Skip to main content

Full text of "History of Warren County, Pennsylvania"

See other formats










W. S . R A N N 










WHILE it may seem to the uninitiated a task involving but little difficulty 
to prepare for publication a work no more comprehensive in character 
than this volume and containing the history merely of a single county, still it 
is not out of place here to assure all such readers that the work is one demand- 
ing a vast amount of labor and research, watchful care, untiring patience, and 
great discrimination. This need not be said to any person who has had ex- 
perience in similar work. In attempting the production of a creditable history 
of Warren County, the publishers and the editor did not underestimate the 
difficulties of their task, and came to it fully imbued with a clear idea of its 
magnitude, and a determination to execute it in such a manner that it should 
receive the commendation of all into whose hands it should fall. It is believed 
that this purpose has been substantially carried out, and that, while a perfect 
historical work has never yet been published, this one will be found to contain 
so few imperfections that the most critical reader will be satisfied. 

It has been a part of the plans of the publishers in the production of this 
history to secure, as far as possible, assistance from parties resident in the 
county, either as writers, or in the revision of all manuscripts ; the consequence 
being that the work bears a local character which could not otherwise be 
secured, and, moreover, comes from the press far more complete and perfect 
than could possibly be the case were it intrusted wholly to the efforts of com- 
parative strangers to the locality in hand. In carrying out this plan, the editor 
has been tendered such generous co-operation and assistance of various kinds, 
that to merely mention all who have thus aided is impossible ; the satisfaction 

2 Preface. 

of having assisted in the production of a commendable public enterprise must 

be their present reward. 

Those who have aided and encouraged in this work have been almost 
" legion " ; and to all such the writer extends his grateful thanks, and hopes 
his efforts to present a truthful history will not prove fruitless, but that it may 
be a mile-stone of events reared upon our county's century course, and read 
by our youth and posterity with such profit that they, by their true patriotism, 
industry and frugality, may be enabled to add as worthy a record of their day 
and generation as the fathers of the county have here transcribed. 




The Beginning of Warren County's History — Date of Organization — Its Boundaries — 
Its Area and Streams — Origin of its Name — Tlie System to be Pursued in Succeed- 
ing Chapters 13 



Topography — Character of Forests — Tlie Soil — Its Products — Minerals' — The Animal 
Kingdom — The Eries — The Kahquahs, or Neuter Nation — The Hm'ons — The 
Iroquois — Earlier Occupants — Inferences 15 



The French in New France — The Puritans in New England — The Dutch in New Nether- 
lands — Activity of the French — Dutch Progress — The Jesuits — The Company of a 
Hundred Partners — Capture and Restoration of New France — Great Extent of the 
Province of Massachusetts Bay — Breboeuf and Chaumonot — Destruction of the 
Kahquahs and Eries — Seneca Tradition — French Account — Indian Hatchets 21 



Their Name as Apjihed liy Themselves — System of Clans — Its Importance — Its Probable 
Origin — The Grand Council — Sachems and War-chiefs — Line of Descent — Choice 
of Sachems — Religious Belief — Natural Attributes — Family Relations, etc 28 


FROM 1G55 TO rl680. 

The Iroquois Triumphant — Obliteration of Dutch Power — French Progress — La Salle 
Visits the Senecas — Greenhalgh's Estimates — La Salle on the Niagara — Building of 
the Qriffin — Its First and Last Voyage — La Salle's Subsequent Career 34 


Europeans Struggle for Supremacy Along the Atlantic Coast — Quakers Settle in New 
Jersey — William Penn Appointed a Trustee — His Labors in Their Behalf — An 
Early Description of the New Country — Admiral Penn — A Province Granted to 
His Son — It is Named Pennsylvania — Its Extent — A Miscalculation — Penn Pur- 
chases the Lower Counties — Outlines His Policy — Sends Governor Markham to Take 
Possession — Names Commissioners — Their Duties — An Address to the Indians — 
The Site for a New City Selected 38 


WiUiam Penn Sails for America — His Advice to His Family — The Voyage — Warmly 
Received at New Castle — The" First Assembly — Penn Visits New York and Mary- 
land — Unsatisfactory Conference with Lord Baltimore — The Great Treaty with the 
Indians — The Walking Purchase — Great Influx of Colonists — Counties Formed — 
Meeting of the First General Assembly — Sitting of the First Grand Jury — First 
Conviction ^ — Another Fruitless Interview with Lord Baltimore — Baltimore's Demand 

— Penn's Anxiety — His Liberal Offer — Baltimore's Adherents Invade the Lower 
Counties — Penn Determines to Return to England — His Farewell to His Colonists.. 49 


A Slight Ascendency — De NonviUe Attacks the Senecas — Origin of Fort Niagara — 
Count Frontenac in the Field — Treaty of Ryswick — Queen Anne's War — The 
Iroquois Neutral — The Tuscaroras — Joncaire — Fort Niagara Rebuilt — French 
Power Increasing — Conflicting Claims — Secret Instructions — De' Celeron Takes 
Possession of the Allegheny Valley — Buries a Lead Plate at Mouth of the Cone- 
wango — The Six Nations Alarmed — French Establish a Line of Forts — The Ohio 
Company — Virginia's Claim — Washington as an Envoy — French Build Fort Du 
Quesne — Washington and his Virginians Captured — Braddock's Disastrous Campaign 

— The Final Struggle — French Defeated all Along the Line — Their Surrender of 
Power in the New World 56 


Pontiac's Conspiracy — The Devil's Hole — A Fight at Black Rock — Bradstreet's Expedi- 
tion — Sulky Senecas — The Troops Composing Bradstreet's Command — Israel Put- 
nam — The Revolution — Four Iroquois Tribes Hostile — The Treaty at Oswego — A 
Price for American Scalps — Brant, the Mohawk — Principal Seneca Chiefs — Wyom- 
ing — Cornplanter Conspicuous — His Many Names, etc. — Cherry Valley — Ameri- 
cans Retaliate — Brodhead's Expedition — Sullivan's Indian Campaign — Results — 
Close of the War, and of English Rule 72 

FROM 1783 TO 1790. 
Forlorn Condition of the Senecas at the of the Revolutionary War — Willing to Cede 
the Remainder of their Lands in Pennsylvania — Commissioners Appointed to Treat 

Contents. 5 

with Them — A Sum Appropriated to Piircliase Indian Goods — Quantity and Kind 
of Goods with whicli Purchase was Made — Treaty of Fort Stanwix — Boundaries 
of the Tract Acquired by Pennsylvania — Cornplanter the Friend of the Whites — 
Subsequent Indignation of His Tribe — General Irvine Explores the New Purchase 
— Extracts from His Report — Running the Boundary Line Between New York and 
Pennsylvania — Interesting Details — Early Names of Warren County Streams — In- 
dian Villages — Pertinent Suggestions — A Tract of Land Granted to Cornplanter- — 
Survey of Lands of the Mouth of the Conewango — An Account of the First Official 
Exploration of the Head Waters of the Allegheny 83 



The Seneca Chieftain Invited to Visit Philadelphia — Letter from Thomas Mifflin — Ensign 
Jeffers's Letter — The Journey — Arrival in the Quaker City — Subsequent Proceed- 
ings — Cornplanter's Speech to the Supreme Executive Council — President Mifflin's 
Reply — Cornplanter J Meets President Washington — Returns to His Forest Home 
with Gifts and Various Supplies — Attempts on the Part of Pittsburgh Tliieves to 
Steal the Same — Colonel Brodhead's Opinion of Early Pittsburgh Residents — Corn- 
planter Makes Choice of the Lands Granted Him — Their Location, etc. — Sketch of 
His Life 96 


FROM 1791 TO 1800. 

Troublous Times on the Border — Baneful British Influence — Uneasy Iroquois — Colonel 
Proctor Visits Them — Interesting Details Gathered From His Journal — His Mission 
a Failure — St. CJair Defeated — The Iroquois Become Insolent — Their Arrogant 
Demands — Cornplanter Joins the Malcontents — Extracts from Letters Written by 
Andrew Ellicott, Brant the Mohawk, and John Adlum — Wayne's Victory — Salutary 
Effects — Iroquois Ardor Cooled — The Treaty at Canandaigua — The. British Retire 
from American Territory — Cornplanter's Speech at Franklin — The Holland Land 
Company — Town of Warren Laid Out by State Commissioners — Survey of Lands 
West of the Allegheny River — Advent of the Settlers — A Block-house at 
Warren — Navigable Waters — Origin of the Reserve Tracts and Academy Lands.. . . 110 



Formation of Warren County — Its Original Boundaries — Temporarily Attached to Craw- 
ford County — Crawford County Organized — Erection of Brokenstraw Township — 
It Becomes the First Election District of Crawford — Warren County Annexed to 
Venango in 1805 — Brokenstraw Still Continues as the Sole Township of Warren 
County — Its Taxable Inhabitants in 1806 — Who were the First Settlers — A Mooted 
Question — An Order to Erect New Townships — Early Inn-Keepers — Division of 
the County into Two Townships — Their Names and Boundaries — Their Taxable In- 
habitants in 1808 — Visited by Western Indians — A Want of Confidence — Council 
Held with Cornplanter — Veterans of the War of 1812-15 — A Transfer of Lands by 
the Holland Land Company — Cornplanter as He Appeared in 1816 — The Taxables 
of the County During the Same Year — Subsequent Rapid Increase in Population .... 125 


Onerous Duties Imposed Upon Early Inhabitants — Passage of the Act of Organization — 
Its Provisions — Initial Proceedings of County Commissioners — The First Term of 
Court — Its Officers — Jurors — Attorneys — Early Inn-keepers — Reminiscences Con- 
cerning the First Term of Court — Population of the County in 1820 — New Town- 
ships formed in 1821 — The Attempts to Collect Taxes from Cornplanter — The Old 
Chief Victorious — The Hook Murder Trial — Incidents Connected Therewith — Re- 
sults — Other Early Events 141 


FROM 1830 TO 1861. 
The First Steamboat on the Upper Waters of the Allegheny — An Account of the Trip — 
Cornplanter a Passenger — Merchants and Inn-keepers in 1830 — National Character 
of Early Settlers — The Scotch-Irish at First m the Ascendency — Origin of the Term 
Scotch-Irish — Those of English Descent in Final Control — Early Routes of Travel 
. — A Remarkable Journey — Barefooted in Midwinter — An Influx of Alsatians — 
Death of Cornplanter — Incorporators of Various Associations — Lumbering — River 
Navigation — Store Goods — Prices — Routes Pursued in Transit — Part of McKean 
County Annexed to Warren — The Whigs and Democrats — The First Telegraph Line 

— Merchants of the County in 18.50 — The Whigs Disband — Organization of the 
American Party — Temporary Success— Causes Leading to the Formation of the 
Republican Party — An Incident in the Career of Jeff. Davis — Republicans Gain Con- 
trol of the County in 185(3 — New County Sclieme — Petroleum Discoveries — Tilus- 
ville to the Front — Warren Men Also — Railroad Completed from Erie to Warren — 
Tidioute Oil Field — Election in ISGO 149 



Mutterings of the Coming Storm — The Outbreak — Call for Troops — Citizens of Warren 

in Council — Their Proceedings — The First Two Companies of Volunteers — Others 

in Readiness — Leaving Home for the Front — Brief Allusion to Other Organizations 

— Number of Warren County Men in the Field to November 1, 1862 — Events of 
18G3 — Tribulations of the Stay-at-IIomes in 1864 — Relieved by Rebel Recruits — 
The Draft of 1865 — Probable Total Number of Troops Furnished — Victorious Re- 
joicings — Ladies' Aid Society — Dedication of Cornplanter's Monument — An Influx 
of Scandinavians — Another New County Project Defeated — Gradual Development 

of Oil Interest.^ — Conclusion of Continuous History 161 


Where Recruited — The Warren Guards — Regimental Rendezvous — Organization of the 
Regiment — It Proceeds to Harri,<burg — Thence to Washington — Brigade Assign- 
ment — General Ord in Command — The Flgiit at Dranesville — A Weary March to 
Fredericksburg — Transferred to the Peninsula — In Fitz-John Porter's Command — 
Battle of Mechanicsville — Gaines's Mill — Gallant Behavior of the Tenth Reserve 

— It Sustains Heavy Loss — White Oak Swamp — Men Completely Exhausted — 
Close of the "Seven Days' Fight" — The Re.serves at Second Bull Run — South 


Mountain — Antietam — Fredericksburg — Gettysburg — Winter Quarters 1863-64 — 
In the Wilderness — On Hand at Spottsylvania Court-House — Bethesda Church the 
Tenth Reserve's Last Battle-Field — Muster Out — Roster of its Members from Warren 
County 169 



Manner of Recruiting Its First Companies — The Unique Material of Which It Was Com- 
posed — Woodsmen to the Front — Floating Down the Susquehanna — Captain Stone's 
Raftmen — ■ The First Company to Leave Warren — To Pittsburgh in Boats of Their 
Own Make — By Rail to Harrisburg — Regimental Organization — Captain Stone 
Promoted — The First March — On the Upper Potomac — The Bucktails Join the 
Pennsylvania Reserves — Gallant Conduct at Dranesville — Captain McNeil of Warren 
Chosen as Colonel — A Temporary Division of the Regiment — Major Stone's Battalion 
in the "Seven Days' Fight" — Winning Imperishable Honors — But at Great Loss 
of Life — Wonderful Bridge Building Feat — The Rifles of the Bucktails Again in Use 
at Second Bull Run — Services Rendered by Lieutenant-Colonel Kane's Battalion in 
the Shenandoah — The Regiment Again United — Its Services at South Mountain — ' 
Antietam — Death of Colonel McNeil — An Incident in His Military Career — Freder- 
icksburg — Gettysburg — Death of Colonel Taylor, McNeil's Successor — In the Wilder- — At Spottsylvania — Bethesda Church — Expiration of Term of Service — Roster 
of the Warren County Men 179 



Colonel Curtis, of Warren, Authorized to Raise a Regiment — Is but Partially Successful — 
Its Consolidation with Another Fractional Command — The Field Officers --Regiment 
Proceeds to Fortress Monroe — Its Services in that Department — Ordered to Beau- 
fort, N. C. — Transferred to the Army of the James — Charging Fort Harrison — 
Subsequent Services — Muster Out — Eighty-Third Regiment — Where Recruited — 
Becomes Part of the Fifth Corps — Hotly Engaged During the Peninsula Campaign 

— Its Losses — Second Bull Run — Fredericksburg — Holding Little Round Top at 
Gettysburg — Worthless Substitutes and Drafted Men — Final Movements 192 


In What Counties Recruited — Its Warren County Companies — Regimental Rendezvous ' 

— Original Field Officers — Equipped at Harrisburg — Proceeds to Baltimore — 
Thence to Harper's Ferry — Assigned to Banks's Second Corps — In Action at Cedar 
Mountain — Heroic Daring Displayed at Antietam — Assigned to the Twelfth Corps 

— Winter Quarters 1862-63 — At Chancellorsville — Gettysburg — Transferred to the 
Army of the Cumberland — Attacked at Midnight in the Wauhatchie Valley — Rebels 
Defeated — Lookout Mountain — Re-enlisting for a Second Term — Bleventli and 
Twelfth Corps Consolidated as the Twentieth — The Atlanta Campaign — Hard 
Marching and Fighting of Daily Occurrence — Before .Atlanta — Death of Colonel 
Cobham — Atlanta Occupied — The March Through Georgia — Savannah Falls — 
Sweeping Northward Through the Carolinas — The Round-up at Washington, D. C. — 
Final Duties — Muster Out — Names and Record of Its Warren County Members. . . . 196 





The One Hundred and Thirteenth Regiment of the Line or Twelfth Cavalry — Organized 
Near Philadelphia — Joins Pope in Virginia — Subsequent Services in the Shenandoah 
Valley — The First Command to Discover Lee's Northward Movement in 1863 — 
Nearly Surrounded at Winchester — Cutting its Way Out — On the Upper Potomac 

— In Pursuit of Early — Its Last Battle — Muster Out — Roster of Company K — One 
Hundred and Forty-fifth Regiment — Company F Recruited at Tidioute — The Regi- 
ment is Ordered to the Front Without Adequate Equipments — In Line at Antietam 

— Assigned to the Second Corps — Its Desperate Struggle at Fredericl<sburg — Great 
Losses — Chancellorsville — With Hancock at Gettysburg — In the Wilderness with 
Grant — Chareing the Enemy's Works at Spottsylvania — Cold Harbor — Petersburg 

— Part of the Regiment Captured — Other Movements and Battles — Names, Etc., 

of Its Warren County Members 214 




One Hundred and Fifty-first Regiment — Company F Recruited in Warren County — 
Regimental Organization — Colonel Harrison Allen, of Warren, in Command — Joins 
the Army of the Potomac — Assigned to the First Corps — The Chancellorsville Cam- 
paign — The Weary March to Gettysburg — The Battle — Heroic Conduct During the 
First Day's Fight — Frightful Losses — Retiring through the Town to a New Position 

— Continuance of the Battle — Victory, Tliough at a Fearful Cost — The Regiment 
Higlily Complimented by General Doubleday — Its Warren County Men — One Hun- 
dred and Fifty-ninth Regiment, Otherwise Fourteenth Cavalry — Names of Its War- 
ren County Members — Regiment Organized at Pittsburg — Its Field Officers — Ordered 
to Harper's Ferry — Campaigning in the Shenandoah Valley — Attached to General 
Averell's Command — A Series of Raids and Battles — BriUiant Success Attending 
the Raid on the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad — Great Destruction of Rebel Prop- 
erty — A March over the AUeghenies in Midwinter — Swimming Icy Torrents and 
Swollen Rivers — Co-operating with General Crook — Hunter's Lynchburg Campaign 

— Another Terrible March Accomplishe.l — Details of Other Feats Performed and 
Battles Fought — of the War — Transferred to Fort Leavenworth — Muster Out 227 



One Hundred and Eighty-second of the Line, Otherwise the Twenty-first Cavalry — Its 
Warren County Contingent — Serves a Si.\ Months' Term — Reorganized to Serve 
for Tliree Years — For Four Montlis Renders Gallant Service as an Infantry Regiment 
of the Fifth Corps — Its Battles — Remounted and Assigned to Gregg's Division — 
Subsequent Marches and Engagements — ^ Names, Etc., of the Warren County Men — 
One Hundred and Ninety-third Regiment — Part of Company I Recruited in Warren 
County — Regiment Serves One Hundred Days — Two Hundred and Eleventh Regi- 
ment — Term One Year — Contains a Full Warren County Company — In Virginia — 
Makes a Brilliant Record — Roster of Company G — ^ Captain James's Independent 
Company — An Account of Its Services — Names of Members — Captain Baldwin's 
Company of Militia of 18G2 — List of members 238 

Contents. 9 


Utilizing the Rooms of Private Dwellings for Public Purposes — The First Jail — The 
Village School-House Used as a Court-Room — Reminiscences Concerning Jail Breakers 

— The First Court-House — The Second Jail — Stone Office Building — Destruction of 
Same by Fire — Another Erected of Brick — The Third or Present Jail — The New 
Court-House ^ County Farm 253 


Brokenstraw the Original Township of the County — Conewango Organized in 1808 — 
Spring Creek, Sugar Grove, Pine Grove, Kinzua, and Deerfield in 1821 —Columbus 
in 1825 — Limestone in 1829 — Elk in 1830 — Sheffield and Freehold in 1833 — 
Pleasant in 1834 — Southwest in 1838 — Eldred in 1843 — Glade in 1844 — Corydon 
in 184G — Mead, Cherry Grove, and Pittsfleld in 1847 — Farmington in 1853 — Triumph 
in 1878 — Watson in 1880 — Borough Incorporations 259 



The First " Agricultural Show " — Organization of the Warren County Agricultural Society 

— Its Officers — First Annual Fair — Names of Those to Wliom were Awarded Pre- 
miums — Extract from Judge Wetmore's Address — Subsequent Fairs, Officers, etc. — 
Organization of the Union Agricultural Society — Sugar Grove its Headquarters — 
The Warren County Agricultural Fair Association Organized — Its Officers — Annual 
Exhibitions — Remarks 269 


A Description of Warren's First Printer and Publisher — The Conewango Emigrant^ Its 
First Editor — Interesting Details — The Warren Gazette — Its Editors, Publishers, 
etc. — Voice of the People — The Union — Warren Bulletin — Democratic Advocate — 
Warren Standard — Warren Ledger — People's Monitor — Warren Mail — Youngsville — Tidioute Publications — Warren Mirror — Clarendon Record — Evening 
Paragraph — Sugar Grove News — Bear Lake Record 276 



The " Fontaine de Bitume " — The Earliest French Missionaries Aware of its Existence — 
Also the English — Early References to the Same — Washington and Jefferson Speak of 
"Bituminous Oil" in Virginia — Evidences that the French Gathered the Oil at Titus- 
ville — It is Known to Early Inhabitants as " Seneca Oil " — An Account of the First 
Producer and Refiner of Petroleum in Pennsylvania — He Terms it " Carbon Oil " — 
Colonel Drake's Discovery — Descriptions by Correspondents — Great Excitement at 
Titusville — Warren Men as Pioneer Operators — Subsequent Developments of Oil Pro- 
ducing Territory — Handsome Profits — Tidioute Field Opened — Squatters — Early Man- 
ner of Shipments — Annual Production of Pennsylvania and New York Fields Since 
1859 285 

lo Contents. 

Members of the United States House of Kepresentatives — Judge United States Court of 
Claims — United States Consul — Lieulenan t-Governor — Auditor-General — Member 
of State Constitutional Convention — -State Senators — Members of Assembly — Presi- 
dent Judges — Sheriffs — County Commissioners — Prothonotaries — County Treas- 
urers — Registers and Recorders — County Commissioners' Clerks — Jury Commission- 
ers — Coroners — Justices of the Peace 294 



Source of the Conewango — Navigable Waters of the County — Askmg Aid for Their Im- 
provement — Survey of the Allegheny by U. S. Engineers — Its Length and Fall from 
Olean to Pittsburgh — Early Manner of Transporting Freight and Passengers — Keel- 
boats — Their Great — Shipping- Lumber to New Orleans — Names of Steam- 
boats Engaged in the Warren and Pittsburgh Trade — An Immense Raft — Description 
of Rafting — Nathan Brown's Ventures — Wagon Roads Laid Out by the Pioneers- 
Present Condition of Highway? — Railroads — Celebrating the Opening of Railway 
Coniinunication with Erie — Date of Completing Other Railroads 302 


Interesting Memoirs of the President Judges now Decea.sed — Full Mention of Those Who 
Survive — The Bar — A Complete Roll of Attorneys Admitted Since the Organization of 
the County — Remarks Concerning Some of the Earliest Resident Attorneys — Notes 
Relating to Present Attorneys in .-Vetive Practice 311 










HI.^ToRY <iK I'lXK (;i;oVK TOWNSHIP 443 





chapti:r .\xxix 


Contents. i i 





































Allen, Orren C, lacing 

Barnes, Erastus, facing 

Beaty, David facing 

Benedict, W. B facing 

Blorlget, A. C, M.D facing 

Brown, Judge Rasselas facing 

Currie, Joshua T facing 

Curwen, John, M.D facing 

Davis, Alpheus J facing 

Dunham, M. B facing 

Eldred, N. B facing 

Graham, Samuel M facing 

Gray, Robert M facing 

Grandin, Samuel facing 

Grossenburg, Samuel facing 

Hall, Orris facing 

Hall, Chapin, facing 

Harmon, Hosea facing 

Hertzel, Andrew, facing 

Hunter, O. H facing 

Irvine, William A., M.D., facing 

Jackson, William M facing 

Jamieson, H. A facing 

Johnson, S. P facing 


McKinney, Peter facing 572 

McGraw, Michael, facing 594 

Marsh, William S., facing 586 

Miles, Robert facing 324 

Merritt, C. C facing 542 

Nesmith, Benjamin facing 358 

Rogers, Alson facing 632 

Roy, James, facing 504 

Rouse, Hon. Henry R., facing 256 

Sanford, J. G facing 546 

Scofield, Glenni W., facing 616 

Sechrlest, J. C facing 688 

Shortt, W. H., facing 406 

Stone, C. W., facing ^94 

Struthers, Thomas facing 310 

Tanner, .Archibald facing 148 

Thompson, Robert facing 416 

Watson, Lewis Findlay facing 290 

Walton, John, facing 674 

Wetmore, C. C facing 658 

Wetmore, Hon. Lansing, facing 146 

Wetmore, Hon. L. D facing 610 

White, Jay facing 564 

Whitman, John facing 668 


Allen, Orren C., 683 

Barnes. Erastus 635 

Beaty, David 609 

Benedict, Willis B 629 

Blodget, A. C., M.D 634 

Brown, Judge Rasselas 647 

Currie, Joshua T. 627 

Curwen, John. M.D 605 

D.ivis, Alpheus J 628 

Dinsmoor, Charles, 650 

Dunham. M. H 644 

Eldred. N. B 639 

Graham, Samuel M 685 

Gray, Robert M 664 

Grandin, Samuel 638 

Grossenburg, Samuel, 663 

Hall, Orris 649 

Hall, Chapin 659 

Harmon, Hosea 666 

Hertzel, Andrew 652 

Hunter, O. H., 646 

Irvine. Doctor William A 671 

Jackson, William M 672 

Jamieson, Hugh A 660 

Johnson, S. P 686 

McKinney, Peter 626 

McGraw, Michael 643 

Marsh, William S., 632 

Miles, Robert 636 

Merritt, Hon. Charles C 624 

Nesmith, Benjamin 681 

Orr, Richard S : 678 

Rogers, Alson 633 

Roy, James, 637, Hon. Henr)' R 679 

Sanford, Joel G.. . 676 

Scofield, Glenni W., 616 

Sechriest, John C 688 

Shortt, W. H., 690 

Stone, Charles W., 613 

.Struthers, Thomas, 599 

Tanner, Archibald 621 

Thompson, Robert 689 

Watson, Lew is Findlay, 606 

Walton, John 673 

Wetmore, C. C 658 

Wetmore, Hon. Lansing 656 

Wetmore, Hon. L. D 610 

White, Jay 655 

Whitman. John 669 






The Beginning of Warren County's History — Date of Organization — Its Boundaries — Its 
Area and Streams — Origin of its Name — The System to be Pursued in Succeeding Chapters. 

ON that eventful mid-summer's day in 1749 when Captain Bienville de 
Celeron, " Knight of the Royal and Military Order of St. Louis," in com- 
mand of two hundred and fifteen French soldiers and fifty-five Indians, 
appeared on the south bank of the Allegheny River, opposite the mouth of 
Conewango Creek, there buried an engraved leaden plate, and, with the dis- 
play of much pomp and ceremony, formally assumed possession of this and 
adjoining regions vast in extent, in the name of the reigning king of France, a 
stand-point was reached ; a beginning, as it were, was made in the real, well- 
authenticated history of Warren county, Pennsylvania. But, in the endeavor 
to explain the long and interesting chain of events which led up to this occu- 
pation by the French, to describe the conflicting claims of the English and 
their various operations, civil as well as military, in the effort to obtain posses- 
sion of the same territory, and to briefly outline the history of the primordial 
inhabitants of " these cantons," it is found necessary to go delving back in the 
past, two centuries or more before the advent of Celeron upon these shores, to 
gather up the threads of an historic narrative which, upon perusal, it is believed 
will not prove uninteresting to the reader. 

Warren county was not organized as a separate shire until the year 18 19. 
Hence, as foreshadowed in the preceding paragraph, a large — and by far the 

14 History of Warren County. 

most interesting — part of its history had at that time already taken place. It 
is deemed necessary, therefore, to point out that the subject of this work is the 
territory comprised within the present boundaries of the county of Warren, 
together with its inhabitants, no matter whether the events recorded occurred 
before or after the beginning of the independent existence of the county. 

The county of Warren, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is bounded 
on the north by the State of New York, or, in other words, by the line of the 
forty-second degree of north latitude ; on the east by McKean county, on the 
south by Forest and Venango counties, and on the west by the counties of 
Crawford and Erie. In extent it is about thirty-two miles in length from east 
to west, by twenty-six miles in width, and contains fully eight hundred square 
miles of territory, or five hundred and twelve thousand acres of land. Its 
most important stream, the historic Allegheny, entering near the northeast 
corner and flowing southwesterly, divides its territory into two distinct parts, 
leaving about three-eighths of it on the southeast side. The tributaries of the 
Allegheny, of sufficient size to be useful for propelling machinery or floating 
rafts, are Willow Creek, Sugar Run, and Kinzua Creek, entering from the east, 
and Cornplanter and Hemlock Runs, and Conewango, Brokenstraw, Tidioute, 
and West Hickory Creeks, entering from the west ; the Kinzua, Conewango, 
and Brokenstraw being navigable from ten to twenty miles, for rafts of timber 
and manufactured lumber. 

The county seat, and subsequently the county, were named after Joseph 
Warren, the distinguished American patriot who fell at the battle of Bunker 
Hill in 1775, and who was but eight years of age at the time Celeron made 
his appearance at the mouth of the Conewango. 

We have been thus particular in designating the location and the limits of 
the county in the beginning in order to place the subject of this history clearly 
before the reader. Whatever has existed or occurred within those limits, or 
has been done by the residents of the territory in question, comes within the 
scope of this work and, if considered of sufficient consequence, will be duly 
noticed. It will be necessary, also, to frequently refer to outside matters, in 
order to make plain the early annals of the county and to show the succession 
of events. Such extraneous references, however, will be very brief and will be 
confined chiefly to a few of the earlier chapters. Further, when "Warren 
county " is spoken of previous to the naming of that county, it will be under- 
stood that the words are used to avoid indirect expression, and mean the terri- 
tory now included within its boundaries. So, too, for convenience, the lands 
now comprised in a township or village will sometimes be mentioned by its 
present name, before any such township, etc.. was in existence. 

Natural Features, Etc. 15 



Topography — Character of Forests — The Soil — Its Products — Minerals — The Animal 
Kingdom — The Eries — The Kahquahs, or Neuter Nation — The Hurons — The Iroquois — 
Earlier Occupants — Inferences. 

IT is deemed fitting, before beginning the record of events, to give a brief 
description of the natural features of Warren county, together with its occu- 
pants, its neighbors, and its relations with the rest of the world, as these existed 
when the first European came into this vicinity. 

The configuration of the surface of the country is the same now as then, 
and may be described in the present tense. Generally speaking, it is a region 
of rough and broken superficies. At one time in the world's history, without 
a doubt, it was a comparatively smooth table-land, sloping somewhat sharply 
from the east to west-southwest ; but time's erosions, and the action of the ele- 
ments during a period beyond the record of man, have so changed its exterior 
that it is now, and for many centuries has been, a land varied with hills, plains, 
and narrow bottoms. The Kinzua hills, the highest elevations in the county, 
attain an altitude of nearly two thousand two hundred feet above tide- water. 
From thence as we proceed westward the hills decrease in height until the 
western border of the county is reached, where the highest points are only a 
little more than three-fourths as high as the hills or mountains towering above 
the valley formed by the waters of Kinzua Creek. 

As already indicated, the county is well watered and drained by numerous 
streams which have played no unimportant part in its settlement and subse- 
quent development. These, together with the minor runs and rivulets, have 
cut the surface into the irregularly shaped hills and valleys seen to-day, and 
have fashioned the bold, precipitous bluffs and hillsides so noticeable along the 
chief water-courses, more especially in the eastern part. West of the Allegheny 
and Conewango, however, at some distance back from those streams, the sur- 
face assumes a less rugged appearance, and contains a greater number of ara- 
ble acres per square mile. The county is singularly free from swamps of any 
extent, and, besides its limpid, swift-flowing streams, springs of pure, soft 
water generally abound, and frequently are to be found on the highest lands. 

Thus far the natural characteristics of Warren county are the same now 
that they were two centuries ago and had been for unknown ages before, save 
that less water flows along the streams in summer than when their banks were 
shaded by the primeval forests. Some new names have been applied by the 
white man, but in many cases even the names remain unchanged. 

i6 History of Warren County. 

The outward dress, however, of these hills and valleys is widely different 
from what it was during the French occupation. The land originally — except- 
ing, perhaps, the crests and precipitous sides of the highest hills and the few 
acres of bottom land devoted to the culture of corn, etc., by the Indians — was 
heavily timbered with pine, hemlock, cherry, whitewood, oak, chestnut, hick- 
ory, maple, beech, ash, butternut, and all other varieties indigenous to this por- 
tion of America. As fine forests of pine, without a doubt, as ever grew on 
this continent then occupied the lands along the Brokenstraw, the Conewango, 
the Tionesta, and the Kinzua. Large bodies of the same species of timber 
were also to be seen in many other localities ; but in the vicinity of the four 
streams named was centered the bulk of Warren's timber of commerce. The 
beech woods of Farmington and the hard-wood uplands of Sugar Grove were 
also noted as early landmarks. 

The soil of the county was — and is — of mold, clay, and loam, variously 
intermixed, and, as time has proven, is easily cultivated and well adapted to 
the culture of wheat, corn, oats, barley, buckwheat, rye, etc. Vegetables and 
the hardier varieties of fruits also do well. In speaking further of the original 
forest growth and the soil's fitness for the production of farm products, we will 
for convenience of description divide the lands of the county into three classes: 
First, oak and chestnut mainly comprised the timber of the hilly parts, the soil 
of which has been found well adapted to the growth of the cereals. Second, 
on the more level lands and those bordering the streams grew a mixture of 
timber, such as whitewood, cucumber, maple, cherry, beech, butternut, hick- 
ory, and occasionally oak and chestnut. This class has proved suitable for 
the cultivation of the coarser grains, corn, etc., and produces grass in abun- 
dance. Third, the pine and hemlock lands, once considered valuable only for 
their timber; but time and experience have shown that, when cleared and 
intelligently cultivated, valuable farm lands are the results. 

Iron ore and bituminous coal are found in various localities, and quarries 
of sandstone abound in most parts of the county. These stones are of a supe- 
rior quality for building purposes, making nearly as good an appearance as 
granite and other varieties brought from a distance. 

In the long ago the animal kingdom was amply represented. The deer 
strayed in great numbers through the forest. In the thickest retreats the gray 
wolf made his lair. The huge black bear often rolled his unwieldy form 
beneath the nut- bearing trees, and frequently the wild scream of the panther, 
the fiercest of American beasts, startled the Indian hunter into even more than 
usual vigilance. The porcupine and the raccoon were common, as well as the 
wildcat and the Canada lyn.x, and squirrels of various kinds leaped gayly from 
tree to tree. Here the wild turkey and the partridge often furnished food for the 
family of the red hunter, pigeons in enormous quantities yearly made their sum- 
mer home, numerous smaller birds fluttered among the trees ; the eagle, hawk, 

Natural Features, Etc. 17 

and crow occasionally swept through space just above the tree tops ; the streams 
of pure, sparkling water teemed with America's choicest fish — the speckled 
brook-trout; and, besides some varieties of harmless reptiles, thousands of 
deadly rattlesnakes hissed and writhed among the rocks, on the hillsides, and 
in the valleys of every portion of the county. 

Of all these there is no question. Indeed, of all the living things enumer- 
ated in the foregoing paragraph, all yet exist here, with the exception, per- 
haps, of the gray wolf the wild turkey, and the panther. But whether or not 
the buffalo ever honored the upper Allegheny valley with his lordly presence 
has been a matter of considerable speculation and debate. We think that he 
did. It is well authenticated that when the French first appeared on the 
stream, flowing but a few miles westward from the western boundary of War- 
ren county — by the Indians known as the " Wenango," by the French as the 
" River Le Boeuf," and by the English and Americans as French Creek — 
great numbers of buffalo were found there. For that reason the river was 
named Le Boeuf, or Beef River, by the exploring French missionaries, and 
many years subsequently the fort built on or near the site of Waterford by the 
French was given the same appellation — Le Bceuf The buffalo is an animal 
of great endurance, ever on the move by day and frequently at night, and 
capable of traversing many miles in each twenty-four hours. There was none 
to molest or make him afraid other than small parties of Indian hunters. He 
was free to roam in any and all directions. Hence we infer and conclude that, 
at a time when these animals frequented French Creek valley in such large 
numbers, they also at intervals visited the Allegheny and disported in its cool, 
clear waters. 

At the time of which we are now speaking, the date of the coming of the 
first French missionaries and traders to these regions, the country bordering 
the southern shores of Lake Erie, and for a great but unknown distance to the 
south of it, was in the possession of two strong tribes or nations, known as the 
Errieronons or Erie or Cat nation, and the Andestiquerons or Kahquah nation. 
As Fries and Kahquahs they were generally known, and these are the names 
we have adopted in speaking of them. 

The French also called the Kahquahs (who occupied territory to the east- 
ward of the Fries) the Neuter nation, because they lived at peace with the 
fierce tribes which dwelt on either side of them. They were reported by their 
first European visitors to number twelve thousand souls. This, however, was 
doubtless a very great exaggeration, as that number was greater than was to 
be found among all the Six Nations of the Iroquois in the day of their greatest 
glory. It is a universal habit to exaggerate the number of barbarians, who 
cover much ground and make a large show in comparison with their real 
strength. They were undoubtedly, however, a large and powerful nation, as 
size and power were estimated among Indian tribes. Their chief village was 

i8 History of Warren County. 

located on or near the site of the city of Buffalo, N. Y., though others were 
found throughout the wide territory occupied by them. 

The greater part of the shore of Lake Erie, however, was occupied by the 
tribe from which the lake derives its name, the Eries. This name is always 
mentioned by the early French writers as meaning "cat." On Sanson's map, 
published in 1 65 1, Lake Erie is called "Lac du Chat," Lake of the Cat. 
There were certainly no domestic cats among the Indians until introduced by 
the whites, and the name must be attributed to the wildcat or panther. It 
may have been assumed by this tribe because its warriors thought themselves 
as ferocious as these animals, or may have been assigned to them by their 
neighbors because of the abundance of wildcats and panthers in the territory 
inhabited by the Eries. 

To the northwest of the Neuter nation dwelt the Algonquins, or Hurons, 
reaching to the shores of the great lake which perpetuates their name, while 
to the eastward of the former was the home of those powerful confederates 
whose fame has extended throughout the world, whose civil polity has been 
the wonder of sages, whose warlike achievements have compelled the admira- 
tion of soldiers, whose eloquence has thrilled the hearts of the most cultivated 
hearers — the brave, the sagacious and far-dreaded Iroquois ! They then con- 
sisted of but five nations, and their " Long House," as they termed their con- 
federacy, extended from east to west through all the rich central portion of 
the State of New York. The Mohawks were in the fertile valley of the Mo- 
hawk River ; the Oneidas, the most peaceful of the confederates, were beside 
the lake, the name of which still keeps their memory green; then, as now, the 
territory of the Onondagas was the gathering-place of leaders, though State 
and other conventions have taken the place of the council fires which once 
blazed near the site of Syracuse ; the Cayugas kept guard over the beautiful 
lake which now bears their name, while westward from Seneca Lake ranged 
the fierce, untamable "men of the hills," better known as the Senecas, the 
warriors par excellence of the confederacy. Their villages reached westward 
to within thirty or forty miles of the Niagara, or to the vicinity of the present 
village of Batavia, N. Y. 

For many years deadly war prevailed between the Iroquois and the Hurons, 
and the hostility between the former and the Eries was scarcely less fervent. 
Betwixt these contending foemen the peaceful Kahquahs long maintained their 
neutrality, and the warriors of the East, of the Northwest, and of the South- 
west suppressed their hatred for the time, as they met by the council fires of 
these aboriginal peace-makers. 

Like other Indian tribes, the Kahquahs guarded against surprise by plac- 
ing their villages a short distance back from any navigable water — in this case 
from the Niagara River and Lake Erie. One of those villages was named 
Onguiaahra, after the mighty torrent which they designated by that name — ^a 

Natural Features, Etc. 19 

name which has since been shortened and transformed into Niagara. In dress, 
food, and customs the Kahquahs do not appear to have differed much from 
the other savages around them : wearing the same scanty covering of skins, 
living chiefly on meat killed in the chase, but raising patches of Indian corn, 
beans, and gourds. 

Such were the inhabitants of a region which was then crossed by no imag- 
inary lines of latitude and longitude, State, county, or township, and such their 
surroundings, when first visited by the French. 

Of the still earlier occupants of this territory but little will be said, for there 
is really very little from which one can draw a reasonable inference. The Iro- 
quois and the Hurons had been in New York and Canada for many genera- 
tions before the advent of the white man. Their earliest European visitors 
heard no story of their having recently migrated from other lands, and they 
certainly would have heard it had any such assertion been made. True, there 
were some vague traditions among the Iroquois tending to show that they 
originally came from Canada, but at a period long before their discovery by 
the whites. The Eries and Kahquahs must also have been for a goodly time 
in the localities occupied by them, to have acquired the strength in numbers, 
and the power necessarily required to maintain their positions — the first, as 
the deadly enemies of the Iroquois ; the second, as a great neutral nation 
standing between these opponents. 

Says Crisfield Johnson, in his interesting " History of Erie County, N. Y." 
— whose views on this topic coincide with our own — " All or any of these 
tribes might have been on the ground they occupied in 1620 any time from a 
hundred to a thousand years, for all that can be learned from any reliable 
source. Much has been written of mounds, fortifications, bones, relics, etc., 
usually supposed to have belonged to some half-civilized people of gigantic 
size, who lived here before the Indians, but there is very little evidence to jus- 
tify the supposition. 

" It is true that numerous earthworks, evidently intended for fortifications, 
have been found in this county, as in other parts of Western New York, 
inclosing from two to ten acres each and covered with forest trees, the concen- 
tric circles of which indicate an age of from two hundred to five hundred years, 
with other evidences of a still earlier growth. These prove with reasonable 
certainty that there were human inhabitants here several hundred years ago, 
and that they found it necessary thus to defend themselves against their ene- 
mies, but not that those inhabitants were of an essentially different race from 
the Indians who were discovered here by the earliest Europeans. 

" It has been suggested that the Indians never built breastworks, and that 
these fortifications were beyond their patience and skill. But they certainly 
did build palisades, frequently requiring much labor and ingenuity. When 
the French first came to Montreal they discovered an Indian town of fifty huts, 

History of Warren County. 

which was encompassed by three lines of palisades some thirty feet high, with 
one well-secured entrance. On the inside was a rampart of timber, ascended 
by ladders and supplied with heaps of stones ready to be cast at an enemy. 
When Samuel de Champlain, the founder of Canada, at the head of a large 
body of Hurons and accompanied by ten Frenchmen, attacked the principal 
village of the Onondagas, near Onondaga Lake, in October, 1615, he found it 
defended by four rows of interlaced palisades, so strong that, notwithstanding 
the number of his followers, the firearms of his Frenchmen, and his own gal- 
lant leadership, he was unable to overcome the resistance of the Onondagas, 
and was compelled to retreat across Lake Ontario. 

" Certainly those who had the necessary patience, skill, and industry to build 
such works as those were quite capable of building intrenchments of earth. 
In fact, one of the largest fortresses of Western New York, known as Fort 
Hill, in the town of Le Roy, Genesee county, contained, when first discovered, 
great piles of round stones, evidently intended for use against assailants, and 
showing about the same progress in the art of war as was evinced by the pali- 
sade builders. 

" True, the Iroquois when first discovered did not build forts of earth ; but 
it is much more likely that they had adandoned them, in the course of improve- 
ment, for the more convenient palisades, than that a whole race of half-civilized 
men had disappeared from the country, leaving no other trace than these earth- 
works. Considering the light weapons then in vogue, the palisade was an 
improvement on the earth-work, offering equal resistance to missiles and much 
greater resistance to escalades. 

" Men are apt to display a superfluity of wisdom in dealing with such prob- 
lems, and to reject simple explanations merely because they are simple. The 
Indians were here when the country was discovered, and so were the earth- 
works ; and what evidence there is, goes to show that the former constructed 
the latter. 

" It has been claimed that human bones of gigantic size have been discov- 
ered ; but when the evidence is sifted and the constant tendency to exaggerate 
is taken into account, there will be found no reason to believe that they were 
relics of any other race than the American Indians. 

" The numerous small axes or hatchets which have been found throughout 
Western New York were unquestionably of French origin, and so, too, doubt- 
less, were the few other utensils of metal which have been discovered in this 

" On the whole, we may safely conclude that, while it is by no means impos- 
sible that some race altogether different from the Indians existed here before 
them, there is no good evidence that such was the case, and the strong proba- 
bilities are that if there was any such race it was inferior, rather than superior, 
to the people discovered here by the Europeans." 

European Discoveries, Etc., 1534-1655. 



The French in New France — The Puritans in New England — The Dutch in New Nether- 
lands — ^Activity of the French — Dutch Progress — The Jesuits — The Company of a Hundred 
Partners — Capture and Restoration of New France — Great Extent of the Province of Massa- 
chusetts Bay — Breboeuf and Chaumonot — Destruction of the Kahquahs and Eries — Seneca 
Tradition — French Account — Indian Hatchets. 

IN 1534, only forty-two years after the discovery of America by Columbus, 
Jacques Cartier, a skilled French navigator, discovered the broad, beauti- 
ful river connecting Lake Ontario with the ocean. He sailed up that river to 
the future site of Montreal and formally took possession of all the country 
round about, on behalf of Francis I, the reigning sovereign of France. He 
named the newly-discovered region New France. The following year he 
made a second voyage, with the object in view of finding a direct route to 
India, and on reaching the mouth of that magnificent stream named it the St. 
Lawrence, in honor of the day of its discovery. He passed up the river a con- 
siderable distance, finding many Indian villages, but, not knowing the climate 
or heeding the flight of time, the rigors of a northern winter were upon him 
ere he realized their terrors ; and amid untold sufferings his hardy but unpre- 
pared seamen were compelled to remain on the St. Lawrence, their ship being 
ice-bound, until spring opened, when the survivors returned to France. Six 
years later Cartier made another voyage across the Atlantic, for the purpose 
of founding a permanent colony of French on the St. Lawrence ; but in 1543 
all was abandoned, and for more than a half century the disturbed condition 
of France prevented further progress in America. 

On the 3d of July, 1603, Samuel de Champlain planted the white flag of 
France on the site of Quebec, and three years later on that of Montreal. From 
this time forward for many years the devoted missionaries and fearless explor- 
ers of France were unremitting in their efforts to spread the Catholic faith and 
extend the French dominions throughout the vast region bordering upon the 
St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes. 

In 1606 James I, king of England, granted to an association of English- 
men, called the Plymouth Company, the territory of New England ; but no 
permanent settlement was made until the 9th day of November, 1620, when 
from the historic Mayflower the Pilgrim Fathers landed on Plymouth Rock. 
The English settlements were expected to stretch westward, between north 
latitude 48° and 34°, from the Atlantic Ocean to the " South Sea," or Pacific 
Ocean, and patents were granted to accommodate this liberal expansion. 

In 1609 the English navigator Henry Hudson, while in the employ of the 

History of Warren County. 

Dutch East India Company, discovered the river which still bears his name, 
and soon after the Hollanders established fortified trading posts at its mouth 
and at Fort Orange, now Albany, and opened a commerce in furs, etc. They, 
too, made an indefinite claim of territory to the westward. 

All European nations at that time recognized the right of discovery as 
constituting a valid claim to lands occupied only by scattered bands of sav- 
ages ; but there were numerous disputes as to application, and especially as to 
the amount of surrounding country which each discoverer could claim on 
behalf of his sovereign. 

Thus during the first quarter of the seventeenth century three distinct 
streams of emigration, with three attendant claims of sovereignty, were con- 
verging toward the region of the Great Lakes. For the time being, however, 
the French had the best opportunity and the Dutch ne.xt, while the English, 
apparently, were third in the race. 

The F"rench were the first white men to make explorations in the vicinity 
of Lake Erie. As early as 1611-12 Champlain ascended the chain of lakes as 
far as Lake Huron, and from that time forward the Indians were visited by 
numerous French priests, on the double mission of spreading the gospel and 
promoting the interests of their king and nation. 

In 1623 permanent Dutch emigration, as distinguished from mere fur-trad- 
ing expeditions, first began upon the Hudson. The colony was named New 
Netherlands, and the first governor was sent thither by the Batavian Republic. 

Two years later a few Jesuits arrived on the banks of the St. Lawrence, 
the advance guard of a host of representatives of that remarkable order, which 
was in time to crowd out almost all other Catholic missionaries from Canada 
and the whole lake region, and substantially monopolize the ground them- 
selves. In 1626 Father de la Roche Daillon, a Recollet missionary, visited 
the Kahquahs, or Neuter nation, and passed the winter preaching the gospel 
among them. This active, keen-sighted missionary also found time during 
his winter's sojourn in the wilderness to visit and describe the oil springs in 
New York and Western Pennsylvania. 

In 1627 Cardinal Richelieu organized the company of New France, other- 
wise known as the Company of a Hundred Partners. The three chief objects 
of this association were to extend the fur trade, to convert the Indians to 
Christianity, and to discover a new route to China by way of the Great Lakes 
of North America. The company succeeded in extending the fur trade, but 
not in going to China by way of Lake Erie, and not to any great extent in 
converting the Indians. By the terms of their charter they were to transport 
six thousand emigrants to New France and to furnish them with an ample 
supply of both priests and artisans. Champlain was made governor. His 
first two years' experience was bitter in the extreme. The British men-of- 
war captured his supplies at sea, the Iroquois warriors, whose enmity he had 

European Discoveries, Etc., i 534-1655. 23 

incurred, tomahawked his hunters on land, and in 1629 an EngHsh fleet sailed 
up the St. Lawrence and captured Quebec. Soon afterward, however, peace 
was concluded. New France was restored to King Louis, and Champlain 
resumed his gubernatorial duties. 

In 1628 Charles I of England granted a charter for the government of 
Massachusetts Bay. It included the territory between latitude 40° 2' and 44° 
15' north, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific, making a province two 
hundred and fifty-four miles wide and about four thousand miles long. The 
present county of Warren was included within its limits, as well as the greater 
part of the State of Pennsylvania. 

Meanwhile the Jesuit missionaries, fired with unbounded zeal and unsur- 
passed courage, traversed the wilderness, holding up the cross before the bewil- 
dered savages. They naturally had much better success with the Hurons, 
afterward known as the VVyandots, than with the Iroquois, whom Champlain 
had wantonly and foolishly attacked in order to please the Hurons (and to 
show the effectiveness of his firearms), and who afterward remained, with the 
exception of the Senecas, the almost unvarying enemies of the French. 

Flourishing stations were soon afterward established by the Jesuits as far 
west as Lake Huron. One of these was Ste. Marie, near the eastern extremity 
of that lake, and it was from this station that Fathers Breboeuf and Chaumonot 
set forth in November, 1640, to visit the Neuter nation. They returned the 
next spring, having visited eighteen Kahquah villages, but having met with 
very little encouragement among them. They reported the Neuter Indians to 
be stronger and finer-looking than any other savages with whom they were 

In 1641 Father I'Allemant wrote to the Jesuit provincial in France, describ- 
ing the expedition of Breboeuf and Chaumonot, and one of his expressions 
goes far to settle the question whether or not the buffalo ever inhabited the 
country bordering upon and to the southward of Lake Erie. He says of the 
Neuter nation, repeating the information just obtained from the two mission- 
aries : "They are much employed in hunting deer, buffalo, ^ wild-cats, wolves, 
beaver, and other animals." 

Down to this time the Kahquahs had succeeded in maintaining their neu- 
trality between the fierce belligerents on either side, though the Jesuit mission- 
aries reported them as being more friendly to the Iroquois than to the Hurons. 
What caused the quarrel between the Iroquois and the tribes immediately to 
the westward of them on the south shore of Lake Erie is not known ; but 
some time during the next fifteen years the Iroquois fell upon both the Kah- 
quahs and the Fries, and exterminated them as nations from the face of the 
earth. The precise years in which these events occurred are uncertain, nor is 

1 A French memoir, written in 1714, says : "Buffalo are found on tlie south shore of Lake Erie, 
but not on the north shore." 

24 History of Warren County. 

it known whether the Kahquahs or the Eries first felt the deadly anger of the 
Five Nations. French accounts favor the view that the Neuter nation were 
first destroyed, while according to Seneca tradition the Kahquahs still dwelt 
at the foot of Lake Erie, and southward to the head waters of the Allegheny, 
when the Eries were annihilated by the Iroquois. This tradition has been 
repeated about as follows : 

The Eries had been jealous of the Iroquois from the time the latter formed 
their confederacy. About the time under consideration the Eries challenged 
their rivals to a grand game of ball, a hundred men on a side, for a heavy 
stake of furs and wampum. For two successive years the challenge was 
declined ; but when it was again repeated it was accepted by the confederates, 
and their chosen hundred met their opponents near the head of the Niagara 

They defeated the Eries in ball-playing, and then the latter proposed a 
foot-race between ten of the fleetest young men on each side. Again the ath- 
letic Iroquois were victorious. Then the Kahquahs, who had a large village 
near by, invited the contestants to their home. While there the chief of the 
Eries proposed a wrestling match between the champions on each side, the 
victor in each match to have the pleasing privilege of knocking out his adver- 
sary's brains with his tomahawk. This challenge too was accepted, though, 
as the veracious Iroquois historians assert, with no intention of claiming the 
forfeit if successful. 

In the first bout the Iroquois wrestler threw his antagonist, but declined to 
play the part of executioner. The chief of the Eries, infuriated by his cham- 
pion's defeat, himself struck the vanquished wrestler dead, as he lay supine 
where the victor had thrown him. Another and another of the Eries was in 
the same way conquered by the Iroquois, and in the same way dispatched by 
the wrathful chief By this time the Eries were in a terrific state of excite- 
ment, and the leader of the victorious confederates, fearing an outbreak, ordered 
his followers to take up their march toward home, which they did, with no 
further collision. 

But the jealousy and hatred of the Eries was still more inflamed by defeat, 
and they soon laid a plan to surprise and, if possible, destroy the Iroquois. A 
Seneca woman, who had married among the Eries but was then a widow, fled 
to her own people and gave notice of the attack. Runners were at once sent 
out, and all the Iroquois were assembled and led forth to meet the invaders. 
The two bodies met near Honeoye Lake, about half way between Canandaigua 
and the Genesee, in New York. After a terrible conflict the Eries were totally 
defeated, the flying remnants pursued to their homes by the victorious confed- 
erates, and the whole nation almost completely destroyed. It was five months 
before the Iroquois warriors returned from the deadly pursuit. 

Subsequently a large force composed of the descendants of the Eries came 

European Discoveries, Etc., 1534-1655. 25 

from the Far West to attack the Iroquois, but were utterly routed and slain 
to a man, near the site of the great city now seen at the foot of Lake Erie, 
their bodies burned, and the ashes buried in a mound lately visible, near the 
old Indian church on the Buffalo Creek Reservation. Such is the tradition. 
It is a very nice story — for the Iroquois; since, according to their account, 
their opponents were the aggressors throughout, that the young men of the 
Five Nations were invariably victorious in the athletic games, and nothing but 
self-preservation induced them to destroy their enemies. 

On the other hand, scattered French accounts go to show that the Kah- 
quahs were destroyed first. They had been visited by French Catholic mis- 
sionaries as early as 1626. They were found to be living on terms of amity 
with the surrounding warlike tribes, and were governed by a queen, termed in 
their own language Yagowania, and in the Seneca tongue Gegosasa, who was 
regarded as the " mother of nations," and whose office was that of "Keeper of 
the house of peace." The chief warrior of the tribe or nation was Ragnotha, 
whose residence was at Teosahwa, or " Place of Basswood," the site of the city 
of Buffalo of to-day. About 1645 a bloody dissension broke out between the 
several branches of the Iroquois family. During its progress two Seneca war- 
riors appeared at Gegosasa's lodge and were hospitably received. They were 
preparing to smoke the pipe of peace when a deputation of Massassaugas (a 
tribe which occupied the region immediately to the westward of the Eries, or 
at the western extremity of Lake Erie) was announced, who demanded venge- 
ance, for the murder of their chief's son, at the hands of the Seneca tribe. 
This the queen, in her mediatorial capacity, was prompt to grant. She even 
set out with a large body of warriors to enforce her decree, and dispatched 
messengers to Ragnotha to command his assistance. The visiting Senecas 
hastened back to their friends to notify them of the queen's course, and a body 
of fighting men was hastily gathered in ambush on the broad trail over which 
her army was passing. The Kahquahs had no anticipation of trouble at that 
point, and the first they knew of the presence of the Senecas was when they 
heard their dreadful war-whoop. The contest that ensued was one of desper- 
ation. At first the Kahquahs gained the advantage ; but the Senecas rallied 
and finally compelled their enemy to flee, leaving six hundred dead upon the 
field of battle. This success was followed up and the defeated Kahquahs pur- 
sued and hunted relentlessly, until they were as a nation exterminated. 

The war of extermination between the Eries and the Iroquois occurred 
about 1650—55, and was one of the most cruel in aboriginal history. From 
the beginning it was understood by both sides to mean the utter ruin of one 
tribe or the other. The Eries organized a powerful body of warriors and 
sought to surprise their enemies in their own country. Their plans were 
thwarted, however, by a faithless woman, who secretly gave the Iroquois 
warning. The latter at once raised a force and marched out to meet the 

26 History of Warren County. 

invaders. The engagement resulted in a complete victory for the Iroquois. 
Seven times the Eries crossed the stream dividing the hostile lines, and they 
were as often driven back with terrible loss. On another occasion several 
hundred Iroquois attacked nearly three times their number of Eries, encamped 
on the Allegheny River ^ not far from the southern boundary of Warren 
county, dispersed them, killed a great many, and compelled the balance to fly 
to remote regions. In another battle, fought near the site of the Cattaraugus 
Indian mission house, on the upper waters of the Allegheny, the loss of the 
Eries was enormous. Finally a pestilence broke out among the Eries, 
"which," says an early writer, "swept away greater numbers even than the 
club and arrow." ^ The Iroquois then took advantage of their opportunity to 
end all fear of future trouble from the ill-fated Eries. Those who had been 
taken captive were, with rare exceptions, tortured and remorselessly butchered, 
and their wives and children were distributed among the Iroquois villages, 
never again to be restored to their relatives and friends. The few survivors 
fled to distant regions in the West and South, and were followed by the undy- 
ing hatred of the Iroquois. 

Amid these conflicting statements it is only certain that between 1640 and 
1655 the fierce confederates of Central New York "put out the fires" of the 
Kahquahs and the Eries. Traces of these tribes, however, were occasionally 
found by the French missionaries during their labors in the Far West. An 
early French writer, in describing the Christian village of La Prairie, says a 
portion of the settlement was made up of fugitive Eries. A number were also 
found living as slaves among the Onondagas, in Central New York, and 
appealed to the missionaries to aid them in securing their freedom, but aban- 
doned all hope on finding that these zealous priests were powerless to help 

Taking a retrospective view, it is possible, as some have claimed, " that the 
numerous iron hatchets which have been picked up in Western New York and 
the northwestern counties of Pennsylvania belonged at one time to the unfort- 
unate Eries and Kahquahs. They are undoubtedly of French manufacture, 
and similar ones are used in Normandy to this day. They are all made after 
substantially the same pattern, the blade being three or four inches wide on 
the edge, running back and narrowing slightly for about six inches, when the 
eye is formed, by beating the metal out thin, rolling it over, and welding it. 

' It is probable that this fight took place at the point mentioned by General Irvine in 17S5 as the 
"Burying Ground," which was about fourteen miles below the mouth of the Brokenstraw. 

2 It is our opinion that the bows and arrows in the hands of the confederates were considered by 
them of but secondary importance during the wars of extermination referred to. The Iroquois for 
nearly forty years had maintained peaceful relations with the Dutch upon the Hudson River, and, in 
exchange for valuable furs, had obtained fire. arms and learned how to use them. Thus armed they 
were more than a match for any of their savage adversaries, who depended upon Indian weapons alone ; 
and here we think is explained the secret of their successes and easy victories over the Eries, the Kah- 
quahs, and other nations. 

European Discoveries, Etc., i 534-1655. 27 

Each is marked with the same device, namely, three small circles something- 
less than an inch in diameter, each divided into compartments, like a wheel 
with four spokes. These hatchets would be convenient articles to trade for 
furs, and were doubtless used for that purpose. It is extremely improbable 
that any Indian would have thrown away such valuable instruments in the 
numbers which have since been found, except from compulsion ; and the dis- 
aster which befell the Kahquahs and Eries at the hands of the Iroquois readily 
accounts for the abandonment of these weapons." 

Thus reasons a recent writer, who but re-echoes the opinions of earlier 
annalists. Yet when we turn to another period in the history of French occu- 
pation — a hundred years later, too (1747) — we find that the French were then 
deeply intent on securing firm possession of the Mississippi valley and the 
entire basin, even to the summits of the Alleghenies in Pennsylvania, and were 
busy establishing trading-posts along the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers. They 
employed the most artful means to win the simple natives to their interests, 
giving showy presents and laboring to convince them of their great value. 
Pennsylvania, as compared with other provinces, had then won a reputation 
among the Indians of making presents of substantial worth. The natives, not 
knowing the difference between steel and iron, the French distributed immense 
numbers of worthless iron hatchets, which the savages supposed were the equal 
of the best English steel axes. The Indians, however, soon came to distin- 
guish between the good and the valueless ; and, understanding the Pennsyl- 
vania methods of securing peace and friendship, they became very artful in 
drawing out vast quantities of presents. 

The provincial government at this time was alive to the dangers which 
threatened from the insinuating methods of the French. A trusty messenger, 
Conrad Weiser, was sent among the Indians in the western part of the prov- 
ince to observe the plans of the French and to ascertain the temper of the 
natives ; and especially to magnify the power of the English, and the disposi- 
tion of Pennsylvania to give great presents. This latter policy had the desired 
effect, and worthless and wandering bands, which had no right to speak for 
the tribe, came teeming in, desirous of scouring the chain of friendship, inti- 
mating that the French were making great offers, in order to induce the gov- 
ernment to large liberality, until this " brightening the chain " became an intol- 
erable nuisance. Indeed, at a single council held at Albany, N. Y., in that 
year (1747) Pennsylvania distributed goods to the Indians *to the value of 
;^i,000, and of such a character as would be most serviceable and valuable to 
the recipients ; not worthless gew-gaws, but steel hatchets, blankets, and the 
many articles which would contribute to their lasting comfort and well-being, 
a protection to the person against the bitter frosts of winter, and sustenance 
that would minister to the continued wants of the body and alleviation of pain 
in time of sickness. Can it not be presumed, therefore, that the many iron 

28 History of Warren County. 

hatchets found in the localities mentioned were not the last tokens or relics of 
the exterminated Eries and Kahquahs, but, rather, that they were the worth- 
less implements of French manufacture, thrown away as valueless by the Sen- 
ecas and other Indians, after obtaining possession of the steel hatchets so lib- 
erally and widely distributed by the English colonists ? 

For many years after the signal defeat and extermination of the Kahquahs 
and Eries the territory bordering the southern shore of Lake Erie, and for 
many miles to the eastward and southward of the same, was regarded as a 
kind of neutral ground between the eastern and western tribes of Indians. 
True, the victorious Iroquois claimed the country by right of conquest, and 
their claims were recognized and respected ; yet nomadic bands of Delawares, 
Munseys, and other tribes, who were vassals of, or at peace with, the Iroquois, 
frequented it from time to time in quest of the game and fish with which it 



Their Name as Applied by Themselves — Sy.stem of Clans — Its Importance — Its Probable 
Origin — The Grand Council — Sachems and War-chiefs — Line of Descent — Choice of Sachems 
— Religious Belief — Natural Attributes — Family Relations, etc. 

FROM the destruction of the unfortunate Eries and Kahquahs down to the 
last great sale of land by the Iroquois to Pennsylvania those confederates 
were the actual possessors of the territory of Warren county, and, a few years 
before making that sale, the strongest nation of the confederacy (the Senecas) 
had some of their important towns within the county. Within its borders, 
too, are still to be found a considerable number of their descendants. 

During all these one hundred and thirty years the Iroquois were closely 
identified with the history of Warren county, and this is deemed a proper place 
in which to introduce an account of the interior structure of that remarkable 
Indian confederacy, at which we have before taken but an outside glance. 
First, it should be said that the name " Iroquois " was never applied by the 
confederates to themselves. It was first used by the French, and was written 
and printed by them " Hiro Couis." The men of the Five Nations (afterward 
the Six Nations) called themselves " Hedonosaunee," which means literally, 
" They form a cabin," or a wigwam ; describing in this expressive manner tlie 
close union existing among them. The Indian name just quoted, however, is 
more commonly rendered " The People of the Long House," which is more 
fully descriptive of the confederacy, though not quite so accurate a translation. 

The Iroquois. 29 

The central and unique characteristic of the Iroquois league was not the 
mere fact of five separate tribes being confederated together ; for such unions 
have been frequent among civilized and half-civilized peoples, though little 
known among the savages of America. The feature that distinguished the 
people of the Long House from all other confederacies, and which at the same 
time bound together all of these ferocious warriors as with a living chain, was 
the system of clatis extending through all the different tribes. Although this 
clan- system has been treated of in many works, there are doubtless thousands 
of readers who have often heard of the warlike success and outward greatness 
of the Iroquois confederacy, but are unacquainted with the inner league which 
was its chief characteristic, and without which it would in all probability have 
met, at an early period, with the fate of numerous similar alliances. 

The word " clan " has been adopted as the most convenient one to desig- 
nate the peculiar artificial families about to be described ; but the Iroquois clan 
was widely different from the Scottish one, all the members of which owed 
undivided allegiance to a single chief, for whom they were ready to fight 
against other clans or all the world. Yet " clan " is deemed a much better 
word for our purpose than "tribe," which is sometimes used, since that is the 
term ordinarily applied to an entire Indian nation. 

The people of the Iroquois confederacy were divided into eight clans, the 
names of which were as follows : Wolf, Bear, Beaver, Turtle, Deer, Snipe, 
Heron, and Hawk. Early accounts and traditions differ, however ; some 
declaring that every clan extended through all the tribes, while others assert 
that only the Wolf, Bear, and Turtle clans did so, the rest being restricted to 
a lesser number of tribes. It is certain, nevertheless, that each tribe — the 
Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas — contained parts of the 
three clans last named and of several of the others. 

Each clan formed a large artificial family, modeled on the natural family. 
All the members of the clan, no matter how widely separated among the 
tribes, were considered as brothers and sisters to each other, and were forbid- 
den to intermarry. This prohibition, too, was strictly enforced by public opin- 
ion. All the clan being thus taught from earliest infancy that they belonged 
to the same family, a bond of the strongest kind was created and perpetuated 
throughout the confederacy. The Oneida of the Wolf clan would no sooner 
appear among the Cayugas, than those of the same clan would claim him as 
their special guest and admit him to the most confidential intimacy. The Sen- 
eca of the Bear clan might wander away eastward to the country of the Mo- 
hawks, at the farthest extremity of the Long House, and he had a claim upon 
his brother Bear of that tribe which the latter would not dream of repudiating. 

Thus the whole confederacy was linked together. If at any time there 
appeared a tendency toward conflict between the different tribes, it was 
instantly checked by the thought that, if persisted in, the hand of the Turtle 

30 History of Warren County. 

must be lifted against his brother Turtle ; the tomahawk of the Beaver might 
be buried in the brain of his kinsman Beaver. And so potent was the feeling 
that for at least two hundred years, and until the power of the league was 
broken by the overwhelming outside force of the whites, there was no serious 
dissension between the tribes of the Iroquois. 

Other Indian tribes had similar clans, having similar names, notably the 
Hurons, or Wyandots, as they have been termed during the last hundred 
years ; but these were confined each to its own nation, and had therefore very 
little political value. The Scotch, as has been said, had their clans, but, though 
all the members of each clan were supposed to be more or less related, yet, 
instead of marriage being forbidden within their own clannish limits, they rarely 
married outside of them. All the loyalty of the clansmen was concentrated on 
their chief, and instead of being a bond of union and strength, so far as the 
nation at large was concerned, the clans were nurseries of faction. 

Iroquois tradition ascribes the founding of the league to an Onondaga chief- 
tain named Tadodahoh. Such traditions, however, are of very little value, 
historically speaking. A chief of that name may or may not have founded 
the confederacy. It is extremely probable that the league began with the 
union of two or three tribes, being subsequently increased by the addition of 
others. That such additions might be made may be seen in the case of the 
Tuscaroras, whose union with the confederacy long after the advent of the 
Europeans changed the Five Nations into the Six Nations. 

Whether the Hedonosaunee were originally superior in valor and eloquence 
to their neighbors cannot now be ascertained. Probably they were not. But 
their talent for practical statesmanship gave them the advantage in war, and 
success made them self-confident and fearless. The business of the league was 
necessarily transacted in a grand council of sachems, and this fostered oratori- 
cal powers, until at length the Iroquois became famous among scores of rival 
nations for wisdom, courage, and eloquence, and were justly denominated by 
Volney, "The Romans of the New World." 

Aside from the clan-system just described, the Iroquois league had some 
resemblance to the great American Union which succeeded and overwhelmed 
it. The central authority was supreme on questions of peace and war, and on 
all others relating to the general welfare of the confederacy, while the tribes, 
like the States, reserved to themselves the management of their ordinary affairs. 

In peace all power was confined to "sachems"; in war, to "chiefs." The 
sachems of each tribe acted as its rulers in the few matters which required the 
exercise of civil authority. The same rulers also met in council to direct the 
affairs of the confederacy. There were fifty in all, of whom the Mohawks had 
nine, the Oneidas nine, the Onondagas fourteen, the Cayugas ten, and the 
Senecas eight. These numbers, however, did not give proportionate power in 
the councils of the league, for all the nations were equal there. There was in 

The Iroquois. 31 

each tribe, too, the same number of war-chiefs as sachems, and these had abso- 
lute authority in time of war. When a council assembled, each sachem had a 
war-chief near him to execute his orders. But in a war party the war-chief 
commanded, and the sachem took his place in the ranks. This was the system 
in its simplicity. 

Some time after the arrival of the Europeans they seem to have fallen into 
the habit of electing chiefs — not war-chiefs — as counsellors to the sachems, 
who in time acquired equality of power with them, and were considered as 
their equals by the whites in the making of treaties. 

It is difficult to learn the truth regarding a political and social system 
a description of which was not preserved by any written record. As near, 
however, as can be ascertained, the Onondagas had a certain pre-eminence in 
the councils of the league, at least to the extent of always furnishing a grand 
sachem, whose authority, nevertheless, was of a very shadowy description. It 
is not certain that he ever presided in the council of nations. That council, 
however, always met at the council-house of the Onondagas. This was the 
natural result of their central position, the Mohawks and Oneidas being to the 
east of them, the Cayugas and Senecas to the west. 

The Senecas unquestionably were the most powerful of all the tribes ; and 
as they were located at the western end 1 of the confederacy, they had to bear 
the brunt of war when it was assailed by its most formidable foes who dwelt in 
that quarter. It would naturally follow, therefore, that the principal war-chief 
of the league should be of the Seneca nation, and such is said to have been the 
case ; though over this, too, hangs a shade of doubt. 

The right of heirship, as among many other of the North American tribes 
of Indians, was in the female line. A man's heirs were his brother — that is to 
say, his mother's son and his sister's son — never his own son, nor his brother's 
son. The few articles which constituted an Indian's personal property — even 
his bow and tomahawk — never descended to the son of him who had wielded 
them. Titles, so far as they were hereditary at all, followed the same law of 
descent. The child also followed the clan and tribe of the mother. The object 
was evidently to secure greater certainty that the heir would be of the blood 
of his deceased kinsman. The result of the application of this rule to the Iro- 
quois system of clans was that if a particular sachemship or chieftaincy was 
once established in a certain clan of a certain tribe, in that clan and tribe it 
was expected to remain forever. Exactly how it was filled when it became 
vacant is a matter of some doubt; but, as near as can be learned, the new offi- 

1 When the Five Nations were first visited by Europeans the Senecas chiefly dwelt among the hills 
south of the Cayuga and Seneca Lakes in New York, and along the Genesee River, though at the same 
time they had villages on the upper waters of the Allegheny and the West Branch of the Susquehanna 
Rivers in Pennsylvania. Thus they guarded a line extending from Lake Ontario to the navigable 
waters of the Allegheny. They called themselves Nunduwawgauh, or the " Men of the Ilills," and 
had many traditions of the prowess and exploits of their ancestors. 

32 History of Warren County. 

cial was elected by the warriors of the clan, and was then inaugurated by the 
council of sachems. 

If, for instance, a sachemship belonging to the Wolf clan of the Seneca 
tribe became vacant, it could only be filled by some one of the Wolf clan of 
the Seneca tribe. A clan council was called and, as a general rule, the heir 
of the deceased was chosen to his place ; to wit, one of his brothers — reckon- 
ing only on the mother's side — or one of his sister's sons, or even some more 
distant male relative in the female line. But there was no positive law, and 
the warriors might discard all these and elect some one entirely unconnected 
with the deceased, though, as before stated, he must be of the same clan and 
tribe. While there was no unchangeable custom compelling the clan council 
to select one of the heirs of the deceased as his successor, yet the tendency 
was so strong in that direction that an infant was frequently chosen, a guardian 
being appointed to perform the functions of the office till the youth should 
reach the proper age to do so. All offices were held for life, unless the incum- 
bent was solemnly deposed by a council, an event which very seldom occurred. 

Notwithstanding the modified system of hereditary power in vogue, the 
constitution of every tribe was essentially republican. Warriors, old men, and 
women attended the various councils and made their influence felt. Neither 
in the government of the confederacy nor of the tribes was there any such 
thing as tyranny over the people, though there was a great deal of tyranny by 
the league over conquered nations. In fact, there was very little government 
of any kind, and very little need of any. There were substantially no property 
interests to guard, all land being in common and each man's personal property 
being limited to a bow, a tomahawk, and a few deer skins. Liquor had not 
yet lent its disturbing influence, and few quarrels were to be traced to the 
influence of women, for the American Indian is singularly free from the warmer 
passions. His principal vice is an easily aroused and unlimited hatred ; but 
the tribes were so small and enemies so convenient that there was no difficulty 
in gratifying this feeling (and attaining to the rank of a warrior) outside of his 
own nation. The consequence was that although the war-parties of the Iro- 
quois were continually shedding the blood of their foes, there was very little 
quarreling at home. 

Their religious creed was limited to a somewhat vague belief in the exist- 
ence of a Great Spirit and several inferior but very potent evil spirits. They 
had a few simple ceremonies, consisting largely of dances — one called the 
" green corn dance," performed at the time indicated by its name, and others 
at other seasons of the year. From a very early date their most important 
religious ceremony has been the "burning of the white dog," when an unfort- 
unate canine of the requisite color is sacrificed by one of the chiefs. To this 
day the pagans among them still perform this rite. 

In common with their fellow savages on this continent, the Iroquois have 

The Iroquois. 33 

been termed " fast friends and bitter enemies." Events have proved, however, 
that they were a great deal stronger enemies than friends. Revenge was the 
ruHng passion of their nature, and cruelty was their abiding characteristic. 
Revenge and cruelty are the worst attributes of human nature, and it is idle to 
talk of the goodness of men who roasted their captives at the stake. All Indi- 
ans were faithful to their own tribes, and the Iroquois were faithful to their 
confederacy ; but outside of these limits their friendship could not be counted 
on, and treachery was always to be apprehended in dealing with them. 

In their family relations they were not harsh to their children and not wan- 
tonly so to their wives ; but the men were invariably indolent, and all labor 
was contemptuously abandoned to their weaker sex. They were not an amor- 
ous race, but could hardly be called a moral one. They were in that respect 
merely apathetic. Their passions rarely led them into adultery, and mercenary 
prostitution was entirely unknown ; but they were not sensitive on the ques- 
tion of purity, and readily permitted their maidens to form the most fleeting 
alliances with those considered distinguished visitors. Polygamy, too, was 
practiced, though in what might be called moderation. Chiefs and eminent 
warriors usually had two or three wives — rarely more. They could be dis- 
carded at will by their husbands, but the latter seldom availed themselves of 
their privilege. These latter characteristics the Iroquois had in common with 
the other Indians of North America ; but their wonderful politico-social league 
and their extraordinary success in war were the especial attributes of the peo- 
ple of the Long House, a people so long the owners and occupants of Warren 

In the " Historical Collections of Pennsylvania " we find the following trib- 
ute to the prowess, etc., of the Iroquois nations : " The peculiar location of the 
Iroquois gave them an immense advantage. On the great channels of water 
communication to which their territories were contiguous, they were enabled 
in all directions to carry war and devastation to the neighboring or to the more 
distant nations. Nature had endowed them with height, strength, and sym- 
metry of person which distinguished them at a glance among the individuals 
of other tribes. They were brave as they were strong, but ferocious and cruel 
when excited in savage warfare ; crafty, treacherous, and overreaching when 
these qualities best suited their purposes. . The proceedings of their grand 
council were marked with great decorum and solemnity. In eloquence, in 
dignity, and profound policy their speakers might well bear comparison with 
the statesmen of civilized assemblies. By an early alliance with the Dutch on 
the Hudson they secured fire-arms, and were thus enabled not only to repel 
the encroachments of the French, but also to exterminate or reduce to a state 
of vassalage many Indian nations. From these they exacted an annual trib- 
ute or acknowledgment of fealty, permitting them, however, on that condition 
to occupy their former hunting-grounds. The humiliation of tributary nations 

34 History of Warren County. 

was, however, tempered with a paternal regard for their interests in all nego- 
tiations with the whites, and care was taken that no trespass should be com- 
mitted on their rights, and that they should be justly dealt with." 


FROM 1655 TO 1C80. 

The Iroquois Triumphant — Obliteration of Dutch Power — Frinch Progress — La Salle Visits 
the Senecas — Greenhalgh's Estimates — La Salle on the Niagara — Building of the Griffin — Its 
First and Last Voyage — La Salle's Subsequent Career. 

THE overthrow of the Kahquahs and Eries accomplished, the Iroquois, 
lords of all this vast region, went forth conquering and to conquer. This 
was probably the day of their greatest glory. Stimulated, but not yet crushed 
by contact with the white man, they stayed the progress of the French into 
their territories, they negotiated on equal terms with the Dutch and English, 
and, having supplied themselves with the terrible arms of the pale-faces, they 
smote with direst vengeance whomsoever of their own race were so unfortu- 
nate as to provoke their wrath. 

On the Susquehanna, on the Allegheny, on the Ohio, even to the Missis- 
sippi in the west and the Savannah in the south, the Iroquois bore their con- 
quering arms, filling with terror the dwellers alike on the prairies of Illinois 
and in the glades of the Carolinas. They strode over the bones of the slaugh- 
tered Eries to new conquests on the Great Lakes beyond, even to the foaming 
cascades of Michillimacinac and the shores of the mighty Superior. They 
inflicted such terrible defeat upon the Hurons, despite the alliance of the latter 
with the French, that many of the panic-stricken refugees sought safety for a 
time on the frozen borders of Hudson's Bay. In short, they triumphed on 
every side, save only where the white man came ; and even the latter was for 
years held at bay by these fierce confederates. 

Of the three distinct and rival bands of ICuropcan colonists already men- 
tioned, the French and Dutch opened a thriving fur-trade with the Indians, 
while the New I^nglanders devoted themselves principally to agriculture. In 
1664, however, the English seized New Amsterdam (now termed New York 
city), and in 1674 their conquest of New Netherlands was made permanent. 
Thus the Hollanders as a governing power in the New World were disposed 
of, and thenceforth the contest for supremacy was to be between the English 
and the French. 

Charles II, then king of England, granted the conquered Dutch province 

From 1655 to 1680. 35 

to his brother James, duke of York, from whom it was called New York. This 
grant comprised all the lands along the Hudson, with an indefinite amount 
westward, thus overlapping the previous grant of James I to the Plymouth 
Company, and the boundaries of Massachusetts under the charter of Charles I, 
and laying the foundation for a conflict of jurisdiction which was afterwards to 
have an important effect on the destinies of the country lying immediately to 
the northward of Warren county. 

The French, meanwhile, if poor farmers, were indefatigable fur-traders and 
missionaries ; but their priests and Indian traders mostly pursued a route west- 
ward, through the region now known as Canada. There were good reasons 
for taking such a route. The fierce Senecas guarded the southern shores of 
the Niagara, and they, like the rest of the Iroquois, were unfriendly, if not 
actively hostile, to the French. By 1665 trading-posts had been established 
at Michillimacinac, Green Bay, on the site of Chicago, and St. Joseph, Mich. 

But a new era was approaching. Louis XIV was now king of France, and 
his great minister, Colbert, was anxious to extend the power of his royal mas- 
ter over the unknown regions of North America. Under his instructions small 
exploring parties were sent forward into regions not visited heretofore by his 
countrymen. Accordingly, in 1669 La Salle, whose name was soon, and for- 
ever after, to be indissolubly connected with the history of America, visited 
the Senecas with only two companions, and found four of their principal vil- 
lages, from ten to twenty miles south from the present city of Rochester. In 
1673 the missionaries Marquette and Joliet pushed on beyond the farthest 
French posts, and erected the emblem of Christian salvation on the shore of 
the Father of Waters. And in 1676—77 Father Hennepin visited the Indian 
villages along the Allegheny, traveling as far south as the mouth of the Ve- 
nango River or French Creek. 

During the year last mentioned — 1677 — Wentworth Greenhalgh, an En- 
glishman, visited all of the Five Nations, finding the same four towns of the 
Senecas described by the companions of La Salle. Greenhalgh made very 
minute observations, counted the houses of the Indians, and reported the Mo- 
hawks as having three hundred warriors, the Oneidas two hundred, the Onon- 
dagas three hundred and fifty, the Cayugas three hundred, and the Senecas a 
thousand. It will thus be seen that the Senecas, the guardians of the western 
door of the Long House, numbered, according to Greenhalgh's computation, 
nearly as many as all the other tribes of the confederacy combined, and other 
accounts show that he was not far from correct. 

In the month of January, 1679, La Salle — his full name being Robert Cav- 
alier de la Salle, appeared at the mouth of the Niagara River. He was a 
Frenchman of good family, thirty years of age, and one of the most gallant, 
devoted, and adventurous of all the bold explorers who, under many different 
banners, opened the New World to the knowledge of the Old. Leaving his 

36 History of Warren County. 

native Rouen at the age of twenty-two, he had ever since been leading a life 
of adventure in America, having in 1669, as already mentioned, penetrated 
almost alone to the strongholds of the Senecas. In 1678 he had received from 
King Louis a commission to discover the western part of New France. He 
was authorized to build such forts and trading-posts as might be deemed nec- 
essary, but at his own expense, being granted certain privileges in return, the 
principal of which appears to have been the right to trade in buffalo skins. 
The same year he had made some preparations, and in the fall had sent the 
Sicur de la Motte and Father Hennepin (the priest and historian of his expe- 
dition) in advance to the mouth of the Niagara. La Motte, however, soon 

When La Salle arrived he went two leagues above the falls, built a rude 
dock, and laid the keel of a vessel with which to navigate the upper lakes. 
Strangely enough, Hennepin does not state on which bank of the river this 
dock was situated ; but the question has been carefully investigated, especially 
by Francis Parkman, the historian of French power in Canada, and by other 
eminent writers on early history in Western New York, who have proved 
beyond a reasonable doubt that it was on the east side, at the mouth of Ca- 
yuga Creek, in Niagara county, N. Y.; and, in accordance with that view, the 
little village which has been laid out there has received the appellation of " La 

Hennepin distinctly mentions a small village of Senecas situated at the 
mouth of the Niagara ; and it is plain from his whole narrative that the Iro- 
quois were in possession of the entire country along the river, though few of 
them resided there, and watched the movements of the French with unceasing 

The work of construction was carried on through the winter, two Indians 
of the Wolf clan of the Senecas being employed to hunt deer for the French 
party, and in the spring the vessel was launched, " after having," in the words 
of Father Hennepin, " been blessed according to the rites of our Church of 
Rome." The new ship was named Le Griffon (the Griffin), in compliment to 
the Count de Frontenac, minister of the French colonies, whose coat of arms 
was ornamented with representations of that mythical beast. It was a diminu- 
tive vessel compared with the leviathans of the deep which now navigate these 
inland seas, but was a marvel in view of the difficulties under which it had 
been built. It was of sixty tons burden, completely furnished with anchors 
and other equipments, and armed with seven small cannon, all of which had 
been transported by hand around the great cataract. 

The Griffin remained in the Niagara River below the rapids for several 
months. Meanwhile Father Hennepin returned to Fort Frontenac (now 
Kingston, Canada), where he obtained two priestly assistants, and La Salle 
superintended the removal of the stores and armament from below the falls. 

From 1655 to 1680. 37 

When all was ready the attempt was made, and several times repeated, to 
ascend the rapids above Black Rock, but without success. At length, on the 
7th of August, 1679, a favorable wind sprang up from the northeast, all the 
Griffin s sails were set, and again it approached the troublesome rapids. There 
were thirty-four men on board, all Frenchmen with the exception of Tonti, an 
Italian, who had been chosen by La Salle as second in command. 

As the little vessel approached the rapids a dozen stalwart sailors were 
sent on shore with a tow-line, and aided with all their strength the breeze 
which blew toward Lake Erie. Those efforts were soon successful. By the 
aid of sails and tow-line the Griffin surmounted the rapids, all the crew went 
on board, and the pioneer vessel of the Great Lakes swept out on the bosom 
of Lake Erie. As it did so the priests led in singing a joyous Te Deuni, all 
the cannon and arquebuses were fired in a grand salute, and even the stoical 
Iroquois, watching with suspicious eyes from the shore, gave evidence of their 
admiration by repeated cries of " Gannoron ! Gannoron!" Wonderful! Won- 
derful ! 

This was the beginning of the commerce of the upper lakes ; but, like many 
another first venture, it resulted only in disaster to its projectors, though it was 
the harbinger of unbounded success by others. The Griffin was navigated to 
Green Bay, where La Salle and Hennepin left it, started on its return with a 
cargo of furs, and was never heard of more. It is supposed that it sank in a 
storm and that all on board perished. 

La Salle was not afterward identified with the history of the lower lake 
region ; but his chivalric achievements and tragic fate have still such power to 
stir the pulse and enlist sympathetic feelings, that one can hardly refrain from 
a brief mention of his subsequent career: After the Griffin had sailed on her 
return voyage. La Salle and Hennepin proceeded in canoes to the head of Lake 
Michigan. Thence, after building a trading-post and waiting many weary 
months for the return of his vessel, he went with thirty followers to Lake Pe- 
oria, on the Illinois River, where he built a fort and gave it the expressive 
name of " Creve Coeur" — Broken Heart. But, notwithstanding this expres- 
sion of despair, his courage was far from being exhausted, and, after sending 
Hennepin to explore the Mississippi, he, with three comrades, performed the 
remarkable feat of returning to Fort Frontenac on foot, depending on their 
guns for support. 

From Fort Frontenac he returned to Creve Coeur, the garrison of which 
had in the mean time been driven away by the Indians. Again the indomit- 
able La Salle gathered his followers, and early in 1682 descended the Missis- 
sippi to the Gulf of Mexico, being the first European to explore any consider- 
able portion of that mighty stream. He took possession of the country, and 
of all lands drained by waters tributary to the Mississippi, in the name of King 
Louis XIV, and called it Louisiana. 

38 History of Warren County. 

Upon his return to France he astonished and gratified the court with the 
stories of his discoveries, and in 1684 was furnished with a fleet and several 
hundred men, to colonize the new domain. Then everything went wrong. 
The fleet, through the blunders of its naval commander, went to Matagorda 
Bay, in Texas. The principal store-ship was wrecked, the fleet returned, and 
La Salle failed to find the mouth of the Mississippi. His colony dwindled 
away, through desertion and death, to forty men ; and at length he started 
with sixteen of these, on foot, to return to Canada for assistance. Even in this 
little band there were those who hated him (he was undoubtedly a man of 
somewhat imperious nature), and ere he had reached the Sabine he was mur- 
dered by two of his followers, and his body left unburied upon the prairie. 

Thus ended the life of the man who was the first white navigator of the 
upper lakes and the first explorer of the Mississippi River; who added Louisi- 
ana and other vast regions to the French empire, and upon whose discoveries 
the latter power laid claim to territory extending from the Allegheny Mount- 
ains westward to the western limits of the Mississippi basin, including, of 
course, the present county of Warren. 



Europeans Struggle for Supremacy Along the Atlantic Coast — Quakers Settle in New Jer- 
sey — William Penn Appointed a Trustee — His Labors in Their Behalf — An Early Description 
of the New Country — Admiral Penn — A Province Granted to His Son — It is Named Pennsyl- 
vania — Its Extent — A Miscalculation — Penn Purchases the Lower Counties — Outlines His Pol- 
icy — Sends Governor ilarkham to Take Possession — Names Commissioners — Their Duties — An 
Address to the Indians — The Site for a New City Selected. 

WHn.-E events of so much importance and of such a startling character 
were taking place in the interior of the New World, others equally im- 
portant, in their bearing upon the future of America, were being enacted along 
the Atlantic sea-board. The English, in a manner characteristic of that nation, 
had claimed the entire coast-line, from the frozen regions of the North to the 
Gulf of Mexico, and westward to the "South Sea"; but, as we have shown, 
during the years of active colonization in America, in the early part of the sev- 
enteenth century, the French had managed to secure a firm foothold in Can- 
ada, the Dutch along the Hudson River, and still later was established a small 
though thriving colony of Swedes on the lower waters of the Delaware, while 
the English were rapidly gaining strength in New England, in Maryland, and 

The Province of Pennsylvania. 39 

in Virginia. All were eager, all were grasping for more territory, and all were 
ready to fight at a moment's notice in vindication of their claims. The Swedes 
were regarded as interlopers by the Dutch. Disputes arose, which resulted in 
the Swedes being overpowered by their more powerful neighbors. The Dutch 
were in turn conquered by the English, thus leaving the latter and the French 
alone to contend for supremacy in the temperate regions of North America. 
Subsequently the conquered Dutch province was granted to the Duke of York, 
New Jersey to a syndicate of English Quakers, and Maryland to Lord Bal- 

At this time the hand of the English government bore heavily upon the 
denomination of Christians called Friends, or Quakers, and the earnest-minded, 
conscientious worshipers, uncompromising in their faith, were eager for homes 
in a land where they should be absolutely free to worship the Supreme Being 
in their own way. Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, to whom the 
Duke of York had granted New Jersey, were Friends, and the settlements made 
in their territory were largely of that faith. In 1675 Lord Berkeley sold his 
undivided half of the province to John Fenwicke, in trust for Edward Byllinge, 
also Quakers, and Fenwicke sailed in the Griffith with a company of Friends, 
who settled at Salem, in West Jersey. Byllinge, having become involved in 
debt, made an assignment of his interest for the benefit of his creditors, and 
William Penn was induced to become trustee jointly with Gowen Lawrie and 
Nicholas Lucas. 

William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, had felt the heavy hand of per- 
secution for religious opinion's sake. As a gentleman commoner at Oxford he 
had been fined, and finally expelled from that venerable seat of learning for 
non-conformity to the established form of worship. At home he was whipped 
and turned out of doors by a father who thought to reclaim the son to the 
more certain path of advancement at court. He was sent to prison by the 
mayor of Cork. For seven months he languished in the Tower of London, 
and finally, to complete his disgrace, he was cast into Newgate with common 
felons. Upon the accession of James II to the throne of England, over four- 
teen hundred persons of the Quaker faith were immured in prisons for a con- 
scientious adherence to their religious convictions. To escape this harassing 
persecution and find peace and quietude from this sore proscription was, as 
already stated, the moving cause which led these people to emigrate to 

Penn became zealous in promoting the welfare of the New Jersey colony. 
For its orderly government, and that settlers might have assurance of stability 
in the management of affairs, he drew up " Concessions and agreements of the 
proprietors, free holders and inhabitants of West New Jersey in America," in 
forty-four chapters. Foreseeing difficulty from divided authority, he had man- 
aged to secure a division of the province by " a line of partition from the east 

40 History of Warren County. 

side of Little Egg Harbor, straight North, through the country to the utmost 
branch of the Delaware River." Penn's half was termed New West Jersey, 
along the Delaware side, Carteret's, New East Jersey, along the ocean shore. 
Penn's purposes and disposition toward the settlers, as the founder of a state, 
are disclosed by a letter which he wrote at this time to Richard Hartshorn, a 
Friend, then in America: "We lay a foundation for after ages to understand 
their liberty, as men and Christians ; that they may not be brought into bond- 
age, but by their own consent ; for we put the power in the people. ... So 
every man is capable to choose or to be chosen ; no man to be arrested, con- 
demned, or molested, in his estate, or liberty, but by twelve men of the neigh- 
borhood ; no man to lie in prison for debt, but that his estate satisfy, as far as 
it will go, and he be set at liberty to work ; no man to be called in question, 
or molested for his conscience." Lest any should be induced to leave home 
and embark in the enterprise of emigration unadvisedly, Penn wrote and pub- 
lished in a letter of caution the following : " That in whomsoever a desire to be 
concerned in this intended plantation, such should weigh the thing before the 
Lord, and not headily, or rashly conclude on any such remove, and that they 
do not offer violence to the tender love of their near kindred and relations, but 
soberly, and conscientiously endeavor to obtain their good wills ; that whether 
they go or stay, it may be of good savor before the Lord and good people." 

As trustee, and finally as part owner of New Jersey, William Penn became 
much interested in the subject of colonization in America. Many of his peo- 
ple had gone thither, and he had given much study and meditation to the 
amelioration of their condition, by securing just laws for their government. 
His imagination pictured the fortunate condition of a country where those in 
authority should alone study the well-being of the people, and the people 
should be chiefly intent on rendering implicit obedience to just laws. From 
his experience in the management of the Jerseys he had doubtless discovered 
that if he would carry out his ideas of government successfully he must have a 
province where his voice would be potential and his will almost supreme. He 
accordingly began looking about him for the acquirement of such a land in the 
New World. 

He had doubtless been stimulated in his desires by the very roseate accounts 
of the beauty and excellence of the country, its salubrity of climate, its balmy 
atmosphere, the great fertility of its soil, and the abundance of native fruit, fish, 
flesh, and fowl. In 1680 one Mahlon Stacy wrote a letter which was exten- 
sively circulated in England, in which he said : " It is a country that produc- 
eth all things for the support and furtherance of man, in a plentiful manner. 
... I have seen orchards laden with fruit to admiration ; their very limbs 
torn to pieces with weight, most delicious to the taste and lovely to behold. I 
have seen an apple tree, from a pippin-kernel yield a barrel of curious cider ; 
and peaches in such plenty that some people took their carts a peach gather- 

The Province of Pennsylvania. 41 

ing; I could not but smile at the conceit of it; they are very delicious fruit, 
and hang almost like our onions, that are tied on ropes. I have seen and 
know, this summer, forty bushels of bold wheat of one bushel sown. From 
May till Michaelmas, great store of very good wild fruits as strawberries, cran- 
berries, and hurtleberries, which are like our billberries in England, only far 
sweeter ; the cranberries, much like cherries for color and bigness, which may 
be kept till fruit comes again ; an excellent sauce is made of them for venison, 
turkeys, and other great fowl, and they are better to make tarts of than either 
gooseberries or cherries ; we have them brought to our houses by the Indians 
in great plenty. My brother Robert had as many cherries this year as would 
have loaded several carts. As for venison and fowls, we have great plenty; 
we have brought home to our countries by the Indians seven or eight fat 
bucks in a day. We went into the river to catch herrings after the Indian 
fashion. . . . We could have filled a three-bushel sack of as good large her- 
rings as I ever saw. And as to beef and pork, there is great plenty of it, and 
good sheep. The common grass of this country feeds beef very fat. Indeed, 
the country, take it as a wilderness, is a brave country." 

Admiral Penn, the father of William, was one of the most distinguished 
officers in the British navy. In Cromwell's time he was sent with a consider- 
able naval and land force to the West Indies, where he gained possession of 
the island of Jamaica and placed it under English rule. At the restoration of 
a monarchical government, he promptly gave in his adhesion to the royal 
cause. Under James, duke of York, he commanded the English fleet which 
descended upon the Dutch coast, and gained a great victory over the com- 
bined naval forces led by Van Opdam. For this great service to his country 
Admiral Penn was knighted, and became a favorite at court, the king and his 
brother, the duke, holding him in cherished remembrance. At his death there 
was due him from the crown the sum of i^ 16,000, a portion of which he him- 
self had advanced for the naval service. 

Filled with the romantic idea of colonization, and enamored with the sacred 
cause of his sect, William Penn, who had come to be regarded with favor 
because of his distinguished father's services, petitioned King Charles II to 
grant him, in liquidation of this debt, " a tract of land in America, lying north 
of Maryland, bounded east by the Delaware River, on the west limited as 
Maryland, and northward to extend as far as plantable." There were con- 
flicting interests at this time, however, which were being closely watched at 
court. The petition was submitted to the privy council, and afterward to the 
Lords of the Committee of Plantations. The duke of York already held the 
counties of New Castle, Kent, and Sussex. Lord Baltimore held a grant upon 
the south, with an undefined northern limit, and the agents of both these prov- 
inces viewed with jealousy any new grant that should trench in any way upon 
their rights. 

