the western part olthc commonwealth, by which resolutions were 
passed, recommending a further amendment of the State Constitution, sc 
as to give a more equal repiesentation of the two great divisions of the 
State in the General Assembly. Neither is it undeserving of celebrity on 
account of its^'several religious edifices, among which the Presl^yterian 
deserves first to be named from its size and commodious internal arrange- 
ment. The Methodists and Baptists resj)ectively, have also chaste and 
convenient houses for public worship. There are several elegant brick 
rhvclling houses in the village; from six to seven retail stores; and two 
])ublic hotels, under excellent managonient. From the locality of the vil- 
lage, situated in the midst of a jiroduclivc country, steadily increasing in 
population and wealth, it is destined to become a place of considerable bu- 
siness and importance. The face of the country contiguous to and sur- 
rounding the village, is beautifullv diversified by liills and vallies, woods 
and fertile fields; and the town, with the whole of the circumjacent region, 
is remarkable for the salubrity and healthiness of its climate. 


From the youlh of our commonweaHli, and llic clKii-aclii nfuui jicoplc. 


devoted almost exclusively, as they have been, to agiiculture and its col- 
lateral pursuits, we cannot as yet, nor is it yet expected that we can, pro- 
duce before the world, any Masters in the fine arts comparable with the 
old Masters of Europe. Yet, notwiUistanding the fact that we have as 
yet no representitive in sculpture to stand by the side of Canova, nor in 
painting, a champion to compete with a Titian, a Guido, or a Stuart, yet 
we have not been wholly denied the genius of the pencil. Some ten years 

since, in the county of Berkeley, a young man of the name of M'Cau- 

Iry, with the intuitive perception only exhibited by true genius,commenced, 
first in playful sketches, and shortly after in more serious efforts, the di- 
vine art of painting. Encouraged by his rapid advancement, he subse« 
quently took a trip to the hallowed ground of Italy, there to perfect him- 
self in the business of his choice. He promised much from improvement; 
but shortly after his return to his native country, he died, and with him 
the hopes of his friends. 

Six years ago, a Mr. Henry Bowen, of Frederick county, a self-taught 
artist, commenced the business of a portrait painter, and such was his 
proficiency in the art that it may be almost said of him he was accom- 
plished in it from the outset. He has since devoted himself assiduously 
to his employment, and has earned thereby, from the striking fidelity of 
his sketches to truth and to nature, a well-merited reputation. The au- 
thor can bear the safest testimony to this character, from the specimens of 
Mr. Bowen's work which he has seen. 


The excellent lady of Mr. Amos Lupton, residing within two and a 
half miles west of Winchester, has met with very encouraging success in 
her efforts at producing silk from the cultivation of the trees and the do- 
mestication of the worm. She exhibited to the author several pair of 
hose she had manufiictured from this silk, and stated her intention of 
having the residue of the raw material spun, and woven into articles of 
wearing apparel. A hired woman, meantime, was employed in spinning 
the silk from the cocoons upon the common flax-wheel, and really made 
considerable headway in her delicate task. We hope that Mrs. Lupton 
will persevere in the enterprise : for we cannot but believe that our soil 
and climate are both well adapted for the culture of silk. Mr. L. has 
been completely successful in the raising of the Morus Multicaulis — the 
plants having grown very thriftily. 


An animal was begotten between the buck and a young cow about 
twenty years ago. This extraordinary and beautiful animal was produc- 
ed in the neighborhood of Zane's Old Furnace. The owner intended 
selling it to a butcher to make a veal of it ; but the late Maj. Bean pur- 
chased it, and intended to raise it by hand. He kept it several weeks, 
but it died, and with it the hopes of Mr. Bean and many of the neighbors. 
Mr. Bean flattered himself with high ex})ectations of having in his pos- 
session one of the most rare, beautiful, and extraordinary curiosities in na- 


ture's works. The author did not get the opportunity of seeing this sin- 
gular creature, but several of his neighbors visited Mr, Bean for the ex- 
press purpose of viewing it, who reported the facts to the writer of this 
narrative. It was said to exhibit the head, neck, sholders and forelegs of 
its sire, and hinder parts that of the dam, and promised to grow to pretty 
good size. It was a male. 

