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3 1833 02308 5555 



''^^^■?i^>''*v^Mi'^*^ifSfiiVj^yaeK'^^(i:^mat *-''vJ\*'l'' ■ ■^t>rvl^^}v.r 


A Narrative Account of Its Historical Progress, Its People, and 
Its Principal Interests 

Compiled under the Editorial Supervision of 


WABASH ^^' • ■■ 

Assisted bv a P.oard of Advisory Editors 






V. . 9 ^. 9 
?9 7 99 1 14 


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^i^u^M^'yr 1 

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The Waliash County of the olden time lay in one of the historic water- 
ways between the (ireat Lakes and the Ohio Valley. It was a primitive 
highway along which traveled the Indian tribes of the North and the 
Xortheast, such as the Miamis and Pottawatomies, and the tierce Iro(iuois 
of the East. The former settled in the beautiful valley of the Waliash; 
the latter passed across it like a scourge, after the Pottawatomies and 
]\Iiamis had retreated to the Illinois and the West. 

The valley of the Wabash, the central section of which includes the 
fertile and progressive county of which we write, also became an avenue 
of commerce and discovery binding together New France and French 
Louisiana. Then came the English and Americans as lords of the soil, 
with a final bit of war between white and red men in Wabash and the 
neighboring county. 

As in all the counties of the Northwest Territory, so in Wabash 
— there was a most interesting period of transformation during the first 
third of the Nineteenth Century. While the Indians were departing 
from their lands in the Wabash Valley, which they had ceded to the 
General Government, the state was furnishing the incoming whites with 
a commercial agency which did more to develop that ])ortion of the 
commonwealth than all other artiticial forces. The Wal)ash & Erie 
('anal, forerunner of the railroads, was an undisguised blessing to the 
people of the county for more than a quarter of a century. Although 
Ohio was somewhat tardy in taking advantage of its practical_ value asa 
l)rojection of the gi'eat commercial way from the East, the Erie Canal in 
Wabash was not only the cause of decided material development, but 
brought to Wabash, 'La Gro and other towns along its route,' some of 
the most prominent of our citizens. It was thus of double value to 
Wabash County, besides being a later-day reinstatement of the historic 
highway between the East and the AVest. The old home of the Iro(iuois 
was joined with the hunting and trapping and fishing grounds of the 
:\Iian'iis and Pottawatondes, which they so long coveted, but under the 
co-operation of modern civilization. East and West aimed to improve 
each other. . 

It was fortunate for Wabash County that the canal did not relinquish 
its hold on the commercial community until the railroad was firmly 
fixed on its soil. But the more modern means of transportation and 
communication displaced Wabash A'alley from its position of eminence 
as an important section of the great historic waterway and brought it 
into competition with more favored interior points. The result was 
that in comparison with the growth of other localities of Tnterior America 



our county suffered v/itli tlie coming of tlie railroads. Yet, as stated, 
during tiiis period both the eanal and the I'aihoad were witli us, and 
altiiough the commercial development of the eounty was nut I'apid, it was 
safe and substantial. 

The same spirit of conservatism i)erineated the civil organization 
and conduct of county atl'airs. Partieularly fortunate have been the 
people of Wabash County in the administration of publie nmtters, the 
erection of courthouses, the building of seliools and the prosecution of 
other matters which they have ndegated to their servants. The bench 
and bar, the journalists and the physicians of the county, have also 
contributed to its high and substantial standing. When the health and 
convenience of the peojjle ai'c in (juestion, botli citizens and the county 
as a civil body have always been uinted and even enterprising. Whether 
the community is large or snndl, it has always striven to give its r(^si- 
diMits ])ure water and adecpuite light. In the latter fiehl, the City of 
Wabash is so much a pioneer that her record is a part of the municipal 
history of the United States, as that corporation -was the tirst in America 
to install a successful arc system for ligliting its streets. 

When it conies to the (piestion of patriotism, there has never ])een 
a query placed after the name of Wabash County. From the IMexicau 
to the Spanish-American war, her sons and daughters have ever been 
true blue. It is a speaking fact that one of the most beautiful and mas- 
sive buildings at the county seat is the ]\Iemorial Hall, which especially 
perpetuates the valor and faithfulness of the men and women of Wabash 
County during the period of the Civil war. 

The county has also been very fortunate in the interest which both 
its jjioneers and those of later generations have taken in preserving the 
recoi-ds of those lives and institutions which have placed it upon such 
a substantial basis. They are so numerous and they have been so earnest 
and helpful in the preparation of this work, that we forbear the mention 
of individuals, fearing lest some good friend and assistant might l)e 
overlooked. Grouping them generally, we may say that our advisory 
editors, mend)ers of the press, county and municipal officers and that 
galaxy of bright, if retired, "pioneer citizens," have so heartily co- 
operated with us that we give them the bulk of the credit for the com- 
pletion of the many involved labors attached to the history of Wabash 

Clark AV. AVeesner. 


CHAPTER I • • ^ ^ 


Belong to the I^ppek Silukian Age— Limestone Deposits, Building 
AND Hydraulic— Paving Stone— Analysis op Cement Stones- 
Strong Son. — (jOOd Timber Land — Hard Wood Industries — Drain- 
age Topography— Along the Wabash and Eel Rivers— The Lake 

Country— Toiber Lands Replaced by Farms — Unsanitary Reputa- 
tion OF the Early Wabash Country — Scientific and Practical In- 
vestigations — ' ' Where to Build and Not to Build ' ' — Now in the 
List of Healthful Places — Arch.eological Remains — ^Mastodon 
Giganteus of Wabash County (Pleasant Township) 1 



Did La Salle Ascend the Wabash?— Circumstantial Evidence— A 
Line of Posts to Protect Trade— Dangerous Wabash-Maumee 
Route Abandoned — ]\Iiamis Return to the Wabash— Gateway to 
the Upper Wabash Opened— Claims of Fort Wayne, Lafayette 
and Vincennes— La Salle Built No Forts in Indiana— The Ques- 
ti£»n of Permanency — Pressure of English Traders— First Map 
OF the Wabash Valley— First ]Military Posts— Racial Amal- 
gamation Without Parallei.— Fur Traders' Burden— Indian 
Conspiracies ^^ 



First Historic Account of the :\Iiamis— On the Down Grade— Cath- 
ouc Missionary SER\^CES— Trading in Furs and Rum— La Salle 



Saves the Miami Nation — War Customs of the ]\riAMis — Dogs Sac- 
rificed — Preparations for the Journey — Leave-Taking of the 
Warriors — Offensive and Defensive Weapons — Official Canni- 
bals — Tribal ^^Ianitous — Burial Customs — First Alliance with 
the English — The Miamis' Lingering Death — French and Indian 
War — Peace in the Wabash Valley — The Miamis in the Revolu- 
tionary War — Again on the Warpath — The Pottawatomies — The 
Great Chief ]\Ie-te-a — Tile Weas (Ouiatenons) 25 

CHAPTER IV ' ■ , ■ " -^ 


Important Step in Recapturing Detroit — PIarrison's Army' of Invest- 
ment — ]\Ioving Against the ]Miami Villages — Burn Villages in 
Wabash County — Battle of the ]Mississinewa — Captain Pierce 
Killed — The Killed and Wounded — Hard March Toward Green- 
ville — What Became of the Indians — Mississinewa Battle Field 
in 1836 — The Visit of 1861 — Site op the Indian Village — First 
Plowing op the Battle Field — Revisiting the Grounds in 1883 — 
The Slaughter of the Horses — Importance of the Battle — 
Formal Action to Preserve the Battle Ground — Committee 
From Grant and AVabash Counties • 41 




Captain Charley, the Faithful IMiami — The AIiamis Completely 
Subdued — Big ]\Iiami Reserve (1818) — The Indian j\Iill on LIill 
Creek — Wanted: Indian Lands — Pottawatomies Name Governor 
Ray — "Wau-sa-augh, Whisk Whisk" — Native Dances for the 
Commissioners — Rev. jMcCoy's ^Mission — Signing of the Treaty — 
Doubtful Story of Richardville — Great jMarcii of the Potta- 
watomies — Last of jMiamis, as a Tribe — Tpie Very Last op the 
Miamis — j\Ieshingomesia's Band — The Village and Chief, La Gro — 
La Fontaine — The Naming of Silver Creek — Indian Ponies at a 
Premium — Treaty and Josina Creeks — Little Turtle — Pa-lonz-wa 
(Godfrey) 53 


CHAPTER VI :, ,^ ,, , , . . , , 



Clure, Sr.— First .Mercantile Establishment— The McGlure We 
Know Best— The Fathers op Wabash Town— Kintner Bros., 

Saddle and Harness ]\Iakers — Land Surveys in the County 

First Land Purchase— First Wagon Roads— Indian Mill, First 
Industry— Postmaster Burr and the Mails— Colonel Hugh 
IIanna— I^iONEER Town ^Merchants— Three Brick Houses!!— The 
Three Popular Colonels — First Village Tavern — County Or- 
ganized Civilly— :\[ajor Stearns Fisher— The Grants and Grant 

Creek — Town op La Gro — The Keller Settlement — Laketon 

First Town Outside of Wabash— Colonel Richard Helvy— James 
Abbott Comes— The Ogans and Ogan Creek— North Manchester 
Platted— James Abbott, Notable Character— Judge Comstock 
and Liberty Mills— Town op America— The Garrisons— Grant 
Plats Ashland — Colonel John Anderson — First Roads Along 
Eel River — A Great Little Corn Cracker — Waltz Township 
Last Settled — The First of Somerset — Mount Vernon 71 



The Story op Frances Slocum— Child Captured by the Delawares 
— Long Search Commences — Mother Faithful Unto Death — 
Colonel Ewing Suspicious — Hears Strange Story— Writes to 
Pennsylvania Postmaster — Letter Thrown Away as a Hoax — 
Recovered Letter Reaches a Slocum — Slocums Start for Deaf 
Man's Town — Brother Meets Sister — "Yes, Yes, Franca, 
Franca!" — The Remarkable Story in Order — Adopted into the 
Tribe — Last of Direct Descendants — Slocum Reserve — Captivity 
op ]\Iiss Thorpe — Awful Death of Captain Dixon — Suicide of the 
White Wife — Formal Adoption into the Tribe 88 


First Meeting of Old Settlers — Major Fisher on "Old Times" — 
First Grand Jury Again Called — How Daniel Sayre Happened 


TO Stay — "Wild Cat" 15ankin(j — Pkrmanknt Organization — 
Constitution — First Regular Officers — Roll of Old Settlers — 
Henry Xusbaum, 105 Years Old — Presidents of the Association 
— Rich Historical Store House — Judge Coomiss' Pioneer Picture 
- — Trial of Two Hundred Canal Laborers — Rattlesnakes — First 
Dance for White Folks — The Star Meeting of 1888 — Viuni Cabin 
TO Palace — Judge Riddle's Recollections — Judge N. 0. Ross — 
Treaty Buildings (by Hugh AV. Hanna) — Domestic Stanchness — 
Old Fiddlers' Contest — Descendant of the Great Godfrey — 
Fortieth, the ^Iost Successful Reunion — Lincoln Centennial 
Log Cabin — Oldest Continuous Resident (1909) — Various "Old- 
est" IN 1910 — Oldest ^Lvn and AVoman (1913) — The Women in 
Command (1914) 98 



First Election — "Prairie Hen" Spryer than "Indiana" — Good Old 
Horse Abused — First Wheat Sown in the County— Justice in 
' Bear :\rEAT— A Law Case Which Truly Paid— Patriotic Dog and 
' Pup Scrip — Food Prices Then and Now — Storage for Vegetables 
— Pumpkin Leather — Preserved Fruits and ]\Ieats — Cooking Ar- 
rangements—Johnny Cake, Hoe Cake, Ash Cake and Pone- 
Dried Fruit and ]\Iaple Sugar — Exhibits of Pioneer Utensils — 
Asheries— Primitive Tanneries— Old-Time Shoemakers— The Up- 
per Wabash in a State of Nature— Beautiful April Picture — 
Wild Fruits and Berries— Animated Pests— IMode of Hunting 
■Wolves — Snake "Bluffers" — A Night op Horrors — A Squirrel 
Invasion — Thad Butler Turned Down by John Ivory — A Rival 

• Rubs It In — On "Growing Old"— Colonel Hanna 's Convenient 
Horse — Cissna vs. Ferry — Major Fisher's Questionable Act — 
Rattled Doctor and Preacher — Not an Ivory Head— Garfield 
Lost No Votes on Him— Alanson P. Ferry Agal^i— The Old Town 
of Wabash — Judge John Comstock— The Father— Intensity, a 
Youthful Trait — Becomes a Land Owner — Starts for Wabash 
County— Building op a Pioneer's Cabin— Not an Indian Scare on 
the Woman— Enters the Live Stock Business— Earliest Indus- 
trial Center— Promoter of Public HiGinvAYs— Successful Priv- 
ate Detective Agency— Disposing of His Property— Political and 
Public Life — Pioneer in the Improvement of Cattle — A Popular 
Friend in Need — Judge Comstock's Death 125 


CHAPTER X ;„ , ,;^,. , •, ., 

COUNTY ORGANIZATION ' ' ' ' '^ ' *■ ' 

Original Ckeative Act — Boundaries Corrected — Legislative Attacii- 
.MENT — Given Independent Civil Body — First County Officers — 
Establishing the Seat of Justice — Proposition from Colonels 
Birr and IIanxa — First ^Ieeting of the County Board — AVabash, 
THE County Seat — La Gro and Noble Townships Formed — The 
Old Court House — Historic Lincoln Calendar — Court House op 
Today — The Old County Jail — Pi^esent Jail and Sheriff's Resi- 
dence — Early Care of the Poor — Present Support op the Poor — 
Creation of the Townships — County Clerks — Treasurers — Audi- 
tors — Sheriffs — Surveyors — Recorders — Coroners (for the Past 
Thirty-five Years) — Board of County Commissioners — Present 
County Officers 152 


Corn, the Poor .Man's Crop — Early Plows — Primitive Planting, 
Sowing and Reaping — Flailing and Winnowing — First Indiana 
Threshing ^Machine — First Hay Press— Early Raising of Hogs 
— Markets and Prices — Other Live Stock, Few — Hard Journeys 
TO .MiLi. — Canal Brings Farmer Better Days — The Useful Ells- 
worths — Drawbacks to Settling the Upper Wabash — Status op 
THE \Vai5ash & Erie Canal— A Convert to Prairie L\nd — Rais- 
ing of Hogs for .^Lu{KET (LS3S) — Rearing Fine Cattle — Manu- 
facture OF Beet Sugar — An Overdone Prophecy — It Seemed 
Logical Then — Farmers of Wabash County Organize — First 
P.VIR, WITH Outcome — Improvements Noted in 1854 — Wabash as 
A Packing Center — Corn and Wheat in 1857 — Progress op the 
Society — Present Status — Corn, Oats and Wheat fl914) — For- 
age Crops — Live Stock — Farms and Lands Classified — Tax Payers 
AND Their Property — Some Comparisons from the Past — Popu- 
L-VTiON OF County by Decades 170 


First IMeeting of the Circuit Court — First Grand Jurors — Judge 
Everts on the Bench — To Prove That the Court was Needed — 


Second Term of Court — Associate Judges Go — Most Remarkable 
Criminal Case — Aaron French and Family — The Pitiable Invalid 
— The French Family Disai-plaus — IJead Body Found in (Janal 
— Body Identified as that of Edward J^oyle^IIubbard Ar- 
rested FOR Murder — Search p^or Criminal Evidences — Dead Bodies 
op the French Family Found — Hubbard and Wife Charged with 
Murder — The Death Penalty — Hubbard's Plea — The Judge's 
Comments — First and Only Execution in Wabash County — Mrs. 
Hubbard Gets Life Sentence — Circuit Judges — Prosecuting At- 
torneys — Probate Court and Judges — Court op Common Pleas 
AND Judges — Pioneer ^Members op the Bar — Judge John U. Pei^tit 
— Judge James D. CoxNNer — Hon. Calvin Cowgill — General Par- 
Risii and Captain Williams — Lesser Lights — Practitioners op the 
'SOs — Wabash County Bar Association 189 

•:- ' i * CHAPTER XIII '""'^ ^' ' ' ,'>,,. 


Congressional Township Fund — Subscription Schools — First 
Schools op Wabash Town — First Public School in the County — 
Pioneer Schools at America and La Fontaine — Paw J'aw Shares 
Honors with Liberty — North Manchester and Liberty Mills — 
First Private Schools Elsewhere in the County — Public School 
Funds Collecting — Quota op Wabash County — Bad Outlook in 
1853— Figures for 1854-60— County Schools in 1870-82— High 
Condition in 1018 — Number of Teachers — High School Enrol- 
ment — Old-Time Examiners — Change to County Superintend- 
ENCY — County and Township Institutes — County Superintend- 
ents — County Board of Education — Present Broad Field op 
Superintendent: — Township Supervision — Supervision in Grade 
Buildings — Hygiene op the Schooi.^ — Appearance op Teachers 
AND Pupils— i\lEDiCAL Inspection Law — Success Grades — Schedule 
op Success Items — Compulsory Attendance — State Flower and 
State Song 206 


Fine Waterways op Wabash County — The Old-Time Keel-Boat — 
Indian Trails Utilized — Neighborhood and Township Roads — 


HiGinvAYs TO THE Treaty Gkound.s— First Permanent J'ublic Road 
— State Road (Marion to Elkhart) — Shackleman Describes 
State-Road Building — Era of J'lank Roads — First in AVabash 
CocNTY — Plank Road Between La Oho and North Manchester — 
Planks Connect Wabash and Grant Counties — Liberty Mills and ' ' 

Huntington Joined — Good Roads jNIovement Always With Us 

The Tl'Rnpike Era — Connecting Link: Wabash & Erie Canal — 
Grand System of Internal Imfrovements — Small 1'arts of the '' 
Scheme Completed — Aftermath : Wide Distress and Repudiation • • 
— Land Grants in Aid of the CanaLt— Colonel Burr and ]\Lvjor 
Fisher Appear — First Canal Contracts in the County — Irish 
War of Auglst, 1835 — The Charge at the P^ort — Decline and ,. . 
Death of the Canal — First Railroad (the Wabash) in 1856 — ^ 
The Vandalia Route — The Big Four — Union Traction Company of ^ 
LvDiANA — Fout Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction System — . 
Telegraph Lines — The First Telephone Line — First Telephone ,. 
Companies 223 




Hard Roads for the Country Doctor — Dr. Isaac Finley — Dr. '"' 
Thomas Hamilton — Dr. James IIackleman — Dr. James Ford — 
Dr. John H. De Puy — Dr. James L. Dicken — Dr. William G. 
Armstrong — Dr. Laughlin O'Neal — Dr. Willlvm R. AVinton — 
Upper Wabash jMedical Society — AVabash County jMedical 
Society — Temporary and Permanent Officers — Pauper Practice 
Turned Over — Annual ^Medication of Families Disapproved — 
Rules and Code of Ethics — Society Presidents — Dr. Henry H. 
GiLLEN — Dr. Andrew J. S^^TII — The Society in the Early '80s — 
The Society Now — Oldest ]\Iembers — Dr. T. R. Brady — Dr. Perry 
G. Moore 244 



CoL. AViLLiAM Steele — Col. James AVHiTMORt>— Gen. John B. Rose — 
Capt. Joseph Ewing — Capt. Abraham IIackleman — Other Sol- 
diers OF THE War op 1812 — Mexican AVar Soldiers — Fail to Get 
Into Action — Those from Wabash County — Indiana in the Civil 


War — First War ]\Ieetings in Wabash County — Fjkst Volunteers 
— Departure of Company II, Eighth Regiment — (Jeorge Cuijberly 
Takes the Overflow — The Battle of Rich J\1(juntain — Hart's 
Account — Death of Emmett — iMuster-out of Company II — The 
Sole Deserter — Dr. James Ford — Gen. Charles S. Parrish — Tpie 
Reorganized Eighth Indiana — Battle of Pea Ridge — Losses to 
Local Companies — On Veteran Furixjugh — Discharged — Company 
F, Seventeenth Regiment — Company II, Twentieth Infantry — 
First Complete Indiana Cavalry Regiment — Capt. Alexander 
Hess — Record of the Second Indiana Cavalry Continued— Capt. 
Hess Taken Prisoner — IIis Civil Record — The Seventy-fifth 
Infantry — At Chfcka.^lvucja Creek — .Mission Ridge — To Atlanta — 
Through the Carolinas to Washington — Colonel Pettit's Home 
Services — Hon. Calvin Cowgill — Company A, Eighty-ninth 
Regiment— Camp Pettit, at Wabash— Companies F and K, 101st 
Rkglment— Dr. Bazil B. Bennett— Capt. B. F. Williams— Fierce 
Fight with ,Mi)R(jan's .AIen — At Chickamauga — With Sherman's 
Army — Captain Williams at Home — .Memorial Hall, AVahash — 
Last Wabash County Infantry — Fourteenth Indiana Artillery 
— ALv.JOR AI. II. KiDD — Capt. Frank W. .Morse — E.mmett Post No. 
6, G. A. R.— Company D, Spanish-American AVar 256 



The Township Laid Off — First Officers — Cut Down to Present Area 
• — Drainage and Soil — Indian Mill and Its jMjllers — The Kint- 
ners and the Creek — JMcClure, First Family Man — First Store 
Keeper, jMcClure, Jr. — Government Blacksmith AA''ilson — Arrival, 
of David Burr — Keller Brothers and Keller Creek — Tracts 
AA^'ithin the Original Wabash — Town Laid Out — The AVheelers 
— The Keller Settlement — Other Settlers of the Early '30s — 
First Native of AVabash Town — Early Schools — Improvements in 
THE '50s — Schools of the Present — AVhite's ]\Ianual Labor Insti- 
tute — JosiAii AA^HiTE — Founded in 1852 — Education of Indian 
Children — Care of the County Wards — Bright Present and 
Future 287 

CONTENTS :-.■-' xiii 


CITY OF AVABASII ' ' • • ^^ 

Picturesque and Substantial — General Progress — Wabash Town — 
First Native AViiite Child — First Stores— Early Prices — First 
Town Coki'oijation — Second ''I'own Corporation — Old Courtiioi^ses 
■ — The City Hall — The Wabash Postoeeice — Protection Against 
Fire — Fine System of AVaterworks— Changes in AIanagement 
— Lighting by Electricity — Pioneer in ^Iodern Street Lighting 
— The Natural Gas Era — The Natural Gas System — Artificial 
Gas — First Schools in Town — School District No. 1 Organized — 
First Public Schools and Teachers — First School Report — 
Building of the Union Sciiooliiouse — AVard Schools of the City 
— Tiu-; New High Sciiuoiv — Present Status of City Schools — 
South Wabash Academy — Superintendents of City Schools — 
Adelaide S. Baylor — High School Principals — AVarren Bigler's 
Service to the Schools — The AVomen Found a Library — ]\Irs. C. E. 
CowGiiJ> — Wabash City Library — As a Carnegie Public Library — 
Public Parks — HistopvIc Spot — The City Park — Clarkson AV. 
AVeesn'er 301 



First City Newspaper — The AA^vbasii Gazette — AVeekly Intelli- 
gencer Founded — The Gazette and Intelligencer — AVabash Plain 
DftALER — Plain Dealer Company Incorporated — The AVabasii 
Times-Star — The Democr.vt — The Courier and Lee Linn— First 
National Bank— The Citizens Bank — ^Wabash National Bank — 
Farmers and AIerchants National Bank— AVarren Bigler, Pioneer 
Abstractor— AVabash County Loan and Trust Company— Citi- 
zens Savings and Trust Company — Industries Distributed — 
Flour Mills First— Robert Cissna's Improvements— Summerton 
& Sons— Union and Thompson ]\Iills— Thomas F. Payne, First 
Cabinet jMaker— AVabash School Furniture Company — The 
AVabash Cabinet Company— Cardinal Cabinet Company — Great 
Paper and Coating ]\Iills— Big Four Railroad Shops— AVabash 
Paking Powder Co.aipanv — Wabash Canning Company -VM 




The Presbyterian Church — Houses of AVorshh' — Dr. Little's Long 
Service — Early Methodism — Formation of Wabash Class— Per- 
manent I'astors — Wabash Circuit Organized — Chi'rch Buildings 
— Christian (,'iiurch (Disciples of Christ) — Period of Uncer- 
tainty — Permanent Home and Pastors— St. I'ernard's Catholic 
Church — Resident and Visiting Pastors — St. ALvtthew's Evan- 
gelical Church — Friends' Church (South AVabasii)— Early 
liAi'TisT Society Disbands — Wabash Street ^I. E. Church— Mid- 
dle Street ]M. E. Church — The African M. E. Church — The 
First Evangelical Church — First Church of Christ Scientist 
— United Brethren Churches- — Other Religious Bodies in the 
City — Churches Outside of Wabash — First IMasonic Lodge 
(Hanna No. 61) — First Instructor in Craft Mysteries — Charter 
Granted to Hanna Lodge No. 61 — Growth and Present Status — 
Excelsior Chapter, R. A. M. — Wabash Chapter No. 26 Chartered 
— The Passing of Hugh Hanna — Leading Chapter Masons — Peti- 
tion for a Councii. — John B. Rose and H. C. Skinner — AVabash 
Council No. 13 Chartered — The Commandery — The 0. E. S. — The 
Masonic Hall— Anastasia Mesnil Lodge No. 46, I. 0. 0. F. — Lead- 
ing Odd Fellows — Ebronah Encampment — Daughters of Re- 
BEKAH — Rock City Lodge of Odd Fellows — The Elks and Their 
Fine Home— Knights of Pythias — Knights and Ladies of the 
]\Iaccabkes — The Foresters in Wabash — The Eaglp:s (Aerie No. 
549) — Ben Hur (Wabash Court No. 23) — Okoboji Tribe and 
Council (I. 0. R. .M.) — Other Societies and Unions 343 



The Eel River Valley — Stumbling Bix3Cks for the Township — A 
Race for a Homestead — The Creeks and Their Names — First Set- 
tler — First Permanent Resident— James Abbott Joins Colonel 
Helvy' — Elder George x\bbott — The Ogans — Henry Strickler — 
The Harters — Joseph B. Harter — Some First Happenings — Lib- 
erty Mills Founded — First Settlers in the Bear Swamp Region — 
Chester Township Created — Later Settlement op the "I^ear 
• Swamp" — Pioneer vs. Wilderness — The "I\L\il Trace" — The 


Railroads Make Nohtii Manchester — First Pueacihng bv Eedeu 
Fannin — Piuxkkh Ciiuruh — ]\Ietiiuuists Organize Classes — 
Schools op the Township 367 


' "■'■"■' NORTH ^FANCIIESTER •■ ' ' 

Increase in Area and Population — Beau champ, Thorn and Frame, 
First I\Ierciiants — George W. Lawrence — The American House — 
The Grimes House — Other Pioneer ]\Ierchants— IMaterial In- 
terests IN the Early '80s — Present-Day Industries — The Water 
Supply — City Hall and Public Library — The Public Schools — 
Manchester College — The Banks — Lawrence National Bank — 
Indiana State and Union Trust Banks — Early Newspapers — 
North Manchester Journal — North Manchester News — Early 
Christian Churches — North IManchester Christian Church — 
First Church of the Brethren — The ^Methodist Church — Zion 
Evangelical Lutheran Church — United Brethren Church — 
Societies— Masonic Bodies— The I. 0. 0. F.— Amusements, Re- 
creations, Etc 381 



The Wabash River — The Salamonie and Its Mills— Creeks in the 
Township — Natural Features — First Land Entries — Lewis 
Rogers, First Real Settler — The Famous Ferry — Rogers Hotel 
Rivals Burr's Wabash Inn — Young Sayre, the "Crook" — Levi 


— Six Young Men Come — A. A. Peabody — The Preshour Family- 
Samuel Wiley and Daniel Ballinger — Enoch and John Russell — 
Settlers at and Near Hopewell — Thomas Fitzgibbon— William 
T. Ross — Pioneer Politicians— The Irish Settlement— Rise and 
Fall op Towns — La Gro Platted— Utica and Belden — ]\Iajenica 
AND New, Holland — Dora and Urbana — Lincolnville — Churches 
AT Lincolnville and Elsewhere — La Gro Town or Village — Cor- 
poration and Schools — At the Height op Its Prosperity — John 
AND George Todd — La Gro of the Present— The M. E. Church— 
St. Patrick's Catholic Church— The Presbyterian Church- 
Social and Literary 401 




Surface Features— AVilliam Grant, First Settler — Daniel Grant — 
Mahlon Pearson — First Native-Born AViiite Child — Presley 
Prickett and Smith Grant — Elder Jesse D. Scott — The Gar- 
risons, AVilliam R, Hale and David Russellt— Elder Henry AV. 
AIcPherson — Elder John L. Stone — First Religious Meeting 
and Organization — First Schools and Teachers — jNIarriage and 
Death — Liberty as Separate Township — Tax Payers AIostly 
Voters — America Platted — Rise and Fall of America — Ashland 
(La Fontaine P. 0.) Laid Out — Additions to Original Town — 
La F(»ntaine Incori'Orated — The School System — Center of 
Rural Trade — Local Bank and Newspaper — The Christian 
Church — The M. E. Church — The Baptist Church 422 



Eel River and Its Tributaries— The Pioneer, John Anderson — First 
Twin Jndi;stries — Jacob and Willis Bryan — First School — First 
Recjular Church — The Jack Family — Joseph and Samuel L. 
GAMiiLE— Albert N. Cox — Union of Gajibles and Jacks — Stock- 
xDale, the First Settleaient — Roann Laid Out — The Present 
' Town — Roann 's Fine School — Churches — Urbana — Church op 
THE Evangelical Association — How the Township Came to Be 



Beautiful Lakes and Rivers — Topography and Sou. — Pleas.^nt 
Township of Today — Jesse IMoyer, First Settler — Typical 
Pioneer Trip — ^Ie:\ibers of the First Colony — Samuel Thurston 
AND Family — The First Election at Thurston's — The First 
Church — Robert Schuler Buys the ]\Ioyer Place — Founding of 
THE Shiloii Church— The Gaiaibles and Early Methodism — Lake- 


TON Platted — Laketox and Ijamsville Joined — Laketon of the 
Present — The State Bank — The Churches — New IIarrisburg — 
Rose IIili^ — Railroads and Towns 445 



General Description — Drawbacks to Settlement — The Richard- 
viLLE Tracts — Two "First" Settlers — Located in 1839-46 — David 
Ridenour — Enoch Jackson and the Weesners — Land Entries op 
1S47 — Accounting for Waltz's Area — Creation of the Township 
— Twin Springs, or Springfield — ]\Iount Vernon — Somerset — 
Sugar Grove M. E. Church — The Presbyterian Church — Mount 
Pleasant ]\L E. Church and Cemetery — German Baptists of the 
Township — Pleasant Grove Wesleyan Church 458 


Abbott, Eliza A., 108 

Abbott, George, 370, 373 

Abbott, James, 81, 82, 370, 373, 379 

Abbott. Samuel, 108, 118, 408 

Abraham, B., 419 

Acme (Jrain Company, 386 

Adams, John, 197 

Adams, Marion F., 822 

Adams, Richard T., 821 

Adams, Will H., 205 

Adams, William IL, 334 

African M. E. Church, Wabash, 352 

Albaugh, C. F., 217 

Alber, Frank, 359 

Alder, David P., 462 

Alexander, John K., 770 

Allen, D. B., 209 

Allen, Samuel T., 388 

Allolah (the Black Raccoon), 96 

AUouez, Pcre, 17 

Amber, Robert, 101, 105 

Amber, Samuel, 603 

America (town), H3, 84, 208, 227, 427 

American House, North Manchester, 382 

Amoss, James M., 205, 305 

Anchutz, C. W., 397 

Anderson, James, 101, 102 

Anderson, John, 84, 86, 209, 433, 447 

Anderson, U. A., 600 

Anderson, W. II., 205 

Antioch Baptist Church, 432 

Antioch Christian Church, 395 

Antrim, Caleb, 373 

Applegate, Bartholomew, 154 

Archaeological Remains, 10 

Armstrong, Morrow P., 420 

Armstrong, William G., 248 

Arnett, James, 924 

Arnett, William, 924 

Arnold. James, 392 

Arnold, Jesse, 392 

Arnold, John, 392 

Arnold, R. G., 197 

Arthur, C. F., 205 

Artificial Gas, Wabash, 315 

Asheries, 135 

Ashland, 84, 428 

Atkinson, A. M., 340, 349 

Atkinson, Howard M., 336 

Auburn & Eel Itiver Valley Railroad. 239 

Aughinbaugh, Jolm, 382' 

Bacon, C. E., 347 

Bacon, George C, 333 

Badger, Mary, 104 ,, . 

liadger. Reason, 101 

Baer, Charles S., 595 

Baer, C. S., 325 

Baer, H. G., 837 '' 

Baglev, A. L., 334 

Bahlei-, Charles, 3G3 ^ 

Bahler, Fred, 363 

Baker, Charles, 364 . . 

Baker, John F., 439 ' ' "' ' 

Baker, J. M., 432 

Baker, S. S., 334 

Ballinger, Daniel, 78-79, 155, 190, 192, 

200, 408, 410 
Banister, Benjamin, 947 
Banister, Ellen H.. 802 
Banister, Horace D., 306 
Banister, Jehu, 102, 431 
Banister, Merit, 801 
Banister, Nathaniel, 113 
Bank of Urbana, 441 
Banks, 392, 418, 431 
Banks, C. T., & Company, 149 
Banks of Wabash, 335-36 
Bantham, Josejih H., 163 
Bar of Wabash County, 201 
Barcus, Irene, 124 
Barcus, S., 397 
Barlow, W. B., 414 
l^arnett, Joseph S., 862 
Barnliart, Fred M., 695 
Barnhart, James H., 678 
Barnhart, Martha A., 678 
Barrett, Nancy, 373 
Bartoo, H. J.. 395 
Bathe, John H., 350 
Battle of Pea Ridge, 268 
Battle of Rich Mountain, 263 
]?attlo of the ^Mississinewa, 43 
Baumgartner, C. C. 443 
Baylor, Adelaide S., 322 
Beach, Ancil, 379 


407, 410 

lieainau, Z. .M., 254, 7b; 

U.jau, Levi. 7'J, 155, \:, 

JJuur ."Swamp Kcnion, L;7;j, J7 

]5.-aii(;l,aiiii,, -^^-i- -»:-' 

Ucaucliaiinj, A. (',., ;j'ja 

I!<auelia]iij;, N. \\ ., ;jij4 

liLxlituld, Lv.lia, 7J2 

JJc'clituld, .SaiiuR-l J., 733 

UcL-k, Tul.iab, 305 

Lioek, Williaiii \\ ., 214 ^ , 

UockiiL'i', Jaiiu-s v., 249 

Jieekiier, Jusupli, 43'J 

Ledsaul, Isaac, 41G 

liLugan, J. F., 205 

Lft-ks, .Julius, 420 

Ikt'is, II. J!., 34G 

licHT.s, J.., 432 

lit-et sugar iiiaiuifacture, ISO 

Bcitiiiaii, Edward, 364 

Bidden, 412 

Btdl. Daiiitd, 226 

liLdl, William, 305 

Bciicli and bar, 189-205 

Jk'ii-,'f, Xeeiy, 260 

Bi'ii Jlur (Waba.h Court Xu. 

Bciijamiu, K. \V., 414, 419 

Benjamin, .Mary, 419 

Bennett, Jia/.il B., 278 

Bent, \V. H, 205 

Bent, Walter S., 200 

Bent, W. S., 205 

Benton, William P., 263 

Berry, Thomas S., S60 

Besliore, lliram, 52 

Biddle, Horaee P., 116, 200 

Bidlestetter, John H., 869 

Big Four Bailroad, 56, 239 

Big Four Pailroad Sliops, Wabash, 342 

Bigler, Wairen, 205, 323, 325, 333, 336, 

15ig .Miami Kescrve (1818), 54 
Billings, William F., 394 
i5ingham, Frastus, 305 
Binkerd, Jacob W., 769 
Birch, W. «., 419 
liird's Fye \iew of Manchester College 

(view), 390 
Birely, John H., 336 
Birk, S. J., 217 
Bixler, F. C, 389 
Black. Michael, 362 
Blackman. Aipiieus, 77, 78, 79, 155, 157, 

166, 304 
Blazing meteors, 139 
Bloomer, Fllis, 557 
Bloomer. F. H., 629 
Hlount, R. F., 254 
mount, Kobert S., 349 
]5oards of County Commissioneis. 167 
l',ogue, f). IF, 205 
liogue, Oliscr I!., 325 
liou^e, !•"., 182 
i'.ouse. Fred, 305 

Bowers, Charles F., 397 

Bowles, Josiah, 211 

Bowman, IJeniy I., 640 

Bow man, Samuel, 90 

Boyden, U. P., 432 

Boyle, Fdward, 195, 196 

Boys, James B., 927 

Brady, C. IF, 323 

Brady, T. P., 52. 254, 285 

Jirudy, Thompson P., 550 

Brewer, I). F., 933 

Bright, William, 713 

Brininger, Chris., 136 

Brooks, David F., 483 

Brooks, JJexter, 107, 128 

i5rooks, [)., 362 

Biooks, \). F., 364 

J'.rooks, Frank, 205 

Biook.',, .Mary 1., m 

Brower, Charles H., 200, 205 

Brower, Thomas J., 852 

Brown, C. IF, 347 

Jirown. IF (;., 456 

Hrown, J. P., 397 

Brown, Pyland T., 348 

Brown, W. 1)., 432 

Brown, ^Villiam, 118 

Browne, J. .\.. & Company, 386 

Browne, William B., 344 

Browns, P. L., 353 

Brubaker, Edith, 124 

Bnmer, David, 107 

Bruner. Henry, 431 

Brunt r, John' A., 340 

Bryan. Jacob, 209, 434, 435 

Bryan, :\Iargaret, 437 

Bryan, Willis, 434, 691 

Buckles, Abraham, 432 

Buckles, John, 432 

Bundy, Peter, 95 

Burdge, J. M., 205 

Burgett. Jv C, 285 

Burkett, A. I)., 413 

Ikirns, Anderson, 928 

I^urns, Flmer, 337 

Burnworth, F. D., 396 

Burr Creek, 403 

Burr, David, 73, 76, 77, 78, 154, 155, 

156, 207, 287, 292, 405 
Burr, 13. R., 421 
Burr Inn, 406 
Burr, Ira, 207, 316, 453 
Burrcll, Artliur, 328 
Burroughs, E. B., 421 
Busiek, Fdward D., 110 
Busick, Joseph W., 335 
Business Corner, North Manchester 

(view), 394 
Bussard, Saimiel, 109 
Butler, Thad, 140, 333 
liutteibaugh, Jacob, 757 


Cain, J'"iuiicis F., 4G0 

Cain, J. W., 4:i:i 

Cakhvi'll, lU'zokiali, 776 

Cal.lwfll, }l. ()., 77 G 

Caldwell. Ma.laliiic, 41'J 

Caldwi-ll, William, Itili. 419, 776 

CallLH-, Fraiiuis .\I., Ill 

Callahan, C. 1'., iiGfj 

Calv.rt. Frank, rr.', 

C.iniphcll, .loliii 15., 42, 46, 47, 51, 256 

Cainplndl, S. N., 347 

Campion, Matthew E., 420 

Campion, M. K., 350 

Camp I'ottit, Wabasli, 278 

(\ijitain Charley, 54 

Captain Dixon, 94 

Captain Sipiirrel (Niconza), 85, 446 

Cardinal Cabinet Comjianv, 341 

Carne-,ne I'liblie Library, "Wabasli, 323 

Carothers, John 8. B., 113 

Carpenter, Frank O., 200 

Carpenter, James A. S., 249 

Caij)enter, James II., 201 

Carpenter, T.eewell L.. 817 

Carpenter, Llewellyn L., 349 

Carpenter, WiUai-.l II., 819 

Cart, Josepli J., .S65 

Carter, Jesse, 154 

Casey, A. J., 432 

Cass, Lewis, 32. 54, 56 

Cassatt, David, 304 

Cassatt, Ja'cob D., 96, 157, 166, 304, 305, 

Cassatt, J. D., SI, 453 
Cattle, 150, 180 
Cattle, (1914), 186 
Cecil, J. K., 347 
Cement Stones, 3 

Central Union Telephone Company, 242 
Chaplor, L. M., 359 
Chaplin, J. D., 205 
Charles, Homer W., 950 
Charley Creek, 54 
Chase,' Ora J., 349 
Chester. Chapter No. 47, R. A. M., North 

Manchester, 398 
Chester Township, 165, 367-80 
Chester Township School (view), 378 
Chicago & Atlantic Ttailroad, 453, 456, 

Chiles, Nathaniel, 108 
Chippewa Consolidated Seliools, Noble 

Township (view), 2SS 
Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), 

Wabash, 347 
Christian Church. La Fontaine, 431 
Christian Church, Pleasant Grove, 395 
Christie, Ivlward, 847 
Christie, John E., 847 
Christie, Thomas, 846 
Christner. D. C, 396 
Church. Asburv, 420 
Church, Enos P., 396 

Church of the Evangelical Association, 

Lrbana, 443 
Churches, 395, 413, 419, 426, 431, 435, 

440, 451, 455, 4G3 
Cincinnati, \Val>ash & Micliigan Rail- 
road, 239. :;42, .377, 429, 441, 456, 457, 

Circuit Court, 189-200 
Circuit Judges, 199 
Cissna, Koi)ert, 141, 318, 335, 338 
Citizens Bank, Wabash, 335 
Citizens Savings and Trust Company, 

Wabash, 337 
Citizens State Bank of Lagro, 418, 582 
City Hall, Wabash, 306 
City Hall, Wabash (view), 307 
City I'ark, Wabash, 326 
Citv I'ark, Wabash (view), 327 
Civil War, 261-86 
Clark, D. IL, 350 
Clark, Frank S., 681 ^ , 

Clark, Homer, 395 
Clemens, B. F., 205 
Clemens, John, 842 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 

Louis Railroad, 239 
Clevenger, B. S., 397 
Chipper, William F., 828 
Coble. William H., 166 
Coble, William S., 440 
Coggeshall. James M., 698 
Coggshell, -Mrs. James :\I., 123 
Colclaser, J., 347 
Cole, E. P., 322 
Collins, W. K., 432 
Columbia, Dana, 126 
Colyer, S. J., 349 

Companies F and K, 101st regiment, 278 
Com[)any A, llighty-ninth regiment, 276 
Company D, Spanish- American War, 285 
Company F, Seventeenth Regiment, 271 
Company H, Eighth Regiment, 263 
Company H, Twentieth Infantry, 271 
Compulsory school attendance, 221 
Comstock,'john, 82-83, 136, 144-151, 201, 

Comstock, Judge, 416 
Comstock, J.. 347 
Congregation of Rodet Sholem, Wabash, 

353 ' , 

Connell, John :\I., 204 
Conner, Ella :M.. 597 
Conner. Henry, 57 

Conner, James D., Jr.. 113, 205, 364, 495 
Conner, James D., 113, 200, 202, 204, 493 
Conner, William, 57, 58 
Conner, William A., 596 
Conrad, Daniel, 741 
Cook, Adam, 633 
Cook, George K.. 259 
Cook, John J.. 421 
Cooking arrangements, 134 
Coombs, William H., 114, 202 


Coon, Je.-sc- U., 916 

CoopLT, Daiiifl \V., 934 

Lopehiiid, Jomuliaii, 197 

Coi-i.ick, .Moses, 400 

Cojipock, iJorutio, 302 

Com, in 

Corn and wheat in 1857, 184 

Corn, oats and wlieat (1914), 185 

Cornell, John, 120 

Cory, Allen E., si53 

County auditors, IGC 

County boundaries, 153 

County clerks, 1G5 

County coroners, 167 

County lairs, lb5 

County jails, IGl, 162 

County ollicers (1913-14), 168 

County organization, 152-169 

County organized civilly, 78 

C-ounty poor, 162 

County recorders, 167 ' 

County superintendents of school, 217 

County surveyors, 167 

County and township institutes, 214 

County treasurers, 166 

Courricrs des J5ois. 22 

Court of coinnion jjleas and judges, 201 

Court Houses, 158, 159 

Courtier, Ceorge S., 359 

Couitier, Mrs. (ii-oige S., 361 

Cowgill, Calvin, 182, 203, 204, 274 276 

Cowgill, Cai V ]•:., 205, 325 
Cowgiil, Mvs. C. ]•:., 324, 325 
Cox, Al)iiah A., 260 
Cox, Albert X., 436 
Cox, Daniel }i[., 204, 305 
Cox, i). ^].. 197 
Cox, KInier H.. 200 
Cox, .lames, 86, 453 
Cox, Jeremiah, 404 
Cox, .Tonatlian R., 166, 249 
Cox, J. II.. 304 
Cox, San ford C. 137 
Oox, S. C, 16 
Crabill, :\Iichael R., 306 
Crabill. :\r. R., 318, 363 
Ci-abill. N. C. 463 
Craft. Sarah B.. 103 
Creighton. Willard J., 357, 359 
Cressy, ^Martha G., 317 
Cripe, 0. J., 612 
Crist. George W.. 733 
Crosson. P. J., 350 
Crouch, E. ^^L, 389 
Crouse, G., 397 
Crow, TTamlin S., 848 
Crow, James S., 883 
Cubberly, George, 263. 271 
Cummings, Thomas J., 76 
Curran, Rioliard, 344 
Curry, James W., 103 

Curtner, John M., 393 
Curtner, J. .M., 205 
Cutler, -Mary, 103 
C\itsluill, William T., 394 
Cutshall, W. T., 393. 

Daily, J. Harvey, 432 

Dale, Lincoln 0., 217 ' 

Daniel, II. R., 431 

Dare, R. 11., 419 

Daugherty, Charles L., 909 

Daugherty, Edgar h\, 349 

Daugherty, Josiah S., 305 

Daugherty, J. S., 340 

Daugherty, JMarion R., 910 

David, Paul 0., 351 

Davis, Rennet E., 102 

Davis, Charles W., 541 

Davis, Joe W., 217 ;. -v;, 

Davis, John, 346 

Davis, John R., 461, 463 

Davis, Lewis, 55, 76 

Davis, Lewis B., 305 

Davis, Ste].!ien, 101 ■' > ' ■■''-■ 

Davis, ^Villiam K., 540 

Dawes, Edwin, 797 >' ■" ^ ' 

Dawes, Lindley A., 798 

Davment. l-ldward, 3()5 "" 

DaVton. William, 87 

Deaf Man's \-illagc, 90, 91, 92 "' ■■■ 

De Armoml. J. C. P., 205 

Debus, A.. 351 ^Vi 

Dedricli, Aurelia, 365 

Dedrick, William H., 121 ••■r*- 

Dehifield, Clarence. 309 

Delauter. Charles R., 940 

Deming Lodge No. 88, V. & A. M., North 

^fanchester, 398 
Democrat, Wabash, 334 
Denton, G. W., 878 
De Puy, A. L., 359 
De Puv. Frank, 359 
De Puy, H. G., 205 
Depuy" John IT., 105, 247, 957 
Dfpuv, Julia, 958 
Di'rr.^Mrs. W. IL, 363 
Derrickson. Sarah, 123 
Detroit, Eel River & Illinois Railroad, 

239, 377, 439, 453, 456 
Deveri'cks, Robert K., 217 
Dicken, C. L., 887 
Dicken, James L., 247, 249, 426 
Dicken, J. L., 429 
Dickerson, William, 166 
Diggs, William, 300 
Dillon, Eli, 208 
Dillon, George, 373 
Dillon, J. S., 431 

Dillon's "History of Indiana," 45, 47, 4f- 
Ditton, William, 104 
Dog and Pup scrip, 131 
Domer, John W., 393, 481 


DoiiuT, Walter A., 481 

Doincr, \V. A., 253 

Dora, 412 

]Juu-^lu'ity, JkMuard, 840 

]:)oiiyheity, S. P., 839 

Doiiyhiri, Lloyd C, 3"J7 

Downey, Alii'ia Z., 810 

Drainage, 5 

DuJ5ois, William, 830 

DullVy, .Micliael, 304 

Dul'ton, John, 102 

Duiilap, W. C, 3'J7 

Dunninj,', A. N., 3(J4 

I ykciiian, jJavid D., 201 

Eagle. V. :S\., 205 

Eagles (Aerie No. 54<J), Wabash, 365 

I'-arly plows, 171 

EarlV raising of hogs, 173, 178 

Kbbinghous, William II., 923 

Ebling. A., 351 

Kbronah Kneampment No. 21, I. O. 0. F 

Wabash, 3(33 
Edgworth, a. IT., 394 
Edsall, William S., 157, 207, 31G 
Kdwards, E. A., 359 
Edwanls, Robert, 354 
Eel River, 54, 433, 445 
Eel River Valley, 367 
Eel iriver Valley Bank, 392 
Eel River Valley Railroad, 14S 
Egnew, Andrew, 418 
Egnew, William. 418 
I'.irh.dt/,, Doctor. 249 

l-:iglith .ludieial Cir.'uit, 153, 155, 189 
I'.ikenbarv, E. E.. 205 
Eiler, Henrv, 739 
i:idridge. dob R.. 76 
Elliott, C. K., 421 
Elliott, Isaac, 300 
Elliott, Joseph II., 941 
Elliott, William, 300 
Ellis, C. S., 580 
Ellsworth, Henry L., 175 
Ells^^orth, TTenrv W., 175 
Ellsworth, H. L., 181 
Elward, William A., 668 
Elzroth, Curtis, 364 
Emmett, James TE, 266, 282, 284 
Emmott Tost No. 6, G. A. R., 234 
Emriek, Plarmon L., 217, 895 
English, Andrew, 774 
English, Michael, 414 
English, Robert, 402, 414 
English traders, 19 
Enyart Creek, 402 
Enveart, John, 163 
Essiok, W. J., 344, 421 
Evans, George, 299 
Everts, Gu'-.ta\us A., 189, 192, 199 
Evestone, D., 419 
Eviston, Frank, 877 

Ewing, Cliarles W., 199 

Ewing, (ieorge W., 89, 157 

Ewing, Josepjiy 257 

Ewing, W. G. & G. W., 157 ,i. .. 

Ewing, Walker i. Company, 157 

E.Vcelsior Chapter, R. A. .M., Wabash, 

Exchange Bank of Roann, 440 


Eairehild, John, 344, 421 

Fall, John, 105 

Eannin, Bryant, 377 

Fannin, B., 397 

Fannin, Jesse, 113 j ^ 

Fardner, ^larland, 328 

Farley, Joshua, 102, 109 

Farley, W. D., 388 

Farmer, E. C, 413 

Farmers and ^Merchants National Bank, 
Wabash, 336 

Faims and lands (1914), 186 

Fawoett, Zimri, 964 

Ferree, John, 208 

Ferry, Alanson P., 102, 103, 143, 182, 
204, 331 

Feriy, A. P., 141, 159, 333, 362, 363 ' 

iMiiley, Isaac, 78, 157, 245, 304 

First Christian Society, Chester Town- 
ship, 379 

First Church of the Brethren, North 
.Alanchester, 395 

First Church of Christ Scientist, Wa-, 353 

First Complete Indiana Cavalry Regi- 
ment, 272 

First dance for white folks, 115 

First election, 126 

First Evangelical Church (German 
:\Iethodist), Wabasli, 353 

First and only execution in Wabash 
county, 199 

First grand jurors, 190 

First hay press, 172 

I'irst Indiana threshing machine, 172 

First land jiurchaae, 75 

First ma]) of the Wabash valley, 21 

First :\Tasonic Lodge (Ilanna No. 61), 
Wabash, 354 

First :\retliodist Church. Wabash, 347 

First military posts, 22 

First National Bank of North ]\Ianche»- 
ter, 392 

First National Bank, Wabash, 335 

First permanent public road, 226 

First public school in county, 208 

First railroad in county, 238 

First Town Corporation, 305 

First wagon roads, 75 

First war meetings in Wabash county, 

First wheat sown in the countv, 128 

Fischer, Ch., 351 


FiahiT, Stearns, 79, 99, 142, 155, 157, 
182, 193, 235, 293 

Fitch, 0. N., 249 j; 

Fitzgibbon, Thomas, 409, 420 

Flailing and winnowing, 172 

Fleming, J^on i)., 205, «23 

Flefchor, Naamaii, 332 

Fiickinger, Iliiam, 706 

Flora, Alex, G99 

Flora, B. 11., 39G 

Flowing Well, Wabash, view, 310 

Food j)rices, 132 

Forage crops (1914), 185 

Ford, America, 109 

Ford, James, 7, 109, 142, 246, 249, 266, 

Ford, J. H., 432 

Ford, Marshall R., 803 

Forde, L. II., 421 

Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Trac- 
tion System, 240 

Forty-first liegiment (Second Indiana 
Cavalry), 272 

Fourgeres, Felix, 118 

Fourteenth Indiana Artillery, 282 

Fowler, Daniel R., 105 

Fowler, Isaac, 79, 158 

Fowler, Newton, 104 

Fowler, William, 121 

Fox, David G., G66 

Fox, J. M., 396 

France, J., 397 

Frankenfeld, F., 351 

Frazier, Ananias, 124 

Freeman, George W., 166 

French, Aaron, 193 

French and Indian war, 34 

French murder case, 193-199 

Freshour, Andrew, 408 

Friend's Church (South Wabash), 351 

Frushour, Calvin G., 625 

Fulton, Alex, 419 

Fulton, James, 317 

Funkey, W. J., 397 

Fwirrow, James M., 166 

Furstenberger, II. A., 351 

Galpin, C, 421 

Gamble, IT. M., 342 

Gamble, John, 437 

Gamble, John H., 363 

Gamble, John L., 163 

Gamble, Joseph, 436 

Gamble, Samuel L., 102, 109, 113, 209, 

Gamble, Thomas, 452 
Garber, Alvah A., 554 
Gardner, A. C., 195 
Garner, FTenry, 104 
Garrison, Elihu, 83, 84, 164, 227, 425, 

427, 443 
Garrison, Nathan, 111 

Garrison, Samuel, 424 

Garrison, William, 84, 427, 428 

Garst, John, 702 

Gazette and Intelligencer, Wabash, 332 

Gearhart, George, 456 

Gerlacli, Chris, 136 

German Baptist Church, Mount Vernon, 

German Baptist Cluirdi, Pleasant Town- 
ship, 451 
ecology, 2 
Gibson, Mary, 334 
Gilbert, Nathan, 300 
Gilbert, Mrs. Nathan F., 123 
Gill, Jacob, 449 
Gillen, Henry IL, 108, 252 
Gillen, H. II., 273 
Gillespie, D. W., 419, 582 
Gilpin, Sam R., 931 . 4 - 

(iilson, Francis D., 108 
Gingerick, I. E., 205 
(jingerick, :\Ivs. I. E., 386 
Gingerick, I.saac E., 822 
(iinther, David, 393, 826 
(jochenour, J. C, 393 
Gochenour, Jose|)h C, 503 
Godfrey, Francis (Pa-lonz-wa), 09 
Godfrey, Francis, 92 
GodfreV, Gabriel, 70, 119 
Good, Isaac M., 217 
Good, Macy, 200, 205 
Goodlander, Philip II., 893 
Gordon, (Jeorge E., 163, 201, 204, 262, 

331, 462 
Gordon, Robert, 317 
Goudy, Thomas, 437 
Government Building, Wabash (view), 

Graden, John T., 900 
Grant, A. W., 197 
Grant Creek, 79 
Grant, Daniel, 79, 84, 423, 428 
Grant, F. A., 306 
Grant, Malvina, 424 
Grant, ]Maria, 426 
Grant, Smith, 79, 424 
Grant, William, 79, 208, 348, 423, 426, 

Graves, Adam, 111 
Graves, Elizabeth, 105 
Graves, John, 105 
Gray, William A., 163 
Gretzinger, Fred, 724 
GriHith, Warren A., 379 
Grimes House, North Manchester, 384 
Grimes, Rufus R., 384 
Grogan, John, 420 
Groninger, Henry L., 113 
Groom, William, 349 
Groslion. John, 037 
Grosvenor, Hattie E., 322 
Grunert, J., 351 


GuLIlt, J., rJ51 
Guild, 1). 11., :i47 
Guild, Gforge, 379 
(iuiiiort, ]•:. W., 419 
Giuuk'r, Georf^v, 50 
Guilder, Henry, 388 
(iunn, Archie,' 395 
fJurtuer, Cliristian, 752 
(Juynn, Liiieolii, 200 

Ilaiis, C'liiirles S., 325, 334, 33G, 473 

llaVkleriian, Abraham, 258 

Jlackleiuaii, Elijah, 10, 4'J, 50, 98, 99, 

105, 113, 114, 158, 241, 2G2, 411, 439 
Hacklomaii, Jame.s, 200, 201, 245, 249, 

Hacklemaii, Margaret, 105 
Ilackleiuan, William :M., 2G0 
Haines, J. M., 39G 
Hahlemiaii, Cornelius, 434, 443 
Hale, Flavius .1., 122 
Hales, William K, 425 
Hail, William K., 427 
Hallinan, :SL M., 350 
Hamilton, Allen, 87, 4G0 
Hirmilton, Havid, 399 
Hamilton, Thomas, 245, 249 
Hanley, Thomas, 8G7 
Hanley, Thomas C, 868 
Hanly, Micliael, 421 
Hanna, Hugh, 73, 77, 79, 80, 107, 117, 

141, 15G, 157, 295. 302, 304, 355, 358, 

3G1, 453 
Hanna, J. S., 157 
Hanna, J. Warren, 104, 304 
Hanna Lodge No. Gl, F. & A. M., Wabash. 

354, 357 
Hanna Park, Wabash, 326, 328 
Hapnor, George, 373 
Hardwood Timber, 4 
Harkness. William, 347 
Harlan, Isaac ^^., 197 
Harris, Edward H., 107 
Harris, Henry F., 333 
Harris, :Mrs. "Silas T)., 123 
Harris. Silas T)., 359 
Harrison, L. 419 
Harrison, Miles W.. 322 
Hart, David L., 264 
Harter, Eli, 372 
Harter, George W., 453 
Harter, Jacob, 372, 398 
Harter, Joseph, 371, 372 
Harter, Joseph B., 372 
Harters, J. B., 384 
Hastings, R. G., 321 
Haujiert, George, G47 
Haupert, Joseph. 720 
Hawkins, John S., 278 
Hawley. Frank. 783 
Haydoii, Garnett, 258 
Hayes, Thomas, 235 

JIazun, C. E., 214 

'•lleadquarters for New Comers," 71, 73 

Heeter, Melvina, 757 

Heeter, Samuel, 756 

Heeter, Samuel. 861 

Heeter, Tressie, 861 

Hegel, Charles, 419 

Hegel, Charles F., 592 

Hegel, Jacob, 590 

Hegel, .lohn C, 564 

Heilman, Jacob, 209 , , 

Heinnickel, John, 651 ' ' 

Heith, Sidney, 64 

Helm, Thomas B., 49, 50 

Helvie. Champion, 73, 291 

Helvie, Joel, 73, 291 

Helvie & Rogers, 76 

Htdvy, Champion, 80, 405 

Ilelvy, Joscpli, 80, 405 

Helvy, Ttichard, 80, 81. 3G9, 384, 397, 406 

Henderson. J. L., 217 

Henley, William M., 340 

Henley, W. M., 285 

Henly, Adelia L., 363 • jc.. , 

Heiu-'y, Charles L., 240 ,,,' 

Herald, Laketon, 453 '" ' 

Herrick, George T., 205, 217 

Herrick, H. M., 347 

Hess, Alex, 205, 359 

Hess, Alexander, 205, 272, 361, 512 

Hess, G., 351 

Hettraansperger, Charles F., 630 

Hettmansperger, Chris, 748 

Heydenburk, Frank H., 421 

Hiatt, Nathan W., 461 

Hibben. S. M., 332 

Hickee, H. M., 397 

Hidv, Hallet B.. 918 

Hidv, Kex L.. 394 

Hidv, William, 917 

Higgins, Jess B., 586 

High School, Wabash, 319 

Higson. Eouis D., 364 

Hihlebrand, Jacob, 891 

Hill, Aaron, 299 

Hill, Roswell S., 273 

Hippensteel, J., 397 

Hipskind Familv, The, 542 

Hipskind, Fred,' 364 

Hipskind. Herman N., 205 

Hipskind. John, 542 

Hipskind, John, 543 

Hipskind, Philip, 543 

Hittle, John, 586 

Hoback. William, 363 

Holdermann, Ernst H., 563 

Htdloway. Job, 413 

Holman. Solomon, 235 

Homer, Harry A. P., 419 

Home Teleplione Company, 243 

Honeywell. ]Mark C, 507 

Honeywell, M. J., 506 


lloueywt'll, Saiiford, 50G 
Ilouver, C, ;:i84 
IlupewL'U Cliuicli, 413 
JIupkiiis, Ada, 3'J4 
llupkins,'pli, 303 
Hopkins, Lloyd, 394 
Hopkins, Milton H., 348 
Hoijkiiis, ,*<aniiK'l ^^, 394 
Hornaday, Altied, 855 
Hoiiiaday, Annie J., 856 
Hornaday, Martha, 85G 
Hornaday, I'l-tor N., 855 
Jloinc, SainUL'l 8., 249 
Horning, J^liza H., 90'i 
Housor, linrvia A., 7G3 
Howel, John (,)., 419 
Howe, ]). N., 388 
Howe, Frank, 124 ' 

Hoive, M. S., 301 
Howe, William, 351 
Howell, \\'illiani A., 871 
Hubbard, I'.enjaniiu F., 548 
Hubbard, H. F., 217 
llul.bard, Charles ,1, 548 
Hubbard, John, 193-199 
Hubbard, L. O., 39G 
Hubbard, ^[arcellus G., 673 
Hubbard, Samuel, 548 
Hubbard, Sarah, 19G 
Hull', Andrew C, 929 
Hull, J. H., 431 
Hull, .lolin L., 658 
Hummell, Henry, 426 
Hunt, Alma /.,"810 
Hunt, 1. P., 300 
Hunt, Lvdia C, 317 
Hunt, William R., 810 
Hunter, Nelson CI., 337, 958 
Hunter, N. G., 205 
Hunter, R. B., 364 
Hurley, John, 404, 407 
Hurley, Robert, 404, 407 
Hurley, Thomas, 260 
Hurst' Benjamin, 72, 291 
Hushaw, ]\iichael. 408 
Hufchens, Harry B., 511 
Ilutcliens, Harvey A., 217 
Hutchens, Jesse T., 509 
Hutchens, J. Tilghman, 321 
Hutchins, J. L., 432 
Hutchins, J. T., 205 
Hutton, C. E., 363 
Huyeke, A. M., 322 
Hydraulie Limestone, 3 
Hygiene of the school, 218 
Hyman, Jacob, 359 
Hyman, L. L., 342 

lams, John, 305 

Ijamsville (See South Laketon), 453 

Ikenborry, L. D., 391, 963 

In Canal Days (view), 127 

Indiana in the Civil War, 2GI 

Indiana State Bank, Xorth Manchester, 

Indian Conspiracies, 23 
Indian :Mill, 76, 290 
Indian iMill, .AliU L'reek, 55 
Indian ponies, 67 
Indian ri'serves, 459 
Indian trails, 225 
Indian treaties, 56-63 
Indians of the ui)per Wabasli, 25 
Ireland, Frank, 217 
Irish Settlement, La (iro, 410 
Irish war, 114, 236 
Iroquois, 15, 19, 28 , , • 

Irvin, W. R., 64 
Isenbarger, John, 824 
Ivory, dohn, 140 

Jack, Andrew D., 452 

Jack, James, 436, 452 

Jack, James E., 615 

Jackson, Alexander, 305 

Jackson, Daniel, 78, 155, 157, 182, 190, 

191, 192, 200, 208, 285, 348, 426 
Jackson, l^no'eh. 197, 461, 465 
Jackson, Henry I']., 785 .[ 

Jackson, dames, 429 
Jackson, .Jesse, 197 
Jackson, Samuel T., 808 
Jacobs, L. G., 440 ^, , ,^4 

James, C. W., 363 
Jay, Isaac, 299 
Jay, Thomas, 361 
Jaynes, Frank E., 349 
JelFrey. H. S., 217 
JefTries, Hugh S., 414 
Jennings, Jonathan, 54 
Jesuit Missionaries, 27 ^ 
Jewett, L. E., 254 
Johnson, Alfred, 299 
Johnson, Asa, 344, 451 
Johnson, E. H., 52 
Johnson, E., 397 
Johnson, Frank, 419 
Johnson, John, 300 
Jolmson, John L., 881 
Johnson, Margaret, 419 
Johnson, William, 155, 157, 166, 191, 453 
Jones, Charles X., & Son, 339 
Jones, Constance B., 258 
Jones, Lemuel G., 235 
Jones, Mark, 949 
Jones, William P., 949 
Josina Creek, 68, 422 
Jud, Theo., 351 
Judges {See bench and bar), 189 

Kaiser, John, 364 
Kalb, Benjamin, 762 
Kanouse, C. A., 421 
Karn, Daniel, 751 


Kani, John, 751 
Kaufmnn JJanifl G., 782 
Kfiitor, Theron P., 3:j3 
Kehle, L., Ijol 
Kccl.T, Tlioiiiiis, 20'J 
KcIUt, Anthony, 129 
KflU-r, Cliiistian, 80 
Keller, Epliraim F., Ul 
Keller, Isaac, 122 
Keller, -lames, 202 
Keller, Jonathan, 70 
Keller Settlement, 80 
Kelly, G. .\I., 420-21 
Kelly, :M. F., 420 
Kelly, Thomas F.. :;42 
Kendall, Hiram, 42'J 
Kennedy, Archibald, 305 
KennedV, Archibald M., 411 
Kennerlv, W. \V., 397 
Kent. William, 258 

Keiii>el, rhili]), G79 

Kerwood, A. M., 432 

Keves, J. H., 393 

Kidd, G. v., 254. G75 

Kidd, Meredith H., 204, 283, 333 

Kidd, M. H, 50, 205 

Kimmel. J. L., 396 

Kinerk, Edward, 546 

Kin<r, Allen W., 531 

KiiiK, Calvin C, 956 

King, Charles S., 567 

King, Chester A., 697 

King, Emma R., 569 

King, Fred I., 113, 205, 334, 532 

King, Fred J., 52 

Kin", George N., 335, 336, 588 

King, Harry S., 568 

King, Jane, 111 

King, Jane D., 567 

King, Nathan, 908 

King, Peter, 463, 491 

King. Thomas W., 335, 566 

Kingery, David, 344 

Kinney, J. F., 399 

Kintner, Frederick R., 56, 73, 290 

Kintncr, James H., 73, 290 

Kintner's Creek. 73 

Kinzie. H., Elevator Company, 386 

Kirkwood. William, 365 

Kistler, W. R., 347 

Kitson, Allen, 489 

Kitson, Daniel, 489 

Kitson, Frank S., 489 

Kitson, F. W^, 254 

Kneiley, John H., 671 

Knepper, A. A., 443 

Knight, A. A., 349 

Knight, James L., 441 

Knight, John L., 99, 102, 182, 201, 204, 

305, 332, 333, 335 
Knights and Ladies of the Maccabees. 

Wabash, 364 

Kiiouir, C. W., 323 

Koch, ^Villiam, 443 

Krisher, D. \V., 393 '•- 

Krueger, Anthony J., 420 

Kroeger, B., 350 " 

Kuhn, D. A., 397 

Kunse, Jesse H., 961 

Kunse, Lois R., 106 ' ' ■' '* 

Lafavour, Clinton, 260 "'"'■: '. ■ . 

La Fontaine, S4, 42S-32 

La Fontaine Bank, 431 

La Fontaine Iferald, 431 

La Fontaine I'liblic School (view), 430 

La Fontaine Review, 431 

La Fontaine Telephone Company, 431 

La Fontaine (Topeah), 60 

La Gro, 228, 401 

La Gro Ci-eek, 402 

La Gro High School (view), 415 

La Gro C^reclickeletah) , 65 

La Gro Milling Company, 418 

La Gro Press, 419 

La Gro Town, 79, 293. 411, 413-21 

La Gro Township, 157. 401-21 

La Gro Township District School Build- 
ing (viewl. 400 

Lake Erie. Wabash & St. Louis Railroad 
Company, 23S 

Lakes, 5 

Laketon, SO-81, 453-57 

Laketon Public School (view), 454 

Laketon State Bank, 455 

Lamport, A. W., 347 

Land grants in aid of the Canal, 234 if 

Landis. J. Elmer, 440 

Landis, J. E., 217 

La Salle, 13, 16, 17, 19, 28 

LaSalle, Gilbert ]\L, 496 

LaSelle, Clarence H., 502 

LaSelle, C. H., 337 

LaSelle, Harvey B.. 593 

Lassell, B. H., 414 

Latchem, Amelia A., 535 

Latchem. Caleb, 102 

Latchem, Charles. 535 

Latchem. John. 533 

Lautzcnhiser, Joe, 118 

Lautzenhizer, Jacob, 455 

Lavengood, Daniel, 760 

Lavengood, Norva P., 562 

Lawrence, George W.. 382, 392 

Lawrence National Bank, 392 

Lawton, Charles H., 547 

Lawton, Fannie R., 548 

Lawyers (See bench and bar), 189 

Lay, Joseph A., 361 

Layser, Samuel, 408 

Lecount, M. ^L, 421 

Lee, Ezra T., 124 

Lee, S. B., 431 

Lceson, Anna E., 330 

^^^iii INDEX , ;. 

Lfllel, George, 86G Maggart, C. W. :i<J7 

L=:'aV-'3^ Mafi^^.,; (Vo..g Bear), see 

Leui,, i)uv,.s \V., 2.9 Majenica, 412 

L::;:: Jo;:;rV'217 ' ^^^^f ^^*- ^""^^'^' ^--tl' Manchester, 

|:n;::^^;|,|^ u., 20. 2.0, 3.3, 330 ssj;;,^--' ^«"' ^-' -« 

Li K.r y Mills .School (view), 374 Maple sugar, ]34 

Liberty I, 1(55, 422-32 . Marble, Al. a., 347 

L.ght .somer^ville, 347 Mariner, Jien/amin, 235 

i^imestones, ^ Marion & La Gro Plank l?nnrl 907 
^'(Sew) '::^"' '''' ''^^'' '^^^'^^^^ Markets and pri::.s;^:^ '''''' '^' 

J:;;;eoln.^r^"2^^' ^^^ ^^^- ^^^ MaS;J^5aS'^:^34G . ., 

Lines, B V., 428 Martin John A., 815 „ 

Lines, Monroe 79G _ Martin John J.,' 393 

Lines, I ..asant A., 791 Martin, John ]'. 3G5 

Lines, Ihomas, 432 Martin J C 3'> 
Linlawn High School, Noble Township Martin' j" \' 4%^; 

T-'"'7'^'"!,^ Martin,' Phili'p, iu7 
i.r.ton, Jame^ 1 460 ,;,.,^ . Mason, Oren W., G40 

n te'Tn'm '■';■. ' '''' ''' ' '^^^^^""' Warren,'G39 

He stock '50 ?;"'^°"'^ ^^'^"' ^^'^'bash, 3G1 

ta.:?;*J SS-S?" "" 

t!:;;;' t/;;^^- %''^ Matlock, Jeller'son, 42G 

LoSn' IF !g'5 J;^?^''^' \^.«ri''' "■' '-Ol- ^04, 305, 30G 

T " ' rrA ' „. ^rattern, Va entine A 500 

LS'ln'n. .T'^'lwi ''' T .• ^^^"^"' ^'^l^nt-' M.: 747 

Loganspoit & Northern Indiana, 238 Maurer Fred 443 

Logansport & Wabash Valley Gas Com- McBean Gilli's 7G 

T '"'"^N?-^.f,. McBride, Alex,' 373 

Long, J. L.. < >>9 McCarty, T. R., 182 3G3 

.„«■, An,Jro>v «1 465 „,Clurc S„„,„, , Jr', 72, 291 

Lumaroe. Neil, 359, 5G9 McCracken. A.N. 205 

Lynch, C. \y., 347 McDaniel, Robert, 353 

Lynn, F M., 421 McDermott, Patrick, 420 

Lynn, John, 583 McDonald, Alonzo 772 

Lynn, Laura E., 440 McFann, A. B., 399 

Lyons, Charles, 3G4 McFarland, D. W., 859 
Lytic, W. T., 441 

>r , T, ^ McGoncgal, W. C, 333 

Maekey, I lorence T., 1 23 McGregor, Jasper W., 344 

Mackey, Joseph, 205, 214, 305, 321 McCimPe. .L.„„L 110" 

McGee, Robert, 258 
McGoncgal, W. C, .' 
McGregor, Jasper \\ 
Mc(j'uire, James, 112 


McHonry, James E., 30G, 3G4 

McKalian, Daniel l^., IGG 

-McKahari, John .\I., IGG, 278 

McKflv.y, Jolin 1'., 42'J 

MtKiiiluy, Joscpli, 1-1 

-Mcl-ain, William, 4G;{ 

^IcLoan, Alexander, 34G 

MeLees, Ward, 20<J 

McLees, Warden, 318 

.MeXamee, Naaman, 285 

:\IcNamee, Tliomas, 113, 335, 33G, 359, 

^rcXiel, D. E., 429 
McPlierson, Henry, 182, 197 
Mcl'iier^on, Henry W., 425 
Medical inspection law, 219 
Meeks, H. J., 347 
Memorial Hall (view), 281 
Memorial Hall, Wabash, 281 
Mendenhall, 1. R., 453 
Mendenhall, M. 11., 347 — 

INIernitz, J. J., 351 
Meshekunnogli<iuoh Lodge No. 75, I. Q. 

0. v., Lib.Tty Mills, 398 
Meshingoniesia, G2, 05 
Mcsliingomesia's band, G3 
Mc->liin-go-me-sia Hidian Reservation, 

Me-.shin-go-me-sia's village, 48, 49 
Me-te-a, Pottawatomie chief, 38 
Methodism (early) at Wabash, 34G 
Metliodist Churcli, Nortli Manchester, 

Methodist Episcopal Churcli, La Eon- 

taine, 431 
Methodist Episcopal Church, La Gro, 419 
^Fetliodists of Chester Township, 379 
]\retosina, GO, 62, 63 
Meyer, Levi, 851 
]\Ieyers, Lewis, 235 
:\Iiamis, 14, 15, 18, 25-37, 41, 4G, 53-70, 

Middle Street M. E. Churcli, South Wa- 
bash, 352 
Middleton, W. C, 431 
Mila«i, Noah, 805 
:Miles, David. 299 
Miles, John D., 305 
Milev, John D., 795 
Mill Creek, 458 
^Miller, Aaron, 455 
Miller, Adam ^l., G93 
Miller, Charles, 441. 717 
:\Iiller, C. W'esley, 379 
Miller. George P.. G41 
Miller, H. W., 432 
Miller, Jacob, 455, 850 
Miller, John, 082 
Miller, Matthew R.. 344 
Miller, Robert :\1.. 083 
Miller, Samuel C., 322 
Miller, T. H., 431 
Miller, Tobias, 401 


Miller, W. H., 39G 

Milliner, Jolui W. R., 205 ' • 

Milliner, (^uincey E., 205 

Mills, A. ('., 393 

-Mills, A. H., 4 14 

Mills, H., 393 • ■ 

Mills, Henry, 9G7 '■'' ' ' '■■■'- 

IMills, L ¥., 322 

Mills, J. J., 322 

r^Iill Street, North Manchester (view), 

Milnor, Jacob, 401 
Milroy, Roliert ^L, 200 
^linnick, John, 407, 412 
Minnick, Michael, 407 
Minnick, Stei)lien, 412 
Misbissinewa battle field in 1830, 40-52 
Mississinewa Rattle Ground Association, 

]\Hssissinewa expedition, 41-52 
Mississinewa river, 423, 458 
Mohr, S. L., 913 
-Alonson, L. R., 432 
Monson, L. W., 347 '' 
Moody. William, 410 
Moore, (ieoige, 428 
Moore, I'l'rry (.1., 93, 254 
Morgan, Cary E., 349 
Morgan, M. H., 19G 
Morris, L. B., 431 
Morris, N. S., 304 
Morris, O. R., 352, 432 
Morrison, J., 397 
:\Iorrison, M. S., 347 
:\Iorrow, Garl, 943 

Morrow Grain Company, La Gro, 418 
Morrow, John H., 499 
Morse, Frank .W.. 283, 335, 330 
Morse, William H., 50 
Mote, Thomas, 508 
:Mote, Thomas B., 509 
Mott, W. H., 432 

Mount Pleasant iletliodist Cliurcb, 405 
Mount Vernon, 87, 403 
ISIoyer, Jesse, 447, 901 
]\royer, Matthias, 447, 449 
Mud Lake, 440 
Murgotten, William, 303, 414 
:\furi)hy, Andrew, 78, 192, 304 
Murphy, A., 157 
Murphy, John F., 727 
:Murphy, John R., 410 
Murpliy, Joseph W., 200, 205, 300 
Murphy, Oliver P., lOfi 
Murphy. Peter S., 414 
:Nrurray, Charles D., 270 
^Murray, W. E., 432 
Musseiman, Louis R., 197 
Musselman, L. B., 182 
:Mutcii, Joseph, 421 
Mutchelknaus, Noah, 054 
Mycr.s, A. H., 397 
Myers, Jesse, 112 


.Myers, .loliii N., 217, 241 Old-time slioemakors, UG 

MycT.s, J. P., 104 Old Westcin Jl.Mihc, J.a (jiro (view), 41S 

-Myer.-,, Niih.ihis 1)., :\ob Olin, Ileiiiy J{., ;;():, 

.My.Ts, X. !)., :;,V.t, :;c,i Oliiiger. .Mrs. Charles II., 123 

Mvlm. Cliauiicev .\1., 701 Oliver, ,J. J5., ;j;j7 

.Myriek, I'. (.., 4.;i O'Neal, Luunjilin, 122, 24H, 282 

One Hundred and JMCty-tJiird Indiana 

Xaft^'cr, llarle, 347 Infantry Kerriment, 2«2 

Xatuial (;as Jlra, Wabash, 314 On "Orowing Old," 141 

Neal, N'ivian, 431 Oppenheini, Heiijaniin, '.)48 

Neir, JVter, 812 Orciitt, Samuel, '4(10 

Nell', William, 82, 381 Orr, William 11., 7S'J 

Xoighliours, 0. J., 323 Oswald, 0. W\, 850 

X(dlis, S. P., 397 Oswalt. A. B., 217 

Xelsori, Adam, 408 Owen, Frank, 1 18 
Xel><)n, .laeob, 348 

X.dsun, John, 40'J Painter, David, 13G 

Nelson, 'i'honuis, 4US - Palmer, Harry P., 334 

Newbury, Sanuiel, 344 Paradise Springs, 56 

Xewell, Cliarles II., 333 Parker, C. D., 421 

Xew llarrisburg, 456 Parker, 1. D. 389 

Xew Holland, 412 Parks, Courtney, 573 

Newhouse, ,]olin, 145 .Parks, Jesse, 359 

Xew, Henry, 562 Parks, JMoses W., 574 

New, Isaac, 561 Parish, Anna, 115 

New, John B., 348 . , Parmenter, J., 285 Ivn/Mur-ut, 

Newspapers, 393, 419 Parmenti'r, Jesse, 559 

Newspapers of Wabash, 331-35 Parret, Ellas, 197 

Niecum, John, 166, 497 Parrish, Charles S., 203, 204, 214, 262, 

Noble, Janu^s, 157 263, 267, 284, 306, 332 

Xoble Township. 157, 164, 287-300 Patchin, Kd, 126 

Noftzger, J<.lii(d P.. 113 Patterson, Elsbie S., 624 

Xorthern Imliana Traction Comi.any, 431 Patterson, James A., 352 

North Manehester, 80, 82, 209, 377", 3S1- Patter.son, Levi, 624 

399 Patterson, \Villiam, 118 

X'^orth ^Manchester Christian Church, 395 Pauling, Benjamin, 166 

Xorth ^fancliester City Hall (view), 387 Pauling, Curtis H., 105 

Nortli Manchester JouVnal, 393 Pauling, Joseph, 258 

North :\Ianchester Leader, 334 Paving stone, 2 

North Manchester Lodge No. 264. L 0. Pawling, Albert, 305, 318 

O. F., 399 Paw Paw Creek, 433 

North ^Manchester IMilling Company, 386 Paw Paw Township, 164, 433-44 

North Manchester News, 394 Payne, DeWitt, 340 

Nusbauni, Henry, 113 Payne. Edward, 340 

Payne, F. A., 205 

Oakwood Encampment No. 97, I. O. O. F., Payne, James, 409 

North Manchester, 399 Pavne, Samuel J., 340 

O'Flannagan, Michael C, 420 Payne, T. F., & Company, 340 

Ogan, John, 82, 371 Payne, Thomas F., 339 

Ogan, Peter, 76. 82, 371. 372, 377 381 Peabody, Augustus A., 408 

Ogan's C:-eek, 82 Pearson, Andrew, 827 

Ogdeii, Oeorge F., 455, 875 Pearson, Edson D., 492 

Ogdeii, :\Irs. (ieorge F., 123 Pearson, .Mahlon, 79, 99, 423 

Ohmart, Abram. 453 Peeongeoh. 65 

Ohmart, Jacob, 453 Peebles, William H., 963 

Olnnart. J. E., 453 Pence, Alexander, 680 

Okoboji Tribe and Coiincil (L 0. P. M.), Pence, Cliarles K., 200 

Wabash, 365 Pence, John P., 892 

Old Campaign Cartoon (view), 333 Pence, Peter T.. 123 

01.1 S|)()ke and Bending Factory, Wabash Penland, Ambrose, 455 

(view), 338 Perry, Alanson P., 101 

Old-time bread, 134 Perrv, Joseph, 463 

Old-time keel-boat, 224 Perry, W. C, 396 


Pi-tLTS, Charles 0., 872 

Peters, Eden P., 110 

Peters, E. P., 249 

Petrie, .S. P., 453 

Pettit, Eva S., 473 

Pettit, Henry C, 30G, 471 

Pottit, John U., 102, 103, 197, 200, 203, 

274, 27G, 331, 302, 3G3, 473 
Pettit, 0. B., 205 
I'hy.siciiiMs i)f tlie county, 224 
Pickering, lliiain, 130, 412 
Pickering, Hiram K., 8'J9 
Pike Family, Tlie, 527 
Pike, Alhert, 528 
Pike, Hnrward A., 529 
Pike, Irwin W., 528 
Pike, John S., 527 
Pioneer uten>ils, 135 
Plain Dealer rompauy, Wabash, 333 
Plank roads, 227-29 
I'leasant (irove Wesleyan Church, 4C6 
Pleasant Township, 104, 445-57 
Pleas, M. E., 393 
Plummer, Alfred H., 200, 577 
Pluinmer, Prank W., 205 i , .f. 

Polk, Jane K., 750 
Polk, John P., 755 
Pony Creek, 07, 3G0 
Population of count}' by decades (1850- 

1910), 187 
Porter, Gene Stratton, Gil 
Poston. Charles W., 889 
Pottawutomies, 37, 53-Gl 
Powell, J. ]•:., 349 . 
Powell, IMahlon, 920 
Prairie lands, 177 
Pratt, Orville C., 322 
Pratt, Robert J., 350 
Presbyterian Clmrch, La Giro, 421 
Presbyterian Cliurch of Wabash, 344 
Presbyterian Clmrch, Somerset, 465 
IMesent (\)iinty Superintendents and 

Trustees (view), 210 
Present Courthouse, Wabash (view), IGO 
Preserved fruits and meat, 133 
PresslPr, George, 829 
Preston, A. S., 347 
Pretorius, George, GG3 
Pretorins, Jacob, 73G 
Price, Jesse M., 811 
Prickett, Presley, 424 
Primitive planting, sowing and reaping, 

Probate court and judges, 200 
Props, L. M., 614 
Prosecuting attorneys, 200 
Pulilic roads, 226 

Public school funds (1837-54), 210 
Pumpkin leather, 133 
Purcell, HaiiTiibal, 78 
Purdy Family. 903 
Purdy, Henry Lee, 905 
Purviance, David E., 617 


1). !•:. 

Quick, Hezekiali, 197 

Quinlan, Jeremiah, 420 " ^' • ■- i ', . 

(^liiHi, Peter J., 421 

■Kader, C. K., 922 

Pagan, M. J., 790 ' ':•( :■ ' 

Pattlesnakes, 115 

i;a\', James J{., 5G ' ' ' ■' > ' ; ,-•. 

Kay, James .AL, 57 ' " v .. , 

Kay, Joseph, 208 '. 

Kay, Joseph H., 107 
Real estate (1856), 187 
Keasoner, Ethan T., 200 ' ' ^ 

Keed, Archiiiahl S., 345 
Keed, Cliarles ])., G44 ' . i" ■• • ■ 

Keed, John, 409 
Keed, John V., 104 
]{eese, William, 299 
Keneh, G. W., 39G 
Kenner, John H.. 737 ' ' 
Kenner, J., 419 
Kenner, ^1. E., 737 
Keno, Frank, 341 
Reorganized lliglith Indiana Regiment, 4:1. 

Riciiards, Charles A., 453 
Richards, William, 441 
Richards, \Villiam A., 163, 710 
Richardville, 57, GO, 459 
Richardville Reserve, 86, 459 
Ricliarilville's estate, 4G2 itn,«l!, 

Ridenour, Benton, 775 
Ridenour, Catharine, 122 J'' xxiCitcj 

Ridenour, David, 460 
Ridenour, David C, 122, 709 
Ridenour, Jacob, 136 
Riilenour, Mark, 799 
Ridgely, James, 368 
Riggin, Elizabetli (Carter), 704 
Riley, E. S., 352 
Rinehart, Jacob, 455 
Ritzgers. J. :\I., 396 
Rish, Charles, 572 
Rish, Jacob. 570 
Rish, William A., 571 
Roann Clarion, 440 
Roann Public School (view), 438 
Roberts, Elhe, 325 
Roberts, Joseph, 395 
Roberts, :Mary, 326 
Robertson, James I., 325 
Robertson, J. I., 324, 335 
Robinson, A. J., 419 
Robinson, H. H., 333 
Robinson, Lodema, 103 
Koby, Asa. 882 
RobV, E. E.. 217, 455 
Rock City Lodge No. 743, I. 0. O. F., 

Wabash. 363 
Rogers' ferry, 405 
Rogers' Hotel, 405 



Rugirri, Ll'Wis, 100, 12G, 404, 405 

RoiR-y, Jamt'b N., 858 

Kont'V, ^Margueritu T., 858 

Itoiik, George, 390 

Kooiiey, Alliert, 'J44 

Kose Hill, 450 

Rose, John, 340, John li., 257, 360 

Rose, Levi, 305 

Roser, George \V., 708 

Ross, Asa S., lOG 

Ross Creek, 403 

Ross, Edward S., 100, 359 

Ross, E. S., 3G1 

Ross, James P., 359, 966 

Ross, John B., 359 

Ross, Julia, 109 

Ross, -Mary, 208, 316 

Ross, Mary J., 108 

Ross, Moses W., 109, 260 

Ross, N. O., 116, 117 

Ross, R. C, 322 
Ross, William, 182 
Ross, William 0., 204, 305 
Ross, William T, 99, 108, 113, 182, 227, 

Round Lake, 445 

Rowan, Roy ()., 342 

Rowan, W. F., 363 

Ro/.elle, Charles, 260 

Rudicel, George E., 925 

Rush Creek, 403 

Russell, Enoch, 409 ' »7«, «^^'.* 

Russell, John, 408, 409 

Russell, LeAvls, 398 

Russell, Peter T., 348 

Russell, Robert, 104 

Russell, William L., 352 

Ryan, John, 349, 350, 420 

Sackett, !•:. G., 359 

Sailors, Catharine, 103 

Sailors, Charles. 103 

Sailors, Jacob, 217, 884 

Sailors, Jacob L., 94, 103, 428 

Sp. Anastasia Mesnil Lodge No. 46, L 0. 
0. F., Wabash, 362 

St. Bernard's Catliolic Church, Wabash, 

St. John, Samuel, 251 

St. ^Matthew's i:vangelical Church, Wa- 
bash, 350 

St. Patrick's Catholic Church, La Gro, 

Sala, Charles, 205 

Sahunonie River, 402 

Saini.le, Sanuud C, 199 

Sawyer, P., 432 

Sawyer, S., 421 

Sayer, Daniel, 79 

Saviors, Conrad, 258 

Savre, Benjamin, 106, 358 

Sayre, Daniel, 99, 111, 318, 363, 406 

Sayre, Warren G., 113, 205, 214, 306, 598 

Sayre, W. G., 304 

Scene on Market Street, Wabash (view), 

Sciiool Boards, 169 
School District No. 1, 310 
School No. 8, Pleasant Township (view), 

School statistics (1854-1914), 211-13 
Schoulri, 315-23, 387, 414, 420, 435, 440 
Schools of the county, 206-222 
Schlemmer, John, 555 
Schleinmer, Michael, 555 
Schroeder, Gottlieb W., 601 
Schuler, A. W., 804 
Schuler, Daniel, 101, 102, 105, 451 
Schuler, John, 714 
Schuler, Philip, 105 
Schuler, Ralph A., 685 
Schuler, Robert, 451 
S'chultz, George, 441 
Schultz, J. D., 421 
Schuium, J., 351 
Scott, Charles, 427 
Scott, Jesse D., 83, 227, 424, 427, 432, 

Scott, John H., 619 
Scott, John L., 282 
Scott, Jonathan, 102, 105 
Scott, Lyttleton J., 729 
Scott, Moses, 106, 331 
Scenes on Wabasli Street, Wabash, 
(views), 303 

Second Street, Nortii Manchester 
(view), 383 

Second Town Corporation, 305 

Seithman, E., 397 

Service Motor 'J'ruck Company, 342 

Seventy- lift ii Infantry, 274 

SewcU, (Jeorge M., 921 

Shackelford, James, 461 

Sha<k(dfor(l, John, 462 

Shackelford, N. D., 432 

Shaffer, W. H., 388, 393 

Shamba\igh, Enoch, 779 

Shari)e, William 11., 334 

Sliaubert, John J., 148 

Shaw, Jesse, 258 

Sliaw, M., 419 

Shaw, William, 460 

Sheller, Daniel, 819 

Sheller, David B., 819 

Siiephord, George, 77, 295, 304 

Sheriffs, 166 

ShorilT's residence, 102 

Shiloh Presliyterian Church, 451 

Shivelv, Catherine C, 518 

Shivelv, George W., 393 

Shively, Harvev B., 200, 517 

Shivelv, II. B.,"205, 336 

Shoekcy. William P., 348 f 

Slicdfy," L. O., 254 

Sliolty, Samuel, 285 


Sholtv, William, 40.-) 
Sliuwaltrr. Daiiii'l, i^2 
yhvrock. Kline (i., 201 
Shiiltz, Jucub A., ()02 
Sij,Mis, Charles ().. 85J 
Sij^iis, Lewis, 4S7 
Sif;ns, Solomon, 487 
Silver Creek, G«, 446 
Simon, Aaron, 35'J 
Simons, William, ;j'J7 
Simonton, Klizalietli, 373 
Sinionton. .lolin, 371, 395, 843 
Simjison, Joshua, 395 
Sims, C. X., 347 
Singer, Aaron, 359, 955 
Singer, Edwin J., 7S1 
Singer, Kilwaid J,, 217 
Singer, Jacoh. 7S1 
Singer, Jo>ei.h, 393 
Sivev. .fohn C, 101, 204 
Sivey, J. C, 205 
Sivey. H.. Ill 
Sivev & Mackev, 98 
Skinner, H. C. 300 
Slocum, Frances, 88-94 
Slocum, Isaac, 91 
Slocum, John J., 91 
Slocum, Joseph, 91 

Slocum Monument (view), 93 

Slocum Keserve, 93 

Small, Jesse, 290 

Small, Ecuben, 528 

Smith, Allen W., 102, 103, 113, 278, 293, 
304, 305, 340, 350 

Smitli, An.1r<w J., 252, 273 

Smith, v.. K., 348 

Smith, David, 430, 677 

Smith. Edward, 205 

Smith, Edith B.. 678 

Smitli, Elliott S., 076 

Smith, E. D., 397 

Smith, Ceorge W.. 208, 426 

Smith, Ciles, 154 

Smith, T. J., 432 

Smitli. John, 304 

Smith, Lorin W., 484 

Smith, :\larv E.. 299 

Smith, O. TT., 178 

Smith, Philip, 108 

Smith, Samuel D., 344 

Smitli, William TT., 171, 201 

Snake "rJlulTers," 139 

Snavelly. Will T\.. 589 

Snidem'an. Clora J.. 900 

Snidemaii. :Nrichael, 960 

Snyder. William, 463 

Societies, 39S 

Soil, 4 

Soldiers of tlie Civil War, 261-86 

Soldiers of tlie ^fexican War. 260 

Soldiers of War of 1812, 256-59 

Somerset. 87 

Somerset (See Twin Springs), 463 

Somerset liiigle, 4 63 

Somerset Srliool, Waltz Township 

(view), 464 
South i.aketoM, 453, 457 
Soutii Side School, Wabash, 321 
South Wabasli Academy, 321 
Sjiaiks, John, 432 
Spaulding, A. F., 285 
Speicher, Christian, 764 
Sj)eiclier, Daniel K., 939 
Speieher, Daniel L., 441 
Speicher Ivimily, 743 
S()eiclier, Katherine I^., 745 
Speicher, Samuel C, 764 
Spellmaii. R. D., 347 
Spilman, W. E., 318, 321 -■'* 

Spradliiig, JiJiii, 121 
Springer, Jes.-.e, 415 
Scpiires, David, 194. 346 ' ' 

Squires, Mrs. Howard, 123 ' 
Squires, Howard, 166, 712 
Scjuirrel Creek, 433, 446 
S(|uirrel Invasion, 139 
Squirreltown, 85 
Starbuck, Andrew E., 461, 467 
Starbuck, Benjamin T-'., 718 
Starbuck, James, 466 
State Tioard of Agriculture, 182 
State tlower. 221 

State road (Marion to Elkhart), 226 ^^' 

State roads, 226 
State song, 221 
Steel, William, Jr., 166 
Steele, Asbury, 50 
Steele, 0. W.', 51 
Steele, Samuel, 274 
Steele, William, Jr., 305, 362, 363 
Steele, William, 78, 130, 155, 157, 191, 

192, 200, 202, 257, 293. 304, 441 
Steenberger, Stephen, 87, 462, 463 
Steiner, Ceorge, 350 
Stephan, Martin, 575 
Stephens, John W., 373 
Stephenson. A. L., 919 
St^ephenson, Clarence W., 205, 306 
Stejihenson, George J., 166 
Stephenson. Hugh AT., 100 
Stevenson, Amos L., 410, 418 
Stewart. Charles E., 160 
Stewart, James F., 088 
Stewart, John W. 0.. 035 
Stewart, J. W. C, 364 
Stiggleman, Elsie M., 546 
Stiggleman, James H., 545 
Stiggleman, J. H., 325 
Stitt. Archibald, 478 
Stitt, Catharine. 103 
Stitt, Claude, 63 
Stitt, Claude D., 337 
Stitt, Jessie. 324 
Stitt, T. L.. 205 
Stitt, William S., 477 
Stockdale, 437 


stone, Klius 15., ^70 

Stone, Klia.s S., 4.S, 4'J, 5U 

Stone, John L., Ill, 425 

Stone, :Margiiret, 104 

Stone, Muiy S., 104 

Stoner, Cliiirles W., 879 

Stout, J. W., 3.'J3 

Strange, J. T., 51 

Strattoii, Irvin h\, 214, 217 

Stiatton. .Maik, 108, G()5 

Stratton-l'orter, (iene, (Jll 

Street ligl.ting at Wabasli, 311 

Stiiekler, (leorge W., 8G4 

Strickler, Henry, 101, 102, lOG, 371, 39G, 

Strickler, .Jolin, 113 
Strickler, William. 113 
Stuart, William, 197 
Suh^erii.tion schools, 207-209 
Sugar (hove .Methodist Church, 463 
Sullivan, William 1)., 349, 350, 421 
Summeiland, John C, 579 
Summers, Frank. 7RG 
Summers, W. W., 396 
SiuunuMtou, Clayton t,'.." 339 
Summerton, (leo'rge P., 339 
Summerton, (Jeorge W., 339 
Sumnu'rton & Sons, Waliash, 337, 339 
Sundheimer, Adam K., 890 
Sutherland, Zara, 304 
Sutherhuul, Zera, 235 
Swall'er, Christian, 413 
Sweet, Adam 1)., 249 
Sweet, TIeiirv A., 945 
Swihart, flabricl, 375 
Swihart. Ceorge, 440 
Swihart, J. TI., 441 
Switzer, Abrnham K., 375 
Switzer. I'raidc O., 205 
System ol" internal improvements, 232 

Taber. SaTUUol, 22G 

Talbert, Jesse, 529 

Talbert, William O., 529 

Tanneries, 136 

T;fx pavers aTid their property (1914), 

Taylor, Alvah, 205, 214, 552 
Tavlor, Freeman T., 122, 432 
Tec'ter, K. R., 396 
Telegraph lines, 241 
Telephones, 241 
Templin, F., 397 
Teiinant. Lewi.s H., 968 
Terrell. William. 235 
Thomas. T>. F., 397 
Thomas, D. W., 322 
Thomas, Elias B.. 249 
Thomas, FJizabeth C, 108 
Thomas, Enos F.. 102, 108 
Thomas, E. B., 195 
Thomas, F.. 397 
Thomas, TTenry, 911 

Thomas, Isaac, 79, 81, 157, 453 

Thomas, i.evi S., 106 

Tlionuis, I.idve, 299 

Thomas, :\lason I., 107, 106, 272 

'I'homlinson, Sanuud J., 349 

ThomiKS,,)!, Charles W., 937 

Thompson, David, 142 

Tliompson, 1).. & Son, 339 

Thoni|)SoM, Fheiie/.er, 348 

Thompson, i:rwin, 163 

Tliompson, 1-;. ]{., 42 1 

1lK)n\]ison, dames, 344 

Thom|,son, doseidi ^L, 202, 268 

Thompson, li. ('., 814 

Thompson, Samuel C, 104 

Thompson, Sannud T., 344 

Thomi>son, S. C, 251 

Thompson, Thomas J., 873 

Thomson, I'^verett ]?., 344 

Thome, Isaac, 148 

Thome, William, 148 '"' '" 

Thorjje, Closes, 94 

Thurston, Samuel, 450, 452 

Thurston, William K., 262 

Tillunin, J. W., 432 

Tilman, Alvah S., 516 

'I'imber Lands, G 

Tinkham, N. E., 432 

Tipton, John, 56, 73, 80, 210, 292, 405, 

Tipton, Spier E., 260 
Todd, :\lrs. Ceorge, 123 
To<ld, Ceorge. 416, 485 
Todd, John, 416 
Todd, Walter C, 205, 487 
Todd, W. C. 205 
Todd & Wright, 238 
Toledo, Wabash & Western, 238 
To|)ogra])hy, 5 
Township Assessors. 169 
To\iiishi|» roads, 225 
Township Trustees, 169 
Townships created, 164 
Treaty buildings, 117 
Treaty Creek, 68 

Treaty grounds, 56, 71, 117, 226, 291 
Truslow, John F,. 346 
Tucker's Camp Cround, 452 
Tullis Harriet, 209 
Turnpikes, or gravel roads, 229, 230 
Tweedy, Airs. A. F., 123 
Twin Springs, 86, 462, 463 
Twin Sprinirs Section, 87 
Tver, John B.. 285 
Tvner, J. M., 363 
Tyner. William, 346 
Tyre, Thomas, 259 

Ulery, Jacob, 463, 767 
TTrey, A. A., 393 
I'lrey, A. L., 387 
nirey, Calvin. 393 
Illrey, J. L., 441 


Ulrcy, S. 8., 39:] Waba.sli County Agricultural Society, 

liKkM-dowu, Tjioina.s, 303 182, 327 

L'lidfrwood, H. C, 340 Wabash County Fair, 150 

Unger, John B., 77S Wabash Count v Loan and Trust Com- 

Inion Mills, 33'J jiany, Wabash, 337, ;VJJ 

Union Schoolhouse, Wabash, 318 W abasli County Medical Society, 249, 

I'nion Traction Conii)any ol Indiana, 239 2J1 

Inion Trust Hank, North Manchester, Wabash County Pioneer Society, 98-124 

393 Waljasli Courier, 335 

Cnite.! Jircthrcn Chuich, Laketon, 455 Wabash Court Xo. 9, Independent Order 

Cnited Hrethren Church, North -Manches- of Foresters, 3ti5 

ter, 397 Wabash Daily Times, 334 

Cnited Brethren Churches, Wabash, 353 Waliasl, DailV Tribune, 334 

Unsanitary Reputation of the Early Wa- Waliasli Free" Trader, 334 

bash Country, G Waliasii J'ucl ( oinpanv, 314 

Upiier Wabash Argus, Wabash, 331 \\al)ash lliuli Schuoi (view), 320 

Cpp, r Wabasii Medical Society, 249 Wabash L..d-<' No. 140, Knights of Pytli- 

rppcr Waba>h Valley — Discoveries of, ia-, :',i;i 

i:;-24; Indiatis of, 2r;-40; trading posts Wabash Lodge No. 304, Daughters of 

in. l(;-2(); forts. 19-21; recollections Hcljekah. 3ti3 

of larly .sctth inmt (Co.x), 137; draw- Wabash Lodge No. 471, B. P. o. E., 3G4 

backs lo it'ttliiig, 17G; bright outlook ^\■abash .Milling Company, 337 

in 1H37, IHl. Wabash National Bank, 335 

Trbana, 412. 441 Wabash Paper imd Coating :\Iills, 341 

Urbana Independent Teleplione Coini)any, Wabash I'aper Company, 341 

441 Waba-h Plain Dealer, 333 

Urbana Joint Schools (view), 442 Wabash Kiver, 402 

Urschcl, Mrs. Andrew, 123 Wabash lailroads, 238 

Urschel, Andrew, 124, 954 Wabash School Furniture Company, 340 

Urschcl, A. I., 393 Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific, 457 

Urshel, W. II., 341 Wabash Street M. E. Church, Wabash, 

Utica, 411 352 

Wabasli Times-Star, 334 

Viiiir d ill r'. nro 1? 140 WabasU Water and Light Company, 310 

v;u,'Bu:ki;k: d.t^io' " ' ^^-^^ ]]y<^}]y ^-'-^tte. 331 

\an Burkirk, Daniel, 453, 832 J /''^''^ ' ^^).^''' -^ 3' Ir^'of^ 

\an P,u>k,rk. 1). Dow, 833 ^ -' '^^' ' \V"t '' .;■.""• ^"^"^ 

x- „ , i:, |.,,, ., .v.^ \\ abash Weekly Times, 334 

\'nide' rift' C .V.h't 4-^9 Wal)ash Weekly Tribune, 334 

N'andegrilt, C. T., 421 

Wabasli & Erie Canal. 12G. 131, 174, 175, 

Van iM'ne.'Ab.. 2G0 ,,.^\^' ~?\%'^^^ ^'''' •»""' "^^^ 

Vaughn, Thomas F., 341. 475 ):/'''''• ^ • ^ ;•■:"*' 

Veale, John A., 42 

^Vaggoncr, Chi, 217 

^'(»)■•]|eis Clrules'''35 \^'alker, James, 772 

\()taw. I);iniel w'.. 813 
\'utaw, Jonas, G4 

Vernulyea..b-;e:i57 Wag.mer, Jac.^ ^L 217 

Nigus.-^Villiam J., 347 ,\\"^°"^'''V''- ^^" ^^^ 

\\ alker, James, 77r 

AValker, John, 771 

Walker, Evnum, 200 

Wallace, Charles N., 539 

Wallace, John ?*!., 193. 198, 200 

^^■abash as a jiacking center, 183 \A-allace, John R., 392 

\Valiash Baking Pow.h'r Company, 342 ^^'allace, William, 539 

Wabash, 77-78. 143, 295-290, 301-30, 302; Walter, Bossier. 100, 530 

its fathers, 73; lirst schools of, 207; Walter, Christian, 845 

churches, 343-54 Walter. Fred B.. .538 

Wabash Cabinet Company. 340, 342, 475 Walter, John, 902 

Wabash Canning Company, 535 Walter, John, 845 

Wabash Chaiiter No. 20, 358 Waltz, Frederick. 104, 402 

Wabash Cha[it(r No. 90. O. E. S., 301 Waltz Township. SO, 104. 458-07 

Wabasli Circuit (Mctho<list) organized, Waltz, Lieutenant. 45, 50 

■'i4T Wampler. :\Iary, 112 

^Vabash Commamlery No. 37, K. T., 301 AVarm-r, David, 455 

Wabash Council No." 13, 300 ^Varner, Ja'cob, 455 


Warner, ( ». IX, Sti'.) 

W.iM'iii, ehaik'.s, 050 

Water Works, Wal.asli, 309 

A\atkiiis, Jolin, 419 

Watson, Tliomus, 154 

A\'au-sa-aTigli ((Jovenior Ray), 58 

Weas lOuiatenons), 14, 39 

Wc'IjI), Thomas, 104, 109 

WebcT, Krliurt, 733 

\\'i'cklv li.tclli^'cnccr, Wabash, 332 

^\'(•.•sI^(•r, Allen, 4(;3 

Wcesiier. Claikson W., 113, 119, 120, 121, 

123, 205, 300, 328, S90 
Weesner, Eliliu, 102, 103, 136, 461, 463 
\\'eosner, .lonathaii, 197, 329, 405, 890 
Weesner, .lohiel, 401 
AVoesner, ^lartha, 110 
Weesner, Natlian, 401 
Weesner, Robert K., 936 
Well man, (ieor^^e A., 163 
Wellman, Jerome, 118 
Wellmaii, Closes F., 209 
Wells, A. r;., 428 
Wells, Uu<xh, 307 
Wells, O. 11., 397 
Wells, v.. 397 
Wells, Presb.y, 455 
Wells, S. K..'397 
Wells, S. W., 455 
Weslevan ^retliodist Cluirch, Laketon, 

450 ' 
Western House, La Gro, 418 
Westlake. Burronprhs, 346 
Wharton, Benjamin, 348 
Wheeler, Henry, 293' 
Wheeler, Isaac. 74, 293 
Wheeler, Milton. 74, 293 
Wheeler, John :\r., 183, 197, 204 
Wheeler. John, 271 
Wheeler, \V. F., 346 
Whitcraft, L. H., 217 
Whiteneek. John, 460 
White, F. W.. 100, 108 
White. Josiah, 298 
White's Institute (view), 297 
White's Manual Labor Institute, 290-300 
\\'hitesi(le. D. M., 361 
V.'hiteside, Thomas C, 201 
Whiteside. Thomas E., 875 
Whitinper, T)., 211 
W'hitmore, James, 257 
Wieohmann, F. C, 350 
Wilbur, F. A., 321 
Wilcox, Malinda, 123 
"Wild Cat" Banking, 100 
Wilev, Sanniol, 404. 408 
Wild'ev, Karle, 349 
Wilkerson, R. H., 322 
Wilkinson, C. W., 419 
Willcox, John I., 602 
Williams, Allena F., Ill 
Williams, Avery, 217 

Williams, Henjaniin K., 52, 111, 113, 119, 

1:^4, 203 
Williams, B. F., 99, 115, 116, 122, 106, 

205, 278, 279, 280, 2«1, 302, 303 
Williams, Howard, 217 
Williams. Jesse D., 300 
Williams, Jesse L., 235 
Williams, John \V., 384 
^Villianls, \V. S., 807 
WilliaiiiMHi, F. 11., 453 
Willis, William !■:., 249 
W'illniaii, Samuel, 441 
W'ilsnii, Absalom, 909 
Wilson, D. W'., 419 
Wilson, (i. W., 397 
Wilson, James, 194, 490 
\\'il-(.n, James W'.. 304, 300 
WiUun, Je>se, 299 
Wilson, John M., 197 
Wilson, J. ^Vood, 52 
Wilson, L. S., 162 
Wilson, Robert, 72, 291 
Wimmer. John R., 286 
Wines, Josiah L., 192, 407 
\Vines, J. Leonard, 410 
Wines, J. L., 402, 404 
Win field, W. S., 349 
Winj;er. Otho. 389, 874 
Winton, William IL, 248 
Wohl<;amuth, Jacob, 121 
Wohlgamuth, William, 299 
Wolf, Benjamin. 576 
Wolf, Emma, 577 
Wolf, Harmon, 515 
Wolf. Louis, 364 
Wolford, H. H., 440 
Woman's ]>ibrary Association, Wabash, 

AVoman's Relief Corps No. 8, Wabash, 285 
Woods, Harvey F., 166 
Woods, W. ^V■.. 285 
Wool pert, H., 432 
Working. William, 841 
Worrall, William, 421 
Worth, Alexander. 77, 293 
Worth. David, 467 
Worth. Daniel, 154 
Wright, I, B., 396 
Wright, James U., 441 
Wright, John W., 200 
Wright, I'cter, 122 
Wynes, Josiali L., 78, 466 

Yarnclle, Will, 328 
Yeagley, J. B., 322 
Yeomans, C. G., 432 
Young. E. S., 389 
Young, John, 419 

Zahm, George J., 793 
Zeiglcr, Annie M., 579 
Zeigler, Nelson, 578 

Zion Evang(dical Lutheran Church, North 
:\fanchester, 397 

History of Wabash County 

^ PIiy.SICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ■. ,," . , , 

Belong to the Pi-i-eh Sili-iuan Age — Limestone Deposits, Building 


STiioNG Soil. — (iooD Ti.MiiEii Land — IIard Wood Industries — Drain- 
age — T(ji'0(iKAi'iiY — xVlong the Wabash and Eel Rivers — The Lake 
Country — Timber Lands Replaced by Farms — Unsanitary Reputa- 
tion OF THE Early Wabash Country — Scientific and Practical In- 
vestigations — "Where to Build and Not to Build" — Now in the 
List of Dealthful Places — Arcii.eological Remains — Mastodon 
CiiiANTEUsoF Wabash County (Pleasant Township). 

Till' only logical way to writt> history is to follow Nature. Tliis truth 
holds whether otic is writing a universal history or tlie story of a locality. 
The introiluetiun to the ehai)ter dealing with mankind, his works, his 
failui'es anil his aeeoinplislnneiits, should always be a narrative of how 
kind Nature has prepared a home for him on this earth — a habitation 
which he has sometimes improveil, swept and garnished, and at other 
times sadly neglected. 

Ill tJie ease of Wabash County Nature was very kind, for it nestles 
ill the lap of one of the most I^eautiful and fertile valleys in the world, 
and one of the gi'eat natural ]~)assagcs for the i)rimitive races of men be- 
fore ownership in land \vas even a dream. It would lie stretching tiie 
subject biyonil reasonable proi)ortions to revert to the dim i)eriod when 
that i)art of the woi'ld was "^^•ithout form and void;" so the stoi-y eom- 
nn-nccs with the laying down of the great limestone beds of Central and 
Northwestern Indiana. Then by glacial action and the slower scouring 
of the receding waters, the graceful grooves which we call the valleys 
of the Wabash, the Wliite and the Kankakee, were worn in the limestone 
beds, and iiiialh' clad with soil, verdure and forests. 


[U:ij)S(i TO THE ['I'l'Kh Sn.i'iaAx Auio . 

(;rol()y:irally speaking, Wahash County and the Upper Waba.sli Valley 
belon-' to the Uj^per Silurian agv, tlie more solid betls of limestone hav- 
ing usually a thiek blanket of shales, in plaees liftoen feet through. The 
soils derived from the tlisintegration of the rocks of this age are, as a 
rule, ratlier heavy elays, although in many pai'ts of the county the sur- 
face rocks are limestones in thin layers (as in the southern parts of 
Wabash City), which materially changes the character of the soil. In 
the northern portioii of the county, the soil is quite sandy. Tliese mix- 
tures of rlays. sand and disintegrated limestone give a variety of soil, 
which, with ai'titicial stimulants, modern drainage and other improve- 
ments, pro(hiees good croi)s of grain, grasses, vegetables and fruits — al- 
though liortirulture has found more favorable habitats along the Eastern 
shore of Southern Lake ^lichigan. 

Limestone Deposits, Building and Hydraulic 

Various geologists connected with the State Survey have reported 
the results of their examinations. Tlieoretieally, they have sliced down 
through the several layers of soil and rork eiid)raced l)y the upper strata 
of the geological division assigned to AVal)ash County. One of the ex- 
aminations conducted in the bluffs of tiie Wabash Jviver near the city 
results as follows : 

Loose and thin limestones, 15 to 20 feet ; chert and flag-stones, 8 to 
10 feet; aluminous shales, 15 feet; silico-calcareous rock, 15 to 20 feet; 
good l)uilding rock, 20 to 25 feet; hydraulic limestone, 5 to S feet; good 
building stone, thickness of stratum unknown. 

Another expert deduces the following, his table illustrating how the 
various layei-s of soil and stone vary in thickness: 
• Soil and drift, 5 to 00 feet; porous limestone for burning, to 40 
feet; i)aving stones, to 8 feet; com}nu-t argillaceous limestone, to 20 
feet; hydraulic limestone and mud-.stones, 10 to 50 feet. 

Paving Stones 

The gray limestone, seen at Logansport and a few localities in IMiami 
County, tirst becomes laminated and then elierty (flint-like), while at 
AVabash it is thin-bedded and furnishes an unlimited amount of the 
best paving stone. The bed of paving stone crowns the higher hills 
along the rivt-r at Wabasli, and is found underlying all the adjacent 
talilelands when not eroded. It is generally about eight feet thick, 


iiud cDiiiiiosi'd of ;i hni'd, i)ur(', gray liiiu'sioia-, slifctt'd down iji layers 
iVom two to four inches thiek. separated by tliin partings of clay. This 
di pijsit i^ a SMiii-c- of drcid.-(l iiieoiMf to various eitizi-Jis (,>f the county. 
At a few l(;calitic.s the paving- stone is intenMiplcl hy heavy he(hhMl lime- 
stone, liut at W'aliash it ivsts directl\- on the hydraulic limestone. Tliis 
is an exeei)tioii to the general rule, although not infrequently the case 
in the southern ])art of the city. 

Uelow these pa\-ing stones, and sometimes interchanging, oecui's a 
depdsit of thick- l)e<lded (piarry stones. Sometimes it is found tliro\vn 
down from its legitimate ])ositi()n Ity the interlocation of the elay sand- 

AxAL\sis op^ Cement Std.ves 

Experiments on the liydraitlie limestone of AVahash County have 
heen ])r(igi'essing for more than forty years, and some good cement has 
heen ])rodueed. An analysis of the stone in eomparisou with that of 
staiiilaid liy^lraulie limestone seems to show a disproportion in certain 
essential elements, the chemical combination of whitdi tinder water, 
foiiiis the well known cement of commerce. 

" h'or h\(lraiilic i)urposes," says I'rofessor Cox, foiauer Indiana state 
geologist, •'the essential constituents of a cement stone are carbonate 
of lime and silica. The hardening under water is nuiinly due to the 
chemical eoml)ination of these constituents through the agency of water, 
])roducing hydrated silica of lime; where other are present, such as 
alumina and nuignesia, double silicates are formed that become \'ery hard 
and stiong. in order to bring about this chenucal change, the silica must 
be bi'ought to that condition which will enable it to form a gelatinous 
paste with acids. A portion of the silica may be in tins condition 
naturally, l)iit by far the larger portion remains unacted upon by acids 
until brought to a white heat in the presence of carbonate of lime. 

"There is a ver\' wide ditference noticeable in the relation of the 
silicic acid and the earth bases with which it combint'S — lime, magnesia 
and alumina. I mention these earths, since they alone are serviceable 
in connection A\ith the silicic ai'id to form a good hydraulic mortar. 
If these substances are in-esent in condiining proportions, the ratio of 
silicic acid to bases may be lUU of the former to 3GG of the latter. If 
lime and magnesia form the base, the ratio shoidd be about 100 to 277. 
If lime alone constitutes the base, the silicic acid should be 100 to 200, 
and when of lime and alumina, 100 to 3!)8. AVhen foreign substances are 
I)resent, which we tind alwa}s to be the case, then these ratios will, of 
course, have to lie varied." 


For purposi'S of comparison tlie propoi-tion of these essentials in 
tile foiuposition of cement stones quarried from sevei-al of the famo\is 
dei)osit.s of the world is given, witli the showing of the Wahasli County 
iiydraulie limestone : 

liosendale, New York TOO silicates to 14!) carbonates 

Cumberland, .^laryland ..]()(> silicates to 186 carbonates 

Yassey, France TOO silicates to 4()r) i-ai-bonates ' 

liologne, Italy 100 silicates to iJll carbonates 

Kngland 100 sili.-at<vs to 'AU cai'bonates 

AVabash County 100 silicates to 124 carbonates 

Strong Son. 

The prevailing strong soil of Wabasli County made it a good timber 
land. There was comparatively a suudl area of prairie in the north- 
western part, north of Eel J\iver, known as the Bai-rens. When the 
first farmers commenced to take up land to cultivate, there was virtually 
110 convenient market for the hard woods whieh pi'e\ailed, such as oak, 
hickory, walnut, beech, sugar, ash and sycamore. Their jiressing object 
was to clear the timber from their lands, which they accomplished gen- 
erally by burning. Thus a wholesale desti'uction of tiiuber was inaug- 
urated, and by the early 70s, residents of the county were voicing their 
regret through the public {)rints. For instance, a writer of that day 
says: "A tine quality of tindier has now become scarce and valuable. 
I31ack walnut, a species of tindjcr once quite abundant and often burned 
in log-heaj)s, has reached such a i)rice in the imirkets that if one were 
fortunate enough to own a (lu.ii'ter section covered witli this kind of 
timber he would be ranked among th(; wealthiest citizens. 

"The demand for nearly every kind of timljer is increasing, from 
the fact that in the older states most of the forests have been cut away, 
wtiile many of the states and territories lying west of Indiana being 
practically destitute of timber are depending on Western Ohio and 
Indiana for their supplies of hard wood. 

"The number and variety of manufactures from the products of the 
forest are constantly increasing and bid fair to become a leading in- 
dustry. Among the most impoi'tant of the artk-h'S made are furniture, 
wagons and carriages, and inu'ts of them staves, agricultural imple- 
ments, etc. At prest'iit the i)rice of timber is such that a tract of tim- 
bered land is about equal in value to a tract that is cleared oft'. If there 
is much good timber, or the facilities for shipment, good liy reason of 
being near to a town or raili-oad, it is more valuable, but if the timber 
is poor and back from the railroad it is worth less than cleari'd land." 



A most valuable supi)k'iii('iit to the riclint-ss and variety of the soil, 
is tlic ffcc drainage of the suid'aee of the eaiint ry and the abundant 
sui)])ly of water tlirough running streams and living springs. These 
features give it a solid standing as a live stoek eountry. 

The northern portion of the eounty is watered by Eel River and 
its tributaries. The AVabash River passes through the South-Central 
portions from southwest to northeast, and is interseeted by the Sal- 
amonie four mihs from the county line on the east, and the ]\lissi.ssinewa 
Riv(^r drains the southern townships. 

Topography ■,, , ", ' |. ,* , , ,, ,,., _, 

AVabasli County has an area of 42tj square miles, the surface of which 
is g<'nera]ly level. There are no very high hills, notwithstanding the 
land is rolling or undulating near all the water-eourses, exeept at the 
head of tlicni, which is usually h-vel. Taken as a whole, the eounty is 
l»leasantly diversilied. 

Along and iiear the AVabash River, are found I'oeky bluffs of con- 
sich'rable altitude. Along the margin of that stream to the northward 
the I'idges extend to the southward, the sloi)es fi'onting to the southeast 
and the northwest, while on the Oj^posite side of the river they run 
toward the northwest with less gentle undulations to the right and left, 
affording gootl drainage in the direction of the water-courses that traverse 
the eountry at no great distances from each other. 

The Lake Country 

Jhat portioji of the country north of Eel River was originally com- 
posed of sandy prairies, or oak openings, interspersed with niany small 
lakes vai\ving in area from two to one hundred acres. Pleasant Town- 
ship, in the northwestern part of the county, is the favored locality. 
Long Lake, the largest of the score of pretty little bodies of water, is 
about a mile long and one-third in width. Lukens, the next in size, is 
I)er]iaps two-thirds as large, and situated half a mile east of the ]\Iiami 
County line. Then there are Round, Flora, Bull, Mud, Bear, Flat and 
Twin lakes, others too small for names, but all contributing to make the 
eountry cheerful and pleasant. Their outlets are generally into tribu- 
taries of Eel River. Several of the prettiest of them cluster around the 
little Town of Laketon, which has some reasonable ambitions to become 
a lively summer resort. 


TiMiuoK Laxds I\L'I'i,ack!) I'.y Farms 

Witli tile excciJtioii of tliis country of lakes, piairics and oak oj)cnin<^s, 
tlic lands of AVabash (,'()nnt\' wci-c oi-i'_;iiially coN'ci-cd willi a vigorous 
^■|-(j\vtli of tiinhci' of vai'ictics wliii-li indicated, as noted, both a strong,' 
and iV'i'tile soil. The most abundant of these foivst .growths wciv white 
antl black walnut, hickory, ash and oak. Jn the nortluTii jxirtion of the 
tind)er area, whei'c the soil became lighter, appeared the beech, sugar 
and maple trees, with lessei- growths of black' walinit, burr oak, ash and 
hickoi'\-, white and yellow p(jplar, linn or liasswood, hackberi'y, cherry 
and elm. 

Of course, the tirst growths of timber have long sinee disappeart'd, 
the largest areas having been replaced by rich tields of corn, oats and 
wlu'at, while the lake country and other tracts widely scattered, i)roduce 
luxuriantly of clover and timothy. Horses, cattle and nnleh cows, swine 
and poultry aiv lai'ge soui-ces of wealth to the people of Wabash County, 
Nature, with the energetic assistance of nmn, having i)rovided th(>m with 
the pi'oper conditions for tiieir support and increase. 

rxsAXiTAiJY Ri:ruTATi(jx OF THE Early Wafjasii (Jokntry 

liefore settlement luid loug progressed in Wabash County, it was 
feared that its comparatively level surface and rather slow-moving 
waters \veie un.favorable conditions to healthful residence. Malaria, 
typhoid fe\H'i-s. ilii)litheria and like diseases gave the country such a 
bad reputation that the settlers ct)uniienced to doubt whether it would 
ever be lit for habitation; but, with the stmly and practice of i)ublie 
sanitation, the introduction of scientific drainage to city and countr\- 
and the establishment of pure water supplies in every connuuinty, how- 
evfi- suudl, Wabash County fell into line with the other healthful spots 
of (iod's country. It has been many a long day since any of its resi- 
dents has dared bi-eathe a hint that there is any di'awback to long-life 
from residence in any section of Indiana, least of all to any locality in 
tlu' I'ljper Wabash \'alley. "That very fact is one of the wonders of 
my day,'" i-emai'ked a Wabash City pioiKH'r not man>' weeks ago. "If 
I had been tohl even forty years ago that the Wabash \'^alley would l)e 
fi'ee of nialai'ia, as healthful a place in which to live as Xorthei'u New 
Yoi-k or any of the highlands of New Kngbunl, I wovdd have S(.'orned 
such a ]-)roi)het. liut it is but anothei- illustration of what modern 
science is doing foi' the comfort, happiut ss, and longevity of man." 



In the light of tliat remark, it is of interest to note some of tlie eon- 
elusions reaehed ])y a sanitary exi)ert of forty years ago — Dr. James Ford 
(U. S. Surgeon), wlio made a tliorough examination of the AVahash 
Valley in tliis eounty, for the veiy purpose of suggesting i)reeautions 
against tlie diseases jiceuliar to the loeality. The doetor was liotli seit'ii- 
tilie and ])i'aetieal, as is evident fi'om th.e 1)rief extracts whieh we take 
from his extended treatment of the suhjeet. He sa.A's : "The ol),]\'et of 
the fodowiiig i)ages is to iiud^e known an original discovery in sanitary 
sidence of gi'cat ^■alue to the peO])le. 