42 History of Warren County. 

These claims were fully debated and heard by the lords, and, being a mat- 
ter in which the king manifested special interest, the lord chief-justice, North, 
and the attorney- general, Sir William Jones, were consulted both as to the 
grant itself and the form, or manner, of making it. Finally, after a careful 
study of the whole subject, it was determined by the highest authority in the 
government to grant to Penn a larger tract than he had asked for, and the 
charter was drawn up with unexampled liberality, in unequivocal terms of gift 
and perpetuity of holding, and with remarkable minuteness of detail ; and that 
Penn should have the advantage of any double meaning conveyed in the instru- 
ment, the last section provides — " And, if perchance hereafter any doubt or 
question should arise concerning the true sense and meaning of any word, 
clause or sentence contained in this our present charter, we will ordain and 
command that at all times and in all things such interpretation be made there- 
of, and allowed in any of our courts whatsoever as shall be adjudged most 
advantageous and favorable unto the said William Penn, his heirs and assigns." 

Doubtless it was a joyful day for Penn when he finally reached the consum- 
mation of his wishes, and found himself invested with almost dictatorial power 
over a province as large as England itself But his exultation was tempered 
with the most devout Christian spirit, fearful lest in the exercise of his great 
power he might be led to do something that would be displeasing to God. At 
this time, in a letter to his friend Robert Turner, he wrote as follows : 

" My true love in the Lord salutes thee and dear friends that love the 
Lord's precious truth in those parts. Thine I have, and for my business here 
know that after many waitings, watchings, solicitings and disputes in council, 
this day my country was confirmed to me under the great seal of England, 
with large powers and privileges, by the name of Pennsylvania, a name the 
King will give it in honor of my father. I chose New Wales, being, as this, a 
pretty hilly country ; but Penn being Welsh for a head, as Penmanmoire in 
Wales, and Penrith in Cumberland, and Penn in Buckinghamshire, the highest 
land in England, called this Pennsylvania, which is the high or head wood- 
lands ; for I proposed, when the Secretary, a Welshman, refused to have it 
called New Wales, Sylvania, and they added Penn to it; and though I much 
opposed it, and went to the King to have it struck out and altered, he said it 
was past, and would take it upon him ; nor could twenty guineas move the 
Under Secretary to vary the name; for I feared lest it should be looked on as 
a vanity in me, and not as a respect in the King, as it truly was to my father, 
whom he often mentions with praise. Thou mayest communicate my grant 
to P'ricnds, and e.xpect shortly my proposals. It is a clear and just thing, and 
my God, that has given it me through many difficulties, will, I believe, bless 
and make it the seed of a nation. 1 shall have a tender care to the govern- 
ment, that it be well laid at first." 

Penn had asked that the western boundary of his grant should be the same 

The Province of Pennsylvania. 4j 

as that of Maryland ; but the king made the width from east to west five full 
degrees. The charter limits were " all that tract, or part of land, in America, 
with the islands therein contained as the same is bounded, on the east by Del- 
aware River, from twelve miles distance northwards of New Castle town, unto 
the three and fortieth degree of northern latitude. . . The said land to 

extend westward five degrees in longitude, to be computed from the said east- 
ern bounds ; and the said lan.ds to be bounded on the north by the beginning 
of the three and fortieth degree of northern latitude, and, on the south, by a 
circle drawn at twelve miles distance from New Castle northward and west- 
ward unto the beginning of the fortieth degree of northern latitude ; and then 
by a straight line westward to the limits of longitude above mentioned." 

It is very evident that the royal secretaries did not well understand the 
geography of the New World (nor do they seem to have cared, since in nearly 
all early English grants the latest usually overlapped those granted at an ear- 
lier date) ; for by reference to the maps it will be seen that the beginning of 
the fortieth degree — that is, the end of the thirty-ninth — cuts the District of 
Columbia, and hence Baltimore, and the greater part of Maryland and a good 
slice of Virginia, would have been included in the chartered limits of Pennsyl- 
vania. But the charters of Maryland and Virginia antedated this of Pennsyl- 
vania. Still, the terms of the Penn charter were distinct — the beginning of 
the fortieth degree — whereas those of Maryland were ambiguous, the northern 
limit being fixed at the fortieth degree ; but whether at the beginning or at 
the ending of the fortieth was not stated. Penn claimed three full degrees of 
latitude, and when it was found that a controversy was likely to ensue, the 
king, by the hand of his royal minister Conway, issued a further declaration, 
in which the wording of the original chartered limits fixed for Pennsylvania 
were quoted verbatim, and his royal highness declared that these limits should 
be respected, "as they tender his majesty's displeasure." This was supposed 
to be a settlement of the matter. But Lord Baltimore still pressed his claim, 
and the question of southern boundary remained an open one, causing much 
disquietude to Penn during his life, and was not finally settled until more than 
three-quarters of a century later, when Mason and Dixon established the line. 
Indeed, since the French already claimed all that portion of the province 
granted to Penn lying west of the Allegheny Mountains, and as Virginia and 
Connecticut subsequently made claim to other portions of the present common- 
wealth, besides the claims of the Indians as original occupants and owners, a 
clear title was not obtained, and the true boundaries of Pennsylvania were not 
known and plainly defined until the war for independence had closed, or long 
after the territory granted to Penn had passed from the control of his heirs. 

From the terms of the charter it is evident that the king, in making the 
grant, was influenced " by the commendable desire of Penn to enlarge our 
British Empire, and promote such useful commodities as may be of benefit to 

44 History of Warren County. 

us and our dominions, as also to reduce savage nations by just and gentle man- 
ners, to the love of civil society and Christian religion," and " out of regard to 
the memory and merits of his late father, in divers services, and particularly to 
his conduct, courage and discretion, under our dearest brother, James, Duke 
of York, in the signal battle and victory, fought and obtained, against the 
Dutch fleet, commanded by the Herr Van Opdam in 1665." 

The charter of King Charles II, granting Pennsylvania to William Penn, 
was dated March 4, 1681. But lest any trouble might arise in the future from 
claims founded on the grant previously made to the duke of York, of " Long 
Island and adjacent territories occupied by the Dutch," the prudent fore- 
thought of Penn soon after induced him to obtain a deed of the duke, for Penn- 
sylvania, substantially in the terms of the royal charter. Yet still Penn was 
not satisfied. He was cut off from the ocean except by the uncertain naviga- 
tion of one narrow stream. He therefore obtained from the duke a grant of 
New Castle and a district of twelve miles around it, dated August 24, 1682, 
and on the same day a further grant from the duke of a tract extending to 
Cape Henlopen, embracing the two counties of Kent and Sussex, the two 
grants comprising what were known at an early day as the three " lower coun- 
ties," and which for many years were part of Pennsylvania, but subsequently 
became the State of Delaware. 

Being now eminently well pleased with his province, and that his titles 
were secure, the proprietor drew up such a description of the country as from 
his limited knowledge of it he was able to give, which, together with the 
royal charter and proclamation, terms of settlement, and other papers pertain- 
ing thereto, he published and spread broadcast through the kingdom, taking 
special pains to have these documents reach the Friends. The terms of sale of 
lands were forty shillings for one hundred acres, and one shilling per acre rental. 
The question has been asked, why exact the annual payment of one shilling 
per acre ? and answered, that the terms of the grant by the royal charter to 
Penn were made absolute on the " payment therefor to us, our heirs and suc- 
cessors, two beaver skins, to be delivered at our castle in Windsor, on the first 
day of January in every year," and contingent payment of " one-fifth part of 
all gold and silver which shall from time to time happen to be found clear of all 
charges." Penn, therefore, held his title only upon the payment of quit-rents. 
He could, consequently, give a valid title only by the exacting of quit-rents. 

With a great province of his own to manage, Penn was now obliged to re- 
linquish his interest in West New Jersey. He had devoted much of his time 
and energies to its settlement ; he had sent fourteen hundred emigrants, many 
of them people of high character ; and under his control farms were improved 
and the town of Burlington was founded, meeting-houses were erected, good 
government was established, and the savage Indians were turned to peaceful 
ways. With satisfaction, therefore, he could now give himself to reclaiming and 
settling his own province. 

The Province of Pennsylvania. 45 

The publication of the royal charter and his description of the country at- 
tracted much attention, and many purchases of land were made of Penn before 
leaving England. That these purchasers might have something binding to rely 
upon, he drew up what he termed " conditions or concessions " between him- 
self as proprietor, and the purchasers of lands in the province. These related 
to the settling of the country, laying out towns, and especially to the treat- 
ment of the Indians, who were to have the same rights and privileges, and care- 
ful regard as the Europeans. And, what may be considered a remarkable in- 
stance of provident forethought, the eighteenth article provided, "That, in 
clearing the ground, care be taken to leave one acre of trees for every five acres 
cleared, especially to preserve oak and mulberries for silk and shipping." 

He also drew up a frame of government, consisting of twenty-four articles 
and forty laws. These were drawn in a spirit of unexampled fairness and lib- 
erality, introduced by an elaborate essay on the just rights of government and 
governed, and with such conditions and concessions that it should never be in 
the power of an unjust governor to take advantage of the people and practice 
injustice. Said he : " For the matter of liberty and privilege, I purpose that 
which is extraordinary, and leave myself and successors no power of doing mis- 
chief, that the will of one man may not hinder that of a whole country." This 
frame gave impress to the character of the early government. It implanted 
in the breasts of the people a deep sense of duty, of right, and of obligation in 
all public affairs, and the relations of man with man, and formed a framework 
for the future State constitution. He had felt the tyranical hand of government 
for opinion's sake, and was determined, in the matter of religion, to leave all 
free to hold such opinions as they might elect, and hence enacted for his prov- 
ince that all who " hold themselves obliged in conscience, to live peaceably and 
justly in civil society, shall, in no ways, be molested, nor prejudiced, for their 
religious persuasion, or practice, in matters of faith and worship, nor shall they 
be compelled at any time, to frequent, or maintain, any religious worship, place, 
or ministry whatever." Such governmental liberality in matters of religion 
was at that time almost unknown, though Roger Williams, in the colony of 
Rhode Island, had previously under similar circumstances, and having just es- 
caped a like persecution, proclaimed it, as had likewise Lord Baltimore in the 
Catholic colony of Maryland. 

Not being in readiness to go to his province during the first year, Penn dis- 
patched three ship loads of settlers, and with them sent his cousin, William 
Markham, to take formal possession of the country and act as deputy governor. 
The latter sailed for New York, and upon his arrival there exhibited his com- 
mission, and the king's charter and proclamation, to Captain Anthony Brock- 
holls, acting governor (in the absence of Govenor Andros), who gave him a 
letter addressed to the civil officers on the Delaware, informing them that 
Markham's authority as governor was unquestionable, and requesting them to 

46 History of Warren County. 

submit quietly to the new government. Armed with this letter, which was 
dated June 21, 1681, Markham continued his voyage to the Delaware, where 
he was kindly received. 

As the chief officer in the province, Markham was empowered to call a 
council of nine citizens to assist him in the government, and over whom he was 
to preside. He also brought a letter addressed to Lord Baltimore, relating to 
the boundary between the two grants, and showing the terms of the charter for 
Pennsylvania. On receipt of this letter. Lord Baltimore came to Upland to 
confer with Markham. An observation fixing the exact latitude of Upland 
showed that it was twelve miles south of the forty-first degree, to which degree 
Baltimore claimed, and that the beginning of the fortieth degree, which the 
royal charter explicitly fi.xed for the southern boundary of Pennsylvania, would 
include nearly the entire province of Maryland. " If this be allowed," was sig- 
nificantly asked by Lord Baltimore, "where is my province?" He returned 
to his colony, and from this time an active contention was waged for many 
years for possession of the disputed territory. 

Four commissioners — William Crispin, John Bezer, William Haigc, and 
Nathaniel Allen — appointed by Penn, accompanied Markham. The first named 
had been designated as surveyor-general, but he died ai route, when Thomas 
Holme was appointed to succeed him. These commissioners, in conjunction 
with the governor, had two important duties assigned them. The first was to 
meet and preserve friendly relations with the Indians and acquire lands of them 
by actual purchase, and the second was to select the site of a maritime city and 
make the necessary surveys. That they might have a suitable introduction to 
the natives from him, Penn supplied them with a declaration of his purposes, 
conceived in a spirit of brotherly love, and expressed in such simple terms that 
it was supposed the children of the forest would have no difficulty in appre- 
hending his meaning. 

Said Penn in this declaration : "There is a great God and power that hath 
made the world, and all things therein, to whom you and I, and all my people 
owe their being, and well being ; and to whom you and I must one day give 
an account for all that we do in the world. This great God hath written His 
law in our hearts, by which we are taught and commanded to love, and help, 
and do good to one another. Now this great God hath been pleased to make 
me concerned in your part of the world, and the King of the country where I 
live hath given me a great province therein ; but I desire to enjoy it with your 
love and consent, that we may always live together, as neighbors and friends ; 
else what would the great God do to us, who hath made us, not to devour and 
destroy one another, but to live soberly and kindly together in the world ? 
Now I would have you well observe that I am very sensible of the unkindness 
and injustice that have been too much exercised toward you by the people of 
these parts of the world, who have sought themselves, and to make great ad- 

The Province of Pennsylvania. 47 

vantages by you, rather than to be examples of goodness and patience unto 
you, which I hear hath been a matter of trouble to you, and caused great grudg- 
ing and animosities, sometimes to the shedding of blood, which hath made the 
great God angry. But I am not such a man, as is well known in my own 
country. I have great love and regard toward you, and desire to gain your 
love and friendship by a kind, just and peaceable life, and the people I send 
are of the same mind, and shall in all things behave themselves accordingly ; 
and if anything shall offend you or your people, you shall have a full and speedy 
satisfaction for the same by an equal number of just men on both sides that by 
no means you may have just occasion of being oftended against them. I shall 
shortly come to you myself, at which time we may more freely confer and dis- 
course of these matters. In the mean time, I have sent my Commissioners to 
treat with you about land, and form a league of peace. Let me desire you to 
be kind to them and their people, and receive these presents and tokens which 
I have sent you as a testimony of my good will to you, and my resolution to 
live justly, peaceably and friendly with you." 

Although this address, or explanation, is clothed with plain and simple 
words, it is not probable that the savages understood its true intents and pur- 
poses, nor cared any more than that mythical dignitary, the Indian " Emperor 
of Canada," for whose enlightenment Penn at about this time had drawn up 
an elaborate address, which was subsequently beautifully engrossed on parch- 
ment. In substance this message to the aforesaid " Emperor " was a notifica- 
tion that he, Penn, had purchased a province in America and intended to 
occupy it, and wished to live upon terms of peace and amity with his neigh- 
bors. Certainly this was a novel proceeding on the part of Penn, since he must 
have been aware that the French had been in actual and almost undisturbed 
possession of Canada for considerably more than fifty years, and who besides 
him ever supposed there then existed such a personage as a savage " Emperor 
of Canada?" If there were such we have never read or heard of them. 

But the Indians found inhabiting the wilds of Pennsylvania could appre- 
ciate kind treatment, and, like all other savages, were always promptly on hand 
when presents were to be distributed. As a result they became very friendly 
with Penn's colonists, and were protected in their rights. When Penn came 
to propose his laws, one was adopted which forbade private trade with the na- 
tives in which they might be cheated ; instead, it was required that the valua- 
ble skins and furs they had to sell should be exposed in the market place where 
all could see them and enter into competition for their purchase. He was 
offered i^6,ooo for a monopoly of trade in his province. But he well knew the 
injustice to which this would subject the simple-minded natives, and he refused 
it, saying: " As the Lord gave it to me overall amid great opposition, I would 
not abuse His love, nor act unworthy of His providence, and so defile what 
came to me clean." To his commissioners he gave a letter of instructions in 
which he says: " Be impartially just to all; that is both pleasing to the Lord, and 

48 History of Warren County. 

wise in itself. Be tender of offending the Indians, and let them know that you 
come to sit down lovingly among them. Let my letter and conditions be read 
in their tongue, that they may see we have their good in our eye. Be grave, 
they love not to be smiled on." Acting upon these suggestions, and by a judi- 
cious distribution of presents, the commissioners soon succeeded in making 
large purchases of lands from the Indians, situated on the right bank of the 
Delaware and above the mouth of the Schuylkill. 

Markham and the commissioners, however, found considerable difficulty in 
determining upon the site for the new city. Penn had given very particular 
instructions about this, and it was not easy to find a tract which answered all 
the conditions. Their search was kept up for seven weeks. The proprietor 
had written, " be sure to make your choice where it is most navigable, high, 
dry and healthy ; that is, where most ships may best ride, of deepest draught 
of water, if possible to load and unload at the bank or Key's side without 
boating and lightening of it. It would do well if the river coming into that 
creek be navigable, at least for boats up into the country, and that the sit- 
uation be high, at least dry and sound, and not swampy, which is best known 
by digging up two or three earths and seeing the bottom." Further instruc- 
tions were that the site of the city be between two navigable streams, and em- 
brace at least ten thousand acres in one block. " Be sure," said Penn, "to set- 
tle the figure of the town so that the streets hereafter may be uniform down to 
the water from the country bounds. Let every house be placed, if the person 
pleases, in the middle of its plat, as to the breadth way of it, so that there may 
be ground on each side for gardens or orchards or fields, that it may be a 
green country town, which will never be burnt and always wholesome." 

The soil was examined, the streams were sounded, and deep pits were dug, 
that a location might be found which would gratify the desires of the proprie- 
tor. All the eligible sites were inspected from the ocean far up into the coun- 
try. Penn himself had anticipated that Chester or Upland would be adopted 
from all that he had learned of the new county ; but these grounds were re- 
jected as unsuitable, as was also the territory upon Poquessing Creek and that 
at Pennsbury Manor above Bristol, which had been carefully considered; and 
the present site of Philadelphia was adopted as coming nearest to the require- 
ments of the proprietor. It did not embrace ten thousand acres in a solid 
block or square, but it was between two navigable streams, and the land was 
high and dry, being for the most part a vast bed of gravel, excellent for drain- 
age and likely to prove healthful. The streets were laid out regularly, and 
crossed each other at right angles. As the ground was only gently rolling, 
the grading was easily accomplished. One wide street. Market, extends from 
river to river through the center of it, which is crossed at right angles at its 
middle point by Broad street, of equal width. The name Philadelphia, mean- 
ing brotherly love, had been selected by the proprietor before his first colonists 
sailed from England. 

Penn in Pennsylvania. 49 



William Penn Sails for America — His Advice to His Family — The Voyage — Warmly Re- 
ceived at New Castle — The First Assembly — Penn Visits New York and Maryland — Unsat- 
isfactory Conference with Lord Baltimore — The Great Treaty with the Indians — The Walk- 
ing Purchase — Great Influx of Colonists — Counties Formed — Meeting of the First General 
Assembly — Sitting of the First Grand Jury — First Conviction — Another Fruitless Interview 
.with Lord Baltimore — Baltimore's Demand — Penn's Anxiety — His Liberal Ofl'er — -Balti- 
more's Adherents Invade the Lower Counties — Penn Determines to Return to England — His 
Farewell to His Colonists. 

MEANTIME Penn had settled his affairs in England, and in August, 1682, 
in company with about a hundred planters, chiefly from his native town 
of Sussex, he embarked on board the ship Welcome and began the voyage 
across the Atlantic. Before leaving the Downs he addressed a farewell letter 
to his friends whom he left behind, and another to his wife and children, giv- 
ing them much excellent advice, and sketching the way he wished them to live. 
With remarkable care he pointed out to his wife how he wished his children to 
be educated, married, etc. " Be sure," said he, " to observe their genius, and 
do not cross it as to learning ; let them not dwell too long on one thing ; but 
let their change be agreeable, and let all their diversions have some little bod- 
ily labor in them. When grown big, have most care for them ; for then there 
are more snares both within and without. When marriageable, see that they 
have worthy persons in their eyes ; of good life and good fame for piety and 
understanding. I need no wealth but sufficiency ; and be sure their love be 
dear, fervent and mutual, that it may be happy for them." To his children he 
said : " Betake yourselves to some honest, industrious course of life, and that 

not of sordid covetousness, but for example and to avoid idleness 

Love not money nor the world ; use them only, and they will serve you ; but 
if you love them you serve them, which will debase your spirits as well as 
offend the Lord. . . . Watch against anger, neither speak nor act in it ; 
for like drunkenness, it makes a man a beast, and throws people into desperate 

It required nearly six weeks to comeplete the voyage, and the weather was 
pleasant ; but the voyagers had not been long at sea ere that loathsome disease, 
the small-pox, broke out among them, of which thirty died, or nearly one-third 
of the whole company. This, added to the usual discomforts and terrors of 
the ocean, to most of whom this was their first experience, made the voyage a 
dismal one. Here again was seen the true nobility of Penn. He contributed 
to the necessities of those less fortunate than himself He moved about fre- 
quently among the sick, and cheered them with his presence and kind wojds. 

so History of Warren County. 

His arrival upon the coast and passage up the river was hailed with joyous 
demonstrations by all classes, including the Swede, Dutch, and English set- 
tlers, and especially by his own devoted followers, the Friends. He landed at 
New Castle on the 24th of October, 1682, and on the following day summoned 
the people to the court-house, where possession of the country was formally 
tendered to him; and he renewed the commissions of the magistrates, to whom 
and the assembled people he announced the purpose of his coming, explained 
the nature of good government, assured them that their civil and religious 
rights should be respected, and recommended that they live in sobriety and 
peace. He then proceeded to Upland, henceforward to be known as Chester, 
where, on the fourth of the following month, he called a meeting of the people, 
at which an equal number of votes was allowed to the province and the terri- 
tories. Here Nicholas Moore, president of the Free Society of Traders, was 
speaker. As at New Castle, Penn addressed the assembly, giving those as- 
sembled assurances of his beneficent intentions, for which they returned their 
grateful acknowledgments, the Swedes being especially demonstrative, deput- 
ing one of their number. Lacy Cock, to say " that they would love, serve and 
obey him with all they had, and that this was the best day they ever saw." 
One can well understand with what satisfaction the first settlers upon the Del- 
aware hailed the prospect of a stable government established in their own midst, 
after having been so long at the mercy of the government in New York, orig- 
inally termed New Amsterdam, with allegiance trembling between the courts 
of Sweden, Holland, and England. 

This first assembly was conducted with great decorum, and after the usages 
of the British Parliament. On the 7th of December, 1682, the three lower 
counties (now the State of Delaware), which had previously been under the gov- 
ernment of the Duke of York's representative in America, the governor of New 
York, were formally annexed to the province of Pennsylvania. The frame of 
government, which had been drawn with much deliberation, was submitted to 
the assembly, and after some alterations and amendments was adopted, and be- 
came the fundamental law. The assembly was in session only three days, but 
the work accomplished was vast and far-reaching in its influence. 

Soon after his arrival in the colony Penn made a visit to New York, and 
subsequently he journeyed to Maryland, where he was entertained by Lord 
Baltimore with great ceremony. The settlement of the disputed boundaries 
was made the subject of formal conference. But after two days spent in fruit- 
less discussion, the weather becoming severely cold, and thus rendering it im- 
possible to take observations or make the necessary surveys, it was agreed to 
adjourn further consideration of the subject until the milder weather of spring 
again returned. 

During his journeyings Penn did not forget to preach the gospel wherever 
there were people to hear him. On his return from Maryland he said : " I 

Penn in Pennsylvania. 51 

have been also at New York, Long Island, East Jersey, and Maryland, in 
which I have had good and eminent service for the Lord." And again he 
says : " As to outward things we are satisfied — the land good, the air clear 
and sweet, the springs plentiful, and provisions good and easy to come at, an 
innumerable quantity of wild fowl and fish ; in fine, here is what an Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob would be well contented with, and service enough for God, 
for the fields are here white for the harvest. Oh, how sweet is the quiet of 
these parts, freed from the anxious and troublesome solicitations, hurries, and 
perplexities of woeful Europe ! . . . . Blessed be the Lord, that of twen- 
ty-three ships, none miscarried ; only two or three had the small-pox ; else 
healthy and swift passages, generally such as have not been known ; some but 
twenty-eight days, and few longer than six weeks.-" 

Early in November, during the season known in this latitude as the Indian 
summer, Penn determined to visit the site of the proposed new city chosen by 
his commissioners. Accordingly he embarked in an open barge with a number 
of his friends and was rowed up the Delaware to the present site of Philadel- 
phia, which the natives called Coaquannock. The scattered settlers had gath- 
ered to see and welcome the proprietor, and when he stepped upon the shore 
they extended a helping hand in assisting him up the rugged bluff. Three 
Swedes had already taken up tracts within the limits of the boundaries chosen 
for the city, but they were given other valuable lands in exchange, and readily 
relinquished their claims. 

Still Penn did not consider that he had as yet any just title to the soil, holding 
that the Indians were its rightful possessors, and until it was fairly acquired by 
purchase from them his own title was entirely void. Hence he sought an early 
opportunity to meet the chiefs of the tribes claiming possession, and cultivate 
friendly relations with them. Tradition fixes the first great treaty, or confer- 
ence, at about this time — November, 1682 — and the place under the elm tree 
known as "Treaty Tree,"i at Kensington. The letter which Penn had sent by 
the hands of his commissioners had prepared the minds of these simple-hearted 
inhabitants of the forest to regard him with awe and reverence. His coming, 
doubtless, had for a long time been awaited, and when at length the day came, 
the bands from far around had all assembled. It is known that at least three 
tribes, or nations, were represented — the Delawares, the Shawanese, who were 
mostly located along the Lower Susquehanna, and the Mingos, who claimed 
relationship with the Five Nations. 

1 The memory of the " Great Treaty" was long preserved by the Indians, and the novel spectacle 
was reproduced on canvas by the genius of Benjamin West. In this picture Penn is represented as a 
corpulent old man clad in Quaker garb, whereas he was at this time but thirty-eight years of age, tall 
and active, and not at all inclined to corpulency. The " Treaty Tree " was preserved and guarded from 
injury with almost suirerstitious care. During the Revolutionary War, when Philadelphia was occu- 
pied by the British troops, and their details were scouring the country for fire wood, General Simcoe 
had a sentinel posted at this tree to protect it from mutilation. It stood until 1810, when it was blown 
down, and it was then ascertained, by its annual concentric accretions, to be two hundred and eighty- 
three years old. The Penn Society erected a substantial monument on the spot where it stood. 

52 History of Warren County. 

In making his purchases from the Indians Penn drew up his deeds for land 
in legal form, and had them duly executed and recorded, so that in case dis- 
putes should arise in the future, his proofs of purchase would be definite and 
positive. Of these purchases there are two deeds on record executed in 1683. 
One is for land near Neshaminy Creek, and thence to Pennypack, and the other 
for lands lying between the Schuylkill and Chester Rivers, the first bearing the 
signature of the great chieftain Taminend. In one of these purchases it is pro- 
vided that the tract "shall extend back as far as a man can walk in three days." 
Tradition says that Penn himself, with a number of his friends, walked out halt 
of this purchase with the Indians, that no advantage should be taken of them 
by making a great walk, and to show his consideration, and that he was not 
above the toils and fatigues of such a duty. They began at the mouth of the 
Neshaminy and walked up the Delaware. In one day and a half a spruce tree 
near the mouth of Baker's Creek was reached, when Penn concluded that this 
would include as much land as he would want for the time being. A line was 
then run and marked from the spruce tree to Neshaminy, and the remainder 
left to be walked out when it should be wanted. They proceeded after the In- 
dian manner, walking leisurely, sitting down sometimes to smoke their pipes, 
eat biscuit and cheese, and drink a bottle of wine. In the day and a half they 
walked a little less than thirty miles. The balance of the purchase was not 
walked until September 20, 1733, when the then governor of the province 
offered a prize of five hundred acres of land and £s sterling to the man who 
would walk the farthest. As a result a distance of eighty-six miles was cov- 
ered, in marked contrast with the kind consideration shown by the original 

During the first year of Penn's stay in the province the country along the 
Delaware from the falls of Trenton to Chester, a distance of nearly sixty miles, 
was rapidly taken up and peopled. They were for the most part Friends, and 
devotedly attached to their religion and its proper observances. They were, 
morally, of the best classes, and though they were not generally of the aris- 
tocracy, yet many were in comfortable circumstances, had valuable properties, 
were of good families, educated, and had the resources within themselves to 
live contented and happy. They built meeting-houses, established schools, 
were provident and industrious, and had come hither with no fickle purpose. 
Many brought servants with them, and well-supplied wardrobes, and all nec- 
essary articles which they wisely judged could not be procured in a new coun- 

In a brief period ships with colonists from London, Bristol, Ireland, Wales, 
Cheshire, Lancashire, Holland, and Germany came, to the number of about 
fifty. Among those who were particularly conspicuous at the time was a com- 
pany of German Friends from the Palatinate, and a sufficient number of the 
descendants of the ancient Britons from Wales to people four townships. The 

Penn in Pennsylvania. 53 

latter were also Friends, and to-day their descendants are among the most 
worthy and respected citizens in Philadelphia and vicinity. Such a large in- 
crease in population caused a scarcity in many kinds of food, especially of 
meats. More time was required for bringing forward flocks and herds than 
for producing grains ; but Providence seems to have provided for them, in a 
measure, for it is recorded that the " wild pigeons came in such great numbers 
that the sky was sometimes darkened by their flight, and, flying low, they were 
frequently knocked down as they flew, in great quantities by those who had no 
other means to take them, whereby they supplied themselves, and having salted 
those which they could not immediately use, they preserved them, both for 
bread and meat." The Indians, too, often furnished them with game, for which 
they would accept no compensation. 

In 1682 the counties of Bucks, Chester, and Philadelphia were organized, 
also the three lower counties, or, as they were then termed, the " territories " of 
New Castle, Kent, and Sussex. Sheriffs were appointed and writs issued for 
the election of members of a General Assembly — three from each county for 
the Council or Upper House, and nine from each county for the Assembly or 
Lower House. The members elected convened and organized for business at 
Philadelphia, on the lOth of January, 1683. As an example of the crude and 
impracticable propositions brought forward by some of these newly-fledged 
law-makers, the following may be cited as specimens : That young men shall 
be obliged to marry at or before a certain age ; that two sorts of clothes only 
shall be worn — one for winter and the other for summer. The session lasted 
twenty- two days. 

On the 2d of February, 1683, was summoned the first grand jury to sit in 
Pennsylvania, to inquire into the cases of some persons accused of issuing coun- 
terfeit money. The Governor and Council sat as a court. One Pickering was 
convicted, and sentenced as follows : " That he shall make full satisfaction, in 
good and current pay, to every person who shall within the space of one month, 
bring in any of this false, base, and counterfeit coin, and that the money brought 
in shall be melted down before it is returned to him, and that he pay a fine of 
forty pounds towards the building a court-house, stand committed till the same 
be paid, and afterward find security for his good behavior." 

During the early part of 1683 there was great activity throughout the col- 
ony, and especially in the new city, in selecting lots and erecting dwellings, 
the surveyor-general, Thomas Holme, laying out and marking the streets. In 
the center of the city was established a public square of ten acres, and in each 
of the four quarters one of eight acres. A large mansion, which had been un- 
dertaken before his arrival, was built for Penn, at a point twenty-six miles up 
the river, called Pennsbury Manor, where he sometimes resided, and where he 
often met the Indian sachems. 

His plans of government and settlement were now fairly in operation, but 

54 History of Warren County. 

there was another matter which caused him unceasing anxiety. As we have 
seen, the visit of Penn to Lord Baltimore, soon after his arrival in America, for 
the purpose of settling the boundaries of the two provinces, after two days' 
conference proved fruitless, and an adjournment was had for the winter, when 
the efforts for a settlement were to be resumed. Accordingly in May, 1683, 
the proprietors again met at New Castle. Penn proposed to confer by the aid 
of counselors and in writing. But to this Baltimore objected, and, complain- 
ing of the sultriness of the weather, the conference was broken up. In the 
mean time it had come to the knowledge of Penn that Lord Baltimore had issued 
a proclamation offering settlers more land, and at cheaper rates than Penn had 
done, in portions of the lower counties which Penn had purchased from the 
Duke of York, but which Baltimore now claimed. Besides, it was ascertained 
that an agent of his had taken an observation and determined the latitude with- 
out the knowledge of Penn, and had secretly made an ex parte statement of the 
case before the Lords of the Committee of Plantations in England, and was 
pressing for arbitrament. This condition of affairs caused much uneasiness in 
the mind of Penn, especially as the proclamation of Lord Baltimore was likely 
to bring the two governments into conflict on territory mutually claimed. 

Lord Baltimore, it appears, was not disposed to be content even with di- 
plomacy. He determined to pursue an aggressive policy. He accordingly 
commissioned his agent. Colonel George Talbot, under date of September 17, 
1683, to go to Schuylkill, at Delaware, and demand of William Penn " all that 
part of the land on the west side of the said river, that lyeth to the southward 
of the fortieth degree." This bold demand would have embraced the entire 
colony, both the lower counties, and the three counties in the province, as the 
fortieth degree reaches a considerable distance north of Philadelphia. Penn 
was in New York at the time Talbot arrived, and the latter made his demand 
upon Nicholas Moore, Penn's deputy. Upon his return, the proprietor made a 
dignified but earnest rejoinder. While he felt that the demand could not be 
justly sustained, yet the fact that a controversy for the settlement of the bound- 
ary was likely to arise gave him disquietude, and he plainly foresaw that his 
skill and tact would be taxed to the utmost to defend and hold his claim before 
the I^nglish court. If the demand of Lord Baltimore was to prevail, all that 
he had done would be lost, as his entire colony would be swallowed up by 

Penn's anxiety to hold from the beginning of the fortieth degree of latitude 
was not founded upon a desire for a vast amount of territory, for the two de- 
grees which he held unquestioned, so far as amount of land was concerned, 
would have entirely satisfied him ; but he wanted this degree chiefly that he 
might have the free navigation of Delaware Bay and River, and thus have un- 
trammeled communication with the ocean. He desired also to hold the lower 
counties, which were now well settled, as well as his own counties rapidly be- 

Penn in Pennsylvania. 55 

ing peopled, and his new city of Philadelphia, which he regarded with especial 
fondness. So anxious was he to settle the controversy, and to hold the land 
on the right bank of the Delaware to the open ocean, that at the second meet- 
ing he asked Lord Baltimore to set a price per square mile on this disputed 
ground ; and, though he had purchased it once of the crown and held the king's 
charter for it and the Duke of York's deed, yet rather than have any further 
wrangle over it he was willing to pay for it again. But this Lord Baltimore 
refused to do. 

The year 1684 opened favorably for the continued prosperity of the young 
colony. The cultivation of the soil was being prosecuted with grand success. 
Goodly flocks and herds gladdened the eyes of the settlers. An intelligent, 
moral, and industrious yeomanry was Vapidly being welded as a symmetrical 
body or community, where all were warmly interested in the welfare of each 
other. Emigrants were pouring in from different European countries. The 
government was becoming settled in its operations and popular with the people, 
and the proprietor had leisure to attend to the interests of his religious society, 
not only in his own province, but in the Jerseys and New York. 

Baltimore, however, was bent upon bringing matters to a crisis; hence, early 
in the same year (1684), a party of his adherents from Maryland made forcible 
entry upon the plantations in the lower counties and drove off the owners. 
Thereupon the Governor and Council at Philadelphia sent thither a copy of the 
answer of Penn to Baltimore's demand for the land south of the Delaware, with 
orders to William Welch, sheriff at New Castle, to use his authority to rein- 
state the lawful owners, and issued a declaration plainly stating the claim of 
Penn, for the purpose of preventing such unlawful incursions in the future. 

Feeling assured, nevertheless, that the controversy between himself and 
Lord Baltimore could be settled only by the crown, Penn decided to return to 
England and defend his imperiled interests. Without a doubt he took this step 
with much regret, as he was contented and happy in his new country and was 
most usefully employed. He empowered the Provincial Council, of which 
Thomas Lloyd was president, to act in his stead ; commissioned Nicholas 
Moore, William Welch, William Wood, Robert Turner, and John Eckley pro- 
vincial judges for two years ; appointed Thomas Lloyd, James Claypole, and 
Robert Turner to sign land patents and warrants, and William Clark as justice 
of the peace for all the counties, and on the 6th of June, 1684, sailed for En- 

His feelings on leaving his colony are exhibited by a farewell address which 
he issued from on board the vessel to his people, of which the following are 
brief extracts : " My love and my life is to you, and with you, and no water 
can quench it, nor distance wear it out, nor bring it to an end. I have been 
with you, cared over you and served over you with unfeigned love, and you are 
beloved of me, and near me beyond utterance. I bless you in the name and 

56 History of Warren County. 

power of the Lord, and may God bless you with His righteousness, peace and 

plenty all the land over Oh ! now you are come to a quiet land ; 

provoke not the Lord to trouble it. And now liberty and authority are with 
you, and in your hands. Let the government be upon His shoulders, in all 
your spirits, that you may rule for him under whom the princes of this world 
will, one day, esteem it their honor to govern and serve in their places. . 
And thou, Philadelphia, the virgin settlement of this province, named before 
thou wert born, what love, what care, what service, and what travail has there 
been to bring thee forth, and preserve thee from such as would abuse and 
defile thee ! . . . So, dear friends, my love again salutes you all, wishing 
that grace, mercy, and peace, with all temporal blessings, may abound richly 
among you — so says, so prays, your friend and lover in the truth, 

"William Penn." 
Having thus shown in this and the preceding chapter how and when the 
province of Pennsylvania was granted and settled, its extent, natural advan- 
tages, etc., besides the narration of many other interesting incidents connected 
with its early history, the reader's attention is again directed in the following 
chapters to the operations of the French, the Iroquois, and the English in their 
struggle for control in Canada and New York, in the lake region, and finally in 
that part of Penn's province lying west of the Allegheny Mountains, including 
the Conewango and Allegheny valleys. 



A Slight Ascendency — De Nonville Attacks the Senecas — Origin of Fort Niagara — Count 
Frontenac in the Field — Treaty of Ryswick — Queen Anne's War — The Iroquois Neutral — 
The Tuscaroras — Joncaire — Fort Niagara Rebuilt — French Power Increasing — Conflicting 
Claims — Secret Instructions — De Celeron Takes Possession of the Allegheny Valley — Buries 
a Lead Plate at Mouth of the Conewango — The Si.x Nations Ahirnied — French Estabhsh a 
Line of Forts — The Ohio Company — Virginia's Claim — Wasliington as an Envoy — French 
Build Fort Du Qnesne — Washington and his Virginians Captured — Braddodc's Disastrous 
Campaign — The Final Struggle — French Defeated all Along the Line — Their Surrender of 
Power in the New World. 

FOR many years after the adventures of La Salle, the I'rcnch maintained a 
general but not very substantial ascendency in the lake region. Their 'i'oya- 
geiirs traded, their missionaries labored, and their soldiers sometimes made in- 
cursions, but they had no permanent fortress beyond or west of F"ort P'ronte- 
nac (Kingston, Canada), and they were constantly in danger from their enemies 

French Dominion. 57 

the Iroquois. Yet the French sovereigns and ministers considered the whole 
lake region, besides the territory drained by the Allegheny, the Ohio, and the 
Mississippi, as being unquestionably a part of "New France." Their maps so 
described it, and they looked forward with entire assurance to the time when 
French troops and French colonists should hold undisputed possession of all 
that vast domain. 

In 1687 the Marquis de Nonville, governor of New France, arrived at Iron- 
dequoit Bay, a few miles east of the site of the city of Rochester, N. Y., 
with nearly two thousand French soldiers and some five hundred Indians, and 
marched at once against the Seneca villages, situated, as has been stated, in the 
vicinity of Victor and Avon, N. Y., or from ten to twenty miles south of Roch- 
ester's site. The Senecas attacked him on his way and were defeated, as well 
they might be, considering that the largest estimate gives them but eight hun- 
dred warriors, the rest of the confederates not having arrived. 

The Senecas hastened back to their villages, burned them, and with their 
women and children fled to the Cayugas. De Nonville destroyed their stores 
of corn, etc., and retired, after going through the ceremony of taking posses- 
sion of the country. The supplies thus destroyed were immediately replen- 
ished by the other confederates, and the French accomplished little except still 
further to enrage the Iroquois. The Senecas, however, determined to seek a 
home less accessible from the waters of Lake Ontario, and accordingly located 
their principal village at the foot of Seneca Lake, and others on the Genesee 
River above Avon. 

The French commander, after defeating the Senecas, sailed to the mouth 
of the Niagara River, where he erected a small fort on the east side. This 
was the origin of Fort Niagara, one of the most celebrated strongholds in 
America, which, though for a time abandoned, was afterwards during more 
than half a century considered the key of the whole upper lake country, and 
the vast domain stretching southward to the head waters of the Ohio. From 
the new fortress De Nonville sent the Baron La Hontan with a small detach- 
ment of French to escort the Indian allies to their northwestern homes. They 
made the necessary portage around the falls, rowed up the Niagara to Lake 
Erie, and thence coasted along the northern shore of the lake in their canoes 
All along the river they were closely watched by the enraged Iroquois, but 
were too strong and too vigilant to be attacked. Ere long the governor re- 
turned to Montreal, leaving a small garrison at Fort Niagara. These suffered 
so severely from sickness that the fort was soon abandoned, and it does not 
appear to have been again occupied for nearly forty years. 

In fact, at this period the fortunes of France in North America were 
brought very low. The Iroquois ravaged a part of the island of Montreal, 
compelled the abandonment of Forts Frontenac and Niagara, and alone proved 
almost sufficient to overthrow the French dominion in Canada. 

58 History of Warren County. 

The English revolution of 1688, by which James II was driven from the 
throne, chiefly on account of his friendship for William Penn and his liberal 
views regarding all religious sects, was speedily followed by open war with 
France. In 1689 the Count de Frontenac, the same energetic old peer who 
had encouraged La Salle in his brilliant discoveries, and whose name was for a 
while borne by Lake Ontario, was sent out as governor of New France. This 
vigorous but cruel leader partially retrieved the desperate condition of the 
French. He, too, by way of retaliation, invaded the Iroquois country, but ac- 
complished no more than De Nonville. This war continued with varying for- 
tunes until 1697, the Five Nations being all that while the friends of the Eng- 
lish, and most of the time engaged in active hostilities against the French. 
Their authority over the whole west bank of the Niagara and far up the 
south side of Lake Erie was unbroken, save when a detachment of French 
troops was actually marching along the shore. 

At the treaty of Ryswick in 1697, while the ownership of certain lands in 
America was definitely conceded to France and England respectively, those 
formerly occupied by the exterminated tribes — the Eries and Kahquahs — were 
left undecided. The English claimed sovereignty over all the lands of the 
Five Nations, the French with equal energy asserted the authority of King 
Louis over territory discovered by their explorers, while the Iroquois them- 
selves, whenever they heard of the controversy, repudiated alike the pretensions 
of Yonnondio and Corlear, as they denominated the governors respectively of 
Canada and New York. 

So far as Warren county was concerned, they could base their claim on the 
good old plea that they had killed or driven away all its previous occupants ; 
and as neither the English nor the French had succeeded in killing the Iro- 
quois, the title of the latter still held good. 

However, scarcely had the echoes of battle died away after the treaty of 
Ryswick, when, in 1702, the rival nations plunged into the long, desolating 
conflict known as "Queen Anne's War." But by this time the Iroquois had 
grown wiser, and prudently maintained their neutrality, thus commanding the 
respect of both French and English. The former were wary of again provok- 
ing the powerful confederates, and the governments of the colonies of New 
York and Pennsylvania were very willing that the Five Nations should remain 
neutral, as they thus furnished a shield against French and Canadian Indian 
attacks along their frontiers. 

Meanwhile, through all the western country the French e.xtended their in- 
fluence. Detroit was founded in I70l,and other posts were established farand 
wide. Notwithstanding their alliance with the Hurons and other foes of the 
Iroquois, and notwithstanding the enmity aroused by the invasions of Cham- 
plain, De Nonville, and Frontenac, such was the subtle skill of the French that 
they rapidly acquired a strong influence among the western tribes of the con- 

French Dominion. 59. 

federacy, especially with the Senecas. Even the powerful socio-political sys- 
tem of the Hedonosaunee weakened under the influence of European intrigue, 
and while the eastern Iroquois, though preserving their neutrality, were friendly 
to the English, the Senecas, and perhaps the Cayugas, were almost ready to 
take up arms for the French. 

Another important event in the history of the Hedonosaunee occurred 
about the year 1712, when the Five Nations became the Six Nations. The 
Tuscaroras, a powerful tribe of North Carolina, had become involved in a war 
with the whites, originating, as usual, in a dispute about land. The colonists 
being aided by several other tribes, the Tuscaroras were soon defeated, many 
of them were killed, and many others were captured and sold as slaves. The 
greater part of the remainder fled northward to the Iroquois, who immediately 
adopted them as one of the tribes of the confederacy, assigning them a loca- 
tion near the Oneidas. The readiness of those haughty warriors to extend 
the valuable shelter of the Long House over a band of fleeing exiles is prob- 
ably due to the fact that the latter had been the allies of the Iroquois against 
other southern Indians, which would also account for the eagerness of the lat- 
ter to join the whites in the overthrow of the Tuscaroras. 

Not long after this one Chabert Joncaire, otherwise known as Jean Coeur, 
a Frenchman who had been captured in youth by the Senecas, who had been 
adopted into their tribe, and had married a Seneca wife, but who had been 
released at the treaty of peace, was employed by the French authorities to 
promote their influence among the Iroquois. Pleading his claims as an adopted 
child of the nations, he was allowed by the Seneca chiefs to build a cabin 
and establish a trading-post on the site of Lewiston, on the Niagara, which 
soon became a center of French influence and activity. 

All the efforts of the English were impotent either to dislodge him or to 
obtain a similar privilege for any of their own people. " He is one of our 
children ; he may build where he will," was the sole reply vouchsafed to every 
complaint. "Among the public oflicers of the French," says Bancroft, "who 
gained influence over the red men by adapting themselves with happy facility 
to life in the wilderness, was the Indian agent Joncaire. For twenty years he 
had been successfully negotiating with the Senecas. He had become by 
adoption one of their own citizens and sons, and to the culture of the French- 
man added the fluent eloquence of an Iroquois warrior." Though Fort Niag- 
ara was for the time abandoned, and no regular fort was built at Lewiston, yet 
Joncaire's trading-post embraced a considerable group of cabins, and at least 
a part of the time a detachment of French soldiers was stationed there. Jon- 
caire and his trappers and voyageurs frequently visited Chautauqua Lake, the 
Conewango River, and the Allegheny, and thus the French maintained at least 
a slight ascendency over the territory which is the subject of this history. 

About 1725 they began rebuilding Fort Niagara on the site where De Non- 

6o History of Warren County. 

ville had erected his fortress. They did so without opposition; Joncaire's influ- 
ence was now potent among the Senecas; besides, the fact of the French being 
such poor colonizers worked to their advantage in establishing a certain kind 
of influence and confidence among the Indians. Few of them being desirous 
of engaging in agriculture, they made little effort to obtain land, while the 
English were constantly arousing the jealousy of the natives by obtaining 
enormous grants from some of the chiefs, often, doubtless, by very dubious meth- 
ods. Moreover, the French have always possessed a peculiar facility for assim- 
ilating with savage and half-civilized races, and thus gaining an influence over 

Whatever the cause, the power of the French constantly increased among 
the Senecas. Fort Niagara became a noted stronghold, and Western New York 
and Northwestern Pennsylvania were almost wholly given over to their domin- 
ion. They established small trading-posts along the streams and did a large 
trade with the Indians by exchanging beads, brooches, guns, ammunition, and 
tomahawks for furs, which were shipped to Europe and sold at an immense 
profit. However, although their possession was as yet undisturbed, it must 
not be inferred that it was quietly acquiesced in by the English. The latter 
viewed the projects of the French with mingled jealousy and alarm, sent out 
numerous agents,^ and succeeded in some quarters in estranging the Indians 
from their rivals, but not to any extended degree. The influence of Joncaire, 
aided by that of his sons Chabert and Clauzonne Joncaire, in the interests of the 
French, was maintained and increased all through the second quarter of the 
eighteenth century. 

In the war between England and France, begun in 1744 and closed by the 
treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, the Six Nations generally maintained their 
neutrality, though the Mohawks gave some aid to the English. During the 
eight years of nominal peace which succeeded that treaty, both the French and 
English made numerous efforts to extend their dominion beyond their frontier 
settlements, the former with most success. To Niagara and Detroit they 
added other posts, and finally determined to establish a line of forts from the 
lakes to the Ohio, and thence down that river to the Mississippi. 

The French claimed that their discovery of the St. Lawrence and the Mis- 
sissippi entitled them to the ownership of the territory bordering upon those 
streams and their tributaries. The English claim was based upon a grant by 
King James I, in 1606, to "divers of his subjects, of all the countries between 
north latitude 48° and 34°, and westward from the Atlantic Ocean to the 
South Sea," and also upon purchases of western lands made from the Six Na- 

' English agents or lraclcr.s were located at Venango (now Franklin) and l.e Boeuf (now Waterford), 
when the advance of the Krencli army reached those ])oints in 1753. John Frazier, a Scotchman, had 
established himself at the former place .about 1745, where he carried on a gunsmith shop, and traded 
with the Indians until driven away by Joncaire, who also captured at Venango the traders John Trotter 
and James McLaughlin, and sent them as prisoners to Montreal. 

French Dominion. 6i 

tions by commissioners from the provinces of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Vir- 
ginia, representing the mother country. Hence, although the treaty of Aix- 
la-Chapelle was supposed to have settled all difficulties between the courts of 
England and France, it appears that it did not settle anything in the New 
World, nor had either party relinquished its claims. Therefore, when it was 
ascertained that the French were actively pushing forward their enterprises with 
a view of permanently occupying the great territory beyond the Alleghenies, 
the British embassador at Paris entered complaint before the French court that 
encroachments were being made by the French upon English soil in America. 
These charges were politely heard, and promises made of restraining the French 
in Canada from encroaching upon English territory. Formal orders were sent 
out by the home government to this effect ; but at the same time secret intima- 
tions were conveyed to the French Canadians that their conduct in endeavoring 
to secure and hold the territory in dispute was not displeasing to the govern- 
ment, and that disobedience of these orders would not incur its displeasure. 

In the execution of these secret instructions the French deemed it neces- 
sary, in order to establish a legal claim to the country, to take formal posses- 
sion of it. Accordingly the Marquis de la Galissonniere, who was at this time 
captain- general of Canada, dispatched Captain Bienville de Celeron with a 
party of two hundred and fifteen French and fifty-five Indians, to publicly 
proclaim possession, and bury at prominent points plates of lead bearing inscrip- 
tions declaring occupation in the name of the French king. Celeron started 
on the 15th of June, 1749, from La Chine. He followed the southern shores 
of Lakes Ontario and Erie until he reached a point opposite Lake Chautau- 
qua, where the boats were drawn up and taken bodily over the dividing ridge, 
a distance of ten miles, with all the impedimenta of the expedition, the pioneers 
having first opened a road. Following on down the lake and the Conewango 
Creek, they arrived on the site of the present town of Warren. Here the first 
plate was buried. These plates were eleven inches long, seven and a half 
inches wide, and one-eighth of an inch thick. A translated account of De 
Celeron's procedure at this point reads as follows: 

"In the year one thousand seven hundred and forty-nine. We, Celeron, 
Knight of the Royal and Military Order of St. Louis, captain commanding a 
detachment sent by order of the Marquis de la Galissonniere, Captain General 
in Canada, and the Beautiful River, otherwise called the Ohio, accompanied by 
the principal officers of our detachment, have buried at the foot of a red oak 
tree, on the south bank of the River Ohio,^ and opposite the point of a little 
island where the two rivers, Ohio and Kanaougou^ unite, a leaden plate, with 
the following inscription engraved thereon: 

1 During their occupation of this region the French always termed the Allegheny the River Ohio, 
and it is so printed upon all their early maps. 

2 Upon Captain Pouchot's French map, published in 1758, for the purpose of showing the French 
and English frontiers in America, from the French stand-point, an Indian village called " Kanoagoa" 

62 History of Warren County. 

"In the year one thousand seven hundred and forty-nine, in the reign of 
Louis XV, King of France. 

" We, Celeron, commanding officer of a detachment sent by the Marquis 
de la Galissonniere, Captain General of New France, to re-establish peace in 
some Indian villages of these Cantons, have buried this plate at the confluence 
of the Rivers Ohio and Kanaougou this 29th day of July, as a monument of 
the renewal of the possession which we have taken of the said River Ohio, and 
of all the lands on both sides, up to the source of the said rivers, as the pre- 
ceding Kings of France have enjoyed or ought to enjoy the same, and have 
maintained themselves there by arms and treaties, and especially by those of 
Ryswick, Utrecht, and Aix-la-Chappelle. We have, moreover, affixed the 
King's arms at the same place to a tree. In testimony whereof, we have signed 
and drawn up this proces verbal. 

" Done at the mouth of the Beautiful river,i this twenty-ninth day of 
July, one thousand seven hundred and forty-nine. 

" Signed by all the officers. 

" Celeron." 

The burying of this plate was attended with much form and ceremony. 
All the men and officers of the expedition were drawn up in battle array, while 
the savages assembled looked on in open-mouthed awe and wonder, when Ce- 
leron proclaimed, in a loud voice, " Vive le Roi," and declared that possession 
of the country was now taken in the name of the king. A plate bearing the 
arms of France was then affixed to the nearest tree. 

The same formality was observed in planting each of the other plates : the 
second at the rock known as the "Indian God" — on which are ancient and 
unknown inscriptions — a few miles below Franklin ; a third at the mouth of 
Wheeling Creek ; a fourth at the mouth of the Muskingum ; a fifth at the 
mouth of the Great Kanawha, and the sixth and last at the mouth of the Great 
Miami. Toilsomely ascending the Miami to its head waters, the party burned 
their canoes, and obtained ponies for the march across the portage to the 
head waters of the Maumee, down which and by Lakes Erie and Ontario they 
returned to Fort Frontenac, arriving on the 6th of November. It appears 
that the Indians through whose territory they passed viewed this planting of 
plates with great suspicion. By some means they got possession of one of them, 
generally supposed to have been stolen from the party at the very commence- 
ment of their journey. 

is localed at the mouth of the present Coiiewango, but the name of the latter stream was then printed 
" Scliatacoin River," the French geographer intending, douhtless, to apply to it the same name as 
that of the lake of which it is an outlet. The name of the same stream has also been written by early 
English geographers, American officers and surveyors, as the Canawagy, Conewauga, Conewagoo, 
Canawago, Conawango, and Conewaugo ; but since 1795 it has been considered proper to write it Con- 

1 A mistake of the translator or copyist. It should read mouth of the Kan.aougou. 

French Dominion. 63 

Mr. O. H. Marshall, in an excellent monograph upon this expedition, made 
up from the original journal of Celeron and the diary of Father Bonnecamps, 
found in the Department de la Marine in Paris, gives the following account of 
this stolen plate : 

" The first of the leaden plates was brought to the attention of the public 
by Gov. George Clinton to the Lords of Trade in London, in a communication 
dated New York, December 19, 1750, in which he states that he would send to 
their Lordships in two or three weeks a plate of lead full of writing, which 
some of the upper nations of Indians stole from Jean Coeur, the French inter- 
preter at Niagara, on his way to the River Ohio, which river, and all the lands 
thereabouts, the French claim, as will appear by said writing. He further 
states ' that the lead plate gave the Indians so much uneasiness that they im- 
mediately dispatched some of the Cayuga chiefs to him with it, saying that 
their only reliance was on him, and earnestly begged he would communicate 
the contents to them, which he had done, much to their satisfaction and the 
interests of the English.' The Governor concludes by saying that ' the contents 
of the plate may be of great importance in clearing up the encroachments 
which the French have made on the British Empire in America.' The plate 
was delivered to Colonel, afterward Sir William Johnson, on the 4th of Decem- 
ber, 1750, at his residence on the Mohawk, by a Cayuga sachem, who accom- 
panied it by the following speech : 

"'Brother Corlear and War-ragh-i-ya-ghey ! I am sent here by the Six 
Nations with a piece of writing which the Senecas, our brethren, got by some 
artifice from Jean Coeur, earnestly beseeching you will let us know what it 
means, and as we put all confidence in you, we hope you will explain it ingen- 
iously to us.' 

" Col. Johnson replied to the Sachem, and through him to the Six Nations, 
returning a belt of wampum, and explaining the inscription on the plate. He 
told them ' it was a matter of the greatest consequence, involving the posses- 
sion of their lands and hunting grounds, and that Jean Cceur and the French 
ought immediately to be expelled from the Ohio and Niagara.' In reply, the 
Sachem said that ' he had heard with great attention and surprise the sub- 
stance of the " devilish writing " he had brought, and that Col. Johnson's 
remarks were fully approved. ' He promised that belts from each of the Six 
Nations should be sent from the Seneca's castle to the Indians at the Ohio, to 
warn and strengthen them against the French encroachments in that direction." 
On the 29th of January, 175 i, Clinton sent a copy of this inscription to Gov- 
ernor Hamilton, of Pennsylvania. 

The French followed up this formal act of possession by laying out a chain 
of military posts, on substantially the same line as that pursued by the Celeron 
expedition ; but instead of crossing over to Lake Chautauqua, as had been the 
custom of their traders for many years, they kept on down to Presque Isle 

64 History of Warren County. 

(now Erie), where was a good harbor, and where a fort was established, and 
thence up to Le Boeuf ^ (now VVaterford) ; thence down the Venango (French 
Creek) to its mouth at Franklin, establishing Fort Venango there ; thence by 
the Allegheny to Pittsburgh, where Fort Du Quesne was afterwards seated, 
and so on down the Ohio. 

To counteract this activity on the part of the French, the Ohio Company 
was chartered, and a half million of acres was granted by the crown, to be 
selected mainly on the south side of the Ohio, between the Monongahela and 
Kanawha Rivers, and the condition made that settlements (one hundred fami- 
lies within seven years), protected by a fort, should be made. The company 
consisted of Maryland and Virginia gentlemen, among whom were Lawrence, 
a brother of George Washington. 

In 1752 a treaty was entered into with the Indians, securing the right of 
occupancy, and twelve families, under the leadership of Captain Gist, estab- 
lished themselves upon the Monongahela, and subsequently began the erection 
of a fort at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers. Apprised 
of this intrusion into the very heart of the territory which they were claiming, 
the French at once built a fort at Le Boeuf, and strengthened their post at 

These proceedings having been promptly reported to Governor Dinwiddle, 
of Virginia, where the greater number of the stockholders resided, and which 
province, by the way, claimed jurisdiction over all of the region lying west of 
Laurel Hill^ and northward to the junction of the two rivers just named, he 
determined to send an official communication to the French commandant at 
Le Boeuf, protesting against the forcible interference with their chartered rights, 
granted by the crown of Great Britain, and pointing to the late treaties of 
peace entered into between the English and French, whereby it was agreed 
that each should respect the colonial possessions of the other. 

But who should be the messenger to execute this delicate and responsible 
trust? Winter was approaching, and the distance to be traversed — some five 
hundred miles — led through a wild wilderness, cut by rugged mountain chains 
and deep, rapid streams. It was proposed to several, who declined, and was 
finally accepted by GEORGE Washington, then a youth barely twenty-one 
years old. On the last day of November, 1753, he bade adieu to civilization, 
and pushed on through the forest to the settlements on the Monongahela, 
where he was joined by Captain Gist. He then followed up the Allegheny to 
Fort Venango ; thence up the Venango or French Creek to its head waters at 
Fort Le Boeuf, where he held formal conference with the French commandant, 
St. Pierre. 

ISo called because when the loc.iliiy was visited by Europeans — the French — it seemed a 
favorite haunt for vast herds of buffalo. 

2 It was believed by many at that time that the western boundary of Pennsylvania would not fall to 
the westward of Laurel Hill. 

French Dominion. 65 

The French officer had been ordered to hold this territory on the claim of 
the discovery of the Mississippi by La Salle, and the subsequent occupation of 
all this region for many years by the French, and he had no discretion but to 
execute his orders, and referred Washington to his superior, the governor- 
general of Canada. Making careful notes of the location and strength of the 
post and those encountered on the way, the young embassador returned, being 
twice fired at on his journey by hostile Indians, and came near losing his life 
by being thrown into the freezing waters of the Allegheny while effecting a 
crossing on a hastily improvised raft. Upon his arrival he made a full report 
of the embassage, which was widely published throughout the English colonies 
and in England, and doubtless was the basis upon which action was taken 
that eventuated in a long and sanguinary war — the Old French and Indian 
War — which resulted in the collapse of French dominion upon this continent. 

Governor Dinwiddle being satisfied that the French were determined to hold 
the territory upon the Ohio by force of arms, a body of one hundred and fifty 
Virginia provincials, of which Washington as lieutenant-colonel was in com- 
mand, was sent to the support of the small garrison at the mouth of the Alle- 
gheny. But the French, having this river as a means of transportation and the 
Virginians a very rugged and mountainous country to overcome, the former 
first reached the goal or vantage ground for which each was striving. Con- 
tracoeur, the French commander, with one thousand men, and well-equipped 
batteries of artillery, having provided himself with a sufficient number of 
bateaux and canoes, glided swiftly down the Allegheny and easily seized the 
unfinished work of defense of the Ohio Company, and at once began the con- 
struction of an elaborate work which was named Fort Du Quesne, in honor of 
the governor-general of Canada. 

Informed of this proceeding, Washington pushed forward and, finding that 
a detachment of the French was in his immediate neighborhood, he made a 
forced march by night, and coming upon them unawares killed and captured 
the entire party save one. Ten of the French, including their commander, 
Jumonville, were killed and twenty-one made prisoners. Though reinforce- 
ments had been dispatched from the several colonies in response to the urgent 
appeals of Washington, none reached him but one company of one hundred 
men, under the command of the insubordinate Captain Mackay, from South 
Carolina. Knowing that he was confronting a vastly superior force of the 
French, well supplied with artillery, he threw up defensive works at a point 
called the Great Meadows, in the present county of Fayette, Pa., and named 
his hastily built fortification Fort Necessity. Stung by the loss of Jumonville 
and his command, the French came on in strong force and soon invested the 
place. Washington informs us that he had chosen a " charming field for an 
encounter," but unfortunately for him one part of his position was easily com- 
manded by the artillery of the French, which they were not slow in taking 

66 History of Warren County. 

advantage of. The action opened on the 3d of July, and was continued till late 
at night. A capitulation was then proposed by the French commander, which 
Washington reluctantly accepted, seeing all hope of reinforcements reaching 
him cut off, and on the 4th of July marched out with the honors of war and 
fell back to Will's Creek, now Cumberland, Md. 

The French were now in complete possession of the country claimed by them 
from the mouth of the St. Lawrence via the Great Lakes and the head waters 
of the Allegheny and Ohio Rivers to the Mississippi. Along this line gayly- 
dressed French officers sped backward and forward, attended by the fierce 
warriors of their allied tribes, and not unfrequently by the Senecas, who 
seemed more friendly to them than to the English. Dark-gowned Jesuits also 
hastened to and fro, everywhere receiving the respect of the red men, even 
when their creed was rejected, and using all their art to magnify the power of 
both Rome and France. 

Possession and victory counted heavily in the balance. Many of the Sen- 
ecas, and nearly all of the Indian tribes in the Canadas and the great North- 
west, east of the Mississippi, were the friends and allies of the French, and it 
is probable that the whole Iroquois confederacy would ha\e been induced to 
become active partisans of the French had it not been for one man, the skillful 
English superintendent of Indian affairs, soon to be known as Sir William 
Johnson. He, having in 1734 been sent to America as the agent of his uncle, 
a great landholder in the valley of the Mohawk, had gained almost unbounded 
influence over the Mohawks by integrity in dealing and native shrewdness, 
combined with a certain coarseness of nature which readily affiliated with them. 
He had made his power felt throughout the whole confederacy, and had been 
intrusted by the British government with the management of its relations with 
the Six Nations. 

The English, meanwhile, were not idle spectators of the enterprise and 
activity displayed by their ancient enemy, the French, in their efforts to 
occupy, hold, and possess the greater and best portions of North America. 
Hence, determined to push military operations, the British government had 
called, early in the year of 1755, upon the provinces of New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Virginia for several thousand volunteers, and had sent two regi- 
ments of its standing army, under General Braddock, from Cork, Ireland. 
Landing at Alexandria, Va., he marched to Frederick, Md., and thence by 
a circuitous route to Will's Creek, or Fort Cumberland, Md., where all of the 
troops under his command were concentrated. 

It seems that he had formed extravagant plans for his campaign. He 
would march forward and reduce Fort Du Quesne, thence proceed against Fort 
Niagara, which having conquered, he would close a season of triumphs by the 
capture of Fort Frontenac. But this was not the first nor the last time in war- 
fare that the result of a campaign had failed to realize the promises of the mani- 

French Dominion. 6j 

festo. The orders brought by Braddock giving officers of the line precedence 
over those who commanded the provincial forces gave great offense, and 
Washington, among others, because of this, as well as the cutting criticisms 
indulged in regarding his brief campaign in the Monongahela valley during 
the previous year, threw up his commission ; but, enamored of the profes- 
sion of arms, he accepted the position offered him by General Braddock as 
volunteer aid-de-camp. Accustomed to the discipline of military establish- 
ments in old, long-settled countries, Braddock had little conception of making 
war in a wilderness with only Indian paths, or " trails," to move upon, against 
wily savages. He was advised by Washington and other provincial officers to 
push forward with pack-horses, and by rapidity of movement forestall ample 
preparations on the part of his enemy. But the English general knew of but 
one way of soldiering, and, where roads did not exist sufficient to pass his cum- 
brous wagon trains and artillery, he stopped to fell the forest and bridge the 
streams. The French, who were kept advised of his every movement by their 
Indian scouts and runners, made ample preparations to receive him, though 
they were much less in numbers. 

In the mean time Washington fell sick; but intent on being up for the bat- 
tle, he hastened forward as soon as sufficiently recovered, and only joined the 
army on the day before the fatal engagement. He had never seen much of 
the pride and circumstance of war, and when, on the morning of the 9th of 
July, the army of Braddock marched on across the Monongahela, with gay 
colors flying and martial music awakening the echoes of the forest, he was 
accustomed in subsequent years to speak of it as the " most magnificent spec- 
tacle " he had ever beheld. But the gay pageant was destined to be of but 
short duration, for the army had only marched a little distance before it fell 
into an ambuscade skillfully laid by the French and Indians at a point within a 
few miles of Fort Du Quesne, and the forest resounded with the unearthly 
whoop of the Indians and the continuous roar of musketry. The advance 
was checked and thrown into confusion by the French from their well-chosen 
position, and every tree upon the flanks of the long drawn out line concealed a 
murderous foe, who, with unerring aim, picked off the officers. A resolute 
stand was made, and the battle raged with great fury for three hours ; but the 
fire of the English regulars, who were held in close ranks, was of little effect 
because directed against an invisible foe. The few Virginia provincials, how- 
ever, fighting in their own way, made it exceedingly warm for some, at least, 
of the French and Indians. Finally, the English mounted officers having all 
fallen killed or wounded, panic seized the survivors, and they fled from the 
field in dismay, leaving their dead, their baggage, artillery, etc., and nearly all 
of their wounded in the hands of an inferior force of the French and their sav- 
age allies. 

Of the fourteen hundred and sixty officers and men of Braddock's army 

68 History of Warren County. 

engaged in this battle, four hundred and fifty-six were killed and four hun- 
dred and twenty-one wounded, a greater loss, in proportion to the number 
engaged, than has ever occurred in the annals of modern warfare. The sur- 
prising statement that more men were killed than wounded, is accounted for 
from the fact that when the English fled from the field, the Indians bounded 
forth from their coverts and tomahawked and scalped many of the wounded 
ere the more humane of the Frenchmen could put a stop to the slaughter. Sir 
Peter Halkert, the second in rank of the British forces, was killed, and Brad- 
dock, mortally wounded, was brought off the field by Washington, assisted by 
less than a score of other subalterns and soldiers, with the greatest difficulty. 

The panic-stricken survivors fled back to the reserve forces commanded by 
Colonel Dunbar, who, it appears, was also seized with fright, though his re- 
serves more than outnumbered the combined French and Indians at Du Quesne ; 
and without attempting to halt the fugitives, to renew the campaign and return 
to the encounter, he abandoned his trains, destroyed his stores and artillery, 
and joined in a disgraceful flight, which was not stayed until Fort Cumber- 
land was reached. The French remained at Fort Du Quesne anticipating a 
renewal of the struggle ; but when they found that the English had fled, leav- 
ing the frontier all unprotected, they left no stone unturned in whetting the 
minds of the savages for the work of plunder and blood, and in organizing 
relentless bands to range at will along all the wide border. The Indians could 
not be induced to pursue the retreating English, but fell to plundering the 
field. Nearly everything was lost, even to the camp-chest of Braddock. The 
wounded general was taken back to the summit of Laurel Hill, where, after 
four days, he breathed his last. He was buried in the middle of the road, and 
the army marched over his grave that it might not be discovered or molested 
by the Indians. 

This easy victory, won chiefly by the savages, served to encourage them in 
their fell work, in which, when their passions were aroused, no known people 
on earth were less touched by pity. The unprotected settler in his wilderness 
home was the easy prey of the torch and the scalping-knife, and the burning 
cabins lit up the somber forests by their continuous blaze, and the shrieks of 
women and children resounded from the Hudson to the Potomac. Before the 
defeat of Braddock there were three thousand men capable of bearing arms 
residing in that part of Pennsylvania lying west of the Susquehanna. Six 
months later there were scarcely one hundred. 

The ferment in the wilderness daily grew more earnest, and in this hour of 
extremity the Indians for the most part showed themselves a treacherous race, 
ever ready to take up on the stronger side. Even the Shawanese and Dela- 
warcs, who had been loudest in their protestations of friendship for the h.nglish 
and readiness to fight for them, no sooner saw the French victorious than they 
gave ready ear to their advice to strike for the recovery of the lands which 

French Dominion. 69 

they had voluntarily sold to the English. As days passed the gay officers and 
soldiers of King Louis of France more frequently sped from Quebec, and Fron- 
tenac, and Niagara, now in bateaux, now on foot, through and along the bor- 
ders of the present county of Warren, to Fort Du Quesne ; staying a few hours 
perchance to hold a council with the Seneca sachems, then hurrying forward 
to strengthen the feeble line of posts on which so much depended. 

In 1756, after two years of open hostilities in America, and several impor- 
tant conflicts, war was again declared between England and France, being their 
last great struggle for supremacy in the New World. In this war the Mohawks 
were persuaded by Sir William Johnson to take the field in favor of the En- 
glish. But the Senecas, as before mentioned, were quite friendly to the French, 
and were only restrained from taking up arms for them as a nation by an 
unwillingness to fight against their Iroquois brethren -farther east. A few of 
them, without a doubt, did assist the French to defeat Braddock. Indeed, it 
has frequently been asserted that "Cornplanter," an Indian chieftain whose 
name is indissolubly connected with the history of Warren county, then a 
young half-breed warrior of about the age of Washington, was one of the fierce 
young Seneca braves who were with the French at Fort Du Quesne; but 
this statement is not well authenticated. 

For a time, as we have shown, the French were everywhere victorious. 
Braddock, almost at the gates of Fort Du Quesne, was slain, and his army cut 
in pieces by a force utterly contemptible in comparison with his own. Mont- 
calm had captured Oswego, and the French lines up the Great Lakes and 
across the country to Fort Du Quesne were stronger than ever. But in 1758 
William Pitt entered the councils of George II, as nominal though not actual 
chief of the ministry, and then England flung herself in deadly earnest into the 
contest. That year Fort Du Quesne was captured by an English and Provin- 
cial army under General Forbes, and Fort Pitt erected upon its ruins, the 
French garrison having destroyed their fort, etc., and retreated while the En- 
glish were thundering at their gates. To the northward Fort Frontenac was 
seized by Colonel Bradstreet, and other victories prepared the way for the 
grand success in 1759. The Gallic cordon was broken, but Fort Niagara still 
held out for France ; still the messengers ran forward and backward, to and 
from Presque Isle, Le Boeuf, Venango, and the upper valley of the Allegheny, 
and still the Senecas strongly declared their friendship, and in many instances 
their undying fealty for Yonnondio and Yonnondio's royal master. 

Yet heavier blows were struck in 1759. Wolf assailed Quebec, the strongest 
of all the French strongholds. Almost at the same time General Prideaux 
with two thousand British and Provincials, accompanied by Sir William John- 
son with one thousand of his faithful Iroquois, sailed up Lake Ontario and laid 
siege to Fort Niagara. Defended by only six hundred men, its capture was 
certain unless speedy relief could be obtained. 

JO History of Warren County. 

Its commander, however, was not idle. Once again along the Niagara and 
up Lake Erie, and away through the forests to the south and westward, sped 
his lithe, red-skinned messengers to summon the sons and the dusky allies of 
France. D'Aubrey, at Venango, heard the call and responded with his most 
zealous endeavors. Gathering all the troops he could muster from far and near, 
stripping bare with desperate energy the little French posts of the West, and 
mustering every red man he could persuade to follow his banners, he set forth 
to the relief of Niagara. 

Thus it was that in July, 1759, while the English army was still encamped 
around the walls of Quebec, while Wolf and Montcalm were approaching that 
common grave to which the path of military glory was soon to lead them, a 
stirring scene was being enacted along the southeastern shores of Lake Erie 
and its outlet. At that time the largest European force v.'hich had yet been 
seen in this region at any one time came coasting down the lake from Presque 
Isle, past the portage which led to Lake Chautauqua and the Conewango, and 
along the beach skirting the present counties of Chautauqua and Erie, N. Y., 
to the mouth of the limpid Buffalo. Fifty or sixty bateaux bore nearly a 
thousand hardy Frenchmen on their mission of relief, while a long line of 
slippery-bottomed canoes were freighted with four hundred or more of the 
dusky warriors of the West. 

A motley yet gallant band it was which then hastened along on the des- 
perate service of sustaining the fast-failing fortunes of France. Gay young 
officers, fresh from the court of the French monarch, sat side by side with sun- 
burned trappers and voyagetirs, whose feet had trodden every mountain and 
prairie from the St. Lawrence to the Mississippi. Veterans who had won lau- 
rels under the marshals of France were here comrades of those who knew no 
other foe than the Iroquois, the Delawares, and the scowling Sioux. 

One boat was filled with soldiers trained to obey with unquestioning fidelity 
every word of their leaders ; another contained only wild savages who scarcely 
acknowledged any other law than their own fierce will. Here flashed swords 
and bayonets and brave attire, there appeared the dark long rifles and buckskin 
garments of the hardy scouts and hunters, while still further on the tomahawks 
and scalping-knives and partly naked bodies of the savage contingent glistened 
in the July sun. There were some, too, among the younger men, who might 
fairly have taken their places in either bateau or canoe ; whose features bore 
unmistakable evidence of the commingling of diverse races; who might per- 
chance have justly claimed kindred with barons and chevaliers then resplen- 
dent in the salons of Paris, but who had drawn their infant nourishment from 
the breasts of dusky mothers, as they rested from hoeing corn and other 
drudgery on the banks of streams flowing into the Allegheny and Ohio. 

History has preserved but a slight record of this last struggle of the French 
for dominion in these regions, but it has rescued from oblivion the names of 

French Dominion. 71 

D'Aubrey, the commander, and De Lignery, his chief lieutenant ; of Marin, the 
leader of the Indians, and of the captains, De Villiers, Repentini, Martini, and 
Basonc. These men were by no means despondent. Their commands con- 
tained many of the same men, both white and red, who had slaughtered the 
unlucky battalions of Braddock only two years before, and they might well 
hope that some similar turn of fortune would give them another victory over 
the foes of France. 

The Seneca warriors, snuffing the battle from their homes on the Genesee 
and the head waters of the Allegheny, were roaming restlessly through the 
lake regions and along the shores of the Niagara River, quite uncertain how 
to act ; more friendly to the French than the English, and yet unwilling to 
engage in conflict with their brethren of the Six Nations. Hardly pausing, 
however, to communicate with his doubtful friends, D'Aubrey led his flotilla 
past the pleasant groves whose place is now occupied by a great commercial 
emporium (the city of Buffalo), hurried by the tall bluff now crowned by the 
battlements of Fort Porter, and only halted on reaching the shores of Navy 
Island. After staying here a day or two to communicate with the fort, he 
passed over to the mainland and confidently marched forward to battle. 

But Sir William Johnson, who had succeeded to the command of the Brit- 
ish forces on the death of Prideaux, was not the kind of man likely to meet 
the fate of Braddock. Apprised of the approach of the French, he posted men 
enough before the fort to prevent an outbreak or sortie of the beleaguered gar- 
rison, and stationed the rest in an advantageous position on the east side of the 
Niagara, just below the whirlpool. After a sanguinary contest of an hour's 
duration the French were utterly routed, several hundred being slain on the 
field and a large number of the remainder being captured, including the 
wounded D'Aubrey. 

On the receipt of this disastrous news the garrison at once surrendered. 
And thus the control of the Niagara River, which for more than a hundred 
years had been in the hands of the French, passed into those of the En- 
glish. For a little while the French held possession of a few minor posts and 
fortifications, leading from Niagara to the mouth of French Creek. Becoming 
satisfied, however, that they could not withstand their powerful foe with any 
certainty of success, the forts, fortifications, etc., along this line were soon after 
hastily dismantled, and the garrisons left in bateaux for Detroit. Upon taking 
their departure they told the Indians that they had been driven away by supe- 
rior numbers, but would return in sufficient force to hold the country perma- 
nently. In this, however, they were too sanguine, as they were destined 
never again to occupy Northwestern Pennsylvania. 

The English did not take formal possession of these forts until 1760, when 
Major Robert Rogers was sent out in command of two hundred Provincial 
rangers for that purpose. He repaired and garrisoned the forts at Presque Isle 

72 History of Warren County. 

and Le Boeuf. Fort Machault, however, the French work at the mouth of 
French Creek, having been totally destroyed by its garrison at the time of its 
evacuation, was never rebuilt; but instead, the English in 1760 went about 
forty rods higher up on the Allegheny and built Fort Venango. The long, 
desolating war between England and France finally closed with the signing of 
the treaty of Paris, February 10, 1763, and by its sweeping provisions the 
Canadas and all the vast regions in the West heretofore claimed by the French 
were ceded to England. 

The struggle was over. Forever destroyed was the prospect of a French 
peasantry inhabiting the hills and valleys of Warren county ; of baronial cas- 
tles crowning its vine-clad heights, and of gay French villas and towns over- 
looking the picturesque Allegheny. 



Pontiac's Conspiracy — Th^ Devil's Hole— A Fight at Black Rock — Bradstreet's E.\pedi- 
tion — fciulky Senecas — The Troops Composing Bradstreet's Command — Israel Putnam — The 
Revolution — Four Iroquois Tribes Hostile — The Treaty at Oswego — A Price for American 
Scalps — Brant, the Mohawk — Principal Seneca Chiefs— Wyoming — Cornplanter Conspic- 
uous — His Many Names, etc. — Cherry Valley — Americans Retaliate — Brodhead's Expedi- 
tion — Sullivan's Indian Campaign — Results — Close of the War, and of English Rule. 

ALTHOUGH the French soldiers had disappeared, the western tribes still 
remembered them with affection and were still disposed to wage war upon 
the English. In truth, no sooner were the latter in complete possession of the 
country, than they began by neglect and ill treatment to excite the worst passions 
of the red men. The mutterings of the coming storm, therefore, soon began 
to be heard, and in iVIay, 1763, the great Indian uprising known as " Pontiac's 
Conspiracy " occurred, resulting in the capture of nine out of twelve linglish 
posts, and the relentless massacre of their garrisons. The forts at Venango, 
Le Bceuf, and Presque Isle were among those which fell before the fierce 
onslaught of the savages, while those at Detroit, Pittsburgh, and Niagara alone 
escaped surprise, and each successfully resisted a siege, in which branch of war, 
indeed, the Indians were almost certain to fail as against white men. There is 
no positive evidence, but there is little doubt that the Senecas were involved in 
Pontiac's league, and were active in the attack on Fort Niagara. They had 
been unwilling to fight their brethren of the Long House, under Sir William 
Johnson, but had no scruples about killing the English when left alone, as was 
soon made terribly manifest. 

English Dominion. 73 

In the September following occurred the awful tragedy of the Devil's Hole, 
when a band of Senecas, of whom Honayewus, afterwards celebrated as Far- 
mer's Brother, was one, and Cornplanter probably another, ambushed a train of 
English army-wagons with an escort of soldiers, the whole numbering ninety- 
six men, three and a half miles below Niagara Falls, and massacred every man 
with four exceptions. 

A few weeks later — October 10, 1763 — while six hundred British soldiers 
under Major Wilkins were on their way in boats to reinforce their comrades at 
Detroit, and when just upon the point of passing from the Niagara River into 
Lake Erie, a hundred and si.xty of them, who were half a mile astern of the 
others, were suddenly fired upon by a band of Senecas, ensconced in a thicket 
on the river shore, probably on the site of Black Rock. Though even the 
British estimated the enemy at only sixty, yet so close was their aim that thir- 
teen men were killed and wounded at the first fire. The captain in command 
of the nearest boats immediately ordered fifty men ashore and attacked the 
Indians. The latter fell back a short distance, but rallied, and when the Brit- 
ish pursued them they maintained their ground so well that three more were 
killed on the spot, and twelve others badly wounded, including two commis- 
sioned officers. Meanwhile, under the protection of other soldiers, who formed 
on the beach, the boats made their way into the lake, and the men who had 
taken part in the fight were enabled to re-embark. It does not appear that 
the Indians suffered nearly as heavily as the soldiers. 

This was the last serious attack by the Senecas upon the English. Becom- 
ing at length convinced that the French had really yielded, and that Pontiac's 
scheme had failed as to its main purpose, they sullenly agreed to abandon their 
Gallic friends and be at peace with the English. 

Events in the West, however, where Pontiac still maintained an active but 
unavailing hostility to the British, as well as the massacres previously perpe- 
trated by the Senecas, determined the English commander-in-chief to send a 
force up the lakes able to overcome all opposition. Accordingly, in the sum- 
mer of 1764, General Bradstreet, an able officer, with twelve hundred British 
and Americans, proceeded by water to Fort Niagara, accompanied by the 
indefatigable Sir William Johnson and a strong body of his Mohawk warriors. 
A grand council of friendly Indians was held at the fort, among whom Sir 
William exercised his customary skill, and satisfactory treaties were made with 

But the Senecas, though repeatedly promising attendance in answer to the 
baronet's messages, still held aloof and were said to be meditating a renewal 
of war. At length General Bradstreet ordered their immediate attendance 
under penalty of the destruction of their settlements. This threat had its 
desired effect. They came, ratified the treaty, and thereafter adhered to it 
pretty faithfully, notwithstanding the peremptory manner in which it was 

74 History of Warren County. 

obtained. In the mean time a fort had been erected on the site of Fort Erie, 
the first ever built there. 

In August Bradstreet's army, increased to nearly three thousand men, 
among whom were three hundred Senecas (who seem to have been taken along 
partly as hostages), proceeded westward along the south shore of Lake Erie, 
for the purpose of bringing the Western Indians to terms, a task which was 
successfully accomplished without bloodshed. From the somewhat indefinite 
accounts which have come down to us, it is evident that the journey was made 
in open boats, rigged with sails, with which, when the wind was favorable, 
excellent speed was made. 

This army, like D'Aubrey's, was a somewhat mixed one. There were 
stalwart, red-coated British regulars, who, when they marched, did so as one 
man ; hardy New England provincials, or "minute men," whose dress and 
discipline and military maneuvers were but a poor imitation of the imported 
Britons, yet who had faced the legions of France on many a well-fought field ; 
rude hunters of the border, to whom all discipline was irksome ; faithful 
Indian allies from the Mohawk valley, trained to admiration of the English by 
Sir William Johnson ; and finally the three hundred dark, sullen Senecas, their 
hands red from the massacre of the Devil's Hole, and almost ready to stain 
them again with English blood. 

Of the British and Americans, who then in closest friendship and under 
the same banners passed along the shores of Lake Erie, there were not a few 
who in twelve years more were destined to seek each other's lives on the bat- 
tle-fields of the Revolution. Among them was one whose name was a tower 
of strength to the patriotic dwellers of America, whose voice rallied the falter- 
ing soldiers at Bunker Hill, and whose fame has come down to us surrounded 
by a peculiar halo of adventurous valor. This was Israel Putnam, then a loyal 
soldier of King George, and lieutenant-colonel commanding the Connecticut 

For a while after the successful termination of Bradstreet's expedition there 
was peace, not only between England and France, but between the Indians 
and the colonists. But this quiet condition of affairs was destined to be of 
but brief duration. The Senecas, who it seems were chronic grumblers, 
always in trouble and ever ready for a fight — and a massacre, if they could 
accomplish it — began to make complaints of depredations committed by whites 
on some of their number, who had villages on the head waters of the Susque- 
hanna and Allegheny in Pennsylvania. " Cressap's war," in which the cele- 
brated Logan was an actor, also contributed to render them uneasy, but they 
did not break out into open hostilities. They, like the rest of the Six Nations, 
had by this time learned to place explicit confidence in Sir William Johnson, 
and made all their complaints through him. 

He did his best to redress their grievances, and also sought to have them 

English Dominion. 75 

withdraw their villages from those isolated localities in Pennsylvania to their 
chief seats in New York, so that they would be more completely under his 
jurisdiction and protection. Ere this could be accomplished, however, all 
men's attention was drawn to certain mutterings in the political sky, low at first, 
but growing more and more angry until at length there burst upon the coun- 
try that long and desolating storm of war known as the Revolution. 

As the danger of hostilities increased, the Johnsons, at Johnson's Hall, 
showed themselves more and more clearly on the side of the king. Sir Will- 
iam said little and seemed greatly disturbed by the gathering trouble. There 
is little doubt, however, that had he lived he would have used his power in 
behalf of his royal master. But in 1774 he suddenly died. Much of his 
influence over the Six Nations descended to his son. Sir John Johnson, and his 
nephew, Colonel Guy Johnson ; the latter becoming his successor in the office 
of superintendent of Indian affairs. 

The Revolution began in 1775, and soon after the new superintendent per- 
suaded the Mohawks to move westward with him, and made good his influence 
over all the Six Nations except the Oneidas and Tuscaroras, though it was 
nearly two years from the breaking out of the war before they committed any 
serious hostilities. John Butler, however, established himself at Fort Niagara, 
and organized a regiment of Tories known as Butler's Rangers, and he and 
the Johnsons used all their influence to induce the Indians to attack the Amer- 

The prospect of both scalps and pay was too much for the Senecas long 
to withstand, and in 1777 they, in common with the Cayugas, Onondagas, and 
Mohawks, made a treaty with the British at Oswego, agreeing to serve the 
king throughout the war. Mary Jemison, the "white woman " then living 
among the Senecas on the Genesee, has declared that at that treaty the British 
agents, after giving the Indians numerous presents, " promised a bounty on 
every scalp that should be brought in." 

The question whether a price was actually paid or promised for scalps has 
been widely debated. There is not sufficient evidence to prove that it was 
done, and the probabilities are that it was not. Mary Jemison was usually con- 
sidered truthful, and had good means of knowing what the Indians understood 
on the subject, but the latter were very ready to understand that they would 
be paid for taking scalps. Whether the British paid a bounty for scalps or not, 
the Indians were certainly employed by them to assail the inhabitants with 
constant marauding parties, notwithstanding their well-known and inveterate 
habit of slaughtering and scalping men, women, and children whenever oppor- 
tunity offered. In fact they were good for very little else, their desultory 
methods of warfare making them almost entirely useless in assisting the regu- 
lar operations of an army. 

As formerly the Senecas, though favorable to the French, hesitated about 

76 History of Warren County. 

attacking their brethren of the Long House, or the combined nations of the 
confederacy, so now the Oneidas, who were friendly to the Americans, did not 
go out to battle against the other Iroquois, but remained neutral throughout 
the contest. The great league was weakened but not destroyed. 

From the autumn of 1777 forward, the Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, and 
Mohawks were active in the British interests. Fort Niagara again became, as 
it had been during the French War, the key of all this region, and to it the Iro- 
quois constantly looked for support and guidance. Their raids kept the whole 
frontier for hundreds of miles in a state of terror, and were attended by all the 
horrors of savage warfare. 

The most active and most celebrated of the Iroquois chiefs in the Revolu- 
tion was Joseph Brant, or Thayendenegea, a Mohawk who had received a mod- 
erate English education under the patronage of Sir William Johnson. He was 
most frequently intrusted with the command of detached parties by the British 
officers, but it does not appear that he had authority over all the tribes, and it 
is almost certain that the haughty Senecas, the most powerful tribe of the con- 
federacy, to whom, indeed, by ancient custom belonged the right of choosing 
the principal war-chiefs of the league, would not have submitted and did not 
submit to the control of a Mohawk. 

Of the Senecas who became most conspicuous during this period, in carry- 
ing death and destruction to many American border settlements, were the 
chiefs " Farmer's Brother," "Cornplanter," and "Governor Blacksnake." The 
first two, it will be remembered, are credited with the massacre of over ninety 
British soldiers at the Devil's Hole, and, it has been stated, were half brothers. 
These three chiefs seem to have been the principal leaders of the Seneca mur- 
derers during the struggle for American independence, but which one of them 
was the ranking chieftain has not been learned. It is probable, however, that 
they acted independently to a certain extent, and that each received his orders 
directly from the British officers when ready to start forth against the frontiers 
of New York and Pennsylvania. 

In the summer of 1778 a force of savages and sour-faced Tories to the 
number of about twelve hundred — under the leadership of Colonel John Butler, 
the cruel and inhuman wretch before mentioned — descending from Fort Niag- 
ara and the Seneca country, appeared in the Wyoming valley, or the present 
county of Luzerne, Pa., on the 2d of July. The strong men of the valley were 
serving in Washington's army, and the only defenders were old men, beardless 
boys, and resolute women. These old men and boys, to the number of about 
four hundred, under Colonel Zebulon Butler, a brave soldier who had won dis- 
tinction in the old French War, and who happened to be present, moved reso- 
lutely out to meet the invaders. Overborne by numbers, the inhabitants were 
beaten and put to the sword, the few who escaped retreating to Forty Fort, 
whither the helpless, up and down the valley, had sought safety. Here humane 

English Dominion. tj 

terms of surrender were agreed to, and the families returned to their homes, 
supposing all danger to be past. But the savages had tasted blood, and per- 
haps captured liquor, and were little mindful of capitulations. The night of 
the 5th was given to indiscriminate massacre, burning, and pillage. The cries 
of the wounded and helpless rang out upon the night air, and the heavens all 
along the valley were lighted up with the flames of burning cottages; "and 
when the moon arose, the surviving, terrified inhabitants were fleeing to the 
Wilkesbarre Mountains and the dark morasses of the Pocono Mountain beyond." 
Most of these were emigrants from Connecticut, and they made their way 
homeward as fast as their feet would carry them, many of them crossing the 
Hudson at Poughkeepsie, where they told their tales of woe. 

Another writer, intending to speak in extenuation of the conduct of the 
Tories and Indians, says "no quarter was given during the conflict; and after 
the Americans were routed the Tories and Senecas pursued and killed all they 
could ;" but that " those who reached the fort and afterward surrendered were 
not harmed, nor were any of the non-combatants. The whole valley, how- 
ever, was devastated and the houses burned " We leave it to the impartial 
reader to decide whether this presentation adds to or detracts from the unen- 
viable reputation of the Tories and Senecas. 

W. L. Stone, in his " Life of Brant," says that Brant, the Mohawk, was not 
present at Wyoming, and that the leader of the Senecas, who formed the main 
body of the Indian force on that ever memorable occasion, was Gui-eiig-wak- 
toh. Now, as we understand it. Stone was not at all familiar with the multi- 
plicity of names borne by " the Cornplanter " through life, and, since we find 
the Indian name of the latter variously written by white men who knew him, 
as Guiengwako, Gientwadoh, Kientwoughko, Gyantwado, Gyantawanka, Cycn- 
tookee, Cyentwokee, Gyantwache, Kiendtwoke, Gyantwachia, Gientwakia, and 
Gyantwahia, we strongly incline to the belief that the " Guiengwahtoh " men- 
tioned by Brant and Stone was none other than the then blood-stained savage, 
"Captain John O'Bail," or "the Cornplanter." 

Equally strange and contradictory are the statements respecting Corn- 
planter's parentage, and in spelling another of his many names. One says 
that his father was a Frenchman, another that he was an Irishman, while a 
third gravely asserts that the Cornplanter and Red Jacket were brothers. 
Then, too, we find that his reputed father's name has been written and printed 
Obeal, O'Bail, O'Bayle, Abeil, Obeel, Abeel, Abeal, and O'Bale. The reader 
can form his own opinion regarding the chief's progenitor, but we will venture 
to assert that he (Cornplanter) and Red Jacket were not brothers. 

Returning to the harrowing scenes of the Revolution, we find that at 
Cherry Valley, N. Y., the same year (1778) the blood-thirsty Senecas were 
present in force, together with a body of Mohawks under Brant, and of Tories 
under Captain Walter Butler, son of Colonel John Butler, and there then was 

78 History of Warren County. 

an undoubted massacre. Nearly thirty women and children were killed, 
besides many men surprised helpless in their homes. 

These events and similar ones on a smaller scale induced Congress and 
General Washington, in the spring of 1779, to set on foot movements of strong 
bodies of Continental troops into the Indian country by way of retaliation. 
These expeditions against the hostile tribes of the Six Nations were com- 
manded, respectively, by General Sullivan and Colonel Brodhead. The lat- 
ter's route led him through the present county of Warren, and his report to 
the commander-in-chief of the Continental armies, made at the conclusion of 
the campaign, was as follows : 
" To His Excellency Gen. Washington. 

"Pittsburg, Sep'r i6th, 1779. 

" Dear General : I returned from the expedition against the Seneca and 
Muncy nations the 14th inst.and now do myself the honor to inform you how 
far I have succeeded in prosecuting it. 

" I left this place the i ith of last month with six hundred & five Rank & 
File, including Militia & Volunteers, & one Month's provision which except 
the live Cattle was transported by water under the escort of one hundred men 
to a place called Mahoning, about 15 Miles above Fort Armstrong,^ where 
after four days detention by excessive Rains & the straying of some of the 
Cattle, the stores were loaded on Pack Horses, and the troops proceeded on 
the march for Canawago ^ on the path leading to Cuscushing ; at ten miles on 
this side the town, one of the advance guards consisting of fifteen White men, 
including the spies & Eight Delaware Indians, under the command of Lieut. 
Hardin of the 8th Penn'a Reg't, whom I have before recommended to your 
Excellency for his great bravery & skill as a partisan, discovered between 
thirty and Forty warriors coming down the Allegheny River in seven Canoes. 
These warriors having likewise discovered some of the Troops, immediately 
landed, stript off their shirts and prepared for action, and the advanced Guard 
immediately began the attack. All the troops except one column and Flank- 
ers being in the narrows between the River and high hill were immediately 
prepared to receive the enemy, which being done I went forward to discover 
the ICnemy, and saw six of them retreating over the River without arms, at the 
same time the rest ran away leaving their Canoes, Blankets, Shirts, provisions 
and eight Guns, besides five dead and by the signs of Blood, several went off 
wounded ; only two of my men and one of the Delaware Indians (Nanouland) 
were wounded and so slightly that they are already recovered & fit for action. 
The next morning the Troops proceeded to Buchloons,^ where I ordered a 

' Fort Armstrong stood on llie site of the present town of Kittanning. It had been built and garri- 
soned, by orders of Colonel lirodliead, a few weeks prior lo the beginning of this expedition. 

2 Now written Conewango. The Indian village of " Canawago " stood a mile or so below the site 
of the town of Warren. 

" An Indian town, at the junction of Urokenstraw Creek and the .'\llegheny River. 

English Dominion. 79 

small Breastwork to be thrown up of felled Timber and fascines, a Capt. and 
forty men were left to secure our Baggage and Stores, and the Troops imme- 
diately proceeded to Canawago, which I found had been deserted about eight- 
een months past. 