The author saw the skin of a double calf in the nighborhood of Luray. 
The hide was carefully taken off and stuffed. It had a double body, two 
distinct heads, and two tails, four perfect eyes, and but four legs. This 
singular extra natural production was in possession of Capt. John Gate- 
wood, jr. 


Fifteen or sixteen years ago the late Samuel G. Sydnor owned a oow 
with six perfectly formed legs, which the author frequently saw. It had 
two extra legs formed on its shoulders, and when it w^alked these legs 
made regular motions. They hung over on each side, and were much 
smaller than the other legs. 


Bushrod B. Washington, Esq., a few years ago erectefJ a very large 
brick dwelling house, in the neihborhood of Charlestown, Jefferson coun- 
ty, with all the necessary offices. This building with other improvements 
cost upwards of thirty thousand dollars. 

The building was finished in the most tasteful style of modern architec- 
ture ; but unfortunately, some two or three years ago, it accidentally took 
tire; and all the interior works were consumed. But the writer is informed 
Mr. W. has lately rebuilt it. The author obtained a sketch of its dimen- 
sions, but has unfortunately mislaid the memorandum. Suffice it to say, 
it is oneof the largest and most elegant edifices in our country. 

Judge Henry St. G. Tucker has erected in the neighborhood of Lee- 
town a most splendid stone building — rough cast, finished in beautiful 
style — three stories high; but the writer does not recollect the exact size 
of the edifice, but it is a very large building. Jefferson county contains 
a great number of fine large dwelling houses, with other capital improve- 
ments. Berkeley county has many fine buildings and highly improved 
farms. In the county of Clarke, David II. Allen, Esq., has lately erec- 
ted a brick dwelling on a beautiful eminence, from which there is a most 
enchanting view of the Blue Ridge and adjacent country. It is sixty-six 
feet by fifty, with a splendid portico, supported by a beautiful colonade 
twenty-five feet high, of solid ])ine pillars. 

In front of the house is an extended lawn, partly covered Avith a sheet 
of transparent water, which adds greatly to the novelty and beauty of the 
scenery. Mr. Allen informed the writer, that some years ago the water 
course contained much dark alluvian mud, on each side, very miry and 
difficult to cross. He hauled out six thousand wagon loads of the mud 
upon the adjoining high lands, which so increased the fertility, that, foi 
several years it was too rich for the p'-oductiori of wheat. 

Mr. Allen is pretty extensively engaged in the stock wav. A few years 


ago, he at one time owned one hundred and twenty head of, and 
■a large stock of improved bh\ck cattle, sheep and hogs. Mr. Allen was 
bred to the law, but having married the daughter of the late Col. (iriflin 
Taylor, got this fine estate by her; and his father being also wealthy, he 
soon abandoned the practice, and lived a retired and private life ever 

Edward Jaquline Smith, Esq., has built a fine brick dwelling house^ 
large and tastefully finished, on an extensive farm in the same neighbor- 
hood. He is a most judicious and successful farmer. 

CoL J, W. Ware has erected a fine large brick building near Mr 
Smith's, is also a successful farmer — is remarkable for breeding the very 
finest cattle ; and his stable has been the stand, for several years, of the 
very finest horses which have been imported into our country. 

Col. Joseph Tuly, in the county of Clarke, has built a most splendid 
and expensive mansion on his beautiful farm in the neighborhood of Mill- 
wood, which he has named '^Tulyries." To give a detailed account of 
this fine building would be tedious, and perhaps tiresome to the reader. 
It is sufficient to say that this edifice is sixty feet by forty., of the best of 
brick — finished from the base to the attick in the most elegant style of 
modern architecture, and is covered with tin. A spacious portico, sup- 
ported underneath with massive marble slabs, with pillars of solid pine, 
twenty-eight feet high, supporting the roof — forming a most beautiful col- 
onade, based on square marble blocks ; the porch floor laid with white 
marble, and marble steps; a spacious entry ; a spiral stair- way running 
from the passage to the summit, on which there is a handsome cupola 
with a large brass ball erected ; the fire places decorated with the finest 
marble mantles ; his doors and windows of the best mahogany; with a 
g-reen house in which there is sheltered a great varietv of the richest ex- 
otic plants and flowers; the yard decorated with a great variety of native 
and imported trees and shrubbery, with several orange trees which be a: 
fruit handsomely. Adjoining the yard, an extensive park is enclosed in 
the forest, \vithin which enclosure there are a number of native elks and 
deer. The old buck elk will net suffer any stranger to intrude on his 
premises. Col. Tuly's father was born and raised in the state of Jersey, 
karned the trade of a tanner, came to Virginia a young man, commenced 
business on a small capital, and amassed a very considerable estate, the 
greater part of which he devised to his only son Joseph. The Col. car- 
ries on the tanning business extensively, and has added considerably to 
the estate left him by his father. He farms extensively and successfully, 
— and largely in the stock way. 