'"Local eui'rents of air are governed liy law and always n*iovi' under 
similai' circumstances in the same direction. 

"The air, in dry valleys in summer and fall seasons is warmer, 
hence lightei', than that of adjacent highlands and that immediately 
over the vaHey. 

"The cool air of the highlands undc-rruns the warmci- higher at- 
mosi)hei-e of the valley; the lightei- Hows up over the cooler on the "levated 
lands, cools otf. settles down and runs hack into tlie valley; thus form- 
ing a revolving elliptical ring, Avhicli carries and distrihutes the heat, 
malai-ia and germs of disease of the valle\- on the dry lands. These 
movements take place alike and at the same time on hoth sides of the 
valley, and continue at this place (Wahash) until U o'clock P. ,M. 

"The air in the valley hy the loss of heat shi'inks in volume, caus- 
ing a sag in the u|)])er air, which 1)\- its dynannc force continues with 
an accelei-ated motion, sidttending hoth the other t'Ui-rents. It settles 
down in a wedge-sha])ed hody. with its i\\)r\ owv the center of the valley, 
revei-ses hoth the lateral currents, and when its point is heatetl hy the 
soil it parts in the nuddle and runs upon the hillside on the elevated 
lands. These movements coidinue until the sun's rays in the )norning 
change them. 

"All these ail- curreiils deserihed ahove form a gi'eat i)neumatie 
engine to carry the heat and va])or from the heated lowlands and to dis- 
ti-ihu1e them over the high gi-o\ui(ls and hills. If it lie in a valley, the 
machine moves up at the rate of fi'om one to f<jur miles per hour. [Malaria 
and the gei-ms of disease are carried and distrihuted over the country 
wiierever these ail' currents move. 

"The question of health or disease in any locality may he deter- 
mined within 100 feet (a priori) hy u.nderstanding the to])ography of 
the locality, as well in prairies as among the hills and v<dle\s. 

"The place for oi'chards. vine\ai-ds autl tender plants may he as 


easily settled as the questions of health or disease. They should not 
usually Ite placed near the dwelling house. 

" observations and exi)eriinents were always made of still 
nights. During the day time tlie sun's rays render the atmosi)here 
so unsteady that accurate observations cannot be made in this tlirec- 

.- : ■ Where Not TO Build 

"In selecting a site for a dwelling house, shun ground in whieli tlie 
water level is high and the soil is wet or very damp, and in which there 
may be a large amount of humus or decaying aninud or vegetable mat- 
ter and where thorough drainage cannot be obtained. Test the water 
supply first. If much vegetable or animal matter is found in it select 
another site. Mists and fogs are always unhealthy. 

"Never locate at the mouth of a valley that empties into a larger 
one, nor upon the banks if the fogs settle there. These valleys act as 
venti-ducts or chimneys to carry air loaded with moisture and the germs 
of disease to the high lands along the banks for great distances. If the 
prevailing winds pass over marshy lands or water where mists or fogs 
abound, avoid their track. Avoid damp, dark valleys and low places 
surrounded by hills. Avoid locations where the air passing up running 
streams will strike the residence. In mountainous countries shun places 
where the cold winds, after a hot day, run down their slopes and cover 
the dwelling. The variation in temperature in winter on slopes facing 
to the noi'thwest is too great for health and comfort if it can be avoided. 
Neither the top nor the bottom of high hills is eligible for a dwelling 
place; the former is too changeable, the latter too damp. 

"Houses should not be erected on what is called 'made-up ground,' 
ufiless thoroughly under-drained before the fill is made, especially if it 
was a hollow through which the water flowed after wet spells. Rains 
and melting snow fill the interstices of the ground for many feert beneath 
its surface. This water percolates through the earth into these hollows 
and carries out particle by particle of the finer constituents of the soil 
until a natural conduit or waterway is formed. Through this, the land 
above is relieved of its surplus water, so far as the trend is in this 
direction. The places are usually filled up with ashes, street cleanings, 
dirt from cellars, and every variety of garbage from the town or city. 
W^hen this ground is filled Avith water, the natural outlet being blocked 
up, the hydraulic pressure above forces this water through the interstices 
of the made-up ground, carrying out its carbonic acid and other noxious 


t'as(.-.s, filling till' air in its locality with tlaiiipiu's.s and malaria. These 
are dangerous locations and should never be occupied by living beings 
until thoroughly drained below the filling. I will venture the opinion 
that such places may be traced out in cities today which have not been 
completely under-drained l)y the cases of sickness that occur alone. 
These ncgativ(- observations are written for the rural population; in 
cities and towns, it is oidy the privileged few who have the advantage 
of selecting sites for new houses." 

Wjieue to HuiLn a House 

Having told "Where Not to Build a House," Dr. Ford directs 
'AVhere to Build a House," as follows: "Select an elevated situation 
where the water is pure, where it does not rise and fall by accessions 
of surface water aftei' hard rains and where its level does not range 
above Mfteeii feet below the surface; where the drainag<? is or may be 
made ])ei-fect ; where the air is line and pure and not contaminated by 
enuinations from the soil; whei't; tlie sun's rays are not obstructed by 
high hills or forest trees. Fear not his rays, for by them all animated 
nature lives, moves and grows. Select a soil, if possible, not too reten- 
tive of moisture, but a dry, gravelly, sandy loam or limestone forma- 
tion, compact clay or clay with gravel; and a low water level with 
thorough drainage makes a commendable site. A bench, jiart way up the 
hill near a break or a hollow in it, facing the southeast, south or south- 
west, other things being equal, makes a very pleasant place for a dwelling 
house on such formations. 

"On level lands it is needful to proceed with more circumspection. 
It is necessary, not onl\' to make accurate observations on air currents, 
l)Ut tlic thermometer uuist be used to settle these important questions. 
Dig or bore down from one to three feet in several places, on dry as well 
;is damp grounds; take the temperature at the bottom and top of all 
the excavations, and then conipare them. The soil that will carry the 
lai'g(st amount of heat the lowest down, in a given time is, in the main, 
ihe di'vest. A soil that will not conduct the sun's heat downward is unfit 
to live upon; it is too damp or too wet." 

"DamjuK'SS is the exciting cause of colds, bronchitis, rheumatism, 
consumption and doubtless many other diseases. Polluted air and water 
give rise to a large class of nudadies known as 'filth diseases,' too nu- 
nu'rous to name, but typhoid fever and diphthei-ia are specimens of 


'■Th(> mass of tlie ik'01)1l' know little or nothing about the first princi- 
ples of hygiene. To them it is a sealed hook; they have no means of 
gaining knowledge in this dii-eetion. Piiysieians, as a body, are not 
learned in this seie)iee, and au- too liusy to impart knowhnlge to their 
patrons. TIk- daily and weekly press liave adequate faeilitii's for dis- 
.Seminatiiig knowledge of this kind among the peOi)le; l)ut they, too, 
like the piiysieians, are not skilled in this department of seii'iiee." 

Now IX THE Li>sT OF IIealtiuh'l Places 

It is fortunate that the remai'ks eontaiiied in the last paragraph no 
longei' appl\- to th(,' jjresent times, in their entirety. The residents of 
AVahash County, as elsewhere, ai-e fairly wi'll ])osted as to hygienic 
conditions — the neet-ssity of good air and water, and the careful selec- 
tion of resilience sites; and, with the atlvancement of public hygiene, 
these ai'e now within the I'l'aeli of all. Thaid^s largely to the physicians, 
as a l)ody, and the pu))lie jjress throughout the country. .;.,.m*" 

Akcii.eological Kemains , ,^ ^,|.,. ,.(^,.,, 

The Oliio V^alley is I'ieh in ai'clueologieal remains — the valley of the 
Wabash, less so. In the latter are few of distinctive mounds at- 
tributed to pi'chistoric num ; but Xorthern Indiana has furnished several 
moi'e striking evidences of prelustoric animal life than those foiuid in 
the earth works of the Ohio ^"alley. In the dim ages the groat glaciers 
of the North arc supposed to have Ijrought to the soil of Northern In- 
diana the cai'easses of those mastodons whieh wei'c tlie forefathers of 
the eh'phaids of tile Soidh. 

]\Iastodon Giganteus of AVabasii County 

That Wabash County is fortunate in the luiearthing of such monsters 
is evident from the following publishi-d in the Plain Dealer of Septem- 
bi'r 5, 1872: '' Having been infoi'uied last Friday (August 80, 1872) 
by a fi'iend M'ho resides in Pleasant Township, in this eoiuity, tiuit the 
bones of a gigaidie animal wei-e l)eing dug up a cou])le of mih's wt st 
of Laketon, accompaided by Elijah Ilaekleiiuui, Ksq., Kev. L. J.. Car- 
]ici!t. !• and I)i'. li. P. Plount, tlie senior of tlie Plain l>\'ali'r started at 
daylight on the day following to visit the grouiul, to investigate for 
ourselves and ascertain ^vhetller this was wiiat we lioped, a material 
adtlition to the realm of seientifie discovery. AVe went immediately to 
where the bones were said to have been diseovei'ed — on tlii' old Aieiiden- 


lijill fanu ill J'lrasaiit 'I'owiiship — wlifi-c wc i'ouiid iiotliiii;^' but a lioli:: 
ill the yi-ouiitl aiiil our old friends, Janu's Scott, Amos Nye, Stevens 
ami others, tryiiij^' to make it larirer. We wei'e told, however, that a 
good many bones of some very large animal had been taken out of tlie 
hole, but that they were most of them then at Laketon, and a part of 
them at the residence of Mr. Seott, a short distance away. 

"Tins discovery \\-as made on tlie L'S-th ultimo, about five or six 
feet undi'i'groiind, by men engaged in digging a ditch in a wet prairie 
or mai'sli. The ground abo\-e the bones was a black swamp muck, and 
that part immediately surrounding them a bluish sand mixed with white 
particles. AVe wrvv told hy the woi'kmeii that .just below where the bones 
were found is a stratum of tine gravel. As the i)resent has l)eeii a very 
dry season and as water stood where the bones were found, the opin- 
ion that they had always ])een cox'ired by water as well as earth, seems 

"Having satisfied our curiosity hei'C, accompanied by Air. Xye, we 
jiroceeded to Laketon, \\!u're We were shown a sight truly astonisliing. 
Mr. Xye emptii-d box after box of immense bones in a most remarkable 
state of j)reservation. Except the decomiiosition of cartilaginous .sub- 
stances and discoloration, these fossils are as ]»erfect as they were when 
the animal died. It re(piire(l little stretch of the imagination to fancy 
these mammoths of a distant jiericKl making the earth around us tremble 
with their pomh'rous tread. We liave no doubt from the shape and 
character of these l)ones as to the class of animals to which they be- 
longed. This \\as evidently a Alastodon (Jiganteiis, many of the bones 
we examined corresiX)nding in shape and structure with those described 
by I)i'. Warren, of ]^oston. 

"Several measurements were made of these wonderful fossils. Al- 
though this in its lifetime was a monster, the bones are not so great 
as some others \vliich have l)efore been found. The knee-joint is twenty- 
seven inches around one end. The femur is three feet long. At its 
greatest circumference aroniul the joint. thirt\--two and one-half inches. 
The distance across the glenoid cavity, eight inches. A i)ortion of the 
dorsal \-crtelirae have Vi'vy hjng spinous processes. One of these mcas- 
nres as follows: Transverse diameter, eleven inches; longitudinal, 
twenty-four inches; distance around the lower extremity, Iwenty-six 
inches. The patella, or knee-])an, five inches in dianu'tiM', and nearl}' 
globular. The longest rib is forty-seven and one-half inches long. I'n- 
like the ribs of most animals, instead of the broadest part being on a 
line with the outer surface of tin; animal, its widi-st part extended in 
the direction of the peritoneal cavity. 

"Other measurements have been made, but these will be sufficient 



to sliow tlie magnitiulc of the beast when alive. JMany if not all the 
bones of the baek have been found. In the collection at Laketon tliere 
were innety-eight bones, and in that at Mr. Scott's enough to raise the 
wliolc nuiii])er to 120." 

Consequently, tliis history of AYabash County covers a period from 
the days of .Alastodon Giganteus to those of the automobile— wldch ou-ht 
to satisfy Its patrons. 


.;n- \:;\". \ 

-■;■ >:-■ '•'; •■[ i ,', ;'.>i- ;■. . 

*■■<■■:,■■■ ' , ,, .-.;,t 


Did La Salle Asclnd the AVabasii? — CiHcrMsT.\XTL\L Evidence — A 
Line op Posts to Protect Trade — Daxcjerocs WAHAS!r-]\rAUMEE 
Route Abandoned — ]\riAMis Return to the Wahasii — Gateway to 
THE Upper AVahasii Opened — Claims of Fort Wayne, Lafayette 
and Vincennes — La Salle Built No Forts in Indiana — The Ques- 
tion OF Permanency — Pressure of English Traders — First ^Lvp 
OF THE AVabasii A'alley — First AIilitary Posts — Racial Amal- 
gamation AViTHOUT Parallel — Fur Traders' Burden — Indian 

Till' autliciitic history of the L'pptT AVabash A^allcy eoinmeiiees witli 
tile explorations and discoveries of La SaUe, under the direction of 
the Fn-neli Government, in IGOO-Tl. The Iroquois had visited him per- 
sonally at Iiis settlement above Alontreal and told him of that great 
pleasant valh-y which stret<-hcd toward the Southwest— our Ohio — 
and which promised to become the splendid gateway into a greater New 
h'l'aiice. So as an agent in tlie extension of that empire in tlie New 
Woi'ld. La Salle went forth, the details of his historic journey of two 
years, lieing gathered only from reports to the inteiidant of New France; 
and they were scant indeed. 

Did La Salle Ascend the AVabasii? 

It is oidy certain that, accompanied by an Iroquois guide, La Salle 
traveled across tlie country from the southern shore of Lake Erie, for 
a distance of some twenty miles, to a stream which finally led him to 
the Ohio; so called by the Iroquois because of its beauty. He descended 
the parent stream until met by a great fall, supposed to be the Falls 
of the Ohio at Louisville. Here the direct narrative (published in 1671 
by the intendant in his report to the king of France) ends. There is 
no ri'cord of La Salle's journeyings from that time until his return 
to Canada in 1671, although strong circumstantial evidence tends to 




.show that h. ascviulc.l the- Wabash Kivcr, passed the purtagv iiilo tii 
.Maumce. aiid tlieiieu into Lake Erie. 


A syjiopsis ui' this evicleiiee may be tlius -iveii: A i.iaiiuseript map 
published by the i-'ivueli ( .'(.verumeiit iii l(i7:i, and still preserved 
Jii Jts airhiv.s, deliues as the aiva oi' Frem-h diseoverv an extejit of 
c-ountry roii-hly delineated beyond the falls and a portion of Eastern 
aiid Xorthei., llHnois. At a later date, the Jesuit Fathers ^vho aeeom- 
panied J.a .Sail.-, .Joliet and other French explorers and made the must 
faithful records extant of their discoveries in the famous "J^da- 
tions," added further evidence that La -Salle was the iirst white man 
to traverse the Wabash \'alley on his way toward the .Maumee and Lake 
Erie, h'ather Ileiuiepin was La Salle's special historian and in 1G77, 
six years after the Sieur's return from his first voyage of discovery in 
the Ohio \'alley, he spoke of La Salle's canoe-trade with the Lidians 
along tile "J^ivers I'yo, Oubach and others in the surrounding neigh- 
borhood," as of several years' standing. 

The natural deduction is that if La Salle had traversed the Wabash 
with canoes in the progress of his trade, for several years befon; J(i77, 
he have traver.sed the Wabash Valley sometime during 1G(J:)-1G71.' 
if he was exploring and trading on the Wabash during that period, it 
is probable, as has been claimed, that he established a trading post' at 
Kedd-ang-a (Fort Wayne), the cntral village of the Miamis, and an- 
other at Ouiatenon (Lafayette), the chief town of the Weas, a branch 
of the :\Iiamis; that he transported his goods up the AVabash to the port- 
age, across the carrying place to the .Alaumee, and thence to Lake Erie. 

A LixE OF l^jsTS TO Protect Trade 

^ As early as 1G7L' a consideralde trade had grown up among the 
^liamis and their allies in the territory watered by the St. Joseph's 
of LakeMichigan and the St. Mary's and :\Liumee adjacent to Lake 
Erie. The erection and maintenance of military posts by the Govern- 
ment for the pi'otection of this growing trade were the natural out- 
growth of the situation, and, with the appointment of Count de h'ron- 
tenac as governor-gc-neral of New France this policy was soon being 
vigorously pushed. This was the underlying cause for the fii-st settle- 
ments along the AVabash-Maumee route from Lake Ei-ie to the Ohio 


I)AN(ii:i;()r,s \V.\i!.\sii->iIai',m i:k Jxou'i'i'; Ai'.an'donicu 

" -Mcaiitinic the liTHjuois wrrc iiiakiii.u- warlike iiK-iirsions against 
the Miaiiiis and Ill!nf)is. l)ui'in<jr the progfcss of these expeilitions against 
tribes inhabiting the (■nuntry watered ))y the Waliash, Kankakee anil 
Illinois rivers to the southward of Lake Miehigan, tin? route of tlu; 
ineui-sionists lay along the southern shore of Lake Ki'ie i)i the direction 
of the nrineijtal village of the .Mianiis. While the Aliainis wei'e not 
the special objects of I I'otjuois cniuit\- they were undei-stood to be in 
alliance with the Illinois, and, as a conse((Uenee, subject to disti'ust. Not 
unfrtMiueiitly, therefoi'e, they sulTci'ed fr(Mn the aggressions of their 
formidable assailants. The situation induced a change in the line of 
conniiercial intercourse between the h'rench and their Indian allies with 
whnni the Ii'o(juois were at wai'. Jn order to avoid the coiuplications 
incident to the maintenanci- of a trading post on the line of warlike 
operations it was detenuiiied to ()ccu])y and foi'tify for the time being 
another ])Ositinii more I'cmote at the mouth of the Kiver St. Joseph's, 
at its entrance into ]>ak'e .Michigan. 

"At a later date La Salle gave the reason for this change: 'I can 
no longer go to the Illinois but by the Lakes Huron and Illinois (Lake 
Mi<-higaii), because the other -ways which I have discovered by the head 
of Lal;e Erie and the southern coast of the same had l)ecome too dan- 
gerous by frequent t'licountei's with the Iricputis, who are always upon 
these coasts. Accoi'dingly in the month of November, 1G7!), a fort was 
erected by La Salle at the mouth of the St. Joseph's River." 

Notwithstanding every effort i)Ut forth by the French to protect 
their trade in the Ohio ^'alley and its ureat noi'tlu-rn ti'ibutary, the 
Wabash, the pressure and incursions of the H'ocpiois were too nnich 
for all their pi'e('autions and bra\'ery, and when the fierce and audiitious 
Lasti'i'u confederacy declared fornud war on the ]\Iiamis in l(i82, that 
Indiau nation d-serted the AVabash Valley to join the Illinois and the 
other Western tribes gathered around V'oi't Saint Loins, on the Illinois 
River. There La Salle formed the confederacy which stood as a wall 
against the further spre;id of the Iro(pU)is jxtwei'. 

Mtamis Rf/itux to Tin: Wahasii 

The ri'turn of the Miamis to the cotnitry of the Wabash in 1712 was 
a clear indication that they considered it a safe I'csideiK-e, and the old 
trading route to Lake Li'ie was again opened. I'ntil that year the 
I'cported establishnu'iit of i)Osts and settlements is always subject to 
suspicion, as far as an\' pei'maiu'ucy is concerned, and some I'ven go 


so far us to claim that the first substantial i)ost t'ouiidt'd in what is 
now Indiana was that estal)lished at Ouiateuon (La I^'^ayi'tte) in 1720. 

Gateway to the rpi'Eii W.\I5asii Oi-exkh ^ ; .;^ 

Xo clt'ort was ever made to plant a colony there, hut it became in 
time cjuite a pronnnent trading jjoint, for several good icasons. it was 
tlie largest vilhige (jf the Oiiiateiiou Indians, was the center of the 
Ijcavej- eonntry, and was easily accessible, being at the lu-ad of navi- 
gation on the Wabash. It was the gateway to the Uppei- Wabash Val- 
ley, midway idong which lies what we now know as Wal)ash (Jounty. 
It \vas at (Juiatenon that tlie (.-argoes liad to be transferred, owing to 
tlie ra]»ids in the river, from the lai'ge canoes which were used in tlie 
Lower Wabash to the smaller ones that were employed between Ouiatenon 
and the portage to the i\Iaumee. 

The threatened inroads of the English made the establishment of 
other posts imperative and in 1725 tiiey were ordered by tlie Oovernment 
of New France. There is no direct record of when the post at Vincennes 
was estaljlished, Init it was probal.)ly in 1727. ,t 

Claims of Foiit Wayne, Lafayette and Vincennes i^ 

Historians of the AVabash Valley have written miK-li and earnestly 
on the claims for i)riority of the posts, or trading centers, established 
by the French at the places we now know as Fort Wayne, Lafayette 
and \'incennes. Jt seems i)robable that much confusion and considerable 
argument might have been avoided if the various champions for the 
several localities had stated whether they had in mind a simple trad- 
ing post, or a military establishment of some permanency fixed by the 
Government of New France to protect her trade and Indian allies. 
• As stated, these subjects have been voluminously discussed by nu- 
merous writers, and perhai)S by none more thoroughly than William 
Henry Smith in his "Indiana." by S. C. Cox in his "Wabash Valley," 
and by Richard S. Peale in liis "Ilistorieal Atlas of Indiana." Witli- 
out further comment we quote from authors and publications, 
even at the risk of a little overlapping and repetition. 

La Salle Bi'ilt no Forts in Indiana 

"It is highly i)i'ol)able that on La Salle's retui-n fi-om his lObO-71 
journey he ascended the Wabash to the Portage and then crossed to the 
Alaumee. In fact, there can be little doubt remaining on that point. 


III- claiiiis to lla^•c' disL-ovt-ix-d the- iKjrtaf,'^. Jii IGSl he ilrcw uj) liis will, 
aihl ill that iuiiiortaiit (locuiuciit In- set out that he hail discinrrrd a way 
to ihr .Mi^sl.s^ip|,i hv tlir head (d' Lakr l^i'ic, liut had ahaiidoiicd it be- 
cause it had tircoinr tod daiij^crous owiuLr to the ]ii'i-.sciic(' of the lr(H[Uoi.s. 
?(■!■(• Allouc/. ill KiSO, i-idV-ri't'd to the portage from the .Maiiinee to the 
Wa))a.sli, and says it was a .shorter route to the -Mississippi than the one 
usually taken by the St. Joseph of the Lake and the Kankakee. 

'"Foi- several yeai-s La Salle eai-ried on a very lai'ye trade with the 
Lidiaiis on the Wa))ash and the Ohio, and that trade \vas intei'rui)ted 
liy the iiiinirsions of the iieree and Moody Iroquois, ^\■ho sought to drive 
the Miaiiiis from these favorite hunting and trai)jdng grounds. He did 
not, howevt'i-. tmild any forts or est;d)lish any pei'iuaneiit trading posts 
•within the limits of Lidiana. His ])rin(;ipal ])Ost was Fort St. Louis 
on the Jlliiiois Liver, and around that post he gathered the various 
triltes that had been driven from their homes on the AVabash and 
]\Liuiiiee by the I roipiois. Li the midst of his great eares, and his gi'ow- 
ing trafhe with the Indians, and his desire for gain, he never lost sight 
of his one great scheme to fully explore the .AI ississippi from its source 
to its mouth. He pursued that \\'ith unabated ardor, and under great 
discouragements, and linally lost his life. La Salle was the iii'st white 
man to skirt the southern border of Indiana, ^vllich he did in Kili'J, 
and also the lirst white man to make known to the woi-ld the eountry 
ai'ound the headwaters of the ^laumee. 

"It is about as difticult to determine when the first actual settlement 
of the whites was made in Lidiana as to determiin' the exact time and 
routi' of the early explorers. For Foil Wayne it has been claimed 
that it had become an important trading post as early as 1672, and for 
A'iiiceiiiies several dates have been tixed for its first occupation, extend- 
ing ovi'i- more than half a century. .Vccording to one tradition, French 
traders visited the site of \'incennes as early as 1(J90, and that many of 
them remained there, marrying among tlie Indians and raising families. 
Another tradition i)Uts the first arrival of the traders or explorers in 
KiSO. Still another is to the effect that a i)arty of French Canadians, 
in 1702, descendetl the Wabash River and established several posts, Vin- 
ceiines being one of them. The historians of the ^launiee valley claim 
that the first jxist was esta])lished on the present site of Fort Wayne. 
A part of the confusion Mhich exists as to Foi-t Wayne has been caused 
through the misa|)])rehension as to certain visits of the French mission- 
aries. The missionaries left records of their work among the ]\Iiami 
Lidians, and as the main villages of the ]\liamis, when reconl history 
first begins, were around the headwaters of the ]\lauiiiee, it has been 
taken for gi-anted that the labors of the missionai'ies were at that point. 


Tlic Aliaiiiis first lived aronml (irtrii I^ay, Wisi-oiisiii, aiul wlu-ii the 
lar<rer i)ai't of the trihe migrated to Indiana and Ohio, a remnant re- 
mained at (Ireeu liay. It was among that I'emiiant that the nnssionaries 

''As lias been already stated, the ma]is covering the explorations up 
to U)S4 show no settk-meuts an\-where in Indiana, imd tVoin the import- 
ance attached l)y tlie French (loveriniieiit to all such settlements, the 
conclusiDii is irresistible that i)rior to that time no such setth-ments 
existed." — Smith. 

■"On the Wabash near the i)resent site of Vineennes was an important 
Jiulian village known as Chip-kaw-kay, and it is highly i)robable that 
when the first l-'reiieli Settlers ai'rived they heard storii's of prior visits 
made by traders, and aftei' a lapse of time those traditions became 
transposed into facts relating to the hrst actual settlement. To liold 
their claim upon the Mississippi \-alley the h'reneh, in 1702, deternuni'd 
to esiablish soiiie posts along the ()hio and AIississip])i rivers, and M. 
fJuehereau did erect a fort at the moutli of the Ohio. Some writers 
have attempted to claim that Vineennes was the site of this fort, luit 
all the records oppose such a view. 

The QrEsTiox of Pkr.manexcy 

"^I. de Denonville adds to the confusion. In a memoir on tiio French 
possessions in North AnKjrica, dated the 8th of Alarch, 1688, he says the 
French at that time had 'divers establishments' on the ^Mississippi, 'as 
well as on that ©f the Oyo, Oubaehe, etc., which flows into said River 
]\Iississii)pi.' What he meant by the term 'divers establishments' is 
doubtful. That La Salle, and probably others, had, prior to that time, 
visited the Indian villages and traded with them, is well settled, and it 
is probable that AI. de Denonville had in mind only that those traders 
had made friendly relations with the Indians, whereby the various 
hunters ami trappers roaming the country could take to the villages 
their accumulations of peltries until such times as they could be ship])ed 
to Canada. He certainly could not liave meant that the French had 
established any permanent posts or colonies on the Wal)ash, or even on 
the Ohio. In fact, up to that time the AVal)ash country was in such a 
state of alarm from the incursions of the Iroquois that it would have 
been dangerous, if not practically impossible, to have attempted to make 
any settlements by the whites. 

"If tliere was one man above another wlio was interested in estab- 
lishing such posts it was La Salle. IL^ was endeavoring to build up an 


exclusive trade with tlie entire Ohio aih] ^Iississii)i)i valleys. He was 
oil frieiiilly terms v/ith the .Alianiis of Indiana and the Illinois of Illinois. 
The li'()(jiiois fi-diii !he Mast w.Te j iit ] la rinL' to war a.trainst the Illinois 
and the .Miaiiiis in UiSi', and La Salle used all his efforts to <(et those 
trilxs to form a eonfederation and settle ai'ouiid Kort St. Louis, on the- 
Illinois, and finall\- sueei cded in <i-ettin<;- all the Indians of Indiana to 
I'eiiiove to that |)laee. The Irocjuois would not trade with La Salle, and 
they only had I'oamin^' jtarties of wai-rioi's in Indiana and alone- the 
Wal)asli. The French could have had no settlements there without pvo- 
tcctin<r them with a heavy military furee. The Indians did not return 
to Indiana until ahout 1712. So it set'iiis that by the term 'divers estab- 
lishments" -M. de Denonville did not mean permanent settlement or posts. 
"One of the last to investi,u-ate the ([Uestion of the date of the settle- 
ments on the AValiash was -Justin Wiiisor, lihrarian of Harvard Lni- 
\-ersity, \vho says in tlu' chaptei- on 'Tlu' ]\Iississippi liasin," in his XaiTa- 
tive and Critical History of America. ])a;je 14S: 'Tlie territcn-y in dis- 
jiute between the Fi'eiich and JMmlish ti'aders was aloii^' the Wabash 
and up the Ohio and its lateral valhys. CharleNoix speaks of the region 
north of the Ohio a.s likely to become the g'ranai'y of Louisiana. Senex, 
the iMmiish cai-tonra])Iier, made it appear that through this rep^ion "of 
12(1 lea^nies the Illinois hunted cows"' and he maynitied tiie trade in 
buffalo ])eltries. The wanin<j: power of the li'oquois and the eoiiuuu' of 
the Delawai'es and the Shawjiees into the Ohio valley bad pei-niitted the 
French to conduct more extensive explorations, and they had found 
themselves liable to confront all along the valley the equally adventurous 


"The .MississipjM Company had urged (September F"), 1720) the 
building of a foi't on the Wabash as a safeguard against the English, 
and the need of it had attracted the attention of Charlevoix. Some such 
ju'ecautioii, indeed, was ([uite as necessary to overawe the savages, for 
now that the \Vabash-.Maumi'e j)ortage was coming into favor the hi- 
dians bad lately been jirowling about it and murdering the passers. La 
Harpe, in 1724, feai'cd the danger of delay. In 1725 the necessity for 
such pi'otection alai'med liois])riant early in the year. The Carolina 
ti'aders had put up two l)Ooths on the AVabash, and rumoi's reached 
Kaskaskia of other stations whieli they bad e.stal)lished farther up the 
Ohio valley. These last intrudei's were ])robably Pennsylvanians — at 
least it is so assumed in the ti'eaty made at Albany in I7r)4. Tlie language 
of such treaties is rai'ely the ln'st authority, but it is certain that Van- 


drciiil. ill Qiu'Ik'C, believid it at the time. lie ivpoi'ted to his home 
fruvti-niiii'iit that th.- I-^n^disli were haunting' the iipp.-r watiTs of the 
AVahash and t i-adiii^'- amoiiir the }iliamis. As a I'csult, \ve limi the Com- 
])an\- of the Indies ( 1 )fecmhrr, 172.")) iiisti'iictiiij^- Hoishriaiit to hcwari; 
of the lOiin-lish, and to k't .M. Viiicciiiies then among- the xMiamis, know 
that these' I'ivals wiTe movin«j: in tliat direetion. The next year the 
company informed Pffii-r ( Septend)iT ;](), ]72(i) of their (h'tei'mination 
to l)c i)repare(h and authorized him, in eourei't with ^'ine(■nnes, to i'c]»',d 
tile' l-> if they appi'oadird. X'inccniics had ali'eady Iieen I'econ- 
noit.'i'ing up the Ohio valley 1o see if an\- l-hi-^lish were there." — Cox. 

"At the hi'udiunnt^' of the eiyliteeiith century communication was 
opened iij) between Louisiana and Canada hy way of the .Maumet', Wa- 
bash, Ohio and Mississippi. Indeed, this I'oute had been traveled by a 
few, among' whom was Kobert La Salle some twenty >-eai-s before, or as 
early as KiSO. But with the beginning of the eighteenth century a gen- 
y eral communication was established. Witli this came the neeessit.y of 
forts or fortitication, to i)roteet tlie routi' against hostile Indians, and 
,. also to further possess the country adjacent to it against the enci'oach- 
• ^ ments of the I'^nglish colonists, who, \uitil this jiei'lod and for sevci'al 
yeai-s after, wei'e content with a narrow strip of land on the Atlantic 
seaboai'd. Such became the policy of the h'rench Colonial (iovernment 
sometime between KiDO and ITOi), a decade during which the possibilities 
of establishing a jM'rnuinent bi'auch of the FreiKdi empii'c in the New 
^Vorld was bright and pi-onusing. 

"In 17(10 the Fi-ench d.-eided to establish this chain of fortifications 
without delay, and within the following year Fort Bontchartrain (De- 
troit) was established on the Detroit I\ivei'. During the four years 
following I'ude forts, or stockades, were erected at the head of the Mnu- 
inee, near where the city of Fort AVayne now stands; on Wea Braii'ie 
neai- the Wabash in what is now Tippecanoe County; and at a point 
further down the AValtash, where Fort Knox was afterward established 
and where the tlourishing city of Mneennes now staiuls. The first was 
called I'ost -Miami, in rt's])ect to th.e Indian Confederac}- of that name, 
^vhich had its ancit'ut ea]Mtal near the site; the second was called 
()uiaten(ni: the thii'd, Bost \'incennes, in honor- of its founder. 

"I am well awai'e that certain phases of these statements will be 
contradicted by j)ersons who have nuule considerable rt'search, pai'tieu- 
larly those points touching the exact date of the establishment of these 
posts; but it is necessary that such contradictions be acconipanied ])y 
satisfactory ])roof. A prominent gentleman of this state who has justly 
earned a wide reputation for historical information stated, in a conversa- 


tioii with the writer only a few wet^ks ago, that tht.' tirst military 
occupation of \'iiicciiiics took place in 171G. (Iranting this, we give 
Post .Miami ( l''ort \Va\iu') an anti(inity I'xceeding \'inceinies by eleven 
years, for it is ceitain that a militai->' post was cstahlishecl at the former 
point in 17U.'). 

"IJiit in the absence of tlu:' records themselves, the date of the tirst 
I'^i-cnch militar\' settlements in Indinna can best be determined by observ- 
ing tlie colonial policy nmler which thi-y wei'e uuule, as also the year 
in which that policy was executed. In many i)ortions of the Northwest, 
the tirst 1^'rench settlements were mendy the otfshoots of personal aud)i- 
tion, or missionary zeal, as was that at (li-een liay, Wisi'onsin, or that 
11. 'ar the mouth of the St. .Josei)h of Lake :\lichigan. Tin- former affords 
us an illustration of ])ersonal aggrandizement, jiresented in the daring 
and [irivations of ^l. Longlade ; the latter a grand demonstration of the 
burning zeal of Fathers i)ablon, Allouez and others, early Jesuit mis- 
sionaries of Xew I'h-anee. With regard to these and like settlenu'iits, 
there is ground for dispute as to the date of their origin. 

"I5ut the lirst settlements in Indiana were not matle by ehance 
exjilorers, or roving fur-tradi'i's, or j)ious -Jesuits; they were made uiuler 
a tixed ])olie\- of the Frentdi (iovernmeiit — a policy frameil by the saga- 
cious J^ia ^lotte ("adillae, the founder of Detroit. Near the close of the 
sevi-nteeiith centur\' this bold pioneer and statesman of New Franee 
ri'turned to his native country on a mission of greater importanee to 
]''rench interests than was, at that time, I'ealized by his countrymen. 


"Filled with patriotic zeal, he laid before the colonial minister, Count 
Ponehartrain, the tii'st map of the AVabash Valley ever made, executed 
by him own hands. He pointed out the new route that had been discovered 
by La Salle and his associates through the fertile vales of Indiana, and 
ui-gi'd the establishment of a chain of fortifications upon it for the i)ro- 
tection of travel. And we fancy Cadillac reasoned in this wise: He 
l)ointed out upon his rude ma|) the vast extent and richness of the 
counti-y adjacent to the route on either side, and indicated the Indiaii 
strongholds, suggesting their value as allies in ease of future contlicts 
with i-ival colonies. AVhatever his arguments were, they wei-e convincing, 
as the colonial minister at once entered u])on Cadillac's plans. ' Pont- 
ehartrain,' says a French writer, 'was delighted with his plan, and at 
once commissioned him to execute it.' 


First Militaky Posts 

"■ Cadillac ivtnnied to Canada and established D.'truit, as we have 
cilready sai.l, in ]701. It was under this general poliev that the tirst 
in.htary setthMuents were mad,, in Judiana. The missionaries undoubt- 
edly visitrd \ mcennrs, as did thry also the site of Post Miami Ion-.- before 
.-uhtary posts were ere.-ted i., those, but no permanent missions 
were sfatione.l until after their o.-mipanry hy niilitary pouvr. This took 
place, aceordinn- to the JMvnch coloninl records, in ITo:,, ami as near as 
can be ascertaiiied there is not more than six numth's difference in the 
dates of the first establishment of Posts Miami, Ouiatenon and Vincennes. 
Certain it is that th.-y were all existing in the spring of ITlKi. That these 
posts were oft.Mi deserted and left witliout militai'y ^garrisons is un.loubt- 
edly true, but we will ventuiv the assertion that the French Colonial 
archives will show that small garrisons weiv located at tlie three points 
indicated previous to 1706. 

Racial Amalgamation Witiioit Pakai.lkl ;.„ 

"Tlie history of these posts from their establishment until they were 
discontinued furnishes a narrative re])lete with thrilling incident. It 
carries the reader through all the interesting scenes of French and Indian 
intercourse, which presents many romantic. inu(|ue phases. In some of 
these phases we see Frenchmen <legi-aded instead of savages elevat.Ml. We 
see thousands of reckless men throwing oif all civilized restraint and 
plunging deliberately into barbarism. With the ritie an. I the scalping 
knife they go forth to wreak vengeance upon the whites, side bv side 
Avith red men, as if their destinies have become in.lissolubly united with 
those of their new allies. We see a type of amalgamation for which the 
Instory of the world furnishes no i)ai-allel— Frenchmen descending to 
the level of Indians in social economy, and, in many instances, dragging 
the natives down to a i>itch of degi-adation from which a half savage 
.sense of i)ropriety often recoiled with just pi-ide. 

FfR Traders" Pirdkx 

"And again, the history of these posts carries the i-eader through 
curious accoiuits of the fur trade, of th<' manners and custmus of the 
Courriers des l^ois, or wood rangvr.s— a set of half-brei-ds, with a lannnage 
and characteristics peculiar to tiiemsdves. In the light canoe they would 
float carelessly down tin- streams, basking idly in th,^ summer's sun. or 
gaily singing some French or Indian song. vVt night they slept upon the 



rivi-r's ])aiik. t houirlitlcss of IxmI oi- proti-etioii. Rrtiiniiii'.! with loads of 
fufs after a loii",' jouriiry, oi' from the chassi', tlicy aviwc Lircctnl liy thcii' 
tawiiy wives and liyhrid offspriim- with social eiithusiasn), and in tlieii- 
low. imciillivaled sphei'e seemed to enjoy life withont many (jf ils eai'es 
and bui'dens. Tlie fnr trade had many distinij;iiishiiii;- featnres. Whiskey 
was one of the chief artiidi's of merchandise, and in the use of this the 
savage pei'jietrated his n-i-ratest ahnse. Oft have the foi'ests around Fort 
AVayne or Vincennes relnx <1 with the hideous yells of the jjow-wow, when 
liai'rel after harnd of jioisonons li(pi(Ji's were j)ei'mitled to he distril)Ute(l 
among d.dnded savages. \'e!aly, the fur tradei' will have an account to 
give at the day of reckouiiig in which Indian wi'ongs will he vindicated. 

■"And. again, tiie his1oi-y of these ])osts cai'i'ies us tlii-onuh the i)ious 
de\-outment of ('idholic missionaides. through accounts (d' Chiistian zeal, 
persecution, i)rivations for the Gospel's sake. We see missionary pri(^sts 
mingling with the savages, teaching them, supi)ing with them, pointing 
them to the cross. In wigwams oi- rude log huts, these pi'iests gathered 
anxious, curious puj^ils, and lahored to instruct them in a civilization and 
(Jhi'istianity that they eoidd never. ne\-er comi)rehend or appreciate. I'.ut 
the Jndians assented and applauded in theii' silent devotion, and the 
missionaries lahored on, in a hopeless cause, until a war of extermination 
ended th.'ir lal.ors. 

Indian Coxsi-iracii^s 

"And, again, the history of these posts is tilled with thi'illing luirra- 
tives that carry the readei' tlii'ough Sandoskit's (Xieholas) consi)iraey, 
I'outiae's conspiracy, Teeumseh's war and the long desultory war that, 
foi- years, kept alive a feeling of alarm in the pioiu-er homes on the 
liortlers. We see the war clouds gatheriiu;'. as the voice of the mighty 
]*oiitiac i-esounds through the foi'ests of the lake regions, and, as they 
bui-st in thunderous volleys of musketry, we belujld the massacres that 
charactei'izi-d the fall of the 'fated nine.' AVho shall paint the darkness 
and gloom that settled over the Western outposts iu 17(i8-4. when the 
giant of the Ottawas swayed, at his imperial command, all the Indian 
foi'ces of the Northwest. AVho shall tell us of the foul conspiracies ]tlot- 
ted in forest councils, where this jx'cjud Ottawa resided? AVhat pen shall 
de.seribe the hori'ors in the exi'cution of these eouspiraeies ? The mind 
tiu-n.s away from the scene at ]\[ieliilimaekinac, awed with its extremes 
of barbarity; the heai't sickens with a coutem])lation of A'anango ; whih' 
the fall of Holmes on a supposed errand of mei-cy at Post Aliami, and 
the cai)ture of deiikins at Oniateuon, present shameful incidmds (d" 


FrL'iich cowaidicc and Indian treachery. But no .sooner did the storm of 
Pontiae's veiiji:eance suhside. than another junvat Indian state.siiian rose 
to dffeiid his race. Tecuuiseh gathered the scattei'ed. forces, and led the 
last .uivat struj^gle of the red men, until swallowed up in defeat and 
death.'"— Beale. 

:\ \,.>F TU* ' • ;' 


CHAPTER III '^ ' ' 'i- ' •■ " 


FiiisT Historic Accoi'nt of the .Mia.mis — Ox the Down (jIhade — Oatii- 
oi.k; .Mi^sioXAKV Skuvices — Tkadixu ix Furs axd Rim — La Salle 
Sa\i;s Till'; Miami Xa'itox — Wai: Ci ok 'jmie Miamis— J)o(;s Sac- 


Warriors — Offexsi\e axd Defexsive Weai-oxs — Official Caxxi- 


THE I']x(iLisH — The .Mia.mis' Pixuerixc J)eath — Frexch axd Indian 
War — 1'eace ix the Wauash Wvllev — The ]\1ia.mis ix the JiE\"(jlu- 
TioXARV War — Agaix ox the Warfath — The Pottawato.mies — The 
(iREAT Chief Me-te-a — The AVeas (Ouiatexoxs i. 

When the first l^'rciieh inissioiiaries and ('Xi)lorei's came in contact 
with the Miami nation of Jiulians, during the later period of the seven- 
tfciith century, the et-ntral districts of their hnid had shifted from 
Northei'ii -Miehitian on tlie liorder of the Chippewa country to the valleys 
of the Ohio and its tributaries. The nation \vas a strong branch of the 
gi'eat Algon(pHn family, consisting of such tribes as the Twightwees, 
AVeas, Piaidvshaws and Sliockeys, and had long since accepted the 
christening of the ])ioneer French as M'xVmis (my friends). It is not 
known for how many years they had l)een banded together against the 
incursions of the (.'onfederation of the Five Nations, which, with the 
coming of their French friends, was already pressing them toM'ard the 

First Historic Account of the ]\Iiamis 

The first definite account we have of the Miamis is from the pen of 
Father Alloiiez, in th(! Jesuit "Relations," who visited a band of them 
at Green Pay in IbGl). Put, even then, the seat of their trembling empire 
was further south, and the warriors of the nation whieli once might be 
nund)ei'e(l by tlie thousands had tlieii been cut down to the hundreds 




tlii-oii<.'li tln-ii- (IfMiiiiatiii^' wars with tin- imphn-ahlc ir(i(|ii(jis, whose 
lji'a\-fi-y was Jiot only t-fjiial to their own. l>ut who foi' many ycacs hail 
liad the advantaizc of lirraniis lii-st ])hi(MMl in the hamls of ihc l-'ivc Nations 
hy thr Dntch cohjiiisls. X'ai'ions rst iniatcs liavf phn-cd lhf (i^htiii'i- foi'c(.' 
ol" thr Mianiis in KiTO at ahout lil't.-cn hundivd. 

These onee poweid'ul, and still proud and detiaiit, trihes of the 
]\Iianii nation dwelt in small villages on the hanks of the vai'ions rivei's 
in Indiana and Ohio, allhou-h they wetv scattered over ninidi of the 
jj:i-eal (-ountry which tlie\' dominated nniny yeai's hefoi'e. As im])i'essi\-e|y 
said hy Little Turtle, tlieii- ^ivat ehi(d'. moi-e than a eeiitui-\' afterwai'd, 
and when their I'anks had heeii fui'thei- thinned : " It is well known hy all 
my hi'others ])!-esi'nt (Americans at Oi'eeuville in ITD.")) that my fore- 
father kindled the first tii'e at Detroit; thence he extended his lin(\s to the 
headwaters of the Scioto; thence to its mouth; thence down the Ohio to 
the mouth of the AVahash ; theinn- to ("liicago on Lake ^lichigan. These 
ai'e the houndaries within which the pi'ints of my aneestofs' houses are 
evei'y where seen. " 

Ox THE Dowx Okade 

When tile French e\!)lorers, fui- traders and missionaries came to the 
Miamis more than a eentur\- hefore Little Turtle thus spoke hid'oi-e (Ji'U- 
eral Wayne at the treaty of <ireenville, the prini-ipal settlements of the 
]\liamis were scattered aloii«i' the headwaters of the (Ireat ]\Iiami, the 
hanks of the INFaumee, the St. doseph of Lakt' Michioan, the Wahash and 
its trihutai'ies. The .Miamis had ali'eady heconie somewhat demoralized, 
and their villai^'es are said to have prest'iited a I'ather untidy appearance, 
although at the heio-ht of their pi'ospei-ity they were considered as among 
the most tiirifty of red men. I'lider such cdrcumstances the Freiudi were 
cordially ri'ceived hy the harassed Indians. The zealous desuit mission- 
aries; the adventurous Fi-ench fur ti'adei's with their l)lue and red cloths, 
guiis, powdei', halls, knives, rihhons, heads, tohai-eo and lauu ; and the 
eai-eless i-angers, who conducted the canoes of the traders along the lakes 
and rivei's — all made their appearance among the Mianus of the Wahash 
Valley and i)lied their callings foi- a dozen yeai'S. 

The i)riests of the church wei-e undo\d)te(lly faithful to their calling 
and labored with characteristic zeal to nud^e the -Mianns hoth Catholics 
and good subjects of the king of France. Hut the unprincipled traders, 
with their tii'cwater, prevailed ovei- the hettei- influences, and put the 
liinshing touch to the detei'ioration of a once nuiidy race. 

lliSTORV OF WABASH ("Ol'NTV ;:•' 27 

L'.\Ti;i)i.ic .Mission \i{v Skkmcks 

'Fhis cmillict l.rtwcni -.'ood and had tciidnicics anioii^' tin- .Miaiiiis (ji' 
tlir carlirr of Fivncli activities is thus pictiirc'd : "TIk; Jesuit 
uiissidiiaries were al\\a\-s cordially I'cceived liy the Miaiiii.^. These 
Indians would listen patientlx- to the Christian theory of the Saviour and 
.salvation, nianil'est a willine- belief in all they heard, and then, as if to 
entertain their visitoi's in I'eturn. tliey would tell them the story oi' their 
owji siiiii)le faith in the .Manit(jus, and stalk olV with a '^I'oan (d' dissatis- 
faction Ijecause the missionaries woidd not accept tlieir theor\' with 
equal courtesy. 

"^lissionary stations wei-e estahlished at an early day in all the prin- 
cipal villafivs. and the work of instruetinj,' and converting- tin- savages 
was begun in earnest. The oi'dei- <d' I'eligious exercises at the missions 
e.stablislied among the .Miamis was nearly the same as that among other 
Indians. i*]ai'ly in the moi'iiing the missionai'ies would asseiid)le the 
Indians at the ehurch, oi- the hut used for that, and, after 
l)ra\'ei-s, the savages were taught concerning the <'atholie I'cligion. 'I'liesi- 
c.Kerciscs were always followed hy singing, at the conclusion of which the 
congregation was dismissed, the (.'hi'istians only remaining to take part 
at nuiss. This service was geiierall\- followed hy prayers. iJui'ing the 
foi-eiioon the pi-iests were genei'ally engaged in visiting the sick and 
consoling those who were laboring under any afiliction. After jiooji 
anothei- sei-\ice was held in the church, at which all the Indians were 
])ci'mitted to apiiear in their finery and where each, witliout regard to 
rank or age, answei-ed the questions put hy the missionary. This exer- 
cise was concluded hy singing hymns, the words of which had heen set to 
airs familiar to the savage ear. In the evening all assembled again at 
the church for instruction, to hear prayers and to sing tlieir favorite 
hymns. The Miamis ^v^■re ahvays highly pleased with the latter exei'cise. 

Trading in Ftrs .\nd KuiL 

".\side from thi' character of the religious services which constituted 
a chief atti'action in the ]Miami villages of Indiana ^vhile the early Ih'ench 
missionai'ies wei'e among them, the traveler's attention would hrst he 
engaged with the peculiai'ities of the fur trade, which, during the tii'st 
(piarter of the seventeenth century, was monopolized hy the hh'ench. 
'i'his ti-ade was carried on ])y means of tlu' carriers, oi- rangers, who were 
ciigagetl to conduct canoes on the lakes and rivei's, and to carry burdens 
of mercluindise from Detroit to the principal ]\Iiauu villages, wliere the 
traders exchanged their wares for valuable furs, which they transi)orted 


to tlie nearest trading post affording tlii-ni the most available market. 
Tlds trat'tir was not, however, confined to those whose M'ealth enabled them 
to engage vessels, canoes and carriers, for there were hundi-eds scattered 
through the various villages of Jndiaiui, at almost any time during the 
first half of the eighteenth century, who eari'ied their packs of niei-chan- 
dise and fui-s hy uK-ans of leather straps susi)en(!ed from their shoulders, 
or with the sli'aps I'csting against their foreheails. 

" Jium and brandy were fi'eely introduced by these traders and always 
found a ivady sale among the ]\liami Indians. A Frenehnum, writing of 
the evils which resulted from the inti'oduction of spirituous liquors among 
these savages renuirked: 'TIk.' distribution of it is nuuhi in the usual 
way; that is to say, a certain lunuber of persons have delivered to each 
of them a (puintity sufficient to get drunk with, so that the whole have 
been druidc over eight days. They begin to drink in the villages as soon 
as the sun is down and every night the tields echo with the most hideous 
howling.' " 

In tliose early days the ]\Iiami villages of the Maumee, those of the 
AVeas al)0ut Ouiatenon on the AVabash, and those of the Piankeshaws 
around \'iiicennes, were the (;enti'al i)oints of the fur trade in Indiana. 
Trading posts were establislu'tl at these i)laces and at Fort Wayne in 
1711), although for twenty years ])revious the French traders and mis- 
sionaries had freciueiitly visited them. A ])ermanent mission oi- clnireh 
was established at the I'iankeshaw village near Vincennes in 1741) by 
Father Meurin, and in the following year a siiudl fort was ei'ected near 
the mouth of the Wabash Kivei-. These posts soon drew a large number 
of French traders around tluMu, and in 175G they had become quite 
important settlements, with a mixed population of French and Indian. 

La Salle Saves the ]\1lv:\ii Natiox 

* The discovei-y and exploi-ation of the ^lississippi by La Salle, in 1(582, 
sti'engthened the policy of the French Government to connect its posses- 
sions in North Anu'i-ica by a chain of forts, trading ])Osts and missions 
extending from the mouth of the mighty stream to the City of (Quebec. 
It also drew the attention of the allietl English and Iroquois to this 
gr^'ater Interior America which threatened to be monopolized by the 
French and the Indian tribes which had joined their fortunes. 

It was during that year (1682) that the Iroquois declared war against 
the ]\liamis, as they had, two years previous, against the Illinois. In view 
of his growing influence among the Western Indians, this was La Salle's 
opportunity, and he took advantage of it 1)y organizing the Mitiinis, 
Weas, Piankeshaws, Sliawnees and Illinois into a confederation whose 


hca(l(|Uiii-trr.s was tlic Fn-ncli Fort Saint l>()iiis, which he had ci'ccti'd 
on tlir Illinois ]\i\\'r. l-^^i- this purpose he di't-w tlic Miaiui nation I'l'oni 
the dani;'er /oiu' of tlie Wahash and Mauniee \'alleys and, as we have 
Ixd'ore noted, its trihes did not a<^'ain appear in their old homes initil the 
clia^n-iiied and ch.d'eated Iroquois liad returned to their eastern territory 


Aftei- theii- ivturn in 17T2 the .Aliamis lived ehietiy in the Wa1)asli 
and -Mauiiice valleys until the\- tiiudly yielded their lands to the whites. 
Aliout tell years after theii' honie-eoniin^' the noted ("hai'h'voix in his 
journal of •"Ti'avels through Xoidii America, " thus speaks of their war 
customs: "'.Vfter a soleiini feast they placed on a kind of altar some 
pagodas made witii hear skins, the heads of which wei'e ])ainted green. 
-Ml the savages jiassed this altai- howing their knees, and the jugglers 
led the van. holding in their hands a sack which contained all the tilings 
which they use in theii- conjurations. Tlu'y all strive to e.xcel eai-h other 
in their contortions, and if any one distinguished himself in this wa>' 
they would applaud him with great shouts. When they had thus paid 
theii' first homage to the Idol all the people danced in much confusion 
to tlu' sound of a drum and a Chichicoue; ami during this time the jug- 
glers nuide a show of hewitching some of the savaues who seemed ready 
to expire ; then, ])utting a cei'tain |)owder upon theii' lips they made them 
recover. When this fai'ce had lasted some time he who i)resid(>d at the 
feast had t\\-o men and two women run thi'ough all the cahins to give 
the savages notice that the sacrifices were going to begin. When he met 
any one in his way he i)ut hotli his hands on his head anil the person 
met embraced his knees. 

Dogs S.\crificed 

"The victims were to l)e dogs, and one heard on every side the cries 
of these animals whose thi-oats tiiey cut ; and the savages who howled with 
all their strength seemed to imitate tlieii' cries. As soon as the tiesli was 
dressed they offered it to the itlols; and they ate it and burned the bones. 
All this, while the juggli-rs never ceased raising the i)i-etended dead, and 
the whole ended by the distribution that was nuide to these ({uaeks of 
whatever was found most to their liking in all the village. 

PkE1'.\K.VT10X.S for TUE doi'KNEY 

"From the time that the resolution is taken to make war till the 
departure of the wan-ioi's they sing theii' war songs every night. The 


(.lays an- ])'(,l in making })i\'i)arati()iis. They ili'i)iit(' some warriors to 
yo to sing tlic war songs amongst their iieighliors anil allies whom they 
engage Ix-forehand to secret iifgoliations. IT they ai'e to go by water they 
huilij or I'epair thi-ii' eanoes. It' it is wintei' they furnish theinse'lves with 
snowshoes aixl sle<lges. 'J'he raipiettes which they must have to walk 
u])on the snow are about three feet hjiig and about (ifteeii or eighteen 
inches ill their greatt'st bi-eadth. Their shajx' is oval, excH'pting the end 
liehind, which terminates in a point; little slit'ks placed across at ti\-e or 
six int'hes fi'om each end serve to strengthen them; and the })ie(;e which 
is before in the shai)e of a bow (where the foot is fixed) i.s tied with 
leather thongs. 

"To walk well with these raiiuetles they must turn their knees inwai'd 
and keej) their legs wide asun(h-r. Jt is some troul)le to accustom one's 
self to it, but when one is used to it, one \valks with as much ease and as 
little fatigue as if one had nothing on one's feet. It is not j)ossible to 
use the I'acpiettes with oui- common shoes; we must take those of the sav- 
ages, which are a kind of socks nuule of skins dried in the smoke, foldt'd 
over at the end of the foot and tied with strings. 

"Tlie sledges which serve to earry the baggage and, in case of Jieed, 
the sick and wounded, are two little boards, very thin, eacdi board about 
half a foot broad and six or seven feet long. The forepart is a little bent 
iijiwai'd, and the sides are bordered by little bands to which they fasten 
straps to bind what is on the sledge. Ilowevt-r loaded these cai'riages 
may be, a savage can draw them with ease l)y the lu'lp of a long band of 
leather, which he puts over his breast and wliicli tlu'y call collars. They 
draw burdens this way, and the mothers use them to carry children with 
their cradles, but then it is over their forehead that the band is fixed. 


* "All things being ready and the day of dci)arture being come, they 
take their leave with great demonstrations of real tenderness. Everybody 
desires something that has been used by the warriors, and in return give 
them soiiie i)ledges of their friendship and assurances of perpetual renieni- 
brance. They scarcidy enter an\' cabin, ])ut they take away their robe 
to give them a bettt'r — at least one as good, l^astly, they all meet at the 
cabin of the chief; they find him arnu'd as he was the first day he spoke to 
them, and as he always api^eared in public fi'om that day. They 
then paint their faces, every one' according to his own fancy, and all of 
them in a very frightful mainier. The chief makes them a short speech; 
then he coines out of his cabin singing his song of death. They all follow 
him in a line, kee])ing pi'ofound silence, and they do the same thing every 


moriiiiig wlu'ii Wn-y i\-ur\v their march. Here the woiiu'ii go before with 
provisions, aiul when the warriors eoiue up with them tliey give them 
their elothes and remain ahuost naked — at least as the season will 

Offensive and Defensive AVeai'Ons , , 

'"Formerly the arms of this i)i'oi)h' were l)ows and arrows and a kind 
of javeliji, which, as well as their ari'ows, AVere armed with a i)oint of 
hone wrought in ditferent shapes. TJesides this they had Avhat the\- call 
the head-hi'eaker. This is u little clul) of very \\i\rd wood, the head of 
which is round and has on one side an edge to cut. The greater part 
have no <lefensive arms, hut when they attack an intrenchment they 
cover their whole hody witli light hoards. Some have a sort of cuirass 
made of ruslu'S, or snudl, pliaMe sticks, pretty well wi'ought. They also 
had d.d'i'uces for their arms and thighs of the same matter. Hut as this 
armor was not found to he i^roof against firearms they have left it off, and 
use nothing in its stead. The Western savages always nuide use of huck- 
lei-s of hull hides, which are very light and which a musket liall will not 
pierce. It is something surprising that other nations do not use them. 

'■When they nudce use of our swords, which is vei-y seldom, they use; 
them like s])OJdoons; but when they get guns and powder and l)all, tliey 
lay aside their bows and arrows and shoot very well. AVe have often had 
I'eason to repent of letting them have firearms; but it was not we who 
first did it. The Iroquois, having got some of the Dutch, theji in posses- 
sion of New York, we were under the necessity of giving them to our 

"These savages have a kind of ensign to know one another and to 
I'ally by. These are little ])ieces of bark, cut round, which tlie_\- ])ut on tlu.' 
top of a i)ole and on which they have traced the nuirk of their nation 
and 0^ their village. If the party is numerous, each family or tribe has 
its ensign with its distinguishing mark. Their arms are also distinguished 
with different figures, and sometimes with a i)articular mark of the 

Official Cannibals 

As some civilized nations have their public or official executioners, so 
had the ]Miamis. In this regard they also followed the custom prevalent 
in several countries of both the Orient and the Occident, in that it was 
an ot'tiee that was inherited from genei-ation to generation. With these 
common featui-es named, the pai'alld divei-ges — and to the dire disad- 
vantage of the .Miands. 


'JMifsc liiiliaiis had tlicif pulilic cxccutioiit'i's, diosiMi tlii'(ju^li tln' gcii- 
cratioiis from oik- fainil.w l)Ut tlicii' liloody fuiirlidii was not to kill criiii- 
inals, hilt to cat such ca])tivcs as had hccii coiidciiiiicd to death hy trihal 
voti'. 'Idle hist victim known to have heeii killed and eaten was a youii^' 
Kentuckiaii. who was thus disposed of at the Miami \'illafz'e located lu-ar 
tin- present site of Fort Wayne. The hest description of this feai'ful (K'cd 
is found ill a speech delivered hy (ieneral Cass .July 4, 1S4;!, at h'ort 
Wayne, on the opeiiinjr of the Wahash and Frie Canal, lie said: ' • \'\jr 
many \ears during' the frontici- histor\- of this i)laee and region, the line 
of your canal was a hloody warpath, which has seen many a deed of hor- 
ror. And this peaceful town has had its .Aloloch. and the i'ec(jrds of human 
depi-avitN' furnish no more teriihle examples of cruelty tliaii were ollei'ed 
at his shrine. 'Idle Miami Indians, (tur |iredeecssors in tiie occupation of 
this distrii-t. had a terrihle institution, the oriLiiii and ol)ject of whi(di 
lia\-e been lost in the darkness of ahoriyinal history, hut wliiidi was con- 
tinued to a late period, and the orj.i'ics of which were held upon the very 
spot wliei'e we iiow are. It Was calU-d the Man lOating- Society, and it 
Mas the duty of its a.ssociates to eat such prisoners as ^vere preserved and 
didivcred to tlieiii for that purposi-. The iiiemhei's of this society helonged 
to a ])articular famil\', and the dreadful inheritance descended to all the 
children, male and female. The duties it imposed could not he avoided, 
and the sanction of religion was added to the oMigations of immemorial 

'"The feast was a solemn ceremony, at which the whole tribe was col- 
lected as actors or spectators. The miserahle victim was hound to a stak' 
and huriied at a slow lire with all the reliiiemeiits of cruelty which savage 
ingenuity could invent. There was a traditional ritual which I'egulated 
with revolting precision the whole course of procedui'c at those cere- 
monies. Latterly the authority and obligations of the institution had 
dccliiifd, and I presume it has now wholly disai)peared. P>ut I have seen 
anri convi-i'sed with the head of the family, the chief of the society, whose 
name was White-Skin — with what feeling of disgust [ lu-ed not attempt to 
describe. I \\\'\[ knew an intelligent Canailian who \Vas present at one of 
the last sacrilices made at this horrible institution. Tin- victim was a 
young American captured in Kentucky near the close of tin- lievolution- 
ary war. Here, where we are now assembled in peace and security cele- 
brating the triumph of art and industry, within the memory of the pres- 
ent generation our countrymen have been tortured, murdered and 
devoured. l>ut, thank (lod, that council lire- is extinguished. The impious 
feast is over; the war dance is ended; the war song is unsung; the war 
<lrum is sih-nt, and the Indian has <l(-parted." 


Tribal ^Manitous .. 

Lilcc otliiT savaj^c triljes, tlic Miamis Iji'licvt-d in o\ir. supi'i'ine God, or 
(ii'cat i\Iaiiit()ii, and in a more liapp.N' (■oiinti'\' than their earth, to whieli 
they went aftei- death, carrying witli them their l)odily apiJt'tites and 
(•ai)aeity for physical enjoyments. They also believed that eaeli tribe was 
protected by a .special manitou, which entered a partieular form of animal 
life on this earth. One tribe worshi])ed the manitou of the butf alo ; 
another, the deer; anotlier, the rattlesnake. Th(! Twightwee ti-ibe, of the 
.Miami nation, lield that reptili- in such great veneration that they would 
iievt-i' l<ill dui' tlieiiiselves, thougli iu latter years tliey wei'e in nowise averse 
lo having the \vhite man (h'stroy them. Oll'erings of tobacco were made 
to pro])itiate these venomous reptiles, and up to within fort.y years ago 
thei'c were many ohl settlers still living who could j-emendjer having seen 
large (pnuitities of it scattei'etl about near tlieir dens. The ]\Iiami\s })lan 
was to notch a sappling, bend it over and insert the tobacco in the split. 

Burial Cistoms 

It was the general practice of the ^liamis to bury their dead, each 
little \illage ha\-iiig its sacred gi'ounds for the de])arted, but there were 
e\idcntly individual i(h'as as to i)roper entomlnuent, or there were special 
customs bclitting cei-tain individuals. In ]S]2 (Jeneral Ilai-i'ison "s troo])S 
found Ileal- one of the ^Miami's deserted villages on the Uppei' AVabash 
the body of a chief entondietl in an t*nclosure of rough logs daubed with 
clay. Its silent occupant lay wrapix'd in his blanket, his gun and pipe 
b>- his si(h-, and a small tin pan on ins breast containing a wooden spoon 
and vai'ious trinkets, all designed to add to his i)leasure and comfort in 
the haj)])}- hunting grounds. At another village was discovered the body 
of a woman in a sitting posture facing the east, with a basket by her side 
containing such charms used by the Indian sorceress as bones, owl bills 
and roots. Similar tombs were found, at a much later day, by some of 
the i)ioneers of AVal)ash County near what was afterward Stockdalo Post- 
oflice in the western i)art of Paw Paw Township. 

First Alliance with the English 

The ]Miamis and the English foi'med their first treaty of alliance in 
1748 at Lancastei-, Peinisylvania, and three representatives of the nation 
from th(; coinitry along the River "Oubache" were parties to it. The 
pi-incipal of those whose luimes are attaclied to that instrument was 
A(pie-nack-([ue, head chief of the IMianiis and father of the luore famous 



.Me-clie-qui,i-i,o-qua, or Little Turtle. At that tinie, and for inunv vears 
previously, he was a resident of the Turtle Villa-e on Eel Kiver, a few 
niilos to the northwest of Fort Wayne, where, about one year before the 
signature of the father was attached to this treaty of amity betwt'eii his 
people and the English, his greater son was born. 

At that time the French inHuence among the lAIiamis was on the wane, 
largely from the fart that although New Franee had virtually continued 
to monopolize the Indian trade for a century the (iovernment had become 
more and more lax in supplying the increasing wants of the .Miamis, 
.-specially those on the borders of the Ohio and its tributaries. They 
therefore turned to the English, whose traders' had secured during the 
later years a limited trade among the dissatisfied Indians. The treaty 
made at Lancaster July 23, 1748, recognized them as "good friends and 
allies of the English nation, subjects of the king of Great Ik-itain and 
entitled to the privilege and protection of the English laws. ' ' Soon after- 
ward some English traders conuuenced to appear in the Ohio and Wabasli 
valleys in larger nundjcrs than heretofore, and there was trouble at once 
with the French and the Indian allies who remained faithful to them. 

The r^IiAMis' Lingering Death 

We know of no more concise and interesting narrative of these three- 
score years of struggles, which preceded the fatal blow to the I\Iiamis and 
their lingering death, than the account given in Paul's "Atlas of Wabash 
County," from which the conclusion of this chapter is adapted. 

The territory at that time (1748) being under the protection of the 
Freneh Goverinnent, this incursion of the British was regarded by that 
power, or by its local representatives at Quebec, as a trespass upon their 
rights. Between the years 1749 and 1754 the French forces and their 
Lidian allies captured a number of English traders on the borders of 
the Ohio Kiver, seized and confiscated their goods and peltries and held 
them jn'isoners. In return, the :\liamis captured three French traders 
and handed them over to the authorities in Pennsylvania. Whereupon 
the French captured a British trading post and killed fourteen :Miamis. 
In this way the Indian nation became involved in the quarrels between 
the whites who coveted their land. ' 

French and Indian War 

During the French and Indian war of 1754-60 the I\Iiamis were 
actively engaged against the English and aided materially in the pro- 
longation of the struggle. In combat they were brave, in defeat they 


were dexterous, in victory tiiey were eruel. Neither sex, age nor tlie pris- 
oner were exempt from their tomahawk or scalping knife. All along 
the frontier they waged a bloody and merciless warfare,' which rendered 
agricultural pursuits luizardous and tlie life of the backwoodsman and his 
family a thing of great uncertainty. Concealing themselves in the woods 
or among weeds and bushes, behind trees, waylaying the path to water or 
the road to the field, they would fire the gun or let fly the arrow at the 
approaching victim. Tliey would retreat, if necessary, or, if they dared, 
advance upon their adversary and take him m-isoner ; if mortally 
wounded, tliey would scalp him. ^ifO'StZQ^O 

When besieging a fort they seldom showed themselves in force in any 
({uartcr, hut dispersed and acted individually or in small parties. They 
aimed to cut off the garrison's supplies by killing the cattle, and they 
watclietl tlie watering places for those who went for that article of neces- 
sity, thus cutting off one by one in detail and with Init little risk to 
themselves. When their stock of provisions became exhausted they would 
I'etire to tlie woods, supply themselves by hunting and then again return 
to the siege. 

'^IMiey were among the first to make peace with the English when the 
tide of fortune turned against the French (17GU), though three years 
after that ti;n" they wei'e equally ready to join with Pontiac in his bloody 
war against them. Dui-ing the ensuing year they followed the fortunes 
of that vindictive chief of the north country until some time in the winter 
of 17(J4, when, deceived by the French, deserted by his allies and over- 
powered by the British, he retired to the Illinois country, where he was 
a.ssassinated 1)\- a Kaskaskia Indian in 1767. 

Colonel Croghan, a British officer, visited tli(.' .Miami villages on the 
Iv'l \lWrv in dune, 1765, ])assing through what is Jiow Wabash County 
as a prisoiii'r in the hands of the Kickapoos and ]\Iussaquatannis. At this 
time the total effective force of Miami warriors was estimated as follows: 
The Twiglitwees (the eastern wing of the confederation), at the head of 
the .Maumee River, 250: the Ouiatenons, near the Post Ouiatenon on the 
Wabash, 'MM; the Piankeshaws on the Vermillion River (the western 
wing), 300, and the Shockeys, occupying the territory betwec'u \"incennes 
and Post Ouiatenon (La Fayette), 200. A thousand and lift}' warriors 
were all that remained of the once ])roud nation, whose power had been 
so long felt in savage warfare. 

Peace in the AV.vbasii Valley 

During the French and Indian war all the British trading posts in the 
West had been broken up. From 1768 to 1776 the French j)opulation 



about Vincenni'S and along the Miami villages of the Wabash Valley dwelt 
peaceably and in the enjoyment of the most unrestrained freedom. Liv- 
ing in the heart of the wilderness without taxes and in f riendsliip with the 
Indians, they passed their lives in hunting, fishing, trading in furs and 
raising a few potatoes and a little corn for their families. Many of them 
intermarried with the Miamis, whose amity was thus more securely 

A race of half-])reeds thus grew up whose luitures wei-e more Indian 
than French, and the intermingling of the two people and their languages 
is still to be seen in the names of personages and places. Tlie morals of 
the French traders, never any too sti-ict, did not improve by this inter- 
eoui'se. They soon learned to excel even the Indians in habits of indo- 
lence and improvidence. They made no eft'ort to become educated, skilful 
in agriculture or ingenious in mechanical nuitters. Dancing, running, 
jumping, wrestling and target shooting were among their favorite amuse- 
ments. Tlieir manners and customs carried them above bar))arism, but 
left them far below true civilization. The savage natures of the Indians 
were in some degree softened by this intercourse; but tiieir ready adop- 
tion of all the corrupting vices which such a state of society engendered 
rendered them decidedly the worse for such contact. 

The Miamis in tjie IxEvoLnTiONAUY War 

At the close of the French and Indian war many of the French had 
taken the oath of allegiance to the British Government, and at the out- 
break of the Revolutionary war they were very instrumental in inciting 
the various tribes with whom they had had such intimate intercourse to 
wage a border warfare against the unprotected frontier of the American 
colonies. The Miamis were among the last to take up the tomahawk in the 
cause of the British, whom they had never loved any too well, but during 
the later part of tlie eight years' struggle, and for some time afterward 
during General Washington's administration they were exceedingly hos- 
tile. At successive periods they defeated exiu-ditions sent against them 
under Ilarmer and St. Clair, and only yielded iiiuUly to the superior 
intrepidity and perseverance of Gen. Anthony Wayne. In 1895 a treaty 
of peace was concluded between them and the United States authorities 
at Greenville, Ohio, the home of Tecumseh, the great Shawnee chief. That 
peace was maintained until after the breaking out of the War of 1812. 

Again on the Warpath (1812) 

Following the example of many of the surrounding tribes at that time, 
a portion of the Miamis again started on the warpath, and, as the follow- 


iiig cliai)ter will reveal, were severely punished for so doing. j\Iany of 
them remained friendly to the Ihiited States, l)ut a large portion became 
hostile, in union with the warlike Shawnees under Teeumseh, and tlic 
Kickapoos and I'ottawatoniies. Rut the Harrison campaign against the 
Miami rebels is icserved for a separate nari-ative which has close connec- 
tion with the history of Wabash County. 

The 1\)'I'tawatomies ' " ' i.. • . .- .. 

The ^liamis were the Indians who held the land and were always in 
strong evidence in ])oth the lower and upper valleys of the Wabash. 
Tilt' Pottawatomics were migratory and shadow}^ and seemed to come to 
tin- foreground oidy upon special occasions. For over a century, lasting 
well into tlu' niiieteenth, the seat of what influence was left to them was 
along the soutiiern shores of Lake ]\Iicliigan. 

The Potta\vatomies, like the .Miamis, were of the Algonquin family, 
and during the earlier period of their trilutl life appear to have been 
associated with the Ottawas. Anciently they were called Poux, and, with 
the Ottawas and Chippewas, are claimed to be a great offshoot of the 
parent Algoiuiuin stock. 

''It is rej)resented as a part of the family history that the separation 
of these into distinct I)an(Is took' place in the vicinity of iMichiliniackiiuick 
(P])per .Michigan), not far from the middle of the st'venteenth century— 
as eai-ly proliaI)ly as l(i41. At the time of the se])aration, oi- immediately 
after, the Poux liaving located on the southern shore of Lake ^Michigan, 
the Ottawas went to live witli them. After a time the Ottawas, becoming 
dissatisfied with the situation, detei'niined t(j withdraw from their foi'iner 
allies and seek a home elsewhere. The Pou.x, being informed of this deter- 
mination, told tht' Ottawas they might go back to tlu.- North if they did 
notjike their assot-iation ; they, the Pou.x, had UKule a tire for themselves 
and were capable of assuming and maintaining a .separate and inde- 
l)endent sovei'eignty, and of building their own council tires. From this 
circumstance, it is said, the name of the Pottawatomics was derived. Ety- 
mologically, the word is a compound of put-ta-wa, signifying a blowing 
out, or exi>ansion, of the cheeks, as in the act of ])lowing out a fire, and me, 
a nation; which, being interpreted, means a nation of fire-blowers — a 
people, as intimate(l to the Ottawas, able to build their own council fires 
and exercise the prerogatives of independence, or self-government. 

"Tlie first historic reference we have to thei]i was in 1641, when it 
was stated they luid abandoned their own counti'y (Green Pay), and 
taken refuge among the Cliippcwas, so as to secure themselves from their 
enemies, the Sioux, who, it would seem, had well nigh overcome tlunn. 


In KiGO Father Allouez, a French missionary, speaks of the Pottawato- 
mios as oeciii)yin<,f tei-ritory that extended i'roni (ireeii P>ay to tlie liead of 
Lake Superior, and southward to tiie country of the Sacs and J^'oxes, and 
tlie Miainis, and then tra(h'rs liad preceded luni to theii- country. Ten 
years hiter they I'etui'ued to (Jreen Jiay and occupied the horders of J^ake 
j\licliigan on tlie noi'tii. Suhsoqneiitly, ahout the ])ei,dnning of tlie 
eighteenth century, they ti-avei-sed the eastern coast of Lake Michigan 
to the mouth of the Ivivei- St. J()se])irs, \vliei-e, and to the southward of 
Lake Michigan, a hii-ge hody of tlirm held i)()ssession until near the mi(hlle 
of the inneteeiith cenlury. The (jecui)ancy of this territory was at lirst 
permissive only on the jiai-t of the :\Iiamis, who had before possessed the 
undisputed riuht to occupy and enjoy it: hut, in the course of time, their 
right was a<-knowledged hy giving them a voice in the making of treaties, 
which also included the I'ight of session and conve\aiRH'." 

As a rule tlie I'otlawat omies followed the policies of the ?\Iiamis and 
the Ottawas in theii- wars and alliances. They wei'e in the front I'anks 
of the wai'riors dui'ing the hloody exi'cution of Pontiac's conspiracy. On 
the •jr)tli of .Alay, 17fi:3, the old ])ost at St. Joseph's fell into the hands of 
the conspirators, and the Pottawatomies hoi'c Pontiae's ordei- foi- the sac- 
rilice of the gai'rison. Two days later the same detei'nuned hand ca])t\ired 
the foi't at K'edci-nog-a, with all the usual accompaniments of treaclu'ry 
and indiscriminate slaughtei'. They [tai't icipatcd in tla; (Jreenville treaty 
of 17!!.'), which, with the .Miamis, they kept until 1SP2, when they were 
drawn into the uprising and confederacy led by Tecumseh. In i)ursuance 
of ins jilans. and as agents of ( iriat P.ritain, it was the Pottawatomies who 
were foremost in the Chicago (Fort Dearhoni) ma.ssacre of 1812; but 
their star f(dl, with that of the ]\Iiamis, in the (events of that year, and a 
scoi'c of treaties followed i)revions to 1S.S7, when they made the last of 
their lands over to the United States. 

The (Ihe.vt Chief ]\Ie-te-a 

The Pottawatomie b(\st Icnown in the Upper Wabash Valley was 
Me-te-a, a A\ar chief of great intelligence and bravery, whose tribe occu- 
pied two villages on the Little St. -Joseph's Piver a few miles from Fort 
Wayne. They \vere located on lands granted to them by the Miamis. At 
the period of the War of 1812 .Me-te-a was at the height of his power, and 
while executing an ambuscade for PTarrison'.s troops, who were marching 
to the i'eli(d" of Fort Wayne, had his arm shattered and I'cndei-ed useless 
for life by a I'ille ball. During tlic greater part of the eighteenth century 
his trilic is said to have inhabited the country to the north and west of 
tlie pi-eseiit site of h'ort Wayne and the bordei'land of the Tii)[>ecanoe 


liivi'i-. It is known tliat tlic chirf liinisrlf ivsid.-d in that iT^ion from 
ISOO lo 1S27. and in .May he was i)oison('(| liy certain ineiiihcrs of his trihf 
who wci-c incensed at him foi' his faithful adlici-ence to the M ississinewa 
treats- of ISL'fi. 'i'he fatal poison is supposed to liave heen the root of the 
May aj)ple. Me-te-a, who had a wide reputation for vivacity and wit, as 
well as for generosity and bravery, was buried on the sandhill overlooking 
St. ^lai'y's, near J^'ort Wayne Collect'. The Pottawatoinies who came in 
I'ontact \vith tlie earl\' settlers of Wabash Count\' were maiidy mem1)ers 
of ^le-te-a's tribe and villages. 

The Weas (Ouiatenons) 

The AVeas, or Ouiatenons, as they \vere oi'iginally called ])y the French, 
weiv of the AliroiKiuin family, and were closely ivlated to the :\Iiamis— 
more closely than the Pottawatoinies, for with the oi'i,^ini/.ation of the 
.Miai::i cei:fei!ci';:1 ion. or nation, the Weas foi'ined a distinct unit in that 
body. They wcrr thus found with the comin<r of the French in l(i»i!)-7(). 

Amonu' the i''i'ench archives at Paris is found the followinu in an 
official document wi'ittcn in ITlS: ''This rivei', Ouabache, is the one on 
which the Ouiatenons (AVeas) are settled. /They consist of five villages, 
which are contiinious, the one to the other. One is called Oujateiion, the 
otliei' PeaiKpiinchias, another Petitscotias, and the fourth. Pes Oros. The 
name of the last 1 do not recollect, but the\- are all Oujatenons. llavin.^^ 
the same lan^ua^e as the xMiamis, whose brothei's they are, and ])roperly 
all Miamis, hasinu' thi- same customs and dress. The men ari' very numer- 
ous — fully a thousand oi- tweh'e hundred. They have a different custom 
from all otlua- nations, which is to keep their foi't extremely (dean, not 
allowin.u: a blade of o;i'ass to remain in it. The whole of the fort is sanded 
lik'e the Tuilleries. Their village is situated on a high hill and they have 
o\er two leagues of impr(n'ement, where they raise their Indian corn, 
j)um*!ikins and melons. From the summit of this elevation nothing is 
visible to the e\-e bul piviiries full of butfalo. " 

The (Jreen\-ille ti'caty of 17!),") mai'ked the first session of lands nuide 
by the Weas as a se])ai'ate ti'ibe. This was a tract of land si.\ miles square 
at the Ouiatenon, or Old Wea Towns, at the present site of Lafayette, Tip- 
I)i'canoe County. On 21. 1805. the Weas, ]\Iianiis. Pa'I Rivers, 
Delawares and Pottawatomies at a treaty made at Grouseland, near 
Vincennes. declaretl that they were ''joint owners of all the country on 
the Wabash and its waters al)ove the \'incennes tract," which had not 
been ceded to tie- Fnitcd States l)y that or any other treaty, and as such 
they agreed thereaftei' to recognize a cominunity of interest in the same. 
I'y the provisions of the same treaty tin; joint interest of these tribes in 


eortain lands south of the Wliite River was relinquished to the United 
States, in consideration of which the Weas were to receive an annuity of 
$250. ThriM' subsequent treaties were made by tlie Weas, involving ses- 
sions of land, before tliey finally dcpartrd from the Wabasli Valley, tlie 
last of whicli was at Vincennes, on the 11th of August, 1820. It was con- 
templated by the last treaty that the Weas should shortly remove from 
the AVabash, as they did, and tiieir annuities were thereafter paid at Kas- 
ka-skia, Illinois. 

' \'. (.e . .» I' -l.'KVI; i1I!,^.., : lit ' i J' 



Important Step in Recaptcrixo Detroit — Harrison's Army of Invest- 
ment — ^loviNG Against the Miami Villages — Burn Villages in 
AVabasii County — Battle of the ]\Iississine\va — Captain Pierce 
Killed — The Killed and Wounded — Hard jMarch Toward Green- 
viLi,E — What I^ecame of the Indians — ]\Iississine\va Battle Field 
in 1S:;(; — The \'i>-it of 18(il — Site of the Ixdian ^'lLLAGE — First 



Formal Action to 1*reserve the Battle Ground — Committee 
From Graxt axd Wabash Counties. 

The first (•aiii])ai,LCiis in the war of 1812 all et'iitercd in the recap- 
tni'L' of Dfti-oit from the; British, after it had l)ec'U turned over to the 
(•nniiy with such un-Ameriean celerity hy the pauie-striekeu Hull. It 
was not oidy the key to the invasion of Canada, hut it was even more 
important that it should he taken to revive tlu' uational conHdeuee and 
militai-y spirit. In the invi'stment of Detroit notliino- was more neces- 
sary than that the I'car of the Aiiu^rican army should he safe from the 
attacks o\' those Indian trihes which, throu,u:h the generations, were 
cvcr^l\ing in wait to push on to disaster tlie weaker of the white fac- 
tions which hapix'Ued to he at war. 

Lmportant Step in Recapturing Detroit 

Although the iMiamis professed to he neutral in the War of 1S12, 
yet fi-om their partici))ation in the attacks upon Fort AVayne and Fort 
Harrison and other acts of hostility, their fair words were douhted. The 
natural avenue along which they would i)ass to engage in attacks upon 
the I'ear of an American force would he that of the Wahash Valley. 
That must he jji-evented as the first impoi'tant step in the advance upon 

In Septemhei', 1812, General Hai'rison was named hy i'l'esideut Madi- 



son iis coimiiaiHU'r-iii-cliicf of the nortliwrstci'ii army, and his k'ttcr of 
instrurtion contained the followiiifr, wliidi explains the short, sharp, and 
<leeisive caiiipai^^ii aj^'ainst the Miainis in (Ifant and Wahash counties: 
''Jlavint^ provided for the j)i'()tect ion (jf the western fi'ontier, you will 
I'etake Detroit and, with a view to the; con(iuest of Upper Canada you 
will penetrate that country as far as the force under your conunand 
will, in your judgment, justify." 

TI.vRRisox's Army of Investment 

Till' plan foi' the raising of Harrison's arm.\- hail lieeii earefull\' 
M'(n-ked out. It was to consist of regulai' ti'oops, I'angers, the volunti'cr 
militia of the states of Jventucky and Ohio, and 3,(H)() fi'om \'irginia 
and Pennsylvania — a force cstimatt'd at 10,000 men. The Kentucky 
volunteeis iTSponded so enthusiastically that nniny had to he rejected, 
and soon after ricneral Harrison assumed connnand ovei- 2,000 moiuited 
men had assemhled at Vinccinies to he led into the Indian country along 
the Wahash and Illinois rivers — the "western frontier" of the United 
States which was to he made safe before the American forces delivered 
their assault against Detroit. Brietly, the Kentuckiaus were untler com- 
mand of (ieiiei'al Samuel Hopkins. They rehelled against his authority 
and were sent home. The gcnei'al then or'ganized another force and 
desti'oyeil the Ui'ophet's Town, on the Tijiijccaime, the headquartei's 
of Tecumseh's hrothei', which had Iuh-u al)an(lone<l by the FiKlians. ]5ut 
it is not this wing of tln' Hari'ison army, which was sweei)ing Indiana 
of treachei-ous savages, that is of si)ecial interest to the writers or i-eaders 
of the history of AVabasli County. 

jNfoviNG Against the .Miami \'ii,LAf;ES 

Diiriiig the latter part of 1812 Ceneral Harrison was engaged in 
establishing a depot of sup])lies at the ra])ids of the ^laumee, with a view 
of moving an important detachment of his army and making a demon- 
stration towai'd Detroit aiul, b\- a sudden passage of the strait ui>on 
the ice, a.n actual in vesture of .Maiden, Canada. But before cari'>'ing 
out that plan it became necessary to desti'oy the .Miami settlements on 
the j\Iississinewa River. This duty was assigneil to a detachment of 
about six hundred mounted men commanded by Lieutenant .John B. 
Campbell of the Xineteentli Kegiment. U. S. Infanti-y. The troo])s con- 
sisted chietly of a regiment of Kentucky dragoons, comprising Captain 
Elliott's company of the Nineteenth United States Regiment, Butler's 
Pittsburgh lilues and Alexander's Peinisylvania Riflemen, with a small 
company of spies and guides. 


Burn Villages in Wauasii County 

TIk' expedition iiiafchcd fi'oiii Dayton, Ohio, on tin- 14th of Dcceni- 
her, 1S12. lOai'ly on the morning' of the 17th the forces I'eaehed tiie 
nortli hank of the ]\Ii,\va liiver near the mouth of Josina Creek 
(^ahont a mihj from tiie soiitli line of the present AVal)ash County;, in- 
Juil)ited ])}' a number of Dehiwares and .Miamis. The troo[)s marehed 
into the towji, surprised tlie Indians, kilk'd eight wai'i'iors and took 
f()rt\--t\vo priso)irj'.s. The town was immediatrly Inii'ned, a house oi' two 
(■.\ee]<tiHl in which the prisoiiei-s were eonhneck Advaneing further 
down the i-ivrr thrci' (h'sei'ted xdUages wei'e hurued, sevei'al hoi'ses eap- 
tui-ed and many eatth' kilh^k 

The (h'tachiuent thm returned and eneamped near the tirst vilhige 
tiuit had hecn desti'oyi'd, and aljout lialf an lujur before daylight of the 
IStli, while the oliicers were liolding a council of war, a party of Indians 
made a furious attat-k up(jn tlie cam}). 

iiAT'n.K OK 'I'lIK MlSSISSlNi;\VA 

The battle tliat msued, just over the line in (ii'ant County, is thus 
desci-ibcd by the commander: "'Idle attack coiiuiieiiccd upon that aiigle 
of the camp formed b\- the hd't of Captain Hopkins' troops and the 
right of Captain (iirrai'd 's, l)Ut in a few seconds became general from 
the eiitram-e to the right of Ball's scpuulron. The enemy boldly ad- 
vanced to within a few yards of the lines and seemed determined to 
rush in. The guaids posted at the different redoubts retreated to camp 
and dispersed among their several I'ompanies, thus lea\ing me without 
a disposal)le force. 

Cai'Tain F'iecce Kiij.kd 

"(_'ai)tain South of tht' Kentucky Light Dragoons, who connnanded 
OJie of the redoubts in a handsouu' and military nunnier, l<e])t his posi- 
tion, although abandoned by half his guards, until ordert-d to lill up the 
space in the n^ai' line between the I'egiuuuit and scpiadron. The redoubt 
at which Captain Pierce connnanded was lirst attacked. Tlie Captain 
maintained his position until it was too late to get within tlu- line, lie 
I'ec ived two balls thi'ough his body and was tomahawked. lie died 
bravel}" and much lanu'utei,!. 

"Tile encm_\- then took ixi.ssession of Captain Pierce's I'cdoubt, and 
poured a tremcii(h)iis lire upon the angle to the right and left of which 
-were posted Hopkins' and Girrard's troops. But the lire was warmly 


rctunu'd. Not an incli of ground \va.s yicldi'd. Kvfi'v man, officer and 
soldier stood firm, antl animated and encouraged eacli other. 

"The enemy's fire hecame warm on the left of the squadron at 
which Captain Markle's trooj) was posted, and the right of Elliott's 
company — which, with ^Nlarkle's, formed an angle of the camp — was 
severely ainioycd l)y the enemy's fire. 

"I had assisfed in forming the infantry, composed of J"]lliott's com- 
pany of the Nineteenth IL S. Regiment, Butler's Pittsburgh lUues and 
Alexander's iN.-nnsylvania Riflemen, and ordered tliem to advance to 
the hi'ink of a declivity, from whicli tlu'\' could the more eU'ectually 
defend themselves and hai'ass the enemy, if they should attempt an 
attack ui)on that line. 

"While [ was thus engaged Major Ball rode up to me and observed 
that he was hard pressed and must be relieved. I galloped immediately 
to the left wing with the intention of ordering Captain Trotter's troops 
to I'ciuforce the sc^uadron, l)Ut was there informed that the enemy was 
seen approaching in that direction; and believing it improi)er, on second 
thougiit, to detacli a lai'ge ti-oop from the line whicti also covered an 
angh' of the camp, I di'termined to give tlu' relief from the infantry. 
I wheeled my horse and met .Majo)- .McDowell, who observed that the 
si)ies and guides under comunind of Captain Patterson Bain, consisting 
of ten men, were unem])loyed. We rode to them together and ordered 
Captain Bain to the support of the sciuadron. I then ordered Captain 
JUitler, with the IMttsburgh Blues, to imnu'diately reinforce the squadron, 
and directed Caj)tains Elliott aiul Alexander to extend to the riglit and 
left and fill tlie spac" occasioned b\- the withdrawal of the JUues. Cap- 
tain Butlei', in a most gallant manner and highly woilhy of the name 
he bears, formetl his men immtMliately and in excelh'Ut order, and 
marched them to the point to which they were ordered. The alacrity 
with which they were formed and moved was never exceeded by any 
troops on earth. Hopkins made room foi' them by extending his troops 
to the right. 'I'he Blues were scarcely at tiie jmst assigned them wlien 
I discovered the effects tlu'y pi-odiU'cd. A well-directetl fire from them, 
and Hopkins' dragoons nearly sih'uced the enemy in that quarter. 
They (the enemy) then moved in force to the left of the squadron and 
the I'ight of the infantry, at which point Captains ^larlde's and Elliott's 
companies were posted. Here, again, they were warmly received. 

"At this time daylight began to dawn. I then ordered Captain 
Trotter, whose troops had l)een ordered by Colonel Simi'all to mount 
for the i)Ui'pose, to mak(! a charge. The Captain cried out to his men 
to follow him, and they tilted off at full gallop. Major M(d)owell, with 
a small l)ai'ty, rushed into the midst of the enemy and exposed himself 


very iinicli. \ t-annot say loo much for tliis f^'allaiit vdci-aii. Oa|)taiii 
]\Iarkle with aI)out liftoeii of his troop and Lieutenant AVari'cii also nuule 
a daring ohai'j^e on the enemy. Captain :\Iai'kle aveii<red tlie (h-atli of 
his relation, Lieutenant Waltz, upon an Indian witii his own sword. 

"Fearing that Captain Trotter might bo too hard i^ressed. I oi-dered 
Captain Johnson, of the Kentneky Light Dragoons, to advance with his 
troops to supi)oi't him. I found Johnson ready, and ("olonel Simrall 
i-eports to me lliat all his other cai)taiiis — I'dmorc, ^^)ung and Siidth — 
wei'e an.xidus 1o join the charge; but [ called for only one troop. Tiie 
ColoiKd had the whole in excellent order. Ca])tain Johnsou did not 
join Trotter till the enemy were out of reach, lie, however. ])icked up 
a straggler or two that Ti-otter had passetl over. The cavalry returned 
an<l iid'ormed nu' that the enemy had tied pi'ecipitalely. 

TiiK Kh.lkd and WorxDKD 

'"1 have, on this occasion, to lament the loss of several brave men, 
and many wounded. Among the former were Cai)tain I'ierce, of the 
Ohio \'oluiiteers, and Lieutenant Waltz, of .Markle's troop." 

Dillon, in his "Ilistoiw of Indiana," says: •'In this engagement, 
which lasted about one hour, the loss of the troojjs under conunand of 
Lieutenant Colon(d (Campbell amounted to eight killed and foi'ty-two 
wounded, and several afterwards died of their wounds. 'The numljer 
of horses k'iiled, (K'T),' sa>-s the commanding oftieer, 'was considerable; 
and 1 have no douitt they saved the lives of a gi'eat many men.' Fifteen 
Lidians were found dead on the battle ground, and it is probable that 
an eiiual numbei- were cari'ied away from the field, dead or mortally 
wounded, b(d'ore the close of the action. The Indian foi-ce engaged in 
the battle was inf.-rior in nundiers to that engaged under Lieutenant 
Colonel Campbell, who, in his official rejjort says: '1 am pei'suaded that 
there coidd not have been h'ss than ;i()U of the enemy.' A nephew of the 
great •\liami chief. Little Turth\ was in the engagement. Ills name 
was Little Thunder, and he distinguished himself by his etforts to in- 
spii'c the Indians with coui'age a.nd confidence. 

".Xcarly all the Indians who were taken prisonei's at this time wt'i'e 
.Muncies and were included among those who composed Silver lU'el's 
band. Tile villages which were di-stroyed were situated on tlie banks 
of the river at j^oints from tifteen to twenty miles distant from its junc- 
tion with the AVabash, where the principal Mississincwa village stood. 

1L\KD AL\Rcii TcnvARD Greenville 

"The want of provisions and forage, the loss of the horses, the suffer- 
ing condition of the troops, the severity of the cold, and the rumors 


^Jlulist |"'""/r' '' ''' ^^--— va vma,e under co.n.nand of 

Uciuus.h, mdueed Lieutenant Colonel Campbell to send an express to 

Greenv. le tor reinforcen.ents and to eonunenee namedu.tely Ins n'areh 

tcnvard that post. Ilis can.p was fortified every night by a'breastwork 

The expedition was compelled to move slowly on its return, owing to 

he condition the wounded men, Seventeen of whom were carried on 

litteis. Ihe intense coldness of the weather, the scareitv of provisions 

among the Indians and their fear of killing the prisoner, con^^^: 

a the retiring troops from the pursuit and annoyance of about one 

undre.l thirty Miamis. At a place about forty miles from Greenville 

he suftering expedition was nu-t and furnished with supplies bv a de- 

taclunent o± ninety men under the connuand of Major Adams ' 

'The number of men rendered unfit for duty by being frost-bitten 
on their arrival at Greenville were: In Major Ball's squadron, 107- in 
Colone Simrall s regiment of dragoons, 138; in the corps of infantrv 
and ritlemen, 58." ^ j 

What Became of the Indians 

To continue the story from the Indian standpoint : "But a portion 
ot the Miamis as a tribe were engaged in the battle, another faction be- 
ing friendly to the United States. The hostile and defeated members 
ot the tribe lelt for the nortli and joined their fortunes with Great 
Britani during the war which ensued. Toward the close of the follow- 
ing year, liouever, they were again permitted to occupv their former 
hunting grounds upon giving assurance of future good behavior." 

.AIississiNEWA Battle Field in 1830 

No person ever lived in AVabasli County who did more to preserve 
its early instory than Hon. Elijah Hackleman, a Hoosier by birth and 
particularly identilied with tlie development of Central Indiana and 
the valley of the Upper Wabash. Born at Cedar Grove, Franklin 
County, in the bor.ler-land of Ohio, he was educated in that section 
ot the state and l)ecame prominent in the public aH'airs of the adjoin 
mg County of Kusli. while still a young man and previous to settling 
at \\ abash. There he beca-ne still more prominent as a lawver and a 
man of affairs which vitally concerned the city, countv and state But 
before fixing his residence tliere, as early as 183G (then in his nine- 
teenth year), he took a trip tlirougli the Upper Wabash countrv 

After leaving Wabash, May VJ, 183G, the party of wliieh voung 
Ilackletiuin was a member, proceeded toward Marion. Wlien they 


I'caclK'd tlic site of the battle ali'ciady descrilx'd they made a casual ex- 
amination of the site, which was then readily pointed out by those who 
had settled in the' vicinity. At that time the adjacent lands wt.Te almost 
in a state of nature, with only liefe and there a snudl i)atch of ground 
clearetl of the tiud)er antl underbrush in the vicinity of the Indian 
villages. ' • . .r ; 

• \ 
TiiK Visit ok 18(il '- ' " ' '::>v: . , . 

Twi'iity-tive years afterward, when Dillon was preparing a new 
edition of his well known "History of Indiana," desiring to give a 
more comi)lcte account of the battle, as well as the location and sur- 
roundings of tiie battle-field, he requested Mr. Hackleman, undoubtedly 
the best jjcrson qualified to assist him historically, to carefully examine 
tlie grounds, nudcc such measui-ements as were necessary and send him 
the details. Accordingly on the 16th of Jiuie, ISbl, :\Ir. Hackleman, 
accomi)anied by Xaaman Fletcher, Alauson P. Feri-y and Oapt. William 
-Morse, i-evisited the site of the old battle ground and the Indian village 
destroyed by Captain Campbell. 

During the visit careful measurements were made.' of the situation, 
tlie gi'ounds occui)ied l)y the encami)ment am! the plan of tlie engage- 
ment. .Many of the facts i)ertaining to the relative positions of the 
different conunands under Colonel Campbell were ol)tained from Me- 
sliin-go-me-sia, tlie Indian chief, and William H. Kichards, both of whom 
fought in the battle. 

]\Ir. Hackleman himself gives a moi'e detailed account of his visit:: 
■■\Ve stai'ted from Wabash on a day's excursion to the Indian Lands, 
and, on approaching its borders we procured a guide— lohn I\a\', long a 
resident of the neighborhood. 

• Site of tiii: Indian VirLAOE 

"Oui- first objective ])oint was the site of the old Indian village at 
th<' mouth of Josina Creek that had been desi roved l)y Colonel Camplxdl 
on the ITlh of Decemlx'i', 1S12. The village has never l)een rebuilt, but 
remains as a commons, or rather a i)aradise for the Indian i)Ouies, on 
which can be seen large iiunil)ers of tlu-m grazing on the hue blue 
grass that covei'S fifty or a hundred acres surrounded and interspei'sed 
with clumps of plum thickets. A sliort distan(;e furthei' up we visited 
the (jhl Indiana cemetei'\- in which (|uietl\' slee]) many of tlie old Indian 
warrioi's. In sotiu' places the ])Ui-ials iuuj been so shallow that numbers-, 
of the Indian bones were pi'otruding from the ground. 


Fjrs'i' Plowing ok tjie J^attle Field ■ ' . , 

"Tlk'nee \w proceeded up the right bank of tlie river a mile or 
more, when we eame to tlie side of tlie Battle Ground, it is situated 
on a level plain on the second bottom of the i\Iississinewa Kiver about 
lUO rods south of Me-shin-go-me-sia's village, the lines of encampment 
forming a hollow square of about 500 feet to the side fronting to the 
south, and being witliin a few rods of a steep hill or declivity some 
forty feet above the first bottom. About one-half of the battle-ground 
had I)een cleared and inclosed for agricidtural ])urposes by the cluef, 
and oidy the day Ijcfore had been plowed for the first time by a white 
man (Samuel Gilpen), who was very much astonisiied at his day's 
laboi's, having i)lowed up some eiglit or ten dozt-n horse-shoes. Each 
of our party took a few of these horse-shoes as mementoes of the Ijattle- 


"A diagi-am of the ground was nuide at this visi^ to accompan>' a 
second edition of 'Dillon's History of huliana." then in contemplation 
of publication. ^Ir. Dillon subsiMiuently died, and his second edition 
was iie\-er piiblislicd. , ., , ,., ^ ,,.•,-.,.■,, 

Revisitixg i'iie Grounds in 188;3 -. i 

'"At a later date, Septeml)er 14, ISS;], I again, in company \vitli 
ffudge Tlionuis 1>. Helm, of Logansport, ami Capt. l^lias S. Stone, of 
La l"'ontaine, visited this i)lace, in ordt-i- to make some corrections in 
the diagraiu. We fo\;nd. the whole battle-tiehl covered with a luxuriant 
growth of corn, completely oliliterating all traces of the deadly conflict 
that was once cnaeteil thei'c. 

■'Having now given, somewhat ini])ei'fcetly, some of my recollections 
of the three visits to this battletield — the first one fo]-t.\'-seven years ago 
(written in ISs;^ when the wimle country was a wilderness; the sec- 
ond, twt'nty-t\vo \('ars ago, when the country was partially cleared; and 
the third, oidy a few days ago, wlu'ii we found the landmarks almost 
obliterated — I admit that I feel a strong desire to snatch this sacred 
I)lace from the ruin that seems inevitable, before the mantle of oblivion 
sliall hide all traces of its existence. 

The Slaughter of the Horses 

"AVhen T visited this place in ISdl, I had in my possession all the 
pid)lic docmnents reUiting to this battlefield, and was so fortunate as 
to arrive at a time \vhen the ground M'as ( being jdowed, revealing 


the (■.xa(.'t location where the cavalry horst-s suil'ered most. This location 
is about twenty-five rods iiortli of the hluff and ahoiit hve rods east of 
the ohi Indian I'oad K-adin<; to tlie -Me shin--n-iiie-sia villa'^v, and will 
tliend'oi'e locate the noilheru an<^le of the cani]). 

"It is said hy the citizens of that vitduity that William H. Ixichards, 
one of the soldiers of Colonel Campbell 's regiment, who moved to Liberty 
township aljout the year 1840, but who is now deceased, often pointed 
out the exact location of the battle gi-ound ; also stating that a large 
majority id' the horses were killed at the noi'thwcst angle of the camp; 
in fact, that the dead horses literall\' co\ered that part of the camj), so 
much, so that the conuuanding officer ordei'ed the dead soldiers to be 
buried near the southeast corner of the camp, which is probably the 
best authority we have for suggesting that lo<-ation on our diagram as 
the ' burial place. ' 

■"1 shouhl be much gratified if I were able to give a biogra])hy of 
^Ir. Iiichards, as he was the oidy soldier of Colonel Camiibell's com- 
mand that lived in the vicinity of the battle ti(dd. He was a Pennsyl- 
vainan by liirth and a mend)er of Captain Alexander's company of 
Peinis\dvania I'iflcmen. !!(' located in this vi(dnity, as bi-fore noted, 
about the year 1S4(), and spent the I'cmaindei- of his days not many miles 
distant from this scene of his early military exploits, dying at thti resi- 
dence of his son-in-law, r^lr. Presler, in Huntington County, about the 
year ISlid. He was the father of Samuel IJichards, of Liberty township, 
and of Ceoi'ge Iiichards, of Chester township, AVabash County. 

Impoktan-ce of Tin-: IVvttle 

"I am of opiinon that the importanci- of this battle has never been 
fully ajjpreciati'd by the peojde of this country. Having no enemy in 
the i-ear, Ciiieral Hai'i'ison was enabled to jjush his camjjaign to a fav- 
orablt' conclusion without unnecessary delay. I would suggest, there- 
foi-i', that it would be an act of patriotism on the part of the people of 
Wabash and (Jrant counties to take immediately some measures to per- 
petuate, becomingly, the identity of (Jolomd CampbelLs battle field 
on the Mississinewa." 

Formal Actiox to Pkeseuve the Battle Ground 

AVhile on the visit to the battle field made September 14, 1883. at 
which were ])rescnt, as stated, Messi's. Elijah Hackleman, Thonuis P>. 
Helm and Capt. Mlias S. Stone, the fii'st formal measures were taken 
to preserve the Mississinewa battle lieUl as historic ground, having a I'eal 

Vol. 1—4 


phu-f in the I'ouiuliiiir of the I'liitrd States. Al)out 11 o'clock A. M. 
of that (lay a meeting was held some five rods in front of the ]ocatioi\ 
of Cajitain Markh-'s company, and prohal)ly on 1hr \'ef\- i^i'ound whci'e 
Li.-uteiiant Waltz was killed. 

On motion, Judgi,' Thomas 11 Helm of Logansport, was elected ])i-esi- 
deiit, and lOlijah Hackleman of Wabash was aj)pointed seci-etai-y. 

The object of the meeting being stated to be for the purjiose of 
snggesting to tlie citi/.eiis of Wabash and Oi-ant connties the j)i-opriety 
of taking some measures whereliy the identity- of this battle field may 
not be lost. 

('o.M.MrrTF.r: kijom (ii;ANT and Wabash Ootxties 

On motion of ('apt. Klias S. Stone, of La Fontaine, the following 
preamble and resolutions were I'ead : 

"Whereas, so far as the meeting is aih'ised thei'e has heretofore 
never been any effort made by the citizens of this counnunity, or by 
the state, to p.-rpetuate the itlentity of Col. John 15. Campbell's battle 
field, whieh battle was fought on this ground on the liStli of December, 
1S12: aiKl 

"■\Vhei'eas, we consider it stM'ond in imi)ortance only to the battle 
of Tipjiecanoe, the location and idintit_\- of which have long since been 
presrrved by the action of the Legislature of the State of Indiana; and 

"Whei-eas. tlie patriotism of the citizens of Wjdjash and (irant coun- 
ties, on whose borders the battle was fought, should prompt them to 
such measui't's as \vill I'escue its location from that obli\ ion that inevit- 
ably awaits it : Thei-efore 

"Resolved that a conunittee of five ])e api)ointed by this meeting 
with full jjower to take iido consideration such nu'asiu'cs as may be 
]iecessai'y to preserve the identit\- of this battle field, by making the 
sanie a public i)ark, either by the contribution of the citizens of the 
two counties, or by the action of the legislatuiH', or by any other legiti- 
mate measures; and that said committee keep a i-ecord of its proceedings 
and ha\'e full power to call a meeting of the citizens of the two coun- 
ties at any time and ]dace it may think ])i-opei' to take action in tlie 
nuitter herein set forth." 

Whicli ])reamble and I'esolution were adopted, and the committee 
ai)i)ointed undei- tlu' sanu' consisted of the following gentlemen: Capt. 
Elias S. Stone, La Fontaine, chairman; Col. Asbury Steele and George 
Gunder, Marion ; Capt. William H. IMorse and ]\Lijor M. H. Kidd, 

It was oi-dered that the secretary of the meeting be directed to fur- 


iiisli the pajHTs of ]\Iai-ioii and Waltasli with its procftnliDgs, with a re- 
{[lU'st for puMicalioti, and that all other pajxTS |)iiljlisluMl in the two 
counties be re({uested to copy. 

Since 'iSS'.i vaiious efforts have been made, wlneh can hardly be 
dignified as movements, to erect a memorial on the battlefield in Grant 
County. Finally, in 1909, these repeated, if fitful attempts, bore sub- 
stantial fruit. How, is well told in the Lewis Company's "History of 
(ii-ant Count\-," ])ublisheil in 1914, the extract in i)oint lieing as follows: 
'"In 1909 there was an innnense concourse of people assembled at Battle 
Gi-ound l<'ai-iii in Pleasant Township, the jnirpose being to arouse an in- 
tei'est in the ])attle and its dii'ect iiitluenci; on tlie great Northwest Ter- 
ritory then open for settlement. W. R. Brock, owner of the farm, did 
much to proviile for the comfort of the visitors that day and, with 
wigwams scattered about, it was a realistic picture of 'almost one hundred 
yeai's ago on this very sjjot.' 

■"This memorial jjicnic was held on Sunday, August 29th, that year, 
and the visitors were from surrounding counfies, as well as from all 
parts of Grant Count\'. An organization was effected known as the 
.Mississinewa Battle Ground Association, with .Major G. W. Steele as its 
ju'csident and Senator J. T. Strange, of Grant County, vice president. 
I\liami, A\'abash, Huntington, Blackford, Howard and Cass, have similar 
]epresentation in the organization. Because it \vas Tei'ritorial Government 
when the iJattle of the Mississinewa occurred, December 17 and 18, 1812, 
surrounding counties have ecpial interest in commemorating this im- 
])Oi-taiit militar\' engagement, it meant just as much to tlnMU, and it 
was an enthu.siastic meeting at I)attle Ground h'arm. 

'■.Majoi' Steele, Senator Strange and othei's had outlined the sup- 
posed jxjsition of the army under Colonel John ii. Campbell and the In- 
dians whom they defeated, thus opening up the country for settlement, 
b>- planting small American flags on the hillside, and foi' fhe first time 
many \isitors familial- with the locality had some definite understand- 
ing of the military engagement there. It had been popularly under- 
stood that file fight occuri-ed within the timl)er on Battle (iround Farm, 
and many other citizens who had similar traditions did not wholly agree 
Avith tlie outline of flags that day. There was an impromptu program 
from a platform erected in the woods, all the orators saying, 'Almost 
one hundred years ago,' then deci-ying the neglect — a century almost 
cycled by, and no monument marking the site of this important ])at- 
tle! In 1912 certificates of membership were placed on the market at $1 
each, and a fund was started for the purchase of ground. If th(^ pur- 
pose of the association is accomplished, there will hv. a Govenunent Res- 
ervation in the neighborhood of the battlefield." 


Since tlie organization of the last Mississinewa Battle Ground As- 
sociation snl)stantial progress has Ijcen made in the foruiidation of plans 
lor a suitable nioiuunent, and in the raising of funds not only for a 
.site, but for adjacent grounds to be set off as a ( Jovernnient Reservation. 
.Major Steele, commander of the National IMilitary Home, JMarion, has 
been succeeded in tlie presidency by Hon. J. Wood Wilson, of Clarion, 
and E. H. Johnson, Marion, by Hiram Beshore, of IMarion, as secretary. 
The representatives from Waliasli Coiuity are: Capt. Beiijannn F. Wil- 
liams, Fred J. Kijig and J)r. T. R. Bradv. 

i I ;. ^ 

CHAPTER Y '" ' ;'^ ' ^ ':; 


Captain Charley, tiih FAiTiiFn. Miami — The ^Tiamis Completely 
SriiDrED — Ijig Miami Kesekve (1818; — The Indl\x .Mill on xMill 
Creek — Wanted: Indian Lands — Pottawatomies Nainie Governor 
Ray — •'AVAP-sA-Aroii, AVjiisk Whisk" — Native Dances for the 
Commissioners — 1\E\'. ^McCoy's Mission — Signing oi'^ the Treaty — 
DoriniTi. Stoi{y of Rich ardniele — Giu:at .March of the P(/rTA- 
watomifs — Last of Miamis, as a Tribe — The Very Last of the 
Miasms — ^L;shingomesia's 1)AND — The \'^ii,lage and ('hief, La Oro — 
La 1<'o.\taine — Thic Naming of Silver Creek — Indian Ponies at a 
pREMii'M — Treaty and Josina Creeks — Little Titrtle — Pa-lonz-wa 

((iODl'Ri:Y ). 

The result of the liattle of tlic Mississinewa was what Ociu'ral Har- 
rison wislird it to 1)0. l^otli the Hritisli and tlieir Tiulian allies were 
massed before him, rather than dividi'd. i\Iost of llie liostih; .Miamis 
joined the British at Detroit while a few moved to Ohio with the Del- 
awares and there sought the protection of the United States. 

^Miamis and Pottawatomtes Relieved 

AVlien the P)i'itish 1)ui-ned and e\-aeiiated Deti-oit, at the approach of 
Ilari-ison in Isi:}, the starving and misei'ahle .Miamis found themselves 
deserted and ohliged to sue the vietoi'ious Americans for peace. In 
Oetohei' of that yeai-, an armistice was entered into at Detroit, and in 
tile following -January both the ^liamis and the Pottawatoniies who had 
been in arms against tlie Lnited States assend)ied at Foi't Wayne. There 
were about a thousand of the ^liainis, seven hundred of whom were 
women and children, and perhaps half as man\' Pottawatoniies. All were 
in extreme destitution. As a preliminary to more cordial feelings, the 
Covernment sup])lied the warriors with suflicient ammunition for their 
hunting parties, witii half rations of meat and flour, while the women 



and children were furnished with a small allowance of provisions 
reguhirly. •• ■ • 

('attain ("llAKLKV, Tin: I^'aITHFI'L iMiAMI 

Tlie Second Treaty of Greenville was held in the following July. 
One of th(! most conspicuous figures in its deliberations was the principal 
chief of the Kcl River tribes of .Miamis, Captain Charley. From the 
first he had b(.'en a firm friend and supporter of the American cause 
and at the (jlreenville assemblage refused to ])ind himself to remain 
neutral in the war against Great Britain. So, although peace was made 
with other members of the old Miami confederation upon that basis, he 
refused to renounce his allegiance to the United States. With a large 
number of his warriors, Captain Charley set out with General Cass for 
Detroit in the following August, leaving the women and children at 
Greenville to be supported at Government expense. 

It is from this stamieh iMiami that Charley Creek is named, as well 
as an addition to the town of Wabash. 

The Miamis Completely Subdued 

As a tribe, the Miamis never violated the Second Treaty of Green- 
ville. The decisive affair of the Mississinewa, their desertion by the 
British at Detroit and their subsequent relief by the Americans, coupled 
perhaps with their weakness as a fighting force, seem to have com- 
pletely subdued them. 

The Eel River formed the natural boundary between the Miamis 
and Pottawatomies. North of that stream the Pottawatomies held sway 
as late as 1826 and were, in later years, superior to the Miamis in num- 
bers, and respected accordingly. The Pottawatomies frequently evinced 
a longing to exterminate the ?^Iiamis, even after the last Greenville 
treaty, but the interference of the Government prevented open hostilities. 

Big Ml\mi Re.serve (1818) 

Undoubtedly it was their fear of the Pottawatomies which induced 
the few remaining chiefs of the INIiamis to request the United States 
Government to fix the bounds of their lands. A treaty was concluded 
with the Pottawatomies on the 2nd of October, 1818, and four days 
later Gov. Jonathan Jennings of Ohio, Gen. Lewis Cass and Judge Ben- 
jamin Parke, U. S. Commissioners, met the chiefs and head men of the 
Miamis at the headwaters of the St. Mary's River in Ohio. There was 


coiicluiU'd the Ti-caty. of St. Mary's which created the Thirty ]\lile Ke- 
serve for the protection of the Miainis. The hauls were located south of 
tile Wahasli liivcr, the northern houndary or hase being a line drawn 
between tiie mouths of the Salanioide Jiiver, in Wyljash County, and 
tlie Eel Kiver, in Cass County — a distance of about thirty miles. This 
was to deternnne the three other sides of tht; reservation, whicli was 
therefore nearly nine huiulred miles stiuare. Jt will thus be seen that a 
con>siderable portion of what is now Wabash County was the northeastern 
cornel- of the ?kliami Kcserve. Opposite its northeastern point, at the 
mouth of the Salamonie, \\as the old Indian town of La (iro, called after 
an Indian chief l)y the name of La Gros, who resided there for many 

The Indian ]\Iill on Mill Creek 

The seeoiid clause of the fifth article of the 1818 treaty reads thus: 
'"The Cnited States will cause to be built for the Miamis one grist mill 
and one saw mill, at such sites as the chiefs of the nation nuiy select 
and will pro\ide ami support one blacksmith and one gunsmith for 
them, and provide them with sucli implements of agriculture as the 
proper agent ma\- think necessary." 

■■Notwithstanding," says llackleman, "that there were as fine mill 
streams within the limits of this reservation as any in the state of In- 
diana, yet, strange to say, these Indian chiefs chose a site for the pro- 
posed mill on a little wet-weather creek, which now bears the name of 
Mill Creek, some four miles southwest of the present city of Wal)ash. 
And the mill was built on this site in the year 1819 or 18'20, under the 
agency of Benjamin Level. The main building was primitive, being 
made of hewed logs. Lewis Davis was appointed the miller and 
contjnued in that capacity for five or six years." 

After the treaty of October 6, 1818, the ]Mamis remained in the un- 
interruj)ted jiossession of this largi; reservation for a period of twenty 
years, excepting a small strip of land on the west end which was sold 
to* the United States Government at the treaty held at the forks of the 
Wabash October 23, 188-1. 

But the first steps had already been taken toward the settlement by 
whites of the undisputed Indian country, occupied chiefiy by the Miamis 
and Pottawatomies, which embraced the territory within the present 
limits of Wabash County. Altliough the mill was primarily established 
for the benefit of the Indians, it was the first fixed evidence of civiliza- 
tion marking the advance of the white race in the county. 


Wanted: Indian Lands 

Within a t\'\v years it hecaiiu- cviileiit to the (Joverument tiiat the 
Mhuni Reservation was too large and select a ti'aet of land to be denied 
industrions, ambitious, intelligent white men who were i)ressing west- 
ward through all the country northwest of the Ohio toward the Alissis- 
•sipl'i- Tith' also must be ac(|uii-eil to tlie more northei'ii lands of the 

Prei)aratory to a conference with these tribes, early in the month 
of Octobi'r, ]b'26, (ien. John Tipton, Indian agent, residi'iit of Kort 
Wa.Niie, with Joseph Barron, inteipreter on behalf of tlie United States. 
James II. Kintnei- and others, ma(U' a tour of inspection through the 
reserve with a view of (K'ciding ujion some suitable place at which to 
confer with the Indians for the i)urchase of their lands. The residt of 
this inspection was the selection of the spot near Paratlise Springs, on 
the banks of tlie Wabash in the eastt-i'n i)art of what is now the city. 
The prosaic, but ver\- useful sho])s of the l)ig Poui' Railroad, now cover 
the site of what wei'c so long known as the Treaty Grounds. 

(leneral Tiploii appears to have been s|)ecially delegated to select 
the site and erect the ne('essai'\- building for holding the conference. His 
linal decision was determined b\' the pi'csence of Paradise Springs, which 
spouted out of a hillside for sevei'al feet, furnishing an al)undance of 
l)ure water I'ov all the p()ssible negotiators. 

The commissioners selected to treat with tlu' Indians were; (Jov. 
James ]>. Kay, (ien. Lewis ('ass and (Jeneral Tipton. A com})any of 
soldiers, commantk'd !)y (."a])t. Fredei'ick R. Kinttier, was ordered to 
I'epoi-t to (leneral Tii)ton on tlie Upper Wabash, the same to act as a 
guard for the paities at the coming treaty. 

Vov some time, thercfori', the general was busy pi'ejjaring for the 
accommotlatioii of those who were to ])art icipate in the treaties. A plot 
of ground was surveyed at the foot of the hill, probably IT)!) feet scpiare, 
witli a little rivulet from the s])ring running through tlie eastern ])art. 
Three log cal)ins were built on the noi'th side of the scpuire for tlu' 
conunissioners — the most easterly one for Governor Ray, the mjddle one 
for (ieni^ral (,'ass, and that on the west for (leneral Tipton himself. 
These buildings \\ere probably thirty feet ai)art. One cabin wa.s built 
on the west line of the square for the accommodation of the soldiers, 
and three or four on the south line foi- the storage and trading of goods. 
The (H)ok liouse stood near the I'avine in the nortlieast corner and the 
council liouse near the middle of the east side of the square. Thus the 
scenery was set for the treaties of October, 182(i. 

1)\' till' time the buildings and grounds were readv, the Pottawatomies 



and .Miaiiiis, to the iiuiiihcr of several hiuulrcd, wi'i'c encamped on botli 
.sitles of 111.' Wabasli. The soldiers kei)t guai-d around the scjuat'e at the 
Treaty (i rounds. A iunul)er of i-onfen-nces were heKl between the com- 
iiiissioners aiul ri'presentatives of the two tribes before tlie final siyn- 
lu'j; of U\c treaties — by tile Pottawatoiuies ()ctol)er 16th, and tlie ]\Iiamis, 
Oetobei- 2:}rd. To shorten a long story of trading, and dickering, and • 
general scheming for advantages, whicli have always accompanied all '" 
s\i( h gatherings, the treaty of ]<S2ti opened to white setth^rs the eastern 
pai-t of Wabasli County south of the Wabash IJivei- and all land lying 
between the Wabash and Kel rivers. The .Miaiins were still to occupy 
the terr!tor\' south of tlie Wabash and east of a line drawn south from * 
thi' mouth of the Salamonie Iiivrf, and the Pottawatoiuies, that north ' 
of Kel River. 

The best and, so far as we know, the only complete account of tlu' 
iSL'ti treaties, -was \vritten by James ^I. Ray, of Tndianajiolis, more than 
lifty years after its occurrence. He tells the stoi'y thus gi'aphically : 
"At the ti'caty held near the town of Wabash, at the site aft<'rward 
i;allfd the Treaty (i round, with the Pottawatomii- and Miami Indians, 
in the fall of ISl'ti, (ioveruor Lewis Cass of ^Michigan, (iovcriior damrs 
P.. Kay of Indiana, and (Jeiieral dohn Tii)ton of Fort Wayne, United '^ 
States Indian agmit, were tln' Fiiited States Commissioiii'rs. Coloii(d '' 
.Marshall of Lawrence County, Indiana, had bcmi selected as secretary 
of the t-ommission. but as his health disalth-d him from attending 1 was 
apitoinled assistant secretary, and discharucd the duties rd' his position 
in his stead. William Coiuiei' of Indiana, and his brother, Henry Con- 
ner ol' Dcti'oit, and others, were sworn as Ciiited States intei-preters. 


"The Pottawatoiuies were present in numbers of several hundred 
from the nortli i)art of the state toward Lake .Alichigan, >vliile the ^liamis 
living along and beyond tlu^ AVal)ash under tlieir chief, Richardvilli', 
Were more limiteil in numliei's, althoiigli mueh more familiar with the 
j)rogress of the whites than the former tidl)e, who manifested much more 
of the wild and savage Indian temper. lOarly in the gathering, the 
ofticers of the commission were invited to meet the chi(d's of the northern 
tribe at their eam[t for introduction. AVIieii seated around the 
council fire the chiefs iiKpni'cd as to the names of the members of the 
commission. The recogiii/.ed Indian titles previously given to (iovernor 
('ass and General Tipton were kmiwii, and when to their inrpiiry as to 
tlie name of (lo\-ernoi- Kay of Indiana, they were told it was Kay, thi'>' 
shook their heads, intiituiting that thev could attach no meaning to it. 


William Conner, one of the interpreters, explained that it signified the 
first dawn of the morning, when the chiefs, conferring, gave him the title 
of Wau-sa-augh, after which a pipe of peaee wa.s hlled, lighted and 
pa.s.S(Hl aronnd suce-essivfly for a pulf from each one present. 

"Tile session of the treaty (preceding the actual signing of articles) 
lasted for weeks, during wliieli, on several oerasions a large puhlic coun- 
cil of all the Indians of eaeli trihe were pi-esent, and various tliscussions 
occurred between some of the chiefs and the c(jmmissioners, thi'ough the 
interpi'eters, at the coun(-il house which had Iteen ei'ecled for that ])ur- 
pose. I observed, however, that Cliief Kichardville, of the .Mianus, was 
seldom present at the councils, or, if there, made few speeches, the real 
progress of tlu' ti'caty depending upon pi'ivate conferences between him 
and the other leading child's and the conunissioners. .Much jealousy 
existed between the tribes as to the i-idative proportion and value of the 
lands pro])osed to be pui'chased. and their title thereto by each of them, 
(ireat fears were ajiprehended of the tlanger of collision between the 

" Waij-ha-augh, Whisk, Whisk!" 