" Here the Troops seemed much mortified because we had no person to 
serve as a Guide to the upper Towns, but I ordered them to proceed on a path 
which appeared to have been travelled on by the Enemy some time past, and 
we continued marching on it about 20 Miles before any discoveries were made 
except of a few tracks of their spies. But immediately after ascending a high 
hill we discovered the Allegheny River & a number of Corn Fields, and de- 
scending several towns ^ which the Enemy had deserted on the approach of 
the Troops. Some of them fled just before the advanced Guards reached the 
Towns and left several packs of Deer skins. At the upper Seneca Towns we 
found a painted image or War post, clothed in Dog skin, and John Montour 
told me this town was called Yoghroonwago ; besides this we found seven 
other Towns, consisting in the whole of one hundred and thirty Houses, some 
of which were large enough for the accommodation of three or four Indian 
families. The Troops remained on the ground three whole days destroying 
the Towns and Corn Fields. I never saw finer Corn altho' it was planted 
much thicker than is common with our Farmers. The quantity of Corn and 
other vegetables destroyed at the several Towns, from the best accounts I can 
collect from the officers employed to destroy it, must certainly exceed five 
hundred acres which is the lowest estimate, and the plunder taken is estimated 
at 30 m. Dollars ; I have directed a sale to be made of it for the Troops. On 
my return I preferred the Venango Road, the old towns of Canawago, Buch- 
loons & Mahusquechikoken, about 20 Miles above Venango on French Creek, 
consisting of 35 large houses were likewise burnt. The greatest part of the 
Indian houses were larger than common, and built of square & round logs and 
frame work. From the great quantity of Corn in new Ground & the'number 
of new houses Built and Building it appears that the whole Seneca & Muncy 
nations intended to collect to this settlement which extends about eight Miles 
on the Allegheny River, between one hundred and seventy and two hundred 
miles from hence. The River at the upper Towns is little if any larger than 
Kiskamanitis Creek. It is remarkable that neither man or Beast has fallen 
into the Enemies hands on this expedition, & I have a happy presage that the 
counties of Westmoreland, Bedford & Northumberland, if not the whole west- 
ern Frontiers will experience the good effect of it. 

"Too much praise cannot be given to both officers and soldiers of every 
Corps during the whole expedition, their perseverance and zeal during the 
whole march thro' a Country too inaccessible to be described can scarcely be 

1 Cornplanter's towns, the lower one of which was located where the descendants of that chief and 
his followers still reside. 

8o History of Warren County. 

equalled in history. Notwithstanding many of them returned barefooted ' and 
naked they disdained to complain, and to my great mortification I have neither 
Shoes, Shirts, Blankets, Hats, Stockings nor leggins to relieve their necessities. 

" On my return here I found the Chiefs of the Delawares, the principal 
Chief of the Hurons [Wyandots] and now the king of the Maquichee tribe of 
the Shavvnese, is likewise come to treat with me ; about 30 Delaware warriors 
are here likewise ready to go to war, but I have nothing to encourage them 
with, and without the means of paying them I cannot send them out. The 
Troops here have at least nine months pay due them and there is neither 
money nor Pay master to discharge the arrearages. 

" A majority of my Reg't are now discharged and the term of the two Rang- 
ing Companies of Westmoreland expired, so that I shall be weak in Troops 
to prosecute an expedition which by your permission I should be happy to 
make against Detroit, taking the Shawanese in my way. I should be happy 
to have your permission to make occasional excursions against any of the In- 
dian nations who may hereafter prove inimical to us, as sometimes a favorable 
opportunity may be lost before I can be favored with your particular orders. 
Likewise to know your pleasure in regard to the Senecas and Muncies should 
they in their great distress sue for peace. I have before taken the liberty to 
give you my opinion respecting them, and the pairings of scalps and the hair 
of our Countrymen found at every Warrior's camp on the path we marched are 
new inducements for Revenge. 

"I am informed that Col. Clark who took Post St. Vincent, is making peace 
and war with the natives. I am not instructed how far your Excellency has 
authorized him to do so and apprehend the worst consequences to this frontier 
should either Col. Clark or myself enter into a treaty of peace with one of the 
Indian nations and the others break it, and by my instructions I am confined to 
the immediate command of the Troops here, I can take no steps to prevent 
such a probable [event?] but humbly entreat you to do it. 

"The Wyandotts and the Maquichee tribe of the Shawanese promise very 
fair, and I have promised them peace, provided they take as many prisoners 
and scalps from the Enemy as they have done from us and on every occasion 
join us against the enemies of America, which they have engaged to do. 

"A few Indian Goods, Paint and trinkets at this juncture would enable me 
to engage the Delawares to harrass the enemy frequently. 

"The bearer, Capt. Mclntire, has some private as well as public Business 
to transact at Philada. I have therefore ordered him to proceed to Head Quar- 
ters and he will have the honor to wait on you with this letter. 

"I have the honor to be with the most perfect regard and esteem, Your 
Excellency's Most Obed't H'ble Serv't, D. Brodhe.\d." 

1 Said Colonel Biodliead in describing his lack of supplies, clotliing, etc., a few d.iys before Uiis 
movement began : " My officers begin to be very ragged, and some have worn out and lost their blank- 
ets, and I have not a single stocking for my men." 

English Dominion. 8i 

In a subsequent letter, addressed to the " Hon'ble Major Gen'l Sullivan," 
Colonel Brodhead said that "Yahrungwago is about forty miles on this side 
[meaning to the southward] Jenesseo, where I should have gone had I not 
been disappointed in getting a sufficient number of shoes for my men." This 
would indicate that Brodhead penetrated as far northward as the southern cen- 
tral part of Cattaraugus county, New York State, or the vicinity now known as 
the town of Salamanca. It will also be noticed in the foregoing letter from 
Colonel Brodhead to General Washington, that the Colonel makes the state- 
ment, " it is remarkable that neither man or Beast has fallen into the Enemies 
hands on this expedition." Now, viewed ' from another stand-point, these 
results were not at all remarkable. There were no Seneca warriors at home 
to oppose him. His movement into their country was wholly unexpected. 
Hence the chief portion of the warlike Senecas, under the leadership of " Corn- 
planter," "Farmer's Brother," and "Governor Blacksnake," had gone forward 
to join others of the Six Nations in opposing General Sullivan. 

Having marched up the Susquehanna to Tioga Point, where he was joined 
by a brigade under General James Clinton (father of De Witt Clinton), General 
Sullivan, early in August, 1779, with a total force of some four thousand 
men, moved up the Chemung to a point a few miles below the site of Elmira. 
There Colonel John Butler, with a small body of Tories and Indian allies, to 
the number of about fifteen hundred men, had thrown up intrenchments and a 
battle was fought. Speedily defeated with considerable loss, Butler hastily 
retired and made no further opposition. 

Sullivan advanced and destroyed all the Seneca villages on the Genesee 
and about Geneva, burning wigwams and log cabins, cutting down orchards, 
cutting up green corn, and utterly devastating the country. The Senecas fled 
in great dismay to the British stronghold known as Fort Niagara. The On- 
ondaga village had in the mean time been destroyed by another force, but it is 
evident that the Senecas were the ones who were chiefly feared and against 
whom the vengeance of the Americans was chiefly directed. After thoroughly 
laying waste their country the Americans under Sullivan returned to the East. 

Sullivan's and Brodhead's expeditions substantially destroyed the league 
which bound the Six Nations together. Its form remained, but it had lost its 
binding power. The Oneidas and Tuscaroras were encouraged to increase 
their separation from the other confederates. Those tribes whose possessions 
had been destroyed were thrown into more complete subservience to the Brit- 
ish power, thereby weakening their intertribal relations, and the spirits of the 
once haughty Senecas, the most powerful and warlike of them all, were much 
broken by the double dose of punishment they had received. 

It was a more serious matter than had been the destruction of their villages 
in earlier times, as they had adopted a more permanent mode of existence. 
They had learned to depend more on agriculture and less on the chase, and 

History of Warren County. 

possessed not only cornfields, but gardens, orchards, and sometimes comfort- 
able houses. In fact they had adopted many of the customs of civilized life, 
thongh without relinquishing their primitive pleasures, such as tomahawking 
prisoners and scalping the dead. 

They fled en masse to Fort Niagara, and during the winter of 1 779-80, 
which was of extraordinary severity, were scantily sustained by rations which 
the British authorities with difficulty obtained. As spring approached, the En- 
glish made earnest efforts to reduce the expense by persuading the Indians to 
make new settlements and plant crops. The red men, however, were naturally 
anxious to keep as far as practicable from their dreaded foes (the " Long 
Knives," as they sometimes termed the American soldiery, especially the Vir- 
ginians) who had inflicted such heavy punishment the year before, and were 
unwilling to risk their families again at their ancient seats. 

At this time a considerable body of the Senecas, with a few Cayugas and 
Onondagas, moved up from Niagara and established themselves near Buffalo 
Creek, about four miles above its mouth. The same spring another band 
located themselves at the mouth of the Cattaraugus. The Senecas who set- 
tled on Buffalo Creek were under the leadership of Sayengaraghta, an aged 
but influential chief, sometimes called Old King, and said to have been during 
his life the head sachem of the Seneca nation. 

Meanwhile the war was continued with varying fortunes. The Johnsons, 
Colonel Butler, Brant, and prominent Tories kept the Indians as busy as possi- 
ble, marauding in small parties upon the frontiers of New York and Pennsylva- 
nia; but they had been so thoroughly broken up by Sullivan and Brodhead 
that they were unable to produce such devastation as marked their pathway 
at Wyoming and Cherry Valley. They had learned to fear the Americans, to 
respect their strength, and to doubt the vaunted invincibility of British armies. 
Burgoyne had already succumbed to the inevitable. Cornwallis surrendered 
in October, 1781, and on the i ith of April, 1783, the treaty of peace having 
been signed and the independence of the United States of America acknowl- 
edged by Great Britain, Congress sent forth the joyful proclamation ordering 
the cessation of hostilities. Tiius the unquestioned English authority over the 
territory of which Warren county forms a part, lasted only a little more than 
twenty years. 

From 1783 to 1790. 83 


FROM 1783 TO 1790. 

Forlorn Condition of the Senecas at the Close of the Revolutionary War — Willing to Cede 
the Remainder of their Lands in Pennsylvania — Commissioners Appointed to Treat with Them 
— A Sum Appropriated to Purchase Indian Goods — Quantity and Kind of Goods with which 
Purchase was Made — Treaty of Fort Stanwix — Boundaries of the Tract Acquired by Penn- 
sylvania— Cornplanter the Friend of the Whites — Subsequent Indignation of His Tribe — 
General Irvine Explores the New Purchase — Extracts from His Report — Running the Bound- 
ary Line Between New York and Pennsylvania — Interesting Details — Early Names of War- 
ren County Streams — Indian Villages — Pertinent Suggestions — A Tract of Land Granted to 
Cornplanter — Survey of Lands of the Mouth of the Conewango — An Account of the First 
Official Exploration of the Head Waters of the Allegheny. 

WITH the return of peace between the English and Americans, many of 
the Senecas returned to their old haunts on the upper waters of the 
Allegheny and Susquehanna. But they were destitute and dejected. The sites 
of their once thriving villages, orchards and cornfields, were overgrown with 
rank weeds and briers. They were without the supplies which years of inter- 
course and trading with the French and English had taught them to consider 
indispensable, and it was soon ascertained that they, in conjunction with others 
of the Six Nations, were willing to cede the remainder of their lands in Penn- 
sylvania for quantities of gunpowder, lead, rum, blankets, beads, flannels, etc., 
or such goods as invariably delighted the sons and daughters of the forest. 

Thereupon, permission having first been obtained from Congress allowing 
the authorities of Pennsylvania to treat for the cession of Indian lands lying 
within the boundaries of the State, the Supreme Executive Council, on the 
25th of September, 1783, appointed Samuel J. Atlee, William Maclay and 
Francis Johnston as commissioners for the State to hold treaties with the 
Indians and to purchase the lands above mentioned. However, no further 
action seems to have been taken until August 28, 1784, when it was ordered 
by Council that a warrant be issued on the State treasurer in favor of the com- 
missioners for the sum of ;^3,375, specie, with which to "negotiate a purchase 
from the Indians of the unpurchased territory in the State." In addition the 
commissioners were allowed £1,000, to defray expenses while making a pur- 
chase of goods with which to pay the Indians, of travel, etc. They were also 
authorized to employ interpreters, messengers, and such other persons as might 
be found useful in gaining the object sought, and such expenses were to be an 
extra claim against the State. Captain Joseph Stiles, commissary of military 
stores, was ordered to deliver to them five hundred pounds of gunpowder, three 
horsemen's tents and one soldier's tent, to be used while accomplishing their 
undertaking, and lastly they were directed by Council to procure immediately 


History of Warren County. 

the following described articles, being duly cautioned, however, not to expend 
more in their purchase of goods than the amount placed at their disposal — 


" 2oJ casks of gunpowder. 

1 tonn of barr lead. 

2 groce of thimbles. 
2 do of jews harps. 
50 dozen white ruffled shirts. 
5 do laced hats. 
50 do knives. 
10 do hatchets. 
10 do pipe tomahawks. 
12 do looking glasses. 
2 M. awl blades. 
5 M. needles. 
I C. Vermillion. 
50 ritles. 

60 M. wampum, 30 white. 30 black. 
12 dozen silver arm bands. 
12 do do wrist bands. 
20 do pipes, Moravian. 
20 do callicoe shirts. 

1 hogshead of tobacco. 
500 pounds of brass kettles, in nests, com- 

100 pounds of small white beads. 

2 groce of morrice bells. 
5 dozen pieces of yellow, green, and purple 


Thus prepared and equipped the commissioners soon after proceeded from 
Philadelphia to the site of the present town of Rome, N. Y., and there, on the 
23d day of October, 1784, nearly all of the distinguished chieftains of the Si.K 
Nations being assembled, completed the negotiations known in American his- 
tory as the treaty of Fort Stanwix. 

The boundaries of the lands then ceded to Pennsylvania were described as 
follows: "Beginning at the South side of the river Ohio, where the western 
Boundary of the State of Pennsylvania crosses the said River near Shingas Old 
Town at the mouth of Beaver Creek, and thence by a due north line to the 
End of the forty-second, and beginning of the forty-third degrees of North 
Latitude, thence by a due East line separating the forty-second and forty-third 
degrees of North Latitude, to the East side of the East branch of the River 
Susquehanna, thence by the Bounds of the late purchase made at Fort Stan- 
wix the fifth day of November anno Domini one thousand Seven hundred and 
Sixty-Eight as follows, down the said East Branch of Susquehanna on the East 
side thereof, till it comes opposite to the mouth of a creek called by the In- 
dians Owandae and across the River, and up the said creek on the south side 
tlicreof and along the range of Hills called Burnet's Hills by the English and 

5 pieces embossed flannels. 
60 dozen broaches. 

2 do gorgets. 
12 do nose bobs. 
12 do hair pipes. 
12 do rings. 

6 pieces scarlet broad cloth, 
loo pounds of brass wire. 
20 dozen silk handkerchiefs. 

2 do pieces of callicoe. 
4 do saddles & bridles. 
1000 flints, or i keg. 

I groce sheers. 

I do scissars. 

I do horn combs. 

I do ivory combs. 

50 pounds of thread, sorted. 

12 groce scarlet and star gartering. 

12 do green and yellow bed lace. 

3 hogsheads of rum. 

30 pieces best London Stroud. 
do French match coats, 
do blankets. 

do do one half thicks, purple and 
white nap." 

From 1783 to 1790. 85 

by the Indians , on the north side of them to the head of a creek which 

runs into the West Branch of the Susquehanna which creek is by the Indians 
called Tyadaghtan, but by the Pennsylvanians, Pine Creek, and down the said 
creek on the south side thereof, to the said West Branch of Susquehanna, then 
Crossing the said River, and running up the same, on the south side thereof 
the several courses thereof, to the Forks of the same River which lie nearest to 
a place on the River Ohio, called Kittanning, and from the Forks by a straight 
line to Kittanning aforesaid, and then down the said River Ohio by the several 
Courses thereof, to where the Western Bounds of the said State of Pennsyl- 
vania crosses the same River at the place of beginning." Or, in other words, 
the vast region now embraced by the counties of Potter, McKean, Warren, 
Crawford, Mercer, Lawrence, Butler, Venango, Forest, Clarion, JelTerson, Elk, 
and Cameron, besides, in part, by Bradford, Tioga, Lycoming, Clinton, Center, 
Clearfield, Indiana, Armstrong, Allegheny, Beaver, and Erie counties. 

At Fort Stanwix the Seneca chieftain of many names — "Captain John 
O'Bail," " Gyantwakee " or the " Cornplanter," was the principal speaker on 
behalf of the Senecas, though "Old King" was then recognized as the chief 
sachem of the nation. The " Cornplanter," half white by blood, but thoroughly 
Indian by nature, had been one of the bravest and most successful chiefs of the 
Senecas during the war. With the rank of captain in the motley forces com- 
posed of British regulars, Tories and Indians, he had led his band of murderers 
into many frontier settlements, sparing the lives of but few of those who were 
so unfortunate as to fall into his hands; but now he was for peace, a lasting 
peace, and did his utmost, probably more than any other chieftain to bring 
about this cession of lands to Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvanians of his day 
appreciated his efforts, at Fort Stanwix, at Fort Mcintosh, and at Presque Isle ; 
but with many of his own people his reputation was for a long time clouded 
because of his assent to the treaty of Fort Stanwi.x. They asserted in substance 
that he had been bribed by the white men, who coveted their lands ; and after 
the trinkets and trumpery they had received in payment were worn out or lost, 
when with no homes or lands of their own, they realized that their condition was 
much worse than ever before, they were loud and bitter in their denunciations 
of him. Indeed, that they were not without something to build their suspi- 
cions upon the following will show : 

" We the subscribers. Commissioners appointed to purchase of the Indians 
the late unpurchased Territory within the acknowledged limits of Pennsylvania 
do promise, to deliver as soon as conveniently may be, to Cap. Aaron Hill of 
the Mohawk Tribe, and to Captain O'Bale of the Seneca Tribe two good rifles 
of neat workmanship, one for each of them, the rifles to be sent to the new 
store near Tioga, if it should not be convenient for the said Captain Aaron Hill 
or Captain O'Bale to come themselves the Rifles to be delivered to the Bearer 
of this obligation. These Rifles civen to them in consideration of their serv- 

86 History of Warren County. 

ices at the late purchase. Witness our hands this 25th day of October, 1784." 
This paper was signed by Atlce, Maclay, and Johnston, and was witnessed by 
G. Evans and James Dean. 

The goods received by the Indians in payment for their lands ceded in 
1784 were delivered at the junction of the East Branch of the Susquehanna 
and Chemung Rivers, a place then known as "Tioga Point," but now desig- 
nated as Athens, Pa. The privilege of occupying, hunting and fishing upon 
the unimproved lands ceded was reserved by the Indians. From Fort Stan- 
wix the Pennsylvania commissioners proceeded on horseback to the Muskin- 
gum country, or Fort Mcintosh, where another treaty was concluded with the 
Wyandots and Delawares in January, 1785. Thence in the same manner the 
commissioners journeyed to Fort Pitt, and on eastward to Philadelphia. 

Soon after the Indian title to lands in the northwestern portion of the State 
had been extinguished, it was determined by the Supreme Executive Council 
to set aside and donate "to the late troops of the Pennsylvania Line, of the 
American Army," a large tract of territory to be located in the western part of 
the new purchase. With this object in view surveyors and explorers were sent 
forward in the spring and summer of 1785 to make personal observations of 
regions as yet but little known. One of the most active and intelligent of 
those delegated with authority to view the country was General William Irvine, 
a gentleman who had won distinction during the Revolutionary struggle as an 
officer of the Pennsylvania line. A soldier himself, it was his wish that those 
who had periled their lives in the fight for independence should have as good 
land as the new purchase afforded. During his journeyings he penetrated to 
the central part of the present county of Warren. His descriptions of this 
and adjacent regions as they appeared to him then, and his ideas of what were 
good or inferior lands, make interesting reading at this time, hence we append 
a considerable portion of his report. 

"In exploring the donation land, I began on the Line run by Mr. McLane 
between that and the tracts appropriated for redeeming depreciating certificates 
which he ascertained by a due North Line to be near thirty miles from Fort Pitt, 
and by the Common computation along the path leading from Fort Pitt to Ve- 
nango on the mouth of French Creek, which some affirm was actually measured 
by the French when they possessed the country, I found it forty miles. East of 
this part and along Mr. McLane's Line for five or six miles, the land is pretty 
level, well watered with small springs, and of tolerable quality, but from thence 
to the Allegheny River which is about Twenty-five miles due East, there is no 
land worth mentioning fit for cultivation; as far as French Creek all between 
the Venango Path and the Allegheny there is very little land fit for cultivation, 
as it is a continued chain of high barren mountains except small breaches for 
Creeks and Rivulets to disembogue themselves into the River. These have 
very small bottoms. 

From 1783 to 1790. 87 

" As I proceeded along the path leading to French Creek about five miles 
to a branch of Beaver or rather in this place called Canaghqunese [now Con- 
noquenessing], I found the Land of a mixed quality, some very strong and 
broken with large quantities of fallen Chestnut interspersed with strips covered 
with Hickory, lofty oak, and under Wood or Brush, Dogwood, Hazel, &; along 
the Creek very fine rich and extensive bottoms in general fit for meadows; 
from hence to another branch of said Creek called Flat Rock Creek, about ten 
miles distant, the land is generally thin, stony and broken, loaded, however, 
with Chestnut Timber, the greatest part of which lies flat on the earth, which 
renders it difficult travelling — at the usual crossing place on the last named 
Creek, there is a beautiful fall over a Rock ten or twelve feet high, at the ford- 
ing immediately above the fall, the bottom is one entire Rock, except some 
perforations which are capacious enough to receive a horses foot and leg — it is 
here about forty yards wide and runs extremely rapid. From Flat Rock to 
Sandy Creek by Hutchins & Scull called, Lycomie, is about twenty-four miles; 
•on the first twelve there are a considerable quantity of tolerable level lands 
tho' much broken with large stony flats, on which grows heavy burthens of 
Oak, Beech, and Maple, particularly seven or eight miles from the Creek there 
is a plain or Savannah three or four miles long, and at least two wide, without 
anything to obstruct the prospect, except here and there a small grove of lofty 
Oaks or Sugar Tree, on the skirts the ground rises gradually to a moderate 
height from which many fine springs descend, which water this fine Tract 
abundantly — along these Rivulets small but fine spots of meadow may be 
made, from hence the remaining twelve miles to Sandy Creek is a ridge or 
mountain, which divides the waters of the Allegheny, the Beaver and Ohio, 
and is from East to West, at least three times as long as it is Broad — on the 
whole of this there is little fit for cultivation, yet some of it is well calculated 
for raising stock. But a person must be possessed of very large Tracts to enable 
him to do even this to purpose. 

" From Sandy to French Creek is about seven or eight miles from the 
mouth, but it soon Forks into many small runs, and is but a few miles from the 
mouth to the source — there are two or three small bottoms only on this Creek — 
to French Creek is one entire hill, no part of which is by any means fit for cul- 

" On the lower side, at the mouth of French Creek, where the Fort called 
Venango formerly stood, there is three or four hundred acres of what is com- 
monly called upland or dry bottom, very good land. On the North East 
side, about one mile from the mouth, another good bottom begins of four or 
five hundred acres, and on the summits of the hills on the same side, tho' high, 
there is a few hundred acres of land fit for cultivation — this is all in this neigh- 
borhood nearer than the first fork of the Creek ; which is about eight miles 
distant. On the Road leading from French to Oil Creek, within about three 

History of Warren County. 

miles and a half of Venango, there is a Bottom of fine land on the bank of 
tlie Allegheny, containing four or five hundred acres, there is little beside to 
Oil Creek fit for cultivation. 

"French Creek is 150 yards wide. From French to Oil Creek is about 
eight miles — this is not laid down in any map, notwithstanding it is a large 
stream not less than eighty, or perhaps a hundred yards wide at the mouth, a 
considerable depth, both of which it retains to the first fork, which is at least 
twenty miles up, and I am certain is as capable of rafting timber or navigating 
large boats as French Creek in the same seasons this high. On the northeast 
or upper side of this creek, at the mouth, is four or five hundred acres of good 
bottom, and about a mile up there is another small bottom on the southwest 
side, which is all the good land to the first fork. 

"Oil Creek has taken its name from an oil or bituminous matter found float- 
ing on the surface. Many cures are attributed to this oil by the natives, and 
lately by some whites, particularly rheumatic pains and old ulcers; it has hith- 
erto been taken for granted that the water of the creek was impregnated with 
it, as it was found in so many places, but I have found this to be an error, as I 
examined it carefully and found it issuing out of two places only, these two are 
about four hundred yards distant from [each] other, and on opposite sides of 
the creek. It rises in the bed of the creek at very low water, in a dry season 
I am told it is found without any mixture of water, and is pure oil; it rises, 
when the creek is high, from the bottom in small globules, when these reach 
the surface they break and expand to a surprising extent, and the flake varies 
in color as it expands; at first it appears yellow and purple only, but as the 
rays of the sun reach it in more directions, the colors appear to multiply into a 
greater number than can at once be comprehended. 

"From Oil Creek to Cuskakushing, an old Indian town, is about seventeen 
miles — the whole of this is barren, high mountains, not fit for cultivation; the 
mountain presses so close on the river that it is almost impassable, and by no 
means practicable when the river is high, then travelers either on foot or horse- 
back are obliged to ascend the mountain and proceed along the summit. 

"At Cuskushing there is a narrow bottom about two miles long, good land, 
and a very fine island fifty or si.xty acres, where the Indians formerly planted 
corn. From Cuskushing to another old Indian town, also on the bank of the 
river, is about six miles; this place is called Canenacai, or Hickory Bottom; 
here is a few hundred acres of good land and some small islands, from hence to 
a place named by the natives the Burying Ground, from a tradition they have 
that some extraordinary man was buried there many hundred years ago, is 
about thirteen miles; most of this way is also a barren and very high mount- 
ain, and you have to travel the greatest part of the way in the bed of the river. 
To Brokcnstraw Creek, or Bockaloons, from the last named place is about four- 
teen miles, here the hills are not so high or barren, and there are sundry good 

From 1783 to 1790. 

bottoms along the river. About half way there is a hill called by the Indians, 
Paint Hill, where they find very good red oker. Brokenstraw is thirty yards 
wide, there is a fine situation and good bottom near the mouth on both sides, 
but a little way up the creek large hills covered with pine make their appear- 
ance. From Brokenstraw to Conewagoo is eight or nine miles — here is a nar- 
row bottom, interspersed with good dry land and meadow ground all the way, 
and there is a remarkable fine tract at the mouth of Conewagoo, [Conewango,] 
of a thousand or perhaps more acres, from the whole of which you command 
a view up and down the main branch of Allegheny, and also up Conewagoo a 
considerable distance. Conewagoo is one hundred and fifty yards wide, and 
is navigable for large boats up to the head of Jadaque Lake, which is upwards of 
fifty miles from its junction with the east branch of the River. The head of 
Jadaque Lake is said to be only twelve miles from Lake Erie, where it is said 
the P'rench formerly had a Fort, and a good Wagon Road from it to the Lake. 
Conewagoo forks about thirty miles from the mouth of the East Branch, is lost 
in a morass where the Indians frequently carried their canoes across into a 
large creek called the Cateraque, which empties into the lake forty or fifty miles 
above Niagara. 

"This account of the Branches of Conewagoo I had from my Guide, an In- 
dian Chief of the Senecas, a native of the place, and an intelligent white man, 
who traversed all this country repeatedly. I have every reason to believe the 
facts are so — tho' I do not know them actually to be so, as I went only a small 
distance up this creek, being informed there is no land fit for cultivation to the 
first fork or to the lower end of Jadaque Lake, which begins seven miles up 
the West Branch, except what has already been mentioned at the mouth of the 
creek, the appearance of the country, in a view taken from the summit of one 
of the high hills, fully justified this Report, as nothing can be seen but one 
large chain of mountains towering above another, here, perhaps, it may not be 
amiss to insert the supposed distances in a collected view — and First from 

" Fort Pitt to McLanes .40 Miles. 

To fourth branch ot Canaghqunese 5 " 

" Rocky, or Flat Rock Creek 10 " 

" Sandy Creek 24 " 

" French Creek 8 " 

" Oil Creek 8 " 

" Cuskakushing- 17 " 

" Cananacai 6 '• 

" The Burying Ground 13 " 

" Brokenstraw 14 '' 

" Conewagoo 9 '' 

Deduct from Fort Pitt to McLanes' line between the depreciation and 

donation tracts 40 " 

Leaves the donation land to be 114 Miles Long. 

"Wm. Irvine, agent." 

90 History of Warren County. 

During the same year (1785) part of the Indian purchase of 1784 was added 
to Westmoreland county, for judicial and other purposes, including portions of 
the present county of Warren, and about two years later the Supreme Execu- 
tive Council, of which Benjamin Franklin was president, granted to one "James 
Chambers, Esquire," late a colonel in the Revolutianary army, five hundred 
acres of land, then described as "in the County of Westmoreland," but now 
embraced by Spring Creek township in the county of Warren. This deed or 
grant was signed by Franklin August 17, 1787, and is one of the oldest papers 
of record relating to Warren county. 

In the summer of 1787, Andrew Ellicott and Andrew Porter commissioners 
for the State of Pennsylvania, and Abraham Hardenburg and William Morris, 
commissioners for the State of New York, ran out and marked the boundary 
line between the two States from the ninetieth mile stone west from the Dela- 
ware River, on the parallel of forty-two degrees north latitude, westward to 
a meridian line drawn from the southwestern corner of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania. On the 29th of August of that year from their "observatory" on the 
west side of the Conewango, the Pennsylvania commissioners reported to the 
Supreme Executive Council as follows: 

"Gentlemen: — We now take the earliest opportunity we have had of 
acquainting you with the progress we have made in the business which you 
have intrusted to us. We arrived at the Cawwanishee Flats on the 1 1 th day 
of June, where the 90th mile-stone was set up last season. The Susquehan- 
nah was remarkably low, which prevented our Boats making the necessary 
expedition. From the 90th mile-stone we sent our Instruments up the Thy- 
esa in Canoes about 10 miles; our water-carriage then failed, and we had 
recourse to our Pack-Horses, but the ruggedness of the country at the Heads 
of the Susquehannah, Geneseo and Allegheny Rivers, soon killed, and rendered 
useless about two-thirds, but fortunately for our business, when the Horses 
failed we found ourselves on a small branch of the Allegheny River, necessity 
then pointed out the propriety of using water-carriage as much as possible, we 
immediately set about making canoes, and by the spirited exertions of our 
men, with no other implements than three falling axes, two or three Toma- 
hawks, and a Chisel, i-j- inch wide, we had completed in six days for the use 
of our Pennsylvania party 5 excellent Canoes, two of which are between 40 
and 50 feet in length. These Canoes with our Stores, Instruments and Bag- 
gage, we hauled 10 miles down a shallow stream to the main Allegheny River, 
our progress now began to appear less difficult, and we prepared to proceed 
down the River to a proper place for correcting the random Line by astro- 
nomical observation, but the day preceding our intended movement, we were 
ordered by the Indians [probably some of Cornplanter's band] to discontinue 
the Line 'till after a treaty should be held. We met them at the time and 
place appointed, explained the nature and propriety of the business we were 

From 1783 to 1790. 91 

about, and finally were permitted to proceed. We have, notwithstanding these 
difficulties, completed the Line to the 167 mile-stone from the Delaware, and 
expect to have 28 miles more finished in a few days, and the fullest expecta- 
tion of finishing the business this season in good time, if not impeded by some 
uncommon difficulty or accident." 

This report was signed by Messrs. Ellicott and Porter. In it, it will be 
noticed, the commissioners speak of their stores, etc.; and to show that these 
worthies were not destitute of the comforts and even the luxuries of life, while 
making their way through the wilderness and along the northern border of 
what is now Warren county, a hundred years ago, we append Mr. Porter's 
requisition for animals and supplies, made just before starting forth : 

20 Horses and Pack Saddles. 

20 Bells. 

10 Bbls of Pork. 

30 Bbls of Flour. 

200 lbs of Loaf Sugar. 

50 lbs of Coffee. 

8 lbs of Tea. 

1 5 lbs of Chocolate. 

60 lbs of Cheese. 

3 doz'n neats Tongues. 

3 lbs of Pepper and 6 Bottles Mustard. 

3 jars of Pickles. 

I box of Prunes. 

1 Hhd Spirits. 
20 Gall'ns Wine. 

10 Gall'ns F. Brandy. 

2 Gall'ns Lime Juce. 
30 lbs Soap. 

50 lbs Candles. 

10 Gall'ns Vinegar. 

28 lbs Scotch Barley. 

14 lbs Rice. 

4 Bushels Salt. 


On the 29th of October of the same year (1787) the commissioners of the 
two States made their final report, showing that the boundary line had been 
marked in a satisfactory and permanent manner by mile-stones, or posts sur- 
rounded by mounds of earth, where stones could not be procured, from the 
ninetieth mile-stone west from the river Delaware to Lake Erie. Two maps 
also accompanied their report, showing the route traversed, the location of 
mile-posts, observatories, etc., the names of streams crossed or flowing near 
by, and likewise the names and location of a number of Indian towns. From 
these maps we learn that Conewango Creek was then written " Conawango 
River;" the Kinzua, "Consua," and the Brokenstraw, "Koshanuadeago." No 
Indian towns were shown within the present limits of Warren county, but just 
over the line in New York, upon both the Conewango 1 and Allegheny, Indian 
villages were designated, besides another, termed " Hickory Town," at the 
point now known as Tionesta. 

In February, 1788, Andrew Ellicott, one of the boundary-line commis- 
sioners, in writing from Baltimore to Benjamin Franklin, president of the 
Supreme Executive Council, said : " From the Face of the Map we returned 

ITlie Indian village on or near the Conewango was termed by the commissioners "Cayontona"; 
but Colonel Proctor, who visited this region in April, 1791, writes it " Cayanlha, or the Cornfields." 
It stood about one mile north of the iQSlh mile-post on the State line west from the Delaware River, 
and between the forks of a small stream which, here flowing northeasterly, empties into the Cone- 
wango about a mile and a half north of the Slate line. 

92 History of Warren County. 

to the Supreme Executive Council last December, of the Country thro' which 
we passed with the Northern 15oundary of the State; it appears plain that the 
situation of several places demands the attention of the Legislature. The first 
is the Mouth of the Conewango River; the second at the Mouth of French 
Creek, where the Old Venango Fort stood, and the third at the head of the 
Navigable Water of French Creek at Fort Le Boeuf " Thus again was the 
attention of the authorities directed to the eligible and picturesque site of the 
town of Warren. 

The following year Richard Butler and John Gibson, commissioners for and 
in behalf of the State of Pennsylvania, concluded another treaty with the chiefs, 
warriors, and others representing the Six Nations, by which treaty the State 
acquired possession of the territory bounded on the south by the north line of 
Pennsylvania, on the east by the western boundary of New York, agreeably to 
the cession of that State and the State of Massachusetts to the United States, 
and on the north by the margin of Lake Erie, including Presque Isle and other 
points. At this treaty Cornplanter was again conspicuous as the friend of the 
whites, and by his speeches and bearing rendered the work of the commission- 
ers comparatively easy of accomplishment. Feeling grateful, therefore, Gen- 
eral Richard Butler, one of the commissioners above named, on the 22d of 
March, 1789, addressed the following communication to Thomas Mifflin, then 
president of the Supreme Executive Council : 

" I beg leave to mention to your Excellency and Council that Capt'n 
Abeal, alias the Cornplanter, one of the principal Chiefs of the Seneca Tribe 
of the Six Nations, has been very useful in all the Treaties since 1784 inclu- 
sive, and particularly to the State of Pennsylvania, this he has demonstrated 
very fully, and his attachment at present to the State appears very great. This 
has induced me to suggest to your Excellency and Council whether it may not 
be good Policy in the State to fix this attachment by making it to his interest 
to continue it. This, from the Ideas he possesses of Civilization, induces me 
to think if the state would be pleased to grant him a small tract of land within 
the late purchase, it would be very grateful to him, and have that Eflect. 
This may be done in a manner that would render him service without lessen- 
ing his influence with his own people or Exposing him to jealousy. The quan- 
tity need not be large, perhaps one thousand or fifteen hundred acres. How 
far your Excellency and Council may concur in this opinion will rest with 
your Excellency and them. My wishes for the quiet and interest of the State 
as well as the merits of the man, has induced me to take the liberty to mention 
this matter and hope the motive will be my appology." 

This letter having been received and considered in Council March 24, or 
two days after date, it was resolved that the recommendation to grant Corn- 
planter one thousand or fifteen hundred acres of land be complied with. 

As alluded to in a preceding paragraph, the attention of the lixecutive 

From 1783 to 1790. 93 

Council having frequently been directed to certain choice locations in the ter- 
ritory recently acquired by purchase (at Presque Isle, on Lake Erie ; at Le 
Boeuf, at the head of navigation of French Creek ; at the mouth of the Con- 
ewango, in the county of Allegheny, and at Fort Venango, situated at the mouth 
of French Creek), it was resolved in Council on Saturday, April 4, 1789, "that 
the Surveyor General be directed, and he is hereby directed to appoint a 
proper person to locate, survey, and make return of the several tracts men- 
tioned in the said resolution of Assembly, for the use of the Commonwealth, in 
conformity with the said resolution, and that the locations at each place amount 
to three thousand acres and no more." In compliance with this resolution 
the surveyor-general soon after appointed John Adlum to perform the work. 
The latter did so during the following summer, and in September, 1789, 
reported that he had completed the survey of four reserved tracts of lands, 
or " State Manors," at the points indicated, at an expense to the State of one 
hundred and seventy-five pounds eight shillings and two pence. 

In the year 1790 the General Council of Pennsylvania appointed a commis- 
sion to survey and explore the West Branch of the Susquehanna and the head 
waters of the " Alegina," the object being to establish a suitable wagon road 
from the Susquehanna valley to Lake Erie. This commission consisted of 
John Adlum, Colonel Matlack, and Hon. Samuel Maclay, who afterward 
served a term as United States senator from Pennsylvania, from 1 803 to 1808. 
During the time that the commission was acting in the discharge of its duties 
Mr. Maclay kept a record of each day's events, and it is from this diary, now 
in the possession of his grandson, ex-State Senator Maclay, of Clarion county, 
that these notes of the first official exploration of the head waters of the Alle- 
gheny, by authority of the State of Pennsylvania, are compiled. 

By the terms of the act creating the commission, the commissioners were 
to meet at Lebanon on May i, 1790 ; but Mr. Adlum and Colonel Matlack 
did not arrive at that point until May 17. Immediately after their arrival the 
commission proceeded upon the discharge of its duties, Mr. Maclay having 
made all necessary preparations while waiting upon the delinquents. 

The West Branch was explored until the mouth of the Sinnemahoning 
Creek was reached, which stream was ascended as far as navigable by canoes, 
when the party proceeded on foot to the head waters of the Clarion River, in 
what is now Elk county. While Maclay and Matlack made different surveys 
in this locality, Mr. Adlum ran a line to the " Alegina," the object being to 
establish a camp on that river and leave some of the attendants there to build 
canoes for the accommodation of the commissioners when they should be ready 
to descend. This camp was located about twenty miles above the State line, 
and from this point the entire party started down the " Alegina " on the 2d 
day of July. About twelve o'clock they met two Indians, one of whom called 
himself " Doctor Thomas," who informed them that they had been sent by 

94 History of Warren County. 

their chief to see when the commissioners would arrive at the Indian town 
below. The State line was reached at three o'clock on the afternoon of the 
3d, and here the party encamped for the night. Leaving early the next morn- 
ing, the Indian camp was reached about nine o'clock, " Dr. Thomas " and his 
companion having preceded them. As what follows is of the most interesting 
character, we quote Mr. Maclay's diary in full : 

" We got to the town at 9 o'clock. Went down below the town a little 
distance, kindled a fire and got our breakfast. Several of the Indians came to 
our fire, but the principal man was out of town, and it seems we must wait for 
him. We waited until the afternoon and were then given to understand that 
Con-ne-shangom, their chief, was gone to Venango, but a certain Captain John 
supplyed his place. He made us a speech in the afternoon to the following 
effect : That he and all their men returned thanks to Almighty God for the 
opportunity of speaking to his brothers ; that as he now speaks he hopes that 
you will hear that you are come to poor people that are all suffering. Another 
thing he hopes that he knew nothing of our coming until he looked up and 
saw us come down the water. He hopes we will take pity on their women 
and children and give them something to prevent them from starving. 

" Monday, July 5th. — Set off in the morning, two Indians going with us in 
a canoe, viz : Captain John and Ten Days, and the Doctor on horseback. 
About the middle of the afternoon we came to an Indian camp on shore where 
they had whisky, which they offered us. At this camp we saw a Dutchman 
who in the war had been taken prisoner, and, it seemed, choosed to continue 
with the Indians. We delayed but a short time at this camp, when we put 
out and left the Indians. After some time the Indians came up with us and 
the Doctor had got himself a little drunk. Just so much as to put him to 
showing his horsemanship, and, in attempting to ride up a steep bank, him 
and his horse tumbled together into the river. We took up our camp a little 
before sunset. 

" Tuesday, July 6th. — Took our breakfast and set off, and came to Tuis-in- 
Guis-an-Gothtaw about 10 o'clock. We soon found that the Doctor, who had 
reached the town before us, had been doing us ill offices with the people of the 
town. They looked remarkably sour, and insisted on our stopping until they 
sent for their chief, the Cornplanter, who lived about seven miles below at a 
place called In-oh-show-Dego. We said that we could go on and call on the 
Cornplanter where he lived. They said it was not manly to call about busi- 
ness at a cabin in the woods, and said that they had a hold of the stern of our 
canoe, plainly intimating that they could and would make us stay. We thought 
it best to be as accommodating as we could and told them to send for the 
Cornplanter, and we would stay until the afternoon. About noon their Chief 
came and told us that he had sent for the Cornplanter ; that he expected him 
soon, but that we must not think the time long. His advice had no effect, for 
we did think the day a very long one. Night came at last but no Cornplanter. 

From 1783 to 1790. 95 

"Wednesday, July 7th. — The Cornplanter came about eight o'clock, and 
appeared to be friendly disposed. He said he would look for a place where we 
might meet and speak to each other. We met, told our business and deliv- 
ered the Cornplanter his letter, which was read and interpreted to the Indians 
by one Matthews. They then all appeared in a good humor, and the Corn- 
planter, in a speech, told us he was glad to see us and gave us a welcome to 
anything we could catch in their country. Then we were addressed by an 
orator in behalf of the women. They told us that they were glad to see us; 
that they hoped we were well; that we had come a long, bad road; that they 
had heard the good news we had brought; that they thought that as the 
severest part of the labour of living fell to their lot, they had a right to speak 
and to be heard, and again thanked us for our good news; that they hoped 
that as soon as the good road we had spoke of was made they would be able 
to purchase what things they wanted on better terms; that it was true their 
trade at this time was much worse than formerly, owing to the scarcity of game, 
but that if a good road was made it would still be worth while for traders to 
come among them, and that they hoped a good correspondence would still be 
cultivated between them and us until we should become one people. Their 
speech was answered very properly by Col. Matlack. As soon as that was 
ended, though it rained, we got on board of our canoes and pushed down the 
river, and took up our camp opposite Capt. John Obeales Town, and had the 
honor of his company for supper. 

"Thursday, July 7th. — The morning rainy. After breakfast it cleared, and 
Mr. Adlum went up to the State line to survey the river, and to assist me in 
making a survey for the Cornplanter. This business kept us employed until 
about four o'clock. As we were both wet when we came to cam p we concluded 
to stay where we were for the night. 

"Friday, July 9th. — Set off after breakfast and proceeded down the river 
to the mouth of the Kinjua, where we parted with Mr. Adlum. He proceeded 
up the Kinjua with two of the hands, accompanied with an Indian called Tim 
T. Tugmutton. We proceeded down the river to the mouth of the Conno- 
wango, and got up the same about two miles, where we encamped for the 

"Saturday, July loth. — In the morning we proceeded up the Connowango 
about two miles further, where we left one of our canoes and all our baggage 
and provisions that we could spare in the care of Samuel Gibbons, taking with 
us only provisions for 10 days, and set off for the Jadockque lake, having one 
Matthews with us to act as an interpreter, as we expected to meet with several 
Indians. We kept with dilligence at the poles and paddled all day, and got 
17 miles as we computed. 

"Sunday, July l Ith. — We started in the morning and kept steadily at work 
all day, and made as we computed, 17 miles further up the Connowango. In 

96 History of Warren County. 

these two days' traveling with our canoes we had not more than i6 miles of 
strong water, the bed of the river being like a mill pond, and in general so deep 
that we could not find the bottom with our setting poles. 

"Monday, July I2th. — Set off in the morning and found it extremely diffi- 
cult to get up the creek. The water was very low and divided with a great 
number of small Islands and the channels stopped up with driftwood and tim- 
ber that had fallen across the creek. In some places we cleared a passage, in 
others we were obliged to slide our canoe on Scates. We had about five miles 

of this kind of water; at length we entered the lake, which for about two 

miles widened gradually — the shore remarkably muddy and covered with splat- 
terdocks. From there the lake opens at once and has a very pleasing appear- 
ance. We got about four miles up and encamped." 

On the morning of the 14th, having found the old French wagon road, 
Colonel Matlack and Mr. Maclay followed it to Lake Erie, returning to Lake 
Jadockque (Chautauqua) on the 15 th. Mr. Maclay estimated the distance from 
the mouth of the Conewango to Lake Erie to be eighty miles "to go by 
water," and says the "greater part of the distance is through a very rich soil." 
On the morning of the 17th Maclay and Matlack rejoined Adlum at the camp 
at the mouth of the Conewango, and the three, with their employees, proceeded 
down the river to "Fort Frankland." From there another route was surveyed 
to Lake Erie, by way of French Creek. When this was completed they again 
continued down the "Alegina" to the mouth of the Kiskiminitis. This stream 
was explored and its chief tributary, the Conemaugh, was ascended to its source. 
After a vain attempt to find a passage across the Allegheny Mountains suit- 
able for a wagon road, they concluded to return home, arriving at Lebanon on 
September 17 of the same year. 



The Seneca Chieftain Invited to Visit Philadelphia — Letter from Thomas Mifflin — Ensign 
Jcffers's Letter — The Journey — Arrival in the Quaker City — Subsequent Proceedings — 
Cornplanter's Speech to the Supreme E.xecutive Council — President Mifflin's Reply — Corn- 
planter Meets President Washington — Returns to His Foiost Home with Gifts and Various 
Supplies — Attempts on the Part of Pittsburgh Thieves to Steal the Same — Colonel Brodhead's 
Opinion of Early Pitt«sbnrgh Residents — Cornplanter Makes Choice of the Lands Granted Him 
— Their Location, etc. — Sketch of His Life. 

MEANWHILE, affairs along the western frontiers were in an unsettled 
condition, and, apparently, were daily becoming worse — murders of 
while families by Indians from the Ohio country, and of peaceful Seneca In- 


dians by white men, were of frequent occurrence. Indeed, numbers of Corn- 
planter's own family had been robbed and killed, and he had repeatedly peti- 
tioned the authorities of the State for protection and relief At last, on the lOth 
of May, 1790, President Thomas Mifflin sent a letter' to the Seneca chieftains 
on the head waters of the Allegheny, wherein he said : " It gives us pain to 
hear from you that some bad people have plundered your camps and taken your 
property. Our laws do not permit one man to injure another. We are willing 
to give you an opportunity of laying before the government of Pennsylvania 
your grievances, and of explaining your wishes ; and agreeably to your request, 
we hereby invite three of your chief counsellors and warriors, vizt.: Corn- 
planter, Half- Town, and the New Arrow, to come to Philadelphia, on Wednes- 
day the first day of September next, when the General Assembly will be in 
session. We have granted a commission to your particular friend, Joseph 
Nicholson, to act as the interpreter to your three Chiefs, and will give him 
directions to conduct them to this city. 

"Thomas Mifflin. 
" To Kientwoughko, or Cornplanter, 

Guyaugh Shoto, alias the Great Cross, 

Hachuwoot, or Half Town, 





Hucheaguough, alias the Dog Barker, 

Oe-wha-gaw-yo, alias the Oldnews, 

Candagowa alias Large Tree, 

Tehewanias, alias the Broken Tree. 

This letter having been received by Cornplanter July 7 of that year, his 
preparations for visiting Philadelphia were completed as speedily as circum- 
stances would permit, and, furnished with the following recommendatory letter 
by the commandant of Fort Franklin, at the mouth of French Creek, he set 
out on his journey accompanied by his interpreter, Joseph Nicholson, and six 
other chiefs and warriors. 

" My age, rank & situation in the world renders it rather improper for me 
to say anything on the subject I am about to relate, but I cannot but mention 
that the Bearer hereof, Cyentwokee, the head Chief of the Senica Nation, is 
an undoubted friend to the United States. When Indians have stolen Horses 
& other things from the good people, I have known him with the greatest dig- 
nity to give orders for them to be returned, & never knew his orders to be 

" When the people of Cussawanga [now Meadville] were about to flee on 

1 See allusion to this letter in Mr. Maclay's tliary, preceding chapter. 

Chief Counsellors 
and Warriors of the 
> Six Nations of 

98 History of Warren County. 

account of unfavorable accounts about some of the Southern Indians, he sent 
a Speech to me, & said, ' he wished the people to keep their minds easy, & 
take care of their Cornfields, that the Six Nations were friends, that should the 
Southern Indians invade the Settlement he would gather his Warriors & help 
to drive them to the setting of the Sun.' In consequence of this the people 
rest intirely easy. On his arrival here, he told me that should I be invaded so 
that I could not get provision, that he & his warriors would clear the way — 
he said that at the Council at Muskingum, the great men asked him which side 
he would die on ? He told them on the side of the Americans, he says he is 
of the same mind yet. 

" Sundry other things might be said, but as he is now on his way to attend 
the Assembly at Philadelphia, I will only recommend him to the particular 
attention of the good people of Pennsylvania between here & that place. They 
may depend upon it that they not only entertain a friend, but a consequential 
friend, for the Senica Nation is so much Governed by him that if he says War, 
it is war, & if he says peace it is peace — of Course he is a Man worthy of the 
greatest attention. The other Chiefs with him second him in every thing, & 
are Men worthy of great attention. 

" I am, my Dear fellow citizens, with sentiments of the highest esteem, 
your obedient & humble Servant, 

"J. Jeffers, Ensign, 
" 1st U. S. Reg't. & Commanding Fort Franklin on French Creek. 
"To the Good people between here & Philadelphia." 

Thus supplied with a kind of passport through the State, Cornplanter and 
his party arrived in Philadelphia towards the latter part of October, he having 
been detained beyond the appointed time by reason of certain untoward cir- 
cumstances. A day or so later, or on Saturday, October 23, the deputation 
was introduced to the president and members of Council, when Cornplanter 
was pleased to make the following speech : 

" Brothers, We were very happy when we received the answer to our letter 
sent to the Quaker State ; we are happy to see you. We could not come at 
the time appointed, it was too soon afterwards. When we were coming we 
heard of the murder of two of our people. I was obliged to satisfy my peo- 
ple. After I had satisfied my people, I received a message from the Shawan- 
ese and other nations that I should not come till we had a Council with them. 
When the fire was kindled with the Shawanese they brought a Virginia scalp 
and insisted on our seizing the scalp, or they would treat us the same way as 
the Big Knife ; ^ we told them the Council was for peace not for war, I sent to 
all the tribes to be at peace with the Thirteen Fires.^ 

" Brothers, I am much fatigued, I want to get a friend to write my speech, 

iThc Indians of that clay termed the Virginians " Big Knives," or " Long Knives." 
2 The thirteen original States. 


as no interpreter can do it as well as if it was wrote. I will be ready on 
Tuesday morning." 

When Tuesday morning came Cornplanter sent a letter to the Council say- 
ing that he was not ready and requesting further time to prepare the state- 
ment he wished to make to the Council. His request was granted. Three 
days later, however, or on Friday, October 29, 1790, the renowned Seneca 
chieftain with the Indians who accompanied him, attended the sessions of the 
Supreme Executive Council, " His Excellency Thomas Mifflin, Esquire," pre- 
siding, and spoke as follows concerning his tribe and nation : 

" The Fathers of the Quaker State, Obeale or Cornplanter, returns thanks 
to God for the pleasure he has in meeting you this day with six of his people. 

" Fathers, Six years ago I had the pleasure of making peace with you, and 
at that time a hole was dug in the earth, and all contentions between my nation 
and you ceased and were buried there. 

" At a treaty then held at Fort Stanwix between the Six Nations of Indians, 
and the Thirteen Fires, three friends from the Quaker State came to me and 
treated with me for the purchase of a large tract of land upon the Northern 
boundary of Pennsylvania, extending from Tioga to Lake Erie for the use of 
their warriors. I agreed to the sale of the same, and sold it to them for four 
thousand dollars. I begged of them to take pity on my nation and not buy 
it forever. They said they would purchase it forever, but that they would give 
me further one thousand dollars in goods when the leaves were ready to fall, 
and when I found that they were determined to have it, I agreed that they 
should have it. I then requested, as they were determined to have the land 
to permit my people to have the game and hunt upon the same, which request 
they complied with, and promised me to have it put upon record, that I and my 
people should have the priviledge. 

" Fathers, The Six Nations then requested that another talk might be held 
with the Thirteen Fires, which was agreed to and a talk was afterwards held 
between them at Muskingum. Myself with three of my chiefs attended punct- 
ually, and were much fatigued in endeavoring to procure the attendance of the 
other nations, but none of them came to the Council Fire except the Dela- 
wares and the Wyandots. 

" Fathers, At the same treaty the Thirteen Fires asked me on which side I 
would die, whether on their side, or the side of those nations who did not 
attend the Council Fire. I replied, 'listen to me fathers of the Thirteen Fires, 
I hope you will consider how kind your fathers were treated by our fathers, 
the Six Nations, when they first came into this country, since which time you 
have become strong, insomuch, that I now call you fathers. In former days 
when you were young and weak, I used to call you brother, but now I call 
you father. Father, I hope you will take pity on your children, for now I 
inform you that I'll die on your side. Now father, I hope you will make my 
bed strong.' 


History of Warren County. 

" Fathers of the Quaker State : — I speak but little now, but will speak more 
when the Thirteen Fires meet, I will only inform you further, that when I had 
finished my talk with the Thirteen Fires, General Gibson, who was sent by the 
Quaker State, came to the fire, and said that the Quaker State had bought of 
the Thirteen F"ires a tract of land extending from the Northern boundary of 
Pennsylvania to Connewango river, to Buffaloe creek on Lake Erie, and thence 
along the Said Lake to the Northern boundary of Pennsylvania aforesaid. 
Hearing this I run to my father, and said to him father have you sold this land 
to the Quaker State, and he said he did not know, it might have been done 
since he came there. I then disputed with Gibson and Butler, who was with 
him about the same, and told them I would be satisfied if the line was run 
from Connewango river thro' Chatochque Lake to Lake Erie, for Gibson and 
Butler had told me that the Quaker State had purchased the land from the 
Thirteen Fires, but notwithstanding the Quaker State had given to me one 
thousand dollars in fine prime goods which were ready for me and my people 
at Fort Pitt, we then agreed that the line should be run from Connewango 
river thro' Chatochque Lake into Lake Erie, and that one-half of the fish in 
Chatochque Lake should be mine and one half theirs. They then said as the 
Quaker State had purchased the whole from the Thirteen Fires, that the Thir- 
teen Fires must pay back to the Quaker State the value of the remaining land. 
When I heard this my mind was at ease, and I was satisfied. I then proposed 
to give a half mile square of land upon the line so agreed upon to a Mr. Hartz- 
horn who was an Ensign in General Harmer's army, and to a Mr. Britt, a cadet, 
who acted as clerk upon the occasion, and who I well know [by the name of 
Half-Town, for the purpose of their settling there to prevent any mischief 
being committed in future upon my people's lands, and I hoped that the 
Quaker State would in addition thereto give them another half mile square on 
their side of the line so agreed upon for the same purpose, expecting thereby 
that the line so agreed upon would be known with sufficient certainty, and that 
no disputes would thereafter arise between my people and the Quaker State 
concerning it. I then went to my father of the Thirteen Fires and told him 
I was satisfied, and the coals being covered up I said to my children you must 
take your course right thro' the woods to Fort Pitt. When I was leaving 
Muskingum my own son who remained a little while behind to warm himself 
at the fire was robbed of a rifle by one of the white men, who, I believe, to 
have been a Yankee. Myself with Mr. Joseph Nicholson and a Mr. Morgan 
then travelled three days together thro' the wilderness, but the weather 
being very severe they were obliged to separate from me, and I sent some of 
my own people along with Mr. Nicholson and Mr. Morgan as guides to con- 
duct them on to Wheelen [Wheeling]. After I had separated from Mr. Nich- 
olson and Mr. Morgan, I had under my charge one hundred and seventy per- 
sons of my own nation consisting of men, women and children, to conduct 


thro' the wilderness, through heaps of briars, and having lost our way, we, 
with great difficulty reached Wheelen. When I arrived there being out of 
provisions I requested of a Mr. Zanes to furnish me and my people with beacon 
and flour to the amount of seventeen dollars, to be paid for out of the goods 
belonging to me and my people at Fort Pitte. Having obtained my request, I 
proceeded on my journey for Pittsburg, and about ten miles from Wheelen 
my party were fired upon by three white people, and one of my people in the 
rear of my party received two shots thro' his blanket. 

"Fathers, It was a constant practice with me throughout the whole jour- 
ney to take great care of my people, and not suffer them to commit any out- 
rages or drink more than what their necessities required. During the whole 
of my journey only one accident happened which was owing to the kindness 
of the people of the town called Catfish [in Washington county, Pa.], in the 
Quaker State, who, while I was talking with the head men of the town, gave 
to my people more liquor than was proper, and some of them got drunk, which 
obliged me to continue there with my people all night, and in the night my 
people were robbed of three rifles and one shot gun ; and though every endeavor 
was used by the head men of the town upon complaint made to them to dis- 
cover the perpetrators of the robbery, they could not be found; and on my 
people's complaining to me I told them it was their own faults by getting 

"Fathers, Upon my arrival at Fort Pitt I saw the goods which 1 had been 
informed of at Muskingum, and one hundred of the blankets were all moth 
eaten and good for not'g. I was advised not to take the blankets, but the 
blankets which I and my people then had being all torn by the briars in our 
passage thro' the wilderness, we were under the necessity of taking them to keep 
ourselves warm ; and what most surprised me, was that after I had received 
the goods they extinguished the fire and swept away the ashes, and having no 
interpreter there I could talk with no one upon the subject. Feeling myself 
much hurt upon the occasion, I wrote a letter to you Fathers of the Quaker 
State, complaining of the injury, but never received any answer. Having 
waited a considerable time, and having heard that my letter got lost, I wrote a 
second time to you Fathers of the Quaker State and then I received an answer. 

"I am very thankfuU to have received this answer, and as the answer 
intreated me to come and speak for myself, I thank God that I have this oppor- 
tunity, I therefore, speak to you as follows: I hope that you Fathers of the 
Quaker State, will fix some person at Fort Pitt to take care of me and my 
people. I wish, and it is the wish of my people if agreeable to you that my 
present interpreter, Joseph Nicholson, may be the person, as I and my people 
have a confidence in him, and are satisfied that he will always exert himself 
to preserve peace and harmony between you and us. My reasons for wish- 
ing an interpreter to be placed there are that oftentimes when my hunters and 

History of Warren County. 

people come there, their canoes and other things are stolen, and they can 
obtain no redress, not having any person there on whom they can rely to 
interpret for them and see justice done to them. 

" Fathers of the Quaker State: — About a year ago a young man one of my 
Tribe who lived among the Shawanese, was one of a party who had committed 
some outrages and stolen a quantity of skins, the property of David Duncan, 
being at Fort Pitt, was seized by the White People there who would have put 
him in confinement and perhaps to death had not some of the Chiefs of the 
Seneca Nation, interfered and bound themselves to the said David Duncan, 
who insisted upon satisfaction for payment of the sum of five hundred and 
thirty dollars for the said skins so stolen, upon which the young man aforesaid 
was released and delivered up to them. 

"Fathers of the Quaker State : — I wish now to acquaint you with what hap- 
pened to one of my people about four years ago, four miles above Fort Pitt. 
A young man who was married to my wife's sister, when he was hunting, was 
murdered by a white man. There were three reasons for his being killed: In 
the first place he had a very fine riding horse; secondly, he was very richly 
drest, and had about him a good deal of silver; and thirdly, he had with him a 
very fine rifle. The white man invited him to his house, to light from his horse, 
and as he was getting off his horse, his head being rather down, the white man 
struck him with a tomahawk on the head and killed him, and having plun- 
dered him dragged iiim into the river. Upon the discovery of the murder, 
my people, with Mr. Nicholson and Mr. Duncan, had a great deal of trouble, 
and took a great deal of pains to find out the person who had committed the 
murder, and after three days' searching, they discovered him. 

"Fathers of the Quaker State : — About five years ago, one of my Chiefs, 
named Half- Town, was sent to Fort Pitt to deliver up into your hands your 
own flesh and blood who were taken in the war, and before he returned two 
horses were stolen from him by the white people. Now, P'athers, I will inform 
you of another accident which happened to my people last winter, fifteen miles 
below F'ort Pitt. My Nephew, with a hunting party, being there, was shot 
thro' the head in Mr. Nicholson's camp, the particulars of wiiich Mr. Nichol- 
son, who is here present can inform you. 

" Well, Fathers, I beg of you once more not to let such bad people be 
'longside of me. And, Fathers, you must not think I or any of my people are 
bad or wish evil to you or yours, nor must you blame us for mischiefs that 
have been committed by the other nations. Fathers, consider me and my 
people, and the many injuries we have sustained by the repeated robberies, 
and in the murder & depredations committed by the whites against us. 

" Fathers of the Quaker State : — I have now had the pleasure to meet you 
with six of my people. We have come a great way, by your desire, to talk 
with you and to shew to you the many injuries my nation has sustained. It 


now remains with you to do with me and my people what you please, on 
account of the present trouble which I and my people have taken for your sat- 
isfaction, and in compliance with your request. 

" Fathers, having come this great way at your request, and as it is neces- 
sary for some of us to remain here to talk with the Thirteen Fires when they 
meet, I have concluded to send back four of my people, and to remain here 
myself with Half- Town and my interpreter, Mr. Nicholson, untiU that time, 
which I hope you will approve of But should you not approve of it, I must 
be under the necessity of returning with the whole of my people, which will 
be attended with a considerable expense. 

" Fathers of the Quaker State : — You have now got the most of our lands, 
and have taken the game upon the same. We have only the privilege of hunt- 
ing and fishing thereon. I, therefore, would make this further request, that a 
store may be established at Fort Pitt for the accommodation of my people and 
the other nations when they go out to hunt ; and where they may purchase 
goods at a reasonable price. For, believe me. Fathers, you yourselves would 
be frightened were you to know the extravagant prices we are obliged to pay 
for the goods we purchase. 

" There is a man (Esquire Wilkie) in Pittsburg, who has taken a great 
deal of pains to serve my people, and has pitied them ; my people, when there, 
are very kindly treated by him, and give him a great deal of trouble, but he 
thinks nothing of it ; he is the man my people wish should have charge of 
the store. 

" Fathers of the Quaker State : — I have heard that you have been pleased 
to present me a tract of land, but as yet I have seen no writings for the same ; 
Well, Fathers, if it is true that you have given me this tract of land, I can only 
thank you for the same, but I hope you will also give me tools and materials 
for working the same. 

" Fathers of the Quaker State : — Five years ago, when I used to be with 
my present interpreter Joseph Nicholson, he took care of me and my people. 
Considering his services and the difficulties he underwent in his journey from 
Muskingum to Fort Pitt, the Six Nations wished to have him seated upon a 
tract of land of six miles square, lying in the Forks of Allegany river, and 
Broken Straw creek, and accordingly patented the same to him, this being the 
place where a battle 1 was fought between my people and yours, and where 
about thirty of my people were beaten, by him and twenty-five of your people, 
and where he was shot thro' the thigh. Now, Fathers, it is my wish, and I 
tell you it is the wish of the whole Six Nations, in behalf of whom and myself, 
I request that you would grant and confirm to our brother and friend, the 
before named Joseph Nicholson, the aforesaid tract of land, as described in our 
patent or grant to him. 

'This fight took place in August, 1779, during Colonel Brodhead's march into the Seneca country. 

I04 History of Warren County. 

" This, Fathers, is all I have to say to the Quaker State, and I hope you 
will consider well all I have mentioned. 

"Philadelphia, October, 1 790. 



" Half x Town, 


"Big X Tree, 


"James x Hutchins, 


" Seneca x Billy, 


"John x Deckart." 


On the following day a draft of a letter, addressed to the Cornplanter and 
the Indians who accompanied him, in reply to the representations which they 
had made to the Supreme Executive Council, was laid before the board, read 
and adopted as follows : 

"In Council, Philadelphia, Oct. 30, 1790. 

" Brothers : — Council have seriously considered the several matters 
which you laid before them yesterday morning, and assure you that it is their 
sincere desire to have all your complaints examined into and satisfactorily and 
speedily removed. But the change which has been made in the government 
of the State, puts it out of the power of this Council to give special answers to 
the most material parts of your speech. 

" On the first Tuesday of next December, the Legislature of Pennsylvania 
will meet under the new form of Government, and on the twenty-fourth of the 
same month the new Governor will commence his administration. 

" When those events take place, your speech, together with such further 
representation of a public nature, which you may think proper to make to us, 
shall be faithfully communicated to the new Government for their considera- 
tion and decision. 

" There are, however, two points on which wc may with propriet)' now 

"The first, the grant to the Cornplanter of one thousand five hundred acres 
of land by the General Assembly, on the twenty-fourth day of March, 1789. 

" We would long ago have ordered the survey of the land for the Corn- 
planter, but being willing to gratify him in his choice of a tract, we instructed 
General Butler to consult with him on that subject, and have waited to this 
time for his determination. If he will inform us in what part of the unlocated 
lands of the State he wishes his survey to be made, we will order the Surveyor 
General to have the tract laid out without further delay. 


" The second point on which we shall decide, is the Cornplanter's request, 
that Half-Town and Mr. Nicholson may remain with him in Philadelphia untill 
the meeting of the Legislature of the United States, or untill the President 
shall arrive here. We cheerfully comply with that request, and approve of 
his sending back the other Chiefs and Warriors. 

" And in order to make the residence of the Cornplanter, Half- Town and 
Mr. Nicholson in Philadelphia, as convenient and agreeable as possible. Coun- 
cil will instruct their Secretary to provide suitable lodgings for them in a pri- 
vate family. 

" Chiefs and Warriors zvho are to return to the Seneca Nation: — We desire 
you to inform the Seneca Nation that the Government of Pennsylvania enter- 
tains sentiments of the most sincere friendship for them, and are anxious to pre- 
vent injuries being done by its citizens to their persons and property. 

" But as evil disposed men exist in every society, and as violence may 
sometimes be committed by such men upon the persons and property of the 
Indians, the Government will think it their duty upon complaint being made 
of such violence having been committed, to endeavor to have the offenders 
apprehended and brought to Justice. 

" In the instance of the Walkers and Doyle, 1 this Council has done every 
thing in their power to have them secured and brought to tryal. They have 
succeeded only with respect to Doyle, but will continue their exertions for the 
securing of the Walkers. 

"Doyle will be conveyed next week to Sunbury under a strong guard, to 
stand his trial ; should he be convicted, there is little doubt of his being capi- 
tally punished. 

" We wish you may arrive at your own homes in good health, and find 
your families in the possession of the same blessings. 

"Thomas Mifflin." 

Cornplanter's companions, nevertheless, did not return to their country as 
early as anticipated. In some way the Chief Big Tree while viewing the sights 
in the Quaker City received a gun-shot wound in his leg. Thereupon Corn- 
planter and Half Town, with their interpreter, Joseph Nicholson, attended a 
subsequent meeting of the Council, and requested that, on account of the wound 
received by the Big Tree, the chiefs and warriors who were to have returned 
to the Indian country be" permitted to stay in the city until the arrival of the 
president of the United States. This request was complied with. Subse- 
quently, after Cornplanter and his friends had met President Washington, and 
had a " big talk " with him, all returned via Pittsburgh together, well loaded 
with good substantial presents. Indeed, the supplies, gifts, etc., received by 
Cornplanter at Philadelphia and sent by wagons to Pittsburgh, filled a large 

1 Doyle and two or three brothers by the name of Walker had killed two of the Seneca tribe on Pine 
Creek, then in the township of Lycoming, Northumberland county, in June, 1790. These were the 
murders referred to by Cornplanter when he first arrived in Philadelphia. 

io6 History of Warren County. 

bateau or keel boat, which, after the voyage up the Allegheny had been com- 
menced, unprincipled white wretches from Pittsburgh attempted to steal — 
both boat and cargo. 

It appears, however, that a certain class of residents of the latter town were 
only maintaining their former unenviable reputation when they endeavored to 
steal Cornplanter's boat and contents, since Colonel Brodhead in a letter dated 
at Pittsburgh, June 27, 1779, says : " The inhabitants of this place are continu- 
ally encroaching on what I conceive to be the rights of the Garrison and which 
was always considered as such when the Fort was occupied by the King of 
Britain's Troops. They have now the assurance to erect their fences within a 
few yards of the Bastion. I have mentioned the impropriety of their Conduct 

but without efiect The Block-houses, likewise, which are part 

of the strength of the place, are occupied and claimed by private persons to 
the injury of the service." Again on the 9th of July following the worried 
Colonel made another complaint as follows: " Whilst I am writing, I am tor- 
mented by at least a dozen drunken Indians, and I shall be obliged to remove 
my Quarters from hence on account of a cursed villainous set of inhabitants, 
who, in spite of every exertion continue to rob the soldiers, or cheat them and 
the Indians out of everything they are possessed of" 

Soon after Cornplanter's return to his old home on the upper waters of the 
Allegheny, he made choice of the lands which suited him best (which, by the 
way, proved to be at or near the place where he was then living), and promptly 
notified Governor Mifflin by letter of the location, etc., coupled with the 
request that a survey of the same be made as early as practicable. In direct- 
ing the attention of the Senate and House of Representatives of the Common- 
wealth to this matter the governor said : " Gentlemen : I have directed the 
Secretary to lay before you a Copy of a Letter from Cornplanter, in which that 
Chief requests that orders of survey may be issued for three tracts of Land, 
amounting in quantity to the 1500 acres which were granted to him by a reso- 
lution of the General Assembly of the 24th March, 1789, but differing in point 
of situation. 1 From the Information, however, contained in a Letter from the 
officers of the Land Office, a copy of which will likewise be transmitted to you, I 
find that the proposed tracts are unappropriated ; and as the resolution referred 
to describes Lands within the Tract of Country lately purchased from the 
United States, which Country has not yet been the subject of any Legislative 
provision, in respect to grants, and confirmations by Patent, permit me to sug- 
gest the propriety of complying with Cornplanter's request, and of authorizing 
the officers in the Land office to grant the Warrants, direct the surveys and 
issue the Patent which may be necessary upon the occasion." This communica- 
tion properly signed and indorsed was dated Philadelphia, January 22, 1791. 

1 It was supposed liy General Butler, when he recommended that a grant of land be made to Corn- 
planter, that the latter would make choice of lands in the " late purchase," meaning the territory bor- 
dering on I.ake Krie. 


The preliminary matters of granting warrants, making surveys, etc., having 
been attended to early in the year last mentioned, Cornplanter, with his two 
wives, his children, and a following of many others of his band,i including men, 
women and children, soon after became permanently established upon the site 
of one of his former towns (that is, the first village destroyed by Colonel Brod- 
head in 1779, after proceeding up the river above " Canawago "), where, as- 
sisted by white men sent to him for that purpose, he began the erection of log 
cabins. Thus he with his followers became the first permanent residents in 
the county after the acquisition of its territory by Pennsylvania. His grant, or 
patent, embraced about six hundred and forty acres of land on the west bank 
of the Allegheny River, sixteen miles above Warren, together with two large 
adjacent islands, or, in other words, tracts, aggregating about fifteen hundred 
acres in extent, situated in the present township of Elk. Here he resided until 
his death, which did not take place until nearly a half century later. 

According to Rev. Timothy Alden, the founder of Allegheny College, the 
village established by Cornplanter on the lands granted to him was named 
Jen-ne-sa-de-go, or Tin-nes-hau-ta-go, which means " burnt houses, since 
one of the Seneca towns destroyed by Colonel Brodhead in the summer of 
1779 was located here." The same gentleman also said that Cornplanter's 
Indian names were as follows: Ki-end-twoh-ke, or The Planter, and No-nuh, 
or The Contemplative; but they (the Indians) usually addressed him as Shin- 
ne-wau-nah, or The Gentleman. 

From Day's " Historical Collections of Pennsylvania " we select the follow- 
ing sketch of the distinguished chieftain, whose life was so closely associated 
with the Indian history of Northwestern Pennsylvania, and particularly that of 
Warren county : 

" F"ew names are more distinguished in the frontier history of Pennsylvania 
than that of Cornplanter. He was born at Conewaugus, on the Genesee River, 
being a half-breed, the son of a white man named John O'Bail, a trader from 
the Mohawk Valley. In a letter written in 1822 [of course by an interpreter] 
to the Governor of Pennsylvania he thus speaks of his early youth : ' When I 
was a child I played with the butterfly, the grasshopper and the frogs ; and as 
I grew up I began to pay some attention and play with the Indian boys in the 

1 Soon after the Meads and other pioneers .settled at Meadville, Crawford county, Pa., Cornplanter 
and his band paid them a friendly visit, and such visits were frequently repeated during subsequent 
years. It was then that these white settlers noticed that a number of white men were living with the 
Indians, among whom were Lashley Malone, who was captured in the Bald Eagle valley, Pa.; Peter 
Krause, a German by birth, who was taken on Duncan's t'rcek, near the head of the Monongahela, in 
Virginia; Elijah Mathews, who was captured on Graves's Creek, Ohio: Nicholas Rosencrantz, the 
son of a minister, and Nicholas Tanewood, who were taken in the Mohawk valley, New Vork. Krause, 
Mathews, and Rosencrantz were married to Indian women. These men having lived from boyhood 
with their captors, were thoroughly weaned from the habits of civilization, and preferred to remain 
with the Indians. Rev. Timothy ,\lden, of Meadville, while on a visit to Cornplanter in the fall of 
1816, stayed over night at the cabin of Peter Krause, on the .Allegheny, where he was then living with 
his Indian wife and family. 

io8 History of Warren County. 

neighborhood, and they took notice of my skin being of a different color from 
theirs, and spoke about it; I inquired of my mother the cause, and she told 
me that my father was a resident of Albany, N. Y. I still ate my victuals out 
of a bark dish. I grew up to be a young man and married me a wife, but I 
had no kettle or gun. I then knew where my father lived, and went to see 
him, and found he was a white man and spoke the English language. He 
gave me victuals while I was at his house, but when I started to return home 
he gave me no provision to eat on the way. He gave me neither kettle nor 
gun, neither did he tell me that the United States were about to rebel against 
the government of England.' .... 

" Little further is known of his early life beyond the fact that he was allied 
with the French in the engagement against Gen. Braddock in July, 1755. He 
was probably at that time at least twenty years old. During the Revolution 
he was a war chief of high rank, in the full vigor of manhood, active, sagacious, 
eloquent, brave, and he most probably participated in the principal Indian 
engagements against the United States during the war. He is supposed to 
have been present at the cruelties of Wyoming and Cherry Valley, in which 
the Senecas took a prominent part. He was on the war-path with Brandt 
during Gen. Sullivan's campaign in 1779; and in the following year, under 
Brandt and Sir John Johnson, he led the Senecas in sweeping through the 
Schoharie Kill and the Mohawk. On this occasion he took his father a pris- 
oner, but with such caution as to avoid an immediate recognition. After 
marching the old man some ten or twelve miles he stepped before him, faced 
about and addressed him in the following terms : 

" ' My name is John O'Bail, commonly called Cornplanter. I am your son ! 
You are my father! You are now my prisoner, and subject to the customs of 
Indian warfare, but you shall not be harmed. You need not fear! I am a 
warrior! Many are the scalps which I have taken! Many prisoners I have 
tortured to death! I am your son. I was anxious to see you, and greet you 
in friendship. I went to your cabin and took you by force; but your life will 
be spared. Indians love their friends and their kindred, and treat them with 
kindness. If you now choose to follow the fortunes of your yellow son, and to 
live with our people, I will cherish your old age with plenty of venison and 
you shall live easy. But if it is your choice to return to your fields and live 
with your white children, I will send a party of my trusty young men to con- 
duct you back in safety. I respect you, my father. You have been friendly 
to Indians, and they are your friends.' The elder O'Bail preferred his white 
children and green fields to his yellow offspring and the wild woods, and chose 
to return. 

" Notwithstanding his bitter hostility while the war continued, he became 
the fast friend of the United States when once the hatchet was buried. His 
sagacious intellect comprehended at a glance the growing power of this coun- 


try and the abandonment with which England had requited the fidehty of the 
Senecas. He therefore threw all his influence at the treaties of Fort Stanwix 
and Fort Mcintosh in favor of peace; and notwithstanding the vast conces- 
sions which he saw his people were necessitated to make, still, by his energy 
and prudence in the negotiation, he retained for them an ample and beautiful 
reservation. For the course which he took on those occasions, the State of 
Pennsylvania granted him the fine reservation upon which he resided on the 
Allegheny. The Senecas, however, were never well satisfied with his course 
in relation to these treaties; and Red Jacket, more artful and eloquent than 
his older rival, but less frank and honest, seized upon this circumstance to pro- 
mote his own popularity at the expense of Cornplanter. 

"Having buried the hatchet, Cornplanter sought to make his talents useful 
to his people by conciliating the good will of the whites, and securing from 
further encroachments the little remnant of his national domain. On more 
than one occasion, when some reckless and bloodthirsty whites on the frontier 
had massacred unofiending Indians in cold blood, did Cornplanter interfere to 
restrain the vengeance of his people. During all the Indian wars from 1790 
to 1794, which terminated with Wayne's victory over the northwestern tribes, 
Cornplanter^ pledged himself that the Senecas should remain friendly to 
the United States. He often gave notice to the garrison at Fort Franklin of 
intended attacks from hostile parties, and even hazarded his life on a media- 
torial mission to the Western tribes. He ever entertained a high respect and 
personal friendship for Washington, 'the great councillor of the Thirteen Fires,' 
and often visited him during his presidency on the business of his tribe. His 
speeches on these occasions exhibit both his talent in composition and his 
adroitness in diplomacy. Washington fully reciprocated his respect and friend- 
ship. They had fought against each other on the disastrous day of Braddock's 
field. Both were then young men. More than forty years afterwards, when 
Washington was about to retire from the presidency, Cornplanter made a special 
visit to Philadelphia to take an affectionate leave of the great benefactor of the 
white man and the red. 

"After peace was permanently established between the Indians and the 
United States, Cornplanter retired from public life and devoted his labors to 
his own people. He deplored the evils of intemperance, and exerted himself 
to suppress it. The benevolent efforts of missionaries among his tribe always 
received his encouragement, and at one time his own heart seemed to be 
softened by the words of truth; yet he preserved in his later \'ears many of the 
peculiar notions of the Indian faith." 

1 This statement is incorrect. Cornplanter was unfriendly in 1794, and, without a doubt, if Wayne 
had been defeated the Senecas would have become generally hostile, with Cornplanter's approial. 
See next chapter. 

History of Warren County. 


FROM 1791 TO 1800. 

Troublous Times on the Border — Baneful British Influence — Uneasy Iroquois — Colonel 
Proctor Visits Them— Interesting Details Gathered From His Journal — His Mission a Failure — 
St. Clair Defeated — The Iroquois Become Insolent — Their Arrogant Demands — Cornplanter 
Joins the Malcontents — Extracts from Letters Written by Andrew Ellicott, Brant tlie Mo- 
hawk, and John .4.dlum — Wayne's Victory — Salutary Effects — Iroquois Ardor Cooled — The 
Treaty at Canandaigua — The British Retire from American Territory — Cornplanter's Speech 
at Franklin — The Holland Land Company— Town of Warren Laid Out by State Commission- 
ers — Survey of Lands West of the Allegheny River — Advent of the First Settlers — A Block- 
house at Warren' — Navigable Waters — Origin of the Reserve Tracts and Academy Lands. 

FOR more than a decade of years after England had been forced to acknowl- 
edge the independence of the United States, British troops held all the 
forts on the American side of the boundary line, in open violation of the 
treaty of peace, alleging that the Americans had also failed to comply with its 
provisions. Embittered by defeat and not without hopes of again becoming 
masters of the ambitious, yet weak and poverty-stricken, confederated States, 
their influence over the Six Nations and the W'estern Indians was most bane- 
ful. They openly assumed a protectorate over the Iroquois and advised them 
to resist by force the occupation of lands which had already been ceded by 
the Indians to the Americans. Hence, as a result of such advice, and the 
intrigues of the Tory Colonel Butler, and the detestable Mohawk chieftain. 
Brant, the majority of the Senecas, eight years after the close of the Revolu- 
tionary War, were almost at the point of marching into Ohio to join the West- 
ern tribes in their operations against the military forces of the United States. 
At this critical moment Cornplanter, alone almost, of all those high in author- 
ity in his nation, remained true to his pledges as the friend of the Americans. 
For a time he stood as firm as the tall pines which cast their shadows over 
the waters of his beloved Allegheny. For three or four years after his visit to 
Philadelphia he counseled peace and moderation ; but before the troubles were 
over — /. c, just before General Wayne administered such signal and deserved 
punishment to the Indians — he, too, was forced to bend before the popular clamor 
of his people, to join the majority in their avowed hostility to the Americans, to 
make unjust demands, and declare that the terms of former treaties must be 
abrogated, and to threaten violence unless such demands were acceded to. 

To counteract the evil influence of the British oflicers and their emissaries, 
as well as the bad effects resulting from Harmer's defeat by the Western 
Indians during the preceding fall, early in 1791 Colonel Thomas Proctor, who 
had won distinction in the Pennsylvania Line during the Revolution, was 
instructed to visit the Seneca Indians, and use his utmost endeavors to gain 

F"rom 1 791 TO 1800. 

their confidence, and to persuade them to use their influence to stop the hos- 
tilities of the Western Indians (against whom General St. Clair was then pre- 
paring to move), and to that end to send a delegation of chiefs along with him 
on a mission to the Miamis. 

Proctor's commission was signed by General Knox, secretary of war, March 
10, 1 79 1, and two days later, accompanied by Captain M. G. Houdin, he 
started forth on horseback from Philadelphia. He journeyed ria Reading, 
Wilkesbarre, Tioga Point, Chemung, Newtown (now Elmira, N. Y.), to an 
Indian town a considerable distance beyond Painted Post, with the intention 
of proceeding direct to Buffalo, where he expected to meet the Seneca chiefs 
in council. But having learned at the last-mentioned place that Captain 
O'Beal, the Cornplanter, had not yet returned to his towns on the Allegheny 
from his visit to Philadelphia, and deeming it of the utmost importance that 
this chieftain should be present at the council. Proctor here secured the serv- 
ices of Horatio Jones, an interpreter, and determined to turn aside, and on 
reaching the Allegheny to proceed down that stream until Cornplanter should 
be met. He arrived at Cornplanter's " upper town " on the night of April 6. 

This town, Proctor informs us, was located on the north side of the Alle- 
gheny River, and was called " New Arrow's^ town," or " Tenachshegouchton- 
gee, or the burnt house." It contained twenty-eight "tolerably well built 
houses," one of which, new, neat and clean, was set apart for the use of Proc- 
tor and his party. At this place it was ascertained that Cornplanter was at 
Fort Franklin, at the mouth of French Creek, which point, said Proctor, was 
distant about one hundred and thirty miles down the river from New Arrow's 
town. This would indicate that the latter was located in the vicinity of the site 
of Olean, N. Y., which, by actual measurement of a United State's officer of 
topographical engineers, is one hundred and thirty-two miles by river, above 
the mouth of French Creek. Still, since Proctor's estimate was based on con- 
jecture alone, there might have been a variation in his calculation of fifteen or 
twenty miles from the true distance. Proctor's journal, however, establishes 
one or two interesting facts — that Cornplanter's immediate followers were then 
located in at least three different villages, widely separated one from another, 
/. e., at Tenachshegouchtongee, on the Allegheny, in New York ; at Cayantha, 
on the Conewango, just over the State line in New York, and at Jennesadaga, 
the " lower town," situated on the lands now known as the " Cornplanter Res- 
ervation," in Warren county. Also that Cornplanter was then living on the 
lands granted him by the State of Pennsylvania, that is, Jennesadaga, where, 
by the way, he had resided for years before the grant was made. 

From Tenachshegouchtongee Colonel Proctor proceeded in a canoe, guided 
by young Indians, to Fort Franklin, where he met Cornplanter, and where he 

' The chief, New .\rrow, one of Cornplanter's subordina'.es anci one of }iis warmest supporters, 
resided here. 

History of Warren County. 

was warmly received by the commandant, Ensign John Jeffers, of the Con- 
necticut Line, or First U. S. Regiment of Infantry. Cornplanter was calm and 
bore himself with becoming dignity, but those of his tribe with him were highly 
excited. They had just heard of the seizure of their boats and stores by 
certain people near Pittsburgh (see preceding chapter), but upon being assured 
by Colonel Proctor that he would see to it that all should be restored to them 
(and it was done a few days later), they became quiet and friendly. A day or 
so later, accompanied by Cornplanter and a large number of his band. Proctor 
moved up the Allegheny in canoes en route to Buffalo. They passed the night 
of April 14 at the mouth of " Casyonding Creek," /. c, the Brokenstraw. On 
the following day, Proctor being ill and almost helpless from rheumatism, he 
urged his canoe- men to push forward in advance of the fleet in order to reach 
Cornplanter's " lower town " at the earliest moment ; but he says the current 
was so swift and strong against them, slow progress was made, and the town 
was not reached until in the night. Here he applied to an Indian doctor for 
treatment, but the poultice of bruised roots and herbs applied to his foot to 
relieve the pain in the upper part of his leg was so effective in increasing his 
agony, that he became seriously alarmed and quickly dispensed with the poul- 
tice, compounded with so much patience and care by the native practitioner. 
He had passed the mouth of the " Canawaugo " during the last day's journey, 
where, he noted in his journal, " the Government of Pennsylvania has laid out 
a manor of 3000 acres, and up the said river (Canawaugo) to an Indian town 
called Cayantha, or the Cornfields, are extraordinary rich lands, of which sur- 
vey was made by David Rittenhouse, Esq'., of Philadelphia some time since." 

After a brief rest at Jennesadaga, the journey up the river was contin- 
ued to the upper town, or the Cattaraugus settlement, where Poctor had left 
his horse, also Captain Houdin, who was quite ill from exposure, and from 
thence across the country to Buffalo, Houdin, Cornplanter, and quite a follow- 
ing of Senecas accompanying him. At Buffalo he found the English influence 
very strong, the Indians obtaining supplies not only of clothing, but of provi- 
sions, from Forts F>ic and Niagara. On the commissioner's arrival, " Young 
King," who could not have been over twenty-two or three j'ears old, met him, 
appareled in the full uniform of a British colonel — red, with blue facings and 
gold epaulettes. The Senecas were also in possession of a two-pound swivel, 
which they fired in honor of the occasion, the gunner wisely standing inside 
the council-house, while he touched it off with a long pole passed between the 
logs. The charge was so heavy that it upset the gun and its carriage. 

At this time the celebrated Red Jacket had risen to a high position as an 
orator (though in war he was known to be cowardly, and was frequently 
spoken of in derision, by Cornplanter and other chiefs, as the "cow-killer"), 
being mentioned by Proctor as " the great speaker and a jirince of the Turtle 
tribe." In fact, however, he belonged to the Wolf clan. 

From 1791 to 1800. 113 

On Proctor's stating his object in the council, Red Jacket questioned his 
authority. This, as the colonel was informed by a French trader, was the result 
of the insinuations of Butler and Brant, who had been there a week before and 
had advised the Indians not to send a delegation to the Miamis. Proctor offered 
to present his credentials to any one in whom they had confidence, and they at 
once sent for the commandant at Fort Erie. The latter sent back Captain 
Powell, who seems to have acted as a kind of guardian to the Indians during 
the proceedings. These were very deliberate, and were adjourned from day to 

Red Jacket was the chief speaker for the Indians, and declared their deter- 
mination to move the council to Niagara, insisting on the commissioner accom- 
panying them the next day as far as Captain Powell's house, below Fort Erie. 
Proctor peremptorily declined. Then Red Jacket and Farmer's Brother ad- 
dressed the council by turns, the result being that a runner was at once sent 
to Niagara to summon Colonel Butler to the council. After two or three days' 
delay Butler came to Winne's trading-house (which was on the site of Buffalo, 
and four miles from the main Seneca village) and requested the sachems and 
head men to meet him there, but said nothing about Proctor. 

While waiting the commissioner dined with " Clear Sky," head chief of the 
Onondagas, whose " castle " he describes as being three miles east from " Buf- 
faloe," meaning from the Seneca village. There were twenty-eight good cabins 
near it, and the inhabitants were well clothed, especially the women, some of 
whom, according to Colonel Proctor, were richly dressed, " with silken stroud " 
and silver trappings worth not less than ;^30 per suit. It seems, too, that they 
had advanced so far in civilization that the women were invited to the feast of 
the warriors, which consisted principally of young pigeons boiled and stewed. 
These were served up in hanks of six, tied around the necks with deer's sin- 
ews, and were ornamented with pin feathers. However, the colonel managed 
to make a good meal. 

On the 4th of May the Indians went to Winne's store, to hold council with 
Butler. The latter invited Proctor to dine with him and his officers, including 
Captains Powell and Johnston. They (the English officers) spoke the Seneca 
language fluently, and advised the chiefs not to go with the commissioner then, 
but to wait for Brant, who had gone West. Red Jacket and Cornplanter used 
their influence in favor of Proctor, but Young King, Farmer's Brother, and 
the " Fish Carrier," a Cayuga chieftain, strongly opposed him. Every paper 
delivered to the chiefs was handed over to Butler for his inspection, who went 
back to Fort Erie next day. 

On the 6th of May Red Jacket announced to the commissioner that there 
would be no council held, as the honorable councilors were going out to hunt 
pigeons. Proctor makes special mention of the immense number of pigeons 
found — over a hundred nests on a tree, with a pair of pigeons in each. 

114 History of Warren County. 

On the 7th a private council was held, at which lands were granted to Indi- 
ans of other tribes, who had fled from the Shawanese and Miamis. "Captain 
Smoke," and the Delawares under his charge were assigned to the Cattaraugus 
settlement, where their descendants dwell at the present time. Several Mas- 
sasauga families at the same time had planting-grounds given them near the 
village of Buffalo Creek. 

On the iith Proctor declares that there was a universal drunk; "Corn- 
planter, and some of the elder women excepted," from which it is to be pre- 
sumed that the young women indulged with the rest. 

Finally on the 15th of May the oldest women visited the commissioner and 
declared that they had taken the matter into consideration, and that they 
should be listened to, for, said they: "We are the owners of this land, and it is 
ours;" adding, as an excellent reason for the claim, "for it is we that plant 
it." They then requested Colonel Proctor to listen to a formal address from 
the "women's speaker," they having appointed Red Jacket for that purpose. 

The alarm gun was fired and the chiefs came together, the elder women 
being seated near them. Red Jacket arose, and after many florid prelimina- 
ries announced that the women had decided that the sachems and warriors 
must help the commissioner, and that a number of them would accompany him 
to the West. 

Colonel Proctor was overjoyed at this happy exemplification of women's 
rights, and seems to have thought there would be no further difficulty. He 
forthwith dispatched a letter by the trusty hand of his interpreter, Horatio 
Jones, to Colonel Gordon, the English commandant at Niagara, asking that 
himself and the Indians might take passage on some British merchant- vessel 
running up Lake Erie, since the chiefs refused to make the journey by land or 
to go in an open boat. But Gordon, in the usual spirit of English officials on 
the frontier at that time, refused the permission, and so the whole scheme fell 
through. It was just what was to have been expected, though Proctor does 
not seem to have anticipated it, and it is very likely the whole thing was well 
understood between the British and Indians. 

While it was supposed that Red Jacket and others would go West with 
Proctor, that worthy had several requests to make. Firstly, the colonel was 
informed that his friends expected something to drink, as they were going to 
have a dance before leaving their women. This the commissioner responded 
to with a present of "eight gallons of the best spirits." Then Red Jacket 
remarked that his house needed a new floor, and Proctor offered to have one 
made. Then he preferred a claim for a special allowance of rum for his wife 
and mother, and in fact — well, he wanted a little rum for himself So the 
colonel provided a gallon for the great orator and his wife and mother. Young 
King was not less importunate, but Cornplanter was modest and dignified, as 
became a veteran warrior. But the worthy commissioner made due provision 
for them all. 

From 1791 to 1800. 115 

The projected expedition having thus fallen through, Young King made a 
farewell speech, being aided by "Fish Carrier," the Cayuga, whose "keen 
gravity" reminded Proctor of a Roman senator, and who seems to have been 
a man of great importance, though never putting himself forward as a speech- 

The Indians must have had a pretty good time during Proctor's stay among 
them, since his liquor bill at Cornelius Winne's was over a hundred and thirty 

All this counciling having come to naught. Proctor set out for Pittsburgh 
on the 2 1st of May. He was accompanied as far as the New Arrow's town, a 
distance of eighty miles, by Cornplanter, Half Town, and others of the Alle- 
gheny River Indians. There he hired a canoe and two Indians to paddle him 
to Fort Franklin, where he arrived on the next morning in time to take break- 
fast with Lieutenant Jeffers. At Fort Franklin he hired another canoe and four 
Indians and pushed ofl' for Pittsburgh, which place he says was distant one 
hundred and fifty-six miles ^ by river from Fort Franklin, and was reached in 
twenty-five hours. Thus the journey from Buffalo to Pittsburgh, a distance 
of four hundred and eleven miles, according to Proctor's computation, was 
accomplished in five days and two nights of travel. 

In November of that year ( 1 791) General St. Clair's army met with a crushing 
defeat at the hands of the combined Northwestern tribes, and this disaster, 
together with the pernicious influence of the British, aroused all the worst pas- 
sions of the Iroquois. Their manners toward the Americans became insolent 
in the extreme, and some of their warriors joined the hostile savages. There 
is little doubt that another severe disaster would have disposed a large part of 
them to rise in arms, and take revenge for the unforgotten though well-mer- 
ited punishment inflicted upon them by Sullivan and Brodhead. Yet they 
kept up negotiations with the United States; in fact, nothing delighted the 
chiefs more than holding councils, making treaties, and performing diplomatic 
pilgrimages. They felt that at such times they were indeed "big Indians." 

The years 1792-93 were passed in fear and trepidation by the few Amer- 
ican families living northwest of the Allegheny River in Pennsylvania. Many 
depredations and a few murders were committed by small bands of savages, 
by many believed to be Senecas ; but when Cornplanter was questioned con- 
cerning these outrages, he declared that the Senecas were yet at peace with 
the Americans, and that the hostiles came from the West. In 1794, however, 
affairs in Northwestern Pennsylvania assumed a most threatening aspect. Gar- 
risons of American troops were, and had been for years, maintained at Forts 
Franklin - and Le Boeuf, but when it was proposed to establish a fort and lay 

1 By actual measurement the distance from,FvanUlin, then known as P'ort Franklin, to Pittsburgh by 
river, is only 121 J4 miles. 

2 The first military occupation of Northwestern Pennsylvania by the Americans was in the spring 

ii6 History of Warren County. 

out a town at Presque Isle, the Senecas, including the Cornplanter, declared 
that it should not be done. They flatly repudiated the treaties of 1784 and 
1789, and demanded that a new boundary line should be drawn. Indeed, 
some of them threatened that unless all the lands lying west of the Allegheny 
were relinquished, war would surely take place. 

Baneful British influence was now in the ascendency, and Cornplanter 
finally yielded to it, and to the clamor of his people in their demands for a 
new treat)', new stipulations, or war. In speeches in councils held at Buffalo 
and Le Boeuf, in June, 1794, and at each of which British officers were present, 
this chief was bold in his demands for a new treaty, and threatened that unless 
a vast tract should be restored to the Indians (which territory would have in- 
cluded the greater portion of the county of Warren), dire would be the 

At this time Colonel Andrew Ellicott, the surveyor, was at Fort Le Boeuf, 
and in a letter describing the condition of affairs he said: "The Indians con- 
sider themselves as our enemies and that we are theirs. From this considera- 
tion they never come near the garrison except as spies, and then escape as 
soon as discovered." 

Although the Cornplanter and other Seneca chiefs strenuously denied that 
they were theii acting under British advice and influence, the following extract 
from a letter written by Brant, the Mohawk, clearly proves that they were not 
telling the truth. Possessed of a fair English education, the protege of Sir 
William Johnson of colonial fame — hence thoroughly British in his instincts and 
sympathies and bitterly hostile through life to the Americans — Brant then 
cherished the idea, originated by Pontiac, of building up a great Indian confed- 
eracy, of which he was to be the principal chief, and restricting the control 
of the Americans to the country east of the Allegheny River. The letter 
referred to was dated July 19, 1794, and was addressed to Governor Simcoe, 
of Upper Canada, wherein he says: 

"In regard to the Presque Isle business, should we not get an answer at 

the time limited, it is our business to push those fellows hard 

Should those fellows (the Americans) not go off, and O'Bail, (Cornplanter) 
continue in the same opinion [meaning his recently avowed hostility to the 
Americans], an expedition against those Yankees must of consequence take 
place. His Excellency has been so good as to furnish us with a 100 weight 
of powder, and ball in proportion, which is now at Fort Erie, opposite Buffalo; 
but in the event of an attack upon Le Boeuf people, I could wish, if consistent, 
that his Excellency in addition would order a like quantity in addition, to be 

of 1787, when a comp.iny of United States troops, eighty-seven strong, under the command of Captain 
Jonathan Hart, marched from Pittsburgh to the mouth of French Creek. There he built Fort Frank- 
lin, and there a garrison was maintained (sometimes by State troops) until 1803. During the Indian 
troubles from 1791 to 1794 the troops stationed there rendered impoitant service in protecting the 
early settlers at Meadville, or, as it was then termed, the "Cussewago Settlement." 

