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Full text of "A general history of all voyages and travels throughout the old and new world, from the first ages to this present time, illustrating both the ancient and modern geography, containing an accurate description of each country, its natural history and product; the religion, customs, manners, trade, [etc.] of the inhabitants, and whatsoever is curious and remarkable in any kind. An account of all discoveries hitherto made in the most remote parts, and the great usefulness of such attempts, for improving both natural and experimental philosophy; with a catalogue of all authors that have ever describ'd any part of the world, an impartial judgment and criticism on their works for discerning between the reputable and fabulous relaters; and an extract of the lives of the most considerable travellers, made English from the Paris edition"

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presentee to 
ZTbe mniversits of Toronto Xtbrarp 


from tbe books ot 

TTbe late Ibonourable Bbwarfc 
Cbanccllor of tbe mnipers 


General Hiftory 

O F A L L 



The OL2> and NEW 

W O R L D, 

From the firft Ages to this prefent Time. 

Illuftrating j5U 

Both the Ancient and Modern GEOG& A&HY. 

An Accurate Defcription of each Country, its 

Natural Hiftory and ProJutt ; the Religion, Cuftoms, Man 
ners, Trade, Sec. of the Inhabitants, and whaifoever is 
Curious and Remarkable in any Kind. An Account of 
all Difcoveries hitherto made in the moft Remote Pans, and 
the Great Ufefulneis of fuch Attempts, for Improving both 
Natural and Experimental Philofophy j with a Catalogue of 
all Authors thac have ever defcrib d any Part of the World, 
an Impartial Judgment and Criticifm on their Works for 
difcerning between the ftywdle and Fabulous Relaters -, and 
an Extradt of the Lives of the moft confiderablc Travellers. 

By Monfr. DU PERIER of the Rojal Academy 

Englifi from the Paris Edition. 


L O N D O N, 

Printed for Edmund Curll at the Peacock without 
Temple- Bar , and Egbert Sanger at the Poft-Houfe in 
the Middle Temyle-Gate, Fleet-ftreet. 1708. 

- . 






O F 


Great 5/^V^l ?B rbiflv^ 

THE Book I prefume 
to prefent your High- 
neis, and to which you 
have been pleas d to allow 
your Auguft Name to be pre- 
fix d, is not a Work of that 
Nature as to require along 
Exercile and Application of 
the moft refin d Reafon and 
fublimeft Judgment ; it is 
none of the Number of thofe 
. abftrufe Sciences, for the AN 
^ taining whereof, to any Per- 
A 2 fection. 

Tie Epi/lle -y. 

ri l/n e whole Life of 
the ableft Geometricians 
would force fuffice, and the 
Knowledge of which ft 

your H,ghnefs but a few 
Hours m your tender Years 
I mean of tbofe SaenceV 

g, fo at the 

, a 

fame r,m e they often 
up MA Vanity an 
by accuft omin g 
lubmit to any thin 
Demo nftratlon 

i his is a Pi ece, Great Sir 

f of e 

found Mentations, that 

taken up your Mind, ever 
was capable of form" j 

The Epiftte Dedicatory. 
(landing the Language of 
Truth. It is nearer within 
the Reach of the Generali 
ty of Mankind, and confe- 
quently more Ufeful to the 
rublick, and yet I hope it 
will not therefore the leis 
def erve your Highnefs s At 
tention. You encou rage a nd 
protect Arts, as Avell as the 
moil lofty Sciences, being 
conyinc d that they not only 
contribute towards Inftruct- 
ing the Mind, but forming 
the Manners of Men ; and 
roufe up the Affedlion to 
them by your Generoiity, 
and by thoie Moments you 
devote to improve them. 

The Variety of Accidents, 
which occur in the Accounts 


The Eptftle Dedicatory. 

of Travels, compote one of 
the moft fpritely Parts of 
Hiftory, as is the Diverfity 
of Cuftoms and Manners they 
lay before us, in their feveral 
Countries one of the moft 
Uteful ; but as remote and 
different as the feveral Na 
tions, the World is compos d 
of, are in Behaviour and O- 
pinions, a Diftance greater 
than even that of the feve 
ral Parts of Heaven under 
which they live ; yet they all 
concenter and are united in 
the Veneration they pay to 
your Illuftrious Blood, and 
they all join in Admiring 
thole Princes, who have dc- 
Icended from it. This Ad 
miration Daily in creates, as 


The Epiftle Dedicator]?. 
thofe far disjoin d Nations 
hear the Fame of the migh 
ty Exploits, which are f b fre 
quent in the Hiftory of the 
moft Auguft Houfe of Bour 
bon ; and it will ftill rile much 
higher, when they fhall be 
fully inform d of your Mar^ 
tial Atchievements, and when 
our Travellers ihall have gi 
ven them a faithful Relati 
on of your early Conquefts, 
and thofe firft Warlike 
Feats, which f pread a Terror 
into the very Heart of the 
Empire, and overthrew the 
Walls of thofe Impregnable 
Towns, before which the moft 
formidable Enemy s Armies 
had wafted themfelves for fe- 
veral Months. 


The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

It Would be a Happineis, 
Great Sir^ could I in Ibme 
Meafure contribute towards 
tran i m itting the \ Glory ; you 
have fo juftly acquir d to the 
fartheft Parts of the Earth ; 
that would prove the mod ac 
ceptable Reward to be wifh d 
for by me, on account of thi$ 
Work, which you have been 
pleas d I Ihoukl dedicate to 
you. Encourag d by that hope, 
and being fully affur d that it 
cannot foil of Succels, finc 
you afford it your Powerful 
Proteclion, I am with the 
m oft profound RefpeeT: 

Great Sir, 

Tour moft Humble , moft 
Obedient and. mojt en 
tirety devoted. Servant 


A N 

Introdu&ory Difcourfe, 

To the General Hiflory of all VOYAGES 
TRAVELS, from the flood, to this prefent 
Time ; [hewing how excellently Vfeful they 
are to Mankind^ and the great Benefit and 
Advantage that is to be reafd by reading 
of them 

MA IS h^s a Natural Propenfion to Motives 
Travel. His innate Reftleflhefs, tf r ^ 
Avarice, the Defire of Knowing, w & 
the Pleafure he takes in difcovering new 
Countries and unknown Lands, and in en- 
guiring into the Behaviour, Manners and 
Cuftoms of Nations inhabiting remote Cli 
mates, and feated in the fartheft Parts 
of the Earth ; all thefe Things Itir up his 
Curiofity, and excite him to overcome the 
greateft Difficulties, and expofe jiimfelf to 
all Sorts of Dangers. 

\Vhen the Progeny of Noah had multiply d The Earth 
and repeopled the Earth,which God had made Peopled. 
defert, by the Univerfal Deluge ^ their Succef- 
fors travel d about to fettle their Colonies in 
all Parts of the Univerfe, as appears by thefe 
Wfcds ofGenefis. By thefe were the JJles of the 
Gentiks divided in their Lands ; every one after bis 
^ And their Families in their Nations. Chap, 
v. 5. B The 

2 r An Introductory Difcourfe 

firft rr* The learned Expofitors, who have made 
many ufefal Commentaries upon Genefs, tell 
us of fome Travels of thofe firft Reftorers 
of Mankind. They inform us, according to 
Jofefhtu and St. Jerome, that the Children of 
jafketb, the third Son of Noah, were the Firft 
that Inhabited the Country of Calaiia , that 
from Magog came the Getes, the Maffagetes 
and the Scythians ; from Madai, the Medes, 
or according to others, the Macedonians , 
from Mofoch, the Mufcovifes, or the C*/>/><*- 
docians. Thira* was the Father of the Tfcr*- 
<^j ^ Afcenez. of the ^Armenians } Riphath of 
the Pafhlagonians ^ and Thqgirm* of 


the fecond Son of 2V^^, who fell 
under his Father s Curfe, went away to in 
habit Egyft, which Holy Writ calls the 
Land of Chufi and Mifraltn^ the Names of 
Ham\ two Sons. From Canaan defcended 
the Canaanitesvt\\Q inhabited Phenicia and the 
Holy Land, till they were expell d by the 
Ifraelites. This Nation grew Famous by Trade 
and Commerce, which fo much enrich d Tyre 
and Sidon. 

Afrur, the Son of Shem departed from the 
Country about Babylon^ and laid the Foun 
dation of the mighty^n^ Monarchy, which 
flourifti d for ft) many Ages. Of Ludim came 
the Nation of Lud in j4frick 9 mention d by 
the Prophet Jfaiah, Cv 66. v. 19. The Cappa- 
docians were a People inhabiting all the Tradt 
bf Land between Ga^tt and Egypt along the 
Sea-Coaft. They Invaded the Hivites, and 
drove them out of their Country, where 
they fetlcd themfelves. The Phlli fines clme 
thither after them, and gave the Name of Pa- 
Izftine to all that Country. 


to the Hifiory ^/VOYAGES, &c* 

Elam and his Race peopled the Land of 
of the Elamites, from whom the Per flans de- 
fcended. The Chaldeans and Country ofChah 
dea, in which Babylon the Capital of Nim- 
rod\ Empire flood, derive their Original 
from Aryhaxad^ as the Lydians, Neighbour 
ing on Perfia^ do theirs from Ludim. Aram 
was the Progenitor of the Syrians. Vz., who 
defcended from him, made himfelf Matter 
of the Country of DamafttMj and gave Part 
of that Territory the Name of V^ where 
the Holy job was born and liv d. Hal was the 
Founder of the Armenians. 

Thus was the Earth fill d with Inhabi 
tants by feveral Detatchments or Colonies / 
fpreading themfelves through all Parts 
after the Flood, or at leaft after Mankind 
was oblig d to defift from that extrava 
gant undertaking they had gone upon, of 
railing a Tower above the Clouds, thinking 
by that Means to fecure themfelves againlt 
a fecond Deluge. But God difappointed 
their Vanity, by confounding their Lan 
guage - 9 fo that they no longer underltood one 
another, and then it was that they parted ^ 
every one taking the Way he thought fit, 
as his Fancy or Inftinft led him, which was 
340 Years after the Floodjg according to the 

The Patriarch Abraham was one of the firft Abraham 

Travellers we find mention d in Hiftory. His^j 

Forefathers dwelt in Mefopotamia^ of which 

j r Chaldea was a Province leated beyond the 

I River Euphrates, towards the Ti^ru. God 

I appear d to that Holy Man, and"command- 

| ed him to forfake his Native Country, and 

patting over the River Euphrates to go into 

1 the Land of Canaan. .This is the fruitful arid 

82 deli- 

4 r *An Introductory Difcourfi 

delicious Country, flowing with Milk an<J 
Honey, which God afterwards gave to A- 
braham s Pofterity, that is, the Ifraelites, who 
were defcended from the Race of Jacob, the 
Grandfon of Abraham. 

Adam All the whole Circumference of the Earth 
%wg of was given to Adam for his Refidence, with 
the tfWfull Liberty to go where he pleas d ^ for as 
a Prince is not oblig d always to fettle his 
Abode in one Palace or City, but is free to 
make Choice of what Place he pleafes to 
refide in throughout his Dominions , fo A" 
dam who was King and Lord of all the 
World, might go where he pleas d, as well 
as his Defcendants. All the Space that is 
betwixt the Eaft and Weft, the North and 
South, and in fhort all the Inhabitable Earth, 
was but like one great City, through which 
the Children of Adam had their Freedom to 

MM This feems to be a Priviledge peculiar to 
< ^Man, and raifes him above other Creatures, 
which cannot live in all Sorts of Countries. 
The feirceft of Beafts are rarely to be found 
in Europe , the Elephants and Camels brought 
over thither are as itwereontof their Element, 
and do not breed. None but Man can live 
and multiply in all Parts of the Inhabita 
ble Earta. All Climates agree with him, and 
he innures himfelf to endure Heat and Cold, 
according to the Place he is in. 
Socrates. It was on this Principle perhaps that So 
crates the Philofopher grounded his Anfwer, 
when being ask dwhat Countryman he was ^ 
he fa id, An Inhabitant of the World. To iig- 
nify that all the World was his Native 
Country, that Man is no more confin d to 
one Nation than another , and that he- 

to the Hijlorj of V O Y A G IE s, C^ 

may choofe his Refidence throughout the 
Face of the Earth ; for he every where 
finds proper Food, and though at firft it be 
ftrange to him, yet by Degrees the Body is ac- 
cuftom d to, and nourifh d by it. 

It cannot be deny d but that there 
many Difficulties to be furmounted, and 
great Dangers to be run in Travelling t 
very Remote Parts - 7 but the Rarities found 
out, the new Difcoveries daily made, the 
Pleafure of feeing ftrange People, and un 
known Nations, make fufficient Amends for 
all the Hardfhips which long Voyages and 
Journeys are liable to. By this means Coun 
tries far remote from one another, become 
in fome meafure Neighbours, and, if we 
may fo term it, draw nearer to themfelves, 
Commerce makes a reciprocal Communicati 
on of all that is good among them, and 
there is a mutual Intercourfe of thejr Pro* 
dud, Manufactures, and all other Things 
tending to render the Life of Man eafie and 
pleafant. Every Climate being unfit to pro- 
duce all Sorts of Fruits of the Earth, each 
of them is in fome meafure improv d and 
made more fruitful, by the Tranfportingof 
whatfoever the moft diftant Nations af 

It has not been always the Defire 
that has mov d Men to venture themfelves ^ 
into ftrange Lands and Seas, to bring Home 
Gold and precious Stones, or other rich Com 
modities, which are rather Supports of Lux 
ury and Vanity, than neceiTary for the Fe 
licity of Humane Life. Many renown d Phi- 
lofophers have in all Ages been led by the 
Curiofity of Travelling to enquiry upon the 
Spot, into the. Truth of thofe ftrange Ac- 
B 3 counts 

An Introductory Difcourfe 

counts they receiv d from others. They chofe 
rather to expofe themfelves to all forts of 
Dangers, as of falling into the Hands of bar 
barous Nations, of being devoured by wild 
Beads, or of dying for Hunger or Thirft in 
barren or favage Places, than to live always 
at Home in their own Countries, and be de- 
priv d of Abundance of Knowledge, which is 
acquired to much greater Perfedion, by feeing 
Things with their own Eyes, than by the bare 
Relations of others. 

of The Scripture informs us, that the Queen 
z of Sheba, hearing of the mighty Reputation 
Solomon had acquir d, came herfelf to make 
Tryal of his Wifdom, by propofing to him 
feveral knotty Queftions and intricate Enig 
ma s. This Queen s Kingdom was not in 
Ethiopia, as fome have fancy d ; but in that 
Country we call Arabia Felix, or the Happy j 
as may be judg d by the Prefents (he gave 
to Solomon j which were Gold and Perfumes, 
Things very common in that Part of Arabia 
we fpeak of. This Princefs met with a fuf- 
ficient Recompence for all the Hardfhips and 
Fatigues me had endur d upon her Journey ; 
for having feen the Wifdom of Solomon, the 
Magnificence of the Houfe he had built, the 
plentiful Tables he kept, and the Sacrifices 
he offer d in the Houfe of the Lord, (he feem d 
to be tranfported quite belide her felf with 

Solomon ^hat w ^" e Pr * nce fr m whom no Science 
trades fy cou ld be hid, was not ignorant of the Art 
sea.- of Navigation -, for it is exprefly mention d, 
in the 9. chap, of the firft Book of Kings, 
That he fitted out a Fleet at Ezion-geber, which 
is befide Elolh, on the Shore of the Red-Sea, in 
the Land of Edom. And, King Hiram, fat 


to the Hijtory qfVoYAGES, &i. 

%n this Navy his Servants, Shifmen that had Know* 
ledge of the Sea, with the Servants of Solomon. 
And they came to Ophir, and fent from thence, 
(pold^ four hundred and twenty Talents and brought 
it to King Solomon. 

How skilful foever Hiram s Subjects might 
be, in Navigation, it is to be fuppos d that oftheLoad- 
their Knowledge was very imperfect, asbe-^ rwe * 
ing utter Strangers to the Secret of the Load- 
ftone and Mariners pompafs. The very Sight 
of the Main Ocean made them quake j nor 
durft they venture out to fail in the open Sea, 
or depart from the Coafts. Some Authors, 
I cannot imagine on what Grounds, have 
fancy d that Solomon had Knowledge of the 
Needle for Sailing, which is very hard to be 
believed, fince the Fleet he fent to Qfhir and 
Tharjhijh, were three Years out upon their 
Voyage. Now whether thefe Ships went in 
to Africk, where then was the richeft Gold 
Mine in all the World, or into India y to 
wards the Golden Cherfonefus and Malaca^ 
fince difcover d by the Portuguefe^ or into 
China or Peru^ whence the Spaniards have 
brought fuch immenfe Treafure in thefe lat 
ter Ages-, certain it is that thofe Voyages 
are now performed in a much fhorterTime. 

Hence it is to be concluded, that in all cwjjtag; 
their Sea Voyages, they never in thofe Days 
loft Sight of Land. Cicero s Expreflion fuf- 
ficiently evinces it ; legebant littora^ fays that 
great Orator, fpeaking of Navigation in his 
Time} that is, they crept along the Shore, 
without departing from the Coafts and Land, 
but guiding themfelves by the Sun and the 
Stars next about the Pole. 

In thofe Voyages Solomon undertook by 
he e^nploy d not his own Swbjeds, nor hi 
B 4 Ships, 

8 An Introductory Dift 

Ships*, but only made ufe of the Skill of the 
Phenicians, who were the ableft Sailers in 
thofe Days, and had began to range through 
out all the Mediterranean , on the Cqafts where? 
of, they built feyeral famous Cities, as Car- 
ikage, Vtica^ -and others of great Note, to 
which they fent Colonies at feveral Times. 
They alfo made their Way into the Red Sea, 
and to feveral Parts of Afia and Africk up 
on the Profpeft and Hope of gaining by the 
Commodities they brought Home from fe 
veral Countries. 
3olomons This is the Method we may guefs Solomon 
took to enrich his Kingdom, by Trade with 
forreign Nations, far remote from Judea. It 
is likely, that after he came to the Know 
ledge of the Wealth there was to be found 
in the other Parts of the World, he fent 
out a Fleet every Year, which did not re 
turn till three Years after. This Fleet fet 
Sail from the Port afterwards call d Berenice, 
and which the Scripture names 

feated on the Red-Sea. They fail d together as 
far as theStreight of Babelmandel,\vhich is the 
Mouth of the Red Sea, where they parted } the 
one half of the Fleet coafted along Eaftward 
35 far as India^ Maltca^ and other more di- 
ftant Parts ; the other turn d away towards 
Africk^ and return d Home through the Me- 
diten&nean to the Port of Joppe. 

Thefe Voyages were very gainful } for they 

Commodi- brought Home Gold, Silver, precious Stones, 

bwgbt. Perfumes, Ivory, curious l Sorts of Wood, 

ftrange Creatures, and other rich Commo 

dities, which could only come from Afia and 

Afric\ -j but never from the Weft-Indies^ whi 

ther it was impoflible for them to fail with- 

oul the Help of the Compafs. 


to the HiHory 0f V o Y A G"E s, &c. 9 

Tho> it muft be granted that the 
fins, Carthaginians and Egyptians 
many Voyages in the Mediterranean, the 
Sea^ and even on the Ocean ^ yet it cannot 
be deny d but that they had Abundance of 
Difficulties to encounter, and many Dangers 
to run through for want of greater Light, 
fteering their Courfe the beft they could in 
the Day-Time by the Help of the Sun, and 
in the Night by the Moon and Stars, with 
much Uncef tainty and Hazard, never daring 
to lofe Sight of the Shore. 

The Ancients for the greater Honour of 7 * rf 
Hercules, magnify his Travels at an cx t ra " 
ordinary Rate -, telling us that he viiited the 
greateft Part of the Earth, to extirpate Rob 
bers, who every where committed inhumane 
Murders without being call d to any Ac 
count, to fubdue Giants, and to bring Ty~ 
rants to Reafon, who made Ufe of their 
Power to opprefs the Weaker. Nor was the 
Voyage of Jafon and t\\tj4rgonauts lefs Famous 
for the gaining of the Golden Fleece, or rather 
to fetch Gold and Silver from the Mines of 
Colchis, whence they brought Home a confi- 
derable Quantity at their Return* 

If we may give Credit to Homer and 
Odyffee, there never was a greater Travel 
ler than Vlyffes, for the Space of Ten Years 
after the Siege of "Troy, the Deftru<9Uon of 
which Place he haftned by his Subtility and 
Stratagems. Strabo has grounded the great- 
eft Part of his Geography on Vlyjfis s Tra 

Virgil has given eternal Renown to the^/ Eneas. 
Travels of Eneat, Son to old jAnckifis, and 
Father t6 Afcanitu, whom the Romans look d 
as their Founders. After the Subver- 


jo An Introductory Difcourfe 

fion of Troy, Eneas fitted out a Fleet, in or* 
der to fave the poor Remains of his Coun 
try, and as many as were willing to fol 
low him into fome Foreign Land. Tho the 
Paflage from Troy to the Coafl of Italy be 
not very long, yet that Voyage is render d 
mofl Illuflrious by the lively Defcription 
Virgil gives of the Storms, the Shipwrecks, 
the Variety of Adventures, and the Anger 
of the implacable Deities againfl Enea* and 
his Company. He coafted along Macedon, 
crofs d over to Sicily , and came at la ft into 
the Country of Latium, where after feveral 
Battels he defeated Turnns, and took from 
him Lavinia, the Daughter of the King of the 

0/Pytha- Pythagoras departing Greece, and the IflamJ 
goras. of Samos, fpent feveral Years in Travelling 
to all Parts ; but this upon a different and 
rnuch nobler Motive than other Men, who 
aim d at nothing but gathering of Worldly 
Wealth ; whereas that great Philofopher 
made it his whole Bufinefs to adorn his 
Soul with Variety of Knowledge. He crofs d 
the Seas to go aver into Chaldea and Egyft, 
and went into Per fa to confer with the 
Magi, that he might learn the Myfteries 
of their Profeffion, and impart them to his 

<?/ Socra- Socrates the Wife, took feveral Journeys 

tes and into remote Countries to acquire more Wif- 

Piato. dom, which was the only Treafure he va- 

lu d. Plato his Difciple, not fatisfy d with 

the Sciences which he might learn in Greece, 

of thofe many Philofophers he could there 

converfe with, went over into Egyft to be 

inltrufted by them in all the Myfteries of 


to the Hittory 0f Y o Y A G E s, &c. j i 

Religion, and the Ceremonies they had learnt 
from Mofes and the Hebrews. 

The Conquefts of Alexander the Great, may f Alex - 
be look d upon as fo many Travels ^ be- ander " 
caufe he performed them with as great Ce 
lerity, as a Traveller might have done, 
who were only led by Curiofity to take a 
View in his Way of feveral Countries, 
and diftinft Nations. After Conquering and 
Overthrowing the Monarchy of the Perfians, 
his Ambition carry d him even iato India - 7 
and not yet fatisfy d with fuch immenfe 
Conquefts, he gave the Command of his 
Navy to Nearchw, one of his moft experi- 
enc d Officers y who fail d down the River 
Indus, difcover d the Coafts of the Indian 
Ocean, and returning to Alexander, gave him 
a particular Relation of all he had found 

We may add to the Number of thofe0/Hanno 
who have render d themfelves Famous by 
their Travels, Hanno the renown d Carthagi 
nian Commander, who having fitted out fixty 
Sail by Order and at the Charge of his 
Commonwealth, and putting Aboard 3000 
Perfons of both Sexes, faiPd out of the Mouth 
of the Streights, and directing his Courfe to 
the Weftward, built fome Towns, and planted 

We are beholding to Pliny s Travels for^/Phay 
that excellent Book he compos d of Natural md - 
Hiftory. The Emperorsf, as well as the Phi- an * 
lofophers have TravelPd to difcover Things 
to them before unknown. The Emperor 
Adrian vifited all Egyft^ to find out the Source 
of the Nile, and at his Return to Rome caus d 
the Plans of all the Cities he had feen in 
his Travels, to be drawn to refrejh his own 


jr 2 r An Introductory Dijcourfe 

Memory, and give others fome Notion of 

Gf Chrift Tho the Travels of our Lord and Savi- 
jtoftk our J ESU . S CHRIST were not long, nor in- 
* to Countries . very remote frojn his own, yet 
they were almoft without Intefmifllon for the 
laft Years of his Life. As foon as born he 
was forc d to fly into Egyft^ with his Fa 
ther and Mother, to avoid the Perfecuti- 
on of Herod. At Thirty Years ofeAge he be 
gan to Preach the Kingdom of God in Jury^ 
Galilee, and Samaria^ traverfing all Paleftine^ 
without ever going far from Jerufalem, which 
was, as it were, the Center of all his Tra 
vels. The Apoilies following the Example 
fet them by their Matter, divided the Uni- 
verfe among them, to carry the Light of 
the Gofpel into all Parts of it , fo that fome 
of them pierc d even into India. St. Paul s 
Travels have rendered him Famous, he ha 
ving perform d verv many both by Sea and 
Land,with inexpreflable Labours and Dangers, 
ranging throughout all Greece and Afa to 
fulfill the Duty of his Apoftlefhip ^ he came 
as far as Marfeilles^ and at length ended his 
Courfe in the Metropolis of the World, un 
der the Emperor Nero. 

0/Apol- AyolloniuA Tkyaneus was a very great Tra- 
Thyane- ve ^ er i whilfb yet very young he left his 
uc ? " Country, and all the PofTeffions lie-had in it, 
to give himfelf up more entirely jo the Stu 
dy of Philofophy. He went to AZewphif and 
Cairo to fee the Table of the Sun. Hepafs d 
over Mount Caucafu* to go to confer with 
the Brachmans; his Curiofity carry d him e^- 
ven into India^ to Study under the Gymno- 
fophifts, ajid the moft knowing Hiarchojj Prince 
of a# the indim Wife Me^j. There it was 


to the Hittory of V o Y A G E s. * J 

that he learnt Things beyond common Capa 
cities, and which made himbelook d upon as 
a Magician. 

Among the Moderns Marcus Paulm Vene-f 
tw has obtain d Renown by his Travels an 
the Difcoveries he has made. He fpent feven^ tus . 
teen Years in Tartary in Viewing thofe Ea- 
ftern Provinces, and enqairing into the Man 
ners and Cuftoms of the Inhabitants, and the 
Nature and Qualities of the many and ftrange 
Sorts of Creatures that are to be found in 
that Country. 

What Advantages have we not reap d from 0/Spanl 
the Navigation and Voyages of the P rtu-*^* 
guefes, who were the firft that difcover dg ue f es ^ 
India, the Kingdom of Calicut, and fo many 
Wealthy Nations, from whom we daily re 
ceive all Sorts of Spice, and Drugs forPhy- 
fical Ufes ? This Obligation we owe to the 
Kings John and Emanuel of Portugal, to Fer 
dinand and Elizabeth of Caftile, and to the 
Emperour Charles the Fifth. Divine Provi 
dence in their Days rais d up feveral 
able, bold and daring Men, who expos d 
themfelves to all Sorts of Dangers for the 
making of Difcoveries in the New World. 
The moft Famous of thefe were Chriftophtr 
Colum\)M, Americm Vefyuciw, Ferdinand Ma- 
gtlhaens, Ferdinand Cortes^ Gon&alo Pi&arro^ and 
James de AlmagTo. 

The Kings of France have alfo eoga^4 
themfeiyes and launch d out their Revenues in 
promoting the Difcoveries in the new World. 
Francis the I. Henry the II. Francis tfie II. 
Charles the IX, and above all, Lewi* the Great, 
have fet out feveral Fleets and employ d able 
Mariners to found the Seas, take the exaft La 
titudes, andobferve the Climates, the Ports, 


Introductory Difiourfe 

the Roads, and what ever elfe may contri 
bute to the Advancement of Navigation in 
thofe unknown Countries. We have made 
Way even to the Antipodes, to the Nations 
neareft about the Pole, and to the Countries 
molt remote from our Continent, before 
thought inacceflible, and never to be come 
near, by reafon of the continual Ice and 
excemVe Cold which ftill furrounds them } 
but what is it that Man cannot perform, when 
Profit or Ambition leads him on. 

Travelling would become much moreeafie, 
were there many Perfons of the Genius of 
that famous Pastel, who" liv d in the Reign 
of King Francis the I. for befides the European 
Languages, he was well skilPd in the Hebrew^ 
Ckaldaick, Syr lack, Arabick and Greekj and he 
was wont to boaft that he could travel to 
the End of the World without an Inter 
preter. The King fent him into the Eafly 
whence he brought abundance of Manufcripts, 
relating to Phyfick, Phylofophy, Mathema- 
ticks, fome Books of Holy Writ in Arabick, 
and other Oriental Languages. 
of Peter In the fame King s Reign, Peter Gilius, un- 
Gilius. dertook feveral Journeys for the fpace of 
nine or Ten Years into Greece, Turkey, Syria, 
Jury, Paleftine, Egy^t, Arabia^ Armenia^ and 
even into Perfia* At his Return he gave the 
Europeans confiderable Information, as to the 
Situation, Strength and Riches of thefe Coun 
tries, then almoft unknown to them. 
of Nice- TheTravels of theSieurNicolai, of Dauphinee^ 
iai * have gain d him much Reputation v and been 
very beneficial to the Nation. He in the 
Space of fifteen or fixteen Years vifited the 
Upper and Lower Germany , ; Denmark^ Pruf- 
(ia, Livonitf, Sweden^ Zeal and > England^ Scotland^ 


to tl)e Hi&ary of V o Y A G E s" t $ 

*>, Barbary, Greece, Turky and Italy ^ making 
very excellent and curious Remarks upon all 
thofe Countries he was in, as appears by the 
Book he publifh d, by the Name of the Eaftern 
Travels of N. Nicolai of Dauyhinee, Lord of 
Ar/etyjjfcj Valet de Chambre and Geographer 
in ordinary to the King with the Cuts both of 
Men and Women drawn to the Life j ac 
cording to their feveral Nations. Fol. 1 568. 

It may well be faid, without being thought 0/Taver* 
guilty of Flattery, that the renouned 7^- nier * 
vernier, who liv d in our D<y?9, has equalled 
if not out-done the molt celebr^ed of Travel 
lers, , for he has been in moft Countries, and 
made moft excellent Remarks on them y but 
more particularly in Perfla and the Moguls 
Dominions, as may be feen in his Memoirs, 
a Work both curious and inftrutting, as to 
the Genius, Manners, Religion, Wealth and 
Trade of very many Nations, and the Ad 
vantages that may be made by them. 

^Avery great Number of other Travellers ofafas* 
might be brought upon the Stage, who have 
been an Honour to France, whofe Motives 
for travelling are as free from any Profpeft 
of Intereft, as is that of the Miffioners , and 
yet the Difcoveries by them made in all Parts 
of the World, have very much illuftrated 
Geography, and added coniiderble Perfection 
to the Mathematics ; rendring all Things 
far eafier to thofe who have Occafion, or 
Defire to Travel. Among thefe Famous 
Men are Meflieurs Caffini, de la Hire, Petit 
la Croix, Galland, Thevenot, &c. who have 
done all Europe confiderable Service, by the 
judicious Remarks they have made in their 
Travels, and the Accounts of them they have 
publifh d. 

Introduffory Difcourfe 

The sex jsj or had it been fufficient for Providence 
to ra if e U p f man y brave Men,, as have 
clear d the Way to the utmoft Bounds of 
the Earth, in order to make new Difcove- 
ries, unlefs it had pleas d God to dired them 
in the finding out a Thing fo excellent as 
is the Sea Compafs, without which it had 
been abfolutety impoffible to perform thofe 
long Voyages. Whereas now by the Help 
of the Needle touch d to the Load-Stone, 
we Sail with no lefs Eafe than Safety in all 
Seafons, by Day and Night, and even in 
.Tempefts. , An able Sailor, who has been 
"for many Days drove up and down by the 
furious Billows and ftormy Winds, and forc d 
to fleer feveral Courfes, compell d to it by 
outragious contrary Blafts, foou. finds where 
abouts he is, as foon as the Weather grows 
Calm, and marks down the Place on the Sea- 
Cart without any Error, if he underftands 
his Profefllon but indifferently. 

It is about five hundred Years fince the 
ufe O f t he Needle touch d to the Load- 
Stone was found out by one Flavins^ whoni 
fome Authors call John Gioia, who either 
by Chance, or by fome Irifpiration, obferv d, 
that a Needle rubb d upon a Load-Stone, 
always turns towards the Pole, and confe- 
quently marks out the North and South 
Line.]At fir ft they fet this Needle fo touch d 
to the Load-Stone into a very (lender Bic 
of Stick, like a Fefcue Children ufe to read 
with, which they put into Water, that it 
might have the full Liberty of Turning to 
wards the Pole } at prefent it is ihut up 
into a round Box fet upon a very fine Brafs 
Point y that it may have entire Freedom to 


to the Hiflory ^VOYAGES, &c. 17 

Some Authors have thought that Marcus n& And 
ulm fcnetus brought the Needle out of ^ ** 
China; but it is a Miftake,, fince Jacques 1 * 
fie Vitri in the fecond Book of his Oriental 
Hiftory, affirms, that the Needle was ia 
Ufe at Sea, ever fince the Year 1215. It 
is a much grofTer Error to maintain, that 
the Tyrians had any Knowledge of the Com- 
pafs, as us d dt this Day. It is to be ob- 
ferv d, that there is another Quality peculiar 
to the Load-ftone, that is its attracting of 
Iron ; which Vertue was certainly known to 
the Ancients long before the other of cau- 
fing a Bit of Iron, which has been touch d to 
it, to turn to the Pole.^^ 

The beft Load-ftones are found in the Bi whom 
Mines of Bengala and China, whence they werej^ u ^ 
brought by the Moors and Arabs, who have 
travell d thither in all Ages. The Mariners 
of Amalfi, in the Kingdom of Naples, were 
the firft that made Ufe of it on the Medi 
terranean, and therefore they are reputed 
the Inventors of it. Certain it is, that the 
Venetian s, the Genoefes, the Pi fans, and the 
Catalonians, were the firft Europeans that fail d 
by the Compafs. The French, the Portugueses, , 
the Spaniards, the EvgHjk, the Danes and the 
Dutch have found it very Advantageous to 
them, for difcovering of all the remoteft 
Lands and Seas, from North to South and 
even under the Pole. So that it may, in 
fome Meafure, be faid, that there is no ha-* 
bitable Part of the World, that has not been 
gone to. We now fail with more fafety on, 
all the Seas from the North to the South, 
and from the Eaft to the Weft, than for 
merly they did in the Mediterranean^ or Gulph 
of Venice. 

C Thefe 

i8 An Introductory Difcourfe 

famu- Thefe long Voyages have been the Occa- 
$* md (ion of difcovering Iflands and Continents 
altogether unknown to our Anceftors. The 
Light of the Gofpel has been convey d to 
barbarous Nations, who had never heard fo 
much as the Name of the true Religion. 
The Commodities of Europe are exchang d 
for the Wealth of the new World, whence 
many Things are brought, which contribute 
much to the Conveniency, or at leaft the 
Delight of human Life j and Experience has 
fhown how Advantagious that Trade has 
prov d to Europe. 

Difwery The general receiv d Opinion is, that 
of the Ca- America was altogether unknown to the An- 
naries. dents, and that we are beholding for that 
Difcovery to the Voyages undertaken by 
Chriflopher Columbus , Americus Vefpufius and the 
Spaniards. The Southern Coafts and the ex 
treme Parts of Africk and Afia, were dif- 
eover d by the Portuguefes. The Sieur dc 
Betencour, a French Man conquer d the Canary 
Ifiands, in the Year 1402. Antiquity had 
fome confafe Knowledge of them, by the 
Name of the Fortunate Iflands, whereof Poets 
and Hiftorians have writ fo many Wonders. 
The Grecian and Latin Geographers have 
made Mention of them, but we kgew no 
thing we could rely on of thofe plentiful 
Countries till Betencour made his Voyage. 
0/Made- Spaniards and Portugueses afterwards made 
ra. feveral Voyages thither, and by that Means 
difcover d the Ifland of Madera, under the 
Conduct of John Gonz.ales, and Triftan Va^ y 
tho the English pretend to that Difcovery 
iince the Year 1344. Alvaro Fernandez, dif- 
Guinea. cove r d all the Coaft of Guinea^ which put 
the. Portuguefes in the Way of making other 


to the Hiftory (/VOYAGES, &c. 1 9 

mighty Difcoveries afterwards. In the Year 
149$. Bartholomew Diaz, found the celebrated 
Cafe of Good Hope and having doubled it, 
proceeded as far as the Coaft of the Anci 
ent Ethiopia. Three Years after t^afco de Gama, 
made a farther Progrefs the fame Way, and 
went on fortunately, as far as India. Thofe 
who follow d after him pufh d on fuccefsfully 
the fame Courfe as far as the Molucca Iflands, 
China and 3vz/w/,whence thePortug uefes brought 
immenfe Treafure into Europe. 

Before they would attempt thefe mighty 0/Ethio- 
Undertakings by Sea, the Kings of Portugal pi*. 
fent fome able Men by Land ; who took 
the Way of Alexandria, Cairo and the Red 
Sea, as far as Ethiopia. King John the fe- 
cond, mov d to it by reading the Travels of 
Marcus Paulus fanetus, in the Year 1486, fent 
two Portuguefes well skillM in the Arabick 
Tongue, with the Title of EmbafTadors, to 
the King of the Aby {fines, but with a Defign to 
view thofe Coafts, wherein they fucceeded to 
their Content. Till that Time we had but 
very dark Ideas concerning the Empire of 
Prefler John, which has been fince well known: 
by feveral good Accounts we have receiv d 
from thence. 

The Spaniards began to undertake their ?i Ame " 
long Voyages in the Year 1492, under the nca * 
Diredion of the renoun d Chriftopher Columbus, 
fent by King Ferdinand and Queen Eliz*Mh 
of Spain into the new World. He was the 
firft that difcover d the Lucayo Iflands , 
thofe of Cuba and Jamaica, and the vafb 
Continent of America. He afterwards made 
three other Voyages into that new World, and 
drew Charts of it, wherein he was very much 
aiTilted by an able Mariner , who was drovf to 

G 2 th 

Introductory Difcourfe 

Che Place where he was by a Storm* 
where he died and at his Death left him 
ail his Journals and Obfervations. 

Chriflopher Columbus returning into Europe, 
on? H^4/fJb with fuch Advantageous Inftru&ions, made 
brought Application to Ferdinand King of Castile and 
tbtna. Dragon, who laid out but 17000 Crowns, for 
the fitting out of three fmall Ships, which 
were the Occafion of his gaining above fixty 
Millions of Gold in a few Years. Since then 
his Succeflbrs have found inexhauftable Mines 
of Treafure in that new World, for it ap 
pears by the Regifter, or Entry Books of 
Sevtl that from the Year 1519 till that of 
1617^ there came into Spain 1536 Millions of 
Gold , all brought from the Weft Indies. 
TfoDutch The Dutch, who have apply d themfehres 
to Navagation with greater Eagernefs and 
more Succefs, than any other European Na 
tion, are become formidable by their pro 
digious Wealth , fo that they now dare 
prefume to cope with Crown d Heads, 
and oppofe the greateft Monarchies on the 

Ike Ro- ^is watery Nation has fucceeded the 
nuns. Phenicians, the Syracufans, the Rhodians^ the 
Cart ha? inianS) the Alexandrians and the Peo 
ple of Marseilles in the nice underftanding 
of Trade. The Romans fent mighty Fleets 
into India and omitted Nothing that might 
tend to the Advancement of Commerce - 7 
but that was almoft loft entirely fince 
the Innundation of the Barbarous Nations. 
7k Eng- The Englifo have alfo perform d many 
Voyages, which have been Beneficial to their 
Country. They have Vifited all the Iflands, 
and ali the Coafts of the Eaft and Welt 
Indies, of ^4 f rick and the North. They have 


to the Hiftory of V p \ : A G E s, &c\ 21 

befides Travell d by Land into Mufcovy, Per-* 
fi^ the Moguls Dominions, Tartary, China, 
and Ethiopia. They have difcover d Virgi 
nia, New England and New Scotland, bring 
ing Home very great Wealth from all thofe 
Countries at feveral Times. 

No Nation has advanc d its Trade W&tS 
than the English have done -, for they have fix- r 
or feven feveral Companies to that End, which 
help to enrich others not concerned, and 
employ abundance of Poor, who muft other- 
therwife go a Begging. 

About the Year 1524, King Franci* *$ 
Firft of France fet out fome Ships which fail d 
from Cape Breton along the Coafts of Virgi 
nia and Florida, for near Seven Hundred 
Leagues in Length \ but the Pilot, who had 
the Direction of that Fleet, was taken and 
devour d by the Savages. Ten Years after, 
that fame Prince fent again to difcover Canada 
and the Cod Fifhery. 

In the Year i$5$> the Sieur dt Vitlegagnon^ 
Knight of Malta^ undertook a Voyage to 
Braztl, in America, under the Prote&ion of 
the Admiral Chatillon, promifing him to plant 
Proteftant Colonies in that Country, which 
had been before difcover d by Peter Alvarez,, 
Admiral under Emanuel, King of Portugal. 
The following Year America Vefyucius, who 
had before difcover d the Continent, went 
thither on the fame King s Account, for 
whom he took Poffefiion of it. The next 
Vpyage he made in the Year 1504, he dif 
cover d the Bay of All-Saints. The French 
gave that Country the Name of Brazil, be- 
caufe that Wood grows there in prodigi : 
pus Quantities, in fome particular Places. 
The ToufinaboM and the Margajats were the 
C 3 

22 An Introductory Difcoarfe 

Nations of that Country, which Villegagnon 
was oblig d to abandon, becaufe he receiv d 
no Succours from France -, whereupon, the Por- 
tugwfes took Poffeffion of them. 

ToFlorida Charles the Ninth, King of France, by the 
Advice of the Admiral Coligni, fent fome 
Ships to Florida, which was not yet Inhabited 
by any Chriftians, tho 1 it had been before dif- 
cover d in the Reign of King Francis the Firft, 
John Ponce de Leon, a Spaniard, came pon that 
Coaft in the Year 1512, and calPd it Flori 
da, becaufe he Arriv d there on Eafter Sun 
day, which the Spaniards call Pafyita Florida^ 
on Account that at E after the Flowers ap 
pear in Spain. The Spaniards abandon d it, 
by Reafon that all thofe they fent thither 
were devour d by the Savage Natives. 
French fit- The French finding that Country forfaken, 
tie there, refolv d to fettle there, and People it, in 
Order to plant the Chriilian Faith ; but the 
Civil Wars which happen d about that Time 
were the Occafion of negledling thofe Plan 
tations. The fatal Confequences of the League 
being remov d by the Acceffidn of King Hen 
ry the Fourth to the Crown of France, feri- 
ous Application was again made for rc- 
ftoring of Navigation and Trade, towards 
putting the Kingdom again into a good Po- 
fture, it being then much exhaufted. 
Tirft At* ^ n tne ^ ear T 5^^i tne Marquefs de la Roche 
ttmpt upon had a Commiffion given him for the Conqueft 
Canada, of Canada and other Countries, not in the 
PoiTeffion of any Chriftian Prince. He had 
Leave given him to raife Men, for the bet 
ter Eftablifhing of Trade, and promoting the 
Chriftian Faith in thofe Countries he fhould 
difcover, that they might be brought under the 
Dominion of France. 


to the Hittory ofVo Y A G E s, &c. 25 

In 1603, the Sieur de Mons, a Gentleman * An * er r 
of Xaintonge, offer d the Court a Projeft for *" ** 
fettling a Colony in the new found Lands, 
which was approv d of. A Com minion was 
given him to be Lieutenant-General in New 
France. With this Authority he fail d from 
Havre de Grace, and with him the Sieur de 
Poutrincour, a Gentleman of Picardy, and the 
Sieur Ckamflein. He built a Fort at Quebec^ 
in order to make a farther Progrefs into 
thofe Countries till he fhould come to the 
Weftern Ocean, and to endeavour thus to 
find out a new Way to Mexico. In the Year 
1609, they difcover d the Country of the 
Iroquois, on whom they made War. They 
found Nations of Savages arm d with Clubs, 
Bows and Arrows. Towns palifaded about } 
a very fruitful and pleafant Country ^ Corn, 
Vines and Fruit Trees. 

The Jefuits went over into Canada, in the Canaaa * 
Year 1611, upon the Holy Defign of Labour 
ing for the Converfion of Savages. The great- 
eft Obftacle they met with in their Conver 
fion was Polygamy, or the Plurality of Wives. 
which thofe wild People could not endure 
to be depriv d of. Befides that thofe Bar 
barians are naturally Rude, given to Liber- 
tinifm, Lazy, Superftitious, addifted to Ma- 
gick, and fcarce capable of the Purity of Chri- 
ftian Religion. 

Another great Obftacle againft the making The Eng~ 
of good Settlements in Canada, was that the lifll 3**- 
EngHJh in Virginia, who are not very remote, lm 
look d upon them with a jealous Eye, becaufe 
they leflcn the great Advantage they made 
by Trading with the Indians. 

C4 The 

24 An Introductory Difcourfe 

Canada The Company eftablifh d for carrying on 
Company. t jj e Trade of New France, was much encou- 
rag d and rais d by the Favour of Cardinal 
Richelieu, the Chief and Superintendant of 
the French Navigation and Commerce. He 
gave full Power to the Sieurs de Roquemont, 
JHouel and other Partners, to fend over Colo 
nies, and to put themfelves into a Pofture 
to oppofe any other Potentates. An Hun 
dred Perfons join d and mutually bound them 
felves together for fifteen Years, ingaging to 
fend over four Thoufand Perfons of both Sexes 
into thofe New Countries, and to provide them 
with all Neceilaries. 

fncou- Three VefTels fail d from Dieppe, in the 
Year 1616, touch d at, pafs d in Sight 
of the Country of Ethiopia, and arriv d at 
Sumatra, notwithftanding all the Oppolition 
made by the English and Dutch. In 1621, 
a new Company was Erected for diftant 
Voyages to the Weftward, for the Cod and 
Whale Fifliery, and for fecuring the Colo 
nies in New France. The great Profit made 
by thofe New Companies, prevail d upon 
Lewis the XIII. to make it his fpecial Care 
to fend People into Canada, Newfoundland, 
St. Chriftopker and Barbada, the Lucayo Iflands, 
and feveral other Parts. In the Year 1627 
he fet out an Ordinance, exhorting his Sub 
jects to erect Companies for Trade, promi- 
fing to fupport and allow them Convoys of 
his Men of War } and exprefly forbidding 
all thofe who undertook long Voyages, not 
to attempt any thing againft the Kings, 
States, and Princes, who were Friends and 
Allies to his Crown, or their Subje&s, Goods, 
or Rights, purfuant to the Treaties with 
them concluded. 


to the Htfory of V o? AGE s. 25 

All thefe Voyages made Way for the Mif- 
iioners and Evangelical Labourers, to convey *?**.* 
the Light of the Faith into all Parts of tsfaef 5 
World ; fo that there is no Kingdom fo 
remote, or Nation fo barbarous, where the 
Jefuits, the Francifcans, the Dominicans, and 
ieveral other Religious Men have not preach d 
the Kingdom of God, to the great Glory 
and Advancement of the Chriftian Name. 
Among the reft, the Jefuits, who take a 
particular Vow in Relation to MifTions, 
have fignaliz d their Zeal by their Patience 
and Shedding of their Blood, even to the 
utntoft Bounds of the Earth. They have 
fetled themfelves in Afia, Africk and Ame 
rica, at Si am, in China, and Japan, in the 
Iflands of the Eaft Indies, along the Coafts 
of Guinea, in the Kingdom of Tunquin, and 
feveral other Places, where they made 
a coafiderable Progrefs towards eftablifhing 
the Chriftian Faith, as appears by the late Re 
lations they have publilh d. 

1 look upon St. Francis Xaveritts to have^f. 
been the greatefl Traveller of all Modern rius. 
Apoftles. Thofe who have computed his 
Travels reckning up the Diftance of all the 
Places he was at, putting them all toge 
ther at Length, have found that he had run 
in his Way Thirty Three Thoufand Leagues, 
which is above threeTimes round the Compafs 
of the Earth. 

There is ftill an infinite Number of Reli- 
gious Men of all Orders, who fpend their 
whole Lives with a more than Heroick Re- 
folution, in Travelling among the moft Sa 
vage Nations, in order to root out Vice, 
Idolatry and Superftition, and to bring over 
thofe People to the Knowledge and Love 


z6 An Introductory Difeourfe 

of the true God. The Secular Priefts and par 
ticularly thofe Gentlemen of the foreign Mif- 
fions, are no lefs zealous than the Regulars. 
Some are fent every Year out of their Semi 
nary, to the extreme Parts of the World, to 
preach the Gofpel with immenfe Labour and 
Toil. There only remain, at prefent, fome 
Countries towards the North and South which 
have not been difcover d, and whither the 
Light of the Gofpel has not been as yet con- 
vey d. 

Trade. Since the eflablifhing of fb many excellent 
Manufactures in France^ thro the Care and 
Induftry of the late Monfieur Colbert , the carry 
ing on a Trade with all Nations upon the Earth 
is grown much eafier, fupplying them with our 
Produft,our Manufactures and fuch Abundance 
of exquilitive Curiofities of all forts, as we are 
able to furnifti, in Exchange for the Richefl 
Commodities to be found in ftrange Countries, 
without being neceflitated to carry Money out 
of the Kingdom. 

jDeftgn of All the World is fufficiently convinc d of 
this Work, the great Advantages that are to be made of 
the Knowledge of and Acquaintance with 
ftrange Countries } either for the Advancement 
of Trade-, for fatisfying theCuriofity of thofe 
who only covet Information ; or for the en- 
flaming the Zeal of others, who have Refblu- 
tion enough to go carry the Light of the Gof 
pel into thofe vaft Countries, which ftill 
groan under the Darknefs of Ignorance, of Su- 
perftition and Idolatry. This has made me 
conclude it would be a confiderable Piece of 
Service to the Publick, to give them a com- 
pleat Catalogue of all Authors ancient and 
modern, who have writ Hiftories and Rela 
tions of all the Voyages and Travels under 
taken in all Parts of the World. Ac- 

to the Hitfory of V o y AGE s, &c. 27 

Accordingly we fhall deliver the Titles of Perfir- 
their Works,- we fhall make an Abftraft^^ 
of the Lives and Adventures of the Travel 
lers, with a brief Account of their Travels, 
and of what is moft curious and remarkable 
in them, either relating to natural Hiftory, 
or to Geography, the Cufloms, Manners, 
Trade, Religion and Hiftory of the Country , 
we fhall carefully examine the Works we are 
to take in Pieces, and give an impartial Judg 
ment concerning the Character of their Nar 
ration. This Abridgement will plainly de- 
rrtonftrate the great Advantages of Travel 
ling, and what Credit is to be given to the 
Relations of Travellers } we fhall prefcribe 
Rules for the better diftinguifhing between 
fuch Authors and Fads as deferve to be be- 
liev d, and fuch as do not. Thole who have 
not Leifure, or at leaft not Application e- 
nough to read fo many large Volumes as 
have been writ by Travellers, will have 
their Satisfaction in the Abftrads we fhall 
give them, where in a few Words they will 
find as much as will fuffice to anfwer their 

For we fhall give them a particular View 
of all the remarkable Travels fince the Be- 
ginning of the World till our Days } we fhall 
lay down the Reafons there were for under 
taking of them, and the Defign of the At 
tempt, with the Succefs towards the Improve 
ment of Philofophy, Phyfick and Aftronomy, 
CTT. We fhall endeavour to prove the Ad 
vantage, that may be made in Trade, the 
Faults that have been committed, and the 
Meafures to be taken for fucceeding 
in the Time to come. We fhall treat 
of the fettling of Colonies, fent abroad by 


2 & r An Introductory Difcourfe 

fo many feveral Nations ^ and mark down 
the Years in which thofe Voyages were per- 
form d, the Names of the Perfons and of 
the Princes that fent them, either to fettle 
Trade, or to acquire a more perfeft Know 
ledge of thofe Places. 
jWjwfr* We fo all alfo give f ome 1( } ea O f tfaviga- 

tion, which in our Days has been brought to 
great Perfection , fince Men now fail with as 
much Safety to the fartheft Parts of the Earth, 
as they do to the Countries they are beft ac 
quainted with. Thofe who travel and have 
any Infight in the Sphere and the Mathema- 
ticks, might ftill add farther Perfection to Na 
vigation, by fetting down the Pittances of 
Places exa&ly, obferving of Longitudes and 
the Variation of the Compafs. 

Multitude Tho feveral Authors have writ concern- 
.ing the fame Travels, yet we fhall not forbear 
making Extradb of them, for the furnifh- 
ing a more compleat Hiftory of every Country, 
and an exaCt Geography. For it being impof- 
fible for a Traveller to fee and obferve all 
Things, thofe who come after him take notice 
of confiderable Matters that had efcap d his 
Search :, befides that the Agreement we find 
in feveral Relations left to Pofterity by divers 
Perfons of diftinft Countries, is an undeniable 
Proof, that they have deliver d the real Truth 
in their Writings, and that we may rely on 
what they tell us. 

order of The fi rft Part of this Collection (hall con- 
tain the Voyages made into the North and 
South America, to the Streights of Magellan 
and into the Pacifick or South Sea, in due 
Order of Time as they happen d, beginning 
from Chriftopber Columbus and Americus fafpu- 
cius and defcending to this Time. Next fhall 


to the Hittory of V o Y A G E sV 

follow the Voyages into Africk and t 

along the Coafts of Sarbary, and thofe of 
the Ocean , from the Streights Mouth to 
the Iflands of Madagafcar, up the Red Sea, 
and the Travels by Land into the Country. 
The Readers Curiofity (hall be fatisfy d as 
to all the Rarities of Afa ; he fhall have laid 
before him all that is Remarkable in the 
Lefler Afa, the Holy Land, Per/ta, India, Tar- 
tary, China, Japan, and the adjacent Iflands. 
We are better acquainted with all that re 
lates to Europe, and thofe Things being near 
er to us, we feem to have the lefs Regard 
for them , however we lhall not omit ta 
king an exaft View of that Part of the 
World, and giving curious Extracts of all 
Travels into Italy, France, Spain, the Le 
vant, the North, Germany, England and all 
the other Kingdoms and Republicks of Eu 
rope, Nothing that is trivial, or generally 
known to all the World {hall be here de- 
liver d, but only fuch Things as may be 
thought worthy the Obfervation of the moft 
Judicious Perfons. 

To the End that nothing be wanting ^ 
his Work, which may any Way be fatis- 
faftory to a curious and ingenious Reader, 
he ihall have the Names of the Authors, who 
have writ of all forts of Voyages and Tra 
vels , and fhqrt Cricizifmes on their Works. 
The Authentick fhall be diftinguifh d from 
the Apocryphal, that fo every Man may 
have Recourfe to the Writers of Reputation, 
who have receiv d the moft general Credit 
and Applaufe. 

An infinite Number of Manufcripts has 
been found in the Archives of Peru, and 
new Spain y which a very learn d Man has 

caus d 

:j 6 T An Introductory Difcourfe 

caus d to be printed, and will afford much 
Light for the better underftanding of Au 
thors. Thofe who have writ the Affairs of 
Jndia^ as Abraham Ortelius^ Antony de Herrefa^ 
Brother Alphonfo Fernandez, and Maldonado^ 
have not been fo nice aad exa& in their 
Relations as could be wiih d. Such as go 
over to the Weft Indies make it their Bu- 
finefs rather to feek for Gold and Silver, 
than to enquire into what relates to Sciences. 
This, which ought to be the Principal Aim, 
is as it were laid alide, and whatfoever is done 
towards it is with much Negligence and Su 
perficially. It is a Fault the Spaniards may 
with fome Colour of Juftice be charg d vs^th, 
there is more Information to be had in the 
Books of Foreigners than in their own, of 
all that relates to the Conquefts they have 
made in the new World. 

strangers. This Aflerdon of mine will eafily be cre 
dited, ifweconfult the Works of Sir Water 
Rawleigh^ which he compos d about Guiana 
and the River Dorado ^ Hacklttit and John 
Baytifta Ramufio, whofe Works ate in three 
Volumes in Folio } Samuel Purchas^ in five 
Volumes in Folio - 7 Gafyer Borleus^ in his new 
World j Jerome Benz^one and Levinius Apol- 
lonms, in their Hiftories - y Theodore de Brye 
and his Sons in their Voyages^ John Buterus^ m- 
his Relations ; Antony Maginus and GerardMer- 
cxtor, in their Defcriptions, ^c. All thefe Au 
thors are perfectly well acquainted with the 
new World :, they fpent more Time and took 
more Pains to learn the Curiolities, than to 
gather the Wealth of it. 

T T Pliny fays it is the Nature of Man to love 
aV r "Novelty, and that it is this Natural Incli 
nation which prompts him to Travel. We 


to the Hittory of VOYAGE sJ 31 

have in our Days feen Monfieur Tavernier^ at 
fourfcore Years of Age, fet out on his Jour 
ney to Per/fa, with as much Alacrity, as; 
much Eagernefs, and as little Concern, as 
if he were but going to Verfailles. He could 
not prevail upon himfelf to reft long in a 
Place, after he had fpent his whole Life 
in travelling. Man is naturaly reftlefs, the 
Sight of the lame Objefts becomes of- 
fenfive to him. This it is that puts him 
upon going far from his native Country, to 
find out fomething new, that may furniih 
him Matter of Admiration, or pleafe his 
Curiofity } improve his Knowledge, or feed 
his Avarice and covetous Temper with Hope 
of Gain. 

It may well be faid, that travelling is ufe-Anachar- 
ful for the rendring of Man more Polite fis * 
and Accomplifh d, and removing all he has 
that is rude and unpolifh d. jlnacharfis the 
Philofopher, by Birth a Scythian^ undertook 
feveral Journeys to disburden himfelf of the 
Barbarous and Savage Cuftoms he had con- 
traded in his Native Country. It is moft 
certain that thofe, who never- have been out 
of Sight of their Father s Houfes, feldom 
arrive to any great Perfection either in Arts, 
or Sciences. We every Year fend young 
Proficients in Painting and Archite&ure to 
Rome^ to render them perfect in thofe noble 
Arts, by viewing the many exquifite Mo 
dels, and copying the rare Originals there 
are in that Metropolis of the World. No 
thing is more certain than that the Imagi 
nation muft be fed with new Objects, which 
may in fome meafure lift it above it fdf. 
When a Man continually beholds the fame 
Thing, he has always the fame Idea s, and 


3 2 An Introductory Difcourfe 

his Fancy is confin d to a narrow 

Milofo- Philoftratus makes Apollonim Thyaneus fay, 
That, if a young Man defires to gain 
Reputation, he mull Travel into ftrange 
Countries, as if he were banifli d his own. 
The Daintinefs, Sloath, and Indulgence Men 
are bred with, who never ftir out of their 
own Country, dulls the Soul, and renders 
it incapable of aiming at high Things. 
If we may believe Pliny, feveral of the greateft 
Philofophers, as Pythagoras, Emfedocles, De- 
mocritw, Plato, &c. crofs d the Seas, more 
like banifh d Men, than Travellers. They 
were afraid left a delicate and eafie Courfe 
of Life, Conveniencies and Pleafures, which 
they might have enjoy d at Home, ihould 
take them off from Labour and the Study of 

Travellers It is not enough to Travel, to crofs the 
** w J? **Seas, and to vifit abundance of Kingdoms 
P*HP an( j Provinces^ there muft be Senie and 
Judgment to make an Advantage of Travel 
ling. Plato dire&ed, that the State ihould 
make Choice of difcreet, and folid Perfons 
to Travel, to the End that being prefent at 
the Publick Games, at the Ceremonies in the 
Temples, the General Aflemblies of the Peo 
ple in ftrange Countries, they might pick 
all they found moft worthy to be obferv d, 
to impart it to their Countrymen at their 

Travels Experience has fhown that feveral young 
mendMan- Perfons, who were ruin d through Sloath and 
Debauchery in their own Countries, have, 
by Travelling, become Sober, Temperate 
and Virtuous* Marcus Aurdius, the Empe- 
rour, found no better Method to give a 


to the Hiflory of V o Y A G s, &c. <** 

Check to the Diforders, extravagant Expen- 
ces, and Diflblution of his Collegue Lucius 
Verus, than by engaging him in making War 
on the Parthians } that the Fatigue of Tra 
velling, and the Dangers of a Foreign War, 
might find him fo much Employment, as to 
divert him from Pleafure , and that the Peo 
ple of Rome might not be Witnefs of his 
Riots, and by being Abroad he might learn 
to be a good Husband, and moderate his 

Whilft jinaxagoras Tfavell d, bis Kindred, ^//> ^ 
or thofe who envy d him wafted and .con- 
fum d all his Eftate } but he was nothing 
concern d at that Lofs, faying, / had not 
been fa ft, unlefs thofe Goods had been loft. An 
Expreffion worthy fo great a PhilofbpherV 
and which Valerius Maximas, who has recorded 
it, admires,asthe Effe<5 of a Wifdom abfolutely 
confum mate. AtitxagorAi had perhaps never 
attained to fuch a high Degree of Virtue, and 
fo perfedt a Contempt of all Things, had he 
always liv d in his Native Country, and con 
tented himfelf as mod Men do, with look 
ing no farther than to preferve or improve 
his Patrimony. This is, very likely, one 
of the Things that moft of all makesjMen de 
generate, and keeps them in a mean Eftate-, 
whereas thofe who travel are difengag d 
from all thofe Cares and confequently 
may give their Mind the freer Scope to 

It is beyond all Controverfy, that the 
Ancients added an infinite Perfeftiori t6/ *f 
Arts and Sciences, by the Afllftance of Tra- 
yelling v and the Reafon of it is, bccaufe, 
in thofe Days every one took Care to 
caufe the new Difcoveries, he made in any 

O Science, 


34 An Introductory Difcourfi 

Science, to be carv d on Stone or Brick, as 
Herodotw and Jofephus allure us, fpeaking of 
the Chaldeans, the Phenicians and the Egyptians. 
So that the Travellers who went to confult 
thofe Monuments, fill d their Collections with 
Abundance of Curious Remarks, wherewith 
they enrich d their Country at their Re 
turn. There are ftill Monuments of this 
fort found under Ground, in the Fields, on 
Mountains, in Caves, and under the Ruins 
of ancient Structures. 

nft&nce in But not to look back fo far how great 
ranee. Advantages has France reap d by the Ob- 
fervations of our modern Travellers, for the 
greater Perfection of Geography, Navigati 
on, and all the Parts of the Mathematicks ? 
How great Wealth, and what Precious Silks 
have been brought from China^ and other 
the remoteft Countries ? 

How much is the Publick beholding to 
Lewis the Great, who has made fuch noble 
Provifion within his Kingdom and in foreign 
Countries, as Africk and America, for the 
Advancement of Sciences and the Improve 
ment of Arts ? He has fent abroad able 
Men, furnifti d with excellent Inftruments, 
to take Latitudes and make other neceflary 
Obfervations for attaining the Perfection of 
Navigation. His extraordinary Care in fup 
porting the Colonies and Plantations in Ame 
rica and Canada, has procur d his People Abun 
dance of Things necefTary for the Satisfaction 
of this Life and for promoting of Trade by 
the Addition of curious Manufactures of all 
Sorts. But all this is nothing, if compar d with 
the Zeal he fhows, in fending out Miflioners 
at fcis own Coft, into China, Japan, Syria, and 
many other Pares. He now maintains a con- 


to the Hiflory of Vo? AGES, &c . 5 f 

fiderable number of young Men, in the Col- 
ledge, which bears his Name, and fends them 
into their own Countries, when they have 
finifh d their Studies. Thefe young Miffioners 
of feveral Nations, for there are Greeks, 7nfo, 
Armenians and feveral others, go back to con 
vert thek Kindred and Countrymen to the 
Faith of JESUS CHRIST, and to proclaim 
every where the Magnificence of their Bene- 
fador, to the immortal Glory of that great 

Thus much may fuffice towards proving the 
Excellency and Advantages of travelling ^ Conlu 
every one will be much more fully convinced M 
of it by reading the Colledion defign d here 
to be given to the publick, of all the confi- 
derable Voyages and Travels, which have been 
perform d into all Parts of the World. 

The End of the Introductory Difiourfij 



General Hiftory 



Into the Old and New 


C H A P. I. 

Chriftopher Columbus fets out vfonDif- 
covery. Account of the Canary Iflands. 

Hriftopher Columbus was born at Colum- 
Cenoa^ of mean Parentage, and bu^sBin 
from his Infancy apply d himielf & c. 
to Navigation, as molt of the 
Genoefes do, who have no For 
tunes. He had a (harp, fpright- 
Iy Wit, and great Capacity , and having be 
gan early to addict himfelf to examine the 
Motions of the Heavens, and to perfect him- 
ia the Ufe of the Aftrolabe and other 

3? The General HISTORY 

Inftruments proper for Navigation, he in a fhort 
Time made very confiderable Progrefs in that 
ProfefTion , in fo much, that he far exceeded 
all the ableft and moft expert Navigators 
of his Time. He at firft performed feveral 
Voyages out of the Streights, towards Por 
tugal > nicely obferving what Winds general 
ly blew, during the feveral Seafons of the 
Year. Being of a ftrong and healthy Con- 
ftitution, at forty Years of Age, he refolv d 
to attempt a Voyage for Difcovery of the 
new World, and to find out all thofe 
mighty Treafures, that were there Ihut up 
irft De- from the Knowledge of Europeans for fo ma- 
if-ny Ages. He made this Project known to 
the mod confiderable Men of the Repub- 
lick of Genoa, propofing to them to rig 
and fit out fome Ships, with all Neceflaries 
for the undertaking of fo great an Enter- 
prize. This Defign, at firft Sight, appear d 
to them altogether Chimerical, and they 
look d upon all Columbus faid to them, of a 
Poffibility of going to the utmoft Extremi 
ty of the World, according to the Rules of 
his Art , as a meer Dream and Fable ; 
tho they had before heard talk of a vaft 
Ifland, which lay at a great Diftance from 
the Mouth of the Streights, difcover d ma 
ny Ages before and rnention d by Ancient 
Authoi ?. 

into Columbus perceiving how little notice his 
Portugal Country-men took of his Propofal, went 
away into Portugal and made the fame Of 
fers to that King as he had before done 
to the Genoefes. The. Portuguefe Sailers, who 
are naturally proud, and intra&able, pre- 
fently rejedkd the Overtures of Columbus, 
with Scorn, looking upon them as extra 


of V O Y A G E S dn& T R A V E L i. 39 

vagant Notions, and little better than Mad- 
nefs, being offended that any Man ihould 
prefume to be better skill d than they, in 
the Art of Navigation, tho as yet they 
had fail d no farther than along the Coafts 
of Africk, without venturing out of Sight 
of Land , for they were even then of the 
Opinion of the Ancients, who believ d that", 
whofoever fhould dare draw near to the 
Equinoctial, would be quite burnt by the* r} 
Sun. Thus they refus d to give any Credit 
to what they were told of the Voyages of 
fome Mariners, who departing from Cadiz, 
had rounded all Afrlck and gone up into the 
Red Sea. 

The Ignorance or Jealoufy of the Portuguefes 
difappointed all Columbus^ Defigns, who 
feeing the Hopes he had conceiv d fallen to 
nothing, and having heard talk of the great 
Generofity and Magnificence of Ferdinand the 
CatholickKingof Spai-^and of Queen Elizabeth^ 
his Confort, refolv d to go away to that 
Court, and never to depart from it, till he 
had perfwaded them tofurnilh him with fome 
Ships to facilitate his Defign of difcovering the 
New World. He had feveral Times the 
Honour of difcourfing their Majefties, and 
the Grandees of Spain upon the Subjeds of 
his mighty Proje&s, which he deliver d to 
them, and reprefented with fuch AUurance 
and Confidence, that they could not but give 
fome Credit to his Word. However, fome 
Courtiers ftill looking upon him, as a vaim 
conceited Man, all his Propofals, and Extoll d 
Projects had like to have vanifh d into Smoke, 
and he was near being .treated in Spain, as 

he had been at Genoa, and ia Ponugal. 


40 The General HISTORY 

His Pro- But Providence, which had decreed to make 
H*- life of the Bravery and Skill of Columbus, for 
the Difcovery of fo many vaft Countries, till 
then unknown to the ableft Men, put it into 
the Heart of Queen Ifabel or Elizabeth to en 
tertain Thoughts of attempting that mighty 
Enterprife, after feveral Conferences with 
Columbus who had been fome Years at her 
Court. That Princefs had a generous Soul, 
and was always full of mighty Defigns, with 
out 1 ever being deterr d by any Difficulties that 
obftruded her Enterprifes, all which fhe 
furmounted with an invincible Courage and 
Patience. Being perfwad.ed by the Reafons 
Columbus alledg d of the Poflibility and Like- 
lyhood of Succefs in the Undertaking, fhe 
prevaiPd upon the King her Husband, who 
caus d three Ships to be fitted out, on which 
Columbus embark d, about the Beginning of 
A$gu$, in the Year 1492, with 120 Men. 
They fail d from CW*Vand made the Canary 
Iflands, which the Ancients call d the Fortu 
nate Ijlands, feated in 28 Degrees of North 
Latitude, and 250 Leagues diftant from Cadiz.. 
They were call d the Fortunate IJlands^ becaule 

of the excellent Temperature of their Air, 

i i / t 11 t t TT 

which is fuch, that throughout the wholeYear, 

there is no exceffive Heat, nor intolerable 
Cold. Some have been of Opinion that the 
Fortunate Iflands^ are thofe near Cabo farde 
on the Coaft of Africk, now in the PofTefllon 
of the Portuguefes^ and lying in 17 Degrees 
of North latitude, call d the Iflands of Cabo 

The Baron de Betencour, born in the Pro- 
rtitt f Normandy ^ had difcover d the Canary 
Iflands, long before Chriftopher Columbus was 
there j for he fail d from Rochel^ with the 


Sieur de la Salle, on the firft of May 1402; 
and arriv d at the Canaries, in the Month of 
July, of that fame Year. Hd made himfelf 
Matter of them, and came in Perfon to d6 
Homage for them to the King of Spain, be- 
caufe lie is the neareft Chriftian Prince to 
the Canaries. Some Authors reckon feven of 
thefe Iflands, and others ten -, for the recon 
ciling of both which Opinions, it may be 
laid that feven of them ar6 inhabited, and 
the other three defert. They were call d 
Canaries from the Great Number of Doss 
or of Goats at firft found in them. The In 
habitants of them are very dexterous, great 
Leapers, expert at throwing of Stones, aftive 
and cleverly made, like the Bifcainers. When 
the French came thither, they had no other 
Weapons but, Arrows and Darts , and were 
all Idolaters, worlhipping the Sun and Stars. 
Polygamy was allowed and us d throughout 
all the Country j but that which is a grea- 
ter Proof of the Barbarity of thofe Iflanders, 
is a ftrange Cuftom they obferv d, when any 
Lord took Pofleffion there of his little Do 
minions , for then feveral ofter d themfelves 
voluntarily to die in Honour of the Solem 
nity, and with a brutal Courage call them- 
felves headlong from the Top of a very 
high Mountain. The fame Ceremony was 
pbferv d upon certain Feflivals, kept in Ho 
nour of a Deity they ador d, in a Temple 
featedon the Brink of a Mountain, then they 
threw themfelves headlong into a vaft Depth, 
out of a Religious Principle, dancing and 
fingmg, their Priefts afTuring them, that they 
Ihould enjoy all forts of Pleafurcs after fuch 
a noble Death. 


S The General HISTORY 

other Cu- They had not yet learnt the Ufe of Fire,; 

Soms. j) Ut eat tne Flefh of Beafts raw, and bleed 
ing } yet had fome confufe Notion of a Dei 
ty, which punifh d the wicked and rewar 
ded Virtuous Perfons. They made Ufe of 
fharp Stones, like Flints, for (having of their 
Heads; Gold and Silver was in their Opi 
nion of no more Value than Sand, or Shells. 
The Women took not the Pains to fuckle 
their own Children, but made them fuck 
She Goats. As barbarous as thofe People 
then were, they had (till fome regular Me 
thod of Government. An hundred and ninety 
of the principal Men had the Management 
of all civil Affairs, and every thing that 
concern d Religion. There were alfo among 
them fome Kings, or fovereign Princes, whom 
they obey d and followed, when they made 
War upon one another. They thought it a 
dilhonour to kill any Beaft, and therefore 
left that to be done by their Slaves, or other 
bafe Perfons. If any Man of what Condition 
foever happen d to forget himfelf, in this 
particular, they would feparate him from 
the reft of the People, and account him 

The Inhabitants of the feveral Iflands, 
upon one another as Enemies, much 
after the fame Manner as is praftis d be 
tween the Iroquois and Hurons in Canada^ 
who eat one another. So the Inhabitants 
of thefe Iflands, kill d and butcher d one a- 
nother without any Mercy, or Companion. 
The fame Ufage they gave to Strangers 
that happen d to come upon their Ifland, 
when they were ftrongeft. When the Spaniards 
could catch any of them, they made Slaves 
of and fold them, like Horfes. By thefe 



of V o Y AGES and T A v E L s." 45 

Slaves the Situation and Wealth of thofe 
Iflands came to be known, and that occa- 
fion d the Defire of conquering them. 

In one of thefe Iflands is a Mountain of a 
prodigiotis Height, rifing up in a Point, an ^ 
cafting out Fire, Flames, Smoke and Afhes, 
by Fits, like Mount Etna in Sicily. It is above 
fifteen Miles to the Top of this Mountain, 
which is calPd the Peak ofTenerif, and it will 
require three Days to go up to it. Being 
come to the Top of it, a Man may fee a- 
bove fifty Leagues round, and plainly difco- 
vers all the other Neighbouring Iflands. The 
Cold being exceffive on the Top of this Hill, 
there is no going up to it, but from the 
Middle of May to the Middle of Auguft. 

In the Ifland of Ferro, or Hierro, which is ., 

one of the Canaries, -there is no Spring, Ri- t crro. 
ver, Fountain, Rain, or other Water-, but 
to makeAmends, there are certain Trees, co- 
ver d with thick Clouds and Fogs ; which 
continually drop and furnifh Plenty of Wa 
ter. Under thefe Trees there is a Ciftern 
or Bafon to receive a fuflicient Quantity of 
Water for the Inhabitants and Cattle of 
the Ifland. Lewis Jackfon an Englifaman, 
has exadly defcrib d the Nature and Quali 
ties of this wonderful Tree, which is as big 
about as an Oak, and about fix or feven Fa 
thom high, the Branches fpreading fomewhat 
loofe and open, the Leaf like that of the 
Lawrel, white within and green without. 
The Tree bears neither Fruit nor Bloflbms ; 
dries and feems to wither in the Day, and 
irops all the Night, when the Cloud isdi- 
rectty over it. The Water gathered in the 
Bafon runs out thro ^/everal leaden Pipes, 
and is convey d into many other Cifterns 


44 The General HISTORY 

all about the Ifland. This principal Bafori 
contains near 20000 Tun, and is fill d ia 
one Night, which would feem incredible, 
did not daily Experience evince the Truth 
of it. There are believ d to be in that 
Ifland about eight Thoufand Men, Women, 
and Children, and about an hundred Thoufand 

Ramuflo and fome other Authors inform 
us > that in the M an d of St. Thomas, under 

the Line, there is a Mountain always co- 
ver d with Trees, which the Clouds do wet 
fo abundantly, that the Water dropping 
from them is fufficient to nourifli all the 
Fields about, which are full of Sugar Canes. 
The Trunks, the Branches - and the Leaves 
of thefe Trees fweat all the Night, and 
till two Hours after Sun-Rifing. There is 
another Thing very commendable belonging 
to thefe Iflands, which is, that they breed 
no Venomous Creature, no more than Bra 
zil. But on the other Hand, the Rabbets 
do fo undermine all Parts, that the Corn 
and Vineyards are very much damag d by 
them j in fo much that the Inhabitants have 
been formerly forc d to abandon them, and 
feek out other Habitations. 