••Liberal rations were supi)lied for the Indians during the period 
of the ti'eaty, of \vhich whiskex' formed a limite(i portion, until an inci- 
dent occui-red giving warning of the conse([uences of such indulgence. 
On one night, not satisfied with their dail\' portion of licjuor, several 
Indians tore oif the stick chimney of the counnissary cabin and, reach- 
ing the whiskey barrels, soon became in their phrase 'heap drunk,' after 
whieh liquor passed freely through the tribi's, the Indians armed with 
clubs and tomahawks ranging freely through tlu- eamp, yelling and 
shouting for liquor, especially pounding on Governor Kay's cabin door 
crying 'Wau-sa-augh, whisk,!' The interpreters and others, 
well armed, passed quietly through the camp, and no difiiculty occurred. 

'"On the next morning after the riot, \vhicli was not calmed until 
near daylight, the commissioners ordered the remaiinng barrels of 
whiskey to be rolled on the edge of the hillside, ami the heads were 
l)roken in with an ax, while the Indians, in their thirst, running ahead 
and nuddng dams with their hands to hold the liquor, scooped up the 
sti-eam for a morning dram. They ever afterward kept an eye on the 
stalwai't Iloosier who wielded the ax so effectively. 

Native Dances for the Commissioners 

"We were treated to several native dances, one being on a park eare- 
fully cleared east of the Wabash, around which a circular path for 


<lani:inf,' was prcparctl with soft leavt-s fur tlit- moccasins. It Ix-iiig 
night, the limbs of the trees around \\ere lightetl witli eandirs furiiishci_l 
by our eommissioiiei's. In a h'adiug (hincc a i)i-omiiicut bra\c, brightly 
paintt;d (as most of the tlancei's were), whirled into the lialh, keei)ing 
time to the music of a rough drum and beating time as he ])asse(l around 
the circle, instantly followed singing behind him by the l)right girls, 
making him thus their favorite. A)id soon after, as otiier liraves joined 
the dance, spaci' was left for their sweethearts that chose them as part- 
iiei-s, to follow them in the dance. Loud shouting and yelling followed 
in the choice made I)y the girls after their fa\'orite warriors, some of 
wiiom would have grou})s of followers, while othei-s would be left to 
dance abnost, if not (ptile alone, Ihus ri'ceiving the mitten with the jcei's 
of the crowd. With other N'arictics, the dance was continuing in the 
bt'st of humor and life when we hd't them near midnight. 

"On another oc(_-asi<)n leading child's, teri-ifically paintt'd, and braves 
uniteel in a war-tlaiu'e in an open grouuil near the camp around a central 
li-ee, varietl b\- a cessation of the dance and music foi' a time, wliih," a 
brave, yelling and shouting and l)randishing his touuduiwk, would boast 
of tlie scal[)s lie had taken, closing by throwing his tomahawk, with 
a \"ell, into the tree, in this he was succeetled singly by ditferent war- 
riors, and it was observed that while roaring applause was given by 
claj)ping and yells of assent to sonu' of the speakers, others were heard 
(}uietly and some even jei-red with groans. This occasion was closed 
with a beggai- dance b\' an Indian, who burst into the circle with a yell, 
naked as he was born and covcihhI from head to foot with the thickest 
mud, in \vhich lie had just buried himself in the near AVabash, so that 
his Very eyelids were clottt'd. 

Kkv. AIcOijy's AIlSSlON 

"4^n the cabin )iext to ours, the Rev. Air. AlcCoy had a large num- 
1)er of Tiulian scholars from the Baptist mission on the St. Joseph's, 
manifesting the results of his faithful labor for several years. The 
contrast between in their fixed attention to their books, while the 
wild natives of the tribe were yelling, grinning and laughing at them 
between the cracks of the cabin, but wholly failing to divert them, had 
tile eU'ect of securing the grant of a good reservation of land in the 
treaty for the support of the mission. 

Signing of the Treaty 

"The terms of the trt'aty were finally agreed upon and announced in 
general terms in the grand council, through the iiiteri)reters, during 


which must oi' tlic responses wci'c favoi'ahh-, or quietly assented to, the 
treaty hciii^r tluis coinph'tetl. I'nder the direction of (lovei'nor Cass, 
who liad hint: experieiiee in makinu' Indian ti-eaties, I pi'ejtared tiuve 
copies ol' the whoK- treaty on j)arclniient for the si^'natures of tlie eoni- 
unssioners and of the seh-cted child's of the two ti'ihes, which was sub- 
mitted to and ajjproN'ed liy the comndssioners in (iovei'iioi- Ray's (piar- 
ter's on a sueeicdinn; iiiL;-ht. The other conniiissionei's, in (hd'ei'ence to 
Ids lieiii.!,' the u:overnor of the state in which the ti-eat\' was made, in- 
vited him to make the iii'st signature, wiiicli lie did with his favorite 
fh)urish. (iovernoi- Cass, in signing, remarked to General Tipton: 'We 
can sign onr names in the l1oui-ishes. ' 

DocnTFCL Story of KtciiAu-DviLLE > ; 

"The ])atienee of the comndssioners was tlioroughly exhausted when, 
long after one o'clork of that night, aft.'r all other signing chiefs had 
departed, a light tap was heard ;d the hack door and Chi.d' Ricliar.l- 
ville, of the .Aliamis, sneaked in t(^ add his signature, (iovernor Cass 
st<'rid\ rehuked him as a pitiable cowai'd unlit to I)e chi(d', failing to 
advocate the treaty in the council and now creeping in to sign it for 
fear the reservation secui-ed to him would be left out of the treaty, which 
the eomiidssionei's felt his duplicity deserved. To tliis he replied oidy 
that the goN'ernor did not know these people as well as he did." 

-Mr. Ray's account of the pr(dindnary stages of the treaty leading 
up to its actual signature has been accejjted as a valual)U" contribution 
to the histoi'y of those times, but it is pi'obabh' that his memory failed 
him in thi- statement of the unworth\- jjai't boi'iie by Child' Richardville 
in the ch)sing act whieh gave force to the ]\liami agreement. It was 
certainly not in keeping with the character which he had always borne 
f(M- biavei'y and sti-aightforward dealings. Neither is the statement 
boi'iie out I)y the face of the documeid which n'co)-ds the treaty, as 
JJichardville's name stands well u]) in the list of signatures to it. 

The treaty of IS'JG was the lirst nuignet whii-li drew settlers to 
AVabash County, and the Treaty (irounds became the headquarters for 
all new comers. Hut it was not until ]S;J8 that the last of the Indian 
huuls in Wabash County were thrown oj)en to public sale. 

On the (;th of .\ov(Mid)er of that year, the ^liamis held a treaty at the 
I-'orks of the Waliasli, wiieii tiie (ddted States ])Ui'chased a lai'ge j)Or- 
tion of their resei've, including all tlie lands in Wabash County, except 
cei'tain individual reservations. 

Old -Metosina, the principal chief of the .Aliands, then being an old 
man and having resi<led more than foui- score yeai's at and near the 


old Indian villa^'c at the iiioutli of dosiiia (^'rcck', i'i'(iiicstc(l that a reserva- 
tion he made to liiiii at that phiec, so that he coiihl spend the reMiiainder 
of Ids da\s in peace and (pnet. His reqiu-st was aceeth-d to and fourteen 
sections of land were reserved to hiiii. 

In the nifantinie the Pottawatomies had eomnieneed tlieir migra- 
tion to the lan^ls allotted to theni southwest of the ^Missouri Kiver. Their 
final treaty \vith the Governnu'iit was eoneluded at Wasliington, Feb- 
ruary 11, iSoT. ]\y its {provisions they agreed to move to their ri'ser\e " 
in the far West witldn Iwoyeais thereafter. 

(!k!:at ^1 akch of 'riir-: Pottawatomii:s - ' ' 

Among the tirst to leave were those of the I'jjper \Val)ash Valley. 
Several small pai'ties started for the West under the guidance of Govern- 
ment agents in tln' summer of l.^oT, but the bulk of them left in the 
following year, and by the fall of 1S;5S tliei'e were few i'ottawatomies 
left in Wabash County, or in their oUl encampments along the Eel and 
Tippecanoe rivers. An eye-witness to their greatest march towartl the 
setting sun of their i-ace thus descriln-s it: "The regular migration of 
the Pottawatomies took place under Colonel Abel ('. i'epi)er and Gen- 
eral Tipton in the suimner of 1S:!S. Hearing that this large emigra- 
tion, which consisted of about one thousand of all ages and both sexes, 
\\-oidd pass within eight oi- ten miles Avest of Lafa\-ette, a few of us pro- 
eured horses and rode ovei- to see the rt'tiring l)and as the\- reluctantly 
wended theii- way towai'd the settini;' sun. It was a sad and mournful 
spectacle to witness these children (jf thi; foi'est slowly retiring from the 
home of their childhood. .\s they cast iiU)urnful glanees back toward 
these loved scenes that wei'e fading in the distance tears fell from the 
(dieek of the downcast warrior, old men trendjled, nuitroiis wei)t, the 
swai'tliy maiden's cheek tui'ned pale, and sighs and half-suppressed sobs 
escajx^d fi'om the motley groups as they i>asse(l along, some on foot, 
some on horseback, and others in wagons — sad as a funei'al iirocession. 
I saw several of the aged ^\■aI•l•iors casting glances toward the sky, as if 
they wen- imi)]oi-ing aid from the spiidts of their dejiarted heroes who 
weri' looking down upon them fi'om the (douds. or from the (Ireat Sj)irit 
who would ultinuitidy redress the wrongs of tlie red man, whose broken 
bow luid fallen from his hand and whose sad hi-art was bleeding within 

"Ever and anon one of the party would start out into the ))rush, 
and break back to the old encampments on lOel Pivei- and the Tippecanoe 
— <ieclaring that he would i-athcr die than be baidshed from his country. 
Thus scores of discontented emigrants relurned from dilTei-ent points 


on their joiii-iicy, and it was s^'Vcral years I)ei'()i'e they could be induced 
to join their count I'yiiien \\'es1 of the .Mississippi." 

Last (IF .MiA MIS, AS A Tim 111-: ' ' ' ' 

It was not until se\'eral years after the Pottawatomies had vacated 
their lands in the I'ppcr Wahash country that the i\lianiis as a ti'ihe 
left for theii- homes beyond the Mississi])pi. 

Soon after th(' ti'caty of ]S;!H it became evident that they were dis- 
I)Osed to I'eliniiuish all their lands and mierate to the ^rcat Indian coun- 
try to the west. Accoi'diii^ly, the (iovei'iniient of the Tnitt-d States, 
throu^U'h its comiiiissionej-s, held a ti-eaty at the Forks of the Wabash 
on the 28th of November, ]S4U, by which all that remained of the xAliami 
Iveserve was thrown open to settlement. 

The lirst article of this treat\- I'l-ads: '"The .Miami trilx' of fndians 
do heivby cede to the riiited States all that tract of land on the south 
sidi-' of the Wabash IJiver, not heretofore ceded, and comiiionlx' known 
as the i-csidue of the W]'^ Itcserve, bcin^' all theii' remaining lands in 
Indiana." At this treaty the time of moving the Miamis to the \\Hvst 
was extended live years. 

Since the ti'eaty of 1S;5,S the old Indian elii(d\ .Metosina, had died 
and had been sueceeded b>' his sou, Meshiiigoiiicsia. The treaty of IS-IO 
thertd'orc changed the title to the lauds graided to the father in favor 
of the son. 

In the fall of ISdf) the Miaiins of Wabash County, who had so long 
lived along the Wabash and .Al ississiuewa. I'ivers. to the number of about 
live hundred, h I't tlieir ancient hunting <;'roniids and, under the dii-ec- 
tion of one Ale.xis Coqnillard, the ( Joveiauiioit ageut, nu)ve(l across the 
praii-ics toward their honu's in Kansas. Thirty-five years afterwai-d a 
foi'jiier trader at Fort Wayne who had witnessed that exodus (Saninel 
.McClurc) said: "Of the live hundred Miamis who were sent West in 
FS4r) not ten are alive, a:id the western Miami ti'ibc residing in Quapaw 
Indian agency (aftei-ward Xortheast Oklahoimi) undei- the care of Col. 
D. 1>. Dyer does not lunnber fifty. Taken by foi'ce from their forests 
and transplanted to the wild ])rairies of the AVest, heart-sick and weary 
they never became I'econciled to their lot, and many met tleath gladly. 
A few ]'eturne(l to Indiana, despite tlh^ Oovei-mnent, and these were, in 
18r)8, [)ei'mitti'd by act of Congress to I'cmain here." 

Even on the country to which they were transplanted, the Miamis 
hav(! made little impression. Iil the extreme northeast of the present 
State of Oklahoma is the little Town of Miami, and there is a place of the 
same name in the northern j)art of New Mexieo ; but one of the most 



Houfisliiiiu: count ifs in Okhilioina is Pottawatomie, with Tccumsch as its 
ra])ital, and tlic Ottawas, Dclawarcs, and otlu'i- trihcs arc also perpet- 
uated in tile ^^Mi^rapliy of the old Indian country of the Southwest, 
to which the eastern ti-il)es were at lirst transi)ortetl, wliih' the .Miami 
Nation, at one time one of the most i)Owerful of the Indian confedera- 
tions, has almost faded from the I'ccords of the white man. 

Till': \'kk'\' Las'i' ()!•' Till': Miamis 

The last of tile ]Miamis and the last of tlu' Indians to or-eupy lands 
in Wahash County weiv the iiieinhers of the .Meshin--omcsia hand. Mesli- 
in^^omesia, tlieii- last chief, had inherited lands fiom his fathei-, Aletosina, 
under the treaty of 1S4(). At his own death on the L';5rd of I)ecend)er, 
ISTi). at till' a<;v of ninety-eicht yeai's, the fourteen .sections of land 
oi-i!.:inall\- I'eserved lor his father were partitioned between the differ- 
ent memliei's of his band (sixty-four). 

]Mi;siiiX(;o.M i:>l\ "s 15 a.vd 

b.ut this last chapter in the Indian history cd' Wabash County has 
been well told by Claude Stitt, of a well known pioneer family, and is 
I'cproduced with the comment that it is taken fi'om an address delivei-ed 
by him in F.^bruarN-. 1!I14: 

■"Locally the treaty which }-ou will be most interested in, is tlu; one 
which I'csulled in the last Indian IJi'Servation in this ])art of the eountiw, 
and this was the tivatv of .\ovember (i, ls;5S. 4diis marks the last stand 
of the Indians lieiv, an.l by it the .Aliamis ceeded to the Cnited Slates 
the i-cmainder of theii- lands, but resei'Ved for the band of .Metosina. a 
tract of land supposed to contain ten scjuare miles and located in the 
southern ])ai't of Wabash County, aloni^' the Mississiiiewa Ifivei". In 
additfoii to the land the Indians wei'e to receive certain sums of money 
to be uiveii annuall\- to them. This (pnstion of the annuities due the 
Indians afteiAvard became a much ve.xed question and resulted in several 
amendments to said treaty, or enactments of Congress, tlie annuities 
continuing' over a i^'reat many yeai's. the last of which was paid, I be- 
lieve, about bSflO. 

'•In the treaty of ISlJS. the balance of the tribi- were promised lands 
west of the ?ilississii)pi Rivei-, to I'cmove lo and settle u])on ; said lands 
to be near those occupied by ti'ibes which luid emigrated from the states 
of Ohio and Indiana. Six of the chiefs or headm.'U of the tribe were 
sent West to choose these lands. 

"Afterwards undei' an act of Congress api)rovi(1 dune 1, 1S72, 


aiilliority was i^i'anlcd the sceiHtary of the interior to inakt' {)ai'tition of 
this last n.'scr\'atiou wliieli hail in the iiu-aiitiiiit' Ix-cii conveyed Ijy the 
I'nited States to ^leshiiig-oniesia, a ]\Iianii Indian and tlie son of Me- 
tosina, in trust for said hand. Tiider this act, Jonas A'otaw, AV. R. 
Irvin and Sithu'y Ileith were api)ointed eonnuissioners to set ai)art and 
idiot to the persons found entitled to shai'e in said partition. This land 
eonuiiission held theii' meeting' on the j-eservation aiul heard tlu' j)roof of 
the elaiiiiants to said land. 

"V.Mi will I'enieiidier the re.sei-ve was deeded to .Metosiiui and his 
hand, there was a great eontroversy over the same owing to the claim of 
( 'hai)end(>ccah, wIkj was a hi'othei- of xMeshingomesia, that the land should 
he divided among the family of .Metosina, and not among his hand. 
Ilowevei-, thr ilivision was finally made among the memhers of the band 
of ]\Ietinsina, ami made on the basis of an eciual share to every man, 
\voman and child, thei-e being si.\t\'-tlnn'e jx'rsons in this county entitled 
to shares. In tins connection 1 might sa\- that the comnussion, after 
hearing all the pi'oof offei'ed as to the nund)er of jjcrsons and only a 
few ndnutes bid'ore they \vei'e ready to sign up their finding and .jiulg- 
ment in the matter, were interrujjted by the ari'i\'al of Indians, who in a 
\r\-y hasty and exeited nuinner notilied them of the bii'th of a son in 
the fanuls- of Wecacoonah. Tins necessitated the readjustment of the 
whole (li\isii)n, as it was now necessary to include this new mend)ei' of 
the band of .M dosina. 

"After the allotmeid of these lands the Indians wei'e given ])atents 
of deeds of conveyanec from the Tinted States, signed by the Pi'esident, 
with tlu' prox'ision that they could not sidl, lease, incundier or otherwise 
<lispose of their holdings until January 1st, 1881. 

"This niai'ked the last step taken by the Government in its protec- 
tion of the baml of ^letosina. From this date the Indians began to 
manage oi- mismanage their own affaii's, and, in the language of a later 
tinte 'to hit the tohoggon.' Today thei'e I'cmains hut a few of the descend 
ants of this oiu-r powerful tribe, and the entire ownershij) of land among 
the i'ollowers of Ab'shingomesia, this morinng, consists of but eight acres, 
out of the hiMidreds given them so shoi't a lime ago. 

"I have talk'ed with many meiid)ei's of the Miami tribe, remcMnbering 
well the Indians i)ay days, which were always a frolic for the Indian 
and a eham-e foi- gain to the white man. Xo sooner had the Indians 
received their money, than the men wt-re on the lookout for fii'ewater, 
and the women for a chance to bu\' a gaudy i)it'ce of wearing apparel or 
a glittei'ing trille of some sort. 

"These Miauns genei'ally ado'pted the dress, language and habits of 
the whites. Although ucwv becoming truly Anglo-Saxon, in so far as 


iii\-i'ntinii jiiid tlif lii,i;liri- st'iisc of (■i\-ili/ati(j)i wwi- iu;iiiir«'st — ciltliou<i-li 
iir\-, 1- Iii^iim- their tawny skins, i,oi- criisinu- to mlci-taiii an atVrction foi- 
llir Ini'. st and its \viltlr>t luiniils. thf stn-aui ami hank caniM', tlir how 
and ari-ow or llicir tiaisty rillc — yd soiac (d' tlir hand of Ah shioLioinrsia 
licranic li\-iMi;- f.\ain|drs of the powci- and inliucncr of ciN-ilizat ion. 

"I call to mind now. one yonni;' man who had sm-cm-dfd as an attnr- 
m-y. om- who had i^aiiii-d an ciivialilc j'osition in thr counminity whm-r hr 
\\as liN'ioL'. whrii ho im-t with an acridiMd that r('-.nlli(l in drath. Many 
Icaiai' d 1(. tin the s(nl m a crcditahh- mannm'. 

" ■ 1 Iowc\i r in tile process of trying;' to eivili/.e thi'm we sni'el\- ovei'- 
h>. ked some isseiitiak as the liiidlis in thi' race became h-ss fi'einient than 
li:e deaths; an(L as a face, they ai'e now almost a thine- (,f the past ami 
li\e only ill the soiius of theii- exteiauinatoi-s." " 

<>f .Meshine-oiiM-sia, it is said: "He was the last chief of the .Miaiius, , 
all ti'ihal authority (■easii!<i' upon his death. Althouj^li lie never mas- 
ten (1 the Indian lanuua<,^\ he was fre(jUently the amliassador of his trihe .-.1, 
at Washine-ton and recei\-ed marked attention. His .grandfather was •:''. 
I'econ^eoh. and was doiditless the person meant in (ieneral Harrison's 
letter of inst iMictions to ( 'olontd Camplxdl, in which he says that if he 
"save tlio life of i\M-on and his fannl\-, it woidd be extremely li-ratify- 
in^- to me and no dotdit to the President.' A medad i^rL'Sented to l*eeon- 
e-eoh hy (ieneral W'ashiiiLiton was for a lon,u- time in the jjossrssion of 
.Aleshin^^omcsia, hut his descrndants have h)st it. Aleshingomesia, the 
nieanin*;: of which was Fin- Destroyer, was for many years a mendjer of 
the Uaptist (diurcli, and died in the faith of that body." 

The A'ili.age .\xn Chief, L.\ Gro 

Wabash Couid.\- itself retains mnnei'ons evidences of Indian o<'('ii- 
pancw An Indian vilhmv at the moiUh of the Salamoine was familiar 
to the J"h-eticli voya.ueurs and ndssionai'ies. and later to the khiii'lisli 
traders. It was the villa.ii'e chi(d" La (ii'os, or La Cro. whose Indian name 
was Meehekeletali, wlio stamped the place with his personality, and hn- 
ally hd't his name to a wdnte setth'meiit and the prt'seiit township. J. a 
<;r() was one of the :\lianu deh'^'-ates to the famous Creenville ti'eaty of 
ITllo, and so indained the respect and uood will of the (ioN'ernment that 
at the treaty of ISiHi it was stipulated, amonii- otliei' matters, that a 
suhstaidial hi'ick house should be built for the old chief. This was aceord- 
inuly done in LS-JS, the brick for the i)uri) havinj^- been burned o.u 
the ffrouniL Tlu' house was nnplastered and contained two i-ooms and a 
tiivplace, and hei'e La (ii'o lived comfortably for the few >-ears whii-li 
reimnned to him, his death oeeurrin*^ about \S'A\ . His remains w»'re 


buried in a valley to the north of his residence. Soon afterward an 
Indian trader moved into the house, which he used Ijoth as a store and 
a I'csidence, and the building stood for many years in a good state of 
preservation. " " ' " 

La Fontaine "' >> ■ ; • 

Tlie Village of La Fontaine, in the southern pai't of Liberty Town- 
ship, is iiaiued after Fi-aiicis La Fontaine, for several yeai-s before his 
(.leath principal cldef of the .Mianiis. His Indian name was Topeah, suc- 
ceeding the famous chief, Jean B. Richeville, and he himself was a 
lineal descendant of that family, by a French father and a I\liami mother. 
He was born near Fort Wayne and spent most of his life near that place. 
When about twt'uty-one years of age he was married to one of the daugh- 
ters of Chief Riclieville, and at the death of his father-in-law, in 1841, 
was elected head of the tribe. Subsequently he moved to the Forks of 
the AVabash, near Huntington, and resided in a frame building which 
his wife had inherited from her father. He accompanied various mem- 
bers of his tribe to their western reservation in the fall of 1846, and 
renunned there during the succeeding winter. In the following spring 
he started homeward. At that time the route of travel Was from tiie 
Kansas Landing (now Kansas City) down the ^Missouri and j\Iississippi 
to the mouth of the Ohio, up the Ohio to the mouth of the Wabash and 
thence to Lafayette, at the head of steamboat navigation. At St. Louis 
he was taken sick, and his disease had made such progress that he was 
unable to proceed beyond Lafayette, where he died April 13, 1847, at 
the age of thirty-seven years. He was buried at Huntington. 

From all accounts La Fontaine was a man of striking appearance. 
He was tall, robust and corpulent in his later years, weighing usually 
aljout three hundred pounds and generally dressed in the Indian cos- 
tume. In his younger days he was noted for his great strength and 
activity, and was accounted the most fleet of foot of any man in his tribe 
— a trait highly api)reciated by his race. His mental qualities also made 
him very po})ular with his race, in whose welfare he showed intelligent 
and deep interest up to the time of his death. Both the early white 
settlers and the ]\Iiamis of Wabash County were gratified to have his 
memory preserved as it was. 

The Naming op Silver Creek 

The legend of Silver Creek, a little stream which passes through the 
northeastern part of La Gro Township into Huntington County, is thus 


givL'ii: .Many years ago when Indian payments were common anil the 
moiiey with whieli the annuities were paid was silver eoin, a party of 
ol'lirials was on its way to the Payment (irounds at the Forks of the 
Wal>ash near Huntington. Jn the custody of tliis party were several large 
boxes tilled with silver eoin. A close guard was kept over the money 
which was destined for Poor Lo. Ahout noon one day, when the party 
had halted for I'efreshments, the treasure was left luiguarded for a time 
— long enough for a hangei'-on to seize one of the bo.Kes, hide it in tlie 
bed of the creek near hy and cover it with a stone. The ho.x; was imme- 
diately missed and Thief Ferguson charged with its misai)propriation. 
Then rapidly followed denial hy tlie culprit. Credulity on the part of 
the guardians of the treasui'e, i)roposed drowning of the suspected, and 
the iinal recovery of the nuslaid silver under the direction of Ferguson. 
The latter was permitted to escape dire punishment on condition that 
he promptly vacate the country. Thus the stream became Silver Creek. 

Indian Ponies at a Pke.mum -, ,.v.,, .u,- • .• •. ..-.- 

Pony Creek is the popular name of a branch of Eel River which 
empties into the main stream near North Manchester. In the very early 
pt'i'iod ojt" white settlement the i\Iiamis of the region owned uuiny Indian 
ponies. In tlie central part of Chester Townshij) was a strip of laiul 
south of the creek, and extending through three oi- four sections, which 
was known as the Wind Brake. Some years befoi-e white settlement com- 
menced, a tornado had cleared the forest from this sti-ij), later growths 
of young timber and luxuriant pasturage making it an itieal grazing 
ground for the Indian ponies. AVhen turned loose they always headed 
for the Wind Brake region, where they collected by the hundreds. 

As the country was infested with bands of horse thieves, this circum- 
stance could hardly be overlooked ; especially as the stealing of ponies 
from* the jMiamis was supposed to be atteniled with inuch less danger 
than the theft of horses from white settlers. Indian ponies in those days 
weri- worth from fifteen to twenty (h)llars each. Though much too light 
for farm work, they wen^ very tough and hardy, and from the scai'city 
of better animals were often utilized by the whites. 

Taking advantage of these vorious circumstances, a band of horse 
thieves constructed a pound, with a converging lane leading to it, which 
was so placed as to intercept the trail taken by the ponies on their way 
to the Wind Brake. Entering the lane, it was an easy matter for them 
to find their way into tlu; enclosure through tlie narrow opening, but 
once inside they could not easily escape. As \hcy were corraled, the 
thieves ran them oil' to the creek half a mile north. Tlu-y then drove the 



poiiifs (\()\v][ the linl of tlic strciini to "■hrealc tlir ti-ail," and so rliulc pur- 
suit. i\c.'i)iii<r the stivaiii t'oi' about a mile and a half, tliry sci-rcttHl their 
stol.'ii i)i-o]>crty in a pen in Section 11) near tlic county line. This cii- 
closui-c was nearly two acivs in extent, beinu' toianed ])y a strong fence 
eighteen i-ails hiuh. When a sufliciciit nundier of ])onies liad thus bc-n 
collected, and a favoi'ablc o|)i)ortunity o<-curre(|, they were run off to 
some remote locality and sold at the mai-ket price. 

Stealing horses, liowe\-er, while it ma\- lia\-e been profitable under 
such cii'ciunstances, was attended by its risks and dangei's even when 
the veiitin'cs were with the subdued red men. The .Miamis leai'iied to 
keep a closer watch o\-er theii- ponies and, though it is doubted by some 
whether the\- ever discovered the exact nature of the plan by wliicli 
their proj)erty was "run off," the gang on .several occasions was idosely 
pursued and nai'rowly escaiu-d. ()ne of them. Wicks by nanu-, had lived 
among the Indians a lai'ge i);irt of his life, and having ailopted their 
dress and habits was hardly distinguishal)le fi'om one of the tribe. About 
1>!4() he mysteriously (li.sai)pi'are(l, and it has always been supposed that 
the Indians wei'e his judges and executioners. 

The Indians and ponies, togetlier with the men who stole theni. have 
long since pas.sed away, but Pony Creek reuuiins on the map of Wabash 

Trkaty Axn Jo.^ixA Crkkks 

Treaty Creek, which flows into the Wabash opposite th(> city, takes 
its name fi'om tlie fact that the ti'eaty of lS2(i was held at a point on 
the nortli side of the ri\-er dii-ecily oppositi' tlu> sti'cam in (piestion. Some 
of the Indian reservi-s were on its l)aid<s, es])eeially Maisshilgnuuuizairs 
and Allolahs. 

Josina Creek, which flows thi'ough the southeast corner of Liberty 
Township into (irant Comity, is luimed from the Indian Chief ]\Ieto- 
cenyali, or .Metoceiia, fathei- of .Meshingomesia, the samewhat famous 
Miann chief and leader of the band who remained upon their reservatio)i 
in Waliasli and (Ji-ant counties when the body of the ti'ibe left for the 
Indian Territory in IS-b'). The name Josina is a corruption of ]\Ietocenyah. 


AVe cannot close this cliaptei' on the Indians of the Wabash cotnitry 
without taking a more foi'uial fai-ewell of the last two great war chiefs 
of the !Mianiis, wlio, though not directly id<'ntilied with the history of 
Wabash County, impressed themselves on the entire country of the rpi>er 


Waliasli — oiir of lliciii. at least, l)ciii^' a ^n-cat man of liis day, wlictlicr 
white or red. We refer, of course, to Little Turtle. Fi-aneis Oodfro}^ 
or (iodfrey, of a later i)eriod, had a fame more eireumserihed, hut none 
the less enviahle. Of these i-emarkahle men William Henry Smith thus 
speaks in his "Ili.story of Indiana :" "The ]Miainis i)rodueed one of the 
most remarkable chiefs and wai-riors known to Amei'iean aboriginal his- 
tory, if not the most remarkable. ^le-clie-can-nocli-(|ua, or Ijiltle Tui'th', 
was a wai'rioi' who c-ould well take rank' with the nr,.;itest of civilized na- 
tions. He was a man of extraordinary eouratre, sagacity ami talents, 
and a phxsical frame which ecpialed his courage. There was a great 
digint\- in his bearing, which impressed whites and Indians alike. lie 
I'eached the head of his nation at an early a-v, and from that time until 
his death exercised an inliueiice o\-er his tribe nevei' ecpialed by an\' other 
of its gi'cat chiefs. lie it was who met and (hd'eated the fort-es of (^ien- 
eral Ilai'iiuir. Ilis two liattles with that conunander tlisplayed bis pow- 
ei's as a gi'iiei'al. He commanded the allied forces of Indians who ad- 
uduistei-ed to St. Clair such a terrible puiushment, thereby setting the 
continent in a blaze. He also fought (ieiieral Anthony Wayne, and came 
near defeating that great soldier. 

"After the treaty at (ireenville, Little Turtle visited Philadelphia, 
where he met and ^\•as entertained by \"olney and Kosciusko. While 
there his ])orti'ait was painted by one of the most distinguished ai'tists 
of the time. He was also presoited with a sword by President Wash- 
ington. He made two other visits to tbe, one in 1801 and the last 
in IMIT. He was ever^'where received with the greatest consideration. 
He had warred against the Americans, but when peace was made he 
accepted it as final, and ever aftei'ward I'emained a steadfast friend 
of the whites. He opjjosed the attempt of Teeuniseh to form a con- 
fedei-acy against the Americans. He died in 1812, and was buried with 
gr^-at honors at Fort AVaynt^" 

Pa-loxz-w.v ( Godfrf.y) 

The last gi'cat war chief was Pa-lonz-wa, or Francis (lodfre.y, as he 
was better known among the whites. Pa-lonz-wa was a man of daring 
conrage, of magniticent physique and immense size. He was the son 
of a Frenchman, and next to Little Turtle was the most noted chief 
the Miamis ever had. Through neai'ly all the time of his chieftainship 
he was a firm friend of tin; whites. As early as 1822 he employed some 
workmen from Fort Wayne to Inuld for him, on the banks of the 
W^ibash, a large house aftei- the maniu'r and styh' of the white man of 
wealth. In this house he dispen.sed the most generous hospitality, ami 


Indian ami wliit.- iiuin alike wcr'c wclf-oiiu' to liis l^oard. When liis tribe 
made the tinal treaty witli tlie < iovefiimeiit and ceded jxjssession of tluir 
lands in Indiana, four sections on the Mississinewa were reserved for 
Pa-lonz-\va. On this reservation he erected a trading ])ost and hccaiiie, 
for tliose (hiys, a noted merchant. liecldess and careless of money and 
having more land than he knew what to do with, he scattei'ed his favors, 
with a prodigal hantl. It is told of him that heing at Lafa\'ette on one 
occasion when a steamer arrived at tiiat j)oint from the Ohio liiver, he 
otFered the cai)tain a half section of land if he would convey him and his 
party to their homes, some three miles above where Peru now stands. 
The offer was accepted and the trip up the Wabash was made, but on 
the return to Lafayette the steamer was lost. Padonz-wa made the d(^ed 
to the pronnsed half section. 

lie died in 1840 and was buried on a high knoll which overlooks the 
Wabash (near Peru). On his grave a marble shaft has been erected 
bearing on one side his white name, and date of his liirth and death. 
On the other is the following tribute to liis memory: "Late principal 
chief of the ]Miaud Nation of Indians. Distinguished for courage, liu- 
nuiinty, benevolem-e and honor, he lived in his native forests an illustra- 
tion of the nobleness of Ins race, enjoying tlu; confidence of his tribe 
and beloved by his American neighbors. He died, as he lived, 'without 
fear or reproach.' Some of Godfrey's descendants yet live on the ]Missis- 

Gabriel Godfrey, son of Francis Godfrey, was born in Blackford 
County, Indiana, January 1, 1834. He died at his home near the mouth 
of the INli.ssi.ssinewa River in ISIiann County, August 14, 1910, and is 
buried in the Indian Cemetery near his home. He was generally 
chosen to act as interpreter in all Government dealings, as well as in 
imi)ortant cases connected with bis tribe of Indians. 



"IIeadquarteks for New Comers" — First Settler, Samuel ^Mc- 
(Jn-RE, Sr. — First ^Mercantile Establisii.ment — The ^NIcCll're We 
Know J:5est — The Fathers of Wabash Town — Kintner Bros., 
Saddle and Harness Makers — Land Surveys in the County — 
First Land Purchase — First Wagon Roads — Indian Mill, First 
Industry — Postmaster Burr and the Mails — Colonel Hugh 
IIanna — Pioneer Town ^Merchants — Three Brick Houses!! — The 
Three Popular Colonels — First Villace Tavern — CouxNty Or- 
ganized Civilly — ^[ajor Stearns Fisher — The Grants and Grant 
Creek — Town of La Gro — The Keller Settlement — Laketon — 
First Town Om'SiDE of Wabash — C(jlonel Richard Helvy — James 
Abbott Comes — The Ogans and Ogan Creek — North Manchester 
Platted — James Abbott, Notable Character — Judge Comstock 
AND Liberty .Mills — Town of America — The Garrisons — Grant 
Plats Ashland — Colonel John Anderson — First Roads Along 
Eel River — A Great Little Corn Cracker — AValtz Township 
Last Settled — The First of Somerset — Mount Vi:rnon. 

As the Pottawatomies had all left the State of Indiana by 1840, and 
the ^liamis had agreed to do so witliin five years from that time, the 
year. named marks tlie distinet beginning of tlie Wliite Plan's era in 
Wabash County. The fourteen years of settli'inciit prior to that time 
may be ealled tlic real Pioneer l^'l•iod ; for just as long as the Red Man 
remained upon the soil, and elaimetl any part of it as liis own, the times 
Were truly primitive. 

"Headquarters for New Co:mers" 

Tlie first settlements in Wabasli County soon followed the tnvaty of 
Oetober, ]8'J6, and it was not long before the Treaty (irounds were 
reehristened "Headquarters for New Comers." When the eonunissioners 
and the Indians vacated, tlie buildings remained as phu'es of shelter and, 



as till' locality had bt'oii so wi-ll advertised, Itefoiv the Indian lands north 
of the Wahash in Waliash (.'ounty had been surveyed, sciuatters eom- 

nieneed to oceUjiy tlleUl. 

First Si:'i"n.i;K, Sa.miki, .McCliiu:, Si{. 

In January, 1827, Samuel McOlure, Sr., a native of North Carolina, 
who had livi-d for some years in Ohio, bi'ought his family to the llead- 
quai-ters for Xew Comei's. Witli the help of his son. Samuel .AleCluiv, 
Jr., then alxjut twenty yeai's of age, he built a log cabin for his house- 
hold, cleared oi]' tifteen acres of ground near ihi' house and in tin- spring 
planted it to corn. Subseciueiitly ascertaining that the lield tlius im- 
[)ro\ed was included in the section of laml reserved l)y the treaty to 
Little (diarley, the .Miami chief, on the lUth of June, 1827, they eom- 
inenced to liuild another cabin on the north baidv of the Wabash about 
threi' miles l)elo\v the treaty grounds. This was the tii'st jiermanent 
settler's cabin erected in Wabash County, and the fannly livi-d therein 
sevei'al years i)iior to their going to Grant County. There the elder 
McChire died on the 22d of Se])teudjer, I8;^.s. 


Before he had reached his nui.jority, Samuel IMeClure, Jr., became 
an employee of W. G. and G. AV. Ewing, the Fort Wayne Indian traders, 
and in their interest t'reeted a small trading house adjacent to his father's 
residence on the north bank of the Wabash below the treaty grounds in 
AVabash County. It has been stated ui)on apparently good authority 
that the young man openeil his store for the sale of goods to the Indians 
anil others on the 28th of August, 1827. 

• The ]McClure We Kxtnv P> 

In 18;3o Samuel AlcClure, Jr., and his brother, Robert, cut out the 
fii'st state road that ran thro\igh Wabash County. This road coniuieneeJ 
at the " twent}--ndle stake" in AVabash County, running thence to 
AVabash and thence to Eel River, near North Alanchester. Their com- 
pensation was $7.58 per mile. 

The family of Samuel AlcClui'e is generally considered to represent 
the first i)ermanent sidtlei's in AVabash County. 

Among the first of those who stopped temporarily at the Headquarters 
for New Comei's, while secddng homes in tlu,' new countiy were PxMijamin 
Hurst and K'obei't Wilson, who arrived in Alay, 1827. Of these Mr. Wil- 


siiii \v;;s not loi:;^ ;;n. I'wai'd i uiployctl ;..s ( !()\-cni;iiciit lihu'ksiiiit li 'at tin/ 
lli.liaii -Mills. 

Aliout tli<' same tiiiu' -Joel and ( liainpioii llclvic caiiic to tlic trcat.N- 
i;'rouii(ls to take t!u ir hearing's. At'Tci' a short season oi' in\-cstigatioii, 
rhaiiipion settled on the \Val»ash oitposite the mouth of the Salainonie 
liiver. while .Joel locati'd furtlier up the river. Sul)se(pient ly (Jhaiiipioii 
inoved to liniitiiiL'-toii County, ser\ing as its temporary sheritf pending a 
pei'iiianent civil organization. 

Till-: Fathers of Wabash Town .,,iiv ,, > 

The next arrival, also in the spi'ii'g of 1S27, \vas David lUirr. Ilis 
visit hecame a peiinaiient I'esideiice, and lu', with Col. Hugh llanna, after- 
ward secured the site for the oi'igiiial Town of Wahasli, which tliey 
platted. Colonel iJui'r occupied the huildings I'eiiuiining on the treaty 
ui-onnds, and afterward opene(l a "kind of a"' hotel; so tiiat the locality 
htM'ame more than evei- Ileaihiuarters for Xew Comei's. On the 11th of 
Octolxr. l>:;i), Ik- ma<le the first land entry in Xohle Townshii), of the 
fractional southeast (piarter of Section 1, l.l.l.^l acres; the north fi'ac- 
tion of the southeast cjuarter of Section 12, 411.00 acres, and the fractional 
northwest nuarter of Section 12, ItJl.SO acres. 

On the same day dohn Tipton, the Indian agent, entered the frac- 
tional southwest (piai'ter of Section 10, containing 42.2!) acres, and the 
north fi'action of St'ction 15, I'-kHV) acres. 

K'iNTXKR ]>i;()S., SaodiJ': and Harness ]\Iakers 

It will lie reniemlxM-ed that Frederick K. Kintner was in command of 
of the company (jf soldii-rs which was sent from Fort Wayne to protect 
those engaged in the undoing of the lS2(i treaty. His brother, James 11., 
was \vith him, and the country pleasc-d tlu-m so much that they decided to 
stay and take up lands in the vicinity when they should hei'ome accessible. 
In the fall of 1N27 they there foi'e located on the north side of the 
Wahash Rivei' near the mouth of the snudl sti'eam since known as Kint- 
ner "s Creek, which joins the former in Section IS. There the l)rothers 
established themscdves in their business of nuiking .saddles and harnesses, 
chiefly for the Indian trad(\ In that line they were the undoubted 
pioneers of the ri)pei- Wabash country. They continued the mantifacture articles until the transfer of the Indian agency from Fort Wayne 
to Logaiisport in INIarcli, 1828. when they r(docated at that point. 

Fi-(Mlerick K. Kintiu'r, aftei- residing foi' a number of years at Logaiis- 
poit, died on July 1, Ls:',,"). James II., soon after tiie oi'gaiiixation of C'jiss 


Comity, ;it tlic general election in August, 182!), was chosen the lirst 
sherill" and served as such during two successixc tei'uis. He afterward 
held till' i)Osition of school couiinissioner, and was foi- many years proiai- 
ncnt and popular both in Logansport and throughout the county. 

The Wheeler hi-others, ^lilton and Isaac, came to the future Wabash 
town in 1S;52 and 18;U. Isaac Wheeler oj)ened a blacksmith slioj), the 
iirst in the county aside from the ( ioveriuiieiit establislmient at tlie Indian 
mill on Mill Cr.'ck. 

About nndway of these yi/ars John Stewart, a bi'otlu'r-indaw of Sam- 
uel McClure, a plasterer by trade, settled and made himself at home with 
]\Ir. McClure. The Levall\'eas also came about this time. 

Land SruvKVs ix tiik County 

The survey of the lands lying between the AVabash and the Eel rivers 
was made in the early part of 1827, and of those north of Eel River in 

For reasons already given, the first purchases of lands in what is now 
Wabash County were made in the immediate vicinity of the treaty 
grounds, on a part of which the City of Wabash is now situated. But 
before naming other pioneer landholders, it is not out of place to mention 
the i)rineiples under which sueh surveys have been always made by the 
(iovernment of the United States. 

The pi'incijde on which the subdivision of land is based consists in 
the hi-st place of the accurate determination of certain base lines, at such 
intervals of distance as may be required. These lines are named from the 
direction they take, those running north and south being called princi- 
pal meridians, and those running east and west, standard parallels. The 
parallels and meridians are nund)eri'd. The first pi-incijial m(>ridian 
forms the boundary line between the states of Ohio and Indiana, while 
the second divides the latter state nearly centrally. From these, meri- 
dians and parallel lines were run, six miles apart, those i)arallel to the 
meridians being termed Range lines and those running east and west 
Town lines. Tlie space included between tliese lines was called a town- 
ship, or a congressioiud township, to distinguish it from civil townships, 
which ma\' and often do (Mubi'ace fractional pai-ts of the original surveyed 

Th( se sui'\'eyed townships ari' numbered by the dista':ce from the base 
lines. The township lying next east of the secouil principal meridian has 
the iirst range line for its eastern l)0undary, and consequently is said 
to bo in Range 1 east. In like manner tlie towns arc numbered northward 
from the standard parallel, AVabash County embracing parts of Ranges 5 


and 8 and all of (J and 7, counting eastwai'd fi-oni the second principal 
meridian in townships 'iG, 27, 28, 21) and part of ."jO, counting from the 

This mucli l)eing made ch'ar, it remains to explain the subdivision of 
the townships. The survey of the townships into sections was usually a 
subsequent matter, and the lines were run north from the south line of 
the townshi]) and \vest from the east line, beginning in eaeli case from 
section eorners previously established. As tiie surveys had to be nuide 
cheai)ly and expeditiously, if a variation of a few rods was made in I'un- 
ning a section line to the opposite side of the township it was left so. but 
in sul)divitling the next township a new start was nuule in the right ])lace. 
This will account for the "jogs" so often met with on the township and 
range lines. The sections were made "full'' as far as possible, and if 
a township lacks ten rods of half a mile in length from north to south, 
the deficiency will not be distributed but be found in the north tier only. 
In like manner, the deficiency, if any, is found on the western tier. 

Tiie sections in a township, when the township is of full size, are 
thirty-six in number, each one being a mile square and containing 640 
acres of land. They are numbered in regular order, beginning at the 
northeast corner which is always Section 1. The northwest corner is 
Section (3, the southwest and southeast being numbered lil and 36 

In the original surveys of Wabash County the section lines were 
marked through the woods ])y "blazes" on the trees, and at the corners 
the direction and distance to certain described trees were noted. A 
copy of these field notes was deposited in the office of the county 
recorder. Tlie temporary stakes set by the deputy surveyors for sec- 
tion corners were aftei'wai'ds replaced by stone monuments. 

First L.vxd Purchase 


Aftei- the survey had been made the first purchase in the county was 
by Jei-emiah Cox, on Fel)ruary 8, 1827, of the north part of the north- 
west quarter of Section 2, Township 27, Kange 7, containing 67.85 acres. 
On the ',U\ of April of the same year Mi', ('ox entered the southwest frac- 
tion of Section '.I'l contaiiung 102.15 acres, and on the 1st of i\Iay fol- 
lowing, fractional Section '64: containing 4.47 acres, the two last men- 
tioned tracts being in Township 28, Range 7 east. 

First Wagon Roads 

The first wagon road laid out in what is now AVabash County was 
one running from Anderson, ^ladison County, to the treaty grounds. 



The road was loi-atcd ami cut out duriiig tlic (-arly fall of LS2(J, the con- 
tract for clcariii^' the I'oadway liaviii<,^ liccii awarded to Pctci' Oyaii and 
llrlvir <.^ Ivo;,n'is, and the woi'k coinpictcd hy tliciii accordiimly. It was 
first used foi- li'aiisportiu^' <,M)ods and other clTccts to and from the treaty. 
Another, said to l)e the second I'oad, was 0[)cned fi'om the vicinity of 
lliintin^'ton to the treaty grounds and was used for similar i)ur[)()se. 

Indian Mill, 1<'irst Industky ]i 

I'litil the lands were surveyed and hona fide settlers counncnccd to 
arrive and locate, the Indian mill was the oi\\y pernnnient iin])roveincnt 
in Waliasli ('ounty; and that was not a wliite man's improvement, as 
it was clearly inidei'stood that it was to he ahandoned when it ceased 
to he of value to tile Indians. AVhen .Ah". Wilson came as a setth_-r in 
1S27. and was appointed soon aftci'ward the (Jovernment hlacksmith, 
the mill had iieen in opt i-ation foi- ahout seven years. The only white 
inhahitants of the tei'ritory iiiehuling what is now Wahash County dur- 
ing that period had heeii the millei's and the hlacksmiths and their fam- 
ilies (if they had any). As elsewhere stated, the first miller was Lewis 
Dax'is, who remaiiird until duly. 1S26, whi'ii Gillis M(d)ean succeeded 
him. In Scptemhci', ISi'S. -lonathan Kellei- was placed in charg(> and 
remained tliei-e. so fai- as ai)pears, until the estal)lishment was ahandoned 
for the purposes contem])hited in its eriM-tion. This ^vas in IS:'!), wdien 
the Government judiivd that it had ceased to he of any value to the 


*It was evident from the ilrst that Colonel David l>urr was one of 
the eomiiig mi'ii (tf the I'egion. Ahout the time he purchased land in 
\-arious parcels, some of them in what is now the sitt' of Wahash, a post- 
oflice was cstahlislied at the f\)rm<'i' treaty grounds and he was appointed 
postuKistei'. Th'- office— the Trst in the county — was (not hy chance) at 
his hou^jc. At the same time a mail route was ])rescril)ed I'uiniing from 
.Marion, (li-ant County, to the treat\- grounds, and Jonathan Ivellei- was 
awai'de(| the conti'act foi' carrying the mail weekly betwt'eii these points. 
Ahout the same time another i-oute was cstahlislied running from 
Logansjiort to fort Wa\'ne, with the treat\' gi'oinid as a half-way station. 
The contractors for cari'yiin^- the mail over this latter route were Joh 
P.. KIdiidge and Thomas J. Cumnnngs of Logansport. 


('<iI.O.\I:L 111 (ill II ANNA 

("(tloiicl Ihinh llai!ii;i, who was to Itc Colonel I'.iii'i''.s partner in the 
fouiidiii.L;' of the town of \Val)ash, which was hound to (levelop somewhere 
near the tivaty "•|-,,iin(ls and the headqnartei's i'oi' new comers, had lived 
in Fort Wayne for some yeai's. He had cast his husiness eye on the 
lo('ality with favor ever since the tri'at\- was conchnh'd, and on the .'id 
uf Fehruary, 1s:!j!, siynilied his inlention of hecomin^- a pei-iiiaiient resi- 
dent by purchasing the fractional southwest (luai'tei' (jf Section ]], Town- 
ship L'7, JJanye (i, containing- IIS.UO acres, all of which was afterward 
covered Ijy the town jdat of AVahash. The tract immediately norlli of 
this was purchased Fehnia.iy 27. \s:>A, hy Alexandei- Worth, and con- 
tained l.VI.oi aci'cs, a part of which was also afterward included in the 
town jjlat. 

Col. David Burr had h^en appointed one of the eommissionei's for 
the construction of the canal, and, as we have seen, he and ('olomd Ilanna, 
still a i-esitlent of Fort Wayne, !iad lionght nj) ad.ioining tracts of land 
at and atljacent to the old treaty grounds. In April, L^;U, they laid 
out Wahash Town, ad.iacciit to the Paradise Springs, on the line of the 
canal and nearly opposite the mouth of Treaty I'reek. On the fourth 
of the following Mny the lirst i)ulilic sale of lots was held. 

Pioxi:er Town [\Iekciiaxts 

(I'eorge Shepherd, a mei'diaiit, huilt the lirst house on the town site 
— a log cabin, on Lot Xo. (i:), immediately west of the southwest corner 
of Allen anil .Market streets. A few (lays after moving into tlie cabin 
his first child was born — the i)ioneer arrival \ia ^ilothei- Nature within the 
original limits of the Town of Wabash. 

('(d^jiiel II anna came to town aliout October 1, 1S;U, and had his store 
completed about the same time as Mr. Shepherd's; but the Colonel is 
credited with having opened the lii-st "dry goods store," leaving tliose 
of a latei- day to infer that the estal)lishment thi'owu open by ^^Ir. 
Sliei)herd was of a more general nature. 

Tiiki:e Hkick Houses!! 

Later in tin/ season. Colonel Ilaiuia erected a In-ick residence and 
inovod his famil\- into it. It is undisputed that the bi'ick which entered 
into its construction was made on the north side of square bounded by 
the canal and Allen. Huntington and ^larket streets, but Alplieus Black- 


iiiaii and Hannibal I'urcL'U contend i'or tlic lionor of supi-rintcnding the 
kiln in which the briek was made. 

The bnek re«idenees of Colonel William Steele and Dr. Jsaae Fiuley 
were finished about the same time, on lots 'I'l and 54, re.speetivel}' — all 
from the same kiln of brick; naturally, as it was then the only estab- 
lishment of its kind in Wabash County. Colonel Steele's house occupied 
the corner of Huntington antl Canal streets and, for some reason which 
(k)cs not appear jjhiin, moiv details are accessil)le as to his house than 
the other two brick residences, it ai)i)ears that William Johnson was 
tlie contractor and erected it at a cost of $300; that tlie huuber used in 
its finishing was manufactured from timber tioated down the river by 
Jacob D. Cassatt and others, sawed by McClure's mill on the stream. 

The TiiKEE I'upllar Colonels 

Now, to the introduction of Colonel Steele, one of the strong char- 
acters of Wabash Cotmty. A lawyer l)y profession, he came to Wabash 
from Wayne County, and for many years shared with the other two 
colonels a variety of jjublic honors and unchecked popularity. 

Waljash Town became the county seat of the new county on May 20, 
1835, which added further to its importance and growth. 

Soon after the erection of the brick houses of tlie three colonels, 
Colonel Steele, although a lawyer, opened a i)rovision store, the first of 
the kind in town. Wlmtever should betide as to the emoluments of his 
profession, he did not intend to starve. 

FiR.ST Village Tavern 

In the summer of 1834 Andrew ^Murphy opened the first tavern in 
the new village. 

♦Then, in June, 1834, Colonel Steele got another boost by being elected 
the first justice of the peace in the jurisdiction, which was then a part 
of Grant County. 

CorxTV Organized Civilly 

Wabasli County was created in January, 1835, and on the third ]\Ion- 
day of the following ^lay the connuissioners to locate the seat of justice 
met at tlie house of Colonel Burr, one of the buildings erected nine years 
before for treaty purposes. \n the same, on the Ilth of June, 1835, 
these first county officers met to take their oaths of office : William Steele, 
clerk and recorder; Josiah L. Wynes, sheriff; Daniel Jackson and Daniel 


Ballingcr, associate judjj:fS; Stearns Fislier, Alplieus lilaekiiian and Levi 
liean, county coniinissioners. 

Ma.]oi{ Stkakxs FisiiKit ■' ' '■ '■ ■'• 

Major Stearns Fisher had come to Wabash County in 1833, and 
for a iiuitiher of yi'ai's was an engineer o^i the AVabasli & Erie Canal. 
He was an active, wide-awake, sti-aight-forward citizen, and did much to 
deveh)]) tlie county, botli in a material and a civic sense. 

The county officers named above adjourned to the more ari.stocratie 
brii-k house of Colonel Steele, in tlie Town of Wabash, where tlie neces- 
sary oatiis were administered and the proper Ijonds taken. Four days 
later another met'tinj,' was hehl at Colonel Burr's house — the first of 
the county board — and later, at a session hekl at the home of Connnis- 
sioiier IMaekman, llui^li llanna was ai)j>ointed <'Ounty treasurer, Isaac 
Thomas, county agent, and Isaac Fowler, county assessor. 

The Grants and Grant Creek 

The year liefore the creation and organization of the county, set- 
tlers had coiiuiienced to locate both in the southern and northern parts 
of tlie county, near La l^'ontaine and North Manchester. Grant Creek, 
which flows thi-ough the southern f)ortion of Liberty Township into the 
]\Iississinewa, skirting La Fontaine on its way, commemorates the first 
settlers of this part of the county. It was in the autumn of 183-t that 
AVilliam, Daniel and Smith (irant, with tlieir families, settled in the 
woods along that stream. William located at the eastern line of the 
Indian Reserve, and in September, 1S34, is said to have built the first 
house in Liberty Township, on the north bank of Grant Creek near 
the jn-eseiit Town of La Fontaine. Mahlon Pearson arrived in the fol- 
lowin'g month, although as early as ^larch, 1832, he had made an entry of 
land for the east ludf of the northeast ([uarter of Section 23 (this town- 
ship). The Grant location was the northwest quarter of the northwest 
([uarter of the same section. 

Town oe La Gro 

The old Indian town of La Gro, opposite the mo\ith of the Salamonie 
River, on the north bank of the Wabash, l)ecame also the nucleus of a 
white settlement, especially after operations on the Wabash & Erie 
Canal were commenced in 1834. 

Haniel Saver came to La Gro in March, 1832. He afterward moved 


lo Waliii^li :iii(l \\;is post iiiasti-i- of tlic city for many years. Tln-n- Ik- 
dir.l .Inly IS. ],^')7, a^vd cinhty-two yvars. 

J 11 ]>y,-2 (icii. .John 'l^iptoii had brcn willi-d tlinn- s.-ctions of laud 
l.y the old (diirf, iiicliidfd in his ivsrrvatioii. and this tract had liccn 
leased l,y Lewis Ho-^vrs. Mr. Ko.uvrs liad a U'Wy h(jat which he operat.-.l 
across the Wal)ash Kivei-, coiiiii'ctin.L;- witli the trail which led from 
Marion to the mouth of the Salamonie. At that tiiiii' there was (|uite 
a tide of travel towaiM Xortheru ln<liaua and especially the Elkhart 
<-(Miiitry ; so that the ferry was fairly i)rosperous. It is said to have heeii 
started some little time l)ef(jre, Ity .lose})!! and ('liam])ioii llelvy. 

In ]S;;2 Kichard Ilelvy occui)ied the La Ci'O l)rick huildin.o' which 
had hecu civet. mI liy the (lovernmeiit for the old dii.d'. .Mr. llelvy was 
an Indian trader on a small scale, and in iSiJo iuovihI to the ueighhor- 
liood of North Manchester, where he opened aiKjtlier .store. 

• ■ 1. :! ,.: 
Tilt: Kki.i.kk Sktti.i:mk.\t 

At that lime riii'istian Keller, hrotlier of -Judge Jonathan Keller, 
was located on the " rp])er La (jvo sectioii," under a lease from Chief 
IJiidiaidville, into whose hands that section had i)asse(l fi-om Oenei-al 
Tipton. Keller was clearing land there and farming, under a ten-year 
lease, having all he could make during that period for clearing and 
ini'losing twenty aei-es. On the ;!d of (Jctohei- of this year (1832), Jona- 
than Keller pre|)ared the way for the Keller Settlement, in the western 
]»art of Xohle Townshij), by juircliasing the east half of tlie northeast 
((uarter of Section 14 and the whole of the southeast (juai'ter of the same 
section. As stated, this particular loealit\- was known in the early days 
of its liistory as the Kellei- St'ttlemeiit, as various memhers of the Keller 
family were of the first to settle tliei-eahouts. For many years subsequent 
to the date of their coming, howe\-ei', iieitlu'r the settlement nor Kelli'r's 
Station showed much expansion. The region around the treaty grounds 
l)ostoffice, on the other hand, evinced continuous signs of life and growth. 


After the settlements at ^Valiash Town and La (iro, the earliest cen- 
ters of population in AVabasli County were fixed at what are now Lake- 
ton, Pleasant Township, and North Mamdiester and Liberty .Mills. 
Chester Township. 

Col. Hugh Ilanna had andiitions outside of Town. The 
latter seemed to be on the mo\'e, and in looking toward the north whither 
mueli of the migration of the late 'oOs was moving he eoneeived the i)lan 


of lV)im(liii<: a cciiti-al point ior tlic ])i-oiiioti()ii of poiJiilatioii and lousi- 
ness in the fertile valley of the Kel Kiver. The site for siieli a center 
was founil on a level and l»eautiful i)lat l)et\veen two eonsidei'able^ lakes 
just north of the river. 

First Towx Oi'TsiDE OF Wabash :.''■?'■■ ■ ■■/: 

The colonel assoeiated himself with Isaac Thoiuas and J. 1). Cassatt 
in this enterj)rise, and in September, 183lJ, platted the \^illage of Laketon. 
It was located upon Sections 10 and 15, Pleasant Township, northwest of 
Eel River hetwei-n l^ong and Round lakes. There were ninety lots lying 
near Eel River on the north side, and the streets wei'e Pottawatomie. 
8i)ring, iMain, Mill, Tanuirack, Eel, Wabash, Lake and Wayne. This 
plaee -was the first town platted away from the Wal)ash River. 
Several additions were afterward made to the origiiud plat ; but al- 
though Laketon was jilanted and sprouted it failed to mature into any- 
thing striking, and what ambition it retained a qiuirter of a eentury 
afterward was completely crushed when tlie railroad was built south 
of the river and an "addition" to I^aketon was platted on its line, with 
the river and a mile of solid country lietween. The railroad ''addition" 
showed more life than the original town and secured Ijamsville Fost- 
oftice. lUit neither Tjamsville Postoftice, nor South Laketon, has ever 
attracted much notice, although the i)rescnt Laketon is a pretty country 
town with becoming as])irations toward a summer resort. 

Col. Richaud IIelvy 

The Miami Lulian lands south of the Eel River passed to the general 
Oovernment by the treaty of 1826, and most of the surveys were coui- 
l)leted by 1S28. Put real settlei's did not commence to occupy them 
until ^:^:]4. \n ^larch of that >ear Col. Richard IIelvy, a \"irginian, 
Mho had early located in Indiana, and aljout 18;]2 located in La Gro 
Township. There he engaged in farming until he renun'ed to his farm 
of one hundred acres on the banks of the Im-I River about a mile north- 
<nist of the ])i'esent sitt' of North Manchester. 

James Aubott Comes 

Til Se])tend)er of the same year ( 18:34) James Abbott, a neighbor in 
La Cro To\vnsliip, joined tlie solitary settler of Chester, ami located his 
homestead on the same sti'cam about two miles above the present site 
of Liberty IMills. In that jx'i'iod of sparsely settled country, these few 


intervening miles were little considered, and the Helvys and Abbotts 
Were intiiiiate friends as well as "near neighboi's. " 

The Ogans axd Ogan C'kkrk 

Before the elose of the year 1884 John and Peter Ogan, with their 
families, loeatinl on the Eel I\iver. John settled on the south side of Eel 
River and erected a rude eoi-n mill on the bank's of the ci-eek whieh Hows 
into that stream and whieh still bears his name — at least for a portion 
of its coiii'sc. It is known as O.Lian's Creek for several Tuiles from its 
mouth, I'ony ( 'I'eek being recognized as its correct name from that point 
to its source. 

North .Man ciiE.sTEK Platted ,> 

Peter Ogan settled witliin the limits of the present North .Mancliester. 
He erected a Houring and saw mill on the l)ank of Eel River; in 1837, 
with William Net'l, platted the town, and for a nundjcr of years, or 
during his residence in the place, was a strong hgure in its progress. 

James Abbott, Notable Character 

In the meantime a similar colonization, led by James Abbott, was 
taking place two miles up the river. His was a character worthy of 
special note. A native of South Carolina, he was left an orphan when 
quite young and was bound out to a slavediolder, from whom he iied on 
account of cruel treatment and escaped to North Carolina. About 18U0 
he movctl to Ohio, where he served under General Wayne in a number 
of Indian cam]jaigns. As he was born in the 3'ear of American Inde- 
pendence, he was then in his early manhood, and when lie came to Chester 
Township in 1834 had reached late middle-age. Notwithstanding, as 
stated, he entered a tract of land on Eel River and sturdily set to work 
to improve it. He cleared and improved a large farm, to which he gave 
his attention for many years, dying on his homestead in 18G7 at tlie age 
of ninety-one. 

Judge Comstock and Liberty ^Iills 

Not long after locating, .Mr. Abbott sold a portion of his land to a 
Mr. McBride upon the stipulation that the purchaser should erect a grist 
mill thereon. As ^Ir. McBride was unwilling or unable to do tins, in 
1836 he transferred the land and the obligation to John Comstock who 
had just located. 


]\lr. (<-k was a man of great (■)iti'ri), broad ability and com- 
plete June 24, ]s:]7, lie hiid out tlie Town of Liberty 
Mills ui)on the proi)crty wliieh !„■ liad piuwhascd of Mr. M.dJride. The 
same year he erected a sawmill, with which to {)repare the tiiidier for 
the tloiirinfj: mill, which he completed in ls;^s. In lb:i!) he built a 
distillery, the same year a tannery, and in 1S41 a woolen or cardiny: mill. 

Soon after jjlattiny; the Town of Liberty .Mills, its pi'oprietor opened 
a lai'iie geiiei-al store and engaged in mercantile pursuits until \S6l. lie 
gave his personal attention to all these enterprisc-s ; was president of 
the Xortii .Manchester and La Giro Plaidv Koad, and interested in other 
j)ublic im])rovemctits throughout the county. About the year ISoo he in- 
troduced the first herd of shoi't horn cattb' into the county, and in the 
years wdiich followed was actively engaged in the breeding of live stock. 

Judge C'omstock, as he was usually called, served on the probate 
bench of AValiasli County in 1840-52, and in the late '50s represented it 
in the lower house of the Legislature. He was honored with other pub- 
lic positions, which he tilled with characteristic faithfulness and ability. 
AVhatever he undertook was well done and fruitful of the best results. 
He was successful in the best sense of the word, and his death Septem- 
ber 30, 187!), endt'd a life which, in luunerous and noteworthy ways, had 
given imjictus and inspiration to t!ie citizens of the county. 

A few months after the founding of Liberty ]\Iills by Judge Coin- 
stock, another town was platted in Liberty Township, in the southeastern 
pai't of the count}-. The settlement of the (J rant family along the creek 
by that name drew quite a lunnbcr to that locality. ^Moreover the head- 
waters of that stream were in the line of a i)Opular route of travel from 
Central to Northern Indiana and the foot of Lake IMichigan. 

The state road from ^Marion to La Gro was opened in 1835. This 
was afterward made into a plank road, largely through the eflforts of 
Judge Comstock. This thoroughfare drew to the Lakes region a large 
graiif trade from a region as far south as Anderson, Marion and ]\Iuncie, 
and it is no wonder that the settlers about the headwaters of Grant 
Creek and along this booming thoroughfare had strong hopes for a big 
town whei'cver they should plat it. 

Town of America 

Consequently, Elihu Garrison and Jesse D. Scott platted the Town 
of America in Section 23 of Liberty Township. Both the proprietors 
were early pioneers of the White AVater Valley, who migrated to Wabash 
County about 1834. Although partners in America, tliey were of oppo- 
site politics, and were rival candidates for associate judge. Keverend 


Scott, tor he was a clci'^yiiKUi, as well as a dciiioci'at, was succcssi'iil 
ami lilk'd the onice well. 

The GARiiisoNS 

Eliliu (iari'isoii was a soldier in the I'laek Hawk wai' of 1832 and 
a welhkiiown citizen. William d'arfison, his hi'other, luiilt the lirst 
house on the site of Amei'iea, Oetohei' 10, 1837, six days before the 
town ])lat was i-eeoinled. lie opened a stoi'e and served also as justice 
of the j)eaee. Other men followed, business, industrial and i)rofessional, 
and America became (juite a bustliny; ])laee, inasmucji as it was nothing 
unusual for 100 tea'ms passing over the Marion and La (Jro road to 
.stop there dui'ing a single day. Many teams would i-each there at 
night, go to La Oro the next day, unload Avhatever farm iiroduets or 
goods they carried on the banks of the canal, and return to Anu'rica 
where tlu'\' would put \\[) for another night. The road was level and a 
faii'ly good one, and \vhen the planks were laid the thoroughfare ])eeame 
more ])opular than evei'. AVhatevei' lu-fell, as long as the Marion & La 
Oi'O roatl was in active service, America got much of the bencHt of the 
travel, both going and coming. 

At one time America boasted four stores, two hotels, three black- 
smith sliojis and otlu'r places of business and a consideral)le ninuber 
of dwellings, some of the buildings — especially one of the taverns — 
being tpiite elegant for those eai'ly days. 

Grant Pi.ats Ashland 

Then Daniel Grant hinged for some of this tide of i)rosperity and 
in 184.") platted Ashland in Section 27. This was the nucleus of La h'on- 
tain<«, as a later ])eriod will ilevelop. And the life of Ashland and l^a 
Fontaine, which largely spi-ung from sul)seriiient railroad conuuunica- 
tion, was the death of America. 

Col. John Anderson 

One "Colonel" John Anderson— and there seems to have been as 
many colonels in AVnbash County as in any region of Di.xie Land — was 
the i)ioneei- of the ])resent I'aw Paw Township. In fact, he seems to 
have l)een the ranking settle)- of the region which nuiy be roughl.\' 
designated as Northwest AVabash County. Sometime in 1 he built a 
I'ude shack bai'elv within the borders of the townshii) and the county. 


;it a place near tlio old postoflii'L' of Stockdalc, a short distance northwest 
of the present Town of Koann. 

The facts coiiceriiinu' the life and movements of John Anderson are 
few and nnsatisfaetory. The most concise, as well as complete account 
was published forty years ago in Paul's Atlas of Wabash County, and 
is quoted: '"Pleasant Township was the dwelling-place of the nol)le red 
man until the spring of 18:^'). It was at this time that John Anderson, 
foi'merly from Ohio, but moi-e recently from somewhere near Logaiisi)()i-t, 
together with his wife, two sons and two daugliters, came up on the 
north side of Eel Piver and sittlcd on Squirrel Creek about a mile 
above the jireseiit town of Stockdalc. .r ,,, re;u. ;;;■,' :■ , , ,i . ., 


"Xear the site of that town there was at that time an Indian village 
called Scpiirrcltowii, after old Captain S(iuirrel. the chief, after whom 
the ci'cck was also named. His Indian name was Nicouza, that being the 
Pottawatoiide woi'd for scjuiri'el. Xiconza iiostoftice, just within the 
limits of .Miami ('ouiity, is jiamcd in honor of the old chieftain, who is 
said to have been a model I'cd man. jn-rsiding over his village with an 
amount of wisdom and disci-etion unnsual in his raci-. He dietl at a 
vei'y advanced agi'. The \-illage occupied a cleared si)ace of ground 
just east of Stockdalc, and the Imrying grouiui was situated at the corner 
of the road east of there. 

FujsT PoADs Ai.dXG Eei. Pivek 

"John Andei'son ^\■as the first man to cut a I'oad from AVeasau Creek 
uj) Pel Pivci- into AVabash Count.\'. Sawmills being a convenience of 
ci\ilization not yi't introduced, and the neccssai'y nund)er of nuui to 
cai'ry on a log-raising not to ])v had within a i-adius of ti'U or fifteen 
mih-s. his tii'st habitation was necessarily I'ather ])rimitive. He is 
described as having settled himself with his back against a large poplar 
log. witli a roof of split clapboards over him, supported Ity crotches and 
I)oles. Such was the lirst cabin built by a white nuui in Pleasant (now 
Paw Paw I Townshi]). 

■"A man named Palston had settled on the other side of Eel Pivcr. 
further down in Miami County the winter before, and made a snudl 
cleai'ing. In the summer of IS:!.") a part.\' of three followed an Indian 
trail from North Mam-hester to S([uirrcl villag.' and to John Anderson's 
cabin a mile above it. Their names wi-re Jesse Moyer, Ja^ol) Cill and 
Mathias Lukens — who was at that tinu; a bov of si.\tccii. At North 


Manchester the road from La Oro to Turkey Creek prairie crossed Eel 
River; and these three were the first white men to cut a road from that 
point down. At the time of tht-ir coming there were about sixty ]\Iiamis 
and Pottawatomies encamped on tlie l)ank of the river across from Nortli 
Maneiicster. The land did not (;ome into market until tlie ensuing Sep- 
tember, when it was bought up quite rapidly. 

"At the time of Colonel Ander.son's settlement and until the ensuing 
fall, no provisions could be obtained short of AVea prairie near Lafay- 
ette. The nearest mill was at Logansport, to which point the settlers 
made their trips in a pirogue (canoe hollowed out of a tree). This 
journey occupied several da}-s, the task of returning up stream being 
slow and tedious." 

A Great Little Corx Cracker 

A corn-cracker was built on ?]el River at an early day by James Cox. 
It was situated a little below where Laketon now stands and, although 
extremely cnide, saved many a long river ti'ip. The "i)lant'' consisted 
of little besides the rude machinery and the ruder l)urrs, the latter 
being dressed out of a couple of bowlders, or "niggerheads," as they 
were called. The roof, supported by poles, was over the hopper. The 
mill did good work, however, and in course of time ground wheat also. 

It was one of the first industries in the county. 

Waltz Township, Last Settled 

Waltz Township was the last section of Wabash County to be settled, 
as its 30,000 acres of land were all included in the Big Miami Reserve, 
the surveys of which did not conunence until 1839. The tribal title to 
the lands was extinguished in the following year, but various individual 
reserves were held out of the public market, such as the Richardville 
and ^leshingomesia tracts of 1,280 and 1,680 acres, respectively. With 
the exception of the latter reservation, iiowever, most of the lands 
reserved for the ]Miami chiefs, or their l)ands, were transferred to white 
settlers soon after the Government commenced to issue patents therefor 
in February, 1847. Outside of these reservations settlers had been plant- 
ing themselves, to some extent, since 1840. 

These early settlers grouped themselves near Twin Springs, a half- 
way point on the road between Marion, Grant County, and Peru, Miami 
County. Even before they came, a log tavern is said to have stood there 
ke{)t by a Frenchman named Krutzan and his Indian wife. The prop- 
erty was afterward included in the Richardville Reserve, or estate, and 


still later the daughtt-rs of the famous chief willed it, with a large tract 
of land, to Allen Haniiltou. 

The FiiisT of Somerset 

In December, 1843, the above named tract on the Twin Springs Sec- 
tion of the Riehardville lands, and a short distance east of the mouth 
of Ten Mile Creek, was surveyed by David P. Alder, and the plat of 
Twin Spring was tiled on the following 14th of January by Stephen 
Steenberger, its proprietor. A few years afterward the name was 
ehanged to Somerset. ., • , 

IMouNT Vernon 

Mount Vernon, a short distance east of Somerset, was surveyed in 
July, 1847, and the plat filed by its proprietor, William Dayton, in the 
following October. Although a postoffice was located there at an early 
day, the place never outgrew the dimensions of a small settlement. 



The Stokv <>f ]-'i{a.\('i:s Si.ocrM — ("iiii.n Cai'Tuked by 'imie Delaware?, 
— F>()\(; Si:\Rcn ( '((.M.Mi:.\ri;s — Motjii^k' l'\\n'iiEi-E I'xto Death— 
("(iLoNE!. lAviXd Srsi'iciors — 1Ie\i;s Sthaxce Story — \Viu'it-:s to 
Pi:.\"x-^ lAANiA l'(r-T.MAsrER — Letter Throwx Away as a Hoax— 
JiEcoxEivEu Letter Reaches a Seoce.m — Seocems Start for Deaf 
?klAx's Town — Drother ]\Ieets Sister — "Yes, Yes, Fraxca, 
FraxcaI" — The 1\e>e\rkai;i.e Story ex Order — Adoi'TED into the 
Triiu: — La>'i' of Direct De^oexd axts — Seocc.m IiEsEinE — ('ai'Ti\tty 
OF ^[iss Tiioiii'i: — A^VFl■r> Dica'ih of Oaftaix Dixox — Sricini: of 'jmie 
W'linr; Wifi; — I''oi;.mae Aeoftion ixto the Tribe. -.t-M^ i- ■,■•, 

\V;il);isli County is identified witli sevei'al remarknhle and interesting- 
eases in which whiti's wei'e eaptureil and adopted Ijy the Indians. When 
white captives were not lulled, they were adopted by the tril)e, assumed 
their di'css and iudhts, interniariTed and, it' they a^ain came in contaet 
with the civilization of their kindred, iisuallx- refused to return to it 
or to them. 

The Story of Fran'Ces Seoce-m 

^'he most remarkable case is that of Fi-anees Sloeum. who, person- 
ally is more directly identitied ^vith .Miami than with Wabash Oount\'. 
She lived and died ill AVabash County, wluM'e a monument has lieen 
erected at her ^rave and a pieture of the same is found in this histoiy. 
Several of her descendants have homes in Wabash County in theliig ^liami 
Reserve of »)4(> acres west of La Fontaine in AValtz Township. Captured 
in her Pennsylvania home when a little girl five years of age, she re- 
mained with the Miamis nearly sixty years befoi'e she again met her kin- 
dred, ha\ing become the mother of a lialf-bree<l family and an Indian 
in ever\-thing liut name. With thesi' geiiei-il faets in mind the reader 
should be told the remarkable story in order. 


Ciiii.i) (jAi"ni{i;i) Hv TiiK Dki.awakks 


Fi-;iii(T.s Slncuiii was oiir of the .■liildrcn of (^liiakiT ]>ai'ctits, who 
livi'd at Willu'sltari\', in tli.' AV\()iiiiM,Lr \'alK'y oi' I'oiiiisylvauia diiriiiL;' 
till' lu'volutioiiary wai-. Scvrral uioiitlis after the tcri-il)K' massaiT-j 
in 177S. wlirn five years of aye. she was eaptiired l)y a hand of inai'aiid- 
iny Dehiwari' liidiaiis and cai'i'ied awa\- hefoi'e any atteiiii)t eonlil hi' 
iiiaile to reseiie her. AlxMit a month hiter her father was shot dead l)y the- 
Indians wliHe workini: in a liehl iieai' his home. The wiihiw l)eeame 
reeoneih'd to the of her hnshamh hnt never to that of hei' ehihl, 
tlie hist siulit of which \\-as when it was in the arms of a ))i'awny Indian 
eryinu' piteously f(j]' help. 

FoxG Skahcii ( 'o.m.mkxcks 

The sons of Airs. Sloeiua h^eame ])rosi)ei'(jus husiness men, and after 
the R.'volntionai'y war made evei'y elVoi't to reeovei' their sister. In 17S4- 
two of them visited Xiaj^ara Falls, where a laru'e numlier of Indians were 
-athered, made dilij^vnt iiuiuii'ies, and offer.'d liheral ivwards for any 
information of lier. They pi'oseented the search for sevei'al weeks, and 
ivtnrncd to their home with tln' streimthened helief that tlieii- sister was 

The mother, howex'ei', could not he pei'suaded, and four years lat(.'r 
various meiidiers of the Slocum fannly sjx'Ut se\-ei'al months in tlu' West 
amon.u' the Indian a^'ents aiul tradei's. puhliely offering' .^oOlJ to anyone 
who would furnish iid'oi'uiation as to the fate of Frances. l)Ut their 
effoi-ts were without I'csiilts, as were those of four of the l)rothers who 
undertook a sinnlar expedition in 171)7. 

^Mother Faitiifui. Fnto I^katii 

]\Irs. Slocum continued an unceasing search foi' her daughter until 
her death in 1S()7, at which her sons promised to evei'y elfort to 
learn what had hecoiiie of their sister ahdueted nearly thirty years 
h(d'oi-e. Tlie\- faithfn.lly carided out this ])ledge, and in lS2(i made a 
long and expensive joui'uey to ri)i)er Saiulusky to see a wouuiii, living 
among the Indians, whose appearance was said to point to white origin. 
Again disapi)oiiited, they abandoned the seai'ch as hoix'less. 


In the iiu)nth of January, isi^l, (Jol. George W. Kwing, a gentle- 
nuin coiuiectetl with the Indian service of the Govei'nmeiit, and prohcieiit. 


in all of tlie ^liami tongues, was benightea near an Indian town on the 
]\Iississint'\va Kiver, known as Deaf .Man's Villagt-, near the pi'i-sent City 
of Pcoi'ia. He ajjplied for lodging and was hospitably n-ccivcd at a 
rcsjH'ctablc dwelling. IK' was fatignrd and unwell and, after eating, lay 
down ujion some skins in the eorner of the room. The household con- 
sisted of an old woman and a number of children, all of whom treated 
her with the givatest of deference and who departed to their own sleep- 
ing quarters. 

*■■ ' ■"' Hears Stkange Storv 

As Colonel Ewing lay upon his j^allet lie watched the old lady moving 
about, and noted particularly the color of her skin and hair. The result 
of the scrutiny convineed him that she was a white woman and he opened 
a conversation with her. She admitted that his suspicions were cor- 
rect. She said that she was stolen by the Indians when a small child 
and iiad carefully concealed that fact from those of her own race whom 
she met for fear that her relatives would claim her. But she was old 
now and felt that she woulil not live much longei', and if any one of 
her relatives or friends were living she would be glad to see them. She 
distinctly remembered the name of her father, but could not recall her 

AVrites to Pennsylvania Postmaster 

Colonel Ewing was so impressed with her narrative that he addressed 
a long letter, giving the particulars, to the postmaster at Lancaster, Penn- 
sylvania. The colonel had never heard of the Slocums, but he judged 
from certain answers nuide l>y the old lady that In-r home was some- 
where in that state. 

Letter Thrown Away as a Hoax 

The letter reached its destination, but when tht^ postmaster read it 
he concluded that it was a hoax, and flung it among some waste papers, 
where it lay for two years. At the end of that time, the postmaster 
died and his widow, in overhauling his effects, came upon Colonel 
Ewing 's letter. She had never heard the name of Sloeum either, but 
thinking there was something in the story she sent the letter to the 
Lancaster Intelligencer. A copy of that paper, which contained the 
text of Colonel Ewing's letter, fell into the hands of th(> Rev. Samuel 
Bowman, who was intinuitely acquainted with the Sloeum family and 


he mailed a paper to Frances Sloeuiirs brotlier, who still lived in 
Wilkesharre. .^ , -, ^ , 

Ri:covEi{i:i) \A:TVVAi Kkaciiks a Si.ocum 

Tlie reception of the letter, with i\rr. Bowman's communication, threw 
tiie Penns3-lvania community into general excitement; Imt as two years 
bad passed since the letter was written, which stated that the old lady 
was even then under a premonition of deatii, an iiKpiii-y was addressed 
to Colonel E\ving hy John J. Slocum, the nephew of Frances. 

Slocums Start for Deaf Max's Town 

A prompt reply, dated Logansport, came to hand saying that the 
woman was alive and woidd be glad to see any of the Slocums. The 
letter also contained nnnute directions as to the course they were to 
take to reach her. Arrangements were at onee made for the journey. 
Isaac Sloeum and Mrs. IMary Town, brother and sister of Frances, 
resided in Ohio, but not in the same neighborhood. Joseph Sloeum, of 
AVilkesbarre, another brother, started in his carriage, taking his sister, 
while Isaac went in advance, it being agreed that they should meet in 
Deaf Plan's Village. 

Brother ^Ieets Sister 

Isaac reached that place ahead of the others and, accompanied by 
an interpreter, made a call upon the lady, who received them pleasantly 
but evidently with suspicion. The brother found her to all appearances 
a typical Indian, Imt he had fixed his mind on an unerring test of her 
identity. Previous to being carried away more than fifty-nine years 
before* her brother Ebenezer had crushed the forefinger' of her left 
hand with a hammer. Taking hold of her hand and raising it, he saw 
the disfigurement. "What caused that?" he asked. "My brother struck 
it with a hammer a long time ago," was the answer. 

' ' Yes, Yes, Franca, Franca ! " 

The two remained some time in conversation, but the woman did 
not seem at ease, and Isaac Sloeum returned to the Village of Peru to 
await the arrival of his Ijrother and sister. When they came, the three 
made another visit to the woman. She treated them with the same kind- 
ness she had shown before, but was stoical and unmoved, and when she 


.saw tears in tlicii- cyrs she hccaiiic soiiiewliat ill at case. The only time 
slic rvinecd any stronj^^ emotion was wlieii she was asked her name. She 
re])lie(l that she had forg-otten. 

"Is it l^'ranees?" 

Her dark t'eatui'es suddenly lig'hted and she nodded her head. "Yes, 
yes, Franca, Franca." 

The visit was pi'olon^cd foi' .several (hiys, and .some months later 
was rej)eated, several of tlie nieees and nei)hews ,)oiinn<;- the i)arty. 

The liK.M.\KK.\BLE Story ix Order 

P'rom these visits of the different relatives it developed that when 
Frances was eaptnivd as a child of live years, the Indians carried her 
rapidly tlirou.u'h tln' woods until near the Oenesee River they made their 
lii'st permanent encampment. In the I'olhiwin^ sprinj^' she was taken to 
Sandusky, Ohio, where she rem;iined iuitil autumn, when her Indian 
fri.Muls moveil \a Xia<:ai'a. where she lived f(.r a \-ear. Thus she became 
a jiart of the miy'ratory tribe; was l)oi'n af.;-aiu as an Tn<lian, and soon 
her jireatest dread was lest she be discovered by lu'r relatives and re- 
turne(l to civilization. 

^Vdoi'tei) Into the Tribe 

l-'rances was adopted into the tribe as ^lah-cones-(piab, or Young 
l>ear. She married She-pah-can-nah, known as Deaf Man, who was head 
of a villau'e under the princip;d war chief, Francis (Jodfrey. Four 
childi'en Were- born of their union, which gave lu'r high i)osition with 
the ti-ibe. She became wealthy and was hehl in g'l'eat veneration by her 
<lesj-endants and all the nu'mbei's of the tribe. At the time she met 
Colonel lowing her husband liad been dead about two years. 

Last of Direct Descendants 

Slu' herself continued to I'cside at Deaf I\ran's Village until her 
death March !), 1847. Four da>s afterward her daughter Ke-ke-na- 
kush-wa died, agt'd forty-seven; she was the wife of Capt. John B. 
Brouilette. The name of her other daughter was 0-zah-wah-shing-quah, 
who married twic( — lii'st, Tah-<'o-nah and secondly, AVah-pah-pe-tah 
(Peter Dondy). By the lattei- she had several chiblren, and died in 
January, 1.S77, the last of the dii-ed issue of P'rances Slocum. 

..■> ?; 

Sl(ici\m Rkserve 


Not loiii: Ijt'foi'L' liLT d''ath John Quiiicy Adams attractnl coiisidcr- 
able attention in Conjj:rcss l)y a speech in favor of a hill iiitrodueed 
by B. A. Bidlaek, of Pennsylvania, whieli provided that one sqnare mile 
of the land occupied l)y the ^liami Indians, embracing the house and 
improvements of Frances Slocum, shouhl l)e granted in fee to her and 
her licirs forever. The bill Ix'came a law. Not a few of her descendants 
lived for years in AVabash County ocenpying lands in the reservation 
west of La Fontaine. 


A Sloci'.m ]Mi:mi:xto 

Dr. Perry G. IMoore, of AVabash, was one of the Slocum family 
friends, and owns one of its long-prized heirlooms. It is valuable his- 
torically and remarkable as a work of art — a rich blanket of the finest 
broadcloth, worn for years by Frances Slocum and more than a century 
in age. Its border is worked by hand in beautiful colored ribbons and 
decorated with silver tips or buttons. The l)lanket is four feet square, 
well preserved, every stitch put into it is by hand, and the entire work 


shows both remarkable skill and unusual taste. It was presented to the 
Doctor by William Peconga, an Indian, who married a granddaughter 
of Mrs. Slocum. 

Captivity OP Miss Thorpe 

The enptivity of the little daughter of Moses Thorpe is not dis- 
siiiiilar to tliat of Franei's Siocuiii, although the scene of her adven- 
tures was in the Wabash Valley and the closing chapter of her story 
is written in the county itself. According to Mr. Ilackelinaii: "Moses 
Thorpe lived somewhere in the valley of the White Water Eiver, prob- 
ably within the then limits of Wayne County, during the war with 
Great Britain (1812). Several times in the early part of the war, the 
Indians on the ^lississinewa and White Water rivers made incursions 
into the White Water country. At one time (]\Iareh 18, 181;}) two young 
men on Salt Creek were killed by the Indians while working in a clearing, 
and on the same night another was killed at his sugar camp further up 
the White Water Kivtr. 

"About the same time when these oecurrences took place, or from 
my recollection of tlie story it was the same night, the little daughter 
of ]\Ioses Thorpe was carried off l)y the Indians. I remember hear- 
ing my father say that part of his company, or the company to W'hich 
he belonged, captured from the Indians near Strawtown, or White River, 
some of the goods and the tent which were recognized as the property 
of one of the murdered men. The little daughter of Mr. Thorpe, how- 
ever, was never recaptured. He spent several years in hunting for her, 
but his etforts were unsuccessful. The girl grew up to womanhood and 
married Captain Dixon, a ]\Iiami Indian living on the Mississinewa River 
near the old Josina village in AVabash County. 

Awful De.\tii of Captain Dixon 

"What became of Mr. Thorpe and his wife, I am not advised. 1 
have however seen it stated that they spent the decline of life in the 
Upi)er Wabash Valley, and that they finally discovered and recognized 
their daughter some time after her marriage with Captain Dixon. 

"]\Iiss Thorpe and Captain Dixon raised a family of several chil- 
dren and although she was deprived of an English education, she mani- 
fested a desire to have her children educated and persuaded her husband 
to patronize the neighboring schools. I think it was in the winter of 
1845-46 that Hon. Jacob L. Sailors taught a school a mile or so west of 
Ashland, and Captain Dixon sent his son Charley to Mr. Sailor's school, 


with very good success as to the progress made in his studies. Charh'V 
Dixon still lives in that neighborliood (written in the early '80s). 

"Now this Captain Dixon, like most of his race, was a lover of 
drink, and s})eiit most of ids time at such places as he could procure 
whiskey — sometimes winding u]) with a tight. Finally about the year 
1S50. in one of tliose drunken fights with a Pottawatomie Indian he 
receivL'd a blow on the head with a hoe that happened to be near by, 
cutting his head open. The wound was dressctl by Dr. iNlauzy of Asli- 
land, th(,' light having taken place in that town; and though it was a 
ti-ridble wound the dor-tor exjjressed his opinion that if the patient could 
be kept perfectly still there would be a chance for his recovery. The 
Indians then in town wanted to take him home the same evening, but Dr. 
-Mau/.y told them that In- woidd die before reaching town, although the 
distance was only about two miles. 

"Tlie next morning, however, the Indians came in great numbers 
and demanded that he should be taken immediately. Of course no resist- 
ance was iiuuh', and Captain Dixon was put on a sled and was last seen 
going at a pretty lively gait over the rough muddy road. The journey 
was acomi)lished in good time, but upon reaching the wigwam of the 
captain it was found that he was stiff and cold in death, and his ])lood 
and brains were bespattered all over the sled. Yet so far as public 
sentiment was concerned, even among the Indians, there was but little 

Suicide of the White Wife 

"About the same time ]\Iiss Thorpe, the wife of the captain, in a 
fit of despondency left her Indian home and walked down to the Alissis- 
sinewa River, half a mile distant, to a place called Hog Back. This 
romantic spot is caused by a long detour of the river inclosing several 
hunch-ed acres of land, then coming round with a long sweep, and, in 
connection with Grant Creek, is within 100 feet of its waters above. 
Above these two parts of the river is a rugged hill, probably about 
eighty feet high and the same thickness and running several hundred 
feet. Here j\Iiss Thorpe, the captive Indian white woman, paused a few 
moments and then deliberately plunged into the blue waters of the Mis- 
sissinewa River and was seen no more alive." 

Formal AdoptiOxN Into the Tribe 

It is .said that the husband of one of Frances Slocum's daughters — 
he is variously called Peter P.undy, Peter liondie, Peter P>ondy and 

9G lIlSTOPvV OK \VA15.\SI1 CorXTV 

Gradcway liiuuly (Indian name) — was a(lo])t(Ml into a trilje of ^lianiis 
al)OUt ]S4(). The account of this adoption, talccn luaiidy from the ivminis- 
cciicrs of .Jacoh 1). Cassatt, is as follows: Jt lias always been a custom 
among the ^Jiamis, as among othci- Indian uations, ui)on the (h^ath or 
loss of children which threatens the extinction of the family to adopt 
another into the household. Now Allolah, the iilack Raccoon, without 
childi-eii of his own, married a s(piaw who was the mother of a son hy 
a formei- marriage. According to the usages of the tribe, a man man'y- 
ing an Jndian wonuni with a child or chihlren accepted the latter as 
his own, entitled to all the rights of descendants l)y blood. Hut in the 
coui-se of time tUi.s adopted .son and heir of his own race met a violent 
death, and Allolah was again left childless. 

A proper time having elapsed after that event, a selection was made 
as a sul)stitute for the deceased in the person of Bondie, Bondy or lUindy. 
as the case may he. 

When ('hief Allolah had decided that the time had come to have 
this selection fornudly approved, he gave notice of his inirpose to the 
head nmn of the tribe in the viciinty. Then iireparation began on an 
extensive scale. A Ijcef from the woods was kilh'd weighing 1,800 
pounds, and after it was dressed, it was cut into large; pieces, ]nit into 
great kettles and boiled. Afti-rward the meat was cut into snuUl piec(^s 
ami piled on blaid^ets si)read ujion the ground for the purpose, prei)ara- 
tory to th(^ coming feast. 

At the ai)pointed hour a distant rund)ling was heard in every di- 
rection, as of many hoi'ses in rapid tiight. The sounds came nearer 
and. with their distinctness, became moi'e fearful. Finally, at about 10 
o'clock at inght a fierce yell resounded from every point of the com 
pass, when, as if they had come by previous concert, hulians on horse- 
back dashed in, meeting at a desigimted si)Ot. 

Soon after these numerous ai'rivals were announced, a suitable 
plateau was selected and the festival was inaugui-ated by tin* commence- 
ment of a gi'and dance at a late lioui' in the evening, h'irst two young 
squaws entered the I'ing dressed for the danci'. Tln'u came two young 
braves who at once joined in the movement. The dance was contiiuu'd, 
the nund)er of participants increasing from time to time. .Meantime a 
council of the head men of the tribe was in ju-ogress in the wigwam of 
the chief, Allolah, and at short intervals messengers were sent to 
inform the dancers of the progress nuide in the ])roceedings. These an- 
nouncements were usually accompanietl by an eloquent speech from the 
bearer of the tidings, gi-eeted by acclamations of satisfaction and 

At length, the final amiouiU'cment was made, declaring as the 


decision of tlie (.'Oiuic-il, upon lUciture clclilx^'ratiou, that the proposed 
adoption had been satisfactorily consuinmated. This announcement, 
especially, was luatle with a solemn tiourish, and reci-ived with extraor- 
dinajw demonstrations of joyous satisfaction l)y two of the festive 
throng. AVhile tlicse things were in progi'css and whenever the denuinds 
of appetite nuidc it necessary, the hungered ones repaired to the com- 
missariat where the hounteous sui)ply of |)iec('S of bee)' had been piled 
away on the l)laidvets, and partook to their satisfaction of the luscious 

'IMie adoption ceremoines being completed, the congregated iiost 
tiled otr and depai'ted for their several liomes, well satislietl with what 
had taken place. Kver afterwai'd, Peter Bundy was acknowledged as the 
son and lieir of the great chief Allolah. 


First Meeting of Old Settlers — ]\Iajor Fisher on "Old Times" — 
First Grand Jury Again Called — IIow Daniel Sayre Happened 
to Stay — "Wild Cat" Banking — Permanent Organization — 
Constitution — First Regular Officers — Roll of Old Settlers — 
Henry Nusbaum, 105 Years Old — Presidents of the Association 
— Rich Historical Store House — Judge Coombs' Pioneer Picture 
— Trial of Two Hundred Canal Laborers — Rattlesnakes — First 
Dance for White Folks — The Star IMeeting of 1888 — From Cabin 
TO Palace — Judge Biddle's Recoixections — Judge N. 0. Ross — 
Treaty Buildings (by Hugh W. Hanna) — Domestic Stanchness— 
Old Fiddlers' Contest — Descendant of the Great Godfrey — 
Fortieth, the Most Successful Reunion — Lincoln Centennial 
Log Cabin — Oldest Continuous Resident (1909) — Various "Old- 
est" in 1910 — Oldest Man and Woman (1913) — The Women in 
Command (1914). 

It was by common impulse that old settlers were disposed to meet 
together and recall individual and general experiences of the distant 
past, reviewing them in the light of early friendship never broken and 
confidence never betrayed, thus cementing more strongly, if that were 
possible, the bonds of their social compact long acknowledged among 
them as an inseparable obligation worthy of being transmitted to their 
cliildren and children's children to remotest generations. 

As the early settlers of Wabash County were rapidly descending 
the hillside of life, this desire prompted them to unite in the organi- 
zation of a society of old settlers by which the incidents and hardships 
of pioneer life might be best preserved for the benefit of future 

First Meeting of Old Settlers 

The first preliminary meeting for this purpose was held at the law 
office of Sivey & Mackey, on Tuesday, August 30, 1870. Elijah Ilackle- 



man was elected chairman and John L. Kniglit, secretary. The second 
meeting, pursuant to adjourinnent, was held at the courthouse, Sep- 
tember 10, 1870— Elijah Ilackleman, chairman, and Capt. B. F. Williams, 

At this meeting it was agreed that a grand basket meeting be held 
at the Fair grounds, on West Hill Street, on September 29, 1870, when 
tlie first great meeting was held. William T. Ross was elected marshal 
and chairman, and delivered tlie first speecli at an Old Settlers' Meeting. 

jMajor Fisher on "Old Times" 

]\Iaj. Stearns Fisher was called and gave a very interesting account 
of his journey to this county in 1884, when there were but twelve white 
fannlies living in the comity. jNIr. Fisher said he was the only survivor 
of tlie first Commissioner's Court held in the county. He spoke of the 
nuirriage of tlie first couple in Wabash County in 1832. The license 
was procuT-ed in Grant County and the party who was to solemnize 
the marriage went to the home of the intended bride near Rich Valley. 
When he found that they lived outside of his jurisdiction, all parties, 
fathei-s, mothers, l)rothei's and sisters as well as friends and acquaint- 
ances, mounted their horses and rode over into Grant County where they 
wei-e legally married aceording to the forms of law. 

First Grand Ji'ry Again Called 

l']lijah Ilackleman called the names of the first grand jury of the 
county. Only two of them responded to their names, to wit: W. B. 
Lowery and IMahlon Pearson, both of whom came forward and gave a 
very interesting aceoiint of the first court held in the county, in August, 

Speeelu's \vere made by Rev. George Abbott, Henry Strickler, Hon. 
Allen W. Smith, Hon. Robert ^Miller and Dr. James Ford, recounting 
seenes and experiences of former days. Jonathan Keller was intro- 
dueed as the first white child born in Wal)ash County. He was so 
much embarras.sed by having this honor thrust upon him that he could 
not tell any of his early experiences. 

How Daniel Sayre Happened to Stay 

Daniel Sayre said he did not appear in tlie I'ole of a public ben- 
efactor, as it was a mere accident tliat he remained in this county 
after stopping here. He left his honu' in i^Iontgomery County, Ohio, in 


Ib'.Vl. Arriviutr at Fort AVayiie he found liimsclf the possessor of a five 
(loHar bill of Ohio iiioii.-y. 11.^ was told by an a])i)arciitly honest fallow 
that Oiiio inon.-y would not jtass very w<ll in Indijina, and ju-oposcd to 
help him out by exehaiii^'in^,' (Jhio foi- Indiana money. .Mr. Sa\'rc stopped 
the next ni^dd with I.rwis Ro<.(('rs at the mouth of tiic Snlamonii' I^iver, 
and ni'xt mornin-^- olfered the hnullord tiiat live dollar Indiana bank- 
note, who innnediat(dy pronouneed it counterfeit. Having no otiier 
money, and .Mi-. ]\ogvi's havin;^- rather a shabl)y-lookin-,'- farm, he pi-o- 
poscd to settle the bill by goin;4 to work for him. The oflVr was accepted 
and he rt'inained there two years, and has renuiined in the county ever 
since, never i-eg-rettin<,^ the fate that brought him here, and intimating 
very strongly that but for the interposition of that eounterfeit bill 
his stop in Waliash County might have lieen very brief. 

e * 'V.i 

"Wild Cat" Banking 

-Mr. Sa>-re later entered into the nu'reantile Imsiness, and as the 
pi-evailing mcuiey at that time consisted of bills on what was known as 
the "Wild Cat" baidvs of the country, and every merchant aiul banker 
had to take a weekly publicalion called the I>ank Note Detectoi', in 
ord<'r to know the standing of the iTuin\' banks that issued money. lOven 
then there was no assurance that a bill would l)e of any value by the 
next day, as such banks were going to the wall at all times. This con- 
tinued until the general Governiuent put a stop to the issuing and cir- 
culation of such bills by a tax of 10 per cent of their face, and today, 
if such a bill is found, this assessment must be paid. These banks 
could not stand this and they went out of lousiness; our general bank- 
ing laws and national banks have taken their i)lace, aiul we see and 
hear no more of bank detectors of years ago. All money that is not 
counterfeit is now good everywhere. 

Permanent Organization 

Meetings wei"e held each yeai', until, during the sumnn^r of 1879, a 
call was issued for a general meeting of the old settlers to be held in 
the court room in AVal) at 1 :80 o'clock P. M., on Friday, September 
5, 1879, for the purpose of making a permanent organization. The meet- 
ing was organized by appointing Benjamin ]\IcClure temporary chair- 
man and Edward S. Ross, secretary. On motion of John C. Sivey, a 
committee constituting of one from each civil township was appointed 
to draft a constitution. The following persons were selected as mem- 
bers of that counnittee : 


X()l)Ic Township, ,)()liii (". Sivcy niid Alanyon P. Ferry. 

Lihcrty Towiislii]), Stcplini Davis. :-■ ■ . .i- 

Walt/, Towiisliii), ,I:iiii('s Andi'i'soii. ; ',■ t,)n]^r j 

Chester Township, lleiii-y Stricklcr. ' U> < ■- u^ ■ '■ • ,^■^,^y: , ;, 

IMeasaiit Township, Daniel Sehuler. ao' ni''') ' •■ ft;' -.■■:( K, i-.^ :,,; 

I'aw Paw Townshij), Kohert Aniher. ' .':• -; '" ■ ■ .^ _■ ; • r,:.i;: ■ 

Pa (Iro T()wnshi|). Reason liadger. ' *'• ;''• ; • ;.,.:'i 

The eoinmittee I'etii-ed and in a short time reported the following, 
wld.-h aftei- it had heeii fully discussed and amended, was adopted. 

i f.i,( COXSTITIJTION ■"■■'' ■ • '. .-, • ,, , 

Article 1. This a.ssoeiation shall be called tlie Wabasli County 
( Indiana ) I'ioiieer Society. 

Artich' II. Its object shall be to cooperate with the Old Settlers" 
Township societies of tlie county, in collecting, preserving, and from 
time to time, publishing biogi-aphical sketches of the early settlers of 
the county, and otliei- interesting matter in reference to the early settle- 
ment of the county. 

Article IIP The officers of this as.soeiation shall be a president, 
seven vici- presitleiits (one from each township of the county), a sec- 
i-etai-y, a ti'easurei', and an executive connnittee of nine, one at least to 
be selected fi-om eacli township, of which committees the jiresident shall 
be e.\-oriicio chairman, all of whom shall severally dischai'ge the duties 
usually devolving upon such officers respectiv(d\', and shall hold tludr 
respect i\-e offices for oiie yeai' from the time of their election, and until 
their successors ai'e chosen. 

Arti(de l\'. The regulai' meeting of the society shall be held an- 
nually, at such time and ])lace as the executive connnittee may from 
time fo time designate. 

Article \. As amended: Members of the association shall bo all 
citi/iMis over thii'ty years of age and who have resi(h'd in the county 
thii-ty yeai's, and all citizens l)(~»rn in the co\uity of the age of thii'ty- 
tive \ears, and the wives and childi'i'U of such, by signing the constitution. 

Article y\. Honorary membership of the society may I)e created 
by the vote of a majoiity of the members present at any regular meeting 

Article VIP The treasurer shall, at each regular annual meeting, 
make a detailed statement of all moneys received and expended by him 
during the year. 

Article VHP As amended: The executive committee, together with 


the officers of the society, sliall constitute a board for tlie transaction 
of Ijusiiiess of the society, and shall have power to call a preliminary 
meeting of the board at any time, and shall have power to make all 
rules and regulations for tlie comfort of its members. And shall cause 
all accounts against the society to be audited by the secretary, and 
when admitted by the ])oard, or by the president, an order shall be 
issued to the i)ersons entitled to the same by the secretary on thi^ treas- 
urer, and no money sliall be j)aid out witliout such order. 

Article JX. The society shall have i)owei- to make b.y-laws needful 
for the rules and regulations from time to time at any of the regular 

Article X. This constitution may Ije amended at any regular meet- 
ing of the society, b\' a two-thii-d vot(; of the members present. 

By a resolution i)assed at a latter meeting the annual meeting of 
the association was to l)e held on tlie first Wednesday of September 
each year, and that will l)e the tinu- of meeting unless changed by the 
association. Tlie purpose of selecting this day was to inform other 
gatherings that might be hehl at th(,' City Park, and thus prevent the 
selection of the same (la\' for their meetings. '" "' "'"' " ' \'" ' ' 

First Kixan.AR Officers ''"'"■' >"'•'"' ^••'■'■c- 

AftcT' adoption of the constitution, the meeting proceeded to tlie elec- 
tion of oflieei-s, which I'esulted as follows: President, Allen W. Smith; 
vice ])resi(lents — 15enedi(-t W. Lowr\-, La (iro Town.ship, Jonathan Scott, 
Litierty Township, Henry Strie]<ler, Chester Township, Samuel L. 
Oanible, I'aw Paw Township, Daniel Schuler, Pleasant Township, James 
Anderson, AValt/. Township, John U. Pettit, Noble Townsliij); S(icretary, 
Beiinet ]']. Davis; ti'easurer, Enos F. Thomas; executive committee — 
Allen \V. Smitli, cliairman. Noble Township, Joshua Farley, Chester 
To\^iisliip, John Dufton, La (!ro Townsliip, Jehu Banister, Liberty Town- 
ship, John L. Knight- and Alanson P. h'erry, Noble Township, Caleb 
Latchem, Pa\v Paw Township, Mathias Lukens, Pleasant Township, Elihu 
Wecsner, Waltz Township. 

By order of the executive committee a mei'ting was held September 
11, 1879, at the Fair grounds in the City of Wabash, for tlie purpose 
of receiving the signatures of the old settlers to the constitution, who 
wished to become members of the association. 

Roll op Old Settlers 

The following is a list of old settlers, exhibiting their names, date of 
birth, place of nativity, and date of settlement in Wabash County. 


Mrs. .Mary Cutler, hoi'ji F(,'t)ruary 12, 17f30, in Virrrinia; dato of settle- 
ment, June 10, 1S45. 

John ('. I'cttit. horn Sei.tenilier 11, 1S2(), in New York; date of 
.setth'iiient, Api'il L>4, isn. 

Alh-n W. Smith, hoi-n May 12, 1817, in Imliaua; date of settlement, 
April 2.S, 1S;U. 

AVilliam II. Parke, l)orn July 8. 1808, in New Jersey; date of settle- 
in. 'nt. July f), 184(i. 

Alanson P. Ferry, l)orn Api-il 1;], 1820, in Ohio; date of settlement, 
April 20, 184i). 

Sarali Tyer, horn August 4, 178(J, in Delaware; date of settlement, 
Frhi'uary — , 18-43. 

Cathai'iiie Stitt, horn I\rareh 23, 1811, in Pennsylvania; date of settle- 
ment, .May 2!), 1834. 

Lodema Kohinson, hoi'u July 4, 1705, in Vermont; date of settlement, 
.Mar<'!i — . 1834. 

James W. Curry, liorn Oetoher, 20, 1808, in Pennsylvania; date of 
setthMiient, October — , 1832. 

Cathai-ine Saih)rs, horn January 30, 1811, in Kentucky; date of settle- 
ment, .March 28, 1841. 

Mary P. lianister, horn January 31, 182."), in Indiaiut; date of settle- 
ment, Se])1emher — , 1847. 

John i'>. Tyer, horn .March 13, 1828, in Delaware; date of settlement, 
February — , 1843. 

Cliai'les Sailors, born October 15, 1811, in Indiana; date of settlement, 
Septend)er 23, 1847. 

Jehu l>anister, born April 9, 1823, in Indiana; date of settlement, 
Sei)tend)er 23, 1847. 

John Kussell, born October 20, 1811, in Indian Teri'itory; date of 
settlement, Ai)ril 24. 1834. 

Jacob L. Sailors, boi-n August 23, 1813, in Indiana ; date of settlement, 
March 21). 1841. 

Philip ^1. x\!niss, born October (>, 1814, in Virginia; date of settlement, 
Septend)er 1, 1840. 

Tobias I>eck. l)orn December 2, 1815, in Pennsylvania; date of settle- 
ment, April 10, 1844. 

John Fxeed, born August 30, 1814, in Indiana; date of settlement, 
October 31, 1843. 

Eliliu Weesner, born November 4, 1815, in Indiana; date of settle- 
ment, November 1, 1844. 

Sarali B. Craft, born July 3, 1813, in Indiana; date of settlement, 
April 25, 184G. 



Thomas Wchh, Ijurii (Jctohi'i- 11, ISrJ, in Ohio; .hitr of sctthMiu'iit, 
Srj.tciiihcr — , 18;:!5. 

Lewis J. I-Miiir, 1.01-11 Ft'bruary 11, ISlS, in l'( nnsylvaiiia ; (hitc of 
s.-tthMiiriit, Mi\y — , 18;!7. 

-Mar^aiTt Stone, horn April 21, 1820, in Indiana; (hite of settlement, 
X,,v,-mber — , is:].-,. 

-Mary liad-ei-, horn Ai)i'il <), 181!), in Ohio; tlato of settlement, Sep- 
tfml)er — , I8;;i). 

Hhesa -MeCluiv, lioi'u January 2X, 1818, in North Carolina; date of 
settlement. Ajiril 15, 18;]6. 

.1. Warren llanna, h(»rn June 2, l,sj8, in Indiana; horn in the county. 
Mary S. Stone, horn Deeemher 10, LSiM, in Ohio; date of settlement, 
November — , Ls:)!). 

John Wohleainuth, born August 15, 182J, in Virginia; date of 
si'ttlemeiit, January — , 184(J. 

J. P. -Myers, born November 4, 1802, in Teinu'ssee; date of .settlement, 
l),.,.ember — , 18:^8. 

Dr. Samuel (i. Thompson, born January — , 1824, in Pennsylvania; 
date of settlement, -Alay — , 1849. 

William Dittoii, born January — , 1821, in England; date of settle- 
ment, .May — , 1836. 

C. II. llyronamous. boi'n Ai)i'il 1, 1819, in Virginia; date of settle- 
ment, October — , 1847. 

James W. Drake, born December — , 1812, in Ohio; date of settlement, 
:\Iarch — , 1840. 

Ditlama Di'ake, born February — , 1818, in Ohio; date of settlement, 
.Mai'ch — , 1846. 

Daniel Weaver, born July 4, 1817, in Pennsylvania; date of settle- 
ment, J<\-l)ruary — , 1841. 

Newton Fowler, born August 7, 1823, in Indiana; date of settlement, 
Oefober — , 18;14. 

Henry Garner, born April 15, 1815, in Tennessee; date of settlement, 
Fel)ruar,\' — , 1835. 

Wiley Williams, born September 17, 1812, in Kentucky; date of 
settlement, October — , 1840. 

Robert Russell, born September 27, 1818, in Indiana;* date of settle- 
ment, October 7, 18-37. 

John V. Reed, born September 10, 1828, in Indiana; date of settle- 
ment, ^larcli — , 1835. 

William T. Clow, born I\Iay 6, 1827, in Kentucky ; date of settlement, 
March 1, 1843. 


1 Of) 

.li)ii;itliiiii S.-dtt, liorii .Ininiary iMi, ]Sl(i, in Indiana; date of settlc- 
iiioit. -lamiary 4, IS,')."). 

Df. -loliii II. l)(d'iiy, l.oni Au-iust ;iO. ISi'O. in I'cnnsylvania ; date of 
s.-lllcniriit, -Inly liO, IS-K,. 

Curtis II. I'auiin^', hoi-n :May IS. ISLS, in Pennsylvania; date of scttle- 
i,„.iit, ()i-tol).'f — , is:;7. 

Koticft Andjcr, horn April 2G, 182r), in Indiana; date of settlement, 
Oetoliei- — , l.s;i7. 

.Matldas Lidvens, hoi'n NovtMidjer 8, 1S17, in Ohio; date of settlement, 
An^ust — , ]s;j5. 

•lames luimsy. hoiTi May 24, 1811, in Pennsylvania; date of settle- 
ment, Septt'iidier 1-1, 184;]. 

Peter T. Spmee, l)()rn Fehniary 18, 1817, in Delaware; date of 
settlement, -fainiary 21, 1848. 

•lohn Oraves. hoi'ii May l-"), 182-1, in Tennessee; date of settlement, 
Apiil — , is:^"). 

ICIizaheth Oraxes. horn April 14. 1823, in Delaware; date of settle- 
ment, , IS.U. 

.1. \V. (iari'ison, horn .Ma.v 28, 1836, in Indiana; horn in the eonnt.v. 

Fli.jah llaelvhinan, horn Oetoher IS, 1817, in huliana ; date of settle- 
ment, June 25, 1849. 

Mai-.u'aret Ilackleman, hoi-n ,S'']Uember 22, 1821, in New Jerse.v ; date 
of Settlement, .lane 25, 1849. 

Philip Sehulei-, horn April 12, 1819, in Pennsylvania; date of settle- 
ment. Oet()l)el- — , 1837. 

dohn Pall, horn January 13, 1813, in Ohio; date of settlement, winter, 

William A. Fdward, horn September S, 1838, in huliana; hoi-n in the 

Hiram Piekei'ing, born Oetober 8, 1814, in Ohio; date of settlement, 
dun.' — , 1845. 

Jesse Miller, boi-n December 3, 1821, in Ohio; date of settlement, 
August 7. 1841. 

Daniel P. Fowlei', boi'U Jainiary 22, 1820, in Indiana; date of settle- 
ment, Se])tiMnhel- — , 1834. 

I'Mward I'\ Owen, horn Septendier 19, 1819, in Indiana; date of settle- 
ment, Fehruaiy 26, 1842. 

.Mai'tha A. Owen, boi'n November 27, 1819, in North Caroliiui ; dat(! of 
settlement, h'ehi'uary 26, 1842. 

Dain(4 Sehulei-, born Novendier 20, 1817, in Peiuisylvaina ; date of 
settlement, October 17, 1837. 


riuirlcs C. Kvans, I)oni July 17, J823, in Ohio; date of settlement, 
Februai'.>' — , 1S47. 

Frastu-s G. Liurgi-tt, born January 13, 1811, in Indiana; born in the 

Reuben Reed, born August ol, 1S16, in Indiana; date of settlement, 
February — , 184o. 

John ('. Sivey, born January 'A, 1818, in Yiryinia ; dixtc of settlement, 
Novend)er 17, 1810. 

Janirs ]\l()ore, born July 7, 18IJ5, in N'iryinia; date of settlement, 
January 4, 1.S18. 

lleni'y Strickler, born ^lareh 20, 1804, in Tennessee'; date of set*e- 
UK/uT, IMiruai'y 28, Ib.iij. 

liennet E. Oavis, borii Xoveiidxr 14, 1811, in Kiiitueky; date of settle- 
ment, Scptemiter 1*J, 1840. 

Olive P. Jieek. born September 27, 1821, in huliana; date of settlement, 
April 10, 1844. 

lleni'>- Xu^baum, l)orn Novcmljer 5, 177ti, in Maryland; date of settle- 
ment, Sei)tfnibL'r 5, 1815. 

F. AV. White, born , 1812; date of settlement, , 


Malotha Reese, born Mareh 7, 1817, in Pennsylvania; date of settle- 
ment, August IT), 1841. 

vlohn Lewark, born December 20, 180"), in \'irginia ; date of settle- 
ment, January ;'., 1844. 

David S(|uiris, liorn Juni' ID, 1801), in Ohio, date of settlement, Sep- 
tendx'r — , 1841. 

(ieoi'ue W. Stewart, boi'u Decend)er IJ, 1802. in Ohio; date of settle- 
m.-iit, -March ]:'>, 1844. 

Denjaiiiin Sayre, born .March (i, 17!);{, in Xew Jersey; date of settle- 
ment, October — , 184(J. 

•Levi S. IMioiiuis, born November 1, 1801), in Ohio; date of settlement, 
December 20, 1839. 

liOis \l. Kunse, l)orn Feljruai'y (i, 1832, in Indiana; date of settlement, 
October 11, 1838. 

Elemander l'\ Fuse, born Api'il I), 1828, in Indiana ; date of settlement, 
August 14, 1849. 

John Pearson, born ^lay 17, 1799, in North Carolina; date of settle- 
ment, .May 31, 1848. 

William W. Ford, born February 28, 18;!9, in Ohio; date of settle- 
ment, April 1, 1840. 

William J. Ford, born Ai)ril 30, 1805, in Ohio; date of settlement, 
March, 1840. 


Mary Foivl, liorn Scptcinhcr, 181!), in New York; dati; of settletiu'iit, 
March, 1840. 

.Joliii liiiiL,', Si-., l)orii April :>, 1S12, in Indiana; date of scttlenirnt, 
Ft'hruary, 1.S47. 

Melissa lvin<^, boi-n November, 1825, in Ohio; date of settlement, 
February 1, 1847. 

Mason I. Thomas, Ijorii February 15, 1826, in Indiana ; date of settle- 
ment, Fe1)ruary 17, 1835. 

Josepli W. Ridgway, born September 9, 1805, iji Pennsylvania; tlate 
of settlement, September 17, 1800. 

Alfred llornaday, l)Oi'n l)ecend)er 13, 1812, in North Carolina; date 
of settlciiiciit, September 12, 1841. 

Joseph II. Kay, born .May 22, 1801), in Ohio; date of settlement, Sep- 
tember 28, 183 — . 

John A. Mellenry, born July 31, 1825, in Virginia; date of settlenumt, 
Septemlier :!(), 1843. 

Davitl llruner, born L)eeend)er 18, 1804, in Virginia; date of settle- 
ment, b\4)ruar>-. 183!). 

Iln-h W. Ilaniia, born Oetolier 1, 1834, in Indiana; date of settle- 
ment, May. 18:^,5. 

Kdward S. Koss, born Noveiid)er 17, 1827, in Indiana; date of settle- 
ment, August 15, 1848. 

John <l Hale, born Novem])er 4. 1810, in Keiitueky; date of settle- 
ment, ,AIay 2(1, 1843. 

Charles \'otaw, boi'n Septeiid)ei- 8, 181!), in Ohio: date of settlenu'Ut, 
iMareh, 1845. 

Sarah A. \'ota\v, boi'n Oetober 5, 1821, in Indiana; date of settle- 
ment, I"'(4jruar\', 1844. 

iMhvard II. Harris, born March 13, 1820, in Indiana; date of settle- 
ment, August, 1835. 

Dexter IJrooks. born Sej)tember 20, 1812, in New York; date of settle- 
ment, Jtuie. 18;^5. 

David Kunse, born Octol)er 21), 1813, in Virginia; date of settlement, 
November 24, 1848. 

Philip ^lartin, l)orn Jaiuiary 11, 1813, in Ohio; date of settlement, 
Sei)temlier 11, 1834. 

William L. Russell, l)orn Jaiuuiry 8, 1821, in England; date of settle- 
nu nt, Oetober, 1845. 

Joel Prewer. l)orn October 8, 1810, in Ohio; date of settlement, Feb- 
ruary, 1849. 

Lawson Story, born August 9, 1822, in Indiana; date of settlement, 
September 1, 1848. 


H.-iifv Calfr,.. 1,01-11 ()ct()l)rr 19, ISl-I, ill \'iru-ii,ia; datr of si'ttlcinnit, 
X.»\vinli.T 4. 1,S47. 

.Mai-k Strati. .11. Ik, in S,.i,t.Miil,ri- l^7. l^lL*. in X.'W .Icrsry ; .late ofsftllc- 

inciit, -hiiii', i.s;;s. 

William T. Ross, horn January 25, 1808, in Ki'iitue-ky; date of si-ttlc- 
iiiriit, Octohrr 10, 18:J5. 

-Alary -iaiic Ross, l)orn January 1, 1818, in Indiana; datr of scttK- 
iiKMit, January 1 7, 18;)8. 

SaiMucI Ahliott, l)orn lA-l.ruary 21. 181!), in Indiana; date of srttlc- 
111. 'lit O.'toli.'r, 18;)4. 

I'^liza Ann Abbott, born Mar.-li .1, 1821, in Indiana; datr of s('ttl.Mn.'iit, 
October, ls;{4. 

I'..' \V. Lowry, born June 22, 1812, in -Maryland; date of settle- 
111. -nt, Auiiust, 1S:!4. 

l-:ii(,s I''. Thomas, boi'n :\Iay ;^0, 1827, in Ohio; date of settlement, 
F.'bruary. Is:;.!. 

h:ii/ali.-tli ('. Thomas, born .May .'^0, 1827, in Indiana; date of settle- 
m.'iit, October, 18:38. 

1.1a TImmas, hern -\ugust 14, 1855, in Indiana; born in the county. 

-Malilon O. ('(jry, born February 17, 1816, in New Jersey; date of 
settlement, October 21, 1845. 

-Xaii.'y Cory, b.)rii -Vu^'ust G, 1815, in Indiana; date of settlement, 
Oct()l).-r 21. 1S55. 

lien.jamin .M'.-l"lure, born April, 1812. in Ohio; date of settlement, 
Septendier, 1844. 

Sarah .Al.-Clure, boi'u December 22, 1811, in Ohio; date of settlement, 
Sei)teiiiber, 1844. 

F. W. White, born -May 22, 1812, in -Xew York; date of settlement, 
October, 18:]!). 

Kdwaid Smith, born February 23, 182:^, in Ohio; date of settlement 
Aprfl, 1841. 

Philip Smith, born August 15, 1810, in Germany; date of settlement, 
November 20, 1839. 

Dr. Henry II. Gillen, born June, 1818, in Kentucky; date of settle- 
ment, November, 1853. 

Francis D. (lilson, born June 9, 1804, in Virginia; date of settlement, 
October, 1836. 

Nathaniel Chiles, l)orn Jaiuiary, 1817, in Delawai'C; tlate of settle- 
ment, 1832. 

Joseph McClintock, born January 5, 1822, in Ohio ; date of settle- 
ment, October, 1841. 


Dr. Jaiiu's l^'oi-d, Ixji'ii January 1*J, 1812, in Ohio; dalu of st'ttlenu'iit, 
Pel)ruary 4, 1841. 

Aniei-ica Ford, horn 181!), in Kentucky; date of settlciiicnt, February 
4, 1841. 

Samuel Hussard, horn Fel)ruary 22, 1812, in .Maryland; chite of settle- 
ment, 1838. 

Xichohis I). Myci's, horn April 12, 1814, in Ohio; date (d' sctth'iiHMit. 
Mareh, 1849. 

S. A. .Myers, horn 1812, in Ohio; date of settlement, 1841). 

•Joshua Farle}', horn ])eeend)er 'A, 1814, in Pennsylvania; (hite of 
settlement, Xoveudter, 1839. 

William W. Stewart, horn Febi'uary 8, I82h, in Indiana; dat(; of 
s»'ttlement, Mareli, 1845. 

Xaney K. Stewart, horn September 13, 1824, in Virginia; date of 
settlement, 1842. 

Sauniel \j. (iamhle, boi'n Jnly 11, 1821, in ^'ir<:;;inia ; date of settle- 
ment, June, I83(i. 

Thomas Webl), born Oetol)er 11, 1812, in Ohio; date of settlement, 
September, 1839. 

John Hoover, born April 1, 1815, in Pennsylvania; date of settlement, 
October, 1849. 

.Moses W. Koss. born Jnly 11, 1823, in Tntliaiia; date of settlement, 
October 9, 1839. 

Julia Ross, liorn (October 23, 1817, in Tennessee; date of settlement, 
August, 1838. 

Sanuud ShelUiami'r, born April 8, 1807, in Pennsylvania; date of 
settlement, 184G. 

.Minns Fai'low, born .Alarch 28, 1814, in .Maryland; date of settle- 
ment, 1842. 

William K. Collins, born June 11, 1823, in Indiana; date of settle- 
ment* 1843. 

Jacob Fnger, l)orn ^lay, 1828, in Pennsylvania; date of settlement. 

Tilman A. Webb, born March, 1822, in North Carolina; date of settle- 
ment, 1847. 

Tliomas F. Payne, born August 22, 1826, in Virginia; date of settle- 
ment, August 22, 1849. 

Timothy P)rown, born in 1812, in Pennsylvania; date of settlement, 

Lewis 1). <^)uiek, boi-n in 1820, in Indiana; date of settlement, 1851. 

John Iv Peel lis, born in 1^01, in \'irginia ; date of settlement. 1851. 


Edward J). Busick, born iMarcli, 1817, in Kentucky; date of settle- 
ment, 1836. 

James D. Conner, born July 11, 181!), in Indiana; date of settlement, 
October, 1840. 

Joseph Baker, born in 1818, in Ohio; date of settlement, 1840. 

MarEin Alger, born in 1819, i# Ohio; date of settlement, 1848. 

Jesse Way, born in 1829, in Ohio; date of settlement, 1840. 

William Carr, born in 1821, in Kentucky; date of settlement, 1848. 

Benjamin PrijK'e, born in 1824, in Ohio; date of settlement, 1842. 

James Stewart, l)orn in 1814, in Ohio; cUite of .settlement, 1846. 

