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Virginia Company of London, 





•' 3 ^cc luaiii) lifclt) to be ^i3l)eol•telleb bvi t()c ijlciiber i\rmn[) of 
ihc'^Urgiiiia ^Mantation, wind] for tl;c lime mii][)t [;aoe been, not 
ouli) a Mji but a ble§Sc^ motlief of a mimeroii8 aiii> tbrioiiui 
i]eiieratioii, brancbinn far, into ot()er colonies, anb \)d iS ' 3 
Jibe 110 ii'here, but entiuine i^irntiita lutt^ a rtgbt Ijeavt, ml) pen 
Mrecteb, mi) banb* erecteb. for her i^oob." i^ u r c I) a $, IV, 1809^ 

®ob tl)e gatljer, Son anb poll) C^ljoet iii()k() goef> before u& ui 
tl)e§e tl)int]^, (if not in miraculous fire anb doubij pillar?, a? 
iul)en J^rael luent to fcanaan, i)Ct in tlje light of reason anb ru]l)t 
consciincnce of arguments ; ) come into u6 anb fill uS luitl) tlje 
Spirit of iDisbom anb unberStanbing, tlje spirit of counsel anb of 
fortitubc, tfje Spirit of fnoiulcbge anb fear of tl)e Sorb, 3 mai; abb 
tl)c spirit of nniti) an^ counsel, tl)at he mah uouct)Safe to go raitl) 
us, anb luc luiti^ §ini, anb after v>im to i^irginia. 9(men, C 
•oilmen ' ''Be tfpu the SUplja an^ Omega of Snglaiib S iMantation 
\n ^i^irgitiia, C @ob ' i» u r c has, IV, 1826. 


N tlic month of May, 1868, a memorial was presented 
by tlie writer, to the Congress of the United States 
of America, calljjppr attention to two large folio 
volumes of manuscript in their Library, containing 
the Transactions of the Virginia Company of London 
during tlie important period of tlieir existence, and 
if they should deem them worthy of being printed, 
offering without compensation to annotate and super- 
intend their publication. The communication was 
read in the Senate, ordered to be printed, referred to 
'the Committee on Library, and attracted no attention. 

Believing that there should be some distinct history of a Company that planted 
the first permanent English settlement in America, and in 1619 instituted the 
first representative legislative Assembly, whose members were elected by general 
suffrage, this work has been prepared, and by the liberality of a true disciple of 
Aldus, who has a love for historical studies, Mr. Munsell, of Albany, New York, 
is presented to the public. 

The main sources of information have been the manuscript records of the 
Company, the history of the preservation of which for about two hundred and 
fifty years, is full of interest. 

In one of the old mansions of rural Chelsea, which tradition says was the home 
of Sir Thomas More, the warm friend of Erasmus, and author of the political 
romance of Utopia, there dwelt, in 1624, Sir John Dauvers, a prominent member 
of the Virginia Company, who had married the gentle and comely widow Herbert, 
already the mother of ten children, two of whom were George, the holy poet, and 
Edward, the philosophical Deist. 

After the king resolved to destroy the charter of the Company, an attempt was 
made to obtain the records by their opponents. The Secretary of the Company, 
CoUingwood, probably under the direction of Deputy Nicholas Ferrar, one day 


visited Sir Jolin Danvers, and mentioned that tliree London mercliants had lately 
called upon him to obtain information. A clerk of Collingwood was immedi- 
ately secured as* copyist, and, to preclude discovery, was locked up in a room of 
Danver's house, while he transcribed the minutes. 

After the transactions were copied on folio paper, to prevent interpolation, each 
page carefully compared with the originals by Collingwood and then subscribed 
" Con. Collingwood," Danvers took them to the President of the Company, Henry 
Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton. The Earl was highly gratified in the posses- 
sion of a duplicate copy of the Company's transactions, and expressed it by 
throwing his arms aroimd the neck of Sir John, and then turning to his brother, 
said : " Let them be kept at my house at Tichfield ; they are the evidences of 
my honor, and I value them more than the evidences of my lands." 

During the same year Southampton died ; and Thomas, his son, was heir and 
successor to the title, and became Lord High Treasurer of England, and lived 
until 1667. Shortly after the death of the latter, William Byrd of Virginia, the 
father of Hon. William Byrd of Westover, purchased the manuscript records from 
the executors of the Earl for sixty guineas. 

Rev. William Stiih, who subsequently became President of William and 
Mary College, while living at Varina, on James river, the old settlement of Sir 
Thomas Dale, better known since the civil war as Dutch Gap» obtained these 
records from the Byrd library at Westover ; and most of the material of his 
History of Virginia, completed in 1746, was drawn therefrom. 
,^ Stith's brother-in-law, Peyton Randolph, became the first President of the Con- 
tinental Congress, and while visiting a friend at his seat near Philadelpliia, in 
October, 1775, suddenly died. When his library was sold it was purchased by* 
Thomas Jefferson, and among the books were the manuscript records of the 
London Company, that had been used by Stith. 

The United States having purchased the books of President Jefferson, these 
manuscripts are now preserved in the library of Congress. They are bound in 
two volumes, and contain the Company's transactions from April 28, 1619, until 
June 7, 1624. The first volume contains 354 pages, and concludes with this 
statement : 

" Memoranda that wee, Edward Waterhouse and Edward Collingwood, secre- 
taries of the Companies for Virginia and the Sumer Hands, have examined and 
compared the Booke going before, conteyning one hundred seventy-seven leaues 
from Page 1 to Page 354, with the originall Booke of Courts itself. And doe 
finde this Booke to be a true and pfect copie of the said originall Courte Booke, 
sauinge that there is wanting in the copie, of Court of the 20th May, 1620, and 
the brginning of the Q' Court held 22nd ; but as farre as is here entered in this 
copie doth truly agree with the originall itself. 


" And to every page I, Edward Collingwood, liaue sett my hand and both of us 
do hereby testifie as above that it is a true copie. 
" Jan. 38, 1623 [1634 N. S.] 

" EDW : WATERHOUSE, Secret. 
" ED : COLLINGWOOD, Secret." 

The second volume contains 387 pages, and is concluded with the following note : 

" Memorand. That wee Edward Collingwood, Secretary of the Company for 
Virginia, and Thomas Collett, of the Middle Temple, gentleman, have perused, 
compared and examined this present booke, begininge att page 1, att a Prepara- 
tiue Court held for Virginia the 20th of May, 1622, and endinge at this present 
page 387 att a Preparatiue Court held the 7th of Jime, 1624. And wee doe finde 
that this coppie doth perfectlie agree with the originall books of the Court 
belonging to the Company in all things, saue that in page 371, the graunt of 800 
acres to Mr. Maurice Berkley is not entred, and save that in page 358 we wanted 
the Lord's letter to Mr. Deputy Ferrar, so that we could not compare itt and like- 
\nse sauing that in Page 348 wee wanted the Gouernor and Counsell's Letter 
from Virginia in w'ch respect I, Edward ColUngwood, haue not sett my hand to 
those three pages, but to all the rest I haue sett my hand severally to each in 
confirmacon, that they agree truly with the Originalls. And in witness and con- 
firmacon that this booke is a true coppy of the Virginia Courts, wee have here- 
imder ioyntly sett our hands the 19th day of June, 1634. 


Judgment against the Virginia Company had been pronounced only three days 
before the last note was written, by that Lord Chief Justice Ley, called by John 
Milton the "old man eloquent," in a sonnet to the Judge's daughter — "honour'd 

On the 15th of July the King ordered all their papers to be given to a Com- 
mission, which afterwards met weekly at the house of Sir Thomas Smith. The 
entries in the minutes were damaging to the reputation of Smith and others of 
the Commission, and it is presumed that no great effort was made to preserve the 
originals. Repeated searches have been made for them in England, but they 
have not been discovered. 

Prefixed to the minutes of each meeting are the names of the principal lords, 
knights, gentlemen and merchants present. In some cases more than one hundred 
are recorded, and it is regretted that the limits of the work prevented the publi- 
cation of some of these lists, showing the presence of Generals Cecil and Horatio 
Vere ; men of letters like Edward Herbert, afterwards Lord Cherbury ; eminent 

1 Thomas Collett was a nephew of John and Nicholas Ferrar. 

vi PliKFACE. 

phvsioians. as Gulston and Anthouv : the poots, John Donno and Georj^o Saudvs ; 
and divines, as Sanmel Purchas and others. 

Besides the journals of the Company, use has also been made of a large folio 
manuscript volume, coutainino: the letters of the Company and the Colony, with 
other i^ajH^rs from the year ItJSl to 1635, and a smaller folio also in manuscript, 
but prt>pared at a later period, containinir copies of early papers. 

The ettbrt has l)oen to repr^xluce the actors, and the spirit of the ajre in which 
they livtHl. Allusions in stajr«^plays, the letters of friends, and notices in the 
clmmicles of the iH>riod. have been interwoven with the narrative wherever prac- 
ticable. No one can read the corrt^s^xindence of that era without beinjr impivssed 
that the colonization of Viririnia interestt\l the public mind of England as much 
as the gold discoveries and settlement of the Pacitic coast has occupi«.\l the 
American mind during the last quarter century. 

The return of Gossnold in 1603, with the announcement that he had found a 
short, direct northern wuto to America, avoiding the diseases and delay incident 
to the circuitous voyage by way of the West Indies, created an excitement at the 
London Exchange akin to the laying of the transatlantic cable in modern days, 
and was talkeil over at the fiivside, and refenwl to on the stage. 

Marstou's play of Eastward Ho, written in lOOo, and xx^pular for years, act III, 
scene 3d, iutrvxluces a talk about Virginia, in the Blue Anchor Tavern, by 
Billingsgate : 

SeaffitU. " Come, drawer, pierce your neatest hogshead, and let's have cheare — 
not fit for your Billingsg-ate taverne, btit for our Virginian Colonel ; he will be 
here instantly. 

J>ratcer. " You shall have al things fit. sir : please you have any more wine ? 

SpendaL " More wine. Slave ! whether we driuke it or no, spill it. and drawo 

Seag^ttU. " Come, Ix^yes, Virginia longs till we sharv> the rest of her maiden- 

Spendal. " Why, is she inhabitei^l alreadie with any English ? 

SeaffuU. " A whole countrie of English is there, man, bread of those that were 
left there in "79 ; they have married with the Indians, and make 'hem bring forth 
as beautifuU faces as any we have in England : and therefore the Indians are st> 
in love with 'hem, that all the treasim^ they have, they lay at their ftx^te. 

iScapethr{ft. " But is there, such treasure thert^ Captaine as I have heard ? 

Seag-ull. " I tell thee, golde is mort^ pleutifull there, then copper is with us : 
and for as much reilde copi^er as I can bring, I'le have thrise the weight in gold. 
'SVhy, man. all their dripping pans and chamber-jx>tts are pure gould : and all the 
chaines ^^ith which they chaine up their streets an> massie g\.ild ; all the prisoners 
they take are fetertxl in gold : and for rubies and diamonds they goe forth in holy- 
daves and gi\ther hem bv the sea-short\, to hang on their chihlrt>ns coates, and 



fiticko in their caps, as commonly as our children weare naffron rrilt 
brooches, and ffroat(;H with holes in 'hem. 
Scapcthrift. " And is it a pleasant countrie withall ? 

Seagull. "As ever the sunne shin'd on ; temperate and ful of all sorts of ex- 
cellent viands ; wild bore is as common there as our tamest bacon is here • venison 
as mutton. And then you shall live freely there, without sargeants or courtiers 
or lawyers or intelligencers. Then for your meanes to advancement there it is 
smiple, and not preposterously mixt. You may bee an alderman there, and never 
be scavenger; you may bee any other officer, and never be a slave. You may 
come to preferment enough and never be a pandar ; to riches and fortune enough 
and have never the more villanie nor the lesse witte. Besides, there wee shall 
have no more law than conscience, and not too much of eyther • serve God 
enough, eate and drinke enough, and ' enough is as good as a feast.' 
Spendthrift. " God's me ! and how farre is it thither V 

SeaguU. "Some six weekes saile, no more, with any indifferent good winde 
And If I get to any parte of the Coast of Africa, i'le saile thither with any winde • 
or when I come to Cape Finister, there's a foreright winde continually wafts us' 
till we come to Virginia." ' ' 

The_ interest in America at that period, will also be seen by the perusal of the 


Company °''^' Published by direction or" during the existence of the Virginia 


vt2r ^'^^*!r °i '"""^ occurrences and accidents of noate as hath hapned in 
loT^T : first planting of that Collony, which is now residen in the 
South part thereof, till the last returne from thence 

M:^":.^:^.'"^' ^--"«^*^^^ -^^ ^01^, to a worship^.!! 

London : Printed for John Tappe, and are to bee solde at the Grey-hound in 
Paules-Church-Yard, by W. W. 1608. Quarto, black letter 

The editor, J. H., in his Preface says: "Some of the bookes were printed 
under the name of Thomas Watson, by whose occasion I know not unlesse it were 
the ouerrashnesse or mistakinge of the workemen." 


Virginia Richly Valued,' by the description of themaine land of Florida her 
next neighbour ; etc. Written by a Portugall gentleman of Elvas, emploied in 
all the action and translated out of Portuguese by Richard Hakluyt. At London : 

1 See page 26. 

viii PREFACE. 

Printed by Felix Kj-ngston for Matthew Lownes, and are to be sold at the signe 
of the Bishop's head in Paul's Church yard. 1609. 4to. pp. 180. 

^ A Sermon Preach'd at White Chappel, in the Presence of many Honourable 
and Worshipfull the Adventurers and Planters for Virginia, 25 April, 1609. Pub- 
lished for the benefit and use of the Colony, planted and to be planted there, and 
for the advancement of their Christian purpose. 

By William Symondes, Preacher at Saint Saviours in Southwarke. 

London : Printed by J. Winder for Eleazar Edgar. 1609. 4to. 

The Epistle Dedicatory is to the " right noble and worthie Advancers of the 
Standard of Christ among the Gentiles, the Adventurers for the Plantation of 

v^ Nova Britannia, Ofiferinge most excellent Fruites by Planting in Virginia. Ex- 
citing all such to be well aflFected to further the same. /^ f<,^ X> 
London : Printed for Samuel Macham. 1609. 4to, black letter. ' 

Saules Prohibition Staid, a reproof to those that traduce Virginia. 
London, 1609. Small 4to. 

A Good Speed to Virginia. Esay 42. 4. " He shall not faile nor be discouraged, 
till he have set judgement in the earth, and the isles shall wait for his law." 

London : Printed by Felix Kyngston for William Welbie, and are to be sold at 
his shop at the signe of the Grey-hound in Paul's Church-yard, 1609. 4to, Black 
letter, 15 leaves. 

The " Epistle Dedicatorie," to the Lords, Knights, Merchants and Gentlemen 
adventurers for the plantation of Virginia, is subscribed E. G., and dated " From 
mine house at the North-end of Sithe's lane, London, April 28, Anno 1609." The 
writer regretted that he was able " neither in person, nor purse to be a partaker 
in the businesse." 

V A Sermon preached in London, before the right honorable the Lord La Warre, 

Lord Governour and Captaine Generall of Virgiuea, and others of his Maiesties 
Counsell for that kingdome, and the rest of the Aduentm-ers in that Plantation at 
the said Generall his leaue taking of England his native countrey, and departure 
for Virginea, February 21, 1609. By W. Crashaw. Bachelor of Divinitie and 
Preacher at the Temple.' 

London : Printed for William Welby, and are to bo sold in Pauls Churchyard 
at the signe of the Swan, 1610. 

A true and sincere declaration of the purpose and ends of the Plantation begim 
in Virginia, of the degrees which it hath received ; and means by which it hath 

I For complete title see pp. 34, 35. 


beeno advanced ; and the resolution and conclusion of Lis Majesties Councel of 
that Colony, for the constant and patient prosecution thereof, until by the mercies 
of God it shall re-tribute a fruitfull harvest to the Kingdom of Heaven, and this 

Sett forth by the authority of the Governors and Councellors established for 
that Plantation. Small 4to, pp. 2G. 

sj A true Declaration of the Estate of the Colonic in Virginia, with a confutation 
of such scandalous reports as haue tended to the disgrace of so worthy an enter- 

Published by aduise and direction of the Councell of Virginia. 

A wood-cut, representing one man planting a tree, and another watering a tree, 
with a circlet of clouds above, and the word Jehovah in Hebrew, in the celitre. 

London : Printed for William Barrett, and are to be sold at the blacke Beare in 
Pauls Church-yard. 1610. Small 4to, pp. 68. 

^ The Relation of the Right Honourable the Lord De-Lawarre, Lord Gouernour 
and Captaine Generall of the Colonie, planted in Virginia. 

London: Printed by Wilham Hall for William Welbie dwelling in Pauls 
Church-yeard at the Signe of the Swan. 4to, pp. 15. 

\/ ' 
^ The New Life of Virginea : Declaring the former successe and present estate 
of that plantation, being the second part of Nova Britannia. 

Published by the authoritie of his Majesties Counsell of Virginea. 
London : Imprinted by Felix Kyngston for William Welby dwelling at the 
signe of the Swan in Paul's Church-yard. 1612. 

This work is dedicated to " Sir Thomas Smith of London, Governour of the 
Moscovia and East India Companies, one of his Majesties Counsell for Virginia 
and Treasurer for the Colony." In the dedicatory Epistle, signed rM., it is said 
that " the malitious and looser sort (being acoompanied with the licentious vaine 
of stage poets) have whet their tongues with scornfull taunts against the action 
itselfe, insomuch as there is no common speech, nor publike name of any thing 
this day (except it be the name of God) which is more \Wldly depraved, traduced 
and derided by such imhallowed lips than the name of Virginea." 

^y A Map of Virginea, with a description of the Countrey, the Commodities, Peo- 
pie, Government and Religion. Written by Captain Smith, sometimes Governour 
of the Countrey. Whereunto is annexed the Proceedings of those Colonies since 
their first departure from England. Taken faithfully as they were written out of 
the writings of Doctor Russel, Tho : Studley, &c. And the Relations of divers 
other diligent Observers there present then, and now many of them in England. 
By W. S. At Oxford, Printed by Joseph Barnes. 1612. 4to pp 39 


s/ The Proceedings of tlie English Colonie in Virginea, since their first beginning 
from England in the yeare of our Lord 1606, till this present 1612. With all 
their Accidents that befell them in their Journies and Discoveries, &c. Unfolding 
even the fundamental Causes, from whence have sprang so many Miseries to the 
Undertakers, and Scandals to the Businesse. And perused and confirmed J^ 
diverse now resident in England, that were Actors in this Business. By W. S.^ 
At Oxford, printed by Joseph Barnes. 1612. -pprlO^. -■ > > - < 'J «> - 

For the Colony in Virginea Britannia. Lavves Diuine, Morall and Martiall, 
&c. Alget qui non ardet. Res nostrse subinde non sunt, quales quis optaret, sed 
quales esse possunt. 

Printed at London for Walter Barre. 1612. 

^ Good Newes from Virginia.' Sent to the Coimsell and Company of Virginia, 
resident in England. From Alexander Whitaker, the Minister of Henrico in 
Virginia. Wherein also is a narration of the present state of that Country, and 
our Colonies there. Perused and published by direction from that Coimsell. 
And a preface prefixed of some matters touching that Plantation, very requisite 
to be made knowne. London. 

The preface of 34 pages is from the pen of W. Crashaw, a distinguished divine. 

/a /T 
J A True Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia, and the successe of the 

affaires there till the 18 of June, 1614.^ 

Together With a Relation of the seuerall English Townes and fortes, the 
assured hopes of that countrie, and the peace concluded with the Indians. 

The Christening of Powhatan's daughter and her marriage with an English- 
man. / 

Written by Raphe Hamor the younger, late Secretary in that Colony. 

Alget, qui non ardet. 

Printed at London by John Beale for William Welby dwelling at the signe of 
the Swanne in Pauls Church-yard. 1615. 4to, pp. 69. 

The dedication is " To the Truly Honorable and right worthy Knight, Sr Thomas 
Smith, Gouernour of the East India, Muscouia, North-west passages, Somer 
Islands Companies, and Treasurer for the first Colony in Virginia." 

In the Epistle to the Reader, the same language is used about stage-players as 
in the Daily Prayer appended to the bloody code of 1612.3 


K/ Purchas, his Pilgrimage, etc. 

By Samuel Purchas Parson of St. Martins by Ludgate, London. Una Deus, 
una Veritas. 

» See page t8. "" See page 88. =* See page 64. 


London : Printed by William Stansby for Henry Fetherstone, and are to be 
sold at liis sliop in Pauls Churcli-yard, at the signe of the Kose. 1617. 

This is the 3d edition, much enlarged, and gives an abstract of Rolfe's relation 
of Virginia, then in manuscript. 


V A Note of the Shipping, Men, and Provisions sent to Virgfnia, by the Trea- 
surer and Company in the yeere 1619. With the Orders and Constitutions partly 
collected out of his Majesties Letters Patent, and partly ordained upon mature 
deliberation by the Treasurer, Co'unsail, and Company of Virginia, for the better 
governing of the Actions and Affaires of the said Company, here in England 
y CZt residing. 164»; 4to. -t ^ o A ^-^.z i.y^i d\ £^ v t cm'^^.-C-^a - c'lV-i , ;,< 2 

Another Note of the shipping. Men, and Provisions sent to Virginia, by the 
Treasurer and Company, in the yeere 1619. Published by his Majesties Coimsell 
for Virginia. 4to, pp. 16. 

With the names of the Adventurers, with their several Summs adventured, 
paid in to Sir Thomas Smith, Knight, late Treasurer of the Company for Vir- 
ginia. 4to, pp. 30. And another list of the Names of some other advcntui-ers. 
With the sumfiis paid by Order to Sir Baptist Hickes, Knight, and to Sir Edwin 
Sandys Knight. 


A Declaration of the State of the Colonie and Affaires m Virginia, with the 
Names of the Adventurors, and Summes adventoi'ed in that Action.' By his Ma- 
jesties Councell for Virginia, 22 Junij 1620. ' 

London : Printed by T. S. 1620. 4to. / 

Declaration by his Majesties Councell for Virginia, touching the present estate 
of their Colony in that Country dat. 20 Sep. 1620. 4to, pp. 11. 


Virginias God be thanked,^ or a Sermon of Thanksgiving on Ps. cvii. 23, for 
the happie Successe of the Affayres in Virginia, this last yeare. 

"Preached by Patrick Copland at Bow-Church in Cheapside, before the 
Honorable Virginia Company, on Thursday the 18 of Aprill 1622. And now 
published by the Commandement of the said honorable Company. 

"Hereunto are adjoyned some Epistles, written first in Latine (and now 
Englished) in the East Indies by Peter Pope, an Indian youth, borne in the bay 
of Bengala, who was first taught and converted by the said P. C. And after bap- 
tized by Master John Wood, Dr in Divinitie, in a famous Assembly before the 

» See page 193. 2 ggg page 377. 




Right Worsliippfull tlie East India Company at S. Denis in Fan-Cliurcli streete 
in London December 23, 1616. 

" London. Printed by J. D. for William Sheflfard and John Bellamie, and are to 
be sold at the two Grey-honnds in Corne-hill, neere the Eoyal Exchange. 1623." 
4to. Dedication to Va. Co., 3 pp. Sermon, 36 pp. Appendix, 6 pp. 

A Consolation for our Grammar Schooles : Or a faithfull and most comfortable 
Incouragement, for laying of a sure Foundation of all good Learning in our 
Schooles, and for prosperous building thereupon. More especially for all those of 
the inferiour sort, and all ruder Countries and Places : Namely for Ireland, 
Wales, Virginia, with the Sommer Islands, and for their more Speedie attaining 
of our English Tongue by the same labour, that all may speake one and the same 
language. And withall, for the helping of all such as are desirous speedlie to 
recover that which they had formerlie got in the grammar schooles : and to pro- 
ceed aright therein, for the perpetual benefit of these our Nations, and of the 
Churches of Christ. 

London : Printed by Richard Field, for Thomas Man, dwelling in Paternoster 
Row, at the sign of the Talbot. 1623. 4to, pp. 84. 

There is an Epistle prefixed, " to the right Honourable, and right Worsliipful 
the Governour, Councell and Companie for Virginia, and of the Sommer Islands, 
that beginning with the Lord, and carefully planting and watering of his sacred 
Religion, they may find a more happy Growth and Increase, and evermore sound 
and lasting joy to their own Soules. Especially for dramng the poor Natives in 
Viro-inia, and all other of the rest of the Rude and Barbarous from Sathan to God." 

"With the Judgment and Approbation of Dr. James Usher and Dr. Daniel 
Featly, March 16, 1630." ^ 

>J His Maiesties gracious letter to the Earl of Southampton Treasurer of the Vir- 
ginia Company commanding the present and setting up of Silke Workes and 
Planting of Vines in Virginia. Also a Treatise of making silke by John Bonnoel. /^ .^ t,^ o a*. 
London : Felix Kyngston, 1633, 4to. Bonnoel was " silk-worm raiser to the 

King." ^ 

The Company in their letter to the colonial authorities say: "We now 
commend this Booke unto you. * * * The paines and industry of 
the Authour for the benefit of the Plantations (being a member of our Company) 
are sufiicient arguments of his good aflFection to the action." 

A Declaration of the State of the Colony and Affaires in Virginia ; with a rela- 
tion of the barbarous Massacre in the time of Peace, and League, treacherously 
executed by the native Infidels upon the English, the 33 of March last. To- 
gether with the names of those that were then massacred, that their lawful heirs 

> For a notice of this book of John Brinsley, see page 273. ^ See page 258. 


by this notice given may take order for tlie inheriting of their Lands and Estates 
in Virginia.' And a Treatise annexed, written by that learned Mathematician 
Mr. Henry Briggs of the North-west Passage to the South Sea, through the Con- 
tinent of Virginia, and by Fretum Hudson. Also a Commemoration of such 
worthy benefactors as have contributed their Christian Charitie towards the ad- 
vancement of the Colony. And a Note of the charges of necessarie Provisions fit 
for every Man that intends to go to Virginia. Published by Authoritie. 
London, for Robert Maylbourne. 1623. 4to, pp. 54. /i .. > 

y A Sermon upon the VHI verse of the Chapter of the Acts of the Apostles.^ 
Preached to the Hon. Company of the Virginian Plantation, 13 Nouemb. 1G22. 

By John Donne, Doctor of Divinity, and Dean of St. Paul's, Loudon. 4to, 1623. 

In an introductory note addressed to the Virginia Company the author' says : 
" By your favours, I had some place amongst you before ; but now I am an adven- 
turer; if not to Virginia, yet for Virginia : for every man that prints adventures. 
* * * * But for the printing of this Sermon, I am not only under your invi- 
tation, but under your commandment." 

It will be noticed in the Orders for first expedition, page 5, Newport's ship is 
called the Sarah Constant, while on pages 15, 17, the ship is mentioned as the 
Susan Constant. The discrepancy is caused by following the manuscript records 
in the first instance, and the statement of Purchas in the other pages. The 
reader's attention is called to the List of Errata, foltewing the Index, made 
necessary by the absence of the author from his native land while the work was 
passing through the press. The paragraph, page 377, on Copland's Thanksgiving 
Sermon, should have followed page 292, and been dated April 10th, 1632. 

Weever, in the preface to his work on Momcments, published in 1631, says : " I 
likewise write the orthographie of the old English as it comes to my hands, and 
if by the copying out of the same it be any manner of ways mollified, it is much 
against my will, for I hold originals the best." 

It has been my aim to retain the spelling of the manuscripts fr6m which I have 
made extracts, but certain contractions which could not be represented by modern 
type have necessarily been omitted. The paragraphs extracted are complete, care 
having been taken to avoid an hiatus. 

If a few students of the colonial history of America shall derive any pleasure 
or information from the perusal of the work, the great object of its publication 
will have been attained. To those who may think the details are minute and 
trivial, I can only quote from a letter of Dudley of Massachusetts, written in 1631 

' See page 334. 2 See page 360. 


to the Countess of Lincoln, two of wliose sons-in-law were among the settlers of 
that Puritan Colony : 

" If any tax me for wasting paper with recording these small matters, such may 
consider that small things, in the beginning of natural or politic bodies, are as 
remarkable as greater in bodies full grown." 

\ Dublin, Ikeland, May 1, 1870. 



Transactions duking the Period op First Charter, .... 1 

The Period of the Second Charter, 23 


Last Charter ; the Bermttdas ; Stage Plays ; Lotteries ; Debate in 

Parliament, 53 

Sir Thomas Dale, 73 

Pocahontas and Companions, 83 

Rolfe's Relation, 106 

Arg all's Administration, 113 

Leyden Puritans, 132 

Administration op Governor Yeardley, 134 



The Company under Directorship op Sir Edwin Sandys, . . . 143 

First Tear of Earl of Southampton's Directorship, . . . 192 

Second Year of E.vrl of Southampton's Directorship, . . . 213 

Third Year of Earl of Southampton's Directorship, . . . 299 

The Great Massacre, 317 

Waterhouse's Relation, and List of Slain 334 

Continuation op Earl op Southampton's Directorship, . . . 347 

Dissolution of the Company, 385 

f ivgiuiii (»Iomijmtij of ^§mii\m\. 



pasx)^ ENRY, the Earl of Southampton, 
was not only the patron of Shake- 
speare and other men of letters, 
l^ut the friend of those who were 
engaged in the discovery of dis- 
tant and unknown lands. He 
had been disappointed at the fail- 
ure of Sir Walter Raleigh's colony 
within the boundaries of what is now North Carolina, and 
determined to engage in another effort to plant the banner 
of England in America. Therefore he largely contributed 
in fitting out the ship Concord, under Captain Bartholomew 
Gosnold, who, accompanied by other gentlemen, in March, 
1602, sailed from Falmouth, and, pursuing a direct and 
northerly route, on the fourteenth of May made land 
in America, in the forty-third degree of north latitude. 
Going ashore, Gosnold explored the coast and called, in 


consequence of the abundance of fish in the vicinity^ one 
of the headlands Cape Cod, a name still retained. After 
trading with the Indians, the ship weighed anchor in June 
and arrived at Exmouth, in England, in the middle of 
July, bringing much encouragement for planting a colony 
in that region. 

In the latter part of the sixteenth century a pupil of 
Westminster school one day called upon a relative in the 
Middle Temple, upon whose table were opened certain 
books of travel and a map of the world. As various 
seas and kingdoms were pointed out, the youth resolved 
that if he ever entered the university he would devote 
himself to geographical studies. He kept the resolution, 
and in time Richard Hakluyt became the best informed 
man in England relative to the climate, races, and pro- 
ductions of the four quarters of the globe. At the time 
that Sir Francis Drake was fitting out his expedition 
for America, he was chaplain to the English embassy in 
Paris, and so great was his interest, he wrote that he was 
ready to fly to England "with winges of Pegasus," and 
devote his reading and observation in furthering the work.^ 
Subsequently he was consulted by the Muscovy, Green- 
land, and East India Companies before they engaged in 
new enterprises. In the minutes of the East India Com- 
pany, under date of 29th of January, 1601-2, is the fol- 
lowing entry : ^ " Mr. Hakluyt, the historiographer of 
the East India Company, being here before the committees, 
and having read unto them out of his notes and books, 
was requested to set down in writing a note of the princi- 

1 Halclwjt Soc. Pub , vol. VII, p. xii Introduction. 

2 Cal. of State Papers, East Indies, 1513-1616, p. 120. 


pal places in the East Indies, and where trade is to be had, 
to the end that the same may be used for the better in- 
struction of our factors in the said voyage." 

The report of Gosnold relative to the new short route, 
and the country seen, excited a wish to know more, and 
at Hakluyt's suggestion two vessels, in 1603, were dis- 
patched from Bristol, and those in command lived to return 
and verify previous statements. The Earl of Southamp- 
ton, and his brother-in-law, Arundell, baron of Wardour, 
in 1605 sent out Captain George Weymouth upon a voyage 
of discovery, who returned about the middle of July well 
pleased with the Atlantic coast of America. 

The next year Hakluyt, then prebendary of Westmin- 
ster, Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, and other 
"firm and hearty lovers" of colonization, petitioned the 
king for the privilege of colonizing the Atlantic coast of 
North America, and on the 6th of April, 1606, a patent 
was sealed for " Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George Som- 
mers Knights, Richard Hackluit Gierke Prebendarie of 
Westm and Edward Maria Wingfield, Thomas Hannam and 
Raleigh Gilbert Esquires, William Parker and George Pop- 
ham Gents, and diuers others," "to reduce a colony of sondry 
of o' people into y' part of America comonly called Vir- 
ginia," between the thirty-fourth and forty-fifth degrees of 
north latitude, and occupy islands within one hundred 
miles of the coast. 

The company under the charter was divided; Gates, 
Somers, Hakluyt, Wingfield, adventurers of the city of 
London, were called the First Colony, and to begin their 
first plantation at any point in Virginia between the thirty- 
fourth and forty-first degrees of north latitude, while Han- 
nam, Gilbert, Parker, Popham, and associates, of the town 


of Plymouth, were called the Second Colony, and to plant 
between the thirty-eighth and forty-fifth degrees of the 
same latitude.^ 

The summer and autumn were occupied by the project- 
ors of the first colony of the company in forming an ex- 
pedition, and in view of its departure in December, neces- 
sary regulations were prepared and are here inserted, copied 
from the manuscript records in the Library of Congress.^ 

Orders for First Expedition. 

" Certain Orders and Directions conceived and set down 
the tenth day of December in the year of the reign of Our 
Soverain Lord King James of England, France and Ireland 
the fourth, and of Scotland the fortieth, by his Majesties' 
Counsel for Virginia, for the better government of his Ma- 
jesties' subjects, both captains, soldiers, marriners, and 
others that are now bound for that coast to settle his 
Majesties' first colony in Virginia, there to be by them 
observed as well in their passages thither by sea, as after 
their arrival and landing there. 

"Whereas our said Soverain Lord the King by certain 
articles signed by his Ma'tie, and sealed with his Highness 
privy seal hath appointed us whose names are underwrit- 
ten with some others to be his Maj'ties Counsel for Vir- 
ginia, giving unto us by his Ma'ties warrant under the said 
privy seal full power and authority in his Ma'ties name to 
nominate the first several counsellors of the several colo- 
nies which are to be planted in Virginia, and to give 

1 Manuscript Charter in Virginia Records, 1621-25, in Library of 
Congress. Large folio. 

2 Virginia Manuscripts. Small folio. 


directions unto the several counsellors for their better 
government there, we having such due respect as is requi- 
site to a service of such importance being assembled to- 
gether for the better ordering and directing of the same 
do bj this our writing sealed with his Maj'ties seal ap- 
pomted for this Counsel, ordain, direct, and appoint in 
manner and form followino;. 

"First, Whereas the good ship called the Sarah Constant 
and the ship called the Goodspeed, with a pinnace called 
the Discovery are now ready victualed, riged, and furnished 
for the said voyage; we think it fit and so do ordain and 
appoint that Capt. Christopher Newport shall have the 
sole charge to appoint such captains, soldiers, and mar- 
riners as shall either command, or be shiped to pass in the 
said ships or pinnace, and shall also have the charge and 
oversight of all such munitions, victuals, and other pro- 
visions as are or shall be shiped at the publick charge of 
the adventurers in them or any of them. And further 
that the said Capt. Newport shall have the sole charge and 
command of all the captains, soldiers, and marriners and 
other persons that shall go in any the said ships and pin- 
nace HI the said voyage from the day of the date hereof, 
until such time as they shall fortune to land upon the 
said coast of Virginia, and if the said Captain Newport 
shall happen to dye at sea, then the masters of the said 
ships and pinnace shall carry them to the coast of Virginia 

"And whereas we have caused to be delivered unto the 
said Captain Newport, Captain Barthol. Gosnold and Captain 
John Ratcliffe, several instruments close sealed with the 
Counsels seal aforesaid containing the names of such persons 
as we have appointed to be of his Majesties Counsel in the 


said country of Virginia, we do ordain and direct that the said 
Captain Christopher Newport, Captain Bartholomew Gos- 
nold, and Captain John Eatchfle or the survivor or sur- 
vivors of them, shall within four and twenty hours next 
after the said ship shall arrive upon the said coast of Vir- 
ginia and not before open and unseal the said Instrument 
and declare and publish unto all the company the names 
therein set down, and that the persons by us therein named 
are and shall be known, and taken to be his Maj'ties Coun- 
sel of his first Colony in Virginia aforesaid. And further 
that the said Counsel so by us nominated, shall upon the 
publishing of the said instrument proceed to the election 
and nomination of a President of the said Counsel, and the 
said President in all matters of controversy and question 
that shall arise during the continuance of his authority 
where there shall fall out to be equality of voices, shall 
have two voices, and shall have full power and authority 
with the advice of the rest of the said Counsel, or the 
greatest part of them to govern, rule and command all the 
captains and soldiers, and all other his Majesties subjects 
of his Colony according to the true meaning of the orders 
and directions set down in the articles signed by his Maj'tie 
and of these presents. 

"And that immediately upon the election and nomina- 
tion of the said President, the President himself shall in 
the presence of the said Counsel, and some twenty of the 
principal persons, adventurers in the said voyage to be by 
the said President and Counsel called thereunto, take his 
corporal oath upon the holy Evangelists of alleageance to 
our Soverain Lord the King and for the performance of 
this duty in his place in manner and form following. 

"I elected President for his Majesties Counsel for 


the first Colony to Virginia do swear that I shall be a true 
and faithfull servant unto the King's Ma'tie as a Counsel- 
lor and President of his Majesties Counsel for the first 
Colony planted or to be planted in any the territories of 
America between the degrees of 34 and 41 from the equi- 
noctial line northward and the trades thereof, and that I 
shall faithfully and truly declare my mind and opinion 
according to my heart and conscience in all things treated 
of in that Counsel, and shall keep secret all matter com- 
mitted and revealed unto me concerning the same, or that 
shall be treated of secretly in that Counsel until time 
as by the consent of his Majesties Privy Counsel or the 
Counsel of Virg'a or the more part of them, publication 
shall be made thereof, and of all matters of great im- 
portance or difficulty I shall make his Majesties Counsel 
for Virginia acquainted therewith and follow their direc- 
tions therein. I shall to the best of my skill and know- 
ledge uprightly and duly execute all things coraitted to my 
care and charge according to such directions as are or shall 
be given unto me from his Maj'tie his heirs or successors, 
or his or their Privy Counsel or his or their Counsel for 
Virginia according to the tenour, effect and true meaning 
of his Majesties Letters Patent, and of such articles and 
instructions are set down by his Highness under his Ma- 
jesties Privy Seal for and concerning the government of 
the said Colony, and my uttermost bear faith and alleage- 
ance unto the King's Majesty his heirs, and lawful suc- 
cessors, as shall assist and defend all jurisdictions and 
authorities granted unto his Majesty and annexed unto the 
Crown as against forrain princes, persons and potentates 
whatsoever be it by act of Parliament or otherwise, and 
generally in all things I shall do as a true and faithfull 


servant and subject ought to do to his Majesty. So help 
me God. And after the oath so by him taken, the said 
President shall minister the like oath to every one, p'ticu- 
larly of the said Counsel leaving out the name of President 

"And finally that after the arrival of the said ship upon 
the coast of Virginia [and] the Counsellors' names pub- 
lished, the said Captain Newport shall with such number 
of men as shall be assigned him by the President and 
Counsel of the said Colony spend and bestow two months 
in discovery of such ports and rivers as can be found in 
that country, and shall give order for the present laiding 
and furnishing of the two ships above named, and all such 
principal comodities and merchandize as can there be had 
and found, in such sort as he may return with the said 
ships full laden with good merchandizes, bringing with him 
full relation of all that hath passed in said voyage, by the 
end of May next if God permit." 

Before the ships sailed, there was prepared for the guid- 
ance of the officers the following advisory paper, full of 
valuable suggestions, and perhaps drawn up by Hakluyt, 
who had been called to prepare similar papers by the East 
India Company. 

Advice for the Colony on Landing. 

"Instructions given by way of advice by us whom it 
hath pleased the King's Majesty to appoint of the Counsel 
for the intended voyage to Virginia, to be observed by 
those Captains and company which are sent at this present 
to plant there. 

"As we doubt not but you will have especial care to 


observe the ordinances set down by the King's Majesty 
and delivered unto you under the privy seal; so for your 
better directions upon your first landing we have thought 
good to recommend unto your care these instructions and 
articles following. 

"When it shall please God to send you on the coast of 
Virginia, you shall do your best endeavour to find out a 
safe port in the entrance of some navigable river making 
choice of such a one as runneth farthest into the land, and 
if you happen to discover divers portable rivers, and 
amongst them any one that hath two main branches if 
the difference be not great make choice of that which 
bendeth most toward the North-west for that way you 
shall soonest find the other sea. 

"When you have made choice of the river on which / 
you mean to settle be not hasty in landing your victuals 
and munitions, but first let Captain Newport discover how 
far that river may be found navigable that you make elec- 
tion of the strongest, most wholesome and fertile place for 
if you make many removes besides the loss of time, you 
shall greatly spoil your victuals and your casks, and with 
great pain transport it in small boats. 

" But if you choose your place so far up as a bark of 
fifty tuns will float then you may lay all your provisions 
ashore with ease, and the better receive the trade of all 
the countries about you in the land, and such a place you 
may perchance find a hundred miles from the river's ' 
mouth, and the further up the better for if you sit down 
near the entrance, except it be in some island that is strong 
by nature, an enemy that may approach you on even 
ground may easily pull you out, and if he be driven to 
seek you a hundred miles the land in boats you shall from 



both sides of the river where it is narrowest, so beat them 
with your muskets as they shall never be able to prevail 
against you. 

"And to the end that you be not surprized as the French 
were in Florida by Melindus and the Spaniard in the same 
place by the French, you shall do well to make this double 
provision, first erect a little stoure at the mouth of the 
river that may lodge some ten men, with whom you shall 
leave a light boat, that when any fleet shall be in sight 
they may come with speed to give you warning. Secondly 
you must in no case suffer any of the native people of the 
country to inhabit between you and the sea coast for you 
cannot carry yourselves so towards them but they will 
grow discontented with your habitation, and be ready to 
guide and assist any nation that shall come to invade you, 
and if you neglect this you neglect your safety. 

" When you have discovered as far up the river as you 
mean to plant yourselves and landed your victuals and 
munitions to the end that every man may know his charge 
you shall do well to divide your six score men into three 
parts, whereof one party of them you may appoint to 
fortifie and build of which your first work must be your 
storehouse for victual; the other you may imploy in pre- 
paring your ground and sowing your corn and roots ; the 
other ten of these forty you must leave as centinel at the 
haven's mouth. The other forty you may imploy for two 
months in discovery of the river above you, and on the 
country about you which charge Captain Newport and 
Captain Gosnold may undertake of these forty discoverers ; 
when they do espie any high lands or hills Capt. Gosnold 
may take twenty of the company to cross over the lands, 
and carrying a halfdozen pickaxes to try if they can find 


any minerals. The other twenty may go on by river, and 
pitch up boughs upon the banks' side by which the other 
boats shall follow them by the same turnings. You may 
also take with them a wherry such as is used here in the 
Thames, by which you may send back to the President for 
supply of munition or any other want that you may not 
be driven to return for every small defect. 

"You must observe if you can whether the river on 
which you plant doth spring out of mountains or out of 
lakes, if it be out of any lake, the passage to the other sea 
will be the more easy, and is like enough that out of th(3 
same lake you shall find some spring which run the con- 
trary way toward the East India Sea, for the great and 
famous rivers of Volga, Tauis and Dwina have three heads 
near joynd, and yet the one falleth into the Caspian Sea, 
the other into the Euxine Sea, and the third into the 
Polonian Sea. 

"In all your passages you must have great care not to 
offend the naturals, if you can eschew it, and imploy some 
few of your company to trade with them for corn and all 
other lasting victuals if you have any and this you must 
do before that they perceive you mean to plant among 
them, for not being sure how your own seed corn will pro- 
sper the first year, to avoid the danger of famine, use and 
endeavour to store yourselves of the country corn. 

"Your discoverers that passes over land with hired guides, 
must look well to them that they slip not from them, and 
for more assurance, let them take a compass with them, 
and write down how far they go upon every point of the 
compass, for that country having no way nor path, if that 
your guides run from you in the great woods or desert, you 
shall hardly ever find a passage back. 


'^ And how weary soever your soldiers be, let them never 
trust the country people with the carriage of their weapons, 
for if they run from you with your shott which they only 
fear, they will easily kill them all with their arrows. And 
whensoever any of yours shoots before them, be sure that 
they be chosen out of your best markesmen, for if they see 
your learners miss what they aim at, they will think the 
weapon not so terrible and thereby will be bould to assault 

"Above all things do not advertize the killing of any of 
your men, that the country people may know it ; if they 
perceive that they are but common men, and that with 
the loss of many of theirs, they may deminish any part of 
yours, they will make many adventures upon you. If the 
country be populous, you shall do well also not to let them 
see or know of your sick men, if you have any, which may 
also encourage them to many enterprises. You must take 
especial care that you choose a seat for habitation that 
shall not be over burthened with woods near your town 
for all the men you have shall not be able to cleanse 
twenty acres a year, besides that it may serve for a covert 
for your enemies round about. 

" Neither must you plant in a low or moist place because 
it will prove unhealthfull. You shall judge of the good 
air by the people, for some part of that coast where the 
lands are low have their people blear eyed, and with 
swollen bellies and legs, but if the naturals be strong and 
clean made it is a true sign of a wholesome soil. 

"You must take order to draw up the pinnace that is 
left with you under the fort, and take her sails and anchors 
ashore, all but a small kedge to ride by, least some ill dis- 
posed persons slip away with her. 


"You must take care that your marriners that go for 
wages, do not marr your trade, for those that mind not to 
inhabite, for a little gain will debase the estimation of ex- 
change, and hinder the trade for ever after, and therefore 
you shall not admit or suffer any person whatsoever, other 
than such as shall be appointed by the President and 
Counsel there, to buy any merchandizes or other things 

"It were necessary that all your carpenters and other 
such like workmen about building do first build your store- 
house and those other rooms of pubHck and necessary use 
before any house be set up for any private person, and 
though the workman may belong to any private persons 
yet let them all work together first for the company and 
then for private men. 

"And seeing order is at the same price with confusion 
it shall be adviseably done to set your houses even and by 
a Hue, that your streets may have a good breadth, and be 
carried square about your market place, and every street's 
end opening into it, that from thence with a few field 
pieces you may command every street throughout, which 
market place you may also fortify if you think it needfull. 
" You shall do well to send a perfect relation by Capt. 
Newport of all that is done, what height you are seated, 
how far into the land, what comodities you find, what soil,' 
woods and their several kinds, and so of all other things 
else to advertise p'ticularly; and to suffer no man to return ^ 
but by pasport from the President and Counsel, nor to 
write any letter of any thing that may discourage others. 
" Lastly and chiefly the way to prosper and achieve good 
success is to make yourselves all of one mind for the good 
of your country and your own, and to serve and fear God 



the Giver of all Goodness, for every plantation which our 
Heavenly Father hath not planted shall be rooted out." ^ 

Newport was well known as an experienced mariner, 
having returned from the West Indies about a year before 
the above instructions were prepared, and presented to his 
Majesty two living young crocodiles and a wild boar.^ As 
the preparations for the expedition drew to a close, many 
prayers ascended for its welfare, and the scholars, divines, 
statesmen, merchants and laboring men of London heartily 
adopted the sentiments of the poet Drayton on 

The Virginian Voyage. 

You brave heroic minds, 

Wortliy yoiir country's name, 
That honour still pursue. 
Whilst loitering hinds 

Lurk here at home with shame, 

Go, and subdue. 

And cheerfully at sea. 
Success you still entice. 

To get the pearl and gold. 

And ours to hold 
Earth's only paradise. 

Britons, you stay too long. 
Quickly aboard bestow you, 
And with a merry gale, 
Swell your stretch'd sail, 
With vows as strong. 
As the winds that blow you. 

Your course securely steer. 

West and by South, forth keep. 
Rocks, lee shores, nor shoals, 
When Eolus scowls. 

You need not fear. 

So absolute the deep. 

In kenning of the shore 
(Thanks to God, first given) 

O you the happy'st men^ 

Be frolic then. 
Let cannons roar. 
Fighting the wide Heaven. 

And in regions far, 

Such heroes bring ye forth. 

As those from whom we came. 
And plant our name. 

Under that star, 

Not known unto our North. 

1 Manuscript Virginia Records. Small folio. Library of Congress. 

2 Hoioe's Continuation of Stow's Chronicle, ed. of 1631, p. 871. 


And as there plenty grows Thy voyages attend, 

Of laurel, every where. Industrious Hackluit, 

Apollo's sacred tree, ;^ Whose reading shall inflame 

You it may see \ Men to seek fame, 

A poet's brows And much commend 
To crown, that may sing there. To after-times thy wit. 

The first colony left the Thames on the 19 th of De- 
cember, but owing to unfavorable weather did not sail from 
the Downs until the first of January, 1606-7. They were 
placed in three vessels, the Susan Constant of one hundred 
tons, with seventy-one persons, in charge of Christopher 
Newport the commander of the fleet, the God-Speed, of 
forty tons, Capt. Bartholomew Gosnold, carrying fifty-two 
persons, and the Discovery, of twenty tons, Capt. John 
Eatcliflfe, carrying twenty persons. The Mercure Francois, 
published at Paris, 1619, says some of the passengers 
were women and children. Dissensions arose during 
the voyage, and on the 12th of February John Smith 
was suspected of mutiny. By the West India route they 
reached the Virginia coast on the 26th of April, and 
having entered Chesapeake bay, on that night opened the 
sealed instructions. After some explorations in the small 
boats, they planted a cross at Cape Henry on the 29th, 
and took possession of the country in the name of King 
James, and on the next day the ships anchored at Point 
Comfort, now Fortress Monroe. The councillors designated 
by the London authorities were Edward Maria Wingfield,^ 
Bartholomew Gosnold, John Smith, Christopher Newport, 
John Ratclifie, John Martin, and John Kendall. Wing- 

1 He was the grandson of Sir Robert Wingfield, of Huntingdonshire. 
His father was Thomas Maria Wingfield, so christened by Queen Mary 
and Cardinal Pole. Camden Society Pub., No. 43. 


field was chosen the first president, a man of honorable 
birth, and a strict disciplinarian, who had been a com- 
panion with Ferdinando Gorges in the wars on the conti- 
nent of Europe, and one who never turned his face from 

Slowly the vessels ascended the James river, and on the 
13tli of May, 1607, stopped at a peninsula where there 
was good anchorage and landing, and which could be 
readily fortified, and in honor of the king called it James- 
town, and all of the council were sworn except the sus- 
pected Smith.^ A fort was commenced in the form of a 
triangle, with a half-moon at every corner^ and intended 
for four or five pieces of artillery. In accordance with the 
orders prepared in England, Captain Newport, in a shallop, 
with five gentlemen, four mariners, and fourteen sailors, 
ascended the river on a tour of exploration. At one of 
.^ the Indian villages below the falls of the James was found 
a lad of about ten years of age, with yellow hair and 
whitish skin, who was no doubt the offspring of the colo- 
nists left at Roanoke by White, of whom four men, two 
boys, and one young maid had been preserved from 
slaughter by an Indian chiefs 

1 For the facts relative to tlie early days of the colony, I am indebted 
to Wingfield's Discourse of Virginia, edited by Deane, and Capt. New- 
port's Relation, first printed from manuscripts in vol. IV, Am. Ant. 
Soc. Coll. 

2 Strachey says: "His majesty hath been acquainted that the men, 
women and children of the first plantation at Roanoke were, by command- 
ment of Powhatan, he persuaded thereto by his priests, miserably slaugh- 
tered, without any offence given by the first planted, who twenty and odd 
years had peaceably lived intermixt with those savages, and were out of 
his territory." Hakluyt Publications, vol. VI, p. 85. 


On one of the islets at the foot of the falls, on the 24th, 
Newport planted a cross with the inscription "Jacobus, 
Rex, 1607," and his own name beneath. On the 26th, 
the day before the return of the explorers to Jamestown, 
about two hundred savages attacked the unfinished fort 
but were repulsed. Wingfield showed himself an experi- 
enced soldier in directing the ordnance of the ships against 
the savages, and was foremost in danger, an arrow passing 
through his beard. The colonists had one boy killed, and 
eleven men wounded, one of whom died. The next Sun- 
day, which was the last day of May, Eustace Clovell, 
strolling without the fort, was pierced with six arrows, and 
after eight days died. 

Captain John Smith on the tenth of June was permit- 
ted to take the oath of councillor and his seat at the board. 
With the assistance of the sailors, on the 15th the fort was 

The twenty-first of June also came on Sunday, and the 
communion was administered by the devoted chaplain, 
Rev. Robert Hunt, and that evening Newport gave a fare- 
well supper on board of his ship. The next day the 
Susan Constant sailed with specimens of the forest, and 
mineral productions, and reached England in less than five 
weeks by the new and more direct route, and reported that 
they had found neither silver nor gold.^ 

1 Sainsburi/, p. 7. The Mercure Francois^ vol. I, p. 271, thus speaks 
of the first expedition : 

" Au printemps de ceste annee la colonic (qui deuoit habiter la terre 
Australe de la Virginie) laquelle estoit de cent hommes auec leur femmes 
et enfans sous la conduite de Vincfeld s'embarqua dans un nauire que 
conduisoit Newport lequel sans aucun mauuais rencontre fit sa deseente 
a I'emboucheure d'un fleuue de la Virginie et y fit mettre pied a terre. 


Dudley Carleton, in a letter to John Chamberlain dated 
18th of August, 1607, writes "that Captain Newport has 
arrived without gold or silver, and that the adventurers, 
cumbered by the presence of the natives, had fortified 
themselves at a place called Jamestown, no graceful name, 
and doubts not the Spaniards will call it Villiaco. Cap- 
tain Warman, a special favorite of Sir Walter Copes, had 
been taken in the act of shipping for Spain with intent to 
defeat the Virginia attempt. A Dutchman writing in 
Latin calls the town Jacobolis, but George Percy names it 
James Fort, which we like best of all because it comes 
near Chelmsford." 

The low situation of the town, with the swamps of the 
Chickahominy in the rear, was very unfavorable to health, 
and nearly every day during the month of August graves 
were dug. Volleys of musketry and the booming of the 
cannon on the 22d, indicated the honorable burial of "that 
worthy and religious gentleman, Capt. Bartholomew Gos- 
nold," an experienced navigator, and one of the projectors 
of the colony. 

-- After his death discord increased, and John Kendall 
was deposed as councillor, and imprisoned, for creating ill 
feeling between Wingfield and his associates. 

In the month of September the council, chafing under 
the prudence and military exactness of the president, 
demanded a larger daily supply for themselves, but he 

Vincfeld et les nouueau?: habitans (que tascherent a I'appriuoisier auec 
quelques pauures Indiens) y commencement a faire un fort et courir a la 
recherclie des minieres, ils trouuent du christal et quelques mineraux 
qu'ils donnerent a Newport pour apporter en Angleterre ce qu'il fit et 
ne fut que cinq semaines a son retour : mais ces mineraux se trouuerent 
estre peu de cliose." 


refused, on the ground that on the present allowance 
their supplies would last but thirteen and a half weeks, ,^ 
and it was. then ordered that every meal of fish or game 
obtained should cause the regular porridge to be withheld. 
After Gosnold's death two gallons of sack and aqua vitse 
remained, which the president bunged up, as a reserve for 
the communion table and great extremities, but the council 
"longed for to sup up that little remnant! for they had now 
emptied all their own bottles."^ At length a plot was 
formed by RatclifFe, Smith, and Martin, to depose Wing- 
field and form a triumvirate. On the eleventh of Sep- 
tember they brought him before them, Ratcliffe acting as 
president, and preferred the following frivolous charges : 
Ratcliffe charged that he had refused him a 'penny wliitle, 
a chicken, a spoonful of beer, and given him bad corn; 
Smith alleged that he told him he lied; Martin complained 
that he had been called indolent. After this he was 
placed on board of the pinnace in the river, and kept as a 

On December 10th, 1607, Captain Smith ascended the 
Chickahominy to trade for corn, and during his absence, 
contrary to the instructions of the company and agreement 
of the triumvirate, Gabriel Archer was made a councillor. 

While Smith was among the Indians two of his men, 
Emery and Robinson, were killed, but he was treated with 
great kindness by Powhatan, and after a few weeks he 
returned to Jamestown, where he was arrested by Archer N 
for allowing the death of his two men, but in the evening 
of January 8, 1607-8, the day he was indicted, Captam 
Newport returned from England, who immediately released 

1 Am. Ant. Soc. Coll., IV, p. 82. 


from custody both Smith and Wingfield. After the immi- 
grants recovered from the fatigue of the voyage, under 
Newport's direction they erected within the triangular 
compass of the fort a store-house and rude church of logs 
covered with rafters, sedge, and earth, while he proceeded 
with Smith and Scrivener, a councillor selected from the 
new comers, to explore the river Pamunkey, and exchange 
some beads and "cloth very much moth eaten," which had 
been sold by the East India Company to the governor of 
the London Company for the Virginia trade. The traffic 
with Powhatan was profitable, and he and his whole party 
"were lovingly entertained," and safely returned to James- 
town on the 9th of March, with the pinnace laden with 
corn, wheat, beans and peas, to the great comfort of the 

The ship being loaded with iron ore, sassafras, cedar 
posts and walnut boards, Newport, with Archer and Wing- 
field as passengers, sailed on the 10th of April from James- 
town, and on the 20th of May, 1(308, arrived in England. 
Wingfield, in answer to the objections urged against him, 
prepared a statement for the London Company in which 
he used the following language : 

"To the President's and Councel's obiections I saie that 
I do know curtesy and civiUty became a Governor. No 
penny whitle was asked me, but a knifie whereof I had 
none to spare. The Indyans had long before stoallen my 
knife. Of chickins I never did eat but one, and that in 
my sickness. Mr. Ratcliff had before that time tasted of 
four or five. I had by my own huswiferie bred aboue 
thirty seven, and the most part of them of my own poul- 
trye, [of] all which at my coming awaie I did not see three 


liueing. I never denied him or any other beare when I had 
'**.. J a ''''^ ^""^ ""^ *^^ '^"^^ ^^^^^ ^ee all lived vpon 

y^]^ r *^' *-^"^" ^^ «"^ ^^^"^S^^' I^ad spread a 
rumor m the Collony, that I did feast myself and my seru- 
ants out of the common stoare, with intent as I gathered to 
haue stuTed the discontented company against me. I tould 
him privately in Mr. Gosnold's tent that indeede I had 
caused half a pint of pease to be sodden with a peese of 
pork, of my own prouision for a poore old man which in a 
sickness whereof he died, he much desired, and said that 
It out of his malice he had given it out otherwise, that hee 
did tell a leye. It was proued to his face, that he begged in 
Ireland, hke a rogue, without a lycence. To such I would 
not my name should be a companyon. * * * * Mr 
Archer's quarrell to me was because hee had not the choice ' 
of the place for our plantation, because I misHked his ley- 
mg out of our towne in the pinnasse, because I would not 
swear him of the Councell for Virginia which neyther would 
1 do or he deserve. 

^ "Mr. Smyth's quarrel, because his name was menconed 
in the entended and confessed mutiny by Galthropp. 

"Thomas Wootton, the surieon, because I would not 
subscribe to a warrant to the Treasurer of Virginia to 
dehuer him money to furnish him with druggs and other 
necessaries; and because I disallowed his living in the pin- 
nasse, haumg many of our men lyeing sick and wounded in 
our town, to whose dressings by that means he slacked his 

^ "Of the same men also Captn Gosnold gaue me warn- 
mg, mishkmg much their dispositions, and assured me thev 
would lay hold of me if they could. * ^^ * J cannot 


rack one word or thought from myself touching my car- 
riage in Virginia, other than is herein set down." ^ 

On the approach of spring the ship that had been sepa- 
rated from Captam Newport, and was commanded by Cap- 
tain Nelson, supposed to have been lost, made her appear- 
ance with seventy immigrants, and with a good supply of 
provisions. The whole number added to the colony by the . 
arrival of the ships of Newport and Nelson, was one hun- / 
dred and twenty. Nelson and Newport during the sum- 
mer returned to England. One writing from London to a 
friend, on July 7, 1608, says : " Here is a ship newly 
come from Virginia that hath been long missing. She 
went out the last year, in concert with Captain Newport, 
and after much wandering found the port three or four 
days after his departure for England. I hear not of any 
novelties or other commodities she hath brought, more 
than sweet wood." 

In the autumn of 1608 Captain Newport arrived the 
third time at Jamestown from England, and brought 
seventy passengers; among others Francis West, brother 
of Lord Delaware, Raleigh Crashaw, Daniel Tucker, Mrs. 
Forest, and her maid Ann Burras. The iron ore which 
he carried back on the return voyage was smelted, and 
seventeen tons of metal were sold at £4 per ton to the 
East India Company.^ 

1 Deane's Wingjield. Am. Ant. Soc. Coll., vol. IV. 

2 Cal of State Papers, East Indies, 1513-1616, p. 181. 



HE prospects of the colony were discouraging cat the 
commencement of the year 1609, and in the hope 
of improving the condition of affairs, the directors 
in London applied for a more specific charter, with 
enlarged privileges. On the 23d of May letters patent were 
issued to them, authorizing the use of the corporate name of 
The Treasurer and Company of Adventurers and Planters of 
the City of London for the First Colony in Virginia, and o-rant- 
ing that part of America on the sea coast, two hundred 
miles north, as well as two hundred miles south of Point 
Comfort, with all the islands lying within one hundred 
miles. A council and treasurer for the company were de- 
signated in the instrument, with the provision that vacan- 
cies should be supplied by the voice of the greater part of 
the company at a meeting called for that purpose. They 
were also allowed to make and revoke such regulations as 
would promote the interests of the colony in Virginia. 

The fifteenth section was prepared in view of the dis- 
sensions of the colonists, and assumptions of the authori- 
ties, of which the company had been informed, and pro- 
vided for a thorough reorganization in Virginia afiairs. 
Its language is as follows : 

" And we do also declare, that for divers reasons and 
considerations as thereunto especially moving, our will and 


pleasure is, and we do hereby ordain that immediately 
from and after such time, as any such Governor or princi- 
pal officer so to be nominated and appointed by our said 
Council for the government of the said Colony shall arrive 
in Virginia, and give notice unto the Colony there resident 
of our pleasure in this behalf, the government power and 
authority of the President and Council, heretofore by our 
former letters patents there established, and all laws and 
constitutions by them formerly made, shall utterly cease 
and be determined, and all officers, Governors and minis- 
ters formerly constituted or appointed shall be discharged 
any thing in our former letters patents concerning the said 
plantation contained, in any wise to the contrary notwith- 

This charter, as published in the Appendix of Stith's 
History of Virginia, contains the names of hundreds of 
members of the company, and there is nothing to indicate 
that all had not belonged from the year 1609. 

The manuscript copy of the second charter, from which 
Stith printed, was sent to Virginia, probably, by Governor 
Yeardley, and the names of all adventurers up to that 
period were inserted. Sir Edwin Sandys, early in 1621, 
presented to the company the outline of a new charter, 
and in explaining the proposed modifications said : 

" To avoide the infinity of names by reason of the mul- 
titude of Adventurers (encreasing still more and more, as 
for that many were already named in a former Patent,) he 
therefore thought good in this only to name the Lords of the 
higher liowse of Parliament, and add those words compre- 


hendingin effect all the rest: viz: togeather with all other 
Acluenturers and Planters in Virginia."^ 

The Lord Mayor of London sent a precept to the great 
hverj companies of the city, urging the desirableness not 
only of aidnig the company, but also the necessity of free- 
nig themselves of a swarm of unhappy persons who in- 
fested their streets, the cause of plague and famine, and of 
enticmg them to go to Virginia.^ The Merchant Tailors' 
Company, in answer to the application, contributed lOOZ 
out of the joint stock of the house, lOOZ by joint subscrip- 
tion, and nidividual members adventured 58 7Z, ISs 4cZ in 
the enterprise. The influence of the pulpit was also en- 
hsted m behalf of the projected expedition, and on April 
25, 1609, WilHam Symonds, preacher at Saint Saviour's in 
Southwark, delivered a discourse at White Chapel in the 
presence of many of the adventurers and planters for 
Virgmia, which was published for the benefit and use of 
the colony planted and to be planted ' there, and for the 
advancement of their Christian purpose. 

A number of publications during the year appeared in 
behalf of the colony, among others, Ncyva Britannia, and 
A Good Spe ed to Virginia. Tobias Matthew, Archbishop 

1 Manuscript Trans. Va. Co., Feb. 22, 1620-1. 

2 In Herhert's Liver,/ Companies, vol. I, p. 154, it is said • 

" An entry in the Merchant Tailors books, 1609, states a precept to 
have been received from the Lord Mayor touching this company making 
an adventure to Virginia. It stated the necessity of getting rid of a 
swarm of unhappy inmates, who inhabit the city of London, a continual 
cause of death and famine, and the very continual cause of all the 
plagues that happen in the kingdom and that they should make exertion 
to entice them to go to it." 



of York, wrote in the month of June to the Earl of 
Somerset: "Of Virginia there are so many tractates 
divine, human, historical, political, or call them as you 
please as no further intelligence I dare desire," ^ 

Hakluyt, to attract attention, published a translation 
from the Portuguese entitled Virginia riclily valued, hy the 
descriptio7i of the maine land of Florida her next neighbour, 
etc., and prefixed a letter, " To the Right Honourable, the 
Right Worshipfull Counsellors, and others the cheerefull 
adventurors of the aduancement of that Christian and 
noble Plantation in Virginia," a portion of which is given : 

" This worke right Honourable, right Worshipfull and 
the rest though small in shew, yet great in substance, doth 
yield much light to our enterprise now on foot : whether 
you desire to know the present and future commodities of 
our countrie; or the qualities and conditions of the In- 
habitants or what course is best to be taken with them." 

After reviewing the testimony of the Spaniards as to 
the presence of gold and other mines in Florida, he con- 
cludes with some statements relative to buffaloes and 
Indians : 

"But what neede I to stand upon forran testimonies, 
since Master Thomas Heriot, a man of much iudgement 
in these causes, signified unto you all at your late solemne 
meeting at the house of the right honourable Earle of 
Exeter, how to the southwest of our old fort in Virginia 
the Indians often informed him, that there was a great 

1 Lodge's 111 Brit. Hist., vol. III. 


melting of red mettall, reporting the manner in working 
of the same. Besides, our owne Indians have lately 
reuealed either this or another rich mine of copper or gold 
in a towne called Ritanoe, neere certaine mountaines lying 
West of Roanoac. 

" But that, which I make no small account of, is, the 
multitude of Oxen, which from the beginning of the 16. 
to the end of the 26. Chapter, are nine seuerall times made 
mention of, and that along from Chiaha, Coste, Pacaha, 
Coligoa, and Tulla, still toward the North, to wit, toward 
vs, there was such store of them, that they could keepe no 
come for them: and that the Indians lined upon their 
flesh. The haire of these Oxen is likewise said to be like 
a soft wooll, betweene the course and fine wooll of sheepe : 
and not so onely, but they make bootes, shooes, targets, and 
other things necessarie of the same. Besides the former 
benefits, their young ones may be framed to the yoke, for 
carting and tillage of our ground. And I am in good hope, 
that ere it be long we shall have notice of their being 
neerer vs, by that which I reade in the Italian relation of 
Cabega de Vaca, the first finder of them ; which writeth, 
That they spread themselues within the countrie aboue 
foure hundred leagues. Moreouer, Vasques de Caronado, 
and long after him, Antonio de Espejo (whose voiages are 
at large in my third volume) trauelled many leagues 
among these heards of Oxen, and found them from 33. 
degrees ranging very farre to the North and Northeast. 

" To come to the second generall head, which in the 
beginning I proposed, concerning the manners and disposi- 
tions of the Inhabitants: Among other things, I finde 
them here noted to be very eloquent and well spoken, as 
the short Orations, interpreted by John Ortiz, which lined 


twelue yeeres among them, make sufficient proofe. And 
the author, which was a gentleman of Eluas in Portugal!, 
emploied in all the action, whose name is not set downe, 
speaking of the Cacique of TuUa, saith, that as well this 
Cacique, as the others, and all those which came to the 
Gouernour on their behalfe, deliuered their message or 
speech in so good order, that no Oratour could utter the 
same more eloquently. But for all their faire and cunning 
speeches, they are not ouermuch to be trusted : for they be 
the greatest traitors of the world, as their manifold most 
craftie contriued and bloody treasons, here set doune at 
large, doe euidently proue. They be also as unconstant as 
the wethercock, and most readie to take all occasions of 
aduantages to doe mischiefe. They are great liars and 
dissemblers ; for which faults often times they had their 
deserued paiments. And many times they gaue good tes- 
timonies of their great valour and resolution. To handle 
them gently, while gentle courses may be found to serue, 
it will be without comparison the best: but if gentle 
polishing will not serue, the one shall not want hammer- 
ours and rough masons enow, I meane our old soldiers 
trained up in the Netherlands, to square and prepare them 
to our Preachers hands.^ To conclude, I trust by your 
Honours Worships wise instructions to the noble Gouern- 
our, the worthy Lieutenant and Admirall, and other chiefe 
managers of the businesse, all things shall be so prudently 
carried, that the painfull Preachers shall be reuerenced and 
cherished, the valiant and forward soldiour respected, the 
diligent rewarded, the coward emboldened, the weake and 

1 A similar sentiment is found in the alleged letter of Rev. Mr. Stock- 
ham in Smith's History. 


sick relieued, the mutinous suppressed, the reputation of 
the Christians among the Salauges preserued, our most 
holy faith exalted, all Paganisme and idolatrie by little 
and little utterly extinguished. And here reposing and 
resting myselfe upon this sweete hope, I cease, beseeching 
the Almightie to blesse this good work in your hands to 
the honour and glorie of his most holy name, to the in- 
largement of the dominions of his sacred Maiestie, and to 
the generall good of all the worthie Aduenturers and 
undertakers. From my lodging in the Colledge of West- 
minster this 15. of Aprill, 1609. 

"By one publikely and anciently devoted to Gods seruice, 
" and all yours in this so good action, 


Departure op Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George Somers. 

The first voyage under the second charter of the com- 
pany, was on a grander scale than the previous expedi- 
tions, and the ships contained, in accordance with Hak- 
luyt's suggestion, old soldiers trained up in the Nether- 
lands. With a fair wind, on the first day of June, 1609, 
a fleet of nine vessels sailed from Plymouth, Sir Thomas 
Gates ^ being Lieutenant General, and Sir George Somers 

1 Gates had been in the service of the United Netherlands. On April 
24, 1608, the States-general passed the following resolution : 

"On the petition of Sir Thomas Gates, Captain of a company of 
English soldiers, commissioned by the King of Great Britain to com- 
mand with three other gentlemen in the country of Virginia, in coloniz- 
ing- the said country, the Petitioner is therefore allowed to be absent from 
his company for the space of one year, on ojondition that he supply his 
company with good officers and soldiers for the public service." 


Admiral of Virginia, to reside in and govern the colony. 
The ship Sea Adventure carried Gales, Somers, and Cap- 
tain Newport ; the Diamond carried Captain Ratcliffe and 
King; the Falcon, Captain Martin and Master Nelson; 
N the Blessing, Captain Archer and Master Adams, with six 
mares and two horses; the Unity, Captain Martin and 
Master Pett ; the Lion, Captain Webb ; the Swallow, Cap- 
tain Moone and Master Somers ; a catch. Master Matthew 
Fitch; and a boat built in the North Colony,^ Captain 
Davies and Master Davies. About five hundred colonists 
were in the different vessels, and the voyage was pleasant 
until the 23d of July, when a hurricane upset the catch 
and drove the Sea Venture until the 28th, when she was 
stranded at the Bermudas. 

Captain Samuel Argall, a relative of Sir Thomas Smith, 
the treasurer of the company, in the month of July arrived 
at Jamestown with a ship-load of wine and provisions to 
trade on private account, contrary to the regulations of the 
company.^ As none of the vessels under Gates and 
Somers, which left England before he sailed, had reached 
their destination, and the settlers were suffering for pro- 

Subsequently the States paid him for the time he was absent in Virginia. 

The wife and daughters of Gates accompanied him to America, and 

the former died. His children were Mary, Elizabeth, Anthony and Capt. 

Thomas, killed by a cannon ball at Rochelle. 

1 This vessel was built at Sagadahoc by the Popham colonists, in 1607. 
Disheartened by the death of Popham, they all embarked in a ship from 
Exeter, " and in the new pynnace the Virginia, and sett saile for England. 
And this was the end of that northern colony uppon the river Sacha- 
dehoc." Ilak. Pub., vol. VI, p. 180. 

2 Stith. 


visions, they seized his supplies. Many of the colonists at 
this time had gone to live with the Indians, and eighty 
had formed a new settlement twenty miles from the fort. 
Early in August the Blessing, Captain Archer, and three 
other vessels of the fleet, sailed up the river, and soon the 
Diamond, Capt. Ratcliffe, appeared without her mainmast, 
to be followed in two or three days by the Swallow in like 
condition. The Sea Venture, with Gates, Somers, New- 
port, and some of the principal men, was still missing, and 
as all the council -were dead, and Smith, obtaining the 
sympathy of the sailors, refused to surrender the control 
of the colony, the new colonists elected Mr. West, brother 
of Lord Delawarr, as temporary president. Archer, in a 
letter from Jamestown written in August, says : 

"Inasmuch as the President [Smith] to strengthen his 
authority accorded with the marriners and gaue not any 
due respect to many worthy gentlemen that were in our 
ships, whereupon they generally with my consent chose 
Master West, my Lord De-la war's brother their Governor 
or President de bene esse in the absence of Sir Thomas 
Gates, or if he miscarried by sea then to continue till we 
heard newes from our Counsell in England. This choice 
of him they made not to disturbe the old President during 
his term, but as his authority expired, then to take upon 
him the sole government with such assistants of the Cap- 
tains as discreet persons as the colonic afforded. 

"Perhaps you shall have it blazoned as a mutinie by 
such as retaine old maUce, but Master West, Master Piercie 
and all the respected gentlemen of worth in Virginia can 
and will testifie otherwise upon their oaths. For the 
King's patent we ratified, but refused to be governed by 

32 vmomiA company of london. 

the President that is after his time was expired, and only 
subjected ourselves to Master West whom we labour to 
have next President."^ 

Soon after this temporary election George Percy, brother 
to the Earl of Northumberland, one of the original set- 
tlers, a brave and honorable man, became president, while 
West, Ratcliffe, and Martin, were made councillors. Cap- 
tain John Smith was about this time sent to England to 
answer for sundry misdemeanors, which, in his account, is 
softened down to a visit to his native land to obtain surgi- 
cal aid.'^ 

This year the flying squirrels brought from Virginia 
were considered great novelties, and much sought after by 
noblemen for their parks, as well as naturalists for their 
cabinets. The Earl of Southampton, in a letter to Salis- 
bury, alludes to a conversation he had with King James 
about these little animals, who, said he, was sure Salisbury 
would procure him one, and adds, that he need not apolo- 
gize for alluding to this subject, for "you know so well how 
he is affected to these toys." ^ 

1 Furchas, IV, 1734. 

2 On October 4, 1609 " John RedelyfFe comenly called," wrote to the 
Earl of Salisbury in substance as follows : 

" That Gates, Somers, Newport, and about 150 other persons, had not 
arrived. The other ships have all come in, but with great loss of men 
by the calenture. Capt. Argoll was found in an English ship riding at 
Jamestown. They found all the counsel dead, but Capt. Smith President 
who reigned sole Governor, and is now sent home to answer some misde- 
meanours. George Percy brother to my Lord Northumberland is elected 
President, and Mr. West brother to Lord De-la-ware of the Counsel with 
Capt. Martin. One hundred men planted at the Falls, others at work on 
fort at Pt Comfort." Sainshury, Gal. State Papers, Colonial, p. 8. 

3 Sainsburi/, p. 8. 


The passengers that arrived in the advance ships of the 
expedition were an ungodly crew, and some of the "^ unhal- 
lowed creatures"^ soon forsook the country. Twenty-eight 
or thirty were sent in the ship Swallow to trade for corn 
with the Indians, and instead of returning they stole away 
with what was the best ship, and some joined themselves to 
pirates, while others returned to England, having bound 
themselves to agree in one report and declare that they 
were driven away by famine. To uphold themselves they 
told the tragical story of a man pinched with hunger eat- 
ing his dead wife, which was based upon the fact that a 
man who hated his wife had secretly killed her, then cut 
her in pieces. The woman being missed the house was 
searched and portions of her mangled body found, and the 
man to excuse himself said that his wife had died, and 
that want of food had compelled him to save her body for 
daily food. But a quantity of provisions having also been 
discovered in the house he was arrested, tried, confessed 
the murder, and was burned for his fiendish act.^ These 
reports of returned desperadoes dampened the zeal of those 
who had intended to emigrate, and "the wickedness" that 
remained in Virginia soon made trouble. 

While friends at home were mourning over their sup- 
posed death, the passengers of the Sea Venture were in 
good health at the Bermudas, and Gates and Somers were 
busy in directing the construction of two vessels, the larger 
of eighty tons. The sabbath was duly observed, and 
faithful sermons preached by the chaplain, Buck, who had 
been a student at Oxford. Among the passengers were 

1 Furchas, IV, 1757. 

2 Ibid. 



John Rolfe and wife, whose child, born at the island, was 
christened Bermuda. Some Puritans were also in this 
party, one of whom, Stephen Hopkins, assisted the chap- 
lain in conducting the services.^ While tarrying there 
Thomas Powell, the cook of Sir George Somers, was mar- 
ried to Elizabeth Persons, the servant of a Mrs. Horton. 

The ships being completed, on May 10, 1610, the party 
left the island, and in thirteen days the one hundred and 
forty men and women landed at Jamestown. They beheld 
the sad spectacle of a few famished settlers. The bell of 
the frail church was rung, and the emaciated colonists 
listened to the " zealous and sorrowful prayer " of Chaplain 
Buck. At the conclusion of the religious service the com- 
mission of Sir Thomas Gates was read, and Percy retired 
from office. 

As ship after ship came home laden with nothing but 
evil reports, and that the Sea Venture was missing, a panic 
arose among members of the company in London, and 
many withdrew their moneys. Lord La Warre, a man of 
courage and principle, " neither whose honor nor fortune 
needed any desperate medicine," now determined to go in 
person as Captain-General of Virginia. His example, con- 
stancy, and resolution, quickened that which was almost 
lifeless. On February 21, 1609-10, William Crashaw, 
preacher at the Temple, and father of the poet, delivered 
a stirring sermon before his majesty's council and adven- 
turers of Virginia, in view of Lord Delaware's departure.'^ 

1 Furchas, vol. IV, p. 1744. 

2 The sermon was published with the following title : 

" A Sermon preached in London, before the right honourable the Lord 
La Warre, Lord Governour, and Captaine Generall of Virginea, and others 


At the conclusion of the sermon the preacher addressed 
Lord De-la-Warr : 

" And thou most noble Lord, whom God hath stirred up 
to neglect tlie pleasures of England, and with Abraham to 
go 'from thy country, and forsake thy kuidred and thy 
father's house, to go to a land which God will show thee, 
give me leave to speak the truth. Thy ancestor many 
hundred years ago gained great honour to thy house, but 
by this action thou augmented it. * * * * Remember 
thou art a general of English men, nay a general of 
Christian men ; therefore principally look to religion. You 
go to commend it to the Heathen, then practise it your- 
selves ; make the name of Christ honourable, not hateful 
unto them." 

Five weeks later Lord Delawarr sailed for Virginia with 
one hundred and fifty persons, mostly artificers, and shortly 
after he reached Jamestown, under his direction, the fol- 
lowing letter was sent to the London Company : ^ 

of Ms Maiesties Counsell for that kingdom, and the rest of the Adven- 
turers in that Plantation, at the said Grenerall his leaue taking of Eng- 
land his native countrey and departure for Virginea, February 21, 1609. 
By W. Crashaw, Bachelor of Divinitie, and Preacher of the Temple. 
Wherein both the lawfulness of that action is maintained, and the neces- 
sity thereof is also demonstrated, not so much out of the grounds of 
Policie, as of Humanity, Equity and Christianity. Taken from his mouth 
and published by direction. 

" Daniel xii. 3. * They that turn many to righteousnesse shall shine 
as the starres for euer and euer.' London, Printed for William Welby 
and are to be sold in Paul's Churchyard at the Signe of the Swan, 1610." 

1 The letter, copied from the original among the Harleian Manuscripts 
in the British Museum, was published in the Hakluyt Society Publica- 
tions of 1849. 


Letter of Governor and Council op Virginia to the 
London Company. 

" Eight Honourable and the rest of our very loving 
friends ; — We are not ignorant how divers perplext and 
jealous eies mae looke out, and keepe more then friendly 
espiall over this our passive and misconceived bewsines, 
and now (more especially, haply, then at any other time), 
in these our early dayes, and after the aspersions of so 
many slanderous and wandering discourses, which have 
bin scattered by malignant and ill-disposed people against 
it; for which we have conceived it essentiall with the 
birth of the worke itself, to give up unto your noble know- 
ledges the truith of the state of the same, and of some 
consequences most materiall following it, since it tooke pro- 
tection and fostering from us. 

" You shall please then to know, how the first of Aprill 
1610, in the good shipp the De-la-warr, admirall, accom- 
panied with the Blissing of Plinmouth, viz-admirall, and 
the Hercules of Ry, reere-admirall, we weyed from the 
Cowes, getting out of the Needles, and with a favourable 
passadge holding consort ; the 12th day we fell with the 
Treseras, and recovered that evening (within three leagues) 
the westermost part of St. George's Island, where we lay 
that night becalmed ; but the next morning with the sunn- 
rise did the wind likewise rise, west and west-by-South, a 
rough and lowde gale, at what time the master of the 
Reere-admirall told me of a roade fitt for that winde at 
Gratiosa, whereupon I willed him to go before and I would 
follow, and so we stood for that roade ; but it was my for- 
tune to lead it in, where we came to an ancor at fortie 


fathom, when it blew so much winde presently, that our 
ancor came home, and we were forced to sea agahie : the 
same time the BHssing was compeld to cutt her cable at 
haulfe, for in the weying of it the pale of her capstan 
brake, and dangerously hurte 12 of our men; the Her- 
cules was likewise forced from the roade, and brake her 
ancor ; yet the next day we mett altogether againe. The 
15th we lost sight of the Hercules, betweene the Treceras 
and Gratiosa, and we saw her no more untill the 5th of 
June, at what time we made land to the southward of our 
harbour, the Chesiopiock Bay, where, running in towards 
the shoare, steering away nor-west, before noone we made 
Cape Henry, bearing nor-west by west; and that night 
came to an ancor under the Cape, where we went ashoare, 
as well to refresh ourselves as to fish, and to sett up a cross 
upon the pointe (if haply the Hercules might arrive there) 
to signify our coming in. 

" Whilst we were a fishing, divers Indians came downe 
from the woods unto us, and with faire intreatye on both 
sides, I gave unto them of such fish as we tooke, which 
was good store, and was not unwelcome unto them., for 
indeed at this time of the yeare they live poore, their 
come being but newly putt into the ground, and their old 
store spent ; oysters and crabbs, and such fish as they take 
in their weares, is their best releefe. As we were return- 
ing aboard againe, our master discried a sayle close by the 
pointe at Cape Henry, whereupon I commaunded him to 
beare up the helme, and we gave it chase, when within an 
hower or a little more, to our no little [joy], we made her 
to be the Hercules, our reereadmirall, whome we had now 
lost . . . weekes and odd dayes ; and this night (all praise 
be to God for it) came to an ancor under Pointe Comfort ; 


from whence the captaine of the forte, Co[lonel] James 
DavieSj repaired unto us, and soone had unfolded a strange 
[narra]tion of a double quallitie, mixed both with joy and 
sorrow. He let us to understand first (because thereof I 
first inquired) of the arrivall of Sir Thomas Gates and Sir 
George Sumers, in 2 pinnisses, with all their company safe 
from the Bermudas, the 21 of May (about some fortnight 
before our now coming in) whome, he tould us, were now 
up our river at James Town. I was heartily glad to 
heare the happines of this newes; but it was seasoned 
with a following discourse, compound of so many miseries 
and calamities (and those in such horrid chaunges and 
divers formes, as no story, I believe ever presented the 
wrath and curse of the eternall offended Maiestie in a 
greater measure. I understood moreover, by reason I saw 
the Virginia to ly then in Roade, before the pointe ridg, 
and prepared to sett sayle out of the river, how that Sir 
Thomas Gates and Sir George Sumers were within a tide 
or two coming downe againe, purposing to abandon the 
countrie, whilest they had meanes yet lefte to transport 
them and the whole company to Newfoundland. 