Madera The Ifland ^ &***** is th e biggeft of all 
the Neighbouring Iflands, as being 140 Miles 
in Compafs. Abundance of Sugar is made 
in it, yet molt of that, which in Europe is 
callM Madera Sugar, comes from Brazil. To 
cleanfe, they boil it feveral Times, and the 
more it is boil d and cleans d, the better 
it is. The third Boiling .makes it white, 
and the fourth and fifth Candies it like A- 



The Fertility of the Canary t Iflands is 
to be exprefs d , for they produce abundance^. 2 
of Corn, excellent Wine, Sugar, Wax, Ho- ries> 
ney, Fruit, and all Sorts of Creatures. They 
are Inhabited by the Natives and Spaniards ; 
have one Bifhop, who is Suffragan to the 
Metropolitan of Sevil ; and the neareft of 
them are but twelve Leagues from the Con 
tinent of jifrid - r for fome others are at 
leaft fixty Leagues off. That which is call d 
Gran Canaria^ is about forty Leagues in Com- 
pafs, and has near nine Thoufand Inhabitants. 
The Natives formerly were clad in Goats 
Skins, made like long Coats. When the 
Iflands were conquer d they retir d into the 
Clefts of Rocjcs. Their ufual Suftenance was 
Dogs Flefh and Goats Milk, wherewith 
they kneeded Barley Meal, to make Bread, 
which is very wholefome. They gather d 
in tHeir Corn, in February and May, and 
their Bread was very white. The Sugar 
comes but once in two Years in the bell 
Soil j when the Plant is top old, it muft be 
transplanted elfewhere. It was not with 
out Reafon that the Ancients gave the Ca- 
varies the Name of the Fortunate I/lands, for 
whatfoever grows there is extraordinary good, 
the Wine, the Melons, the Apples, the Pears, 
the Oranges, the Lemons, the Pomgranates, 
the Figs and the Peaches are all in Per 
fection. They breed and maintain Oxen, 
Cows, Goats, Sheep, Capons, Fowl, Tur 
keys, Pigeons, red Partridges, and in fhort 
all Things necefTary for Gonveniency, or De 

The Ifland of Madera was fo calfd by v/ , 
the Portugucfes, who poflefs d themfelvcs of 
ft, on Account of the Abundance of the 


The General HISTORY 

Wood there was in it, as Cedars, Cyprefs 
and other large Trees. It is about Sixty 
Leagues to the Southward of the Mouth 
of the Streights It is likely enough that 
the People originally inhabiting the C*- 
nary Iflands, came out of Africk^ becaufe 
of its nearaefs, for there is but twelve or 
fifteen Leagues Sea between them. Pliny ob- 
ferves that there were People in Maurita- 
uia, towards Mount Atlas^ call d Canarians^ 
who fed upon raw Flefh, upon the Entrails of 
wild Beafts and Serpents. 

Tenerife. Sir Edmund Scory, an Englifh Knight, in 
his Remarks, has taken Notice that the 
Ifland of Tenerife^ in which is the Mountain 
fifteen Miles high above mention d, is the 
Pleafanteft of all the Canaries. About half 
the Way up this Hill may be gone upon 
Afles, or Mules, the reft is to be gone a 
Foot, With incredible Labour. About the 
Mid-way, the cold Air is infupportable, at 
the Top and Bottom it is very Hot \ fo that 
when a Man is in the Middle, he muft al 
ways keep on the South Side and go up by 
Day ^ but when he draws near the Top, 
he muft keep to the North Side and goby 
Night. Every one carries his Provilion with 
him. The midft of the Summer muft be 
pitch d upon to go up to the Top, to avoid 
the great Falls of Water, coming down from 
the melted Snow, and they may flay there 
till SunRifmg, but no longer. When the 
Sun is come upon the Horrizon of the Sea, 
it appears as round as a Ball, and much leis 
than when beheld from the Surface of the 
Earth. The Light which is the Forerunner 
of the Suf* Rifing, is like a mighty Flame, 
and refembles that which comes out of a 1 


V o Y A G E s and T R A v E L si 47 

tiot Oven. From the Top of this Moun 
tain, all the other Iflands look like one 
entire plain Plat of Land, tho there be a- 
bove twenty Thoufand peeked and unequal 
Rocks. It never Rains on the Top of this 
Mountain, as Reafon it felf manifeftly fhows, 
becaufe the Clouds are far below it ^ and for 
the fame Reafon, the Wind never blows 
there. If any great Stone be roul d down 
the Hole there is in the Midft of the Moun 
tain, it founds as if fome mighty Weight 
fell upon many Brafs VefTels. 

It is the Ifland of Tenerife that produces Malmfey 
that excellent Malmfey, which is the only 
Wine that can be carry d all the World 
over, without being fpoil d. All other Wines 
either turn Vinegar, or elfe freeze and be 
come Ice, when they are near the North 
and South Poles. Here is alfo a Sort of 
Pine-Tree, which the Inhabitants call the 
Immortal Tree, becaufe it ne er rots either imiMntf 
above or under Ground, nor in the Water 
it is as red and hard as the Wood. If 
we may believe the Relations of the Spani 
ards, there is Wood enough inoneofthefe 
Trees to cover the Church call d de los Re* 
medios, which is eighty Foot in Length, and 
forty in Breadth. There is ftill another 
Tree in this Ifland, of a prodigious Bignefs, 
which they call the Dragon Tree, the Bark 
of it is like a Dragon s Scales, and thence Tree.- 
perhaps it had the ]S!ame. The Leaves of it 
are about two Foot long, and like the Flags 
in our Marines. From this Tree diftils a 
clear red Gum, call d Dragon s Blood, much 
better than that which comes from Goa and 
other Parts of the Eaft Indies. *The Lan 
guage of the Natives has much Refembla nee 


with that of the Moors of Barbary. When 
theBaron de Bentencoiir arriv d in thefe Iflands, 
all the Natives were Heathens and Idola 
ters ; but yet they worfhipp d a Being, in 
whom they acknowledg d a Sovereign Power, 
and gave him Names fignifying in their Lan 
guage, the moft High, the moft Mighty r 
and the Preferver of all Things. They 
had fome confafe Knowledge of the Immor 
tality of the Soul, and of the Punifhment 
of Wicked Perfons. Wheir the Scafon prov d 
irregular, either on Account of too much or 
no Rain, they drove their Goats and Sheep 
to a certain Place, and parted the young 
ones from their Dams, believing that the 
Bleating of thefe Creatures might appeafe the 
Wrath of Heaven, and that when the An 
ger of the Lord was appeas d, he would 
furnifh them with all they had Occafion 

They obferv d fome Form of Government 
as to their Civil Affairs owning a King, to 
whom they paid fome fort of Submiflion, 
and his Children fucceeded him in that 
Authority. They fubje&ed themfelves to the 
Rules of lawful Matrimony and Baftards 
were excluded from any Right of Inheritance. 
The Youth exercis d themfelves in running, 
cafting of Darts, throwing of Stones and 
Dancing ^ to which Employments the Na 
tives feem to bear an Inclination to this 

Above all they feem to me very commen^ 

X &c dal ? Ie for their J uftice and obfervance of 
c their Laws-, for if a Man offer d a Woman 

any Violence, or infulted her in any Sort 
what foe Ver, he was put to Death, without 
the haft hope of Mercy. Moft of, the In 

of V o Y A G E s And, TRAVELS. 

habitants of thefe Iflands, are well (hap d, 
of the larger Size, and of a ftrong and 
healthy Conftitutipn. There were formerly 
among them fome Giants of a prodigious 
Bignefs. The Head of one of thofe mon- 
ftrous Men is (till to b6.feen there, he had 
So Teeth and was fifteen Foot High. The 
Complexion or Colour of thefe Iflanders dif 
fers, according to the feveral Situation of 
the Places they live in -, for thofe on the 
South Shores, are of a fort of Olive Colour ; 
whereas on the contrary,thofe on the North 
fide are beautiful, efpecially the Women. 
Their Cloaths were formerly made of Lamb 
skins, and reach d only to the Knees, but 
when the Females were to appear in publick, 
they had another Garment, which reach d 
down to the Ground } being of Opinion, 
that if a Woman fuffer d her Feet or hen* 
Throat to be feen, me tranfgrefs d the 
Rules of Decency and offended againft Mo- 

Their Diet was very frugal, feeding much 
upon Barley and Beans y for they had never 
eaten Wheaten Bread, till the French taught 
them to fow it, their Bread being a Sort of 
Cake, the Meal kneeded with Hony, Water 
and Butter. When they were lick, they us d 
to bleed themfelves in the Arm, Head and 
Forehead, with a fhafp "Flint* 

The King afllgn d every Man the Portion 
Of Land he was to till and fow, and when 
they threw in the Seed, they utter d fome 
Myfterious Words, which they thought had 
a great Virtue for procuring a good Harveft, 
The King, or any other they conferred that: 
Authority on, liv d like the reft, in Dens, 
or the natural Hollows or Clefts of Rocks. 
E In 

5-6 The General HISTORY 

In their Marriages they obferv d not any great 
Formality of Ceremonies. The Bridegroom 
that was to be ask d the Confent of the 
Kindred of the Maid or Widow, if fhe had 
been marry d before, which being ? granted, 
they were look d upon to be marry d, with 
out any more to do. As fhort as they were 
in concluding of thefe Matches, as eafy and 
expeditious they were in breaking them ? 
the firft Difcontent either in the Wife or 
J>fu0rff. Husband, was fufficient Caufe for a Divorce 
and they might immediatly marry others, if 
they had an Opportunity. Thefe Divorces 
were very prejudicial to the Publick } be- 
caufe the Children of thofe, fo parted, were 
reputed as Baftards. Only the King was 
exempt from this Law, on Account of the 
SuccefFion \ and he was allow d to Marry 
even his own Sifter, as the Perfians did for 

They took fpecial Care of embaulming the 
Dead Bodies, thac they might prefer ve them 
a long Time ; and therefore immediatly 
wafli d and cleans d them very diligently 
and put into them fome Drugs compounded 
with Butter made of Goats Milk, melted 
with the Powder of the Bark of the Pine 
Tree, and Aromatick Herbs. With thefe 
they alfo rubb d the Body, and expos d it 
to the Sun for fifteen Days, till it was 
quite parch d and dry d up, and during all 
that Time the Kindred of the Party de- 
ceas d lamented for him. After the fifteen 
Days, they wrappM up the Body in Goat 
skins, very artificially few d together, and, 
carry d it into fome Cave allotted for that 
Uie. There are Hill fome of thofe Bodies 


of V O Y A G E s and TRAVELS. 51 

found, which have been embaulm d above 
a thoufand Years, if we may believe their 

Their Houfes built of a rough and i U- 
hew d Stone, are but one Story high, with 
out any Chimney, even for the ^Kitchin -, 
they are fatisfy d with a Hearth againit 
a Wall , where they rather parch or 
burn, than roaft their Meat. Since the Eu 
ropeans live among them, they are more cu 
rious in their Houfes and Diet. 


The Dtfcoveries made by Chriffopher 
Columbus, after thirty Days 

CHriftopher Columbus departing from theco/; 
Fortunate I/lands ^ and direding his Courfe/h 30 
Weftward, fail d for the Space of thirty 
Days, without feeing any thing but the Sky 
and Water, ftill plying his Aftrolabe, to ob- 
ferve the Height of the Stars, and the Sun s 
Declination. After ten Days, the Spaniards. 
under his Command, began to mutter againit 
him, and refolv d among themfelves to 
throw him over board, and return into Spain^ 
telling one another , that they had 
been impos d upon by a Genoefe, who was 
for carrying them into unknown Lands, 
without knowing whither he went. Columbus 
paufy d them the befl he could, with good 
E 2 Words 

The General HISTORY 
Words, affuring them they fhould foon fed 
the Effea of his Promifes. This kept them 
within Bounds for Ten Days longer 5 but 
when thofe were expir d, they renew d thei 
Complaints and became fo outragious, that 
Columbus * Refolution began to fail him, and 
he concluded himfelf a loft Man. Howcvct 
he once more appeas vf them, telling them, 
that if they offer d him the leaft Violence, 
Ms Catholick Majefty would treat them 
like Rebels -, and drawing them on Day alter 
Day, at length, after thirty Days Sail, 
fince their Departure, from the Canar*s,te- 
vin* caft the Lead, they guefs d by tn 
Soundings, that they were not far 
Land, which Conjefture was farther con 
firm^, by their obferving a Wind contrary 
to that which blew from the Sea, and mult 
of Keceffity come from the Land. A Sailer 
was fent up to the main Top-Malt-He id, 
who fome Hours after, began to difcover 
the Tops of Mountains, and being trani- 
ported with Joy, cry d out, Land, Land. At 
the Ship s Crew, anfwer d him with loud 
Acclamations, and the Guns were fir d round 

the Ship. 

This Nearnefs of the Land made amends 
b Columb* for all the Troubles he had 
gone through, during the Voyage, he blefs d 
God, who had given Succefs to his Enter- 
prize, for the Wind being right a Stern, 
they came to Land that fame Day. The 
Fields look d green and were full of Trees. 
He took up a Standard, on which was the 
Ficlure of CHRIST crucify d, and full of 
Tranfport of joy went Afhore, with twelve. 
of his Men, where they all knelt down to 
return Thanks to almighty God, and kifs d 


of V o Y : A G E s ani T R A v E L s. 

the Ground three Times, with Tears of 
Satisfaction in their Eyes. / adore and blefo 
thee, Lord, faid he, for that thou haft- been 
pleased to make Choice of we, to by ing the Know 
ledge of thy holy Name, into thejs barbarous 
Nations. According to Columbus * $ Computa 
tion, the Laud they came upon was about 950 
Leagues .diftant from the Canaries. Having 
continued there fome Days, they perceiv d 
it was a defert Ifland, which made them 
refolve to proceed farther, after falling fome 
Trees, to ered Crofles, as a Monument that 
they had taken Poflefllon of the Place in the 

They returned to their Ships, and *ffe$ * 
fome Days Sail, difcover d feveral lilands/^ 
two of which are very large. The firft of / 

them they calPd Hiftaniola^ and the^ other 
Guinea^ yet without knowing for certain whe 
ther it was an Ifland, or Part of the Con 
tinent. Going into the Woods they heard 
Abundance of ,Nightingals Tinging in Novem 
ber. They alfo faw great Rivers of very 
clear Water, and fafe Harbours, capable of 
the largeft Ships, Thefe Discoveries did 
not ftill fatisfy Columbus^ Curiofity, he was - 
ipr pufhing forward to the remoteft Eaftern *-\. 
Parts and thofe Countries where the Spice 
grows. Thus he fail d along the Coalt of 
the Country he call d Guinea for above 400 
Leagues, and then concluded it was the 
Continent. After this Difcovery they re- 
turn d to Hiffaniola, where they fpyM Abun 
dance of naked Men, who, as foon as ever 
they faw the Europeans , fled with wonder 
ful Swiftnefs into the Woods. The Spaniards 
purfu d them and took a Woman, whom 
. they carry d Aboard, cloath d her handfomely, 
E 3 

54 The General HISTORY 

gave her Meat and Wine to drink, and 
then let her go. When the People few her 
fo clad and heard the Account flie gave of 
the Spaniards Ufage towards her, they all 
came down thronging to them, believing 
they were fome People dropp d down from 
Heaven, giving them all the Gold they had, 
which they valu d no more than Dirt, and 
in Exchange received Whilftles, little Knives, 
fmall Looking-GlafTes and other mod incon- 
fiderable Trtfles. 

Indies, W ^ en they were thus become tra&able, 
lefrB04tt)"fc Europeans endeavour d to enquire into 
jHoufts 9 their Cuftoms and Manners, and by the Signs 
_ & c- and Geftures they made, understood that 
they had a King among them, whom they 
call d Guaccanarillo. The Savages obferving 
that the Chriltians worlhipp d the Crofs, 
fell down themfelves before it and did the 
like. Their Boats which they call Conoes^ 
are all of a Piece, being made of one large 
long Tree, which they hollow with fharp 
Stones j the biggeft of them will hold eighty 
Men. Tho they had no Knowledge of 
Iron, or confequently any Tools made of that 
Metal, yet their Huts, and all other Things 
they us d were very ingenioufly and neatly 
wrought and contriv d. 

The Spaniards farther underftood by Signs 
* thofe Indians made, that not far from their 
Iflarid, there were feveral others full of cruel 
and Inhuman Men, who fed upon Mens 
Fleih, which was the Reafon, why they fled 
as foon as they law the Europeans^ believing 
them to be Canibals, tor fo they call d thofe 
Barbarous, bloody People ^ by whom they 
were hunted and purfu d, as the Deer and 


of V o Y A G E s ana TRAVEL s.^ 5 

Hares are by the Dogs, to devour them. 
The Canibals caus d all the little Infants they 
took to be gelt, like Cockrels, or Pigs, to 
make them the fatter and more dainty 
Meat. When they kill d Men, they imme- 
diatly eat the Entrails, the Hands, the Feet 
and all the Offal, falting up the reft to keep, 
As for the Women, they kill d none of them, 
but kept them to breed on, making Slaves 
of thofe that were too old. 

The Inhabitants of thefe Iflands had the^% > 
Ufe of Bows and Arrows, to defend them- 
felves, but. whenfoever they thought the 
Canibals were coming, they all fled *, ten of 
thefe Canibals boldly attacking an hundred 
of the others. As for their Religion, no 
thing could be underftood of it, but that 
they ador d the Heavens, the Sun, and the 
Moon. Inflead of Bread, they made Ufe of 
a great fort of Root, not much unlike our 5^, 
Turneps. They have another kind of Root, 
which they cut into fmall Pieces, bruize and 
mould it together, and from it comes a 
Juice, that is a mortal Poifon to fuch as 
idrink of it, and yet of the Pulp of the fame 
Roots they make Bread and feed on it. 
There is alfo a fort of Grain calPd Afal^ 
as big as Peafe and growing on very thick 
Reeds , of a confiderable Length. The 
Iflanders make great Account of this fort 
of Grain, .which they wear as an Orna 
ment at their Ears and the End of their 

Thefe People have no Manner of Trade or , 
Commerce with other Nations, nor do they 
ever go out of their own Country. The 
Spaniards by Signs ask d them in what Parts 


$6 The General HISTORY 

Geld, they found the Gold, they wore at their 
Nofes and Ears, which they Ihow d they 
found on the Banks of certain Rivers,, that 
fall from the Mountains, and parted* the 
Gold dufl from the Sand. Throughout all 

frodutt. that Ifland there were no fourfooted Beafts 
but only a fmall fort of Rabbits, and Ser 
pents of a Prodigious Bignefs, but which 
do no Harm. In . the Woods there were 
Abundance of white Turtle Doves, with red 
Heads. Abundance of Maftick grows there, 
Aloes, Cotton, and feveral other ufeful and 
curious Things. 

Columbus * Defign being no other but to 

s. Do- make confiderable Difcoveries in that new 

mingo World, he ftill went farther and farther and 
found an Ifland, which he call d Santo Domingo, 
becaufe he came upon it OH a Sunday not far 
from it he difcover d another all full ofodori- 
ferousTrees, but faw neither Men,nor Beafts in 
it, only Lizards and Alligators of a Pro- 

>4ariga- digious Bignefs. This Ifland they call d Marig*- 
lante^ which, notwithftanding they! faw none, 
was inhabited by Canibals, as they perceiv d 
by Tokens and under&ood by the Signs the 
Inhabitants of Hifjanwla made to them, 
having brought fome thither, to ferve them 
for Interpreters. Here they faw Villages of 
20, and 30 Houfes, all Built about a large 
Square. Thefe Huts are made of Wood 
and cover d with Leaves of Trees, which 
the Rain cannot beat thro . Their Beds 
were hung up and ftuff d with Hay and 
Rufhes. The Cambals adore the Heavens, 
and have fome Images made of Cotton, 
. Which, as they fay, referable the Devil, whoni 
they often fee in the Night, The -Canibals 



at the firft light of the Europeans betook 
themfelves to Flight, with all their might 
and rmain. In their Cottages were found 
thirfy Women Prifoners, whom they kept 
as Slaves, and as niany Boys referv d to be 
eaten. In their Kitchens there were the 
Limbs of human Bodies cut off and ready 
to be roafted, with feveral forts of Fowl. 
Round about their Cottages lay abundance 
of the Arm and Leg Bones of the Men 
they had devoured, which they fharpen d to 
make Points to their Arrows, having no 
Iron among them. ,.;? , 

In the Ifland which the Spaniards call d Gauda- 
Caudalufe there are fix great Rivers, whofelupe. 
Banks on both Sides are very delightful. 
The Parrots are as thick on the Trees, as 
Sparrows are in France. Not far from this ^ f 
Ifland, they faw another, which was only in- *, 
habited by Women, who had to do with the " 
Cambals. If they happen d to bring forth 
a Male Child they fent it away to the Fa 
ther , but the Daughters they kept with 
them, living much after the manner that is 
reported of the Amazons. Thirty Spaniards 
having lain a long Time in Ambufh to catch 
fome Canlbal^ at length fpy d a Canoe, in Fierce 
which there were eight Men and as many 
Women. They attack d them, and the Bar 
barians defended themfelves with their Bows 
-and Arrows, at which they are very dex 
terous. An Indian Woman prefently kill d 
a Spaniard and wounded another. There 
was one Woman among them, whom the 
reft obey d, as their Sovereign, and fhe had 
a lufty ftrong Son, of a fierce and terrible 
Afpeft. They were both taken and carry d 


The General HISTORY 

before Chriftopher Columbtt*. Their Mien was 
fo frightful, and they had fuch an Air of 
Cruelty in their Looks, that there was no be 
holding them without fome Concern. 
several After feveral Voyages %nd Excurfions from 
* one Place to another, Columbus return d with 
his fmall Fleet to Hifpaniola, which was a- 
bout fiVe hundred Leagues from the Coun 
try of the Canibals, where he was concern d 
to hear, that all the Spaniards he had left 
in that Country at his firft Voyage, weit dead. 
that is, had been kill d, by the neighbour 
ing Nations, who fell upon them in great 
Numbers. It was thought fit to build a fort 
ot little Town and Fort, to keep thofe Bar 
barous People in Awe. A little Church was 
ere&ed, whet*e Columbus caus d Mafs to be 
fung by thirteen Priefts, on the Feaft of the 
Epiphany, or the Twelfth Day, which in all 
likelyhood was the firft Time that ever thole 
Divine Myfteries were Celebrated in the New 

Columbus in Purfuance of his Promife to 
t jj e - n g Q f spai^ of fending him Informa 
tion of the new Difcoveries he made, fent 
back into Spain twelve fmall Ships laden with 
Commodities, a ad fome ingenious Men, who 
gave a particular Relation of all that had 
been obferv d in the New World, till the 
Year 1494. Columbus himfelf on whom his 
Catholick Majefty had cortferr d the Title of 
Admiral of the Weftern Seas, continu d in 
fKfattoiola i which is about two hundred and 
twenty Miles in Breadth, and fix hundi ed in 
Length from Eaft to Weft, the Latitude 22 
Degrees and a half. The Admiral caus d 
a Town to be built on a little Hill, in the 


<?/ V o Y A G E s and T RAVE L s." 

Midft of the Ifland, and gave it the Name 
of ffabeKa, in Honour of Ifabelle or Eliza 
beth, Queen of Spain. At the Foot of t\\h 
Hill is a beautiful Plain, fixty Miles in Length- F<?m/ ^ 
and twenty in Breadth, acrofs which feve- 
ral Rivers run and water it, rend ring it ex 
traordinary Fruitful^ fo that Lettice, Sor 
rel and other Seeds they fcatter d along the 
Banks of thofe Rivers, grew up and came 
/to Maturity in fixteen Days, Melons, Cu 
cumbers, and Pompions were fit to eat in fix 
and thirty Days, and they, prove Ib delicious 
that nothing in Europe is to compare to them. 

The moft furprifing Thing of all was that 
fome Sugar Canes ftuck into the Ground, 
grew two Fadom high, and were thorow 
ripe. The Vine Plants, the fecond Year, 
bore very good Grapes, but thin, the Soil 
being two exuberant. By way of Experi 
ment they fow d a fmall Sack of Wheat in 
the Beginning of February, and on the thir 
tieth of March, which prov d to be Eafter- 
jOay, they offer d up to God a Sheave of ripe //J 9 
Ears, as the firft Fruits of that little Crop, % 

The Admiral caus d his new Town to be 
Intrench d about, to defend himfelf agahift 
any Surprife, or Attempt of the Indians. 
On the Twelfth of March, he fet out with 
twelve Hundred Horfe and Foot, towards 
the Country, where the Gold was, and came 
into a delightful Plain, water d by feveral 
Rivers, whofe Sands are mix d with Gold 
Dull. They advanc d farther up the Coun 
try, about feventy Miles, where they built 
a little Caflle, and call d it Fort S. Thorns, to p ort 5. 
Ferve them for a fecure Retreat, for the Thomas 
better difcovering of the Secrets and Wealth 
pf the Country. He gave the Indians Whi- 


$0 The General HISTORY 

ftles and other European Baubles in Exchange 
for Gold. They prefently ran to the Banks of 
the next Rivers and return d in a Moment 
with both their Hands full of the Golden Sands, 
which fometimes afforded an Ounce Weight. 
In March they gather d wild Grapes, of an 
excellent Tafte, which the Indians made no 
Account of. Tho this Ifland is ftony and 
full of Mountains, yet it is always cover d 
with Grafs and other Greens, which when 
cut, in four Days run up again the Length 
of a Man s Arm. The Reafon of thefe 
Things is plain, becaufe Abundance of Ri 
vers run athwart thefe Mountains, and wafn 
down the Gold among the Sands. The Na 
tives are wonderfully lazy and void of all 
Induftry j in fo much, that in Winter they 
ftarve with Cold on thefe Mountains, which 
they might eafily prevent, by looking out 
\ and taking Care to Gloath themfelves. 


Of the Rarities found, in the IJland of 
Jamaica, and of a Harbour capable of 
containing above fifty Sail. 

A Dmiral Columbus fet out with three 

* JT\ Ships to difcover /a Country which is 

not above eighty Miles from Hifpaniola, call d 

Cuba. By the Way he found a very conve-r 

nient Harbour, which he call d, Port S. 

of V Y A G S S AA& T R A V E L S^ 

f, about twenty Leagues from Cuba. Theii 
turning to the Southward in that Bay, he 
difcover d Jamaica, an Ifland bigger than 
Sicily, very fruitful, and inhabited by Peo 
ple much more Ingenious and Cunning than 
the other Iflanders, apter to learn Mecha- 
nick Arts and Martial Exercifes. They us d 
all their endeavours to hinder the Admi 
ral and his Men landing* but having been 
worfted in all their Attempts, they at laft 
became his Friends. Tho the Sea abounds 
in all Sorts of Fifh, as well as the Rivers, 
yet they flight it, to feed only upon Ser 
pents, which they reckon more dainty, and 
preferve them for their King, and the great- 
eft Men. The Inhabitants of this Ifland are 
gentle and good natur d, and came Aboard 
the Spanifh Ships, without any Jealoufy or 
Apprehenlion, bringing them of their Bread, 
Coco Nuts full of Water, and excellent Fruit 
of a moft fragrant Scent. They fhow d them 
a River, whofe Water was naturally fo hot, 
that there was no holding a Man s Hands ia 
it, without fcalding them. 

The People of this Ifland have a vry^ / 
peculiar manner of Fifhing. They tie a foitp/f/J 
of Fifh, which we have not in Europe, and 
Which cannot endure the Air, to their Ca 
noe, under Water j when they fpie a Tor- 
tife or other great Fifh drawing near to the 
Canoe, they let loofe this Fifli, who is 
us d to that Way of Management, and 
fhoots out, like an Arrow out of a Bow, 
it clings to the Tortife, and holds fo fait 
that fhe cannot get loofe -, fo that the Filher- 
man drawing in the Line to which that Fifh 
k made faft, his Prey follows of Courfe, 


6z The General HISTORY 

which he lets go as foon as ever he comes 
into the Air, for he would die upon the 
Spot, were he not immediately thrown into 
the Water, where he lies conceal d to catch 

A matte The Admiral one Day caufing Mafs to 
Indian, be faid, as he ufually did, he receiv d a 
vifit from an Indian, of fourfcore Years of 
Age, who feem d to be a Man of Worth 
and good Senfe. He was attended by fe- 
veral Indians, ftark naked, except thofe 
Parts which Modefty forbids to be expos d 
to publick View. He direded his Difcourfe 
to Columbia, which was expounded by an In 
dian he kept by him, and ferv d him for an 
Interpreter, his Words were thefe, We are 
s t, infwnfd, that with much Labour and many 
Dangers, you have difcover^d federal Countries^ 
before unknown to you, and ffread a Terror a- 
mong all the Inhabitants of this new World. 
If you believe, as we do, that our Souls, when 
they are farted from our Bodies, take jeveral 
Ways, quite contrary to one another, whereof the 
one if dark and difmal, thro 7 which thofe Souls 
are led, which have molefted and difturtfd Man-> 
kind ; the other Way bright and glorious, for 
peaceable Souls, who have always lov d Peace ? 
and Quiet nefs -, I conjure you not to do wrong 
to any Man, fwce you are your felf mortal, 
and do ex feel the Reward of your Works. 
Oolum- fc Columbus was furpris d and altogether a- 
bus j ^-ftonifh d at this Difcourfe of the Old Man s, 

ct vinc d of all he told him, concerning the 
" future State of Souls, and therefore iiad 
c Orders from the Catholick King to cuK 
tc tivate Peace with the Indians, to proted 


"the Good, to punilh the Wicked, and to 
" make continual War on the Canibals, who 
" difturb d the others and treated them with 
" fo much Inhumanity. That he had no 
u Caufe to fear, for himfelf or his Friends, 
" for if any European offer d them the leaft 
" Wrong, he fhould be punifh d without any 
" Mercy. This Declaration of the Admiral s 
was fo pleafing to the Old Man, that he re- 
folv d to follow him wherefoever he went, 
and would have done it, had not the Tears 
of his Wife and Children diverted his De- 
fign. Columbus was defirous to be more par 
ticularly inform d concerning the Cuftoms 
and Government of the Indians ; whereupon 
the old Man told him, by Means of the 
Interpreter, " That they were not fubjed 
c to any Kings or Superiors, that the and- Cu a omg 
cc enteft among them had the Direction of an ^ 
" all publick Affairs, and that they ador d ntrs. 
cc the Sun after this Manner. In the Morn- 
ing as foon as the Sun s firft Beams begin 
to appear, the Indians repair to the Sea 
" Shores and the Banks of Rivers and Springs, 
tc where they wafh their Hands and Faces, 
c and make their Obedience to that glo- 
u rious Star. The old Men meet under 
:c the Shade of the largeft and thickeft 
c Trees near their Habitations, where they 
" lit quietly, talking and converting together. 
& The young People have the Care of all 
c Things necefTary for the Support of hu- 
tc man Life, as Sowing and Reaping. When 
Cfc the Harveft Time is come, every one has 
c Right to gather as much Corn as is ne- 
K ceflTary for him, tho he never took the 
"Pains to fow it j for they fay, that what- 



64 The General HISTORY 

" foever the Earth produces ought to be as 
" common to all, as is the Light of the Sun, 
"and Moon, or the Water of the Rivers 
" or Springs. So that among them you will 
" never hear any one fay, This is mine, or 
"That is yours, or Thefe are the Bounds 
" of my Eftate ^ whence it follows that they 
"all live in Peace and in common, like the 
" Children of one Family, without the Help 
" of Laws. The main Thing the old Men 
" have to do, is to inftruft the Youth , and 
u above ^all they endeavour to inftill Fru- 
c gality into them, and to be fatisfy d with 
" what they find in their own Country } 
" for which Reafon they rarely fuffer Stran- 
" gers to come among them, to introduce 
"any thing that is new, nor do they 
" allow their own People to travel, or go 
" out of their own Country, for Fear left 
" they fhould afterwards difturb their peace 
able Conftitution, by endeavouring to bring 
;c up foreign Cuftoms, and left they fhould 
>c learn evil, feeing it pra&is d by others. The 
" Women as well as the Men meet under 
" the Shady Trees, there to dance, after 
" their Falhion, ftudying nothing but how 
" to pleafe themfelves. 


and TRAVELS. 65 

C H A P. IV. 

What Method, Columbus made Vfe of, 
to oblige the Caciques to pay Tribute 
to the Kjng of Spain. 

THE Admiral obferving that the Spaniards 
he had brought into the ladies dy d there of 
apace, for want of being us d to the Food of 
the Country, refolv d to take a Voyage himfelf 
into Spain, to get Provisions of Wine, Cora 
and other Things necelfary for the Support 
of Life. He had alfo another Motive to 
undertake that Voyage, which was to pre 
vent the ill Offices that might be done hint 
by one Peter Margaret, a Gentleman belong 
ing to the King of Spain, who was gone a- 
way out of the Indies, .with fome other 
Spaniards, highly incens d againft Columbus. 
Before he would leave the Country, he 
thought it neceflary to appeafe certain Ca 
ciques, or Indian Petty Kings, who, with 
much Reafon, made grievous Complaints a- 
gainft the Spaniards, on account of their 
Infolency, their Rapine, their Violences andl 
the Murders they committed. The better 
to fucceed in his Defign, he out of hand 
Marry d the Indian that was his Interpre 
ter, to the Sifter of one of the Principal Ca 
ciques in the Country. He fen t -fifty Soldi- 
diers to the Relief of Fort S. Thomas, then 
befieg d by another Cacique, who was Lord 
of the Mountains, from whence the Gold 
\Vas brought- This Cacique had caus d fe 
ral Spaniards to be flaughter ci, for whichf 

F Reafon 

66 The General HISTORY 

Reafoi Columbia was very defirous either to 
take him alive, or elfe to perfwade him to 
come to him. The Cacique dilTembling his 
Defign, pretended to be very willing to grant 
that Interview, thinking that would be an, 
excellent Opportunity to murder Columbus 
and all that were with him. He gathered 
all the Men he had, and fet forward with 
all that Retinue. The Jealoufy conceiv d of 
his wicked Defign, feeing him come attend 
ed by fuch a Multitude of Arm d Men, was 
the Occalioii of laying an Ambufh for him, 
where he was taken, put. into Irons, and 
prefented to the Admiral. There was In 
clination enough to do the fame by all the 
Caciqms and Lords of the Ifland, but it ap- 
pear d that all the Indians were flarving, 
. . c and that above 50000 had already dy d, 
through their own Fault, becaufe they would 
not fow their Lands, or gather in the 
Harveft there was, hoping by that means 
to oblige the Europeans to quit the Country, 
as wanting Subfiftance. They had alfo pull d 
up all the Plants and Roots they us d to 
make Bread of, efpecially about the Mountains, 
where the Gold was found ^ as perceiving that 
was the Principal Occafion of the Chriftians 
coming into the Weft Indies. 

The better to keep them in Subje&ion, 
Columbus caus d a new Fort to be built, 
which he call d the Conception^ feated on a 
Hill abounding in all Things neceflary for 
Humane Life. Thefe Forts made the In* 
dians quite defperate, as fearing they fiiould 
entirely lofe their Liberty* A certain Ca-.- 
cique^ to gain the Favour of Columbus , pre 
fented him with a Grain of Natural Gold 
which was in Shape like a Pea, weighed 


0f Voif AG E $ and TkA VE t s; 67 

twenty Ounces, and was fent to the King 
of Spain. The Infolencies and Rapines of 
the Europeans reduc d the Indians to very 
great Diftrefs, and the Admiral to appeafe 
them caus d all the Caciques in the Country 
to be aflembled, whom he promis d, that for 
the Time to come, he would not allow his 
Men to range about all their Ifland and 
plunder the Indians, under Pretence of feek-^ 
ing for Gold, upon Condition that the In 
dians would pay a certain Tribute at fo much 
a Head to the Spaniards. The Inhabitants 
of the Mountains oblig d themfelves to bring 
nto the SpAniflj Towns a Number of Mea* 
Iires of Gold. Thofe who dwelt in the 
lains undertook t6 furnifh Cotton, a fee 
Quantity of other Commodities and fuchPro- 
vifions as the Country afforded. 

The Cacique, who was Prifoner made i 
lis whole Study by Day and Night to get 
out of that Thraldom. He contriv d to 
lave five thoufand Indians, arm d after their 
Vlanner but naked) come under the Command 
>f one of his Brothers to attack the Spaniards 
with Bows and Arrows, Clubs, and Spears 
pointed at the Ends with iharp Stones, in- 
tead, of Iron. They encamp d about, a 
feow Shot from the Spaniards, divided them-^ 
elves into five Batallions, affigning each of 
:hem the Poft he was to make good, at a Di- 
[tance from one another drawn up in a Semi- 
Circle. He that commanded gave Orders 
:hey fhould all move together upon the 
Signal given, fhouting at the fame Time 
md endeavouring to hem in their Enemies 
>n all Sides, who were but a fmall Number, 
md therefore thinking it better to eocoun- 
:er every Batallioa by it felf, than to ftay 
F a till 

68 The General HISTORY 

till they were all join d, fell upon the great eft 
of them, as they were advancing on the 
Plain. The Horfe gave fuch a furious 
Charge, that the poor naked Indians were 
not able to ftand the Shock, but bting 
broken and worfted they betook themfelves 
to Flight. The others feeing their Com 
panions routed, made away to hide them 
felves, on the higheft Mountains, whence 
they fent Deputies to the Spaniards, pro- 
mififlg to perform whatfoever they fhould 
impofe on them, provided they might . be 
allow d the liberty of living peaceably in 
their Houfes, which was readily granted 
them. The Caciqui$ Brother was taken Pri- 
foner and both of them fent into Spain, for 
the Catholick King to fee them \ but they 
dy d about half Way, for meer Grief and 

! terrible. * a J UNe there happen d the molt furious 
Temped in this Province, that has ever 
been heard of. A violent Storm of Wind 
drove before it a Parcel of thick Clouds, 
covering the Space for five or fix Leagues 
in the Air, and fo entirely darkning the 
Sky that there was no more Light than in 
the blackeft Winter Night j bating that 
there was fuch dreadful -Lightning as 
feem d to threaten a general Conflagration, 
and the Noife of the Thunder was fo hi 
deous that one would have thought all the 
Elements were at Wars with one another- 
Wherefoever the impetuons Blafts rcach d r 
they tore up the largeft Trees and carry d 
them thro the Air with all their Roots. 
The Wind pull d up great Stones on the 
Tops of the Mountains and threw them 
about every Way, which made fuch incre 

of V.o Y A G E s and TRAVELS. 6g 

dible Havock, and fo aftonifhing a Noife, 
that the moft undaunted Courages were 
ready to expire with Amazement at the 
Horrors they heard and faw, In this dif- 
mal Confufion, no Man knew where to 
hide himfelf, that his Life might be in fafety, 
there being nothing to be feen on all Hands 
but amazing Reprefentations of Death, Moft 
of the Houfes were beaten down, by the 
Stones that fell from the Mountains, and 
the reft overthrown by the Wind. Many 
of the Inhabitants were crufh d and bury d 
in the Ruins } fome of the more fortunate 
retir d into Dens, where the Storm had Ie(s 
Power. Three Ships of the Admirals that 
lay at Anchor in the Harbour were fwai- 
low d up with all the Men and whatfoever 
elfe belong d to them. The Hurracane turn d 
them about three Times and then they 
funk downright. That Sea, which never 
Ebbs or Flows, rifes or falls, nor ever fwells 
above its Banks, that are continually cover d 
with Grafs and Flowers, now fwell d fo 
high during the Tempeft, that the Waters 
fpread themfelves every Way over the 
Fields, for above two Leagues. When the 
fury of the Wind which had lafted three 
Hours began to abate, and the Sun to ap 
pear, the Indians came out Ib much amaz d 
and afrighted, that they quak d and ftar d 
like Men befide themfelves, gazing upoij 
one another, without fpeaking one Word 
and being at laft fomewhat recovered out: 
of that Aftonifhment,declar d, that fo mon- 
ftrous a Hurracane had not been known in 
the Memory of Man. They were fully 
perfwaded, that God feeing the Mifchiefs, 
^the Impieties, the Profanations., an4 the 
F 3 

7 o The General HISTORY 

Injuftice>Chriftians were guilty of in that 
Ifland, had fent that Storm to punifh them} 
and that the Earth, the Water and all the 
Elements had confpir d againft them to re 
venge the Indians, whofe Peace they were 
come to difturb, tho they had never done 
them any wrong. 

fw<? Forts Bartholomew Columbus, Brother to the Ad- 
byilt. miral, having found feme Ditches as deep 
as Wells, whence they drew abundance of 
Gold, caus d a fmall Fort to be erefted clofe 
by, and call d it, the Caflle of Gold He 
alfo built another, and gave it the Name 
pf Santo Domingo, or S. Dominick, becaufe he 
came to it on a Sunday. There is an excel 
lent Harbour, at the Foot of the Hill, on 
which that Fortrefs was built, at the Mouth 
pf a very great River, abounding in all forts, 
of Fifh, and its Banks very delightful with 
all forts of Verdure growing on them, and 
Abundance of ftately Trees. Travellers may 
there gather Choice of Fruit, which is a great 

Xaragua The Spaniards advancing about thirty 
Province. Leagues into the Country, difcover d the 
River Naiba, near which one of the famouf- 
eit Caciques in the Ifland liv d. He was at 
tended by a great Multitude of Indians, in- 
teflding to fubdue the other Caciques and 
neighbouring People. This Man s little Do 
minion is call d Xaragua, and is all a moun 
tainous Country, where there is no Gold. 
The Cacique whofe Name was ^nacouckoa^ 
feeing the Europeans, laid down his Arms 
and came to confer with their General, de 
claring he would live friendly with them. 
He ask d what it was they aim d at, and 
being told they would have him to pay Tri 

of V o Y A G E s and TRAVEL 71 

bute to the King of Sfain^ as the other Ca~ 
dopes did. He anfwer d, / thought that you 
Europeans had come into the Indies only to 
look for Gold, And my Country does not produce 
one Grain ; but on the other Hand it abounds in 
Cotton^ which I am willing you flail have Share 
of. Having agreed upon thefe Terms, the 
Cacique conduced the Spaniards to the Place 
where he kept his Court, and gave them the 
beft Entertainment he could. Among other ^ 
things he fhew d them thirty very beautiful ^^,^~ 
young Women, that were his Concubines . Spaniards 
the Maidens were ftark naked, thofe he had 
lain with wore a Clout before thofe Parts 
which ought to be cover d. The Maids 
wore their Hair hanging loofe on their 
Shoulders, and a Cotton Ribbon a- 
bout their Foreheads. Their Complexion 
was a fort of Olive Colour. In their Hands 
they had Branches of Palm Tree, and en me 
out to meet the Governour with great To 
kens of Joy. The Europeans had Meat pro 
vided for them, every one was iodg d accor 
ding to his Quality, and they lay on hang 
ing Beds made of Cotton, which we call 
Hammacks. The next Day they were con 
cluded into a large Hall, where the Indians 
were wont to celebrate their Feftivals j 
there they had Sports of Dancing, after their 

I Manner, but much unlike ours. That done, 
they went out into a great Plain, where 

appear d two Bodies of Men, arm d with 
Darts and Arrows, and drawn up in Battel^ 
by Order of the Cacique. By the Fiercenefs 
of their Looks, a Man would have thought 
they had been mortal Enemies. The Prize 
of the Battel and Vidory was a Wcmaa 
her Children, and tho* that was but in, 
F 4 Jeil 

Tb General HISTORY 

Jeft to divert the Europeans, yet four Men 
were immediately kill d upon the Spot, and 
feveral wounded, and much more Harm would 
have been done, had not the Cacique been de~ 
fir d to caufe the Battle to ceafe. 

C H A P. V. 

e Defer if t ion of the Wife of A Cacique, 
the great Sway {be bad among the In 
dians, and how kindly (be entertained the 


HEN the Admiral Columbus return d 
into Spain to give his Catholick Ma- 
jefty an Account of the Difcoveries he had 
made in the New World, and of the great 
Advantages the People of Europe might find 
therein for the Advancement of Trade, he 
took along with hirn in his Ships the Ca- 
cique Cannoboa^ who was fufpefted to have 
mafTacred many Sftqiards, during the AV 
fence of Co\unww\ but that Cacique dy d at 
Sea before he reach d Spain. His Widow 
vjkQk Name was j&nacaona^ which iignifies, 
Flower of (jold, after hpr Husband s Death, 
return d to live with her Brother the Cacique 
jinacaucljoa, who was very well affected to 
wards tfie Chriftians. This young Widow- 
was reckon d the greateft "Beauty in all the 
Ifland Hiftaniola, and fhe had as much Wit 
as Form and good Carnage. Her excellent 
Qualifications procurd her fo great an Af- 


of V O Y A G E S attd T R A V E L 5." 75 

cendant over the Indians^ that fhe govcrn d 
her Brother s Dominions with abfolute Au 
thority. She perfwaded him always toke-ep 
up a good Underftanding with the Euro- 
yeans, and never to give them any Caufe to 
complain or be diflatisfy d with him, lay 
ing before him her Husband s Misfortunes, 
who had ripn d himfelf by his ill Con- 

This Cacique and his Sifter, being inform dJ^ptfw* 
of the Governour s Arrival, went to meet f the < 7 < J - 
him, with a numerous Train of Men 
Women, Singing and Dancing. Six Indian$ 
carry d the Cacique on their Shoulders. He 
was quite naked, except his Privities which 
.were cover d with a curious Piece of Cotton 
Cloth. His Sifter was carry d in the like 
manner, on the Shoulders of fix Indians^ 
clad in a very fine Cotton Robe, with Gar 
lands of red and white Flowers on her Head, 
and on her Arms. Her engaging Mien, and 
a Sort of Majefty, which appeared in her 
Perfon, made it eafie to difcern, that (he 
was above all the reft. As foon as they fpy d 
the Governour, they order d thofe who car 
ry d, to fet them down, made him pro 
found Obeyfance, and conducted him to a 
Houfe where they had laid up the Tribute, 
yvhich thirty Caciques had ingag d to pay to 
the Spaniards, to fecure their Friend fhip. 
Among the Tribute there were Abundance 
of Loaves, made of Maiz, or Indian Wheat, 
and feveral ftrange Creatures, which are 
found in that Ifland, all Sorts of Fifh rea 
dy Rofted to preferve them fweet-, and a- 
mong the Fifh, feveral great Serpents or 
Snakes, hideous to behold, and with very 
(harp Teeth. The Indians eat them with 


74 The General HISTORY 

an extraordinary Guft, reckning them the 
molt delicate and agreeable Meat in the 
World , but the Chriftians could not be 
prevaiPd upon to touch them, loathing to 
fee the Indians feed fo greedily on thole 
Infeds. Abundance of other Sorts of Difhes 
were ferv d up to them, nothing contemp 
tible, and in great Plenty. The Governour 
fat at a Table by himfelf, near the Cacique 
and his Sifter. The Table was no other than 
a great Cotton Cloth fpread upon the Ground, 
about which Table-Cloth, inftead of Cuihi- 
ons, they had plac d Heaps of very large 
Leaves of Odoriferous Trees. Every Time 
the Servants brought on a frefh Courfe, 
they prefented the Guefts with fome of 
thofe fame Leaves, to wipe their Fingers. 

AnacAona who was as Courteous and Po- 
lite, as could be expeded from her Indian 
"Education, beheld the Governour with a- 
jnorous and languilhing Eyes, and in her O- 
pinion he was the handfomeft Man Ihe had 
yet feen among the Chriftians. Being very 
witty and free, fhe difcours d about leveral 
pleafing and agreeable Subjects and put Que- 
ftions to him, by means of the Interpreter. 
She told him fhe was fully convinced, that 
the European Women far exceeded all others 
in Beauty, fince the Men differ d fo much from 
all others in their Mien and Behaviour, there 
fore flie defir d he would tell her the Rea- 
fons that mov d him to leave fuch charming 
Creatures, to go feek out fuch ugly ones 
among the Indians. When the Snakes, drefs d 
after their manner, were ferv d up, fhe 
prefented him with a Tail of one of them, 
faying, in a molt obliging Manner, that fhe 

ddlr d 

0f V o Y A G E s "and TRAVELS^ 75 

defir d he would eat it for her Sake. The-^*" 1 
Governour, who already ad mir d the Charms Sn ** cs * 
of that Woman, to pleafe her, accepted of 
the Prefent, and put fome of it into hfe 
Mouth, chewing it lightly, much againft his 
Stomach , but when he had once tafted and 
found the Relifh of that Meat, he was fo 
taken with its Delicacy and agreeable Sa 
vour, that for the future he never car d 
to eat any thing but thofe Serpents, call d 
TCvanaf. The other Spaniards obferving what 
the Governour did, fell on as well as he, 
and prov d all of his Opinion, uaanimoufly 
affirming, that the Flefh of thofe Serpents 
or Snakes far exceeded the beft Pheafants and 
Partridges in Europe. But being inform d /J* S 
that the Delicacy of them depended chief 
ly on the Manner of Drefling, the Cover* 
nour would be inform d of the Indians how 
they did it. They told him, that as foon 
as ever thofe Creatures were taken, they 
ripp d them up, to take out their Intrails, 
then wafh d them very clean, took off all 
the Scales as clear as poflible. Then they 
laid the Snakes at their full Length into a 
great Earthen VefTel, made on purpofe, with 
it a little Water, and fome of the Pepper 
that grows in the Ifland. The Serpents thus 
order d are put to the Fire and boii d a long 
Time, to draw from them a Liquor, which 
is very thick and delicious. The Woodus d 
for boiling them is odoriferous and never 
fmokes. The Governour was farther in 
form d that the Eggs of thofe Snakes boil d 
were of an excellent Tafte, and would keep 
a long Jii 


The Genera! HISTORY 

After this Difcoarfe and much to the like 
Purpofe, the Sfaniard-s were conducted to 
the^ Chambers provided for them to take 
their Reft. The Beds were hanging and 
made of Cotton. The fprightly dnacaona had 
caus d Nofegays of Flowers, of all Sorts of 
Colours to be hung about them, which fpread 
a delightful Odour. Then flie withdrew 
herfelf into another Apartment, with feve- 
ral Indian Women, who attended her as 
Slaves. When all the Cotton, Bread, and 
other Things, which the Caciques were to 
pay by way of Tribute were brought to 
gether the Governour order d a Ship from 
Fort Ifabella and fent it to Xaragua. That 
Ship was a great Hoveity among thofe 
Indians. Ankcaona had the Curioiity to fee 
it. In the Way to the Sea Port, (he muft pafs 
thro a frnall Town, where, all herTreafure 

Indian lay, which did not confift in Gold or pre- 
reafure. cious Stones, or other Jewels of Value, but 
in all forts of Veflels and Utenfils for the 
Ufe of Men, as Difhes, Plates, Porrengers, 
all of them made of a curious Cole Black, 
glofly and fhining fort of Wood, on which 
Serpents and Flowers were very artificially 
Painted in their natural Colours. She gave 
the Governour fixty of thofe Veflels, and 
fourteen Walking-Sticks of the fame Wood, 
painted like the other Things. All thefe 
were wrought in the Ifland of Guanaba^ with 
Stones found in the River, which are very 
fharp. She alfo gave him four Parcels of 
- very fine fpun Cotton, of all forts of Co 
lours, to make Cloth of. 

Indians ^e Cacic l ue caus d two painted Canoe* 
to be brought to the Shore, the one for 
bimfelf and his Retiaue > the other for his 


pf V o Y ACES And TRAVELS. 77 

Siller and the Women belonging to her ; 
but flie would needs go alone in the Gover- 
nour s Boat, aboard the Ship, and left her 
Women in the Canoe. Before they came 
to the Ship, upon a Signal made by the 
Governour, all the Cannon was fir d. The 
Noife of the great and fmall Shot, which 
was redoubled by the Eccho from all the 
Adjacent Hollows of the Rocks and Moun 
tains, the Fire and the Smoke, which darkned 
the Air, altogether terrify d Anacaona and 
her Retinue, in fo much that ihe fwooned 
away in the Governour s Arms. The other 
Indians were no lefs fcar d and thought the 
whole Frame of the World had been dif- 
folv d. The Governour encourag d them, 
and as foon as that ISIoife was over, ano 
ther much more agreeable was heard of Fifes, 
Trumpets, and Drums y which was very plea- 
fing to the Indians, The Governour handed 
Anacaona up into the Ship, condufted her 
thro all the Decks and Cabbins, and Ihow d 
her all that was remarkable in it. The 
Cacique went aboard too, with his Indians 7 
who thought they could never fufficiently view 
and admire fo many Things they had ne 
ver feen the like of before. The Anchors 
were weigh d and all the Sails, Colours and 
Streamers, let go in the Air. Jhat unufual 
Spe&acle fi lld them again with Amazement, 
obferving that fuch a vaft Body mov d of 
k felf, and without the Help of Men. The 
Governour having prefented the Cacique and 
his Sifter difmis d them. Anacaona fhow d, 
much Concern to depart, and conjur d the 
Governour to Itay a few Days longer with 
them, or elfe to take her along with him \ 
but he, to comfort her, promised to return 
very fpeetfily. the 

7 8 The General HISTORY 

vitttnics The Admiral, at his Departure for 
rommm^ j eft one Ro (^ a ^ w h o had been his Servant, 
m in Fort JfabeUa. this Man grown infolent 
with his good Fortune, fell to ranging about 
the Ifland, robbing all Places where he came 
taking away the Gold, the Provilions and 
whatsoever elfe he found in the Houfes of 
the Indians, by Force, uflng all manner of 
Violence towards the Women and young 
Maids, and doing all the Mifchief that ever 
he could think of. The Cacique Guarionefe, 
who was naturally well affeded towards the 
Europeans, no longer able to endure the Vil- 
lanies and Opprefllons of that bafe Man and 
his Followers, fled, with all his Subjedts into 
the Mountains, the Inhabitants whereof are 
call d Cignages and thought to be defcended 
from the Canibals, becaufe they devour all 
the Prifoners they take in War. Guarionefe 
reprefented to them and their Cacique all 
the ill Ufage he had receiv d from the 
Spaniards, whom he was never able to make 
more traftable by his Submifllon and Prefents, 
tho he us d all Means to oblige them, that 
they might fuffer him and his People to 
live in Peace and Tranquility. Mayabonefe 
the Cacique of the Ciguages, receiv d his new 
Guefts, the Fugitives, with all poflible Cour- 
tefy and Kindnefs, promifing them all the 
Afliftance he was able, againfl their Perfe- 
cutors and the common Enemy* 
Ks info- Tta Governour was much furpris d to find 
J Things in this Condition at his Return, and 
the Minds of the Indians fo much alienated 
from the Chriftians. He feverely check d 
Roldtn, who had been the Caufe of all thofc 
Diforders, and committed fuch tnfolencies, 
Robberies and Barbarities throughout that 


of V o Y A & E s *nd TRAVELS. 79 

Part of the Ifland, that the Natives, who 
were naturally meek and fubmiffive, were 
not able to endure him. Roldarij inftead of 
owning his Fault and the Bafenefs of his 
Behaviour, anfwer d the Governour in a 
haughty brutal Manner, That he was very well 
informed) the Admiral his Brother was dead $ 
that his Catholick Majefly made not the leaft 
Account of the Difcoveries in that new World ; 
that the Spaniards there were flawing for Hun~ 
ger, which obliged them to feek out for Subfi* 
flance in all Places^ where any w^ts to be found ^ 
and that in Jkortj they were refoltfd for the 
future to live Free and obey no Man* Thefe 
audacious Expreffions highly provok d the 
Governour, who would have put him to 
Death for prefuming to talk to him in that 
infolent Manner j but Roldan fled, with Ijxty 
Men, to the fartheft Part of the Province 
of Xaragua^ where he robb d all Places where- 
foever he came, carrying away by Force all 
he found that was for his Turn, ravifhing 
all the Women, and murdering fuch as 
would not confent to his brutal Lull, with 
out any Remorfe, or thought of Chriftianity, 
as believing there was none in the Ifland 
that could call him to Account for all his 



The General HISTORY 


Of the Difcovery of a Urge Country, in 
habited, by a very peaceable and cour 
teous People, and abounding in Gold 
And Pearls* 

"T XfHilft Things were in this Poftiire in 
Vy the Ifland Hifyaniola, his Catholick 
Majefty order d ten Ships to be fitted out 
for Admiral Columbus, to carry Provifions in 
to the new World. Two of thefe Ships 
fent before the reft, arriv d at the fartheft 
Part of the Province of Xaragua, whither 
Roldan above mention d, and the reft of the 
Rebels were withdrawn, who perfwaded 
thofe who came in them, not to own the 
Governour s Authority, promifing that in- 
ftead of the Troubles and Hardfhips they 
were like to endure, under his Command, 
by joyning with them, they fhould enjoy all: 
forts of Pleafure, and enrich themfelves with 
the Plunder of the Indians. Thefe fpecious 
Promifes debauch d them, and they agreed 
to divide the Provifions they brought from 
Ewoye among them, and to acknowledge 
Roldanhr their Commander and Chief. Tho 
they were fatisfy d that it could not be long 
before the Admiral muft arrive with his 
SquadroH ? yet they forbore not to commit 
Abundance of Outrages and Inhumanities 
throughout the Ifland, as far as they could 
reach, without any Reraorfc or Apprehen- 


0fVoYAGES and TRAVELS. 8;i 

s On the other Hand, the Cacique Guari- 
noefe, feconded by Mayabonefe and his Forces 
every now and then came down like a 
Torrent upon the Spaniards, and the Indians, 
their Confederates, killing and deftroying 
all that fell into their Hands. At the fame 
Time that .thefe Troubles diftrafted the 
new World, the Admiral fet fail from 
S. Lucar on the eight and twentieth of May^ 
in the Year 1498, fteering his Cour/e to 
the Southward, defigningto .come under the 
Equinoftial Line, and to examine into the 
Nature of the Countries about it. He came, 
to the Hefperides, which the Portvguefes call 
the Iflands of Cabo Verde, being thirteen in. 
Number, and about two Days Sail from the 
Continent, except only one of them, in 
which there , are fome Inhabitants -, bat 
he made no Stay there, having obferv d 
that the Air of that Place is very un- 
wholefome. They fail d for the Space of 
two hundred and forty Leagues in fo great 
a. Galnv and ,fuch a prodigious Heat, being *"/*# 
jut five Degrees from the Equinodial, that // dUa 
they thought the very Ships were in Danger 
of being fir d, and the Hoops flew off. from* 
the Casks as if they had. been pardi d at 
the Fire. The Wine and Water were both 
fpoilt, and the .Men fainted away under that 
intolerable Fiery Air. .Eight .Days they 
cpntinu d in that diftrefs d. miferable Con 
dition, and fancy d that tjieir Ships conti- 
n^ally went up Hill, .as if it had been a rifing. 
Sea, and they always afcending towards 
Heaven., When tbe .Calm had .lafted eight 
Days, the Wind (prang up fre(h,.and bcinf.. 
right^ a Stern, the next Day they found 
tnemfelves in a very temperate Air, and at. 

& Night 

The General HISTORY 

Night the Pofition of the Stars was altered. 
The third Day they difcry d three very 
liigh Mountains, which much rejoyc d them, 
for they had been almoft burnt up with the 
Heat and began to want Water. They eafily 
perceiv d that the Country was inhabited, 
becaufe from the Ships they could fee fe- 
vcral fine Gardens and Meddows cover d 
with Flowers, the fragrant Scent whereof 
reach d even to them. 

. nf hey found a very convenient Harbour, 
every way fit to receive their Ships, and 
not far from them they fpy d a Canoe, ia 
which there were twenty young Men, 
well enough fhap d and handfome, arm d 
with Bows and Arrows, but naked like all 
the other Indians^ except their Privities, 
which they cover d With Cotton Cloath, and 
wore on their Heads a fort of peeked high 
crown d Hat, or Cap. The Admiral that 
they might not be frighted, fhew d them 
little Looking-Glafles, Whittles, and other 
European Toys, which the Indians are natu 
rally apt to admire ^ however thofe Men 
fearing thefe were all Contrivances to fur- 
prife and enfnare them, kept a k>of off, al 
ways upon their Guard, without daring to 
come within Reach. Then he ordered his 
Fifes to play and drums to beat, thinking to 
allure them by the Sound, which they looking 
upon as a Signal for Battel, bent their Bows 
and put themfelves into a Pofture to let fly 
their Arrows. At laft fufpefting they 
might be fome way drawn into Danger, 
they ply d their Oars, and made away be 
fore any thing could- be learnt of them, as 
was defir d. 


of V O Y A G E S and T R A V E L S. 8 J 

About this Place they obfefv d there was a A -viole 
very ftrong Current of the Water fettiog from CMrr<? * f 
Eaft to Weft, running with fuch a violent 
Stream, as if it had been a Torrent coming 
down from the Mountains. The Admiral 
as undaunted as he was, declar d that in his 
whole Life, he had never been fo much afraid. 
Next to this Current they came to a Streight 
or PafTage, eight Miles over, which they 
call d Boca del Draco^ that is, the Dragon s 
Mouth, with an Ifland clofe by it, to which 
they gave the Name of Alargarita. That 
firft Current of fait Water was drove back 
again by another, impetuous Stream of frdli 
Water, coming down from the Oppoiite 
Land, with the ftme Swiftnefs and Rapi- 
dlty, forcing it felf forward into the Sea - 7 
but it was kept back by the fait Water 
Current, fo that both thofe furious Torvents 
fcncountring one another, rais d Mountains 
of Foam for a great Diftance about them, 
and made a moft dreadful Noife. 

The Europeans being got within that Bay coifl of 
or Gulph, at length found fvveet Water, Pana. 
and very good to Drink, after failing fifty 
Leagues, and the more they advanc d 
Weftward the pleafanter it was. They faw 
Lands cultivated every where, without dif- 
eovering any Inhabitants or Houfes. At 
Length, coming to a large Plain, they lan 
ded forne Men to get laformation. The 
Indians feeing fuch ftrange People, ran down 
to the Shore in Crowds, without the leaft 
Sign of Fear, treated them Friendly 
#ent Aboard the Ships, fignified to them 
that the Country was call d Paria, and that 
the farther they proceeded to the Weftward 
they would ftill find it well Peopled, the 
G a Air 

$4 The General HIS TORY 

Air being ftill more temperate and pleafent* 
This Account made the Spaniards conclude, 
that the Difcovery they had made was ve 
ry confiderable. The Cacique^ or Petty King 
of the Country came down to the Harbour, 
with feveral Canoes full of Indians, who 
bad all of them Gold Collars about their 
Kecks and Bracelets on their Arms, with 
precious Pearls hanging at their Ears, which 
were found on the Banks of the adjacent 
Sea. The Indians did not much value that 
Wealth, and gave the Spaniards to under- 
ftand, that if they would ftay fome Time 
with therm they would fill large Veffels 
with the like and give them. 


The Catholick Kjng fends A new Governour 
into the Weft Indies, with Orders to 
fecure the Admiral and his Brother^ 
and fend tlnm Pr if oners into Spain. 

- np H E Spaniards going aihore, were re- 
mtmMe 1 ceiv d by the Indians with extraordi- 
s. nary Demonftrations of Affedion. They came 
running from all Parts to fee them, as if 
they had been fomething- more than Men. 
Two of them, who feem d to be the prin 
cipal Perfons of that Nation, the one of 
a great Age, and the other Younger,; af 
ter faluting them with the greateft Civili 
ty^ conducted them into a Hut or Cottage, 



which was exadly round, "and before it a 
large open Place or Square. They were 
feated on Stools very artificially made, of 
a black fliining Sort of Wood, and then 
treated with Meat and feveral Fruits, un 
known to the Europe ^ns, as alfo white and 
red Wines, not made of Grapes, but of 
fundry Sorts of Fruits, of a delicious Tafte. 
When they had eaten and drank, the young 
Man took the Spaniards by the Hand and 
led them into a Chamber, where there were 
feveral Men and Women Handing apart 
from one another, as white as Alabafter, ex 
cept thofe who were often expos d to the Sun. 
It appear d by theirBehaviour and theMotions 
they made, that they had a great Efteern 
for the Strangers. There was never a Man 
or Woman among all that Company, but what 
was adorn d with feveral Strings of large 
Pearls and Gold Chains. The Europeans 
asking them where they got the Gold they 
wore j they fignify d to them by Signs, that 
they found it upon certain Mountains, which 
they pointed at with their Fingers j but 
that there was Danger in going thither, be- 
caufe feveral Indians had been devour d } 
though they could never perfedly conceive 
whether it were by wild Beafts, or by 

The Spaniards having ftaid Alhore 
Koon, returned to their Ships, with feveral** Hifpa 
Strings of Pearls, which the Indians had gi- mola * 
Ven them. Then the Admiral fet Sail, be- 
caufe the Provifions he was carrying to 
Hifpaniola, began to fpoil. They had found 
in a great River, near the Equinoctial A- 
bundance of Weeds, which entangled and 
hindred the W,ay of their Ships. At length 
G 3 after 


after many Fatigues, they arriv d at 
tf/W/i, on the 28th of August 1498, where 
they found all Things in Diforder and Con- 
fufion^ for that Roland^ who had been the 
Admiral s Officer, had revolted againft his 
Brother, and drawn feveral Spaniards into 
Rebellion, as was faid in the lad Chapter. 
Be fides he had fent Letters into Spain^ re- 
flefting heinoufly on the Admiral and his 
Brother, urging, that they were wicked Men, 
who had been guilty of all Sorts of Inju- 
ftice, lnfole,nces and Outrage^ in the liland 
ftifpwitl* , that they hang d up Men for 
the moil trivial Matters , and that their 
unreafonable Jealoufy and unbounded Ambi 
tion "being altogether intolerable, many Spa* 
niards had been oblig d to depart from them, 
as Enemies to their Catholick Majefties, and 
only afpiring to ufurp their Royal Authority 
in that New World. 

&isVivdi- ^ n l ^ e otner Side, the Admiral omitted 
nothing that might make the Catholick King 
fenfil^le of the Bafenefs of his Accufers. He 
declar d they had murder d Abundance of 
Women, after abuilng them } that they rang d 
about the Ifland of Hifpaniola plundering all, 
wherefoever they came -, and that fearing to 
be punifh d, as they defervM, at his Return, 
they were broke out into open Rebellion* In 
the mean while the Admiral fent an hun 
dred Men to guard his Brother, wherefo 
ever he went ^ and, at the fame Time, fent 
him fome Horfe, with Orders to fall upon 
the Cacique Guarioxefe^ who had under his 
Command fix Thoufand Men, arm d with 
Bows and Arrows, but ftark naked, and all 

Wtud. their Bodies painted of feveral Colours from 
the Head to the Feet. They polled them- 


of V O Y A G E S And T R A V E L S> $J 

felves on the Bank of a River, where the Go- 
vernour attacked them feveral Times, having 
pafs d over his Cavalry at another Place., 
which came upon the Indians unexpected, 
who all fled up the Mountains to the Ca 
cique Mayabonefe, of whom they in vain de 
manded Succours, for he was afraid left the 
Governour fhould fall upon him. 

Accordingly he purfu d thofe that fled, ? & Ca< 
clofe at the Heels, and underflanding that^ uc 
they were withdrawn into the Woods, he"" 
continu d the Chace to take the Caciques a- 
live, if poflible, tho that feem d to be a 
very difficult Undertaking. The Chriftians 
hard prefs d by Hunger, and ranging about 
the Woods to kill Fowl to eat, happened 
to light upon two Servants belonging to Maya- 
bone fa who ihow d them the Place, where 
he lay hid. The Governour caus d two. of 
his Men to paint thetnfelves from the Head 
to the Feet, after th6 Manner of the In 
dians. The Cacique deceiv d by the Likenefs 
feeing them afar off, came out to meet 
them, and they feiz d him without any 
Trouble. The Cacique Guarionefe was taken 
after the fame manner, with all his Fami 
ly, and the People feeing their Caciques fallen 
into the Hands of the Spaniard* fubmitted 
themfelves to their Will. 

The Admiral and his Brother us d all their . 
Endeavours to. extend the Dominions or 
the Catholick King, in the new World ; 
but the Petty Kings and the People of the 
Ifland Uifpaniola, joyn d with the Rebels lo 
deftroy them, and fent complaints to Court 
againft them. On the other Hand, all the 
Great men, allur d by the Hope of enriching 
themfelves in thofe new found Parts, < 

G 4 tenckd 

The General HISTORY 

tended for the Government of them, with 
all poffible Eagernefs. Accordingly they 
induftrioufly fpread abroad a Report, thai: 
the Admiral and his Brother defign d to 
fecure to themfelves the Dominion of the 
new World and in Order to it obftruckd 
the Spaniards coming to the Knowledge of 
the Gold Mines ^ that they -had put them 
into the Cuftody of their own Creatures ; 
that they fent but a very inconfiderable 
Quantity of that Metal into Spain, and referv d 
the Reft for themfelves ; and that the better 
to bririg ai out their Defign, they had already 
put to death feveral Spaniards under divers 
Pretences. Thefe Rumours fpread abroad 
at Court, made fuch Impreflionon the Mind 
of the Catholick King, that he began to 
complain that fo little Gold was fent him 
from Hlfpanicla^ which in Reality was only 
: occafion ? d by the Mifunderflanding between 
the Spaniards themfelves in the new World. 
it was therefore refolv d at Court, to fend 
thither a new Governour, to examine all 
Matters upon the Spot and diftinguifh be- 
*em ;>:_ tween the Innocent and the Guilty. He 
joxcr ?/ . r^ rvi y d in the Ifland of Hifpaniola, with a 
Spain. . considerable lumber of Men, before any Bo* 
dy had the News of their coming* The Ad 
miral and his Brother being inform d of it, 
came to meet him with Countenances ex- 
prefllng how much they were pleas d to fee 
him there ^ ;but they were both immedi- 
atly feiz d, as was every Thing that belonged 
to them. They were put into Irons by the 
new Governours Order and fent away in 
that manner to Court. This AcHon was a 
fufficieac Demonflration of the Inftability of 
worldly Affairs, . Thofe two Men fo highly 
; KH :i : fayour d 


: . - 

favoured and honour d by the Catholick King, 
who, by their Induftry had acquir d him fuch 
mighty Dominions, and who had undergone 
fuch extraordinary Fatigues, for the making 
of thofe new Discoveries, which feem d im- 
prafticable to the moft knowing Men, were 
now in a Moment reduc d to the mod mi- 
ferable Condition that could be imagined. 
The Catholick King being inform d that 
they were come to Ca di^ with Irons on 
their Hands and Feet, could not but be, 
touch d with Companion, and fent feveral 
Perfons to meet them, with Orders that they 
ftiould be fet at perfect Liberty, decently is fit ** 
clad, as became them, and conduced to Court. 
They gave the King an Account of all that 
had happen d in India, fo that the Truth 
being made out, drift Orders were fent for 
puniihing the Offenders feverely. 


Alphonfo Nino departs from Spain, to 
discover New Countries , where Gold is 

AFTER the Arrival of Columbt* and Coaft of 
his Brother in S/W0, feveral of theCuriana. 
Pilots or Mailers of Veflels, who had been 
afiifting to, or ferv d under him in his Dif- 
coveries, refoiv d to launch out into the O- 
cean, in fearch of other new Countries ; and 
promifing the KiBg the Fifth of all the Wealth 


The General HISTORY 

they fliould happen to acquire, obtained his 
Letters Patent to authorize their Undertak 
ings. They accordingly fitted out feveral 
Ships, at their own Expence, and fteer d 
fiindry Courfes, but with pofitive Orders, not 
to come within fifty Leagues of the Coun 
tries difcover d by the Admiral, Among 
thefe jilphonfo Nino fail d away to the South 
ward, and leaving on the Right-^Hand the 
Provinces of Cumana and JManacafoua^ ar- 
riv d in a Country, which the Natives call d 
Curiana^ where he found a Port, as commo 
dious as that of Cadi^ and a little Village 
of only eight Cottages, in which there were 
about fifty naked Men, belonging to ano 
ther very populous Town, which was about 
three Miles off. The Inhabitants of the Town 
with their Cacique at the Head of them, 
came to fee the Eurofeans^ who gave them 
Whittles, Ribbons, little Knives, Looking- 
Glafles, Strings of Glais Beads, and other 
fmall Toys of that Nature , for which the 
Indians return d them large Pearls they wore 
about their Necks and Arms. The next Day 
Alyhonfo, after much Intreating, went to 
their Town, but was daunted at the vaft 
Multitude of People he faw there, as ha 
ving but thirty Men with him. He gave 
them to underftand by Signs, that if they 
had a Mind to buy any European Commo 
dities, they might come Aboard his Ship 
in their Canoes, to which they confented and 
tarry d a great Quantity of Pearls, where 
of they gave an hundred Pounds weight for 
Trifles of no Value, 

" Althonfo Nino perciev d that thefe People 
* * t . ~ * j i r 

onofths were gentle, limple, peaceable and lovers at 
county. Strangers, and therefore refolv d to go to 

v their 


their Towns, where they receiv d him very 
lovingly. Their Huts are made of Wood, 
cover d with Palm-Tree Leaves , and their 
chief Diet was Oyfters, whereof there is 
immenfe Plenty on their Coaft, and from 
them they take the Pearls. They- alfo feed 
on wild Beafts, which they kill in the 
Woods, as Staggs, wild Boars, and Hares } 
as alfo Pigeons and Turtle-Doves. Their 
Woods are full of Peacocks, but they have 
not fuch beautiful Tails as ours in Europe, 
for the Male there differs very little from 
the Hen. There are alfo vaft Numbers of 
Pheafants in thofe Woods. Thefe Indians are 
very expert at fhooting with their Bows and 
never mifs the Mark they aim at. All the 
while the Spaniards continu d among them, 
they fed Daintily and very cheap ^ for they 
gave but four Pins for a Peacock, and two 
for a Pheafant j but they traded as the Wo 
men do in Europe when they buy any Com 
modity. They enquir d by Signs, what ufe 
they could make of Pins, being all naked j 
and were anfwer d in the fame Manner, that 
they might have Occafion for them to pick 
their Teeth, and to draw Thorns out of 
their Feet. From that Time forward, they 
began to put a great Value upon them , 
but they efteem Whittles above all other 
Things, and would give any Thing they 
had, tho of never fo much Value for 

There was a moft Fragrant Scent all 
about near the Villages, coming from a 
Sort of large Trees, there was, tn the 
neighbouring Woods, and in the Night there 
was dreadful roaring of wild Beafls heard ^ 
but they do no manner of Harm, for the 


9* The General HISTORY 

Indians go about ftark naked, in all fafety, 
toith no other Weapons but t(ieir Bows and 
Arrows. They kill d as many Deer and 
iJvild Boars as the Europeans demanded of 
them , but have neither Kine, Goats, nor 
Sheep. Their Bread is made of Mal^ that 
is Indian Wheat, and of Roots, like that 
In the Ifland Hifjaniola. They are continu 
ally chewing of a certain Herb, to make 
their Teeth white, and when they fpit it 
out, they wafh their Mouths. The Women 
look to the Tillage and Houfhold Affairs j 
the Men go a hunting and to the Wars, 
and have the Charge of all Sports, Fefti- 
vals and Diverfions. They have Pots, Urns, 
and other Veflels made of Earthen Ware ? 
of feveral Colours, which they buy of their 
Neighbours - 7 for the Indians of feveral Pro 
vinces meet at Fairs and Markets, to which 
they all carry their Commodities, jto exchange 
them for fuch Goods as they want at home, 
being utter Strangers to the Ufe of Mo 
ney. They are very covetous and earneft 
for any Curiofities that are not to be found 
in their own Countries. About their Necks 
they wear Strings- of Pearls j as alfo little 
Birds and other fmall Animals very artifi- 
citlly made in Gold. 