From 1791 to 1800. 117 

at Fort Erie in order to be in readiness ; likewise, I would hope for a little as- 
sistance in provisions." 

Again, to further illustrate the position occupied by Cornplanter, and the 
condition of affairs on the Pennsylvania border at that time, the following letter 
from John Adlum (the surveyor of many tracts in Northwestern Pennsylvania) 
to Governor Mififiin is appended : 

"Fort Franklin, August 31"', 1794. 

" Dear Sir : I returned yesterday from a second trip I had to the Corn 
Planter's Town — having been sent for by him to go to the treaty said to be 
held at Buffaloe Creek, near Lake Erie. 

" When I arrived at his Town, which was the 23"' of this Inst., informa- 
tion came that it would not be held until about the 10"' day of Sep'. I, there- 
fore, concluded it best to return to this place. 

" The next day after I got to his town, a party of nineteen Chiefs & war- 
riors arrived from the Grand River, on the North Side of Lake Erie. 

" The Corn Planter had given me notice that such a party were on their way 
to protect their women and children while their chiefs were at council. 

" I told the Corn Planter that such a guard was unnecessary, as the Amer- 
icans wished to live at peace with the Indians. 

" He answered, that we could not know who were our enemies, and it was 
well to be prepared, and insinuated as much as if they feared the Western 
Indians. But, says he, they are wholly under my direction, and nothing is to 
be feared from them ; for they will hunt with my warriors until I know the 
result of Gen' Washington's answer, for they will behave themselves soberly 
and orderly until then. If the answer is favourable to us, they will return to 
their homes ; if not, times will be very bad and troublesome immediately ; 
though, says he, we mean not to make war on women and children, but on 
men, and with the men we mean to fight, and hope the white flesh, as he calls 
lis, will not set us any bad examples ; and the way that these men came to be 
sent here is this : Capt. Brandt sent to us, and desired us to move off the land, 
for that times would soon be dangerous. I answered, we are not afraid to live 
here, and as our corn &c. is planted, we intend to stay and enjoy the fruits of 
our labour. But Brandt sent again, and said that the regard he had for us 
made him very uneasy for our safety. I returned him the same answer as 
before, and added, if you have the regard for us you say you have, send us 
some people to protect us ; and in consequence of this, he sent us these men. 

" There was a M"' Rosencranz with me at the Town — an Interpreter — and 
we staid at the Corn Planter's house while we were at Town, and the General 
conversation of the Indians was about the times, and were very anxious to 
have our opinion whether their request or demand would be granted or not ; 
and the Chiefs concluded their conversation that nothing but the Lands 
required would do, and that they wished to know whether Gen' Washington 

ii8 History of Warren County. 

would grant their request or not. I told them to wait patiently, and the per- 
sons whom the Gen' had appointed would inform them when they met them 
at the treaty. I enquired if money would not do, provided they received an 
annual sum. The Cornplanter answered, it might have done some time ago, 
but at present nothing but the lands would do to make the minds of the Six 
Nations easy. 

" I told him that possibly when he had seen the Commissioners, and con- 
sidered better, that the minds of the Indians might be made easy, and then 
dropped the subject. 

" He laughs at the Idea of our keeping the posts, either at Le Bceuf or the 
Mouth of French Creek, should there be a war, for, he says, it is not possible 
for us to supply them with provisions, as they will constantly have parties along 
the River and path to cut oft" all supplies, and that we soon would be obliged 
to run away from them. 

" I don't know how far it may operate in our favour should Gen' VVaine be 
successful, to the Westward ; but it appears to me that War is inevitable, and, 
I think, Cap' Brandt has a very great hand in it, and his policy is to get the 
whole of the Six Nations on the North Side of the Lakes, as it will make him 
the more consequential, for, at present, there is but a small number of them 

" I have wrote to General Wilson of Northumberland on the subject, a copy 
of which I enclose, and intend writing to Gen' Wilkins and Col. Campbell on 
the same subject. 

"The posts along the Allegheny River, kept by the eight months' men,^ 
are a burlesque on the Military art, at least those that I have seen of them, 
(for the officers and men are generally Jack fellow alike), and I have passed 
them when the men have been lolling about without either guard or Gentry, 
and from Enquiry find it to be too generally the case, and I am certain that 
they might be surprised any day or night by an Inferior number. 

" Capt. Denny has endeavoured to keep up Military discipline at Le Bceuf, 
and has got the ill will of the men generally ; they say he is too severe, but 
from enquiry I cannot find he has punished any of them, although some of 
them deserve death, having been found asleep on their posts. 

" Some of his men mutinied some days ago, and I enclose copies of his and 
Mr. Ellicott's letters on the subject to the commanding officers of this post. 

" The Cornplanter desired Mr. EUicott should attend the treaty and I sent 
a runner to Le Bceuf for that purpose. 

" This post is commanded by an active and vigilant officer, who keeps up 
the strictest discipline, and has made great improvements in the works. It is 
wrongly situated, for should a war take place, fleets of Canoes may pass and 
repass up and down the Allegheny River, without any person being the wiser 

<r^ .-^ ''.. * These troops were Pennsylvania volunteers. 

From 1791 to 1800. 119 

for it; and the ground is of such a nature that the bank of the Creek on which 
it is situated caves in very much ; and a few days ago, after a rain, a great 
piece of the bank fell in with a part of the picketts. The Block-house is in a 
bad condition, as the logs near the foundation are nearly rotted, and the place 
is supplied with cattle instead of salt provisions ; and the cattle will only sup- 
ply the enemy, should they attack the post, and the garrison be obliged to live 
on flour alone. 

"The Cornplanter desired me to give notice that it was unnecessary to 
send any more provisions to Le Bceuf, as the garrison would soon have to 
leave it. 

" The son of the Black Chief at the Cornplanter's town made me a present 
of a hog while I was there, and the morning before I came away Half Town 
informed me he had dreamed that I made a feast and dance with it ; and as it 
is a general custom to give the Indians what they dream for, (provided they 
are not too extravagant), and I wished for an opportunity to get the senti- 
ments of the Indians generally, I told him that he must have it, and superin- 
tend the feast, and that I would buy another, that the whole Town might par- 

" It is the custom of the Indians, at such times, to set up a post and strike 
it, and brag of the feats they have done, or those they intend. Some of the 
old chiefs were very delicate, and only told of their feats against the Chero- 
kees, as they said they might injure my feelings if they mentioned any thing 
concerning the whites ; others wished General Washington would not grant 
their request, that they might have one more opportunity of shewing their 
bravery and expertness in war against us. 

"The Cornplanter bragged often, and appeared to speak as if war was cer- 
tain. In one of his brags he gave me a pair of Moccasins, saying, as he 
addressed himself to me : ' It is probable we shall have war very soon. I wish 
every person to do their duty to their Country, and expect you will act your 
part as becomes a man ; and I see your moccasins are nearly worn out. I give 
you this pair to put on when you come out to fight us.' I took them and 
thanked him, and said I would reserve them for that purpose. Du Quania, 
who headed the party of Indians from the North Side of the Lakes, in one of 
his brags, said, That he was always an enemy to the Americans ; that he 
served the King last war, and when peace was concluded he moved over the 
Lakes, which some said was through fear. ' But,' says he, ' you see it is not 
so, for I still love the King and hate the Americans, and now that there is like 
to be danger, you see me here to face it.' The Indians in General seemed to 
wish me to suppose that the British had no hand in the present business, but 
from several things they related to me, it appeared plain that they are at the 
bottom of it. 

" I think it would be but prudent to cover the frontier of this state (until 

History of Warren County. 

the event is known) with some light companies from the Counties adjoining 
the frontier Counties, and those companies of the frontier Counties that are 
not immediately on the frontier, for where attacks may be made the people 
will be obliged to turn out and defend themselves. If the Indians are not sat- 
isfied they will, I think, certainly make a stroke some time between the 25^'' 
Sep' and the Middle of October; and if they do not go to war the troops may 
return home, otherwise they will be ready to meet them ; and the settlements 
ought not to be broke up if possible to prevent it, which, I think, may be done. 
I expected to hear, with General Washington's answer to the Indians, of the 
whole frontier being covered with troops from this State, New York, &c, and 
if the Indians would not put up with reasonable terms, to march into their 
country immediately, and destroy their corn and provisions, and probably 
drive them over the Lakes, as every avenue into their country is well known, 
and we could go into it with every advantage that any people can have in 
such an enemy's Country. 

" I am. Dear Sir, Respectfully, 

" Your Most H*"''' Serv', 

"John Adlum." 

But it was destined that the treaty proposed by the Senecas should not take 
place, nor their sanguinary threats be enforced in case of a refusal to accede to 
their demands, for, eleven days prior to the date of Adlum's letter, a battle 
had been fought in the West, which, when its results became known, entirely 
changed the current of thought and conversation among those chiefly inter- 
ested — the Americans, the British on the frontier, and the Indians, including 
the Six- Nations. 

It appears that during the spring and summer of 1794 an American army 
was assembled at Greenville, in the present State of Ohio, under the command 
of General Anthony Wayne, a bold, energetic, and experienced commander 
of Pennsylvania troops during the Revolutionary War. His force consisted of 
about two thousand regulars, and fifteen hundred mounted volunteers from 
Kentucky. To oppose him the Northwestern tribes had collected their fighting 
men, amounting to nearly three thousand warriors, near a British fort erected 
since the treaty of 1783, and in violation of its obligations, at the foot of the 
Maumee Rapids. They were well supplied with arms and ammunition obtained 
at the British posts at Detroit and on the Maumee, and felt confident of defeat- 
ing Wayne. But " Mad Anthony " was a difierent kind of general from those 
who had previously commanded in the West, and when, on the 20th of Au- 
gust, the opposing forces of white men and red men met in conflict at the Mau- 
mee Rapids, or in the " Battle of the Fallen Timbers," the savages were quickly 
defeated and fled with the utmost precipitation from the field. 

Not long afterward a white trader met a Miami warrior who had fled before 
the terrible onslaught of Wayne's soldiers, and asked him : 

From 1791 to 1800. 

"Why did you run away?" 

With gestures corresponding to his words, and endeavoring to represent 
the effect of the cannon, he replied : 

"Pop, pop, pop — boo, woo, woo — whish, whish, boo, woo — kill twenty 
Indians one time — no good, by damn ! " 

Robinson, a young half-breed Pottawatomie, afterwards one of the princi- 
pal war chiefs of his tribe, was also engaged in the battle against Wayne, and 
in late years was in the habit of describing it very clearly. It appears that the 
chiefs of the allied tribes had selected a swamp for the battle-ground. They 
formed, however, half a mile in front of it, on the summit of a gentle elevation, 
covered with an open growth of timber, with no underbrush, intending, when 
Wayne attacked them, to fall back slowly, thus inducing the Americans to fol- 
low them into the swamp, where the Indians would have every advantage, and 
where they expected to gain certain victory. But " Mad Anthony " soon dis- 
arranged their plans. As explained, a large part of his little army was com- 
posed of mounted Kentuckians, and these were formed in front of his infantry. 
After a few rounds from his artillery, always very trying to the nerves of the 
red men, he ordered the mounted men to advance. The Indians had never 
seen men fight on horseback, and supposed they would dismount before reach- 
ing the top of the ridge. But instead of that they began to trot, then drew 
their sabres — those terrible "long knives" which always inspired the Indians 
with dread, then broke into a gallop, and the next moment were charging at 
the top of their horses' speed, "yelling like hell," as Robinson expressed it, 
swinging their swords, and looking like demons of wrath, as they truly were 
to the astonished red men. 

" Oh," said Robinson, " you ought to have seen the poor Indians run 
then ! " 

They gave but one random shot each, and fled as fast as possible toward 
the swamp. But it was too late. The mounted Kentuckians burst through 
them like a cyclone, and then wheeled about to cut off their retreat, while the 
infantry came up on the double-quick and barred their escape in that direc- 

" Oh," the chieftain would continue, " it was awful ! " 

Robinson admired his conqueror so much that he named one of his sons 
" Anthony Wayne," and always expressed the most profound respect for that 
dashing soldier. 

The Senecas had runners at the scene of conflict, and it is quite probable, 
too, that quite a number of them were there in readiness to participate in the 
expected slaughter of the Americans. Hence, when they brought back the 
news of the tremendous punishment inflicted on their Western friends, all the 
Iroquois in Western New York and Northwestern Pennsylvania resolved to be 
"good Indians." The clamor for war was no longer heard, neither did Corn- 
planter seem inclined to give away any more moccasins. 

History of Warren County. 

It was assumed, however, by the general government that the Iroquois 
had not received fair treatment at the hands of the State authorities and grasp- 
ing, unscrupulous land corporations. Therefore, in the fall of that year (1794) 
the chiefs, sachems, and warriors of the Six Nations were summoned to meet 
Colonel Thomas Pickering, the United States commissioner, in council at Can- 
andaigua, N. Y., and there state their grievances. They responded promptly 
to the summons, and a treaty was concluded with them November 11, 1794, 
by the provisions of which the United States agreed to give the New York 
Iroquois $10,000 worth of goods, and an annuity of $4,000 annually in cloth- 
ing, domestic animals, etc. It was also fully agreed that the Senecas should 
have all the land in New York west of Phelps's and Gorham's Purchase, except 
the reservation a mile wide along the Niagara. Thus were Cornplanter's 
followers in New York provided for, and to those reservations did they all go 
from Pennsylvania, except one hundred or more who remained with him at 

On the part of the Indians the articles of this treaty were signed by Corn- 
planter, Half Town, Red Jacket, Farmer's Brother, and fifty-five other chiefs 
of the Six Nations. It was the last council at which the United States treated 
with the Iroquois as a confederacy. William Johnston, an English adherent, 
came there and was discovered haranguing some of the chiefs. It was believed 
that he was acting in behalf of the British, to prevent a treaty, and Colonel 
Pickering compelled him to leave quite unceremoniously. 

On the 4th of July, 1796, Fort Niagara was surrendered by the British to 
the United States; Fort Ontario, at Oswego, being given up ten days later. 
This strengthened the impression made on the Indians by Wayne's victory, 
and confirmed them in the disposition to cultivate friendly relations with the 

During the same year Cornplanter made a rather remarkable little speech 
at Fort Franklin to an assemblage composed of both whites and Indians. He 
thanked the Almighty for permitting him and his white neighbors to meet 
together again in peace. And continuing, as if in extenuation of the hostile 
attitude assumed by him two years before, said that he had met many people, 
and that all nations were liars; that the Western Indians, as well as the whites, 
had lied to him; that he had been deceived in council and told things which 
were lies, but believing them to be true, had repeated the same to his young 
men and warriors, and thus he had been made a liar. He lamented that such 
had been the case, and hoped that honesty, truthfulness, and sobriety would 
prevail in the future in the dealings betwen his people and the whites. 

In the mean time events of a more pacific nature had taken place in, and in 
relation to, the region soon to be known as Warren county, which will here 
receive a passing notice. Thus, soon after the passage of the celebrated Actual 
Settlement law of April 3, 1792, "a company of Hollanders seeking an invest- 

From 1791 to 1800. 123 

ment of their surplus funds, purchased the claim of John Adlum and Samuel 
Wallace to a large body of lands in this part of the State. For these they had 
warrants issued and surveys made in the names of Herman Le Roy and John 
Linklain. These names were used to evade the law, which, at that time, for- 
bade aliens from holding titles to lands in this State. On these warrants most 
of the land in this county, north and west of the Allegheny River and Cone- 
wango Creek, was surveyed and appropriated and originally owned by the Hol- 
land Land Company. In January, 1794, the same company of Hollanders 
procured one thousand warrants for nine hundred acres each, and in what was 
then called the New Purchase, being for land east of the Allegheny river. A 
part of these warrants were located on and covered most of the land in this 
county east of the river." 1 

On the 1 8th of April, 1795, "in order to facilitate and promote the prog- 
ress of settlements within the Commonwealth, and to afford additional secu- 
rity to the frontiers by the establishment of towns," an act was passed by the 
State Legislature, providing for laying out towns at Presque Isle, at the mouth 
of French Creek, at the mouth of Conewango Creek, and at Fort Le Boeuf 

This act provided, so far as it related to the town to be laid out at the 
mouth of the Conewango, that the commissioners to be appointed by the 
governor "shall survey or cause to be surveyed three hundred acres for town 
lots, and seven hundred acres of land adjoining thereto for out lots, at the 
most eligible place within the tract heretofore reserved for public use at the 
mouth of Conewango Creek ; and the lands so surveyed shall be respect- 
ively laid out and divided into town lots and out lots, in such manner, and 
with such streets, lanes, alleys, and reservations for public uses, as the said 
commissioners shall direct; but no town lot shall contain more than one third 
of an acre, no out lot shall contain more than five acres, nor shall the reserva- 
tions for public uses exceed in the whole, ten acres; and the town hereby last 
directed to be laid out, shall be called 'Warren,' and all the streets, lanes, and 
alleys thereof, and of the lots thereto adjoining, shall be and remain common 

The same act further provided that the troops stationed or to be stationed 
at Fort Le Bceuf should be used to protect and assist the commissioners, sur- 
veyors, and others while engaged in executing the provisions of the act. The 
commissioners appointed by the governor to make surveys, etc., were General 
William Irvine and Andrew Ellicott Their duty was well performed during 
the same year (1795), and in August of the following year the lots in the new 
towns of Warren, Erie, Franklin, and Waterford were first offered for sale at 
auction at Carlisle, Pa. 

At this time, too, the agents of the Holland Land Company were busily 
engaged in directing the survey of lands lying west of the Allegheny River. 

Judge S. I'. Johnson. 

124 History of Warren County. 

They offered special inducements to actual settlers, and soon after a few of the 
latter class found their way into the heavily timbered region now known as 
Warren county. The interests and necessities of the land company hastened 
occasional entries into the unbroken forests. The law of their title, as it then 
stood, required an actual resident settlement to be made on every four hun- 
dred acre tract within two years, to give it validity as against a squatter. 
While the company made no attempt at a strict compliance with this require- 
ment of the law, they adopted the policy of importing and locating settlers on 
their lands at convenient points and distances apart, both as a decoy to west- 
ern-bound emigrants and as a police to protect their other lands from the entry 
of intruders. To these men they sometimes gave settlement contracts, donat- 
ing to each settler one hundred acres upon their perfecting a settlement upon 
a certain tract, by " a residence thereon for five years, erecting a messuage for 
the habitation of man, and clearing two acres for every one hundred acres 
contained in one survey." For the supply of their surveyors and settlers, as 
early as 1795 they erected a block storehouse on the bank of the river near the 
mouth of the Conewango, which was the first building ever erected by Eng- 
lish-speaking whites within the limits of the present borough of Warren. To 
this depot they shipped supplies from Pittsburgh by keel boats. This first 
structure remained in a good state of preservation for many years, and its 
grimy roof and walls afforded shelter and protection to considerable numbers 
of the early residents during the first days passed by them in Warren. 

In 1798, by an act of Assembly, the Allegheny River from its mouth to 
the northern boundary of the State, Conewango Creek from its mouth to the 
State line, and Brokenstraw Creek from its mouth up to the second fork were 
declared to be public and navigable streams for the passage of boats and rafts. 

On the I ith of April, 1799, another act was passed requiring the governor 
to direct the surveyor-general to make actual surveys of the reserved tracts of 
land adjoining the towns of Warren, Franklin, Erie, and Waterford, which 
had not been laid out in town or outlets, and to lay off the same into lots not 
exceeding one hundred and fifty acres in each. Also that in each of the 
" said reserved tracts the quantity of five hundred acres be laid off for the use 
of such schools or academies as may hereafter be established by law in the said 
towns." Under this law Colonel Alexander McDowell, of Frankin, then dep- 
uty surveyor, was appointed to make the surveys, which dutj' he faithfully dis- 
charged in the summer of 1799. This is the origin of the reserve tracts that 
bound the town of Warren on the north, and of the academy lands that adjoin 
them on the west, and are skirted by the river. 

Soon after the organization of the county of Warren "the trustees of the 
Warren academy lands, with a surprising lack of foresight, commenced to lease 
these lands, in fifty acre lots, to settlers for ninety- nine years, upon annual rents 
that were scarcely more than nominal. By this oversight, and the negligence of 

The Era of Formation, from 1800 to 18 19. 125 

the representatives in the Legislature from this county to procure the passage 
of a law to authorize the sale of the legal title to these lands, the educational 
interests of the borough and county have lost the use of a great many thou- 
sand dollars, and the young men of the town and county desirous of an educa- 
tion, for forty years had to go without it, or go elsewhere to acquire the nec- 
essary academic education to entitle them to admission into a college, except 
during the short time the Warren Academy was kept in operation under the 
administration of Hon. R. Brown and others." 1 



Formation of Warren County — Its Original Boundaries— Temporarily Attached to Crawford 
County — Crawford County Organized — Erection of Brokenstraw Township — It Becomes the 
First Election District of Crawford — Warren County Annexed to Tenango in 1805 — Broken- 
straw Still Continues as the Sole Township of Warren County— It's Taxable Inhabitants in 
1806— Who were the First Settlers— A Mooted Question— An Order to Erect New Townships 
— Early Inn-Keepers — Division of the County into Two Townships — Their Names and Bound- 
aries — Their Taxable Inhabitants in 1808— Visited by Western Indians — A Want of Confidence 
— Council Held with Cornplanter — Veterans of the War of 1812-15 — A Transfer of Lands by 
the Holland Land Company — Cornplanter as He Appeared in 1816 — The Taxables of the 
County During the Same Year — Subsequent Rapid Increase in Population. 

THE year i Boo was made memorable in the history of Pennsylvania by 
the erection of several new counties in the northwestern quarter of the 
State, from territory which had been temporarily attached to organized coun- 
ties whose seats of justice were hundreds of miles distant. Thus, by an act of 
the State Legislature passed March I2, of that year, the counties of Beaver, 
Butler, Mercer, Crawford, Erie, Warren, Venango, and Armstrong were 
formed from territory previously embraced by Westmoreland, Washington, 
Allegheny, and Lycoming counties.^ Warren was formed from Allegheny 

1 Hon. S. P.. Johnson. 

2 Soon after its acquisition from the Indians, by the treaties of Forts Stanwix and Mcintosh, the 
northwestern part of Pennsylvania, as its boundaries were then described, was attached to the county 
of Westmoreland, by an act of the Supreme Executive Council, passed April 8, 17S5; it being 
referred to in the said act, as " a part of the late purchase from the Indians." On the 24th of Septem- 
ber, 1788, Allegheny county was formed from portions of Westmoreland and Washington, with bound- 
aries from the mouth of Puckety's Creek, "up the Allegheny River to the northern boundary of the 
State ; thence west along the same to the western boundary of the State ; thence south along the 
same to the River Ohio ; and thence up the same to the place of beginning," /'. c, the mouth of 
Flaherty's Run, on the south side of the Ohio River. Lycoming county was formed from Northum- 
berland, April 13, 1796, and its western boundary, for a great distance, was the Allegheny River. 

126 History of Warren County. 

and Lycoming counties, and the clause of the act relating to its boundaries 
reads as follows : 

"That so much of the counties of Allegheny and Lycoming, as shall be 
included within the following boundaries, viz. : Beginning at the southeast 
corner of Crawford county, in the north line of the sixth donation district ; 
thence the course of the said line eastwardly across the Allegheny River, until 
it shall intersect the line dividing Johnson's and Potter's districts, in the 
county of Lycoming; thence northerly along the said line to the line of the 
State of New York ; thence westwardly along the line of the said State to the 
corner of Erie county ; thence southerly by the eastern boundaries of the 
counties of Erie and Crawford, to the place of beginning." 

The same act further provided that the place for holding courts of justice 
within the county should be the town of Warren. Also, that the governor be 
empowered to appoint three commissioners to run, ascertain, and mark the 
boundary lines of the county ; that the commissioners be paid the sum of two 
dollars per day while so engaged, and that the boundaries described be run 
"on or before the 15 day of June next." William Miles, Thomas Miles, and 
John Andrews, the latter being then a resident of the county, were named in 
the act as commissioners for Warren county, but what their duties were, or 
what they did, if anything, does not appear. 

It was further provided by this act that the counties of Crawford, Mercer, 
Venango, Warren, and Erie {" until an enumeration of the taxable inhabitants 
within the aforesaid counties respectively shall be made, and it shall be other- 
wise directed by law") should form one county under the name of Crawford 
county. Meadville thus became the seat of justice for a vast, sparsely settled 
region, and people of to-day can hardly realize the vicissitudes experienced by 
the pioneers who, when obliged to visit the county seat to transact legal or 
other business, or were summoned to attend courts, etc., were compelled, in 
going and returning, to travel from seventy-five to one hundred and fifty miles 
through dense forests, and along winding, partly-overgrown Indian trails — 
providing the "trails" led in the right direction — otherwise the undertaking 
was still more hazardous. 

Only a few weeks had passed after the passage of the above-mentioned 
act ere the county of Crawford was duly organized as a separate division of the 
State, and its first oflicers installed in office. The first session of court was 
held in the upper story of William Dick's residence, on the northeast corner of 
Water street and Cherry Alley in Meadville. The record of this session begins 
as follows : " At a Court of Common Pleas held and kept at Meadville, for the 
county of Crawford, the seventh day of July, Anno Domini, One thousand eight 
luuulred, before David Mead and John Kelso, Judges present, and from thence 
continued by adjournment until the ninth day of the same month inclusive." 
Mead and Kelso were only associate judges, and not learned in the law. Their 

The Era of Formation, from 1800 to 18 19. 127 

attention at this time was chiefly directed to the admission of attorneys, to the 
erection of townships, the issuing of Hcenses, and the appointing of certain 
township officers. 

During the second session of the court of Crawford county, held at the 
place above described in October, 1800, Hon. Alexander Addison presiding, 
the first grand jury met. It was during this term, also, that the township of 
Brokenstraw (the original township of Warren county) was erected. The order 
of court respecting this subdivision reads as follows : " In pursuance to sundry 
petitions presented, the court directed the following Townships to be laid off." 
" Also all that part of Warren County situate west of River Alle- 
gheny and Conawango Creek be erected into a township and the name thereof 
to be Brokenstraw." (See Docket No. i, page 1 1, Judicial Records of Craw- 
ford County.) Judge Addison resided at Pittsburgh, and was a gentleman 
possessed of a fine mind and great attainments, but he was subsequently im- 
peached and removed from office, because of his absolute refusal to allow an 
associate judge to charge a jury after his own charge had been delivered. 

On the 2ist of February, 1801, another act was passed relating to the new 
county of Warren, by the provisions of which it was denominated the First 
Election District of Crawford County, and the electors residing therein were 
directed to hold their general elections at the house of Robert Andrews, wha 
then lived in the Brokenstraw valley, or where Pittsfield now stands. 

This arrangement continued until April i, 1805, when an act was passed 
providing for the organization of Venango county from and after September i 
of that year. By the same legislative act Warren county was detached from 
Crawford and annexed to Venango for judicial and all other purposes of gov- 
ernment ; thus becoming part of the Sixth Judicial District, of which the Hon. 
Jesse Moore was then serving as president judge. 

Venango county was duly organized in the fall of 1805, and the first term 
of court was held at Franklin, in December of that year. During the follow- 
ing year the first assessment rolls for the newly organized county were com- 
pleted. Those rolls have been carefully preserved (as seems not to have been 
the case with early papers of the same class in Crawford county), and from 
them we have obtained the most complete and authentic list of the original 
pioneers of Warren county now available, and now published for the first time. 
Brokenstraw was still the only township in Warren county, and its taxable 
inhabitants in 1806, together with the amount and kind of taxable property 
owned by each, were as follows : 

Arthur, John, 170 acres land, i cow, 4 oxen 

and i of saw-mill. 
Andrews, Robert, 900 acres land, 2 horses, 3 
cows, I saw-mill and 2 inlots in Warren. 

Addison,' Alexander, 2 outlets in Warren. 
Armstrong, George, 2 outlets and 2 inlots in 

Adams, William, 400 acres land, i horse. 

1 This was Judge Addison, of Pittsburgh. And here we are reminded that of those named in the 
following list of taxahles, only those who were assessed {ox personal property can be counted with cer- 
tainty as actual residents during the years mentioned. 


History of Warren County. 

Andrews, James, single man, i inlot in War- 

Andrews, John, 600 acres land, 4 horses, 2 
cows, 4 inlets and i outlot in Warren. 

Arthur, William, 70 acres land, i cow, i 
horse, 1 inlot in Warren. 

Arthur, Robert, single man. 2 outlets in War- 

Anderson, Samuel, 1 50 acres, i cow. 

Baldwin, Jonathan, single man, 400 acres 
land, I cow. 

Brown, John, 400 acres land, i cow, 2 horses. 

Brown, James, single man, 100 acres land, i 

Barr, John, 100 acres land, 2 cows, 2 oxen. 

Budd, Benjamin, single man. 

Biles, Charles, 400 acres land, 1 cow. 

Buchanan. Andrew, i cow. 

Bonner, Robert, 400 acres land, i cow. i 

Banjer, Mathew, 134 acres land. . 

Bell, John, 400 acres land, i cow, i horse. 

Bell, Mary. 100 acres land. 

Bell, Robert, i cow, single man. 

Cole, Benjamin, 100 acres land, i cow. 

Culbertson, James, 400 acres land. 

Crawford, John, i cow. 

Chamberlain, Stout, 200 acres land, i cow, i 

Coneway, George. 400 acres land. 

Carpenter, William, 100 acres land, 2 horses, 
2 cows. 

Carpenter, John, single man, i horse. 

Cochran, William, I cow, i horse. 

Culbertson, James, Jr., 250 acres land, i cow, 
2 o.xen, 2 inlots in Warren. 

Corbelt, Daniel, 250 acres land, i horse, i cow, 

1 inlot in Warren. 

Corbett, William, 1 inlot in Warren. 

Corbett, Isaac, i inlot in Warren. 

Call, Daniel. 200 acres land, 2 cows, i horse, 

2 oxen. 

Call, Dennis. 200 acres land, i cow. 
Cunningham, Richard, single man, 400 acres 

Carr, David, 200 acres l.ind at mouth of the 

Craig, Isaac, 1,080 acres land. 
Davis, Elijah, 100 acres land, 2 cows, 2 oxen. 
Davis, Abraham, single man. 100 acres land, 

I ox. 
Davis, John, 100 acres land. 

Dougherty, Charles, single man. 

Dickson, John, 100 acres land, i cow, i horse. 

Davis, William, 150 acres land, i cow, 2 

Davis, Thomas, 1 50 acres land. 
Eagan, William, 700 acres land, i horse, 2 

oxen, I inlot in Warren. 
Eddy, Zachariah, 400 acres land, 2 cows, 2 

o.xen, I inlot in Warren. 
Evers, Andrew, 200 acres land, 2 oxen. 
Evans, William, single man. 
Elder James, 400 acres land, i horse, i cow, 

2 oxen. 
Elder, John, 400 acres land. 1 cow, single 

Ford, Samuel, 400 acres land, single man. 
Felton, John, 100 acres land. 
Ford, William, single man. 400 acres land, i 

horse, l inlot in Warren. 
Foster, William B., single man, i horse. 
Frampton, John. 50 acres land, I cow. 
Frampton, Nathaniel, 100 acres land, I horse, 

1 cow. 

Ford, John, 100 acres land, I cow, 2 oxen. 
Frew, Hugh, 200 acres land, 3 cows. 
Fenton, George W., single man. 
Gray, Joseph, 400 acres land, i cow, i horse, 

2 inlots in Warren, 550 acres " up the 

Groves, Thomas W., 200 acres land, 2 cows. 

Granger, Eli, single man. 

Gibson, Samuel, 400 acres land, i inlot in 

Gibson, Gideon. 2 cows. 2 oxen, 2 inlots in 

Gilson, John, 2 cows, 1 horse, 2 oxen, 2 inlots 

in Warren. 
Gibson, Erastus, 2 inlots in Warren. 
Gibson. Jacob. 400 acres land, 3 cows, 2 oxen. 
Grippin, William, single man. 
Goodwin, Joseph, single man, i cow. 
Huffman, Philip, 400 acres land, 2 cows, 2 

Hildebrandt. (ieorge, 400 acres land, 2 cows, 

2 oxen. 
Hildebrandt, George, Jr., 400 acres land. 
Hildebrandt, Solomon, 400 acres land. 
Hicks. John, 400 acres land, 2 cows. 
Hicks, Levi, 400 acres land, 2 cows, i horse. 
Hicks. Gershom, i cow. 
Hare. Michael, 100 acres land, i cow. 
Hare, James, 100 acres land. 

The Era of Formation, from 1800 to 18 19. 


Hunter, Robert, 400 acres land, i cow, 2 oxen. 
Henderson, Richard, 400 acres land, i cow. 
Henry, William, single man. 
Hunter, Garrett, 400 acres land. 
Huffman, Jacob. 100 acres land, 2 cows, I 

Houghy, John, 400 acres land. 
Hood, John, 100 acres land, 2 cows, i horse. 
Irvine, Callender, 800 acres land east of the 

Allegheny River, 2op acres land opposite 

Irvin, James, 400 acres land, i cow, 2 oxen. 
Jackson, Daniel, 130 acres land, 2 cows, i 

horse, 2 o.xen, 2 inlots in Warren, i saw-mill. 
Jackson, Daniel, Jr., 400 acres land, 2 cows, 

1 inlot in Warren. 

Jackson, Ethan, 200 acres land, 2 cows. 2 

oxen, I horse, 2 inlots in Warren. 
Jackson, Elijah, 150 acres land, 2 cows. 
Jones, Isaiah, 329 acres land, 2 cows, 2 oxen. 
Jones, Daniel, 3 cows, i inlot in Warren. 
Justice, James, 250 acres land, 2 cows, i horse. 
Justice. John, 2 oxen. 
Jones, Edward, single man. 
Jobes, Samuel, single man, i horse. 
Kennedy, Thomas R., 5 outlots in Warren. 
Linn, James, 100 acres land, i cow, I horse. 
Long, George, 400 acres land, i cow, i horse, 

2 oxen, I saw-mill. 
Long. John, single man. 

Long, John, Sen'. 200 acres land. 

Lapsley, William, 400 acres land, i cow, i 

Lynch, George, i cow. 
Miller, John, single man, 100 acres land. 
McKinney, Michael, 200 acres land, 2 cows, 

I horse. 
Marsh, Mulford, 400 acres land, i cow, 2 oxen. 
McGinty, Daniel, 400 acres land. 
Morrison, Jeremiah, 133 acres land, 2 cows, 2 

oxen, J pt. saw-mill, i inlot in Warren. 
Morrison, Samuel, 133 acres land, 2 oxen, ^ 

part saw-mill, i inlot in Warren. 
Morrison, James, 183 acres land, 2 cows, 2 

oxen, i part saw-mill. 
Morrison, John, 400 acres land, 2 cows, i 

horse, 2 inlots in Warren 
Morrison, James, Sen', 4 oxen, 3 cows. 
Morrison, William, single man, 2 inlots in 

Morrison, Ephraim, single man, i inlot in 


Murdock, Abijah, 1 1 inlots and 6 outlots in 

Warren, single man. 
McClain, Neil, 200 acres land, 2 oxen, 2 cows. 
McClain, John, 150 acres land. 
Murdock, Galen, 100 acres land, 2 cows, i 

Murdock, Moses, 100 acres land, 2 cows. 
Miles, Robert, 1650 acres land, 2 cows, 2 

McClav, Charles, 1 50 acres land. 
Marsh, John, 800 acres land, i cow, 2 oxen, i 

outlot and 4 inlots in Warren. 
Marsh, Hugh, 500 acres land, 2 cows, 2 oxen, 

I horse, 3 outlots and 2 inlots in Warren. 
Mead, Darius, 300 acres land, 2 oxen, 3 cows, 

1 saw-mill, ^ grist-mill. 

Mead, Joseph, 400 acres land, 3 cows, i horse, 

2 oxen, I saw-mill, ^ grist-mill, 2 inlots in 

McOuay, Daniel, 400 acres land, 2 oxen. 
McNair. Charles, single man. 200 acres land, 

I horse. 
Murphy, Jesse, 200 acres land, i cow. 
Maxwell. William, 400 acres land, 2 cows, 2 

McCue, Daniel, 100 acres land. 
Morrison, Hugh, 400 acres land, i horse, i 

McGuire, Hugh, 400 acres land, I cow, i 

McClain, William, 100 acres land, 2 cows, 2 

McDowell. Alexander, 9 outlots and 4 inlots in 

Warren, 1 1 acres Reserve. 
McKinney, Barnabas, 100 acres, i cow, i 

horse, 2 oxen, \ saw-mill. 
McKinney, John, 500 acres land, 2 oxen, 2 in- 
lots in Warren. 
Miner, Allen S., single man. 
Neville. John, 400 acres land. 
Olds, Gilbert, 100 acres of land, i "stear," i 

Peelman, Christopher, single man, 100 acres 

land, I cow, 2 oxen. 
Peelman, John, 100 acres land. 
Prosser, Daniel .Sen', single man, i cow, i 

Prosser, William, 100 acres land. 
Prosser, Daniel Jr., 100 acres land. 
Prosser, Isaac, 100 acres land. 
Putnam, Michael, 133 acres land. 
Putnam, Nathaniel, 133 acres land. 


History of Warren County. 

Portman,' John, 800 acres land, 2 cows, 2 

Ross, Stephen, 400 acres land, I cow, i horse, 

1 saw-mill. 

Reese, Martin, 2 cows, i horse, 2 oxen, 117 
acres Reserve lands, i in lot in Warren. 

Reese. Martin, Jr., single man, one horse. 

Rogers, James, single man, one horse. 

Russell, John, 200 acres land, 3 cows, 2 oxen. 

Russell, Thomas, single man. 100 acres, i cow. 

Russell, Robert, 100 acres land, l cow, 2 
oxen, I inlot in Warren. 

Robertson, Jonathan, 200 acres land, 2 cows, 

2 oxen. 

Rinard, Isaac, 400 acres land, 2 cows, 2 horses. 

Stuart, John, 100 acres land, i cow. 

Stuart, James, 200 acres land, i horse. 

Stuart, William, single man, too acres land. 

Shelletto, Edward, 400 acres land, i cow. 

Shipman, James, 100 acres land, i cow, 2 

Stiles, John, 400 acres land, i cow, 2 oxen. 

Stage, Samuel, 50 acres land, 3 inlots and 2 
outlets in Warren. 

Slone, George, 400 acres land, 3 cows. 

Smith, John, single man. 

Swar, Jacob, 2 inlots in Warren. 

Simon, T. G. V., 200 acres land, i cow, 2 

Stewart, James, single man. 

Sims, James, single man, 400 acres land, i in- 
lot in Warren. 

Shearer, Joseph, single man, i horse. 

Sims, William, 150 acres land, i cow, 2 horses, 
I inlot in Warren. 

Spitler, William, 2 horses, 2 cows. 2 oxen. 

Sample, John, i cow. 

Stearns, EUesus, 200 acres land. 

Sample, John, Jr., 150 acres land, i horse, 2 

Stewart, Richard, icx5 acres land. 1 cow, 2 

Smith, Charles, 400 acres land, i cow. 
Tyler, Joel, single man, 200 acres land, i cow. 
Thompson, Aaron, 400 acres land, i cow, i 

Thompson, Daniel, 400 acres land, i horse. 
Thompson, Alex;inder, 50 acres land. 
Talmage, Levi, single man. 
Welch, Samuel, 800 acres land, 2 cows, 2 

horses, 2 oxen. 
Winton, David, single man, 200 acres land. 
Watts, John, Jr.. single man. 150 acres land, 

I ox. 
Wilson, Hugh, 300 acres land, i cow, 2 oxen. 
White, Alfred, 100 acres land, 2 cows, 2 oxen. 
Wilson, William, 600 acres land, i horse, 2 

oxen, 2 cows, 2 inlots in Warren. 
Wilson, James, 200 acres. 
White, Giles, 100 acres land, 2 cows, 2 oxen. 
Wales, Moses, 400 acres l.ind, 2 oxen. 
Wilson, Samuel, 400 acres land, i cow, 2 

Wright, Isaiah, single man. 1 horse, 3 inlots 

in Warren. 
Woods, John, 400 acres land. 
Watts, Alexander, single man, 200 acres land. 
Watts, James, single man, 300 acres land. 
Watts, John, 2CX3 acres land, i cow, 2 oxen. 
Waldo, Frederick, 400 acres land, 2 cows. 
Young, John, 2 inlots in Warren. 
York, Amos, 100 acres land. 2 cows. 
Young, Mathew, single man, 400 acres land, 

] saw-mill. 
Young, Christopher, 400 acres land, 2 horses, 

single man. 

1 At the June term of court, 1821, John Portman, then seventy-one years of age and living with 
Hugh Marsh, made aftidavii that he enlisted in August, 1776, in a company commanded by Captain 
Moses Carson in the Eighth Regiment of the Pennsylvania Line, Continental Army. The regiment 
was commanded by Colonel Enos McCay until his death, and subsequently by Colonel D. Brodhead ; 
that he (Portman) continued under the command of Carson until he (Carson) revolted, when the com- 
pany was commanded by Captain John Findlay, with whom he served till the close of the war. The 
affidavit further states that Portman was engaged in the battles of Brandywine and Boundbrook and 
various skirmishes. He was taken prisoner at the battle of Brandywine and confined at James Island, 
S. C, but escaped the evening before the British evacuated Charleston. 

The old veteran was then (1821) an insolvent debtor, and this statement was made under oath, to 
the end that he might avail himself of a recent act of Congress, passed for the relief and immunily from 
imprisonment of old soldiers thus circumstanced. 

The Era of Formation, from 1800 to i8i§. 131 

The assessor for that year was Hugh Marsh, and the total amount of the 
tax levied upon the taxable property in the township, or county rather, was 
$441 -I si- 
Here, then, are shown the names of two hundred and six of the earliest 
residents of Warren county, the representatives of a population of nearly one 
thousand people, or a much greater number than has heretofore been supposed 
to have existed here at that time. But to determine who among them was 
the first settler, or the first dozen families to settle in the county, is an imprac- 
ticable task. It is probable, however, that if it should be asserted that the 
Andrews, Arthur, Brown, Bonner, Corbett, Call, Davis, Evers, Elder, Framp- 
ton, Frew, Gray, Gibson, Gilson, Hufi'man, Hildebrandt, Hicks, Hare, Irvin, 
Jackson, Jones, Long, McQuay, Marsh, Morrison, Miles, Mead, McKinney, 
McDowell, Prosser, Reese, Russell, Stewart, Slone, Sample, Thompson, Welch, 
Watts, Wilson, and Young families were among the very first, and that they 
became residents here during the years from 1 797 to 1 802, the assertion would 
not be far from being correct. 

It has been claimed that settlements were made in Pine Grove and Colum- 
bus townships prior to 1795, but from facts already set forth in previous chap- 
ters, viz.: that the Indians, including Cornplanter's band, were hostile until 
1795; that the British did not evacuate forts on the American side of the line 
until the following year; that this immediate region ofiered no special induce- 
ments for settlement over others situated in less dangerous localities; that this 
territory had not then been surveyed and legally opened to settlements, and 
that so far as authentically known no settlements existed in all this part of the 
State prior to 1795, other than those at the mouth of French Creek, and at 
Meadville, and those composing these settlements were glad to seek the pro- 
tection of Forts Franklin and Le Boeuf until long after Wayne's victory — we 
do not believe that any permanent settlements were effected in Warren county 
until about 1796-97. True, a block-house had been erected at Warren about 
1795, but this was intended for the storage of supplies, etc., sent here for the 
use of those engaged in surveying the lands of the Holland Company, and 
when their work was completed, or when winter came on, it is but natural to 
presume that these men returned to their homes. However, for more detailed 
accounts of early settlements the reader is referred to township histories, and 
the personal sketches to be found in other pages of this work. 

At the June term, 1806, of the Court of Common Pleas and Quarter Ses- 
sions, held at Franklin by the Hon. Jesse Moore and his associates, Samuel 
Dale, John Andrews, and Thomas Beard were appointed by the court as com- 
missioners to lay oft" the county of Venango and the territory annexed to it 
"into convenient districts for townships." Dale and Beard resided in Venango, 
and Andrews in Warren county. Their report was not rendered until nearly 
two years afterward. It will be referred to, however, in its proper place. 

132 History of Warren County. 

In December of the same year Daniel Jackson, of the town of Warren, and 
Giles White, of Brokenstraw township, were recommended to the governor 
by the court as suitable persons to keep houses of public entertainment. One 
year later Salmon Fuller, a millwright, was licensed to keep a public house in 
Conewango township. These were the first persons licensed to "keep tavern" 
in Warren county of whom we have authentic knowledge. 

It seems that a division of the county into two townships had been accom- 
plished as early as June, 1807, for we find Daniel Jackson and Joseph Gray 
then mentioned as the constables respectively of Conewango and Brokenstraw 
townships, but the announcement had not yet been made by court; hence the 
names of the taxable inhabitants for that year were all shown upon the lists 
made out for Brokenstraw township. 

The names appearing upon the rolls in 1807, for the first time, were those 
of Benjamin August, a tailor, James Alden, Thomas Bell, James Bonner, An- 
drew Clark, John Carpenter, jr., Joseph Cole, James Cole, George Carpenter, 
owner of one-half of saw-mill, James Dosser, Samuel Fancher, John Garner, 
Daniel Horn, John Hines, Cornelius McCue, James McLister, a shoemaker, 
Robert McNamara, Humphrey Miller, William Mead, Joseph Page, Charles 
Smith, Ezra Tillotson, Nathan Winton, and Joseph Watts. 

At March sessions, 1808, of the Court of Common Pleas, etc., held at 
Franklin, the report of the commissioners appointed in 1806 to lay out town- 
ships in the counties of Venango and Warren was acted upon, and so far as it 
related to the two Warren county townships, was promptly approved. The 
boundaries of these townships were then described as follows: 

"Beginning at the South East corner of Warren County, thence by the line 
thereof west to the west boundary of a Tract of land surveyed to the Holland 
Land Company on Warrant No. 3194, thence north to the Allegheny river, 
thence down the same to the West end of the Reserve of Warren, thence by 
the same to the north west corner, thence in a northerly direction to the south 
east corner of a tract surveyed on warrant in the name of George Lex, thence 
north to the line dividing the tracts surveyed on warrants in the name of Caleb 
and Paul Cato, thence west to the line dividing the tracts surveyed on warrants 
in the name of Stephen and Simon Nim, thence north to the northern bound- 
ary of said county, thence East by the same to the Eastern boundary, thence 
south by the same to the place of beginning, to be called Conewango Town- 

"Beginning at the north west corner of Conewango township, thence by the 
line of Warren County west to the western boundary of said county, thence by 
the same south to the southern boundary thereof, thence by the same East to 
the south west corner of Conewango township aforesaid, thence by the same to 
the place of beginning, to be called Brokenstraw Township." 

This division, as will be noticed, placed the jurisdiction of the eastern part 

The Era of Formation, from 1800 to 18 19. 


of the county under Conewango township, and the western part under that of 
Brokenstraw. The rolls for that year (1808) show that Conewango township 
then contained one hundred and thirty-nine taxable inhabitants, and Broken- 
straw one hundred and seventeen — a gain of fifty in two years. Their names, 
etc., were as follows: 

Conewango : 
Andrews, John, i outlot and 6 inlots in War- 
Andrews, Robert, 2 inlots in Warren. 
Andrews, James, i inlot in Warren. 
Armstrong, George, 2 outlets and 2 inlots in 

Addison, Alexander (dec"), 2 outlets, 2 inlots 

in Warren. 
Allen, Hugh, 3 inlots in Warren. 
Arthur, Robt., i cow. 
Arthur, James, i horse. 
Arthur, William, 1 10 acres, I horse. 
Baldwin, Henr>', 43 inlots in Warren. 
Butler, Samuel, 2 inlots in Warren. 
Barr, John, too acres, i cow, 2 oxen. 
Brown, John, Sen', 300 acres, i cow. 
Brown, John, Jr., i cow. 
Brown, James, 100 acres. 
Brown, David, 200 acres, 2 horses, i cow, 2 

oxen, 2 inlots in Warren. 
Budd, Benjamin. 
Baird, James, 200 acres, 2 oxen. 
Baird, Edward, i cow. 
Biles, Charles, 400 acres, 2 oxen. 
Clemons, Jacob, 12 inlots in Warren. 
Corbett, Daniel, 3 inlots in Warren. 
Cole, John, i cow, 2 oxen. 
Cole, Benjamin. 100 acres, i cow, 2 oxen. 
Colt & Marlin, 400 acres, i saw-mill, 2 oxen, 

2 cows. 
Cole, Cornelius, 100 acres, 2 horses, 3 cows. 
Craig, Isaac, 1,688 acres. 
Campbell, John, single man. 
Campbell, Samuel, 2 horses, i cow. 
Cheeks, Nathaniel, 1,000 acres, I cow, i ox. 
Dickson, John, one inlot in Warren. 
Dougherty, Charles, 3 inlots in Warren. 
Davis, William, 2 inlots in Warren. 
Dike, Isaac, 2 inlots in Warren. 
Dale, Samuel, i inlot in Warren. 
Davis, William, 1 50 acres, 2 horses, 2 cows. 
Davis, Thomas, i 50 acres. 
Egan, William, 400 acres, i horse, l cow, 2 oxen 
Eddy, Zachariah, 400 acres, i horse, i cow, 2 

oxen, 2 inlots in Warren, asssesor for 1808. 

Ford, William, 5 inlots in Warren. 
Foster, William B., 4 inlots in Warren. 
Frew, Hugh, 200 acres, 2 cows, 2 oxen, i 

Fuller, Salmon, 2 cows, i horse, 141 inlots in 

Warren, millwright by occupation. 
Graff, Andrew, 4 inlots in Warren. 
Goodwin, Jacob, 600 acres, 2 horses, 2 cows, 

2 oxen, 2 inlots in Warren, ^ saw-mill. 
Greenwalt, Mathias, i cow, i ox. 
Gray, Joseph, 2 inlots in Warren. 
Geer, Asa, 2 cows. 
Goodwin, Joseph, 125 acres. 
Hurst, Henry, 2 inlots in Warren. 
Hill & Torbett, 10 inlots in Warren. 
Hackney, Joseph, 6 inlots in Warren. 
Harper, Elisha, 2 inlots in Warren. 
Hood, John, 100 acres of land, i horse. 
Hadley, Stephen, 66 acres, ^ saw-mill. 
Hawley, John, 1 50 acres. 
Jones, Isaiah, Esq., 329 acres, i cow, justice 

of the peace. 
Jackson, Daniel, Sen', 133 acres, 2 horses, 4 

cows, 8 lots in Warren, i saw-mill, justice 

of the peace. 
Jackson, Daniel, Jr., 400 acres, i horse, i cow, 

I inlot in Warren. 
Jackson, Ethan, 470 acres, 2 cows, 2 oxen, 2 

inlots in Warren, i saw-mill. 
Kennedy, Thomas R., 6 outlets in Warren. 
King, John, single man. 
Kerson, John, 200 acres, i cow. 
Kerson, Samuel, i cow. 
Lynch, George, i cow. 
Lapsley, William, 200 acres, 2 cows. 
McKinney, Michael, 400 acres, i horse, 2 cows, 

I ox. 
McDowell, Alexander, 3 outlets and 6 inlets 

in Warren. 
McNamara, Robert, i outlot and 12 inlots in 

McNair, Charles, 2 inlots in Warren. 
McKinney, John, 2 inlots in Warren 
Murdeck, Abijah, 100 acres, i cow, 4 oxen, i 

saw-mill, 18 inlots in Warren. 
Murdeck, Moses, 100 acres, 2 cows, 2 oxen. 


History of Warren County. 

Murdock, Galen, i cow. 

Marsh, John, 200 acres, i horse, 3 cows, 4 
oxen, 2 outlots and 2 inlots in Warren. 

Marsh, David, 100 acres, i cow, I horse, i in- 
let in Warren. 

Marsh, Mulford, 400 acres, 4 cows, 3 oxen, 2 
outlots and 6 inlots in Warren. 

Morrison, Samuel, 133 acres, i cow, 2 oxen, 
2 inlots in Warren, f of saw-mill. 

Miles, Robert, 1,400 acres, 2 horses, 3 cows, 
2 oxen. 

McClay, Cliarles, 1,200 acres, 6 inlots in War- 

Miles, William, 200 acres. 

Marsh, Hugh, 400 acres, i horse, 2 cows, 4 
oxen. I bull, 2 outlots and 3 inlots in War- 

McGintv, Daniel, 100 acres, 1 cow, i saw- 

McClain, Neal, 200 acres, 2 horses, 2 cows. 

McClain, John, 200 acres, 2 cows, 2 oxen. 

Mullen, John, 3 inlots in Warren. 

Morrison, John, 400 acres, 2 cows, 2 inlots in 

Morrison, Jeremiah, 400 acres, i cow, 4 oxen, 
I inlot in Warren, .| saw-mill. 

Morrison, James, Jr., 65 acres, i cow, 2 o.xen, 
I inlot in Warren, 

Morrison, James, Sen', 2 cows, 2 oxen. 

Morrison, William, 200 acres, 1 cow, 2 oxen, 
I inlot in Warren. 

Murphy, Jesse, 200 acres, 2 cows, 2 oxen. 

Neville, John, i cow. 

Owen, John, i cow. 

Powers, George, 38 inlots in Warren. 

Pastorius, William, i inlot in Warren. 

Parmlee, Lothrop S., single man. 

Phillips, Ira, 66 acres, J saw-mill. 

Peelman, Christopher, 100 acres, i horse. 

Portman, John, 100 acres, 3 cows. 

Portman, James, 100 acres. 

Russell, Thomas, 100 acres. 

Russell, Robert, 100 acres, i cow, i inlot in 

Warren, millwright by occupation. 
Russell, John, Sen', 100 acres, 2 cows, 2 oxen. 
Russell, John, Jr., 100 acres, 2 oxen. 
Ross, Stephen, 400 acres, 2 horses. 2 cows, 2 

oxen, I saw-mill, i inlot in Warren. 
Robertson, Jonathan, 275 acres, i cow, 2 oxen. 
Reilly, James, 1 inlot in Warren. 
Rason. Jacob, 2 inlots in Warren. 
Reese, Martin, Sen', i horse, 2 cows, 2 oxen, 

7 outlots and i inlot in Warren. 
Reese, Martin, Jr., 117 acres. 2 oxen. 
Reese, John, 2 inlots in Warren. 
Ramsey, Robert, 100 acres, i cow. 
Swar, Jacob, 2 inlots in Warren. 
Sherman, Elisha, i inlot in Warren. 
Stiles, John, 375 acres, 2 cows, 2 oxen. 
Stewart, William. 100 acres, i horse. 
Slone, George, 2 cows, a blacksmith. 
Shipman, James, 100 acres, i cow. 
Stuart, James, 200 acres, 2 cows. 
Stuart, John, 100 acres, i cow. 
Smith, John, 4 inlots in Warren. 
Sims. William, Jr., i inlot in Warren. 
Simons, Titus A., i inlot in Warren. 
Simons, David S.. i inlot in Warren. 
Stage, Samuel, 300 acres, 2 horses, i inlot in 

Schoonover, Christopher, 400 acres, i horse, 

2 cows. 
Thompson John, 3 inlots in Warren. 
Tyler Joel, 200 acres, i cow. 
Uppenhouser, Hendrick, i horse. 
Wright, Azariah, 4 inlots in Warren. 
Work, Edward, 4 inlots in Warren. 
Wilson. Hugh, i inlot in Warren. 
Woodworth, Joseph, 200 acres. 2 oxen. 
Woodworth, Isaac, 200 acres. 
Waldo, Frederick, 200 acres, 2 cows. 
Young, Jotham, single man. 
York. Amos, 100 acres, 2 cows. 

The rate per cent, on real and per- 

Reed. James, i inlot in Warren. 

Single men were taxed 75 cents each 
sonal estate was six mills on the dollar. 

The total amount of valuation was $75,140.80-^, and the court of appeals 
was ordered to be held at the house of Daniel Jackson. 

Brokenstraw : 
August, Benjamin, tailor, i cow. 
Andrews, James, 100 acres. 
Andrews, Robert, 300 acres, 2 horses, 2 cows, 

I .saw-mill, and justice of the peace. 

Andrews, John, 600 acres. 2 oxen, i horse, 4 

cows, 2 stills. 
Arthur, John, 1 50 acres. 4 saw-mill, 2 oxen, 2 

Adams, William. 100 acres, 2 horses. 

The Era of Formation, from 1800 to 18 19. 


Adkins. James, i horse, single man. 
Buchanan, Andrew, blacksmith, lOO acres, 2 

oxen, 2 cows. 
Bonner, Robert, 400 acres, i grist-mill, i saw- 
mill, I cow, 1 horse. 
Berry, George, 100 acres. 
Bell, Robert, single man. i yoke oxen. 
Bell, John, 500 acres. 
Bonner. Francis, single man. millwright. 
Bonner. James, single man. 
Chamberlain, Stout, 250 acres. 
Campbell, James, i horse. 
Campbell, Samuel, i horse, i cow. 
Crawford, John, 200 acres, 2 oxen. 
Culbertson, James, 450 acres, i saw-mill, 2 

oxen, 2 cows, i horse. 
Cover, George, single man, i horse. 
Corbett, Daniel, 350 acres, i saw-mill, 2 yokes 

oxen, 2 horses, i cow. 
Call, Daniel, 200 acres, 2 oxen, i cow. 
Call, Dennis, 150 acres. 
Call, John, 150 acres. 
Cochran, William, 2 oxen, i cow. 
Carpenter. William, Sen', 250 acres, 2 cows, 

I horse. 
Carpenter. John. 1 50 acres, i saw-mill. 2 oxen. 

I horse. 
Carhart, Stophel, single man. 
Cunningham, Richard, 200 acres. 
Collins, Jonathan, 100 acres, i cow. 
Davis, Elijah, 100 acres, 2 oxen, i cow. 
Davis, John. 100 acres. 
Davis, Abraham, 100 acres, 2 oxen. 
Evers, Andrew, 200 acres, 2 oxen, i cow, i 

Elder, James, Jr., i horse, i cow. 
Elder, John, 100 acres. 
Frampton, John, 250 acres, 2 oxen, 3 cows, i 

Ford. William. 200 acres, i ox, i cow. 
Fancher, Samuel, 100 acres, i horse, i cow. 
Ford, Obediah, single man. 
Groves, Thos. W., 400 acres, 2 oxen, i cow. 
Gray, Joseph, 600 acres, 2 horses, 2 cows, 2 

Green, James, 2 oxen, I cow. 
Hare, James, 100 acres. 
Hare, Michael, 100 acres, i cow. 
Henry, William, cabinet maker, i cow. 
Huffman, Jacob, 200 acres, 4 oxen, i horse, 

I cow. 
Henderson, Richard, 400 acres, 2 oxen. 

Hunter. Robert, 4 acres, i cow. 

Hinds, John, blacksmith, 400 acres, 2 oxen. 

Hildebrandt, George, Jr., 100 acres. 

Hildebrandt, Solomon, 100 acres. 

Hildebrandt, George, Sen', 100 acres, 2 oxen, 
I cow, millwright by trade. 

Hicks, Levi, 100 acres, 2 cows, i ox, i horse. 

Hicks, John, 100 acres, 2 horses, i ox, i cow. 

Horn, Daniel, 100 acres, i horse. 

Pluffman, Philip, 395 acres, 3 horses, i cow. 

Justice, John, 1 horse, 2 oxen. 

Justice, James, 200 acres, i cow. 

Irvin, James, 200 acres, 2 horses, 2 cows. 

Irvin. George, 100 acres. 

Jackson. Elijah, 150 acres, 2 oxen, i horse. 

Jones, Daniel, 100 acres, 2 cows. 

Jones, Edward, single man. 

Long, John, Jr, 200 acres, 1 cow, 2 oxen. 

Long, John, Sen', 160 acres. 

Cover & Horn, 400 acres, I saw-mill. 

Long, George, 2 oxen, i horse, i cow. 

Linn, James, 100 acres, i horse, i cow. 

McQuay, Daniel, 400 acres, 2 o.xen. 

Miller, Humphrey, 2 cows, i horse. 

McKinney, Barnabas, 4 oxen. 

NcNair, Charles, 700 acres. 

Maxwell, William, 400 acres, i horse, 2 cows. 

Mead, Joseph, 400 acres, 4 oxen, 3 cows, i 
horse, I saw-mill. 

Mead, Darius, 500 acres, i grist-mill, i saw- 
mill, 6 oxen, 3 cows, 2 horses. 

McClain, William, 100 acres, 2 horses, 2 cows. 

McGuire, Patience, 400 acres, 2|oxen, 2 cows. 

Miller, John, 100 acres, i horse, i cow. 

McGahan, William, 2 oxen, I cow. 

McKinney, John, 200 acres, 3 oxen, 2 horses, 
3 cows, i saw-mill. 

Mead, William, too acres, i horse. 

McLister, James, shoemaker, 100 acres, 2 

McCullough, Robert, single man. 

Mead, John, single man. 

Olds. Gilbert, shoemaker. 

Prosser, William, 100 acres, 2 oxen, i cow. 

Prosser, Daniel, 100 acres. 

Prosser, Isaac, 100 acres. 

Putnam, Nathaniel, 266 acres, 2 oxen, i cow, 
I horse, f of saw-mill. 

Porter, Andrew, 100 acres. 

Page, Joseph, 100 acres, i cow. 

Rhinehart, Isaac, 100 acres, 3 cows, i horse. 

Sims, James, 400 acres. 

136 History of Warren County. 

Sims, Catharine, 2 oxen, 2 cows, i horse. 
Sample, John, 150 acres, 2 horses, 1 cow. 
Siggins, William, i yoke of o.xen. 
Sample, John, Sen', i cow. 
Smith, Charles, 100 acres, i cow. 
Stewart, Richard, 100 acres. 
-Tuthill, Francis, 200 acres, i cow. 
Thompson, Daniel, 100 acres, 2 horses. 
Thompson, Thomas, single man. 
Wilson, Samuel, 400 acres. 2 oxen, i cow. 
Wilson, William, 400 acres. 
Watts, James, 300 acres, 2 oxen, i horse. 

Watts, Alexander, 500 acres. 

Winton, Nathan, 2 oxen, 2 cows. 

Winton, David, 133 acres, 2 oxen, i saw-mill. 

White, Alfred, 100 acres, 3 cows. 

White. Giles, 100 acres, 4 oxen, 3 cows, 2 

Watts, John, too acres, i horse, i cow. 
Williams, John L., 50 acres. 
Willison, James, 100 acres, i cow. 
Welch, Samuel. 500 acres, 3 horses, 2 cows. 
Wilson, Hugh, 300 acres, i cow, i horse. 
Young. Mathew. 400 acres, J saw-mill. 

Hugh Wilson was the assessor. The tax upon single men and the rate per 
cent, upon real and personal estate were the same as in Conewango township. 
The total valuation of taxable property in the township was $58,766.99, and 
the house of Robert Andrews was named as the place for holding a court of 

In June, 1808, a delegation of Wyandot and Seneca Indians from San- 
dusky River passed through Warren and up the Allegheny River, on their way 
to a council with the Seneca nation. They were bringing a friendly message 
from the Ohio tribes, to allay any fears of an Indian outbreak in that locality. 
During the same summer some twenty or thirty Senecas, from their reservation 
on the Allegheny, went to Sandusky, where a council was held with the West- 
ern tribes. They also passed over the same route going and returning, and it 
was learned that the council's deliberations related principally to the existing 
differences between the United States and England, and in the event of a war 
they had decided to observe a strict neutrality. This decision, however, proved 
of very little stability, as the Senecas sided with the United States, while most 
of the Western Indians, through the influence of Tecumsch, assisted by British 
gold, went with England. 

When the War of 18 12-15 broke out, a want of confidence began to be 
manifested between the inhabitants of Northwestern Pennsylvania and the In- 
dians on the Allegheny River, which excited some uneasiness, lest disagreeable 
consequences might result from it. To quiet all apprehensions, the citizens of 
Meadville held a meeting, and deputized General David Mead, Colonel Joseph 
Hackney (afterwards for many years a well-known citizen of Warren), and 
Major Patrick Farrelly to visit the Indians and ascertain their disposition in 
the coming war with England ; also to make what explanations might be 
deemed necessary to continue the good understanding that had hitherto exist- 
ed with these tribes. A council was held at Jennesadaga, Cornplanter's village 
on the Allegheny, at which were present a number of chiefs and warriors of 
the Seneca nation, among whom were Cornplanter, Silver Heels — the old 
prophet, who, it has been stated, was a brother of Cornplanter — Joseph Beads, 
John Purfer, Major Henry O'Bail and Charles O'Bail, sons of Cornplanter. 

The Era of Formation, from 1800 to 18 19. 137 

When the council assembled Cornplanter welcomed the delegates and wished 
to hear from them. Major Farrelly explained the object of their mission, viz., 
to preserve the peace and friendship heretofore existing between the whites 
and Indians. After a short consultation with the other chiefs Cornplanter 
replied, reciprocating the sentiments expressed by Major Farrelly, whereupon 
the council broke up with the best of feelings. 

At this period a treaty existed between the Senecas and the United States 
government which provided that if a white man should kill an Indian, or vice 
versa, the culprit would have to pay $200 to the friends or heirs of the mur- 
dered man. Though this might now be regarded as very questionable justice, 
yet it helped to establish a feeling of confidence among the Senecas, which 
made them the allies of this nation in the War of 1812— 15, though every effort 
was made by the agents of the British government to seduce them from their 
allegiance to the American cause. To Cornplanter's influence was due this 
happy result, as after the Revolutionary War (with the exception of the year 
1794) he was always the steadfast friend of the young republic in her struggle 
against English arrogance, which was exhibited on every occasion, until the 
War of 1 81 2-1 5 taught her to respect the rights of American freemen. Corn- 
planter, then an old man of about four score years, took no active part in that 
war, but many of the Senecas, including his son. Major Henry O'Bail, and his 
half-brother, Half- Town, were conspicuous in the last struggle against English 

Of the white residents of Warren county who served in the last war^ 
against Great Britain but little can be said, since it is an impracticable matter 
to ascertain who they were, how many there were, or where they served. But 
there is no room for doubt that the two townships furnished their full quota of 
soldiers and that the men who marched to the scene of conflict well performed 
the duty assigned them. 

During the year 18 13 "the Holland Land Company sold to the Lancaster 
Land Company one hundred and seventy thousand acres of land, mostly situ- 
ated in Warren county and covering the territory now included in Mead, 
Pleasant, Kinzua, Cherry Grove, and Sheffield townships. The latter com- 

1 On the 15th of June, 1869, a number of the surviving soldiers of the War of 1812-15 met in 
Warren. Hon. William Siggins was chosen president of the meeting and Robert Miles secretary. 
They passed resolutions regarding the granting of pensions to soldiers of the last war with England, 
and were hospitably entertained by L. L. Lowry, Esq., at the Carver House, with a dinner sumptuous 
in its appointments. The veterans present were as follows : Zachariah Eddy, of Warren, aged ninety 
years ; Robert Miles, of Warren, aged seventy-si.\ years ; Stephen Olney, of Warren, aged seventy- 
eight years ; John Geer, of Glade township, aged seventy-eight years ; Emanuel Crull, of Tidioute, 
aged eighty years ; Caleb Thompson, of Pine Grove township, aged eighty-four years ; Isaac Davis, 
of Brokenstraw township, aged seventy-seven years ; John Brown, of Brokenstraw township, aged 
seventy-three years ; William Siggins, of YoungsviUe, aged eighty years ; Isaac Lopus, of Pittsfield, 
aged seventy-seven years ; Elisha Sterling, of Limestone, aged eighty-one years. Ira Badger, of Pine 
Grove, aged seventy-four years, and Joseph Ackley, of the same township, aged seventy-nine years, 
were also veterans of the same war, and living at that time, but were unable to attend the meeting. 

138 History of Warren County. 

pany immediately employed Samuel Dale, of Franklin, to re-survey and sub- 
divide the original surveys into small lots of one hundred and sixty-five and 
two hundred and twenty-five acres each. This work was performed in 1814, 
numbering them anew from one to seven hundred and seventy. These lands 
have ever since been bought and sold, taxed and mapped, by these subdivision 
numbers. In 18 16 these lots were partitioned among the several members of 
the company and the titles made to each in severalty. 

"The hard times which followed the close of the War of 1812-45 seems to 
have crushed the ability or the spirit of these Lancaster gentlemen for further 
land speculation. Commencing with 1816, those lands began to be sold for 
taxes, and soon a great portion of them were in the tax market, .sold and 
resold many times for unpaid taxes, for thirty years and upward, before their 
value was properly appreciated. Many other lands in the county, especially 
those in the northwestern part, between the river and Conewango Creek, have 
passed through the unseated tax mill and are now held by treasurers' deeds. 
It is proper here to say, for the benefit of outsiders and new-comers, that the 
tax titles by which so large a portion of the land in the county is now owned, 
are generally very reliable and safe ones to deal in. They are free from com- 
plication, and it has been the policy of the law and the courts to sustain them, 
when not vitiated by gross irregularities." ' 

In the summer of 1816 Rev. Timothy Alden, before mentioned as the 
founder of the Allegheny College, set out on a brief missionary tour among 
the Indians residing on the upper waters of the Allegheny, and spent some 
days at the village of the venerable chieftain, Cornplanter. Upon his return 
to Meadville he wrote a letter to the Rev. Joseph McKean, of Harvard Uni- 
versity, giving an account of his labors, etc., wherein he says : " Cornplanter, 
as soon as apprised of our arrival, came over to see us, and immediately took 
charge of our horses. Though the chief Sachem of his tribe, and having many 
around to obey his commands, yet, in the ancient patriarchial style, he chose 
to serve himself, and actually went into the field, cut the oats, and faithfully 
fed our beasts from time to time, while we continued in the place, in ipsa per- 
sona propria 

" Cornplanter has been the greatest warrior the Scnecas have ever had ; 
yet he has always been remarkable for his humane treatment of the women 
and children of his enemies, who at any time have fallen into his hands. He 
is a man of strong mind and masterly eloquence. At the treaty of Fort Stan- 
wix, he greatly distinguished himself by his talents and address, insomuch that 
by general suffrage he has ever since held the first place of power among the 
chiefs of his nation. 

" He appears to be about si.xty-eight years of age." [Mr. Alden was mis- 
taken as to Cornplanter's age. He was born about 1732, and in i8i6was 

I Hon. S. P. Ji)linson. 

The Era of Formation, from 1800 to 18 19. 139 

eighty-four years old.] " His countenance is strongly marked with the lines 
of intelligence and reflection. Contrary to the aboriginal custom, his chin is 
covered with a beard three or four inches in length, and upon his head are 
many of the blossoms of age. His house is of princely dimensions compared 
with the generality of Indian huts, and has a piazza in front. He is the owner 
of about 1,500 acres of excellent land, 600 of which encircle the ground-plot 
of his little town. From the United States he receives, annually, according to 
stipulation, $250, besides his proportion of $9,000 equally divided, one half 
in goods and one half in money, among those of every age and condition in 
the tribe." 

At this time (18 16) the tax-paying inhabitants of the county were as 
follows : 

Coiicivaiigo Toivnsliip. — Samuel Anderson, James Arthur, who owned a 
saw-mill, Robert Arthur, Sen"', Boon Arthur, James Akin, Adam Acker, John 
Brown, John Brown, Jr., John Barr, David Brown, a tanner, and justice of the 
peace as early as 1 8 1 1 , Andrew Buchanan, Ozias Barrett, Joseph Bailing, 
John Cole, James Cole, Benjamin Covel, Isaiah Cole, Cornelius Cole, Samuel 
Campbell, Josiah Chandler, Charles Chandler, John Chandler, Charles 
Dougherty, William Davis, Thomas Davis, Ezra Devereaux, Henry Dunn, 
Levi Doan, who owned a saw-mill, Zachariah Eddy, Randall Evans, Daniel 
Faulkner, Stephen Frank, who owned a grist-mill, Robert Falconer, Luther 
Freeman, Joseph Fitch, Eli Granger, Widow Gilson, Joseph Gray, Asa Geer, 
Joseph Goodwin, Hackney & Harriott, owners of a saw-mill, Jacob Hook, who 
owned a saw-mill, John Hood, Samuel Hunter, owner of a grist-mill and saw- 
mill, William Hodge, Ebenezer Jackson, Daniel Jackson, David Jackson, 
Isaiah Jones, justice of the peace, Jehu Jones, Edward Jones, John King, 
John Littlefield, Levi Morrison, Hugh Marsh, John Marsh, Webster Marsh, 
Jesse Murphy, owner of a grist and saw-mill, John Marsh, Jr., Michael McKin- 
ney, Joseph Mead, Ephriam Morrison, Samuel Morrison, owner of a saw-mill, 
Elisha Morrison, James Morrison, Sen", William Morrison, John Morrison, 
Robert Miles, Widow Miles, John Miles, James Morrison, Jr., William Mile^ 
Samuel Magee.i John McClain, John Neville, Joseph Northrup, Abraham Os- 
born, Eben Owen, a blacksmith, James Portman, Squire Phillips, John Rus- 
sell, Jr., Thomas Russell, Martin Reese, Jr., John Reese, Robert Russell, 
Michael Reese, John Russell, Sen^ Stephen Rogers, Rankin & Cochran, owners 
of one-half of a saw-mill, Martin Reese, Sen', Christopher Schoonover, James 
Stanton, Simeon Scowden, James Stewart, Jr., Robert Stewart, William Stew- 

1 At the Tune term of Court of Common Pleas, 1821, one James Magee, an insolvent debtor, then 
eighty-six years of age, mnde statement under oath that early in 1776 he enlisted in the State of Dela- 
aware in a company commanded by Captain Lattimore, called the "Wilmington Greens," for a term 
of fifteen months. Subsequently he re-enlisted in the same State in a company commanded by Captain 
Mitchell. His company was attached to Colonel Grayson's regiment of the Virginia Line, and served 
till 17S0. Mr. Magee participated in the battles of Brandywine, Paoli, Germantown, and Monmouth. 

I40 History of Warren County. 

art, Thomas Stewart, James Shipman, David Sturdevant, George Sweet, 
Jonathan Thompson, Caleb Thompson, and Asa Winter, owner of grist 
and saw-mills. 

Brokenstraw Township. — Robert Andrews, justice of the peace, Arthur 
Andrews, James Andrews, William Arthur, Robert Arthur, owner one-half of 
saw-mill, Thomas Arthur, John Arthur, James Arthur, Richard Arthur, Na- 
than Abbott, George Berry, James Bonner, owner of a grist-mill and saw-mill, 
Samuel Burnett, Peter Burgett, owner of saw-mill, Robert Bell, Isaac Bucka- 
lew, Thomas Boyd, James Benson, Thomas Burbank, George Carpenter, James 
Culbertson, owner of a saw-mill, Alexander Clantz, Luther Chase, Daniel 
Corbett, owner of a saw-mill, John Courson, Stephen Carhart, George Cover, 
Henry Catlin, John Campbell, David Courson, John Camp, a millwright, Sam- 
uel Cole, David Dalrymple, Mark Dalrymple, Clark Dalrymple, David Dal- 
rymple, Jr., Robert Donaldson, Abraham Davis, John Davis, Isaac Davis, Eli- 
jah Davis, Abraham D. Ditmars, Benjamin Davis, Thomas Duprey, a black- 
smith, Richard Duprey, John De France, James Darling, owner of saw-mill, 
John Elder, James Elder, Andrew Evers, Nathaniel Frampton, Obediah Ford, 
Samuel Ford, Isaac L. Fitch, John Gardner, Joseph Grant, Jacob Goodwin, 
who owned a saw-mill and one-half of a grist-mill, Joseph Gray, owner of a 
saw-mill, John Gillespie, merchant at Youngsville, John Gregg, Samuel Gregg, 
Nehemiah Gray, John Gibson, James Green, Daniel Horn, owner of saw-mill, 
John Hamilton, a blacksmith, William Hunter, Poland Hunter, William Hare, 
James Hamilton, Robert Hunter, Richard Henderson, Joel Hill, Daniel Hough- 
wout, a joiner, Paul Huffman, Jacob Huffman, James Irvin, John Irvine, a mer- 
chant, Callender Irvine, Septimus King, Henry Kinnear, a merchant, Elijah 
Jackson, George Long, Cookson Long, owner of saw-mill, Hewlett Lott, Har- 
monious Lott, a merchant, William McClain, Solomon Miles, Richard Miller, 
William McGee, Patience McGuire, William McGuire, David Matthews, Arthur 
McGill, Samuel McGuire, Thomas McGuire, Samuel Moore, John McKinney, 
owner of saw-mill, Barnabas McKinney, John Mead, William Mead, Anna 
Mead, owner of one-half grist-mill and one-half saw-mill, Daniel McQuay, 
Charles McNair, Ephraim Miles, Humphrey Miller, Nathaniel Norris, Stephen 
Norris, James Phillis, Robert Prather, owner of saw-mill, Samuel Peoples, John 
Peoples, Leonard Pike, Thomas Page, Jonathan Rute, James Sturdevant, James 
Sturdevant, Jr., Peter Simons, George Shultz, Jesse Sims, Charles Smith, 
Adam Shultz, David Stillson, Abraham Strickland, Thomas Sims, Richard 
Stewart, John Sample, Jr., George Siggins, Samuel Sprague, William Siggins, 
Stephen Sweet, William Smith, Robert Thompson, John Thompson, John Tut- 
tle, Thomas Tubbs, James Williams, James Watts' heirs, William White, Henry 
White, Samuel White, James White, Parsons Wetmore, Lansing Wetmore, Will- 
iam C. White, Canvas B. White, Hugh Wilson, Joshua Whitney, Alexander 
Watts, Amos York, Nehemiah York, Christopher Young and Mathew Young. 

From the Organization ok the County until 1830. 141 

This is a remarkable showing, as compared with the list of taxables of eight 
years before, and clearly proves that hard times, cold seasons, litigations con- 
cerning land titles, and the War of 18 12-15 h'^d proved disastrous to the new 
settlements in Warren — had discouraged many and caused them to migrate 
to more congenial parts farther West ; for, although this list discloses many 
new names, yet the number of tax-paying inhabitants in 18 16 is exactly the 
same as that of 1 808 — two hundred and fifty-six. During the next four years, 
however, a rapid increase in population took place ; for when the county was 
organized in 18 19 it contained nearly two thousand inhabitants. 



Onerous Duties Imposed Upon Early Inhabitants — Passage of the Ai-t of Organization — 
Its Provisions — Initial Proceedings of County Commi.ssioners — The First Term of Court — 
Its Officers — Jurors — Attorneys — Early Inn-keepers — Reminiscences Concerning the First 
Term of Court — Population of the County in 1820 — New Townships formed in 1821 — The 
Attempts to Collect Taxes from Cornplanter — The Old Chief Victorious — The Hook Murder 
Trial — Incidents Connected Therewith — Results — Other Early Events. 

FOR five years the inhabitants of Warren county had plodded their weary 
way from their log cabins in the wilderness, over the hills to Meadville, 
when it was necessary to transact public or legal business, and for fourteen 
years more had they made toilsome journeys to Franklin, a distance of sixty- 
five miles from the then hamlet of Warren, when business of the same nature 
imposed its duties upon them. This condition of affairs at last became too 
onerous and irksome to be longer borne without an effort being made to effect 
a change. Hence in the winter of 1818-19 Colonel Joseph Hackney, of the 
town of Warren, then representing Venango county in the State Legislature, 
introduced a bill providing for the separate and independent organization of 
the county of Warren. His efforts were crowned with almost immediate suc- 
cess, and on the i6th day of March, 18 19, an act containing the legislation de- 
sired was passed 

This act provided that Warren should be organized as a separate county 
from and after October i, 1819, and be attached to the Sixth judicial district. 
Also, that the legal electors should choose county officers at an election to be 
held on the second Tuesday of October of that year, whose duties were to be 
considered as commenced from the first day of October, 18 19. We have no 
evidence, however, that such an election was held, and from the fact that 

142 History of Warren County. 

Lansing Wetmore's commissions as prothonotary, clerk of courts, register and 
recorder, etc., were signed by the governor, September 25, 18 19, it is believed 
that all the chief officers of the county at the beginning were appointed by the 
same authority. 

The county commissioners, viz., James Benson, Asa Winter, and Henry 
Kinnear, appear to have been the first officials of the county to make use of the 
power and priviliges vested in them. Their first meeting was held October 
16, 1 8 19, at the house of Ebenezer Jackson, which stood on the west, or rather 
northwest, corner of Water and Hickory streets. Messrs. Benson and Winter 
only were present at this meeting. They appointed John Andrews as their 
clerk. They also hired a room from Jackson at a rental of two dollars per 
month, to be used and known as the county commissioners' office. The next 
meeting was held on the 28th day of the same month, all of the members 
being present, when Henry Dunn, of Conewango, and Isaac Connelly, of Bro- 
kenstraw, were appointed township assessors for the ensuing year. 

On the 8th day of November Charles O'Bail, a son of Cornplanter, pre- 
sented a claim for bounty on two full-grown wolf scalps. A room in which to 
hold the first term of court was rented from Ebenezer Jackson at a rental of 
$15 for the term, on the loth of the same month, and five days later, or 
November 15, 18 19, Archibald Tanner was appointed county treasurer for the 
term of one year. 

Preparations having been completed for the proper observance of such a 
grand event, the first Court of Quarter Sessions of the Peace and Common 
Pleas, to convene in the newly-organized county of Warren, began its sessions 
on Monday, November 29, 18 19, in an unfinished room of a house then being 
built by Ebenezer Jackson. This house of Jackson's, as before described, 
stood on the corner now occupied by the Carver House. There were present 
as officials Hon. Jesse Moore, president judge; Joseph Hackney and Isaac 
Connelly, associate judges; Andrew Bowman, sheritiof Venango county, act- 
ing, and Lansing Wetmore, prothonotary, clerk of courts, etc. 

The grand jurors summoned to attend at this term, all of whom answered 
to their names with the exception of Emanuel Crull, were Richard B. Miller, 
foreman, Alexander Watt, James Sturdevant, Henry Catlin, John Long, Joseph 
Gray, David Sturdevant, Philip Mead, William Bingham, John Portman, 
Samuel Trask, David Miles, Orange Owen, Jesse Tarbox, Samuel Gilson, John 
Dixon, Levi Doane, Squire Phillips, Thomas McGuire, Zachariah Eddy, John 
Tuttle, Emanuel Crull, Arthur Andrews, and Peleg Cranston. While of the 
traverse jurors summoned there were present John Geer, William Siggins, 
Abraham Strickland, James Wilson, John Gilson, Henry Myers, John Rogers, 
Cook.son Long, Levi Morrison, Ebenezer Jackson, Enoch Gillam, Eli Granger, 
Samuel Gregg, James Follett, John Sample, Ethan Owen, Cephas Holbert, 
Walter Seaman, John McKinncy, and Philip Huffman. 

From the Organization of the County until 1830. 143 

These jurymen had been summoned by Andrew Bowman, sheriff of Ve- 
nango county, to whom had been directed the precept. He also cited the grand 
and traverse jurors who assembled at March term in 1820, by reason of the 
fact that Mark C. Dalrymple, the first sheriff of Warren county, was not com- 
missioned until about the time of holding the second term of court above 

During the first day of the first term Ralph Marlin, of Meadville, Thomas 
H. Sill, of Erie, John Galbraith, of Frankhn, and Patrick Farrelly, of Mead- 
ville, were admitted to practice as attorneys at law in the various courts of the 
county. During the same day, also, David Stillson and George Stoolfire were 
granted license' to sell liquors and keep houses for public entertainment. For 
other interesting details relating to this first term of court held in Warren 
county, our readers are referred to the following accounts, written for publica- 
tion years ago by two of Warren's early citizens — Hon. Lansing Wetmore and 
Hon. Abner Hazeltine. True, these statements are somewhat contradictory, 
especially in describing the fight between the lawyer and the grand juror; but 
both are very readable, and only prove, for the millionth time or more, how 
easy it is for two men, in speaking of one and the same incident, to tell two 
entirely different stories. 

"This first term of court," says Judge Wetmore, "went off rather as a 
jubilee and jollification than the sober business of administering justice to par- 
ties, and trial of cases. Every body drank liquor then and almost every body 
got drunk, or, as Mr. Farmlee used to have it 'Gentlemanly gay.' Temper- 
ance Societies were unknown then. There were but two cases tried, and they 
were in the sessions. They originated in a fight on Monday evening of court 
week, between one of the grand jurors and an attorney at the bar from Mead- 
ville. The attorney had been a Colonel of the Militia in the War of 18 12, and 
the juryman a soldier. He, the colonel, was telling in rather a boasting way 
of his exploits while on the frontier. The juryman listened to him for some 
time, when he asked him if he was the officer who dodged behind a tree when 
there was an alarm of an attack by the British. The gallant colonel replied 
by a blow on the head of the grand juryman. It was promptly returned, 
when a general melee ensued. It resulted in some bloody noses and black eyes, 
but no serious injuries; all being a little more than 'gentlemanly gay.' The 
colonel was indicted and convicted of an assault and battery; a motion was 
made in arrest of judgment, which still remains unargued and undisposed of; 

1 Others to whom licenses were granted for the same purpose during the ne.\t four years were John 
Thompson, place not stated ; Robert Miles, Thomas Slone, and Marshall Jones, of I'inc Grove ; 
Ebenezer Jaclcson, David Jackson, Henry Dunn, Rufus Olney, |and King & Jackson, of the town of 
Warren ; Ambrose L. Pratt, John Langley, Oldham & Gilman, John Reese, Jacob Wells, Mark C. 
Dalrymple, and Philo Brown, places not stated; John I. Willson, Samuel Hall, James Seaman, and 
Artemus Buel, of Sugar Grove; Alfred Vanornam and William Siggins, of Brokenslraw ; Samuel 
Magee, of Deerfield, and Isaac Williams, of Kinzua. 

144 History of Warren County. 

the colonel has long since gone to his final account. The grand juryman was 
also indicted and tried, but was acquitted on the plea of se defaidendo." 

Judge Hazeltine, in his graphic description of the opening of the first term 
of court, and subsequent proceedings, says : "As all our county officers were 
wholly without experience, the prothonotary and sheriff of Venango county 
came up with Judge Moore, the president, and brought the Venango court 
crier, a Mr. Morrison, a dapper little man of wonderful volubility of speech, 
and certainly a great curiosity. There was no show of carriages in the streets. 
The attendants upon the court came either on horseback or on foot. I recol- 
lect that Richard B. Miller, the foreman of the grand jury, and Guy C. Irvine, 
who then lived on the Little Brokenstraw, came on foot by the way of Chan- 
dler's Valley, over the hills then a wilderness, with knapsacks on their backs, 
A rude bench for the judges, with seats for the other members of the court, 
were hastily improvised in the spacious and rather open court room. 

" On the arrival of the hour Crier Morrison blew his horn, bells being then 
unknown, and the court assembled, Sheriff Bowman, of Venango, accom- 
panied by Sheriff Dalrymple,i of Warren, leading the way. Judge Moore, a 
large, venerable-looking man, took his seat on the bench, wearing as large a 
beaver as ever graced the head of William Penn. The associate judges, Hack- 
ney and Connelly, then took their seats, one on the right and the other on 
the left of the president, they also wearing their hats. Crier Morrison, in a 
very audible manner, then made proclamation that the court was opened, and 
that all persons having any business with the Court of Oyer and Terminer, 
Court of Quarter Sessions, Common Pleas, and Orphan's Court, might draw 
near, give their attention, and they should be heard ; ending with what Daniel 
McQuay, a witty Irishman, used to call a bit of a prayer, viz.: ' God save the 
Commonwealth and this Honorable Court.' 

" The next business in order was administering the oath of office to such 
members of the bar as were present from other counties in the district. There 
was no attorney living in the county but myself, and I was then a foreigner. 
There were present Messrs. Marlin, Farrelly, Sill, and Galbraith, and they 
were severally admitted to the Warren Bar, and sworn according to seniority. 
The first sworn was Colonel Marlin. The oath was administered by Judge 
Moore to each orie separately ; and in doing it he rose from his seat, laid aside 
his hat, and repeated the words of the oath in a very solemn and impressive 
manner. The grand jurors were then called and sworn, the oaths being ad- 
ministered by the Hon. Alexander McCalmont, prothonotary of Venango 
county, who assisted Judge Wetmore, then the prothonotary of Warren; Mor- 
rison, the crier, ejaculating sivoni at the conclusion of each oath very emphat- 
ically. Judge Moore, then in a sitting posture, but with his hat removed, 

1 This is an error. There was no Sheriff Dalrymple at lliat time. See " Commission Books," in 
register and recorder's office. 

From the Organization of the County until 1830. 145 

charged the grand jury from a large roll of manuscript showing considerable 

" This was a novelty to me, as I had always seen that duty performed 
without the aid of manuscript, the judge and the jurors all standing. To those 
who were acquainted with Judge Moore and the courts in Western Pennsyl- 
vania, it of course appeared all natural and in order. The traverse jurors were 
then sworn. After calling over the docket, which then consisted of only a few 
suits that had been transferred from Venango county under the act organizing 
Warren county for judicial purposes, and the transaction of some routine busi- 
ness, the court adjourned to the next day to await the action of the grand 

" During the evening of the first day Counselor Marlin, who was not a total 
abstinence man, was approached rather incautiously, as he thought, by one of the 
grand jurors named Dickson, who, like the colonel, had imbibed pretty freely. 
Colonel Marlin had been some years previous to that time engaged in lumber- 
ing on the Conewango and the Allegheny, and Dickson, who claimed to have 
been employed in some capacity about that business, was disposed to be more 
familiar with the colonel than was agreeable to him, and he put himself upon 
his dignity, which greatly irritated Dickson, who being a grand juror sup- 
posed himself the peer of any one. The result was a free fight ensued, in which 
the colonel was rather roughly handled. As several of the grand jurors were 
witnesses of the aff"ray, they thought it their duty to indict them both. My 
recollection is, that Mr. Sill, of Erie, officiated as prosecuting attorney and 
drew the bill. The next day the bills were presented in court and the defend- 
ants arrested. That day, or the next, Dickson was put upon his trial. That, 
I suppose, was the first trial before a jury ever had in this county. That cir- 
cumstance and the character of the parties concerned, interested the public 
and caused a large attendance. The evidence in the case was brief; only two 
or three persons who saw the aftray were sworn. One, I think, was Mr. 
Miller, the foreman of the grand jury. Mr. Sill appeared for the Common- 
wealth, and as was his wont, made a very eloquent speech, speaking in high 
terms of Colonel Marlin and alluding to his services in the then recent war with 
Great Britain, in which the colonel had served with distinction. Dickson was 
defended by Mr. afterwards Judge Galbraith, then a very young man. The 
jury, after receiving a very brief charge from the court, consisting mainly of a 
definition of the crime of assault and battery, retired to a room provided for 
them by the sheriff" in another building. They soon returned and rendered a 
verdict of guilty against the prisoner. A motion was then made to postpone 
the trial of Colonel Marlin to the next term, which was granted. The sentence 
of Dickson was also postponed. According to my recollection neither case 
was ever moved again, but what the records show in the matter I am unable 
to say." 

146 History of Warren County. 

Since both gentlemen — Messrs. Wetmore and Hazeltine — depended upon 
their memory alone in reciting events connected with this term of court, tliey 
have quite naturally failed to state things just as they were, particularly in 
relation to the trial of Marlin and Dixon for assault and battery, the results, 
etc. Therefore we furnish the reader the following information derived from 
the docket : 

In the case of the "Commonwealth Z's. R. Marlin, Esq.," which was first 
called, the witnesses for the Commonwealth were John Dixon, Samuel Gilson, 
Henry Dunn, Alfred Ayers, and Jonathan Andrews ; the witnesses for the 
defendant being Richard B. Miller, James Wilson, William Siggins, Alfred 
Vanornam, Charles O'Bryan, and Barnabas McKinney. The trial came off 
November 30, 18 19, the second day of the term, before the following jurors : 
Cookson Long, Enoch Gillam, Cephas Hulbert, Samuel Gregg, Eli Granger, 
Levi Morrison, Ethan Owen, James Follett, Walter Seaman, John Sample, 
John Gilson, and Henry Myers. Defendant was found not guilty, but ordered 
to pay the costs of prosecution. On December i, 18 19, mf)tion for a new trial 
was granted. 

"Commonwealth vs. John Dixon." In this case thu witnesses for the 
Commonwealth were Alfred Vanornam and William Siggins ; for the defend- 
ant, Alfred Ayers and Jacob C. Boardman. The trial came off the same day 
as that of Marlin's, before a jury composed of the following members : Barna- 
bas Owen, Eben Owen, Philip Huffman, Abraham Strickland, James Willson, 
John Rogers, Eben Jackson, George Morrison, Michael McKinney, Johnson 
Wilson, Barnabas McKinney, and Robert Miles. The defendant was found 
guilty and sentenced to pay a fine of $6 and all the costs of prosecution. 

In 1820 the two townships of the county — Brokenstraw and Conewango — 
contained, according to the United States census, one thousand nine hundred 
and seventy-si.\' inhabitants, three of whom were deaf and dumb. The follow- 
ing year five hundred and twenty-four taxables were reported to the State 

In March, 1821, the two old townships were divided and reduced to but a 
fraction of their former great extent. Ten others were erected, making twelve 
in all, as follows : Brokenstraw, Conewango, Spring Creek, Sugar Grove, Pine 
Grove, Kinzua, Deerfield, North West (now Columbus), Limestone, Tionesta 
(now obsolete). Elk, and South West. Of these seven only, viz., Brokenstraw, 
Conewango, Spring Creek, Sugar Grove, Pine Grove, Kinzua, and Deerfield, 
were organized, the remainder being attached to the organized townships for 
a number of years. Full particulars, however, relating to these and all other 
townships in the county will be found in a subsequent chapter of this work, 
devoted exclusively to the topic. 

On the 2d of April, 1822, an act was passed by the State Legislature which 
declared that the lands held by Cornplanter and his tribe should be exempt 

From the Organization of the County until 1830. 147 

from taxation so long as he or they " hold and occupy them in their own right." 
The same act further provided that all notes, moneys, etc., given by Corn- 
planter for taxes should be returned to him. 

It seems that a year or two prior to the passage of the above-mentioned 
act, the county authorities imposed a tax upon Cornplanter's lands which he 
refused to pay, declaring that it was levied without authority. A deputation 
was dispatched to inform him that the collection would be made forcibly if he 
persisted in his refusal. Cornplanter, who was then surrounded by several of 
his warriors, invited the deputation of whites into the council-house, and, 
pointing to a large collection of guns which were standing in one corner of the 
room, told them that the cause of the Indians was just, and there was their 

An armed force, headed by the sheriff, was already assembled in Warren 
to put their threats in execution, but after some consultation the movement 
was considered premature and injudicious, and was abandoned. The matter 
was then submitted to the Legislature and decided in favor of the Indians, by 
the enactment above referred to. 

On the 6th of July, 1822, Cornplanter visited Warren by appointment, to 
confer with the county commissioners. He was firm and dignified in his bear- 
ing. His conduct had been justified by the State ; hence the commissioners 
could not do otherwise than to adjust all differences, and restore to him the 
moneys, notes, etc., which had been unlawfully obtained. 

During the year 1824 occurred the celebrated Hook murder trial. In 
relating the incidents connected with this case Judge Lansing Wetmore, in his 
"Reminiscences" of olden times, published in a newspaper in 1853, said: 
"There has been but one trial for a capital offense since the organization of 
the county. That was the Commonwealth vs. Jacob Hook, for the murder of 
Caleb Wallace in 1824. Mr. Hook came to this county in 18 12, and entered 
extensively into the lumbering business; built the mills which his brother Orin 
now occupies on the Allegheny, five miles above Warren. He was a man of 
strong mind, great energy of character, inflexible in his pursuits, unyielding in 
his opinions and purposes, but, withal, uncultivated. He had rapidly accumu- 
lated a large property for those times, and was using it to accumulate a still 
larger. He got into a quarrel with one of his hired men on account of a small 
balance of wages, claimed as due from Hook. Both were unyielding. The man 
applied to an attorney for redress, who, also being on bad terms with Hook, 
espoused the quarrel and brought a suit against Hook. Several other suits for 
trivial matters were brought against him the same week. 