" For most true it is, the straunge and unexpected con- 
dition and ... in which Sir Thomas Gates found the 
colony, gave him to underst[and] never was there more 
neede of all the powers of judgement, and . . . knowing, 

and long exercised vertue, then now to be awak 

calling upon him to save such whome he found so fo . . . 
as in redeeming himself and his againe from falling into 

the ties. For besides that he found the forte 

unfurnished (and that .... and many casualties) of so 

lardge an accompt and number as he expected, and 

knew knew came alonge the last yeare, trained 


fleete with himself: so likewise found he as empty and 

unfurnished a entering the towne. It appeared 

raither as the ruins of some auntient [for]tification, then 
that any people living might now inhabit it : the palli- 
sadoes he found tourne downe, the portes open, the gates 
from the hinges, the church ruined and unfrequented, 
empty howses (whose owners untimely death had taken 
newly from them) rent up and burnt, the living not hable, 
as they pretended, to step into the woodes to gather other 
fire-wood : and it is true, the Indian as fast killing without 
as the famine and pestilence within. Only the blockhouse 
(somewhat regarded) was the safetie of the remainder that 
lived; which yet could not have preserved them now 
many days longer from the watching, subtile, and offended 
Indian, who (it is most certaine) knew all this their weak- 
nes, and forbare too timely to assault the forte, or hazard 
themselves in a fruitles warr on such whome they were 
assured in short time would of themselves perish, and 
being provoked, their desperate condition might draw forth 
to a valiaunt defence ; yet were they so ready and pre- 
pared, that such whome they found of our men stragled 
single beyond the bounds, at any time, of the blockhouse, 
they would fiercely chardge (for all their peices), as they 
did 2 of our people not many dayes before Sir Thomas 
Gates was come in, and 2 likewise they killed after his 
arrivall 4 or 5 dayes. 

" But that which added most to his sorowe, and not a 
litle startled him, was the impossibiUtie which he con- 
ceived (and conceived truly) how to amend any one whitt 
of this. His forces were not of habilitie to revenge upon 
the Indian, nor his owne supply (now brought from the 
Bermudas) sufficient to relieve his people; foi^ he had 


brought no greater store of provision (as not jealous that 
any such disaster could have befalne the colony) then 
might well serve 150 for a sea voyage ; and at this time of 
the yeare, neither by force (had his power bin sufficient) 
nor trade, might have amended these wants, by any help 
from the Indian : nor was there any meanes in the forte to 
take fish, for there was neither a sufiicient seave to be 
found, nor any other convenient netts ; and, to saye true, 
if there had, yet was there not aneye sturgion come into 
the river. 

" All these considered, he then entered into consultation 
with Sir George Sumers and Capt. Newporte, calling unto 
the same the gentlemen and counsaile of the former go- 
vernment, intreating both the one and the other to advise 
with him, what was to be don : the provision which they 
both had aboard, both Sir George Sumers and Capt. New- 
porte, was examined and delivered, how it being rackt to 
the uttermost, extended not to above 16 dayes, after 2 
cakes a day. The gentlemen of the towne (who knew 
better of the countrie) could not give them any hope, or 
wayes how to recover oughts from the Indian. It soone 
then appeered most fitt, by a generall approbation, that to 
preserve and save all from starving, there could be no 
readier course thought on, then to abandon the countrie, 
and accommodating themselves the best that they might 
in the present pinnasses then in the roade (as, namely, in 
the Discovery, and the Virginia, the 2 brought from, and 
builded at, the Bermudas, the one called the Deliveraunce, 
of about 70 tonn, and the other, the Patience, of about 30 
tonn), with all speed convenient, to make for the New- 
foundland, where, it being then fishing time, they might 


meete with many English shipps, into which, happily, they 
might disperce most of the company. 

" This consultation taking effect the 7th of June, Sir 
Thomas Gates having appointed every pinnass his comple- 
ment and nomber, and delivered likewise thereunto a pro- 
portionable rate of provision, caused every man to repaire 
aboard : and bycause he would preserve the towne (albeit 
now to be quitted) unburned, which some intemperate and 
malitious people threatened, his one company he caused 
likewise to be cast ashoare, and was himself the last of 
them, when, about noone, giving a farewell with a peale of 
small shott, he sett sayle, and that night, with the tide, 
fell down to an island in the river, which our people here 
call Hogg Island ; and the next morning the tide brought 
them to another island, which they have called Mulberry 
Island, at what time they discovered my long boat. For 
I, having understood of the resolution by the aforesaid 
pinnas, which was some 4 or 5 days come away before, 
to prepare those at Pointe Comforte, with all expedition I 
caused the same to be man'd, and in it with the newes of 
our arrivall, dispatched my letters by Captaine Edward 
Brewister^ to Sir Thomas Gates, which, meeting to[gether] 

1 Among the adventurers' names appended to the Company's charter 
dated May 23, 1609, are those of William Brewster and Edward, his son. 
William Brewster was at that time a man of large family. His father, 
whose name he bore, had been postmaster at Scrooby, and soon after his 
death he was appointed to the same position, which was held, until non- 
conformity led him to leave his native land. About the year 1609 
William Brewster went to Holland. 

Edward was employed by Lord Delaware, and, as will be seen in 
another chapter, was banished from Virginia by the high-handed Argall. 
In August, 1619, Secretary Naunton, referring to the subsequent Elder 


before the aforesaid Mulberry Island, the 8th of June 
aforesaid, upon the receite of our letters, Sir Thomas Gates 
bore up the helm againe, and that night (the wind favour- 
able) relanded all his men at the forte ; before which, the 
10th of June being Sonday, I brought my shipp, and in 
the afternoon went ashoare, where after a sermon made by 
Mr. Buck, Sir Thomas Gates his preacher, I caused my 
commission to be read, upon which Sir Thomas Gates de- 
livered up unto me his owne commission, both patents, and 
the counsell scale : and then I delivered some few wordes 
unto the company, laying some blames on them for many 
vanities and their idlenes, earnestly wisshing that I might 
no more find it so, leaste I should be compeld to drawe the 
sworde of justice, to cut of such delinquents, which I had 
much rather drawe in their defence, to protect from eni- 
mies ; heartening them with the knowledge of what store 
of provisions I had brought for them ; and after, not find- 
ing as yet in the toune a convenient house, I repaired 
aboard againe, where the 12 th of June, T did constitute 
and give places of office and chardge to divers captaines 
and gentlemen, and elected unto me a counsaile, unto 
whome I administred an oath of faith, assistance, and 
secresy : their names were these : — 

" Sir Thomas Gates, Knight, Lieutenant Gen[eral]. 

" Sir George Sumers, Knight. Admirall. 

"Capt. George Percey, Esq. 

of New Plymouth, writes : " Brewster frightened back into the low 
countries his son has conformed and comes to church." The authorities 
upon which this note is based are Bradford^ s Plymouth Plantation, and 
the Calendars of State Papers, and Hunter's Founders of Plymouth. 
Hunter seems not to have known that the father of the May-Flower emi- 
grant was also named William, and postmaster at Scrooby. 


"Sir Ferdinando Wenman, Knight M[arshal]. 

" Capt. Christopher Newport, 

" William Strachey, Esq, Secretary [and Recorder ?] 

" A likewise I nominated Capt. John Martin Master of 
the B ... . workes for Steele and iron : and Capt. George 

Webb, Serjeant of the forte : and Mr. Daniell 

Tucker and Mr. Robert Wild, clarkes of the store. 

" Our first care was to advise with our counsaile for the 
obtaining of such provisions of victualls, for estore and 
quallitie, as the countrey afforded for our people. It did not 
appeare unto us that any kind of flesh, deere, or what els, 
of that kind could be recouvered from the Indians, or to 
be sought in the countrey by us ; and our people, together 
with the Indians (not to friend), had the last winter de- 
stroyed and kild up all our hoggs, insomuch as of five or 
six hundred (as it is supposed), there was not above one 
sow, that we can heare of, left alive ; not a henn or chick 
in the forte (and our horses and mares they had eaten with 
the first) ; and the provision which we had brought con- 
cerning any kind of flesh was little or nothing ; whereupon 
it pleased Sir George Sumers to propose a voyage, which, 
for the better releife and good of the colony, he would per- 
form into the Bermudas (which, lying in the height of 32 
degrees and 20 minutes, 5 degrees from our bay, may be 
some seveLn] skore leagues); from us, or thereabouts; 
reckoning to every degree that lyes nor-west and westerly, 
28 English leagues) ; and from thence he would fetch 6 
monthes' provision of flesh and fish, and some Uve hoggs, 
of which those islands (by their owne reporte, however, 
most daungerous to fall with) are marvellous full and well 
stored ; whereupon, well approving and applauding a mo- 
tion relishing of so faire hopes and much goodness, we 


gave him a commission the 15th of June, who in his owne 
Bermuda pinnas, the Patience accompanied with Capt. 
Samuell Argall, in the Discovery (whome we sware of our 
counsaile before his departure), the 19th of June fell with 
the tide from before our towne, whome we have ever since 
accompanied with our hearty prayers for his happy and 
safe returne. 

" And likewise bicause at our first coming we found in 
our owne river no store of fish after many tryalls, we dis- 
patched with instructions the 17th of June, Robert Tin- 
dall, master of the Delawarr, to fish unto all along be- 
tweene Cape Henry and Cape Charles within the bay, who 
the last of the same returned unto us againe, but mett 
with so small a quantitie and store of fish, as he scarce 
tooke so much as served the company that he caried forth 
with him. Nor were we in the meane while idle at the 
forte, but every day and night we hayled our nett some- 
times a dozen times one after another, but it pleased not 
God so to bless our labours, that we should at any time 
take one quarter so much as would give unto our people 
one pound at a meale a peice (by which we might have 
better husbanded and spared our peaz and oatmeale), not- 
withstanding the greate store we now saw dayly in our river. 

" Thus much in briefe concerning our voyadge hether, 
our meeting with Sir Thomas Gates heere, and our joynt 
cares and indevours since our arrivall ; nor shall we be 
fayling in our parte to do the uttermost that we may for 
the happy structure and raysing againe of this too much 
stooped and dejected imployment. It rests that I should 
now truly deliver unto yee (right honourable and rest of 
our good friends) somewhat our opinion, or rather better 
judgement, which hath observed many things, and those 


objected cleare to reason, most benificiall concerning this 
countrie. And first, we have experience, and our owne 
eye witnes, how young soever we are to this place, that no 
countrie yealdeth goodlier come or more manifold increase, 
large feildes we have as prospects houerly before us of the 
same, and those not many miles from our quarter (some 
whereof, true it is, to quitt the mischeivous Indian, and 
irreconsilable for his late injuries and murthering of our 
men, our purpose is to be masters of ere long, and to thresh 
it out on the flores of our barnes when the time shall 
serve) . Next, in every boske and common hedge, and not 
farr from our palUsado gates, we have thousands of goodly 
vines running along and leaning to every tree, which yeald 
a plentifull grape in their kind ; let me appeale, then, to 
knowledge, if these naturall vines were planted^ dressed, 
and ordered by skilfull vinearoones, whether we might not 
make a perfect grape and fruitfull vintage in short time ? 
Lastly, we have mad triall of our owne English seedes, 
kitchen hearbes, and rootes, and find them no sooner putt 
into the ground then to prosper as speedily and after the 
same qualitie as in England. 

" Only let me truly acknowledge they are not an hun- ^ 
dred or two of deboisht hands, dropt forth by yeare after 
yeare, with penury and leysure, ill provided for before they \ 
come, and worse governed when they are here, men of 
such distempered bodies and infected mindes, whome no 
examples dayly before their eyes, either of goodness or 
punishment, can deterr from their habituall impieties, or 
terrific from a shamefuU death, that must be the carpenters 
and workers in this so glorious a building. 

" But (to delude and mock the bewsines no longer) as a 
necessary quantity of provisions for a yeare at least must 


/ be carefully sent with men, so likewise must there be the 
^ same care for men of qualhtie, and paines taking men of 
artes and practises, chosen out and sent into the bewsines, 
and such are in dew time now promised, sett downe in 
the scedule at the end of our owne approved discource, 
which we have intituled ^ A true and sincere declaration of 
the purpose and end of our Plantation begonn in Vir- 
ginia,' &c. 

" And these two, such men and such provision are like 
enough to make good the ends of the ymployment in all 
the waies both for re[pu]tation, search and discovery of 
the countrie, and the hope of the South Sea, as also to 
returne by all shipps sent hither many com[mo]dities well 
knowne to be heere, if meanes be to prepare them. 
W[here] upon give me leave, I beseech yee, further to 
make inference, th[at] since it hath bin well thought on 
by yee to provide for the gove[rnment] by chaunging the 
authoritie into an absolute command (indeed . . . virtuall 
advancement to these like bewsinesses and m . . . company 
us) of a noble and well instructed leifet[enant] .... of 
an industrious admirall, and other knights and gen [tie- 
men], and officers, each in their severall place of quallitie 
and implo[yment], if the other two, as I have saide, be 
taken into dew accompte . . . valewed as the sinewes (as 
indeed they be) of this action (without w[hich] it cannot 
possible have any faire subsisting, however men ha[ve] 
belyed both it and themselves heretofore) then let no rumor 
of the poverty of the countrey (as if in the wombe thereof 
there lay not those ellimentall seedes which could produce 
so man}^ goodly birthes of plenty and increase, yea, and of 
better hopes as of any land under the heavens unto whome 
the sunn is no neerer a neighbour j I say, let no imposture. 


rumor then, nor any fame of some one or a few more 
chaunceable actions interposing by the way or at home, 
wave any mans faire purpose hetherward, or wrest them 
to a declininge and falling of from the bewsines. 

"For let them be assured, as of the truitli itself, these 
premisses considered, looke what the countrie can afforde, 
which may, by the quantitie of our men, be safely and 
conveniently explored, search [ed,] and made practise of, 
these things shall not be omitted for our p[art], nor will 
be by the lievetenant generall to be commaunded ; nor our 
commaunds receaved (as in former times) with unwilUng- 
nes or falcenes, either in our people's going forth, or in ex- 
ecution, being for each one in his place, whither com- 
maunder, overseer, or labourer. 

" For the causes of these idle and restie untowardnes 
being by the authoritie and unitie of our government 
removed, all hands already sett to it ; and he that knew 
not the way to goodnes before, but cherisht singularitie 
and faction, now can beate out a path himself of Industrie 
and goodnes for others to trade in, such, may I well say, is 
the power of exemplar vertue. Nor would I have it con- 
ceived that we would exclude altogether gentlemen, and 
such whose breeding never knew what a daye's labour 
meant, for even to such, this countrie I doubt not but will 
give likewise excellent satisfaction, especially to the better 
and stayed spirritts ; for he amongst us that cannot digg, 
use the square, nor practise the ax and chissle, yet he shall 
find how to imploy the force of knowledge, the exercise of 
counsell, and the operation and power of his best breeding 
and quallitie. 

" And thus, right honourable and the rest of our very 
good friends, assuring yee of our resolution to tarry God's 


mercy towards us, in continuing for our parte this planta- 
tion, I only will intreate yee to stand favourable unto us 
for a new supply in such matters of the two-fold phisicke, 
which both the soules and bodies of our poor people heere 
stand much in neede of; the specialties belonging to the 
one, the phisitians themselves (whome I hope you will be 
carefull to send unto us) will bring along with them ; the 
particularities of the other we have sent herein, inclosed 
unto us by Mr. Dr. Boone,^ whose care and industrie for the 
preservation of our men's lives (assaulted with straunge 
fluxes and agues), we have just cause to commend unto 
your noble favours ; nor let it, I beseech yee, be passed 
over as a motion slight and of no moment to furnish us 
with these things, so much importuning the strength and 
health of our people, since we have true experience how 
many men's lives these phisicke helpes have preserved 
since our coming in, God so blessing the practise and dili- 
gence of or doctor, whose store is nowe growne thereby to 
so lowe an ebb, as we have not above 3 weekes phisicall 
provisions, if our men continew still thus visited with the 
sicknesses of the countrie, of the which every season hath 
his particular infirmitie reighning in it, as we have it 
related unto us by the old inhabitants ; and since our owne 
arrivall, have cause to feare it to be true, who have had 
150 at a time much afflicted, and I am perswaded had lost 
the greatest part of them, if we had not brought these 
helpes with us. 

"And so concluding your farther troubles, with this 
only remembrance, that we have, with advise of our coun- 

1 Dr. Bohune was afterwards made Physician-General of the colony, as 
will be seen in a subsequent chapter. 


sell, conceived it most fitt to detaine yet a while, for all 
good occasions, the good shipp the Delawarr, to which we 
hope yee wil be no whitt gainsaying : we cease with un- 
necessary relations to provoke yee any farther. 
"James Towne, July 7th, 1610. 

" Tho. Lawarre. Tho. Gates. Ferd. Wenman. 
George Percy. William Strachey." 

On the 19th of June, Sir George Somers,^ ^^ the good old 
gentleman, out of his love and zeal not motioning but 
most cheerfully and resolutely," says the dispatch of Dela- 
ware to Earl of Salisbury, reembarked in his cedar pin- 
nace of thirty tons to procure provisions, accompanied by 
another vessel in charge of Captain Argall. 

Argall says they first steered northward, and at times 
did " fish for cods and hollibutts," and that he was ordered 
on 26th of July, by Sir George Somers, " to steer for the 
river Sagadahoc." After this they were separated, and 
Argall, on the 27th of August, " came to an anchor in nine 
fathoms in a very great Bay," called by him Delaware, and 
on the last of the month reached Cape Charles.^ 

1 Sir George Somers was living at ease, and a member of Parliament, 
before he was appointed for Virginia. The first time that Virginia was 
mentioned in debate in that body, was on February 14, 1609-10, on the 
question whether his seat would be made vacant by his going to Virginia. 

Sir George Moore in the course of the discussion remarked " That Sir 
George Sommers ought not to be removed. No disgrace but a Grace to 
be Governour in Virginia." 

2 Strachey says : " Captain Argoll in his returne from the search 
of the Bermudas, anno 1610, after he had lost Sir George Somers, 28 
July, in a dangerous fogg, well beaten to and fro, fell with the mayne, 
standingc for Cape Cod, and made good from 44 degrees what Captayne 



Soiners, after parting from Argall, reached the Bermudas, 
where his frail body soon succumbed to the hardships he 
had encountered, and after his death his nephew, Captain" 
Matthew Somers, embalmed the body and brought it to 
England, and the remains were interred with military 
honors at Whitchurch, in Dorsetshire. 

About Christmas of this year Captain Argall, in the 
Discovery, sailed up the Potomac river, trading at Matcho- 
pongo, the residence of Jopassus, a brother of Powhatan, 
and recovered an English boy named Henry Spilman.^ 
The next February, with some seamen, aided by Captain 
Edward Brewster with a small land force, by order of Lord 
Delaware, he attacked the chief of the Wanaskoyaks for 
breach of contract, and burned two of his towns. 

Sir Thomas Gates had been sent to England to notify 
the Company of the condition of affairs, and after consult- 
ing with him whether they should abandon the attempt to 
plant a colony, they took heart again, and resolved to send 
a fresh supply of men and provisions. 

Bartho. G-osnoll and Captayne Waymouth wanted in their discoveries 
* * * * and in the latitude of 39 discovered another goodly bay, 
into which fell many tayles of faire and large rivers, and which might 
make promise of some westerly passage; the Cape whereof in 38* he 
called Cape Lawar." HaMnyt Soc. Puh., vol. VI, pp. 42, 43. 

Argall noted the gulf stream at this time. He says that the sailors 
" in their watch did see a race and that ship did drive apace to the north- 
ward when she had not a breath of wind." He returned and anchored 
at Cape .Charles on 31st of August. Purchas, TV, 1758. 

1 " Recovered an English boy called Henry Spilman, who had lived 
\ amongst them one whole yeare, and despayring of ever seeing his native 

country his father's howse, for he was descended of a gentile family." 
Strachey in HaJc. Pub., vol. VI, p. 39. 


A dispatch to Winwood, Ambassador at the Hague, 
dated 15th of December, 1610, says : " So soon as the 
Hector now ready to hoist saile shall be set forth of this 
haven, towards Virginia, Sir Thomas Gates will hasten to 
the Hao-ue, where he will conferr with the States about the 
overture of Sir Noel Caron hath here made for joining us 
in that Colonie." 

While Gates was in Europe, the health of Delaware 
failed, and on March 28th, 1611, accompanied by Dr. 
Bohune and Capt. Argall, he went to the Western Isles to 
recruit, and from thence to his native land. His unex- 
pected arrival at home " wrought a great damp of coldness 
in the hearts of all the adventurers but one spark of hope 
remained," for before the illness of Delaware was known. 
Sir Thomas Dale had sailed with three ships for James- 
town, with men and cattle. In June, 1611, Sir Thomas 
Gates sailed again with six ships, his wife and daughters, 
three hundred men, and one hundred cows, besides other 
cattle, and provisions of all sorts. The wife of Gates died 
on the passage, but the expedition safely arrived in August, 
and was so unexpected, that Captain Davies, in command 
of the stockade at Cape Henry, supposed it was a hostile 
fleet, and word was sent up the river to Sir Thomas Dale 
to prepare to resist their advance. 

The colony now numbered seven hundred persons. 
Gates took possession of the site of Hampton, '' a delicate 
and necessary seat for a city." ' Percy was in command 

1 Winwood, III, 239. 

2 " Pocliins one of Powhataa's sonns at Kecouglitan, and was the 
young weroance there at the same tyme when Sir Thomas Gates, Lieuten- 
ant General took possession of yt. Yt is an ample and faire countrie in- 

52 vmomiA company of london. 

at Jamestown, and Dale had pushed up the river to lay 
the foundations of Henrico. 

In the autumn the ship Star, of three hundred tons 
burthen, fitted and prepared in England with scupper holes 
to take in masts, sailed from Jamestown with about forty 
fair and large pines.-^ Chamberlain writes from London to 
Sir Dudley Carleton, on December 18, 1611 : 

" Newport the Admiral of Virginia is newly come home, 
and brings word of the arrival there of Sir Thomas Gates 
and his company, but his lady died by the way in some 
part of the West Indies, He hath sent his daughters 
back again, which I doubt not is a piece of prognostication 
that himself means not to tarry long." " 

After this Newport was chosen one of the six masters 
of the Royal Navy, and was engaged by the East India 
Company to escort Sir Robert Sherley to Persia.^ 

deed * * * * and is a delicate and necessary seate for a citty or 
chief fortification, being so neere within three miles by water the mouth 
of our bay, and is well appointed a fitt seat for one of our chiefs com- 
manders since Point Comfort, being (out of all dispute) to be fortefied to 
\ secure our townes above." Strachey in Eak. Pub., vol. VI, pp. 60, 61. 
y__^^ 1 Eak. Pub., vol. VI, p. 330. 

2 Chamberlain in Court and Times of James First, vol. I, p. 154. 
2 Howe's continuation of Stow's Chronicles of England, p. 1018. 



HE return of the nephew of Somers and others, 
with their enthusiastic descriptions of the beauty 
and fertiUty of the Bermudas, gave an impetus 
to the colonization of America. The General 
Company sold out their rights to one hundred and twenty 
of their members, who proceeded to procure the shipping, 
men and provisions for the settlement of these isles of the 

At first the company supposed the Bermudas were within 
their domain, but upon ascertaining that they were beyond 
the prescribed boundaries of their patent, application was 
made for a new charter, which was sealed on March 12, 
1611-12, and conveyed to them all islands within three 
hundred leagues of the coast between 30 th and 41st de- 
gree of north latitude. 

It further provided for quarterly meetings of the com- 
pany, to be styled and called The four Great and General 
Courts of the Council and Compani/ of Adventurers for 
Virginia,'^ and granted the power to erect lotteries. 

The next month the Plough sailed for the Bermudas 
with colonists, where in July they safely arrived. The 
Earl of Southampton wrote to the King that the ships of 
the company had possessed the islands, and that the 


Spaniards, dismayed at the frequency of hurricanes, durst 
not adventure there, but call it Bcemoniorum Imulam, 
and that the English merchants had sent home " some 
amber and seed pearls which the devils of the Bermudas 
love not better to retain, than the Angels of Castile to 
recover." ^ 

In the summer of 1613 a vessel brought to England 
from the Island "some quantity of pearl and between 
twenty and thirty pounds of ambergris worth nine hun- 
dred pounds," and the next ship returned with a larger 

Sir Dudley Carleton, on October 27th, received a letter 
from London which, speaking of the Bermudas, said : 

I Sainsbury, Cal. State Papers, Col. Series, p. 14, and Green's State 
Papers, 1611-18. The letter of Shakespeare's patron recalls several 
passages in the play of the Tempest, written not long after, particularly 
the colloquy of Prospero and Ariel. 

Pro. Of the king's ship, 

The mariners say, how thou hast dispos'd 

And all the rest o' the fleet ? 
Ari. Safely in harbour 

' Is the king's ship; in the deep nook where once 

Thou call'dst me up at midnight to fetch dew 

From the still-vex'd Bermoothes, there's she hid. 

Crashaw, a London divine, in the epistle dedicatory to an account of 
the Bermudas, printed in 1613, says : 

" Who did not thinke till within these foure yeares, but that those 
Islands had been rather a habitation of Diuells, than fit for man to dwell 
in? who did not hate the name when hee was on Land, and shunne the 
place when he was on the Seas? But behold the misprision and mis- 
conceits of the world ! For true and large experience hath now told vs, 
it is one of the sweetest Paradises that be upon the earth." 

2 Court and Times of James /, I, 263. 


" A piece of ambergris found as big as the body of a 
giant the head and arms are wanting but so foohshly 
handled that it brake in pieces. The largest piece brought 
home was not over 68 ounces which sells for 12 or 15 shil- 
lings an ounce more than smaller pieces." ^ 

On tlie 28th of July, 1614, the Virginia sold to the 
East India Company two boxes of ambergris at 3Z. Is. and 
3Z. 2s. per ounce.^ 

The interests of the Company led them to petition for 
a separate charter, and on the 29th of June, 1614, there 
was a grant sealed to Henry, Earl of Southampton, Lucy, 
Countess of Bedford, Will., Earl of Pembroke, Will., Lord 
Paget, Will., Lord Cavendish, Sir Ralph Winwood, Sir 
Robt. Rich, Sir Thos. Smy the, and others, of incorporation, 
by the name of the Governor and Company of the City of 
London, for the plantation of the Somers Islands, with 
sole government and power to make laws, conformable to 
the laws of England.^ 

The following papers copied from the manuscript trans- 
actions of the Company, pertain to this period : 

Petition op Captain Somers. 

" To the King's moast Excellent Mat'y 

" The Humble Petition of Captayne Mathew Sommers 

" Petitioner in the King's Bench 

" Humbly sheweth unto your most Excellent Mat'y that 
whereas S'' Geo : Sumers Knight, being one of the first and 

i Sainshury State Papers^ p. 15. 

2 Cal. State Papers, East India. 

3 Sainshury, p. 17. 


cliiefe of the Plantation of Virginia as appeareth by your 
Ma'tys Letters Pattents adventured therein 1000 and odd 
pounds and being forced by fowle weather to saue himselfe 
and companie sought an Hand called the Barmudais, where 
he left his shippe and soone after his life, yo"^ humble pe- 
tition' his imediate heire, and there in person built^ small 
Pynnace to convey his companie for England, and left 
three men to continue the possession in yo' royall right. 

" The Virginia Companie understanding of this discouery 
did challenge it as their right beinge 100 leagues at the 
least without distance of their Graunt : the said Companie 
sent a Gouernor with men to take that possession from 
yo'^ Ma'"° and findinge yo' petitioners men to be still lyuinge 
who found by their Industrie a cake of Ambergreece of 
160Z waight tho the said Gouernor hearinge thereof did 
violently take it from them to the use of the companie, 
who sold it for 120,000^ and offered violence to the men 
for the confessinge of more. 

" Shortly after the said Companie sold the said Hands to 
a perticuler Companie for 2000^ as was confessed by S' 
Edwin Sandys in open court without any reliefe untill this 
day of yo' Petitioner either for his aduenture or otherwise, 
albeit they have often bin sought unto at yo' petitioner's 
great charge and utter undoeinge, and nowe not so much 
as his petition to be read in their Court, but threatned to 
put out his freind the Solicitor thereof out of the Court. 
These and no other comforts can wee the auncient Aduen- 
turers receaue amongst them w'ch wee most humbhe be- 
seech yo' Ma"*" for god's cause to see redressed. 

" ffarther yo"^ petitioner most humbly bessecheth yo"^ 
sacred Ma*^^ to be pleased to enter into consideration of yo*^ 
owne Royall rights therein, and to give order to the right 


Hono^'® the Lords of yo'" Highnes Counsell for the hear- 
inge and determinning of yd" Ma^^ Rights and also for the 
releiuinge of yo'' poore suppliant. 

" And he shall (as in duty most bounden) euer pray for 
yo' Ma*^ most happie and prosperous raigne. 

The Company's Answer. 

" The Answeare of the Gouernour and Compayny for 
the Summer Islands assembled in a Generall Courte to the 
Petition of Mathew Sommers, prisoner in the Kings 

" The sayde Gouernour and Compagny for answeare there- 
unto say : 

" That true it is that the Companie for Virginia at theire 
owne great charges furnished and sett S"" Thomas Gats 
and S' Geo. Summers K"^' with a fleet of diuers shipps and 
some hundreds of people in a voyedge to Virginia, of w'^^ 
the S"" Thomas Gates to bee Leiutenant Gouernour and to 
hold the chiefe place of Gouernment in the absence the 
Lo. DeLawarre then Gouernour of Virginia and S^ Geo. 
Somers to be Admirall. 

" And it is also true that the said S"" Tho. Gats and S" 
Geo. Sumers passing both in one shipp were forced by fowle 
weather and a leake in their shipp to run her up upon the 
rocks of the Hands then called Barmudaes and nowe the 
Sumer Hands. 

"firom whence hauinge built a small ship and pin- 
nace they went on to Virginia, with intent send a shipp 
backe to the said Barmudaes for the bringinge of hoggs 
from thence to Virginia (whereof in the said Barmudaes 
they found great store, and in the meane were left 


behind three of ye Companies men upon other occa- 
sions then in ye said petition is mentioned. It being 
then conceaued that the said Hands laye nearre to Vir- 
ginia then afterwards proued, and consequently that they 
belonged unto the Companie of Virginia, by virtue of an 
originall graunt from his Ma*^' ; w'ch afterwards appearing 
to be otherwise they were humble suitors unto his Ma*^^ for 
an enlargement of said former graunt, whereby the said 
Bermudaes might be conteyned within their lymitts, w'ch 
they also obtayned, In w'ch meanetime S' Geo. Sumers 
beinge sent backe from Virginia to the Barmudaes for 
transportinge of the said Hoggs by reason it was conceaued 
that those Hands lyinge lowe would not easily be found 
againe, but by a man of good skill in all passages by sea, 
such as was S' Geo. Sumers. It pleased God that there he 
ended his days, and the petitioner Mathewe Somers Kins- 
man to S' Geo. Sumers but not his heire (contrary to the 
trust and intended purpose of that voyage) instead of re- 
turning with the said Hoggs for Virginia perswaded the 
marriners to come away for England, where the said 
Mathewe Sumers hath euer since continued for ought that 
the Companie knoweth without performance of any the 
least seruice for behoofe of either Plantation. The Com- 
panie for Virginia hauinge obtained the said graunt of the 
Barmudaes from his Ma^'^ and findinge it very conuenient 
for a strength to Virginia to be planted and peopled, beinge 
not able to effect the same at their comon charge, did passe 
their right awaye to diners principall members of their 
Companie undertakinge for the plantinge and peopling of 
the same. 

" And afterwards upon surrender of the said graunt unto 
the Kinge his Ma*^'' was pleased under his great scale to 


graunt the said Hands unto the said Undertakers, and to 
incorporate them by the name of ye Companie of the Citty 
of London for ye planting of the said Barmudaes from 
thence forward to be called by the name of ye Sumers 
Hands for the plantinge and peoplinge whereof the said 
Companie haue dispended of their owne proper goodes to 
the sume of one hundred thousand marks and upwards. 

" And they saye further yt true it is, that the said 3 
men left behinde in ye said Hands as aforesaid hapened to 
finde one Block of Ambergreece of a verie great value, 
the right whereunto was granted to the said Companie for 
the Sumer Hands by the Companie for Virginia at whose 
charges, and in whose seruice ye said three men were sett 
out and employed, notwithstanding by reason of underhand 
conueyance away of the said Ambergreece, the said Com- 
panie for the Sumer Hands neuer recouered aboue one 
Third part of ye said Block of Ambergreece, the entire 
value whereof they are not able to declare, by reason that 
the then Gouernour of the said Companie, being then also 
their Treasurer, hath hitherto refused to deliuer up to the 
said Companie an account of their Treasury.^ And touch- 
ing the third part of the said Ambergreece w'ch came into 
the possession of the Gouernour of the Companie, where- 
unto they conceaue they had a just and lawfuU title they 
haue notwithstanding compounded for the same with the 
finders thereof aforesaid, so as none of them haue any 
cause to complaine of ye said Companie, and least of all 
the said Mathew Sumers who had no interest therein. 

" And as for the said petitioners demand of ye right of 
ye said S*" Geo: Sumers in Virginia for his pretended Ad- 

1 Sir Thomas Smith. 


uenture, being farr short of ye some sett downe in ye said 
petition, ye said Company saitli ye said Mathew Sumers 
beinge not right heire to ye said S"" Geo. Sumers (as was 
confessed by his Sohcitor one Capt. Bayhe in open court) 
can haue no just pretence to the same, but that the Com- 
panie for Virginia haue always showed themselues verie 
wining to doe all right to the true heires of S' Geo. Sumers 
with as much fauor aud assistance as they may reasonably 
desire. And although the said Mathew Sumers haue no 
just cause to stile himself an auncient either Aduenturer 
or Planter consideringe his short aboad there, and soddaine 
returne without license ; And the said Companie for Vir- 
ginia haue bin greatly enraged by his Solicitor, ye said 
Capt. Bailey whome it seemeth nothing can satisfie but the 
dissolution of both of ye Plantations, yet if there be any 
thing of right belonginge unto the said Mathewe Somers, 
upon notice giuen thereof he may receaue all fitt satisfac- 

" This beinge the true state of ye matters complayned of 
in ye said petition, the said Gouernour and Companie for- 
beare to make answeare to a multitude of other particulari- 
ties therein contayned : The same being either friuolous or 
void of all colour of truth." 

Mr. Farrar, the deputy of the Company, at one of their 
meetings thus stated the reason why they should notice 
the petition of Captain Somers : 

"At a Virginia Court held 19th of June, 1622 your 
Deputy signified further that one Capt. Somers in a peti- 
tion to his Ma'tie had entituled his Ma*'" to the Sumer 
Hands, and 120,000? for the Ambergreece that was there 


founde, the Answeare thereunto although it properly be- 
longed to the Sumers Hands Company because the Vir- 
gmia Companie was in the petition taxed of iniustice and 
oppression, he thought fitt by the waye to signifie unto 
them, that they might see what machination were sett a 
foote against the Plantation." 

Allusions to Virginia on the Stage. 

The exaggerated stories of the wealth of the Bermudas 
sometimes excited the smile of the opponents of the com- 
pany, and in the plays of the period there were frequent 
allusions to Virginia. At the Mask of the Middle Temple 
and Lincoln Inns of Court performed at White Hall on 
15th of February, 1612-13, in honor of the nuptials of 
the Palsgrave and Princess Elizabeth, and written by 
Chapman, the chief maskers were in Indian habits, " with 
high spriged feathers on their heads, their vezirds of olive 
collour, hayre black and lardge waving downe to their 
shoulders." The musicians were attired hke Virginian 
priests, who were supposed to adore the sun, and therefore 
called Phoebades. On the stage was the representation of 
rocks and caves, and Plutus, god of riches, was a principal 
person in the play. The following speech is made by one 
named Capriccio: "With this dull deity Riches, a rich 
island lying in the South Sea called Poeana, being for 
strength and riches called the navill of that South Sea is by 
earth's round motion moved near this Brittan shore, in 
which island being yet in command of the Virginian con- 
tinent, a troupe of the noblest Virginian inhabiting 
attended hither the God of Riches all tryumphantly shining 
in a mine of gould. For hearing of the most royal so- 


lemnity of these sacred nuptials, they crost the Ocean in 
their honour and are here arrived." ^ 

In the course of the play Honor and Eunomia allude to 
the Virginian priests. 

Honor. " Plutus, the Princes of tlie Virgine land 
Whom I made crosse the Britain ocean 
To this most famed ile of all the world 
To do due homage to the sacred nuptials 
Of Law and Vertue celebrated here 
By this howre of the holy eve, I know 
Are ready to perform the rights they owe." 

After the Virginian princes sing they are addressed by 

Etmomia. "Virginian Princes, ye must now renounce 
Your superstitious worship of the Sun, 
Subject to cloudy darknings and descents; 
And of your sweet devotions turne the events 
To this our Britain Phoebus, whose bright skie 
Enlightened with a Christian piety 
Is never subject to black error's night, 
And hath already offer'd Heaven's true light 
To your darke region ; which acknowledge now 
Descend, and to him all your homage vow." 

In the Mask of Flowers, by the gentlemen of Gray's 
Inn, gotten up under the auspices of the learned Sir Fran- 
cis Bacon, performed at White Hall upon Twelfth Night, 
1613-14, Silenus challenges Kawasha and asserts that wine 
is more worthy than tobacco. Kewasha rode in "on a 
kowle-staff covered with a foot-cloth of pide stuff borne upon 
two Indians' shoulders attired like Floridans." On his head 

1 Nichols's Progresses^ etc., of King James, vol. II, pp. 568, 574. 


was a cap of red-cloth of gold, from his ears were pend- 
ants, a glass chain was about his neck, his body and legs 
were covered with olive coloured stuff, in his hand were a 
bow and arrows, and " the bases, of tobacco colored stuff 
cut like tobacco leaves." ^ 

Silenus. "Kawasha comes in majestie 
Was never such a God as lie 
He's come from a farre countrie 
To make our nose a chimney. 

Kawasha. " The Wine takes the contrary way 
To get into the hood ; 
But good Tobacco makes no stay 
But seizeth where it should. 
More incense hath burned at 
Great Kawashae's foote 
Than to Silen and Bacchus both, 
And take in Jove to boote. 

Silenus. " The Worthies they were nine 'tis true 
And lately Arthur's Knights I knew 
But now are come up Worthies new 
The roaring boyes Kawashae's crew. 

Kawasha. '' Silenus toppes the barrel, but 
Tobacco toppes the braine 
And makes the vapours fine and soote, 
That man revives againe. 
Nothing but fumigation 
Doth charm away ill spirits, 
Kawasha and his nation 
Found out these holy rites." 

To such lolays the Rev. Mr. Crashaw seems to allude in 
the introductory epistle to Whitaker's Qood Neices from 

1 Niclwls, II, 739, 740. 


Virginia, when he speaks of the calumnies against the 
colony, " and the jests of prophane players and other syco- 
phants and the flouts and mockes of some who by their 
age and profession should be no mockers," ^ and Purchas, 
also a clergyman, writes : 

" God Almighty prosper that the word may goe out of 
Bermuda, and the law of the Lord from Virginia to a true 
conversion of the American World then hitherto Our 
Humorists or Spanish insolence have intended." ^ 

In the Daily Prayer appointed for the plantation, pub- 
lished in 1612 with the civil and martial code, and perhaps 
composed by Rev. William Crashaw, is this petition : 

" And wheras we haue by vndertaking this plantation 
vndergone the reproofs of the base world, insomuch as 
many of our owne brethren laugh vs to scorne, Lord we 
pray thee fortifie vs against this temptation : let Sanballat 
& Tobias, Papists & Players and such other Amonits & 
Horonits the scum & dregs of the earth, let the mocke such 
as helpe to build vp the wals of Jerusalem, and they that 
be filthy, let the be filthy still." ' 

The Lotteries. 

An intimate friend of Sir Dudley Carleton, on February 
12, 1611-12, wrote from London : "There is a lottery in 

1 An allusion, probably, to Lord Bacon, who spent much money in 
getting up the 3Iask of Flowers. 

2 Purchas, vol. V, p. 834. 

3 This language is also used in the Epistle to the Reader prefixed to 
Hamor's Relation, published in 1615. 


hand for furthering the Virginia voyage, and an under 
company erecting for the trade of the Bermudas, which 
have changed their name twice within this month, being 
first christened Yirginiola as a member of that plantation, 
but now lately resolved to be called the Summer Islands, 
as well in respect of the continued temperate air, as in 
remembrance of Sir George Summers that died there." ^ 

The London Company, under the charter of 1609, had 
become demoralized. One-third of the members after pay- 
ing their first installment never took any more interest in 
colonization, another third refused to pay their pledges, 
and the burthen of the transactions fell upon the re- 
mainder. Suits were commenced by the Company against 
those " whose hands were not so ready to go to their purses 
as they were to the paper," and to relieve them still further 
the lottery was projected.^ 

Howes remarks : " The Kings Maiesty in speciall fauour 
for the present plantation of English Collonies in Virginia, 

1 Court and Times of James First, vol. I, pp. 160, 161. 
■- Oa August 1, 1613, Chamberlain wrote to Carleton as follows : 
" When the business at Virginia was at the highest, in that heat many 
gentlemen and others were drawn by persuasion and importunity of 
friends to underwrite their names for the adventurers ; but when it came 
to pay, especially the second or third time, their hands were not so ready 
to go to their purses as they were to the paper, and in the end flatly 
refused. Whereupon they are sued by the Company in Chancery, where 
this action finds such favour that they have ready despatch, and the 
underwriters are forced to make payment which amounts to a round sum 
between £3000 and £4000. Among the rest your cousin Will. Lytton 
was drawn on by Sir Walter Cope, with persuasion that he should not 
need to adventure any thing unless he list, but only to give his name for 
encouragement to others and for a countenance to the cause. But now it 
comes to the reckoning, he is fain to disburse £40, and his friend Sir 
Walter connot protect him." Court and Times of James First, I, 263. 


graunted a liberall Lottery, in which was contained fine 
thousand pound in prizes certaine, besides rewardes of 
casualty, and began to be drawne, in a new built house at 
the West end of Pauls, the 29 of June, 1612. Out of 
which Lottery, for want of filling up the. number of lots, 
there were then taken out and throwne away, three score 
thousand blankes without abating of any one prize ; and 
by the twentieth of July all was drawne and finished. 
This Lottery was so plainly carried, and honestly per- 
formed, that it gaue full satisfaction to all persons, Thomas 
Sharplisse a Taylor of London had the chief prize, viz, 
foure thousand Crownes in fayre plate, which was sent to 
his house in very stately manner : during the whole time 
of the drawing of this lottery, there were alwayes present 
diners worshipfull Knights and Esquires, accompanied with 
sundry graue discreete Citizens." ^ 

It was not until after the arrival in England of Sir 
Thomas Gates and Captain Samuel Argall, about the month 
of June, 1614, that steps were taken to have the great 
standing lottery.^ 

Early in 1615 the council sent to the mayor and alder- 
men of Canterbury a true declaration of the state of the 
English colony in Virginia, with a project, by the help of 
a lottery, to bring that work to the success desired, and 
commended " that worthy and Christian enterprize to their 

1 Howe's continuation of Stow's CJironides, p. 1002. 

2 Purchas, IV, 1773. 

Cuncga, the Spanish embassador, wrote to Madrid on Sept. 22, 1612, 
that there was a lottery on foot to raise 20,000 ducats. In this all the 
livery companies adventured. The Glrocers ventured 62?. 15s. and won a 
silver salt and cover valued at 13?. 10s. See Herbert's Livery Com- 
panies and Gal. State Papers. 


care," and asked that they would use their best endeavors 
to persuade persons of abiUty to buy tickets. With the 
letter were blank books from the treasurer and council of 
Viro-inia for registering the sums adventured, which were 
to be returned with the money collected.^ Smith has pre- 
served in his history the Company's declaration relative to 
the lottery.^ 

Debate in Parliament on Virginia Affairs. 

The third charter of the London Company, with its 
privilege of a lottery, had created some jealousy, and in the 
parHament of 1614 led to considerable discussion.^ Sir 
Thomas Smith, a member of the House of Commons, in 
a debate on the 20th of April, said that if he as the go- 
vernor of the Company could influence the members, the 
patent should be brought in. Sergeant Montague declared 
that the patent was against law, and a member by the 
name of Middleton said : 

" That the Company were willing to yield up their pa- 
tent, that it had not been their intention to use it other- 
wise than for the good of all parties, and confessed that 
there had been some miscarriages. The shopkeepers of 
London sent over all kinds of goods, for which they re- 
ceived tobacco instead of coin, infinitely to the prejudice 
of the Commonwealth. Many of the divines now smell 
of tobacco and poor men spend id. of their days wages at 
night in smoke, and wished that this patent may be 

1 Sainshuri/, Cal. State Paj^ers, p. 18. 

2 General Eistorj/, LondoUj 1632, p. 117. 

3 House of Commons Journal. 


damned, and an act of Parliament passed for the govern- 
ment of the Colony by a Company." 

After considerable discussion it was ordered by the 
House of Commons that the patent should be brought the 
next day. 

On the 12th of May the council for Virginia presented 
a petition for aid, which was read, and the next Monday, 
at nine o'clock in the morning, was designated as the time 
to hear the case ; but on the 16th Mr. Brooke moved that 
the Virginia business should be taken up the next day at 
seven o'clock. 

On the 17th of May it was ordered that Lords South- 
ampton, Shefl&eld, and others, should come in to hear the 
discussion of Virginia affairs, and shall sit with uncovered 
heads until otherwise requested by the Speaker. It was 
further ordered that any member that stood in the entry 
should pay a fine of 12c?. to the Sergeant-at-arms, and that 
there should be great silence while the Lords were present. 

The members of the Virginia Company, with their law- 
yer, the eminent Richard Martin, then entered, followed 
by the Lords, who passed within the bar of the house and 
stood bare. As soon as Martin was ready to proceed with 
his argument the Speaker addressed the Lords and said it 
was now the pleasure of the house that they should sit 
down and be covered. The argument in behalf of the 
company then commenced, and its classic language and 
brilliant imagery was worthy of the speaker who, when a 
student at Oxford, had been distinguished.^ 

i Richard Martin was a native of Otterton, Devonshire. He was 
witty, eloquent, and convivial, as well as an able jurist. A short period 
before his death was recorder of London. He died in 1618. The fol- 


Speech op Martin, the Company's Attorney. 

Martin opened with a tribute to Queen Elizabeth of 
gracious memory, who had by her enterprize become Lady 
of the Seas, whole fleets stooping before the red cross in 
her flag, and had encouraged her subjects to sail in every 
sea. He then sketched the eflforts of Amidas and White 
to plant on the peninsulas of North Carolina under the 
auspices of Sir Walter Raleigh, " a subject of envy in his 
greatness, now a mirror of the vanity of all earthly things." 

Next he mentioned the preliminary steps that had been 
taken in 1606 to plant in Virginia, and to bring the na- 
tives to the knowledge of true religion, and then described 
the various voyages from the first under Newport. Vir- 
ginia, he contended, was "a bridle for the Neapolitan 
courser, if our youth of England were able to sit him, for 
which they would find their golden spurs." Since Lord De- 
laware became governor it had become a settled plantation, 
and all it now needed was the fostering care of England. 

He then argued that the possession of Virginia was a 
just conquest, referring to the course of the Spaniards in 
the West Indies, and Don John Daquila in Ireland, and 
that the treatment of the savages had been considerate. 
To the objection that a formal settlement of the country, 
backed by the power of England, might lead to a war with 
Spain, he replied, that there could be no just cause for 

lowing lines form part of an eulogy which appeared beneath his portrait 
engraved in 1620 : 

" Legumque lingua, lexque dicendi magis : 
Anglorum alumnus, prseco Virginias, ac parens." 

Granger, vol. II. 
For a sketch of Martin see Wood's Aihenx Oxonienses, vol. II, p. 250. 


offence. The country was theirs by discovery, and the 
name given by their queen, and should be defended as the 
Spaniards defended the West Indies, the Portuguese the 
East Indies, and the Hollanders their forts in the Moluc- 
cas. "What Virginia now needed was honest laborers with 
their wives and children, and moved that a committee 
might be appointed to consider the means of securing 
them, and that some of the Company might be present at 
their dehberations. In concluding he reminded the mem- 
bers how Henry the Seventh penuriously turned his face 
from Columbus because he could not see the profit that 
would result to England from his projected discoveries, and 
urged them not to pursue a similar parsimonious course 
toward Virginia; and then, forgetting in the warmth of 
oratory that he was not a member of the House, but there 
simply as a lawyer in behalf of the Virginia Company, he 
transcended the limits of courtesy, and reproved them for 
wasting so much time upon ma,tters of less importance. 

Martin arraigned tor Contempt. 

As soon as Martin concluded, Sir Roger Owen, member 
from Shrewsbury, moved that the Treasurer of the Vir- 
ginia Company and its members withdraw themselves 
until the sentiments of the speech were debated. Sir Ed- 
ward Montague thought that the speech " was the most 
unfitting that was ever spoken in the house," and Sir E. 
Hoby was for calling him to the bar. Mr. Duncombe said 
he patronized " as a schoolmaster teaching his scholars." 

Sir R. Phillips admitted that he had made a great mis- 
take, but that the intention should be considered, that the 
Lords had no hand in the matter, and he was willing that 
the members of the Virginia Company should remain in 


the House. Sir G. Moore felt that it was an extraordinary 
step to admit counsel in the House upon the hearing of a 
petition, and that the speech was still more strange. It 
was at length decided that he should be brought to the bar 
of the House on the next day, and that after a charge from 
the Speaker, he should make his submission. 

The next morning he was brought before the Speaker, and 
offered to kneel. Sir Randall Crew, the Speaker, then spoke : 

" He had done himself much credit by offering to kneel. 
The case was this a petition relative to the Virginia Com- 
pany had been presented, and an order for the Council to 
appear, that he as their Attorney had represented himself 
with divers Lords. That the House at first was disposed 
to listen to him with all due respect and love j that the 
retrospect of the Virginia Plantation was acceptable, for it 
had been viewed with the eyes of love. But afterwards 
he had impertinently digressed, for it was not his place to 
censure and advise. The House had therefore brought him 
before them, and although many were his acquaintances, 
yet now all looked upon him with the eyes of judges, and 
not as private friends." 

Martin confessed in substance as follows : 

" All men liable to err, and he particularly so, but he 
was not in love with error, and as willing as any man to 
be divorced therefrom. Admits that he digressed from the 
subject; that he was like a ship that cutteth the cable and 
putteth to sea, for he cut his memory and trusted to his 
invention. "Was glad to be an example to others, and sub- 
mitted to the censure not with a dejected countenance, for 
there is comfort in acknowledging an error." 

Sir Wm. Maynard was glad the House yesterday incHned 


to mercy and commended the carriage and answer of the 
person at the bar. Sir R. Phillips then moved that Martin 
be called before the house, and their pleasure signified. 

The house, although feeling that their dignity had been 
offended, in view of his acknowledgment discharged him 
from custody. Martin, before leaving, assured them it was 
not his intention to be high-handed, thanked them for 
their favor, and petitioned that " they would fill up the 
measure of their grace," and appoint a committee to con- 
sider the Virginia business. 

Lorkin, on May 28th, writing from London to Sir 
Thomas Puckering at Madrid, remarks : 

" Not many days since Mr. Martin the lawyer presum- 
ing to tax the House, incurred the danger of a severe cen- 
sure, if many friends accompanied by an humble submis- 
sion of his own, had not the more powerfully mediated for 
him. He was no member of the House, but entertained 
by the Virginia Company to recommend unto the House a 
favourable consideration of something that imported that 
adventure. Coming therefore to speak he left his theme 
which was appointed him, and began to reprove the House 
for wasting so much time to so little purpose ; and then as 
if he had more brain than all, undertook to become their 
pedagogue, and to instruct them (chiefly the younger sort, 
whereof there is some number) in what steps they ought 
to tread, and in what order they are to proceed. The next 
day he was called to the bar and there arraigned for pre- 
sumption; where upon the earnest mediation of many 
friends, and his own submissive acknowledgment upon his 
knees, he was pardoned his oflfence." ^ 

Court and Times of James First, vol. I, p. 317. 



HOM AS DALE had always been a soldier. In youth 
he entered the army of the Low Countries as a 
private, and rose to a position of honor. Robert 
Cecil, in March, 1604, wrote to Winwood, Enghsh 
Ambassador to the States, that King James wished him to 
" take notice of his gracious opinion of the merit of Cap- 
tain Dale both for having been a valiant and long servitor, 
and having for the most part rendred them upon his [own] 
charges,"^ and in June^ 1606, he was knighted as Sir 
Thomas Dale of Surrey. Soon after this he was with Sir 
Thomas Gates at Oudwater in South Holland. The 
States-general on June 20, 1611, which was about one 
month after his arrival in Virginia, granted to Captain 
Thomas Dale a leave of absence for three years.^ His 
advent in the colony was marked by a determination to 
promote by force that system, industry, and frugality which 
had raised up out of the marshes of Holland, towns which 
were the centres of commerce, manufactures, and pro- 

His imperiousness soon led to an altercation, and pulling 
the beard of Captain Newport he threatened to hang him 

1 Winwood Memorials. 

2 N. Y. Col. Doc, vol. I. 



for some statement relative to Sir Thomas Smith. ^ He 
was very anxious that the king should give a more hearty 
recognition of the colony, and on the 17tli of August, 
1611, wrote to Cecil, the Earl of Salisbury as a true lover 
of God and his country, to advance the work to its proper 
height, and send such laborers " as may take off the film 
of ignorance and simplicity which veils the eyes of these 
poor wretches from looking upon their own beauty," He 
proposed to settle several plantations, the first at Point 
Comfort, the second fifteen miles off at a place called Dis- 
kiack, the third at Jamestown, the fourth at Arsahattocks, 
eighty miles up the river, and the fifth ten miles above. 
He also stated that the three hundred disorderly persons 
brought with him are " so profane, so riotous, so full of 
mutiny that not many are Christians but in name, their 
bodies so diseased and crazed that not sixty of them may 
be employed," and urged that two thousand able-bodied 
men might be sent by the king, to enable him to build on 
sure foundations.^ 

Winwood received a letter from London on the 29 th of 
November, which said : 

" The Plantations of Ireland and Virginia do prosper- 
ously succeed. Some fear is dispersed amongst the weaker 
sort, of some foreign attempts on these places, but the Na- 
tion doth not apprehend it as * * * neither is here, 
care taken to supply Sir Thomas Dale with the 2000 men 
which he demandeth." ^ 

1 Sainsbur^, State Papers, p. 68. 

2 Ibid., p. 11. 

3 Wimvood Memorials, III, 309. 


After Gates returned to England on business, and Dela- 
warr on account of sickness, Dale enlarged the laws they 
had proclaimed, and also introduced the martial code con- 
tained in the thirty-two articles of war of the army of the 
Netherlands, with the cognizance of Sir Thomas Smith, 
the treasurer of the company.^ Under military surveil- 
lance the colonists erected houses and other improvements 
at the new settlement of Henrico, but few paid any atten- 
tion to husbandry. Gates resumed command after Dale 
had instituted his severe course, and from the time of his 
arrival with three ships, three carvills, and three hundred 
persons, in 1611, until he went back to England, the only 
ships sent over were the John and Francis, and Sarah, 
with few men and less victuals, the Treasurer, with 
Capt. Sam. Argall and fifty persons, and the Elizabeth, 
with thirteen persons, and in this last vessel Gates, in the 

1 These laws were published in 1612, with a preface by Strachey and 
the following title page : 


The Colony in Virginea 


Lavves Diuine, Morall and 

Martially &c. 

Alget qui non Ardet. 

Res nostre suhinde non sunt, quales quis opiaret, 
sed quales esse possunt. 

Printed at London for Walter Barre. 1612. 
This code was reprinted by Force. See Historical Tracts, vol. III. 

76 vmomLA company of London. 

spring of 1614, sailed, and never again returned to Vir- 

Dale was now once more governor. During the summer 
his leave of absence from the army of the Netherlands 
expired, but King James, on the 19th of August, addressed 
a letter to the States-general to continue " his absence for 
two or three years more, in order that he may complete 
the work so well begun," and the request was granted.^ 

After Gates left, want, scarcity and severity developed 
a mutinous spirit among the settlers, and six were exe- 
cuted. The John and Francis during this period again 
arrived with twenty persons, and the Treasurer with the 
same number. 

In the latter vessel Dale and party left Virginia, Cap- 
tain Yeardley remaining in charge of the government. 
Early in June, 1616, the ship anchored at Plymouth, and 
Dale immediately wrote to one of the secretaries of the 
king that he had safely returned from the hardest task he 
ever undertook, and would present himself with the great- 
est speed, and give an account of that admirable country, 
one of the goodhest and richest kingdoms of the world, 
which being inhabited by the king's subjects, " will put 
such a bit into our ancient enemies mouth as will cut his 
haughtiness of monarchy." ^ 

During the year 1617 he was sick and feeble, and re- 
mained in England, but early the next year he was in 
Holland, and on the 7th of February the States-general 

^ Sainshny, pp. G7, 68. 

2 N. Y. Col. Jboc, vol. 1. 

3 Sainshury^ State Papers, p. 17- 


granted him full pay for the whole ^Deriod of his absence.^ 
Soon after this he appears to have been under a cloud, for 
Lake, one of the kmg's secretaries, in a dispatch of March 
26th to the English Ambassador to the States, says: 
" Your Lordship wrote to me of late of a fault of Sir 
Thomas Dale, which his Majesty and all men have con- 
demned in him." ^ 

As early as 1614 he had forwarded from Virginia £100 
to be invested by Sir William Throckmorton in the East 
India Company,^ and in January, 1618-19, King James 
commissioned him as chief commander of the East India 


In 1619 he has a naval engagement with the Dutch 
near Bantam, and early in 1620, succumbing to the 
climate, died. He was twice married, and Lady Fanny, 
the second, was cousin of the first wife.^ At a meeting of 
the Virginia Company, held on 1621, the treasurer signi- 
fied " that my Ladie Dale late the wife of Sir Thomas 
Dale deceased the worthy Knight and great aduancer of 
the Virginia accon desired a patent for a particular planta- 
tion which was granted." ^ 

Rev. Alexander Whitaker. 

With Dale, came to Virginia the Rev. Alexander Whit- 
aker, son of the distinguished Puritan, Dr. Whitaker, 

1 N. Y. Col. Doc, vol. I. 

2 Garleton Letters and Dispatches. 

3 Cal. State Papers, East India Series. 

4 Ri/mer, XVII, 56. 

5 Green's State Papers, vol. III. 

<5 Manuscript Trans., vol. I, p. 240. 


Master of St. John's College, Cambridge. He had been 
settled in one of the northern counties of England, was 
possessed of some estate, and beloved by his neighbors, 
but, says Crashaw, "without any persuasion (but God's 
and his own heart) did voluntarily leaue his warme nest " 
to carry the gospel to the heathen of America. 

In the year 1613 there was published in London " Good 
Newes from Virginia, sent to the Counsell and Company 
of Virginia resident in England. From Alexander Whit- 
aker. Minister of Henrico in Virginia," etc. The little 
treatise is an earnest appeal in behalf of the colony, as 
will be perceived from the following extracts : 

" Wherefore since God hath opened the doore of Vir- 
ginia to our country of England, wee are to think that 
God hath as it were by the word of his mouth called us 
to bestow our several charity on them. And that this may 
the better appeare wee haue many reasons to encourage us 
to be hberall-minded and open-handed toward them. 

" First. If we consider the almost miraculous beginning 
and continuance of this plantation wee must confess that 
God hath opened this passage unto us and led us by the 
hand unto the work, for the mariners that were sent hither 
first to discover the Bay of Chsesepeac found it only by the 
meere direction of God's providence for I heard one of 
them confesse that even then when they were entred 
within the mouth of the Bay they deemed the place they 
sought for, to have been many degrees further. The find- 
ing was not so strange, but the continuing and upholding 
of it hath bin most wonderfull. I may fitly compare it to 
the growth of an infant which hath been afflicted from its 
birth with some grievous sickness that many times no hope 


of life hath remained, and yet it liveth still.^ Againe if 
there were nothing else to encourage us, yet this one thing 
may stirr us up to go on cheerfully with it, that the divill 
is a capital enemy against it and continually seeketh to 
hinder the prosperitie and good proceedings of it. Yea 
hath heretofore so far prevailed by his instruments, the 
covetous hearts of many backsUding adventurers at home, 
also by his servants here, some striving for superioritie, 
others by murmurings, mutinies and plaine treasons, and 
others by fornication, prophaneness, idleness and such 
monstrous sinnes." 

After alluding to the expeditions of Gates and Somers, 
and the providential arrival of Lord Delawarre, he con- 
tinues : 

" Since when the English colony hath taken better root 
and as a spreading herbe whose top hath bin often cropped 
off renews her growth and spreads herself more gloriously 
than before. So this Plantation which the divell hath so 
often troden downe is by the miraculous blessing of God 
revived, and daily groweth to more happy and hopeful 
successe. I have shut up many things in few words and 
have alleadged this only to prove unto us that the finger 
of God hath been the only true worker heare ; that God 
first showed us the place, God first called us hither; and 
here God by his special providence hath maintained us. 
Wherefore by him let us be encouraged to try our helpmg 
hands to this good work, yea God's work. 


Indians, naked Slaves op the Devil. 

" Secondly, let the miserable condition of these naked 
slaves of the divell move you to compassion toward them. 
They acknowledge that there is a great good God but 
know him not, having the eyes of their understanding as 
yet blinded, wherefore they serve the divell for feare, after 
a most base manner, sacrificing sometimes (as I have heere 
heard) their owne children to him. I have sent one image 
of their god to the Counsell in England which is painted 
upon one side of a toad stoole, much like unto a deformed 
monster. Their priests whom they call Quockosonghs are 
no other but such as our English witches are. They live 
naked in bodie, as if the shame of their mind deserved no 
covering. Their names are as naked as their bodies, and 
they esteem it a vertue to lie, deceive and steale as their 
master the divell teacheth them. Much more might be 
said of their miserable condition, but I refer to the par- 
ticular mention of these things to some other season. If 
this bee the life what think you shall become of them after 
death, but to be partakers with the divell and his angels 
for evermore. 

" Wherefore you wealthy men of the world, whose bel- 
lies God hath filled with this hidden treasure, trust not in 
uncertain riches, neither cast your eyes upon them, for 
riches taketh to her wings as an eagle, and flieth into 
Heaven. But bee each in good works ready to distribute 
and communicate. How shamefully do the most of you 
either miserably detaine or wickedly mispend Gods goods 
whereof he made you his stewards ! The Prodigall men 
of our land make hast to fling away God's treasure as a 
generous burthen which they desire to be eased of Some 


make no scruple at it to spend yearly an hundred pounds, 
two, three, five hundred and much more about dogs, 
hawkes, and hounds and such sports, which will not give 
five hundred pence to reliefe of God's poor members. 

" Others will not care to lose two or three thousand 
pound in a night at cards and dice and yet suffer poor 
Lazarus to perish in the street for want of their charitable 
almes. Yea divers will hyer gardens at great rates, and 
build stately houses for their whores, which have no com- 
passion on the fatherless and widdowes. How much better 
were it for these men to remember the affliction of Joseph, 
to extend the bowels of their compassion to the poore, the 
fatherless, the afflicted and the like than to mispend that 
which they must give a straite account of at the day of 

'^Are not these miserable people heare better than 
hawkes, hounds, whores and the like ? " ^ 

• 1 The establishment of the gospel in America created among English 
Christians pleasant anticipations. Sir Wm. Alexander, secretary of state 
for Scotland, and subsequently proprietor of Nova Scotia, a few months 
after the appearance of Whitaker's Good News, wrote, in a poem called 
Doomsday : 

" In this last age. Time doth new worlds display. 
That Christ a church, o'er all the Earth may have, 
His righteousness shall barbarous realms away, 
If their first love, more civil lands will leave, 
America to Europe may succeed, 
God may of stones raise up to Abram, seed." 

Some years after George Herbert, in the CJmrch Militant, expressed a 
similar thought : 

" Religion stands tiptoe in our land 
Ready to pass to the American strand." 


It is remarkable that the records are so silent concern- 
ing this good man. Without authority it has been asserted 
that he married Pocahontas to John Kolfe. The only 
mention of him that we have found, is the statement of 
Argall, in 1617, that he had been drowned. 

And again 

" Then shall Keligion to America flee ; 
They have their time of Gospel, e'en as we." 

- ■!> ■««wi»imMlll«»MMllMMlWHI II H* i i *» 






N the first relation of the colony of Virginia, 
pubhshed in 1608, and attributed to Captain 
Smith, Pocahontas is briefly noticed in these 
words : 

" Powhatan understanding we detained certain saluages 
sent his daughter a child of tenne yeares old, which not 
only for feature, countenance, and proportion much exceed- 
eth any of the rest of his people but for wit and spirit the 
only non-pareil of his countrie." 

In the same narrative Smith states that he was treated 
with kindness by Powhatan, who wished him to live in 
his village, and afterwards, he adds, " hee sent me home 
with 4 men, one that usually carried my Gowne and Knap- 
sacke after me, two other loded with bread, and one to 
accompanie me." ^ 

In 1609 Smith was sent to England to answer some mis- 
demeanors, and never again lived in Virginia ; but in his 
General Eistory, published more than fifteen years after- 
wards, he transforms Powhatan to a savage wretch ready 
to beat out his brains, until " Pocahontas the kmg's dear- 
est daughter got his head into her arms, and laid her owne 

1 Deane's edition of True Relation, p. 38. 


upon his to saue him from death," ^ which statement is per- 
petuated in a sculpture by Capellano, which may be seen 
over one of the doors of the Capitol at Washington. 

Girlhood of Pocahontas. 

WilUam Strachey, secretary of the colony, who arrived 
with Lord Delawarre in 1610, gives a vivid description of 
Pocahontas. He remarks that "Both men, women and 
children have their severall names ; at first according to 
the several humour of their parents, ''' ^' '^'' and so the 
great King Powhatan called a young daughter of his, 
whome he loved well, Pochahuntas, which may signifie lit- 
tle wanton, howbeyt she was rightly called Amonate at 
more ripe yeares." ^ 

In another chapter he states : " Their younger women 
goe not shadowed amongst their owne companie until they 
be nigh eleaven or twelve returnes of the leafe old (for 
soe they accompt and bring about the yeare, calling the 
fall of the leafe taquitock) ; nor are they much ashamed 
thereof, and therefore would the before remembered Pocha- 
huntas a well featured but wanton young girle, Powhatan's 
daughter, sometymes resorting to our fort, of the age then 
of eleven or twelve yeares, get the boyes forth with her 
into the markett place, and make them wheele, falling on 
their hands, turning up their heeles upwards, whome she 
would follow and wheele so herself, naked as she was all 
the fort over ; but being once twelve yeares, they put on a 
kind of semecinctum lethern apron (as do our artificers or 

1 Smith's History, folio, 1632, p. 49. 

2 EaUuyt Puh. Soc, vol. VI, p. 65. 


handycrafts men) before their bellies, and are very shame- 
fac't to be seen bare." ^ 

On another page the same writer mentions that " They 
often reported unto us that Powhatan had then lyving 
twenty sonnes and ten daughters * * * besides young 
Pocohunta a daughter of his, using sometyme to our fort 
in tymes past, nowe married to a private captaine called 
Kocoum some two yeares since." ^ 

During the year 1612 a plan seems to have been 
arranged among the principal men of Virginia of inter- 
marrying the English with the natives, and of obtaining 
the recognition of Powhatan and those allied to him as 
members of a fifth kingdom, with certain privileges. 
Cunega, the Spanish ambassador at London, on September 
22, 1612, writes: "Although some suppose the planta- 
tion to decrease, he is credibly informed that there is a 
determination to marry some of the people that go over to 
Virginians; forty or fifty are already so married, and 
English women intermingle and are received kindly by 
the natives. A zealous minister hath been wounded for 
reprehending it." ^ 

In July of this year the bold and unscrupulous Captain 
Argall sailed from England, and arrived on the 17th of 
September at Point Comfort. 

Argall's Account op the Capture op Pocahontas. 

Early in the spring of 1613, to employ his own lan- 
guage, " I was told by certaine Indians my friends that 

1 Halduyt Puh. Soc, vol VI, p. 111. 

2 Ibid., p. 54. 

3 Sainshwi/. Was this clergyman Mr. Buck or Mr. Whitaker ? 


the great Powhatan's daughter Pokahuntis was with the 
great King Patowomek whether I presently repaired re- 
solving to possesse myselfe of her by any stratagem that I 
could use for the ransoming of so many Englishmen as 
were prisoners with Powhatan as also to get such armes 
and tooles as he6 and other Indians had got by murther 
and stealing some others of our nation, with some quantity 
of corne for the colonies reliefe. 

"So soone as I came to anchor before the towne I 
manned my boate, and sent on shore for the King of Pas- 
tancy and Ensigne Swift (whom I had left as a pledge of 
our loue and truce the voyage before) who ]Dresently came 
and brought my pledge with him, whom after I had 
received, I brake the matters to this King and told him 
that if he did not betray Pokohuntis into my hands, wee 
would be no longer brothers nor friends. He alleaged that 
if hee undertake the businesse, then Powhatan would 
make warres upon him and his people, but upon my 
promise that I would joyne with him against him, he 
repaired presently to his brother the great King of Patow- 
omeck, who being made acquainted with the matter called 
his counsell together and after some few houres delibera- 
tion concluded rather to deliver her into my hands ; so 
presently he betrayed her into my boat, when I carried her 
aboord my ship. This done an Indian was dispatched to 
Powhatan to let him know that I had taken his daughter, 
and if he would send home the Englishman (who he de- 
teained in slaverie, with such armes and tooles as the In- 
dians had gotten and stolne and also a great quantity of 
corne that then he should have his daughter restored, 
otherwise not. This very much grieved this great King, 
yet without delay he returned the messenger with this 


answere that he desired me to use his daughter well and 
bring my ship into his river and then he would give me 
my demands, which being performed I should deliver his 
daughter and we should be friends. 

''■ Having received this answer I presently departed, 
being the 13 of Aprill and repayred with all speed to Sir 
Thomas Gates to know of him upon what conditions he 
would conclude the peace, and what he would demand to 
whom I also delivered my prisoner towards whose ransome 
within few days the King sent home seven of our men 
who seemed to be very joy full for that they were freed 
from the slavery and feare of cruell murther which they 
daily before lived in. They brought also three peeces, one 
broad axe and a long whip-saw and one canow of corne. 
I being quit of my prisoner went forward with the frigot 
which I had left at Point Comfort and furnished her." 

John Chamberlain, writing from London on August 1, 
1613, to Sir Dudley Carleton, says: 

"There is a* ship come from Virginia with news of their 
well doing which puts some life into that action that be- 
fore was almost at the last cast. They have taken the 
daughter of a King that was their greatest enemy as she 
was going feasting upon a river to visit certain friends, for 
whose ransom the father offers whatsoever in his power, 
and to become their friend, and to bring them where they 
shall meet with a gold mine. They proposed unto him 
three conditions, to deliver all the English fugitives, to 
render all manner of arms or weapons of theirs that are 
come to his hands, and to give them three hundred quarters 
of corne. The two first he promised readily, and promis- 


eth the other at the harvest if his daughter may be well 
used in the meantime." ^ 

Ralph Hamor, Jr., for a time secretary of the colony, and 
whose father was a member of the Company and a mer- 
chant tailor of London, visited England in 1614, and the 
next year published "A true discourse of the present 
estate of Virginia until 18th of June 1614." 

It is a narrative of considerable embellishment, and 
bears evidence of having been composed for the purpose of 
exciting the king and others to contribute moneys for the 
use of the colony. He expands the statement of Argall 
relative to the capture of Pocahontas, and narrates her 
alliance with John Rolfe, who, with a white wife, came to 
Virginia in 1610, and whose child was christened at Ber- 
muda by Chaplain Buck,^ the witnesses being Secretary 
Strachey and Captain Newport. His statement, which 
follows, was condensed by Smith, and has been to this day 
repeated by historians. 

Hamor's Account of the Seizure. 

" It chanced Powhatan's delight and darling his daughter 
Pocahuntas (whose fame hath euen bin spred in England 
by the title of Nonparella of Virginia) in her princely pro- 
gresse I may so terme it took some pleasure in the absence 
of Capt. Argal to be among her friends at Pataomecke (as 
it seemeth by the relation I had) imploied thither as shop 
keepers to a fare, to exchange some of her father's corn 

1 Court and Times of James First, I, 262, 263. 

2 Purchas, IV, 1744. 


for theirs, where residing some three months or longer, it 
fortuned upon occasion either of promise or profit Captaine 
Argal to arrive there, when Pocahuntas desirous to renue 
her famiUaritie with the English and delighting to see 
them would gladly visit us as she did : of whom no sooner 
had Captaine Argal intelligence, but he delt with an old 
friend and adopted brother of his lapazeus how and by 
what meanes he might procure hir captiue, assuring him 
that now or neuer was the time to pleasure him if he 
entended indeed that loue which he had made profession 
of, that in ransome of hir he might redeeme some of our 
English men armes now in the possession of hir Father 
promising to vse her curteously, promised his best in- 
deauours and secresie to accomplish his desire; and thus 
wrought it, making his wife an instrument (which sex 
haue euer bin most powerfull in beguiling inticements) to 
effect his plot which hee had thus laid, he agreed that 
himself, his wife and Pocahuntas would accompanie his 
brother [Argall] to the water-side, whether come, his wife 
should faine a great and longing desire to goe aboorde and 
see the shippe, which being there three or foure times 
before she had never scene, and should bee earnest with 
her husband to permit her: he seemed angry with her 
making as he pretended, so vnnecessary a request as 
especially being without the company of women, which 
denial she taking unkindly must faine to weepe (as who 
knowes not that women can command teares) whereupon 
her husband seeming to pitty those counterfeit teares gave 
her leave to goe aboord, so that it would please Pocahuntas 
to accompany her : now was the greatest labour to win her, 
guilty perhaps of her father's wrongs, yet by her earnest 
persuasions she assented : so forthwith aboord they went, 

90 vmomiA company of London. 

the best clieere that could be made was seasonably pro- 
vided, to supper they went merry on all hands especially 
lapazeus and his wife who to expres their joy would ere 
be treading upo Capt. Argal's foot, as who shall say 'tis 
don, she is your own. Supper ended Pocahuntas was 
borne in the gunner's roome, but lapazeus and his wife 
desired to have some conference with their brother which 
was only to acquaynt him by what stratagem they had 
betraied his prisoner as I have already related : after which, 
discourse, to sleep they went, Pocahuntas mistrusting their 
policy was first up and hastened lapazeus to be gon. 
Capt. Argal having secretly well rewarded him with a 
small copper kettle and some other less valuable toies so 
highly by him esteemed that doubtless he would have 
betraied his own father for them, permitted both him and 
his wife to return but told him that for divers considera- 
tions * * * he would reserve Pocahuntas whereat she 
began to be exceeding pensive and discontented." 

Hamor relates that she was taken to Jamestown, and a 
messenger sent to Powhatan with the terms of ransom, 
and that three months after he sent word that if his 
daughter was restored he would give satisfaction. He also 
stated that in March, 1614, Capt. Argall's ship, and others, 
carrying Dale and one hundred and fifty men besides Po- 
cahontas, ascended the York river and appeared before 
Powhatan's town to demand an entire restoration of 
Englishmen and stolen property. To resume his language : 

John Rolfe's Proposal. 

"Long before this time a gentleman of approved be- 
haviour and honest carriage Maister John Rolfe had been 


in loue with Pocahuntas and she with him which thing at 
the instant that we were in parlee with them, myself made 
knowne to Sir Thomas Dale by a letter from him^ whereby 
he intreated his aduise and furtherance in his loue, if so it 
seemed fit to him for the good of the Plantation, and Po- 
cahuntas acquainted her brethren therewith ; which reso- 
lution Sir Thomas Dale well approving was the only cause 
he was so milde amongst them, who otherwise would not 
have departed the river without other conditions. 

" The bruite of this pretended marriage came soone to 
Powhatan's knowledge, a thing acceptable unto him as 
appeared by his sudden consent thereunto, who some ten 
dales after sent an old Uncle of hirs named Opachisco to 
give her as his deputy in the Church -^ and two of her sons 
to see the marriage solemnized which was accordingly done 
about the fift of April." 

An account is given by Hamor of the council with the In- 
dians, at the "Chicohominie, seven miles from Jamestown," 
and the several articles of the treaty, the last of which 
provided that there should be eight chief men under Sir 
Thomas Dale, each of which was to receive a red coat or 
livery from the King yearly, a picture of his majesty on 
copper, with a chain to hang around the neck, these eight 

1 Why Kolfe should not have talked with Dale at Jamestown it is 
difficult to conceive. The letter referred to is appended to the narrative, 
and makes about seven printed pages, and is a labored treatise, giving 
reasons when a Christian should marry a heathen, and has the musty 
smell of the dusty study of a London divine, rather than the fragrance 
of a letter written by a man in love. 

2 All narratives are silent as to where the church was, and the name 
of the minister who read the marriage service. 


to be known as King James's noblemen. Toward the con- 
clusion of the narrative is the following statement : 

" It pleased Sir Thomas Dale (myself being much de- 
sirous before my return for England to visit Powhatan and 
his Court, because I would be able to speak somewhat 
thereof by mine own knowledge) to imploy myself and 
on Thomas Salvage (who had lived three years with Pow- 
hatan, and speaks the language naturally one whom Pow- 
hatan much aifecteth, upon a message unto him, which 
was to deale with him if by any meanes I might procure 
a daughter of his who (Pocahuntas being already in pos- 
session) is generally re23uted to be his delight and darling 
and surely he esteemeth her as his owne soule, for a sure 
pledge of peace." 

After arriving at Powhatan's town, Hamor delivered the 
following speech : 

Sir Thomas Dale's Proposal. 

"Sir Thomas Dale, your brother, the principal com- 
mander of the English men sends you greeting of loue and 
peace on his part inviolable, and hath in testimonie thereof 
by me, sent you a worthie present, viz, two large peeces of 
copper, fine strings of white and blue beades, fiue wooden 
combes, ten fish hookes and a pair of knives, (all which I 
delivered him one thing after another that he might have 
time to view each particular.) He wished me also to cer- 
tifie you that when you pleased to send men he would give 
you a great grindstone." My message and gift pleased him 
I proceeded thus. 


" The bruite of the exquesite perfection of your youngest 
daughter being famous through all your territories, hath 
come to the hearing of your Brother Sir Thomas Dale 
who for this purpose hath ordered me hither to intreate 
you to permit her, with me to return unto him partly for 
the desire her sister hath to see her, of whom if fame hath 
not bin prodigall as like enough it hath not, your brother 
by your favour would gladly make his neerest companion 
wife and bedfellow and the reason hereof is being now 
friendly and finally united together and made one people 
in the bond of loue, he would make a naturall union be- 
tween us, principally because himselfe hath taken resolu- 
tion to dwell in your country so long as he liveth, and 
would therefore not only have the firmest assurance he 
may of perpetual friendship for you but also hartily bind 
himself hereunto." 

This proposition of Dale was not entertained, for Pow- 
hatan had just sold his daughter for a wife, to an Indian, 
for two bushels of Indian beads. Hamor replied, " I sup- 
pose he might restore the beads," and bring the daughter 
back, not twelve years old, to gratify Sir Thomas Dale, 
but Powhatan would not listen to the dishonorable pro- 
posal, and in a few weeks Hamor sailed for England.^ 

1 Sir Thomas Dale was twice married, and Fanny, the last, was cousin 
of his first wife. At the time of this proposal his wife was in England. 
See Greene's Cal. State Papers, and Manuscript Transactions of London 


EoLFE THE Pioneer Tobacco Planter. 
Hamor gives great credit to Rolfe as the first to plant 
tobacco in Virginia, a fact not mentioned in modern 

" I may not forget the gentleman worthie of much com- 
mendations, which first took the paines to make triall 
thereof, his name Mr. John Rolfe, Anno Domini 1612, 
partly for the loue he hath a long time borne unto it, and 
partly to raise commodities to the adventurers, in whose 
behalfe I intercede and vouchsafe to hold my testimony in 
beleefe that during the time of his aboade there, which 
draweth neere upon sixe years no man hath laboured to 
his power there, and worthy incouragement unto England, 
by his letters than he hath done, witness his marriage with 
Powhatan's daughter one of rude education, manners bar- 
barous, and cursed generation merely for the good and 
honor of the Plantation." 

PtEv. Alexander Whitaker's alleged Letter. 

Appended to Hamor's narrative is the following letter, 
dated June 18, 1614, and alleged to have been written by 
the Rev. Alexander Whitaker, and addressed to a cousin, 
a London clergyman : 

" Sir, the Colony here is much better. Sir Thomas Dale 
our religious and valiant Geuernour hath now brought that 
to passe which never before could be effected. For vvarre 
upon our enemies and kind usage of our freinds, he hath 
brought them to make for peace of us which is made and 
they dare not breake. 


" But that which is best one Pocahuntas or Matoa the 
daughter of Powhatan is married to an honest and dis- 
creete English Gentleman Maister Rolfe and that after she 
had openly renounced hex country Idolatry, confessed the 
faith of Jesus Christ, and was baptised, which thing Sir 
Thomas Dale had laboured a long time to ground in her. 

"Yet notwithstanding are the vertuous deeds of this 
worthy Knight much debased by the letters which some 
wicked men have written from thence, and especially by 
one C. L. If you heare any condemne this noble Knight, 
or doe feare to come further for those slanderous letters 
you may upon my word reprove them. You know that 
no malefactors can abide the face of the Judge, but them- 
selves seeming to be reproved doe prosecute with all hatred." 

Purchas professes to give the same letter, but the con- 
clusion is different, and adds to the suspicion that the let- 
ter is fictitious. 

Conclusion in Bamor. Conclusion in Purchas. 

" Sir Thomas Dale (with whom " But I much more muse that so 

I am) is a man of great knowledge few of our English Ministers that 

in Divinitie and of good conscience, were so hot against the Surplis and 

Every Sabbath day wee preach in subscription come hither where 

the forenoone, and chatechizc in the neither are spoken of. 

afternoone. Every Saturday at " Doe they not either wilfully 

night I exercise in Sir Thomas hide their tallents or keepe them- 

Dale's house. Our church affaires selues at home for fear of loosing a 

be consulted on by the Minister and few pleasures ? But I referre them 

foure of the most religious men. to the ludge of all hearts and to the 

Once every month wee have a com- King that shall reward euery one 

munion, and once a year a solemn according to the gaine of his talent, 

fast. " But you, my cosen, hold fast that 

" For me though my promise of which you hauc, and I though my 


three years service to my country promise of three yeeres seruice to 
be expired yet I will abide in my my countrey be expired will abide 
vocation here, until I be lawfully in my vocation here until I be law- 
called from hence. And so betak- fully called from hence. And so 
ing us all unto the mercies of God betaking us all unto the mercies of 
in Christ Jesus, I rest for ever." God in Christ Jesus I rest for euer." 

Pocahontas and Companions in England. 

Sir Thomas Dale, leaving the affairs of the colony in 
the hands of Deputy Governor George Yeardley, early in 
June, 1616, arrived at Plymouth with Pocahontas and a 
party of Indians, and on the 20th Lord Carew notices the 
fact in these words : 

" Sir Thomas Dale retourned frome Virginia, he hathe 
brought divers men and women of thatt countrye to be 
educated here,^ and one Rolffe who married a daughter of 

1 Before this an Indian lad had been sent to England to be educated. 
From the Planter^ s Plea, published in London, 1630, is extracted the 
following : 

" Amongst such as have beene brought over into England from Vir- 
ginia was one Nanamack, a youth sent over by the Lo: Delaware when 
he was Governor there, who coming over and living here a yeare or two 
in houses where hce heard not much of religion but sins, had many 
times examples of drinking, swearing and like evills ran as he was, a mere 
Pagan, but after into a godly family was strangely altered, grew to under- 
stand the principles of religion, learnd to reade, delighted in the Scrip- 
tures, Prayers and other Christian duties, mournfully bewailed the state 
of Country, especially his brethren and gave such testimonies of his love 
to the truth, that he was thought fit to be baptized, but being prevented 
by death left behind such testimonies of his desire of God's favor, that 
it moved such godly Christians as knew him,, to conceive well of his 
condition." Page 53. 


Pohetan (the barbarous prince) called Pocahuntas hath 
brought his wife with him into England." ^ 

Among those who came with Pocahontas as a counsellor 
was Tamocomo, who had married her sister. Purchas 
says : " With this savage I have often conversed at my 
good friends Master Doctor Gulstone where he was a fre- 
quent guest and where I have seen him sing and dance 
his diabolical measures." 

After the first weeks of her residence in England she 
does not appear to be spoken of as the wife of Rolfe by 
the letter writers. Rev. Peter Fontaine asserts that 
" when they heard that Rolfe had married Pocahontas, it 
was deliberated in Council, whether he had not committed 
high treason by so doing, that is marrying an Indian 
princess." " 

Christmas, his Mask, by Ben Jonson, was played at court 
on 6th of January, 1616-17, and Pocahontas and Tamo- 
como were both present. On the 18th of this month 
Chamberlain writes to Sir Dudley Carleton : " 

" On Twelfth night there was a Masque when the new 
made Earl [Buckingham] and the Earl of Montgomery 
danced with the Queen. * * * The Virginian woman 
Pocahuntas with her father counsellor have been with the 
King and graciously used, and both she and her assistant 
were pleased at the Masque. She is upon her return 
though sore against her will, if the wind would about to 
send her away." 