Women. ^ e Women fcarce go out of their Houfes \ 
but whenfoever they appear in publick, they 
wear a Peice of Cotton Cloth over thofe 
Parts, which Modefty requires mould be Con~ 
ceaPd ^ but are all naked in their Houfes. 
The Men are naturally Jealous of their 
Wives, and therefore kept them up, with 
out allowing them to go aboard the Ships, 
tho they were very defirons to fee the Ra 
rities of Europe. 


of- V O Y A G E S dnd T R A V 3E L si 

The Spaniards advancing farther, found a 
very delightful Country, watcr d by plea- * * 
lant Rivers, and diverfify d with curious^ 
Gardens and well cultivated Fields , but the 
People of it were very favage, and would 
entertain noCommerce with Str anger s.y4//>fow/i 
Nino well fatisfy d with the Gold and Pearls 
he had got together, refolv d to return home 
the fame Way he came. 

Running along the Coaft of the Province 
of Pearls call d Curiana^ and failing up W 
the Boca dd Drago^ or Dragons Mouth, fcc- 
fore mention d, he met with twenty Canoes 
full of Canibals^ who were hunting about for 
Men to devour. They attack d the Ship with 
fuch Fury, as was more like Madnefs, and on all Sides, began to ply their 
Bows and Arrows } but were quite aflonifh d 
when they heard the Canon the Spaniards 
fir d, and immediatly betook themfelves t6 
flight, without expecting to fee what would 
follow. Oiir Men purfu d them with their 
Boat, and took a Canoe tbat was full of 
thofe Canibals^ many of whom .caft them- 
felves into the Water and fwam afhore. 
Only one was left in the Canoe ^ who guard 
ed three Men that were fait bound, in Or 
der to be eaten, when they fhould have 
Occafion. The Prifoners were let lofe and 
the Canibal deliver d up to them, bougid 
Hands and Feet, with full Power to do 
by him what they thought fit, to revenge 
themfelves. They kick d and beat him fo 
long with their Fifts and Cudgels, that 
they left him for Dead, fo much were they 
incens d for the Lofs of their Companions, 
whom the Canibak had devour d and kept 
them to be put to the fame Ufe the next 


94 The General H I S T R tf 

Thefe Prifoners inform d the Spaniard) 
that the Canibals infefted the whole Ifland 
to rob and murder all they met. That in 
theNight-time they palifado themfelves about, 
for their greater Security, and makeExcur- 
jions from thence, fpreading abroad on all 
Sides to plunder. In the Province of Curi- 
ana they faw, the Head of one of the prin 
cipal Capitals, made fall to a Door, in To 
ken of a Vi&ory obtained over them. 
Sdtmadt. In the Province of Haraia there was found 
a great Quantity of Salt, which is made af 
ter this Manner. When the Wind blows 
violently from the Sea, the Sea Water is 
let into a large Plain, and when the Wind 
falls, the Sun changes that Water into a ve 
ry white Salt, and in fuch Abundance, that 
many Ships might be loaded with it , but 
if it happens to rain, that Salt prefently turns 
again into Water. The Neighbouring Na 
tions come thfther to exchange other Com- 
modifies for that Salt. When any Man of 
/>re-Note dies,, they lay the Body on a large 
Gridiron, to draw out all the Moifture of the 
Flefh with a gentle Fire, fo that fcarce any 
thing remains but the Skin and Bones, which 
they preferve out of Refpedl: to him. 

On the igth of Februa-iy^ jflpbonfo Nino re- 
turn d towards Spain with fourfcore and fixteen. 
Pounds Weight of Pearls, which he had in 
Exchange for things of a very inconfiderable 
Value, and arriv d flxty Days after in the 
the Kingdom of Galicia. He was accus d of 
concealing the nioft Part of the Treafure that 
belonged to the King} for which Reafon 
Ferdinand cle foga, Govefnour of Galicia had 
Orders to fecnre him ; but he clear d him- 
felf and was difcharg d. 

C H A P, 

and T R A v E i s 9 j 


The Voyages of Pinzon and Arias, his 
N*phew, who faiPd towards the Anttr- 
tick Pole, where they faw very ftrange 

MUCH about the fame Time Pin- 
z.on and Arias, his Nephew, who had 
been both with Chri&opher Columbus in his firft 
Voyage, fitted out four Ships at their own 
proper Colt and Charges, and fail d from 
the Port of Pttlos de Moguer, in Andalusia, 
on the 1 8th of November, in the Year 1499, * *^ 
upon the Defign of difcovering new Lands. **.wid tte 
They arriv d in a few Days at the ftwjit 
rift, and thence at the Iflands of Cabo Krde. 
Then haying fail d three hundred Leagues 
farther they loft the North Pole, and were 
on a fuddain afTaulted by moft furious Storms 
and raging Winds, and almoft in inevitable 
Danger of Perifhing. But holding on the 
fame Courfe, they at length difcover d the 
South Pole. The Stars appear d to them 
far different from thofe of our Hemifphere i 
but a very thick Fog hindred their making 
any exaft Obfervation of them, yet after 
wards the Fog clearing up thofe Stars feem d 
to be extraordinary bright, and bigger than 
ours. On the 2oth of January they difco 
ver d the Land at a Diftance, and calling 
the Lead, found fixteen Fadom Water. They 
made up to the Shore and run along it 
two Days, without meeting any Man, the/ 
they faw the Prints of Mens Feet. They 


The General H I S T O R t 

cut their own and the Catholick King s Name 
A fterce on t h e Barks of the Trees. In the Night they 
faw f everal Lights, and an Aflembly of abun-. 
dance of Men, which they fappos d to be 
an. Army drawn into the Field.. The Com-* 
friander fent twenty Men well arm d to take 
a View of them, with Orders, not to make 
any Noife. Thefe faw a vaft Multitude of 
Men, but thought not fit to go up to them, 
for fear they Ihould be fcar d away, chofing 
rather to wait till the next Day. As foon. 
as th Sun appear d forty Men were fent 
out .towards them, and the Indians feeing 
them, detatch d thirty of their Number to 
meet t he m ? arm d with their BowV and Ar-. 
rows. Thefe thirty were.follow d by a great 
er Number of Men, of a, larger Size than 
ordinary, with fierce Afpedls, and threatning 
all the Way they went. The Spaniards made 
all manner of Geftures to pacify and per- 
fwade them that they Were their Friends , 
but the Indians favagely haughty, would ne-, 
ver fufFer them to come near , fo that the 
Spaniards were forc d to go back to their 
Ships, without being able to prevail, with 
a full Reiblution to attack and try their 
Courage the next Day j but as foon as it 
was Night, the Indians retir d. The Spani 
ards concluded that this was a wandering 
Nation, like the Tartars^ who have no fet- 
led Place of Abode, but encamp, one Day 
in one Place, and the next in another, with 
their Wives and Children, living ujton what 
they can get by Hunting. 

worfl It was agreed to follow them by the Track, 
the spa- anc i feeing the Prints of their Feet on the. 
Sand, they meafiir d them, and found they^ 
were twice a- big as the Feet of other or-. 



dinary Men. The Spaniards found a River 
which had not Water enough to bear the 
Ships, and therefore they put feveral arm d 
Men irito four Boats, to difcover higher a- 
long it Thefe lav^ a great Nurtiber df Men 
on a little Hill, at a fmall Diftance from 
the Bank of the River, who by the Signs 
they made, feem d to exprefs a great Defire 
of converting with them. The Spaniards durft 
not trufl them, and therefore put only one 
Man Afhore, who threw them a Whittle, 
and they in Return, threw a large Piece of 
Gold, but the Spaniard going to take it up> 
found himfelf on a Sudden befet by a Mul 
titude of Indians he defended himfelf 
with his Sword, and gained Time, till thofe 
in the Boat could come to his Affiftance,; 
The Engagement was (harp, eight Spaniards 
remain d dead npon the Spot, and the reft 
liad enough to do to retire and get back 
into their Boats. Their Spears and Swords 
could not defend them agamft the Strokes of 
the Indian^ of whom never thelefs a con- 
[IderaJ)le Number was kill d. All that 
Slaughter made them not to darken the leaft^ 
6r abate any thing of their Courage, but 
they purfu d the Spaniards down to their very 
Boats, took one of them and kill d the Pilot. 
The reft of the Men had enough to do to 
fave themfelves in the other three Boats, 
TintJn difcourag d by this Misfortune, 
thought fit to leave that Coaft. 

.Having faiFd forty Leagues farther, they 
tame into a Sea of frcfh Water, which fwell d 

the Acceffion of feveral great Rivers 
that fell from the Mountains with wonder 
ful Force and impetuoufnefs. AttheMoutlt 
US this Gulph there were feveral Iflands 
H inha- 

$8 The General HISTORY 

inhabited by courteous and peaceable Peo 
ple, bgt who had no Commodities to Trade 
Maria- w ith. This Province is call d frfariatambal. 
%*L After fome Days failing towards the North, 
they perceiv d the Polar Star, which appear d 
almofl upon the Horrizon. In the aforefaid 
IQands they faw Trees of fuch a prodigious 
Bigirefs, that fix Men could fcarce fadom 
them } and a monftrous Sort of Creatures, 
who had the Body and the Head of a Fox* 
the hind Feet and Quarters like a Cat, and the 
Fore-feet like a Man s Hand. One oi; them 
was taken with its Young and carry d to the 
King of Spain, they were exposed to be feen 
by all Perfons, but the Change of the Air 
made them live a very fhort Time. When 
they had faiPd above fix hundred Leagues a- 
long the Coaft of Par-la, they had a moft dread- 
" L ful Storm, in July, in which two of the Ships 
foundred, the third was beaten to Pieces, and 
the fourth weathered the Storm with much 
Difficulty, the whole Ship s Crew being fpent 
and quite in Defpair ^ but being juft at the 
Point of Death thep got Alhore , where they 
were in no more fafety than before, fearing to be 
deftroy d by the Inhabitants. Some Days after 
the Weather grew calm, they went Aboard 
their Ship a gain, directed their Courfe for 
Spain, and arrived on the lad Day of Septem 
ber at Pahs de Aiogner, not far from SeviL 
Since that Time many have fail d to the Pro 
vince of Paria, whence abundance of Gold and 
Pearls and of excellent Cajfla have been brought 
to Europe -, 

C H A P J 

of V o y A G E-S a#d TRAVEL s. 99 


Admirdl Columbus returns into the New 
World, by the Catholick KJngs Order ; 
where he- discovers feveral Countries^ 

abounding in all Things necejjary for the 
Support of Humane Life; . rjojlj 

Clumbm having fpent two Years in Spain,A 
Rtted out four Ships by the Catholick%- 
-King s Order, and ,on the Ninth of May^ 
in the Year 1^02 fail d from Spain, , with 
his Brother and two hundred and feventy 
Men. Heiarriv d in nineteen Days at the 
Iflands of the Canibals^ a-nd in feven more 
at that of Hifyaniola -, fo that, according to 
j^is Computation he ran twelve hundred 
Leagues in fix and twenty Days. He de 
parted thence, in a few Days, and leaving 
Jamaica and Cuba on his Right-hand, came 
to an Ifland calFd Guanajfa. Coafting alongGuanaiTs 
the Shore of it,, they difcover d two very/yk<f* 
large Canoes, tovv d by Indians with Cotton 
Ropes. The Cacique or Lord of the Coun 
try, wrth his Wife and Children, all naked* 
Were in thofe Canoes. Thofe who tow d 
them, made Signs to the Spaniards, in a 
very haughty and fierce manner, to get out 
of the Way for them to pafs, believing they 
otig ht to have the fame Refpect for their 

1 06 The General HISTORY 

Matter, that they bore him themfelves. Some 
Men were put Afliore, who took the two 
Canoes and all that were in them. The 
Spaniards were given to underftand by means 
of an Interpreter, that the owner of the 
Canoes was a rich Merchant, who came 
from trading with the Neighbouring Na 
tions, whence he brought Razors and Knifes 
made of a Sort of tranfparent Stone, and 
put into Hafts of a very hard Sort of 
Wood. He had befides Abundance of other 
neceflary Utenflls belonging to a Houfe y 
fome VeiTels of Earthen Ware, curioufly 
made, others of the aforefaid tranfparent 
Stone j Cotton Cloths of all Sorts of Co 
lours 5 and feveral Rarities of Parrots Fea 
thers put together, with wonderful Work- 
manlhip. The Admiral caus d him to be 
difmifs d and reftor d him all his Goods, 
whereof the Indian very freely offer d him 
part, informing him as to all Things rela 
ting to that Coaft. 

ccrip Sailing ten Leagues farther they difco* 
of ver d a plentiful Country, ot a vaft extent, 
Chiapa. w hj c h the Natives call d Quiriquitana, and 
Columbus nam d Chiapa. There he caus d fe 
veral Huts to be erefted, made |tf the Boughs 
of Trees, in one of which he had Mafs 
faid, to return Thanks to God for that 
Difcovery. Soon after a mighty Number 
of Indians came to the Place all naked, ex 
cepting only lome Parts of the Body, which 
they cover d with large Leaves of Trees. 
They drew near the Europeans, without any 
frijrnner of Fear and gaz d on them as fome- 
thing more than Men. Some of them brought 
feveral forts of the Country Fruit, and others 


of V o Y A G E s and TRAVEL si ipi 

Pitchers of Water which they freely ofler d, 
and then bowing their Heads very low, 
they withdrew. Columbus feeing them fo 
Courteous, us d all pofllble Demonftrations 
of Kindnefs and gave them little Looking- 
GlafTes, Strings of Glafs-Beads, and other 
Things of this Nature, which pleas d them 
belt. All this Country is rich and fruit 
ful; the Air is pleafant and wholfome ; there 
is plenty of all Things neceflary for the 
Support of human Life ; the Land is partly 
Plains and partly Mountains, all of them 
cover d with Trees, Fruit and Flowers, at 
th$ fame Time. Several Springs and Brooks 
cut and Water the Plains. There are alfo 
Woods of Pine and Palm Trees, with wild 
Vi^es, growing naturalty of themfelves, clofe 
under the Trees and loaded with Clufters 
of ripe Grapes. They made Swords and 
Spears of the Wood of a certain Species of 
Palm-Tree. Cotton grows all the Country 
over, without the leaft Afliftance from In- 
duftry. It produces all forts of Grain and 
Roots fit to make Bread. The Woods 
are full of Lions, Tigers, Deer, Birds of 
all Colours and feveral Sizes. Peacocks of 
a molt delicious tafte are fed in the Houfes, 
as Fowl are in other Parts, for their com 
mon Ufe. The Datives are of a large 
Size and well fhap d j they Paint all their 
Bodies over with the Juice of certain Fruits, 
like the Apples in Europe, which they plant 
in their Gardens for that Purpofe. Some 
paint themfelves all over red, others all 
Black \ and others adorn themfelves drawing 
feveral Flowers, Rofes, and ftrange Figures 
the Moorilh Fafnion. The Admiral 

102 The General H I S T O R Y 

obferving that the Sea fet there with a vi 
olent Stream to the Weftward, did not 
think fit to proceed any farther that Way ^ 
but chofe rather to turn back towards the 
Coaft of Paria, and Boca del Drago or the 
Dragons Mouth, before fpoken i of, from 
which he thought he was not very far. 

HI: lijn ?\ - >. .ibf 

STMU < omvliodw :. s .1 r? ^R^II ?I 

C H A P. XL 

fever at Rarities Columbus o^/er- 
ved in his Way, arid of the Difpofition 
of the People of the Country. 


E departed from Quiriquitana on the 
one and twentieth of -Augaft, ; -and ha 
ving faird thirty Leagues, came, to a mighty 
River, which carries its frefh Water a great 
Way into the Sea, before it mixes with the 
Salt. They advanc d but feventy Leagues 
in forty pays, and that with much Difficul 
ty, being kept back by the ftrong Current 
of the Water *, fo that they fornetimes found/ 
in the Evening that they had rather gone 
backward then advanc d, and were fain to 
lie at Anchor all Night, for Fear of running 
* fw u j}8B the Rocks. In the Space of eight 
Leagues they found three feveral Rivers full 
of Fifh and Tortoifes, and the Banks all co- 
.yerd with Canes thicker than a Man s 
Thigh, among which there are feveral Sorts 

O Y A G E S and T R A V E L S IO| 

of Creatures, as Crocodiles, and others, which 
Jay basking in the Sun. The Air of thefe 
Countries is fo wholefome and pleafant, 
that none of all the Men were the leaft in- 
difpos d, during the whole Voyage. They 
there faw a Wood all full of Mirabolan 
Trees. About two hundred of the Country 
People came out to meet the Spaniards, ha 
ving each of them four Javelin gs in his Hand 
to dart :, however they are of a gentle and 
peaceable Difpofltion and did no Body any 
Harm, but refus d what was ofFer d to be 
given them, fearing there might be fome 
Fraud conceaPd under it, and thofe who took 
any thing left it upon the Shore, being na 
turally more inclin d to give than to receive. 
They ofFer d the Sfaniards two molt beau 
tiful young Maicjs, giving them to under- 
ftand by Signs, that they might carry them 
away whither they pleas d. The Men are 
ftark naked, and (have their Forheads, but 
wear their Hair long behind ^ the Women 
bind up their TrefTes with a Cotton Ribbon. 
The Admiral caus d the two Maidens to be 
handfomely clad, put red Caps upon their 
Heads and fent them back to their Father } 
but they left the Cloaths and Caps on the 
Shore. Columbu* accepted of two young 
Men, to make Interpreters of them, that his 
Men might learn the Language of the Coun 
try, and to teach them the Spanifa Tongue, 
Columbus obferv d that there is very little 
ebbing and flowing on that Sea, becaule he 
law the Trees grew along the Edge of the 
Water, as they do on the Banks of Ri 
vers and Brooks. Several of thefe Trees 
fcow d down their Branches to the Ground, 
H 4 and 

tp 4 The Gemrd HISTORY 

and even to the Bottom of the Water, muchi 
after the fame Manner as the Vines do 
in Europe. In this Province they found a 
fort pf Creatures like our Cats, bqt ys/ith 
a longer and thicker Tail, on which they 
Jay all their Strefs when they defign to 
leap down from a higher Place, or from one 
Branch or Tree to another. A Spaniard 
with an Arrow wounded one of thefe Crea 
tures which flew down from the Tree with 
wonderful Swiftnefs, and fell upon him that 
had hurt him, who drawing his Sword cut 
off one of its fore Legs and took it, car 
rying it to the Ship where it became tame. 
One Day feveral Spaniards, who were in 
Want of Provifions, going into the Woods. 
to hunt for fbme wild Creatures to feed on, 
took a wild Boar alive, which they carry d 
Aboard their VefTel. A s fi>Ji 3 s e V e r tne 
Cat fpy d tfie Boar, fhe grew enrag!d, fell 
upon it, and laying Hold of it, with her 
Tail and the fore Leg fhe had left, kifl d 

pifcovey Advanciflg farther fourteen Leagues along 
to Porto the Coaft, they difcqvered about three hun 
dred naked IVlen, who fet up a threat ning 
Cry, when they faw the Europeans, and 
filling their Mouths with Water and fuch 
Herbs as grew along the Banks, fpit them 
out again, with Indignation againft the 
Strangers, giving to underftand that they 
would have no Communication with them. 
Their Bodies were all over painted of 
feveral Colours, but not their Faces. The 
Admiral to fcare them, order d fome Can 
non to be fir d without Ball j for he was of 
Ppinion that the Indians were to be gain 4 

<jf V o Y A G E s And TRAVEL s. 

by fair Means. The Noife of the great 
Guns terrify d them, they all fell down upon 
the Ground and begg d Mercy, brought 
their Commodities to the Ship, and willing 
ly exchanged their Gold Chains and Brace 
lets, for Strings of Glafs Beads. In that 
Goaft there are feyeral Rivers, in which 
they find Gold. The Natives cover them- 
felves with large Leaves of Trees to keep 
off the Rain and the Heat of the Sun. The 
JndUns calPd the Country Fibba^ and the 
Admiral finding a commodious Harbour, 
gave it the Nanje of Porto Bello^ as it is 
call d to this Day. The King of this 
Country by fpecial Priviledge had all his 
Body painted Black, the People being all 
red. The King and the feven principal 
Men, wear a little Plate of Gold made fait 
to their Nofe and hanging down to their 
Lips, which is one of their greateft Orna 
ments. The Men cover their Privities with 
a very large Oyfter-Shell, the Women with 
a Cottton Ribbon. They have a certain 
Plant in their Gardens which produces a deli 
cate fort of Fruit, more pulpy than a Peach, 
and of a moft exquifitive Flavour. On the 
Banks there are Crocodils or Alligators, 
which fly as foon as Men come near and 
as they go fend forth a Scent far excelling 
that of Musk. 


The General H I S T O R YV 

C H A P. XII. 


The Afaird returns into Spain, to give 
the Kjng an Account of hi* new Difcove- 
rieSy and dies,, 

i 0lumbus did not think fit to proceed 

^ an f farthe r- Being fo well fatisfy d 
that this Country abounded in Gold more 
thaa any other, for they found it mix d with 
the Earth, in all the Ditches and about 
the Roots of the Trees* He refolv d to 
fettle there, but was hindred by the Indi 
ans. A great Multitude of them came 
down, encompafling the Spaniards, who had 
already began to build their Huts, with 
loud Crks. It was very difficult to withftand 
the firft Attacks of the Indians, who fought 
at a Diftance, calling their Darts, and pour 
ing fhowers of Arrows. Then they drew 
near with their wooden Swords, and began 
to lay about them fo furioufly, that all the 
Caanon from the Ships had no Effed, nor 
did it daunt them in the leaft, they being 
refolv d rather to die, than to fee their 
Country poflefs d by Strangers. They were 
willing to admit of them as Traders, or 
Paflengers, but not as Inhabitants. Tho 
they had been feveral Times beaten and re- 
puls d, they ftill return d and renew d their 
AfTaults with the fame Intrepidity ; fo that 
as the Europeans made their utmoft Efforts 
to fortify their Habitation, fo the Indians 


of V O Y A G E S Ani, T R A V E L S. 107? 

came on ftill with greater Force to drive 
them away, fighting Day and Night with 
out any Intermiflkm. The Admiral perceiving 
their Obftinacy, thought fit to withdraw to 
Jamaica, the ihorteft Way. He fuffer d very 
much in his Paffage thither, and arriv d at 
that Ifland in a very bad condition, where 
he was oblig d to continue feveral Months, 
becaufe his Ships were utterly difabled and 
he wanted Provisions. 

Being at length come to Santo Domingo, 
in the Ifland Hifyaniola, he refrefh d himfelf 
there for a few Days, and then went aboard 
the firft Ship that faiPd, in Order to return 
Into Spain and acquaint his Catholick Ma- 
jefty with the Difcoveries he had made 
along the Continent. The King aad all the- 
Court heard his Relation with much Satis 
faction and Amazement , which encourag d 
many to attempt the like Enterprises. The 
Admiral withdrawing into Caftile, to take 
fome Reft after his extraordinary Fatigues, 
being then old a,nd much troubled with the 
Gout, died at Valladolid in May, of the 
Year 1506, and order d his Body, in his 
Will, to be bury d at SeviL He was with 
out 7 al! difpiite, a moft wonderful Man, and 
never to be daunted or difcourag d by any 
Difficulties. The Difcovery of the new- 
World, gain d him immortal Honour. Had 
he liv d among the Ancients, they would 
certainly have ere&ed Statues in Honour of 
him, as they did to Hercules and Bacchus^ 
Don James Columbus his Son, was his Heir, 
whofe Wealth together with his Father s 
Reputation procur d him to Wife, the no 
ble lady Mary of Toledo ^ Daughter to Don 


The Gewral HISTORY 

Ferdinand de Toledo^ Commendary of 
and of the greateft Qpality in Spain, 
in In his Papers after his Death, were found 
tfcrt &K, particulars of his laft Voyage, and 
pf all the Grafts he had Difcover d. He 
there obferves among other Things, that in 
thofe Countries they enjoy a continual Spring 
and Autumn, all the Year about, there being 
always Flowers and Fruit , that the Air is 
extraordinary Temperate and healthy *, that 
none of his Company ever had the leaft 
Diftemper, or felt exceflive Cold or Heat; 
that the Natives of the Country are very 
skilful in gathering of Gold *, that they per- 
fe&ly know the Place where there is moft 
of it to be found } that they obferve par 
ticular Ceremouies when they prepare them- 
felves to gather it, never daring to have 
to do with their Wives during all the Time 
they are about it, eating and drinking very 
fparingly and abftaning from all forts of 
Pleafures ; and that they adore the Sun, the 
only worfhip they perform to him, being to 
bow to him at his Rifing. The Mountains 
in the Province of ?eragua far exceed the 
Clouds in Height } and the Admiral, who 
|yas the firft that ever difcover d them, was 
of Opinion, that it was at leaft five and 
(twenty Leagues to the Tpp of thejn. 




The Catholick Kjn Orders the Comman 
ders Alonfo de Hojeda, and Diego de 
Nicuefla to fUnt Colonies in the New 

THE Court of Spain rcfolv d to pro*Ho;eda*j 
fecute the Enterprise began by the Cart ha^ 
Admiral Chriftopher Columbia, who had often S ena * 
faid that Peragua and Vraba^ were the pro- 
pereft Places for fettling Colonies of Chri- 
ftians. Thefe two Places are in about 
nine Degrees of North Latitude. Alonfo de 
Hejeda fitted out fome Ships and put to Sea, 
with #bout three hundred Men. After fome 
Day* fail, he arriv d at a certain Place 
on the Continent, which had been difco^ 
ver d by Columbw, who had given it the 
Name of Carthagena. This Port is very 
fpacious and Land lock d on all Sides, like 
that of Garthagena, in Spain* The Men and 
Women there are beautiful and well fhap d. 
On the Trees there are Apples very plea-^K/w^ 
fant to the Eye, but poifonous, in fo much A 1 ** 
that thofewhoeat of them feel their Bowels, 
as if they were torn to Pieces, much after 
the manner as if the Worms gnaw dthem^ 
and if a Man happens to fleep under the 
Shade of thefc Trees, his Head fwells to 


i o The General H I STORY 

a prodigious Bignefs, and he almofl lofes 
his Sight* Hojeda entring the Port, aflaul~ 
ted the Natives by Surprize, and made a 
great Slaughter of them, becaufe he came 
upon them when they were parted and all 

r He had receiv d Orders to put all to the 
ofckriflj. Sword, , becaufe they would never fuffir 
**>! the Europeans, who had difcover d that Coun 
try, to make any Settlement there. Here 
they found fome little Gold, beaten out in 
to Plates, which the Indians wear on their 
Stomachs, as an Ornament. ttojed* caus d 
fome Prifoners to conduct him to a Place, 
whither the Indians living about the Har 
bour had withdrawn thcmfelves, to join the 
other Natives; who being all arm d with 
Swords made of very hard Wood, and poi- 
fon d Arrows, the Points whereof are made 
of Bone, inftead of Iron, fell upon the 
Chriftians with fuch Resolution and Fury, 
and dreadful Shouts, that they kill d above 
toy of them the very firft Charge. Ho- 
jeda was thus oblig d to Retire to his Ships 
with the reft* of bis Forces, which were in 
Defpair for the Lofs of fo many of "their 

NicuefTa About the fame Time the Commander 
Diego de Nicueffa arriv d there, bringing 
fix hundred and fourfcore Men in five Ships. 
They held a Council to refolve what Mea- 
fures they fhoulcl take, and unanimoufly a- 
grced to revenge the Death of their Com 
panions *, and accordingly drawing up their 
Men in order of Baud, march d all the Night 
without making any Noife, and came two 1 


of VOYAGES and T R A. v ELS . Hi 

Hours before Day to the Village, where the 
firft Battelhad been fought. All the Houfes Dcft*tfH 
were made of Wood and cover d withf &- 
Leaves, to which the Spaniards fet Fire on 
all i- ides, fc that all the Inhabitants, Men 
and Womtu, were either burnt orr put to 
the Sword, except fix Children, who told 
them that the Indians had drefs d the Spa 
niards flain in the former Ingagement, to 
eat them. A little Gold was there found, 
among the Afhes of the Houfes that had 
been burnt, Having fucceeded in- this Expe 
dition, and being inform d that there Was a 
large Indian Town, clofe by a rich Gold 
Mine, the Commander Hojeda refolv d to 
attack it, and by the Way took two C*- 
nibals and fix Women of the fame Nation. 
The Inhabitants of the Town having re- 
ceiv d Intelligence of their corning, ftood 
upon their Guard Day and Night to fight 
them, if they were attack d. In (hort, Hojeda 
was repuls d the firft Aflault he made,- 
very great Lofsof Men, becaufe the Indians 
defended themfelves with poifon d Arrows. 
Hojeda himfelf was fhot through the Thigh 
with one of thofe Arrows, which for along 
Time put him to intolerable Pain, not to 
mention the Want he endur d, for all the 
Country was againft him. Befides his Sol 
diers mutiny d againft him, alledging that he 
ftarv d them, and refolv d to go away upon 
two Brigantines into Hifpaniola, for there 
were but fixty left of three hundred that 
eame into the New World, 


112 The General HISTORY 

Encifo Another Parcel of Spaniards under the Coif- 

Darien. du * of . tfte Batchelor Enci f imbark d in a 
Brigantine, to find out fome convenient 
Habitation. The Indidns of that Country, 
who had never feen a Veflel under Sail, 
were aftonifh d at that unufual Sight, but 
however they provided to hinder the Stran 
gers from landing. THey were about five 
hundred IVfea, arrri d with Bows and Ai> 
rows; and immediatly fent away their 
Wives and Children, that they might 
have nothing to hinder them when iri- 
gag d. The Chriftians, whofe Number Was 
but final], fell to their Prayers, and ma de fa 
Vow to our Lady of Sevil to biiild a Town 
and a Church of her Name, and to fend one 
of their Number in Pilgrimage to Spain, if 
they obtain d the Vi&ory } befides they in- 
gag d to one another, that no one would 
turn his Back upon the Enemy. Being 
thus prepar d, they rufh d on furioufly upon 
the Indians^ Who gave them a full Volley of 
their Arrows, which yet did no Execution^ the 
Spaniards being cover d with Bucklers of a 
very hard Sort of Wood. After fome Qp- 
pofition, they all fled and left thefr T6wn, 
to the Spaniards, who found there Bread and 
other Pro vi (ions to ferve them a Year, be- 
fides feveral valuable Commodities, as Cot 
ton Blankets, on which the Natives lie, 
Veflete of Wood, and Earthen Ware, Gold 
Chains and Plates. This Wealth oyerjoy d 
the Chfiftians, who purfuant to their Vow, 
built a Church, in Honour of the BlefTed 
Virgin, and a Town, which became after 
wards one of the farnouftft ia the 


Lope de Olano having found out a rich and 
fruitful Vale, with the Confent of the reft 
of his Company refolv d to take the VelTcls 
in Pieces, in order to fettle in the Indies^ 
and never more think of returning into Spain. 
Accordingly they began to fow Maiz. or 
Indian Wheat and other Grain, that they 
might have fomething to fubfift on ; for they 
had .till then fuffer d the utmoft Extremity 
of Want, having for the laft fixty Days fed 
only upon a few Herbs and Roots, without 
finding fo much as good Water to drink, 
^elides that they were often hard put to it 
by the Natives, a fierce People, with whom 
they could not obtain the leaft Commerce, 
and who daily kilPd fome of them with 
1- heir poifon d Arrows ; fo that of fix hun- 
red that imbark d in Spaln^ they were now 
reduc d to fourfcore and five, the reft being 
all dead for Want, or elfe kill d in the final! 
Ingagements they had with the Indians. How 
ever they built, the beft they were able a fmall 
Fort, which they call d Nombre de Dios, or the de Dios 
Name of God, which has been iirjce one of 
richefl anxl moft confiderabk Towns in the 
Weft Indies. 


The Adventures of Captaia Roderick 
Colmenar and the Misfortunes he wet 
with in his Voyages. 

Roderick Colmtnar fet out from 
/^, on the Thirteenth of Ottober, in 
Year 1510^ carrying fix hundred Men along 
If with 

Vi 4 The General HISTORY 

with him. He direfted his Courfe towards 
the Continent, and arriv d on the Coaft of 
Paria in the Month of November - 7 where he 
fent a Boat afhore to take in Water. Here 
they obferv d a Mountain of a prodigious 
Height and cover d with Snow, tho it is 
within ten Degrees of the Equinoctial. Com 
ing aftiore, they found a good likely Man, 
cloath d in Cotton Cloth, attended by twen 
ty others, all of them clad like him. On 
his Shoulders hung a fhort Cloak, which did 
not reach below his Middle, and under this 
Cloak was a Veft, .pr Robe reaching down 
to the Ground. He drew near the Spa- 
mards^ and feem d by Signs to advife them/ 
not to take of that Water, becaufe it was 
not good, and they might find better a lit 
tle higher^ but the perfidious Wretch had 
laid fix hundred of his Men, arm d with 
Bows and Arrows in Ambufh, who fell up 
on the Spaniards, as they were going about 
to fill their Veffels with Water, and foot 
their Arrows fo dexteroully at them, that 
they wounded fix and forty in the Twink 
ling of an Eye, before they could have Time 
to look about, or put themfelves in a Po- 
fture of Defence, then they feiz d the Boat 
*md beat it to Pieces. Their Arrows being 
Joifon d, all the Spaniards dy d of their 
Wounds, but one; feven others hid them 
felves in a hollow Tree, but the Ship failing 
that Night, after this Misfortune, it is to- 
be fuppos- d, they were all deftroy d by the 

Colmenar arriving at Uraba found the 

Mifaies Spaniards there in the molt lamentable Con- 
* ani ~ dition in the -World, ftarving with Hunger, 
having nothing to cover their Naked- 


, of V o Y A G E s And, TRAVELS. 

irefs, befides that they were at Variance a- 
moncr themfelves, the Batchelor Encifo and 
Vafco A^/e^difputing about the Government. 
To pacify them both and obviate all thofe 
Diforders, it was refolv d to go feek out 
the Commander Nicuejfa, who had been ap 
pointed Chief over them. They found that 
unfortunate Captain at the Foot of a Moun 
tain, where he was labouring to build a 
fmall Fort. He had brought fix hundred 
and eigty five Men into the new World, and 
had now but fixty of them left, who were 
ftarvingfor Hunger, and fcarce able to fhind 
ipon their Legs, It is wonderful, that having 
been at the Head of fuch a Body of Men, 
well arm d and provided with all NecefTkries 
for undertaking of any cpnfiderable Expe 
dition , and being befides in a very rich and 
fruitful Country, in the Midft of feveral 
good Indian Towns } yet this Commander 
chofe rather to ftarve for Hunger with all 
his Men, than to attempt any bold Under 
taking. Thofe who fhall happen to read the 
Expeditions afterwards made into that fame 
Country, with much fmaller Numbers of 
Men, cannot but lay all this Captain s Mis 
fortunes upon his own Indifcretion and Want 
of Capacity, and it may well be concluded 
that he wanted both Ingenuity and Cou 
rage. Colmenar was mov d to CoTmpaflion 
when he faw the miferable Condition thofe 
People were reduc d to r and embracing Ni- 
fiieffa, with Tears in his Eyes, told him, 
that the Spaniards who had fettl d at Sri** 
Maria del Darien^ defir d him for their Go- 
vernour, hoping that he would put an End 
to their Divifions by his Authority. When 
a had a little fatisfy d the Hunger 
I z that: 

1 1 6 The General HISTORY 

that tormented him, he began to rail bitter-* 
ly againft the Spaniards of Darien, declaring 
that he defign d to feize upon the Gold they 
had, which no way belong d to them, being 
no other than the Plunder of bis Collegue, 
Hojeda. The Spaniards being inform d of 
his Defign, met and with great Threats 
pblig d him jto get Aboard a Brigantine, 
with only feventeen Men, of the fixty he 
had brought. This Outrage was condemned 
by all Men of Reputation, and from that 
Time Nicusffa was never more heard of; 
but it was believ d lie perifh d in his Paf- 
fage to Hifpaniola, whither he vyas going to 
complain of the Infolence of Fafco Nunez.. 

Thy few ^ Colmtntr** Provifions being fpent, his 
^Cacique Men and he were forc d to go into the 
- ^Neighbouring Country, like hungry Wolves, 
to feek out fomething to fubfift on. Vafco 
Nunez, and Colmenar, at the Head of an 
hundred and fifty Men, march d towards 
the Province of Coiba. They made Appli 
cation to the Cacique Careta and would oblige 
him with mighty Threats to find them Pro- 
yifions. He told them, that the Chriftians 
who had pafs d thro his Dominions before 
them had taken away what he had, and 
that his People had not gather d in the 
Harveft, becaufe the Cacique Poncha made 
War on him. The Spaniards never regard 
ing the Reafons alledg d by the Cacique^ 
plundered his Village } took him Prifoner, 
with his Wives, his Children and all his Fa- 
inily, and fent . them away to Darien. A- 
inong them were found three Spaniards, very 
fat and ftark naked, they had fled eighteen 
Months before, from the Commander Nicueffk 



and had taken up among the Indians, who 
treated them very courteoufly. Vtfw re 
turning to Darien^ threw the Batchelor Encifo 
into Prifon and feiz d all his Effects, be- 
caufe he had made himfelf a Governour in 
the new World, without any Commiflion 
from the King of Spain , but the Chief Men 
in Dariw procur d his Liberty and Leave 
for him to go away in a Ship. 

To put fome End to all thefe Diiorders Cacique 
it was refolv d to fend a Deputation to thePoncha 
Viceroy of the Indies^ which was the Sou/^" ^ 
of the late Cbrijhfbtr Columbus and to the 
Council of State for Inftrudioris how to be- 
have themfelves under the Misfortunes they 
were in. In the mean while Vafco Nune^ 
who could not endure to be idle, concer 
ted his Meafures with the Cacique Caret* 
his Prifoner, for making War on the Ca 
cique Poncha^ his Neighbour, upon Condition, 
that being reftor d to his Liberty, he Ihoul4 
joyn with the Spaniards and furnifh thetn 
yvith Proviflons. The Indians in thofe Parts 
do not make ufe of poifon d Arrows in Bat- 
tel, but of long Swords, made of a hard 
fort of Wood, and of Spears with very 
fharp Points of Bone. Being thus agreed 
they March d to attack the Cacique Pocha^ 
Who fled upon the firft approach of his E- 
nemies, and they plunder d his Village, where 
they found feveral Jewels and Ornaments 
* of Gold, wrought after the Indian Manner. 
They took no more of the Booty than they 
could carry away upon their Backs, having 
no Carriages, and that Cacique s Village be 
ing above fifty Miles from Darien. For 
this Reafon they rcfolvM, from that Time 


The General HISTORY 

forward not to make War on any Caciques 
but thofe who were near the Sea or Ri 
vers, that they might remove their Goods, 
and other Commodities in their Boats and 

A friendly Ships. 

Cacique. They agreed to begin their Conqueft with 
the Province of Comagre, where there is a 
delightful Vale about fix and thirty Miles 
in length and all encompafs d with Moun 
tains. The Cacique hearing of the Approach 
of his Enemies, made ufe of the Mediati 
on of three Spaniards , who had been found 
with the Cacique Careta, to make his Peace 
for him-, fo that the Chriftians enter d his 
Country in friendly manner. He came to 
meet them with fix of his Sons, handfome 
Men and all Naked } conduced them to his 
Houfe and entertain d them with all pof- 
fible Demonftration of perfect Friendfhip. 
Before this Caciques Houfe was a handfome 
Square of an hundred and fifty Paces every 
Way, where they might fit in the fhade. 
They went thro a Portico an hundred and 
fifty Paces in length and eighty in breadth, 
Supported by many Fillers or Columns of 
Wood, very well wrought, all the other 
Sides of the Houfe were aifo hemm d in with 
Trees. In the Midft of this Portico was 
a great Gate, which led to a large fquare 
Hall, at the End whereof was the Cacique s 
Bedchamber, within this there were two o- 
ther Rooms, in one of which the Cacique s 
Wives lay j the other was full of dead Bodies 
dry d up and ty d acrofs to Stakes with 
Ropes of Cotton.. Oppofite to thefe two 
Rooms there were three others, full of Loaves 
and Meat, of Wooden and Earthen Veflels, 


ofV o Y A G E s and TRAVEL s\ 11 

of the Wine they make in that Province, 
and Fruit of all Colours and a moft exquiilte 
Tad. The Slaves were in another Apart 
ment, with thofe Officers, who had charge 
of all thofe Things, which were for the 
Support of life. The Floors were curioufly 
wrought, and all the Structure was cover d 
after the Manner of a Pavillion with Herbs 
and Leaves fo clofe lay d together, that no 
Rain could ever pierce it. 

The Spaniards ask d the Cacique^ why he Be&i B 
kept fo many dry d Bodies, who anfwer d,^ P r 
That they were the Carkafes of all the^ 1 ^ 
Caciques his Predeceffcrs, and then fhow d 
them his Father s, which he preferv d with 
great Refpeft. Thefe dead Bodies were 
cover d with little Cotton Sheets, wrought 
with Gold. The eldeft Son of the Cacique 
by his looks feem d to be a Perfon of 
iingular Judgment and Difcretion. He told 
his Father, that it was requifite to make 
very much of and (how all Poffible Kind- 
nefs to thofe Nations, who only live by 
War and Rapine, that they might have 
no pretence of doing him any Harm, as they 
had done to his Neighbours. And obferving 
that they minded nothing but gathering of 
Gold, he added, That they ought to give 
Vafco Nunez, and Colmenar all the Gold they 
liad, with fixty Slaves to ferve them. The 
ufe of Slaves is very common among the 
Indians they take them forcibly one from 
another and exchange them for Commodities, 
having no Knowledge of any Coin. 

When the Spaniards had got together all ~ . 
tte Caciques Gold, they laid it out in t^3J 
fpacious Place, to divide it among them, / much 
after laying a fide the fifth Part for the Gold. 


i 20 The General HISTORY 

King of Spain. This Dividend could not be 

made without much contefting, fo that at 

laft they came to Blows. The Caciques Son 

growing into a great Paftion, to fee then! 

quarrel among thenifelves, threw the Scales 

and the Gold, fome one Way and fome 

another, faying, What a Shame it i? for you. to 

be fo imaged, about fuch an Inconflderable 

Trifle :, if you are fo greedy of Gold and if that 

is the Occasion of your Difturbing the Peace of 

fo many Nations, I will jhow you a Country 

that is full of Gold where you may glut your. 

felves j but you muft ingage fome powerful 

Caciques, and particularly him of Tumanama, 

whofe Country is but fix Buns from hence j fo 

the Indians call Days Journeys. You will alfo 

find Nations of the Temper of the Caribes 

Canibals, who eat Men and live without 

or acknowledging any Sovereign. Thefe 

Gold for Men to eat. For our Part^ we make 

no more Account of Gold than of Duft. The 

Inhabitants of thofe Co aft jy tho** they are naked ^ 

as we are^ yet have they Ships,, which fail as 

yours do^ and their Dijhes and Porrengers are 

of Maffive Gold as ours are of Earth. The 

young Caciques Words made fuch an Im- 

preffion on the Minds of Colmenar and 1 

ITafco Nunez., that they were impatient to 

be gone to the Place, where they might find 

fuch Plenty of Gold. They return d hint 

thanks for his Advice, and ask d feveral 

Queftions concerning the Meafures they 

6ught to take to fucceed in their Defigns, and 

to fubdue thofc JSatioos. 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS, 121 


The Cacique Comogor caufes himfelf to be 

Baptized with all hi* Family. Vafco Nu 
nez difcovers many Indian Habit tit tofts > 
where he finds abundance of Gold-Plates 
and Chains of great Value. 

YOU may learn the Truth of all this, ^Cacique 
contuiu d theG*9*f, from Perfons who" "" 
have made this Voyage -, but to (how you, ad- JnJ H 
ded he, that I deal fmcerely by you, I offer my 
Felf to accompany yon, and am willing you 
fliould kill me if I deceive you : I ll put my felf 
at the head of my Father s Soldiers to aflift 
you and drive away our Enemies. The Chri- 
ftians encourag d by thefe Words of the wife 
Son of the Cacique Comogor, confented to all he 
proposed to them , and by the Affiftance of 
three S/w?*W>, that ferv d as Interpreters, per- 
fwaded him to turn Chriftian. The Father ha 
ving agreed to it, was nanrd Charley and all 
the Family folio w d his Example. Vafco Nunez.- 
then went aboard a Brigantiae and fbme Ca- 
noos with a Hundred Men-, they found in 
their Paflage feveral Habitations of Indians , 
whofe Lord was iiara d Aib*. Thefe Huts were 
full of Bows and Arrows, and fome Plates and 
Chains of Gold. The Chriftians carried away 
all they found and put them into their Caaoos, 
but they were loon attacked by fo furious a 
Tempeft, that they were oblig d to fling all into 
the Sea, and divers Barks pefifh d with all that 
were on Board them.- 

Whilft fafco Nunez, was thus miferably dealt The Spa- 
with, Colmenar Sail d towards the Mouth of a " iard r s 

122 The General HISTORY 

great River: He there found an Indian Town 
with 700 Habitations, but the Cacique fied at 
the approach of the European* : Afterwards 
changing his mind, he came down with his Men 
zz^ j,*, and fet on his Enemies with long Wooden 

wooden r . 9 

Sworfaand S wor( k and Lances; tor his Indians did not un- 
Lances. derfland the life of Bows and Arrows They 
were foon routed, and the Cacique Abenamachei 
fell into the hands of the Spaniards with the 
chief of his Men. A Spaniard nam d Ray a was 
left to Guard the Country of this Cacique ; but 
whether he was prefs d by Famine, or more than 
ordinary deilrous to find Gold, he fbon quitted 
his Charge.Whil(t he was on his March, a Neigh 
bouring Cacique^ one j&ra$ai^ having intelli 
gence of it, laid an Ambufti for him of feveral 
Indians in a very thick Wood : On the Spaniards 
approach they fell upon them, and immediately 
kill d Ray a with two of his Companions : The 
others defended themfelves bv help of the Thick, 
nefs of the Wood, till fuch time as they got in 
to the Plain where the Indians durft not attack 
them, by which means they efcaped to their 
Pofts. The Indians ftrip d the three Soldiers 
they had kill d and took their Arms, which they 
made a Prefent of to their Cacique^ who arming 
a great number of his Men, went refoiutely to 
attack the Spaniards in their Pofts. We foa/lfee, 
fa id he, what thefe Men^ fo greedy of Gold, arc 9 
who come fo far to diftttrb ottr Repofe. As good 
luck would have it, fome other Spaniards who 
bad been at the Caribbee Iflands, return d but 
the Night before this Attack was to be made. 
In fhort, a great multitude of Indians coming 
down with Bows and Lances, fell upon the 
Chriftians with great fury, thinking to furprize 
them, and not believing they were near the 
number they were ^ but as foon as they found 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS, 125 

their miftake, they began to Retreat with as 
much Precipitation as they came on : The Spa 
niards entirely routed them , and kilPd and 
took feveral of them, except the Caciqttet who 
made their efcapes. The Prifoners were fent to 
Work ia the Mines of Darien. 

The Indians enrag d at this ill fuccefs, re- 4 Confpi- 
folv d to revenge themfelves come what would racy de- 
of it, but their Defigns were deteded in the tetted and 
manner following: Among the Prifoners that^""^ 
Vafco Nune^ Governor of Darien, had taken, 
there was one, a Beautiful young Woman, who 
became paffionately in love with him ; fhe had 
a Brother who had liberty to come and fee her 
as often as he pleas d, and who one day fpoke to 
her as follows; My dear Sifter, faid he, you fee 
the Jnfolence and ill Treatment we every day under" 
go from the Chriftians, which ha* obliged the In 
dians to League together to the Number of 5 or 
6600 j in order to attack them at an anointed day ; 
I beg of you to avoid that Time, and to come to 
me, that you may not be involved in the Common 
Mafiacre. The young Ind an, fo foon as ever 
her Brother was departed, ran to Pafco Nttncz. 9 
and gave him an Account of all (he had learnt 
concerning the Defign the Caciques had form d 
to deilroy the Chriftians. Nunez, underftand- 
ing this Confpiracy, went with Sixty of his 
Men well Arm d to take a view of the Cociqucs^ 
2nd in his March, meeting with an Indian with 
feveral Domtftkks and divers Women, he fet 
upon them and took them Prifoners, On the 
other hand Colmenar went likewife out upon 
Difcovery with Sixty Men whom he put ia 
Chaloops, having for Guide the Brother o f the 
beautiful Indian Woman who had a kindnefs 
for Vafco Nunez. : He Conduced, them direclly 
to Thbiri, where all manaer of Preparations 

K 2 were 

1 24 The General HISTORY 

were making for the definition of the Chri* 
ftians. They entree! the Huts . where they 
found great Quantities of White and Red 
Wines, and Bread and Provifions of all forts, 
which they took. They fciz d likewife upon 
him whom the Indians had chofen for their Ge 
neral, and having ty c! him to a Tree, toge 
ther with four others that were Heads of the^ 
Confpiracy, they fhot them to death with Ar- 
rows, for a Terror to the reft : This Example 
had that effed on the TW^wr, that ever after 
there was no Jnfurredion in thefe Provinces. 
The Sp&siardj flay d fome time at T/rfr/r/, to 
confume the Viduals and other Provifions they 
found there. 

C H A P. XVI. 

Juan Quincedo a#d Colfnenar return into 
, Spain, to inform the Kjng of their New 
DifcoverieS) And to Transport (Colonies 
into the New World, 

Deputies. Y>Eing retum d to Darlen, they thought it 
feiit to JQ advifable to fend Deputies into -Spain, to 
Spain -inform his Catholick Majdly of the Affairs of 
the I%d :est and to demand frefh Succours, that 
they might penetrate farther towards the South. 
Pafio Nune^ would willingly have undertaken 
this Embaffy ^ but his Friends advis d him a- 
gainfl it, for fear he might not in fuch cafe, 
return any more to the Indies. They pitch d 
therefore upon "juan Quincedo for that purpofe, 
who was a Man of Authority, and his Catholick 
Majefty s Treafurer in thofe parts; This Perfon 
leaving behind him a Wife and Children at 


Darien, they did not doubt but he would re 
turn, and for his Encouragement they gave him 
Colmenar for a Companion. In their Voyage 
they learnt that a certain Scholar, one Anci}o, 
had met with, near the I (land of Cuba, a Cacique Woidirt 
who was turn d Chriftian, and. who receiv d him JTJJ c "" 
very kindly. He carried him to a Place where Jt 
he had built a Chappel in Honov-r of the Holy 
Virgin, where he had an Altar, before which 
he proft rated himfclf every day, repeating fe- 
veral times the Words Ave Alaria, which were 
the only ones he retain d.This Cacique, added he, 
had for a long time had with him a Spanijk Sol 
dier, by whofe afliftance he had brought all the 
Neighbouring Caciques to reafon : This Soldier 
wore always upon his Bread the Image of the 
Holy Virgin, which the Cemfs could by no 
means reiid. Thefe CW s among the Indians Indian 
are Images of the Gods that they Worfnip, Litres. 
which reprefent Devils with Horns and other 
horrible Shapes. They are fometimes obferv d 
to tremble and fall at the approach of the Image 
of the BleiTed Virgin, to which the Baptiz d 
Indians are accuitom d to offer Gold Plates and 
Chains, with Baskets of Fruit and other Edibles 
through a certain kind of Devotion. 

One day, as this Cacique was about to give, A M\m. 
Battel to his Enemies, it was agreed on both^ * nd 
fides, that the Images of our Lady and the J H c f itf 
Cent s mould be expos d \ That two Indian cejs * 
ihould be Bound, on this Condition , That 
in cafe the Cemi s had the virtue to unloofe 
the enchain d Indian that belong d to them, 
then the other fide mould fubmit to their 
Power } whereas if the .Image of the Blelfed 
Virgin perform d this Miracle, her Autho 
rity was to be acknowledg d. This being 
hus agreed on, both Armies retir d to wair 
K 3 

126 The General H I S T RY 

the Event : Then began the Baptiz d Cacique to 
cry out with great Confidence , Bleffed iMary 
come to my Afliftavce ; whereat a Majefirck Wo 
man clad in White appeared, who approaching 
the enchain d Indian, ilruck him with a Wand, 
and his Chains unloofed. The oppofite Party 
feeing this were aftonifh d , yet not being fully 
convinced, they demanded he fhould be bound 
once more, which being accordingly done, the 
Miracle was repeated with all ksCircumflances, 
in the prefence of an infinite Number of People 
who were able to give Teftimony cf the Truth 
of it* The ,/.. >/, that were Enemies to the 
Cacique^ feeing this, mad? Peace with him, and 
demanded to be Baptiz d. "* he Scholar Anclfo 
feat them two Priefts he had along with him, 
who Baptiz d a Hundred and Fouricore of them, 
in one Day: Every Jndan upon his receiving 
Baptifin, gave the Prieft that Baptiz d him a 
Pullet, fome Salted Fifh, and fome Loaves. 
A new ghtincedo and Cclmenftr being arrivVl in Spain^ 
Governor gave King Charles V. aft Account of their Depu- 
0/***In-tation : He nam d Pedro Avia for Governor of 
dies. the/Wi>.f, and gave him 1 200 Soldiers tg fup 
ply thofe that were dead. The Arch-bifhop of 
BuYgot, to whom the Spiritual Deraefns of the 
Indies had been granted, had the care of pre 
paring the Fleet, which departed in the begin 
ning of the year 1514. Great numbers of Peo 
ple came from all Parts to go on Board this 
Fleet, and thole not only Young but Old, whofe 
Avarice had enclin d them to undertake this 
Voyage. It was fo md heccflary to forbid any 
to go, butfuch as had expreis Permiifion from 
Court, which was granted only to young 5/w- 
niards, in confideration of the Admiral who was 
Son to the deceas d Cfa /ftophir Columbu!, 

1C . ... v . .. ~~ " J ^ 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 127 

Pedro Avia the new Governor, had Married a His Mi&- 
young Lady of great Merit and Birth, nam d/ or ^" 
Ifabella Boadiglia^ Daughter to the Marquifs of ai 
Amoia. Although (he had been brought up with 
all the Tendernefs imaginable, yet when file 
faw her Husband about to depart for the Indies, 
neither the Perils of Death, nor any other Ex 
tremity, could hinder her from accompanying 
him. The Fleet was no fooner got to Sea from 
Sevil, but it was attackM by a furious Tempeft ^ 
Two Veflels immediately Found red, and they 
were forc d to throw overboard great part of 
their Merchandizes and Provifions, to fave the 
reft. They return d to the Port of Sevil from 
whence they came : The King s Officers refitted 
them with all diligence, and they at lad fet Sail 
again with a favourable Wind. This Fleet was 
Commanded by Giovanni Vefyucio a Florentine^ 
a Perlbn well skill d in Sea- Affairs which he had 
learnt of America Vefymiut his Uncle , with 
whom he had made feveral long Voyages. 
This Amerkw Vefoueiw was the firft who Sailing 
towards the South, by order of the King of 
Portugal , difcover d vaft Countries , having 
pafled as far as the $oth Degree of Southern 

Whilft the new Governor Avia was purfu- Indians 
ing his Voyage, one Captain Pinzonc, who had % Peace. 
accompanied Cvlumbw in divers Enterprises, 
penetrated a great River of frelh Water, where 
he found a large quantity of Pearls. Being Large 
arriv d near Cumana and Manacayana, the Lords 2 Wit 
and Inhabitants of the Country went into Boats * 
made out of one Piece of Wood , and endea- 
vour d vainly to oppofe his Defcent with Ar 
rows ; But when they heard the Thundeiing of 
the Ships Artillery, a Sound they had never 
beard before, they were fuddenly fili d with 
K 4 Tcr- 

128 The General HI STORY 

Terror, and oblig d to a precipitate Flight. 
The Spaniards putting themfelves into their 
Boats, KilFd fome, took others Prifoncrs, hut 
the greateil part efcap d by Swimming. The 
Lords of the Country feeing this Diforder a- 
mong their Men, and fearing lea ft the Spaniards 
ihonld burn their Habitations, thought proper 
to fubmit to them, and humbly beg d Peace. 
The man- Jn order to obtain it, they laid upon the Shoar 
ncYofit, divers Gold-Plates and Chains, with Pots full 
of Incenfe containing about 2600 Pounds, and 
OddBirds. a great Number of Birds all different in Co 
lours and Figure from ours of Ewope. Tht-y 
Cotton- offcr d likewife Cotton Cloth of divers Co- 
Cloth. Jours, with Fringes or Strings, from whence 
hung finall Plates of Gold : The light of fo 
great Riches appeas d the greedy Spaniards, and 
made them to have a better opinion of them. 
The Trees of this Country are fill d as full with 
parrots. Parrots, as ours in Europe are with Sparrows 
and fuch like Birds. This is a very agreeable 
fight ; fome are altogether White, others Red, 
and others of different Colours ; Some again 
are as large as Capons, while others are no big- 
ger than Sparrows : They have all different 
Melodic* in a very entertaining manner* The 
Habits. Men are cover d with Cotton -Cloth down to 
their Knees ; the Women are Habited in a 
more flight Stuff, which reaches from the top of 
the Head to their. Feet. 

Indiana*. The Inhabitants of thefeProvinces change their 
vernor*. Governors every Year, whom they Stile in their 
Language ( hitconi, that is, the nip ft Honoura 
ble; and to whom they pay fuch Obedience, 
that they Maflacre without Mercy ail that re- 
fufe it. Five ot thefe Chiaconi. came to pay a 
Viiit to the Spaniards, prefenting them with 
Fruits and Birds, and a frnall quantity of Gold, 


of VOYAGES and -TRAVELS. 129 

for which they receiv d in return, Chriilal 
Drinking-cups and Glafs Beads, wherewith 
they were infinitely delighted ; they put them 
about their Necks with great Joy. The 
Spaniards^ at their Departure, took fome of 
thefe Indians on board them to teach them 
Spanijk, that they might, for the future, ferve 
them as Interpreters. 


Of the Differences that happened between the 
Caftilians and Fortuguefes concerning 
the Navigation of the New World. The 
two Parties chofe Pope Alexander VI. to 
det ermine them. 1 

TTOhn King of Port it? al, PredecefTof to Ema* 
J nuch that then reign d, had caus d the firft ces 
Difcoveries to be made in the Ocean; wherefore 
thePortttgnefcs thought themfelves priviledg d to 
forbid the Commerce of any other Nations with gue tes 
thefe Countries newly Difcover d. The Cafli- 
Hans on the other Hand, faid, God had given 
the Pofleflion of the Earth to Mankind indiffe 
rently, and that consequently Chriilians might 
lawfully eftablifh themfelves wherefoever they 
pleas d, difcover new Countries, and take Pof* 
feflion of them. After long Contefls, both 
Parties agreed to Hand by the Decifion of Pope 
Alexander VI, promiiing on either Side to re 
main in Peace, til] fuch time as that Judgment 
was pafs d. Queen I fab ilia governed the King 
dom of Caftileat that time, in con junction with 
her Husband Ferdinand : She was a Princefs of 


Ijo The General H I S T O R Y 

uncommon Virtues and confummate Prudence, 
and moreover Cofen-German to John King of 
, Portugal. The Pope, to decide this grand Quar- 
* el > publifh d a Britf, by which he divided the 
World into two Halves, that is to fay, drew a 
Line from North to South, pading over the 
Iflands of Cape farde, fo call d from a Promon 
tory of Africa of that Name, and from thence 
proceeding, during the Space of 360 Leagues 
Weftward, penetrated the Terra Firm* of the 
Weftlndies^ a little diftant from the River Ma- 
ragnon, where the Boundary of the Caftilians and 
Portuguefes was to be, that is to fay, that the 
Ponuguefes fhould have for their Share, all that 
was comprised within the Space of 180 Degrees 
of Longitude^ advancing towards the Eaft, and 
the Caftllians as many Degrees of Longitude to 
wards theWeft. Now becaufe the Cape of St.Att- 
guflineon the Terra Firma^was within the Limits 
of the PortugtiefeSy yincenzjan durft not go above 
Seven Degrees beyond it } but returned into 
Spain, to beg of the King the Government of 
the Ifland of St. John^ which was inhabited by 
Chriftians, altho* it was not far diftant from the 
Iflands of the Canbbees. 

This Ifland was govern d by a Son of the 
in the I- Count of Carmogna, a Man of Wit and Courage. 
jtaydofSt. He chofe a commodious and fpacious Port where 
John. he m igh t fettle a Colony, and build a Fortrefs. 
The Canibals of the adjacent Iflands fearing the 
Neighbourhood of the Europeans, arm d them- 
ielvcs with Bows and Arrows, and coming in 
Canoos unexpected, pour d upon the Chriftians 
with that Fury, that they Maffacred almoft e- 
very one of them, together with the Governor. 
Having fo done, they loaded their Boats with 
dead Bodies, andreturn d back over joy d at the 
ftooty they had got a as being fufficient Food to 



fobfift them for a long time. The Bifhop only 
and his Domefticks had the good Fortune to ef- 
cape ; for getting into the Woods, they were 
not perceiv d by the Canibalt. The Pope had 
already fent five Bilhops to the New World ; Flvc 
thefe were, a Fryar of the Order of St. M***jhf 
to San Domingo -of New Spain ; a Dodor, aara d to tie In- 
Pedro Snares, to the Fort of the Conception , a dies. 
Monkof"70W0, of the Order of St. Dominick, 
to Cuba $ a Preacher of the Order of St. Franc u^ 
one Juan Cabedo, to Darien } and laftly the 
Licentiate, ALfonfo Manfo^ to Fort St. John. 
This laft Perfon having efcap d the Fury of the 
Canihalsj retir d to a Cacique of the Country, 
who was a Friend to theChriftians, and who 
accordingly conduded him and his Attendants 
to HtfpanioU. Some few Months after, the 
Canibals came and invaded the Country of this 
Cacique , taking him and Mailacring him, toge 
ther with all his Subjeds } and, without depart 
ing from the Place, roaflcd and eat the dead 
Bodies. Before they retir d they fet Fire to 
his Habitation, which was foon reduc d to A flies. 
The Reaibn they gave afterwards for this Cruel 
Proceeding) was, that Cacique** haying murdered 
Seven of their Companions, whom they fent 
into this Ifland to make Canoos^ the Trees being 
longer and ftraiter there than elfewhere there 
abouts. They carry d away the very Bones of 
this unhappy Governour whom they had thus 
kilFd and eaten, that they might (hew them to 
the Wives and Children of their deceas d Seven 
Companions, comforting them by this Barbarous 
Spectacle, and the Revenge they had taken on 
their Enemies. 

Admiral Chriftopher Colnmbw, before he dy j d, 
advis d his Catholick IVJajefty to plant theprin- 
cipal of his Colonies, in the Provinces of Bera- 


1 3-2 The General HISTORY 

guA and Vraba, becanfe there were to be found 
the greateft number of, and the moft commodi 
ous Ports : Beragua was afterwards nam d Cafti- 
lid Oro } and Uraba, New j4ndalnfia. Houfes 
and a Church were built there and a Bifhop 
wasfent thither, to inftruft the Indians in the 
Catholick Faith. Grains of all forts were 
brought to Sow the Land, as likewife to pro 
duce good Fruits, of which, in a fhort time, 
there was great abundance } for Cucumber^ 
Melons^ and Pumpions grow and become ripe 
there in Twenty Days ; Lettice, zorrel^ and 
other Herbs, will be ready to gather in Ten. 
fruits. The Fruits of the Country are excellent, and 
among the red, thofe of a Tree which the/- 
dlans call Guaianaba, which produces Apples 
fomething like ours of Europe^ but more incli 
nable to the Shape of a Citron , another Tree 
caird Gnarabana^ bears a fort of Fruit like Me 
lons } but of fo exquifite a Tafte, that none of 
our Fruits of Europe can come near it. This is 
what the King of Spain faicl of them, when one 
of them was prefented to him, which had been 
carefully kept during the Voyage All the 
Woods are full of thofe Plums which the Phifi- 
Mirafai- cians call Miraboians , which are dry d to 
make life of upon Medicinal Occafions : 
Hogs. Hogs, by eating of this Fruit in the Woods, be 
come exceeding Fat , their Flefh is firmer, and 
of a more exquifite Relifh than ours. 
Wilffieajls TheNumberof Animals equals that oftheFruits: 
and Mon~ There are to be found in the Woods Lions,! igers, 
frous Ani- Lynxes, Foxes, Stags, and monftrous Animals; a- 
rnong the reft, there s one of thefe laft as large as 
an Ox or a Mule, but fomewhat inclin d to the 
Shapeof an Elephant} he has longWhiskers,Hoofs 
like a Horfe, and hanging Ears like an Elephant, 
but Ihorter. Many Rivers empty themfelves into 


of Vo Y ARES ani TRAVELS. I 33 

the Gnlpk of Vraba, whereof one is exceeding 
deep, and above four Miles broad, the Spaniards 
term it Rio Grande, or the Great Fiver : Great Rio Grau- 
Numbers of Phealants and Peacocks are to be de 
found on its Shores, but of Colours very diffe- p ow j s an & 
rent from ours. There are many other Sorts of Birds. 
Birds, whole Melody is charming, and Tail ex 
cellent. The Quantity of Parrots of all Sorts 
arid Sizes is infinite : But the Spaniards who go to 
the Indies, apply themfelvcs to fomeihing better 
than Bird-catching. 

Fafco Nunez, underftanding that the Inhabi- VafcoNu- 
tants of the Southern Sea coafts, heap d up year- nez j Air 
ly abundance of Gold, he thought of nothing^ * 7 " * 
more than viiiting thofe rich Countries: ^ 
was a Perfon of great Courage, and had been 
in War during the whole Courfe of his Govern 
ment } he had likewife often exposed himfelf in 
Duels for Honour s fake, and had always come 
off Victorious ; but now his Heat of Youth be 
ing fomewhat abated by Age, he became more 
Prudent, and fought to make his Fortune : His 
Generofity, his great A&ions, and his no lefs 
extraordinary Bravery, had procured him the 
Government of Darien. Having underftood 
that his Catholick Majelly, to whom he was 
become fufpefted, had fent Pedro Avla to be 
Governour-General of the Indies, he refolv d 
to go on a Difcovery of the South-Seas, endea 
vouring, by fo important a Service, to appeale 
the Anger of his Prince, now excited againfb 
him , or at lead to procure great Riches and 
Honour to himfelf, by which he might render 
his Name Famous to Pofterity- Being thus re 
folv d, hechofe IOQ Men out of the moft ve 
teran Soldiers of D^nen, and among thofe that 
were newly arriv d from Spain , who, like their 
Leader, being poffefs d with a Defire of getting 


1 J4 TheGeneral HISTORY 

Gold, departed fromDarien the Firft of September 
1513. in a Brigantineand Twenty Canoo;, toge 
ther with feveral Indians, their Friends, who 
had a mind to (hare in their Adventures. They 
were fo wife as to carry Hatchets, Mattocks, and 
other Inftruments of that kind, along with 
them, to open their Way crofs the Woods. 
They went by Sea as far as Coiba, where the 
Cacique Caretta, who was Nunez s Friend, liv d. 
Before they march d towards the Mountains^ 
their Commander would have them fall on their 
Knees, and beg the Almighty s Affiftance in 
their Expedition. 

Xenives Under this good Omen he continu d his 
SubmiJ/ijn March, and went dire&ly towards the Territo- 
and Prc- r j es o f t fa Cacique Poncha, but he fled before 
him ; yet by Means of fome Indians he was ta* 
ken Prifbner : He return d, and made Ibme Pre- 
fents to VafcO) giving him all the Gold he had T 
for he had been plunder d but the Year before. 
Vafco made him a return of fome Glafs Beads, 
which the Indians wear about their Necks and 
Arms as great Ornaments : He gave him alfo^ 
Ibme final! Lookinglafles, and two Saws, which 
thofe People make great account of ; as ferving 
them to Saw down Trees > which they make 
their Canoos of, by hollowing them with certain 
iharp Stones that they find in the Rivers } for 
they are abfolutely unacquainted with any other 
Metal but Gold. The Cacique, to teftifie the 
greater Friendship for Vafco, gave him feveral 
Indian.^ who were better acquainted than his 
Men with the Mountains where the Gold was, 
and who ferv d to carry the Proviiions on 
their Shoulders. They muft of Necefllty pals 
through divers rude and inaccefllble Places, 
where there was neither Way, nor Path, nor 
Hut to be feen. The Neighbouring Nations 



have no Commerce between them-, Gold to-MCow 
them is ufelefs, for they are altogether ignorant mere **~ 
of the Ufe of Money: They fatisfic themfelyes ~%^ n 
with what is juft necefTary to fupport Life, which 
is the Reafon that there are no Ways found a- 
mong them, from one Place to another. But 
as thefe People are perpetually on the Watch, 
to deftroy one another, they have fecret and 
obfcure Places, where they lay themfelves in 
Ambufh, to furprize PafTengers. Thefe Indians 
were of great Service to Nune^ in making 
Ways through the Bufhes and Mountains di 
vided by Torrents and Rivers, over which they 
were frequently oblig d to lay long Bridges, that 
all the Company might pafs. 


Vafco Nunez Penetrates as far as the Pro 
vince of Efcaragua, where the Indians 
attack him. He afterwards difcovers the 
South-Seas from the Top of a high Moun 

IT would be difficult to defcribe and parti- Vafco 
cularize all the Hardfhips, thefe People un- 11 ** 
derwent in their Expedition, both on account of 
Fatigue, and want of Neceflaries. The Cacique 
of the Province of llfcaragua^ at the Head of a 
great Multitude of naked Indians, arm d with 
Bows and Arrows, attack d them : They had 
likewife fome Spears, and a fort of Wooden- 
fwords very hard and long, with which they 
laid about them Might and Main ^ theyus d the 
Bow with great Addrefs, and feldom feet with 

1^6 The General HISTORY 

out killing. Thefe Indians planted themfelves ifi 
the S/>^V^ Way,to hinder their going forward, 
and demanded of them with great Fiercenefs, 
and many menacing Words, Whither they were 
going ? Letting them know, by an Interpreter, 
That they would Maflacre them every Man, if 
they did not inftantly return back : Then began 
the Cacique immediately to let fly atthew0- 
peans } who foon returned the Compliment with 
Muskets. The Indies , upon hearing the fright 
ful Noife the Fire-arms made, thought they were 
Arrows fent from Heaven, which frighten c) them 
fo, that they incontinently fled, nay, fomewere 
fo aftonifh d, that they could not move a Step, 
and confequentty- were taken Prifoners. The 
Spaniards kill d above 600 of them with their 
Swords, among whom was found the Cacique 
himfelf : His Houfe was immediately Plunder d, 
being full of Provifions and other Neceflaries. 
The Cacique s Brother, and divers Indians^ his 
Friends, were habited like Women, being ad- 
dided to that abominable Vice againfl Nature, 
fb that they were not permitted to draw a 
Bow, or go to the Wars, nor excrcife any Em 
ployments that belong d to [VI en } but continued 
in the Houfe, where they performed the Fundti- 
ons of Women, i afce could not enough admire, 
that a People, who liv d fo hardly, drank no 
thing but Water, fed upon Maiz- bread, Roots 
and Froits, could be capable of fo great Soft- 
Does fe- nefs, and fo infamous a Vice. He caus d them 
vere Ju- all to be hang d, to the Number of Fourty, and 
ficeufofl afterwards had them torn to Pieces by his Dogs, 
^^Su- t j latwereaccu f] :orn c } to hunt the Indians, like 
:cs * wild Beafts. The Inhabitans of the Place fee 
ing the Ghailifements that Nunez, infiided on 
thefe infamous Wretches, feiz d others of them, 
that had conceal d themfelves^ and fpitting in 


of VOYAGES ani TRAVELS" 157 

their Faces, hurry d them tof^fio^to be put to 
Death. The Courtiers only were infedted with 
this abominable Vice, which had not yet been 
communicated to the common People. One of 
the moft ancient Inhabitants of the Village, lift- 
ing up his Hands to Heaven, faid, The Sun^ 
whom he adored, was incensed againft the Indians, 
becaufe of this detfftable Vice } And he verily bc~ 
liev d^ it had occafiorfd the Tempefts and Storms 
that had of late deftroy d their Harvefts^ and re* 
ditc d them to fo great Calamities : But for the fu 
ture he hotfd^ after the Chaflifement and Death of fo 
many gmlty If retche s 9 the Sim would re ft ore them to 
hi* Favour, and tin longer be displeased "with that 
Nation. Thefe Words pleas ? d Vafeo very much, 
and he condemn d to Death all fuch as were 
brought hinij and convided of this abomina 
ble Crime. 

Heobferv d that thefe People were naturally 
docible, and that there would be no great 
Trouble to Civilize them, provided they were a n<liacks. 
but carefully inflruded : He alfo found they 
had Courage, and lov d War, which made him 
fhew great Kindnefs to them. This Country is 
barren, coniifting only of Mountains and Fo- 
refts, with fomeValle^ s. Thofe that inhabit the 
Mountains, cover themfelves to their Wade, 
and fometimes below, with Cotton- cloth. 
TheirHabitations are cover d with Leaves , and 
they endure the Cold wonderfully, which is not 
a little Sharp upon thefe Mountains : Thefe 
Leaves being dry d, become hard, and maybe 
few d together. There arc among thofe People, 
fbme Slaves that are all Black, whereof there 
was a Clan about two Days Journey off: They 
are naturally more barbarous and cruel than the 
other Inhabitants, with whom they have per 
petual War, and whom they Murder, where- 

L ever 

138 The General HISTORY 

ever they catch them. The old Inhabitants fay, 
thefe Blacks came from foreign Countries, and 
that they are not natural Indians. 

Vafco Altho this Country was not above fix Days 
journey from that of the Cacique Poncha,. yet 
the Spaniards employed Twenty-five about it, by 
reafon of the Difficulty of the Paflage } To that 
they did not arrive there before the 25th of 
September. Fafco order d his Followers to ilay 
at the Foot of the Mountain, whilfl he went up 
alone, referring that Honour to himfelf: When 
he was a top, and had firft call his Eyes on the 
South-Seas, he fell on his Knees, and kifs d the 
Ground thrice, adoring and th aakingGod, that 
he had been pleas d to referve that great Dif- 
covery for -him, which would for the future be 
of fach Benefit to Europe : He then made a 
Sign to thofe that were below, to come up and 
participate of his Joy; he order d them like- 
wife to fall oa their Knees and thank God on 
their Parts, for the great Treafures and Riches 
that open d tfiemfelves to their View \ All the 
neighbouring Valleys refounded with the Cries 
and ; Acclamations they made. Then they rais d, 
by f^fco s Order, a great Heap of Stones , 
whereon they nVda Grafs, to ferve as a Memo 
rial , that they had firft diicover d from 
thence the Southern-Seas. As they went down, 
they cut the Name of Caflile upon feveral Barks 
of Trees. 