Mr. John Kerfoot, twenty- five or thii-ty years ago, built a large, com- 
fortable brick dwelling, finished in plain style, with mof^t of his offices 
and all his slaves' houses of the same material. In approaching his res- 
idence it strikes the eye of the stranger as a sprightly village. Mr Ker- 
foot is beyond question one of the most enterprising, judicious, and su;:- 
cessful farmers in our section of country. He has acquired more wealth 
by his agricultural pursuit.-;, than any individual within the author's 
knowledge ; has raised a large family of son;; and daughter'?, and provi- 
ded handsomely for them all; has giren each ofhi^. sons fine fapnis and 


every necessary to commence business. His daugblcrs as they have mar- 
ried and letl him liave each of them been handsomely portioned ofl'. Mr. 
Kerlbot is, and has been lor many years a member ot the Baptist church — 
a Uberal, consistent and most worthy member. He is rigidly punctual 
in his pecuniary engagements; it is said of him that he was never known 
to fail in a single instance to pay or fulfill any engagement he has enter- 
ed into. Thus coming up to the golden Gospel rule of "doing to others 
as h'^ would they should do unto him." 

Mr. John Richardson is now the owner of the fine tract of land former- 
ly owned by, and the residence of, the late Col. Warner Washington, call- 
ed "-Fairfield", on which he has established an extensive aistillery. The 
still house is built of brick, attached to wdiich a large yard is enclosed 
and nicely floored with the same material, for the purpose of raising and 
fattening pork. About every two months he sends off to the Baltimore 
market from eighty to one hundred head of finely fattened hogs. Mr. 
Richardson is a man of great industry and enterprise — farms extensively, 
and raises a fine stock of improved cattle. He, like many of our citizens, 
is the builder of his own fortune, having commenced on a very small cap- 

The Rev. Thomas Kennedy has lately erected a beautiful, plain, ex- 
tensive brick mansion at "Greenway court," the ancient residence of the 
late Lord Fairfax, now in the county of Clarke near the White Post vil- 
lage. James Madison Hite, Esq., resides in an elegant brick mansion, 
contiguous to the stone bridge. 

Doct. James Hay has lately built in the same neighborhood a truly 
splendid edifice of considerable size and finished in the most elegant 

Doctor Berkeley, previous to his death, was engaged in erecting a brick 
house near the Shenandoah, of very extensive dimensions, but before he 
had finished it he was most cruelly murdered by his slaves, and liis body 
consumed in a tremendous fire. He was robbed of a large sum of money 
by them, which they scattered about amongst their confederates — jiart of 
which was found ; i)ut it was said at the time, that a considerable part of 
it was lost. John Rust, Esq., has lately purchassd a part of Doctor 
Berkeley's estate, including this fine building, which he has had fin- 
ished in plain neat style. 

Doctor J^erkeley was killed in 1S18. Three of his slaves, one female 
and two males, were tried and convicted for the murder, in Frederick 
court, and all three executed at Winchester, in the month of July, 1818. 
The representatives of the Doctor obtained an act of assembly, authoris- 
ing llifin to sell off a number of the slaves who were suspected wilh be- 
ing concerned in the murder, and they were sent to the South and sold. 
This estate now lies in the county of Warren. 