1 Camden Soc. Pub., No. 7G, p. 3G. Purchas, IV, 1874. 

2 Meade, I, 82. 

3 Nichols's Progresses, etc., of K. James, vol. Ill, p. 243. 



In the year 1616 the distinguished artist Simon De 
Passe engraved a portrait, small quarto size, with the fol- 
lowing legend : 

" Matoaka als Kebecka Filia Potentiss Princ : Powhatani 
Imp. Virginise." 

And beneath : 

" Matoaks als Rebecka daughter to the mighty Prince 
Powhatan, Emperour of Attanoughkornouck als Virginia 
converted and baptized in the Christian faith, and wife to 
the wor^ Mr. Joh : Rolff. M 21 A^ 1616." ^ 

Chamberlain, in a letter to Carleton, Ambassador at the 
Hague, dated March 29, 1617, writes : " The Virginian 
woman whose picture I sent you, died this last week at 
Gravesend, as she was returning homeward." ^ Her boy 
named Thomas, probably after Dale, was left in England, 
and the father of the child, John Rolfe, having been ap- 
pointed secretary, was intimately associated with the 
unscrupulous Argall, now made Governor of Virginia, and 
arrived. May 15th, at Point Comfort. The Company, on 
August 23, 1618, wrote to the latter : 

1 Notes and Queries, London, 2d series, vol. VII, p. 403. 

2 In the Parish Register of Gravesend is this entry : 

*' 1616 May 2j Rebecca Wrothe 

wyff of Thomas Wroth gent 
a Virginia lady borne, here was buried 
in ye chauncell." 

Notes and Queries, vol. V, p. 123, 3d series. 

See Howe's Historical Collections of Virginia. 


" We cannot imagine why you should give us warning 
that Opechankano and the natives have given the country 
to Mr. Kolfe's child, and that they reserve it from, all 
others till he comes of years except as we suppose as some 
do here report it to be a device of your own, to some special 
purpose for yourself." 

Ben Jonson on Pocahontas. 

The extravagant statements of John Smith in the 
General History, first pubhshed in 1624, called forth criti- 
cism, and he was charged with having written too much 
and done too Httle. In the preface to his Travels and Ad- 
ventures, published in 1629, he states that "they have 
acted my fatal tragedies upon the stage, and racked my 
relations at their pleasure." 

Jonson noticed his heroine, Pocahontas, in the Staple of 
News, first played in 1625. The following dialogue there 
occurs between Picklock and Pennyboy Canter : 

Pick. " A tavern's as unfit too for a princess. 
P. Cant. " No, I have known a Princess and a 

great one, 

Come forth of a tavern. 
Pick. " Not go in Sir, though. 
P. Cant. " She must go in, if she came forth : 

the blessed 

Pokahontas, as the historian calls her,i 

And great king's daughter of Virginia, 

Hath been in womb of tavern." 

1 Smith, in his dedication of the General History to the Duchess of 
Richmond, says : 

" In the utmost of many extremities that blessed Pokahontas, the great 
King's daughter of Virginia oft saved my life." 



The minutes of the Company do not give a very high 
opinion of Rolfe's honesty. 

"April 30, 1621, Sir John Daiiers signified that it was 
the request of my lady Lawarre unto this Courte, that in 
consideration of her goods remayning in the hands of Mr. 
Rolfe in Virginia, she might receaue satisfaction for the 
same out of his tobacco now sent home. 

" But forasmuch as it is supposed the said tobacco is 
none of the said Rolf's but belonged to Mr. Peirce, it was 
thought fitt that Mr. Henry Rolfe should acquaint my 
lady Lawarre of his brother's offer (as he informes) to 
make her La'p good and faithfull account of all such goods 
as remayne in his hands, upon her La'ps direction to that 

Three months later there is an entry as follows : 

" July 10, 1621. It was signified that the Ladie Lawarr 
desyred the court would please to graunt her a comission 
dyrected to Sir Fraunces Wyatt, Mr. George Sandys and 
others to examine and certifie what goods and money of 
her late husband's, deceased, came to the hands of Mr. 

Rolfe and to require the attendinge to his promise 

that she may be satisfied." 

Rolfe's White Wife and Children. 

During the year 1622 Rolfe died, leaving a wife and 
children, besides the child he had by Pocahontas. The 


following statement appears in the books of the Company 
under date of October 7, 1622 : 

" Mr. Henry Rolfe in his petition desiringe the estate 
his Brother John Rolfe deceased, left in Virginia might be 
enquired out and conuerted to the best use for the main- 
tenance of his Relict wife and Children and for his 
indempnity hauing brought up the Child his said Brother 
had by Powhatan's daughter w'ch child is yet liuinge and 
in his custodie. 

" It was ordered that the Governor and Counsell of Vir- 
ginia should cause enquiries be made what lands and goods 
the said John Rolfe died seized of, and in case it be found 
the said Rolfe made no will, then to take such order for 
the petitioner's indempnity, and for the mayntenance of 
the said children and his relict wife ^ as they shall find his 
estate will beare (his debt unto the Companie and others 
beinge first satisfied) and to return unto the Companie 
here an Account of their proceedings." 

Sick Indian Girl in England. 

The Indian girls that accompanied Pocahontas to Eng- 
land, appear from the minutes to have been a care and 
expense to the Company. Under date of May 11, 1620, 
is the following entry : 

" The Court takinge notice from S^ William Throgmorton 
that one of the maydes which Sir Thomas Dale brought 

1 If the mother of his infant Bermuda Rolfe was dead, then this 
relict wife was the third Mrs Rolfe. 


from Virginia, a native of the countrie, who sometimes 
dwelt a servant with a mercer in Cheapside, is now verie 
weake of a consumption at Mr. Cough's in the Black 
Friers ^ who hath greate care, and taketh great paines to 
comforte her both in soule and bodie, wheruppon for her 
recoverie the compainy are agreed to be att the charge of 
of XX^ a weeke for two moneths (if it please god she bee 
not before the expiration thereof restored or dye in the 
mean season,) for the adminstring of Physick and cordialls 
for her health, and that the first paym't begin this day 
seavennight because Mr. Threr for this yeare reported his 
accompts set up. 

" Sir W. Throgmorton out of his private purse for the 
same purpose hath promise to give XL^ all w'ch monney 
is ordered to be paid to Mr. Gough through the good 
assurance that the Company hath of his careful man- 

The minutes also refer to two other " Virginia maydes." 

1 Kev. William Gouge, D. D., is evidently the person meant. He was 
educated at Cambridge, an eminent Puritan, cousin of Kev. Alexander 
Whitaker, called by Bancroft the Apostle of Virginia, and was noted for 
active benevolence, as well as for scholarship and pulpit oratory. In 
1643 he was a member of the celebrated Westminster Assembly of Di- 
vines, and frequently occupied the moderator's chair. After a pastorate 
of forty-five years at Blackfriars, London, he died December 12, 1653, 
aged seventy-nine. When oflFered more profitable positions he always 
declined, saying that " his highest ambition was to go from Blackfriars to 


Companions or Pocahontas sent to the Bermudas. 

At a Quarter Court, on the 15tli of November, 1620, 
" There were appoynted to take care of the two Virginia 
maydes remaynninge in the custodie of M"^ Webb the hus- 
band, viz M' Casewell, M' Roberts, M' Canninge and M"^ 
Webb who are likewise desyred to place them in good 
servises where they may learne some trade to live by here- 
after for w'ch respect y® Company hath promised to bestowe 
somethinge with them. 

At a Preparative Court held in the afternoon of the 
11th of June, 1621, " M"" Webb moved that some course 
might be taken that the two Indian maydes might be dis- 
posed of to free the Company of the weeklie charge that 
now they are att for the keeping of them. 

" Whereuppon some havinge moved that they might be 
sent to y® Somer Hands att the charge of this Company itt 
was thought fitt rather to referr itt to the next Court to 
determyne thereof" 

At a great and general Quarter Court held the 13 th of 
June, " Itt beinge referred to this Courte to dyrect some 
course for the dispose of two Indian maydes havinge byne 
a longe time verie chargeable to y^ Company itt is now 
ordered that they shall be furnished and sent to the Sum- 
mer Hands whyther they were willinge to goe with our 
servants .... towards their preferm't in marriage with 
such as shall accept of them with that meanes — with 
especiall dyrection to the Gouv'nor and Counsell there for 
the carefull bestowinge of them." 

Six months after this resolution, upon a proposition to 
bring over some Indian lads to be educated. Sir Edwin 
Sandys well remarked : 


" Now to send for them into England and to have them 
educated here, he found upon experience of those brought 
by Sir Tho. Dale, might be far from the Christian work 

A few weeks after the Company's resolution, the Indian 
girls arrived at the Somers Islands to be married, " that 
after they were conuerted and had children, they might be 
sent to their Countrey and kindred to ciuilize them." The 
following year, Smith says, " the mariage of one of the 
Virginia maides was consummated with a husband fit for 
her, attended with more then one hundred guests, and all 
the dainties for their dinner could be prouided." ^ 

Thomas Rolfe, the child of Pocahontas, after being edu- 
cated, returned to Virginia, and his application to the 
Virginia authorities in 1641, to go to the Indian country 
to visit Cleopatra, his mother's sister, is on record.^ The 
brilliant but eccentric John Randolph of Roanoke, it is 
said, prided himself upon his descent from the child of 
Pocahontas. Campbell, in his History of Virginia, states 
that the first Randolph that came to the James River was 
an esteemed and industrious mechanic, and that one of his 
sons, Richard, grandfather of John Randolph, married 
Jane Boiling, the great grand-daughter of Pocahontas.^ 

1 General History, etc., London, 1632, pp. 197, 198. 
~ Manuscript Va. Records in Library of Congress. 
3 Campbell's History of Virginia, 1860, pp. 424, 631. 




FTER Rolfe returned with Sir Thomas Dale to 
England, a Relation, under his name, was writ- 
ten, and addressed to the King. Purchas, in his 
Pilgrimage, published in 1617, alludes to it and 
quotes therefrom. The manuscript is still in the British 
Museum, and in 1839 the Relation was first printed in the 
Southern Literary Messenger, published at Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, from a copy of the original. 

The following extracts give a very good picture of the 
condition of the colony in the year 1616 : ^ 

" Now that your highnes may with the more ease under- 
stand in what condition the colony standeth, I have briefly 
sett downe the manner of all men's several imployments, 
the number of them, and the several places of their aboad, 
which lolaces or seates are all our owne ground, not so 
much by conquest, which the Indians hold a just and law- 
full title, but purchased of them freely, and they verie 
willingly selling it. 

"The places which are now possessed and inhabited are 


1 It liad been our intention to have published the entire relation, but 
the limits assi2;ned for the work forbid. 


1. Henrico and the lymitts \ Members belonging to ye 

2. Bermuda Nether 1 tt ^ j iBermiida Towne, a phice 

3. West and Sherley j ^^^^^^^^^^f so called there, by reason 

4. James Towne /of the strength of the 

5. Kequoughtan \ situation, were it indif- 

6. Dales-Gift /ferently fortified. 

" The generall mayne body of the planters are divided 

1. Officers. 

2. Laborers. 

3. Farmors. 

" The officers have the charge and care as well over the 
farmors as laborers generallie^— that they watch and ward 
for their preservacions ; and that both the one and the 
other's busines may be daily followed to the performance 
of those imployments, which from the one are required, 
and the other by covenant are bound unto. These ofiicers 
are bound to maintayne themselves and families with food 
and rayment by their owne and their servants' Industrie. 

" The laborers are of two sorts. Some employed onely 
in the generall works, who are fedd and clothed out of the 
store — others, specially artificers, as smiths, carpenters, 
shoemakers, taylors, tanners, &c., doe worke in their pro- 
fessions for the colony, and maintayne themselves with 
food and apparrell, having time lymitted them to till and 
manure their ground. 

The farmors live at most ease — yet by their good 
endeavors bring yearlie much plentie to the plantation. 
They are bound by covenant, both for themselves and 
servants, to maintaine your Ma' ties right and title in that 
kingdom, against all foreigne and domestique enemies. To 
watch and ward in the townes where they are resident. 


To do thirty-one dayes service for the colony, when they 
shalbe called thereunto — yet not at all tymes, but when 
their owne busines can best spare them. To maintayne 
themselves and families with food and rayment — and 
every farmor to pay yearlie into the magazine for himself 
and every man servant, two barrells and a half a piece of 
their best Indian wheate, which amounteth to twelve 
bushells and a halfe of English measure. Thus briefly 
have I sett downe every man's particular imployment and 
manner of living; albeit, lest the people — who generallie 
are bent to covett after gaine, especially having tasted of 
the sweete of their labors — should spend too much of 
their tyme and labor in planting tobacco, knowne to them 
to be verie vendible in England, and so neglect their til- 
lage of corne, and fall into want thereof, it is provided 
for — by the providence and care of Sir Thomas Dale — 
that no farmor or other — who must maintayne them- 
selves — shall plant any tobacco, unless he shall yearely 
manure, set and maintayne for himself and every man 
servant two acres of ground with corne, which doing they 
may plant as much tobacco as they will, els all their 
tobacco shalbe forfeite to the colony — by which meanes 
the magazin shall yearely be sure to receave their rent of 
corne ; to maintayne those who are fedd thereout, being 
but a few, and manie others, if need be ; they themselves 
will be well stored to keepe their families with overplus, 
and reape tobacco enough to buy clothes and such other 
necessaries as are needeful for themselves and household. 
For an easie laborer will keepe and tend two acres of 
corne, and cure a good store of tobacco — being yet the 
principall commoditie the colony for the present yieldeth. 
For which as for other commodities, the councell and com- 


pany for Virginia have already sent a ship thither, furn- 
ished with all manner of clothing, household stuff and 
such necessaries, to establish a magazin there, which the 
people shall buy at easie rates for their commodities — they 
selling them at such prices that the adventurers may be 
no loosers. This magazine shalbe yearelie supplied to 
furnish them, if they will endeavor, by their labor, to 
maintayne it — which wilbe much beneficiall to the 
planters and adventurers, by interchanging their commodi- 
ties, and will add much encouragement to them and others 
to preserve and follow the action with a constant resolution 
to uphold the same. 

" The people which inhabite the said six severall places 
are disposed as folio weth : 

"At Henrico, and in the precincte, (which is seated on 
the north side of the river, ninety odd myles from the 
mouth thereof, and within fifteen or sixteen myles of the 
falls or head of that river, being our farthest habitation 
within the land,) are thirty-eight men and boyes, whereof 
twenty-two are farmors, the rest officers and others, all 
whom maintayne themselves with food and apparrell. Of 
this towne one Capten Smaley hath the command in the 
absence of capten James Davis. Mr. Wm. Wickham 
minister there, who, in his life and doctrine, give good 
examples and godly instructions to the people.^ 

" At Bermuda Nether Hundred, (seated on the south 
side of the river, crossing it and going by land five myles 
lower then Henrico by water,) are one hundred and nine- 
teen — which seate conteyneth a good circuite of ground — 
the river running round, so that a pale cross a neck of 

1 He was not in orders. 


land from one parte of the river to . the other, maketh it a 
peninsula. The houses and dwellings of the people are 
sett round about by the river, and along the pale, so farr 
distant one from the other, that upon anie alarme, they 
can succor and second one the other. These people are 
injoyned by a charter, (being incorporated to the Bermuda 
toune, which is made a corporacoun,) to effect and per- 
forme such duties and services whereunto they are bound 
for a certain tyme, and then to have their freedome. This 
corporacoun' admitt no farmers, unles they procure of the 
governor some of the colony men to be their servants, for 
whom (being no members of the corporacoun,) they are to 
pay rent corne as other farmers of this kind — these are 
about seventeen. Others also comprehend in the said 
number of one hundred and nineteen there, are resident, 
who labor generallie for the colonic : amongst whom some 
make pitch and tarr, potashes, charcole and other works 
and are maintayned by the magazin — but are not of the 
corporacoun. At this place (for the most part) liveth cap- 
ten Yeardley deputy marshal and deputy governor. M"^ 
Alexander Whitaker, (sonne to the reverend and famous 
divine, D'' Whitaker,) a good divine, hath the ministerial 
charge here.^ 

^^At West and Sherley Hundred (seated on the north 
side of the river, lower than the Bermudas three or four 
myles,) are twenty-five, commanded by cap ten Maddeson — 
who are imploycd onely in planting and curing tobacco, — 
with the profitt thereof to clothe themselves and all those 
who labor about the generall business. 

" At James Toune (seated on the north side of the river, 

1 Drowned early in 1617. 


from West and Sherley Hundred lower down about thirty- 
seven myles) are fifty, under the command of heutenant 
Sharpe, in the absence of capten Francis West, Esq., 
brother to the right ho'ble the L. Lawarre, — whereof 
thirty-one are farmors; all theis maintayne themselves 
with food and rayment. M' Richard Buck minister there — 
a verie good preacher.^ 

" At Kequoughtan (being not farr from the mouth of 
the river, thirty-seven miles below James Towne on the 
same side,) are twenty — whereof eleven are farmors ; all 
those maintayne themselves as former. Capten George 
'yyjL.irO- ) Wedd commander Mr. Wm. Mays minister there.^ / 

•^ " At Dales-Gift (being upon the sea, neere unto Cape ^ 
Charles, about thirty myles from Kequoughtan,) are seven- 
teen, under the command of one lieutenant Cradock ; all 
these are fedd and maintayned by the colony. Their labor 
is to make salt and catch fish at the two seasons afore- 

" So the nomber of ofiicers and laborers are two hundred 
and five. The farmors 81 ; besides women and children, 
in everie place some — which in all amounteth to three 
hundred and fifty-one persons- — a small nomber to ad- 
vance so great a worke. 

" Theis severall places are not thus weakly man'd as 
capable of no greater nomber, for they will. 

1 Rev. Ricliard Buck arrived with Gates and Somers in 1610. He 
was chaplain of the first legislature that met, in -uly, 1619, at James- 
town. He died about 1624, leaving several sons, one of whom, Benoni, 
was the first idiot born in the colony. 

- Rev. William Mease, the first minister at Hampton, arrived about 
1611, and after ten years' residence returned to England. 


" The nomber of neate cattle, horses and goates, which 
were alive in Virginia at Sir Thomas Dale's departure 
thence : 
Cowes, ^ 

Heifers, 1 83/ 
Cow calves, J ) in all J 144. 
Steeres, 41 
Bulles, 20 

Memorand : 20 of the cowes were great with calfe at his 

^'"'''' I I in all } 6. 

Mares, 3 j i 

Goates, ^ 

and V male and female, in all } 216. 
Kidds, J 

Hoggs, wild and tame, not to be numbered. 

Poultry, great plenty. 



ALE having returned to Holland early in 1617, 
Argall was appointed to succeed in the adminis- 
tration of affiiirs in Virginia, and after the death 
of Pocahontas, the ship in which he sailed left 
the coast of England, and on the 15th of May anchored 
off Point Comfort in Virginia, with about one hundred 
persons. In a few days, after five weeks' passage. Captain 
Martin also arrived in a pinnace. In a letter from James- 
town, dated on the 9th of June, Argall wrote to the Com- 
pany tliat he had sent Tomakin,' whose wife was the sister 
of Pocahontas, to tell Opachankano of his arrival, and 
stated that since his return, this Indian " railed against 
England, English people, and particularly his best friend 
Sir Thomas Dale." 

In the same communication he mentioned that the Rev. 
Alexander Whitaker had been drowned, and requested Sir 
Dudley Digges to obtain from the Archbishop a permit for 
Mr. Wickham to administer the sacrament, as there was 
no other person. It is evident that the Company were 
willing to employ ministers not in orders, for in the fol- 
lowing March Argall again "desires ordination for Mr. 
Wickham, and Mr. Macock a Cambridge scholar also a 
person to read to Mr. Wickham his eyes being weak." 

1 Also spelled Tamocomo. 


Ill view of the languishing condition of the colony, in 
April, 1618, the Lord Delaware, the Governor General, 
was dispatched by the Company in the ship Neptune, with 
two hundred men and supplies. After his departure the 
George came in from Virginia with such complaints of the 
malfeasance of Argall that the Company forwarded to him 
the following : 

Letter of the Company to Deputy Governor Argall. 

Sr : Wee receaved your letters by the George directed to 
the right Hono^^^ Lords, before the receipt whereof wee 
had finished ours w'ch wee purposed to have sent to you 
by this conueyance without expectinge the George's com- 
inge, but by the unexpected contents of yours wee are 
driuen to lay aside our former and briefly to declare our 
minds in this wherein wee take no pleasure. 

" You know howe many wayes you have bin proceedinge 
chargeable to the Companie not of late onely, but formerly 
when you converted the fruits of their expence to yo'" owne 
benefitt without being called to an Account ; they have 
also put hono^^'' reputation upon yo'' person and presuminge 
of yo"" wisdome and discrecon they made you Gouernor to 
follow their Comission and Instruccons w'ch in the person and 
protestation of an honest gentleman you undertooke to doe. 

" And therefore it is verie strange to us to see you so 
change and differ from yo"" selfe w'ch by yo'' words and 
deeds, being the testimony of yo' minde wee do sensibly 
see and feele and in perticuler you intimate first unto us, 
that you hold yourself disparaged in that we sent you our 
last I'res subscribed with so fewe hands, y* wee termed you 
but Deputy Governor, and that we should think our Cape- 


marchant a fitt man to deliver our I'res to your hands, you 
heape up also many unjust accusations against us and the 
Magazine, nourishinge thereby instead of pacifyinge y" 
malcontented humors of such as seek to bring all to con- 
fusion, and to overthrowe which is sealed upon wise and 
■ equall termes to be props of the Plantation there, and the 
life of the Aduenturers here, w'ch both undoubtedly must 
stand and fall together. But we shall easily put by all 
such yo"* weake imputacons when time shall serve to 
debate the particulers, and when we feare yo'' selfe will not 
be able to answeare yo'' owne Actions, yea yo"" owne I'res 
dated at James Towne in March 1617 shall justifie us in 
some of these particulars too change the magazine wherein 
you are contrarie to yo"" selfe. 

"Tobacco and sassafras onely for wise causes are re- 
strained at reasonable rates to the magazine, and you 
beinge Gouernor restraine no man, but passengers and 
marriners bringe the greatest part of tobacco and all the 
sassafrass for themselves. 

^ " It is laid unto yo"" charge that you appropriate the In- 
dian trade to yo^ selfe, you use our ffrigott that came from 
the Somer Hands and the other with our men to trade for 
yo'- owne benefitt, you proclaime in the Colony that no man 
shall trade with the Indians, nor any buy any ffurs but 
yo"" selfe. It is also certified that you take the ancient 
Planters of the Colony w'ch ought to be free and likewise 
those from the comon garden to sett them upon yo"" owne 
imployments, and that you spend up our store corne to 
feede yo"- owne men as if y° Plantacon were onely intended 
to serve yo' turne. 

" Wee cannot imagine" why you should giue us warninge 
y' Opachankano, and the Natiues have given their coun- 


try to M'' Rolfe's child and that they will reserve it from 
all others till he comes of yeares except as we suppose as 
some do here report it to be a deuise of yo' owne to some 
especcial purpose for yo'^ selfe, but whither yours or thers, 
wee shall little esteeme of any such consequence. 

" You say you have disposed of all our kine accordinge 
to our Comission. It seemeth you neuer looke upon our 
Instruments, wee gaue you no such Comission but the con- 
trary in expresse words, as that you should preserue and 
nourish them to y° common use, only a few w'ch wee had 
disposed whereof we sent you the p'ticulers ; wee thought 
it impossible when we made you Gouernor y* euer you 
should offer us this kinde of dealinge, not once to mean 
how many, to whome, nor for what consideration, but to 
do them all away of yo' owne head, to take satisfaccon to 
yo'^ selfe, wee must let you knowe wee allowe of no such 
sale, nor of the deliuery of any one cowe by you further 
than yo'' Instruments do expressly warrant. 

" But answerable to this and the rest you have also delt 
with us for the Hyds about w'ch it is well knowne yo'' 
selfe what trouble we had with the L. Admirall and Spanish 
Ambassadour, and how dearly they cost us, and we know 
how much it would haue imported us to haue had them 
gone by this shipp as well for the reputacon of our returne 
as alsoe for helpinge to defray the great chardge of the 
voyidge, notwithstanding they very fayrly demanded of 
you, it hath pleased you there to stay them in your owne 
Custody and to suffer this shipp to come home with other 
mens goods and not vouchsafing to mention the Hyds in 
your general letter but in this manner ; That being made 
Admirall you know how to dispose of unlawfull purchase, 
and by this we must understand the Hyds to be yours as 


for the debts and wages w'cli you say you have payde for 
us wee maruell you doe not send us a noate of the partic- 
ulars, for to our knowledge we are not in y^ kinde indebted 
to any man, if there be any such matter, or that you haue 
prouided any stuff for the CoUedge as you writt yett you 
must not imagine that wee are so insencible of reason as 
to suffer either of those to bee a cloake for you to detayne 
our hyds or to convey away all our Catle and Corne, either 
you must think highly of yo'' selfe or very meanely of us, 
in y* being our substitute you will presume to offer us these 
wrongs, and to suppose you may doe what you list in such 
a publique cause without being called to accompt, we haue 
therefore determined of a course and wee haue written to 
the Lord Gouernour, w'ch we doubt not but his Lor'p will 
impart unto you and soe wee rest. 

" Your very louing freinds 
" London 22 August 1618. " Thomas Smith 

" Lionel Cranfield 
" John Dauer 
" John Wolstenholme 
"Robert Johnson." 

Unaware of the death of Delaware on the voyage, they 
also wrote to him the following : 

The Virginia Company to Lord Delaware. 

" Wee are now enforced to write unto your Lo'p : of im- 
portant matter of another nature which is touching Mr. 
Samuel Argall whom we made Governor in your Lord'ps 
absence. Wee make noe doubte but he has deliuered the 
Gouernment with an accompt of his doings into your Lo'ps 


hands. Wee have receiued from him by the George a 
very strange letter which together with those Informations 
we haue against him by sundry witnesses lately come from^ 
thence doe importe more discontent in the Aduenturers 
heare, and more hazard to the Plantation than euer did 
any other thing y^ befel that Action from the beginning. 
He's discontent that wee subscribed our Letter sent unto 
him with few hands, our terming him to bee but Deputy 
Gouernour, hee disdayning to bee Deputy to any man, our 
letters to bee delivered unto him by soe meane a man as 
the Cape Merchant, with many such like which we pass 

" And breifly wee must complayne to your Lo'p of his 
neglecting and transgressing our Commission and Instruc- 
tions ; first hee hath made away all the Kyne belonging 
to the Collony and taken satisfaction for them to himselfe, 
whereas wee gaue him express chardge in his Instructions 
to preserue and nourish them to the Common use except 
some few which wee had disposed, whereof wee writ him 
in particular. Hee has suffered passengers, mariners and 
others w^^'out restraynte to shipp most of the Tobacco and 
all the Sassafrass for themselves, which by order of Courte 
at certayne rates agreed upon are appro23riated to the 
magazine. Hee armes himselfe and others w^"^ uniust accu- 
sations agaynst us to overthrow the magazine, without 
w'ch wee know assuredly y* neither the Aduenturers heare, 
nor, the Plantation there can long subsist. 

" He hath gotten possession and keepeth back our Hyds 
under pretence of being Admirall w'ch cost our joynt stock 
well neare 400"', with a great deale of toyle and trouble 
before wee could obtaine them, with his obstinate refusall 
to deliver them hee hath done us soe greate displeasure at 


the returne of this ship that he could not haue watched to 
haue done us a greater. 

" Hee hath forbidden all trade and commerce with the 
Indians but trades amongst them with the Summer Island 
Frigott, and our men to his owne benefitt. Hee takes the 
auncient Collony men which should now bee free, and our ( 
men from the Common Garden to sett them aboute his 
own imployment, and with the Collony's share of Corne 
feeds his men, hee Proclaymes that noe man shall dare to 
buy any Furr of the Indians but himself as if the Planta- 
tion and People were ordayned onely to serue his turne. 

" These and soe many like errours of his are layde to 
his charge for which the Aduenturers heere will noe way 
be satisfyd without his personal appearance to make his 
Answeare and they are hardly restrayned notwithstanding 
the Kings Court in progress from going to the Court to 
make there complaynte and to procure his Ma't's command 
to fetch him home and therefore pray your Lor'p to the 
avoyding of further scandall and slaunders to the Gouern- 
ment of our Plantation y^ you will cause him to be shipped 
home in this ship the William and Thomas to satisfy the / 
Aduenturers by answearing everything as shall be layde to f 
his chardge, and for y* wee suppose there will be found 
many misdemeanors of his for w'ch hee may make satis- 
faction to the Company we pray your Lor'p to ceaze uppon 
his goods^ as Tobacko and Furrs, whereof it is reported he 
hath gotten together great stoare to the Colonies prejudice, 
and so sending them to us to be in deposite till all matters 
be satisfyd and y* your Lo'p would be pleased to take back 
agayne those kyne and Bullocks w'ch by his unlawfull sale 
are despersed heare and there, and y* they may bee brought 
together agayne to the Collonies use, and to such others of 


the Hundreds as the Generall Courte by yo'' Lo'ps consent 
did order and appoynt." 

Argall's desperate course continued during his whole 
term of office. Capt. Edward, the son of "William Brew- 
ster, and agent for the late Lord Delaware's estate, having 
complained of the unlawful use of Delaware's servants by 
Argall, was arrested, and on October 15, 1618, tried by 
martial law and sentenced to death, but upon the petition 
of the ministers resident in the colony and others it was 
commuted to banishment, with the promise that he would 
not return. 

The Earl of Warwick, who was a relative, sent him 
" an olde comission of hostility from the Duke of Savoy 
against the Spanyards," and the ship Treasurer "being 
manned with the ablest men of the Colony was sett out on 
rovinge in y^ Spanish Dominions in the West Indies," and 
after a successful cruise returned to Virginia with booty 
and " a certaine nomber of negroes." Discovering that 
Argall had escaped in the swift sailing pinnace Eleanor, 
and fearing the new Governor, Yeardley, Captain Elfred of 
the Treasurer sailed for the Somers Islands. In October, 
1619, Capt. Nathaniel Butler became Governor of these 
islands, and he took from Miles Kendall fourteen negroes 
that had been given to the latter by the captain of a Hol- 
land vessel commissioned by the Prince of Orange, under 
the pretence that they belonged to the ship Treasurer 
which Argall had sent to rove in the West Indies. 

All that we have known of the introduction of negro 
slaves in the year 1619, is the following brief statement of 
Bolfe quoted by Smith : " About the last of August came 
in a Dutch man of warre that sold us twenty negars." 


Is there not a probability that the vessel was under the 
control of Argall, if not the ship Treasurer? If twenty 
negroes came in 1619, as alleged, their increase was very 
slow, for according to a census of 16th of February, 1624, 
there were but twenty-two then in the colony, distributed 
as follows : eleven at Flourdieu Hundred, three at James 
City, one at James Island, one at the plantation opposite 
James City, four at Warisquoyak, and two at Elizabeth 

About the same time that "negars". began to be brought 
to the colony, commenced the arrivall of starving boys and 
girls picked up out of the streets of London.^ In connec- 
tion with this were great abuses. Sir Edward Hext, in 
October, 1618, wrote to the Privy Council: 

" Upon complaint that Owen Evans, messenger of the 
Chamber, had a pretended commission to press maidens to 
be sent to Virginia and the Bermudas, and received money 
thereby, he issued a warrant for his apprehension. Evans's 
undue proceedings bred such terror to the poor maidens 
that forty have fled from one parish to obscure places, and 
their parents do not know what has become of them." 

And on November 13th a clerk by the name of Robin- 
son was hung, drawn and quartered for counterfeiting the 
great seal, and it was said " that another course of his, was 
by virtue of this commission, to take up rich yeomen's 
daughters, or drive them to compound, to serve his Majesty 
for breeders in Virginia." ^ 

1 Sainsburi/, State Papers, p. 19. 
~ Court and Times of James First, II, 108. 



[HE members of the English Independent Church 
at Leyden, after mature deliberation, determined 
to go to America and " live as a distinct body 
by themselves under the general Government of 
Virginia, and by their friends to sue to his Majesty that he 
would be pleased to grant them freedom of religion ; and 
that this might be obtained, they were put in great hope 
by some great persons of good rank and quality." ^ Two 
of their number, therefore, in 1617, visited London and 
" found the Virginia Company very desirous to have them 
go thither, and willing to grant them a patent with as 
ample privileges as they had or could grant to any." 

To remove the objections of the King and others as far 
as possible, the following articles were prepared by the 
church at Leyden : ^ 

" Seven Artikes which y® Church of Leyden sent to y^ 
Counsell of England to bee considered of in respeckt of 

1 " Those whom we ordinarily call Puritans are men of strict life and 
precise opinions." Discourse concerning Puritans, London, 1641. 

" The style of Puritans properly belongs to that vile sect of the Ana- 
baptists, called the family of Love — such were Browne and Penry." 
James First in Preface to Basilicon Doron. 

2 Bradford, pp. 28, 29; Mass. Hist. Coll., 4 S., vol. III. 

3 Furnished by Mr. Bancroft, and first printed in N. Y. Hist. Coll, 
2d S., vol. Ill, Pt. 1. 


their judgments occationed about their going to Virginia 
Anno 1G18. 

"1. To y^ confession of fayth pubUshed in y^ name of y® 
Church of Enghand & to every artikell thereof wee do w^'' 
y^ reformed churches where we hve & also elsewhere assent 

"2. As wee do acknolid y"" doctryne of fayth there taught 
so do wee y^ fruites and effeckts of y^ same docktryne to 
y^ begetting of saving fayth in thousands in y^ land (con- 
formistes and reformistes) as y'^ ar called w*^ whom also as 
w*^ our brethren wee do desyer to keepe sperituall com- 
munion in peace, and will pracktis in our parts all lawfull 

"3. The Kings Majesty wee acknolidg for Supreame 
Governor in his Dominion in all causes, and over all par- 
sons, and y none maye decklyne or apeale from his 
authority or judgment in any cause whatsoever, but y in 
all thinges obedience is dewe unto him, either active, if y® 
thing commanded be not agaynst God's woord, or passive 
yf itt bee, except pardon can bee obtayned. 

"4. Wee judg itt lawfull for his Majesty to apoynt bishops, 
civil overseers, or officers in authority onder him, in y^ 
severall provinces, dioses, congregations in parrishes to over- 
see y*" Churches and governe them civilly according to y^ 
Lawes of y^ Land, unto whom y'' ar in all thinges to give 
an account & by them to bee ordered according to God- 
ly nes. 

" 5. The authoryty of y^ present bishops in y^ Land wee 
do acknohdg so far forth as y"" same is indeed derived from 
his Majesty untto them, and as y*" proseed in his name, 
whom wee will also therein honor in all things and hun in 


"6. Wee believe y* no sinod, classes, convocation, or 
assembly of Ecclesiastical officers hath any power or 
authority att all, but as the same by y® magestraet geven 
unto them. 

" 7. Lastly, wee desyer to give untto all Superiors dew 
honnor to preserve y^ unity of y® speritt w*^ all y feare 
God, to have peace with all men what in us lyeth, and 
wheerein wee err to bee instructed by any. 
" Subscribed by 

" John Robinson 


After the articles had been examined by the Council for 
Virginia, Sir Edwin Sandys wrote to Robinson and 
Brewster the following letter : ^ 

" After my hartie salutations. The agents of your con- 
gregation, Robert Cushman and John Carver have been in 
comunication with diverse selecte gentlemen of his Ma- 
jesties Counsell for Virginia ; and by y^ writing of 7 Arti- 
cles subscribed with your names, have given them y* good 
degree of satisfaction, which hath caried them on with a 
resolution to sett forward your desire in y^ best sorte y 
may be for your owne and the publick good. Divers per- 
. ticulers wherof we leave to their faithfull reports ; having 
carried themselves heere with that good discretion as is 
both to their owne and their credite from whence they 
came. And wheras being to treate for a multitude of 

1 Bradford's Plymouth Plantation, p. 31 ; first printed from the 
original manuscript in Mass. Hist. Col., 4th series, vol. III. 


people, they have requested further time to conferr with 
them that are to be interessed in this action, about y*^ 
severall particularities which in y*" prosecution thereof will 
fall out considerable, it hath been very willingly assented 
too. And so they doe now returne unto you. If there- 
fore it may please God so to directe your desires as that in 
your parts there fall out no just impediments, I trust by 
y^ same direction it shall likewise appear, that on our parte, 
all forwardnes to set you forward shall be found in y*" best 
note which with reason may be expected. And so I be- 
take you with this designe (w'^'' I hope verily is y^ worke 
of God) to the gracious protection and blessing of y® 

" London, Nov^' 12 Your very loving friend, 

" An°: 1617. Edwin Sandys. 

To this letter an answer was sent, dated December 15, 
1617, and on the 27th of the following January another 
letter was forwarded to Sir John Wolstenholme. 

" Riffht WorP" : with due acknowledormente of our 
thankfullnes for your singular care and pains in the bussi- 
nes of Virginia, for our & we hope the comone good, we 
doe remember our humble dutys unto you, and have sent 
inclosed, as is required a further explanation of our judg- 
ments in the 3 points specified by some of his majesties 
Hon^^ Privie Counsell ; and though it be greevious unto us 
that such unjust insinuations are made against us yet we 
are most glad of y^ occasion of making our just purgation 
unto so honourable personages. The declarations we have 
sent inclosed, the one more breefe and generall which we 
thinke y° fitter to be presented ; the other something more 


large and in which we express some small accidental dif- 
ferences which if it seeme good unto you and other of our 
worP^ freinds you may send instead of y^ former. Our 
prayers unto God is, y* your "Wor^P may see the frute of 
your worthy endeauors, which on our part we shall not 
faile to furder by all good meanes in us. And so praing y* 
you would please with y° convenientest speed y* may be, 
to give us knowledge of y*" success of y° bussiness with his 
Majesties Privy Counsell, and accordingly what your 
further pleasure is, either for our direction or furtherance 
in y® same, so we rest. 

" Leyden Jan. 27, Your WorPP in all duty 

"An° 1617, old stile. John Robinson 

" William Breuster." 

The seven articles of the Leyden people were examined 
in a publication written by T. Drakes, a clergyman of 
Essex.^ In his pamphlet of Counter Demands he inquires : 
" Whether it were not good for them, for the avoiding of 
scandal, and in the expectance of some prosperous success 
by the permission of our noble King and honourable 
Counsel to remove to Virginia, and make a plantation 
there, in hope to convert Infidels to Christianity ? " 

A separatist by the name of Euring, in 1619, in a 
printed reply, states that his brethren would prefer to be 
members of a scriptural church in the meanest part of 
England " than either to continue where many of us as 
yet live, or to plant ourselves in Virginia. * * * Yet 
even for Virginia, thus much, — When some of ours de- 
sired to have planted ourselves there with his Majesty's 

Hanhury^i I, 359. 


leave upon these three grounds first that they might be 
means of replanting the Gospel amongst the heathen; 
secondly that they might live under the Kings govern- 
ment ; thirdly that they might make way for and unite 
with others, what in them lieth, whose consciences are 
grieved with the state of the Church in England ; — the 
Bishops did by all means oppose them and their friends 
therein." ^ 

About the middle of February, 1618, the letter of 
Robinson and Brewster was delivered to Wolstenholme, 
and he told the bearer of them that both the king and the 
bishops had consented to wink at their departure. Toward 
the close of August a party of nonconformists of Presby- 
terian rather than Independent sympathies, under the 
leadership of Francis Blackwell, who had been an elder in 
the Amsterdam church, sailed for Virginia. The voyage, 
owing to contrary winds, was tedious, and the ship being 
overcrowded, and their fresh water failing, one hundred 
and thirty, of one hundred and fifty persons on board, died, 
among others the captain of the vessel and Elder Black- 

Upon the return of Governor Argall to England, in May, 
1619, who had secretly and dishonorably slipped away 
from Virginia, there was much dissension among the mem- 
bers of the Virginia Company, and the Leyden people for 
several months received no attention. 

Thomas Clinton, Earl of Lincoln, before his death urged 
that Brewster and associate should receive a patent in the 
name of John Wincopp, and in the minutes of the Com- 
pany the following appears under date of 

Hanhury, I, 368. 


May 26,1619. "One Mr. Wencop comended to the 
ComjDany by the Earle of Lincolne/ intending to goe in 
person to Virginia, and there to plant himselfe and his 
associates, presented his pattent now to the Cort ; w''*' was 
referred to the Comittee that meeteth upon Friday morn- 
ing at M"" Treasurer's house to consider and if need be to 
correct the same." 

Mr. Wincopp, Bradford states, was not a member of the 
congregation,^ and that upon the advice of friends it was 
expedient that the patent should be in his name. The 
Company on the 9th of June ordered the seals to be an- 
nexed, as appears from the following entry : 

" By reason it grewe late and the Court ready to breake 
up, and as yet M' John Whincop's pattent for him and his 
associates to be read, it was ordered that the scale should 
be annexed unto it, and haue referred the trust therefore 
to the Auditors to examine that it agree w*^ the Originall, 
w'^'' if it doth not they haue promised to bring it into the 
Court and cancell it." ^ 

1 He died the previous January. Johnson and Humphrey, who came 
with the first party to Salem, Mass., were sons-in-law. 

2 Dr. Samuel, Thomas, and John Wincop, were brothers and clergymen 
settled in diflferent parts of England. On Easter Sunday, 1632, they 
preached at the same church, St. Mary's Spittle, London. May not 
John, in 1619, have been the tutor at the Earl of Lincoln's? Howe's 
edition Stoio's Survey of London., p. 781. 

3 Mr. Deane, the careful editor of Bradford, in a note on page 44, 
says : " We should like to know precisely when the Wincob patent was 
granted." The above minute shows that the 9th of June was the date. 
In a memorial presented to Congress of United States in 1868, by the 
writer, the 17th of June, by a misprint, appears as the date. 


Bradford says: "God so disposed as he [Wincopp] 
never went, nor even made use of this patente which had 
cost them so much labour and charge." 

The patent was sent over to Leyden for examination, 
and was probably taken there by Brewster. About the 
first of July Brewster and his family removed to London. 
Carleton, Ambassador at the Hague, in a dispatch of July 
22,1619, that Brewster "within these three weeks re- 
moved from thence, and gone back to dwell in London," 
and a month later again writes, " I have made good inquiry 
after William Brewster at Leyden, and am well assured 
that he is not returned thither, neither is it likely he will 
having removed from thence both his family and goods." 
Capt. Edward Brewster, his son, also returned this year 
from Virginia and conformed to the church. 

Several months after the Wincopp patent was sealed, 
another movement was made in the interest of the Leyden 


At a general quarterly meeting on the 2d of February, 
1619 (0. S.), at the house of Sir Edwin Sandys, near 
Aldersgate, he acquainted the Company of a grant to 
" John Peeirce and his associates their heires and assignes," 
which was read, examined and sealed in view of and with 
the approbation of the members present. 

" It was ordered allso by generall Consent that such 
Captaines or leaders of perticular plantacons that shall goe 
there to inhabit by virtue of their graunts and plant them- 
selues, their tenants and servants in Virginia shall have 
liberty till a forme of gouernment be there settled them. 
Associating unto them diuers of the grauest and discreetest 
of their Companies, to make Orders, Ordinances and Con- 


stitutions for the better orderinge and dyrectinge of their 
seruants and buisines, prouided they be not repugnant to 
the Lawes of England." 

Two weeks later, on February 16th, the following report 
was made : 

" Whereas the last Court a speciall Comittee was ap- 
pointed for the managinge of the .£500 giuen by an un- 
knowne person for educatinge the Infidles Children, Mr. 
Threr signified that they haue mett and taken into con- 
sideracon the proposicon of S"" John Wolstenholme, that 
John Peirce and his Associates might haue the trayninge 
and bringinge upp of some of these children ; but the said 
Comittee for diners reasons think itt inconuenyent ; first 
because after their arivall will be longe in settlinge them- 
selues, as also that the Indians are not acquainted with 
them, and so they may stay 4 or 5 years before they have 
account that any good is donne." 

For several months the Leyden people looked around, 
but failed either to hire or purchase shipping for their 
transportation. The directors of the New Netherlands 
Company, on February 12, 1620, in a petition to the 
States-general, make the following statement : 

" Now it happens there is residing at Leyden a certain 
English preacher versed in the Dutch language who is well 
inclined to proceed thither [Manhattan] and live assuring 
the petitioners that he has the means of inducing over 
four hundred families to accompany him hither both out 
of this country and England." 

WHSTON'S PB0P08AL8. 131 

A few days before this petition was presented, as has 
been stated, John Peirce, a cloth-worker of London, and 
his associates, obtained a grant of land from the Virginia 
Company, and Mr. Weston proceeded to Leyden in the 
interest of the patentees. 

Bradford says: "Some Dutchmen made them faire 
offers about goeing with them. Also one Mr. Thomas 
Weston a m'chant of London came to Leyden aboute y« 
same time * * * * perswaded them to goe on and 
not to medle with y' Dutch or too much to depend on y"^ 
Virginia Company ; for if that failed, if they came to reso- 
lution he and such marchants as were his friends (together 
with their own meanes) would sett them forth." 

During this visit articles of agreement were prepared for 
Weston to take back and submit to his associates. Mr. 
Weston and others about this time also informed them " y* 
sundrie Hon'^^^ Lords had obtained a large grante from y^ 
King, for y^ more northerlie parts of that countrie derived 
out of the Virginia patente, and wholy secluded from the 
Governmente and to be called another name, viz New 
England. Unto which Mr. Weston and y' cheefe of them 
begane to incline it was best for them to goe, as for other 
reasons so cheefly for y*" hope of present profite to be made 
by y'' fishing that was found in y* countrie." ^ 

The distractions growing out of the petition of Sir Ferd. 
Gorges just presented to the King, for a charter excluding 
the South Colony from fishing within the Hmits of the 
North Colony, led to confusion and difference of opinion. 

1 Early in 1G20 Gorges and associates petitioned the King for a new 
patent for the North Colony, to be called New England. 


Some wished the Leyden people to go to Guiana/ and 
others desired them to go to Virginia. Weston insisted 
upon a modification of the articles drawn up at Leyden, 
and Pastor Robinson was disappointed that in the joint 
stock and partnership for seven years, two days in each 
week had not been secured for the private use of those 
that were planters. After heartburnings and dissensions 
within themselves, and doubts as to the fairness of the 
shipping merchants, the Leyden people at length sailed in 
the May-flower on 6th of September, and reached Cape Cod 
on the 11th of November, and after some explorations, on 
the 11th of December (0. S.) landed at Plymouth rock.^ 

1 In May, 1620, Koger, a brother of Lord North, secretly embarked 
with a colony for the river Amazon, and by proclamation of the King 
his commission was revoked, his immediate return commanded, on seizure 
by any English vessels that may meet the expedition. Sainshuri/, p. 23. 

Wroth, in Abortive of an Idle Hour^ 1620, says: 

" They say a new plantation is intended 
Neere or about the Amazonian river 
But sure that mannish race is now quite ended, 
O that Great Jove, of all good gifts the giver 
Would move King James, once more to store that clyme, 
With the Moll Cut-purses of our bad time." 

2 Cushman in a letter to Pastor Kobinson, on June 20, 1620, wrote : 
"We have hired another pilote here, one Mr. Clarke who went last year 
to Virginia with a ship of Kine." Clark was probably the same person 
referred to in the minutes of Virginia Company under date of February 
13, 1621-2: 

" Mr. Deputy acquainted the Court, that one Mr. Jo : Clarke beinge 
taken from Virginia longe since by a Spanish shippe that came to dis- 
cover that plantacon, That forasmuch as he hath since that time donn 
the Companie good seruice in many voyages to Virginia, and of late went 
into Ireland for transportation of Cattle to Virginia, he was an humble 


Before they landed it was whispered by the discontented 
" that when they came ashore they could use their own 
liberties; for none had power to command them, the 
patente they had being for Virginia, and not for Neweng- 
land, which belonged to an other Goverment with which 
ye Yirginia Company had nothing to doe." ^ 

The May-flower did not until May 6, 1621, return to 
England, and on the first of the next month John Peirce, 
citizen and cloth-worker of London, and associates, took a 
patent from the Council of New England. At a meeting 
of the Virginia Company on July 16, of the same year, 

" It was moved, seeing that Mr. John Peirce had taken 
a patent of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, and thereupon seated 
his company within the limits of the Northern Plantations 
as by some was supposed, whereby, as by some was sup- 
posed, whereby he seemed to relinquish the benefit of the 
patent he took of this Company, that therefore the said 
patent might be called in, unless it might appear he would 
begin to plant within the limits of the Southern Colony." 

It would appear from this, that before June 1, 1621, 
when the Council of New England gave a patent, Peirce 
had some kind of agreement with Gorges, as he had always 
been inclined, in view of the profit from fishing, to settle 
the Leyden people in the North Colony. 

suitor to this Court, that he might be admitted a free brother of the 
Companie, and have some shares of land bestowed upon him." 

He was captured by the Spaniards in 1612. Was hired by Daniel 
Gookin, owner of the Providence, to take that ship to Virginia, which 
arrived April 10, 1623, and soon after this he died in the colony. 

1 Bradford, Mass. His. Coll., 4 S., vol. 3, p. 89. 



|E0RGE YEARDLEY, a brother of Ralph Yeard- 
ley, a London apothecary, was a worthy, ener- 
getic man, who came to the colony in 1610, as 
one of Lord Delaware's captains. On the 5th of 
October, 1618, the news reached London of Delaware's 
death at sea, and soon after Yeardley, now in England,, 
was made the successor of Argall. His appointment was 
noticed by Sir Philip Mainwaring in a letter to the Earl of 
Arundel, dated November 22, 1618 : 

'• This morning the King knighted the new Governor of 
Virginia, Sir Edward [George] Yardley, who upon a long 
discourse with the Kinge doth proue very understandinge. 
Amongst many other things he tould the King that the 
people of that country doe beleeve the resurrection of the 
body and that when the body dyes the soule goes into cer- 
tain faire pleasant feilds their to solace itself untill the end 
of the world, and then the soule is to retourne to the body 
againe and live both together happilly and perpetually. 
Hereupon the Kinge inferrd that the Gosple must have 
been heretofore knowne in that countrie though it be lost 
and this fragment only remaynes." ^ 

Nichols, III, 495; Lodge, HI British History, III, 293, 294. 


Not being connected with the wealthy, there was some 
disposition to sneer at his elevation. Sir Dudley Carleton 
received a letter, dated November 28th, with these words : 

" Here be two or three ships ready for Virginia and one 
Capt. Yardley a mean fellow by way of provision goes as 
Governor and to grace him the more, the King knighted 
him this week at New Market, which hath set him up so 
high, that he flaunts it up and down the street in extraor- 
dinary bravery, with fourteen or fifteen liveries after him." ^ 

He sailed on the 19 th of January, but owing to adverse 
weather it was the 19th of April, 1619, before he reached 
Jamestown. John Pory^ went out as secretary of the 

1 Chamberlain in Nichols's Progresses of James, vol. Ill, p. 496. 

2 John Pory was a graduate of Cambridge, a great traveler and good 
writer, but gained the reputation of being a chronic tippler, and literary 
vao-abond and sponger. When young he excited the interest of Hakluyt 
who in a dedication to the third volume of his remarks : " Now 
because long since I did foresee that my profession of Diuinitie, the 
care of my family and other occasions might call and divert me from 
these kind of endeavours, I therefore have for these three yeers last past 
encouraged and furthered in these studies of Cosmographie and forren 
histories my very honest, industrious and learned friend Mr. John Pory, 
one of speciall skill and extraordinary hope to perform great matters in 
the same, and beneficial to the commonwealth." Pory in 1600 prepared 
a Geographical History of Africa, but he soon disappointed the expecta- 
tions of friends. 

A letter writer on August 11, 1612, says: "It is long since I heard 
of Master Pory, but now at last understand he lies lieger at Paris, main- 
tained by the Lord Carew." 

Sir Dudley Carleton wrote, on July 9, 1613, from Venice : " Master 
Pory is come to Turin with purpose to see those parts, but wants j^rimum 
necessarium, and hath, therefore, conjured me with these words — bi/ the 


colony, who was a fine scholar, but addicted to intemper- 
ance. Argall was informed, by a swift sailer dispatched 
by his friends, that he was to be placed under arrest, and 

kind and constant intelligence which passeth betwixt you and my best 
friends in England — to send him fourteen doubloons, wherewith to dis- 
engage him, where he lies in pawn, not knowing how to go forward or 
backward. I have done more in respect of his friends than himself, for 
I fear he is fallen too much in love with the pot to be much esteemed, 
and have sent him what he wrote for by Matthew, the post." 

A correspondent of Carleton wrote, on August 1 of the same year : 
" You had not need meet with many such poor moths as Master Pory, 
who must have both meat and money, for drink he will find out himself, 
if it be above ground, or no deeper than the cellar." 

Sir Dudley Carleton, on August 22, 1617, writes from Hague to a 
friend : " If Mr. Pory have done with Constantinople, and can Star 
JSaldo against the pot, which is hard in this country, he shall be welcome 
unto me, for I love an old acquaintance." After visiting Constantinople 
he was, for a brief period in 1617, an attache of the English legation at 
the Hague, about the time of the residence there of the learned Puritan 
divine. Dr. William Ames, whose preaching the English Ambassador 
attended. In 1619 he was made secretary of the colony of Virginia, and 
after his recall, while returning to England, he stopped at the infant 
Plymouth settlement and had pleasant intercourse with Governor Brad- 
ford and Elder Brewster, with whom he may have been acquainted in 
Holland, and received from them some books, which he esteemed as 
"jewels," he says, in a note to Bradford dated August 28, 1622, and 
signed, " Your unfeigned and firm friend." See Bradford's JVew Ply- 

A letter from London, dated July 26, 1623, says : " Our old acquaint- 
ance, Mr. Pory, is in poor case, and in prison at the Terceras, whither he 
was driven, by contrary winds, from the north coast of Virginia, where he 
had been upon some discovery, and upon his arrival he was arraigned and 
in danger to be hanged for a pirate." 

In the fall of 1623 he was appointed by the King to go to Virginia 
and report the condition of the colony. He returned the next year, and 
died about 1635. 


escaped before Yeardley came, and was in London early in 


At the same time that Yeardley was appointed Governor, 
orders were given for the establishment of a university in 
Virginia, with a branch college for the education of Indian 
youth. Soon after Dale came back to England the King 
had ordered that collections should be taken up in each 
diocese of England, for the planting of a college in the 
colony. In their instructions, on November 18, 1618, the 
Company use these words : " Whereas, by a special grant 
and hcence from his Majesty, a general contribution over 
this Realm hath been made for the building and planting 
of a college for the training up of the children of those 
Infidels in true Religion, moral virtue, and civility, and 
for other godlyness. We do therefore, according to a former 
Grant and order, hereby ratifie, confirm and ordain that a 
convenient place be chosen and set out for the j)lanting of 
a University at the said Henrico in time to come, and that 
in the mean time preparation be there made for the build- 
ing of the said College for the Children of the Infidels, 
according to such instructions as we shall deliver. And 
we will and ordain that ten thousand acres, partly of the 
lands they impaled, and partly of the land within the ter- 
ritory of the said Henrico, be alotted and set out for the 
endowing of the said University and College with con- 
venient possessions." ^ 

A week after the date of this communication, a ripe 
scholar in England, the Rev. Thomas Lorkin, subsequently 
distinguished as secretary of the English embassy in 

1 Manuscript instructions to Yeardley, Va. Records, small folio, in Li- 
brary of Congress. 



France, writes to an acquaintance : " A good friend of 
mine projDounded to me within three or four days a con- 
dition of going over to Virginia, where the Virginia Com- 
pany means to erect a college, and undertakes to procure 
me good assurance of £200 a year and better, and if I 
should find there any ground of dislike, liberty to return 
at pleasure. I assure you, I find preferment coming on so 
slowly here at home, as makes me much incline to accept 
it. I will do nothing rashly ; your allowance or disallow- 
ance of the motion may sway me either way, to embrace 
it or refuse it." ^ 

Yeardley's earliest efforts were to reform the abuses that 
had been allowed by his predecessor. The first letters 
received from England informed him of a change in the 
officers of the Company, and he heartily cooperated with 
the new directorship. 

" In James Citty " he found " only those houses that Sir 
Thomas Gates built in the tyme of his government, with 
one wherein the Governor allwayes dwelt, and a church 
built wholly at the charge of the inhabitants of that citye, 
of timber being fifty foote in length and twenty foot ii\ 
breadth." 2 

At Henrico " three old houses, a poor ruinated church, 
with some few poore buildings in the Islande. For minis- 
ters to instruct the people, he founde only three authorized, 
two others who never received their orders." ^ 

1 He did not accept. Court and Times of James First, II, jip. 109 

2 iV. Y. Hist. Sac. ColL, 2d scries, vol. Ill, pt. 1, p. 331. In 1639 a 
brick church was commenced. 

3 Ministers in orders, Rev. Richard Buck, William Mease, and Mr. 
Bargrave, a nephew of Capt. Bargrave, who established in 1G18 the first 


It was granted by the Company that there should be an 
annual General Assembly, to be composed of the Governor 
and Council, and two burgesses from each plantation, to be 
freely elected by the inhabitants thereof. 

The first representative legislative assembly ever held 
within the limits of the United States, convened on July 
30, 1619, at Jamestown. The chancel of the church was 
the place of meeting, and the proceedings were opened 
with prayer by the Eev. Mr. Buck, the minister of the 
place. The Burgesses were then requested to retire to the 
body of the church, and there in order they were called 
up to take the oath of supremacy, and enter the Assembly. 

John Pory, appointed Speaker, sat in front of Governor 
Yeardley, and next was John Twine, Clerk of the House, 
and at the bar stood Thomas Pierse, Sergeant-at-arms.^ 

private plantation. He died in 1621, and left his library, valued at 100 
marks, to the college at Henrico. Those not in orders, were Mr. Wm. 
Wickham and Samuel Macock, a Cambridge scholar, and both made mem- 
bers of Yeardley's Council. 

1 Members of Virginia House of Burgesses, 1619. 

For James Gitty. For the Citty of Henricus. 

Captaine William Powell « Thomas Dowse ^ 

Ensigne William Spense. John Polentine« 

For Charles Citty. For Kiccowtan. 

Samuel Sharpe ^ Captaine William Tucker/ 

Samuel Jordan.^ William Capp.5' 

a Gunner of James City, died 1623. Widow married Mr. Blany. 

b In 1637 visited England in the Temporanco, Capt. Marmadukc Keyner. 

c Probably died in 1633, leaving a wife named Cicely. 

d Dowse came to Virginia in 1608. 

e Pollington visited England in 1636. 

/ For many years a councillor of Virginia. 

g An ancient planter, was living in 1630. 


The delegates from Captain John Martin's plantation 
were excepted to because of a peculiar clause in his patent 
releasing him from obeying any order of the colony except 
in times of war. On Monday, the second of August, 
Capt. Jno. Martin appeared at the bar of the House, and 
the Speaker asking whether he would relinquish the par- 
ticular clause exempting him from colonial authority, 
replied, that he would not yield any part of his patent. 
The Assembly then resolved that the Burgesses of his 
plantation were not entitled to seats. 

On the same day several enactments were passed, among 
others the following : Against drunkenness it was decreed 
that any person found drunk, for the first time was to be 
reproved privately by the minister j the second time, pub- 

For Martin Brandon, Capt. Jno. For ArgaVs Gmfte. 
Martins. Mr. Pawlett 

Mr. Thos. Davis Mr. Gourgainy. 

Mr. Robert Stacy. 

For Smythe's Hundred. For Flowerdieu Hundred. 

Captaine Thomas Graves Ensign Rossingham* 

Mr. Walter Shelley. Mr. Jefferson. 

For Martin's Hundred. For Captain Lawne's Plantation.<^ 

Mr. John Boys « Captaine Christopher Lawne 

John Jackson. Ensign Washer. 

For Captain Wardes Plantation. 
Captaine Warde '^ 
Lieutenant Gibbes. 

o Killed in massacre of 1622. 
f> Nephew of Yeardley. Was in England in 1640, 

c Lawne died in 1620, and then called Isle of Wight Plantation. His planta- 
tion was commenced in 1618. 

^ Ward came with Bargrave about 1618. 


licly ; the third time, "to lye in boltes" twelve hours and 
pay a fine, and if he still persisted, to be subjected to such 
severe punishment as the Governor and Council should 
deem proper. 

" Against excessive apparall ; that every man be cessed 
in the churche for all pubhque contributions, if he be un- 
married, according to his owne apparell ; if he be married 
according to his owne and his wives, or either of their 

The following action was taken relative to Indian edu- 
cation : 

'' Be it enacted hy this present Assembly, That for laying a 
surer foundation of the conversion of the Indians to 
Christian religion, cache towne, Citty, Burrough and par- 
ticular plantation, do obtaine unto themselves by just 
meanes a certain number of the natives children to be 
educated by them in true religion and a civile course of 
life ; of which children the most towardly boyes in witt 
and graces of nature to be brought up by them in the firste 
elements of litterature, so as to be fitted for the CoUedge 
intended for them, that from thence they may be sent to 
that worke of conversion." 

On the 3d of August John Rolfe presented a petition 
complaining " against Captain John Martine for writing a 
letter to him wherein (as Mr. Rolfe alledgeth) he taxeth 
him both unseemly and amisse of certain things wherein 
he was never faulty." 

The next day being the last of the session, the Speaker 
was authorized to send a report of their transactions to the 


Company in England, and the Governor prorogued the 
Assembly until the first day of the following March. 

The report made by Mr. Pory, the Speaker and Secre- 
tary of the colony, was first printed in 1857, in the Col- 
lections of the New York Historical Society. 

Governor Yeardley's ^ commission expired in November, 
1621, and declining its renewal,- was succeeded by Governor 

1 Grov. Yeardley with his instructions, in November, 1618, received 
the grant of Weymock, and a parcel adjoining called Kouwan, part 
upon a creek called Mapscock, and from the head thereof to the head of 
Queen's creek, within the territory of Charles City. He also owned a 
large plantation at Hungars, in Northampton county, eastern shore of 
Virginia. His wife's name was Temperance, and it is supposed his 
sympathies were with the Puritan party. When Wyatt retired, Yeardley 
again assumed the duties of governor, having been in England at the 
time of his appointment, in April, 1626. He sailed in the Ann, with 
the James as a consort. He died lamented, in November, 1627, and left 
two sons, Argall, and Francis who was a native of Virginia. Both were 
on the Puritan side during the civil war. Francis for a time lived in 
Maryland as one of its councillors. In the second volume of Tliurloe's 
State Papers there is a letter from him to John Ferrar, former deputy 
of Virginia Company, dated Lynn Haven, Virginia, May 8, 1654, giving 
an account of his explorations in North Carolina, the previous fall. 



lEFORE the annual election of 1619, a large ma- 
jority of the members were convinced of the 
propriety of electing a new Treasurer, and when 
Sir Thomas Smith found that his resignation 
was promptly accepted, he was greatly chagrined. 

Robert Cushman in a letter to his Leyden companions 
dated May 8, 1619, gives a generally correct statement of 
the condition of the Company : 

" The maine hinderance of our proseedings in y° Vir- 
ginia bussines is y^ dissentions and factions as they terme 
it among y' Counsell & Company of Virginia ; which are 
such as that ever since we came up no busines could by 
them be dispatched. The occasion of this trouble amongst 
them is, for that a while since S"^ Thomas Smith repining 
at his many offices & troubls wished y" Company of Vir- 
ginia to ease him of his office in being Treasurer & Gover' 
of y^ Virginia Company. Wereupon y^ Company tooke 
occasion to dismisse him and choose S"^ Edwin Sands Trea- 
surer & Cover' of y*' Company. He having 60 voyces S' 
John Worstenholme 16 voices, and Alderman Johnson 


24.^ But S*^ Thomas Smith when he saw some parte of 
his honour lost, was very angrie, and raised a faction to 
cavill & contend aboute y^ election, and sought to taxe S' 
Edwin with many things that might both disgrace him, 
and allso put him by his office of Governour. In which 
contentions they yet stick and are not fit nor readie to 
intermedle in any bussines, and what issue things will 
come to we are not yet certaine. It is most like S" Edwin 
will Carrie it away and if he doe, things will goe well in 
Virginia, if otherwise they will goe ill enough allways. 
We hope. in some 2 or 3 Court days things will settle."^ 

As soon as Sir Edwin Sandys accepted the office of 
Treasurer or Governor of the Company, its affairs were 
reorganized. For the first time a journal of the transac- 
tions of each meeting was prepared by the Secretary, and 
every officer was held to a strict accountability. 

Extracts from the Company's Transactions prom the Election 
OP Sir Edwin Sandys as Treasurer, April 28, 1619, until the 
Election op Earl op Southampton, June 28, 1620. 

" 28 Aprill 1619. A Quarter Court held for Virginia at 
S' Thomas Smith's howse in Philpott Lane. 

Sir Thomas Smith's retiring Speech. 

"This Quarter Court according to the L'res Pattents 
being chiefly ordayned for the eleccon of offisers Mr. Trer 

1 The correct vote was Sandis 59, Wolstenholme 23, Johnson 18. See 
page 145. ^ 

2 Bradford in Mass. Ilist. Coll., 4th series, vol. Ill, pp. 36, 37. 


desired the Court that before he left his place, he might 
acquaynt them with two messages Lately rec. from the 
King : The one was that he receaued a I're from Mr. Se- 
cretarie Caluert that his Ma'tie had sent a man up sus- 
pected for deere stealing to be transported for Virginia ; 
and understanding that Mr. John Ferrar had a shipp 
shortly to goe thither desired that his Ma'ties resolution 
might be fulfilled therein. The other was that this morn- 
ing there came a messenger of the Chamber to understand 
of the welfare of the Plantation, his Ma'ty hauing heard 
that a shipp was come from thence : And so desired the 
Court to proceed to the choice of their Officers, signifying 
that for these Twelue yeares he hath willingly spent his 
Labors and endeauors for the support thereof j and being 
now appointed by the Kinge a Commissioner of the Nauie 
he could not giue such good attendance as he therein de- 
sired. Requesting the Court to showe him so much fauor 
as now to dispence with him, and to elect some worthy 
man in his place for he had resolued to relinquish it, and 
therefoure desired that two requests might be graunted him 
for all his seruice done unto them. 

" First, that he might haue their good report according 
as he hath deserued. And secondly that his Account 
might be with all speed audited, that before he dyed he 
might see the same cleered, and receiue his Quietus est 
under the Companie's scale. 

Sir Edwin Sandys elected Treasurer. 

" Which the Cort finding his resolucon to be settled and 
that he would not stand in eleccon they proceeded accord- 
ing to the Last standing order now read to make choice of 
their Treasuror. S' Edwin Sandis S'" John Wolstenholme, 


and Mr. Aldran Johnson being nominated and accordingly 
ballated, the lott fell to S' Edwin Sandis to be Tre'r he 
hauing 59 balls, S"^ Jo. Wolstenholme 23, and Aldran John- 
son 18, whereupon his oath was administered. 

John Ferrar elected Deputy Treasurer. 

" Proceeding, to the eleccon of the Deputy, there was 
nominated Mr. Alder. Johnson, Mr. Xpofer Cletheroe, and 
Mr. John Ferrar, who being ballated Mr. John Ferrar 
was elected Deputy for the ensuing yeare by hauing 52 
balls, Mr. Aldran Johnson 29 Mr. Christopher Cletheroe 
ten ; upon which the said Mr. John Ferrar had his oath 

Captain Daniel Tucker. 

" Upon the request of Captaine Daniell Tucker for this 
Court to conferr 20 shares upon him for his fine yeares 
seruice spent in Virginia, as well for his personall aduen- 
tures as for the severall offices and eminent places w'ch 
there he held, and executed as namely Cape Merchant 
Prouost M'l one of the Counsell, Truck M'r and Vice Ad- 
mirall, wherein by reason of shortness of time, was now 
referred to the Generall Committee to giue him reward as 
they shall thinke fitt.^ 

Tlic College in Virginia. 

May 26. ''' It was also by Mr. Tre'r propounded to the 
Co'rt as a thing most worthy to be taken into consideracon 
both for the glory of God, and hon'" of the Company, that 
forasmuch as the King in his most gracious fauo"" hath 

1 Tucker was a clerk under Lord Delaware in 1610. See p. 43. 


graunted his L'res to the severall Bishops of this Kingdome 
for the collecting of monies to erect and build a CoUedge 
in Virginia for the training and bringing up of Infidells 
children to the true knowledge of God and understanding 
of righteousnes. And considering what publique notice 
may be taken in foreshowing to sett forward the action, 
especially of all those w'ch hath contributed to the same, 
that therefore to begin that pious worke, there is allready 
towards it 1500^'' or thereabouts, whereof remayninge in 
cash 800'^, the rest is to be answered out of the stock of 
the Generall Company for so much w'ch they borrowed, 
besides the likelihood of more to come in : For Mr. Trea- 
surer hauing some conference with the Bishop of Lichfield 
he hath not heard of any Colleccon that hath beene for 
that busines in his Dicocess ; but promisith when he hath 
a warr* thereunto he will with all dilligence further the 
enterprize ; 

" Whereupon he conceaued it the fittest, that as yet 
they should not build the Colledge, but rather forbeare a 
while, and begin first with the monees they haue to pro- 
uide and settle an Annuall reuenue, and out of that to 
begin the ereccon of the said Colledge : And for the per- 
formance hereof also would that a certain peece of Land 
be laid out at Henrico, being the place formerly resolued 
of, w'ch should be called the Colledge Land, and for the 
plantinge of the same send presently ffifty good persons to 
be seated thereon, and to occupy the same according to 
order, and to haue halfe the benefitt of their labo'', and 
the other halfe to goe in getting forward the worke and 
for mayntenance of the Tutors and SchoUers. 

" He therefore propounded that a Shipp might be pro- 
uided against the beginning of August, to carry those fiftie 


men with the prouisions, and also to send fiftie persons 
more to the Comon Land w'ch may raise a Stock for the 
paying of duties there and defraying the Companies 
charge here, and to send prouision of victualls with them 
for a yeare : And for the defraying of the charge hereof 
did also propound the meanes ; first for the CoUedge there 
was money in cash, and besides it may saue the joint-stock 
the sending out a shipp this yeare, w'ch for 4^ a pound 
they will bring from thence all their Tobacco^ w'ch may 
arise to ffiue hundred pounds, besides many that may come 
in otherwise to helpe to beare the charge of the voyage : 
W'ch proposition was well liked, but the time and season 
not allowed of all, and by some obiected, that the Generall 
Plantation should receaue much wrong, if more men were 
sent over so sodaynly before those that are allready gone 
have procured wherewithall to subsist : as also being a 
matter of great consequence it did more properly belong to 
the deciding of a Quarter Co'*, but the former reasons being 
answered, and being further alleaged if it were till then 
prolonged, the time would be past for their prouisions of 
beefe, beere and meate. Whereupon after long arguing 
and disputing thereof it was agreed to be putt to the 
question ; Which being propounded whether a shipp 
should be sett out to carry men for these two good uses, 
and be sett out at the publique charge (vizt) with 50 pass- 
engers for the Colledge Land, and 50 for the Comon Land, 
it was by generall consent and ereccon of hands allowed and 

Quarter Court, June 9. "A former Act of Court made 
26th die Maij touching the setting out a Shipp w*'' one 
hundred men for the Colledge and publique land was now 
again propounded by Mr. Thr'er. Which being putt to the 


question, received the confirmacon of the Court; and 
agreed that the said shipp should be ready to sett out soon 
after the middest of July at the furthest, that by the bless- 
ing of God they may ariue there by the end of October 
w'ch is the fittest and seasonablest time for men to doe 
some busines. 

Tlic Ship Gift returned from Virginia. 

June 14. " The Guift being now returned from Vir- 
ginia and hauing brought I'res from S"^ George Yeardley 
directed to S"^ Edwin Sandis intimating the sore voyage 
they had: being going thither from the 19th of January to 
the 19th of Aprill following, In w'ch time there dyed 14 
Landmen, and three seamen as also that two children was 
borne at sea and dyed, and at his there arriuall finding the 
Plantacion to be in great scarsity for want of come, 
desired the Company to beare with him if for this yeare 
he something neglected the planting of Tobacco, and fol- 
lowed the sowing of come, whereby the next yeare he 
hoped by the blessing of God to raise such a cropp thereof 
that the said Plantacon shall haue noe greate cause to 
complaine it hath of want. Other priuate business Mr. 
Thr'er acquaynted the Court was specified in his L'res w'ch 
is first to receaue the aduise of the Counsell, and by their 
direccons to reueale it to the Court. 

People for the College Lands. 

" It was moued by Mr. Thr'er, that the Generall Comit- 
tee should forthwith meete for the setting out this shipp 
and furnishing of her with good people to be sent to the 
Colledge and publique Land, w'ch hitherto by defect 
thereof, the Plantacon hath been much wronged : w'ch if 


the Court would put them in trust for the prouiding of 
such they would intreate the Gentlemen both of County 
and Citty to helpe them therewith w'ch motion the Court 
comended, and haue desired Mr. Thr'ers assistance therein, 
" It was moued by Mr. Threr that the Court would take 
into consideracon to appoint a comittee of choice gentle- 
men and other of his Ma'tys counsell for Virginia concern- 
ing the colledge, being a waighty busines, and so greate 
that an Account of their proceedings therein must be giuen 
to the State. Upon which the Court, upon deliberate con- 
sideracon, have recomended the care thereof unto the 
right wo. S' Dudley Diggs, S'' John Dauers, S' Nath. Rich, 
S"" Jo. Wolstenholme, Mr. Deputy Ferrar, Mr. Dr. Anthony 
and Mr. Dr. Gulson, to meete at such time as Mr. Trea- 
surer shall giue order thereunto.^ 

Patent for Sundry Kentish Men. 

" It was agreed upon the mocon of S"" Dudley Digges 
and S"^ Thomas Catto into the Court about a Pattent to be 
graunted unto sundry Kentish men, who would seate and 
plante themselves in Virginia, that they should haue as 
Large priuiledges and immunities as is graunted to any 
other in that kinde. 

1 On June 24th the committee made a report on college business which 
space compels us to omit. In an article on education in Virginia during 
17th century, prepared at the request of the United States Commissioner 
of Education, the writer has given in full the action of the Company 
relative to schools. 


Unseemly Language of late Deputy Johnson. 

July 13. "A Court held for Virginia at S"^ Thos. 
Smith's howse in Philpott Lane.^ 

" The busines by the Last Court referred unto the Coun- 
sell touching some unseemly words giuen by Mr. Aldran 
Johnson unto Mr. Th'rer, to be censured by them, they 
hauing mett as they were desired and thereon considered 
did now deliuer their conclusion unto the Courte, where 
after a long disputacon and reprofe of the offence comitted 
by Mr. Alderman, and a general cleering of Mr. Thr'er by 
ereccon of hands, and euery man's testimony of the scan- 
dall imputed unto him by Mr. Alderman that he should 
moue any of the Company by indecent Language ; It was 
agreed that for preuenting the Like abuse to the Th'rer 
hereafter, the former Comittee, that is to say the Lord of 
Southampton, the Lo. of Warwick, S"" Jo. Dauers, S"" Tho. 
Gates, S"" Nath. Rich, Mr. Jo. Wroth, Mr. Geo. Thorpe and 
Mr. Deputy iFerrar to whome this busines was formerly 
referred now adding unto their number S*" Jo : Wolsten- 
holme, S"" Tho. Wroth, sliould set downe in writing to be 
entered in the Court bookes the iustification w'ch the Court 
hath giuen to Mr. Thr'er, And should withall propose to 
the consideration of the Court the forme of some iust Lawe 
for the preuenting of the like wrong and abuse in future 

1 The meetings of the Company, after the election of Sandys, were 
usually held at Mr. Ferrar's house in St. Sithe's Lane. 


Communion Set for the College. 

July 21. ^' There was at the sitting downe of the Court 
by an unknowne person presented to Mr. Threr the letter 

I. H. S. 

" Sir Edwin Sandys, Threr of Virginia : 

" Good luck in the name of the Lord, w^ho is dayly 
magnified by the experiment of your zeale and piety in 
giuinge begining to the foundation of the Colledge in Vir- 
ginia, the sacred worke so due to Heaven and soe longed 
for on earth. 

" Now knowe wee assuredly that the Lord will doe you 
good and blesse you in all your proceedings, even as he 
blessed the howse of Obed Edom and all that pertayne to 
him because of the Arke of God. Now that you seeke 
the Kingdome of God, all thinges shall be ministred unto 
you. This I well see allready, and perceiue that by this 
your godlie determinacon the Lord hath giuen you fauor 
in the sight of the people, and I knowe some whose hearts 
are much enlarged because of the howse of the Lord our 
God to procure you Wealth, whose greater designs I have 
presumed to outrun with this oblacon, which I humbly 
beseech you may be accepted as the pledge of my devocon, 
and as an earnest of the vowes which I have vowed unto 
the Almighty God of Jacobb concerning this thing, which 
till I may in part perform 1 desire to remayne unknowne 
and unsought after. 

" The things are these : 

" A Communion Cup with the couer and vase ; 


" A Trencher plate for the bread 
" A Carpett of crimson veluett 
" A Linnen damaske table cloth. 

Polonians in Virginia Enfranchised. 

" Upon some dispute of the Polonians resident in Vir- 
ginia it was now agreed (notwithstanding any former order 
to the contrary law) that they shalbe enfranchized and 
made as free as any inhabitant there whatsoever. And 
because their skill in making pitch and tarr and sope ashes 
shall not dye with them, it is agreed that some young men 
shalbe put unto them to learne their skill and knowledge 
therein for the benefitt of the country hereafter. 

Summer Recess. 

" The order of the Last Co""* touching the dissoluing of 
the Courte till Michaelmas time being now putt to the 
question was ratified by Generall consent. 

First Meeting after Vacation. 

Oct. 20. " It was made known by Mr. Deputy that the 
time being expired wherein during this term of vacansye 
the General Courte (according to order) have discontinued ; 
they are now to proceed again in their due course euery 
fortnight, this day month being a Generall q'rter Court : 
And allthough Mr. Treasurer be yet absent, the Company 
will finde at his coming up next weeke that he hath not 
been wanting to the seruice of Virginia, but both his minde 
and time wholly imployed in their business, contriuing the 
meanes of sending large supplies of men and Cattle for 
Virginia this next spring. 



Dissolute Persons to be Transported. 

" A I're being sent from his Ma"^ directed to Mr. T'rer 
and Counsell for the sending diners dissolute persons to 
Virginia w'ch S*" Edward Zouch kn't Marshall will giue 
informacon of : after the Counsell had perused the same 
was brought to the boord and read to the Company, w'ch 
considering there was noe present meanes of conueying 
them to Virginia thought fitt to reserue the full answere to 
his Ma^y I're till the next Court when with the Lords and 
Mr. Treasuror it might be agreed how his Ma"^^ comaunds 
might most speedily and conueniently be effected : In the 
meane while S' Jo. Dauers promised to acquaynt Mr. Se- 
cretarie Caluert, and S"" Edw: Zouch the reason that they 
haue not yet set sent answere to his Ma*' gracious L're. 

Nov. 3. " According to the refference in the Last Court 
his Ma*^ L're was now taken into most dutiful considera- 
con and it was agreed with all conueniencie to fulfill his 
Ma*' comaund, and to send them ouer to be seruants, w'ch 
will be very acceptable unto the Inhabitants as Mr. Thr'er 
hath understood from them, and in the meane time till 
they may be sent, w'ch will be about January Mr. Trea- 
suror showed that in like case the Lo: Maior had been 
soUicited to giue order for the keeping of them in Bride- 
well, w'ch was answered to be performed allready and the 
Court desired Mr. Treasurer to giue his Ma'ty an answere 
by Mr. Secretary Caluert. 

Coat of Arms for Virginia. 
" Whereas formerly a scale for the Company called the 
Legall Scale was referred unto a Comittee to consider in 
what manner it should be, and nothing as yet done therein : 


It was agreed that Mr. Harecutious be intreated to giue 
the Auditors sometimes a meeting at S' Edwin Sandis, 
where they will deuise to take a Cote for Virginia and 
agree upon the Seale. 

Nov. 15. " Touching the Legal Seale spoken of in the 
Last Court the Auditors at their Assembly haue therein 
taken some paynes w'ch they now presented to this Courte : 
And whereas they had spoken to one for the cutting of it, 
there is one Mr. Hole who would appropriate that unto 
himselfe under pretence of hauing a Pattent for the en- 
grauing of all scales, w'ch hath the Kinges arms, but not 
for any part thereof, and there fore appointed them to 
repaire to Mr. Xtofer Brooke ' of Lincolne's Inn to exa- 
mine it, and to bring his opinion under his hand in writing 
and accordingly it should be determined.^ 

1 Brooke was the son of the Lord Mayor of York. Was a studeat of 
Lincoln's Inn, and a poet as well as jurist. In 1613 he published an 
Elegi/ on the Death of Henry, Prince of Wales. Browne, a poet of the 
day, speaks of him as 

'• Brooke whose polished lines 
Are fittest to accomplish high designs." 

2 The Mr. Hole referred to in the minute was William Hole, or Hoole, 
engraver of the map of Virginia, printed in 1612, and reissued in 1624 
in "smith's General Histonj. In 1618 he obtained a life grant as 
'< sculptor of the iron for money." The following anecdote from the 
Weever Manuscripts is told by Hunter : 

King James evidently did not like the proceedings of the Virginia 
Company, and when the device of the seal was presented to him, where 
on one side was St. George slaying the dragon, with the motto Fas Alium 
superare draconem, meaning the unbelief of the natives, he commanded 
that the motto should be omitted. The motto on the other side, 
En dat Virginia quintum, allusive to the four crowns was in the taste 
of the times. The " Cote for Virginia," with a slight alteration of the 


Collections for the College. 

" Mr. Trer desired the allowance of this Court of one 
thing agreed of by the Auditors and Comittee of the Col- 
ledge w'ch was that 1400^ of mony in all being receiued 
of the coUeccon monyes by S' Tho: Smith, of w'ch upon 
seuerall occasions there was rented by way of Loane for 
the use of the Company eight Hundred pounds the Re- 
mainder being 500' odd mony now paid unto Mr. Trea- 
surer : Therefore that the said 800' might be reimbursed 

motto, was used by the colony until its separation from Great Britain. 
The escutcheon is quartered with the arms of England and France, Scot- 
land and Ireland, crested by a maiden queen with flowing hair and 
eastern crown. Supporters: Two men in armor, beavers open, helmets 
ornamented with three ostrich feathers, each holding a lance. Motto : 
En dat Virginia quantum. 

Spenser, Raleigh's friend, dedicated his Fairy Queen to Elizabeth, 
" Queen of England, France, Ireland and Virginia." After James of 
Scotland succeeded to the throne of England, Virginia would be in com- 
pliment called a fifth kingdom. 

In an edition of Stow's Survey of London, published in 1632, the coat 
of arms appears with the motto. En dat Virginia quintam, and it may be 
that the quintum on the frontispiece of Smith's History, editions of 1624 
and 1632, is an error of the engraver, although it is correct as an adjec- 
tive qualifying regnum. The editor of the /Swvey subjoins the following 

note : 

" The Company of Merchants called Merchants of Virginia, Bermuda 
or Summer Islands (for I heare) all these additions are given them. I 
know not the time of their incorporating, neither by whom their armes 
supporters and crest were granted." 

On the title page of the Revised Statutes of Virginia for 1733, 1752, 
and 1759, the coat appears with the motto, En dat Virginia quartam, the 
adjective agreeing with coronam understood. After the union of England 
and Scotland, in 1707, quintam was probably changed to quartam. 


out of the comon cash into the Colledge mony w'bh was 
ratified and allowed of by the Court. 

Quarter Court. 

" At a great and generall Quarter Court holden for Vir- 
ginia on Wednesday the 17th of November, 1619. 

List of Counsellors. 

" Before the reading of the Co"^^^ there was presented by 
Mr. Tre'r a list of all the Counsellors names of Virginia, 
being of Earles, Barons, Knights, Gentlemen and citizens 
about 100 in all, w'th this caution that if any heard them- 
selves named, and had not taken their oaths, they were to 
repair to the Lo. Chancellor or the Lo. Chamberlaine to 
be sworne. 

" The Courtes being read Mr. Treasurer putt the Court in 
remembrance of his former proposicons propounded in the 
Co""* iij Die Nouembris hauing before that propounded them 
to the Counsell and lastly to the Preparatiue Court, and 
desires to haue the iudgment of this Great and Generall 
Court concerning them : When, upon the request of some 
noble men, he related them againe to the Co""^ in effect as 

Propositions of Sir Edwin Sandys.'^ 

" Therefore his first Proposition was, that the Company 
would be pleased that those Tenants for the Publique 
might be encreased this next Spring to the number of 300, 
viz" one hundred for the Gouernor's Land, 100 for the 

1 He gave an extended review of past errors, and the condition of the 
colony, before stating his propositions. 


Companies, and 100 for the CoUedge Land : w'ch (if he be 
truly informed by those who best should know it) being 
rightly imployed will not yield lesse in value than three 
thousand pounds yearely reuennue for these pubhque uses. 
And because care both hath beene and shall be taken that 
diners stayed persons and of good condicons haue been 
and shall be sent amongst them. 