Procures The Cacique Chiappa waited with a great 
Multitude of arm d Indians fot rafco s coming 
down, to fight him; but when he heard the 
Noife of the Muskets, which the neighbouring 
^echo s render d yet more terrible, and faw 
the Fire and Smoak, he turned Tail and fled. 
There were but few kill d of his Men, becaufe 
Nunez, had *a- rnind to gain their Friend fhip, that 



of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 139 

they might aid him in the Difcovery of tbefe 
rich Countries. He eriter d the Honfe of the 
Cacique, which was built in the Form of a Pa- 
villion, with great Trees, and cover d with 
large Leaves : He took off* the Chains from fe- 
vcra l Indian Prsfoners, and crder d them to go 
and bring back the Cacique, proffering him his 
Friendship, and feveral Prefents. The Cacique 
return d, and was honourably receiv d ; he had 
Prefents made him of Glafs Beads, which the 
Indian Women are very fond of. In return, 
ths c&i iqtie prefcnted fafco with Gold Plates, 
and gave hinrmoreover divers of his Indians to 
conduct him to the South-Sea-coatls, where he 
arriv d Four Days after. 

He took PoiFeflion of tnem with all the So- Takes Fbf- 
lemnity poflible,in the Prefence of thofe that ac fejfon of 
companyM him,and in the Naineof hisCathoIick^ Sf)UtJ} - 
Ma jelly, whofe Efcutcheon he fet up in four 
different Places, and drew up an authentick A& 
of what he had done. This being over, Nur.e^ 
with Fourscore of his Men , the Cacique and 
fome of his Iaas,\vent into Nine fmall Boats, 
and, having paisM a River, enter d the Country 
of the Caciqw Coqucra, who thought atfirft to 
make fome Refinance ; but was foon beaten, 
and put to Flight: Hovvever, he Was at length 
perfvvaded to yield and fu bruit to Vafco, wham 
he thereupon prefented with fome Gold he had 
ia fmall Pots, l r afeo enter d his Village with 
his Followers, and repos d himfelf there for 
fome Days. The Cacique told him of a neigh 
bouring River, about 60 Miles long, now calUd 
the Gulf of St. Michael: It is full of , inhabited 
Iflands and defart Rocks. Va\co had a great 
mind to go and difcover that River, tho* thG 
Cacique acquainted him withal, it was impoffible 
to Sail there, by reafon of the frequent Storms, 

L 2 where- 

140 The General HISTORY 

wherewith it was agitated. His Courage how 
ever never fail d Mm, nor was his Piety to be 
furmounted by any Obftacles^ He faid, He 
tr lifted in the A (Ji fiance of the Almighty ^ and 
would freely Sacrifice his Life in the Search of new 
Discoveries^ that he might propagate the Go/pel, and 
gain Riches encttghto fight and deftroy the Enemies 
of the Faith. Thefe Words altogether inclin d 
his Companions to be of his Mind, fo that they 
al] went on board N ilie Canoos for that Expe 
dition. Having fail d fome Leagues up the Ri 
ver, the Water began to grow W T hite, foam 
and fwell condderably, fo that the Waves re- 
fembled Mountains : Their Boats being but 
final], ill equipp d, and little capable to refiftfo 
furious a Tempefl, they knew not what to do, 
being neither able to go forwards, nor back 
wards, fo that they look d upon one another 
with great Confirmation ^ but the Cacique Chi- 
appa, and his Indians that accompany d him, 
were moft frighteri d, as well knowing the 
Quality of the River, and the Dangers they 
were to encounter. At length, however, by 
hard Rowing, theyarriv d fate at a fmallDe- 
fart-IQand, where having landed, they faften d 
their Boats as well as they could, and then cut- 
ting down Branches of Trees, fpread them up 
on the Ground to Repofe themfelves \ but the 
Water fwell d fo, daring the Night, that the 
Ifland was almoft wholly covered over with it, 
infornuch that they were forc d to fly to a 
neighbouring Mountain for refuge. 

The Inhabitants of the South Sea-coafts fay, 
owly, this River flows and Ebbs every Day, and that 
it has a Flux and Reflux much like that of the 
Ocean on the Coafts of France and Spain : 
When it Ebbs, it leaves divers Rocks difcover d, 
which fcem fo many Iflands , but when it Flows, 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 141 

they are cover d again. As foon as the Day ap- 
pear d, and the Waters retir d, the Spaniards 
return d to the Place where they had left their 
Boats, but they found them all funk, and full 
of Sand ; nay, mod of them with Holes beaten 
through them, by the knocking of one Boat 
againft another, altho they were made of one 
Piece of Wood : The Cordage was likewife 
broken, which lafl Defect they fupply d by 
Rinds of Trees, and certain Sea-weeds, which 
were flexible and flrong ^ thefe Weeds ferv d 
them alfo, to ftop up their Leaks , fo that the 
Weather becoming Calm, they ventured to Sea 
again } for this River could be term d no other. 
They were half dead with Hunger , for as foon 
as the Tera pelt began to rife, they threw their 
Proviilons over-board, to lighten their Boats. 
Soon after they had fet fail, they heard a Noife 
upon the Water, which frighten d them fb 
much the more, in that the Winds were down. 
The Indians acquainted them, the Water of this 
River running with Impetuoilty, during the 
Flux and Reflux, and beating agai nft the Rocks, 
was the Occafion of that Noife which they 
heard at fo great a di fiance. 


The Remainder of VafcoV Expedition to the 
South-Sea^ and his. Return to Darieii. 

AFter great Fatigues, they at length arriv d 
at the Territories of a Cacique^ call d 
Tumaccr*, where they tarried feveral Days : 
They found that Cacique in Arms } but they 
foon put him to Flight, and he was wounded in 

L 3 the 

142 The General HISTORY 

theConteft. The Dread he had of the Eur& 
peans^ hinder d him from coming to them, tho 
they defir d it of him by means of fome Indians 
they had with them : However, he feat his Son, 
whom Vafto receiv d very Civilly, and gave him 
good Cloaths, Glafs-Beads, and other Prefents. 
Hethereuponretutn d to his Father, and gave 
him an account of the Goodnefs and Humanity 
of the Spaniards : The Caciqve feeing his Son 
clad after the European manner, took Courage, 
and Went to Fafco with a great Number of /- 
<ti*ns } who carry d divers Pieces of Wronght- 
Gold, and 240 very large Pearls, with a great 
Quantity of lefler ones. The Sight of fo great 
Riches, made the Spaniards amends for all the 
P trls Fatigues they had fuflain d , nevei thclefs, the 
Pearls were not fo fair as they ought to have 
been, by reafbn the Natives did noc under (land 
the Secret of taking them out of their Shells, 
without lettiag them come near the Fire, which 
they brought them to for the fake of the Fifh, 
that they cittern d much better than the Pearls. 
The Cacique obferving what Value they fet upon 
his Pearls, immediately commanded divers of 
YAsJndians that were about him to go and ftih for 
more; they obey d, and in a ihort time returned 
with Twelve Pound weight of them, as well 
great as fmall, and which were exceeding 
White, becaufe they had not come near the 
Fire : In exchange, they had feveral Ewoftan 
Trifics given them, wherewith they were 
charm d, The Cacique could not fufficiently 
tedifie his Joy for the coming of kafco^ with 
whom hecontra&ed a firid: Friendfhip. 
// &/*. Altho thefe Caciques go commonly naked, 
jedfrcm lead miferable Lives, and want for the moft part 
tin /;^f- t j ie greatest Neccflaries, yet are they nevcrthe- 
- p rouc | They are irreconciieabie to 



one another, and do each other all the Mifchief 
they can. Tumacco told Nvxfz. y the better to ob 
tain his good Will , That la that Gulf of 
St. Michael, there was an I (land much larger 
than all the reft, goveiu d by a very powerful 
Cacique^ who every Year rais d an Army, with 
which he came in an infinite Number of Canoos^ 
and ravag d all the Coafts of the Guff, .Mafia- 
cring the Indians^ and carrying thejn away Pri- 
foners. This Ifhnd, quoth he, is not above 
20 Leagues ; but it extends a great way, even 
out of the Gulf 9 and is wafh d in feveral Places 
by the Ocean. There are Pearls commonly 
fifh d there that are to the full as large as L 
Beans or Olives. This Newsextreamly pleas d 
Pafcoyvho told the Caciques Tumacco and Chiappa 9 
He would immediately go and Conquer that rich 
Country, and give them the Dominion of it. 
The Two Caciques endeavourd in a very obli 
ging manner, to difTwade him from fo danger 
ous an Enterprise, or at lead advis d him to 
defer his Refolution till a more convenient 
Juncture } for, that at that Seafon of the Year, 
Storms were fb frequent, he could not wel-1 put 
to Sea without an evident Rifque of Perifhing. 
Pafco faw plainly this Advice was fincere, for he 
eafily obferv d how high the Sea was, and 
with what force tn^ Waves beat againfl the 

During the little time he was on the Coafts ofJgrejf 
the G//, he faw great Inundations of Rain s 
with W T inds that, threatened to over-turn all ^ 
fucceifive Thunder and Light ning flew from the 
Clouds, and Torrents roul d down from, the 
Mountains with that Impetuoufity, that they 
carry d away Trees Roots and all, and" Rocks 
df prodigious Size. The Indians own d they 
fed never feeii .the like tempelluous Weather, 

L , 

*44 The General HISTORY 

vi and faid. They believed the South-Sea ^commonly 
Call d the Pacifick Ocean) was in fo great a Rage^ 
meerly on account of the Arrival of the Cbriftians* 
Vafco then judg d it advifable, to defer the 
Execution of his Projeft till the following 
Spring : But having underftood that the Caciques 
Tumacco and Chiappa had,in the Neighbourhood, 
very proper Places to fifh Pearl in, whither the 
other Indians had not Permiffion to come, he 
Pcarl-fjb- defir d them to fend thither fome of their 
" : Fifhers that could go to the Bottom of the 
Water, when the Sea was Calm, where tis faid 
thegreateft Shells lye ; as for the middle fort, 
they were to be found fomewhat off the Shore ; 
but the fmaller fize, lay generally about it. 
Chitppa^ to comply with Pa/cos Defire, fent 
Thirty of his Indian Fifhers accordingly, to 
whom Six Spaniards were joyn d, to learn the 
Art of Pearl-Fifhing. 

Great - The Place aflign d for this Purpofe was about 

guanti- Ten Miles off the Cacique s Houie but as the 

ties %a- Sea was then pretty high, they had not the 

theSd. Courage to dive in the deepeft Places \ they 

contented themfelves to gather up thofe Shells 

that were about the Shores, which were in fo 

great Quantities, that Six Indians were loaded 

with them, Thefe Shells were open cl, to take 

out the Pearls, and the Indians eat the Fifh of 

them, which the Spaniards joyn d with them in, 

perhaps through Hunger, becaufe they had not 

eaten for fo long a time : To fpeak Truth, thefe 

Pearls were not larger than Peas, but they were 

exceeding White and Clean. 

Vafco/cw P*f co having informed himfelf of all he was 

BU tfoY defironstoknow, refoiv d to return toDarien 

Darien- vvith his Companions, but that by another Way 

than he came. The Caciques embrac d him with 

all the Tokens ot a imcere Atkdtion, and 



he promised them to return fpeedily and put 
his proje&ed Enterprize in execution. They 
defir d he would leave his Sick Men behind, and 
they would fead them to him with a good 
Guard as foon as they mould be recovered of 
their Indifpofitions. 

They departed, and fome time after entred $ oes ^ 
the Country of a Cacique nam d Pacra^ a cruel vere Ju- 
Perfon, and a profefs d Enemy to the other Ca- fiice upon 
ciqttes : They paG d thro* wild Places and large diver f So ~ 
Forefts fill d with Lions and Tigers, which the domltes - 
Indians^ by reafon they are Naked, fear exceed 
ingly. This Cacique who had already heard of 
the Europeans, fearing they were now come 
to chaftiie him for his Cruelties, fled inconti 
nently. What moft affii&ed the Spaniards in 
their March was, the Fears they were under, 
that they fhould die with thirft through the 
great Keats they underwent on thoie fteril and 
parch d Mountains : God comforted them in 
their Diftrefs, by caufing them to find in their 
way a large Grotto, wherein was a Fountain of 
Fre(h Water, with which the Indians that ac 
companied them fiil d the Pitchers theycarry d 
on their Backs. They were deiirous to pafs 
the Night there, but the Indians diiTwaded them, 
by telling them the Lions and other wild Beafts 
of the Forelts, were accuftomed to come thi 
ther a Nights to drink. This made them Tra 
vel on, and they at length arriv d at the Houfe 
of the Cacique Pacra^ but foun^ no body there. 
His Subjects however caime in crowds , and 
brought them ail mann er of Provifions, re 
counting to them the heinous Crimes of this 
Cacique^ and how he had lately Ravifh d four 
young IV omen that were Daughters to a Neigh 
bouring Lord, fafco refolvM to take him ei 
ther by Force or Art : He brought his Defigri 


446 The. General HISTORY 

about by terrifying him with Menaces. He 
came accompanied by three Neighbouring Lords, 
addi&ed like himfelf to that abominable Sin, 
and furrendred himfelf to fafco, who has iiace 
faid, he never faw one of a worfe Mien or a 
more wild Afped, infomuch that he rather re- 
fembled a Beaft than a Man. fyfco immediately 
caus d him and his Companions to be Bound, 
telling them, He would hear what Complaints 
came in agaialt them, and do Juftice upon them 
accordingly. The Lords and People of the 
Neighbouring Countries came in Ihoals to ac- < 
cufc them of enormous Crimes , as violating 
their Daughters and all the young Men that fell 
into their Hands. Vafco condemn d them to be 
devoured by Dogs that he carried along with 
him, who in a moment eat them to the very 
Bones. Before he put them to Death, he de 
manded of them where their Gold was ? They 
anfwer d, They had none, nor had ever trou 
bled their Heads about getting any. They 
could be brought to fpeak no more. The fe- 
verity Vafco pradis d towards this infamous Ca- 
cique^ procur d him the Love and Efteem of all 
the Neighbouring People, who thereupon fur- 
nifli d him with Proviiions and Gold in great 
abundance. A Cacique, one Bononiana^ lifting 
up his Hands to Heaven, told Vafco, he had by 
this piece of Juitice, deliver d the Country of a 
cruel Enemy , and an infupportable Tyrant } 
and that for the future they and their Pofberity 
might have hopes to live in a profound Peace, 
lince the common Difturber was ridded out of 
the way. He ,beg d Vtfco to accept Prefents 
from him, which he offer d with the uttnoft 
good will ; and moreover acquainted him, that 
Country abounded ia Gold, and that he might 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 147 

find it either in Plates in the Indians Houfes, 
or in Chains about their Arms or Necks. 

yafco and his Companions underwent great Meets 
Extremities afterwards, they could meet with great Dif- 
notbmgto eat but wild Herbs and Fruits } they 
were moreover oblig d to clear the way with 
their Hatchets through Bufhes and Bryars, and 
ever now and then were forc d to cut down 
Branches to throw on the Boggs to render them 
paflable, which the Indian; had been frequently 
fwallow d up in for want of that Precaution. The 
difficulty of Travelling in thofe Countries has 
been one caufe that neighbouring Caciques have 
no Commerce with one another.The others are, merce a : 
that they always look upon each other W JEac- jj^ a 
mies, and endeavour to make ; laves of as many 
of them as they can get.Our Adventurers arriv d 
at length at the Houfe of a Cacique nam d Bucd>e- 
fo^who was retir d into the Woods; but he gave 
the Spaniards to underftand, it was out of a Con- 
fufion he had for not being able to receive them 
in fuch manner as they deferv d having nothing 
to give them to eat :, however he fent to Vafa 
a Prefent of fomeGold: The Spaniards, after 
they had fatisfied their Hunger the belt they 
could with Roots and Water, left that Place. 
Not far off they met with feveral Indians, who 
prefented them, in the name of their Cacique, 
with Thirty Pieces of flatted Gold, fomewhat 
like the Cover of a Chalice: This they faid they 
did as an Acknowledgment for the Service had 
been done them by exterminating the wicked 
Caciques. The Indians make ufe of thole Plates Gold 
to adorn themfelves with : They fatten them plates - 
about, their Necks, and let them hang down 
Upon their Brealts. They gave the Spaniards 
to underftand by ligns, that there was in the 
Neighbourhood a certain Cacique who poflef^d 

a great 

148 The General HISTORY 

a great deal of Gold ^ That he was a very cruel 
Pcrfon, and did his Neighbours all theMifchief 
he could ; That if the Chriftians would but 
Conquer his Country they might find immenfe 
Riches, and get the Good will of all the neigh 
bouring Countries; and for their own Parts 
Vafco re* they offer d, that if Vafco pleas d, they would 
fufes to begin the War themfelves. Vafco thank d them 
War on a for their Prefents and Good will $ and gave 
Cacique. t j iem f our aws w j t | 1 w hj c h t h ev were charm d, 

and which they made more account of than of 
all the Gold in the World. He aflur d them in 
a little time he would return to their Country 
with powerful Succours to fubdue- their Ene- 
Gujloms. mies. The Indians of that Country live very 
hard, they neither make nfe of Table, Nap 
kins nor Pots } in one Hand they take a piece 
of Malt-bread^ and in another a morfel of Salt 
and Broil d Filh : They rarely eat any Meat. 
When their Fingers are greazy or dirty, they 
rub them againfl: their Feet or their Sides ^ but 
they often throw themfelves into Rivers to 
cleanfe their Bodies. 

The Spaniards parted from this Country load 
ed with Gold, but very much opprefs d with 
Hunger: They arrived next at the Territories 
of the Cacique Pocckonofa^ where they refled 
themfelves Thirty Days. This Cacique prefent- 
ed them with great quantities of Gold and 
many Slaves : He was told he would be obiig d 
to pafs over into the Country of the Cacique 
Tumanama, a Perfon dreadful to the Indians ; 
but the Spaniards found his Power too weak, and 
therefore refolv d to go and attack that Coun- 
try themfelves : For this purpofe fafco with tfo 
Spaniards and a few Indians march d all Night, 
and at Day break fuddenly furpriz d the Cacique^ 
whom they feiz d with Fourfcore of his Concu-r 



bines that he had rob d other Caciques of : All 
the Indians his Subjects were clofe in their Hutts 
without thinking of any thing. Thefe Hutts 
which are divided from each other, are made 
of Wood, and cover d with Straw or Herbs: 
That of the Cacique was Sixfcore Paces long, 
and Fifty broad. The Indians infulted Tumana- 4 icirlx- 
ma^ and Spit in his Face as fbon as they law him row* C?/- < 
a Prifoner, it being their Cuftom to ufe the/ 
Unfortunate fo. Great Rejoicings were made 
all around for the downfall of this Cacique who 
was uniyerfally hated. Pa/cc, to frighten him, 
threatned to throw him into the River, upon 
which this unfortunate wretch fell oa his Knees, 
and humbly befought him to forgive him, tel 
ling him, that his Enemies had given an ill 
Character of him purely out of Malice ; but 
that if he would be pleas d to fpare his Life, he 
would give him a great Quantity of Gold : 
Moreover he protefted he had never done any 
harm to the Chriftians, being always afFraid of 
their Swords, which, he faid, would cleave a 
Man in two at one Stroak. Whilft he was talk 
ing after this rate , all the Gold Chains and spoils* 
Bracelets found upon the Concubines we*e 
brought to Pafco: The chief Men of this petty 
State likewife brought theirs , but they all pro 
tefted they had their Gold from other Coun 
tries. The Cacique was pardon dn 


t$o The General HISTORY 


Of the Discoveries made by Gonzalez Her 
nandez of Oviedo, and the Riches he 
heafd up in his Expedition.- 

^frf TT ! s Catholick Majefty fent this Perfon to 

Ob fa i, a. JLi the/W/ to Melt down the Gold taken 

tions. out of the Mines, becaufe he was very skilful 

at it. Being arriv d at a Port inhabited by 

Nets. Fifhermen , he began to consider their Nets 

made of Cotton, and their Lines made of the 

Rinds of Trees, which were faft ned to Stakes 

that they ftuck into the Sand when they Fifh d. 

They had in their Hints great Quantities of 

Dried and Salted Fiih, which they kept there 

Earthen reac ty to * 3e tranfported to other Countries: 

Ware. He like wife obfeVv d they had Pots, Spoons, 

and earthen Trenchers very well wrought, and 

great Urns of the fame matter, all Painted with 

different Colours, Red and Blue-, and others 

with different Figures of Animals and Plants. 

The Wail: of thefe Hutts were covered with 

m fine Matts made of a fort of Cane, very loofe, 

and imall firings of ail Herb : This Tapeftry 

flain d with feveral Colours, had a very agree 

able effect on the Eye-, and what was furpri- 

zing was, that you fhould fee upon it the Fi 

gures of Lions, Tigers and Eagles, very natural 

Jto/*" and wel ! deri S a d - Their Cotton Coverlets 
were Painted and diverfified after the fame 
manner. Over their Doors they hung a great 
number of ftrung Shells, which when mov d by 
the Wind, afforded a not unpleafant found. 
Hernandez upon his Landing at the Head of 

<* iwe a Company of Soldiers, met firft with a Saphlr 


as big as a Goofe* Egg , and a little while 
after with a very large piece of 2tmbergrteft : 
He moreover obferv d divers precious Stones Precious* 
faftned to theMatts which the Indians cover d Stones. 
their Walls with : They bought them of remote 
Indians for fome Salted Filh.Having entred aPlain 
three Leagues long and two broad, he obferved 
that the Hutts lay divided fron each other Hutts* 
at the foot of Mountains, and all cover d with 
Fnrit-Trees. Divers little Rills ran from thefe 
Mountains and watered the neighbouring Plain. 
They have in this Country fine Gardens and 
cultivated Fields, which they Water with Ga- Canals. 
nals made for that purpofe. The Air here is The Air. 
fo mild and temperate, that t\\Q Spaniards^ who 
flept feveral Nights upon the River-fide with 
out any Covering, felt no Inconveniency there 
by it. The Streets of thefe Habitations are streets. 
ftrait, asif they had been drawn by a Line. 

Their Hutts were full of poyfon d Arrows, jbyfon d 
which the Spaniards burnt. In the Caves they Arrows. 
found great Quantities of Venifon and Wild- 
Boar Pork, with which the Europeans made 
good cheer for feveral Days. They found alto 
great Magazines of Cotton-Cloth , and Fea 
thers of divers Colours, with which the Indians 
made Plumes to fet themfelves off: They pre- 
ferve in a Chamber a-part, the Bones and Ames 
of their Lords ; the Ames are kept in Urns of Urns. 
painted Earth. There are fome that do not 
burn the Bodies, but content themfelves with 
drying them, laying over them Cotton 
Covertures, to which are faftned fmali Plates of 
Gold. The Europeans made fine Plunder of all 
thefe Things : They likewife found great 
pieces of exceeding white Marble, which feem d 
to have been wrought and polifh d by fome Car- 
ver: This furpriz d the Spaniards rery much, in 


The General HISTORY 

that the Inti*m have no manner of ufeof Irons 
After having heap d up vaft Riches, the Spani 
ards put to Sea the i5th of Jnne^ to return to 
Carthagena : They would fain have landed on 
fome I (lands inhabited by the Canibalsj with a 
Defign to deflroy them ; but the Sea ran fo 
high that all the Pilots in the World could not 
have efie&ed it : Infomuch that in one Nights 
time they found themfelves above 40 Leagues 
from their Mark. Admiral Columbus , who firit 
difcover d thefe Seas, obferv d, that when he 
had a mind to Sound, the Lead would not go 
to the bottom, by reafon of the rapidity of the 
Current^ and although he had the Wind in his 
Currents, poop he could hardly fometimes make a League 

in an Hour. 

Their Even to this Day the true Caufe of thefe Cur- 

Caufe va- rents has not been found out, no more than the 
FI UX or Reflux of the Sea, which fome have at- 
^ tributed to the Sun, others to the Moon, and a 
third fort to fubterranean Winds, which blow 
the Floods to and fro. Some think thefe Cur 
rents are occafion d by the Earth s being higher 
in fome Places and lower in others, fo that the 
Water has a natural Defcent with it \ others 
are of Opinion they are caus d by great Rivers, 
and a great Quantity of Earth and Sand which 
they drag along with them. One of the An- 
tients remark d, that the Currents which are 
obfervabie in the Straits of Gibraltar^ proceed 
ed from the Oceans being lefs deep than the 
Mediterranean, by which means the Water ran 
from the higher Place into the lower. Thofe 
that have SaiPd through the \eff* Indian Seas, 
and along the Shores of the Terra Firma^ affirm, 
that in the Strait that feparates the South Sea 
from the North, near the Cities of Pavam* and 
Nombre de Dios y fix Leagues above the ^w- 


oYAGES and TRAVELS. 15* 

al^ during the Space of about thir 
ty Leagues. There are very deep Caverns, 
thro 7 which the Waters of one Sea run into 
the other Eaftward, and that this Motion 
is occafionxl by that of the Sun. Others 
fay the Waters return by thefe Caverns to 
their principal Source in the Centre of the 
Earth, , and that when they abound too 
much they overflow , and make to the 
Shores. , . - 

>Seba&ian Cabot a Venetian, moVd with a Cabot 9 / ., 
Defire of making new Difcoveries, after 
Example of Columbw, fitted out two 
at his own Charges, and departing from a 
Port in England^ continued failing till he faw 
the Polar Star elevated 55 Degrees. Heat 
Jaft came to a Sea frll d with great Flakes 
of Ice, which beating againft his Ships threat- 
ned him with Deftruction in cafe he pro 
ceeded. The Twilight was there as bright 
as our longeft Days in Europe in Summer 
at Noon. In a word, Ice forc d him to 
make to a Shore not far off, where he found 
a prodigious Quantity of large Fife, which 
the Inhabitants of thofe Parts call Baccalai* #$ 
The Manners of thefe People are civiliz d 
enough, and they go all cloath d in Skins 
of Beafts; Cabot and his Companions took 
a great deal of Pleafure in feeing the Bears 
hunt thefe Fifh, which they did in the fol 
lowing manner. There are upon .thefe Coafts^ w< ^ 
many large Trees,, whofe Leaves falling in- Bean * 
to the .Water, the Fifh come and fnap at 
them grcediiy, The. Bears, who have no o- 
ther Food here, obferving this r lay them- 
felves in Ambufcade to catch them. As 
foon as the Fifh lift their Heads above Wa 
ter to get the Leaves, the Bears throw in their 

M Claws ,- 

* 54 The General HISTORY 

Claws, and if they can but grapple them un< 
der their Scales, they will be fure to bring 
them to Land. But fome great Fifh have 
been known to drag the Bears into the 
Water by meer force, when there has hap- 
pen d a very diverting Combat between 
them , fometimes one s uppermoft, and then 
the other, but it generally happens the Bear 
gets the better, and brings the Fifti to Land 
and devours him. Thefe Bears are by no 
means dangerous, nor do any manner of harm 
to the Inhabitants. 


Pedro A via, Governour of the 
gives Orders for facilitating the Navi 
gation of the South Seas. An Account 
of the remarkable Piracies of Juan 

Pedro TJ ^ <dvi a arriving at IJl*-fuerte with his 
Avia ^r- IT Squadron, all the Inhabitants fled up in- 
nva.1. to the Woods. The Spaniards enter d their 
Huts, where they found great Numbers of 
Mat-Paniers, exceeding finely wrought, fill d 
with very fine white Salt, which the Na 
tives were W9nt to exchange with their 
Neighbours for other Commodities. They 
obferv d on the Rocks very large Birds with 
red Throats, whofe Bellies were big enough 
to contain a Bufhel of Corn. One of thefe 
Birds fuffer d it felf to be caught, but it 


of V O Y A G E S And T R A V E L S. 155 

died fame few Days after. As foon as the 
Governour arriv d at Darien, Vafco gave him 
the beft Reception he could, with Mai^ 
Bread and Salt-Fifh. The Cacique Caretta made 
him a Prefent of a very fine Veft with Sleeves ^Indian 
wrought with Birds Feathers of various Co- Veft. 
lours, fo exactly that one would have fworn 
it had been of Silk. He gave him alfotwo 
large Quilts of the fame Work. The Go 
vernour return d his Compliment by giving 
him a Spanijli Jerkin and a Velvet Hat, 
both which appear d wonderful to the Ca- 
cique, who tarry d with the Governour three 
Days, and eat as he did all the while. What 
he feem d to be beft pleas d with was the 
Wine and Bread. After Dinner the Gover 
nour had every Day Mufick play d to him, jf tf # O f 
which when the Cacique firft heard he lifted MuCictL 
up his Eyes, and Sighing faid, the Europe 
ans were niore favour d by Heaven than the 
Indians in that they had it in their Power 
by fuch Sounds to raife their Dead Friends 
to Life. To do him the greater Honour, 
the Governour caus d a Squadron of Horfc 
well equip d with ihining Armour and Arms 
to be drawn up in Battalia. This .Sight 
fill d all the Indians with Joy and Admira 
tion, to fee with what Addrefs the Euro 
peans rnanag d their Horfes, They were af 
terwards carry d on Board the Ships, which 
gave the Cacique occafion to fay, he had in 
his Country a large Sort of Trees in which strange 
the Worm never bred by reafon of the 
Bitternefs of the Wood, and which he had 
often experienced in his Cances. He added 
there were other Trees fo Venimous, that 
the bare Smoak of the Wood occafibn d pr- 
feat Death, 

M 2 To 

1 56 The General HISTORY 

Three Fons T O facilitate and fecure the Navigation 
Mk. O f t | ie s out h s eas? t h e Governour built three 
Forts, one in the Country of the Cacique 
Comagro, another in the Province of Poc- 
chorrofa, and a third in that of Tumanama^ 
and placed Tufficient Garrifons in all three 
of them. He then fent out divers Captains 
. , by different Routes, and! among the reft a 
s Cor dovan Gentleman one Juan Aiora^ with a 
competent Number of Soldiers and twa 
firigantines. This Perfon coafted along the 
Province of Comagro to get into the South 
Sea. He went afhore and came to the Houfe 
of the Cacique Charles who was a good Friend 
to the Chriftians, and had been baptiz d 
together with all hisSubje&s. This Captain 
no fooner entred his Houfe but he carry d 
away all his Gold, and all the Furniture 
lie could find. He moreover rob d the Wo 
men of their Cotton Habits, and Bracelets 
and Collars they had about their Arms 
and Necks. At his departure he rov d along 
the Countries of other Caciques ferving them 
the fame Sauce, and exercifing the fame Vi 
olences in all the Places where he came. 
The poor Indians feeing all this were glad 
to. fcamper into the Woods to fave their 
lives. Alora after fo many Thefts and Rob 
beries fearing, with Reafon enough, that he 
might be call d to an Account by the Go 
vernour, he fled to the Sea-fide where there 
lay a Brigantine^ on which he went Aboard 
with his moft faithful Followers who were 
Accomplices with him in the fame Crimes. 
They fled with the Gold and Merchandizes 
they had got without any Bodies being able 
to hear of them more. 


</VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 1 57 

TheGovernour likewife fent Gafpor Moralez.^ 1 ^ 
on the other fide of the Mountains towards ^ th * 
the South, and the Ifland which is in the r 
Gulph of St Michael where variety of large 
Pearls are found. He had 100 Men under 
his Command among whom were divers 
that had accompany d Vafco Nunez, in his 
Voyage to difcover the South-feas. Morales 
being arriv d in the Territories of Tumacco 
and Chiappa, thofe Caciques made him great 
Prefents and told him they would affift him 
in the Conqueft of the Ifland of Pearls which i/] and of 
was formerly call d the Ifland of Gold. They Pearls, 
furnifh d him with Provifions Efficient, but 
as they had but few Canoes^ there could but 
Sixty Spaniards pafs over into the liland, 
whereof the Cacique having notice he came 
down with a great Number of Indians arm d 
with Lances and Wooden Swords, and oppos d woolen 
their Landing, crying with all their might swords. 
Guaz.z.a vara, Guaz,z.avara^ that is to the War 
with the Enemy. They attack d the Spaniards 
with fo much Courage and Bravery, that 
tho they were thrice repuls d they came on 
again to the Charge j but at length feeing 
the great Numbers of their Men that were 
kill d they retreated and fled. 

The Example of the other Caciques, his The Ca- 
Neighbours, at length inclin d him to feek^ I( l ue 
theFriendfhipofthe Spaniards and beg Peace.^ p ^ 
He thereupon conduded them to his Pa 
lace, which was perfedly well built. He pre- 
fented the Governour with a Panier of A ranter 
Pearls weighing at leaft no Pounds. He,? 
gave him in Exchange Glafs Beads, and 
fmall Looking-Glafles, with which he was 
infinitely well pleas d. He had moreover divers 
Saws^given him, which the Indians made more 
M 3 Ac- 

j 58 The General HISTORY 

Account of than of fo many Mountains of 
Gold, t hey could not enough wonder that the 
Europeans fought after that Metal with fo 
great Greedinefs, and that they fliould give 
fo many precious and profitable Inftruments 
for fuch Trifles as Chains and Bracelets of 
Gold. The Cacique led the Chief of this 
Expedition to the Top of a Tower, whence 
. he might on all fides view the South- 

ea ^ ou ** ee<> cr y ^ ^ an i n fi n * te Number 
of little Iflands all belonging to me. They 
are vaftly rich, if to be fill d with Gold 
and Pearls may be call d Riches. All the 
Shores of thefe Iflands are cover d with 
Mother of Pearl. Now, continu d he, if you 
will but confent to be my Friend, take 
as much of thefe things as you pleafe. \ 
fet a greater Efteem on your Friendfhip, 
than on all the Gold and Pearls in my 
Province, and for my Part I do proteft to 
you folemnly, I will never break the Alli 
ance I fhall make with you. 

An TOO anc * a b ve a ^ r hefe fair Proteftations 

o/ tne Ca ciq oblig d himfelf to give every 
/?.*/^Year to the King of Syain, an hundred 
Weight of Pearl which he the eafier engag d 
to do in that he little valu d fo precious a 
Merchandize, and could not think he by 
that means became Tributary to his Catholick 
Majefty. This Province, which is not above 
tt fi-< Degrees from the Equinottial, is fo full 
of of Deer of all forts that the Spaniards could 
- kill as many as they pleas d without almoft 
a " going out of their Houfes. This Cacique 
; caus d himfelf to be baptiz d with his whole 
Family and would needs take the Name of 
the Governour Pedro Avia. At parting they 
gave each other Affiirajaces of au inviolable 



Friendfhip, and the Cacique lent the Com 
mander his Canoes and People to affift him 
in his Expedition, profering to accompany him 
himfelf as far as the Sea Shore. The Fifth 
Part of the Pearls was given to the Kings 
Treafurers, and the reft equally divided a-^ 
mong the Spaniards. Among thefe Pearls there 
was one as large as a Nut, which was 
laid afide till fuch time as it ftiould be de- 
termin d whom it belong d to. This was 
afterwards fold to the Lady Ifabella Roadilia, 
Wife to the Governour, who had the Cou 
rage to accompany her Husband to the New 
World. Thofe that went on this Expedi 
tion were only able to fay concerning it 
that the largeft Pearls were to be found m 
the deepeft Water, and the letter fort near 
the Shore. Pearl-fhells referable in fome mea 
fure a Hen that has many Eggs in her Bo 
dy, from whence the moft perfect drop firft, 
and the reft remain behind till fuch time^^ , 
as they are mature. In like manner when 
thefe Shells open the moft perfect Pearls al 
ways ftart firft, and the others remain m 
the Shell till they come to a fufficient Ma 
turity. It is to be fear d many Pearls upon 
dropping from the Shell, which they will do 
when they are ripe,have been devoured byFifh, 
Many Captains made Voyages to the. 
South Seas after Morales -, among others 
Gonfalez. fadaghio^o, who faiPd towards the o; 
Weft in the Beginning of the Month of 
March, in the Year 151 5 with 80 Men, and 
this by Order of the Governour Pedro Avia. 
A neighbouring Cacique to the South Sea 
fled at the Approach of the Spaniards. 
fack d his Village where they found fome 
Slaves, whofe Faces were painted black and 
M 4 red. 

i.6o The General HISTORY 

stfred. Thefe Indians make Holes in their 
ns * Cheeks with pointed Bones, which filling up 
with the Powder of certain Herbs feyeral 
Colours are difpers d throughout the Face, 
which cannot afterwards be remov d. Thp 
Spaniards carry ? d off thefe Slaves, and load- 

rttkmtifdtd them with the Booty they had taken. 

Piny A11 thefe Countries are rich in Gold, thp 
Earth is fat and fertile, and the Trees are 
laden with excellent Fruits. The Spaniards 
plunder d all the Caciques they met in their 
Way, and took their Gold from them. No 
thing efcap d their Hands but what the 
Indians carry d away with them when they 
fled into the Woods and inacceffible Places. 
The Booty they had got was fo great that 
it loaded 400 Slaves. Going afterwards to 
wards the Province of a Cacique nam d P<*-> 
riz,na with D^fign to plunder him, he laid 
himfelf in their Way between two Hills 

Spaniards cover d with thick Trees, at the Head of 

routed. 5000 Indians, who as fbon as the Spaniards 
came uplet fly at them with that good Will 
that above fixty of them immediatly dropt, 
which the reft feeing they fled, leaving the 
Field of Battle and all the Treafure they 
had got to the Conquerors. After great Fa* 
tigues they at length arriv d at the Port 
call d Gracias a Dios where their Brigantines 
lay. They went on Board curling their ill 
Fortune, and fbon after arriv d at Darien 
half dead with Hunger. The Governour 
having heard how ; it had far d with them, 
refolv d t6 go himfelf to the Province of the 
Cacique Pari^ct to revenge the Affront, but 
as he was then Sick the Execution of that 
Enterprise was defer dto another Opportu 
nity, ! *<. " 




Of the unfortunate Adventures of Juan 
Soils and his Companions fent by his 
Catholick Majetiy on the Difcovery of 
pertain Coajts. 

Oralez. poftor of Laws and Official to hi 

Catholick Majefly at Daricn wrote in- 

to Spain that an Indian who had efcap d 

from Vaffallage told him, upon feeing him 

read a Letter written upon European Paper, 

that thofe People where he had been a Slave, 

had Books and Paper made of Leaves of 

Trees few d together -, that their Towns were 

Wall d round with large Stones, and that 

the Men and Women wore Cloaths. In 

this fame Year 1515 the King of Spain 

equipp d three VefTels, and gave Orders to 

Captain Juan Soils to pafs the Cape of St 

Auguftine diftant Six Leagues from the Equi 

noftial. This Captain after he had coafted 

along the Terra Firma for fome time found the 

jintartick Pole elevated thirty Degrees. See 

ing one Day divers Indians with their Wives 

and Children Skipping about upon the Shore 

and making Signs to him to land, offering 

him feveral Things which they laid upon 

the Sand, he put out his Boat and went 

a Shore to difcover what fort of Country 

and People they were. But he was no 

fooner la-ndcd than a great Number of C- 

nibal-Indians "came down thundring upon him, 

fc nd his Men^ having lain all the while in Am- 


The General HISTORY 

bufcade. They fur rounded the Spaniards in an 
Inftant and kill d them every Man with 
their Bows and Arrows, the Ships-Crew that 
were on board being not able to help them 
but remaining unwilling WitnefTes of fo fad 
a Spectacle. Thefe Barbarians charm d with 
the white Flefh of the Europeans cut it in 
to Pieces and devour d it half roafted and 
bloody, fo great was their Appetite for fuch 
unnatural Viands. The Ships Artillery how 
ever quickly drove them up the Mountains 
but then they carried on their Backs in view 
the Heads, Legs and Arms of thofe unhap 
py wretches they had mafiacred. The Spa 
niards foon after thought fit to retire with- 
out being able to revenge the Deaths of 
their Companions. 

Captain Juan Ponce had the foregoing Year 
Adventure * mewhat like this - HisCa- 

Ponce, tholick Majefty fent him to deftroy the Ha 
bitations of the Canibals who made a bloody 
.War on all that approach d their Teritories. 
This Captain prompted by a Defire of ex 
tirpating thofe Barbarians accepted with Joy 
the Command of two Veifels equipp d at the 
Kings Charges for that Enterprise. He went 
on Shore at Guadaloupe - 7 the Canibals feeing 
fame Europeans arrive laid themfelves, after 
their Manner, in Ambuih to furprife them. 
As foon as the Captain came a Shore with 
his Men, the Canibds fet upon them with 
horrible Crys and having kill d moil of them, 
the Captain being dangeroufly wounded 

fufecftfai. with ail Arrow, retir d to his Ships toge 
ther with two only of his Companions, who 
had the Mortification to fee their Fellows 
boil d and roafted by thofe barbarous Fee 
ders. From that Time -there has been no 


0fVoYAGES And TRAVELS. 16 $ 

News of the Captain or his Veffel but the 
other Ship return d to Spain. 

About this Time came Letters-Patents 
from Spain conftituting Fafco Nunez. Gene- 
ral of Darien in consideration of his great 
Services, in the difcovery of,the South Seas. 
Thofe Letters, full of Commendations of 
fafco, were read publickly, and being fo much 
to his Advantage pufFd him up fo that he 
foon fail d in his Refpeft to the Governour, 
which made that Gentleman think of fe- 
cret Meafures to revenge himfelf. The molt 
confiderable Perfons of the Country appre 
hending ill Confequences from this Difference 
between the Governour and ^afco y apply d 
themfelves to a Fryar of the Order of St. 
Francis, a great Preacher, befeeching him to 
endeavour to reconcile them. This Perfoa 
to bring fo good an End about, oifer d f^afco 
the Governour s Daughter in Marriage, but 
the Pride both of one and the other, would* 
not fuffer fo good a Deiign to take. 

To avoid all Difafters that might 
from this Animofity, Vafco rcfolv d to ab- retire * f r 
fent himfelf, and go to and fettle on the ***/<*** 
Coafts of the South Sea. Having got to 
gether all his Gold and other Riches, he 
parted from Darien with 300 Men that 
were the moft faithful to him. Divers /- 
dian Slaves carry d his Baggage and Provifl- 
bns. In a fhort time they arriv d at the 
Territories of the Caciques Tumacco and Chi- 
appa, who receiv d them with inexpreflible 

Out of a Defign that Vafco had to build pefgns t 
a Town on th e Southern Coafts, he caus d diftover 
four Brigantines to be built in order togo^ tf spice 
and difcover the Iflands of Spices, whereby 

The General HISTORY 

he thought to make his Court powerfully to 
the King of Spain, by doing him fo impor 
tant a Piece of Service. He had the Pre 
caution to bring from Darien Cotton Cloth 
which ferv d him to make Sails of. As for 
Cordage that was made, of certain Roots 
of Herbs whicb the Indians know how to 
make Cords of tolerably ftrong. The Pines 
of the Country furnifh Wood and Gum fuf- 
ficient for the reft of a Ship. Vafco obfer- 
ving that many of his Followers murmur d 
at their behig incefTantly put upon new Ad 
ventures inftead of enjoying what they had 
got at quiet, affembled them one Day, and 
to put an End to their Complants and Mur 
murs, fpoke to them in the following man- 
ffa speech ner. u My dear Friends, and Companions, 
to fa m-^ it is thro your Courage and Patience 
4 I have been able to profec.ute fuch Glori- 
" ous as I have done in the 
" Difcovery of the South Seas. You are 
" fenfible how high the Governour s Info- 
<c lence has been carry d againft me. He 
" was not contented with the Authority 
" and Preheminence which his Catholick 
" Majefty had honour d him with, by con- 
tc ferring on him the Government of the 
" Terra Flrma of the Indies, but I muft for- 
* 4 footh obey him as a vile Slave, tho the 
" King had nam d me for General of Da- 
<c rien. However infupportable this Slavery 
" mightfeem,yet would IJiave chearfully under- 
" gone it, had the King s Intereft requir d 
" me fo to have done. But the haughty 
" and avaricious Governour found an Occa- 
" fion from this Obedience to aim at taking 
a away our Lives and our Goods, that he 
? might thereby footh his Ambition, and 

" pro- 

of V o y A G E s and TRAVEL s^ 16 j 

" procure to himfelf Riches wherewith the 
" Countries we have difcover d abound, 
" If we will therefore live in Quiet and 
4C Safety, wemuft feek a Country remov d from 
" his Violences and Authority. You know 
" both Gold and Silver is to be found in 
" great Abundance on the Southern Coafts , 
" let us go on Board then thefe Veflels 
" we have firft finifli d, and truft the reft 
" to Providence and the Almighty Protection. 

All Applauded this Harangue of Vafco\Kc*l?d to 
and cry d out with one Voice they were Darien * 
ready to follow him whitherfoever he would 
lead them. This was immediately fent to 
the Governour by ibme of his Followers 
that were foifted in among his Friends, on 
purpofe to betray him. The Governour 
knowing K/r/b s great Courage, fear d leaft 
hemight procure fo great a Reputation, that 
he might fettle himfelf, and build a Ci 
ty in a rich Country, by which means he 
might be able to put him out of the 
King s Favour, for he would folely have 
the Glory of his New Difcoveries. Having 
confider d all this^ the Governour thought 
fit to inform againfl Fafco by the King s 
Officers, and moreover fent four of his 
principal Captains to let him know he mult 
immediately ceafe from his intended Expe-^^ _ "* 
dition and come forthwith to Darien^ unlefs "*" 
he had a miird-io be treated as a Rebel 
and Traytor. Vafco who had always pre- 
fer d his Honour above all Things, not be 
ing willing to incur a downright Difobedi- 
ence, and moreover relying upon his In 
nocence, return d to Danen with forrte few 
of his Friends, whither he was no Iboner 
come but he was caft into Prifon and had 


i66 The General HISTORY 

a large Chain put about his Neck by the 
Governour s Order. The fame Civil Treat 
ment was difpenc d to four of his Compa 
nions. Vafco complaining of the Injuftice 
and Affront had been offer d him, was told 
he was fo us d becaufe he would have re 
volted againft the King, and for making a fedi- 
tious Harangue. He anfwer d, the occafion 
of his having made that Speech Was to en 
courage his Companions to follow him in a 
Difcovery for the Benefit of his Majefty ^ but 
no Excufes would go down with the Go- 
vernour, for he muft return to Prifon and 
his Head chop d off, which Sentence 
was forthwith pafs d upon him. The Ex 
ecutioner coming next Morning to the Pri 
fon for that purpofe, Vafco demanded the 
Favour to fpeak with fix of the Principal 
Citizens hefore he died, who coming accor 
dingly, he declar d to them he had never 
had other Intention than to obey and do 
Service to his Catholick Majefty, wherefore 
he thought he had juft Reafon to complain 
that fo commendable Inclinations fhould have 
no better a Reward. He added he com- 
plain d principally of two Things, firft that 
being Innocent he fhould fuffer fo Ignominious 
a Death, and fecondly in that his Death 
would deprive the King of many Advan 
tages he could have procured him by new 
Difcoveries. Laftly he fa id, as for Death 
every Body knew he fear d it not, and that 
he had frequently expos d his Life to as 
imminent Hazards for his Majefty s Service. 
fickcxded. However plaufible thefe Reafons of Faf- 
* c0 s were, the Sentence of Death was foon 
after executed upon him. He had his Chain 
taken off his Neck, and fo kneeling fubmit- 



ted to the fatal Stroke. His Body was ex- 
pos d in the Market- Place of Darien to in 
timidate the People. Both the Inhabitants 
and Strangers could not refute their Tears 
to the Death of this great Man, who came 
to fuch a Tragical End after the Important 
Services he had done the State. Ancient 
and Modern Hiftories are full of Examples 
of the like Kind, and that fuch as fignaliz d 
themfelves in the moft ihining Enterprises, 
had met with nothing but Ingratitude for 
their Reward. The Governour Pedro AviaTke Cover. 
after the Death of Pafco, leaving his Wife 
behind at Darien^ pafsM the Mountains 
penetrated as far as the Southern Coafts, 
where having feiz d upon Vafco s Ships, he 
after undergoing a fevere Temped for three 
Days and three Nights, arriv d at an In 
dian Village on the Coafts calPd Panama, 
where having examin d the Place and the 
Commodioufnefs of it, he laid the Founda- 
tion of a City which became afterwards one 
of the moft confiderable in the Indies. 


A fbort Defcription of Hifpaniola, with a# 
Account of its frft InbabitAnts^ Rivers^ 
Lakes, &c. 


Fter having conduced you along all 
the Terre Firma of the Indies it would 
but reafouable to refame what has been 


The General HISTORY 

formerly faid concerning Hifpaniola to give 
you a more compleat Idea of that Ifland. 
It is Situated between the EquinoElial Line 
and the Tropick of Cancer. It s Length from. 
Eaft to Weft is about 50 Miles, and 
Breadth from North, to South, about 300. 
The City of San Domingo^ its Capital, lies 
In about eighteen Degrees of Northern La 
titude. Two different Nations pretending 
tp the. Dominion of it came to Blows, and 
the Weaker was fain to give Way to the 
Stronger. Thefe ; laft gave the Name of 
"Lipingi to this Ifland, which was afterwards 
cbang d by the Spaniards to, that of Hifpa- 
niola f ./The Days and Nights here are al- 
mpft of equal Length the whole Year round. 
When the .Su,n is ia the Tropick of Cancer 
there s almoft an Hours difference. The Air 
j s temperate and neither Cold nor Heats 
are exceffive.,. The Trees are always Green 
ever laden witbf Fruits or Bloflbms. The Leaves 
never fall till others are ready to fueceed 
them. All forts of Herbs that have been fqw d 
there thrive admirably well. In like Man- 
Europe- ner the European Animals, a s Oxen and 
Horfes multiply exceedingly. It has been 
b^erv d that Corn thrives better upon the 
Hills and Mountains where there s fome 
Cold to refrefh it, than in the Plains and 
Vallies where tlie Earth is top rich and 
the Heat too fuffocating. The Ears of Cont 
on the Mountains are as big as a Man s 
Arm, and all filfd with Grains whereof there 
are fome times 2000 in one Ear. 

Htfpaniola is vvater d by four large Rivers 
which divide it into five Provinces. In one 
of thefe Provinces there is a very deep Ca-, 
vern into which you may hear the Rivers, 



fall with a horrible Din five Miles off. 
Thofe that have liv d but a little while 
near the Mouth of this Cavern become deaf. 
Thefe Rivers form a great Lake where the 
Waters turn with that; Rapidity and occa-j 
fion fuch violent Whirl-Pools, that ,wh 
ever falls therein, is immediatly fwallow d 
up. What feems yet more wonderful is, that 
there is a Lake full of Fifh on the Top of 
a Mountain, which is almoft inacceflible on 
all fides. In other Places you may meet 
with Lakes of frefh Water, fait Water and 
bitter Water, as in the Province of Baino* 
where there is, a Lake above 30 Miles long 
and 15 broad, whofe Waters are as bit 
ter as Gall. Many Rivers run into this 
Lake yet you can never obferve that any 
run out again, which makes People apt to 
believe there are profound Caverns that re 
ceive thofe Waters, for the Indians and their 
Canoes that are loft in great Numbers in 
that Lake are never feen afterwards. One 
took one Day a young Filh and putting - 
him into another Lake that was not fo 
large as this fed him conftantly with Matz.- 
Bread by which Means he became .fo tame 
and large that he fufFer d .that Perfon ta 
get upon his Back and carry d him, to and 
fro along the fides of the Lake. At length 
the fame Perfon was fo bold as to .venture, 
croft the Lake with him and the Fifh carried 
him over and brought him again to the 
Place where he took him up. The Figure Jtstl ^ urft 
of this Fifh is difagreeable to the Sight. He 
refemblcs a Beaft with four Feet, but in- 
ftead of them he has four large Bones very 
hird which come out of his Body that is 
all cover d with hard Scales. His Head is 
F like 

i 7 o The General HISTORY 

like that of an Ox , it is heavy and no 
eafily mov d, but thofe that have eat of it 
fay tis exquifite and delicious Food. This 
jFifh remain d a long while in the Lake where 
a World of People came to fee it and gave 
it Bread : But at length a fndden Hurricane 
coining there follow d fuch an Inundation of 
the Lake that this Fi(h was fuppos d to be 
carry d into the Sea for he was never heard 
of after. 

By digging very deep in the Mountains 
you find a very hard Salt fhining like Chri- 
ftal. You may alfo find great Quantities 
of Gold, but the Inhabitants will not give 
themfelves the Trouble to dig for it, by 
reafon having all other Conveniencies of 
*Life they think they have no Occafion for 
0f the In- that. Bread fuffices to allay their Hunger, 
dkns. an d they quench their Thirft in the Foun 
tains. They fit all Day in the ftiade prat- 
ling under Trees and fometimes dance after 
the ir Manner, without thinking of any thing 
elfe, or giving themfelves any manner of 
Trouble. Gold has been fometimes known 
Vegetable to fhoot forth of the Earth like a Plant, 
Geld. which would feem incredible if the fame 
had not been once obferv d in the King 
dom of Hungary. You may every Day 
fee Branches of Gold that climb about Trees, 
as Vines do about Elms, and this Gold is 
s t rw* e commonly very fine. In the Province of 
fountains. Cafcimj* there are Fountains whofe Surface 
is Frefh and good to drink, the Middle 
Brackifh, and the Bottom exceeding Bitter. 
Some think the Source of this Fountain is Salt 
and that the Water a top is what falls 
from rlie Mountains and will not mix with 
the frit. Wfrtcr by reafon of its different 


of V o Y A G E s and TRAVEL s; ijt 

Weight. If you lie down upon the Ground 
and lay yonr Ear clofe to the Sides of thefe 
Fountains, you fhall plainly : perceive they are 
hollow under the Water. You hear a Horfe- 
man five Miles before he comes at you,andj^/ M 
a Footman one. ; The Inhabitants of fome 
of thefe Provinces retire into Caverns in the 
Woods and on the Mountains where they 
live upon wild Fruit not caring to have 
any Converfe with the other People of the 
Ifland. It has been found impracticable to 
civilize any of thefe wild Men that have 
been taken Prifoners. Tis believ d they 
have no fettled Language, no more than 
Beafts. They have neither Laws nor Su 
periors among them, for all are equal, and 
if they had not an human Figure, they 
might be taken for wild Beafts. They go 
altogether naked, and are fwifter at run 
ning than our fwifteft Dogs, fo that tis a 
hard Matter to take them. The Chriftians 
had fome Fields and Gardens, not far from 
the Habitations of thefe wild Men j they 
went thither in the Month of September, to 
gather their Harveft. Whiift they were 
difpers d in the Fields about their Work/""? "/ 
one of thefe Salvages comes out of a Copfe, 
where he had -hid himfelf, and faatches up 
a Child that was fleeping on the Grafs 
and ran away with it as hard as he could 
drive. The Father of the Child and all 
that were with him fet up pitiful Cries and 
ran after the Salvage but in vain. He fee 
ing them come after him, at. length ft opt 
as if he had a Mind to ftay for them, but 
as foon as they were come up he fet up his 
Legs again and : was quickly out of Sight. 
The Father verily believ d the would" 
N 2. haver 

tj2 The General HISTORY 

have devour d his Child, but whether it was 
out of Compaflion for his Grief or other- 
Wife, the wild Man obferving fome Shep 
herds keeping their Flocks, Went and laid 
down the Infant unhurt ileaf them, who 
foon rcturn d him to his overjoy d Fa 

in- You have in this Ifland a large Tree call d 
- Coppei whofe leaves are half a Foot long. 
Whatever is writ on thefe Leaves with a 
Bodkin remains as legible as what is writ on 
Paper with Ink. A Lord fent one Day, by 
one of his Slaves, tour Rabbits to a Friend 
of his, and wrote upon thefe Leaves the 
Number he fent. The Slave eat two by the 
Way, and prefented the other two toge 
ther with the Leaves, without thinking 
they could have difcover d his Theft, but he 
was not a little furpris d when he heard 
that he ought to have brought four. Here 
upon he ingenuoufly confefs d the Faft, 
which being known among the Indians, oc- 
cafion d them great Perplexity , becaufe 
now they thought they Ihould not be able 
to difcourfe any more under thofe Trees 
without having their Secrets reveal d by the 
Leaves. It is a common thing in this Ifland 
w C 6 have perfons live a hundred or fixfcore 
Years, which is attributed to certain Herbs 
they eat, to Truffles, Onyons, or their Bread 
made of Cajfave which is very eafle to digeft. 

The Rivers and Ponds are full of Filh 
which they eafily take.without Trouble. Since 
the Indians have been forc d to live expos d 
to the Sun, and to dig Gold in the Mines, 
they hav.e not liv d fo long. Several of them 
have made away with themfelves after they 
faw they were reduc d to fo great Mifery-, 


they that had formerly liv d fo contentedly 
and happy. Many likewife have refolv d 
not to marry becaufe they would not beget 
Slaves for the Spaniards. The Women with 
Child make their bringing forth ealle by t 
Vertue of certain Herbs. It is not to be won- 
der d at, however, that this Ifland, which was 
formerly fo productive of People, fhould at 
prefent be half ruin d and defart, fince the 
Avarice and Severity of the Spaniards has 
made fuch Havock among them. 

It rains but rarely in thefe Parts and 
they are oblig d to bring Water by Canals 
into their Grounds. The Indians are all n 
turally mild, fimple, peaceable and credulous. 
They have fo great a Veneration for their 
Caciques^ that whenever any one of themy?^. 
dies, divers of his Women devote them- 
felves to Death, to wait upon him in the 
other World. Some Fryars of the Order 
of St. Francis being prefent one Day at one 
of thefe Ceremonies, had all the Difficulty 
in the World to diffWade feveral Indians 
from killing themfelves to do Honour to 
their deceas d Cacique ^ but they could 
obtain only this Favour, that one only fhould 
die. This Woman was perfectly handfome , 
fhe fet herfelf off with all her fined Attire, 
and took with her a Bottle of Water, and 
Bread as if fhe fhould have Occafion for them 
in the other World. Her Name was 
Guanehetta Beneckena. When any Cacique has 
a Child born all the Inhabitants of the 

Neighbouring Territories come to 
the Lady in the Straw and the Child, to 
whom every one gives a Name. Some call 
him, in cafe he be a Son, the burning Flambeau, 
others the fining Flambeau, and a third 
N 3 fort 

f 74 The General HISTORY 

fort, the Conqueror of Enemies, and a molt 
powerful Lord more precious than Cold. The 
Compliment to female Children is, that 
they are more odoriferous than Flowers, and 
more delicious than the moft charming 
Fruits: Moreover, that they are the Eyes 
of the Sun and Stars. When any Cacique 
is mentioned, all his Denominations muft be 
likewife repeated, or they run a Rifque of 
being punim d for their Negligence. 

11 ir Tc - adore the Sun and Moon, 

vets in " and ml n S le a great many fuperftitious Ce- 
j^iigion. rempnies with their Worlhip. They hold 
a Firft, Eternal, Omnipotent and Invincible 
Principle, to whom they give two Names, 
Afamona and Guamaonocon. They fay this 
God has a Mother who has five Names, 
viz. Atfdtirfy Mamona, Guacavarita^ Siella^ 
Cemi s. and Guin*z.ona. This God they likewife hold 
has many MefTengers call d Cem?s\ and that 
every Catiq^ has one affign d him thro a 
fpecial Priviledge, They believe he appears 
only in the Night, and reveals to the Ca 
cique a thoufand Secrets j that he is of the 
Colour of Cotton dy d black, and throws 
out Fire at his Mouth. His Feet, they fay, 
are like thofe of black Serpents, on two of 
which only he fits. When the Indians go 
out to fight their Enemies they always have 
one of thefe little Figures faften d to their 
Foreheads, believing that by their Affiftance 
they IhaU furely have the Vidory. They 
demand Rain of them and Fair Weather, 
according as their Occafions require. When 
thefe Cem?s appear by Chance in the Woods 
or elfewhere, ih^ Indians have always a parti 
cular Veneration for the Places where they 
law them, 



When they have a Mind to be informed 
of the Succefs of any ^ important Affair, of 
the Abundance of their Harveft, of the E- 
vent of any War they have engag d in, of 
the Recovery or Death of any conflderable 
Perfbn, the Chief of the Caciques enters a 
fort of Temple dedicated to thefe Cemis^ 
where a certain Drink is prefented to him 
made of an Herb which the Indians call 
Chohobba. This Drink he fnuffs up at the 
JSlofe, which he has no fooner done than 
he grows mad for a Time, the Houfe turns 
round with him, -and the People -walk on 
their Heads, in a manner that he knows 
not where he is nor what he does, nor in 
a Word what he fays. As foon s thefe 
Fumes begin a little to abate, he fets him 
down upon the Ground with his Hands and 
Head upon his Knees, and after having con- 
tinu d a while in this Pofture, he all of a 
fudden, as if he had awak d from a pro 
found Sleep, lifts up his Eyes towards Hea^- 
ven and mutters certain Words between 
his Teeth which no body underltands. The 
Principal People of the Country fland round 
the Cacique whilft this Ceremony is perform 
ing, and afterwards return Thanks to the 
Cemi for reftoring him to his Senfes, when 
they begin to enquire of him what he has 
feen. He anfwers gravely the Cemi has 
fpoke to him and promis d him Vidory o- 
ver his Enemies if the Queftion be about 
Fighting, or elfe Succefs or Information in 
fome other matter. 

The Indians believe alfo thefe Cemfs have 

Converfc with their Wives, and if the 

Children that are born happen to have any 

particular Mark about them, then they are in a 

N niarv? 

1 7 6 The General HISTORY 

manner certain that the Child was begot by 
fome Ceml. Since the Chriftians have been 
The Ce-i n poITeiTion of Hifpaniolaa\\ thefe Cemfshave 
]j wr difappear d, and their Delufions ceas d. The 
Indians have concluded from thence their 
Country fhould devolve to another Domini 
on, and their Caciques be fubje&ed to a more 
powerful Lord. Thefe Caciques have their 
Children of Children inftru&ed by ancient Men of the 
the Ca- Country, who pafs among them for Sages 
ciques arl( j Learned Perfons. They make them learn 
* to " Verfes by Heart which are to explain to 
them the Origin of Things, and to recall 
into their Memories the Remembrance of 
what their Anceftprs have done as well in 
War a* Peace. They repeat thefe Verfes 
to the Sound of a Drum made of hollow 
Wood, and dance about at the fame time. 
Their Agility is wonderful. They go always 
naked, and fpend great part of their Time 
in Dancing, thinking of nothing fo much as 
to divert themfelves. They have alfo Verfes 
upon Love and in Praife of their Miftrefles, 
by which they explain their Paflionsfor them. 
They have likewife fad and very moving 
Songs in the Elegiac Strain, which they ex- 
prefs with fuitable Geftures and Tone of 
Voice. They have moreover warlike and 
grave Songs to animate their People againft 
the Perils of War. Thus prepar d they will 
throw themfelves into the midft of their E- 
nemies with furprizing Intrepidity, and with 
out feariijg either Wounds or Death, firmly 
believing if they die in Defence of their 
Country they fhall goto inhabit in the Sun. 
Thefe Songs have been handed down to 
them by their Anceftors for a long Succe 
jdon -pf Time. They hwe likewife Prophe- 


0fVoYAGES and TRAVELS. 177 

tick Rhimes by which they pretend the com 
ing of the Europeans into their Country 
was foretold a long while before it hap- 
pen d. They accomodate thefe Songs to the 
Words, and fing them in a lamentable and 
moving Strain. The Contents of one of 
them is thus : The Eternal God has refold 
that Men wearing Habits fljall come into thif 
IJland arnfd with long Swords^ and who will 
be able to cleave a Man in two with one Stroke y 
find that from Head to Foot. Thefe Strangers 
will drive away our Cemi s, and abolifo all our 
Ceremonies^ and our Children and Poflerity will 
be obliged to fubmit to t he Yoke of their Domini 
on. They thought at firft the Predictions 
contain d in thefe Rhimes related to the 
Canibals their Neighbours, from whom for 
that reafon they would run and hide them- 
felves as foon as ever they faw them land. 
However it is a conftant Tradition in that 
Country, that two of their moll famous far 
ciques having failed for five Days together 
in Honour of their Cemfs, a little before 
the Arrival of the Spaniards in that Ifiand, 
it had been reveal d to them by Night, 
that in a little Time a ftrange Nation all 
Cloath d fliould come and niake them all 
Slaves. It feems the Succefs has verify d 
this Prophecy, for \.\\z {Spaniards madethem- 
felves Matters of that Ifland much about 
that Time. All the Indians have been bap-^//^T n . 
tiled, and fince the Difplaying of the Chn-dians^;- 
ftian Standard in the Indies all the Wor-f Y^ 
fhip of the Cemi s has been abolifh d and for 

They fhow you at the Foot of a Moun-^. v 
tain in the Country of the Cacique Macchia- tions ^ 
WS) a vail and obfcure Cavern, whofe En- opinions. 


* 7 S The General HISTORY 

trance is adorn d with divers Paintings, and 
among the reft two great Figures of the 
Cemfs different from each other, which the 
Indians formerly went frequently to vifit with 
great Devotion, and when they were ask d 
the Reafonof it, they anfwer d the Sun and 
Moon came out of that Cavern to light the 
World. They relate many Childifh Notions 
concerning the Peopling of the Earth, for 
Example that all Men were fhut up in a 
very deep Cavern, not being able to gee 
out becaufe the Sun hundred them, being 
unwilling they Ihould fee him. For this 
purpofe he clap d Sentinels and Guards at 
the Caverns Mouth, one of whom having 
the Curiofity to know what pafs d in the 
Ifland came out, but the Sun having quick 
ly obferv d him, chang d him into a Rock 
for his Difobedience. This fatal Stone is 
ftill remaining at the Entrance into the Cave. 
They add that divers more of thefe Prifo- 
ners being tir d with their Captivity, came 
out in the Night time to take the Air, but 
being not nimble enough to return before 
the Rifmg of the Sun, he caught them and 
chang d them into Trees. One of the old- 
eil Inhabitants of this Cave, call d Vaquoni- 
ana got by flight one of his Children out whom 
the Sun foon transform d into a Nightin 
gale. This they fay is the Reafon that that final! 
Bird fings ail the Year round to demand Af- 
fiftanceof his Father, for thefe Indian Night 
ingales are not like ours in Europe^ which 
iing only at certain Seafons. This unfor 
tunate Father being willing to go and com 
fort his Child whom he lov d tenderly, got out 
one Night and carry d all his Women and other 
Children with him,but the Sun having fnrpris d 



them on the Banks of a River, changed 
theChildrcn into Frogs. Now as thefe Children 
underwent great Hunger, they cry d incef- 
fantly Toa, Toa, which fignifies in Indian, 
Mama^ Mama -, now faid they, this Toa, Toa^ 
has remain d to the Frogs ever after. 

The other Inhabitants of this Cave getting ^^ ths 
out one Night to walh themfelves in fome 5 
Ponds of Rain Water, they perceiv d great p 
Numbers of Women that like Birds flew 
about from Bough to Bough. They were 
greatly furpriz d and charm d, and endea 
voured all they could to take fome of them, 
but they ftill Hid thro their Fingers like 
Eles. Having confulted with an old Stager 
what they fhould do in this Cafe, he advis d 
thofe that had molt Knots on their Fingers 
to endeavour to catch them, but they could 
take but four and all the Reft flew away : 
Now faid they twas thefe four Women 
that peopled the Earth, their Children being 
permitted to come out of the Caves and no 
Body was metamorphos d ever after. 

Now fee what Account they gave of Origin of 
the Origin of the Sea. A certain very^^; 
rich Perfon, one Aia^ happening to lofe 
his only Son he bore his death with great 
regret. Having burnt his Body he put the 
Ames into a great Pitcher and buried it 
at the Foot of a Mountain not far from 
his Habitation. One Day going to vifit 
this Pitcher, he faw feveral large Filh come 
out of it, even Whales, and fuch like Sea 
Monfters. Being much frighten d he went 
and told this Wonder to his Neighbours, 
who riot lefs furpriz d had the Curioiity to 
go and fee fo rare an Adventure. In a Word 
phey all faw the Pitcher full of Fifh, and 


189 ?be General HISTORY 

while one more curious than the reft went 
to take it up he chanc d to let it fall and 
it broke, when on a fudden there rtifh d 
forth the Sea and all the Rivers of the 
World. The Plains and Valleys were imme- 
diatly cover d with Water, and the Moun 
tains only efcap d the Inundation by their 
Notions Thefe Indians have odd Notions concer- 

rkTT ning the dead The y bdieve the Y conceal 
* themfelves only a Days, and a Nights take 
a Walk to eat of a certain Fruit call d Gua- 
bana. They fay they afterwards flide into 
the Houfes, and into the Beds of the Indian 
Women under the Forms of Men } that 
they appear a Nights in the Streets, and 
if any one has Courage to face them fly in 
continently, but if he flies and fliews Fear 
of them, they do all the Mifchief they can, 
in a Manner that fome People have been, 
lam d bythefe fort of Apparitions. 
, , M The Schoolmafters aflemble the People at 
ers or ~ ce rtain Times to preach thefe Whimfies to 
.them. Thefe Aflemblies are always kept un 
der Trees. Thefe Matters are in great E- 
fteem, for they feign that the Cemfs fpeak 
to and reveal to them whatever is like to 
happen to every one. Over and above this,they 
are likewife Phyficians and have fome Know 
ledge of Herbs and other Medicines. They 
Heal with their Juices confiderable Wounds. 
When any Cacique is fick he fends for one 
t^ of thefe School-Matters who is oblig d to 

faft and drink f the J uic f the PlanC Cho ~ 

kobba. That turns him immediatly to Madnefs 
as we have already obferv d. He then rouls 
his Eyes about after a frightful Manner, and 
being a little come to himfelf, takes the fick 


#f V OYAGES and TRAVELS. ioi 

Perfon and places him in the Midft of the 
Chamber into which no Body is permitted to 
come except two or three of his Friends. He 
next takes three or four Turns round the Ca 
cique fcrewing his Face and Mouth into a thou- 
fand frightful Contortions, beating with his 
Feet and Hands as if he were diftraded. 
Then he blows upon the Neck, Forehead and 
Temples of the Patient. Afterwards fucks 
in his Breath, and rubs the Shoulders, Thighs 
and Legs of the fick Man. Then he wrings 
his Hands and runs towards the Door to 
drive out, if he can, the Malady and Venom 
that has taken FofTeffion of the dying Perfon. 
He makes him drink moreover the Juices of 
certain Herbs, which purge him, ami he for 
bids him to eat before next Morning. If he 
perceives there s any Hopes of a Cure, he 
plays all the fame Tricks over again, but if 
he defpairs of it, he fays the Cem?s are angry 
with the fick Perfon, and will not permit 
him to live any longer becaufe he has fail d 
in his Refped to them, and not built them an 
Habitation fine enough. If it be a Cacique 
that dies, his Friends" inform themfelves whe 
ther it happened thro the Difpleafuie of the 
Cemfs or the Negligence or Ignorance of the 
Phyfician, whether he has fafted as he oug 
to have done, or not made Ufe of goo 
Remedies. To fucceed in this Enquiry, af-^. 
ter having us d certain Ceremonies for a 
whole Night, they lay themfelves down by 
the dead Perfon, and, they fay, he reveals to 
them in a Dream, what has been the true 
Occafion of his Death. It has fometimes 
cod the Phyfician his Life, when the Dream 
has not been favourable to him. TheTe are 
Fart of the Superftitioas which have 


&2 The General HISTORY 

been impos d on the Inhabitants of 
mold by their Cem?s and Dolors. The European 
Preachers have, however, now undeceiv d 
them by fhewing the Extravagances of thefe 
Fables and proving evidently that they have 
been deceiv d by the Devil who is the Au 
thor of all Evil. 

AH has been here faid concer n ing ^ n iola, 

Ma- 1 * taken out ofDo^JPs^j^Mil^ezje Mar- 
j&w *$(* who was at the Courf x ^f"Ttre^King 

taken of Spain when Chriftopher Columbus made the 
Difcovery of the New World, in 1492. 
Giovanni Battifla Ramufio has infer ted it in 
his Third Volume printed in Italian at Venice 
in 1665. 

Thofe that are defirous to have a more 
complcat Account of the Rarities which are 
to be found in Hifpaniola may read what Don 
Fernando Cortex has written concerning them 
in four ample Relations. The Original of 
the firft is not to be got. It feems to be 
that which the Council Royal of the Indies 
caus d to be gather d together at the Re- 
quell of Pamfhilo Narvaez.. The fecond and 
third have been printed in $f**ifa and are 
become very fcarce. The fourth was printed 
in Folio in 1525. An Anonymous Author 
has tranflated them all, and printed them in 
High Dutch. 

Pedro Savorwano has tranflated the fecond 
and third into Latin, which were printed in 
1532 as Ftlerius Taxandre and Abraham Or- 
Jelius inform us. All three are to be met 
with inL^n>; together with otfier Works printed 
in Folio in i 532. Tis probable they are thofc 
Taxandre fpeaks of, tho v he mentions but two. 
Juan Hervavio has added thcfe two Relations 
lil the AVip World of yuan de Parvo. Ramufio 


0/Vo Y A G E s And TRAVELS. 1 

has tranflated them into Italian as well 
as the third Relation and inferted them in 
his third Volume. 

Father Tenbio de Afotolinia, a Francifcan, 
has collected Hiftorical Memoirs which are 
yet but Manufcripts. Gabriel Lafo de la Vega 
has written a Poem entitPd the Generous Cortex 
printed in Quarto in 1588. He cor reded it 
afterwards and added a thirteenth Canto to 
the twelve that were before printed. This 
laft Edition appear d under the Title of La 
Mexicana in Ottavo in 1594. 

There is a Letter of Ckriftopker Colum- \ 
bus written from Jamaica the 7th of July 
1503, where he made his laft Voyage, of 
which a Relation was fent to their Catho- 
lick Majefties printed in Quarto. Altho Don 
Lorenzo Ramirez, de Prado of the Council of 
the Indies, pretends to keep it in Mamtfcript it 
is neverthelefs to be had printed in the 
BibliothefyK of Don Juan de Saldierna. 

There is alfo another Relation of the 
Voyages ofChriftopher Columbia, w\\\c\\Americus 
fafpucius tranflated into Italian and printed in 
his New World 7 and Juan de Prado did the 
like in Latin. 

Don Fernand Columbu* Son of Chriftopher, 
has written the Life and Hifbory. or his 
Father and his Voyages. Alonfo de Vlloa has 
tranflated it into Italian, and caus d it to be 
printed in OEtavo in 1571- 

Lorenzo Gambora has compos d a Poem in 
Latin Verfe on the Navigations of Chriftopher 
Columbm. This Poem was printed in Qft*v* 
in 1581. 

Another Poem of Juan Baptist a Stella, en 
titled La Colombeida, printed in LatinVcrte in 
Quarto la 1589. 


1 84 The General HISTORY 

Lopez. Felix de Vega, has compos d a Co* 
medy on the Difcovering of theJSIew World 
by Columbus. 

The New. WfJrld of Giovanni Tomafo Eftil- 
lano is a Poem in Tufcan, which contains 34 
Canto s printed in Twelves in 1628. 

Father Barthelemy de las Cafas, a Domini 
can^ Biihop of Chiapfa, famous for his Wri 
tings a mong Foreigners, has given us divers 
Trafts upon Mifferent Subjects in .the form 
of Memoirs concerning the Affairs of the 
New World. One of thefe Trads bears this 
Title, Sixteen Remedies again ft the Peft which 
deflroys the Indies, as does another this Title, 
^ Jhort Account of the Deftruttion of the In* 
dies. The Liberty this Author has given 
himfelf makes him belov d by Strangers. 

Theodora* de Bry has tranflated this laftTraft 
into Latin, and given it this Title, The true 
Account of the Countries that were deftroy d in 
the Indies by the Spaniards. He has ^dorn d 
his Book with feveral fine Cutts and printed it 
in Quarto in. 1598. 