"Having exhausted everything on the civil list, on searching the records of 
court an affidavit was found made by Hook, to ground a motion on to set aside 
an award of arbitration, something was discovered on which to found the 
charge of perjury. The oath was made to that effect by Perry Sherman, 

148 History of Warren County. 

and a warrant issued. This was on Saturday. Hook had been to Warren 
every day that week to answer to some legal process. Sheriff Littlefield being 
sick, Asa Scott, his deputy, went to serve the writ. He went up in the morn- 
ing and made known his business. Hook told him he had been to Warren 
often enough on trivial, trumped-up matters, and should not go down that 
day; that he should be down the next week, and would answer to the charge. 
Scott returned and reported progress to complainant and his attorney, who 
directed him to return with ^ posse and bring Hook down. Scott, accordingly, 
called to his assistance the complainant, Caleb Wallace, James Arthur, and 
perhaps one or two more. They arrived at Hook's about dark, went into a 
house some ten or twelve rods from Hook's, and waited till some time after 
dark. Mr. Arthur, being on friendly terms with Hook, went to his bed-room 
window and attempted to persuade him to go with them peaceably; but he 
was inflexible, and told him he should not go to Warren that night a live man, 
and warned him if they entered his house it was at the peril of their lives. 

" Finding importunities fruitless, Scott, with Wallace and Sherman, went 
into the stoop at the front door; finding it fastened, Scott stepped back a few 
paces, and rushed against the door with his shoulder; it flew open suddenly, 
and he fell sprawling his length on the floor. At that moment a gun was 
discharged from within. Wallace being immediately in Scott's rear received 
the charge of slug shot in the breast, and fell dead. Sherman being at his side 
received four of the slugs in his left arm, above and near the elbow. The posse 
withdrew. Hook came down on Monday morning following, surrendered 
himself, and was committed to prison. He was taken before Judge Moore, 
at Meadville, on a habeas corpus, and admitted to bail in $3,000.' Henry 
Baldwin, with Pat. Farrelly, Sill, and Hazeltine, defended him on the trial. 
He was acquitted, mainly on the ground that the deputation to Scott was not 
under seal and void, placing the posse in the same situation as trespassers 
breaking into a house without any authority. Hook died at Pittsburgh a year 
or two subsequent to his trial, from the effects of a swelling on his neck, at the 
age of about forty years." 

Hook shot Wallace with a musket, March 25, 1824. He was acquitted June 
2, 1824, by a jury, selected from a panel of fifty-six men, composed as fol- 
lows : Daniel Chapin, Horace Watkins, Thomas Gilson, Alexander Stewart, 
Stephen Williams, Joseph H. Marsh, Jeremiah Dunn, Robert Donaldson, 
Martin Reese, jr., Jesse Tarbox, Asa Winter, and Walter Seaman. 

The acquittal of Hook was severely criticised by the faction led by Josiah 
Hall, the lawyer who was so active in the prosecution of the defendant both 
before and after the death of Wallace. These criticisms so preyed upon the 
nerves of Jeremiah Dunn, one of the jurymen, as to produce temporary 

•The records state that Hook was held in $6,0<X) bail, and his surelie.s, James Morrison and Hugh 
Marsh, jointly in $2,000. 



From 1830 to 1861. 149 

insanity, and the next day he hung himself. For several years this trial and 
its results was the great event of the county. 

In 1824, also, Warren's first newspaper, the Conewango Emigrant, was 
established. The first court-house was commenced in 1825.1 During the 
same year North West township was organized as Columbus. The court- 
house was completed in 1827. Limestone was organized in 1829, taking in 
the territory to that time known as Tionesta, when the latter term, as the name 
of a township, disappeared from view. 


FROM 1830 TO 1861. 

The First Steamboat on the Upper Waters of the Allegheny — An Account of the Trip — 
Cornplanter a Passenger — Merchants and Inn-keepers in 1830 — National Character of Early 
Settlers — The Scotch-Irish at First in the Ascendency — Origin of the Term Scotch-Irish — 
Those of English Descent in Final Control — Early Routes of Travel — A Remarlcable Journey 
— Barefooted in Midwinter — An Influx of Alsatians — Death of Cornplanter — Incorporators 
of Various Associations — Lumbering — River Navigation — Store Goods — Prices — Routes 
Pursued in Transit — Part of McKean County Annexed to Warren — The Whigs and Demo- 
crats — The First Telegraph Line — Merchants of the County in 18.50 — The Whigs Disband — 
Organization of the American Party — Temporary Success — Causes Leading to the Formation 
of the Republican Party — An Incident in the Career of Jeff. Davis — Republicans Gain Control 
of the County in 1856 — New County Scheme — Petroleum Discoveries — Titusville to the 
Front — Warren Men Also — Railroad Completed from Erie to Warren — Tidoute Oil Field — 
Election in 1860. 

IN 1830 the steamboat Allegheny, built chiefly by Archibald Tanner, of 
Warren, and David Dick, of Meadville, opened steam navigation on the 
upper waters of the Allegheny River. This boat made one and the only trip 
ever accomplished by a craft propelled by steam to Olean, N. Y., to the great 
amusement of such of the four thousand six hundred and ninety-seven white 
inhabitants of the county as witnessed the spectacle, and the utter astonishment 
of the native Senecas. James and Lewis Follett, of Warren, ofiiciated as pilots. 
In a published account of this trip we find the following : 

" On the evening of the 20th of May we departed from Warren for Olean, 
in the State of New York, seventy-five miles above (by water), with freight and 
passengers from Pittsburgh. At 9 o'clock next day we arrived opposite the 
Indian village of Cornplanter, seventeen miles up. Here a deputation of gen- 

1 In 1825 an Indian named " Blue Throat " died on the Allegheny River Reservation, who it was 
claimed had attained the age of one hundred and sixty years. 

150 History ok Warren County. 

tlemen waited on the well-known Indian king or chief and invited him on board 
this new and, to him, wonderful visitor, a steamboat. We found him in all his 
native simplicity of dress and manner of living, lying on his couch, made of 
rough pine boards, and covered with deer skins and blankets. His habitation, 
a two-story log house, is in a state of decay, without furniture, except a few 
benches, and wooden spoons and bowls to eat out of, which convinced us of his 
determination to retain old habits and customs. This venerable chief was a 
lad in the French war, and is now nearly one hundred years of age. He is a 
smart, active man, seemingly possessed of all his strength of mind, and in per- 
fect health, and retains among his nation all the uncontrolled influence of by- 
gone days. He, with his son Charles, who is si.xty years of age, and his son- 
in-law, came on board and remained until the boat passed six miles up, and 
then after expressing great pleasure with their novel ride, returned home in 
their own canoe. His domain is a delightful bottom of rich land two miles 
square, nearly adjoining the line between Pennsylvania and New York. On 
this his own family, about fifty in number, reside in eight or ten houses." 

The merchants engaged in business in the county at this time (1830) were 
N. A. Lowry, Lothrop S. Parmlee, Daniel Chase, Archibald Tanner, Robert 
Falconer, Orris Hall, and Samuel D. Hall, dealers in general merchandise ; O. 
Stanton & Co., grocers, and Milton Ford, grocer and druggist, in Conewango 
township ; William P. McDowell and L. Risley & Co., in Pine Grove township ; 
Richard Crocker, in Sugar Grove township ; Amos Patterson, in Klk township ; 
William Jackman and William L. Barber, in Columbus township, and Charles 
Whitney, in Brokenstraw. 

A year or so later the inn-keepers were Joseph C. Gordon and Alvin Hood, 
in Warren borough ; Luke Turner, in Conewango township ; Porter R. Webber 
and Reuben Parsons, in Columbus township ; Samuel McGuire, Anthoiiy Cour- 
son, and Benjamin Clark, in Deerfield township ; Warren H. Reeves, in Elk 
township ; Alfred Vanornam and Adoniram Smith, in Brokenstraw township ; 
George Mosher, in Pine Grove; and John I. Willson and Samuel Brown, in 
Sugar Grove. 

Thus far in the history of the county its inhabitants had been, almost to a 
man, composed of those of English and Scotch-Irish origin, the few excep- 
tions being men of equally as proud an ancestry, that is, descendants of the 
good old Knickerbockers, or Holland Dutch. The Scotch- Irish, who for a 
decade or more were in the ascendency, came in chiefly from the south, an 
overflow, as it were, from Venango, Butler, and other counties in that direction, 
which had been largely peopled by those of that nationality or descent. They 
were fair representatives of a hardy race, were strong men, mentally as well as 
physically, and, what is equally as remarkable, many prominent old-world char- 
acteristics in form, face, and custom have been perpetuated, and arc plainly 
observable in their descendants of to-day. 

From 1830 to 1861. 151 

The term " Scotch- Irish " is one so frequently used, particularly in Penn- 
sylvania, and is so little understood, even by those who claim such relationship, 
that it is considered appropriate in this place to explain its derivation. It 
appears that in the time of James I, of England, the Irish earls of Tyrone and 
Tyrconnell conspired against his government, fled from Ireland, were pro- 
claimed outlaws, and their estates, consisting of about five hundred thousand 
acres of land, were seized by the crown. The king divided these lands into 
small tracts and gave them to persons from his own country (Scotland), on the 
sole condition that they should cross over into Ireland within four years and 
reside upon them permanently. A second insurrection soon after gave occa- 
sion for another large forfeiture, and nearly six counties in the province of Ul- 
ster were confiscated and taken possession of by the officers of the govern- 
ment. King James was a zealous sectarian, and his primary object was to root 
out the native Irish, who were all Catholics, hostile to his government, and 
almost constantly plotting against it, and to repeople the country with those 
whom he knew would be loyal. 

The distance from Scotland to County Antrim, in Ireland, was but twenty 
miles. The lands thus offered free of cost were among the best and most pro- 
ductive in the Emerald Isle, though blasted and made barren by the troubles 
of the times and the indolence of a degraded peasantry. Having the power of 
the government to encourage and protect them, the inducements offered to the 
industrious Scotch could not be resisted. Thousands went over. Many of 
them, though not lords, were Lairds, and all were men of enterprise and energy, 
and above the average in intelligence. They went to work to restore the land 
to fruitfulness, and to show the superiority of their habits and belief compared 
with those of the natives among whom they settled ; they soon made the 
Counties of Antrim, Armagh, Caven, Donegal, Down, Fermanagh, London- 
derry, Monaghan, and Tyrone — names familiar to Pennsylvanians — to blossom 
as the rose. 

These, the first Protestants introduced into Ireland, at once secured the 
ascendency in the counties which they settled, and their descendants have 
maintained that ascendency to the present day against the eftbrts of the gov- 
ernment church on the one hand and the Romanists on the other. They did 
not intermarry with the Irish who surrounded them. The Scotch were Saxon 
in blood and Presbyterian in religion, while the Irish were Celtic in blood and 
Roman Catholic in religion, and these were elements that would not readily 
coalesce. Hence the races are as distinct in Ireland to-day, after a lapse of 
more than two hundred and fifty years, as when the Scotch first crossed over. 
The term Scotch-Irish is purely American. It is not used in Ireland, and 
here it was given to the Protestant emigrants from the north of Ireland, simply 
because they were the descendants of the Scots who had in former times taken 
up their residence there. 

152 History of Warren County. 

Subsequently, under Catholic governments, the descendants of the Scots in 
Ireland were bitterly persecuted, and prior to 1764 large numbers had immi- 
grated and settled in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Caro- 
lina. In September, 1736, alone, one thousand families sailed from Belfast 
because of their inability to renew their leases upon satisfactory terms, and 
the most of them settled in the eastern and middle counties of Pennsylvania. 
They hoped, by a change of residence, to find an unrestrained field for the 
exercise of their industry and skill, and for the enjoyment of their religious 
opinions. They brought with them a hatred of oppression, and a love of free- 
dom in its fullest measure, that served much to give that independent tone to 
the sentiments of the people of tlje province, which prevailed in their con- 
troversies with the home government years before they seriously thought of 

They settled the Cumberland valley and brought its fair lands under culti- 
vation. They fought the savages and stood as a wall of fire against their 
further forays eastward. It is said that between 1771 and 1773 over twenty- 
five thousand of them, driven from the places of their birth by the rapacity of 
their landlords, located in that valley and to the westward. This was just 
before the Revolutionary War began, and while the angry controversies that 
preceded it were taking place between the colonists and the English govern- 
ment. Hence these immigrants were in just the right frame of mind needed 
to make them espouse, to a man, the side of the patriots. A Tory was 
unheard of among them. They were found as military leaders in all times of 
danger, and were among the most prominent law-makers, through and after the 
long struggle for freedom and human rights. They have furnished presidents, 
United States senators, congressmen, judges, and many others prominent 
in all stations of life. In short, the names of these patriots and wise men, as 
well as the names of their descendants, are familiar words, not only in Penn- 
sylvania, but throughout the Union. 

Other early settlers of Warren — the New Yorkers and New Englanders, 
which element, by the way. has controlled here for the last sixty years or 
more, — came in, by following rough roads leading westward, until the upper 
waters of the Allegheny were reached, and then floating, by the aid of canoes 
and flat-boats, their wives, children, and household goods down that stream, 
while their horses and cattle were being driven or led along its banks. Olean 
was then famous as the usual place of embarkation for a trip down the river, 
for thousands, even, who did not propose to stop in Warren or at any other 
point along the Allegheny River, but who continued on their way to more 
fertile lands and a milder climate in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. Occasionally, 
however, the population of Warren county was increased by small parties who 
ascended the West Branch of the Susquehanna and Sinnamahoning Creek as far 
as navigable by canoes, and thence striking boldly across the country to the 

From 1830 to 1861. 153 

Allegheny. One of the most remarkable journeys ever made in coming to 
this county, by this or a similar route, has been described by Hon. Lansing 
Wetmore as follows: 

"The favorable reports of the Allegheny country having reached the 
Wyoming Valley, one John Chapman started in November, 1797, on foot and 
alone, to come here by the 'overland route'. He was a tall, stalwart Yankee, 
who was inured to the perils and hardships of the first settlers of Wyoming. 
He also was a God-fearing man, and he feared nothing else. He was withal a 
devotee of Pomona, and made it an object wherever he went to introduce the 
seeds of the choicest fruit, which in those days, however, did not extend beyond 
the common apple or pear. John, accordingly, with his other 'fixin's,' with 
which he stored his knapsack, put in a sack of choice apple seeds; with his 
blanket, rifle, and tomahawk, the usual appendages of the woodsman, bare-foot 
and alone, he started on his journey. When he arrived on the head waters of 
the Allegheny, one hundred miles from where he started, and about the same 
distance from his place of destination, a snow storm came on and continued 
until it fell full three feet deep on the level. Here he was, one hundred miles 
from the habitation of man, with barely provisions enough to last him through 
without detention, with ' none to direct and Providence his guide.' To retreat 
was perilous — to advance seemed impossible, as at every step he sank above 
his leggins in the snow. He first cast about for something to cover and pro- 
tect his bare feet. This he accomplished by tearing the skirt from his blanket 
coat, and sewing it together made it answer the double purpose of shoes and 
stockings. These, although they rendered his feet comfortable, did not enable 
him to proceed on his journey. The deep snow was before and around him. 
The same kind mother, necessity, which prompted him to invent his shoes and 
stockings, suggested the means to bear his ponderous weight above the deep 
snow. He had heard of snow-shoes, and perhaps had seen them, made of 
hickory bows and the sinews of the moose or deer; but these materials he had 
not, and the idea of wearing snow-shoes, to one who never wore any shoes at 
all, was quite novel. He cut a small quantity of small beech brush or twigs, 
heated them in a fire until they became pliable, and commenced, to him, 
the most dubious and difficult task he had ever performed. 

The solicitude of the Hebrew mother, while weaving the ark of bulrushes 
which was to bear the body of the infant Moses on the turbid waters of the 
Nile, could not have surpassed that of this bold adventurer ; and, like her, 
' with invocations to the living God, he twisted every tender twig together, 
and with a prayer did every osier weave.' It was with him a matter of life or 
death. He was preparing the means to save him from perishing in the snow, 
far away from friends or home. Having finished his snow-shoes, he fastened 
them to his feet with the bark of the moose wood, and finding them to answer 
the desired purpose after a little practice, pursued his lonely journey through 

154 History of Warren County. 

the wilderness of Potter and McKean counties, and arrived at Warren about 
the first of December. The following spring he selected a spot for his nursery — 
for that seemed to be his primary object — near White's, on the Big Brokenstraw, 
and sowed his seed. The waters have long since washed away a portion of the 
ground, and took some of his trees to a bar below, which is still known as Ap- 
ple-tree Bar. This nursery furnished the trees for most of the old orchards on 
the Brokenstraw. The demand for fruit trees being quite limited, and unable 
to obtain a livelihood by his favorite pursuit, he went to Franklin, where he 
established another nursery. Subsequently he removed to Indiana." 

As before intimated, until the beginning of the fourth decade of this cent- 
ury, or a little more than fifty years ago, the inhabitants of the county were 
chiefly of English and Scotch-Irish origin. But a new element now began to 
assert itself in the body politic, in the persons of natives of Alsace, France. It 
seems quite appropriate that natives of France should at last become occu- 
pants and owners, in part at least, of a region which was first explored and 
occupied by Frenchmen ; but, indeed, in personal appearance and in the spelling 
of their names, the Alsatians who have established themselves so strongly in 
Warren count/ seem more like Germans than French. Nevertheless, whether 
Germans or Frenchmen, they are good and honored citizens, and when Amer- 
icanized compare favorably with those who came before them and since. 

John Reheim, Jacob Escher, Martin Escher, and Francis Louis Rinck were 
the first Alsatians to make declaration of their intention to become citizens of 
this State and county, and such declarations were placed on file July 13, 1832. 
The next to appear were Jacob Leonhart, Jacob Lesser, Henry Sechrist, Lewis 
Arnett, George Strubler, Laurent Ott, and Jacob Wirt, who made similar dec- 
larations in November, 1834. These were followed during the next dozen 
years or more, and in the order named, by Charles Weaver, Andrew Fisher, 
Frederick Strubler, Philip Sechrist, Henry Reich, George Sechrist, George 
Trier, Henry Trier, Philip Baldensperger, Jacob Shuler, John Reicker, John 
Simmerly, Joseph Hauser, Adam Hannan, Samuel Grosenberg, Jacob Schmick, 
Philip Lesser, Lawrence Snavely, George Arnold, Mathias Leonhart, Christian 
Smith, Philip Trushel, William Messner, Theophilus Messner, Christian Gauder, 
Andrew Haas, Jacob Huntsinger, Christian Keller, Marcus Holtz, George 
Leonhart, Philip Leonhart, George Amann, George Zimmcrlie, John Shuler, 
John Arnold, Christian Smith, jr., Philip Shuler, Mathias Shuler, Joseph Arird. 
John Reig, Martin Shafier, John Hanhart, Martin Hartwig, Jacob Jahl, George 
Oflerlee, Jacob Fahlman, Michael Gesselbrecht, and Jacob Offerlee, all of Al- 
sace, France. Meanwhile Christian Gross, Henry Knoph, Paul Bunn, Michael 
Frietzch, and John Matthies, of Brye, Germany, besides numerous other 
natives of Germany, England, Scotland, and Ireland, had declared their inten- 
tion of becoming citizens. 

On the 1 8th of February, 1836, the celebrated Chief Cornplantcr died at 

From 1830 to 1861. 155 

his residence at the age of about one hundred and four years. Thus after 
nearly half a century passed in strife and danger, bravely battling for the her- 
itage of his people, the declining years of his eventful life were peacefully spent 
on the banks of his own beloved Allegheny, where at last he was laid to rest 
in a grave which, in accordance with his wish, was left unmarked. Notwith- 
standing his friendship for all missionaries and ministers of the gospel who 
called upon him and his people, Cornplanter was very superstitious, and 
whether at the time of his death he expected to go to the happy hunting 
ground of the Indian, or to the heaven of the Christian, is not known. " Not 
long before his death," said Mr. Foote, of Chautauqua county, N. Y., "he 
said the Good Spirit had told him not to have anything more to do with the 
white people, or even to preserve any mementoes or relics that had been given 
to him from time to time by the pale-faces; whereupon, among other things, 
he burned up his belt and broke his elegant sword." 

Others have asserted that the reason why Cornplanter destroyed certain 
articles presented to him by the whites, and during the last years of his life 
sought to keep apart from his white neighbors as much as possible, and to dis- 
countenance all attempts to educate his descendants, arose from the fact that 
he had given his eldest son a good education, which he used for the basest pur- 
poses of fraud, involving often the interests of his father, who appears to have 
attributed all to his son's education. The work of destroying relics, etc., was 
repeated more than once ; and these incidents in the life of Cornplanter gave 
rise to a strong prejudice in his family against education, which for a time 
thwarted all efforts to establish and maintain schools among them. 

Cornplanter's idea of a Deity may be inferred from the following : 

"The Great Spirit first made the world, and next the flying animals, and 
found all things good and prosperous. He is immortal and everlasting. After 
finishing the flying animals he came down on the earth and there stood. Then 
he made different kinds of trees and woods of all sorts, and people of every 
kind. He made the spring and other seasons, and the weather suitable for 
planting. These he did make. But Stills to make whiskey to give to the In- 
dians, Jic did not make." 

At about this time (1836 to 1840), " The Warren Mutual Insurance Com- 
pany," "The Warren and New York State Line Turnpike Road Company," 
and other associations were incorported by acts of the State Legislature, but 
all or most of them came to nought. Among those, however, who were 
named as incorporators and promoters of the different enterprises, were Henry 
Sargent, Archibald Tanner, Obed Edson, J. D. Summerton, Francis Hook, 
Archibald Skinner, Hiram Gilman, George Smith, E. N. Rogers, Cornelius 
Masten, jr., James O. Parmlee, Thomas demons, Abijah Morrison, Abraham 
Hazeltine, Darius Mead, John F. Davis, Thomas Struthers, Robert Miles, 
John King, Samuel P. Johnson, Timothy F. Parker, Robert McKinney, An- 

156 History of Warren County. 

drew H. Ludlow, Oilman Merrill, Joseph W. Hackney, Aaron S. Parmlee, 
Robert Falconer, John Andrews, Lansing Wetmore, Milton Ford, Andrew Mc- 
Nett, Orrin Hook, William Culbertson, John Hackney, Jonathan Marsh, An- 
drew Irwin, Benjamin Marsh, Enoch Oilman, William Marsh, and Orris Hall. 

The lumber business, also, was at its height during these years. In the 
spring time the principal streams of the county would be almost covered 
with rafts of manufactured lumber owned by the Meads, McKinneys, Da- 
vises, Horns, Whites, Hook, Berry, Marsh, the Morrisons, Guy C. Irvine, 
Rufus Weatherby, Robert Russell, Robert Miles, and others. Steamboats, 
likewise, navigated the Allegheny between Pittsburgh and Warren, when the 
rocks and shoals were covered with a sufficient depth of water ; but as this 
could be expected only in the spring and fall, long intervals of an entire sus- 
pension of navigation were of yearly occurrence, and then Dunkirk, on Lake 
Erie, was depended upon as the place for obtaining supplies. As a result, 
store goods, whether obtained at Pittsburgh or Dunkirk, were marked up to 
exorbitant prices when exposed for sale in the then dingy little stores of 
Warren. By one route charges had been paid for transporting them from 
Philadelphia, along the line of the State canal to Hollidaysburgh, thence over 
the Allegheny mountains via the Portage incline railway (boats being placed 
on trucks and pulled by stationary engines over to Johnstown without break- 
ing cargo) and by canal again to Pittsburgh, thence by steamboat, and fre- 
quently by pushing keel boats, were the goods finally landed at Warren. By the 
other route goods were shipped from New York via the Erie canal to Buffalo, 
then transferred to lake steamers and landed at Dunkirk, and finally hauled by 
wagons over roads seldom in good condition, from the latter place to Warren. 
It was an immaterial matter with the dealers, however, whether the goods 
came by the way of Dunkirk or Pittsburgh, since their esteemed customers had 
to pay first cost, charges in transit, and dearly for the privilege of being waited 
upon by such models of politeness and probity as characterize the average 
retailer everywhere. Subsequently, by the completion of the Erie Railroad, 
and the Oenesee Canal from Rochester to Olean, many additional advantages 
were ofilered to Warren's residents, which were fully utilized. 

Truly, the men who represented the nine thousand two hundred and sev- 
enty-eight inhabitants of the county in 1840 were active, hard-working cit- 
izens and equal to the tasks imposed upon them. Large numbers of them still 
lived in log houses, and none yet loomed prominently above their fellows in 
the possession of worldly wealth. 

By an act of the Legislature, passed April 16, 1845, Andrew H. Ludlow, of 
Warren, and John Williams and Jonathan Marsh, of McKean county, were 
named as a commission with authority to establish a new boundary line be- 
tween the two counties. It was proposed that the new line should commence 
" on the north and south line on the east side of tract No. 3,740 in Corydon 

From 1830 to 1861. 157 

township, McKean county, and run as near as may be, in order to make the 
line reasonably straight, along the back line of the river tier of tracts, so as to 
intersect the line dividing the said counties of Warren and McKean, within one 
mile of the western side of the Kinzua Creek ; and the voters in that part of 
Corydon township which shall fall within Warren county shall hold their 
elections at the school house in Corydon village." Thus did part of Corydon 
township of McKean county, become the township of Corydon in Warren 
county. The line between the counties was established during the following 
summer and in March, 1846, the new township was organized. 

From the organization of the county until the formation of the Republican 
party, in the fifties, the political battles had been mainly fought out between 
the Whigs and the Democrats ; the latter being uniformly successful in con- 
tests resulting in the election of State and national officers, and usually suc- 
ceeded in elevating to office their local candidates. In the election for State 
officers held in 1848, the Democratic candidate for governor received eleven 
hundred and forty-five votes, while his Whig opponent received but nine hun- 
dred and forty-seven votes ; yet John F. McPherson, the Whig candidate for 
county register and recorder, was elected, and was the first to hold that office 
after it passed from the control of the prothonotary. 

During the first week in March, 1849, the first telegraph line to enter the 
county was completed from Fredonia, N. Y., to Warren. W. P. Pew, of Ithaca, 
N. Y., was the leader in the enterprise, and a Mr. Risley, of Dunkirk, N. Y., 
the first operator. It was a poor investment for the stockholders, however, 
since every dollar invested was lost. The following year the line was com- 
pleted through to Pittsburgh ; and this was only five or six years after the 
electric telegraph had been first brought into use in the United States — on an 
experimental wire stretched from Baltimore to Washington, D. C. 

In 1850 the county contained thirteen thousand, six hundred and seventy 
inhabitants, and its dealers in merchandise, liquors, etc. at that time were as 
follows : Warren borough : Orr & Henry ; Summerton & Eddy, liquors ; Wat- 
son & Davis ; Carver & Arnett ; Parmlee & Gillman ; William Messner, 
liquors ; J. D. Summerton ; H. & H. G. Mair, liquors ; D. M. Williams ; 
Baker & Benson ; John Honhart, liquors; Seneca Burgess, liquors; O. H. 
Hunter; C. W. Rathbun, liquors; Frederick Bartch ; Rogers, Miles & 
Hodges ; Oilman Merrill ; Fisher & Owens, liquors. Youngsville borough : 
J. B. Phillips; Chauncey Smith; James S. Davis, liquors; W. F. Siggins; 
John Siggins ; Carter V. Kinnear. Brokenstraiv : William A. Irvine. Co- 
luvtbiis : Leach & Willoughby, liquors; Jones & Hewitt; Atherly & Dewey; 
Milo P. Osborne; Dwight C. Eaton; D. A. Dewey. Corydon: J. S. McCalJ. 
Dccrficld : William A. Irvine; Grandin & Green; Charles Brawley, liquors; 
M. McCullough, jr., liquors; Daniel S. Boughton, liquors; Thomas Mullen; 
Warner & McGuffey ; J. S. Tuthill ; George B. Scott. Elk: Calvin Webb. 

iS8 History of Warren County. 

Freehold : Lester Wright, liquors ; C. D. Chandler ; James L. Lott ; J. C. 
Gifford; H. H. Gifford ; E. Bordwell ; B. Woodin. Pine Grove: Nelson Par- 
ker, liquors; Lane & Fisher; George Sloan. Pittsfield : Dalrymple & 
Mead ; Gray & Mallory ; George W. Lopus, liquors ; James L. Acocks. 
S'leffield : Erastus Barnes. South West : T. V. S. Morian, liquors ; Grandin 
& Bestman ; E. G. Benedict ; M. F. Benedict. Sugar, Grove : Willson & 
Hiller; William O. Blodgett; Patterson & White. Spring Creek: Abram 
Woodin. Kinzua : John H. Brasington. Andrew Ruhlman, of Glade town- 
ship, was then the brewer of the county. 

The Whigs fought their last battle as a national party, with General Win- 
field Scott as their standard bearer, in 1852. They were signally defeated, 
and (though proud in the possession of such leaders as Webster, Clay, Seward, 
and others almost as prominent), under the baneful influences of pro-slavery 
demagogues, the party which had polled 1,386,578 votes for its last presidential 
candidate, in fact several thousands more than were sufficient to elect General 
Taylor four years earlier, soon after melted away as completely and noiselessly 
as the last snows of winter under a vernal sun. Hence here in Warren, as well 
as elsewhere throughout the land, matters political were in a state of chaos for 
two or three years. 

About 1854 the secret political organization known as the " Know Noth- 
ing," or " American," party sprang into existence, and for a year or two made 
things exceedingly lively in many localities. Thousands of disbanded Whigs 
joined its ranks, besides many native-born Democrats, who were pleased with 
the legends, " Put none but Americans on guard," and "To Americans belong 
America." Warren county, which has ever kept abreast of the times in all 
movements both good and reprehensible, also had its lodges of political knights, 
and, if no great deeds were performed, the members at least were afforded an 
infinite amount of amusement in the endeavor to meet in secret council with- 
out being observed in going to and returning from their rooms. They were 
victorious in both county and State during that year. But such a party could 
not hope for success. In its short-lived struggle against slavery-upholding 
Democracy, the foreign born voters espoused the cause of the latter to a man, 
for the reason that the American party made it part of their creed that here- 
after foreign-born residents should reside in this country for a period of twen- 
ty-one years before being entitled to the rights of suffi-age. As a result the 
Democratic party managers, having gathered in all the foreign-born element 
(particularly the Irish Romanists), the pro-slavery Whigs of the South, and 
always feeling sure of the support of what was then termed "Northern Dough- 
faces," felt stronger than ever before. 

The arrogant slaveholders and their obsequious Northern allies were now 
in absolute control of the general government. By threats or cajolery they 
had induced one Northern president to sign the " Fugitive Slave Bill," and 

From 1830 to 1861. 159 

Pierce, another Northern man, was but a pHant tool in their hands. The 
Southerners held slaves as property, yet they demanded and were conceded 
congressional representation on such property, though at the same time deny- 
ing to Northern men the same privileges, /. e., property representation. They 
were peaceably permitted to visit all points in the Northern States, to swagger 
on the proceeds of slave labor (or worse, with money obtained by the sale of 
black men and women, as cattle are sold to the highest bidder), and to boast 
of their superiority over Northern freemen. Yet, if one of the latter in visit- 
ing the slave States dared to speak not approvingly of their blessed slave insti- 
tutions, he was either killed outright, lynched by hanging, or warned to leave 
within a very limited space of time. It was further demanded by them, the 
slave owners, that Kansas Territory, and all other territory to the west and 
southward of it, should be set apart and declared to be for the uses of slave- 
holders. Indeed the Mexican War was fomented and waged for the sole pur- 
pose of increasing the area of slave dominion. However, Jeff. Davis and other 
Southern leaders at last demanded too much. A spirit of revulsion rapidly as- 
sumed form and expression in the free States, and the organization of the Re- 
publican party, a combination that was soon to sweep them off their feet, was 
the result. 

This mention of the arch traitor's name reminds us of an incident in his 
career, which, since it has so often been denied by men of the South and their 
ready apologists in the North, that the Southerners were the aggressors in 
bringing on the late war, will be referred to here, though in doing so we depart 
for a moment from the chronological system of noting events which has thus 
far been closely followed. We quote from an article which was published in 
the Louisville (Ky.) Journal in the spring of 1850. 

" There are two Mexican War gentlemen in the United States Senate, 
namely: Davis, of Mississippi, and Clemens, of Alabama. They are both mad 
as March hares on the subject of slavery. Clemens vowed the other day in 
one of his extraordinary speeches that the Union is already dissolved. That 
being the case, why does not the chap stop his unmusical yelpings and go 
home. His military rival, Davis, does not think that the Union is quite dis- 
solved yet, but he is laboring hard to bring about that delightful catastrophe. 

" If the Union is dissolved, there will be a terrible contest between these 
warriors for the presidency of the Southern Republic. Whether Jeff, will get 
the heels of Jerry, or Jerry of Jeff., there is no foreseeing. If these heroes are 
as light of heel as they are of head, their race will certainly be interesting." 

These were prophetic words on the part of the gifted Prentice, though in- 
tended at the time only as a bit of sarcasm. Davis did become the chief of 
several Southern States in rebellion. His subsequent despicable career is well 
known of all men. He yet survives ; an inscrutable Providence still permit- 
ting him to cumber the earth, and to breathe the pure air of a republic he did 

i6o History of Warren County. 

his utmost to destroy. Clemens, though dead for many years, lived long 
enough to witness the ravages of civil war at his own door. To see the vic- 
torious soldiery of the great Northwest drive the much vaunted Southern chiv- 
alry through and out of his own town. He was a resident of the pretty little 
town of Huntsville, Ala., and there, in front of his residence, just at twilight 
of a day early in September, 1863, the writer met and conversed with him. 
White-haired, and apparently debilitated, nervous and irritable, the once fiery 
Clemens bitterly inveighed against all men, both North and South, who as lead- 
ers had brought on the war, and he declared that the child was not then born 
who would live to see peace again existing between the two sections. As will 
be seen, Clemens was a poor prophet as well as one of a class of men who are 
always active in fomenting strife; but when it comes to blows, seek safe quarters. 
We were blessed, or cursed rather, with too many of the same kind in the 
North during the late war; men who were very conspicuous in newspaper 
offices, and on the platform ; who were always ready to serve their dear 
country in safe, well-paying public offices ; who could repeat and re-echo 
Greeley's senseless cry of " On to Richmond " ; who could plan military cam- 
paigns, and were ever ready to traduce the fame of hitherto successful military 
leaders, because they had failed somewhat in their last battle, but who took the 
best of care, not to expose their own precious persons to the bullets of an 

As before mentioned, the Republican party was organized to oppose the 
further extension of slave territory, and to meet half way the arrogant and 
ever-increasing demands of the slave owners. It had, as a nucleus, those who 
had voted for Birney in 1840 and 1844; for ^^" Buren in 1848, and for Hale, 
in 1852. To these were added great numbers of Northern Old Line Whigs who 
could not endorse the restrictive dogmas of the American party, and would not 
affiliate with their ancient enemy, the Democratic party. Many who had here- 
tofore regularly voted for Democratic candidates also joined in the movement. 
The result was surprising, even to its most sanguine supporters, for the new 
party proved to be a giant at birth. The Republicans of Warren county nom- 
inated their first candidates in 1855, and succeeded in electing a member of 
Assembly. In 1856 they obtained the ascendency by a decided majority 
(Cherry Grove's twenty votes all being counted for Fremont and Dayton), and 
since have steadily maintained the advantage down to the present time. 

The school-houses in the county in 1857 numbered one hundred and thirty- 
seven, of which one hundred and fourteen were frame buildings, twenty-two 
were built of logs, and one (in the town of Warren) of brick. 

In 1858 considerable activity was displayed by people, chiefly residents of 
Titusville, to the end that a new county be erected, to be known as " Marion," 
from parts of Warren, Crawford, and Erie counties. But the ambitious aspi- 
rants for the honor of being credited as dwellers of a shire town met with but 
little substantial encouragement, and the scheme was for a time abandoned. 

During and Since the Late War. i6i 

The following year the name of Colonel E. L. Drake was heralded through- 
out the land as the discoverer of extensive deposits of petroleum, deep below 
the earth's surface near Titusville. Intense interest concerning this develop- 
ment at once became manifest in the town of Warren, and a number of its lead- 
ing citizens, including Archibald Tanner, L. F. Watson, Boon Mead, and D. M. 
Williams, as well as Henry R. Rouse & Co., and Dennis & Grandin, of the 
southern part of the county, soon after engaged in further explorations near 
Titusville, which proved to be, as then considered, eminently successful. 

During December of the same year (1859) the Sunbury and Erie Railroad 
was completed from Erie to Warren, and the grand event was gloriously cele- 
brated with great noise, a little pomp and parade, and much feasting and drink- 
ing. The county commissioners in 1852, duly authorized by the people, had 
subscribed to the capital stock of this corporation one hundred and fifty thou- 
sand dollars (only forty thousand dollars of which, however, was ever paid in), 
and the borough of Warren thirty thousand dollars, provided that the road be 
built through the county. 

Early in i860 the Tidioute oil field was opened, and so numerous, eager, 
and energetic were the operators, that in July of that year more than sixty 
wells were being drilled at the same time. A perfect furor raged for a while. 
Squatter claimants took possession of sand-bars in the river, while others of the 
same class essayed to drill for the greasy product from floats and rafts anchored 
in mid-stream. 

At the election held in the fall of that year the electors representing the can- 
didacy of Lincoln and Hamlin received twelve hundred majority in the county. 
Indeed the Republicans obtained a decided majority in every township and bor- 
ough except Pleasant, which gave the Democratic ticket a majority of fifteen. 



Miittering.s of the Coming Storm — The Outbreak — Call for Troops — Citizens of Warren 
in Council — Their Proceedings — The First Two Companies of Volunteers — Others in Readi- 
ness — Leaving Home for the Front — Brief Allusion to Other Organizations — Number of 
Warren County Men in the Field to November 1, 18G2 — Events of 1863 — Tribulations of the 
Stay-at-Homes in 1861 — Relieved by Rebel Recruits — The Draft of 1865 — Probable Total 
Number of Troops Furnished — Victorious Rejoicings — Ladies' Aid Society — Dedication of 
Cornplanter's Monument — An Influx of Scandinavians — Another New County Project De- 
feated — Gradual Development of Oil Interests — Conclusion of Continuous History. 

SCARCELY had the rejoicings of the triumphant party, which had elected 
Abraham Lincoln president of the United States, ceased, ere there came 
from the South murmurs of discontent and anger. How they swelled and 

i62 History of Warren County. 

increased through all that fateful winter ; how State after State fell away from 
its allegiance ; how the whole South resounded with preparations of war, need 
not be recounted here. It is a part of the Nation's history. Here in Warren 
county, as well as elsewhere throughout the North, men looked on in amaze- 
ment, hoping even to the last for peace, deeming it almost impossible that the 
lunacy of secession could ever ripen into the open madness of armed rebellion. 
Yet, the formal secession of most of the Southern States, the firing upon the 
steamer Star of the West in Charleston harbor while attempting to provision a 
garrison of United States troops, and the subsequent \igorous and imposing 
preparations made by the military forces of South Carolina, under the leadership 
of Beauregard, to besiege and capture a starving garrison of sixty men, under 
Major Anderson at Fort Sumter, had gradually prepared the public mind for 
more serious demonstrations on the part of those who proposed to establish a 
Southern confederacy. Hence, when on the morning of the 1 2th of April, 1861, 
the following telegraphic dispatch was received by Governor Curtin, its pur- 
port, though astounding, was not wholly unanticipated : 

" The war is commenced. The batteries began firing at four o'clock this 
morning. Major Anderson replied, and a brisk cannonading commenced. This 
is reliable, and has just come to the Associated Press. The vessels [meaning 
the United States fleet] were not in sight." 

Thus sped the startling intelligence until it was known and became the all- 
absorbing topic of conversation throughout the Commonwealth and Nation. 
The threats of Southern leaders had long since ceased to intimidate, and were 
regarded as so much froth ; but to fire upon a United States fort and compel 
its surrender meant war, and the appeal to arms was at once accepted by the 
loyal men of the North, however much they deprecated the alternative. 

Three days later (April 15) President Lincoln issued his proclamation 
calling out the militia and volunteers of the several States to the number of 
seventy-five thousand men. Upon the same day Governor Curtin was noti- 
fied by telegraph that a call had been made on Pennsylvania for sixteen regi- 
ments, two of which were wanted within three days ; that the city of Wash- 
ington was entirely unprotected, at the mercy of assailants, and a sudden dash 
upon the capital was already strongly threatened. 

The president's call, accompanied by an appeal from the governor, was tele- 
graphed to every part of the Commonwealth urging men to come forward in 
companies and squads, with all possible dispatch, to the defense of the imper- 
iled capital. Meanwhile the people of Warren county were not listless or inact- 
ive, and at the seat of justice of a county which had polled a majority of twelve 
hundred votes for Lincoln and Hamlin, the following notice was posted early 
on the 1 8th of April, 1861. 

" The citizens of Warren county who are opposed to Treason and Rebell- 
ion, and in favor of maintaining the Supremacy of the laws and the govern- 

During and Since the Late War. 163 

ment of our common country, are requested to meet at the Court- House in 
Warren, on Friday evening April 19, 1861, at 7 o'clock P. M., to consider what 
measures ought to be adopted to vindicate the character of our National Flag, 
recently fired upon and insulted at Charleston, South Carolina. 

"C. B. Curtis, Rasselas Brown, 

"Chapin Hall, Rufus R King, 

"Thos. Struthers, J. H. Vanamee, 

"Wm. D. Brown, Isaac H. Hiller, 

"S. P. Johnson, Lewis Arnett, 

"Jno. F. McPherson, J. D. James, 
"H. W. McNeil, M. Beecher, Jr., 

"O. H. Hunter, D. W. C. James, 

"April 18, 1861. and others." 

In response to this notice many people assembled at the court-house early 
in the evening of April 19, when an organization was promptly effected by 
choosing Hon. Rasselas Brown, president ; Robert Miles, Lewis Arnett, James 
Foreman and Richard Alden, vice-presidents ; and John F. McPherson, secre- 
tary. Thereupon Hon. C. B. Curtis stated the object of the meeting, and 
moved the appointment of a committee of five to draft resolutions expressive 
of the sense of the gathering. The president named as members of this com- 
mittee C. B. Curtis, J. D. James, Thomas Struthers, William D. Brown, and 
Harrison Allen. As a result appropriate and stirring resolutions were reported 
and unanimously adopted amid vociferous cheers. During the same meeting 
G. W. Scofield, L. D. Wetmore, Rasselas Brown, D. Titus, Thomas Struthers, 
and J. D. James, addressed the people with great effect. In fact the whole 
county was ablaze with patriotism and in an intense state of excitement. For 
a time party lines and political animosities were obliterated and forgotten, with 
the exception of a few found here and there who preferred fealty to a disloyal 
organization, rather than assume the proud garb of Unionism and loyalty to 
the old flag; but they were generally discreet enough to maintain a very 
respectful silence during the heated days of which we speak. 

In the mean time recruiting volunteers for the war was in active progress, and 
hardly had the news of the rebel outbreak ceased to reverberate among the 
hills overlooking the Allegheny, ere a company known as the " Warren 
Guards " was organized at Warren, besides others at Youngsville, Sugar Grove, 
Columbus, and Tidioute. The company first mentioned was organized by 
the election of Roy Stone captain, Henry V. Partridge first lieutenant, and 
Daniel W. Mayes second lieutenant. Captain Stone, however, having another 
project in view, declined the position tendered him, when Harrison Allen, esq., 
was chosen to fill the vacancy. The " Guards " expected to form part of Col- 
onel McLane's Erie county regiment, but that command was filled so rapidly 
by volunteers near by that the Warren men were shut out. It was then pro- 

i64 History of Warren County. 

posed to raise a regiment composed of Warren county men alone — a task 
which could have been speedily accomplished, as five full companies were then 
organized and impatiently awaiting orders. But soon came the news from 
Harrisburg that the county would be permitted to furnish but two companies 
— the " Warren Guards " and the " Raftmen's Guards " — and that other com- 
panies must wait a new requisition for troops or disband, the latter alternative 
being advised. 

Having declined the captaincy of the " Warren Guards," Captain Stone 
began to recruit a company of volunteers from among the hardy raftsmen of 
the Allegheny. He easily secured enough to form a company, and on Wednes- 
day evening. May 15, i86i,an organization was effected by the election of the 
following officers : Roy Stone, captain ; Hugh W. McNeil, first lieutenant, and 
J. T. A. Jewett, second lieutenant. Although it was the last to be organized 
of the two companies first accepted. Captain Stone's company was the first 
command to leave the county for the seat of war. This event took place on 
Monday, May 20, when the " Raftmen's Guards," seventy-five strong, started 
for Pittsburgh in eight large boats, which had been constructed by themselves 
for this special purpose. A large number of people assembled to see them off, 
and speeches were made by Hon. S. P. Johnson, Hon. C. B. Curtis, L. D. 
Wetmore, esq., Captain H. Allen, and Rev. Mr. Taylor. The company was 
handsomely uniformed in suits made by the ladies of Warren, of materials 
furnished by their captain, and carried their own rifles. They started at 1 2 M. 
sharp, each boat propelled by six oars, and as they moved away down the 
river were given a parting salute from Warren's old six-pounder. 

On Thursday morning. May 30, just ten days after the departure of the 
raftsmen, Captain Allen's company started for Pittsburgh by rail 7'ia Erie and 
Cleveland. Its members, nearly ninety in number, were for the most part na- 
tives of Warren county. At Pittsburgh, however, at muster into service, some 
ten or twelve of those who started from Warren with the company were 
rejected, as unfit for service, by the medical examiner. This company, also, 
had been uniformed with suits made by the ladies of Warren, and during the 
many days passed here, awaiting orders to march, had been subsisted mainly 
at the expense of patriotic citizens. 

In subsequent chapters we shall furnish brief sketches of the gallant part 
acted by the various regiments, companies, and batteries, wholly or partially 
recruited in this county. In this chapter it is proposed to merely give an out- 
line of events connected with the county, but outside of the army. 

During the spring and summer of 1861 many other residents of the county, 
who, determined to enter the military service, but finding it almost impossible 
to do so in Pennsylvania organizations, joined New York State regiments. 
Thus the " Tidioute Rifles," officered by Captain Thomas Cluney, First Lieu- 
tenant A. R. Titus, and Second Lieutenant W. M. Mew, joined General Daniel 

During and Since the Late War. 165 

Sickles's New York brigade at Staten Island, and scores of fine, active young 
fellows, from the northern part of the county, crossed the line into New York 
and became members of Chautauqua county companies. Indeed, one full 
company — B, of the Ninth New York Cavalry — was recruited almost wholly 
in Sugar Grove township. It was led into the field by Captain E. A. Ander- 
son (late a minister of the gospel), who subsequently attained the rank of 
major in his regiment; but trouble came upon him, and in the autumn of 1863 
he was dishonorably dismissed from the service of the United States. 

Late in the summer Hon. Carlton B. Curtis, a prominent attorney at law of 
Warren, was authorized to recruit a regiment in the northwestern counties of 
the State, including Warren, McKean, Potter, etc. Regimental headquarters 
was established at the borough of Warren, and the work of gathering in vol- 
unteers was commenced. But recruiting began to drag. The first great wave 
of excitement had subsided. The Bull Run disaster, also, had a depressing 
effect ; besides, there were several other organizations recruiting volunteers in 
the same region. As a result men came forward slowly. At last, with about 
two hundred men (a considerable number of them being residents of Warren 
county), Colonel Curtis departed for Camp Crossman, near Huntingdon, Pa., 
about November i. His proposed regiment was designated the One Hundred 
and Fourteenth, but it was soon after consolidated with another fractional com- 
mand, the Fifty-eighth, forming a full regiment, to be known ever after as the 

The year 1861 also witnessed the formation of the Eighty-third, One 
Hundred and Eleventh, and One Hundred and Thirteenth (or Twelfth Cav- 
alry) Regiments. All were three years organizations, and in all were found 
many of Warren's representatives of the kind willing to face rebel bullets. In 
the One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment particularly were the Warren men 
numerous (nearly three hundred), in greater numbers, in fact, than were to be 
found in any other separate organization during the war. 

In 1862 Company F of the One Hundred and Forty-fifth Regiment, Com- 
pany F of the One Hundred and Fifty-first, part of Company I of the Four- 
teenth Cavalry, Captain James's Independent Company, and Captain Baldwin's 
company of nine months militia, were all recruited in Warren county. In 
July of that year it was claimed that the county, with a population of about 
nineteen thousand in i860, had already furnished nine hundred volunteers. 
In August of the same year the county commissioners appropriated ten thou- 
sand dollars as bounty money to encourage enlistments. In November follow- 
ing, according to the report of the draft commissioners, the county had sent 
into the field to date — November i , 1 862 — eleven hundred and fifty-four men 
for Pennsylvania commands, and one hundred and sixty-six men for New York 
regiments, leaving a deficit on all quotas called for of only twenty-nine. 

In July, 1863, forty-eight jWarren county men joined Company M of the 

i66 History of Warren County. 

Twenty-first Cavalry, to serve for a period of six months. During the follow- 
ing month four hundred and ninety- two residents were drafted for service in the 
armies of the United States. Of these, however, nearly all paid a commuta- 
tion of three hundred dollars each, thus evading the dangers and hardships, 
but missing the glory of marching, fighting, and eating " hard-tack and sow- 

The year 1864 was passed in fear and trembling by those who wished to 
stay at home. The armies had been greatly depleted by casualties in battle, 
disease, and the discharge of men unfit for duty, and the expiration of the time 
of service of many thousands of veteran troops then in the field would oc- 
cur during the ensuing twelve months. Therefore the men of Warren, as well 
as elsewhere throughout the country, had to bestir themselves in earnest. If 
not willing to shoulder a musket, the alternative was left them of handing out 
their money to pay for substitutes, or rather, as was generally the practice, of 
bonding the county for the amount required for such purpose. This last-men- 
tioned scheme, however, worked unfairly ; for the survivors of the war, the men 
who had fought the battles, who had cheerfully entered the service without 
promise or expectation of bounty or reward, came marching back on the con- 
clusion of peace, only to help pay the debt which the gallant stay-at-homes 
had fashioned o'er themselves to protect their precious lives. 

In January Warren county was called upon to furnish two hundred and fifty 
men to fill quotas. This was followed in April by another call for one hundred 
and sixty-two men. These requisitions were partially filled by drafting fifty-one 
men in June, and the enlistment of volunteers in Company I of the One Hun- 
dred and Ninety-third, and Company G of the Two Hundred and F.leventh 
Regiments. In August the county was again called upon for four hundred and 
seventy four men to be obtained by draft or otherwise. On this call one hun- 
dred and seventy-four men were drafted October 8. These sad-faced fellows, 
however, were never ordered to report for duty, for an agent, having proceeded 
to Rock Island, 111., succeeded in obtaining a sufficient number of rebel pris- 
oners there confined (who were willing to serve under the United States flag 
against the Indians, but not against their late comrades in arms) by the pay- 
ment of a bounty of one hundred dollars to each, to fill existing deficiencies, 
and leave a surplus of one hundred and sixty men for future calls. The pris- 
oners thus enlisted to fill Northern quotas had been captured at Missionary 
Ridge and Lookout Mountain, and were chiefly natives of Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee. Subsequently, not caring or daring to return home, they added largely 
to the vicious, lawless element in the Far West known as the " rustlers " and 
cowboys of the plains. 

In February, 1865, another, and as it proved to be, the last call was made 
upon the county for men. The number required to fill the quota was three 
hundred and sixty-seven. Thereupon another draft was made, and the names 

During and Since the Late War. 167 

of those drafted were published. They, too, were in luck, however, for the 
war ended before they were ordered to report for duty, and in May following 
were notified, through the office of the provost marshal general, of their release. 

From what has been stated in the foregoing paragraphs, it might be in- 
ferred that Warren county was called upon to contribute to the armies of the 
United States during the four years of war about three thousand men. But 
such a conclusion would be erroneous. To illustrate : If a call was made for 
four hundred men, and only two hundred and thirty were secured, the defi- 
ciency of one hundred and seventy would be added to the next requisition. 
Then, again, each time that a soldier re-enlisted, as many of them did, he was 
counted as an additional man to the credit of his county. It is our opinion, 
therefore, that counting volunteers, militia, drafted men, and rebel substitutes, 
the county furnished not more, and probably less, than two thousand men. It 
contributed its full proportion, however, in comparison with other localities and 
its population. 

On Monday night, April 10, great joy was manifested in Warren on recep- 
tion of the news of the fall of Richmond and the surrender of Lee's army. 
Returned soldier boys made the old six pounder roar as it had never roared 
before, the bells clanged, rockets mounted high in air, bonfires blazed, dwell- 
ings, stores, and offices were illuminated, while all of the inhabitants of the 
town, apparently, assembled on Water and Second streets, between Hickory 
and Liberty, and indulged in a general hand-shake. 

These rejoicings had not ceased ere the whole county was startled with the 
announcement of the assassination of President Lincoln, and on Wednesday, 
April 19, just four years from the time the Massachusetts Sixth was attacked 
by a rebel mob in the streets of Baltimore, the people of Warren held formal 
services in memory of the lamented president. There were present Revs. P. 
P. Pinney, C. C. Parker, and B. L. Miller, of the village churches, also Hon. G. 
W. Scofield, who delivered the principal address. 

When the smoke of batrie lifted, and the wreck of war began to be cleared 
away, it was found that the " Soldiers Aid Society," composed of the loyal 
women of Warren, had well performed an important service. Besides making 
the uniforms for the first two companies to take the field, these ladies had sent 
forward many boxes filled with provisions and clothing for the sick and 
wounded in hospitals. They had also from October, 1861, to June, 1865, 
collected in various ways $1,737.33, of which amount $1,493.46 had been 
disbursed for the relief of soldiers, or their families, leaving $243.87 in the 
hands of Mrs. R. P. King (their secretary and treasurer) at the close of the 

During the summer of 1865 the gallant bands of Warren county soldiers, 
who had gone forth to defend the nation's life, came back from fields of 
carnage to lay down their arms and to engage almost instantly in the pursuits 

i68 History ok Warren County. 

and followed that down to the site of Clarendon borough, where the first well 
was completed in July, 1880. 

In the spring of 1882 " the oil market of the world was brought to a halt, 
and stood aghast at the announcement of some wonderful discovery made by 
some wildcat speculator upon lot No. 646, far in the wilderness of Cherry Grove 
township. For a purpose, of course, an impenetrable vail of mystery was 
thrown around it for days and weeks. The admixture of fact and fiction daily 
put in circuulation about ' the mystery ' had the desired effect. Speculators 
crowded the woods, bought lands, took leases, paid large bonuses, built houses, 
located villages, and established stores and drinking saloons on all corner lots. 
The ' mystery ' and a few other wells turned out to be large producers for a time, 
just long enough to create a craze and induce adventurers to invest large 
amounts of money, give an ephemeral fame to Garfield and Farnsworth, project 
a railroad, and lose their money ; a few months left their villages and der- 
ricks to be the roosting-places of owls and bats. 

" After the excitement abated at Garfield it settled down for awhile, appar- 
ently in disgust, at Clarendon. There it built up quite a city in a swamp, and 
filled the surrounding woods with its monuments of enterprise and folly. But 
the spirit of oil speculation admits of no geographical limitations. It soon 
continued its explorations down the Tionesta Creek, through Tiona east to Shef- 
field, with varying success, and from thence down the main creek and up the 
north branch. It soon got out of the county in that direction, and is now op- 
erating largely in Forest county. 

" In the mean time some developments along the Allegheny River for five 
miles above Warren created a temporary diversion in that direction, and the 
fields became known as the Wardwell and Glade Run districts. Operations 
are still carried on to a limited extent in these localities. The last oil furor 
created in the county was at Kinzua, in 1885. A few fair wells and some 
' mysteries ' occasioned a rush in that direction for a few weeks. But further 
tests soon dissipated the illusion of large production, and the territory was left 
to the operation of parties content with moderate profits. 

" Upon the whole, although the profit and loss account has been very vari- 
ant and fluctuating, the production of oil has been the source of much wealth 
to the people of the county. Large quantities of rough and poor lands were 
sold or leased to foreign speculators at fabulous prices, a great portion of which 
remain dead stock on the hands of the buyers, or have been abandoned. In 
many -cases the settlers, also, thus made suddenly rich, for various reasons are 
worse off than if they had never sold. Had it not been for the misfortune of 
having had inflicted upon Warren borough an institution styled an ' Oil Ex- 
change,' where several hundred thousand dollars were gambled away, the 
county would have been much better off than it is."^ 

' Hon. S. p. Johnson, in Cnunly Directory. 

Thirty-Ninth Regiment. 169 

Of late years the discovery and utilization of natural gas as a fuel, and also 
as an illuminator, has given to certain lands in the southeastern part of the 
county prominence as probable good gas territory; but since the general sur- 
face has been so completely denuded of its wealth of pine timber, and the 
bowels of the earth hereabouts pumped almost dry of the much sought for 
greasy fluid termed petroleum, it seems to an outside observer quite certain 
that in the future those who remain here as workers, must devote more atten- 
tion to agricultural pursuits and manufacturing than has heretofore been 
done, else the chances for starving are exceedingly flattering. The period of 
making fortunes in a day by lucky speculations or prospecting, and the reign 
of the boss lumberman, wood-chopper, raftsman, oil operator, wildcatter, 
scout, and moonshiner, have passed away. Henceforth, without a doubt, old 
Warren must take her place in column, and move along in an ordinary, un- 
eventful way, side by side with counties, which, at the beginning, were less 
profusely endowed with nature's bounties. 

In 1880 in contained nearly twenty-eight thousand inhabitants. Its present 
residents are estimated to be about thirty-two thousand in number, of which 
those voting the Republican ticket still remain largely in the majority. 



Wiiere Reeiuited — The Warren Guards — Regimental Rendezvout; — Organization of the Reg- 
iment — It Proceeds to Harrisburg — Thence to Washington — Brigade Assignment — General Ord 
in Command — The Fight at DranesviUe — A Weary Marcli to Fredericksburg — Transferred to 
the Peninsula — In Fitz .lohn Porter's Command — Rattle of Mechaniesville — Gaines's Mill — 
(iallant Behavior of the Tenth Reserve— It Sustains Heavy Loss — White Oak Swamp — Men 
Completely E.xhausted — Close of the ''Seven Days' Fight" — The Re.serves at Second Bull Run 
— South Mountain — Antietam — Fredericksburg — Gettysburg — Winter Quarters 1863-G4 — In 
the Wilderness— On Hand at Spotlsylvania Court-House— Bethesda Church the Tenth Reserve's 
hast Biittlf-Fiold — .Mu.ster Out — Ro<tpr of its Memliers from Warren County. 

THIS regiment was recruited in the western portion of the State, for the 
most part in the counties of Warren, Crawford, Mercer, Venango, Law- 
rence, Clarion, Beaver, Washington, and Somerset. A majority of the com- 
panies were organized for the three months service. Some were accepted and 
went into camp, where, the quota for the short term being full, they awaited 
further orders. Others remained at home, but preserved their organizations, 
and upon the first call for the three years service .were in readiness to move. 

170 History of Warren County. 

As mentioned in the preceding chapter, Captain Harrison Allen's company, 
locally known as the " Warren Guards," left Warren Thursday morning, May 
30, 1861, and proceeded by rail, via Erie and Cleveland, to Pittsburgh. Here 
the companies rendezvoused at Camp Wilkins, and here a regimental organi- 
zation was effected by the choice of John S. McCalmont, of Venango county, 
a graduate of West Point, as colonel ; James T. Kirk, captain of Company D, 
as lieutenant-colonel, and Harrison Allen, captain of the "Warren Guards" as 
major. The latter company was soon after designated Company H. It 
was mustered into service June 22, 1861, but some ten or twelve of those who 
accompanied it from Warren were rejected as unfit for military service. The 
camp near Pittsburgh proved to be quite unhealthy, and much sickness pre- 
vailed in consequence. Hence on the first of July the regiment moved twelve 
miles up the east bank of Allegheny River to Camp Wright, and occupied 
grounds beautifully located. We will here make note of the fact that the 
" Warren Guards " were the first to locate at Camp Wright, and for a number 
of days Captain Allen was the commandant of the camp. 

The regiment left camp under orders to move to Cumberland, Md., July 
18, 1861, but before reaching Bedford, Pa., the order was countermanded, and 
it was hurried forward to Harrisburg. The unexpected disaster at first Bull 
Run, the news of which had just been received, was disheartening, but none 
faltered. Late on the afternoon of the 22d the regiment moved by rail to Bal- 
timore and bivouacked in the open square, near the railroad station, until the 
evening of the 23d, when it marched with loaded arms and fixed bayonets and 
encamped on the common south of the city. On the 24th it proceeded to 
Washington and encamped about a mile east of the capitol, where it remained 
until August I, when it marched to Tenallytown, where the Pennsylvania Re- 
serve regiments were assembled. Here it was assigned to the Third Brigade 
(composed of the Sixth, Ninth, Tenth and Twelfth Regiments of the Pennsyl- 
vania Reserve Corps), at first commanded by Colonel McCalmont, but subse- 
quently by Brigadier-General E. O. C. Ord. 

On the lOth of October the regiment moved into Virginia and took posi- 
tion in line with the army, the right resting on the Potomac and the left con- 
necting with General Smith's Division. Just two months later the enemy 
under Stuart was met at Dranesville by General Ord's Brigade, both parties 
being out upon a foraging expedition in force. The action opened at a little 
past midday by a smart firing between the skirmishers, soon followed by the 
artillery of the enemy, which was replied to by Easton's Battery. The result 
was the blowing up of one of the enemy's ammunition boxes, the killing of 
several horses, and the killing and wounding of many of his men. The enemy 
was completely routed and driven from the field. This success greatly elated 
the spirit of the troops engaged, and tended to counteract the depressing effects 
of the Bull Run and Ball's Bluff disasters. On the 14th of February, 1862, 

Thirty-Ninth Regiment. 171 

Major Allen, who, having been for a long time in ill health, resigned, and Ad- 
jutant S. B. Smith was elected to succeed him. 

Early in March the regiment joined in a forward movement of the army, 
and after many days of marching and counter-marching, making long and ap- 
parently aimless detours, etc., exposed to storms and snow, sleet and rain, over 
roads deep with mud, it finally reached the vicinity of Fredericksburg, Va., 
where the Reserves were attached to the command of General McDowell. 
While here several changes among regimental and brigade commanders took 

About the middle of June the Reserves were detached from McDowell's 
Corps and ordered to the Peninsula to reinforce McClellan. Reaching its new 
field of operations by water transportation and marching, the regiment was at- 
tached to the command of Fitz John Porter. At the battle of Mechanicsville, 
which was fought June 26, the Tenth occupied the ground immediately to the 
right of the road leading to Mechanicsville, near its crossing of the Beaver Dam 
Creek, only a short distance above its confluence with the Chickahominy River. 
Its left rested upon the embankment at the old mill and connected with the 
right of the Ninth. Easton's Battery was stationed on the brow of the hill, 
just in rear of the Tenth, and in front of the regimental line a portion of the 
regiment were in rifle pits, while others were thrown forward as skirmishers. 
On both sides of the creek, which is here a sluggish stream, the ground is 
swampy and was covered with a growth of underbrush. On the Mechanics- 
ville side the ground descends for a quarter of a mile to the creek bottom. As 
the enemy came down the descending ground, through the fields and along the 
road, Easton's Battery opened a rapid fire, and when within rifle range the men 
posted in the pits and along the old mill-dam poured in so destructive a fire 
that he was forced back with terrible slaughter. Notwithstanding this bloody 
repulse, again and again he renewed the attempt to reach the creek and to force 
a passage, his main attempts being made along the road and upon the bridge 
near the mill. But the rebels could not stand the steady fire of the Reserves, 
and his columns advanced only to be broken and beaten back with most 
grievous slaughter. The line of the Tenth was everywhere preserved intact, 
and a joyful exultation was felt when night put an end to the battle. On ac- 
count of the favorable position which the regiment occupied, it suffered but a 
small loss. 

At three o'clock on the morning of the 27th an order was received to fall 
back in the direction of Gaines's Mill, the position of the Union army at Me- 
chanicsville being considered by McClellan as no longer tenable. The with- 
drawal was successfully executed in the face of the enemy, and the column re- 
tired in good order. In the neighborhood of Gaines's Mill, Porter's Corps had 
taken position with the river at its back, to resist the enemy now moving in 
great force upon the right flank of the Union army. Gaines's Run is a small 

172 History of Warren County. 

stream which has worn for itself a deep channel and has rough wooded slopes 
on either side, except near its confluence with the Chickahominy, where the 
ground is low and cleared. The battle on the center and left was principally- 
fought in the rough wooded slope on the left bank of the stream. Behind this 
belt of woods were level fields. The army was drawn up in three lines, the 
front in the woods, and as one line was broken and driven back another was 
sent in to take its place. The artillery, posted in the open fields in the rear, was 
of little service until the enemy had driven our infantry from the woods and 
began to emerge therefrom. 

The Tenth Regiment was posted in the second line, and was not engaged 
until half-past three in the afternoon. It was then moved hurriedly a half mile 
to the right in anticipation of an attack, but was almost immediately taken 
back at a double-quick, and placed in support of a battery to the right and 
front of the original position. At this time the battle was raging furiously 
along the entire line. In its immediate front was felled timber, through which 
the line receded, and, as reinforced, drove back the enemy. A half an hour 
later the Tenth was ordered further to the left, where it was brought in under 
a heavy fire, ready for a charge. It was here in a trying position, just upon 
the brow of a ravine, where it caught a heavy fire from the enemy, without the 
possibility of returning it. Many here fell. Soon the order came to charge, 
and with resistless power it swept forward, crossed the ravine, and up the 
opposite bank and, clearing the woods of the enemy, held this advanced position 
against every attempt to dislodge it. It was then ordered to retire to the brow 
of the slope next the enemy, where it was partially under cover, and from 
which a heavy and uninterrupted fire was delivered until near sundown, when, 
our left having been turned, it was compelled to fall back, emerging from the 
woods just in time to save itself from being cut off by the advancing enemy. 
Night put an end to the contest, and under cover of darkness its broken ranks 
were closed and it retired across the Chickahominy. In this engagement the 
Tenth sustained heavy losses; more, indeed, than in an\- subsequent action 
during its term of service. 

On the 28th the regiment was detailed for picket duty on the Chicka- 
hominy, and at three o'clock on the morning of the 29th it commenced the 
march towards White Oak Swamp and the James River. The march was a 
weary, never-to-be-forgotten one by its participants, the trains in many places 
blocking the way, and extended far into the night. On the following day, a 
little after noon, the regiment was drawn up in line of battle. The left of the 
division was posted by General McCall in person, in a zigzag line, the Twelfth 
Regiment on the left, the Tenth and Ninth next in order, with the Eighth and 
Second in support. A German battery occupied an elevated position near a 
house, partly between and in the rear of the Tenth and Twelfth Regiments. 
A heavy fire was suddenly opened upon this battery from the rebel guns just 

Thirty-Ninth Regiment. 173 

brought into position. The fire was but feebly returned, and in a few minutes 
the battery was deserted. The left of the Tenth, which had been extended to 
protect these guns from infantry, remained at its place. Immediately after this 
the rebel lines were advanced, and a charge was ordered by General McCall. 
The peculiar formation of regimental lines at this juncture led to consider- 
able confusion when the order for all to advance at the same time was given ; 
but Lieutenant-Colonel Warner, in command of the Tenth, held the left under 
a sharp fire until the regiment had executed a half wheel, then charged for- 
ward with the rest of the line upon the advancing foe, whose ranks were quickly 
broken, and his whole line driven from the open field back to the cover of the 
woods and his guns. The Tenth captured sixty prisoners and a stand of colors 
in this charge. 

The enemy returned to the charge with greatly augmented numbers soon 
after, however, and inflicted heavy losses upon the Union forces opposing it. 
Here the battle continued with wavering fortunes during the remainder of the 
day, but so stubbornly had the field been contested by the Reserves and a por- 
tion of Hooker's Corps, which came opportunely to the support of the left 
wing, that the enemy failed to push his advantage, and left the Reserves in 
possession of nearly the same ground occupied by them at the beginning of 
the battle. The men were completely exhausted, and they dropped down to 
rest where they stood ; but at the expiration of two hours they were again sum- 
moned into line. It was with the utmost difficulty that they could be aroused. 
Many, after being awakened and ordered out, fell asleep again, even dropped 
down after taking their places in ranks, and in the darkness that prevailed were 
left behind to be awakened next morning by the enemy and marched as pris- 
oners to Richmond. During the night the regiment moved to Malvern Hill, 
but it was not engaged in the battle fought thereat on the succeeding day. In 
the series of battles known as the " Seven Days' Fight," which commenced at 
Mechanicsville, the regiment lost in killed, wounded, and missing more than 
two hundred ofificers and men, Company H (the " Warren Guards ") alone 
losing six killed, thirteen wounded, and eight missing. 

The word missing written opposite a man's name immediately after a bat- 
tle means a great deal, and is thoroughly understood only by those who have 
stood there at such a time in line. It includes brave fellows who have fallen 
in battle unseen by their comrades ; others who have fallen into the hands of 
the enemy, unknown to their immediate commanders ; and lastly, of those 
lacking " sand " — chaps who have mysteriously dodged and ran away, with 
no wish to fight on this or any other day. 

From the Peninsula the regiment with its corps passed to the army under 
General Pope, and participated in the second battle of Bull Run. During the 
29th of August several feints were made by the Reserves, with a view of 
drawing off the enemy from other points of attack. The Tenth was several 

174 History of Warren County. 

times under fire, but was withdrawn without severe loss. Early on the follow- 
ing morning it was posted with the division on the extreme left of the army. 
Toward the close of that day a heavy attack was made upon that part of the 
line, and the Tenth was hotly engaged with varying success, the men fighting 
bravely and suffering severe loss ; but it was found impossible to withstand the 
superior force concentrated against it. It had been pressed back a half mile, 
when night put an end to the conflict. The army at once began its retreat, 
falling back upon Centerville. The division, under the command of General 
Reynolds, was handled with great skill throughout the three days of battle. 
The loss in the Tenth was twelve killed, thirty-four wounded, and nineteen 

The regiment next met the enemy at South Mountain. It fought its way 
to the summit, captured three hundred of the enemy, and was highly compli- 
mented on the field for its gallantry, both by General Hooker and General 
Meade. Its loss here was four killed and nineteen wounded. 

At Antietam, commanded by the gallant Lieutenant- Colonel Warner, the 
Tenth again won imperishable honors. During that battle, while thrown for- 
ward as skirmishers, it held at bay for thirty minutes an entire division of the 
enemy well supplied with artillery. 

General Burnside assumed command of the Army of the Potomac Novem- 
ber 7, and soon after began his preparations for an active campaign against the 
enemy. His plan involved marching his army from the vicinity of Warrenton, 
and crossing the Rappahannock near Fredericksburg. Before his pontoons had 
arrived, and his army was ready to cross, the enemy had concentrated on the 
opposite bank and stood ready to contest his passage and his further advance. 
On the night of the loth of December, however, the Tenth left camp with the 
Third Brigade, under command of Brigadier-General Jackson, and marched to 
the bank of the river, three miles below Fredericksburg, where two pontoon 
bridges were speedily laid and a crossing was effected without loss. On the 
morning of the 13th the regiment moved with the division to the point whence 
the attack was to be made, where it was formed, and was soon under a heavy 
fire of artillery. Soon the order was given to advance, and in the face of a 
destructive fire of musketry and artillery it swept forward and carried the ene- 
my's intrenchments ; but failing of support, the division was forced back and 
compelled to retire with great loss. The Tenth in this engagement was led by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Knox. The loss was severe, being eleven killed, seventy- 
five wounded, and fifty-one captured. 

Subsequently the regiment participated in the toilsome but fruitless attempt 
of General Burnside to again cross the Rappahannock, and soon after, with the 
entire division, was ordered to the defenses of Washington to rest and recruit. 
At this time some of the companies had become so much reduced by constant 
service as to be unable to muster more than three or four files of men on 

Thirty-Ninth Regiment. 175 

parade, and these without a commissioned officer or sergeant. Company H, 
the " Warren Guards," was in better condition than some others, as it then 
reported forty men present for duty under the command of First Sergeant 
WilHam McCann. 

As part of the Fifth] Corps, the First and Third Brigades of the Reserves 
reached the field of battle at Gettysburg on the morning of July 2, 1863. 
They bravely performed all that they were ordered to do on that and the fol- 
lowing day, but, holding strong, well-sheltered positions, suffered but little loss. 
Thereafter the regiment participated in the general movements of the army, 
and passed the following winter at Warrenton and Manassas Junctions. 

Winter quarters were abandoned on the 29th of April, 1864, and the regi- 
ment moved to the vicinity of Culpepper, where it joined the army of General 
Grant, the Pennsylvania Reserves, commanded by General Crawford, being 
still attached to the Fifth Corps. At midnight of the 3d of May the division 
crossed the Rapidan and bivouacked in the Wilderness on the night of the 4th. 
During the following day the regiment was engaged in skirmishing with the 
enemy and maneuvering, and at one time, the troops on the right having been 
heavily engaged and driven back, the entire division was in imminent danger 
of being cut off; but was safely withdrawn, the Tenth without loss, to the 
neighborhood of the Lacy House, where the line was reformed and intrenched. 
On the 6th the regiment moved with the brigade to the right, and was pushed 
forward a mile or more, driving the enemy. In this advance Colonel Ayer, of 
the Tenth, was severely wounded. At night it was moved on the double-quick 
to the right, to meet a night attack on the Sixth Corps. Again, on the 8th at 
Spottsylvania Court House the regiment was hotly engaged, and on the 9th 
until late at night, when it was moved to the right, forming a line at the base 
of a long wooded ridge which extended to the River Po. Fighting its way 
with the division, it crossed the Pamunky on the 28th, and on the 29th moved 
forward to Tolopotomy Creek, skirmishing as it went. On the 30th the enemy 
was met in considerable force near Bethesda Church, where the Reserves were 
at first driven back in some disorder ; but finally, forming in a favorable position, 
a temporary breastwork of rails was thrown up and the enemy was checked. 
Re-forming his lines he attacked in heavy force, but was repeatedly repelled 
and driven back in confusion, the Reserves inflicting great slaughter and tak- 
ing many prisoners. This was their last battle, their term of service having 
expired. Many of the Tenth had re-enlisted as veterans, and these were trans- 
ferred to the One Hundred and Ninetieth and One Hundred and Ninety-first 
Regiments. On the nth of June, 1864, the remnants of this brave and once 
strong body of men, which had fought in nearly every battle in which the Ar- 
my of the Potomac had to that time been engaged, was mustered out of service 
at Pittsburgh. Following is a list of those who represented Warren county in 
this regiment, with remarks copied from muster-out rolls : 

176 History of Warren County. 

Field and Staff. 

Major Harrison Allen, mustered into service June 29, 1861 ; resigned I'^eb- 
ruary 14, 1862. 

Company H. 

Captain Henry V. Partridge, resigned July 16, 1862. 

Captain Daniel W. Mayes, promoted from second lieutenant to captain ; 
killed at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. 

Captain Lemuel B. Norton, promoted from first lieutenant to captain May 
I, 1863 ; resigned June 22, 1863 ; was appointed chief signal officer. Army of 
the Potomac, in August, 1863. 

Captain William McCann, mustered out with company June 1 1, 1864. 

First Lieutenant David Service, mustered out with company June i i, 

Second Lieutenant Henry B. Fox, killed at Bull Run, Va., August 30, 

First Sergeant Eben N. Ford, discharged on surgeon's certificate Decem- 
ber 24, 1 86 1. 

First Sergeant Ransom S. Bates, mustered out with company. 

Sergeant Leamon L. Bowers, mustered out with company. 

Sergeant Martilles Porter, wounded at F'redericksburg December 13, 1862; 
absent in hospital at muster out. 

Sergeant J. B. Harrington, mustered out with company. 

Sergeant Nat. S. Falconer, wounded at New Market Cross Roads; dis- 
charged November 30, 1863. 

Sergeant Simeon Marsh, wounded at Bethesda Church May 30, 1864; 
transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864; veteran. 

Sergeant Thomas O. Rodgers, killed at New Market Cross Roads June 30, 

Sergeant Ira Johnson, killed at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862. 

Corporal Alonzo P. Barnes, mustered out with company. 

Corporal C. N. Burnham, mustered out with company. 

Corporal H. T. Houghton, mustered out with company. 

Corporal Lewis B. Learn, mustered out with company. 

Corporal George W. Brown, mustered out with company. 

Corporal George Merchant, discharged on surgeon's certificate August 20, 

Corporal Charles !•". Nelson, discharged on surgeon's certificate December 
8, 1861. 

Corporal Henry C. Dyon, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864; veteran. 

Corporal John Donlon. 

Corporal Byron D. Tomes. 

Thirty-Ninth Regiment. 177 

Musician Casper Y. Stroup, discharged on surgeon's certificate January i , 

Musician B. D. Hotchkiss, discharged on surgeon's certificate December 
24, 1862. 


William Allen, discharged on surgeon's certificate November i, 1862. 

D. C. Aylesworth, discharged on surgeon's certificate December 24, 1861. 

John G. Brower, mustered out with company. 

Ira G. Barber, discharged on surgeon's certificate September 20, 1862. 

Charles Babcock, discharged an surgeon's certificate August 22, 1861. 

Daniel H. Bowers, discharged on surgeon's certificate October 3, 1862. ^ 

Frank Brower, discharged on surgeon's certificate February 24, . 

Charles Brown, killed at Gaines's, Mill June 27, 1862. 

Jesse M. Conner, mustered out with company. 

William Calvert, discharged November 20, 1862, for wounds received at 
New Market Cross Roads June 30, 1862. 

John Cameron, discharged on surgeon's certificate October 8, 1863. 

Charles Clark, discharged on surgeon's certificate December 27, 1861. 

Nelson P. Curtis, discharged on surgeon's certificate February 13, 1862. 

Richard Calvert, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864. 

Ed. D. Crittenden, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864. 

Andrew Clendenning, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864. 

Isaac Culbertson, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864; veteran. 

John M. Cowan, killed at South Mountain September 14, 1862. 

Victor Chase, died at Washington, D. C, October 13, 1861. 

Abram G. Degroff", mustered out with company. 

Ira H. Dennison, discharged on surgeon's certificate December 19, 1861. 

George W. Demars, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864. 

Irvine Demill, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864. 

Orlando L. Davis, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864. 

Ephraim Enos, killed at Spottsylvania C. H. May 12, 1864. 

J. Burton Geer, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864. 

George S. Gilson, killed at Gaines's Mill, Va., June 27, 1862. 

John Hurley, mustered out with company. 

Henry Howard, mustered out with company. 

William H. Houghton, mustered out with company. 

Stephen G. Harris, discharged October 11, 1862, for wounds received at 
South Mountain September 14, 1862. 

Roland H. Huntley, discharged September 20, 1862, for wounds received 
at Dranesville December 20, i86i. 

Samuel Jones, discharged on surgeon's certificate February 6, 1862. 

178 History of Warren County. 

Jacob Kline, mustered out with company. 

J. M. Kingsbury, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864; veteran. 

Noah R. Kingsley, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864; veteran. 

Charles Lyon, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864; veteran. 

Edwin A. Lyon, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864; veteran. 

Andrew Lesh, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864; veteran. 

James A. Learn, killed at Gaines's Mill June 27, 1862. 

James R. Mitchell, mustered out with company. 

James A. Morton, discharged on surgeon's certificate June 2, 1862. 

Henry D. Miner, died of wounds received at Gaines's Mill January 27, 1862- 

H. V. McDowell, mustered out with company. 

Patrick McGraw, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864. 

Enos W. McPhaill, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864. 

Chase Osgood, wounded at Bull Run August 30, 1862; discharged Feb- 
ruary 3, 1863. 

Ed. J. Palmer, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864; veteran. 

Hiram Parker, died November 23, 1862, at Memphis, Tenn. 

Henry Parker, died September 14, 1862, of wounds received at Bull Run 
August 30, 1862. 

Oliver P. Robbins, wounded, with loss of leg, at Gaines's Mill June 27, 1862 ; 
discharged February 26, 1864. 

Charles E. Reynolds, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864; veteran. 

L. Robbins, transferred to 190th P. V. June 1, 1864; veteran. 

Thomas Ryne, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864; veteran. 

Edward Ryan, transferred to 190th P. V. June I, 1864; veteran. 

John Ruger, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864; veteran. 

D. F. Robinson, died September 14, 1862, of wounds received at Bull Run 
August 30, 1862. 

William Stilwell, mustered out with company. 

John Shipman, discharged on surgeon's certificate December 17, 1861. 

Leroy Snyder, discharged on surgeon's certificate August 18, 1862. 

W. A. Salisbury, transferred to 190th P. V. June I, 1864; veteran. 

James R. Shook, transferred to 190th P. V. June i, 1864. 

Jacob Schirk, killed at Bull Run August 30, 1862. 

James E. Simmons, died July 3, 1862, of wounds received June 30, i852. 

William Sturdevant, killed at Gaines's Mill, Va., June 27, 1862. 

George W. Trask, mustered out with company. 

E. N. Thompson, wounded, with loss of arm, at New Market Cross Roads 
June 30, 1862 ; died September 25, 1862. 

Jacob Tomes, discharged on surgeon's certificate December 17, 186 1. 

John Turner, discharged on surgeon's certificate April 13, 1862. 

D. J. Van Vechten, discharged on surgeon's certificate June 12, 1862. 

Forty-Second Regiment. 179 

Charles Wentworth, transferred to Signal Corps, date unknown. 

Henry C. Wright, killed at Gaines's Mill June 27, 1862. 

Edmund White, missing at Bull Run August 30, 1862. 

William S. Winchester. 

Orsamus A. Young, discharged on surgeon's certificate April 13, 1862. 



Manner of Recruiting Its First Companies — The Unique Material of Which It Was Com- 
posed — Woodsmen to the Front — Floating Down the Susquehanna — -Captain Stone's Raft- 
men — The First Company to Leave Warren — To Pittsburgh in Boats of Their Own Make — 
By Rail to Harri.sburg — Regimental Organization — Captain Stone Promoted — The First 
March — On the Upper Potomac — The Bucktails Join the Pennsylvania Reserves — G-allant 
Conduct at Dranesville — Captain McNeil of Warren Chosen as Colonel — A Temporary 
Division of the Regiment — Major Stone's Battalion in the '■ Seven Days' Fight " — Winning 
Imperishable Honors — But at Great Loss of Life — Wonderful Bridge Building Feat — The 
Rifles of the Bucktails Again in Use at Second Bull Run — Services Rendered by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Kane's Battalion in the Shenandoah — The Regiment Again United — Its Services at 
South Mountain — Antietam — Death of Colonel McNeil — An Incident in His Military Career 
— Fredericksburg — Getty.sburg — Death of Colonel Taylor, McNeil's Successor — In the 
Wilderness — At^Spottsylvania — Bethe-sda Chin-ch — Expiration of,Term of Service — Roster 
of the Warren County Men. 

IMMEDIATELY after the startling news had been received of the surrender 
of Fort Sumter, Thomas L. Kane, brother of Dr. Kane the famous Arctic 
explorer, applied to Governor Curtin for permission to raise a company of 
mounted riflemen from among the hardy yeomanry of the counties of Forest, 
McKean, and Elk, popularly known as the "wildcat district." Authority was 
immediately given as requested, and in less than a week the men began to 
assemble at the points of rendezvous. On the 17th of April it was decided 
to change the organization from cavalry to infantry. The men, for the most 
part lumbermen, came clad in their red flannel shirts, bearing their trusty rifles, 
and wearing each in his hat a bucktail. No one was accepted who did not 
prove himself a skilled marksman. All were carefully examined by a sur- 
geon, and none but sound and hardy men taken. 

On the 24th of April a hundred men had assembled at the rafting-place on 
the Sinnemahoning, where they at once commenced constructing their trans- 
ports. Two days later the entire force, three hundred and fifteen strong, em- 
barked upon three rafts, and with a green hickory pole surmounted by a buck- 
tail for a flagstaff, the stars and stripes flying, and the martial strains of fife and 

i8o HiSTOKV OF Warren County. 

drums echoing through the forests, they commenced the movement for the 
general camp of rendezvous at the State capital. Although authority had been 
given for recruiting this force, yet no order had been issued by the governor 
for marching, and before it had proceeded far it was found at headquarters 
that only a limited number could be accepted. A telegram was accordingly 
dispatched directing them to turn back upon their arrival at Lock Haven, but 
through the connivance of General Jackman, of the militia, who was very 
desirous that these hardy men of the forest should be received, the message 
was never delivered, and they were borne onward by the current over the broad 
bosom of the Susquehanna, and upon their arrival at Harrisburg saluted the 
city with a volley from their rifles. 

From the insignia in their hats they were at once recognized and known 
as the Bucktails. Authority was given for mustering them into the service as 
the Seventeenth (three months) Regiment, and a regimental organization was 
effected by the choice of Thomas L. Kane as colonel. But here another 
obstacle was encountered ; a Seventeenth Regiment had already been organ- 
ized and mustered into service in Philadelphia, and, a difficulty arising as to 
the acceptance of so large a number of men from a district containing only a 
small population, the organization was not consummated, and Colonel Kane, 
declining his commission, was mustered into service on the 13th of May as a 

Meanwhile other companies had been recruited, and had assembled in 
temporary camp with like expectations, and were similarly disappointed. 
Roy Stone, esq., a citizen of Warren county, and a well-to-do lumberman, had 
recruited a company in April, composed of a class of men similar in occupa- 
tion and experience to those led by Kane. They were first known as the " Raft- 
men's Guards," carried their own rifles, and dwelt principally upon the head 
waters of the Allegheny River. Disappointed in not being admitted to the three 
months' service, they for four weeks encamped at the court-house in Warren, 
and were fed by its patriotic citizens. With no authority to provide for them, 
Governor Curtin advised them to disband. But this they were unwilling to do. 
Tiring of inactivity, they gladly acceded to a proposition from their captain to 
move down the Allegheny upon boats of their own manufacture, to Pittsburgh, 
and thence join General McClellan's troops in West Virginia, as an independ- 
ent company of sharpshooters. They were five days in making the run, being 
entertained at the towns along the river, and receiving a number of recruits on 
the way. At Pittsburgh they were the guests of the city, and here Captain 
Stone received a summons from Governor Curtin to proceed by rail to Harris- 
burg, where the company would be assigned to the Reserve Corps. Anothei 
company was recruited in Chester county, one in Perry, one in Clearfield, one 
in Carbon, and two in Tioga. 

The companies were mustered into the United States service for three 

Forty-Second Regiment. 

years at different dates from May 28, to June 1 1 (the Warren county company, 
" D," being mustered May 29) ; but there was considerable delay in effect- 
ing a regimental organization. F"inally an election was held on the 12th of 
June, with the following result : Thomas L. Kane, colonel ; Charles J. Biddle, 
lieutenant-colonel ; and Roy Stone, captain of the " Raftmen's Guards," major. 
On the following day, however, Colonel Kane resigned, accompanying his 
resignation with a request that Lieutenant-Colonel Biddle, who had been edu- 
cated in the profession of arms, and had acquired experience on the battle- 
field, in the war with Mexico, should be commissioned in his place. It was a 
noble, magnanimous act on the part of Colonel Kane, who lacked military 
experience ; but it was quite unnecessary, for as time proved, he was much the 
best soldier of the two. The change requested by Colonel Kane was acceded 
to, and Biddle became colonel of the regiment and Kane its lieutentant-colonel. 
Unwilling to allow so honorable and unselfish an act to pass without some 
mark of their appreciation, the captains of the several companies passed reso- 
lutions soliciting a change of the name, from the " Rifle Regiment," to that of 
the " Kane Rifle Regiment of the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps." Accordingly, 
the last-mentioned name became the official designation of the command. Yet 
the regiment entered service under a variety of titles, such as the Forty-second 
of the line, the Thirteenth Reserve, the Rifle, the First Rifle, the Kane Rifle, 
and the Bucktail. The latter, however, was the popular name with its mem- 
bers ; it was the name it bore in the army, and so designated did its fame 
extend throughout the world, where the record of the great war, its marches 
battles, etc., was read. 

The regiment began its career of active service on the 21st of June, 1861, 
when, with the Fifth Reserve, Colonel Simmons, and Barr's Battery, it was 
ordered to the support of Colonel Wallace at Cumberland, Md. Proceeding 
by rail to Hopewell, Bedford county. Pa., it marched thence to Bedford Springs 
— its first march, a distance of twenty-three miles. On the 27th the com- 
mand moved forward to the State line, where was established Camp Mason 
and Dixon. Two weeks later. Colonel Wallace's regiment having been ordered 
to Martinsburg to join the command of General Patterson, this portion of 
Maryland was left open to the enemy, and a mounted rebel force under the 
leadership of Colonel Angus McDonald was destroying, unchecked, the prop- 
erty of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and, at the earnest solicitation of the 
officers of the road, the command broke camp on the 7th of July and marched 
to Cumberland, occupying the camp which Colonel Wallace had vacated. On 
the 1 2th a scouting party of sixty men, under the command of Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Kane, went forward and crossed into Virginia. At New Creek village the 
party was surrounded by McDonald's rebel cavalry, but by the skillful man- 
agement of Kane the rebels were worsted in a sharp skirmish that ensued, and 
driven away with the loss of eight killed and double that number wounded. 

i82 History of Warren County. 

Not a man of the scouts was injured. Colonel Biddle moved up with his en- 
tire command to their support, and immediately dispatched Kane with two 
hundred men to follow the retreating enemy. He came up with them at 
Ridgeville, nine miles from New Creek, and after a severe skirmish succeeded 
in gaining possession of the village, posting his men in a stone house, which 
was held until Colonel Biddle with his command arrived. On the morning of 
the 13th the entire force fell back and took up positions at New Creek and 
Piedmont, where it remained until July 27, when, in pursuance of orders, it 
returned to Harrisburg. 

On the 6th of August the regiment was ordered to report to General 
Banks at Harper's Ferry. Here it was assigned to a brigade composed of the 
Twenty-eighth New York, the Second and Twelfth Massachusetts, and the Sec- 
ond United States Cavalry, commanded by Colonel (afterwards Major-General) 
George H. Thomas. In this brigade it served until October i, when it moved 
to Tenallytown and joined General Meade's brigade of the Pennsylvania Re- 
serves. Subsequently, it being a rifle regiment and adapted to special service, 
it was detached from the brigade, and its commander ordered to make his re- 
ports directly to headquarters of the corps. When the advance was made into 
Virginia the Bucktails led the way. They encountered the Louisiana Zouaves 
(Tigers) near Hunter's Mill, October 20. A sharp skirmish ensued, which re- 
sulted in the rebels being easily driven from their position with considerable 

Early in December Colonel Biddle resigned to take his seat in Congress, 
and on the 20th of the same month the Bucktails, under command of Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Kane, marched with General Ord's brigade to Dranesville, where 
the enemy was met in force. About noon information was received that a large 
body of the rebels were in the vicinity, advancing upon the Ccntreville road. 
The Bucktails were at once posted in support of a battery, and the fight opened 
with an artillery duel between the Union and rebel gunners. After half an 
hour the enemy's fire began to slacken. At this time Colonel Kane, who was on 
the right of the column, discovered that the rebel infantry were passing through 
an opening near the wood, evidently intending a flank movement, or design- 
ing to occupy a brick house within a hundred yards of his line. He accord- 
ingly sent a detachment of twenty men to occupy the house, which they did, 
and under shelter of its walls maintained a hot fire upon the advanciag force, 
which consisted of three regiments and two small guns. As they approached, 
the Bucktails, inspired by the example of their leader, kept up a steady and 
destructive fire. Lying upon the ground as they loaded, they would rise 
quickly, take deliberate aim, fire, and then drop upon the ground again. The 
fire becoming too hot for them, the rebels began to fall back. As the Buck- 
tails arose to follow. Colonel Kane was shot in the face, the ball crushing through 
the roof of his mouth, inflicting a painful wound. But hastily bandaging it, he 

Forty-Second Regiment. 183 

continued to advance with his men. The enemy now fled in precipitation, 
leaving his dead and wounded upon the field, and one piece of artillery, which, 
but for the positive orders of the general in command, would have been capt- 
ured by the Bucktails. The loss to the latter was two men killed, and two 
officers and twenty-six men wounded. 

On the 22d of Januaiy, 1862, an election was held for colonel, which re- 
sulted in the choice of Hugh W. McNeil, captain of company D, otherwise 
known as the " Raftmen's Guards " of Warren county ; Lieutenant-Colonel 
Kane being at this time in hospital, suffering greatly from the wound received 
at Dranesville. Colonel McNeil, who left Warren as first lieutenant of his 
company, was thus promoted over both Kane and Major Stone, and doubtless 
more or less chagrin and disappointment were felt by these officers in conse- 

Upon the recovery of Lieutenant-Colonel Kane sufficiently to take the field 
he formulated a plan by which he was to have exclusive command of four com- 
panies of the regiment — Companies C, G, H, and I — and drill them in a sys- 
tem of tactics devised by him to the end that more efficient service might be 
rendered as scouts and skirmishers. Kane's request was acceded to, and he 
and his handful of Bucktails soon after performed brilliant, never-to-be-for- 
gotten deeds in the Shenandoah Valley under Fremont. But, in the endeavor 
to keep an eye upon the Warren county men, we must turn our attention to 
another field of operations. 

Soon after the departure of Lieutenant-Colonel Kane with his four com- 
panies for service in the Shenandoah Valley, Major Roy Stone (Colonel Mc- 
Neil being absent and seriously ill), with the remaining six companies, four 
hundred strong, embarked for the Peninsula. Soon after its arrival this battal- 
ion took up position on the north bank of the Chickahominy, extreme right 
of the army, directly north of Richmond and only four miles distant. 

Early on the morning of June 26 two companies were stationed at the rail- 
road and Meadow Bridge, another to the left of the bridge, and the remaining 
three, which were held in reserve, were later ordered to the support of the 
cavalry, which was falling back before a superior force of the enemy. Scarcely 
were these supporting companies deployed, when they found themselves assailed 
by his advancing columns. The Bucktails had delivered several destructive 
volleys, and thrown the enemy into considerable confusion, when Major Stone 
learned that the three companies which he had left guarding the bridges in his 
rear had been withdrawn by Colonel Simmons, who was in command of the 
grand guard, and that the enemy had already cut off his retreat. Masking his 
movement by a show of great activity, he withdrew, and making a wide detour 
to the north, contesting the ground with determination as he went, Major 
Stone succeeded in bringing in two companies. Captains Wistar and Jewett 
(the latter in command of the Warren county company) to their intrenchments, 

i84 History of Warren County. 

where the three companies, withdrawn by order of Simmons, were already in 
position. One company however — Captain Irvin's — was cut off, and, with- 
drawing to a swamp, held out for three days, capturing meanwhile many of 
the enemy's stragglers ; but eventually, was forced by hunger to come forth and 
surrender. The loss in the movement, in killed, wounded, and prisoners, was 
seventy-five. The engagement re-opened on the part of the line which the 
Bucktails now held, at half-past four P. M. The fords which they covered 
were especially coveted by the enemy, and for the possession of these he made 
his attacks with the energy of desperation, repeatedly advancing fresh lines ; 
but the steady fire and unerring aim of these well-schooled riflemen of the 
forest was too terrible to withstand, and as night came on he relinquished the 
contest, leaving them secure in their position. Here the Bucktails lost but two 
men killed (being protected by earthworks), and two officers and sixteen men 

When the division was ordered to retire to Gaines's Mill, on the morning 
of the 27th, Major Stone was directed to hold his position until the main body 
was well on its way. He accordingly pushed out his sharpshooters to the right 
and left to keep up the appearance of still occupying the whole line, and at 
daylight opened fire upon the enemy, who had advanced under cover of night 
and planted new batteries, within grape-shot range, and had fresh infantry in 
support in great force. Under a heavy fire of artillery, with the enemy already 
on his flanks and pressing hard his rear. Major Stone began to fall back at six 
A. M. A part of Company E, Captain Niles, and a part of Company D, hold- 
ing a detached position on the line, failed to receive the order to retire, and in 
the confusion they were not missed from the command, until after the bridge 
at Mill Hospital was destroyed, and it was too late to return for them. This 
accident, however, proved to be most fortunate in its results ; for this small 
body, falling back through woods and swamps, engaged the enemy at various 
points until late in the day, which so puzzled and annoyed him, that his attack 
on the Federal lines at Gaines's Mill was thereby delayed for many hours. 
They were finally captured, but not until a whole division of the enemy had 
been employed to surround them. This detachment had the colors, the State 
flag presented by Governor Curtin. It was not surrendered, however, but was 
concealed in a swamp. The loss in the battalion in the morning's engagement 
and retreat was more than half of its effective force, and upon its arrival at 
Gaines's Mill it could muster but six officers and one hundred and twenty-five 
men. In its new position for that day, at Gaines's Mill, the battalion was posted 
on the right of Reynold's Brigade, First Corps. The enemy in front was con- 
cealed by woods, except two of his batteries, which were visible at a distance 
of five hundred yards. Upon these the fire of the Rifles was concentrated, 
compelling frequent changes of position, and finally silencing the guns. After 
maintaining this position for four hours, its ammunition being exhausted and 

Forty-Second Regiment. 185 

relief failing to come, the command fell back, with a loss of one officer and 
twenty-five men killed and wounded. 