Capt. Robert C. Burwell, just before the late war,had erected an elegant 
'brick mansion in the neighborhood ol' Millwood. At the comniencemeiit 
of the war he commanded a company of the militia, and marched at the 
head of his company, and joinrfl the standard of his country at Norfolk. 
He fell a sacrifice to that unhealthy cliiivitr Hiid dierl. 

Pr^vinu,sly to leaviriii home, he provided his last will, in which he dcvis- 


edhis fine estate to Philip Nelson, Esq., who married his sister, and now 
owns this elegant property. 

The late Col. Charles Magill commenced, shortly before his death, on 
his fine farm about five miles S. of Winchestei, a very large brick dwell- 
ing, but died before it was finished. Since his deatii it has been finished, 
and now is the residence of John S. Magill, Esq., one of his sons. 

Mr. William A. Carter is now erecting a splendid brick dwelling, about 
two miles W. of Newtown Stcphensburg, on a beautiful eminence which 
commands a most fascinating view of this village, the adjacent country and 
mountains east and west, for a vast distance. It is covered w^ith Eng- 
lish slate. 

Joseph Neill, Esq., has erected a beautiful brick dwelling at the north 
end ofN. T. Stephenshurg, plastered and neatly whitened on the outside. 
His neat little farm on which the buildings are erected adjoins the vil- 

Mr. Isaac Hollingsworth has erected a splendid brick dwelling near 
Winchester, contiguous to his fine mills — his yard and curtilages hand- 
somely enclosed with first rate stone walls. 

There a number of other brick dwelling houses in the several counties 
named, exclusive of those particularly mentioned; and there are a consid- 
erable number of fine large stone buildings. 

The residence of George H. Burwell, Esq., is most splendidly improv- 
ed with stone buildings. It adjoins the village of Millwood, called "Car- 
ter Hall." The main budding is sixty-six feet by thirty, three stories , 
with a wing at each end twenty-one feet long, two stories high ; the 
whole building finished in the most tasteful style of modern architecture. 
This was the former residence of the late Col. Nathaniel Bunvell, a gen- 
tleman of great wealth. The buildings stand on a beautiful eminence, 
and command a delightful view of the Blue Ridge and the adjacent 
neighborhood. The water is conveyed by force pumps from a fine spring 
to the dwelling house, yards, and stables, at a distance of about three 
hundred yards. This fine farm may with truth be said to be among the 
most elegantly iraj)roved estates west of the Blue Ridge. 

Maj. Seth Mason has lately built a spacious stone dwelling, stone 
barn and stable, on the waters of Crooked Run, in the county of Frederick. 
The buildings are erected on a beautiful eminence, and command a fine 
view of the Blue Ridge a vast distance. From the Major's yard about 
one hundred farms are to be seen in full relief on the west side of the 

Capt. Phenias Bowcn has lately erected a stone dwelling, three stories 
high, near the Opcquon, in Clarke county. The writer never obtained 
the exact dimensions of this building; but it is very large, and covered 
with tin. It is not finished. 

The late Maj. Isaac Hitc, on his fine large farm, about the year 1792, 
built a stone dwelling, near the great highway from Winchester to Staunton ; 
a most spacious and elegant building, in the county of Frederick. At 
that period it was doubtless the most splendid building west of the Blue 
Hidge. In point of taste, and beauty of symmetry, it is certainly not 


exceeded by any country building the author has ever seen. It still standi 
to be admired by every beholder. 

In the county of Shenandoah, the late Messrs. Isaac Bowman, Joseph 
Stover and Anthony Spengler, severally built large brick dwellings, but 
a short distance from Strasburg, each on a fine large farm. It is hardly 
deemed necessary for the author to proceed with a further detail of par- 
ticular dwelling houses. It would require a large volume to contain an 
account of all the fine buildings in our valley. It is presumed that a suf- 
ficient number has been described to enable the reader to form an estimate 
of the vast improvement of our country within the last forty or fifty years. 
It is sufficient to say that many counties in the valley are equally well im- 