One hundred Children proposed to he sent. 

"His second Proposition was that for their ease and 
comodiousnes there be 100 young persons sent to be their 
Apprentices, in the charge whereof he hoped this Hono^^® 
Citty would pertake with the Company as they formerly 
had done. 

Maids for Wives. 

"And because he understood that the people thither 
transported though seated there in their persons for some 
foure yeares are not settled in their mindes to make it 
their place of rest and continuance ; but hauing gotten 
some wealth there to returne agayne to England. 

" For the remedying of that mischiefe and of establishing 
a perpetuitie of the Plantation, he aduised and made it his 
Third Proposition to send them oner One hundred young 
Maides to become wifes ; that wifes, children and familie 
might make them lesse mouable and settle them, together 
with their Posteritie in that Soile.^ 

^ On Nov. 3d, at a Preparatory Court " He wished that a fitt hundred 
might be sent of women, maids young and uncorrupt to make wifes to 
the Inhabitants." 


Mode of Transportation. 

"His next Proposition was for the manner of transporting 
those persons thus to make up ffiue hundred for the Pub- 
lique Land, wherein he aduised that they should not as 
heretofore giue shipping for this purpose, whereas every 
shipp at his returne in bare fraighte and wages emptied 
the Cash of 800 and sometimes 1000'^ but that they should 
as they had allreadie done this present yeare take the 
opportunitie of the Ships trading to Newfoundland, and so 
to transport them at six pounds a person without after 

Cattle to he provided. 

" A fifte proposicion for the sending of 20 Heifers upon 
!- 1 .. 100 of those Tenants, Therefore in the whole, w'ch 
he hoped might be done taking the opportunity of shipping 
in the westerne parts at Ten pounds a head 600^' in the 

Annual Estimates. 

" Lastly touching the charges he related particularly as 
formerly he had done, diuers great incouragements of sup- 
ply to come in ; he estimated the whole charge at foure 
thousand pounds to be done sparingly, and bountifully at 
5000^' ; He promised not to leaue the Company one penny 
in debt for any thing in his yeare to be performed : And 
moreouer that he would discharge 3000^' of former debts 
and reckoninge according to the Stock left in the Lottaries 
at his coming to this place : This done he hoped the Pub- 
lique would agayne be well restored, and foundacon laid 
for a future great State, The Aduenturers and Planters 


well comforted and encouraged, All matter of scandall and 
reproach remoued, and so he would comend the Accon to 
the blessing of God. 

"These Proposicons after some pause, receauing noe oppo- 
sicon were put to the question, and receaued the generall 
approbacon of the Court, i 

" Allso he acquainted that in settinge forward y* of his 
proposicounes now confirmed he had to thatt purpose been 
with the Lord Maior, who found him as willinge to plea- 
sure the Company as he desyred w'ch all desyred to haue 
their mynde in writinge that the Court of Aldermen and 
the Common Councill may the better understand them, 
w'ch beinge now reddy drawne was read and allowed of 
the coppy of w'ch ensueth. 

Homeless Boys and Girls of London. 

"To the Ri. Honorable S"" Wm. Cockaine,' knt Lord Maior of 
the Cittie of London, and the Right Worp^ y' Aldermen, 
his Brethren, and the Wo^^' the Common Counsell of 
the said Citty : 
" The Threr, Counsell and Company of Virginia, assembled 

in their great and generall courte the 17th of November, 

1 William Cockaiue was a distinguished merchant; sheriff in 1609; 
chief of the new company of merchant adventurers, which gave King 
James a great banquet on June 22, 1609, at his house and there knighted. 
He died in 1626, and the distinguished poet and divine, John Donne, 
preached his funeral sermom. 

The following letter of Sir Edwin Sandys on January 28, 1620, to 
one of the King's secretaries. Sir Robert Naunton, shows that the child- 
ren were not always willing to embark : 

" The city of London have appointed one hundred children from the 
superfluous multitude to be transported to Virginia, there to be bound 


1619, haue taken into consideracon the continuall great 
forwardness of this honorable Cytty in advancing the plan- 
tacon of Virginia, and pticularly in furnishinge out one 
hundred children this last yeare, which, by tlie goodnes of 
God, ther safely arriued (save such as dyed in the waie) 
and are well pleased, we doubt not, for this benefit, for 
which, your bountiful assistance, we, in the name of the 
wholl plantacon, do yield unto you due deserved thanks. 

" And forasmuch as wee haue now resolued to send this 
next Springe very large supplies for the strength and 
encreasinge of the colony, styled by the name of the 
London CoUony, and find that the sendinge of these child- 
ren to be apprentised hath been very grateful to the peo- 
ple. Wee pray yo*" Lo^ and the rest, in pursuite of your 
former so precious Accons, to renew the like fauours, and 
furnish us again with one hundred more for the next 

" Our desire is that we may have them of 12 yeares old 
& upward, with allowance of Three pound a peec for their 
transportacon, and forty shillings a pees for their apparell, 
as was formerly granted. They shall be apprentizes ; the 
boys till they come to 21 years of age ; the girles till like 
age, or till they be marryed, and afterward they shall be 
placed as Tennants upon the publique lands, with best 

apprentices upon very beneficial conditions. They have also granted 
£500 for their passage and outfit. Some of the ill-disposed children, 
•who, under severe masters in Virginia, may be brought to goodness, and 
of whom the city is specially desirous to be disburdened, declare their 
unwillingness to go. The city wanting authority to deliver, and the Vir- 
ginia Company to transport these children against their will, desire 
higher authority to get over the difficulty." Cal. State Papers, Colonial 




condicons, where they shall have houses with stocke of 
come and cattle to begin with, and afterward the moyty 
of all increase and profit whatsoever. 

" And so we leaue this mocon to your honorable and grave 
consider aeon. 

Interview loith Secretary Calvert. 

" After this hee signified that according to the desire of 
the Last Courte hee had been with Mr. Secretary Caluert 
and deliuered the Companies answere touchinge the Trans- 
porting of men prest by his Ma'ty w'ch gaue nott full 
sattisfaccon for that the King's desyre admitted no delaies, 
but forthwith to haue 50 of the 100 shipt away w*^ all 
speed, Notwithstanding the many inconvenyances w'ch 
Mr. Threr alleadged would thereby accrew unto the Com- 
pany that they could not goe in lesse than fouer Shipps, 
for feare they beinge many together may drawe more unto 
them and so muteny and carry away the Ships w'ch would 
stand the Company in fowre thousand pounds, and they 
not suddenly to be gotten at this time of the yeare, but all 
not * * * hee tolde them what a pinch he was putt 
unto, and therefore desyred their Counsell and Advise. 

Company to maintain Convicts till shipped. 

" Whereuppon diuers waies being thought on and con- 
sidered, the Court could finde noe fitter nor more satisfac- 
tory answere then this ; That the Company would be att 
the charge to mayntayne them till ther may be shipping 
prouided, if soe be they were commanded to doe itt. And 
therefore haue apoynted a Comitte of Select Merchants to 
imploy their wholl indeauours for the compassinge of ship- 
pinge w'th all speed possible, Namely Mr. Deputy Ferrar, 


Mr. Keightley Mr. Wiseman Mr. Cranmore, Mr. Bull, Mr. 
Sheppard and Mr. Mellinge and to that end Mr. Threr 
was content the Eight hundred pounds Aduentured by the 
generall Stocke in the Magazine should remaine there to 
be employed to these uses from time to time, whereunto if 
they pleased there could be two hundred pounds more 
added outt of the cash in his Custody w'ch Thousand 
pounds to be only for the satisfyinge of his Mat's desyres 
from tyme to tyme. 

Some of the Dissolute to he sent to Somer's Islands. 
"And whereas the Company of the Somer Hands doth 
allwaies reporte of the gracious fauour his Ma*^ extendeth 
to Virginia, that therefore the next Quarter Courte of the 
said Islands, the Company thereof be intreated to joyne 
for the Transporte of some of them to be Seruants uppon 
their Land ; my Lord of Warwick, S"^ Edwin Sandys, Mr. 
John Ferrar and others intending to take some of them to 
that purpose, for prosecutinge of w'ch itt being putt to y^ 
question was generally agreed of intreatinge Mr. Threr 
that to this effect hee would in writinge drawe the answere 
and deliuer itt to Mr. Secretary Caluert to informe his 

A71 old Planter killed in a Quarrel. 

"As allso that such things as belonged to Cap. Stallenge ^ 
slayne ther by Wm. Epps be reserued for the use and 
benefitt of his widdowe. 

1 Stallenge had returned from a fishing voyage to New England. He 
was " slaine in a priuate quarrcll." Smith, in Neio England Trialls, 
London, 1622, says his name was Edward Koweroft. In another work 
published by Council of New England, he is called Rocraft. 


Captain JVeivport's Son desires some Land selected. 

" Whereas the Company hath formerly graimted to Cap- 
tain Newporte a bill of Aduenture of fower hundred 
pounds, and his sonne^ now desyringe order from this 
Courte for the layinge out of some part of the same : Mr. 
Treasurer was entreated and authorized by this generall 
Assembly for to write to S' George Yeardly and the Coun- 
sell of State for the effecting hereof. 

Tlie Transportation of Vagabonds. 

"An extraordinary Courte held the xxij"^ of Nouember 

" Mr. Treasurer signified that this extraordinary Courte 
was to acquaynte them that according to the intent of the 
last great Courte hee had drawne the letter to his Ma% in 
the name of the Trer, Counsell and Company and had 
deliuered itt to Mr. Secretary Caluert together with a 
coppie thereof, butt itt beinge thought that I're would not 
serue his Ma^^ hee was to propound this and craue theire 
further aduise, that if one hundred pounds w'ch should 
haue beene for mayntenance of those men might be giuen 
extraordinary, in grosse besides the ordinary allowance of 
Six pounds the man to any that may be found to transport 
them with all expedicon. The Knight Marshall hauinge 
promised S"" John Dauers that if they may be sent pre- 
sentlie hee will furnish them w'th such p'sons of what 
quallyty and condicon they desire. Unto w'ch was ob- 
iected that if some were found to undertake this yet itt 

1 John Newport the only son and heir. It is possible that Newport 
News was the tract selected. 


might might be this month the ship could be dispeeded and 
they during such time must be mayntayned att the Com- 
panies charge ; wch was answered itt could not be helped, 
his Ma"^^ Command must be fulfilled, therefore being putt 
to the question was generally allowed of. 

Gorges objects to fishing in North Colony. 

Dec. 1. " The last great generall Courte being read Mr. 
Threr acquainted them that Mr. John Delbridge purposing 
to settle a pticuler Colony in Virginia desyring of the Com- 
pany that for the defrayinge somewhat of his charges, that 
hee might bee admitted to fish at Cape Codd wch request 
was opposed by S'" Ferdinando Gorge aleaginge that hee 
alwaies fauored Mr. Delbridge, but in this hee thought 
himselfe something touched that he should sue to this 
Company, and not rather to him as proplie belonging to 
the North Colony to giue libertie for the fishinge in that 
place, it being within theire latitude which was answered 
by Mr. Thr'er that the Comp^ of the S° and North Planta- 
tion are the one free of the other. And that the Ir'es pat- 
tent is that each may fish within the other the Sea being 
free for both, w'ch if the N° Colony abridge them of this, 
they would take away theire means and encouragement of 
sendinge of men. 

" Unto which S"" Ferdinando Georges replyed that if hee 
mistake not himselfe both the Companies were lymitted by 
y^ Pattent unto w'ch hee would submitt himselfe, for the 
decydinge whereof itt is referred unto the Counsell who 
are of both Companies to examine the L'res Pattents to 
morrow afternoone att my Lord of Southampton's and 
accordingly to determine the dispute. 

166 vntomiA company of london. 

Report touching Letters Patent. 

Dec. 15. "The Counsell meetinge accordinge to the 
referrence in the Last Courte and perusinge the I'res Pat- 
tents grew to this conclusion that by the lycense of the 
said Counsell itt might be lawfull for either of the said 
Collonies to fish within the liberties the one as of the 
other, butt since some of the Northern Collony flyinge 
from that agreement pretend to consider better of itt be- 
fore they will giue answer thereunto. 

Smith's Hundred to fish in North Colony. 

" Howsomever the Counsell hauinge occasion to pursue 
itt uppo the mocon of Mr. Threr have giuen Lycense 
under their Scale unto the Society of Smith's Hundred to 
goe a fishinge, w'ch scale was this day in open Courte, and 
by the allowance thereof affixed to theire said Lycense, as 
allso to a Duplicate of the same. 

Alphabetical Publication of Adventurers. 

" At this Court Mr. Threr acquainted the Company that 
the day before S' Tho: Smiths acct had beene brought in 
to the Auditors, and for the spedyer Auditinge and con- 
cludinge of them itt was moved by him in the name of 
the Auditors who by one assent had approued thereof that 
a publicacon might be sett out in priuate, And y*' first parte 
to sett downe the names in Alphabeticall order of euery 


Aduenturer, and their seuerall summs aduentured^ that 
therby all may take notice of their sumes brought in, and 
be summoned to com in for their Land proportionable 
thereunto, before the best were possessed by new Aduen- 
turers or planters, w'ch might be allso a means of a speedy 
encrease and ^ * ''' of the plantation. 

" And in the second p* to confute such scandalous reports 
as haue beene diuulged of Virginia by the justificacon of 
the Inhabitants there, wcli mocon was generally approued 
by the Courte referringe the drawing of the said publicacon 
to Mr. Threr & Dr. Winstone. 

Ship for the Bridewell Inmates. 

Dec. 23. "A Comission to John Damyron^ Mr. of y^ 
Duety being now red and allowed for takinge y^ first op- 
tunj^tie of winde and weather to sett Saile for Virginia w*'^ 
the passengers the Company shijDpeth by command from 
his Ma*y was now ordered that the scale should be there- 
unto affixed. Mr. Deputy informinge the Court that the 
Knight Marshall hauinge been w*^ Mr. Threr gaue him to 
understand that uppon Monday morninge Fiftie of the 
persons to be transported for his Ma*^ should be att Bride- 
well for the Company to make choyce of such as they 
think fitt for the present to be sent ; therefore moued that 

^ In 1620 the Company published a Declaration, with the names of the 
adventurers and the sums adventured, lleprinted in Force, vol. III. 
Captain Wingfield adventured 88 li. 

Sir Thomas Gates 100 " 

William Brewster 20 " 

Capt. Ed. Brewster, his son 30 '' 

Capt. Jno: Smith 9 " 

Smith was the smallest subscriber of hundreds of adventurers. 

'^ Was Damarin's Cove named after this captain ? 


some might repare thither att 8 of the Clock to meet the 
knt marshall about that buisines : Whereuppon the Courte 
haue desyred Mr. Dr. Wynstone, Mr. Canninge, Mr. Cran- 
more, and Mr. Thomas Mellinge to be there att that time. 

Quarter Court. 

" Att a greate and Generall Quarter Courte holden for 
Virginia att S" Edwin Sandys house neer Aldersgate the 
second of February, 1619. 

" The Treasurer Sir Edwin Sandys of Graunts of Land 
hee acquainted them of fower seurall paire of Indentures 
lying all ingrossed before them granted unto Mr. Robert 
Heath Recorder of London and his Associates, the second 
to Doctor Bohune James Swifte and their Associates for 
Transportation of 300 persons; the Third to William 
Tracy esquire and his associates for Transportation of 500 
persons and the 

Grant to John Peirce and Associates. 

Fourth to John Peeirce and his associates their heires and 
assignes, which being all fowre now red and examined and 
fyndinge them agree with the draughts perused and allowed 
by the Auditors were all of them allowed and sealed in 
view of the Courte with a Totall Approbacon. 

February 2, 1619 (old style) : " A Ire from an unknowne 
person was read, directed to Mr. Treasurer, promisinge five 
hundred pounds for the edticatinge and bringinge up Infi- 
dells' children in Christyanitie, which Mr. Treasurer, not 
willinge to meddle therewith alone, desired the court to 
apoynt a select comittee for the manadginge and imploy- 
inge of itt to which purpose : they made choyce of: Lord 


Pagett, S"" Tho. Wroth, Mr. Jo. Wroth, Mr. Deputie, Mr. 
Tho. Gibbs, Dr. Winstone, Mr. Bamfourde, and Mr. 

The Gop-py of w^^^ Letter ensueth. 

" S' : Yo' Charitable endeauors for Virginia hath made 
you a ffather, me a fauourer of those good works wch, 
although heretofore hath com lieer to their birth, yett for 
want of strength could neuer be deliuered, (envy & diuision 
dashinge these younglings even in the wombe,) until your 
helpfuU hand w^*" other fauorable psonages, gaue them both 
birth and beinge for the better cherishinge of wch good 
and pious worke, seeinge many casting guifts in the Trea- 
sury, I am encourraged to tender my poore mite ; and 
although I cannott with the Princes of Issaker bringe gould 
and silver coveringe, yet offer here what I cann, some 
goats' hayre, necessary stuffe for the Lord's Tabernacle, 
protesting heer in my sinceritie, wthout Papisticall merritt 
or Pharasaicall applause, wishing from my hart as much 
unitie in yo'" honorable undertakinge as ther is sinceritie 
in my designes, to the furtherance of wch good worke, the 
converting of Infidles to the fayth of Christe, I pmised by 
my good friends 500 li for the mayntenance of a conveyent 
nomber of younge Indians taken att the age of Seauen 
years, or younger, and instructed in the readinge and 
understandinge the principalis of Xrian Religion unto the 
age of 12 years, and then as occasion serueth, to be trayned 
and brought upp in some lawfull trade with all humanitie 
and gentleness untill the age of one and Twenty years, 
and then to enioy like liberties and pryviledges with our 
natiue English in that place. 

" And for the better pformance thereof you shall receaue 


50^^ more, which shall be deliuered into the hands of two 
religious psons with certitude of payment, who shall once 
every quarter examine and certify to the Treasurer here, 
in England, the due operacon of these promises, together 
with the names of those children thus taken, there foster- 
fathers and overseers, not doubtinge but you are all assured 
that guiftes denoted to God's service cannott be diuerted 
to pryuate and secular advantages without sacriledge. If 
yo'' grauer iudgments can deuise a more charitable course 
for such younge children, I beseech you informe my friend, 
with your securitie for true pformance, and my beneuo- 
lence shal be allwaies redy to be deliuered accordingly. 

" The greatest Courtesie I expect or craue is to conceale 
my frend's name, lest importunytie urge him to betray 
that trust of secresie wch he he hath faythfully promised, 
hee hath moved my harte to this good woorke. Dyrect 
yo'^ charitable endeauors herein whylst I rest, ab famo, 

" Dust and Ashes. 

" Sir Edwin Sandys, 

" Tlie faithful Treasurer for Virginia} 

Great Crop in Virginia. 

Feb. 16. " Mr. Treasurer acquainted the Courte that 
hee had receaued Letters from Virginia importinge the 
wellfare of the Plantacon although they haue been much 
distempered by reason of an intemperate heate, not onely 

1 On February 16 the proposition to give the £500 to John Peirce 
and associates for educating Indian children was rejected, and it was pro- 
posed that the several hundreds should take a few. On the 22d the pro- 
prietors of Smith's Hundred stated that they would give £100 to be 
released from the training of any Indian children. • 


hapninge unto them but chiefly amongst the Indians re- 
questing that the Company would send them some Phi^- 
tions and appothycaries of w'ch they stand much need oil: 
relating allso to y^ great Comforte of the Comp^ and ni- 
couragment of those wch shall send, f plenty of Corne 
that God this yeare hath blest them with, the like neuer 
happened since the English was there planted hauing had 
two haruests, the first being taken, the winde pduced a 
second, and the ground beinge so extraordinary fifat & good 
yt sowinge Indian Corne uppon that stuble they had like- 
wise a great cropp thereof 

Capt. Spillman degraded. 

'' Signifyinge allso that one Capt. Spillman who thought 
to depmue the Gouernor of his Authoritie by his instiga- 
con to Opochankino, of a great man y* should com and put 
him out of his place. The said Gouernor and Councell of 
State haue proceeded in due tryall of him, butt bemge 
mercifull in sparinge his life haue degraded him from his 
Captship and made him a seruant of the Collony for 
seauen yeares in quallytie of an Interpriter.^ 

SJiips Commissioned. 

<-' Three Comissions being presented to the Courte was 
allowed to be sealed one to William Shawe M'" of the Lon- 
don Marchant, the other to Capt. Jones M-" of the Faulcon, 
and the third to Mr. Edmonds M"^ of the Tryall to set saile 
with the first fayre winde for Virginia. 

, On Au-ust 4, 1619, Robert Poole testified to House of Burgesses as 
to SpUlman's conversation with Opochankino, and on that day he was 
degraded. See Journal of Assembly in iV. Y. Hist Sac. Coll, 2d Series, 
voh III. 


A Bag of Gold. 

February 22. " A Box standinge uppon the Table with 
this direccon, ' To Sir Edwin Saudis, the faithfuU Treasurer 
for Virginia; he acquainted them that itt was brought 
unto him by a man of good fashion, who would nether tell 
him his^ name nor from whence hee came ; butt by the 
subscripcon being the same with Letter, he coniectured 
that it might be the 550 li promised them. 

" And it beinge agreed that the Box should be opened, 
ther was a bage of new golde containing the said sum of 

" Whereupon Docter Winstone reportinge that the Co- 
mittee held requisite for the mannaginge thereof, and that 
itt should be wholly in y° charge of Smith's Hundred. Itt 
was desyred by some that the resolucon should be psented 
in writinge at the next Courte, wch, in regard of the Ash- 
Wednesdays sermon, was agreed to be uppon Thursday 

Balloting Box. 

"Hee also signified unto them of the Ballating-boxe 
standinge uppon the table, how itt was intended att first 
another way as might appear by the armes upon it ; but 
now Mr. Holloway had given itt freely to this company, 
that therefore, to gratifie him, they would entertaine him 
into their Societie by giving him a single share of land in 
Virginia, wch being put to the question was ratified unto 
him ; whereuppon Mr. Deputy was entreated to prouide a 
a Case for the better preseruinge of itt. 


DispulG of North and South Colony. 

March 15. " Mr. Tlirer signyfied that the N° Collony 

intendinge to re-plant themselues in Virginia, had peticoned 

to the Kinge and to the Lords for y° obteyninge a new 

pattent, wch the Lords referred unto the Lord Duke & the 

Lord of Arundell. And the Lord Arundell deUuered itt 

to him for to call the Counsell, understanding of some 

differences about fishinge betwixt them, and that if they 

could not determine of it, that then to returne theire 

opinions to their Lo^', wheruppon, accordinglie hauinge 

mett, and, as formerly, disputed the buisines, they could 

not conclude thereof, but dissented the one from the other, 

that therfore, accordinge to his Lo^" comand, the Court 

would please to nominate some to give intelligence how the 

buisines betwixt them doth depend, which the Courte, 

pceiuing none to understand the cause so well as himselfe, 

most ernestly besought him to take the paines, which hee 

beino- very loth and unwillinge, by reason of the exceed- 

inge multitude of the Company's buisines depending uppon 

him, desyred to be excused ; but not prevaylinge, he was 

so ernestly solicited thereunto, hee could not gainesay itt, 

wheruppon they associated unto him Sir John Dauers, Mr. 

Harbert, and Mr. Keightley to repaire thither to-morrow 

morninge att 8 of the clocke. 

Acts of First Colonial Legislative Assembly. 

" The Actes of y^ generall assembly in Virginia beinge 
yett to read together with a I're wch Mr. Yeardley ^ de- 
syred may be read for the cleeringe of his Brother S' 

Ralph Yeardley, a Loudon apothecary. 

174 vmamiA company of london. 

George Yeardley, because it was held inconvenyent to 
spend an ordinary Courte herewith itt was agreed that 
Monday next in the afternoone be apoynted for the pur- 

News from Virginia. Great Sickness. 

March 15. " The Courte beinge sett Mr. Threr made 
knowne y* the George beinge returned from Virginia had 
brought Ir'es certifyinge allso of the greate mortallytie 
wch hath been in Virginia, about 300 of y"" Inhabitants 
hauinge dyed this last yeare and that S'' George Yeardley 
comitted the same error as formerly, that he dyrecteth all 
his letters to the Counsell and not any to the Company : 
But for y^ people sent in the Bona Nona they are aryued 
in health are all liuinge & prosper well applyiuge tliem- 
selues with the rest according to direccon to the buildinge 
of the houses, tillinge of the ground, plantinge Silkgrass : 
Butt forasmuch as the Courte was wholly ignorant of the 
State of the Collony wch by readinge of those letters now 
come they might be enformed of, therefore itt was ernestly 
moued by diuers now ]3resent that they might be published 
to the Courte but sundry of the Counsell thinking itt 
inconuenyent till a full nomber thereof haue first heard 
itt, wch was accounted Seauen together, itt was therefore 
deferred till the next Courte and in the intryme it was 
agreed that the Counsell at two of the clocke should be 
desyred to meet upon Fryday afternoon at two of the 
clocke at Mr. Threr's house, and that Capt. Smith and 
Capt. Maddison there attend to make their greiuances wch 
they pretend done unto them by S'' George Yeardley. 

" A meetinge of Comittees held at S"" Thomas Smiths by 
order from the Virginia Courte 18th March 1619 [0. S.] 


Dispute of South and North Colony about Fishing. 

March 18. "Concerning the difference of fishinge be- 
tweene the South and N" Collony itt pleased Mr. Threr to 
signifie that although hee was very unwillinge by reason 
of the multitude of other buisinesses yett hee and the 
Comittee had intended the Lo. Duke, and the Lo: of 
Arundle and there was for the other side S' Ferd : Gorge 
and others where disputinge the matter before their Lo^^ 
they pleased neither to allow nor disalowe entirely the one 
parte or the other, but sett doone & order as seemed fittest 
to theire Lo^® for the obteyning a copjDy whereof they now 
appoynted the Secretary to repare to S' Clement Edmonds 
and desire itt of him in the name of the Comp^ & ap- 
poynted him to giue his clarke a fee. 

Navigation Proposed. 

" Hee also signified that S"" George Yeardley desyreth of 
them, for the good of the Colony, that a navigacon might 
be sett upp wch would produce good benefit to the planta- 
con, and, to that end, nomynated unto them one Marma- 
duke Rayner,^ who is willinge to goe, if they please to give 
him his passage, wch man being also well knowne to Sir 
Thomas Roe, he gave very good commendacons of him, 
whereuppon it was agreed, uppon the terms menconed, he 
should be sent. 

Acts of Virginia Assemhly of 1619. 

April 8, 1620. " Allso hee signified that hauinge p'used 
the Acts of the generall Assembly, he found them in theire 
greatest pt to be very well and iudicially carryed & pformed 

1 He became a noted colonial sea captain. In the later records of North 
Carolina this name of Marmaduke Reyner is found. Are the Reyners of 
modern days descendants of the old captain ? 


butt because they are to be ratifyed by a great and generall 
Courte, therefore he hath writ unto them that till then 
they cannott be confirmed ; in the meane time hee moued 
that a select Comittee of choyce men might be appoynted 
to drawe them into head and to rijDcn the buisines, that itt 
might be in a readinesse against the said Courte. 

Order relative to South and North Colony. 

May 11. "The Order made by the Lord Duke and y^ 
Lord Arundell uppo referrence unto them in y*^ behalfe of 
the S° and N° Collonies a coppy thereof beinge perused itt 
gaue not satisfaccon to the one CoUony or the other, 
wheruppo forasmuch as the N'* Collony hath peticoned to 
the Kinge for obtayninge a new Pattent, and therein to 
declare the one Collony to haue priuiledges wherein the 
other this Comp*^ findinge themselues greiued therby beinge 
a meanes to debarr them from the ymunities his Ma"^ hath 
freely and gratiously graunted them for matter of fishinge, 
itt is agreed y* a peticon likewise be exhibited to his Ma"*' 
from this Company for the maintenance thereof and that 
some of L°'^'' of y® Pryvie Counsell wch one of this Societie 
be entreated to deliuer itt from them for pformance of 
w'ch the Courte hath requested Mr. Threr who hath 
assented to see it effected. 

Intolerable Fees of John Pory. 

May 15. "The Comittee appoynted for to consider of 
certaine Lands and Ten'ts wch the Court thought fitt to 
be graunted unto Mr. John Porey and thereby to annihi- 
late the intollerable fees granted him by the Gouernor and 
Counsell of Estate there and sent thither for ratificacon 
reported now that hauinge taken the same into considera- 
con they hould it requisite that for the present hee haue 


500 acres of Land allotted for him and his Successors and 
20 men to be planted thereuppon to be transported att the 
Companies charges, Ten to be sent this yeare, and 10 next 
yeare wch hereafter may be enlarged as the Company shall 
see cause, wch being putt to the approbacon of the Court 
was allowed, and confirmed by generall consent. 

General Quarter Court. 

May 17. " Upon the request of some of the generally- 
tie itt was ordered that frome henceforth before the Com- 
pany proceed to the choyce of theire officers the chapter or 
title of eleccon shall allwaies be red before. 

" Post Prandiu. 

" In the beginning of this Afternoone Courte Mr. Threr 
acquainted them of one S' Francis Nethersole who is 
shortly to goe into Bohemia, and because hee was not of 
the Comp^ hee desyed libertie for him to sett amongst them 
this day to understand theire proceedings wch hee doubted 
not hee would reporte of to the best, wch the Courte 
willinglie assented to. 

Message from King relative to Election. 

"Imeadiately after and before they proceeded in any 
buisiness one Mr. Kerkham agent sent from the King pre- 
sented himselfe to the boord and signified to the Courte 
that his Ma"^ understanding of the eleccon of theire Trea- 
surer wch they intended this day to make choyce of, out 
of an especial care and respect hee hath to that plantation 
hath required him to nominate unto them Fower outt of 
wch his pleasure is the Company should make choyce of 
one to be their Treasurer, That was Sir Thomas Smith, Sir 



Thomas Koe, Mr. Alderman Johnson, and Mr. Maurice 
Abbott and noe other. 

Deputies for the Colony. 

Then proceedinge to the Accoustomable manner the 
Courts were red, after which Mr. Threr signified to the 
Courte the Companies former resolucon for entertayment 
of 2 new Officers by the name of 2 Deputies to gouerne 2 
pts of the publique land in Virginia, one was Mr. George 
Thorpe well knowne to the Company for his sufiiciencie 
who is allredie gone and haue departed him to gouerne the 
Colledge Land, wth graunt of 300 Acres perpetually be- 
longinge to that place, and 10 Tenents to be placed up 
the Land. 

Thomas Nuce, Deputy in charge of Company's Land. 

The other of the same worth now present called Mr. 
Thomas Nuce^ touchinge whome it was agreed that he 
should take charge of the Companies Land and Tenents in 
Virginia whatsoeuer and for his entertaymt haue ordered 
that hee and such as shall succeed him shall in that place 
haue 1200 acres of Land sett out belonging to that office 
GOO at Kiquotan now called Elizabeth Cittie, 400 acres at 
Charles Cittie, 100 att Henrico, 100 att James Cittie. 

1 Thomas Nuce settled at Elizabeth City, but soon died. On April 12, 
1621 Sir William Nuce, who had been a planter in Ireland, offered to 
transport before midsummer of 1625, 2,000 persons to Virginia. The 
Company gave him the title of Marshall, but he also only lived a few 
days after his arrival. 


Statement of Sir Edwin Sa7u7j/s in retiring from tlia Treasurer ship. 

The buisiness being thus ordered Mr. Threr according to 
the standing Lawe of the Company before the giiieinge 
upp of his place proceeded to declare unto this Courte the 
State of the Colony together with the supplies in this 
yeare, and the present State of the Treasury, how both 
hee found itt and now should leaue itt. 

Condition of the Colony in Spring of 1618. 

First therefore he declared that it appeared by a Ire 
written from the generall Colony and directed to this Com- 
pany that at the latter arrivall of the ship called the 
Georg^ in Virginia wch was in April 1618 the number of 
men, women and children was about 400, amongst wch 
200 was the most that were able to sett land to husbandry, 
and butt one plough was goinge in all the country wch 
was the fruite of full 12 years labour, and aboue one 
hundred thousand marks expended, disbursed out of the pub- ^A^ < ^ ^ 
lique Treasurie ouer and aboue the some of some 8 and 9000'^ 
debt into wch the Company was brought and besides the 
the great expenses of pticularr aduenturers. The Colony 
being thus weake and the Treasury utterly exhaust Itt 
pleased diuers Lords, Knights, gentlemen and citizens 
(grieued to see this great Action fall to nothinge) to take 
the matter a new in hand and at their priuate charges 
(ioyninge themselves into Societies) whereof the first of ,_ ^ 
any moment now called Southampton Hundred hath had lI ^'^ ' 
320 persons sent unto itt, the next called Martin's Hun- 
dred aboue 200 psons and some other in like sorte so that 
at the cominge away of Captaine Argall at Easter 1619 '^ 
there were persoilns in the Colony neere 1000. 


ArgalVs Malfeasance. 

"Butt as the pryuate plantacon began thus to encrease so 
contrary wise the state of the publique for the setting up 
whereof about 75000'' had been spent grew mto utter con- 
sumption. For whereas the Dej)uty Gouernor att his 
arriuall to that place wch was in or aboute May 1617 hath 
left and deliuered to him by his predisessor a porcon of 
publique Land called the Companies Garden which yeilded 
to them in one yeare about 300'*^ profitt. Seruants 54 im- 
jDloyed in the same Garden, and in Salt works sett upp for 
the service of the Collony, Tenants 81, yeilded a yearly 
C rent of corne & semises, wch rent corne together .with the 
Tribute corne from the Barbarians amounted to aboue 
1200 of our bushells by the yeare, Kine 80, Goats 88. 

"About two yeares after viz, Easter 1619 att the cominge 
i away of the said Deputy Gouernor ^his wholl State of the 
publique was gone and consumed, ther beinge not lefte att 
that time to the Company either the land aforesaid or any 
Tennant, Seruant, Rent or Trybute corne, cowe or salt- 
worke and but six Goates onely, without one penny yeilde 
to the Company for their so great losse, in way of Accompt 
or restitucon to this very day. 

Diminution of Commodities. 

"This is allso further to be knowne that whereas about 2 
or 3 yeares before there had been sent home to the Com- 
pany within compass of 14 monneths, eleuen seuerall 
comodities, they were by this time reduced to two namely 
Tobacco and Sassafrass, and the planting & jDrouiding of 
Corne so utterly neglected that the dearth grew excessiue 
had not the same been spedilie releijfled from home with 
200 quarters of meale sent hither att one time by the 

SHIPS SENT m 1C19. 181 

Magazine, and this was the State of the Colony in Vir- 
ginia in Easter Terme 1619, att wch time hee was chosen 
to their seruice in this place. 

Shipping of the Year 1G19. 

" A note of the Shippinge, Men, and Prouisions sent to 
Virginia by the Treasurer and y^ Company Ann° 1619. 

Sliipps. The Bona Noua of 200 Tunn sent in August 1619 wtli 120 psons. 

Tlie Dutie of 70 Tunn sent in January 1G19 wtli 051 psons. 

The Jonathan of 350 Tunn sent m ffebruary 1619 wtli 200 psons. 

The Tryall of 300 Tunn sent in ffebruary 1619 wth 040 psons 

& 60 kine. 
The ffaulcon of 150 Tunn sent in ffebruary 1619 wth 036 psons 

& 52 kine, 4 mares. 
The Marchant of London 300 Tunn sent in March 1619 wth 200 psons. 
The Swan of Barnstable 100 Tunn sent in March 1619 wth 071 psons. 
The Bona Venture of 240 Tunn sent in April 1620 wth 153 psons. 
Besides these sett out by the Treasuror and Company, there hath 
been sett out by particular Aduenturers for pryuate plantacons. 
The Garland of 250 Tunn sent in June 1619 wth 45 personns. 

who are yet detayned in the Summer Hands. 
A ship of Bristole of 80 Tunn sent in Septembr 1619 wth 45 personns. 

There are also two ships in provddinge, to be shortlie gone for aboute 

800 personns more to be sent by pryuate Aduenturers to Virginia 300 persons. 

Sume of the Persons 1261 

WTiereof in eight ships sett out by the Threr and Company 871 

Gifts of the Benevolent. 

" Ther haue been giuen to y^ Colony this yeare by De- 
uoute Persons these guiftes ensuinge. 

" Guifts. Two Persons unknowne have giuen faire Plate 
& other rich Ornam*" for two Communion Tables, whereof 
one for the Colledge, and the other for the Church of Mrs. 
Mary Robinsons foundinge, who in the fformer yeare by 
her will gaue two hundred pounds towards the foundinge a 
Church in Virginia. 


" Another unknowne pson (together w^^ a goodly letter) 
hath lately sent to the Threr 550^' in gold for the bring- 
inge upp of Children of the Infidles, first in y'^ knowledge 
of God & true religion & next in fitt trades whereby 
honestly to line. 

" Mr. Nicholas Ferrar ^ deceased hath by his will giuen 
300^' for the Colledge in Virginia to be paid when ther 
shel be tenn of the Infidles Children placed in itt, and in 
the meane time fower and Twentie pound by year, to be dis- 
tributed unto three discreet and godlie men in the Colony 
w^^ shall honestly bringe upp three of the Infidles Child- 
ren in Christian Religion, and some good course to line by. 

" An Unknowne Person sent to the Threr the sume of 
Tenn pound for aduancing the plautacon. 

Patents granted. 

" Ther have been Pattents graunted this yeare for Per- 
ticular Plantacons. 

1 To Mr. Wincopp 

2 To Mr. Heath Recorder of London 

3 To Doctor Bohunn 

4 To Mr. Delbridge 

5 To Mr. Tracie 

6 To Mr. Peirce 

7 To Mr. Poyntz 

8 To Mr. Barkley 

9 To Southampton Hundred 

10 To Captain Bargraue 

11 To Captaine Warde 

Who haue under- 
taken to Trans- 
I porte to Virginia 
great multitude of 
people wth store 
of Cattle. 

1 Nicholas Ferrar, Sr., was a prosperous merchant, and in his capacious 
mansion, after April, 1619, the Company usually met. His wife's maiden 
name was Mary Wodenoth, and was probably a relative of Arthur Wode- 


Treasnrer' s Accounts. 

" After wch writing being read Mr. Therer proceded to 
declare unto the Courte the state of his Accompt as well 
for the Companies generall cash as for the cash of the Col- 
ledge and first hee sayeth hee hath receaued no warrant 
for disbursement of their monny but such as he knew to 
be iust and necessarie, that in the booke of Accompt wch 
hee exhibited to the Courte Auditors and approued by 5 
of the 7 Auditors and the other two beinge away hee hath 
sett downe distinctly the pticular reasons as well of his 
seueral receipts as of his seuerall disbursmts the briefe 
whereof ensueth. 

Receipt® for the generall Cash. 

£ s. d. 

Remayninge of the last yeare 0111, 12, 02 

Old debts & duties recouered 1442, 04, 01 

Bills of Aduenture 0037, 10, 00 

Lottery Monny 7000, 00, 00 

For passengers & fraight, wth some cattle 

sould 0809, 08, 08 

Monney lent repayde 20, 00, 00 
Of the Citty for a hundred children sent 

tu Virginia 400, 00, 00 

Monny giuen 0010, 00, 00 

Sumis 9830, 14, 11 

noth, a member of the Company, who prepared a brief narrative of the 
corporation from its organization to its dissolution, which after his death 
was published, in 1651, at London. Deputies John and N. Ferrar were 
sons, and William, Councillor in Virginia. 


Disbursements out of the Generall Cash. 

£, s. d. 

Old debts and duties discharged 3707, 17, 02 

Setting out Ship men and prouisions 6598, 00, 06 

Officers wages 0112, 10, 00 

Petty charges layd out by the Officers 0013, 06, 11 

Sumis 10431, 14, 07 



Receipts for y^ Colledge 2043 02 Hi 

Disbursments for the Colledge 1477 15 05 

Thanks to the Company. 

" Lastly hee concluded with his respectiue thanks, first 
to the Comp* in generall for their Loue in chosinge him, 
and then pticularly to the Lords for their so frequent pre- 
sence to the graceinge of the Courte, and great assistance 
in the buisnes ; To the Officers for their faythfull ioyninge 
with him in the supportinge of his burthen, and againe to 
the Courte in generall for their patience in bearinge with 
his unwilling erro""^ and other naturall infirmities, so de- 
liuering upp his Office togeather with the Sealls hee desyred 
the Courte to p'ceed in Eleccon of there Threr accordinge 
to the message Lately receaued from his Ma*^ and there- 
uppon withdrew himselfe out of Courte. 

A Pinch, about the Privilege of free Election. 

" Uppon well this great and generall Courte found them- 

selues uppon a deliberate consideracon of the matter at an 

. exceedinge pinch, for if they should not doe as the Kinge 


had commanded they might incurre suspicon of defect in 
poynte of duty from wch they protested they were and 
would be free, on the other side if they should proceed 
accordinge to the Lymitts of that message they suffered a 
great breach into their priuyledge of free Eleccon graunted 
to them by his Ma*® Letters Pattents, wch they hold fitt 
rather to lay downe with all dutie and submission att his 
jyf^ties £gg^ i\iQxi to be depryued of there pryueledge, and 
theruppon prusinge the said I'res pattents after longe argu- 
inge and debatinge, itt was concluded by generall ereccon 
of hands, that the eleccon might and should be Adiourned 
to the next Quarter Courte notwithstanding any order 
made by the Company to the contrarie. 

Annual Election Postponed. 

" Wlier uppon as itt manyfestly appeared that his Ma"® 
hadd been much misinformed ^ of the mauaginge of their 
buisness this last yeare, Itt was agreed according to the 
opynion aforesaide that the day of Eleccon should be putt 
off till the next great generall Courte some six weeks hence 

' King James declared that " the Virginia Company was a seminary 
for a seditious Parliament," and he disliked Sandys because he was one 
of the leaders of the people's party in the House of Commons The 
Company were gratified with the promptness with which he had transacted 
their business, and desired to reelect him. The King, however, refused 
to listen to the appeals of Southampton and others, and declared Sandys 
was his " greatest enemy," and that " he could hardly think well of 
whomsoever was his friend." In a furious passion he concluded by say- 
ing, " choose the devil if you will, but not Sir Edwin Sandys." These 
facts are stated in a now rare pamphlet which was published in London, 
1651, with the title " A short Collection of the most remarkable passages 
from the Originall to the Dissolution of the Virginia Company," a copy 
of which is in the Library of Congress. 


in Midsomer Tearme, and till they understood the Kinges 
further pleasure, And in the intrym they humbly entreated 
the Right Honorable y® Lord of Southampton, Vycount 
Doncaster, The Lord Cauendish, y^ Lord Sheffield, S' John 
Dauers, S"" Nicholas Tufton S' Laurence Hide, Mr. Xp"^ 
Brooks, Mr. Gibbes, Mr. Herbert, Mr. Keightley and Mr. 
Cranmer to meet uppon Fryday morninge att Southamp- 
ton House to determine of an humble answere to his Ma*^ 
message and to deliuer to him a true informacon as well 
of the former as of this latter years gouernment of the 
buisnes for Virginia beseechinge allso that his Ma^^^ would 
be pleased not to take from them the pryuiledge of their 
L'res Pattents, but that itt might in their choyce to haue 
free eleccon. 

Sir Edwin Sandijs denies a false Rumor. 

May 23, 1620. Extraordinary Court. " Mr. Threr de- 
syred that before they preceded unto other buisnes hee 
might speake a few words for the cleeringe and iustifyinge 
himselfe ; for whereas itt is dyuulged that he should in- 
cense the Spanish Ambassador^ against Capt. Argoll, as 
allso against the Lo"^ North and Capt. North his brother he 
vowed and protested that he neuer did see the Spanish 
Ambassador butt in the streets, nor neuer sent or receiued 
any message to or from him, neither I're or any other 
writings ; wheruppon in his behalfe itt was said itt was 
impossible to be him, itt beinge sett on foote when he was 

1 Gondomar, the Spanish Ambassador, was in high favor with James. 
On the 15th of the month the King had issued a proclamation against 
Cap. Roger North and associates, who had secretly embarked for the 


in the country, butt that there were so many of these 
Asp'sions that this is no wonder and that if they had their 
right they deserued to receaue condigne punishment for 
rumoringe such falsities. 

Brewster vs. Argall. 

" This day being appoynted by order of Courte was spent 
in hearinge the cause between Captaine Argall and Cap- 
taine Brewster^ touchinge his condempnacon att a Marshalls 
Court in Virginia. 

" The Sentence of the Courte touching Capt. Brewsters 

[The opinion of the Court is too long for insertion, and 
only the conclusion follows.] 

" All which Prouisoes beinge duly weighed and con- 
sidered the said Courte in fine proceded to deliuer their 
resolucon ; that the said p'ceedings against the said Cap- 
tain Edward Brewster were uniust and unlawfull and not 
warrantable either in matter or forme by the Lawes of this 
Realme or by any power or authoritie deryued from his 
Ma^^'^ and that itt did not any way appeare to the said 
Courte that the said Capt. Brewster either by the deeds or 
words whereof hee stood charged att the time of the said 
Tryall by the said Martiall Courte did any waie deserue 
the seuere penaltie of death, and that the manner of said 
tryall by Martiall Law, and in a Martiall Courte, beinge 
in time of soe generall peace and no rebellion or mutyney 
was to be held for unlawfull and of no validitie and conse- 

1 Edward Brewster seems to have remained in London. His name 
appears among members present at meetings of Company in 1G23-24. 
He and Henry Seile, in 1635, were booksellers near the north door of St. 
Paul's, and at a later period was Treasurer of the Stationers' Company. 


quentlie the said Captaine Brewster was to be held as a 
Loyall man and not lawfully condempned, the sentence of 
the said Martiall Court (from wch the said Captaine 
Brewster hath appealed) notwithstandinge. 

The substance of wch opinion and resolucon of the said 
Court beinge first seuerally delivered by the said Lords, 
Knights and others of the said Councell then present, was 
finally approued and ratefied by the said Generall Courte 
by a generall ereccon of hands, no one dissintinge xcept 
Mr. Thomas Wroth. 

Irrejjular Meeting in Sir Thos. Smith's Bedchamber. 

June 26. " Itt appeareth att this Preparatiue Courte 
that a pryuate meetinge of some gents and marchants att 
S"" Thomas Smiths house in his bed chamber uppon Fryday 
the 16th day of June 1620 wher there was no sufficient 
authoritie one Mr. Canninge deliuered a peticon to S"" 
Thomas Smith conteyninge y^ applauding of his former 
gouernment and much scandalinge the proceedinge of y® 
present, the pretended end of his peticon being onely to 
obteyne y*" dissolucon of an iniuncon in a pryuate sute 
graunted Cap* Bargraues against S'' Thomas Smith, Mr. 
Alderman Johnson and himselfe with others wch last 
poynte was only debated proper, two not touched, as diuers 
present now testifie who were there and disliked itt, and 
protest it neuer went by hands, nor generall consent, wch 
occasions this Courte to thinke that, that pryuate buisness 
of Capt. Bargraues was both taken hold of for some other 
purpose, the rather for that itt was in this Courte auowed 
that Canning soone after sayde that the peticon was now 
with the Kinge and a figg for the piper, wch malicious 
kinde of proceedinge to aduance craftylie or impayre falslie 


mens reputacons this Courte doth utterlie condemne and 
thinke fitt to be censured in the next Quarter Courte for 
wch cause Canninge and all that were present at that pry- 
uate meetinge are to be summoned to the next Quarter 

Councillors for Virginia. 

" Uppon notice from S' George Yeardley y* the Councel- 
lors in Virginia must needs be supplyed the Court hath 
now chosen Mr. Thorpe, Mr. Nuse, Mr. Pountis, Mr. 
Tracy, Mr. Dauid Middleton, and Mr. Bluett to be of the 
Councell of Estate in Virginia. 

Election of Earl of Southampton, Treasurer. 

June 28. " A great and generall Quarter Courte held 
in the afternoone at Mr. Ferrar's house. 

" The Earle of Southampton acquainted this Courte that 
himselfe wth the rest of the Lords and gentlemen requested 
thereunto by the last Quarter Courte had presented there 
humble desires^ unto his Ma*'^ for the free elleccon of theire 
Treasurer whereunto his Ma*^^ had most gratiously condi- 
scented signifyinge unto them that it would be pleasinge 
to him they made choyce of such a one as might at all 
times and occasions haue free accesse unto his royall psonn. 
And further declaringe that itt was the mistakeinge of the 
messenger hauinge not receaued his message imeadiately 
from his owne royall mouth to exclud them from the 
libertie of choosinge any butt the fower nominated whome 

1 On the 7th of this month Sandys wrote, from his seat at Northborne 
in Kent, to Buckingham, that he would cheerfully bestow one year more 
in the service of the Virginia Company, and implored him to use his 
influence to " re-patriate the long exiled in his Majesties favour." Sains- 
hury State Papers, p. 24. 


his Ma*^*^® intent was indeed to recomend butt not so as to 
barr the Comp*^ from the choyse of any other. 

" Wheruppon the whole Courte rendred to his Ma*^^® all 
humble thanks and ordered that by writinge itt should be 
signified unto his Ma"°. 

Then Mr. Herbert deliuered unto the Company that 
whereas by some distraction and dissensions in the Com- 
pany the buisness much suffered in the reputacon and 
otherwise they should now tliinke uppon some person of 
such worth and authoritie as might giue full remedie there- 
unto ; wch since it could not be pformed by the late Trer 
a man of that greate stabillitie and sufficiencie together 
with his industrie and integritie as of his ranke there could 
not be found any to passe him, there was now left noe hope 
except itt might please some of those Honorable Psonages 
then present to vouchsaffe to accept of the place, who by 
adicon of Nobillitie might effect that wch others by meere 
habillytie could not doe. 

" Wch mocon beinge exceedinglie approued the whole 
Courte imeadiately with much ioy and applause nominated 
the Earle of Southampton^ with much ernestness beseech- 
inge his Lo^ that for the redeeminge of this Noble Planta- 
con and Company from the mines that seerae to hange 
ouer itt he would vouchsaffe to accept of the place of Threr. 

Southampton's Accejytance. 

" Wch it pleased him after some small pause in fine 
to doe in very noble manner out of the worthie loue 

1 The Earl of Southampton, soon after the dissolution of the Company, 
assumed the command of an English Regiment in the Low Countries. 
In November, 1624, he and one of his sons died of disease near Bergen- 
op-zoom. Their bodies were sent to England, and on Innocent's Day 
interred in Tichfield. 


and affeccon that he bare to the Plantacon. And the 
Courte in testimonial! of their bounden thankfuUnesse and 
of the great honoure and respect they ought him, did re- 
solue to surcease the ballatinge box, and without nomina- 
con of any other by ereccon of hands his LoP was chosen 
Trer, and tooke his Oath. Wch done his Lo^ desyred the 
Comp^ that they would all putt on the same mindes wth 
wch hee hadd accepted that place. 

John Ferrar reelected Deputy. 

" For place of Deputie this Courte nominated Mr. Fer- 
rar, Mr. Keightley and Mr. Cranmer, who beinge putt to 
the' Ballatinge Box Mr. Ferrar was chosen by pluraUtie of 
Balles who took his Oth.^ 

E. CoUingioood elected Secretary/. 

" Mr. Fotherby the Secretary offered to giue upp his 
place in the due performance whereof the Company 
provinge him to haue been some way faulty hee was dis- 
charged and Mr. Collingwood recommended by my Lord of 
Warwick and S"" John Dauers, chosen in his place. 

And in regard that in a day of so great ioy none should 
goe away grieued, the Courte condiscended ouer and aboue 
the 5''^due to Mr. Fotherbie for his wages to bestow uppon 
him 10^^ 

1 John Ferrar, son of Nicholas, was a merchant, and lived with his 
mother after she was a widow, and the Company continued to meet at 
Mrs Ferrar's house. A daughter of John was christened Virginia, and 
became an accomplished writer. She was the authoress of a treatise on ^ 
silk-worms reprinted in the Force Historical Tracts, and in 1651 was 
published " A Mapp of Virginia, discovered to y^ Hills, and its latt : 
from 35 de-. and ^ neer Florida, to 41 deg. bounds of New England. 
Domina Virginia Farrar, Collegit. And sold by L Stephenson at y« 
Sunne below Ludgate 1651." The father died in 1657, and the daughter 
in 1687. 


MAY 3, 1631. 

Cape Cod Fishery. 

ULY 7, 1620. " Sir John Dauers and S^ Thomas 

Roe are appoynted comittees to drawe a generall 

I're to his Ma"*" to preserue the fishinge at Cape 

Codd free and indifferent to both the Collonies 

as was intended in the first Pattent and being drawne to 

present the same at the next Courte uppon Wednesday. 

John Wood proposes to build Ships in Virginia. 

July 12. "John Wood in his Peticon desyred that the 
Courte would please in regard hee is resolued to iijhabite 
in Virginia to graunt him 8 shares in Elizabeth River for 
8 shares of land formerly graunted unto him because there 
is Timber fittinge for his turne, and water sufficient to 
launch such ships as shal be there built for the use and 
seruice of the Company. 

The Courte theruppon hath ordered and agreed to re- 
comend the consideracon of the premises unto the Go- 
uenor and Counsell of Virginia to deale therin as they shall 
thinke fitt. 


Mr. Woodall scandalizes the Company's late Book.i 

July 18. " Reporte beinge made unto this Courte that 
Mr. Woodall had scandalized the booke lately sett out by 
his Ma^'*"' Councell for Virginia by a most disgracefull 
Tearme, in callyng itt a lybell, with wch hee being charged 
sought by a rediculous interpretacon of that worde accord- 
inge to the sense itt bears in Latin in some sorte to exten- 
uate and excuse. 

" Butt for that itt was further allso laide to his charge 
that hee had irapudentlie cast a foule aspercon uppon S'' 
Edwin Sandys knight^ in sayinge hee did butt usurpe the 
Authoritie of the Courte : The Company were therewith 
exceedingly moued and theruppon did forthwith order that 
the examinacon of both his disgracefull scandalls should 

I The book is printed in the third volume of Force's Historical Tracts. 
The title is 


of the State of 







By his Maiesties Counseh, for 
Virginia. 22 Junij 1630. 


Printed by T. S. 1620. 


be referred to the censure of the next Quarter Courte. 
And in the meaue time he should remayne suspended from 
the Courte. 

Isle op Wight Plantation. 

Nov. 3. " Uppon the humble peticon of S"" Richard 
Worslup, knight Baronett, Nathaniel Basse gent/ John 
Hobson gentleman, Antho. Oleuan, Richard Wiseman, 
Robert Newland, Robert Gyner and William Wellis, asso- 
ciate and fellow aduenturers with Capt. Christopher Lawne 
deceased the Courte was pleased to graunt unto them and 
their heires a confirmacon of theire Old Pattent, with all 
manner of pryviledges therin conteyned, and that the said 
plantacon shall from henceforth be called the lie of Wights 
Plantacon, prouided that the heirs of the said Christopher 
Lawne be no way preiudiced therby : And in regard of 
the late Mortalitie of the persons transported heretofore by 
the said Captaine Lawne the Court hath likewise giuen 
them till Midsomer 1625 to make up the nomber of these 
said psonns menconed in their former Pattents.^ 

1 Basse had a plantation known as Basse's Choice. In 1630 he was a 
member of the Council of Yirginia, and in March, 1631-2, he was 
authorized to go to New England, and oifer the inhabitants a settlement 
on Delaware Bay. 

2 Lawn's Creek in Isle of Wight county, preserves the name of the 
first planter. On November 21, 1621, Edward Bennett, a London mer- 
chant, obtained a patent and made a settlement here. His associates in 
the adventure were Robert and Richard Bennett, Thomas Ayres, Thomas 
and Richard Wiseman. The first settlers were Puritans, and they may 
have built the Smithfield church still standing. Their first minister was 
the Rev. Wm. Bennett, who preached for the plantation until 1623. It 
is probable that to this settlement the Rev. Henry Jacob of London 
came in 1624, and soon died. The plantation was sometimes called 
Warrosquoyak, and sometimes Edward Bennett's. 


Differences between South and North Colony. 
Nov. 4, 1620. " Wheruppon S"" Edwin Sandys did inti- 
mate unto the Courte y* hee was informed that S"" Ferdi- 
nando Gorges had pcnred unto himselfe and others a new 
Patent (now passed his Ma*^ great seale) wherein certain 
words were conveyed that did not only contradict a former 
order of the Lids of the Counsell, which their Lps, after a 
full hearinge of the allegacons on both sides, and sett down 
in June last, by wch this company had yielded some of 
their right to doe them good, and therby promised to fish 
onely for their necessities and transportation of people ; 
* * * butt, by this new graunt, the Aduenturers of the 
Northern CoUony had allso utterlie excluded those of the 
Sotherne from fishinge att all uppon that coaste, without 
their leaue and lycense first sought and obtayned, which was 
contrary and manifestly repugnant to that comunitie and 
freedomc wch his Ma^^ by the first Patent, as is conceived, 
hath been pleased to graunt unto either Collony : 

"The Courte, therfore, seeinge no reason why they 
should loose their former right graunted unto them by the 
first Patent, the Sea allso beinge to all as free and comon 
as the Ayre, and fyndinge less reason why S' Ferdinando 
Gorges should now appropriate and make a monopolie of 
yt fishinge, which hath allreadie cost this company 6,000'' : 
and wasUie only means left (now the Lotteries were allmost 
spent and other supply began to faile) to enable them to 
transport their people and susteyne their plantacon withall : 
did, wth a generall consent, resolue forthwith to peticon 
to his Ma*^' for a redresse herein, and to pray a further de- 
claracon of his gracious pleasure and intention concern- 
inge that clause of prohibition and restrainte inserted in 


the New Pattent, whereby they were defeated of their 
libertie of fishinge. Whereuppon they appointed these 
comittees to drawe the said peticon, and to make itt, in sub- 
stance, agreeable to those three poynts Sir Edwin Sandys 
had dehuered in open Courte. And for that Sir Thomas 
Roe said that hee was the next day to goe to the court, 
they desired him to psent the same to his Ma*^. 

Daniel Gookin offers to transport Cattle. 

Nov. 13. " Whereas uppon a former treatie had with 
Mr. Wood in the behalfe of Mr. Gookin ^ for transportacon 
of Cattle outt of Ireland into Virginia an offer was made 
unto him after the rate of 10'^^ a Co we uppon certificate of 
their safe Landinge, prouided they were fayre and Lardge 
Cattle and of our English breed. The said Mr. Wood 
hath now returned his fynall aunswere that hee cannott 
entertaine the bargaine under xif '^ the Cowe without ex- 
ceedinge greate losse. 

1 Gookin, a native of Kent, England, had been living at or near Cork, 
Ireland. On November 22, 1621, he arrived in Virginia, and settled at 
Newport News. He became one of the most prominent men of the 

His son Daniel, in 1642, then about thirty years of age, was Pre- 
sident of the County Court of Upper Norfolk, and was a member of the 
Puritan church there established. In 1644 he went to Massachusetts, 
and became the friend of Eliot and Superintendent of Indian Affairs. 
He died in March, 1687, and his tombstone is still visible at Cambridge. 
Chief Justice Sewall, who visited him while dying, entered in his journal 
the following brief but expressive tribute, " a right good man." 

His descendants are numerous, and one, J. Wingate Thornton, an accu- 
rate and accomplished historical writer, published a sketch of Gookin. 


Donation op a Map and Books. 

Nov. 15. "After the Acts of the former Courte were 
read a straunger stept in presentiiige a Mapp of S' Walter 
^^ Kawhghes conta;yninge a Descripcon of Guiana, and wth the 
same fower great books as the Guifte of one unto the Com- 
pany that desyred his name might not be made knowne, 
whereof one booke was a treatise of St. Augustine of the 
Citty of God transLated into English, the other three 
greate Volumes wer the works of Mr. Perkins ^ newlie cor- 
rected and amended, wch books the Donor desyred they 
might be sent to the CoUedge in Virginia there to remayne 
in saftie to the use of the coUegiates thereafter, and not 
^ ^^ ' suffered at any time to be sent abroade or used in the 
meane while, For wch so worthy a guifte my Lord of 
Southampton desyred the p'tie that presented them to 
returne deserued thanks from himselfe and the rest of the 
6 ■ Company to him that had so kindly bestowed them. 

1 William Perkins, D.D., had been a lecturer in Cambridge University, 
and was a Puritan. K.ev. John Robjnson, of Leyden, had been one of 
his pupils, and used his Catechism in Holland. Gov. Leverett and asso- 
ciates, of Massachusetts, in a letter to Robert Boyle, the philosopher, say : 

'■ If Mr. Perkins and those good old Puritans in King Edward the 
Sixth, and Q. Elizabeth's time did in their principles of religion teach 
evil doctrine, then may we be rendered such." 

In the Manuscript Council Book of Maryland Colony there is an in- 
ventory of goods of Claiborne seized at Palmer's Island at the mouth of 
the Susquehanna, the site of an academy projected by Palmer, an English 
scholar of wealth, and among the articles mentioned is " One folio volume 
of Mr. Perkins's works." May this not have been one of the three sent 
over to Virginia? 


Contrast for Cattle. 

" Thomas Wood beinge now willinge (though he con- 
ceiued itt a hard bargaine) to accept of the offer of the 
former Courte, wch was that for euerie Cowe of our English 
breed transported by him or his Agents safe and sound to 
Virginia hee should be paide Eleuen pounds and for euery 
Shee Goate three pounds some shillings uppon certificate 
att his returne from the Gouernor there ; hee moued there- 
fore now that hee might have some assurance under the 
Companies Seale for the payment of said monny : Wher- 
uppon the Courte ordered that accordinge to his request hee 
should haue his securitie confirmed under the Seale of the 
Company for wch they gaue order to Mr. Deputy to see it 

North and South Colony. 

Nov. 13, 1620. "S"" Thomas Roe att the request of 
the Company hauinge deliuered theire peticon to his Ma"° 
made now a reporte of his highness's gracious answere 
thereunto, who said that if anything were passed in New 
England Patent that might be preiudiciall to them of 
the Southerne Collony, it was surreptitiously donn, 
and without his knowledge, and that he had bin 
abused therby by those that pretended otherwise unto him. 
Itt pleased his Ma"*" to expres as much, in effect, to my 
Lord of Southampton, with many other gracious words, in 
commendacon of this Plantacon, and signified further that 
his Ma*^ forthwith gaue commandment to my Lord Chann- 
cellor, then present, that if this new patent Avere not 
sealed for to forbeare the Seale, and if it were sealed and 
not delivered, that they should keep it in hand till they 
were better informed. His Lop further signified that uppon 


Saturday last they had been wth my Lord Chauncellor 
about it, when were present the Duke of Lenox, the Earle 
of Arundell, Mr. Secretary, and some others, who, after a 
full hearinge of y^ allegacons on both sides, did order that 
the patent should be deliuered to be perused by some of 
the Southerne Collony, who are to make reporte of what 
excepcons they finde thereunto against the next meetinge.^ 

Proposed Settlement in North Carolina. 

Nov. 15, 1 620. " Some of the Summer Hands Company 
moued that the Courte would be pleased, as well in respect 
that the Barmudas was sould unto them for a farr greater 
quantitie of land then they nowe finde itt to be, as allso 
for the better enablinge of them to subsiste and to procure 
and maynteyne a mutuall dependance and traffique here- 
after, to graunt and confirme unto them, in this great and 
generall Quarter Courte, a good porcon of Land in Virginia, 
on that side of the Coaste as lyes nearest unto them, either 
att Ronoque southerly, or else whereat shall be most con- 
venyent for them, not being yett inhabited ; wch request 
the Courte taking into consideracon, did order and agree 
that accordinge to the number of their shares, (being in all 
400 or thereabouts), they should haue for euery share 100 
acres of land in Virginia, and 50 acres for every person 
that shall be transported thither. * * * '^' The 
Courte ordered that a Ire should be written to the Go- 

1 On the 15th Southampton said that he had that afternoon stated to 
the Piivy Council their exceptions to the New Enghmd patent, and that 
it had been ordered that for the present the patent of Gorges should be 
sequestered, and that the Virginia Company would have their privilege 
of fishing. 


vernor to sett out their bounds and lymitts where they 
shall like best to seat themselves, so as they may not be 
preiudicial to any other plantacon ther alredy. 

PtEAsoN OF Soui Hampton's Absence. 

Dec. 13. " Sir Edwin Sandys signified unto this Courte 
that my Lo : of Southampton uppon some important occa- 
sions would not be present this afternoone but had all that 
parte of the day for many houers together taken extra- 
ordinary paines in a buisness that concerned them very 
much wherof they should afterward haue a good Account 
as soon as they hadd further pceeded therein, and brought 
the same to some better issue. 

Arrival of Ships in Virginia. 

" Hee further signified that they had receaued certificate 
of the safie Arivall of all their Ships sent the last Springe, 
as namely the Frauncis, Bona Venture with all their peo- 
ple saue one, the Tryall and Faulcon with all theire Pas- 
sengers, the London Marchant with all theirs, the Duty 
wth all saue one. And soe likewise the Swann of Barnsta- 
ble, butt the Jonathan in her tedious passage of 200 had 
lost 16 : Soe that by this last supply they had landed in 
Virginia, in all well neare the number of 800 persons for 
well greate blessinge (with the loss of soe fewe) hee 
rendred unto the almightie all possible thanks. 

Dr. Bohnn, Physician-General op Virginia. 

" Mr. Doctor Bohnne hauinge desyred y* hee might be 
a Phisition generall for the Company accordinge to such 


condlcons as were formerly sett downe by way of Articles 
unto which place they had allotted five hundred acres of 
Land and twenty Tennants to be placed theruppon att 
the Companies charge. The Courte was pleased to accept 
of his humble sute for that place & imployment and ther- 
fore ordered that he should haue tenn men prouided forth- 
with to goe now with him, and tenn more should be sent 
in this next Springe wch should be transported att the 
Companies charge and furnished as other of the Tennants 
be, prouided that xxtie Tennants being thereon established 
and made good for one whole year after their Landinge, 
the said Doctor Bohune do after if any of them dye coue- 
nant to supply and mayntayne from time to time uppon 
the said Land : And att his decease or otherwise sur- 
render of the said place, leaue the like number of men and 
stocke of cattle as are by order of Courte to the saide office 
allowed and appoynted. 

Captain Roger Smith returns to Virginia. 

" Capt. Roger Smith ^ being desirous to goe this present 
voyage to Virginia, moued that he might haue the charge 
of some of those people that were now sent to be the Com- 
panies Tenants. And further that the Company would 
please to bestowe uppon him some meanes to make him 
the better fitt for the said voyadge : Forasmuch therefore 
as the said Captaine Smith was recommended to be a 
gentleman very sufficient for that imployment and in re- 
gard of his good experience already (hauinge been hereto- 

1 For several years a prominent member of Council of Virginia. His 
plantation was at Charles city. 


fore in Virginia about some three years) might thereby doe 
the Company great seruice : The Cornet was pleased for 
his better encouragement to giue him 30'^ freely to furnish 
him with necessaries and ordered that he should haue the 
comand of 50 persons now transported to be Tenants upon 
the Companies Lands. 

A YOUNG Scholar. 

^ " The said Captaine Smith further moued in the behalfe 
of a younge Scholler desirous to goe with him this present 
voyadge that he might be admitted preacher to the people 
now sent. The Courte hereupon agreed to giue him a text 
to preach upon about a fortnight hence in the handling 
whereof if they found him a sufficient scholler, he should 
be entertayned accordingly. 

Captain Madison an old Planter. 

" Capt. Maddison ^ hauing been heretofore twelue yeares 
together in Virginia, and there imployed by S' Thomas 
Dale (the Gouernor) in discovering- the said Countrye and 
seuerall Eiuers therein did nowe peticon that he might 
retourne to the Colony and proceed in a further discouering 
of comodious places for habitacon within the Land. 

" The Court hereupon ordered that he should be treated 
with by the Comittees both for the manner of his discouery 
as also to make it to appeare what the charge thereof will 
be unto the Company. 

I Isaac Madison, an influential man. 


Expiration of Gov. Yearbley's Commission. 
Jan. 29, 1620-1. " My Lord of Southampton signified 
unto this Court that forasmuch as the time of S^ George 
Yeardley's comission of Gouernorshipp would ere long be 
expired, beinge to continue but till November next : . 

" It was therefore expedient nowe at this Quarter Court 
(in respect of the shortnes of the time) either to confirme 
S' George Yeardley againe in his said office by a newe 
eleccon : or to proceed to the choice of some other fitt per- 
son of quahtie to succeed him who might be prepared to 
o-oe to Virginia by July next at the farthest wch later 
course his Lo^ did the rather encline unto because he had 
receaued aduertisement of S^ George Yeardley importumng 
desire to relinquish his said office at the expiracon of his 
said comission, in reguards he had soe long a time togeather 
(now allmost three yeares) attended wholly upon the pub- 
lique seruice. 

Nomination of Sir Francis Wyatt. 
" His Lo^' therefore proposed unto the Company a gentle- 
man recomended unto him for his many good parts (namely 
S^ Francis Wyatt) who was well reputed of, both in respect 
of his parentage, good education, integritie of life, and 
faire fortunes (being his Father's eldest sonne) as also for 
his sufficiency otherwise, being deemed every way without 
exception fittinge for this place who was likewise desirous 
to take this charge upon him if the Company would please 
to accept of his willingness to doe them seruice. 

" Notwithstanding his Lo>' praied the Company not to 
neglect the nominacon of some other if they could thinke 
of °any one or more sufficient persons of quality that would 


willingly undergoe this waightie burden of gouernment 
who might togeather with this gentleman aforenamed 
stand for the eleccon at the next Quarter Courte. 

Election op Governor Wyatt.^ 

Jan. 31. "After these businesses were thus ordered, 
and the Court nowe full, my Lord of Southampton moued 
that if the Company so pleased they would now goe to the 
eleccon of their newe Gouernor of Virginia who was to 
succeed S' George Yeardley after the expiration of his said 
comission (wch is to determine in Nouemb. next,) S"" 
George Yeardley hauing then allso a desire to release and 
disburden himself of the said place of Gouernm*. 

" The Court therefore proceeded hauing agreed to a pre- 
sent eleccon my Lo : prayed the Company that if accord- 
ing to his former admonition they had bethought themselves 
of any person of quality fitting for so eminent a place that 
would be willing to undertake the due managing thereof 
that they would now please to nominate the man, who 

1 George, the father of Gov. Wyatt, was at this time living in Ireland, 
and his wife was a daughter of Sir Thomas Finch. He died in 1624. 
His daughter Eleanora married Sir John Finch. His son Francis, 
Governor of Virginia, married Margai-et, a daughter of Samuel Sandys. 
In a letter of Chamberlain to Carleton on June 19, 1623, there is refer- 
ence to a relative in these words : 

<' An unruly son of the Lady Finch's, whom she sent to Virginia to be 
tamed within five or six days after his return fell into a quarrel with the 
watch, where he was so hurt, he died the next morning." 

Gov. Wyatt arrived in Virginia in October, 1621, and left in the year 
1626 on account of his private afi'airs in England, his father being dead. 
In 1639 he was made Governor the second time, but was soon succeeded 
by Berkeley. He died August 24, 1644, and was buried at Bexley in 
Kent. ^ 


might be put to the ballating box togeather with Sir Fran- 
cis'^ Wyate who was formerly proposed and recomended 
unto them. But no other person being so much named 
and for that this gentleman S' Francis Wyate was both 
recommended and so well knowne to be euery way sufficient 
to take this charge upon him, he was in this great and 
generall Quarter Courte with the whole consent and appro- 
bacon of the same (saue two only whose balles were found 
in the negation box,) chosen to be the successiue Gouernor 
of Virginia after S"^ George Yeardley : 

Wyatt returns Thanks. - 

^' Wch place S' Francis Wyate hauing wth much thank- 
fulness accepted of, and with a free acknowledgement of 
his affecon and resolucon constantly bent to doe the Com- 
pany the best seruice he could in that place : It was like- 
wise moued that for his better encouragement herein the 
Court would be pleased to bestowe another fauor upon him 
by admitting him one of his Ma^« Counsell here for Vir- 
ginia, wch mocon was thought very reasonable, and was 
generally assented unto, as being willing in point of honor 
to enhable and encourage him, the better to undertake the 
said place of gouermt upon him. 

Draft for a new Patent. 

" An extraordinary Court held for Virginia 22 Februarij 

1620 [21]. 

" S"" Edwin Sandys signified unto the Company that my 
Lord of Southampton by reason of this buissy time of Par- 
liam* could not be spared to be here at this present meetinge ; 


and therefore desired to be excused, he further acquainted 
them that the occasion of their being assembled this day was 
to let them knowe, how carefull he had been, in the drawing 
up of their newe Patent, now presented to be read unto 
them, wherein he reported what extraordinary paines he 
had taken, as well to amend in this new draft, the defects 
he had noted in all the former Patents, also to supply out 
of them, and other presidents of like nature, what he in 
his own experience and iudgement had obserued to be 
necessary for them, as also he had not omitted to inserte 
therein, such necessary cautions, as would hereafter serue 
and saue them harmles against any Proclamation or Patent, 
that might (as heretofore) be procured to their preiudice, 
the same being once passed under the Seale and confirmed 
by Act of Parhament. 

The Title op GtOvernor substituted for Treasurer. 

" But before the reading of this newe Patent, he desired 
to acquainte them with some alteracons he had made 
therein, * * * espeacially in two points namely in the 
head, and in the body thereof First in the head. That 
whereas in the former Patents their cheife officer was called 
by the name of Treasurer he had in this giuen him a more 
eminent title, by styling him their Gouernor : because the 
name Treasurer seemed to imply an inferior officer an one 
that was to be an Accountant. 

The Name of New England. 

" And because the Northerne Colony=Aduenturers, had 
to their Territories giuen the name of New-England, he 


thought fitt that theirs did still retaine the ould name of 
Virghiia, for by this meanes all Virginia should be theirs, 
for the body of this Patent, as namely in their new Incor- 
poracon he said, he had likewise differed from the former 
in two points: first in the materiall parte thereof, by 
abrideging the same, and restrayning it onely to such Ad- 
uenturers and Planters as haue at least one share of Land 
of 200 acres in Virginia : and for the formall parte thereof 
as well to auoide the infinity of names by reason of the 
multitude of Aduenturers (encreasing still more and more,) 
as for that many were already named in a former Patent 
he therefore thought good in this to name only the Lords 
of the higher howse of Parliament, and add thereunto these 
words comprehending in effect all the rest: viz : togeather 
with all other Aduenturers and Planters in Virginia ; and 
some other necessary alteracons and addicons he said he . 
had made in some other parte of the said Patent, wch in 
the readinge he would notifie unto them desiringe their 
attention to the readinge thereof, and to giue their best 
advise about the same. 

Edward Bennett's Treatise. 

April 12, 1621. " S*" Edwin Sandys moued that in re- 
gards Mr. Edward Bennett^ a cittizen had so well deserved 
of this Company by a treatise wch he made touching the 
inconuenience that the importacon of Tobacco out of 
Spaine had brought into this land ; and by his often attend- 
ance upon the Comittees of the Lower howse of Comons 

1 An influential London merchant. Established a plantation opposite 
Jamestown. Uncle of Richard Bennett, so prominent in the early his- 
tory of Virginia and Maryland. 


about the same (who were well inclyned to aiford their 
best assistance for prohibiting ^ the bringing of Spanish 
Tobacco) that therefore he might haue the fauor to be 
admitted a free member of the Company wch mocon was 
thought very reasonable and being putt to the question 
was generally assented unto and confirmed by ereccon of 

George Sandys proposed as Treasurer of the Colony. 

^' It pleased my Lo : of Southampton to propose a gentle- 
man well knowne unto them all as a man very fitt to take 
that charge upon him namely Mr. George Sandys^ who 

1 Brother of Sir Edwin, a poet and scholar. Before he left England 
he published a translation of five books of Ovid, to which Drayton 
alludes in a rhyming letter to Sandys after he reached Virginia : 

" And worthy George, by industry and use, 
Let's see, what lines Virginia will produce; 
Go on with Ovid, as you have begun 
With the first five books ; let y'r numbers run 
Glib as the former so shall it live long. 
And do much honor to the English tongue." 

A second edition of the translation of the first five books was published 
in 1621, in 16mo form, pp. 141, with introduction. The work completed 
while in Virginia was published in 1626, at London, in folio, with the 
title " Ovid's Metamorphosis, Englished, Mythologized, and Bepresented 
in figures. An Essay to the Translation of Virgil's JEneis. By G. S.," 
and in 1640 another illustrated and annotated edition, folio, was published 
in London. 

Sandys lived to be an aged man, and died at the house of his niece, 
the wife of Gov. Wyatt, at Bcxley in Kent. In the Register of Bexley 
Abbey is the following entry : 

" Georgius Sandys, Poetarum Anglorum sui soeculi facile princeps, 
sepultus fuit Martii 7, stilo Anglic. An. Dom. 1643." 


indeed was generally so well reputed of, for his approued 
fidelity sufficiency and integrity : as they conceaued a fitter 
man could not be chosen for that place and thereupon 
agreed to his eleccon; referring him to the former comit- 
tees to be further treated and concluded with concerning 
the same. 

Capt. John Smith offers an Amendment. 

"Hereupon, and upon declaracon of the state of the 
newe Patent made by S'" Edwyn Sandys, Mr. Smith took 
occasion, first to ptest that his desyne in that he had to 
speake, reflected not either upon y*^ person of the nowe 
Gouerno' in Virginia, or upon the new Gouernor here m 
Court, or upon any other in particular but for the generall 
hono-- and welfare of the plantation was to entreat of my 
Lord of Southampton and the Counsell that in the said 
Patent (if no such addicon of power were therein inserted) 
authority might be giuen to the quarter Courte to question 
the Gouernor of Virginia here in England if the ill merritt 
of his gouernment should so deserue, and to punish him 
by fyne or otherwise. For he could not but declare that 
not publicum but priuatum comodum did seeme to haue 
been their ends of effecting that place ; for his priuate 
Letters (whereof he had at tymes receaued aboue forty) 
did as he thought truely informe. That no direccons or 
instruccons (wch with singler wisedome dilligence and 
care) had from tyme to tyme issued from the Treasurer 
and Counsell here, had been put by them in execucon to 
the loss of many mens Hues there, to the hinderance and 
scandall of the whole Plantacon, and to the disesteeme 
and slightinge of the persons of the Treasurer and Coun- 


sell here, and the authoritie of the whole Court, wch he 
only presumed to comend to their consideracons. 

Reply to Smith's Motion. 

" But thereunto answeare was made y* it was the opinion 
of Mr. Attorney Generall upon a smaler matter in their 
newe Patent than this was (namely the punishment of La- 
bourors, artificers and such like offendors) that he feared, it 
would haue much adoe to passe with such a clause the 
howse of Parliament. And besides they had already 
power in the said Patent to displace the Gouernor upon iust 
occasions : wch was conceaued to be as much as would be 
graunted unto them by Acte of Parliament touching that 

Captain John Smith proposes to compile a History. 

April 12, 1621. " Mr. Smith moued, that for so much as 
y*' lottaries were now suspended, which hitherto had con- 
tinued the reall and substantiall food, by which Virginia 
hath been nourished, that insteade thereof shee might be 
now preserued by divulginge faire and good report as shee 
and her worthy undertakers did well deserve, declaring 
that it could not but much advance the Plantacon in the 
popular opinion of the CoiiToii Subjects to haue a faire and 
perspicuous history, compiled of that Country, from her first 
discouery to this day : and to have the memory and fame 
of many of their worthies, though they be dead, to Hue 
and be transmitted to all posteritie; as namely : S"" Thomas 
Dale, S"" George Somers, S"" Walter Rawleigh, the Lo De- 
la-warr, S"" Thomas Gates, and diuers others whereunto 
were it not for suspition of flattery, he would wish also the 
name of many her other worthies yet liuinge and some of 


them now present in Court, might have also their hono^^*" 
and good deseruinge comended to eternall thankfullness, 
for that our inabilities had as yet no trewer coyne, where- 
with to recompense their paines and merritt ; affirmmg 
also, that the best now planted parts of America under 
the Spanish goverment nor their Annals or histories 
of those times, in their like age of ours, nowe 12 years 
old Virginia afforded better matter of relacon than Vir- 
ginia hath donn: and doth. With what effect such a 
generall history, (deduced to the life to this yeare), would 
worke throughout the Kingdome, with the generall and 
comon subject, may be gathered by the little pamph- 
letts or declaracons lately printed: And besides fewe 
succeedinge yeares would soon consume the lives of many 
whose Uvinge memories yet retayned much, and devour 
those letters and intelligences which yet remaine in loose 
and neglected papers: for which boldness, in mouinge 
hereof, he prayed his LoP' pardon, ledd hereunto upon the 
request of some fellows of the Generallity.^ 

1 The records of the Company do not show that any action was taken 
upon the proposition, although Smith, in his General Bistort/ published 
in 1624, says it was accepted. 

Captain Smith's General History was published after the Quo War- 
ranto was issued against the Virginia Company, and it is evident that he 
wrote in the interest of their opponents. There is no evidence beyond 
his statement that the letters which he publishes as written to the Com- 
pany were ever received by them. 

His writings are those of a gascon and beggar. He seemed to be 
always in the attitude of one craving recognition or remuneration for 
alleged services, and Fuller's description of his writings and character ia 
the'' For^^tes of England, is probably not far from the truth. He is, 
however, worthy of being remembered, as an early explorer of the At- 
lantic coast Massachusetts has already a monument to his memory. 


Election of William Nuce, Marshal oe Virginia. 

May 2, 1621. '' Proceedinge to the eleccon of Marshall 
for somuch as Captaine William Newce was onely pro- 
posed to stand to the eleccon and to be put to the Ballat- 
ing Box, was by the same chosen wth a generall consent 
(saue of three balls onely found in the negatiue boxe) to 
be Marshall of Virginia. 

Will not her example provoke Virginia and Maryland to the same good 
work, as the first map of the James River and Chesapeake Bay was pre- 
pared for Smith's True Relation ? 

■ ■■■■ ■M »»»»n«»i«->Tnrr»»^»»»«»»nw»wii«Trgw»TTOT«««lM««llllwiB«» 



T a great and generall Quarter Courte held for 
Virginia on Wednesday the second of May, 
" After those buisnesses were thus ordered 
and the day farr spent, it was moued that seeing my Lo. of 
Southampton was not yet come, they might notwithstand- 
ing proceed to the eleccon of their newe Treasurer for the 
yeare ensuinge : wch mocon being agreed unto and my 
Lo : of Southampton onely proposed for eleccon his Lo^ was 
forthwith ballated according to order and thereby chosen 
with a full and generall consent of the whole Courte (as 
appeared by the Balls there being not one against y*) to 
continue and hold the said place of Treasurer for the ensu- 
ing yeare.^ 

I A few weeks after this election the Treasurer, Earl of Southampton, 
and his predecessor, Sir Edwin Sandys, were committed by order of the 
King. Two persons were deputed to search Sir Edwin's study, which 
done they required his wife's keys to search her cabinet and boxes, 
which she readily obeyed, and told the parties that she wished his majesty 
had a key to unlock her husband's heart, that his majesty might see 
there was not anything therein but loyalty. 

The Earl of Southampton's answer to the commissioners sent from the 
King was, that if his offense was criminal he was to answer in the Star 


Norwood recommended as Surveyor. 

" Mr. Norwood ^ being recomended by Captain Tucker 
for his sufficiency in surueying of Lands and one desirous 
to goe ouer to Virginia, upon that was now chosen for that 
place and referred to the former Comittee to treat with him 
concerning some allowances to be giuen unto him. 

Capt. John Smith asks for a Reward. 

" Captain John Smith ^ in his peticon showeth that for 
so much as he hath not onely aduentured money for the 
good of the Plantacon and twise built James Towne and 

Chamber; if capital, at the King's Bench; if of lesser moment, at the 
Council table ; and further declared, that for his own part he was resolved 
not to do any thing which might prejudice the privilege and freedom of 
a member of Parliament. In about a month they were released. Court 
and Times of James First, pp. 259, 267. 

1 Richard Norwood had surveyed the Somers Islands when they were 
first settled. He did not go to Virginia. In a letter written from Somers 
Islands in May, 1645, he says he had taught school there for thirty 
years, and that he had at that time twenty scholars. He was the pioneer 
English teacher in North America. 

2 Captain Smith was a talented and adventurous man, but made re- 
markable allegations. He arrived at Jamestown May 13, 1607, and was 
sent home in the fall of 1609. He adventured £9 in the Company. His 
request for aid was never reported on by the committee. Good old Ful- 
ler in his Worthies of England, says: " From the Turks in Europe he 
passed to the pagans in America, where such his perils, preservations, 
dangers, deliverances, they seem to most men above belief, to some be- 
yond truth. * * * It soundeth much to the diminution of his deeds 
that he alone is the herald to publish and proclaim them." He died 
June 21, 1631. 


fower other particular Plantacons as he alledgeth but for 
that he discouered the country and releaued the Colony 
willingly three yeares with that wch he gott from the 
Sauages wth great perill and hazard of his life : that there- 
fore in considerac'on hereof the Company would please to 
reward him either out of the Treasury here, or out of the 
proffitsof the generalUty in Virginia: Touching wch re- 
quest the Court hath referred him to the Comittees ap- 
pointed for rewarding of men upon merrits. 