The march through White Oak Swamp began on the evening of the 28th, 
and during the night of the 29th the battalion performed picket duty on the 
Richmond road leading to Charles City. Many of the slightly wounded, and 
those who had been cut off, here joined the command, increasing its numbers 
to five officers and one hundred and fifty of the Bucktails and five officers and 
eighty- four men of the United States Sharpshooters. In the battle of the 30th, 
at Charles City Cross Roads, the command was posted on the right of the 
First Brigade. This brigade made a vigorous charge and was temporarily suc- 
cessful ; but the enemy gave no time for the troops to re-form ; they hurled 
heavy masses upon their broken and somewhat disordered ranks, and drove 
them back in confusion. Hugging the ground until the retiring forces had 
passed, the Bucktails sprang to their feet and poured in a deadly volley, con- 
tinuing to fire for some minutes; but finally, overborne by superior numbers, 
and finding that his command was in the center of a murderous fire at short 
range. Major Stone gave the word to retire just in time to escape being sur- 
rounded. During the same evening on the same ground. Major Stone was 
wounded, and Major-General McCall was captured, while these two officers 
were only a few paces in front of the Bucktails, endeavoring to ascertain the 
position of the enemy. The loss in the command was unprecedentedly large — 
being nearly two-thirds of its entire number — two officers and ninety men 
killed, wounded, and taken prisoners of the Bucktails, and two officers and fifty- 
six men of the United States Sharpshooters. At the close of the battle the 
remnants of the battalion occupied the very ground which they had held when 
they entered it, and after a short respite moved off to Malvern Hill. 

When Harrison's Landing was reached it was found necessary to bridge a 
stream five hundred feet wide, and in places ten feet deep. Generals in 
command said that the Engineer Corps would require several days to com- 
plete it, and meanwhile the army might be sacrificed in detail. Therefore 
Generals Porter and Seymour entrusted the location and construction of the 
bridge to Major Stone, expressing the hope that the raftsmen of the Bucktail 
Regiment might construct it in tivo days. The only material at hand was the 
timber growing along the banks of the streams and in the swamps. The bridge 
was commenced at five P. M., the gallant lumbermen stripping to the work and 
swimming and wading to raise the cribs ; and at sunrise on the following morn- 
ing, to the great surprise and satisfaction of the generals, the bridge was ready 
for the artillery to cross. 

Soon after the arrival of the battalion at Harrison's Landing, Major Stone 
resigned to take command of the One Hundred and Forty-ninth Regiment — 
the Second Bucktail Regiment — and Colonel McNeil, who had been sick and 
absent, returned and assumed command. From the Peninsula the battalion 

1 86 History of Warren County. 

proceeded to Warrenton, where it joined General Pope's army, and was en- 
gaged on the 29th and 30th of August in the second battle of Bull Run, los- 
ing five killed, nineteen wounded, and three missing. 

Meanwhile Lieutenant-Colonel Kane, with his detachment of four com- 
panies, had been winning renown with Fremont, Sigel, and McDowell. They 
fought in the Shenandoah Valley, near Harrisonburg, where the rebel General 
Ashby was killed by a Bucktail, and where Colonel Kane was wounded and 
taken prisoner. Again, at Cross Keys, Cedar Mountain, Catlett's Station, and 
the second battle of Bull Run, Kane and his Bucktails were conspicuously brave 
and active, the little command suffering heavy losses. On the 7th of Septem- 
ber, 1862, in recognition of his gallantry at Catlett's Station and at Bull Run, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Kane was commissioned a brigadier-general, and the four 
companies which he had commanded were united with the six from which they 
had been separated during the Peninsula campaign, amid loud cheers of wel- 
come from the rank and file of both battalions. 

The regiment, now led by Colonel McNeil, began its march to again meet 
the enemy on the 7th of September, and arrived in his front at South Moun- 
tain on the 14th. Here the Bucktails, deployed as skirmishers, drove the rebels 
from the foot of tlie mountain to its top, losing eighteen killed and forty-five 

On the following morning the troops moved forward in pursuit of the en- 
emy, and at three r. M. reached the Antietam battle ground. At two P. M. 
on the 1 6th the regiment marched with the division to the right of the army, 
where General Meade directed Colonel McNeil to deploy as at South Mount- 
ain in front of his division, and to advance to a piece of wood in front of the 
Dunkard church, then visible. The enemy was soon found in strong force, posted 
behind a fence in front of the woods indicated. Supports coming promptly up, 
the order was given to advance. The Bucktails rushed forward with a shout 
through a terrific fire of musketry and artillery, and gained the wood ; but at 
a fearful cost. Colonel McNeil, Lieutenant VVm. Allison, and twenty-eight 
men were killed and sixty-five officers and men wounded in this single charge. 
The last words of Colonel McNeil were, as he faced the death-laden storm and 
led the way — " Forward, Bucktails, forward ! " Supports came promptly to their 
aid, and the position was held during the night. The regiment, now under 
command of Captain Magee, fought on the following day with its accustomed 
gallantry, until relieved by order of General Meade. In the two days of battle 
its losses in killed and wounded were one hundred and ten officers and men. 

In an account of this battle a correspondent of the New York Post spoke 
of Colonel McNeil as follows: " Colonel Hugh W. McNeil, of the famous ' Buck- 
tail ' regiment, who was killed at the battle of 'Antietam, was one of the most 
accomplished officers in the Federal service. A soldier relates an exploit of 
his at South Mountain which is worth recording: 

Forty-Second Regiment. 187 

" During the battle of South Mountain the rebels held a very strong posi- 
tion. They were posted in the mountain pass, and had infantry on the heights 
on every side. Our men were compelled to carry the place by storm. The 
position seemed impregnable ; large craggy rocks protected the enemy on 
every side, while our men were exposed to a galling fire. 

" A band of rebels occupied a ledge on the extreme right as the colonel 
approached with a. few of his men. The unseen force poured upon them a 
volley. McNeil on the instant gave the command, ' Pour your fire upon those 
rocks ! ' The Bucktails hesitated ; it was not an order they had been accus- 
tomed to receive ; they had always picked their men. ' Fire! ' thundered the 
colonel, ' I tell you to fire at those rocks!' The men obeyed. For some time 
an irregular fire was kept up, the Bucktails sheltering themselves as best they 
could behind trees and rocks. On a sudden McNeil caught sight of two rebels 
peering through an opening in the rocks to get an aim. The eyes of the men 
followed their commander, and half a dozen Sharpe's rifles were leveled in 
that direction. ' Wait a minute ' said the colonel; ' I will try my hand. There 
is nothing like killing two birds with one stone.' 

"The two rebels were not in line, but one stood a little distance back of the 
other, while just in front of the foremost was a slanting rock. Colonel McNeil 
seized a rifle, raised it, glanced a moment along the polished barrel, a report 
followed, and both the rebels disappeared. At that moment a loud cheer a 
little distance beyond rent the air. 'AH is right now,' cried the colonel, 
'charge the rascals!' The men sprang up among the rocks in an instant. The 
affrighted rebels turned to run, but encountered another body of the Bucktails, 
and were obliged to surrender. Not a man of them escaped. Every one now 
saw the object of the colonel's orders to fire at random among the rocks. He 
had sent a party around to the enemy's rear, and meant this to attract their 
attention. It was a perfect success. The two rebels by the opening in the 
ledge were found lying there dead. Colonel McNeil's bullet had struck the 
slanting rock in front of them, glanced, and passed through both their heads." 

At Fredericksburg, with Captain Charles F. Taylor 1 (brother of the dis- 
tinguished writer and traveler. Bayard Taylor) in command, the Bucktails, as 
usual, were thrown forward into the most advanced and exposed positions, 
and, fighting with their accustomed bravery, lost nineteen killed, and one hun- 
dred and thirteen wounded and missing. 

From February, 1863, until the 2Sth of June of the same year, the regi- 
ment was stationed near Fairfax Court House, resting and recruiting, when, as 
part of the First Brigade, Crawford's Division of the Fifth Corps, it marched 
to meet Lee's rebel army in Pennsylvania. At noon, on the 2d of July, the 
regiment reached the neighborhood of Gettysburg, where a great battle was 
in progress. After a short rest the roll was called, and to the great satisfac- 

1 Captain Taylor was soon after commissioned colonel of the regiment. 

1 88 History of Warren County. 

tion of its commander every man was found in his place — a force five hun- 
dred strong. At four P. M. the division was ordered to the front, and moved 
over in the direction of Little Round Top, where the Union lines were being 
hard pressed, the artillerists ready to spike their guns. The brigade was 
hastily formed in two lines, the Bucktails on the left of the second line, and 
charged down the slope in the face of a heavy fire. At the foot of the hill 
was a deep swamp, thirty or forty yards in width, and upon reaching it the 
second line deployed to the left and, wading across, drove the enemy into the 
woods beyond the stone wall which skirted it. The left, with Colonel Taylor 
at its head, continued the pursuit through the woods to a wheat field beyond, 
where, in the act of steadying his men, he fell dead, shot through the heart. 
Here fought the Bucktails and their brigade, with wavering fortunes, until 
about the middle of the afternoon of July 3, when an advance was made 
through the woods and wheat field mentioned. The movement resulted in a 
complete success. The Bucktails were soon engaged hand to hand with the 
enemy, and nearly the entire Fifteenth Georgia Infantry, with its colors, was 
captured. Night coming on, the brigade rested nearly a mile in advance of 
the position held in the morning. Besides Colonel Taylor, Lieutenant Robert 
Hall, of the Warren county company, and six men, were killed, and thirty- 
nine officers and men were wounded of the Bucktails in this battle. In the 
maneuvers of the two great hostile armies during the remaining months of 
1863, the Bucktails were constantly upon the skirmish line, frequently engag- 
ing the enemy, rarely in a position to be secure from attack, and finally, at the 
close of the campaign, went into winter quarters at Bristoe Station, where 
they remained until the close of April, 1864. 

Just before the beginning of the fight in the Wilderness, the regiment, now 
commanded by Major Hartshorn, and who, by the way, continued in com- 
mand until the close of its term of service, was armed with Spencer's seven- 
shooters, in place of Sharpe's rifles. It crossed the Rapidan on the 4th of May, 
and fought through the Wilderness, with a loss of thirty-seven men killed and 
wounded. At Spottsylvania and again at Bethesda Church, the Bucktails 
were ever found in front, gallantly sustaining their reputation as one of the 
most efficient and trustworthy regiments in the Union army. The battle 
fought at Bethesda Church, May 30 1864, was the last in which the Buck- 
tails were engaged, their term of service having expired on that day. The 
casualties, during the campaign of less than thirty days' duration, were two 
officers and twenty-six enlisted men killed, and six officers and one hundred 
and twelve enlisted men wounded. The veterans and recruits were transferred 
to the One Hundred and Ninetieth Regiment May 31, and the remainder were 
mustered out of service at Harrisburg on the i ith of June, 1864. 

Following is a roster of those who represented Warren county in the reg- 

Forty-Second Regiment. 

Field and Staff. 

Colonel Hugh W. McNeil, promoted from captain Company D to colonel 
January 22, 1862; killed at Antietam September 16, 1862. 

Major Roy Stone, promoted from captain Company D to major June 13, 
1861; to colonel of 149th P. V. August 29, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg, 
Pa., July I, 1863, while commanding Second Brigade, Second Division, First 
Army Corps; brevetted brigadier- general September 7, 1864; discharged by 
special order January 27, 1865. 

Adjutant John T. A. Jewett, promoted to captain Company B February 5, 

Company D. 

Captain Roy Stone, promoted to major June 13, 1861. 

Captain Hugh W. McNeil, promoted from first lieutenant to captain June 
12, 186 1 ; to colonel January 22, 1862. 

Captain John T. A. Jewett, promoted from second lieutenant to first lieu- 
tenant June 12, 1861 ; to captain February 5, 1862; resigned January 5, 

Captain D. G. McNaughton, mustered out with company as brevet major 
June II, 1864. 

First Lieutenant Ribero D. Hall, mustered out with company June 11, 

Second Lieutenant Robert Hall, killed at Gettysburg July 3, 1863. 

First Sergeant James H. Masten, mustered out with company. 

Sergeant Harry T. Weaver, mustered out with company. 

Sergeant Edwin Muzzy, mustered out with company. 

Sergeant Martin Hosley, absent at muster out. 

Sergeant A. C. Williams, wounded June 30, 1862 ; discharged November 
29, 1862. 

Sergeant John Hamlin, transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Sergeant Andrew J. Deming, transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864; 

Sergeant Benjamin Haskell, died at Georgetown, D. C, October 29, 1861. 

Sergeant Roscoe A. Hall, killed at Bull Run August 30, 1862. 

Sergeant Augustus A. Trask, killed at South Mountain September 14, 1862. 

Corporal Joseph Turbett, mustered out with company. 

Corporal Horace Lafayette, discharged for wounds received at Fredericks- 
burg December 13, 1862. 

Corporal Charles H. Martin, transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864; 

Corporal Elijah Akin, discharged September 22, 1862, for wounds received 
at Mechanicsville June 26, 1862. 

190 History ob" Warren County. 


William Abbott, died at Alexandria, Va., June 15, 1862. 

Charles M. Benton, discharged August 14, 1862, for wounds received at 
Mechanicsville June 26, 1862. 

Wallace Bordman, died at Georgetown, D. C, October 24, 1861. 

Henry C. Barber. 

Francis Coughlin, absent at muster out. 

William H. Clark, mustered out with company. 

Eleazer A. Clough, discharged on surgeon's certificate March 15, 1862. 

Peter Cartwright, discharged on surgeon's certificate June 20, 1862. 

George Chase, transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864. 

David H. Clacy, killed at Charles City Cross Roads June 30, 1862. 

Adelbert M. Chapel, killed at Charles City Cross Roads June 30, 1862. 

Myron C. Cobb, killed at Antietam September 17, 1862. 

Cordillo Collins, not on muster out roll. 

Theophilus Devough, mustered out with company. 

James Devins, mustered out with company. 

William H. Davis, mustered out with company. 

Joseph W. Dunton, discharged on surgeon's certificate September 19, 1861. 

Barney Dorrin, transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864. 

Horace W. Ellison, discharged on surgeon's certificate October 26, 1861. 

Mathew E. Ellis. 

Francis H. Freeman, discharged on surgeon's certificate September 17, 

George Fisher, transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Lewis D. Flatt, discharged June 5, 1863, for wounds received at Gaines's 
Mill June 27, 1862. 

Michael Gannon, mustered out with company. 

Abner M. Gordon, mustered out with company. 

Francis Gruay, discharged September 7, 1863, for wounds received at 
Fredericksburg December 13, 1862. 

Jacob Gates, discharged on surgeon's certificate September 29, 1862. 

Nelson Geer, discharged March 15, 1863, for wounds received at Antietam 
September 17, 1862. 

George Gates, transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Henry H. Glazier, killed at y\ntietam September 17, 1862. 

William H. Green, died at Falmouth, Va., May 14, 1862. 

T. K. Humphreys, mustered out with company. 

John F. Hamlin, transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Sylvester Hamlin, discharged on surgeon's certificate March 11, 1862. 

Frederick Hogarth, discharged on surgeon's certificate, date unknown. 

Jacob Honicker, discharged on surgeon's certificate March 16, 1862. 

Forty-Second Regiment. 191 

John Havens, discharged on surgeon's certificate, January 9, 1862. 
Freeland Hobart, discharged by general order October 20, 1862. 
R. M. Humphreys, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps March 6, 1863. 
Edward Horrigan, killed at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862. 
Edward Halcomb. 

Amos H. Johnson, mustered out with company. 
Peter Jaggens, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps May 6, 1863. 
George Q. Junkin, killed at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862. 
Robert A, Kinnear, mustered out with company. 

Graham M, Kennedy, discharged on surgeon's certificate March 9, 1863. 
Thomas H. Kincade, discharged May 9. 1863, for wounds received at Bull 
Run August 30, 1862. 

Frederick Knopf, transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864; veteran. 
Byron D. Knowlton, discharged by general order January 17, 1862. 
John N. King, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps December 12, 1863. 
Michael Keating, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps October 20, 1863. 

F. W. Langworthy, discharged by general order January 17, 1863. 
John W. Lindsey, transferred to Signal Corps September, 1861. 

L B Lyman, discharged on surgeon's certificate June 7, 1862. 

Lawrence Lesser, transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Benjamin Lane. 

Charles Metz, mustered out with company. 

William H. Martz, discharged March 9, 1863, for wounds received at South 
Mountain September 14, 1862. 

O. F. Millspaugh, discharged on surgeon's certificate September 26, 1863. 

Perry Mitchell, discharged on surgeon's certificate June 10, 1863. 

John McElheany, transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864. 

Theo. McMurtrie, transferred to 41st P. V. January 10, 1862. 

James R. Morrison, transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864. 

John McMurray, killed at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862. 

Charles C. Nutting, mustered out with company. 

William Page, mustered out with company. 

Patrick Powers, mustered out with company. 

George B. Ouigley, discharged on surgeon's certificate August i, 1862. 

Henry H. Runyan, wounded at Spottsylvania C. H. May 10, 1864; in 
hospital at muster out. 

John P. Rose, killed at Charles City Cross Roads June 30, 1862. 

Theo. Singleton, mustered out with company. 

David Struble, mustered out with company. 

Dwight Seaman, transferred to Company K October 12, 1861. 

Calvin Silvernail, died at Darnestown, Md., September 27, 1861. 

James Stewart, died of wounds received at Antietam September 17, 1862. 

192 History ok Warren County. 

William H. Shawl. 

Walter V. Trask, discharged on surgeon's certificate January 5, 1863. 

William Vanarsdale, killed at Wilderness May 6, 1864. 

Joseph Whittaker, mustered out with company. 

Sylvester Wood, absent at muster out. 

James B. Walker, absent at muster out. 

Julius Wedierman, discharged on surgeon's certificate August 10, 1862. 

William Wallace, discharged on surgeon's certificate December 27, 1862. 

Samuel B. Whitlock, discharged December 2, 1862, for wounds received at 
Antietam September 17, 1862. 

Frank M. Williams, transferred to 190th P. V. May 31, 1864. 

Elias York, discharged on surgeon's certificate June 2, 1862. 

John Young, discharged, date unknown, of wounds received at Charles City 
Cross Roads June 30, 1862. 



Colonel Curtis, of VVarren, Authorized to Raise a Regiment — Is but Partially Successful — 
Its Consolidation with Another Fractional Command — The Field Officers- -Regiment Proceeds 
to Fortress Monroe — Its Services in that Department — Ordered to Beaufort, N. C. — Transferred 
to the Army of the James — Charging Fort Harrison — Subsequent Services — Muster Out — 
Eighty-Third Regiment — Where Recruited — Becomes Part of the Fifth Corps — Hotly En- 
gaged During the Peninsula Campaign — Its Losses — Second Bull Run — Fredericksburg — Hold- 
ing Little Hound Top nl Gettysburg — Wortldess Substitutes and Draftc.'d Men — Final Move- 


IN the autumn of 1861 Hon. Carlton B. Curtis, of Warren, was authorized 
to recruit a regiment of infantry in the northwestern part of the State. 
He succeeded in rallying under his colors five companies, or what was then 
termed the One Hundred and P'ourteenth Regiment. About the ist of No- 
vember he left Warren with nearly two hundred men, and proceeded to Hunt- 
ingdon, Pa., where the major portion of his men were assembled. Subse- 
quently they were ordered to Harrisburg, and finally to Camp Curtis, near 
Philadelphia. Meanwhile, J. Richter Jones, having received the requisite au- 
thority from Governor Curtin, was also engaged in the task of recruiting a regi- 
ment, designated the Fifty-eighth, in the city of Philadelphia and vicinity. He, 
also, failed to recruit but five companies. Hence, by mutual agreement of 
Jones and Curtis, their respective commands were consolidated, and the com- 

Fifty-Eighth Regiment. 193 

bined force received for its designation the lowest number — the Fifty-eighth. 
A regimental organization was effected February 13, 1862, by the selection of 
the following field officers : John Richter Jones, of Sullivan county, colonel ; 
Carlton B. Curtis, of Warren county, lieutenant-colonel, and Montgomery 
Martin, of Philadelphia, major. 

On the 8th of March the regiment left its camp, near Philadelphia, and 
proceeded by rail and water transportation to Fortress Monroe, The day of 
its arrival was signalized by the renowned contest between the Merrimac and 
Monitor. About two months later it formed part of an expedition, sent on 
transports to Norfolk, under General Wool. This movement resulted in the 
occupation of Norfolk, Portsmouth, Newtown, Gosport, and the Navy Yard. 
In October it was ordered to Suffolk, and soon after participated in a move- 
ment against the enemy on the Blackwater. 

Early in January, 1863, the regiment was embarked, with a force under com- 
mand of General Foster, for Beaufort, N. C. Thereafter, until towards the close 
of April, 1864, its campaigns were confined to that State. Although it fought 
no battles of moment, nor lost but few men in action, it rendered active, ardu- 
ous, and very efficient service. Its gallant commander. Colonel Jones, was in- 
stantly killed by a rebel sharpshooter in an action at Bachelor's Creek Station, 
N. C., May 23, 1863. Lieutenant-Colonel Curtis was promoted to fill the va- 
cancy, but resigned July 2, 1863. Captain Cecil Clay then became the rank- 
ing officer, and continued in command of the regiment until its term of serv- 
ice expired. 

Together with many other troops, the regiment was transferred by boats 
from North Carolina to the Army of the James about May i, 1864. On the 
9th the division had a sharp encounter with the enemy, in which the regiment 
lost twenty killed and wounded. At Cold Harbor, on the ist of June, the 
regiment engaged in a charge and drove the enemy into his intrenched line, 
sustaining a loss of thirty-five in killed and wounded. Again on the 3d did 
the Fifty-eighth behave so handsomely that it was specially complimented by 
army correspondents. 

On the evening of September 28 a considerable portion of the Army of 
the James moved across James River on muffled pontoons. The brigade of 
which the Fifty-eighth formed a part had the advance, and at sunrise skirmish- 
ing commenced. As the Union columns pressed forward, the rebels fell back 
to the forts and defenses, which were in full view, extending from the river 
north to the vicinity of White Oak Swamp. The brigade was immediately 
ordered up, and the Fifty-eighth and One Hundred and Eighty-eighth Penn- 
sylvania Regiments were selected to lead the charge upon Fort Harrison, the 
principal defense. A public road led directly to the fort, and the ground in 
front, over which the charge must be made, was open and ascending for about 
twelve hundred yards. The public road mentioned was at the center of the 

194 History of Warren County. 

charging troops, the left of the Fifty-eighth resting upon it. Fifty yards from 
the fort the ground rises quite suddenly to the crest, just in rear of which was 
the ditch with abatis in front. The fort mounted sixteen guns, two of them 
one hundred pounders. Forming for the desperate work, the two regiments 
moved forward at a regular pace until within five hundred yards, when, in the 
face of a storm of shot and shell that swept their ranks, they rushed forward 
as one man until they reached the little ridge in front of the fort. Here all, 
with one accord, dropped to the ground under partial shelter ; but only for an 
instant, for at this moment General Ord came dashing up, and, inspired by tlie 
presence and daring of their chief, the men sprang forward with wild shouts, 
passed the abatis and the ditch, and scaling the parapet, drove the enemy in 
rout and confusion from the fort. 

The colors of the Fifty-eighth, which had three times fallen in the desperate 
onset, were planted upon the parapet by Captain Clay, who, with his adjutant, 
was among the first to enter the work. As Captain Clay, who had just taken 
the flag from the hands of the fallen corporal, attempted to raise it upon the 
fort, he received two gunshot wounds in the right arm. The flag itself was 
completely riddled, and the staff twice shot off. Of the nine officers and two 
hundred and twenty-eight men who advanced, six officers and one hundred 
and twenty-eight men were either killed or wounded. 

On the afternoon of the same day these two regiments were ordered to at- 
tack the Star Fort, situated a mile to the left of Fort Harrison and near the 
river. Filled with fiery zeal by their success in the morning, they moved gal- 
lantly forward, scaled the ramparts, and spiked the guns ; but weakened by 
their severe losses, the rebel gun-boats playing upon them, and supports fail- 
ing to come at the critical moment [Where was Ord?] they were obliged to 
fall back, and the advantage, dearly purchased, was lost. They returned to 
Fort Harrison and all night long were engaged in throwing up a skillfully 
planned line of earthworks. The next day the enemy attacked in heavy force 
and with determined valor, but was repulsed with great loss. 

Thenceforward until its Jiiuster out the regiment was actively engaged in 
various fields, but was not an active participant in battle. After the suspension 
of hostilities it was assigned to duty by detachments in the lower counties of 
Virginia, under orders from the Freedmen's Bureau. It was finally mustered 
out of service at City Point January 24, 1866. 

The Warren county men in the regiment served chiefly in Companies F 
and G, among them being Captains Lucius Rogers and Olney V. Cotter. 

EiGiiTY-TiiiRi) Regiment. 

This regiment was organized at Erie soon after the expiration of the term 
of Colonel McLane's three months regiment. It was composed of nearly three 
hundred members of the old regiment, besides others from the counties of Erie, 

Eighty-Third Regiment. 195 

Crawford, Warren, Venango, and Mercer. They rendezvoused at Camp Mc- 
Lane, where, on the 8th of September, 1861, they were mustered into the 
United States service for three years, with Colonel John W. McLane as their 
commanding officer. 

On the 1 8th of the same month the regiment proceeded to Washington, D. 
C, where it was assigned to the Third Brigade of Porter's Division, afterwards 
known as the First Division of the Fifth Corps. It soon attained a high state 
of proficiency in drill, etc., and was considered one of the model volunteer reg- 
iments of the army. It participated in the Peninsula campaign, beginning 
with the so-called seige of Yorktown and terminating with the retreat of Mc- 
Clellan to Harrison's Landing. At Hanover Court House, at Gaines's Mill, 
where Colonel McLane was killed, and where two hundred and sixty-five 
others of the regiment were either killed, wounded, or captured, and at Mal- 
vern Hill, where forty were killed and one hundred and ten wounded, the 
Eighty-third won imperishable honor. Again, at the second battle of Bull 
Run it was warmly engaged, losing about seventy-five in killed and wounded, 
but at Antietam it had an opportunity to pour but few volleys into the enemy's 
ranks. Its losses at Fredericksburg were six killed and thirty wounded, and 
at Chancellorsville only some four or five were wounded. 

The regiment reached the battle-field of Gettysburg on the morning of the 
2d of July, and with its brigade was posted on Little Round Top. Here it 
fought desperately and assisted in repulsing repeated charges of Longstreet's 
men, though it lost another gallant commander in the person of Colonel Vin- 
cent, who fell mortally wounded. The losses in the regiment were compara- 
tively slight, however — since it fought, for the most part, from behind rocks — 
being eight killed and thirty-eight wounded. During the following winter its 
ranks were increased by the addition of four hundred drafted men and substi- 
tutes, a large proportion of whom proved to be entirely worthless. Subse- 
quently the regiment participated in the movements, battles, etc., of the Fifth 
Corps, losing heavily in all of the chief engagements fought till the expiration 
of its original term of service, which occurred September 18, 1864. It then 
contained about three hundred and fifty eftective men. Of these about one 
hundred were mustered out, and the balance, composed of veterans and recruits, 
was organized in six companies, and known as the battalion of the Eighty- 
third. Finally, after following Lee to Appomattox to his defeat and surrender, 
these men were mustered out at Washington, D. C, June 28, and were dis- 
banded at Harrisburg, Pa., July 4, 1865. The Warren county men who served 
in this regiment were scattered among various companies ; hence at this late 
day it is found impracticable to make individual mention of them. 

196 History of Warren County. 



In What Counties Recruited — lis. Warren County Companies — Regimental Rendezvous — 
Original Field Officers — Equipped at Harrisburg — Proceeds to Baltimore — Thence to Har- 
per's Ferry — Assigned to Banks' .s Second Corps — In Action at Cedar Mountain — Heroic 
Daring Displayed at Antietam — Assigned to the Twelfth Corps — Winter Quarters 1862-63 — 
At Chancellorsville — Gettysburg — Transferred to the Array of the Cumberland — Attacked 
at Midnight in the Wauhatchie Valley — Rebels Defeated — Lookout Mountain — Re-enlisting 
for a Second Term — Eleventh and Twelfth Corps Consolidated as the Twentieth — The 
Atlanta Campaign — Hard Marching and Fighting of Daily Occurrence — Before Atlanta — 
Death of Colonel Cobham — Atlanta Occupied — The March Through Georgia — Savannah 
Falls — Sweeping Northward Through the Carolinas — The Round-up at Washington, D. C. 
— Final Duties — Muster Out — Names and Record of Its Warren County Members. 

THIS regiment was chiefly recruited in the counties of Erie, Warren, and 
Crawford, under authority granted by the secretary of war, on the 2d of 
September, 1861, to M. Schlaudecker, a citizen of Erie. Companies B and D 
were composed of Warren county men, besides which. Lieutenant George J. 
Whitney, and many others from Youngsville, and vicinity, added largely to 
the strength of Company H. Warren county men were also found in other 
companies of the regiment. The men rendezvoused at Camp Reed near the 
city of Erie, where, on the 24th of January, 1862, the following field officers 
were chosen: M. Schlaudecker, colonel; George A. Cobham, of Warren, lieu- 
tenant-colonel, and Thomas M. Walker, major. On the following day the 
regiment started for Baltimore, Md. Equipments were obtained at Harrisburg, 
and at Baltimore drill and guard duty were performed until the middle of May, 
when it was ordered to Harper's Ferry to reinforce General Banks, then 
retreating down the Shenandoah Valley before a superior force of the enemy 
under "Stonewall" Jackson. Here it performed active service and met the 
enemy for the first time in a skirmish near Charlestown. 

Towards the close of June, upon the organization of the Army of Virginia, 
under General Pope, the regiment was assigned to the Second Brigade, Second 
Division, Second Corps, commanded respectively by Generals Prince, Augur, 
and Banks. In the battle of Cedar Mountain, on the 9th of July, which was 
principally fought by Banks's Corps, the One Hundred and Eleventh behaved 
with the utmost gallantry. It was led in the engagement by Major Walker 
(Colonels Schlaudecker and Cobham being absent sick), and lost nineteen killed, 
sixty-one wounded, and thirteen missing. 

It soon after proceeded on the march through Maryland, and participated 
in the battle of Antietam, where for eight hours it was engaged in severe 
fighting. For the gallantry exhibited in this engagement, and especially for 

One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment. 197 

the heroic daring displayed in the charge which cleared the enemy from the 
grove, where stood the Httle church, around which was the severest fighting, 
Colonel Stainrook, the brigade commander, presented the regiment on the field 
with a stand of colors. It went into the fight with three hundred muskets, 
and lost thirty-three killed, or mortally wounded, seventy-one wounded, and 
seven missing. Among the killed was Captain Arthur Corrigan, the com- 
mander of one of the Warren county companies. 

On the lOth of December, 1862 (the regiment, meanwhile, having been 
posted at Loudon Heights since the battle of Antietam), it moved with the 
Twelfth Corps — to which it had been assigned — towards Fredericksburg, and 
on the 1 6th settled down in winter quarters at Fairfax Station, the battle of 
Fredericksburg, in the mean time, having been fought and lost. In January, 
1863, the regiment marched to Acquia Creek, a part of the general movement 
afterwards termed the " Mud Campaign." About a month later it was assigned 
to the Second Brigade, General Kane ; Second Division, General Geary ; 
Twelfth Corps, General Slocum. While at Acquia Creek the One Hundred 
and Eleventh was one of ten regiments selected out of the whole army, for the 
excellent condition in which they were found upon inspection. The regiments 
thus honored were the First, Second, and Twentieth Massachusets ; Tenth and 
Nineteenth Maine ; Fifth and Tenth New York ; One Hundred and Eleventh 
Pennsylvania ; Third Wisconsin, and First Minnesota Volunteers. 

On the 27th of April, under command of Colonel Cobham, Schlaudecker 
having resigned in November, 1862, the regiment marched out to participate 
in the Chancellorsville campaign. On this march the men carried each one 
hundred rounds of cartridges, and eight days' rations, and accomplished a dis- 
tance of sixty miles in less than three days. In the battle which ensued the 
regiment was actively engaged and was changed about from one threatened or 
advantageous position to another ; but its losses were rather light — six killed, 
eight wounded, and three missing 

With its division the regiment arrived within two miles of Gettysburg 
on the evening of July i, and bivouacked on the left of the Baltimore Pike. 
On the following morning it advanced to a position on Gulp's Hill, where 
earthworks were erected. It rested behind these, undisturbed, until five P. M., 
when it was led, with other troops of the division, to the assistance of the left, 
then being hard pressed. The enemy on the left having been repulsed, Gen- 
eral Geary led his troops back to re-occupy his abandoned breastworks. But 
in the mean time the enemy had pushed through and taken possession of the 
ground far out toward the Baltimore Pike. At eleven o'clock P. M., Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Walker was ordered to lead the regiment forward, and post the 
men in the trenches. He proceeded to execute this command, under the sup- 
position that no enemy was in the vicinity. Two companies on the left, which 
were in front, had been brought into position, when they received a volley 

198 History of Warren County. 

from the hill, scarcely six rods from the flank and rear of the command. The 
remaining companies were immediately brought into line perpendicular to the 
works, and facing in the direction from which the fire had come. Skirmishers 
were at once sent out, who soon discovered that the whole hill and woods on 
the right were occupied by the enemy. This fact was reported to Colonel 
Cobham, then assisting General Kane, still enfeebled by his wounds, in bring- 
ing up the brigade, who again ordered the regiment to be led into the breast- 
works; but, on being shown that the line would then be exposed to an enfi- 
lading fire from the enemy, the position already taken was ordered to be held. 
In this it remained, keeping close watch upon the enemy in front, until three 
in the morning, when it was determined that the line should be moved a little 
to the rear, so as to get the advantage of a wing of the breastworks held by 
General Greene. 

"I was endeavoring," says Lieutenant-Colonel Walker, "to move my men, 
a man at a time, with the utmost caution, when our watchful enemy detected 
a move and, supposing we were about to retire, opened fire upon us. My men 
returned the fire, silencing theirs, and then moved to the position assigned them, 
awaiting daylight for the work to begin. At about a quarter before four, the line 
of the enemy advanced with a yell. We opened fire briskly, quickly compell- 
ing them to take the shelter of the rocks, and of our trenches that were in their 
possession. We continued fighting in this way until four minutes of six o'clock, 
when we were relieved, and retired for the purpose of renewing our ammuni- 
tion. After filling our boxes and wiping our guns we returned to the position 
which we had left. At eleven o'clock the enemy gave up the contest, and we 
re-occupied the works we had built for defense. In this fight about half of my 
regiment was in open line, fighting a desperate enemy to regain possession of 
the very rifle pits we had built for our protection. We expended one hundred 
and sixty rounds of ammunition to the man." Nevertheless the regiment's 
losses were comparatively light, being but six killed and seventeen wounded. 

During the latter part of September following, the regiment, with the 
Eleventh and Twelfth Corps, was ordered to proceed by rail towards Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn. It reached Murfreesboro October 6, with a loss of one hundred 
men by desertion. These renegades consisted of drafted men, substitutes, and 
bounty jumpers, who had recently joined the regiment, and during the move- 
ment z'ia Washington, D. C, Harper's Ferry, Belleair, Columbus, Indianapolis, 
Louisville, Nashville, etc., they had ample opportunities to sneak away. From 
Murfreesboro the command marched in a leisurely manner southward, crossing 
the Tennessee River at Bridgeport, Ala., October 26, and arriving at Wau- 
hatchie on the 28th. 

The movements of the command — which consisted of a part of Geary's 
Division of the Twelfth Corps — on the afternoon of that day were closely 
watched by the enemy's signal corps, from a station on Lookout Mountain, 

One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment. 199 

overlooking the valley along which the Union troops were marching. At 
about five o'clock in the evening the command bivouacked at the junction of 
the roads leading to Kelly's and Brown's ferries, over which trains were moving 
with supplies for the Army of the Cumberland, a few miles away at Chatta- 
nooga. Between eleven and twelve o'clock that night a very determined at- 
tack was made upon this small force in bivouac, by three brigades of the rebel 
army, which had moved stealthily from their lines on Lookout Mountain, with 
the design of surprising and making of it an easy prey. The One Hundred 
and Eleventh was the first to form in line, taking position facing the mountain, 
and was the first struck, receiving the attack on its left flank, the enemy ad- 
vancing in heavy lines up the valley. Discerning the direction from which the 
attack was to come, it immediately, under a heavy fire, changed front to rear 
on first company, and presented a barrier to his further advance, until the other 
regiments of the brigade could form on its left and prolong the line. The at- 
tack was made with much determination, but was met with a valor unsurpassed, 
and when the line was once formed it stood immovable until the enemy yielded 
the ground and withdrew, with ranks fearfully decimated from the contest. 
The regiment here sustained a loss of two officers and eleven men killed, six 
officers and twenty-five men wounded, and one enlisted man missing. Among 
the killed was Lieutenant Marvin D. Pettit, of a Warren county company. 

After the battle the regiment moved to a spur of Raccoon Mountain, where 
it was encamped for nearly a month. On the 24th of November it proceeded 
early from quarters to join in a movement upon Lookout Mountain. The part 
taken by the regiment in this and in the subsequent movements, which swept 
Bragg from his strongholds environing the Union army, and sent him in flight 
and confusion from its front, will be best shown by the following extracts from 
Lieutenant-Colonel Walker's report. Colonel Cobham then being in command 
of the brigade of which the One Hundred and Eleventh formed a part. 

" I was aroused, at about five o'clock of the 24th, by an order to report 
forthwith, without knapsacks and with one dky's rations, at headquarters. 
We were soon under way and, arriving at the headquarters of the division, 
were conducted to the ford over Lookout Creek, some three miles above the 
north point of the mountain. On the road we were joined by the Twenty- 
ninth Pennsylvania, the Third Brigade, and Whitaker's Brigade of the Fourth 
Corps. Together with these troops, we were massed and screened from view 
behind one of a series of knobs that lie adjacent to the creek, until the pioneers 
and some details had succeeded in constructing a foot-bridge over the stream. 
This was accomplished without resistance, and at nine o'clock A. M. my regi- 
ment was crossing the creek, following the Twenty-ninth Pennsylvania, and 
closely followed by the Third Brigade, the Sixtieth New York joining us. 
We continued marching by the flank until we had gained about two-thirds of 
the slope of the mountain, when we halted, fronted, dressed, threw out a strong 

History of Warren County. 

skirmish line to cover the front, and awaited the order of the general com- 
manding to move forward. The front line had thus attained its position, and 
the reserve — General Whitaker's Brigade — was well on its way when the 
order was brought. As we went forward our skirmishers soon became 
engaged, and pressed the enemy's, without being for a moment delayed. We 
continued to move in line, excepting two short halts for breathing spells, until 
we approached and could get a glimpse of the point of the mountain. The 
line now moved so that the Twenty-ninth Pennsylvania, which had the right, 
should crown the main spur just below the peak. The enemy was now pour- 
ing a sharp fire from the cover of every rock; but with cheers the line moved 
steadily on, capturing and sending to the rear many prisoners without escort. 
The position of the One Hundred and Eleventh, in conjunction with the 
Twenty-ninth, in the line, was such that our advance continually turned the 
intrenchments of the enemy, while regiments on our left charged to their very 
teeth. As we crowned the north ridge, immediately under the point of the 
mountain, we saw the enemy lying in their intrenchments below us, and the 
the troops of the Third Brigade rushing forward with the bayonet. We fired 
but few shots here, as our superior position and the steel of our troops was too 
much for the enemy, and they either surrendered or fled. At twelve o'clock 
M., in conjunction with the Twenty-ninth, we were in line from the point of 
the mountain down the main spur. From this position we faced to the right 
and filed to the left, close around the cliffs, going to the east side. We here 
fronted, occupying the highest available part of the slope, and remained until 
relieved, about ten o'clock P. M., by fresh troops. We bivouacked, after sup- 
plying ourselves with one hundred rounds of ammunition per man, in the old 
camp of the enemy. 

" Early on the morning of the 25th we moved out by the left, the Twenty- 
ninth following, and posted on the west slope of the mountain, the left resting 
against the cliffs, to guard against any approach along this side of the mount- 
ain. We left this position about twelve o'clock M., marched down the east 
slope of the mountain, across the valley to Missionary Ridge, and turning to 
the left kept down the ridge for some distance, moving in column doubled on 
the center, until ordered up the slope. Before reaching the summit the enemy 
had fled. We now bivouacked at the foot of the hill, and at a little past ten 
A. M. of the 26th we started on the road to Ringgold. We marched this day 
without provisions, and at night reached Pigeon Ridge, where we bivouacked. 
We were under arms at daylight, and started again, hungry — the supply trains 
not having come up — and reached the town of Ringgold about eleven .\. M., 
and were ordered into line in the old cornfield, on the right front of the depot, 
where we lay, submitting, without return shots, to the fire of the enemy's 
sharpshooters concealed in the forest that lined the slope of Taylor's Ridge, 
on which they were posted. We remained here until the heights were carried 

One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment. 

on the left, when my regiment was moved forward to hold the gap." During 
this series of engagements the regiment lost only three killed and seven 

On the 1st of December the regiment marched back to its old camp, on 
Raccoon Mountain, and on the 28th, many of its original members having 
re-enlisted for a second term of three years, it departed for home, on its well- 
earned veteran furlough, arriving at Erie on the afternoon of the 14th of Janu- 
ary, 1864. 

At the expiration of the furlough the command assembled at Pittsburgh, 
and moved thence by railroad to Bridgeport, Ala., where it reported to Gen- 
eral Geary, and was assigned by him to the Third Brigade, Second Division, 
(Geary's) Twentieth Army Corps. 

Early in May Sherman's Atlanta campaign opened, and on the morning of 
the 3d the division crossed the Tennessee, and, moving via Shell Mound, 
Whiteside, and Wauhatchie, crossed Lookout Mountain, Chickamauga Hills, 
and Taylor's Ridge, and on the 8th came up with the enemy, where the regi 
ment acted as support to the cavalry. Early in the day it went into position at 
Snake Creek Gap, where it awaited the arrival of McPherson's Army of the 
Tennessee. At five P. M. it was relieved, and, counter-marching, rejoined the 
division at Mill Creek Church. On the 12th the troops passed through Snake 
Creek Gap 01 route to Resaca, and on the following day went into position in 
reserve at the junction of the Dalton, Calhoun, and Sugar Valley roads, where 
it intrenched. The morning of the 14th found it on its way to the left of the 
army, and upon taking position was engaged in covering the front with rifle 
pits. On the following day it returned to the right, where the entire corps 
was massed, to charge the enemy upon the opposite hills. The One Hundred 
and Eleventh moved against a four gun battery posted in a natural basin, a 
little in front of the fortified line of the enemy. The advance was gallantly 
made, and at the parapet the men took shelter and picked off the rebel gun- 
ners, but were unable to gain the interior on account of the enemy's concen- 
trated fire. At nightfall tools were brought up, and the work of digging 
through the parapet to obtain the guns was commenced. At half-past ten 
fresh troops were sent in, who continued the work, and before midnight the 
guns were reached and triumphantly brought off. In this assault the regiment 
lost four killed, twenty-four wounded, and two missing. 

During the night the enemy fell back, and the Union troops pressed on in 
pursuit. On the 23d the division crossed to the south side of the Etowah 
River, followed up Raccoon Creek, thence over the Allatoona Mountains, and 
on the 25th passed over Pumpkin Vine Creek. Here the division met the ad- 
vance of the enemy and halted, while the One Hundred and Eleventh was 
sent through the woods to the right to open communication with Williams's 
Division, which had crossed below. This was successfully accomplished, and 

History of Warren County. 

the regiment had returned, when, at nightfall, it was advanced through a wood 
against the enemy, in position near New Hope Church. In this night en- 
counter it sustained a loss of five killed or mortally wounded, thirty-five 
wounded, and three missing. 

From this time forward, for many weeks, skirmishing and fighting heavy 
battles was of almost daily occurrence with all of the troops under the com- 
mand of General Sherman. The combined forces included three armies — 
Army of the Cumberland, Army of the Tennessee, and Army of the Ohio ; 
seven army corps — the Fourth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Seventeenth, 
Twentieth, and Twenty-third ; aggregating more than one hundred thousand 
effective fighting men at the beginning of the campaign ; and all were needed 
(besides constant additions to make good losses in battle and by disease), in 
the work of pushing back, step by step, Johnston's rebel army from Dalton to 

Thus did the One Hundred and Eleventh, with its brigade, division, and 
corps, push forward during those eventful days. It participated in the actions 
fought at Dallas, Ackworth, Big Shanty, Kenesaw and Pine Mountains, Grier's 
Plantation, the crossing of the Chattahoochie River, and on the evening of July 
19 arrived on the bank of Peach Tree Creek, at a point about six or eight 
miles distant and northeast from the rebel stronghold, Atlanta. 

This creek was crossed before dark, the enemy's skirmishers being driven 
from the opposite bluff's, with a loss to the regiment of one killed and three 
wounded. A strong line of earthworks was thrown up, but at noon of the fol- 
lowing day (the 20th) the brigade was moved forward and massed, as was 
understood, in rear of the First and Second Brigades. At three o'clock P. M. 
the enemy attacked in full force, and with unusual impetuosity. The One 
Hundred and Eleventh was immediately thrown forward to meet him, and, 
advancing across a ravine and up the opposite slope, found, on arriving at the 
summit, its right suddenly enveloped, front, flank, and rear, by the foe, who 
was advancing through a gap in the line, and was now struggling fiercely for 
the mastery. Without support, and taken at a great disadvantage, the regi- 
ment made a heroic stand, but was finally forced back a short distance, where 
the line was re-formed and held. The fighting was, at times, hand to hand, 
and very severe. Near the close of the struggle, which resulted in a complete 
victory for the Union arms. Colonel Cobham fell, mortally wounded, and ex- 
pired on the field. Of the regiment, seventeen were killed and twenty-seven 
wounded, in the action known as the battle of Peach Tree Creek, besides a 
considerable number taken prisoners. 

In describing scenes and incidents connected with this battle a correspond- 
ent for a Cincinnati paper said : " For the first time in the campaign, a fight 
took place with neither party behind works. Almost the whole of Hooker's 
Corps was struck simultaneously while it was moving by flank toward the left. 

One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment. 203 

although, as the wave of battle rolled from right to left, Ward's division was 
engaged a minute or two sooner than the others [Williams's and Geary's], 
Face to face the combatants stood, firing deadly volleys into each other's 
bosoms. At times the lines were not more than fifteen feet apart. On Col- 
onel Harrison's front a hand to hand conflict actually took place, in which offi- 
cers as well as men were engaged. On Colonel Cobham's center the lines met 
each other so furiously that they passed one beyond the other, and each changed 
front [about faced] to renew the conflict." 

Again, the New York Times, in speaking of Colonel Cobham's death, says : 
" He was surrounded by the enemy and called upon by an officer to surren- 
der. With a rare nobility of character he refused to yield, and for refusing 
was shot through the body by order of the rebel who made the demand. Mor- 
tally wounded, but not killed, Cobham turned, and with the calm dignity that 
always characterized him, ordered a soldier who stood near him to ' shoot that 
fellow.' The order was promptly obeyed, and the murderer paid with his life 
the penalty of killing one of the noblest soldiers that the army ever contained." 
Colonel Cobham was shot through the left lung, and expired four or five hours 

Thereafter the corps formed part of the Union forces engaged in the in- 
vestment of Atlanta. During the latter part of August, when Sherman, with 
the major portion of his army, moved thirty miles to the southward and de- 
feated the enemy at Jonesboro, thus compelling the hasty evacuation of Atlanta 
by the rebels, the Twentieth Corps retired northward to Pace's Ferry on the 
Chattahoochie, where formidable works were erected, and the results of 
Sherman's bold movement awaited. As soon as it was ascertained that the 
enemy had fled as a result of the defeat of their main body at Jonesboro, the 
Twentieth Corps returned towards the now prostrate, helpless city, and on the 
morning of September 2 the advance column of the command entered the 
town and took possession without resistance. The colors of the One Hundred 
and Eleventh, and the Sixtieth New York were at once unfurled from the city 
hall, amidst the wildest enthusiasm of the troops. 

The corps remained at Atlanta until November 16, when the march through 
Georgia was commenced by the Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Seventeenth, and Twen- 
tieth Army Corps. The outer works defending Savannah were reached De- 
cember 10, and on the morning of the 2ist of the same month, the rebel de- 
fenders having fled, the city was occupied by the Federal volunteers. 

On the 27th of January, 1865, the division started on the march through 
the Carolinas, and arrived at Goldsboro, N. C, two months later, where much- 
needed supplies were obtained. The One Hundred and Ninth and One Hun- 
dred and Eleventh Pennsylvania Regiments, having served side by side since 
the spring of 1862, at the request of their commanding officers, seconded by 
the men, were here consolidated, eight hundred and eighty-five strong, as the 

204 History of Warren County. 

One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment. After the surrender of Johnston, 
which soon followed, the command moved to Raleigh, and thence 7na Rich- 
mond to Washington, where it participated in the grand review of the Army 
of the Potomac, and Sherman's armies of "Georgia " and the "Tennessee." The 
regiment was here ordered to report to General Augur, commandant of the 
city, by whom it was assigned to duty in guarding the Old Capitol, Carroll, 
and other prisons, and where it remained until the 19th of July, when it was 
mustered out of service. 

The major portion of the Warren county men who served in the regiment 
are shown in the following lists : 

Field .\nd St.\ff. 

Colonel George A. Cobham, promoted from lieutenant-colonel November 
7, 1862, to brevet brigadier-general July 19, 1864; killed at Peach Tree Creek, 
Ga., July 20, 1864. 

Adjutant Albert G. Lucas, promoted from first sergeant Company B Sep- 
tember 13, 1864; mustered out with regiment. 

Company B. 

Captain Arthur Corrigan, killed at Antietam September 17, 1862. 

Captain W. P. Langworthy, discharged on surgeon's certificate February 
9, 1863. 

Captain Wallace B. Warner, wounded at Wauhatchie October 29, 1863; 
resigned March 15, 1864. 

Captain William Geary, discharged April 8, 1865, expiration of term. 

Captain John J. Haight, mustered out with company. 

Second Lieutenant Marvin D. Pettit, killed at Wauhatchie October 29, 

First Sergeant George King, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

First Sergeant Mills F. Allison, wounded at Gettysburg; transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Sergeant William H. Hawkins, mustered out with company; veteran. 

Sergeant George W. Chappel, wounded at Gettysburg; mustered out with 
company ; veteran. , 

Sergeant lilliott C. Young, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Sergeant William F. Rush, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Sergeant Joseph A. McGee, discharged on surgeon's certificate March 2, 

Sergeant Kdson C. Hills, killed at Chanccllorsville May 3, 1863. 

Sergeant Walker H. Hoguc, killed at Dallas, Ga., May 31, 1864. 

Sergeant Robert I\L Watson, died at Winchester, Va., July 6, 1862. 

Corporal James McAuley, sr., mustered out with company; veteran. 

One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment. 205 

Corporal William A. Selby, wounded at Wauhatchie ; mustered out with 
company ; veteran. 

Corporal Charles B. Haight, wounded at Antietam ; mustered out with 
company; veteran. 

Corporal Henry W. Ellsworth, wounded at Antietam, and at Culp's Farm, 
Ga.; mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Corporal Austin W. Merrick, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Corporal Edward A. Young, wounded at Cedar Mountain ; discharged by 
reason of same ; re-enlisted 1864; discharged July 7, 1865. 

Corporal J. R. Broughton, sr., discharged on surgeon's certificate May 16, 

Corporal William Gray, discharged on surgeon's certificate November i, 

Corporal David McNeil, discharged April 9, 1865, expiration of term. 

Corporal Miletus Tuttle, discharged by general order June 21, 1865 ; vet- 

Corporal John S. Good, killed at Antietam September 17, 1862. 

Musician Rufus M. Ross, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Musician Phineas Burnham, died at Alexandria, Va., July 18, 1862. 


Thomas Arters, wounded at Culp's Farm, Ga.; mustered out with company; 

Thomas J. Anderson, mustered out with company; veteran. 

Samuel Arbuckle, substitute, mustered out with company. 

Milo Alger, discharged on surgeon's certificate May 16, 1862. 

Isaac Armitage, discharged on surgeon's certificate February 6, 1863. 

Benjamin Blizzard, mustered out with company; veteran. 

William Blizzard, mustered out with company; veteran. 

William Black, mustered out with company; veteran. 

Edward Baker, mustered out with company; veteran. 

George Buhl, substitute, mustered out with company. 

William Brown, substitute, wounded at Wauhatchie; mustered out with 

Thomas Brown, substitute, wounded at Savannah, Ga.; mustered out with 

John Barberick, discharged on surgeon's certificate May 16, 1862. 

Charles Brown, discharged on surgeon's certificate January 17, 1863. 

William Benedick, discharged on surgeon's certificate January 30, 1863. 

Reuben Brown, discharged on surgeon's certificate February 4, 1863. 

Gottlieb Bendel, discharged by general order June 6, 1865. 

William F. Blanchard, wounded at Dallas, Ga.; transferred to Veteran 
Reserve Corps December 30, 1864. 

2o6 History of Warren County. 

J. R. Broughton, jr., killed at Dallas, Ga., May 31, 1864. 

Gilbert S. Connor, wounded at Gettysburg; mustered out with company; 

William Campbell, substitute, absent in arrest at muster out. 

Edgar Cobb, discharged by general order June 6, 1865. 

Norman Calhoun, wounded at Gettysburg; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate April 28, 1864. 

William Collett, discharged May i, 1865, expiration of term. 

Abel Conner, discharged on surgeon's certificate October 13, 1862. 

Marvin A. Caldwell, discharged on surgeon's certificate December 29, 1862. 

John W. Cook, discharged on surgeon's certificate January, 15, 1863. 

Andrew J. Cevell, wounded at Chancellorsville; transferred to Veteran 
Reserve Corps. 

Alexander Dixon, mustered out with company. 

Thomas B. Disney, mustered out with company. 

John Downey, substitute, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Patrick Donahue, absent, sick, at muster out. 

Silas A. Dannals, discharged on surgeon's certificate March 18, 1863. 

Frank Dewey, discharged June 17, 1865. 

Adelbert DoUiver, discharged June 10, 1865; veteran. 

William B. Disney, discharged by general order June 6, 1865. 

Samuel Doud, died at Louisville, Ky., September 17, 1864. 

Henry Ernest, absent, sick, at muster out. 

Henry J. Evans, discharged on surgeon's certificate May 16, 1862. 

Thomas J. Fleming, mustered out with company. 

William G. Glenn, mustered out with company. 

George A. Goodwill, wounded at Wauhatchie October 29, 1863; absent, 
sick, at muster out. 

George F. Goodell, substitute, wounded at Wauhatchie ; died at liridge- 
port, Ala., May 12, 1864. 

Aaron B. Goodwill, died at Louisville, Ky., July 21, 1864. 

William Gerobe, killed at Wauhatchie October 29, 1863. 

Benjamin Hasson, mustered out with company; veteran. 

William H. Houster, mustered out with company. 

Milo D. Hays, discharged on surgeon's certificate May 16, 1862. 

George Hughey, discharged on surgeon's certificate November 21, 1862. 

Richard Haskell, died at Harper's Ferry November 14, 1862. 

William Johnson, substitute, transferred to United States Navy. 

William Koch, substitute, wounded at Wauhatchie ; transferred to Veteran 
Reserve Corjjs. 

Charles Kuhn, substitute, killed at Wauhatchie October 29, 1863. 

Springer Ludwig, mustered out with company. 

One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment. 207 

Charles Lobdell, wounded at Cedar Mountain; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate November 19, 1862. 

Edward Long, discharged on surgeon's certificate February 14, 1863. 

Mathew Lawrence, discharged by general order June 6, 1865. 

William H. Light, discharged on surgeon's certificate February li, 1865; 

Frank Locker, discharged by general order June 6, 1865. 

James M. Littlefield, died April 9, 1864, at Pittsburgh, Pa. 

William Mathews, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Thomas W. Mathews, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Samuel R. Mick, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Homer J. Merrick, mustered out with company. 

Mike Mulherring, absent in arrest at muster out. 

John Myers, discharged on surgeon's certificate ; died at Chattanooga 
June 27, 1864. 

Freeland Moore, absent, sick, at muster out. 

John Manley, substitute, transferred to United States Navy. 

James T. Miller, wounded at Wauhatchie; transferred to Company D, date 

Charles Miller, killed at Gettysburg July 3, 1863. 

Patrick Murphy, substitute, died October 30 of wounds received at Wau- 
hatchie October 29, 1863. 

Frederick Miller, substitute, died at Louisville, Ky., August 6 of wounds 
received at Pine Knob, Ga., June 15, 1864. 

Perry McDonald, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Charles McLaughlin, discharged August 26, 1865. 

William McGanthey, discharged by general order June 6, 1865. 

William J. McGill, discharged on surgeon's certificate October 13, 1862. 

James P. McGee, discharged on surgeon's certificate December 16, 1862. 

John J. McGee, discharged on surgeon's certificate March 5, 1863. 

Henry McGinness, discharged by general order June 6, 1865. 

William McClellan, killed at Cedar Mountain August 6, 1862. 

Chauncey McClellan, killed at Antietam September 17, 1862. 

Daniel McNally, died at Bolivar Heights December i, 1862. 

Joseph B. Nobbs, killed at Gulp's Farm, Ga., June 17, 1864; veteran. 

Joseph B. O'Brian, substitute, died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., January 23, 

James Pike, mustered out with company; veteran. 

John R. Patton, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Edward P. Pratt, discharged on surgeon's certificate December 29, 1862, 

John Phillips, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

George E. Parshall, died at Nashville, Tenn., November 19, 1864. 

2o8 History of Warren County. 

Henry Pike, died at Fairfax, Va., October 21, 1862. 

John W. Roner, substitute, discharged September 6, to date July 19, 1865. 

Milo D. Rounds, discharged on surgeon's certificate July 2, 1862. 

J. J. Rushenberger, discharged on surgeon's certificate February 13, 1863. 

M. C. Richmond, substitute, discharged by general order June 15, 1865. 

John M. Richardson, killed at Gettysburg July 3, 1863. 

George B. Reuss, substitute, missing in action at Grier's Farm, Ga., June 
30, 1864. 

John J. Smith, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

George W. Swineford, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

William Selfridge, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

John O. Smith, mustered out with company. 

Frederick Seyert, substitute, mustered out with company. 

Gemmel Sutley, absent, sick, at muster out. 

Silas Shay, discharged October 6 for wounds received at Cedar Mountain 
August 9, 1862. 

William Snyder, substitute, mustered out with company. 

John Sidmore, discharged on surgeon's certificate October 10, 1862. 

Alexander Swartz, discharged on surgeon's certificate February, 14, 1863. 

Orrin Sweet, wounded at Wauhatchie; discharged June 10, 1865 ; veteran. 

James Shaffer, substitute, discharged on surgeon's certificate March i, 1865. 

Henry Starmer, substitute, wounded at Wauhatchie ; transferred to Vet- 
eran Reserve Corps. 

Hollis Streeter, died at Fort McHenry, Md., July i i, 1S62. 

George Smith, substitute, killed at Dallas, Ga., May 31, 1864. 

James Sidmore, killed at Gulp's Farm, Ga., June 17, 1864; veteran. 

Robert P. Smith, died at Atlanta, Ga., October 22, 1864. 

Samuel Sturgess, killed near Broad River, S. C, February, 1865 ; veteran. 

Henry Smith, substitute, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

John T. Tubbs, discharged on surgeon's certificate October 9, 1862. 

Manlcy Tuttle, discharged on surgeon's certificate December 30, 1862. 

H. T. Thompson, discharged on surgeon's certificate February 14, 1863. 

Ibhar Thompson, substitute, transferred to United States Navy. 

Jonathan Van Horn, substitute, killed at Wauhatchie, Tcnn., October 29, 

William H. Williams, mustered out with company. 

George Wilson, substitute, mustered out with company. 

Frank Wallace, mustered out with company. 

John Winters, discharged by general order May 26, 1865. 

Jacob Wagner, discharged by general order June 6, 1865. 

David White, discharged on surgeon's certificate May 16, 1862. 

John T. Watson, wounded at Cedar Mountain ; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate December 18, 1862. 

One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment. 209 

David Williams, discharged October, 1864, expiration of term. 

Daniel Writner, substitute, transferred to Company F October, 1863. 

George W. White, died at Baltimore, Md., May 10, 1862. 

Bruno Zimmerman, substitute, wounded at Pine Knob, Ga. ; discharged on 
surgeon's certificate April 11, 1865. 

There were, besides, twenty-four enlisted men, chiefly substitutes, who de- 
serted from this company after serving but a few days, whose names do not 
appear in the above list. 

Company D. 

Captain Elias M. Pierce, resigned April 25, 1862. 

Captain W. J. Alexander, promoted from first lieutenant to captain April 
25, 1862; commissioned major March 31; lieutenant-colonel April 7, 1865; 
not mustered as a field officer; resigned April 8, 1865. He also served for a 
time as provost marshal. Second Division, Twelfth Army Corps. 

Captain H. R. Sturdevant, captured at Peach Tree Creek, Ga.; mustered 
out with company. 

First Lieutenant Nelson Spencer, resigned May 13, 1863. 

First Lieutenant C. W. Culbertson, prisoner from July 20, 1864, to June 
23, 1865; mustered out with company; veteran. 

Second Lieutenant Warren M. Foster, resigned February 23, 1863. 

First Sergeant George A. Head, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

First Sergeant James T. Shutt, killed at Cedar Mountain, Va., August 9, 

Sergeant Benson Jones, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Sergeant Edward O'Donnell, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Sergeant Calvin H. Blanchard, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Sergeant Walter G. Mead, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Sergeant Christopher G. Herrick, discharged November 2, 1864, expira- 
tion of term. 

Sergeant Oliver P. Alexander, transferred to Company K December, 1863 ; 

Corporal Lewis Pearson, mustered out with company; veteran. 

Corporal Charles F. Prophater, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Corporal Philip Beyer, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Corporal Henry Lowman, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Corporal Warren Mann, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Corporal Eugene Chase, discharged February, 1865, expiration of term. 

Corporal Matthias Arnold, wounded at Dallas ; transferred to Veteran Re- 
serve Corps; veteran. 

Corporal James S. Newcomb, killed at Cedar Mountain August 9, 1862. 

Corporal George C. Oliver, wounded at Antietam ; captured at Peach Tree 
Creek ; veteran. 

History of Warren County. 

Musician James Curren, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Musician Edward Richmond, discharged on surgeon's certificate July 17, 

Musician George Richmond, discharged on surgeon's certificate December 
5, 1862. 


Isaiah A. Ashbridge, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Robert Atwell, discharged by general order June 6, 1865. 

Darius Aber, discharged January 13, 1863, for wounds, with loss of arm, 
received at Antietam, Md. 

Nelson Anderson, discharged January 13, 1863, for wounds received at 

John Anderson, died October 14, of wounds received at Antietam. 

Thomas Ackley, died at Brandy Station, Va., September 26, 1863. 

Nathan J. Branch, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Albert P. Berg, mustered out with company. 

Stephen Baker, wounded at Cedar Mountain and at Peach Tree Creek ; 
absent at muster out. 

James Burns, substitute, discharged by general order July 6, 1865. 

John Boyle, sr., discharged June 2, 1865, expiration of term. 

De Witt C. Brasington, discharged for wounds received at Antietam. 

A. H. Brasington, discharged on surgeon's certificate September 5, 1862. 

Stephen Baker, discharged on surgeon's certificate December i, 1862. 

David M. Boyd, discharged on surgeon's certificate September 5, 1862. 

John T. Blakesley, died at Erie, Pa., January 18, 1862. 

Arthur Bartch, died at Winchester, Va., July 8, 1862. 

Francis S. Brown, died at Winchester, Va., July 30, 1862. 

David L. Brown, killed at Antietam. 

John W. Culver, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Robert Culverson, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

John D. Coleman, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Alphonzo Carman, mustered out with company; veteran. 

George O. Collins, mustered out with company. 

L. J. Chase, absent, sick, at muster out. 

Nathaniel Casper, discharged on surgeon's certificate January 13, 1863. 

Henry Chase, discharged on surgeon's certificate February 14, 1863. 

William Culverson, discharged on surgeon's certificate March 14, 1863. 

Orville Chandler, discharged November 2, 1864, expiration of term. 

William J. Campbell, discharged April 8, 1865, expiration of term. 

Austin Chandler, died at Winchester, Va., July 8, 1862. 

Reuben Clark, died at PVont Royal, Va., July 11, 1862. 

One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment. 

Vernon F. Cady, died at Washington, D. C, July 29, 1862. 

Herman T. Cross, discharged by general order June 30, 1865. 

John M. Dillon, substitute, mustered out with company. 

John Davenport, substitute, mustered out with company. 

Charles P. Dager, mustered out with company. 

John H. Duross, discharged August 17, 1865; veteran. 

Charles Dougherty, discharged by general order June 6, 1865. 

William Dixon, discharged on surgeon's certificate April 20, 1865; veteran. 

Nicholas Dych, discharged by general order June 2, 1865. 

James Donaldson, discharged June 21, 1865, for wounds received at Dallas; 

Emil Dorr, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

Lenford Elliott, mustered out with company. 

Abraham Eggleston, wounded at Resaca; discharged June li, 1865; vetr 

Jacob Fahlman, wounded at Antietam, and at Dallas, Ga.; absent at muster 
out; veteran. 

William Fairfield, discharged on surgeon's certificate November 19, 1862. 

William Fredenburgh, died November 8, 1862, of wounds received at An- 

Philip Graham, mustered out with company; veteran. 

John Graham, mustered out with company; veteran. 

Edward Gemmil, mustered out with company. 

James Glenn, discharged by general order May 31, 1865. 

Frederick Gormanly, substitute, absent, sick, at muster out. 

William Gibson, discharged on surgeon's certificate, January 6, 1863. 

Joel Gardner, discharged October 17, 1862, for wounds received at Cedar 

William Green, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps August, 1864. 

Isaac Howard, wounded at Dallas, discharged by general order July 15, 

William H. Hagerty, substitute, discharged by general order June 9, 1865. 

Jesse Hellam, discharged by general order June i, 1865. 

Andrew Hultberg, captured at Peach Tree Creek; discharged at expira- 
tion of term. 

Charles Hultberg, killed at Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 20, 1864. 

David L. Hodges, captured at Peach Tree Creek July 20, 1864; veteran. 
Died as a prisoner of war. 

Henry W. Jobson, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Robert Johnson, discharged by general order May 15, 1865. 

George W. Kinnear, mustered out with company. 

Edward Kerr, absent, sick, at muster out. 

History of Warren County. 

Truman Kidder, discharged on surgeon's certificate, June 9, 1863. 

Henry Kay, discharged November 2, 1864, expiration of term. 

Joseph Kay, wounded, Resaca; discharged November 25, 1864, expiration 
of term. 

Adam Knopf, died October 11, 1862, of wounds received at Antictani. 

George W. King, discharged on writ of habeas corpus. 

Thomas Lacy, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Humphrey D. Law, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Samuel Look, discharged on surgeon's certificate April 22, 1863. 

Peter Lind, died at Alexandria, Va., September 15, 1862. 

Frederick Lamer, substitute, died at Chattanooga June 17, 1864, of 
wounds received at Dallas, Ga., May 25, 1864. 

Morris Lee, captured at Peach Tree Creek, died in Southern prison Janu- 
ary 24, 1865. 

George J. Morritz, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

Archibald Murray, mustered out with company. 

Thomas Maxwell, mustered out with company. 

Charles Meachan, substitute, mustered out with company. 

Reuben Morse, wounded at Pine Knob, Ga. ; absent at mustrr out ; 

Sheldon J. Merchant, discharged on surgeon's certificate September 4, 1862. 

John C. Marsh, discharged on surgeon's certificate February 4, 1S63. 

John M. Mack, died at Baltimore, Md., April 19, 1862. 

Levi Marsh, died at Alexandria, Va., July 23, 1862. 

John Myers, died at Chattanooga, Tenn., June 27, 1864, of wounds re- 
ceived at Pine Knob, Ga., June 15, 1864. 

James T. Miller, killed at Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 20, 1864. 

Chester L. Morton, died at Philadelphia, Pa., October 7, 1864. 

Alexander Morton, wounded at Dallas, Ga. ; captured at Peach Tree 
Creek, Ga.; died at Annapolis, Md., March 25, 1865 ; veteran. 

George G. McClintock, discharged April i, 1865. 

Peter O'Neil, mustered out with company; veteran. 

Henry Osgood, discharged on surgeon's certificate March 7, 1863. 

William Plumb, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

William Pulfrey, mustered out with company. 

Abner Ploss, discharged on surgeon's certificate September 5, 1862. 

Jacob Ploss, discharged on surgeon's certificate February 23, 1863. 

Timothy Ploss, discharged on surgeon's certificate April 3, 1863. 

Wheeler Ploss, killed at Antictam September 17, 1862. 

George Peters, killed at Resaca May 15, 1864; veteran. 

Robert Ray, mustered out with company; veteran. 

Charles H. Rainbow, mustered out with company. 

One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment. 213 

Matthias Stonaker, wounded at Cedar Mountain, and at Dallas; mustered 
out with company; veteran. 

Edward F. Stone, mustered out with company; veteran. 

John Schraeder, mustered out with company; veteran. 

Jacob Schuler, mustered out with company; veteran. 

James Scahill, mustered out with company; veteran. 

Elisha Spencer, mustered out with company. 

Bernard Schnell, mustered out with company. 

Philip Schirk, wounded at Peach Tree Creek; mustered out with com- 

Orin F. Strickland, wounded at Gettysburg; absent, sick, at muster out. 

Edgar Smith, died at Alexandria, Va., August 6, 1862. 

William H. Simmons, discharged December 11, 1862, for wounds received 
at Antietam. 

Charles Sodagreen, discharged January 11, 1863, for wounds received at 

Thomas J. Spencer, discharged November 2, 1864, expiration of term. 

Patrick Sheehan, discharged April 8, 1S65, expiration of term. 

Franklin Stilson, discharged May 29, 1865, for wounds received at Peach 
Tree Creek. 

Peter G. Sweet, transferred to 109th P. V. December 27, 1863; veteran. 

John Salman, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

James A. Stapleton, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. 

John Sheemer, killed at Gettysburg July 3, 1863. 

Peter N. Stanford, killed at Kenesaw Mountain June 27, 1864. 

George C. Siggins, died at Chattanooga June 27, of wounds received at 
Dallas, Ga., May 25, 1864. 

D. Porter Siggins, killed at Peach Tree Creek July 20, 1864. 

John Smith, killed at Peach Tree Creek July 20, 1864. 

D. W. Spencer, died at Pittsburgh, Pa., March 20, 1864. 

Lloyd Trask, discharged on surgeon's certificate August 21, 1862. 

William Taylor, discharged on surgeon's certificate August 4, 1862. 

Job T. Toby, died at Pittsburgh March 25, 1864. 

Joseph R. White, substitute, wounded at Dallas ; discharged by general or- 
der August 24, 1865. 

George Weiderhold, discharged by general order May 27, 1865. 

Benjamin Westbrook, discharged on surgeon's certificate November 18, 1862. 

R. A. Winchester, wounded, with loss of arm, at Antietam ; discharged 
December 31, 1862. 

David Williams, discharged on surgeon's certificate December 11, 1862. 

Robert J. Wilson, died at Bridgeport, Ala., November 10, 1863, of wounds 
received at Wauhatchie. 

214 History of Warren County. 

Henry Zeigler, wounded at Cedar Mountain ; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate January 15, 1863. 

From this company, also, thirty-five men, principally substitutes, deserted. 
Their names do not appear in the foregoing list. 




The One Hundred and Tliirteenth Regiment of the Line or Twelfth Cavalry — Organized 
near Philadelphia — .Joins Pope in Virginia — Subsequent Services in the Shenandoah Valley — 
The First Command to Discover Lee's Northward Movement in 1863 — Nearly Surrounded 
at Winchester — Cutting its Way Out — On the Upper Potomac — In Pursuit of Early — Its Last 
Battle — Muster Out — Roster of Company K — One Hundred and Forty-fifth Regiment — Com- 
pany F Recruited at Tidioute — ^The Regiment is Ordered to the Front Without Adequate 
Equiment& — In Line at Antietam — Assigned to the Second Corps — Its Desperate Struggle at 
Fredericksburg — Great Looses — Chancellorsville — With Hancock at Gettysburg — In the Wil- 
derness with Grant — Charging the Enemy's Works at Spottsylvania — Cold Harbor — Peters- 
burg — Part of the Regiment Captured — Other Movements and Battles — Names, etc., of Ita 
Warren County Members. 

One Hundred and Thirteenth Regiment — Twelfth Cavalry. 

THIS command, of which Major Darius Titus, of Warren county, was one 
of its original officers, was organized near Philadelphia late in the autumn 
of 1 86 1. It remained there until about the ist of May, 1862, when it was 
ordered to Washington, D. C, where it received arms. On the 20th of June 
it was ordered to Manassas Junction, and was employed in guarding the 
Orange and Alexandria Railroad. It was past the middle of July, however, 
before the command was mounted, and little progress had been made in train- 
ing and discipline before active operations commenced. 

At midday of the 26th of August Colonel Pierce received a telegram from 
General Sturgis, at Alexandria, acting under the direction of General Pope, 
then in command of the Union forces in Northern Virginia, directing him to 
proceed to White Plains and ascertain the strength and position of the enemy 
in that locality. Colonel Pierce, who was in a feeble state of health, and in 
the absence of Lieutenant- Colonel Kohler, placed the regiment under com- 
mand of Major Titus. The regiment was scattered along the road, a distance 
of twelve miles, on guard, and it was six o'clock before the forces could be as- 
sembled and in readiness to start. Darkness soon came on, and, being without 
reliable guides, and having a distance of twenty miles to traverse in an enemy's 

One Hundred and Thirteenth Regiment. 215 

country, some difficulty was experienced in keeping the direct route. One 
company was left at Pope's Run, and a battery of two pieces at Manassas. In 
the neighborhood of Gainesville a rebel picket was captured, who disclosed the 
fact that half the rebel army was in its immediate front, " Stonewall " Jackson 
having turned the right of Pope's army. Soon firing was heard at Manassas, 
and a great light showed but too plainly that the enemy was already in pos- 
session. Without stopping for rest the column retired towards Bristoe ; but 
as it approached the town found it already occupied by Jackson, with his ar- 
tillery and infantry in commanding positions. To escape the enemy's clutches 
seemed impossible ; but, determined to cut his way through or sell his com- 
mand at severe rebel cost, Major Titus turned towards Manassas. Discovering 
his designs the enemy opened with his artillery and infantry, and closing in 
upon it inflicted a loss of two hundred and sixty in killed, wounded, and pris- 
oners — Major Titus being among the latter. 

The command now devolved on Major Congdon, who withdrew his shat- 
tered column to Centreville. He was immediately ordered to retire to Alex- 
andria, where he reported to General McClellan in person, giving the first 
reliable intelligence of the presence of Jackson at Manassas. On the following 
day the regiment was ordered to cross the Potomac, and patrol and picket the 
left bank of the river from the Chain Bridge to Edward's Ferry, in which duty 
it continued until the enemy crossed above, to enter upon the Antietam cam- 

During the battle of Antietam, the command rendered efficient service in 
watching the enemy's movements upon our flanks and in bringing up strag- 
glers and checking disorder. Subsequently it participated in the raid on Moore- 
field, the expedition to Woodstock, and a hot encounter at Fisher's Hill. When 
Lee so stealthily left his camps on the Rapidan, and began his march into 
Pennsylvania in June, 1863, the Twelfth was the first to discover the move- 
ment, though the facts as reported by the commander of the I'egiment were at 
first discredited. This delusion was soon dissipated, however, and the correct- 
*ness of the report made apparent, by the advance of the whole of Lee's army 
on all the roads leading from the south. As Lee continued to advance down 
the valley, General Milroy, in command of the Union forces, posted his small 
army in an advantageous position, at Winchester, Va., and for three days held 
the entire rebel army in check with a force of less than twelve thousand men. 
The enemy refused to assault, but gradually gathered in around the town, until 
nearly every way of escape was cut off. At a council of war, held on the night 
of Sunday, June 14, it was decided that an attempt should be made by the 
command to cut its way out, and push for the Potomac. Under cover of dark- 
ness the brigade moved out a little after midnight, in the order of their num- 
bers. Four miles out, on the Martinsburg road, the enemy was encountered 
in strong force, and a heavy night engagement took place, in which the Twelfth 

2i6 History of Warren County. 

participated, sustaining considerable loss. Lieutenant-Colonel Moss, in com- 
mand of the regiment, had his horse shot under him, and was severely injured 
by the fall, the command then devolving on Major Titus.' Taking advantage 
of the noise of the contest, Milroy's troops separated into two columns, to their 
mutual advantage, one moving towards Harper's Ferry, the other, by way of 
Bath and Hancock, to Bloody Run. The Twelfth was with the latter. 

At the close of the Gettysburg campaign the Twelfth marched to Sharps- 
burg, Md., where it remained until August 3. It then moved to the vicinity 
of Martinsburg, Va., where it performed scouting and picket duty until the 
opening of the campaign in May, 1 864. Meanwhile many of the men had re- 
enlisted, and its ranks were otherwise strengthened by recruits. When the 
rebel Early made his demonstration on Washington in the summer of 1864, 
he was, in his advance and retreat, opposed and harassed at every step by the 
Union cavalry under General Averell. The Twelfth was a conspicuous organ- 
ization in this command, and it rode in the thickest of the fray at Solomon's 
Gap, Pleasant Valley, Crampton's Gap, Winchester, and Kernstown. Upon 
the accession of General Sheridan to the chief command of the army in the 
Shenandoah Valley, the regiment was assigned to General Torbert's Division. 
Under that general it participated in many other minor actions in the same 
valley, which continued to afford an ample field for hostile demonstrations 
until the close of the war. Its last battle was fought at Hamilton, Va., March 
22, 1865, where it sustained a loss of six killed and nineteen wounded. It 
was mustered out of service at Winchester, Va., July 20, and and returned in 
a body to Philadelphia. 

The Warren county men in this regiment served chiefly in Company K, 
whose members were accounted for at muster out as follows : 

Company K. 

Captain Nathaniel Payne, discharged April 21, 1865, expiration of term. 

First Lieutenant Addison R. Titus, discharged April 3, 1865, expiration of 

First Lieutenant Harvey Russell, mustered out with company; veteran. 

Second Lieutenant Deloss Chase, killed at Hamilton, Va., March 22, 1865. 

Second Lieutenant Stephen B. Sterrett, mustered out with company; vet- 

First Sergeant John Thomas, mustered out with company; veteran. 

Quartermaster-Sergeant George H. Sill, absent on detailed service at mus- 
ter out; veteran. 

Sergeant William G. Lambertson, mustered out with company; veteran. 

Sergeant Coryell Douglass, mustered out with company; veteran. 

Sergeant Charles T. Widdifield, mustered out with company; veteran. 

1 M.ijor Titus was honorably discharged April 25, 1864. 

One Hundred and Thirteenth Regiment. 217 

Sergeant George H. Hollman, mustered out with company; veteran. 
Sergeant Andrew J. Burns, mustered out with company; veteran. 
Sergeant Nathaniel Siggins, discharged April 25, 1865, expiration of term. 
Corporal Andy Daum, discharged by general order June 3, 1865 ; veteran. 
Corporal Thomas Nelson, mustered out with company ; veteran. 
Corporal Augustus L. Selden, mustered out with company ; veteran. 
Corporal John H. Siggins, mustered out with company ; veteran. 
Corporal Darius M. Ford, mustered out with company ; veteran. 
Corporal Merrill D. Morley, mustered out with company ; veteran. 
Corporal John H. Green, discharged on surgeon's certificate June 5, 1865. 
Blacksmith Isaac Douglass, mustered out with company ; veteran. 
Farrier Erastus Mead, mustered out with company ; veteran. 
Saddler George F. Green, mustered out with company. 


John Anderson, mustered out with company. 
Riley Averill, mustered out with company. 
George W. Arters, mustered out with company. 
John A. Aikens, mustered out with company ; veteran. 
William A. Beddow, mustered out with company ; veteran. 
Charles F. Black, mustered out with company. 
John Black, mustered out with company. 
John D. Beebe, mustered out with company ; veteran. 
Jared L. Barton, mustered out with company ; veteran. 
Perry L. Barton, mustered out with company. 
William F. Burdick, mustered out with company. 
Adam Bonn, discharged April 25, 1865, expiration of term. 
Thomas Bohn, died of wounds received at Charlestown, Va., February 7,. 

Samuel Burris, discharged by general order June i, 1865. 

George W. Briggs, discharged December 6, 1865 ; veteran. 

James Brogan, discharged by general order November 18, 1865 ; veteran. 

Charles Covell, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

John Cook, mustered out with company. 

James E. Clark, mustered out with company. 

James Carroll, absent, sick, at muster out. 

Peter Conway, discharged on surgeon's certificate Januar\- 20, 1865. 

William Cosgrove, discharged April 21, 1865, expiration of term. 

William H. Clark, discharged by general order June i, 1865. 

Luther Carpenter, discharged, date unknown. 

John Davis, mustered out with company. 

I'rederick Deiter, mustered out with company. 

2i8 History of Warren County. 

Chauncey Dunbar, discharged by general order June 22, 1865. 

Andrew Diven, discharged by general order June i, 1865. 

Albert E. Ellsworth, discharged April i, 1865, expiration of term. 

Nathaniel C. Enos, killed at Hamilton, Va., March 22, 1865; veteran. 

Jacob Frey, discharged by general order June i, 1865. 

Abraham Garlick, mustered out with company. 

John C. Griffin, discharged by general order June i, 1865. 

William J. Griffin, discharged by general order June I, 1865. 

Adam Garlick, discharged by general order November 24, 1865. 

Michael Heintz, mustered out with company. 

Robert W. Hudson, discharged by general order March 7, 1865. 

Alfred S. Hatfield, died April 3, 1865. 

Martin Illtis, mustered out with company. 

George W. Irvine, discharged April 21, 1865, expiration of term. 

Augustus Jones, mustered out with company; veteran. 

William Johnson, discharged by general order June i, 1865. 

Samuel Jones, discharged on surgeon's certificate August 26, 1862. 

Frederick Knapp, mustered out with company. 

Alanson Kibly, absent, sick, at muster out. 

Henry C. Keefer, discharged by general order June i, 1865. 

Jason Libby, mustered out with company. 

James Lesh, mustered out with company ; veteran. 

John Lindsey, discharged by general order June I, 1865. 

Monroe Martin, transferred to Company B, date unknown ; veteran. 

William McGinty, discharged by general order March 29, 1865. 

Alex. McLaughlin, mustered out with company. 

Archibald McDonald, mustered out with company. 

William McAuley, discharged on surgeon's certificate May 26, 1865 

Charles McCallen, died at Sandy Hook, Md., June 29, 1864. 

James McAfee, killed at Hamilton, Va., March 22, 1865. 

Jacob Nyheart, mustered out with company. 

George H. Nobbs, discharged by general order September 11, 1865 

Patrick O'Harra, mustered out with company; veteran. 

Hiram Parrish, mustered out with company. 

Henry Rupp, mustered out with company. 

James H. Randall, died, date unknown; buried at Antictam. 

Joseph S. Rogers, died August 22, 1862. 

Jacob Showalter, mustered out with company. 

William Simpson, mustered out with company. 

James B. Smith, mustered out with company. 

One Hundred and Forty-Fifth Regiment. 219 

James Smith, mustered out with company. 

Jacob Strausbury, mustered out with company. 

John W. Slonaker, discharged by general order June I, 1865. 

George Vanguilder, mustered out with company. 

WiUiam Watt, mustered out with company. 

Jacob Weist, discharged by general order June i, 1865. 

Thomas L. Young, absent, sick, at muster out. 

One Hundred and Forty-fifth Regiment. 

Company F of this regiment was recruited at Tidioute, by Captain Kim- 
ball H. Stiles, in the summer of 1862. The regimental rendezvous was the city 
of Erie — the camp previously occupied by the Eighty-third and the One 
Hundred and Eleventh Regiments — where a regimental organization was 
effected on the Sth of September, 1862. Its original field officers were Hiram 
L. Brown, colonel ; David B. McCreary, lieutenant-colonel ; John W. Patton, 
major. The latter died May 15, of wounds received at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, 1863. 

Without arms, and with scarcely any knowledge of military duty, the regi- 
ment left Erie on the nth of September, and proceeded toward the front via 
Harrisburg to Chambersburg, Pa., arriving in thirty-six hours within sound 
of the enemy's cannon, Lee having already crossed the Potomac and pene- 
trated to the South Mountain. Halting at Camp McClure for two days, the 
men were supplied with the old Harper's Ferry musket, and then moved under 
orders from General John F. Reynolds, in the direction of Hagerstown. But 
partially supplied with equipments, and men and many officers fresh from civil 
life, the command experienced much suffering from exposure and inadequate 

At daylight on the morning of the 17th the regiment was under arms, the 
heavy booming of cannon on the field of Antietam, ten miles away, being 
distinctly heard. Colonel Brown was ordered forward with his command, and 
a little after noon arrived upon the extreme right of the Union lihe, at this 
time desperately engaged with the troops under " Stonewall " Jackson. It 
•was moved into position between the Federal right and the Potomac, holding 
the tow-path and the road which runs along under the high bluff skirting the 
river, thus preventing the enemy from flanking the Union forces in that direc- 
tion. This position was held without loss until McClellan permitted the ene- 
my to retire almost without molestation. The regiment was then assigned to 
the duty of burying the dead and caring for the wounded. The stench that 
filled the air was exceedingly offensive — the dead having lain as they fell for 
four days — and this, together with the exposure and severe duty imposed 
upon men unaccustomed to campaigning, resulted in wide-spread sickness. 
Indeed, within a month from the time of taking the field, between two and 


History of Warren County. 

three hundred men of the regiment were unfit for duty. Many died or were 
permanently disabled, and were discharged from service. 

From Antietam the regiment proceeded to Harper's Ferry, where it was 
assigned to duty with Meagher's Irish Brigade, and continued with that com- 
mand until just before the beginning of the Fredericksburg campaign, when 
it was attached to the First Brigade, First Division of the Second Army Corps, 
and moved with the army under Burnside against the enemy. The morning 
of December 1 1 broke clear and crisp along the Rappahannock, and early the 
whole army was astir. The One Hundred and Forty-fifth, with its division, 
crossed on the upper pontoon bridge on the afternoon of the J2th, and formed 
in line upon a street running parallel with the river, where it remained during 
the succeeding night. On the morning of the 13th it moved forward two or 
three squares, its right resting near the court-house, where it came under a 
heavy artillery fire, and an incessant fusillade from sharpshooters concealed 
from view. 

About noon the division marched by the flank up the streets and out upon 
the plain, between the town and the battery-crowned hills that encircled it 
beyond. The regiment moved forward with the steadiness of veterans, over 
various obstacles, towards the fatal stone wall at the foot of Marye's Heights, 
though its ranks were shattered and torn by the fire from concealed infantry, 
and the batteries which confronted and enfiladed it, until it reached the front 
line of the Union forces. Here it remained until after nightfall, and until the 
fighting ceased, when the division was relieved and returned to town. " Of 
the five thousand men," says Swinton, " Hancock led into action, more than two 
thousand fell in that charge ; and it was found that the bravest of these had 
thrown up their hands and lay dead within five and twenty paces of the stone 
wall." On the night of the .15th the army recrossed the river, and on the 
following morning the fragments remaining of the One Hundred and Forty- 
fifth took possession of its old quarters on Stafford Heights. On the morning 
previous to the battle five hundred and fifty-six men reported for duty. A 
portion of two companies were upon the skirmish line when the rest of the 
regiment moved for the field, and consequently did not accompany it. Of 
those who crossed the river, less than five hundred in number, two hundred 
and twenty-six, nearly one half were either killed or wounded. 

On the 1st of May, 1863, while being mustered for pay, the first gun in the 
battle of Chancellorsville was fired. The Second Corps was immediately thrown 
forward on the road leading to Fredericksburg, the First Division in advance. 
At evening it was marched back to a slight ravine, where, in a dense wood, 
nearly the entire night was spent in throwing up breastworks, and in cutting 
and forming an abatis in front. The enemy opened fire at intervals upon the 
troops while at work, but with little effect. At daylight the main body of the 
command was moved back three-quarters of a mile near to the Chancellor 

One Hundred and Forty-Fifth Regiment. 

house, a heavy skirmish hne only being left in the advanced works. During 
the day of the 2d artillery firing occurred at intervals, and at night the enemy 
made his fierce assault, which resulted in the discomfiture and rout of the 
Eleventh Corps, posted on the extreme right of the Union lines. The night 
was passed in intense excitement along the whole line, the battle raging fiercely 
on the right center. On the morning of the 3d a detail of one hundred and 
fifty men, from the One Hundred and Forty-fifth, and one hundred from other 
regiments of the brigade, under Lieutenant-Colonel McCreary, was ordered to 
the relief of the skirmish line left in the works thrown up on the night of the 
1st. The remainder of the regiment was engaged in supporting the batteries 
around the Chancellor house, which had been massed to resist the troops of 
Jackson, now led by Stuart. It was here exposed to a severe fire of musketry 
and artillery. Here Major Patton was mortally wounded by a piece of shell. 
The men under Lieutenant-Colonel McCreary were hotly engaged during the 
early part of the day, and, with the troops on their right, successfully resisted 
repeated assaults of the enemy under Anderson and McLaws, and completely 
foiled all attempts to turn the left and reach Hancock's main line of battle. 
When the army fell back towards the river, the troops upon this skirmish line 
failed to receive the order to retire, and fell into the enemy's hands, most of 
the detail from the One Hundred and Forty- fifth being among the captured. 

The Second Corps reached the field of Gettysburg on the morning of the 
2d of July, the First Division taking position on the left center, and in rear 
of the line taken up by the Third Corps. Towards evening, and when the 
lines of the Third Corps had been shattered and driven back, the division was 
sent to their relief The brigade, now led by Colonel Brooke, passed over the 
low grounds to the right of Little Round Top and, crossing the road leading 
out to the Peach Orchard, soon came upon the Wheat Field, where the battle 
had raged and was now raging fearfully. With great daring Brooke led his 
devoted band against the enemy, holding the fastnesses of wood and rock 
wrenched from the Third Corps, drove him in confusion from his dearly- 
bought ground, and silenced a battery which was annoying the Union troops. 
But the advantage, so bravely won, could not be held ; for the rebels, in heavy 
force, were flanking the position on the right and exposing the brigade to 
capture or annihilation, and no alternative existed but to retire. The One 
Hundred and Forty-fifth held the extreme right of the brigade in this terrible 
encounter, and suffered severely. It entered the battle two hundred strong, 
and lost in killed and wounded mpre than eighty men. On the 3d the regi- 
ment was posted with the division on the left of the corps, and, during the fierce 
struggle of the afternoon, was exposed to a fearful artillery fire, but in the 
infantry engagement which followed, was not involved, the enemy being 
repulsed before it could reach the scene of close conflict. 

During the following winter the thinned ranks of the regiment were filled 

History of Warren County. 

by new recruits, so that at the opening of the spring campaign of 1864 it was 
ready to again assail the enemy, with nearly its original strength in numbers. 
The Rapidan was crossed on the 5th of May, and the enemy under Lee was 
met in the Wilderness. Upon arriving at the Po River, Hancock, who com- 
manded the Second Corps, found the enemy on the opposite bank, in a good 
defensive position, well fortified. In the face of these obstacles, Hancock, on 
the afternoon of the loth, threw a portion of his command across, but subse- 
quently, by order of General Meade, attempted to withdraw it. The enemy, 
discovering this retrograde movement, immediately attacked with great spirit 
and determination. The brigades of Brooke and Brown, the former of which 
included the One Hundred and Forty-fifth, received the weight of the blow; 
but so determined was the front they presented, and so deadly the volleys that 
poured into the faces of the foe, that he was forced to retire. At this juncture 
the woods in the rear of these two brigades took fire from the enemy's shells, 
making their position one of great peril. They finally recrossed the river, 
but not without having sustained serious loss, some of the wounded perishing 
in the flames, from which it was impossible to rescue them. 

Failing to carry the enemy's position by direct assault, General Grant 
ordered a blow at his left. The Second Corps was selected to deliver it. 
Moving over from the extreme right to the left of the Union line, under cover 
of the darkness of the night of the i ith, Hancock attacked at dawn of the 12th. 
Barlow's Division had the advance, Brooke's and Miles's Brigades in the first 
line. Brown's and Smyth's in the second. The enemy was taken by surprise. 
His skirmish line was swept away with but little opposition, and the abatis 
crossed and the intrenchments carried before he fully realized the situation. 
But the struggle soon commenced in earnest, and was at close quarters until he 
was forced to yield the ground, large captures of men and material being made. 
Attempts to carry his inner line were unsuccessful, and he struggled fiercely to 
regain his lost works, piling the ground with his slain, but to no purpose. 
The One Hundred and Forty-fifth was in the lead in this assault and lost heav- 
ily. The struggle was continued until the 20th, when the Union army again 
moved forward and crossed the North Anna, only to encounter again the 
enemy in impregnable works. 

The Second Corps was but little engaged here, and upon recrossing the 
stream pushed on to Cold Harbor, where, in face of a defiant enemy and over 
difficult ground, it charged close up to his intrenchments, but failed to carry 
them. The ground gained was held, and a line of fortifications was thrown 
up. So close were the opposing lines here, that a stone could be easily tossed 
from one to the other. It was instant death to expose any vital part of the 
person. The regiment again suffered severely in gaining and holding this 

On the 12th of June the corps withdrew from its position at Cold Harbor, 

One Hundred and Forty-Fifth Regiment. 223 

and on the night of the 14th the First Division crossed the James. After a long 
and fatiguing march it arrived in front of Petersburg, and on the evening of 
the 1 6th three brigades of the division charged at different points and inde- 
pendently of each other. The movement proved disastrous to the troops en- 
gaged, and Lieutenant-Colonel McCreary, commanding the One Hundred and 
Forty-fifth, together with eight other commissioned officers, and about eighty 
enlisted men belonging to the regiment, were taken prisoners. The men were 
hurried away to Andersonville, and the officers to Macon, and were afterwards 
held at Charleston, Savannah, and Columbia, being kept in confinement until 
March, 1865, enduring all the hardships and sufferings which at this period 
were visited upon Union prisoners of war, many yielding up their lives. Only 
about two hundred men were present for duty when the charge was made, and 
of this number about fifty were either killed or wounded. On the 22d of 
July the regiment was again warmly engaged, and in resolutely attempting to 
hold their position against a superior force of the enemy, a number were killed, 
wounded, and captured, among the latter Major Lynch, then in command of 
the survivors. 

During the remainder of the summer the handful of men left was ever at 
the post of duty in the trenches, and almost constantly under fire. It partici- 
pated in the battles of Reams's Station and Deep Bottom, sustaining losses in 
each. It spent the fall and winter in the trenches, in close proximity to the 
worried enemy, engaged in picket and fatigue duty. Upon the opening of 
the spring campaign of 1865 the corps was early put in motion, and in the 
battle of Five Forks the division was detached and sent to the aid of Sheri- 
dan, rendering efficient service. After the surrender of Lee the regiment 
returned through Richmond with the corps, to Alexandria, and a few days 
later participated in the grand review at Washington, D. C. It was mustered 
out of service on the 31st of May, and arrived at Erie, Pa., on the 5th of June, 
when it was disbanded. 

Its members, credited to Warren county, were as follows : 

Company F. 

Captain Kimball H. Stiles, discharged June 16, 1864. 

First Lieutenant Richard Magill, discharged March 30, 1862. 

First Lieutenant Jeremiah Birtcil, discharged June 17, 1864. 

Second Lieutenant Stephen H. Evans, discharged March 30, 1863. 

Second Lieutenant Louis B. Carlile, discharged May 17, 1865. 

First Sergeant Charles C. Merritt, commissioned captain May 22, 1865, 
not mustered ; mustered out with company. 

Sergeant John L. Cohell, commissioned first lieutenant May 22, 1865, not 
mustered ; mustered out with company. 

Sergeant Charles H. Hill, mustered out with company. 

224 History of Warren County. 

Sergeant William H. Broughton, mustered out with company. 

Sergeant O. S. Brown, died, date unknown, of wounds received in action. 

Sergeant John T. Roberts, died at Alexandria, Va., June 2i, 1864, of 
wounds received in action. 

Sergeant Nicholas Sheppard, not accounted for. 

Sergeant Gregory L. Root, wounded at Chancellorsville ; discharged, date 

Corporal Benjamin Richards, mustered out with company. 

Corporal Jonathan Lemon, mustered out with company. 

Corporal Henry Gibbons, mustered out with company. 

Corporal Marvin Gilson, taken prisoner ; discharged by general order June 
29, 1865. 