GTovanni Baitifta Ramuflo in his Preliminary 
Difcourfe to his Third Tome which 
contains the Hiftory of the Indies, fays 
ipeaking of Signior Gonz^ales d* Oviedo^ that 
he had compos d in Three Parts a General 
Hiftory of the Indies, but that he has only 
printed the Firft. The Second con 
tains the Difcovery of Mexico and New 
Spain, and the Third comprehends the Gon- 
queft of Peru. Fernand d Oviedo came on 
purpofe from Hlfpaniola to Sevil to printthefe 
Voyages, adorn d with above 400 Figures of 
Animals, Birds, Fifti, Trees, Plants, and Sim 
ples unknown to the Europeans. The Author 
printed only the Firft Fart, of which we 

of V 0> Y A G E s and TRAVELS. 

fliall give you here an Abridgment. Altho 
this Hiftory treats of the iameCountries and 
the fame Things with that of Don Pedro 
the Martyr, of which we have already given an 
Extraft, yet as Travellers have different Gouts 
and Views, their Observations may be fo 


An Abridgment of the Natural Hiftory 
of the Weft-Indies, and what was found 
there moft remarkable by Fernand d 
Oviedo, and related in the Conferences 
he had with Charles V. 

r THHfi Place to fet fail from for the /-. Route 
JL dies is commonly Sevil or San Lucar and Man- 
where the River Guadalquivir flows into the n*r of fail- 
Ocean. They fail ftreight for the Canaries * tb<: 
atid touch either at Comer a or Grand Cana-^ 
rla to take in frefli Water, Wood, Cheefe, 
frelh Provifions and fuch other Things as 
they are like to have occafion for in the 
Voyage. This fhort Cut is made qommon- 
ly in eight Days for it is not above 250 
Leagues Sail. When you leave the Canaries^ 
you will be atleaft five and twenty Days be 
fore you can difcover any of the Iflands that lie 
before Hiffaniola. The fir ft you come at are 
the Iflands of Todos^ los Santos^ Maria Galan- 
ta^ San Domingo, St. Chriftopber s and Guadz- 
loupe, it happens fomd times that Ships go with 
out feeing any of thefe Ifland. They then 
iteer ftreight for the Ifland of St. John, thofe 
P of 

1 86 The General HISTORY 

of Hifpaniola^ Jamaica or Cuba which lie fur* 
ther off. It may alfo happen that they may 
arrive at the Terra Firma without feeing 
any of thefe Illands, which is occafion d by 
the fmall Experience of the Pilots for when 
they know their Bufinefs they always touch 
at fome of thefe Iflands the neareft of which 
is 900 Leagues or thereabouts, from the 
Canaries. From thefe firft Iflands to Hifpa- 
niolathey reckon 150 Leagues, fo that that 
Ifland muft be Diftant from Semi about 1300 
Leagues. The Paflage from Hifpaniola, to the 
Terra Firma is for the moft part perform d 
in feven or eight Days. One may fay in 
general that the whole Ifland of Hifyaniola 
is exceeding fertil and that if it were pofTefs d 
by one Sovereign, he would foon be richer, 
and more powerful then a King of Sicily or 

four-foot- Before the Europeans carne thither there 
it B l^ s were no Animals to be found there of four 
/Spain Feet except two forts of little Rabbits, one 
of which the Iflanders call d in their Lan 
guage Vtias^ and the other Coris. What 
ever four footed Beafts are there now be- 
fides thefe have been brought from Spain. 
They have multiply d exceedingly efpecially 
Bulls and Cows; fome of the Inhabitants 
have at lead 2000 to their lhare. Tis true 
there are not better Failures in all the World,, 
clearer or fofter Water, nor a more pure or 
temperate Air. Animals there are never lean, 
nor of a bad Taft. The Fertility of the 
Country and the great Abundance of all 
NeceiTaries that is to be found there has 
j^r: .^rendred the Inhabitants very rich and flou- 
c - w 0f | an ri(hing, and it is no Rhodomontade to fay 
D.m-ngothat San Domingo, is to the full as rich as 

Y AG E S And, TR A VE L S. 

The Streets are all large, ftrait 
and laid out by Line, and the Sea wafhes 
Jhe City-Walls. The Church of St. Domlnick 
is magnificently built of a fair Stone or fat 
Earth, and fo well put together that nothing 
could be better fancy d. On the other Side 
of the City the River Oz.ama waihes the In 
habitants Houfes and forms a vaft Port ty 
which Ships of the greateft Burden may 
ride, and which come and unlade even at 
the Burghers Doors. Tis rare to find any 
other Port fo commodious for lading and un 
lading of Merchandifes. 

The Houfes of this City are built 
fo great Neatnefs, that hardly any Lords ola 
in Caflile lodges better than the common 
Citizens do here. The Natives of Hifpaniola 
are naturally lefler in fize than thofe of 
Europe. They have large Foreheads, black 
Hair and very long, no Beards, nor any 
other Hair about their Bodies any more 
than Wofnen have} their Colour is light 
Brown. They go all naked except their 
Privy Parts but which they cover fo (lightly 
that one may eafily fee what Sex they are 
of. They have but one Wife, and they marry 
neither their Daughters nor their Sifters but 
contract in all other Degrees. They eat two 
forts of Bread, one made of Afai^ a Grain 
like Mittet, and the other of Caffaite, which 
i$ a fort of Root. The Places where 
Wood grows are more proper for Tillage jy 
than where Grafs, for they grub up tne 
Roots of Wood and foiv Mait. there. Thefe 
Roots with the Wood they burn upon the 
Ground and the Alhes, render it fertil by fat 
tening it. Anlndiw takes aStakeof a Mans height 
and pitches it into the Ground with all his 
6 2 force 

The General HISTORY 

o/force, then pulling it out puts five or fix: 
Grains of Maiz, into the Hole and covers 
it. A Foot from thence he makes another 
^ole, and fo continues to do till all the 

rims O f -Field is fown. Their Harveft is about four 
trvefr Months after, and in fome Places in Three. 
When the Grain begins to grow ripe they 
are oblig d to look after it for fear of the 
Parrots that fwarm in this Country. Chil 
dren have the Charge of driving them away, 
for which purpofe they plant themfelves in 
little Huts made of Reeds on the Tops of 
Trees, and bawl out inceflantly which frigh 
tens the Birds. 

taiz de- The Stalk of this Mail is commonly the 
Height of a Man, the Ear of the Length of ones 
little Finger, and the Leaf much like thofe 
of our Reeds in Europe, but larger and more 
flexible. Every Stalk has a Bunch, in which are 
3 or 400 Grains. Every Bunch is enclos d 
with two or three Coats one upon another, 
which cover the Grain and fecure it from 
the Wind and Sun. The Natives roaft this 
Af*iz, and eat it without more ado. When 

it is y un g and tender the y do not roafb 

it, but eat it as it is. The Europeans give 
this Grain to their Horfes and Beafts of 
Burden. They that have a mind to make 
Bread of it pound it with all their Force 
in a Stone-Mortar, and throwing in Water 
by little and little make a Pafte, which they 
wrap up in the Leaf of an Herb prepar d for 
that purpofe, then laying it on the Coals 
it bakes and .grows hard, and at length 
becomes very white Bread. This Bread mufc 
be eat very hot, for as foon as it cools it 
Ibfes its Tad, and turns dry and harm, fo 
that one is at no final! Trouble to chew it. 



This Bread will not keep but becomes 
mouldy in three or four Days, and is fit 
for nothing but to be thrown away. 
. The Cajjave is the Root of a Plant which ^ 
the IndiAns call Juca. It fhoots out of the f ave . 
Earth to the Height of a Man. Its L 
is about as large as ones Hand, and fome- 
what refembles that of Hemp. /The manner Hm 
of Planting it is by putting thefe Stalks into 
little Hills rais d at an equal Difta nee from 
each other, and plac d in a Line as we plant 
our Vines in Europe. The Root only is va 
luable, and refembles large Carrots red with 
out and white within. They fcrape them to 
make Bread, and afterwards pound thofe 
Scrapings and put them into a Sort of Bag 
made of Palm-Leaves, which they twift found - 
ly to get out the Juice, as we do pounded 
Almonds to get the Milk. This Juice of the 
Caffave is mortal, no Poifon is more dange 
rous or violent. A Glafs of it will be fure to 
kill a Man upon the Spot. What remains 
of the Caffave after it has been well fquee^ d 
they make Bread of. They put it into an 
Earthen Platter of fuch Bignefs as they have 
a mind to give the Loaf, and the Pail 
foon grows hard being fet near the Fire, 
after which they expofe it likewife to the 
Sun. What is remarkable is that this Juice 
of Ca/ave, which is naturally a dangerous 
Poifon, being boil d fometimes, and after 
wards fet in the Air for certain Days, turns 
fo mild that it changes into a pleafant fort 
of Honey, which the Indians make ufe of in 
their Ragouts. But what is yet more diffi 
cult to believe unlefs one has feen it, is 
that this very fame Honey being boil d a- 
gain and expos d anew to the Air, turns 

290 The General HISTORY 

effe&ually to Vinegar, which may be made 
ufe of without any manner of Danger. The 
Bread made of Caffttve will keep a Year and 
more, and may be tranfported any where 
without fear of its Corrupting. It is for 
this Reafon reckon d a good Provifion for 
Ships } but then it muft be preferv d from 
all manner of Moifture. It fometimes hap 
pens that Caciques, and other confiderable 
Men among the Indians, being weary of 
living, murther themfelvesin a Company by 
drinking the Juice of this Plant. Before 
they proceed to drink they lay before their 
Friends and Relations the Reafons that in- 
duc d them to fo barbarous a Refolution, 
and they commend them for it, and to tefti- 
fy their Friendfhip for tjiem take each a 
Glafs of the fame Juice and die with them^ 
^without its being in the Power of any Re 
medy to afford them an Antidote. 
serpentt One of the fineft Ragouts among the /- 
tobubibc diuns is made of certain Serpents of an Am- 
^ n * iar R Pilous Mature, for they, are to be found 
routs o * n tne Water, on the Ground, or upon 
Trees. Their Figure has fdmething fright 
ful in it, akho they are not larger than 
Rabbets. They have Lizard s Tails. There 
are of them white, red, and of other Co~ 
lours. They have Prickles upon their Backs 
flicking up like thofe of certain Filh. Their 
Teeth are fliarp and pointed like Dogs. 
Their Snouts are long with Whsikers. They 
are Dumb, for they are never heard to 
cry, nor fo much as hifs, which is the Pro-i 
perty of other Serpents. They fuffer them- 
felves to be taken and bound without do 
ing any Mifchief. They can fubfift fifteen 
or twenty pays without eating or drinking. 
<A >:* Their 

T R A v E L s. 191 

Their Forefeet are long as ones Finger 
with Birds Claws , which being foft 
are little capable of Grafping. Few People 
would have the Courage to eat of thefe 
Animals if they did but fee them firft, tho T 
to fpeak Truth they have an excellent 
Relilh. It has been obferv d that the Flefli 
of thefe Creatures was very bad for fuch as 
have labour d under the Venerial Difeafe, 
and altho they have been cur d for 
time it renews their Diftemper. 

In the Iflands of Cuba, St. John, Jamaica 
and Hifyaniola there were no Four-footed 
Beafts before the Spaniards brought them 
thither, but now they abound in great Num 
bers. There are in the liland of Cuba 
fort of Partridges very fmall but which in 
finitely furpafs in Favour ours of Europe. 
They are eafie to be taken and may be made 
.Tame in four Days. What is greatly to 
be wondred at, there are in this Ifland a 
fort of natural Bullets of a very hard fmooth 
Stone, and of divers fizes which are found Bullets* 
in a large Plain between two Mountains. 
Thefe Stones eafily fit all Bores of Muskets 
and Cannons. They feem either a Mineral 
or a Flint. By digging a little you jind as 
many as you pleafe of them. There is ano 
ther thing very remarkable in this Ifland, 
and that is a fort of Bitumen, or fuch like B 
Liquor which rouls down from a Mountain 
and is very proper to Tar Ships withal]. 
This Tar, Pitch, or what you pleafe, fwims 
upon the Sea on that fide where the Wind 
drives it or the Current carries it, and may 
be taken up in great Quantities. Quintm 
Curtius tells you Alexander the Great found in 
his Expedition to the Eaft-Indies a l^rge Ca- 
O yera 

The Qsnerd HISTORY 

vcrn filPd with Bitumen, and it may be twas 
with this Pitch that the Walls of JSabyloh 
were cimented. 

Indian The In ^* ns hunt wildGeefe with a great deal 
of^ Addrefs. Thefe Geefe coming upon the 
/w Lakes of the liland in vaft Flights the Na- 
tives put a great Number of Pitchers into 
the Water which fwim on all Sides as the 
Wind drives them. This odd Sight at firft 
frightens the Geefe, who immediatly fly a- 
way, but at length, being us d to it, return 
to the Lake. When they begin to be pretty 
Tame the Indians put their Heads up to the 
Shoulders into fome of thefe Pitchers and 
fwim towards that fide wherethe wildFowlare, 
when coming upon them unawares they pull 
them by the Legs into the Water and drown d 
them. This done they ftick them in their 
Girdles, and continue fo to do till they have 
a fufficient Load, when they return to Land 
again with what they have got. The Birds 
accuftorrfd to fee thefe Pitchers are not a- 
fraid of them and confequently remain quiet 
upon the Water without perceiving the Snare. 
You muft remember the Indians fwim with 
the fame facility and fwifcnefs that Fifh do. 
The Europeans arriving in thefe Iflands were 
affiifted with an extraordinary Malady. A 
t er * fort of Animal much lefs than a Flea, bred 
in the Soles of the Feet between the Skin 
and Flefli. This rais d a Blifter which was 
foon -filPd with Nitts and which being neg- 
lefted to be cleans d the Blifter encreas d in 
fuch Manner that it became incurable and 
many have loft the Ufe of their Feet 
by ito ... * : k\\ qjj .:.-5 




Of the moft remarkMe Things to be found, 
on the Terra Firm&ofthe New World. 

THE Indians of the Terra Flrma are taller Indians of 
and better made than thofe of the ^ Ter- 
Iflands, and there are fome among them of ra 
very good Miens. On the Coaft of Panama 
and other Coafts the Sea decreafes fo pro- 
digioufly, that you lofe Sight of it without 
being able to difcover whither it retires. 
It fwells in Proportion when the Waters 
return to their Shores. What is inco 
eeivable is that in fo fhort a Space as 20 din ay 
fmall Leagues, which there are only be- Flux and 
tween the North and South Seas, there ^/* 
Ihould be fo great a Difference between 
the Flux and Reflux, that one would be 
tempted to imagine they were not the fame 

The Difference between the Lands and Continual 
Poffelfions caufe continual Wars among the^a and 
Indians. They that have leaft are continu- ^.^/ ow 
ally endeavouring to difpoffefs thofe that - " 
have more. They make Slaves of all they 
become Matters of, and fet Seals upon their 
Chains, as molt Perfons of Quality in Europe 
do their Coats of Arms on their Blacks Col 
lars. Some Lords pull out one of the fore 
Teeth of their Slaves to diftinguifh them by 
that Mark. The Canibals that inhabit along Cuftoms of 
the Coaft of Canhagena make no Slaves }*** Cani- 
they eat all they talTe both Men and Wo- bals * 
men. They give Quarter neither to Stran 

? 94 Tte General HISTORY 

gers nor their Enemies. They preferve fome 
Women indeed for their domeftick Services 
and Children to make Soldiers of, but the 
greatefl: Part they devour. They geld the 
Children of Foreigners to make them grow 
fat and render them more delicious Food, 
as we do Capons in Europe. That they may 
make them more frightful in War they are 
accuftom d to paint their Faces black and 
Tequlnas They have among them certa } n Religious 

People whom they call Tequinas^ and to whom 
they pay the greatefl: Refped. Thefe Te- 
quinas confult the Devil about all Affairs of 
State, as whether they (hall go to War or 
not, and at what Time, to which, the Devil 
being an old Aftrologer, often gives fuch 
Anfwers as prove proper, which the Tequinas 
immediatly make a Report of to the Peo 
ple. The Indians deceiv d by thefe Pre- 
diftions, fee the Effed of all thefe Things 
that had been foretold them for a long 
while before they happen, which enclines 
<tn them eafily to believe the reft. There are 
eri- certain Provinces where human Flelh is of- 
fer d in Sacrifice to thefe Demons, but in 
fome they content themfelves to burn Incenfe 
and fweet Odours to them. 

If it happens the Succefs does not 
of ike in- anfwerthe Predictions of the Tequina^ he ini- 
dians, pudently tells the People God has chang d 
his Mind, and is not afliam d to impofeon 
poor Ignorants in the grofTeft Manner. They 
pay their principal Devotions to the Sun 
and Moon, but they likewife look upon their 
Caciques as vifible Gods. They pay them 
all imaginable Refped and do them all the 
Service within their Power. ,When any Ca~ 


cique comes to die, his chief Servants both 
Men and Women kill themfelves to accom 
pany and ferve him in the other World. 
It is a common Error among thefe Wretches, 
that thofe who make away with themfelves 
for the fake of their Cacique go with them 
direftly to Heaven, to do them the fame 
Services they did when here upon Earth, 
whereas if they fliould die natural Deaths, 
they think they fhould not be fo certain 
of fuch Happinefs. They believe alfo that 
the Souls of thofe that have not the Cou 
rage to kill themfelves, die with their Bodies 
like thofe of other Indians that have not the 
Honour to belong to the Caciques. Before they 
make away with themfelves, they have the 
Precaution to bury in the Ground a certain 
Quantity of Maiz. and other Proviflons to 
fublilt them in the other World, or to Cow 
fome Grain if by chance they happen to 
want Maiz. in that Country. 

Upon the Sea Coafts the Indians compofe 
a Poyfon of certain odoriferous Apples, Ants,/^/<? 
Scorpions and other venemous Infefts poun- ** 
ded together, of all which they make a kind TQV3 ** 
of black Pitch with which they rub their 
Arrows when they go out to fight. Thofe 
that are wounded with thefe Arrows imme 
diately die mad. They throw themfelves 
on the Ground , bite their Flefh, and 
tear it to Pieces, without its being pof- 
jible to cure them. There are Diftindions r f 
and Degrees of Honour among the Indians 
as with us in Europe. Thofe they call Ca- 
bras are a Sort of Knights or Gentlemen. 
They merit that Title by having perform d 
fome eminent Adion in War, or by receiv 
ing fome honourable Wound. Thefe Cabras 


*9 6 The Generd HISTORY 

have Command over the reft; they have 
Lands and Women given them as a Re 
ward } they are diftinguifh d by the People } 
their Children fucceed to their Honour and 
like them are oblig d to go to the Wars: 
Their Wives over and above their com 
mon Names, are ftil d Efpaqes^ which is as 
much as to fay Ladies. This is likewife the 
Title which the Caciques Ladies have. 
- Fift j s the common Food of the Indians^ 

in Fifh which makes them live upon the Sea Coafts 
or the Banks of Rivers where they can fifh 
commodioufly. They prefer Fifh to Flefy 
and Venifon. They neverthelefs kill wild 

^ B ^Boars and Stags whofe Flefh they eat. They 
# take them in Nets or kill them with Ar 
rows or Clubs. They take off their Hair 
and Skins with {harp Stones. They cut them 
into Quarters and roaft them the fame Day, 
for they would ftink if they kept them any 
longer by reafon of the Heat of the Climate. 

Tornd y ne Ancients imagin d the Torrid Zone was 

biubkt un h a bitable, and that Men could not under 
go the extream Heats that reign near the 
Equinottial Line j but altho the Earth be ex 
tream hot when one digs a little, yet on the 
fuperficies it is freih and moifl by Reafon of 
the Rains that fall here continually, without 
mentioning the Torrents, Rivers, Fountains 
and Marfhes wherewith this Country abounds. 
The Dews of the Night contribute like 
wife towards tempering the Heats of the 

yy. The Caciques and Chief among the Indians 

take as many Wives as they pleafe, but 
always of their own Nation, thofe of other 
Countries, and that fpeak another Language 
being ftriaiy forbid them. The Eldeft Male 


<f V O Y A G E S ~*nd T R A V E L S^ 197 

is preemptive Heir to his Father s Dominions :#"* **& 
By default of Males the Daughters fucceed,^"^ 
and become likewife Caciques after their Fa 
ther s Death. They commonly Marry the 
moft confiderable of their Vaffals. If the 
Eldeft of the Children has Daughters only 
and no Sons, they (hall not fucceed but the 
Male Children of the fecond Daughter. Perfons 
of a meaner Condition take only one VJife,l>ivorcc. 
but they fometimes put her away to take 
another that they fancy more. This however 
feldoin happens. The mutual Confent of 
both Parties, or of but one, fuffices for a 
Divorce which is generally made ufe of when #>!* of 
there are no Children. Women of elevated ^%. 
Conditions make nothing of defpenfmg their /^{ 
favours liberally, giving for reafon that fuch 
as they ought never to refufe any thing 
that is ask d of them } but then they do 
not proftitute themfelves to poor Wretches, 
or fuch as are below them. They look up 
on all the Europeans as illufhious Perfonages 
altho they are not ignorant of the diffe 
rent Degrees among us. They have ever 
a great Regard and Refpeft for fuch as have 
any Poft or Command, and they always 6- 
fteem themfelves greatly for being be- 
lov d by them. After they have once had 
any Commerce of this Kind with any Chri- Faithful 
ftian, they obferve the greateft Fidelity to- <? tbsEi- 
wards him, providing he does not abfent r P e 
himfelf long from them, nor go a great 
way off. 

The Cacique that fucceeds in the Govern- Honour a- 
inent always buries honourably in his own tie Burial 
Houfe all thofe that had the Generofity to 
accompany his Father to the other World. 
ft is a Cuftom to bury with them great 

The General HISTORY 


Quantities of Gold and Pearls, together with 
fuch Inftruments as they made ufe of while 
alive, that they may likewife have them to ufe 
them in the other World. When any one 
goes about to prove to them the Ridicu- 
loufnefs of their Superftitipns, and that 
whatever they bury in the Ground does but 
inould and rot there, they anfwer ftupidly 
that the Dead have occafion for thofe things, 
and therefore they thought fit to furnifh 
them with them. All the Arguments in 
the World to difTwade them from their Er 
rors flgnify nothing, they ftill perfift in their 
frightful own Way. All the Figures they have of 
figures o/ t he Devil are frightful, with Horns and 
fk<z?m/ * Dragons Tails. They likewife believe that 
the Devil is the Caufe of the Hurricanes 
that wafte the Indies in a ftrange Manner, 
for they overthrow entire Towns, pull down; 
hpjjb FfV~ va ft Trees from the Mountains, and hurry 
Hon. them away with fuch Violence, that no 
force is able to refill it. It has been ob- 
ferv d that in the Places where the Holy Sa~ 
crament lies thd Hurricanes have never come, 
which may convert all thofe that are doubt 
ful of the Corporal Prefence. 

The Ceremonies the Indians obferve at 
thz Obfecjuies. of their Caciques are extraor- 
dinary enough. They lay the Body upon a 
large Board or Stone, about which they 
light Fires to heat the Carcafs, till fuch 
Time as the Gieace and Humours diftil 
thro the Pores and under the Nails, and 
the Flefh is fo dried that it cleaves to the 
Bones. When it. is brought to this Pafs, 
they place the Body in a feparate Appartment, 
where the Bodies of their Anceftors all are, 
and which luve been dried after the fame 


tf V o Y AGES Aid TRAVEL 199? 

Manner. Thus may be feen at one View 
the whole Generation of Caciques that have 
gpvern d a State. If any Cacique happens to 
die in a Battel, either by Land or Sea, and 
it is impoflible to come at his Body to de- 
pofit it among his Anceftors, then is a void 
Space left to preferve the Memory of fuch 
Cacique, and his Children take Care to have 
fuch Verfes made as may defcribe the Caufe 
and Manner of his Death, which are very 
Iblemnly fung upon fuch Occafion. Both 
Men and Women aflemble together to re 
cite thefe Verfes, preceded by one who ve 
ry gravely leads up the Proceffion. He re 
peats with a low Voice what the others 
roar out, accomodating as well as may be 
their Steps to the Song. This Solemnity 
lafts four or five Hours, and fometimes a 
whole Day. Whilft they are finging, Care 
is taken to give them Drink from Time to 
Time, which is a Sort of Wine delicious 
enough, fo that the Singers oftentimes be 
come fuddl d before they have done. They 
relate after what Manner all their Caciques 
died and they intermix with their Relations 
a thoufand Extravagancies, fuch as their Fan 
cies fuggeft to them. 

To make the Wine they drink they takeMaiz- 
Grains of Maiz.^ and throwing them intoJf7f. 
Water let them lie there till they grow 
foft and fwell. Then they boil thefe Grains 
with the Water, and after having let them 
boil for fome time they take them off the 
Fire and fet them by till next Morning. 
This Drink is in its Perfeftion the third or 
fourth Day, but from the fifth it begins to 
turn fower, for which reafon they make on 
ly as much as they can drink ia three or 


TheQenem HI STORY 

four Days. It is much better than Cider ot* 
Beer, and tis what makes the- Indians fat. 
and preferves their Health. Moft of the; 

In x/ * x**/ TT 4. *. _ t .* 

mUndian Huts are round and built like 


They are hung all about with Cane Mats: 
wove with certain Strings that hang from 
Trees which they render as flexible as they 
pleafe. The Europeans add Balconies and o- 
ther Conveniencies to thefe Houfes, and 
lodge very pleafantly and neatly; Thefe Ha 
bitations for the moft part are in the Val- 
lies or along Rivers, where are to be found 
the greateft Abundance of Provifions. Their 
Beds are rais d from the Ground about four 
or five Feet, the better to fecure them from 
the Infults of Beafts and Infefts, and in cold 
Countries they have a Pan of Coles fet under 
their Beds to warm them. 

Great The Indians of both Sexes are naturally 
.g r eat Swimmers , they are no fooner born 
than thay are brought acquainted with the 

W ff n Th f lr SCUllS arC f Ur times as thi <* 

and larger than ours in Europe, f o that When 
we attack them in Battel it is not their 
Heads we muft aim at. They are Sword- 
Proof, and will foon break a Blade to pieces. 
When they find themfclves over-ftock d with 
Their man- Blood, they pierce the Veins of their Hands 

^^^ 1 ? ^ Point of ^ lharp Stone, 
.ne Tooth of a Viper, or a fort of Needle 
made of Cane. Tis rare to fee any Indians 
r Beards, or Hair in any part of their 

. l ~ Bodies The V are accuftom d to paint their 
Skins, and their Favourite-Colour is Black, 
but they lay none upon their Faces except 
it be on thofe of Slaves which is a Mark 
that diftinguifhes them from Free-Men. Be 




fore they begin to fight they found a Charge 
with certain Horns which make a great 
Noife. They have likewife Drums which 
they flrike only on one Side like Tabre. 
They wear Plumes of Feathers of all Colours* 
w"hich have a very agreeable Effect^ They- 
have upon their Breafts great Plates of Gold 
rather for Ornament than Defence. They 
wear likewife Bracelets, for altho ? the In 
dians are but very ill equip d at other Times, 
they are refolv d to be magnificent in War. 
Thefe Bracelets are intermix d with Gold 
and Pearl. They cover their Arms with . 
them from the Elbow ta the Hand, and their 
Legs from their Knees to their Ancles. Wo 
men are . very curious about thefe Orna- 
pnents. They wear moreover Gold Rings 
in their Ears and Nofes, to the latter of 
which they hang large Pearls that bob againlt 
their Lips. 

The Male Indians cut their liair, but the 
Female let it hang about their Shoulders. 
Thefe (have their Eyebrows .with fharp 
Stones. Thofe that are mod confidera- 
ble fet themfelves off with . Necklaces 
made of Pieces of Gold, faflen d together 
with Cotton Strings. Women of Fafhion" 
follow their Husbands to the Wars. When 
they happen to be Caciques or GovernefRsfew^- 
of a Country, they command their Troops Generals* 
themfelves, arid do the Office of a General. 
All Caciques whether Men or Women ," have 
Twelve of the Stouteft and Strongeft of their 
Subjeds to follow and carry them }n Lit 
ters. When Two are weary another two 
relieve them with fo great Addrefs and 
Agility, that the Litter never Hands {till till 
it domes to its Journeys End, la this Man- 
P rieV 

202 The General HISTORY 

ner they will travel fifteen or twenty Leagues 
a Day, efpecially if the Army march thro 


The different Kjnds of Animals to be 
found in the Indies. 

HPHE Ancients affirm d the Tigre was the 
fwifteft of all Terreftrial Animals, he 
has fome Refemblance with a Lion in his 
Head. His Skin is all over fpotted with 
Red, which Spots begin to grow lefler un 
der his Belly and on his Legs. His Teeth 
and Claws are terrible, and his Wildnefs 
equals that of the fierceft Lion. He fre 
quently devours the Indians and commits 
great Ravage in the Country, altho he be 
not near fo fwift as Pliny makes him. To 
the Indians . go to the Woods with 

m . 

/ ** t h e j r BOWS and Arrows, and a little Dog 
who barks incefTantly without daring to come 
near the Bead. The Tigre wearied with thefe 
inceflant Barkings mounts a Tree, which the 
Archer perceiving he comes within 12 or 
j< Paces of him and fhoots, retiring as foon as 
he has done. The Bead feeing himfelf wound 
ed falls, and tears the Ground and the 
Trunk of the Tree, till having tormented him- 
feif about two or three Hours the Archer 
returns and finds him dead. Thefe Beafts 
are likewife taken with Nets. 



of V o Y A G E s and TRAVELS, 20 j 

The Cat amount ain refembles a tame Cat 
as to Colour and Figure, but is much larger 
than thefe Tigres we have been fpeaking 
of. It is a very dangerous and exceeding 
fierce Beaft, and the Europeans fear it more 
than any of the other Animals. There are 
a r s many Lions on the Terra Fir ma of the 
Indies , as there are in Barbary. They are 
fmaller and lefs fierce, which it may be 
is occafion d by the Mildnefs of the Cli 
mate. They will run from you and do no 
Harm only to fuch as attack them. 
Bears are fo little to be feard that they 
are commonly hunted down and kilPd xvith 
Clubs. Thefe Bears have a wonderful Ad- 
drefs at catching of Pifmires hid under 1 * I 
Hillocks of hard and impenetrable Earth. 
The Manner is thus. The great Heat of 
the Sun having made fmall and inpercepta- 
tye Clefts in this Hillock, the Bear licks 
them with great Patience till iuch time as 
he has made a Hole big enough to put his 
Tongue in. Thefe In feels who love humi 
dity, no Iboner perceive fomewhat moifl but 
they come in Swarms and fettle upon the 
Tongue, which when fufficiently loaded the 
Bear withdraws and fwallovvs them ail at 
once } then he puts his Tongue in again and 
continues fo doing till he has not left one 
Ant in the Place. The Flefii of wild Boars 
in ttie Indies has a very ill Taft, but th 
^xtrea m Neceflity the Europeans were reduc d 
to, at their, firft landing oblig d them to 
eat of it notwithftanding its ill Relifh. 

There is a fort of fmall Lizard with four 
feet very pleafant to look upon. His 
and Tail are of a Spotted Grey, and his 
Bell/ White, This Animal refembles a Horfe 

P 2 barb d 

204 The General HISTORY 

barb d and harnefs d. His Feet and Tail come 
from under thefe Barbs, as do likewife his 
Neck and Ears. He is very near as big as 
a RMst and lives under Ground in Holes, 
he has dug with his Claws. The Tafte of 
this Creature is admirable. He is commonly 
taken in Nets or (hot with Arrows at fuch 
Time efpecially as the Stubble is burnt in 
order to fow the Ground. There is another 
fcn^- very fingular Sort of Animal on the Terra 
Firma which the Sf*x*ards call a Greyhound 
by way of Contrary, becaufe he will take 
up a whole Day to go but fifty Paces. His 
Body is about two Foot long with four Feet 
fo very (lender that they are hardly able to 
faftatn his Corps. He has loofe Claws fome- 
xvhat like thofe of a Bird, and rather Hides 
along upon his Belly than walks. He fome- 
times climbs up Trees by the Help ,,of his 
Talons. He has round and fmall Eyes, a- 
Sjout like that of a Cat, and a very fmall 
Mouth. He fings only a Nights, and pro 
nounces fix Notes which he falls always by 

irmufi- equal Proportions, as if he fung La, Sol, Fa r 
ti Noics. M, Re, Vt, his Tone is, Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha. 
As the Lizard, we j-uft now fpoke of, fome- 
what refembles a barb d Horfe, this Creature 
is a kind of Muficiaiv. After having fung 
his G*mut^ he lies Hill a while and then begins 
again. He is a Night Animal, and Friend 
to the Shades, for he never fings. a Days. 
Thefe Animals are often taken and carry d to 
People s Houfes, but it is impoilible to con 
quer their natural Dulnefs, either by me 
nacing or pinching. If he can find any Tree 
he will gee up into it, and ftay there for 
eighteen or twenty Days without any Bodies 
p able to guefs what he feeds upon, 


of V o Y A G E s and TRAVELS. 205 

tmlefs it be Air, for he will be continually 
turning about, towards that Side whence the . 
Wind comes. 

There are a fort of wild Cats without 
Dumber in the Indies. Some of them will* 7 
imitate all they fee done as Apes or Monkeys 
do. When they fee Almonds crack d with 
Stones, they will do the like. When they 
fee any Body in the Woods, they break off 
large Branches and throw them down upon 
their Heads. If any one throws Stones at 
them, and the Stones happen to lodge in the 
Tree, they will take them and throw them 
with Violence at them again. In like 
Manner, when any one wounds them with 
an Arrow, they will draw the Arrow out of 
their Bodies, and hurl it at the Archer. Some 
of thefe Animals are no larger than ones 
Hand, and fome again as big as great Mafliifs. 
The Dogs in Hifyaniola , efpecially thofe 
t\\& Canibals make ufe of, neither yelp, bark, 
nor make any Noife, tho you fhould almoft 
Jull them with beating. They are fliap d 
like, and are fomewhat fiercer thaa 
our Eurofean Dogs, neverthelefs they are ve 
ry friendly to thofe that give them Meat 
and Drink. 

The Polecats in America, like ours in 
Europe^ have perpetual, War with the Poultry, 
and ftrangle them wherever they catch them 
to fuck their Blood. What is peculiar to 
the American Polecats is, that they carry their 
Young about with them wherever they go. 
They have a certain loofe Skin under their 
jBellies which they can fold into the Form 
of a Bag, and where they keep their Young 
commodioufly, tho they hunt about never 
fo much. From this Bag or Purfe the little 
P 3 one* 

so6 The General HISTORY 

ones fuck their Darns. They have Tails 
and Ears like a Moufe, but much lon 

America produces all Sorts of Birds that 

9Ms. Z we Ilave and many more > 3 uite Different from 
ours that we have not. That Sort call d 
Alcatraz}s have Beaks two Handfuls long, 
very wide towards the Head, and growing 
narrower towards the Tip. This feems a 
Sea-Fowl, and has Legs much like to a Goofe. 
On the Coafts of Panama the South-Sea ebbs 
.... and flows above two Leagues from fix to 
Hx Hours, bringing along with it, when it 
comes in, a vaft Quantity of Pilchards. 
The Alcatraz?s no fooner fee them, but they 
come in great Numbers and plunge into the 
Sea for thefe Fifh which they live upon. 
When the Sea retires, thefe Birds follow their 
Prey, but as they return they many times 
meet with another fort of Birds that attack 
them and force them to quit the Booty they have 
; got. This Combat is very diverting. When 
thus bufied, you may Knock them down with 
Poles and fill your Canoes with them. They 
are fat and have an excellent Tafte. The 
Spaniards make Oyl of them to burn a 
Nights in their Lamps. 

Wild-Hens ^ e W M Hens are as large as Peacocks ^ 
the Tafte of them is worth nothing, for 
they feed upon Ordure and dead Bodies of 
Men and Beafts ^ but in Recompence there 
comes out of their CarcaiTes an Odour more 
agreeable than Musk. This Odour vanilhes 

as foori as th . e y die The Addrefs of a cer 
tain Sparrow is extraordinary in hindring the 
ttild Cats that climb from Tree to Tree, 
from devouring his Young. He choofes a 
Tree for his Neft feparate from all others, 
- :- < . This 

0f VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 207 

This Neft is a Fathom deep, and hangs 
to a Branch very full of Thorns, to ren 
der the approaching it more difficult. There 
is only one little Hole in it big enough for 
a Sp arrow to go in and out at, fo that when 
the wild Cats come to attack the Neft, they 
can neither reach the Eggs nor the Young, 
the Ned being fo deep, that twere impof- 
fible for a Cat to get his Claw fo far. You 
muft kow likewife thefe Birds go in great 
Flights like Sterlings, and when they fee the 
Cats coming, they will fet up fuch a Noife, 
as perfectly frights them, and obliges them 
to retire. Sparrows of another Kind thai4vott>cr 
love to be near the Water, make their Nefts ^C <f* 
on Branches of Trees that hang over it 
by which Means they think to drive 
away the wild Cats from hurting them, for 
as thefe Branches are weak and bending, 
they will not bear the Weight of a Cat that 
ihould come to eat their Eggs or their 
Young. Tis thus that Animals the moft 
weak and innocent guard themfelves againft 
fuch as are more ftrong and fubtle, thro a 
natural Inftindt given them by the Author 
of Nature. 

The Colours in Birds Feathers are much colours c 
finer and more luftrous in America thanre^rj. 
elfewhere, and nothing can be fo pleafent 
as to fee fo many that furpafs the Beauty 
of Rubies and Emeraldf. There is another other 
Sort of Sparrow whofe Body is no bigger sparrows 
than the Top of ones great Finger, yet it 
flies fo fwiftly without moving its Wings, 
that in the Air you would take it for an 
Humble Bee. Their Beaks are (harper and 
more pointed, if pofllble, than a Needle. 
When they fee any one going up into the 
P 4 Tree 

2o8 The General HISTORY 

Tree, where their Kelt is, they will attack 
him with fuch Courage and Vigour, and 
give him fo many Pecks in the Face, that 
he ibori finds himlelf oblig d to go down 
again fader than he came up. 

Wfert. The Terra Fir ma of Caftitia # Oro is very 
much infefted with Pipers, who bite and kill 
many Indians if they are not affifted before 
the fourth Day. They raife themfelves in 
to the Air to attack PaiTengers. When any 
one hurt by thefe Pipers is blooded, you get no 
Blood from him but only a yellowifh Wa 
ter, and whatever Remedies you ufe, you 
can never hinder that Per fon from dying. 
No Body is furpriz d to iee Serpents here 

Serpents. f eve n or eight Foot long, which appear in 
the Night like fo many lighted Coals, la 
the Day Time they look red as Blood, but 
jtheir Poyfon is lefs dangerous and fubtil 
than that of the Riper s. You fometimes find 
of them above twenty Foot long, and al- 
tho they do no great Harm, their horrid 
Figure frightens Travellers. 

son of On the Shores you meet with a fort of 
-\lor]fter$nam d Lizards only from their Fi 
gures, but they are fourteen or fifteen Foot 
long, and as large as a Man s Thigh. Their 
upper Lip has divers Holes, thro which you 
fee their canine Teeth very lharp, with great 
Mafiocbih. This Animal is very fierce in 
the Water, arid fwiuis with great Swiftnefs, 
but at Land it is no lefs flow and heavy. 
You find them on the Sea Coafts near the 
difemboguing of Rivers! They have four 
Feet, and exceeding hard Scales. Their 
Back-bone is full of Brizles, from Head to 
Tail. Their Skin is fo thick that neither 
Swords nor Lances can eater it, and they 


#/ VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 209 

are only vulnerable under their Bellies where 
they are more foft and tender. They lay 
their Eggs in the Month of December , be- 
caufe then the Rains are lefs frequent and 
the Rivers have done overflowing. They 
fcrape a hole in the Sand on the Brink of 
the Water where they hide Three or Four 
Hundred Eggs, which the Sun only hatches 
by the Putrefadlion, the Males and Fe 
males having no more to do , with it. 
As foon as the Young are hatch d they go 
of themfelves and find out the Water 
where they get their Subfiftence. SomCoafts 
abound fo with thefe Animals, that you 
cannot look that Way without Horror. They 
go out of the Water in great Numbers to 
lleep upon the Sand, and return to itTo 
foon as ever they perceive any one coming. 
They always go ftrait forwards fo that if 
one were purfu d by any of them one need 
only ftep a little afide to avoid them. 
When they run they carry their Tails curv d 
upon their Backs like Cocks Feathers. Altho 
their Legs are very fhort they do not crawl 
upon their Bellies but raife their Bodies 
from the Ground about half a Foot. Some 
have taken thefe Animals for perfect Croco 
diles , altho thefe laft breath only at their 
Mouth*, and move equally their two Jaw- 
Bones, whereas the others have not the fame 
Propriety. 3 Tis dangerous to go near thofe 
Places where they are, for they commonly 
devour Dogs, Cows, Horfes and even Men. 
You fometimes find in one of their Bellies, 
Flints enough to fill two large Paniers. 
They are to be taken with Iron Hooks 
or elfe (hot while they are in the Wa 
ter. They that have eat of them fay their 


The General HISTORY 

Fleih is pretty well tailed. As for their 
Eggs they are eaten without Fear in feveral 
forts of Sauces, and are fold in the Markets 
like Geefe or Pullets Eggs. 

Large spi- Spiders here become as large as Sparrows j 
ders. upon opening them you find their Bodies 
full of thofe Threads wherewith they make 
their Webs. You have on, the Terra Firm* 
Land- great Numbers of Crabs, as in Eurofe on 
the Shores. Without their Relief Tra 
vellers would oftentimes perilh with Hun 
ger. You fee them come out of cer 
tain iloles and take them eafily becaufe 
they go but ilowly. Tis to be fear d thofe 
Cr*bs eat fomewhat that is venemous becaufe 
fometimes People die inftantly that have fed 
on them. The Canibals make ufe of them 
as one Ingredient in their Venom wherewith 
they poifon their Arrows, for which Reafon 
the Europeans dare not touch them when they 
fee them near a fort of Trees that bear 
venomous Apples. 

Indian The Indian Fruits have much more ex- 
fruit. quiflte Taftes than ours of Europe by reafon 
Mamei. ^ t ^ ie Difference of Climate and the Afped; 
of the Sun. That which they term Mamei 
is as large as two of our Son-Chretien Pears. It is 
divided into three Parts by a fmall inward 
Film. Its Kernel is in the Middle and re- 
femblcs a blanch d Chefnut j but it is as 
bitter as Gall ? tho the Fruit be fo very 
agreeable. This Fruit tafts fomewhat like 
a Peach , and has a very odoriferous Flavour. 
n e Guanabano is a great Tree whofe Bran 
ches are ftreight , it bears a Fruit like a 
Melon and its -Rind is wrought, as it were, with 
a great many Scales. It is alib of the Thick- 
flefs of the Rind of a Melon \ the infide of the 



Fruit is a fort of Pafte inclofing a delicious 
Liquor. There are likewife feveral Seeds 
larger than thofe of Caflia and of the fame 
Colour. Thefe Fruits weigh at leaft two 
or three Pounds each, and never hurt the 
Stomack tho you eat never fo much of 

The Coco-Trees refemble thofe Palms that Coco- 
bear Dates , if we have regard to their Size 
or the Shape of their Leaves, but the Coco 
Leaves grow out of the Trunk of the Tree 
like the Fingers of ones Hand. This Tree 
rifes to a great Height and great Numbers 
of them are to be met with on the Coafts 
of the South Sea , their Fruit is ty d to the 
Body of the Tree wrap d up in a certain 
Rind or Flax whereof the Indians make 
very fine Cloth, of three or four forts, and 
Sails for Ships -, neverthelefs they fomewhat 
Defpife this Cloth, becaufe they have great 
Quantities of exceeding fine Cotton. There 
is within the Coco a fort of white Pulp of 
the tafte of Almonds, and when you pierce 
it with a Bodkin there comes out a large 
Glafs full of a very lufcious Liquor, in a 
Manner that this Fruit affords you both 
Meat and Drink. The Europeans make Cakes 
of this Milky Liquor mix d with Maiz.- 
Blower, which nourifhes extreamly, and fat 
tens like the Juices of the belt Meat. They 
which have try d it fay the Strangury is to 
be cur d by drinking out of thefe C0c0-fhells 
which makes you pifs freely and diflblves, 
or makes the Stones pafs. 

In the Iflands of Hifpaniola, Cuba, Jamaica 
and San Domingo, Palm Trees are to be 
with of all kinds, and among others force 
that are black, whereof the Indians make 


212 The General HISTORY 

fuch excellent tough and hard Arrows that 
they will pierce thro a Man Target and 
all. They iikewife make Lances, Pikes and 
Clubs of them for the Wars. The Woods 
** abound with wild Vines, which bear 
excellent Grapes much larger and better 
tafted than ours of r0pe,and if they were but 
cultivated and tranfplanted, no doubt but 

figs. they would be yet finer. The Figs are as 
large as Melons and they are eaten the fame 
Way by cutting Slices out of them long-ways. 
They are co.ver d with a Down like to that 

Pe&rTrecs on Quinces. The Indian Pear Trees grow 
very large and have Leaves like Laurels but 
Greener. Their Fruit fometimes weighs a 
Pound :, the Kernels referable blanch d Al 
monds and are very bitter, they are inclos d 
in a very loofe Film, between which and 
the firft Skin there is a Liquor of furpri- 
fing Tafte and Flavour. All thefe Fruits, as 
fine as they are, Nature prefentsthem with, 
for they grow without any Manner of cul 

Guaican. The Tree which the Indians call Guaican 

(with us Guaicum) is good to cure Ve- 

$ife and nerial Diftempers, which are as common in the 

Progrtfsoj j n i ies as w i t h us jn Europe, but much lefs 
" x * dangerous by Reaibn of the Goodnefs of the 
Air which purifies the Blood. The Rind of 
this Tree is all over fpotted with green. 
They rafp it and boil it in a certain Quan 
tity of Water, which becomes a Drink to 
be drank feveral Times a Day, obferving a 
ftrift Diet. Venerial Diftempers were never 
heard of in Spain before the Difcoveries made 
by Chriftopher Columbus, who tis probable, 
brought them with him from the Indies, and 
fo they fpread over other Parts of Europe. 


of V o Y A G E s and T R A v E L s. 21 

In the Year 1495, when the great Captain 
Gonfalvo of Cor dona went into Italy to affift 
Ferdinand King of Afy#/ againll the French 
King Charles VIII. divers Spaniards of his 
Army being infefted with this Di ftempeiy 
communicated it to the Neapolitans, where 
they have eftablifh d themfelves ever lince. 
Now becaufe feveral French continu d for a 
Seafon in Italy , the Italians calFd it the Fre^c^ 
Difeafe, and the Fre#c& the Difeafe of Naples^ 
becaufe France never knew it before the 
War of Naples, from whence it difpers d it 
felf into other Countries of Europe. It is 
rare to have any thing to do with any In 
dian Woman without getting it, but tho it 
be eafily got it is likewife as eaftly cur d. 

The Fruit of the Tree which the 
call Xagua refembles a Poppy, and affords a 
clear Liquor in fuch Abundance, that the 
Iflanders warn their Legs and Bodies with it. 
It dyes a jet Black which can hardly be wafh d 
away. The Soldiers ftain their Faces with it 
before they go to Battel, to render themfelves 
more terrible. The Natives fometimes play 
Tricks with the Europeans, by mixing fcented 
Waters with this Liquor, with which if they 
do but wafti their Faces, they are furpriz d 
to find them turn d black in a Moment, in 
fuch Manner, that all the Water in the Sea 
would not be able to waih it out prefently, 
and tho they mould fley their Skins they 
could not hardly get rid of it immediately - 7 
Time only can fuffice to get away ihofe 

The Venomous Apples which the CanibalsVenor 
compofe their Poyfons of to envenom their ^rf /t>j 
Arrows, refemble in Figure and Colour 
Musk Pears. They are fpeckrd with red and 


The General HISTORY 

have a moft odoriferous Flavour. Thefe 
Trees grow on the Sea Side, upon the ve 
ry Brink of the Water, and all that fee the 
fine Colours of their Fruit are defirous to 
tafte of them. Their Juice mixM with a 
fort of Pifmir$s and Pipers pounded together, 
compofes a Poyfon that is incurable. The 
beft Remedy for it is to wafh fpeedily and 
frequently in the Sea, bat of fifty hardly 
three will recover. If one chances to fall 
afleep under the Shade of one of thefe Trees, 
ones Head and Body will immediatly fwell, 
but one drop of Dew from it will put out 
ones Eyes, nay, they will inftantly burft, fo 
great is the Force of this Poyfon. The Num 
ber of thefe Trees is almoft innumerable, 
and when any of its Wood is thrown into 
the Fire it will ftink prodigioufly, and caufe 
a Head-Ach that is infupportable. 

Upon the Borders of the River CM, near 
the City of Darien^ there are Trees fb ex:- 
celTively large that Canoes of one Piece are; 
made out of their Tronks, which are able 
to carry at leaft 136 Perfons and Room left 
to pafs to and fro. They have two Sail s 
made of Cottony you fee fbmetimes of thefe 
Trees that have three Roots rais d" above ; 
Ground triangularly, and fo high, that a 
Chariot may pafs under them. At the Height 
of a Pike they reunite into one Tronk which 
rifes higher than any Tower in Europe be 
fore it (hoots forth any Branches. 
4dd Way The Indies have a new, and altogether 
tffftrikivg unknown Way to us, to ftrike Fire. They 
fire - take a fmall Stick of very hard Wood made 
round and fmooth, and of about eight Inches 
long, and the Thicknefs of ones little Fin 
ger. This done, they tie two little Ends of 

ofV-9 Y AGES and TRAVEL s. 2* 

Wood together and lay them upon the 
Ground. When they have a Mind to get 
Fire, they put this Stick between the two 
others which they move along very fwiftly 
till fuch time as the Fire comes. 

You fee fometimes in Europe rotten Wood ./&*> 
that will fhine a Nights; in like manner 
they have in the Indies a fort of Wood that 
will fhine like Fire. The Europeans make 
ufe of it to light them thro unknown 
Countries, or when they have a Mind to 
go and furprife their Enemies by Night. They 
make fome of the Indians who know the 
Roads, march before them and they faften 
to their Shoulders fome of this Wood whicn 
Ihines like fo many Stars, and ferves to 
guide the Army along, but as this Light 
does not dart its Rays far, the Enemy 
can never come by that Means to know of 
their March. 

Pliny the Philofopher in his Natural Hiftory,Moft fact 
makes mention of fome Trees that are t 
ways green in every Seafbn, viz.. the Lawrel, 
Cedar, Olive, and the Or^e-Tree : But we 
may fay in general all the Trees in the 
Indies, except that which bears Cajfia, keep 
their Leaves and their Verdure the whole 
Year round : Moreover, thofe Trees which 
in Europe Ihed their Leaves in Winter, after 
being tranfplanted into the Indies take the 
Nature and Qualities of the Trees of that 
Country, and like them always continue 

The Terra Flrma produces a great many 
forts of Canes which the People of the Coun 
try make ufe of for covering their Houfes, 
and making Hangings or Mats for their 
Rooms; There are fome as thick as the Leg 


he General HISTORY 

of an ordinary Man, and each Pipe from one 
Joint; to another, contains a Pint of Liquor. 
The Indians make Quivers of thefe Canes 
to carry their Arrows in^ there are others 
that lie twining .round the Bodies of Trees and 
Jhootup as. high as the Tops of them. Thefe 
Pipes are full of a very clear Liquor that 
never ft inks nor does any manner of Harm : 
This Liquor has often fa v d the Chriftians 
Lives, in their travelling thro dry and de- 
fart Countries where they certainly would 
have perifh d with Thirll, had it not been! 
for this Supply : They cut thefe Canes , and 
carry with them as many as poffibly they 
can, to fecure themfelves from the incoa- 
veniency of Thirfl in thofe hot Countries, 
where they can find no Water. 

Melons. yh e Melons in the Indie* grow to a pro 
digious Size ib that a Man has much ado 
to carry one of them on his Shoulders , the 
Subftance of them is white, but of an ex- 
74/cellent Tafte : One of the moft ufeful Plants 

far-plant, of the New World is that whofe Leaves are 
as it were fo many Plaifters which being 
apply d to a broken Leg or- Arm cements 
them together again, and in lefs than a^ 
Fortnight perfectly cures them. This Leaf 
flicks fo cl6fe to the Part, till the Opera 
tion is perform d, that one cannot pull it 
off ) but when the Cure is effected it falls 
off of courfe. 
ne Tu- The Tunas is a wild Plant that bears a 

nas. Fruit much like a Fig, of a reddifh fubftance 
in the infide, and of a wonderful Tafte } af 
ter eating one or two of them the Watejr 
that one makes is as red as Blood, which 
h very furprifing at firft, and makes one 
think that one is in danger of lofing ones 

<jf V 6 Y A G E s ^W TRAVELS. 217 

Life ? fo that the Imagination very often 
produces a real Difeafe in timorous Perfons : 
The Leaves of the Sihaos not only ferveBihaos. 
for covering of Houfes, but are alfo fo 
very large as to be made ufe of inftcad of 
Vmbrello s when it Rains : The Indians make 
many of them which keep the Water from 
foaking in, when they fwim over a River. The 
Branches of this Tree being bruis d with 
the Leaves ferve alfo for Salt in defart 
Countries, where they can find nothing to 
eat. The Root of this Plant is likewife made 
ufe of for Food. They ftrip its Rind off, 
and in the Infide find a Pith much like 
that of Elder or a Bidrufi. The Indians are 
well skilled in the Properties of the Barks 
and Leaves of certain Trees, which they 
make ufe of in dying their Callicoes of ail 
forts of Colours, viz.. red, black, yellow, 
green, and blew* Thefe Colours are fo ex- 
treamly fine ai^ lively, that they fcarce 
ever wear out, even after they have been 
wafti d. But what feems yet more wonderful is^ 
that all are dy d in the fame Fa tt without 
changing any thing in it \ which perhaps * 
may arife from the Difpofition of the Co 
lours that they give to whatever they have 
a Mind to dye, let it be Thread or Lin- 

After having fpoken of thofe things thatlnMs 
are mod curious and confiderable, it will 
not be improper to fay fomething of Infefts 
fince Nature has in them made her Wifdom 
appear as vifible as in the greateft Animals; 
Thofe that the Indians call Garayates are fcarce G ara . 
difcernable to the Eye however they are 
not lefs troubLefome, for they fting the Legs 
very feverely, and ftic fo cloft to them, 
Q that 

2i8 The General HISTORY 

that tis impoflible to pull them from thence 
without rubbing them over with Oyl : The 
Indians fcrape their Legs with fomething that s 
very (harp, which puts them to a great deal 
strwgf ? Pain- Certain Creatures " that are bred 
profmy <?/in the Hair, as Lice and Fleas, die imme- 
fomc in- diatly upon pafling the Lint, and never en 
gender in the Indist, but fo foon as ever 
one returns to Europe, upon the Change of 
Climate they revive again unlefs one fhifts 
ones felf twice or thrice a Day. By Prac 
tice there is an eftablifli d Cuftom among 
trucking of the Indians, of trucking their Wives as they 
Wives. ot h er Commodities -, but what one can 
hardly believe is, that the Old ones bear a 
s& higher Price than the Young ones. Salt is 
alib a Commodity for which they barter 
Gold, pretious Stones, Cotton, and whatever 
elfe they have ofgreateft Value: They make 
it of Sea- Water, and it is whiter and of a 
Indians ^ ar P er Tafte than the bed Salt in Europe. 
jpttf* tow *!^ Indians are the greatelt Barterers in the 
tews. World, they go all over the Terra Firma 3 
or along the Coafts in their Canoes carrying 
their Commodities with them, which they 
exchange for others, having not yet learn d 
the Ufe of Money. 

They that apply themfelves to fearch for 
GolQ in the Earth, firft take care to have 
the Place where they intend to dig, very 
Gold. we |j clean d, then having made a Pit of 
eight or ten Foot in Length and Breadth, 
they hollow it about eight or ten Inches 
deep, and take the Earth that they dig 
thence and wafh it ; if they find any Gold 
there they proceed, and continue digging, 
but if they meet with none, they go and 
dig in -another Place, till they find the Livc- 


of VOYAGES and T R A v E i s. 219 
Stones. When they have once difcover d m f *fiiv& 
the Gold-Mine they fill great Baskets with" 
the Earth that they have dig d out of it, and 
then go to the next Brook and wafh it 
to feparate the 1 Gold from it, which remains 
at the Bottom of the Basket, after all the 
Earth is carfy d off by the Water: This 
Employment generally falls to the Womens 
Lot who putting themfelves up to the 
Middle of their Legs in the Water keep! 
fhaking the Basket, till all the Earth is^^ Gb j d 
wafh d away. If the Gold-Mine is in fome i s found m 
Brook or River, they are forc d to turn the J^vw&c; 
Courfe of the Water. When it is dry at the 
Bottom, they diligently fearoh every Hole 
and Cranny of the Stones, for there the Gold 
that is brought down by the Stream, lodges 
it felf. We muft obferve the belt Gold grows wbwitis 
upon the Tops of Mountains whence it i 
carry d down by the Violence of the Tor 
rent, not but that theyalfo find fome Gold- 
Mines in the Plains and Fields far enough 
off from the Mountains. Gold purifies and 
refines in Proportion to the Diftance of the 
Place of its Growth, where it is always much 
coarfer, and not fo valuable by a Carat. Some 
times they alfo find very large Grains of 
Gold upon the Surface of the Earth : The 
greateft that ever has been yet found weigh d 
three thoufand two hundred Spamfi Piftoies, 
which at that Time were worth four thou 
fand, one hundred, thirty eight Ducats of 
Gold. There have been fome found that have 
weigh d two and thirty Pounds, allowing fix- 
teen Ounces to every Pound, which makes 
fixty four Marks of Gold : The Indians have 
an Herb that adds a great Luftre to the 
natural Colour of Gold, fo that what they 

Q 2 touch luftrc 

220 The General HISTORY 

touch with it tho Gold of the lead Value 
(nines as % bright as if it had been the belt 
If the Gilders of Europe knew but this Se 
cret, they would grow rich in a very fhort 

fljh. If the Fruit of the Indies have an excellent 

Tafte, the Fifh alfo may boaft of the fame 
tot of Property: Amongft the reft there is a fort 
d of Pilchard with a red Tail, that is delicious 
Food : The Indian Turbots are of a prodi 
gious Bignefs : Towards the Ifle of Cuba there 
are {omeTortoifes that weigh fo verv heavy^that 
they require the Strength of fifteen Men 
to pull them out of the Water j they lay 
their Eggs upon the Shore, where in a 
Morning one may fee them fometimes feed 
ing and crawling about. As foon as the In 
dians have found the Prints of their Claws 
upon the Sand, they follow them by the 
Track, and having overtaken them, which 
is no difficult Matter by Reafon of their 
flow Motion, they thrufb a great Stick under 
their Bellies, and fo turning them on their 
Backs leave them in that Pofture, unable to 
ftir or move out of it, to fearch for others. 
By this Method they are able to catch a 
great Number of them in a little Time. 
Their Flefh is a very wholefome, as well as 
a very excellent fort of Food. The Fifh 
^ ie h^iavs call Manati, is about ten or 
twelve Foot long, and five Broad , it has a 
very thick Head like that of an Ox, and 
its Fins are like a Man s Arms: Tho this 
Fifh feems to be of the Monfter-kind, yet 
the Meat of it is fweet enough - 7 it comes 
very near the Banks of the River .to feed 
u poo the Grafs :, the Indians kill it with 
their Arrows, either from the River fide, or 


of V o Y A G E s and TRAVELS. 221 

out of their Canoes. Thefe Fifh fwim clofe 
to the Surface of the Water, fo that there 
is no great Trouble to pall them out, but 
there s no carrying them off* without a Wag 
gon with two Oxen. This Fifh is cfleeni d 
above the reft, on account of its Tafle, 
which is the neareft of any to that of the 
Flefli of Beafts, fo that when it is pull d to 
Pieces, one may be deceived, and take it for 
am Ox cut out into Joints : The Flefh of it is 
as good as. the fatted Veal, and keeps a long 
while in Salt. In its Head is a Stone to be 
found, which being clean d, pounded and 
taken in the Morning in a Glafs of Wine, 
eafes the Pain of the Gravel. 

The fitruella is a Fifli as large as the Ma- Vitmdk* 
nati-, he wears in the Middle of his Fore 
head a long Sword, fet on two Sides with 
very (harp Teeth: This Sword is extream 
hard, and about fifteen or twenty Inches 
long, in Proportion to the Size of the Crea 
ture, for there are fome of them as fmall as 
Pilchards , and others again fo very large, 
that two Yoke of Oxen can. hardly draw 
them from the Rivers Side. As there are 
fome Lands very barren and unfruitful, 
are there alfo fome Seas where one may 
fail a hundred Leagues or two without find 
ing a pithf 

In certain Parts of the Ocean there areny^ 
flying Fifh, which rifing in great Shoals a- 
bove Water, afford the moft agreeable Sight 
that can be \ fometimes they fly about an/ 
hundred Yards from the Place vvhere they fir It 
appeared, and often tumble in vafl Quan 
tities into the Ships. Thefe Fife have two 
Wings near their Jaw Bones, as long as 
their whole Bo lies : When they begin to 
QL3 be 

222 The General HISTORY 

be a little dried in the Air, they plunge a- ; 
gain into the Water to wet their Wings. 
The Birds of Prey are very expert at catch 
ing them when they mount up into the Air, 
which affords a great deal *of Diverfion, for 
if they attempt to dive beneath the Water, 
they arc purfu d by fome other Fifh that 
fwimming clofe to the Surface, eafily devour 
them, fo that they know not which Element 
to make Choice of to fave themfelves in. 

&MS. Th? lndians when the y fi(h for Pearl > s 

ig. down to the Bottom of the Sea, and ha 
ving a Sack tied about their Necks, fill it 
with what Shells they can lay their Hands 
on \ when they want to take Breath they 
come up into their Barks, and emptying 
their Bags, go down to the Bottom of the 
Water again to pick up more Shells. Ha 
ving open d them, they find four or five 
Pearls, little and great in every Shell, and 
a vaft Quantity of fmall Grains, that are 
.the Seeds of Pearl: Sometimes the Fifh of 
thefe Pearls ferve them for Food, but gene 
rally they throw them away, being quite 
glutted with eating fo great a Quantity of 
them as they do: In thofe Places where 
offx the Water is very deep, it bears up the 
fair Swimmers fo ftrpngly that they have much 

looting, ado to get a fteddy Footing at the Bottom. 
To remedy this Jnconveniency, they tye 
two great Stones about their Middles, which 
hanging on each Side make them heavier, 
and keep them, as it were, in a Pallance : 

> The Indians are excellent Swimmers, but 

what one can hardly believe without having 

feen it is, that they can ftay under Water 

ja Quarter pr half an Hour, without fetching 

Breath. Another thing very ijacomprehen- 


0fVoYAGES and TRAVELS. 225 

fible is, that they may have fifh d in one 
Place fo long as not to leave a Shell there, 
yet upon their return to the fame Place in 
a little Time after, they find the fame Quan 
tity of Shells they met before, which being 
driven by the Winds, are heap d together 
on the Coafts : Some have been of Opinion 
that thefe Fifh have the Power of moving 
themfelves up and down, as well as others 
have: There was once a Pearl found tjfcifp . 
weigh d one and thirty Carats, and another 
twenty fi*, which perhaps are the fineft 
that ever were brought into Europe. 

Before we finilh this Extract, we muft 
fpeak fomething of that wonderful Bridge, 
form d by the Hands of Nature, about f our ful Bri 
Leagues diftant from the Port of Panama. 
The Breadth of this Bridge is fifteen Foot, 
and the Length feventy or eighty. The Arch 
in the Middle confifts of a great Stoqe, 
cut into the Form of a Bow by Nature: 
All that have feen this Work cannot fuf- 
ficiently admire the Wifdom of the Cre 
ator, who has been pleas d to make fo eafy 
a Paffage over a River, which by the Indi 
ans is nam d Chagre. Tis from the Coun 
tries that lye round about this River, that 
all forts of Drugs, Spices, and other 
rich Commodities are brought into *re, 
which for fo many Ages lay conceal d and 
ufelefs, and that never were difcover d but 
fince Columbuis Voyages thither, and thofe 
other Perfons whom God had made Choice 
of to introduce the preaching of the Gofpel, 
and the Chriftian Faith into thofe va,fl 

This Abftraft is taken from the Summary 
of Goytykz, Qviedo Comptroler General of 


224 The General HISTORY 

When ffc/Jthe Weft Indies, who was an Eye-Witnefs of 
Extratt all he has left behind him in writing: He 

; was a Perfon bred up to Letters, and 
from his Youth had beftow d a great deal 
of Pains upon Hiftory. The King of Spain 
chofe him to be the Intendant, or Infpettor Gene 
ral of Trade in the New World. He made (eve- 
ral Voyages from Spain to the Indies, and 
from the Indies to Spain, to inform the Em 
peror Charles V. of the Difcoveries and Affairs 
of the New World: This Abftrad was read 
over before his Majefty, in the Prefence of fe- 
veral Perfons who went the fame Voyage, 
and who would have contradi&ed him if he 
had endeavour d to have impos d on his 
Majefty -, fo that it muft needs merit all the 
-Credit ought to be given to a Man of Ho 
nour and Learning, who was an Eye-Witnefs 
of what he gave an Account of to fo great 
a Monarch. 

As we have already, for the fake of the 
Learned, fet down the Names and Works of 
a great many Authors that have treated of 
the Affairs of the Indies, fo we fliall continue 
the fame Method of giving a fhort Cata 
logue of them, that thofe who have the Cu- 
riofity of being more, thorowly inftrufted 
in the Hiftory of the New World, may con- 
fult the Originals, and fee every thing in 
its full Extent. 

4 Ctta- ^ Treatife to prove the Sovereign Power 
of of the Kings of Caftile over the Indians: 
Printed in f?w*rf0 ? in 1553. 

Do&or Juan Gines de Sepulveda, a Spanijh 
Canon very famous in Europe, has written two 
Treatifes intitl d, Democrates of the Agr?*~ 
went of War with the Chriftian Religion, and 
the juft Motives of the War w.ith the Indians.- 
Printed in 0frrw*,ih 1555, fr, 

of VOYAGES and, TRAVELS. 225 

Fr. Francifco de Vittoria,, a Dominic fin has 
written two Accounts of the Indies upon the 
juft Caufes of the War againft the Infidels ^ 
thefe Accounts are to be found among ft the 
Theological Works of this Author printed 
in Ottavoin the Year 1586. 

Fr. Bernardin de Arevedo a Francifcan, has 
left us the Juftification of the Conqaeft of 
the Indies : I believe this Book is but in 0&avo % 
for there is no printed Copy to be found of it. 

Fr. Vincencio Palavicino^ of the Right of 
making War againft the Infidels, and of the 
Inftitution of a good Government, two Vo 
lumes in Latine ; the Royal Council of Spain 
has given Orders for receiving thefe Books. 

Don Bernardo de Vargas Adachucha wrote a 
Defence of the Conquelt of the Indies -, Fryar 
Antonio de Remefal fays the Reafon of this 
Book s not being printed in Ottavo^ was its 
being againft the Bilhop ofChiappa. 

Dr. Juan de Solorzano Bereyra Treafnrer of 
the foveraign Council of the/W/ej, has composed 
a learned Treatife of the Affairs of t\\zlndies and of 
the Right that the Spaniards had to conquer and 
keep them :Printed mLatine, inFolio, in the year 
1629. The fame Author has printed a learned 
Memorial or Difcourfe, containing the Me 
thod that ought to be obferv d by the Royal. 
Council of the Indies in their publick Ads : 
Printed in Folio in the Year 1629. 

Don Pedro Martyr Angler i a, who was one 
of the Royal Council of the Indies, has compo- 
fed eight Decades in Latine^ of which only the 
three firft are in Print. A fecond Edition of 
them in Ottavo^ in the Year 1536 is to be 
had, of which the Abbot Trithemius takes no 
Notice. They were all printed in Folia^ in 
1536, this Impreflion is much better than that 
ia 1587. R The 

The General HISTORY 

The Hiftory of the Weft-Indies taken from 
the Memoires of Don Pedro Martyr: Printed 
in foalianin Quarto^ in the Year 1534. Tisto 
be met with in the Duke of Sefa s Library. 
Of the Illands newly difcover d, of their In 
habitants and their Cuftoms in Latins : This 
Treatlfe it leems, is a Sequel of the Decades 
of the Year 1587. 

Dodfcor Pedro Savorgnano inferted this lad 
Treatife, among his Latins Works, with three 
of Ferdinands Cartels Letters, printed in Folio ^ 
jn the Year 1532* 

Giovanni Battifta Ramuflo has made an A- 
bridgement of thefe Decades in Italian^ and 
inferted them in his third Tome 

Juan Paul Martirizo defcended from Don^ 
Pedro Martyr^ known by the Works he has 
printed, has translated his Great Grand-Fa 
ther s Decades into the Caftilian Language. 

Gonzalez. Fernandez. d j Oviedo has compil d a 
general Hiftoryof the Indies in fifty Books. The. 
firft Tome printed in Folio^ in the Year 1547, 
contains nineteen of them, with eight Books of 
Misfortunes and Shipwrecks : Giovanni Battifta 
Ramufio has tranflated this Tome into Italian^ 
and placed it in his third Volume with the 
Books of Shipwrecks, which makes the twen 
tieth of his Hiftory. 

John Opoleur has tranflated the fix firft Books 
into French : Printed in Folio^ in 1 555. 

Diego de la Tobilla wrote a Treatife calPd 
JL/f Barica. Tis a Hiftory of the Terra fir ma 
of the Indies : Antonio de Her r era had a Ma- 
nufcript of it ? and tis by his Means we came 
?q the Knowledge of that Work. 


0f V O Y A G ES And, T A A V E L S. 


of the General Hiftory of the 
Weft-Indies, written by Gonzalez Per- 
dinand d Oviedo in twenty Books, 
dedicated to the Emperor Charles V. 

TIS not of India lying towards the tUft Starry 
near the Rivers Indus and Ganges thafc?/ 
this Hiflory gives an Account j but of 
Weft-Indies which are the Iflands, and Terra, 
Firma in the weftern Ocean, fubjeft to the 
Crown of Spain, ever fince their firft Difco- 
very by Chriftojhtr Columbus. Altho we have 
already given you an Abridgment of thofe 
things that Ferdinand d Oviedo related in the 
Conferences he had with the Emperour Charles 
V. and the Prefidents of the Royal Council af 
ter the Voyage he made from the new World 
to Sfain^ we cannot forbear retouching a little 
upon them in this Place. This Hiftory then 
merits fo much the more Credit, in that the 
Author has been an Eye-Witnefs of, and 
carefully examined whatever he relates, having 
liv d two and twenty Years in the Indies during 
the Reigns of Charles V. and Ferdinandl. in qua 
lity of /tf^f#0r-Generai of the Gold-Mines, 
Pliny fays in the Beginning of his Hiftory 
that he will relate things which he has read 
in four thoufand Volumes, a very laborions 
Task indeed ; but when we have fet down 
all we have met with in reading, we can but 
relate it upon the Teftimony and good Cre- 
R 2 dit 

228 The General HISTORY 

dit of the Authors, who are not always to be 
depended on, whereas there is lefs Danger 
of being cheated, where a Man has been an 
Eye Witnefs ; and this is the Diference be- 
7T>e Indies tween Pliny s natural Hiftory, and that of 
not un- Consoles Ferdinand d* Oviedo. Some People 
known to are of Opinion, that the New World difco- 
tbsAnci- ve r ? d in thefe laft Ages by Chriftoper Columbus, 
and Americus fafpucius was utterly unknown 
to the Ancients, yet it is however highly pro 
bable they had fome Knowledge of it ; for 
Ariftotle fays pofitively that the Carthaginian 
Merchants, having pafs d the Streights of Gi 
braltar and penetrated the Atlantic Qsan, 
difcover d a great Itlind full of wild Beafts 
that never had been inhabited by Men. They 
alfo found in it large Woods, navigable Ri 
vers, and a Land abounding with all forts 
of Fruits that Nature had produced fpon- 
taneoufly. Ariftotle adds, that this Ifland 
was very far diftant from Africa, that the 
Carthaginians did not land there till after 
a great many Days Sail, and that being 
charm d with the Beauty of and Fruitfulnefs 
of the Place, they fettl d themfelves there. 
This Opinion ofAriftotle s would make us con- 
jefture, that the Carthaginians landed either 
at. HifyanioU, Cuba, or fo mew here on the Coaft 
of the Terra Firnia. Tis not altogether un 
likely that the Hefperian Iflands fo famous for 
Antiquity, took their Name from Heffevu* 
.the fecond King of Spain, it being the Gu- 
ftom amon-g the Ancients to give to Kingdoms, 
and Provinces, the Names of thofc who had 
founded or conquer d them. Thus the Ajjy- 
rians took their Name from Affur, the Lydians 
from Lydus, the l(maelites from Jfmad, the Am 

0f VOYAGES and T R A VE L s. 229 

monites and Moabites from Mo fib and Ammon, 
the Perfans from Perfeus, the Phoenicians {torn 
Pheenix Brother of Cadmus; the Egyptians horn 
Eryptus their King, the Armenians from yfrwe- 
??j, who was one of the Argonaut es that aflifted 
Jrf/w* in the Ccnqueft of the Golden fleece; 
and in a Word the Arcadtans from -/4rw, the 
Son of Jupiter. Sometimes Conquerors gave 
Names to thofe Towns they had built, ei 
ther as a Mark of Honour, or to eternise 
their Memories and Glory, and tis upon this 
Account, Alexandria, and Cefaria, were fo 
calfd from Alexander and Coefar. 

Succeeding Ages ought to have the greateft M 
Veneration for" the Memory of Chri flop her how 
Colunhus, who has taught Mankind the Art 
of Sailing by the Elevation of the Sun 
and .Stars , few before his Time car d for 
making Voyages, and the Pilots that pre 
ceded him, durft never lofe Sight of Land, or 
ever truft themfelves in the open Sea, for they 
had no certain Rule to go by, but fail d at a 
Venture, without either Art or Judgement: 
Columbus addreft himfelf firft to Henry VII. TO whom 
Father of Henry VIII. King ot England, pf&nngkfift ad 
to go and difcover in his Name th&fe vaft^ bim 
Countries, provided he would contribute to-^ 
wards the neceffary Expences of fitting out 
Ships ^ but the privy Council of England be 
lieving Columbus to be fomewhat crack-brain d, 
rejeded his Propofal. Meeting with no bet 
ter a Reception from John King of Portugal^ 
he went into Spain where being favourably 
received by Don ffenriquezde Guzman Duke ot w j 
MedinaSidonia, and Don Lewit delaCerda, he by M 
their means had Audience of King Ferdinand and 
Queen Ifabelta : He was alfo fo fortunate as 
to get in Favour with Don Gon?ialez. de M*n- 
R 3 doz.* 

The General tt I S f O R Y 

a Cardinal of Spain, and Archbifllop of 
Toledo, who was extrcamly furpriz d at the 
great Learning and Poverty of Columbus^ who 
at that Time was deftitute of Neceffaries for 
his Support. ^The King and Queen having 
refblv d to drive all the Moors out of Spain, 
were at that Time at the Siege of Granada. 
In the Year 1492 they granted Cotumbui what 
he demanded, with Ships and Men to aflilt 
him in his great Undertaking. 