Election of Secretary or the Colony. 
June 11. " But touchinge the Secretary of State there 
that now is namely (Mr. Porey) it remained to know their 
Pleasure whether they would continue him still in his said 
office or make a change. Whereupon it was signified that 
for so much as Mr. Porey had not caried himself well m the 
said place to the contentmt of the Company it was con- 
ceaued to be the generall purpose of the court to change 
him for a better so nere as they could and therefore de- 
sired some other might be nominated unto them. Where- 
uppon Mr. Deputy gave notice of 4 worthie gentlemen 
that had been recommended unto him for that place, all of 
them well-bred, sufficientlie well quallifyed, so as the mean- 
est of them seemed more worthie of a better place, not in 
respect of the quallitie thereof, but in respect of the enter- 
taynement belonging thereunto; so as it was his griefe 
that they had not places for them all, but must be forced 
to dismisse three of them. 

" The names of the said gentlemen were these : Mr. 
Paramore, Mr. Dauison, Mr. Smith, and Mr. Waterhouse, 
who hath been recomended by Sir John Dauers for three 


things especially, namely, his honestie, religion, and siiffi- 
ciencie, for wch he would undertake, uppon that knowledge 
they had of him, this gentleman, Mr. Waterhouse, should 
make good to their full satisfaceon. 

" Butt itt was signified that they all fower having been 
comended to the Lord of Southampton, his lordship was 
so nobly mynded toward this company as to leave them to 
their free libertie of choyce of any of them by an orderly 
eleccon, and therefore wished they would, in the mean 
time, make some further enquirie against the next Courte. 

June 13. "Mr. Deputy moued to knowe their pleasure 
whether they would haue Mr. Poreys comission renued or the 
place to be supplyed by another. Wheruppon the Company 
declaring their desire to make a change, there were fower 
gentlemen proposed for the said place, * * * being all 
of them recomended, by worthy psonns, for their honestie 
sufficiencie, and experience in Secretary affaires, but be- 
cause no more butt three could stand for the eleccon, itt 
was putt to the question wch three they would have 
nominated for that purpose, whereuppon Mr. Smith was 
dismissed, and the other three appoynted to stand for the 
eleccon, who beinge all three putt to the Ballating Box, 
choise was made of Mr. Dauison, he havinge the major p't 
of Balls, who, beinge called in to take notice that the Secre- 
taries place was fallen uppon him, did declare his thankful 
acknowledgm't unto the Company of their fauour towards 
him, promising his best to answer their expectacon of him. 

An Apothecary offers himself. 

" It was signified unto the Courte that an Apothecary 
offered to transporte himself and his wife att his own charge 


to Virginia if the Company would please to giue them 
their transporte of two children, the one beinge under the 
age of eight, and the other, a youth of good yeares : wch 
offer the Courte did verie well like as in respecte of the 
great want of men of his profession, and beinge putt to 
the question did agree therunto ; Prouided that the said 
Apothecary att his cominge ouer did exercise his skill and 
practise in that profession w'ch itt should b(3 lawfuU and 
free for him to doe, and to that end should be recomended 
to the Gouernor. 

Ministers for the Colony. 

" Intelhgence beinge giuen of two Mynisters y* offered 
themselues to goe for Virginia the Court referred them to 
be treated and concluded with by ye Comittees. 

And for so much as S' Fraunces Wyat desyred hee might 
make choyse of one that was willinge to goe with him y® 
Courte assented therunto. 

Heir of Richard Hakluyt. 

" Mr. Edward Hackluite assigned two Shares of 25^^ 
Aduenture to one John More being next heire to Richard 
Hackluite his Mher deceased, desyred itt might pass the 
approbacon of this Courte which was accordingly graunted 
they findinge his said Father uppon search of the booke no 
way indebted to the Company for y"" same.^ 

The son of Hakluyt is said to have been a spendthrift. 



•Letter from Daniel Gookin of Cork, Ireland. 

July 2. " Mr. Deputy signified of a letter he had re- 
ceaued from Mr. Gookin of Ireland who desyred y* a clause 
in the contract between him and the Company touchinge 
Cattle wch hee had undertaken to transport to Virginia 
after the rate of eleuen pounds the Heiffer and Shee Goats 
at o'"^ 10' a peece for wch he might take any Comodities in 
Virginia at such prizes as the Company here had sett downe 
hee desired y^ those words might bee more cleerly ex- 
playned. And to this effect Mr. Deputy signified y* they 
had drawne a Letter in the name of the Counsell and Com- 
pany unto Mr. Gookin declaringe that theire intent and 
meanhige was itt should be Lawfull and free for him and 
his factors to Trade barter and sell all such Comodities hee 
shall carry thither att such rates and prizes as he shall 
thinke good and for his Cattle shall receiue either of the 
Gouernor or other pryuate persons any of the comodities 
there growinge att such prizes as hee cann agree. And lastly 
y* accordinge to Mr. Gookin s' request in his said I're they 
had promised y* hee should haue a Pattent for a pticular 
Plantation as Large as y* graunted to S"" William Newce 
and should allso haue liberty to take 100 hoggs out of the 
Forest uppon condicon that he repay the said nomber 
againe unto the Company within the tearme of seauen 
yeares : Prouided that hee use them for breed and in- 
crease and not for present slaughter. 

Letter to the Colonial Authorities prepared. 

" And further to this effect they had allso drawn a letter 
to the Gouernor and Counsell of State in Virginia both 


well beinge now psented and read the Court did very well 
approue of and gaue order that the Seale of the Counsell 
should be affixed to that addressed to Mr. Gookin, and that 
some of y^ Counsell should signe the other to the Counsell 
of Virginia. 

Arrival op the Bona Nova. 
July 10. " Mr. Deputie signified, that the occasion of 
warninge the Courte this present day was to acquaint them 
with the aryuall of the Bona Noua rydinge att Anchor 
neer the He of Wight, by wch Ship hauing receiued diuers 
letters, and one generall Letter from the Counsell of State 
in Virginia directed to the Company here hee thought fitt 
to imparte itt unto them att this meetinge and hereuppon 
prayed they would attend y^ hearinge of them wch being 
read the pticular relacons gaue the Company verie great 
content to hear that some Staple Comodities, as Vines, and 
Silke, began to be planted accordinge to the Companies 
former directions and that they prospered with so good 

Treaty with the Indians. 

" As allso to heare of the confirmacon of a Peace, and of 
a League wth the Indian Kinge wherby not onely a great 
trade and comerce with them heareafter for Corne and 
other Comodities is like to ensue and good means allso for 
conuerting them to Christianytie and to draw them to Hue 
amongst our people. 

Discoveries in Hudson and Delaware Rivers and Elsewhere. 

" Butt fitt occasions likewise seem now to be offered of 
further Discoueries up into the Countrie both for the find- 


inge out of the South Sea and certaine Mynes menconed 
in the said letters will undoubtedlie conduce to the great 
honor and enlargment of the generall Plantacon in a 
short time ; Ther was also read unto the Company a 
relacon of three seuerall Voyadges made this last Sumer, 
one to y^ Southward to Roanocke made by Mr. Marmaduk 
Rayner. A second by Ensigne Sauadge in the great Bay 
wherein is a relacon of a great Trade of Furrs by French- 
men ; A. Third Mr. Dirmers Discoueries from Cape Charles 
to Cape Codd up Delawarr Riuer, and Hudson's Riuer 
beinge butt 20 or 30 leagues from our Plantacon and within 
our lymits, in which Riuers were found diuers Ships of 
Amsterdam and Home who yearly had there a great and 
rich Trade for Furrs wch haue moued the Gouernor and 
Counsell of State in Virginia ernestly to solicite and inuite 
the Company to undertake soe certaine and gainfull a 

" Mr. Chamberlyn likewise informed the Comp* of the 
great Trade that the Frenchmen had in those pts of Vir- 
ginia to their infinite gaine wch might with far less charge 
and greater ease be undertaken by the Company. 

Kev. Mr. Bolton. 

"" Uppon the Right Honorable the Ea : of Southampton's 
recommendacons of Mr. Bolton ^ Minister for his honestie 
and sufficiencie in Learninge and to undertake the care 
and charge of the Mynistry, The Company have been 

1 Rev. Mr. Bolton was sent to Elizabeth City, but subsequently assigned 
to the plantations on the Eastern Shore, now Accomac and Northampton 


pleased to entertaine him for their Mynister in some vacant 
place in Virginia and have therfore referred him to the 
Comittee to be treated and concluded with touchmge his 
allowance and seated where they shall thinke fitt and most 
conuenyent for him. 

Dr. Pott Physician in place of Bohun. 
July 16. "For so much as the Phisicons place to the 
Company was now become voyde by reason of the untimely 
death of Dr. Bohune^ slaine in the fight wth two Spanish 
Ships of Warr the 19th of March last; Doctor Gulstone^ 
did now take occasion to recomend unto the Company for the 
said place one Mr. Potts a M' of Artes and as hee afirmed 
well practised in Chirurgerie and Phisique, and expert allso 
in distillinge of waters and that hee had many other 
ingenious deuises, soe as he supposed his seruice would 
be of great use unto the Colony in Virginia, but prayed y 
wheras Doctor Bohune was tyed by his Contract to supply 
such of his Tenants as should dy after the first year att 
his owne charge, that Mr. Potts ^ might be released of that 

J, 1 Dr. BohuQ died encouraging the crew to fight. 

2 Theodore Gulston was the son of Rev. Wm. Gulston. Educated at 

-^ Oxford. Not only a good physician but versed in classical and theologi- 
cal lore He died in 1632, and bequeathed £200 to the College of Phy- 
sicians for an anatomy lectureship. The Gulstonian lecture is still de- 

A 3 John Pott had a peculiar career in Virginia. For several years he 

~ was a Councillor, and in 1629, when Lord Baltimore visited Virginia, 
was Governor. Upon the arrival the next year of his successor, the rough 
Harvey he was charged by his enemies with pardoning Edward Walks of 

. Archee's Hope, a willful murderer, and guilty of other crimes. Harvey 
confined him to Harrope, his plantation, seven miles from James City, 


couenant being too strict and ouerhard as hee supposed ; 
butt it was aunswered itt was not in the power of any 
other butt a Quarter Courte to reverse or alter the same 
but should allwaies finde the Company in all things verie 
reasonable to all well deseruinge men, and therefor if Mr. 
Potts would accept of the place uj)pon the same condieons 
as Dr. Bohune did he should be entertayned and for his 
better content should be specially recommended to the 
Gouernor to be well accommodated and should have a 
Chest of Phisique of 20'^ charge unto the Company, and 
all things thereunto apptayninge together with lO'*^ in 
Books of Phisique well should allwaies belonge unto the 
Company, wch Chest of Phisique and Books Doctor Gul- 
stone was desyred to buy. And seeinge he intended to 
carry ouer with him his wife, a man and a mayde they 
should haue him transported free, and if one or more 
Chirurgions could be gott they likewise should haue their 
passage freed, wch Condieons Mr. Potts hauing accepted of 
was referred to the Comittees to be further treated & con- 
cluded with. 

Rev. Hant Wyatt. 

"It was signified that S"" Frauncis Wyatts brother^ 
beinge a M'" of Arts and a good diuine and very willinge 

now Williamsburgli, and confiscated his property. His wife Elizabeth 
proceeded to England to appeal against the wrongs done her husband. 
The Commissioners who examined the case reported that the condemning 
of Dr. Pott upon superficial hearing, for felony, was very rigorous. The 
King, on July 25, 1631, pardoned him, especially as he was " the only 
physician in the Colony." 

1 Rev. Hant Wyatt returned with his brother to England, and became 
Vicar of Bexley in Kent. Opposed to the retrograde tendencies of 


to goe with him this present Voyadge, might be enter- 
tayned and phaced as Mynister ouer his people, and haue 
the same allowance towards the furnishinge of himsclfe 
with necessaries as others haue hadd, and that his wife 
mi^ht haue her transporte freed, wch mocon was thought 
veSe reasonable, and ordered by ereccon of hands that hee 
should be entertayned and haue the place hee desyred, and 
the hke allowance of monny graunted unto Mr. Bolton 
lately entertayned. 

The Company's Letter to Colonial Authorities, dated July 
25, 1621, sent in the Ship George. 

" After our harty comendations, we receiued yo'r letters 
by the Bona Nova so lately, as we haue not had leasure 
to peruse them, being opressed with a multitude of bussi- 
ness, that night and day employed us. We shall therefore 
by this letter only touch some principall points, reserving 
ourselves to a time of more leasure fully to deliberate, and 
give you answer, referringe you for a supply of matters 
therein omitted to our generall instructions, which we 
desire you diligently to peruse and punctually to observe. 
Wee have sent you S"" Francis Wyatt to be the future Go- 
vernor, to whom we require all respect and obedience be 
given. ' Mr. Sandys we have ellected our Treasurer, and 
stated his place and given him authority to cause all our 

Archbishop Laud he was arraigned before the High Commission. He 
left some of his children in Virginia, one of whom may have been Ralph 
Wyatt, who married a widow of Capt. William Button, a gentleman who 
for public services had received from the Privy Council of England a 
lar-e ^rant of land, on both sides of the river Appomatox. 


orders concerning staple commodities to be putt in execu- 
tion. Mr. Davison is chosen by the (Quarter Court for 
Secretary. Their dispatches have wholy possest us for a 
while, and we hope that by the addition of such able 
ministers, you will be enabled to performe what we par- 
ticularly enjoyne. The want of able officers haue been 
heretofore pleaded for the cause our directions have been 
no better observed. Wee desire that these gentlemen may 
be well accommodated at theire landinge, and theire peo- 

Preacliers sent. 

pie well lodged. Wee have likewise sent you two sufficient 
preachers, Mr. Hant Wyatt, who is to be preacher to the 
Governor's Tenants ; and Mr. Bolton, whom we have con- 
signed to Elizabetli Citty to inhabit with Capt. Tho. Nuce 
to whom we recomend him, understanding that Mr. Stock- 

> Phi/sicians and Surgeons. 

ton^ is otherwise stated. And for supply of the Physi- 
tion's place, we have sent you Doctor Pott, with two 
Chirurgions and a chest of Phisicke and Chirurgery -, not 
doubtinge but youe will entertaine and supplie them well 
at his landinge, with all necessaries and according unto 
the Companies promise, give him helpe for the speedy 
buildinge of a house imediately upon his arrivall. 

Claiborne chosen Surveyor. 

" The twenty tenants formerly sent must be delivered 
him, and the land belonging to his place sett out, and what 

1 Rev. Mr. Stockton succeeded Rev. Win. Wickham at Henrico and 
Bermuda Hundred. 


are wantinge of the number of twenty are to be supplied 
out of the Companye's Tenants, which wee doubt not but 
may be done with theire very good sattisfaction. Itt is 
our express will that the Tenants belonging to every office, 
be fixed to his certaine place uppon the lands sett out for 
itt, for which Mr. Cleyburne is chosen to be our Surveyor,^ 
who at the Companies very great charge is sett out, as by 
his condition of agreement you may perceive. Great hath 
been the care of the Company to sattisfy your desires that 
they have spared for no paines nor charge. 

" The pubUque lands sett out, and that which belongs 
to publique persons, his next employment must be to sett 
out lands belonging to p'ticular Plantations, and then that 
of private persons : for the publique he is to do by vertue 
of his place without other than the former salarie, neither 
may he exceed when he is employed by any private per- 
sons the rate of vi^ the day, which some must be duly paid 
him in good and valuable comodities. And for that we 
find by experience that notwithstandinge our strict comands 
to the contrary divers shipps sett out for monthly wages 

1 Claiborne was one of the most enterprising men of the Colony. At 
an early period he planted on Kent Island in the Chesapeake, and had a 
post at Palmer's Isle, at the mouth of the Susquehanna. In 1629 he led 
an expedition against Candayack, no-.v West Point, at mouth of Pa- 
munkey, and for his services to the Colony he was granted a tract ot land 
at this point. He was much maligned by the officers of Lord Baltimore 
because he would not relinquish his rights as a citizen of Virginia. l.d- 
mundson, a Quaker preacher, in 1673 met him at a religious meeting, 
and was invited to call at his house. Soon after this he must have died, 
for the preacher in his journal says : "He was a solid, wise man, 
received the truth, and died in the same, leaving two Friends his 
executors." His descendants are numerous in the south and southwest 
of the United States. 


make long and unnecessary stales, to our excessive charge, 
and that for want of due care shipps come so unsufficiently 
provided, as we have reason to feare that some of them 
have foundred in the sea, and also to prevent the fraud 
and abuse of M'rs of Shipps and mariners in detention of 
goods sent to the Planters, and in selling theire goods at 

John Pountis Vice Admiral. 

excessive rates; Therefore we have ellected Mr. John 
Pountis, our Vice Admirall provisionally for one year till 
by a Quarter Court his place may be confirmed unto him 
and stated with Tenants, being assured that by his suffi- 
ciencie, integrity and Industrie these and many such grow- 
ing mischiefes will be prevented. 

A Private Magazine. 

" With great difficulty we have erected a private maga- 
zine, men being most unwilling to be drawn to subscrip- 
tion to l^e paid in smoke : if therefore youe expect for the 
future any such place it must be your principall care, the 
Cape Merchant be not constrained to vent his comodities 
att any sett price, and in particular not to be enforced to 
take Tobacco at any certain rate ; and that you be aiding 
as well to this as to the former Magazine for the returne 
of debts we require that the Market be open for all men, 
that the charitable intentions of the adventurers be not 
abused and turned into private gaine : Therefore we 
desire you to have principally in your care, that a strict 
Proclamation be sett out to prohibitt such engrossing of 
comodities, and forestalling the market, thereby to vent it 
to the poor people at excessive rates, such oppression and 
grindinge of the poor wee in our hearte abhorr, and require 


you severely to punishe, assuring youe nothing can be 
more pleasing unto us, than the exemplarie punishment of 
such Monsters as devoure their brethren by this wicked 
and barbarous course, especially if such wickednesse should 
be exercised by men in place or authority. 

Mr. Berlcley to estahUsh Iron Works. 

" The advancement of the Iron Workes we esteeme to 
be most necessarie, by perfecting whereof we esteeme the 
Plantation is gainer: we therefore require all possible 
assistance be given to Mr. Berkley^ now sent and all 
furtherance to his ship especially good entertainment at 
their landinge, that they may be well lodged and cherished 
with such comfortable help as the place will afford, which 
we will thankfully requite to any that shall advance this 
our much desired worke. And here againe we renew our 
former comendations of Mr. Lapworth, and that in a very 
effective manner. 

Dutchmen sent to erect Saw-mills. 

" In the next place we comend unto your care our Saw 
Mills, a work of such importance as it deserves your 
speciall furtherance and therefore we desire the Dutchmen 
sent for the fabricke of them may be extraordinarily well 
used and carefully provided of apparell out of the new 
Magazine, which we would have paid for by the Com- 
panies Tobacco ; as for such other necessaries as they want 
especially, butt which cannot now be shipped for want of 
time and tunnage, wee have desired S"" Francis Wyat to 

1 John Berkeley, formerly of Beverstone Castle, Gloucester, a gentle- 
man of an honorable family. Waterhouse. 


supply them with, which he shall be repaid, and thus sup- 
plied wee hope they will be encouraged to bring that so 
much desired worke to perfection. 

Indian Civilization. 

"We exceedingly approve the course in taking in of 
Indian families as beinge a great meanes to reduce that 
nation to civility, and to the imbracing of our Christian 
reUgion, the blessed end wee have proposed to ourselves in 
this Plantation, and we doubt not of your vigilancie that 
you be not thus entrapped, nor that the Savadge have by 
this meanes to surprize you. And to you Mr. Thorpe we 
will freely confesse that both your letters and endeavours 
are most acceptable to us : the entering upon those staple 
comodities of wine and silk wee highly comend and assure 
you it is the Companies care to reward your merit, which 
debt they will discharge if either the Clergie heare supply 
our Stocke, or a return from the College Tenants shall 
enable us. In the meane while they desire you to proceed 
in these noble courses assuring you of all love and respect. 

White Earth. 

" The vessels of earth you sent wee have not yett 
received, when tryall is made you shall heare from us. 
And we pray you all in generall that such extraordinary 
oare or earth as you find you send us over in plentie, for 
that which was sent by your Capt. Nuce was in so small 
proportion as we hardly could make any triall thereof; we 
conceive it to be Terra Lemnia and it is exceeding good 
for the flux, youe shall therefore do well to bring it into 
use in the Colony : we desire youe Captain Newce therefore 
to send us over three or foure Tunne of the said white earth. 


"And we desire youe the Governor and Counsell to 
haue an especiall care that no greater proportion thereof 
than we from time to time direct youe be brought over, for 
if it be brought over in greater quantity it will not pay the 
freight. This comodity is intended to be apropriated to 
the^generall Company and if any benefitt shall be received 
thereby itt shall be employed in fortification and other 
publique and pious worke for the advancement of the 

Captain Nuce. 

" And for that the Comp'y of youe Capt. Neuce as great 
hopes as of any of their publique instruments, and haue 
by your letters received great satisfaction therefore they 
have in bountie added to your former proportion of Land 
300 acres which is to be appropriated to the place for ever : 
for manuringe which they by Quarter Courte have ordered 
that youe shall have ten men sent over by next yeare, 
only they desire that you will be so provided of corn and 
other necessaries as they may be only at the charge of 
transport, armes, apparrell and workinge tooles; and not 
for vittualls, because the stocke is exhausted. We have 
sent a shipp of cattell from Ireland whereof we desire that 
Capt. Newce first be served with his promised number. 

Trade in Hudson and Delaware Rivers. 

" The hopes youe have putt the Company in of a trade 
of flfurs to be had in Hudson's and De La Ware river, have 
made many private adventurers of great worth and well 
affected to the Plantation to sett out a shipp to that par- 
ticular end, to which we desire youe to give all possible 
furtherance. The voiadges and discoveries already made 


within the Land, as also upon the sea coast we highly 
comend : and desire a constant course be held therein : for 
in that consists the very life of the Plantation. 

Guest Houses. 

"We comend to your care especially the building of 
Guest-houses, which we strictly charge youe to be brought 
to perfection : we conceive that bussiness would have been 
effected, if half so much care and time had been taken to 
do it, as hath been spent in giving reasons to the contrary. 
The plea of impossibility we admitt nott ; the discontent 
we assume ourselves is rather a bug-beare, than an essen- 
tiall cause of forbearance ; the spoile of our goods by fre- 
quent removes is a weake allegation : but that it should 
be a more regular kind of killinge of men (as some have 
been pleased to write) we deeme strange error of judgment. 

Abuse of Company' s Tenants. 

" We cannot conceale from youe, that it is heare reported 
that contrary to the public faith given, not the sicke but 
the ablest men are lett out to hire and theire provisions 
converted to private uses. And where it is pretended this 
planting them with old planters is for theire health, they 
are so unmercifully used that it is the greatest cause of 
our tennant's discontent ; and though we hope this is not 
in all parts true, yet we cannot conceive such unwilling- 
ness to proceed in this worke should they not have some 
other grounds than is alledged : lett it therefore be your 
worke at the first general session of the Counsell to effect 
this business, and it shall be our care to provide for the 
well orderinge and furnishinge of them. 


Capt. Wm. Norton and the Glass Works. 

" We comend unto you Capt. Wm. Norton who is now 
sett out by the general Company and many private adven- 
turers for the erectinge of a Glass worke ; we desire he 
may be planted with his gauge in the Guest house that 
Lieutenant Whittakers hath erected us, there to reside till 
he hath found a convenient place to erect his furnace, in 
the choice whereof we desire you to give him your best 
assistance, and especially have a care to seat him neare 
some well inhabited place, that neither his Gauge be sub- 
ject to surprize, nor the comoditie of glasse and beads be 
vilified by too common a sale to the Indians. 

Lieut. Whituker commended. 

" And we cannot forbear to deliver unto you the good 
opinion the company have received of Lieutenant Whit- 
takers for the good accompt given by him of his charge, 
but especially of his obedience to them directing in erect- 
inge a guest house for reward whereof they have confided 
unto him that which Sir George Yeardley last yeare gave 
him, and promised two servants to be imported next yeare 
thereby to encourage him and others to proceed in vertue, 
and continue in their obedience, whereof the Company and 
ourselves much like their arguments and discourses. 

Minister for the College Tenants. 

" We are in hopes to send to the College tennants a very 
sufficient Minister, and we. desire youe Mr. Thorpe that a 
house may be ready for him and good provision to entertaine 
him; and the like course may be held in all the plantations. 


Directions to Deputies Thorpe and Nuce. 

" We desire you Mr. Thorpe and Mr. Newce to be care- 
full of the presenting and that the moyity be equally 
divided and returned unto the Company : for the stock of 
the Company is utterly exhausted. We have sent you a 
Comission for the Counsell wherein we inserted the names 
of all such as our intent is shall be of the Counsell. 

Oppressive Fees forhiddcn. 

" Againe we comend unto you that the people be not 
oppressed, esppecially that you limitt the fees of officers, 
and among them those of the Provost Marshalls and Jay- 
lors whereof we have daily great complaints. We require 
that such matters as shall be laid uppon delinquents be 
hereafter registred and an accompt yearly be given of 
those that be tended and in what publique worke (to 
which we only restraine them) they are employed. 

"In generall we comend to your care all such bussiness 
as by particular letters concerninge private men we have 
formerly and now againe recomended unto you. And in 
particular from you the Governor wee expect a good 
accompt of the great trust we have reposed in you, hoping 
you will not faile in the least, but deliver upp to your suc- 
cessor Sir Francis Wyatt or in case he dy to such a one as 
by the Counsell in Virginia shall be chosen at the expira- 
tion of your Comission, the comand of the Colony in good 
and flourishing estate, and much better in condition than 
when you found itt wherein you shall do an acceptable 
thinge to us and glorious to yourself In the meanwhile 
we expect the performance of some remarkable service 


whereof you have meditated long, and have put us in hope 
you will effect before the period of your Government. 

" And even so we comend you and all the rest to the 
protection of the Almightie. 

Your very lovinge frends, 
" Signed by the Ea. of Southampton Mr. Dep. Ferrar 
Sir Edwin Sandis Mr. Nich T^nn 
Do^ Anthony Mr. Gibbs 

Do^ Gulston Mr. Wrote 

D"* Winston Mr. Wroth. 

" London, this 25th of 

July, 1621." . 

Company's Letter of August 21, 1621, sent in the Marmaduke. 
" After our harty comendation. In our last letter sent 
you by the George we promise a full and sattisfactory 
answer to all your propositions, but by reason of the absence 
of the most part of the Counsell, as also that bussiness 
dayly beyond our expectation infinitely increaseth, we are 
constrained only to touch upon some few particulars, 
reserving ourselves for more oportune tyme when with a 
clear judgment we may fully deliver our minde to you. 
You shall receive by the hande of Mr. Leech now bound 
for Virginia in the Marmaduke, a copy of our last letter 
together with a dupUcate of the Instructions and Comissions 
sent by the new Governor, Sir Francis Wyatt, by whose 
happy arrivall we hope you are informed what care we 
have taken to give you full sattisfaction in most or all 
of your demands, and therefore we will hope for of the 
like respective information of our desires from you. There 
are gone and is going from here many shipps for Virginia, 


and we canot but apprehend with great griefe the suf- 
ferings of these multitudes at their first landing, for want 
of Guest Houses wherein they might have a while shelter 
themselves from the injuries of the air in the cold season, 
which omission and defect we hope and very earnestly 
desire you will supply by a courteous and Christian enter- 
tainment of them in your owne houses, till they may con- 
veniently provide themselves, and that against the next 
yeare, you will have erected in the foure several Boroughs, 
as many Guest houses to relieve these great numbers. 

A Widow and Eleven Maids for Wives. 

» "We send you in this shipp one widdow and eleven maids 
for wives for the people in Virginia ; there hath been 
especiall care had in the choise of them for there hath not 
any one of them beene received but uppon good comenda- 
tions, as by a noat herewith sent you may perceive : we 
pray you all therefore in generall to take them into your 
care, and most especially we recommend them to you Mr. 
Pountes that at their first landinge they may be housed, 
lodged and provided for of diet till they be marryed for 
such was the hast of sendinge them away, as that straight- 
ned with time, we had no meanes to putt provisions aboard, 
which defect shalbe supplied by the Magazine shipp ; and 
in case they cannot be presently marryed we desire they 
may be putt to several householders that have wives till 
they can be provided of husbands. There are neare fiftie 
more which are shortly to come, we sent by our most 
honoble Lord William the Earle of Southampton and certain 
worthy gentlemen who taking into there consideration, that 
the Plantation can never flourish till families be planted and 
the respect of wives and children fix the people in the soyle; 


therefore have given this faire beginninge for the reim- 
bursinge of whose charges, itt is ordered that every man 
that marries them give 120'^ waight of best leafe Tobacco 
for each of them, and in case any of them dye that pro- 
portion must be advanced to make it upp to uppon those that 
survive; and this certainly is sett downe for that the 
price sett upon the boyes sent last yeare beinge 20^'' which 
was so much money out of purse here, there was returned 
66^^ of Tobacco only, and that of the worst and basest, so 
that fraight and shrinkage reconed together with the 
baseness of the Comoditie there was not one half returned, 
which injury the Company is sensible of as they demand 
restitution, which accordingly must be had of them that 
took uppon them the dispose of them the rather that no 
man may mistake himself, in accomptinge Tobacco to be cur- 
rant 3s sterling contrary to exp/esse orders. And though 
we are desirouse that marriadge be free according to the law 
of nature, yett under vow not have those maids deterred 
and married to servants but only to such freemen or 
tenants as have meanes to maintaine them : we pray you 
therefore to be fathers to them in this bussiness not 
enforcing them to marrie against their wills ; neither send 
we them to be servants but in case of extremitie, for we 
would have their condition so much better as multitudes 
may be allured thereby to come unto you ; and you may 
assure such men as marry those women that the first 
servants sent over by the Company shall be consigned to 
them, it being our intent to preserve families and proper 
married men before single persons : The tobacco that shall 
be due uppon the marriadge of these maides we desire Mr. 
Pountis to receive and return by the first, as also the little 
quantities of Pitzarn Rock and Piece of Oare the copie of 


whose bill is here returned. To conclude the Company 
for some weighty reasons too long to relate have ordered 
that no man marrying these women expect the proportion 
of land usually allotted for each head, which to avoid 
clamor or troble hereafter you shall do well to give them 
notice of. 

"In the next place we commend unto care Capt W°* 
Norton and his Italians together with the rest of his Com- 
pany to whom we pray you to be helpful at his landing, 
to convey his People and goods of to the guest house of 
Lieutenant Whitakers : It is the only body in this shipp 
that the Generall company hath interest in and therefore 
we will expect the best helpe and advice especially in 
making choice of a healthfull place to plant himself in 
neare to the l3est inhabited towne, either in Charles Citty 
or Henerico, but by no meanes lower than James Cittie ; 
nor remote from people : and in case Capt Norton shall dy 
we pray you Mr George Sandys to undertake the oversight 
of the worke : and if he should faile by any misaccident 
(which God forbid) we entreat you Mr George Thorpe and 
Mr. Jo. Pountis to take it into your care and in your absence 
to appoint some trustie person to ouste that bussiness for 
which the generall Company and private adventurers will 
be very thankfull to you. 

" The making of beads is one of Capt Nortons chiefe em- 
ployments which being the mony you trade with the 
natives we would by no meanes have through to much 
abundance vilified, or the Virginians at all permitted to see 
or understand the manufacture of them : we pray you 
therefore seriously to consider what proportion of beads 
can be vented and therewith not abated and intimate the 
proportion to Capt Norton and his Italians and certifie the 


same to us in your next letter, that accordingly we may 
limitt the quantitie that shall from time to time be made: 

Indian Corn Improperly Substituted. 

" Upon sight of Capt. Nortons invoice you shall procure 
what living provisions he is sett out with, which in case of 
his failing we desire may be carefully preserved for his 
people. And here we cannot hide from you an informa- 
tion that is lately given us that sutch provisions as we 
send with new men were taken from them and Indian 
corne given them instead thereof, the extreame labor of 
beating thereof being no small disheartening to the newcom- 
ers, and the suddaine change of dyett is affirmed confidently 
to be the cause of the flux in our men to an irreparable loss. 
We desire you the whole body of the Counsell to take 
care that those abiisses be reformed for the future. 

Lusty Youths for Martinis Hundred. 

" The adventurers of Martin's Hundred intend to pro- 
ceed in theire plantation, they haue sent twelve lustie 
youths in this Shipp which supplie they will secure with 
a quota of fourty more in the Magazine Shipp very 
suddainly to followe theire governor Mr. Harwood is en- 
gaged to acquaint you with his instructions, to whom we 
pray you according give your best assistance. 

Boats not to he sent among Indians for Corn. 

^" Wee cannot butt condemne the use that is made your 
boats that we only employed in trading in the bay for corne 
almost every letter tells of that trade which we only approve 
you are of neccessitie, for we contend it would be much 
better for the plantation and more honorable for you and 


o'r nation that the naturalls should come for their pro- 
visions to you, than you to begg your bread of them. We 
shall wth a great deale more content heare of store houses 
full of corne of your own growth, than your shallop laden 
with corne for the Bay : we pray you therefore that a larger 
proportion of ground be assignd to every man to plant than 
formerly hath been, and that severest punishment be in- 
flicted uppon such as dare to break the constitution herein, 
and that officers be not spared nor the tenants nor their ser- 
vants dispenced with. Our magazine is suddainly to 
follow the shipp, wherein there are much greater propor- 
tions of things sent than was in the last : And though wee 
nor will they sell theire comodities uppon trust we see 
that any thing is good enough for the marchant ; how 
unworthy we and the Company are of this contempt we 
appeale to yourselves, yet.hadd it not been repeated by 
you nor the insolence punished, but seeing our care and 
the ac'y is repaid with such monstrous ingratitude we desire 
you to give notice to the Collony that after this yeare they 
expect no further supply of any necessaries to be exchanged 
with them for their darling tobbacco ; we have given them 
a yeares notice beforehand that they may fall upon some 
other course. 

" And being sensible of the great losse the Adventurers 
still sustaineth by your roule tobacco made up with fillers (as 
the term is) order throughout the Collony that they may 
be provided to exchange with our cape marchant Mr. But- 
leaf; and such as willfully transgresst this having notice if 
they suffer for it, it shalbe no part of our care. 

" There is an intention to send out an excellent shipwright 
with a gauge of thirty or fortie carpenters and boatwrights. 
The Company is in treatie with him, and the roule of Ad- 


venturers is almost full so that you may certainly expect 
him the next Spring. In the interim we pray you that a 
great number of trees of the white and black oake 
growing in wett grounds be felled and many more barked 
to season by standing. The time most fitting to fell and 
barke the trees is in November and December, and the 
beginning of Januarie. In the choise of the place we pray 
you to have respect unto the maners of the iron works, 
and of the saw mills ; most especially we pray your assist- 
ance in the perfectinge of these two workes, the profitt will 
redound to the whole Collony, and therefore it is necessary 
that you extend your authouritie to the utmost lymitts to 
enforce such as shall refuse the help to a bussiness so much 
tending to the generall good : If those works be not per- 
fected the body of the shipwrights will be of no use, and if 
this opportunity be lost, mens hearts wilbe discoraged 
from further adventuring : we have to sattisfi.e your desires 
and to supplie your necessities enterd uppon this p we 
therefore expect the best help to perfect your owne work 
whereby you shall do nothing glorious in itselfe, 
for yourselves and the whole Collony ; acceptable to us 
and the whole Company, and being perfect it will be the 
securitie reputation, and defense of the litle Comon 
Wealth, which now in his infancie, must be supported by 
fame and hope of sutch comodities. And so desiringe God 
to bless youe and all your good endeavors tendinge to the 
advancement and establishing of the Collony we bid you 

" London, this 12^'^ of Yo'r very L°- friends, 

August, 1621." 


" Wee send you againe copies of the letters and agree- 
ments Avith Mr. Gookin and recomend his good entertain- 
ment to you, and in particuler we seriously advise that 
you do your best endevors to pay him in tobacco though 
at one D waight the cow, and to take as few cows as possi- 
ble may be uppou mony heare to be paid by the Company, 
because our stocke is utterly wasted ; let him have very 
good tobacco for his cowes now at his first voiadge, for if 
he make a good return it may be the occasion of a trade with 
you from those parts, whereby you may be abundantly sup- 
plied, not only with cattle, but with most of these comodi- 
ties that you want att better and easier rate than we from 
hence shalbe able. 

" Since the conclusion of our letter we have received 
from his Ma' tie a Petition exhibiting unto him by cer- 
tain ffrenchmen and Walloones Desires to inhabite in 
Virginia : we have considered of these propositions and 
have returned them so fine an answer as wee consider they 
will resolve to go, the}'- wilbe 60 families, consisting of 
about 300 persons, you may expect them cominge about 
the next spring. We hope they wilbe a great strength to 
the Collony. 

" Subscribed by the 

" Lo. Sheffield 
Sr John Dnvers 
Mr. Sam Wrote 
Mr. Jo. Ferrar Depputie 
Indreton Winston 
Mr. Nicho. FerrEn 
M. Thr : Sheapeard." 


Company's Letter dated September 11th, 1621, and sent by Ship 


" Sept. 11, 1621. 

" After o'" very liartie Comendacons : you shall now by 
this Shipp the Warwicke and the Pin ace that cometh 
along with her, receiue those supplies that we formerly in o"" 
';^c^-t ^e/letters by the Genge and Marmaduke promised; the set- 
' ting forth of wch hath beene of so exceeding and noble 
and labo'"* unto us, being but a very few on whom so great 
a burthen hath lien, and we haue not been been able to 
intend anything else : wherefore in that regard as also that 
the noble Earl of Southampton is not yet returned to 
London, nor those eminent persons without whose Coun- 
selle and authoritie we tliinke it not fitt to proceed to 
resolucon in so waightie bussinesses; y"" letters and dis- 
patches by the Bona Nova, and the Margrett & John 
must yet remaine unanswered ; but by the Dutie wch 
about the middle of next month is to depart we hope you 
shall receive full sattisfaccon ; wch Shipp shall bring with 
her store of silke worme seed and abundance of vine 
plants, for both wch we desire not only that generall 
pperations be made, but that timely notice and order be 
given throughout the whole colony, that every pticuler 
man may make prouision for the receiuinge of some 
quantitie of them both, and that a straight charge be giuen 
for the pserving of vines and mulbery trees, wch we 
understand with others are promiscuously defrayed ; and 
because the skill of handling them is only deriued from the 
Frenchmen we canot but here recomend this to yo"^ fauo' 
and regard that they may be kindly used and cherished. 


Stipplies fur Frenchmen and Dutchmen. 

" We haue as by the Inuoice you shall perceiue sent 
them and the Dutch-men (the delay of whose most neces- 
sarie workes is with much indignation here resented) diuers 
provisions of victualls as also a cloth to make them 
apparrell ; for hose and shoes and other such matters we 
desire they may be supphed by the Companies stock there, 
out of the Magazine wch now comes along in the War- 
wicke large and abundante in all usefull and necessarie 

Luxuries Discountenanced. 

" For as for vanities and superfluities although we find 
they yeeld most profitt in Virginia ; yet we haue thought 
it most unfitt to nourish by such supplies that euil genius 
of pride and ryott wch we wish were utterly extinguished 
and this o' care herein hath had an eie rather to the 
benefitt of the plantation than the profitt of the Aduen- 
turers; wch shall not we hope prove preiudiciall but 
rather breed a willingness and desire in the whole collony 
to make us a speedy and profitible returne of the stocke 
now sent, (and not as hitherto euill and disgratefull words 
for o'r zeale of their welfare and nothing at all is at least 
less than the principal laide out), for their relief and com- 
fort : 

Small Returns from Goods sent. 

" For you shall understand, that (not only of the ould 
Magazine wch was aboue 7,000 pounds, we canot hope 
to see much aboue half we hitherto haue not receiued 
any one peny) but euen the new Magazine sent last yeare 


by Mr. Blany is returned back with the loss of the princi- 
pal! it self after almost two yeares time and so many 
hassards born and yet to beare ; a thing so unkindly and 
distastefully taken here as if the accompts had been sooner 
knowne we much feare that supplies now sent had been 
farr short of what they now are : But that we may not 
now againe incurr the like unworthy damages, we desn^e 
you by whose wisdome and integritie wee expect a gene- 
rail redresse to be by all lawful and iust fauo'^ aidinge and 
assistinge to the bussiness itselfe, and to o^' factor Mr. 
Blany that both his pson and the goods may be safely and 
conueniently provided for and accomodated, and that the 
sellinge and barteringe of them be left free to his discretion 
and according to the prices and instruccons he hath here 
giuen unto him by the Aduenturers, whose unanimous reso- 
lution and charge is not to accept of tobacco at 3« p pound : 

Tobacco not to be taken for Goods. 

" Finding besides all former losses that neare 40 thou- 
sand waight sent home last yeare for the generall Com- 
pany and Magazine the better half hath not yeelded vnj^ 
p pound and the rest not aboue ijHo wch prices there is no 
possibilitie that they should ariue this next yeare, so that 
there must be an abatement of the price of tobacco there ; 
neither can we yeeld (wch is by some Planters propounded) 
but by the whole company, not only the Aduenturers^ of 
the Magazine denied to continue the ould rate of 3« p 
pound, and to as much in the goods sent hence as the 
tobacco is esteemed less worth than that rate for although 
for matter of profitt it might go currant much alike, yet 
thereby we should soe mantaine the collony in their ouer- 
weening esteeme of their darlmge Tobacco, to the ouerthrow 


of all other Staple comodities, and likewise to continue the 
vill will they liaue conceiued there and scandalous reports 
here spread of oppression and exaccons from the Company, 
selhng all theire Comodities for three times the vallew of 
what they cost upon which fond and uniust surmises they 
thinke it lawfull to use all maner of deceipt and falshood 
in their tobacco that they put of [on] the Magazine ; 

Frauds hi (he Tobacco Trade. 

" Which is the next thing wherein we yo' care and fauo^ 
being assured from o'" Factor in Holland that except the 
tobacco that shall next come thence proue to be of more 
pfection and goodnesse than that was sent home last, there 
is no hope that it will vent att all, for albeit itt passed 
once yett the wary buyer will not be againe taken, so 
that we heartily wish that youe would make some provi- 
sion for the burninge of all base and rotten stuff, and not 
suffer any iDut very good to be cured at least sent home 
whereby these would certainly be more aduanced in the 
price upon lesse in the quantity : howsoeuer we hope that 
no bad nor ill condiconed Tobacco shall be by compelling 
authoritie (abusing its power giuen for publique good to 
priuate benefitt) putt uppon o'' Factor, and very earnestly 
desire that he may have the helpe of iustice to constraine 
men to pay their debts unto him both remaining of the last 
yeares accompt and what shall this yeare grow dewe, and 
that in Comodities of the same vallew and goodness as shal- 
be by him contracted for. 

Enyrossing Forbidden. 

" The engrossinge of some of the principall Comodities in 
the last Magazine is here much distasted, as a wrong to 


the Stocke to be depriued of their best Comodities at a low 
rate ; but principally to the whole Collony who were hereby 
made to pay dearer and forced to take other Comodities 
that they needed not. These disorders we point out and 
are so long and earnest in this bussiness of the Magazine 
not out of the priuate interest wch some of us haue there- 
in but out of a true and sincere care and zeale of the 
general good of the Plantation, wch we are assured will 
receiue notable aduancement by a good and speedy returne, 
for that will much help if it come to the fitt markett of 
this stok now aduentured, the good pceed whereof will en- 
courage and confirme the good minds of the ould Aduen- 
turers by many losses almost beaten out and draw in 
many new into the Company, and wch most of all phapps 
concerns the collony, establish a constant and large trade 
with them, whereby not only all their wants but all their 
desires will be at all times plentifully furnished ; but on 
the contrary if this succeed like the former it is in vaine to 
hope for like suplies from hence : for want whereof if the 
whole collony fall uppon any calamitie or miserie, theirs 
be the shame and guilt whose fault it is ; as for us it will 
be our comforts neither to haue failed in abundance of 
charitie hitherto, nor in timely aduise and warnninge now 

Thirty-e'ujlit Maids and young Women shipped. 

" By this Shipp and Pinace called the Tyger, we also 
send as many maids and young women as will make upp 
the number of fiftie, w**^ those twelue formerly sent in the 
the Marmaduk, w^^ we hope shalbe receiued w*'' the same 
Christian pietie and charitie as they were sent from hence; 
the prouidinge for them at theire first landing and dispos- 


inge of them in marriage, (wch is o' cheife intent), we 
leaue to yo"" care and wisdome, to take that order as may 
most conduce to their good, and sattisfaccon of the Aduen- 
venturers, for the charges disbursed in settinge them forth, 
wch coming to twehie pounds and upwards, they require 
one hundred and fiftie of the best leafe tobacco for each of 
them ; and if any of them dye there must be a proportion- 
able addition uppon the rest ; this increase of thirty pounds 
weight since those sent in the Marmaduke, they have 
resolued to make, finding the great shrinkage and other 
losses, upon the tobacco from Virginia will not beare lesse, 
wch tobacco as it shalbe receiued, we desire may be 
deliuered to M' Ed. Blany, who is to keepe thereof a pticu- 
lar accompt. 

Great Oare in the Selection of the Girls. 

"We haue used extraordinary care and dilligence in 
the choise of them, and haue receiued none of whom we 
haue not had good testimony of theire honest life and 
cariadge, wch together wth their names, we send there 
inclosed for the sattisfaction of such as shall marry them ; 
for whose further encoradgement we desire you to giue pub- 
lique notice that the next spring we purpose to send ouer 
as many youths for apprentices to those that shall now 
marry any of them and make us due sattisfaccon. 

Liberty in Marriage., alloioed. 

This and theire owne good deserts together with yo' fauo"" 
and care, will, we hope, marry them all unto honest and 
sufficient men, whose meanes will reach to present re-pay- 
ment ; but if any of them shall unwarily or fondly bestow 
herself (for the liberty of marriadge we dare not infrindge) 


uppon such as shall not be able to giue present sattisfac- 
tlon we desire that at least as soon as abillity shalbe, they 
be compelled to pay the true quantity of tobacco propor- 
coned, and that this debt may haue pcedence of all others 
to be recouered. 

Guorf «ts(e" to heprovMed for the Unmarrkd. 

" For the rest, wch we hope will not be many, we desire 
yo' best furtherance for prouiding them fitting sermces 
till they may hapne uppon good matehes, and are here 
perswaded by many old Planters that there will be maisters 
enow found there, who will readily lay down what charges 
shall be required, uppon assurance of repayment at their 
mariadges, wch as iust and reasonable we desire may be 
.iuen them. But this and many other thmgs m this 
bussiness we must referr to yo' good consideracons and 
fruittful endeauors in opeinge a work begun Ifre out of 
piettie and tending so much to the benifitt of the Planta. 
tiou shall not miscarry for any want of good will or care 
on yo' part." 

Martin's Hiuulred re-organized. 
<• The Society of Martin's Hundred whose designes by 
many misfortunes, as well here as in Virginia have been 
hitherto checked, do now againe go forward cherefuUy; 
sending a supplie of people largly furnished with all neces- 
sarie prouisions : the succoring and cherishinge of them 
and their proceedings we in effectual man' recomends wth 
yo' desiringe you to be by all possible fauors aiding and 
assisting them, and in particular of the Inhabitants of 
Wolsten-Holmes Towne, their old tenants shall unkindly 
refuse to entertaine for a while the new comers in their 


bowses ; we desire that by y<f command tbey may biUited 
amongst tbem, and tbey compelled to be cbaritible and 
bounden in dutie ; as likewise if tbey sball use any auers- 
ness or remissniss in tbe deliuery of sucb cattle as by tbe 
Aduenturers is here ordered, we desire you by your autbo- 
ritie to make tbe deccision, and not to permitt the people 
now sent to sufter any preiudice at all for tbe want of 
tbem. Tbe command and our sigbt of tbese people tbey 
bane comitted to Mr Ricbard Keane now in Virginia. 

Rev. Thomas White. 

" Tbe company is by diners waies informed tbat tbere 
is a great want of wortbie ministers in Virginia tberefore 
tbey bave entertained and now send along M'' Tbomas 
Wbite^ a man of good sufficiencie for learning and recom- 
ended for integritie and uprigbtnes of life and of so good 
zeale to the Plantation tbat be is content to go wtb tbat 
small allowance the Companie's stock is able now to aford 
him, and to put himself uppon such preferrment there as 
be shall deserue, and you sbalbe able to accomodate him 
with, web if it be of tbe places belonging to tbe Company 
we bave promised him here an addicon to the small allow- 
ance be bath now receiued ; now and likewise tbat y"^ godly 
care and wisdomes will prouide for him in some competent 
maner till be may be furnished with the full number of 

1 A Rev. Mr. White was censured by Mr. Harvey, because lie could 
show no orders. It is probable that he identified himself with the new 
Maryland colony, which was largely protestant, and he may have been 
the Mr. Thomas White, who in 1(339, uniced in marriage John Hollis 
and Restituta Tue, of Maryland. A Thomas White also gives some tes- 
timony relative to Jerome Hawley's will. Andrew White was the name 
of the pioneer Jesuit in Maryland. 


tenets belonging to the Ministrie ; wch for him and all 
others shall we hope in the beginninge of the Spring be 
accomplished. If he finds entertainment from any priuate 
hmidred ; then we shall expect from them the restitution of 
o'" charges, that is six pounds for his passage, and eight 
XDOunds deliuered him towards the making of some proui- 
sions, as for bookes, we doubt not but you will be able to 
supplie them out of the hbraries of so many that haue 

Sundry Directions. 

"There are two French youths now sent to Capt. Tho. 
Nuce, part of those ten promised him the next Springe ; 
this anticipation, although in a very difficult time, for want 
of mony, we haue yeelded unto, upon S"" John Danuers his 
motion, that Capt Nuce might be so much pleasured. 
Wee send likewise one Miles- Prickett to be employed m 
the Companies seruice and especially in making of Salt, 
wch we are informed he heretofore pracktised in Virginia, 
he is to serue till AUhollantide in the year 1622, without 
any reward at all, wch is here beforehand paid him by his 
passage and apparrell giuen him. 

" The releases of diners persons here graunted we pray 
you to make good the Condicons seuerally specified, as also 
to giue yo^" best furtherance for the accomplishment of all 
such bussiness as by pticuler letters or petticons under- 
written are recomended unto you for the Coiinsell and 
Company whose last and ioynt request is in the behalf of 
Cap* Guy and the Maister of the Warwick that uppon 
the good pformance of theire voiadge as well as kindly 
usinge and cherishinge the Passengers, as safely deliuering 
all their goods they may be dispatched from Virginia j and 



what theire necessities shall require may speedily and 
curteously be supplied ; and if you send any goods home 
in this Shipp or any other we pray youe to take bond 
for the deliuery of the same ; and giue them orders to stay 
at the He of Wight or the Downes w*'^ out breakinge- 
bulke, till they receiue direccon from hence at what Port 
they shall unlade at. And so wishing a happy beginninge 
and prosperous successe in all yo'' waightie affairs we at 
psent betake you and the whole Colony and yo"" charge to 
the blessing of God Almightie : and rest 
" Yo'" assured Louing frends. 

" Edward Hawley Jo : Wolstenholme 
Theodore Gulston Tho : Gibbs 
Jo : Ferrard Deputie Tho : Winston 
Robert Smith Nicho : Ferrad* \ 

Fran. Anthony Tho : Sheaperd. 

" London the 11*^ 
" September, 1621. 

" Postcript. 

" In case M"" Blaney dye, we desire M"" Pountis in pticular 
to take care of his bussiness." 

• Edward Bennett Commended. 

Oct. 24. " The first patent was for a gentleman that had 
deserued singularly well of the Company before hee was a 
member thereof. And since his admittance hee had been att 
a verie great charge for transportinge of people to Virginia 
namely Mr. Bennett who now ioyn^s himselfe in this 


buisines with Mr. Wiseman and Mr. Ayers and diuers 
others their associates. 

Rev. Mr. Staples. 
" M' Chamberlayne recomended unto the Company one 
Mr. Staples a preacher who hauinge a brother in Virginia 
that had giuen him good encouragement to come hither 
was desirous to goe ouer : wheruppon some of Martins 
Hundred seemed to be wiUinge to entertaine him for their 

The East India School. 
" October 24, 1621, Mr. Deputy acquainted the Courte 
that one Mr. Copeland,^ a mynister lately returned from 
the East Indies, out of an earnest desire to giue some fur- 
therance unto the plantacon in Virginia, had been pleased, 
as well by his owne good example as by psuasion, to stir 
upp many that came with him in the Ship called the 

L The Rev. Patrick Copland, or Copeland, in 1613 went to Surat. The 
nest year he sent to England a native lad he had taught to read and write, 
" to be instructed in religion, that hereafter he may be sent home to con- 
vert some of his nation." On July 18. 1615, letters were read at a meet- 
ing of the East India Company from Copeland, asking that steps might be 
taken " for the baptism of the lad who appears now to be in the East, being 
of opinion that it was fit to have it publicly effected, being the first fruits 

of India." ' 

Copeland, a few days before the news of the massacre in Virginia reached 
England, was appointed Rector of the intended College for the conversion 
of Indian youth at Henrico, but he did not accept, and remained in England 
until after the dissolution of the Company. After this his intimate friend 
Nicholas Ferrar, late Deputy of the Company, paid the £300 left by his 
father for a college for Indians to the Somers Island Company, upon 
condition that they would always educate three Virginia Indian children, 


Royall James to contribute towardes some good worke to 
be begunn in Virginia, insomuch that hee hadd pcured 
allredy a matter of some 70h to be implo3'ed that waie, and 
had allso writt from Cape Bona Speranza to diuers Factors 
in the East Indies to moue them to some charitable con- 
tribucon thereunto. So, as hee hoped, they would see 
uery shortlie his letters would produce some good effect 
among them, especially if hee might understand in what 
manner they intended to imploy the same. Itt was therfore 
ordered that a Comittee should be appoynted to treat with 
Mr. Copeland about itt. And forasmuch as hee had- so 
well deserued of the Company by his extraordinary care 
and paynes in this business, itt was thought fitt and or- 
dered that he should be admitted a free Brother of this 
Company, and att the next Quarter Courte itt should be 
moued that some proporcon of land might be bestowed 
uppon him in gratificacon of his worthie endeauors to 
aduance this intended worke ; and further, itt was thought 

and wlien of proper age put them in business or send them back to con- 
vert their relatives. 

To carry out this scheme, Copeland appears to have gone to the Somers 
Islands. In 1678 Rev. Hugh Peters then at Salem, Mass., corresponded 
with him, as he had become an ardent nonconformist. When nearly 
eighty years of age, about 1637, went with Governor Sayle to Eleuthera, 
one of the Bahamas, to found a colony where there should be freedom of 
conscience, and a separation of the church from the secular authority. Soon 
after this Sayle visited the Puritans of James River, whose pastor was 
Rev. Thos. Harrison, and had been, until he became a nonconformist. 
Governor Berkeley's chaplain, and invited them to emigrate to the new 
plantation. They declined, but a portion of them moved to the vicinity 
of Annapolis, Maryland, and was instrumental in securing the celebrated 
Act of Toleration passed by the Assembly of that Province in 1648. 
The time of Copeland's death has not been ascertained. 


iitt allso to add him to the number of some other speciall 
Benefactors unto the plantacon whose memoriall is pre- 
serued The Comittee to treat with him are these : Mr. 
Deputy, Mr. Gibbs, Mr. Nicho. Ferrar, Mr. Bamforde, 
Mr. Abra. Chamberlyne, Mr. Roberts, Mr. Ayers." 

Disposition of the Copeland Donation. 
"On the last of October, 1621, Mr. Deputy signified 
that, forsomuch as it was reserued unto the Companie to 
determine whither the said money should be imploied 
towards the buildinge of a church or a schoole, as afore- 
said, the Comittee appointed haue had conference with Mr. 
Copland about it, and do hold it fitt, for many important 
reasons, to imploye the said contribucon towards the 
ereccon of a publique free schoole in Virginia, towards wch 
an unknowne person hath likewise giuen 301i, as may ap- 
peare by the Report of the said Comittee, now presented 

to be read. ^ 

"At a meetinge of the Comittee on Tuesday, the oUth 
of Octob, 1621, present Mr. Deputy, Mr. Gibbs, Mr. Wrote, 
Mr. Ayres, Mr. Nicholas Farrar, Mr. Roberts. 

" The said Comittee meetinge this Afternoone to treat 
with Mr. Copland touchinge the dispose of the money 
giuen by some of the East Indy Companie that came with 
him in the Royall James, to be bestowed upon some good 
worke for the benefit of the plantacon in Virginia; the 
said Mr. Copland beinge now present did deliuer in a note 
the names of those that had freely and willingly contri- 
buted their moneyes hereunto, wch moneys Mr. Copland 
said they desired might be imployed towards the buildinge 
either of a Church or Schoole in Virginia, which the Com- 
panie should think fitt. And that although this some of 


money was but a small proporcon to pforme so great a 
worke, yet Mr. Copland said he doubted not but to psuade 
the East Indy Companie whome he meant to solicite, to 
make some addicon thereunto, besids he said that he had 
uery effectually writt the coppie of well letter he showed 
and was read to diners fiactories in the East Indies to 
stirr them up to the like contribucon towards the pform- 
ance of this pious worke as they had already donne for 
the buildinge of a church at Wappinge, where by his 
Report, they haue giuen about 40011. 

"It beinge, therefore, nowe taken into consideracon 
whither a Church or a Schoole was most necessarie, and 
might nearest agree to the intencons of the Donors : It was 
conceuued that forsomuch as each pticular plantacon, as 
well as the generall, either had or ought to haue a Church 
appropriated unto them, there was therefore a greater want 
of a Schoole than of Churches : 

" As also for that it was impossible, with so small a pro- 
porcon, to compasse so great a charge as the buildinge of 
a Church would require, they therefore conceaued it most 
fitt to resolue for the erectinge of a publique free schoole, ^ 
well, being for the educacon of Children and groundinge of 
them in the principles of religion. Ciuility of life and 
humane learninge seemed to carry with it the greatest 
weight and highest consequence unto the plantacons as 
that whereof both Church and Comon wealth take their 
originall foundacon and happie estate, this beinge also like 
to proue a work most acceptable unto the Planters, through 
want whereof they haue bin hitherto constrained to their 
great costs to send their Children from thence hither to 
be taught. ^ 


" Secondly It was thought fitt that this schoole should 
be placed in one of the fower Citties and they conceaued 
that Charles Citty, of the fower did affoord the most 
convenient place for that purpose as well in respect it 
matcheth with the best in holesomeness of Aire, as also 
for the comodious situacon thereof, being not farr distant 
from Henrico and other particular plantacons. 

"It was also thought fitt that in hono' of the East 
Indy Benefactors, the same should be called the East Indy 
Schoole, who shall haue precedence before any other to 
preferr their Children thither to be brought up in the rudi- 
ments of learninge ; 

" It was also thought fitt that this, as a Collegiate or 
free schoole, should have dependance upon the Colledge 
in Virginia wch should be made capable to receaue Schol- 
lers from the schoole into such ScoUershipps and fellow- 
shipps of said Colledge shall be endowed withall for the 
aduancement of schollers as they arise by degrees and 
deserts in learninge. 

" That for the better mayntenance of the scholm' and 
usher intended there to be placed it was thought fitt 
that it should be moued at the next Quarter Co* that 
1000 acres of Land should be allotted unto the said ScolP, 
and that 5 p'sons, besides an ouerseer of them should be 
forthwith sent upon this charge, in the condicon of Appren- 
tises, to manure and cultiuate the said land, and that, ouer 
and aboue this allowance of land and tenants unto the 
schoolm"", such as send their children to this schoole 
should giue some benevolence unto the schoolm"", for the 
better encrease of his mayntenance. 

" That it should be specially recomended to the Go- 
uernor to take care that the planters there be stirred up 


to put their helpinge hands towards the speedy build- 
inge of the said schoole, in respect their Children are 
like to receaue the greatest benefitt thereby in their 
educacon : and to let them knowe that those that exceed 
others in their bounty and Assistance hereunto shal be 
priuileged with the preferment of their Children to the 
said schoole before others that shall be found less worthie. 

" It is likewise thought fitt that a good schoolm^" be 
prouided forthwith to be sent unto this scoole. 

" It was also informed by a gentleman of this Comittee 
that he knew one that desired not to be named that 
would bestowe 301i, to be added to the former some of 7011 
to make it an lOOli, towards the buildinge of the said 
schoole : 

" This report, being read was well approued of and 
thought fitt to be referred for confirmation to the next 
Quarter Court." 

The Quarter Court on 19 th of November approved the 
report, and granted Mr. Copeland three hundred acres of 
land. On January 28, 1621-2, that he had found an 
usher for the free school, but on Feb. 27, he told the Com- 
pany that the proposed usher had become unwilling to go 
unless he had the title of master. On 13 th of March it 
was agreed that Mr. Dike, if he would go and prove compe- 
tent, should be recognized as Master of the Free School 
intended at Charles City. He after this declined the 
appointment, and the colonial authorities were empowered 
to select an usher or schoolmaster. In June, 1625, the 
Governor and Council of Virginia, wrote : 

" We should be ready with our utmost endeavors to 
assist the pious work of the East India free school, but 
we must not dissemble that, besides the unseasonable 


arrival, we thought the acts of Mr. Caroloif will over- 
balance all his other sufficiency though exceeding good." 

After this there is no statement relative to this school, 
and it was probably never erected. 

Anthony Gosnold, early Planter. 

October 31. " Upon the humble peticon of Mr. Anthony 
Gosnold ^ gentleman it is agreed and ordered first that he 
shall haue two shares of land in Virginia, due unto him 
for the aduenture of 25'"^ in money paid into the Treasury to 
S" Thomas Smith as by his bill now shewed by him in 
Court under the Companys' Scale though it were not sett 
downe in the printed booke, may appeare. 

" And secondly that he shall haue one share of land more 
wch of right also belongeth unto him for his psonall Ad- 
uenture to Virginia some 16 yeares since upon his owne 

" Thirdly whereas the said Mr. Gosnold alledgeth he had 
two kinsmen that died longe since seized of land in Virginia 
who by their last will gaue him their said land : It is like- 
wise orderd that it shalbe recomended to the Gouernor to 
take order that upon due proufe made thereof, he do him 
iustice, Lastly touchinge the merritt of his pson in reguard 
of his longe and hard service for many yeares together in 
the condicon of a seruant, notwithstandinge he ought to 
haue bin free : The Court hath referred him to the Com- 

1 Among those who landed at Jamestown in 1607 were Capt. Barth : 
Gosnold, who died August 22d; Anthony Gosnold his brother; and 
Anthony his son and nephew. The petitioner was probably the last. 


ittee appointed for rewardinge men upon their good de- 

" It being likewise moued that forsomuch as diners worthie 
gent: desired to be Mr. Gosnolds Associates intendinge at 
their owne charge to transport 100 psons to Virginia there 
to plant and inhabite that therefore the said Mr. Gosnold 
might have a Patent for pticular plantacon wch was 
accordingly graunted and ordered to be drawne up against 
the next Quarter Courte. 

Book on Silk Worms. 

" Mr. Deputie informed the Companie of the great paines 
that Mr. Bonnell the Frenchman, m'" of the Kings Silk- 
wormes at Oakland had taken in penninge a Treatise in 
French concerninge the orderinge of Silkwormes and mak- 
inge of silk wch treatise for that it might be of speciall use 
unto the Planters in Virginia, he therefore moued this 
Court would please to recomend it, to some to translate it 
into English and afterward that it might be prped and being 
approued it might be printed, wch the Court assented unto, 
and praid M"" Deputy to see it donne, and that a good 
number of the said Booke might be sent unto the Colony 
in Virginia by the next Shippe that goes. 

Widow Smalley. 

" Elizabeth Smalley ^ widdowe hauinge peticoned to the 
Kinge against Captaine Argall pretendinge that he deteyned 

1 Prdbably the widow of Captain Smalley in command at Henrico in 
1616. In the year 1624 she was living in New England. 


certain goods from her to the value of 500^^ and being re- 
ferred by his Ma*''' to his Highnes Counsell for Virginia 
did now peticon to the Companie to take hearinge of the 
said cause accordinge to his Ma*^ Referrence whereupon 
the Counsell agreed to meete upon friday followinge in the 
Afternoone about two of the Clocke at Mr. ffarrars house 
against wch time order is now giuen for warninge both 
the said Widdowe Smalley and Capt. Argall to make their 
appearance as also all such witnesses as could be pduced 
on the behalf of the said complaynant. 

Rev. Robert Staples. 

" Mr. Robert Staples a Minister comended much by 
M*^ Abraham Chamberlin and by certificate from many 
diuines resident in this Citty reportinge him to be of honest 
conuersacon and a good Scholler : beinge desirous to goe to 
Virginia did nowe make request, that the Companie would 
please to entertaine him for their Minister there. 

" But the Companie wantinge meanes to furnish him 
out did moue that some of the pticular plantacons would 
imploy him. 

Whereupon M"" Darnelly signified that he thought that 
they of Martins Hundred wanted a Minister to whome he 
was recomended. 

Donation for an Annual Sermon. 

"At a Court held for Virginia, the 14*'' of Nouember, 

" M'^ Deputy acquainted the Companie that at the end of 
the last Sumer Hands Court, held the seventh of this 


present moneth there came a letter into his hands from 
an unknowne person directed unto him and the rest of 
the Counsell and Comp* for Virginia, wch letter for that 
many of the Virginia Comp'' were then psent, he caused 
to be opened and read, the Contents whereof are as fol- 

"' ALetterdated the 7°of Nouember, 1621, directed to M' 
Deputy ffarrar, and to the rest of the Counsel and Com- 
panie for Virginia. 

" ' You shall receaue here enclosed 40® for a sermon to 
be preached before the Virginia Companie this Michalemas 
Terme and before the Quarter Court day : The place I 
leaue to y® Companie's appointement, Also I desire that 
M' Dauenport may preach the first sermon if the Com- 
panie approue hereof: I will, if God permit, make a 
perpetuity in this kinde : So beseechinge your good ac- 
ceptance of this small mite, as also that you Mr Deputy 
performe yo*" promise in concealinge my name, I take my 
leaue and rest a day lie orator for Virginia.' 

" This letter beinge read, and the Companie then pre- 
sent demanded on what day they would haue this sermon 
preached, it was then agreed to haue it upon this day before 
the Virginia Companie, and after sermon it was also upon 
mocon agreed to suppe together, M'' Gibbs beinge entreated 
to giue notice hereof to M'" Dauenport accordingly. 

" Nowe forsomuch as it further appeareth by the said 
Letter that the Author of this Guift hath j)romised upon 
the Companie's good acceptance hereof to make oppor- 
tunity of this kinde, M"" Deputy therefore moued that this 
Court would please to recomend it to the next Quarter 
Court to appoint on what daye hereafter this yearely exer- 
cise shalbe pformed, wch mocon the Court did well approue 


of and accordingly referred it to the iudgment of the 
Quarter Court to order it, and in the meane time entreated 
M'' Deputy who Ivnewe the gentleman, to signifie the Com- 
panies especyall thanks unto him. 

Quarter Court. 

Nov. 21. "It beinge formerly ordered by the Preparative 
Court that in reguard of the many buissinesses that were 
to be dispatched this daye the Court should begin in the 
forenoon to examine such patents as were appointed to be 
made ready against this Court as also such comissions as 
were to be graunted to M"^^ of Shipps to ffish and trade, the 
said patents and also the drafte of the Comissions beinge 
nowe presented to this court were read and after examina- 
con beinge put to j" question were well approued of. 

" The Patents were these vizt : 
" Patent to 

Arthur Swaiue, pr for plantinge of 100 psons^ 

Rowland Truloue pr " 

John Crowe pr " 

Mr. Edw. %der 

Mr. Symond Leeke " 

Daniell Gookin " 

M-^ Edw : Bennett " 

S' Charles ]!^orth 

M"^ Levinge " 




100 )■ Planters. 



" The Comissions granted for ffishinge and trade were 
these vizt : 

Jo : Hudleston M'' of the Bona Nona of 200 tun. 

Tho : Smith M"^ of the Hopewell of 60 tun. 

Daniel Gale M-^ of the Darlinge of 40 tun. 

Capt Tho Jones M' of the Discouery of 60 tun. 


Roll for Sending Maids to Virginia. 

" The Third Roll was for sendinge of Mcayds to Virginia 
to be made Wyues, wch the Planters there did verie much 
desire, by the want of whome haue sprunge the greatest 
hinderances of the encrease of the Plantacon, in that most 
of them esteeminge Virginia not as a place of Habitacon 
but onely of a short soiourninge haue applyed themselves 
and their labors wholly to the raisinge of present proffitt 
and utterly neglected not only staple comodities but euen 
the verie necessaries of man's life, in reguard whereof and 
to preuent so great an inconuenience hereafter whereby 
the Planters minds may be the faster tyed to Virginia by 
/'' the bonds of Wyues and Children care hath bin taken to 
prouide them younge, handsome and honestly educated 
mayds whereof 60 are already sent to Virginia, being such 
as were specially recomended unto the Companie for theire 
good bringinge up by their parents or friends of good 
worth : wch mayds are to be disposed in marriage to the 
most honest and industrious planters who are to defraye 
and satisfie to the Adventurers the charges of their pas- 
sages and prouisions at such rate as they and the Aduen- 
turers Agents there shall agree, and in case any of them 
faile through mortality it is ordered that a proporconable 
addicon shalbe made upon the rest. In the furtherance of 
such Christian Accon diuers of the said Aduenturers had 
underwritt diuers good somes of money none under 8^^ 
whereby the whole some of that Roll did already amount 
to 800'*^ as may appeare by the subscriptions. 


Fur Trade in Rivers Delaware and Hudson. 

" The Fourth Roll was intended for a most certaine and 
beneficiall trade of Furre to be had wtli the Indians in 
Virginia in the lymitts of the Southerne Colony, it being 
credibly informed both by letters from the Gouernor and 
Counsell of State in Virginia as also by relacon of others 
of the greate Trade of Furrs wch is yeerly made by the 
French and Duch Shipps in a verie great proporcon in 
DeLawarr and Hudsons Riuer beinge not aboue 30 or 50 
leagues distant from the Plantation and for that there is 
at this present so good an oportunity offered for the 
cheape and safe managing of the said Trade it hath moued 
many of the former Aduenturers to subscribe unto this Roll, 
Also wherein it is so ordered that none shall subscribe 
aboue 100^*^ nor any man for lesse than 20 ^'^. whereof onely 
a Third part for the present voyadge is to be imployed in 
wch Roll there is already underwritten the Some of 900^^^, 
well shippe is also departed.^ 

Company's Letter dated Nov. 26, 1621, to the Governor and 
Council op Virginia. 

" After o'^ verie hartie comendacons. Our la ot unto you 
were by y® Warwick and Tyger wch departed hence about 
the midle of September with a magazine of 2000'^^ under 
the hands of M"" Blany, and about fiftie maids wch we 
hope are long ere this safely ariued with you, we were 
then so ample in our aduices concerninge the orderinge of 
those supplies as we shall not need at psent to enlarge any 

1 The Discovery, Capt, Jones. 


thing concerning them further than with all earnestness to 
desire y^ serious cares and uttermost endeauors for the 
accomplishinge of things in such maner as they were then 
recomended unto you wch will not only be here of us and 
the Company very gratefully accepted as a pledge from 
yo'^selues in the Collony of that mutual good-will and re- 
spect wch o' affecconate loue and zealous care of theire 
welfare doth deserue ; but undoubtedlie produce many 
great matters highly to the benefitt and aduancement of 
the Plantation ; for what may you not expect that iust 
and fair pformance of things will bring to passe, when the 
expectation only and the confidence thereof haue done so 
much and caused so many kinds of Aduenturers, one 
whereof and one of the principall is the trade of Furrs now 
by the Discouerie to be attempted. 

The Trade for Furs. 

" And we hope by Gods blessing shalbe happilie effected 
if yo' serious cares and endeuors be bestowed thereuppon ; 
wch although we nothing doubt of in a matter of so great 
hono"" and exceeding profitt to the Collony as this is like to 
be, and whereunto we haue so often and earnestly been by 
tljem merited : yet we cannot but againe and againe desire 
you to giu^ all fauo' and assistance thereunto, and that in 
all earnest t:*'id effectual maner. 

Ordnance to he furnished the Discovery. 

" The hope ^f Silkeworme seed whereof we are yett dis- 
apointed hath kept the Shipp longer than we meant, and 
later than phapps were fitt for the two voiadges she is to be 
imployed, that r^either of them therefore may miscarrie we 
pray you to order, that she may with all expedicon 


proceed in the Furr voiadge, and not to suffer any time 
to be lost, either by default of the Marriners (if they 
should be negligent) or for want of such suppUes as they 
are to receiue from you. The Aduenturers of Southamp- 
ton hundred (who out of a noble disposition to forward the 
buissines haue with great chargunder took it thus in their 
Shipp) haue very abundantly prouided her wit-h all things 
necessarie; yet if there be any thing whereby shee may 
be strengthened or accomodated we desire you to furnish 
her there with and in pticular that you lett them the 
brasse peeces wch were sent in the Charles. 

hiterprefers io he Empliijed. 

" If Ukewise the Shipps Company shall seeme too weake 
we desire you to make supplie out of the CoUony of such 
men as are most fitt, and in especiall that you putt in two 
or three skilfull in the languages and maners of the Indians, 
and expert in those places, wherein the trade is to be, that 
serue for guides and interpreters. 

"The Aduenturers had purposed to haue sent some 
quantities of beanes and pease for trade but the Shipps 
rowl the ordinarie calamitie of Virginia voiadges proues 
to strait, and they haue been further informed that those 
graines are not so acceptable as the Virginia mast : where- 
fore we desire you to furnish them with such quantities 
of maze as they shall need, and likewise with whatever 
else may be to the furtherance of the accon. In wch 
whatsoeuer persons shalbe employed, the Aduenturers 
are wiUinge that a due satisfaction may be made them. 

Instructions to Caj^t. Jones. "— 

" They haue desired us to send you both the Inuoyces of 
theire goods and the Coppies of the Instruccons wch they 


haue giuen unto Capt Jones, whereby they may pereiue 
how much they reUe uppon yo"" Counsell and assistance, 
wch as well for theire owne sakes (that so much deserues, 
as also for ours that so earnestly intreat you), we assure 
them will not be wanting. 

• Special Request to Gov. Wt/att and others. 

" And especially we intreat you S"" Francis Wyatt as 
Gouernor, and S' George Yeardley and M'' Pountis whose 
experience in the countrie and interest in the bussines 
are greatest, to be most particularly careful and solicitous 
thereof, that things may be so contriued with judgment, 
and ordered with wisdome, as not only the present voy- 
adge may proue successful, but a future trade be esta- 
blished. We desire you to esteem it as indeed it is, 
though undtaken by priuate men yet a very generall 
and publique bussiness, so we conceue it, and in that 
regard haue thought good to comend it unto you in this 
letter : Of other matters the Bona Nona and Hopewell 
will certifie you. And so with humble prayers to God 
Almightie to protect and guide you in all your afiaires, we 

Yo"" very louing trends 
Lo. Paget, Lo. Tuston, Lo. Gary 

Earle of Warwick, S' John Dauers, Nicho. Hide 
Theodore Gulston, Samuel Wrote, Francis Anthony 
John Ferrar, Nicholas Ferrar, John Delbridge 

" London 26*^^ 

"November, 1621. 

To o"" verie Lo : frend S"* Francis Wyatt, Gounor and Capt 
Generall of Virginia, and the rest of the Counsell of State 
there vesidinge. 


Company's Letter, dated Dec 5. 1621, to the Governor and 
Council of Virginia. 

" After o"" very hartie Comendacons. Wee writ unto 
you very lately by the Discouerie whereof Capt Thomas 
Jones went Maister : we haue since receiued certained 
advice that there are newly gon from Amsterdam for 
the same trade of ffurrs, and the self same places two 
Small Pinaces the one of 40 Tunns with fowre, and the 
other of 80 Tunns wth six peeces of cast ordinance double 
manned, and exceedingly well prouided wth comodities : 
wherefore it will very much import that the Discouerie 
be instantly expedited from Virginia, wth those necessarie 
supplies of men and prouisions that we have entreated 
you to furnish her wth, that she may not come either to 
weak or to late, or any way unfitt for the p'formance of 
her bussiness ; for the p'ticularities whereof we refer you 
to o"" former letters, the copies whereof we here inclosed 
send you. Now we only in the most effectuall maner that 
we may againe recomend it to yo"" most serious cares and 
zealous furtherance. 

Returns /or the Maids sent. 

For the supplies of the Magazine and Maids formerly 
sent in the Marmaduke, Warwick and Tyger ; we assure 
o''selues things are in that forwardnes of a good returne 
(through yo'" prudent cares and fauo""^) as we haue more 
cause to giue you hartie thanks than need to intreat yo' 
assistance therein ; yett because no diligence in so waightie 
matters can be thought superfluous, we haue at the en- 
treatie of the Aduenturers, here inclosed sent you the 
copie of that dispatch, to reueiue things in yo'' memorie, 


and thereto do now againe adioyne o"^ most earnest in- 
treaties for yo'' and iust fauo'^, till the full accomplishinge 
of all those businesses in such manner as is desired, and 
indeed deserued, by such free and worthie minds as those 
Aduenturers moue from. Wee will not recapitulate what 
wee haue amply in o"" former letters expressed how iust 
and necessarie it is (the Companies stock being utterly ex- 
hausted, and no meanes of supply but from priuate purses) 
that a good and profitable accompt should be returned of 
these many Aduenturers ; we will only add (wch to gene- 
rous minds is of no small force) that by yo'' wise cares 
and iust fauo*'^ it is expected ; and in that confidence, but 
principaly out of a singular zeale to aduance the Planta- 
con, and accomodate the Planters, although the Aduen- 
turers alreadie sent haue been so many and so large ; as 
©""selues cannot but wonder, yet haue the selfsame persons 
newly underwritt nere a thousand pounds for the sending 
of Shippwrights and house carpenters. 

SupfJy to he sent. 

" And so farr is the busines alreadie proceeded in, as 
we may assure you and yo", the Collony, that by God's 
blessing they shall by the end of Aprill at the furthest 
haue this necessarie supply among them : In the mean- 
space wee desire that fitt preperations may be made for 
the entertaining of them, that shall after make prepara- 
tion for others : In wch regard we giue yo'^ this timely 
notice ; and also that you might be ptakers with us of the 
comfort and encoragement, wch we dayly receiue by the 
continuance and increase of those free and worthie Aduen- 
turers, wherein we wth all thankfull humilitie do acknowl- 
edge the gratious Prouidence of God in so much enlargeinge 


(uppon the failinge of the publique reiienues) the hearts 
of priuate men, in a verie difficult time, and after so many 
unfortunate Aduentures made in the Kke kind, to pforme 
these great works so aduantageable and necessarie unto 
the Phmtation. 

Free School. 

" There is one thing likewise that hath lately hapned 
unto us, not great in itself but of great good hope ; the 
gentleman and Mariners of the Royall James belonging to 
the East India Company, being mett at Cap Bona Speranza 
by some English Shipps outward bound, and certified of 
the prosperitie of Virginia, did there (uppon the exhorta- 
tion of M' Copland theire Minister) bestow the sume of 
70^^^ towards the buildinge of a free schoole in Virginia ; 
well pious guift hath lately receiued an addiccon of SO^'^ by 
an unknowne pson. The maner of employeinge the mony 
well the Company hath resolved uppon, we send you here 
inclosed, desiringe that you would likewise take it into 
yo*^ considerations. 

Salt, Iron Worha, and Mills to he built. 

" Wee likewise send you the copies of some Courts 
whereby you shall understand what hath lately passed con- 
cerninge the bringinge in of all o'' Tobacco, wch we doubt 
not but yo"" haue and shall heare of by many waies ; other- 
wise we should haue been loth to mingle any thing un- 
pleasant amongst so much ioyfull and comfortable as we 
haue before related ; but such is the composition of all 
worldly afl:aires ; for o'selves we are not and desire you like- 
wise not to be discoraged att any difficulties that do or 
may arise ; wch we interprett onely as the tryall of pa- 


tience and vertue, whether we be worthie to be the Instru- 
ments of so glorious a worke as this Plantation is, so we 
wish and desire you to continue and go on cheerfully in 
yc waighty charge according to the instruccons we haue 
giuen you and in especiall that you use all possible dilli- 
genc and industrious care to further and accomplish those 
great and many designes of Salte, Sawinge Mills and Iron, 
not letting slipp those occacons wch phapps will hardly be 
ever recouered ; nor neglecting the pfectinge of those things 
wch you haue and euer shall haue a certain necessitie 
of but an uncertaine assurance of from us : wee desire ^''ou 
therefore very earnestly to endeuor the setting up of those 
and other staple Comodities, and by example and by 
pperations to make the whole Collony capable, what neces- 
sitie lieth uppon them to make a good store within them- 
selues of all usefull comodities rather than a small aduan- 
tage of psent profitt. 

Seed-f, Pigeona, Conies, Peacocks, 31a stiffs, Bec-hivcs. 

" Wee haue by this Shipp and the Discouerie sent you 
diners sorts of seeds and fruit trees as also Pidgeons, Con- 
nies, Peacocks, Mastiues and Beehiues, as you shall by the 
Inuoice perceiue. Wee have sent unto you likewise some 
vine cuttings and a very small quantitie of Silkworm 
seed, of both which we had hoped to haue sent you abund- 
ance, and in that regard deteined the Discouerie so long ; 
but of thinges so farr remote we are not absolutely maisters, 
we are put in howerly expectation thereof In the mean- 
while we pray you that these now seut, and those you 
formerly had may be improued by the most; and the skill 
of the Frenchmen diffused amongst many, though they 
haue not much matter to exercise it in. 


Patents Granted. 

" There haiie been nyne seuerall Patients granted at o' 
last Quarter Court, and aboue 1000 people undtaken to be 
transported by them this next Spring, we desire you there- 
fore that those due prouisions of GuesUiouses (so often 
sollicited by us) may be made, and abundance of corn 
planted to supplie them at fittinge prices in regard that 
though the great rayse of grayne here, they are like to 
come slenderly furnished hence. 

Pa.^scngevs to he k'uuUi/ Treated. 

" And further we comend unto yo' care and charitie the 
contentment of those psent Planters that of their first land- 
ing they may haue y""- best furtherance for the lodgeing 
them in bowses, and also in setting out of theire land in 
conuenient places together with the best assistance and 
direccon in their courses at their first arriual that they 
may by curteous usage be encoraged to stay with you 
and others inuited to come unto you ; and amongst these 
in pticular wee cannot but comend Mr. Copeland three 
Tenant's he hauing excited that fauor of the Company. 


" Wee haue diligently laboured but not yett able to effect 
any thinge towards the helpe in the matter of Fortification ; 
yet are we not of hope not to do something shortly. In 
the meane while we desire you not to be any thing remisse 
in whatsoeuer may tend to yo"- saftie to wch no gaine can 
be comparable, but to be alwaies so prepared as in immi- 
nent danger, and especially to supphe with abundance of 
care and vigilancie, what you want in strength. 



" The coniectures of the Southwest passage and the 
peece of Copper wch you sent as wee gladly saw and heard, 
for since you now begin to discouer the Countrie, and 
enquire after Coinodities we doubt not, but you shall find 
what you seeke or better : wherefore we earnestly desire 
you to continue and proceed herein accordinge to yo' best 
meanes ; and to send us from time to time the cards of 
such places as you shall discouer ; and large quantities of 
the Comodities you found, for the Sayes of things are not 
easily nor certainly made in small quantities. 

" The plate of Copper holds nothing else but is so 
pfect good that if it might be gotten with so easie labor 
as the Indians relate, there were were no mine should 
equal the riches thereof; that further you have und'stood 
thereof we desire by the next yeare, that we may both 
sattisfie o^'selues and others and either begin or leaue so 
rich a hope. 

Ships to he speeilili/ dispatched. 