AVilliam Pearson, born in 1826, in Tennessee; date of settlement, 1834. 

Jacol) II. Boblett, born in 1822, in Ohio; date of settlement, 1844. 

Dr. Eden P. Peters, born in 1822, in Ohio; date of settlement, 1846. 

Ann Park, born in 1816, in New Jersey; date of settlement, 1846. 

John L. Baer, bQrn in 1835, in Ohio; date of settlement, 1842. ,■ 

John Keeves, born in 1811, in Ohio; date of settlement, 1851. 

Ezra Hawkins, born in 1818, in Ohio; date of settlement, 1842. 

Garrison Baer, born in 1837, in Ohio; date of settlement, 1840. 

John L. Cowgill, l)orn in 1826, in Ohio; date of settlement, 1844. 

Eliza Reeves, born in 1810, in Ohio; date of settlement, 1851. 

Alfred II. Stoops, born in 1831, in Indiana ; date of settlement, 1852. 

William T. Stone, born in 1824, in Indiana; date of settlement, 1850. 

David Stoops, born in 1818, in Alabama ; date of settlement, 1853. 

Anna Stoops, liorn in 1836, in Indiana; born in county. 

]\Ioses Thrush, born in 1827, in Pennsylvania; date of settlement, 1842. 

(leorgc .1. Stephenson, born in 1831, in Ohio; date of settlement, 1851. 

Jolm S. Pike, born in 1813, in Ohio; date of settlement, 1842. 

Andrew R. Starbuek, born in 1807, in North Carolina; date of settle- 
ment, 1847. 

Permclia Peabody, born in 1811, in New York; date of settlement, 

Phelti' ]\leKihl)en, born in 1833, in Indiana ; born in county. 

Sarah 1-]. Pratt, hoi-n in 1819, in New York ; date of settlement, 1843. 

Julia Conmr, born in 1825, in Indiana; date of s(;ttlement, 1835. 

Ilanmdi Webb, !)orn in 1829, in Indiana; date of settlement, 1847. 

j\Iary Fall, born in 1809, in North Carolina; date of settlement, 1843. 

Martha Weesner, l)orn in 1824, in North Carolina; date of settlement, 

Druzilla Quick, 1)orn in 1817, in Indiana; date of settlement, 1851. 

Samuel Long, ])orn in 1829, in Pennsylvania; date of settlement, 1844. 

Elizal»etli A. Ford. l)orn in 1842, in Indiana; born in the county. 

Julia M. Hymen, l)orn in 1819, in Germany; date of settlement, 1868. 


Lucinda 11. Sivey, born in 1823, in Kentucky; date of settlement, 1839. 

Jane King, born in 1S3(J, in Indiana; l)orn in the county. 

Eunice Ivichai-ds, boi'ti in 1S22, in Ohio; date of setthMii.-iit, 1842. 

.Mai'ga J.oiig, t)nrii in 1S3S. in Ohio; (hit.- of .setth-iufut, 1842. 

I)i-. .Micliael K. Crabill, boi'ii in 1817, in Vii'ginia; date of settlement,. 

Eva Orabill, ))orn in 1827, in Ohio; date of settlement, 1847. 

^lary I. IJrooks, boi'U in 1832, in Indiana; born in the <,'0unty. 

Adelia Ilenlcv, born in 1840, in Indiana; boi'u in the county. 

Ephi'aim F. Kriler, born in 1814, in Indiana; date of settlement, 1828. 

Toliver H. Clark, born in is;j!). iji Indiana; (hite of .settlement, 1846. 

Capt. Benjamin F. AVilliams, born September 29, 1830, in Indiana; 
date of settlement, 1836. 

Allena F. AVilliams, born in 1843, in Indiana; born in the county. 

William Sweetser, boi'ii in 1806, in Vei'mont ; tlate of settlement, 1847. 

Robert B. Sweetser, born in 1842, in Indiana; date of settlement, 1847. 

Miles II. C. Moi'gan, liorn in 181;"), in Kentucky; date of settlement, 
October 5, 184!). 

Andi-e\v Wilson, born in 1812, in A'irginia; date of settlement, Sep- 
tember II), 1840. 

Fi'ancis M. Calfee, borji Octol)er 18, 1838, in Indiana; date of settle- 
ment, April 6, 1839. 

Theodore AV. ]\IcClure, l)orn August 30, 1835, in Ohio; date of settle- 
ment, Septend)er, 1844. 

Lewis B. Davis, l)orn October 26, 18:^0, in New A^ork; date of settle- 
ment, April 1, I8r)2. 

Alary Baily Davis, l)orn October 20, 1835, in Ohio. 

Timothy Craft, Sr., born January 10, 1818, in Ohio; date of settle- 
ment, Septend)er, 1847. 

Nathan (iarrison, born Janiuiry 6, 1831, in Indiana: date of settle- 
ment,* 1835. 

Richard Stoops, boi'u August 7, 1811, in Indiana; date of settlement, 
Septembei", 1850. 

Adam Graves, born January 1, 1820, in Tennessee; date of settle- 
ment, February, 1835. 

Samuel (i. Smiley, born July 17, 1825, in Iiuliana; date; of settle- 
ment, October 11, 1851. 

Daniel Sayre, born June, 1815, in New A'ork ; date of settlement, 
March, 1832.' 

John L. Stone, born Novend)er 16, 1815, in Kentu('ky; date of settle- 
ment, July 22, 1839. 


lMV(lr/-i(k- K'ickcit. l)oni OcIoImt L!, 182."), in C-niiaiiy; dale of scltlc- 
iiiciit. Aui^Mist 10, hS.l-l. 

.Alary 1'.. Jircwfi', honi Fcln'uar.N' 7, IS],"), in Indiana; dato of .scttli'- 
nirnt. Ffhrnary, 1S4I). 

Fucy Farvrr, honi Ai)ril ], FS2S, in Ohio; date of settU-uicnt, iSep- 
tt,'nd)('i-. Fs4(). 

Kic'liard Tyner, born August 17, ]823, in Indiana; date of .settlement, 

Oetohei-, ISII). 

Sai'ah J. Tyiiei-, hoi-n ^lareh 2, 1821), in Indiana; date of settlement, 
October, 1S4!). 

Fva Faey, boi'n .Vugnst 10, 1817, in Pennsylvania; date of settle- 
ment. F84."). 

Thomas E. Charles, born July 11, 1821), in Indiana; date of settle- 
ment. .Mareli, 1853. 

^Inry \Vam])ler, born .Septeml)er 4, 1839, in Indiana; boi-n in the 

llari'iet Stewart, l)orn July (], 1819, in Xe\v York; date of settle- 
ment, 1830. 

John F. Manrer, born !Alareh 21, 1840, in Ohio; date of settlement, 

Nelson I\I. Quick, l^orn February 28, 1845, in Indiana; date of settle- 
ment, Jaiinai'y, 1851. 

Jesse Colbert, born P\'bruary 5, 1S3G, in Ohio; date of settlement, 

fjohn King, Jr., boini September 15, 1837, in Indiana; date of settle- 
ment, i84(;. 

Noaii Fckman, born September 7, 1817, in .Maryland ; date of settle- 
ment, 1847. 

James McGnire, born SeptendxT 18, 1817, in Pennsylvania; date of 
settlement, 1838. 

Jesse ]\Iyers, born Noveml)er 4, 1802, in Tennessee; date of settle- 
ment, December, 1838. 

Henry ('. !Miles, l)orn I\Iay, 1827, in Ohio; date of settlement, June, 

Eliza C. ^liles, born July, 1836, in Ohio; date of settlement, Novem- 
ber, 1851. 

AVilliam R. Collins, born December 25, 1823, in Indiana; date of settle- 
ment, April 11, 1843. 

Henry L. Williams, born August 12, 1837, in Indiana ; date of settle- 
ment, 1840. 

J. II. Parker, born August 8, 1817, in Pennsylvania; date of settle- 
ment, April 20, 1855. 


Ilnn-y C. l^croth, born January 28, 1820, in Indiana; date of settle- 
ment. -June 15, 1855. 

lleni-y I". Sayi-e. boi'n Novenil)er 28, 1834, in Indiana; date of settle- 
ment, XowndxT 10, 1846. 

('apt. dosi-i'li M. Thompson, born May 28, 1828, in Indiana; date of 
settlement, June 15, lb42. 

.Xaney Wohlt^amut b, born Januaiy 20, 1828, in Ohio; date of settle- 
ment, A[)ril, 1845. 

Jesse l-'annin, boi'u XovenJjer 0, 1820, in Indiana-, date of settlement 
Oetol)er, 1838. 

John Strirklir, liorn August 20, 182G, in Peinisylvania ; date of settle- 
ment. Febi-uary 28, 18JG. 

William Strickler, born August 12, 1833, in Ohio; date of settlement, 
Fe])ruary 28, 183G. 

Alexaiidei- I.. Tyer, l)orn January 5, 1833, in Indiana; date of settle- 
ment, February, 1843. 

Isojihena Tyer. 

('apt. Ahxaiider Hess, born SeptenJjer 10, 1830, in Ohio; date of 
settlement, Xovember 2(i. 1840. 

l.aura M. Hess, boi'u February 15, 1840, in Pennsylvania. 

C'larkson AV. Weesner, born August 12, 1841, in Henry County, In- 
diana; dat.' of settlement, 1844. 

Amia K. Weesnei-, born Di'eond)ei' 31, 1840, in Henry County, In- 
diana; date of settlement, 1856. 

IIkn'ry Xushau.m, 105 Years Old 

The oldest })e!-son to sign the eonstitution was Henry Xusbaum, who 
was born in ^Iar\land, Xovend)er 5, 1770, and died at Wabash, Indiana, 
(3etober 28, 1S^2, aged 105 yeai's. 11 months and 23 days. 


The following itei'sons iiave been (Ji-eted presidents of the assoeiation: 
AVilliam T. K'oss, Allen W. Smith, Judge James D. Conner, Elijah llaekle- 
man. John S. 15. Carothers, Capt. Benjamin F. Williams, Samuel L. 
(iand)li', Xathaniel Banistei-, Henry Lew (ironinger, Johiel P. Noftzger, 
James 1). ('(juni'i-, Jr., AVarren 0. Sayre, Thomas ]\IeXamee, Fred I. 
King and Clai-k W. AVeesner. 

Tvicji Historical Store House 

A rich stoii' house for matei'ial in the painting of pioneer ])ictur('S 
is found in the proei'cdings of the Wabash ('ounty Pioneer Soeiety, a 

Vol. 1—8 


sketch of which has just Ijceii given. Not a meeting was heUl at wliich 
some of the ohl s-'tthrs did not make contfihutions to hieal liistof>' wliicli 
HVii wortliy of jjeriiianent pri.'Si-rvation ; so that what scieclious are ma(h: 
must he madf rather at haphazard, and heeause space is limite(h rathei- 
than In-causc' tlie etlitor considers them the vei'y cream of the rich suppl^>-. 
Ji' is self-evident, however, that Elijali Ilacklenian is tlie dominating 

.li'DGB Coombs' Pioxker Pk;ti;i!K 

At a meeting of the society, held August L':5, ISSij, Judge William II. 
Coomhs, the })ioneer attorjiey of W'ahash (Jounty, drew this verhal pic- 
ture: "h'orty-eight years ago this montli I came to AVahash on horse- 
hack, then the oidy mode of conveyance, and put \\\) at lUirr's Hotel on 
thi' Treaty (iroumL At that time soutli of Wahasli the Indian lieserva- 
tion presented an unl/roki-n wilderness, inhaliited only hy Indians, and 
on the north tliMi'c was not a house as far as Eel Kiver. The settlement 
was located in a little clearing helow the hluffs. There were a few log 
houses and shanties foi- canal hands. There were one' or two hi'ii-k houses; 
one of them, a one-story hrick structure, was hinlt hy Dr. 1^'iiidley. 
Tliere Were fi'oiii oue to two hundred inhahitants, mostl>- canal hands. 
Across the creek was the log cahin and clearing wlieiv Little Chai'ley, 
the .Miami ehieflain, lived. In iS:!,") a resident huilt a house on the lop of 
the hill, and on the lirst night after taking up his I'esidence there shot a 
\\dlf in his dooryard. 

■"The county had hecn liut recently oi'ganized when 1 came. In the 
wintci- of 1S;54-;J5 the county seat was located aikl I assisted in the oi'gan- 
ization of the fii'st court. Colonel Steele was selected clei'k and ^Villiam 
Johnston sherilf. 

, Tki.vl oi'- Two IlrxDKED Caxai. Labohkks 

"1 happened to strike \Vahasli a fe\v days aftei' the Irish war which 
had taken i)lace at La Oro. The Fort Wayne hrigade was sent foi', to 
(piell the riot, and it is said they fought nohly : they certainly captured 
many ])risoners, as I found ahout two hundred locked up. I had been 
undecided whether to locate in Fort Wayne or Logansjxjrt, hut linding 
so much criminal business here decided to remain. An amusing incident 
occurred wlu-n those two hundred jjrisoncrs were tried. .Vssoi-iate Judge 
lUdlinger was mi.ssing when the came up, and so Judge Jackson 
ordered the clerk to issue an attachment for his l)ody and bring him 
into court. This was carried out to the letter. The two hundred pi'isoners 
were found guilty. 

llltSTOKY OF WAliA.Sll UOUxXTY 115 


'•'riici-c wi'i'c a yivat munlHT of rattlesnakes hereabouts in those days. ' 

One (lay in ^oini.' to La Gro on tlie tow-path 1 killed six large ones. On ■' ' 

July 4, 1S;;7, wi- eelelii'ated the 0])ening of tlie canal. 1 was called on "' 

to make a speech Satunhiy, and as tiie celebration was on Monday, the '"• 

tunc lor pr(|»arati()n was short. F wi'ote out the s[)eeeh and on Sunday '• 

tdok a walk in the woods to eouniiit it; when 1 nearly stei)ped on a rattle- ' '' 
snake and was eonsideral)ly frightened at tii'st, but managed to kill the 
reptile. A {\v]i of them was subsequently tliseovered alojig the canal 

while blasting. , 

]''nt>T Danck fok AVjuti-: Folks 

'■Times were dull and tliere was little soeii-ty for young peojjle. The 
one store in to^vn was ke])t by Hugh llanna in a log building. There 
Were no sahxins, drug stores or chui'ehes, in the place. 'Phe spi'iug follow- 
ing m\- arrival we liad soiui' line lisliiiig, as Cohmel llanna liuilt a dam 
in the rivei'. 1 renieiidier hauling out as high as iunet}'-three in one day. 
The night of the h'ourth of duly celebration I s])oke of, the tii'st dance ever 
given in the place by white folks, ^vas held on the second floor of (Jolonel 
llanna 's store." 

Such little i)ictures as these are clear miniatures of the infant town 
of Wabash. When .Judge ('oond)s thus spoke bi'fori' his fellow-pioneers 
he was a white-haii'cd, seiH'Ue old geiitleuuin. 

i'Aery yt'ar thereafter something interesting was occurring, both for 
the pioneers, and the later comers who weri' enjoyiug the fi'uits of their 
rough but eltVctive work. 

The Star .Meeting of 1888 

Tlte meeting of 1888 was a star day, and Elijah Uackleman told about 
the I'^arly Koads so well ami thoi'oughly that we shall transport soiiU' of 
it bodil\- to our text in the near hereafter, ^liss Anna Farish also elec- 
trihed the boys, both old and younger, by her recitation, "Beautiful 
lu'collections of Fifty Years Ago." As Secri'tary llacklenum (;nthus- 
iastically put it: "The style, manner and felicitation in the delivery of 
this recitation by Miss I'arish cannot be suri)assed and luis been rarcdy 

From Cabin to Palace 

Further, the Old Log Cabin was tendered a hearty welcome by Capt. 
15. h\ Williams, lie said those old Log (Jabin days were always con- 


sidcrcd \)y liiiii as the liappicst, and lu; had noticed at the late Art Loan 
Exhibit (!)>■ tlic (i. A. R.) that the primitive inanncr of liviiit,' as ivp- 
ivsented hy the Log Cahiii, witii its attaehnicnts, had attracted more at- 
tention than almost anything vhc. He added that thei'e sat hei'ore him 
Jim Jacivson, wlio came to this county almost half a centui-y ago and 
settled down in Lil)ei't\' Township as oiu; of his neighbors. ^Ir. .Jac-kson 
li\'ed ill one of the most diminutive log cabins in the township, probably 
twelve by sixteen feet, and 'at that time he had hardly enough of this 
world's goods to oiler to divide breakfast with a hungry negro. I5ut 
he was healthy and contented aiul by economy and industry hewed him- 
self out a home that would now lie the envy of any prince of the old 
world. And of a like character were most of his neighbors of that day. 
"They built a school where the old Boundary Line Christian 
Church now stands. The pioneer schoolmasters were as bright and intelli- 
gent as they are today and understood the philosophy of real teaching 
and real life, as well as those of any country; and many of those old 
teachers — Bowles, Fulton and Tlackleman — were the peers of any educa- 
tors of any age." 

Judge Biddle's "Recollections 

Two of the old-time judges, Horace P. Biddle and N. 0., sent 
their letters of regret and remembrance to Capt. B. F. AVilliams, as 
they were unable to attend the meeting of September, 18!);^, of which he 
was president. Judge Biddle wrote: "1 hrst saw Wabash at the spring 
term of the Circuit Court in 1S40. The first man I saw to know was old 
Johnny Smith, the odd old tavern keeper, who entertained us very well. 
During the term I became accpiainted \vitli many of the citizens of the 
town and from the country. Old (.'oloiiel Steele, with whom I afterward 
served in the constitutional convention — somewliat eccentric, but an hon- 
est man; Colonel Hugh Haiina, main proprit'tor of the town; old Colonel 
Sttyre and Joseph Ray, excellent men. 

'"AValiash has always been one of my favorite counties. I feel a 
warm gratitude toward it and for the best reason — it gave me a full 
clientage during .seventeen years while 1 was at the bar, notwithstanding 
the local ability and eminent talent that came there to ])ractice from 
other places. The people respected my decisions while 1 was on the 
bench of the Circuit Court during nim'teen years; and they supported 
me almost uiiauiiiiously for the Supreme Bench; and 1 have thousands 
of friends there bcdonging to that sturdy, honest class that supported 
the nation quietly in i)eace and bravely defended it in danger. In my 
old age 1 daily feel grateful for these IxMietits so much needed in my 
earlier life." 


Judge N. 0. Ross 

And iVoiii -lu'lj/r IJoss: "Jt would liave ^ivcii me great i)lc'asurL' to 
meet tilt' sufvi\oi-s of tliosc wlio lived in the town and counly of Wabasli 
Aviien my father nioveil there in the fall of 1821). I remember the prom- 
inent men who lived there at that time, Colonel lianna, Colonel Steele, 
William Steele, -John Smith and his son Allen, Joseph II. Ray, Jacob 
1). Cassalt, I"]li,jah Ilaekleman, Judge Harlow and his brotlier, and Judge 
Lo\vi\\' of La (ii-o, .fudge -laekson, Mr. Thomas, the father of I'^nos 
Thomas, and his family, Ivstpiire h\)rd, Di-. dames i"'\)rd, old Jonathan 
Ivelh-r and his sons, l-'phraim Kellei-, old num l^'arr, old man Heckner on 
Im'1 Ivivcr, and thiTc are many others whose names [ do not now recall. 
Most of Ihciu have passed over to th" other si(h'. Ilow few rt-main to 
i-oinifct the past with the i)resent, and what a change' iift\'-live years have 
wrdught in >'our town and county ! 

■"Wabash was then composed mostly of log houses located l)etween 
the bluff on the noilh and the canal on the soutli. 1 do not remember 
definitely as to tlie pojudation, but there could not have been more than 
four or h\e hundred inhabitants at that time. The country was a vast 
foi'est, with hei-e aud there a log cabin and a small clearing, where the 
stui'dy l)acl<woodsman had stalled a farm. 

"The woods were full of deer and some l)ear. 

"One of the hardships that all had to endure was the difficulty to 
get bi'ead-stulf. I'doui' was scarce and coi-n l)read was used largely in- 
stead. I I'cmcmber that in the fall of 1838 my father paid one dollar 
a bushel for corn and I took it on horseback to a mill on the Salamonie 
two or three miles above La (Jro to have it ground. That winter I taught 
sehool in a little sehoolliouse on the hill and the wife of Hon. J. D. Con- 
ner was one of my pu])ils. 

".My father moved out on a tract of land he owned alxnit two and 
a half miles northwest of Wabash, and my brothers and myself com- 
menced clearing up the deadening to ])ut in corn. 1 made rails during the 
day and at night I'cad law by tire-light nmde of the bark of shell-bark 
liiekoi'x-. Boys Ao not study law that way now." 

Treaty BdiLDiNCs (by Hugh W. IIann.v) 

One of the interesting features of the ISOo meeting was the receipt 
of a letter from San Francisco, written by ITngh AY. Ilanna, son of the 
old colonel and one of the first children born in Wa])ash. It is written 
to .Mr. Ilaekleman, "My dear old friend" and "one who has known me 
from mv vouth." The extract relating to the Treaty Oround is repro- 


duced: "In speaking of the obliteriitioii of the ohl Treaty Grounds, 
the i)ride of my father, you bring sad news to my heart. I remember 
well, as if it were yesterday, how tlie log buiklings put up for the use 
of the treaty k)oked. One row was built running parallel with the old 
State Koad near the canal. Years after Uncle Peter Every lived in one 
of these buildings. Another row of buildings run north and south and 
part of tiiem was afterward used by father for stables ; tiiat was before 
he put up a large frame barn. How well, also, I remember the old spring 
house wdiere mother kept the milk, and the days I helped her churn but- 
ter in the old fashioned up-and-down dasher." 

Domestic Stanciiness 

The gathering of 1902 was a remarkably interesting one, not the least 
of its attractions being the outcome of the $5 prizes awarded for various 
virtues mostly founded on stanehness, which is so much admired by the 
old settlei' and his eliildren, and grandchildren, and so on to the last 
generation — in other words, the virtue whieli appeals to everyone at 
all times. 

From the goodly gathering of old people at City Park the following 
prize-winners were selected: Mr. and i\lrs. Samuel Abbott, of La Gro, 
as the couple married in Wabash County who had lived longest as man 
and wife. They were united August 30, 1840, and had kept the road to- 
gether more than sixty-two years. 

Mr. and ^Irs. Joe Lautzenhiser, of North Manchester, represented 
the natives of the county whose nuirried life had been the longest, their 
union having occurred September 25, 1873. 

Tlie prize for the mother who had reared the largest number of chil- 
dren in the county had to be divided between Mrs. Phil Hipskind, Mrs. 
Christian Clupper and Mrs. Richard Elward, each having brought twelve 
clnldren into the world, faithfully stood by them and "brought them up" 
in the true mother-sense. They were the central figures of the meeting, 
which may be said to have been an object lesson for those of the present, 
of married men and women remaining loyal to each other and their chil- 
dren through the years — "until death do them part." 

Old Fiddlers' Contest 

Old Settlers' Day for 1906 had a number of unique features. Per- 
haps the one which caused the most merriment was the Old Fiddlers' con- 
test, in which were entered Felix Fourgeres, William Brown, William 
Patterson, Frank Owen and Jerome Wellman. As each contestant made 


his etTort, the park shook with applause. Then J. 11. LcfTorge, Dr. P. G. 
^loore and S. .]. J'ayne sat iu judgment and awarded the lienors as fol- 
lows: (1) William Patterson; (2) Felix Fourgeres ; (3) William Brown. 
The judgment was gi'aecfully aeeepted, although some of tlie oldest of 
the boys wrre inclined to bestow first honors on Brother Fourgeres — not 
that he had out-titldled Brother Patterson, but he came to the county 

Descendant OF THE Great GoDFROY '. .,; ,> , 

From a purely hi.storieal standpoint, perhaps the paper by Gabriel 
(iodfroy, on "The Indian Race." was the most significant, as the author 
is a descendajit of that great war chief of the Miamis, Francis Godfroy. 

Fortieth, the ]\[ost Successful Reunion 

The fortieth ainiual reunion of the old settlers was held at City 
Park, September 1, PJOi), and was perhaps of more general interest than 
any which luid gone before, as it was the occasion of the dedication of the 
Lineoln Centennial Log Cabin. The year marked the passing of a cen- 
tury since the birth of that Great Soul whom we call Lincoln, so that the 
ci'lebration and dedication had a double significance. The log cabin was 
a monument to a rugged soul, as well as to the rugged pioneer period of 
which the society was so close a part. The weather was ideal, the oc- 
casion was impressive and absorbing, and the attendance the largest in 
the history of the association. 

Lincoln Centennial Log Cabin 

President Weesner's address on Lincoln was warmly applauded and 
the history of the cabin, which is considered to be a permanent museum 
building, was thus told by Capt. Benjamin F. Williams : 

"The story of a people is best told by their habitations and their 
domestic and industrial implements. 

"After a lapse of seventeen centuries we correctly read the history 
and habits of the people of disentombed Pompeii. 

"The epic of old Homer is interpreted and verified by the excavations 
and explorations of Dr. Schleimann after a period of 2,500 years. 

"The life and story of the pioneer is revealed by the home in which 
he lived, and the implements which he used, mechanical and otherwise, 
are witnesses of his vocation and industrial advancement at the time in 



which he liv«/<], and of the eoniFort.s and conveniences wliich h(^ enjoyed, 
and tile i)rivations and hardships which he endured. 

••l''()r this iv;is()n it has loni: heen the desii-e and the ])uri)ose of the 
Old Settlei-s Society of AVahash County to I'cproduee a sui>stantial 
nieiuorial of the home life of the pioneer, so that when our children shall 
ask how the rude forefathers lived wlu'n this, now hounteous, happy 
land was the home of wild animals and wild men, they may he shown 
this reproduction of a pioneer's pala<'e, in which were reai'ed and lived 
moi'c j.eoj)le than the i)at I'iai-ch .lac(jl.) took down to Iv^-ypt. A home 
whei'e a fannl\- of sixteen children were ]-cared. where all the hopes and 
feai's, anil all the joys and sorrows of pioneer life were shai'cd : where 

iaafeavr.i w>« u.^ ,.-^ . fan-^ti,; 

Lincoln Cabin, City Park, Wabash 

the toils and pia\-ations iiiciileiit to jtioneer life \vere hoi'ne with heroic 
foi-titude. and \>,-hen' the Messin^s of a liountifid Providence were thank- 
fully rei-ei\-ed aiid enjoyed. 

"Till' prisident of this society (Clai'kson \V. Weesnci'j foi'tunately 
found and secured this real home of the pioneer, around which cluster 
so iiuiny niemoi'ies of the early days, and hy his eiiei'yy and wisdj)m, has, 
as a i)crnuinent oh.ject lesson, constrticted out of the materials of the 
old home this new one. 

■"The hewed Ic^' cahiu from which the walls of this cahin are con- 
structed was huilt hy John Cornell in the y^'ar 1.S4S on the south half of 
the noi-thwcst (piai'ter of Seel ion (i, in Township 2(i iioi'th, Hanjxe 7 east, 
in Lihei-ty Townshi]), one mile south of NVhite's Institute. 



"Corjicll entered iliis land .Man-li ;](», 1S4S, and soon tlien-after began 
till- fnctioii of ;i t\\(i-si(ii-y 1ic\\(m1 lo^^ Ikjusc, I'iirhTt'rn i'd-t l)y thirty, 
modeled alt.)- \\i ■ lious,' hnilt, the same yt-ar, on tlh- same seetiijii liv 
.Jar„l, Wold-anmtli. 

'•Cornell sold to -John Si)radli]ig August 17, ISi'J. Spradling died in 
this house Septendier "JO. ISoU, leaving a widow and two children, one of 
whoiii was horn en the day of the father's funeral. 

"The hl)u.^e was oeeupieil 1 ly seN'eral faudlies uutil July 4. isTo, when 
the toji stoi'y was lilown down hy a hurricane, at which time it was oci-ii- 
lUed liy dd.M'pli M(d\iidey"s famil\- and other i)er.>()ns who took I'efuge 
from the sloi-m. Among the occupants was a bahe two weeks old, hut 
none wei'e seriously injured. The house was tlitui bought by Josephus 
.Aloi'i'ison and nujvcd and I'cbuilt on the jiortheast (juarter of tlie soutlieast 
(liuii-ti'i' of Section 8, Townshif) iKi, Range 7 east, and occupii-d by him 
and his family of sixteen children for several years, and after him by 
various Tenants uutil Octob.-i' 14. IIKIS. \vhen Clai'k \V. Weesiier pur- 
chased it foi' the use and purjiose you now see it. 

"To secure pei-nuMiciiee it was necessary to replace tlu' old floors and 
foniKlatioii by coueri'te, which was done by Philip Ilipskiud lV: Sons, and 
to substitute the clapboard roof by durable slate, ])Ut on by J\ing, .Mc- 
Namee cV: ilipskiud. 

"The site was selected by the president of the Old Settlers Associa- 
tion, the park coiinnissioners and otiiers, in this ))ai'k' now owned by tiie 
City of Wabash, and \vhi(di is a part of the home of the .Miann Indian 
Chief known as M'lmi'ley,' whose house stood two hundred yards lu^rtli- 
west of this place. The I'oad in front of the dooi' is paid of the old (lovern- 
nieiit roati leading from \"inceinies to Fort AVayne. 

"'Idle building site was survexcd and marked by William Fowler, 
C. K., a grandson of Isaac l''''owlei', iirst sui'veyor of Wabasli County, 
and ijtands four square with the cardinal points of the compass, facing 
due south. 

"The lio\ise was taken down and removed to this place gratuitously 
by men living in the viciiuty of original site. 

"It was i-econstructed by William II. Dedidck, using oidginal ma- 
terials wluu'ever ])racticable. 

"It is hoped it nuiy long stand as a memorial object lesson and serve 
as a place of safely for usid'ul and I'are r(4ics of ])ioneer life.'' 

In this conneetion the I'laiii Dealer has the following: "The Plain 
Dealer desii'cs to extend cnngi'atulations to .Ali'. ('lai'k W. Weesuer, i)resi- 
deiit of the Old Settlei-s Association. The Plain Dealer hereby proposi'S- 
a >inaninK)Us vote of gratitude and love for ]\ir. Weesnei-, who has done 
mori' than any one (4se to bring the Old Settlei'S Ass;)ciation to the im- 


portant place it holds. It was a labor of love. Salary would not have 
tempted him to the labor he has done for you pioneers of Wahasli 
C'oiuit.w And when Mr. Wccsiicr lias passed to his fathci's, this day and 
this aehievt'iuciit will remain a monument to him, and will show an all'ee- 
tion and a love that nothin<; i Ise eould. To j\lr. Weesner the Plain 
Dealer yladly extends eon^ralulations, for thei'e is not a better beloved 
num in all Wabash today than is Mr. Weesner. ,-• , ,, y ,,, . CuN'i'ixL:ors Rksidext (1009) 

"To Isaac Keller, the oldest resident of \Vabash County in point of 
continuous residence, the Plain Dealer extends congratulations. It is a 
privilege to have lived in this count\- fi'om its very infancy to the pres- 
ent time, and none reidizes the vast advances made in the county as 
does Mr. Keller." 

■ Varioi's "Oldfst" in IDIO 

Reported at the Old Settlei's' meeting of September 7, 1910: 

The oldest man in W^abash County, Andeison Martin, La Gro Town- 
ship, born October 4, 1813, aged !)7 years. 

Tile oldest minister in "Wabash County, or the state for that matter. 
Rev. Freeman T. Taylor, La Fontaine, aged i).") years. 

The oldest physician, Dr. Laughlin O'Neal, Somerset, 85 years of age. 

The oldest continuous i-esident of the county, Isaac Keller, Rich 
Valley, who came to that locality in 1828 wlien there! were but two other 
white families living in the county; aged 8i) yeai'S. 

The ohlest lawyer, ('apt. P.. V. Williams, AVa))ash, 80 years of age. 

The oldest i)erson who was born and lias resided continuously in 
Liberty Township, Flavins J. Hale, 75 yeai's old. He was the first wdiite 
child born in the township. 

Peter AVright, aged 90, and his wife, Catherine, 84 years old, of 
North ]\Ianchester, married longer than any other couple in the county. 
They were wedded May 26, 1844, and had (1910) lived together for more 
than 66 years. I\Ir. Wright owned the same farm lie entered from the 

Oldest Couple Present in 1912 

In the Old Settlers' record for September 5, 1912, David C. Ridenour 
and his wife, Catharine (formerly Smith), took the prize for being the 
oldest continuous residents of the county, both having been born and 


raised in the county. lie was born April 1, 1843, and she, DL-ccniber 
13, 1846; they wltc married March 9, 1865, and have lived in the county 
ever since. This prize of $3.00 cash was for the oldest couple present. 

Oldest ^Iax and Woman (1IJ13) 

At tlif reunion of 11)13 it was developed that Petei" T. Si)cnce, of 
Lihrrty Townshij). was the oldest man in AVabash County, lie was itres- 
vnt at the jxathcring and, despite iiis !)6 years, was one of tht' liappiest 
at City Park. 

Tile old.'st woman and the oldfst person was .Airs. Sarah Derrickson, 
a colored lady liviiifj on Xoljle Street, AVal)ash, who eelel)rated her hun- 
dredth l)ii-th(hiy in April, 1913. 

Isaac Keller still held tiie I'l'cord for len^'th of continuous residence, 
but neitlier he nor Mrs. Derriekson were present at the meeting. 

Till-: WoMKN IN Command (1914) 

It is anticipated that the 1914 reunion will be a record-breaker, for 
President Weesner has appointed women directors, as follows: ]\lrs. 
Charles 11. Olinger, Chester Township; ^Irs. Andrew Urschel, Chester 
Townshi]); I\Irs. (ieorge Todd and Mrs. A. F. Tweedy, La Gro Town- 
ship; ]\Ii's. Silas I). Harris, Liberty Township; Mrs. Florence T. .Mackey, 
Mi's. Malinda Wilcox and Mrs. Nathan F. Gilbert, Noble Township; 
]\lrs. Howard S(iuiiH's, Paw Paw Township; ,Mrs. George F. Ogden, 
Pleasant Township; Mrs. James M. Coggshell, AValtz Township. We 
.should know, by tiiis time, tiiat there are more women than men the 
world over; that their average age is greater than that of men; that, on 
the whole, women are better "stayers" than men, and tliat wiien it 
comes to getting together and having a good time, they "have us beaten 
to a frazzle." 

Thei-efore, President Weesner is fully justified in making the follow- 
ing announcement and prediction for 1914: "The women arc largely 
in the nuijority in attendance at these reunions, and it is but just to 
them that they have a voice in making the arrangements for this reunion, 
which is intended to excel all former meetings of the a.ssociation. The 
programme, when announced, will be received with great interest by the 
old settlers." 

Since the foregoing was written the program has been announced 
and it is evcrytliing that was prophesied. It follows: 


Assenilile at 10 o'clock A. :\I. 

Invocation, Pk.-v. Dr. Cliarlcs Little. 

Soiifj^s liy Audicnci', "Slunild Aukl Actniaiiitaiicc Be For^'ot?" 
"The Vacant Chair." 

Report of Treasurer. 

Koll Call of the D.-ail by the Secretary. ^',*',','' j 

Reading Lctter.s. 

Election of Officers. 

Dinner— From 11 :30 to 1 :30. 

During tlie Noon Hour Songs by Ananias Frazier. 

Songs by ciiildren from AVhites' In.stitute under the direction of 
j\Jiss Irene Bareus 

Recitation, Andrew Urschel. 

Recitation, "We Are All Here," Ezra T. Lee; of Huntington. 

Recitation, "Out to Old Aunt Mary's," President. 

Address, Capt. Benjamin F. Williams. 

Old Fiddler's Contest, Prizes $3, $2, and $1. 

Recitation, .Miss Edith Brubaker. 

Recitation, ]\Irs. Frank Plowe. 

Spelling Contest under direction of INIrs. Andrew UrscheL 

Horse Back Riding by Ladies, dressed old-fashioned. 

Closing Song, "America," Audience. 




First Elkctiox — "Prairie IIkn" Spryer than "Indiana" — Good Old 
IIoHSE Abi'sed — First Wheat Sown ix the County— Jestice in 
I>EAR Meat — A J^aw Case Wihch Trcly Paid — Patriotic Dog and 
Pee Scuii' — Food Prices Then and X(j\v — Storage von Vegetables 
— Pr.Mi'KiN Leather — Preserved Fruits and ^Ieats — Cooking Ar- 
rangements — Johnny Cake, IIoe Cake, Ash Cake and Pone — 
DiUEi) l-'uriT AND .ATai'le Sugar — ]-]xhibits of Pioneer Utensils — 
AsiiEiuEs — Primitive Tanneiues — Old-Tlme Shoemakers — The Up- 
per Wabash in a State of Xati're — I^eautieul April Picture — 
Wild h'liuns and Perries — Animated Pests — ^Iode of Hunting 
"Wolves — Snake "1>luffers"' — A Xight of Horrors — A S(^uirrel 
Invasion — Tiiad ]>utler Turned Down p,v John Ivory — A I^ival 
Hubs It L\ — On "(iRowiNi; Old'' — Colonel Hanna's Convenient 
Horse. — Cissna vs. Feri^'Y — AP\.ior Fisher's (^)uesti(jnable Act — 
Rattled Doctor and Preacher — Not an Ivory Head — (jarfield 
Lost Xo Votes on Him — Alanson P. Ferry Again — The Old Town 
OF AVabash — Judge Jons Comstock — The Father — Jntensity, a 
Youthful 'J'rait — Becomes a Land Owner — Starts for Wabash 


THE Woman — Enters the Live Stock I^usiness — Earliest Lndus- 


.\TE Detective A(;ency — Disi'osing of IPs J'koperty — I'olitical and 
Public Life — Pioneer in tiit: 1mprove:ment of Cattle — A I'opular 
Friend in Xeed — Judge Comstock's Death. 

A]tli(Mi-li the Old Settlers' Society is the niediuiii throuirh which has 
flowed the liij.;li tide of pioneer reiiiiiiiseeiices, it would he asking too much 
of the he;nt\- social men and women of the ohien times to confine their 
talks and their papers to that one agency. It is good for the present 
generation and the writei's of history that their nu'llow memories should 
overtiow into sjieeial eelehrations, lilce the l<\)urth of Jul\-; into the local 
and eount\- press, into county histories, and other mediums of exchange 
and comiiuLnication. 



This clKiptcf of •'j)i()iicci- pictiiiTs" is, llici-fi'orc, hut a coHfctiuii of 
uurchitfd stories, a pauoi'aiiia of littk" ])ictiircs in which each is a iiiinia- 

tuiv hy itself. 

At a l^'ourth of July eelel)i-atioii in AVahasli (IS?!)) lion. A. P. I'Y'rry, 
i'ornier editor of the Plain Dealer, spoke of several "First Things" eon- 
neeted with the county's history from which we seleet thrt'e. 


At the time tlie lirst eleetion was held l)y the jieople occupying the 
tei-ritfM'y afterward end>raeed in the boundaries of Wahash ('()unt\-, on 
the .-)th of Xoveinher. 1S;!2, for the choice of electoi-s for ])i',-sidcnt and 
\ice piv.sidmt of the Fnitcd States, the counties of 1 1 nut iiigton and 
Wahash constituted the Salanioiiie Precinct which was attached to (;i'ant 
<'ounty fni- general purposes. The eh'ction so held in this county was 
at the house (d' l>ewis lingers, the ferrynum — the brick I'esidciKH' built 
b.\- the (I'oxci'unieiit for ha Oro, the ]\Iiaini chief, within the ])resent town 
by that name. The whole iniHd»ei' of votes cast was twenty-six, of whi(di 
the Jaek'son electors I'cceivcd fourteen and the clcidors for Henry Clay, 

The cordracts for the constiaiction of the AYabash & Frie Oanal wi're 
let at the Treaty <iroun<is on the 4th of May, 1S;U. lv\ while the 
Ii-isli laborei's were busy with tr(iuble-nuddng, the work ])rogressed satis- 
factoril\- until its completion to Wabasli in the spring of ISMT. The 
water was tii'st let in to test the embankmeids and enable the nuinagers 
to ascertain and stoji leakages. Boats had bi'cn launched fai'ther up the 
line, and they only awaite(l the orders (d" the chi(d' engiui'er and his assist- 
ants to be put in motion and ])ass down the newly const I'ucted channel. 

"Pkairik Hkx" Si-i;vi:k than "Indiana" 

The tirst boat entered Wabasli on the 4th of duly, 1S37. It had been 
jn-eviously arranged that ('aptadn Dana CJobunbia, a jolly and burly 
old boatnmn. long after known along the line as Hail (Hale) (Columbia, 
with his boat, the Indiana, should be the lirst to luiter ; but Captain Ed 
Patchin, with his boat, the Prairie Hen, either by some ti'i* k or because 
his (4ii(4\en was lighter and moi'e licet than the other, got the start and 
was the first l)oat and crt-w to land at the ^vharf in ^Yabash. 

Good Old Horse Abused 

"The event," says Mr. Ferry, "ended by a ball, and it has been wliis- 
pered that the potions on the occasion wei-e mixed with something stronger 

n. ';■■ 



tlian wati'f. l)ut the known habits of boatmen of that pi'rioil bciny: to take 
th.'irs straifrht, throws discredit upon the statement. In view of what 
the canal did foi- the early prosi)erity of this ])art of the country, tli0S(? 
of our citi/cns who wciv here at the coiiiiiicnei'nirnt of the work, but 
while it was the only avenue thi'ouj^di which oui' eoiiuucn-ial and social 
cf)iiiinunion were cai-ried on with the outside world, f(dt no eoiunu^n re|,'ret 
when thry saw it permitted to <,'o out of I'epair and linally cease to bo 
us.'d. A feeling' erept ov<'r them, as tiiouj^di the canal had been a sensible 
entity: that it had been ill treated, like a ^^ood horse worn out by honest 
and faithful woi'k, turned out on tlu' commons in old a<;v to starve. Hut 
in this faster ap' no one has time for sentiment. The ditch is dry, as well 
as the eyes that could have wept over it." 

FiR.-<T AViiEAT Sown ix the County ),..,, ,^ „< ,. ^ , 

Amonpr the early ju'oducts of the farms in AVal)ash County, that of 
wheat was not the most extensive, since corn was the jn-incipal crop, as 
well as the most lucrative. Indeed, for some years, an impression gained 
\er\- fi'eueral credi'uce that the soil of this locality was not es])ecially 
adapted to the j^rowth of wheat. Experience, howevi'i', soon dispelled 
the idea by establishing the fact that it could be raised successfully. 

The lii'st wheat sown in the county and harvested was by Dexter 
F.rooks, in the fall of lS;5(i, after the county had become (piite extensively 
set lied, in oi-dei' to jjrocure the si'cd Air. Brooks went to Whitt' County 
witli a team ct)nsisting of three yoke of oxen, and uj)on arriving there 
foiuid it necessary to assist the fanner, of whom he was to gi>t it, in 
thi'eshing out the grain, which, of course, was the occasion of some de- 
tention. In that day the condition of the roads between that county and 
this was such that it \vas almost as miu-h of an undertaking to go that 
distance ami n-turn as it would be today to make a trip to ('alifornia. 

».\s has bei-n .stated, wheat would no doubt have been raised lui'e at 
an eai'lier date than the exjX'i'imoit of AIi'. Brooks, but foi' the com- 
nu)nl\- accepted opinion that it would not paN', considering the cpiality 
of the soil and the want of inducenu'ut to produce it. An additioiuil 
cause, for want of attention to the matter, was found iu the meagerness 
of the demand for tliat article of l)read stuffs, ami the al)sence of mills 
lU'ovided with the necessary nuichinery foi- bolting it. The lirst mill 
that put in a machine for separating the bi-an from the lloui' in this 
county \vas I'l'ected by I\ol)ert and Alichael English on the Salamoine 
Kivei-, a short distance above its mo\ith, in 1840. In this mill the bolt 
was I'liji l)y hand, the customer tuiaiijig the crank while his grist was 
being ''round. 


.]r STICK IX l>EAli .MlJAT 

An old srttlrr (not ,AIi-. Fcitv ) trlls tlir t\)ll()\viii,-: ln'ni- story, which 
si)c;iks Well for thi- lu-Hci-.s: In Fclii-uary, 1S4], ns a mniilicr of ohl .set- 
tlers were ^vrn(lillo; th.-ir way towai'd Wabash, they discovcriHi abont a 
niih- and a lialf west of town the tra.cks of a brae tliat had crossed the 
canal the in.uht before A party of huntn's started in piii'siiit. They fol- 
lowed the tracks as far as the brakes of Fel Kiver, wheiv they ascertained 
that aiiuther i)arty had taken the trail and followed it ahead of them, 
and that The advance party was mounted, followed bv a large j)ack of 

On the afternoon of the next day Fncle Anthony Kelh'r, then living 
in a cabin on the pi'esent site of Kich \^illey, while standing in his door 
obsei'ved a black object ai)proaching uhich he aftei'wartl learned was no 
otliei- than a huge bear. The animal j)assed by him without changing hi.s 
course. As soon as the old genth'iuan coidd recall his scattered senses, 
lie Seized his ritle and started after the wayfari'i", intent on securing the 
game. Judge Keller and his two sons, living near by on the hill, at- 
ti"a<'ted l)y the excitement of the Occasion, soon joined him in the chase. 
Jonathan ]\eller was also one of the jtarty that jiarticipated in the enter- 
prise and did his part to make the jnirsuit intei-esting. 

The bear, it seeme(l, had ti-avidi'd under the jiressure of an active pur- 
s\iit f(M- twenty-four houi's, and from force of cireumstanees was tired 
and considerably demoralized, ^n that condition he \\as soon treed by 
tiie dogs. The tree in which he sought refuge from his pursuers was sit- 
nated near by and a little west of the canal lock known as the ^Matlock 
Lock'. The i)ursuing party was not far l)ehind bruin when lie i'ea<died 
the ol)jeetive point. I'nele Anthony was not long in .securing a satisfac- 
tory positicm wliere he could see the fugitive distinctly, and in less time 
than it takes to describe it, a well-directed bullet from his rille brought 
his •ln'arsliip down fatally woundiMl. In this condition he was immed- 
iately surrounded by the dogs, but a stroke from his heavy paw sent 
them into a respi'ctful distance, wholly indisposed to renew the combat. 
The bear, however, was finally killed, and taken to Anthony Keller's resi- 
dence, where it was dressed. 

Not long after, a number of Indians approached on horseback, the 
same party who had the previous evening taken the animal's trail. They 
were followed by a pack of jaded dogs, whose condition (dearly indicated 
theii- interest in the chase. Fncle Anthony and 'his companions, being 
fully convinced that the Indians, having been the pursuing party, were 
entitled to a large share of the booty, if not the whole of it, propo.sed to 
make a complete sui-reiider of their rights; hut the Indians declined to 


tala,' all. Aftt-r a slioi't iiitiTvicw, in which the rights of all parties were 
canvassed, the deail bear was (.liviileJ eciually between the iiulians and 
the whites — all of whom being conscions that they had acted tiie hon- 
orable i)art toward I'ach other, soon departed for their respective homes, 
well pleased with l)oth the excitement of the chase and the division of 
the spoils. 

A Law Case Which Truly "Paid" , . 

Colonel AVilliam Steele tells this one, which he entith'd "Inherent 
Justice": In the spring of 1836, before the days of canal boats and rail- 
road cars, or even stage coaches in AVabash County, a nuin from one of 
the Xew Kngland states passed through the village of Wabash and stopped 
in the neighborhood of Keller's Settlement, from necessity rather than 
choice. He had a wife and three or iour children, with a limited supply 
of household eft'ects in a wagon in which he was traveling. He was very 
poor and had hiretl a team and wagon to convey him to Lafayette, In- 
diana, where he claimed to have friends and relatives. The stipulated 
price for the faithful i)ei'formanee of the task had been paid in advance, 
and all went well until the party arrived at the i)oint mentioned. There 
the teamster became demoralizetl ami refused to go any further, claiming 
that he had already more than earned the monej' he luid received for the 
ti-ii). It was muddy, he said, his horses were jaded and he could go no 
further, and would not. Finally, he unloaded the goods on the banks of 
the Wabash, and turned his horses' heads in the direction of the rising 

The husband and wife pleaded for mercy, presenting their forlorn 
and helpless condition; they were there in the woods without money and 
without friends, strangers in a strange land. But the teamster was incor- 
rigible, refusing to hear or grant their ])etitions, but turned his back upon 
them and left them to their fate. The i)Oor nuin, knowing no means of 
escape from the perils that surrounded him and his family, was in 
despair, though not entii-ely without hope. Looking about him for some 
time, he discovered a large canoe in the river, but it was fastened to the 
baidv. Fei'ling that his necessities justified the proct'cding, he broke the 
canoe from its moorings and putting his family ami goods into it he 
started down the stream, proposing to make the journey by water. Soon, 
however, he was overhauled by the owned of the craft, arrested and taken 
back l)efore a country squire. 

I^pon his representation of the case, Col. AVilliam Steele, the only 
attorney in the vicinity, volunteered to defend him. The lawyiT recited 
the circumstances of the case, his forlorn condition, his abandonment 


ill tiu- woods by the man Ik; liad paid, ref,^ardlcss of the consequences; 
Ids h)ve for his family and his desire to i)rot(;(tt them from impeiidiiif,' 
(hinj,'cr and remove them to a plaee of safety, even tliounh it were (h)iie 
in teehnieal violation (d" the law, no eriminaj intent beiiij,' siiown. When 
the facts had Ix'eii fully set forth and the merits of the case clearly pre- 
sented, the symi)atliies of the court and the spectators present, were 
thoroughly enlisted in behalf of the prisoner, and lie was accordingly 
released from custotly, the papers withdrawn and no record of the pro- 
ceedings entered. 

Colonel Steele, ever after, in sjieaking of the case, declared the out- 
come to lie one of the most satisfactory experiences of his life, one of his 
greatest legal victories; for, although he received no money consideration, 
he was more than paid by manifest gratitude of his client and the sanc- 
tion of his conscience that inherent justice had been done. 

Patriotic Dog and Pup Scuu' 

iMichigan, Illinois and even Indiana were cursed by "wild cat" cur- 
rency, t)ut it was reserved for the Hoosier State alone to issue the wild 
Dog and Pup scrip. One of the old settlers who knew describes the Dog 
and Pup ])eriod of 1840 as follow^s: During the year 1840 the w^ork on 
the Wabash & Erie Canal progressed very slowly, since there was no 
money to pay contractors except such as arose from the sale of canal 
lands, an amount equaling about tw^enty-five per cent of the work done. 
On a settlement with the contractors, the chief engineer, Jesse L. Wil- 
liams, issued the drafts to the holders of claims, one on red pajx-r for 
2") ])er cent to be paid on i)resentation to the fund commissioner, 
which was called Red Dog, and another for the unpaid balance of 
7.') ])i'r cent on white paper, which was called White Dog, to be 
pai^l by the fund commissioners as the land sold should furnish the 
means. But these AVhite Dog scrips, j\[r. Williams wanted the state to 
])rovide for tlie payment of. at an eai'lier date than that prescribed. The 
state, however, failed to do anything in the way of relief, whereupon 
]\Ir. AYilliams, to bi'tter protect the holders by giving drafts to them 
on more durable paper, procured a plate engraved like a bank bill, and 
had a quantity of bills struck on white paper, which retained the name- 
of White Dog and the value of which was low ; hence this Dog also be- 
came the subject of vast speculation in the hands of parties having the 
means and opportunity to do so. It bore interest, however, from the 
date of issue and was received in payment for canal lands. 

Blue Dog was nu issue authorized by the Legislature of 1841-42 for 
the extension of the canal on the western division. Thus the State fol- 


louvd the .■xjiiiipl.' of .All-. Williams. This issue was on pajtcf of a hluu 
tiiij.;-!'; hence its name, Hliie 1 )o^-. It was receivable also foi' canal lands, 
and the suh.jeet of much s|)eculation. 

r.lue I'u]) was anothei- cunvncy issued in small hills hy conti-actors 
foi- work, material and necessities, and payable in Jihie l)o<r when i)re- 
sented at the i)ro].er oftice in sums of ^7). This. ^Mvin.i,' ehai'acti'r to 
issues of this class, oii,L;inated fi'om the AViKl Cat money which, in the 
\-ear 1>:J(J, was so jdeiitiful in Michi^-an ami pi-o\'ed so woi'thless. A 
dojr hei)iH- considered a vahudess thinii'. the woi'd was applied to the- 
canal land scrip, and the lied Don-, ]Jlue Dol.' and lihu' ]'up went into use 
in the .Mauiiice and Wahash valleys at accommodating' rates. 

These issues of scrip, with unpaid count\- oi'ders, or more valueless 
city orders and the issues of suspended banks, constituted the circulating 
medium, in the localities where they were i-eeoeni/.ed at all, during' the 
])erio(l from 1841) foi'ward, until that sjx'cies of paper went into disuse 
from force of circumstances. 

VlH)D J'lUCF.S TllKN AND \()\V 

To the man who pays from 20 cents to 'A') cents a pound for his fresh 
meats the thought that there was ever a time when be(d' sold for so low 
a ])i'ice as 2'/^. cents a pound seems incre(lil)le. I'.ut the statement has 
t)een Well verilied that in lSd2 hind quarters of beef sold for 2l/o cents 
a pound and fore (piarters for 1 • ^ cents a i)OUiid, autl the ruling price 
at that time for a \vhole mutton was only 50 cents. Deer saddles, com- 
posed of the hind quarters of a lU'er sold for T)!) cents. The great supply 
of wild game was one reason why meats were so cheap. Meat prices ad- 
vanced during the Oivil \Yar until the best grades of be(d" comnumdcd 
as much as 15 cents a ])oun(l, but thereafter there was a notable decrease 
in price. It is inconceivable, in the pi'esent density of i)Oindation and 
vanishing of lai'ge I'anches whei'c cattle wei-e f(ji'mei-ly raised in hirge 
luimbers at comparatively snndl expense, that there will be a time in 
the future' when i)i-iees for nu'ats shall become relatividy as low as they 
were ill 1842. 

in tlu'se days of towei-ing prices meat, even at the price prevalent 
fifty or twenty years ago — steaks and roasts have more than douhk'd 
iu that time — would be welcomed by tiie iiouseholder of today as' a gift, 
lie is rather skeptical of ever seeing that time again. Economic condi- 
tions support him in his gloom. His only hope for a reasonable decline 
in prices lies in the intensive stO(d<ing of all the world's ranges, together 
with an elimination of the ai-tificial factors that conti'ol the ])ric(\s of 
meats and other foodstulVs. 


Storacik fok Vkgetables 

The cai'ly pioiU'iT did not luivc ccllai's uiuKt their raliins, ])ut when 
convenient a eave was made in a hank near the lionse and when protected 
hy a (h)uhh' door of shd)s at the entrance proved of great convenience in 
keeping fruits and vep-tahh's from freezing during the winter. Tn the 
absence of such a cave, cal)hage, jiotatoes. turnips, heets, I'adislies, onions 
and apph's when they came, were preserved hy i)iling them on the 
ground and covei'ing tlieiii With straw and hoai'ds, and all tliis with a 
lieavy coat of dii't in which a hole had heen made thi'(»ugh wliich they 
could he reached and tak^n out as needed, the hole hcing well ^irotected 
and covered with snow when a supply had lieeii taken out. 

Pr.Mi'Kix Leather ' »-.t'i' 

Pumpkins were dried hy two methods: One was to cut them in 
nari'ow I'ings and after removing the rind, these were hung on a neatly 
di'essed i)ole which was hung overhead in front of the fireplace, and kept 
there until thoroughly di-ied. The other nu-thod was to stew the pump- 
kin and when well dried out* in the kettle in which it was cooked, it was 
spread out on a hoard pi'ejjai'ed for that purpose and set u}) against 
something in front of the lire on the heai'th, and kept there until by 
turinng it over, it was dried out and juit away fov read\' use. This was 
called "pumpkin leather" and was very con\'enient to nibble at and take 
to school. The children called this their tobacco. 

Preserved Fruits and ^^Ieat 

AVild cherrii-s, t-urrants, gooseberries, dew berries, blacklierries and 
rasi)berries wei'e dried and thus kept for use in cooking. Wild plums, 
grapes and crab-;ii)i)lcs were abiuidant and free from woi'ms and in.sects. 
All went into the bill of fare at the table of the pioneer. Wild deer, bear 
ami turkey furnished the iu'int-i[)a] sources of meat. 

Sipiiri'els and wild i)igcons were i^lentiful and a i)erson used to the 
gun could get a mess for breakfast without going out of sight of the 
liouse. The deer meat would be sliced in long, small pieces and after 
being salted, would be sti'ung \\]) over the hearth in front of the fireplace 
where it would soon dry. This nuule the most toothsome and delicious 
dried meat, and it has been said that a jierson could not eat enough to 
make him sick, it was called "jerk." In smumer when too hot for fire in 
the tire])lace to dry the meat and a deer was killed, a ti'euch was nuuh^ 
in the ground and a wood tire built and when burnetl to coals the meat 


would be Iniuy; over tlii.s until it was thorouslily di'v. This saved salting 
llu' inrat and it was iiuudi better when dried than .salt(.'d. 

Cooking Arraxgemkxt.s 

The eookin^ was mostly done in the oj)en tireplaee w-hieh was made by 
futtinj:: a hole in one end of the cabin and building the lireplaee and 
ehiiuiiey with still' mud mixed with straw oi' grass, which was rolled 
out into what \\as called "cats." Tlu^ sticks whi(-h were nai'row strips 
i'i\-ed for that jjurpose, were covei'cd with this mortei'; and this made 
the stick and clay chimney of log cabin days. There was not much 
<langer of hre l>op])ing out anel setting the house on tire, as the floor 
was gciiei'ally made of dirt. liefore the crane came into use a pohi was 
placed in the chimney above the tire, on which were chains or hooks, and 
the kettles wei-c hung on thest' when cooking or heating water. 

One kettle ill wliicli boiled dinners were pi-epared was about all one 
family could boast of, and in this lye-hominy was also nuide. 

Jon NX Y Cake, n(jE Cake, Ash Cake and Poxe 

The bi-ead was made in the following manner: The corn was grated 
■on a grater and mi.xed into a dough which wa.s spread in cakes on a wide 
boartl which was leaneil up in front of the Are until it was cooked a 
brown, then turneil over and the other side cooked the same way. This 
was called "Jolinu}- cake." 

Some who had it would take a hoe without the handle and afte)- 
•cleaning it well and greasing it with bear's grease, would spread the 
dough on this and bake it the same way. This was called "hoe cake." 

S(jmetimes the dough would be rolleil in caltbage leaves or shucks of 
roasting ears, laid in the hot ashes and covert'd up with coals and hot 
ashes until thoi'oughly cookeil. This was called an "ash cake." 

The best l)read, however, was nuule in the "dutch oven," or largt^ 
skillet which stood on three legs and had a large lu-avy iron lid. After 
the dough was properly mixed and seasoned with salt and lard cracklins, 
it was put in the oven, or skillet, and set on a bed of coals and the lid 
c'ovi'red with coals and hot ashes, until it was well cooked. This w^as the 
good old sweet jjone which our grandmothers used to bake and was most 

Dried Fruit and ]\Iaple Sugar 

Some of the eai'ly settlers bought and set out apple and peach ti-ees. 
even before the ground was entirely cleared of timliei', so they had 


apples in a few years. And such apples as they W(,'re ; no worms or insects 
in the iVuit at that eai'l}' date! Apples and iJeaches W(,'re dried by 
ixM'ling and (juartering them, then Ix-ing strung with needh- and thread 
\vere hung up over liead until dry. 

Those who had sugai- eamjjs on tlieir fai'ms, tapiX'd the trees in the 
spring and made mola.sses and sugar for family use. The spiles were 
generally made ont of elder bushes and the sugar troughs, by cutting a 
poi)lar some eighteen inches in diameter and three feet long, which was 
si)lit in the center. l>y leaving the ends the center was hewn out and 
this was nsed to catch the water as it came from the s])iles which were 
])laced in an auger hole in the tree just above. Tlie store trough was 
made out of a large poplar log some twenty feet long which was hewn 
out, lea\ing only a sliell whieh would hold several barrels of sugar water, 
whieli was boiled down to syrup in a furnace of two or more kettles in 
the sugar camp. 

Some of this was kept in molasses, some when ready to grain was 
poured into dishes or crocks and make into cakes, and some was stirred 
into fine sugar which had lumps in it. And oh, how sweet they were! 

Exhibits of Pioxeer Utensils 

Some of these i)rimitive utensils and metliods of preserving food 
stutfs, as also the flax break, hackle, scut<;hing knife and tlax wheel (by 
which the tlax was converted into threads ready for the loom) ; and the 
spinning wheel, re(d, winding blailes and the loom with the warping bars 
by means of which wool was nmde into cloth that furnished most of the 
clothing for the ])ioneers in early days — and even the trundle bed in 
which the kids slept, may be set-n at the log cabin in the City Park at 

Those who visited the World's Fair at St. Louis in 1903 and noticed 
tlfe Phili]i]dne exhibit met with nmny remembrances of early pioneer 
life in tliis c(mntr\-, and which lead one to believe that they as a people 
are more tlum one liuiuli'ed years Ixdiind oui- civilization. 

One source of income was from ginseng which gi'ew on the hills and 
high groiind, and when dug and dried commanded a good price. 


Anothei- source of income was concentrated lye, made by burning 
timber, leaching the ashes and boiling this down to a solid su))Stance, 
called potash, as lilack as tar and veiy ))i'ittle, wliicli sold readily and 
was used f(jr making soa}). There was an ashei-y at Ashland in Liberty 


Township, also one west of Pioiu-ci- coiiducTfd hy iH-ntlcy. The small 
crt'(-k whieh runs \\irvr took its name from thr fact that tliis ashery 
was located on its l>anks and is called the Asheiw hranch to this day. 

I'ki.miti\e Taxnekies 

One source of revenue enjoyed by the early settlers was the liark 
of oak trees which were cut in the clearings or for rails. 

This liark was strippetl off of the tiiuher when the sap was \ip and 
was about four feet long, which was corded uj) and sold to those who 
were running tanneries, by the cord. The bark was grouutl up by 
breaking it in small pieces over the v<}gc of an iron hopper in which it 
was ground. The hopper was fastened in a frame and was covered 
\vith a circular roof. A beam was jdaced in the ui)right piece and a 
hoi'se hitched to this, and it turned the ho|)per l)y going round and 

The vats were nuule in the gi'ountl sonu' six feet deej), and the bottom 
and sides were made of plank, water tigiit. ^Vllen the hair had been 
removed from the hitles that were to lie tanned, they were spread in 
till' vats and a quantity of the gi'ound tan l)ark placed between them 
until the vat was tilled. Then this was kept covered with water and the 
ooze from the bark did the ^vol■k, if kv\)t there the proper length of time. 
An ajipreiitice learning the tanner's tra<le would have to serve seven 
years, and then some of them were not very good tanners. 

Eliliu Weesner conducted a tannery in early days at Somerset, David 
Painter one near Ked Bridge, Iliram Pickering one at New Holland, 
Chris. Brininger one at La Gro, Jacob Ritlenour one in \Val)ash and 
Chris Ciei'lach one at Laketon, John Comstock at Liberty ^lills. Doubt- 
less there were others in the county. ^Vhen the clearing was pi'actically 
all done and the rails made tan bark became scarce, and the tanneries 
went out of business. 

Old-Time Shoemakers 

There were shoemakers in almost every neighborhood, who made the 
shoes, sometimes l)y taking his tools and stoi)ping at the house of his 
customers until he had tittetl out the entire fanuly. Jonas Lee, Charles 
Votaw and Jacob Staley were shoenudo'i's in Waltz Township in an early 
day. The i)eople furnished their own matei'ial and they did not like 
to send it away from home for fear they would not get their own material 
in their boots and shoes, and it might be used by other parties, luit when 
it was worked up in their presence they felt safe. Shoe pegs were ma<lG 
out of good sugar timber. 


The ri'i'Ki; AVahasii ix a Statk in-' Xati-ki-: 

In iMii) Siiiiford ('. Cox. of I.iifaye'ttc, wiMjtt- liis '" lii'colliM-tions of 
tin- ICarly Scttlciiicut of tlu' Wahasli Vall.'N,'' iinidi of whidi is of 
iiitcivst to the iTsidciits of Waliasli County. For instance, his (IcsiTip- 
tion of tlif natural sccnci'y of t!ic \Val)asli ValK-y will apjx-al to all, hut 
csjiecially to those of the oldei- p'Oerations who i-eniemher it hefore the 
I)rogress of modern institutions had made inueh liavoe among the ehai'uis 
of Nature. 

"llavinj^' had l)ut little pei-sonal acquaintance with what nught he 
tei-nied the Lowei- W'ahash X'alley lying south of WTUiillion and Parke 
counties,"' says ^Ir. Co.\. "it coidd not Ije expected that I woidd have 
[nan\- " liccoHections" of that heautiful, fertile and i)rosperous i)ortion of 
the Wahash Valley. 

"The natural scenery of the Wahash Valley, as it was found hy the 
tirst settlers, although not hlutVy and Ijroken, was nevertludess heautiful 
and ()ictures((Ue. Hills and dales, forests and i)rairies, grottos, rivulets 
and rivers, checkered and diversilii-d evei'y i)ortion of it. 

Beautiful April Pictures 

"It was the month of Ai)ril when I iirst saw the AVahash River. 
Its green hanks wt're lined with the riclu'st verdure. AVihl flowers inter- 
mingled with the tall grass that nodded in the passing hi'eeze. Nature 
seemed clothed in hi'r lu'iiJal rohe. Blossoms of the wild plum, haw- 
thorn and red-hud made the air redolent. The notes of the hlaekhird 
and hlue-jay nnngled with the shrill cry of the king-tisher, river-gull 
and spei-kled loon. On the points of the ishuuls, cranes and lierons were 
cai'i-yiiig on piscatorial adventures among the unwary niinnies that had 
ventured into the coves that indented the islands. Large tiocks of Avild 
geesi', hrants and ducks occasionally passed overhead, or would light 
down into the hayou.s and hold a gi'Ueral carnival. It was rare sport for 
the young Ximrods of the neighliorhood to fix up their 'lilinds' around 
those duck ponds and hag more game than they covdd carry home at a 
load. Schools of fishes — salmon, hass, red-horse and pike — swam close 
along till' shore, catching at the hlossoms of the red-bud and plum that 
floati'd on the surface of the water, which was so clear that myriads of the 
tinny ti'ihe could be seen dai'ting hither and thither amidst the limpid 
element, turning u\) their silvery sides as they sped out into deeper water. 

Wild Fkuit.s and Berries 

"Perhaps no country ever j)roduced a greater variety of wild fruits 
and berries. The wide fertile bottom lands of the Wabash, in many 


])lacc.s prisciitcd one coiiliiiiioiis oi'diard of wild plum and crah-applt! 
buslifs ovcrs[)rc'ad with ai'l)oi's of tiie dillV'rfnt varieties of the woods 
grape, wild hops and honeysuckle fanta.stieally wreathed togetlier. One 
bush, or cluster of bushes, often presented the eriiiison jduiii, the yellow 
crab-api)le, the blue luscious yrape and festoons of matured wild hops 
nungled with the reel berri( s of the claudjering sweet briar, that bound 
tln-m all loviiigly tog-ether. 

" Oooseberries and strawbei'i'ies were the hi'st gatliei'ed by the early 
settlei's. They were,' soon succeeded by tlie blackberries, deul)eri'ies and 
raspljcrrit's. whieh grew thickly in the fence corners, in the woods and 
in the viciinty of cleai'ings and fallen timber. In nu:»re sterile and 
sandy regions were to be found the hucklel)erry and whortleberry, and 
ill wet and mai'shy ilistricts ci'anberries grew in great abundance. 

"lilack walmits, butteriuits, hickory and hazel nuts grew in great pro- 
fusion throughout the AVabash country. A few persimmon bushes and 
ajjple trees, i)lanted no <loul)t l»y the French and Indians, were found 
growing near the old Indian town on the north side of the AVea Praii'ie 
above the mouth of Indian Creek. 

Animated Pests 

"The gopher and the prairie-liawk, the wolf and the i-attlesnake, with 
many other ilrawbacks that surrounded and annoyi'd our early settlei-s, 
should be advei-ted to. Black, gray and prairie wolves were quite nu- 
merous, and in nuiny localities it was next to impossible to raise sheep 
and pigs until they had been hunted out. The Legislature enacted laws 
gi'anting a bounty on wolf scalps sufficient to stinndate a more active and 
thorough extermination of these noisy serenaders, who would often 
approach within a few rods of the cal)in and nmke night hideous with 
their jn-olonged howling. 

]\IoDE OF Hunting Wolves 

"AVolf hunts were then common, in which the inhal)itants of several 
neighborhoods, and sometiuu-s of a whole county, took part. They were 
usually conducted in the following nuumei': Tlie teri'itoi'y to be hunted 
over was circumscribed l)y four lines, suf'liciently distant from each other 
to enclose tlie projxi- area. To eacli line was assigned a captain, with 
his subaltei-n oflieers. \\hose duty it was to propei'ly station his men 
along the line and at the hour agreed upon to cause them to advance in 
order toward the center of the arena. The lines all charged simultane- 
ously toward the center on horseback, with dogs, guns and clubs, thus 


coiiipl<-te]y invest ill",' wiiatcwr f,nime was within tin; lines, and searing it 
from the advancing lines toward the center, where tiie excitement of the 
chase was greatly heightened ami the greatest eariiag.' ensued. Ofter 
from two to ten wolves and as man\- deer were taken in a day at these • 
hunts, and wild cats, foxes ami catamounts in al)uiKlance. Horses and 
dogs soon became fond of the sport, and seemed to enter into it with a 
zest suipassing that of their mastei's. 


"There was another subtle and dangerous enemy to the early inhab- 
itants the legislative enactments could not reach, and the most cautious 
vigilance of the settler could not guard against. The 'snakes in the grass' 
in all their fearful vai-ieties were excedingl^- numerous in the country. 
Besides the rattlesnake, viper, adder and blood-snake, there were a great 
many large blue and green snakes in the prairie districts, quite saucy 
and pugnacious, that delighted to give chase to new comers and frighten 
them by their hostile attitudes and convolutions. If you woidd retreat, 
they would chase you like a regular black racer; but if you would turn 
and give them battle, they v.'ould immediately retreat with all possible 
speed, glide otf into the grass and wait for a 'greener customer' to pass 
along, Avhen they would again dart out at him as if they were boa-con- h 
strictors determined to take their prey. These snakes were harmless, but 
served to put people upon their guard for their more dangerous and 
venomous relatives, whose i)oisonous fangs were greatly dreaded by all. 

A Night of Horrors 

"On the night of the 12th of November, 1833, the heavens were liter- 
ally tilled with Iilazing meteors darting about in every direction from 
the zenith to the horizon, resem})ling falling stars and presenting a 
sublime and terribly grand spectacle. ]\lany thought the Day of Judg- 
ment had come and that the stai's were Hying from before the face of 
the angel that was desc«Miding to place one foot upon the sea and the 
other upon the land and swear tliat 'TiuK^ can lie no longer.' Serious 
coiise(iuences residted to many on account of tiiis l^rilliant display of 
aei'ial iire-\vorks. Some fainted and fell to the earth faccording to 
accounts gi\cn in the newspapers), others became insane, and a few 
sickly and nervous individuals died of the friglit produced by tliis super- 
nal illumination. 

A Squirrel Invasion 

"In the summer of 1834 there was a remarkable trav<'l among the 
grey squirrels. Their aj)i)earance was sudden, and in a short time the 


woods .111(1 prairies literally swarmed with tliem foi- two or three weeks. 
Men and hoys laid aside tlu'ir j.,niiis and killed scores of thcni with eluhs, 
nntil they heeaiiie tired of tin- slaui_diter — wliieh at li]-st was entered into 
as a matter of si)ort, hut soon heeame an urgent Inisiness ti'ansaetion to 
jiroteet their ,i,Mf»\viiig erops and gi'anai'ies fi-om the (h'])n'dations of these 
hun-^n-y invaders; who, like tlie locusts and froy:s of Kg-yi)t, were not only 
a yreat annoyanee. hut tlirc.'atened to destroy the suhstanee of the land." 

T]i.\i) r>i;TLi:R Tl'kxkd D(jwx by Jijiix Ixoijy 

On Scjiteuiher 7. lIHo, Wal>ash eelehrated its diamond anniversary 
as the e(.uiit\- seat and a real town, as well as Old Settlers' day, and 
it was a ' ' (h)uhledieader " " truly. The pajjer of the day was read hy 
Thad hutler, the old-time editor, for years at the head of the Huntington 
.Moi-ning Times. lie eame to AVahash as a youth in war times. The eity 
was then a place of •_'.()()() people, and he relates how he got into trouhle 
at oiH-e hy not knowing all ahout its importance. 

■"It was aftei- dark when the train piilled in from the East, and 
I got off the wrong sitle of the ears. A hoy with a one-horse dray was 
uidt)ading some hoxes from a freight ear on an adjoining track. 1 asked 
him the (luestion "Which way is town.'" The tone of contempt and the 
reply were a sliod';. Pointing to the west he answered: 'That way. Any 
damn fool .ouizht to know that!' That lad was -John Ivory, a loyal- 
hearted Irish hoy with whom I heeame hetter accpiainted later." 

A KiNAL 111 lis It Tx 

.Mr. r.utler's introductory reiimrks to his "Recollections" are well 
worth (pioting. "The hrst notification that I was to spetdv here today." 
he says, "came to me thi-ough the columns of my moi'c or less esteemed 
contem])orai'y. the Huntington Democrat, and the talented aggregation 
of discourteous liMihes who control that ]Mihlieatioii lined it out as follows: 

" AVahash, a suhurh to the west of Huntington and a little farther 
west than La Oro, will ohsei've its sev.'nty-tifth annivei'sary on Seiitemher 
7th in the park at that place. Wahash, in the good old days past cut 
some ice. and a special efl'oi-t will he nuide to induce nuuiy former resi- 
dents to spend at least one day in the l)urg on the occasion of the anni- 
versai-y celehi-ation. Thad I'utlei-, who was a power in the good old 
canal days, is scheduled to give an address on "Early Recollections of 
AVal)ash.'' They will have singing, geogi'a])hy and old-fashioned spelling, 
and the da\- will no douht [trove (»f much int<'rest to those who used to do 
things sevent\-Hve years ago.' 


( ).\ ■' ( iKilWIXCi ( )l.I)'' 

■'However \vi' e;in afford to ignore the ill-inaiiiiei'eil di-ive, for, after 
all, '(ii'owiiig Old" is not such a heinous eriiiie, if we do it I'ight ; and all 
W'ahashians can l)e expected to do that. 

'■ "Your eyes may fail and your limbs grow weak, and the blood in 
your veins run cold; deei) lines may furrow your shrunken cheek, and 
your lieai't that was strong and bold may do its work with a feel)le beat; 
the road may weai-y you?- stumbling feet, you nuiy sigh foi' friends that 
you'll no more meet— but that isn't growing old. 

" 'The yeai's nmy nundier foui'-score oi- more that over your head 
have rolled; you iiuiy hear the wash on the otiier shores of the waves 
that are dark and cold ; \\hile yoiu' bi'ain is keen and your soul is sti'ong. 
and your heart is full of a ho])eful song, you still are one of the youthful 
throng, and years will not nuda^ you old. 

" 'When your voice is harsh and your words ai'e mean, as you sit by 
the fire and scold, and your mind is fat and your heart is lean, aiul your 
thoughts are blue with mold; when you bring to the bi'easts of the chil- 
dren fears, and bring to the eyes of the women tears, it is not needful to 
count your yeai's — all know you are growing old.' " 

("uLONEL ITaxxa's Coxvexiext IIorse 

AVhile Thad Hutler was gracefully growing old in Wabash he was 
thrown in with all of its leading citizens; the early ones he knew as a 
boy, the latter ones as a man. bet him desei'il)e some of those he met 
and loved them. To this end, he says: "1 was a boy and had little 
intinmey with C'ohuiel llainia and liobert (.'issna, two of the mighty men 
of the early ilays of Wabash, but 1 I'eeollect the ("oloiu 1 as a benevolent 
kindly old gentleman whom we all i-espected aiul loved. i\nd these were 
times when the rising generation did provoking stunts with his old 
drivi^ig horse. The horse would be left standing, hitched to the family 
carriage, while the Colonel enjoyed a visit or naj) with old neighbors or 
friends in the stores. To (iiuetly take possession, drive away and take 
the girls out for a ride, was an every-day occurrance. The Colonel hit 
upon the expedient of taking the lines off the bridle and carrying them 
into the store. It inade no difference, however; the horse was gentle, 
strings were substituted for the lines, and the joy rides went on just 
the same, whetlier the Colonel visited or napped. 

Cii^.sNA vs. Ferry 

".Mr. Cissim was an old-time abolitioinst and A. P. Ferry, the e<litor 
of the Plain Dealei-, was also a ran!; republican, but they would disagree 


s()iiHliiii..s and it was wui'tli more than the price of a trip to Nevada wlien 
they joined issues and yot into a pcjlitieal serap— although their quarrels 
Jiever led to anything' more serious than tiie use of adjectives. 

IMajor Fisher's Questionable Act 

''There was another of these gi'aiid ohl })ioneers who was one of the 
hest fi-ieiids of m\- youth, .Major Stearns h'isher. His name is not to 
he spoken except with revei-enee. I never km-w of hut one (piestionahle 
act of his life. The Major was caught in a rain stoi-m down town without 
an >nnt)j'clla. rncle Dan Sayre, another of the migiity men of the period, 
came hy cari-ying a rain-stick. 'Why, Dan, you have my umbrella!' 
N(jbo(ly ever thought of questioning ^Nlajor Fisher's veracity, and Uncle 
Dan i)romptly turned the und)rella over with the renuirk 'Well, ^lajor, 
1 knew it wasn't mine, but I didn't know it was yours.' The j\Iajor went 
home in the dry triumphantly, and after the storm was over returned the 
umbrella to ^Ir. Sayre with his compliments. 

Rattled Doctor and Preacher 

"And there was Dr. James Ford, the pioneer physician, thoroughly 
versed in medicine but sometimes absent-minded. The Doctor chased 
me to a drug store one day to have a prescription compounded, but he 
got the fee and the dose mi.xed and the prescription read: 'Take one 
(hillar I'very two hours.' 

"Uncle David Thompson, preacher and miller, furnislied me with a 
fine theme for a newspaper joke. The milling form was D. Thompson 
is: Son, and Uncle David filed wdth the county clerk his certificate of a 
marriage he had solemnized duly signed 'D. Thompson & Son, otficiating 

Not an Ivory Head 

"No more genial and witty representative of the Ould Sod was to 
l)e found in the AVabash \'alley than its first and, for many years, its 
only drayman, Pat Ivory. Quick of repartee, he was always ready for 
any emergency. Pat was poor, his family was large and his domicile was 
not noted for lu.xuries. lie carrii'd no watch and one day a local wag 
asked: 'Pat, what time is it T Slapping his hand on his side, the 
answer came prom])tly '^Motlier of Saints, Oscar, but I've left me watch 
home on the pianer !' 


GARi'iKf.D LdST Xo Votes on Ilni 

■"KldiT l-'(j\vl( r was another man woi'tli knowiiiy;. In tlu- 1SS() L-ani- 
jiaiirn hi' lifi-aiiir int.'iis.-ly interested in the sui-cess of (ieneral (Jarlichl, 
a feUow preaeher of lii.s own (h-noniination, but did not get home to vote. 
I upliraideil liim and he replied : 'Now, don't you worry about that, Tliad. 
I was paired witii a man in Huntington County, anotlier in Koseiuseo 
County, and also with a man I was stopping witli in iowa. If they ke])t 
their pledges. I am sni-e Mr. (Jarfield didn 't lose any votes on my aeeount.' 

Alaxsox J*. P'ekrv Again 

"I would not be true to my.self were I to tiie name of Alanson 
1*. Ferry, the lirst assoeiate I had in business. Mr. Ferry was a man of 
t)rains, heart and conscience, and one of tlie ablest political editors I 
ever knew. His humor was spontaneous and clean, his logic strong, his 
1-higlish forcible. He was not a publie .speakej-, but as a reader of either 
lirose or poetry had few etiuals. The last time I heard him was at a 
l''ourth of July dinner given under the trees at the old liomestead of 
-Mr. and Mrs. Sivey, at which the Sivey family wei-e all present and ]\Ir. 
and ^Irs. Ferry the guests of honor. .My wife- l)rought him a coi)y of 
the Declaration of Hidependence, and he read it gloriously. It was his 
last ])ubiic reading, as he died the next year. I still own and use the 
editorial arm-chair inade for him by the Wabash School Furniture Com- 
l)any. and these lines (about Growing Old?) were penciled on its shelf. 
It is a constant remembrance of a nuin who lived an unseltish and cheerful 
life, harboring no nuilice against any citizen in the community. 

"These are the nanu'S of a few of the men whose careei's alikt- hon- 
ored themselves and the city. They had their faults, 'even as you and 
I,' but yuii may tiu-n baek the worUl on its axle of Hame and you will 
not liifd a Ijetter citi/.eiishii). A stui'dy, steady and cheerfid generation 
worthy of our honuige and renii'iiiliranee. they met and overcame the 
obstacles of streiuious years with maginficent courage and fortitude. 

The Old Town of AVaibasii 

"Do you remember the Old Town — the court house that burned dowm 
in April, 1870; the old ^Methodist Church, where the conference was held 
presided over by the famous Simpson; the Union Ilall where 
l)ublic meetings were held, where we had borne entertainments and danced 
to the music of Hull & Arnold's orchestra, of Constantine, i\Iicliigan? 
Do you recollect the streets from the hill to the l)usiness district — recol- 


Ifct tliat AVa])asli Street was so steep ^vlu'^e the Koss l)loek now stands 
that the si(le\valk enal)h'(l \-ou to see into the second story of tlie Old 
("I'Jitei' House.' Ju-iiieinher the (hjelv Spaee whel'e iJiadle}' JJl'Othel'S are 

now hjeated, \vher(; the boats tied np foi' iinhjadinji; and where J)eaeon 
Whiteside once stopju'd a tight and picking up l)otli conil)atants threw 
them hodily into tli(' canals Jxeiiieinher the volunteer tire eoiui)any, with 
the old liand engine that did sucli effective \vork' at the lii'es and won 
so many prizes at the tournanunits .' liemember tlie old City I>and that 
attracted fully as mudi attention on account of tiie respectability of its 
lui'iubership as it did liecaiise of its nmsic, although most of us stand 
ready iaday to declare it the peer of Sousa's oi- any other band organiza- 
tion that e\'er t-ame down tlie pike following a drum major/ If you 
i'emeiid)er these eailx' da\'s ycni haven't forgotten the two Presbyterian 
chui'ches (afterward united in unv congregation and now so many years 
under the pastorate of Kev. Chai'les l^ittle), the Old School and the New, 
the i)astoi's of which were Kev. Browne and Ivev. Essick. Nor the girls 
who sang in tlieii- cliorus — 

■' 'And where Coronation exaltingly flows 
" 'Tried to reach the high notes on the tips of tlieir toes. 
" 'All. tile sweet hunum jisalms of the old-fasldoned choir 
" 'The (fii'l tliat sang alto, tin- (iirl that sang air!' " ..'rnv 

Judge John Com stock 

In some respects the pei'sonality of Hon. John Comstock, originally 
ideiitilied witli the deve]oi)ment of Liberty .Mills, was one of the broadest 
and strongest of any whicli has conserved tlie well-being of AVabash 
County. We thertd'ore here take the occasion to dwell upon it in detail 
the main fai-ts of the nari'ative which di-aw i)i«'tnres of so many early 
phases of pioneei- life in the Waliash \'a!!ey being taken from the "His- 
tory of Wabash Coinity" ])ublislied in lScS4, to which we are much 
indel)ted for other infoi'mation concerning these times. 

The Father 

The European origin of the Comstock family was Austrian. In the 
United States vai'ious members planted themselves as stanch New P]ng- 
landei's, and the speidal branch from which John Comstock budded was 
early I'ooted in Kliode Island. He was born in that statt', at (Greenwich, 
February 21, 1S()2. His fathei-, also John, served in the Khode Island 
Legislature, and was evidently a man of consequence in the little state. 
AVhen John, Jr., was two years of age the family moved to Dutchess 


County, N. Y., whtTL' the father invested heavily in a cotton factory. 
He was mined liy the rascality of partners, his wife died and his large 
family of children was scattered. The three younger sons were bound 
out to service, but John. Jr., ran away from his master and located iu 
the town of Lockj^ort, New York. 

Intensity, a Youtufi'l Trait 

Tlie youth was now sixteen, weighed IGO pounds and was eager to 
pit himself against the world. His legal freedom having been obtained, 
he chopped wood, did chores around the farm, milked the cow, ate frozen 
lunches, went around thinly clad, fiercely economized, and, while he 
saved money, nearly ruined his health. Then he commenced to fight for 
an education with the same dogged persistency. He returned to Dutchess 
County and, while attending school as a preparatory step toward teach- 
ing, acted as an all-around man for one Deacon "Whiting. Having mas- 
tered the common ])raiu'hes, he attended a high school at .some distance 
from liome. But ineessant study, coupled with intense i)hysical work, 
bi'ought liim low— almost to tlie status of an invalid in body and mind. 
But his vitality was naturally so great that he finally recovered suffi- 
ciently to venture upon a \Yestern trip. 

In the fall of 1822 John Comstock started afoot from Loekport, New 
York, and when he reached Bristol, Ohio, had three shillings in his 
pocket. This eapital he laid out in the purchase of a penknife and other 
essentials for teaching school, and was at once employed at a salary of 
•^S per month and "board 'round." He taught in that vicinity until 
1828, having married two years before. 

Becomes a Land Owner 

But John Comstock was an instinctive landsman, and in the winter 
of lfS2r)-2(] bought a quarter section of land adjoining the one on which 
stood tlu' sehoolho\ise wherein he taught, l^veting a cabin, he next 
commenced to clear his land. He chopped away moi'ning, noon and 
night, when not teacliing, married his wife on New Year's Day of 182G, 
raised a good crop of potatoes, l)0Ught more land, and so on. In the 
spring of 1831. in company with his bi'other AVilliam, he opened a store 
at Bristol, and from that time on. his career was outside tlie walls of a 

Starts for Wabash Ci)rNTY 

In 1835, with his brother-in-law, John Newhouse, Judge Comstock 
attended the lajid sales at Fort Wavne, when, aside from other tracts 


at less figures, he bought tlie fractional eigiity aeivs just west of the 
site of Lil)('i-ty ^lills, paying for the same, "in the grec^i woods," 
'flO pel- acre. Next, with the enthusiastie eooperatioii of his wife, he 
sold all his Ohio i)roperties and in the spring of 18;;G loaded his big 
wagon with household goods. To this he hitched two yoke of oxen. His 
faithful young nuire, Kate, he hitched to a single covered wagon, into 
which he loaded his wife and six children. ]\Irs. Conistock, with a six- 
month babe in her ai'uis, di'ove the family rig, while tlic future .judge 
manag.-d tlie big wagon and the oxen. A lured man was also of the 
I»art\- ; he dro\-e the six cows, and did such work as clearing out roads, lift- 
ing the vehicles out of tile mutl, foraging for fuel, and other camp duties. 

lU'iLDixG OF A Piuneer'.s Cabin . ,, , 

Twenty-seven days were consiuneil on the trij), as the party was only 
able to mnkv four or live miles jier day while i)assing across tlie l^lack 
Swam)). They reached the west bank of Eel River on June 26, ISIJG, but 
uj)on their arrival were disappointed to find that the house i\Ir. Comstoek 
had expected to Occupy was located upon the land of another and al- 
reatly oceiiided. Thereupon he iiitched his tent beside an untinishetl 
cabin already eight logs in height, and, with the help of four miui, soon 
shaped it to accommodate the family. They threw Innish over one 
corner for covering and chimney. A poi'tion of the floor was laitl with 
puncheons. Bedsteads or bunks were fixed in the corners of the room. 
For the inner post to each, a stout sapling was driven into a large hole 
made in the floor, while in lieu of the other posts holes were bored into 
the logs of the wall, poles being used for bed and side rails. For a 
window an aperture was made through the logs at the side, and a blanket 
was hung for the door. Fire was then kindled upon the ground in the 
corner beneath the brush opening, and the family moved in. A patch 
of'potatoes was next planted, which yielded a heavy crop in the fall. 

Not ax Indian Scare on the Woman 

In August of the same year, while ]\lr. Comstoek was two miles distant 
from home making marsh hay, some drunken Indians of the Pottawatomie 
tribe, in war-paint and heads decorated with feathers, came galloping 
along on their ponies, causing the woods to ring with their savage yells. 
Indian Bill, of this party, stopped at the cabin, dismounted and entered, 
when casting around and seeing some l)ottles of medicine upon a shelf, 
he demanded of -Mrs. Comstoek some "goodentosh." Being refused, he 
drew his knife and brandished his tomahawk over her head, swearing 


lie would kill her if she did not <^i\v him "goodeiitosh. " Then she coolly 
told him tliat unit ss he behaved she would call "white man," and went 
to the door ealliiij,' loudly for .John. Tliis had the desii'cl (/Ifeet, for ■ 
alt!ion«.,di John was two miles distant Indian Jiill mounted his pony and 
was soon lost in tlie woods. These Indians were on their way to the 
burial of one of their tribe who luul tieen killed in an affray about two 
and a half miles northeast of I.iberty Mills while they wer(' retunnng 
from an annuit\- pa\'ment at ]<\)i't Wayne. 

ExTEHS TtiE T.ivE Stock Business "'''■ '■ ' ' ' '•'* 


Tiu' following year (1837) :\Ir. Comstoek erected a double-hewed log "" 
cabin, with j)orch between, the north end being used as a store room. 
During the same year he bought the forty acres of .Mr. :\rcBride, a portion ' 
of which he laid off into town lots. Then came his ventur(> into the live '' 
stock business. 

He tirst bought a drove, of iiogs which he sold to "neighbors'' rang- ' 
ing as far away as thirty miles; the second drove he sold in ^Michigan ' 
City. This was all in 1887. In the following year he and his iK'pliew, ' 
Christopiier Watkins, bought and drove out a herd of cows and heifers, ^ 
and after supplying his neighbors found a market for the balance at -' 
^Michigan City. ' ** 

Earliest Ixdi'Striai. Center 

]\rr. Coinstoek built his saw mill in the winter of 1837-38, but 
it had luirdly been completed before it M'as burned to the ground. But it 
was quickly rel)uilt and in the following winttn- he erected a grist mill. 
His tannery, under the supervision of a .Air. Collins, was put in opera- 
tion in 1839, and in that year he also moved his store into town. In 
the spring of 1841 he started his carding machine, or woolen mill, its 
location being about five rods below the present river bridge. In the 
fall of the same year he erected a distillery. Quantities of corn and rye 
were used in this factory, and a large number of cattle and hogs were 
fattened from the slops. 

About this time Mr. Comstoek brought from the East a large tiock 
of sheep, ])ut the wolves were so plentiful he was obliged to watch them 
day and night, although enclosed in a yard protected by a twelve-foot 
picket fence. As he found the pi'oject on a large scale unprofitable, he 
sold out his flock. 

The tanning business proved so profitable that in 1844 Mr. Comstoek 
enlarged his plant to sixty vats and took one of his brothers (Ichabod) 


into tlie Ijusiik'ss. In ]840-r)U lie built liis new grist mill of four run of 
buhrs. lie tlu'ii movnd liis carding machine into his old mill building, 
to whic-h he addfd another carding nuichine, as well as one for dressing 
and fulling cloth, and this was continued in successful op(!ration until 
destroyed by lire in 18G6. 

Promoter of Public IIicriWAYs 

In the opening and construction of public highways, Mr. Comstock 
was always foremost. Kequiring himself a large amount of transporta- 
tion, he repeatedly tried to orgainze a joint-stock i)lank road company 
to connect La (jro with Liberty ^Mills, the same to fork four and a quarter 
miles south of the last named place and run to North Manchester. But 
in this he failed for want of co-operation. He then made a proposition 
to the leading citizens of Huntington looking to the Iniilding of a 
plaidv road fi'om that town to Liberty j\Iills. This proi)osition being ac- 
cepted in 1851, the I'oad was completed in 1854. At that time, La Cro 
was handling more gi'ain tlian either Wabash or Huntington. In 1852 
he held the position of vice president of the Eel Kiver \^alley Railroad, 
but withdrew from all connection witii the enterprise and publicly ex- 
posed the corruption practiced l)y some of its managers. Nearly twenty 
years later (1871) he became a director of the latter enterprise, which 
was conipleted. 

Successful Private Detective Agency 

In 1851 there existed an organization of horse thieves, burglars and 
counterfeiters, extending from Ohio across Northern Indiana into the 
]Mormon district of Illinois. ^Members of this gang plotted at various 
times to intercept Mi'. Comstock, AVilliam Thorne and other prosperous 
business men who traveled lonely routes with large sums of money 
on their persons. Although ]\lr. Comstock escaped personal molestation, 
his stoi'e was tiiudly robbed of $1,000 worth of goods, and he and his 
friends and relatives decided to act. Their first stej) was to organize 
a private detective service, tlie members of which were jNIr. Comstock, 
William and Isaac Thorne, John J. Shaubert (!\Ir. Comstock 's son-in- 
law) and his three sons, Thomas, Henry and William Shaubert. In 
less than one year this self-constituted detective committee learned the 
names of more than two hundred of that band of evildoers, several of 
whom Avere well known characters living in this vicinity. In a short 
time the Wabash County force sent to state's prison a neighbor's son for 
breaking into Mr. Comstock 's store, a professed minister who planned 


tlu' l)urglary, two liorscthicvcs and a countt-riViti-r. Two other noted 
characters bai-ely escaped i)risoii walls — the one by forfeiting his bond, 
the other by a fatal accident, just before the time set for his trial. After 
a few other anvsts had been made, quite a number of men of former 
good rei)ute in the conniuinity settled their affairs and left hurriedly 
for parts unknown. The Comstoek-Thorne-Shauliert Detective Agency 
was a gi'cat success. 

Disposing OF Ills PkuI'kkty 

At one tiuK' Judge Comstock (as he was usually known) was the 
owner of more than 1,000 acres of land, l)Ut sold from time to time 
until oidy (iOO of -it reuuiined. In July, ISd!), he sold his mills and 
watcr-i)0wer privileges to C. T. Danks & Company, giving thereafter 
increased attention to his live stock interests. 

Political axi> Plhlic Life 

Jn politics a whig, up to the organization of the ri'i)ublican party, 
he \vas ever eaiiiest and active in suppoi-t of the party of his choice, 
and ti'ansferred hi.s faithful allegiance to the latter body. In politics, 
as in all other affairs in which he participated, Judge Comstock 's 
natural leadership came promptly to the surface. In Ajjril, 1834, while 
residing in \Va\-ne County, Ohio, he was elected a justice of tiie peace 
in a township which was largely democratic. This position he resigned 
at leaving tlie state, and for several years after coming to Indiana served 
as i)0stmaster. In June, llS4(i, he was ai)i)ointe(l couunissioner for the 
Northern District of AVabash County to hll out the unexpired term 
of iVilliam Johnson. In the fall of that year he was elected probate 
judge, serving tiius until the ol'lice was al)olished in August, 1852, thus 
ac(iuii'iiig the legitimate title of judge. 

In isr)8-51) Judge Comstock served his county as representative in 
the state legislature. Dui'ing tlu' dark earlier days of the Civil war he 
gave evidt'uce of his loyalty in many Avays, being among those well-to- 
do i)a1 riots who turned o\-er to tlie ( lovemmt-nt, at tlie solicitation of 
Oliver P. ^lorton, the war governor, all his available ])rivate fortune 
in su])port of the I'nion, in order to add to the fund necessary to carry 
on the state govei'inneiit and to arm and equip its soldiers for the field. 
At that stage of the war, there was no assurance tluit any money loaned 
to state or nation would ever be returned, as the results of the coullict 
were extremely doubtful. 


Pioneer in the Imi'uove.ment of Cattle 

Judge Comstock was a pioneer in agri(-ultural matters in Wabash 
County, and did more tiian any other man to improve its stock of tine 
cattle. lie was one of tlie organizers of the Wabasli County Fair, till- 
ing for several years the oftiee of director, and from its first session 
ill ]S52— then located between the Wabasii River and the canal— he 
largrly patronized this institution hy exhihitions of his line stock. About 
184::! he bought of Jacob Stevt-n.s, living four mil.-.s noi'th of Liberty 
Willis, tive liead of thorouglibred short-hoi'iis. But they proved frail. 
shortJived creatures and for a time disappointed his li()j)es of improving 
his hei'd. The summer of 1854 was very dry, cutting short the pastur- 
age, wlh/n he drove 120 head of native steers to Toledo, thence siiipping 
them by rail to New York City, lie there sold them at $27 i)er head" 
paying out of that sum a commission of .+2 per head for selling. He 
said: "1 eould have stood this better, had I not .seen a Dutchman in one 
corm-r of the stock-yard surrounded by Jews, who wei'e trying to buy 
his old barren short-horn cow for less than .tiJO, whicii they finally paid 
him." This was one of the first steps in the establishment of the meat 
trade of the "West," which for a generation has Ix-eii planted in the 
IMississippi Valley, instead of in the Valley of the Wabash. 

Soon after his return from the East, Judge Comstock l)ought a 
number of short-horns in the southern part of Indiana, and a cow each 
from lion. James D. Conner of Wabash and Judge Stuart of Logansport. 
lie afterward added to his stock from such herds as those of Jerry 
Duncan, J. A. Golf, Van Meter, Geoi-ge W. Bedford and William War- 
field, of Kentucky ; Ira S. Adams, of New York, and M. H. Cochran, of 
Compton, Canada. He not only aided the people of his own county 
and state in the improvement of their stock, but helped to enrich the 
^ blood of many herds throughout the Union. In time he became one of 
the leading dealers of fine cattle in the country, and his annual sales 
were largely attended by buyers of blooded cattle from all sections of 
the United States. 

A Popi'LAR Friend in Need 

By reason of his large and varied interests, Judge Comstock was 
compelled to employ a large number of laborers. From about 1840 to 
18G0 (especially up to 1850) numy farmers each fall come in to husk 
corn and do other work by which to o])tain winter outfits for them- 
selves and families. To Judge Comstock this class never applied in vain. 
Indeed, the needy of both town and country, when desiring woi-k from 


him at any .sca.soii of the year, were given eniployiiient at fair eash 
wages. Xo one has jirohaMy ever lived in the eoiiiit>- who lias heen 
]Hlj)fnl to so many of its j)eo])le in so many ways as .iudgc (.'(jiiistoi-k. 
When tile energetic, lieli)ful, kindly and generous citizen was therefore 
iii'st stricken with paral\sis, in the spring of 1871), it sei-ined like an 
impending misfortune which would overshadow hundreds of homes. It 
was inconeeivahle that any one could take his iilaee, either as a guarantor 
of the necessities of life or as a good and trustv friend. 

JiDGE Cumstock's Death 

Judge Comstock rallied from the slight paralytic stroke of the si)ring 
and seemed to enjoy better health during the coming summer than for 
sevei'al i)revious years. But on the uuu'uing of Septemiier 80, 1871), he 
complained of a i)aiu in his shotdder, at the same time objecting to 
the api)lication of any liniment, fearing that the trouble might be there- 
by driven to his heart. Finally, however, he allowed it to be applied, 
was quite cheerful during the day, walked out among his stock, read 
his I5ible and talked freely with his daughter Anna who was then 
visiting him. At 4 o'clock, while sitting in his old arm chair conversing, 
his premonition of the morning was verified and the pains of the earlier 
day clutched his heart. In a moment he was unconscious, and ht^ ex- 
pired while being borne to a settee in the arms of his daughter Sarah 
and his grandson, Harry t'omstock. On the 3d of Octol>er his hon- 
ored remains were laid in Greenwood Cemetei'v — a beautiful plat of 
ground taken from his own estate west of Liberty ^lills — his wife lying 
upon one side and his son John on the other. 

There were seven children in the Comstock family. Three of the 
four sons died before their father, two of them having entered the miu- 
istj-y. The mother died about a year l)efore hei- husband, on August 18, 

ciiaptp:k X ;■ 

COUNTY OIi(;ANlZATI().\ "" '''■' 

Origixal ("rkative Act — I'xii'xdakik.s Corimx'tkd — Lkcisf^ative Attacii- 
Mi:xT — (;i\Kx lxi>Ei'i:xr)KXT C'niL lionv — First Corx'i'v Uittckr.s — 
J^-rAiii.i>iiiX(; TIM-: Si-:ai' ok .Ir.-Tici-: — I'i^h-ositiox from Colonels 
iJiiiii AXi) IIaxxa — Kiiis'i' -AIketlxg of the Cofxtv Board — Wabash, 
TiJE Cofnty Seat — La (Iro axd Noble Towxshifs Formed — The 
Old (.'ofrt House — Historic Lixcolx Calendar — Court House of 
Today — The Old County Jail— Fre--ext -Jail and Sheriff's Resi- 



ToR> — Sheriffs — Survevors — Recorders — Coroners (for the Past 
TiHRTV-Fi\E Years) — Board of County Commissioners — Present 
County Officers. 

Tlie tivatiL'S with the I'ottawatouiit'S and ]Miamis siyned October 16 
and 23, 182)1, indicated tht' willin^iies.s of the Indians who still claimed 
laiul in AValjasii County to make way for the civil ovih'i- of tlie whites^ 
and, within a few years tliei-eafter this willingness had develoix'd into 
eagerness. The red man was doomed to he displaced liy the stroiig(n* 
race and he longed to leave Ijcliiiul him all his hiuuiliations, altiiough 
his migration to the far western wilds carried with it the grief of part- 
ing from Ins old-time haunts along the beautiful valley of tlie A'abash 
aiul its tributary streams. P>y the early '30s, although all the Indian 
titles had not been cleared, the end was so ])lain that civil government 
approached "Wabash County and the white settlers continually increased 
in nund.)er, with or without titles to the land upon wliicli tliey located. 

Origixal Creative Act 

The father of the ])olitieal ])ody known as AVabash County was the 
legislative act approved February 2, 1832, "Estal)lishing the counties of 
Huntington, AVabash and ^liami." The provision which most closely 
concerns us is Section 2, as follows: '"That all tliat district of country 



included in the i'ollowiiij^' houinlai'ifS shall fcjrni and constitute a new 
county to be known liercaftci- by llic name of the county of Wabash, 
to-\vit : l)eu-iniiin^' at the southeast coi'iier of Section o, in Township iMj 
north, in K'ange S east, on the noi'thern lioundai-\- of (ii'ant County- 
thence west sixteen miles; theiuM' noi'tli twent\--foui' miles with the west- 
ern boundary of JIuntington County; thence east witli tlie township 
line to the noi'tlieast corner of Section ."), in Towiishij) 2I» north; thence 
south tweiity-foui- miles to the i»laee of beuinniny. " The tei'ritory 
formini: Wabash and Miami counties was taken from Huntington, to 
which county they renmiiied attached for legislative and judicial pur- 

BouNDAia!:s Corrected ' '' 

Shortly after the passage of the act, the Indiana legislators found 
that the boundaries of the new counties had bet'u so indetinitely defined 
that another measure had to be i)assed correcting the defect. So on Jan- 
uary ;](>, is:]'.], they ti'ied again. So far as Waba.sli County is concerned 
the second and tinal act read as follows: "Section I. Jie it eiuieted 
by the Genei'al .Vssembly of the State of Indiana, That the boundaries 
of the county of Wabash be and they are hereby changed and established 
as follows, to-wit : ])eg-inni]ig at tlu- northeast corner of Section 5 in 
Townshii) '2') north, in Kange 8 east, on the northern boinidary of the 
county of (Jrant, being tlu^ southwest corner of Huntington CJounty, run- 
ning thence west sixteen miles; thence noi-th twenty-four )niles; thence 
east with the tf)wnship line bi'tween Townships 2!) and 'M) noi'th sixteen 
miles, to the northwest coi-ner of Huntington County; thence south 
twenty-four miles with the ^\•estern boundary of said cou)ity to the place 
of beginning." 

TjEgisl.vtive Attachment 

Several weeks before the boundaries had been thus corrected — Janu- 
ai-y 7, 18)33 — •AVabash County was attached to the Eighth Judicial Cir- 
cuit, and by an act approved on the following day l)ecame a part of the 
Sixth Congressiomd District. The latter includ(Ml the counties of 
liartholomew, Johnson, Shelby, Hancock, Hamilton, Mai'ion, ^Moi'gan, 
l>oone, Heiidi'icks, AFoin'Oe, iMadison, Cass, ]^Iiami an<I AVabash. }iy the 
act of Januaiy 2, 1834, for st-natorial puri)oses Wabash County was 
attached to the <listrict composed of the counties of Allen, Huntington, 
Elkhart, La Grange, St. Josi'ph ami La Porte. 


GivEx Independent Ouie Body - . ,- „,, . [■ ' 

\'\> to this tiiut', Wal) County liad only a ])a{»ri- l)Oily ; was only 
a tlifoivtical county. Jii onlcr to give it i-cal I'oi-ui, it must have an inilc- 
pcndcnt civil hody, and tiiat was jirovidcd for by llic Iryislativc act 
wliifli was ai)})rovL'd January 22, 1835, and whieli rrad as follows: 

"Section 1. Be it enacted by the (ieiiei'al AssiMubly of the State of 
Indiana, That from and after the 1st day of -March next the county of 
Wabash shall enjoy all tlie riy:hts and jurisdiction which to separate 
and indeiK'udent counties do or may pi'operly belong'. 

"Section 2. That Ciles Smith of Crant County, Daniel Worth of 
Randolph County, Jesse Carter of Clinton County, liai'tholomew Apple- 
gate of Johnson County, and Thouuis Watson of Tii)pccanoe County, be 
and they are hereby ai)pointed conuiiissioners for the purpose of fix- 
ing the pernuiuent seat of justice of the said county of Wabash, agree- 
ably to the provisions of 'an act to estal)lish the seats of justice in the 
new counties,' approved January 21, 1821. The connnissioners above 
named, or a nuijority of them, shall convene at the house of David liurr, 
in said county, on the third day of May next, or so soon thereafter as 
a majority of them shall agree upon. 

"Section 3. It shall be the duty of the sheriff of Huntington County 
to notify tlie commissioners al)ove named, either in person or in writing, 
of their appointment and the place appointed for them to convene; and 
the board doing county business shall allow a reasoimble compensation 
for services out of the moneys in the treasuiy of the said county of 

"Section 1. Circuit and other courts of said county shall be held at 
the house of David liurr, or at any other j)lace in said county wlun-e said 
courts may adjourn, until suitable accounnodatious can be furnished 
at the seat of justice thereof, after which the' courts shall be held at the 
county seat. 

"Section 5. The agent who shall be appointed to superint(.'nd the 
sale of lots at the county seat of said county of Wabash shall reserve 
lU per cent out of all donations to said county, and shall pay the same 
over to such ])erson or persons as shall Ix; authorized to receive the same 
for the use of a county librai-y for said county. 

"Section G. The board doing county business of said county, when 
elected and qualitied, nuiy hold si)ecial sessions not exceeding three the 
first year after the organization of said county, and shall appoint a 
lister and make all other necessary appointments, and do and perfoi'in all 
other business which might have been necessary to be jx-rformed at any 


regular session, and take all necessary steps to collect the state and 
county revenue. 

"Sfction 7. Tlie county of Wabash shall be attached to the Eiglith 
Judicial Circuit of the State for Judicial i)ui'poses,. to the county of Hunt- 
ington for J\epresentative pur])oses, and be included in the Fifth Con- 
gressional District. This act to take effeet and be in force from and 
after its publieation iu the Indiana fJoui-nal. Tlie county boundarii-s 
heretofore established Ijy the aiueinlatory act of January 'SO, 1833, were 
recognized as prescribing the correct liuuts of Wabasli County, tliough 
not in tlie final act expressly mentioned." 

■' ■•■ ■'■■ ■'■ First County Officers 

As the Legislatui'e had proclaimed that after ]Marcli 1, 1835, the county 
of AVabasli should enjoy all the rights common to other counties its citi- 
zens at once proceeded to elect officers. The result of the vote was the 
choice of the following: Daniel Jackson and Daniel Ballinger, associate 
judges of the AVahash Circuit Court; AVilliam Steele, clerk; Stearns 
Fisher, Levi Bean and Alpheus Blackmail, county commissioners. Wil- 
liam Johnson, the acting sheriff, had l)een previously commissioned by the 
governor to hold that office until his successor should be chosen at the gen- 
eral election in the following August. 

Establishing the Seat op Justice 

To carry out Section 2 of the organic act, the commissioners named 
to locate the county seat met at tlie house of David Burr, on I\Iay 18. 
1836. After tliey had organized they proceeded to Imsiness under these 
provisions of tlie 1824 act for establishing "seats of justice in new 
coiinties": "It shall be the duty of said commissioners, or any three or 
more of them, to convene at sueh time and place in sucli new county as 
the General Assembly shall appoint, and being first sworn to discharge 
the duties assigned them by this act, they shall proceed to fix on the 
most eligible and convenient place for the permanent seat of justice 
of such new county, taking into view the extent thereof, the quality of 
the land and the prospect of future, as well as present population, to- 
gether with the probability of future divisions; and it shall be the fur- 
ther duty of the said commissioners to receive donations in land from 
any person or persons owning land in such county and oifering donations 
for the use of the same — and to hx on such place for the seat of justice 
in such new county as near as may be to that position whi<'h is likely 
to be central and permanent, after future divisions, as may best sub- 


Serve the iiitei' of sueli ec)iint\'. The said eouiiiiissioiiei's shall inquire 
aiid aseei'tain whether any land on wliieh they may be inclined to fix 
the Seat of justice can be ol)tained by donation or l)y purchase at a suit- 
able i»rice, sullici/'nt in quantity and suital)le in ({ualit}^ and situation 
for the site of a town; antl if such (luantity of land cainiot be obtairicd 
hy donation or by pui-chase at a reasonable ])rire, tlieii they shall lix on 
the next most elinibl,. phiee wlieiv sueh hiiid can be pi'ocui'cd as afore- 
said ; and tlie said eommissioiiers shall take a l)oiid or bonds of any person 
or ])ersoiis jii-oposin^' {o give or sell any smdi land, pa\-able to the IJoaru 
of County ( 'onnuissioners and their successors in office, and conditioned 
for the eon\eyance of such tract or tracts of land so given or sold, to 
sueh j)ersons as the county connuissioners shall appoint as agent to re- 
eei\-e the same, which bond oi' bonds the said couuuissioners shall deliver 
to the county commissionci's together with a {dan and correct report of 
their proceedings, containing a particular descrii)tion of the land so 
selected. Avhich shall be considered the i)ernuinent seat of justice for such 

ri^ji'osiTiox FRO-M Colonels Bcku and IIanna 

Al)0ut a year previous to this meeting of the county seat commissioners 
Colonel P)urr and Colonel IIanna had laid out the Town of AVabash, and 
jiow submitted the following i)roposition, which ajtpeared to have been 
the only one seriously considered: 

'•\Vi', the undersigned, David lUirr and Hugh Hanna, of the county 
of Wabash, in the State of Indiana, for and in consideration of the seat 
of justice of the county aforesaid being established in the town of AVa- 
bash, in said county, hereby covenant and agree to build and erect a 
suitable bi'ick courthouse in the public s(iuare of said town, forty feel 
S(iuare, furnished throughout in good, plain, workuumlike numner, with 
l)ench and bar for court and jury, steeple, ball and spire ; the building 
to be completed, except plastering, within four years from and after the 
1st of November next, and be of value not less than three thousand dol- 
lars; to give, also, for a co\uity library, the sum of three hundred dollars, 
payable in ainiual instaliuents of one hundred dollars each, the first instal 
meiit to be jtaid on the 1st day of .March, 1837; also one and a half 
acres of land in some suitable place for a graveyard on ►Section II, on 
which the town of stands, to be selected by said liurr and IIanna: 
also two lots in the town plat for seminary jjurposes; and also two other 
lots to be granted, one to each of any two religious denominations which 
shall within three yi'ars erect a frame or bi'ick building on the sanu> of 
not less dimensions than thirty by twenty feet; also the accompanying 


subscript ion for the saiiic piicposc. aiiioimt iii^' 1(j $r)4r), is ollVi-fd in addi- 
tion to our i)roi)o.sal, which will be .snllicicnt to complete the public 

"David Bihk 
"Hugh IIaxna" 

I'he cash bonus mentioned was raised by subscriptions from Jonathan 
Kellei-, Jt'sst' \'ei-milyea, Alpheus IJlackman, Isaac Finley, S. .M. Lemans, 
A. .Murphy, William S. Kdsall. AV. (J. ^ (i. W. Kwin<,^ and Kwing, 
Walker & Company, who guai'anti'cd •+.')() each; J. S. llanna, Stearns 
Fisher and Daniel Jackson, ^2,") each, and Jacob D. Cassatt, $20. ^Most 
of the subscrii)tions were paid in cash, and those which were not were 
guaranteed by ^lessrs. Burr and Ilanna. 

■•••■■■■■ i > ,;.- ' , : 

First ]\Ieetixg of the County Board 

The fii'st meeting of the Board of County Conunissionei'S was held 
at Colonel liurr's house, Juiie 15, 183.5. The couunissioners were sworn 
in by the special sheritf, William Johnson— Stearns Fisher, for the 
three-\eai- term ; Levi iiean, two years, and Alpheus Blackman, one 
year. Sheritf Johnson also preseiited his conunission from the governor. 
William Steele a]>peare(l before tlie boai'd and i)resented his commission 
as clerk of the Circuit ('ourt of Wabash County for the term of seven 
years from ^lay 2S. 1835; also his bond, with sureties, with a cei-titicate 
showing that it had l)een approved by the associate judges and that he 
had been duly sworn into otiice June 11 th. 

W\\HA.sii, THE County Skat 

Tile board thm api)ointed Isaac Thomas county agent, and Hugh 
ITanfia treasurei' of Waljash (.'ounty, and acce{ited the I'cport of the 
county-seat conunission of May 23d tixiug the seat of justice at the 
Town of Wabash in accord with the proposals submitted by Colonel 
Burr and Colonel Ilaniui. 


A second session of tlie Board of County Couunissioners was held in 
the afternoon of June 15tli, at tlie house of Connnissioner Jilacknuui, 
Stearns J^'isher presiding. The county was dividi^l into three commis- 
sioners' districts and into the townships of i^a Cro and Noble, the latter 
being named in honor of "James Nolile, late senator of the United 


States." The division was the raiifi:e line clivi(lin<,' Ranges 6 and 7, all 
of the county east being La Gro Townsliij) and that lying west, Noble 

Isaac Fowler was appointed assessor of the county for the current 
year, and the following otficers were named for the two townships ; 

La Gro Township — Constables, Robert Hurley and James Wiley; 
overseers of the poor, J. Galahan and A. II. Keller ; inspector of elections, 
A. II. Keller; fence viewers, William U. Cadwell and Jolm Ilarter ; supei'- 
visoi's, flames Dai'row (District No. 1) and Daniel Hallinger (No. 2). 
An election was directed to be held at the house of Jacob Shappell, July 
8, IH'Ai), for two justices of the peace, Sheriff Johnson to give the neces- 
sary notice. 

Noble Township — Constables, Thomas Burton and Vincent Ilooten; 
insix'ctor of elections, Daniel Jackson ; overseers of the poor, D. Burr 
and II. Ilanna; supervisors, S. F. ,McLane (District No. 3) and James 
11. Keller (No. 4) ; fence viewers, Joiu\s Carter and Bradley Williams. 
An election was ordered to be held in Noble Town.ship, at the house of 
David Burr, on the 8th of July, 1885, for the purpose of electing three 
justices of the peace — two for Noble Township and one for the Town of 

The Old Couktiiouse 

Colonels Burr and Ilanna lived up to their contract with the Board 
of County Commissioners and the brick courthouse, as proposed by tliem 
to the county seat commissioners, was substantially ready for occupancy 
in the fall of 1839. The ui)per story was appropriated to the use of a 
court rootn. At first the lower story was divided into rooms for the 
comity offices, but were afterward abandoned for a time and remodeled. 
The old courthouse was occupied until April 14, 1870, when it was de- 
stroyed by fire. This was five years after the assassination of Abraham 
Lincoln. The courts were afterward held in the Presbyterian Church 
on the opposite side of the street, east of the PulJic Square. 

Historic Lincoln Calendar 

On Saturday morning April 15, 1865, as Elijah Ilackleman, then 
clerk of the AVabash Circuit Court, was changing the card in his calendar 
hanging on the wall, a caller made the startling announcement that 
Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated the day before. Mr. Ilackleman 
was just in the act of taking from its place the card bearing the date 
April 14th, but the announcement was so appalling that the card dropped 

•I II 


from liis trembliug fiiifrcrs back into place, and the cali-ndar was left 
unchanged, bearing on its face, "Friday, April 14, 1865." l^pon recov- 
ering from the shock Mr. llacklemaii mentally di'tennined that the cal- 
endar should renuiin a.s a momeiito of that dire historic event, lie there- 
fore imnu'diately procured another for the oftice, and made the follow- 
iiiLT note upon the calendar which had. in a way, become sacred: ("April 
— Saturtlay, 15, 18G5, 0:30 A. ill.) I have just this moment received 
the news that President Lincoln was shot last night at AYashington, and 
dii'(l this inorning. " 

Tlie oKl calendar remained as ]Mr. Ilackleman had left it on the 
sorrowful morning until April 14, 1S70, when the court house was 
destroyed by tire. The precious calendar was given u]) for lost, but 
was found in tlif ruins intact. Sand to tlie di-pth of a foot had been 
jilaced on the .second floor, as a safeguard from tire, but the tiames 
had burned oft' the ends of the sleepers that sui)ported the sanded 
Hoor, and the whole mass had been precipitated into a common ruin. 
The calendar, however, had been buried and protected by the sand, and 
there was scarcely a mark of fire upon it. 

When the present court house was completed, the notable calen- 
dar was Jilaced in position on the south side of the midtlle door of 
clerk's oflice, the first object likely to attract the eye upon entering 
it from the east. This calendar commemorates the two important events. 

Courthouse of Today 

The decade after the Civil war was a period of hard times for AVabash 
County, and it was not until 1877 that its citizens really took a decisive 
step in the nuitter. A. P. Ferry, editor of the Plain Dealer, well 
descril)ed the situation leading up to the building of the new courthouse 
and the difficulties attending its completion in his Fourth of July address 
of 18T9, after the Rubicon had been crossed. He put it thus: "After 
the county had paid her war and railroad delits, it was thought best by 
some that the tax-payers should have a rest, although the need of a 
courthouse was universally acknowledged. This reasoning commended 
itself to Avell to the judgment of our County Board that the initiatory 
steps were postponed from time to time until a special meeting of the 
board held in April, 1877, although the inconvenience of the old offices 
and court room, and above all the danger of the destruction of valuable 
records, made the cpiestion of action or non-action one of gi'eat gravity. 
On one side was some ti)uincial exhaustion and alleged but ovei'(;stiimited 
j)vd)lic distress; on, the other hand, the danger of to the owners of 
real estate, which, if sustained, could scarcely be repaired. Finally, the 



coiiuiiissioiifr.s became eoiiviiieed tliat loiioer delay involved a possible 
loss greater than the exi)ense of a eoui-thonse. and they decided to build 
one. Jt soon became ajjpaivnt that it was the i)id)lic wisli that, while a 
very e\])ensive Imilding would not be tolerated, a lionse should be built 
of respectable appearance and ami)le dimensions, cond)ining all the nujd- 
ern imi)ro\ements and conveniences; one that would do no diseivdit to 
a comity confessedly as wealthy and intelligi'jit as ours. 

Present Coukthocsk. Wabash 

'•The county board is entitled to great credit for the eareful atten- 
tion, i)atient labor and deliberation bestowed njion this important mat- 
ter. Some i)ei-sons Were for a ccnisidei'able time unable to see any merit 
in the plan adopted. Hut it is characteristic of American citizens to 
subndt to what they cannot legally change, and soon there was very 
genei'al acquiescence. Thei-e were s(jme, however, inclined to make gen- 
eral war, and the conunissioiiers wei'e foi' a time nuide tlie subject of 
censijrious remai'k and satirical criticism. The architecture was made 


the tlu'iiu' of more than one merry jibe and the wliole structure was 
ealletl a Sweat Jiox. Hut the board and the arehiteet seemed content to 
biile their time, and long before tlie comi)letion of the work the solid and 
substantial eliaracter of the material, the excellent taste numifested more 
and more as new members were added to the structure, and their adapt- 
ai)ility to eaeli other and to the use intended, soon disarmed all opposition 
and put an ciul to unfriendly comment. From being a subject of merri- 
ment ami editoi'ial sarcasm, if any fault could be found with the sub- 
stance of po{)ular renuirk the praise was too fulsome ; for, though the 
building is a beautiful one and creditable as a work of art, it does not, 
as some seem to believe, stand at the head of architectural excellence; yet, 
dviubth'ss, few courthouses condnning so much that is Ijcautiful and use- 
ful have been built anywliere for so little mone}'. " 

The courthouse, the merits of which luive been so fairly described 
by .Mr. Ft-rrs', is still in use, and serves its purposes well, it was not 
entii'ely completed until in the summer of 1880. The contractors, .Messrs. 
L. 6: ■]. (iahlc, linished the Ijuilding at the specitied price of $75,400, its 
general dimensions on the ground being 94 by 111 feet. The superin- 
tending architects were 15. V. Fnos & Son. "When the bills of the archi- 
tci'ls, pluiidicrs, furniture men, tixture firms ami those engaged in the 
impi'()Vcmt-nt of the grounds were added to the lirst cost, they brought 
the total up to nearly $95,000. 

The Old County Jail 

As is custoiiuir\- in every new comnninity — and perhaps in every old 
— provision had to be nuule for the conhnement of offenders against the 
law before accommodations could be pi'ovided for their trial in an official 
t)uilding called a courthouse. At a meeting of the County Board hehl 
July 8, 1835, notice was given calling for proposals to construct a county 
jail. This was to be of logs, with a foundation stone wall three feet thick 
■dfid three feet high, one foot above the ground, "that portion al)OVe the 
surface to l)e hammer-dressed." The plan also i)rovided for two stories, 
the one itnniediately above the foundation to be of timber squaring one 
foot, the corners dovetailed; the upper story also to l)e of timber one 
foot thick and twelve inches wide or over, making one room eighteen feet 
square inside, with ceiling of timl)er of the same dimensions as the outer 

The order reciuired that the work be connnenced on the 20th of 
August, 1835, ami completed on or before the 20th of December of the 
same year. On these conditions the contract was let to Samnel McClure, 
tlu'u of (ii'ant County, Colonel Hugh ITanna, county agent, acting as 

Yol. I— 11 


siiperintendL'iit of construction. Both the Colonel ami Mr. IMcClure saw- 
that the jail was completed according to coiUract, and it "held tight" 
until ISol. when it was destroyed by tire. An insani- man started the 
blaze, and came very near being consumed in it, as while the Hanies 
were lapping it up he was raging around inside, striking his lists to- 
gether and swearing he would thrash any man who said he did not 
start the fire. 

Present and Sheriff's Residence 

A second jail was built in 1853, which served its purposes for over 
a quarter of a century, when the citizens con.sidered the time had come 
that tile sheriff should reside at his official headquarters. Toward the 
close of 1879 the County Board prepared plans for a combined jail and 
sheriff's residence and invited proposals for the construction of such 
a building. On the 27th of January, 1880, the contract was awarded 
to L. S. Wilson, his bid being $18,415. This sura included the material 
of the old jail, valued at $218.50. As in the ease of the courthouse, the 
preparation for construction was immediately commenced, building 
material procured, and the foundation laid on the site selected opposite 
the courthouse on the south side of the street. The jail is of stone, 
"with interior finish of iron," and the adjoining sheriff's residence of 
substantial Ijrick. Total cost, $20,486. 

p].\HLY Care of the Poor 

The provisions for the care of the poor of AVa])ash County are com- 
mensurate with the intelligence and advancement of its citizens. In the 
earlier years such matters were mainly managed by overseers of the poor, 
t+ie Board of County Connnissioners appointing two for each township. 
Various state statutes, notably those passed by the Legislatures of 1831, 
1843 and 1852, defined their duties. They were to keei) records of 
to their respective townships who were unable to care for themselves and 
were worthy subjects of relief. They were further authorized to appren- 
tice all poor children whose parents were dead or unable to support 
them. ^lales could be thus "bound out" to the age of twenty-one, 
females until they reached the age of eighteen. 