He landed at the Ifle of Gutnahani in Oc- 
tober, the very fame Year, and difcover d a 
vaft Number of little Iflands lying all round 
about, which he nam d the White IJlands, be- 
caufe of the prodigious Quantity of Sands 
thatfurrounded them, and made them look of a 
whitifh Colour : Afterwards he nam d them the 
Prime Iflands becaufe they were the firfthe had 
f/ difcoverUHe landed next at the Iflandof Cuba, 
^ich j s b ut twelve Leagues farther towards 
the North; fomeof the Indians imbark d with 
him, and conduced him to Cebao^ which he 

We riches after wards named Hiffaniola ; and it is there 

^ the richeft Mines are, which produce the fi- 
ncft Gold. The Indians of thofe Countries 
are of a fweet and affable Temper, they foon 
grew familiar with the Chriftians, tho upon 
their firft landing they fcamper d into the 
Woods to fave themfelves. This made the 
Admiral refolve upon leaving fome of his 
own Men amongft them, whilft he went back 
to give the Court an Account of his new 

Builds a Mfc ver i c s. Accordingly he order d a little 
Ltd f Q1 1 ^ Intrenchment or Fort to be built 
with the Planks of one of his Ships that 
was leaky, to ihelter and fecure his Men, 

behind, [f t fo e Indians Ihould attempt to infult them. 


of V O Y A G E S Afti 1T R A V E t S. 2 3 I 

Upon his Departure he ftri&ly enjoyn d 
them to be always upon their Guard, not to 
ramble too far up into the Country, not 
to touch the Women, nor to offer any Man 
ner of Incivility to the Natives. Tries wtb 
Columbus took about a Dozen Indians aboard him fame 
with him as WitnefTes of his new Difcove- Natives to 
ries and in the Name of all the In habitants to&mtge* 
of all the Iflands, to do homage to their Catho- 
lick Ma jetties. He alfo defign d to have them 
taught the Spanijb Language and by fhowing 
them the Riches and Curiofities of Europe, to 
engage their Affedion towards his Nation. 
The Court of Spain exprefs d a great deal 7^, Court 
of Joy at the fight of Columbus and his In-rcjoyccsat 
dians whom they look d upon as extraordi-&^. 
nary Men, having never feen any of them in 
Europe before. All of them earneftly dcfircdj ndi . a ? 
JSaptifm, either of their own Accords, or elfe **?* * 
prompt d to it, by the Inftigation of others. 
The King and Queen, their Son Don Juan 
and the cheif Lords and Ladies of the 
Court were the Godfathers and Godmothers, 
This Ceremony was perform d with all the 
Pomp and Magnificence that fuch a Novel 
ty could require: One of the principal /#- 
ditns was chriften d by the Name of Don 
Juan of Arrfigon , he was originally a Native 
of Hiffmiol*) and a near Relation of the 
Cacique Goalanagare. Another was nam d Don 
Juan of Caflile^ him the young Prince adop 
ted and kept in his Court, treating him 
with the fame Refpeft and Indulgence as i 
he had been his own Child. He orderM his 
Treafurer to inftrudhim in the Spanijh Tongue 
which he afterwards undcrftood to perfedtion, 


240 The General HISTORY 

us as he did evef y thin s elfe the y were 

ea HO- * teach him. The other /mtiiw went back 
into their own Country with Columbus^ on 
whom the King and Queen conferr d a 
great many Honours with Abundance of 
Thanks for the important Service he had 
done the Crown, giving him leave to add 
to his Coat of Arms thofe of Arragon and 
CaJMe, with the Title of perpetual Admiral 
of the Seas in the New World^ to him and 
his Heirs for ever. 





* i 

The Colonies fettled in the New World, by 
the Admiral Chriftopher Columbus. 

HAving already, in the Preceeding Abridg 
ments, fpoken concerning the Voyages 
and Adventures of Columb^ we will not trou 
ble the Reader with a needlefs Repetition there 
of in this Place *, but proceed to give a Rela 
tion of certain Particulars, not meution d by 
thofe Authors, of whom we gave thofe Abridg 
ments. The Indians vex d to the Heart, to fee y 
the Europeans fettled among them, refolv d to ans endea- 
make themperifh by Hunger-, and for that Pur- wr to 
pofe forbore to fow and cultivate their Lands \ft ar9 *. tj)e 
fo, that, molt of the Spaniard dy d miferably for b 
want of Food : However, the Indians were not 
exempted from the lame Punifhment> vaft Num 
bers of them being ftarv d to Death } becaufe 
the Europeans feiz d and carry d off what Stores 
they had laid up for their own Subflftance : 
Notwithltanding this, the Spaniards were re- 
duc d to fuch Extremities, that they were forc d 
to feed upon Dogs, and what other living 
Creatures they had brought along with them 
out of Spain } and, when thefe were all confum d, 
they had recourfe to the Flelh of Serpents, 
which, tho it was not venemous, yet the very 
Sight thereof was very naufeous to the Europe 
ans ; they drefs d it as well as they could, they 
boil d they broil d it, to make it fomewhat a- 
greeable to their Stomachs ^ but in fpite of all 
their Care, this bad Nourifhment, join d to the 
moiflnefs of the Climate, threw them into a 
fort of Tellowjaundicci which proving incurable, 

S their 

242 The General HISTORY 

their Countenance continued for ever after of a 
Saffron Colour. 

Captain Don Pedro Margarit, Commander in 
Chief in the Fort of St. Thoma*> perform d an 
Adtion very well defer ving to be recorded in 
Hiltory : He was reduced to the fafhe extremity 
as the reft of the Spaniards were. A young 
Indian prefented him with two Turtles, but he 
let them fly immediately, in Sight of his Gar- 
rifon : God forbid, faid he to them, / fliould put 
a greater Paltte upon my own I ife than yours ^ and 
fence yon are williug to (hare your Pate with mine^ V# 
but Reafon 1 ffiould take part in your Sufferings. 
ThisHeroique A&ion gain d no fmall Applaufe 
and AfFfc&ion to the Commander, from his 

Michael Dlas s a Native of Arragon, happen 
ing to wound dangerouQy another Spaniard in a 
Duel, wasforc\d to fave himfelf by Flight, with 
fome few others of his Adherents. In their 
Travels, they efpy d a very delightful Place, 
which prov d an Indian Plantation mofl com- 
hiodioully lituated ( where fince the City of 
Domingowv* built) under the Government of a 
Cacique. This Lady being as yet very young, 
fell in Love with Michael Dias, whofe Compa 
nions met with a kind Reception there on his 
account. She difcoverd certain Gold-Mines, 
not above Seven Leagues from thence, and 
told them, that, if they would bring thi 
ther a greater Number of their Country-mep, 
She would furnifh them with all manner of Ne- 
cefTaries. This happy Chance faved the Lives 
^ tlle Remainders of the Spaniards in thofe 
Parts, moil of whom fettled themfelves in the 
shut St. Dominions of thisOa^*, who took effectual 
Domingo. Care to provide them with Guides, who con- 
duded them thither ^ the Spanifi Settlements be 
ing above 50 Leagues from thence. The 

of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 24}* 

The Spaniards highly taken with the Fertility, 
Plenty and Beauty of the Place, lived there for 
forae time in a perfect Union-, till this good 
Correfpondence was difturb d by the indifcreet 
and prepofterous Zeal of Father /?*//, who ex- 
clainr d lowdly againft the Admiral s Severity ; 
becaufe he had caus d fome Spaniards to be 
han.g d,for.aTerror to thereft,the better to keep 
them in their Duty, it being one of his Maxims, 
That no good Difcipline can be maintained a- 
mong Soldiers, without keeping them id Awe 
and Obedience. But, whenever he made life of 
his Authority, this Father exclainTd againft his 
Proceedings, as favouring too much of Severity 
and Cruelty \ and, being therein the Quality of 
the Popes Vicar, at laft launched out bis Inter* 
didh againft the Admiral, and, by his abfolute 
Authority forbid Divine Service to be per- 
form dinthe Churches. This Mifunderftand- 
ing proved the Canfe of great Mifchief and f V J 

-.{+ * - ._ t- t uirsOnJf frJG 

Dilorders among tne Ewfaftan* : For, the Ad- Spaniards 
miral, to be even with the Vicar, would not 
fuffer him and his Family to be furnifli d with 
what was neceflary for their Subfiftancc, where 
by they were reduced to the lall vtremity. 
The Chief Men of the Colony, at lalt, brought 
Matters to a Reconciliation, between them } but 
that proved of no long Continuance: For, fo 
often as the Admiral was for punifhing Crimi 
nals according to their Deferts, the other 
thunder d out his Excommunication, and Di 
vine Service ceas T d, to the no fmall Terror of 
all the good Catholicks, who m themfelves at 
laft, under aNeceffity, of petitioning the King 
of Spain to put an End to thefe Diforders by his 
Authority. Hereupon both the Admiral and 
the Vicar wererecalFd 5 but the King, in re- 
fpeft of the Signal Services of Colnmb^^ gave 
S 2 him* 

244 The General HISTORY 

him another Commiflion to return to the New 
World, recommending to him, to ad with more 
Moderation, and with fomething lefs of Seve 
rity. The Spaniards are naturally inclin d to 
warlike A&ions, and being of a hot Temper 
and Conftitution, are apt to fall into inteftine 
Diflenfions, if they have no foreign Enemies to 
exercife their Valour upon , befides that, the 
Spaniards who were fir ft of all tranfported in 
to the New World^ confifting of Brifcayans, 
Catalonians^ j4ndalu[iaii$^ Arragonians^ Galicians, 
Caftilians, beildes thofe of Guipuzcoa, Navarre 
and Afluria^ Nations different both in their 
Manners and Language, tho all united in the 
Spanifli Monarchy, what wonder is it, if they 
did fall into inteftine Diflenfions in the Indies. 

Twas this that furnifti d the neighbouring 
Indian Caciques^ with a favourable Opportunity 
Givestle of entring into a League againft the Spaniards : 
Indians <?M They brought into the Field five orfixThou- 
f an( j Men, with an Intention to take and raze 

t ^ 1 ^ r ^ OIt an( ^ t0 ^ Ut t ^ C E uro eans to t ^ ie 

Sword. Alonfo d y Hogied*, who then com 
manded in that Fort, having got Intelligence 
of their Kiarch, was continually upon his 
Guard, to avoid a Sarprize, and upon their 
Approach to the Fort, repuls d them with 
great Slaughter, and took their Chief Cacique, 
who commanded as General, with many other 
Officers of Note, Prifoners. This Cacique had 
a Brother, who having the Reputation of a 
firaye Commander among the/W*^/, gather d 
a Body of 6000 or 7000 Men, to force the 
Spaniards to releafe his Brother ; whilil he was 
advancing in five Brigades towards the Fort of 
St. ThomM, the Governour made a Sally with 
300 Horfe and Foot, and the Indians terrify d 
at the Sight of the Horfe betook them- 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 24$ 

felves to their Heels, without ftriking one 
Blow } a great Number of them were kill d in 
the Flight, and the Brother of the Cacique, 
with the heft Part of his Army, was taken Pri- 
foners. The two Brothers were put a-board a 
Veflel to be carry d to Spain, but dy d in that 
Voyage of Grief and Defpair. 

This Viftory rendering the Spaniards Mailers 
of all that Country, which is very rich and 
fertile, fourteen petty Kings join d their 
Forces, to the Number of 15000, to chafe 
them from their New Conquefts, at a time 
which they thought the moil favourable that 
could be, to compafs their Aim : For, the 
Chriftians, under the Command of Don Bar 
tholomew Columbus^ were reduced to a fmall 
Number, moft of them being dead by the in 
juries of the Climate, and bad Nourifhment, 
and they expeded daily a new Reinforcement, 
under Chriftopher ColttmbtU) which induc d the 
Indians to haften their March, in order to at 
tack the Spaniards^ before the Arrival of this 
Succours. Bartholomew Columbtu fearing they 
might fet Fire to the Fort, did not think fit to 
exped their coming thither ; but drew out his 
Forces, to the Number of 500, moft Horfe- 
men, arid marching the greateft part of the 
Night, furpriz d the Indians in their Camp be 
fore Day, and put them to an entire Rout with 
a great Slaughter, taking as many Prifoners as 
they could difpofe of, the reft efcap d under 
favour of the Night. Among the Prifoners They a>c 
were the Chief oif the Kings, and fourteen fiMmdfy 
Caciques. This Vidory gain d fo vaft a Reputa- tJ)e ^ 
tion to the Chriftians, among the Indians^ that nl 
they laid afide all furtherThoughts of encounter 
ing them, being fenfible they were not able to 
cope with them. The Sftmjh Commander, 
S 3 the 

246 The General HISTORY 

the better to gain the AfFe&ion of the Indians^ 
fet the King at Liberty, who, in Acknowledg 
ment of fo unexpe&ed a Favour, for ever after 
proved a true Friend to all the Chriftians that 
came into his Dominions. 

About the fame time Admiral Columbus being 
come back from Spain , prepar d for his in- 
tended Voyage for the Streigkt, (he fuppos d 
he fhould fiqd) into the -South-Sea ^ but was 
miftaken in his Suppofition, the Streight he 
judg d to be a Branch of the Ocean, being no 
more than a Bay, as (hall be (hewn in its proper 
Place- Don Antonio Torres, and Bobadila, who 
commanded a Body of Land Forces, having ta 
ken a Refolution to return into Spain with their 
Troops, would give no Ear to the wholefome 
Advice of the Admiral, who being well ac 
quainted with thofe Seas,reprefented to them the 
Danger they would undergo of being Ship- 
wrack d, if they undertook the Voyage at that 
Seafon, for which they paid dearly foon after ; 
For, fcarce had they made 20 Leagues, but be- 
, .n ing furpriz d by a moft furious Tempeft, 
&!$. twenty- fix large VefTels, out of thirty, were 
either fwallow d up in the Deep, or ftav d a- 
gainft the Rocks, and ail thofe vaft Riches they 
had gathered in the New Worldloft; befides 500 
Men drown d, among whom was Rowlavd 
Ximencs, Ring- leader of thofe who had revolt 
ed againfl the Admiral and his Brother. 
Chrifto- The Admiral himfelf, after many Dilcove- 
pher Co- ries made in his Voyage, arriv d on the Coafl 
Iambus of Jamaica, where, having loft two of his Ships, 
*rnvet fit fa Bought it his fafeft way, to give Notice of 
naica * his being there to the Governour of the New 
World, then r eliding at Domingo. One Diego 
Mender was fo courageous, as to put himfelf 
iato a^ Canoe, under the Co nduft of fome In- 

of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 247 

Alans j not without a moft manifeil Danger of 
his Life, fince thefe Canoes being very light, 
are turn d topfy-turvy by theleaflBIaftof Wind, 
which is the Reafon, they always keep near 
the Shore } however, he had the good Fortune 
to fucceed in his Voyage, contrary to every 
bodies Hopes \ the Admiral did not negleft to 
reward fo Jhazardous a Piece of Service, and of 
fuch vaft Confequence to him ; and the Spamflt 
Court, to eternalize the Memory of fo fervice- 
ableanA&ion, befides other Rewards, added a 
Canoe to his Coat of Arms. 

The Viceroy was no fooner inform d of the 
prefent Condition the Admiral was in, by his 
Letter, but he bought a VefTel, and having 
furniflfd it with all manner of neceflary Pro- 
lions, fent it immediately to condud him 
and his Company, to Hiffaniola. Moft of 
them were flck, and much weaken d by the 
Fatigues of the Voyage, and thofe that were 
as yet fit for Service, revolted againfl the Ad- 
miral, being headed by two Brothers, Francis 
and Diego de Porrat, one of which was a Captain 
of a Ship, and the other Pay-mafter of the 
Forces. They feiz d upon all the Indian Canoes^ 
with an Intent to crofs over to HifpanioU 
but molt of them were fwallow d up by the 
Sea, few only returning to the Admiral, but 
not to their Duty. For, the two Brothers per. An En ~ 
fifting in their Mutiny, he faw himfelf oblig d 
to reduce them by Force of Arms, which was 
foon done ; they were routed, their two Ring. aids, 
leaders taken Prifoners, and the Mutiny quelTd. 
This was the firfl Engagement that happened 
betwixt the ChrifHans in the New World. 

The Indians fully inform d ot the Diffcnfions 

among the Europeans, relblv d to conceal their 

frovifions, to reduce them to the utmolt 

S 4 Famine^ 

248 The General HI STORY 

Famine ^But, no fooner had the Admiral got No 
tice of their Refolution, but calling together 
the Chiefeft of the Inhabitants of this Ifle, told 
them in a fhort Harange, That, he could fore 
tell them, they would all perifh by the Plague, 
unlefs they furnifh d the Chriflians with every 
thing they flood in need of ^ And, added he, to 
convince you that my Prediction will prove true, 
I would have you take notice, that fuch and 
fuch a Day, you will fee the Moon all on Fire, 
iumbus" anc * * on a ^ ter di(aPF ear * For, he being well 
impofes Ters d in Jflronomy^ it was eafie for him, by 
upon tie the Rules of that Art, to foretel them, that 
Indians the Moon fhould be eclips d at fuch a certain 
l y foretel- jviinute, as he mention d to them. All the 
iys***- Indians aflembled at the prefixed time, to fee 
til Moon. the Effects of his Prediction, and perceiving 
the Moon actually eclips d, they were ftruck 
with fuch an Amazement, that they could not 
bnt believe, he would certainly make them all 
dye of the Plague. They threw themfelves at 
Columbus his Feet, imploring his Mercy with 
moft doleful Cries, promising they would fur- 
nifh him and his Company with every thing 
they fhould ftaad in need of, and at parting 
gave htm moft evident Teftimonies of their 
Grief, to fee themfelves bereav d of the Affift- 
ance of a Man, whom theylook d upon, as a 
MefTenger from Heaven, for their Preiervation. 
Soon after he return d to Spain, where he dy d 
of Age> at the beginning of the Reign of 
Philip and Queen Joan. Spain fiends indebted 
to him for the Difcovery of thofe rich 
Countries, which have difFus d their vaft Pro- 
duds and Treafii res through Europe :, and God 
Was pleas d to make this great Man his Inftru- 
ment, to open the Door to the Preachers of 
the Gofpel, for the Converfioja of fo many 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 249 

Millions of People, who groan d under the 
Slavery of the Devil, and fpent their Lives in 
the Darknefs of Paganifra. 


The Churches and Clergy of Hifpaniola ; 
with A Description of the moft remarka 
ble things in the City of St. Domingo. 

THE King of Spain and Queen Joan his 
Daughter, order d a very fine Cathedral 
to be built at St. Domingo ^ whereof Father 
Garcias de Padi^lia a Francifcan was made the 
the firlt Bifhop, as Don Sebafttan Ramires was 
Prefident of the Court of Juftice erefted in that 
City, and at the fame time, Bifhop of the 
Church of the Conception of U Vega, in Hifpa 
niola. There is not a City in all Spain which 
exceeds this, for magnificent and beautifal 
Strucfcres : Here you may fee Palaces fit for the i( 0n f 
Reception of a great Prince , and as for its L 
Situation, the Beauty and Regularity of its 
Streets, and the Pleafantnefs of the Avenues 
leading to it, they are fuch as may invite even 
the greateft Monarch, to chufe it for his RefiU 
dence. The City is feated in a vaft Plain, di 
vided from one End to the oth^", from North 
to South, by the River Oz.ama, the Banks 
whereof are adorn d with Gardens well planted 
with Orange-Trees, and very fine Canes : On 
the South-fide, the Walls of this City beiag 
wam d by the Waves of the Sea, one half of 
its whole Circumference is enclos d by the Sea 
and the River : The Streets are very broad and 
ftrait i on that fide where you look into the 


The General}l I S T O R Y 

Fields, you fee moft delicious Walks, and vafl 
Meadows -, to be fhort, all its Avenues are fo 
very delightful, that it is impollible to fee a 
finer Situation than this, the Harbour being 
not above 12 or 15 Paces from the City, the 
Ships coming to the very tioufes of the Mer 
chants, where they load and unload without 
much Troubje and Charge : Befides that, with, 
in Musket-fhot of the Harbour, they may enter 
the Pviver, which is of vaft Confequence to 

Francis de Jarai was the firfl who built a 
Strudure of Stone in this Ifle after the Spamjh 
Fafhion, iince which time moft of the other, 
Spaniards built theirs after his Model. Don 
i>iego Colombo, Vice- Admiral of the Seas of the 
New World, and Eldeft Son to Admiral Ckifto- 
pher Columbus, was made Governour of Hi/pa- 
niola, being fupported by the Intereft of 
Don Frederick de Toledo, Duke of Alba, becaufe 
he had marry d his Niece, Mary de Toledo, 
Daughter to Ferdinand de Toledo, Grand Com 
mander of Leon. King Philip and Queen- Joan, 
who fucceeded in the Throne of Spain after the 
Death of Ferdinand and Ifabella, had fo great arl 
Eiteem for the Duke of Alba, that they refufed 
him nothing, whatever he ask d for ; fo tis no 
Wonder, if he with Eafe obtained the Govern, 
meat of tiifaanipla, for Don Diego Colum* 
b&, who, as pe told you, had married that 
Duke s Niece ; the Grand Commander of Al 
cantara, who was Governour of that Ifle, 
feeing recalled by the Intreagues of Fonfeca 
Biihop of Badajoz.^ his private Enemy. Tho 
this Gentleman s Place, befides his own Re 
venue, was valued at 8000 Ducats a Year, he 
fpent it all in Ads of Charity, but efpecially in 
founding an Hofpital; fo that he was forc d to 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 251 

borrow 5oPiftoles for the life of his Voyage, 
when he was recall d into Spain. 

Twas in the Year 1509, when Don Diego 
Colttmbo fet fail for Hifpaniola with the Title 
of Governour-General ^ As he carry d his Lady TJje Spa 
Mtiry de,Toledo along with him, a great Number nifh-rb 
of other Ladies and Gentlemen took this Op. men fir 
portunity of going along with them, and the^ ow ^ 
young Ladies, for the moft part, made their * tjje 
Fortunes there by Marriage. This was the firft 
time any Spanijk Woman was known to have left 
her Native Country, to fettle in the New World, 
which proved of great Confequence to the 
Spaniards ; for, tho not a few among them, had 
contracted Marriages with Indian Women, the 
greateft Part of them naufeated them too much 
to marry them : Thefe Ladies which came from 
Spain proving a fingular Ornament to the City of 
St. Domingo^ and meeting with great Encourage 
ment there, many other Gentlemen went thi 
ther with their Wives and Families, which rais d 
this City to a moft flourifhing State } we mufl 
look upon this as aa Effeft of God s Mercy, 
who would have his Name be glorified in thofe 
Places, where the Devil had bin worfhip d with 
fo much Devotion for many Ages. 

TheGrandCommander was not 

when Don Diego arriv d there with all thofe that 
accompany d him , but upon his return thither, 
fhew d a great deal of feeming Satisfaction at 
the Sight of him, and told them, He was ready 
to obey the King s Orders, which recall d him 
into Spain i and accordingly fet fail thence in 
September, in the fame Year, 1509. Don Diego y 
upon his Arrival at St. Domingo, had taken up 
his Refidence in the Caftle ; but his Catholick 
Majelty was pleas d to beftow the Government 
of that Fortrefs upon Michael de foffamont^ and 


The General HISTORY 

foon after uponCapt.Gonz,alez.FerJinand<fOvielcy 
a Native of Madrid, his Favourite and Royal 
Hiftoriographer, Author of the fame Hiftory, 
whereof we have given you this Abftrad. 
The Grand Commander met with a mod favour 
able Reception from the King, as well on ac 
count of the Signal Services he had done him in 
the Indies, as in refpeft of that ancient Friend- 
Ihip he bore him ; and told him, He was hearti 
ly forry he had recall d him from his Govern 
ment ; So foon as the Commander had given him 
a circumftantial Relation of the true State of 
his Affairs in the Indies, where the Natives be 
ing generally inclin d to that Governour, very 
much regreted his Departure. In all probabi 
lity he had foon bin reinftated in that Poft, had 
not his Death, which happen d foon after, pre 
vented it. 

Divifons ^ e Departure of the Grand Commander 
among tbeP YOV & tne Caufe of no fmall Diviflons and Di- 
Spaniards. orders in the New World, becaufe his Friends and 
Creatures, who had vaft Obligations to him, 
thwarted under hand all theDefigns of the new 
Governour, and the Court of Madrid was 
pefter d with continual Petitions, and mutual 
Complaints of both Parties. To check the fur- 
ther Progrefs of thefe Devifions, it was thought 
fit to fend a- Lord Chief Juflice into the Indies, 
to hear and determine the Complaint?, as well 
of the Governour as of theSubjeds , But the 
firfl looking upon this as an Intreuchment upon 
his Prerogative and Authority; fo far fhew d 
his Diflike thereat, that he received Orders to 
return to Spain, which he did accordingly, ha 
ving fpent vaft Summs in this Voyage, with 
out reaping any confiderable Benefit by it, The 
King s Death, which happen d foon after, prov d 
another Misfortune to Colombo, as well as to the 


of VOYARES and TRAVELS. 255 

Affairs -of the Indies, which he had left entan 
gled under no fmall Difficulties, the Indians 
being fickle, inconftant and changeable, which 
whether it owes its Origin to the Air and Cli 
mate, or to their natural Difpofition, I will not 
pretend to determine. 

Upon this Occa (ion it will not be improper 
to mention here, what Queen Ifabetta told Chri- 
ftopher Columbus one Day, when he was giving her 
an Account of divers Curiofities he had met 
with in the New WorU. He told her among 
other things, That the Trees in thofe Parts, did 
not fpread their Roots into the Ground, as they 
do in Europe j but on the Surface of the Earth. 
The Queen asking the Reafon of this Difference, 
heanfwer d, That the Ground being burning hot 
within) by reafon of the Heat of the Climate^ and 
the Surface, on the contrary , ntoifend by the conti* 
nual Rains } and the Roots being fenfible of this 
excejfive Heat and Drynefs, turn, upward f^ to par 
take of the Benefit of the Aloiftnefs) on the Surface 
of the Ground^ which fur nifocs them with Nouriflj- 
ment. I am very much afraid) reply d the Queen, 
that this Difpofition^ and thefe Qualities of the 
Climate) are infused into the Inhabitants likewife \ 
and that) as the Trees do not take firm Root there , 
fo it will prove a hard Task to fix. a ft able , conflant 
and durable Government there. Tis certain, that ^ cijA- 
if you converfe never fo little with the Indians, rafter of 
itiseafietofind them the mod fickle andthe^ 
moft Inconftant of all Men living, who never ans 
flick to any thing, and who fcarce ever know 
what they would be at ; the leaft Appearance of 
Fear, difperfes and puts them to Flight $ in 
ftiort, they are more unrefolv d, more weak 
and credulous than Children of five or fix Years 
old; and what is the worft, is, That thofe 
which are born from Indian-women) and an #- 


254 The General HISTORY 

ropean Father, participate to a very high De 
gree of their Mother s Infirmities. 

After Chajles V. afcended thcSpaniflj Throne, 
he commanded Don Diego Columbo, to return to 
his Government of St. Domingo in the Indies^ 
which, as we told you before, he had bin forc d 
to leave by the Cabals and Power of his Enemies, 
againft whom he had pleaded his Caufe at Court> 
for five Years paft. 

Tistobe obferv d, that molt of the great 
Lords in Spain had their Fa&ors and Creatures 
in the Indies, who forc d the Indians to work in 
their Sugar- works and Gold-mines, and treated 
them otherwife in a moft barbarous manner ; 
of thefe fome had 100, others 300, which be 
ing us d worfe than Beafls of carriage, every 
Day, what with Hunger, and what with the 
Toils they underwent, theydrop d down dead 
in vaft Numbers, to the utter Ruin and De- 
ftrudion of the Natives of this Ifle. 

The continual Calamities thele poor Wretches 
groah d under, by the Barbarity of the Spa- 
niards^ made them at laft refolve upon a Mu- 
Tle Indi- t ^ n 7- Accordingly they got into a Body in 
ans drawn Chriftma* time, 1 522, without being fulpeded 
to defa- by any of the Spaniards^ of whom they mafla- 
cr d not a few in the Country, when they 
e^ t j, ou g[ lt themfelves in the utmofl Security. 
" ^ ott * e & Ce ^ m ^ no fooner receiv d the News 
of this Revolt, and the Maflacres committed 
by the Natives, but he aflembled all his Forces, 
both Horfe and Foot, and march d with them in 
purfuit of the Rebels : On the fecond Day he 
halted on the Banks of the River Ninao, where 
he receiv d Intelligence, that they lay encanip d 
about four Leagues thence, having pillag d one 
of the Spanifh Towns, and carry d off every 
thing they could, being refolv d to do all the 



Mifdlief that pofiibly they could to the Eu 
ropeans -, which they would certainly have cffeft- 
edwitha Vengance, had not Providence foon 
after determiii d it otherwife, and made all 
their Proje&s to vanifli into Smoak at one 

Among thofe that attended the Governour in 
the Army was Melchior de Caftro, who having 
fuffer d much by the Revolted fatKunS) took a- 
long with him two Horfemen only (but with 
out the Governours Knowledge, who. he fup- 
pos d would not give his Corifeht) and with 
them riding to his Houfe, found it miferably 
pillag d and demolifhU: He then fent Word to 
the Governour, that he intended to amufe the 
Indians, whilft he ihould advance with his 
whole Body, to attack them on all Sides. 
Hereupon the Governour fent him Ten Horfe 
men, and as many Foot-Soldiers, with whom 
he advanc d to the Place where the Rebels lay 
encamp d. At the Sight of the Chriftians they 
fet up a loud Hu2ah, whereat thefe being not 
in the leaft terrify d, refolv d to charge them 
immediately, without ftaying for any further 
Aid, before they could fully difcover their 
Number, or retreat, till they were join d by 
others : So, clapping Spurs to their Horfes,they 
came upon them on a full Gallop, who bravely 
flood their Gronnd, but were foon broken 
however, they rallied again, and fcood the 20 
Brunt a fecond time, annoying the Chriftiansards. 
with their Darts, Stones and Clubs , but thefc 
returning likewife to the Charge, put them to 
an entire Rout, with a great Slaughter of the 
revolted Indians, the remainders whereof faved 
themfelves in the Woods. The Governour 
with his Body coming up with them at the C on- 
clulion of the Day, return d thanks to God for 


256 The General HISTORY 

this fo providential a Vi&ory, and fpent fix 
Days in the Purfuit of the Revolters, which 
being all taken at Iafl 4 were bang d for the moft 
part, in the Fields, to terrifie the reft from at 
tempting any fuch thing for the future. 
Tleft fe- Theft is a thing the Indians abhor moft of all 
verely /^-.others, and which they think cannot be too fe- 
//* Indi verely P unifll d \ thc y empale a Thief alive, and 
f * eave bitn thus till he expires, and this feverePu- 
nifhment is infiided upon thofe who fteal the 
moft inconfiderable thing that can be named. 
This Crime is unpardonable among em, without 
aayRefpeft to their Parentagejntereft or Inter- 
ceflion ; nay, it is look d upon as a Crime, to 
follicitorfpeak in behalf of a Thief, or to re- 
queft an Abatement or Alteration of hisPunifti- 
ment. The Indians are not in the Icaft avari 
cious, or coveting of any fix d Pofleflion 5 they 
are given to trucking to a Degree of rnadnefs, 
becaufe they do it only to fatisfie their Fancy, 
without any Regard to the Value of the Things 
they intend to exchange: They will fometimes 
part \\ith a Thing of 20 or 30 Pounds Value, 
for two or three Needles, or perhaps a Piece of 
Ribbon, meerly to gratifie their Fancies. 

They were animated to, and engag d in this 
Revolt, at the Inftigation of the Cacique Don 
Henry, who having embrac d the Chriftian Faith 
was baptized, he having learn d to read and 
write, and could fpeak Spanifc very well, be 
ing intruded in all thefe things from his In 
fancy, by a religious frAncifcan^ and the Negli 
gence of Titter de Vadigho, contributed not a 
little to the Infurre&ion of this Cacique, he be 
ing Deputy to the Governour Don Diego Colu/n- 
bo : For this Cacique having received a grofe 
Affront from a Spaniard, made Complaint there 
of to the Deputy Governour, defiring "atis- 



faftioa for the Injury he had done him, bcfldes j 
that, he had Dehauch d his Wife. The Dz- Tfo Inju- 
puty Lieutenant was fo far from giving Ear t&ft lce 
the Cacique s Complaints, and from ordering 
dueSatisfa&ion to be made him, that he treated 
him very roughly, and committed him to Pri- 
fon ; tis true, he difchargM him fcon after, 
but not without fome haughty and thnatnirig 
Expreflions. The Cacique hereupon, had Ke- 
eourfe to the Royal Council of the Indie ^ 
which is kept in the City of St. Dcm mgo , but 
this Council referring the Cognizance of his 
Caufeto Vadiglio^ the Cacique faw him felt in a 
worfe Condition than before, being again com 
mitted to Prifon, and worfe treated than for 
merly. The Cacique then thought it his fkfeft 
Way to ad the Diflcmbler, with a Refolutiori 
to revenge his Quarrel with the fir ft Oppor 
tunity, which he did moft effedually ; For, no 
fooner was he fet at Liberty, but putting him- 
felf at the Head of a good Body of difcontentcd 
Indians^ he retird into the Mountains : From 
hence they made daily Excurllcns, maflacring 
all theChriOijns that fell into their Hands, pil 
laging their Houfes, and committing a thou- 
fand Outrages in the open Country. It fcems 
almoft furprizing, how aninconliderable Caci^c 
could have the Itoldnefs to appear in Arms a- 
gainit the Chriftians when all the Sptw-fi Do- 
ininions in the Indic^ which were very full of 
People, were cor.qtier d by 500 Spaniards only. 
But it is to be obfti v d, that thefe fir ft Con- 
querers did lead a Life far different from what 
their SuccefTors have done iince there ; thofe 
lay continual] / under their Arms cpon the hard 
Ground, for fear of a Surprize, whereas thefc 
lead an idle Life, thiukingof nothing but how 
to heap up Gold and Riches. Twaif this that 
T mi- 

258 The General HISTORY 

made them take little notice at firft of the 

/ Cacique s Revolt, tho they faw many Negro s 

/ join him daily, whereof by this time they had 

ib vail a Number in their Sugar-works, that 

you would have fwore Hfaniola had bin tranf- 

planted to the Coafl of Guinea. 

However the King of Spain, to ftifle this Re 
bellion in its Infancy v offer d a general Pardon 
to the Cacique Don Henry and his Adherents, 
provided they would return to their Duty; 
but finding them refolute to perfevere in their 
Pxevolt, Preparations were made to reduce 
them by force of Arms. 

la the mean while, itleemsas if God thought 
fit to puaiih the Guilt of Vadlgllo, who had bin 
the Caufe of thefe Difhirbances, by the ill 
Treatment put upon the Cacique, inflead of do- 
ing him Jufcice : For, in his return from the 
Mies to Syain, aboard a VefTel richly loaden, 
the fame was fwallow d up in the Sea, with all 
the Men and Riches that were aboard her. We 
may look upon this Accident as an Effcd of 
God s Juftice, who fometimes punimes in this 
World, fuch as make an ill life of their Autho 
rity, to opprefs thofe that lye under Mis 

The rebellious Cacique, with his Followers, 
was retreated into the Woods and Mountains, 
inacceffible by reafon of the many landing 
Waters and Marfties that furrounded them : 
However, Captain Francis Barrio having received 
a CommiflictQ from the King and the Royal 
Council of the /Wwj,to flipprefs this Infurredi- 
on, went abroad with thirty Spaniards only, 
with an intention to get fome Intelligence con 
cerning the prefent Condition of the Rebels, 
in order to reduce them by Force, in cafe they 
cciiidnor be prevail dupon, to lay down their 



Arms. The Captain being advanc d near the 
Place were the Cacique, who headed the Rebels, 
had his head Quarters at that time, was forced 
with his Men to pafs, for half a League toge 
ther, through fenny Places ? where theyfome- 
times fell into the Water dp to the Arm-pits, 
till at lafl feeing fomc Indians in their Canoos^ 
they ask d them certain Qjieflions concerning 
the Caciqt-te Von Henry and his Forces. They con 
tinued all that Night under their Arms, fot 
fear of being furpriz d } but at the fame time 
difpatch d fome Indians to the Cacique, to give 
notice of their Arrival, and that they had cer 
tain Proportions of Peace to offer to him from 
the King of Spain. The next Day twelve In. 
dians fent by the Cacique, and conduced by one 
of his beft Captains, came in their Canoos to the 
Place where the Spaniards flood at their Arms; 
but Captain Francis Barrio, to remove all Caufe 
and Sufpicion of Fear, met them at fome difl- 
ance from the reft of his Men, and embraced 
them. They told him, that the Cacique was 
indifpos d, and, that otherwife he would have 
come in Perfon to fee him* 

The Spamft Captain, without heCtatlug upon Boldmfs 
the matter, refolv d to go and pay a V\&ttQf a 
the Cacique, tho thofe that were along with 
him were againft it, reprefenting to him the 
terrible PafTages covered with Briars aud 
Thorns, and many other Difficulties they were 
to over-come : But he told them ^ That God 
and the King s Service fequir d it , That they 
had fur mounted as great Obftacles as thefe long 
ago, and that, as the Cafe flood, they could not 
retreat with any Hopes of Safety, even tho 
their Lives lay at Stake. He was no fooner 
come in fight of the Caciqnt Don Henrys Quar 
ters, but he fent an Indian to give him notice of 

T * his 

The General HISTORY 
his coming, to a {Tare him of his fincere Intenti 
ons, and to let him know, that he was come at 
tended only by a few, to take away all occafioa 
of Sufpicioa ; That he had a Commiiiion from 
theKtiigof Spain, to aflure him /that he would 
pardon every thing that was pafi d, if he would 
re urn to his Duty. The Cacique deputed im 
mediately one of his Chief Officers to the Sfax/Jb 
Captain, to let him know, that he might come 
to him with all imaginable Security. They 
embrac d one another at their fir ft meeting, and 
feated themfelves under the Shade of a Tree on 
a kind of Callicoe Quilt, or Carpet. Captain 
Tumacco an Indian^ one of the moft redoubtable 
Enemies of the ChriHians, and who had bin a 
conftant Plague to them, came alfo with five 
other Captains to embrace the Spaniard - 7 for it is 
to beobferv d, that the Cacique Henry had un 
der him fix Captains or Leaders j they wore 
Swords, and were arm d after the European 
manner, except that inftead of a Cuitsafs, they 
wore a kind of Bread- Armour of twitted Cords 
of a red Cclo;ir. 

The S^//& Captain told the Cacique, That 
he was highly oblig d to the King s Mercy and 
Goodnefs, who was willing to paYs by and bury 
in Oblivion all his pafs d Faults, .and to receive 
him into his Favour. He then deliver d to him 
a Letter from the King, which being read 
in the Prefence of all that were there on the 
Spot, theCaciqvek &d it, and then, to (hew his 
Kefpecr, hid it upon his Head } He alfo gave 
him a Letter of Safety from the Royal Council 
of the Indies i fealed with the Seal of the 
Chancery, kept in the City of St. Domingo. He 
added, That, in cafe he now refus d the Pardon 
clfcT d him from the King, he muft exptct no 
thing but War, without $ny Hopes of a Peace 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 261 

or Truce, till be were intirely reduc d. Re 
member, fa id he to him, that for thefe 1 3 
Years la ft pa ft, Jince you have withdraw a your * 
felf from your Allegiance due to the King, you 
have not enjoy d one Minutes Reft, being o- 
blig d tolurkand hide your felf in unhabitable 
and inacceffible Places } whereas on the other 
Hand, if you return to your Duty, it is left to 
your Choice to pitch upon the mo ft convenient 
and pleafant Place in the I Hand, fuch as you (hall 
beft approve of, to pafs the remainder of. your 
Days in Quiet. 

Thefe Arguments had the defir d Effeft upon 
the Cacique v He told him ; That the Affront he 
had received from the Spaniards, had rroved him 
to take up Arms againft them ; but that, for 
the future, he promis d an inviolable Fidelity 
to the King: That he would immediately call 
back all the Indians he hacTfent abroad in divers 
Parts of the Ifland, to annoy the Spaniards, and 
would reftore the Negro Slaves to their Matters. 
They embraced once more at parting, with mu 
tual AfTurances of Friendfhip, and the Cations 
fent a Captain and another Indian, to conduft 
the Spaniards to the Sea-fide. Thefe two drank 
fo much Wine, that the Spaniards thought they 
would have dy d upon the Spot, being not us d 
to this kind of Liquor. As their Death might 
have bin laid at the Door of the Spaniards jxhi(h 
would have proved very unlucky at this Con- 
juncture, they made them fwallow down good The Revolt 
Store of Oil, which, with fome other proper ends m a, 
Remedies, brought them to themfelves : Be-^- 7 ^* 
fore they were fent back, thp Spanijh Captain 
made them a Prefent of fome; Cloths for them 
and their Chief Officers, and of a rich Veil for 
the Cacique, Don Henry. The Indians are a 

fickle Generation, they muft be fix d aad en- 
T 3 ga d 

The General HISTORY 

gag d by fmall Prefents, to keep them in a good 
Underftanding with the Chriftians. 

It appears by the Books of the Chamber of 
Accounts, that the Charges ofthe Warcarry d 
on for 1 3 Years fucceflively againfl the Cacique^ 
amounted to 400000 Pounds of Gold, taken 
out of the King s Treafnry. Twas fhrewdly 
fufpe&ed that this War was under-hand fo 
mented, or at leafl protraded by fome, which 
atlaft ended in an honourable Peace, for the 
Cacique and his Adherents, confidering the vafl 
Difproportion betwixt him s and the Power of 
that Prince againfl whom he had taken up 
Arms. But it was tbonght moft advifeable to 
bring Matters to a Reconciliation, by granting 
a general Aft of Oblivion of all the Murders, 
Robberies, and other Depredations or Dama 
ges they had committed upon the Spaniards. It 
was alfo left to the Cacique s own Choice, to 
chufe what Places he thought bed and moft con 
venient in the Ifland,for his Refidence and thofe 
that belong d to him : The King of Spain being 
more inclinable to grant an honourable Peace to 
thefeRebels,than to expofehis ChriftianSubje&s 
any longer to their Rage. Befides, that this Ca 
cique being baptiz d in his Infancy, and his Do 
minions containing a great Number of Men, 
with their Wives and Families, it was hop d, 
pot without Reafon, that this Peace would prove 
a Means to augment the Number of Chriflians 
in that Ifle. Neither were they miflaken in 
their Aim \ For, ail thofe that had any Depen- 
danceonhim, by the Example and Perfuaflon 
of their Leader, received Baptifm, and for ever 
jifter cultivated a good Coirefpondence with 
tfie fnrffeatts* 




Of certain particular Curioflties relating to 
the Indies ; Of the mofl considerable Ri 
vers ; Of their Gold and Silver Mines, 
And their manner of digging for , and ma 
naging of Gold. 

THere are innumerable Proofs which con 
vince us of that Forefight of Nature, 
according to which fhe provides for us every 
thing that is neceffary for our Subfiftance. We 
have told you already, with what Dexterity the 
Indians ftrike Fire, with a Piece of pointed Iron 
of about a Foot long and half an Inch thick ^ if 
they happen to make any Stay in the Country, 
and fraud in need either of Light or Fire, to 
drefs their Victuals or otherwife, they take two H \v tie 
fmall Sticks, very dry and light, which they Inarms 
tye together, and lay at length upon die^ rA 
Ground-, betwixt thefe two they fix the Point 
of the Iron, and turning it with the fwifteft 
Motion that pofTibly they can, betwixt their 
Hands, the Point of the Iron by being thus vio 
lently rubb d betwixt the two Sticks, is heated, 
2nd foon after fets the Sticks on Fire. This 
Way of finking of Fire, which has fomething 
peculiar in it, is frequently made ufe of among 
the Indians. Pliny tells us, Fire may be made by L}1% ^ 
rubbing two Sticks againft one another, much Hiii. Nat. 
after the fame manner as \hzlndians do. With 
out going fo far, we fee frequently the Axel- 
trees of Chariots, and Cables of Ships, take 
fire by too violent a Motion. 

T 4, Salt 

The General HISTORY 
Salt is no lefs neceflary than Fire, for the Sup- 
port of Life. In thofe Places of the Indies. 
where they have no Salt, they have a Way of 
boiling Sea water, to fupply the Defect of na 
tural Salt-Springs. However, they have Moun 
tains which prod nee vail Quantities of a tran- 
.\ f P arent Sa l ine Criftal, notinferiourinGoodnpft 
: to our Ettropeav Sale. Thefc Crifials are carry d 
1 to ifioit Parts of the Indies, ancl exchanged for 
other Commodities , fome- Pieces of them 
I weigh above a hundred Weight, fo that they 
Ure iorc d to break them into feveral Pieces, 
fpr the Conveniency of Carriage, 

The River Oz.ama is one of the moft confide- 

rable ot the hales, it pafles through the City of 

i St. Domingo, unto which it is both* a great Or- 

inameat and fingular Conveniency, its Entrance 

being very deep, fo that Ships of a confiderahle 

Burthen may come up to the very Houfes of that 

City ; however, the Waters of that River being 

brackilh there, by reafonof the Vicinity of the 

Sen, they are oblig d to fetch their Sweet Water 

above a League higher up the River. The River 

Tl>* River Nciva carries its Current crofs the whole lile 

discharging it felf into the Sea on the North 

iide ; but it is fcarce Navigable, nnlefs near its 

The River Entrance. The River Ni&o is a very fair 

River, tho fomewhat lefs than the reft - 9 its 

Bunks are lin d with Sugar-canes, hapdfohie 

Gardens, good Corn-fields, and excellent Pa- 

Tl>* R ; "CY ^ ures > v y hicb feed a ^undance of Cartel. The 

liu&u V Baaks or the River Haina arealfo full of Sugar- 

/ canes, its Waters are very excellent and ialu- 

bnoDs, tiio not very deep, and the adjacent 

I Giounds exceeding fertile ; it difemhcgues in- 

j to the Sea on the South-iide of the iile. The 

r River Niwa derives its Name from a certain 

final! Creature, which infiuuates it felf into the 

of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 265 

Flclh at the Extremities of the Toes, where it 
caufes moft violent Pains, and fometirnes Death, 
if not timely taken care of. The Banks on 
both Sides of this River are cover d with Sugar- 
canes ; the Pafture Grounds which are behind 
tfiem, and its many Channels it fends forth into 
the adjacent Country, are of great life to the 
Inhabitants; tis only Four Leagues diftant from 
St. Domingo. The Juna is one of the moft ra- Tie River 
pid Rivers of all this Ifle, it runs through the Juna. 
Province of Bonao, and falls into the Sea on 
the North -fide of it. Jache is a Name belong- jj je ^ vsr 
ing to two Rivers in. the Ifle of Spain, one joins Jache. 
its \A- ater with the fpacious River Neiva, and 
changes its Name as foon as it falls into it. The Angler 
other Jache is a River much celebrated for its\tf- Ja- 
Sajine Springs upon its Banks ; which arealfcyche. 
embelli^rd^with delightful Fields, Pafture-, 
Grounds and Medows; it has a very rapid 
Current. The Hatibomco is another large River, Tie River 
but very rapid on the Weft-fide of the ifle; the Hatibo ~ 
adjacent Country affords excellent Cora-fields, 
There are t>eiidcs thefe, many other Rivers in 
this Ifle, which afford great PJenty of Fifh, as 
the Macor ss, the Catui, the Cibao, where they 
fifh for Gold. 

The life of Gold is of a very ancient date. 
Pliny tells us, that Cadmus was the firft who 
found out Gold, and the way of melting it : 
Others attribute it to 7hoas, or to Lailiaes, or 
totheS/</7, Son of the Ocean, unto whom Geflius 
like wife afcribes the fir ft life of Medicines. 
God commanded Mofes to take Gold and Silver 
from the Jfraelites, for the life of the Taberna 
cle he was to ered. When Jofcph, Surveyor 
General of Egypt, ordcr d his Brothers Sacks 
to be filled with Corn, and the Money they had 
Brought along with them, to be put uppermoft 


*66 The General HISTORY 

in each Sack, he caus d a Silver Clip to be laid 
in that of the youngell, beficks his Portion of 
Money. The fame Jo/iph was fold by bis Bro 
thers into Egypt i to thclfljmjditf^ for Money } 
which fufficiently proves the Antiquity of the 
life of Silver and Gold, and of other Metals. 
Winy likewife relates of Servius Tuttlns. King of 
Rome^ That he was the firft who introduced a 
Golden Coin, and that before that Time they 
us d it only in rough Pieces ; he put the Stamp 
of a Sheep upon this Coin, whence the Latins 
have given the Name of Pecnnia to all coin d 

After the Spaniards had made King dtabaliba. 
their Prifoner, in 1533. they fent to the King 
of Spain for his fifth Share 400000 Golden Pi- 
doles, the other itfooooc being divided among 
thofe who had aflifted in this Conqueit ^ each 
common Soldier had for his Share 9000 Pi- 
ftoks } the Officers according to their refpe&ive 
Degrees, foine 15000, fome 30000, and fome 
50000. This Victory was not inferiour to that 
the Spaniards obtained over King Montautma in 
New Spain. Tis very remarkable, that juft 
when the Forces defign d by his Catholic k Ma- 
jelly againfl the Indians, were aflembling at 
Barcelona, four Ships arriv d in that Port loaden 
with Ingots of Gold, valued at two Millions 
of Money, being the Spoils of that Vidory ob- 
tain d by Francis Piaaro^ Governour of Ptrn % 
over the before meation d sltabaliba, There 
are Inftances of entire folid Pieces of Gold 
being found, of 3000 or 4002 Pifloles ia 

Hifpanidla produces Gold in divers Parts ; 
its Mountains, as well as its Rivers, conr 
tain a good Store of it, efpecially the River 
which is very Famous jfor the great 

of VOYAGES and TRAVELS, 267 

Quantity of Gold it affords , but after all, the 
Charge of finding it is more than moft People 
can well imagine; bcfides that, it is not always 
of the fame Finenefs or Goodnefs,, tho* it be 
taken out of one and the fame Mine or River. 
The Indians frequently mix Silver and other 
Metals among the Gold they exchange with the 
Europeans. The Virgin Gold is found in the Gold 
Rivers, on their Banks, or in the Waters, and 
fometimes alfo in the Mountains. Thofe who 
make it their Profeffion to manage the Gokr 
Traffick, maintain a great Number of 7r- 
dian Slaves for that purpofe. They caufe the 
Ground, where they fuppofe they may find 
Gold, to be well cleans d of the Sand, Stones, 
Shrubs and Trees that ftand in their way 9 
after which, they begin to digg about eight or 
ten Feet fquare, but fcarce above a Foot deep > 
if they meet with a Gold-vein, they digg deep 
er, and what ever is caft up they walh very 
well) to feparate the Gold from the Earth. 
Whenever they come to the rocky Part, 
without getting Sight of any Gold, they 
leave off digging there, and begin at another 

So foon as any one has difcover d a Gold 
Mine, he is obliged to give notice thereof to the 
King s CommiiTioners, but efpecially to the 
Surveyor of the Royal Mines, for him to caufe 
it to be meafurd , becaufe no body is allow d to 
digg in thofe Grounds which are referv d and 
rnark d for the King s Ufe : The Traafgreilbrs 
arc punifh d as feverely as Highway-men ; but 
the firft Commer may digg in the Grounds next 
adjacent to the King s , tho it frequently hap. 
pens, that a Mine contiguous to a very rich 
Gold Mine, produces little or nothing, or at 
ieaft only Silver. Thus it happen d to a certain, 

268 The General HISTORY 

Porttigttefe nam d Mela 9 who in a little time 
dag out of his Mine to: the Value of 6000 Pi- 
iloles in Gold, whereas thofe that were ern- 
ploy d in the Contiguous Mines, did not get 
enough to defray their Charges. 

How it Is That the Gold whilfi it is brought out of the 
Mines may not be wafted, they put the Earth 
they dig in Baskets of Ozier or Cane, and 
I then waih it well with Water,to feparate it from 
j the Gravel or Sand , this is commonly the Em* 
/ ployment of the Indian Women : They go into 
the Water up to the Middle, holding the 
Basket by two Handles, and thus (baking them 
to and from the Water, wafh away all the Su 
perfluities, the more ponderous Part, which con 
tains the Gold, remaining fettled at the Bottom 
of the Basket. They are here fo induftrious in 
the Search after Gold, that they will fdry up 
whole Brooks, and divert the Courfe of Rivu 
lets, to find thejGold in the Sand and Gravel 
at the Bottom of them ; tis Efficiently prov d 
by Experience, that the. Gold is carry d along 
by the Torrents, from the Mountains in the 
V allies and Rivers , tis alfo found fometimes 
in trie open Fields, which if it happen, they 
conclude, the whole circumjacent Grounds to 
contain Gold Mines ^ but molt commonly the 
S rcat e^ Quantity of it, is found at the Foot of 
^e Mountains. Sometimes a Gold Mine is of 
no great Extent on the Surface, but reaches 
very deep towards the Center of the Earth -, in 
fuch a Cafe they dig as if they intended to 
make a Well, aad the deeper they go, the more 
Gold they meet with \ but they mult take care 
the Ground don t link from above upon the 
Work-men, and ftifle them. There are abuiid- 
We of fubterraneous Mines in HfonioU. 


of VOYAGES dnd TRAVEL?* 269 

To take due precaution againlt this Acci 
dent, Pliny fays, That thofe that work d ia 
the Mines, us d to fupport the Earth above 
them, with Planks and Trunks of Trees. He 
relates this of Afturia, Galicia and fome other 
Countries of Spain, which he fays, afford but 
little Grain and other Neceflaries of Life, but 
in lieu thereof are exceeding rich in Gold Mines, 
and that every Year they us d to bring out of 
the Mines of ^fturla , no lefs then 20000 
weight of it. Thefe Gold Mines, Pliny fpeaks 
of, muft at prefent be exhaufted *, yet there 
is yet remaining fome Silver, Copper and Iron 
Mines in Spain ^ which are of great Advantage 
to the King. 

The further you find the Gold rernov d 
from its original Place of Nativity (as we 
may call it) the more refia d it is, being 
carry d along by the Torrents that fall from 
the Mountains, or by the Currents of the 
Rivers. Tisalfo worth Obfervation, that the 
Virgin Gold appears purer, cind carries a better 
Luftre, before it is touched by the Fire. It 
happens fon; crimes-, that in digging, they find 
a Gold Vein which difperfes it felf into an 
infinite Number of Branches no bigger than a 
Thread or Needle, which meeting at a certain 
Concavity fills it quite up, fo that penetrating 
through the Pores of the Earth, it gathers 
there like melted Wax; For, whilftitis under 
Ground it is whitifh and pliable, you may/ 
handle and mould it as eafily as molUfy d^ 
Wax-, but it becomes hard, fj foon as it is 
expos d to the .Air. No Body is permitted 
to dig, or go in quefc of Gold, without a 
Warrant fign d by the King s Commiflioners , 
if they do, and are difcovtr d, all they get is 
forfeited to the King of Spain. 


270 The General HISTORY 


Of the Manners find particular Cuftoms of 
fome of the Inhabitants of the Continent 
in the Indies. 


*E read in many PafTages of Pliny s Natural 
Hlftory, that in Scythia there were cer 
tain People, who fed upon Humane Flefh, and 
drunk their Blood in Cups made of Men s 
Skulls; they us d to pall out the Teeth of 
thofe they had flain, and ware them for Orna 
ments fake about their Necks, whence they 
were call d Amroyoyhagi ; they liv d beyond 
Cannibals the River Bonflhenes. There are to this Day in 
or Men- the Indie* fiich like Men-eating Nations, who 
enters. fa$ U p Oa j iumane Flelh, and who facrifice Men, 
juft as formerly the People of Thrace offer d 
up Strangers to their falfe Divinities. The 
Savages inhabiting on the Continent of the 
Indies, cail d ChorotcgM or Caribes, wage War 
with their Neighbours, chiefly for the Benefit: 
of taking Prilbacrs, whom they devour. They 
are a Generation without the leaft Senfe of Hu 
manity, much lefs of Pitty, who differ from 
wild Bears only in outward Shape* They fhew 
not the leaft Symtoms of any good Inclinati 
ons, and even fuch as have bin taken in their 
Infancy, and educated among the Chriftians, 
return in time to their vicious Difpofition. 
They are fo much addifted to Cruelty andVene- 
ty, that it is next to an Impoflibility to make 
them defifl from it, it is as it were natural to 

Tis a very common thing in the Indies^ to 
meet with Monitors and monftrous Births ; 



fometimes fuch like happen alfo in Europe. The 
loth of July, in the Year 1533. the Wife of ^ ?> 
John Lopez, a Native of Sevile, but then living{;;X!l 
at St Domingo in the Indies^ was brought to Bed 
of two Daughters grown together } all the 
chief Inhabitants of that City, who had the 
Curiofity of coming to the Honfe to fee the Mo 
ther and thefe monftrous Children, were Eye 
Witnefles of this fingular Accident. They were 
join d together from the Stomach and Breads to 
the Navel ^ each of thefe two Children had two 
Arms, each a Head, and a well featur d Faces, 
each its peculiar Neck , their Bodies, from the 
Navel down to the Feet were alfo feparated : 
They had each its peculiar Name given them in 
their Baptifm , the Prieft, after having fpriu- 
kled the Baptiim Water over one of their Heads, \ 
baptizing the other likewife, with thefe addi 
tional Words, If thott art not baptized already ; 
being under iome doubt, whether they had two 
diflind Souls. This monftrous Birth dying in 
about 1 8 Days after, was open d, and all the 
Entrails found double , two Livers , two 
Hearts, two Inteftines } however, the two 
Livers wereclofed together, being parted only 
by a skinny Thread. The Navel, which on the 
outfide feem d to be only (ingle, was feparated 
within, fo that one of the Navel-firings, of 
one of them, enter d within the Concavity of 
the others Belly, they being from thence 
aQually feparated downwards, for each had 
two Thighs, two Legs, Feet, &c. One 
dy d about an Hour before the other-, but it is 
to be obferv d, that the fame Child being bora 
and brought into the World an Hour before, 
they may be faid to have liv d the felf Time 
time. A remarkable Difference was obferv d in 
their A&ionsjfor one would cry, whilft the 


272 The General HISTORY 

other was quiet; one would fleeR,whilft theotheV 
was awake -, and fo in the fame manner with 
their natural Functions, Piffing, &c. whence it 
was eaiie to infer that they were two diftinft 
Bodies, animated by two Souls. 

And fince in this and the preceeding Chan 
ter, we have enter d upon the Theme of 
extraordinary Accidents, we mult not pals by 
in Silence, a certain miraculous Spring which 
arifes in the midft of the Sea, not far from the 
Jfle of Nav*za, being a finall uninhabited iile, 
betwixt Hifpamola and Jamaica^ about 18 
Degrees from the Equinoftial Line. In the open 
Sea about half a League from the Shoar of the 
Ille of Navaz.a, there are certain Hocks which 
you may plainly difcover under Water from 
thence yon fee arife a fmalj Spring or Spout a- 
bove the Sea Waves, in fuch a manner, that you 
may plainly diflinguifh the fweet Water of the 
Spring, without any Intermixture of the Sea 
Water. The Spout is of the thicknefs of a 
Man s Arm, mid arifes from the Rocks lying 
under the fait Water, at lead five Foot deep 
trotn their top to the Surface of the Sea. 
^ In the Iile of St. Doming not far from the 
Country of the Cannibals^ about 14 Degrees 
beyond the Equinodiai Line, there is a final! 
River, not above twenty Paces broad at its 
Mouth, and fcarce four or five Foot deep -, tin- 
Alot tier the Water of this River, you meet with a 1 
boilin g Spring of Water, fo that, if you put 
your Hand into it, and take up fome of the 
g allc j f rom t ] ie Bottom, you would think you 
had your Hand full of warm Afhes. This 
Fountain confines its Water only to the Bottom 
of the River, that on the Sin face being cool 
and very pleafant to the tatte. The Reaion of 
it doubtkis i% That a certain Subterraneous 



Stream of Water which pafles through the 
Sulphur Mines, communicates its Heat to this 
Spring ; and what confirms this Opinion, is, 
That about 300 Paces beyond it, there ifTues a 
Spring out of the bare Earth, the Water 
whereof is fo hot, that you can t keep it in your 
Mouth without Danger of burning it. On the 
Banks of this River, is found abundance of 


Concerning fome PUnts and Fruits peculiar 
to the Indies* 

THE Plant call d -^w by the Indians^ is a The Plant 
kind of Turnep, growing under ground ; Ages, 
the Leaves not unlike to the Ivy : They Plant 
them in a Line, the Ground being raised a little 
above them ; it grows up and produces Leaves 
immediately, r which afford a Shade that pre- 
ferves the Fruit, which does not come to full 
maturity till at five or fix Months end , it is 
the ordinary Food of Labourers, who eat it 
inflead of Bread with Fifh and Flefh ; whence it 
is that yon meet with it in mofl Gardens. The 
Indians and Negroes have.fcarce any other al 
lowance for their Food; when it is broiPd it 
reiifhes much better, and is often eaten after 
Supper, with Wine, to help digcflion. They 
weigh fometimcs three or four Pound a piece, 
they have a white or reddifh Paring, the Pulp is ( 
net unlike a Turncp. 

The Potato s grow in vafl Qantities in titg&tatefx . 
Indies, being one of the belt Fruits the Indw,s 
feed upon, being, when they are well drefs d* 

U noc 

$74 The General HISTORY 

not inferior to many of the bcft Fruits of EH. 
rope. They are propagated in the fame manner 
as the Ages, and tis very probable they are of 
the fame Kind, there being fo near a Refem- 
blance betwixt their Leaves, and Shape, only 
that the Potato s have a much finer tafte, being 
fit to be ferv d up on a Prince s Table : Whea 
they are well drefs d, they will keep good in 
all the Voyage, from America to Spain^ provi 
ded they are not detain d too long by con* 
trary Winds, for otherwife they will be 
fpoil d. 

TleFnut Jajama is the finefl and mofl excellent Fruit 
Jajama. in the World : It refernbles in Shape to a Pine- 
Apple , but its beautiful Colour is not to be 
exprefs d by Words, containing more Variety 
of Colours than the Peacock s Tail : It is us d 
and cut in Slices, like Melons } but the Pulp is 
more juicy, and cafts fo agreeable and ftrong a 
Scent, that one of them is enough to perfume 
a large Apartment : The Rind refembles the 
Scales of Fifh rais d, and lying clofe one upon 
another. This Fruit grows upon a thorny Shrub 
or Thiftlewith long rough Leaves : The Stem 
of this Shrub is ftrait and round, and each 
produces no more than one iingle Fruit ; they 
require ten Months, or a whole Year, to bring 
them to their full maturity } notwithftanding 
which, they grow in fach Plenty in the Indies , 
that they are little regarded and very cheap : 
They won t keep above fourteen Days, and 
then are apt to rot. In certain Places of the 
Continent, the Indians make a fort of Wine of 
this Fruit \ tis very fweet, but is not near fo 
good as the European Wines. 
tof&Lv* All fuch Trees as were tranfplanted out of 

fr E ! tro e - in the Indlt ^ as the Oran S e > Citron 3 
igg? Pomegranate, and other Trees, multiply 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS* 275 

there in a moll prodigious manner, and afford 
moil excellent Fruits. Vines thrive as well 
there as any of the reft } but, becauie the 
Climate is hot, and the Ground continually 
moift, fo foon as the Grapes are gather d they 

begin to produce new ones, which much im- . > , 
i / 11- i / * Jjut aon t 

pairs aad ipends their natural Sap or Juice in a continue 

fmall time. The Olive Trees are very fair and long. 
large here, yet produce no Fruit,, but only a 
Bloflbm. It is a certain Obfervation, That Fmits 
fuch Trees as bear Fruit with Kernels in withKar- 
them, thrive but indifferently in the Indies^ mis don s 
and fcarce ever bare any Fruits Thus the P r 
Apricot, Apple, and Cherry-Trees, either^ 
fow d or tranfplanted in feveral Parts of thefe 
Ifles, never came to 1 any thing. Pliny fays, Lib. 
That the Olive-Trees bare no Fruit in the 

The Tree Guanuxma brings forth a certain 
Fruit, which the Indians put into their Drink, 
and makes them as Fat as Hogs. If they can 
make a Horfe to Drink of this Mixture, be 
he never fo Lean, he will grow Plump and 
Fat in a little time. The Tree Gaga* bares 
fmall White Figs with fmall Kernels, like the 
European Figs, and are very well tailed. Out 
of the Bark of this Tree, they make Cords -, 
and out of thefe Cords 3 their Shoes and 

Wild Vines grow plentifully in all Parts of 
the Indies, as well on the Continent as in the 
liles,and bear a tolerable good Grape or Rafins ^ 
they creep up to the very Top of the Trees^ 
like our Vines, if they bs cultivated and ty d 
to Stalks } they produce a much better and 
fweeter Fruit, 

Pliny fpeaking of Turpentine Trees fays, The L & 
Male bares no Fruit, and that is of two forts ; 

U 2 one 

one bearing a Red, the other a Yellow Fruit, 
which ripens about the fame time that Grapes 
do, being of the bigntfs of a Bean, and of a 
very agreeable Scent : When it is touch d it 
emits a kind of a rafmous Snbftance. Thefe 
Trees grow on Mount hla, not far from Troy ^ 
and in JWdcedottiii) and about Damai : Thefe 
Trees bring forth certainBowls containing fome 
fmall Animals, which (ing like Grafshoppers ; 
and out of the Bark of theTreeiffues a rafinous 
Indi n vifccus Liquor The Titrfmtine of the Produd 
Tnrfen- of the Indies, is different from that whereof 
tme. P/fVyhas given us a Defcription , for t ho they 
have a kind of fmall Creatures, not unlike 
thofe mentioned by this Author, from which 
iflues a fort of rafinous S ubflance, it is of quite 
another Nature than Turpentine. 

The Cel- The Celha is the larged Tree that grows in 
bz,a large the Indies. One of thefe Trees near the City 
2) a. O f c; ti D om ifjg 0tf was of fo vaft a Bulk, that 
fourteen Men holding one another by the Hand, 
could not grafp it} and to this Day, in the 
Woods on the Continent, are fome to be feen 
not much lefs than that was-, the inferior 
Part or Pit of this Tree, is fpungy and light, 
and caile to be cut: This bulky Tree affords 
a very agreeable and ipacious Shade, this be 
ing the only thing it is good for } whereas 
tk*i there are divers Trees in the Indies, the Shade 
whereof produces mofl infupportable Pains in 
the Head, and fometimes kills thofe that tarry 
too long underneath them ; of this Kind is that 
| Tree, from which the Caribesdraw their Poifbn, 
wherewith they envenom their Arrows. The 
Fruit of the Tree Cetia opens it felf at the 
approach of the Sun-beams, and contains a 
; woolly Subftance, in the midft whereof are 
fmall Grains or Kernels, which are the Seed of 
the Trees. In 

kill Men 
fa t 

of VOYXGES and TRAVELS. 277- 

In the Weftern Parts of Htfpaniola, for the 
fpace of 400 Leagues, you fhall meet with a fort 
of Apple-Trees, the Fruit whereof is a mortal 
Poifon : Thefe Apples fmell like our Mufcade in 
Fears, and fo fair to the Eye, that one can 
fcarce fmell to, an-4 look at them, without be 
ing tempted to tafte them \ fuel) as being not 
acquainted with the poifonous Quality of this 
Tree, and tarry for forne time under its Shade, 
find themfelves flupify d with their Eyes, 
Cheeks, and whole Face fwelPd } and if by 
chance, the Dew that falls from this Tree, 
happens to touch them, it burns like Fire, and 
raifes Blifters and Pimples on the Skin , if it 
touches the Eyes, it makes them burft, and the 
Party remains blind for ever : A Man can t iray 
foranyconliderable time near a Fire made of 
its Wood, without being feiz d with an in 
tolerable Head-ach, and a certain Heavinefs, 
which affe&s both Men and Beaft ; fuch is 
the Malignity of the J ice contain d in this 

One thing wherein the Trees in the Indies dif 
fer from thofe of Europe, Africa^ and -4?^, 
is, That the firft never call their Leaves, being Trees a/ 
always Green throughout the whole Year. 9 *f\&vay&r&* 
no hard matter, to find out the Reafon of this . tb& lu ~ 
difference } becanfe all the Seafons in thcTW/w, " 
are temperate and moill, the whole Year being 
like one continued Spring. The Olive,the Laurel, 
and Falm.Tree, Myrtle, Cyprefs, and Pine- 
Tree, never part with their Leaves, in what 
Part foever of this Country they grow } no 
more than many other wild Trees, as the Juni 
per, the Cedar, Turyentine^ the Tamarisk, ehr. 
all which are continually Green here- The Canes 
and Reeds, enjoy the fame Advantage in thefe 
Parts. Pliny tells us, That the Trees which 

U 3 grow 

278 The General HISTORY 

grow about Memphis, and in the Country of 
Thcbaida^ never loft their Leaves, nay, not 
even the Vines. This may very well be 
apply d to the Indian Trees \ but on the other 
K , ;, , Hand, they are not very durable. Their na- 

JBut don t i i * *>! j-f , 

continue tura * radical Juice or Moifture, is difpers d m a 
good for fhort time, they dwindle away, and bear no 
any long longer any Fruits , fj that they are oblig d to 
p u jj them up, and plant others in their Places. 
The Beams and Planks made of thefe Trees are 
of no long Duration , the Pofts, Doors, and 
Windows made of them perifti daily, and are 
foon confum d by the Worms. Perhaps fome- 
thing of the Fault may be laid at the Work, 
mens doors, who make ufe of it whilfl it is yet 
quite Green. 


Some peculiar Obfervations concerning cer 
tain Trees in the ladies, whereof they pre 
pare most excellent Medicines j or the Cure 
of Wounds, and other Dijeajes. 

IN all Parts of Hiftamola, as well as on the 
Continent, you meet with vaft Numbers of 
Trees cover d with Thorns, they grow wild, 
and out of the firft Leaves fprou ting forth o- 
t/iers, and out of the fecond others full, con- 
tiguous at the Extremities to one another, they 
i- f erve inftead of Branches. They take the 
for tic Leaves and Thorns of this Tree, bruife them, 
anc * fprcad them upon a Linnen- sloth, like a 
Plaifter ^ this they apply to a broken Leg or 
Arm, after it has bin well fet before. This 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 279 

Plaifter re-unites and ftrengthens the broken 
Part to a Miracle ; they leave it upon the 
Wound, till it has perform d its Operation, 
and when it is perfe&ly cur d, it falls off it 
felf. The Fruit of this Tree is of a reddilh 
Colour, of the bignefs of an Olive, cover d 
on the out-fide with almofl imperceptible 
Prickles, which fling your Fingers when you 
touch it : They make of this Fruit a kind of 
Pafle, which they cat in Pieces of an Inch 
fquare: The Indian Men and Women highly 
value it, and ufe it to Paint their Faces and 
Bodies with , of a Rofe Colour, it far ex 
ceeds the Red Paint, madg ufe of by the #- 
ropean Ladies. 

They grow in divers Parts of Hifpaniofa 
on certain Trees, from which they draw a 
liquid Subftance, like a Balfam, being an ex 
cellent Medicine: They grow pretty tall, aad 
their Leaves are not unlike thofe of the Pom- > * 
granate-Tree : The Trunk and Branches of the 
Tree, feem to be very dry, but the Leaves are 
very Green and Frefh. This Tree is call d 
Goacovax by the Indians ; the Wood will burn 
like a Flambeau, whence it is that the Fifher- 
men ufe it in the Night time, when they are 
a Fifliing : It has an agreeable Scent, notwith- 
ftanding which, the Indians can t bear it. Vaft 
Numbers of thefe Trees grow in the Woods, 
as well in this Ifland as on the Continent. An 
tonio de Villa Santa, Inhabitant of St. Domingo, 
was the firit who made Trial of the EfFefts of 
this Liquor, unto which they give, but im 
properly, the Name of a Balfam. Tis proba 
ble he had learn d this Secret from his Wife, 
who was an Indian Woman. Others fay, That 
Codous^ a noted Indian Phyfician, firft of all 
found out this Balfam, in 1515. They take 

U 4 the 

28o The General HISTORY 

the Shavings of this Tree, and boil them in 
Water, which produces a fort of Liquor not 
unlike an Oil, but fomewhat thicker, of a Red 
Colour, like Claret. Tis an excellent Remedy 
for all frefh Wounds, flops the Blood in a Mo 
ment, and clofes the Orifice , there is not a 
more ealie, nor fafer Remedy to be found in the 
World, and which allays the Pain fo foon as 
this does. 

When the Indians have a mind to take a 
pj;. Purge, they make Ufe of a Fruit not unlike 
apeaPd Hafel-Nut-, the Fruit is the Produft of 
a Plant, the Leaves whereof referable thofe 
of our Hemp: It bears certain Bottoms, 
wherein are enclos d three or four of thefe 
Kernels. Don John de la Vega, after his return 
tQ^aladelld, made a certain Spaniard, his Re- 
lation, take one of thefe Kernels, which had 
io terrible an Operation upon him, that in 
lefs than 24 Hours, he voided all his Entrails, 
and dy d in the utmofl extremity of Pain and 

There is a certain kind of Figs in Hifpaniola, 
call d theF/^j of Hell, commonly known to the 
Phyiicians, Druggiiis, Herbarifts, and Per 
fumers. The Banks of the Rivers here, are, 
for the molt part, lin d with fine, tall and flrait 
Canes. The Indians build their Cabins of 
them*, andfodo the Europeans fometimes, be- 
fides other Ufes they have for them. The 
Ground which produces thefe Canes is generally 
very fit to bear Indian Grain, and all forts of 
Pulfe. The thinner fort of Cane, is made ufe 
pf for Arrows, Mats and Pancers, and divers 
other curious Workmanihip } aud the fineft of 
all, are tranfported into Earefc for Walking- 


of VOYAGES a,ni. TRAVELS. 281 

All over the Indies you fee (in great Quan 
tity) a certain Herb, calFd /, by the Indians -, 4n Her* 
very fit to Fatten Cattel withal, as our Acrons *^/ c {* ~ 
in Europe. This Herb grows up high, like the 
Ivy, only that the Leaves are fomewhat thin 
ner. They are made life of to purge the Body, 
they evacuate fo gently ? that Children and big 
belly d Women may fafely take it. They bruife 
t he fc Leaves, fqueeze out the Juice, mix it with 
fome Suchas, and take it failing. All the 
Fields are full of this medicinal Herb. 

The Chriftians inhabiting the Indies, pre 
pare artificial Balfam of a certain Plant, that j n an jf. 
grows wild, it rifes up to the height of a Man, tialBal- 
fo that you would take it for a Shrub or/*>. 
Tree, the Stalk being Reed, as well as the 
Leaves, which are not unlike the Vine-Leaves 
in the beginning of the Winter, when they 
have loft their natural Colour. It bears Grapes 
of the bignefs of a Hnnd, the Kernels whereof 
are no kfs than a fmall Mufquet-ball, and 
plainly to be difcern d through the Skin of 
the Grapes, they are Green inclining to Red, 
(in fome Places) efpeciaily when they begin to 
ripen. Thcfc Grapes they boil with the Leaves 
of the Plant, till it is made thro the Confi- 
ftency of Honey, then they let it fettle, and 
keep it for the cure of Wounds, which it 
performs with an almofb flupendious fuccefs : 
For, this Balfam flops the Blood, cleanles the 
Wound, andclofes itup, even tho part of the 
Subftance of the Fleih be wanting. Many are 
of Opinion, tkat this artificial Balfam isfafer 
and quicker in healing of Wounds than the 
true natural one. The Leaves of this Plant, A T ,. 
deftill d through a Limbeck, afford a nioft Aqua VV 
excellent Jcjua Ptu. A Negro who had his Legts. 
quite torn to Piece* by a Cart, which run over 


The General HISTORY 
his Body, was cured by It in a very fhort time 
they only dipp d fome Linnen clothes in the 
A^* Fi>, which they apply d to his Leg. 
It is alfo an excellent Remedy for the Cholick, 
and the defluxion of cold Humours. 