" The last thing we haue at present to write is that 
those Shipps the Bona Nona and Hopewell both in o'" owne 
and the Companie's name may be seriously recomended 
unto you that they may be speedily dispatched for Vir- 
ginia, and neither by you deteined, nor sufiered themselues 
to tritie out the time. In wch we especially require 
the care of M' Pountis whom in o'' last Quarter Court we 
haue chosen Vice Admirall and purpose, God willing, with 
the first opportunitie to estate the place with twelve 
Tenants. This or whatsoeuer fauor or curtesie you aford 
unto the Shipps in furtherance of their intended fishinge 


voyadges wee pray you effectually to pforme, for so both 
the undertakers and settlers out of them do deserue at yo' 
hands, and the good or ill success of this busines doth 
very highly import the Collony wch we doubt not but you 
fully und'stand : 

" And so we comitt you to the guidance and protection 
of the Allmightie and rest 

" Yo"" very Louing frends 

" Lo : Cauendish, Ea of Warwick 
Lo : Padgett Sr Jhn Dauers 

Thos Gibbs 
Sam Wrote 

NiCHO. Ferrar, John Ferrar, Dept 
Tho Sheaperd 
John Smith. 
" London this 5* of September 

a 1621" 

December 19. "Mr. Bamfield signified unto the Court 
of a booke compiled by a painefull schoolm', one Mr. 
John Brinsley : whereupon the Court gaue order that the 
Companie's thanks should be giuen unto him, and ap- 
pointed a select Comittee to pruse the said Booke, vizt : 
Sir John Dauers Mr. Deputy Mr. Gibbs Mr. Wrote Mr. 
Bamfeild Mr. Copland Mr. Ayres and Mr. Nicho : ffarrar. 
who are entreated to meete when Mr. Deputy shall ap- 
point and after to make report of their opinions touchinge 
the same at the next Court. 

"At a Court held for Virginia on Wedensday the 16th 
Janua: 1621 [1622], the Comittee appointed to pruse the 


booke which Mr. Jo : Brinsley/ schoolm', presented at 
the Last Court, touchiiige the edilcacon of the younger 
sort of schollers, forsomuch as they had yet no time to 
pruse the same, by reason of many buissinesses that did 
occurr they desired of the Court some longer respite, wch 
was graunted unto them. Mr. Copland beinge present 
was entreated to pruse it in the mean time and deliuer 
his opinion thereof unto the said Comittee at their meet- 
inace about it.^ 

Letter op Governor and Council of Virginia to the Company, 
WRITTEN January 1621-2, and forwarded by Ship George. 

" Right Hono'''^ 

"Wee haue receaued you' Letter dated at London the 
22d of September, 1622, by the Warwicke arriued heare 
at James Cyttie the 10th day of December, wherein you 
haue manifested so greate care of us, and the whole Colony 

iBrinsley was the nephew of Bishop Hall, and his amanueusis at 
the Synod of Dort. He became an eminent schoolmaster and noucon- 
formist divine, and published numerous sermons and grammatical works. 

■- In U)22 Brinsley published " A Consolation for our Grammar Schooles; 
or a faithful and most comfortable encouragement for laying of a sure 
foundation of a good learning in our schooles, and for prosperous building 
therefor ; more specially for all those of the inferior sort, and all rude 
countries and places, namely for Ireland, Wales, Virginia, with the Som- 
mer islands, and for their more speedie attaining of our English tongue 
by the same labour, that all may speake one and the same language. 
And withall, for the helping of all such as are desirous speedlie to recouer 
that which they had formerlie got in the grammar schooles ; and to pro- 
ceed aright therein, for the perpetual benefit of these our nations, and of 
the churches of Christ. London : Printed by Richard Field, for Thomas 
Mann, dwelling in Paternoster Row, at the sign of the Talcot; 1622." 


as we cannott but with all thankfullnes acknowledg our 
selues much bounden unto you for the same, before the 
receipt of wch Letter wee had (accordinge to the instruc- 
tions giuen us) taken order in the firste Sessions of the 
generall Assemblie, helde in Nouember and December, 
that great store of Vines and Mulberry trees should be 
planted in all places, and such as were growinge preserued 
and had expresly phibited the destroyinge of mulberry 
trees in the clearinge of Growndes. 

Att wch Assemblie we did playnly prceaue that the 
whole country was very well affected to the plantinge of 
both and to the receauing of silk-worme foode, and that 
y* is our ernest desire that you woulde be pleased to pro- 
ceed in this course, and of sending us all sortes of Vines in 
greate abundance, as alsoe greate store of all sortes of the 
best graine, as wheate, Barlie, Gates, and pease of all the 
best kindes, for though wee bee very desirous to falle to 
the sowinge of all sorts of our English graine as well as 
Indian (since this Countrey is very pper for them, and that 
there so much cleare grounde in the Colonic) wherein a 
plowe may be able to goe yet are wee at this tyme very 
much unprovided of any good seed corne, for our wheate 
wch was firste brought hither from the French Colonic is 
not only of a small and bad kinde, but hath been also 
much decaied (since it came hither) for wante of well cul- 
tivatinge the grounde. 

Want of Seed. 

" As for Barlie, oates, and the best Pease there is either 
none or a very small quantitie of any of them in the 
Countrey. And to y^ ende that w* graine or seed soeuer 
you shall be pleased to send us ouer : may be in the more 


likelyhood to prosper when it conieth hither, wee desire 
that a care may bee taken that the Wheate and Barlie may 
be brought in the chafie. And thac, such corne or seeds as 
you shall sende may bee noe older than of the harvest next 
precedinge, And that they may nott bee stoude in the 
holde butt betweane the Decks, for y* the heate of the 
holde will spoyle whatt corne or seede soe uer you shall 

SJiip in the Autumn and hi/ the Northern Course. 

"And wee doe conceaue it to be very fitt that what 
Shipps shall bringe such things be appoynted to come the 
Northerne course, and to sett saile at such a tyme as they 
may in all likeliehood ariue here about September or Octo- 
ber well tyme and coorse wee holde to bee the most 
healthfull for the cominge in of Passengers, and therefore 
could wishe that as fewe be sent hither in the Springe of 
the yeere as may bee seeinge y^ of those Shipps wch 
ariued here this Autum, there hath not died one passen- 
ger by the way, and haue hitherto had theire healthes 
since theire Landinge. 

The Tiger taken by the Turks. 

" Wee haue receaued all such Prouisiones as were in those 
Shipps sent to the Dutch and Frenchmen saue onely the 
Cloath sent to make them Apparell, wch we feare was lost 
in the Tiger taken by the Turks since wee can by no 
m^eanes heare thereof. 


ThankK for the Magazine. 

"Wee canott but giue condigne thanks for sendinge 
hither this Magasene soe well furnished to wch wee shall to 
the uttermost of our powers bee aidinge and assistinge 
in all things wee may, that by the pfitable returne thereof 
the Aduenturers may be Encoraged to goe on cherfullie 
in this course, and so establish with us here constant, large 
and continuall Trade from tyme to tyme onely wee are 
sorrie that y' ariued heere soe late, that the most of this 
year's Tobacco was otherwise disposed of before, but we 
are perswaded yf Mr. Blanye bee faire to trust forth any 
of his Comodities hee will be no loser therby, by reason 
that the next years Tobacco cannott, butt in all liekelihood 
(by the coorse we haue taken) be very much improued. 

Fricc of Tobacco. 

" It is a thinge very well liked of here that you haue 
left the Price of Tobacco at libertie since that it is of such 
an uncertaine valew by reason of the great difference 


" And howsoeuer much of the Tobacco of the last cropp 
hath not proued very good of the unseasonable- 

ness of the Yeere and of the wante of tyme for the curinge 
wee desire that noe president may be made there- 
of, Especyallie of that by the Maryners, whose 
beinge of badd as well as good wee could nott But 
haue taken order as much as in us Lyeth to preuent this 
to come : 


Arrival, of the Maids. 

Wee haue taken as great care as possible wee coulde 
without any prouisione at all for the well dis- 
posinge of the maides sent in and the Warwick 

and could wish that the next supplie of may bring 

some small pvisione with them to helpe them 
until they may be conuenientlie disposed of. 

" The people of Martins hundred (as we are informed 
by Mr. Harwood) doe willinglie and louinglie receaue the 
new comers who also shall have from us all lawfuU aide 
and assistance in all things. 

Want of Clergymen. 

" The Information giuen you of the wante of wourthie 
ministers heere is very trew, and therefore wee must giue 
you greate thanks for sendinge ouer Mr. Thomas White, 
who we hope shall be accomodated to his good likinge, 
soe y* is our ernest request that you woulde be pleased to 
send us ouer many more learned and sincere Ministers (of 
wch there is so greate wante in so many ptes of the 
Countrey) who shal be assured to find very good entertayn- 
ment for the Inhabitants who are very unwillinge to lay 
any part of the burthen thereof uppon yourselues. 


" Hauing accordinge to your instructions taken into sin- 
cere consideration the matter of Defence, wee doe finde it 
heere of soe great and necessarie ymportance, as we most 
humbly desire that you will be pleased not onlie w'^ only 
to send us ouer hither some men skillfull in the Arte of 


Fortificationes to whom wee shall ^e -die to giue our 
Comodious and most Defensible place fo'' *^ f^f "/^^^ 
the Chieff Cyttie of this Kingdome, yf they shall fiude J ames 
Cyttie a place not fitt or ppcr for that purpose. 

Captidn Thor'pe visits Indian Chiefs. 

"Whereas Sr: Francis Wyatt findinge the country att 
l,is ariual in very greate amytie and confidence wth the 
iatiu s L d bein'g: Desirous by all good meanes to con- 
"and enlarg: the same, as a thinge very 
It the beeinninge of his Gouerment, did (with the ac uise 
aU consent of the Counsell) said Capt : Thorpe wth a 
ZLZTa a presente both to the great Kinge Lasawpers 
formerly called Osatand and his Brother Apoeh-kano 

j" e Xl-ur new Gouernor would contynue the 
Letue or nott, Apochankano gaue him very good hope of 
£e cntertaininge of some of -r famyhes^.. U^^^^ « t 
them and of theire sendinge to Cohabitt with us, and dia 
- confine a former pmise of Sendinge one to be our guide 
bey!il the Falles to certain mines weh wee purpose to tye 
him unto.' Vmo. »fBdl.j!on and A.lrom«!,. 
" Caot Thorpe found by discoursinge with him that he 
had mt LioLsof religion in '^^-.^^^-itl^^^^C, 
<,ined in soe great blindnes, for hee w.llmglye Ackno viewed 
that theirs was nott the right waye, desinnge to bee in- 
ducted in ours and confessed that God loued^s bet^r 
than them, and that he thought the cause of his Angre 
Iglst them was their Coustome of makinge their Child- 

280 vmomiA company of lonbon 

ren black boys. Hee fownde alsoe hee had some know- 
ledge of many of the fixed starrs and had obserued the 
North starr and the course of the Constellations about 
y^, and called the great beare Manguakaiau, wch in their 
Language signifies the same, and beinge then in the 
niidest of his huntinge did in conclusion referr Capt. 
Thorpe touchinge all matters to a fourther conference at 
Pomunke, when he had ended his huntinge. 

Governor's Tenants. 

" The lands belonginge to the place of Gouernor was 
resigned to Sr Francis Wyatt, but of the hundred Tenantes 
wch should bee on that lande hee hath receaued only 46. 
There were more of Capt. Argalls guard aliue, but they 
are to bee made free, and for one M*' Pountis will giue 
you satisfactione who receaued him of S'' George Yardly 
at his Landinge, because he was his Prentice by Indenture 
in Englande, as for the rest of the Tennants S*" George Yardly 
denieth to make them good. And sayeth that hauinge 
made noe such Agreement wth you at any tyme he holdeth 
nott himselfe tyed unto yt. And therefore should take it 
for a matter of great Iniustice to be compelled thereunto, 
and in that you refused to accept of his offer of the pffits 
of his Tennants yt was in your pleasure soe to doe. But he 
holdeth himself agreued that you should now seeme to 
require a farr greater matter at his handes he after 
the refusall beinge bounde to pforme neither, who sayeth 
also that he did neuer place uppon the Gouenor's lands 
aboue 227 persons, but that the residue of the 230 were 
placed by him one ye Companie's Lands for their benefitt. 
Now seeinge S"" George Yardley denyeth that there was 
any Agreement made between you and him for the mak- 


inge good of the 200 Tenantes uppon the Gouernors Lande 
we haue forborne to com pell him thereunto, untill we 
receaue 3^our further directions therein. 

Councillor s Oath. 

" The Oath of Counsellors hath beene Administred to 
all the seuerall psons mentioned in that Comissione, saue 
only to M'" Leach who came not to us, and Mr Pawlett of 
whom we were doubtfuU there being here two of that 
name, and neither required it of us : 

Treasurer a Tern nits 

" Yt beinge a matter of difficultie to finde out on the 
suddaine such a conuenient place for the Seatinge of the 
Thresurers Tenantes as in our ludgments we thought 
requisite, and that would haue much endangered the 
health of his people and beene the meanes of the certaine 
loss of his next yeers cropp to haue kept them long without 
employment, about James Cyttie, M^' Threasurer was out of 
necessitie enforced to purchase for himselfe out of his own 
priuate Estate 200 hundred acres of Lande being the 
diuident of a priuate planter, for the present employment 
of his people, where they are yett remayninge. But the 
Lande belonginge to the place of Thresurer wee purpose 
as soon as may bee to haue allotted, and the Tenants 
belonginge thereunto placed thereon. 

" The like course wee purpose to take for the Land and 
Tennantes belonging to the place of Physition who onto of 
the like necessitie was faine for the present to giue certain 
closes and clere ground for the employment of his people 
not far from James Cyttie. 


Accomack iSettlemeiit. 

" The Secretaries Tenantes were the last yeere placed 
at Achamack where soe many of them as remaine aliue doe 
yett remaine, but whether y^ bee fitt they should contynue 
there, well or nott, y* is matter very considerable since 
that place ys soe farr from James Cyttie. And seeinge 
that of the twentie Tenantes belonginge to that place there 
are butt onely 9 remayninge, we haue thought y fitt to 
allow the Secretaries in the mean tyme certaine fees for 
the supplyinge of his Tenantes that are wanting, until you 
shalbe pleased to take some order for the makinge of them 

Excessive Tohacco Phiutimj. 

"For the drawinge of the People from the excessiue plant- 
inge of Tobacco, wee haue by the consent of the generall 
Assemblie restrayned them to one hundred plants ye 
headd, uppon cache of wch plantes there are to bee left 
butt onely nyne leaues wch pportions as neere as could be 
guessed, was generally conceaued would be agreable wth 
the hundred waight you haue allowed. By wch meanes 
as also by the course that we haue taken for the keepinge 
of euery man to his Trade we doubt nott butt very much 
to preuent the Tmoderate plantinge of Tobacco. But 
nothinge can more encourage all men to the plantinge of 
corne in abundance and soe diuert them from plantinge of 
Tobacco, then you would be pleased (since y* you desire that 
greate plenty of Corne bee planted here as well for such 
multitudes of people as you hope yearly to send ouer, as for 
our owne selues to allow us a Marchantable Rate here for 


our Corne, either to bee paide by Bills of Exchange in Eng- 
land or in Comodities to be deliuered here at 25 p. centum, 
the prise of Is the Bushell being pposed by the generall 
Asserablie was by us thought very reasonable since the 
Corne you send ouer besides the hazard of being lost or 
spoyled at Sea, doth stand you in as much or more the 
charge or fraight in Cask considered. 

First Mill in United States. 

The good example of S"" George Yardley by whom a 
wind-mill hath been allredy built, and of M^ Thresurer who 
ys about the Erectinge of a water mill wee hope be great 
encouragements to others in a matter of soe greate and 
generall use. 

Iron Works. 

" The care we haue taken of the Iron Wourkes we re- 
serue to be reported by M*^ Thresurer and M^' Barkley him- 
selfe. Wee are about the erectinge of a salte worke by the 
helpe of Mr. Maurice Barkley who hath undertaken the 
ouersight thereof, and with a man that hath very good 
skill therin, and Miles Pirkett whom you haue sent to y* 
purpose to be employed under him. 

Commodities for Export. 

" Pitch and Tarr we are in doupt will neuer proue staple 
comodities by reason y* the Trees (for ought we cann yett 
understand) doe grow soe dispersedlie as they are nott 
worthy the fetchinge togeatber. Sope Ashes and p 
heereafter proue a good comoditie, but there are required 
towards that hands and at so cheape a rate as cannot 

yett bee. 


" Wee haue sent you a Sample of y* wch wee take to bee 
the Silke grass by M'" Harryott in S'' Walter 

Rauleighs Vioage of Discouerie and wee are informed 
farr larger and fayrer in many places than y" sample wch 
M' Pory who found y^ oute in his late Vioage of 
Discoverie and after wch y^ y' our purpose seriouslie 

to make further 

Puhlic House to he Built. 

" By the consent of the last Generall Assemblie there y^ 
a large Contribution to be underwritten for the buildinge 
of a howse of Entertainment at James and therefore 

woode earnestly desire y^ you would be pleased to send 
ouer some of Carpenters Brickmakers and Bricklayers 
of wch usefull trades there is very great want, and for 
whose labour wee wilbe content to paye after a good rate 

Gla&s Workii. 

" Touchinge the pceeding of Capt. Norton and the Italians 
M' Thresurer hath prmised to giife you pticular aduertis- 
ment : The booke wch you haue been pleased to comend 
unto us haih nott yet been redd ouer by euery one of the 
Counsell, butt by as many as haue redd it, is very much 
distasted for the bitternes of the language. 

Earl of Pemhrohe 

" Yt is noe small encouragement unto us that the Right 
Hono^^^ the Earle of Pembrooke hath vouchsafed to caste 
a favorable eye uppon the Southern Colonic who shall 
comand from us our best endeauors in chusinge out for his 
LorP and his Assocyatts the most comodious seate that 
may be 


Arrival of Gookin'n Ship. 

" There ariued lieere about the 22*'' of Nouember a shipp 
from M' Gookin out of Ireland wholy uppou his owne 
Adventure, withoute any relatione at all to his contract 
wth you in England, wch was soe well furnished with all 
sortes of pvisione, as well as with Cattle as wee coflld wyshe 
all men would follow theire example, hee hath also brought 
with him aboute 50 men upon that Aduenture, besides 
some 30 other Passengers, wee haue Accordinge to their 
desire seated them at Newports news, and we doe canceiue 
great hope yff the Irish Plantation p'per y* frome Ireland 
greate multitude of People wilbe like to come hither 

Ship Builders needed. 

" Wee doe humblie entreate you to go on wth your pur- 
pose of sending ouer of Shipwrightes, who for this Colonic 
y* is yett seated one the riuers side, wilbe heere men of 
singular use for the buildinge of Shipps, Pynnaces, and 
small vessells, without the wch wee cannott well psecute 
our discouerie and seakinge to Trade wth our neighbours, 
or Transporte eyther ourselues or our Goodes from one 
place to another 

Project of Ccjit. Nuce. 

" Wee haue lieerein sent you a piect of Capt Newces wch 
yf you shalbe pleased to take likinge of yt is thought heere, 
will yeelde you a more certain pffitt than your Tenants to 
halfes, wch being pposed to the generall Assemblie, was by 
them very well approved of: we haue uppon his Peticione 
and deepe ptestations (yt he is utterlie ignorant in the 
busines of the Sawinge Mills) sent home the Dutchmans 


Sonne who cam ouer hither only for the commforte of his 
father, and the rather to discharge you of the payinge of 
unnecessary wages. 

Master of Gooklns Ship. 

" M'" Pountis hath had some conference with y^ M' of the 
Irish shipp a Dutchman, whose name ys Cornelius Johnson 
of Home in Hollande, who is soe farr in loue with this 
Countrey as he intendeth to returne hither; within this 
Twelue moneth, and of him selfe offered to pcure and bringe 
ouer a fitt M'" workman to build Sawinge mills heere wch 
shall goe with the winde, of which you may be pleased to 
enquire fourther, yf you thinke good, wch wee desire they 
may undertake themselues, by wch course, you shall run 
noe hassard but yf it pcede well, you may take y^ Aduan- 
tage of theire Example. 

" Thus desiringe you to beleeue y* we will unanimouslie 
joine to the uttmost of our powers for the Aduancement of 
the Colonic, of y^ future psperi tie whereof we conceaue the 
greatest hope, by how much yt hath pleased God to bless 
this Colonic, wth much better health than formerlie, we 
most humblie take our leeues and remaine at your comande 
" Francis Wyett 
George Yeardlei George Sandys 
George Thorpe 

Jo: Barkley Natha. Poule 

Ch: Dauisone Tho. Newce 

John Pott Sam Macok 

Jo: Pountis." 


Letter from ''Dust and Ashes." 

January 30, 1621-2. " The letter subscribed D. and 
A., brought to the former Court by an unknowne Mes- 
senger was nowe againe presented to be read the contents 
whereof are as foUoweth : 

"'January 28th, 1621. 

" ' Most worthie Conipanie : Whereas I sent the Trea- 
suror and yorselues a letter, subscribed ' Dust and Ashes,' 
wch promised 550h. to guie to the prsons expressed and 
did soone afterward, accordinge to my promise send the said 
money to S^' Edwin Sandys to be deliuered to the Companie, 
In wch letter I did not directly order the bestowinge of the 
said money but shewed my intent for the conuersion of In- 
fidells' Children, as it will appeare by that letter which I 
desire may be read in open Court, wherein I chieffly com- 
ended the orderinge thereof to the wisdome of the Hono^^^ 
Companie, And whereas the gentlemen of Southampton 
Hundred haue undertaken the disposinge of the said 55011, 
I haue longe attended to see the erectinge of some schoole or 
other waye whereby some of the Children of the Virginians 
might haue bin taught and brought up in Christian reli- 
gion and good manners wch not beinge donne accordinge 
to my intent but the money deteyned by a priuate hun- 
dred all this while contrary to my minde, though I iudge 
verie charitably of that honoble Society, And as already 
you haue receaued a great and the most painfully gained 
part of my estate towards the layinge of the foundacon of 
Christian religion and helpinge forward of this pious 
worke in that Heathen, nowe Christian, Land, so nowe I 


require of the whole Body of yo"" Hono^^'' and worthie Com- 
panie, whome I entrusted with the dispose of the said mo- 
neyes, to see the same speedily and faithfully conuerted to 
the worke intended. And I do further propound to you the 
hono^^® Companie, that if you will procure that some of the 
male Children of y*^ Virginians though but a fewe be brought 
ouer into England here to be educated and taught, and to 
weare a habbit as the Children of Christ's Hospitall do 
and that you will be pleased to see the 5501i conuerted to 
this use, then I faithfully promise that when eight or ten 
of the Virginians' Children are brought ouer, and placed 
in London either in Christ's Hospitall or els in the Vir- 
ginan Schoole or Hospitall as it may be called and by the 
wills and guifts of good men may be yearly augmented, 
where the Companie may haue an ey ouer them, and be (as 
it were) nursing Fathers unto them, then I say I faithfully 
promise to add 45011 more, to make the sume l,0001i wch 
if God permitt I will cheerfully send you only I desire to 
nominate the first tutor or Gouernor who shall take charge 
to nurse and instruct them : But if you in yo*" wisdomes like 
not of this mocon then my humble suite unto the whole body 
of yo^' Honorable Companie is that my former guift of 55011 
be wholly imployed and bestowed upon a free schoole to 
be erected in Southampton Hundred, so it be presently 
imployed, or such other place as I or my friends shall well 
like of wherein both English and Virginians may be taught 
together and that the said Schoole be endowed with such 
priuileges as you, in your wisdomes, shall think fitt: The 
M' of wch Schoole I humbly craue may not be allowed to 
goe ouer except he first bringe in to the Companie sound tes- 
timony of his sufficiency in learninge and sincerity of life. 


" ' The Lord giue you wise and uuderstandinge harts, 
that his worke therein be not negligently performed. 

" ' D. and A. 

" Directed to ' The Right Honorable and worthy the 
" ' Treasurer, Councill and Company of Virginia.' " 

Wife of Read,' the Blacksmith. 

March 13. "The peticon of Isabell Read beinge taken 
into consideracon the Court hath ordered that shee shall re- 
paire to Captaine Jo. Martin to require his aunsweare touch- 
inge his promise of satisfaccon for her goods that he hath 
acknowledged came to his hands and which he hath since 
alienated and sold unto others as shee made to appeare and 
touchinge her other request for the howse and 100 acres 
of land wch James Read her Husband deceased in Virginia 
enioyed in respect of y^ Aduenture of his person thither, 
and died seized of them, the Court hath confirmed the 
same unto her Daughter Joane accordinge to her desire, 
beinge the next heire unto her deceased father. 

" The appointed Comittee hauinge drawne up a Declara- 
tion by waye of Aunsweare unto Captaine Martins Certifi- 
cate and Patent the same was nowe presented in Courte 
and read being this that followeth 

"'Right Honorable whereas at a greate and Generall 
Quarter Courte for Virginia held the xxxthe of January last 

1 James Road, blacksDiith. landed with the first party at Jamestown, in 
May, 1607. 



their was presented to the Said Courte a Certificate on the 
behalfe of Cap* Jno. Martin, in y^ name of y^ Coansell & 
Comp'' for his Ma"'' here resident conteyninge a DecLaration 
of his worth and seruises and therby reporting him to be 
worthie to enioy the Patents and priueledges therin graunted 
unto him subscribed by some Hon^^*" personns and others: 
diuers of whome the Company conseavinge not to be fully 
enformed of the truth of all passages in that buisines, haue 
therfore thought itt their duty to giue unto them and 
pticularly unto yo'' Lo^* a true Accompt of the State and 
Carriage thereof 

" ' May it please yo' Lo^' therefore to be aduertised That 
whereas the said Company are Lymitted and dyrected by his 
Ma*' Lres Patents to 4 great and generall quarter Courts only 
for passinge of all matters of greatest waight and pticularly 
for disposinge of the Land in Virginia, and as beinge a fun- 
dam' tall Lawe was notoreously knowne to all the Company 
& for further caution hath bine from time to time accord- 
ingly declared to the Planters as an ordinance from his 
Ma*y to be inuyolably obserued. 

" ' Contrarie here unto there was psented att a pryuate 
inferior Courte 2 seuerall Patents ready engrossed (ye 
Corny* not beinge afore acquainted wtli them) the one 
Constitutinge the said Capt Martin M' of the Ordnance, 
the other conteynhige a Graunt of Land unto him, his heirs, 
executors and assignes, By wch pryuate Courte called ex- 
traordinarilie and as by ye effect appeared for y* onely 
buisiness the said Patent was unlawfully and unduly 
passed notwithstandinge y° dislike of diuers then psent^ 
but yett neuer had y*' Confirmacon of a Quarter Courte. 

'"Secondly the saide Patent for Land doth conteyne an 
intended graunt of diuers exorbutant pryueledges and 


transcendent liberties to Cap^ Martin apparantlie repugnant 
to iustice and the good Gouerment of the generall pLantacon 
wch the Comp* by his Ma"'^^ Lres Patents to them could 
not graunt as mainely the exemption of all the people within 
his Lands from the Gouernm^ of the Gouernor and Coun- 
sell in Virginia and from all other seruices of the whole 
Colony there (except in case of Warr and allso a graunt of 
unlymited Fishinge, And allso y^ Fifte pt of all rich Mynes, 
And to enioy all other Mynes found by him his heirs or 
assignes, and of Comon Martes to be erected att his plea- 
sure & many other generall indefinite liberties as appeareth 
in the said Patent ; By collour of wch exorbitant Patent 
many great inconuenyencies haue followed to y*" Company 
and Colony, as in pticularr Capt Martins refusall to Sub-/ 
mitt himselfe to ye Lawes, and orders of the Colony in 

" •' And y* this Plantacon is made a Receptacle & Harbo'* / 
of disordered psonns who subterfuge thither from ordinary f 
Justice, All wch & many other mischeefs haue been often 
Complayned of by y" Colony att their pticular and generall 
Assemblies and by y^ Gouerno'' there aud most grieuously 
by Capt Argall himselfe then Gouerno'' by his letter to the 
Company, notwithstanding his owne subscripcon to Capt 
Martins saide Certificate in approbacon of the said Patent 
uppon wch Lre an orde^^ was made in a great and generall 
Quarter Court in May 1618 and a Comittee appoynted to 
examine and reforme y^ said Patent there being psent att 
y* Court S"" Thomas Smith and Mr. Alderman Johnson 
then Trer and Deputy to this Company so y^ itt seemeth 
strange to y^ Comp^ to finde their hands allso to Capt Mar-; 
tins Certificate contradictinge the Act oT y* great Courte 
wherein themselues were y*' principall directors : 


"'Moreouer y^ said inconueniences haue been lately 
satisfied Viua Voce before the Company in open Courte. 

" 'Lastly y*^ Company haue and doe alwaies offer to grant 
ye said Captaine Martin (of any of whose good demerritts 
they should be glad to heare and cherish) uppon surrender 
of his former a new patent of all his Land with as large 
and ample pryuyledges as any other hath wch fauour all 
butt himselfe haue most willingly & thankfully accepted of 
"'The said Certificate of Capt John Martin was subb- 
scribed to with these names, vizd 

"'Pembroak Tho: Smith 

Ro : Warwick - Fra : West 

Leicester W^ St John 


Sheffeilde Samuell Argall 

Ro: Mansell W« Canning' 

"Wch Declaration beinge read and some words altered 
that might fitt it to the qualitie of those that were no lords 
that had subscribed to the said Certificate and after put to 
the question was well approued of and order gmen to the 
Secretary to make diuers copies thereof, the Court entreat- 
in-e S^ Jo Dauers and Mr. Tomlins to delmer unto such 
Lords as had subscribed thereunto a particular Coppie ot 
the Companies aunsweare unto the said Certificate as also 
unto the M^ of requests wch they were pleased to under- 
take and for the rest order was giuen to the Secretary to 
deliuer a Coppie to each of them. 


Letter of the Governor and Council of Virginia, 
WRITTEN IN April, 1622. 

" Right Hono''^^ 

" Wee receued your Letters bearinge date the 26*^ of 
Nouember and 5'^ of December, 162 , the first by the Dis- 
couerie which ariued not at James Cyttie until the 14^^ of 
April last, the other by the Bona Noua the T"^ of the same 
and will doe our best to fulfil your comands as farr as the 
necessitie of our prsente afiayres will prmitt. But since 
our last by the George dated in Januarie 1621 itt hath 
• pleased God for our many seruices to laye a most lament- 
able Afflictione uppon this Plantation, by the trecherie of 
the Indyans, who on the 22*^ of March laste attempted in 
most places under the Coulor of unsuspected amytie, in 
by Surprize to haue cutt us of all, and to haue 
Swept us away at once throughoute the whole lande had 
itt nott plesed god of his abundant mercy to preuent them 
in many places, for wch we can neuer sufficyent magnifie 
his blessed name. 

Grent Massacre. 

" Butt yet they puayled soe farr y* they haue massacred 
in all partes aboue three hundred men, women, and child- 
ren, and haue since nott only spoyled and slaine diners of 
our Cattell, and some moer of our people, and burnte most 
of the Howses we haue forsaken, but haue also enforced 
us to quitt many of our Plantacons, and so unite more 
neerely together in some places the better for to strengthen 
and defende ourselues against them. 



Plantations Occnpied. 

" Wee haue thought most fitt to hold those few places 
James Cyttie, w^*^ Paspebay, and certain Plantacons one 
the other side of the riuer ouer against the cyttie, and 
Kickoghtan and Newports News Southampton hundred, 
Flowerdon hundred, Sherley hundred and Plantacions of 
M"" Samuell Jourdans ; all other through out the whole 
Colonie we haue been fayne to abandon and to bringe the 
most of our Cattle to James Cyttie, the Island beinge the 
securest place for them, wch we hold in all the Riuer. And 
these are more than wee could willinglie haue held but 
that it was ympossible to receaue from so many dispersed 
and straglinge Plantacions, and bringe of so many people, 
Goods, Prouisions, and Cattle to any one place soe Sud- 
ainly as the seasone of the yeere for plantinge required, 
neyther yf wee would was there in any one wee held so 
much clered grounde or Howsinge as was able to receaue 
halfe the people togeather. Now matters standinge with 
us heere in this unhappie State, there are some few things 
of especyall consequence wch voluntariely offer them- 
selues both to your consideracons and ours, and uppon the 
speedie accomplishment whereof both the Honor and 
safetie of the whole Accon depende, and therefore we 
cannott but assure ourselues, you wilbe as sencyble thereof 
as the ymportance of the cause require th. 

Importance of a Fortified Place. 

" The First, wch wee did a little touch att in our laste 

Letters sent by the George, ys the greate necessitie of 

/ findinge oute a place soe defensible to seate uppon, as 

where we may soe fortifie ourselues that neyther the In- 


dyains may infest us (wch they will continuallie endeauor 
to doe) nor forraine enemy subuert us, wch wilbe the 
master peece of this great woorke, for since this late woeful 
experience hath taught us, That our first and princypall 
care should haue beene for our safetie, by the neglect 
whereof the Plantacon though it hath seemed to goe on 
in a hopefull and florishinge course, yett hath all this 
while, gone butt soe much out of the way. 

Settlements too Scattered. 

" And that it could not butt bee subiect to much damages 
to bee soe dispersedlie and promiscuously planted w'^ our 
late reconsiled saluage enymies, y* y° very necessarie for us 
yett at last to laye better and surer foundations for y^ tyme 
to come. And since the place ys yett to seeke, to make 
choyce of such nowe, and there to fortifie ourselues, soe as 
we may be able to defend us even against our most power- 
full Enemyes, and therefore we most humblie desire that 
you would be pleased to giue us leaue to remaine in such 
a place as wee shall finde most fitt to seate uppon, for the 
dyscouery whereof wee intende this Summer to use our 
best endeauors. 

Desire to settle in one place. 

" And to that ende to haue comissione That the Generall 
assemblie here may haue full power and Authoritie to re- 
moue to such a place as they shall resolue one, and because 
we cannott serue ourselues, as wee should unles wee unite 
too-ether in greate Bodies, where wee must be contented for 
for a while w*'' small quantities of Lande according to y^ 
of theire people ; that you would bee pleased for a 
tyme y* noe Patients be graunted at home to any pticular 


plantation to seate when they thinke good, but both for 
the place and pportione of Lande they bee att the direc- 
tione and pportionment of the Gouernor and Counsell here. 

Necessity for Corn. 

^' The next matter of greatest jnnportanee ys how in this 
tyme of distresse untill y® Plantation hath a little recouered 
itselfe and is somewhat settled, we shalbe puided of a 
sufficyent pportione of corne, wherein now the very life of 
the whole Colony consist, to feede for many monthes, as we 
heere too third ptes wherof are women, children and 
unskilfull people since there neuer was more cause to feare 
the miserable ruin of y'' Plantation by a relapse into an 
extreame famine, than at this tyme unles our wants be 
supplied from home, (for besides the seasone of plantinge 
corne almost lost before wee could drawe together many 
whose labours myght haue beene a great helpe to the 
encreasinge of our store, must now of necessitie be em- 
ployed in watchinge and wardinge night and daye for the 
saftie of the rest of the howses, of the cattle, and of the 
corne w*^^ shalbe planted, and many must be sent out 
against the Indyans, that we may be the more quiett and 
safe at home ; neyther can wee now plant corne in so many 
places as wee could (especially neere the howses by rear 
gone y* proceadeth all ouer the grounde and thick growne) 
that the Indyans may hide themselues therein, who will 
from tyme to tyme peeke out many of our people whilst 
they are about theire weedinge and dressinge thereof, and 
we haue great reason to doupt since they haue heretofore 
practized the like, that where wee doe plant any corne they 
will eyther cutt it downe or destroy it in Summer before 
y^ bee ripe or by stealth share with us at Haruest. And 


as for our last and beste refuge heere which y^ our getting 
of corne eyther from our freends by trade, or from our 
enemies by force though we will to our uttermost endeuo"" 
both, y* is very uncertaine and hazardous. And therefore 
we most humbly desire that since a sufficyent pportione of 
corne and that very good and well chosen be sent as may 
be able to sustaine the whole colonic this next yoere, yf 
neede shall soe require, and that noe man be suffered to 
come hither without a yeers prouision of corne at leste. 

Arms Wi/nfed. 

" Another thinge of noe lesse moment than the former y^ 
Arnies and munitions of w^"" there is heere at this tyme so 
great wante that at least a third pte of men able to beare 
Armes are utterly unpuided thereof and without w*^*^ we 
cannot only not goe fourth to reuenge us uppon our enemyes 
but shalbe euen unable to defend ourselues at home. And 
therefore shall also desire y* some speedie course be taken 
for the sendinge of a large quantitie thereof and y^ a con- 
tinual supplie may follow from tyme to tyme. 

An KiKjlnecr requested. 

" And since wee are resolued to bestow much paynes in 
matter of fortifications where wee seate ourselues, that you 
would be pleased w**" all speede to sende us some Skillfull 
Engineers fit for such a worke at alsoe great store of spades, 
shouells, mattocks, prickaxes, and other tooles fitt for that 
purpose. For w^^ as also for such corne, Armes, munition 
or any thing else w^^ you shalbe pleased to send us, y' is 
not our desire to be any way chargeable unto you but as 
we are confident to be able to doe it, notwithstandinge all 
those misfortunes w^^' haue befalne us, soe shall wee be 



most willinge to giue you such sattisfaction further for them 
•^th -^gj^.^ gQQ^ Tobacco, and for the pformance whereof we 
doe by these presents engage ourselues unto you. 

" Thus makinge noe question but that yf you shalbe 
pleased to send us those suppUes hi our necessities, the 
speedines wherof will dubble your fauo' to us therein. 
And therfore we cannott but againe with all ernestness 
ymportune the same, the Plantation will suddenly be in a 
farr more safer happie, and florishinge estate than euer 
it was before. We most humbly take our leaues and rest 

Att yo"" comands. 

Bowes, tlie Chronicler. 

May 20. " M'" Howe the Cronicler^ makinge a request for 
12'^ of Tobacco w'^'' he pretends was promised him yearely in 
consideracon of his paines and willingness to doe the Compa- 
nie seruice in his Booke relatinge the passages concerninge 
Virginia. The Court was pleased to graunt his request for 
this yeare giuinge order that so much should be deliuered 
him of the Companies Tobacco w'^^he thankfully accepted of. 

Maids Town. 

May 22. " The Aduenturors for the Maides sent the last 
Somer, hauingc moued for a ratable proporcon of Land to 
their Aduenture to be laid out together, where they intend 
to build a Towne w'^'' they desire may be called by the 
name of Maydes Towne. The Court hath graunted the re- 
quest and approued of the name theyhaue giuen thereunto. 

1 Edward Howes, geutlenian and chronicler, continued Stoioe's Chroni- 
cles of England, and in his Ilistorij of Raign of Juntcs the First speaks 
well of Virginia, lie was probably the same Ed. Howes, who frequently 
corresponded with Winthrop of Connecticut. 



Transactions from May 22, until Sbptember, 1622. 
Annval Election. 

AY 22, 1622. " Upon mocon in reguard the Af- 
ternoone was farr spent, it was by a generall 
consent agreed unto that the Court should be 
continued after 6 of the Clocke till all buisi- 
nesses were ordered. 

" Imediately after these things were thus ordered, as the 
Court were proceedinge after their accustomed manner to 
the eleccon of their Treasuror, Deputy and other Officers 
for the present yeare accordinge to the direccon of his 
Ma*' Letters Patents, M"^ Alderman Hamersly ' rose upp 
and hauinge first excused his seldome cominge to Courte 
by reason of the officers negligent warninge of him he said, 

Calvert has a Message from the King delivered. 

" That himselfe and Mr. Bell ^ were both comanded by 
M"^ Secretary Caluert to deUuer a Message in his Ma*' name 
unto this Court, namely to signifie, that although it was not 

1 Hu<^h Hamersly, haberdasher, a proruinent merchant, sheriff in 1618, 
mayor of London 1627. 

- Robt. Bell, for years an associate with Sir Thomas Smith in the man- 
agement of the affairs of East India Company. , 


his Ma"*'' desire to infringe their liberty of free eleccon yet 
it would be pleasing unto him, if they made choise for 
Treasuror and Deputy any of the gentlemen (comended 
for their sufficienceness whose names were menconed in 
the paper nowe presented in open Court w'^'' were these 
that follow, vizt : 

ffo7' Treasuror were nameiL for Deputy. 

S-" J^ Wolstenholme. M^ Leat.'' 

S"- W" Russell. M R° Oftly.^ 

M-- Cletherow.^ M-" Stiles. 

M'- Maurice Abbott." M"^ Abdy." 

M"" Hamford." M' Bateman.' 

" M'' Bell beinge also entreated to deliuer the Message he 
had receaued from M'' Secretary Caluert said That he was 
not present when M'' Secretary Caluert imparted this Mes- 
sage to M' Alderman Hamersly but that there came a 
Messenger to him one night to require him to attend M' 
Secretary Caluert ^ at his Chamber and beinge there M'' 

1 Christopher Cletherow had been one of the directors of East India 
Company, sherifi' in 1625. 

2 Maurice Abbott, brother of Archbishop of Canterbury, and at a late 
period one of the Conimissioners for Virginia, sheriff of l^ondon in 1627. 

3 Afterwards Sir Humphrey Handford, sheriff of Loudon, 1622. 
• Nicholas Leat, ironmonger. 

5 Robert Offley, merchant of London, died in 1631. 

6 Probably Anthony Abdy. 

7 Robert Bateman who had been solicitor of East India Company. 

^ George Calvert created baron of Baltimore, February, 1625, On the 
accession of Charles, having under Gondomar's influence joined the church 
of Rome, refusing to take the oath of supremacy, was retired. Visited 
his plantation in New Foundland in 1627, and again in 1628. From 


Secretary told him, that his Ma"*' commanded him to 
signifie his pleasure that out of his good wishes (for 
the good of the Company and the Plantation he had 
recomended to this Court certaine Gentlemen (named in 
the paper nowe presented) if the Company so thought good : 
But it was not his meaninge to infringe the liberty of 
their free choyse ; And being desirous to haue his mes- 
sage in writinge, M*" Secretary said it needed not for it 
was but short. 

Earl of Southampton's Reelection. 

" Both Av'^^ Message agreeinge in substance, and beinge 
a full remonstrance of his Ma*^ well wishinge unto the 
Plantation and of his gracious meaninge not to infringe 
the priuiledge of the Companie and liberty of their free 
eleccon was receaued with great ioye and contentment of 
the whole Court and thereupon proceedinge to the eleccon 
of their Treasuror, for w'^^only three by the orders of the 

thence went to Virginia, but refusing to take the oath of supremacy re- 
quired by hxw, was expelled from the colony. In 1632 obtained a charter 
for settling a portion of Virginia, but died on April IBth. A manuscript 
in Library of Congress copied from the original in British Sluseuni, fur- 
nishes the following facts : 

The king, when the patent was brought, asked Baltimore, what should 
be the name of the region ceded ? He replied it would have been pleasant 
to have called it after the king, but another province had been called 
Carolana. Then said Charles, " Let us name it after the queen, what 
think you of Mariana?" Baltimore reminded the king that was also the 
name of the Spanish historian who taught that the will of the people was 
higher than the law of tyrants. Still disposed to compliment his wife, the 
king said " Let it be Terra Marias," and the blank for the name of the 
province was thus filled. 

Wolstenholme was largely engaged in trade with America. 


Company could stand, It was generally agreed that ont 
of the fine formerly proposed by his Ma^'*" for Treasuror ; 
choise should be made of two of them to stand in eleccon 
with one that the company should name : 

" Whereupon the former fine beinge seuerally put to the 
question It appeared by ereccon of most hands that Mr. 
Clethero and Mr. Hanford, were to stand for it : Then 
the Companie named the Lord of Southampton who beinge 
all three accordingly ballated, the place fell to the Lord 
of Southampton by hauinge 117 balls, Mr. Clethero 13, 
and Mr. Hamford 7. 

" In like manner out of the fiue formerly named by his 
Ma*'*" for Deputy, by ereccon of most hands M"" Leat and 
M' Bateman were to stand for it, unto whome the Companie 
hauinge added M"" Nicholas Farrar they were all three put 
to the Ballatinge Boxe, and thereupon choise was made of 
M'" Nicholas Farrar by hauinge 103, M"" Bateman 10, and 
M-" Leate 8. 

June 5. " My Lo : Cauendish acquainted the Court w*^ 
his Ma*^ Answeare unto the message he deliuered in the 
name of the Companie in the presence of my Lo : Haugh- 
ton and diuers others of the Counsell that attended them. 

The London Company to Governor and Council of Virginia, 
June 10, 1622. 

" After o'" very heartie comendacons : The safe arriuall 
of all the Sliipps and people sent this last yeare to Virginia, 
hath bredd such abundance of ioy as could not be con- 
tained amongst o'selues, but hath declared itself by pub- 
lique thanksgiueinge unto God Almightie that of the rich- 
ness of his mercies through all waies and passages so 


securely conducted you : This unexpected blessing doth 
much encouradge us in the midest of many difficulties w*^ 
an assured hope that the indignation of God is now at 
last appeased and that his gratious fauor" shall henceforth 
lead you on successfully in all things : And this we hope 
the rather by the good enterance w*'*' we haue understood 
you haue made in the Iron works, and other staple com- 
odities, wherein we most earnestly intreat you with all 
constancie and dilligence to proceed : for there is now an 
absolute necessitie upon us to make good and that speedily 
by reall proofe some of those things, w'^ the expectation of 
^ch ^Q \i^\xQ so long posessed the world. 

Iron and Wine expected. 

" Wherefore as y"' owne welfare and the aduancement of 
y^ Plantation is deare and pretious unto you, or if our loues 
and endeuors haue deserued ought at yo"" hands ; we pray 
and intreat you not tofaile in the performance of what we 
in y""" behalfe haue promised : and let us haue at least by the 
next returnes some good quantitie of Iron and Wyne ; that 
w'^ you sent by the George was by long carrieng spoiled 
but principally by the mustie caske wherein itt was putt 
so that it hath been rather of scandall than creditt unto us. 

Silk raising vr(/ed. 

" His Ma"^ aboue all things requires from us a proofe of 
silke ; sharply reprouinge the neglect thereof, wherefore 
we pray you lett that little stock you haue be carefully 
improued, the mulberrie trees preserued and increased, 
and all other fitt preparations made for, God willing 
before Christmas you shall receiue from us one hundred 


ounces of Silkworme seed at least, wch comeing to late 
from Valentia we haue been forced to hatch it here. 

Silk Grass. 

" The Silk grasse sent home by Mr. Pory, whose paines 
and discouries we much esteeme, is auouched unto us by 
them that haue long lined in the East Indies to be the 
same of wch the Cambaya stufes are made, we pray you 
therefore and him in pticular to endevo' to procure some 
good quantitie of it that experience may be made thereof. 

Proj'osed Altera (ion uf Tenant's Conditions. 

"The project of Capt. Newce concerninge the altering of 
the condicons with o'" Tenants hath been the more care- 
fully considered of by us in regard it was recommended by 
you in generall, but as yett we are come to no determina- 
tion thereof through the interupcon of many and weighty 
bussineses, wch haue wholly taken off o' times and wch 
we could by no meanes wane, but we shall true enough 
giue answer thereunto : In the meanwhile we desire that 
no alteration be made Ijut that the best may be donne 
according to the course therein. 


" Wee haue much and very carefully labored in the 
matter of Fortification, wch you so much presse but hau- 
inge fruitlessly attempted diurswaies, Capt. Each, maister 
of the Abigaile made offer uppon the assurance of 60,000 
waight of Tobacco homwards at 3d p. pound fraight to 
carrie twelue carpenters with him, by whom and his owne 
Mariners together with the assistance of the Collony 


layinge his Sliipp nere Blunt Point, he wold erect before 
the end of March uppon the oyster banks a Block House 
that should forbid the passage of any Shipp upp higher in 
the riuer. Wee haue many times aduised with the Planters 
lately come ouer, and by the opinions and entreatie of 
them all assuring us it will be a most necessarie and 
welcome busines haue agreed with Capt. Each to sett for- 
ward from the Isle of Wight the beginning of August 
next ; and although the Company at psent be much in- 
debted neere two thousand pounds yet for the effectinge 
hereof they haue not refused to bestow neare 300'*^ in 
Instruments and other provisions necessarie the repay- 
ment whereof they will expect the psent yeare from the 
Collony, for whose safty and securitie they doe it : Wee 
send you here the plott of that wch he hath proposed unto 
us, that by consideration thereof you maybe better prepared. 

The. Comjyani/ a Debts. 

" The Companies debts here at home make us very 
solicitous w^*^ hauinge grown not for o"^ ownselues here, 
whereas you well know all things are donne freelie, but 
for the aduantage and good of the Plantation, and Collonie ;• 
we cannot but desire y°^ w*^*^ haue the greatest benefitt to 
take likewise uppon you, part of the care for the sattisfac- 
con thereof, that neither the Company be disinabled and 
dishonored, nor those priuate psons who stand engaged for 
them, damaged, whose deserts towards you, as in this so 
in all other things haue been very great : wherefore we 
earnestlie intreat you to be all assistant in what possible 
you may to those whose pticular charge it is for the im- 
proueinge and recouringe of the Companies debts and 



Poor Tobacco. 

" The Tobacco sent home by the George for the Company 
proued very meane and is yett unsould although it hath 
been offered at 3' the pound. This we thought fitt to 
aduise you concerninge the quantitie and the maner how 
it is raised, in both w'^'' being done coutrarie to their 
direccons and extreamly to theire preiudice, the Companie 
is very ill sattisfied, wee will write by the next more largely. 

The Glass Works. 

" Next the publique, wee must againe recomend unto 
you the last yeares und''takinge of the Glass-wotks, the 
Furrs, the Maids, and the Magazine, that each of them 
respectiuely haue y"*"" best fan"'' and assistance, so that 
although they haue missed of the psent return w*'^ they 
expected, yett in the end the good proceed of their Aduen- 
tures may enable and encouradg them to go on in these 
and the like necessarie kinds of supplies, w*'^ haue here 
risen not out of the supfluitie of theire estates but out 
of their charitie and great zeale w'^^ they beare unto the 
•Plantation, w""^ by the delay of one yeare is sett so much 
backward, whereof the damage is the Collonies, and o" the 
discontent and grefe, who would willingly haue continued 
o"" yearely supplies if we might haue been answered as was 
fitt with yearly returnes whereof wee see no just cause 
to the contrarie. 

The Maids. 

" Wee understand that M"" Pountis his care and charitie 
in prouiding for the maids hath been very great, for w*^*^ 
not onely the pticular Aduenturers who haue sent him a 


remembrance of their loues, but the whole Company return 
him verie hartie thanks : But whereas we are informed 
by some priuate letters of his purpose to come to England 
this yeare, if it be not grounded on waightier reasons than 
are alledged we erneastly intreate him to stay considering 
both in regards of his skill and office, there wil be speciall 
need of his assistance in the buildinge of the forte and 
otherwise : In thiFrequest the Aduenturers of Southamp- 
ton hundred ioyne, who by the good entrance that he hath 
made in theire bussines haue conceiued much hope of the 
bettering their Plantacon ; and for the ordering of the 
Discoverie and the proceeds of her vioadge w^^ hath been 
a maruailous charge unto them they do much reUe uppon 
his help. The reward of the great paines and care w^*' 
we and they by the seurall employments haue putt uppon 
him shal be to the uttermost of our abillities and we doubt 
not to his full content, for the pformance whereof we de- 
sire creditt onely till the ariuall of the Abigaile. 


"One thing more in pticular we are to intreat him, 
that whereas there haue been a deliuerie of certaine Kine 
and Calues unto him by M'^ Woodalls appointant, that he 
do not proceed in the sale or disposinge of any more of 
them then are already sold, till they haue further order 
from the Company who conceiue themselves much wronged 
in the deUury of so many, besids that there is claime 
made by others unto that debt uppon w^*^ M"" Woodall had 
the order for the catle. 


Ship Builders sent. 

" In this Shipp cometh ouer Capt Tho: Barwick w^^fiue 
and twentie psons und' his gouerm* for the building of 
boats, Shipps, and Pinnaces, uppon w^*" they are onely to be 
employed ; the list of theire names, the Copies of their 
seuerall couennants, and the Inuoyce of their prouisions we 
send you here along, to the intent that by the knowledge 
of those pticulars yo'' cares and fauo'^ might the better 
help forward this busines : There is not any thing of this 
nature, as hath put us to so much troble and charge as 
ths Project hath done ; wherefore as the most difficult, we 
most especially recommend it unto you desiringe you that all 
the prsons in generall may be cherished, so in pticular Capt 
Tho : Barwick may find from you that fau"*' and respect as 
may better enable him for the pformance of his place. 

Oversight of George Sandys Requested. 

" And as of all in generall so in pticular, we verie ear- 
nestlie request M' George Sandys from whom at first this 
project in part moued to haue an especial regard unto 
the proceedinge thereof, and that he would be pleased to 
take the accompts of Capt. Tho : Barwick and to transmitt 
the profitts accordingly as they shall grow due from time 
to time, unto the Aduenturers. Our desire is that they 
should be sett downe all together in one place where after 
the conuenient howsinge of themselues, they should all 
Hue and work together in their seuerall trades ; the choos- 
ing of a place is lefte to yo'' and their owne iudgments, so 
as there may be at the least 1200 acres of land appropri- 
ated unto it, and for the better easing of them in drawinge 
of their Tymber the Company haue graunted to lend him 


foure of theire oxen, wch we pray yo^ cause to be deliuered 
unto them. 

Carpenter for East India School. 

" There comes also along one Leonard Hudson a Car- 
penter, wth his wife and fiue of o' Apprentices for 
the erecting of the East India Schoole, the monies would 
not reach unto the sending of an Vsher as was at first 
intended, and besides uppon a second consideration it 
was thought good to giue the Collony the choise of the 
Schoolem'' or Vsher, if so be there be any there fitt for 
the place, if not we desire to und'^stand what proportion of 
maintainance they will alowe and accordingly wee will 
do o"^ best to procure from hence an honest and sufficient 
man for such a charge. The building of a Schoole and 
setting out the land at Charles Cittie is not so absolutely 
required, but that if an other place shal be iudged more 
conuenient by the Colonic is left to yo"" choise, but that 
there be such a proportion of land somewhere laid out, 
and that these people now sent be kept together for cul- 
tivating the land and building of a house, may not upon 
any reason whatsoeuer be altred : wherefore we pray you 
to lett the buissines proceed in that course, where in the 
notice of a good beginninge we are assured will stirr upp 
the minds of diurs good people to add liberaly to this 
foundation : There is very much in this buissines that 
wee must leaue to yo'' cares and wisdomes ; and the help 
and assistance of good people, of wch we doubt not. 

Rev. William Leate. 

" We send ouer M"* Willm Leate, a minister recomended 
unto us for sufficiencie of learning and integrity of life : 

310 vntaiNiA company of London. 

if he be entertained by any private Societie we shall ex- 
pect the charge of 26^*^ wch the Comp. hath laid out for 
him, to be returned by the first in good Tobacco IS'^ p^'^ 
and not aboue, and in this in the like kinds we especially 
desire the care of M'" George Sandys that by the returne 
of the Stock we may be enabled to continue the supplies. 

Provhions for Mr. Bcrliclcy. 

" The good endeauo'"" of M*" Berkley we kindly accept 
and haue sent him and his people diners prouisions wch 
he writt for : for matter of apparell he must supplie that 
out of the Magazines we hauinge beyond our liberties 
strained o^'selues; but the Aduenturers of Southampton 
hundred desire that he may out of their Store haue fine 
kine deliured him and his Company. 

Supplies for Frenchmen. 

" There is likewise some prouisions for the Frenchmen 
and the next Shipp shall bring their apparell, there wadges 
haue been paid here to M'" Bonall, theire kind usage and 
the instructing and training up of many in their skille and 
arts are things we especially recomend unto you. 

Captain NorUm. 

" The Aduenturers of the Glasse haue sent Capt Norton 
a good supplie, the Copie of all wch Invoyces together 
with that of Martins hundred we send here inclosed; that 
you miglit the better right them if by the negligence and 
default of the Mariners, they sufier any damage. Uppon 
the good performance of this Vioadge by the Master we 
desire you to aford him all the fauo'" and curtesie you may, 


the owners and undertakers of the Shipp, being persons 
likely by large Aduentures mutch to aduance the Plan- 

Rev. Robert Faulett. 

"M' Robert Paulett the Minister, was he whom the 
Court chose to be of the Counsell for M'^ Harwood, the 
Aduenturers of Martin hundred desire that he might be 
spared from that office, their bussines requiringe his presence 
continually. The last thing that we will conclude with 
is, that it hath pleased my Lord of Southampton for one 
yeare more to accept the place of Treasurer, and the Lo : 
Cauendish of the gouerment of the Sumer Hands. And 
so reseruinge all other pticulars untill better conueniencie, 
we comitt yo" and all y*''" affaires to the guidinge and pro- 
tection of the Allmightie. 

" Yo'" very Louinge frends 
" London 10 January 1622 Willm : Deuonshire 

Theoph: Howard 
"To o"* very Louing frends Willm. Cauendish 
S'" Francis Wyatt Knight Ed : Sackfeild 
Gouernor, and Capt Genall Jo : Lawton 
of Virginia, and to the rest Edwin Sandis 
of the Counsell of State Jo : Dauers 
there, these be. Robert Smith 

NiCHO: Ferrar Deputie 
John Ferrar 

ThO : GiBBS 

John Smith 
Tho : Sheaperd" 


The Kings Forest in Virginia. 

Junel^. " The Aunsweare of the Counsell andComimymj for Virginia 
assembled in a generoll Courte IJune 19, 1622] to the Fetition of Captayiie 
Jhon Martyn and Capt : Robert Hassell with many others unnamed touch- 
ing that iohich they call the King's Forrest in Virginia. 

" The sayde Counsell and Companie for aunsweare there- 
into saye that they acknowledge no Kinge of Virginia but 
Kinge James, of and under whome they hold and not from 
Kinge Powhatan so named by the Peticioners. 

" True it is that for a permanent home as well to his 
royall Ma"'' the flounder of that Plantation as also to his 
princely Issue they haue named both their chiefe Citties, 
as also other places most remarkable with the names of his 
Ma*^^ and of his Children w*=^ they suppose doth noe waye 
alter the proprietie of Inheritance in those places w'^*' his 
Ma"^ by his letters Patent under his great scale hath 
graunted to the said Companie for and throughout all 

" Touchinge the Kings Forrest so named in the peticon, 
it is a name happily knowne to Capt : Martin and his 
Associats but not to the Company, and in the circuit of 
that Territory w""^ they are pleased to call the Forrest are 
placed both James Citty beinge the principall Citty in 
Virginia, and place of residence for the Gouernor and 
Counsell and also diuers other principall plantacons and 
namely that of the Citty of London. 

" Touchinge the Deere it is true that generally the whole 
Countrie of Virginia is replenished with them, but for the 
swyne they are no other than y^ breed of such as haue 
been transported thither by the Companie : And it is 


straunge unto them y* Capt. Martin who is said to haue 
ruined as well his owne State (if euer he had any) as 
also the estate of others who put him in trust (as namely 
Capt. Bargraue) and who hath made his owne Territory 
there a Receptacle of vagabonds and bankrupts and other 
disorderly psons (whereof there hath bin made publique 
complaint) and who is famous for nothinge but all kinde of 
base condicons so published in print by the Relations of 
the proceedings of the Colony about 10 yeares since, and 
who for the said condicons was displaced by the Lord De 
Lawarr from beinge of the Counsell as a most unworthie 
person, and who hath presumed of his owne authority 
(no way deriued from his Ma'^"^) to giue uniust sentence 
of death upon diners of his Ma*^ subjects and seen the same 
put in cruell execucon, should dare to offer himselfe to his 
Sacred Ma^^^ as a Agent either for matter of good hus- 
bandrie or good order. 

" And as for Capt : Hazell he is neither Aduenturer in 
the Companie nor Planter in Colony but a meere stranger 
to both, nor otherwise knowne unto them than as an In- 
terpreter to a Polonian Lord of his owne creatinge. 

" But if his Ma''*" should be pleased to haue a Royall de- 
measne sett out for his Ma*^ his heirs and successors in 
Virginia to be and to be called for euer the Kins-'s Land 
there could be nothinge more ioyfull to the said Counsell 
and Companie, nor wherein they would more willingly 
imploy their uttermost endeauors for the aduancinge of a 
perpetuall standinge Reuenue to his Ma"^ 

Quarter Court. 

July 3. " The Court gaue order that a Receipt should 
be sealed for 47'^ 16' w'^^ the gentlemen and marriners had 

314 vmaiNiA company of london. 

giuen to the East India ComiDaiiy to be imployed in layinge 
the foundacon of a Church in Virginia. 

Capt. Martin Prim. 

" The Court thought fitt to make Capt : Martin Prim 
(the Captain of the Royall James) a freeman of the Com- 
panie, and to giue him two shares of land in reguard of 
the Large contribucon w''^ the gentlemen and marriners of 
that shippe had giuen towards good works in Virginia 
whereof he was an especiall furtherer. 

Rev. Mr. Femhcrlon. 

" The Court thought fitt to bestowe a freedome uppon 
M"" Pemberton a minister of Gods word, intendinge forth- 
with to goe to Virginia and there to imploye himselfe for 
the conuertinge of the Infidells. 

Rev. Mr. Lcnmce. 

" The Court likewise thought fitt to make M"" Launce a 
ffreeman understandinge that he was a continuall remem- 
brancer of the Plantation in his Prayers. 

Land assiffiiecl to Daniel Gookin. 

" M'' Mary Tue daughter of Hugh Crouch beinge the 
heire and Executrix of Lieutenant Richard Crouch did 
sett and assigne ouer in this Court 150 Acres of land, w''^ 
he said Leiutenant Crouch did bequeath unto her by 
the name of Mary Younge his sister, w'^^ Land, was for 
their seruants psonall Aduentures and lyes at Newports 
Newes, the said land shee assigned ouer to M' Daniel 1 


Land Assigned to Samuel Jordan. 

^' The said Mary Tue likewise assigned 100 acres of land 
w*'^ lies in Diggs his Hundred to Samuell Jordan of 
Charles Hundred gentleman. 

Patents Recommended. 

" These Patents folio winge were read and compared and 
found to be right and therefore recomended them to the 
Afternoons Court for confirmacon. 

The Lady Berkeley ^ 
M" Tho : Addisou | 
M' Edw: Johnson- ^duenturers 
( M"^ Edw : Palmer ^ 
M"^ Wm Felgate 
M' Fran Pecke, &c 
]VP John Harvy ^ 
M'' John Pemberton | 
M'' Wm Rowsly J> Planters 
M"^ Dan : Gookin 
M-^ Chris : Hilhiry 

Rev. Mr. Hopkins. 

July 3. The Court haue agreed to recomend Mr. Hop- 
kins Minister unto the Gouernor of Virginia in respect of 

' Palmer's isle at the mouth of the Susquehanna was named after 
Edward Palmer of Leamington, Gloucester Co., England. Camden says he 
was " a curious and diligent antiquary;" Fuller, in his Worthies, writes : 
" His plenteous estate afforded him opportunity to put forward the ingenuity 
implanted by nature, for the public good, resolving to erect an academy in 
Virginia. In order whereuuto, he purchased an island, called Palmer's is- 
land unto this day ; but in pursuance thereof was at many thousand pounds 
expense some instruments employed therein, not discharging the trust 
reposed in them with corresponding fidelity." He died about 1625. 


that good comendacon that Mr. Edw Allen^ hath giuen of 
him beinge desirous to goe ouer at his own charge. 

Capt. Thomas Jones. 

July 17. A mocon was made in the behaife of Captaine 
Thomas Jones ^ Captaine of the Discouery nowe imployed 
in Virginia for Trade and ffishinge that he might be 
admitted a ffreeman of this Companie in reward of the 
good seruices he hath there performed. The Court liked 
well of the mocon and condiscended thereunto. 

1 Edward Allen or Alleyn, formerly stage-player. In 1619 Dulwich 
College founded by him was completed. He died in 1626, aged 63. 

2 Jones, for some reason not stated, although he sailed from England 
in November, 1621, did not arrive at Jamestown until the following 
April. In August, 1622, he anchored at New Plymouth. Bradford 
says : "Behold now another providence of God a ship comes into the har- 
bor, one Captain Joues being chief therein. They were set out by some 
merchants to discover all the harbors between this and Virginia, and the 
shoals of Cape Cod, and to trade along the coast where they could * 
* * There was in the ship a gentleman by name Mr. John Pory : 
he had been secretary in Virginia and was now going home, passenger in 
this ship." 

On December 15th, of this year the Council for New England directed 
a letter to be written to the Treasurer of the Virginia Company complain- 
ing of Capt. Jones, for robbing the natives of New England of their furs, 
and taking some prisoners. 

In July, 1G25, Jones again arrived at Jamestown with a Spanish 
frio-ate which he alleged was taken in West Indies, under a commission 
of the states to one Captain Powell, from whom he had separated, to re- 
pair this ship. Shortly after his arrival he died, and the Virginia autho- 
rities suspected that the Spanish vessel had been illegally obtained. 



In the month of July the first intelligence of the great 
massacre in Virginia, on Friday the 22d of March, was re- 
ceived by the Sea Flower. 

Among others who came in the vessel, was brave 
Daniel Gookin, who was present at the 17th at a meetmg 
of the Company. The following is the prmcipal part ot 
the account of the massacre as published by authority and 
prepared by Edward Waterhouse. 

After relating the apparently friendly disposition of the 
Indians, the narrative says : 

The Massacre. 
" The Country being in this [peaceful] estate, an occasion 
was ministred of sending to Opachankano the King of 
these Sauages, about the middle of March last, what time 
the Messenger returned backe with these words from him. 
That he held the peace concluded so firme, as the Skie 
should sooner fall than it dissolue : yea, such was the 
treacherous dissimulation of that people who then had con- 
triued our destruction, that euen two dayes before the 
Massacre, some of our men were guided thorow the woods 
by them in safety : and one Browne, who then to learne 
the language liued among the Warrascotjac7cs{3, Proumce 
of that Kingf was in friendly manner sent backe by them 


to Captaiiie Hcnnor his Master, and many the like passages, 
rather increasing our former confidence, then any wise in 
the world ministring the least suspition of the breach of 
the peace, or of what instantly ensued ; yea, they borrowed 
our owne Boates to conuey themselues crosse the Riuer (on 
the bankes of both sides whereof all our Plantations were) 
to consult of the diuellish murder that ensued, and of one 
vti-er extirpation, which God of his mercy (by the meanes 
of some of themselues conuerted to Christianitie) preuented : 
and as well on the Friday morning (the fatal day) the 22 
of March as also in the euening, as in other dayes before, 
they came vnarmed into our houses, without Bowes or 
arrowes,or other weapons, with Deere, Turkies, Fish, Furres, 
and other prouisions, to sell, and trucke with vs, for glasse, 
beades, and other trifles : yea in some places, sate down at 
Breakfast with our people at their tables, whom imme- 
diately with their owne tooles and weapons, eyther laid 
downe, or standing in their houses, they basely and barbar- 
ously murthered, not sparing eyther age or sexe, man, 
woman or childe ; so sodaine in their cruell execution, that 
few or none discerned the weapon or blow that brought 
them to destruction. In which manner they also slew many 
of our people then at their seuerall workes and husbandries 
in the fields, and without their houses, some in planting 
Corne, and Tobacco, some in gardening, some in making 
Bricke, building, sawing, and other kindes of husbandry, 
they well knowing in what places and quarters each of our 
men were, in regard of their daily familiarity, and resort to 
vs for trading and other negotiations, which the more wil- 

ilt was on Good Friday, April 18, 1644, that a second slaughter by the 
Indians occurred. 


lingly was by vs continued and cherished for the desire we 
had of effecting that great master-peece of workes, their 

" And by this meanes that fatall Friday morning, there 
fell vnder the bloudy and barbarous hands of that per- 
fidious and inhumane people, contrary to all lawes of 
God and men, of Nature & Nations, three hundred forty- 
seuen men, women, and children, most by their owne 
weapons; and not being content with taking away life 
alone, they fell after againe vpon the dead, making as well 
as they could, a fresh murder, defacing, dragging, and 
mangling the dead carkasses into many pieces, and carry- 
ing some parts away in derision, with base and bruitish 

A description is then given of their horrid murder of 
'' that worthy religious Gentleman, Master George Thorpe, 
Esquire, Deputie of the Colledge Lands." 

The narrative continues in these words : " I will knit 
againe together now the tlired of my Discourse, and pro- 
ceed to tell you. That at the time of this Massacre there 
were three or foure of our ships in lames-Riuer, and one 
in the next Riuer, and daily more to come in, as three did 
within fourteene dayes after ; one of which they endeuored 
to haue surprised, but in vaine, as had also beene their 
whole attempt, had any the least fore-knowledge beene in 
those places where the Massacre was committed : '=' -^ * 
* :;. * :•: * * rj.^^ Lcttcrs of M^ George Sandis, a 
worthy Gentleman and Treasurer there, likewise haue 
aduertised (as many others from many particular persons of 
note and worth) besides the Relations of many returned in 
the Sea-flower (the ship that brought vs this vnwelcome 
news) haue beene heard at large in the Publike Courts." 


♦ ♦ ^: * .-J: Tliey certifie further, That besides Mas- 
ter George Thorpe, before mentioned, Master lohn Berke- 
ley, Captaine Nathaniel Powel, and his wife, (daughter of 
Master William Tracy, and great with childe) and Cap- 
taine Maycoch, all Gentlemen of birth, vertue, and industry, 
and of the Councell there, suffered vnder this their 
cruelty and treason. That the slaughter had been vni- 
uersall, if God had not put it into the heart of an Indian 
belonging to one Perry, to disclose it, who lining in the 
house of one Pace, was vrged by another Indian his 
Brother (who came the night before and lay with him) to 
kill Pace (so commanded by their King as he declared) as 
hee would kill Perry : telling further that by such an 
houre in the morning a number would come from diners 
places to finish the Execution, who failed not at the time : 
Perries Indian rose out of his bed and reueales it to 
Pace, that vsed him as a Sonne : And thus the rest of 
the Colony that had warning giuen them, by this meanes 
was saued. Such was (God bee thanked for it) the good 
fruit of an Infidell conuerted to Christianity ; for though 
three hundred and more of ours died by many of these/ 
Pagan Infidels, yet thousands of ours were saued by the 
means of one of them alone which was made a Christian ; 
Blessed be God for euer, whose mercy endureth for euer ; 
Blessed bee God whose mercy is aboue his iustice, and 
farre aboue all his workes ; who wrought this deliuerance 
whereby their soules escaped euen as a Bird out of the 
snare of the Fowler. 

"Pace upon this discouery, securing his house, before 
day, rowed oner the lliuer to lames-City (in that place 
neere three miles in bredth) and gaue notice thereof 
to the Gouernor, by which meanes they were preuented 


there, and at such other Plantations as was possible for a 
timely intelligence to be giuen ; for where they saw vs 
standing vpon our Guard, at the sight of a Peece they all 

ranne away." 

In concluding the statement Waterhouse rejoices that 
the Indians are to be conquered. He says : 

" Because the way of conquering them is much more 
easie then of ciuilizing them by faire meanes, for they are 
a rude, barbarous, and naked people, scattered in small 
companies, which are helps to Victorie, but hinderances to 
Ciuilitie : Besides that, a conquest may be of many, and at 
once ; but ciuility is in particular, and slow, the effect of 
long time, and great industry. Moreouer, victorie of them 
may bee gained many waies ; by force, by surprize, by 
famine in burning their Corne, by destroying and burning 
their Boats, and Canoes, and Houses, by breaking their 
fishing weares, by assailing them in their huntings, whereby 
they get the greatest part of their sustenance in Winter, 
by pursuing and chasing them with our horses, and blood- 
Hounds to draw after them, and Mastiues to teare them, 
which take this naked, tanned, deformed Sauages for no 
other than wild beasts, and are so fierce and fell vpon 
them, that they feare them worse than their old Deuill 
which they worship, supposing them to be a new and worse 
kinde of Deuils then their owne." 



London Company to the Virginia Colony upon Intelligence 
OF the Indian Massacre, Dated August 1, 1622. 

" To our very loving frends Sr. Francis Wyatt Knight, 
Governor & Captaine generall of Virginia, and to the 
rest of the Counsell of State there : 

" After our very hartie comendations ; Wee haue, to 
o'' extreame grief, understood of the great Massacre exe- 
cuted on o'' people in Virginia, and that in such a maner 
as is more miserable than the death itself. To fall by 
the hande of men so contemptible ; to be surprised by 
treacherie in a time of known danger ; to be deafe to so 
plaine a warning, as we now to late undrstand was last 
yeare given ; to be secure on an occaon of so great suspi- 
tion and iealousie as was Nenemathanewe's death ; not to 
pceive any thing in so opne and generall conspiracie ; but 
to be made in parte instruments of contriving it, and" 
almost guiltie of the destrucon by a blindfold and stupid 
entertaininge of it, wch the least wisdome or coui\age suf- 
ficed to preuent euen on the point of execution, are cir- 
cumstances that do add much to o"" sorrow, and make us to 
confesse that it is the heavie hand of Allmightie God for 
the punishment of o"" and yo'' transgressions ; to the humble 
acknowledgment and pfect amendment whereof, together 
with orselues, we seriously aduise and inuite you, and in 
particular earnestly require the speedie redress of those 
two enormous excesses of apparell and drinkeing, the crie 
whereof cannot but haue gon up to Heaven, since the in- 
famie hath spredd itself to all that have but heard the 
name of Virginia, to the detestation of all good minds, the 
scorne of others, and o*^ extreame griefe and shame. In the 


strength of those faults undoubtedly, and the neglect of 
the Devine worshipp, have the Indians prevailed, more 
than in yd" weaknes. Whence the euil therefore spring, 
the remedy must first begin, and an humble reconciliation 
be made with the Devine Ma"°, by future conformitie unto 
His most iust and holie lawes, which doinge we doubt not 
but that you shall be safe from the hands of all yo"" ene- 
mies, and them that hate you, from whom, if God's pro- 
tection be not with you, no strength of situation can saue 
you, and wth it, we conceiue not, but where you be, you 
may make yourselues as secure as in any other place 
whatsoeuer, and in all other respects the cliaung cannot 
but be to the worst, may to the utter ouerthrow not only 
of all o"" labo""^ and changes the expectation of his Ma^^^ and 
the whole State ; wherefore you shall do well so wholie to 
abandon the thought thereof as in this point not to return 
us any answer; Spartam quam nactus es hanc exorna; 
than to applie all yo'' thoughts and endeuo''^ and in espe- 
ciall to the setting upp of Staple comodities, according to 
those often instruccons and reiterated aduises that wee 
haue continually giuen you, the want whereof hath been 
the truest obiection against y^ succeedinge of this Planta- 
tion and the greatest hindrance and impediment (as we 
conceiue) that his Ma"*" and the State haue not set to a 
more liberall hand to the furtherance thereof, but now at 
last it hath pleased God for the confirmation no doubt of 
o'" hopes and redoubling of o"" and y°'' coradges, to encline 
his Ma*'*'^ Royall heart to graunt the Sole importation of 
Tobacco (a thing long and earnestly desired) to the Vir- 
ginia and Sumer Hands Companies and that upon such 
condicons as the priuate profit of each man is likely to be 
much improued and the generall state of the Plantation 


strongly secured, Avliile his Ma*^ reuenue is so closely ioyned 
as together with the Collonie it must rise and I'aile, grow 
and empaire, and that not a small matter neither, but of 
twenty thousand pounds p. ann. (for the offer of so much 
in certainty hath his Ma^"^ been pleased to refuse in fauor 
of the Plantations) . 

Four Hundred i/oung Men fo he sent. 

" The good effects likely hence to ensue are to obuious 
for us to sett downe and phapps greater than we can im- 
agine ; they only in generall we may assure o^'selues and 
yo""^, that there shal be no iust fauo*" tending to the ad- 
uancement of the Plantacon that we may not hope from 
his Ma*^'' who uppon o*" humble peticon and the mediation 
of the Lords of his most Hono^'*^ Priuie Counsell hath out 
of his Royall bountie been pleased to bestow ujDpon us 
diu'® armes (although in these parts unseruiseable yett 
such as against the Indians may be uery usefull : w'^'^ we 
doubt not but by the Abigaile to send you; and are 
further put in an assured hope to obtaine the number of 
400 young men well furnished out of England and Wales 
at 20''' a person to repaire w^*^ aduantage the number that is 
lost, to sett upp the publique reuenues of the Companie, 
and sattisfie the deserts of worthie persons in the Colony ; 
this suplie we hope to procure, so as they may be w^*^ 
you before the Spring. 

Difficult to obtain Corn. 

" The fear of y*"" want of Corne doth much perplex us, 
seeing so little possibility to supply you, the jDublique stock 
being utterly as yo' know exhausted and the last yeares 
aduentures made by priuate men not returned as was 


promised, we haue no hope of raising any valuable Maga- 
zine but rather feare to see the effect of what we forwarned 
by the Warwick. 

Self-Reliance urged. 

" Other waies and meanes are so uncertaine as wee can- 
not wish you to rely uppon any thing but yo'' selues, yet 
shall there not be left any meanes unatempted on o"^ parts 
in this kind and for other necessaries to supplie you hoping 
that the danger of this extremitie will hence forward 
pswade you not to comitt the certainty of yo"" lines to the 
uncertainty of one haruest; and that at last you will 
und'-stand it is as fitt and necessarie to yeeld the return of 
Aduentures yearely as to receiue them ; 

Captain Each to build a Fort. 

"But of these things the Abigaile shall not only bring 
you further notice, but we hope in some part the pformance 
whose stay hath by these last newes been a little prolonged, 
but by the end of the month wee doubt not to dispatch 
her • o"" designes in her entertainment we aduised of by 
the Furtherance but now send it you more fully expressed 
in the Order of the Quarter Court ; to the accomplishing 
whereof we earnestly desire you to applie yo"" uttermost 
endeuors ; although phapps it may proue in the effect of 
less consequence than we desire, and of greater difficultie 
in the execucon than is propounded ; yet it canot be but 
the bare name of a Forte will proue of more worth than 
the charges and paines required thereunto. 

" The particularities of the pformance, we must reserue 
till the Shipp itself come, only now we thought necessarie 
to let yo° und' stand that the Company hath couenanted 


uppoH the effecting of tlie buissines to make the fraight of 
the Shipp homeward 800^^ w*^*" they haue to pforme by the 
ladinge abroad of three score and four thousand waight 
of Tobacco at 3^ p lb, and at this price the generall Com- 
pany, the Aduenturers of the old ioynt stock of Mr. 
Blaney's Magazine, of Southampton Hundred (who haue 
refused for their owne and the Collonies benefitt the im- 
ploying of the Discouerie in Virginia,) and of Martin's 
Hundred haue agreed and orderd that their Tobaco shal 
be brought home in the Abigaile, w''*' we desire you to take 
order may be pformed accordingly. The procuring of the 
rest to make up the former quantitie is the thing we are 
now most seriously to recomend unto yo'" cares w*"^ uppon 
this timely aduise (before the coming of so many Shipps, 
things be forestaled) we doubt not you will verie easly 
effect, the price being so indifferent, the conueyance so 
safe and good, and the delay of a little time in the coming- 
home of the Tobacco no disaduantage at all by reason of 
the contract that we haue lately concluded with his Ma"^ so 
that we doubt not, but by the volluntarie offers of priuate 
men you may raise the full quantitie for fraight w*^'' other- 
wise by authoritie must be prouided, that neether the Com- 
pany be dishonored by breach of their Couents with Capt. 
Each, nor much lesse be endangered in that w^'' for the 
Collonies good only they haue und^'taken. 

Large Emigration. 

" There come now ouer in the Shipp, and are imediately 
to follow in some others many hundreds of people, to whom 
as we here think o'selues bound to giue the best encour- 
agments for their goinge, in reguard (that in the want of 
a publique stock) there is no way left to encrease the 


Plantation but by abundance of priuate und'"takers ; So we 
thinke you obliged to giue all possible furtherance and 
assistance for the good entertaining and well settling of 
them that they may both thriue and prosper, and others 
by their welfare be drawne after them : This is the way 
that we conceiue most eifectuall for the engaging of this 
State, and securing of Virginia, for in the multitude of 
people, is the strength of a kingdome ; The allotting out of 
pticular Diuidents, and the setliuge of priuate psons, we 
leaue (untill things may receiue a better sorce) unto yo"" 
wisdomes and iudgments not doubting but you will find 
out some course as shall giue content to reasonable minds : 
w<=^ we very much desire may be doun, as far as ciuill life 
and securitie will pmitt, both w'^'^ together w^" religeon, by 
this inordinate stragglinge run hazard of perishinge ; w^'^ 
error by so hard a chastizment we hope from henceforward 
they will be willing of themselues to amend, if not yo' 
authoritie must restraine them, not suffering any to plant 
or sett down any where, but with so sufficient a number 
of able men and well prouided as may not in theire owne, 
but in yo'" iudgements (who shal be therefore accountable) 
defend themselues from any assaults of the Indians : in 
w^*" regard as also for their better ciuill gouernment (w^^ 
mutuall Societie doth most conduce unto) wee think it fitt 
that the houses and buildings be so contriued together, as 
may make if not hansome Townes, yet compact and orderly 
villages; that this is the most proper and successfull 
maner of proceedinge in new Plantacons, besides those of 
former ages, the example of the Spaniards in the West 
Indies doth fully instance, and against it we do not con- 
ceiue there will be any repugnancie except from shallow 
understandings that cast not beyond the present : or from 


minds and affeccons Avholely intent to to the satisfieing of 
their priuate interests although w*^ the mine of the pub- 
lique State. 

Abandoned Plantations. 

" The relinquishing of Charles Cittie, Henerico, the Iron 
Works, the Colledg-lands and Martins hundred are things 
not only of discontent but of evill fame, although we doubt 
not undeserued ; the replanting of them is of absolute 
necessitie, least the best fire that maintaines the accon here 
aliue be putt out, for Martins hundred we leaue to the 
Adventurer, to take such expedient course therein as them- 
selues please, only the seconding thereof we most earnestly 
recomend unto you, but for the speedy restoringe of the 
rest we pray you to employ yo'' uttermost endeuo''^, and if 
the College Tennts and those belonging to the Iron Work 
shall not be sufficient (as we much doubt) to make these 
places good of themselues we desire you to propound these 
two condicons for the inuiting of priuate men, to a com- 
petent number to ioyn with them. 

7Vte Compavy' a Land. 

" First, to sett down uppon the Companies Land occu- 
pieing and manuringe to theire owne benefitt only, such 
quantitie thereof as they can manage untill such time as 
they may go uppon there own Diuidents, when there shall 
by the Companies Tennts and Seruants be a full recom- 
pense and sattisfaccon made them in kind, for y*^ clearing 
of ground, building of houses, and what euer other cost or 
charge they haue bestowed upon the Companies land, and 
must then leaue unto them. If this preuaile not (well we 
chiefly wish) then are we content to giue to euery family 


ten acres of land in those places well you setting out we 
will confirme to them and theire heires for euer, and this 
ten acres shall not be accompted in part of any other pro- 
porcon due unto them, nor be any impediment to hinder 
them from going uppon theire Diuidents when they please; 
condiconally, that the land be not left uncultiuated and 
the houses uninhabited. 

People left at Iron Works. 

"The people remaining at the Iron-works we desire 
may be comitted unto the charge of M"" Maurice Barkley 
to be imployed (since we cannot hope that the worke 
should go forward in such manner as may be most bene- 
ficiall to themselues and us untill such time as we may 
againe resume that bussines so many times unfortunatly 
attempted, and yett so absolute necessarie as we shall haue 
no quiett untill we see it pfected; to wch purpose we 
desire there may by the first oportunity be sent us a 
pticular Ust of the names and professions of the men, as 
also a noat of the tooles and materialls wanting for the 
erecting of the worke. 

College Affaires. 

" Of no lesse waight do we esteeme the Colledge affaires 
wch we pray you to take into yo"" considerations, not only 
as a publique but a sacred bussines ; and in pticular we 
very earnestly request the care and paines of M' George 
Sandys for the settling and orderinge of the Tennts ; who 
being now by long experience growne skillful in all maners 
of the Countrie, we are informed it will not be lesse ad- 
uantageable unto us and of farr more content to themselues 
to be left to theire owne disposinge and gouernment and to 


reduce the uncertaintie of half to the certaintie of a Rent ; 
wch we haue therefore agreed shal be euery pson 20 bushells 
of corne; 60 waight of good leafe tobacco, and one pound 
of Silke, to be yearly paid together wth six dayes labo''® in 
publique works, and ouer and aboue that they be bound 
to buildinge of conuenient houses plantinge of orchards, 
gardens etc on the College Land and not elsewhere : they 
that will accept of these Condicons, you shall leaue to 
themselves but so as for better conueniencie of living fowr 
or at least three of them sorte themselues to work and 
Hue together, and be bound each for other for the true 
pformance of their Couents ; those other that shall not be 
willing or worthie of such agreement we leaue to you to 
take the best order in disposinge of them ; as for those that 
shal be Artificers and of Manuall trades and occupacons 
we conceiue that they may likewise pforme this bargaine 
although they follow theire trades, wch rather than that 
they should not do. we leaue it to you to contract other- 
wise with them, as you shall thinke best, allways reseruing 
that their lining shall be uppon ye Colledge Lands. 

" As for the Brick-makers we desire that they may be 
held to theire contract made with M"" Thorpe, to the intent 
that when opportunitie shal be for the erecting of the 
fabricke of the Colledge, the materialls be not wanting. 
These are part of the remedies that are to be applied for 
the repairinge of this late disaster. 

War of Extermination urged. 