The general provisions governing the duties of these overseers were 
as follows: "It shall be the duty of the overseers of the poor, every 
year, to cause all poor persons who have been or shall become a pultlic 
charge, to be farmed out on contracts to be made on the first Monday 


in May annually, in such manner as the said overseers of the poor shall 
deem best calculated to promote the public good. 

"Provided, nothing herein eontainetl shall i)rohibit any overseers of 
tlie poor from receiving and accepting proi)ositions at any time for the 
keeping of such poor and others who may at any time thereafter become 
a county charge. 

"Provided, however, that the Board of County Commissioners of the 
several counties in this State may, in their discretion, allow and pay to 
poor persons who may become chargeable as paupers, who are of mature 
years and of sound mind and who, from their general character will 
probably be benefitted thereby, such annual allowance as will be equal 
to the charge of their maintenance, by employing the lowest bidder to 
keep them, the said commissioners taking the usual amount of charges 
in like cases, as the rule in making such allowance. 

' ' Provided, however, that the overseers of the poor, in no case, shall 
farm out any pauper under the age of twenty-one years, if a male, or, 
if a female, under the age of eighteen years, if such overseers of the poor 
can possibly bind out as apprentices any such paupers." 

For many years succeeding the organization of the county the farm- 
ing-out system was generally adopted by the commissioners of Wabash 
County. Eventually, tliis necessitated tl)e purchase of a county farm 
and the enction of buildings thereon. 

Present Support of the Poor 

The farm selected for this purpose, being the southeast quarter of 
Section 3G, Township 28 North and of Range 6 east, containing 152 acres, 
was leased in 1853 for five years. At the expiration of the lease, August 
3d, 1858, it was purcliased from George E. Gordon. Both the farm and 
bmldings have been enlarged to keep pace with the increasing demands. 
Since 1853 the Asylum for the Poor has been under the management of 
superintendents, a list of whom is as follows: George A. Wellman, John 
Enyeart, John L. Gamble, AVilliam Asher Gray, William A. Riclia:-ds, 
Joseph 11. Bantham and Erwin Thomp.son. 

As the population of AVabash County has not increased more than 
two thousand in tlie last thirty years, it is but natural that the cost of 
maintaining its poor has varied but little. In 1879 the expenditures 
on that account amounted to $5,771 and in 1881 to $5,254. The report 
of the county auditor for 1913 shows the following items: Township 
poor expense, $3,405.93; superintendent poor farm, salary and mainte- 
nance, $3,682.97. Total $7,088.90. For 1913, the poor farm receipts 


amounted to $204.78 ; receipts on account of poor relief, $;},405.93. Total 
receipts for support of the poor, $3,610.71. 

Creation OP THE Townships • ■ ..,>.- ;;,.;: 

The townships of Wabash County are offshoots or divisions of the 
original Nohle and La Gro, created as we have seen, at th(; second ses- 
sion of the first meeting of the Board of County Commissioners, June 
15, 1835. From Noble were created Pleasant, AValtz and Paw Paw, and 
from La Gro, Chester and Liberty. 

Pleasant Township was formed in :\Iay, 1836, by the Board of County 
Commissioners who struck off from the north end of Noljle Township a 
tract of country nine miles north and south, and eight miles east and 
west. Township officers were appointed and in the following June a 
justice of the peace elected. Thus Pleasant Township perfected its 
civil organization. 

In ^lay, 1841, the board ordered that another block of territory, eight 
miles east and west by six north and south, should be lopped from the 
south end of Noble. To this was given the name of Waltz, in memory 
of the gallant soldier, Lieut. Frederick Waltz, who was killed at the 
battle of the ]\Iississinewa, just over the line, in 1812. 

But Noble Township was still considered much too large and Pleasant 
Township somewhat bulky. Consequently at the December term of the 
Board of County Conunissioners in 1872, the three southern tiers of 
sections were talvcn from Pleasant Township and the three northern, 
from Noble Township, to form Paw Paw. The township thus created 
was eiglit miles long east and west, and six miles wide, north and south. 
But this decision did not satisfy the Southerners, and in June, 1873, the 
southern tier of sections comprising eight square miles was reunited to 
Nol;le, leaving Paw Paw to consist of forty square miles, the smallest 
towiLship in the county. 

With this readjustment, Nol)le Township also assumed its present 
area— nine miles north and south and eight east and west, or seventy- 
two square miles; besides about twelve sections over the line between 
Ranges 6 and 7, south of the Wabash. 

The final movement of 1872 by which Paw Paw Township was created 
was the tardy outcome of a proposition advanced as early as 1856. At 
the December term of the board in that year a petition was presented 
by Elihu Garrison and others for a new township to be taken from 
Pleasant and Noble. But so many petitions for the creation of new 
townships came in at about the same time that the county commissioners 



.settled all tlujse juattci's by smothering them in wholesale. Thus Paw 
Paw Township sank out of sight for a quarter of a century. 

The various changes through which the eastern part of the county, 
comprising the townships of La Gro, Chester and Liberty, assumed their 
present forms, is thus explained : In June, 1835, when the county was 
divided into Noble and La Gro townships, the latter had a straight east- 
ern line twentv-four miles in length. The corner now shown as having 
l)een taken out of the northeastern part of Chester Township was so 
taken after the creation of Wabash County. It belongs (two square 
)niles) to AVhitley County and, it is to be presumed, was added to the 
latter at its formation, which took place after the erecting of Chester 
Townsliip in 1830. 

Ill May, \H''>iJ, Chester Townsliip was created by taking a northern 
traet fi'om La Gro Townshij), eight miles square, and Liberty was formed 
from a southern block of the same area, leaving La Gro eleven nules from 
north to south and eight miles from east to west. 

At the June term, 1846, the County Board directed that the line 
of Libei'ty and La Gro townsliips should be the line between townships 
26 and 27, thus cutting off two miles from the north of Liberty and 
attaehing them to La Gro. Thereby, Liberty Township assumed its 
j)resent foi'm — eight miles, east and west, atul six miles, north and 

Later, the line between Noble and La (iro townships was changed, 
to the advantage of the foniiei", and a mile was sliced from Northern 
La Gro and attached to Southern Chester. Still later, Noble S(.'cured 
another portion of La (Jro's territory, making between twelve and thir- 
teen sections altogetlier. 

La Gro is thus left witli about eighty-live sections, containing not 
fai" fi'om the same area as Noble and nineteen sections more than Chester. 

The (h'tailed history'of the townshi[)s, political and otherwise, will 
be found in succeetling ehai)ters, the present purpose being to show the 
oi'der and manner of theii- creation as civil units of the county. 

County Clkrk.s 

Since the creation of Wabash County in 1835, its officers have l)een 
as follows: 

Clerks : William Steele, 1835-41 ; Joseph Hopkins, 1842-48 ; John C. 
Sivey, 1849-58; Elijah Ilackleman, 185!)-66,- James M. Amoss, 1867-74; 
James P. Ross, 1875-79; Clark W. Weesner, 1880-87; Thompson R. 
P>rady, 1888-91 ; Levi Patterson, 1892-95; Capt. William M. Henley, 1896- 
99; John IT. Leff'orge, 1900-03; Charles S. Rose, 1904-07; James C. 
Reynolds, 1908-11 ; Ellis Bloomer, 1912— 



Tivasuivr.s : Hugh Hanna, l.S;j5-46 ; Krastus l^in-liani, 1840-50 
Arehihal.i Stitt, ]«5(J-54; Calvin Cowgill, 1854-58; Davi.l Thompson^ 
l8o8-(J2; Klias Hubbard, 1862-IJG; Cliai'lcs S. Ellis, 18ti(i-70; Elia.s B. 
McPherson, 1870-74; Robert ^\. Donaldson, 1874-78; Hezckiali Caldwell", 
1878-82 ; .Mordoeai W. Coate, 1882-87; John S. Chinworth, 1887-!)1; John 
C. Suinmerland, 1891-95; Frank Lynn, 1895-1900; Henry Diifton,' 1900- 
04 (:\Ir. Dufton held office until January 1, 1905, on account of thJ death 
of Treasurer-eh'ct Elias Scott); John II. .Morrow, 1905-09; William G. 
Gardner, 1909-12; N. P. Lavengood, 1912— 


several years 

Auditors: Some of the duties of tiiis office were for 
after the organization of the eounty discharged by the clerk, county 
agent ami other officers; Ira Burr, 1841-45; William Steele, Jr., 1845-54; 
Thomas B. .A[e{,^ai-ty, 1854-62; Alauson P. Ferry, 1862-66; Col. John 
R. Polk, 1866-74; William S. Stitt, 1874-83; William Ilazen, 188;:1-91; 
Capt. lienjamin F. Williams, 1891-99; Capt. lieiijamin F. Clemans, 1899- 
08; Winfield Scott Davis, 190;]-07; Jehiel P. Notzger, 1907-11; Daniel 
Showalter. 1911 — 


SlierilTs: William -lohnston (ai>pointed by the governor to assist 
in oi-gaiiizatioii of the county), served until general election, August, 
1835; Jusiah L. Wynes elected, but ivsigiied and Jacob D. Cassatt ap- 
pointed to till vacancy; .Air. Cassatt eleeted in 1836, but resigned and 
Alphi-us Blaekman appointed; Jonatluin R. Cox, elected in 1837— left 
the eounty, and AVilliam Dickerson appointed; .Air. Dickerson, 1839-41; 
William Steele, Jr.. 1841-45; AVilliam Caldwell, 1845, died in office, and 
Oliver P. Murphy appointed; Hugh M. Stephenson, 1848-51; Benjamin 
Pauling; 1851-55; Aloses Scott, 1855-59; Mason I. Thomas, 1859-63; 
James M. Furrow, 1863-67; Capt. John M. McKahan, 1867-71; George J. 
Stephenson, 1871-75; Harvey F. AV^oods, 1875-79; Asa S. Ross, 1879-83; 
Bossier AValter, 1883-87; Howard Squires, 1887-91; AVilliam T. Williams, 
1891-95; Daniel V>. McKahan, 1895-99; Charles E. Stewart, 1899-04; 
Sanford C. .Martin, 1904-07; George AV. Freenum, 1908-11 ; John Niccnm, 
1912-13; AVilliam II. Coble, 1914— 


\ Surveyors . -,'■ -,,^ ■,„ i, ', ,,.-,..;. v\'„ ,^,,,:;, 

Surveyors: Isaac Fowler, appoint(Ml in 18:5,') aiul tlied in oflice ; Elmer 
Cox (appointed), IS:}?--']!); John Shellenhor^^'r, 1889-50; Henry ]\roritan 
(appointed), 1850-51; AVilliam iMeKininioy, 1851-52; I<]lijah Ilackleiuan, 
1852-59; Alanson P. Ferry, 1859-63; Samuel S. Ewing, 18G3-71 ; Samuel 
C. Thralls, 1871-72; Samuel S. Ewing, 1872-7(i; Orlando Ewing, 1876- 
78; elames Shea, 1878-80; Samuel S. Ewing, 1880-82; W. S. Ilerriek, 
1882-86; Franklin Knight, 1886-90; William Fowler, 1890-91; Ovid W. 
Conner, 1891-93; J. Keyes Conner, 1893-98; William Fowler, 1898-1901; 
Charles 11. Hrett, 1904-06 (drain commissioner, 1905-06) ; Ora White- 
neck, 1906-08; lUondell Berry, 1!)09-12; William I). Gochenour, 1913— 

Recorders ;^ '' :;;>>!- ,- ,. 

Recorders: William Steele, 1835-51; Lewis Sheets, 1854-58; ]Moses 
Seott. ls5S-(i2: Jolm Piper, lS(i2-64; Jonatlian R. Wilson, 1864-68; James 
M. Ilann. 18(;8-76; Jolm II. Dicken, 1876-84; Christian C. :\Iikesell, 
1884-92: Ceorge A. Wellman, 1 892-1 !)00; Alonzo ^\. (iihson, 1900-04; 
George F. Ogdeu, 1904-08; Alvin W. Schuler, 1908-12; Alvah A. Garher, 


Coroners (for the past thirty-five years): R. E. Flinn, 1878-84; 
John C. Zimmerman, 1884-86; Levi S. Tliomas, 1886-88; AVilliam W. 
Woods, 1888-90; Alonzo AI. Gil)son, 18!)0-!)8; Jrsse B. Williams, ISDS- 
1902; Homer M. Jones, li)02-04; Leroy Dennis, 1904-10; Howard R. Alt- 
doerlfer, 1!)10-12; John AV. Wilson, 1912— 

1>().\KD OF County Com.missioners 

Commissionei's : 1835, Stearns Fisher, Levi Burr. Alpheus Black- 
man ; 183(), Jonathan Keller, Levi Bun-, Ira Burr; 1837, Jonathan Keller, 
AVilliam T. Ross, Ira lUirr ; 1838, J. H. Ray, AVilliam T. Ross, Ira Burr; 
1839-40, Al. Knoop, AVilliam T. Ross, Ira Burr; 1841, AI. Knoop, AVilliam 
T. Ross, William Johnston; 1842-44, Jesse D. Scott, AVilliam T. Ross 
and William Johnston; 1845, Thomas Rnhle, William T. Ross, William 
Johnston; 1846-47, Thomas Ruhle, J. J. Shauhhutt, J. H. Keller; 1848, 
James Storps. J. J. Shauhhutt, J. II. Keller; 18-19, James Storps, Jacob 
A^andegrift, Henry Lutz; 1850, James Stoi-ps, Jacob V^andegrift, Michael 
Kircher; 1851, M. R. Crabill, Jacob A^andegrift, M Kircher; 1852, M. R. 


CrabilJ, Jsaae Waiii.sley, .M. Kircher; 1853, Josiali liowlcs, Isaac Wainsley, 
M. Kirelu-r; 1854, John Wlierrett, Isaac Wanisley, M. Kircher; 1855^ 
John Wlierrett, Jsaae Wanisley, James Comstoek ; 185(j, James Wlierrett. 
Isaac Wanisley, leh Comstoek; 1857, Jacob L. Sailors, Isaac Wanisley, 
Ralph 0. Arnold ; 1858, J. L. Sailors, Mark Stratton, R. G. xVrnold ; 1859,' 
J. L. Sailors, Mark Stratton, R. G. Arnold; 1860, Elilm Weesner,' Mark 
Stratton, R. G. Arnold; 1861, Elilm AYeesner, .Alark Stratton. R. G. 
Arnold; 1862, Eliliu Weesner, Mark Stratton, i\I. Kircher; 1863, W. H. 
Thompson, .Mark Stratton, M. Kircher; 1864, W. H. Thompson, Isaac 
Wanisley, M. Kircher; 1865, W. B. Thompson, Isaac Wanisley, U. 
Kircher; 1866, Dillard Ross, Isaac Wamsley, U. Kircher; 1867, Dillard 
Ross, Isaac Wamsley, .M. Kircher; 1868, Dillard Ross, John Dnfton, 
R. G. Arnold; 186D, Eliliu AYeesner, John Dufton, R. G. Arnold; 187o| 
Rol)ert Stewart, John Dufton, R. G. Arnold; 1871-73, Robert Stewart^ 
Alonzo .Mason, R. G. Arnold; 1874, Robert Stewart, John Dufton, AViley 
S. Jordon ; 1875, Robert Stewart, John Dufton, AViley S. Jordon ; 1876-80, 
John 11. Ferree, John Dufton, AViley S. Jordon ; 1881, John H. Ferree^ 
John Dufton, Samuel L. Gamble; 1882, John H. Ferree, John Dufton, 
Samuel L. Gamble; 1883, Tobia.s II. i\Iiller, John Dufton, Samuel L. 
Gamble; 1884-85, Tobias II. IMiller, W. AY. Stewart, Samuel L. Gamble. 

Commissioners of the I\Iiddle. District : AYilliam AY. Stewart, 1883-89; 
Judson J. Lukeiis, 1889-95; S. Michael, 1895-1901; Aaram T. Gidley, 
1901-07; Thomas Berry, 1908-11; Daniel Urshel, 1911 — 

Commissioners of the ^Middle District : William AV. Stewart, 1883-89 ; 
James 1). Starbuck, 1889-95; Josejih W. Husick, 1895-97 (died Alarcii 
8); Wallace W. Ford, 1897-1902; Albert Tweedy, 1903-09; Andrew C. 
Iluir, 1909— 

Commissioners of the Southern District: John Y. Oyler, 1885-91; 
Charles P. Sailors, 1891-97; Geoi'ge Pressler, 1897-1903; John C. F. 
Alartiii. 1904-0!); Jerome Alai'tin, 1!)10; ("larenee 1. Knee, 1910-13; Mer- 
iltt Banister, 1913— 

Present Coi'nty Officers 

The comi)lete j'oster of officers serving the county in 1913-14 was as 

CommissioiKM-s: Northern District— Dan Fr.shel, North Manchester; 
madia District— A. C. Huff, AVabash, R. F. D. 5; Southern District— 
^Merritt lianistei-, Lafoiitaine. 

(Jounty Council: E. S., Liberty Mills: Rob(>rt Ci'unkle- 
ton, Lagi'O; Thomas ]\IcNamee, Wabash; T. II. ^Miller, Lafoiitaine; A. 


H. Bi'uckhart, J.aketon; Lee AVeiuier, Wabash; C. Scluualzried, North 

Coiiiity OlTiccrs: Hon. Alfrtnl II. IMuiiuiifr, Jud-^'e Wabasii Circuit 
Court, \Va))asli ; Aaron Man(,h'll)auni, prosecuting attorney, Wabasli ; 
L. A. Baljer, joint senator, Wabash and Fulton counties, Roanu; Joliu 
Isenl)arger, repi-esentative, North ^lanehester; Daniel Showalter, auditor, 
Wabash; James Showalter, deputy auditor, Wabash; N. P. Laveiigood, 
treasui'er, Wabash; Elsie Oberg, deputy treasurer, Wal)ash ; Ellis 
Bloomer, clerk, Wabash; William Zeller, dei)uty clerk, Wabash; William 
Coble, slierilf, Wabash; Allen Swihart, deputy sherilf, Wal)ash ; Alvah 
A, Garber, recorder, Wabash; j\Iona Edwards, deputy recorder, Wabash; 
Robert K. Devricks, superintendent of schools, Wabash ; William. Goch- 
enour, surveyor, Wabash; John W. Wilson, coroner, Laketon; Homer 
Iloovei-, tleputy coroner, Wa]>ash ; A. N. Mc(."racken, county attorney, 
Wabash; Joe Cowgill, county assessor, Wabash; Ceo. A. Yopst, court 
reporter, Wabash ; Jesse Parke, custodian of courthouse, AVabash ; Ervin 
Thompson, suix-rintendent poor farm, Wabash ; Dr. G. M. LaSelle, health 
connnissioner, Wabash; Isaac Hoover, county road superintendent, North 

Township Trustees: Cliester Townshi]), E. J. Singer, North ]\Ian- 
chester; La (^ro Township, D. E. Purviance, La Gro; Liberty Township, 
Jacob Sailoi's, Lafontaine ; Noble Townshij), B. F. Hul)bard, Wabash; 
Pleasant Township, Frank li'eland, Laketon; Law Paw Township, Jacob 
Wagoner, Roaiin; Waltz Townshij), H. L. iMuerick, Wabash, R. R. 8. 

Towiisliip Assessors: Chester Townshij), Henry T. Tilman, North 
^laiirhestei-; La Cro Townshij), Wari'eii Williams, Dora; Liberty Town- 
shij). Ollie L.anister, Lafontaine; Noble Township, D. W. Oswalt, Wabash; 
Pleasant Townshij), A. C. LefTel, Noi'th Manchester, R. R. 5; Paw Paw 
Townshij), (()\iiney ('arver, Ivoaiiu; Waltz Township, P. S. Stout, Con- 
vel'se, R. R. li. 

School Ijoards: City of AVal)ash — V. A. Mattern, jiresident of board; 
Samuel R. Craig, secretary; W. A. Elward, treasurer. 

North Manchester — Oliver H. Fox, president of board; Charles F. 
Smith, secretarv; Calvin Ulrev, treasurer. 



Corn, the Poor Max's Crop — Early Plows — Prlmitive Planting, 


TiiRKsiHXG ^LvciiLXE — FiRsT IIav 1'ress— Early Kaising of Hogs 
— ^Markets axd Prices — Other Live Stock, Pew — IIard Journeys 
ro -Mill — Canal Brixgs Farmer Better Days — -The Useful Ells- 


L\G i)F J Iocs for ALvrket (18:^8) — Rearing Fine Cattle — Manu- 


LocK'AL 'I'hex — Farmers of Wabash Cocnty Organize — First 
Fair, with Outcome — Lmfrovements Noted in 1854 — Wabash as 
A Packixc; Cexter — Cokx axd AVheat ix 18,37 — Progress of the 
Society — Pi;esext Stati's — Corn, Oats and Wheat (1!)14) — For- 
a(;e Crops — Livi; Stock — ]'\\rms and Laxds Classifh:!) — Tax Pavers 
AXD Theik' Property — Some ( 'ompaiusoxs from the Past — Popu- 


hi tile lii-st chapter of this histoi-y, wliich ch-als with the physical 
features of the county, it lias been shown how the soil of the Upper 
Wal)asli \'alley is well adaptecUto tlie raisiii;^' of grains and, especially 
tiiis section of it, adiiiii-ahly fitted for the i-aisiuf^' of live stoek. Hut 
when the settlers from the l<'.ast had t)vereoiiie tlieir [)i'eeoneeived notion 
that prairie soils were weak and valueless, as compared to tliose which 
Ijoi't' hca\'y j^rowths of timjjer, tlu- gi'ead tide of iui}.;ration eonunenced 
to flow into such states as Illinois, Iowa and Xi'braska. The result has 
been that within the inemoi-y of the later generation of residents, the 
nuunifaetures of Wahash County have developcMl with nnieh more rapid- 
ity than the agricultural or the pastoi-al. hut, although its interests con- 
nected with the i-aising of coriL wheat and oats, or horses and cattle, are 
no longer of national niomt'iit, the\' are still impoi'tant soui-ces of revenue 
and decided soui'ces of satisfaction to the home communities. 



Corn, the Poor Man's Crop 

For many years in the early times Indiana was the banner state in 
the raising of eorn, the poor man's crop, but Illinois now raises twice 
as many bushels. Its crop of that cereal is still enormous, and of its 
200,000,000 bushels aniuudly drawn from the soil Wabash County con- 
tributes about two million bushels. 

Corn was always its largest, as it was its first crop. At lii'st the 
means for suceessful cultivation of the soil were few com])artMl with the 
api)Iiances of the present, yet they were ai)i)arently well adapted to the 
wants anil the means of the i)eriod. bi'ing simple anel inexpensive in 
their eharaeter. 

Early Plows , '"• '' ' ' 

A pietun' of tliese tinu'S, elosely api)lieal)le to the jnoneer farmei- of 
Wabash Counts', is thus drawn by AVilliam Henry Smith in his "History 
of Indiana": "To plow the hill sides the farmer plowed so as to throw 
tlie furrow ihiwn the hill, and to do this the jilow had to be dragged 
back to the staiiiiig ])oiut aftei' ever_\- fun'ow. Contrast that slow and 
laboi-ious method with the I'evolving ])\o\v now in usi'. The harrosv 
\vas y shaped, with' wooden teeili, the whoh' made liy the fai'uier himself. 
The wheat had to bi' harvested with a siekle, with whieh an expert eut- 
ter would go over abmit three-([uarters of an acre per day. Al)Out 1840 
an imi)i-oved ])low laiown as the Peaeoek, taking its name from its 
inveiitoi', was inti'odueetl. This ei'eatetl a revolution in the work of the 
farm, emd)lijig the farmer to plow aljout tsviee the amount of land in a 

Prlmitivk Planting, Soavlxg and Klai'ing 

"The methods of planting and sowing were also of the pi'imitive kind. 
The corn ground was 'laid off both ways; tlie wife, or tin; boy or the 
girl, would drojj the eoi'Ji at the intersections, while tlie farmer would 
follow and cover with a hoe. Wheat, oats and barley were sown 'broad- 
cast,' the sower carrying his grain in a sack swung around his neck. 
Help svas almost impossible to be obtained, and all the woi'k devolved 
upon the farmer and his famil\'. When there did come a sui-|)lus of 
])Oi)ulation and men svere si'eking faiau work, about the onl\' time they 
could find employment was when the harvest was I'eady to l)e gathei-ed. 
Then the bands of the sicklers came into play. Csually from live to ten 
persons would form these bands of i'eai)ers, one man following another 


across the Held, cuttiiif^ a()Out half an acn; each day. These; bands 
would begin tiieii- work in tlie southern part of tlie stati- wliere the grain 
ripened iirst, and ivap liekis Jiorthward until they would reach the 
verge of civilized life in the territory. The best reapers would receive 
371/2 cents j)er day, or a bushel of wheat. It was not until 1840 
that the grain ci'adle came into general use in the state. ^Vith that new 
iini>lenient. a good cradler and two binders could harvest and shock 
al)Out two acres per day. ■ ;■. , ■, ; 

Flailing and Winnowing 

"Previous to 1840 the grain was threshed either with a flail or 
trampled out with horses. Two men could Hail out and winnow about 
twelve Inislnds per day, and two men and a boy, with horses, could ti-amp 
out ami winnow al)out twenty bushels a day. The wiiniowing, or separ- 
ating the grain from the chaff, was done ])y the luuul sieve. The mixed 
chaff and grain was i)Ourt'd from above on the bed-sheet, while two men 
would so vibrate the sheet as to create a current of air, which would 
blo^v the chaff to oiu' side, while the heavier grain would fall in a pile 
at their feet. 

First Indiana Threshing ^Iaciiine 

"The first thi'eshing nuichine was introdu(;ed into the southern part 
of the state in ]8o9. With four horses and eight or nine men 200 
bushels of wheat covdd be threshed in a day. The wheat so threshed 
had to be cleaned afterward. It recjuired three men two da.ys to clean 
and sack what would be threshed in one. This was thouglit to be a 
wonderful improvement over the old way, and it was, Ijut when com- 
pare(l with the steam threshei-s and separators of the present day it was 
very primitive. 

"Tile scythe ^vas the only im])lement for mowing the meadows. A 
good, strong man could only cut from one to two acres in a day, working 
from sun-uj) until dark. The hand-rake was then used to rake up the 
hay preparatory to stacking it with the wooden fork. AVith a mowing 
machine a num now cuts ten acres a day, and with a steel-toothed horse 
rake another easily prepares it for the stack, and a steel fork operated 
by a man and a horse stacks it. 

First ITay Press 

"The first hay press in use was made of a long wooden screw al)0ut a 
foot in diameter, with ten or twelve fe(,'t of thread to the screw. A stick 


of timber twenty-six inclies square, with a hole tlirougli tlie center, served 
as a nut, with threads cut to receive tlie wooth'U screw. The init was 
fi'anicil into tlie to;) of two <,MTat jKjsts, twenty-six ])y ein-htfcn inches 
in si/.i', and twenty-on<* iVct long, standing four and a half feet ai)art. 
Six of these posts were planted in the ground. A space eleven feet high 
was left to receive the hay to l)e i)ressed. To the to{) of tlie gi'i-at wooden 
screw was fastened a swet'p thirty feet long, bent downwai'd. To this 
horses Were hitched. To complete a hail two feet stjiun'e and foui' ft'i-t 
long, the horses 0])erating the screw would have to travel aliout a mih; 
and a half. 

■■prior to the inti-otluetion of imi)roved implements, about 1840, it 
took one farm hand twenty-four (hiys to plow, seed and hai'vest ten acres 
of corn. At Hrst only enough grain was grown for the use of the family 
and for stock feeding, as there was no nuirket for it. The corn was 
ground or pounded into a meal, or made into hominy. To these 
succeeded hand mills. 

E.MiLY Raising of TIogs 

"As the fai'iiiei- would get uioi'e land cleared, lie would cultivate mort; 
corn and feed hogs, they ti'ansporting themselves to market. Tlu^ breed 
was rougli, and the hogs when fattened for mai'ket would only ^veigh 
about two hundred jtounds gross, and ])rior to 1843 the price never 
reaclu'd two cents ]»er i)0und gross. Cincinnati and Lawrenceburg wei'c 
the two great markets for hogs, and in the winter to those two places 
the tlro\'ers would wend their slow way, driving several hundred liogs. 
During the summer and fall months the hogs were permitted to run at 
large in the forests, eating great (pumtities of mast with which the for- 
ests abounded. Tiatcr, they would l)e gathered and fed for a few- 
weeks on corn, thus making their meat mai'ketable. Running at large 
they tn'came very wild, and often it would be the work of days and 
weeks to gather them together for fattening. 

]\[arkets and Prices 

"As farming stretched fartiier into the interior, the difficulty of 
getting to market incn-asod. Roads were few and of the worst cliar- 
actei'. AVhat surplus was raised had to tind a nuirket at Cincinnati, Louis- 
N'ille or New Orleans. To reach New Oi'leans, flat boats were used, and 
the farms lu'ar the interior streams wei'e more pi'ofitable, for the farm- 
ers would com])iiie, build one or moi'c thit lioats, load tliem with grain 
()!• baled hav, then llont them out to llie Ohio ;iiid then.'e (h)wn to New 


Orleans. Wheat and corn were frequently hauled to these waterways 
from a distance of seventy-five and a hundred miles, and when thus 
delivered over roads which much of the time were almost impassable, the 
prices obtained prior to 1840 was from thirty to fifty cents a bushel for 
wheat and from ten to twelve cents for corn. 

Otiiek Live Stock Few 

"pjut few cattle were raised, only enough to furnish milk and butter 
for tile family, and a yoke or two for farm work. A few sheep were 
also kept of mongn-1 breeds to supply wool for clothing. The wool was 
carded by hand, made into yarn on the liand spinning wheel and woven 
into jeans and linsy on hand looms, every farm house being supplied 
with tliese necessary articles to the pioneer. Milk cows were sold for 
eight dollars, and the best of them only produced three pounds of 
butter i)er week. Horses were only raised for farm purposes and the 
breed was very indifferent. . > . , , ; , , .,• 

Hard Journeys to INIill 

"After some years water mills began to appear, here and there along 
the streams, but they were only calculated to grind for home consump- 
tion, and the farmer, when he wanted flour or meal would fill a sack 
with wlieat or corn and, throwing it over his horse, go several miles to 
mill where, perhaps, he would have to wait half a day for his 'turn.' 

•'The first flour mill of any consequence erected in the state was 
built in Lawrenceburg, twenty miles west of Cincinnati on the Indiana 
side of the line, in 18:39. To this mill grain was transported over the 
bad i-oads from all of Central Indiana. The trips would require from 
eiglit to ten days, and from seven hundred to nine hundred pounds 
were a good load for two horses or a yoke of oxen. Once at the mill the 
farmer would sell his wheat and take his pay in iron, salt, dye stuffs 
and othei- necessities. The wheat, when made into flour, would be shipped 
to New Orleans by boat. 

Canal Brings Farmer Better Days 

"But a better day was coming for the Indiana farmer. New and 
better facilities for reaching markets were to be opened up. The first 
of these was the Wabash and Erie Canal which was opened in 1841. 
This waterway connected with the lakes and reached far into the interior 
of the state, thus affording ready and cheap transportation to the mar- 


kets of the East and even with Europe. Tliis gave a great impetus tO' 
the agrieultural interests of the State, and the area of farming was wid- 
ened, llogs were no longer the best paying products to be raised on the 
farm. Wheat, oats and other cereals began to be profitable, and the work 
of tlie farmer was greatly diversified. Railroad building was soon to 
take its place in the work of furnishing markets for the surplus of the 
farmer. This bi'ouglit a rotation of crops. Railroads were followed by 
manufa(;turing establishments, and a greater home demand. The in- 
crease in foreign and home demand brought with it a better breed of 
live stock and lietter varieties of grain. The farm acreage increased 
rapidly, and the new and improved implements and farm machinery 
made it possible for tlie agriculturist to kcei) up with the increased 
demand for his jiroducts." 

The Useful Ellsworths 

But the most interesting work of the historian is to place before his , 
readers the words of some authority who is living in the times of which 
he wi'ites. Those of the present thereby get not only the atmosphere 
and coloi'ing of the past, but nuiy indulge in that comfortable, if rather 
unfair mental process of comparing the prophecies of the past with 
those developments which have brought the actual history up to the pres- 
ent. "While the AVabash & Erie Canal was in process of l)uilding there 
was no i)ublie man who more thoroughly investigated the agricultural 
possibilities of the country between the Ohio and the Alississippi, espe- 
cially of the Wabash Valley, than Hon. Henry L. Ellsworth, commissioner 
of i)atents, Washington, D. C. His relative, Henry W. Ellsworth, was a 
resident of Lafayette, and soon after the completion of the Wabash & 
Erie Canal to Wabash, jjublislied a veiy interesting book on the "Valley 
of the Up])er AValiasb, with Hints on its Agricultnral .Vdvantages ; 
Esti*nates of Cultivation and Notices of Labor-saving Alachines." The 
two Ellsworths co-operated both in tlie exchange of information and in the 
inti'oduction of improved agrieultural maehinet'y into the vall(\v of 
the Upper AVabash. Many of the ])ioneer farmei's of AVal)ash County 
had cause to thaidv them both. 

In a letter from the Commissioner to the author of the "A^alley of 
the Upper AVabash," dated September, L'^3S, occurs the following: "I 
hope you will extend agi'icultural improvements, as far as your means 
will allow. I shall cheei'fully ••ommunieate, from time to time, such 
information on timt subject as T can collect, fn addition to the ma- 
chines already ordered for Lafayette, T shall soon send otiiers, calcidated 
for ditching, sowing, reaping, raking, Max pulling, etc.; all of which,. 


though they aru of hite invention, have been sufficiently tested to be 
introduced without hesitation. 

Drawbacks to Skxtling the (Jiter Wabash 

"Tile cause wliicli lias hitherto prevented the true advantages of this 
delightful valley from being known is found in the extreme ditiiculty 
of gaining access to it by any of the established routes of Indiiina. The 
AVabash Kiver, susccj)tible as it is of iiuproveiiK'nts which would secure 
a constant navigation has, until lately, furnished an uncertain thorough- 
fare. A journey to the Upi)cr Wabash from the Ohio Kiver, by land, 
owing to the extreme roughness of the roads, the difficulty of obtaining 
suital)l(_' veiiicles and accommodations, and withal the distance, was one 
of exti'eiue fatigue, while all api)roach from J^ake Erie by the Indian 
trails and traces of the Maumee iliver could be undertaken only \s'ith a 
single horse, and often at a risk of long and serious tlcteiition, from 
innumerable by-patlis and streams almost impassable. The single pioneer 
and hardy hunter could indeed press througli these obstacles; but the 
emigrant witli his family coukl travel only the more convenient routes 
along the borders of the state. 

■"Tlujusands in this way emigrating fi-om our eastern seaports have 
passed from nuftalo to Detroit, thence to Chicago, and iinally sctth'd on 
the lake shore or near tlie watt'r courses. This facility of water com- 
munication has already causeel the settlement of parts of ^lichigan. The 
enterprise of her citizens has opened roads to the interior and soutliern 
I)orti()ns of her growing state, and many are now emigrating thence to 
adjoining i)ortions of Indiana. Those, who after a short residence in 
^Michigan dispose of lands at $15 or $25 }>er acre, can lind tracts even 
more productive at $1.25 in Indiana. 

"Sucli havi- been the causes which existed to iH'tard the settlement 
of Northern and Northwestern Indiana. They are now iai)iilly disap- 
pearing; a few months more will witness their complete removal, and an 
emigration to a spot so well fitted by nature to sustain it will take place, 
hitherto uiipreccdenled even in the history of western settlements. The 
magniliceiit internal improvement schemes of Indiana, involving an ex- 
[)ense of many millions, are fast develo])ing the vast extent of her re- 
sources, and opening in all tlircctions certain avenues of quiidv communi- 
cation to the eiiti'i-prisiiig settler. 

Status op AVabash and Erie Canal 

"During the ensuing year (lS3f)) the Wal)ash and Erie Canal, a work 
comlucted bv the stales of Ohio and Indiana and tlcsigned to form an 


important link in tin- '^veat eliain of conmuinication now upening be- 
twr.Mi the .Mississippi KiviT and the city oi' Xrw Yofk will ho (■onii)lrtc(l. 
At the pi'csmt tiiiir lioats ai'c ninnin;z (lail\- i'l-oni Loj^'ansport to Fort 
Wayne, a distance of about ei^bty miles. The heavy sections on the 
remaining poi'tion of tlu- canal between Lafayi'tte, the head of steam- 
boa.t navigation on the AVabasli, and Logansport, are now completed, 
and tin' lighter are in jti'OgT-es.s and will soon be iinished. 

"From the vigorous exertions of Ohio and the time as settled by eon- 
tract, there is little doubt but what that portion of the canal which 
])asses through her territory will be completed by the 1st of October, 
1S;',|). Th.' opening of this canal throughout its whole extent will indeed 
l.r ;i proud ei'a for the AVahash valh-y ; and furnishing, as it does, the 
most direct and natural channel of communication between the East 
and the West, we can hardly estinmte the travel that will How in this 

"Till- oiH'iung of the Erie and AVabash Canal will afford an imme- 
diate outlet f(»i' much of the prodiice of this and adjoining counties. 
The main ehaiimd for the exportation of produce licretofoi-e has been 
the AVabash Rivei", by means of which vast quantities have been shipped 
annually to the .states bordei'ing on the .Mississippi and to New Orleans. 
Many exceedingly profitable speculations have been made in pork, and 
a large amount is i)ut up every season. Investments of capital, yield- 
ing great rcUirns, can easily be made from well conducted stock farms. 
b\"raising and i)i-essing hay for the southern mai'kets, from wheat, corn 
etc. The'recent introduction of labor-saving machines, all of which are 
admirably calculated for the prairies, has nmterially reduced the former 
expense of cultivation. 

A ("(jxvKKT TO Prairie La.vd 

•'One great cause of the iiinnediate gi'owth of the AVabash valh'y is 
the numbci- of pi'airies, i)repai-ed, as it were, by nature for the plough. 
Thousands of acres can be found, even now. as well fitted for producing 
erops as the most highly manured and I'olled lands of the okl settle- 
ments. Such is its fertility that ovei- 100 bushels of corn, 40 bushels of 
wlieat and 70 bushels of oats are easily raised ui)on a single aci'e. Some 
inilividnals have been cultivating upwards of 1,000 acres of grain, the 
whole of which is readily disposed of at the highest prices. Other tracts 
of similar extent are sowed in grass, and the hay sold at an immense 
profit in the southei'ii nuirkets. 

"The (piestion of the comparative value of timber lands and prairie is 
decided by important facts in favor of the latter. The of a single 


acre of each will Ijl- the same, but the comparative expense of eultiva- 
tioii will he fouml as 1 to 3 in favor of the prairies. From ^3 to $9 per 
aere, inelnding the tirst cost, is an ample allowance for the complete 
arrangement and cultivation of a prairie farm, while the sum of $12 
per acre is th(i lowest price for simply clearing timlxn- land, wliich is left 
for jnany A'ears encumbered with unsightly stumps and roots. The soil 
of the j)rairirs, too, is generally more i)roductive than that of tiiid)er land. 
Poi-tions of prairie, far remote from timber, can be easily supplied by 
sowing the seed of the black walnut or locust. Four or live years are 
sufficient to ])roduce a growth of tind)er suital)le for fuel and other pur- 
poses. Sod fences, with a hedge of locust or tile hawthoi'ii, are found to 
be better and far neater than the ordinary ones heretofcn'e in use, while 
the recent iiiiprf)vements in ditching machines I'ender their construction 
coiiiparativel\- cheaj) and easy. Many of these hedges are alreaily found 
upon the i)rairies. and they will soon constitute the outer and division 
fences of extensive ])i'airie farms. The surface of the praii'ies, from its 
smoothness, is admirably ada])ted for the successful operation of numer- 
ous lal)or-saving machines of recent oi'igin. By the use of the ditching 
machines, before mentioned, it is estimated that fences may be made upon 
tlie prairies at the astonishing low price of fifteen cents per acre, while 
the iliteli answers a most valuable ])urpose in draining moist lands." 


The following is fi'om a letter written l)y lion. O. 11. Smith, United 
States senatcu- from Indiana, who was one of the successful live 
st(jek raisei's of the West of 1838: "Tlu' next braneh of your inquiry 
in relation to the raising and feeding of hogs or swine lias ]-eceived more 
of my i)ei'Sonal atteJition tlian that of grazing cattle or of I'aising 
Living in the centei- of the AVhite AYater valley, where the great and 
almost the exclusive jiroduce for exportation has been pork, my attention 
has necessa]-ily l)een more directed to that subject than the others named. 

"The lands which we call tirst-rate corn lands, are generally alluvial 
bottom lands, or walnut or burr oak talile-Iands. These lands, properly 
cultivated, produce aljout the average of sixty-five buslu'ls of corn to 
the acre; some of the very best i)roduce eighty bushels to the acre, and 
are cultivated for successive years in corn. A statement of my own 
operations for a few years past will partially illustrate the process 
adopted in that part of Indiana in which I reside, in the pork business. 
I have had in cultivation in corn, for several years past. 160 acres of 
river bottom lands. The of these lands have been in cultivation in 
corn about fifteen vears without intermission and without mamii-e. The 


avcra^T ci-op has btn-ii, since J have tilhul Ihciii, about 65 bushels of coru 
to the aere. I phmt my corn, generally, about the iirst of ^lay; it is laid 
by, about the middle of July, aud by the middle of September it is suffi- 
ciently hard to commence the feeding of my hogs. At this time I 
purcluise of tliosc who raise them, the stock required to eat off my corn; 
say al)out thre<' and a half hogs to the acre, which is about the proper 
nunibci- to eat an an-e of corn in thii'tcen weeks—the usual time allowed 
to iiiaki' t)ur jjoi'k fi-om ordinary stock hogs. 

"My coui'se of fet'ding is tliis : j\Iy fields contain from twenty to 
tliirty acres each, all well watered. At the ])roper season, I turn my hogs 
into a lield, and after it is eaten off clean 1 i)ass them into another, and 
so on, until I have fed off my croj), when my hogs are ready for nuirket. 
Tlie profits of the operation depend much upon the 1)V\(:l' and quality 
of the stock, and the i)riee pork may bear in tlie nuirket. But for several 
years i»ast it has been an excellent agricultural business. AVhen I first 
conuiieiiced this kind of .stock, a few years ago, 1 very naturally suppo-sed, 
liy turning them into tlie field of uJigathered corn great waste would 
be the inevitaljle consequence, and 1 had my corn pulled and fed to them 
in a dr\' lot. l!ut I souw became satisfied, ])y ins])(;cting the operations of 
m\- neighbors who had l)cen for years in the Itusiness, that my labor and 
ex])ense of feeding in tliis nuinner was entirely thrown away, and I 
al)andoned it. 

"Hogs gatlier corn in tli<' field with litth; or no waste, provided the 
fiehls 01- lots in which they are fed are i)roi)ortioned in si/e to the num- 
ber of bogs fed ui)on them, which should be in the i)roportion of 100 
hogs to live or six acres of corn. The hogs should be I'egularly salted 
while feeding, and running water should be accessible at all times to 
them. l'>y feeding in this way, i find that my hogs improve more rapidly 
and my lands increase in value yearly, although I have never put a 
shovelfid of nuiiiure upon them. This may Ix.' accounted for by the fact 
that the .stalks, husks, etc., are brought down to rot upon the lands 
through the winter, to be ploughed under in the spring; and so the 
]-)rocess goes on year after year, the land receiving again the most of all 
that is raised \ipon it. 

"Before 1 leave the subject of feeding swine, I would suggest that 
very much of the success depends upon the breed of the animal, as well 
as the manner of his feeding when young. There is one simple fact that 
should never be lost sight of by the feeder or raiser of this stock, and 
that is, if you once put a hog upon high feed you should never diminish 
it, or the animal will scarcely (;ver regain his former healthful and 
improving condition ; or, in other words, when you commence the fat- 
tening })rocess you should continue until the animal is killed." 


Coiitiiiuatioii hy autliof: '"Tlir givat profits of .stock-fanuiiig will be 
rrailily piTccivcil. Coi'ii, as will appear from Mr. Smith's t'Xi»crii'nce, 
rail l»c i-aisc(| ami drlivcrcd on tlir stalk at live cents j)ei' Imslicl ; siiiee 
his actual cost for (>") bushels (an averag'e crop per acre) for sevei'al 
years, was but .-f;:').')!). llo^s fed thus in Held I'cquire no additional 
ex])cnditures except the sum ivquii'ed for salting. Such has been the 
t'.xpericncc of other indi\-iduals, st)ine of whom have fattened foi- the 
market .\-e;i!-ly upwards of l,()i)0 hogs. Th.' great demand foi- ])ork 
existing in the southei'ii markets, togethei- with the iiinuense profits that 
attend its sale, ai-e too well known to need a furthei' mention. The pork 
business, in its various bram-hes, has furnished the connuencement and 
compl(_-tion of many of those splendid fortunes which are found in the 
larger cities of the Western world. 

Rearing Fine Cattle 

'"Othci's have devoted their attention to i-eai'ing fine stock eattl(\ and 
with great success. Stock of this description ean be kept fat on the 
pi'airie ])astures during siniuner, and will live well on blue grass iields 
throughout the wintei-. Jt is bettei-, howi'ver, to provide fodder and 
allow them sludter. Selections of cattle and other stock, as bi'eeds, can 
be made to gi-eat advantage from the rare collections to bo found in 
poi'tions of Ohio and Kentucky. The jji'ofit on ;')(•() lieifei's at $.1 (the 
average cost) is readil\- percei\'ed. AVorking oxen of large si/e, which 
can easily be procured at $.")(), will l)ring in .Alicliigan from $100 to $125 
{)er yoke; and lai'ge mnnbei's have during the past \-ear I)een di'iven 
tlnthei- from tin- valley of the AVabash. The cost of diiving oxen to an 
eastern market will not exceed $5 per head, or they may be sent in flat- 
l)oats to the Southern states at an expense ])ut trifling, when compared 
witlj the I'etui'ns. 

^Manufacture of Beet Sugar 

"Beet sugar manufacture offers anothei- advantageous mode for the 
investment of cai)ital. From eighteen to twenty tons of sugar beets are 
calculated as the i)i'oduct of an aci-e. This, allowing eight per cent of 
sugar, gives 8,200 i)ounds which, estimated at ten cents \)vv ])0und, will 
give $320 to the acre. The residue of beets, after an extraction of the 
sacearine mattei-, is much used in England for tlie manufacture of fine 
paper. TIk- cultivation of the beet, with reference to sugar, is an 
emi>loyment well ada])ted, on a suudl scale, to private families. ]\luch 
of the labor re(piisite can be performed indoors, and will furnish an 


agreeable occupation for long winter evenings. Wonld it not literally 
t^nd to sweetrn life, to raise a few bai-rt4s of dioice sugar from a garden 
patch:' This is done witli niudi suc-.-ss in Fi'ance. where labor is high, 
and the rent of land, eight, t.-n and twelve dollars per acre." 

Ax Overdone Prophecy ■. • • - ■ 

The author then goes on to picture the vast agricultural importance 
of both th.' AVabash and Maumce valleys, some tive hundred miles in ex- 
tent, whose grand outlet wa.s to be the AVabash & Erie Canal. Sup- 
posiiig tliem solidly cultivated for an average breadth of twenty miles, 
it was estimated that the crop of wlieat would amount to 336,000.000 
bushels (average of twenty l)usheLs to the acre) and that of corn, 672,- 
000.000 bushels (average, forty bushels). The U)12 cro]) reports show 
that the bannei- eorn state (Illinois) had to be (-ontent with 420.000,000 
bushels of corn, and North Dakota, which led in wheat pi-oduction, with 
143,000,000 bushels. And at the time that the Wabash valley editor 
was' sueh a i)rophet, .Mr. Obed Hussey, of Cincinnati, Ohio, was just 
eommencing to introduce his reaping machine, which he was manufactur- 
ing in Baltimore, ^laryland, Hussey 's Reaping ^Machine, which w^as "war- 
ranted to cut fifteen acres of heavy wheat in a day, the grain taken as 
clean and kd't in as good order for binding as when cut by the scythe 
or siekle." 

It Seemed Logical Then 

Tn January. 1837, the Hon. H. L. Ellsworth, thus speaks of the 
bright outlook "for the Wabash Valley, which had been much neglected: 
"Fh'c thousand persons left Buffalo in one day to go up the lake, and 
yet not one went into the valley of the Wabash. A slight inspection 
of 'the maps of Indiana, Ohio and Illinois, will show a direct route to 
th.- .Mississii)i.i from the west end of Lake Erie, to be up the Maumee 
and down the Wabash Valley to Lafayette. It therefore may be con- 
sidered certain that when the railroad from St. Louis to Lafayette is 
eomideted the great travel from the IMississippi valley to the east will 
be by the lakes through the AValiash and Erie Canal, the shortest and 
quickest route by several days. A person at the mouth of the Ohio 
will pass up to St. Louis, then take the railroad and canal to Lake Erie, 
in preference to following the meanders of the Ohio River in a steam- 
boat. Can there be a doubt on this subject? 

"What time will 1)0 occupied on this route to New York? Not ex- 
ceeding six days. From St. Louis to Lafayette (240 miles) one day may 


be allowetl ; from Lafayette to the lake, at the rate of from four and a 
half to five miles per hour on the canal (now in operation a considerable 
part of the way), forty-eight hours; on the lake twenty-four hours; and 
from the lake to New York City, via railroad (now commenced), not 
exceeding two days. 

"You may ask, What will be the markets for Indiana? I answer, 
New York and New Orleans — the former by tlie Evm canal and the 
latter by the Wabasli River (navigable to Lafayette for steamboats) 
and by the railroad above named to St. Louis, also to Montreal by the 
"Welland canal. A choice of all these markets, equally accessible, is 
presented to the farmers in the Valley; and one particular 
advantage this valley po.ssesses over Michigan and Wisconsin is tlie early 
navigation of the Wabash River. The produce of this valley can, by 
this river, pass down to New Orh^ans in tlat-boats, free of toll, and be 
transported to Ciiarleston, Baltimore, New York and Boston, six weeks 
before the N(;w York canal opens. This early market may be estimated 
as a good prolit in business." 

Farmers of Waha.sii County Organize 

It was not until the early '50s that the farmers of Wabash County 
commenced to organize "for the encouragement of agriculture." This 
movement was the result of the legislative act of February 14, 1851, under 
which a State Board of Agriculture was formed, with the governor, Jo- 
sei)h A. Wright, as president, and John B. Dillon, as secretary. On tlie 
4th of the succeeding June, the State Board issued a circular suggesting 
to the farmers of Indiana the formation of county and district societies 
for the "encouragement of agriculture." 

On January 12, 1852, the following (with others whose names are not 
of record) met at Wabash and organized a county society: William T. 
Ross (president), John L. Kniglit (secretary), Alanson P. Ferry (treas- 
urer), Stearns Fisher, William Ross (Chester Township), Calvin Cow- 
gill, F, Bouse, L. B. Musselman, Daniel Jackson, T. B. McCarty and 
Henry TylcPherson. 

First Fair, with Outcome 

The first fair of the Wabash County Agricultural Society was held 
October 20 and 21, 1853, on the plat of ground between the old mill 
race and the canal, south of the round house of the Cincinnati, Wabash 
& Michigan Railroad Company. Con.sidering the newness of the enter- 
prise, the attendance was large. Treasurer Ferry shows how the fair 
"came out:" 


To amount rcecivL'd of secretary as fees for membership .$163.00 

Keceived out of county treasury 47.00 

Jxeccived foi- rent of Fair Ground 4.U0 

Iieceived on sales of pi-operty after tlie fair 13.00 

Keceived for ailmission fees 6'J.OO 

Total received $296.25 " 

Hy cash i)aid as premiums $128.00 , "■ 

By cash paid as incidentals 101.66 

Total amount paid out '. ..'!.. $229.66 

Leaving in the treasury $ 66.59 ■ 

Improvements Noted ix 1854 

Tlie report of the president for 1854 says: "Tlie second annual fair 
was lield on the 5th and 6th days of October at AVabash and, was at- 
tendeil by iiumei'ous citizens from every i)art of the county, and many 
from adjoining counties. There was an adtlress delivered on the sec- 
ond (hiy of the fair by John ^I. AVhecler, Esq., of this county. There 
are al)out 200 members belonging to the society, and the lively concern 
wliicii many of them feel to promote its best interests are indications 
of its onwai'd progress and future usefulness. Indeed, it is almost a 
matter of astonishment to witness the rapid change that has taken place 
among our farmers in the way of improving the breeds of their domes- 
tic animals since tlie organization of this society, which, without doubt, 
has been the exclusive cause of emulating tliem to so praiseworthy an 

Wabash as a Packing Center 

The report goes on to state that during the year 1853, 3,500 hogs 
were slauglitered and packed in the City of Wabash, the aggregate 
weight of which was 700,000. The revenue derived from these at $3 and 
$3.50 per hundred would represent a respectable income to the packers 
and, indeed, to the pork raisers. It was also stated that as a result 
of the fairs, tlie eft'orts of the society and the general awakening of the 
farmers, the quality and yield of wheat, corn, oats, rye, barley and the 
grasses had greatly improved. 

The fourth annual fair in 1856 was held on the grounds chosen by 
the officers of the society directly west of Wabash on the hill "opposite 


a furve in tlhj I'ailroad. " At this show, as at otlicrs for a nuinlx-r of 
years, tlit- fai'iia-rs made the strongest exiiibits in lio-^s and corn. Cattle 
and horses w.^re also eoiuing to tlie front. 

CuKN AND Wheat in 1857 

As to tlie general status of the two chief grain crops, at this period, 
the following from the 1857 report is instructive: "The large yellow 
and white and mixed colored varieties are i)lanted. The ground is 
plowetl deej)ly, then harrowed and sometimes ]-olled. The corn is 
phinted ahont the lirst of .May. The after cultivation is ellected by 
using the plow three times and the cultivator twice. The average yield 
is about hfty Imshels to the acre, produced at a cost of about $5. The 
eroj) linds a market at Wabash. The cultivator is widely used in raising 
this ci'op." 

As to wheat the report says: "The Genesee and blue stems are 
esteemed the best varieties. The method of j)re])ai'ing the ground is 
to plow dee]), harrow, and after to drill the seed; and .sometimes the 
groun<l is rolled in the spring. The seed is sown about the 1st of ISep- 
tembei- at the rate of one and a half bushels per acre. The average 
yield is twenty bushels; harvest generally takes place about the Gth of 
duly and tlu- crop is generally cut by tlie reapers. The sui'plus product 
iinds a nuirket in the town of AVabash, where the i)rice during the season 
has averaged and a half cents per bushel, (ireat improve- 
ments have been matle in the county during the last few years in plant- 
ing aiul harvesting wlieat. The drill is now largely used in putting it 
in. and the I'caper is almost invai'iably used in securing the cro])." 


]^y 1S58 the membership of the society had increased to over five 
hufidred, and tlie I'egular annual fairs continued to increase in interest 
for many years. In 187!) the fair grounds were enlarged by the purchase 
of 21 ^ acres to east of the original tract, and from year to 
\-ear the exhibition and administrative buildings were improved, as 
well as increased in num])er. One noticeable feature of each successive 
f;iii- was the gradual falling off in the exhibits of hogs and the improve- 
ment in the numlK'r and quality of the horse and cattle display. 

Stati's of Aoriculturai. Societies 

This society, wliieh was organized in 1852, continued to hold annual 
fairs, and reached its greatest jjrosperity from 1870 to 1880, both iii 


attciidaiiee and itn-ripts, and tlie ^'cncral display. Oji January 2;{, 1889. 
the society, not !irin<j^ very prospcroiis, conveyed tiic n-niainder of the 
ival estate wliicli it held on West Hill Stfeet, to the City ol' \Val)ash for'k pui'poses, reservin<,' tlie ]'iylit for the puhlic to use a i)ortion of it 
at any and all proper times, for pul)lic meetings together witii the I'ight 
to erect booths or huildings for jjublic use. The old agricultural society, 
as such, went out of existence. 

A stock company was aftcrwai'ds organized and purchased ground 
just north of Treaty Creek, which it improved and on which it held 
annual fail's for sevei-al yeai's, wIkmi it hecame involved for want of su])- 
poit, and the land and buildings were sold, aiul thus ended the agricul- 
tural societies in ^Vahash. 

A Tri-County Fair Association was organized at North ^Manchester,, 
whicii still continues to hold annual fairs. 

A societ\- of farmers and nierchants have an organization, and make 
annual exhihils in the City of Wahash, but at present ha.s no home of 
its own, using Iniildings and si)aces for its exhil)its. The attendance 
and displa\- are \ery creditable. 

Cons, Oats and AViieat (1'J14) 

From the returns to the county assessor, the last of which were re- 
ceived in May, ]'J14, a definite idea is obtained of the comparative 
sources of wealth embraced under the comprehensive classification of 
Agriculture. From which we glean the following regarding the three 
chief cert'al crops of Wabash County: 

Acreage liushels 

Corn 48,!):);:! 2,2;]G,(;58 

Oats 2(i,;r_'!) Gr)8,no 

• AVheat ](i,G4!) 3b4,4!J!J 

F();e Cr()p.s 

There wer(' also raised for the year lOl-j, l!),i)56 tons of clover hay 
from 1(),773 acres of land, and 16,27!) tons of timothy from an acreage 
of 15,168. Less than 350 tons of alfalfa were raised from 135 acres. 

Live Stock 

The 8.872 horses and colts in Wabash County have a selling value of 


The cattle were iiunibtTcd at l(j;Ai:], with a valuation of $577,151, 
and the o.lJG-i inih-li cows were assessed at $269,335. Dairy products : 
xAlilk produceil in 11)13, 2,400.410 g:allons vahu'd at $30G,!)40; cream, 
121,019 gallons. $54,590; l)utt<'i', 304,608 pouutls, $70,071. Total cattle 
(including milch cows) witii tlu-ir annual products, $1,287,087. On Jan- 
nary 1, 1914, the farmers of AVal)ash County liad 30,546 hogs on hand 
which they valued at $328,354; 5,744 slicci), $28,375, aud 11,72!) laying 
hens, $62,837. The last luuned had produ(;ed 1,113,116 dozen eggs, 
valued at $187,597. It is quite likely that within the memory of this 
generation the modest, indnstrious hen, will supplant the noisily aggres- 
sive hog as a valuable source of revenue to the citizens of Wabash 

Farms and Lands Classified 

It also appears from the assessors' returns that there are 2,284 farms 
in tile count\', with a total acreage of 224,996. Of the latter only 
27,2(i6 acres are under lease or rental. Tliere are 2,287 acres of waste 
land; 54,225 of pasture land; 22.682 of tindx-r, and 3,862 cultivated to 
orchards. Incideidally, the farmers use 1,150 windnnlls. 

Tax Payers and Their Property 

A table i)erhaps of more general interest is that compiled by the 
assessor showing the valuation of taxable property as returned by the 
ditferent townships and corporations, the number of polls (tax-payers) 
and the mortgage exemi>tion allowed by the Board of Review: 

Name of No. Net Value Mortgage 

Townships of of Taxable Exemp- 

Towns & Cities Polls Property tion 

Chester Township 387 $2,665,640.00 $73,720.00 

La Gro Township 410 2,763,035.00 107,280.00 

Liberty Township 220 1,534,750.00 41,910.00 

Noble Township 418 3,028,185.00 84,800.00 

Pleasant Township 329 2,071,885.00 71,050.00 

Paw Paw Township 248 1,391,070.00 56,710.00 

AValtz Township 301 1,399,010.00 61,960.00 

City of Wabash 1439 4,227,430.00 211,150.00 

Corp. of La Gro 75 208,680.00 1,590.00 

North Manchester 416 1,451,940.00 46,550.00 

Roann 56 205,245.00 1,430.00 

Lafontaine 101 280,405.00 3,370.00 

Totals 4600 $21,222,275.00 $761,520.00 


So-ME Comparisons from the Past ' •"■ ■■■ • 

In comparison with the above the following figures for 1856. sliowing 
the value of lands and improvements in the several townsliips, arc sug- 
gestive : 

Townships No. of acres Value 

Chester 40,491 $203,810 

La Gro 50,1)14 ;:!I)7,(i<}0 

Liberty 21 2.Vi L*47,7."j;j 

Noble U5,482 063, (J75 

Pleasant 48,037 ' ' 260,105 

Waltz 27,7S'J 2!)2,()70 

Total 254,046 $2,124,135 

The total value of town lots and iiuprovements in the county was 
$304,!)06 in 1856, and that of personal property, $1,301,677. Total value 
of taxable property, $3,730,718. as against $21,222,275 in 1913. 

A comparison of the tax reeeij^ts of tbe i)resent day witli tliose of 
seventy-five years ago, will show how^ the revenues of tlie county and state 
have increased as civilization luis advanced. The following receipt is 
for persoiud and poll tax for a householder in 1840: "Received of 
Jonathan Weesner one dollar and forty-four cents in full of his state 
and county tax for the year 1840. — J. Holland, Collector Henry County." 

Population of County by Decades 

Tiie first complete census of Wabash County was the national enum- 
eration of 1840, taken five years after it was organized; the returns 
then indicated a population of 2,756. 

The coisus takers for the decade ending 1850 got so busy that there- 
after, and inclusive of that year, the returns by townships are accessible. 
The figures for 1850, 1860 and 1870 are as follows: 

Townships 1850 1860 1870 

Chester 1,539 2,615 3,143 

La (iro 2,515 3,581 4,066 

La (Jro Village 293 594 519 

Liberty 1,425 1,810 1,816 

Noble (except Wabash) 2,523 3,650 4,485 

Pleasant 1,312 2,137 2,533 

Waltz 1,856 2,288 2,361 

Wabash City ' 964 1,520 2,88] 

Somerset 371 

Total 12,138 17,547 21,305 


The (•oiiij)ai'isou shown by tlie concluding y(;ar of the last three 
decades is as follows: 

3910 ]900 181)0 

Townships and ('or{)orations . . . . 2(),!)2(i 2H,2:'i'> 27,12G 

(Chester Township 4,!)10 5,214 5,4)58 

North .Manchester 2,428 2,8!)8 2,;]S4 

La (iro Township ;5,17;} 3,511) 4,024 

La ( Jro Town 4(i;5 45fj 549 

Liberty Township 1,(S57 1,782 1,828 

Lah'ontaine Town 688 

Noble Township 11,3G;:5 11,447 8,756 

^Vabash f 'ity 8,687 8,618 5,105 

Ward I 1,769 

Ward 11 2,566 

Ward III 2,] 31 

^Vard IV 2,221 

Paw Law Township 1,819 2,133 2,294 

Koann Town 447 631 582 

Pleasant Township 2,070 2,191 2,474 

AValtz Township 1,734 1,949 2,312 

'■; • ' CHAPTER XTI ;" 


First :\Iki:ting of the Ciucrrr Court— First Crand Jtrors— Judge 
KvKUTs (t.\ THE Bench— To I'rove That the Court was Needed- 
Second Tek.m of Coi'RT — Associate Judces Go — :Most IJe.mahkauee 
Ciii.AHN AE Case— Aakon French and Fa.miev— The Pitiahee Invaeid 
—The French Fa.nhev Disai-eears— De ad Bodv Found in Canal 
— BoDV Identified as that of Edward lioYEE— Hubbard Ar- 
rested FOR .AlcRDEK- Search for Criminal Evidences— Dead Bodies 
OF Tin-; French FA^^LY Foi^nd— Hci'-bard and ^VIFE Charged with 
^Mi.,.i,i,;k_The Death 1'enalty— Hubbard's Plea— The Judge's 
Comments— First and Only Execution in Wabash County— .Mrs. 
Hri'.BARD Cets Lu'E Sentence — CiRCurr Judges — Proseci'ting At- 


\v^.„ ,j,-,„ii:s— IMoNEER Members of the Bar— Judge John V. Pettit 
IiDGE James D. Conner— Hon. Calvin Cowgill— Ceneral Par- 


\S()s — \Vai!\sii Colnty Bar Association. 

Thr Cii-cuit Court lias always been tlw cliici' jiKlicial of AVahash 
County, aiul since 1S7J has Iktu its sole tril.unal of justice. Its iirst 
civil organization, in ISJf), i)rovi(le(l for the election of two associate 
ju(l^«<'s H) assist the presiding judge of the circuit, who was not present 
at the Iirst session. In ISIiti the Probate Court was organized and con- 
tinued to adjudicate those matters pertaining to it, until it was abolished 
in isr)2 and its business transfi^rred to the Court of Connnon Pleas. ^ That 
liody was legislated out of existeiu-e in 1S7;}, since which year the Circuit 
(V)urt lias had the sole responsibility of keeping the scales of justice true 
within the limits of Wabash County. 

First :\rEETiNG of the Circuit Cocrt 

On Thurs<lav, June 1, IS:}.-), Hon. OustaYUS A. EYerts, presiding 
ju.lge of tlu' Eighth Judicial Ci.vuit, b.'ing absent, the associate judges 



l^n-vioiisly clcctrd, coiiiiiiissioncd and (iiialificd coiivriiL-d tlif first ses- 
sion of tile AN'abash ("ii'euit Court. Tliis is tliu record of their i)ro- 

"June 11, 1835. 

"Daniel Jaeksoii and Daniel Ballinger, associate judtres of tlie Wa- 
basli ('ii'cuit Court, met pursuant to notice given ])y William Jolmston, 
slici'itl' of tlie county aforesaid, at tlie liouse of David Burr, and adjourned 
to the iiouse of William Steele in the town of "\Val)ash, the seat of jiistice 
of Wabash County, and, after having taken as oflicers, as aforesaid, all 
the necessary oaths j)rescribed by the constitution aiul laws of the State 
aforesaid, which oaths were administered and certified by William 
Johnsfon. shei-iff as aforesaid, agreeably to a sj)ecial statute of this State 
in such case made and provided — the within judges having considered 
themselves authorized according to law to organize and hold a court in 
and for the county aforesaid; and William Steele api)i-art'd in proper 
person in open court and ])resented a t-ommission from N. Noble, gov- 
ernor of this State, for the office of clei'k of the Circuit Court of Wabash 
County for the term, of seven years, Avhich couuiiission beai's (bite tin; 
2Stli day of May, IS:',,"). Said AVilliam Steide having Ijcen duly sworn to 
supjxirt Ihe coiisf itution of the Uiiiteil States and the constitution of tlio 
State of Indiana, and to faithfully discharge the duties of clerk of the 
Circuit Coui't of Waljash ('ounty according to law, tiled bond in ])enalty 
of .t2.r)()l), with Isaac Fouler, Isaac Thonuis, S. F. Ale Lain and John 
Johnson as sui'cties, which was apju-ovcd June 11, 1835. 

"Daniel Jackpon 
Daniel Ballinger." 

First Grand Jurors 

•On Alonday, Juno 15th, four days after the meeting of the associate 
judges, as recoi'ded, the l)oard of eount.y commissioners convened and 
selected the following grand jurors for the August term, 1835, and 
the February term, 1836: 

August term 1835 — Thomas Curry, S. Al. Seanuans, Ezekiel Cox, Ira 
Burr, Elmore IT. Cox, AVilliam lliff, S. F. AlcLain, AEalilon Pearson, 
James AViley, Jacob Baneth, Bradley Burr, Joseph S. AlcClure, Michael 
Chapell, Thomas Hayes, Jacob Chapell, Jacob D. Cassett, James Ball- 
inger and Anthony IT. Kelhu'. 

Febi-uary teiiii, 1830 — Isaac Thomas, A^incent Ilooten, John Russell, 
Gilbert Gayman, Jonathan Beed, Hugh Ilanna, Jacob Barcus, Peter 
Alilines, Joseph Hopkins, AA'illiam Giant, Abi-aham Kentsinger, Daniel 


Darrow, William H. Cadwcll, Jaim-s 1). Fosscp, Jcssii D. Seott, John 
Keid, Isaac Fowler and James Pain. 

Petit jurors were apiM^intcd at tin- sami- time, but the ^'rcati-r honor 
was to he on the "gi'and jury.'' 

JPDGE Everts on the Bench 

At the t<'nii which commcnt'cd AuKU-st '-'4, PS;]."), Jiid^o l<]verts was 
on the Ijriich, assisted by Daniel Jaekson ; also j^re-sent, William John- 
ston, sheritf, and William Steele, iderk. The grand jurors brought into 
eoui-t liy the sherill' weri' Thonuis Curry, Solomon Seamans, Ezekiel Cox, 
Ira Bui'r, Sylvester F. ]\kd^ain, Mahlon Pearson, Jacob I. Barrett, Jo- 
sei)h S. .Me( 'lure. Thomas Hays, Jacob D. Cassatt and Anthony H. Keller, 
('harles W. lowing, Samiu-l C. Sam])le, Thomas Jonson, John W. Wi'ight 
and William IP Coombs were adndtted to practice before the (Circuit 
Court, and then John I). Kuntx, John Pluck and sev(,'nt(,'en other i'oreign- 
boi'ii i-csideiits of the county took out thrii' iirst pa])ers foi- citizenshiji. 
On the following day (.Vugust 'iath ) the grand jury foiuid several in- 
dictments, and on the L\Sth and 2!)th the i)etit jury reported. The court 
I'oom foi- these sessions was in the house' of the clerk, Colonel Steele, the 
i-athei- substantial brick residenci- which has already been described. 

To Prove that the Coi'rt was Needed 

It A\as certainly high time that tlu' citizens of Wabash County had 
a local coui't foi' tlie ti'ial of offenders and the ])i'ompt settlement of their 
ti'oubles which could not ])e placated b\' individual t'ompi'onnse. '^riiere 
is a case in ])oint, the narrative of which is claimed for .Major Stearns 
h'isher. it will be remembered that in PS:U David lUirr kept a tavern 
on the treaty grounds. AVell, some time in that \-ear he engaged a tramp 
to t\ait on the table and make himself generally useful around the inn. 
Doubtless his salai'\- was small — l)ut still travelers have rights. So 
thought Mr. ^lills, a guest at the Burr House, who awoke out' moi'ning 
to lind that his purse containing $4(.) had been stolen. 

Suspicion fell u])ou the serving man, whose conduct wlien charged 
with the tlud't strongly confirmed that sus])icion. But ]\Ir. j\Iills was 
in a hurry to contiiuie his journey and, with no court on the ground, 
coidd not see his way clear to await the tardy processes of the law. 

So Colonel Buri- tied the hands of the ti'anip thief to an elevated 
railing to which horses were hitched and started for the woods for some 
convincing ''switches," intending to give the nuin a lashing which he 
would at least remcrid)er and be a wai-ning to others that tln'y must 


respect the rights of his guests. Hy tliis time others had gathered in 
ii-oiit of the hotel, among the spectators l)eiiig Stearns Fisher and the 
Indian eldef, Aldodali. 

When the colonel returned with his implements of punishment, the 
case was further discussed and landlord and guest decided that it would 
he the Ijetter example to the new community to allow the law to take 
its course. 

Aldodah was therefore engaged to take the prisoner to Hunting- 
ton, whicli was the location of the nearest magistrate, and at once pre- 
pared to leave with Jds num. The Indian was a iiol)ledooking specimen 
of a wariMoi-, tall and liiiely formed. lie was faultlessly attii-cd in 
natis'e costume, had his ritle in his hand, ami tomahawk and scali)ing 
kiufe in his belt. The ])risoner was an li'ishman, and his race wen- 
not lovt'rs of the red num. This feeling was lieartil\' rt'turned by the 
liulian. Thend'ore the Irishnum, U})on being untii'd from the rail, 
trenddingly olieyed Aldodah when he i^ointed in the direction of Hunt- 
ington and told him to "go." 

Thus the ctdprit took up his march, Al-lo-lah following (dose at his 
heels and ^\•atching his every nujtion with the wily sagacity of a savage. 
I\Iills followed after on horseback, and, arriving at Huntington, a magis- 
ti'ate was found and the offender Indd to trial. Next day, the trio pro- 
ceeded to .Mai'ion, in the same order as before, Al-lo-lah taking good care 
of his pi'isoiiei', gi\dng liim no opportunity to escape. Ai-ri\ing at Marion, 
tliey found coui't in session. The num was at once put upon his trial, 
eon\ieted and seJiteiieeil, and on the following da\' was on his way to 
• leU'ei'sonville 1 *en i teiit ia I'y in charge of the regular ofdcers of the law. 

Second Term of Court 

The second term of the Wabash Circuit Coifrt convened on Monday, 
the 2^ith of I'V'bi'uary, 1S;]6, at the house of Andrew Ahirphy. Present: 
lion (iusta\us A. Inverts, presiding judge; Dainel Jackson and Daniel 
Hallinger, associate judges, Josiah L. Wines, sheriff, and W^illiam Steele, 
clerk. After disposing of the business ready for trial, court adjourned 
on .March 3, 18l3(i, after a session of four days. 


For a numbei' of years afterward, the amount of business pi'csented 
to the Circuit and Pi'obate courts was inconsideraI)le, and few really im- 
jiortaid cases commanded attention. Under the statutes of 1S52. l)y 
which the Probate Court was abolished and that of Conunon Pleas was ere- 


atfd, the mctliod of praetiei^ in tin- coiiduet of legal affairs was materially 
cliaiig'ed, as was also the routine of judieial j)!'oceediiius. Siil)se(iueiitly, 
the presence of associates or eo\inty ,jud<^-es was dispensed with, the 
cirriiit jud-^'e exei'cising sole judi<'ial authority within liis [)rovinee. 

Most Ke.mari^ablk Ckiminal Case 

Tu 185") the Oiri-uit Court (.hulge John ]\I. Wallaee) tried one of the 
most famous criminal eases which ever engaged tiie attention and awak- 
ened the horror of an American communit\', ami it has had no parallel — 
at least, in Wahasli County — to tliis day. Theie are few either of the 
early or late generations identified with the affairs of the Wabasli ^"alley 
who have not cringed before the details connected witli the murder of 
Edward Hoyle and the French family. The gi'uesome story has been 
rei)eatedly told, and will long stand as one of the most remarkable cases 
of calloused criminality on record. 

Aaron French and Family 

In the year ISo-i there lived near Rich Valley, or Keller's Station, 
on the north side of the Wabash near the western county line, a quiet, 
inoffensive man named xVai'on French, with a wife and five children. He 
was willing to work, but lacked ambition to go abroad for it, when he 
could not tind it near home. Although not naturally lazy, he lacked both 
ambition and ttirift. 

French owned no land, but "squatted" on Keller's farm. Tn the 
summer season he worked at such odd jobs as tlie neigldjorhood afforded, 
such as chopping, digging and clearing. He and his family shifted along 
in out-of-doors weather, but often with the coming of winter were pitiable 
objects of charity. Thus tliey lived in a little cabin for several years, 
wh(»n thei-e appeared to them a couple named lluljbard, who offered to 
]iay for the shelter of even such a roof. The Frenches were only too 
glad to thus add a bit to their scant income. 

The Pitiable Invalid 

One October day in 1854 French was sick al)ed and some of the neigh- 
bors called to see him, among whom were Stearns Fisher and James 
Lewis. The latter came on Saturday evening, October 6th, and listened 
with sympathy to the invalid's story of his trouliles, his fears that he 
would not recover if he could not get to a milder climate, and his wish 
to sell what little property he had in order to carry out that plan. 


Oil his way Iiouk-, Mr. Lewis thought the matter over and decided it 
wouhl Ije a kindness to the French family, and jx'rhaps a reliei' to the 
neigliljorhood, if tlie sick man's phm coidd he realized. A morning or two 
afterward he started to see J^'reiieh and \)uy him out, and thus alford iiim 
the necessary means with which to leave the country. 

The French Family Disappeaiu, 

Approaching the cabin Lewis encountered the Iluljljard couple bearing 
a tul.) of slojis l)etween them, and -Mrs. Hubbard at once spoke up and 
said ■"They're all gone,'' adding that they were "clearing up after 

Lewis asked tliem how it happened. They told him that French's 
lirotlu'i-, from near Cincinnati, had come there in the night bringing 
uews of his father's death in Iowa; that he had left them land and 
wished them to go there and live. The brother had arrived at Peru on 
the evening traiii, had come directly there, loaded the family into a 
wagon he had bought for the purpose and started back to Peru again in 
the night, so as to be able to take the early morning train, as at that 
time but two trains a day were run, one in each direction. 

HuljJ)ard informed Lewis that he had bought all their things, and on 
being asked how French could leave when he was so sick, said that the 
brotlier had given him brandy, and had him dancing on the floor over- 
joyed at the prospect of leaving. 

Tliere were various circumstances making Hubbard's story a plausible 
one, and Mr. Lewis and su])sequent inquirers were easily satisfied. No 
investigation was made, and the disappearance of French and his family 
gave rise to but little or no comment. 

Dead Body Found in Canal 

Hubbard lived in the caliin, undisturbed, until the spring of 1855, 
when developments began to l)e made which must have disturbed his 
equanimity. At this time a party of young men from Wabash went down 
the canal for the purpose of fishing. The water was partially drawn 
out that the canal might be repaired. Hi drawing their seine they 
discovered the dead body of a man, which had evidently been put there 
during tlie winter previous. The body l)ore marks of violence, as having 
been beaten with a club or stone on the back of the head. The arm 
was also severely In-uised and cut in apparent effort at self-protection. 

Coroner David Squires and Consta])le James Wilson were summoned 
and an inquest lield. No one appeared who could identify the dead body 


of the .straiiy:iT ami, a (U'seription of the l)ody having been made, the 
t-oi'pse was buficil Ix'twceii tlir I'lver ami canal. 

Body Identified as That of Edward Boyle 

During 18r)4 and IS."),! tlic Toledo. AVabasli & AVestcrn Railroad was 
bring constriu-ti'd, and a lai-ge force of men had been employed along the 
line. An inquiry was therefore set afoot to ascertain who might be 
missing from this large floating population. \. L\ (lardner, one of 
the railroad contractors, aiul Dr. E. B. Thomas (afterward of La Oro) 
I'eported that the descri])tion of tlie bod\- corresponded to that of one 
Edward Boyle, who had disappeared some months {)revioiis. The grave 
was opened and the body thus identified. 

Up to the fall previous Boyle had worked on the railroad and had 
boardetl with the other hands along the line. In the summer lu' had 
been taken very siek and Avas attended by Doctor Thomas. At one time his 
life was despaired of and he sent for the priest, giving him sonu' four 
or live hundred dollars in silver and gold coin ami directing him what 
to do with it in case of his death. Upon his recovery the money was 
returned to him. 

Hubbard Arrested for ]\Ii;hder 

Hubbard prevailed upon Boyle to board with him, took his baggage 
into the cabin and the latter shortly afterward disappeared. As Boyle 
had no family or intimate friends in the neighborhood, Hubbard's ex- 
planation that he had gone into the neighborhood of Lafayette to teach 
school was creditable, Boyle being a man of some literary attainments. 
But the finding of the bod}^ of the murdered man put a different phase 
upon the matter, and Deputy Sheriff Thomas, Constable Tyler and others, 
went to Hubbard's cabin to question him further about Boyle's disap- 
pearance. Arriving there and listening to the conflicting stories told 
by Hubbard and his wife, who were l)Oth under the influence of liquor, 
the party became satisfied that their suspicions were well founded and, 
without waiting for the foi'mality of a warrant, arrested Hubbard and 
his son and l)rought them to Wabash to appt'ar before Justice James. 

Hubbard conducted his own defence, pleading earnestly and ably 
for his release, and, indeed at this time there was but little positive 
evidence of his guilt. He was put under bonds of $500, failing to procure 
which he was remanded to jail to await his trial. 


Si:.\RCH FOK Clfl.MIN'AL r^VIDENCE ' "' •"' i.^'-''' ' *■' 

-Meanwliilo, the orticers wci'e on the aU-rt for further evidence and 
adopted, among other expedients, the plan of secreting themselves so 
tliat they eould listen to the conversations whicli took i)lace between 
lluhbard and Ids wife wlien shr came to visit him. Ai'riving at t'liough 
facts to justify them in the belief he was the luunh'i'er, and tiuit M i-s. 
IIul)bard was in possession of the mone}- taken from I^dward IJoyh', Con- 
stable Wilson and Deputy Sheritf Thomas went to the Hubbard cabin to 
.search for the treasure supposed to be concealetl there, and in tiuest of 
more positive proof of his guilt. Stoi)ping at the Stone (.'ut on the rail- 
road, they l)orrowed a jdck and went on. Before they I'eaclied th<' <-abin 
they met (Jonstalde M. II. ^Morgan, who told them that he and Isaac 
Keller had just l)een in the cal)in, entering it by raising a window, and 
had noticed a very I)ad odoi- about the house. 

Dead Bodies of the French Family Found 

'Mm. Hubbard was away from home, and .Messrs. Wilson and Thomas 
Ijroke their way into the house by pulling out the staple which held the 
padlo(d\. Fpon raising the floor and beginning to dig, it was not long 
Ijefore they encountered the dead body of a child about eighteen months 
of age. Sending for' the coroner, the search was continued until the 
horrible fate of the French faiiuly was no longer a matter of doubt. 
There lay in one common gi'ave, under tin* door of thi; cabin with so 
light a covering of earth ovei- them that the stench would soon have 
become intoleral)le, the remains of poor Aaron French, his wife and five 
children. Some of the family had evidently been murdered while asleep, 
but the body of ^^Irs. French gave indication that she had fought for 
her life to the last. Over this sickening mass of corruption, with barely 
eigliteen inches of earth to cover it, and with blood on the under side 
•of the Hoor, IIubl)ard and his wife had lived for many months, wearing 
the clothes of the murdtn-ed family and using tludr household etl'eets, 
.appareidly unmindful that i-etribution was hovi'i'ing all about them. 

As this greater criuu' ovei-shadowed the IJoyle murder, Hubbard and 
his wife were put on trial for the murder of the French fannly. 

Husband and AVife Ch.vhged with ^Iurder 

On th(! 2d of August, 1855, the grand jury returned a l)ill charging 
John and Sarah Hub))ard with the murder of Aaron French. They were 
afterward brought into court and tried separately. Joini Hubbard was 


first {irrai<i:ii(M], and i)lt'ad not ^Miilty. As lie clainu'd to be unable to 
hire counsel, tiic court appointed lion. John U. J'ettit, his i)redect'ssor 
on the bench, assisted by 1). M. Cox and doliii M. Wilson, of I'eru. The 
state was rc]u-escntc(l by Isaac M. Ilai'lan, of Marion, prosecuting attor- 
ney, and John M. Wheek'r of Wabash. Out of 115 persons the following 
twelve were finally selected for jurymen: Henry ]\IePherson, Jcnathan 
C'opeland, William Stuart, Enoch Jackson, Jonathan AVeesner, A. W\ 
Oi'ant, K. 0. Arnold, John Adams, Louis 15. Musselman, Klias Parret, Jackson and Ilezekiah (((uick. 

The De.vtii Penalty ; '•.•'«)< .. , 

The trial lasted from September ;3d to the Tth, the jury retiring- 
about 10 o'clock on the night of the latter date.' Tlu- next morning 
(Saturday) the}' brought in a verdict of murder in the first degree, with 
the death penalty. 

HrBBARo's Plea 

At the meeting of court in the afternoon, the defendant was brought 
in. Judge "Wallace ovei-ruled the motion for a new trial, as well as an 
arrest of judgment, and then asked Hubbard if he had anything to say 
why sentence of death should not be i)ronounced against him. In rei)ly 
he said lie had not, but with the coiu't's ])ermission he would make a few 
remarks. . He then proceeded to relate some difficulties he had had with 
certain Irish Catholics in the neighborhood of his cabin, and surmised 
that revenge miglit have led them to concert a deep-laid plot for his 
ruiiL In the most solemn terms, su])stantially denying his guilt of the 
charge preferred against him, lie spoke of his family and especially of 
his idiot son, necessarily thrown, l>y his ignominious death, helpless 
upon the world ; thanked Sheriff Pawling for his humanity and kind- 
ness, his counsel for tlieir faithfulness and ability, the judge for liis 
impartiality and evident leaning to mei'cy in his charge, complained 
of the language of certain persons outside the jail to him and his wife 
while imprisoned, and also that the jury had shown no mercy toward 
him in the rendering of their verdict. At his request ex-Judge Pettit, 
his counsel, then read for him the following paper : 


"I am asked why the extreme penalty of death should not now be 
pronounced on me by the court. 


"In till' course of human juilicaTui'c, now, after verdict, 1 have no 
reason known to the hiw to opimse this judiz'iueiit. IJiit I ha\-e a reasiin 
in e(jnseieneL;, and in e-onfuh-nee of the tt-ri'ihh' condition of a dyin^^ man 
and hid'ore the loftiest of jiid^'-es, I venture, thoui^li una\ailin^', to urge 
it, tlud I am guilt h'ss of this terrihle ehai-gt-. 

'"^1\- presumed guilt is wholly without a motive and ineoiisistent 
with my past eharaeter. JUit Providener. eai'eful of right and revenge- 
ful of all \\'rong. remains to me now my only, hut a eoiihdent hope of 

"I acknowledge here, at this last stage of my melaiudioly cause, 
surrouiuled with its strangi- wid) of difhcult, unravehnl, ])ainful and 
inexi)lieahle circinnstances, my grateful sense of the lunnane conduct 
of the shei-ilt of this county, the intt grity of purp(jse of the hmaan 
judgment on my conduct, and the humainty of the jury who have 
l)atientl\- taken in the most ohvious sense my own and the i)ublic interest 
ill chai-ge. 

"1 press again before you that I am innocuous to this aljouiinable 
and atrocious conduct, and appealing from this judgment, \vhose mercies 
are exhausted in the verdict of the jui'y, I ])rei)are to go to that Infinite 
Judge tliat tries the reins and searches the hearts, not of myself only, 
l)Ut of all the c-hildreii of men. 

"John IIubf?ard. 

"AVabash, SeptenJjer 8, 1855." 

The Judge's Cu.m.mexts 

Among other reiiuirks in sentencing the defendant to be hung on 
Decembei' Pitli. Jiiilge Wallace said: "You have been found guilty of 
the murder in cold blood of a man while languisiiing^ upon a bed of 
sickness. The i)roof establishes the horrid ti-utli, also, that not alone 
the uuiii (the husband and father i, but also the wife and children, five in 
luunber, fell victims to your uiuuitural thirst for blood. It appears, 
also, that this unfortunate victim of youi' cruelty, eonliding in your 
honesty, integrity and hunuinity. kindly received you and your wife 
into his own house, humble though that home was, and to some extent, 
in your })overty-stricken condition, shared with you his own contlition 
of life. This Avas your condition in his house, too, at a time when, 
without a{)parent cause (inilecd. what cause could thei-e be for hV) you 
ruthlessly murdered every mi-mbei' of his family — not even sparing those 
infant children wiiose sweet smiles of innocence should have awakened 
your own parental feeling, and deterred you from the accomplislmuMit 
of the blooLly puri)Ose of \our heart, or like the rays of sunshine peering 


in upon the tt'rriblc darkness' of your soul, guided you again to your 
lunnanity, awakening a sense of gratitude to your frimd and their 

First and Only Execution in Wabash County 

An api^eal to the State Supreme Court faih-d, and at 3 o'eloek on 
Thursday, tlie 13th of l)ecend)er, 1S55, Hubbard was hung aceord- 
ing to the (leerers of jury and eourt. Tlie seene of his execution was 
tlie eourt liouse square, and it was witnessed ])y thousands who tioeked 
thitlicr from distant points in Xurthern and Central Indiana. Legally, 
the hanging was private, l)Ut actually it was far from it. 

The l)ody of Huljbard was deeently l)uried, but it is said to have 
been afterward disinterred in the '•interest of science." The discovery 
was made that it had carried several bullets for many years; their 
presence was, of course, never explained. A plaster cast of the crim- 
inal's head and shoulders was long preserved by Dr. James Ford, and 
showed the likeness of a man who seemed capable of uprightness, honor 
and even hunumity. ^\ ,\..?a'. }'' . 

:\Ihs. Hubbard Gets Life Sentence 

:\lrs. Hid)bai'd was tried for the same abominable crime in the Circuit 
Court of Crant County, and in April, 1850, was sentenced to hai-d labor 
in State's Trison for life. When the Woman's Reformatory was estab- 
lished, she was transferred to that institution, where she lived to be 
a matronly, white-haired old wouum. one of the most obedient and 
bidable of its iiunates, never causing the attendants any trouble what- 
ever. She was often visited by pei'sons from Wabash County and was 
frieydly and talkative, but when asked about the French family, she 
said that was a sealed book and would not talk about it. She died in 
the institution. 

Hubbard's is the only execution which has ever occurred in Wabash 
County, and it is believed that it will be the last. The case is therefore 
historic, as well as dramatic. 

Circuit Judges 

From the organization of AYabash County, in 1835, until the reor- 
ganization of the judicial circuits of the statein 1853-54, the county was 
a part of the Eighth Circuit, and the president judges were as follows: 
(lustavus A. Everts, 1835; Samuel C. Sample, 183G; Charles W. Ewing, 


lH;i7-:i!); John W. AVri<,'lit, ]840-4(;; Horace P. Hid.!!,-, 1,S47-51; K*ol)ert 
M. .Milroy, IS.")!*. lu l^C);-} Waliash County beeanic a part of the Elev- 
enth Judicial Circuit, presided over by Judiiv John T. I'ettit, who was 
succeeded by the following: John M. Wallace, iSo.l-liO; lloi'ace P. 
Biddle, 18l)l-72. In ]87o the circuit was again divided, and Wa1»ash 
County l)ecaiiie attached to the Twenty-seventh, liy a legislative act of 
]88i) tin- county and the circuit wei'e made one; since which year Wa- 
bash County has constituted the Twenty-seventh Ju<licial C'ii'cuit. The 
presiding judges since 1873 have been: John U. Pettit, 187;^-7'J; Lyman 
Walker, 1879-85; James D. Conner, 1885-91; Harvey B. Shively, 1891- 
1903; Alfred IT. Plunnner, 1903— 

Prosecctixg Attorneys -^ • • ■'• '' 

Since 1878 the prosecuting attorneys for AVal)a.sli County have been 
as follows: Macy Cood, 1878-84; Charles K. Pence, 1884-86; Ethan T. 
I\easoner, 188(i-89 ; Alfred II. Pluminer, 188!)-94; Lincoln Guynn, 1894- 
98; Joseph W. .Murphy, 1898-1902; Charles II. Brower. 19()3-0(i; Frank 
0. Carpenter, 1910; Walter S. i^ent, 1911-12; Aaron Mandelbaum, 

Probate Court and Judges 

Under the act of February 10, 1831, the associate judges of the 
Circuit Court acted on all matters of probate until the first ^Monday 
in August, 1836, when Elmer II. Cox was elected to the bench of the 
Probate Court. His term was for six years from August 30th. AVilliani 
Steele was clerk of the court. The first meeting of the Probate Court, 
under the jurisdiction of Associate Judges Jackson and liallinger, was 
lield Xovendjcr !), 1835, and the first meeting at which a regular probate 
ju'dge presided, November 14, 1836. On the second day of the latter 
term a seal of the court was adopted, appropriate doubtless, but not 
esi)ecially cheerful. "Words to be engraved on said seal to be 'Indiana, 
AVabash Probate Court,' and in the center of the seal a female figure 
Setting ( ?) leaning over the tigure of a coflin, with her left elbow resting 
on the shoulders of the said col!in, her head sui)ported by her left hand, 
hokling a handkei'chief in the left hand l)etween the side of her face 
and her hands." 

The earlier terms of the Probate Court were held at private houses, 
often at those of the judges themselves. Those who occupied tlie bench 
until the probate Imsiness was transferred to the Coui't of Common 
Pleas were as follows: Elmer E. Cox, 1836-38 (resigned) ; James 


irar'k]('inaii, ls;j8-46 (lioth apj)oiiitive and cliictive terms); John Com- 

siock, isk;-:.2. . , ■ ..; ,„,^ ,.„,..„ 

CoruT OF Common 1'leas and Jrnuiis 

I"^n(ler the act approved ]\Iay ]4, 1852, the Court of Common Pleas 
of Wabash County was created, l^y that law tlie state was divided into 
Common Pleas disti-icts, from the courts of wliieh there was an appeal 
to tlie Circuit Courts. At first Wabash anil Kosciusko counties con- 
stituted tlie Tliirt>--tliird District. In each of the districts a judge was 
to be elected at tlie annual election in October, 1852, antl every fourth 
year thereafter. Jolm L. Knight was elected first .iudge of the Tliirty- 
third District, and on the od of January, lS5;i the tii'st term of the 
Common Pleas Court for AVabash County was held in the coui't house 
at the seat of justice. Besides the proliate l)usincss, its jurisdiction was 
concurrent with the Cii'cuit Court ""in all cases against lieirs, devisees 
and sui-eties of executors, administrators and guardians; in the partition 
of real estate, the assignment of dower, and the appointment of a eom- 
missionei- to execute a deed on any title bond given l)y a decedent;" 
also, "in all civil cases, except for slaixh-r, libel, breach of marriage 
contract^ action on of!icial I)ond of any state or county officer, and where 
the titli' to real estate shall be in issue, aiul when the s\nn due or de- 
manded, or the daiiuiges claimed, shall not exceed $1,0()(), exclusive of 
interest and costs. Tn all that class of otfenses not amounting to felony, 
except those over which justices of the peace had jurisdiction, the Com- 
mon Pleas Coui't had original jurisdiction. The clerk of the Circuit 
Court was ex-officio clerk of the Common Pleas Court. 

Judge Knight, of W^abash County, continued to occupy the bench 
through 1855; was succeeded by George E. Cordon, also of this county, 
wljo served one year; Joseph II. Alatlock, l,S57-f)(); Kline C. Shryock, of 
Fulton County (then in the district), 18(iO-(i;-5 (resigned to enter the 
army) ; David I). DykiMnan of Cass County, l.S(j8-65; Thomas C. White- 
side. 18(;5-7() ; James H. Carpenter, 1870-7:5. The Legislature of the latter 
year, as stated, abolished the Court of Common Pleas and transferred 
all its business to the Circuit Court, which now shares with the justices' 
courts th<' great i'esponsi1)ility of dispensing justice in Wabasli County. 

1*10.\F.ER MkMUEKS of TIIK BaR 

Tiicidciitally, the reader has already mettlui pioneer members of the 
])ar. who usually figui-ed in vai'ious ))ublic eapaeiti<'S; as a iiew com- 
munity can ill afford to let any good, intelligent man go to waste. The 


lawvri-s (if Wjihasli County wn-i- (jf a \n'^]\ j^M-adc of iiitclli^n-m-e and 
morality, and it is with nnifli i)i'idt' that thry aiT jirotiprd at this staye 
of thi- liistory. 

Col. ^Villialll Steele has ali'i-ady been mentioned as the county's tii'st 
rel)resentati\-e (jf the liar. He was a good lawyer, hut was so ac/tive in 
his jnihlie capacities that he rathei- scattered his abilities in the strictly 
l)rofessional field. He was so ahle, so ])Oindar and so versatile that the 
])eople simi)ly would not let him alone. 

William II. Coond)s, who came from Connersville. Indiana, in the 
siniimer of \s:',7), was perhaps the second retrular pi'actitioiier, hut though 
he made a ^uod impression dui-ing the few years of his i'esi<leiic(,' in the 
county, he sought a larger professional field in h'ort AVayne. 

JrDc:K Joiix U. Pettit 

John V. Pettit came from Logansport soon after his admission at the 
bar of the Cass County Circuit Court and rose rai)idly in the profession. 
I'\jr iiutny years he was associated in practice with Hon. Calvin Cowgill. 
In IS.").'] he was a{)pointed judge of the Eighth Circuit, having already 
served in the State Assembly and as Government consul in Brazil. He 
resigned the judgeship in 185-i to be elected to Congress, being honored 
by three successive terms. Then back to the State Legislature. Judge 
Pettit was in Congress also during the first of the war, and although 
originally a democrat became a stanch republican and an acknowledged 
foi'ce in the councils of Lincoln and Governor Morton. In many re 
spects he was a great man. In view of his frail physique and almost 
lifelong sickness, his accomi)lishments were certainly most remarkable. 
II.' died at his home in AVal)ash. March 21, ISSI. 

Judge James D. Conner 


James D. Conner, a Fayette County man, located at Wal)ash in 1840, 
when he had ])ut just ])assed his uuijority, ])Oor but ambitions in the 
right way. Within a decade he stood among the leading members of 
the bar. lie was a strong whig and in IS.")!; was sent as a delegate to 
the Philadelphia Convention which nonnnated Fremont foi' the presi- 
dency of the new party. As a i-epuhlican he was among the first to 
serve in both the lower and upper hous( s of the state Legislatuiv, and 
although as eaidy as ISlil Line. -In ti ndei'ed him a judicial appointment, 
he did not ascend the bench until 1SS4, when he was elected judge of 
the Twenty-seventh Circuit, then composed of Wabasli and ^Miami coun- 
ties. He served in that capacity for six years to the satisfaction of l)otb 


lawyers and tlu-ir clients. Ju(]|j:e Conner married a dani;liter of Col. 
Hugh iraniia, and was tlierefore doubly endeareil to Waliasli County 

^. ^-i, , . Hon. Calvix CowciilIj 

Calvin Cowgill was lioi'n in ISli), the same year as Judge Cornier, 
hut the foriin'r was a native of Ohio. In lS-12 he was admitted to the 
bar at Winchester. Indiaiia, and Ixd'ore the Supreme ('ourt at Indiana- 
polis, but did uot pi'actiee' much for si'Vei'al \'ears. In 1851 he was 
elected to the Legislatui-e and in the following \-eai' moved to Wahash, 
where he conuiienced active i)i'actice with John IT. Pettit. lie was 
among the pioneer republicans of Wabash (,'ouuty, served for several 
years as trt-asurer, was provost nuirshal during the ('ivil war, and was 
sulisecpiently returned to the Ceneral Assembly. In the late '70s he 
was elected to Congress. He was also })rominent in connei-tion with the 
organization and presidency of the Grand Ifapids, AVabash & Indiana 
Railroad, and for several years at the head of the Wabash Natural Gas 
Company, as well as a leader in otiier large enteriirises. 

General Pakkish and Captain Willlv^is 

(Jen. Charles S. Parrish was adndtted to the bar at AVabash in 1856, 
served as prosecuting attorney of the circuit for tlu» term commencing 
1857, and was for many years after a leader at the bar, as well as one 
of the nu)st prominent citi/ens of Wabash. He served throughout the 
Civil wai- from captain to brevet brigadiei' general and no citizen did 
more for tlu' Cidon, both at home and at the fi'ont. General Parrish 
was afterward uuiyoi- of the city, and. whether in peace or in war, was 
honored for his faithfulness and ability. 

Peujannn V. Williams, who had lived in Wabash since he was three 
yeai's old, stuilied law under Judge Coiuier and at liutler Cnivei-sity, 
Indianapolis. In 1851) he graduated from that institution at the head 
of his class, antl immediately commenced pi'actice at \Val)ash. At the 
very couniiencement of his practice, in Api'il. ISliC he enlisted in the 
first company which left Waliash, connnand.'d by Captain Parrish, re- 
enlisted in August. 1S02, and did not return to his law ])i'actice until 
the war was over. He l)ravely served as captain of Com])any K and foi' 
many years after the Civil war actively and successfully i)i'acticed his 
profession. Captain Williams is now the oldest lawyci' in the county 
measured by length of professional service, is the father of the l)eautiful 
i\Iemorial Hall erected to the sohliei's with whom he mai'ched and fought 


ill his youiijLnT days, ami is among the bc'st-infonm-d m.'ii in the county. 
JArryhody knows hnn and lias a warm lieart for him, as lie has for all. 

Lessku LuiiiTs 

William O. Koss, dead these many years, was among the first of our 
legal i)rartition(rs, but never attained marked proudnenee. 

<ieoi-ge Iv (ioi'don eounnenced ])ractiee aljout the saiiu! time as Judge 
I'ettit, t'lijoyed fair sueeess for a number of \-ears, Init was not a stayer. 

John .M. Wheeler, who a])i)c'ared at Waliash in 1844, attaineil prom- 
inenee as a lawyer and a citizen. 

John J.. Knight studied law with Judge Conner, and in 1843 was 
admitted to jiraetiee before the Circuit Court, lie was a line lawyer, 
the lirst judge of the Common Pleas Court and a credit to both the 
bench and bar. 

Daniel M. Cox located at La tiro at an early day, afterwards moved 
to Wabash, was at one time editor of the Wabash Intelligencer, and was 
what nmy be called ""an all-arou-id good num.'' 

In the early ':)()s John M. Council and Joseph II. Matlock added 
their names to the list of pi'aeticing attorneys in Wabash County. .Mr. 
Comiell was a fair lawyer, while Judge .Matlock was able both as a 
practitionei- and on the bench. In 1854 he was elected district pros- 
ecutor and afterwards served a term ou the bench of the Court of 
Common Pleas. 

Alanson P. Ferry came to Wabash County in 1843 and commenced 
thi' i)i-actice of the law at La Gro. Sonu- two years later he came to the 
city of Wabash and, although he stood high in his profession, his literary 
attainments di'ew him to jouriudism h\ which, as editor of the Plain 
Lealer, he nuuie peiha[)s a higher reputation than in the field of law. 
He was highly respected in every way. He died July 26, 1880, aged 
about sixty years. 

John C. Sivey became a i)racticing attorney a))out ISfiO, having pre- 
viously served as county clei'k for more than a decade. 

^Mei'edith H. Kidd came from Peru, where he had been admitted to 
the ])ar in Ls.")!, autl in 1857 was elected prosecuting attorney of the 
circuit. lie was active and stood high, luit his fine service in the Civil 
war and later in the regular army overshadowed his reputation as a 
lawyer. He also made a good record as a banker. lie was a son-in-law 
of ^laj. Stearns Fisher. 

Practitioners op the '80s 

In the early '80s the following composed the bar of Wabash County: 
James D. Conner, John L. Knight, Calvin Cowgill, Charles S. Parrish, 


^[. II. Kidd, J. (J. Sivcy, 15. F. Williains, F. M. Ka-lc, Joseph Mack.-y, 
James M. Auioss, AlcxaiidiT Il^ss, Carry F. Cow^'ill. Warrcii (i. Sayiv, 
il. (i. De I'uy, II. ]C Sliivcly, J. .M. JJuid-i:.-, Ma.-y (iuod, Claiviicc \V. 
Stci)liciisoii, James I). Coiiiiei-, Jr., Wai'ivii IU'^Ut, J. T. Iliiteliiiis, 
(Jeor^a- 'i\ llerrick. J. M. Curtiicr, X. (i. Iluiitei-, J. C. F. I)e Afiiioud, 
B. F. Clenu'ii.s, Edward Smith, C. F. Ai'thur, O. II. Bogue, J. F. Beegaii, 

I. E. Giiigt'i'iek, AV. II. Bent, J. I). Chaplin and O. B. J\>ttit. 

AVabasii Coixty H\r A.^socia'I'kjx 

Tlie members of the bar earl\- fornuHl the Wabash County Bar Asso- 
eiation, tlie ehief duties of whieh liave eonsisted in taking action upon 
deceased lawyers and judges and the regulation of professional fees. 
The i)resent membei-shii) is twenty-tive. AVarren G. Sayre is president 
of the association, Herman X. Ilipskind, st-ci-etary, and AV. (i. Todd, treas- 
urer. As tlie mem])ers embract- the active practitioners in the county, 
they are given as follows: 1>. F. AVilliams, Alex Hess, A\^. G. -Sayre, 
Alvah Taylor, Clark AV. AVeesner, John AV. R. ililliner, J. D. Conner, 
Jr., X. G. Hunter. I. E. Gingerick, Frank 0. Switzer, F. A. Pa>aie, 
E. E. Eikenbaiy, T. L. Stitt, Frank Brooks, AV. H. Anderson, Charles 

II. Browei-, Joseph AV. Alurphy, A. N. McCracken, Charles Sala, Fred 
1. King, AV. S. Bent, Aaron Alandelbauni, AValter G. Todd, Quincey E. 
]\Iilliner, Lon D. Fleming, Herman X. Ilipskind, AA^ill II. Adams, Frank 
AV. I'lummer. 

CHAPTER XIII ■ "''• ^ '^' 


c0xgressi0xai> towxsiiip fusd — subscription schools first 

Schools of AVabasii Town — First Pcblic School ix the County— 


IIoNiiiis WITH Liberty — North ALvnchester and Liberty Mills — 
FiiisT Pri\ate Schools Elsewhere in the County — Public School 
Finds Collecting — Quota of AVabasii County — Bad Outlook in 
is:).]— FuiuREs for 1854-00 — County Schools in 1870-82 — High 
Condition in 11)18 — Number of Teachers — High •School Enrol-" 
MENT — Old-Tlme Examiners — Change to County Superintend- 
ENCY — County and Township Institutes — County Superintend- 
ents — County Poard of Education — Present Inroad Field of 
Supei;intendent^ — Township Supervision — Sl-per\tsion in Grade 
Buildings — Hygiene of the Sciiooi. — Appearance of Teachers 


OF Success Items — Compulsory .Attendance — State Flower and 
State Song. 

Sul)staiitiall\', the i)n'Sriit county systum of public instruction was 
foiuulcd under a state law of 1852. A general distribution of various 
funds wliicli had been collecting for several years was made among the 
various counties of the state in 185-1, and the official examiner of Wa- 
basil County commenced to license teachers in such numbers that it be- 
came evident that its educational matters were at last on a comparatively 
solitl basis. 

Congressional Township Fund 

As is generally known, the foundation of the public school system 
of the state and county was the fund derived from the sale of the 
sixteenth section of each congressional township, under the Ordinance 
of 1787 for tlie government of the Northwest Territory. For the pur- 
pose of utilizing the proceeds of the sales of these lands and converting 



tlicm into scliool I'cvciuic, an act of tlic Indiana l^c<i:islatiirL' was aj)- 
pi'ovc'd .Janiiai-y .'51, l.s24, piHuidiiiu' tliat "tlic inliabitants of cacli coii- 
^t,n-essional townsliip l)L'ing either freelioltlers or householders, at the 
iiotiec given hy an\' thrin- such iiiha))itants, set \i\) for twenty days at 
three of the most puhlie i)iaees in such township, shall meet at the 
seetion I'esi-rvfd by Congress for the use of seliools, or at some i)lace 
convenient lliercto; and if thei'e be pi'eseiit at such tiiiu' and plaec 
twenty inlial)itants of sueli township, as aforesaid, they shalT proceed to 
elect by ballot three persons of their township as trustees, who shall 1)0 
freeholdi'rs ; and, upon filing a eertitieate in the clerk's ottice that such 
election was held in eonformity to the provisions of this act, the inlud)- 
itants shall ])e a body corporate and politic, under tlie name and stylti 
of Townshii) School No. — , Kange — , as designated in the United 
States siirvey. " •'• 

SciiscKii'TioN Scnonr,s 

It is nnnecrssary to go into the details of this fundamental act, since 
the inhal»itants of Wabash County wei'e not suftieiently advanced, either 
in numbei-s or tax-])aying capaeit\', to adojjt and support a townshi]) sys- 
tem of i)ublie instruction \intil they were well into the '50s. Previous 
to that time, private or subscription schools were in vogue. As an in- 
troduction to a review of the pul)lic system of the county, tiie first 
seliools of that nature started in the several townships are here noted. 

First Schools of Wabash T(nvN 

AVabasli Town was the only connnunity in Wabash County wliich 
took advantage of the school laws of the state enacted prior to 1852, 
altiiough at least four private schools were opened before a public insti- 
tution was put in operation. In the winter of 1836-37, when the town 
was less than three years old, Ira Burr taught school in a l)uilding pre- 
viously u.sed as a storehouse by William S. Edsall, situated on lot 2(j of 
the original plat. The second school occupied the same, or adjacent 
premises, and was taught for several months in the spring and sunniier 
of 1837 by Saiali lUackman. Enuna Swift taught the third school 
during two terms of three months each, in the fall and winter of 1S37- 
38, and the teacher for those seasons in 1838-39 was ^Nlrs. Daniel Rich- 
ardson. The latter lield forth in the Pat Duffy liuildiiig, which is de- 
scribed as a log house whicli had pi-eviou.sly l)een used botli for school 
and public puritoses. It was probal)ly David Burr's log house on the 


Treaty GrouiKls. Or. Luiiiarcj tauyht a fall and wintt-r .session of 
18:W-40, in the .saniu building. 

First Public School in the Cocnty 

In the winter of 1839-40, School District No. 1, of Congressional 
Townshii) No. 27 Nortli, Range 6 East, in NoMr Town.ship, liaving been 
organized, the peoplf of tlie district prepared to ereet a publie school 
building within its bounds. The contract was awarded to .Jose])h Ray 
who, under its terms, eonii)leted a frame building on the noi-th part of 
lot If)?, original plat, in tlie s{u-ing of 1840. It stood a little south and 
east of the freight dei)Ot of the old AVa])ash, St. Louis »S: Pacific Raili'oad 
and the old-time hollow which extended in a iiorthwestei-l\- and south- 
easterl}' direction was utilizi'd as a playground. ]Miss .Mai-y Ross, 
daughtei- of William O. Ross, opened this first ])ul)lic school of the town 
and the county — probai)ly in the summer of 1840. She afterwards nuu'- 
i-ied (ieorge Millei' and moved to Peru. It is said that Judge Daniel 
Jackson and ,Joseph Ray were especially identitit'd with tlie erection of 
this historic schoolhouse, which, with various private l)uildings rented 
by the school authorities, supplied the demand for sclioolhouses in Dis- 
trict No. 1 during the succeeding decade or more. 

PioNEKR Schools at Amkkica and La Fontaine 

If any school in the count\- outside of Wabash, was opened prior to 
the owv mentioned by .Mrs. Jonatluui Scott, tlu' author has not found 
the record of it. She said, many years ago, that the first school in 
Liberty Township was taught in a cabin built by John Ferree north of 
AnuTica. It was located on tlie old State Road, the teacher was George 
AV. Smith and she was one of ins pui)ils in tlie summer of 1837. The 
sc1kk)1 had been opened in the wintei- of 1836-37. In 1837 a separate 
building was erected for a school in the Town of America. It was made 
of iiewn logs, and one of Mrs. Scott's most vivid impressions of the town 
schoolhouse was gained from the fact that ]\lr. Smith's twenty pupils all 
had to sit on "sleepers" instead of regular seats. 

In the summer of 1837 "William (J rant installed a school in one room 
of his double log cabin, located in the north edge of the present Town 
of La Fontaine. Eli Dillon taught the few children gathered tliere, 
chietly collected from the Grant families, or the Grant settlement. The 
same room had been used for the first religious services held in Liberty 

About 1839 another schoolhouse devoted entirely to educational 


purposes, was l)uilt a iiiilc and a half north of La Fontaine. It was 
(k-scriln-d as a small lujlc-cahin, with ciLrht or tm feet cut out of one 
end for a c liinuu-y, with hum- liack wall and dirt jams. .Moses F. Well- 
man was one of the early teachers. 

Paw Paw Siiakhs Honors with Liberty 

Paw Paw Township shai'es first eilueational honors with Liherty, as 
a school was tau^u:ht foi' a few weeks in the winter of lS;](i-;57 at the 
douljle log house of .Ja<'oh Bryan, just south of tin? Eel Piver. There 
were teu seholai-s— four from P>i-yan's own family, five from lieehner's 
ami one fi-om Palston's. 

A short time later, iu L'-!87, that useful i)ioneer, John Anderson, 
turned one room of his douhle eahin into a school. This was located on 
Squirrel Creek, and the teacher engaged was -Jacol) Heilman. 

The ne.xt institution of learning was estahlished in 1838. The 
neighhors (also south of Eel River in Paw Paw) built a round-log cabin 
with clai)board roof, puncheon Hoor and door and desks, pole seats with 
legs, and huge dirt and puncheon fireplace and stick-and-clay chimney, 
with log left out for light. The first teacher in that was Daniel 

The first school in the (iamble setthMuent, and one of the earliest in 
Paw Paw Township and the county, was one mile south of Roann. The 
log cabin schoolhouse was built about 18;iiJ, and Ward j\IcLees was the 
first teacher. Samuel Gamble was one of the scholars and walked three 
miles to school. 

North I\L\NCiiEftTER and Liberty ^Mills 

North Manchestei" and Liberty Mills established subscription schools 
about the same time, in the winter of 1 838-8!). 2\Iiss Harriet Tullis 
conducted one on Lot .'39, in behalf of the children of Liberty ^lills, and 
Tho'nui.s Keeler did the same for the juveniles of the rival town farther 

At Judge Comstock's town the schools were taught in a different 
house each winter until about 1841, when a schoolhouse was erected on 
Lot 51. This was a frame l)uilding erected by the citizens, whose labor 
was contributed gratis. The salary of the teacher was nuide up l)y 
s\d)scripti()iis, as was the case throughout the township until the present 
school .system came into force. 

First Private Schools Elsewhere in the County 

A])out 1839 a school was taught in the old Jesse :\loyer house, iu the 
soutliwesteru i)art of Pleasant Township. 1). 1>. Allen was the teacher. 


Villagers of La Gro claim that Gen. John Tipton, tlie Indian agent, 
built a srhoolhouse on the site of their town ahout ls:51). Outside of the 
villagi'. the first school was oi)eiied at about the same lime a mile and 
a half north of I'eab.)dy',s Creek. 

As we have elsewhere noted, Waltz Township \vas late in bein^' set- 
tled, as its lauds were the last to be cleared of Indian titles. Sehools 
were therefore founded at a comparatively late da.v — the first one on 
the noi-th side of the ^lississinewa, opposite Somerset, not being built 
until 184G. This served as both first school and first meeting house. 

PunLic School Fi'nds Coi.i.kcti.xg 

I5y the time all the townships of Wabash County were in a position 
to assume school taxes under the general act of 1852, they were also 
entitled to tlieii- quotas of several accumulated fuiuls. In the year 18o7 
the school fund of the state, at first consisting of the Congressional 
Township Fund oidy, was increased by an act of the Legislature direct- 
ing that ouo-half of the surplus revenue of the United States deposited 
in the state treasury be distributed among the several counties of the 
state in amounts proportionate to the ta.xable i)olls in eacli county, to be 
loaned out l»y officers ai)pointed for that purpose for the benefit of the 
common schools of the county. 

In 1845. by further legislative enactment, it was directed that all 
the funds that had accumulated, or might be received from the sale 
of the saline lands of the state, should be likewise distributed among 
the several counties, and loaned in the same manner and for the same 
object i)rescribed for the surplus revenue funds previously distributed. 
During the same year the bank tax fund went to swell that collecting for 
the sui)port of the common sehools. Tiiese constituted the productive 
branch of the school funds from which, since those several dates, the 
publie schools of the different counties have been in great measure sup- 
ported. Besides the funds above enunu'rated, there were others known 
as prospective and tmproductive, all of which were set forth in the first 
report of the state superintendent of public instruction as follows: 
Productive, $2,278,588; unproductive, $1,560,400; prospective, $1,150,- 
000. Total, $4,988,988. 

Quota of Wabash County 

By the estimated amount for distribution among the several counties 
of the state for the year 1854, the first made under the law of 1852, the 
proportion of Wabash County, on the estimated basis of eighty cents 



per capita on tlie enuiiieratioii for that year, was as follows: Chester 
Township, $658; La Gro, $854; Liberty, $520; Noble, $1,()!)0; Pleasant, 
$592; AValtz, $618. Total, $4,8;:!2. 

■^'' ' ' Bad Outlook ix 1853 '' ,:'..- ,. ., .,.i 

The aetini: examiners in Wabash County in 1853 were Josiah l^owles, 
who had licensi-d twelve teachers during that year, and 1). \Vhitin<xer, 
who had licmscd cighteiMi. In his report to the state superintendent 
Ml-. Bowles says: "In rej^ard to teaehers and schools which have come 
under my ol)servation, thei-e is little improvement under the new .system; 
and my own convictions are that we cannot look for good teachers ajid 
good schools so long as the present 'Thomas Dillworth straddle-l)ench 
schoolhouscs' remain. There is not in our townshij) one single school- 
house whicli will bear the appellation of a tolei-ably good one. How 
shall this evil be remedied / Would it not be proper for the Legislature 
to pass an act empowering the township trustees to levy a tax to meet 
the great denmnds for good schoolhouscs f Unless we have good school- 
houses we cannot have good schools." 

Figures for 1854-60 

By the enumeration of 1854, there were 5,232 children of school age 
in AValiash County — 183 less than the i)revious year. Of that number 
2.1)21 wei'e imiles and 2,311 females, and the attendance had been: 
Male.s. 2.21i), and females, 1,763. 

The tigures for 1855 siiow: Total between the ages of five and 
twenty-one ^■ears, 5,!)()0— 3,118 males and 2,782 females; 82 school dis- 
tricts and 31 schools; $3,3f)4.43 expended for tuition; $4,809 assessed 
for building schoolhouscs— $1,759 in La Gro Township and $3,140 in 
No1)le (Wabash). 

In 1856 there was a better showing— 6,280 children (3,226 males 
and 3,054 females), of whom 4,176 attended school within the year. 
The tuition was $5,996.82. There were 107 districts and 99 schools, 
iMuploying S:] male and 17 female teachers outside of Wabash, and 
$7,006.28 assessed for building The congressional town- 
ship fund amounted to $15,057.31 during the year; amount refunded, 
$2,328.11; interest collected, $1,342.39. The common school fund 
amounted to '$6,854.99 ; refunded within the year, $1,419.38; interest 
collected, $55.43. Total school funds, $21,912.30; interest collected, 
$1,898.82. No scliool lands renuiined unsold. 

The sui)erintendent's report for 1860 makes the following showing 


i'oi- Wahasli County: Total cnuiiu'i'ation, 1,W'); males, 'A,^:'}'), and fe- 
lualrs, ;),4r)(). luTi'ivcd in tuition during tlir year, .tll,;U7, for an 
average length of term of eighty-eight tiays. Apportioned foi- the year, 
,i;7,;)4().4(); amount of congressional township funils at the elose of the 
previous yeai', -i;! S, 748.68 ; total amount at the ilate of autlitor's report, 
$18,758.08, iiicluding ten aeres of unsold school lands valued at $50. 
Amount for disti-il)ution that year, $1,!)82.82; amount of common school 
fund at the end of the previous year, $0,726.58. Amount added by the 
commissioners of the sinking fund within the year, $8,484.58. Total 
amount, June 1, 1800, .4^15,290.70. Total amount for apportioiniient, 

County Scikjols ix 1870-82 

xVccording to the report for 1870, 7,915 were enumerated — 1,077 
males and 3,838 females. The amount of school revenue on hand Sep- 
tember 1, 1869, was $17,078.55. Tuition, $41,917.46; amount expended, 
$22,092.54; amount on hand, $19,224.92; amount of special revenvie on 
hand, September 1, 1869, $13,208.62; amount afterwards received, $14,- 
406.69; total, $27,735.31; amount expended, $17,028.37; amount on 
hand, $10,706.94. Amount apportioned to Wabash County October 15, 
1870, on a basis of 7,915 school children enumerated, $3,856.50. 

Tlie rci)ort for 1880 makes the following showing: School popula- 
tion, 8,525; attendance, 6,563; revenue from tuition, $69,156.31; amount 
expended during 1878-79, $43,253.92; amount on liand, $25,902.39. 
Sj)ecial school revenue on hand, $15,355.02. 

By the state superintendent's report for the year 1882, it appears 
that the chiklren of school age in AVabash County amounted to 8,543, 
and the attendance was 6,775. The total revenue from tuition was 
$79,885.72 ; amount expended, $44,860.46 ; balance on hand Septendjer 
1, 1882, $35,025.26. The same report indicates that at the end of the 
school year August 31, 1882, there wc 'n the county 141 schoolhouses, 
of M-hieh 74 were l)rick and (J7 frame, of a total value of $207,250. For 
that year there was a special fund of $37,168.08, from which $10,950 
was expended for schoolhouses. 

High Condition in 1913-14 

Twenty yeai's after the above figures were compiled the population 
of AValiash County had increased oidy about 2,000, yet the condition of 
the schools Avas far better. From the county auditor's report for the 


year ending Deccnilier 31, liJl.'i, it aitpearetl that the special school fund 
amounted to ."i^!)4,7;j4.;il and the tuition fund to $7'J,:i5!J.tJl. 

Number of Teachers , , , ,. ,,, 

The report of the county superintendent of schools for 1013-14 gives 
a roster of all the teachers in the county, from which it is gleaned that 
there are 2'2'k divided Ity to\vnshij>s, school districts and wards as 

La (Jro Township — La Gro District, 9; Lincolnville, 5; Dora, 2; 
country schools, 7. Total, 23. 

(Jhcstcr Township— Nortli :\Ianchester District, 8; Liberty Mills, 3; 
Scrvia, 3; country schools, 9. Total, 23. 

Pleasant Township — Laketon District, 8; Disko, 3 ; 'Ijamville, 2; 
No. 10. 2; country .schools, 3. Total, 18. 

Paw Paw^ Township — Roann District, 9; L'rbana, 7; country schools, 
5. Total, 21. 

Lil)erty Township — La Fontaine District, lU; country schools, 5. 
Total. 15. 

Waltz Township — Somerset District, G ; country schools, 8. Total, 14. 

Nolile Townsliip — Linlawn District, 9; White's Institute, 4; Rich 
Valley, 2; country schools, 11; Ohijipewa, 9. Total, 35. 

City of Wabash: Superintendent and supervisors, 5; high school 
teachei's, 14; Last Wartl School, 8; :\liami School, 8; West Ward School, 
8: Soutli Side School, 8; Century School, 8. Total, 59. 

Nortii I\lanchester Pul)lie Schools — Superintendent and high school 
teachers, G ; Central School, 4 ; West Ward School, 4 ; North Ward School, 
4. Total, 18. 

Township Enrolment 

The enrolment by townshirs is as follows: La Gro, 550; Noble, 
G29; AValtz, 302; Liberty, 279; .^aw Paw, 271; Chester, 416; Pleasant, 
317. Total, 2,764. 

Altogether there are 429 pupils enrolled in the township high schools, 
as follows : Chester, 50 ; Chippewa, 18 ; LaFontaine, 43 ; LaGro, 51 ; Lake- 
ton, 48; Lincolnville, 38; Linlawn, 35; Roann, 62; Somerset, 42; 
Urbana, 42. 

Old-Time County Examiners 

Previous to 1873 the schools of the county were supposed to be under 
the active supervision of an examiner, of whose early duties and per- 


forniances little need be said. Previous to the reformatory law of 1852 
his chief duty was to go through tlie form of examining teaehers wlio 
applied for certifieates ; and usually the applicant was far more proficient 
than the examiner. The certificate was supposed to he granted for a 
period which was gauged on the correctness of tiie answers received. 
The grade of examiners and teachers was nu-iterially raised during the 
two deeades prior to 1873, tlie list of th.e former including such intelligent 
and wortliy eiti/eiis as C. K. Ila/eii, William W. Beck, Charles S. Parrish, 
Joseph .Mackey, AVarren 0. Sayre and Alvaii Taylor. 

Change to Couxty Superintendency 

When the change to the county superintendency was made in 1873, 
the official duties of the head of the scliools were greatly enlarged. 
lie became, in fact, an active superintendent, giving all his time and 
abilities to the improvement of the publie system of insti'uction, being 
accountal)le both to the state superintendent of pulilic instruction and the 
county board of education. Scliooliious^'s have bee n improved, teaching 
methods advanci^^d in aceoi'dance with tlie g. nci'al progress of scientific 
education, hygienic reforms introduced of l)oth an arcliiti'ctural and per- 
sonal nature, and in every way the local system has kept pace with the 
rapid advance of tlie general forward movement in all educational mat- 
ters, whether of theory or i)i-actice. 