The great number of first rate merchant mills and factories deserve 
some particular notice, but it would swell this publication far beyond all 
reasonable limits to attempt a detail. The author will therefore content 
himself, and he hopes the reader will be content to have a brief descrip- 
tion of Mr. Valentine Rhodes' mill on Cedar creek, the dividing line be- 
tween Frederick and Shenandoah counties. The author is induced to 
give a passing notice to this building from the extraordinary and unpar- 
alleled labor performed by Rhodes, with the assistance of one of his sons, 
a vouth of about twelve or fourteen years of age, in its construction and 
erection. Mr. Rhodes informed the author, that when he had purchased 
and paid for the site, including a small tract of land, for which he paid in 
advance, he had no more than ten dollars left. Mr. Rhodes is an inge- 
nious mechanic and first rate mill-wriglit. He determined however, on 
building his mill; to enable himself to go on with it, that he would under- 
take every job at his trade that he could engage, and if he earned eighty 
or one hundred dollars, he would proceed with his own building until 
his money gave out ; he would then engage in work as opportunity 
afforded until he could gather one or two hundred dollars more, and so 
proceeded on, until he got his mill to running. It was six years from the 
time he commenced until he got it to grinding. 

But the most extraordinary, and the writer may truly say, wonderful 
circumstance attending this building, is the immense weight of stone and 
timbers used in its construction. The first story is built of stone of enor- 
mous size and weight, several of which are seven or eight feet long and 
fifteen or eighteen inhces Ihick, doubtless weighing several tons each — 
all which Mr. Rhodes workc^l into the walls with his own j-versonal labor. 
The oniy machine he used was the mill screw. The wall on the west 
side is at least five feet thick, and no part less than three. The first part 
of the mill-house was twenty-eight feet square, or perhajjs thirty, to which 
he added another building fifty feet in length and thirty in width, stretch- 
ing across the entire stream, except a small arm of the water course form 
ing a small island, on which the first building is erected. The south end 
of the building juts against a solid perpendihir limestone rock twenty-five 
or thirty teet high, which forms one of thf walls ; nature has formed niche> 
in this, which receive the ends of timbers fifty feet long and from ten to 
twelve inches square, which Mr. Rhodes raised and put in place with the 
aid of hiis son and mill screw — one end resting on the wall of the first 


building and the other inserted in the natural nichci in the stone wall. — 
These powerful timbers are elevated about ten leet above the water. He 
receives his customers' grain at each end othis mill: so it may be said it 
stands in the two counties. It is doubtful whether a similar instance of 
extraordinary exertion, enterprise and successful perseverance can be 
found in our countrv. 

Mr. Rhodes certainly deserves a premium for his wonderful diligence 
and successful enterprise and perseverance in the construction of this ex- 
traordinary building. Tliere have been several floods in the creek since 
the mill was erected ; but the immense strength of the dam and walls has 
heretofore resisted the force of the waters, and the mill sustained no injury. 


The Episcopal society have within a few years past erected several 
beautiful houses of worship ; one at Berryville, one at Millwood, one in 
Winchester, (the latter a truly splendid building, with a iirst rate organ,) 
and another at Middletown, which is also a beautiful and chaste structure, 
and is truly creditable to the society. The writer heard a minister of the 
gospel express the opinion, that it presented to the eye precisely what a 
church edifice ought to exhibit, i. e., a ray of truth. The Roman Catho- 
lic society have erected chapels in several places. They have built a 
superb edifice at Harper's Ferry, with a beautiful pulpit, with the image 
of the Virgin Mary with the infant Jesus in her lap. 


It is scarcely necessary to inform the reader that this is the location 
of the U. S. armory, and in the several shops are generally employed 
about three hundred first rate mechanics, engaged in the manufactory of 
arms for the purposes of war. There are annually made about six or sev- 
en thousand muskets, two or three thousand rifles, beside an immense 
number of swords, pistols, and other side arms. The government em- 
ploys at this establishment a superintendent ganeral, a paymaster and a 
number of clerks. The quantity of iron, steel, brass and other materials 
annually wrought up, is immense. A vast number of strangers annually 
visit this place to gratify their curiosity in seeing and inspecting the pub- 
tic works and great mechanical operations, so extensively carried on. — 
The machinery of the musket factory is wrought by the waters of the Po- 
tomac, and that of the rifle factory by the waters of the Shenandoah. 