An Indian^ tho* you treat him never fo kind- 
very ly, will not part with his Secret, of thefe they 
M? ^ WvflWfeWi whence it is that they keep 
Secrets in to themielves the Knowledge of the Vertues of 
tfyfck. their Simples, efpecially in reference to the 
Eurepgw, for let any one of them be never fa 
much their Friend, they will not impart to him, 
thofe things they know may contribute towards 
the curing of Difeafes. It muft be attributed 
to nothing but a good Chance, that our Peo 
ple found out the ftupendious Effects of that 
Plant, the Indians call Perebecenue. When it is 
come to its full growth, it is as tail as a Man ; 
it cures all manner of Wounds, be they never 
^rcr*/0rfoold, nay, even when gangreen d, and as one 
UlTouiids may fay, become incurable. They take a 
Handful of the Leaves of this Plant, boil them 
in fair Water, till one third of the Decodion 
be evaporated, then take it from the Fire and 
fet it to cool. In this Decodion they dip Lin- 
ncn-CloathSt wherewith they wafh, and rub the 
Wound * this done, they apply fome of the 
frelh Leaves, but not till after they have 
fqueez d the Juice out of it upon a Linnen- 
Cioath ; wherewith they bind up the Wound. 
This Operation muft be repeated twice a Day, 
and in a very fhort time it will cure the.moffi 
malignant Ulcers and Wounds. 


of VOYAGE* and TRAVELS. 283 


Of fome peculiar forts of Animals in the In 
dies, And of their particular Qualities. 

TH E Con is a little four footed Creature Cori A 
not unlike our Rabbets or Moles , thcyC*"" 
have fmall Ears, which they lay fo clofe to^ 1 
their Necks, that they are fcarce to be feen -, 
they have no Tails : Some are White, fome 
Black, fomePy d, White and Black ; fome are 
Py d, White and Red, very agreeable to the 
Sight : They make no ill Scent in the Houfe 5 
feed upon Herbs, and a little ferves them : 
They" tafte like the beft Rabbets, but their Flefh 
is not fo dry, but more lufcious. 

The Indians did not make life of Dogs, till 
the Europeans taught them the Conveniency of 
thefe Creatures } but what is molt remarkable, 
is, that the Indian Dogs, never Bark, Howl or Indian 
Cry, nay, even not when they are beaten or 
kilFds Their Flefh affords good Food, fot 
which purpofe it is, that they have bin almoft 
all deftroyM by the Europeans. Pliny tells us, 
that the Frogs in Cyrene don t make any Noife ; 
when they are tranfported into other Countries, 
they begin to (ing. Tis poffible, that if the 
Indian Dogs were brought into other Parts, 
they would Bark and Howl, like other Dogs. 
Tis certain that the Graflioppers in the We of 
Serif be ^ don t fing, till they are traniported 
into the adjacent Countries. 

The Indians were deilitute of all forts of 
Horfes, till they were brought thither out of 
Spam } bit fince that time, they are encreafed 
to a great Number in all Parts of the Country. 


284 The General HISTORY 

They have now alfo vail Store of Oxen 
and Cows, fo that yon may buy a good Oxe 
for a Piftole } and abundance of ^H are 
kill d here, only for their Hides, the Flefh 
they throw away. The Deacon of the Church 
of St. Domingo^ has jtfcoo Head of Cattle be 
longing to him, and the reft of the Inhabi 
tants in Proportion : However, lince they 
have spply d themfelves to their Sugar-works, 
mofl of this Cattle is grown wild, being al 
ways kept in the common Fields and Woods, 
but are encreas d to aa almolt incredible 

TMndian ^he Iv&e* are full of Serpents, fo that it 
Serpents would be next to an Impofllhility, to give a 
larmlefs. Dcfcripticn of their feveral Kinds : They are 
harn lefs, and according to their Opinion, not 
venemous ; Some of >them are twenty Foot 
long, but of the thicknefs only of a Doublc- 
fiil. The Indians eat them, and fay they are 
very good Meat. They have, however, a kind 
of fmall Green Serpents, which are full of 
Poifon, and much in requeft ; becaufe with 
their Poifon, they envenom their Arrows. 


Of their Sea and River-fife. 

SFrpents and Fifh being the moft common 
|ood of the Indians^ they catch the laft 
with Cotton-Threads : But they have a cer- 
How tic tain Kerb they call Baigu^ this they chop, 
Inch ins/ anc | j^ t j lc pjf n w ith it, by ca ft ing it on the 
ml . Sur * ace ot the Water : The Fifh being as it were 
intoxicated by this Bait, arife to the Surface 


of VOYAGES and, TRAVELS* 285 

of the Water, where they remain without 
Motion, fo that they can take as many as they 
think fit, with their Hands only. They have 
mod forts of Fifh we have in Europe : Roaches^ 
Soles, Turbits, Eels, Sardins, Sea and Shell-fifti 
of ail forts. Their Fiih are not fo Phlegroatick, 
and confequently more wholefom than thofe of 
Europe \ but on the other Hand, are not fo well 
tailed. You fee here, alfo, other Fifh in great 
Quantities j but the Number of Tortoifes is 

They are often terrify d in thefe Seas by a MonJ&w 
certain monflrous Fifh, the very Sight where- ^"j" 
of makes the Mariners tremble for fear, efpe-^ ilKiies - 
daily thofe in fmall Veflels, which are in great 
danger of being overfet by the.n, becaufe they 
cafta vaft Quantity of Water but of their No- 
flrils with an almoit incredible Strength ; whea 
they appear above Water, they difcover their 
VVings almoft like two Arms, each of which ^ 
being twenty or twenty-eight Foot long, and 
the Head fourteen or fifteen, judge of the bulk 
of the whole Body of this Animal, which is 
not much inferior to that of a middle frz d 

The Seas in thefe Parts, abound alfo in Sea-^ 
wolves, efpecially near the Shore of the Conti 
nent : It is the nimhleft Fifh of all, they go 
out of the Water to fleep upon the Sands, and 
fleep fo found that you may hear them fnoaring 
at a great difhnce; fo they are ea illy taken or 
kill d whilft they are alleep. The Females 
bring forth two youiri ones, whom theynou- 
rifh with the Milk of their Breafts. On their 
Backs they have a curious fine Black Skin, 
however, fomedmes you fhall fee aifo fome 
Red ones. There lies a certain fat Subflance 
betwixt their Skin and Flefh, horn whence they 



286 The General HISTORY 

draw an Oil they make ufe of, both for frying 
and burning in Lamps. Every Part of their 
Body is fit for Food ; but if you eat this Flefll 
for feveral Days fucceffively, it lies very heavy 
upon the Stomach. Theft Sea- wolves are 
eighteen or twenty Foot long, and eight in 
Circumference : Their Teeth are very (harp* 
and they Prey upon other Fifh, who make 
open War againft them in vaft Shoals, fur- 
round and bite them \ but the Sea.wolves com 
monly make their Party good, let the odds 
of Numbers be never fo much againft them. 
They make a great Noife whilft they are fight 
ing* y u & e tne Water bubble, and the 
Waves rife up to the height of the Mafb of a 
Ship, and the Surface appears all Bloody. One 
thing is very remarkable, concerning the Skins 
of the Sea-wolves, thatfuch Pouches or Girdles 
as are made of them, relax and lie flat, when 
it is Ebb-tide at Sea ^ whereas they are itiff and 
bloated when the Waters flow. 


O/ the different Kjndis of Birds of the 
Indies ; both At Sea, and on the Conti 

WHen you travel out of Europe, to the 
Indies^ you will fee a vaft Number of 
Birds flying clofe to the Surface of the Sea, 
with an incredible Swiftnefs j they are not 
unlike our White Hdgeons, with long and thin 
Tails, whence they are call d, by the Paflengers, 
,* Thefe Birds breed ailioar, neverthe- 



are frequently feen at Sea above 300 
Leagues from any Land ; their Beaks and 
Eyes are Red, and their Feet and the extremi 
ties of their Wings Black , fometimes being 
quite tirM with flying, they pearch or fettle 
on the Mafts or Deck of th^ Ships, and are taken 
with much eafe. 

Generally fpeaking, all the Birds of the 
Indies have Feathers varying with many 
lively Colours : The beautiful and different 
Colours of the Parroquet, are paft all De- 
fcription. The Nightingals ling not fo fre 
quently here, as in Eurofe^ neither do they 
come near them in their Nodulations and Va 
riations. On the other Hand, the Sparrows fing Sinking 
very meiodioufly here , they have them hereof S t* rro9t 
all forts of Colours, nay, even fome that are quite 
Black $ but they are very fmall. They have 
alfo another kind of Sparrows, who live, as it 
were, in the manner of a Family : They build 
a Neft big enough to hold 100 or 300, vim. 
for feveral Families, with divers Partitions 
for each Family, for the Father, for the Mo- I 
ther, and the young ones : If they efpy a large 
Bird, or a Bird of Prey coming near them, 
the whole Flock draw out in a Body, fall upon 
their common Enemy, and don t leave him, 
till he has left fome of his Feathers behind him j ; 
that molt of the other Birds are as fraid to come ; 
near fuch a Neft, as Men are to approach a Neft 
of VVafps. 

On the Seas and Sea-coaft of the Indies, you 
fee alfo another Bird, which has fomething ve 
ry peculiar belonging to him : His Feathers 
are fpotted like a Leopard, being a Bird of 
Prey bothlby Sea and Land ; one of his Feet is^ 
large and broad like that of a Goofe, and the o- 
ther has a Talon like an Eagle : If any Fifn are 


283 . The General HI STORY 

fporting on the Surface of the Water, he fpie* 
them at a great diitance, in the Air, and com* 
ing down fwiftly upon them, gripes them with 
his Talons, and with his other Foot fwirr.s a* 
way at his own eafe, and eats them ; but if he 
happens to light upon a very flout Fifh, he car 
ries it to the next Rock or Tree ; For, as I 
told you already* this is an amphibious Bird, he 
Preys not only upon Fifli, but upon Lizards alfo, 
for want of Fides. 


Of the Infeffs peculiar to the Indies. 

INfetts were call d by the Ancients, fuel! 
Animals as liv d without Blood and Refpi- 
ration. I liny can t fufficiently admire thofe 
extraordinary Perfections, which are obferv d 
in fome of thefe little Creatures ; which are 
exad and curious in many of their Functions, 
that fome have attributed the life of Reafon 
to them ; and truly it is almofb incomprehenfi- 
ble how Senfation mould be obferv d to iuch a 
Degree of Perfection in fuch minuteBodies : Some 
of them hear to admiration,others are incredibly 
quick lighted, fome have a Nice Palate, others- 
a very extraordinary Scent ^ fome have Wings y 
others long Legs, (#c. fome of them are greedy 
of human Blood, and Nature has provided 
them with a Sting or a kind of Alembec to? 
pierce our Skin, and to fuck it. Thofe that- 
live in Woods, have likewife certain fmall In- 
ftruments, wherewith to bore fmall Holes. 
We frequently admire the Strength of an Ox, 
a Camel, and of the Elephant, who carries 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS^ 289 

Whole Towers on his Back, we dread the fiery 
Nature of a Lyon, we obferve not without 
Admiration the Swiftnefs of a Bird of Prey ; 
but Nature is no lefs to be adrnir d in its 
Production of Flies, and of the vileft Jnfeds, 
which are provided by her with every thing 
necefiary for their Subfiftance. 

It happens fometimes, that certain Parts of 
the Indies are over-whelm d with fo vafl a 
Numbers of Ants, and that they make 
incredible Ravages, that the Inhabitants know 
not how to continue in their Habitation \ for 
they ruin all the Trees to fuch a Degree, that 
they bear no Fruit for feveral Years after, and 
eat or fpoilall the Provifions they have in their 
Houfes. Thus one time the Inhabitants of - 
St. Domingo were reduc d by thefe Infeds to 
fuch Extremities, that they were upon the 
Point of quitting the City ^ but before they 
came to this laft Resolution, aflembled in the 
Cathedral, where Alexander Giraldin , their 
Arch-bifnop, celebrated iolemn Mjfs in his ( 
Pontificalibus, and made> in the Name of all his 
Diocefum^, a folemn Vow to God, under the \ 
Patronage of St. Saturnin* whom they chofe ] 
Proteftor of their City, and no fooner had they 
made this Saint their Advocate, buttheCak- ! 
mityceas d. 

The Scohftrtder^ or the Creature with a , 
hundred Feet, is of a Fingers length, Msf 
Sting is very painful: Some of them are of C 
different Colours with black Streaks and black 
Heads, thefe are the mo ft dangerous of all. A 
certain Kind of thislnfeft with ahundted Feet, 
never appear but again it Rain, or approach 
ing exceffive Heats } they deftroy the Corn, and 
other Produdts of the Field, and fhinefo bright 
in the Night, that they even enlighten the Air 

X that 

290 The General HISTORY 

that furrounds them. Sometimes Scolopenders 
and Inftdsof a hundred Feet, have bin feen as 
long as the Palm of a Man s Hand, and as thick 
as a Man s Thumb, with fmall black Streaks and 
black Horns , thefe feem very terrible in 
the Night time, but hi,rt no Body } they are 
often feen as well in the Honfes of the Eur oceans ^ 
as in the Cabins of the Indians. 

Lib. 14- Pliny mentions certain Creatures defli- 

**/> 34- tute of a Paflagc to void their Exrements, 

ut. Mat, w hich, he fays, come cut of their Mouths: 

Thefc Creatures feed moil generally upon Blood, 

till they bur ft and dye, and this kind of Infeds 

are engendered in the Fleih of Oxen and 


Scorfhns. The Inhabitants of the Indies are fre 
quently troubled with great Numbers of 
Scorpions \ thofe that are flung by them, dye 
commonly in three Days time } however, their 
Sting is much more dangerous to Women and 
Female Children, becaufe they are feldomer 
cur d than Men and Boys ^ but after all, it is 
certain, that the Scorpions in America^ are not 
altogether fo venemous as thofe in Europe ; 
the Wound they give is exceeding painful 
for a Quarter of an Hour, and comes pretty 
near to the Sting of a Warp at firft Appear- 
jr , m/l ance. 1 here is aifo a fort of Flies in the Indies, 
bright jii- ver y vve ^ worth our Obfervation : They are as 
flies, big as a Mjn s Thumb, have Eyes as bright as 
if they were two lighted Candles, fo that they 
enlighten the circumambient Air, where-ever 
they fly, to fuch a Degree, that People who 
wanted to light a Candle in hafle, have bin 
known to run ftrait forward to a PerPjnwho 
held one of thefe Flies in his Hand, thinking 
it had bhi a Qmdle. They give fo ftrong a 
Light in a Chamber, that you may both read 



and writo1>y it ; they ; put two or three of them 
together, and ufe them inftead of a Lanthorn, 
to light them through the Fields, tho the 
Night be never fo dark. Soldiers frequently 
make ufe of them here, in their noh:rnai 
Marches, to keep them in the right Way, 
and prevent them from loling one another in 
the Woods. The Indians make a kind of Collar 
of them, fo that they may be feen at a Leagues 
diftance, when they are abroad a hunting in 
the Night time *, this Light being attended with 
this Conveniency, that neither Wind nor Rain 
can extinguifh it : Tis credibly reported, that 
one of thefe Flies put on the Head of a Guide 
has given fbfficient Light to a whole Party, 
that were fent out in the Night upon fome 
fecret Defign : Tis not only the Luftre of 
their Eyes, that produces this Light, it is 
fpread likewife on both fides of their Bodies, 
fo that when they move their Wings in fly 
ing, this Light is confiderably augmented : 
They are kept to ferve inilead of Candles at 
Suppers, without any other Light. The Indians 
bruife and make a Paile of them } and when 
they have a mind to make Sport, and frighten 
thofe that are unacquainted with the Secret,, 
they rub their Bodies with it, which appears to 
be all on Fire in the Night time. This Infeft, 
when it is near Death, its Light decays and k> 
lofes it felf by Degrees. 

X 2 C H A 

The Genera/ HI S 


Certain curiota and rare Observations of the 
IJle oj SY. John, and bow it was con- 
quer d by the Europeans. 

TH E Indians call Boricben the fame Ifle 
unto which the Europeans have fince gi 
ven the Name of the Ifle of St. John, about 
25 or 30 Leagues diilant from Hifpaniola^ to the 
Weflwardof it. About midway betwixt both 
is the Ifle of Alcna, containing fcarce three 
Leagues in Circumference, but is very fertile, 
and inhabited by a few Indians and Chriflians. 
All forts of Herbs are molt excellent here, and 
they have the beft of Melons. The Ifle of 
St. John is 55 Leagues long, and 20 broad, 
feated under the 17th Degree beyond the 
Eqmno&ial. It abounds in Gold, and every 
thing that is neceflary for Life, efpecially iii 
MMz. and Cajfaves, whereof they make their 
Bread. They don t want convenient Harbours, 
aLd have Plenty of Filh. The Country is wa 
ter d and moiftned by divers Rivers, and ftor d 
with Cattle of all forts. 

Don Nicholas Gvando having fubdn d this 
Ifland, made John Ponced* Leon his Deputy Ga- 
vernour there, one who had affifted Chrifiropber 
Columb^ in his fir ft Difcovery of the Indies. 
The Chief Cacique or Lord of this Ifle, 
nam d jiigKt&tn*, tc fhew r his Efteem for the 
Chriflians, uood aflurne the Name of Jokn 
Ponce de Leon, it being a Cuftom among thefe 
Indian*, that, when they intend to give any 
one a particular Maik of tli^r Efteem, thty 



change their Name for his. This Caique 
Mother had alfo taken the Name of ^/w,/ 
being a Lady of fingular Merit (confidering file fa2 4 
was an Indian) and her Son the Cacique, pay d 
her all the Deference and Refpeft fhe could 
defire , fhe had bin an Eye-witnefs of all that 
happen d when the Europeans firfl got footing in 
thatlfle, and us d todiicourfe of that Enter- 
prize with a great deal of Senfe and Judgment, 
Above all other things, fhe advis d her Son and 
Subjeds to maintain a good Comfpondence 
with the Spaniards, which produced this Effcft, 
that the Cacique difcover d to them two Ri 
vers very rich in Gold. 

The Air is very unwholefom in this Hie, and 
the Water not fit for life ^ the European Chil 
dren us d to dye as foon as they were wean d, 
and drank of thefe Waters, they turn d Yellow, 
and dy d of a ling ring Diftemper. Thcfe In 
conveniences oblig d the Europeans to change 
their Habitations, and to make their Settle 
ments on the furthermoft Point of the Ifle \ 
but they could not fab fill there, they were fo 
infefted and plagu d with Flies. Twas about 
this time the Indians laid a Delign of riang ia 
Arms againft the Chriftians } they put it ia 
Execution one Friday, in tne Year 1511, when 
the Chriftians, who not in the leaft fufpefted 
any fuch thing, were difperfed in different 
Places. For this purpofe it had bin concerted 
among the Indians, That each Cacique ftiould 
murther fuch Chriflians as he found in his The Tn- 
Dominions, that fo they might be furpriz d dianswi/- 
and maflacred all at once. The Indians being f^tbg 
afiembled, to the Number of 300^, in feveraj f^ 11 ]^ 
Places, fell unexpectedly upon the Chriflians, of^J^ 
u hom they put about 80 to the Sword ^ for, 
this being a woody Country, it was an cafie 

X 3 - niatter 

294 The General HISTORY 

matter for them, to aflemble and conceal 
themfelves, till the Signal was given, The other 
4 Chriftians now faw themfelves in the moft 
eminent Danger of undergoing the fame Fate 
with their dead Companions, Sefore they 
could get into a Body, when Diego Sala^ar^ 
a brave Captain, feeing there was nothing but 
Death to be expeded at the Hands of thefe 
Barbarians, put bimfelf at the Head of thofe 
few Spaniards that were neareft at Hand, and 
charg d the Enemy with fo much Refoiution, 
that at the firir. Charge (being quite amaz d 
at his Bravery) they threw down their Arms, 
to fly with the more fwiftnefs and eafe *, after 
which, Salaz.*t join d Poxce de Leon with his 
Troops. After this Shock, the very Name of 
Salaz^ar became fb terrible to thefe Barbarians, 
that whenever they faw a Spaniard, they thought 
it had bin Salaaar. 

The Indians^ among other Priibners, had 
taken the Son of Swarez, de Medina, del Campo^ 
and kept him, with a Deiign to MafTacre him 
on a publick Feftival^ in Sight of the People. 
Swarez, advertis d by a Slave of the barbarous 
Defign of the Indian^ goes thither in Perfon, 
One fmgle and meeting with 300 of thefe Wretches, who 
(Spaniard guarded him, throws himfelf into the middle 
v too hard tf them, killing all he met in his Way , and 
^ avin S releas d ^ Prifbner, carries him off 
without Oppofition, the Indians not daring to 
pnrfue him. 

This Venom of Rebellion had fpread it felf 
all over the Ifland, the Inhabitants whereof had 
taken a fix d Refolutioa to fliake off the Yoak 
of the European^ coil it ivhat it will. One Day 
a young tpamard^ who had cfifguis d himfelf like 
an Indian, by painting his Body with fuch vari- 
pus Colours as {hey moft Delight in, took aa 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 295 

Opportunity of getting in among them, as they 
were Merry-making on a certain Feflival : 
Here he heard them talk of nothing elfe but 
triumphing over their Enemies, before they 
had got the Victory ; and of the approaching 
Deliverance of their Country, by the Slaughter 
of all the Ghriflian-. He gave notice of what 
he had underftood, to the Governour, who 
flighting the Matter, was a few Days after 
murderd, with all that were near him, by the 

The Spaniards enrag d at fo barbarous an 
Aft ion, refolv d on the utter Extirpation of the 
Indians, to revenge the Death of their Cover- 
nour, whofe Funeral Obfeqnies they celebrated 
with as much Magnificence, as the prefcnt Cir- 
cumflances of their Affairs would give them 
leave. Which done, Difgo , Pence Leov, 
Michael de Terro^ and the reft of the Spawjh 
Officers of note, affembled all the Remnants 
of their Forces into one Body, above one 
half of them being murder d by the Indians^ 
whilfl they were difpers d in divers Parts of 
the Ifland. Tis to be obferv d here, that it 
was a general Opinion among thefe Indian s^ 
That the Chriftians were Immortal; and it 
was this that rendered them fo terrible among 
thefe Barbarians, till a certain Accident un- 
ridled this Secret. Some Indians offering their ji e in 
Service, to carry one John Salced on their Backs an$ 
crofs the River, he accepted of it?; but no />;> J/ 
fooner were they come in the mid ft of th" 
Current, but they not only let him drop, W 
alfo ftifled him under Water ; this done, they 1 
laid his dead Carcafs upon the Bank of the 
River, where they guarded it for three Day?, 
frequently fpeaking to it, aad asking it many 
Qpeftions, to try whether it would return an 
X 4 Anfwer \ 

296 The General HISTORY 

Anfvver , fo foon as they found it to contra & 
an ill Scent, they gave notice of what had 
happened to the Cacique, who from time to time 
fent fome of his Indians to look upon it, in 
order to convince them by their own Senfes,that 
the Chriflians were no lefs Mortal than other 
Men. This prov d one of the chiefeft Motives, 
that embolden d them to the intended Infur- 
region, and the MafTacring of the Chri- 

The firft Engagement happen d in the Country 
of the Cacique 4qucib*na, near the Mouth of 
the River Carinco. The Europeans furpriz d the 
Indians in the Night time, and made fuch a 
Slaughter among them (tho* they had a good 
Number of the Caribcs or Cannibals in their 
Army) that they believ d no otherwife, than 
that the. fame Chriftians they had maflacred in 
cool Blood, were reviv d from the dead ; and 
it was to this Miracle they attributed their 
Victory, when they faw a numerous Army de 
feated by a Handful of Men. Ponce de Leon 
with 24 Soldiers only, had another fortunate 
Encounter with a whole Army of Indians, con- 
fifttog of no lefs than i j coo Men. The Indians 
feeing fo infignificaqt a Number advance with 
fo much Boldnefs and Fiercenefs againft fo 
great a Number, could not fo much as bear 
the very Sight of their Enemies, and therefore 
began to retreat before them , but, when they 
faw one of their Companions, advanced on 
fome durance before the reft, drop by a 
Musket bal), they were fo terrify d at the un- 
ufual Noife and its Effeds, that believing him 
to have bin kill d by a Thunder- bolt, they run 
ay as f a ft as they could, to fave their Lives 
by Flight. 

of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 297 

The Fruit they reap d of this Viftory, was 
the abfolute Conqueit of the Ifle of Borkkcn,&dmit to 
whereof the Spaniards remain d in quiet Pof- them 
fefllon after that time. Nptwithftanding all 
the great Services of Ponce de Leon^ done to 
the Crown of Spain by this Conqueft, he fell 
into Difgrace, and was recalFd from his Go 
vernment, by the Inter eft of Chriftopher Co- 
lumbwi who was none of his Friend, feeing 
his Services fo ill rewarded, he equipp d two 
Barques, in order to make fome new Difco- 
veries on the Shoar of the Continent. In this 
Voyage, coming to the Ifle of Bimini^ the 
Iflanders told him, there was a Fountain in 
the Country which had the Vertue of making 
old People young, and reftoring them to theie 
full Vigour : Ponce de Leon overcome by the 
Perfuaiions of the fimple Iflanders (who actu 
ally believ d there was fuch a thing) fpent above 
Six Months in vain in fearch after it } how 
ever, he did not altogether lofe his Labour, 
having by this Means difcover d a Trad of 
above ico Leagues long, and 50 broad, of 
the mo ft beautiful Country on the Continent, 
about the 25th Degree beyond the Equinodial 
Line. The Chriftians were much forwarded 
in this Difcovery, by a mofl miraculous Dog, 
tallM Bcrzjlh } becauie he did fuch Adions, as 
would have perfwaded fome People, that he 
was a rational Creature. He found out a De- 
ferter in the mid ft of 100 Indian*^ he bit him^ 
0nd feiz d him with his Teeth by the Arm, 
to force him to come back to his own Canip. 
If a Prifoner happen d to make his Efcapein 
the night time, they only us d to let loofethis 
Dog, "who following the Scent, was fure to 
find him out, and to bring him back, tho 7 he was 
a League from the Camp. He knew who 


298 The General HISTORY 

were Friends, and who were Foes to the //- 
ropeans } he would wag his Tail at the firft, and 
fall upon the laft :, and what is almoft incredi 
ble, he could diflinguifh in the Family fuc.h 
as bore a particular Affedion to his Mailer 
from the reft. His Matter being a Captain, 
had one and a half Man s pay, for this Dog s 
Service in the Army. This Ihipen/dious Crea 
ture attempting one Day to follow an Indian, 
that was ri:o away, was, in fwimming crofs a 
River, kill d by a poifonous Dart an Indian 
let fly at him from the oppofite Side of the 
fame River. 


Some particular Observations of the Ifle of 
Cuba, cali d other wife Ferdinand / Ifle. 

pHE Ifle of Cuba is not above 25 Leagues 
of the diftant from Hiffaniola: It has 300 
JjleofCu Leagues in Length, and 65 in Breadth, being 
iltuated above 20 Degrees beyond the Equi- 
noftiai Line. The Capital of t nis We is the 
City of St. James ; which has a very conveni 
ent Port, and the Havana lies on the North- 
point of this Ifle. The Iflanders wear fhort 
Cloaths of Callico, Rings in their Ears, and 
Golden Chains about their Necks. The Wo- 
\ men have a Callico Veil on their Heads, and 
1 about their Necks ; and befides this, a fhort 
Mantle about their Shoulders and Arms. 

This is a very populous Country, there are a- 
I bove 3000 Cabanes alone in the Province of 
[ Camyechio. Thefe People flood amaz d when 
they faw Ships with all their Equippage ap 

of VOYAGES and TRAVEL?. 299 

preaching the Shoar , but they were like 
Thunder-ftruck, when they heard the dread 
ful Noife, and faw the Fire and Smoak of the 
Cannon, and got the Scent of the Gun-powder 
into their Noftrils, they thought no other- 
wife than that it had bin Thunder and Lighten 
ing. They feenVd to be overjoy d, and highly 
carefs d thofe few Europeans that went a- (hoar, 
and prefented them with good flore of Birds 
fit for Food *, with Turtles, Peacocks, wild 
Ducks, and divers other forts of wild Fowls, 
befides v fojne Hares and Bucks. About fifteen 
LeagueVftigher, they favf the Province of 
dgvavil, the King or Cacique s Name, that 
then commanded there in chief, being Ciapotow. 
They met here with a quite different Recep 
tion, for the Natives threatned them with 
their Bows and Arrows, and would not fuffer 
them to come a-fhoar. Their Faces were > 
painted with various Colours, and having a 
mind to draw the Chriftians into a Snare, 
when they ask d them for freih Water, told 
them, That their Springs were at fome diftancc Treac j }ery 
from the Sea-fide, and that, if they pleas d they O f \] ]e fa, 
would Ihew them the way how to come at them, habitant* 
They led them through abundance of By-ways-, 
in order to cut off all Hopes of retreating 
and then charg d them at a diftance with their 
Arrows. The Chriftians, tho but few in Num 
ber, defended themfelves molt gallantly, and 
at laft, with great Difficulty, got back to their 
Ships, after having kill d a good Number of 
the Indians ; but it coft them the Lives of no 
lefs than 20 Sp^niards^ and 30 wounded, 
among which was Captain Francis Hernadcz,* 
Had the Barbarians let them go on for fome 
time longer, before they entred upon Hoftili- 
ties, they mult have all fain a Sacrifice to their 

300 The Gemrd HISTORY 

An odd The Inhabitants of the Ifle of Cuba have a 
mm/? ftra . n e c ft belonging to their Marriages : 
hbabiA ^ ll be a Cac ^ e tna t is married, all the 
tantt, } .Caciques that are prefent at the Wedding- Feaft, 
} lie with the new married Woman, before her 
< Spoufes Face. If it is another Perfon of note, 
\ all thofe of the fame Rank challenge that Pri- 
viledge. If it be one of the vulgar fort, all 
the Guefls enjoy the Bride, who after this great 
Exploit, cries out as loud as (he can, as if it 
were to boaft of her Vigour^ to have bin able 
{ to fuftain the Approaches of fo many Men. 
They are generally great Lyars, ftupid, volup 
tuous, ungraceful Idiots, and incapable of com 
prehending or learning the true Do&ines of 
Chriflianity. They worfnip the Devil under 
the Name of Cemi , they think it no Crime to 
lie with a Woman ; and Sodomy is a general 
Vice among the Indians. The lead Pre 
tence in the World fervcs for a Divorce, and 
the Women in this point have the fame Liberty 
as the Men ; for, they leave their Husbands with 
out any further Ceremony, if they find them not 
vigorous enough to fatisfy their fen fual Appetites. 
The Caciques have as many Wives as they pleafe, 
and the reft as many as they are able to main 
tain. Molt of the Natives of the Ifle of Cuba^ 
fpend great part of their Lives in Hunting and 
Fiihing-, the Country is very fertile in Gold, 
and a moft prodigious Quantity of that Metal 
has bin exported from thence j their richeft 
Mines are in the Mountains. 

This Ifle affords a certain Animal, and that 
in vail Numbers, of a very good talte and 
odd Nourishment, not unlike our Rabbots, except 
fort of that they have a Tail like a Rat, and a Skin like 
a Hedge- hog} they flea them before they eat 
them. They will pearch upon certain Trees 



that grow in the Sea , they (hake the Trees, and 
fo thefe Animals drop into the Water, the 
Indians fwira after them and catch them up 5 
they are call d G vabinityiinttz, in their Language : 
They are fometimes of a Gray Colour, fpeckled 
with Red. 

In a certain Plain, fituated betwixt two 
Mountains, in the Ifle of Cuba^ are to be feen 
prodigious Quantities of round Stones of all 
Sizes, fome of the bignefs of Cannon-bullets, 
fome of Tennis-balls, others of Musket-balls, 
and others of a lefs Size } they are by Nature 
framM fo exa&ly round, that no Turner or o- 
ther Workman could be able to bring them to 
fb nice a Rotundity. The whole Plain is cover d j 
all over with them, fo that it in feems as if that I 
whole Trad were one entire Mine of Stones ; 
they ufe them for Mufquet Bullets, for want of 
leaden ones. 

In the Northern part of this Ifle there is a 
rich Mine of Bitumen or Pitch, which they cut 
in large Pieces, and ufe it in pitching their Ships. 
Pliny fa^ the L&t4fph4ltites in Judea, pro- Lib< ^ 
duces a bituminous Subftance. Quin. Curtiti* 
mentions a certain deep Grotto, from whence 
iffues a bituminous Liquor. In the Province of 
PanMo in New Spain, is fuch a Mine of Bitumen, 
but it exceeds that in the Ifle of Cuba. There 
are two bituminous Springs in the Province of 

The Natives of the Ifle of Cuba, as well as HQVP t j }e 
all the other Indians, when they intend to Indians 
declare War to their Enemies , in order denounce 

to give the Signal for a Combat, light a kind p 
of Flambeau, which they pitch on a high place, f 
foas to be fcen ar a coniidcrable diltance , as 1 
long as this Flambeau or Torch continues burn- ! 
ing, they commit not the lealt Hoftilities} but I 


The General HISTORY 

no fooner is it extinguifh d, but they fet up 
a tnoft terrible Cry, to encourage one ano 
ther ; run to their Arms, and prepare thern- 
felves either for their own Defence, or for 
the attacking of. the Enemy. They never 
Hand their Ground when they engage ; but 
fo foon as ^they have let fly their Arrows, 
retire in a diforderly manner \ fometimes they 
will return to the Charge, but this is molt 
commonly from behind fome Tree or other, 
from whence they take their Enemies with 
\ their Arrows at an Advantage ; fometimes 
they will fight alfo at Sea, and even fet upon 
the European Ships , but they can do them but 
little harm, becaiiie their Canoes being very 
fmall and ilightly timber d, the ieaft Cannon- 
Ihot tears them all in pieces. 


Diego Velafcoy?Wj- Ferdinand de Cortez 
to wake fome New Discoveries : He is 
made Governour of New Spain. 

CAptain Diego Veltfco had fpent above 
i ooooo Crowns of his own Money, or afc 
lead: of his Friends Money, to raife certain 
Settlements in the Aw World \ fo that he dy d 
poor, after having furmounted great Difficul 
ties, and taken a World of Pains in vain. He 
feat Ferdinand de Cortex to New Spaw, with a 
fmall Squadron of UK Ships, beffdes fome Bri- 
gantines, well provided with all forts of Pro- 
viilons, and all other things requiiite for fuch 
an Eaterprize. The next following Year* 



Ferdinand de Cortez. having got a good Footing 
on the Continent, did but little trouble his 
Head about Velafco, nay, not fo much as to give 
him the leail Account of hisSuccefs, or to let 
him hear the leail News of him j but on the 
other Hand, fent to the Emperor Charles V. an 
ample Relation of his Voyages and Adven- 
tures> with fome Patterns of the rich Gold 
Mines of Peru. Velafco inform d of theie Pro 
ceedings, equips another Veflel, under the 
Command of Captain Pamphilio de Narbaes^ 
with Orders to declare Ferdinand de Cortez, 
a Revolter, and to chafe him from his new 
Settlement-, butO^ found Means to amufe 
Pamphilio with fair Words, till he had an Op 
portunity of feizing and detaining him his 
Prifoner. Thofe who came along with Pam- 
fhilio^ prov d of fingular Advantage to Conen^ 
who was in great want of Men, to under 
take the Conqueft of Mexico^ and of Monte- 
the then Lord of that rich Country, 
grown defperate at the ill Succefs of 
ilio, refolv d to go in Perfoa into New 
Spain, and equipp d eight Ships for that pur- 
pofe, but return d without fucceeding in his 
Deflgn, and all the Charges of that Arm 
ment was loft, at leaft to himfelf. In theVelaico. 
mean while abundance of Chriftians flock d to 
de Cortex from all Parts, who courteoufly re- 
ceiv d and treated all fuch as came to his A (fi 
nance, and beftow d great Rewards upon 
them for their Services ^ fo that in a (hort 
time he was ador d by all, whilft VeUfco^ his 
Rival, faw himfelf defpis d, even by his own 
Creatures. To flop the further Progrefs of 
thefe Diifenfions, which had already created no 
fmall Animofities, the Emperor Charles V. 
thought it moft advifable, by his Letters 


304 ?&<? General HISTORY 

Patents, to confcitute Ferdinand de Cortex G0* 
veraotir of New Spain, exprefly forbidding at 
the fame time, VeLtJco to appear there in Per- 
fon, or to fend any body thither in his Name. 
Vdafco almoffc Thunder-ftrnck at this unexpect 
ed News, refolv d to go to Spain, to de 
mand Juftice from the Emperor, and to lay 
before him the vail Expence he had bin at in 
doing him Service in the New World; but he 
dy d before he could effcd it: So that Ferdi 
nand de Cortex, feeing himfelf thus freed of 
his Competitor, remain d in the quiet Pofle 
lion of the Government of his New Province. 
Pelafid was very poor, when he went along 
with Chriftopber Columbus to the Indies, where 
he became very rich ; but fpent it all in equip 
ping of Ships, to make new Difcoveries, fo he 
dy daspoor as he was born : He was repaid in 
his own Goin by Ferdinand de Cortez,$ whom 
he had fent at his own Charge to the Coaft 
of Mexico-, for what he had done before to 
Don Dieffo Calitmbo, from whom he ufurp d the 
Government of the ifle of Cuba, whether he 
had bin fent by him. 

I know not any thing wherein the Authors 
have beftow d more Fains, and given more 
ample Relations, than in the Hiflory of the 
Weft Indies. Beiides thofe already mentioned^ 
we will add fome others, which the Reader 
may confulc, to be fully inftruded in a Hiflory, 
which contains fo many curious and pleafing 


Authors . Barthsfomew del as Cafa, BiHlop of Ch/appa, 
Z ve writ an apologctick Kiftory of the Indies^ con- 

a ^ OI l Dcfcriptiofl of theQj.ialifications 
Difpofitions of the People of this Ntw 

World \ 

of VOYAGES and TRA^ELS^ 305 

World j without fpeaking here of his General 
Hiftory of the Indies mention d before* 

Francis Lopez, de Gomara s General Hiftory of 
the Indies, in two Parts, concerning Peru or 
New Spam ; Printed 1 553. in Folio, and a Second 
Edition in 2 Volumes, in 4to, 1554- It was 
publifh d by order of the Royal Council of the 

It was tranflated into the Italian, by 
jtyrifftiri Cravalez,, and printed in two Volumes, 
in 8vo, 1560. A certain Anonymous Au- 
ther has done the fame Hiftory into French, in 
Svo. 1606. And Gemma Frifm has pub 
lifh d in Latin, the Geographical Part of all 
the Places mention d in that Hiftory. 

Jerome Een^ono has COtnpos d a Hiftory of the 
New World in Italian, printed in 8vo, 1572. 
but this Author is no Friend to the Spaniards. 
Theodore de Bry has Tranflated this Piece into 
Latin, with fome additional Obfervations, and 
is inferted in the 4th, 5th er 6th Tom. of his 
Hiflory of the Weft Indies. 

Licentiate John Caftettan. has publiih d a Hi. 
flory of the most IlinflrioHs Perfins of the Indies^ 
in Verfe, in4to, 1589. 

The id and sd Part of this Work was never 
Printed, but only in M S. and is to be feen ia 
the Famous Library of Don John de Saldierna, in 
Spain. Licentiate Lewis Tribaldo of Toledo^ a 
moft celebrated Hiftoriographer of the Indies, 
preferves likewife a MS. of the fecond Part 
of this Work. 

John Georgino has writ a Hiftory of the A r ew 
World in Italian, in 4to, 1516. 

Gttido Pancirolla, among his other Obferva* 
tions, makes mention Pof the Difcovery of th 
World ; printed in Latin^ in 8vo. 


The General HISTORY 


Of the Riches and Curiosities to be otfefv d 
in the IjJe oj Jamaica. 

IT was an Attempt entangled in no finall 
Difficulties, and attended with no fmall 
Trouble and Labour, to be exaftly in- 
foriiTd of the Curiolities of the New World^ 
and to bring from thence t/iofe immenfe Trea. 
lures, which have enrich d and fill d Furope 
with Gold and Silver. What vaft Tradts of 
the Seas ! How many unknown Countries, were 
they not fore d to traverfe, before they were 
able to attain to all thefe Difcoveries ! The 
vaft Difference of Air and Water ! Of Food 
unknown to the Europeans] and many other 
things, proved very incommodious to them : 
The vaft Forefls and WilderneiTes they were 
oblig d to pafs ! The Bears, the Tigers, the 
Lions, the Serpents they were to encounter in 
thofe Defarts ! all thefe things feem as if, in all 
Humane probability, they would have check d 
and kept back the moft courageous from fuch an 

The Difference of Languages was not of the 
lead Obftacles among the reft, fince the Euro 
peans and Indians could not underftand one an 
other. But what is it a Courageous and hidu- 
ftrious Man is not capable of compafiing, when 
fupported by certain Hopes of reaping the 
Fruits of his Labour ? 

The Conqueft of the New World was not 
purchas d by the Spaniards^ without many .a 
fmart Engagement,, and much Blood ihed ; be- 
Tides that, they were frequently exposed to 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 307 

Famine, Thirft, and the Wants of every thing 
neceflary for the fnpport of Humane Life; they 
were often forc n d to march on Foot, without 
Shoes, in thefe Savage and rugged Countries } 
but the Hopes of Gain made them bear up with 
an invincible Courage, againft all thefe Difficul 
ties and Obftacles. 

Ckriftopker ColumbtsS) after his fecond return \ 
from Europe into New Spain, founded a City 
there, in 1493. unto which he gave the 
of Jfabclla. He fet fail from thence with 

Veflels, to make a Difcovery of the Ifle of Jd- J 
maica, about 2$ Leagues to the Weftward of 
the Ifle of Spain, and under the 27th Degree 
from the Equino&ial Line : Its Length is of } 
about 55 Leagues, and its Breadth 2*5, accord 
ing to the Computation of the Europeans ^ but 
the Inhabitants make its Length of 75 or 80 
Leagues, and its Breadth only of 1 6 or 1 7. The 
moft Eafterly Part iscalPdCape Morant : The 
whole Circumference of the Ifle of Jamaica 
may be computed at 1 50 Leagues-, the Province 
of Canhagena^ on the Continent, is about 120 
Leagues diftant thence. 

The Inhabitants of this Ifle, much referable, 
both in their Language and Manners , 
of Hlfpamola: They go naked. The Country V 
abounds in every thing, and has fome rich 
Mines : It produces Trees of all kinds, in vaft 
Numbers and abundance of Cattle. The Horfes 
brought thither from Caflile^ are multiply d 
there to a great Number^ttfelr pafture Grounds 
are fat and fertile, water d by very faiubrious 
Waters, coming from feveral Lakes and Rivers, 
which afford them good Store of all forts of 
Fifh of an excellent tafte. The Europeans that 
are fettled at Jamaica^ make their chief Profit in 
Trafficking with Cattle, Callicoes of which 

Y 2 they 


?o8 The General HIS TORY 

they have have great Plenty, and Sugar the 
produft of their Sugar-Canes. The fir ft Go* 
/ vernour of Jamaica was JohnD(f(,hivel y who went 
thither with Chriftopher Columbia, in his fecond 
Voyage thither in 1493. He being a brave 
Captain, made an entire Conqueft of that Ifle, 
reduc d it under the Obedience of the Crown 
of Caflile^ and reftor d Tranquility to the In 
habitants^ rather by his gentle and generous 
Deportment, than by force of Arms, abfhin- 
ing, as much as poftibly he could, from fhedding 
of humane Blood, as well out of a Principle 
of Religion, as of good Policy. He dy d at the 
End of three Years. 

ftrtMMud; King of Spain, commanded Don 
Diego Columho to take up his Refidence in Jamai* 
ca, and conftituted Francis G&ai chief Super- 
vifor of his Royal Revenues. This Man foon 
acquir d vafl Riches ; but his Riches and good 
Fortune occafion d his Fall, by infpiring him 
with an immoderate Defire of heaping up 
Treafure. For this Purpofe he equipp d, 
.in 152*, feveral arm d Veflels, which being 
/well provided with Men and Proviiions, he 
/ order d them to fail to the Continent, and to 
I ered a new Colony on the Banks of a very plea- 
fant River, call d the River of Palm-Trees, in 
the Province of Pannco ; but meeting with 
great Oppoiition from Ferdinand de Cortex, his 
whole Deiign vanifh d into Smoak. Soon after 
the faid Ferdinand underftanding, that Franc i* 
de Carai had bin made both Go vernour and 
Intendant of the Finances of Jamaica by the 
King, he tranfplanted a new Colony thither 
from the Continent, and appearing there in 
Perfon, fcarce ,any, either of the Europeans or 
Indians, would acknowledge Garai for their 
Govenioar. Vex d to the Heart at this Affront, 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS, 309 

he refolv d to go to Adenico, where he dy d foon 
after for Grief; and the Government of Ja 
maica devolv d to Don Diego Colombo. 

The Chriflians have two Settlements in the 
Ifa of Jamaica, the chiefeft, call d Sn>//<?, is on 
the North-fide, and that to the South is call d 
Oriftan. The principal Church is at Sevlle^ dig- 
nify d with the Title of an Abby ; it was a very 
fair Structure, and endow d with great Re 
venues at that time, when Peter Martyr (who 
writ the Hiftory of the New World) was Abbot 
of it} but both this Church and Ifland are net 
fo confiderable now, fince the daily new Dif- 
coveries made on the Continent, which has 
drawn the Inhabitants thither,andalmoftdifpeo- 
pled thelfland: However, Jamaica is very well 
worth any Bodies Care, by reafon of its Ferti 
lity and Wholefome Air, and Waters, not to 
fpeak of many other Conveniencies of Life, 
whereof there is great Plenty there; Befides, 
that its Ports being both fafe and large, and the 
Sea furnifhing them with vafl Stores of Fifh, it 
may be faid, that Jamaica is not inferior to any 
of the belt Countries, fince it abounds in every 
thing that is convenient or neceflary. 

The Religion and Cuftoms of the Inhabitants 
of Jamaica are the lame with thofe of the o- 
ther Indians, they are addifted to Idolatry, 
Abominations, and the fame Vices ; but they 
have a peculiar way of catching Paroquets. 
In the Seafon, when thefe Birds are upon the^^, t j )t 
flight, you fee a prodigious Quantity of them i nc jiaiis 
in the Ifleof Jamaica, efpecially upon the Banks/r PM- 
of the Rivers and Brooks where they are us d 
to feed: The Indians take fome Gourds or 
Citruls, thefe they hollow out, and fet them a 
float on the Surface of the Water; after the 
Wind has mov d them fomettmes to one, fome- 
Y 3 times 

The General HI STORY 

times to the other fide, they drive at laft a- 
fhoar : The Parroquets frightned thereat, fly 
up into the Air, but by Degrees begin to 
be accuftom d to the fight of the Citrul, and 
growing bolder, follow the Motion, fometimes 
on one, fometimes on the other fide of the Ri 
ver, according as the Citrul is guided by the 
Wind : The Bird- catcher perceiving the Parro 
quets to follow the Citruls, puts his Head into 
one of them, being hollow d out before, and 
fo plunging himfelf into the Water, Swims 
after thofe that are floating on the Surface 
thereof^ his whole Body being under Water, 
and the Gourd covering his Head to the very 
Shoulders, he looks through a Hole made for 
that purpofe in the Citrul, on what fide the 
Parroquets are fettled : This done, he draws 
nearer that way, and then feating himfelf upon 
his Cicrul-head, advances as near and as fbftly 
towards them as he can , and fo catching with 
his Hand, the Parroquets that is moft remote 
from the Flock, he draws it into the Water, 
ftifles and ties it to his Girdle, and then goes 
on in the fame manner as before, till he has 
catch d a good Number of them. The Indians 
being moft excellent Swimmers, they are more 
dextrous in fuch like things than any other Na 
tion } for by this dexterity, and the fwift and 
eafie Motion they make, both above and under 
W f ater, they catch abundance of thefe Birds in 
a very fhort time. The Parroquets they catch 
in Jamaica are white and fraall, but of a mofl 
delicious tafte. They have alfo another way of 
catching thefe Birds : They lay themfelves at 
length near the Edges of the Lakes, and Banks 
of the Rivers, covering their Heads with 
Herbs and Twigs of Trees , the Parroquets 
unawares of the Snare, come to Pearch upon 
> a.ncj fo eafily taken. 



Of the Situation and Cttriopties of the Ijk 
of Cubagua. 

THere are certain Countries, which to out 
ward Appearance feem to be nothing cife 
than Defarts, unfit to be cultivated, or to 
produce any thing for the Sabfiflance of Men, 
which neverthclefs contain fome things which 
turn to the great Benefit of Mankind. I is 
therefore, not without good reafon, exprefiy 
faid in the Holy Scripture, That God approved 
of all the Works he had made. Thus we fee 
fome Grounds, on the Surface whereof appears 
nothing but Thorns, Thirties and Stones, which 
in their Entrails enclofe the richefl Mines, of 
Gold, Silver, or fome other valuable Metal. 
Other Grounds there are, which being abfolute- 
ly barren and ufelefs at fir ft fight, neverthekfs 
afford excellent Materials for Dying and Paint 
ing. Even thofe venemous and molt dangerous 
Creatures the Serpents, furnifh us with the nioft 
fpecifick Remedies againlt Poifons and other ma 
lignant Difeafes. 

The Ifle of Cubagtia, which is both very fmall 
and barren, and which affords not fo much as 
one Drop of fweet Water, being without ei 
ther a River, Spring, Lake, or any other 
Handing Watery and its Ground being fuch as 
is not to be cultivated, but with the utmoft 
Difficulty, is, notwithftanding all this, not quite 
dettitute of Inhabitants. There is a very goodly 
City there, and the Inhabitants live in iq much 
Plenty and Riches, that it may compare with 
any of the belt in the Indies ; its Circumference 

Y 4 behig 

3 1 a The General HISTORY 

being no Ids than betwixt two and three 
Leagues. Ckriftofhtr Columbus was the fir ft who 
difcover d this Ifle, in 1496. Imce w^iich time 
fo many Pearls have bin brought from thence 
as amount to an altnoft ineftimable Summ 5 and 
the fame Traffick is continu d there to this Day, 
becaufe all along the Shoar of this Ifle, that 
precious Commodity is taken up in great 

The Ifle of Cvkagua, is only 10 Degrees and a 
half diftant from the Equinodial-L ine, and not 
above 4 Leagues from the Continent. Columbus^ 
when he firft came nearthe Shoar ot this ifle,faw 
fome few Indians bulled in Filhing for Pearls^ 
p ** rlF $~but they got away as faft as they could : How- 
Traffick of evcr j ^ iere happen d an Indian Woman to be 
fhlfe o/left in one of their Canoe^ ft ho had a Neck-lace 
Cubagua.of very large Pearls about her Neck} for the 
Indians don t regard or make ufe of the fmaller 
fort, being ignorant how to bore them ; One 
of Colttmhufs Mariners happening to have by 
him fome Pictures in Frames, and embellifh d 
with Figures, this hefhew d to the Woman, and 
forncof the Indians that were not far oB] to 
tempt them by the Sight thereof, and finding 
them not quite fo fhy as before, he took the 
Figures to piece?, and fold them to them ; the 
Indian Woman giving him in exchange feveral 
Rows of Pearls. He carry d them to the Ad- 
iniral Coinmbw^ who was not fo far Ma Her of 
hiaifelf as to diffemble his Joy, tho he did all 
he could to do it, left the whole Ships-crew 
fhould be acquainted with the real Value of 
thefe Pearls; fo he told them ia a very gay 
Humour, That they were come to the richeft 
Country in the World, and commanded a fo- 
lemnDayof Thankf^iving to be held among 
them. The Indians foon after gave him a whole 


Cup full of very large Pearls, in exchange for 
fuch another Piece of Minature, which was fent 
to the King of Spain* But for fear his Mariners 
fhould become too eager after this Traffick of 
Pearls, he thought it befl. not to let them flay 
there much longer ^ belides that, if this Dif- 
covery could be kept from the Knowledge of 
the World, they might take another more 
convenient Opportunity of continuing this 
Traffick with an incredible Advantage ; tho 
at that fame time he might have exchanged a 
whole Bufhel full of the fineft Pearls in the 
World for Trifles j but knowing the Sea-men 
to be a Generation that were not to be confided 
in, he was afraid he fhould be betray d by them. 
However, not withflanding all his Precaution, 
one Alexander Nigro having got Scent of the 
Matter, .by fome who were then in the fame 
Ship with Columbus^ equipp d a Vcflel, and in 
Company of thefe Mariners fet Sail for that 
Coail, where they got fo many Pearls, that 
they return d loaden with Riches to Spain. But 
Ferdinand de J^^Vice-roy of Galicia^ feiz d the 
Ship, and put the Men in Prifon, under Pre- 
tence, that they had undertaken thisVogage 
without the King s Commiflron, and it was a 
confiderable time before they could obtain their 

There is in the Ifle of Cnbagua a Spring of an 
extraordinary Nature, from whence comes & Spring in 
Liquor not unlike Oil, which runs into the Sea, 
without mixing with tbc Salt Water, but fwims 
on the top of it for the fpace of two or three 
Leagues, after which it fends forth a moft 
fragrant Scent; jit enters into the Ccmpofition 
of feveral Medicines. The Horns which grow 
on the Feet of fuch Hogs as the Europeans 
broughfcimo that Iflafid,, -fiocreas d by degrees 


314 The General HISTORY 

to the length of a Man s Hand, and bent up 

One of the greateft Inconveniences the Inha 
bitants of this Ifle are fubjed to, is, the want 
of frefti Water } this they are forc d to fetch 
from the Continent, as far as the River Cumana^ 
feven Leagues diftant thence. The Shoar all 
about this Ifle is rocky, and cover d with thole 
Oifters from whence they take thefe Pearls, 
which produce thefe Eggs in vaft Numbers 5 but 
they mull have Patience to let them come to 
their full Perfection of bignefs and beauty, as 
we fee Grapes grow and ripen infeufibly. In 
the beginning the Pearl is as fluid as a Drop of 
Milk, and fo fmall as fcarce to be difcern d ; 
but it grows like a living Creature, and be 
comes folid and hard by degrees j there are 
however, vaft Numbers of thefe Pearls which 
remain fmall for ever, and grow fcarce above 
the bignefs of a Sand Corn. The King of 
Spain ought to have a fifth Share of all the 
Gold and Pearls they find *, but they are not fo 
very Confcientious in this Point, they will 
often hide the fineft Pearls, and keep them for 
their own Ufe, if they think they can do it 
with Impunity. Tis incredible, but only to 
fuch as have bin Eye-witnefTes thereof, what a 
prodigious Quantity of Pearls this fmall Tract 
of the Sea produces. 

In the Year 1516. certain Religious of the 
Order of St. Domlnick and St. Francis, fet fail 
for the Province of Cuwana, on the Continent, 
to convert thefe barbarous and idolatrous Na 
tions j but the Indians were fo far from giving 
ear to their Holy Exhortations, that they maf- 
facred them. This ill Treatment did not de 
ter fbme other Fathers of the fame Orders, who 
expos d their Lives to the fame Danger, and 



fucceeded fo well, that they ere&ed two Con- Tie 
vents there. Among thefe Religious Men 
there was one who being well skill d inChhur- 
gery, us d, with a great deal of Charity, to cure tine 
the Wounds of thefe Indians, which produced tin Ijle. 
this good Effeft, that they began to hearken to 
their Inftrudions for their Converfion. But 
at the End of three years, the Indians of Cttmawa^ 
Cariaco^ Chiribichio^ Maracafftna^ Tacaris, A>- 
beri^ and of Vnari^ entring into a Confpiracy, 
maflacredall the Spaniards, as well the Religio- 
fo s as others, and fet the two Convents on T ?~ 

_. ,,,. i t * i i i i f ans pw/- 

Fire. Tis probable they took this defperate ^ cre fa 
Courfe, by reafon of the Hardfhips that were Spaniards 
impos d upon them, on account of the Traffick 
of Pearls.* One of thefe Religious Men, feeing 
the Convent on Fire, hid himfelf among fome 
Willows for three Days, but at laft, feeing no 
Means left to efcape their Hands, he refolv d to 
furrender to the Indians^ in hopes of meeting 
with a better Treatment at their Hands, than 
his Companions had done, conlidering the ma 
ny good Offices he had done them : They kept 
him for three Days, without offering him the 
leaft Harm :, during which time they had fre 
quent Confultations together, in what manner 
to proceed with this Religious Man : There 
were not a few of them who were of Opinion, 
not to kill him ; but to keep him among them, 
and upon all Occafions to make ufe of him, as 
an Jnftrument to make their Peace with the 
{Spaniards ; but the major Party being of a con- 
trary Sentiment, he was miferably cut to pieces. 
But it was not long before they repented of this 
Cruelty, and they have con fefs d fince, that all 
the Misfortunes that havebefaln them from that 
time, were a due Punifhment for the Death of 
f;his Religiofo. The Spaniards difpers d in the 

3 i6 The General HI STORY 

IQe, hearing this difmal News, thought it high 
time to provide for their Security, which they 
did immediately , for 300 of them retir d to 
They have St. Domingo in Hifpaniola, with fb much Pre- 
tbe IJle. cipitation, that they left all their Goods and 
Stores behind them, which were pillag d after 
wards by the Iflanders. 

Don Diego Columbo^ enrag d to the higheft 
degree at this Treachery of the Indians^ re- 
folv d inftantly to revenge the Death of his 
Country-men, and to panifh with the utmofl 
Rigour the rebellious Indians. For this purpcfe, 
having order d feveral Ships to be equipp d, he 
gave the Command of this fmall Squadron to 
Gonz.ales <T Ocampo.vjhh 300 Men a-board them, 
and all other Neceflaries for fuch an Expedition. 
The Commodore feeing fome of the chief Na 
tives of the Ifle upon the Shoar, to learn from 
whence this Squadron came, and upon what 
Defign, thought it moft expedient, to try whe 
ther they could get fome of them into their 
Hands, in order to facilitate their intended 
Conquefl: So they told them they were come 
from Cafllle^ to Traffick with them, and fhew d 
them fome European Commodities, which they 
pretended they would exchange for Pearls. The 
Indians believing that they being lately come 
from Cafiile, knew nothing of wh^t had hap- 
pen d to the Spaniflj Inhabitants of the Ifle, 
entred into a Confutation, how to mailkre 
thefe new Commers, as they had done their 
Country-men before. This being refolv d up* 
on, fome of the Chief of the Indians ventur d 
to go a-board, in order to invite the Commo 
dore a- more, whom they prefented with what 
the Country afforded, and at the fame time 
gave him all poflible Remonftration of Affection 
and Refpedt. He, on the other Haud, had ta- 
* ;1 kea 


ken effectual care to keep all the Soldiers be- 
lowDeck,fb that l\ie Indians feeing none but Sea 
men, made good cheer with tiieSpaniflj Officers : 
But in the midft of their Jollity, at the Signal 
given, they were foon feiz d and hang d, to 
terrific the reft, that were flock d in great Num 
bers to the Sea-fhoar. 

All this being done with little Noife, and lefs 
Danger, the Spaniards landed in the Ifle of C#- 
bagua^ putting all to the Sword that pretended 
to oppoie them, purfuant to the Orders of their 
Commodore, who a Ifo can fed many more of the 
Indians that fell into his Hands, to be feverely 
puniih d. But to bridle for the future thefe 
Barbarians, it was refolv d to erect a ftrong 
Fort at the Entrance of the River Cumana^ 
which done, they fettled a regular Colony in 
the Ifle of Cubaguai which they had not bin 
able to effed with any Security hitherto. It 
was further thought advifeable, to build their 
Houfes of Stone or Brick- work, as well as the 
Church, that, in cafe of Neceffity, they might 
ferve for a fafe retreat. Peter Barry, a Spanifl* 
Gentleman, was the firft who gave this Advice 
of building their Houfes of Stones. By this 
Means the Ifle of Cwagua, and the oppofite 
Shoar on the Continent, were reduc d to an 
entire Obedience and Tranquility, which has 
continu d ever fince that time, to the vaft 
Advantage of both Parties, who draw a vaft 
Profit from the Pearl- Fifhery, and the Traffick 
that depends on it. 

In the Month of September, 1^30. One Day \ 
when the Sky appear d extreamly Serene, and 
the Weather very Itill, it chang d on a fudden 
about ten of the Clock in the Forenoon } the 
Sea fwell d all along the Coalt of the Province 
of Cumana^ to a prodigious height, with a 


jiS The General HISTORY 

molt dreadful Noife , this was attended by art 
J dreadful Earthquake, which lafled for three quarters of 
Earth- an Hour, with fuch Violence, that one would 
. have believ d the whole Earth to be fhatter d to 
pieces. By this Earthquake the Fort was quite 
deftroy d, and avail Trad of Land laid quite 
under Water ; vaft Concavities were feen full 
of a putrid black Water } a great Number of 
Indians dy d meerly out of Fear, and a much 
greater Number were crufh d to death by their 
Cabines and other Accidents. A vaft Moun-* 
tain, tho* at leaft five Leagues diftant from the 
Sea, open d it felf, to the great Terror of all 
fuch as beheld fo dreadful a Spe&acle. The 
Earthquake being quite over, and the Waters 
fain and reduc d into their naturalBoundaries,the 
Governour order d the Fort immediately to be 
re-built, to keep the Indians in Awe, which has 
produc d the defir d Effect, for they never 
have ventur d upon any Revolt fince thaE 

Frequent mention having bin made in this 
Colledion, of matters relating to the Pearls, it 
\vill not be beyond our Scope, to give a few 
Words of Advice to thofe who buy them, they 
being often imposM upon, for want of Experi 
ence and Skill } for there are abundance of 
Pearls, which pafs currently for very good and 
perfect ones, when a&ually they are not fo ^ 
their Bignefs and outward Luftre, is apt to 
dazle our Eyes \ but this Appearance is often 
to ver V f a ^ ac * lous T difcover the hidden De- 
fcfts anc ^ ^ults of a Pearl, and to know whe- 
ther fne is fpeckled, or broken, or has any o- 
ther Imperfection, the beft way is, to make 
Trial of it by the Reverberation of the Sun 
beams , for by this Means your Eye will pene 
trate into the very Center of the Pearl, and 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 519 

difcover the leaft Defed it has , yoil will then fee 
whether it be Pure, or have any Spots or not, 
and consequently you may the better guefsat its 

Tis not to be imagin d, that the Gold and 
Pearls that are brought from the Indies^ were at 
firft found out, or are Hill acquir d without 
great Hazard and Danger ; it has coil the Lives 
of a great many Perfonsof all Ranks, who have 
perim d by Ship-wrecks in thofe Seas, that were 
unknown to the Eurofeans^ at the firft Difcovery 
of the Indies ; and fuch like Accidents happen 
fometimes too often in our Times, by the over- 
fight of the Captains and other Officers of Ships, 
who venture upon fo long a Voyage in old Ships, 
that are Rotten, Worm-eaten and Leaky; for 
it is to be obferv d, that in fome Parts of the 
New World^ the Worm gets into the Sides and 
even into the Rudder of the Ship, Be- 
fides this, that the frequent Calms, and 
Winds which blow at certain Seafons of the 
Year, from one Corner only, oftentimes de 
tain a Ship beyond all Expectation four or five 
Months in a frnall Voyage } fo that their Pro. 
vifions being either fpent or fpoil d, they are in 
the utmoft Danger of perifbing by Famine or 

Tis an old and common faying, that, To 
learn to Pray^ a Man ought to take a Voyage. For 
as there Danger,and even Death it felf frequent 
ly look a Man in the Face in his mofl dreadful 
Shape, without any ProfpeQ: of Humane aid 
for his Delivery, he is, when everything elfe, 
fails, obliged to have Recourfe to God, and to 
implore, in his moft fervent Prayers, his Provi 
dence. Tis no difficult matter to Ihevv, by a 
thoufand Inflances, that God has afforded his 
niaaifeft Affiftance, to thofe who fent up 


The General HISTORY 

their Vows to him, in the laft Extremity of 

In the Year 1 5 13. A Ship bound from Spain 
to the New WcrU, Striking agaiuft the Rocks 
on that Coaft was ftav d quite to Pieces. There 
wasa-hoard theVefTel a Father and Son, Na 
tives of Sevilt, who feeing ail was loft, recom 
mended th eiftfelvcs to God s Mercy, and light- 
ing of a Plank of the Ship, took hoJd of it, in 
certain Hopes that God would affift them in 
this Extremity : They were thus left to the 
Mercy of the Winds and Waves for three Days 
together, when an European VeiTel happening to 
pafs accidentally near them, and feeing them 
in this miferable Condition, took them a-hoard 
the Ship, when they were jufl at the Point of 
Death for want of Suftenance, and the Fatigues 
they had undergone. 

In the fame Year 1513. Another Veflel fet fail 
from St. Domingo^ for Darien^ near the Gulph 
of Vraba, in the Province Cumacoj which had 
lately bin conquered, and whereof Captaia 
V*fa> Nunez, was Governoun This VefTd had 
a-board both Merchandizes and a good Number 
of Paflengers. The Pilot happening to raiftake 1 
theShoar, carry d the VefTel 50 or <5o Leagues 
lower than he ought to have done ; fo that be 
ing by the flrong Currents at laft forc d among 
the Rocks, they were forc d to throw their 
whole Lading over-board, which in EfTedfav d 
fomepart of the Ship: However, the Man 
ners -feeing the manifeft Danger they were 
exposed to,got into the Boat,but would not fuffer 
any of the Paflengers to go along with them ^ 
they wera tofsM up and down along the Coaft 
fora confiderable time, without knowing where 
they were, or being able to find out a landing 
Place, till at lad: being carried by the Violence 



of theWind into the open Sea,they all miferably 
perifh d there, perhaps by the juit Punifhment of 
God for their Cruelty in hindering the Paflengers 
from coming into their Boat ^ But Providence 
took a particular Care of them in their Ex 
tremity : They were no lefs than thirty-five 
in Number, and by one Means or other all made 
Shift to get a- (hoar, in hopes that the Sea-men, 
who were gone away in the Boat, would find 
out fome way or other to deliver them from the 
Danger that threatned them from the In 
dians. They liv d in this Expedtation and in 
certitude for three Weeks together, not know 
ing what to do, or what to refolve upon. la 
this Diftrefs they faw 320 Indians coming to 
wards them, in an hoftiie manner ^ but finding 
them without Arms, and without the leaft 
Deflgh of defending themfelves, they did them 
not the leaft harm : They ask d them by Signs, 
as well as they could, from whence they came? 
and upoa what Defign ? In anfwer to which, 
the Chriftians made emfenfible,That they want 
ed to be reliev d with Provifions above all o- 
ther things. The Indians fhew d them feveral 
Plates, and pieces of Gold, Rings, Ear-rings, 
and fuch like, which they frankly offer d them j 
but the Chriftians refus d to accept of them : 
They then brought before them divers young 
Indian Women, quite naked, which they ofFer d 
them with the fame freedom as they had done 
their Gold j but thefe being likevvife refus d by 
the Chriftians, they were fo much taken with 
their Continency, that they not only olfer d 
them not the leaft Violence, but alfo gave them 
aShare of what Provifions they had, of their 
Makiz. or Bread Corn, of Fruits and fome 
Fi(h. After this they conversed very familiarly 
with the Indian* for near fcven Weeks-, when 

Z be- 

322 The General HISTORY 

beginning to lofe all hopes of being relieved, 
they refolv d to build a fmall Bark out of the 
Planks, and other Remnants of their Ship- 
wreck d Veflel, tho they had neither Iron, nor 
Saw, nor Hammer, nor any other Tools re- 
quifite for the building of a Bark , they fupply d 
this Defcd as well as they could, in fpite of all 
the Difficulties that lay in their way ; they 
pick d the Pitch and Tarr from the broken 
Ship, as well as the Tow, and as many Nails as 
they were able to get out, fupplying the reft 
with wooden Peggs: Tobefhort, they work d 
with fo much Application and Resolution, that 
at laft they launch d their VelTel, and brought 
her into the Water. 

They all embarked a-board this fecond Ark, 
except five or fix thatdy d before \ they under- 
took their Voyage without any Marine-Map, 
without a Compafs or Pilot, without knowing 
which Way they were to fleer their Courfe, to 
reach Dxrien^ whether Eafl or Weft : After 
they had faiPd at random for four Days, with 
out the leaft hopes of feeing an End of their 
Voyage } they fleer d a contrary Courfe, fbme- 
timea making ufe of their Sails, fbmetimes of 
their Oars ; but all this while going on they 
knew not whither, like Men out of their Senfes. 
On the other Hand, they began to be forely 
pinch d with Hunger, which oblig d them to 
make to the next Shoar, to get fome frefh 
Water, and a few Roots, to keep themfelm 
from ftarving. 

What moft of all puzzled them, was, that 
fometimes they were forc d to flop, becanfe 
their Bark could go on no further over the 
Sands } one Half of them dy d for Hunger, 
Vexiition, and the continual Fatigues they 
were oblig d to undergo ^ fo that being now 

reduc d 


reduc d to fourteen, they had at lafl the good 
Fortune, to get into the Hie of Gomcra, from 
whence they were tranfported to Darien. So 
deplorable a Spedacle mov d all that faw it to 
Companion , for they were fo lean and dry d up, 
that they look d like Skeletons, having nothing 
left but a Humane Shape. Being reduc d to 
the utmoft Defpair for want of Vi&uals, they 
agreed to call Lots among them, to fee which 
of them (hould be kilPd, in order to fave the 
Lives of the reft } arid they engag d one another 
by Oath, that he whofe Lot it fhould be, to be 
facrific d, for the Prefervation of his Compa 
nions, fhould take his Death with Patience, and 
without Remorfe : The fatal Lot happen d to 
fall upon one Alvarez, de AguilUr, a Native of 
Toledo } however, they agreed to ftay till Night 
before they would kill him , when juft upon the 
clofe of the Day they efpy d a Ship, which ma 
king towards them, delivered them by a kind of 

Much about the fame time, there happened 
another Adventure, no lefs remarkable then 
that whereof I have given a Relation juft now. 

A Veflel let fail from Hifyamola, for Europe, 
in 1514. Being in the open Sea, above zooi n ji ancei 
Leagues from the Harbour from whence it came, ofmiracu- 
began to be fo Leaky, that two Pumps werc^w Deli- 
fcarce able to keep her above Water : Thofe ies 4f 
that were a-board her, feeing the eminent** 
Danger they were cxpos d too, happily got into 
the Boat, the fame Moment they law theWater 
overflow the Deck, and fwallow up the Veflel 
into the Abyfs of the Sea. The hafte they 
were in, to get one before the other into the 
Boat, made them fo carelefs in all other Refpeds 
but their prefent Prefervation, that they never 
thought of taking either Bread, Wine, or any 

2 2 other 

324 The General HISTORY 

other thing fit for Suftanatice along with themi 
no more than their Sea M>p and Compafs , by 
good Chance a young Sjwiiarjl had ty d about 
two Pounds of Bisket in a Napkin, for his 
own life, and it feems as if God Almighty 
thought fit to revive his former Miracle of the 
Multiplication of Bread, out of Commifera- 
tion of thefe poor Wretches, becaufe this fmall 
Quantity of Bisket, did keep alive aeon fidera* 
ble Number of Men, which according to the 
Courfe of Nature, is fcarce to be conceiv d 
within the Compafs of a Poflibility : They 
were tofs d up and down, not knowing whe 
ther they went, being, as I told you, without 
a Maritine-Map or Compafs : Being at laft 
quite fpent with labouring at the Oar, they 
agreed at laft to fow their Shirts together, to 
make ufe of them inftead of a Sail, one among 
them having by chance fome Needles about him, 
b t they wanted Thread j tofupply this Defeft 
they unripp d their Waft-coats, and ftitch d up, 
with the Threads they pick d out of them, their 
Sail : Thus abandoning themfelves to the 
Mercy of the Winds and Waves, they husband 
ed their Bisket as well as poffibly they could, 
till they had no more than an Ounce and a 
Half left , to quench their Thirft they fre 
quently wauVd their Hands and Faces with the 
Sea water, and others drank their own Urine : 
Being reduc d to this laft Extremity, they una- 
ni noufly offer d their Vows to the Virgin Mary^ 
whofe Image is worfhip d in the great Church of 
Sev. le t and after a moft doleful Navigation of 
eleven Days, beyond all Expectation, found 
themfelves about three Leagues frooi the Coaft 
of HiipatioU, where they got a-fhoar about 
Noon, and return d their hearty Thanks to that 
God who hadfav d their Lives in fo miraculous 
airier. ; If 


If a Man happens to be furpriz d by feme un- 
forefeen Danger, the bell way to arm himfelf a- 
gainft it is, Patience, Refolution, and to leave 
nothing unattempted to get out of it } but the 
contrary is a great Piece of Folly, for a Man to 
court Danger for his own Fancies fake, an In- 
ftance whereof we had in the Indies^ in a young 
Ponuguefe^ in 1 5 14 during that Voyage to the 
Continent, wherein Pcdraria de Avde command 
ed a Squadron of feventeen or eighteen Ships, 
by vertue of a CommuTion from the moft Cat bo- 
lick King ferdwand. One Day as they were 
under fail in the Ocean, with a favourable 
Wind, one a.board the Admiral s Ship took an 
Opportunity of making Sport with a young 
Tonnguefe, who being a rattle brain d and capri 
cious Fellow, fwore bitterly, that unlefs they 
defifted to make him their May-game, he would 
throw himfelf into the Sea, and fwim diredly 
a-board another Ship belonging to the fame 
Squadron : This rafti Expreflion ferv d only to 
make the whole Company laugh, who took this 
Opportunity of tormenting the young Fellow, 
and of playing him divers unlcky Tricks : The 
Portuguefe exafperated at their Proceedings, put 
an EwKJh Cap on his Head, and perceiving ano- Fool-bar- 
ther Ship at no great diflance from theirs, dmefs of 
throws himfelf into the Water, with an Inten- * J oun S 
tion to fwim a-board her ; but the Wind blow- Port f u * 
ing very frefli, the Ship foon out-fail d him. gue 
The Mariners belonging to his Ship, fur- 
priz d at his Fool-hard inefs, made a Sign to 
the Ship that follow d them, to give him 
their Affiftance, which they did in the very 
Nick of time, he being near half drown d,and 
almofb fenfelefs, when they took him, up into 
their Ship. 