" As for the Actors thereof, we cannot but wth much 
griefe proceed to the condemnation of their bodies, the 
saving of whose Soules we have so zealously affected; but 
since the inocent blood of so many Christians doth in jus- 


tice crie out for revenge, and yd" future securitie in wisdom 
require, we must advise you to roote out from being any 
longer a people so cursed, a nation ungratefull to all 
benefitts, and uncapable of all goodnesse ; at least to the 
removall of them so farr from you as you may not only be 
out of danger, but out of feare of them, of whose faith and 
good meaning you can never be secure. Wherefore, as 
they have merited, let them have a ppetual warre without 
peace or truce ; and, although they have desired it, without 
mercfe, too. Yet, remembering who we are rather than 
what they have been, we cannot but advise not only the 
sparing but the preservation of the yonger people of both 
Sexes, whose bodies may by labor and service become pro- 
fitable, and their minds not overgrowne with evill Customes, 
be reduced to civilitie, and afterwards to Christianitie. 
And, because there is a necessitie not only in the thing 
itself, but in the speediness of effecting it, we think it fitt 
that, besides that certaine way of famishing, (whereunto, 
we doubt not, but you have ere this giuen a good begin- 
ning by the burning of their corne, or the reaping it to 
your owne benefitt,) you add and putt in execution all 
other waies and means of theire destruction, not omitting 
so much as to provoke theire neighbouring enemies (by the 
reward of beads and copper uppon the bringing in of their 
heads,) to the fierce pursuing of them, and that at such 
times especially as yourselves may issue out upon them 
likewise, which we think should be often don from all 
parts of the collony together. But for a full securing of 
yourselves, and a certain destroyinge of them, we conceive 
no meanes so proper nor expedient as to maintaine con- 
tinually certaine bands of men of able bodies and inured 
to the Countrie, of stout minds and active hands, that may, 


from time to time, in several bodies, pursue and follow them, 
surprising them in their habitations, interrupting them in 
theire hunting, burning theire Townes, demolishing theire 
Temples, destroyinge theire Canoes, plucking upp theire 
weares, carrying away theire corne, and depriving them 
of whatsoever may yeeld them succor or relief; by which 
means in a very short while both your just revenge and 
your perpetuall security might be certainly effected. 

Soldiers to he sr/pjiorted. 

" As for the maintanance of those men with vittuals and 
munition, we conceive it just and equall that it should be 
a generall levy throughout the whole Collony, in regarde 
whereof the one moyitie of the prise, as well of the psons 
of men for slaues should be unto the collony for fortifica- 
tion and other public uses, and the other moyitie divided 
amongst the Souldiars themselues. In further satisfaction 
of whose travells and hazards, we do purpose a hberall 
recompense out of the labors of those yong people which, 
by his Majestie's gratious favor, we hope to obtaine out of 
the severall Counties of this Kingdom, which, as it shall 
be bountifull to all, so it shall be redoubled to them, unto 
whose hands the principalis, either in execution or con- 
trivement of this Treacherie, shall fall ; but if any can take 
Opachancano himself, he shall have a great and singular 
reward from us. 

" As for those Indians whom God used as instruments 
of revealing and preventinge the totall ruine of you all, we 
think a good respect and recompense due unto them, 
which by a good and carefull education of them may best 
be expressed and satisfied, whereby they may be made 
capable of further benefitts and favors. 


" Wee send you a Copie of o' Letters by the Furtherance 
wch wee doubt not but is safely long ere this arrived with 
you the suplies therein sent of Shipwrights and East India 
Schoole, we cannot but againe most effectually and ear- 
nestly recomend unto yo'^ Care and fauors, wch phapps by 
the Chang of things with you, they will the more need. 
The improuing of the Companies reuenues & recouene of 
their Debts, is of those things without w'ch neither we 
nor you can subsist. 

" Many other matters we haue to write if time would 
giue leaue, for want whereof, we must reserue them till 
the departure of the Abigaile. And now comitting you 
and all yo"" affaires to the good guard and proteccon of the 
Almightie we bid you hartily, farewell. 

August the first Yo"" very Louing frends 

1622 The Treasurer & Counsell of Virginia. 

Witnessed by M. Collingwood — Secr.^ 

1 Christopher Davison, secretary of the colony, died soon after the mas- 
sacre, and there is reason to believe that he was the son of Sir William 
Davison, one of Queen Elizabeth's ambassadors, to whose Jegation Wil- 
liam Brewster, afterwards one of the founders of New Plimouth, was in 
early life attached. 



allay the panic in England, caused by the news 
of the Massacre, a member of the Company, 
Edward Wat^rhouse, distinguished for integrity, 
and a religious spirit, published a small quarto 
of 54 pages, entitled 

" A Declaration of the State of the Colonic, and affaires 
in Virginia. With a Relation of the barbarous Massacre 
in the time of peace and league, treacherously executed 
upon the English by the Native Infidels, 22 March last." 

The treatise opened with the following dedicatory letter: 

" To the Hon'^^^^® Companie of Virginia Right Honorable 

and Worthy : 

" The fame of our late vnhappy accident in Virginwi, 
hath spread it selfe, I doubt not, into all parts abroad, and 
as it is talked of of all men, so no question of many, and 
of most, it cannot but be misreported, some carryed away 
with ouer-weak lightnesse to beleeue all they heare, how 
vntrue soeuer ; others out of their disaffection possibly to 
the Plantation, are desirous to make that, which is ill, 
worse ; and so the truth of the Action, which is only one, 
is varied and misreported. I haue thought it therefore a 
part of some acceptable seruice in me towards you, whose 
fauors haue preferred me to be a member of your Compa7iy, 
to present you with these my poore labours, the Collection 


of the truth hereof, drawne from the relation of some of 
those that were beholders of that Tragedie, and who hardly 
escaped from tasting of the same cup, as also from the 
Letters sent you by the Gouernour and other Gentlemen 
of quality, and of the Gouncell in that Colonic, read openly 
here in your Courts : That so the world may see that it 
was not the strength of a professed enemy that brought 
this slaughter on them, but contriued by the perfidious 
treachery of a false-hearted people, that know not God nor 
faith No generous spirit will forbeare to goe on for this 
accident that hath hapned to the Plantation, but proceed 
rather chearfuUy in this honorable Enterprize, since the 
discouery of their bruitish falshood will proue (as shall 
appeare by this Treatise following) many waies aduan- 
tageable to vs, and make this forewarning a forearming 
for euer to preuent a greater mischiefe. 

" Accept it from me, I most humbly beseech you, as the 
first fruits of my poore seruice. Time may happily make 
me able to yeeld you some other worke whose subiect may 
bee loy, as this is a Theame of Sadnesse : Meane time, I 
commit' You and the Noble Colony to Gods good blessing, 
as he that shall alwaies be. 

" A true Votarie for your happinesse, 

and seruant to your commands, 

Edward Waterhouse." 

The account of the Colony prefixed to the narrative of 
the Massacre, was the best of the several that had been 
prepared for the use of the Company. After speaking of 
the advantages of the direct northern route to the Atlantic 
coast, he adds : 



" Which (with the Blessing of God) produced in the last 
Summer this effect, that in the Fleet of nine Saile of ships, 
transporting aboue seauen hundred Passengers out of 
Migland and Ireland, for the Plantation, but one person 
(in whose roome another at Sea was borne) miscarryed by 
the way. And for them after arriual, there are conue- 
nient lodgings now in building, and carefull attendance 
in Guests-houses prouiding, till those that ariue can pro- 
uide for themselues. 

" In the three last yeares of 1619, 1620, and 1621, there 
hath beene prouided and sent for Virginia forty-two Saile 
of ships, three thousand five hundred and seauenty men 
and women for Plantation, with requisite prouision, besides 
store of Cattle, and in those ships haue beene aboue twelue 
hundred Mariners imployed : there hath also beene sent 
in those yeares nine ships to the Sommer Hands with about 
nine hundred people to inhabite there, in which ships two 
hundred and forty Mariners were imployed. In which 
space haue beene granted fifty Patents to particular per- 
sons, for Plantation in Virginia, who with their associates 
haue undertaken therein to transport great multitudes of 
people and cattell thither, which for the most part is since 
performed, and the residue now in preparing, as by the 
seuerall Declarations of each yeare in their particulars ; 
(manifested and approved in our generall and publike 
Quarter-Courts) and for the fuller satisfaction of all desirous 
to vnderstand the particularities of such proceedings, hath 
beene by printing commended to the understanding of all. 


Voyage up the- Potomac. 

" Furtliermore, they write that in a Voyage made by 
Lieutenant Marmaduke Parkinson, and other Enghsh Gen- 
tlemen, up the Riuer of Patomack they saw a Ghina-Boxe 
at one of the Kings houses where they were : Being de- 
manded where he had it, made answer, That it was sent 
him from a King that dwelt in the West ouer the great 
Hils, some tenne dayes journey, whose Countrey is neare a 
great Sea, hee hauing that Boxe, from a people as he said, 
that came thither in ships, that weare cloaths, crooked 
swords, and somewhat like our men, dwelt in houses, and 
were called Acanack-China : and he offered our people, 
the he would send his Brother along with them to that 
King, which offer the Gouernor purposed not to refuse ; 
and the rather, by reason of the continual constant rela- 
tions of all those Sauages in Virginia, of a Sea, and the 
way to it West, the affirming that the heads of all those 
seauen Riuer of Thames, and nauigable aboue and hundred 
and fifty miles, and not aboue sixe or eight miles one from 
another, which fall all into one great Bay, haue their 
rising out of a ridge of hils, that runnes all a long South 
and North : whereby they doubt not but to find a safe, 
easie and good passage to the South Sea, part by water, 
and part by land, esteeming it not aboue an hundred an 
fifty miles from the head of the Falls, where wee are now 
planted ; the Discouery whereof will bring forth a most 
rich trade to Cathay, China, Ja]^an, and those other of the 
Ea\t Indies, to the inestimable benefit of this Kingdome. 

But for the further proofe thereof, and of the North-west 
passage thither by Sea, I referre the Reader to the Treatie 
annexed at the end of this Booke, written by that learned 


and famous MatJwmaticicm, IP' Henry Briggs, which I hau- 
ing happily attained unto, haue published for the common 

Falling Creek Iron Worhs. 

"Moreouer, the Letters of M' John BerUey, sometimes 
of Beuerstone Castle in the County of Glocester, (a Gentle- 
man of an honorable famiUe) likewise certifie, that a more 
fit place foV Iron-workes (whereof he was made Master and 
ouerseer) then in Virginia, both for woods, water, mynes, 
and stone, was not to be found : And that by Whitsontide 
then next (now past) the Company might relye upon good 
quantities of Iron made by him : which also by Letters 
from M'' George Sandis the third of March last, was con- 
firmed, with this farther description of the place (called 
TheFalling GreeJce) to be so fitted for that purpose, as if 
Nature had applyed herselfe to the wish and direction of 
the workeman ; where also were great stones hardly scene 
else-where in Virginia, lying on the place, as though they 
had beene brought thither to aduance the erection of 
those Workes. 

Settlement in Ujjper Chesapeake Buy. 

" The Letters of M'" Parey (verified also from the GoVf 
ernor and Councell) aduertised of a late Discouery by him 
and others made into the great Bay North-ward, (reseruing 
the founding of the bottome thereof for a second Voyage,) 
where hee left setled very happily neare an hundred Eng- 
lish, with hope of a good trade for Furres there to be had. 
From thence was brought by Lieutenant Perhmson, in his 
voyage, some of that kind of Earth which is called Terra 
Lemnia (there to be had in great abundance) as good as 
that of Turkey. 



" Here following is set clowne a true List of the names of 
all those that were massacred by the treachery of the 
Sauages in Virginia, the 22^'^ March last. 
" To the end that their lawfull heyres may take speedy 
order for the inheriting of their lands and estates 
there : For which the honourable Company of Vir- 
ginia are ready to doe them all right and fauour. 

At Captame Berckleys Plantation seated at Falling Greeks, wme QQ miles 
from James- Citie in Vinjinia. 

Robert Horner Mason. 
Philip Barnes. 
William Swandal. 
Robert Williams, his Wife 

and Childe. 
Giles Bradshawe, his Wife 

and Childe. 
John Howlet, and his sonne 
Thomas Wood, and Collins 

his man. 
Joseph Fitch, apothecary to 

Doctor Pots. 

John Berkley Esquire. 
Thomas Brasington. 
John Sawyer. 
Roger Dauid. 
Francis Gowsh. 
Bartholmew Peram. 
Giles Peram. 
John Dowler. 
Laurence Dowler. 
Lewis Willians. 
Richard Bascough. 
Thomas Holland. 
John Hunt. 

At blaster Thomas Sheffield Plantation, some three miles from the Falling 


Master Th : Shefaeld,^ and Robert Tyler a boy. 

Rachel his wife. Mathew . 

John Reeue. Judeth Howard. 

William Tyler a boy. Thomas Poole. 

Samuel Reeue. Methusalem • 

John Ellen. Thomas Taylor. 

William Tyler. 

'The son of William Sheffield. 


At Henrico Hand about two miles from SheffielJs Plantation. 

Atkins. William Perigo. 

Weston. Owen Jones, one of Capt. 

Philip Shatford. Berkleys people. 

Slaine of the Colledge People, about txoo miles from Henrico- Citie. 

Samuel Stringer. Thomas Cooke. 

George Soldan. John Clements. 

William Basset. James Faulkoner. 

John Perry. Christopher Henley. 

Edward Ember. Willian Jordan. 

Jarrat Moore. Robert Dauis. 

Thomas Xerles. Thomas Hobson. 

Thomas Freeman. William Baily. 
John Allen. . 

At Apo-mattucJce River at blaster Abraham Pierce his Plantation some 
five miles oj^ the Colledge People. 

William Charte. John Barker a boy. 

Jo : Waterhowse. Robert Yeoman. 

At Charles- Citie and about the Precincts of Capt. Smiths Company. 

Roger Royal. Edward Heydon. 

Thomas Jones. Henry Bushel. 

Robert Maruel. 

At other Plantations next adioyning. 

Richard Plat, and his Childe, and 

his Brother. his Sister. 

Henry Milward, Richard a boy. 

his wife, Goodwife Redhead. 


At Mr. William Farrars House. 

Master John England William her sonne, 
and his Man. Thomas his Man. 

John Bel. James Woodshaw. 

Henricke Peterson, and Mary and j ^^.^ ^^^^^^^^ 

Alice his Wife, and Ehzabeth, j 

At Berhley-Himdrcd some five miles from Charles- Citie. 

Capt. George Sharpe Esq. Giles Wilkins. 

one of his Maiesties Giles Bradway. 

Pentioners. Richard Fereby. 

John Bowles. Thomas Sharpe. 

Richard Bowles, his Wife, Robert Jordan. 

and Childe. Edward Painter. 

At Westouer, about a mile from Berhley-Eimdred. 

And first at Cap. Fr. Wests Plantation : 

James English. Richard Dash. 

At Master John Wests Plantation : 

V Christopher Turner. Dauid Owen. 

At Capt. Nathanael Wests : 

Michael Aleworth. John Wright. 

An Lieutenant Gibs his Dividend : 

John Paly. Richard Wainham. 

Thomas Ratcliffe. Benomy Kejnuan. 

Michael Booker. Thomas Gay. 

John Higglet. James Vpfall. 

Nathanael Earle. Daniel - M"^ Dombe- 
John Gibbes. lowes man. 

William Parker. 


At Mr. Richard Oioens house. 

Richard Owen. One old Maid called 

Stephen Dubo. blinde Margaret. 

Francis, an Irishman. William Reeue. 
Thomas Paine. 

At Master Owen Macars house. 

Owen Macar. Richard Yeaw. 

Garret Farrel. One Boy. 

At Master Macocks Dividend. 

Capt. Samuel Macock Thomas Browne. 

Esquire. John Downes. 

Edward Lister. 

At Flowerdieu-Hundred Sir George Yeardleys Plantation. 

John Philips. Robert Taylor. 

Thomas Nuson. Samuel Jarret. 

John Braford. Elizabeth Bennet. 

At the other side of the River opposite to Flowerdieu-Hundred. 

Master Hobson, and Thomas Philips. 

his Wife. Richard Campion. 

Richard Storks. Anne Greene. 
John Slaughter. 

At Mr. Swinhowe his House. 

Mistris Swinhow, and Richard Mosse. 

Thomas and John Larkin. 

George Shinhow her William Blyth. 

sonnes. Thomas Grindal. 



William Bykar. 
Math: Hawthorn 
and his Wife. 

At Mr. William Bikars house. 

Edward Peirce. 
Nicholas Howsdon. 

Nathanael Elie 
John Flores. 
Henry Gape 

At We^noack of Sir George Yeardley Ms people. 

Henry Haynes. 
John Blewet. 
Henry Rice. 

— Buckinsrham. 


William Puffet. 
William Walker. 
John Gray. 
James Boate. 
John Suersby. 
Thomas Euans. 
Thomas ap-Richard. 

Jonas Alpart. 
Thomas Stephens. 
Samuel Goodwine. 
John Snow, and 

his Boy. 
Margery Blewet. 

At Powle- Brooke. 

Capt. Nath : Powle 

Esq. and his Wife, 
Daughter to M'" Tracy. 
Mistris Bray. 
Adam Rayners Wife. 
Barbara Burges. 
William Head. 

Thomas Woolcher. 
William Meakins. 

Robert . 

Peter Jordan. 
Nathanael Leydon. 
Peter Goodale. 

At Southampton-Bundred. 

Robert Goffe, and John Dauis. 

his Wife. William Mountfort. 

William Larkum. 



\ At Martin Brandons. 

Lieutenant Sanders. his Wife 

Ensigne Sherley. 2 Boyes. 

John Taylor, and Mathew a Polander. 

At Cajytaine SpHmans house. 

John Basingthwayte. Walter Shawe. 

At Ensigne Spence his house. 

WilUam Richmond. WilUam Fierfax. 

John Fowler. The Tinker. 

Alexander Bale. 

Persons slaine at Martins- Hundred 

Lieutenant Rich : Kean. 
Master Tho : Boise, & 
Mistris Boise his wife, & 
a sucking Childe, 
4 of his men 

A Maide 
2 Children 
Nathanael Jefferies wife 
Margaret Dauies 

3 Seraunts 
Master John Boise 

his Wife. 
A Maide. 

4 Men-seruants 
Laurence Wats, 

his Wife 
2 Men seruants 

some seaven miles from James- Citie. 

Richard Staples, 
his wife 

and Childe. 
2 Maides 
6 Men and Boyes 
Walter Dauies, & 

his brother 
Christopher Guillam 
Thomas Combar 

A Man 
Ralphe Digginson 

his Wife 
Richard Cholfer 
George Jones 
Cisby Cooke, 

his Wife 
Dauid Bons 



Timothy Moise, 

his Man 
Henry Bromage, 

his Wife, 

his Daughter, 

his Man. 
Edward How, 

his Wife, 

his Childe. 
A child of John Jackson, 
4 Men seraunts 
Josua Dary, 

his Wife, 

At Mr Thomas Peirce his 

Master Tho : Peirce, 
his Wife, 
and Childe 

John Benner 
John Mason 
William Pawmet 
Thomas Bats 
Peter Lighborrow 
James Thorley 
Robert Walden 
Thomas Tolling 
John Butler 
Edward Rogers 
Maximilian Russel 
Henry a Welchman 

house, over against Mulberry Hand. 

John Hopkins 
John Samon 
A French boy 

At Mr Edward 
Master Th : Brewood 

his Wife, 

his Childe 
Robert Gray 
John Griffin 
Ensigne Harrison 
John Costard 
Dauid Barry 
Thomas Sheppard 
Henry Price 


Edward Jolby 


Bennets Plantation. 

2 Seraunts 
Thomas Ferris 
George Cole 
Remember Michel 


Richard Chandler 
Henry Moore 
Nicholas Hunt 
John Corderoy 
Richard Cockwell 
John Howard 
Mistris Harrison 
Mary Dawks 



Alice Jones 
Thomas Cooke 
Philip Worth 
Mathew a maid. 
Francis Winder 
Thomas Conly 
Richard Woodward 
Humfrey Cropen 
Thomas Bacon 
Euan Watkins 
Richard Lewis 
Edward Towse 

Annie English 

Master Prowse 




Mistris Chamberlin 
Parnel a maid 
Humfrey Sherbrooke 
John Wilkins 
John Burton 

M' John Pountis his men. 

John Scotchmore 

Edward Turner 

Edward Brewster, Lieutenant Pierce his men. 

Thomas Holland, Capt. Whittakers man. 

At Master Walters his house. 

Master Edward Walters a Maid 

his wife, a Boy. 

a Childe, 

The whole number 347. 



Eleanor Phillips takes a Convict to Virginia. 

EPT. 5, 1622. " M^ Deputy further acquainted 
the Court that he had receaued a warrant signed 
by sundry Lords of his Ma'' Priuy Councell di- 
rected to the Treasurer and Deputy of this 
Companie requiringe one Dan : Francke (a malefactor re- 
preiued) be sent to Virginia (from whence he may not 
returne into any of his Ma'' Dominions without speaciall 
license obtained under six of the Counsells hands) w'** 
Francke had consented to serue in Virginia one Elianor 
Phillips that nowe goes over with him, in consideracon 
whereof the said Phillips offers to paye for his passage if 
the Companie please to permitt the said Franke to goe : 
Whereupon the Court ordered he should be sent to Vir- 
ginia accordinge to the Lord's order, and should be put 
aboard the Southampton, and comitted to the charge of 
M' James Chester, Captaine of the said Shippe bound for 
Virginia to deliuer him in Virginia, according to his direc- 

Company's Letter, Oct. 7, 1622, to Governor and Council op 

"After o' very hartie Comendacons : Wee had not thought 
to haue written unto yo" till wee had been inuited by your 


letters unto us : but the necessitie of some thinge to be 
pformed by yo" hath made us think it necessarie to remem- 
ber them in an extraordinarie maner, and to reinforce by 
Instruccons and charge of the Counsell, by the advise and 
desires of us ye Company 

" The late calamities that haue befalne do much grieue 
but no whit daunt us, for we see no danger but rather ad- 
uantage to be made thereby, nor any further daunger ex- 
cept it be in yo' feares wch would nowe be as vitious as 
yo' former securitie and as much betray you to desctruction : 
for as you may see the increase of our hopes and courage 
in the largenes of supplies now sent by priuate men, since 
the publique is not able unto the continuance whereof we 
see such a disposition in mens minds as we cannot but 
think that the seeding of this blood wil be the Seed of the 
Plantation, for the addicon of price hath much endeared 
the purchase 

Sharj) Revenge Advised. 

" And now to all the rest, we conceaue it a Sinne against 
the dead to abandon the enterprize, till we haue fully 
settled the possession for wch so many of o' Brethren haue 
lost their lines ; this is the first thing due from us and you ; 
and the next is a sharp reuenge uppon the bloody mis- 
creants euen to the measure that they intended against us, 
the rooting them out for beinge longer a people uppon the 
face of the Earth ; for the effecting whereof as you haue 
already receaued aduise from the Counsell (wch we desire 
you in all points to follow) so you shall now receaue a 
gratious supplie from his most excellent Ma''^ of Armes 
and weapons fitt and prop, for such seruice : The disposinge 
of them to psons and places we leaue to yo' iudgments, but 


only for vse ; the proprietie must remaine to the generall 
Collony as the begining of a Publique Armorie, and a per- 
petuall testmiony of his Ma'^ royall bountie and fauo' : from 
wch wee hope very speedily to obtaine the meanes of re- 
storing the Publique, rewarding the good deserts of all, 
especially whose worke shal be shewed in these psent diffi- 
culties, and fully to furnish the number of Tennts, which 
in yo" the Governor and other officers places we und^stand 
are wanting not only to o^ griefe but wonder. But both 
for the future and that wch is past, rest assured we shall 
prouide and make sattisfaccon 

Planting of Corn urged. 

" And had ere this donn in a very aduantageable maner 
unto yo" insteed of Tennts, sending you seruants, had not 
yo^ last letters disclaymed them, without such supply of 
corne and vittual as was impossible for vs to prouide through 
o^ pouertie, and its high price : wherefore the hundred 
youths wch wth 500''^ we had procured from the Cittie, 
wee were constrained to giue unto the Sumer Ileands 
Company to theire benefitt and o^ damage, and all through 
want of corne : The abundant planting and prouision 
whereof haueing been for these last foure yeares so con- 
tinually urged from us and yett as constantly neglected 
and contemned, giues iust cause to doubt (and the more 
through the two Strang proposisions wch we heare of late 
haue beene made of ingrossinge all and leaning all :) that 
there hath been in some (in whom it ought least to haue 
beene) an intent to hinder the encrease of the Plantation 
further then it might be theire own gaine and greatnesse : 
a horrible Cryme and treason euen against God himself, 
to whom this great work in o^ intents is principally conse- 


crated ; and yett such courses force us allmost to such 
suspicon : 

Directions to Governor Wyatt. 

" Neither shall we belieue otherwise of you S' Francis 
Wyatt and the rest in whom we yett haue great confidence 
except the Collony and Plantation be from henceforth by 
yo' courage, cares and endeau°" kept and maintained and 
euery principall part thereof where formerly it was, and 
that in abundance of grayne and vittual ; wch since the 
Savadges enmitie could not hinder in the Collonies weakest 
infancie we canot thinke it can now do, when the strength 
thereof is almost ten times doubled, except we should 
thinke you lesse then they were : but we on the contrary 
haue such confidence in yo' vallors and wisdome, that we 
hope to und' stand as suddaine an end of this warr, as it 
had an unexpected beginninge beinge pswaded theire owne 
terrors will driue them away, except yo" retaine them. 

Importance of WatchfuUness. 

" As for enemies of equall condicon in Armes and under- 
standing, and more mightier in power than yo' selues we 
know none, and in God feare none : yett we thinke it yo' 
dutie to stand alwaies uppon yo"^ guard, and prepared for 
defeate as much as yo" may, the rest God will supplie if 
you serue him. 

_ Discipline to he maintained. 

" Abundance of Munition, wch yo' selues must take care 
that both the Publique and Priuate be allwaies well stored, 
wth the exercising and training upp of the people in Mar- 
tiall Discipline, and carefull preseruation of theire Armes 


wherein there must needs haue been unanswerable neglect: 
if there be that want yo^ letters imply, are things obuious 
that we need not further touch : 

Raising of Staple Commodities. 

" To these we desire you to take into yo' consideration 
the continuallmaintainance of good Shipping in the Riuer ; 
wch might easly be effected, if by raysinge of any Staple 
Comodities they might haue some part of fraight home- 
ward, a little would suffice, such is the danger and pouertie 
of all Marchants employments, that the certaintie of very 
smale gaine would inuite Shipping in abundance, of all 
times in the yeare to transport people for Virginia, wch 
would not only serue by the accommodatinge of euery 
mans occacons to further great numbers: but also by a 
necessary engagement of those to whom the Shipping be- 
longs cause many large Aduentures to be made and much 
people to be sent that otherwise would neuer go :^ 

" We pray you seriously therefore to endeauo' it, and to 
take into yo^ consideration what dependance good things 
haue one upon another, and how a right and orderly 
proceeding brings all enterprises to pfeccon, seeing the fol- 
lowing of Staple Comodities doth not only tend to the con- 
ueniences of well lining there, and to the riches of them 
that raise them, but bringeth along with it not only the 
encrease of y^ Plantation, but also the defence and securi- 
tie thereof : euery Shipp being a Bullwark ; and because 
by the same meanes they that meane you harme can only 
offend you, we thought it necessarie aboue all things to 
secure the Riuer from suddaine Inuasion by Shipping : 


Block House at Blunt Point. 

"To wch purpose haueinge fruitlessly attempted, all 
though by the meaues of very noble Pursonages, who were 
best able to effect itt, what hath in the name of the Collony 
beene so often and importunatly requested, the sending of 
Enginers, we haue gladly embraced the offer of Capt Each 
concerning the erectinge of a Block-house about Blunt 
Point, whereunto we were pswaded and entreated by 
the aduise and desires of almost all that know that 
Countrie, as well Planters as Seamen as a thing very feaz- 
able and of great benefitt. Whereuppon although the 
attention of mens mynds uppon the first news of the late 
Callametie, and much more yo^ grieuous apprehension of 
itt brought it into consultation whether it were not impos- 
sible to make those preparations and prouision that on o' 
parts weare requisite thereto, yett we resolued to go on 
wth o^ former deliberation, and haue (though wth extreame 
difficultie and hazard) by Gods blessing effected whatsoeuer 
we intended. 

" Now that you on yo' parts faile not to pforme and 
accomplish the thing itself we desire, entreat, and euen 
aduise you for yo' owne sakes, for o", for yo^ safty, for yo^ 
reputation, and for the sattisfaction of all good mynds who 
are in a longing expectation thereof : If the difficulties 
proue greater than we here conceiued ; in the wrestUng 
with them will be tryall of yo"" courages, and in the ouer- 
coming of them, the encrease of yo^ honors. If the worke 
proue not of that consequence as is ptended yet it will al- 
ways be more worth than the labor and cost that is thereto 
required, and ye remonstrance of yo^ willingness to pforme 
what you can to yo^ own safety will effectually moue and 


prouide (wee doubt not) the ineanes to pforme fully what 
you desire : to speake plainly we shall neuer belieue, nor 
dare to attempt any thing of great engagement and hazard, 
till by reall example of some extraordinarie worke by you 
effected, we may haue proofe of the sinceritie of yo^ inten- 
cons and assurance not to be deluded and frustrated as we 
haue hitherto beene in so great and chargeable undtakings. 
Performe in this,, and you cannot further require, what 
we will not und^ take for you in this kind ; if this of itself 
proue not sufacient, wch we will hope. 

Colonists to assist in building a Fort. 

" The Adventurers of Martins Hundred haue very 
worthely made offer, and ordered their officers that the 
fifte part of theire hundred be from time to time employed 
in this worke, till it may be pfected : Southampton Hun- 
dred haue followed the example and generally all priuate 
Aduenturers of vs that haue people in Virginia, very will- 
ingly agree to the like proporcon ; this tax we haue here 
made, not to giue you thereby authority (wch needed not) 
but to giue a good example to the rest of the Collony, by 
taking more of the burden then can be proporconable can 
be due unto us, then fully to supply the rest that shal be 
needfull. This disposition of mynds we assure o^selues ^ 
you shall find, if not, you must make it, and compell them f 
to theire owne good that will not otherwise understand it, 
but we hope there shall be no such occacon giuen, consi- 
dering the marueilous forwardnes of the Colony in this kind 
by niany letters expressed: the remembrance whereof 
brings to mynd the noble offer made by S' George Yeard- 
ley, worthie the place he bore, to whom we must acknow- 


ledge the honor of this proposicon first mouehig, and 
accordingly doubt not but in the furtherance of ye execu- 
con of it, he will deserue both yo' and o' thanks in an es- 
peciall manner. 

Return Freight of the Ship. 

" The Shipp and Mariners imployment as you find in 
the Charter-partie is to be discharged by. a fraight of 800''*, 
and that to be raysed by lading aboard of 64000 waight 
of Tobacco at S'* p'"" att wch rate besides the Generall 
Companyes it is agreed and ordered by the seuerall socie- 
ties and the Aduenturors of Southampton hundred, the 
old Magazine, and last yeares Joynt Stock, and that now 
sent both consigned to M^ Ed : Blany, the Glasse, the Furrs, 
the Mayds, the Shipwrights, that their Tobacco shal be 
laden aboard and sent home in the Abigaile, and if it shal 
be thought necessarie by the officers and factors to send 
home any of it before, that then there shal be lefte in the 
hands of M' George Sandys the Treasuror, the fifteenth 
pound of Tobacco (and more if that will not sattisfie) to- 
wards the making upp of the 800''' wch is to be paid the 
Shipp and for other necessarie uses of the Colony ; unto 
the same condicons do all priuate Aduenturers hkewise 
agree, conditonally you hold the same course uppon all the 
Tobacco through the Land ; wch we hold very equall and 
indeed necessarie to be done if you cannot find better 
meanes for the discharge of such payment, as the Company 
hath couented to Capt Each, wch being plainly expressed 
in the Charter-party sent you we shall not need to repeat 
but only to desire yo' especiall care, so to order and dispose 
things as we be not dishonored nor endamaged any way, 
nor any thinge lefte to us here to pay : and lil^ewise for 


satisfaccon and payment of the materialls now sent for the 
erectinge of the forte, we haue alwaies been promised by 
the Colony to be sattisfied and repaid, and now so much 
the more strictly to be obserued because they be aduentures 
of diuers priuate men who for the furtherance of this worke 
seeing the Companies inabilitie haue made prouision of the 
things and consigned them to M^ Blany wth order not to 
dispose of any of them till the forte be serued : this their 
good mynds deserue yo^ especiall care that they may be 
reimbursed of this charge. 

The Magazine. 

" And now we come to the returning of yo' Magazine 
and Aduentures now and formerly sent in wch we are ex- 
treamly solicitous, not so much for o' owne Interesses 
(although they be great) as for yo" wch be farr more : for 
us wee hope God will otherwise repay, if you do not, but 
for you we cannot conceaue, but that as you justly deserue 
yo" will be cleane leaft and abandoned for any supplies 
hereafter ; and what danger that may be, yo' present ne- 
cessities speake wch because they were not last yeare fore- 
seene, no regard was had of returning any thing nor be- 
liefe ; to the protestation wch at o' desire the Counsell in 
theire letters by the Warwick made, wch we cannot but 
remember to o' griefe, though to o' justification : lett the 
smart of sence now teach, what on the creditt of o' words 
you would not learne, that yo' gaines to yo' damage by 
thus gaining tyme, and that the returning of o' Stock home 
so much empaired howeare it be pleasant unto you for 
awhile, will in the end be more bitter unto you then us : 
speedy and full returnes must be made else it is impossible 
for us to proceed on, not so much for unwillingness, as o' 


inabilities, o' Aduentures are greater, then we can now 
beare, much lesse, increase. This scant supplie wch is now 
sent had been impossible to haue been raised, if either the 
necessity that required it, or the pawne that jo' offer had 
been lesse ; the preseruation of the whole Colony, and the 
Reuenues of the whole ; or if the securitie had been worse 
than the faith of you the Gouernor, Treasuror, and Coun- 
sell, or the dilligence and importunitie of them that labored 
it here, lesse then indefatigable, and such as would receiue 
no nay, you had wanted euen all, that you shall now God 
willing receaue : Wee send you the Rolle of Subscription 
to give you euidence hereof. The multitude of Aduen- 
tures and maner of bringing in mony to all good under- 
standing, demonstrate that thinges are at the bottom, ex- 
cept the currant be againe restored from Virginia. Wee 
haue no more in this point to add, but that as we see it, 
the restles labor of those that here beare office, by pro- 
curing Aduentures to supplie ye Colony so wee thinke it 
should be yo" to prouide that by profitable returnes they 
may be enabled and encouraged to continue it. 

" The Companies great pouertie, and many debts keeps 
us infinitely perplexed and more because there are dayly 
ineuitable occacons of expence and no ground or hope of 
Reuenues except from Virginia : we therefore most 
earnestly intreat you seriously to endeauor the improuinge 
of the Companies reuenues there, and in pticular that the 
debts due uppon the 50 youths sent in the Dutie and others 
may be wthout faile recouered and sent home this yeare : 
wherein we especially require the care and dilligence of 
M' George Sandys whose charge it is ; and haue accord- 
ingly ordered that there should be pticular Instruccons 


giuen by the Auditors and Bookeeper in this point, to wch 
we referr. 

Sassafras ivanted. 

" We think it very fitt that you send home by the Abi- 
gaile 60000 waight of Sassafras, in regard she is to bring 
it fraight free, what shal be made thereof assure yo'selues 
shall according to our promise be returned in Armes and 
Munition, or otherwise expended in fortification as yo""- 
selues shall desire. But we pray you in no sort to rely 
uppon that for the payment of Capt Each in any part, 
much lesse in whole ; in regard the price is so base and 
the glutt so great that it will no^^ sell but at very long time 
and that for very little. 


" There haue been many Peticons putt up unto us of 
greeuances for wrongs by uniust factors and ptners in Vir- 
ginia, and of claymes to lands and goods by the late death 
of frends; all wch together with o'- desires under them we 
haue orderd to be sent you, to see that iustice be fully and 
speedily pformed, and an accompt of all yo' proceedings 
endorsed uppon the back of the Peticons with all conue- 
niencie returned : that by the relief of the oppressed and 
helpinge of the poor and needy you may gaine fauo' both 
wth God and men. 

People for Martins Hundred. 

" The Adventurers of Martins hundred haue now sett 
forth a verie chargeable supply of people for the reposess- 
ing of theire Plantation ; the thing is very pretious to us 
that und' stand the seasonablenes of it, and see what ad- 


uantage of reputation the whole bussines of the Plantation 
hath receaued by theire good example of courage and con- 
stancies wch is more remarkable by the abundance of diffi- 
culties they haue overpast : we canot but herein acknow- 
ledge a singular obligation of o' selues and all that loue the 
Plantation unto them wch if you do, we desire you to ex- 
presse it by the furthering and assisting theire people and 
affaires wth all the fauor and help that you possibly may : 
And as this great body, so likewise we think it o' duty to 
recommend unto you all the pticular Planters that now 
come ouer : desiringe you that the abundance of yo' loues 
and cares, may be to the setling and disposing of them as 
much as may be to their content, but certainly to their 
safety and welfare. 

Concluding Remarks. 

" These are the things that we haue thought good to re- 
member thus unto you, and for discharge of o' duty to 
require at yo' hands : The manteyning of the Plantation 
by yo' courage and the- prouidinge for the plenty of it by 
yo' Industrie, by yo' wisdome, and by this psent worke of 
the forte, to secure yo' selues from enemies, and from the 
famine and nakednes by a iust retribution of profitt to yo' 
frends ; that you be carefull of the publique reuenues wth- 
out wch yo' priuate cannot long flourish, and that yo" do 
iustice and right as yo' desire to receaue it ; that with loue 
and care you entertaine them that come unto you with 
xpectacon thereof; and now lastly that you cary upright 
and sinceare mynds, and go on forward with constancie in 
good, and patience in euill : So shall no doubt Gods bless- 
ing be uppon you to the pspering of all yo' enterprises, and 
the rewarding of yo' deserts. Giuen in a great and gene- 


rail Court held for Virginia the 7"" of October 1622. And 
ordered to be signed by the Deputy and witnessed by the 
Secretary in the name of the Company. 

Subscribed by 

Nicholas Ferrar, Deputy. 
Ed : COLLINGWOOD, Secretary. 

Need op a Passenger Register. 

Oct. 23. " M' Deputy further aquainted the Court that 
diuers of the Counsell and Companie had of late obserued 
some erors and defaults in the transportinge of persons 
and goods w'*" if there were not some timely remedy for 
preuention would breed much wronge to the priuate Plant- 
ers that goe ouer, and hereafter great trouble and vexacon 
to this Court : The points were three : First that diuers 
Shipps now goeinge daylie (as well from London as other 
parts) without any further Referrance to the Companie 
than a Commission from them, there was no note or Reg- 
ister kept of the names of the persons transported whereby 
himself and the other officers were not able to giue any 
satisfaccon to the persons that did daylie and howerly en- 
quire after their frends gon to Virginia, to the great dis- 
content of people here, and that this likewise would proue 
a thinge of great trouble and molestacon to the Court when 
after the expiracon of 1624 either the persons themselues 
transported or their heires should come to clame their 
diuisions of lands the Companie huainge no ground to 
knowe what or why any thinge should be due unto them 
but their owne wordes. 


D^ Donne to preach annual Sermon. 

"M' Deputy signified unto the Companie, it was not 
unknowne unto them that amongst the many worthie 
Guifts bestowed on the Plantacon there was the last yeare 
giuen hj a person refusinge as yet to be named 40' p. Ann. 
for euer (and thereupon an order established) for a sermon 
to be preached before the Virginia Companie euery Micha' 
Terme or Wednesday fortnight before the last Wednesday 
in the said Terme, Hee therefore moued to knowe their 
pleasure whome they would entreat to preach the said 
Sermon : Whereupon some proposinge the Dean of Paules, 
the Court without naminge any other, did verie much 
desire he might be entreated thereunto, hoping he would 
please upon their generall request signified unto him, to 
undertake the paines and the rather for that he was a 
Brother of this Companie and of their Counsell, In con- 
sidrance whereof the Court praid 

S^ Jo : Dauers M^ Binge & 

S^ Phil, Cary M« Deputy 

to solicite him earnestly hereunto in the name of the Com- 
panie ; wch they promised to performe and for the place 
where the Sermon is to be preached The Court haue 
made choise of S' Michaell's Church in Cornehill as the 
most conuenient. ^ 

1 John Donne's sermon was preached before the Company in Novem- 
ber, from Acts, i, 8. It is one of the best specimens of his style, 
abounding in quaint conceits, startling figures, pedantic quotations, faith- 
ful exhortations and pointed appeals. In concluding the sermon he 
cheers the members by alluding to the great work performed in the be- 
ginning of a Church and Commonwealth in America, where their child- 


Annual Supper. 

"After w'*" sermon ended, it is also thought fitt and 
agreed the Custome they begun the last yeare shalbe con- 
tinued namely to supp together, and for that cause haue 
entreated M^ Caswell and M^ Mellinge (who last time so 
well pformed it to all the Companies content being assigned 
with M^ Bennett and M^ Rider to be Stewards this yeare 
also, for prouidinge and orderinge of the supper, and buissi- 
nes thereunto belonging and of the place where it shalbe 
kept, and accordingly to giue notice thereof unto all the 
Companie by sendinge the Officer with Ticketts that are 
to be printed for this purpose, notifyinge the time and 
place, and what each man is to paye, wch is now agreed 
shall be iij= a peece, as findinge by the last yeares experi- 
ence it cannott be lesse, to beare out the full charge : 

Members requested to send Venison. 

" And for that at such great feasts Venizon is esteemed 
to bee a most necessary Complement, the Court hath thought 
latt that letters be addressed, in the name of the Company 
unto such Noblemen and gentlemen as are of this Society 
to request this fauo^ at their hands and withall their pre- 
sence at the said Supper.^ 

rea could be well accommodated, and adds that those that were young 
would live to see that " You have made this Island, which is but the 
suburbs of the Old World, a bridge, a gallery to the New ; to join all to 
that world, that shall -never grow old, the kingdom of Heaven." 

1 Chamberlain wrote : " On Wednesday night the Virginia Company 
had a feast or meeting at Merchanttaylors Hall, whither many of the 
Nobility and Council were invited but few came. They spent twenty one 
does, and were between three and four hundred at 3^ a man : The Dean 
of Pauls preached according to the custom of all feastings now-a-days." 

Nichols, IV, 781. 



Letter from Ralph Hamor. 

" Capt Hamers Letter was read relatinge some accidents 
that had happned in the Colony since the Massacre, the 
kiUinge of the Indians, burninge of their Townes, the 
ioyninge with the King of Patomacke against Opachan- 
kano, Capt Maddison sent unto him with 30 English, the 
insolent Answe^ of Opachankano to the Gouerno" message 
for restoringe of the captiue English, with the dishono' he 
did to the Kings Picture, the resolucon of y' Gouernor and 
Counsell at the end of August to make warre upon Opach- 
ankano, with 500 men, hopinge by Gods helpe this winter 
to cleare the Country of him and settlinge the Colony in 
a farr better estate than it was before, and that this Mas- 
sacre will proue much to the speedie aduancem' of the 
Colony and much to the benefitt of all those that shall 
now come Hither. 

Lord St. John presents Coats op Mail. 

Nov. 20. "M' Deputy acquainted the Court with a.noble 
Guift of the Lo : St John of Basinge (vizt) 60 Cots of 
Male w'"^ for the defence of the Country at the mocon of 
S' John Dauers in the name of the Companie he sent^p 
in August last, and were sent in the Abigaile. 

Legacy for the Education of Indian Children. 
" M' Deputy further acquainted the Company that M' 
George Ruggle ^ lately fellowe of Clare Hall in Cambridge 

^ George Ruggle had been a fellow student of Nicholas Ferrar at Clare 
Hall, Cambridge. He was the author of the celebrated comedy, Ignora- 
mus, which was acted by the students before King James, which so pleased 
the King that he said he believed the author, and the actors together had 
a design to make him laugh himself to death.— Pec/mrf/'s Life of Ni-ho- 
las Ferrar, p. 24. 


beinge a Brother of the Company and newly deceased (w"^' 
he said he could not without great greife mencon) had by 
his will bequeathed 100'" for the educacon of Infidells child- 
ren w^*^ he had caused to be put into the Table : w^' the 
Court well approued of; but seemed (at least the most 
part) to be utterly ignorant of the person or qualities of 
the man : Whereupon desiringe to be informed of both 
Deputy Farrar's Eulogy on George Ruggle. 
" M' Deputy told them he was a man second to none in 
knowledge of all manner of humanity, learninge, and so 
generally reputed in the Vniuersity of singular honestie 
and iutegritie of life, sincere and zealous in ReUgion, and 
of verie great wisedome and understandinge : All w'"^ good 
parts he had for these last three yeares, wholly almost 
spent and exercised in Virginia buisinesses, hauinge (be- 
sides continually assistinge his Brothers and himselfe with 
Counsell and all manner of helpe in these places) written 
sundry treatises for the benefitt of the Plantation, and in 
pticular the worke so highly comended by S^ Edwin Sandys, 
concerninge the Gouerm^ of Virginia, but such was his 
modestie that he would by no meanes suffer it to be 
knowne duringe his Ufe. But now beinge dead M'" Deputy 
said he could not with a good conscience depriue him of 
that Hono^ w"^' he so duely deserued. 

Governor and Council of Virginia to London Company, Jan- 
uary 20, 1622-28. 

" Right Hono'^''^ 

" We cannot butt acknowledg gods greate goodnes y^ 
after those last great disasters hath stired upp the harte of 
his most excelent Ma'" to bestowe uppon us soe Royall a 


gifte of Armes & munition wch we resolue to ymploy to y' 
honor of our Countrey and reuenge of his subiects bloud 
for wch munitione and his gratious intentione of supply- 
ing us wth people we beseech you to psent our most humble 
thanks to his Sacred Ma'''= In the next place wee must 
acknowledg y^ hande of heauen also, that hath not suffered 
the zeale to this Plantation to dye or grow colde in y^ 
J bosomes of yo" the Hono*"'^ Companie, but that you con- 

ceiue yt rightlie as increase of the future strength, not a 
decay of this Colonic, wch befoer ran in a more dangerous, 
though in a more plausible manner 

Revenge upon the Indians. 

" Wee haue anticepated your desires by settinge uppon 
the Indyans in all pices, M' Trer firste fell uppon the Tap- 
ahatonaks in to seuerall expeditions, Sir George Yardley 
uppon y^ Wyanokes, and in a second expedition uppon the 
Nancemonds, Warescoyks & Pawmunkie ye chiefe seate of 
Sassapen & Apochankeno, Capt John West uppon the 
Taux Powhatane, and Capt William Powell uppon the 
Checohominy, Capt Hamer being sent to the Patomecks 
to trade for corne slew diuers of y' Necochincos y' sought 
to Circumuent him by treacherie. The like did Capt Mad- 
isone at Patomeck, Capt Hamer a second tyme ymployed 
to Pataomeck for corne slew some others y' pved our 
enemies, And now is Capt Tucker in the Riuer of Rapa- 
hanock to take reuenge uppon them as Confederates with 

Destruction of Villages. 

" In all wch places we haue slaine diuers, burnt their 
townes destroyed their wears, & corne and S' Georg Yardley 


in his last expedition brought into the Colonie aboue a 
Thousande bushell of corne, wherein he freely employed 
his shippinge shallops, maryners, and servants Besides 
there hath been brought in by trade and force 3000 bush- 
ells more, wherein we haue been forced to ymploy many 
pties of men, the necessitie wherof being fore seene by us, 
was one cause why wee drew into fower bodies. 

Indians difficult to Exterminate. 

" By conferance of former experyences with those of ours 
uppon the Saluages it is most aparant that they are an 
enemy not suddenlie to be destroyed with the sworde by 
reason of theire swyftnes of foote, and aduantages of the 
woode, to wch uppon all our assaults they retyre but by 
the way of staruinge and all other meanes y' we can pos- 
sibly deuise we will constantlie pursue their extirpation. 
By computation and confessione of the Indyans themselues, 
we haue slayne moer of them this yeere, than hath been 
slayne before since y' begininge of y' Colonie. 

Censure of the Company. 

" Whereas in the begininge of your Lres by the Trew- 
loue you pass so heauie a Censure uppon us as yf we alone 
were guiltie, you may be pleased to consider, what instruc- 
tions you haue formerly giuen us, to wynn the Indyans to 
us by A kind entertayninge them in o^ howses, and yf it 
were possible to co-habit wth us, and how ympossible it is 
for any watch and warde to secure us against secrett ene- 
mies y' liue pmiscuouslie amongst us, and are harbored in 
our bosomes, all Histories and your owne discourse may 
sufficyentlie informe you. 


Warniny of the intended Massacre. 

" For the warninge giuen the last yeere, some of us heere 
can say nothinge unto yt, but S' George Yardley and M' 
Pountis themselues doe affirme yt notice beinge giuen by 
the Kinge of the Easterne Shore of Apochankeno his plott, 
at the takinge upp of Powhatans bones at wch Ceremony 
many great numbers of the Saluages were to be assembled 
to sett uppon euery Plantation of the Colonic, S' George 
Yardley himselfe in psone went to euery Plantation and 
tooke a generall muster of all the men and their Armes, 
gaue straight Charge y' watch and warde should be kept 
euery where. But Apochancono earnestly denying ye 
plott, and noe aparant proofe brought our people by de- 
grees fell againe to theire ordinary watch not beeinge able 
to follow their seuerall Labors and keep soe strict a guarde, 
especyally beinge seated in small pties, and at diuers tymes 
hauinge had many the like Alarums wch came to nothinge. 
Neither was it to be imagined y* uppon y^ death of Nene- 
machanew, a man soe farr owt of the fauor of Apochancono 
y* he sent worde to S' George Yardley, being then Gou^nor, 
by his interpreter y' for his pte he could be contented his 
throte were cutt, there would fall owte a generall breach, 
wee being in treatie wtli him and offeringe to doe him Jus- 
tice. Accordinge to the Articles of peace, yf uppon the 
taking upp of the dead bodies y' myght appere y' Nene- 
machanew had noe hand in theire deaths wch was all y' 
Apochancono required, and then uppon sent onto us to 
search for y^ bodies and in the mean tyme sent woorde y* 
the death of Nenemachanew being but one man should be 
noe occasione of the breach of y' peace, and y' the Skye 
should sooner falle than Peace be broken one his pte, and 


that he had giuen order to all his people to giue us noe 
offence and desired the like from us. Notwithstanding 
order was taken generally through owt ye whole Colony 
to stand uppon theire guards until further tryall, but y^ 
Indyans cominge daylie amongst us, and putting them- 
selues into our powers, bread in our people a securitie 

Saddened by Company' s Reproofs. 

" These and diners other Circumstances considered wee 
were in good hope yt you would not haue added sorrow to 
affliction, wouudinge our reputationes wth such disgrasfull 
reproofes, unworthie of our suffering yf not of our Industrie, 
But y' you would first haue ascended to y^ trew cause wch 
we with causes to bee all our seruices hauinge since lost 
more by the Imediate hand of God than by the Treacherie 
of the Saluages, And would to god yt the Couetousnes of 
some at home, did not only in quantetie excessiue, but in 
qualtitie base and infectious : for apparell wee know noe 
excesse butt in the parishes, and had not that taxe pceeded 
from you, wee should haue thought it a flante for our pou- 
ertie and nakednesse. 

Removal to Accomac. 

" The remouall to the Eastern Shore wch you call an 
abandoninge of this Riuer (beinge a place indeede y' com- 
ands not only this but all the Riuers in the Baye) was a 
thinge only in dispute & speculatinge But uppon the con- 
sideratione that it might be at first sight a taint to our 
reputations & noe way lawfull to forsake our stations with 
out leaue, y' pceeded noe farther as all our Accons since 
may sufficyently proue, hauinge carefully repayred the de- 
cays of James Cyttie and inuited all men to builde theire, 


wch pceeded cheerfully one, till your Lres of dyspersinge 
men againe Wherein wee submitt our Judgments to your 
Comands, made euery man look to his priuatt [interest.] 
Butt y' it was necessary to seatt together in two or three 
great bodyes was the unanymous voyce both of the Coun- 
sell and Planters, And noe doupt would haue draune one 
the buildinge of fortified Townes whereof now wee dispayer, 
wherby we might haue made aduantage of their Saluage 
treacherie by the securinge of ourselues from the natiue 
and forren Enemie, and y' without a tax of feare beinge 
rather a conception, than a thing we know and this 

we take to hand the first endeuors of all new planta- 

tions ; wee conclude this poynt wth the 4^'" reson giuen in 
your printed booke, y' to be scattered in small Companies 
are helps to victorie, but hinderances to Ciuilitie. 

Lady Dale's Plantation. 

" The quittinge of Soe many Plantations was absolutely 
necessarie, and wee moer willinglie suffer reprooff in pseru- 
ing you' people, than Comendation in their hazarde in one 
wee will instance the necessitie of all, by a muster taken 
of my Lady Dales family wch consisted of two and twentie, 
whereof eight were boys, most of the men were new and 
untrayned, wth very little munitione, and but six peeces 
and one Armour amongst them, and 54 headd of Cattle 
wch all these men were not Sufficient to guarde excpt 
eyther the place or Industry of enclosure had giuen ad- 

Iron Works. 

" As for ye Irone Workes we had resolued to haue 
strengthened them with all y' planters therabouts, yf soe 


many of ye principall woorke men had not been slayne, as in 
the opinione of M'" Barkley and M"" Southerne, it was utterly 
ympossible to pceede in that worke, though w*'' y^ assist- 
ance of the whole Colonie, neyther was it possible retayn- 
inge any more of y"" Plantations, eyther Draw a competent 
force to reuenge ourselues uppon our enemies, or to send 
abroad pties to pcure corne for o'" psent reliefe, w^^ our re- 
putations and necessitie required, as may appear by this, 
wheras by comm consent 300 were thought to bee the 
lest number to assault Apochancono himselfe, whose dis- 
comfiture would proue y^ dishartininge of the residue, 
uppon a generall vote taken, there could not be leuied 
aboue 180 men, whereof 80 at lest were only seruiceable 
for caryinge of Corne, and yet those few Plantations wee 
holde especyally by resone of the sicknesse of our people 
were left as weake, as was in any sort justifiable. 

The Crime of Ingrosdng. 

" For y* of ingrossinge all, and leauinge all our inno- 
cency knowes not how to interprett it, and desyre alsoe w*^ 
y'' beloued discyple, you would be pleased to poynt out 
y^ man guiltie of y*' horrible treasone against god him- 
selfe, since by naminge none you charge vs all, nether 
know wee any that had nott freely aduentured themselues 
and pted wth theire pticular pfiits to aduance your designes 
and not their owne gaine and greatness, for the repayer of 
wch causeles suspitions wee shall endeuor accordinge to 
your comande to restore y' Plantations where formerly 
they were and to maintaine them with abundance of 
graine and Victuall, Prouided y* we be not charged from 
home w"" such multitudes of people scantlie or utterlie un- 
prouided as formerly hath been sent and come ouer, beinge 



y® Chief cause of our scarcitie, and how soeuer you haue 
very worthely sett in priute to all mens vewe w* pvisions 
are necessarie to be brought hither, yet it is but in pte ob- 
serued euen by those last suplies. 

Superiority of present Government. 

" Wee desire to make noe comparisone w*^ those y* haue 
formerliegouerned, to whose memories we giue all respect & 
honor, but yf you please to take a suruey of those tymes, you 
may perceue y* there were held but fower Plantations, and 
those not subdiuided, fed and appareled wholie by your 
comon purse, and yett were all Colonic seruants under the 
eye of y^ Magistrate at the absolute Comandeof the Gou'nor, 
and y' under Marshall Law, wheras before this Massacre 
there were neere 80 seuerall Plantationes and Diuidents, 
and accordinge to your late instructions are like to be no 
lesse than fortie, ten tymes as many as were then man- 
tayned, would to God o' numbers of men, held the like 

Scarcity of Corn. 

" For our former wante of corne wee y* are latelie come 
can say nothinge, those y^ were heere before alleage y* 
scant and bad prouisions sent ouer with new comers and 
that all Tenants at halfes (the CoUedge only excepted) 
were neuer able to feede themselues by theire labours three 
moneths in y*" Yeere. 

Frenchmen industrious. 

" Wheras the Frenchmen generallie haue allways plen- 
tifully prouided for themselues and others, and some of 
them haue effected more wth their pticuler families than 


the whole Colone in that alleaged infamie ? And yf this 
last disaster had not beefalne us wee should nott haue 
needed y* supphe of meale, for your great paynes and 
trauell in pcuringe whereofe we giue you humble thanks, 
but we confes freely, yf we had knowne y* would haue cost 
you soe much trouble wee would neuer have writt for y*, 
and for y^ future, if y' they be puided for f shall herafter 
come ouer we are confident there wilbe no cause To intreat 
your helpe for supplie of come or any other pvisione, 
fourther than voluntary aduenture will bringe in, w'^ shall 
neuer be intreted for us, seeinge by reason of our great 
crosses, wee haue not beene enabled to our griefe to make 
suchspeedie and full retourne for those aduentures you haue 
pcured, as was expected. 

Cause of sloio Returns. 

" The maine cause why retournes were not made for y^ 
last yeers Magazine was because before the arriuall of the 
Warwick, most of the Tobacco in y^ Lande was solde and 
made away to other shippinge that formerly ariued. To 
whom you required our fauors to be showne in respect of 
their less number of people transported than usuall, soe as 
of necessitie your factor myght haue kept y*^ goods dead 
uppon his hands or sell them to be paide this cropp Wher- 
in yf hee haue been denied any assistance from us in re- 
coueringe his depts you might then soe bitterhe censure us. 

"Other helpe wee could not giue him beinge not at all 
acquainted with y'' pticularitie of his busines. Beside there 
haue and doe come daylie into this lande so many priuatt 
Aduentures equallie recomended unto us, as fine times y^ 
Cropp of this yeere will nott satisfie there being not made 
aboue three score thousand waight of Tobacco in the whole 


Collonie, and so many priuatt aduentures besides, that 
except we should deny free trade contrarie to y*' equitie of 
your order, doe and will take away much of our Tobacco 
though we haue no warrant to them to recouer it, Because 
many of their comodities as Sacke, sweete meates and 
stronge Liquors are soe acceptable to the people. 

Staple Commodities. 

" Concerninge the raisinge of Staple Comodities our en- 
deauors therein and how farr it was aduanced before this 
disaster you haue been formerly aduised ; how ernest our 
intentes are to psecute them heerafter. Mr Thre"" will more 
pticularly informe you. 

Mmirice Berheley. 

" The failinge of Iron woorkes is much lamented by 
the whole Collony whose assistance they wanted not 
whiles it was in theyre power to assiste them, the state of 
w'^'^ woorke wee referre to y® relatione of Mr. Maurice Bark- 
ley who is now to returne by whom we will send you a Ust 
of y^ names and pfessions of the men, togeather wth a note 
of y^ tooles and materialls necessary for the reerectinge of 
that woorke. 

Silk-worm Seed. 

" The Silke woorme seede w^*" was formerly sent ouer 
were all hatch*" out before they cam to our hands, only 
those now receued are for y" gratest pte well conditioned, 
and shalbe carefully pserued. 

"The Mulberie trees great store were ye last yeere 
planted, and shalbe yeerly inclosed, the like care of Vines 
we will haue. 


Silk Grass. 

"The Silke grasse we purpose to send you some quantitie, 
soe much as shall suffice to make experience of it, and yf 
it proue right we can send you therof aboundance. 


" For gatheringe of Sasafras although the necessitie of the 
yeere doth require y« employment of more hands than we 
haue soe many People beinge to bee reseated uppon their 
Plantations, hauinge howses to build and the tyme of 
plantinge drawinge neere, yet will doe our best to Satisfie 
your desires therein. 

Glass Works. 

" For what hath been done in the glasse works Mr. Threr 
will inform you therin, the like will Mr. Pountis for the 
maides, as also .for Mr. Woodalls cattle. 

Fur Voyage. 

" And as for the Fur Vioadge we cannott resolue you, 
Capt Jhones being nott yett retorned. 

Captain Barwich and Company. 

" Capt. Barwick and his Companie at their ariuall were 
Acomodated accordinge to theire Desire in James Cyttie, 
when they haue spent their tymes in howsinge themselues, 
and are now woorkinge uppon shallops, Since his arrmall 
by sicknes he hath lost many of his princypall workmen, 
and he himselfe at present very dangerouslie sick, Mr. Thre' 
will at all tymes take Accompt of the pfitts and returne 


Carpenters for East India School. 

" The men sent fory® buildinge of the East India Scoole 
were for the psent placed amongst the Colledge Tenants, 
fower of them are dead, the residue shalbe placed w^^ 
the first conveniencie at Martins hmidred according to Mr. 
Coplands request to the Gouernor and Counsell. 

Death of Rev. Mr. Leake. 

" The little experience wee haue of M"" Leake made good 
your Comendations of him, and his death to us very gre- 

Death of Sir Wm. Nuce. 

" Sir William Nuce did not aboue two days suruiue the 
readinge of his Pattent, Whose long delay and sudden losse 
were to our great disaduantage. He brought with him 
very few people, sicklie, ragged and altogether wthout 
puisione, his sudden death and great depts left his estate 
much entangled to our extraordinarie trouble. 

Payments for the Maids and Boys. 

u ]y[r Treas' hath receaued a booke of accompt concerning 
the Tobacco sent home for the fiftie youths sent in the 
Dewtie, and the maides in the Jonathan and Londone 
Marchant, and of 2407 powndesof Tobac^cosent home by the, 
1407^*^ thereof was for ye Transportation of nyne of the 
Cyttie boys, nyne maides and fower men; the residue 
w*^ 20 barrells of Corne paide heere was for y® rent 
of twentie boys of the Cyttie Boys the yeere past, .wch 
was as much as you receaue for most of yo'' Tenants 
of makinge upp thesomme expended for the Duetie boys and 


the maides wee will do our best y* they who had them 
may make you Satisfactions. 

"ConcerDinge the reuenews of the Companie we suppose 
you haue found by your officers where the error is, we 
conceaue yt yf you would be pleased to Change the Con- 
dition of Tenants into Seruants for future supplies and 
not send ouer new officers neerly unexperienced in the 
Countrey to comande them, who thogh they may be very 
sufficyent for much worthie ymployment, eyther martiall 
or ciuill, are not soe fitt for y*^ ouerlookinge and directinge 
men in their labours, in wch affayes experience instructith 
more than much other sufficiencie, That then your reue- 
newes might be greatly Improued. 

Capt. Each and Fortification. 

" Capt. Each hath not yett vewed the place at Wadris- 
coyks whether it be fitt for fortification or nott, when he 
hath yf he shall find it sezable, and will undertake it he 
shall haue our utmost and best assistance, as farr as this 
yeers pouertie will pmitt, wch we will supplie in the next. 

College Tenants. 

" The College Tenants w*^ much difficultie, we are now 
about to resettle and haue engaged ourselues to supplie 
them with Corne untill haruest hauinge strengthend them 
with diuers of the old Planters, uppon y*" Conditions wch 
yourselues haue ppounded. 

Martins Hundred. 

"The Aduenturers of Martins Hundred whom haue putt 
life into the Accon by reenforcinge theire supplies, may 
pmise from us to themselues all possible asistance. Liut. 

376 vmaiNiA company of london. 

Parkinson w^^ his people is already gone downe y*" like 
we shalbe redie to doe to y^ rest of the plantations. 


" We haue receaued diuers peticiones wherin wee wilbee 
readie to dco Justice as ye proofes shall arise uppon Ex- 
aminatione, nor can any man for ought we knowe, complayne 
Justly that a lawfull hearinge hath been denied him at 
any tyme. 

Charity Invoked. 

"Lastlie we conclude w*^ our humble request unto you y* 
you will not judge us by the euents of thinges wch are euer 
uncertain especyally in a new Plantation, nor by reportes 
of branded people, some of whom haue deseruedly under- 
gone seuerall kinds of punishment, nor of the malitious 
and unknowinge, but rather to giue creditt to our publique 
informations and then we shall cheerfullie as we haue 
euer faithfully pceede to the aduancement of your de- 
signes, the good success wherof we humblie recomend to 
y'' fauors of the Allmightie, and euer remaine, 

" Most humbly at yo' Comands, 
"James Cytty y" 20^^' of Fra. Wyatt 

January 1622. George Yardley 

George Sandys 
Roger Smith 
John Pountis 
Ralphe Hamor. 
u T^Q ye right Hono''^" y^ Earl of Southampton and other 
y'' Lordes, w^^ the rest of the Woorthie aduenturers of y* 
Virginia Company." 


Rev. p. Copeland to preach Thanksgiving Sermon. 

April 10, 1623. " Forsomuch as the George was now 
returned safe from Virginia confirminge the good newes 
they had formerly receaued of the safe arriuall of their 
shipps and people in Virginia sent this last Somer, it was 
now thought fitt and resolued accordinge to a mocon for- 
merly made to the like eifect that a sermon should be 
preached to express Companies thankfulness unto God for 
this his great and extraordinary blessinge : 

" To wch end the Court entreated M'" Copland beinge 
present to take the paines to preach the said sermon, 
being a brother of the Companie, and one that was well 
acquainted w*"^ the happie successe of their affaires in Vir- 
ginia this last yeare, upon w*^^ request M' Copland was 
pleased to undertake it and thereupon two places beinge 
proposed where this exercise should be pformed, namely 
St. Michaells in Cornhill, or Bowe Church, it was by erec- 
con of hands appointed to be in Bowe Church on Wednes- 
day next, beinge the 17th Day of this present Moneth of 
Aprill about 4 of the Clocke in the Afternoone, for w'^^ pur- 
pose M' Carter is appointed to giue notice of the time and 
place to all the Companie.^ 

1 The sermon was preached and printed in quarto with the title : " Vir- 
ginia's God to be thanked, or a Sermon of Thanksgiving for the happy 
success of the affairs in Virginia, this last year. Published by command- 
ment of tbe Company." 



John Martin the Persian. 

" John Martin the Persian makinge humble suite for the 
Companies fauo' to the Farmers of his Ma*® Custome to free 
him from payinge double Custome w*^*^ they required of him 
being a stranger notwithstandinge he was made a free man in 
Virginia by S' George Yeardley, then Gouernor as by Certifi- 
cate under the Collonies Seale appeared, Answeare was 
made touchinge his freedome that none but the King could 
make him a free denizon of England, and for the Custome 
demanded the Farmers themselues could not nowe remitt 
it in reguard they had already entred the parcell into their 
books and charged it upon Account, whereupon it beinge 
taken into consideracon howe he might be relieued he was 
at length aduised to peticon unto my Lo : Trear for re- 
mittinge the said imposicon in reguard he was a freeman of 
Virginia and intended to returne thither againe w**^ some 
seruants out of the proceed of that small parcell of To- 
bacco he had brought ouer to supplie his wants. 

Trial Sermon or Mr. Staples. 

" M' Staples Minister recommended by M' Abra : Cham- 
berlen and by certificate under the hands of well neare 
20 Diuines continuing still his earnest request unto the 
Companie for some allowance towards the transport and 
furnishinge out of himselfe his wife and child to Virginia, 
where he hath a Brother lyuinge w*'^ moues him the 
rather to goe, for w*^^ allowance he is entreated to put 
himselfe wholly their free bounty the Court takinge it 
into consideracon did at length agree that allthough their 


Stocke was spent they could strayne themselues to giue 
him 20''^ to pay for his said passage and to furnish him with 
necessaries and for that it was moued that he might haue 
sometestimony of his suflficiencie by a Sermon he was desired 
to preach upon Sunday come sen night in the Afternoone 
at St Scyth's Church w^^ he promised to performe. 

Sir Walter Raleigh's Son. 
April 12. " Mr. Deputy propounded S-" Walter Raw- 
leighes sonne to be admitted into the Company w^^^ in re- 
guard his father was y^ first discouerer of Virginia, was 
generally well liked of 

Duppa's Bad Beer. 
June 18. " The Owners of the Abigail further Ac- 
quainted the Court that wheras they understood a great 
part of the beer was bad and such as had likelie much 
endamaged the peoples health, that that Beer was bought 
of M"". Dupper who had receiued of them a great price for 
itt. Wherfore as well for the Cleeringe of their 
Inocencie as allso for the iust sattisfaccon of the world, 
they purposed to complane either to the Commissioners or 
the LL'^« of the Counsell in case the Company had not suffi- 
cient authorytie of themselves to p'ceed against M"" Dupper. 

Richard Downes, a Scholar. 

" Edward Downes peticoned that his son Richard Downes 
hauinge continued in Virginia these 4 yeares and being 
bred a schollar went ouer in hope of preferment in the 


Colledge there; might now be free to Hue there of himselfe 
and haue 50 acres of land to plant upon. The Court con- 
ceauinge his suite to be verie reasonable haue recomended 
the graunt thereof to the next Quarter Court. 

Postponement of Annual Election. 

" At a Quarter Court held for Virginia the 25* of June, 

" M"" Deputy acquainted the Court that he had receaued 
a Letter from his Ma*'*' sent unto him by a seruant of M' 
Secretary Caluert and directed to the Treasurer Counsel! 
and Companie for Virginia w*^^ Ire (hauinge acquainted the 
counsell for Virginia) they thought fitt it should be first 
read before they proceeded to any other buissiness : wher- 
upon the L're was opened and read the Coppie whereof doth 
here ensue. 
" 'James R 

" ' Right Trustie and wel beloued : Wee greet you well : 
Forasmuch as Wee haue appointed a Comission to exa- 
mine the present estate of the Virginia Plantation with 
sundrie other things and matters appertayninge thereunto 
and that we expect within these fewe dayes to haue some 
Accompt made us of their Laboures in that seruice : Un- 
derstandinge that to morrowe beinge the 25*'' of this 
Moneth; you intend to hold a Court for the said Company: 
Our will and pleasure is that you do forbeare the eleccon of 
any Officers untill to morrowe fortnight at the soonest but 
to let those that be already remayne as they are in the 
meane time. 


" ' Giuen at our Court at Greenwich the fower and twen- 
tieth day of June, in the one & twentieth yeare of our 
Raigne of great Brittaine, France and Ireland.^'" 



The Company, owing to the bitter controversies that pre- 
vailed at the meetings held during the last years of 
existence, transacted but Httle business, and there are few 
entries in the Journals of this period that pertain to the 
affairs of the colony. 

Widow of Capt. Thomas Nuce. 

August 6. " S"" John Dauers acquainted the Court that 
he had receaued from M^'^ Nuice the late wife of Deputy 
Nuice deceased in Virginia, wherein she requested that the 
Companie in tender reguard of her great losse by the late 
death of her said Husband beinge now left desolate and 
comfortless in a strainge Country farr from all her frends, 
they therefore would please to grant her that fauo' that 
she might still enioy the moytie of those Tenants labo"^^ 
that belonged to her Husband's place, w*^^ if he had Hued 

1 After this was read there was a long and general silence. It was then 
voted, that the present officers should be continued, as by the express 
words of their charter, they could only elect officers at a quarterly meeting. 



had of right bin due unto him, until such time as they 
shall dispose of the said place. 

" M"" Deputy also signified that M"" Pountys in his letter to 
him comendinge much the Gentlewomans good carriage and 
charity to diners in that Countrie, did with much earn- 
estness desire the same fauo' of the Companie in her 
behalfe : Whereupon the Court takinge it into their conside- 
racon conceaued her request to be verie reasonable and did 
therefore generally agree it should accordingly be remembered 
in the generall letter to the counsell there sent by Hopewell. 

Annual Sermon Postponed. 

Nov. 12. " A Ire from an unknowne p'son beinge pre- 
sented to the Court and read wherein was enclosed two 
peeces of gold of 40' for a sermon to be preached this year 
(as was the last) before the Companie. It beinge taken 
into consideracon it was thought fitt (and so agreed) the 
Sermon should be respited for a time in reguard of the 
present troubles of the Companie. 

" M"" Caswell payinge allowance for the money he dis- 
bursed ouer aboue that he receaued of the Companie for 
their last Sermon feast at Marchantaylors Hall being then 
their Steward was referred to the Auditors. 

Capt. William Peirce. 

Nov. 19. "Uppon mocon order was giuen for a Com- 
mission to be drawne upp and sealed for William Peirce 
M' of the good Shipp called the Returne of 100 Tuns 
bound for transportacon of passengers to Virginia. 


Breach of Promise Case. 

April 21, 1624. " M' Deputy signified of certain other 
pap-"^ that came inclosed in y" aforesaid Box w*=^ were read 
wherof one conteyninge certaine examinacons touchinge a 
difference between M"^ Pooley and M'^ Jourdan referred 
unto the company here for answere, and the Court en- 
treated M"" Purchas to conferr with some Ciuilians and 
aduise what answere was fitt to be returned in such a case.' 

Reelection of Earl of Southampton. 

April 1624. " Itt beinge taken into Consideracon by 
this present Court, after all reasons heard and debated itt 
was at length agreed by a generall erection of hands 
that the Lawe concerninge the lymitinge of the Office 
of Treasurer and Deputy to the term of 3 years should be 
suspended, and accordingly resoluinge to go to eleccon, the 
Earle of Southampton was generally and unanimously 
nominated and beinge putt in election w*^ the Right 
Hon^^^ the Lord Cauendish, the place fell to the Earle of 
Southampton, by hauinge 69 balls, the Lord Cauendish 
fine, and the Negatiue box 2. Whereuppon y" Court 
besought the Lord Cauendish and the rest of the Counsell 
present to acquaint his.LoP with this choyce and how 

1 Pooly alleged that the widow Jordan engaged herself to him three or 
four days after her husband's death. After this the widow disavowed 
the engagement, and in the presence of the governor and council of Vir- 
ginia Contracted herself to William Ferrar, for many years a prominent 
councillor, and probably a brother of John and Nicholas the deputies of 
the company. 

384 vmaiNiA company of london. 

humbly and instantly the Court besought his Lo^ to accept 

Reelection of Nicholas Ferrar.' 

" For Deputy M'' Alderman Johnson M"" Nicholas Ferrar 
beinge proposed and ballated, the place fell to M"" Ferrar 
by hauinge 64 balls M"" Alderman 10 and the negatiue box 
1. Whereuppon beinge brought to his place tooke his oath. 

Reelection of Wyatt as Governor op Virginia. 

"Sir Fraunces Wyat^ beinge proposed to the Court and 
some earnestlie mouinge that S'" Samuel Argall (in reguard 
of his worth and desire hereunto) might stand in Eleccon 
with him they were both ballated and the place fell to S"^ 
Frauncis Wyat by hauinge 69 balls, S' Samuel Argall 8 
and y® negative box 2. 

1 Nicholas Ferrar, Jr., brother of John, was educated at Cambridge. 
At the age of 21, he was one of the train of the Princess Elizabeth in 
1613, after her marriage with Frederic, the Elector Palatine. After the 
dissolution of the company in the year 1626, he was ordained deacon in the 
church of England, and became Rector of Little Gidding in Huntington. 
George Herbert, the poet, was an intimate friend. His piety was most 
elevated, and his taste led him to ritualism. He never married and died 
in 1637, beloved by all who knew him. Among his friends was the 
Puritan, the Rev. Patrick Copelaud. 

~ His wife soon after this returned to England. Chamberlain writes to 
Carleton on June 19th. " The Lady Wyat, daughter as I take it to Lord 
Samuel Sandys is returned from Virginia, great with child, and Mrs. 
Percy in her company." 





HE faction in the Company led by the Earl of 
Warwick, Sir Thomas Smith the late Treasurer, 
and Alderman Johnson late Deputy Treasurer, 
although few in numbers, had the sympathy of 
the court party in politics. Early in the year 1623, it 
was evident that the proceedings of the Company were 
to be met with objections/ After a contract had been 
made with the King relative to the sole importation of 
tobacco, a committee appointed by the Company recom- 
mended certain officers, with salaries, to look after their 
tobacco trade. The report was adopted, and Mr Wrote, 
the mouth-piece of the faction, made it the pretext for a 
rupture, and said the salaries were "carried fowly and 
with much arte, surreptitously and to priuate ends," and 
that men "could not speak their minds freely, were 

1 The Marquis of Hamilton and Earl of Pembroke solemnly affirmed to 
Southampton that they heard Gondomar, the Spanish Ambassador, say 
to the King : " That it was time for him to look to the Virginia Courts 
which were kept at the Forrar's House, where too many of his Nobility 
and Gentry resorted to accompany the popular Lord Southampton and the 

dangerous Sandys." 

They further stated : " Your enemies will prevail at last ; for let the y 

Company do what they can in open defiance of honor and justice, it is 
absolutely determined at all events to take away your ]pa,tent."—Feckard's 
Ferrar, pp. 115, 121, 



ouerawed." The upright merchant John Farrar, and 
Deputy Treasurer, at the next meeting, declared the 
remarks to be " untrue and scandalous," and Lord Caven- 
dish said " that Wrote had not only affronted him in par- 
ticular, but the Earl of Southampton and the rest of the 
Counsel and Committee." 

At subsequent meetings M^" Wrote became more violent 
in his speech, and on the last of January, 1622-23, the Mi- 
nutes state : " In great passion challenged the Earl of 
Southampton for giuing him the lye in the Third person 
at a Sumers Islands court, saying ' that if any man should 
saye that in any thing men were overawed and durst not 
speak it, was put into his mouth by the Deuill, the father 
of lyes, for a fowler lye himselfe neuer told.' " 

The Earl of Southampton as presiding officer, instantly 
told Wrote " that had he carried himselfe so in any other 
place but this, he would not have endured it, and sharply 
willed him to behaue himself in a better maner." 

On the fourth of February the discussion continued, and 
Captain John Smith, who was then on the side of the 
Company, said " that hauinge spent upon Virginia a verie 
great matter,^ he did by God's blessinge hope to receaue 
this yeare a good quantity of Tobacco w^*^ he would not 
willingly haue come under the hands of them that would 
performe the buissiness for loue, and not upon a good and 
competent salary." 

The day after this Mr. Wrote, having refused to apolo- 
gize for his indecorous speeches, was suspended, and from 
that time the determination of the faction to break up the 
Company was more marked. Early in April, Alderman 

1 The Records show no expenditure on his part. 


Johnson, in behalf of the faction, presented the following 
petition to the King : 

Petition op x\lderman Johnson and Others. 

« To y^ Kings most exellent Ma*^. 

" The humble petition of Sundry the Aduenturers and 
Planters of the Virginia and Sumers Hands Plantacons. 
" Most gracious Soueraigne : 

" Amongst the many memorable works of yo"" Ma*' gra- 
cious Raigne those of the Plantacons of Virginia and the 
Somer Hands are not the Least. The beginninge of w'^^ 
enterprize beinge the first forraigne Colony planted by our 
nation accompanyed w* soe great a charge to furnish 
ships and men and to make yearly new Supplies wthout 
any present hope of retribucon was sufftcient att the first 
veiwe and computacon to haue discourraged y"^ most reso- 
lute and forward Aduenturers, butt by God's Assistance ■ 
and yo' Ma*' gracious encourragem*' wch that discreet 
and mylde Gouerm' first nomynated and appoynted by 
yo^ Ma*^% all sortes of men were in such kind and frendly 
manner inuited to engage themselues y* notw*^standinge 
many difficulties that great Accon (w*^'' otherwise had per- 
ished in the birth, not onely tooke hfe and beinge butt 
pceeded in a moste hopefull and comfortable Course for 
many years togeather with unity and loue amongst ourselues 

and enterteynmn* of those Sauadge Indians by wch 

endeauors sundry of those Infidells and some of emynent 
sort were conuerted to Christian Religion, Staple Comodi- 
ties began to be raysed and imported into this kingdome, 
as Iron, Sturgion, Caueary, Sope and Pottashes, Masts for 


Ships, Clapboard, Pipestanes, Waynscott, Wine, Pitch 
and Tarr and y* most desired work of Silkwormes : These 
were y*^ blessings then uppon our peaceable proceedinge. 

" Butt wee know not howe itt is of late yeares com to 
passe that notwithstandinge yo' Ma^'*^^ subiects haue been 
in great multitude exported to the Plantacons yett y® 
aforesaid Comodides and other y'' fruits of y* worke do 
not appear as in former times, o'^ unitie and peace att 
home is turned to Ciuill discord and dissencon amongst 
o' selues, and to Massacre and Hostility between the Na- 
tiues and our Colony in Virginia, and diuers of y^ Antient 
Aduenturers and Planters conceiue themselues many ways 
iniured abused and oppressed. In wch respect fearinge 
y* y® utter ruine and distruccon of those great works is 
like to followe without the help of a Supreame hand, and 
not holdinge itt fitt to trouble yo' Sacred ears w^^ pticular 
complaints wee are forced for remedy to appeale to yo' 
moste excellent Ma^^. 

" Humbly prayinge y* some worthy personages whom 
yo' Ma'y shall please may be noiated and appointed by 
comission under y^ great Seale of England who by Oath or 
otherwise by all Lawfull means and waies may enquire 
and examine y® true state of y'^ Plantacons att y"^ time when 
S' Thomas Smith lefte y'' Gouerment of y*' said Comp" : 
and all incidents thereunto belonginge, as also what moneys 
since y* time haue been collected for y'^ Plantacons, and by 
whome, howe the same haue been procured and expended, and 
what after y® expense of so much money is y® true estate 
and condicon of y^ said Plantacons at this present : As 
allso to enquire into all abuses and greiuances concerninge 
the former pticulars And of all wrongs and iniuries done to 
any y® Aduenturers or Planters and the grounds and 


causes thereof, and to propound how the same in time to 
come be reformed and howe the businesses of y® said Plan- 
tacons may be better mannaged Soe that all Contentions 
and difficulties being reconciled, the Authors thereof con- 
dignly punished, unitie and peace resettled, and y*^ forme 
of Gouerninge, and dyrectinge those Affaires beinge better 
established that worke may prospr w*^ a blessinge from 
heauen, to yo' Ma*^ great honour and proffitt, and to those 
religious and publique ends for wch they were first under- 

As soon as it was known that this petition had been 
offered, an extraordinary court of the Company was called 
on Saturday, April 12, 1623, in the forenoon. 

" The Lo : Cauendish acquainted the Company that the 
cause of calling this Court, at soe unseasonable a time was 
to acquaint them how that Alderman Johrison together 
w^*^ some others his Associates had presented a peticon to 
his Ma*^" complayning much of the misgouernm' of the 
Companies and Plantacons for the Last foure yeares, w^'^ 
to the entent it might not make any impression in his 
Royall breast to the preiudice of the Company his Lo^ con- 
ceaued that the Company were to thinke of some present 
course to giue his Ma*^^® satissfaccon by a true Declaracon 
both of the State of the Colony, and of the cariage of 
buisinesses here at home by the Company." 

Two days after this, a committee of the Company ap- 
peared before the Privy Council to answer the false alle- 
gations in Johnson's petition. ^ Chamberlain, in a letter to 

1 In Peckard's Life of Nicholas Fei'rar, it is stated that on the Thursday 
before Easter 1623, he and others were called before the Privy Council, 
when Cranfield the Lord Treasurer presented Johnson's and Butler's ac- 

390 vmomiA company of London. 

Carleton, dated on the 19tli, writes : " There is a great 
faction fallen out in the Virginia Company. The heads 
on the one side are, the Earl of Southampton, the Lord 
Cavendish, Sir Edward Sackville, Sir John Ogle, Sir Edwin 
Sandys, with divers others of meaner quality. On the other 
side are, the Earl of Warwick, Sir Thomas Smith, Sir 
Nathaniel Rich, Sir Henry Mildmay, Alderman Johnson 
and many more. On Monday [14th] they were before the 
King with accusations and allegations, where Sir Edward 
Sackville carried himself so malpertly and insolently, that 
the King was fain to take him down soundly and roundly, 
but I hear that by means of the Lord Treasurer he made 
his peace next day." ^ 

On the 17th the Privy Council met and appointed the 
commission of inquiry asked for by Alderman Johnson, 
who, in accordance with the wish of the Virginia Company, 
were instructed to inquire into its affairs, from the begin- 
ning of Sir Thomas Smith's directorship. 

cusations, and said they must be answered by the next Monday. Ferrar 
asked for an extension of time, but Cranfield enraged cried out, " Not an 
hour longer than till Monday afternoon, and therefore take up the papers 
and be gone." 

It was thought by Cranfield and others that they would not be able to 
reply to the various charges in so brief a period, but Ferrar gave a portion 
of the allegations to Lord Cavendish, a portion to Sir Edwin Sandys, and 
examined the rest himself. Six clerks were kept at work night and day, 
allowing only two hours for sleep and meals, and to the discomfiture of 
their enemies in the Privy Council, the Company appeared with their 
answer, the reading of which occupied six hours. The Company never 
heard what became of their answer, as the Council secreted it. (pp. 143 

1 Court and Times of James I, vol. II, pp. 389, 390. 


It was also ordered that no private letters sent to the 
colony should allude to the divisions, and that the Com- 
pany should send a letter exhorting the colonists to live 
in peace. 