This site for the public works it is said was first marked out or recom- 
mended by the immortal Washington, and is certainly evidence of his su- 
perior skill and judgment in all military matters. 

A rail-road from Winchester to Harper's Ferry has been lately construc- 
ted, which has rendered Winchester a place of deposit for the vast pro- 
ducts of our valley, but little inferior to some of our seaport towns. A 
turnpike road from Winchester to Parkersburg on tlie Ohio river, a dis- 
tance of about two hundred and eighty miles, has lately been finished ; 
and another McAdamized turnpike road from Winchester to Staunton,, 
has just been put in operation, and it is almost inconceivable what vast; 


quantities of produce, now find a ready way to Baltimore from (he in- 
creased facilities of oiir improved roads to that market. 

An improved road from Staunton across llie Allegany mountains, is now 
going on to Paikersburg, which will still add great facilities to valley 
trade and greatly enhance the value of real estate in Western Virginia. — 
There is also a turnpike from Harrisonburg by way of the Warm 
Springs, Hot Springs, and White Sulphur, across the Allegany to Guy- 
andot, by way of Kanawha. Those several turnpikes are passable at all 
seasons of the year, and greatly expedite the passenger's journey from 
east to west. These several turnpikes have been made at vast expense to 
the State and stockholders, notwithstanding which, improvements are still 
going on. A few years more and Western Virginia will vie with our 
northern and sister States with her vast improvements. Our valley is 
making great improvement in every agricultural pursuit. Copying after 
our great and good countryman, Washington, immense improvements 
have already been made, and are still making, in the rearing of fine ani- 
mals of every variety. Stage coaches travelall our turnpike roads, drawn 
by the most splendid horses; and most of our substantial farmers rear the 
finest cattle, sheep, and hogs, and are greatly improving the fertility of 
their lands. Our valley furnishes the several markets with vast quannti- 
ties of superior beef, pork, mutton, butter, and the finest of bread- 
stuffs. The quantities of oats annually raised for market are incalculable. 
Immense crops of the finest timothy, clover, and orchard grass hay, and 
corn fodder are annually consumed by our farmers' stock ; and, notwith- 
standing the vast quantities raised, once in a while there are seasons of 
great scarcity of provender for sustaining the vast stock of animals kept 
on hand. 

Our winters are frequently of great length and extremely severe. The 
author will here notice one winter which was remarkable for its 
long and excessive severity. When a youth, he frequently met with in- 
dividuals who well recollected the hard winter of 1740. It was said that 
that remarkable winter produced the greatest depth of snow ever known 
in our climate. The snow fell to such an immense depth as to smother 
vast numbers of horned cattle, sheep, hogs, deer, and many other wild 

The author believes it will not be uninteresting to the reader to 
have a brief description of several remarkable works of nature in our val- 
ley, to gether with anotice of some elegant buildings and improvements on 
the farms of private individuals. He will begin with 


Washington's Masonic Cave. — About two anrl a half miles sonfh 
east of Charlestown in this county is to be seen this cavern. Tradition 
informs us that Gen. Washington and a number of other gentlemen formecf 
themselves into a Masonic Society and held their lodges in this cavern. 
The wriler saw and partially explored it. It is not an extensive cavern, 
and is more remarkabh; from the fact of its having been used as a lodge 
room by Washington and others. It however has several different depart- 
ments. Tiie author was not able to get into the lodge room. The en - 


trriTire to which is quite low and narrow. Tlie proprietor (Mr. Clark) 
informed the author tliat Washington's name, with the names oCthc several 
members of the lodge, is inscribed in the face of the rocks in the lo(hj,e 
room. A rock of very hard stone, which lies near a very fine lime spring- 
convenient to the cave, has several inscriptions on it- The letters are 
the plain Roman character ; btit the author could not explain the mean- 
ingi They probably are masonic enigmas. 

Having introduced the name "Washington," though a digression from 
the general subject, it will be well enough to notice several important 
anecdotes in the history of that great, heaven-protected man, which the 
writer has heard from respectable authority. 