Z 3 Thofe 

326 The General HISTORY 

Thofe that travel by Sea, are fubjeft to a 
thoufand Accidents, efpecially in long Voyages \ 
and tho thegreateft and moft frequent Dangers 
that threaten a Ship, muft be attributed to the 
Rocks and Water, neverthelefs Fire fometimes 
alfo claims its fhare in thefe Hazards, and puts 
a Veflel in no lefs Danger than the reft, if once 
it gets the Mafterhood there. Ic happened in 
the Year 1533-, that a Veflel being under fail, 
with a f i and frefli Gale, was found to run 
unfteady in her Courfe, for want of fufficient 
Ballaft ^ to remedy this Inconveniency, three 
Tuns of Water were order d to be fill d, and 
one of the Sea-men, who had occafion to look 
for fomething in the Hull of the Ship, took a 
Candle, which he fnuff d there, and call the 
Snuff\ thro Careleflhefs, on the Ground. la 
the Night time the Sea-men keep their Watches 
by turns, and about two or three Hours after 
Skiftn Sun-fet, they per ceiv d fo thick a Smoak, that 
thofe that were upon the Watch were ready to 
be (lifted with it. The^ fearch d in every Corner 
they could think of, till at laft they found this 
SnufF faften d to a piece of a Cable, which was 
already half confum d by it, and had, without 
all doubt, fet the whole Ship on Fire, had they 
not found Means immediately to flop it from 
going further, for it had quite burnt to Afhes a 
whole Trunk with Cloaths, tho there was not 
the lead Appearance of a Flame ; by good 
Chance it had not as yet touch d the Sides of the 
Veflel, which were tarr d and pitch d, and 
very dry : When they open d the Hatches in 
order to give vent to the Fire, the Flame broke 
out likeli WhirJ-wind, to the rmdft of the 
Main-mafh It happen d very luckly, that thefe 
three Tuns with Water were not far from the 
Place where this Mifchance happen d, becaufe; 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 527 

they did much greater Service in extinguifliing 
the Fire, than all the other Helps they made 
ufe of for the lame purpofe. This Accident 
may ferve as a Warning to others, to make 
them fenfible, that they can t be to careful in 
preventing fuch Difafters, as come from the ill 
Management of Fire. 

Whether it be that Fear diflurbs our Imagi 
nation, or whether the thing be really fuch as 
it is related, certain it is, that there are Sea 
men, who poflitively affirm, to have heard 
Humane Voices in the Air, and to have feen 
moft dreadful Spe&res, fufficientto terrific the 
boldefl Man in the World. I will give you an 
Account of an Adventure of this Nature, 
whereof Martin de Vergara^ firfl Commiffioner to 
Admiral Don Lewis Columbo^ and Chriftopher 
Perez, were Eye-witnefles. They fet fail from 
the Port of St. Domingo in Auguffi 1533. with 
a Veflel laden with Sugar, and fome other Indi 
an Commodities, befides Gold and Silver, for 
Spain. John de Ernuar^ the Pilot, fell Sick 
and dy d in the Voyage. In Ottoher they were 
furpriz d by a mod violent Tempeft, which 
continu d, without Intermifllon, three Days and 
two Nights : The Mariners declar d, that they 
heard certain Voices in the Air, and faw theffumane 
Veflel furrounded with very frightful Figures ^ ices 
and Shapes. They were forc d to lighten the **&* 
Ship, and to throw over-board 300 Chefts with /^ &< 
Sugar, and above a toooo Hides. The Veflel Temfef* 
let the Water in on all Sides, fo that they judg d 
it their beft way, tho with very little Hopes, to 
turn to the Port from whence they came, where 
they got fafely into the Harbour , but all the 
Merchandizes that were left in the Veflel were 
quite fpoil d, and the News of their being 
Founder d at Sea was carried into Spav, long 
Z 4 before 

328 The General HISTORY 

before they came back to St. Domingol 

Jlonfo Sttaz. fet fail from Cfcfci, for New Spain , 
but being in the Month of January^ about Mid 
night, furpriz d by a moft violent Storm, which 
at feveral times plung d the Veflel into the very 
Abyfsof the Sea, the Captain, who was adit 
creet and good Man, with his Ship s-crew, had 
Recpurfe to Prayers ; at the fame Moment they 
were uttering thefe Words, Monflra effe Ma- 
trcm^ the VefTel was rais d from the very depth 
up to the Surface of the Waters, and it being 
a very dark Night, they plainly favv a fmall 
Light, which flood them in great Head, in the 
Management of the Ship, according to the ut- 
moft of their Power. They likewife faw about 
the Ship great Numbers of monftrous Fifties of 
a prodigious Bulk, which queftionlefs followed 
them, to feed upon their dead Carcafles, if 
they fhould be caft away. The Tempeft was fo 
furious, that not being able to govern the Ship 
by the Rudder, or to make ufe of the Compafs, 
they were forc d to abandon the VeflH to the 
Mercy of the Wind and Waves ; fo that at laft 
ftrikingagainftaRock, fhewasftav d to Pieces, 
the Gold, Silver, precious Stones, and Mer 
chandizes of an incredible Value were a!] loft, 
forty-feven Pcrfons were onjy fav d, all the reft, 
together with the Captain, being drown d ^ 
thofe that had efcap d the Shipwreck fee no 
thing but Death in his moft terrible Shapes 
before their Eyes, fitting on the Rocks without 
Providons, or any Hopes of Relief, and fome- 
times were cover d all over with the Waves, 
that beat with the utmoft Violence againft the 
Rocks, fo that^they were in the ut moft Danger 
of being carry d away with them into the open 
Sea. The Tempeft" being fomewhat allayed 
they efpy d a fmail Canoe, which would hold 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 529 

about five Men , they were extrearaly rejoyc cl 
at the fight thereof, and four of them went in 
to her, to try whether they could fee any Land 
or Ship, but faw nothing but the Wrecks of 
their Veflel, with fome Bales of Goods float 
ing upon the Sea , they caft Lots which Way to 
Steer their Courfe, whether Ea&, We ft + North 
or Sottthtoget Sight of Land , the Lot fell four 
times fucceffively to the <*#, fo choofing that 
Courfe, they faw Land before Night. 

The firft Objeft that Joffer d it felf to their 
Sight, was a great Number of Animals fhap d 
like Hogs, which fed upon certain Fruits 
that were fain from the Trees ; fome of thefe 
Creatures made a molt dreadful Noife through 
their Noftrils : One of the Sea-men, who had 
made feveral Voyages in thofe Parts, knew 
them to be Sea- wolves or Sea-calves , a Crea- Su 
ture the Shape of which is enough to daunt -wolves. 
the boldeft Man in the World , for they were 
feventeen or eighteen Foot long, and eight 
Foot thick; they were of a different Size, 
fome being younger than others. Near them 
they heard the Voice of three Indians, who 
came out of the Water, but dy d immedi 
ately, before their Eyes, having fwallow d too 
much Salt Water in fwimming ; for the 
Sea Water here, if taken in too great a 
Quantity, proves Mortal. Their Companions, 
who were left behind on the Rocks, at a Signal 
given, climb d from Rock to Rock, till they 
came near the Place where the other four were 
landed with their Canoe, and fo were carry d 
a fnoar. Here Providence, which is always at 
hand to give her Affiftance to Mankind, when 
they think every thing to be loft, directed them 
to a Place, where they faw fix lartoifes upon 
the Shoar, one whereof was of fo vafl a Bulk, 


jjo The General HISTORY 

that five Perfonswhogoton her Back,were lifted 
up into the Air ; they took care to turn them 
upon their Backs, becaufe in that Pofture they 
can t ftir or move : The Flefli of the Tonotfes 
is accounted a whofefome Food j but what is 
moft obfervable is, that their Blood cures the 
Pox and Leper. Thefe poor Wretches made 
nfe of their Blood to quench their Thirft,which 
ran like a Stream from them, fo foon as they 
had loofened their firft Shell } and they fatisfiy d 
their Hanger with the raw Flelh of thefe Tor- 
toifes, and with their Eggs 5 having neither 
Time nor Opportunity to drefs them. 

They found, in a fmall adjacent Ifle, a num* 
berlefs Quantity of Birds 3 which fo darken d 
the Sky, that one Man was notable to fee ano 
ther at fifry Paces diilance ; and they made fueh 
a chattering Noife,that they could fcarce under- 
lland what they faid. Thefe Birds being not 
ia the lead fhy, they might take as many as 
theypleas d, with their Hands } and their Eggs, 
where-with the whole Shoar was cover d, ftood 
them in great ftead, in affording them good 
Nourifhment : However, feeding continually 
upon raw Tortoifes-fleih, and drinking nothing 
but their Blood, and that of the Birds, many 
of them fell fick and dy l d. To remedy this 
Inconveiiiency, they refolv d to make a Fire, 
which they did by rubbing two Sticks together, 
a& they had feen the Indians do, and fo they 
drefs d the Birds, who were very fat and well 
tailed. But after all, tho they now had pro 
vided in fome meafure againft Hunger* they 
were miferably afflifted with Thirft, there be 
ing not one Drop of frefh Water to be found 
in the whole Ifle , for tho 1 they had made a fhift 
to dig fome Pits with their Hands, the Water 
was as Salt and bitter as the Sea-water it fel 


of VOYAGES md, TRAVELS* 33$ 

Thus being continually tormented by Thirft, 
they became fo lean, that they refembled rather 
Skeletons than living Men, being nothing but 
Skin and Bones. A little Page belonging to 
the Captain,unable to bear any longer hisThirft, 
and efpying near the Shoar one of the Sea- 
wolves lying at length, andfuckling two of her 
young ones, got foftly near her, and taking a- . . 
way one of her Whelps, put himfelf in its 4% 
ftead, to fuck the Old ones Tet 3 which turn- f uc ks the 
ing about, tore the Calf of his Leg all to pieces \Tet of a 
however, the Wound being rather large than S^-^f 
dangerous, he was cur d of it in a fhort time. 
It would be endlefs, to pretend to infert an 
exaft Account of all the Miferies thefe poor 
Men endur d in this Defart of an Ifland, during 
the Space of 1 53 Days : At lail they contriv d 
a fmall Bark, which they patch d together out 
of the Planks of their Ship-wreck d Veilel j in 
this Work they fpent three Months, and then 
fent it to give notice of their Diftrefs to their 
European Friends, who difpatch d a Veflel to 
deliver them from fo deplorable a ftate. 


The General HISTORY 

Ferdinand de Cortez 


O F T H E 



New Spain. 


Of the mof remarkAble things of N E w 

N the Province of Swierchimdlen^ under the 
Jurifdi&ion of King Mcnte^ma^ are a- 
bundance of Borroughs and Villages, of 
a hundred, two hundred or three hundred 
Families each : Thefe Indians were of a very 
tra&ableKumour and agreeableDifpofition ; they 
were very ready tofurnifh Cortez. and his Atten 
dants with every thing that was convenient and 



requifite for their Subfiftance, purfuant to the 4n Ac 
Orders they had receiv d from their Lord Mon- coun * f 
tez.uma, who then had his Refidence at the w 
fame Place, unto which they have fince given 
the Name of, The Name of God. After you 
have travel d two or three Days deeper into 
the Country, you meet fcarcewith anything 
butDefarts and barren Grounds, and the Air 
is fo (harp and cold there, that the other /- 
dians^ who are bred in a hot, or at leaft more 
temperate Climate, can t live there, but dye in 
a little time. The Inhabitants of thefe In-land 
Countries, build Towers on the Mountains, 
wherein they keep their Idols. 

The Chief Men of this Part of the Country, 
canre in great Numbers to vilit and fee Car 
te*, and his Attendants, without (hewing the 
leaft Fear or Sufpicion of the Spaniards^ who 
were not a little furprrz d, when they faw a 
good Fort, not inferior to any in Europe, in 
thofe Parts, being enclos d within a double 4 $ yon - 
Wall, and a very deep Ditch. The Houfes Indian 
of the better fort were very well built : And fort* 
they being always in War with Afontezuma, 
they had made a Wall of Free-done, from 
one Mountain to another, to fecure them- 
felves againft any fudden Surprize : This 
Wall was twenty Foot thick, and had a Para 
pet of four Foot and a Half, from whence they 
call Stones and other things to annoy the 
Enemy. At the Extremity" of a Vale, Corte^ 
who had only a few Horfe-men to attend him, 
was unexpectedly attacked by 5003 Indians ^ 
but feeiag lixty of their Companions kilPd 
on the Spot, without the Lofs of one Spa* 
niard, they run away in the utmoft Confufion. 
A few Days march beyond this Place, the 
Spaniards faw themfelves furrounded by an 


ThcGenerd HISTORY 

Army of no lefs than IOOGOO Indians^ arni cl 
with Bows and Arrows v but no fooner faw 
thefe miferable Wretches the Spatfjh Horfc 
break in upon them, and trample them un 
der Foot, and no fooner heard they the Noife 
of their Carbines and Piftols ( a thing that 
for its Novelty founded mofb dreadful in their 
Ears ) but they run away as faft as they could, 
leaving their Villages and Settlements to the 
Mercy of the Spaniards^ who fet Fire to them. 
Cortcz. had left in his Gamp about two hundred 
Spamjb Foot, twenty Horfe-men, and four 
Spa- hundred Indians. The Natives had gather d 
an Army of 150000 Men, to force their 
150000 Gamp-, but after having aflaulted it in vain for 
Indians, four Hours, they retreated \ but drew up a- 
gain behind the Woods, with an Intention 
to furprize them in their Intrenchments the 
next following Night, and to fet it on Fire, 
Cortex being inform d thereof by ibme Prifon* 
ers he had taken, to the Number of fifty, he 
commanded their Hands to be cut off, and m 
this miferable Condition to be fent to the E- 
nemies Camp, to terrify the reft, and to let 
them know what they mult exped, unlefs they 
laid down their Arms : This produc d all the 
defir d Effeft,for they were in nich Confternation 
at this Spedacle of their Companions, that they 
quitted their Camp with all their Stores and 
Proviilons (which flood the Spaniards in great 
Head) and fuch of them, as could not fly faft 
enough, threw themfelves headlong from the 
Precipices, rather than fall into the Hands of 
the Chriftians. 

hing The Indians quite difmay d at all thefe Dif- 
t* afters, begg d for Peace, and declar d their 
ifton. Submition to the King of Spain ; they alfo de- 
fired Cortez. to leave his Camp, and take up 



his Quarters with his Forces in their City, 
which is in their Language call d Tafcaltetal-, 
being there much more fpacious, more mag- counto " 
nificent, and more populous than the City of the City *f 
Granada was, at the time, it was taken from Tafcalte- 
the Aiosrs by the Spaniards. Every thing necef- tal and the 
fary for the Subfiftance of Life are here m#*** 
great Plenty, and excellent good Bread, 
Meat, Fi(h, Wild-Fowl, Fruits of all forts. 
The Country is water d with Brooks and 
Rivers, which render it both pleafant and 
commodious. There is in this City a Market 
place, unto which you fhall fee every Day a- 
bove 30000 Perfons refort, as well Buyers as 
Sellers : Here you fee certain Stations for 
Sales-men, who fell Cloaths after their Fafhioo , 
another for the fale of Gold, another for Silver, 
others for precious Stones, for Caps made of 
Birds Feathers of various Colours, and fo cu- 
riouily contriv d and wrought, that nothing 
like it is to be feen in any other Parts. The 
Country affords vail Plenty of Wild-Fowl \ and 
that nothing might be wanting to ftiew their 
Politenefs, and their manner of Living, they 
have abundance of Baths very well contriv d : 
But what furpafles all the reft, is their Polity r/^/v GO- 
and Government, every thing being tranfaded 
with a great deal of good Order and De- 
cency ^ whence we may conclude them to be a 
Nation not deft itute of Reafon and goodSenfe, 
tho fome Europeans perhaps have fram d to 
themfelves quite contrary Notions concerning 
them ^ befides that, their Plains and Vallies 
are well rnanur d, cultivated, fow d and co. 
ver d with Fruits, Grain, Herbs, both for the 
Kitchin and Aporhccaries-fhop. Their man 
ner of Government may moft fitly be com- 
par d to the Genoefe and Venetians : They ac- 


The General HISTORY 
knowledge no fingle Perfon for their 
but the Adminiftration of publick Affairs is 
committed to the Chief Men of the Country ^ 
their common People obey their Orders with 
out Referve: If a War be refolv d upon, 
they ali appear in Arms here, for the Defence of 
their Country. Mofl Vices are punifh d, but 
Theft and Robbery with the utmoft Severity. 
An Indian, who had ftoln fome inconflderable 
thing from an European, was carry d before 
the Magifacin, or their Chief Magiflrate ; ha 
ving bin taken in a certain Village, not far 
from the Place where the Fad was commit 
ted -, the Magiflrate order d him to be deli* 
ver d, with what he had ftoln, to the Party 
he had robb d, in order to punifh him at his 
own Difcretionj but the European thank d 
the Magiflrate, telling him, That he left him 
wholly to his Difpofal ; fo the Criminal was 
fe. lead through all the chief Streets of the Streets, 
the Trumpets founding before him, and pro- 
claiming his Fad to the Market-place, where a 
Scaffold being ereded, the Executioner, with 
a Wooden Mallet, gave him fo many, and fuch 
violent Blows upon the Head, that he dy d 
on the Spot, in fight of all the People. 

MonteZtUma, who is look d upon as the mofl 
powerful Prince of all the Indies, fent his Am- 
bafladors to Corte^ attended by two hundred 
Domeflicks, offering to pay an Annual Tribute 
in Gold, Silver, Silks, and other rich Com 
modities, of the Produd of his Dominions. 
There were fome among the Indians, who 
forewarn d Cortex not to confide too much in 
the fair Promifes and Words of Mome^nw^ 
who, they faid, intended only 1 to cajole him 
into his own Dominions, to have a fair Oppor 
tunity of ridding his Hand at one ftroak, both 



fcf him and all his Followers , they told him, 
he was a DifTembling and Treacherous Prince^ 
whofe Intention was to catch him in the Trap. 
Cortex was very well pleas d to find fuch Ani- 
moilties among the Indians^ in hopes that thefe 
Divilions would foon furnifh him with an 
Opportunity of vanquifhing them one after 
another, and bring them under the Subjection of 

had a&ually put himfelf at the Xr 
Head of 50000 Indians^ who were cantoned of the la* 
along the Road, and near thofe Places through 
which Coriez. mull of Neceflity come ; befides, 
he had caus d many Ditches to be dug, where- 
they had caft (harp pointed Irons, or a kind 
of Foot Angles, covered with Turfs and Earth, 
in hopes to difable, and render unfemceable 
the Spanifo Horfe, after they were wounded by 
thefe Irons 5 he had alfo taken Gare to have 
abundance of rugged Stones laid in the Streets of 
the City, through which they were to make their 
Publick Entry, in hopes to fpoii the Hoofs of 
their Horfes. Cortez, being under-hand fore- 
warn d of all thefe things, refolv d to try 
whether the Intelligence hie had was true or 
not : He fent for this Purpofe, fome Depu 
ties to the Chief Men of the City of Churul- 
tecal, to acquaint them, that he thought it 
convenient they fhould attend him in his 
Camp, in order to concert Meafures betwixt 
them, that he might know, whether he muft 
deal with them as his Friends, or as Ene 
mies. Accordingly they came, making the 
belt Excufe they could for not having waited 
on him fboner } becaufe, as they pretended, 
they being at Enmity with the People of that 
Country where he then was, they durft not 
Venture to come thither, without expofing 

A a their 

their Perfons to the greateft Hazard : They 
further told him, they were not ignorant of 
what falfe Rumours had bin fpread abroad a- 
gainft thereto render their Inclinations andCon- 
dudfufpeded to him*, but that if he would ho 
nour their City with his own Prefence,he fhould 
be fully convinced of the Falfity of thefeRumours. 
The I a habitants of Tafcatetal^ who had fore- 
warn d Cortez, againft Mimtajtmds Unifier 
Defigns, did all that in them lay to divert 
him from going to Churultecal, to make trial 
of their Fidelity in Perfon ; but feeing he per- 
iifted in his Refolution of going thither, they 
offer d to attend him with locooo Fighting 
Men. He thank d them for their generous 
offer, but would take only 6000 along with 
him, becaufe he was unwilling to be trou* 
bled with fo vaft and ufelefs a Multitude, 
and fear d, not without reafon, that his Spa* 
niards might be infeded with their diforderly 
way of living in the Field. The next follow 
ing Day, the Chief Inhabitants of Churulteial 
Tie City of came out of the City, to meet Gortez, with 
Churuke- Trumpets, Drums, Singers and Dancers at the 
^k Head of them, to give him all the Demon- 
ftradons of their imcere Inclinations .and Joy 
that could be. He was conduded with all 
imaginable Pomp, and lodg d in one of the 
fineft Houfes of the Place } his little Army had 
likewife convenient Quarters afllgn d them, 
and were well provided with Proviilons and 
all other Neceffaries: But having obferv d 
fome of thefe Trap holes, againft which they 
had a Caution given them beforehand, they 
kept, during their March, conftantly upon their 
Guard, and avoided thefe Traps by their Cir- 
cumfpedion : What encreas d their Sufpicion 
was, that after a while the Inhabitants feldom 


of VoYjW TRAVELS 339 

pay d any Vifits to the Spaniards^ and every 
Day pinch d them more and more in their 
uflial Allowance of Provifions. Much about 
the fame time, a certain Indian Woman, who 
liv d with the Europeans in the Quality of aa 
Interpreter, difcover d to Conez,^ how that 
King Monte^Hma had a great Army at Hand,that 
the Inhabitants of Ckurultecal had fent theirChil- 
dren out of the City, that theymight with the 
more Refolution furprife the Spaniards, and put 
them all to the Sword, if it were in their Power- 
Cortez. being now convinc d that there was no 
time to be loft, refolv d immediately to fall 
upon the Indians, before they could have time 
to put their Defign in Execution : Purluant 
to this Refolution, he fent Word to the 
Chief Lords of the City, to attend him at 
his Houfe, having fomething of great mo- 
inent to impart to them 9 and at the fame 
time order d his Soldiers to be ready , to 
ad at the firfl Signal given. No fooner 
were all the Lords aflembled in the Houfej/ ;(?s , 
that was affign d him for his Lodgings, butar^ 
he caus d them to be feiz d ; and then tfabe 
Spaniards mounting on Horfe-back, aflail dthe* 7 ^ t1) 
Indians, and in an Hours time kill d above iai13 
3000 of them with their Swords and Piftols. 
Had Conez. made the lead delay in prevent 
ing them, he and his Forces had bin infalli 
bly loft ; becaufe the Indians were juft thca 
preparing to fall upon them, and for that 
Purpofe had barricado d the Streets with vaft 
Stones : But being attackM unexpectedly, 
werefbon brought into diforder and difpers d, 
being then without Commanders or Leaders, 
who were all feiz d and kept in Chains ia 
Coneys Houfe, who gave immediate Or* 
ders to fet Fire to fome fortify d finall Tow- 
A a 7, crs, 

540 The General HISTORY 

ers, wherein the Indians had fecur d themfelves, 
with a Refolution to hold out there to the 
laft Extremity , but they were foon forc d to 
abandom them and the City, at the fame 

The Lords that were detained in Cortex his 
Houfe beiag ask d> What could move them 
to take fo barbarous a Refolution, thustrea- 
cheroufiy to Maflacre, in cool Blood, all the 
Spaniards ? They told Corte^ That they had 
bin engag d in this Confpiracy by the Inha 
bitants of Culva, who were Aiontez.uma s Sub- 
je&s, who had left nothing unattempted to 
draw them into this treacherous Defign ; That 
Montewma himfelf, who was not above a 
League and half thence, had gathered an Army 
of 50000 Men, on purpofe to favour this En 
terprise. They begg d in a molt humble 
manner, that two or three only among them 
might be fet at Liberty, in order to take 
care of their Wives, Children, and Move- 
ables they had fent away, to make them re 
turn into the Cityj making mod folemn 
Proteftations to remain, for ever after, faith 
ful to Spain, and not to fuffer themfelves to 
be feduc d. Accordingly, the next Day, eve 
ry one return d to his Houfe, and the whole 
City was as quiet, and as full of People, 
as it was the Day before this Misfortune hap- 
pen d. 

ft being refolv d among the Spaniards, not 
to take the leaft Notice, as if they were ac 
quainted with JMontez.uma s perfidious Deflgns, 
they gave a very obliging Reception to the 
AmbafFadors he fent to them, to congratulate 
them on account of their good Succefs againft 
thefe Traytors} they brought Prefents to 
Cortex.^ from their Mailer, confifting of ten 


tf VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 541 

Golden Plates; 1500 Suits of Cloaths adorn d 
with Feathers after their own Country Fafliion ; 
abundance of Turkies, and other Provifions, 
with good flore of Panica^ being a fort of 
Liquor the Indians drink : The AmbaOadors 
entreated Cortex not to penetrate any further 
into Montez~uma $ Dominions, alledging it was 
a barren Country, not fufficient to find Sub- 
liflance for his own Troops, who had fuffer d 
very much of late for Want. He anfwer d 
them in very obliging Terms, That having 
fome things of the greateft weight to com 
municate to their Matter, he was oblig d to come 
to have an Interview with him. 

Not far from the City of Ckttmltecal, are 
two very high Mountains, conflantly cover d 
with Snow on the Tops, and exceffive cold ^ 
from thence you may lee ifTue forth, without 
Intermiflion, certain Exhalations, or rather 
two thick Colums of Smoak, of the Circum 
ference of a large Houfe, rifing up ftrait in 
to the Air, with more Swiftnefs than a Dart 
flys from a Bow ^ and tho the Wind blows 
always very hard on the Tops of thefe 
Mountains, it is not ftrong enough to move 
either on one fide or other, much lefs to 
difperfe thefe Colums (as one may call them,) 
of Smoak. Several Attempts have bin made, to 
get up to the tops of thefe Mountains,to difcover 
the true paufe of this Prodigy, but in vain, 
no body has hitherto bin able to reach them, 
becauft the Wind blows whole Heaps of Afhes 
into your Face, fo as to ftifle you , befides 
that, the Snow towards the Tops lies very 
-deep, and the Cold is almo jnfupportable, 
whereas this Climate is otherwife exceeding 
Hot, being no more than twenty Degrees be- 
yoad the Equino&ial Line.. 

A a 3 A 

34* The General HISTORY 

Cortez A few Leagues diftance from thefe Moun- 

Tem fl ta * ns s l ^ e F amous City of Temiftitav, feat- 
ta n"J y^ed in the midft of a Lake, having but one 
MomezH- pretty broad Caufey-way leading to it, which 
ma. will conveniently hold about eight Horfe-meu 
a bread : The Water of this Lake is congeal d 
frequently into Salt, wherewith they drive a 
crip- great Traffick. The City it felf, is furround- 
tbed by a flrong Wall, defended by Towers 
Si- O f different Sizes ; and has but two Gates, 
tuation. one through which the People come in, and 
the other at which they go out. A thou-, 
fand Perfons of the belt Rank, all clad in the 
fame Drefs, came out of the City to meet, 
falute, and pay their Compliments to Cortex^ 
and thofe that were with him^ each of them, 
one after another, laid his Hand to the 
Ground, and then kifs d it with all pofiible 
marks of a mo/l profound Helped , this Ce* 
remony took up no lefs than a whole Hour. 
After thefe, appear d Momewma in Perfon, 
attended ; by two hundred Lords of his Court, 
all bare footed, but more richly attired than 
thofe, that had made their Appearance before ; 
they walk d two and two, and tept as near 
the Koufes as they could, tho the Streets 
were very fpacious ; Mcnte^um* walk d be. 
twixt two of the greateft Lords of the Country, 
who fupported him on both fides : There was 
not the leall: diflerence in their Drefs or Ha 
bits, except that Mome^unia. himfelf had Shoes 
Covtez u on ^ anc j the other two not. So foon as Cortex 
wtfy ^ came near them, he alighted from his Horfe, 
1 to pay his Refpefts to Monte zjtma^ .alter which, 
the two Lords that fupported him, paid theirs 
to Cone^ after the manner of their ownCountry; 
the other two hundred Lords did the fame, and 
the Ceremonial being over, everyone took his 
Place, Cortex, 


Cortex had a Collar of glafs Stones, about 
his Neck, which he prefented to Monte^uma^ 
who in lieu thereof beftow d upon him im 
mediately three others of a much greater 
Value \ all the Company march d in the fame 
order, as they were come, and conducted Cor- 
tcz. to a mo/t magnificent Palace, prepar d 
for his Reception. The King feat their cori- 
fiderable Prefents of Gold and Silver, and 
many other curious Pieces made of Feathers 
of divers Colours, with 5000 Suits of Cloaths, 
moft artificially wrought , and feating himfelf 
in a moft magnificent Seat next to Cortege fpoke 
in thefe following Words : 

Our ancient Hijlories tell H$^ that we are not f 
in-torn People of the Country ^ we now live in }ma . 
but that we are foreigners^ brought hither from t ion and 
far diftant Places^ under the Conduit of a certain 
JLeader or Captain, whofe Subjects we were j and 
who having left HS in this Country^ returned to his 
own Sometime after he came once more to this 
Country^ to fee his old Subjetts^ whom he found 
marry* d with the Women Natives of the Country^ 
and much encreas d in Number : He did all that 
in him Iay 9 to engage them to go back along 
with him^ to their Native Count ey *, bitt theyab- 
folutely refused f& to do^ nor would they any longer 
acknowledge him for their Lord ; fo he wo* forced 
to go from whence he came. However it is an 
eld and generally received Opinion among #*, that 
his Pofterity are to come into thefe Parts and 
Conquer HS^ and all our Provinces^ twenty being 
in ejfeft) by defcent^ their lawful Subjects. When 
I rightly weigh all the Circumftances of this Mat 
ter^ every thing you have related to w^ and the 
Wonders you tell u* of your great Prince and Lord 9 
and compare all thefe things with the Defection 
A a 4 yon 

344 The General HISTORY 

you have given us of that Country from whence 
you come, we have all the Reafon in the World 
to be perfuaded) that the fame great King^ your 
Mafter^ who has pent you hither, is alfo our law 
ful Soveraign Lord. Tit on this account you may 
reft fatisfy di that we are fully refolv d to obey 
you, without any Fraud or Referve^ affuring you 9 
that in your Perfon, we will fay our Refpeft to 
kirn that has fent you hither. JDifpofe therefore 
of thefe ProyinC.cS) and command here at your 
own Pleafure , you mil meet with none but O- 
ledient and Faithful Sub^etts here, and fuch as 
are fully difpos^d, te do you all the Services they 
are able , you have therefore nothing elfe to do 
4t thU time^ than to confult your own Eafe and 
Kepofe, after the many Fatigues you have under 
gone, both in y( Ur long and difficult Voyages at 
Sea^ and in the fever al Engagements you have 
had at Land^ before you could come to us. 1 
don t in the leafl tytiftion^ but that fome among 
the neighbouring Nations^ out of no other Motives 
than Spite and Envy^ have endeavoured to create 
in you. a Jealoufy^ and to prepofefs you again ft 
me\ I witt not pretend to char my felf on that 
Head^ fince jour own Experience will fufficientlj 
convince you of the Falfity of thefe Infnuations 
and Calumnies. They have told you^ That the 
very Wafts of my Palace are ofmaffy Gold \ That 1 
fret end to be tvorflripp d like a God } That 1 alone 
am JMafter of more Riches^ in Silks ^ and other 
freciom Commodities^ than all the ether Princes 
. in the Wcrld together : Let this be as it will^ I 
can only tell you^ that all I have is at your Dif- 
pofal i you are fole M afters here y make ufe of all 
the Products of my Dominions, no otherrvije than 
you would do of what is your own. 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS^ 545 

This Harangue being extrearaly pleafing to 
the Spaniards ) they were fure not to negleft 
any thing, they thought might confirm Mon- 
nwma in his Opinion, that they were adually 
defcended from that lawful Prince of thefe 
Provinces he had fpoken of, and that the King 
of Spain was the Heir and Swcceflbr of him their 
Ancient Hiftories of the Indies made mention 
of. Six Days after the firft entrance of 
Corttz. into that moft celebrated City of 
Ttmiftitan^ things continued in the fame ftate, 
without any remarkable alteration \ when 
Cortex, refle&ing ferioufly upon the whole mat- 
ter, it was thought moft advifeable, to iecure 
Montewmsis Perfon, for fear he fliould change 
Jus Mind \ whereas, as long as they had him 
in their power, they were fecure againfl any 
Revolt or Aflault from his Subje&s : It being 
therefore fully refolv d to feize and detain him 
a Prifoaer in the fame Houfe that was aflign d 
him for his Lodgings, ( provided it could be 
done without much noife and difturbance) 
Cortex pofted certain Guards in all the chief 
Streets, rnd then went in Perfon (as he com 
monly us d to do) to fee Morttewma in his 
Palace \ who welcomed him with fome Pre- 
fents, and his Daughter an4 thofe of moft of 
the great Lords at Court, did the fame to 
thofe Spaniards that came along with him. After Cortez 
fome Difcourfe upon indifferent matters, Cortez. f eJ zes the 
upbraided Atonte^uma with the ill treatment Perfon of 
fome Spaniards had received from the Indians^ Momezu- 
by his orders feveral of them had been ma * 
inurdered : He told them, that he thought 
himfelf obliged to take him along with him 
to his own Quarters, till fuch time, that the 
whole Truth of fo barbarous an Adion was 
Brought to light, and that he had received 


The General HISTORY 

full fatisfaftion given him, for the Death of 
his Friends. Cortex , to encourage him under 
this uncxpe&ed Affliction, told him, he fhould . 
not be treated like a Prifoner, but like one 
who was at full Liberty ; That the Spaniards 
Jhould obey him in every thing, and be ready 
at his Service, as much as if they were his 
natural SuSje&s. After fome Protections, 
and a flender Refiftance, Montewrna confented 
to go along with Certez. to his Quarters } fo 
being put into a Chair, he was attended thi 
ther by a great number of the Chief Men of 
his Court, all in Tears* but fpoke not one 
word , or offered to make the lead diftur- 
bance : So far from that, that when Monte* 
z,um* found fome Murmurings among the Peo 
ple who fiock d about him, he was the firft 
that appeafed them by his Authority and 
Perfuafions ^ thus every thing remain d quiet 
whilft Monte^umA was detain d in Cartels 

A few days after, a certain Indian Lord, 
named Qualpapoctj his Son, with feveral others 
of their Accomplices, being accufed of the 
Murther of the Spaniards^ were Apprehended, 
Fettered , and put in a clofe Prifon : They 
own d the Fad, and at the fame time con- 
fefs d, that what they had done was by the 
Advice and Command of MontezMma. The 
Criminals were burn d alive in the great 
Market Place , without the leafl Tumult or 
Commotion - 7 and Montewma^ upon their Ac- 
cufation, was loaded with Irons ^ which caufed 
fuch an excefs of Grief in him , that the 
Spaniards fearing his death, they were taken off 
again the fame day, and treated him with all 
manner of Civility ; to retaliate which , he 
Commanded feveral of his Indians to fhevy 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 347 

them his beft Gold Mines, to the great fatif- 
fadionof the Spaniards. 

Montezuma , to give them all the proofs 
that poflibly he could of his good Inclina 
tions and Intentions , call d together an Afc 
fembly of all the Great Lords of his Province, 
unto whom hcaddrefs d himfelf in the follow 
ing Harangue, in the prefcnce of tie Conez, 
who thought it his Intereft to be prefeflt at 
this Alterably: 

De At Brethren and Friends , you are fenfible Montczu 
long ago, tha,t you are my Sttbjefts^ as your Fa- ma j Re~ 
ihers were to my Predeteffors^ who always trewedfiv iatlQn 
you with a great deal of tnildnefs ^ you have hither. f J} 

to fafd me all the Obedience faithful S*bjcfo * 
ought to pay to their lawful Sever aign\ yen arc 
aljo not ignorant , that ow Nation owes not its 
firft Origin to this Cvuntry we live in^ but that 
oar Anceftors were transplanted hither from fo 
reign Parts ; you may therefore be certain that 
tkefe Europeans, lately ccme into thefe Provinces y 
we fent hither by a King descended froni our 
firft Found^ : But becayfe our Anceftors would 
not pay him due Obedience^ /# no more than. 
common Jftftice we fiwld do it now ; fo I ex 
hort you , to acknowledge thi* Great Prince for 
your "Lord and Maftcr^ in the fame manner M you 
have ownd me^ in the fame gW/fy, and to pay 
him the fame Obedience you have pay*d to me 
and ihis is the great eft f at is f aft ion yon are able to 
give me. 

Thefe Words of Mcjetez.uma were attended 
with Tears intermix d with very deep Sighs } 
and the Lords of his Court following his Ex 
ample, wept to that exceft, that they were 
not able to return an anfwer for forne time. 
Nay, many of the S^aniards^ who were Eye- 


The Gentyd HISTORY 

witnefles of this Tragical Scene, could not but 
Ihew fome Compafiion for this unfortunate 
Prince. At lafl the Indian Lords being fome- 
what recovered, told Monte^uma, That they 
Should continue at all times t* be his faithful 
Subjects , find acknowledge no other Sovereign \ 
Jtut that in regard of the Command he had laid 
upon them, they would fubmit to the King of 
Spain, that they would fay him Tribute^ and do 
him all the Service that lay in their Power. 
This Declaration being Regiftred by a No 
tary Publick, feveral Copies thereof were de 
livered to the Spaniards. 

After this authentick Refignation, Monte- 
zjim* was told , that the King of Spain had 
occalion for a certain quantity of Gold , to 
carry one fome great Enterprise he had in 
view, and that therefore he Ihould ask from 
his Subjects what Gold and Silver they could 
fpare, thereby to convince the King of the 
i- fincerity of their Promifes. They adually 
ow quan- raifed in a fhort time Two and Thirty Mil* 
of lions and Four Hundred Pounds of Gold , 

i- w i tnou t mentioning a vaft quantity of other 
Montezu- ric ^ Commodities of an incredible value, 
ina j Do- and many curious Pieces made of Feathers of 
minions, various Colours. Conez. had a Crucifix Call 
of Mafiy Gold, and a vaft number of Golden 
Medals of differeat fizes. He order d alfo 
fome Silver Money to be Coin d , and pro 
vided himfelf with good ftore of Plate 5- and 
Monte-^uma fent to the King of Spain vaft 
quantities of Silks of the moft excellent work- 
manftiip that can be feen , there being no 
thing like it to be met with in Europe; the 
whole being a moft furprizing iatertexture of 
Feathers and Silk , leprefenting every thing 
in its natural Colours. 




A Defcriftion of that "Province wherein the 
City of Temiftitan is feated, of the dif 
ferent Commodities brought andjold there ; 
and with what exaffnefs the Indians cwrj 
on their Traffick. 

THe Province of Mexico, whereof the City 
of iemiftitan is the Capital City and 
whereof Atontemttma was King at that time, 
is furrounded with Mountains , in the midlt 
whereof is a Plain of about tfo Leagues in 
Circumference , This Plain contains among other 
things two Lakes, one whereof has Frefh, the 
other Salt Water. Thefe Lakes contain feverai 
Ifles and Towns, which have a Communication 
with one another by their Canoes and other 
fuch Boats ufed by the Indians. Thefe Lakes 
have likewife their Flood and Ebb Tides ( like 
the Sea ) in fuch a manner, that when it is 
high Water in the Salt Water Lake, it difcharges 
it felf with the fame impetuity into the Frefh 
Water Lake, as if it where a large and very 
rapid River , on the other Hand, the Frefh Wa-^ 
ter Lake diffembogues at certain fet times into 
the Salt Water Lake. The City of Temijlitan An exaft 
is Built in the Salt Water Lake about two defeat- 
Leagues from the Land ; It has four Capital tionoftbe 
Streets built on Arches ; it is as big in its Cir- ^miif- 
cu inference as Sevile or Cordftka in Spain : One tan^jj 
half of the Streets is of Earth, the other httfirt* /Vo 
te made up by a Canal ; fo that you may go vines of 
either by Water or Land , as you like bell. 
The Streets are joyned, and have a Commu 
nication with certain Wooden Bridges, curi- 


3 50 The General HISTORY 

oufly built and of very fine Wood , and of 
fuch a breadth, that no lefs than ten Horfe- 
men may pafs over them in Front. The 
Grand Place, or the Market Place of Temifti- 
tan , is much larger , ^ and much handfomer 
than that of Salamanca in Spain, and furround- 
ed on all fides with Portico s : Here you lhall 
fee fometimes above tfoooo Perfons together, 
who come thither to buy and fell, becaufe 
here they may be furniflul with every thing 
the whole Province affords ; Meat, Cloaths, 
Gold and Silver Vcflels, Lead, Feathers of 
Birds, Pearls, Diamonds, all forts of Fowls, 
Patridges, Turtles, Pidgeons, Cranes, Parro- 
quets 7 Sparrow-hawks, Falcons, Eagles, and 
all forts of Birds of Prey , Here you may buy 
Rabbets, Hares, and Venefon, and a little fort 
of Dogs which afford good Food-, Here you 
meet with Herbs of all forts, both for Phyfick 
and the Pot , Hony you have hereof different 
kinds } that which is produced by the Bees, ano 
ther fort taken out of the Canes of the M^hiz 1 
which is as fweet as that drawn out of the 
Sugar Canes; They have alfo certain Trees, 
which furnifh them with that fort of Hony 
whereof they make their Wine or Metheitin. 
In Granada it felf you fhall not meet with finer 
and better Silks than in the Province of Mexico ; 
their Colours are mod exquifite. Here they 
fell alfo Buckskins well drefs d, both with and 
without the Hairs } Each fort of Trade has 
its peculiar Station, and they are very exad in 
their Weight and Meafure. Tis very rare ta 
find any one defe&ive in that point :, and their 
is a certain Office, where 10 or 12 of the 
beft Traders have their conflant Refidence, 
thefe not only fettle the price of every thing 
that People may not be Imposed upon, and de 


termine what differences may arife betwixt 
buyers and fellers, but alfo Punifh thofe who 
are catch d in a Fraud. 

The City of TemiftitAn is adorn d with many r/^Indi- 
fair Stru&ures, which are for the moft part a an Masks 
fort of MOiks or rather Pagan Convents, In- at ^ e - 
habited by thofe that attend the Worfhip of miltltan 
the Idols. Thefe Religiofo s are clad in Black, 
and never cut their Hairs : The Children of the 
Great Lords wear the fame habit till they are 
lixorfeven years of Age, or perhaps till they 
are Married ^ Thofe that live in thefe Mosks 
ire not permitted to vilit any Women, or they 
to go to them $ they abftain from Fkih, and 
at fome Seafons of the year from other things 
befides. Their principal Mosk is furrounded 
by a very high Wall, its Circumference being 
as large as a fmall Town of 5 or 600 Hou- 
fes, the Apartments within are very fair 
and fpacious, Flanck d by no lefs than forty 
Allies or Walks moft curioufly embellilh d ; 
You enter into the principal Mosk by fifty 
fteps, the leaft of them is as high as the 
Steple of the Cathedral of Sevile : There is 
not a Chappel wherein there is an Idol, but 
where every Hone of it is embelliuYd with 
fame curious Engraven Figures, and the out- 
fides are adorn d with Painted Images : The 
Walks or Allies are intended for the Burials 
of Perfbns of Note. Day-light never enters 
into thefe Chappels \ none but the Religio 
fo s being permitted to come there, and not 
all of them neither at all times. 

The Spaniards pull d down the chief Statues 
of the Suppofititious Deities, they WauYd and 
Beautified the Chappels, ftain d all over with 
the Blood of Human Sacrifices, and in lieu 
thereof, put up the Statues of the Holy 


352 TkGenefal-H I STORY 

Virgin, and of feveral other Saints, to the 
great difiatisfa&ion of JMontez.uma and all 
his Subje&s. They reprefented to Corte^ 
that if this proceeding fhou d take Vent in 
the Country, they wou d infallibly rife up 
in Arms } it being their Opinion, that all 
the Goods and Riches they are Matters of, 
is owing to the Liberality of their Idols. 
The Spaniards did all they cou d to unde 
ceive them, and to convince . them that there 
was no more than one real God 3 the fole 
Lord and Matter of the Univerfe, andftridt- 
ly forbad not to Sacrifice any Children to 
, . 7 thofe Idols, the Statues whereof far exceed- 
fo cc * in bignefs the Natural Stature of Men * 
they feed them with all forts of Roots, and 
Pulfe mix d with the Blood of Human Sacri 
fices ; they pull out their Hearts whiltt yet 
alive, the Heart being the chief part they 
offer to their Idols, being before dipp d 
in the Blood of the Victim : They have their 
particular Deities, according to their feveral 
neceflities, in imitation of the Ancient Hea 

The Houfes of Temiflitan ate very large 
and handfom, the great Lords of the King 
doms have their Palaces and Refidence at 
certain Seafons of the year } the Inhabitants 
in general are very Rich, and dwell in very 
convenient Habitations with curious Flower* 
Gardens behind them : The Water is con- 
vey d into the City by two dquaJufts , and 
they have a Con veniency by which all the filth and 
foul Water is carry d back out of the City, 
there being abundance of Water convey d by 
means of Pipes from the other Aquadufts 
into this, to keep it tollcrably clean, and 
walh away the Excrements. In every part 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS. 353 

of the City, you meet at all times of the 
Day with abundance of Handy-crafts Men* 
who offer their Service to be hired j for the 
Indians are an indudrious People, notwith- 
ftanding mod of the Europeans look upon 
them as a defpifable and barbarous Genera 
tion : They have a well regulated Govern 
ment, and take Care to have it well mana 
ged and maintain d , and it may be truly 
faid of them, that when the Spaniards entred 
America, they wanted nothing but the Know 
ledge of the true God. 

The magnificence and vad Riches of Mon- 
tez^uma are almofl pad our Imagination, un- 
lefs one had bin an Eye-witnefs of thtrniTfaJtoy 
You fee in his Palace an infinite Number iM 
Statues of Gold and Silver, of fine Work- 
manfhip ; abundance of curious Pieces in* 
laid, and embellifh d with Gold, Pearls, and 
Precious Stones, fo nicely and artificially con- 
triv d, that no body ever was able to find 
out what Inftruments the Woik-men could 
make ufe of, to accomplifh them , and it is 
pad all Dispute , that the molt refin d and 
bed Art ids of Europe would be puzzled, to 
find out a Method of managing Silk, and the 
Feathers of Birds, to fuch an Advantage, and 
fuch a Degree of Beauty as the Indians do, 
for all manner of Work and Furniture. The 
King s ordinary Residence is at Temiftttan^ from 
whence heiflfueshis Orders for above Two hun 
dred Leagues round } whence it is evident, that 
his Kingdom is at lead as big as Spain. The 
Chief Men of the Country put their Sons into 
the King s Service, whilit they, in their Re- 
fpective Provinces, take care to (ee his Taxes 
Cuftoms payd in due Time aad Places: 
B b 

354 The G^w/HISTORY 

Thefe Tributes or Taxes being pay d in dif 
ferent kinds, tis next to an Impoffibility, as 
much as to imagine, much lefs to compute 
the Value of thofe precious Moveables that 
fall yearly to the King s Share. He is ferv d 
with the fame Refped at a diftance, as if 
he were prefent -, and no Prince in the World 
is ferv d with more Devotion and Submifii- 
on than himfelf. The fineft Palaces in // 
r#, bay* nothing that is comparable to the 
Spacioufnefs, rich Furnitures and Magnificence 
of his. The Gardens are adorn d with Sta 
tues of Marble and Jafper of exquifite Work- 
manfhip; the Palace has Lodgings fufficient 
for two great Princes, with their whole 
Court. His Parks are flor d with all forts of 
Animals, both to fatisfie the Eye and the 
Belly. All forts of Fifli whatever, both of 
Sea and River Fifties, are kept in Ponds, 
which have on both Sides, at a certain di 
ftance, fome Pavillions, where you may reft 
and divert your felf with ^ feeing them bulled 
in Fiihing. MonttiLwnj* Palace is divided 
into feveral Quarters: One for the Whites, 
Men, Women and Children 5 their Hairs, Eye 
brows, and in fhort, their whole Complexion 
is very fair : Another Quarter is pav d 
with the fineft Marble Checker-wife, each 
Stone fix Foot fqutre } they are Painted with 
Birds of all forts, in their natural Colours, 
which affords a raoft agreeable Variety. In 
one Corner of the great Park, are abundance 
of Cages, for Lions, Tigers, Wolves, Foxes, 
and Wild-Cats, betides fome other favage 
four footed Beafh, in vaft Numbers j all 
which are fed with Turkeys ; no Jefs than 
three hundred Men, make it their daily Em 


ployment, to keep and feed thefe Creatures. 
A certain part of the Palace, is fet afide for 
the Entertainment of monftrous Men and 
Women, Changelings, Mifhaped, &c. every 
kind of thefe have their peculiar Quarters, and 
their particular Servants to attend them. 

Every Morning, about 500 or 600 Per- 
fons of the befr. Quality, make their Appear 
ance at the King s Palace, to make their 
Court , fome fitting, others walking about ia 
the Apartments ^ ^but their Attendants are 
not admitted within the Palace, but flay ia 
the outward Courts : So foon as the King is 
fat down at Table, the Lords do the fame, 
and are ferv d with the fame Dilhes the 
King has at his *, they frequently fend fome 
to their Friends, that are not at the Table : 
But as for Wines and other Liquors, they 
are there in fuch vaft Plenty, that every one 
may drink what he pleafes, both at Dinner 
and Supper-time. Three hundred young Men 
are appointed to carry the Dimes to the 
Tables, and in cold Weather, each Difh is 
carry d upon a Chaving-difh : The King is 
feated upon a Cufhion, or kind of Bolfter of 
very fine Leather -, fix old Men dine with him, 
whom he ferves himfelf, with Meats, and 
changes his Napkins almoft every Minute, 
and his Cloaths Four times a Day. No bo 
dy is allow d to go into his Bed-chamber, 
unlefs he be bare-footed, and commanded to 
come in, and then he mufc enter with his 
Head and Eyes fixM on the Ground, and his 
Body bent forward j no body muft look in the 
King s Face whilft he is talking to him ^ be- 
caufe to ftare in a Man of Quality s Face, 
whilft you are fpeaking to him, is Icnk d 
B b 2 upon 

J 5<5 The General HISTORY 

upon among the Indians, as a Token of want 
of Kefped. Whenever the King goes abroad 
(which happens but feldom ) all thofe that 
attend him, and all fuch as meet him in the 
Street, or upon the Road, turn their Heads 
another way, for fear they JhouM fee his Face. 
To he ftort, tis almofl rmpoflible to pretend 
to an exaft Dcfcription of all the Ceremonies 
obfervd by thtfe Indians, to fhew their De 
votion and Refpeft to their Ring and Ma 

C H A P. HI. 

N.avarez, A Spanifh Commander, does hi* 

utmost endeavours to ruin Cortez, and 

feduce Montezuma. Cortez is too 

quick for hu Rival, and takes him Pri~ 


WHilfl Ferdinand de Ccrtcz. continued at 
Temiflita^ News was brought him, 
hat tne Inhabitants of Per a Cn& had revolt 
ed at the^Iniligation of Captain Navtre^ a 
very cuoning Man, and who being jealous of 
Ferdinand de Cartel Glory, had laid a Defign 
to furpnze and feize him, with all that be- 
long d to Mitt, for which purpofe he had 
equippd eighteen Ve/Teis at his own Charge 
Tne better to feccecd in this Projeft, he had 
1-oimd Means to raife an Infbrredion infome 
or the Provinces belonging to Montewm** 
with the AOldance of one of the greateft 
Lords ot his Court, This made Com*, re. 


folve to hazard all, to break his Rivals Mea- 
fures: Purfuant to this Refolution he ord red 
Confaho de Sandoval^ a very prudent Com 
mander, and his intimate Friend,to put himfelf at 
the Head of fixty Spaniards, intending to follow* 
him atafmalldiftancewith two hundred more; 
They came both at the fame time in fight 
of the Town, where Notvarez, had his Head- 
quarters, who drew out with fixty Horfeand 
500 Foot, leaving the reft for the Defence 
of a large and flrong Mofque, within the Town. 
About midnight Cortex gave the Signal tOrez. 
attack the Mofqne, notwithflanding he had 
receiv d advice that Navarez. was march d 
back into the Town with all his Forces, and 
had planted nineteen Field Pieces on one of 
the Towers of the Mofque : They defended 
themfelves for fome time with the utmoft 
Bravery ; notwithftanding which, the Tower 
was taken, and Navarez* taken Prifoner, with 
all his Officers of note; They own d, that 
they had fram d a Defign to feize Corte^ 
and to fet up a new Government in the 
Indies i independent from Spain. After this 
happy Succefs, Conez, march d back to Term- 
flit an ; but at his Entrance faw himfelf attack d 
by an innumerable Multitude of Indians^ who 
advancing with a mod dreadful Cry, threw 
Stones as thick as Hail among them, and caft 
their Darts in fuch vaft Numbers, that the 
Roads and Streets were quite covcr d with 
them. They fet Fire likewife to the SpaniJIj 
Fort, part whereof was burnt to the Ground, 
and the Garrifon had bin all cut to Pieces, 
had the Indians not bin kept back by the 
Terror and Execution of their Fire-arms, 
which made them always retreat in great 


3 5 8 The General HISTORY 

Cortez Gottfufioa ; for the Indians advancing witfl- 
oT/f ^ n "P ut ajQ y or der or ril l e 5 each Piece of Artil- 
tac&tiy ler y that . was difctarg d amongft them, did 
//;e Mexi- nioft terrible Execution. At laft AiontR^nma 
cans. willing to fee this Tumult appeas d, defir d 
the Spaniards to place him on one of the 
Platforms of the Fortrefs, to fhew himfelf to 
the People, and to fpeak to their Leaders, in 
hopes to perfuade them to lay down their 
Arms : But one of the Indians, whether by 
chance or otherwife is uncertain, hit and 
wounded him with a Stone fo dangerouily that 
he dy d of it the fame Day. Cortez. ordred 
his Body to be carry d out of the City, to 
be expos d to the View of the People ; but 
the Sight thereof was fo far from allaying 
their Fury, that they fought with more ob. 
IsforSdto ftinacy than ever, till they forc d Cortez, with 
fKifXemi- his Forces, to abandon the City of Temiflitan^ 
tan and to retreat fighting, in very good order 
to Catacuba^ leaving all the Gold, Silver, 
and other Riches, they had gather d, behind 

Tis incredible what Fatigues the Spaniards 
endur d in this Adion $ they were tired to fuch 
a Degree, that they could ftir neither Hand 
nor Foot: Befides that, they had loft 150 
Men, and 46 Horfes in this Combat, with 
out reckoning 2000 Male and Female Indians? 
who loft their Lives upon this Occafion, and 
among them the Sons and the Daughters of 
MontezMm^ with feveral other Perfons of note a 
that were their Prifbners. 

One Ctietravacin^ Montezatma s Brother, fefz d 
o.n the Throne, two of his Nephews, Mon- 
teiLumas Sons, being excluded from it, becaufe 
one was a Fool, and the other Lame j where- 


as the new King was a PeiTon very well 
known, both for his Conduct and Bravery. 
He took care to have the mofl important 
Pods well fortify d, the better to defend them- 
felves againft the Spaniards ; and publifh d a 
Proclamation, by vertue whereof he freed his 
Subjeds from all Taxes, provided they would 
take up Arms to fight and chace their Ene 
mies out of their Country, and put to the 
Sword all fuch as were in Alliance with 

After a thonfand Hazards, and feveral En 
gagements, Cortex and his Soldiers had with the 
Indians, for the Conqueft of the New World, 
unto which they thought fit to give the Name of 
New Spain by reafon of its Refemblauce to the 
Kingdom tf Spain, in Europe, in refpect of its Per. 
tiiity and Goodnefs , they refolv d to lay Siege to 
Temftitan, which they had bin forc d to a- 
bandon before, la one Engagement alone 
900 Spaniards kill d or took Prifpners above 
950000 Indians ; the Women and Children 
lit up fuch doleful Cries, as would have 
movM the moil barbarous and favage, and molt 
inveterate Enemy to Compafiion^ and in ef 
fect the Spaniflj Officers did all they could 
to keep their Soldiers from continuing the 
Slaughter, as well as the Indians that were f 
in their Army, who put all their Country- ^T*4? 
men to the Sword, and exercis d all manner slaughter. 
of Cruelties upon them -, for there is not a 
more Cruel Nation in the World, than the 
Inhabitants of thefe Parts, being without the 
leaft Seafe of Humanity : And thefe Indians^ 
that tided with the Spaniards, being no Jcfs 
intent upon Plunder than the Slaughter of 
their Country-men, thefe who vr ell knew their 


The General HISTORY 
Temper, had thrown all their beft Movea- 
bles into tht Lakes, and a vaft Number of 
Men, Women and Children went after their 
Goods*, fo that the Lake being filPd with 
dead Carcafles, they march d over them in 
many Places, as if it had bin on the folid 
Ground. Tis impoflible to find Words fuit- 
able to the Horror of fo doleful a Spectacle, 
and to exprefs the Mifery thefe poor Wretch 
es were reduc d to : Here you might have 
feen an innumerable Multitude of Women 
and Children imploring, with the mofl piti. 
ful Lamentations and Cries, the Spaniards for 
Mercy ; but in vain, the greateffc Part of 
them were driven into the Lake, where they 
were drown d, or ftifled among the dead 
Bodies, and the reft perifti d by the Plague, 
occafion d by the Stench of the dead Bodies, 
by the want of Nourifhment, and by the 
drinking of too much Salt Watery about 
60000 perifh d in this manner within a few 
Days. The Streets, the Roads, nay, the adja 
cent Mountains, were full of dead CarcafTes ^ 
notwithflanding which, thofe that remained a- 
live, chofe rather to undergo the fame Fate, 
than to fubmitj fuch was their Hatred againft 
the Spaniards. This obliged Cortez, to fend 
ff for his great Cannon, and to arm fome 
|" Barques, to reduce thofe Indians that kept 
on the Lake in their Canoes } fome of the 
Chief Men, who were taken Prifoners on the 
Lake, being brought before de Cortex, told 
him, They had done nothing elfe but what 
brave Men ought to do, to fave their City 
and Country from Deftru&ion , and, that 
now he might difpofe of their Perfons as he 
thought fit; The Chiefcft among them lay 


ing his Hand on the Hilt of de Cortex his 
Dagger, begg d him to thruft it into his 
Heart: But he told him, he had better bear 
his Difgrace with Patience, and that they 
fhould be very civilly treated. This laft 
Exploit put an end to the Siege, which had 
continu d without Interrniffion for fixty-five 
Days, all which the Spaniards had fpent in the 
attacking of this City, being forc d to un 
dergo almoft incredible Fatigues, both in 
railing their Works, and in continual Skir- 
mimes ; for there fcarce paft a Day, but the 
Indians would fally out in great Numbers to 
annoy them in their Works. 

The Spaniards thus became abfolute Mailers T j je Spa 
of Temiflitan, the capital City of all thefe niardl 
rich Provinces, got an ineftimable Booty ^ make am 
they caus d all the Gold they found here to ennreCo 
be melted down? and fent away a prodis;!- ^ c 
ous Quantity of wrought Silks of all forts. 
This done, Cortex took effectual care to fettle 
the Peace, and re- introduce a good Order and 
Difcipline, every thing being brought into Dif- 
order and Confufion, during the War : And 
to frighten the Country into an entire Sub- 
iniffion, he fent the News of his having taken, 
pillag d and deftroy d, the Famous City of 
TfmiftitAv (the richefl and flrongefl of the 
whole Kingdom ) into all the Provinces, which 
produced the defir d Effeft 5 for the Indians 
fubmitted 3 without any further Relu&ancy, to 
the Crown of Spain. 

The Diverfity of Language, among the 
Indians, prov d no fmall Obflacle to thoi3 
who firft ventur d upon the Difcovery of 
the, New World : This difference was fuch, 
that the very next adjoining Naticns fcarce 
G G uaderftand 

The General HISTORY 

underftand one another ; The reafon whereof 
muft be attributed to their continual inteftine 
Wars, which hindred them from cultivating 
any Gorrefpondence with one another. To 
obviate, in fome meafure, this Inconveniency, 
feveral Authors have taken the Pains p give 
us an account of the feveral Idioms that are 
current in the 

Names Father Dominick de Vico, a Dominic an, has 
;^"*Publifh J d a Didionary, or a Method how to 
lave writ- ^ earn tne Language of Cachiquil ; beJIdes fix 
tamore Idioms, in which he has written feveral 
- Treatifes. 

Father Lewis Renico, a Dominican^ hasWritten 
feveral Treatifes or Sermons m the Mexican 
Language, and in thofe of M fteca, Zapoteca, 
JMije^ Cbockcna and Tarafca. 

Father Lewis de Villa^ndo^ a Francifcan, has 
Written and Publifli d feveral Treatiies in the 
Indian Idioms. 

Father Martin Leon has Publiih d a Method, 
how to teach the Chriftian Dodrine to the 
Jtidums^ in 8vo. 1614. 

Father Alon^o Rengal, a Francifcan^ has Pub- 
lifh*d the Art of Learning theA/w^wLanguage, 
and Sermons for the whole Year, in the fame. 

Father Alonw de Efcalona^ a Francifcan^ has 
Publifh d a Method, or Didionary, how to 
learn the Mexican Language, in 1 565. As alfo 
his greater and Jefler Dodrines, containing 
Inflrudions for Confeflbrs, and of the Prepara-^ 
tions for the Communion. The Life of 
St. Francis. Prayers adapted for the Indians* 
A Treatife upon God s Commandments j all in 
Alexican Language. 


of VOYAGES and TRAVELS^ 365 

Father Anthony Aviia^ a Dominic an^ his Art 
of learning the Mexican Language 5 and his 
Method how to know its true Elegancy. 

Father Arnaud de Bafocio^ a Francifcan^ his 
Sermons, Epiftles, and Gofpels for the Year j 
in the Mexican Language. 

Father Bernard de Sahagven, a Francifcan^ his 
double Annual Sermons. His Annotations upon 
the Epiftles and Gofpels for the Year. The 
Pfalms. His Life of St. Bernard. HisTreatife 
5i ow to baptize Children } all in the Mexican 
Language. With a Didonary in three Co. 
lumns, viz.. Spanifl), Latin^ and Mexican. 

Father Francis Ximenes^ a Franciscan, his 
Method and Dictionary in the Mexican Lan 

Father Philip Dia^ a Francifcan, his Sermons 
Printed in the Mexican Language. 

Father Garcias de Cifneros, a Francifcan, his 
Sermons in the Mexican Language. 

Father John de Mijanguas, an Auguftin, his 
firft Part of Sermons for Sundays. And the 
Feaftsof the Saints } v& the Mexican Language ; 
Printed in 4to, 1624. 

Father John de Ribas^ a Francifcan, his Gate* 
chifm. His Sermon for Sundays throughout 
the Year. His Abridgment of the Lives of the 
Saints. Maxims of a Chriftian Life - 9 all Pub* 
lifh d in the Mexican Language. 

Father John de Garnae^ a Francifcan^ his Dia 
logues, upon the Paflion of Jcfa Chrifl ^ and 
fome other Dialogues in the Mexican Lan 

Father John Baptift, a Francijcan^ his PraSice 
x)f Morals, for the Benefit of the Indians^ and 
for the Inftrudion of their Children; Printed 
jnSvo, in itfoi, in the Mexican Language. 


The General HISTORY, .efo 
^Father >foz deAycr^ a Francifca-^fa Treatife 
or the.Sacramentof the Altar, in the Mexican 

Father Lewis Rtdriguez^ a prancifcan^ his Pro 
verbs of Solomon, in; the --f-xican Language. 
iis Catechifm and Ccnr.. 4 upt WA the World^ 
tranflated into the fame Language* 

T H E 



Account of the 
firft Difcoveries made 
in that Part of the 
World, P^e 39 

Great Mortality 

of Spaniards, 65 

New Difcoveres 
in the Southern Parts^ 
8 1 ExceffiveH eats, 
ibid. A violent Cur- 

rent,82 Entertain? 

ment of the Spaniards, 

84- The great Sur- 

prife the People ^of 
thefe Parts were in, 
on Sight of the 
(cans, 104. 
{Pedro) is max! e Govern 
nour ofthe/W/ej, an 

tunes at Seai 1 27. A- 

cides the Differences 
between the Caflilian$ 
and Portugifefes, con 
cerning the Naviga 
tion of the New World 
129. Aiwa C ^van 1 
his Piracies, 1 54- 1 



iGonfalez^ an Account 
of his Expedition into 
theSouthSeas,! 59.^r- 
zjllo, a Dog fo callM,. 
his Miraculous Senfc 
and Adions, 297. 

The I N D E X. 



andEducation, 37 

His firflDefignofDi- 
fcovering the New 
World, 38. Offers 
his Service to theKing 
of Portugal, who re-, 

jeded it, 39. He 

withdraws into Spain, 
where his Project is em- 

brac d, ibid. His 

firffc Difcovery, 41. 
- What further 
Difcoveries he made 
after Thirty Days Sail, 
5 1 . After feveral 
Voyages returns to 
JHifpaniola, where he 
builds a fmall Town 
and Fort, and fends 
Twelve Ships laden 
with Rich Commodi 
ties, and fbme Ingeni 
ous Men to inform the 
King of Spain of his 
Difcoveries already 
made, 5-9. -The no 
table Speech of an old 
Indian to him, and his 

Anfwer,<52.- What 

Methods he made Uie 
of to oblige ihzCaciquts 
(or Petty Kings of the 

Indians) to pay Tri 
bute to the King of 

Spain, 65. Returns 

to Spain to give the 
King an Account of 
his Proceedings, 78. 
Sets put again 
upon new Difcoveries, 
and goesSouthward,8i 
Is remanded back 
to Spain by the King, 

8 4 . After two 

Years flay there he 
fets out again, and 
makes feveral new Di- 
fcoveries,99. Finds 
great Treafure, and 
ftrange Creatures fuch 
as he had never before 
feen, 102.- With 
draws to Jamaica, but 
fuffers much in hisPaf- 
fage thither, from 
thence returns to Spain 
to give the King an 
Account of his laft 

Difcoveries, 106, ? 

His Death. Leaves be-< 
hind him feveral Ma- 
nufcripts, an Account 
of them, 108. 

Canary Ijlands^ Barba 
rous Cuftoms of the In 
habitants, 41.- The 
general Enmity that 
is among them, 42 - 
Fertility of the Coun 

The I N D E X. 

try, 45 - - - Their 
Syftem of Govern 
ment, Religion, Man 
ners, Habits, Food, 
Dwellings, Marriages, 
Way of Divorce, and 
Art of Embalming the 
Dead, 48. 

defcrib d, with femes 
particular Obfervati-< 
ons on it, 298. 

Cortez, Ferdinand ] 
is fent to make New 
Difcoveries, 302. - 
Is made Governour of 

tersdefcrib d,54} 2 7. 
A Sharp Engage 
ment between them 
and the Spaniards , 57. 

Chiapa a very plen 
tiful Country, a De- 
icriptionof it, and the 
Inhabitants, 100. 

Colmenar^ Capt. Ro 
derick^ hisAdventures, 
and the Misfortunes 
he met with in his 

Voyages, 113- 

Comogor, an Indian 
Prince] turns Chri- 
ftian with his whole 
Family, 121. A Mi- 
raclej 125. 

Cumeina, ftrange fort 
of Birds there, 128. 

Caftilia, Produds of 
it, wild Beafts and 
Monfters, 132. 

Cabot \_Seb aft ian] an 
Account of his Difco- 

. , 304- 
His Account of the 
Difcovery of New 
Sfain, and of the moft 
Remarkable things in 
it, 332. 

CuVAgUA L Ifl e Of J 

its Situation and Cu- 

riofities, 311. A 

dreadful Earthquake, 

Chttrttltttkl, two pro- 
digious Mountains 
there defcrib d, 341. 


DARIEN^ built by 


veres, 153 

Coco Treedefcrib d, 
itsNature andUfe,2i i 
of 3 

St. Domingo i City 
of] delcrib d, 1 87,249, 

Devil, The Indirt; 
Opinion of him, 198, 


FER&O, CMand of j 
no Spring , River ? 
Fountain, Rain or o- 
ther Water there, 


C C 2 Fer~ 

The I N D E X. 

D Oviedo 
relates what he found 
snoft: remarkable in 
the New World, to 
the Emperour Charles 

y. 185. 

y Funeral Ceremonies 
us d at the Burial of 
the Caciques, 198. 

Fijhes^ a monftrous 
Sort, defcrib d, 221. 
.285. - Sea f and Ri 
ver FiJh, 284. 

<? OikO de- 
fcrib d,- the Manner of 
the * Indians taking 
them, 192. 

Oviedo"} an Accpunt 
of his Difcoveries, 

Hifo*mol*i a De- 
fcriptton. of it, with 
an Account of ijts 
firft Inhabitants, Ri 
vers, Lakes, and Pro- 
duds, 1*57. - 
Of of the Churches 
and Clergy there , 


of Living, Cuftoni S, 
Religion, greatRiches, 
Boats and Houfes de- 
fcrib d, 5i. Tpeir 

Manner of Letting 
Blood, 200. - Odd 
Way of ftriking Fire, 
214. Manner of 
(digging for Gold, and 
preparing it forUfe, 
2 19.- ^ Their Way 
ofFifhing, 222. Are 
great Swimmers, 223*. 
r Ho v they were ira- 
pos d upon by Colum 
bus in foretelling thern 
anEclipfe of theMoon^ 

-248. Make a great 

Malfacre of the Spa- 
niards^ 254.*- Theft 
feverely punifh d by 

them, ^56. Their 

Way of making Aquq 
Kittj 281. Very 
unwilling to difcover 
their Secrets in Phy- 

fick, ^82. i Their 

Way of catching Pa* 
roquets, 309. 

Jamaica , Rarities 
found in that Ifland, 
do, 306, -Natives 
defcrib d, peculiar way 
of Fifhing, 61. 
Pattel between them 
and the Spaniards^ 67. 
^ A terrible Storm, 
$$. -Great Jliches 

found, 70. Habit 

of a Cacique and his 

Concubines, 7 1 . ^ 

JDefcriptioa of thb 


The I N P E 5C 

Wife of a Cacique , and 
the great Sway {he 
Jhad among thelndians 9 
and bow kindly fhe 
jentertain d the Euro- 

jceptionof the Cover.- 
nour, 73. Ano- 

their Curious Way of 
preflmg Snakes, 75, 
r Their great Admi 
ration of a Ship, 76. 

Curious Beds,/fcW. 

Indians routed, and fe- 
veral of their Caciques 
taken Their man- 
jier of Worihiping I- 
jnages, 125. 
, St. Jokn Qliland pf ] 
defcrib d , Maflacres 
f here, 1 30. *-? Cer 
tain curious and rare 
Observations concern 
ing it, and how Coh- 
quer d by the urope- 
*ns^ 292. 

Indian Women , 
Charader of them , 
what Methods they 
take in Child-birtji, 
I73" r Their Re- 

feion, 174. Odd 

potions and Opini- 


an Account of its firft 
Foundation 3 3O7. 

defcrib .d, the manner 
of their making Su 
gar, 44. 

Mariatambal Pro* 
fters there, 98. 

Mufick^ what won 
derful Effefts it has 
upon the Indians , 15$. 

ons, 177 


they are manag d in 
Sicknefs by their 

Miraculous Delive- 
r^nces at Sea, 323. 

JltontezMma ^ King 
of the Indiei^ his grcap 
Power, 336. ~ His 
Speech and Submiffion 
to Corte^ 343. 
Is Imprifon d , 345, 
- His fecond Ad- 
drefs to his own Sqb- 
jeds,whereinhe wholly 
refigns his Sovereignty 
to Spain, 347.- - 
Raifes thirty two Mil 
lions and four hundred 
Pounds for the King 
of Spain s Ufe,and va 
riety of other Pre- 
fents, 348. 

Mexico t Province 
of 3 defcrib d, 349. -- 
Method of Trade, 3 59 

The I N D E X, 


SO] departs from Spat* 
to difcover New Coun 
tries, 89. His Ac 
count of the Indians^ 
and Defcription of the 
Country, 90. The 
Way they make Ufe 
of to preferve DeadBo- 
dies by Broiling them, 

Nunez, Wafio} di 
fcovers great Trea- 
fure, and is very fuc- 
cefsful in his Enter- 
prifes, 121 ." His 
Expedition to the 
South Seas, 133. 
Has great Homage 
paid him, 134. 

Penetrates as far as 
the Province of Efca- 
ragua, where the In 
dians attack him ; he 
afterwards difcovers 
the South Seas from a 
high Mountain, 135. 
* Does fevere 

Juftice upon divers 
Sodomites^ 136. 
Takes Poireflion of the 
Southern Coaft, 139. 

- His nnfoftunate 
Expedition up an un 
known Rivef, where 
he narrowly efcap d 
his Life, 140. -^Re 
turns to Darien^ 144. 
Meets greatDif- 
ficulties in his March, 
147.- Surprifes an 
Indian King with eigh 
ty of his Concubines, 
148. Is conftitu- 

ted General of Darien^ 

1 63 . Difcovers the 

Spice I/lands, 164. 

His Speech to his 
Companions, 165. 
The Governour re 
calls him back to >a- 
rien^ and unjuftlycafts 
him finto Prifon, con 
demns and beheads 
him, 1 66. 

his Nephew , their 
Adventures and Di- 
fcoveries, 9$. < 
Their Return back to 
Span, 99. 

defcrib d, 157. 

Nature of them, 159- 

- How 

The I N D E X. 

;. ....- How to know 
good Pearls, 318. 

ponce, Capt. Juan\ 
his Adventures, 162. 

Panama, built by Pe- 

Wonderful Bridge de- 
fcrib d,223. 

Colmenar return nto 
^/w to inform the 
King of their New 
Difcpveries, 124. 

QuAlpafoca an Indi 
an Prince, his Son, and 
feveral others Impri- 
fQn d,34^ They 
are burnt alive for 
Murdering fome Spa- 
niards, ibid. 


ROLVAN, Great 
Villanies committed 
by him, his Infolence, 
78." Caufes a Re- 
bcllion > 8o. 


SPAIN tKing of] 
by a Complaint fends 
a New Governour in 
to the Weft Indies^ with 

Orders that Admiral 
Columbus and his Bro 
ther fhould be fent 
Prifbners into Spain, 
84. -. Having heard 
the Cafe of Columbus, 
on his Arrival, the 
King fends Orders 
that the Complainants 
fhould be feverely Pu* 
nifli d, 89.-- Orders 
Alonfo de Hajeda and 
Diego de Nicuefla to 
plant Colonies in the 

New World, 109. 

What great Slaugh 
ter they made of the 
Indians, in. 

Spaniards , defeated 
by the Indians, ibid. 

Soli* ^uan\ the un 
fortunate Adventures 
of him and his Com 
panions, id i. 

Salvages, or Wild- 
Men, ftrange Relati 
ons of them, 172. 

Serpents of feveral 
Sorts defcrib d, of 
which the Indians make 
Ragouts, 191. 

Suarez, de Medina del 
Campo , fingly routs 
three Hundred Indi 
ans, 294. 

Scolopenderand other 

Infers defcrib d, 289* 


The I tf D E X. 



of 3 8bfcrib d v43 . .... 
Account of the. Jfland 
Malmfey Wine made 
there, 46. 

Tumacco^ great plen 
ty of Deer there, 157. 

Tcquina\ or Conju 
rors, an Account df 

a great one, 
wherein were loft 
twenty fix Spanifli 
Ships, 245. 

Trees of fo poifo- 
nous aNature, that its 
prefent Death to fit 
Under them, 276. ----- - 

Of various Sorts de- 
fcrib d , which are 
Wholly apply d to Me 
dicinal Ufes, 278. 

and adjacent Country 
defcrib d, 335. 

TemiftitanlCity of] 
defcrib d, 342, 34^ 
An Account of 

its curious Buildings/ 
Mosks, Religion of 
the Inhabitants, cfrr, 


fi*fii its Rife and Pro- 
grefs, 2 1 2v 


WEST Indies, ^^ Na 
tural Hiftoryof, 185. 

M . Different Kinds 
of Animals found there, 
102,283 Gold and 
Silver Mines defcri- 
bed, Rivers and o- 
tlier Curiofities, 263. 
--Plants and FruitJ 
a Defcriptibn, of thefr 
Nature and Ufe, 273. 
Sea Wolves de- 
fcrib d 286,32^ Birds 
of different Kinds! ib. 

Infers of fe- 

veral Sorts , 288, 
Worms in the 
Indian Seas, an Ac 
count of them, 3.19. 


22 .