Corporal John Stewart, discharged by general order June 24, 1865. 

Corporal Darius W. Hunter, died January 4 of wounds received at Spott- 
sylvania C. H., Va., May 10, 1864. 

Corporal Jethro Doty, discharged on surgeon's certificate, 1863. 

Corporal Aaron M. Vincent, not accounted for. 

Corporal Wilton M. Lindsey, discharged on surgeon's certificate January 
27, 1863. 

Corporal J. H. Richardson, discharged February, 1863, for wounds received 
at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. 


George W. Alcorn, captured; died at Andersonville July 28, 1864. 
Richard J. Arters, killed at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. 
Thomas Acox, died near Falmouth, Va., November, 1862. 
George W. Arters, discharged on surgeon's certificate, date unknown. 
William Berkey, mustered out with company. 
Henry R. Baker, mustered out with company. 
Joseph J. Burnett, mustered out with company. 

William H. Barnhart, prisoner; discharged by general order June 29, 1S65. 
Sullivan Baker, died 1862. 

J. C. Bennesholtz, killed at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. 
Jolin Belford, captured ; died at Andersonville, Ga., July 5, 1864. 
Frederick Birch, killed at Spottsylvania C. H. May 12, 1864. 
John D. Burdick, dishonorably discharged February 15, 1867, expiration 
of term. 

Lloyd Bailey, not accounted for. 

Lewis Bimber, discharged on surgeon's certificate, date unknown. 

James Conrad, mustered out with company. 

Shamb't Chambers, died February 2, 1863, near Washington, D. C. 

Stephen Chambers, died March 30, 1863, near Washington, D. C. 

One Hundred and Forty-Fifth Regiment. 225 

Philemon Clark, killed at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863. 

Samuel S. Clark, died, date unknown. 

J. Clonay, died at Andersonville, Ga., September 22, 1864. 

Thomas Clark, killed at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 12, 1864. 

Christian Cheeks, died at Andersonville, Ga., date unknown. 

Thomas A. Cox, died at Falmouth, Va., December 2, 1862. 

Daniel Cochran, died, date unknown, of wounds received in action. 

Henry Cope, discharged for wounds received at Fredericksburg, Va. 

James Donald, discharged by general order June 24, 1865. 

James Deacon, died at Andersonville, Ga., date unknown. 

James R. Dye, transferred to Company A, 53d P. V., date unknown. 

John J. Gorman, died at Harper's Ferry October 20, 1862. 

Charles W. Grove, died at Florence, S. C, date unknown. 

William A. Goodhard, discharged on surgeon's certificate, date unknown. 

James N. G. Graham, not accounted for. 

John Gunn, discharged for wounds received at Fredericksburg, Va. 

William Gunn, discharged for wounds received at Fredericksburg, Va. 

Leonard Horn, died at Florence, S. C, date unknown. 

Henry Holliworth, died January 4, 1864, buried at Culpepper, Va. 

David E. Jones, died at Andersonville, Ga., September 26, 1864. 

Eli Jason, discharged for wounds received at Fredericksburg, Va. 

Ransom Kendall, died December 23, 1863. 

Jesse Knightlinger, died October 7, 1864, of wounds received in action. 

Samuel C. King, died as a prisoner at Salisbury, N. C. 

Virgil Libbey, died at Philadelphia, Pa., June 24, 1864. 

Joshua Lloyd, died at Andersonville, Ga., September 20, 1864. 

Morris J. Lonnen, not accounted for. 

George W. Magee, absent, sick, at muster out. 

Edward Mellen, discharged by general order June 24, 1865. 

John Martin, discharged by general order September 8, 1865. 

Brooks Minker, discharged by general order July 22, 1865. 

Samuel May, died September i, 1863. 

Thomas J. Magee, died, date unknown. 

William Magee, died at Charleston, S. C, date unknown. 

George B. Miller, killed at Bristoe Station, Va., October 13, 1863. 

Isaac Magee, not accounted for. 

James L. Magill, discharged on surgeon's certificate, 1862. 

O. Willard Miller, discharged on surgeon's certificate April, 1863. 

David McKinley, mustered out with company. 

Owen McClure, discharged by general order July 5, 1865. 

Charles H. McCoy, not accounted for. 

Sidney McKee, discharged on surgeon's certificate October, 1862. 

Samuel Parrish, discharged by general order June 29, 1865. 

226 History of Warren County. 

John M. Pearce, died June 4, 1863, of wounds received in action. 

P. Quinn, captured; died at Richmond, Va., March 3, 1864. 

Simeon J. Roosa, killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863. 

John Rutledge, killed at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862. 

George S. Richardson, transferred to 53d P. V. 

C. J. Richardson, discharged for wounds received at Gettysburg, Pa. 

William H. Rungan, not accounted for. 

Harrison Stoddard, mustered out with company. 

Byron Sutherland, discharged by general order July i, 1865. 

George W. Shay, captured ; died, date unknown. 

William Shreve, died December 19, 1862. 

Reuben Swaggart, died January 20, 1863. 

John P. Small, died at Philadelphia, Pa., August 11, 1863. 

Edward Spangler, died June 19, 1864. 

Walter R. Stanton, not accounted for. 

John D. Stedwell, discharged for wounds received in action. 

John Stewart, discharged for wounds received in action. 

Jacob Smith, substitute, not accounted for. 

James Thompson, mustered out with company. 

Charles Thompson, killed at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. 

John Thompson, died November 22, 1862. 

John Tuttle, killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 

Abraham L. Van Epps, mustered out with company. 

Henry Van Keuren, not accounted for. 

Lewis A. Van Tassel, discharged on surgeon's certificate, date unknown. 

Samuel L. Willard, mustered out with company. 

Alex. C. Williams, mustered out with company. 

Thomas Williams, mustered out with company. 

Andrew J. Westfall, discharged by general order May 29, 1865. 

William T. Westfall, discharged for wounds received at Fredericksburg, Va. 

George Wheeler, discharged on surgeon's certificate June, 1863. 

William Whitman, discharged on surgeon's certificate. 

George W. Williams, discharged on surgeon's certificate. 

Hiram K. Young, captured; died at Andersonville, Ga., October 17, 1864 ; 
grave 1 1 ,040. 

The foregoing roster of Company F tells a remarkable story. Thus, of the 
one hundred and thirteen men who belonged to it, all of whom, with a few 
exceptions, were mustered into service August 20, 1862, ten were killed in bat- 
tle; six died of wounds received in action; fourteen died from neglect and 
starvation in rebel prison pens, and seventeen died of disease in United States 
hospitals, making a total death-roll of forty-seven. Ten were discharged by 
reason of wounds received in battle, and only eighteen men, good and true, 
were mustered out with the company. 

One Hundred and Fifty-First Regiment. 227 




One Hundred and Fifty-first Regiment — Company F Recruited in Warren County — 
Regimental Organization — Colonel Harrison Allen, of Warren, in Command ^ Joins the Army 
of the Potomac — Assigned to the First Corps — The Chancellorsville Campaign — The Weary 
March to Gettysburg — The Battle — Heroic Conduct During the First Day's Fight — Fright- 
ful Losses — Retiring through the Town to a New Position — Continuance of the Battle — 
Victory, Though at a Fearful Cost — The Regiment Highly Complimented by General Doubleday 
— It.s Warren County Men — One Hundred and Fifty-ninth Regiment, Otherwise Fourteenth 
Cavalry — Names of Its Warren County Members — Regiment Organized at Pittsburg — Its 
Field Officers — Ordered to Harper's Ferry — Campaigning in the Shenandoah Valley — At- 
tached to General Averell's Command — A Series of Raids and Battles — Brilliant Success 
Attending the Raid on the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad — Great Destruction of Rebel Prop- 
erty — A March over the Alleghenies in Midwinter — Swimming Icy Torrents and Swollen Riv- 
ers — Co-operating with General Crook — Hunter's Lynchburg Campaign — Another Terrible 
March Accomplished — Details of Other Feats Performed and Battles Fought — Close of the 
War — Transferred to Fort Leavenworth — Muster Out. 

One Hundred and Fifty- first Regiment — Nine Months' Service. 

COMPANY F of this organization was recruited in Warren county by Cap- 
tain Harrison Allen, who had served for a few months as major of the 
Tenth Reserve. It left Warren borough Thursday morning October 23, 1862, 
and proceeded to Harrisburg, the regimental rendezvous, where it was mustered 
into service on the 30th of the same month. A few days later Captain Allen 
was commissioned colonel of the regiment, George F. McFarland, of Juniata 
county, lieutenant-colonel, and John W. Young, of Susquehanna county, major. 

The regiment moved forward towards Washington on the 26th of No- 
vember, and upon its arrival encamped on Arlington Heights. Soon after it 
was attached to the brigade commanded by Colonel D'Utassay, and with that 
command performed picket duty at Union Mills for several weeks. About 
the middle of February, 1863, it was transferred to Belle Plain, where it was 
assigned to a brigade, for a time commanded by Colonel James R. Porter, but 
subsequently by General Thomas A. Rowley, known as the First Brigade of 
the Third Division of the First Corps, General Doubleday commanding the 
division, and General Reynolds the corps. 

Just previous to the opening of the Chancellorsville campaign, the Third 
Division was sent to Port Conway, on the Lower Rappahannock, for a 
diversion in favor of the operations soon to commence. The movement was 
successful, inducing "Stonewall " Jackson to move, with his entire corps and 
train, to a point on the opposite bank. The division was out forty-six hours, 
during thirty-six of which the rain fell incessantly, making the march a diffi- 

228 History of Warren County. 

cult and trying one. The command was present at the battle of Chancellors- 
ville, but it appears that it did little more than to skirmish with the enemy 
without loss. 

Gettysburg was the one battle wherein the One Hundred and Fifty-first 
won all of its honor and glory. After weary days of forced marches at the 
rate of thirty-five miles per day, the First Brigade, now commanded by Colonel 
C. Biddle, in conjunction with its corps, the First, and the Eleventh Corps, 
arrived upon the field of battle (to this time chiefly maintained upon the Union 
side by Buford's cavalry) at half-past ten A. M. of July i, and took position upon 
the extreme left flank of the corps, the One Hundred and Fifty-first, under 
command of Lieutenant-Colonel McFarland, holding the left of the brigade 
line. As it moved into position it was saluted by the booming of cannon and 
the rattle of musketry, and soon was whispered the sad intelligence of the fall 
of General Reynolds. Without delay it was pushed forward by orders of Gen- 
eral Rowley, now in command of the division, the men unslinging knapsacks 
as they marched, and advanced obliquely to the top of a ridge to the west 
of the Theological Seminary, where it remained some time. All firing now 
ceased for nearly an hour, the enemy having been driven back, and General 
Archer captured with eight hundred of his men. About noon, however, the 
enemy again opened fire on both front and right. The latter being a flank fire, 
to which the brigade was exposed, it was ordered back into the hollow, and 
here, supporting Cooper's Battery, and subjected to a constant fire from the 
enemy's artillery, it maintained its position for two hours and a half, only vary- 
ing its line to avoid the destructive cross-fire of the enemy. At half-past two 
P. M. the regiment was detached from the brigade by General Rowley, to be 
held as a reserve, and was posted behind a fence along the south end of Sem- 
inary Grove, and facing north. A few moments later it changed front forward 
on the left company, and occupied a temporary breastwork, erected by the 
Second (Robinson's) Division earlier in the day, just in rear of the seminary, 
facing west. By this time the enemy had concentrated in large force and 
began closing in. With only this single regiment in reserve, and with but a 
single line, Doubleday was opposing thrice his numbers, coming on three lines 
deep, and reaching out far beyond him on either flank. This great pressure 
soon began to tell upon the integrity of the Union line. A gap, occasioned by 
severe losses, was soon made between the brigades of Biddle and Meredith, of 
Rowley's Division, which was threatening to prove fatal to the entire left wing. 
Into this gap, by order of General Rowley, the One Hundred and F'ifty-first was 
thrown, to stay the tide which was fast sweeping on — the last reserve thrown 
into action. In perfect order it moved forward and closed up the broken line, 
Company D standing directly in front of, and about twenty-five yards distant 
from, the point of woods where General Reynolds was killed. The fighting 
now became terrific, and the losses of the enemy in front of the regiment were 

One Hundred and Fifty-P'irst Regiment. 229 

heavy. But the contest was too unequal to continue long. The one atten- 
uated line was terribly cut up. The celebrated Iron Brigade, having borne the 
brunt of the battle for five hours, was finally withdrawn, thus exposing the 
right of the One Hundred and Fifty-first. The regiments on its left were like- 
wise overpowered, and one after another was forced back, until this was left 
almost alone to resist the enemy's raking fire. Finally, when more than half its 
number had fallen, the order was given to retire. At the barricade of rails in 
the edge of the grove back of the seminary it again took position, where frag- 
ments of other regiments had assembled, and as the enemy advanced a deadly 
fire was delivered upon them, which again checked their victorious advance. 
But here a new danger threatened. Finding that he could not walk over even 
the remnants of the First Corps, by direct advance, the wily rebel leader had 
sent a heavy force to envelop the Union left. The movement was speedily 
successful, and before a warning of the enemy's presence had been given, the 
regiment received a heavy enfilading volley, by which Lieutenant-Colonel Mc- 
Farland was shot down, receiving severe wounds in both legs, necessitating 
the amputation of one, and large numbers of the men were disabled. The 
moment had come when it could no longer stand the repeated blows of an 
overpowering enemy, and with remnants of other commands it retreated rap- 
idly towards the town of Gettysburg. General Early, who had closed in on 
the extreme Union right, was already in the streets, and here, the way being 
impeded by trains and disorganized masses of troops, a number of the regi- 
ment fell into the enemy's hands. 

Upon its arrival on Cemetery Hill the regiment numbered but ninety-two 
men. This number was soon after increased to about one hundred and twenty 
by the arrival of stragglers and others who had been cut off from the column 
in passing through the town. Captain Owens was now in command. About 
five o'clock P. M. of the 2d the command was marched on the double-quick to 
the support of Sickies's troops. In moving down the Taneytown Road, and 
when approaching Round Top, the line of the brigade was broken by troops 
moving in a diagonal direction across its path, and the One Hundred and Fifty- 
first, with the Twentieth New York State Militia, became separated from the 
rest of the brigade, and amidst the great confusion prevailing failed to regain 
their position. Finding themselves thus cut off, or lost, as it were. Colonel 
Gates and Captain Owens decided to act as an independent command, and 
moved up on the front line, taking position on the left of the Second Corps, 
where it remained during the night. When, on the afternoon of the 3d, the 
enemy made his grand charge, these two regiments hastened to the right to 
to the support of the troops at the menaced front. Reaching a knoll where a 
battery of the Second Corps was posted, and in front of which the enemy was 
advancing, they made a stand and assisted in driving the enemy from a slash- 
ing, in which he had taken refuge from a flank attack of Stannard's (Vermont) 

230 History of Warren County. 

Brigade. The enemy was finally driven at all points, many throwing down 
their arms and surrendering, and the great, dear-bought victory was won. At 
this point Adjutant Samuel T. Allen, brother of Colonel Allen, was severely 
wounded. On the morning of the 4th these regiments rejoined their brigade. 

Of the twenty-one officers and four hundred and sixty-six enlisted men of 
this regiment, who went into battle, two officers and sixty-six men were killed, 
twelve officers and one hundred and eighty-seven men were wounded, and one 
hundred were missing. The brave Lieutenant-Colonel McFarland and his 
regiment received the highest meed of praise from General Doubleday, who 
said: "I can never forget the services rendered me by this regiment, directed 
by the gallantry and genius of McFarland. I believe they saved the First 
Corps, and were among the chief instruments to save the Army of the Poto- 
mac, and the country from unimaginable disaster." Colonel Allen, who had been 
passing some time at home on leave of absence, returned to his command just 
as the battle ended, and continued with it until its muster out of service, at 
Harrisburg on the 27th of July, 1863. 

The Warren county men who served in this regiment were reported as 
follows : 

Field and Staff. 

Colonel Harrison Allen, promoted from captain Company F November 1 1, 
1862; mustered out with regiment. About two years later or March 13, 1865, 
was commissioned brevet brigadier-general. 

Adjutant Samuel T. Allen, mustered out with regiment ; wounded. 

Company F.' 

Captain Harrison Allen, promoted to colonel November 11, 1862. 
Captain John H. Mitchell, mustered out with company. 
First Lieutenant William 0. Blodgctt, mustered out with company. 
Second Lieutenant Theodore Chase, mustered out with company. 
First Sergeant James L. Lott, mustered out with company. 
Sergeant Paul W. Brown, mustered out with company. 
Sergeant Robert E. Miller, absent, sick, at muster out. 
Sergeant Benjamin F. Miller, absent, sick, at muster out. 
Sergeant A. D. Frank, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Sylvanus Walker, in hospital at muster out. 
Corporal George Merchant, absent, sick, at muster out. 
Corporal Leander W. Wilcox, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Nathan J. Cooper, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Robert T. Cummings, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Raymond B. Jones, absent in hospital at muster out. 

'Those whose names are italicized were wounded at Gettysburg. 

One Hundred and Fifty-First Regiment. 231 

Corporal Samuel A. Tnttlc, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Clifford Wetmore, mustered out with company. 
Corporal Nathaniel A. Billings, discharged on surgeon's certificate January 
5. 1863. 

Musician Ralph F. Ames, discharged on surgeon's certificate June 2, 1863. 


Robert Abbott, mustered out with company. 

John W. Allen, absent in hospital at muster out. 

George W. Briggs, mustered out with company. 

Ichabod Buck, mustered out with company. 

James Bates, mustered out with company. 

Richard Barlow, mustered out with company. 

Jared F. Bartlett, mustered out with company. 

John C. Bagley, mustered out with company. 

Richard Brooks, mustered out with company. 

Jehiel Can; absent in hospital at muster out. 

William C. Carr, mustered out with company. 

Charles S. Chapman, absent, sick, at muster out. 

Lafayette Cole, mustered out with company. 

Perry F. Chandler, mustered out with company. 

Isaac Culbertson, discharged on surgeon's certificate April 4, 1863. 

James Cotton, died July 4, of wounds received in battle July I, 1S63. 

Ithiel Dodd, mustered out with company. 

Nathan Dodd, died at Washington, D. C, June 15, 1863. 

Abram A. Enos, mustered out with company. 

Jacques Guentl, mustered out with company. 

Andrew Gauts, mustered out with company. 

David W. Gibson, mustered out with company. 

William H. Guignon, mustered out with company. 

William Guy, absent in hospital at muster out. 

John G. Gregory, died near Union Mills, Va., December 31, 1862. 

James Green, killed at Gettysburg July i, 1863. 

Pardon Hazeltine, absent, sick, at muster out. 

Clinton Hazeltine, mustered out with company. 

Marcus Jaquay, killed at Gettysburg July i, 1863. 

John Knupp, absent in hospital at muster out. 

Wilbur Kimball, killed at Gettysburg July i, 1863. 

Lodewick Loveland, mustered out with company. 

Alfred C. Lacy, mustered out with company. 

Frank Lyon, died July 19 of wounds received in battle July i, 1863. 

John Myers, absent, sick, at muster out. 

232 History ok Warren County. 

Isaac W. Mott, mustered out with company. 
James M. Miller, mustered out with company. 
Edzviit Mattcson, mustered out with company. 

John W. Morrison, discharged on surgeon's certificate March 21, 1863. 
Peter Miller, died January 10, 1863. 
John Mclutyre, mustered out with company. 
Christopher VV. McKelvey, mustered out with company. 
James McManus, mustered out with company. 
James E. Norris, mustered out with company. 
Marvin Norris, absent, sick, at muster out. 
George Newsbuckle, mustered out with company. 
F. E. Perkins, mustered out with company. 
John J. Patchin, mustered out with company. 
David B. Peck, mustered out with company. 
Daniel Porter, wounded and missing in action July i, 1863. 
Pearson C. Phillips, mustered out with company. 
James Park, discharged on surgeon's certificate March 14, 1863. 
Norman C. Smith, mustered out with company. 
Orlando Smith, mustered out with company. 
Williavi Swectland, mustered out with company. 
William P. Starrett, mustered out with company. 
Hiram Stnrdevant, mustered out with company. 
Stephen Sweet, mustered out with company. 

John Stanton, captured at Gettysburg; mustered out with company. 
James Stanton, mustered out with company. 
Israel Slye, mustered out with company. 
Orin H. Slye, mustered out with company. 
George A. Schuyler, mustered out with company. 
Samuel A. Samuelson, mustered out with company. 
Walter Thompson, mustered out with company. 
D. T. Van Vechten, mustered out with company. 
Charles Walker, mustered out with company. 

Daniel Weed, wounded near Union Mills January, 1863 ; mustered out with 

M. G. Whcelock, mustered out with company. 

Philander Wright, mustered out with company. 

Charles D. Way, absent, sick, at muster out. 

Lyman D. Willson, captured at Gettysburg; mustered out with company. 

Robert Young, killed at Gettysburg July 1, 1863. 


On tiie 26th of .September, 1862, First Lieutenant George R. Wetmore, 
with some thirty or more men recruited for the cavalry service, left Warren 

One Hundred and Fifty-Ninth Regiment. 233 

for Erie to join another detachment under Captain Miles, and thus was formed 
the command subsequently known as Company I, of the Fourteenth Cavalry. 
The men who left with Lieutenant VVetmore were named as follows : Quarter- 
master-sergeant, Reuben Mason ; Sergeant David R. Alexander ; Corporals 
Allen E. B. Mann, William V. Ford, John S. Turner, Horace Robinson ; Sad- 
dler Bennett M. Metier ; Privates John P. Baxter, Edmund R. Cowell, Levi 
W. Crouch, Van Rensselaer Farey, M. D. Ford, Elias Frear, Francis H. Free- 
man, Albert G. Hamblin, Francis Hook, Philip Hoffman, Charles L. Jeffords, 
John C. Jordan, Patrick Keefe, Alvah H. Mann, L. Phillips, William Prindle, 
Reuben Rhoads, Joseph B. Rhinehart, Joseph Sands, Leroy Turner, James 
Upton, John Upton, William H. Wentworth, Ashley F. Winchester, and Rich- 
ard W. Winchester. 

The regiment rendezvoused in camp near Pittsburgh, where, on the 24th 
of November, a regimental organization was completed by the choice of James 
M. Schoonmaker as colonel ; William Blakely, lieutenant-colonel ; Thomas 
Gibson, Shadrack Foley, and John M. Daily, majors. On the same day the 
regiment moved forward towards Hagerstown, Md., where horses, arms, and 
accoutrements were received and a spirited training for cavalry service com- 
menced. On the 28th of December the command moved to Harper's Ferry, 
and went into camp on the Charlestown Pike, the advance post of General 
Kelly's command. It was here actively engaged in picketing all the approaches 
from the south and east, and scouting the region on both sides of the Shenan- 
doah River, extending far into the passes of the Blue Ridge, and occasionally 
skirmishing with the guerrilla bands of White and Imboden. On the night of 
April 13, 1863, Lieutenant Wetmore, in command of the picket guard, hand- 
somely repulsed an attack of dismounted rebel cavalry on the Keyes Ford 
road, and was highly complimented in general orders by the general in com- 

Early in May, 1863, the regiment was attached to General Averell's com- 
mand, and for a time assisted in holding the towns of Phillippi, Beverly, and 
Webster, in guarding the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and in numerous scouts 
and movements against the enemy. When the rebel army retreated from the 
field of Gettysburg the regiment joined in the pursuit, and formed a junction 
with the Army of the Potomac at Williamsport, Md., on the 14th of July; but 
Lee had made good his escape across the Potomac the day before. 

On the 4th of August General Averell moved with his command on what 
was known as the Rocky Gap raid. When approaching Moorcfield, Captain 
Kerr, of the Fourteenth, with a detachment of about fifty men who had been 
ordered to move on a mountain road to the left, after having captured some 
guerrillas, fell into an ambuscade, and though fighting manfully was worsted, 
and made his escape with only a fragment of his command, with difficulty. 
Moving through Petersburg and Franklin, continually skirmishing by the way. 

234 History of Warren County. 

and driving " Mudwall" Jackson, after a brisk engagement at Warm Springs, the 
command, on the 29th of August, encountered the rebel General Jones near 
Greenbrier White Sulphur Springs, and at once attacked. The Fourteenth 
dismounted, and held the right of the line. The battle raged fiercely until 
nightfall. The enemy contested the ground stubbornly, but he was pushed 
back about three hundred yards. Three determined infantry charges of the 
rebels were handsomely repulsed by the Fourteenth. During the night skir- 
mishing was kept up, the enemy delivering an occasional volley. Assistance 
was momentarily expected from General Scammon, commanding in the Kana- 
wha Valley, and who was supposed to be at Lewisburg, ten miles distant. 
The enemy was reinforced during the night, and the battle was renewed on the 
following morning; but no assistance coming to the Union forces, and their 
ammunition running low, a retreat was ordered. The loss in the Fourteenth 
was eighty in killed, wounded, and missing. Beverly was reached on the 
31st, the command having been on the march or closely engaged for twenty- 
seven consecutive days, and traveled over six hundred miles. 

On the 1st of November General Averell again led his command south- 
ward on the Droop Mountain raid. Crossing Cheat Mountain, he reached 
Huntersville on the 4th, whence, after detaching the Fourteenth Pennsylvania 
and the Third West Virginia Cavalry, he sent them by a detour from the main 
road on which he advanced, to cut off a brigade of the enemy, said to be sta- 
tioned at Greenbrier Bridge, under command of " Mudwall " Jackson. But 
both roads were found obstructed by fallen timber, and the wily rebel made 
good his escape. At Droop Mountain the Fourteenth came up with the 
enemy and drove him rapidly to the summit. Here he had intrenched, and 
was prepared with artillery to fight, but by flanking the position with infantry, 
and pressing closely in front with dismounted cavalry, he was driven with the 
loss of two pieces of artillery and almost his entire train. Pursuit was made 
as far as Lewisburg, but the troops failed to again overtake him. 

By easy marches the command then returned to New Creek, on the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad, with the expectation of going into winter quarters ; 
but on the 8th of December Averell was again in the saddle, faced for Salem. 
By rapid marching, much of the time in the midst of heavy rains, he arrived 
at his destination on the i6th, and immediately commenced the work of 
destruction of the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, and the immense stores of 
the rebel army there collected. Several long bridges, and miles of track were 
destroyed, besides depots, mills, and warehouses, with grain, meat, salt, cloth- 
ing, and merchandise, to the value, as was estimated, of from two to five mil- 
lions of dollars. Intelligence of this daring movement, and the immense 
destruction effected, soon spread, and the enemy in heavy force was moving 
up rapidly on all sides for Avcrell's capture. The retreat was accordingly 
commenced and ])ushcd with all celerity, though greatly retarded by heavy 

One Hundred and Fifty-Ninth Regiment. 235 

rains and swollen streams. The rebels believed that the capture of the entire 
command was sure, and were already debating among themselves upon the 
kind of punishment that should be meted out to the bold " Yankees." By 
skillful demonstrations, however, the route of the column was concealed, and 
Averell succeeded in eluding the hostile forces. " I was obliged " says Aver- 
ell in his report, " to swim my command, and drag my artillery with ropes 
across Craig's Creek, seven times in twenty-four hours." The creek was deep, 
the current strong, and filled with drifting ice. On the 20th, at Jackson 
River, the Fourteenth, while in rear struggling with the wagon trains, which 
could with difficulty be moved, the horses and mules being worn out with inces- 
sant marching, was cut off from the main column by the destruction of the 
bridge, and was supposed at headquarters to have been captured. General 
Early had demanded its surrender under a flag of truce ; but, setting fire to 
the train which was completely destroyed, it forded the stream and made 
good its escape, rejoining the column between Callahan's and White Sulphur 
Springs. That night the command swam the Greenbrier, now swollen to a 
perfect torrent, and, crossing the Allegheny Mountains by an old bridle-path, 
moving the artillery by hand, it finally reached Hillsboro, at the foot of Droop 
Mountain, at midnight, and encamped. The roads were now icy, the horses 
were smooth shod, and to ride was impossible. From this point to Beverly, 
where the troops arrived on the 25th, the cavalrymen walked, leading their 
horses. Here much-needed supplies were received, and proceeding on to Web- 
ster they were moved by rail to Martinsburg, where winter quarters were estab- 
lished. The loss to the regiment in this raid in killed, wounded, and missing, 
was about fifty. Its members, as well as those of other commands, returned 
with shoes worn out and clothing in tatters ; hence, in recognition of the great 
service which these troops had performed, the war department ordered the 
issue of a complete suit of clothing to each member, as a gift from the govern- 
ment ; the only instance, it is believed, of the kind during the war. 

On the 1 2th of April, 1864, the entire command — a full cavalry division 
under General Averell, of which the Fourteenth formed part of the First Brig- 
ade, Colonel Schoonmaker in command — was moved by rail to Parkersburg 
on the Ohio River, from whence it started on the 2d of May on a separate but 
co-operative movement with General Crook's forces through West Virginia, to 
the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad. As the command moved forward, ob- 
structed roads and bushwhackers, lying in ambush, were met at every step ; but 
the enemy usually received the worst of it when it came to fighting. It was 
General Averell's purpose to destroy the salt works at Saltville ; but, anticipat- 
ing his designs, the enemy had posted a strong force for its defense, who were 
found well fortified and supplied with artillery. Averell had no guns, and hence,, 
deeming it imprudent to attack, moved on to form a junction with Crook. But 
the enemy had now concentrated a heavy force in his front, and at Cove Gap, 

236 History of Warren County. 

on the morning of the loth, attacked him. After four hours of hard fighting, 
in which the advantage was on the Union side, the enemy brought up artillery 
and Averell was obliged to withdraw. The loss of the Fourteenth in this 
engagement was twelve killed and thirty-seven wounded. Averell then pushed 
on to Blacksburg, on the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, destroying bridges 
and stores on the way, and finally came up with Crook at Union, the united 
forces moving on to Lewisburg. Here the two commands remained until the 
3d of June, when they were ordered to Staunton to join the army of General 
Hunter, then moving on the Lynchburg campaign. 

The combined forces moved forward on the 9th and, after several skirmishes 
by the way, appeared in front of Lynchburg on the isth. The enemy's cavalry 
made a stout resistance, but were driven back within the fortifications defend- 
ing the town. During the following night, however, General Early, with an 
entire corps from Lee's army, came up. On the next day considerable fight- 
ing took place, the enemy maintaining his position within the works, and pre- 
pared with ample artillery to make a successful defense. Accordingly, at 
night Hunter gave the order to retire, Schoonmaker's brigade forming the 
rear guard. At Liberty the enemy's advance came up and attacked. For 
four hours this single brigade maintained the contest, holding him in check 
until the main column was well on its way towards the Kanawha Valley. The 
loss in the regiment in the engagement was six killed and eighteen wounded, 
the loss in other regiments of the brigade being much more severe. Subse- 
quently, at a gap in the mountains north of Salem, Rosser's rebel cavalry sud- 
denly attacked and captured thirteen pieces of artillery. Schoonmaker's Brig- 
ade, happening to be just at hand, was ordered in and retook the guns, with 
some prisoners, sustaining a loss in the Fourteenth of two killed and six 
wounded. Hastening forward over mountains and through valleys, parched 
by a summer's sun, the army, after enduring untold sufferings, finally reached 
Parkersburg, whence it returned by rail to Martinsburg. Portions of the com- 
mand, while upon the march to Parkersburg, were five days without food, and 
many died from the combined effects of fatigue and hunger. 

Meanwhile the rebel General Early had advanced down the Shenandoah 
Valley unopposed, crossed into Maryland, and was now thundering at the 
gates of the national capital. Worn down with fighting, marching, and untold 
sufferings and privations by the way. Hunter's troops were in no condition for 
hard marching or fighting. But Averell was not the leader to avoid an en- 
counter when an enemy was near, and accordingly attacked the rebel troops 
at Winchester on the 20th of July, and routed them, capturing one general, 
one colonel, and two hundred men, killing and wounding three hundred, and 
taking four guns and several hundred small arms. The Fourteenth was an 
active participant in this brilliant affair, but only lost three men wounded. 
Four days later, however, the commands of Averell and Crook were attacked 

One Hundred and Fifty-Ninth Regiment. 237 

by Early's combined forces and driven with severe loss, Colonel Mulligan (of 
the Chicago Irish Brigade — otherwise known as the Twenty-third Illinois In- 
fantry, and the hero of the battle of Lexington, Mo., fought in 1861), com- 
manding a brigade, being killed. The command fell back slowly towards the 
Potomac, contesting the ground stubbornly, and finally witlidrew to Hagers- 
town. The enemy followed up, swarmed across the Potomac, and a raiding 
party under McCausland burned the town of Chambersburg, Pa. Meanwhile 
Averell had retired to Greencastle. However, as soon as the line of march of 
McCausland from Chambersburg was ascertained, Averell gave chase. Through 
McConnellsburg and Hancock — where it was reinforced — Berkley Springs 
and Romney, the command pushed forward at headlong speed, and at Moore- 
field, on the south branch of the Potomac, came up with the enemy. The 
charge was sounded and "Chambersburg" was the battle-cry. The Four- 
teenth had the right of the first line. With a wild shout the command dashed 
forward, driving the enemy in confusion, and capturing two of his guns. 
Following up the advantage, the command rushed across the stream, captured 
two more guns, four hundred and twenty prisoners, four hundred horses, kill- 
ing and wounding one hundred men, and completely routing and dispersing 
the combined commands of McCausland, Johnson, Gillmore, and McNeill. The 
loss in the Fourteenth was ten killed and twenty-five wounded. Captain Kerr, 
in command of the regiment, was among the severely wounded. 

The command returned to Martinsburg, and soon after was placed under 
the orders of General Sheridan. On the 19th of September opened that series 
of brilliant engagements under Sheridan, in the Shenandoah Valley, which will 
ever render his name illustrious. In the battle which was fought on that day 
the enemy was driven at all points. The Fourteenth, under command of Cap- 
tain Duncan, was posted on the extreme right of the cavalry division, and 
charged, with great heroism and daring, an earthwork, which it captured. The 
loss was very severe. Captain Duncan being among the killed. Three days 
later it assisted in routing the rebels at Fisher's Hill. On the 27th it was prom- 
inent in the defeat of Fitz Hugh Lee, at Wier's Cave. Again, at Cedar Creek 
on the 19th of October, the men of the Fourteenth, particularly those under 
Captains Miles and Duft", rendered valiant service. Still later, or on the 12th 
of November, the regiment participated in a severe engagment at Front Royal, 
with the rebel General McCausland, defeated him, and captured all of his guns 
and supply trains. The Fourteenth here sustained a loss of fifteen in killed 
and wounded. 

During the following winter, which was passed near Winchester, two ex- 
peditions undertaken by detachments from the regiment, one under Captain 
William W. Miles, on the nth of December, to Millwood, and a second under 
Major Gibson, on the 19th of February, 1865, to Ashby's Gap, resulted disas- 
trously, the commands losing heavily in killed, wounded, and prisoners. Cap- 

238 History of Warren County. 

tain Miles, who commanded the company (I) in which the Warren county men 
were serving, being among the killed. Its fighting, however, ceased with these 
expeditions. The hostiles had deserted the valley. Lee surrendered on the 
9th of April, Mosby on the iSth, and on the 20th of the same month the reg- 
iment was ordered to Washington, D. C, where it remained nearly two months. 
On the nth of June it was ordered to' Louisville, Ky., but while en route its 
destination was changed to Fort Leavenworth, Kans. Soon after its arrival at 
its destination it was consolidated into a battalion of six companies, all surplus 
officers being mustered out. Company A, of the new organization, under Cap- 
tain H. N. Harrison, was detailed as escort to General Dodge, commanding 
the department, and accompanied him on a tour of inspection which extended 
to the Gunpowder River. On the 24th of August the companies remaining 
at the Fort were mustered out of service, and returned in a body to Pittsburgh, 
where they were disbanded. Company A was mustered out on November 2, 
soon after the return from its tour. We will add that Captain George R. Wet- 
more was promoted from first lieutenant to captain of Company I, upon the 
death of Captain Miles, and commanded that company until the consolidation 
mentioned above took pla~e, when he was assigned to the command of Com- 
pany C, of the battalion. He was honorably mustered out with the latter com- 
pany August 24, 1865. 



One Hundred and Eight)' -second of the Line, Otherwise the Cavalry — Its 
Warren County Contingent — Serves a Six Months' Terra — Reorganized to Serve for Three 
Years — For Four Months Renders Gallant Service as an Infantry Regiment of the Fifth Corps 

— Its Battles — Remounted and Assigned to Gregg's Division — Sub.^equent Marclies and 
Engagements — Names, etc., of the Warren County Men — One Hundred and Ninety-third 
Regiment — Part of Company I Recruited in Warren County — Regiment Serves One Hun- 
dred Days — Two Hundred and Eleventh Regiment — Term One Year — Contains a Full 
Warren County Company — In Virginia — Makes a Brilliant Record — Roster of Company 6 

— Captain James's Independent Company — An Account of iLs Services — Names of Members 

— Captain Baldwin's Company of Militia of 1862 — List of members. 

One Hundred and Iughty-second Regiment — Twenty-First 

ABOUT the 1st of July, 1863, a small detachment of volunteers, who had 
enlisted for a term of six months in the cavalry service, left the town of 
Warren for the regimental rendezvous under the command of Captain Jacob J. 

One Hundred and Eighty-Second Regiment. 239 

Dennison. These men subsequently composed the greater portion of Com- 
pany M, of the Twenty-first Cavalry, of which Captain Dennison became 
the commander. The companies of the regiment were equipped and mounted 
at Camp Couch, near Harrisburg, and were thence sent to camp of instruction 
near Chambersburg. On the 23d of August the regiment was ordered to Har- 
risburg, whence a detachment, consisting of Companies C, E, K, H, L, and, 
M, was sent for duty to Pottsville and Scranton, and Company B to Gettys- 
burg. The remaining five companies, under command of Colonel Boyd, pro- 
ceeded to Harper's Ferry, and during the fall and winter were engaged in 
arduous duty in the department of the Shenandoah. 

In January, 1864, authority was given to reorganize the regiment for three 
years' service, and about the 1st of February its scattered ranks were concen- 
trated at camp, near Chambersburg, where the troops who did not choose to 
re-enlist were mustered out of service; the remainder were mustered for the 
long term, and its depleted ranks were filled with new recruits. About the 
middle of May the regiment was ordered to Washington, where, upon its arrival, 
it was dismounted, armed and equipped as infantry, and sent by transport to 
join the Army of the Potomac. It arrived at the front on the 1st of June, 
and was assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division of the Fifth Corps, 
where it was associated with the Sixty-second Pennsylvania, and Twenty- 
second and Twenty- third Massachusetts, commanded by Colonel Sweitzer. 
The army was then in front of Cold Harbor, and at noon of the 2d the regi- 
ment was sent to the left of the Fifth Corps, where it was ordered to throw up 
breastworks. These ,'were hardly completed before the enemy opened upon 
it by a flank fire from his artillery, from which Lieutenant Richard Waters was 
instantly killed. On the following morning it was ordered a half mile to the 
right, to the support of a battery, and at seven A. M. the enemy brought his 
twenty-four pounders into play, killing two men and three horses belonging to 
the battery. The regiment was subsequently ordered to the front line, and in 
reaching it was obliged to pass over a grain field, which was raked by the 
enemy's infantry and artillery fire. The advance across this was gallantly 
made, but with a loss of eight killed and nineteen wounded. A galling fire 
was kept up during the entire day from behind the breastworks, and, notwith- 
standing it had this protection, it suffered considerable additional loss, the 
entire number being eleven killed and forty-six wounded. 

On the 1 8th of June the regiment was again engaged in front of Petersburg. 
" We were marched," says a member of the regiment, " over the field where 
the Second Corps had been engaged the day before, and the ground was cov- 
ered with dead. We came to a halt in a woods, where we were ordered to lie 
down. The rebels then commenced to shell us. We lost a great many men, 
killed and wounded. We were ordered to go forward and charge across a 
large field, and came to the Petersburg and Suffolk Railroad. Here we halted 

240 History of Warren County. 

and kept up a brisk fire with the rebels, who were behind their works in front 
of us about half a mile. In the evening we were ordered to charge a large rebel 
fort. We fixed bayonets and went up the hill on a yell, while the rebels opened 
upon us a perfect hail-storm of iron and lead from their muskets and from six- 
teen pieces of artillery. If Cold Harbor was hard, the fight of the 18th was 
harder. We charged to the brow of the second hill, and the rebel fort lay di- 
rectly in front of us, at a distance of about one hundred and fifty yards. Here 
we found that we could go no further. He who went beyond this went to his 
grave. Four times were our colors shot down, and four times were they raised 
again. Finding that we could do no more we halted and formed, and while 
some carried rails and built works, others kept up a heavy fire on the fort, 
which eftectually silenced their artillery. After forming a line of works we lay 
behind them, keeping up a fire with the rebels until morning, when we were 
relieved and taken to the rear." In this engagement the loss was eleven killed, 
seventy-nine wounded, and one missing, among the wounded being many offi- 
cers ; and the command of the regiment consequently devolved upon Major 

On the 22d the regiment was again engaged on the Jerusalem plank road, 
losing two killed and three wounded. Early in July the Sixty- second Regi- 
ment was mustered out of service by reason of expiration of its term, and the 
Ninety-first Pennsylvania was assigned to the brigade, to the command of 
which Colonel E. M. Gregory succeeded. The regiment remained for some 
time in heavy works near the Ninth Corps line, where it was subjected to a 
vigorous shelling. On the 30th of July, upon the occasion of exploding the 
mine, it was under fire and sustained some loss ; but no advantage was gained, 
and the routine of duty behind the works was resumed. On the 1 8th of August 
a descent was made upon the Weldon Railroad, in which the Twenty-first par- 
ticipated, and was engaged in destroying the track when the enemy attacked ; 
but by the timely arrival of a portion of the Ninth Corps he was repulsed, and 
the portion of the road possessed was held. The loss in the regiment was one 
killed and twenty-seven wounded. 

Early in September the Twenty-first was brigaded with the One Hundred 
and Eighty-seventh Pennsylvania, Major Knowles commanding. About the 
middle of the month, upon the withdrawal of the last-named regiment from 
the front, the Twenty-first was transferred to the First Brigade, General Sick- 
el in command, where it was associated with the One Hundred and Ninety- 
eighth Pennsylvania. On the 30th the brigade joined in a movement to the 
left, and at Poplar Spring Church came upon the enemy's works, which were 
triumphantly carried, with a loss in the Twenty-first of sixteen killed and 
wounded. On the following day the regiment was attacked while lying 
upon the ground, in a large open field, but held its position without serious 
loss. For its gallantry in this engagement it received a complimentary order 

One Hundred and Eighty-Second Regiment. 241 

from General Griffin, in command of the division. With this battle closed 
the connection of the regiment with the infantry arm of the service. 

On the 5th of October the Twenty-first was sent to City Point, where it 
was equipped and mounted, and ordered to the division commanded by Gen- 
eral D. McM. Gregg, in which it was assigned to the First Brigade, composed 
of the First Maine, Sixth and Thirteenth Ohio, Second New York, and Twen- 
ty-first Pennsylvania, commanded by Colonel C. H. Smith. On the 27th of 
October the regiment was in a sharp engagement at the Boydton Plank Road, 
where the division went to the support of the Second Corps, which was hard 
pressed. The fighting was severe, and the Union forces were obliged to 
retire, the cavalry holding the line until the infantry and artillery were well 
out of the way, and then cutting its way out after nightfall. The Twenty-first 
lost three killed, thirty-three wounded, and eighteen missing, among the 
wounded being Captain George F. Cooke, of Warren county. On the 1st of 
December the division proceeded to Stony Creek Station, destroying the sta- 
tion and rebel supplies. The regiment was of the rear guard on the return 
march, and sustained some loss. On the 4th, Company E was detailed for 
duty at headquarters of the Sixth Corps, with which it remained until near the 
close of its service. On the 6th the regiment was again in motion upon the 
Bellefield raid, and on the loth was engaged, losing two killed, five wounded, 
and one lieutenant, John A. Devers, a prisoner. In the mean time Major 
Knowles was promoted to colonel, and Captain Richard Ryckman to major. 

On the 5th of February, 1865, a heavy force of the Union army moved 
across Hatcher's Run, for the purpose of opening the way to the left, and ex- 
tending the lines towards the South Side Railroad. It was met by the enemy, 
and heavy fighting ensued, but the Union forces held the ground. Gregg's 
Cavalry co-operated, and moved on to Dinwiddle Court House, meeting some 
opposition, but having no serious fighting. Colonel Knowles had command 
of the brigade in this expedition. During the winter the Twenty-first was re- 
cruited to the full maximum strength, and on the 1st of March was transferred 
to the Second Brigade of the Second Division, which was composed of the Sec- 
ond, Fourth, Eighth, Sixteenth and Twenty-first Pennsylvania Regiments, com- 
manded by General J. Irvin Gregg. The dismounted men of the Twenty-first, 
comprising nearly half its entire strength, were ordered to City Point, under 
command of Captain James Mickley, and with the dismounted men of the brig- 
ade, participated, under command of Major Oldham, of the Eighth Pennsyl- 
vania, in the final assault upon the defenses of Petersburg. 

" On the 29th of March " says Major Bell, " the cavalry corps moved out 
on the left flank of the army, the Eighth Pennsylvania having the advance. 
By some mistake this regiment mistook the road, which left the Twenty-first 
in advance, and gave it the honor of making the first charge in the campaign, 
striking the rebels near Dinwiddle Court House, carrying their barricades and 

242 History of Warren County. 

capturing some prisoners, from whom important information, pertaining to the 
rebel cavalry under Fitz Hugh Lee, was obtained. The Twenty-first was not 
in the fight of the 31st, which well-nigh proved a disaster, it having been de- 
tailed to hold a bridge over Stony Creek. When it was discovered that the 
cavalry line was unable to hold its ground. Colonel Forsythe, of Sheridan's 
staff, ordered the Twenty-first to throw up a line of works across the road, in 
rear of the court-house, and said, with emphasis, ' This must be held at all haz- 
ards until morning, when the Fifth Corps will be up.' Fortunately the rebels 
did not follow up their advantage, and the regiment was undisturbed during the 
night. The Second Brigade was only partially engaged at Five Forks, it being 
posted to prevent any flanking attacks on the left. On the 5th of April the 
Second Division struck the rebel wagon train and captured a battery, destroyed 
two hundred wagons, and brought in some nine hundred mules. The First 
Brigade made the captures, while the Second and Third did most of the fight- 
ing. Out of two hundred and thirty-four engaged, the Twenty-first lost ninety- 
eight in killed, wounded, and missing in less than half an hour. On the next 
day the regiment was in the fight at Sailor's Creek, capturing a number of 
prisoners. On the 7th the brigade had a sharp, and in a measure disastrous, 
fight at Farmville, in which General Gregg was captured, and the regiment 
sustained some loss, mostly prisoners. At daylight on the 9th the brigade, 
under Colonel Young, of the Fourth, was thrown across the main road to Lynch- 
burg, upon which the rebel army was retreating, and had some sharp work, 
contesting the ground in front while Rosser's Rebel Cavalry hung upon its 
rear. Finally, the Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth corps came up, and the 
division turned upon Rosser, who was driven nearly a mile, when he made a 
determined stand, and preparations were made to charge him in force. The 
Third Brigade had the center, and the Twenty-first led on the main Lynch- 
burg road. At the sound of the bugle the regiment dashed forward, driving 
in the rebel skirmish line ; but by the time his main force was reached, it was 
discovered that the regiment was entirely unsupported, and fearfully exposed 
to capture. A precipitate retreat was made, in which some prisoners were 
lost. On its way back it was greeted with the glad tidings that Lee had sur- 
rendered, the other brigades having received the intelligence just as the Twen- 
ty-first went forward." 

From Appomattox Court House the command marched back to Burkesville, 
and shortly after to Petersburg. It had been but a few days in camp when 
Sheridan moved with his entire cavalry corps for North Carolina. Upon his 
arrival at the Dan River, learning that General Johnston had surrendered, he 
turned back, and retired again to Petersburg. Thereafter the brigade of which 
the regiment formed part was sent to Lynchburg, and a detachment to 
Danville, where provost duty was performed until about the middle of June, 
when the Twenty-first was concentrated at Lynchburg. Here on the 8th day 
of July it was mustered out of service. 

One Hundred and Eighty-Second Regiment. 243 

As will be noticed, the active duty of the regiment really commenced on 
the first day of June, 1864, at Cold Harbor, and virtually ended on the 9th of 
April, 1865, at Appomattox Court House, a period of a little more than ten 
months. In that time it had three field officers severely wounded, one staff 
officer slightly wounded ; one died of disease, and one was discharged to accept 
promotion in the One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Pennsylvania. Of the line offi- 
cers, four were killed in battle or mortally woundejl, ten were wounded, and 
four were captured. Of the enlisted men, one hundred and forty-seven were 
killed in battle or died of disease, and two hundred and fifty-three were 

The following list embraces the names of the Warren county men who 
joined the regiment for a term of six months, in July, 1863. Those shown as 
transferred were men who, after serving six months, re-enlisted to serve in the 
same regiment for a term of three years : 

Company M. 

First Lieutenant George F. Cooke, transferred to Company H February 
20, 1864; promoted to captain Company H May 1 1, 1864; wounded at Boyd- 
ton Plank Road ; mustered out with company July 8, 1865. 

Second Lieutenant Warren M. Foster, mustered out with company Feb- 
ruary 20, 1864. 

First Sergeant Albert R. Griffith, mustered out with company February 
20, 1864. 

Quartermaster-Sergeant Calvin B. Starrett, mustered out with company 
February 20, 1864. 

Commissary-Sergeant Robert A. Falconer, mustered out with company 
February 20, 1864. 

Sergeant Henry S. Thomas, mustered out with company February 20, 

Sergeant John A. Akin, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 

Sergeant William M. Gibson, mustered out with company February 20, 

Sergeant William T. Allison, transferred to company E January 26, 1864; 
mustered out as sergeant July 8, 1865. 

Sergeant Charles E. Pettis, transferred to Company E January 26, 1864; 
promoted to second lieutenant Company C September i, 1864; to first lieu- 
tenant April 5, 1865 ; mustered out with company July 8, 1865. 

Corporal Romyan Horner, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 

Corporal Mason S. Cogswell, mustered out with company February 20, 

Corporal Augustus N. Jones, mustered out with company February 20, 

244 History of Warren County. 

Corporal Reuben Barrett, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 

Corporal Henry Gates, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 

Corporal Luman White, mustered out with company February 20, 1864 

Corporal Levi Hare, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 

Corporal Oscar F. Bowers, transferred to Company E January 26, 1864; 
died October 28 of wounds received at Boydton Plank Road October 27, 1864. 

Bugler George F. Lidy, mustered out with company February 20, 1864 

Blacksmith Matthias Amann, mustered out with company February 20, 

Farrier James Dunn, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 


Smith N. Brown, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 

James Bump, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 

David O. Babbitt, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 

William C. Baker, transferred to Company E February 20, 1 864 ; mus- 
tered out with company July 8, 1865. 

William A. Billings, transferred to Company H February 20, 1864. 

Dana L. Bean, transferred to Company F January 26, 1S64; mustered 
out with company July 8, 1865. 

Marion H. Baker, transferred to Company E February 20, 1 864 ; died at 
City Point, Va., June 26 of wounds received at Petersburg June 19, 1864. 

Thomas A. Blanchard, transferred to Company E January 26, 1864; pro- 
moted to sergeant February 20, 1864; to commissary-sergeant September i, 
1864; commissioned first lieutenant June 9, 1865, not mustered; mustered 
out as commissary-sergeant July 8, 1865. 

Joseph Caughlin, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 

John Caughlin, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 

Henry L. Chapel, transferred to Company E January 26, 1864; mustered 
out with company July 8, 1865. 

Samuel Eicles, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 

Peter Fertig, transferred to Company E January 26, i S64 ; promoted to 
sergeant June 30, 1864; mustered out with company July 8, 1865. 

Winficid Harris, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 

James W. Hinton, transferred to Company E January 26, 1864; mustered 
out with company July 8, 1865. 

Asa L. Phillips, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 
oseph Pentz, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 

De Forest Pratt, transferred to Company E January 26, 1864; died June 
20 of wounds received at Betiiesda Church, Va., June 2, 1864. 

George W. Roper, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 

Adelbert Reeves, transferred to Company I February 20, 1864. 

One Hundred and Ninety-Third Regiment. 245 

Charles J. Samuelson, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 
George W. Steele, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 
Elijah Shepard, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 
James Smith, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 
John Z. Walling, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 
Harmon Way, transferred to Company I February 20, 1864; killed at 
Boydton Plank Road, Va., October 27, 1864. 

Charles R. Youngs, mustered out with company February 20, 1864. 

One Hundred and Ninety-third Regiment. 

This regiment was recruited in compliance with the call of Governor Cur- 
tin, to serve for one hundred days, upon the occasion of the raid made by the 
rebel cavalryman, Harry Gilmore, upon the railroads leading into Baltimore, 
in July, 1864. Company E was from Lawrence county, and a part of com- 
pany I from Warren. The remaining companies were recruited at Pittsburgh, 
and were from Allegheny county. They rendezvoused at Camp Howe, near 
Pittsburgh, where a regimental organization was eftected on the 19th of July, 
with the following field officers : John B. Clark, colonel ; James W. Ballentinci 
lieutenant-colonel; Horatio K. Tyler, major. 

Soon after its organization it proceeded to Baltimore, and for two weeks 
was encamped at Mankin's Woods, where it formed part of a brigade com- 
manded by Colonel Nagle, and was thoroughly drilled. On the loth of Au- 
gust Company B was ordered to Wilmington, Del., for the performance of pro- 
vost duty, and Colonel Clark was directed to station the remaining companies 
to guard the bridges on the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, 
with headquarters at Havre-de- Grace, which was promptly executed. About 
three weeks after this disposition had been made. Colonel Clark was ordered 
to turn over his command to Lieutenant-Colonel Ballentine, and proceed with 
Companies A, F, D, and I to Wilmington, and take command of the district. 
This he proceeded to do, and placing the companies which he had taken with 
him in camp, made details from them daily, for various service, as the exigen- 
cies of his duty as commandant of the district required. This disposition re- 
mained unchanged until after the expiration of the term of service, when the 
command assembled at Baltimore, and thence proceeded to Pittsburgh, where 
on the 9th of November it was mustered out of service. Before leaving the 
field, however. Captain McMunn, of Company A, secured the re-enlistment 
of a considerable number of men from the several companies to serve during 
the war, who, upon their arrival at Baltimore, were distributed according to 
their preferences among cavalry and infantry regiments then serving at the 

Of the Warren county men who served in Company I, Captain George J. 
Whitney is the only one whose name has been ascertained. 

246 History of Warren County. 

Two Hundred and Eleventh Regiment. 

This command was composed of men recruited for a term of one year in 
the counties of Crawford, Jefferson, McKean, Mercer, Erie, Warren, and West- 
moreland. Thus Company A in Crawford, B in Jefferson, C in McKean and 
Jefferson, D in Mercer, F in Erie, G in Warren, and E, H, I, and K in West- 
moreland. The companies assembled at Camp Reynolds, near Pittsburgh, 
where, on the i6th of September, 1864, a regimental organization was effected, 
with the following field officers: James H. Trimble, colonel; Levi A. Dodd, 
lieutenant-colonel ; Augustus A. Mechling, major. 

Soon after its organization it moved to the front, and on the 20th was placed 
in the intrenchments at Bermuda ^Hundred, where it was incorporated with a 
provisional brigade in the Army of the James. It had scarcely reached its 
position when it was ordered to mount the parapets, in full view of, and in 
point blank range of, the enemy's guns. The sudden appearance of the long 
lines of men upon the sand-bags, of which the works were constructed, attracted 
his attention, and he immediately opened upon them with his batteries. Two 
men of Company F were instantly killed ^by a shell. The object of thus ex- 
posing the command was to divert attention from the storming party, which was 
about to move upon Fort Harrison and which gallantly carried that work. 

The picket line, which the regiment was j^required to hold, extended from 
the James River on the right, opposite Dutch Gap, through a dense pine wood 
to an open space where was the regimental encampment. This space, a fourth 
of a mile in width, had been cleared of timber by converting it into an impen- 
etrable slashing, over which an unobstructed view of the enemy was obtained. 
The line after leaving the river was nearly straight until it reached this slash- 
ing, where it made an abrupt bend, leaving the apex of the angle close to the 
enemy's line. At this point many rebel deserters came into the Union lines. 
So common had this practice become that it was proving a serious drain upon 
the rebel strength ; so much so that General Pickett, who was in command, deter- 
mined to stop it. The most friendly relations had existed between the oppos- 
ing picket lines, the men frequently meeting for social conference and barter. 
But on the night of the 17th of November, quietly massing a picked body of 
men, the rebel leader suddenly burst upon the Union pickets, and before they 
could rally, or supports could come to their aid, captured fifty-four of their 
number, seized this projecting angle, and before morning had built a redoubt 
and so strengthened his lines that General Grant, after a careful survey of the 
ground, deemed it inexpedient to attempt to retake it. This was the end of 
the truce on the part of the pickets, hostilities never ceasing afterwards for an 
instant; and so long as the regiment remained on that line the men were obliged 
to hug the breastworks, or lie close in the bomb-proofs. 

On the 27th of November the Two Hundred and Eleventh, with other 
Pennsylvania regiments with which it had been brigaded, was relieved by a 

Two Hundred and Eleventh Regiment. 247 

brigade of colored troops, and was ordered to join tlie Army of tlie Potomac 
on the south side of the Appomattox. These regiments were subsequently 
organized into a division which became the Third of the Ninth Corps, to the 
command of which General Hartranft was assigned, the Two Hundred and 
Eleventh, Two Hundred and Fifth, and Two Hundred and Seventh, under 
command of Colonel Matthews, forming the Second Brigade. During the 
winter the regiment was thoroughly drilled, and made occasional expeditions 
with other troops of the corps, but without becoming engaged, though a con- 
siderable amount of fortifying was done in the movement upon Hatcher's Run, 
and the troops were there held in momentary expectation of bloody work. 

Before the opening of the spring campaign Colonel Trimble resigned, and 
was succeeded by Lieutenant-Colonel Dodd. The camp of the regiment was 
located midway between Fort Howard and Fort Alexander Hays, on the 
Army Line Railroad, to the extreme left of the division, which was posted in 
rear of, and acted as a support to, the Ninth Corps line. At the moment when 
this line was broken at Fort Steadman, at early dawn on the morning of the 
25th of March, 1865, and the fort and a considerable portion of the line was 
captured, the Two Hundred and Eleventh was resting in its camp, nearly four 
miles away. The colonel and major were absent, and the lieutenant-colonel 
was sick in hospital. The command consequently devolved on Captain Will- 
iam A. Coulter. It was quickly summoned to the scene of disaster, and, 
marching rapidly, reached division headquarters at half-past six A. M. With 
little delay it was led, by order of General Hartranft, to the high open ground 
about Meade Station, just in rear of Fort Steadman, where it was formed 
and awaited the order to charge. The other regiments of the division, which 
were all nearer the scene of conflict than this, had been gathered in, and hav- 
ing checked the enemy's advance, were holding him at bay. A strong line 
had been formed around the fatal break, and the best possible disposition of 
the division for strength and efficiency had been made. 

General Hartranft felt satisfied that the enemy could make no further 
advance, and that by a united assault his division could retake the captured 
works. His plan of attack was most ingenious. He already had five of his 
regiments posted in the immediate front, advantageously formed for a dash 
upon the enemy, who was swarming upon the fort, the covered ways, and the 
bomb-proofs. The Two Hundred and Eleventh was a mile away, but on high, 
open ground. It was a large regiment, and if put in motion drawn out in line, 
would instantly attract the attention of the foe, and, as he believed, would 
draw the fire of his artillery upon it. His other regiments, thus relieved from 
peril, could rush upon and overpower him. He accordingly sent word to their 
commanders to hold themselves in readiness to charge in fifteen minutes, and 
the signal to start should be the forward movement of the Two Hundred and 
Eleventh, which was in full view of them all. The general determined to lead 

248 History of Warren County. 

this regiment in person, and, though he expected that it would be sacrificed by 
the fire which the enemy could instantly bring to bear upon it, he was ready 
to share its perils, in order that his division might be victorious. The regi- 
ment was formed with nearly six hundred muskets in line, and put in motion. 
In the most perfect order it moved forward; but, contrary to the expectation of 
Hartranft, the enemy, at sight of the advance of this single regiment, instead 
of turning all his guns upon it, began to waver, and when the combined forces 
of the division rushed forward, he had little heart to offer opposition, and the 
fort, guns, small arms, and many prisoners were speedily taken. At the 
moment when all the plans had been perfected, and the columns were upon the 
point of moving. General Hartranft received an order from General Parke, in 
command of the corps, not to attempt to retake the fort until reinforcements 
from the Sixth Corps, which were on their way to his support, should arrive. 
But the order to move had already gone forth, and it could not be safely 
recalled. He therefore decided that it was better to disregard than to obey 
orders, and when the moment came, dashed forward with his men, winning an 
easy victory. 

Great activity all along the Union lines was soon after inaugurated, and on 
the night of the 30th preparations were made by the division to assault. It 
was, however, deferred until the morning of the 2d of April. At a little before 
midnight of the 1st the regiment moved to the camp of the Two Hundred and 
Seventh, where it remained until half-past three of the following morning. It 
then moved to the front, passing around the right of Fort Sedgwick, and was 
formed with the brigade in column by regiments, the left resting on the Jeru- 
salem Plank Road, the First Brigade standing in like formation just in the rear. 
A strong force of pioneers was detailed from the leading brigade, well provided 
with axes and spades, all under command of Lieutenant Alexander of the Two 
Hundred and Eleventh. When all was in readiness, the word to advance was 
given. The pioneers, closely followed by the division in close column, and 
joined on the right and left by other troops of the corps, went forward, and a 
few moments later the heavy blows of the ax-men upon the well-adjusted abatis 
and chevaux-de-frise were heard. The work of destruction was scarcely begun, 
however, when a fearful discharge of grape and canister was brought to bear 
upon them, before which the stoutest heart might quail. But closing up where 
their ranks were swept away, they soon broke the obstructions, and, assisted 
by the ready hands of the troops which followed, made an ample opening for 
the advance of the column. With a rush, the ground in front of the rebel works 
was passed over, and pushing up the steep and slippery sides of the forts, the 
troops were soon in complete possession, the enemy either captives or in full 
retreat, and the rebel main line of works, from a short distance beyond the 
Jerusalem Plank Road on the left to a point four hundred yards to its right, was 
triumphantly carried and held by the division. The guns were immediately 

Two Hundred and Eleventh Regiment. 249 

turned upon the foe, and with his own ammunition, death and destruction was 
dealt upon him. Though not without a fierce struggle was the ground held, 
for the enemy, intent on regaining his lost position, made repeated charges. 
But hastily throwing up lunets for the protection of the gunners, and rifle-pits 
for the infantry, the division succeeded in repulsing every assault. But this 
signal victory was not gained without great loss. Of the Two Hundred and 
Eleventh, four officers and seventeen enlisted men were killed, four officers and 
eighty-nine men wounded, and twenty-one missing ; an aggregate of one hun- 
dred and thirty-five. Few more desperate assaults, and none more successful, 
were delivered during the war than this. 

During the following night the enemy quietly withdrew from the front, and 
evacuating the city under cover of darkness, retreated rapidly. The division 
entered on the following morning with little opposition. The Two Hundred 
and Eleventh was immediately ordered forward to the Appomattox, to picket 
the river bank. The railroad bridge and foot bridge were both found on fire. 
By vigorous efforts the former was saved and part of the latter. Towards noon 
the regiment marched back to camp. The remainder of its history is quickly 
told, for hostile operations were now at an end. It followed along the South 
Side Railroad in charge of trains until it reached Nottoway Court House, where 
news was received of the surrender of Lee's army, and where it remained until 
the 20th, and then proceeded via City Point to Alexandria. Here it encamped, 
and here, on the 2d of June, it was mustered out of service. 

The members of Company G, the Warren county company, were as fol- 
lows : We will here explain, however, that there are no muster-out rolls of 
this and several other companies of the regiment on file at the adjutant-gen- 
eral's office of the State, consequently the record of the individual members 
cannot be shown. 

Captain, Arial D. Frank ; first lieutenant, David B. Peck ; first ser- 
geant, William D. Johnson ; sergeants, Joel R. Gardner, Perry L. Brooks, 
William A. Stewart, William Weld ; corporals, William Jewell, Henry S. 
Thomas, wounded at Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865, discharged by general 
order May 23, 1865 ; Hall A. Turrell, William A. Younie, Dwight W. Buel, 
Aaron M. Jones, Daniel P. Porter, John Russell ; privates, J. P. Aylesworth, 
Thomas Allen, George W. Allen, James F. Aikley, Charles C. Abbott, Cyrus 
Arters, William A. Billings, George A. Baker, John C. Brailey, William W. 
Briggs, Allen S. Briggs, J. L. Burroughs, John O. Baker, Levi F. Brown, 
wounded at Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865 ; Jared F. Bartlett, wounded at 
Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865 ; Reuben Barrett, David Bump, Joseph F. 
Babcock, wounded at Fort Steadman March 25, 1865 ; William Chandler, 
George W. Cooke, George W. Cogswell, Thomas Cooper, Green Clark, jr., 
John P. Enos, wounded at Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865; Levi L. Everett, 
Samuel H. Fisher, wounded at Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865 ; Delos 

250 History of Warren County. 

Franklin, wounded at Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865; Darius Fulkerson, 
Thomas Fulkerson, George Fox, David VV. Gibson, Arthur W. Gregg, 
wounded at Fort Steadman, Va., March 25, 1865; William Gibson, John C. 
Hatton, A. T. Hackney, Jonathan Hall, Nelson B. Herrick, Darius D. Ham- 
lin, John R. Howard, Calvin Johnson, George Jones, Levi Jones, Lorenzo 
Kastator, died April 16 of wounds received at Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865 ; 
John Knupp, George A. Lanning, Robert Love, John P. Lawson, Ludewick 
Loveland, James Mair, James Mathers, Samuel Mentell, Orrin D. Madison, 
Eugene McKinney, Andrew H. McLane, Edward J. McKee, Alonzo Nesmith, 
Henry Pilling, Andrew J. Parker, James O. Parmlee, Joseph H. Reynolds, 
Seth W. Rowley, Asa Rounds, wounded at Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865; 
Thaddeus Reig, Ferdinand W. Sterrett, wounded at Petersburg, Va., April 2, 
1865 ; Frank Stephenson, Melvin Sharp, Marshall Stanton, Samuel Smith, 
James A. Smith, James F. B. Shattuck, wounded at Petersburg, Va., April 2, 
1865, died, date unknown ; Mortimer Stanford, Myron Sturdevant, Thomas 
Strickland, James M. Tabor, George E. Tuttle, Samuel Vredenburg, wounded 
at Petersburg, April 2, 1865 ; Jefferson P. Vansile, T. J. Widdifield, Charles A. 
Waters, wounded at Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865 ; Martin T. Wetmore, 
wounded at Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865 ; Anson R. Whitney, Squire Weld, 
Franklin C. Wade, wounded at Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865; Augustus 
B. Wade, George W. Weaver. 

Independent Company C (Infantry). 

This company was recruited in Warren county, in the summer of 1862, for 
the One Hundred and Forty- fifth Regiment; but before reaching the camp 
of this regiment at Erie, the requisite number of companies had been accepted. 
It was accordingly mustered into service as an independent company, under 
Captain De Witt C. James, on the 4th of September, and immediately proceeded 
to Harrisburg. It was promptly armed, and sent forward into the Cumberland 
Valley with a provisional battalion, the rebel army being at this time in Mary- 
land, and threatening an invasion of the State. While the battle of Antietam 
was in progress on the i6th and 17th, the company was posted on picket across 
the valley near the State line, where it remained some ten days, picking up 
during that time one hundred and fifty rebel stragglers. Towards the close of 
the month it returned to Harrisburg, where Captain James was made provost 
marshal of the city, and the company was employed in provost duty, under the 
direction of Captain W. B. Lane, chief mustering and recruiting officer, being 
chiefly engaged in arresting deserters in the counties of Dauphin, Lebanon, 
Lancaster, Cumberland, Franklin, and Fulton. On the 2d of F"cbruary, 1863, 
Second Lieutenant Eben N. Ford was mortally wounded while attempting to 
arrest a deserter in Fulton county. Pa. 

On the 20th of March the company was transferred to Washington, D. C, 

Other Commands. 251 

where it performed provost duty until the 13th of May, when it was sent to 
Alexandria, under command of Lieutenant George W. McPherson, and was 
attached to Independent Battery H, Captain Borrowe. When the rebel Gen- 
eral Early made his demonstration upon Washington in July, 1864, this com- 
pany was ordered to the front, and posted on the picket line. In September, 
1864, it was relieved from duty with the battery, and was assigned to guard duty 
at the military prisons in Alexandria. While engaged in this service about ten 
thousand persons, who had been arrested as deserters, were conducted to 
the front by this single company. In March, 1865, Captain James was ap- 
pointed an additional paymaster, and was confirmed by the Senate on the 6th 
of April, his commission dating April 14, being the last one signed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln. The company was mustered out of service at Harrisburg on the 
20th of July, 1865. Its members were as follows: 

Captains, De Witt C. James, resigned March i, 1865 ; Sylvester H. Davis, 
mustered out with company. First lieutenants, Sylvester H. Davis, promoted 
to captain ; George W. McPherson, mustered out with company. Second 
lieutenants, Eben N. Ford, died at McConnellsburg, Pa., Febuary 1 3, of wounds 
received in attempting to arrest a deserter February 2, 1863 ; Amos E. Good- 
rich, mustered out with company. First sergeants, Robert Illingsworth, mus- 
tered out with company; Stacy W. Cogswell, discharged June 7, 1865 ; Mor- 
ris W. Gibbs, promoted to second lieutenant. Independent Battery H, Penn- 
sylvania Artillery, July 22, 1864. Sergeants, James Maloney, Joseph Longs- 
dorfif, John Landers, Hiram P. Belknap, James H. Cole, Rasselas D. Moore, S. 
E. Orr, promoted to second lieutenant, United States Signal Corps, October 
6, 1864. Corporals, George C. White, John Goheen, Oliver W. Yundt, Jerome 
Davis, Jacob W. Tomes, William K. Harmon, John W. Flatt, Leroy S. Strong, 
Lewis J. Kinnear, John E. Lyle, Amariah Cook, Lewis Hidecker. Privates, 
John W. Amlong, Delos M. Ackley, Lorenzo D. Allen, William H. Burger, 
David I. Ball, Philip Biglar, James Brown, William Bell, jr., Orange C. Bab- 
cock, Merritt Babcock, Edwin R. Bumpus, James Black, John Clark, Peter 
Campbell, James H. Carr, John Conners, John Carr, Thomas Covell, George 
Currie, James Coulter, Patrick Dillon, John Fitzeimmings, Samuel Filer, Oscar 
Fox, Nelson O. Fenton, Wallace L. Filer, Samuel Golden, William Godfrey, 
John W. Groover, Ira A. Goodrich, Lester Graham, Charles Hotelling, Rich- 
ard C. Hunter, Clarence C. Hull, William H. Harrison, George W. Hoffman, 
William Irvine, George Joy, Henry T. Jones, Charles Keenan, William Ken- 
nedy, C. S. Kirkpatrick, Alexander Kitchen, William Kline, Isaac F. Loveless, 
Richard Logan, Thomas Lay, William Littlefield, Daniel Lash, Loren Labree, 
George Loffenberger, John W. Lytle, Matthias E. Lesser, George W. Lucket 
Joseph D. Magee, John Murph)', Sylvanus Martin, Lyman Martin, John W. 
Mead, Cyrus Moore, George C. Morrison, William H. Morrison, Jacob Morri- 
son, Samuel Maffett, Owen Mix, John Merchant, Michael McFarland, Robert 

252 History of Warren County. 

McCutcheon, William McKinney, Isaac McCurdy, William McKee, Walter S. 
Page, William H. Pickett, Augustus Patterson, George W. Rider, Samuel E. 
Rider, Peter Staub, Edward Sanders, Irvine Siggins, Miles Swartz waiter, Henry 
Sanborn, Jacob Shuler, Lewis Sterling, John Sweeting, William R. Sweeting, 
James S. Smeadley, Calvin Stoddard, Alonzo Stevenson, Jacob Trushel, Rob- 
ert Till, Samuel P. Walker, George W. Winfield, William H. \'ork, William 

Independent Company Militia of 1862. 

During the excitement attendant upon the rebel invasion of Maryland and 
Pennsylvania in 1862, and 1863, great numbers of Pennsylvanians were called 
out for short terms of service. They were termed militia or emergency men, 
though mustered into the service of the general government. One of these 
companies was recruited in Warren county. Its members (who were mustered 
into service August 28, 1862, and discharged June 5, 1863) were as follows: 
Captain, Charles E. Baldwin ; first lieutenant, Jacob J. Dennison ; second 
lieutenant, Julius L. Burroughs (discharged February 22, 1863); first ser- 
geant, Walter Scott; sergeants Melvin P. Sharp, Simeon Trim, Orrin L. Davis, 
George A. Parkeson; corporals, Charles Whaley, Ezra King, Thomas W. Al- 
lison, James A. Morton, Isaac Gordon, Myron R. Wickwire, Charles B. Ham- 
lin, Conrad Rowland; musicians, John B. Kelley, German L. Kelley; privates, 
John A. Akin, James Broderick, Whitman Burdick, Plympton Babcock, Jerome 
T. Babcock, William Bartlett, Perry L. Brooks, Odell Baker, Charles S. Black, 
Timothy Brown, James F. Brander (died at Harrisburg, Pa., December 28, 
1862), Albert Belden, Willard Clark, William B. Campbell, William Chase, 
John Dunham, Bradford Darling, James Elderkin, Oliver C. IClderkin, Abram 
P. Eddington, Richard A. Follett, Joseph D. Gray, William A. Gordon, Jona- 
than N. Gordon, George W. Gordon, Zacheus F. D. Greeley, Dennis Greene, 
Benjamin Hutchinson, Franklin P. Hull, John H. Hayes, James H. Hewet, 
James Hayes, George F. Hall, Loren L. Hills, Henry Holmes, Charles Hins- 
dale, Grant Johnson, Charles J. Johnson, Christopher C. Kelts, William H. 
King, John Lawson, John A. Luce, George A. Lanning, James H. Lobdell, 
John W. Montegue, jr., Gilbert D. Mandeville, Joseph C. Montegue, GitTord 
F. Mandeville, Willard Moffit, Luther R. McDowell, Ira Nichols, Thomas 
Oviat, Lucius Perkins, William Pierce, Amos Peck, James Phillis, Michael 
Roland, Solomon A. Robinson, Murray Raymond, William Robinson, Stephen 
Ragan, Aaron Randall, Silas S. Robinson (died at Harrisburg, Pa., January 18, 
1863), William A. Stewart, William F. Stewart, Alonzo R. Scott, Charles O. 
Smith, Nathaniel Sweet, Andrew Smith, William H. Stewart, Henry Smith, 
Warren W. Spencer, Hugh W. Sample, William Sharp (died at Harrisburg, 
Pa., October 24, 1862), Jeremiah G. Titcomb, h-lphanan W. Tubbs, Ezra 
Tubbs, Job Whipple, Ashbel H. Whilden, Charles H. Whilden, Carlton F. 
Waid, h'rastus B. Whaley, Martin T. Wetmore. 

County Buildings, Etc. 253 



Utilizing the Rooms of Private Dwellings for Public Purposes — The First .Jail — The Vil- 
lage School-House Used as a Court- Room — Reminiscences Concerning Jail Breakers — The 
First Court-House — The Second Jail — Stone Office Building — Destruction of Same by Fire 
— Another Erected of Brick — The Third or Present Jail — The New Court-House — County 

AS related in a previous chapter, the county commissioners held their first 
meeting on the i6th day of October, 1819, at the house of Ebenezer Jack- 
son, which stood upon the corner now occupied by the Carver House. James 
Benson and Asa Winter were present. They appointed John Andrews clerk 
pro teinp07-e, and also contracted with Ebenezer Jackson for a room to be used 
as an office by the county commissioners, at a rental of two dollars per month. 
At a subsequent meeting, held on the loth day of November of the same 
year, the commissioners hired another room from Jackson as a place for hold- 
ing the first or November term of court, agreeing to pay for the same the sum 
of $15 for the term. 

On the 1st of December, 1819, Sheriff Bowman, of Venango county, then 
officiating for both Venango and Warren counties, made a demand upon the 
commissioners for " a jail or place for the safe keeping of prisoners." There- 
upon, on the 3d day of that month, a contract was made with Zachariah Eddy 
for a room in the lower part of his house to be used as a jail, at a rental of 
" three dollars for the month." Proposals for building a jail were invited April 
22, 1820, and on the 24th of May following a contract was closed with Stephen 
Littlefield for the erection of " a building for jail and public offices on the pub- 
lic grounds." This building was completed within a few months from the time 
of its commencement. It stood on the public grounds east of Market street, 
and was built in block-house style, of square oak timber one foot in diameter, 
20 by 36 feet, one story in height, and contained two rooms, having plank floor 
and ceilings. Behind was a yard inclosed by a stockade twenty feet high, which 
was several times scaled by unwilling boarders. 

On the 19th of September, 1820, the county commissioners concluded an 
agreement with the school committee of the town of Warren, to finish building 
the school-house, and to hold courts in the same for four years, "from the 1st 
of September past." This school-house, an unpretentious little structure, stood, 
according to the recollections of Abner Hazeltine, esq., Warren's first resident 
attorney, on or very near the site of the present court-house. M.eanwhile, until 
the school-house was rendered fit for occupancy, other early terms of court 
were held in the carpenter shop of Daniel Houghwout, on Water street, and in 

254 History of Warren County. 

the wagon-shop of one Van Buskirk, on Liberty street, nearly opposite the 
present German Evangelical Church. 

Until the jail, or " public building," as it was termed, was completed, Zach- 
ariah Eddy continued to furnish a room for the detention of prisoners, and also 
served as jailor. Of those consigned to his care and keeping, Hon. S. P. John- 
son quaintly remarks : " Some of his boarders staid, some didn't as suited their 
purpose." When the jail was completed, however, the commissioners appear 
to have been rather proud of the work of their creation — the sole public 
building in the county, for on the 4th day of March, 1822, they issued an order 
through their clerk, John Andrews,^ notifying " all persons having Sheads, Hog 
pens. Hen houses, or any other Hutts, at, or near, or adjoining to the public 
building in the town of Warren," to remove the same at once. 

In his address, delivered at the dedication of the present court-house, Judge 
Johnson said : " The first occupant of the jail was an Irishman, sentenced to 
its lonesome walls and fourteen cents- per day fare for six months, for stealing 
a watch. He stayed about a month and took French leave. The next was a 
man named Chandler, who was put in for debt. He, too, soon tired of its 
gloom and short rations, and finding the door unlocked one day, cleared out, 
leaving John Andrews, the jailor, and Sheriff Dalrymple to pay his debt. 

"In 1822 Stephen Littlefield was elected sheriff and took charge of the 
jail. During his term a young man by the name of Hodges (not Walter W.) 
was committed for stealing money on a raft. As Mrs. Littlefield passed one 
evening he called to her for water. When she entered on her mission of mer- 
cy, he ungallantly rushed past her and escaped, taking with him the chain and 
fetters with which he had been shackled. Being pursued he waded or swam 
the Conewango Creek and effectually concealed himself in the woods." 

" One day the commissioners visited the jail to look after its safety and 
found a young man named Tanner (not Archibald) confined for debt. James 
Benson, then a commissioner, said to him : ' Why don't you break out ? ' The 
fellow replied: ' I could get out in five minutes if I wanted to.' Benson, incred- 
ulous, said: ' If you will do so in five minutes I will pay your debt.' The man 
jumped on his bunk, shoved a plank overhead aside, sprang up through the 
opening, kicked some weather-boarding off the gable, jumped down, and bid 
them good-bye in just three minutes by the watch. At the next term of 
court Robert Voluntine, being foreman of the grand jury, deemed it his duty 

IJohn Andrews, the counly commis.sioners' clerk, was paid for the year beginning November I, 
1822, the sum of $156. Prior to that time he was paid at the rate of $1.25 per day for his services 
while actually at work for the public. lie was one of the earliest settlers in the county ; was a sur- 
veyor, and may have been a very good one; but he was a wretched scribe and book-keeper. Hence, 
on viewing his work, it is not to be wondered at that on the 5th day of .September, 1823, the commis- 
sioners agreed that one of their number and iheir clerk should ])roceed to the town of Krie " for the 
purpose of getting some more information relating to keeping our books and accounts." 

2 At that lime the county allowed the sheriff fourteen cents per day as pay for the boarding of each 

County Buildings, Etc. 255 

to have Benson indicted for hiring a man to break jail. This, and the prison- 
er's debt, made the joke a very expensive one for Benson, and demonstrated 
the necessity of having a jaiH that would hold a prisoner over three minutes." 

During the celebrated and exciting trial of Jacob Hook for murder, in May 
and June, 1824, court was held in the then unfinished house of Johnson Wilson, 
corner of Market and Fifth streets. School was then in daily session, doubt- 
less, since the term of years for which it had been engaged as a place for hold- 
ing courts had not yet expired. 

On the 1 6th day of November, 1825, the commissioners concluded an 
agreement with William Hodges to build a court-house. One of their number, 
however, Robert Falconer, dissented, for reasons stated in his own handwriting 
on a page of the commissioners' journal, and refused to sign the contract. 
Hodges began the work of construction at once, and completed the structure 
in 1827. According to the contract, he was to be paid $7,000. Of this the 
sum of $2,000 was paid by State appropriation and the balance in wild land 
and county orders, then at a discount for cash of about twenty per cent. Finally 
lawsuits arose before these claims were fully adjusted, the last of which was 
tried nearly ten years after the completion of the court-house. This building 
was built, it has been stated, of the first brick manufactured in Warren county. 

About the the years 1 830-3 1 ^ the old stone jail and the one-story structure 
known as the "county ofiices," also of stone, were built under the personal 
supervision of the commissioners. Andrews was still their clerk. He seems, 
however, from a scrutiny of the scraggy journal kept by him^ to have been 
more intent upon calculating how much the county was indebted to him from 
day to day, than interested in the erection of county buildings ; consequently 
the only reference found in his minutes, of the building of either of the above- 
mentioned structures, is under date of October 13, 1831, as follows: "R. 

1 It was the intention, doubtless, that the jail which succeeded the (irst one should be strong enough 
to hold the prisoners therein confined, but such seems not to have been the case, since escapes from it 
were apparently easy, and altogether quite numerous. The Mail describes how a prisoner gained his 
freedom in July, 1854, as follows : 

" Sloped. A prisoner named Joshua Burdick, who was confined in our jail for stealing lumber, es- 
caped last Thursday night. He made a key of tin, with which he unlocked the padlock on the back 
door, which let him into the yard and over the wall." 

In March, 1859, another prisoner, known as Charles Williams, confined in jail for stealing some ar- 
ticles at Youngsville, belonging to Thomas Struthers, made his escape in broad daylight, while court 
was in session and two hundred men not farther away than ten rods. Some of his friends threw a rope 
over the wall, by the aid of which he easily scaled it and made good his flight. 

In May of the same year (1859) four other prisoners departed without thanking the jailor for their 
entertainment, and their example was successfully followed only five months later by four more, two 
of whom were dissolute women. 

Even the present well-constructed jail has one or two escapes charged against it, the last to de- 
part from its walls without leave being one Robertson, who in April, 1886, succeeded in crawling 
through a window only 5^ by 30 inches in size, and encased on either side by massive blocks of sand- 

2 Since the above statement was placed in type, we have learned from an old number of the Warren 
Gazette that the stone building, termed the "County Offices," was in existence as early as 1828. 

256 History of Warren County. 

Russell to four days extra attending to the building of the Jail by order of the 
Board when the Board was not in session." 

It is unknown where the prothonotary and treasurer kept their offices be- 
fore the completion of the old stone building, other than the statement of the 
first prothonotary, Lansing Wetmore, who says that during his term the old 
block-house built by the Holland Land Company was utilized as the prothon- 
otary's office. 

On the 24th day of June, 1848, a contract was concluded, with William 
Bell and David Grindley, to build an office for the prothonotary and to repair 
the jail. The same parties entered into another contract May 2, 1849, to en- 
large the court-house. 

On the 20th of December, 1854, the stone building occupied by the various 
county officials was destroyed by fire, mysterious in its origin. In the com- 
missioners' office everything was lost except the books and papers in the vault, 
and those came near being burned. The old " Lumberman's Bank " safe which 
stood in the commissioners' office was destroyed with most of its contents. The 
contents of the other offices were all saved. It was then stated that the same 
building was partially destroyed by fire in 1832. 

At a meeting of the commissioners, held March 8, 1855, a contract was 
made with David Grindley for the erection of a new building for the use of 
county officers. This was completed in December of the same year. It was 
of brick, two stories in height, and contained four rooms (two on each floor), 
each twenty-three by seventeen feet in dimensions. 

On the 4th day of December, 1873, the grand jury condemned all the 
county buildings — the court-house, the jail, and the brick building erected in 
1855, as unfit for occupancy and the safety of records. The jail was again 
condemned at the following term of court. Thereupon the commissioners hav- 
ing employed R. S. Christy, of Tidioute, as superintendent, ground was broken 
for the new or present jail, June 18, 1874, and in the spring of 1875 it was 
completed. During the same year the commissioners sold to Thomas Struth- 
ers a lot thirty feet wide from the west side of the court-house grounds, and 
purchased from the same, lot No. 212. The south one-third of the old jail lot, 
being the northeast corner of Market and High streets, was sold to F. A. Ran- 
kin June 30, 1875. 

Meanwhile, the old court-house having been condemned a second time, 
and it being considered a waste of money to repair and enlarge it, the com- 
missioners determined to build a new one. Therefore on the i ith day of April, 
1876, the plans for a new court-house, submitted by M. E. Beebe, an architect 
of the city of Buffalo, N. Y., were adopted, being substantially the same as 
those from which were built the court-houses at Lock Haven, Williamsport, 
and Sunbury. The following day the commissioners rented " Roscoe Hall," 
for a term of eighteen months, in which to hold courts, and three days later — 

County Buildings, Etc. 257 

April 15, 1876 — the demolition of the old court-house began, under the super- 
intendence of Thomas Bell. 

Only a few days subsequently J. P. Marston was engaged to superintend 
the construction of the new building which it was estimated by the architect 
would cost, by day's work, from sixty to sixty-five thousand dollars, but, as we 
shall see, he was true to the practices of his trade or profession, and under- esti- 
mated the cost by about one-third. The work of laying the " footing course " 
for the new structure began on Wednesday, May 10, 1876, the day the Cen- 
tennial Exposition at Philadelphia opened, and on the 4th of July following the 
corner-stone was laid during a heavy rain storm. Good progress was made 
during subsequent months, and on Monday, December 3, 1877, the building 
was opened to the public and dedicated. A vast number of people were pres- 
ent. Appropriate addresses were delivered by Hon. Samuel P. Johnson, Hon. 
Rasselas Brown, Hon. Lansing D. Wetmore, and Hon. William D. Brown; and 
Judge Abner Hazeltine, of Jamestown, N. Y., contributed an interesting letter 
of reminiscences of the first term of court held in the county. Court convened 
in the new court-house for the first time December 4, 1877, Hon. L. D. Wet- 
more presiding. 

This handsome structure, pronounced by the State Board of Charities, on 
inspection, to be the " model court-house of the State," is built of pressed 
brick with stone trimmings, and finished inside with black walnut. The 
spacious corridors are laid with marble tiling, and the stairs are of iron. The 
entire building is heated by steam, is thoroughly ventilated, and cost, with 
furniture and carpets complete, $107,000. 

The County Farm. — On the 17th day of April, 1861, Hon. Henry R. Rouse, 
of South West township, Warren county, was so severely injured by the unex- 
pected ignition of gas and oil at the well of Lytle & Merrick, near Titusville, 
that he died within a few hours. Before his death he bequeathed the greater 
portion of his estate in trust to the commissioners of Warren county, the 
interest thereof to be expended one-half on the roads and one-half for the 
benefit of the poor of the county. He had taken an active interest in the 
development of petroleum when it first appeared in such abundance on Oil 
Creek. He had also been successful in other business enterprises ; therefore 
the amount of the bequest realized after the completion of arrangements found 
necessary to make it available, was about $186,000. 

The county commissioners then serving, viz. — Erastus Barnes, of Sheffield, 
Alden Marsh, of Youngsville, and Melancthon Miles, of Farmington, at once 
took measures to make the fund of the Rouse estate practically beneficial. 
They bought a farm of four hundred acres, i. e., two hundred and fifty acres 
from John McKinney, and one hundred and fifty acres from James Short, 
adjoining the pleasant little village of Youngsville, on the Brokenstraw Creek, 
at a cost of $13,500. The tract stretches across the valley, is well watered, 

2s8 History of Warren County. 

and is as capable of high cultivation and productiveness as any in the county. 
The poor-house, erected thereon during the high prices prevailing in 1865, cost 
$25,000. It is a large, plain, but imposing two-story brick building with a 
stone basement, the main part being 100 by 37 feet, and the L, or wing, 36 by 
20 feet. From its tower a fine view is obtained of the farm, the village of 
Youngsville, the picturesque valley of the Brokenstraw, and the hills beyond. 

Near the house stands a marble monument, erected in memory of Mr. 
Rouse, at a cost of $2,100. It is inclosed by an iron fence, on the gate of 
which is cast the word " charity." On each side of the monument's base in 
large letters is the name " Henry R. Rouse." Higher up on one side is the 
following inscription: "In memoriam, Henry R. Rouse, the founder of this 
Charity, born at Westfield, N. Y., October 9, 1823; died from injuries received 
at the burning of an oil well April 18, 1861. He represented Warren county 
in our Legislature two years, and was a pioneer in the development of petro- 
leum in Northwestern Pennsylvania." On another side is an extract from 
his will, thus : " I bequeath the residue of my estate in trust to the commis- 
sioners of Warren county, the interest thereof to be expended one-half on the 
roads, and one-half for the benefit of the poor of said county." 

The advantages derived from the Rouse estate are hardly appreciated by 
the people benefited. True, the sum distributed annually is not large, but it 
is a perpetual insurance against a poor-tax, unless the people shall become 
much more numerous than at present. The different townships, also, are 
materially aided by the road money, not for a single year, but for all time. 
Present and future generations should warmly commend the liberality of one 
who was so suddenly stricken down in the midst of his prosperity and useful- 
ness. Mr. Rouse was a single man and had few relatives, hence he made the 
county his principal legatee. As a legislator he was intelligent and trust- 
worthy. As a citizen he was a public-spirited, sagacious, and useful. As a 
friend he was a little eccentric and nervous, but faithful, agreeable, and true. 
He has a monument, as we have described, at the home of the county's poor, 
but his most enduring monument will be in the hearts of a people who will 
learn to appreciate his beneficence and worth. 

Township Organizations. 259 



Brokenstraw the Original Township of the County — Conewango Organized in 1808 — 
Spring Creek, Sugar Grove, Pine Grove, Kinzua, and Deerfield in 1821 — Columbus in 1825 — 
Limestone in 1829 — Elk in 1830 — Sheffield and Freehold in 1833 — Pleasant in 1834 — 
Southwest in 1838 — Eldred in 1843 — Glade in 1844 — Corydon in 1846 — Mead, Cherry Grove, 
and Pittsfield in 1847 — Farmington in 1853 — Triumph in 1878 — Watson m 1880 — Borough 

THE following account of the formation and organization of the townships 
of Warren county is the only correct one ever compiled. To prove the 
truth of this assertion it is only necessary to refer to documents on file in the 
prothonotary's office at Meadville, Franklin, and Warren, and to compare this 
statement with any and all others heretofore published. 

Brokenstraw, the original township of the county, was formed and ordered 
to be at once organized by the Crawford County Court of Quarter Sessions, at 
October term in i8oo. It then embraced all that part of Warren county lying 
west of the Allegheny River and Conewango Creek. 

Some eight years later, or, to be more explicit, during March term in 1 8o8, 
the Venango County Court of Quarter Sessions ordered that Warren county 
be divided into two townships — Brokenstraw and Conewango, the first to 
include the western part and the latter the eastern half of the county. This 
arrangement continued until March 8, 1821, when, by order of the Warren 
County Court of Quarter Sessions, these two townships were divided into twelve 
subdivisions, of which seven were soon after organized, and the remainder 
attached to the organized townships. The following is a detailed account of 
the formation, etc., of the twelve townships referred to, as shown by the 
docket : 

" At a court of Quarter Sessions of the Peace of the county of Warren, held 
at Warren in and for said county, on Monday the sixth day of March, A. D. 
1820, before the Hon. Jesse Moore, Esq., President, and his associate judges 
of the same court. 

" Upon the petition of divers of the inhabitants of said county setting forth 
that they labour under great inconveniences and expense owing to the countys 
not being set off into suitable and convenient districts, there being but two 
Townships in said county, and therefore praying the court to appoint three 
impartial men to enquire into the propriety of granting the prayer of the peti- 
tioners, and to lay off the same agreeable to law. 

" The court upon due consideration had of the premises, do order and 
appoint John Andrews, John Brown, and William Arthur, to enquire into the 

26o History of Warren County. 

propriety of granting the prayer of the petitioners, and if they or any two of 
them agree that it is proper to lay off said county into suitable and convenient 
districts, they shall proceed to lay off the same, and to make a plot or draught 
of the Townships as aforesaid laid off, and the division line or lines proposed to 
be made therein (or of the lines proposed to be altered), if the same cannot be 
fully designated by natural lines or boundaries, all which they or any two of 
them shall report to the next Court of Quarter Sessions, together with their 
opinion of the same. By the COURT." 

" To the Hon. Jesse Moore, President, and his associate Judges of the same 
Court of Common Pleas of the county of Warren, now composing a Court of 
General Quarter Sessions of the Peace in and for said county. 

"The report of John Andrews, William Arthur, and John Brown respect- 
fully sheweth that we have maturely considered the order of your Honorable 
Court, bearing date the sixth day of March last, and hereto annexed that in 
our opinion it is necessary for the interest and convenience of the inhabitants 
of this county that the same should be laid off into smaller Townships, and 
have accordingly marked out and designated them as follows : 

"No I. Township beginning at the northwest corner of the county, 
thence south along the county line six miles and one hundred and twenty 
perches, thence east eight miles to the southwest corner of lot number 123 of 
the Holland Land Company's lands, thence north along the west line of said 
lot and lots No. 121, 117, and 1 14, two miles, three hundred and six perches, 
thence west along the south line of lot No. 1 10 one hundred and eighty-two 
perches, thence north along the west line of said lot two hundred and sixty- 
one perches, thence east along the north line of the same forty-nine perches, 
thence north along the west line of lot No. 107 two hundred and seventy-one 
perches, thence east along the north line of said lot thirty-four perches, thence 
north along the west line of lot No. 185, one mile and forty perches, thence 
east along the north line of said lot, thirty-five perches, thence north along the 
west line of lot No. 186, two hundred perches to the State line at the two 
hundred and ninth mile stone, a distance of seven miles and one hundred 
perches, thence west along the State line to the place of beginning, seven miles 
and two hundred and fifty-six perches. 

" No. 2. Township beginning on the county line at the southwest corner 
of Township No. i, thence south along said line eight miles, thence east to the 
southwest corner of lot No. i68 of the Holland Company's land eight miles 
and two hundred and fifty perches, thence north along the west line of lots 
No. 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, and 176, to the south line of lot 
No. 129, six miles and two hundred and eighty perches, thence east along the 
said line to the southwest corner of lot No. 177, seventy perches, thence north 
along the west line of said lot and lots No. 178, to the southeast corner of lot 
No. 123 one mile and forty perches, in all eight miles and seventy perches, 

Township Organizations. 261 

thence west along the south Hne of lot No. 123 to the southeast corner of 
Township No. i, one mile, thence west along the south line of Township No. 
I eight miles to the place of beginning, in all nine miles. 

" No. 3. Township beginning at the northeast corner of Township No. i, 
thence along the east line of said township No. i, to the southeast corner of 
the same, thence east along the south line of lots No. 123, 179, 203, 234, 253, 
282, 303, and 308 of the Holland Company's land to the southeast corner of 
lot No. 308, eight miles and ninety-six perches, thence along the east line of 
lots No. 308, 309, 310, and 311, to the northeast corner of 311, three miles, 
thence east one hundred and sixty perches, thence north three miles and one 
hundred and twenty perches to the two hundredth mile stone on the State 
line, six miles and two hundred and eighty perches, thence west along the 
State line to the place of beginning nine miles. 