The late Maj. Lawrance Lewis, a favorite nephew of Washington's, 
and who resided with him at "Mount Vernon" for several years, related 
the following remarkable anecdote of his uncle. In the battle fousfht be- 
tween Braddock and the Indians, it is well known^ Washington acted as 
one of Braddock's aids. After the battle, Daniel Craig — then of Winches- 
ter, but afterwards settled in Alexandria — became acquainted with 
Redhawk, a distinguished young Indian warrior. In a conversation with 
the Doct., Redhawk inquired what young officer (who was mounted on a 
very fine horse) it was, who rode with great rapidity from ])ost to post, 
during the action. The Doct. replied, Col. W^ashingtoo, Redhawk im- 
mediately stated, "I fired eleven deliberate shots at that man, but could 
not touch him. I gave over any further attempt, believing he was pro- 
tected by the great Spirit, and could not be killed by a bullet." Red- 
hawk further added, that his gun was never known to miss its aim before. 

We have another tradition in this neighborhood in relation to this 
great man. It is stated that when he was retreating before the British 
army in Jersey, he once expressed to some of his officers his determina- 
tion, if he was still pursued, and unable to make a stand, to continue his 
retreat until he reached Powell's Fort, which he wovdd fortify and defy 
all their forces.* This tradition was communicated to the author by a 
highly respectable gentleman of this vicinity. 

There was another tradition related to the author by an old lady, (Mrs. 
Elizabeth Madson,) on Roanoke river, of great respectal)ility. She stated 
the following fact : Several old Indian chiefs had offered considerable 
premiums to any warrior or set of warriors, who would bring out Wash- 
ington's scalp. Seven Indians who were living in the neighborhood of 
Roanoke, got to hear that Washington was on his way out to inspect the 
fort very near the Roanoke river. There were two roads leading to the fort ; 
one across the point of the mountain, and the other on level land. The 

*Powell's Fort is in fact a natural fortress. The mountains on each 
side are of immense height, and covered with loose stone; at the entrance, 
they come so close together that a few hundred men placed on the heights 
could destroy ten times their number, by hurling stone down on the ene- 
my. If the enemy had attempted by a couuler route to enter the fort, a 
few hundred active and brave riflemen, from the mountainous character ni" 
the country, could have cut to pieces an armv of almost any force. 


one ncro!^r, the momitain wuf. the shorter M'.iy; t!ie other on the level land 
the better. 'I'he seven Indians plaeeil themselves in ambush close to the 
side of the level road, and lay concealed two days and niohts ; b)it Wash- 
ington did not pass. They grew impatient, and their chief, the third day, 
stated that he would go to the other road and ascertain whether Wash- 
ington had not taken that route to the fort — the two roads being only one 
mile apart. He gave his men positive orders not to fire at any person 
that might pass in his absence. While he was gone. Col. Washington, 
Col. Lewis and Col. Preston, all three passed close by the enemy with- 
out heing molested. 

Another tradition informs us that Lord Fairfax appointed Washington 
one of his surveyors. He boarded with Capt. Charles Smith, within 
half a mile of Battletown. He kept his office in an upper room in the 
spring house. This small log building is on the farm owned by John 
li. Taylor, Esq., — the only son of the late Col. Gritfin Taylor, now in 
Clarke county. 


This is said to be a most grand work of nature. It is a spacious and 
beautiful cavern, in a high rock, about four miles west of W^atkins' Ferry, 
on the Virginia iside of the Cohongoruton, (Potomac.) It is a circular 
rlome of considerable height, with a most extraordinary spiral opening in 
the arch, resend)Hng the steeple of a church. Seats are formed all a- 
round the interior ; the inlet is by a large door. Tradition informs us 
that the Indians, when in possession of the country, used to assemble in 
considerable numbers in this place. For wdiat particular object is not 
known ; but it is probable they used it as a place of worship, or for hold- 
ing their councils. 


This s])lendid work of nature is in the county of Morgan, about three 
inih's S. W. (if Bath, immediately on the bank of Ca]-)on river. It is cer- 
tainly not less than one tlujusand feet perpendicular height. Capon riv- 
er viewed from this immense height presents to the eye a most curious 
and interesting sight. The river running a considerable distance to the 
west, makes a gi'adual turn around a point of level land — thence return- 
ing an easterly course to the base of the mountain, enclosing some two 
f)r three hu