County and Townsmh' IxsTrrcTEs 

No one influence has had a l)etter effect on the county system of pub- 
lic instruction than that exei'ted thi'ougli the institutes ami normals. As 
eai'ly as 1805 and 1866, institutes wei-e held in the county under the 
supervision of the county examiner. Thi; li'st ones whicli really drew 
the attention of teachers to their importance wi-re those lield in 1866 and 
1867, during the administration of Wan-en (J. Sa>'i'e, but it was not until 
1874 that they were considered pei'imuient institutions of tlie county 

In his report for that }'ear, Irvin h\ Stratton, the first superintendent 
of schools of Wabash County, says in his report to the state superin- 
tendent : "Our County Institute, the best held in the count}' for two 
years, met in Wabash, October 20-24, i:;clusive, was well att(;nded and did 
much good. On account of tlu' size of oiu' townships and bad weather, 
out township institutes wei-e not as well attended as tliey should have 
been, but they were beneficial in their results and will be the means of 
elevating our teachers and thereliy elevating our schools. Nearly one 


hundred of our teachers attcudL-d nornud chissus in this county from 
six to eight weeks, and tins, too, tlie first woi'k of tlie kind whieli had 
ever l)een (hjiie in the county. The average al)ility in Wahash (bounty 
will be 20 ])er cent, higher this }'ear than ever before. County supcrin- 
tendency is entitletl to a fair share of credit for all good results herein 

In 1875, 170 teachers were present at the annual institute, held at the 
City of Wabash, and from that year to the present tlie attendance has 
practically included every regular teacher in the county. In this work 
from first to last Miss Adelaide Steele Baylor took a leading part, serv- 
ing for some years as secretai-y of the county institute. 

The township institutes continue to be the most constant source of 
improvement to the teaching force of the county, as they ai-e held 
throughout the school year — the first Saturdays of the month in Waltz 
and Chester townships; second Saturdays in Pleasant and Paw Paw; 
and thii'd Saturdays, in Xoble, Liberty and La Gro. 

\'ai'ious rules and regulations are in force to ensure a full attendance, 
the most efhcacious being those which provide for a fine for non-attend- 
ance and the fact that the trustees will i)ay teachers only on the days 
when the township institutes are being held. 

The Indiana Statutes says: '"Tliat no teacher shall receive wages 
for attending township institutes, unless he or she shall attend tlie 
full session of such institute and perform the duty or duties assigned." 
The law also states that a teacher forfeits one day's wages for every 
day's absence, unless such service shall be occasioned by sickness or 
such other reason as may lie approved by the township trustee." 

Suggestions in the last report of the county sujjerintendent : "The 
program connnittee should follow the suggestions given in the insti- 
tute outline very closely. Definite assignments should be made and 
those on duty should prepare their work thoroughly before presenting. 
TlTe leader who conducts the work in the Teachers' Heading Circle Books 
is expected to conduct a model recitation by having her lesson well out- 
lined and using the institute as a class. Both the leader and class 
should recite with books closed. Teachers should enter the institute as 
if they meant business by removing hats, gloves, etc., not acting as if 
it was a holiday and they were posing for a camera. The township 
principals should require the leaders to furnish them with copies of the 
outlines which they expect to use in presenting the T. R. C. books. Well 
prepared papers are much more desirable than rand)ling talks when 
leading in the discussion of other sul)jects on the program. From time 
to time township lU'incipals will be eyoected to report tiie character of the 



M i, 

;ifv»i.i.' Jl 


work doiiL' by (.-arli iiumhIjct. A further test will he itiade by giving writ- 
ten examinations on the T. K. C. l)Ooks. 

"The following toi)ies are to l)e on the pi'ograni some time during 
the year: Keading in tlie primary grades. Diseuss the i)laiis given in 
the State Course of Study, the Ward .Manual and county plans." 


Following .Air. Stratton in the county superintendency up to the 
present time have been: Isaac .Macey Good, (Jeorge T. Ilerriek, Irvin 
F. Stratton, Harvey A. Ilutcliens, John X. ]\Iyei-s, Avery A'Villiams, 
Lincoln (J. Dale, John W. Lewis, Kobert K. Devericks. 

CofXTY Board op Education 

The County I^oard of Education serving in 1 1)13-14, is as follows: 
County Superintendent — Robert K. Deverieks, AVabasli. Trustees — 
iOdward J. Singer, Chester Township; Jacob M. AVagoner, Paw Paw 
Township; Frank Ireland, Pleasant Township: 1). E. Purviance, Lagro 
Township; P. F. Hubbard, Nol)le Township; Harmon L. Fmriek, AValtz 
Township; Jacob Sailors, Libei-ty Townshij). I'.oard of Seliool Superin- 
tendents — J. L. Henderson, LaFontaine; C. F. Albaugli, Somerset; A. P. 
Oswalt, Lincolnville ; Chi Waggoner, Linlawn ; II. S. Jeffrey, Lagro ; S. J. 
Pirk, Frbana; Howard Williams, Chester; E. E. Roby, Laketon ; J. E. 
Landis, Roaiui ; L. H. Whitcraft, Chippewa. Truant Officer— Joe W. 
Davis, Wabash. 

Present Broad Field op Superintendent 

Thei'e is no detail in the county system of i)ublic education which the 
superintendent does not guide — teachers, township superintendents and 
pupils are all under his watchful eye and active mind, and all are lield 
to their tasks with kindness, but firmiiess. p]very yeai- moi-e is required 
of him ami of them, as in every other field of human endeavor. To 
illusti'ute these oI)servations let us quote fi'om the last re])ort of Comity 
Superintendent Devt-rieks, the e.xtrai-ts being taken from various portions 
of his interesting exposition. 

TowNsiiii' Supervision 

"The trustees are hiring the township superintendents with the 
ex{)re.ssed understanding that they are to supervise the township schools. 


This lias ])wn done in tlie j)ast to some extent, Imt this year tiiey are 
exj)reted to keep even more closely in touch with the \vork of the 
teacher. Jt is also to he hojjed that the teachers will eoui)erate with them 
in this work. The snperintendent of sehools, where eertidt'd Ingh sehools 
are located, will have direct supervision of the grades and in a measure 
will he responsible for the work done by the teachers. It is expected 
that the township superintendents will visit each district school at least 
twice within a year. They are to ask the teachers to submit plans of 
their work, and specimens of the work done by the i)Upils at stated times. 
Arrangements for monthly examinations and nuuiy other plans may 
be made by them. Questions ai'ising as to the grading and promotion of 
l)ui)ils should be referred to the township superintendent or the superin- 
tendent of the graded schools as the case nuiy ])e. 

Supervision ix Grade Buildings 

''Superintendents of graded schools are expected to have complete 
chai'ge of their respective buildings and their word should be law in 
all matters jjcrtaining to school woi'k, subjeet only to the rules in tlu; 
(,'oinity Maiuud. When rules are made the teachers should enforce 
them without question whether they believe they are right or not. 
Teachers often make the great mistake of letting i)upils know that 
they aiH' not in sympathy with the superintendent. Pui)ils should never 
know of any dift'erences that exist between them. If a teachei- is as- 
signed a certain part of the work in general discipline, asked to do 
work in a certain manner, asked to take her tui-n staying at the build- 
ing during the noon houi', or to perfoi-m any other duty, she should 
be ready and willing to cooperate with the superintendent for he of 
all others should know what is best for the schools. 

"The superintendent is expected to sujx'rvise the work of all 
t'eachers very closely. Note books should l)e so arranged that he can 
within a few miiuites in the morning know all that they are plamiing 
to do during the day. Teachers' meetings are very helpful, if properly 
condu('ted, and only questions of general interest are discussed. 

Hygiene of the School 

"It is the trustee's duty to place a thernu)meter in each school- 
room and it is the teacher's business to kee[) uniform temperature 
and see that the rooms ai'c properly ventilated. A boai'd should l)e 
placed under the lower sash so that the air iiuiy eutei- between the 
upper and lower sashes. Improper heating and poor ventilation is 


not only a dt-trinicnt to tlie health of tlu- ehildi't-n, Itut they are unable 
to ac-coinplish what is rxpiH-tcd of them in their studies. Teachers 
should he eartd'ul about allowing,' puj)ils to sit in tlie dicect suidi<,dit. 
Teaeliers should wi-ite a lar{.(e, plain hand on the blaekboard. Win- 
dow shades should be in good i'ej)air and raised or lowered l)y the 
teacher at the proper time. It is no great wonder tluit the eyesight 
of so many children is afl'ected when you consider the i)Oorly lighted 
schoolrooms. ]t is worth while fo!- the teachei- to spend some time 
during tlie day in safeguarding the boily of the child, as well as in 
developing the miiid. 

Appearance of Teachers and Pupils 

"There are two extremes in the appearance of teachers and pupils 
both of which seem to be reached in this county. It is the teacher's 
duty to teacli the children to be neat and clean anti is entirely within 
the duties of tlie teaclier to see that their hands and faces are clean, 
hair condxnl, the teacher guiding them by pi'ecept and example. On 
the other hand, we tind some boys that are snobbish ami in numy in- 
stances girls that do tlieir hair up ridiculously and wear gowns more 
suitable for })arties than for schoolrooms where comfort is so much 
desired. It is perhaps a lady's own business to dress as she pleases 
but teachei's must remember that school girls are apt to pattern after 
them and as a result spend several hours each day in artiticial deco- 
rations when the time is needed so much in stud v. 

^Iedical Inspection Law 

" 'It shall l)e the duty of all teachers to immediately send home any 
pupil who is perceptibly ill in any way, or who is unclean and enuts 
offensive bodily odors or who is infested with lice or other vermin; 
and the truant oftlcer shall ai'rest and prosecute parent or guardians 
who do not rid thi'ir children of vermin and bodily uncleanliness, 
when notified to do so. Refusals of parents or guardians to free their 
cluldren or wards of vermin or to bathe and cleanse them, making them 
tit to go to school, shall l)e i)unished hy a fine of not less than five 
dollars and imprisonment for ten tlays, or l)oth. And if the refusal 
or neglect of jiarents or guardians to bathe and cleanse their children 
or wards nnikes it necessary, then the truant offi('er, ujion order of 
the school authorities, shall have it done, the cost to be paid by the 
school authorities from tlie school funds.' 


TM. ■■■!(' SiJCCEss Grades 

"SiKx'c'ss grades will br nuule out at the i-iul of the school year. 
According,' to law, these j^'radi'S must he used in couiputing the wages 
of teachers during the following year. I>y the staiidar<l used in this 
county it is intended that teachers with one year's expei-ienee, who 
are successful, and their work' entirely satisfactoi'y shall receive DO per 
cent. Those whose woi'k is not satisfat-tory uuiy di-op as low as S,! ])er 
cent. Those whose work is satisfactory will he raised according to the 
success of the teachers but it is intended that after teaching three years 
that those who have been an entire success shall receive 1)5 per cent. 
Ordiiuirily it will take four or tive years to reach the Do per cent nuirk. 
By this scale after teaching a year, the length of license will be deter- 
mined largely by the success grade, 1)0 per cent giving the ai)iilicant 
an excellent chance to get a twenty-four-iuonth and Do per cent a good 
chance to get a thirty-six-nionth. These grades are tixed by the county 
superintendent after advi.sing with the local superintendent, and the 
townshij) trustee. 

"It is a difticult matter to estiuuite the grades by schedule or in 
an\' othei- manner, except by placing a general estinmte upon the 
value of the teacher. However, there are nuiiiy things that affect the 
grades and although a teacher may have been successful in many 
respects ami nuiy feel that she shoidd have a certain grade, yet there 
are many minor details that nuiy change the grade considerably from 
what may seem fair on a general estimate. For example, a teacher 
nuiy do good teaching but if the Institute work is poor, the api)earanee 
of the teacln'r is not satisfactory, the i)rogram not followed, school 
property not cared for, ignorance of 'Plans,' schoolroom untidy, 
teaching for money only, failure to keep nj) with the profession by at- 
tending Summer Noruud ami nuiny other things any one of which 
may nuike consitlerable ditiVu-ence in the grade. The three most im- 
portant factors which determine the success grades are prof(>ssional 
inti'rest, daily ])rei)aration of the teacher and the discipline of the 
school. Any one of these may cause absolute failure. 

"The life of the teacher outside the school has very little to do 
with the success grade, yet teachers are expected to live honest lives 
and not allow social functions, theatres, etc., to interfere with their 
daily preparation and take up time which should belong to the school." 

SciiEorLE OF Success Items 

A. Teaching Power, 45 per cent. 

]\Iany items enter into this, but the principal ones are preparation of 
lesson, skill in presentation, and results attained. 


Ji. Oovcniiiu'iit, .'>5 f)('f cent. \' n'l '■., •. :; ', 

Tlie teacher's power in j,'ovei'iiineiit is shown in the general spirit 
of tlie school, anil in the attitmle the pupils lake toward their daily 
tasks, toward each other and toward the school property. 

C. Genei-al Characteristics, 20 per cent. 

Under this head the personality of the teacher, his professional 
and community interest, and all qualities that make for the 
best citizenshij) should he considered. 

CoMPi'LsoRY Attendance 

Indiana, and therefore AVabash County, has a compulsory school 
law, approved ]\Iarch 14, lilUl Its chief provisions are that: 

All children attend school until they have passed their four- 
teenth birthdays and until they have passed the fifth grade. 

Pupils who have passed the fifth grade must attend school until they 
are sixteen unless they are employed. 

Any one wishing to employ children between fourteen and sixteen 
must get an employment certificate of the local superintendent. This 
employment certificate is given to parents upon request. 

This employment certificate is kept on iile by the school officials and 
a card is given the employer on which to notify the local superintendent 
when the child leaves his employ. 

Teachers will be furnished blanks on which they will report truants 
to the attendance oflicer. 

The same law provides for Arbor Day on the third Friday of April, 
"for the 4)ui'pose of encouraging the ])lanting of shade and forest trees, 
shrulis and vines." Further "the exercises on Arbor Day shall give 
due honor to tiie conservers of forestry, and the fountlers of the study 
and# conservation of Indiana foi'esti-y, and esjx'cially to the leading 
spirit of Indiana forestry conservation, Charles Warren Fairbanks." 

State Flower and State Song 

In his last report Superintendent Devericks also conveys tiie infor- 
mation, which falls within the requirements of the .school curriculum, 
that the Indiana Legislature adopted the carnation as the state flower, 
and "(hi the lianks of Wabash, h'ar Away" (words and music l)y 
Paul Dresser) as the State song, by acts appi'oved in .March, l!)13. 

The state song, so drnr to thousands, is rei)roduce(l : and it is not 
a disagreeable way by which to conclude this chapter: 


'Round my Iiidiana lionu'Stead wave the cornfields, 
In the distance loom the wootllands clear and cool, 
Often tiiiHs my tho'ts revert to scenes of childhood, 
Whei'e I first i'ecei\ed my lessons — nature's scliool. 
But one thinj^ there is missing in the i)icture, 
AVithoiit her face it seems so incomplete, 
I long to see my mother in the doorway, 
As she stood there years ago, her boy to greet. 

Chorus. , , , . , 

"Oil, the moonlight's fair tonight along the AValiash, 
P'rom the fields there comes the l)reath of new-mown hay. 
Through the sycamores the candle liglits are gleaming, 
On the hanks of tiie AVabash, far away. 

"Alany years hav(' i)assed since I strolled by the river, 

Arm in ai'm, with sweetheart -Mary by my side. 

It was there I tried to tell lier that I loved her, 

It was there I begged of her to be my britle. 

Long years have i)assed since I sti-olU-d thro' the churchyard. 

She's sleei)ing there, my angel, Alary dear, 

I lovetl her, but she tho\ight I didn't mean it, 

Still I'd give my future were she only here." 



Fixe Waterways of AVabasii Couxty — The Oed-Time Keel-Boat — 
IxDiAx Trails I'tilized — Xeigiiburiiood axd Towxpiiip Roads — 
Highways to the Treaty Grouxds — First Pfj^maxext Public Road 
— State Road (Mariox to Elkhart) — Shackle.max Describes 
State-Pioad lUiLDixG — Era of Plank Roads — Fir-t ix Wabash 
Cocx-i-v — pLAXi-: Road Pliwelx Ea Cro axd North ^[axchester — 
Plaxks ("oxxect Wabash axd Oraxt Couxties — Liberty ^^Iills axd 
IIrxTiX(iTox Joined — Good Roads ]\[ovemext Always With I's — 
The Tlrni'Ike Era — Connecting Link: Wabash & Erie Canal — 
(Jrvnd System of Lnternal Imlroyemexts — Small Parts of the 
Scheme Comfleted — Aftermath: Wide Distress axd I^efulmation 

Land (Jrants in Aid of the Caxai. — Colonel Blrr axd ^L\,]or 

1-'l<hi.i: Ai'i'EAR — First Caxal Coxtracts ix the County — Irish 
War <if Acgust, PSii") — The Charge at the Ford — Declixe axd 
Death of the Caxal — First Railroad (the Wabash) in 1856 — 
The Vaxdalia Route— The Pig Four— Union Traction Company of 
Lndiana— Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction System— 
Telegrafh Lines— The First Telephone Line — First Telephone 


•Natiuv has been crood to man in manifold ways, and none of her 
^'ifts to him liave been greater than of free waterways by whieli 
lie may penetrate forests, cii-eumvent mountains, make discoveries of 
strange hinds and communicate with liis kindred, as well as cooperate 
with his associates in distant countries. In many ways this is Nature's 
first and greatest gift to man, although, compared to later and more 
developed means of transportation and communication, the primitive 
waterway coursed by primitive craft is crude and cumliersome. 

Fine Waterways op AVabasii County 

The territory embraced in what is now Wabash County is extremely 
fortunate in the extent and distrib\ition of its waterways. Through 



its centi'al section flows tlie broad Wabasli, tlie Eel Ixivt-r favors its 
northern i)ortions, and the ^lississinewa, the southern, with smaller 
streams making a fine network of all the intervening- lands. With sueh 
l)rodigality of waterways, there has never been any excuse for man 
or beast becoming really lonesome or dry within the limits of AVat)asli 

It was the Wabash, tiie great central waterway, \\\\u:h drew the 
French discoverers of the country into tiiis interior country, and for 
a century the long ])oats of adventu.rers, jn'iests and voyagers from 
both New France and old, plowed its waters. Tlie INlianns and Pottawa- 
tomies, with their weaker kindred, also shared the nol)le waterway, 
sometimes j)eaceal)ly in tlieir small, light canoes ; at other times in long 
wai--boats, gaudy with blood-like trappings. 

Englisii and American traders came next, and finally the settled 
populace. To the American pioneers the streams were surely a god- 
send. The tide toward Wabash County set in with some strength in 
1835, and uj) to that year the land surface showed virtually no ways 
of travel except Indian trails and a few neighborhood roads cut through 
the woods. 

The Old-Time Keel-Boat 

When it became necessary for the first settlers to start for the 
Lower Wabash for provisions, the outlook was not of the most cheer- 
ful. To go down with a team of oxen and bring home staple products 
from LaFayette or below, over almost bottondess I'oads at some seasons 
of the year, the journey usually consuming two weeks, was certainly 
not a liright prospect. Often these inconveniences of transportation 
were overcome by the use of the keel-boat. 

Tile old-fashioned keel-boat, in such conunon use on the Wabasli and 
otiier large streams in the county was from 40 to 50 feet long and 
from 8 to 12 feet wide. It had a fiat bottom ami l)road keel, 
witli wide gangways on either side, along wiiich the jjoleman walked 
to keel) the boat in motion, especially in going up-streanu The space 
I)etween the gangways was usually covered to protect the cargo. There 
were from two to six polemen on a side, according to the weight of the 
cargo and the strength of the current. The polemen took their posi- 
tion at the foi-wai'd eiul of the boat, with theii- backs to the bow, set 
their piked poles in the bottom of the stivam, braced themselves, and 
as the boat moved forward they walked along the gangways in the 
opposite direction. Fpon reaching the end of Ihe gangway they drew 
their poles from the river bottom and retui'iied to their first position, 


rcpcatiiif,' until the voya^'u was tiui.slunl. These hoals frequently carried 
several tony of lading, and made good time. 

Indian Tkau.^ I'TiLizKn 

Hefore the government and township roads connneneed to be sur- 
veyed, the old Indian trails, which usually kept pretty close to tlie 
course of the streams, were largely utilized by white ti'avelers and 
tlie scatlei'cd settlers. The princii)al trail in the Wahash country 
was between Ked<i-onga-a, the pi'incii)al town of the .Aliamis at the 
juncture of the St. -Mary's ancl tin- St. .Joseph's rivers (Fort Wayne) 
and ()-sah"s \'illage, at the mouth of the Missi.ssinewa. 

Neighborhood and Township Roads 

This leading Indian trail was generally used by the early settlers 
for or foot travel, but as settlers connneneed to locate in 
neighborhoods they got together and agrceil upon certain roads which 
woidd be to the mutual advantage and social)ility. First, the proposed 
line of road would l)e "Idazed o\it'" along tlie tree trunks, and then 
cut out sul'lieie)dl\- so as to allow wagons and other vehicles to pass. 
Such avenues of communication were called -'neighborhood roads." 

Then, as the necessities of enlarged travel demanded roads of 
greater width and better construction, other and additional improve- 
ments wiM-e made, e(iual to the reqinrenieiits of the times. Township 
roads weic blazed, cut out and iiiq)roved lor the accommodations of 
ii.'ighboi'hoods extended ovei' a larger area, along such routes as were 
best adapted to the wants of those resident thei-ein. At lirst these roads 
were kept ill ivpair by the mutually appropriated labor of the neighbors 
interested in keeping them in "passable condition." 

At the later period the roads were kei^t in repair pursuant to 
regylations established l)y law, when tlie labor was distriliuted among 
all the male inhabitants of the district between the ages of twenty-one 
and tifty, who were able botlied. This labor was performed under the 
supervision of a man designated "supervisor of roads," the time required 
being two days in each year, unless additional road duty was imposed — 
when the impassa1)le condition of the roads made it obligatory. The 
regulations prescrilietl for opening and keeping in repair public roads 
and highways were especially strict in the details of their operation. 

Highways to the Treaty Grounds 

The first publi(' roads constructed in Waliash County were those 
built under the direction of General Tipton, the Indian agent, for the 


trajisportatioii of {,'oo(ls to tlir ti-caty grounds at Wahasli, in 182li. Kor 
tliis i)urpo.S(,', it is saitl that a fair roadway was rut out as far soutli 
as Ajidftsou, .Madison County. A srrond was from Iluutingtou, to the 
iiorthrast, to which point the goods wrro l)rought down the Wabash 
from l^'ort \Va\nf. IMieso roads, howevi-r, were cousiiK-rL-d of a tem- 
porary uaturf, tia- usefulness of which woidd he largely exhausted with 
tlie i)assiiig of the treaty i)ro(;eedings. 

First Permanent Public Road ^ 

Perhaps the first permanent puhlie road was that built in 1828 
from Logansport, along the ^''alley of the Wabash through what is. now 
Wabash County to Huntington. The territory through whieh it passed 
was then under the jurisdiction of Carroll County, and its board of 
connuissioners ordered that it run along the Wa])ash, "by way of 
John ]\Ie(iregor's to Champion Ilelvy's, at the point where the Sal- 
amoiue River enters the AVaI)ash.'' Daniel Bell, Samuel ^IcClure and 
Samuel Taber wei'e appointed tlie viewers of this forty-foot thorough- 
fare, and it was opened and improved as directed. Traces of this 
pioneer i)ul)lic road remained for years after the railroads were no 
longer new, one of its sections plaiidy traceable being in the northern 
portion of the Fair Groiuids, near the old ^Yal)ash, St. Louis & Pacific 
Railroad west of the City of Wal)asli. 

State Road (]\[arion to Elkhart) 

The next important road put through AYal)ash County was the state 
road from Clarion to Elkhart, a much-needed north and south high- 
way. The legislative acts providing for it were passed in 1832, and 
befoi-e tlie end of tlu) following year a road twenty-five feet wide was 
cleai'ed for ti-avel. Samuel I\IcClure, of Grant County, had bt'en ap- 
pointed official viewer, })ut there is a dispute among local historians, 
which is ratliei- innuaterial, as to whether the ^IcClures (father and 
son), or the Kellers, actually l)uilt the road. It is sufficient that it was 
well constructed, as roads went in tliose days, and proved itself useful. 

Shackleman Describes State-Road Building 

In desci'il)ing his journey through this country in 1836, Mr. Shackle- 
man says: "I will further say that a State road had also been recently 
surveyed, running from ^Mai'ion througli AVabash, and thence to the 
Chippewa Yillage on the Tippecanoe River. This road passed near the 

lllSTOin' ()l<^ WAP.ASII COUNTY i>i>7 

cabin of .Mr. Grant, and from the site of tlie *\voif trap' direct to 
^Vabash, -with some slight cliang'-'S afterward made, down Treaty Creek, 
and is Jiow known as Asldaml J'ike. i''i'om Wabash northwest, it still 
retains tbc name of the Chipi)ewa Koad. 

''The next year (1837 j another State road was surveyed from 
Clarion to La Gro, antl probably farther. After entering into the tlat 
lands at the south line of Wabash County, the surveyor was directed to 
run a straight air line from a ])oint in the county line to the mouth 
of the •Salamonie Jiiver, which he did, and it was recorded on the sur- 
ve\or's jjlat ; but when the time came and tlie contracts were let and 
tile work bi'gun, it was found that the line of the road as surveyed ran 
at all points of the comi)ass. It was so crooked that Judge Jesse D. 
Scott and lion. William T. Ross volunteered their services, and after 
three of four days of hard labor in staking and blazing and straighten- 
ing the road, it assumed its present bearings and was afterward known 
as the .Marion & La Gro Plank Koad. 

"It was aftei'ward ascertained that a keg of whiskey coming into 
the hands of the survt^ving jiarty near Josina Creek, had so atfected the 
magnetic bearings of the compass as to rentier it almost useless the 
balance of the distance. The importance of this road to the neighbor- 
hood, i)assing rs it di([ right b}- the doors of Llihu Garrison and Jesse 
1). Scott, \w.s thought to be of suflicient consequence to justify these 
pai'ties in laying out a new town. Accordingly, on the 21)th of Sep- 
teni])er, 1I);57, they surveyed the Town of America." 

It is probable that these state roads, with the less-used treaty ground 
lines, were the only public highways in Wabash County, when it was 
organized civilly in 1885. 

Era of Plank Roads 

It was chiefly through the township authorities that the roads of 
the comity were extended, improved and maintained for the succeed- 
ing lifteen years, when the era of plank roads commenced. The move- 
ment siiread from New York all over tlie western country. A general 
state law was passed by the Indiana Legislature authorizing the con- 
struction of such roads and providing for the formation of promoting 
companies, in January, 1849. 

First in Wahasu Cocnty 

The initial movement in Waliasli Coinily was made by tlie AVabash 
& Lei Liver i'lank Road Company, organized February 21, 1850, with 


a capital stock of $6,000. The proposed line coininenced at the north 
end of Cass Street, City of \Va!)asli, and extended in a nortliwesterly 
direction alonf,' tli(.' Ivochester Road tlirough tlic northern part of Nohle 
Township into Paw Paw, to tlie Town of Koann — ten tiiiles in all. iMost 
of the line was completed, and it was much better than the average 
dirt road of those days. 

Not long after the survey and location of this iirst plank road iu 
Wabash County, the Wabash & Blount Vernon Plank Road was built 
from the City of Wabash directly south to ]\Iount Vernon, Waltz Town- 
ship, a distance of Oy^ miles. It was used for s^'veral years and yielded 
a fair revenue to the owners of the ca})ital stock, suppl\'ing the means 
of easy transportation of farm products to the i)rincipal market in 

Plank Road Between La Gho and North ^Manchester 

A more important line was tlie La Gro & North jManchester Plank 
Road covering the twelve miles between these important points. In the 
early '50s, when it completed, La Gro was one of the busiest places 
on the Wabash & Erie Canal. It was recognized as a commercial center 
for the shipment of farm products and otfered, through the agency of 
the; plank i-oati, more than ordinary facilities to North IManchester, 
Liberty Mills and vicinity for safe and convenient trade exchanges. 
This was a great improvement over the old dirt road l)etween the two 
places. As stated years afterward by a North Manchester newspaper 
man: "It was a hard day's drive to take twenty bushels of wheat 
to La Gro; but the increasing demands of trade nnuh; better means of 
intercourse with commercial centers a prime necessity, and tlie con- 
sequence was a plank road built to La Gro, about the year 1850, which 
sft facilitated the transportation of connnercial products that one team 
could do the woi'k of four UJider tlie old state of affairs." 

PLiANKS Connect Wabash and Grant Counties 

The La Gro, Marion & Jonesboro Plank Road w^as designed to con- 
nect these important trade centers of Wabash and Grant counties. 
It passed south through La Gro and Liberty townships, touching Ameri- 
ca on its way but running to the east of La Fontaine. The entire line 
to Jonesboro, in Grant County, was thirteen miles long, and, although 
not completed throughout, was sufficiently improved as to facilitate 
materially the exchange of farm products and merchandise. 


Liberty Mills AND Huntington Joined 

Largely througli the enterprise of Judge Comstoek, a substantial 
plank road was built ])etween Liberty ]\Iills and Huntington in 1850-51. 
It was called the Huntington & Liberty Mills Plank Road and opened 
up quite a territory for tlie products of the Comstoek mills — flour, saw, 
woolen, etc. Tlie controlling company was capitalized at $25,000, most 
of the stock L'eing taken in Huntington County. The road continued 
in sueces.sful operation for many years, and the major portion of its 
bed was finally appropriated by the Huntington & Liberty IMills Gravel 
Road Company. 

Good Ro.vds Movement Always With Us 

But dirt ways, plank roads and gravel roads, all eventually gave 
way. in tiie main, to railroads, although many square miles of Wabash 
County still depend upon the last named for social intercourse and the 
support of the household. The automo])ile is also to be taken into 
account in these days. Hence, the Good Roatl ^Movement, whicii has 
reiimined a vital issue up to this very day. 

The Turnpike Era 

The tui-npike era may be said to have come in force during the 
early 'TOs, ami the roads were generally built southward from the 
Wabash River to Somerset, La Fontaine, Dora, New Holland and Lin- 
roliiville. Like the plank roads, tolls were (charged upon them, the 
money thus received going to tlie consti-uction and operating company 
as a return for the capital invested. Ta.xes were also assessed on the 
lands lying near the turnpikes to assist in i)aying the cost of con- 
st I'uction. Aside from the veiy iiuule(iuate .system of tui'npikes in opera- 
tion within Wabash County, at this pei-iod, its principal avenues of 
transpoi'tation and communication were as follows: AVabash & Erie 
Caiud, seventeen miles; Toledo, Wabash & AVestern Railroad, seventeen 
miles; Cincinnati, & Alichigan Railroad, twenty-eight miles; 
Detroit, Eel River & Illinois Railroad, sixteen miles. 

First Turnpikes, or Gr.wee Roads 

The earlier pikes, or gravel roads constructed in the county were 
those ])uilt wholly or in part upon the right-of-way granted to the 
l)lank road companies of 1850 and later. Perhaps the first of these 


was tlir; Wabash &, .Mount Vi-nion, wiiicli followed the old plunk road, 
and at a somewhat later date were built the AVal^ash & Asliland, from 
tile City of Wabash to La Fontaine, eaeh about ten miles in length. 
The New Ilolhind & AVal)asli was also an early turnpike, subject to 
tolls, as was the La (Jro, Dora & Township Ijine Road along the margin 
of Salamonie River. 

Tlie pioneer turnpikes were eonstrueted and operated under the 
le<j;islativ(,' original act of .Mareli G, IHb."), wliidi authorized the board 
of eounty commissioiK-rs to "oi'ganize turnj)ike compani(iS when three- 
liftlis of the i)ersons rejiresenting the real estate witliin preseri])ed 
limits i)etition for the same, and levy a tax for its construction and pro- 
vide for the same to Ix; free." 

Other acts were passed within the succeeding decade, all of which 
were sul)stantially repealed ])y tliat of 1875, and the measure approved 
]\[areh 24, 1879, with the foregoing, laid tlie foundation of the free turn- 
pike, or gravel road system now in force. Under its provisions, the board 
of county commissioners was constituted a board of turnpike direc- 
tors, directors, under whose management and control all the free turn- 
pikes in the eounty sliould be exclusively vested; the county was divided 
into thi-ee districts, as nearly equal in the number of miles of free turn- 
pikes and conveniently located as would he practieal)le. Each director 
had the personal supervision of one of such districts, subject to the rules 
of the board. 

Toll Roads and Free Turnpikes 

Among the best known toll roads was the Wabash & La Gro Pike 
which traversed the eastern portion of Noble Township, not far from 
the route of the Wabash River, and through La Gro Township, to its ter- 
minus; Treaty Creek & Wa-ca-co-nah Pike, the greater portion of which 
was in No])le Township near the stream from which it takes its name, 
'and Wabash & ^lill Creek Pike, extending from AVabash in a south- 
easterly direction through Noble Township across I\Iill Creek. 

Li the early '80s, after the inauguration of the free turnpike system, 
road construction in Wabash County became quite active. The follow- 
ing are the turnpikes built during this period : Chippewa Free, Roann & 
Chippewa, ]\Iinnick, Mount, Laketon, ^lanchester, Mail Trace, Walnut 
Tree, Dora, Huntington & County Line, Hanging Rock and La Fontaine 
& Range Line. 

Connecting Links Wabash & Erie Canal 

Before we fairly enter the era of modern transportation, liow- 
ever, there is a most important connecting link to be supplied Ijetween 


the cMi-ly and tlic late moans of ti'ansportation, which have bi't'ii so 
iiistfiiniciiTal ill (Irvcloping the rcsourci's of the Wabash \'alh'y and in 
eoiitrilmtiipj: 1o the ciaiifoi-t and happiness of its pcoph-. J'\)r many 
years the Wahash &: Kr'u' Canal was the most prospei'ous arlilitdal 
waterway v.'est of New York, and L*ontin\ied in use for nearly twenty 
years after the first railroad entered the City of Wahash. 

'J'he AVabash & Erie Canal was but a small part of the great scheme 
of intei-nal improvements i)ro,jeeted by the Indiana legislators in 1836. 
It \\as an intricate and ingenious combination of waterways and I'ail- 
ways, but about fifty yi-ars ahead of the financial abilities of the 
commonwealth. Out of the collapsed scheme about the only part to 
emerge in fair form was the Wabash & Erie Canal. 

That the reader may realize its relation to the general plan, as con- 
ceived by the Indiana Legislature, the following is presentetl from 
Smith's "History of Indiana": "In the year 1827 the Federal Gov- 
ernment gave to Indiana a large grant of land to aid in the construction 
of a canal to connect Lake Erie with the Wabash River. To build 
such a canal would necessitate an entry into the bordei-s of the State 
of Ohio, and a portion of the grant made by the General Government 
was surrendered to Ohio on the condition that she woidd construct the 
canal from the eastern boundary line of Indiana to the lake. This 
canal was to extend from the eastern State line to some point on the 
lower Waliash, where that stream might be navigable, or to Evansville, 
where the Ohio River might be reached. 

"The State at once began work ujion the canal. It was commenced 
under the administration of Governor Noble. In 1832, thirty-two miles 
of this canal were placed under contract. Governor Noble addressed 
a communication to the governor of Ohio requesting him to call the 
attention of the legislature of that State to the subject of the extension 
of the canal from the Indiana line through the territory of Ohio to 
the lakes. The Ohio governor laid the matter before the legislature 
of his State, and resolutions were adopted by that body that if Ohio 
should ultimately decline to undertake the completion of the work 
in her borders, the land would be turned over to Indiana for the 
purpose of sale, that the work might be done under the supervision of 

"In 1834 Governor Noble, in urging the work of improvement, in 
one of Ids messages to the legislature said: 'With a view of engaging 
in the work of internal improvements the propriety of adopting a 
general plan or system having reference to the several portions of the 
State and the connection of one to the other, naturally suggests itself. 
No work should be commenced but such as would be of acknowledged 


public utility, and when complete, would form a branch of some general 

"During tlie years 18:]4 and 1835 work on the Wabash and Krie 
Canal was pushed forward with great energy. The middle division, 
extending from St. Joseph River to the forks of the Wabash was 
completed in 1835 at a cost of $230,000. This line was opened for 
navigation on the 4th of July, 1843, with great display. 

Grand System of Internal Improvements 

"In 1836 the Legislature passed a law providing for a general system 
of improvements to be carried on under a board of internal improve- 
ments and surveys by competent engineers were begun on the various 
works i)rovided for. Tiie passage of this act caused great rejoicing 
thi'oughout tlie State and everywhere meetings were held to give ex- 
pression to the general feeling of joy. At Indianapolis the citizens 
illuminated tlieir houses while bonfires blazed in all the streets. The 
people went wild: they saw an era of prosperity opening before them 
that would drive poverty from the land and make all men rich. It 
was expected aiul ])elieved that the revenues that the State would enjoy 
from the various v/orks would not only make taxation unnecessary, but 
till the State coffers to overflowing. A period of wild speculation ensued. 
Those who owned one farm bought others, and those who owned none 
went into del)t and purchased one. Ti'ading of all kiiuls became active. 
The illusion only lasted a few months and then the reverse side of the 
picture came, with bankruptcy, distress and ruin. 

"The works jn-ovided for in the act of 1836 consisted of (a) the 
AVhitewatei' ("anal, from the west brancli of the AVhitewater Rivei* down 
the valley of tiiat river to the Ohio, at Lawreiiceburg; (1)) the Central 
Canal, a bi-anch of tlie Wabash and Erie, from some i)oint between Fort 
^Vayne and Logansport, to ^Muncietown and Indianapolis, and thence 
to Evansville on the Ohio, via the White River valley — in other words, 
a waterway passing through the central sections of Indiana, from north- 
east to southwest, the route of which was to be south of the Wabash 
and Erie; (c) an extension of the Wabash and Erie, from the mouth 
of the Tippecanoe River down the valley of the AVabash to Terre 
Haute, and thence to some point on the Central Canal; (d) 
a railroad from IMadison, on the Ohio running noi'thwest tlirough 
Cohnnbus, liulianapolis and Crawfordsville to Eafayi'tte; (e) a iiuic- 
adamized tui'iipike road from New Albany, on tlie Ohio, through the 
.southwestern part of the State, via Greenville, Paoli, Mount Pleasant 
and Wasliington, to Vincennes; (f) either a i-ailroad or a turnpike 


from JeftVrsonvilk' on tlu' Oliio River to Crawfordsville west of the 
central part of the State, hy way or Sah-m, Bedford, Blooinington 
and Greencastle; (g) improvement of the Wabash from Vineennes to 
its mouth; (hj eitlier a eanal or a railroad from the Wabash and Erie 
Canal near Foi't Wayne, by way of Goshen, South Bend and Laporte, 
to a point on Lake ^Michigan, at or near Michigan City, to be called 
the Erie and Michigan Canal or railroad. 

Small Parts of the Scheme Completed 

"Tlie whole length of these roads and canals was more than 1,200 
miles, and tlie total estimated cost aggregated nearly $20,000,000. To 
enter u])on these improvements the State issued aud sold bonds to the 
amount of $10,000,000. It was soon discovered that the State had entered 
u|)on a series of cnteriM'isi.-s which it could never carr\- out, and had 
burdened tlie people with a del)t amounting to more than $18,000,000. 
The Wabash and Erie Canal was comi)leted as far as Lafayette and was 
in constant use, furnisliiug trans])ortation for all tlie surplus product 
of that section of the state through which it run, but the receii)ts from 
tolls were not enough to maintain it and to pay the interest on the cost. 
'J'lic i-ouutiy was too new for such an extensive work. A part of the 
woi-k was done ujion all the canals and roads i)rojected. The White 
AVatcr Canal was opened for navigation from Lawrenceburg to Con- 
iirrsville. The ]Madi.son and Indianapolis Railroad was finally completed, 
and the State sold its stock foi" a great deal less money than it had 
exjx'uded on the work, which amounted to $1,4!J2,000. 

Aftkr^lvtii : Wide Distress and Refudlvtion 

','The finaiK'ial distress whicli swei)t over the country in 1837 finally 
compelled the abandoiuuent of all these w<u'ks. Contracts had been 
let for most of them, and much work had been done. Their abandon- 
ment caused widespread disaster, l)ankrupting most of the contractors 
and lea\ iiig hundreds and thousands of laborers without the pay for the 
work they had done. The State was unal)le to pay the interest on the 
debt it had iiicuired. Finally the State was forced to compromise with 
her creditors by surrendering to the ])ondholders some of the works 
that had been begun, together with large tracts of land, for one half 
the amount of the indebtedness, and issuing new ])onds for the remainder. 

"The debt ci-eated by this attempt on the part of the Stat<^ to 
construct railroads and canals proved to ))e a long plague on tlie people. 
All the bonds and cei'tificates of stock that were required to be released 


to the State had not ln/cii suri'i'iHlerLMl ; the urfditoi's to whom liad 
hccti traiisl'i-n-fd the uiiCunshrd works iicvrr romiilctrd ihciii, and linally 
aliaiuhiiicd \vhat had hcrii t-oiiiph-ttHl. The bonds wi-rc a mortgage ni)0U 
these works and si'Wral attrni])ts were made to indiu-c the Lt'gishiture 
to ])a\' tile i'ull amount of the bonds wliieh had not been taken up by 
the creditors a.s provided for in the Compromise Aet. To prevent the 
Legislature at any future time from i)aying any part of the debt that 
was to have been assumed l)y the ei'editors the peo])K', in ]87;5, a(U)pted 
an amciKhiicnt to tlie constitution which read: 

'■ 'No hiw or resolution shall ever l)e passed by tlie General Assembly 
of the State of Indiana that shall recognize any liability of this State 
to |>ay ()!• I'cdeem any certificate of stock issued in pursuance of an act 
entitled ••An Act to provide for the funded debt of the State of Indiana 
and for the completion of the Wabash and l^^rie Canal to I'A'ansville," 
passed January 10, 1846 ; and an act supplementary to said act passed 
January 29, 18-47, which by the provisions of said act, or either of them, 
shall be payable exclusively from the proceeds of the canal lands and 
the tolls and revenues of the canal in said acts mentioned ; and no such 
certificate of stock shall ever be paid by the State. ' 

"This ended the agitation of tlu.' State's ever again assuming any 
part of this debt winch had been jniid and discharged by a surrender of 
the franchisi'S of the State." 

Land Grants in Aid op the Canal 

By various congressional acts passed in 1827-34 the National Gov- 
ernment granted the State of Indiana lands for canal purposes "equal 
to the alternate sections in a strip five miles in width," speoi(i(^d (in a 
separate act) at 29,528.78 acres. From the sale of these lands was raised 
the fund by which the AVabash & Erie Canal, was constructed. In the 
l&te '30s the body of land in AVabasli County thus made available was 
sold in parcels to suit purchasers, being mostly paid for by the various 
issues of state scrip. This was received at par for land, but bought 
by J^astern specidators at various rates of discount. 

Speculation in "canal paper" ran high in 1835-36 in every portion 
of the country, and all the vacant lands were finally entered. Some 
of the purchasers were residents, others Eastern speculators, and, as 
stated by a participant of these transactions, not a few of the latter 
"sw^ept wdiole townships at a purchase." Shortly afterward came the 
reaction and hard times, and many who were obliged to pay both interest 
on the money invested, as well as the taxes on the land, went under; 
others, who were able to bear up under it until the coming of stability 


and prosfx-i'ity, with tlu.' eonsi'(jurnt rise- of tlirii- ]>ruiMrtius, l)ccaine 
itiinicnsi-l\- rich. 

COLONEI. l^UHK AM) MaJCJR FlSlli:ii Ai'l'i:AK 

Tlie sui'vcy of the line of the Wabash & Erie Canal through AVa))a.sli 
County Avas made in 1833 under the general supervision of Jesse L. 
AVillianis, of Fort AYa^'ne, eliirf engineer, assisted liy Stearns Fisher, 
Solonion Tlolnian and Charles Yoorheis. Col. David Burr w as a nieiuher 
of the fii'st Board of Coiiunissio!iei's. '^Fhus two men, who were afterward 
to become leadiiii;- eiti/.eiis of Wabash County \vere identified with this 
great ])uhlie iiiiiirovement. 

]\Iajor Fislier \vas especially prominent in connection with the canal 
woi'k. Tt is said that dui'ing liis first connection with tiie enterprise he 
woi-ked Avitli the spade almost as much as witli tlie transit, Init soon 
Ix'came a full-fledgt'd assistant civil eiigiiu'er, holding that ])osition \uitil 
the canal was completed. The record thus made, brought liim tlie supt'r- 
intendt'iiey and he continued as its chief executive until the e-anal passed 
into tile hands of the bondholders in 1847. But we are ahead of our 

First Canal Cuntkacts in the County 

The first canal contracts for work in Wabash County were let May 
4, 1834, at the house of Colonel Burr in the new Town of Wabasli, 
which he had jdatted the month before, in association with Col. Hugh 
Hanna. It was surely a ])usy day for the two Colonels, as the first public 
sale of town lots and the letting of contracts for the building of the 
canal fell within the same twenty-four hours. 

A large number of persons were present to bid for the construction 
of the various sections. The contract for building the section adjacent 
to Wabash, as well as for the construction of the lock, was awarded to 
Meyers (Lewis) & Jones (Lemuel G.)- The next section was eventually 
built by Benjamin Mariner, and contracts for adjoining sections w^ere 
given to Thomas ILiycs and William Tei-rell, both of Pennsylvania. 
Lewis ]\Ieyers, one of the contractors on the first section, died before 
the work was completed; the lock was built by the partner of the 
deceased, ]\Ir. Jones, assisted by David and Jacob D. Cassatt, father 
and son. Thus two other good citizens first came into prominence 
through their work on the Wabash & Erie Canal. From the lock to 
the stone bluff the canal was completed by Zera Sutherland. 


Ikisii War of August, 1835 

In August, 1835, during the second year of eanul-building, occurred 
the famous Iiish war, which culminated about the middle of tliat month 
in a serious riot near La Gro. As is usual in sucli cases, historians of 
that conflict liave generally assumed that it was another case 
of Catholic against Protestant, or Orangeman. Hut the weight of 
evidence is that the Wabasli & Erie Canal laborers, at least in Wabash 
County, were all Catholics, and that the hostile forces were divided 
on other than religious lines. It is known that most of them were 
formerly employed on the Chesapeake Canal, where they had quar- 
reled and formed into two factions. When they came to work on the 
canal west of the mountains they split into two gangs, their line of 
cleavage being the old fight (whatever that was), and the headquarters 
of the respective parties were La Gro antl Wabash Town. The one 
gang called themselves " Corkonians," the other, "Fardowns'" — why, 
is also a mystery. The one thing certain was tluit each i)arty to the 
dispute hated tlie other with the fierce hatred of the tv'pical Irishman. 

Along toward tlu' midtlle of August, after several individual and 
factional rows had occurred, despite the efforts of the canal authori- 
ties to avert them, the two sides gathered near La Gro, to tlie number 
of several hundred, and, armed with spades, pick-axes, clubs, knives 
and pistols, i)roc('eded to engage in a pitched battle. 

It is not known to this day \vhich ai'iny was victorious, or the 
exact loss in blood and limb. But tlie canal authorities induced the 
workmen to cease active warfare. The Irishmen were farther persuaded 
b}^ the state troops, which \vere sent fi-om Fort Wayne and Lafayette. 
Chief Godfrey, of the ^liamis, also oft'ered a large force of his warriors 
to crusli the Irislnnen. 

. AVitli the state and the Indians behind tlie civil authorities, the 
rioters were arrested en masse. It is evident from the account written 
by Judge Cooml)s, who came to Wabash a few days aftt'i- the riot, that 
at least some of the prisoners were tried in the Circuit Court of Wabash 
County. He says about two hundred of them were locked up when 
he reached town, and that he "found so much criminal business here" 
he decided to remain. He adds that 200 were found guilty. 

Although all were technically guilty, work upon the canal could 
not be entirely susjiended on account of a general melee, however furious. 
So most of tliem were released, on promises of future good behavior. 
It is jii'obable that the trials in AVabash County were undertaken more 
to weed out the I'ingleaders than for any other purpose; also perhaps 
to "teach the workmen a lesson" and give fhem to understand that the 


work on llir canal not he intL'ri'ered witli in the future \)y their 
individual (luarrels. 

The Charge at the Ford 

The iH'al leaders — those who had been persistently fomenting trouble 
— were taki'n to Indianapolis for trial, under an escort of sixteen 
soldiers, with I']lias Murray as captain. "The only way to g(.d them 
there," says one account, "was on foot through the woods. They set 
forth, the soldiers well armed. Tlie route was down tlie Wabash to 
Logansport, and thence to Indiana})olis. At the mouth of the Ivd Kiver, 
the Wabash had to be waded, though I'ather deep. The pi-isoners 
refused to wade, dcclai-ing they would tlie first. The ca])tain simply told 
the boys to be 'rt-ady'; still tlie prisoners refuseil, when the captain, 
giving an order to lix bayonets, directed the soldiers to charge. The 
chai'ge was made and tlie i)risoners, with a howl, sprang for the ford 
and wailed through, with the bayonets at their liacks. Once safely 
across tlie I'iver, a rank was formed, and the 'boys' were required to 
walk in front; and thus the end of tlie j(uirney was safely reached 
and the prisoners were placed in limbo at the state capital." Several 
of them were .sent to the penitentiary for short terms; but the "charge 
at the foril" was the last military feature of the Irish war. 

As stated, the canal was completed to Wabash Town on the 4th of 
July. 1837, and, in some unaccountable manner. Captain Fd Patchen 
broke into the prearranged programme of the celebration by forging the 
impudent beak of his little "Prairie Hen" ahead of the big canal boat 
"Indiana," counnanded by the jjopular Captain Dana Columbia, and 
tiius lilched the honor of being the tirst to navigate the canal. A large 
jiai-ty from Huntington and other points had come down on the 
"Indiana," and Cai)tain Patchen 's ambition so o'er-leaped itself as to 
get hfm in bad repute all around. The general celebration was held 
on the site t)f the old Ti'eaty (irounds, and its satisfactory conclusion 
was a grand ball in the evening given in the little room over ('olonel 
Ilanna's store. 

Decline and Death op the Canal 

Navigation was soon afterward opened to Pei-u and Jul\' 4, 1843, its 
completion to Lafayetti' was celebrated with an enthusiasm which 
spread thi-ough the entire valley of the Wabash. The canal had the field 
for nearly a decade, and for some >'eai-s aftei-. as the tirst throiiuli 
train on the Toledo, Wabash & Western, was not in ojiei'ation until 


.Jaiiu;ii-y, }>>■'){), and it was some time hefon- it sefiously cut into tlic 
canal bnsincss. \*>\\t tlir decline did coiinneiice and continued until 
JN72, in wliicli year (jleoi'ge 'i'ndd, ol' La (li'o, sent tlie last cargo along 
its waters. 

The canal between Wabash and La (iro bciny out of repair, boats 
ceased to be operated on this section in 1S72. Todd & Wi-ight, mer- 
chants at La (Jro, received the last freight from the East, Ix'ing a load 
of blac-ksiuith coal of 2,5()(.) bushels fi'oui ("inciniiati. The freight, both 
east and west, was much cheaper than at the present time. 

First R.vilkuad (the Wabash) hv IS.jli 

It was not until 185G that the Wal)ash & Erie Canal had any com- 
petitor of a general nature in Wabash County, and it was a competitor 
which eventually was to give it the death stroke. 

In 1852 the Lake Erie, Wabash & St. Louis Railroad Company was 
organizeil ; in the following year a survey was made, passing through the 
Wabash \'alle}' north of the river, and by the close of 1853 construction 
was in iM'ogress within the limits of the county. Hands were at work 
in the vicinity of W' abash Town in the early spring of 1854, and within 
two \i'ars from that time the roadway was practically completed and 
the track laid. 

On the 2()th of January, 1856, the first train arrived, at the Town of 
Wabash over the Lake Erie, Wabash & St. Louis line, and three days later 
trains commenced to run regularly between Toledo and Wal)ash. A few 
weeks later the road was comi)leted ami trains were running to Peru, and 
-March 17, 185(), found the line in operation fi'om Toledo to Logansport, 
early in June to l)eli)hi and two months later to Lafayette. Not long 
after it reached the state line. 

Later, this line became the Toledo, Wabash & Western, and for 
many \-ears has been known as plain " Wabash." It runs from northeast 
*to southwest, the City of W'abash and the old town of La Gro being its 
principal stations. 

Wabash (Joinity as a civil cor])oration gave no aid to the Toledo, 
Wabash *lsl: Western, l)ut meetings were held at various i)oints along the 
line and i)ri\'ate parties sul)scribed to the capital stock. How many 
shares were taken in this county catniot now ))e detinitely ascertained, 
tdthough estimates have been made of fi'om twenty thousand dollars to 
thirty tliousand dollars. 

The Vanoalia Route 

hi 1S52 a line of raili'oad was pi'o.jeeted traversing the Eel River 
Vallev. It was originally known as the J^ogansport & Nortliorn huliana 


and suhscquL'Jitls- as tlu' Aiihui'ii & Hd Ivivcr Valley Raili-oad. These 
two eoipuratioiis had many iijts and downs — chicilN' downs — and when 
the Detroit, Jv'l Rivd' c^ llliiujis Railroad L'onijjany was I'orined, about 
hsTO, to take over the fragmentary enterprise the outlook was anything 
hut bright. But Chester and Pleasant townships levied a special tax 
of $30,000 for the eom{)letion of the road throngh Wabash County, 
and in 1872 the line was actually i)ut in operation. It cut through the 
northwestern eoiiier of Chester Township, by way of Libertv .Mills, and 
North .Manchester, intersecting the Cineinnati, AVabash & .Miehigan line 
(liig l^'oui') at the western boi-der of the latter town; passed through the 
southeastern coi'iier of Pleasant Township, with Tjamsville as its 
stalicui, and so on across the northwestern coi'Uer of Paw I'aw Township 
1o till- Town of Roann, ami thence out of the county. Those of today 
know it as the A'andalia Routi'. 

TiJE "Big Four" 

In 1872 ?kle.ssrs. (iai'dner and Wells built the Cincinnati, Wabash & 
^liehigan Railroad through AVabash County. To encourage its eon- 
stiuction a county ta.\ was levied, collected and applied, amounting to 
$(),000 i)er mile. The hn-ge machine shops of the comi)any were after- 
ward (U'eeted near tlie eastern limits of tin' City of Wabash, the corpora- 
tiou paying a bonus of $25,000 as an inducement for the hjcation. 

The road has long since l)een known as the Pig Four, or the 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago &, St. Louis Kaili-oad, and it is the most 
important transportation route in AVabash County. It enters the county 
fi'om the south, about the middle of the south line of Liberty Township, 
its lirst station being fja Fontaine, that township. The road tlnui passes 
noithwest and north thi-ough Liberty and Noble to\vnships to the Cit\- of 
Wabash, runs in a generally northerly directicju near the line divitling 
.Xobly, La (iro. Paw Paw ami Chester to North Alanchester, whence it 
turns northwesterly toward and across the northern eouidy line. It 
crosses the Erie (the old Chicago & Atlaidic) at Polivar and the Van- 
dalia line at Noi'th Manchester. 

Thus AVabash (Jounty is favoi'cd with a noi'th and soidli line, and 
three railroads lainning east and west, as well as two well ec}uipped 
traction oi- interurban lines — the Fort AVayne & Northern Indiana and 
the Union Traction Company of liuliana. They are both electric lines. 

Cnjo.v Tkactiox C(1.-\ip.\xv of Indianw 

The Union Traction Company is the owner of 'U'k) unh'S of track 
which lies mainh' within a kite-shaped area, bounded on the north hv 


a liiiL' di-awii hftweeii Lafayetti', Jjoyansport, Peru, Waljash aiul Furt 
Wayne, on the east by one conjieeting Fort Wayne, Blull'ton, i\luneie and 
New Castle, and on the south by the shortest line, bi.'tween New Castle 
and Indianapolis. The City of Wabash is nearly midway on the long 
northern line, the l)aekbone of the kite running south to Anderson ajid La 
Fontaine lieiiig the only regular station in Wabash (Jouiity. 

The riiioii Ti'aetion system is eom|)osed of lines originally con- 
sti-uetetl from Indianapolis to Logansport and Peru, and from ,^liddle- 
town to Alexandria and Tipton, besides lines acMiuirini by purehase from 
iMarion to Wabash and from ^^luneie to lUuifton and Fnion City. 

Charles L. Henry, of Anderson, Indiana, promoted the eoiistruetion 
of the lij'st ti'aetion line in the state, that extending from Ander- 
son to Alexandria. This was in 18!)S. Two years later, on January 1, 
IDI'O, ilir sei'viee was inaugurated on tlie Indianapolis l^ Eastern I'oad. 
Just a year lalt-r, the original line of the i)resent system entered 
Indianapolis, and later embr;ieed the 1 ndianajxJis, Muneie and Alex- 
andei'-AIai'ion divisions. The lim- from I ndi;inapolis to Peru via Kokonu) 
was o])encd Deeeiid).-r 'A, lOO.'i. The I'liion Traetion lines handle a 
iieavy IVright business, as well as earrying baggage with the l)est of the 
steam I'ailroads. 

I'^Din- Wayxk & XoKriiiiK.x Lndiana Traction System 

The first li)ie whieh is now a ]K)rtion of the Foi't Wa\'iie & Northei'u 
Indiana Ti'fietion System within the linnts of Wabash County was that 
which runs from Wabash to Peiai. This was luiilt by the Wabash 
Ki^-er Traetion Comi)any, whieh started operating August 1, lOOI. l]i 
P)0;j Ihi' pi'opcrty was sold to the Foi't Wayne & Wab;ish Valley Traction 
Company, which shortened its line, thi'ee years afterwai-d, by extending 
it through the City of Wabash to Poyd Park. The old line skii-ted the 
eity along the highway. The Fort Wayne & Southwestern Traetion 
Company was comjileted bi'tween Fort Wayne and Wabash in li)Ul, and 
was sold to the Fort Wayne & Wal)ash Valley Traction Company on 
NovcMuber 1, 1004. In Alai-ch, lf)ll, the Fort Wayne & AVabash Valley 
Traetion Company was reorganized and the name changed to Fort 
Wayne & Northei'ii Indiana Ti-action Company. 

Tlu^ company has a well-organized freight, as well as passenger 
servit-e, and opei-ates over twenty miles of track in Wabash County, 
substantially paralleling the AVabash Railroad line north of the river. 
Its regular stations in the county aiv La Gro, Wal)ash and Boyd l*ark. 

These two traction companies operate in this county entirely south 
of the City of Wabash, but before long will pro))ably extend their lines 


toward North Maiu-hcster. When that is done, with tlie good system 
of free pike roads already in operation, Wabash County will enjoy fine 
facilities for the interehange of all the necessities anil many of the 
luxuries of life, as well as for free communication between all its 

Telegraph Lines 

Wabasli County has a record of which its people may justly be 
pi'oud in tlif i)ractical adoption of labor-saving, time-saving and con- 
.•enience-producing in\'entions. Emphatically falling within that class 
are telegraphs and telephones, which, with the ever-active nuul service, 
lend to bind togetlier tlie people of a thousand connuunities as one 

The tii'st crude telegraph line in the world, founded on the ilorse 
system anil running l)etween Washington and New York, was put in 
opffation in ^So~. The great invention nuide slow progress and one of 
the lii-st lines \vest of the mountains was that which was strung along 
the Wal)ash & Krie Canal in the spring and sunnner of 184!). This 
contiinied to be oi^erated with little interruption for the next eight years 
or moi-e, until the Lake Erie, Wabash & St. Louis Railroad had been 
constructed and was in sueces^sful opei'ation as the established liue of 
commercial iidercourse along the valley of the Wal)ash, connecting the 
chief points of trade fornu'rly occupied exclusively by the canal. In 
October, 1S,")7, th.' telegraph line was transfei-red from the banks of tlie 
canal to the margin of the railroad — a formal numifestation of the trans- 
fer of sovereignty from the one to the other. Many of the telegra])h 
lines subse(iuently built were constructed Ixd'ore the railroads were sur- 
veyed, but the two lines were eventually nuide to substantially con- 

The First Telephone Line 

In 1878, oidy two yeai'S after the Bell telei)hones commenced to be 
introduced, such men as Elijah Ilackleman and John N. .Myers were 
testing the principles of the invention in Wabash. The fii'st line ever 
put in operation in the city is thus described: "On Saturday, the 1st 
of Ju]ie, 1878, John N. flyers, of Wabash, having previously read tin 
sonu' scientific paper, published in Washington, D. C, a carefulh' pre- 
pared account, giving in detail the method of constructing and operating 
telephones, conceived the idea of demonstrating the practical)ility of 
the recent discovery. Accordingly he prepared a line of twine thread 


sufficient to i-cadi across oik* square or more, and in conjunction with 
Hon. Elijah Hacklcnian, himself strongly addicted to the practice of 
investigating questions of science, stretched the line fi'oni ^Ir. Hackle- 
man's residence across to Still Street on the north, using old tin cans 
for receivers, Mr. Hackleman holding the first end and Mr. ^Myers the 
other, who moved with it toward the opposite terminus. Just as j\Ir. 
Myers was on the point of getting over the fence with his charge at the 
north line of Mr. Hackleman 's premises, the sound of fife and drum was 
heard down town. Myers was observed to look down toward the can and 
bring it nearer his ear as if listening, which prompted Mr. Hackleman 
to say: 'Isn't that the band playing for the Democratic meeting?' 

"]\Iyers then put the can in close contact with his ear and answered, 
'I guess so.' 

"Knowing that IMyers desired to attend that meeting, Hackleman 
replied, '^Maybe we had better defer this test until another time.' 

"Myers responded, 'Yes, I want to attend that meeting; but I think 
this is a full test itself and that this thing will work. ' 

"This conversation was carried on through the improvised tele- 
phone line, and constituted the first which ever went over a telephone 
in Wabash. 

"What has just been narrated took place in the forenoon of that 
day; so, after fastening the ends of the line temporarily, further pro- 
ceedings were deferred until afternoon. At the appointed time, the 
experimenters again met and proceeded to fasten the line, with the neces- 
sary conveniences at either end to carry on conversation, one extremity 
being in Mr. Hackleman 's library and the other at his barn, 100 feet 
distant. During the next two or three weeks this primary telephone 
line was extensively used, neighbors, citizens of Wabash and visitors 
from abroad coming frequently to witness and test its wonderful power 
to communicate, as with the living voice, the verbal articulations of 
fhose who might consult it." There are few men of middle age, who 
were live-wire boys in those days, that have not talked across a street 
or vacant lot into old tin cans connected by strings. In fact, about 
the most wonderful thing about the Bell invention is its simplicity. 

First Telephone Companies 

Within a few years after the Myers-IIackleraan demonstration in 
Wa])ash, the Central Union Telephone Company was organized and the 
towns of the county, as well as many farming communities, were able to 


foDu a speaking acquaintance with each other. In 1894 the Home Tele- 
phone Company, of Wabash, entered the field and the Central Union 
abandoned it. Sinee then otlier telephone companies liave been organ- 
ized in difi'erent parts of the county, as will be evident by consulting 
the local and sectional histories published hereafter in this volume. 



Hard Roads fou the C()['ntry Doctor — Dr. Isaac Pinley — Dr. 
Thomas 1P\milton — Dr. James Hackleman — Dr. Jamf:s P(jrd — 
Dr. John IP De Puv — Dr. James L. Dicken— Dr. William G. 
Armstrong— Dr. Laugiilix O'Neai. — Dr. William R. Winton — 
Upper AVabash AIedical Society — AVabash County ]\1edical 
Society — Te.mi'orary and Permanent Officers — Pauper Practice 
Turned Over — Annual AIedication op Families Disapproved — 
Rules and Code of Ethics — Society Presidents — Dr. Henry H. 
GiLLEN — Dr. Andrew J. Smith — The Society in the Early '80s — 
The Society Now — Oldest ]\Iembers — Dr. T. R. Brady — Dr. Perry 
G. I\I(jore. 

Tilt' I'oiuitry physician of the pioiu'cr tiiues was on a par with the 
circ'uit rider, both as to liardships and honors. They w^ere hard-working 
ineinl)ers of the eoniinunity — if they could be said to be confined to any 
special community — and were seldom allowed to follow the strict lines 
of their professions. If they did not seek means of livelihood outside 
the professional fields, both they and their families would l)e hungry 
a^ often as satisfied. Farming for the struggling clergyman, and i)olitics 
for the country doctor, were generally the means adopted to make both 
euTls meet. As nuitter of course, the lawyer adopted politics as his 
professional liirthright, while with the doctor the latter was considered 
as a legitimate help to him in times of trouble or financial necessity. 

Hard Roads fob the Country Doctor 

The country doctor had no prospect of settling in some pretty town 
or thriving city and, with his medical books around him, waiting 
patiently for cases and treating them calndy, carefully and methodically, 
as is often the lot of the modern physician. At the impatient thump 
upon his cabin door, he had to saddle his horse, follow the messenger 
for miles through the forest, or flounder over muddy marshes and 



sloughs, trusting to the knowledge within his liead, or his common sense, 
to do the proper tiling for tiie expectant motlier, or the sinking husband, 
son or daughter. 

But like the preacher, he got very near to the hearts of the people 
of his little settlement and those sprinkled in the raw country round- 
about. Among tiie earliest representatives of the healing fraternity 
to locate in County were Dr. Isaac Fiidey at AVabash Town and 
Dr. Thomas Hamilton at La Gro. 

Dr. Isaac Finley 

Dr. Finley was one of the first to erect a brick residence on the 
site of the new town laid out by Colonel Ilanna, and was prominent in 
the movement which secured the county seat at Wabasli. He appears 
to have been a generally-useful all-around citizen, and was not so well 
known as Dr. Hamilton, who was in position to secure a large practice 
among the canal laborers and officials and continued in professional 
work at La Gro for many years after the canal was completed to 

Dr. Thomas Hamilton 

For a period of more than twenty years Dr. Thonuis Hamilton was 
one of the leading physicians of the Wabash Valley. He was an Irishman 
educated in Scotland, and commenced practice before coming to the 
United States. After living for a short time in Pennsylvania, in 1834 
he moved to La (Jro in the midst of the waterway construction. There 
lie resided until his death in the spring of 1856. Doctor Hamilton was a 
successful practitioner and a respected citizen, although somewhat eccen- 
trjc. AVith his wife, he was one of the founders of the Presbyterian 
Church at La Gro in I84i). His son, Col. John Hamilton, commanded 
Shei'iiian's batteries at Beaufort Court House in the Civil war, and was 
afterward an officer in the regular army. 

Dr. James Hacki,eman 

Dr. James Hackleman was an elder brother of Hon. Elijah Hackle- 
man, the widely known historian and public man, and in the fall of 
1885, then in liis thirty-seventh year, settled in the Town of Wal)ash. 
His American ancestors were natives of IMaryland and the Carolinas, but 
the family in which James was one of ten children, early settled in 
Franklin County, Indiana. He studied medicine in Fayette County, and 


was one of tlie first practitioners in Wabash Town, residing tliere in 
active professional work from 1835 to 1854. Doctor Ilacklenian spent the 
last decade of his life at Knightstown, and while making preparations 
to resume liis residence and practice at Waljash was called away by 
death, April 27, 18G4. The doctor held a number of public offices, such 
as justice of the peace and judge of the Probate Court (1838-45), and he 
was very po{)ular and universally respected. Another brother. Dr. 
Jacol) T. llacklcman, was a well kno\vn Iowa jn-actionei-, having early 
located on the Indian agency near tlie present site of Ottumwa. 

Dpv. James Ford 

Dr. James Ford, of AVabash Town, was one of the ablest surgeons 
and i)liysicians who ever practiced in the county. He was of an old 
Southern family, ami was a son of James Ford. Although an owner of 
slaves, the father was an abolitionist and left Virginia in 17!)T, moving 
to Harrison County, Ohio, a)id l)eeoming a farmei- on a large scale. There 
the James Ford, who became a physician, was l)orn. The doctor received 
liis lirst schooling at ^Maiisfield, whither tlie family had moved, and in 
1828 eiitei'cd Kciiyon College. He was then si.\teen years of age. He 
studied Latin under Salmon P. Chase, and in 1831, by the advice of Dr. 
Bushnell, turned his attention to medicine. In the winter of 1833-34 he 
was teaching school near Connersville, Fayette County, when Dr. IMason, 
a prominent physician and ambitious politician, took a great interest in 
him, and the two worked together to such mutual advantage that Dr. 
]\Iason got into the State Legislature and Dr. Ford assumed a large 
practice when, in 1835, he secui'ed a license as a regular member of the 
profession. At that time there was no graduate in medicine at Con- 

^In the winter of 1836-37 Dr. Foril attended a full eoui'.se of lectures 
in the Ohio j\Iedical College at Cincinnati, and although he continued 
in regular and successful practice, under authority of his license, until 
the winter of 1853-54, he was not a regular ^1. I), until that time, when 
he completed his course at Rush jMedical College, Chicago. He had been 
a resident of '\Va])ash since 1841. 

Dr. Ford followed Capt. C. S. Parrish as the second man in the 
county to present himself for enlistment in 1861. He was sworn into 
the Union service and appointed regimental surgeon in the Eighth 
Indiana Regiment. As a participant of the three-months' service, he 
was at the battle of Rich Mountain, and after the engagement was placed 
in cliarge of the hospital as the ranking officer of the other regimental 
surgeons. Dr. Ford joined tlie three years' service, and was present at 


the battle of Pea Ridg(> in the eainpai<<n of the Army of the Soutliwest. 
Suhse(iiietitly lie was appoiiitetl brij^ade surgeon and medical direetor in 
the fiild, but in dune, 1863, was obliged to lesign on ai:e(junt of 
ill health. lie returned to his private praetice at Wabasli, and 
in 1S71 was a])pointe(l exanuning surgeon for ])ensions. Dui'ing the ear- 
lier period of the profession in Wabash County no member stood higher 
in operative surgery ami general seientifie attainments than Dr. James 
l^'oi'd. While in tlie army (leneral Curtis reeognized the value of his tlis- 
eoveries pertaining to the sanitary intluenee of loeal air currents, and 
to his judgment was eJitrusted the imjjortant duty of selecting the loca- 
tion of the camps. 

Dr. John H. De Puy 

Dr. John TT. De Tuy, who located at La Gro in IS-iG, was a Penn- 
sN'lvaiiian l)y bii'th and the son of a farmer. He was of h'l'eneh ancestry, 
being of tlie .same stock as Chaunce^y Depew, the noted New York lawyer 
and politician. When the future physician was a young child the family 
moved from Pennsylvania to Stark County, Oliio, and at the age of 
twenty-one he commenced his medical studies under \)i'. lleni-y Everts, 
of Cleveland, lie was graduated from the Jefferson .Medical CoUegi', of 
Philadel])hia, in 1M45, and in August of the following year located in 
tile growing canal town of La Gro. At the time of his coming, fevers, 
ague and bilious diseases were very jjrevalent in Central and Northern 
Indiana, and contiiuied to flourish for many years thereafter. So Doctor 
De Puy's pi'actiee took a wide latitude; and the same may 1)e said of all 
good physicians of that period and locality. It was not unusual for a 
popular country doctor to travel through a tei'ritoiy covering twenty 
miles from his residence, and remain in the saddle for da^'s and nights at 
a stretch. 

Doctor De Puy early saw that the Town of Wabash was destined to 
embrace a better class of citizens than the distinctive canal settlement 
at La Gro, and. in 1864 changed his residence to the former place. He 
purchased a farm near the city, invested extensively in real estate, 
bred fine live stock and became widely known in several fields beyond 
his professional activities. 

Dr. James L. Dicken 

Another wi(h'ly known practitioner was Dr. James L. Dicken, of 
Souu'rset, Wabash and La Fontaine. He was born in Fayette County, 
and, after becoming fairly well educated and teaching school, commenced 


to study iiRnlieiiiL' iukKt Or. William Lomax, of Marion. Afterward 
he attended a of lectures in the Indiana State ^ledical College, 
cointiieneed pi-aetiee at Somerset, County, in l84iJ, anil linally 
graduated from the Ohio .Medical College in March, 1851. Doctor Dicken 
moved from Somerset in 1851), took a course at the Oliio 
?iledieal College, located in Wabash City in 1860 and in the following 
yeai- joined the I'liion service- as surg('on of the Forty-seventh Indiana 
Kegimeiit. He served continuously from October, iSi'A, to November, 
1865, ^vithout li'ave of absence. lie was with his I'egiment in every 
engagi-ment in wliich it participated, and for two years acted as ranking 
I'egimeiital surgeon in the Department of the Gulf. Doctor Dicken is 
claimed to have served a longer continuous term during the Civil war 
than any other surgeon in the State of Indiana, his nearest comi)etitor 
being Doctor Lomax, of .Marion, his pi'eceptor, whose period of service 
was just four days shorter tlian that of Doctor Dicken. Certainly, a 
I'emarkable and tine record. 

At the close of the war Doctor Dicken resumed private practice at 
Wabash, and there continued until February, 1881, at which time he 
moved to La Fontaine. 

Dr. William G. Armstrong 

Soon after his graduation from the Ohio Medical College, Dr. AVil- 
liam G. Armstrong also located in La Fontaine. There he engaged in 
an active and successiful practice for more than thirty years — from 
November, 1«50, until his death, January 20, 1881. He was a native 
Iloosier, born in Kusli County, in 1822. 

Dr. Laughlin O'Neal 

One of the early and able practitioners was also Dr. Laughlin O'Neal, 
of La Fontaine and Somerset. In tiie winter of 1849-50 he attended 
medical lectures at tlie Western Reserve College, Cleveland, Oliio, and 
soon afterward couniu'uced ])ractice at La Fontaine. In 1865 he was 
conunissioned surgeon of tlie One Hundred and Fifty-third Indiana 
Volunteer Infanti-y, and thus served until the close of the war. He 
then resumed practice at Somerset, and in 1876 graduated from the 
Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery. 

Dr. William R. AVinton 

Dr. William R. AVinton entered the list of AVa})ash County pio- 
neers of the medical profession when, in 1850, he located in the town 


of Waliasli, coiiiiii^ I'rom Craw loi'dsvillc, Indiana. He was ouv of llic 
first trustc'i's of Wabasli Colk'i^^', aiul was a graduate of the Ohio Medical 
College, class of 1837. 

Ui'i'ER AVabasii Medical Society 

The foregoing are perhaps the most ijroniiuent of Wabash County 
physicians wliose practice dat('S from as early as 1850. An attempt had 
already hi-eii made to organize tlie fraternity into a society; but its 
sco])e was broader tliau Wabash County. A numbi'r of the xihysicians 
of Wabash and adjoining counties issued a call for a meeting at the 
Americ-a, Wabash, for the i)ur])ose of mutual organization. At 
liiat chite there wei'e resident in this county the following active practi- 
tioners: .lames Ford, James Hackleman, Jonathan R. Cox, E. P. Peters 
anel Adam 1). Sweet, Wabash; Thomas Hamilton and James F. Beckner, 
La dro; C. V. N. Lent, Liberty :\lills; William E. Willis, North Man- 
chester; Doctor Eicholtz, Laketon. 

The I'esult of the meeting was the organization of the Upper Wabash 
Medical Society, of wliich Dr. G. N. Fitch, of Logansport, was presi- 
dent, witli a full corps of officers and Board of Cen.sors. The following 
yeai- a session of the society was lield at Logansport, followed by one 
at Lafayette, but soon afterward the organization flickered out. 

Wabash County IMedical Society 

The movement revived at a meeting held in the office of Calvin 
Cowgill, Mercantile Building, Town of Wabash, at 11 o'clock A. M., 
July 5, 185-1. As stated by Dr. E. B. Thomas, the secretary: "The phy- 
sicians of Wabash County and adjoining counties met for the purpose of 
more fully advancing medical knowledge, the elevation of the profes- 
.sional character, the protection of members, the extension of the bounds 
of medical science, and the promotion of all measures adajtted to the 
relief of the sutVering, and to improve the health and protect the lives of 
the connuunity, do now associate themselves together under the name of 
the Wabash County Medical Society. 

'AVhereupon the following physicians ai)peared: From Marion, 
(irant County, William Lomax ; from Jonesboro, (irant County, Samuel 
S. Home; from Somerset. Wabash County, James L. Dieken ; from La 
(ii-o, Wabasli ('ouidy, James A. S. Carpenter; fi'om Wabash, Wabash 
Count V, Jame.s F. Beckner, James h'oril and Eiias B. Thomas." 


Tk.mi'oraky and Pkrmanext Officefjs 

])r. William l.oiiiax was (•allcil to t\\v chair aiul Dr. James Ford 
ai)poiiitccl sc<Tt'tai'y, at'tei' wliicli Dr. J. L. Dickrii, James i^\ Ueckiier and 
F. B. Thomas were appointed censors, and admitted to the membership 
of tlie society, l)esides tlie foregoing, Drs. James Haekleman, J. D. St. 
Jcjlin. AiiKJS II. Wolvei'ton, James Ai-mstrong and Samnel St. John. 

Doctoi- h'oi'd was then electeil |)i-esideiit, Doetoi- Thomas seci'etai-y, 
Doctor Ijeckner treasurer and Doctors Dieken, Lomax and Horn, cen- 

■ ■ ■ • - • Pauper Practice Turned Over 

Doctors Beckner and J. D. St. John, physicians to tlie Wahash County 
As\]um, pi-oposi-d to give their eoiiti-act to the society for the purpose 
of procuring a medical library. A eonnnittee from the socit'ty was there- 
fore appointeil for the said panjx-r jjractiee. 

As this feature of the meeting is interesting, the text of the ivsolu- 
'• tions is rejjrodueed: "Resolved, That the membei-.s of this society 
'" ajipoint the president, secretary anil treasurer, a committee to contract 
with the co\int\' commissioners for the pauper practice of the l^oor 
Farm, and the pauper j)i-actice in the various town.ships of the county 
by the year, and that this society divide the labor among its members 
that it shall not be burdensome to anyone. Adopted. 

"Resolved, That any member of the socii'ty .shall have the privilege 
of In-inging any case before the society at any of its meetings for exam- 
ination and trt'atment from time to time as such case umy demand, and 
in all such cases such examinations and prescriptions shall be free of 
charge to tile patient. It shall be the duty of such members to carry 
out said prescriptions as agreed upon, and report the same to the 
il^'xt meeting thereafter. Adopted. 

Annual ^Iedication of Fa.aheies Disapproved 

"Whereas. The practice of medicating families by the year had 
its origin and is adapted to the profession only in cities; Therefore, 

"Resolved, That this society request its members to abandon said 
practice. Adoi)ted." 

In 1849, three years after the organization of the Upper Wabash 
:\Iedical Society, tlie Indiana State :\Ie(licaI Society was founded. From 
the time of the organization of the State Society, the county society 
was an auxiliary body subject to its rules and regulations. 


Rules and Code of Ethics 

The Wabasli County Medical Society was afterward incorporated, 
its mend)erslui) being conlined to jjliysicians and surj,'e(jns of that county 
subject to tile following con.stitutioiud provisions: "Any graduate in 
medicine of any respectable school or licentiate of any regularly organ- 
ized medical board, who is in good moral and pi'ofessional standing, 
shall, upon signing the constitution and paying $1 to the treasui'ei-, be 
entitled to full meiid)ership in the society. 

"In tiu' absence of credentials mentioned in the first section of thi.s 
article, the candidate for membership, by presenting a cei-tilicate that 
he has read medicine three years under the instruction of some I'egular 
physician of good standing, and also a certificate of qualification to 
I)ractice medicine from the Hoard of Censoi-s of this society — shall, upon 
signing the constitution and paying ^|^;} to the treasurer, l)e admitted to 
full membership in the societ\-.'' 

As a means of i)reserving its professiomil integrity and maintaining 
the high moi'al standing to which the prot\'ssion aspires, tlie following 
regulation i.s ])rescribed : "It shall have power to censure or exjxd 
any mend)er con\icted of violating its provisions, or who may l)e guilty 
of any act which may be considered derogatory to the hoiior of the medi- 
cal i)rofessi()n, and enforce the observance, by its members, of the code 
of ethics a(h)ptcd l)y tiie society." The code of etiiics to which reference 
is imide is that prescribed by the American 2\Iedical Association. 

The mendx'rs of the society subscribe the following pledge of 
fidelity for the good of the profession: "In order to more effcctuall}' 
secure the objects of this society, we who hereunto subscribe our names 
do agree with and to each other tluit we will faithfulh' observe all 
the requirements of the constitution, code of etlucs, fee bill and all 
uthei- regulation.s adopted for the govennnent of the society; and that 
we will in no case whatever knowingly consult with anyone who is not a 
graduate of some respectable medical college, licentiate of some reg- 
ularly organized medical board, or member of this society, or in any 
other way countenance or encourage quackery in any of its forms or 
l)retensions, for the faithful performance of which we do hereby individ- 
ually pledge our truth, honor and professional standing." 

Society Presidents 

Doctor Ford served the society as president during the first two 
year.s of its existence, and aiiu)iig his well known successors have been 
Samuel St. John aiul S. G. Thompson. 


Du. 1Ii:nkv II. Gillex 

Among those who located in Wabash County at an early period 
in the iiistory of tlie Wabash County ]\Iedical Society were Dr. Henry H. 
Gillen and Dr. Andrew J. Sniitli. Doctor (iillen was a Kentuckian of 
Scotcli-ii-ish i)arentage. While a young man he pui\sued Ins medical 
studies b(jth ])rivately and at the Ohio Kclectic .Aledical (College at Cin- 
cinnati. He commenced practice in Franklin County, Indiana, and con- 
tinued to devote the utmost of his time and strength to it for more 
than twenty years. His long, irregular hours and the wearing hard- 
ships of travel and fatigue in the new, raw country of his choice so 
undermined hi.s lu-altli that lie was oljliged to temporarily abandon prac- 
tice. His experiments in orange culture in Florida, which covered some 
of the later years of his life, were not successful, and the worry incident 
to failure of crops and insecure investments is thought to have further 
weakened his constitution and hastened his death, which occurred in 
January, 18!):). His second born and oldest son, Riciuird II., is the well- 
known ])hysician of Wabash. 

Dr. Andrew J. Smith 

Di-. Andrew J. Smith, wlio, for more than forty years, brought 
piiysical and spiritual comfort to so nmny i)eople in Wabash, was an 
Ohio man. He pui'sued collegiate courses at Ohio Wesleyan University, 
Delaware, and Miami University, Oxford, having as a classmate for a 
time Benjamin Harrison, afterward President of the United States. In 
1852 he moved to Somerset, AVabash County, and began the study of 
medicine witli Dr. James L. Dicken. He also took a medical course at 
Rush :\Iedical College, Chicago, in 1856-57, but did not graduate. In the 
latter year he was licensed to practice and located at "Wabash for the 
purpose. In 18G3 Governor Morton appointed him senior assistant sur- 
geon of the Second Indiana Cavalry. His service in that capacity 
extended to the close of the war, and he was much of tlie time in charge 
of the hospital at Cleveland, Tennessee. Upon his return to general 
practice he became a.ssociated with Doctors Gillen and Bennett until 

Not ])eing satisfied with his acquirements and being in accord with 
the etVoi'ts of the profession to place the ])ractice npon a scientific and 
systematic basis, Doctor Smith deternnned. to finish a regular course at 
some standard institution of medical learning. In June, 1871, he 
graduated from the medical department of the Northwestern University, 
Chicago, and in 1874 formed a professional partnership W'itli Dr. II. F. 


Blount wliicli continued uiiintt'rruptecl]y for sixteen years. During that 
period both were h-eturers 0]i tiie staff of tlie Fort Wayne Medical 
College. Doctor Sniitli was a .strong man and a physician of good cheer; 
therefore the best kind of an inspiration to the coniiuunity. lie was 
also a public man, both in spirit and action. His death on December 22, 
1900, was the withdrawal of a fine, constant and uplifting force. 

Doctor Smith's wife, whom he married in 1880, was formerly Miss 
Louise Jessup, ~S\. D., a graduate of the Woiium's College of tlie North- 
western University, at Chicago. She is .still engaged in a su])stantial 
practice, confined to her sex and the ailments of children, and is one 
of the bt'st known women of Waliash. 

The Society ix the Jvvhey '80s 

Probably the society was never strongei- than during the early '80s, 
when it innid)ere(l nearly fifty members, including the following (names 
alphabetically arranged): Henry Adair, Somei'set, admitted in 1871; 
T. R. P>ra(ly, Liiicolnville. 1871; Frank H. Bloomer, I'leasant View, 
1878; R. F. P.lount, Wabash, 18G.'); A. M. Pnirns, La Fontaine, 1880; 
C. C. lirady, Roann, 18S1; (i. W. Brown. Somerset, 1880; G. P. Chinne- 
worth, :\lount Aetna, 1877; James L. Diekeii, La Fontaine, IH'A; C. L. 
Dieken, Ua Fontaine, 187!); F. F. Donaldson, Wabash. 18li5 ; W. R. 
Fdgai-, Wal)ash, 1881; James Foi'd, Wabash, 18,")4; J. Henry Ford, 
Wabasii. 1872; Richard H. Cilleii, Wabash, 1881; F. S. C. Grayston, 
Huntington, 18r)(); B. H. P>. Crayston, Huntington, 18711; Marcus M. 
Hale, La Oro, 1871; Charles H. Holmes, Wal)ash, 187!); J. H. Jones, 
Roann, 1878; (}. P. Kidd, Roann, 1874; John Kautz, Dora, 1878; ^l. 0. 
Lower, Noi'th .Alanchester, 1876; H. R. I^Iinnick, Treaty, 1879; J. P. 
^Mitchell, :\Ioun1 Aetiui, 1877; II. C. :\rooney, Laketon, 187G; P. 0. Moore, 
Rick Valh-y, 1871 ; R. Murphy, Roann, 1871 ; L. Oneal, Somerset, 1859; 
0. O^'Neal, Somei'set, 187!); Samuel Pickering, La Fontaine, 1880; E. P. 
Peters, Wabash, 1855; 0. P. Peters, AVabash, 1878; J. 11. Renner, La 
Oro, 1872; A. J. Smith, AVabash, 1871; J. W. Studley, La Fontaine, 
1878; Philip Slialfer. North .Manchester, 1878; E. B. Thomas, La Gro, 
1854; A. M(d). Thomas, La Fontaine, 1855; S. G. Thomas, Wabash, 
1858; G. B. Trend)ly, Bracken, 1878; T. C. Teague, Rich Valley, 1880; 
C. Waddle, North Alanchester, 1875; Horace Winton, North Manchester, 
1873; 0. B. AVilliams, Antioch, 1878; W. J. Brown. AVabash, 1883; 
Andrew J. Boswell, Andrews, 1883; AI. E. Reinier, AVabash, 1883. 

The Society N(nv 

The pi'csent AVabash ('ounty Aledical Society numbers sixteen mem- 
bers, with the following officers: Dr. W. A. Domer, president; Dr. 


Z. M. JJcaiiiaij, vice president; l)i-. L. E. .Icwctt, .sccrL-tary-treasurer ; 
Ors. F. \V. Kitsoii, 0. I*. Ividd and L. (). Sliolty, censors. . 

.,:■ J • Oldest Members . > v i. > 

The oldest members of the society, in point of connection with it, are 
Dr. K. F. Blount, who was admitted in 1865, and Drs. Perry G. JMoore 
and T. K. Brady, both of whom joined in 1873. ' 

.., .; ^v,.:, • Dr. T. R. Brady -- ■■ v ;, . i . 

Doctor Brady is a native of AVabash County. In his twentieth year 
he enlisted for the Union service and was severely wounded at ^Lis- 
sionary Ridge. Although he was obliged to retire from active service 
for a time, he returned to the front as soon as iiis condition would 
permit, and was with Sherman's army in its nuirch and campaigns 
to Atlanta and through the Carolinas. He wa.s mustered out at India- 
napolis in 1865, entered the Presbyterian Academy at Logansport, 
then studied medicine, and completetl a two years' course at Rush 
Medical College, Chicago, from wliicli he graduated in 1869 with the 
degree of M. D. Doctor Brady at once located in Lincolnville, this 
county, for practice, and at once acquired standing in the community 
as a pliysiciaii and a citizen. 

Dr. Perry G. Moore 

Doctor .Moore, who has tlie distinction of being both an able physi- 
cian and an advisory editor of this work, was born in Cuyahoga County, 
Ohio, ^Farch 26, 1845. His father, Tliomas i\I., was also a physician; 
practiceil for several years in Cleveland and .Maytield, Ohio, dying in 
the latter place in Februai-y, 1846. Dr. .Moore's mother, formerly 
i\Iartha Mai'tin, was a native; of l']ngland, l)ut wlien a young girl came 
with her i)arents to Cleveland, where slie was I'cared and umrried. She 
died in tlie May following her husband's decease (1846), and the son 
Perry (i., was therefore left an orphan when little more than a 3'ear 
old. Through tlie kindness of Mr. and .Mrs. Amos Philbriek the boy 
found a home and was educated. 

After completing the common branches, lie spent several years in 
the ■ study of medicine with Dr. Ira Lyman, of Chester, Ohio, and 
graduated from the Ohio Medical College, Cincinnati, in the class of 
1865-()6. In November of the latter year Doctor Moore located in Rich 
Valley and secured a large practice, besides building up an extensive 


li'ade ill drugs aiul jj^nicral mfiH'haiulisc lii Srptciuher, 1887, he tnovi-il 
to tlir City of Waliash, when- lie lias since i-esided as a leader in his 
jtroTcssion and a <^cnial, well-iiifonncd geiithMiiaii and a useful citizen. 
Doctor Moore married P>eroth, of l\ich Valley, February 
1, 1870, and four of their children are livin<i: Lura "SL, born .March 
1, 1874; married to Van 0. Cook of .Manslield, Ohio (her present 
residence) April 17. 1902. They have one daughter, Vangelene. 
Perry H., born July 4, 1881, married Eva Crabill, October 10, l'J07, 
and now living in Wabasli. Lalan V>., born ^larch 31, 1883; married 
Leroy Dennis, October 16, 1007; residence Wabash. They have one 
daughter Lalan Louise, age live years. Merrill U., born ."^larch 20, 
1890; residence Wabash. 

CHAPTER XVI ,. • . ,.. 


Col. AViLiJAM Steele — Cul. James Wiiitmoke — Gex. Joiix B. Rose — 
Cai'T. JosEi'ii EwLxc — Capt. Abraham IIACKLE^L\N — Other Sol- 
diers OF THE War of 1S12 — ^Mexican AVar Soldiers — Fail to (Jet 
Into x\ctiox — Those from Wahash Cofxty — 1xdl\xa ix the Civil 
\y.\\{ — First War AIeetl\i:s ix Wabash Cofxtv — First A'olfxteers 
— Dei'artfre OF CoMi'AXY II, FuuiTH Kecilmext — (!eorge Cfbberly 
Takes the Oveflow— The Ijattle of Rich AIofxtaix — Hart's 
AccouxT — Death of Kmmett — AIkster-oft of Co.mfaxy II — The 
Sole Deserter— Dr. James Ford — Gex. Charles S. Parrish — The 
Reorgaxized Fiuhth Ixdiaxa — Battle of Pea Ridge — Losses to 
Local Compaxies — Ox Vetera x Fcrlough — Discharged — Company 
F. Senexteexth Regimext — Comi'axy II, Twentieth Infantry^ — 
First Comi-lete Ixdiaxa Cavalry Regiment — Capt. Alexander 
lli.>s — IJi:coi;d (^f the Secoxd Ixdiaxa Cavalry Coxtixi'ed — Capt. 
Hess Takex Prisoxer — llis Civil Jvecord — The Sevexty-fifth 
Ixfaxtrv — At ( "hicka.alvuga Creek — .Missiox Ridge — To Atlaxta— 
Throcgh the Carolinas to AVashixgtox — CoLoxEL Pettits Home 
Services — Ilox. Calvin Cowgill — Company A, Eighty-ninth 
I\F(;i.\n:xT — Camp I^ettit, at AVabash — Compaxies F and K, IUIst 
IvKGiMEXT — Dr. l^AziL B. Bexxett — Capt. B. F. Williams — Fierce 
Ficnrr with Morgax's AIex — At Cihckamauga — With Sherman's 

• Army — Captain Williams at — AIemorial Hall, AVabasii — 
Last AVabash Cocxty Ixfaxtry — I<'ourteexth Ixdiaxa Artillery 
— AIa.ior AI. H. Kidd — {'apt. Fraxk AV. AIorse — Emmett No. 
6, G. A. R.— Company D, Spanish-American AVar. 

The Alississiiu'wa expedition into AValiasli and (irant counties, as 
an eft'eetive means of i)roteeting the rear of the American army of 
invasion directed against Detroit and Canada, has already been described 
as an important feature of the AVar of 18P2. Lieut. -Col. John B. 
Campbell, with his brave little force of dragoons and infantry, taught 
the Indians of the AVabash A'alley a lesson which left Harrison '.s army 
free to operate against the British troops. 



• Col. William Steele 

A Jiunil)LT of citizrns wiio al'tcrwaixl bccaiiR' re.sitleiits of Wabash 
Count;*- served hotii as ofticei's and privates in tlie war of 1812. Tlie 
eliaraeter best liuown to tlie local comniiinity was Col. William Steele. 
lie went from Eastern Indiana as a soldier, and mov(id to the Town of 
Wabash in 1834. He was the lirst justice of tbe peace in tin; cijunty, 
and at its civil or^'ani/.ation was elected clerk of the (Jircuit Court. 
Later he held other jjublie oftiees of local importance, and in 1851 was 
electetl a representative in the lower house of the State Legislature. 
Subseciuently Ik- served his constituents in the Constitutional Conven- 
tion, anil for more than forty year.s preceding his death was a useful 
and honon-d citizen of Wabash County, lie died in the City of Wabash 
on the lidTli of August, 187(J, at the age of ninet\'-hve years. 

Col. James Wiiitmore 

Col. James Wiiitmoi"e left his native State of Virginia at the age of 
thirty and settled in jMadison, Ohio. While a resident of the lUick-eye 
.state lie was conuuissioned colonel of militia, and in the War of 1812 
performed ef(icit;nt service in defending the frontier against the British 
and huliaiis. Jn after years he came to the county and died at Wa- in 1854. 

Gen. John B. Rose 

Cell. John B. Rose was a lieutenant in the War of 1812, and received 
honorable mention by his commanding officer for gallant conduct at 
the battle of Plattsburg. He served as sheriff of Union County, Indiana, 
was a member of the State Legislature in early times, and spent the last 
two riecades of his life in Wabash County, where he died in May, 1875, 
at an advanced age. 

Capt. Joseph Ewing 

Capt. Joseph Ewing was a Pennsylvanian, and was a son of Judge 
John Ewing, who became a prominent citizen of Montgomery County, 
Ohio. In 1811 the former received a captain's commission from Gov- 
ernor j\Ieigs. At first his company (of the First Regiment, Ohio I\Iili- 
tia) guarded the frontier settlements of the state, and in 1812 was 
traasf erred to the North under the immediate; command of General 
Harri.son. Subsequently he liceame a public character in Ohio, but 


spvui the later years of his life in Wabash County, wiiere. he died 
Novriidjer 25, lS(i5, in liis ei^hty-fseeond year. 

,,,, J ,:, ,, Cai't. AiiiJAUA.M 

('apt. Abraham ITaekleinaii was born Septenil)er 25, 1775, at the 
foot of King's Mountain, North Carolina, near the jtlaee where the 
battle was fought toward the elose of the Kevolutionary war. In the 
AVar of \S\2 he was a member of Cai)tain P)ryson"s eompajiy, and 
lieUl a subordinate i>ositioii under that offieer in guarding the frontier 
of Kentueky, into whieh state he had moved in 1802. In tlie spring 
of 1801), then in his tliirty-seeond year, he moved to Franklin County, 
Indiana. He beeame a resident of AVabasli County in 184!), and died 
in the City of Wabash during Oetober, }SoS. 

0tiii:r Soldiers of the War oi^^ 1S12 

Conrad Saylors was a Carolinian by l)ii'tii and served as a private 
in the War of 1812. He was a pioneer of Franklin County, Indiana, 
Hiid represented tluit seetion of the state in one of the early sessions of 
tile Legislature. For several years before his death he was an honored 
citizen of Wabasli County, and died at Wabash in 1847. 

William Kent re]n-esented tlie naval eoiitingent. As a l)oy he served 
in the I'nitetl States navy in the war with the Jiarbary States and was 
])resent at the bombardment of Tripoli, Algiers. lie wa.s a sailor on 
the (Ireat Lakes at the outbreak of the War of 1812. at onee entered 
the navy again and ])artieipatt'd in the detV'Use of Forts Ceorge and 
Niagara. In after years he farmed in New York and Indiana, and died 
at Wabash on the 16th of Oetober, 1855. lie was buried by Ilanna 
Lodge No. Gl. A. F. &. A. M., of which lie was an at-tive member. 

Jesse Shaw, for over thirty years a resident of La Gro Township, 
was a native of North Carolina, and saw service in Virginia during the 
later period of the War of 1812, coming to Indiana in 1830 and to 
WalKish in 185o. He died at his liome in La Gro Township in January, 
1884. more than eiglity-sevcn years of age. 

Other soldiers of the AVar of 1812, who have made their homes in 
\Val)ash County, were Robert McGee, an Irishman who served in a New 
York company; Josej)!! Pauling, who was adjutant in a Penn.sylvania 
regiment; Garnett llaydon, a Keiituckian who died at AVabash in 1865; 
Constance B. Jones, who is said to have assisted th(^ wounded Gen. 
Winfield Scott from the battlefield of Lundy's Lane; Triplet Loekhart, 
a resident of Favette and Wal)ash counties, Avho tlied at Wabash dur- 


iijg ISG-t; Thomas Tyre, M'ho .saw servin- as a yuarU at tlie entrance 
to IIiulsoii Jxiver; <leorge K. CJook, a Keutuckiaii wlio fought iiiuler 
Jaeksou at the hattlr of New Oilcans, and -lohn MeClintoek, wlio 
iielped h\iiUI ohl l^'(jft .Meigs in So\itheasterii Ohio. ■ »^ • ,, 

. . -A .i .■- ■,■ ^Mexican AVar Soldiers ■ '' 

The j)resitlential ])roelauiatio]i aniiouneing a state of war l)etweeu 
the Unitetl States and ]\Iexieo was issued Mny 11, LS46, and on the 22d 
of tliat month Gov. James Whiteomh, of Indiana, issued hi.s eall 
for troo])s. .\.s tlie County of AVabash was then hut si)arsely sctlh'd, a 
eompan\- was not ex])eeted to he enlisted within its hor(U'rs. Its re- 
cruits united with the comi)any enlisted at Fort Wayne l)y Oai)t. 
Davis AV. Lewis, leaving AVahash the second week of June, 1846. They 
were transported on a packet canal boat 1)\' way of Fort Wayne for 
(Cincinnati, thence down the Ohio Kiver to New All)an\-, the ])laee of 
general I'eudezvous for Indiana trooi)s. Theri' they were mustei'ed into 
the service of the Fiiited States by Colonel Churchill, of the I'nited 
States army, on the 22d of June, 1S4(J, and sebsequently organized 
as Comi:)any F, of the First Regiment of Indiana A^olunteers, com- 
manded by Col. James P. Drake of Indiana])olis. 

The company roll was tiled in the office of the adjutant general of 
the state of the Idtli of June, 184t), being the tweiity-ninth company. 
An hour later, on the same day, the roll of anotlier company was filled, 
making the thirtieth, tlu;s tilling completely the requisition foi- three 
regiments. The first regiment was not fully e(iuipped until the secontl 
week of July, when it took transportation by steamboat foi; New Or- 
leans en I'onte for the Rio Grande. Ai'riving at New Orleans, the 
regiment went into camp on the old battle ground — where (ieneral 
Jackson, on the 8th of Janiuiry, 18ir), defeated tiie British under General 
Pa'ekenham, the final engagement of the War of 1812. 

Fail to Get into Action 

The comi)any failed to get into action, although the boys were 
ready. After bt'iiig ti-ansported across the (iulf of ]\Iexico, at one time 
they were within five miles of Alonterey, but were finally ordered back 
to New Orleans and were mustered out of the service June IG, 1847. 
The members of the company then took passage on a steam])oat for 
Cincinnati, whence they were transferi'ed by canal to AVabash, arriving 
at the home dock late in the month of June, 1847, after having been 
ab.sent a few days more than one year. 


Those from Wabash County 

Elijali Ilaeklciiiaii has compiled a list of those who volunteered in 
Captain Lewis' company from Wabash County, a few of whom never 

Moses W. Ross went out as corporal of the company, and returned 
to enjoy a long and lionored life. He was a native of Dec^atur County, 
Indiana. Levi Ross, a younger l»rotlier and a native of Hancock County, 
was also a mendjer of Company F, First Regiment, and at the expiration 
of his year's service reenlLsted for three years as a regular. In August, 
1861, he assisted in recruiting Company F, of the Second Cavalry, and 
entered tlie Union service in the Civil war as first lieutenant of that 
comnmnd. After the battle of Pittsburgh Landing he was promoted to 
the captaincy of his company for meritorious conduct, but died while 
at Louisville, Kentucky, on official business, ]\larch 7, 1863. 

Aljijali A. Cox served a.s corporal during the full term of liis enlist- 
ment, and a few years after his return to Wabash moved to Grant County. 
Clinton Lafavour became a resident of Kansas, and John Kizer, of 
La Gro, who was sergeant, moved to California a few years after return- 
ing to Wal)ash County. 

Charles Rozelle, also of La Gro, moved to Sacramento City, California, 
and Ebenezer Rozelle, a brother, left his body on the l)anks of tlie Rio 
Grande, where he died October 23, 184G. William Rozelle, another 
brother, became a California gold hunter, while Isaac B. Rozelle, a 
fourth bi-other, died at the mouth of the Rio Grande on the 23d of 
August, 1846. 

Thomas Hurley also went from La (h-o, where he. dii'd many years 
after, and Tiiomas Benge enlisted from North Manchester, where he 
died long afterward. 

Neely Benge, a son of tlie last nan\ed, died near the mouth of the 
Ohio wliile returning to Wabash on sick leave. 

In September, 1846, several months aftei- the departure of the 
volunteers for the seat of war, Capt. Spier E. Tipton, son of Gen. 
John Tipton, a recruiting officer of the regular army, sent two or 
three days in Wabash and enlisted the following men: William M. 
Hackleman, son of Dr. James Hackleman, who immediately went to 
New Orleans, was mustered into the regular army and died in April, 
1847, as the result of injuries received at the storming of Vera Cruz; 
Ab Van Dyne, who participated with the United States army in the 
siege and capture of Mexico City and died a few days later from sun- 


Indiana in the Civil War 

No state ill the niiion was more prompt or genei-ous in furnishing 
troops and money than Indiana. A striking eom])arison of her eontri- 
butions in life and treasure with those furnished l>y the country at 
large has been made by William H. Smith in his "History of Indiana," 
from which we quote: "Five of the first six regiments were sent to 
operate in West Virginia, and there fought the first battles of tlui war. 
The remaining regiment, the Elleventh, was sent to Cumberland, Mary- 
land, and it was a scouting party from that regiment that shed the first 
blood in battle on the soil of Old Virginia. Thus it was that Indiana 
was the first to the front in West Virginia and Old Virginia. The Legis- 
lature met and promptly provided for the borrowing of $2,000,000 to 
aid in the support and organization of troops for tlie of the 
[Tnion. It will be in place, at this point, to say that so energetic was 
the governor, so patriotic were the people, that every call made on 
Indiana for troops was filled in the shortest space of time by volunteers 
until after war liad been raging for three and a half years, with the 
single exception of a small draft uvddo in 18(52, in a few localiti('S, for 
the purpose of equalizing tlie burdens; these localities having been a little 
slack in furnishing their quota of volunteers. At every call Indiana had 
some troops standing to her credit. No state in the Union was more 
prompt in this matter. 

"It is also proper to state that to preserve the Union Indiana fur- 
nislied more soldiers than did the original thirteen colonies to establish it. 
For the war with Mexico the United States called into service 112,000 
soldiers, or 9G,000 less than Indiana furnished during the Civil war. 

"To show the magnitude of tlie struggle and the part Indiana bore 
in it, a few figures will suffice. The American loss in killed during 
t^e last war with (Jreat P>ritain was 1,877; in the war with Mexico, 
1,1)5;^, making a total in killed in two great wars, of 13,830. Tiiis in- 
cludes those who died from wounds. In the last war Indiana lost in 
killed, 3,4;J4, died from wounds, 2,883— a total loss of 5,817, or 2,000 
more than the total loss of the whole country in two great wars. In 
the War of 1812-15 the loss to the American armies from killed and 
wounded was 5,614, or 203 less than Indiana lost in killed outright and 
died from wounds, in the Civil war. The total loss of American troops 
(killed and fatally wounded) in the Mexican war was only 4,373, as 
against the total loss of Indiana soldiers during the Civil war of 5,817. 
Indiana also lost, during that period 10,392 from disease, making a 
total loss during the war of 24,416. 

"For four years Indiana was a vast recruiting field and all the 


encigics of the jx/oplc were tunicd toward the war and its pi-osceution. 
Ill inoiii-y, tile cost of till- war to tin- pcdidc aiiioinitcd to iiiaiiy millions 
of dollars. In addition to wlial was rxpcndrd \,y ]|ic state tlic counties 
and townsln|)s expended a total of $2(),2r)S.(i4(). They eave in llic way of 
Ijoiinties $15,l!)2,,S7(i; for ndit'f of soldiers and their families, $-i-,r)G(i,H:)8, 
and for miseellaneoiis expenses, growing' out of the war, $1!)S,86G." 

: First War ^Iektixgs ix \Vai5asii County 

Considering: her population, AVabash County has a bright record 
in the Civil war, and no section of the state evinced more pronounecd 
individual patriotism. Fort Sumter was attacked April 12, 1861, the 
news reaching Wabash at noon the next da\-, through the agency of a 
telegraphic dispatch sent liy (ieorge E. Gordon, then at Indianapolis, to 
"William K. Thurston. A call was immediately issued for a meeting at 
the courthouse in the evening of that day. 

The town was wild ^\■ith excitement and every man and ])oy was eager 
for action. Speeches were made and applauded, but what was more to 
the point a n\iiid)ei' of volunteers eagerly stejiped into the recruiting 
office opened by Chaides S. Parrish and Joseph AI. Thom])son. On the 
following day (Sunday, the 14th) Sumter surrendered to the Confed- 
eracy, and on Monday, the loth, (iovernor Morton called for 10,000 men 
to defend the nation. The same day Pi'esident Lincoln, called forth the 
militia of the several states to the number of To, 000. The war was on; 
liut neither North nor South knew what an awful conflict was before the 

On receipt of the dispatch from Air. Gordon, Captain Pari-ish called 
upon lion. Elijah Ilackleinan, then somewhat familiar with military 
atYairs, and especially conversant with conditions in the county, stated 
that he liad decided to join the armv and asked for his assistance in 
arousing the sentiment which would lead to the raising of troops. That 
night, after they had attended the meeting at the courthouse in Waliash, 
they went to Ashland (now La Fontaiin'), made the first war speeches in 
that part of the county and several volunteers offered themselves for 

First Volunteers 

On Alonday, the 15th, after the fall of Fort Sumter, notices for 
another meeting at the courthouse in the evening were posted through- 
out the town. AVhen night came every inch of standing room was taken 
and. the enthusiastic and determined citizens were addressed by lievs. 


]\. Toliy and J. Fairchild, Captain Pandsli, a -Mr. Cole, of ( 'iiiciiiiiati. 
and Dtlicr.s. lion. J. J). Conner prcsidt'd and I'allcd attention to t\\v 
jjfactical oI»j(H't of the nict'tin^' which was to receive names foi- a local 
conii)aiiy. A nuiuht-r of names were enroUed before the meetin<: 
adjourned, and I)y the following Friday ahout loO jiad volunteered 
their services and held themselves at instant call to go to the front. 

l)i:i'AirriivM'; ok Oomi-wv 11, l']i<;irni Kkcimiat 

This tirst company from AVabash County would have hd't for Indiau- 
iipolis, the geiiei'al i-eiidezvous for Indiana ti'oops, on Saturday nu)rning, 
the LlOth of June, had n(jt the patriotic ladies of \Val)ash urged them to 
remain until Tutsday mornijig and accept a sui)per a)id a haiuier which 
they proposed to present to tlwin on Monday evening. 

Thi.s program was not carried out to the letter, for on Saturday 
afternoon at 2 o'clock the company assendjled at the courtroom ^vith 
closed doors and elected the following officers: Charles S. i'arrish, cap- 
tain; Joseph M. Thompson, fii'st lieutenant; Frank Dailey, second lieu- 
tenant, and John R. Polk, third lieutenant. 

At 7 o'clock a boat laden with citizens and accompanied by a bi'ass 
band arrived fi'om Fa (iro to partici{)ate in the fai'cwell o\ation. Tlie 
troo})s nuirelu-d to the Fnion sclK^ollunise. where tlie ladies i>re.sented 
the compau\' with a beautiful banner and a bountiful supper. 

At 4 o'clock on Tuesday morning, x^jtril 2.'>, LSiil, these first 
volunteers from Wa])asli County left by i-ail for Indianapolis, and two 
days afterward were mustered into the service of the Fnited States as 
ConipauN- n, iMghth Regiment, Fidiana \'olunteei' Infantry. 

George Cuhbekly Takes the Overfeow 

Jhe men frou) Wabash County had offered their services so freely 
that there wei'e twenty-tive more than the Fighth Regiment could receive. 
Accordingly (ieorge Cubberly, of Fa Cro, with this excess as a luieleus, 
began recruiting for .some other regiment. He ^vas tirst eonunissioned 
as first lieutenant in Cai)tain Parrish's eomiiany, but on the r2th of June 
was assigi\ed to the same rank in the new company ( F, of the Seven- 
teenth Regiment), and was subsequently ])romoted to the captaincy 
of Company F 

The Battle of Rich ^NFofxtatn 

The Eighth Regiment, whieli received the bulk of the first volun- 
teers from AA'^abash County, was commanded by (.'ol. AVilliam P. Reuton, 


of iiieliinoml. Company II remained in eamp with its regiment until tlie 
19th of June. On the morning of that day the Eightli and Tenth regi- 
ments went by rail to Clarksburg, West Virginia, thenee marched to 
Buckhannon, thirty miles distant, where the enemy were reported to be 
encamped. Upon arriving at that point, it was learned that the Con- 
federates had moved on to Rich Mountain. At Buckhannon, the Eighth 
and Tenth Indiana regiments were assigned to the brigade commanded 
by (Jt'iH'i-al William S. Rosecrans. On the 10th of July the entire Union 
force marched toward Rich -Mountain, where the enemy had concen- 
trated, and on the following morning the battle opened. 

Hart's xVccount : -vi .' 

The following account of the engagement is taken from the state- 
ment of David L. Hart, a famous scout and tlie guide to (ieneral Rose- 
crans' column, who afterward became well acquainted in AVabash County ; 
"I was with General Rosecrans as guide at tlie battle of Rich Mountain. 
The enemy — 4,000 strong — were strongly intrenched at the foot of the 
mountain on tlie west side. Tliey had rolled whole ti-ees from the 
mountain side and lapped them together, tilling in with stones and earth 
from a trench outside. General McClellan, after recoinioitering their 
position, sent General Rosecrans with the Eighth, Tenth and Fifteenth 
Indiana regiments, the Nineteenth Ohio and the Cincinnati Cavalry, to 
get in their rear. I went with them as a guide. 

"We sturteil about daylight, having lirst taken soiiu'tbing to eat 
(but got nothing more until G o'clock next night, when some of tiiem 
got a little beef) and turned into the woods on our right. I led, accom- 
panied by Colonel Lander, through a pathless route in the woods by 
which I had made my escape about four Aveeks before. AVe pushed along 
through the bush, laurel and rocks, followed by tlie whole division, in 
pc'i-fect silence. The ])ushes wetted us thoroughly and it was very cold. 
Our circuit was al)Out five miles. About noon we reached the top of the 
mountain, near my father's farm. 

"It was not intended that the enemy should know of our move- 
ments, but a dragoon with dis})atches from General ]\IcClellan, who was 
sent after us, fell into the hands of the enemy, and they thus found out 
our movements. They immediately dispatched 2,500 men to the top of 
the mountain witli three cannon. They intrenched themselves with 
earthworks on my father's farm just where we were to come into the 
road. We did not know they were there until we came on their pickets 
and their cannon opened fire upon us. We were then about a quarter 
of a mile from the house and skirmishing began. I left the advance and 


wt'iit into tile main l)()(ly of the army. [ liad no arms of any kind. Tlie 
rain bi-jran poni'inj:^ down in tori'i'iits, \vlnli' the enemy iircd his cannon, 
cntting off tlie trectop.s over onr lieads quite lively. They tired rapidly. 
I thought from the tiring that tliey had twenty-live or thirty pieces. We 
had no cannon with us. Our boys stood still in the rain about half an 

"The Eighth and Tenth then led ot¥, bearing to the left of our posi- 
tion. The bushes were so thick we could not see out, nor could the 
enemy see us. Tlie enemy's nuisket balls could not reach us. Our bo\s, 
keeping u[) a tire, got down within sight and then pretended to run, but 
they only fell down in the bushes and behind the rocks. This drew the 
enemy from their inti'enchments, and when our boys let into them with 
their lOntield and ]\linie rifles T never heard svich screaming in all my 
life. The Nineteenth, in the meantime, advanced to a fence in a line 
with the breastworks and fired one round. The whole earth seenu'd to 
shake. They then gave the Indiana boys a tremendous cheer, and the 
enemy l)i-oki' from their intrenehments in evei-y way they could. The 
Indiana boys had prt'viously ))een ordered to 'fix bayonets.' We coidd 
hear the rattle of the iron vei'y plainly as the oi'der was obeyed. 'Charge 
bayonets' wa.s then ordered, and away went our boys after the enemy. 
One man alone stood his gi'ound, and fii-ed a cannon until shot 
by a I'cvolver. A general race for about thi'ee hundred yards followcnl 
through the bush, when our men were recalled and reformed in line of 
battle to receive the enemy from the intrenehments at the foot of the 
mountain, as we supposed they woukl certainly attack us from that 
point; but it seems that as soon as they no longer heard the firing of 
the cannon they gave up all for lost. They then deserted their works 
and took off whatever they could. A re-enfoi'cement, which was also 
coming from Ueverly to the aid of the 2, ;")()(), retreated for the same 

"We took all their wagons, tents, provisions and cannon, many 
guns which they left, many horses, mules, etc. In short, we got every- 
thing they had, as they took nothing l)ut such horses are they were on. 
We found several of tliem in the woods. One hundred and thirty-five of 
the enem\' were l)uried before I left. They were for the most part shot 
in the head and hai'd to be i-ecognized. Some .six hundred, who had man- 
aged to get down to the river at Caplinger's, finding no chance for 
escape, sent in a flag of truce, and on Saturday morning they were 
e,scorted into Beverly by the Chicago Cavalry which had been sent after 
them. " 



Tin- loss of Coiiij^aiiy J I in tliis lii'st suhstjuitial a<tiou in whieli 
Jiiiliaiia ti-oops itai-ticipatcd was oik- killr.l — Jaiurs JI. JOiniiictt — and 
two wouiult'd — J.cmurl Jiusick and -Jacob Sailors. The Kiylith iicginiL'iit, 
witli the othrr eoumiands of tlic brigacU', (_Mi(;aiui)ed the succeeding niglit 
on the hattletield and tlu' day following- marched for Beverly. There the 
entire hrigade Went into canij) and I'eiuained until the •_:4tli of duly, 
when the Eighth and Ninth started for Jndiaiuii)olis. They arrived at 
the state capital on the 2(jth, and Company 11, of the Eighth, reached 
Wabash the following day. Its membei's who had so well acquitted 
themselves, although then so new to the grim business of war, were 
gi-eeted by hundreds of fi-iends and ivlatives at the (b-pot, the city 
bells were ringing and the entire connuunity was proud both of the 
home-comers and of the brave p]nnaett, who had been the to sacrifice 
his life in Wabash County for the L'nion 

IMusTER Out oh' Comi'axv II 

The Eighth Indiana Regiment was mustered out of the service at 
the conclusion of the three months' term of eidistnient, August Gth, 
but a lai-ge proportion of the men — at least, of those from Wabash 
County, for whom we speak — subsequently re-eidisted in the three years' 

TiJE Sole Deserter 

Comj)any II comprised three commis-sioned of'hcers, ten who were 
non-eonuuissioned and lifty-eight privates, all of whom were mustered 
oftt with honors except John Ballinger, the sole deserter. James II. 
Emmett was called for muster befoie the Almighty Father on tlie battle- 
field of Rich Mountain, and the G. xV. R. i'ost of AVabash proudly bears 
his name. 

Dr. James Ford 

Although not a member of the company, Dr. James Ford, one of 
the ablest of the pln'sicians of Wabash County and City, went to the 
front with the three months' men of the Eighth as regimental surgeon. 
As stated elsewhere, he liad charge of the hospital on the battlefield 
of Rich Mountain, re-entered the three years" service in his former 


capacity and became one of the most prominent anny surgeons in the , 

Ukxekal Charles S. Pakiusii 

Charles S. Parrish, c;iptain of tlie company, developetl into one 
of the al^h'st L'nion ymerals of the (.'ivil wnv and a strong citizen of 
widi- i)rominence in pulilie affairs. lie \vas born in Columbus, Ohio, 
and named Chai'ies Shei'man Parrish, after -Judge Sherman, father of tlie 
general. After attending the Ohio Wesleyan Pniversity and Kenyon 
College, he studied law at Zanesville, under Hon. S. S. ("Sun.set") Cox, 
the famous congressuum and literatteur, and was admtited to tlie liar in 
1851. After praeticing for a time at ( iret'nsbui'g, Indiana, in LS.jl, he 
located at tlie Town of AVabasli and at once entered substantial practice. 
He was elected i)rosecuting attorney of Wabash County in 1S5G and at 
the commencement of the Civil war was a law i)artner of Hon. J. D. 
Conner. He had jireviously been interested in military nuitters, having 
oi-ganized the Wabash Guards in 1857. 

Cl)on hi.s j'eturn to Waliash at tlie expiration of his three montiis' 
service, Captain Parrisli recruited two companies for three years, or 
"during tlie war," and in Septembei-, LSGl, was commissioned major in 
the Eighth Indiana Kegiment. He was with his regiment at the l^attle of 
I\'a Kidge, Arkansas, fought in .March, ISii:], and in the ^fay succeeding 
was promoted to be lieutenant colonel. He was engaged in the pursuit of 
Marmaduke in the Southwest and was in command of his regiment 
at the siege of Vicksliurg, in the spring and summer of 180:3. At the 
battle of Fort Gibson, ^May 1st, he led the charge wliich decided the day 
in favor of the Union troops. After the battle lie was sent to the 
hospital, but returned to his regiment in June and from that time was 
in tlie trenches until the hnal surrender, July 4, 180:5. After tlie sur- 
render he participated in the operations before Jackson and, with his 
command, wa.s afterward identified with vai'ious expeditions in Louisiana 
and Texas. In Septemlier, 180:}, while at Heswiidc Pay, Ti'xas, he was 
ordered to leave the Eighth, return to ^Val)ash and assume command of 
the One Hundred and Thirtieth Indiana Regiment. In IMarch, 1864, he 
was commissioned colonel, assigned to that regiment and participated 
in all the battles of the Atlanta campaign. 

After Sherman left Atlanta for his march through Georgia, Colonel 
Pari'ish joined Thoma.s' army, Avas in the battles of Franklin and 
Nashville, and afterwai-d followed Hood and his remnant of a still 
defiant army. In ^Nfarcli, 18G5, he wasln-evetted brigadier general. He 
rejoined Sherman's army at Goldsboro, and was mustered out of the 
service in Decemlier, 1805. 


General Parrish at once resumed tlie practice of his profession at 
Wabasli ; in 18f]7-68 served as state senator for Waba.sli and Koseiusko 
counties; was registered in l)ankruptey for about a year, and from 18G1) 
to 1873 insiK'Ctor of customs at New Orleans. He then returned to 
Wabash, and until his death continued to be one of the city's leaders 
in all legal and public matters. He ably served as mayor from 1878 to 
1883. His widow died about three years ago. Oidy two children were 
born to this couple. Mrs. Porter who lives at Geneva, Indiana, and Miss 
Anna Pari-isli, a valued teacher in the i)ublic schools of Wabash. 

The Reorganized Eighth Indiana 

The reorganized Eighth Indiana Regiment (three years) contained 
two entii'e companies from Waljash County, composed largely of the Vol- 
unteers that iiuule up Company K, the three-months' men under the 
president's tinst call. 

After recruiting 200 volunteers in the county, Captain Parrish 
and Lieut. Joseph M. Thompson started for Iiulianapolis on the 20th 
of August, 18G1. Tlie same evening tht- two i'omi)anies were organized 
at Camp Benton, with John R. Polk as captain of F and Joseph M. 
Thompson, captain of Company I. Captain Polk was afterward promoted 
to major and lieutenant colonel of the regiment, while Captain Thomp- 
son w'as mustered out of the service as major. Colonel William P. 
Benton, at the head of the regiment under the first call, was in command. 

The Eighth remained in camp for less than a week, on the 10th of 
September leaving for St. Louis, whence it was assigned to General 
Fremont's ai-my of the Southwest, brigade of Colonel Jeff C. Davis. 
In that connection the Eighth participated in a numlx'r of movements 
against .scattered })ands of Confederates in Southwestern Missouri. 
!f inally Colonel DavLs and General Curtis combined their forces for an 
attack on the Confederate Price, who had concentrated his ti'oops near 
Springfield, but were not able to bring al)0ut a general engagement. 
Price was pursued into Arkansas and, having l)een joined by Van Dorn 
with 30,000 men, he precipitated the battle of Pea Ridge. The army of 
General Curtis, the ranking officer, occupied the heights near Sugar 

Battle of Pea Ridge 

The battle commenced on the 6th of :\Iarch, 1862, by the attack of 
the combined Confederate forces upon General Sigel's division, then 
stationed at Bentonville. Sending his train ahead and reserving one 


batter}', with Ix-twuen eight hinulred and one thousand men, Sigel com- 
menced one of those masterly ivtreats for whieli hi.s name hceame 
famous in the annals of thi- Civil war. Planting a portion of his guns, 
with his infantr\- to sustain tlinn, he would pour the grajx- and shell 
into the advancing enemy until, quailing hefore the murderous hre, 
tliey would break in confusion. Before they could reform, Sigel would 
lindier up ami fall liack behind another portion of his l)atteiy i)lanted 
at another point in the I'oad. Here tlie same maneuver wouhl occur and 
be rej)eated coutiiuiouslv for a (h)zen miles. Ciuhjubtcdly th<-se tactics 
.saved (ieiiei-al Sigel's division and enal)led him to reac-h the west end of 
Pea Jiidge, ^\•here he formed a junction with (Jeneral (Jurtis' main body. 

During the day the opposing armies lined into j^osition, aiul early 
on the morjiing of the 7th the battle eonniienced on the right of the 
I'nion forces, the brigade to which the Kightli was attached attacking the 
enemy ncai- Mlldioi-n Ta\'ern. The lighting soon became desi)erate ami it 
was continued with varying success during the entire day. At night the 
lines of the contending arnnes wei'e not more than three hundrt'd yards 
apart, the tired soldiers throwing themsel\-es on the ground and .sleeping 
U{>on tlieir arms without tires. 

At (hiylight on the niorinng of the 8th the lines of the Cnion army 
wei'e quietly rtd'ormed. It was realized by both sides that the crisis 
had arrived. The Confederates, who outmnnbered the Cnioiusts three 
to one, held tlie only line of ri'treat for the army of tlie North — the 
Fa\etteville I'oad — and were contident of a crushing victory. About 
a thousand of the Cnion troops had already been put out of action, and 
all wi'i-e cold and exhausted. 