On the 28th the letter of the Company for Virginia, 
was submitted to the Privy Council, but as it omitted to 
mention the King's grace and favor, was returned for 

In a few days the letter was amended and sent to 
Virginia, in the ship Bonny Bess. 

Letter Prepared for the Colony by Order of Privy Council 

OF THE King. 

"After o'' very hartie comendacons. Wee haue receaued 
yo"" letters sent by the Truloue and James, wherby we 
und'stand through God's assistance you haue made a 
good beginning to that iust reuenge wch you owe the 
Authors of that bloody Massacre : 

No Quarter to Indians. 

" Wch we desire you very earnestly wth all diligence and 
care to prosecute according to the aduise and instructions 
we haue formerly giuen you and that course yo"" haue 
already begun untill you haue so fully accomplished it as 
yo' security from all danger in that kind may be fully 


Causes of Sickness to be avoided. 

" Wee cannot but be much grieued at the Sicknes and 
mortality that hath hapned since the Massacre, wherein 


although we do acknowledge the hand of God in chastiz- 
ing of o^^ and yo'® sinnes, yet since, both now and formerly 
it hath as from the naturall causes proceeded in great part 
through distempers and disorders in dyet and lodginge : 
we most especially recomend unto yo' care the puent- 
ing and remedying of those inconueniences according to 
those good and prouident courses wch we haue so often 
aduised and directed you unto : 

Guest Souse. 

" And in pticular we cannot but require wch we haue 
so often heretofore urged the building of Guest-houses in 
each Citty and Borough for the enterteinmt of new 
comers, wherof yo' letters of the last yeare haue such 
hope and assurance in regard of the great retribution of 
1500^*^ wch you signified was to be gathred amongst you, 
as we verily expected thepformance thereof ere this time; 
but as we do conceiue and in part excuse the delay thereof 
through that great misfortune that befell you, so we now 
cannot but require so much more dilligence and care for 
the speedy pformance thereof. And in the meane while 
we very earnestly recomend unto you the people that 
come now ouer in this Shipp that yo"" cares and fauours 
begin wth the first enterteining them at theire arriuall and 
extend to the accommodating and settlinge them respect- 
iuely so as may be to their health and security according 
as in o'^ letters by the James and Trueloue we gaue you 


Attention to Staples. 

" The carefull and dilligent prosecucon of Staple Comodi- 
ties w^^ we promist; we aboue all things pray you to 
pforme so as we may haue speedily the reall proof and 
testimonies of yo"" cares and endeauors therein, especially 
in that of Iron, of Vines, and Silk the neglect and delay 
whereof so long : as it is of much shame and dishonor to 
the Plantation, so it is to us here cause of infinit grief and 
discontent, especially in regard of his Ma*^ iust resentment 
therein, that his Royall expectacon after so long and 
patient forbearance is not yet sattisfied, whereby although 
we might deseruedly feare a diminution of his Royall grace 
and loue to the Plantation, w*^'^ after so long a time and so 
long a supplie by his Ma*^ fauor haue brought forth no 
better fruit than Tobacco, yett by the goodnes of God in- 
clyning his princely heart, we haue receiued not only from 
the Lords of his Priuy Counsell, but from his Royall mouth 
such assurance not only of his tender loue and care but also 
of his Royall intentions for the aduancement of the Plan- 
tation ; that we canot but exceedingly reioyce therein and 
pswade you with much more comfort and encouragement 
to go on in the buildinge upp of his Royall worke w^^ all 
sincerity, care, and dilligence, and that w**^ that pfect loue 
and union amongst yo^selues as may really demonstrate that 
yo^' intentions are all one, the aduancement of God's glorie 
and the seruice of his Royall Ma^^® : for the pticularities of 
his Ma^* gratious intentions for the future good, yoii may 
in pte undrstand them by the courses appointed by the 
Lords, whereof we here inclosed send the orders : 



Tobacco Contract Dissolved. 

" And we are further to signifie unto you that the Lords 
of his Ma*' Priuy Counsell, hauing by his Ma*y order taken 
into their considerations the contract made last Sommer 
by the Company haue dissolued the same ; and signified 
that his Ma*^'' out of his gratious and Royall intencon and 
Princely fauor to the Plantation hath resolued to graunt a 
sole Importation of Tobacco to the two Plantations, wth 
an exception only of 40,000 weight of y*' best Spanish 
Tobacco to be yerely brought in : And it hath also pleased 
his Ma"'' in fauor of the Plantation to reduce y^ custom 
and imposicon of tobacco to 9^^ p ^'^ : And last of all we are 
to signifie unto you that their Lo^p' haue ordered that all 
the Tobacco shall be brought in from both Plantations as 
by their Lops order whereof we send you a copy, you may 
perceaue. " Yo' very Louing frends 

" London y^ 2th of May, 1623 Lo : Cauendish 

S^ Nath Rich 
Lo : Pagett 
" To o' very Louing frends S' S^ Edw. Sackuill 
Francis Wyatt Knight and S^ Edwin Sandys 

Capt Generall of Virginia and S^ Jo: Bourchier 
to the rest of the Counsell of Ald. Johnston - 
State there these be. M^ Tho. Gibbs 

M^ John Ferrar " 

" At a Court held for Virginia, on Wedensday in the 
Afternoone, the last of Aprill 1623. 

The Lo : Cauendish acquainted the Company that diuers 
ancient Planters, M'" of Shipps, Marriners, and sundry 
other persons that had lined long in Virginia and haue 


beene many tymes there, had presented y^ Comittee w*^ 
an answere unto Capt Butlers Informacon concerning the 
Colony in Virginia ; wherein they did directly contrary 
the most mayne points of his Informacon, prouing them 
to be Mse and scandalous, w'^ was by ereccon of hands 
ordered to be read being this w^*" followeth. 

Virginia Planters' Answer to Captain ^Butler. A'' a.-t^.o^^ <lA 

" The Answers of diners Planters that haue long lined 
in Virginia, as alsoe of Sundry Marriners and other per- 
sons y' haue been often at Virginia vnto a paper in- 
tituled : 

" The Vnmasked face of our Colony in Virginia, as it 
was in y Winter of y** yeare 1622. 

"1. I founde the Plantacons generally seated uppon 
meere Salt marishes full of infectious Boggs and muddy 
Creekes and Lakes & therby subiected to all those incon- 
veniencies and diseases which are soe comonly found in y^ 
moste vnsounde & most vnhealthy parts of England 
wherof euery Country & Climate hath some. 

" Answere 1. Wee say that there is no place inhabited, 
but is conueniently habitable. And for y^ first Plantacon , 
w'^'^ is Kiccoutan against w"^*" (if any be most exception \ 
may be made itt is euery way soe well disposed that in that 
place well gouerned men may enioy their healthes, and line 
as plentifully as in any parte of England, or other his Ma""' 
dominons, yett that there are Marishes in some places 
wee acknowledge ; But soe as they are more Comodeous 
for diuers good respects and uses, then if they were want- 
inge. As for Boggs wee knowe of none in all y" Country 
and for the rest of the Plantancons as Newports' News, 


Blunt Poynt, Wariscoyake, Martin's Hundred, Paspahey, 
and all the Plantacons right ouer against James Citty, and 
all the Plantacons aboue these w*^^ are many, they are 
verie fruitfull and pleasant Seates, free from Salt Marishes 
being all on the fresh river, and they are all verie health- 
full, and high land, except James Citty w^^ is yett as high 
as Debtforde or Radclyffe. 

"2. I founde y'' shores and sides of those parts of y" 
Mayne Riuer where ou'" Plantacons are setled euery wher 
soe shallow as noe Boates can approach y® shores, soe y* 
besides y*' difficulty daunger and spoile of goods in y^ Land- 
inge of them y"" people are forced to a Continuall wadinge 
& wettinge of themselues and y* in y" prime of winter 
when ye Shipps comonly arriue, and therby get such vyo- 
lent surfetts of colde uppon colde as seldom leaue them 
until they leaue to Hue. 

" Answere 2. That generally for the Plantacons att all 
times from halfe floud to halfe ebb any boate y* drawes 
betwixt three and 4 foote water may safely com in & 
Land their goods dry on shore w%ut wadinge & for fur- 
ther cleeringe of his false obieccons, the Seamen there doe 
at all times deliuer the goods they bring to the Owners 
dry on shore wherby itt plainly appeares not any of y® 
Country j)eople there inhabitinge are by this meanes in 
daunger of theire lines, And at a great many Plantacons 
belowe James Citty and allmost all aboue they may at all 
times land dry. 

'' 3. The new people y*' are yearly sent ouer which 
arriue here for y'^ most part very unseasonably in 
Winter, finde neither Guest house, Inne nor any y® like 
place to shroud themselues in at their arriuall nor not soe 
much as a stroake giuen towards any such charitable worke 


for y* many of them by want hereof are not onely seen 
dyinge under hedges & in the woods but beinge dead ly some 
of them many dayes vnregarded and vnburied. 

" Answer 3. To y® first they Answer that the whiter is 
the most healthfull time & season for arriuall of new Com- 
ers. True itt is y* as yett ther is noe Guest house or place 
of interteynment for Strangers, Butt wee auerr y* itt was 
a late intent and had by this time been putt in practise to 
make a generall gatheringe for the buildinge of such a 
Convenient house, w"'' by this time had been in good 
fowardnes had itt not ^Dleased God to suffer this disaster to 
fall out by the Indians. But allthoughe there be no pub- 
lique* Guest house yett are new Commers entertayned and 
lodged & puided for by y^ Gouerno'" in pry u ate houses ; 
And for any dyinge in the feilds through this defecte & 
lying unburied wee are altogether ignorant, yett y* many 
dy suddenly by y"" hand of God, wee often see itt to fall out 
euen in this flourishinge & plentifull Citty in y*^ middest of 
our streets, as for dyinge under hedges there is no hedge 
in all Virginia. 

"4. The Colony was this winter in much distress of 
victuall soe that English meale was soulde at y" rate of 
thirtie shillings a bushell their owne natiue Corne called 
Maize at ten and fifteen shillings the bushell, The w*''' 
howsoeuer itt Lay heauy uppon y*" shoulders of y° Gene- 
rallytie it maybe suspected not to be vnaffected by some 
of y'' Chiefe for they only haueinge the means in these ex- 
tremities to trade for Corne with y'' Natiues doe herby 
ingrosse all into their hands and soe sell y* abrode at their 
own prices & myself haue heard from the mouth of a prime 
one amongst them y* hee would neuer wish y* their owne 


Corne should be cheaper among them eight shilHngs the 

"Answer 4. True itt is y* English meale hath of late 
since the Massacre been sould for Tenn pounds of Tobacco 
y® bushell w^^^ no understandinge man can there value 
aboue fifteen shillings sterlinge, and here we finde wthout 
a Massacre by the iudgment of God for our murmurings att 
plentie Wheat hath this yeare been sould and still is in 
many places at three times the rate it hath borne wthin two 
or three years last past ; And againe Indian corne hath 
heretofore coraonly been sould after the rate of five shillings 
the bushell, And further meale bore so high a prise this 
year as itt cost ready mony in England together w*^?^ the 
fraight & other charges neer uppon twelue shillinge for 
y*, if itt were sould at Tenn pounds of Tobacco ther will 
not be gayned twenty in the hundred. 

" 5. Ther Howses are generally the worst y* euer I sawe 
y^ meanest Cottages in England beinge euery way equall 
(if not superior) with y® most of the beste, And besides soe 
improuidently and scatteringly are they seated one from 
another as partly by theire distance but especially by the 
interposicon of Creeks and swamps as they call them they 
ofier all aduantages to their sauadge enimys & are utterly 
depriued of all suddaine recollection of themselues uppon 
any tearmes whatsoeuer. 

" Answere 5. First that the houses there.were most built 
for use, and not for ornament, and are soe farre from being 
soe meane, as they are reported y* throughout his Ma*® Do- 
minions here all labouringe mens houses (w'^'' wee chiefly 
pfesse our selues to be) are in no wise generally for good- 
nes to be compared unto them. And for the howses of 
men of better ranke and quallity they are so much better 


and convenyent y* noe man of quallity w*out blushinge 
can make exception against them ; Againe for the Creeks 
and Swamps euery man ther that cannott goe by Land 
hath either a Boate or a Conoa for y*" conueyinge & speedy 
passage to his neighbo""' house. As for Cottages ther are 
none in Virginia, that they knowe. 

"6.1 found not y^ Least peec of Fortification, Three 
Peeces of Ordinance onely mounted at James Citty, and one 
at Flowerdue Hundred but neuer a one of them seruiceable 
Soe that itt is most certaine y* a Small Barke of one 
hundred Tunns may take its time to pass up the Riuer in 
spite of them & cominge to an Anchor before the Towne 
may beate all their houses downe about their eares & so 
forceinge them to retreat into y® woods, may Land under 
the fauor of their Ordinance & rifle the Towne at pleasure. 

" Answere 6. Itt is true ther is as yett no other Arti- 
ficiall Fortificacons then Pallisadoes wherof allmost euerie 
Plantacon hath one & diners of them hath Trenches, And 
this last yeare Capt Eache was sent for y* purpose. As 
for great Ordinance there are fower peeces mounted at 
James City, and all seruiceable, ther are six mounted at 
Flowerdue hundred all of them likewise seruiceable, And 
three mounted att Kiccoutan, and all of them seruiceable, 
there are likewise att Newporte Newes three, all of them 
seruiceable, ther are likewise at Henrico seauen peeces, 
and at Charles Hundred two, and in other places, besides 
Fowlers and Mortors at diners places. 

" 7. Expectinge accordinge to their printed Bookes a 
great fowardnes of diuers & Sundry Comodities, At myne 
ariuall I found not any one of them, so much as in any 
towardnes of being. For y" Iron workes were utterly 
vasted & y" men dead, the Furnaces for Glass and Pots at 


a stay & in a small hope, As for y® rest they were had in 
a generall derision euen amongst themselues, and y*" Pamph- 
lets y* had published there beinge sent thither by Hun- 
dreds wer laughed to scorne, and euery base fellow boldly 
gaue them y" Lye in diners perticulars, Soe that Tobacco 
onely was y*" buisines & for ought y* I could here euery 
man madded upon y\ and lyttle thought or looked for any 
thinge else. 

" Answere 7 . That y*" Country yeilded diners usefull and 
rich Comodities w*'^' by reason of y® Infancie of y® Plantacon, 
and this unexpected Massacre cannott yett be brought to 
pfeccon & is no less hindred by y*" emulous and envious reports 
of ill willers whose pry vate ends by time wil be discouered,^ 
and by God recompensed. And wee doe further answer 
y* this Country is a most fruitfull Country & doth cer- 
tainely pduce diners rich Comodities. Itt is true y* the Iron 
works are wasted and y"" men dead, but y* was by the 
Massacre w* if it had not happened ther had been a good 
proofe of y* Comodity, for y*^ works were in a very great 
forwardnes. As for Vinos likewise ther were diners Vine- 
yeards planted in sundry places, butt all of them putt back 
by the Massacre, but for the peoples derydinge of these 
Comodities, or the books sent by y*' Comp^ : wee haue neuer 
heard of any such scoffinge or derisions, butt as the 
Gouernor and Counsell ther are very desirous and haue 
sett forth proclamations to cause all men to sett both vines 
and Mulbery trees, so the people generally are very de- 
syrous & forward to rayse these former comodities of Wine 
and Silke & likewise diners other good Comodities. 

"8.1 found y^ Antient Plantations of Henrico, & 
Charles Citty wholly quitted, and lefte y'' spoile of y' In- 
dians who not onely burned y*' houses saide to be once y^ 


best of all others, but fell uppon y"" Poultry, Hoggs, Cowes, 
Goates and Horses whereof they killed great numbers to 
y*" greate griefe as well as mine of y" Olde Inhabitants, who 
sticke not to affirme y* these were not onely y*^ best and 
healthiest parts of all others, but might allsoe by their 
naturall strength of scituacon haue been y^ most easefully 
preserued of all the rest. 

" 9. Wheras accordinge to his Ma*'^^ gratious Letters 
Patents his People in Virginia are as neer as possibly may 
be to be gouerned after y^ excellent Lawes and Customs of 
Englande, I found in y^ Gouernment then not onely ignor- 
ant & enforced strayinge in diuer particulers, but willfull 
& intended ones ; Insomuch as some urged due conformity 
haue in contempt been termed men of Lawe, and were ex- 
cluded from those rights which by orderly proceedings they 
were elected and sworne unto here. 

" 10. There hauinge been as it is thought not fewer than 
Tenn thousand soules transported thither ther are not 
through the aforenamed abuses and neglects aboue Two 
thousand of them at y"" present to be found aliue, many of 
tliem alsoe in a sickly and desperate estate : Soe y* itt 
may undoutedly expected y* unless y® Confusions and pry- 
uate ends of some of y® Company here, and y® bad execu- 
tions in secondinge them by their Agents there, be redressed 
with speed by some diuine and Supreame hand that in 
steed of a Plantacon it will shortly gett the name of a 
Slaughter house, and for iustly become both odious to our- 
selues and contemptible to all the worlde. 

" Answere. All these wee leaue to be answered by the 

Gouernor and Companj^ some of them beinge unfitt to be 

determyned of by us. And for y*' last wee being ignorant 

how many haue been transported or are now seruinge there. 



" Wee whose names we here under and here after written 
haue uppon mature deliberacon & after full examinacon 
and consideracon of the premises, drawne upp these answers 
being such as we finde in our consyences to be true, and 
shall att all times iustifie them uppon our oathes. In 
witness whereof wee haue hereunder sett our hands. 

" I William Mease Mynister hauinge liued tenn years in 
Virginia and affirme all the answeres aboue, except that 
of the Ordinance and Pallisadoes. William Mease. 

''I Marmaduke Rayner haue gone 3 seuerall M' of Ships 
to Virginia and liued 16 moneths there together, and 
affirm all the answers aboue. Marmaduke Rayner. 

" I John Proctor haue liued 14 years in Virginia & doe 
affirme all the answers aboue except that of the Ordinance 
and Pallysadoes, but I know ther is neer uppon 20 
peeces of Ordinance. John Procter. 

" I William Euens haue gone M' of Ships to Virginia 4 
seuerall times & liued one wholl year ther or ther aboutes 
and affirme all the answers aboue except that of the 
Ordinance and Pallisadoes. William Ewens. 

" I James Carter, M"" of y^ Truloue doe affirme all the 
answers within written, but y* I haue not seen the Ord- 
nance att Henrico, and Charles Citty but all the rest I 
haue. James Carter. 

" I Gregory Pearle hauinge been Maister's mate and liued 
in Virginia 16 monneths doe affirme all the answers wthin 


written saue that I haue not seen the Ordinance at Hen- 
rico and Charles Cittj. Gregory Pearle. 

^' AVlUiam Green Chirurgion in the Temperance hauinge 
lined 17 monneths in Virginia doe affirme all the answers 
within written except y* I haue not seen the Ordnance 
att Henry CO. William Green Surgeon. 

" I Henry Hitch Chirurgion of y° James hauinge been 2 
seurall times in Virginia and liued att one time there 
about 5 monneths doe affirme all the Answers wthin writ- 
ten, saue y* I know not of y" matters about James Citty. 

Henry Hitch. 

" I Edward Sanders haueinge Hued 3 years in Virginia 
doe affirme all the answers within written except that of 
the Ordinance and Pallysadoes and other matters y* aboue 
Paspahay. The marke of E. S. Edward Sanders 

" I John Dennis M' of y^ Marmaduk affirme all y^ an- 
swers within written except y* of the Guesthouse, y^ Ordi- 
nance, & y" Palisadoes. John Dennis. 

" I Tobias Felgate haue gone M'" and Mate of Ships 5 
times to Virginia & affirme all the Answeres aboue except 
that of the Ordinance onely. Tobias Felgate. 

" I Samuel Mole haue liued 3 years or ther aboutes in 
Virginia beinge a Chirurgion and affirme all the answers 
Avithin written saue that I haue not seen the Ordinance 
att Henrico & Charles Citty, nor haue been in Henrico. 

" Samuel Mole. 


" I Thomas Prosser haue gone 3 times M'"^ Mate to Vir- 
ginia and haue lined att one time about 3 qrs of a year 
there & affirme all the answers within written except that 
of y"" Ordnance & Pallysadoes. Thomas Prosser. 

" I Robert Dodson hauinge been twice in Virginia 
affirme all the answers within written for all matters from 
James Cittj Downeward sauinge y* I doe not knowe of 
y® Proclam aeons for Vines. Robert Dodson. 

" I Maurice Thompson haue lined 6 years in Virginia 
doe affirme all y^ answers wthin written sane y* I know 
not of the Ordnance att Flowerdue hundred, nor att Hen- 
rico and Charles Citty. Maurice Tompson. 

" I John Snoade hauinge lined 3 years and halfe in Vir- 
ginia doe affirme all y® answers wthin written Sauinge y* I 
haue not seen Ordnance at Flowerdue Hundred, Henrico, 
and Charles Citty. John Snoad." 

On May 7th, a paper based upon the above was read 
at a meeting of the Company, approved, and ordered to be 
presented to the King. It was entitled : 

" A true Answere to a writinge of Informacon presented 
to his Ma"° by Cap. Nath: Butler intituled 

" TJie Vnmasked face of our Golonie in Virginia as it was 
in y^ winter of y^ yeare 1622." 

The conclusion of the answer was in these words : 
" And touchinge y*^ last 3 Articles of y"' said Capt But- 
ters informacon wherunto the Said 16 psonns say they 
cann make no answere, the same beinge either aboue or 


wthout the compass of theire knowledge, the Company 
for the present returne this Answere in briefe. 

" To y^ first of their being the 8^^ Article and conteyn- 
ino-e onely a descripcon of deuastation of Two plantacons 
called Henrico & Charles Citty by the late Massacre by 
the Infidles, wch might easily indeed haue been preserued 
if the said Massacre had been foreseen or feared : The Com- 
pany can say no more, but y^ itt was the unauoydable 
Calamytie of such a Treacherous Warr but y*^ Plantacons 
as they hope are againe restored according to express order 
giuen from hence to the Colony. 

" To y'' 9* Article conteyninge a Complainte of the now 
Gouerm* now in Virginia they haue no cause to giue any 
Creditt to the said Information, the same in appearance 
being grounded uppon the said Captaines discontent, and 
for y* hee was not accepted there to sitt in Counsell with 
them, whereto he could plead neither right nor deserte. 

" To y'' last Article beinge a conclusion of all his former 
misinformations wth addicon allso of some new untruths 
they say that ther were neuer sent aboue 6000 to Virginia, 
w'^^ is short 4000 of his informacon. And y* in the first 
12 years by the best computacon, that can now be made 
ther hauinge been no Accompt then kept either of their 
names or nombers, ther were not sent aboue 2500 at the 
moste wherof there dyed 5000 at Sea. 

" They say also that notwithstandinge the Late Massacre 
and the great mortaUty w'^ hath since ensued occasioned by 
the effects of the said Massacre, there are yet remayninge 
aliue in that Colony of Virginia to the number of aboute 2500 
psonns wherof good proofe is to be made, and y* y'' forsaken 
plantacons are againe in restoringe, and the Staple Como- 
dities setting upp againe accordinge to the orders from heere. 


But touchinge his last clause of the Confusions and pryuate 
ends of some of the Company here, and the bad executions 
in secondinge them by ther Agents there they desire that 
hee may be Comanded to discouer the same in pticular befor 
y° Commissioners appointed. And in the meane time they 
p'test against itt as Calamnious and Slanderous and of the 
selfe same trouth wth the rest of his Informations." 

The following February, the assembly of Virginia 
answered Capt. Butler's calumnies. In reply to Butler's 
objection that their houses were meaner than the meanest 
cottages in England they use the following words : 

u ye greatest disparagement that some of them receaued, 
haue pceeded from his Riotts and lasciuious filthiness w*^ 
infamous women, purchased with his royalls of eight, and 
wedges of gould, the spoyle of the distressed Spanyards in 
the Burmudas." 

To the statement that of ten thousand persons trans- 
ported only two are alive, the General Assembly answer : 

" His computatione of tenn Thousande faleth short of 
fower, and those for the most pte wasted by more then 
Egiptian slauery and Scythian crueltie w"^^ was exercysed 
uppon us your poore and miserable subjects by lawes writ- 
ten in bloud, and executed with all sortes of Tyranie in 
the tyme of S'" Thomas Smiths Gou'ment wherof we send 
your Ma"*" the trew and tragicall relatione by w*"^ it may 
easily appeare that the alleged confusiones and priuatt ends 
will strongly reflect uppon him and his instructors. And 
how unfitt they are to restore y* Plantation w^"" suffered 
soe much by that Gouernment, Wee humblie refer to 
your Princely consideracons Inuokinge that diuine and 
supreame hande to ptect us from such Gouernors & their 


ministers who haue poured our blood on the earth like 
Water, and fatted theraselues w^^ o' famine in that misera- 
ble bondage, but to support us in this iust and gentle Au- 
thoritie w'^' hath cherished us of late by more worthy 
magistrates. And we our Wyues and pooer Children, as 
is our dewtie shall euer pray to God to giue you in this 
worlde all increse of happiness, and to crowne you in the 
world to come w^^ immortall glory." 

The Virginia Assembly at the same time transmitted 
the following "true and tragical relation : " 

The Tragical Relation or ViRGiNtA Assembly. 

" The answere of the Generall Assembly in Virginia to 
a Declaratione of the state of theColonie in the 12 yeers of 
S Thomas Smiths Gouerment, exhibited by Alderman 


Johnson and others. 

" Holdinge it a sinne against God, and ou"" owne suflfer- 
inge, to suffer the World to be abused w^^ untrue reportes, 
and to giue unto vice the reward of vertue, we in the name 
of 'the whole Colonic of Virginia, in our generall assembly, 
many of us hauing beene eye witnesses and patients of 
those tymes haue framed out of our duty to this country, and 
loue'unto truth, this Dismaskinge of those prayses w"*" are 
contayned in the foresaid declarationes. 

" In those 12 yeers of S' Tho : Smith his gouerment, we 
auerr that the Colony for y^ most pte remayned in greate 
want and misery under most seuere and Crewell lawes 
sent ouer in printe, and contrary to the expresse Let- 
ter of the Kinge in his most gracious Charter, and as 
mercylessly executed, often times wthout tryall or Judg- 
ment. The allowance in those tymes for a man was only 


eight ounces of meale and half a pinte of pease for a daye 
the one & y^ other mouldy, rotten, full of Cobwebs and 
Maggotts loathsome to man and not fytt for beasts, w*^^ 
forced many to flee for reliefe to the Savage Enemy, who 
being taken againe were putt to sundry deaths as by hang- 
inge, shootinge and breakinge uppon the wheele & others 
were forced by famine to filch for their bellies, of whom 
one for steelinge 2 or 3 pints of oatemeale had a bodkinge 
thrust through his tounge and was tyed wth a cliaine to 
a tree untill he starued, yf a man through his sicknes had 
not been able to worke, he had noe allowance at all, and 
soe consequently perished many through these extremi- 
ties, being weery of life digged holes in the earth and hidd 
themselues till they famished. 

" We cannott for this our scarsitie blame our Comanders 
heere, in respect that o'" sustenance was to come from Eng- 
land, for had they at that time giuen us noe better allow- 
ance we had perished in generall, so lamentable was our 
scarsitie that we were constrained to eat Doggs, Catts, 
ratts. Snakes, Toad-stooles, horse-hides and w* nott, one 
man out of the mysery he endured, killinge his Aviefe 
powdered her upp to eate her, for w*^'^ he was burned. 
Many besides fedd on the Corps of dead men, and one 
who had gotten unsatiable, out of custome to that fbode 
could not be restrayned, until such tyme as he was exe- 
cuted for it, and indeede soe miserable was our estate that 
the happyest day that euer some of them hoped to see, 
was when the Indyans had killed a mare they wishing 
whilst she was boylinge y^ S^. Tho : Smith was uppon her 
backe in the kettle. 

" And wheras it is afirmed that there were very fewe 
of his Ma*^®^ subiects left in those dayes and those of the 

DEC A T OF TO WN8. 409 

meanest ranke, we answere y* for one that now dyes, there 
then perished fine, many beinge of Auncyent Howses and 
borne to estates of 1000^ by the yeere, some more, some 
less who likewise perished by famine. Those who suruived 
who had both aduentured theire estates and prsonnes were 
constrayned to serue the Colony as if they had been slaues, 
7 or 8 yeeres for their freedomes, who underwent as 
hard and seruile labor as the basest fellow that was 
brought out of Newgate. 

" And for discouery we saye that none was discouered 
in those 12 yeeres, and in these 4 or 5 last yeers much more 
than formerly. 

" For o'' howses and churches in those tymes they were 
so meane and poore by reson of those calamities that they 
could not stand aboue one or two yeeres, the people neuer 
goinge to woorke but out of y® bitternes of theire spirrits 
threatning execrable curses uppon Sr : Thomas Smith, 
neither could a blessinge from god be hoped for in those 
buildings w*"^ were founded uppon y^ bloud of soe many 

" The Townes were only James Cyttie, Henryco, Charles 
hundred, Wfest & Sherley hundred, and Kiccoughtan all 
w^^ in those tymes were ruined alsoe, unless some 10 or 12 
howses in y* Corporatione of James Cyttie at this present 
tyme are 4 for euer one that were there, and forty times 
exceedinge in goodnesse, fortifications there were none at 
all against y® foraigne enemy, and those that were against 
the domestick very few and contemptible. Bridges there 
was only one w*^*^ also decay de in that tyme, yf through 
the forsaid calamities many had not perished we doupt not 
but there might haue been many more than 1000 people 
in the lande when S"" Thomas Smith left the Gouerment. 


" But we conceiue y* when S"" George Yardly arriued 
Gouno'' hee found not aboue 400, most of those m want of 
corne, nearly destitute of cattle, swyne, poultrey and other 
necessary pulsions to nourish them. Ministers to instruct 
the people there were some whose sufficyencie and abilitie 
we will not tax, yet diuers of them had no Orders. 

" We knowe not at any time y* we exceeded in Armes, 
Powder & munitions, but y^ "in qualitie almost altogether 
uselesse. We acknowledg in those times there was a 
tryall made of diuers staple Comodities, the Colony as 
then not hauinge meanes to pceed therin, we hope in tyme 
there may be some better pgressions be made, and had it 
not beene for the Massacre may by this had beene 
brought to pfectione, as for boats in the tyme of y* 
Gouermt there was only one left y* was seruicable in the 
Colonic, for w^^ one besides 4 or 5 Shipps and pynnaces, 
there are now not so fewe as 40, the barques, and barges y* 
then were built in number few, so unwillinglie and weakly 
by the people effected, y* in the same time they also fished 
weneuer prceaued y^ the natiues of the Countrey did volun- 
tarily yeeld themselues subiects to our gracyous Souraigne, 
nether that they took any pride in that title, nor puide at 
any tyme any contrybutione of corne for sustentation Of y® 
Colony, no*" could we at any tyme keepe them in such good 
respect of correspondency as we became mutually helpful 
each to the other but contrarily w* at any was doune 
pceeded from feare and not loue, and their corne pcured by 
trade or the sworde. 

" To w* growth of pfectione the Colony hath attayned at 
y" end of those 22 [12] yeeres wee conceaue ma,y easily be 
iudged by w* we haue formerly saide. And rather to be 
reduced to Hue under the like Goument we desire his 



Mca"^ y* Commissioners may be sent ouer, w^*" autlioritie to 

liange us. 

" Alderman Johnson, one of y° Authors of this Declara- 
tione hath reasone~to comend him to wliose offences and 
infamies he is so inseparably chained. 

" By y^ generall reporte of y*" Country w*'^ we neuer hard 
contradicted, we affirme this to be true wherof all or y" most 
pte were eye witnesses or resident in y^ Country when 
euery pticuler within written were effected. 

" Wm. Tucker Francis Wyatt 

Wm. Peerce George Sandis 

Rawley Croshaw John Pott 

Samuel Mathews - 
Jabez Whittaker 
John Willcox 
Nicholas Marten 
Edward Blany 
IsACK Madisone 
Clement Dilke 
Luke Boyse 
John Utie 
John Chew 
Richard Staples 

John Powntis 
Roger Smith 
Raphe Hamor 
John Southerne 
Samuel Sharpe 
Henry Watkins 
Nathanael Causey 
Richard Bigge 
Richard Kingswell 
John Pollington 
Robert Addams 
Gabriell Holland 
Thomas Marlott " 

The Earl of Warwick and associates were much cha- 
grined at the papers presented by the Company to the 
King, and induced the Privy Council on the loth of May, 
1623, to order that Lord Cavendish, Sir Edwin Sandys, 
Nicholas and John Ferrar, " chief actors in inditing and 
penning" "an impertinent declaration containing bitter 



invectives and aspersions," should be confined to their 
houses until further order. 

On the 22d the Privy Council directed that all charters, 
books, letters, and other writings, should be delivered up 
to the recently appointed Commissioners for Virginia and 
the Somers Islands.^ 

The King was indignant at the action of the Company 
relative to his letter read at their meeting on 25th of June, 
"relative to the election of officers, and he ordered the 
Privy Council to find out whether it was because of the 
words of their Charter, or a mere pretext to thwart his 
command, and at the same time the Attorney-General was 
instructed to examine whether their conduct had not ren- 
dered void their charter. The next month, at a meeting 
of the Virginia or Somers Island Company, Lord Caven- 
dish and the Earl of Warwick engaged in angry debate and 
one calling the other a liar, a challenge was passed and 

There was great excitement throughout London as the 
rumor flew from street to street that two such eminent men 
Were about to fight a duel on the continent, and the Privy 
Council, on the 19th of July, issued an order that all the 
ports of the kingdom should be carefully watched so that 
they might not cross the channel. In a few days Caven- 
dish was detected, and arrested at Shoreham in Essex, but 
Warwick, by disguising himself as a merchant, reached 

1 In a communication from the Virginia and Somers Island Companies 
found on page 2o6 of second volume of Manuscripts Trans. Virginia 
Company^ is the following statement : " Some of wCi Letters Patents the 
verrie originalls, and of other some authentical Coppies haue been trans- 
mitted unto the Plantations, and are there remayninge with them." 

2 See page 380. 


the opposite shore, but was taken at Ghent early m August, 
and ordered to return/ 

Chamberlain, who was always full of court gossip, wrote 
on July 26th, to Sir Dudley Carleton : 

'' The last week, the Earl of Warwick and the Lord 
Cavendish fell so foul at a Virginia or Bermuda's Court, 
that the lie passed and repassed, and they are got over to 
try their fortune, yet we do not hear they are met, so that 
there is hope they may return -safe. In the meantime 
their ladies forget not their old familiarity, but meet daily 
to lament their misfortune. The factions in these two 
Companies are grown so violent, as Guelfs and Gebellines, 
were not more animated one against another ; and they sel- 
dom meet upon the Exchange, or in the streets, but they 
brabble and quarrell." 

On the 31st of July, the Attorney-General reported 
that he had diligently perused the letters patent of the 
Company, and that it was his opinion that the King could 
revoke their privileges. 

During the rest of the summer, as many members of the 
Company and Privy Council were out of town, nothing 
further was done, but at a meeting of the Company, held 
on Wednesday, October 15th, an order of the Privy Coun- 
cil was read, declaring the King's intention to remodel th^e 
Company, by appointing a governor and twelve assistants 

1 In a letter written by Chichester to the wife of Warwick, on August 
12, and first published on June 29, 1867, in London Notes and Queries, 
is this statement : " Inquiringe of my noble friends what they had heard 
of the earle, M'" Secretary Calvert told me, that he went from KngUind 
in a small boate laden with salt, apparalled like a marchant, and beings 
inquired after by force of letters written to M'' Trumbull (Icgat. for his 
Ma'i'^^ att Brussels), he was found and stayed at Graunt." 


residents of England, and dependent upon the Privy Coun- 
cil, and also a governor, and twelve assistants, residents 
in Virginia, to be nominated by the Governor and assist- 
ants living in England, and inquiring what action the Com- 
pany would take on the proposition. 

To the communication the Company replied 'that the 
surrender of their charter was a matter of such moment, 
that they asked for time to consider, and stated that the 
subject would be fully discussed at their next Quarter 
Court, on the 19th of November, the earliest period their 
charter gave them power, to make further answer. 

The Lords of the Privy Council, not pleased with the 
reply, peremptorily ordered the Company to bring a di- 
rect answer on the next Monday. The question being 
then referred at the special meeting, only nine voted to 
surrender the charter, namely : Sir Samuel Argall, Sir 
Thos. Wroth, Capt. Jno. Martin, Mr. Canning, Mr. Wood- 
all, Martin the Armenian, Molasco a Pole, and two others. 
Early in November, a quo warranto was issued against 
the Company." ^ 

At the regular quarterly meeting on 19th of November, 
the question of surrendering the charter was fully discussed 
and rejected, seven persons only voting in favor of the pro- 
position. Steps were also taken to procure their books 
and papers, which for fourteen days had been sequestered 

"M'" Binge hearinge this mocon of peticoninge the Lords 
for y° Companies Books said (as hee was goinge out of the 
court) that Lett them make as many peticons as they will, 
they shall as soone haue a Haulter, as haue them. Wherof 
present Complainte beinge made and the words certified 

1 See Journal of Virginia Company, Nov. 12, 1623. 


by three that ouerheard him, namely by M^' Gilbert More- 
wood, M'- Wiseman, and M^' Spruson, the Court were much 
troubled therat, and held itt fitt to be complayned of to the 
Lords of the Counsell." ^ 

The Privy Council restored their books and pa,pers that 
they might properly answer the quo warranto. 

During the debate on the surrender of the charter, Can- 
ning, one of the faction, met Keightley, also a member of 
the Company, on the Exchange, and struck him, for which 
he was arrested and fined twenty pounds. 

On the 26th of April, 1624, M^' Ferrar^ presented to the 
House of Commons a petition from the Virginia Company, 
and a day was appointed for its consideration. The only 
entry that appears in the Journal relative to the matter, 
is on Friday, 29th of April, in these words : 

" M"" Speaker delivereth and readeth a Letter from the 
King concerning the Virginia Petition. The petition by 
general Resolution withdrawn." 

A letter written a few days after by Sir Francis Nether- 
sole to Sir Dudley Carleton gives a very satisfactory ac- 
count of the proceedings on the petition. 

" On Wednesday last M^' Ferrar, deputy of the Company, 
Sir Edwin Sandys, Lord Cavendish, and Sir John Danvers 
made relation of proceedings; they layed the great load 

"Tcoventry, the Attorney General, in explaining why Bing was not 
placed with Butler, Pory and Wrote in the commission of July, 1624, 
wrote that he was " somewhat light " '• a mere good fellow, of no estate, 
who for offensive behaviour to Lord Southampton had been committed to 
the Marshalsea." Saaisburi/, p. 65. 

■-' Nicholas Ferrar was a member of the House, representing Lymington, 
in Southampton Co. 


upon the Lord Treasurer/ charged the commissioners ap- 
pointed by the King to report upon the cause, with extreme 
partiality, and accused Sir Nath. Rich of being an active 
ill-instrument. At the time when the Commissioners were 
to examine Sir Edwin Sandys, and the former governors 
as to their governments, he was commanded by the Lord 
Treasurer, in the King's name to go out of town. The 
King disavowed it, and gave Sandys liberty to return. 

" The business aj^pearing very foul, many at first unwilling 
were now content to have it ripped up. Next day the 
King forbade the House to proceed any further, the matter 
having been specially recommended to his Council. His 
Majesty feared that troubles to quiet which much pains 
had already been taken, might be stirred again, by the 
House meddling with them. 

" This was assented to by a general silence, but not with- 
out soft muttering, that any other business, in the same 
^way, might be taken out of the hands of Parliament." ^ 

The case of the Company was called up at the Trinity 
Term of the King's Bench, in 1624. The plea of Coventry, 
the Attorney-General, for revoking the charter, was : 

" That it was in general an unlimited, vast patent. In 
particular, the main inconvenience was, that by the words 
of the charter, the Company had a power given them to 

1 Lionel Cranfield, now Earl of Middlesex, and the Lord Treasurer, was 
a corrupt man, and on the 19th of May, about one month after the charter 
of the Company was declared null and void, the House appointed Sir 
Edwin Sandys and Mr. Ferrar to draw up a petition to the King com- 
plaining of his bribery and extortion. The result of the investigation 
led to his being deprived of oflfice, fined £50,000, and committed to the 

- Sainshuri/, Cnl. State Papert^, pp. 61, 62, 


carry away, and transport to Virginia, as many of the 
King's loving subjects as were desirous to go thither. And 
consequently, he said, by exercising this liberty, they may 
in the end carry away all the King's subjects into a foreign 

On the 16th of June, the last day of the term, Chief 
Justice Ley declared : 

" That the Patent or Charter of the Company of English 
Merchants trading to Virginia, and pretending to exercise 
a power and authority over his Majestys good subjects 
there, should be thenceforth null and void." ^ 

Wentworth, afterwards Earl of Strafford, expressed the' 
joy of the Court party in a letter to a kinsman, Christopher 
Wandesforde : 

"Yesterday, Virginia Patent was overthrown at the 
King's Bench, so an end to that plantations savings. Me- 
thinks, I imagine the Quaternity before this have had a 
meeting of comfort and consolation, stiring up each other 
to bear it courageously, and Sir Edwin Sandys in the midst 
of them sadly sighing forth, oh ! the burden of Virginia." ^ 
On the 26th, the Privy Council ordered Nicholas Ferrar, 
Deputy for the late Company of Virginia, to bring all 
papers and books concerning the late Corporation, and de- 
posited with the keeper of the Council chest until further 

To avoid the "popularnes" of the Virginia government, 
the King on the 15th of July, issued a proclamation ap- 
pointing a number of commissioners to take charge of the 

1 Peckard's Ferrar, p. 145. 

2 / dem. 

3 Strafford Disjmtchcs, p. 21. 



affairs of the colony. ^ In this document, the lack of 
prosperity in Virginia, is attributed to the mismanagement 
of the London Company, and then the paper continues : 

" And to that purpose yf our first Grante herein men- 
tioned, and our most princely and prudent Instructions 
given in the begyning of the Plantation for the Direction 
of the Affaires thereof by thirteen Councellors in Virginia 
all nomynated by us, had been pursued much better 
Effects had been produced, than had been by the Altera- 
tion thereof into so popular a course, and amongst so many 
handes as then y* was, which caused much contention and 
confusion ; whereuppon We entering into mature and 
deliberate consideration of the Premisses, did by the advise 
of the Lordes of our Privie Councell, resolve by altering 
the Charters and Letters Patentes of the said Company as 
to the Points of Governemente wherein the same might be 
found defective, to settle such a course as might best secure 
the safetye of our People there, and cause the said Planta- 
tion to florish, and yet with preservation of the interest 
of Everie Planter or Adventurer soe farr forth as theire 
present Interest shall not prejudice the publique Planta- 
tions : 

" But because the said Tresorer and Companye did not 
-submitt theire Charters to be reformed, our Proceedings 
therein were stayed for a time, untill, upon a quo Warranto 
brought, and a legall and judiciall proceeding therein by 
due course of Lawe, the saide Charters are avoided." ^ 

1 Among those nominated were Capt. Nath. Butler, Samuel Wrote, John 
Pory, Alderman Johnson and Secretary Calvert. Rijvier, vol. xvii, p. 612. 

2 Rymer, vol. xvil, p. 611. 



The proclamation concluded by authorizing them to 
take possession of the seals, charters, instructions, books, 
letters, and all other writings of the Company. 

The success of Sir Thomas Smith was now complete. 
The next day after the proclamation, the Commissioners 
mentioned therein met, and agreed to meet every Thursday 
at the house of Sir Thomas Smith, for the transaction of 

^ Sainshury, Cal. State Papers, p. 65. 


»e 50 Wanaskoyaks, 

■ 111 George Wedd, 

' 221 Archee's Hope, 
' 222 Hant Wyatt, 
' 233 Nich. Tiun, 
' 238 Ml-. Butleaf, 

• 240 Indreton Winston, 
' " Nicho. Forren, 

" Thr: Sheapeard, 

■ 241 Genge, 

' 249 Miles Puckett, 

• 250 Jo. Ferrard, 

" Nicho. Ferrad, 

■ 252 lu 1678, 

■ 278 September, 

■ 293 demerrits, 

• 338 Mr. Parey, 
375 Wadriscoyks, 

• 377 April 10, 1623, 

should read Waraskoyaks. 

" George Webb. 

" Archer's Hope. 

" Haut Wyatt. 

" Nich. Ferrar. 

" Mr. Butler. 

" Dr. Tho's Winston. 

" Nicho. Ferrar. 

" Tho. Sheperd. 

" George. 

" Miles Pirkett. 

" Jo. Ferrar. 

" Nicho. Ferrar. 

" In 1G3S. 

" December. 

" merits. 

" Mr. Porcy. 

" Warriscoyaks. 

" April 10, 1622. 

Y«« nBiiiMlf Tr*-»^r»» " Miii«ll»MlUILKHH»lllllB»WllHM I«aX» 


A true answer to Capt. Butler's Calum- 
nies, 404-406. 

Abbott, Maurice, 178, 300. 

Abdv, Mr., 300. 

Academy at Palmer's Island, 315. 

Accomack settlement, 282 ; planters 
proposed removal to, 360. 

Aconack-china, name of people, 337. 

Acts of first Virginia legislature, 140, 
173, 175. 

Adams, Capt., 30. 

Advice to first colonists, 8. 

Alexander, Sir W., alludes in a poem 
to America, 81 ; proprietor of Nova 
Scotia, 81. 

Allen, Edward, stage player, 316. 

Ambergris, 54, 55, 56, 59. 

America referred to by poets, 81. 

American Antiquarian Society's publi- 
cations, 16. 

Amidas, early explorers, 69. 

Ammunition and men promised to Vir- 
ginia, 324. 

Amsterdam, ships from, 220 ; people in 
fur trade, 267. 

Annual Sermon of Virginia Company, 
260,360; postponed, 383. 

Annual supper of Virginia Company, 

Anthony, Dr. Francis, 150, 233, 250, 

Apothecaries needed, 171. 

Apothecary, an, oflfers his services, 206. 

Apparel, excess of, in Virginia, 141,322. 

Appomattox river, 223. 

plantation, list of slain at, 340. 

Archer, Gabriel, Virginia councillor, 
16 ; returns to England, 20 ; op- 
Ijoses President Wingfield, 21 ; ac- 
companies Gates and Somers, 30 ; 
his letter from Jamestown, 31. 
Argall, Capt. Samuel, first arrival in 
Virginia, 30, 32 ; court martials 
Edward Brewster, 41, 120; sails 
with Somers for provisions, 44; 
names Delaware bay, 49; visits 
Potomac river, 50 ; attacks the 
Warasquoyaks, 50; accompanies 
Lord Delaware to England, 51 ; aj- 
rives at Point Comfort in 1612, 85 ; 
visits England in 1614, 66 ; com- 
mands ship Treasurer, 75 ; abducts 
Pocahontas, 86 ; builds a ship at 
Point Comfort, 87 ; visits Pow- 
hatan with Sir Tho. Dale, 87; 
visits England in 1616, 113 ; made 
deputy governor of Virginia, 113 ; 
announces drowning of Rev. Mr. 
Whitaker, 113 ; asks for ordination 
of Macock and Wickham, 113 ; his 
ship brings negroes to Virginia, 
120 ; charges of corruption against, 
114, 180; escapes from Virginia, 
127! 135, 179 ; course toward Capt. 
Brewster disapproved, 187 ; mention 
of, 259, 282, 384, 414. 

Arms wanted in Virginia, 297 ; coat of, 
for Virginia, 155. 

Arsahattocks, 74. 

Articles of Levden Church, 122, 12b. 

Arundell, Lord, 3, 173, 175, 176, 199. 

Attorney General Coventry, in favor of 
taking away Virginia Company's 
charter, 413, 416. 



Augustine's, St., " City of God " pre- 
sented, 197. 
Ayers, Mr., 251, 253. 


Bacon, Sir Francis, 62. 

Balloting box, 172, 191, 216, 302. 

Bamfield, Mr., 273. 

Bamfourde, Mr., 169, 253. 

Bargrave, Capt. John, 188, 313. 

Bargrave, Rev. Mr., nephew of Dr. 
Bargrave, 138 ; bequeaths library 
to college, 139. 

Barwick, Capt. Thos., takes over ship- 
builders, 308, 373. 

Basse, Nathaniel, Gent., 194 ; authorized 
to invite New England colonists, 

Basse's Choice Plantation, 194. 

Bateman, Mr., 300. 

Baylie, Capt., 60. 

Beads made by Italians, 237. 

Beer, bad, of Duppa, 379. 

Bell, Robert, 299. 

Bennet, Edward, plantation of, 194 ; 
slain at, 345 ; patent to, 261 ; his 
tract on Tobacco, 207 ; commended, 

Bennet, Rev. William, 194. 

Bennet, Richard, 194. 

Bennet, Robert, captain, 194. 

Berkeley, John, patent to, 183 ; builds 
iron works, 227, 283 ; killed by sa- 
vages, 320, 338. 

Berkeley, Maurice, 283, 329, 309 ; to re- 
turn to England, 372. 

Berkeley plantation, list of killed, 338 ; 
Hundred, 341. 

Bermuda Hundred, 109. 

Bermudas, Gates and Somers at, 33, 
50 ; Somers sails for, 43 ; sold by 
Virginia Comi^any, 53, 50 ; sliip 
Plough sails for, 53 ; Shakespeare 
alludes to, 54. 

Beverstone Castle, Gloucester, 227. 

Bikar's plantation, slain at, 343. 

Bing, Mr., insulting speech of, 414. 

Blackwell, Francis, Amsterdam elder, 
127 ; dies on way to Virginia, 127. 

Blany, Ed., keeper of colony magazine, 
242, 246, 250, 263, 277, 354. 

Blessing, ship, arrival of, 31. 

Bloodhounds to chase Indians, 321. 

Bluett, Mr., of Virginia Council, 189. 

Blunt Point fortification, 305, 352. 
Boats not to trade with Indians, 238. 
Bohun, Dr., physician general, 48, 51, 

182, 200 ; grant of land to, 168. 
Boiling, Jane, wife of Richard Randolph, 
Bolton, Rev. Mr., 220, 224. 
Bonnoel, J., silkworm raiser to king, 

258, 310 ; Treatise on Silkworms, 

Bow Church, Copland's sermon at, 377. 
Boys, John, member of first legislature, 

Boys transported in ship Duty, 356, 374. 
Breach of promise of marriage, 383. 
Brewster, Capt. Edward, ascends James 

river with despatches to Gates, 

41 ; attacks Waraskoyaks, 50 ; false 

charges against, 120, 187 ; conforms 

to the church, 129, 167 ; his case 

considered by Virginia Company, 

187; sketch of 
Brewster, William and son Edward, 41. 
Brewster, William, subscribes Leyden 

articles, 129 ; departs from Leyden, 

Brickmakers for College, 380. 
Bridewell prisoners transported, 167. 
Briggs, Henry, on north-west passage, 

Brinsley, John, schoolmaster, 273 ; his 

consolation for Grammar Schools, 

Brooke, Christo., of Lincoln's Inn, 68, 

155, 186. 
Browne, Mr., lives among Waraskoyaks, 


Buck, Rev. Richard, sails with Gates 
and Somers, 33, 34 ; preaches be- 
fore Lord Delaware, 42 ; christens 
an infant of Rolfe, 88 ; resides at 
Jamestown, 111 ; chaplain first Le- 
gislature, 139 ; idiot child of, 

Buflt'alo described, 27. 

Burras, Ann, 22. 

Butler, Natli., his slanders, 395 ; ans- 
wered, 406 ; api)ointed a commis- 
sioner for Virginia, 418. 


Calvert, Secretary, George, 1 ; about a 
deer stealer, 145 ; about transporta- 
tion of ci'iminals, 154 ; is written to, 
by Virginia Company, 164, 299, 300, 
310, 413, 418. 



Canning, Mr. Win., 154, 168, 188, 189, 

293 ; assaults Keiglitley, 415. 
Cape Charles, 44, 49. 
Cape Cod named by Gosnold, 2 ; Argall 
steers for, 49 ; May Flower arrives 
at, 132 ; fisheries, 193, 196 ; Del- 
bridge desires to fish at, 165. 
Cape Henry, 37, 44, 51. 
Cape La Warr, 50. 
Capp, Wni, member fii'st legislature, 

Carey, Lord, 366. 
Carolina, 199. 
Caroloff, Mr., and East India School, 

Carou, Sir Noel, 81. 
Carter, Capt., of the True Love, 403. 
Carver, John, Leyden nonconformist, 

Caswell, Mr., 104, 361. 
Cattle for Virginia, 159, 196, 340, 307 ; 

of Mr. Woodall, 373. 
Catto, Sir Thomas, 150. 
Cavendish, Lord, 186, 273, 303, 311 ; 
alludes to Johnson's petition, 389 ; 
alludes to Butler's slanders, 395 ; 
quarrels with WarAvick, 413 ; con- 
templated duel with Warwick, 413. 
Chamberlain, on Pocahontas's capture, 
87 ; on Pocahontas going to the 
play, 97; sends Pocahontas's picture, 
98 ; letters to Sir D. Carleton, 18, 
52, 55, 65. 
Chapman's mask played, 61 ; Ode on 

Virginia Voyage, 22. 
Charles city, 178 ; list of slain at, 340 ; 

East India School at, 255, 309. 
Charter, first, of Virginia Company, 3 ; 

second, 23 ; last, 53. 
Chesapeake explored by Pory, 338. 
Chester, Jas., captain of the Southamp- 
ton, 367. 
Chicahominie, council at, 91. 

China box among the Indians, 337. 
Christ's Hospital. 
Church, donation for, 314. 
Churches and houses poorly built, 409. 
Claiborne, Wm., surveyor, 235 ; at Kent 
Island, 335 ; at Pamunkey, 335 ; de- 
scribed by Quaker preacher, 335. 
Clare Hall, Cambridge. 
Clarke, John, pilot of May -Flower, 132 ; 

hired by Daniel Gookin, 133. 
Cleopatra, sister of Pocahontas, 105. 

Clergymen ; see ministers. 
Cletheroe, Christopher, 146, 300, 302. 
Clinton, Thos., Earl of Lincoln, 137 ; 

recommends Jno. Wencopp, 127 ; 

sons in law at Salem, 128. 
Clovell, Eustace, sliot by Indians, 17. 
Coats of mail presented,"363. 
Cockaine, Sir William, letter to, 160. 
College, receipts for, 184 ; see education. 
Collingwood, Ed., Sec. of Virginia 

Company, 191, 333, 389. 
Colony, first, of Virginia Company, 3 ; 

second, 4. 
Copper, specimens of, 372. 
Copland, Rev. Patrick, 251, 372, 377. 
Corn, Indian, produces sickness, 237. 
Corn, scarcity of, 296, 334, 370. 
Councillors, first, in Virginia, 55. 
Cradock, Lt., of Dales-Gift, 111. 
Cranfield, Lionel, 117, 416. 
Cranmer, Mr., 168. 186, 191. 
Crashaw, llaleigh, 33. 
Crashaw, Rev. Wm., his sermon, 35 ; 

describes Bermudas, 54 ; on stage 

players, 64. 
Crocodiles presented to King James, 14. 
Crouch, Lt. Richard, 314. 
Crow, John, patent to, 361. 
Cruelties to colonists, 408. 
Cushman, Robert, Leyden nonconform- 
ist, 134, 133, 143. 


Dale, Lady Fanny, wife of Sir. Thos., 77, 
93, 368. 

Dale, Sir. Thos., expedition of, 51 ; at 
Henrico, 53 ; his early career, 73 ; 
quarrels with Newport, 73 ; writes 
for colonists, 74 ; proclaims martial 
law, 75 ; takes Pocahontas to Eng- 
land, 76, 96 : goes to Holland, 76 ; 
commands East India fleet, 77; 
treaty with Indians, 93 ; proposal 
for sister of Pocahontas, 93. 

Dales-Gift, described by Rolfe, 111. 

Damyron, captain of ship Duty, 167. 

Danver, Sir John, 101, 117, 150, 151, 154, 
164, 173, 186, 191,240,349,366,273, 

Darnelly, Mr., 259. 

Davenport, Rev. John, asked to preach, 

Davies, captain of the Virginia, 30 37 



Davis, Thos., member of first Legisla- 

lature, 139. 
Davison, Cliristoplier, Secretary of 

Colony. 215, 224, 286, 333. 
Deane's edition of Wingfield's Dis- 
course, 16. 
Declaration of State of Virginia, 193. 
Deer steeler transported, 145. 
Delaware Bay, so named by Argall, 49 ; 
River, exploration of, 220, 229, 
Delaware, Lord, Capt. Gen. of Virginia, 
24 ; letter from, 35 ; arrives at Cape 
Henry, 37 ; meets the Virginia, 38 ; 
sends Capt. Brewster to Gates, 41 ; 
arrives at Jamestown, 42 ; appoints 
officers, 42, 43 ; sicliness and re- 
turn, 51 ; second voyage to Vir- 
ginia, 114 ; bis deatli, 124. 

Delbridge, John, No. P. and Cape Cod 
fishery, 165,266. 

Dennis, John, captain of Marmaduke, 

Devonshire, 311. 

Diamond, ship, arrives, 31. 

Digges, Sir Dudley, 113, 150. 

Dike, Mr., schoolmaster, 256. 

Discovery, ship, Capt. Jones, 293, 807. 

Dispute of North and South Colony, 173, 
175, 176. 

Dodson, Robert, liis testimony, 404. 

Donation of Mrs. Mary Robinson, 181 ; 
Patrick Copland, 251 ; Dust and 
Ashes, 169, 257. 

Doncaster, Viscount, 186. 

Doune, John, Dean of Paul's, 360. 

Downes, Edward, scholar in Virginia, 

Dowse, Thos., of first legislature, 139. 

Drake, Sir Francis, 2. 

Drayton, ])oe.m on Virginia Voyage, 14 ; 
his mask, 24. 

Drunkenness, penalty for, 140. 

Duel of Warwick and Cavendish stopped, 

Duppa's bad beer, 377. 

Dutchmen erect saw mills, 227, 242, 285 ; 
in Delaware, 261. 


Each, captain of ship Aljigail, 304, 325, 

352, 375. 
East India Company employs Capt. 

Newport, 52 ; Free School in Vir- 

East India Company, continued — 

ginia, 25, 256, 269, 333 ; Free School, 
carpenters for, 309. 

Education in Virginia, 254, 287, in Col- 
lege at Henrico, 117, 137, 147, 150, 
184, 329 ; president for College pro- 
posed, 137; library left to college, 
139-, collections for College, 137, 147, 
156; communion set for College, 152. 

Election of Company officers opposed 
by King James, 177, 184; Sir Edwin 
Sanders, as treasurer, 143 - 145 ; 
Earl of Southampton, 189, 213, 300. 

Elfred, Capt., 120, 

Elizabeth City, 178; River plantation, 

Emery, Mr., killed by Indians, 19. 

Engineer, request for, 297. 

Engrossing, crime of, 369. 

Epps, Wm., kills Capt. Stallenge, 163. 

Euens, Capt. W., 402. 


Factions in the Company, 418. 

Falling Creek Iron Works, 338 ; list of 

killed at, 339. 
Fees, oppressive, 232. 
Felgate, Capt. Tobias, 403. 
Ferrar, John, notice of, 191, Dep., 
Treasurer, 145, 146, 150, 151, 191, 
233, 240, 250, 253, 266, 273, 811 ; 
Ferrar, Nicholas, Jr., 384; elected deputy, 
302 ; eulogy on Ruggle, 363 ; re- 
elected, 384 ; member of parliament, 
415 ; mention of, 233, 240, 250, 253, 
266, 273, 311, 359, 417. 
Ferrar, Nicholas, Sr., notice of, 182, 183. 
Ferrar, Virginia, notice of, 191. 
Ferrar, William, Councillor, 183; planta- 
tion slain at, 341 ; marries widow 
Jordan, 383. 
Ferrar's, Mr., house, 189. 
Fishery at Cape Cod, 165, 193. 
Fitch, Capt. Matthew, 30. 
Flowerdieu, slain at, 342. 
Fontaine, Rev. Peter, 97. 
Force, Historical Tracts, 75. 
Forest, Mrs., arrival in Virginia, 22. 
Forestalling the market, 245. 
Fortifications, 278, 294, 304, 325. 
Forts to be built at Blunt Point, 270, 

Fotherby, Sec. of Virginia Company, 
resigns, 191. 



Francke, Dan, a convict, 347. 

Free School, 369. 

French Fur Traders, 220 ; vine dressers, 

Frenchmen desire to go to Virginia, 

240 ; supplies for, 242 ; young, sent 

to Cape Newce, 247. 
Fur trade in Delaware and Hudson, 

2G3, 264, 267, 338 voyage of Capt. 

Jones, 373. 


Gal thorp's intended mutiny, 21. 

Gates, Sir Thos., early member of Vir- 
ginia Company, 3 ; first voyage to 
Virginia, 29, 57, in Netherlands ; 
arrival at Jamestown, 34 ; aban- 
dons Jamestown, 38; visits England, 
50 ; wife's death, 51 ; his daughters, 
52 ; second voyage, 51 ; third voy- 
age, 75; at meeting of Company, 151 . 

Gats, Daniel, captain of the Darling, 

Gibbes, Lieut., 140. 

Gibbs, Mr., 109, 186, 233, 250, 253, 260. 
273, 311. 

Gilbert Raleigh, 3. 

Girls, poor, sent to Virginia, 121. 

Glass works, 331, 284, 306, 373. 

Gondomar, Spanish ambassador, 186. 

Gookiu, Daniel, Jr., friend of Eliot, 196. 

Gookin, Daniel, notice of, 196 ; takes 
cattle from Ireland, 196, 318, 240 ; 
owns ship Providence, 133 ; at New- 
port News, 314 ; visits England, 

Gorges, Sir Ferdinaudo, 131, 133 ; and 
Cape Cod fishery, 165 ; disputes 
with Virginia Company, 175 ; ob- 
tains new patent, 195. 

Gosnold, Anthony, early planter, 257. 

Gosnold, Bartholomew, early planter, 

Gosnold, Capt. Barth, expedition of, 1 ; 
names Cape Cod, 2; explores 
Virginia, 10 ; death of, 18 ; cautions 
Wingfield, 21. 

Gouge, Rev. Wm., 103. 

Gourgainy, Mr., 140. 

Grants of land, 168. 

Graves, Thomas, 140. 

Green, Surgeon W., 403. 

Greenland Company, 2. 

Grocers' Company, 66. 


Guest Houses, 230, 236, 271, 284, 392. 
Guiana, 132, 197. 

Gulston, Dr. Theodore, 97, 150, 221, 
233, 250, 266. 


Hakluyt, Richard, notice of, 2 ; histo- 
riographer, 2 ; translates " Virginia 
richly valued," 26 ; commends John 
Pory, 135 ; his son Edward, 217. 

Hamersley, Alderman, 299, 300. 

Hamford, Mr., 300, 301. 

Hamor, Ralph, visits England, 88 ; 
writes a narrative, 88 ; seeks Indian 
wife for Sir Thos. Dale, 93 ; men- 
tion of, 318, 362, 364. 

Hampton ; see Kecoughtan. 

Hannam, Thomas, 3. 

Harrope, Dr. Pott's plantation, 221 . 

Harvey, Governor, 348. 

Harwood, Mr., 337, 311. 

Hassell, Capt. Robert, 312, 313.- 

Haughton, Lord, 302. 

Hawley, Jerome, 248. 

Heath, recorder of London, 168, 183. 

Henrico, 75, 108,138, 178 ; list of killed 
at, 340. 

Herbert, George, refers to America, 81. 

Herbert, Mr., 173, 186, 190. 

Heriot, Thomas, 17, 384. 

Hext, Sir Ed., on kidnapped girls, 121. 

Hide, Nicholas, 200. 

Hide, Sir Lawrence, 186. 

Hitch, Surgeon Henry, 403. 

Hobson, John, 194. 

Hog Island, 41. 

Hole, William, engraver, 155. 

HoUoway, Mr., 172. 

Hopkins, Stephen, a Puritan, 34. 

Horton, Mrs., her servant girl marries, 

Howard, Theophilus, 311. 

Howes, the chronicler, 398. 

Hudleston, John, Capt. of Bona Nova, 

Hudson, Leonard, carpenter, 309. 

Hudson River, trade in, 220, 229, 261. 

Hunt, Rev. Robert, first clergyman, 17. 


Indian girl sick in England, 102 ; girl 
married at Bermudas, 105 ; edu- 



Indian, continued — 

cation, 169, 170 ; religion and as- 
tronomy, 279 ; massacre on Good 
Friday,' 293 ; villages burned, 364 ; 
extermination urged, 322, 330, 364, 
365, 391. 

Indians not to receive guns, 12 ; not to 
be told of deaths, 12 ; not to be sub- 
dued, 28 ; naked slaves of the devil, 
85 ; intermarriage alleged, 85 ; treat 
with Dale, 91 ; to be chased with 
bloodhounds, 321. 

Ireland, transportation from, 178, 336 ; 
cattle from, 196, 218, 229. 

Irish Plantation, 285 ; ship, the cap- 
tain a Dutchman, 286. 

Iron ore taken to England, 20 ; sold to 
E. I. C^ompany, 22. 3 J ^: { } ': 

Iron works, 239, 270, 283, 303, Wt.ik^< 

Isle of Wight plantation, 194. 5 - ;, 

Italian glass workers, 236, 284. 


Jackson, John, 140. 

Jacob, Eev. Henry, 194. 

James the First wants squirrels, 44 ; 

letter to Virginia Company, 380. 
Jamestown, first arrival at, 16 ; attacked 
by Indians, 17 ; called Jacobolis, 
18 ; rude church of, 20 ; want of 
food at, 44 ; described by Rolfe, 110 ; 
in Yeardley's day, 138. 
Jefferson, Mr., 140. 
--Johnson, Alderman Robert, 107, 144, 
146, 178, 292 ; abuses Sir E. Sandys, 
151 ; charges against Virginia Com- 
pany, 387. 
Johnson, Ben, his Mask of Christmas, 

97 ; allusion to Pocahontas, 100. 
-Johnson, Cornelius, captain of Gookin's 

ship, 286. - - - 
Jones, captain of the Falcon, 171. 
Jones, Capt. Thos., of the Discovery, 

261, 264, 267, 373 ; notice of, 316. 
Jopassus, Indian chief, 89. 
Jordan, Samuel, 139, 315 ; widow mar- 
ries Wm. Ferrar, 383. 


Kawasha, in Mask of Flowers, 63. 
Keane, Richard, 248. 

Kecoughtan, now Hampton, occupied by 
Gates, 51 ; described by Rolfe, 111. 

Keightley, Mr., 169, 173, 186, 191 ; sues 
Canning for assault, 415. 

Kendall, John, of Virginia Council, 15 ; 
deposed, 18. 

Kendall, Miles, negro stealer, 120. 

Kentish men, patent for, 150. 

Kidnapping of girls, 121. 

Kighotan, 178. 

King, Captain, 30. 

King James, orders dissolute to Vir- 
ginia, 154 ; sends message to Vir- 
ginia Company, 177 ; dislikes Sir 
E. Sandys ; nominates officers for 
Virginia Company, 300; letter to 
Virginia Company, 380 ; reorganizes 
Virginia Company, 418. 

King's Forest, in Virginia, 312. 

Kirkham, Mr., 177. 


Lapworth, Mr., 227. 

Launce, Rev. Mr., prays for the Colony, 

Lawne, Christopher, 140, 194. 

Laws for the Colony, 75. 

Lawton, Jo., 311. 

Leate, Nicholas, 300. 

Leate, Rev. Wm., 309 ; death of, 394. 

Leech, Mr., 233, 281. 

Leeke, Simeon, patent to, 261. 

Legislature, the first, 139, 143. 

Leicester, 292. 

Lenox, duke of, 199. 

Letters of Dust and Ashes, 169, 287. 

Letters of Governor and Council of Vir- 
ginia, January, 1621-22, 274; April, 
1622, 293 ; January, 1622 - 23, 363. 

Letters of Virginia Company, July 25, 
1621, 223; Aug. 21, 233; Sept. 11, 
241 ; Nov. 20, 263 ; Dec. 5, 267 ; 
June 10, 1622, 302 ; Aug. 1, 322 ; 
Oct. 7, 347 ; May 2, 1623, 391. 

Leverett, Dep. Gov. of Mass. to Boyle, 

Levinge, Mr., patent to, 261. 

Ley, Judge, decides against Virginia 

Company, 417. 
Leyden, Independent church at, 122 ; 

articles, 123. 
Leyden people opposed by bishops, 127 ; 
winked at by the king, 127 ; obtain 



Leyden, continued — 

a patent in name of John Wincopp, 
128 ; obtain second patent, 129 ; 
invited to Manhattan, 130 ; land 
at New Plymouth, 131. 

Lincoln, Earl of ; see Clinton. 

Livery companies of London, 25. 

London vagabond children, 161. 

Lorkin, Rev. Thos., and proposed col- 
lege, 138. 

Lotteries, 25, 64. 

Lusty youths transported, 237. 

Luxuries discountenanced, 243. 


Macar's, Owen, plantation, slain at, 342. 

Macock, Samuel, a Cambridge scholar, 
113, 139, 286 ; killed by Indians, 

Madison, Capt., 100, 174, 202. 

Magazine of goods, 277. 

Maids sent for wives, 234, 262, 263 ; un- 
married to have good masters, 247 ; 
marriage terms, 235, 246 ; in ships 
Tiger and Marmaduke, 245 ; care- 
fully selected, 246. 

Maid's Town, 298. 

Mansell, Robert, 292. 

Manwaring, Sir P., describes Yeardley, 

Map by Virginia Ferrar, 191. 

Martin, Brandon, slain at, 344 

Martin, Capt. John, member of first 
Council, 15 ; opposes Wiugfield, 
19 ; with Somers and Gates, 30 ; 
master of Iron Works, 43 ; returns 
from England, 113 ; complained of 
by Rolfe, 141 ; certificate to, 292 ; 
his request not granted, 289, 292 ; 
concerning King's Forest, 312 ; dis- 
placed by Lord Delaware, 313. 

Martin, John, the Persian, 378. 

Martin, Richard, attorney of Virginia 
Company, 68 ; before Parliament, 
70 ; begs pardon, 71. 

Martin's Hundred, 140, 179, 237, 242, 
247, 259, 358, 375 ; slain at, 344. 

Maryland, marriage in, 248. 

Massacre by Indians, 293, 316, 319 ; 
relation of, by Waterhouse, 317. 

Mastiffs to chase Indians, 821. 

Matchopougo, 50. 

Matthew, Archbishop of York, 25. 

May-Flower, ship, 132, 133. 

Mease, Rev. Wm., notice of. 111. 

Merchant Tailor's Company, 25. 

" Mercure Francois," account of first 

Virginia voyage, 15, 17. 
Mellinge, Mr., 168, 361. 
Middleton, Mr., 189. 
Mill, first in Virginia, 283. 
Ministers of Gospel, names of : 

Bennett, Rev. Wm., 194. 

Bolton, Rev. Robert, 220, 224. 

Buck, Rev. Richard, 33, 111. 

Copland, Rev. Patrick, 251, 256, 377. 

Davenport, Rev. John, 260. 

Fontaine, Rev. 

Gouge, Rev. Wm., 103. 

Harrison, Rev. Thos., 252. 

Hopkins, Rev., 315. 

Hunt, Rev., 17. 

Launce, Rev., 314. 

Leate, Rev., 309, 314. 

Lorkin, Rev. Thos., 254. 

Mease, Rev. Wm., 111. 

Paulet, Rev. Robert, 311. 

Pemberton, Rev., 314. 

Peters, Rev. Hugh, 252. 

Staples, Rev., 271, 378. 

Stockton, Rev., 224. 

Thomas, Rev., 248, 278. 

Whitaker, Rev. Alex., 113. 

White, Rev. Andrew, 248. 

Wickham, Wm., 224. 

Wyatt, Rev. Hant, 223, 224. 
Ministers of Gospel, offer services, 217 ; 

in Yeardley's time, 138. 
Mole, Saiimel, Surgeon, 403. 
Montgomery, Earl of, 97, 393. 
Mooue, captain of the Swallow, 30. 

Nanamack, Indian lad, dies in England, 

Nansemonds attacked by Yeardley, 364. 
Negroes, brought by ship Treasurer, 120; 

census of, in 1634, 121. 
Nelson, Capt., arrives at Jamestown, 23. 
Nemenachanew, a chief, 366. 
Nettersole, Sir Francis, 177. 
Newce, Sir Wm., Marshal of Virginia, 

178, 218 ; death of. 374. 
Newce, Thos., superintendent of lands, 

178, 189, 232, 286, 304 ; sends home 

white earth, 238 ; to have cattle 

from Ireland, 239; widow of, 381, 




New England, name of, 206. 

New Englanders invited to Virginia, 

Newfoundland, Gates and Somers Bail 
for, 41. 

New Netherlands Co., and Leyden non- 
conformists, 130. 

Newport, Capt. Christopher, and first 
expedition, 5; to explore for two 
months, 8 ; to select a site, 9 ; to 
write a narrative, 13 ; presents croco- 
diles to king, 14; returns to England, 
17 ; second voyage to Virginia, 19 ; 
visits Powhatan, 20 ; second return 
to England, 22 ; third voyage, 22 ; 
wrecked with Gates and Somers, 
31; retires from Virginia, 52 ; master 
in Royal Navy, 52 ; goes to Persia, 
52 ; beard pulled by Dale, 73. 

Newport. John, only son of captain, 164. 

Newport News, 196 ; Gookin's land at, 

Norfolk, Upper, 176. 

North, Lord, 186. 

North, Capt., 186. 

North, Charles, patent to, 261. 

North Virginia Colony, 165; disputes 
about fisheries, 173, 175, 176, 195, 

Norton, Capt. Wm., and glass works, 
231, 310 ; and Italians, 236, 284. 


Oak trees, to be cut down and barked, 

Oath taken by President of Virgmia 

Council, 6. 
Offley, Robert, 300. 
Olevan, Anthony, 194. 
Opochankano, 100, 171, 279, 316, 362, 
-^ 366. 
Orders for first expedition, 6. 
Ordinance by ship Charles, 265. 
Oweng, Richard, plantation slain at, 

342. .• . , ,, .: 

P. ' 

Pace, Mr., notifies Governor of massacre, 

Pagett, Lord, 169, 266, 273. 
Palmer, Edward, sketch of, 315. 
Palmer's Island, 197 ; academy at, 197. 
Pamunkeys, attacked, 264. 

Paramore, Mr., 215. 
Parker, William, 5. 
Parkinson, Lt., explores the Potomac, 

337, 338. 
Parliament, seat of Sir George Somers 
vacated ; remarks on Virginia Com- 
pany, 67. 
Passe, Simon, engraving of Pocahontas, 

Passenger register to be kept, 359. 
Patent, new, for company, draft of, 205. 
Patents granted in 1619, 182 ; recom- 
mended and granted, 315, 334. 
Paulett, Rev. Mr., 140, 281, 286, 311. 
Pearle, Gregory, 403. 
Peirce, Abm., plantation, slain at, 340. 
Peirce, John and Leyden, people, 129 ; 
and associates, 133, 170 ; patent of 
land to, 168. 
Peirce, Thomas, plantation, slain at, 345. 
Pemberton, Rev. Mr. 
Pembroke, Earl of, 284, 292. v , ^■ 

Percy, George, 31, 32, 34, 42, 51. ' \ 
Perkins, Rev. Dr., works presented, 197. 
Perry's, Mr., Indian, reveals the plot to 

kill, 320. 
Persons, Elizabeth, married, 34. 
Peters, Rev. Hugh, 252. 
Pett, Capt., 30. 
Phillips, Eleanor, takes a male convict, 

Physician General Dr. Bohun, 200. 
Physicians, want of, 171. 
Pierse, Thos., sergeant-at-arms, 139. 
Pine masts sent to England, 52. 
Pirkett, Miles, 249. 
Pitch and tar, 283. 
Plantations to be resettled, 328. 
Pochins, son of Powhatan, 51. 
Pocahontas, described in True Relation, 
83; described in General History, 83; 
described by Strachey, 84, 85 ; ab- 
duction of, 86 ; in England, 97 ; 
portrait of, 98 ; death of, 98 ; Ben 
Jonson alludes to, 100 ; her child, 
Point Comfort, 32, 74, 87, 98. 
Pollington, John, 131. 
Polonians enfranchised, 153. 
Poole, Robert, 182. 

Pooley, Mr., complains of widow Jor- 
dan, 383. 
Popham Colony, 30. 
Popham, George, 3. 

Population of Virginia, 111 ; in 1611, 
51 ; in 1619, 179. 



Pory, John, Secretary of Colony, 135, 

139, 14-2, 176, 231, 336, 304, 418 ; 

sketch of, 135, 136. 
- , Potomac River explored, 337. 
'^ Pott, John, M.D., 331, 334, 386 ; sketch 

of, 331. 
Pountis, John, Vice Admiral, 189, 326, 

234, 336, 273, 280, 286, 376. 
Powell, Capt. W., 139, 364. 
Powell, Nathaniel, killed by Indians, 

330 ; plantation, slain at, 343. 
Powell, Thomas, cook of Soniers, 34. 
Powhatan, 30, 90, 91, 93. 
Poyntz, Mr., patent to, 183. 
Presbyterian Colony, 137. 
Pring, Martin, captain of Royal James, 

Privy Council and the Company, 390 ; 

demands the charter, 413. 
Prosser, Thomas, 404. 
Publications on Virginia numerous, 35. 
Purchas, Rev. Samuel, 64 ; and case of 

widow Jordan, 383. 
Puritans of Leyden, 133 ; defined by 

King James, 133 ; in Virginia, 184. 


Raleigh, Sir Walter, 69, 197, 384 ; son 
of, 379. 

Randolph, Jolm, of Roanoke, 105. 

Randolph, Richard, marries great grand- 
daughter of Pocahontas, 105. 

Rappahannock Indians, 364. 

Ratcliffe, Capt. John, 6, 15, 19, 31. 

Rayner, Capt. Marmaduke, 175, 320, 

Read, James, blacksmith, early settler, 
389 ; Isabella, his widow, 389. 

Register book for emigrants, 359. 

Rich, Sir Nathaniel, 150, 151. 

Rider, Mr., and annual supper, 361. 

Roanoke settlement, 16, 199 ; country 
explored, 230. 

Roberts, Mr., 104, 353. 
^Robinson, a clerk, kidnaps girls, 131. 
-Robinson, Mary, donation for church, 
181 ; -a settler, killed by Indians, 19. 
- Robinson, Rev. John, of Leyden, 124, 

Rocroft, Capt., alias Stallenge, 163. 

Roe, Sir Thomas, 175, 178, 192, 196. 

Rolfe, John, quoted by Purchas, 105 ; 
describes Virginia, 107, 108 ; his 
child born at Bermudas, 34 ; early 

Rolfe, continued — 

tobacco planter, 94 ; with Poca- 
hontas in England, 97; Secretary 
of Colony, 98 ; his widow and 
children, 102; complains of Capt. 
Martin, 141. 

Rolfe, TlKmias, son of Pocahontas, 98. 

Rossingham, Mr., 140. 

Ruggle, George, author of "Ignoramus." 
362 ; legacy for Indian education, 
362; Nicholas Ferrar's eulogy of, 

Russel, Sir W., 300. 


Sackville, Sir Edward, rebuked, 390. 

Sagadahoc river, 49 ; pinnace Virginia 
built at, 30. 

St. John, Lord, presents coats of mail, 

St. Michael's church, 360. 

St. Sythe's, 379. 

Salt works, 270. 

Sanders, Edward. 403. 

Sandys, George, A'reasurer of Virginia, 
101, 208,223, 336, 384,^308, 309, 
356, 364, 376; Drayton's poem to, 
308 ; letter on the massacre, 319 ; 
supt. of College lands, 336 ; supt. 
of iron works, 338. 

Sandys, Sir Edwin, on Indian education, 
105 ; and Leyden people, 134 ; elect- 
ed Treasurer of Virginia Company, 
143 - 145 ; meeting at his house to 
devise a seal, 153 ; letter about 
London children, 161 ; and Sec. 
Calvert, 163 ; retiring speech of, 
179 ; hated by King James, 185 ; 
readiness to serve Virginia Com- 
pany, 189 ; denies a rumor, 186 ; 
drafts a new patent, 305 ; obliged 
to leave London, 416. 

Sassafrass wanted, 357, 373. 

Savage, Thomas, 93. 

Saw mills, 337, 239, 270. 

School, East India, at Charles City, 254 ; 
usher for, 256. 

Scrivener, Mr., of Virginia Council, 20. 

Sea Flower brings news of Massacre, 

Seal cut for Virginia, 155. 

Seed sent to Virginia, 270 ; scarcity of, 

Sermon, donation for yearly, 359. 



Sermon, Rev. John Davenport to preach, ' 
260; Rev. Jolm Donne, to preach, 
360 ; annual, postponed, 383. 
Shakespeare's Tempest, 54. 
Sharp, Capt., killed, 341. 
Sharp, Lt., in command at Jamestown, 

Sharpless, Thomas, his lottery prize, 66. 
Shaw, Wm., captain of London Mer- 
chant, 171. 
Sheffield, Lord, 186, 240, 292. 
Sheffield plantation, killed at, 339 - 40. 
Shelley, Walter, 140. 
Shepherd, Thomas, 240, 250, 273, 311. 
Sherley Himdred, 110. 
Sherlev, Sir Robert, 52. 
Ship, Abigail, 324, 362. 
Blessing, 31, 36, 37. 
Bona Nova, 174, 180, 223, 241, 261, 

266, 272, 293. 
Bona Venture, 181, 200. 
Bonny Bess, 391. 

Charles, 265. 

Darling, 261. 

Deliverance, 40, 44. 

Diamond, 30, 31. 

Discovery, 40, 261, 265, 270. 

Duty, 167. 181, 241, 373. 

Eleanor, 120. 

Elizabeth, 75. 

Falcon, 171, 181 200. 

Garland, 181. 

George, 114, 174, 179, 233, 241, 292. 

Gift, 149. 

God Speed, 5. 

Hercules, 36, 37. 

Hopewell, 261, 266, 272. 

James, 392. 

John and Francis, 75. 

Jonathan, 181, 200, 219, 373. 

Lion, 31. 

London Merchant, 171, 181, 200, 373. 

Marmaduke, 233, 245, 267. 

Mary and John, 241. 

Neptune, 114. 

Patience, 40. 

Plough, 53. 

Return, 382. 

Royal James, 252, 269. 

Sarah, 75. 

Sarah or Susan Constant, 5, 17. 

Sea Adventure, 30, 31. 

Sea Flower, 317, 319. 

Southampton, 347. 

Star, 52. 

Swallow, 30, 33. 

Sliip, Swan, of Barnstable, 181, 200. 
Tiger, 245, 263, 267. 
Treasurer, 75, 120. 
Trial, 171, 181, 200. 
True Love, 365, 392. 
Virginia, 30. 
VS^arwick, 241, 249, 263. 207, 274, 

Wm. and Thomas, 119. 
Ships, arrivals in three years, 330. 
Ship building, 238, 268, 308, 373. 
Ships sent to Virginia, 1619, 181. 
Sickness, great, in Virginia, 174. 
Silenus praises wine, 63. 
Silkgrass, 174, 304, 373. 
Silkworm seed, 241, 264, 270, 285; 

hatched. 372. 
Silkworms, book on, 258, 303. 
Smalley, Captain, 109, 258 ; widow, 258. 
Smith, Capt. John, suspected, 15 ; 
opposes Wingfield, 19 ; accused of 
lying, 20; sent to England, 32; 
as member of Virginia Company, 
209, 210, 214, 215, 216, 385 ; notice 
of, 211 ; described by Fuller, 214. 
Smith, Capt. Matthew, 30, 53, 55, 60. 
Smith, Roger, 49, 174, 201. 376. 
Smith, Sir Thomas, 74, 75, 117, 174, 177, 
192 ; retiring speech, 144 ; Virginia 
Company, dissatisfied with, 144 ; 
Virginia Company meets at his 
house, 144, 151, 188; and college 
money, 156 ; cm-sed by Virginians, 
408, 409; destroys Virginia Com- 
pany, 419. 
Smith, Thomas, captain of Hopewell, 

Snoade, John, 404. 
Somers, Sir George, 3, 29, 40, 49, 50 ; 

wrecked, 57 ; death of, 58. 
Somers Islands Company, 55, 58. 199. 
Southampton, Henry. Earl of, aids Gos- 
nold, 1 ; patron of letters, 1 ; asks 
for tiying squirrels, 32 ; describes 
Bermudas, 54; and Cape Cod fishery, 
165; elected Treasurer Virginia 
Company, 189, 190 ; reelected in 
1621, 213; reelected in 1022, 300; 
repels insolence, 383. 
Southampton Hundred, 119, 182 ; slain 

at, 344. 
Southerne, Mr., 369. 
South Sea discovery, 65, 338. 
Spence, Ensign, 139. 344. 
Spilman, Capt., degraded, 171 ; slam,