I)id Colonel Davi.s again connnenced the attack at break of day. 
From all accounts it was Sigel who saved the desperate situation witii 
his masterly combination of artilhuy and infantry as.saults. He lirst 
(wdei'cd the Twenty-lifth Illinois to take a position along a fence in 
open view of the enemy's batteries, which at once opened lire upon 
that regiment. Immediately a battery of six guns were thrown into line 
100 paces in the rear of the advanced infantry on a rise of ground. 
The Twelfth .Mi.ssouri then wheeled into line with the Twenty-fifth Illi- 
nois on its hd't, ami another battery of guns was similarly disposed a 
short distam-e l)ehind that comnuiml. Then another reginu-nt and 
another battei-y wheeled into position, until thirty pieces of artillery, 
each fifteen or twiuity paces from the other, were in a continuous line, 
with infantry lying down in front. Each piece opened fire as it came in 
position. The tii-e of the eidii-e line was directed so as to silence battery 
aftei- l)attery of the enemy. 

Such a 1crrii)le fire no inunan courage could withstand. The crowded 


ranks of the enmiy wi-re tlrcimattHl, tli,' lioiscs shot at tlifir ^'uiis and 
lai'LH. ti'.M's literally (leniolislicd. lUit the ( '(.nfcdcratcs stood bi'avvly to 
tlicir j)ost. although foi- two iioiirs and ten luiiiutcs Sif^vl's dt'adlv storm 
of iron hail swcj.t throuj^di their ranks. P,nt one hy one the (Jonfcderate 
iiattci'ics wwv silcji. •(■(!, and onward rvr\>t tin' I'nicjn ijifaiitry and Sigel's 
awful giin.s. Shorter and shorter l)eejn,ie the ranuv, and the Confederate 
lines linally erunihled. A--ain Si-el advane.'d his line, niakino- another 
I»artial elian-v of front. Then eanie the order to charge tlie enemy in 
the woods, and those brave boys who had lain for hours with the shot 
of the Confederates fallini^' upon them and the eannon of Sigel ])laying 
over them, arose and dressed their lanks as if on eveidng parade in 
some peae(dul village street. The Tw.Mitydifth Illinois moved in eom- 
l)aet line, supported on the left by the Twelfth .Missouri acting as skir- 
iidshers, and on the right by the Twenty-second Indiana. As they passed 
iiito the (K'tise brush they weiv met by a terrible volley, and answered 
b\- one as tei'rible aiul far more deadly, as they had tlh' advantage of now 
seeing their .•nemy. After a tierce resistance, the Confederate ranks 
bi-oke, and Pea KMdge was woii for the Union .sokliers. 

ist'r\ l<:'»^ ?l 5i ■.:/ .. ; .-- ■ 

LOSSE.S TO Local Companies 

Hi this liattle the Uighth lost heavily in killed and wounded. Hi 
Company H. Corporals Michael Hogan antl Thomas Leatherland were 
wounded, and of the privates John Coburn, John Stiles ami Henry 
Hardbarger were killed, ami Henry Critfy, J\obert 1). Hite, and Joseph 
lu'])]) wouiuletl. 

Hi Comi)any I, Sergeant Kobert E. Torrence was wounded, as well 
as Privat.'s l^davius J. Brewer, Jethro :\I. Hall and AVilliam A. Garrison,, 
the last named dying of his wounds. 

• After the battle of Pea Kidge the Eighth endured with soldierly 
fortitude some weai'ing nuirclics in .Missouri and Arkansas, and tinally 
joined (! rant's aj'uiy at .Milliken's Jiend, Eonisiana. H participated 
in the engagement at Port Cili.son, .Missouri, the action at Jackson, .Mis- 
sissippi, the l»attle of Champioii Hills and the .siege of Vieksburg. Hi 
the a.s.sault made by iMcClerland's corps, to which the Eighth belong(;d, 
the regiment lost 117 in killed and wounded. Those of Company E who 
were killed during the siege of ^'icksburg were Sergeant Isaac A. 
Blakely and Privates AVilliaui H. Hoke, John A. Khodes and John L. 

The mend)ers of Company I who died in action or as the result of 
wounds received at \'icksl)urg, were James .AI. Busbv, AVarren P)lackiuan. 


Thomas .S. Smitli and Elijah R. Seott, all privates. James Ilampson, 
private of Company F, was killed at Foil (Jiljsoii. 

The Eighth partieiinited in the liaiiks expedition and in the eap- 
tiire of Fort Esperanza, Texas. At the engagement named .Musieian 
Henry Williams, of Company F, was killed. At that plaee, also, on the 
1st of January, 1SG4, -117 men out of 515 re-enlisted and were again 
mustered into the serviee as veterc'ms. 

Ox Veteran Furlough — Discharged 

In April the' I'egimcnt ari'ived at Indianapolis on vt'teran furlougli, 
and after thirty (hiys returjied to New Orleans. It had some lighting 
in Louisiana, hut in August was ealled to Washington and the Eastern 
held of nnlitary operations and partieipatt'tl in .Sheridan '.s eampaign 
in the Shenandoah \'alley. In September, lS(i4, it was engaged in 
the aetions at Fisher's Hill and Cedai" Creek. N'irginia, after which it 
l)erformed garrison duty in Ceorgia until oi'dered home, August 28tli. 
In the following month the luen were honoraljly discharged from the 
servii-e at Indianapolis. 



Company F, of the Seventeerith Keginu'Ut, had, as its nucl 
an excess of twenty-live men who were enlisted under the first call for 
troops. (Jeorge (.'id)berly, of La (Iro, went out as their first lieutenant, 
i)ut was afterward promoted to be captain of Company I. The company 
followed the fortunes of the regiment at Shiloh, Corinth, Chiekanuiuga 
and other engageuuMits, concluding its servict' in Geoi'gia. In military, 
spirit and faithfulness, the men as a body ditl not seem to be up to 
the Wabash County standard, its proportion of deserters to those who 
renu'ined true to the ct)lors being innisually large. 

Company H, Twextieth Txfaxtry 

The TweJitieth Kegiment, which was I'ecruited at Lafayette, in- 
eluded seventy-two men from AVabash County. Its campaigns and bat- 
tles were with the Army of the Potomac. On the second day of Gettys- 
burg its comiiuinding officer, Colonel John AVlu'eler, was killed. Hezekiah 
Weesner of ('ompany A was shot through the right shoulder, and is still 
living. It was in tiie advance in pursuit of Leo, participated in the bat- 
tles of the Wilderness, engaged in the operations before Petersbui'g and 
i-emained with the Armv of the Potonuic until Lee'.s sui'reiider. Tlie 


Twentieth was iinistcred out at i.ouisvilk', Keiitueky, with twcnty-tliree 
ot'lieers ami '.V.)i) \nvn. Company 11, of which Nelson Jv Miller was cap- 
tain, was largely composed of men from Wabash County. 

First Comi>lete Indiana Cavalry Regiment 

The Forty-first l^egiment, or .Second Indiana Cavalry, was the first 
^•omplete Indiana regiment in that branch of the service to lake the Held, 
and was composed of 51 ofiicers, 1,071) men, :54() recruits, 78 vetei'ans 
and 17G unassigned I'ccruits, uuddng a total of 1,7'24. The organization 
was mustered into the service at Indianapolis, on the M of Septend)er, 
18(il, with John A. I^idgland as colonel. Company F was the distinctive 
unit from Wabash County, the bulk of the regiment being otherwise 
drawn fi-om Wayne, Carroll, Clay, Flkhart, Fayette and Sullivan. 

.Mason 1. Thomas was the lirst captain of Company F. Tie resigned 
April 11. lS(i'2, and was succeeded by Levi Ross, who died in Libby 
Prison March 7, ISG:;). The company was next placed in conunand of 
Alexander Hess, under whom it wa.s mustered out with the regiment. 

Cai'Taix Alexander Hess 

Captain llcs.s, who liad been a resident of Wabash since boyhootl, 
was then in his twenty-fourth year. At the breaking out of the Civil 
war lie had promptly dropped his law studies and gone to the front as a 
thive-months' nmn in Company II, Eighth Indiana Volunteers, lie was 
at the battle of Rich .Mountain, and returned to Wabash at the end of his 
term, but on Septeiidier 2, 1861, again entered the service as a member of 
the Second Cavalry, enlisting for three years. Upon the organization of 
the company he was nmde orderly sei'geant, ami was with the force as- 
signed to him in the various battles and campaigns of the Army of the 

In Fel)ruary, 18(i2, the Second Cavalry was moving with Buell's 
army toward Nashville, and reached the battlefield of Shiloh on the 
second dav of that terrific engagement. Immediately afterward Mr. Hess 
was promoted to b." tirst lieutenant for meritorious conduct while under 
fire. After the evacuation of Corinth, it marched with BeuU's army into 
Northern Alabama; thence toward Chattanooga, Tennessee, and then 
started in pursuit of the Confederate General Morgan. The long pursuit 
of Bragg continued until the terrible battle of Perryville, Kentucky. 

Wldfe stationed at llartsvill.', Tcinies.see, in November, 18G2, the 
Second Cavalry was attacked by Morgan's nuui and :m of the cmnuuind 
were made pi'isoners, including fourteen ofiicers. AVithin a sliort time the 


pi'ivatcs were paroled, l)ut the ofTi(;ers were taken to Atlanta and for 
thi-ce niontlis were kept in close eonfineinent. Tlicy were then taken to 
Libjjy prison, Rieliinoml, and there remained .six weeks, when an exehajige 
was etTeeted. it was during that j)erio(l, on .Maich 7, 186:3, that Levi 
Jvoss, eaptain of tlie company, died as a prisoner of war, and wa.s suc- 
ceeded in the eonnnand by Lieutenant Alexander ITess, who thus con- 
tinued until the exjiii-ation of his term of service. 

Record of tiiI': Second Lvdiana Cavalry Coxtixued 

With the Secoiul Cavalry, Captain Iless and his company partici- 
pated in all tile Ti'nnessee campaigns, in winch figured su(-h Confederate 
cavalr>' leaders as .Moi'gan, AVheeler and Forrest. In ^lay, 1864, tlie com- 
mand joined Sherman's army marching toward Atlanta, and wa.s active 
in a number of engagcMnents. After the occupation of Atlanta by the 
I'nion army, the non-veterans of the regiment wei'i' ordered to be mus- 
tered out, and on Septendier 14, 18(i4, the remaining veterans and i'(M'ruits 
were consolidated into a battalion of four companies and placed in com- 
nmnd of i\Iajor Roswell S. Ilill. Subsequently it joined the army of Gen- 
eral AVilson, participating in the raid through Alabama and in April. 
1865, engaged the enemy near Scottsville and Westpoint, Geoi'gia. In the 
latter engagement the regiment lost severely, ]\Iajor Hill having one of 
his legs shot off while leading a charge. Returning from this raiil, it 
proceeded to Nashville and wa.s there mustered out on the 22d of July, 
1865. Shortly afterward it moved to Indianapolis, where it was finally 

Two Wabash County physicians were connected witli the service of 
the Forty-first (Second Cavali-y) Regiment, as assistant surgeons — 
Dr. H. II. Gillen, who resigned, June 29, L862, and Dr. Andrew J. Smith, 
who ^?as mustered out with his regiment. 

Captain Hess Taken Prisoner 

In the operations before xVtlanta the Second was completely sur- 
roundetl by AVheeler's Confederate cavalry and while cutting its way 
through the enemy's ranks suffered a loss of 5U0 prisoners. Among these 
was Captain Iless, who had his horse shot from under him. With other 
officers he was sent to Macon, Georgia, and afterward moved to Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. After a confinement of about six we(,'ks the pris- 
oners were exchanged, and the captain's tei-m of eidistment having 
<'\pire(l he came home direct from pi'ison. 

Vol. 1-18 


Ills ("iviL Kecuhd 

Within a short tiiiic after rt'turniii<? to the City of Wahash, Captain 
IIcss ri'.suiiuMl his legal stutlies under lion. J. I). Conner and was admitted 
to practice in 18G6. From 1870 to 1872 he served as pi'osecuting attorjiey 
of the circuit; comment.-ing lii.s terms in the lower house of the State 
Legislature in 1878, 1888 and 18!)(), respectively, and from 18i)4 to !!)()() 
served as clci'k of the Supreme and Api)ellate Courts of Indiana, en- 
joying a sidjstantial and high-grade practice during the intermeiliate 
periods. As a member of tiie Assembly he was the leader of the Repub- 
lican minoi'ity, and ha.s to his credit the passage of such laws as the ci-ea- 
tion of Waltash County as an independ'-nt judicial circuit, autliorizing 
counties to erect orphan asylums at a cost not to exceed ^f^lO.OOO each and 
allowing township trustees to expend fifty dollars each for the bui'ial of 
indigent soldiers. TTe was a chartei- member of James II. Emmett Post 
No. 6, (J. A. R., and was one of the most active and influential of the 
citizen soldiery in .securing the legislation and the real estate for the 
establishment of the beautiful .Memorial Hall, so credital)le to the patriot- 
ism and civic i)i-ide of Wabash. 

The Sevi:nty-fiftii Infantry 

The Seventy-fifth Regiment of infantry was close to the pidde of 
Wal)aslL Comity. Its first company, A, was recruited within its limits, 
and its first colonel and quartermaster were two of the county's most 
prominent and enterprising citizens — Judge John U. I'ettit and Hon. 
Calvin Cowgill, respectively. 

Samuel Steele was appointed a recruiting officer in Jidy, 18G2, and 
w'itliin a week had enlisted a full company, which was mustered into the 
service on tlie 25th of that month. .Mi'. Steele was commissioned its 
captain. On the -Itli of August the company went into camp just south 
of the Waliash, the rendezvous for the regiment over which John U. 
Pettit liad already lieen appointed colonel. Witiiin the succeeding two 
weeks the Seventy-fifth was reported full and on the 18th of August, 
18G2, started for Indianapolis, wdiere on the next day its men were sworn 
into service. On the 21st, 1,036 strong, it moved to LouLsville, Kentucky. 
With the One Hundred and First Indiana Regiment, it formed what was 
known as the Indiana Brigade, and was first brought under the fire of the 
enemy, in June, 1863, when, as a portion of the left wdng of Rosecrans' 
army, it came in contact with General Bragg 's Confederates near Tulla- 
homa, soutli of ^lurfreesboro, Tennessee. In this action at Hoover's Gap, 
the Seventy-fifth distingui.shed itself ])y a brilliant and successful charge 
on a Confederate battery supported by a strong force of infantry. 


At Ciiickamauga CrI':ek 

Tlie rogiiiuMit was in the advance when tlie Union army crossed the 
Tennessee River in the movement toward Chiekamanga, and played a 
staneh and a bi-ave part in the territie engagement of September 19th and 
20th at Chiekamanga Creek. The loss of tlie regiment during the two 
chiys' ])attle was lol in killed and wounded. Corporal Henry James, of 
Company A, was killed in action on the first day. 

''■'"'"*" ]\IissioN Ridge 

After occnpying (Ijiattanooga, the Union ai'iiiy fortifietl its position 
and waited for I'e-enforcements in ordei- to meet Ceiieral Hragg on moi'e 
equal terms. On the 24th of Novemher the re-enforeement.s arrived. 
Then followed as component parts of the general attaek upon the Con- 
federates under Bragg, the famous battle of Lookout .Mountain under 
Hooker, Shernum's determined assaults upon the center of the enemy and 
Thomas' assaults from Mission Ridge. The Seventy-fifth participated in 
the battle of Mission Ridge and tlie deeisive rout of the enemy, receiving 
warm eonnnendations for its conduct from t\ut commanding general. 

To Atlanta 

The Seventy-fifth remained at and near Chattanooga from December 
3d, 186:3, until ^lay 5, 1864, when Sherman's grand army started on its 
march toward ^Vtlanta. The regiment shared with the army the succeed- 
ing four months of battles, marchings and hard campaigning — Resaca, 
Dallas, Kenesaw, Peach Tree Creek, and the siege and fall of Atlanta. 

, Through the Carolixas to Wasihngton 

The Seventy-fifth was a pai-t of the Fourteenth Army Corps and saved 
Sherman's stores at Allatoona from the intrepid assaults of Hood, and 
was with the victorious Union army whicli marched into Savannah, 
December 21, 186-4. In the nmrch through the Carolinas it constituted a 
unit in the left wing of Sherman's army, taking part in the battles of 
Avery boro and Bentonville. After a few minor skirmishes the Confed- 
erates under Johnston surrendered to Sherman, April 26, 1865, and on 
the 19th of the following month the Fourteenth Corps, with the Seventy- 
fifth Indiana, reached the City of Washington. The regiment was mus- 
tered out of the service Jinie 8th, and on the 14th the men were finally 
discharged at Indianapolis. 



Colonel Ptttit's sti-ciigtli had not hi'cn ('(iiial to ttir liar(l.sliij)s of 
a<-tiv(' military .scrvicf, and he was ol)lig('d to resign his eonuiiission 
ill October, 1S(]2, about two months after the regiment reached Louis- 
ville. But he had already l)een a power in the raising of troops and, 
notwithstanding his delicate health, continued Ins patriotic laljors at 
home, not only the Seventy-fifth, but the Kighty-ninth and the One Hun- 
dred and l^'irst being lai'gely indel)ted to him for their very existence. He 
stanehly ui)held tiie hands of Imliana's great War (iovernor, Oliver I*. 
]\Iorton, like Judge Pettit a man of frail pliysiciue, but iron determina- 
tion and mighty soid. A man of tender heart and far vision, lie also 
looked into the future, beyond the ravages of men, and saw the hope- 
less faces of widowed women and orphaned cliildreii. At Kniglitstown, 
Indiana, in 186)3, Judge Pettit was largely instrumental in organizing the 
Soldiers' Ori)hans' Home, one of the hrst institutions of the kind to 
be founded in the country. This is a monument to kind-heartedness and, and in the Eternal scheme may stand as a brighter mark 
against his nanu! than if lie had led a score of regiments to victory. 

Hon. Calvin Cowgill 

Hon. Calvin Cowgill, who was appointed the first quartermaster of 
the Seventy-fifth, was also considered by the state authorities, especially 
by Governor jMorton, as of far more value at home than on the battle- 
field. At the opening of the war he had already served a term in the 
Legi.slature, had been associated with Judge Pettit for seven years in 
the practice of the law and was one of the prominent men of the state. 
About a month after reaching Louisville and at the earnest solicitation 
of Governor Morton, Mr. Cowgill resigned as quartermaster of his 
regiment and returned to Wabash to act as provost marshal, in which 
capacity lie served until the close of the war. His subsequent career 
covered a multitude of activaties of great importance to city, county 
and state, and will be found detailed in other portions of this work. 

Company A, Eighty-ninth Regiment 

In July, 1862, Elias B. Stone recruited a company at Wabash, wdiich 
became A, of the Eighty-ninth Regiment. On the 13th of August, 
Charles D. Murray was appointed post commandant, and on the 28th 
was sworn in as colonel of tlie full regiment at Indianapolis. Captain 
Stone resigned in September, 1864, while the regiment was preparing 


for the nioveineut to meet the Confederate iuvasiou of ^lissouri under 

The Eighty-ninth KvgiuiL-nt had seen stri-nuous service in Kentucky, 
Teniiessee antl Mississipjn. Its iirst active operations were in defense 
of the garrison at Munfordsville, Kentucky, consisting of several Indi- 
ana regiments, two companies of regulars and a battery of four guns. 
It was tlie plan of Bragg, the rebel counuander, to reduce the garrison, 
wliicli was in line of his march toward Louisville and Cincinnati. 
A brisk engagement followed the refusal of the garrison to surrender, 
Septeml^er 14th, but two days afterward the Confederates had received 
such reinforcements that they were able to completely surround the 
fort and cut olT all retreat. The attack was renewed in force and as 
preparations were Ijeing made for an attack of the garrison from all 
sides, the final demand for surrender was complied with and the Union 
troops nmrched out of the fort with flying colore and beating drums, 
retaining their arms and property. The men and officers having been 
paroled nuirclied at the rear of the brigade until they met Buell's army 
some fifteen miles to tlie south. Subsequently they went to Branden- 
burg, on the Ohio Kiver, and thence returned to Indianapolis, wliere 
they wrw gi'autetl furloughs awaiting exchange. Tlie total loss of 
the garrison was tliirty-seven killed and wounded, of which number 
Company A, of the Eighty-ninth lost three killed — Privates Daniel 
Koot, flames M. Stoker and William II. Starbuck. 

Notice of an exchange of prisoners having been received, the regi- 
ment reassembled at Indianapolis on the 27th of October, and on the 
21st of the following December was assigned to duty at Fort Pick- 
ering, near .Memphis, Tennessee. There it remained until October, 
18t)3, in the discharge of guard and fatigue duty. Several of the men 
of Company A died during tlus period — John \V. Jonuson, in March, 
18(J;5; John R. Abshire and Robert B. Dukes, in June, and James 
P>r(hlle in July of that year. From January to March, 1864, it formed 
l)art of an expedition which was mai'chiiig through Mississippi to 
Vicksburg, and afterward i)articipated in the campaigns conducted 
in Louisiana and Texas. The most decisive actions were around Alex- 
andria. It took part in tlie Red River exjiedition under commaml of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Ilervey Craven, and was afterward in the clash with 
Forrest at Tupelo, ^li.ssissippi. 

From July until November, 1864, the Eighty-ninth was connected 
witli the campaigns which had Memphis and St. Louis as their bases, 
and whose purposes wt-re to keep Forrest and Price out of Northern 
territoiy. In Novemlier it was transferred to Nashville, Tennessee, and 
in Decend)er participatetl in tlie battle near that city. During the 


seeoml day's LMij^ujj;tMii('iit (IGth) it lost two killed and fiftrcn wounded. 
In IMareh, 1865, it took an active part in the siege of .Mobile, including 
the attack on Spanish Fort, losing two killed and eight wounded, and 
from that time until its muster-out at Mobile, July 19, 18G5, was mostly 
engaged in patrol and guard duty at various points in Alabama. 

Camp Pkttit, at Wabash 

By the second year of the war, the City of Wabash had become 
one of the most important recruiting stations in Indiana. In July, 
18G2, the Seventy-lifth and Eighty-ninth regiments had Ix'cn organ- 
ized at Camp Pettit, south of the Wabash River inunediately opposite 
the city, on both sides of the old Somerset Pike. A deep ravine cut 
tlown one side of the drill grounds, which occupied the site of the 
old Indian village ruled by the chief Al-lol-lah. Tlie same spring 
which so long (pienched tlie thirst of the Indians and early settlers 
supplied tiie Union soldiers of Wabash County. After tlie Civil war 
wa.s history Camp Pettit became the l)eautiful private grounds of Hon. 
Allen W. Smith. 

Companies F and K, 101 st Regiment 

During the later part of July, B. F. Williams and John S. Hawkins 
opened a recruiting office at Wabash and 1)\' tlic first week of August 
the volunteers were sufficient to form a full company. On the 11th 
Mv. Williams received his comnussion as captain and ^Ir. Hawkins as 
first lieutenant. Three days afterward William Garver, afterward 
colonel of the One Hundred and First Regiment (of which Captain 
Williams' company (F) was the nucleus) wa.s appointed post com- 
mandant at Camp Pettit. 

Dr. PjazilB. Bennett 

T)r. Bazil B. Bennett and John M. ^l(d\achan also opened an office 
and reci'uited another (company (K) from the county, to be incorpo- 
rated in the regiment. By the middle of August it was full and ready 
for service. Doctor Bennett was elected its captain, but about a week 
later, when the regiment was organized, he was pi'omoted major, and 
the company went into service with j\Ir. -AlcKachan as captain. Doctor 
Bennett resigned as major in January, . 186:3, and was coiiunissioned 
a.ssistant surgeon of the regiment, in which cai)acity he was mustrred 
out with the command in June, 1805. 


Cai'Taix 15. I'\ Willi A.M. s 

Captain Williaiu.s, of Company F, had Im-n foivniost among tlie 
Union snpportcrs tVom the lirst. He had as.sisted in the raising of 
("aptain I' '.s i)ioni'er company, gone out as one of its sergeants, 
fotight with the best at Kieh ^Mountain, and returned witli the tliree 
months' men eager to again enter the fi'ay. He had lived in Wabash 
since lie was an infant and he is still sparml to his hosts of friends. 

Captain Williams received the tirst of his higher education at Fair- 
view Academy, Fayette County, having l)eeu born in that section of 
the state in 1830. He also attended Butler College. Indianapolis, 
for a year, studied law under Jutlge J. I). Conner and in 1851) wa^i 
graduated fi'om the law department of Butler University. He com- 
menced pracfice at once, but left it and all other civil ambitions to 
support the Union cause. 

Fierce Fight with ^Iorgax's ]\Ien' 

The One Hundred and P'irst Regiment, of which Companies F 
and K formed so noteworthy a part, commenced its service in Ken- 
tucky, in September, 18G2, marching with the command of General 
]\IcCook in the pursuit of Bragg. For months it was employed in 
Ti'unessee, nuircliing and counternuu'ching, guai'ding railroad bridges 
and important roads against the incursions of Morgan and other tire- 
less and l)old Confederate leaders. Its most serious engagement with 
the noted rel)el cavalryman was at JNlilton, in March, 1803. Althougli 
the Confederate force of 3,700 men was tlefeated, the regiment lost 
foi-ty-three in killed and wounded. It was then commanded by Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Doan. 

• x\t Ciiickamauga 

The regiment formed a j)ortion of the Second Brigade, Fifth 
Division and Fourteenth Army Corps, commanded by General George 
II. Thomas, which bore such a gallant part in the battles of Stone River, 
Hoover's (^iap, TuUahoma and Ciiickamauga. It arrived at the battle- 
field of Ciiickamauga on the morning of September 19tli and became 
engaged at once with the enemy, taking position on the right of (Jeiieral 
Palmer wh(M-e the Ijattle raged with great fury. On the following day 
the division to which the regiment was attached was oljliged to cut its 
way through the enemy to i)rotect the Chattanooga road, the One Hun- 
dred and First and Sixtv-eighth Indiana I'egiments covering tiie move- 


iiK'iit. In the cxceutioii of this, the foriucr lost thirteen killed, eiglity- 
liv(,' U(Min(le(l and sixteen iiiissinj,', a total of 114. After a few days 
the iv^rjincnt ivtiivd to ('hattano<;«,'a. 'Jdios(' kille.j at (Jlii(d<ainaut,'a 
ineliKh'd Pi-ivates dosiah lloiisei- and (iideon King, of {;oin])any F, 
and William 11. lOniery and Larkin Sims, of Company K, several of 
the \Val)asli County hoys afterward dying of wounds at Chattanooga. 

With Sherman's Armv 

t'-'i; 1-',. ! o- , . ;, ■ ■.,, 

In Oetoher the regiment took part in the storming of ^Mission Ridge, 
in wineh it lost thirty-four killed and wounded. At Resaea, Adairs- 
ville, Kene.saw ^lountain, l\'aeh Tree Creek and Joneshoro, tlie \Va- 
hash hoys under their hrave eaptains upheld the honor of Indiana 
troo{)s, and did eredit to Sherman's superb army. With the army of 
iuva.sion and oeeupation, it entered Atlanta and Savannah, swept 
through tlie Carolinas, witnessed the surrender of Johnston, ivaehed 
Wasliington .May II), ISG5, and was a part of the grand review of the 
I'nion armies at the national eapital. It was mu.stered out of the 
seivice at Louisville, Kentucky, June 24th following, and arrived at 
Hidiana]Joli.s on the succeeding day for final discharge. 

Captain AVilliams at IIome 

Througli all these battles, campaigns and marches, in victory and 
defeat, Caiitain Williams, cheery- and insj)iring presence is still 
with us, pei'formed a sturdy and unllinehing pai't. Returning to 
Wabash, where he had virtually ])assed his life, he at once I'esumed 
the practice of law which had been so rudely interrujited, and also 
became an active i'epubli('an leador. A broad and careful reader, 
a ready speaker, pos.scssed of an engaging personality, Captain Williams 
s«on came into pid)lic as well as professional favor. For ycai-s no local, 
district or state delegation of the i'epu))lican party was considered com- 
plete; without Ca])tain Williams. He is public spirited and practical, 
faithful and efficient — these qualities being especially demonstrated 
during his .seivict' as auditor of the county from 1890 to 18!)8. 

The interests of the soldiers who inarched inider the Union colors 
have always lieen uppermost with Captaiii Williams. He was one of 
the charter meml)ers of Fncampment Post No. 1, organized at AVabash 
in 18(i(), ami the predecessor of James H. Ennuett Post No. (i. Perhaps 
his most .signal service for the Civil war veterans and the City of 
Wabash was his effective work which led to the erection of Alemorial 

Memorial ITall, AVabasii 


At first tlic tax payers favorr.l the erection of a soldier's memorial 
momiinoiit, but both Captain Hess, who was then in tlii; Legislature, 
and ('ai)taiii Williams, who was eouiity auditor, wished to see a build- 
ing erected which would serve both as a fitting memorial to Union pat- 
riotism and a beautiful public building creditable to the city and its 
people. After much hard woi'k and contiinious persua.sion directed 

]\Iemorial Hall 

chiefly at the Board of County Conuuissioners, the old soldiers had the 
satisfaction of witnessing the levy of a tax of f|^25jl00 for the erection of 
a Memorial Hall instead of a simple stone shaft. Captain Williams was 
largely instrumental in procuring the ])i'esent noble site, the grounds 
being purcha.sed at a cost of .'f^lO.OOO, and was one of the ha])piest men in 
\Val)ash when the fine sti-ueture, which he iiad done so iiuich to eivate 



was formally tledic-ated in October, 18!)'J. The orjoiiuil Icoi.slativu act 
autliori/iii',' the pui'L-liase oT a site was passed April 11, l^S."). 

On the iore-^n'ouiids whieli t'erm the site of llu' hall is a beautiful 
memorial to the first vietim of the Civil wai' from County, 
James \l. i:mmett. The hall itself stands on a noble emiiienee over- 
looking; til.' hnsiness iind industrial eenti'rs of the (dty. It is a jrraeeful 
;ind substantial si met lire of Htdford s.mdstone, two stories hi^h over 
a hifty hascmt lit. The Ab morial Hall represents the second struetui-e 
•'f the kind in the I'nited Stales. The assend)ly room located on the 
iirst Hoor is one of the blast apartments of the kind in the state. The 
same ma\' be .said of the Gra:Ml Army room al)ove. ()p])osite the a.s- 
sembly room is the oflic.' of tlu' city superintendent <d" schools, and 
adjoining is the museum and headquarter.s of the County Historical 
Society. The basement which is cemented and stretches under the 
entire Imildin^' is a favorite place for suppers, dinners and headquar- 
ters for the old soldiers, who gather there daily, smoke and spin their 
army yai-ns. Memorial Hall provides every comfort for the Civil war 
veteran, and is a splendid tribute to the Union cause represented by 
siuh men as ('aptain Williams and Captain Hess. 

Last Wab.\sii County Inf.vxtrv 

Keturning to the straight road of the Civil war record, as relates 
to the sending forth of Union men from Wabash County, the next 
infantry ivgiment after the One Hundred and First in which any 
considerable quota of the rank and file was drawn from Wabash County 
was the One Hundred and h'ifty-third. It was organized under Gov- 
ernor .Morton's call during the I'.vst pnvt of 18G5, i)roviding for five 
Indiana i-egimcnts. Companies A ai d F, with a portion of li, were 
recruited in Wabash Count.w The regiment was organized at India- 
napolis ]\Iarch 1, 18(15, with Oliver II. P. Carey as colonel. Dr. Laugh- 
lin O'Xi'al, of Wabash County, \vas regimental surgeon. John L. Scott 
was ca])tain of Company A and A\'ery I>. Williams, of Company F. 
The regiment was assigned to duty at Tayloi- Barracks, Louisville, 
lint saw no active si-rvice except unimportant guerrilla warfare, and 
the comiJaiiies from County did not have that exidtement. 
The regiment was mustered out of service on the 4th of Sei)tember, 


Wa])ash County furnished soiiic line material to the Indiana artil- 
lerv si'rvice. During the winter of 1801-62 the Fourteenth Battery of 


Light Artillery was recruited mainly in the counties of Wahash, Hun- 
tington. Miami and Fayette by Meredith H. Kidd, wiio had been 
praeticing law in \Val)asli for four years after having been a Califoriiiii 
gold hunter of varied experience. » , ■., 

:\Ia.jur :\r. h. Kidd 

In the year preceding the outbreak of the Civil war Major Kidd 
had been elected j)rosecuting attorney of tin.' circuit eml)racing Wabash 
County, but left his office and his practice for the front as captain of 
the battery which he organized. His command was .sent into practice 
cam}) at I^enton Barracks, St. Louis, early in LS62, but in April, 
immediately after the battle of Pittsburgh J^anding, was ordered to 
report there to General Ilalleck. By him it was assigned to the Army 
of the Tennessee and took part in the siege of Corinth. It was then 
ordered to Jackson, Tennessee, and remained there until the spring 
of 1863. Hi that winter Captain Kidd received a commission as major 
of the Eleventh Indiana Cavalry, and joined his regiment at Indianap- 
olis in tlie spring. He remained with that branch of the service dur- 
ing the remainder of the war, engaged in operations against Forrest 
and the Indians of the Western plains. 

Major Kidd returned to Wabash in the fall of 1865, published the 
Plain Dealer for ten years, and from 1867 to 1871 was engaged in 
various duties in the Far West as major in the cavalry service of 
the regular army. Major Kidd also acquired some influence in politics, 
but is best known foi- his nulitary record. 

Captain Frank W. ]\Iorse 

Frank W. ]\Iorse went out as first lieutenant of the Fourteenth 
Indiana Battery and succeeded Major Kidd as its captain in the winter 
of 1864. He had had a business and clerical training at Wabash 
dui-ing his i-esidence there of seven years preceding the breaking out 
of the Civil war, but like hundreds of other young nuMi of similar 
peaceful experience showed from the first militaiy grit and skill. It 
was after tiie battery had retiirned to Memphis, after its successful 
raid and destruction of Confederate railroads in Mississippi, that he 
assumed command of the Fourteenth. He aided Thomas in demoi-aliz- 
ing Hood, and during the winter of 186-4-65 served a.s chief of artillery 
on the staff of Brigadier-General Moore. The hardest engagements in 
whicii his battery participated were d\u-ing the thirteen days' .siege of 
Spanish Fort, seven miles east of Mobile on the bay. There was des- 


peratc fighting throughout nearly all that jx-riotl, in which Captain 
.Morse's hattfry took a (.'(jusijicuous part. The i'oi't sui-rrnilt'n.'d on 
tlir Sth of, l.Slio. 

Al'tcr the reduction oi" -Mobile the ai'iiiy took up its march i'or 
Montgomery, Alahama. While at (ireenville a messenger brought the 
news of Ijee's surrender, and there; was an immediate celebration which, 
in noise, exceeded the tumult of battle. The connnand went into camp 
at .Montgomery, where, at his own request, ('ai)tain Morse was relieved 
of his (-(jiinnand in July, 1865, the entire battery being finally mustered 
out and discharged at Indianapolis, August 28, 18()r). 

Captain ^lorse spent over a year at Indianapolis after the war, 
being engaged in compiling reports and making ri'cords of Indiana 
regiment.s which had served in the Civil war. In 1S(J7 he returned to 
Wabash and became associated with the First National Bank, being 
appointed its cashier in 1872. In I'JOl, with Howard 11. Atkinson and 
John II. P)ireley (so long t'ashier of the Citizen's Bank), he oi'ganized 
the I-'armi^rs and Merchants I>ank, which l)ecame a national institution 
in the following year. Of the latter Cai)tain JMorse is vice president, 
and to see him quietly and busily engaged at his desk it i.s hard to real- 
ize the jiassing of the many years since he was as faithfully and indus- 
triously employed in directing the guns of the Fourteenth Battery. 

Emmett Post No. 6, G. A. R. 

Soon after the war the Grand Army of the Republic was born, 
its members to consist of soldiei's and sailors of the I'nited States 
Army, Nav\- or .Marine Corps who had served between Ajjril 12, 1861, 
and April 9, 1865, and been honorably discharged. On the 1st of Sep- 
tember, 1866, Encampment Post No. 1 was organized in the City of 
AVabash, with Gen. Charles S. Parrish as connnander and John ^l. 
5leKahan as adjutant. Fifty members were enrolled, and that num- 
ber had been increased to 112 within the coming two years. The last 
meeting of the post was held .March 4, 1868, although the cause for its 
discontinuance does not ai)i)ear of record or within the memory of the 
vt'tei'ans now living. 

In the spi'ing of 1880 most of the old members of the first post re- 
united and named their organization in honor of James II. Emmett, 
but it did not take its i)resent form as James II. Emmett Post No. 6 
until June 18. 188:5, when foi-ty-three of the old soldiers met at Union 
Ilall, City of Wabash, and organized under tliat name. Representatives 
were pi'csent fi'om the posts at Peru, Andrews and Fort Wayne. 
Allen II. Dougall, of Fort Wayne, was present as chief mustering offi- 


ccr. Bfforc tlie inei^tiii^ was lu-ld at wliicli officM-rs were elected, twelve 
recruits had been added, so that the total original membership numbered 
fifty-five. In pursuance of a motion that only men who had serv(.'d as 
privates on the battlefield should l)e eligible to election, the following 
were chosen as the first officers of the post : A. F. Spaulding, post com- 
mander ; C. C. ]\Iikesell, Jr., vice post commander; William Ilazen, 
adjutant; lOdward Ilarter, quai-termaster ; A. J. Smith, sui'geon ; Rev. 
Ira J. Chase, chaplain. 

Tiie i)0st has continued to flourish from that day to the i)resent, 
although the unfailing laws of nature are slowly but surely reducing 
its membership. ^Ir. Spaulding has served sevei'al terms as commandin-. 
General Pai-rish and Captain Williams have been honored, a.s well as 
Cai)tain Hess, and otliei- old and popular soldiei-s have assisted to keep 
the camp fires bright for the good old boys in blue \v\\o are still nuirch- 
ing cheerfully and bi'avely on. The post connnanders, others than 
those mentioned have been W. W. AVoods, Daniel Jackson, J. Parmen- 
tei-, John r>. Tyer, Naaman McXamee, Train C. AlcClure, W. i\I. Hen- 
ley, Samuel Sholty, T. R. Brady and E. G. Burgett. 

I'hnmett Post Xo. (i of tlie i)resent has a membership of about 100, 
with the following oftieers: II. II. Wheeler, |)Ost commander; AVilliam 
F. Lynns, senior vice commander; Naaman .McXamee, junior vice coin- 
nmnder; J. P. .Xoftsgei', atljutant; A. V. I^'.bbinghouse, quarterimister, 
and A. F. Baker, chaplain. 

Woman's Relief Coi'ps No. 8, an auxiliary of the post, is a fine, busy 
organization of the widows, wives and daughters of the veterans. 

Company D, Spanish-American W^ar 

The younger men of AVabash County responded as promptly to their 
country's call, in 1898, as did the Union men of 18C1. The part they 
took in the Spanish-American war was not exciting; but the main point 
was that the young men of 1898 were just as ready for any required 
sacrifice as those of 1861. 

>]arly in the morning of April 26, 1898, in response to the call for 
volunteers issued by President iMcKinley, Company D of the Fourth 
Indiana Infantry, was ordered to Indianapolis for service in the war 
with Spain. 

On ^lay V2th, this com})any with the i-egiment was mustered into 
the United States service as Comi)any I), One Hundred and Sixtieth In- 
diana A^olunteer Infantry and left for Chickamauga Park, Georgia, on 
May 16th. On July 28tli this regiment received orders to proceed at 


once to Porto Rico, but on their arrival at Newport News, Virginia, the 
order was countermanded, a.s the Peace Protocol had been signed. 

After several weeks of living in "pup" tents tlie regiment was 
ordered to Lexington, Kentucky, where tiiey camped until November 9th ; 
tlien ordered to Columbus, (Jeorgia. On January 15, 18U9, the One Hun- 
dred and .Sixtieth was ordered to proceed, in three sections, to Mantanzas, 
Cuba, Ity way of Charleston, South Carolina, where the regiment was 
reunitetl on January 27th. They renuiined in Cuba until .March 27th, 
wiien they were ordered to Savannah, (Jeorgia, to prepare for muster- 
out. They arrived in Savannali on ]\Iarch 29th, and were mustered 
out and discharged on April 2r)th, 1»!)9, having been in the service 
exactly one year. 

Company D was commanded by Capt. John R. AVimmer, First 
Lieut. Arthur G. Reed, Second Lieut. Arthur Sayre, Third Lieut. Sayre 
was succeeded by Sergt. John G. I\Iills, when he resigned. 

The 2ion-commissioned officers of this company were : First sergeant, 
Andy C. Gardner; quartermaster sergeant, Andrew Pearson; sergeants, 
Abner Owen, Frank .Malott, Frank .Murpliy; Corporals, Ross Little, 
Frank Owens, Amos Palmer, Edward Vigus, Frank li. Henley, Francis 
Seymour, Jolm Mills, George Stuart, Clarence H. LaSelle, Fred C. 
Martin, James 0. Porter, AVilliam Rogers, William Sonnners, Howard 
Stewart, Lawrence Sullivan, Gilbert Williams. 

While the One Hundred and Sixtieth Regiment failed to see any 
active service they were willing and anxious to take tlieir part in the 
service of the country and were retained in the service as long as any 
volunteer regiment. 

Company D was composed of young men from all walks of life, com- 
ing from Wabash and vicinity, and while there were many cases of 
serious illness, no deaths occurred while in service. 



The TowNsiiii' Laid Off — First Officers — Cut Down to Present Akfa 
— Drainage and Soiij — Indian Mill and Its ]\Lillers — The Kint- 
NERS AND THE Creek — ]\IcClure, First Family Man — First Store 
Keeper. McClure, Jr. — Government Blacksmith AVilson — Arrival 
OP David Burr — Keller Brothers and Keller Creek — Tracts 
Within the Original Wabash — Town Laid Out — The AVheelers 
— The Keller Settlement — Other Settlers op the Early '30s — 
First Native of AVabasii Town — Early Schools — Improvements in 
THE '5(;s — Schools op the Present — White's ]\Ianual Labor Insti- 
tute — JosiAH White — Founded in 1852 — Education of Indian 
Children — Care op the County Wards — Bright Present and 

As lias been stated, Noble and La Gro townsliips are the original 
units of Wal)asli County, the seven subdivisions which now form its 
territory having been made from these parent bodies. 

The first meeting of the board of county commissioners was held at 
tlie house of David Burr, Town of Wabash, on the forenoon of j\Ionday, 
June 15, 1835. The board was organized, several county officers were 
sworn in and some other preliminary liusiness was disposed of before 
it adjourned for an afternoon session to the house of Commissioner 
Blaekman. At the afternoon meeting the county was divided into both 
commissioners' districts and townships. 

' The Township Laid Off 

All that part of AVabash County lying west of the line dividing ranges 
tj and 7 was to be known as tlie Townsliip of Noble, in honor of James 
Noble, late senator of the United States, and all lying east of that di\id- 
ing line was to ])e called La Gro Township. 





.:: r.'iw ■ . FlKST Ol'M-'lCKHS 

For Xoblc Township Ihc followiii<; officers were appointcii : Con- 
stables, Thomas lUirton, I). J. .1. Jackson and \'incent llooten; ins[)cctor 
of cleetions, Daniel .Jackson; oversccis of the i)oor, I). Jinrr and II. 
Hanna; suix-rvisor District Xo. 3, S. F. MeLane; supervisor District No. 
4, James H. Keller; tVnee viewers. Jonas Carter and Bradley Williams. 

An election was also ordered to he hckl in Xol)le Township, at the 
house of David Burr, on the 8th of July, Ls;M, for the selection of three 
justices of the peace — two for Xohle Township and one for the Town 
of Wal)ash. 

Cut Dowx to Prksknt Akea 

The chief steps 1>y which Noble Township was reduced to its present 
dimensions and form were the creation of Pleasant Township from its 
north end, or the nortliwest corner of ihe county, in 18;]6 ; the slicing 
olt' of its six southern sections in 1841, to form Waltz Township, and 
the consolidation of the north part of Xoble and the south part of Plea.sant 
Townsliij) into what is known as Paw Paw, in 1872. 

Thus the original Noble Township, or the west half of the county, 
was reduced to the present township. 

AVith the exception of the City of Wabash, there is virtually no center 
of population in the township. Rich Valley postoffice, about four miles 
to the west of the county seat, was at one time quite a promising village, 
but is now scarcely on the map, tlie rural route system having even 
abolished its distinctive pastoffice. 

Drainage and Soil 

^'ohle Township, considered from a physical standpoint, is a fertile, 
well-watered tract of country. The Wabash River throws a broad band 
across its central sections from east to west, and both northern and 
southern branches are thrown out, every mile or so, into the adjacent 
districts. The chief southern tril)Utai-ies come from l)eyond the limits 
of the township — Alill, Treaty and Burr creeks — while Kentner, the 
main nortliern l)ranch, penetrates well into the northeastern corner. 
Batchelor Creek waters several of the northwestern sections; so tliat, as 
stated, the township, as a whole, is abundantly drained and fertilized by 
running waters. 

On either side of the Wa])ash River there is a strip of bottom land of 
vai-ying width, l)ordered by high bluH's, the substructure of which is 


t'liiutly liiiiestoiK' of suprrior (luality, but its strata iiuu'li varying in 
thickiu'ss. Tliouiih the .surface of tlie country is eonsiderably Itrokeu 
along the margins of tlie i-iver and the ereeks, tlie major i)art of the area 
is comparatively level, or gently undulating. The i)rotluctive (juaiity of 
the soil is scarcely surpassed by that of any otlier townsiiip. 

K\ery natural condition favors the creation of a first-ciass country 
for the cultivation of hay. wheat, oats, corn, and the raising of hogs, 
horses ami mih-h cows, and the fanners of the township have taken such 
continuous advantage of these natural advantages as to add constant 
Wealth and unfailing comforts to the rural conununities and the county 
at hirge. h'or a verillcation of this statement, go to the auditor and his 
iigurcs eo\-(.'ring any series of years for the jtast lifty. 

\ ■:,.,. IXUIAX ]\[lLL AiXD ItS ^llLLERS 

The first settlements in what is now Noble Township were at and 
near the present City of AValmsh. The Lulians had tirst to be bought otif 
before the whites could come in, and the tii'st stej) was taken under the 
Treaty of 1818; for shortly alter it had been ratilied the General Govern- 
ment sent Benjamin Level to the point on a creek, four miles southwest 
of the present City of AVabash, which the Indians had selected as a site 
for their promised mill. There — on Mill Creek — Mr. Level erected it, 
and Lewis ^Miller came as its tirst miller. On the 4th of July, 1826, 
Gillis AIcBean moved to the Indian ]Mills as its superintendent. These 
two millers, with their fannlies, represented the white settlers of Noble 
Township antl Wabash County prior to the opening up of the Indian 
lands north of the AVabash in the fall of the year named (1826). 

The meeting of the United States commissioners and the chiefs, war- 
rioi-s and head men of the jNIiamis and Pottawatomies, which resulted in 
the treaties of October 16 and 23, 1826, has been fully described, as well as 
rtie opening of the Treaty Grounds on the present site of AVabash as the 
Ileadcpiarters for New Comers. The story has also developed the fact 
that home-seekers from near and from far were not backward in respond- 
ing to the kind invitation of General Tipton, the Indian agent, and other 
promoters of white settlement. 

The Kintxers axd the Creek 

Some of those who were present during the progress of the council 
with the Indians concluded to return to the country and remain perma- 
nently. Among these were Frederick R. and James 11. Kintncr, who, 
within about a year after the conclusion of the treaties, had settled at 


tin- iiMHith oT tliL' cnjek wliieli hears their family iiaiue and opened a. 
harness sho|). 

^iIcOluhe, First Family Max 

lUit the first to arrive on the T)'eaty Grounds with his family "was 
Samuel .AleOlure, Sr., who left his native state of Ohio on Christmas 
day, lS2(i, and arrived at lu'achiuarters on tlie 15th of -January, 1827. 
This was ahout tiiree months after the treaties had heen made and before 
the huuls had heen surveyed which the ^liamis and Pottawatondes had 
relijKiuished. ^leCluie and his household iitniiediately moved into one 
of the shaidies built for tlie traders ami others who had attended the 
L-ouneil. .\s he had a wife and ten ehildren, his affairs were luiturally 
pressing. .Vfter getting Ins fannly under rover he set to work to feed 
them. Willi the winter half spent, he soon cleared the timber anti un- 
derbrush from fifteen acres of land near the family cabin, and early in 
the spring jdaided the tract to corn, in May the section including his 
corn Held was surveyed by the Government, and it was found that the 
]Me('lui'e famil\' was squatting on land \vhich had been granted to the 
Indian chief, Little Charley. The i\lcClures therefore abandoned their selection and by the 10th of June, 1S27, the head of the family had 
comi)leted a log cabin on the banks of the AVabash about three miles below 
the Treaty Grounds. 

First Store Keeper, McClure, Jr. 

In the following August, Sanuiel ]\lcClure, Jr., who had assisted his 
father in all these pioneer enterprises looking to the permanent settle- 
ment of the fannly, opened a store near their residence, which was the 
tirst mercantile establishment of the township. These rude cabins were 
sittuited on the tract of land afterward owned and occupied by Jonas. 
Carter, a son-indaw of Samuel McClure, Sr. 


In ]\Iay, 1827, Benjanun Hurst and Kobert AVilson arrived at head- 
([uarters to 'dook arouml." Shortly afterward Mr. AVilson was ap- 
pointed Government blacksnnth at the Indian mill and went there to 

Al)out the same time Joel and Champion Ilelvie arrived at the Treaty 
Grounds, but remained only a short time, finally settling opposite the 
mouth of the Salamonie River in what is now the Town of La Gro. 


Arrival of David Burr 

A littk' later in tlu- year 1827, Col. David liurr (after whom the 
creek is named j seems to have taken possession of several buildings on 
the Treaty CI rounds — probably by purchase, although the entry of his 
lands was not made until three years afterward. In one of these build- 
ings, the colonel opened the pioneer hotel of the county, and lived in 
another, at which a postofficc was located in 1880. 

The Kintiiers came next, but although they gave their name to the 
creek they only remained a few months, moving their saddlery and 
harness shoj) to Logansport in March, 1828. At that time the Indian 
agency was ti'ansf erred from Fort Wayne to Logansport, and the Kint- 
ner brothers depended almost entirely upon the Indian trade for their 

^ii iur '; ■ . I Keller Brothers AND Keller Creek 

Shortly before the Kintners left the township and the county, the 
Keller brothers commenced to come into the county. James and Jonathan 
settled in Noble Township, while Christian and Anthony became resi- 
dents of La Gro Towiship. In the fall of 1828, Jonathan took charge 
of the Indian mill and remained there for two years. Anthony, after 
residing a few years in La Gro, returned to this township, and various 
members of the family eventually located around the headwaters of 
Keller's Creek, in the western part of the township, and formed the 
nucleus of a considerable settlement. 

Tracts Within the Original Wabash 

The first recorded purchase of land in Nol)le Township was that made 
on the 11th of October, 18P.0, by David Burr. He entered the fractional 
southeast quarter of section 1, township 27 north, range 6 east, con- 
taining 155.21 acres; also, the north fraction of the northeast and the 
north fraction of the northwest quarter of section 12 of the same towTi- 
ship and range, the former containing 49.60 acres and the latter, 101.80 
acres. A large portion of these tracts is now embraced in the corporate 
limits of the City of Wabash. 

On the same day John Tipton purchased the fractional southwest 
quarter of section 10, containing 42.29 acres, and the north fraction of 
section 15, containing 73.66 acres, all in township 27, range 6 east. 

On the 3d of February, 1832, Hugh Ilanna purcliased the fractional 
southwest quarter of .section 11, township 27, range 6, containing 11 8. GO 
acres, all of which is covered by the town plat of Wabash. 


Town Laid Out 

The trad iiiiiiu-diatrl}- north of tliis was purcliasfd Fe])ruary 27, 
IS.'U, 1)\' Ali'xaiulri- AVortli, eoiilaiiu-d l.'}2.r)4 acres and was also a part 
of tlie ori^Miial town plat, \\\nv\\ was laid out by Col. Hugh Ilanna, 
April, 18:54. 

' The Wueelers 

Amony: the first settlers not lieretofore mentioned, \vho located on 
what thus ])ecanie the Town of Wabash, was .Milton AVheeler, brother of 
Isaac and father of Henry AVheeler, who located about 18:32. Some two 
years later I^aac AVheeler opened a blacksmith shop in what is now 
AVabash — perhaps tlie first in the county, outside the Government sliop 
at the Indian mill. 

' The Kellek Settlement 

Outside the Town of AVabash, probably the most important cluster of 
settleirieiits in the early '30s was that founded by the Kellers. On the 
3d of Oetolier, 1832, Jonathan Keller bought the east half of northeast 
quarter of section 14, township 27, range 5; also, the southeast quarter 
of the same. On December 15th of that year Thomas Curray purchased 
the west half of the southwest quarter of section 1, township 27, range 
5. These were the first purchases and represented the pioneer settle- 
ments in the western part of the township. 

Keller's Settlement, or Keller's Station, became quite well known in 
later years, and Rich A^alley, with its postoffiee, Avas a still later develop- 
ment. The latter was also one of the stations on the old Toledo, Wabash & 
AV^stern Railroad. 

Other Settlers of the Early '30s 

Maj. Stearns Fisher came to AA^ibash Comity in 1833, at the build- 
ing of the AVabash & Erie Canal, with which he was prominently iden- 
tified. He became a resident of AVabash not long after it was platted. 

Al)out the same time Col. AVilliam Steele came from AVayne County, 
as well as Allen AV. Smith. 

Of this period were also David and Jacob D. Cassatt, father and son. 

Alpheus IMackman, John Smith, Zera Sutherland, jMichael Dulfy, A»i- 
drew Muri)hy, Isaac Thomas, Dr. Jonathan R. Cox and others were of 



;,; !' 


the iniini<^ratioii of 18;);5-34, locating chietiy witliiii the present limits 
of the City of Wal)ash. - -. •■ -- , . 

First Native of Wabash T(nvN 

Oeorge Shepherd huilt the first house in tlu' Town of Wahasli on lot 
G.'j, iiuiiicdiatcly west of tlie soutliwcst eoi-iici' of Alien and Mai'ket 
streets, soon after the oi-iginal sale of lots in Ma\-, 1M;j4. A few days 
after nio\'ing- iido their eahin a child was horn to .Mr. and Mrs. Shep- 
herd, the iirst in the town. 

Col. Hugh Ilaniia l)eeaine a permanent settlei' of his new town in 
Oetol)er, IS.'U, and he and Air. Shepherd huilt its Iirst stores. 

"' '"'■''' Early Schools ■ "'' ■ ' '"■ '^ ■" ■'•''■ 

AVithin a few years after the creation of AVal^ash County, the fixing 
of the county seat and the civil organization of Xohle Township, all of 
which happened in 18:^5, the Indian lands had also heen completely sur- 
veyed, and the population increased so rapidly that the permanent set- 
tlers took steps to provide schools for their children. As early as 1842- 
43 private, or suh.scriptiou schools were taught in different parts of 
Nolile Township, generally in the winter season and occasionally in the 

Impro\ements in the '50s 

lUit even prior to 1851-52 the schools were not very numerous, nor 
were puhlic schoolhouses very generally provided. In 1853 there were 
1,363 of school age within the limits of Nol)le Township, including the 
Town of Wahash, and fifteen schoolhouses. They were described as 
"un'iforndy in had condition — usually log structures and illy supplied 
with even the ordinaiy paraphernalia of the schoolroonu School furni- 
ture was as yet almost unheard of in the routine of school life." 

The year 1854 did not show great advancement, except perhaps in 
l)ecoming better acquainted with the situation and its wants. No new 
schoolhouses were constructed in the township either in 1854 or 1855, 
but during the latter year a tax amounting to $3,140 had been levied 
for that purpose to be applied in the following year. 

In 1856, educational nuitters picked up; for three schoolhouses were 
built and 944 pupils attended the schools taught for a period of two and 
a half montlis. Again there was a tax of $2,478.83 levied for the erec- 
tion of schoolhouses, and three additional l)uildings were provided in 


18.')8. Duriiiy; that year out of a total enunici'atioii of 1,4G2 pupils, 
],1G2 attended sehool during an average period of sixty-Hve days. In 
1859 there were three and in 18G0 seven sehoolhouses built at a cost of 
$:},G:]0 for the two years. At that time, within the boundaries of Noble 
Townshi}), as then constituted, there were twenty-eight sehoolhouses, a 
majority of which had been constructed under the provisions of the new 
law on the subject, being therefore a decided improvement over the old 
order. , 

Schools of the Present 

The schools of the present, it is needless to say, ai'e up to the modern 
standard, in sui){)Oi't of which statement reference is made to the re- 
port of the county superintendent of schools, a synopsis of which is })ub- 
lished elsewhere. In these days it would be only Civil war or a raging 
pestilence which eoidd cut the school year down to two months. In- 
cluding the schools in the Oity of Wabash, more than ninety teachers 
are ]n)\v emi)loyed in Noble Township, (jf which thirty-ti\-e hohl forth in 
the establishments outside ihe municipality. 

(Jutside the city, the township is divided into the following districts, 
with teachers as enumerated: Linlawn, 9; Chippewa, 9; AVhite's In- 
stitute, 4; Rich Valley, 2; country schools, 7. The enrollment of pupils 
in 1914 was 629. In 1913, according to the county auditor's figures, 
$59,292.89 was paid to the sehool board of the City of Wabash for the 
support of its educational system, and $-];l5()1.31 to the school boards 
of Noble Township. 

White's ^Manual Labor Institute 

White's ]\lanual Labor Institute, or, as it is generally called, W'hite's 
Inst'itute. is one of the most noted educational establishments in Noble 
Township and Wabash County. Throughout its life of more than half 
a century it has combined in a noteworthy degree, educational training, 
religious instruction and practical benevolence; and no pupil has ever 
been barred from its good influences on account of "race, color or 
j)revious condition of servitude." 

White's Institute includes three l)uildings in which dependent chil- 
dren are housed and cared for, and two more are in coui'se of con- 
struction — a well-planned hospital and a home for small boys. It is 
situated about foui- and a half miles southeast of Wabash along Treaty 
Creek, and its farm of 640 acres was formerly a portion of the famous 
Me-shin-iio-me-sia Indian Reservation. Four hundred acres of this land 





is ill i-ultivatioii, and the property of tiie institute iiu-hulcs siihstantia] 
barns iui- the eare of its sixteen horses ami 100 iicail of eatth-. 
'IMiere are now 210 ehihireii at the institute, of whom seventy ai'e ^irls. 
and, in accord with the objects for which it was foundrd they are re- 
ceivini,' a moral, religious and industrial training which will make them 
useful members of society. , t-- ■',,,..; 

,tj>'M.-f,. ' d ;i JOSIAII AVlIlTE ::..itA' - ' >■' 

■ t White's ]\Ianiial Labor Institute has always been under the control 
of th(,' Society of Friends, of whirh Josiali While, its founder, was a life- 
long member. That line (Quaker was born in IT.Sl at Mount Holly, New 
Jersey. In his youth he had a passion for mechanical jiursuits and re- 
ceived a fair education. In Philadelphia he was apprenticed to the 
hardware trade, ami after sei'ving his time conducted a store on his own 
account. AVlieii he commenced an independent business he resolved to 
devote all his energies to it until he had accumulated ?f;40,000 in money. 
])rovided lie could do so ])efore his thirtieth year. Two years before reach- 
ing that age, he i-ealized his ambition and retired from liusiness. At first 
he was ti'mi)ted to invest that sum at interest, liut instead his active 
temix-rammit induced him to ai)ply at least a portion of his fortune in 
building a dam and lock at Schuylkill. 

In this work Josiali White was employed from 1810 to 1818, when 
the works wi-re purchased by the City of Philadelphia. He was one of 
the pioneers both in the improvement of the Lehigh and Delaware livers 
ami in the mining and marketing of antiiracite coal, and through liis 
executive and financial connection with various coal and navigation com- 
panies accumulated a much larger fortune than his original capital. He 
died in PS.'jO, and in his will made bequests for the establishment of vai'i- 
ous manual labor schools in Iowa and Indiana, to be placed at the dis- 
l)0sal of the Society of Friends. 

Founded in 1852 

-For the esta])lisliment of the Indiana Institute, $20,000 was devised; 
''to ])e ai)proi)riated to the erection of a college, or manual labor school for 
the education of colored people, Indians and others likely to be benefited 
by the practical application of industrial with educational and religious 
instruction." One-half the sum mentioned was to be used for the pur- 
chase of grounds and the other half for the erection of buildings. A 
lioard of trustees was appointed by the Society of Friends of Indiana to 
select the location of a suitable site within the state limits. It first met 


at ^Val)asll on the 5th of October, 1852, its ineinl)ers l)eiiig George Evans, 
Luke Thomas, Aaron ITill, William Reese, Alfred Johnson, Isaac Jay, 
Jesse \Vilso]i, David Miles and Jesse Small. 

This body was iii('()i'])()rated on the 25th of Octol)ei', 1852, and i)nr- 
ehased the 640 acres on Treaty (.'reek deserilied as section .'51, townslni) 
27 north, I'ange 7 east, in 1851* an a(bnini.sti'ation Ijuihling, a school- 
house and a boarding house were erected on the ]>urcliased tract, a super- 
intendent ai)i)ointed and the institute organized on a modest scale to 
carry out the aims of the founder as far as could be done with the means 
at the disposal of the management. 

From that tinu' forward, the institute strengthened and broadened 
and, although it has had its i)eriods of .depression, there was never any 
iloubt as to the honesty and faithfulness of those at the head of its man- 
agement. Since its establishment Josiah White's two daughters have 
left endowments amounting to about thirty seven thousand dollars. JMary 
Emily Smith, late of Richmond, Indiana, also made a be(iuest of $13,000, 
and William WoldgannUh willed to it a sum of >t^l,00() and 160 acres of 
land in Nebraska. 


In the .summer of 1888 the experiment was first tried of bringing In- 
dian children from the western plains to the institute for the purpose 
of educating them. On the evening of February 5, 1884, Professor Cop- 
pack, of the institute, with Nathan Coggshall and :\lrs. Joseph Pleas, 
started for the far to arrange for bringing thirty-seven Indian chil- 
di-en to the institute, in addition to the thirty-three who had already 
l)een acconunodated. Their purpose was to "select such children as know 
little or nothing ot civilization and make them over into civilized Amer- 

While the (io\ei-nment paid to the institute a certain sum per capita 
for the Indian children brought there, the board of trustees concluded 
that this featui-e of its work was outsitle of its scope as delined by Mv. 
White. A few years after the inauguration of the experiment the Gov- 
ennneiit also established its own Indian schools; so that AVhite's In- 
stitute al)andoned the work. 

Care of the County Wards 

At that time the institute l)egan cai'ing for the county wards. The 
children are received from different counties of the state and from 
juveinle courts and other in.stitutions, as well as fi'om the hands of 


fruanliaiis of or])haii chiltlreii. Tlu-y are trained in manual and farm 
work and in tloniestie service, receiving also the religious and educational 
instrnrtion which forms so large a part of the original plan. The insti- 
tute ])rovides instruction not oidy in the conniion branches, but in art 
and music. 


Tile surroundings of the institute are ideal for the normal Iwy and 
girl, and tlie trustees, who devote their time and services without com- 
pensation, may well l)e proud of the good work accomplished. The pres- 
ent board is coini)Osed of the following: Nathan (jlilbert, president, 
AVabash ; Isaac Elliott, secretary, Fairmount; John Johnson, Riclunond; 
AVilliam Diggs, Winchester; William Elliott, Fairmount; I. P. Hunt, 
Fountain City. Some of the members have been on the board for years, 
Isaac Elliott ranking them all in length of service. 

The income from the farm produce and livestock, the proceeds from 
the endowment funds and the 30 cents per day received from the 
county for each child, make the institute more than self-supporting. The 
result is that improvements are constantly progressing, and ere long 
Wliite's Institute will be one of the most convenient and attractive homes 
for dependent children in the state. 

CHAPTER XVIII '■ ' ■. -• ' 



First Native White Child — First Stores — Early Prices — First 
Town Corporation — Second Town Corporation — Old Courthouses 
— The City IIali. — The Wabash Postoffice — Protection Against 
Fire — Fine System of Waterworks — Changes in iManagement 
— Lighting by Electricity — Pioneer in Modern Street Lighting 
— The Natural Gas Era — The Natural Gas Syste:\i — Artificial 
Gas — First Schools in Town — School District No. 1 Organized — 
First Public Sciio(Jls and Teachers — First School Report- 
Building OF the Union Schoolhouse — Ward Schools of the City 
— The New High School — Present Status of City Schools — 
South Wabash Academy — Superintendents of City Schools — 
Adelaide S. Bayi^or — High School Principals — Warren Bigler's 
Service to the Schools — The Women Found a Library — Mrs. C. E. 
Cowgili. — Wabash City Library — ^As a Carnegie Public Library — 
Public Parks — IIist(^ric Spot — The City Park — Clarkson W. 

The City of Wal)ash, the county's seat of justice and its commercial 
and industrial metropolis, wa.s eighty years of age in April, 1914; still 
young as a city of the Ohio Valley, but substantial, cultured and beau- 
tiful, land yearly developing into a greater municipality. Its site on the 
Wabash River is striking from the viewpoint of picturesqueness, and 
favorable to the best hygienic conditions. 

Picturesque and Substantial 

The business and manufacturing districts stretch away on com- 
paratively level ground from the river and canal, while toward botli 
the north and the south the resident sections cover bold and healthful 
higldands. The rise is especially abrupt and striking )iorth of the 
Wabash, which embraces the main portion of the city. 



The slree'ts of tlic city aiv l)road and wcll-krijt ; its ivsidcncL'S tasteful, 
without heiug gaudy; its stores substantial and attractive in ai)i)earanee, 
and its numufaetunng phuits hirge and expanding. Wabash as a city, 
with its i)rosperous lookijit; citizens, has the inevitable appearance of a 
municipality which is not founded on a "Ihjomi," or a special class of 
manufactures, l)ut has been tleveloped normally and solidly, and has 
fairly distril)uted its profits and its prosperity among all classes of its 

General Progress 

After sixteen years of existence as a towii, Wabash had a population 
of 964, and in 1S60 these figures had been increased to 1,504. From 
1870 and 1875, the growth of the city showed a high percentage— its 
population being 2,881 in the former year, against 4,000 in the latter. 
It was during this period that the old \Yabash & Erie Canal was aban- 
doned as a means of transportation and commercial exchange, a north 
and south railroad having been added to the city's facilities in that 
line. The early 70s marked the commencement of the railroad era and 
the growth of diversified manufactures. The banks were increasing in 
niuuber and linaiicial resources, and modern AVabash really was founded. 
In 18!H) it had a poi)ulatioii of 5,105; in IHOO, 8,618; in 1910, 8,687. 

As will be seen by reference to the chapter on transportation, this 
well-to-do community of 9,000 peo])le has also since that period become 
thoroughly supplied with intimate avenues of communication with all 
parts of the state and nation through fine systems of interurban lines. 
Some of the main facts leading to this laudable development as a munic- 
il)ality and a commercial, industrial and financial center, are given as 
follows : 

• AYabash Town 

The Town of Wabash was laid otf in the spring of 1834 by Col. Hugh 
Ilanna. The original plat is situated on the north bank of the Wabash 
Kiver, about ninety miles northeast of Indianapolis, being the site of 
the Treaty Grounds and Paradise Springs where the treaty with the 
Pottawatomies and ]\Iiamis was held in 1826, the treaty being signed on 
the 16th and 23d days of October of that year. This ground is now oc- 
cupied by the shops of the l^ig Four Railroad. The streets running 
north and south were named after the counties lying east and west, 
eoniinencing with Allen, Huntington, Wabash, Miami, Cass and Carroll. 
The original plat contains 233 lots, and since then ninety-nino atlditions 



ScKNr';s ON Wahasii Stickkt, Wahasi 


and sulKlivisioiis liave Ix'uii made to tlie City of The first sale 
of lots was on the fourth day of I\Iay, 1834. 

The first settlei-s in the town were George Shepherd, Col. AVilliaui 
Steele, Allen AV. Smith, Alpheus Blaekman, Jacob D. Cassatt, John 
Smith, Zara Sutherland, ]\Iiehael Duffey, Andrew Murphy, Dr.' J. R. 
Cox, Col. Hugh Hanna, David Cassatt, Dr. Isaac FinleyVl)r. James 
Hackleman and James AV. Wilson. 

The first lot cleared and enclosed was 22, which was improved by 
Colonel Steele and Allen W. Smith. George Shepherd built the first 
house, which was on lot 63, and Colonel Steele built the second one on 
lot 22. These were built in l\Iay, 1834. Alpheus Blaekman made a kiln 
of brick in 1834, and Doctor Finley built a small brick house in the 
fall of that year on lot 54, and which was located where the Spiker Block 
now stands. Colonel Steele and Colonel Hanna l)uilt houses of the same 
kiln of brick. 

FmsT Native White Child 

Oidy a few days after George Shepherd had moved into his log cabin 
his first child was born, being the first white child born in the original 
linuts of the Town of Wabash. Many have been under the impression 
that J. Warren Hanna, son of Col. Hugh Hanna was the first white child 
born in the town, but on September 11, 1879, when he signed the consti- 
tution of the Old Settlers Organization, he gave the date of his birth 
as June 2, 1838, some four years after the town had been laid out, and 
with the number of families then living in the town, it is fair to suppose 
that there were several children born before that date. 

On the 20th of May, 1835, the commissioners appointed for that pur- 
pose by the Legislature in an Act of January 22, 1835, located the county 
seat at Wabash. 

• First Stores 

Colonel Steele opened the first provision store and Colonel Hanna 
the first drygoods store. In the summer or fall of 1834 the first tavern 
was opened by Andrew Alurphy on lot 37. From this time forward the 
town improved rapidly. 

Early Prices 

In early times calico sold for a shilling a yard and it took eight yards 
to make a dress. Alerchants gave 3 cents a dozen for eggs, and as 
there was no shipping facilities the supply often exc(M'd(>d the deuumd 


and many liiislids were (Miipticd into tlui canal. Sincr tiirsc early times 
ealii-u lias sold as lii<j:h as thirty-five and foiiy-seveii eents a yartl, and 
eii-^'s haw reached the fabulous i)rice of from three to seven eents a 

First Town Corporation- 

On the 16th day of January, 1840, Hon. Jacob D. Cassatt, th(Mi rep- 
resentative in the Lower House of the Genei'al Asseml)ly, secured the 
jjassage of a bill ineorpoj'ating- Wabash, and at the ehn-tion hehl on the 
lirst .Monday in April of that year the following' j^entlenieii were selected 
as the lioaid of trustees for the first year: Daniel 'SI. Cox, Tobias Beck, 
Allen AV. Smith, Alexander Jackson and John lams. The ])oard organ- 
ized by the election of Daniel ]\I. Cox as president, and the appoint- 
nu-nt of John L. Knight, clerk; William 0. Ross, treasurer; Albert 
Pawling, mai-shal; Erastus Bingham, supervisor; and Henry B. Olin, 
assessor. The fii'st allowance by this Ijoard was made to Albert Pawling 
'"in the sum of twenty-eight cents for candles and nails furnished." 

Tile report, of the first assessment, for which Mr. Olin, the assessor, 
was allowed .^l.")!), was as follows: Real estate, $43,430; imiirovements, 
$4(),47r); ])ersonal property, $48,470; total taxables, $141,385; total num- 
liei- of polls, 161 ; total number of dogs, 3, owned by Peter King, William 
J>lack and James D. Conner. This was all the four-legged dogs scheduled. 

Second Town Corporation 

The seeoiul ineorpoi'ation of the town was by an election held at the 
courthouse on Monday, July 24, 1854, for choice of one ti'ustee for each 
of the live distrit'ts, oi' wards, into wliich tiie town bail l)een tlividi'd by 
the commissioners. This second town eori)oration continued in existence 
untiPMarch, 1866, when it was ascertained that there was a poi)ulation 
in the town of 2,868 i)ersons, and an election, as provided by law, was 
ordei'ed to be held ou Monday, Alai-ch 26, 1866. to determine whether 
the town slioidd bi' incorporated as a city. It was so determined, and 
on the !)tli of Ajn-il, 1866, an election was held to select the officers of 
the incoming city government, which resulted in the choice of Joseph H. 
Matlock for mayor; William Bell, marshal; Fred Bouse, street com- 
missioner; Lewis B. Davis, treasurer; and James ^l. Amoss, clerk. 

Councilmen for the First AVard, Joseph :Mackey and William Steele, 
Jr. ; Second AVard, John 1). IMiles and Josiah S. Daugherty ; Third AVard, 
Levi Rose and Archibald Kennedy. The first regular meeting of the 
new olificers was held on AVednesday, April 11, 1866. 

Vol. 1—20 


''"■ " •• '■"■'< '■ Mayors - 

Till- I'dllowiiio p.-i-soiis luivc ],('vn Avi-ti'd iiiayoi-s and s.tvihI the city 
goveriiiiu'iit Iroin tin- tlatc of its oi-gaiii/,atiuji to the pri'scnt time: 
Joseph II. .MatloL-k, 1SBG-G8; Warren G. Sayre, lS(J8-76; (Jlarkson W. 
Weesiier, 1876-78; Charles S. Parrisli, 1878-82; CL'ireuce W. Stephenson, 
1882-88; Henry C. Pettit, 1888-90; .Michael 11. Cral)ill, 18!)()-1)2; Horace 
D. Banister, 18!J2-!)4; James K. .MiJIenry, 1 81)4-1 !)()2 ; Jesse 1). Williams, 
rj()2-U4; Joseph \V. .Murphy, 1!)(,)4-1(); iJr. James W. Wilson, I'JlU. 

Old CouirruoL'SEs 

The ok! courthouse and the roof of the building near it in which were 
located tlie puhlie oftices were burned Ajn-il 14, 1870. The county com- 
missioners then bought what was known as the new Presbyterian Church, 
located across the street from the i)nblic sipuire, ami this was occupied as 
a courthouse until the present substantial and modern structure was 
erected in 1878-71). The first term of the Wabash Circuit Court to be 
lield in this new building counuenced in September, 1879. Hon. John U. 
Pettit and Hon. Lyman Walker, who succeeded him October 22, 1879, 
being the presiding judges. 

The City Hall 

The municipal home of AValiash is the fine city hall at the southeast 
corner of Wabash and ]\Iain streets; a substantial two-story structure 
surmounted by a tower, with the first story of stone and the second, of 
red brick. 

The present site of the city hall was purchased under authority of 
aji ordinance passed March 18, 1878, during the mayoralty of Clark W. 
Weesner. The cost was $1,400. Seven years passed before the structure 
was completed. 

At a meeting of the city council held on the evening of IMonday, 
April 28, 1888, plans were presented and adopted for the erection of a 
city building on the lot mentioned. On May 14th, the contract for its 
construction was awarded to P. A. Grant of AVabash ; the contract price 
was $18,850. C. AV. Stephenson was mayor at that time. 

The city hall was over two years in the building, being turned over 
complete to the municipality on June 22, 1885. The building stands 
60 to 89 feet on the ground, the first floor being maiidy occupied by 
accommodations for the fire and police departments. On the second 
floor is the mayor's office, and rooms for the city clerk, treasurer, engi- 



iiL'tT, vtc. To the rear of these a corridor extends across tlie entire floor. 
lieyond this is the council chaudu'r, a conveniently arranged hall, 52 
])y 57 feet in dimensions. 

The front of the city hall is in excellent taste, all the windows being 
arched with stone cappiin^s. Ornamental stone work also surrounds the 
base of the .Mansard roof, which is surmounted l)y an iron bell-tower 


City Hall, Wabash 

on which is a flagstati'. The words "City Hall, 1883," are displayed 
across the front under the roof. 

The Wabash Postoffice 

The postoffice, or I'ncle Sam's Home in Wabash, is a handsome build- 
ing, rather Grecian in its style of architeeture. It was ei-ecled m 1912, 
at a cost of $75,453.28, and is thoroughly adapted to the purposes for 
which it was desii-'ued. 

Protection Agaixst Fire 

Soon aftei- AVabash was organized as a city, in April, 18G6, a small 
volunteer fire company was organized. It was composed of such a few 



nit'iiiliri-s that lluTf were scarcely eiiouyh to operate the tiny hand eii;,niie 
which had heen pureliased as a protection against fire. At a hitt'r date a 
hoe.k and hidder company was formed and a steam engine pui'chased, with 
sui'ticient iiose and hosecarts I'or both the north and south sides of the 

The city constructed sixteen tire cisterns, so located as to coinnuind tlie 
entire ai-ea of the several sections into which tlie municipal area \vas 
divided for iii-e })urposes. Each luul a capacity of from live lumdred to 
eight hunilretl barrels. 

The efticieney of the department was nuieli strengthened and protec- 
tion against tire made far more certain, when the city waterworks were 

Government Building, Wabash 

completed in 1887. About one hundred hydrants were thus added to 
the means of water supply in case of fire. This number has since been 
more than doubled, with a vastly increased force furnished by the new 
powerhouse of the waterworks. 

If it were not for this fact, the fire department of Wabash City would 
be inadciiuate for the city's re(iuirements. It must also be remembered 
that all the lai-ge manufactories have special provisions to guard against 
the damage of their properties by fire. 

With the foregoing in mintl, the showing made by the Wabash Fire 
Department may ))e considered with eiiuaiamity. As stated, the head- 
quartei-s of the department are at the city hall, wherein are housed the 
steam fire engine, one hook and ladder wagon, one hose reel, one hose 
truck two teams and 3,500 feet of hose. The working force consists of 


the (.'hicf and .seven salaried niemliers, and their territory eovers the north 


The foi'.M' for the south side consists of eiirlit volunteer nieuibers, and 
the appai-atus i'or that section of the eity eonipi-ises one hose reel, and 
one ladder wag-on. 

' ' • ' !';' ^■y ■ . 

" Fine System OK AVatehwohks ' ' 

Th(' eonstruetion of Wa])asli's fine system of waterworks was be^m 
in S.-pteuilicr^ lSS(i^ uiuler plans furnished by Clarence Delalield, one 
of the most pi^ominent mechanical engineers in the United States. On 
June l!)th of the following year they were completed at a cost of $130,000. 
:\lr. Delafield supervised the construction of the works himself and in no 
instance was an attempt made at small economy at the expense of ultimate 

As compleled, they constituted a telling illustration of the practical 
merits of the Holly system, combining both direct and standpipe pressure. 
The standpipe pressure alone was seventy pounds to the square inch, 
sufficient to throw water to tlie top of the hat factory, the highest point 
in the city. When to this was added the direct pressure ol)tainable, the 
citizens of Wabash felt that atle(iuate pi'Otection against tire was assured. 

The punijiing station was located aliout a mile from the courthouse on 
tile Wabash and La Fontaine turnpike, the supply of watei- being drawn 
from a .series of flowing wells situated in a broad ravine about half a mile 
fi'om the ]){)werhouse. The artesian wells then in operation averaged 
about fifty feet in depth, those of much deeper bore having been sunk 
within comparatively recent \ears. The standpipe into which the water 
is forced from the pumping station is 100 feet high and has a capacity 
of 360,000 gallons. It is kept filled to within ten feet of the top. 

As the water flows through iron tubing and empties into underground 
reservoirs, it is giuiranteed to be jjoth cold and pure. This no doubt ac- 
counts for the low death rate among the children of Wabash of school 
age. This conservation of the public health is further attained by the 
ei-ection of numerous drinking fountains in the l)usiness districts of the 
city. Consecpu-ntly, the Matei'-supi)ly system of the City of Wal)ash 
performs the two important pulilic duties of protecting l)Oth the lives and 
proi)erty of its peo])le. 

Waliash has one of the best systems of waterworks of any city of its 
size in the eountr\'. The old woi'ks, situateil near the present paper mill, 
were completed in .lune, lHb7, and served the public for more than a 
dozen years. The old system, at the height of its usefulness eud)raced 
about ten miles of pxpes and TOO fire hydrants. 


Changes ix jManagement 

'I'lu' oi-if::iiial waterworks systmi was opci-ated ])y S. Ii. ]]villock &, 
Company, of New Yoik, iinlil 1900. It was tlicn sold to the First 
National liank of N\'w York, \vliicli, at tlu' same time, l)()\i^lit out Itie 
oM Wabash Kl.-rtrie Ligiit Company. On Januaiy 1, IDOl, the inter- 
ests of the two were eombined under the naim- of the Wal)ash AVater 
and Liyht Company. At that time was l)uilt the new watei'works power- 
house south of the river, at tlie I'.ij^ Four lirid'-t' and in r.J04 tlu; new 

r^p^^f^ 4^--^, rfa,,t^^-. 

Flowing Well, Waijasii 

management rel)uilt and completely modernized the electric plant. The 
Fii-st National Bank of New York continued as owner and manager of 
the local water and electric service until Novemlx^-, l!n2, when the 
United Service Conqiany of Scranton, Pennsylvania, assumed control. 

The system now endjraees thirty-two miles of nuiins and 2-i5 hydrants. 
The plant has a pumping capacity of 2,000,000 gallons daily, the supply 
coming from fonrtcm artesian wells vaiying in deplh from forty-five 
to eight hundrei] innety feet. Tlie water goes to moi'e than on(> thousand 
residences, and virtually to every factoiy in the eity with the excei)ti()n 


of till' gi-eat paper mills which have their own system of artesian wells. 
Tlie city water is pumped to an underground reservoii- and is then dis- 
trihuted to eonsuiners, never seeing dayli^uiit or ndrrohes until it is 
tapijed in house or faetory. Jt is examined four times a year hy the state 
l)Oard of health, and has always i)assed unquestioned uuister. 

..!. . ■■ ., t ■ LiGiiTiXG BY Electricity ., .-i,, , ,; ,, ; ,.,. 

]\Iost of the streets and stores and many of the faetoi-ies and I'esi- 
denees of the city are lighted i)y electricity. The electric plant also fur- 
nished about two thousand horsei)OWer to factories and other estahlish- 
ments. Since lf)Ul, T. ^Y. ^McXaiuee, who was formerly identified with the — 
old Wabash Electric Light Company, has l)een secretary, treasurer and ac- j 
five numager of the Wabash Water and Light Company. His predecessor ! 
was W. S. Still, who was the local superintendent of the system from its ) 
establishment until the year named. . ,/; j 

Pioneer ix ^NIoderx Street Lighting 

In the matter of sti-eet lighting by electidcity, Wabash made a recoi'd 
wliieh l)rought the city into cosmopolitan notice. It was the iirst muine- 
ipality to test, aclojjt and put into successful operation the Brush system 
of electric lighting. 

During the winter of 1879-80 tiie city council began to canva,ss vari- 
ous methods in vogue for the lighting of public thoroughfares. While 
thus engageil the promoters of the Brush Light offered a public test to 
prove the superiority of their illuminating agent. Finally ]\Iarc]i 81, 
1880, was llxed upon as the day of trial. 

At the appointed time, 8 o'clock P. ]\I., in the presence of a large num- 
ber 01 representatives of the press from different sections of the state, 
with other visitoi-s. citizens and city officials, the grantl test was made. 
One who was {)resent, and a close, accurate observer, thus descril)es it: 
"At 8 'clock the ringing of the Court House l)ell announced that the 
cxhil)ition was about to connnence. Standing on the street in front of 
the Plain Dealer office, we hurriedly looked around to measure the gen- 
eral darkiu'ss as l)est we could. The city, to say the least, presented a 
gloomy, uninviting appearance, showing an abundance of room for 
more light. Suddenly from the towei'ing dome of the Court House l)urst 
a flood of light whicli, under ordinary circumstances wouKl have caused 
a shout of rejoicing from the thousands who had l)een crowding and 
jostling each other in the deep darkness of tlie evening. No sl\out. how- 
ever, or token of joy disturbed the deep silence which suddenl.v set lied 



aw I', 




i 11''- vast crou-,1 that had ^-athere.l thus far and near to witness the 
'"""■'tH.n .,f a singular enterprise in wldeh Waliasli was tiie first city 
I this wide woi-hl to move. 

Tile i.eoi)I(^, almost with l)ated breath, stood overwhelmed with 
as If in th.. preseiiee of the supernatural. The strange, weird light, 
Mled m power only by the sun yet mild as moonlight, rendered the 
•t House s(|uare as liglit as midday. While we eontemplated the 
wonder in modern scienee, we eould l)ut think how our electricians 
got It on Ben Franklin. lie brought down the lightning from the 
MIS on a kite-string and bottled it, just to show, presumal)ly, how 

^fl^'j i s 1 

Scene on ]\Iakket Stueet, AVabasii 

a d 

irt he was. Brush and Edison take a steam engine, belt it to a huge 
•tro-magiietir machine, manufacture lightning and use it to light cities 
1 handils, thus l)enehting mankind and l)lessing posterity. 
"After thus meditating and .somewhat solilocjuiziug upon tiie ocea- 
lal impi'ovemeiits made by young Americans over the ways and means 
t obtained in 'our grandfathers' days, we took a stroll along one of 
streets to o])serve the efficiency of the light in the outskirts. At a dis- 
I'c of one square we could very distinctly read nonpareil print. At 
istanee of two S(|uares we could icad brevier print; at four S(|uares, 
inaiw disi)layed advertising, such as may be seen in the dis])lay lines 


of an advertisement in a eounty newspaper. We could also readily ascer- 
tain the time of ni;^lit from the wateh, the liands 1)eing visible without any 
strain upon the eyes. When we left, we remained upon a plat- 
form of the train to note the power of the light from a greater distance. 
At from three to four miles we could easily distinguish the face of our 
watch held at a reasonable distance from the eye. Indeed, the distance 
at which the effects of the light are appreciable is almost incredible. 

"From the flagstaff of the Court House four lamps, of the general 
design in use, are suspended, a plain glass glol)e surrounding tlie carbon 
points to protect them from snow and ice, the whole covered with a shield 
or roof of galvanized iron. From these lamps the spectator will notice 
two ordinary telegi-aph-size cojjper wires leading down over the roof and 
down the west side of the building to the basement, where stands the 
Brush Dynamo Electric Alachine that generates the current of electricity 
that flows through the wires to the carbons, between which it flashes 
with the brilliiincy of lightning. The leaping of this current from one 
carbon pencil to the other produces the light, and the space thus made 
brilliant is termed the voltaic arc. This dynamo machine occupies a 
space of four feet in length and two in width and will last for years. It 
is practically indestructible, all its wheels revolving in the air. It re- 
quires no chemicals, and generates the most powerful electricity. 

"The cost of the Brush Light machinery complete, exclusive of the 
engine, is $1,800. If two additional lamps were desired, there would be 
an additional cost of .$120. If the city purchased the engine, $600 more 
would be re(iuiretl. Total cost, $2,550. The cost per night (ten hours) 
per lamp, outside the expense of fuel and engine tender, is estinuited at 
15 cents. It is believed that the entire expense for light, including fuel, 
engine driver and carbon points, would not exceed $2.50 per night, or 
about $9,000 per year." 

The following is a copy of the contract under wdiich the City of 
\Vaba*sh tried and accepted the light: "The Common Council of the 
city of Wabash agree to purcliase one Bi-ush electric machine, arranged 
for four lights on one circuit, four Brush electric lamps, four hangers, 
100 feet of copper wire No. 8. This order is given with the understand- 
ing that when, properly operated, according to instructions, it will give 
four good, powerful lights, and will work in a practical manner. It is 
guaranteed by said company that these four lights will light an area one 
mile in diameter sufficiently to enable people to get around at the farthest 
point, and that nearer the court house wall increase iu brilliancy as the 
distance is decreased. At the farthest point above indicated, it is by 
said company guaranteed that the light will lie as great as that of a gas 
burner of usual street size at 100 feet distance, and will be ecjual to the 


li^^ht ol' a stivrt laiiii) 100 h'ct away at any given i)oiiit, within said 
distanre of 2,040 feet from the light."' 

l'ul)lic tests and rontinucd use of the Bi'ush apj)ai-atus satisfied the 
city, and the system was not alfandoned for several years, ur until the 
expansion of the business distriet made it neeessary to more evenly dis- 
tribute the illununatiou of the eity streets. 

The X.vtl'kal Gas Era 

The completion of the first waterworks nuirked the virtual beginning 
of what may be called the natural gas era, which flourished locally al)Out 
a dif/j-n years. The cheapness of the supply, before its exliaustion from 
its widespread use, luul the effect of .stimulating the industries of tlie city 
and of retai'ding all efforts to generally intiodui-c manufactured gas. 

In l.S,S7 the Howe Natural <ias Company of Indiana commenced act- 
ive operations in the gas belt south of Waliash County, ami a few years 
afterward their interests were taken over by the Logansi)ort & Wabash 
A'alley Gas Company. The field hea(l(|uarters of the system were located 
seventeen ndles southwest of Wabash, with the natural gas plants located 
at Somer.set, Herbst and ]\Iier, Grant County. 

The comijany named controlled sixteen sections, or 10,240 acres of 
land, which, with the excei)tion of a small stri}) in Jackson Township, 
^liami County, was included in the townshijjs of Richland, Sims, Frank- 
lin and Pleasant, Grant County. At the iield headquarters mentioned was 
a substantial station house, a telephone exchange, and all the necessary 
appliances for regulating the gas i)i'es>ure and making repairs along the 
line. Till' othce in Wabash was in telephoinc connnunication with these 
headquarters, thus enabling the company, with the assistance of its 
l)ortable telephone service, to locate and repair any break within a few 
minutes after it had lieen reported. Thus Wabash received fully as good 
sefvice as Marion, Anderson, Kokomo and other i)laces which were located 
in the natural gas iield. 

In the early period of the natural gas era the local plant was operated 
by the Fuel Company, its interests being purchased by the 
Logansport & Wabash Valley Gas Company, also known as tiie Dietrich 
syndicate. The low rates heretofore extended to local factoi-ies were 
nuiintained, and the field supply was increased by at least hfty per cent 
as a result of the consolidation. At the same time the Dietrich syndicate 
l)urehased the artiiicial gas works, G. S. Courtier being retained as super- 
intendent. The other local ofliecrs of the con.solidated company were 
Clarence Heidey, nuinager, and .M. S. Howe, superintendent. 

When the Logansport & Wabash Valley gas people came into con- 


trol of the AVahasli plant tliey greatly iiiij)i'uv.'(l its physical ('(juipiuent, 
ivplaciiiLT its old rcgulatof with a iiiodcrii one and l.uildiiig six additional 
ivducing stations. It was this company which induced the givat Diamond 
TaiRT M'\\[ to locate at Wahash, a coiiti-act being made hy which the gas 
comi)aiiy agreed to furnish the null with any required supply at a nominal 
price. At the time 'Mv. Harber, of Diamond match fame, was connected 
with the paper mill enterprise, and he estimated that if the mill were 
rc(|uii-ed to use coal as fuel the annual cost of the same would reach 
.1<5( ),()()(). Under its conti-act with the paper mill the Logansport & 
Wabash Valley Gas Company received but $5,000 for the gas it annually 
furnished that i)laiit, or $44,000 less than the coal fuel bill of the 
ljai)er mill would have been. 

The Natural Gas System '' ' ' 

Although the natural gas supply is now a thing of the past, it had 
its good day. The system upon which Wabash dei)t'iuled embraced 
twenty-two miles of main line — seventeen miles of b-iuch i)ipe and 
live miles of 6-inch pipe, as well as a 4-inch belt line encircling the 
comi)any's thirty ^vells. Add to the miles of nmins, the ten or twelve 
nules re(]uired to supply gas to the farming communities, and the con- 
sunu'i's of Wabasli and Grant counties were furnished with a linely 
eipiipped system comj)rising al)Out thirty-tive miles of piping. As long 
as the sui)i)ly held out, there was uo better company in Indiana than the 
Logansport & Wabash Valley. 

Artificial Gas 

^\'itll the collapse of the natui-al gas supply in the eaidy IDOO's, the 
intere^s of artilicial gas revived. Since then the Northern Indiana Ga.s 
Company has obtained conti'ol of the local plant. A modern holder was 
c(uiimenced in the winter of 11)05-00, with a capacity of 100,000 cubic 
feet, anil householdei-s began to get their nuuiufactui-cd supjdy in .May, 
]I)0(J. Some 1,800 consumers now use this means of illumination and 
heat, so that, with electrical appliances and all, Wabash ims her wants 
in suck fields well supj)lictl, despite the retreat of natural gas to parts 

First Schools in Town 

And speaking of illumiimtion, one is reminded of intellectual eidight- 
enment — of the splendid public school system of Wabash C'ity. As in 


all iK'U- co.nnumitics, private effort preeed.-.l public organization in the 
yoiin- Tou-Ji of Wabash. For tlie first two or thr..,. y,.ars after its 
platdn- by Jhi^rh Ilanna its peoi)le were too busy takin- care of the 
county seat, buying and selling town lots, erecting the county buildings, 
organizing the courts and otherwise getting things ready for'neweonie'-s' 
to think much of schools for their children. But with the influx of per- 
manent settlers, the schools had to come just as certainly as the churches, 
and other evidences of up-to-date civilization. 

In the winter of 18;5b--37 Ira Burr started the procession of little 
log schoolhouses by providing for a class of eighteen or twenty children 
in a building previously n.sed as a storehouse by "William S. Edsall, 
situated on lot 26, original i)lat of the town. 

Then followed schools taught in the spring or summer of 1837 by 
Sarah Blackmail, and in the following fall and ^vinter by Emma Swift. 
^ In the fall and winter of 1838-39 a school was taught'by Mrs. Daniel 
Richardson in what afterward became known as the Pat Duftey build- 
ing on the north side of Market Street east of AVabash. This building 
is described as a house built of large logs, which had previously been 
used for school purposes and as a public house and a courtroom, and 
may have been one of Colonel Burr's buildings. 

School District No. 1 Orgaxized 

Several other attempts were made by the good men and women of 
the raw little town to establish priva.te schools, but in the winter of 
lS3f)-4() the citizens of the locality decided to organize for public edu- 
cation. Tims at that time was founded School District No. 1 of Con- 
gressional Township No. 27 north, range 6 east, in Nolile Township, and 
citizens awarded a contract to erect a building for puljlic educational to Joseph Ray. Under his hands, in the si)ring of 1840, a 
little frame schoolhouse arose on the north part of lot No. 157, of the 
original plat of Wabash Town, a little south and east from the freight 
depot of the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway. 

First Public Schools and Teachers 

This first public school of Wabash was taught by ]\Iiss Mary Ross, 
daughter of William 0. Ross, one of the pioneer lawyers and leading men 
of the town. A few years afterward ]\Iiss Ross married a Air. George 
Miller and became a resident of Peru, Indiana. Daniel Jackson, one 
of the a.ssociate .judges of the Wabash Circuit Court, a man of some 
means and much influence, is said to be the power behind the building 
of the first public schoolhouse at Wabash. 


This one i^uljlie school Iniihling, with otlicr (luai'ters nMitt'd for tlie 
purpost' hy the school authorities, su[)plit'(l the (h'lnand for sdioolhonses 
ill District Xo. 1 <liiriii^'- the siicccMlini,' tni ycai-s or iiiorc. 

On the oth of July, IS.")], the school hoai'd of the Town of Walja.sli, 
of wliich Dr. . lames Fold was {)rol)ahly the leading,' nieiiiher, employed 
James Fulton to teach for a tei'iu of three months in the i)ul)lic sehool- 
honse, at a eoiiij)ensation of $100. Ahout three weeks afterwai'd the 
boanl employed Rohert (Jordon to leaeh a sehool in a house on Hill 
Street, situated on lot 7:5, old plat. The building was known as "R('V. 
Smith's meeting house," and ^Ir. Gordon received for his tiiree months' 
services ^DO. At tlie same time a. tliii'd and a fourth teachc'r were en- 
gaged — Lydia C. Hunt to teach a school in a house located on lot 1, 
north addition to the town, and Mrs. ^Martha G. Cressy, wife of Rev. 
Edwin AV. Cressy, in a house not located in the records. The women 
Were paid $60 ])er term. 

The three additional schools mentioned were opened and conducted 
in accord with the resolutions adopted at a public meeting of voters 
of the district held Jidy 11, 1851, l)y which it had been divided into four 
wards. It was further resolved that the four free schools therein 
should be taught for a term of three months each, and that in case of 
a deficiency of funds to defray their expenses for the prescribed period 
a ta.\ should be levied to meet such deficiencv. 

FuisT School Report 

From a report submitted by Doctor Ford, district trustee, to the scliool 
board, in Septeml)er, 1851, the following facts ai'e presented: 

Males over five and under ten years of age (J7 

Females over five and undei- ten 8!) 

]\lales from ten to fifteen years of age 64 

Females from ten to tifteen 52 

^Nlales from fifteen to twenty-one years of age 25 

Females from fifteen to twenty-one 48 

Total :5-I^ 

Total males of school age 156 

Total fenuiles of school age 189 


Total salary paid four teachers (three months) $,3G3 

lirut oi' houses .>, 

iiei)airs of houses ,( 

Unsettled, probably .;,^ 

Total expenses j.^.^q 

It thus app..u^ that the total expenses of the publie school syste.n 
ot 1 istr.ct No 1 lor the year were +4:^0, and froni a report fur.'iished 
bo.- or l^ord by .Mrss Iluut-he calls it '"a labored table "-it is also 

;'V- '"\^''"^ "* ^'"' ■'^■' "^' •^^■'^^"^ ^'Sv there was an attendance of 2!J0- 
H/ males and ]A:] f,. nudes. 


^'''''•■'' ^'"' Pi'ovisions of the state school law of 1852, the people of 
Wabash soon commenced to move for the erection of a union school- 
iHuise bHittuiu the growing town. In May, 1855, the board of trustees 
passea ai, ordinance levying a tax of 50 cents per $1(H) valuation for 
Innldnig such a schoolhouse. Hut that levy and several subse-juent levies 
u''re iailun-s, hnancnd complications ensued, and it also seemed impos- 
sible lor the town board of trustees to agree upon any plan for the build- 
ing ot the union schoolhouse. Finally the following five trustees were 
appointed for school purposes, viz.: Robert Cissna, M. H. Crabill, Al- 
bert Pawling, Warden .\leLees and Daniel Sayre. 

In th.. fall of 1857 the school fund was made available and plans 
for a union building adopted. Further, contracts were actually let. 
That for the brick and stone work was awarded to David Kunse and 
that for the carpenter work to John Wilson. The bricks for the build- 
ing were maile and furnished l)y Ilezekiah Caldwell and Hugh Ilanna 
at.4^5 per thousand, tlie former furnishing 180,000 and the latter, 100,000. 

On the 18th of .May, 1858, the corner-stone of the union schoolhouse 
was laid under the auspices of Ilanna Lodge No. 61, with all the im- 
pressive ceremonials of .Masonry, Thomas Jay acting as most worthy 
grand nuister and Hugh Haiina as deputy grand master. In Septem- 
ber, 185'J, was conuueneed tlie first term of the Wabash graded schools 
in the building thus provided. For six months AV. E. Spilman was 
principal and suiierintendent. Subseciueiitly Samuel Eastman was ])rin- 
cipal of the high school department, Mr. Spilman continuing as super- 
intendent of the city schools. During the year the cori)s of teachers 
consisted of two males and seven females. The union school was o].ened 
and continued on the present .Miami schoolhouse lot on North Mianu 


Street. The original cost was $11,000, but in 187;i changes were made 
in its wnstfuctioii. mainly to remedy (KdVcls in ventihition, and ^G.ODO 
aihietl. Thr high school was maintained in tlie union building until 
the construction of the ])resent one, in KS!)4. 

Ward Schools of the City 

In the meantime other ward schooliiouses had l)een eivi-ted — the 
West AVard. on West Maph' Street, in 1>S77; the Kast Ward, on Walnut 
Street, in iss:i; and the .Miann school, in 1888. Following the com- 
pletion of the new high school on West Hill Street, in 1894, were the 
building of the South Side school, on Vernon Street, in 18!J7, and the 
erection of the Century school, on .Manchester Avenue, in 1900. The 
last named is one of the best constructed public school buildings in the 
city, being a nuissive two-story structure of red brick, with high stone 
foundation and basenuMit. 

f» i The New High School 

The ground for the new high school was broken in the fall of 1898, 
and the corner-stone of tlie building was laid by the Indiana firand 
Lodge of Masons on the lltli of April, 1894. Finally, it was completed 
and opened to pupils on the 26th of November, of that year. 

The nuiin building consists of two stories and basement, and is of 
beautiful Bedford cut stone. Three handsomely carved arches, supported 
by four massive stone pillars, span the front entrance, the floor of which 
is [)aved with tile. The ground dimensions are IIG by 65 feet, and the 
main tower rises 108 feet from the surface. 

The two upper stories are finished in ([uarter-sawed white oak, the 
entire building is lighted by electricity aiul gas, all the rooms have hot 
and cold air connections, and in other ways every provision is made for 
sanit.lry heating, lighting and ventilation. 

On the iirst floor are reception, class and assembly rooms. The lat- 
ter is large and well ventilated and will accommodate 250 pupils. On 
the second floor are the lil)rary, i)rincipars office, meeting room for the 
board of education and class rooms. The, superintendent of schools 
who was originally acconnnodated in the high school building has con- 
venient quarters in ^lemorial Hall. The physical and chemical labora- 
tories are in the basement of the high school, being well arranged and 
ample. In a word, the Wabash High School is one of the city's nu)st 
worthy institutions, and indicates that tlie welfare of the younger gener- 
ations holds a large and a Hrm i)lace in the consideration of the citizens 
of Wabash. 



V iaJ:'.H'l"l,,1i 


Present Status op City Schools , : . >> 

Kroin the last r('i)ort of tlie city sui)LTiiitcii(l(']it of schools tlie fol- 
lowing' iiifoniiatioii is taken, the table being self-explanatory: 

Name of School Number Enrolled Aver. Attend. 

High School 28:J 239 

Kast Ward 21)4 225 

^Iiaini 279 ,:. 229 

West AVard 355 266 

South Side 288 ■, ■ >223 • •- > 

Century 318 .-. , ■■ . • g5@ 

Total 1,817 ...: .■:.■ :: a^M.' ;.,■■-•' , 

t . - - . . South Wabash Academy ■■ . ... ., 

The Soutli Side School, a substantial aiul liandsoine structure, two 
stoi'ics and basement with stone foundation and l)ri('k superstructure, is 
surrounded by spacious ami beautiful grounds which were formerly the 
proi)i'i't}- of the South Wabash Academy. The old academy was estab- 
lished in the 'GOs by Prof. P. A. Wilbur, of Wabash College, as a 
eirl's preparatory school for the institution named, which was under the 
general management of the Presbyterian Church. It was originally 
known as the Female Academy, but after some years of unsuccessful 
e\i)ei'imenting in that circumscribed field the scope of the institution was 
eidarged so as to include ))oth sexi'S. In this form the academy was more 
su(tcessful, but e\idently did not reach the exj)eetatio!is of Professor 
Wilbui- who resigned its principalship in 1873. At that time the Pres- 
byterian Church also ceased to be its controlling body, the institution 
falling into the hantls of the Society of Priends. Prof. S. G. 
Hastings of Earlham College then assumed charge, being succeeded as 
principal, in 1874, by J. Tilghman Ilutchens of the Spicelaud Academy. 
The academic course aimed to give both a preparatory training for col- 
lege and a practical business education and on the whole, the institution 
was well managed. Of course, it had its ups and downs, and eventually 
succumbed, as did similar academies, to the advancing excellence and 
breadth of the Wabash High School. 

Superintendents of City School 

As stated W, E. Spilman was the first superintendent of the public 
.schools of Wabash. He served from 1859 to 1861; Joseph Mackey, dur- 
Vo^. 1—21 


ing two terms of 1861 and 1862; Aliss Hattie E. Orbsveiior (afterward 
Mrs. Mac-key), in the spring term of 1862 ; E. P. Cole, from 1863 to 1865 ; 
R. H. Wilkerson, 1865 to 1866; Samuel C. IMiller, during a portion of 
1866 ; R. C. Ross, earlier part of 1867 ; J. B. Yeagley, 1867-68 ; Pleasant 
Bond, 1869-71 ; J. J. iMills, 1871-73; I. P. Mills, brother of the foregoing, 
also during 1873; D. W. Thomas, 1873-86; Miles W. Harrison, 1886- 
1903; Adelaide S. Jiaylor, 1903-11; Orville C. Pratt, 191 J. 

Adelaide S. Baylor 

None connected with the educational system of AVabash has made 
a higher or more enduring record than Miss Adelaide Steele Baylor, 
for thirty-six years identified with every step in the progress of tlie pub- 
lic schools, whether of the city, county or state. During a period of four- 
teen years she served as principal of the Wabash High School and eight 
ycare as superintendent of the city schools, while since July, 1911, she 
has been the able assistant to the state superintendent of public instruc- 
tion, as a lecturer and active organizer in the field. Aside from her 
abilities as a clear, luminous and convincing expositor of both practical 
and advanced theories in the field of higher education, and her inspir- 
ing work at teachers' institutes and other meetings of the profession, 
:Miss Baylor has achieved a national reputation for the strength and 
profundity of her mental attainments in mathematics, philosophy, 
psychology and other provinces of deep investigation and learning. Offi- 
cially, she is a leader in both the state and national teachers' associa- 

What makes this record a special cause of pride to the home com- 
munity is that :\Iiss Baylor is a native of Wabash, her mother being 
of the well-known Steele family of which Col. William Steele, one 
of the fathers of the town and the county, was one of the most popular 
aiid highly honored citizens who ever lived within their limits. In 
1878 Adelaide Steele Baylor graduated from the Wabash High School, 
and the same year was employed as a teacher in the city schools. In 
1884 she assunied her first position in the high school as assistant to the 
learned and able Prof. A. U. Huycke, its principal, whom she suc- 
ceeded in 1889. Her fine administration of the alfairs of that institution 
earned her an advancement to the head of the city schools, which she 
assumed in 1903, ])eing the first woman in the state to hold that posi- 

In the midsl of her pressing and absorbing duties as high school 
principal and city superintendent. Miss Baylor never rested in her de- 
termination to add to her individual attainments and efliciency. In 


the years 1893-94 she was a student at the University of Michigan, also 
attending' the summer sessions of 1894 and 1895. During tlie 'summer 
quarter of 1896 she also studied at tlie University of Chicago, from 
which she graduated in the summer of 1897. Not satisfied with this, 
in 1908, while superintendent of city schools, she pursued post-graduate 
courses at both the universities of Michigan and Chicago. These numer- 
ous university courses have been supplemented by European travel, so 
that Miss Baylor's culture is both pleasing as well as broad and deep. 

'" ' " High School Principai^ 

Following Miss Baylor, as principal of the high school, was C. W. 
Knoutf, who succeeded her in 1903, and served until 1908. In the latter 
year C. H. Brady was placed at the head of its aifairs, and in 1911 he 
was succeeded by the present incumbent, 0. J. Neiglibours. 

Warren Bigler's Service to the School 

In here taking leave of the public schools of AVabash, it would b<3 
inexcusable to omit anything but enthusiastic mention of the services 
rendered to tlicm and to the cause of higher education, by Warren Big- 
ler, who has served as a member of the city school board since 1885 to 
1903, and during a large portion of that period as its president. If 
any one man can be mentioned in the same class with Miss Baylor, it is 
]\Ir. Bigler, albeit force of circumstances has made it necessary for 
him to make the dedication of his time, means and strength to the cause 
of education and individual culture, somewhat auxiliary to the insist- 
ence and pressure of a business and financial life. It is needless to add 
for the information of those who know Uv. Bigler that he is one of the 
stajichest admirers of the abilities, services and character which are as- 
sociated with the personality of Miss Baylor. 

The AVomen Found a Library 

The Carnegie Public Library of Wabash is an educator of wide use- 
fulness, and everybody takes a just pride in its work. The earlier efforts 
to supply the public with mental food and stimulus are credited largely 
to the women ; and that is the rule, as the histories of all similar move- 
ments will prove. 

At Wabash, the initial step in the founding of a library was taken 
by the women's club known as the Pound Table. At a cnlled session 
of that organization, held on June 4, 1889, as a memorial meeting to 


Miss Jessie Stitt, a charter member of the club wliose death had occurred 
about two weeks previously, a motion was made that a fund be raised 
to be known a.s a Jessie Stitt IMemorial fund, and that this money sliouhl 
form the nucleus for a library fund. 

The question of a public library had been discussed for a long time 
but nothing was done until the Round Table took the initiative. Imme- 
diately after this resolution was passed the meeting adjourned and at 
once organizetl and went into session as the Woman's Lil)rary Associa- 
tion. There were twenty-four charter members of this association and 
each was a member of the Round Table. 

Each agreed to pay 50 cents to start the fund. Later an assess- 
ment was made and the members kept up the work until $50 
had been raised, when the library was announced as an assured fact. 

Tlie ladies after fixing the membership fee at $1 a year, began so- 
liciting donations in money and books, and also solicited for new mem- 
bers. On January 11, 1890, the Woman's Library of Wabash was opened, 
the I*rol)ate Court room having been secured to be used for library pur- 

Mrs. C. E. Cowgill 

Mrs. C. E. (Jowgill was the first and oidy president the association 
ever had, l)eing reelected each succeeding year. In this connection it 
may not be out of order to say that Mrs. Cowgill deserves special men- 
tion, in any discussion of library histoiy in Wabash. She gave liberally 
of licr time and money, and without detracting from the credit due 
others, it may be said that the success of the enterprise was due in no 
snudl degree to her indefatigable energy and marked liberality. 

The associiition started out with 300 volumes and this number was 
steadily increased from time to time. The services of the librarian were 
always donated. 

The Probate Court room continued to be used for the library until 
1895 when the books were removed to the high school building, the 
Woman's Library Association continuing in charge. 

Wabash City Library 

In 1900 the Woman's Library Association consolidated with the 
High School Library, the former passing out of existence, the new organi- 
zation being known as the Wabash City Library with j\Irs. Nelson Zeig- 
ler as librarian. The board of directors consisted of members of the 
school board, Mrs. C. E. Cowgill and Mrs. J. I. Robertson. Shortly 


after the formation of tlie Wal)ash City Tiibrary, the books and head- 
quarters were transferred from the hig:h school to Memorial Hall. There 
the public library remained until the opening of the Carnegie building 
in 1903. 

As A Carnegie Public Library 

At ditTerent times during the few previous years applications had 
been made to Mr. Carnegie for a donation, at least a dozen letters having 
been written to the noted founder of libraries. On Febiniary 23, 1901, 
Warren Bigler, then president of the school board and ever a steadfast 
ami intluciitial i)romoter of library matters, wrote again to Mr. Carnegie, 
and two da\s later Mrs. Cowgill added lier earnest plea to the steel 
magnate. Tiie latter especially gave a history of the hard struggle made 
by the ladies for the establishment and nuiintenance of a library at 
AVabash. Although i\lr. Carnegie, through his secretary, had previously 
intimated that he was limiting his appropriations for library purposes 
to cities of at least 50,000 inha])itants, he evidently capitulated before 
tlu'se last pleas, for about two weeks afterward Mr. Bigler received the 
following from James Bertram, Mr. Carnegie's secretary, dated ]\Iarch 
6, 1901: "Dear Sir: Yours of 23d received. If the city of Wabash 
will furnish a site and agree to spend $2,000 a year on the support of 
its library, Mr. Carnegie will be glad to give $20,000 for a free library 
building." At this time the library had 3,300 volumes on its shelves. 

The stipulations mentioned in Mr. Carnegie's letter were fully met 
l)y the Common Council of the city, and the present beautiful building 
was completed in February, 1903. Since the library became a Carnegie 
institution, its board of managers has included two members of the 
City Council. The first meeting under the new order was held at the 
residence of Cary E. Cowgill, April 25, 1901, and the following officers 
were elected: Charles S. Haas, president; Mrs. C. E. Cowgill, vice 
president; Oliver H. Bogue, seK:'retary. Miss Effie Roberts was the first 
librarian. At the next meeting, held on April 30th, it was resolved that 
the cost of the new building was to be limited to $17,000; the actual 
contract (awarded to John Ilipskind & Son) amounted to $17,795, with- 
out heating. 

The library has continuously increased in literaiy volume and pu])lic 
favor under the management of such earnest and able men and women 
as Mrs. Cowgill, Mr. Bigler, Mr. Haas, Mrs. James T. Robertson and 
Messrs. J. II. Stiggleman and C. S. Baer. Both Mr. Haas and Mrs. 
Cowgill have held .the presidency for several terms. 

The present board of managers is as follows: President, Mrs. C. E. 
Cowgill; vice president, C. S. Baer; secretary and treasurer, Charles 


S. Haas. There are some 6,000 volumes in the library, a generous and 
wise assortment of current magazines, and surroundings so comfortable 
and tasteful that there is no more profitable institution, or more restful 
place in Wabash tlmn its public library. The librarian is Mary Roberts. 
Since 1911 traveling libraries have been installed at the South Side 
and Century schools. Thus those who are at an inconvenient distance 
from the Carnegie building can avail themselves of the library privi- 
leges. This is but one of the many features which has earned such 
warm commendation for the liberal scope of its work. 

Public Parks 

The city has two pretty public parks, both located north of the 
Wabash. Hanna Park, which is on the eastern outskirts of the munici- 
pality, is in process of improvement. The grounds of the city park toward 
the west are laid out to a certain extent, provided with a music pavilion 
and refectory, and other public conveniences. There also is the Lincoln 
Log Cabin, with its historic museum and pretty rest room. 

Historic Spot 

The cabin is not only historic, but the adjacent ground. The de- 
pression in front of its steps was caused by incessant travel along the 
tii'st road running through the site of Wabash — the old road running 
from Vincennes to Fort AVayne, of which this rut in front of the Lincoln 
Cabin was a small section. The Indians made this trail through the woods 
while on their travels to and from these cities. They rode horseback, 
single file, both men and squaws astride their ponies, and would halt at 
the cabin of Little Charley, which was located where the abutment of 
the railroad bridge now stands on the west side of Charley Creek. On 
their way they would also stop at Paradise Spring, afterward known as 
Hanna Spring. This road angled through the city as it is now located. 

The City Park 

The city park was formerly the grounds of the old Agricultural Society 
of the county, and something about the early steps leading to its estab- 
lishment as a beauty spot in Wabash is thus given in a souvenir edition 
of the old AVabash Times, published in 1897. The story reads: "In 
no other city, probably, of like population can be found a public park 
possessing more natural loveliness, grandeur and magnificence than the 
one owned by the city of AVabash. The grounds comprise about thirty- 



five acres and were formerly the property of the now defunct Wal)ash 
County Agricultural Society. The site was selected by that society many 
yeai-s a<,'0 when it was > et a part of tlie virgin forest. Its most attractive 
natural l)eauties were retained, and these have been made more pleasing 
of late years to the artistic eye by intermingling with them adornments 
of a less primitive character. 

"When tile old Agricultural Society went out of existence on January 
23, 1889, it conveyed a" portion of its grounds to the county for tiie lo- 
cation of an Orphans' Home, and a part, consisting of about ten acres 
it conveyed to th(i City of conditionally, viz: 'That the same 
shall ))e forever held and maintained by said city of AVabash as a pub- 

CiTY Park, Wabash 

lie paik, or other public purposes, and with the furthei- condition, that 
the giou'.id shall be held for the use of all county and town outdoor meet- 
ings of a lawful character fitted for such uses, until such time as the 
same nuiy be laid out and set apart for a Public Park by said city, and 
then they shall set apart a space of one or two acres in some prominent 
and proper portion of said grounds in the discretion of such city, to be 
held and kept for such meetings and for such purpose, proper and con- 
venient buildings, sheds, tents or amphitheater may be erected thereon, 
and all other ground to be kept for ornamentation and use common to 
Public Parks and places of resort. ' 

"Somewhat to the discredit of the city be it said, tluit for several 
years after it had been so generously dealt with by the old Agricultural 


Society,^ the City Goverumeut sliowed but a niggardly appreciation of the 
gift. No elt'ort was made to further beautify tiie park or even preserve 
from desecration its natural loveliness. At last, however, steps were taken 
looking to transforming the grounds into a City Pi.rk which should be 
such in appearance as well as name. A Board of Park Commissioners was 
constituted, plans for the further beautifying of the park were evolved 
and an appropriation was made by the Common Council for the purpose 
of giving tangibility to these plans. The park commissioners were Messrs 
MarJaiid Gardner, AVill Yarnelle and Arthur Burrell, all young men and 
possessing artistic tastes combined with practical sense. 

"Under the administration of the present Board of Park Commission- 
ers many attractive features have been added, among which may be men- 
tioned electric lights, drinking fountains, comfortable seats and the 
finest bicycle track in the state. It is the intention of the commissioners 
to add to these attractions just as rapidly as the funds which may be 
appropriated for this purpose will admit. Among the additional improve- 
ments contemplated is a beautiful lake of sufficient dimensions for boat- 
ing and skating purposes. The natural conditions of the grounds will 
admit this superior attraction at comparatively small cost, and when com- 
pleted and other plans akin to it are carried into effect Wabash can boast 
of an ideal public park." 

The city since then has purchased al)out thirty acres adjoining the 
above tract, making in all about forty acres, and a new steel amphi- 
theater has been erected, and macadam driveways are being constructed 
throughout the park, which is the principal one in the city, and is lo- 
cated on West Hill Street. 

Hanna Park is on East Hill Street, and was donated to the city by 
tlie heirs of Col. Hugh Hanna, which gives it its name. Tliis park has 
been jjlaced in an attractive condition, but as yet no buildings have been 
erected in it. It has been made attractive with flower buds and is a fine 
resting jdaee for those who live near it. 

Clark.son W. Weesner 

By II. G. Cutler 

Since the death of Elijah Hackleman, January 16, 1901, there is no 
person living in Wabash County who has done more to record and pre- 
serve its history than Clark W. Weesner. Had it not been for his fore- 
tiiought and persistent efforts, there would have been no Lincoln Cabin 
in the eity park to commemorate the grand mind and grander virtues 
of the most rugged democrat and republican of history; the man closer 
to the hearts of his countrymen than any who has lived Ijclore or after 


him. lU'iv is a park with a purpose, a place for inspiration, as well as 
rest and recreation ; it is suggestive of Clark Weesner, the supervising 
editor of this history ; and it is the general verdict that no better selec- 
tion could have beeu made. 

It may be going too far to say that Mr. Weesner has taken more 
pride and pleasure as president of the Old Settlers' Association than 
as mayor of Wabash, but the statement is quite safe that its interests 
have never been overshadowed either in his heart or mind by those of 
any other institution. In the upbuilding of the society, as in all other 
works to which he has put his hand, he has been patient, methodical, per- 
sistent, wise and affectionate. 

^Ir. Weesner 's name indicates his German origin. It has been in- 
timated by family historians that the name was derived from the River 
W^eser in the Fatherland, in whose valley the American ancestor was 
born. ]\Iiehael Weesner, the great-great-grandfather of Clarkson AY., 
settled in North Carolina in Colonial times. Through Micajah and 
^lichael the family tree spread into Wayne and Henry counties, Indiana, 
and at length Jonathan AVeesner, the father of Clark, became a resident 
of AYaltz Township, Wabash County. This was in 1844. Two years 
afterward his iirst wife (nee Ruth Williams) died, the mother of five 
children, of whom the third was Clarkson W., who was born in Henry 
County, August 12, 1841. Both the oldest and the youngest sons were 
soldiers of the Civil wai", the latter dying in the Union service, and had 
it not been for a congenital lameness Clarkson W. would have gone to 
the front as i)romptly as they. 

I5y his second wife, Jonathan AYeesner had six children. The father 
of these two families, most of whom reached maturity, was in many re- 
s])ects a remarkalile man. The most vigorous period of his middle man- 
liood and the earlier period of his old age were passed in AYaltz Town- 
ship, where he cleared his heavily timbered land, opened up and cul- 
tivated his farm, faithfully reared his families in the paths of honesty, 
industry and piety, read industriously, grasped tenaciously and thought 
strongly. He was strong bodily and mentally, and possessed remark- 
able abilities as a mathematician and mechanician. The last years of 
his life were passed at the county seat, at the home of his daughter, Elvira 
Ridenour, until his death April 15, 1902, marked the demise of a man 
of strong purpose, rugged mentality, manly accomplishments and true 
scientific convictions. 

Clarkson W. AYeesner inherited good and strong traits from both 
his parents. Early in youth he learned tlie value of mental training 
coupled with ceaseless and straightforward work. As a pupil in the 
I)ubli(' schools, a counti'y teacher and a i)ra('tical farmer he built u]) a 


solid and influential eharaetin- which brought him into i)ersonal and pub- 
lie i'avor. in 18G3 he was appointed deputy treasurer of Wabiish County 
under Elias Hubbard, not long afterwanl eoninieneed the study of law 
and in 1870 was admitted to the bar. Six years afterward he was 
ehoseii mayor, and his administration was a credit to his training, his 
family name and the city. 

In 1878 Mr. Weesner was elected clerk of the Circuit Court, which 
position he tilled by reelection until 1887. He has the honor of being 
the last clerk who has held office for two terms. His previous experi- 
ence as deputy had given him some ideas for improvements in methods, 
which he proceeded to put into practice. Among other innovations which 
commended itself to bench and bar alike was a clear and complete index 
to judgments and other records, of especial value to persons having oc- 
casion to examine the proceedings of the court and the records of the 

Since retiring from the office of the clerk of the Circuit Court, ^Ir. 
A\'eesner has nuiinly devoted his professional abilities to probate and 
abstract business, ajid there are few better authorities in the state on these 
subjects than he. He is the examiner of abstracts in his locality for 
such companies as the Peiin ^Mutual, Connecticut j\Iutual and Aetna. 
Years ago, at the height of its usefulness, Mr. Weesner was secretary 
of tlie Wabash County Agricultural Society, and was the organizer and 
secretary of the first building and loan associafion of Wabash County. 
His sevei-al years of service as president of the Old Settlers' Association 
have added both to his responsibilities and influence. Like his father, 
he has always been a wide yet careful reader, and as he has digested 
what he has read his miiul is well-nourished and vigorous. Finally, his 
life is rounded out by marriage to a congenial companion, the birth 
of children and a harinoniou.s household. In 1865 he married ]\Iiss Anna 
Jv Leeson, and of their four sons only one has failed to reach a vigorous 
iMindiood. P>ut providence thus gives us the weak to soften our hearts 
and strengthen our affections. 

>r 'A' 



EiKST City Newspaper— The Wabash Gazette — Weekly Intelli- 


Dealer — Plain Dealer Co.^u^vNY Incorporated — The Wabash 
Tlmes-Stau— The Democrat— The Courier and Lee Llmn — First 
National I^ank — The Citizens Bank — Wabash National Bank — 
Farmers and .Merchants National Bank — Warren Bigler, Pioneer 
Abstractor — Wabash County Loan and Trust Company — Citi- 
zens Savlngs and Trust Company — Industries Distributed — 
Flour jMills First — Robert Cissna's Improvements — Summerton 
& Sons — Union and Thompson jNIills — Thomas F. Payne, First 
(Cabinet Maker — Wabash School Furniture Company — The 
Wabash Cabinet Co.mpany — Cardinal Cabinet Company — Creat 
Paper and Coating JMills — Big Four Railroad Shops — AVabash 
Baking Powder Company — Wabash Canning Company. 

The city i)ress is now represented by tli(; Wa))asli Plain Dealer and 
the Wabash Times-Star. They are both daily papers, with w.'ekly 

First City Newspapers 
The first newspaper issued from the Town of AVabash was the 
Upper AVabash Argus, which appeared in March, 1846, with Jolm U. 
Pettit as editor and IMoses Scott as publisher, printer and practical all- 
around man. The judge held on until September, when he gave way 
to Alanson P. Ferry, who continued as editor until the publication was 
suspended and the office sold to George E. Gordon, in October, 1847. 

The Wabash Gazette 

AVithin a month Mr. Gordon commenced the publication of the AVabasli 
AVeekly (iazette, with Mr. Scott as his mechanical sin>crintciulrnt. The 



paper was whi^', and with the elosing of the 1848 campaign which re- 
sulted in the election of Zachar}^ Taylor, presidential candidate of that 
party, i\lr. (iordon sold the estahlislunent to JNIr. Hcott, who, in turn, 
associated himself with Jolm L. Knight as editor. Under that nuui- 
agcment the Oa/ette continued to be issued until September, 1853, when 
it passed into the hands of Naaman Fletcher. ,■ : 

Weekly Intelligencer Founded , - ' ■ ' ,' 

In the meantime (in August, 1849), the plant had been destroyed by 
fire, and although the regular issues of the paper were thereby some- 
what delayed, a new office outfit was purchased and the Gazette reap- 
peared in a new dress and in an enlarged form. After the sale to I\Ir. 
Fletcher in 1853, ]\Ir. Scott continued his position in the publishing de- 
partment for a number of months. Then he became associated with 
Horace P. Peters and Daniel M. Cox in the purchase of a new office and 
the founding of the Weekly Intelligencer. 

The first number of the Weekly Intelligencer was issued April 26, 
1854, under the business and mechanical management of ]\Iessrs. Scott 
and Peters, who were both practical printers, and the editorial control 
of Mr. Cox. Although inexperienced as a journalist, the last named 
proved him.self to be a forceful writer and a good newspaper man. In 
May, 1855, ]\Ir. Peters and J. AV. Stout became local editors, Mr. Cox re- 
maining as general editor of the paper. ]\Ir. Scott was elected sheriff in 
1856, when ]\Iessrs Petere and Cox became sole proprietors of the In- 
telligencer. In J\Iay, 1857, that partnership was dissolved, Mr. Peters 
becoming sole proprietor and John L. Knight, principal editor. In No- 
vember of that year ]\Ir. Peters sold the office to Mr. Cox and Charles S. 
Parrish, who continued the publication of the Intelligencer until April, 
1858, at which time Naaman Fletcher, proprietor of the Gazette, became 
tjie purchaser. 

The G.vzette and Intelligencer 

After September, 1853, when ]\Ir. Fletcher took charge of the Gazette, 
tliat paper continued under his proprietorship and editorial manage- 
ment. In ]\Iarch, 1858, the office was again destroyed by fire, and in the 
following month, as already stated, Mr. Fletcher purchased the Intelli- 
gencer. On the 27th of April, 1858, he issued the merger known as The 
Gazette and Intelligencer. The paper was thus published until Mr. 
Fletcher's death in 1866, when it was sold to S. M. Ililiben, who con- 
solidated it with the Plain Dealer, of which he had been the owner for 
a number of years. 



Wabash Plain Dealer ., ;': ' • . i! ■■^, ^ 

In August, 1859, W. C. IMcGoiiegal had commenced the publication 
of the Wabash rUiiu Dealer, then a democratic paper founded along 
the lines of the Cleveland Plain Dealer. In the following year j\Ir. Mc- 
Gonegal and his paper became republican, and soon afterward was pur- 
eliased by ^Ir. Ililjben. At that time, tlie office was located on Canal 
Street, on the third floor of the tjuihliiig since occupied liy Simon 
Brothers. The Gazette disappeared witli its absorption l»y tlie IMain 
Dealer in 1866, and in llie fall of that year Mv. IIil)ben disposed of 
his paper to i^leredith 11. Kidd. After a few months, ^lajor Kidd, who 
liad made a good record in the Civil war, was api)ointe(l major in the 
regular armv and turned over the Plain Dealer to A. P. Feriy and Thad 

Old Campaign Cartoon 

Butler. In July, 1868, Ferry & Butler sold it to John L. Knight, and 
within the succeeding four years it was conducted by Mr. Knight, Knight 
& Randall, Knight & Calvert, Frank Calvert and H. H. Robinson. In 
February, 1872, it was repurchased by Ferry & Butler, and in 1876, with 
John L. Knight, these gentlemen formed a joint stock comp)any. IMessrs. 
Ferry and Knight sold their interests to Theron P. Keator, in the spring 
of 1879, and the Plain Dealer was owned and published by Keator & 
liutler from that time until February, 1882, when it was purchased by 
^Messrs. McClung, Bacon & Harris. 

Plain Dealer Company Incorporated 

On April 14, 1887, the Plain Dealer Company was incorporated by 
Warren Biglei-, Heni'v F. Harris, (ieorge C. Bacon, Charles H. Newell 


and Charles S. Haas with Mr. Bigler as president, Mr. Newell as business 
manager and secretary and .Mr. Haas as editor. .Mr. Bigler continued 
as pre.sident until 1910, when he wa-s sueceded by .Mr. Ha^s, who also 
retained editorial control. In Februaiy, 1914, the latter severed his 
connection with the Plain Dealer to give the bulk of his time to the 
l^anners and Merchants National Bank of which he had been president 
for several years. Since the retirement of .Air. Haas the active manage- 
ment of the Plain Dealer Company has been in the hands of Fred I King 
president and editor ; William H. Adams, vice president and manager and 
Harry F. Palmer, secretary and treiisurer. The last named succeeded 
Mr. Bacon, who, with Mrs. .Alary Gibson, retains stock in the company. 
Ihe daily edition of the Plain Dealer dates from July 1, 1890. 

The Wabash Times-Star 

The Wabash Times-Star is a combination of the following news- 
papers: Wabash Weekly Times, established in 1884; Wabash Daily 
Times, 1894; Wabash Weekly News, 1893 ; Wabash Daily Tribune 1894- 
Wabash Weekly Tribune, 1894; Wabash Weekly Star, 1896, and' North 
Manchester Leader, 1897. All of the foregoing newspaper^ were pur- 
chased by William H. Sharpe and combined under the name of The 
Times-Star. Mr. Sharpe issues editions of that paper every evening ex- 
cept Sunday, and a weekly issue. The paper is ably managed by Mr. 
Sharpe as editor and proprietor. 

The Democrat 

Several newspapei-s other than those mentioned have been published 
in Wabash. In July, 1870, S. S. Baker issued the Democrat, but it lived 
^less than eight months either as a private enterprise or as a joint-stock 
- creature. 

The Courier and Lee Linn 

In May, 1871, A. L. Bagley commenced the publication of the Wabash. 
Free Trader, also as an organ of the democratic party. Within the suc- 
ceeding three years it secured quite a patronage, and in May, 1874, was 
purchased by Linn & Keyes. Air. Keyes retired at the end of the busi- 
ness year, but Lee Linn continued ; and he managed to make quite a stir. 
Linn was a Scotchman, a Missourian, a dashing Union cavalryman from 
Kentucky, and a fighter in word and deed. As rather ponderously de- 
scribed Ijy one of his friends, while enlivening Wabash — "he is univer- 


sally known as possessing the physical courage to back his public utter- 
ances." Mr. Linn changed the name of his paper from the Free Trader 
to the Wabash Courier in May, 1876, and in February, 1884, announced 
boldly that the paper would henceforth be an advocate of republicanism. 
There was never a doubt about Lee Linn's courage, intellectual, moral 
or physical. But although he was interesting and inspiring, he could 
not keep the Courier alive, and it expired — kicking — a few years later. 

First National Bank ' . 

The First National Bank of Wabash was organized under the national 
banking law of February 25, 1863, with a capital stock of $50,000 and 
the jjrivilege of an increase to $100,000. Robert Cissna was president 
and John L. Knight, cashier. AVith the beginning of the year 1883, 
an application was made to the treasury department for a twenty years' 
extension of its charter, as provided by the law of July 12, 1882. The 
re(iuest was granted in the following February, and in August, 1883, 
its original capital stock was doubled, making it $100,000. At that time 
Frank W. Morse was cashier, having held the position for eleven years 
and continuing thus for two decades longer. 

The Citizens Bank 

The Citizens Bank was organized in 1868 with a capital of $50,000. 
The principal stockholders were James McCrea, Joseph Crabbs and 
John II. Bireley, who held the offices, respectively, of president, vice 
j)resident and cashier. 

AVabasii National Bank 

TlTe present Wabash National Bank was organized as the Wabash 
County Bank, July 2, 1877, with a capitalization of $60,000. This was 
a private bank, although possessing a corporate name, the owners being 
Joseph W. Busick, Geo. N. King and Thomas j\IcNamee. The first two 
named were president and vice president, respectively, and James L 
Robertson, cashier. In 1888 the bank was changed into the Wabash 
National Bank, the officers remaining the same and the capital being 
increased to $120,000. Upon the death of Geo. N. King, in February, 
1897, his brother, Thomas W. King, was elected to succeed him. Upon 
the death of Joseph W. Busick in IVIarch, 1897, Thomas ]\rcNamee was 
elected president. Upon the death of T. W. King in 1912, J. 1. Robert- 
son was elected vice pi'csident and still continu(,'d as casiii»,r. This has 


c'OiitnnuMl to the pn-seiit. Tiu; capitalization ol $]2(),0()() has also re- 
niaiiifd, hut a suri)lus of $5U,0U0 has l)eeii accumulated. George N. 
King and Tlujinas McXauice were friends for over half a century and 
partners in various husiness enterprises during this jteriod. Their asso- 
ciation was the utmost harmony, without discord, and they remained 
as brothers until the death of Ur. King. In February, VJIO, the First 
National JJank of \VaI)ash w,-nt out of business, surrendered its charter 
and its alTaiis were taken over by the Wabash National Bank. Prior 
to tliis <'iti/.ens I5aid< was taken over by the Wabash National Bank. 
Of the original organizers of the bank .Mr. .AIcNamee is the only survivor. 

(f-.v- V. ..•.■! ; Fak-mkr.s AND Mi'KciiAXTs National Bank u ir. 

On the 1st of i,)ctober, 11)01, Howard .AI. Atkinson, son of A. M. 
Atkinson, so many years identified with the Aetna Life Insurance Com- 
l)any and lirst president of the Wabash Board of Trade, founded the 
Farmers and Merchants Bank, in that enterprise, the younger Mr. 
Atkinson associated liiniself with Frank W. Alorse, who had been cashier 
of the Fii'st National Hank j'oi' nearly thirty years and -lohn 11. P.irely, 
who had held a simihir position with the Citizens Hank since LS7S. It 
was certainly a strong coml)ination for the establishment of the private 
bank which was established at that time with a capital of $GO,OUO and 
deijosils of $1U0,(JUU. 

On dune 2:i, 1902, it became a national institution under the name 
of the Farmers and Merchants National Bank, with II. Ix Shively as 
president, Howard M. Atkinson and Frank W. Morse, vice presidents, 
and John II. P.ireley, cashi.'r. It was caj)italiz.'d at $100,000. In 1906 
^Ir. Atkinsiiti retired and Charles S. Haas succeeded him as vice presi- 
dent. .Mr. P.ireley resigned the cashiership in 1908, and was followed 
by Otto (i. Hill, formerly of the Citizens Bank. Judge Shively died on 
^ptember 10, 1910, and :\lr. Haas has held the presidency since. 

Since January 10, 1910, the Farmers and Merchants National Bank 
has occupied a handsome building of its own, erected at a cost of $36,000. 
AVhile the capital of the institution remains the same as originally fixed, 
its deposits have increased from $100,000 to $1,000,000. Its surplus 
and undivided profits amount to $50,000. 

Warren Bigler, Pioneer Abstractor 

There are several abstract, loan and trnst companies which should 
be mentioned in connection with the finances of Wabash. The oldest 
abstract and loan business was established l)y Warren Bigler in 1875. 


At that time his office was the only concern of the kind in the Wabash 
Valley, and every line of the original books was written by himself. 
Those who have had long experience in the abstract business assert that 
their correctness is remarkable. Mr. Bigler afterward added the mak- 
ing of loans on farm and city property to his original business, and for 
years the transactions of the Wabash Abstract and Loan Company have 
been widely extended. Claude D. Stitt, president of the company, is 
also an old and experienced abstractor. ., 

Wabash County Loan and Trust Company , ,,, , , ^.^ 

The AVabash County Loan and Trust Company was organized in the 
fall of 11)07 with a capital of $60,000, which has since been increased 
to $125,000. The company does a commercial and savings banking busi- 
ness, has also insurance and real estate departments, and acts in all trust 
capacities. Its president is Nelson G. Hunter, a well known lawyer and 
old citizen. 

Citizens Savings and Trust Company 

The Citizens Savings and Trust Company, which was incorporated 
in April, 1913, does a general banking business, rents safety vaults, and 
maintains insurance and abstract of title departments. Elmer Burns, 
the president, is a leading farmer, and C. H. LaSelle, secretary, an ex- 
perienced insurance man. The company has a capital of $50,000, sur- 
plus of $25,000 and resources of over $200,000. 

Industries Distributed 

From the first, the citizens of Wabash adhered to their determination 
that* the eggs from which she was to hatch her prosperity should be 
placed in various baskets; therefore the field of her manufactures has 
produced many crops. The result was that the city seldom experienced 
a general season of depression, as it was not within the probabilities 
that all lines of manufactures, from flour and furniture to paper and 
vegetables, could take a slump at the same time. 

Flour Mills First 

The flour mills of Wabash, although not extensive, represent the 
pioneer industry of the locality. The plant operated by the Wabash 
Milling Company (Summerton & Sons) on West Canal Street is the 

Vol.t ^22 



oldest and hirgt'.st. Tlie mills have a daily eapaeitj- of about one hun- 
dred barrels, and their business is founded on the enterprise plaeed on 
its feet bv Kol)ert Cissna in 1843. 

' '■ Robert Cissna 's Improvements 

As (^arly as 1835 Colon«d Hanna had improved the waterpower at 
AVabash and l)uilt a gristmill, but Cissna 's improveuKMits are directly 
connected with ])i'esent-day industry. In the year mentioned lie came 
to town on a tour of inspection to find a site upon which to erect a cus- 
tom and merchant mill. At that time the waterpower furnished by the 
Wabash and Erie Canal was being utilized all along its line from Toledo 

Old Spoke and Bending Factory, Wabash 

to Lafayette. Upon examination Mr. Cissna ascertained that such a 
i?ite could be procured subject to the terms prescribed by the managers 
of the canal, with the consent of the State Legislature. By an act of 
that 1)ody approved January 15, 1844, the state board of internal im- 
provements was instructed to lease to Mr. Cissna the waterpower at 
the lock on the Wabash and Erie Canal at the Town of Wabash and 
"for the i)urp()se of erecting thereon a mill house, and further to carry 
out and the object of the purchase or lease of said waterpower, to 
enter upon, take possession of, use and occupy so much of Canal Street 
in said Town of Wabash, as also so much of a space of public ground in 
said town lying west of fractional Lot No. 1 between the Wabash and 
Erie Canal and Canal Street as may lie and be situated within a line 
commencing at and running north from the north side of the tumble 


at said lock, fifty-t-iglit feet, thence west forty-one feet, thence south to 
the canal, and thence east along the canal to the tumble or place of be- 
ginning;" also, ''that said purchaser, or lessf^e, may for the purpose 
specified in the first section of this act, use and occupy any portion of 
the south part of Canal Street in said town not exceeding eighteen feet 
from north to south, not forty-one feet from east to west, commencing 
within and not varying more than ten feet in any direction from the 
northeast and nortiiwest corners of the premises in the first section of 
this act particularly described ; as also so much of the space of public 
ground in said town west of fractional Lot No. 1 as may be east of a 
line running from the northwest corner of the premises so used and oc- 
cupied, to the Wabash and Erie Canal." 

• ii,; ^iiv ! vv, , SUMMERTON & SoNS : ' •■ 

Pursuant to those instructions, Mr. Cissna secured a thirty years' 
lease of the premises described, dating from November 1, 1844, with the 
right to use so much of the surplus water not required at the lock, for 
the purposes of navigation at Wabash, "as would be sufficient, applied 
to an overshot wheel of eight feet diameter with proper gearing, to 
propel two four and one-half feet mills." Under this authority, Mr. 
Cissna erected the original building of what is now the Wabash Milling 
Company. 1). Thomi)son & Son became the owner of this mill and 
operated it for several years. For many years past the mills have been 
operated by George W. Summerton, assisted during the later period by 
his sons, Clayton C. and George P. 

Union INIills 

There is also another mill in operation within the city limits, estab- 
lishetl many years ago — the Union Mills, on the south side, long operated 
by Small & Company and owned by Charles N. Jones & Son. 

Thomas F. Payne, First Cabinet-Maker 

Among the pioneer industries of Wabash was cabinet-making, which 
was founded and first fostered by Thomas F. Payne. He was of an old 
Virginia family and when a young boy moved with his parents to Ken- 
tucky and thence into the Wabash Valley. The family settled near 
Fayetteville, Rush County, where, as well as at Indianapolis, Thomas F. 
learned his trade of cabinet-making. On his twenty-third birthday, 
August 23, 1849, he located at Wabash and opened a small shop in the 


western part oi" the city as the commeiiceinent of an independent busi- 
ness. It is needless to impress the faet upon the reader that the young 
man, at first, nuide everything l)y hand. His sales for the first year of 
business aggregated about one thousand dollars, and 50 per eent more 
the second year, when he moved his shop to a l)etter location on ]\Iiami 
Street. Gradually he took on a few hands and in 1864 l)0ught out the 
factory of Wliiteside & Wilson. A few years afterward his brother, 
Sanuiel d. Payne, who liad been serving in the Civil war, added cai)ital 
and service to the ])usiness, which was conducted for years thereafter 
under tlie name T. F. Payne & Company. Although the plant was de- 
stroyed by fire in 1873, it was at on(;e rebuilt in an enlarged and im- 
proved form, and the business developed into tiie largest industry of 
its kind within a hundred miles of Wabash. In 1884 the firm was dis- 
solved and the divided among various members of the family — 
T. F. Payne and his sons, Edward and DeWitt taking the factory and 
the wholesale trade, while the retail branch was assumed by S. J. 
Payne, the brother. 

Wabash Scuool Furniture Company 

In 1872 William M. Henley, D. W. Lumaree and John Rose associated 
themselves in the manufacture of school furniture, under the name of 
the Wabash School Furniture Company. A stock company was formed 
and incorporated with J. S. Daugherty as president, and William M. 
Henley, secretary and treasurer; these, with Solomon Wilson, Philip 
Alber, II. Caldwell and John II. Bruner, constituted the board of di- 
rectors. After renting quarters for a time, in 1874 several two-story 
stone buildings were erected at the corner of Carroll and AVater streets, 
and the business was placed on a solid footing. It flourished for many 
years, chiefly under the presidency of Mr. Daugherty, and the manu- 
facture came to embrace not only school furniture, but cabinet work and 
material connected with churches, offlces and business houses. 

The Wabash Cabinet Company 

At the present time, the manufacture of furniture in its various lines 
is represented by the Wabash Cabinet Company and the Cardinal Cab- 
inet Company. The former is the outcome of the business established 
by H. C. Underwood in 1883. In that year Mr. Underwood built a 
plant for the manufacture of wood specialties. For many years, the 
late A. ]\I. Atkinson was president of the company, which in 1900 was 
incorporated as the Wabash Cabinet Company. John A. Bruner sue- 


ceedtnl ^[r. Atkinson (jii the death of the latter, and from 1904 to 1907 
tlie lj\isiii('ss was ojx-rated by creditors. It was then in the liands of a 
receiver until March, 1909, when the business was sold and reorganized 
under the old name. Under the new management all debts have been 
l)aid and the industry brought to the front. Thomas F. Vaughn is 
president of the company and W. 11. Urschel, secretary and treasurer. 

Si' Cardinal Cabinet Company . , , ,..,■ ,,. 

Tlie Cardinal Cabinet Company has its main factory at Marion, In- 
diana. Frank Keno is superintendent of the Wabash branch. 

Great Paper and Coating Mills 

When the consideration is volume of business and impressiveness 
of plant, the great paper and coating mills at Wabash overshadow all 
its other industries. The grounds in the w^estern part of the city cover 
fifty acres of land, and the massive two-story brick structures, which rep- 
resent nearly a quarter of a century of industrial expansion and build- 
ing operations, stretch along a frontage of fully 1,000 feet. Since 
the 17th of ]\Iarch, 1890, the company has operated its constantly ex- 
panding plant, so lirmly bound together by local tracks and to the out- 
side world through the Big Four system of railroads. The original 
building is a portion of the western mill, or that in which is conducted 
the manufacture of paper. The business was then controlled by the 
Diamond Match Company. The eastern, portion of the plant, the so- 
called Coating Mills were erected in 1898-99. Since then the plant has 
been operated under the name of the Wabash Paper Company, as a 
branch of the United Paper Board Company of New York, which owns 
and conducts twelve branches in various parts of the country, four of 
which are in Indiana — at IMuncie, Yorktown, Rockport and Wabash. 

The paper mill has a daily capacity of sixty tons, and the coating 
works of twenty, their products comprising the finest coated litho:iraphic 
and chromo jjlated and glazed papers, card board of every description, 
coated manilas, translucents and strawl)Oard— plain, lined and double 

An idea of the magnitude of the operations conducted at these mills 
nuiy be obtained by a simple statement as to the amount of water con- 
sumed. This reaches a daily volume of 4,000,000 gallons, or fully three 
tinies as much as is consumed by the remainder of the entire City of 
Wabash. The supply of the Wabash Paper Company consists of river 
water which is used in the manufacture of cardboard and the cruder 


products, and twenty-four connected artesian wells which furnish 
water devoid of sediment and utilized in the manufacture of tine papers. 
In short, the Wabash paper and coating tnills are known throughout the 
country as among the best equipped and the most ably managed of the 
plants controlled by the corporation mentioned. 

Big Four Railroad Shops 

The railroad sliops of the Big Four in the eastern part of Wabash 
also constitute an important industry. The old shops were erected in 
1872 by what was then known as the Cincinnati, Wabash & IMichigan 
Railroad Company. The City of Wabash paid a bonus of $25,000 as an 
inducement for the location. The old shops were burned October 23, 
1894, and the new ones of the present completed in January, 1896. The 
roundhouse has a capacity of fifteen stalls and, with the shops, employs 
a large and constant force of men. 

Wabash Baking Powder Company 

The Wabash Baking Powder Company operates a flourishing in- 
dustry. The business was established in 1895 under the auspices of the 
Liberty Baking Powder Company. The products now put out include 
not only baking powder, but a large variety of flavoring extracts, pow- 
dered skim milk and cocoa, and the present management comprises the 
following: Roy 0. Rowan, president; Thomas F. Kelly, superintendent; 
and II. M. Gamble, secretary and treasurer. 

Wabash Canning Company 

The large plant of the Wabash Canning Company is located south of 
the river, and embraces a factory 300 by 50 feet and a warehouse, 200 
by 60 feet, and an extensive silo. The business originated in 1897 
w*ith the Great Western Canning Company of Delphi, Indiana. Un- 
der its management the original buildings were erected. In 1907 the 
company sold its Wabash plant to- Charles Lathera and L. L. Hyraan, 
who formed the present operating company, as president and secretary 
and treasurer, respectively. The factory manufactures and handles the 
season's product from 800 acres of corn and 300 acres of tomatoes, and 
a large quantity of sauer kraut, kidney beans and pumpkin. 

The foregoing by no means end the list of Wabash industries. The 
Service i\Iotor Truck Company has a flourishing business. In the city 
are a number of machine shops, a glove factory, saddle and carriage 
works, a large wholesale and retail bakery and two flourishing laundries. 
Which is doing pretty well for a city of her size. 


;V' '■ ■■ ' ' CIimiCIIES AND SOCIETIES = ■ 

The Pkesbytkriax Church — Houses op Worship — Dr. Little's Long 
Servici: — Early IMethodism — Formation of Wabash Class — Per- 
manent Pastors — Wabash Circuit Organized — Church Buildings 
— Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) — Period of Uncer- 
tainty — Permanent Home and Pastors — St. Bernard's Catholic 
Church — Resident and Visiting Pastors — St. jMatthenv's Evan- 
gelical Church— Friends' Church (South Wabash)— Early 
Baptist Society Disbands — Wabash Street j\I. E. Church — ]\Iid- 
DLE Street U. E. Church— The African M. E. Church- The 
First Evangelical Church — First Church of Christ Scientist 
—United Brethren Churches— Other Religious Bodies in the 
City — Churches Outside of AVabash — First ^^Iasonic Lodge 
(11 ANNA No. 61)— First Instructor in Craft Mysteries— Charter 
Granted to Hanna Lodge No. 61 — Growth and Present Status — 
Excelsior Chapter, R. A. M.— Wabash Chapter No. 26 Chartered 
— The Passing of Hugh Hanna — Leading Chapter Masons — Peti- 
tion FOR A Councii^-John B. Rose and H. C. Skinner— Wabash 
Council No. 13 Chartered — The Commandery— The 0. E. S.— The 
Masonic Hall — Anastasia Mesnil Lodge No. 46, I. 0. 0. F.— Lead- 
ing Odd Fellows— Ebron ah Encampment— Daughters of Re- 
bekah— Rock City Lodge op Odd Fellows— The Elks and Their 
Fine Home— Knights of Pythias— Knights and Ladies of the 
Maccabees— The Forf^sters in Wabash— The Eagles (Aerie No. 
549)_Ben Hur (Wabash Court No. 23)— Okoboji Tribe and 
Council (I. 0. R. M.)— Other Societies and Unions. 

There is no leading religious sect of the day which is not worthily 
and solidly represented in Wabash; which fact materially adds to its 
desirability as a city of residences and homes. Its oldest church is also 
one of its strongest ; which speaks well for the wearing qualities of its 
church goers and church supporters, as well as for the substantial qual- 
ities of its pastors. 



The Presbyterian Church 

The Prcsliyterian Clinrch of Wa))ash liad its ori<,Mn in the First Pres- 
byterian Chnreh (New Seiiool), wliich was orj^^uiized May 7, IH.'JG, by 
the Rev. Samuel Newbury, then of Peru, Jndiana, who, prior to that 
time, liad oecasionally preached in the Town of AVabasli. At first, the 
membership was not large, but it was zealous — whieh was the l)est guar- 
antee of permaneney. :\Ir. Newbury held it together until 18:37, when 
Rev. Asa Johnson assumed charge of the congregation, and labored with 
good results for five years. From 1842 to 1847 Rev. James Thompson 
was pastor of the New Seliool l^resbyterian Church, when he was suc- 
ceeded l)y Rev. Samuel D. Smith, who sustained pastoral relations dur- 
ing tile succeeding three years. In 1850 i\Ir. Tliompson accepted a sec- 
ond call, and remained with the church for two more years. He was 
followed in the pastorate by Rev. John Fairchild, who served from 
185G until the end of 1861. Then came Rev. AV. J. Essick, from 1862 to 
1870, under whose pastorate the membership increased so rapidly and 
the work of the church so expanded that during the year 1869-70 he 
was assisted by Rev. Everett B. Thomson, D. D. 

On March 3d, of the latter year, the New School and the Old School 
Presbyterian churches were united under the name of The Presbyterian 
Church of Wabash. The Old School Presbyterian Church had been or- 
ganized January 24, 1846, a committee from the Fort Wayne Presbytery 
having been appointed for that purpose. Rev. Matthew R. Miller, D. D., 
its first pastor, was followed by the following: Rev. A. C. McClelland, 
1847-51 ; Rev. James W\ McClusky, 1852-53 ; Rev. Samuel T. Thompson, 
1856-57; Rev. Jasper W. McGregor, 1858-59; Rev. Richard Curran, D. 
D., 1859-60; Rev. David Kingery, 1861-63; Rev. William B. Browne, 

^ Houses of Worship 

At the time of the reunion, the New School Church owned and had 
occupied for several years a large frame building opposite the court- 
house s(iuare on the east; the building of the Old School Church was 
on the southwest corner of Hill and Miami streets. For a period of more 
than ten years, the united congregation, under the present name of the 
Presbyterian Church of Wabash, occupied the former building of the 
Old School Church. At that time the society numbered about two hun- 
dred and sixty members. In the meantime, the New School Presbyterian 
property had been sold, and a portion of the proceeds were afterward ap- 
plied to the purchase of the present parsonage property, adjoining the 
church on the west. 


Dk. Little's Long Service 

Kcv. Arc'liihiiUl S. Rred servcnl tlie Preshytcfian Oliurcli from tho time 
of its formation JMarcli 8, 1870, until the coming of Rev. Charles Little, 
I). 1)., tile present pastor, on the 1st of November, 1872. In length of 
service. Doctor Little is therefore the father of Wabash pastors, and in 
tlie mellowness and strengtli of his eharactei' lie is instinctively ae- 
coi'ded the same relationsliip by the ehurcli goers of the city, irrespective 
of sect or ivligious predilections. Doctor Little has long held high rank 
both ill the state synod and the genei;al asseinlily of his church, having 
been clerk of the former for more than twenty years and moderator of 
the national body. Tie also occupies the position of senior pastor of the 
State of Indiana from the standpoint of continuous service with one- 

During Doctor Little's pastorate of forty-two years with the Pres- 
byterian Church of AVabash, the tine church property on the corner of 
Hill and IMiami has been developed, the membership built up to 500, 
and an earnest, progi'essive, reverent and loyal society founded and 

On the 16th of Alay, 1880, the work of razing the old church edifice 
was commenced. For a few Sundays thereafter, services were held in 
the old opera house, and afterward, until the lecture room was com- 
])leted in the new church (September, 1881,) in the corridors of the new 
courthouse. It was not until Sunday, January 18, 1884, that the au- 
ditorium of the new church was completed and the building formally 
dedicated. Reverend Doctor Johnson preached the dedicatory sermon 
and it may be of interest to old members of the church to be reminded 
of iiis text : "Because tlieir waters issue out of the sanctuary." — Ezekiel 
XLVII, 12. 

iVt the conclusion of the sermon, preparatory to the dedicatory serv- 
ice, Doctor Little stated that the cost of the church had been $22,000; 
that during the year preceding, improvements to the amount of $1,;500' 
had been made on the parsonage, thus making the total cost of the build- 
ings and improvements $28,300. In 1894 the present handsome par- 
sonage was completed at a cost of $6,000, and in li)04 the church itself 
was rebuilt along modern lines. It was rededicated January 1, 1905, 
and was further remodeled, chiefly as to iieating and lighting con- 
veniences, in 1907. These last-named im})rovemeiits cost about $12,000, 
so that tile church is now convenient and beautiful from eveiy stand- 
point of comfort and taste. 


I'/ X li V .. , Early Methodism 

M(.'tlio(lism was the second religious denoininatiou to obtain a foot- 
hold in Wabash. The evidence is that its tenets were preached locally 
before those of Presbyterianisni, but its members did not organize into 
a society until some time afterward. It is known that as early as 18;i5, 
Rev. Alexander McLean, a ^lethodist preacher, had a circuit extending 
along the Uj^pcr AVabash Valley, and occasionally preached at Wal)ash 
and La Gro. It is also in evidence that in :\Iarch, 1837, Jared K. I\Iar- 
slianms, a traveling minister of Methodism, preached in a vacant house 
owned by Patrick Dutfey, on the northwest corner of Huntington and 
Market streets. Afterward he came to AVabash regularly every six 
weeks, preaching thus until the fall of 1838. But there were few Meth- 
odists in the place and neither class nor society was organized. 

*■''"'■ '"'■■"' Formation OF AVab.\sii Class 

The movement which linally resulted in a local church originated 
outside of AVabash. On his way westward to fill various appointments 
in his circuit, Mr. ^^larshaums preached a sermon at the house of Ezekiel 
Cox about four miles down the canal, March 18, 1837. Such was the 
encouragement given at that meeting that at the time of the next monthly 
services, April 29th, a class was organized consisting of :\Ir. Cox, wife 
and daughter, and two others. This expanded soon into a society of 
forty-five members, under the pastorate of Rev. Burroughs AVestlake, 
of Logansport, and David Squires ; later, under E. Holstock and Reverend 

About 1841, during the pastorate of John F. Truslow, this class was 
moved to AVabash and reorganized. David Squires and wife and AVilliam 
Tyner and wife were among the early members of the AVabash society. 
Another class, which had been organized in the Levi S. Thomas neigh- 
borhood, two miles west of the Cox settlement, was also merged into the 
AVabash society. 

Permanent Pastors 

Revs. AV. F. AVheeler and H. B. Beers served prior to 1844, when 
John Davis, a Methodist preacher and uncle of Allen AV. Smith, settled 
permanently in Wabash as pastor of the church. At this time the AVal)ash 
society was embraced in the Peru district, of which Burroughs AS'est- 
lake was the presiding elder, and the local preacher was Reverend Boy- 
den, appointed at the conference of 1844-45, held at Fort Wayne. 



* "' • '■ Wabash Circuit Organized '' ' ■ 

In 1847 Wabash Circuit was ()r<,'atiized, witli 0. V. Lemon presiding 
elder, and M. S. .Morrison, pastor of the local church. From that time 
until 1858, when Wabash Station was organized, there appears to be a 
break in the records continuing the list of local pastors. Since that 
year the list is as follows: Rev. W. R. Kistler, appointed in 1858; Rev. 
R. D. Spellman, 1860; Rev. L. W. Monson, 1861; Rev. II. J. Meeks, 
1862; Rev. C. N. Sims, 1864; Rev. J. Colclaser, 1865; Rev. S. X. Camp- 
bell, 1866; Rev. J. Comstock, 1868; Rev. William J. Vigus, 1870; Rev. 
M. 11. Mendenhall, 1873; Rev. C. W. Lynch, 1880; Rev. C. il. Brown, 
1883; Rev. A. E. Mahin, 1886; Rev. C. E. Bacon, 1888; Rev. A. AV. 
Lamport, 1891; R<iv. Soraerville Light, 1896; Rev. C. U. Wade; Rev. 
H. M. Herriek, 1898; Rev. M. S. Marble; Rev. William Harkness, 1904; 
Rev. A. S. Preston, 1906; Rev. D. H. Guild, 1908; Rev. J. K. Cecil, 
1912; Rev. Earle Naftger, 1913. 

Church Buildings 

The first liouse of worship was erected in 1849 across the street north 
from the postotfice ; the second building, on the northeast corner of Sin- 
clair and Cass streets, on the present site of St. Bernard's Catholic 
Church. The church was remodeled in 1880, being dedicated on Sun- 
day, January 23, 1881, by Bishop Bowanan. Adjacent to the church on 
the east was the brick parsonage, both being considered handsome build- 
ings in their day. The condition of the society in the early '80s is de- 
scribed by Rev. C. W. Lynch, in his farewell to the people of his charge, 
on Sunday morning, April 8, 1883: "During the last three years we 
have received into this church, on probation, about 175 persons. AVe have 
received into full membership about 130. We have today on our rec- 
ords >n full membership, after the records have been carefully revised, 
and the deaths, the withdrawals and dismissals by letter are carefully 
noted, 519 members in church and twenty-two iDrobationers. " 

The church property on the northeast corner of Sinclair and Cass 
streets was sold to the Catholics in 1898, the First ]\Iethodist Church 
liaving erected the magnificent structure since occupied on the opposite 
corner. The membership has since reached 725 and the Sunday School 
260, making it the strongest religious body in Wabash. 

Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) 

The Christian Church of Wal)ash is alert, vigorous and growing; and 
it has but lately entered its seventy-third year. Its iiistorian has this to 


Hsy of its foundin-/: ''On Sunday, Septein})er 4, 1842, at the old village 
Sfhoolhousi' a few rods northeast of the depot of tlie Wabash, St. Louis & 
Taeilie Railway, a small eoiij^'regation of I)is('ii)l('s iiad assembled to hear 
a discourse by Elder Daniel Jaekson, an early })ioneer of Wabash County 
and at that time one of the associate judges of the Wabash Circuit 
Court. Here the nucleus of the Christian Church of Wabash was formed, 
and after the sermon an organization was effected, the result of which 
is visible today. The members of this first congregation were Daniel 
Jackson, Lydia Jaekson, Sr., Lydia Jackson, Jr., James Ford, America 
Ford, Elizabeth Caldwell and Simeon B. Loyd. After the organization, 
Daniel Jackson and James Ford were appointed elders. At a subse- 
quent meeting Samuel Boden and Robert D. Helm were appointed 

"Polder Jackson made this congregation his home, and during the 
remaining twelve years of his life he labored diligently for its success. 
On the 26th day of June, 1854, he was gathered to his fathers. So far 
as can be ascertained, Mr. Jackson preached tlie first sermon within the 
limits of "Wabash County at the house of William Grant near the present 
town of La Fontaine, in the spring of 1835. And some time between 
1835 aiul 1840, Brother Jacob Nelson, a veteran in the Reformation, who 
had settled among the wilds of Eel River, was laboring among the sparse 
settlements along that river, and during 1840 or 1841 visited Wabash 
a few times." 

Period of Uncertainty 

During the first twenty-five years of its existence the Disciples' 
Church was without a permanent house of worship, its services being 
conducted by the elders, who were not considered regular or perinanent 
pastors. Prof. Ryland T. Brown and Elder B. K. Smith served the con- 
gregation during 1843, and Elder Ebenezer Thompson in 1844-47. John 
B. New, James ^lathes, Peter T. Russell, ]\Iilton B. Hopkins, William 
P. Shockey and Benjamin Wharton labored continuously to build up 
the church for the succeeding five years. At that time the church had 
a membership of about one hundred and thirty. Then came a period of 
decline, despite meetings held irregularly by such as Henry L. Pritchard, 
Jesse D. Scott, Henry W. IMcPherson and John L. Stone, and by the 
commencement of the Civil war the membership had decreased to thirty. 
Services were being held every two weeks at the courthouse and alto- 
gether the outlook was not encouraging, notwithstanding those who 
lield firndy to their faith in final success l)ogan to move in the matter of 
providing a permanent house of worship. P'rom the 1st day of ^Farch, 


1863, the Baptist Church BuiUIing was occupied by the Disciples when- 
ever possible, and a iiunil)er of revivals were held which increased the 
membership of the society and made a separate house of worship a 

■'^ '■ '■' Permanent Home and Pastors 

In 1865 a larg:e brick church was commenced at the corner of Hill 
and i\Iiami streets, the first meeting therein being held the first Lord's 
Day in January, 1867. The services \vere conducted by Elder AV. S. 
Winfield, assisted ])y J. B. ^Marshall, of Warsaw, and B. ]\I. Blount, of 
Tipton. The church was not formally dedicated until January 8, 1871. 
After Elder Winfield, the next regular pastor of the Christian Church 
was Llewellyn L. Carpenter, who made his first visit to Wabash on the 
24th of October, 1868. His five years' service was very successful. 
Elder Carpenter continued in pastoral charge until October, 1873, and 
was succeeded by Elder A. A. Knight, of Hamilton, Ohio, who entered 
upon his pastorate November 28, 1873, and remained until June, 1875. 
A. ]\I. Atkinson and Elder Carpenter assumed charge for short periods 
afterward; Robert S. Blount, of Indianapolis, served from October 22, 
1876, to the fall of 1879; Ira J. Chase, of Peoria, Illinois, for three years 
from May, 1880, and since that time the following have served the church 
— some of them "without money and without price": A. INI. Atkinson, 
Llewellyn Carpenter, Samuel J. Tondinson, Cary E. iNIorgan, George B. 
Vanarsdall, Earle Wilfley, William Groom, J. PL Powell, Edgar F. 
Daugherty, S. J. Colyer and Frank E. Jaynes. 

The old Christian Church of 1865-71 was remodeled in 1884, and 
improvements since made have made it well adapted to the purposes of 
a leading city society of religious workers. At present its membership 
is about five hundred. 

St. Bernard's C.vtiiolic Church 

St. Bernard's Catholic Church, in charge of Rev. Father William D. 
Sullivan, has more than four hundred souls within its jurisdiction, its 
property being that of the former Methodist Church, northeast corner 
of Sinclair and Cass streets. The Catholics acquired this in 1900, soon 
after the IMethodists erected their new church on the opposite corner. 

The first Catholic priest who is known to have visited Wabash was 
Rev. John Ryan, of La Gro, who made occasional visits to the county 
seat from 1862 to September, 1865, saying mass at the houses of Patrick 
ivoi-y and otliers. During lliat period he coiK'cted about tliirly-five 


Irish and Gennaii Catholics in the conniiunity and laid the foundation 
of a new ehiireh. Throuy:h the efforts of Father Ryan and Rev. B. 
Kroe^er, a ehureli edifiee was eoinnieneed on West ^laple Street, the lot 
for its site liaving l)een donated by Patrick Dwyer. It was a brick build- 
ing. ;]0 by GO feet, and was completed under the pastorate of R«v. M. E. 
Canii)ion, of La Gro, at a cost of $2,000. 

In 1877 a frame schoolhouse was l)uilt l)y Rev. F. C. Wiechmann, 
but discontinued the first year. The first priest's house was built on 
the corner of Maple and Comstock, a block west of the church, but in 
1888 a new residence was erected on Minor and Fisher streets. This 
Was while St. Bernard's was in charge of Rev. John H. Bathe. In 1898 
the church building was greatly enlarged and improved, while under 
the pastorate of Rev. P. J. Crosson. Soon afterward these properties 
were exchanged for the Methodist Church, corner of Sinclair and Cass, 
the consideration being $22,000 and a cash difference of $5,500. A 
brick hiiuse l)ack of the church was also ])OUght for school purposes. 
The church was remodeled to conform to the purposes of the Catholic 
ceremonials at a cost of $3,500 and dedicated, September 23, 1900, by 
Rev. I). II. Clark. 

Resident and Visiting Pastors 

Resident pastors of St. Bernard's: Rev. F. C. Wiechmann, 1871-79; 
Rev. ^I. M. Ilallinan, D. D., 1879-81; Rev. John II. Bathe, 1881-98; 
Rev. P. J. Crosson, 1898-1900; Rev. Robert J. Pratt, 1900-10; Rev. 
William D. Sullivan, 1910. 

Visiting pastors: Rev. John Ryan, La Gro, 1862-65; Rev. B. Kroe- 
ger, Peru, 1865-66; Rev. George Steiner, La Gro, 1866-68; Rev. M. E. 
Campion, La Gro, 1868-71. 

• St. Matthew's Evangelical Church 

In 1859 a German settlement was made near Belden postoffice on the 
eastern border-line of Wabash County, and the Lutherans soon erected 
a little church near Urbana, also in this county. From Urbana the min- 
isters soon became accustomed to extend their missionary labors to the 
Town of Wabash, and within a year such an interest was created at the 
county seat that a society w^as organized composed of the following- 
members : Fred Ranch, Jacob Ilildebrandt, Henry Geible, Phillip Keller, 
Peter Mattern, ]\Iichael Schlemmer, Peter Hipskind and Adam Hips- 
kind. Thus, in 1861, was organized the St. Matthew's Evangelical 


Soon after the organization of the society a substantial frame chnreh 
was erected on the corner of Huntington and "Walnut streets. In 1879 
this was enlarged, remodeled and adapted to tiie developed society, 
and this also was re])laeed by the modern editiee now occupied, which 
was completed in 1903. The present pastor, Rev. Paul 0. David, has a 
congregation of 200 earnest Christian workers in full membership. 

The successive pastors of St. ^Matthew's Evangelical Church have 
been as follows: Rev. J. Gubler, 1862-64; Rev. A. Ebliug, 1864-66; Rev. 
J. J. Mernitx, lb66-70; Rev. F. Frankenfeld, 1872-76; Rev. J. Schumm, 
1876-80; Rev. A. Debu.s, 1880-86; Rev. J. Grunert, 1886-87; Rev. Ch. 
Fischer, 1887-91; Rev. G. Hess, 1891-1905; Rev. Theo. Jud, 1905-09; 
Rev. William Howe, 1909-11; Rev. L. Kehle, 1911-13; Rev. Paul 0. 
David, 1914. 

Friends' Church (South AVabash) 

The Friends' Church in South AVabash is one of the strongest and 
most progressive religious bodies in the city, having an active member- 
ship of 300. The first building of the society was erected in 1883 at the 
corner of Sivey and Church streets. The present location, corner of 
Pike and Adams streets, was secured in 1906 and the building erected 
tile same year. It is both original in architecture and shows good taste 
in its decorations, both exterior and interior. The body of the edifice is 
of light brick, with stone foundation. The present pastor of the Friends' 
Church is Rev. II. A. Furstenberger. 

Early Baptist Society Disbands 

The Baptists organized at an early day in AVabash, but did not sur- 
vive as a church. In January, 1841, Elder T. C. Townsend organized 
the Fii-st Baptist Cluu'ch of AVabash. He says in his "Reminiscences": 
"In the winter of 1840-41, I itinerated over a large country entirely 
destitute of Baptist preaching, and very little preaching of any kind. I 
visited AVabash Town, the county seat of AVabash County on the AVabash 
River, and con.stituted the First Baptist Church of AVabash Town all 
alone, because helps could not be had. I then held a meeting of several 
days, and did the first baptising ever done in the AVabash River between 
Fort AVayne and Logansport. I left that church in a very prosperous 
condition, and after moving from Anderson ville to my farm near In- 
dianapolis, it was out of my reach. Elder George Sleeper moved to 
AVabash Town and took charge of that church. He afterward moved to 


TIk; C'liurch apjjcars to have been in a fairly prosperous condition 
until the outtjreak of the C'ivil war, when it was in eharf^e of R(\v. Henry 
(.'. Skinner, who went to the fi'ont as chaplain of th(; 'i'wenty-first Ohio 
\'oluntccr Infantry. l)ui-in<,' tlic war and for five or six years after- 
ward nieetinj,'s were discontinued and were never revived with vigor. 
The last Baptist services were held in 1872. 

Wabash Street ]\I. E. Church 

Because of a disagreement as to the location of the 1898 building, a 
])ai't of the congregation of the First Church withdrew and organized 
the Wabash Street .M. E. Church in April, 1899. Its pastor was Rev. 
James A. Patterson. His successors have been as follows: Rev. Gran- 
ville B. Work, 1901-08; Rev. John J. Fred, 1908-10; Rev. Herbert S. 
Nickerson, 1910-12; Rev. 0. B. IMorris, 1912. The Wabash Street M. E. 
Church has a mend)ership of 320 and a Sunday School which musters 
270 strong. Services are held in a handsome and modern church of 
white stone, erected in 1903. 

- i ^ Middle Street ]M. E. Church 

The Middle Street M. E. Ciun'ch, at South Wabash, originated in a 
society organized about 1863. Ten years later it secured the building 
at the northeast corner of Sivey and Snyder streets. The present loca- 
tion on South Middle Street was purchased in 1895 and a building 
erected in the following year. It was remodeled in 1912. The church is 
ujider the jjastorate of Rev. E. S. Riley. 

Other jNIethodist Churches 

• There is also a Wesleyan ]\Iethodist Church, with Rev. Solomon Burns 
as pastor, on Manchester Avenue and ^lichigan Street, and an African 
M. E. Church, on East Sinclair Street, in charge of Rev. William B. 

The African M. E. Church 

The Methodists among the colored people of Wabash commenced to 
organize at an early day, and have been earnest, faithful and persistent 
in maintaining religious services. The first African IMethodist Epis- 
copal Church was formed in 1872 by the following: Joseph IT. Roberts, 
Mary Roberts, Martha Ferguson, j\Iary Alexander, William Alexander, 


Hmry Jaincs and ^Maliiida James. The first rep;ulai' pastor was Madi- 
son I'attersoii. A reorj,^anization of tlie society took place in 1880, with 
lu'V. Iiol)ert M(d)aniel as pastor. The church is still in active (!vanf,'elical 
work and is, as stated, under the pastorate of Rev. William H. Baher. 
The house of worship is on p]ast St. Clair Street. 

■• ■ The First Evangelicai. Ciiurcii ' '■ - '".h 

Tlie Fii'st Fvan.Gjelical (German 2^I(4hodist) Church was ori^aiiizcd '"■ 
in the summer of 1872 hy Rev. JI. B. Price, of the Huntington Cii'cuit. -i •' 
In the fall the Indiana Conference estahlished the Wahash Mission, of ■''. 
which \ii'\. .1. ^liller received charge. A church huilding was erected '■•■ 
on North Wahasli Street, and in 1896 was enlai'ged and remodeled to 
its i)resent form. Rev. P. L. l^rowns is the present pastor. '''^ 

■ ,\M 
-■■■:■■• First Church of Christ Scientist ' ^ ■'. '';iiv,.'>l \A: 

At the corner of iMajjIe and Carroll streets is the First Church of 
Christ Scientist, a dainty and characteristic house of worshi{). The * 
eliurch was organized in 1900, a residence purchased at the locality 
named and in 1008 remodeled for the purposes of tlie society. As is 
customaiy, reading rooms are connected with the church, open during- 
certain afti'rnoons of the week to the puhlie. mu::;r ^}> 

United Brethren Churches 

There are two United Brethren churches in Wahash, which have 
continuous services and are fairly well attended— the Fii-st United, 
under the pastorate of Rev. Joseph Lindsay, being in the southern part 
of the city, on Adams Street, and the Second United Brethren, with 
Rev. F. E. Penny as pastor, is located at North AVabash and Gladstone 

Other Religious Bodies in the City 

The Hebrews of Wabash organized the Congregation of Rodet Sholem 
in February, 1869, but efforts to maintain regular services and resident 
rabbis have been only moderately successful. In 1883 the supporters of 
Rodet Sholem bought the property of the Christians, or New Lights, 
which had been established at the corner of Sinclair Street and Falls 
Avenue since 1869. At present there is no settled rabbi in charge. 

The Holiness C'hristian Church conduct services at the corner of 
Vui. I- rs 



liay and Harry streets and the English Lutherans have a mission chiss 
every Sunday at tlie Maccabees Hall. 

Churches Outside of Wabash , , ", 

Outside of the Town of Wabash, most of the early churches of Noble 
Townsliip were founded by the Society of Friends, the iMethodists, Chris- 
tions and Lutherans. In the early '50s the Quakers formed a small 
settlement in the southeastern part of the township and erected two 
meeting houses not far from the site of White's Manual Labor Institute 
— one of them on the northwest quarter of section 21, township 27, 
range 6 east, and tiie other on the nortliwest quarter of section 28, same 
townsliip and range. 

A])0ut the same time, the IMethodists erected what was known as 
Wesley Chapel on the southwest corner of the east half of the southeast 
quarter of section 31, township 27, range 6, and the Union Chapel on 
the west line near the middle of the west half of the southeast quarter 
of section 29, township 27, range 7 east. A third ^Methodist Church 
was built at a later date on the northeast corner of section 29, township 
28, range 6. 

A Christian Church also was erected near the middle of the south- 
east quarter of section 20, same township and range, and still later a 
Lutheran house of worship was built at the southeast corner of the 
southwest ([uarter of section 33, township 27, range 6 east. 

Since that time other churches have been erected, especially to the 
north and west of the City of Wabash, in sections which are too far 
away from that locality to be accommodated by the religious institutions 
of the county seat. 

First ]\1asonic Lodge (ITanna No. 61) 

Both the Masons and Odd Fellows of Wabash, as organized bodies, 
are nearing their tliree score years and ten, the pioneer lodge of each 
having been created in 1847. The birth of Hanna Lodge No. 61, F. & 
A. ^I., was heralded on the 3d of November, 1847, at a meeting of Tipton 
Lodge No. 33, Free and Accepted Ancient York IVlasons of the State of 
Indiana, held at Logansport. Then and there, Robert Edwards, worthy 
master, and Isaac Bartlett, secretary, made note of the following: "A 
l)etition was received from Joseph Hopkins, J. P. Flyn, Jonathan R. 
Cox, Jesse P. IMyers, Amos Chapman, Joseph Peterson, Jacob Vande- 
grift, Daniel Bahan, Hugh Hanna, James Ford, John C. Sivey, Jona- 
tlian Kelk'r, C. Watkins and James Stoops, brethren of Wabash and 



vicinity, directed to M. AV. Gr. M. Dcniing, for a dispensation authorizing 

them to meet and work as a lodge to l)e called Hanna Lodge No. , 

at that place, and tusking the reconnnendation of this lodge to that end. 
Tiie recommendation was granted, and the proceedings ordered to be 
properly certified." 

The petition and accompanying proceedings were then forwarded to 
Grand Master Elizur Deming, who granted a dispensation to the prayer 
of the petitioners bearing date November 6, 1847, which was attested by 
Austin W. Morris, grand secretary, with the seal of the Grand Lodge 
attached. Jiy that dispensation Hugh Hanna was designated as the 
first worshipful master, Jacob Vandegrift, the first senior warden, and 

Masonic Temple, Wabash 

James Stoops, the first junior warden of the new lodge. Then on Friday 
evening, November 12, 1847, the following persons, petitioners, met 
pursuant to the authority of the grand master's dispensation in an im- 
provised room, and these proceedings were had : 

"Friday, November 12, A. L. 5847 — Hanna Lodge, U. D. Present : 
Hugh Hanna, w. m. ; Jacob Vandegrift, s. w. ; James Stoops, j. w. ; 
Jesse P. Myers, Amos Chapman, Daniel Bahan, Joseph Peterson, Joseph 
Hopkins, James Ford, Jonathan R. Cox and J. P. Flyn. 

"The dispensation issued by Elizur Deming, grand master, dated 
November 6, 1847, and attested by Austin W. Morris, grand secretary, 
naming Hugh Hanna as first worshipful master, Jacob Vandegrift first 
senior warden, and James Stooj)s first junior warden, was then read. 


WitJi that authority a lodge of Master Masons was opened on the date 
al'ori'said, when the following officers were appointed pro teni. : Joseph 
Hopkins, secretary; Amos Chapman, treasurer; Jesse P. flyers, s. d. ; 
Joseph Peterson, j. d. ; Jonathan R. Cox and Jesse P. Myers, stewards, 
and J. P. Plyn, tiler." 

xVfterward the secretary was ordered to procure the necessary books 
and records and a committee on by-laws, consisting of Joseph Hopkins, 
Amos Chapman and James Ford, was appointed with instructions to 
report the same to the lodge as soon as convenient. This closed the lirst 
meeting of Hanna Lodge, U. I). 

Another meeting was held on ^londay, the 29th, at which all the 
officers were present; also. Brothers Bahan and Keller and Visiting 
Bretlu'eii Joseph Hellinger and Bartholomew Hart. ByJaws were 
adopted, subject to the approval of the Grand Bodge, by which the regu- 
lai- meetings of the lodge were fixed on Tuesday evening preceding the 
full moon in each month. The first stated meeting so held was on 
DecemiuM- 21, 1847. 

On tlic 27th of December, 1847, the lirst petitions for degrees were 
received from James Wilson and Euos F. Thomas. At a later meet- 
ing they were rei)0i-ted upon favoral)ly and received. 

First Instructor in Cr.vpt ]\Iysteries 

On the 24th of February, 1848, the lodge appointed a eonnnittee 
to engage the services of some competent person to lecture upon the 
several i\Iasonic degrees and the ceremonies pertaining to them. Alfred 
Luce, past master of Oxford, Ohio, who was engaged for that purpose, 
appeared at a special meeting on the 4th of April following, and in- 
structed the craft in the ceremonials of the second degree, by passing 
Allen W. Smith and C. Pawling to the degree of Fellow Craft. The 
first work in the third degi'ee was on the evening of April 5th, when 
Brother Luce raised Allen AY. Smith to the degree of Master IMason. 
F^'rom that date until the 21st, at various meetings of the lodge, de- 
grees were confi-rred upon Calvin S. Rice, James AVilson, Michael 
'Flanagan, Enos F. Thomas, James T. Liston and John Comstock; 
which closed the labors of Brother Luce, in illustration of the workings 
of the craft, and for which he received 450 with a warm vote of 

\Vith this showing, the lodge presented its request that a charter 
be granted according to the usages of the order. This application was 
placed in the hands of the committee on charters and dispensation, 
consisting of Isaac Bartlett, Henry C. Lawrence, James M. Poe, Battie 



McClelland and Ebenezer Brown, which made the following report: 
"The coniinittee have examined the workings and by-laws of Ilanna 
Lodge and find their i)roceedings correct and books neatly kept, but 
they have failed to record their dispensations in the proceedings laid 
before your committee. There appears an omission in their by-laws 
in regard to the disposition made of petitions for initiation. 

Charter Granted to IIanna Lodge No. 61 

"The committee recommended that they amend the first section of 
Article VI, and that they add an additional section showing that all 
petitions are referred to a committee of character, with a pledge from 
the delegate that the above alteration be made. Your committee recom- 
mended the adoption of the following resolutions: 'Resolved that a 
charter be granted to Hanna Lodge No. til, and that Hugh Hanna 
be the ma.ster, Jacob Vandegrift senior warden, and James Stoops, 
junior warden of said lodge.' 

•'\Yhich report and resolution, after receiving the pledge referred 
to, were unanimously adopted May 23, 1848, and a charter issued ac- 
cordingly. Hugh Ilanna was the regular representative and John Corn- 
stock visited at that session." 

Growth and Present Status 

On the 13th of June, 1848, the first election of officers under the 
charter was held with the following result: Hugh Hanna, w. m. ; James 
Stoi»iis, s. w.; Jaeol) Vandergi'ift, j. w. ; Josei)h Hopkins, secretary; 
Amos Chapman, treasurer; James Ford. s. d. ; J. P. Flyn, j. d. ; A. AV. 
Smith and Knos F. Thomas, .stewards, and Calvin S. Rice, tiler. 

Thus Haniui Lodge No. 61 was a full-fledged ^Masonic body, and it 
has grown and prospered to this day. ]'>y the early '80s it had passed 
the lUO-mark, and its membership is now more than three hundred, 
with the following officers: AVillard J. Creighton, worthy ma.ster; Ar- 
thur B. Carpenter, senior warden; Burton E. AValrod, junior warden; 
Val Freising, secretary; Lee A. Carr, treasurer. 

Excelsior Chapter, R. A. M. 

Wabash Chapter No. 26. R. A. U., was originally known as Excelsior 
Chapter. A petition for a dispensation was forwarded to the grand 
high priest of the state in December, 1853. It came from the com- 
panions ol" the order resident and in the vicinity of Wabash, and was 


also si^ued Ijy IIu<^li Ilaiiiia, of Lof,'aii Cliaptor No. 2, of Logansport, 
Indiana; Nieliolas \). Myci's, of Indianapolis ("haptrr No. f) ; Daidi'l ]\I. 
Cox, ol' the .saiiHj cliaptt-r; lliij^h McNown, of J'^ngiand; Isaac, Ji. (Jar- 
wood, of Ohio; lienjannn Sayrc, of King Solomon Chapter No. 4, and 
11. K. Lusk, of New York. The petition liaving been recommended by 
Logan Chapter No. 2, was forwarded to the most excellent grand high 
priest of the State of Indiana, who on the 2d day of January, 1854, 
issued a dispensation to confer the degrees in Chapter Masonry as Ex- 
celsioi- Chapter and designating Hugh llanna as lirst high priest, Ben- 
jamin Sayre, king, and Nicholas D. Myers, scribe. 

\\sii Cii.M'TER No. 26 Chahteked 

At the session of the Grand Chapter held at Shelbyville, in May, 
1855, Kxrt'lsioi" ('hapter, undci- dispensation, r('i)orted a membership 
of twenty-live. An a}^i)lieati(jn fur a charter was therefore made. It 
was grantcil by the Crand Chapter, under the name Wabash Chapter 
No. 2G. on the 24th of ^lay, 1855, and on the 4th of the following. June 
was organized with Hugh Ilanna as m. e. h. p., Benjamin Sayre, e. 
king, Nicholas 1). ]\h'ers, e. sci-ibe, John (A Sivey, c. h., ^V. A. A''an 
liuskirk, p. s., Daniel M. Cox, r. a. c., J. P. Flyn, treas., Thomas Jay, 
sec, Henry C. Skinner, chaplain and George Alber, guard. 

The Passing of Hugh Hanna 

Hugh Hanna, the most i)rominent of the early IMasons, died on the 
18th of January, 18()1), and Grand High Priest H. G. Ilazelrigg, in an- 
nouncing the fact to the Grand Chapter at the session of ]\Iay, of that 
year, says: "While we have been blessed with peace within and pros- 
perity without — while the craft were enjoying the smiles of the Grand 
High Priest of the Upper Sanctuary — the Captain of the Guards of 
the King of Terrors entered our Grand Council and selected as his 
own one whom we all delighted to love and honor — whose wise and safe 
counsel we ever delighted to follow — whose ears were ever attentive to 
the wail of the needy, and whose hands were ever open to relieve their 
wants and necessities, and whose life was a pattern worthy of our imita- 
tion. He was brought to the grave in a full age, like as a shock of 
corn Cometh in season — he was found at his post with his armor on, in 
the faithful discharge of every duty, his lamp trimmed and burning, 
ready at the coming of the bridegroom. Uny our last end be like his 
— ready for the summons to come uj) higher and enjoy those blessings 


whicli wiTc i)ri'i)are(l for all the t'aitliful followers of the Lamb, ere 
tile .'arth was formed. 

■"('ompaiiioiis, 1 feel that >'ou anti(;ij)ati- me, and know that 1 allude 
to our late hejoved (■om])ani()n and grand Idng, K'iglit ivxeelleiit lluu'h 
Ilanna, who departed this life at his residence in Wabash, January 
18, 18(J!). lie lirst appeared in the Grand Chapter at the convocation 
of 1857, as the representative of Wabash Chapter No. '2(]. At the ses- 
sions of hs(i2 and 1SG4 he was elected grand scribe; in 1858, 186:3, 1SG5, 
l(S(J(i, 1S(J7 and 1808 he was electetl gi'and king; in 1858 he was anointed 
and set ai)art to the order of Graiul Priesthood; in 1805, 1864, 1865, 
1SG(J and 1S67 was elected treasurer of the (,'ouncil of High Priests. 
He sei'\ed aceeptal)ly in every position in which his companions thought 
proper to place him, si'tting an example worthy of imitation — one of 
encouraiiemcnt to all who wonhl deserve well of their associates." 

Leading (Jh.M'tkr Masuxs 

In the earlier years of the Chapter N. D. ]\ryers, Edward S. Ross, 
and dohn H. Poss were also of especial j^i-ominence. Hoth Profiler 
iMyers and Brother Ross were high i)riests for a number of terms, while 
Brother Ross was repeatedly elected king or scribe. Tiie last-named 
died in May, 1875, in his eighty-foui'th year, his last i)eriod as scribe 
covering 18().')-71. Of a somewhat later tlate are several who are still 
identified with the Chapter, such as Alex Hess, E. G. Sackett, James P. 
Ross, A. L. He Pay, Prank De Puy, Aaron Simon, Aaron Singei-, Silas 
D. Harris, Geo. S. Courtier, Jesse Parks, Neil Lumaree, K. A. Ldwards, 
L. l\r. Chapler, Thomas W. :\IcNamee, Frank Alher, Willard J. Crcigh- 
ton, Jacob Hynuin. The Chapter of the present has a member.ship of 
moi-e than one hundred and scvt'iity, with Frank V. Conner as high 
pri(*Ht, Otto G. Christman, king, and Louis Bockman, scribe. 

Petition for a Council 

On the 25tli of January, 1860, John B. Ross, Hugh Hanna, H. C. 
Skinner, C. V. X. Lent, Samuel N. Campbell, Thomas Jay, Edward S. 
Ross, Benjamin Sayre and William Hedgar presented a petition to 
William Hacker, grand puissant of the Grand Council of the State of 
Indiana, and, upon the reconimendation of Logansport Council No. 11, 
to form a like body at Wa])ash. He met the petitioners named on the 
7th of February and, with the assistance of several companions from 
Logansport, organized Wabash Council (under dispensation;. 


John B. Ruse and II. C. Skinner '■ '■■ '■ '■ 

Coiiipaiiion Ilackrr, in liis address to the (Ji'aiid ("ouiicil at tlie open- 
ing' of its si'ssioii, May 22, 18G0, makes tlie rollowiiif^ allusions to some 
oi" the i)etitioiiers: "Among the petitioners for this (Jouneil will l»e 
found enrolled the names of several old and well-tried members of our 
fraternity — s(Jine who, for nearly half a century have been faithfully 
laboring in our IMystie Temple, always at their post, ever faithful and 
ready to perform any -work that might be assigned them. Amongst 
others names might be mentioned I will only present those of 
John B. Rose and II. C. Skinner. 

"In the year 1818, w'hen your presiding officer was an inexperienced 
youth of but eight years old, Companion Rose was ardently engaged in 
the labors of the craft, and assisting as a delegate from his lodge in the 
organization of the present Grand Lodge of Indiana, that noble monu- 
ment of exalted worth to which the fraternity can point with so much 
pleasure and satisfaction ; and now, although a period far beyond the 
average of human life has gone by, we find our venerable companion 
with the vigor and energy of his more youthful days still engaged in the 
labors of extending our organization in order to perpetuate and hand 
down to posterity the blessings and benefit of our fraternal associa- 
tions. Such instances as these are of but rare occurrence, and it is 
nothing I)ut right tiuit they should be placed upon record, in order that 
all may be induced to ennilate his noble example. 

"Our Rev. Companion Skiinier, it will doubtless be remembered, is 
one of those old adhering ^Masons upon whom the notorious Bernard and 
his coadjutors of anti-]\Iasonic notoriety took such special delight in 
persecuting some thirty years since, because he would not renounce the 
order, forsake the truth and embrace a lie, as many of them had done, 
in oriler, no doubt as they supposed, to gain a little notoriety and 'lieget 
unjo themselves a great name;' and verily, they succeeded in this at 
least. Hut who now envies them in either their name or reputation? 
But few, I think, can ])e found who would 1)e willing to incur either. 
Time, in its unerring developments, has revealed the matter now in such 
glaring characters of living light that no one can be mistaken about it. 
And how is it now with our- Rev. Companion? Of him, I presume, I 
need not speak — he is still among us, honored, respected and beloved 
everywhere and by all who know him." 

"\V ABASH Council No. 13 Chartered 

With the record of its work, from the date of organization under dis- 
pensation and the prescribed code of by-laws, John B. Rose, the repre- 


.sciitativf ])y ])roxy for Wabash Council, appcai'cd in tlie (irand Council 
at its session of liSGO, tiled the necessary papers and records, and asked 
for a (charter Ijy wliich the Council should be governed. The commit- 
tee to whom the application was referred reported as follows: "The 
Committee on Charters and Dispensations have examined the proceed- 
in<j:s and l)\-laws of Wabash Council (under dispensation) and find them 
correct, and recommend that a charter be granted to the companions to 
organize a Council under the name of Wabash Council No. 13, and that 
Companions Thomas Jay be appointed the first thrice illustrious grand 
master, Hugh Ilanna, deputy t. i. g. m., and Edward S, Ross, principal 
conductor of the work." The charter was issued May 23, 1860, and the 
first officers chosen under it were : Thomas Jay, illustrious master ; Hugh 
Ilanna, deputy illustrious master ; E. S. Ross, p. c. w. ; Thomas B. ]Mc- 
Carty, recorder; D. M. Whiteside, treas. ; N. D. Myers, c. g. ; James E. 
McClure, st. and s. 

During the Civil war period the Council suspended its sittings, as 
most of its members were active Union soldiers. When work was re- 
sumed in 18GG, ther(i was a membership barely sufficient for a quorum. 
Hugh Ilanna and John B. Rose, E. S. Ross and Nathan Ilertf, N. D. 
Myers and A. L. Tyer, were prominent in the work of the Council dur- 
ing the first (juarter of a century of its life. 

Wabash Council No. 13 has maintained a steady growth since war 
times, its present membership being ninety-five. Present officers: Alex- 
andei' Hess, t. i. g. m. ; Val. Freising, d. t. i. g. m. ; Aaron Simon, p. c. w. ; 
Jacob Aiber, treas.; Edwin G. Sackett, ree. 

Tjie C()Mmani)i:ky 

AVabash Commandery No. 37, K. T., was organized April 20, 1893, 
and has a membership of 140. Its otfieers are as follows: Joseph A. 
Lay^ eminent connnander; W. J. Creigliton, gen.; L. G. A. PoAvell, c. g. ; 
Lee A. Carr, rec; Frank V. Conner, s. w. ; Burton E. AVolrod, j. w. 

The 0. E. S. 

Wabash Chapter No. 90, 0. E. S., was organized April 23, 1890. The 
Chapter is in a flourishing condition and is officered as follows: M. S. 
Ilowe, worthy patron ; ]\Irs. George S. Courtier, worthy matron ; j\Irs. 
:\[. L. Chapler, a. m. ; .Mrs. E. A. Edwards, sec. 

The ]\1.\s<)ntc Hall 

In th(,' early '90s the diff'erent Masonic bodies of Wabash joined issues 
I'oi' the erection of a l)uilding which sh(juld serve as headquarters I'or 


the ci-ift. 'IMic iTsiilt was tlic line Masonir Hall frcctcd in lHi)2. It is 
a substantial three-story strueture. on Wabash Street, the Masonic roonis 
occupying the upper story. The Masonic Hall, both as a city building 
and a home for the fraternity, is a credit to Wabash ami tlie eral't which 
it represents. 

St. Anastasia .Mksxii. LoncK No. 46, I. O. O. F. 

On .\unust 27, 1S47, St. Anastasia .Mesnil Lodge No. 40, I. O. O. F., 
was instit\ited in the Town of Wabash by -lob ]>. Eldridge, of Xeilson 
Lodge .\'o. 12, of Loganspoi't, Indiana. The cliarter was issued by the 
Orand Lodg.- of the State to the following petitioners, who therefofe be- 
came charter members: (ieorge Iv (iordon, dosei)l! Iloi)kins, Archibald 
Stitt. John r. Pcttit and (Jeorge Winters. The first oflicei-s were: John 
\L l\'ttit, noble grand; Josi'ph Hopkins, vice grand; George F. Gordon, 
.sec; Archibald Stitt, treas. At this meeting ^Michael Black was also in- 
itiated, the iive degrees were coid'erred upon him and he was api)ointed 
the tirst guardian of tlie lodge. 

The atfaii's of the lodge progressed satislactoiMly as to membership, 
but the lire of Au-ust S. LS41), desti'o\-ed the hall, <-harter and regalia 
of the original body, making it necessary to ri'Organize and rebuild. Un- 
dei- a new ehartei', the lodge met in the sumniei- of L'^fiO to dedicate an- 
othei' hall, situated in the third story of the building on the northeast 
corner of Wabash and Canal streets, 'i'he new chai'ter was issued on 
the lOth of Jai;uar\-, LS,")!), to John V. Pettit, Alanson I*. Fei'ry. Geoi-ge 
Iv Gor.l.ui. Michael Ulack, William Steele, Ji'., Henry B. Oliii, Daniel 
H. Tyner and James Davis. 

Work on the Odd E'ellows Hall on East IMarket Street was com- 
menced in October, 187J, the building was completed in tlie fall of LS74 
at a cost of $f),0()(), and the hall was appropriately dedicated in June, 

Li:\i)iX(; Odd Fkli.ows 

Among those who were prominent in the earlier years of Odd Fel- 
lowship in Wabash, who served as noble graiuls and otherwise were 
closely and strongly identified with the work, may be mentioned Michael 
Black, AVilliam Steele, Jr., George E. Gordon, A. P. Fei-ry, W^illiam L. 
Russell, 1). Brooks and B. F. Williams. The lodge has reached a mem- 
bership of 270 and is steadily growing. Present officers : Horatio Cop- 
pock, n. g. ; Lloyd Kelch, v. g. ; George E. Stands, f. sec; Fred Balder, 
rec. sec; Val. Freising, treas. 


Ebroxaii Encamp.mext V •> ' ■;■ ; .'■,;' 

Hl.ioniih lOncaiiipiiifjit No. LM , I. O. O. I'\, was instituted at ^Val)asl^ 
K)n .March 11, IS.")!), hy I). 1). (i. !'. .laiiifs M. Warrt.'U oi" i.onansport, lii- 
iiiaiia, uiulci- a eliartcr granted by the \l. W. Grand EiiCciinpiuoiit ol' the 
State of Indiana. 'JMie charter members were Alanson P. Ferry, David 
T. Dedrick, Joseph Hopkins, Henry Lautz, William Steele, Jr., James 
Davis and l']rastiis IJin^ham. Its first officers were as follows: Josej»h 
Hopkins, w. c. ]).; AVilliani Steele, Jr., m. e. h. ]>. ; A. P. Feri'v, w. s. w. ; 
iM'astus ]>iii;^-liam, w. j. w. ; I). T. Dedrick w. s. ; .lames Davis, w. t. 

At the time of oi'{.i'anization, the Encampuu'nt \\as composed laro-ely 
of residents of La Gro, and as the majority of members vai-ied. now in 
favor of that ])lace and then of AVahash, the ])laces of meeting shifted 
back and foi'th. In 1857 La Gro became headcpiarters of the Encam[)- 
meiit, in L'^iiO \Val)ash, in IStio La Gro and in 18G7 AVal)ash ; since the 
last named .war the <'Ounty seat has remained i)ernianent headqnarters. 

AVith the other bodies of the order, the Encampment has waxed in 
strength, bavin;.;- a jn-esent membership of loO and the following officers: 
Charles Bahler, c. p.; Fi'cd Balder, h. p.; George E. Sands, s. w. ; A^alen- 
tine Freising, tin. se>e. ; A. IL Campbell, j. w. During the first thirty 
years of the Encam]iineid, among those who weri; most pi'ominent in 
the establishment of the body may be noted A. P. Fi'i'ry, William Steele, 
Ji-., Daniel Sayre, John U. Pettit, T. P>. AfcCarty, \V. F. l^)wan. William 
Aim-gotten, John H. Gand)le, AVilliam Holtack, Tliomas Fnderdown, Al. K. 
Cral)ill, C. W. James, P.. F. AVilliams and C. E. Hntton. 

D.vrGiiTERs OP Rebek.mi 

AA'abash Lodge No. :]04, Daughters of Rebekah, was instituted Alarch 
1, 1889, with the following charter meml)ers: Oliver H. Pogue, Abe 
Simons, H. H. AVheeler, C. E. Hutton, Sam Simons, .M. P. Crabill, J. H. 
AVebfr, H. P. Lai-elle, Alary L. Slal)er, Frances Hutton, Eva Crabdl, 
Sarah Ferry, Lib Jjaselle, Sarah Hoffman, ]\lary Alitten, and a few others. 
Ps oHicers were: Adelia L. Heidy, n. g. ; Alice P. AVheeler, v. g. ; Anna 
McClure, rec. sec.; Hannah Kern, per. sec; Frances E. Hutton, treas. 
The present noble grand of the lodge is Mrs. W. LL Derr ; ]\Irs. Homer 
Stoops, V. g. ; All's. Joseph Reed, secretary; Airs. Arthur Grovers, 
treasurer; Airs. W. J. Grass, financial secretary. Alenibership of the 
b ilge about one hundrt'd and twenty-five. 

Rock City Lodge of Onn Fellows 

Rock City Lodge No. 743, 1. 0. 0. F., was instituted l)eceiid)er 20, 
1898, with J. Al. Tyner as noble grand; Henry Pent as vice grand; C. E. 


Gift, secretary; and R. E. Weesner, treasurer. Present oi'iieers: Curtis 
Elzroth, n. g. ; Willaril Pickering, v. g. ; ^lilo Miller, treasurer, and John 
-Mills, secretary. The lodge has seventy-five uieiiihers. 

The Elks and Their Fixe 

Wal)asli Lodge No. 471, B. P. 0. E., was organized in the spring of 
1899. Hs exalted rulers have been Charles Baker, W. G. Sayre, Dr. J. 
W. G. Stewart, J. 1). Cornier, Jr., Edward Beittnan, N. S. ^lorris, 
R. H. Hunter, David Marks, A. N. Dunning, I). F. Brooks, John Kaiser, 
Louis D. Iligson, Fred Hipskind and Charles Lyons. It is customary to 
change exalted rulers the first of April annually. For a number of 
years the Elks occupied the building which is now the home of the 
Knights of Pythias, but in 1907 Lodge No. 471 bought the Doctor Smith 
property, corner of Cass and ]\Iarket streets, for which $12,U0U was paid. 
This the Elks have since transformed into one of the most comi)lete, 
comfortable and beautiful lodge homes in the city. The lodge is free 
of debt, has a membership of 800 and fully realizes the social and fra- 
ternal objects of its charter. Louis Wolf is the present exalted ruler, 
and Fred Walter, John A. Bruner and V. A. j\Iatterii are the trustees. 

Knights of Pythias 

Wabash Lodge No. 140, Knights of Pythias, was organized May 27, 
188(), with officei's as follows: James E. jMcIIenry, c. c. ; Will Yaruelle, 
V. c. ; A. L. Rohbock, p. c. ; Abe Leedy, i)rel. ; Henry C. Pettit, mat. a.; 
L. ]j. Dangherty, k. of r. and s. ; Will Caul, m. of f . ; Fred Suavely, m. 
of e. ; Will Alber, o. g. ; August Hipskind, i. g. ; Simon Cook, trustee. 
Present membership 290 and officers: Will McCarty, c. c. ; Glen Baker, 
v. c; Otto Hipskind, p. c. ; F. ^r. Dye, prel. ; Ikni. ]\IcCluiv, m. at a.; 
J.*G. Slegelmilch, k. of r. and s. ; V. Freising, m. of f . ; 0. L. Talmage, 
in. of e. ; Sam liurgess, i. g. ; ^lartin A'aii Roe, o. g. ; Elmer Burns, Will 
Ursehel and jM. G. ^Mitten, trustees. 

Knights and Ladies op the Maccabees 

The Knights of the jMaccabees are represented by Wabash Tent No. 
9, which was organized August 3, 1886, and has a memliership of about 
one hundi-ed and sixty. Present officers: Com., L. H. ^Miller; lieut. 
com., August Sommers, and r. k., li. F. Jolinson. 

The Ladies of the Maccabees (Wabash Hive No. 30) were; organized 
August 21, 189r). Alice Johnson is tll(^ present commander. TheiH' are 


two otluT organizations oi" Maecabet'S — Soutli Wabash Tent No. 132 
(Knights ami Meredith Hive No. !J0 [Ladies]). 

The Foresters in Wabash 

Among the strongest fraternal orders in Wabash is that of the For- 
e.sters of Ameriea, or, more fully, the Independent Order of Foresters of 
Anici'ica. The loeal (Jourt, Wabash No. \), was organized in i)eet'iid>er, 
18!);), with the following officers: John F. ^lartin, chief ranger; James 
Wigginson, rec. sec.; Edward Ditten, fin. see.; George Hale, s. w. ; Philip 
Schlemmer, j. w. At the time of its formation the Court had a member- 
ship of twenty-iiN'c, which has since increasetl to ;52(). Present oflii-crs: 
Ftlward Daynent, c. r. ; Carl II. Lower, v. c. r. ; Dan Showaltcr, sec; Dr. 
P. (i. ]\Ioore, ti'eas. ; Jose[)li Ilipskind, s. \\\. ; Lewis Danister, j. w. Doctor 
]\loore is also the liigli nu'dical examiner of the ordi'r in Indiana. 

Pen HiR (Wabash Coi'rt No. 23) 

Although a comparativel\' young ordci', the Ti'ibe of l>en Hur has 
made I'apid pi'ogress in Wabash. The local body was orgainzrd ^larcli 0, 
189."), but already luis a membership of 400. Its present officers: Aurelia 
Dedrich, past chief; William Kirkwood, chief; Elizabeth Zimmer, judge; 
Ada Mills, ti'acher; Ivina Derr, scribe; Susie Snyder, keeper of tribute. 

Okdboji Tribe and Council (1. 0. R. 'M.) 

These bodies of i\loose which were organized November 12, 1912, 
muster some ;550 strong in Wabash. Their officers are as foUow^s : C. P. 
Callahan, d. ; 0. J. Kellogg, p. d. ; Alto McCarter, v. d. ; Minor Coan. 
I)rel. ; William II. Durr, sec.; Charles E. Bolte. treas. 


The Eagles (Aerie No. 549) 

The Fraternal Oi'der of Eagles have a growing lodge in Wabash, 
known as Wabash Aerit; No. 549. It was organized December 10, 1903, 
has a mcml)ership of over oiu> hundred, and is officered as follows: L. E. 
Logan, p. w. p.; A. ]M. Follis, w. p.; Irwin Gardner, w. chap.; 0. AV\ 
Keller, w. treas.; E. C. Roberts, w. sec. 

(^THER Societies and Unions 

Pesidcs the bodies mentioned in the foregoing the secret and fraternal 
ordei's are represented by the Royal Arcanum, (Rock City Council No. 


o7!i, with about fifty iiieiiibi.T.s), Aiieieut Order of United Woodmen, 
Modci-ii Woodtiieii (jf America, ITiiai Hritli and Royal Neighbors. 

The hil)or unions, wliieh are of eonsitlera])le strength, include the 
various Brotherhoods of Railway i\Ien, and organizations of carpenters, 
machinists and boiler makers, as well as a Central Labor Union. 

In the matter of societies, as of churches, the city is provided with 
mediums to satisfy all tastes and interests. 

. ; .7 1 i /:. :^:t :■■■ ■ ■■ ■ :• ^' '■ ' 



The P]el River Valley — Stumbllng Blocks for the Township — A 
Race for a Homestead — The Creeks and Their Names — First Set- 
tler — First Permanent Resident — James Abbott Joins Colonel 
IIelvv — Elder George Abbott — The Ogans — Henry Strickler — 
The Harters — Joseph B. Harter — Some First Happenings — Lib- 
erty ^IiLLS Founded — First Settlers in the Bear Swamp Region — 
Chester Township Created — Later Settlement of the "Bear 
Swamp" — Pioneer vs. AVilderness — The "jMail Trace" — The. 
IxAiLROADs Make North IManchester — First Preaching by Elder 
Fannin — Pioneer Church — ]\Ietiiodists Organize Classes — 
Schools op the Township. 

It was several years after the transfer of the former Indian lands 
in the Eel Jiiver Valley to the Goverinnent, and their survey into see- 
lions, tliat settlers commenced to east their eyes into what is now 
Chester Township in their search for homes. It is true that capitalists- 
and speeuhitoi-s entered large tracts at the Government price of $1.25 
per acre, and some times held them unimproved for years, to the great in- 
convenience and scorn of those who desiretl to become residents and 
real developers of the country. 

• The Eel River Valley 

Tile land in the vicinity of Eel River is undulating, gradually de- 
veloping into gently sloping hillocks to the northward. Between the 
rolling ground on either side of the river stretches a broad band of rich 
alluvial soil, specially adapted to corn raising. Toward the central por- 
tion of the township and extending well into the southern part is an area 
of gently rolling land diversified by patches of low prairie, while still 
further south the level lowlands are more pronounced. In fact, a large- 
tract in that section of the township was returned by the early sur- 
veyors as "swaini) land" and for many years was avoided by home- 



seekers as inulesiraljle. That tract was di'signated hy ])ioiieers as tlie 
Hear Swamp, and was afterward transt'oruied into a beautiful and fer- 
tih- i-c^ion iiiostl\- by scttlci's of (jei-nuni blood and habits. 

Stumbling Ulock.s for tiik Township 

lint the faet that the obviously desirable lands of the Eel River re- 
gion were in the earlier years largely tied up by speculators and that 
it was a long time l)efore this other fertile hloek of laiuls in Chester 
Townshi}) came to l)e recogni/etl as valuable, proved real stumbling 
blocks in the progri'ss of this pai't of the county. 

In ortler to i)revent the lands from falling into the hands of specu- 
lators, the early settlers resorted to various i)retexts. Om^ of them was 
to attend a sale in a t)od\', and when the land was otfered run u]) the 
])i'ice to a figure hiuher than tlu' si)eeulator dai'e ori'ei-, whether they 
had any intention of buN'ing or not. In case the bona ii(K> settler outbid 
the specuhitoi', the land was i>ut up the following day. The game woidd 
l)e fej)eated until the speeulator became discouraged ami witlnln-w. This 
may not have been strictly legitimate, but was gem-rally excused as a 
ste[) necessary- for self-i)reservation. 

A Rack for a IIo.mks'I'kad 

Sometimes eligible tracts remained \vithout an owner, parties ofte)i 
fearing to purchase land they had not seen, and in this way some pieces 
escaped attention. An incident may be related to show how these were 
sometimes entere(l. damt's I\idgel\' passing thi'ough tlu' southeast ])art 
of the township tliscovered that part of section '.'A), town 29, range 8, 
was good land and had never been entered. While looking at the traet, 
another i)arty jtut in an appearance \vitli designs upon it also, and it 
itlieii became a ((Uestion as to which of them could get to the land office 
at Fort Wa\ne first. The stranger was afoot, but setting his pocket 
compass took a beedine for his destination. ^Ir. Ridgely, being mounted, 
struck down to the towpath of the canal, a more circuitous route, but 
was fortunate enough to reach the land office at Fort Wayne about half 
an hour in advance of his competitor. lie afterward returned to Mont- 
gomery ("ounty, Ohio, whence he set out for his near home in the forests 
of Chester Township, where he arrived in September, LS41, bringing 
with him about a year's supply of provisions. He found the little hut 
he had previously built used as a sort of .stable for the Indians' ponies. 
During the winter following he cleared up a patch of ground from which 
he raised a small crop of corn. The \o\)s of the fallen trees served 


;is "hrowse" for the cattle and horses, and were about all they had to 
live on until grass eanie in the spring. ]\lr. Ridgely was a typical set- 
tler, but he was by no means the first to arrive in Chester Township, 
as the progress of this story will show. ■ ■ - 

The Creeks and Their Names ■ > '' ' 

The township is so thoroughly watered that it has always been con- 
sidered an ideal country for the raising of horses. Both Indians and 
white renegades made the region quite notorious in l)oth the good and 
bail sense of the word, and one of its streams (Pony Creek) perpetuates 
the fact. It is a matter of record that with tiie coining of the first in- 
cursion of settlers in and near Bear Swamp both they and the Miamis 
numaged to run these pony thieves out of the country, their headquarters 
being in the southwestern portion of the township between Bear Grass 
and Pony creeks. AVhat Pony, or Ogan's Creek does for the southern 
portions of the township, Simonton Creek accomplishes for the northern 
— waters the soil well and makes of the adjacent lands, green and lux- 
uriant pastures. 

First Settler 

The pioneer settlers Avithin the limits of the present township located 
very near what is now North JNIanchester in the valley of the Eel River. 
In December, 1833, a man by the name of Brewer built himself a shack 
near the site of the present town, and remained in that locality during 
the w^inter. It is said that in the following spring he moved to the more 
lively tovn\ of Wabash, where he kept a boarding house for w^orkmen em- 
ployed on the Wabash & Erie Canal. As he died shortly afterward, little 
is known of him. 

First Permanent Resident 

But in ]\Iarch, 1834, there came a man of another type to the North 
jNIanchester locality — Col. Richard Ilelvy, who located on the bank 
of Eel River, about a mile northeast of the present town. He was a 
native of Virginia, but moved to Indianapolis at an early day, and about 
1831 opened a farm at La Gro, Wabash County. The colonel was thus 
engaged until he ventured into the solitudes of the Eel River Valley at 
the time and the place mentioned. There he cleared a farm of more 
than a hundred acres — the first in the township — from which he raised 
the pioneer crop of corn in these parts. 


James Abbott Joins Coloxel IlELvy 

Til Sfptcinbcr, 1S;{4, ('(jhjiiel Ilt'lvy was j(jin(.'(l by Jairics Ablxjtt, wlio 
located oil the saiiic stream a short di.staiu;(; above the present site of 
J.iherty Mills. Pint although they were several miles a])art, they were 
neighbors in those days. jMr. Abbott was a native of South Carolina, 
but at the age of eight years was bound out to a slaveholder in North 
Carolina with \\hom he i-emained until he was eighteen years of age. 
He then ran away from his mastei' and eseaj)tHl into Tennessee, where 
he was mai-i'ied in 17'Jf) to Catharine Tillman. In 1 S05 he moved to 
Preble County, Ohio, where he purchased and improved a farm and 
reared ten ehihlren. ^Mr. Abbott served under General Wayne in the 
War of 1S12 and his father was a soldier of the Iievolutionary war. 
From his family, including his own childi'en and grandchildren, no 
h'ss than thirty soldiei's were furnished to the Union ai-my during the 
])rogrcss of tlie Uivil war; which altogether speaks well for the 
I)atriotic blood of the Abbott family. 

The family remained in Preble County, Ohio, until they located near 
the future Town of Liberty :\[ills in 1834. At that time James Abbott 
entered 1()(J acres of land on the present site of Liberty ^Mills and added 
enough at a later <late, to make^400 acres lying in Wabash and Kos- 
ciusco counties. He sold the land where Liberty Mills is now located to 
John Coiiistock. donating the mill site upon condition that the latter 
should erect and operate a gristmill there. Prior to this, he had ottered 
the same site to Alexander ^Icliride, who failed to comjily with the stipu- 

Eeder George Abbott 

• George Abbott, one of the sons of James, came to Wabash County with 
his parents when he was a youth of seventeen, and preached to a Christian 
eongi'egation at Libert}^ j\Iills for thirty or forty years. Like his father 
he was a deacon in the church, and is said to have been instrumental in 
adding between two thousand and three thousand members to the Disciples 
of Christ during the many years of his service. In August, 1839, he mar- 
ried I\Iiss Nancy Barrett, then the only white girl in Chester Township. 
She was a Kentucky girl, her father, Jesse, dying when she was (juite 
young and the widow marrying CoL Richard Ilelvy. 

The elder Abbott (James) died in 1867, at the age of ninety-one 
years, having sold his farm a few years before and mad(^ his home with 
his son George at North Manchester. 


■y. );■ •'■ \,- Ay The Ogans "-■ ' ■ •■' ■;■ ..--■:■'■-:•■■ 

iJcfoiv the rlosi.' of 1H;54, tliL' Al)l)otts aii(l the Il.'lvys wcf.' joined hy 
Joliii and I'ctcr Ojzan. 'I'lic forinci- located on tlic south side of Eel 
liivci', not far fi'(3in tin- present Town of Nortli ^^Luu-hester and erected a 
riule eorn mill on the hank of the ereek which still l)ears his name. Peter 
Ogau settled within the present corporate limits (tf North ^lanchester. 
Tie erected a liouring and sawmill on the hank of Eel River and was 
enti;a^-ed in various otlier enteri)rises during the periotl of his residence 
in the communit\-. As stated, the st]'ea)n along whose Ijanks the Ogans 
rstahlished llitir mills still hears the family name for several miles ahove 
Ndi'tli xMaiichester; helow it is called Pony Creek. 

JoiiN SiMUNTON , „P, 

Early in 1835, John Simonton pushed his way up Eel River in a boat 
that contained himself, his fanuly and household goods, diseniharked 
and settled on a large farm on the south shore not far from the mouth 
ol" the creek which hears his name. The locality is a))Out midway between 
the sites of Noi'tli jManchester and Liberty ^lills, as we now know thera. 
jMr. Simonton was long and favorably identified with the township. 

Ilr.NHv Strickler 

Ileni-y Strickler came in February, ISoG, and located on the south 
Iiank of the Eel Kiver about a mile below Noi'tli Manchester, where 
he cleared and impi-oved a large farm, I'esiding thereon until the time 
of his death, lie \\as of sturdy Pennsylvania Dutch stock antl his father 
was a .Methotlist i)reacher and a weaver. Upon coming to Wabash 
County Henry Strickler entered 820 acres of land at the loca- 
tion mentioned and hired a man from La Gro to assist hiin in the build- 
ing of a cabin. In 18;-i6 he moved upon his purchase and commenced to 
clear away the forest growths. This tract, a short distance west of 
North ]\Ianchester, became a comfortable and attractive homestead, 
whereon was reared a large family of sons and daughters. Two of the 
former were in the Union army. Both parents died on the old home- 
stead, steadfast members of the JNIethodist Church, Mr. Strickler lieing 
given the main credit for the erection of the M. E. Church of North 

The IIarters 

In September, 1836, Joseph Ilarter came from Montgomery County, 
Ohio, and, with his family, located within the presisnt corporate limits 


of North .Maiielu'stcr. The family consisted of nine eliihlren, and several 
of the sons, as well as the father, were eontinnously identihed with the 
milling and business interests of that place. 

In the year of the arrival of the Ilarters, Peter Ogan had a portion of 
his land platted as the Town of North Manchester. As he put up the price 
of the lots to $10 apiece, the sales were at first rather slow. Joseph 
ITarter and his oldest son, Eli, at once commenced to take an active part 
in the ilevelopment of the new town. The father purchased at different 
times t\venty-(,'ight (puirter sections of land lying along the Eel River at 
and near North ^lanchester. In 1838 he l)uilt a sawnnll ami in 1839 
a gristmill, the latter ])eing upon the site of the present Eisenberger 
Mills. The father was a prominent citizen and a promoter of milling 
and business interests until his death in 1861. 

Eli llarter, the son mentioned, arrived soon after his father, in the 
fall of 1836, and erected the second house in town. At a later period, 
Jacob and Joseph B., younger sons, became identified with North ^lan- 
chester and continued thus until a comparatively recent date. At first, 
until 1850, they were together in the drygoods business, and were after- 
ward associated in the drug business. Jacob died in 1909, but Joseph 
B. is living, in his eighty-eighth year. The latter retired from the drug 
business in 1907. He was the veteran druggist of that region and per- 
haps the oldest notary public, having served in that capacity for more 
than forty-eight years. 

Joseph B. Harter 

Mr. Harter was born near Hagerstown, Maryland, May 3, 1827, the 
son of Joseph and Elizabeth (Brower) Harter. His mother was a Vir- 
ginian and it was from the Old Dominion that the Harter family mi- 
grated to ]\Iontgomery County, Ohio, in 1804. It has thus been resi- 
dent in "the territory northwest of the Ohio" for 110 years. Joseph B. 
was but nine years of age when his parents took the long overland trip 
from Ohio to Indiana, but still remembers the exciting journey through 
forests and over streams until they reached the city of Indianapolis and 
later, Logansport. They met Indians a-plenty, but no bears, and long 
after the family had settled at North Manchester the Pottawatomies and 
the Miamis were frequent visitors to the Harter mills and houses. Three 
quarters of a century have passed before the eyes and mind of Mr. 
Harter, and during that long period he has seen North Manchester and 
Wabash County grown from nothing to a fine city and county ; a New 
World has risen both before him and around him, and he still takes 
an interest in it all. He is one of the advisory editors of this work, and, 
in view of his record, it is well that he should be numbered on the staff. 


Some First ITai-penings 

111 Ai)ril, 18;5r), a little over a year after their arrival, Colonel Ilelvy 
and his wife were blessed witli their daughter, iSarah, the tirst native of 
Chester Township. In due time she married DeAVitt West, of North 
jManehester, and both husband and wife resided there for many years. 

Hefore the eonelnsion of his first month's stay, Mr. Brewer mourned 
the death of a young daughter, hers being the first death in Chester 

The first marriage was celebrated in 1838 by George Hapner and Eliz- 
abeth Simonton, daughter of John Simonton. 

In August, 1839, George Abbott and Nancy Barrett were united by 
John W. Stephens, the first justice of the peace of the township, at Mr. 
Stephens' house. Mr. Abbott w^as about eighteen when he came to 
the township with his father, and Miss Barrett about the same age 
when she accompanied her step-father. Colonel Ilelvy. For some time, 
they were the only young man and young woman, respectively, in the 
locality, and were naturally often "thrown into each other's society." 
This propin(iuity, with a mutual attraction and willingness, could have 
but the one result. And ]\Ir. and ]\Irs. George Abbott "lived happily 
ever afterward" in North Manchester. 

Liberty JMills Founded 

At the same time that North Manchester was being born through the 
efforts of IMessrs. Ogan, Harter and others, the Town of Liberty Mills, 
two miles further up the river, was being created. The story has al- 
ready reached the point where James Abbott had sold the land upon 
which it was afterward platted to Alex McBride upon the condition that 
he erect a gristmill upon the property. Mr. McBride failed to "make 
good," ])ut in June, 1836, there came a man for whom the township 
and f^e county had been waiting, John Comstock, with his brave wife 
and six children. He assumed all the McBride obligations, building 
not oidy a gristmill, but a sawmill, a woolenmill, a distillery and a high- 
grade fiourmill. In 1837 Mr. Comstock laid out the Town of Liberty 
IMills and, as we have fully described elsewhere, became in many ways 
the broadest, strongest and most helpful citizen in Wabash County. He 
put Liberty Mills fairly on the map and wrote himself into a large 
chapter of the county's history. 

First Settlers in the Bear Swamp Region 

Among the early settlers locating in the Bear Swamp and vicinity 
prior to 1836 were Caleb Antrim and George Dillon. In October, 1837, 

ft gfiOfwA 






came Jesse Jenks; also Fleming and James Avers aiul their widowed 
motlier; Thomas (lilmore, at llie same time, settled on section 18. Soon 
thcictat'ter eaiiie Aliehael Hurke, wlio located about one mile east of 
the Jenks settlement, and in 1838 Pay ton Daniels located about two miles 
south of that locality. 

In 1838 Allen Halderman located upon a tract of land adjoining the 
Town of North ^Manchester on the east, and Al)ra]iam R. Mwit/.er lic- 
caiiic a I'csidcnl of North Manchester the same year and cstalilished the 
lirst cabinet shop in towji. Gabriel Swihart located on a farm two miles 
north of town in 183'J. He served one term in the Indiana Legislature, 
was otherwise i)rominent as a citizen and died in Koseiusco (bounty. 

Settlement in the southern and southeastern portions of the town- 
ship began at a later date than in the sections farther mu'th along the 
Et'l River and its tributaries. Progress in the i)ortions of the township 
nicntioned was retarded by the land speculators, to whom the editor's 
respects have already been ]»aitl ; the conseciuence was that until after 
the unsold ( iovernmmit hnul had all heen taken up, these properties 
faiKnl to liiiel i)urehasers. Among the lirst who located in these portions 
of the township uas Andrew Frcshour, who came about 1841; shortly 
afterward. ^Ir. Hoffman settleci near him. In 1845 Peter \Yright located 
on the farm which he so long occu})ied on section 27. 


The year 183G seems to iuive been an important one for Ciiester Town- 
ship. In fact, it was not created until that year, eight miles square be- 
ing set off from the north of La Gro Township under the name of Chester, 
in May, 1836; it was not until some years afterward that it attained its 
{)resent area and form. As we have seen, North ]\Ianchester^was also 
platted in 183G, and the lands which were platted as Liberty i\Iills 
came* into the hands of John Comstock the same year. From that time 
on for several years North Manchester and Liberty jMills were industrial 

Later Settlement op the "Bear Swamp" 

The Bear Swamp region of the south commenced to settle quite 
rapidly in the '50s. Previously, such settlers had located as Jonathan 
Hamilton and Stephen Jenks in 1840, and Alfred and Enos Hornady 
in 1841. The Hornadys took up lands on^ sections 19 and 25. Samuel 
Ridgely came about two years later, and Cornelius WiLson about 1849. 
Then came a greater immigration to the region. 


111 1850-51 Nathan Ililand, Henry Howensti'in, Hiram Filson, Enoch 
Hartcr and Lewis Ilarter, arrived; in 1854, Jacob Scheerer, Frederick 
Kickert, Julni Burkhart, Frederick Walter and Xavier Sell; and in 1855 
Justus Gennner and other good industrious Germans. 

Pioneer vs. Wilderness 

"Thus, within a period of little more than twenty years, the set- 
tlement wliich began along the banks of Eel River had l)ecome diffused 
over sixty-six square miles of territory, and in every (luarter of the 
townshij) was heard the ring of the pioneer's ax mingled with the sounds 
of the giant trees as they fell to give place to the cleared fields that 
everywhere blossomed in the heart of the wilderness. Game of all de- 
scriptions still ran wild in the forests, and venison was the most pop- 
ular meat on the daily bill of fare. So plentiful were the deer at that 
time that the problem of meat was not a serious one to a good marks- 

"Wolves made night hideous by their howls to such an extent that 
the settlers were often robbed of their much-needed rest. A war of ex- 
termination was decided upon, and at first carried on singly. But 
afterward concerted action was taken, and the settlers for miles around 
would join in a wolf hunt. They would surround a swamp or other 
known rendezvous of the marauders, sending in men and hounds to 'beat 
the bush' and scare the game from its lair. It was pretty sure to run 
within range of a trusty rifle in the hands of a deadly foe, and by 
frefiuent repetitions of this sport the settlers were ultimately rid of 
their disagreeable neighbors, and their sheep and pigs slept undis- 
tur])ed. At one of these hunts, in 1849, seven wolves were killed in one 

The "Mail Trace" 

After North i\Ianchester and Liberty ]\nils had been located and the 
two settlements commenced to vie with each other in the founding of 
mills and business houses, the fame of the Eel River country in that 
part of the county began to draw a steady stream of new comers. The 
necessity for decent highways of travel thus became apparent. ' If we 
except the Indian trails leading from Eel River to Logansport and Port 
Wayne, there were no roads penetrating that region from the Valley 
of the Wa])ash prior to the late '30s. 

Largely through the exertions of Mr. Comstock. in 1888 and 1839, 
a road for a nuiil route was opened through the woods from the big 


•'(•anal town," La Oro, to Liberty Mills and North ?>Ianehester. A 
party from La Gro worked north, and others from tlie northern towns 
workicl southwai-d, and so the road, erude though it was, came to l)e. The 
l)rin('ii)al ol).)t'et in opening it was to make a highway for the transporta- 
tion of mail from La Oro to Liberty ]\Iills. It was long called the ]\Iail 
Trace, althongli it was generally used by travelers cutting across from 
the \Val)asii to the Eel River Valley. 

Afterward, in ]850, this gave place to a plank road which took 
substantially the same course, and still later a railroad was projected 
up the Eel Valley in such a way as to make North ]\Ianchester and to. 
kill Lil)erty Mills as a thriving town. 

The Railroads Make North Manchester 

Ciiester Township first agitated a railroad during 1850, the year of 
the completion of tlie plank road between La Gro and Liberty Mills; and 
the railway project gave North Manchester a broader outlook than she 
had heretofore enjoyed. It was proposed to place that town in direct 
communication with Detroit, and for a time it looked as if the hopes of 
the citizens were to be realized. A large amount of grading was done, 
but suddenly the company failed and the proposed railroad evaporated. 

Twenty years passed and in 1871, when it became evident that North 
Manchester was to have two railroads, the town revived and all kinds, 
of enterprises blossomed within its limits. In the year named the De- 
troit, Eel River & Illinois was completed to ]\Ianehester, making its. 
terminal connection at liOgausport late in 1872 ; and the Cincinnati, 
AVabash & Michigan Railroad was completed at about the same time, 
with its southern terminus at Wabash. Up to that time, surrounding 
towns had drawn from Manchester a large amount of trade which would 
have been hers, provided she had enjoyed sufficient transportation 
facilities to handle it. With the coming of these railroads the progress- 
of the place was rapid and unimpeded, and for many years she has been 
considered one of the most enterprising and flourishing towns in North- 
ern Indiana. The growth and present status of North Manchester will 
be described in detail in another chapter. 

First Preaching by Elder Fannin 

From the best available testimony the church antedated the school 
by several years in Chester Township. In the fall of 1885, Elder Bryant 
Fannin nuide his appearance at the cabin of Peter Ogan, just south 
of North i\Ianchester, and announced that he was searching for a home- 



i^i- fi h 

•^i'&,-»,---'v-*rf' l.^ 






stead. lie was a preaeher of the Christian Chureh, as was James Ab- 
bott who had settled at Liberty ]\Iills. As Elder Fannin remained over 
Snnday, he was indueed to eonduct religious exereises at tlie (Jgan eal)in, 
the families of Colonel Ilelvy, Air. Abbott, and Petei- and -John Ogan 
assembling to partieipate in them. Upon that oeeasion tlie leader of 
the little elass preaehed the first sermon in Chester Township. 

Shortly after Ekler I^'annin loeated as a permanent resident (al)out 
1841), he and his neighbor, Joseph Speneer, organizetl a society of the 
Disciples of Christ in the house of the former. 

Pioneer Ciiuucii : :,..:,,,,,.''■ 

This pioneer Christian society had an original membership of not 
moi'e than a dozoi, meeting twice a month in the Fannin eabin, and sub- 
se(|uently in ;i school house south of North Manchester, known as the 
Walters Sehool. At a still later date the sehoolhouse at New Aladison, 
on tlic northwest (juailcr of section 22, was adopted as the meeting ])lacc, 
and thus continued until the close of the Civil war. About 18fJ6 the coii- 
gicgation purchased a lot in the village of New Madison, or Servia, 
upon which a substantial l)rick church was erected and nuide permanent 
headquarters of tlie first religious body to be organized in Chester 

jMethodists Organize Classes 

A])out the time that Elder Fainiin formed his class at North ]\Ian- 
chestcr, liev. Ancil l>eacli formed a small class of Methodists l)0th at that 
l)lace and Libei'ty ]\lills; tliey were end)raeed in the Rochester Mission 
and assigned to him as regular appointments. In 1843 the Liberty ]Mills 
Circuit was formed, with l\ev. C. Wesley INIiller, minister in charge. In 
the following year Rev. Warren A. Griffith was sent to that circilit. As 
tliere was no parsonage within his jurisdiction at this time, he moved his 
family to North -Manchester and proceeded to arrange for the erection 
of one, as well as of a church. During the year Mr. Griffith succeeded 
in having a parsonage and five new meeting houses erected within the 
limits of the circuit. 

At the conference of 1845 the name was changed from Liberty ]\lills 
to North Manchester Circuit, and Rev. George Guild was sent as minister 
in charge, lie was succeeded by Rev. D. F. Stright, Rev. John Hill 
ami Rev. Eventus Doud. At the conference of 1850, North Maiu-hestci- 
Circuit was divided, Akron Circuit l)eing formed from the westci-n ])(ir- 
tion of it. "During this year," it is stated, ".Methodism took its lirst 


pcniianent stand in North Manchester;" where, for the present, we 
shall leave it. 

Schools of the Township 

As earl}^ as the winter of 1838-39, a subscription school was con- 
ducted by i\Iiss Harriet Tullis in a cabin on lot 3i), Liberty IMills, and 
about the same time Thomas Keeler taught the first school in North 
Manchester, a building having been erected for that purpose two squares 
north of the site of the present American House. This schoolhouse also 
served as a church for several religious denominations until their houses 
of worship were erected. 

At Liberty ]\Iills the schools were taught in different houses each 
winter until 1841, when a schoolhouse was erected on lot 51. This was 
a frame building erected by the citizens, whose labor was contributed 
free of charge, and the salary of the teacher was raised in the usual way, 
through subscriptions paid by those whose children were accommodated. 

In the southern part of the township the first school was taught by 
]\Ir. ^McGuire about 1848, in a log cabin fifteen feet square. Two years 
later the citizens erected a hewed-log schoolhouse on the Hoflfman fann 
which was used for some time. 

During the years 1851 and 1852, the public funds began to be dis- 
tributed according to the provisions made by the revised constitution 
of the state, and district schools were established throughout the town- 
ship. Since that time their history has been one of constant improve- 
ment, although the progress of the early years was slow, as will be learned 
by reference to the chapter on educational matters. 

^; CHAPTER XXII . ,, ,^ ^^ ,., 


Increase in Area and PoruLATioN — Beauciiamp, Thorn and Frame, 
First ]\Ierciiants — George W, Lawrence — The American House — 
The CtRimes House. — Other Pioneer Merchants — j\Iaterial In- 
terests in the Eari>y '80s — Present-Day Industries — The AVater 
Supply — City Hall and Public Library — The Public Schools — 
IManciiester College — The Banks— Lawrence National Bank — 
Indiana State and Union Trust Banks — Early Newspapers — 
North IManciiester Journal — North ^Manchester News— Early 
Christian Churches — North Manchester Christian Church — 
First Church of the Brethren — The .Methodist Church — Zion 
Evangelical Lutheran Church — United I^rethren Church — 
Societies — Masonic Bodies — The I. 0. 0. F. — Amuseivients, Re- 
creations, Etc. 

Tho original plat of North I\Iaiichester was laid out by Peter Ogan 
and William Noff in 1836, althougli it was not filed until the following 
year. The main site lies high and dry on the north side of Eel River, 
about thirty feet above the level of the stream, the plateau being slightly 
undulating and easily drained. The town is regularly laid off, its streets 
are wide and well kept, and its stores, banks, public buildings and resi- 
dencc« indicate thrift, good taste and progress. Its Carnegie Library, 
its city hall, schoolhouses and churches are all worthy the second munic- 
ipality in the county, and a brisk center of trade, as well as the higher 
activities of life. 

Increase in Area and Population 

From time to time various additions were made to the original plat, 
such as Shively's, Ilarter's, Willis's, Ilalderman's, Ilymer's, Ilaney's, 
Shively & Metzger's, and J. B. & J. Ilarter's, until the town covered 
a section, or a square mile of land. This expansion of territory wa.s 
nuide necessary by the increase of i)Oi)ulation, csjxH'ially after the com- 



hi<r of tlie railroads in 1871-72. In 1870, it is estimated tliat there were 
not to exceed 450 witliin the limits of tlie town site. By 1874 the 
growth had heeii .so j'apid that the population had reached fully 1,200, 
and North .Manchester heeame an incorporated town. In 1876 there 
were 1,600 people in town. 

liKAuciiAiip, Thorn and Frame, First .Merciiants 

J'rohably the first .store in town was opened l)y Asa Beauchamp in 
1838, his limited stock of goods being displayed in a log house on the 
northeast corner of Main and Walnut streets. AVilliaiu Thorn and 
]\Iahlon C. Frame established a drygoods and grocery store on the op- 
posite corner during the following year. The latter developed into a 
large general establishment. Within a few years its trade extended over 
a wide circuit, the proprietors not only selling their goods to the towns- 
people for cash, but exchanging them for country produce and furs. 

J^eauchamp, the original merchant, cojitinued at the old stand for 
a few years, after which lie traded his store for a tract of land near 
town. .Alorris Place, the purchaser, iinally moved to Jay County, In- 

George W. Lawrence 

TlKirn and Frame continued to flourish for a numl)er of years, the 
former finally conducting it alone and in association with various part- 
ners for a long period. In 1851 George AV. Lawrence became connected 
with the l)usiness as a clerk, bnying the business in 1858 and commenc- 
ing a business career which, within the coming two decades, placed him 
at the head of North Manchester merchants. At first he associated him- 
self with L. J. Noftzer, then the firm was Lawrence & AVhisler and later 
(}. AY. Lawrence & Company. In the early '80s the business was oc- 
cupying two large stores on ]\Iain Street. 

The first drug store was established l)y John Aughinbaugh, about 
1850, on the American House corner, where he also conducted a'tavern. 
Later, lie separated the two lines of business. 

The American House 

The old American House, northeast corner of Alain and AYalnut 
streets, was perhaps the leading landmark of the early times. It was 
a two-story frame building erected by Asa Beauehamp, the pioneer 
merchant, in 1841. After he had conducted it for several years it was 




Vii'.w ON .Mii.i> Stukkt, North ^I-vxcjiESTEii 

Second Street, North IManciiester 


bought by Col. Richard Ilelvy, who had moved into tow)i from his farm. 
If one is to judge from a rapid-fire change of proprietors, tlie usual 
busines.s of the American House was not encouraging. In January, 
1883, while Jesse C. Hoover was proprietor, it was destroyed by tire, a 
New American House having arisen from its ashes. 

The Grimes House 

The first Grimes House was l)uilt by Henry Lentz in 1848, but it was 
not origiiudly known hy tliat iiame. In 1881 Rufus R. Grimes was owner 
^nd conductor of tlie American House, purchased the old hotel and added 
to it a fair-sized brick structure, calling the united establishment the 
Orimes House. Tliis was opened to the public May 2, 1882. 

Other Pioneer IMerchants 

The Harters (J. & J. B.) were a close second to John Aughinbaugh, 
as druggists, and they continued in the field longer than any other firm 
in that line. 

In 1856 John W. Williams established a drug store in the building 
afterward occupied by the Bonewitz meat market. In the early '60s he 
moved to the old Aughinbaugli stand, in 1870 erected a building on Main 
Street and two years later associated himself with his son, J. B. Williams. 
J. W. Williams & Son was for years one of the well known business 
houses of North ]\Ianchester. 

The first distinct boot and shoe house was established in the spring 
of 1863 by J. F. Eichholtz and John F. Kinney, under the firm name of 
Eichholtz & Kinney. 

In the early '80s, about ten years after North Manchester had en- 
joyed railroad connections, the city had quite an array of established 
T)usiness houses, industries and professional men. It is interesting, at 
this time, to recall them : 

IMaterial Interests in the Early '80s 

Dry goods and general merchandise : G. W. Lawrence & Company 
and D. Smith & Company. 

Drugs: J. W. Williams & Son, J. & J. B. Har'ter, Sala & Barsh, 
John AV. Ulrey and G. W. Eckman. 

Groceries: Daniel Lutz, Leonard & Leonard, Henry Mills, J. M. 
Jennings, T, Wheeler, W. L. Brookover & Brother and D. S. Miller. 

Boots and shoes: John L. Cowgill and J. F. EichhoHz. 


Hardware: L. J. Xoftzcr & ('uiiii)aiiy and 1). Frame &. Son. 

Cluthing: Ahersolm & Wiener and Jaeoh Ojjpeidieini. 

.Jewelry: l.avey & Son and -J. C. .Milliron. 

Physieians: 11. & (J. H. Winton, M. O. Lower, P. Slialfer, A. Gos- 
horn, D. (iintlier, E. Olnuart and A. Simons. • 

Attorney.s: Ji. F. Clemen.s, I. E. Gingerieh and J. ^[. Hurdge. 

Dentists: A. .Miller and E. E. Qnivey. 

JJookstore: E. A. l']l)l)ing'house. ■■■ , ■ ,■ 

('al)in.'t organs: (iintlier & ^Vinton. ' •■ '' ' ' ' ' ''■' 

Furniture: Stewart & Ellwood and J. H. Straw. "■-' • C' v -' ■ it^,»d 

Pliolograplier: J. .] . Martin. 

.Alerehant tailor: A. d. S-llers. •^''' = * 

-Millinery: Mrs E. T. Allen, Kaufman lK: Speiieer and X. J. Kidgley. 

Agrirultui'al implements: Bash »l!c Hagvr, Samuel Hamilton and 
A. \V. Powman. 

(ii-ain dealei's: (,'. Wood & Comi)any. 

Dealers in buggies: A. U, Miller. 

liutter, eggs and poultry : Jieyer Brothers. :■■ ' ■ • *^ 

l^umher tlealers: Krisher & J\eed. 

Ooal dealer: S. P. Young. 

Flour and feed stores : Strauss & Shock and C. T. Banks & Company. 

Meat markets: Keesey & Sandoz, Kelsey & Company and Suuimer- 
lantl iirothers. 

IHdes and pelts: A. Schoolcraft. 

Restaurants: Sheller & \Veber, Lewis Russell, Slusser & jMowrer 
and E. Stover. 

Flour dealer: M. Harter. 

]\Iarl)le works: J. P. Noftzger. 

I'ndertaker: Jacol) Misener. 

l^arhers: Lewis Russell and R. Edgington. 

Li^'el•y and feed stables: C. D. Johnson, M. Quinn and E. A. Willis. 

Harness and saddles: J. H. Butterbaugh, Lm'i Reed and M. Haney. 

15oot and shoe makers: George Gresso and P. B. Speed. 

Gunsmith: Thomas J. ]\Iiller. 

lilacksmiths: Whitlow & Enyeart, David Myers, S. P. Young, Wil- 
liam Baker and Asa Weeks. 

Wagon makers : AVilliam Stadler and S. P. Young. 

Saloons: David Hamilton, M. Quinn, W. H. Strayer and F. Green. 

Present-Day Industries 

Both the general and special stores of North Manchester are now 
large and well stockecl. A good and widespread agricultural district 

Vol. 1—25 


is triliutary to it, which, cou])lecl to its ready transportation and l)ank- 
iug facilities, makes it the center of a tiourishing and growing trade. 
North ^Manchester is also headciuarters for (juite an elevator business, 
the 11. Kinzie Elevator Company and the Acme Grain Company having 
large interests there, as well as at Liberty IMills. The North Manchester 
Milling Company operates a modern plant. Ulrey, Tyler & Company 
ai-e leading lumber dealers, the wagon factory of J. A. Browne & Com- 
pany is a large establishment, and among other plants worthy ot' spe- 
cial mention are the Peabody ]\ranufaeturing Company, S. S. Cox Show 
Case Company, Fred Home's machine shop and the sa\vmill operated 
l)y J. AV. Straus, as well as the creamery of Silas llolloway. 

J. A. Browne & Company furnish the power fur tlie electric plant 
which supplies North Manchester with light. 

The Water Supply 

The city water works which furnish l)oth fire protection and a fine 
supply for drinking and other domestic purposes were commenced in 
1895. The S3'stem now embraces about twelve miles of pipes. The sup- 
ply is drawn from half a dozen wells, the water is pumjied into a stand- 
pipe in the northwestern part of town, and thence distributed by direct 
pressure. The daily consumption is from three hundred thousand to 
three hundred and fifty thousand gallons, and the Avater is cool and 

City Hall and Public Library 

The city hall is a little gem. It was erected in 1901 on Main Street, 
•the engine house being on the ground floor and the municipal offices 
and council chamber above. 

A block west of the city hall is the new public library, a i)retty 
and striking building housing 2,300 volumes and standing for much of 
the best intelligence of the place. The movement for a library originated 
with the Woman's Club in the fall of 1908, and the first collection was 
accommodated in the town hall. From first to last IMrs. I. E. Gingerick 
has been a leader in this fine work. The first library board connnenced 
its service in June, 1909, and the new building now occupied was dedi- 
cated in April, 1912. It was made possible by a $10,000 gift from Mr. 
Carnegie, after the city council had voted $1,000 for its support and a 
lot had been donated for its site. 

Tjie Public Schools 


Tlie North ^Maiu-lu'stcr piiljlic seliools are a credit to tlie county, 
as conducted l)y A. L. Ulrey, their superintendent. Prior to 1874, all 
tlie public schools had been under the jurisdiction of the township 
trustee. In that year, however, some of the leading citizens of the place 
inaugurated a movement to have tlie town incorporated, one of the rea- 

North ]\Ianciiester City Hall 

sons therefor being that the corporation might issue bonds to erect a 
schoolhouse Avithin its limits. In November, 1874, the measure for in- 
corporation was carried by popular vote, and bonds to the amount of 
$10,000 were issued by the first town board for the erection of a 
union school. AVith the money thus realized the erection of what is 
now known as the high school building was commenced in the summer 
of 1875, and completed at a cost of $15,000. 

The grammar and primary grades were taught therein until 1881, 


when the liicrh school (Ippartment was achled IIciii'v Giuuler and 
Saimu-1 T. AlU-n hatl been siiperiiiteiulents of the selioul up to that time, 
when W. I). Farley heeanie superintendent and W. II. ShallVr i)rin- 
cii)al of the high school. 

The old high school liuilding has been remodeled to meet present- 
day requirements, and its grounds occupy the S(|uare bounded by Fifth, 
AValnut, Fourth and ^Market streets. Since its erection as a union scliool, 
three other public building's have been added to the system— the Central, 
AVi-st Ward and North Ward houses. The teaching force comprises 
the superintentlent, four assistants in the high schot)l and twelve grade 

■ '' ' ' •;•'■;'■•(' 

' IMancii ESTER College .,i 

As North ^Manchester is also the seat of Manchester College, it is an 
educational center of note throughout the AVabash Valley. 

There is no institution in Wabash County which has raised that sec- 
tion of the state to a higlier standard in the estimation of lovers of broad, 
moral and i)ractical education than the Manchester College, its taste- 
ful and substantial buildings l)eing located on a beautiful campus of 
ten acres on the north edge of Noi-th ^Manchester. The main buildings 
nestle in an oak grove and arc api)roaclu-d by a tine asphalt avenue which 
is continuous to the busiiu-ss section of the town. 

While the immediate aim of the institution is to provide a college 
home for the children of the Church of the Brethren, under guarded 
moi'al and religious influences, yet memt)ers of all churches are warmly 
welcomed, as well as those who have made no Christian profession. Aside 
fi-oni intellectual (puilitications, the test of admission is moral character, 
and that of continuance in the scholastic course. All students are re- 
miired to attend daily chapel services during the school week, as well 
as one church and one Sunday school service on the Sabbath. Members 
of the Church of the Brethren are, of, expected to identify 
themselves with their own denomination, but students who are members 
of other denominations attend the church of their choice. 

The safe, substantial and progressive attitude which the Manchester 
College has always maintained toward the ever-broadening field of edu- 
cation cannot be told more clearly than by an historic resume. Its be- 
ginning was in Bumgardner Hall, now College Hall, which was erected 
upon the present campus in 1889. For six years that school was directed 
by representatives of the United Brethren Church, with Rev D. N. 
Howe, A. iM., president. In 1895 the ten acres constituting the present 
grounds with Bumgardner Hall, were purchased by representatives of 


tlu," Church of the brethren, rrof. K. S. Young bi-iug the new president. 
The next year the chapel huihliiig was ert'ctcd, and two years lattT the 
Ladies' 1 loiiie was added. 

In thcii- attempt to lu'ing the institution up to its iiighest ei'lieiency 
till' trustees were obliged to place a debt upon the school. Through the 
sacrifices of the trustees and the personal effort of Elder I. D. Parker 
and otiiers this deht was cancelled in 1902 and the school property, 
valued at $50,000, was deeded to the following state districts of the 
Church of the Brethren: Northern Indiana, Middle Indiana, Southern 
Ohio and Northwestern Ohio — Sonthern Indiana ])eing added in October, 
190G. The transfer of the property to the church was made in such a 
A\ay that the institutioii can never be encumbered with del)t. 

In 1001, Prof. E. ^l. Crouch, A. ]M., became president and served 
until 1910. During this period valual)le improvements were made, both 
in tiie capacity and convenience of the college buildings and in the en- 
larged scope of the curriculum. In 1905 the central heating plant Mas 
installed, and in the following year the Young ]\Ien's Hall was erected. 
The laboratories and library were greatly enlarged in lf)08, and in the 
same year the model training school for teachers was established. That 
institution was accretlited by the Indiana State Board of Education, 
June 21, 1907, for the training of teachers in Classes A and B, and fully 
accredited April 9, 1!)09. 

Since 1902 ]\huu-hester College has been controlled by a boaixl of 
six trustees, representing the state districts owning the school. The di- 
rect work of the college is carried on by an executive board. The presi- 
dent of this executive board is also president of the college. Each of 
these bodies has a secretary and treasurer, and the latter a field rep- 
resentative. Identified with the college organization is also the general 
educational board, appointetl by the general conference of the church. 

Succeeding Professor Crouch as president of the college was Prof. 
E. V. Bixler, who was followed in 1911 by Prof. Otho Winger, the pres- 
ent incumbent. 

President Winger is an educator of broad and practical outlook, and 
his administration has greatly added to the general reputation of the 
college. It was largely through him that the gynnuisium was added to 
the school buildings in 1911, and that its apjoaratus has been improved 
and well adapted to indoor exercises for both sexes. He is also an ardent 
advocate of vocational training and agriculture. The numual ai'ts and 
domestic scicJice are all Ijeing carefully developed in the school woi'k. A 
new building is now being erected that will be devoted to the sciem-es and 
vocational subjects. The 1)readth, defjth and solidity of the eurriculum 
cannot be better indicated than by a general review of its dei)artments. 



The acadciny course has been certified by the Indiana State Board of 
Education as being equal to the commissioned liigh school course of the 
public system of education, its graduates being admitted to nornud school, 
college or uiiivei'sity. 

The Liberal Arts College carries with it the degree of A. B., and 
embraces a regular four years' course. This is now the most rapidly 
growing di'partment of the school. 

The normal school, as stated, has been fully accredited by the In- 
diana State P>oard of Education since April 9, 1909, and the training 
school estalilished on the college grounds has won a high reputation. 
Oidy expert state normal graduates are placed in charge of the work. 
Till- Ohio State Board of Education has also recognized the work of this 

The thousands interested in Bible study will learn with pleasure that 
^Manchester College has a well organized department devoted to that 
subject. As stated by the management: "Courses are planned with a 
view to the direct study of the Bible, and not merely to study books about 
the Bible." It may be added that they are planned along the lines of 
the Bil)le work which has been so successfully prosecuted at the Bethany 
Bible School of Chicago, an institution under the direction of the Church 
of the Brethren. 

The music course is four years, either in voice or piano. 

The school of commerce and liiuin(;e, or business college, embraces 
everything of theory and practice which may lay the groundwork of a 
broad business life, including courses in stenography, bookkeeping, ad- 
vanced accounting, banking, commercial law and commercial geography. 

There are also courses for instruction in agriculture, manual train- 
ing and domestic science ; in art, for either those who wish to teach it 
or apply it professionally ; in expression and oratory and physical cul- 

Oi late years a summer school connected with the college has been 
well patronized, as v>'ell as the college extension department. 

The foregoing summary gives a general idea of the varied activities 
of the institution guided, as to educational development, by President 
AVinger a