" No. 4. Township beginning at the southeast corner of Township No. 3, 
thence west along the south line of said towhship to the northeast corner of 
Township No. 2, seven miles and ninety-six perches, thence along the east line 
of Township No. 2 to the southeast corner of said township, thence east along 
the south line of lots of the Holland Company's land No. 168, 214, 223, 264, 
and 271, five miles, thence east to the Allegheny River two miles and seventy 
perches, in all seven miles and seventy perches, thence up said river to the 
southeast corner of a tract of land claimed by John Irwin above the mouth of 
Brokenstraw Creek, four miles, thence north forty-one degrees west to the north- 
east corner of the same westerly by the line of the same tract to Irwin's Run, 
up said run three miles, thence north twenty degrees west to the southeast 
corner of lot of the Holland Company's land No. 306, one mile and one hun- 
dred and sixty perches to the place of beginning. 

" No. 5. Township beginning at the northeast corner of Township No. 4, 
thence east along the south line of lots of the Holland Company's land No. 
3 1 5, 320, 327, three miles and fifty perches, thence east to the Conewango Creek, 
three miles and two hundred and seventy perches, thence over and up said 
creek to the northwest corner of lot No. 7, claimed by Hobly and Leeper 
forty perches, thence east along the north line of said tract to the south line of 
tract No. 5969 to the southeast corner of the same three miles and eighty 
perches, together ten miles and one hundred and thirty perches, thence south 
along the west line of lots of Thomas Clifford, numbered 5533, 5534, 5535, 5536, 
and 3537 to the Allegheny River, five miles and one hundred and sixty perches, 
thence down said river to the line of Township No. 4, thence along said line to 
the place of beginning. 

"No. 6. Township beginning at the northwest corner of Township No. 5, 
thence east along the north line of said township to the northeast corner, thence 
north along the west |^line of lots of Thomas Clifford, numbered 5533, 5532, 
5531. 5530. 5529, 5528, and 5569 to the State line six miles and eighty perches, 

262 History of Warren County. 

thence west along the State line to the northeast corner of Township No. 3, 
nine miles and two hundred and forty perches, thence along the east line of 
said township to the place of beginning. 

" No. 7. Township beginning at the northeast corner of Township No. 6, 
thence east along the State line to the northeast corner of the county six miles, 
thence down the county line till it leaves the Allegheny River on the east side, 
thence down said river to the southeast corner of Township No. 5, thence by 
the east line of Townships No. 5 and 6 to the State line at the place of be- 

" No. 8. Township beginning on the county line where the line of Town- 
ship No. 7 leaves said line, thence along the same to the southeast corner of 
the county, thence west along the south line of the county to the southwest 
corner of lot No. 3198 of the Lancaster Land Company's land, eight miles, 
thence north along the west line of said lot and lots of the same company's 
land No. 3235, 3240, 3241, 4800, 4804, and 4810 to the northwest corner of 
lot No. 481 1, thirteen miles, thence north to the Allegheny River one hundred 
and sixty perches, thence up said river to the place of beginning. 

" No. 9. Township beginning on the Allegheny River at the northwest 
corner of Township No. 8, thence south along the west line of said township 
to the county line, thence west along the county line six miles, thence north to 
the southwest corner of lot of the Lancaster Land Company's land No. 3193, 
thence north on the west line of said lot and lots No. 3014, 3010, 4839, 4838, 
4819, and 4817, thirteen miles, thence west along the north line of lot No. 
4818 to the northwest corner of the same, thence south sixty perches to the 
northeast corner of lot No. 4828, thence west along the north line of the same 
to the Allegheny River, three miles, thence up said river to the place of begin- 

" No. 10. Township beginning on the Allegheny River at the northwest 
corner of Township No. 9, thence along the boundary of said township to the 
southwest corner of the same on the county line, thence west along tlie county 
line to the Allegheny River eight miles and eighty perches, thence up said 
river to the place of beginning. 

"No. 1 1. Township beginning on the Allegheny River at the southeast corner 
of Township No. 4, thence west along the south side of said township and 
Township No. 2, ten miles and seventy perches, thence south to the county 
line, eleven miles and two hundred perches, thence east along the county line 
to the Allegheny River four miles and three hundred and ten perches, thence 
up said river to the place of beginning. 

"No. 12. Township beginning at the northwest corner of Township No. 
II, thence south along the west line of the same to the county line, thence 
west along the county line to the southwest corner of the same, five miles and 
two hundred and fifty perches, thence north along the west line of the county 

Township Organizations. 263 

eleven miles and two hundred perches, to the southwest corner of Township 
No. 2, thence east along the south line of said township to the place of begin- 
ning, five miles and two hundred and fifty perches. 

" All of which may be more readily seen by inspection of the annexed map. 

"John Andrews. 
"John Brown. 
"William Arthur. 

" Which report being read the first time at December Sessions, 1820, and 
the second time on the 8th day of March, 1821, the court do approve of and 
confirm the same and order and direct that the same be entered of record, and 
that the Townships be laid off agreeably to said report, and that the same be 
organized and known by the following names, to wit : Number six (seventy- 
eight taxables) organized and called ' Pine Grove ' ; number eight organized 
and called ' Kenzue ' ; number seven at present to be attached to Kenzue but 
not organized and called ' Elk ' ; number five organized and called ' Cone- 
wango ' ; number nine to be attached to Conewango, but not organized and 
called ' Tionestia ' ; number eleven organized and called ' Deerfield ' ; number 
ten at present to be attached to Deerfield but not organized and called ' Lime- 
stone ' ; number twelve at present to be attached to Deerfield but not or- 
ganized and called ' Southwest ' ; number four organized and called ' Broken- 
straw ' ; number two organized and called ' Spring Creek ' ; number one at 
present attached to Spring Creek but not organized and called ' Northwest ' ; 
number three organized and called ' Sugar Grove.' By the Court, 

" L. Wetmore, Cl'k Sessions." 

On the 25th of May, 1825, it was ordered that the name of Northwest 
township be changed to Coluinbns, and the latter organized as a separate town- 
ship. The election in 1826 was held at the house of David Curtis. 

At December Sessions in 1825 the line between Sugar Grove and Pine 
Grove was changed to run as follows : " From the southwest corner of lot 
No. 315 due east to the southeast corner of said lot, thence north along the 
west Hne of lots No. 320, 321, 322, and 323, to the south line of lot No. 298, 
thence west along the said line to the southwest corner of the same, thence 
north along the west line of said lot to the northwest corner of the same, 
thence east along the north line of said lot to the southwest corner of lot No. 
297, thence north along the west line of lots No. 297, 295, 294, and 293 to the 
one hundred and ninety-ninth mile stone on the State line." 

Lhnestone was organized from the " provisional townships " of Tionesta 
and Limestone, at August Sessions in 1829. Its boundaries, as described by 
the commissioners, John Andrews, William Hodges, and William Pier, were 
as follows : " Beginning on the Allegheny River on the south bounds of the 
county, and running thence east on the county line to the southwest corner of 
the township of Kinzua, thence north on the west line of said township, ac- 

264 History of Warren County. 

cording to the present boundary, to the Allegheny River, thence west and 
south along the Allegheny River as it winds and turns to the place of 

Elk was organized May 3, 1830, from that part of Kinzua township lying 
west of the Allegheny River. Its boundaries at the time of organization were 
as follows : " Beginning at the Allegheny River on the line of Conewango 
and Pine Grove townships, thence north to the State line, thence east along 
the said line to the east bank of the Allegheny River and joining McKean 
county, thence down by the line of said McKean county to where the same 
joins the river going south, then to continue down by the low water or main 
channel in said river to the place of beginning." 

Sheffield was formed from Kinzua, and organized by order of court during 
June Sessions, 1833, particular day not stated. Its boundaries were then de- 
scribed as follows : " Beginning on the west line of the said township (Kinzua) 
at the northwest corner of lot No. 560, thence running due east along the line 
of lots to the northeast corner of lot No. 172 on the county line. That part 
of the said township, Kinzua, lying south of the said line bounded on the east 
by McKean county, on the south by the county of Jefferson and on the west 
by the township of Limestone to be a new township named Sheffield." 

Freehold. — This township was erected from portions of Columbus and 
Sugar Grove. The report of the commissioners was confirmed absolutely Sep- 
tember 3, 1833, and the following lines and courses designated as its bound- 
aries: "Beginning at the northeast corner of lot No. 392 in Columbus town- 
ship on the State line, thence east on said line to the northeast corner of lot 
No. 192 in Sugar Grove township, thence south along the line of said tract to 
lot No. 194, thence east to the northeast corner of said tract, thence south to 
the southeast corner of said tract, thence west to the northeast corner of lot 
No. 196, thence south to the southeast corner of the same, thence east to the 
northeast corner of lot No. 199, thence south to the southeast corner of the 
same, thence west to the northeast corner of lot No. 200, thence south along 
the lines of lots No. 200, 201, 202, and 203 to the south line of Sugar Grove 
township, thence west along the township lines to the southwest corner of lot 
No. 120 in Columbus township, thence north along the lines of lots No. 120, 
119, 1 16, 383, and 385, to the southeast corner of lot No. 386, thence west to 
the southwest corner of the same, thence north to the northwest corner of the 
same, thence north across lot No. 388 to the south line of lot No. 393, thence 
west to the southwest corner of the same, thence north to the northwest corner 
of the same, thence to the southeast corner of lot No. 392, then north to the 
State line at the place of beginning." 

Pleasant. — This township was formed from Limestone, by an order of 
court confirmed absolutely during March Sessions, 1834. The old township was 
divided by a line running as follows: " Beginning on the Allegheny River at 

Township Organizations. 265 

the northwest corner of lot No. 4826, thence running east to lot No 512, thence 
south on Hne of said lot No. 512 to the southwest corner of said lot, thence 
east to the northwest corner of lot No. 519, thence south to the county line." 
It was proposed by the inhabitants and was so recommended by the commis- 
sioners to call the new township Mount Pleasant, but the court deemed it best 
to shorten the title and name it Pleasant. 

Chatigc of Line between Sheffield and Pleasant Townships. — On the 5 th 
day of November, 1836, Lansing Wetmore, Alson Rogers, Nathaniel Sill, com- 
missioners appointed by the court for that purpose, reported that they had 
surveyed a line running as follows : " Beginning at the southwest corner of lot 
No. 577 on the north and south line between Limestone and Pleasant, thence 
due east on a line of lots three miles and two hundred and twenty perches to 
the southeast corner of lot No. 584 on the north and south line between Shef- 
field and Pleasant, and set off that part of the present township of Pleasant 
lying south of said east line and between Sheffield and Limestone and the 
county line to the said township of Sheffield, comprising thirteen and a fourth 
tier of lots north and south and eight tier of lots east and west." 

So7ithwcst. — This township was set off from Deerfield as a separate organ- 
ization by an order of court declared absolute during March Sessions 1838. 
The line between the two townships (which had been surveyed by Commis- 
sioners James A. Alexander, Stephen Littlefield, and Nathan Whitney) ran as 
follows : " Beginning on Venango county line at the southeast corner of tract 
No. 228, thence by the line of said tract to the southeast corner of lot No. 229, 
thence north to the south line of tract No. 235, a distance of four miles and 
two hundred and six perches (as per original survey and plot), thence east to 
the southeast corner of said tract No. 235, thence north to the northwest 
corner of tract No. 328 and northeast corner of tract No. 327, to a pine tree, 
the southwest corner of tract No. 154, on Spring Creek township line, being a 
further distance of seven miles (as per original survey and measurements)." 

Change of Line betzueen Various Townships. — During June Sessions in 
1838 the court confirmed the report of Commissioners Andrew H. Ludlow, 
Hewlet Lott, and Samuel Magee concerning the change in township lines 
between Spring Creek, Deerfield, and Brokenstraw, also between Spring Creek 
and Columbus. 

Alteration of Line hetzveen Columbus and Freehold Tozvnships. — Lot No. 
392 was detached from Columbus and annexed to Freehold by an order of 
court dated June 5, 1843. 

Eld red. — This township was erected from the northern part of Southwest 
township by an order of court confirmed absolutely September 8, 1843. The 
commissioners, viz., James A. Alexander, Jonathan Hamilton, and William B. 
Mead, said in their report : " We have diligently inquired into the propriety of 
granting the prayer of the petitioners, and we are of the opinion that the said 

266 History of Warren County. 

township of South West ought to be divided as follows : Beginning at the 
northeast corner of lot No. 235 and the southeast corner of lot No. 236, thence 
west along the south Hne of lots No. 195, 188, 147, 140, 99 and 92, to the 
Crawford county line. That portion on the north side of said division line to 
be called Fairfield, a plot or draft of which is hereunto annexed." 

Glade. — This township was erected from Conewango and Elk, March 8, 
1844, the report of Commissioners Andrew H. Ludlow, Shubal D. Chappell, 
and Thomas demons, then having been read a second time and confirmed 
absolutely. Its original boundaries were described as follows : " Beginning at the 
northeast corner of the Borough of Warren, thence east across the Conewango 
Creek, thence up the east side of said creek to the south line of Pine Grove 
township and northwest corner of tract No. 5488, thence east with the north 
line of said lot No. 5488, and the south line of lot No. 5969 to the west line 
of No. 5533, in Elk township, thence south with the west line of said lot to 
the northwest corner of No. 5534, thence east with the north lines of No. 
5S34> 5544- 5553> ^'^^ 55^2, to the Allegheny River, thence down said river to 
the confluence of the Conewango Creek at the Borough of Warren, thence up 
the north and west bank of said creek to the place of beginning. Taking from 
Conewango township that part lying east of the Conewango Creek and north 
of the Allegheny River, and that part of Elk township lying south of the south 
lines of lots No. 5333, 5343, 5552, and 5561, and forming said new town- 
ship, which we would propose to call Point township, a draft of plot whereof 
is hereunto annexed." 

Corydon. — This township was erected by order of court confirmed abso- 
lutely March 20, 1846, from territory then recently set off from McKean 
county. The report of the commissioners — i. e., Andrew H. Ludlow, Benja- 
min Marsh, and James Cargill — was as follows: "We, the undersigned, ap- 
pointed by the annexed order of court commissioners to enquire into the pro- 
priety of forming a new township out of that part of Corydon township form- 
erly McKean county and establishing the line between Kinzua township and 
McKean county, do report, that in pursuance of said order having been respect- 
ively sworn or affirmed according to law, we have examined the premises, and 
are of opinion that all that part of McKean county lately set off to Warren 
county being part of Corydon township and part of Hamilton township, be 
erected into a new township to be called Corydon township." 

Mead. — This township was erected from parts of Sheffield, Kinzua, and 
Pleasant by an order of court confirmed absolutely June 7, 1847. The com- 
missioners, Andrew H. Ludlow, Lansing Wetmore, and James H. Eddy, de- 
scribed its original boundaries as follows : " Beginning at the Allegheny River 
at the northeast corner of Tract No. 2921, thence south with the east line of 
said tract to the southeast corner of the same, thence with the south line of 
said tract west to the northeast corner of tract No. 2837, thence south with the 

Township Organizations. 267 

east line of said tract No. 2837 to the southeast corner of the same and north- 
east corner of Tract No. 38, thence with the east line of Tracts No. 38, 51, 58, 
75, 82, 103, 1 10, 159, 166, and 199 south to the southeast corner of Tract No. 
199, thence west with the south lines of tracts No. 199, 200, 201, 202, 586, 
585, 584, 583, 582, and 581, to the southwest corner of said tract No. 581 ; 
thence north with the west lines of tracts No. 581, 564, 553, 534, 523, 502, 
491, 470, and 459, to the northwest corner of said tract No. 459, thence with 
the north lines of tracts No. 459 and 460 east to the southwest corner of tract 
of land known as the J. Benson tract, thence with the west line of said Ben- 
son tract and the west line of the R. Arthur tract north to the Allegheny River, 
thence along the south bank of said river to the place of beginning." 

Cherry Grove. — This township was erected from Sheffield by an order of 
court confirming report of commissioners, )ii si, June 7, 1847, and absolutely 
Dec. 7, 1847. The commissioners, Andrew H. Ludlow, Lansing Wetmore 
and James H. Eddy, described its boundaries as follows: " Beginning at the 
northeast corner of tract No. 587, thence with the lines of the tracts south to 
the county line in the east line of tract No. 756, thence with the county line 
west to the west line of tract No. 3 142, thence with the lines of the tracts north 
to the northwest corner of tract No. 598, thence with the lines of the tracts 
east to the place of beginning." 

Pittsficld. — This township was formed from Brokenstraw and Spring Creek 
townships in 1847. If" response to numerous petitioners the court on the 9th 
day of September, 1846, issued an order naming Andrew H. Ludlow, Carter 
V. Kinnear and Stephen Littlefield as commissioners to inquire into the pro- 
priety of granting the prayer of the petitioners, to make survey, report, etc. 
These commissioners rendered their report June 5, 1847, but the order of court 
confirming the same does not appear on record. The boundaries of the town- 
ship, as described by the commissioners in 1847, were as follows : "Beginning 
at the northwest corner of tract No. 125 in Spring Creek township and in the 
south line of Freehold township, thence running south with the west lines of 
tracts No. 125, 128, 131, 134, 137, 140, 143, 146, 149, 152, and 155, to the 
southwest corner of tract No. 155, and to the north line of Deerfield township, 
thence east along the north line of said Deerfield township and the south line 
of tract No. 155, 156, 168, 214, and 223, thence north along the east line of 
tract No. 223 to the northeast corner of the same, thence east along the south 
line of tract No. 224 to the southeast corner of tract No. 224, thence north 
along the east line of tracts No. 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 
and 233 to the northeast corner of No. 233, and the south line of Sugar Grove 
township, thence west along the north line of tracts No, 233, 204, 178, 126, 
and 125 to the place of beginning." 

Change of Toivnship Lines. — On the 7th of June, 1847, a change in the 
line dividing Conewango and Pine Grove townships resulted in increasing the 
area of the first-named division by a few hundred acres. 18 

268 History of Warren County. 

On the 23d of October, 185 1, it was ordered by court that two tier of tracts 
in Deerfield township, commencing at the northwest corner of Deerfield town- 
ship and running thence east as far as the east line of Pittsfield township, be set 
off from Deerfield and attached to Pittsfield. 

Farniington. — This township was formed from Pine Grove by an order 
of court confirmed absolutely October 7, 1853. Its original boundaries were 
described by the commissioners as follows : " Being the western part of said 
township (Pine Grove) and commencing at the New York State line at the 
northeast corner of the Holland Land Company's lands at the northeast corner 
of tract No. 359, thence by said company's line, to the line of Conewango 
township at the southeast corner of tract No. 351, thence by said Conewango 
township line to Sugar Grove township at the southwest corner of tract No. 
321, thence by Sugar Grove township line to the New York State line afore- 
said at the northwest corner of tract No. 293, thence by said State line to the 
place of beginning." 

Change of Tozvnsliip Lines. — During December Sessions, 1854, part of lot 
No. 233 was taken from Pittsfield and attached to Brokenstraw. During the 
same term, also, a small part of Freehold was annexed to Sugar Grove. 

At January adjourned term in 1855 tracts No. 5528, 5529, 5530, 5531, 
5532, 5533, and part of 5569 were detached from Elk township and annexed 
to Pine Grove. 

On the 9th of January, 1856, lots No. 5544, 5553. and 5562 were taken 
from Glade and added to Elk. 

Triumph. — This township was formed from Deerfield by an order of court 
dated March 7, 1878, confirming report of commissioners, and in accordance 
with the wishes of a majority of the voters of Deerfield, as shown at an election 
held P'ebruary 19, 1878. The boundaries of the township as then formed were 
described as follows : " Beginning on the northern boundary of the Tidioute 
Creek road at the northern boundary line of Tidioute Borough ; thence along 
the north boundary of said Tidioute Creek road two miles, to the west line of 
the J. and C. Lovig lands ; thence north on said line of land three hundred 
and ten rods ; thence continue north two hundred and sixty-four rods to the 
south line of tract No. 265 Holland Land Survey ; thence west on the Holland 
Land Survey two and one-half miles to the township of Eldred, thence south 
along the eastern boundary of Eldred and South West townships eight and 
one-fourth miles to the Forest county line, thence east on said line four and 
three-fourth miles to the Allegheny River, thence up the Allegheny River and 
by the meanderings of the Borough line of Tidioute about five and one-fourth 
miles to the place of beginning." 

Walsou. — This township was erected from Limestone by an order of court 
dated March 4, 1880, thus confirming the report of the commissioners, and in 
conformity with the wishes of a majority of the voters of Limestone township, 

Agricultural Societies. 269 

as expressed at an election held on the 17th day of February, 1880, it being 
the northerly portion of tlie old township of Limestone. A map of the new 
township showing its boundaries, etc., can be found on page 541 Road Docket 
No. 3, court records of Warren county. 

Boroughs. — Warren borough was incorporated by an act of the State Leg- 
islature approved April 3, 1832, its original area being three hundred acres, 
or in other words the inlots of the town as laid out in 1795. Youngsville was 
incorporated September 4, 1849; Columbus, March 19, 1853; Tidioute, June 
7, 1862, and Clarendon, early in 1882. 



The First "Agricultural Show " — Organization of the Warren County Agricultural Society 
— Its Officers — First Annual Fair — Names of Those to Whom were Awarded Premiums — 
Extract from Judge Wetmore's Address — Subsequent Fairs, Officers, etc. — Organization of 
the Union Agricultural Society — Sugar Grove its Headquarters — The Warren County Agri- 
cultural Fair As.sociation Organized — Its Officers — Annual Exhibitions — Remarks. 

IN the fall of 1850 an "agricultural show," as it was termed, was held at the 
village of Sugar Grove by a few of the enterprising farmers and business 
men residing in that vicinity. It was a sort of an impromptu affair, and the 
exhibits and attendance of course were comparatively meager. But it aroused 
an interest in such matters, and a desire to organize a county association. 
Nearly every county in the State of New York and the Western Reserve of 
Ohio had already in successful operation county agricultural associations ; and 
the question was asked why should Warren, bordering on such an active, go- 
ahead farming district as the county of Chautauqua, stand idly by just as she 
was changing (from necessity) from a lumbering to an agricultural district. 
Therefore, prompted by such thoughts and queries, on the 8th day of January, 
1 85 1, an article signed by N. B. Langdon, James Younie, E. C. Catlin, and 
George W. Buell was published in the county newspapers, setting forth the ben- 
efits to be derived from such an association, and requesting all persons inter- 
ested to meet at the court-house in the borough of Warren on the 28th day of 
that month. 

Pursuant to this notice a considerable number of the leading citizens of the 
county assembled at the time and place stated, and organized the meeting by 
electing James Younie, president; John Berry and Archibald Rynd, esq., vice- 
presidents ; and Thomas demons, secretary. The object of the meeting was 

270 History of Warren County. 

then stated at some length by Lansing Wetmore, esq., whereupon a committee 
composed of L. Wetmore, N. B. Langdon, E. C. Catlin, Patrick Falconer, and 
John Hackney was appointed to draft resolutions expressive of the sense of 
the meeting. After the unanimous adoption of the resolutions reported, the 
meeting adjourned to meet at Sugar Grove on the 22d day of February of 
that year. 

Agreeably to adjournment, the next meeting was held in the village of Su- 
gar Grove, February 22, 185 1, when a permanent organization was effected, 
and it was decided to hold the " first annual meeting of the society " at Sugar 
Grove, on the fourth Tuesday of September, 185 1. The officers chosen for 
the first year were Lansing Wetmore, president ; Thomas Struthers, Riley 
Preston, Robert Mclntyre, E. C. Catlin, S. Raymond, George F. Eldred, Noah 
Hand, John Wales, James McGee, Mark Dalrymple, John Sill, Squire Sprague, 
Josiah Farnsworth, Erastus Barnes, Alson Rogers, J. H. King, William Brown, 
Perry Sherman, Jason Andruss, Charles Whitney, William Siggins, and John J. 
Berry, vice-presidents ; Patrick Falconer, secretary, and George W. Buell, 

As announced, the first annual fair of the Warren County Agricultural So- 
ciety was held at Sugar Grove on Tuesday, September 23, 185 1. The exhibits 
were varied and creditable, but the festivities were somewhat marred by a rain 
storm, the most severe that had occurred in two months. Lansing Wetmore, 
esq., the president of the society, delivered the address. The receipts at the 
gate were not stated, though a considerable number of exhibitors were awarded 
premiums. Their names were as follows : John Russell, Mark C. Dalrymple, 
Ransom Gardner, A.J. Irvine, Melancthon Miles, George Brown, Vestus Pond, 
Ira Baker, Joseph M. Gardner, G. H. Lott, Friend Curtis, Patrick Falconer, Na- 
thaniel Kidder, Clark Dalrymple, Hosea Harmon, Joseph Jenkins, John Ma- 
han, N. B. Langdon, John Abbott, W. S. Roney, R. E. Cook, Dexter Hodges, 
Charles Lott, George Abbott, W. P. Falconer, James Patterson, Robert Allen, 
James Woodside, William Morgan, John Gregg, William A. Gates, Ezekiel 
Comstock, F. R. Miller, John B. Hamilton, Lyman Trantum, Nathan Cooper, 
Emily H. Cook, Quartus Wright, Mrs. Cobham, Miss E. Cobham, Lester 
Wright, F. A. Hull, R. J. Cowles, Miss Sally Parmlee, Miss E. K. Falconer, 
J. J. Broughton, E. P. Richardson, and L. E. Guignan. 

"Thirty-six years ago last January," said Lansing Wetmore, esq., in his 
address above alluded to, " I immigrated from my native place in New York, 
and came to this county. With all the efforts we could make, with four teams, 
it took over a month to get from Whitestown, in Oneida county, to Sugar Grove. 
I assisted to open the first path from this village to what was known through 
•eastern New York as Sackettsburg, now Lottsville. It was a beautiful village, 
^u paper, with its corner lots, school and meeting-house lots, academy reserve, 
all free gratis to actual settlers, while the lands all around were only three dol- 

Agricultural Societies. 271 

lars per acre, a dollar more than they were worth twenty years afterwards. 
There were some humbugs in those days as well as since. Sugar Grove then 
contained three log cabins, and Johnny Hood's grist-mill, built of poles, where 
the people far and near used to take their corn to grind — for he could grind 
nothing else. They took their grist home minus the toll and the cliit ; a mis- 
chievous squirrel would set and take them as fast as the corn dropped from the 

" There was then but one habitation between this and the western line of 
the county, a distance of fifteen miles. The site of Columbus was a dense for- 
est. Now behold the change. A wilderness has disappeared. Four pleasant 
and thriving villages have sprung up, the whole distance dotted with well- 
improved farms, neat and tasty dwellings, and fruit-growing orchards. The 
county has increased in population from a few hundred to fifteen thousand." 
His address throughout was very interesting. 

The second annual fair was held in the town of Warren in September, 1852, 
the grounds occupied being vacant lots located a square or two above the 
German Lutheran church and on the same side of the street. Domestic and 
other small articles of value were protected from the weather by a tent. Judge 
Lansing Wetmore, also, served as president during the second year. Other 
transactions of the society, as far as we have been able to ascertain the facts, 
will be mentioned by years as follows: 

1853. The third annual fair was held at Pittsfield. Stephen Littlefield 
serving as president. 

1854. The fair for this year was held in September at Columbus. Daniel 
Lett officiating as president. At about this time December fairs were insti- 
tuted for the purpose of exhibiting vegetables, field crops, winter fruits, etc., 
in a more perfect condition than could be done earlier in the season ; but after 
a year or two these fairs or meetings were abandoned. 

1855. The fifth annual fair was held at Lottsville Wednesday, Septem- 
ber 12, on the farm of Daniel Lott, and proved to be the most successful of 
any to that date. John Mahan served as president. 

1856. John Younie, president. Fair held at Sugar Grove September 17. 
It was a grand success, it being estimated that six thousand people were 

1857. The fair during this year was held at Youngsville September 16. 
Henry P. Kinnear, president. One of the noted features of this exhibition was 
a load of Quaker Hill coal, which David Dinsmoor had hauled twenty-five 
miles for such a purpose. 

1858. Fair held in the town of Warren in October. Patrick Falconer 
officiating as president. 

1859. Fair held at Marsh's Corners in Farmington township September 
21. Name of president not known. 

272 History of Warren County. 

i860. In June, i860, fair grounds were leased at Youngsville for a term 
of three years. Hence, the tenth annual fair was held at that place Septem - 
ber 25. Friend Curtis served as president. Recently acquired railroad facil- 
ities assisted largely in making this exhibition a success. Several of the old 
militia companies of antc-belluvi days — viz.: The Warren Rifles, Youngsville 
Artillery, Deerfield Cavalry, Deerfield Rifles, and Eldred Rifles — were also 
present to add, as far as they were capable of doing, pomp and splendor to the 

1 86 1. The eleventh annual meeting was held at Youngsville, Henry P- 
Kinnear serving as president, on the 25th day of September; but war was now 
raging and not much interest was manifested in the exhibition of fancy live 
stock and farm products. 

1862-63—64. During the remainder of the war no fairs were held. 

1 865. On the 27th and 28th days of September what was termed the thir- 
teenth annual fair was held at Youngsville, Henry P. Kinnear ofliciating as 

1866. Fair held at Youngsville September 26 and 27. George J. Whit- 
ney, president. 

1867. The fifteenth annual fair of the society was held at Youngsville Sep- 
tember 18, 19, and 20, George J. Whitney still officiating as president. 

1868. Fair held at Youngsville September 23, 24, and 25, George J. Whit- 
ney, president. 

1869. The seventeenth annual fair was held at Youngsville September 15 
and 16, W. G. Garcelon, president; G. W. Kinnear, secretary. 

1870. The eighteenth annual exhibition of the society was also held at 
Youngsville September 15 and 16. W. G. Garcelon, president; G. W. Kin- 
near, secretary. 

1871. The nineteenth annual fair of the "Warren County Agricultural 
Society" was held at Youngsville on the 14th, 15th, and i6thdays of Septem- 
ber. W. G. Garcelon, president ; G. W. Kinnear, secretary, and Darius Mead, 
treasurer. This seems to have been the last expiring effort of the old society. 
It died of location, lack of interest, and consequently of support. 

In the summer of 1874 was organized at Sugar (irove what has since been 
known as the Union Agricultural Society of Warren county. The first annual 
fair was held in that village October 7 and 8, of the year mentioned, and all 
subsequent exhibitions have been held in the same place. The thirteenth and 
last annual fair occurred during the 14th, 15th, and i6th days of September, 
1886. While no great financial success has been attained by the management 
of this society, its affairs have been conducted generally in a very satisfactory 
manner, and as yet there seems to be no lack of interest manifested among 
those who have ever been its steadfast friends and supporters. However, the 
county is too sparsely populated to successfully maintain two agricultural so- 

Agricultural Societies. 273 

cieties, each claiming to be county associations, and, judging from the past — 
the experience of other counties — one or the other will eventually go down. 

The Warren County Agricultural Fair Association was organized at a 
meeting held in the court-house in the town of Warren on Saturday P. M., June 
14, 1884, by a combination of members of the Warren Board of Trade and the 
Warren Farmers' Club. This meeting was organized by the selection of 
George P. Orr as chairman, and A. S. Dalrymple as secretary. A permanent 
organization was then effected by the election of George P. Orr, president ; 
A. S. Dalrymple, secretary ; George Ensworth, treasurer, and Messrs. Orr, 
Dalrymple, Ensworth, F. A. Cogswell, Charles Lott, W. B. Acocks, and C. 
H. Wiltsie, executive committee. 

On a motion made and carried Messrs. Acocks, Lott, and Wiltsie were 
instructed to select a vice-president from each township and borough in the 
county, to act with the officers already mentioned. The members of the 
executive committee were also authorized to make all arrangements for the 
fair, etc., in the name of the association. 

The original or charter members were Charles Lott, W. B. Acocks, George 
P. Orr, C. H. Wiltsie, F. A. Cogswell, B. F. Mead, S. A. Samuelson, M. Schu- 
ler, D. Ruhlman, Peter Smith, D. M. Davis, A. S. Dalrymple, A. E. Myers, and 
George Ensworth. 

Over fifteen hundred dollars had already been subscribed in aid of the 
enterprise by the business men of Warren, and thereafter, led and spurred on 
by the tireless activity of President Orr, the affairs of the association were 
pushed forward with unflagging zeal. Upon application the association was 
incorporated by order of court. Beautiful and spacious grounds located on the 
Irvine bottoms opposite the town were leased for a term of five years, with the 
privilege of five years more, at a rental of two hundred dollars per year, and 
the bridge made free for all, during the first annual fair, by the payment to 
its owners of one hundred and fifty dollars 

The work of fitting up the grounds, grading the race course, fencing, and 
erecting sheds and commodious buildings was hurried forward with all possible 
dispatch, and on the 9th, loth, i ith, and I2th days of September, 1884, was 
held the first annual fair of the association. It was pronounced a grand suc- 
cess, the display of stock, farm products, goods, etc., on exhibition being 
exceedingly creditable, and over three thousand dollars were received at the 

The next fair was held September 8, 9, 10, and 11, 1885. An immense 
crowd was present during the last two days, estimated at from eight to ten 
thousand on the third day. In competing for premiums there were more 
than two thousand entries, whereas during the first year less than one thou- 
sand were numbered. The officers during 1885 were mainly those who had 
served in 1884. 

274 History of Warren County. 

Early in 1886 the following officers were elected: George P. Orr, presi- 
dent; A. S. Dalrymple, secretary; George Ensworth, treasurer; Charles Lott, 
L. M. Rowland, C. H. Wiltsie, Philip Sechrist, and Willis Cowan, directors. 
The third annual fair was held September 7, 8, 9, and 10, 1886. It was 
another very successful effort, if the gathering of eight or ten thousand 
strangers each day, in a little town of five thousand inhabitants, is the object 
chiefly sought. The rustics were out in full force. The weather was hot, dry, 
and sultry. The street-sprinkler could not pursue his every-day avocation, 
and as a result clouds of dust overhung both town and fair-ground day and 
night. Sweltering, weary-looking country mothers, leading children of tender 
years (who doubtless had capered bare-footed, free and joyous through the 
long summer days till now), were seen running and dodging here and there in 
their sometimes frantic endeavors to avoid being run down by fast-driving, 
bawling hackmen, the poor children meanwhile toeing in and toeing out, now 
stepping on their heels and again on their toes, in the apparent effort to gain 
temporary relief from the pain and misery inflicted by tightly-fitting, coarsely 
made, and stiff nezv shoes. It was a great and varied display of humanity, 
truly. Happy Warrenites, those who had wares to dispose of, of whatever 
nature, smiled and rubbed their palms in glee. There were balloon ascensions, 
Indians in their aboriginal dress, horse races, etc., etc., and some as creditable 
displays of live stock and manufactured articles as can be found anywhere. But 
to the writer, who was present, it seemed to be a series of days set apart for 
the especial benefit of bridge owners, howling hack-drivers, thieving fakirs, 
hotel bars, and horse jockeys. Perhaps these are necessary and unavoidable 
concomitants of such gatherings with one exception, and that cries aloud for 
abatement. Warren is noted the traveling world over as a hack-infested town. 
Its jehus are too numerous and noisy every day in the year. But on circus 
and fair days they are an intolerable nuisance. They take possession of the 
streets ; pedestrians must invariably give right of way or be run over ; none 
are permitted to make as much noise as they, and from dawn of day till mid- 
night their noisy, ill-mannered solicitations for custom, can be heard above all 
else. It may be considered by some' pecuniarily interested that this is not an 
appropriate corner to speak of such practices ; but we are presumed to 
chronicle remarkable events. The fair of 1886 is a thing of the past, a matter 
of history. Then, too, it may prove interesting to future generations and deni- 
zens of Warren (when the hackman's voice has been abated here, as it already 
has been subdued in most other populous, well-regulated towns) to read how 
affairs generally were conducted in what will be to them the long ago. 

Without a doubt, however, these agricultural associations and annual exhi- 
bitions have been of vast benefit to the farmers and manufacturers of agricult- 
ural implements. They here meet together and can easily compare their 
own efforts with those of their neighbors.. The interchange of thought and 

Agricultural Societies. 275 

rehearsals of experiences are of mutual advantage, and many new things are 
seen and learned each year. For these simple reasons alone the annual agri- 
cultural fairs should be perpetuated. 

The agricultural implements used by the early settlers were very simple 
and rude. The plow was made entirely of wood except the share, clevis and 
draft-rods, which were of iron, and had to be for many years transported from 
Pittsburgh. The wooden plow was a very cumbrous, awkward implement, 
very laborious to the plowman, and hard for the team to draw. It was, how- 
ever, very generally used until about the year 1825, when the cast-iron plow 
patented by Jethro Wood was first brought into the county, though it gained 
popularity but slowly. The farmer looked at it and was sure it would break 
the first time it struck a stone or a root, and then how should he replace it ? The 
wooden mold-board would not break, and when it wore out he could take his 
axe and hew out another from a piece of tree. Since that time no agricultural 
implement has been more improved upon than the plow. It is now made of 
beautifully polished cast steel, except the beam and handles, while in Canada 
and in some parts of the United States these, too, are made of iron. The cast 
steel plow of the present manufacture, in its several styles, sizes, and adapta- 
tions to the various soils and forms of land, including the sulky, or riding plow 
of the western prairies, is, among agricultural implements, the most perfect in 

The pioneer harrow was simply the fork of a tree, with the branches on 
one side cut close, and on the other left about a foot long to serve the purpose 
of teeth. In some instances a number of holes were bored through the beams 
and wooden pins driven into them. It was not until about 1825-30 that iron 
or steel harrow teeth were introduced into Warren county. 

The axes, hoes, shovels, and picks were rude, heavy, and clumsy. The 
sickle and scythe were at first used to harvest the grain and hay, but the 
former gave way easily to the cradle, with which better results could be at- 
tained with less labor. The scythe and cradle have been replaced by the 
mower and reaper to a great extent, though both are still used considerably 
in this county because of the hilly and rolling surface of the country, as well as 
the great number of stumps and rocks yet remaining in the districts recently 

The ordinary wooden flail was used to thresh grain for many years, when 
the horse-power thresher was largely substituted. The method of cleaning 
the chaff" from the grain by the early settlers was by a strong sheet or blanket 
handled by two persons. The grain and the chaff" were placed on the blanket, 
which was then tossed up and down where a brisk breeze was blowing, the 
wind separating and blowing away the chaff" during the operation. Fanning- 
mills were introduced as early as 1825, but the first of these were very rude 
and little better than the primitive blanket. Since, improvements have been 

276 History of Warren County. 

made from time to time until an almost perfect separator is now connected 
with every threshing-machine, and the work of ten men for a whole season is 
done more completely by two or three men, as many horses, and a patent sep- 
arator, in one day. In fact, it is difficult to fix limitations upon improvements 
in agricultural machinery within the last fifty years. 

In the employment of improved methods in the use of the best implements 
and machinery, the farmers of Warren county are not behind their neighbors. 
True it is that in many cases they were slow to change, but much allowance 
should be made for surrounding circumstances. Theirs, for the first fifty years 
of the century, was a noted lumbering region, and by engaging in lumbering 
operations was the readiest means of obtaining the necessaries of life. The 
general surface was looked upon as cold and unproductive. Then, again, the 
immense growth of timber to be cleared away, the depredations of wild beasts, 
and the annoyance of the swarming insect life, as well as the great difficulty 
and expense of procuring seeds and farming implements, were discouraging. 
These various difficulties were quite sufficient to explain the slow progress 
made in farming in the first years of settlement. Improvements were not en- 
couraged, while much of the topography of the county renders the use of cer- 
tain kinds of improved machinery impossible. The people generally rejected 
book-farming as unimportant and useless, and knew nothing of the chemistry 
of agriculture. The farmer who ventured to make experiments, to stake out 
new paths of practice, or to adopt new modes of culture, subjected himself to 
the ridicule of the whole neighborhood. For many years the same methods 
of farming were observed ; the son planted just as many acres of corn and po- 
tatoes as his father did, and in the same old phases of the moon. All their 
practices were merely traditional ; but within the last thirty years most re- 
markable changes have occurred in all the conditions of agriculture in this 
county, and there are still ample opportunities for many more. 


rwK i'KKkSs. 

A Description of Wairen's First Printer ami Publisher— Tlie Conowango Eniigrant^Its 
First Editor — Interesting; Details — The Warren Gazette — Its Editors, Publishers, etc. — Voice 
of the People — The Union — Warren Bulletin — Democratic Advocate — Warren Standard — 
Warren Ledfrer — People's Monitor — Warren Mail — Youngsville Express — Tidioute Puhhcations 
— Warren Mirror — Clarendon Record— Evening Paragraph — Sugar Grove News — Bear Lake 

EARLY in the summer of 1824 a stranger, unheralded and alone, made his 
advent into the sparsely built up, yet ambitious little town of Warren 
(composed as it then was only of log cabins and low frame buildings scattered 

The Press. 277 

here and there), and announced to the somewhat astonished inhabitants that 
he was a printer by occupation, and that it was his purpose to establish a news- 
paper in their midst. His appearance was exceptional, to say the least, and, 
since he attained fame, but not riches, as the first printer and publisher to lo- 
cate in the county, deserves a brief description. A native of the North of 
Ireland, or in other words a Scotch-Irishman, and apparently about thirty 
years of age, his erect, well-proportioned figure of more than medium size was 
clad in a threadbare suit, of which a long swallow-tailed coat and home-made 
pants (cut with an eye to keeping the bottoms out of the mud, unless the mud 
were six inches in depth), were the most conspicuous garments. A heavy 
growth of red, or carroty-colored, hair curled outward beneath the narrow 
brim of a hat long worn, while upon his face deep, thickly-pitted marks of the 
ravages of small-pox, and a profusion of freckles disputed for possession. Of 
his eyes, so changable were their hue, none could determine their color, but all 
were unanimous in the opinion that they ever had an appealing look, as if con- 
tinually asking for help. Need we add, his name was Richard Hill, a former 
resident of Mercer county. Pa. 

The nearest printing establishments were then at F"ranklin and Meadville, 
and about the only newspapers in circulation here were the Venango Demo- 
crat, issued at Franklin, and the Herald and Crawford Messenger, printed at 
Meadville. Therefore, although to this time no one in Warren had hardly 
thought of starting a newspaper, Hill's proposition was well received, and, after 
a brief discussion of the project, his forbidding appearance was overlooked by 
the desire of having a home printing-oflice put in operation as soon as possible. 
The few business men of the place enlisted themselves in the enterprise and 
succeeded in procuring some two hundred subscribers. Soon after. Hill 
brought on his family, and a press ^ which bore marks of antiquity, and moved 
into the house built by Robert Arthur, then in an unfinished state. There he 
went to work. His rickety press was made to keep its place so that he could 
use it by spiking one end of a plank on each corner, and the other end to the 
joist above. 

The first number of Hill's paper, the Conczuango Emigrant, was dated July 
24, 1824. In form and size it was a folio of twelve by eighteen inches. It was 
Jacksonian in its political tendencies, but treated John Quincy Adams with 
fairness. Among other things, the initial number contained an account of the 
trial of Jacob Hook at the previous June term of the Warren County Court, 
taken from the New York Censor. The paper on which it was printed was 

1 It is stated in a volume published many years ago, entitled the " History of Pennsylvania," that 
the press used by Parker C. Purviance, who published the Warren GazetU in 1830, was the same 
which was used by Dr. Ben. Franklin, and on which the Continental money was struck. This is a 
mistake. The Purviance press was purchased by .-Vrchibald Tanner and Lansing Wetmore when near- 
ly new. If the old Franklin press was ever brought into use within the limits of Warren county it was 
the one utilized by Hill. 

278 History of Warren County. 

made before the art of taking the color from blue rags was brought into use, 
and consequently partook deeply of that color. Andrew W. Morrison was 
announced as the editor, and the prospectus shown in soliciting subscriptions, 
as well as the first address to the Emigrant's patrons, were from his pen. 

As he (Morrison) was the one who advised Hill to locate in Warren, he 
also deserves a passing notice. Morrison had been a sojourner in this country 
of pine woods and buckwheat cakes some years previously, and taught a dis- 
trict school at the " Dam," now Russellburg, as early as the winter of 1816— 
17. He was a fellow countryman of Hill's, though in no other way at all sim- 
ilar. He was then a young man of genteel appearance, pleasing in his man- 
ners, and of winning address. At the close of his school he had an exhibi- 
tion — the first school exhibition in fact to take place in the county. There 
being no large room at the " Dam," except Captain Slone's bar-room, this 
then grand affair came off" in an upper room of Daniel Jackson's tavern in the 
town of Warren. Morrison taught a good school and conducted himself with 
the strictest propriety while teaching. But after he had received pay for his 
services as a teacher, he proceeded to Warren and indulged heavily in what 
he probably had not been unused to before, strong drink. During this ca- 
rousal he was seen one day mounted on an Indian pony behind a young squaw 
of the Seneca tribe, bare headed and in his shirt sleeves, riding back and forth 
from Dunn's and Jackson's taverns, ordering whiskey to be brought out to 
treat himself and the squaw each time that he stopped. After spending a 
week or more in debauchery, his money became exhausted and he started 
down the river. From that time no more was heard of Morrison at Warren 
until his name appeared upon Hill's prospectus as the proposed editor of the 
Conewango Emigrant. 

It seems that during the years intervening from 1 8 1 7, he had read law in 
Mercer county, been admitted to the bar, and married a wife. It was now his 
purpose to come here with Hill, edit the Emigrant and practice law. He was 
admitted to practice in the courts of Warren county September 2, 1824, which 
indicates about the time of his arrival, for it is remembered that he did not 
come until after Hill had been here for several weeks. Prudently, as it would 
seem, he left his wife in Mercer county. As a law practitioner, however, he 
met with but little success. Thereupon, for old acquaintance sake, Lansing 
Wetmore, esq., the prothonotary, who had met him years before while he was 
teaching at the " Dam," gave him employment in his office. But it was all to 
no purpose, for though Morrison wrote fluently a beautiful hand, the fell de- 
stroyer — intemperance — had done its work; he could not resist the tempta- 
tion of drinking. Hence, after a stay of only a few months he again disap- 
peared, and was never more seen in Warren. 

After Morrison's departure Hill applied to A, B, and C, for assistance in 
the editorial department. Although a pretty good type-setter, and showing. 

The Press. 279 

some taste in his selections from books and exchanges, he could scarcely write 
a sentence grammatically, or one that would convey a distinct idea of what he 
wished to explain or illustrate. He worked on in dirt and poverty nearly two 
years, finally changing the name of his paper to that of the Warren Courier. 
It was of no use, however, for matters were drawing to a crisis. Of a jealous 
disposition, he would without any just cause turn against and abuse his best 
friends. He would publish any thing for money, and for a very small sum too. 
No matter how scurrillous, if a communication was accompanied with a dollar, 
or the promise of it, it would appear in his columns. Among other articles of 
this character was one in the form of an advertisement, signed by " Naper 
Tandy." Naper said that he had commenced the business of tanning in Sugar 
Grove township, about two miles north of John I. Willson's tavern (which would 
be about a mile north of the State line), where he was ready to tan all kinds of 
hides on the shortest notice — especially carroty-colortA hides from Hibernia's 
Isle. He directed Hill to insert three times and send his bill. This, with like 
abusive notices, together with his own editorial work, when he could get no 
one else to write, brought his paper into contempt and ridicule. As a result 
it ceased to exist; died of starvation in fact in less than two years from the 
date of its establishment. Hill then returned to Mercer county, taking his 
venerable press (which maj' have been historic, the veritable Franklin instru- 
ment of torture) and other material along. 

Foreseeing the inevitable fate of the Etnigrant, and deeming it important 
for the character and welfare of the county that a reputable newspaper should 
be published in it, Archibald Tanner and Lansing Wetmore purchased a new 
press and other requisite material, engaged Morgan Bates to attend to the me- 
chanical part of the work, and about the time Hill's paper ceased to exist, the 
Warren Gazette made its appearance. The first number of the Gazette pub- 
lished by Morgan Bates, for Tanner & Wetmore, proprietors, was dated Febru- 
ary 18, 1826. It continued under their control about three years — the last 
number being issued March 4, 1829 — the day that Andrew Jackson took his 
seat as president of the United States. Thomas demons, who was the pub- 
lisher at this time, thus quaintly announced the event : " This day John O. 
Adams and I are both tipped overboard — ' How we apples swim.' " 

Bates had removed to Jamestown, N. Y., in the spring of 1828, where he 
published the Chautauqua Republican, which was established to promote the 
election of Jackson, and had a large circulation in Warren county. The Ga- 
zette supported Adams, and Mr. Clemons, who had been an assistant in the 
ofiice under Bates, continued its publication after the departure of the latter, 
until it passed out of the hands of Tanner & Wetmore. We will here explain, 
also, that the junior member of the firm (Wetmore) officiated as editor-in-chief 
during the three years of their proprietorship. 

Bates was a genial, good-hearted fellow, always ready for a frolic, generous 

28o History of Warren County. 

to a fault, and impulsive. Money never burdened his pockets a great while at 
a time. Lacking discretion, however, he would say and do things which fre- 
quently brought him into trouble. As the editor, and ostensible proprietor of 
a then large newspaper (the Chautauqua Rcpublicaii), he seemed to feel the 
importance of his new position, and to look back on his situation in the Gazette 
office with disdain. In a political way he commenced upon the Gazette peo- 
ple, through his paper, in manner and language which was considered indeco- 
rous, and was told so. This brought forth from him a prompt and rather inso- 
lent reply. Thus began a war of words (common among editors during those 
days, however,) which was continued for many weeks, when such epithets as 
scoundrel, liar, knave, etc., were pretty freely indulged in. The last article in 
the Gazette was answered by the service of a writ for slander. The suit was 
continued from term to term until after the election, when it was withdrawn 
by Bates at his own costs. He also embraced the opportunity at that time, or 
soon afterward, of resuming friendly relations with his old friends of the Ga- 
zette. After leaving Jamestown he experienced a variety of fortunes, some 
prosperous and some adverse. In 1835 he was foreman in the office of the 
New Yorker, the first paper published by Horace Greeley. He afterwards pub- 
lished the Detroit Advertiser, in company with that prince of early editors, 
Dawson, of the Rochester Democrat. They published the Advertiser during 
the time the Whigs were in power, and did the printing for the State. He vis- 
ited Warren at about that time and displayed a large amount of Michigan 
State scrip, which he had received in pay for State printing. He was after- 
wards a commission merchant in Detroit. The last heard of him he was on 
his way to California by way of Cape Horn. 

In March, 1829, the Gazette establishment was transferred to the proprie- 
torship of Parker C. and Samuel A. Purviance. The former was a printer, the 
latter a lawyer. They published it about a year together, when Samuel A. 
withdrew. It was continued by Parker C. for some months after, when, like 
its predecessor, it suspended for want of support. Both Parker C. and Samuel 
A. Purviance were men of talent, particularly the latter, and the paper while 
under their management was conducted with signal ability. Both returned to 
Butler county, where Samuel attained a high standing at the bar. The course 
they pursued in politics, for they were zealous, untiring Whig partisans, caused 
the Democratic party to start a paper of their own. 

Accordingly, in November, 1829, the first number of the Voice of the Peo- 
ple was issued by Thomas demons and William A. Olney. It continued un- 
der their control about two years, when demons withdrew. Thereafter Olney 
kept up its publication until his death, which occurred in October, 1835. After 
Olney's demise Charles B. Cotter assumed control, but he proved to be 
rather a weak brother of the " art preservative," and after a few more weeks 
or months of tribulation its voice was hushed forever. 

The Press. 281 

About 1830 J. B. Hyde, jr., began the publication of a paper termed The 
Union. It advocated the cause of anti- Masonry. Mr. Hyde was a young man 
of fair talents, quiet and retiring in his manners, and honorable in his dealings. 
He published the paper about two years, when he died, a victim to close con- 
finement and intense application to business. 

The first number of the Warren Bulletin, the successor of the Voice of the 
People as a Democratic organ, was issued May 1 1, 1836, by Norris W. Goodrich. 
It was moderately Democratic — usually candid and respectful in its treat- 
ment of political opponents. It was continued about three years, when Good- 
rich, having concluded to apply himself to the practice of law, ceased his labors 
as a newspaper man and retired. He was admitted to the bar in 1840, and 
subsequently became a well-known attorney in McKean county. Goodrich's 
paper was immediately succeeded, from the same office, by the Democratic 
Advocate, edited by a certain Quincy Adams Johnson, a pretentious fellow 
who brought good certificates but poor qualifications. He continued the pa- 
per about eight months, grossly imposed on his party friends, got badly in 
debt, and finally left both paper and debts to take care of themselves. The 
Advocate WAS continued during the exciting campaign of 1840 by Mr. J. B. 
Wilson, of Cincinnati, procured for that purpose, who left soon after the pres- 
idential election. Thomas Clemons, who always stood in readiness to lend a 
helping hand in case of a Democratic emergency, then took charge of it as 
editor, and continued its publication until some time in 1842, when he trans- 
ferred his interests to S. J. Goodrich and T. T. Wilson. In the spring of 1843 
Wilson withdrew and left Goodrich sole proprietor. He continued its publi- 
cation about a year and then sold half his interest to J. Y. James, and the Ad- 
vocate was continued in charge of James & Goodrich a few months, when the 
latter transferred the balance of his interest to J. D. James. Under the pilot- 
age of J. Y. and J. D. James, the Democratic Advocate was continued during 
the years 1845-46 and until March of 1847, when it ran aground, and the of- 
fice and material passed again into the hands of S. J. Goodrich. He changed 
its name to the Warren Standard, which commenced in May, 1847, and was 
continued until March 6, 1849, when the office and all materials were burned 
in the conflagration which destroyed the old "Exchange Row." Books and 
everything were lost, and no insurance. 

Goodrich, however, immediately rallied, purchased new material, took into 
partnership again T. T. Wilson, and on the first day of May, 1849, was issued 
the first number of the IVarren Ledger. They conducted it together about 
two years, when Goodrich withdrew (he having received an appointment 
as collector of tolls on the Pennsylvania Canal, at Harrisburg), and it fell into 
the hands of Wilson alone. At the close of the fifth volume Wilson com- 
mended his two or three hundred pa\ing subscribers, but complained bitterly 
of the four hundred who had failed to pay, many of them for the whole five 

282 History of Warren County. 

years, during which the paper had never missed a week nor published a half 
sheet. On the 14th of March, 1854, S. J. Goodrich announced his return here; 
and from April i to August 8, of that year, the Ledger was carried on by 
Goodrich & Wilson, when the latter sold his interest to A. W. Stevens. It 
was then published by Goodrich & Stevens until February 13, 1855, when 
Goodrich sold his interest to Thomas Clemons, from which time it was con- 
ducted by Clemons & Stevens until March 11, 1856, when Stevens sold out to 
John Daily. Clemons & Daily commenced April i, 1856, and continued to- 
gether one year, when they transferred their interests to, or for the use of, D. 
W. C. James. Mr. James officiated as its editor and publisher from the spring 
of 1857 to November 30, i860, when it passed into the hands of W. J. Clem- 
ons, who managed it alone until May 29, 1861, when Charles Dinsmoor be- 
came its associate editor. They carried it on until April 22, 1863, when Dins- 
moor retired, and W. J. Clemons again conducted it alone until November 23, 
1863, when he sold out to B. F. Morris, who, for more than twenty- two years, 
with the exception of a few months, was its sole responsible editor and publisher. 
On the 9th of November, 1871, J. Hamilton King, jr., purchased an interest in 
the paper and appeared as joint publisher until the time of his death, September 
20, 1875, when his interest fell back into the hands of Mr. Morris. On the 5th of 
February, 1886, the Ledger was purchased by D. D. and F. E. Reed, who, to 
the present writing, have retained Mr. Morris as editor. During all the changes 
here noted the paper never suspended and never missed but very few regular 

From 1 83 1, the year the Gazette ceased to exist, until 1838 no Whig paper 
was published in the county. In August of that year, however, a Whig organ, 
entitled the People's Monitor, made its appearance under the management of 
M. Millington. He remained about eight months, but the income of the paper 
not being sufficient to maintain his extravagant ideas of dress and habits, he 
returned to Ilarrisburg, the victim, it is to be presumed, of disappointed hopes. 
The office and material then passed into the hands of Peleg S. Cole, who soon 
after took into partnership a young man named Woodward. The firm of Cole 
& Woodward continued about three years, when the latter retired and J. W. 
Weaver took his place, holding it, however, but a short period of time, when 
he withdrew, leaving Mr. Cole to continue alone until the Monitor ceased to 
be a mentor for the people, for want of support. This event happened during 
the year 1845. 

There was then an interval during which no Whig paper was published 
until July 25, 1848, when the first number of the Alleglieiiy il/rt// appeared. 
This paper was established by the efforts of a few leading Whigs, and was 
continued under the management of J. Warren Fletcher, its first editor, pub- 
lisher, and proprietor, until March 7, 1849, when E. Cowan, a young man 
■who had been connected with the office from the beginning, became its owner 

The Press. 2S3 

by purchase. On the 20th of November of the same year the name was 
changed to the Wanrn Mail, a title it has ever since retained. About July 
21, 1852, Mr. Cowan took Lucius Rogers into partnership, and together they 
continued its publication until September 22, 1853, when Mr. Cowan dissolved 
his connection with the Mail, temporarily, as it will appear, and was super- 
seded by L. Rogers and O. C. Bates. Mr. Cowan sought a larger field for his 
abilities as a journalist at Buffalo and Erie, but, it seems, found the fields some- 
what barren. Meanwhile the Mail was managed by Rogers & Bates until 
June 29, 1854, when Mr. Cowan suddenly appeared again as co-editor with 
Rogers, and Mr. Bates as suddenly disappeared, without any explanation. 
The paper was then carried on by Cowan & Rogers until the 19th of August, 
1854, when Mr. Rogers retired. Thereafter Mr. Cowan paddled his own 
canoe alone until June i, 1874, when his son Willis became associated with 
him in the publication of the Mail, a. business as well as a family relationship 
which still continues unbroken. The War?r>i Mail now enjoys the distinction 
of being the senior newspaper of the county, and has been known as an 
unswerving exponent of Republican principles since the formation of that 

The Yoiingsvillc Express was established by John W. Mason June '^,0, 1849. 
Nuetral in politics, its publication was continued until November, 1853, when 
it retired from view. 

In Tidioute, after the oil developments had made it pretentious, a number 
of newspapers, both dailies and weeklies, sprang into existence. The Tidioute 
Journal, Commercial, and Chronicle all had their birth and demise, and have 
now been succeeded by the Weekly Neivs, published by Charles E. White, 
which seems to be established on a permanent basis. 

The Warren Mirror was established as a Sunday paper October i, 1882, 
by Walker Bros. It started as a folio, four colmns to a page, of 9 by 14 
inches in size; was enlarged to a quarto November 12, 1882. On the l6th 
of October, 1883, it passed into the hands of E. Walker, the present publisher 
and proprietor. May 1 1, 1884, it was enlarged to five columns to a page, size 
of page, i\\ by i/f inches. A Saturday edition was first issued July 12, 
1884, of the same size as the Sunday issue. Another enlargement to six col- 
umns to a page, and columns increased to igf inches in length, took place 
February 14, 1885. The Daily Mirror, a folio, with pages the same size as 
the Saturday and Sunday editions, was first issued March 24, 1886. 

The Clarendon Record was started in the spring of 1882, about the time 
the Cherry Grove oil field was opened. The first four numbers were pub- 
lished by Dr. D. P. Robbins, and printed at the Times office, Union City, Pa. 
Northrop & Thomas then purchased the business and moved their material to 
Clarendon from Bordell and Duke Centre. About three weeks afterward D. 
D. Reed purchased a half interest, and the paper was conducted by Northrop 

284 History of Warren County. 

& Reed about one year. Mr. Reed then became connected with the Warren 
S7inday Mirror, and C. G. Thomas assumed the proprietorship of the Record. 
In the fall of 1884 the office was purchased by B. F. Morris, of the Warren 
Ledger, and for a period of about one year it was leased to Sanborn & Knight, 
who changed the name to the Clarendon Herald. In the fall of 1885 the 
entire outfit was moved to Warren and combined with the Ledger office. The 
paper was then reduced in size, and was sold, with the Ledger, to the Reed 

The Evening Paragraph was founded at Warren, September 22, 1884, by 
E. L. Hempstead, F. W. Truesdell, and J. H. Kelly. On September 3, 1885, 
the Weekly Paragraph made its appearance. On the 28th of October follow- 
ing Messrs. Hempstead and Truesdell retired, when J. H. Kelley and T. F. 
Tuohy became the publishers and proprietors, and still continue as such. 

The Sugar Grove News was established at Sugar Grove in December, 
1884, by J. Warren Fletcher, a veteran journalist, the first editor and pub- 
lisher of the Allegheny Mail, and appears to have gained a good foothold. 

A copy of The Bear Lake Record, the latest Warren county claimant for 
journalistic favors, lies before us. It is No. 7 of vol. I, and dated December 16, 
1886, which indicates, barring mishaps, that the first number was issued No- 
vember 4, 1886, by J. H. and Frank Gardner, its publishers and proprietors. 

Of the early newspapers published in Warren nearly all were printed on 
what was known as the Ramage^ press. As a general thing, also, the early 
printing establishments, having originally been purchased by the leading men 
of either political party, and the use of them given to those who would publish 
a paper, but very little money, and few promises to pay, were passed from the 
ostensible buyer to the seller. Even then the publishers had a hard time of it 
until, say thirty years ago. Nevertheless, that the papers herein enumerated 
have been largely instrumental in promoting the growth, prosperit)', intelli- 
gence, and respectability of town and country, must be obvious to all; and, 
with one or two exceptions, their editors and publishers, those who have toiled 
and struggled and spent their time and substance in maintaining them, deserve 
to be held in grateful remembrance. 

' .\clam Ramage, the inventor of llie R.image press, was born in Edinburgli, Scotland. He came 
to .•Vmerica in 1794, and soon after located in riiil.adeljiliia. He died in 1850. 

Petroleum. 285 



The " Fontaine de Bitume " — The Earliest French Missionaries Aware of its Existence — 
Also the English — Early References to the Same — Washington and Jefferson Speak of "Bitu- 
minous Oil" in Virginia — Evidences that the French Gathered the Oil at Titusville — It is Known 
to Early Inhabitants as " Seneca Oil " — An Account of the First Producer and Refiner of 
Petroleum in Pennsylvania — He Terms it " Carbon Oil " — Colonel Drake's Discovery — Descrip- 
tions by Correspondents — Great Excitement at Titusville — Warren Men as Pioneer Operators — 
Subsequent Developments of Oil Producing Territory — Haudsonie Profits — Tidioute Field 
Opened — Squatters — Early Manner of Shipments — Annual Production of Penn.sylvania and 
New York Fields Since 18.59. 

BUT little more than a quarter of a century has passed since petroleum was 
first discovered in large quantities by boring deep into the earth, yet from 
the earliest occupation of this country by the French it was known to exist. 
As early as July i8, 1627, a French missionary, Joseph de la Roque Daillon, 
of the order of Recollets, described it in a letter published in 1632, in Segard's 
" L'Histoire du Canada," and this description is confirmed by the journal of 
Charlevoix, 1721. Fathers Dollier and Galinee, missionaries of the order of 
St. Sulpice, made an early map of this section of the country, which they sent 
to Jean Talon, intendent of Canada, November 10, 1670, on which was marked 
at about the point where is now the town of Cuba, New York, " Fontaine de 
Bitume." On the 3d of November, 1700, the Earl of Belmont, governor of 
New York, instructed his chief engineer and surveyor, Wolfgang W. Romer, 
during his visit to the country of the Six Nations, " to go and view a well, or 
spring, which is eight miles beyond the Seneks' farthest castle, which they have 
told me blazes up in a flame, when a lighted coale or firebrand is put into it ; 
you will do well to taste the said water, and give me your opinion thereof, and 
bring with you some of it." Thomas Chabert de Joncaire, who died in Sep- 
tember, 1740, is also mentioned in the journal of Charlevoix of 172 1 as author- 
ity for the existence of oil at the place mentioned above, and at points further 
south, probably on Oil Creek. 

The following account of an event occurring during the occupancy of this 
part of the State by the French is given as an example of the religious uses 
made of the oil by the Indians, as these fire dances are understood to have 
been annually celebrated : "While descending the Allegheny, fifteen leagues 
below the mouth of the Connewango, and three above Fort Venango, we were 
invited by the chief of the Senecas to attend a religious ceremony of his tribe. 
We landed and drew up our canoes on a point where a small stream entered 
the river. The tribe appeared unusually solemn. We marched up the stream 
about half a league, where the company, a large band it appeared, had arrived 

286 History of Warren County. 

some days before us. Gigantic hills begirt us on every side. The scene was 
really sublime. The great chief then recited the conquests and heroisms of 
their ancestors. The surface of the stream was covered with a thick scum, 
which burst into a complete conflagration. The oil had been gathered and 
lighted with a torch. At sight of the flames, the Indians gave forth a triumph- 
ant shout, and made the hills and valleys re-echo again." 

In nearly all geographies and notes of travel published during the early 
period of settlement, this oil is referred to, and on several old maps, French as 
well as English, the word " petroleum " appears opposite the mouth of Oil 
Creek. It was also known many years ago that a similar product existed in 
West Virginia, since General Washington, in his will, in speaking of his lands 
on the Great Kanawha, says: "The tract, of which the 125 acres is a moiety, 
was taken up by General Andrew Lewis and myself, for and on account of a 
bituminous spring which it contains, of so inflammable a nature as to burn as 
freely as spirits, and is nearly as difficult to extinguish." Thomas Jefferson, in 
his " Notes on Virginia," also describes a burning spring on the lower grounds of 
the Great Kanawha. Thus, this oil not only seems to have been known, but 
to have been systematically gathered in very early times. Upon the bottom 
lands a mile or so below Titusville were many acres of cradle-holes dug out and 
lined with split logs, evidently constructed for the purpose of gathering it. The 
fact that the earliest English-speaking inhabitants could never discover any 
stumps from which these logs were cut, and the further fact that trees of great 
size were found growing in the midst of these cradles, are evidences that they 
must have been operated long ago, but by whom, is a question as yet unsolved. 
Some have suggested that it was the work of the mound-builders ; but the 
writer indulges in no such belief It is more reasonable to suppose that the 
French, who knew of its location, utilized this greasy product to a considerable 
extent for medicinal and other purposes, and arranged these holes, or pits, as 
a means of gathering it. They were in possession of this region for more than a 
hundred years before it was personally known to the English-speaking whites, 
and during that great period there was ample time for the stumps of trees 
taken to line these pits to crumble to dust, as well as for small trees to attain 
great proportions. 

General Irvine, during his exploring expedition through this country in 
the summer of 1785, visited Oil Creek, and in his report says: "Oil Creek 
has taken its name from an oil, or bituminous matter, found floating on the 
surface. Many cures are attributed to this oil by the natives, and lately by 
some whites, particularly Rheumatic pains and old Ulcers." 

For many years the usual means of gathering this product of nature, which 
finally became known as " Seneca Oil," was by throwing a woolen cloth, or 
blanket, upon the water, collected in a trough, or pit, and upon which the oil 
floated, and then wringing the cloth over a tub. The clean wool absorbed the 

Petroleum. 287 

oil and rejected the water, and in this way a considerable quantity was ob- 
tained. The oil was then bottled in small vials and sold by tramping ped- 
dlers in many parts of the country, as a sure cure for rheumatism, sore throat, 
ulcers, and various aches and pains. 

Coming down to recent years, within the memory of men yet young and 
active, the name of Colonel E. L. Drake looms up prominently as the pioneer 
in the oil business in Western Pennsylvania ; yet there was another producer 
and operator in petroleum, who ante-dated Drake by nearly twenty years, and 
deserves mention. 

In 1840 Samuel M. Kier, and his father, Thomas Kier, of Pittsburgh, 
owned a salt well on the Allegheny River, about one mile above Tarrentum. 
The well had been worked some months, when oil made its appearance, and 
mixed in considerable quantities with the salt water. About the same time 
Lewis Peterson, jr., discovered oil in a well on his farm adjoining the Messrs. 
Kiers'. The accumulation on Mr. Peterson's premises was so considerable that 
it became troublesome, and had to be removed by means of surface drains. 
But Mr. S. M. Kier, with that practical sagacity with which he was distin- 
guished, could not believe that this (then mysterious) production of nature had 
been made in vain. He was convinced that there must be a want somewhere 
which it was intended to supply. As an experiment, the oil was bottled and 
introduced as a medicine. Chemistry has frequently shown that petroleum 
possesses several valuable medical properties, but in Mr. Kier's early essays 
the science of advertising was not understood, or at least but little resorted to, 
and his " patent medicine " speculation failed. 

Still, fully impressed with the conviction that the oil had its important 
uses, Mr. Kier submitted samples to Professor J. C. Booth, of Philadelphia, who, 
after a careful analysis of it, recommended him to offer it to a New York gutta- 
percha company, who were seeking a proper solvent for this gum. The 
gutta-percha company's experiments with it were not satisfactory. Mature 
reflection convinced Professor Booth that, by distillation, an excellent burning 
oil could be obtained from the crude. He furnished Mr. Kier with drawings 
for a suitable still. Mr. Kier returned to Pittsburgh, constructed a still, and 
put it in active operation. The product he named " Carbon Oil," by which 
designation it was for a a long time generally known. 

Mr. Kier soon had invented a suitable lamp for its use. He subsequently 
became largely interested in the manufacture and sale of these oil lamps, and, 
locally speaking the oil came into general use. The consumption, however, 
began to exceed the supply of crude, and the want of the raw material seriously 
interfered with the sales of carbon, or " refined," which had grown to be com- 
paratively a profitable and important business. Strenuous efforts were made 
to increase the supply of raw material with indifferent success. Agents were 
sent out exploring in various directions, and among the localities which con- 

288 History of Warren County. 

tributed an additional supply was tlie " Land Diggings," on Hughes's River, 
West Virginia. 

Five years had now elapsed since Mr. Kier started his sixty gallon still 
" refinery," when oil was discovered on the Allegheny near his premises. A 
well which had been dug for and pumped as a salt well for twenty years, had 
been placed under the severe drain of a new and more powerful pump. The 
head of salt water became exhausted, and lo ! petroleum appeared and pumped 
freely. Thus, in the year 1845, was established the first " pumping well " 
known to the oil world, but years were yet to elapse before human knowledge 
should attain to a full comprehension of this singular discovery, destined to 
effect the greatest trade revolution known to modern commerce. The fortun- 
ate owners of this well, while on their way to Pittsburgh with a stock of their 
crude oil, sold it to certain druggists, who established a small refinery. But 
now the stock of petroleum was in excess of the market. After considerable 
negotiation a Mr. Ferris of New York city contracted for the greater portion of 
the well's production. 

About this time the coal oil excitement commenced. Mineral oil as an 
illuminant came into general use. Cheapness, brilliancy, and safety combined 
to recommend it. Parties who had purchased a quantity of land just below 
Titusville, observed oil floating on the surface of its streams. A number of 
wells were dug in pursuit of oil in quantities, in vain. The owners learned 
through Mr. Ferris, above mentioned, that oil might probably be obtained by 
boring. A well was started, and at a moderate depth the drill struck oil. This 
was no other than the famous " Dr.\ke Well," the first one bored for oil ex- 

From the facts above given it is clear and indisputable that Mr. Kier was 
the pioneer and founder of the oil business in Pennsylvania, and that to his 
sagacity, ingenuity, perseverance, and skill, the whole world is largely in- 
debted for the knowledge and introduction of one of the most important dis- 
coveries, conveniences and social blessings of modern times.' 

In 1855 Prof B. Silliman, jr., tested the rock or petroleum oil obtained in 
Venango county and found it equal in illuminating power to most fluids and 
gases in use, and superior to many of them. 

Wc now turn to the doings of E. L. Drake, and note what the newspapers 
had to say in relation to the first developments, etc. Some years after Drake's 
discovery, at a time when he was sick and penniless, and a handsome purse 
had been raised for him in Titusville, a newspaper writer spoke of him as fol- 
lows : " Colonel E. L. Drake was the pioneer in the oil business in this region. 
At one time he had a considerable fortune, but during the latter years of his 
life he was poor and out of health. His derrick, the first one ever erected for 

' Wl1.1l is here said ofj Mr. Kier has been condensed from an article published in the Piltshiirgh 
Oil Novs, in March, 1865. 


oil, stood for many years about a mile below Titusville. He made his first 
appearance in Titusville in 1857. Prior to that time he had been a conductor 
on a railroad in Connecticut. He came to Oil Creek on business for another 
person. Calling casually at the office of Brewer & Watson, in Titusville, he 
there found a bottle of crude oil, and his curiosity being excited concerning it, 
he learned from Dr. Brewer all facts of interest connected with its production, 
viz., that it flowed from natural springs on the Watson flats ; and had been 
known to the Seneca Indians before the white settlements began, and had been 
sold by them as a liniment or medicine, to white persons, and also to the drug- 
gists ; and latterly had been gathered by Brewer & Watson and used for light- 
ing the saw-mills of the firm and for lubricating purposes. Drake visited the 
oil springs, and conceived the idea of boring to the sources of the oil. He 
returned east, obtained the co-operation of some moneyed friends, and the fol- 
lowing year came back as the agent of an oil firm located at New Haven, 

On the 8th of September, 1859, a newspaper correspondent, writing from 
Titusville, said: "Perhaps you will recollect that in 1854 there was organized 
in the city of New York a company, under the name of the Pennsylvania Rock 
Oil Company, which, for some good reasons, passed into the hands of New 
Haven capitalists, and the office and headquarters was by them removed to 
New Haven. In 1858 the directors leased the grounds and springs to Mr. E. 
L. Drake, well-known on the New Haven Railroad. He came out here, and 
in May last commenced to bore for salt, or to find the source of the oil, which 
is so common along Oil Creek. Last week, at the depth of seventy-one feet, he 
struck a fissure in the rock through which he was boring, when, to the surprise 
and joy of every one, he found he had tapped a vein of water and oil, yielding 
four hundred gallons of pure oil every twenty-four hours. 

"The pump now in use throws only five gallons per minute of water and 
oil into a large vat, where the oil rises to the top and the water runs out from 
the bottom. In a few days they will have a pump of three times the capacity 
of the one now in use and then from ten to twelve hundred gallons of oil will 
be the daily yield. 

"The springs along the stream, I understand, have been mostly taken up or 
secured by Brewer & Watson, the parties who formerly owned the one now 
in operation. The excitement attendant upon the discovery of this vast source 
of oil was fully equal to what I ever saw in California, when a large lump of 
gold was accidentally turned out." 

Another newspaper man. Editor Chase, of the Potter Journal, in October, 
1859, informed his readers of what he knew about petroleum and the excite- 
ment at Titusville, then a town of about three hundred inhabitants, in the fol- 
lowing lucid manner: " After a brief rest we visited the famous Seneca Oil 
Spring which has recently created so great an excitement and wonder in the 

290 History of Warren County. 

outside world. The sensation of seeing and smelling the oil was nothing new 
to us — we were born and bred there. The oil has been gathered from surface 
springs and used in that section of country ever since its settlement ; the In- 
dians and the French having opened and worked a large number of springs 
near the present site of Titusville, many years before any English settlers 
found their way there. The oil never had an outside market until now, though 
the ' Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company ' have, we believe, marketed a quantity 
of the surface spring product in New Haven, where the office of the company 
now is. In 1858, as stated in the Journal two weeks since, the company leased 
the spring (for which they paid Brewer, Williams & Co. $5,000) to E. L. Drake, 
who was to gather the oil at his own expense and pay them 1 2\ cents a gallon 
for it. His lease was for fifteen years, with full privilege of working at his 

" In May last Mr. Drake commenced boring for salt, and after sinking a 
shaft seventy-one feet, the first of last month struck a fissure in the rock through 
which he was boring, and the discovery of this subterranean spring of oil was 
the result. The yield of oil with the pump first used was 400 gallons per day, 
but when we were there a pump of three times the capacity of that was in 
operation, and a yield of 1,600 gallons per twenty-four hours, of pure oil, had 
been obtained. 

" Other parties along the stream have also bored for oil, and have found it 
at various depths ; the least of which was six feet, on the farm of Mr. John 
Watson, in Titusville Borough, three-fourths of a mile from the village. After 
one foot of soil had been removed, a stratum of three and one-half feet of Pot- 
ter's clay was bored through — that also being a new discovery. Another 
spring was tapped about twenty-eight feet from the surface, on the farm of J. 
Parker, about one-fourth of a mile from the village center, and opening through 
one of the old springs worked by the French and Indians, of which there are 
a large number at that particular point. 

" As a result consequent upon this discovery real estate and leases, with 
privilege of boring till oil was found, were each held at great prices. We heard 
of an instance in which $20,000 was offered and refused for a half interest in a 
lease of fifteen years on one hundred acres ! and we know of several fourth 
interests in leases at a distance of two or three miles from the working spring 
being sold for $2,500 and $3,000. The tract of land on which the large spring 
has been opened by Mr. Drake was once purchased by the father of the writer 
of this article for a cow, and previous to that had been sold at treasurer's sale 
for taxes. Now, we believe, $100,000 would not buy one acre of it. Men until 
now barely able to get a poor living off poor land are made rich beyond their 
wildest dreaming. 

" The properties of this oil (a bottle of which we brought with us and may 
be seen at this office) are medicinal, for internal as well as external applica- 

<i^^^^^^ u/y^ 

Petroleum. 291 

tion ; illuminant, giving a strong light, and is one of the best oils for lubricat- 
ing machinery ever used, as it never gums." 

On the 8th of October, 1859, Editor Cowan, of the Warren Mail, in 
speaking of the recent discovery of petroleum in larger quantities said : " Quite 
a little excitement exists in town in regard to the late discovery of consider- 
able quantities of Seneca Oil, on Oil Creek, near Titusville, near the southern 
boundary of our county. Two or three companies have been formed in which 
some of our citizens are interested, with a view of boring for the oil. Mr. 
Boon Mead, we hear, is one of a company who have made some progress in 
sinking a shaft. Messrs. A. Tanner, L. F. Watson and D. M. Williams, are 
also engaged in boring for a mine of oily wealth, Mr. Williams having left on 
Wednesday last with experienced workmen to prosecute the work. The cal- 
culation is that oil can be reached at about fifty feet below the surface." 

Thus began the excitement, and the prosecution of this then wonderful 
industry by Warren county men. Their field of operations gradually widened 
and extended, until, only a few years later, the greasy fluid was seen exuding 
from great depths at their very doors. Such names as Tidioute, Enterprise, 
Fagundus, Clarendon, Kinzua, Glade, Cherry Grove, Shefiield, Grand Valley, 
etc., etc., which, without the development of their oil products would scarcely 
have merited a scant notice in a local newspaper, sprang into prominence as oil 
producing centers, and have been repeated in thousands of households through- 
out the land. 

As will be noticed, the ideas and appliances of the early borers for oil were 
almost as crude as the product they so industriously sought. At first all 
expected to obtain oil by boring but a few feet, and, in consequence, looked 
closely for surface indications before beginning at all. Three hundred feet was 
looked upon as the extreme limit of depth. Several flowing wells were devel- 
oped on Oil Creek, and near Titusville early in the summer of i860, at com- 
paratively shallow depths, and among the lucky Warren men were L. F. 
Watson, D. M. Williams, Archibald Tanner, Boon Mead, H. R. Rouse & Co., 
and Dennis & Grandin. The well owned by Barnsdall, Mead, Rouse & Co., 
was then considered a wonderful afiair, and from a description of it as published 
in the Titusville Gazette in July, i860, we extract the following: 

" Depth of well 116 feet. Pipe driven to the rock, 47 feet. The whole 
cost of the well, pump, engine, vats, buildings, boarding-house, and other 
incidentals, $3,000. Five dollars will cover the daily expenses of keeping the 
works in operation. Average yield per day is six hundred gallons, worth 
thirty cents per gallon. Commenced pumping on the 1st of February, and 
has sold up to June ist, 56,000 gallons, which, if our arithmetic serves us right, 
figures up the small sum of $16,800; deducting therefrom all expenses and 
there remains the comfortable income of $13,200, in four months." 

The " Williams well," owned by Williams, Watson & Tanner, as before 

292 History of VVarrex County. 

mentioned, was also looked upon as a wonder in its day, yet its daily prod- 
uct, at a depth of one hundred and forty-three feet, was only twelve barrels. 
Subsequently it was drilled two feet deeper, when it flowed at the rate of four 
hundred and eighty barrels per day. 

Early in i860 the Tidioute field was opened, and in July of that year more 
than sixty wells were being bored at the same time. A majority of these wells 
when completed were shallow in depth, and small producers, their productive- 
ness being rated by gallons, but with oil worth thirty cents per gallon, their 
owners were eminently well pleased with results. Immediately this rugged, 
lonely spot was invaded by crowds from all sections of the country, and for a 
time it seemed to be the chief objective point of the multitude seeking wealth 
without work. On the river and adjoining hills hundreds of wells were sunk 
with more or less success, with fewer dry holes and better permanence in pro- 
duction than were incident to many other developed localities. But as is true 
of all other fields, the production gradually diminished, and the bright antici- 
pations of many were blasted. In the excitement Tidioute grew from a hamlet 
to a large and prosperous borough. Hotels, banks, newspaper offices, saloons, 
churches, and various mercantile houses appeared upon its streets with magical 
rapidity, money floated in every breeze like leaves in autumn. But with 
the diminished supply and low price of oil following the panic of 1873, came a 
terrible revulsion in its prosperity. The suddenly rich became as suddenly 
poor, and the inflated prices of property depreciated to the lowest standard of 

In describing scenes and doings at Tidioute in the fall of i860, a local cor- 
respondent said : " The latest excitement is that caused by the squatters. 
For a week or more we have had repeated rumors of a collision ; but so far the 
fights have ended in gas. Since Tidioute Island developed so richly numer- 
ous parties have tried to get claims on the bar, and in the bed of the river 
around it. Several weeks ago a company commenced on the bar directly 
above and near the Island. They were complained of and bound over to 
court, so the question as to whether they have a right there is to be legally 
decided soon. Meanwhile, from twenty to thirty have squatted where there is 
no bar. The water being shallow, they anchor a raft of logs or a float on a 
spot, put up their derricks and commence driving pipe. The islanders and 
shore lessees show fight, claiming that they have no right there. Now and 
then a raft is cut loose, and the ' claim ' floats oft", consequently most of them 
have to be watched night and day. The flood this week swept them nearly 
all away, so they are getting along swimmingly. How this kind of Squatter 
Sovereignty will end of course no one knows and but few care, except the 
parties interested." 

During the same year oil was found at Kinzua ; lands for oil purposes 
were leased all along the river from Tidioute to Warren, and two wells were 

Petroleum. 293 

projected at the last mentioned point — one upon the "Island," and the other on 
the bank of the Conewango just above the bridge. 

In 1 861 it cost $7.45 to ship a barrel of oil from the oil regions to New 
York city. In seeking ways of cheaper transit a company was incorporated 
the same year to pipe crude oil from Titusville, Oil City, etc., to some point on 
the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad. Of this company several prominent War- 
ren men were members. The usual mode of shipment at that time was by 
water to Pittsburgh, thence by rail to eastern points. Fifteen steamers and tow 
boats were employed in the oil trade on the Allegheny in 1 861. Water tight 
boxes were also utilized to a considerable extent. These were about sixteen 
feet square and twenty inches deep. When nearly filled with oil, five or six of 
them were fastened together and run down the creek to the river, where some 
twenty of them lashed together would compose a fleet ready to be towed or 
floated to Pittsburgh. Barrels were mainly relied upon, however, as receptacles 
for the shipment of oil, and a thriving industry sprang up in their manufacture 
at Warren and at other points along the river. These, too, were floated to the 
oil-producing centers as rafts. Subsequently teams were kept busy from the 
first dawn of day until far in the night hauling the crude oil in barrels to points 
on the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad. As soon as practicable, lines of rail- 
way were constructed from nearly all the trunk lines to the oil fields. Finally 
barrels gave place to immense iron tanks riveted upon cars, provided for the 
escape of the gases, and later^great pipe lines were extended from the wells to 
the seaboard and to the great lakes, through which the fluid is forced by steam 
power to its distant destinations. 

In 1866 Roberts's torpedoes first began to be used to increase the produc- 
tion of small or declining wells, and in most instances with gratifying results. 
In that year W. B. and E. A. L. Roberts commenced the manufacture of nitro- 
glycerine near Titusville, having secured patents in relation to its preparation 
for blasting purposes. To that time little was made in this country except 
samples prepared in drug stores. At present from five hundred to six hundred 
tons are annually consumed in oil wells alone, and though the patents of Messrs. 
Roberts have recently expired, the firm still manufacture a large proportion of 
this well-known and dangerous compound. 

Oil has been found in paying quantities in Warren, McKean, Forest, Ve- 
nango, Crawford, Clarion, Butler, Armstrong, and Washington counties, Penn- 
sylvania. In Cattaraugus and Allegheny counties. New York. Also in West 
Virginia, Ohio, California, Canada, South America, Russia, and Northern 
Africa. But that produced in Pennsylvania is vastly superior in quality to any 
yet discovered, and commands the highest price in market, whether in a re- 
fined or crude state. Its principal uses are for illumination and lubricating, 
though many of its products are employed in the mechanic arts, notably for 
dyeing, mixing of paints, and in the practice of medicine. Its production has 


History of Warren County. 

grown to enormous proportions, and as yet seems to show but little sign of 
diminution. The following table, compiled from the Derrick's Hand-book, 
exhibits the annual production of the Pennsylvania oil fields since the opening 
of Drake's well in 1859 : 

Year. Barrels. 

1859 82,000 

1 860 500,000 

1 861 2,113,000 

1 862 3,056,606 

1863 2,611,399 

1 864 2, 1 1 6, 1 82 

1865 3.497.712 

1866 3.597.512 

1867 3.347.306 

1868 3.715. 741 

1869 4,186,475 

1870 5,308,046 

1871 5,278,076 

1872 6,505,774 

Year. Barrels. 

1873 9.849-508 

1874 11,102,114 

1875 8,948.749 

1876 9,142,940 

1877 13.052,713 

1878 15,01 1,425 

1879 20,085,716 

1880 24,788,950 

1 88 1 29,674,458 

18821 31,789,190 

1883 24.385,966 

1884 . . 23,500,000 

1885 20,900,000 

1 886 Not reported 



Members of the United States House of Representatives — Judge United States Court of 
Claims — United States Consul — Lieutenant-Governor — Auditor-General — Member of State 
Constitutional Convention — State Senators— Members of Assembly — President Judges — 
Sheriffs — County Commissioners — Protlionotaries — County Treasurers — Registers and Re- 
corders — County Commissioners' (;ilcrks — Jury Commissioners — Coroners — Justices of the 

THE following list embraces the names of persons who have held prominent 
civil offices in the National, State, or County government, while residents 
of Warren county : 

National Government. 

Members of the House of Representatives. — Carlton B. Curtis, Thirty-sec- 
ond Congress, re-elected to the Thirty-third, holding from March 4, 1 851, to 
March 4, 1855. He was afterward elected to the Forty-third Congress while 
residing in Erie county. 

Chapin Hall, Thirty-sixth Congress, 1859, '61. 

1 These reports include the New York or Allegany district, which, in 1882, produced 6,450,000 



Civil List. 


Glenni W. Scofield, Thirty-eighth, Thirty-ninth, Fortieth, Forty-first, For- 
ty-second, and Forty-third Congress, holding from March 4, 1863, to March 
4, 1875. Represented the State at large during his last term. 

Lewis F. Watson, Forty-fifth and Forty-seventh Congress, or terms ex- 
tending from March 4, 1877, to March 4, 1879, and from March 4, 1881, to 
March 4. 1883. 

Judge United States Court of Claims, Washington, D. C, Glenni W. Sco- 
field, commissioned May 20, 1 881. 

United States Consjil, William H. Shortt, at Cardiff, Wales, during part of 
the second term of General Grant's administration. 

State Government. 

Lieutenant- Govei'nor. — Charles W. Stone, elected for four years in 1878. 

Auditor General. — Harrison Allen, who served from 1872 to 1875. 

Members State Constitutional Convention. — Thomas Struthers, and Ras- 
selas Brown, 1872-73. 

State Senators. — Glenni W. Scofield, 1857-59; Harrison Allen, 1870-72; 
Charles W. Stone, 1877-78; Orrin C. Allen, 1887-88. 

Members of Assembly}- 

David Brown 1822 

Josiah Hall 1836 

Carlton B. Curtis 1837-38 

Joseph Y. James 1843 

Obert Bdson 1844 

Rasselas Brown 1845 

Benjamin Bartholomew 1846 

Henry P. Kinnear 1847 

Glenni W. Scofield 1850-51 

Joseph Y. James 1852 

Carter V. Kinnear 1853 

Lothrop T. Parmelee 1854 

Daniel Lott 1855-56 

Thomas Struthers 1857-58 

Henry R.|Rouse 1859-60 

Bphraira Cowan 1861-62 

William D. Brown 1863-64-65 

Harrison Allen 1866-67 

Junius R. Clark 1868-69 

Charles W. Stone 1870-71 

William H. Shortt 1872-73 

George W. Allen 1874-75-76 

W. M. Lindsey 1877-78 

John B. White 1879-80 

Willis B. Benedict 1881-82 

Charles M. Shortt 1883-84 

Henry Brace 1885-86 

Henry Brace 1887-88 

County Officers. 
President Judges? 

Jesse Moore appointed 1819 

Henry Shippen. ...... 

Nathaniel B. Eldred.. . 
Alexander McCalmont. 
Nathaniel B. Eldred . . . 
Gaylord Church. 

John Galhraith elected 1851 

Rasselas Brown appointed 1860 

Samuel P. Johnson elected 1860 

Lansing D. Wetmore " 1870 

William D. Brown " 1880 

David Derrickson, assistant judge 1856 

John P. Vincent, assistant judge 1866 

James Thompson, district judge 1840 

Glenni W. Scofield appointed to fill vacancy in — district, 1861. See biographical sketch. 

1 Until the adoption of the new constitution in 1S73, the term of office was one year. Members were 
elected the year previous to date shown. 

2 Of the above mentioned president judges Nathaniel B. Eldred, Rasselas Brown, Samuel P. John- 
son, Glenni W. Scofield, Lansing D. Wetmore, and William D. Brown were the only ones who re- 
sided in Warren county, and all are yet living in the town of Warren, Pa., with the exception of the 
first named, vvlio died years ago. See biographical sketch. 


History of Warren County. 

Assocititc Jiidtrrs. 

Isaac Connelly appointed 1819 

Joseph Hackney " 1819 

Josiah Hall " 1832 

ObedEdson " 183G 

Oilman Merrill " 1841 

William Siggins " 1842 

Oilman Merrill " 1846 

John Hamilton " 1847 

James A. Alexander '' 1851 

Lansing Wetmore . . .elected 1851 

John Judson " 1851 

Griffin Brown " 1S5G 

James L. Lott " 185G 

Lewis Arnett. ... elected 1861 

G. Y. N. Yates " 1861 

James Dennison " 1866 

Sidney A. Wetmore " 1866 

Isaac "H. Hiller " 1871 

Carter Y\ Kinnear " 1871 

W.W.Connelly " 1876 

W. B. Acocks '• 1876 

P. W. Brown " 1881 

G. H. Bates (resigned 1884) " 1881 

Rufus P. King appointed 1884 

Charles C. Merritt elected 1885 

J. T. Barker " 1886 


Mark C. Dairy mple commis.sioned 

Stephen Littlefield elected 

Daniel Horn " 

John King. " 

John McKinney, jr " 

Thomas Martin " 

Joseph C. Gordon " 

Abijah Morrison " 

Henry P. Kinnear " 

Abijah Morrison " 

Charles Anderson " 

James Foreman " 

Georsre Y. N. Yates " 


John B, Brown elected 1858 

Henry P. Kinnear " 1861 

Robert Allen (died) " 1864 

John B. Brown (vacancy) " 1867 

John R. Capron " 1867 

S. Y. Davis " 1870 

S. H. Davis " 1873 

Henry Brace " 1876 

Theodore Chase (died 1882). ... " 1879 

0. W. Randall appointed 1882 

E. A. Allen elected 1882 

Robert Love " 1885 

County Commissioners} 

James Benson . . .elected 1819 

Henry Kinnear " 1819 

Asa Winter " 1819 

Joseph Mead " 1820 

Henry Kinnear '" 1821 

I,nthi..p S. I'armlee " 1822 

Kol.c-rt Falconer " 1823 

James Bonner " 1824 

Jonathan Thompson appointed 1824 

Robert Rii.ssell elected 1825 

Stephen Littlefield " 1826 

James Gray " 1827 

Robert Rn.ssell " 1828 

Stephen Littlefield " 1829 

Daniel Horn " 1830 

Thomas Martin " 1831 

.lohn King " 1832 

James Morrison " 1833 

William Si'.'gins " 1834 

Klijah Smitli " 1835 

Joshua Tinner " 1836 

Thomas Sloan " 1837 

Daniel Horn " 1838 

John J. Berry elected 1839 

Warner Perry " 1840 

Joseph Monroe " 1841 

Eleazer W. Chase " 1842 . 

James G ray " 1843 

James McGiil " 1844 

Aaron Walton, jr " 1845 

John J. Berry " 1846 

Stephen Littlefield " 1847 

George W. Buel " 1848 

Erastus Barnes " 1849 

E. G. Benedict " 1850 

Orrin Hook " 1851 

Marshall Jones " 1852 

S. S. Raymond " 1853 

Robert Allen " 1854 

Marshall Jones '' 1855 

Erastus Barnes " 1856 

Arthur McGill " 1857 

Robert Campbell " 1858 

Alden Marsh " 1859 

Arthur McGill " 1860 

Erastus Barnes " 1861 

1 In a previous chapter, we believe No. 14, it is intimated that probably all of the principal officers 
of the county at its organization, were appointed ; but since that paragraph was written and printed 
we have become firm in the belief that the first county commissioners, at least, were elected by the 
people. Still, as there stated, no election returns or other evidence have been found to determine the 

Civil List. 


Alden Marsh elected 18G2 

Melancthon Miles appointed 1863 

Melancthon Miles elected 1863 

William G. Garcelon " 1864 

Alden Marsh " 1865 

Melancthon Miles " 1866 

William G. Garcelon " 1867 

Robert H. Morrison " 1868 

Henry Babcock " 1869 

Nelson Mead " 1870 

Robert H. ilorrison " 1871 

William G. Garcelon " 1872 

E. R. Wheeloek " 1873 

Myron Dunham elected 1874 

James B. Jenmngs " 1875 

Myron Dunham " 1875 

E." R. Wheeloek " 1877 

William H. Maultby " 1878 

James Roy " 1878 

Benjamm Ellis " 1878 

A. C. Blodgett " 1881 

Darius Mead " 1881 

Michael Crocker " 1884 

Theodore L. Putnam " 1884 

Joseph Clinton •' 1884 


Lansing Wetmore commissioned 1819 

John Brown 



Lansing Wetmore 


Lansing Wetmore 



Walter W. Hodges ' 

William P. McDowell ... 


Walter W. Hodges 

Walter W. Hodges 

Thomas demons 


Silas L. Axtell 


Rufus P. King 


Rufus P. King, (resigned) commissioned 1584 

Thomas Clemons " 1855 

Isaac H. HiUer " 1858 

Isaac H. Hiller " 1861 

Isaac H. Hiller " 1864 

William Jagger " 1867 

Starling W. Waters " 1870 

Starling W. Waters " 1873 

Starling W. Waters " 1876 

Joseph A. Weible " 1879 

Joseph A. Weible " 1882 

Delford U. Arird " 1885 

Comity Treasurers. 

Archibald Tanner appointed 

Mathew Young " 

Johnson Wilson " 

John King " 

William Pier " 

Walter W. Hodges " 

Scott W. Sayles " 

John Andrews " 

Henry Sargent " 

Thomas Clemons " 

Galbraith A. Irvine elected 

Rufus P. King appointed 

Rufus P. King elected 

Rufus 01ne_v 

Heni'V L. Church 

Cliarles W. Rathbun 

Robert K. Russell 



Ephraim Cowan 

" 1857 


John Sill 

" 1859 


George H. Ames 

" 1861 


Willis B. Benedict 

" 1863 


Asahel G. Lane 

" 1865 


Chase Osgood, 


(G. H. Ames served) . . . 

" 1867 


" 1869 


David I. Ball 

" 1871 


George 0. Cornelius 

" 1873 


Robert B. Miller 

" 1875 


Timothy E, Barnes 

" 1877 


Frank M. Knapp 

" 1880 


Charles H. McAuley (W. 

J. Alexander, 


served in 1886) 

elected 1883 


George F. Yates elected November 1886 


Registers and Recorders.^ 

John F. McPherson elected 1848 

John F. McPherson " 1851 

John F. McPherson " 1854 

Robert K. Russell " 1857 

Robert K. Russell " 1860 

James G. " 1803 

James G. Marsh " 18GG 

James G. Marsh elected 1869 

James G. Marsh . . 
W. J. Alexander. 
A. W. Jackson . . . 
G. W. Kinnear . . 
W. J. Alexander 


1 During the years prior to 1848 the prothonotary served as register and recorder. 


History of Warren County. 

County Commissioners Clerks. 

John Andrews appointed 1819 

Joseph W. Brown " 1834 

Andrew H. Ludlow " 1837 

Robert K. Russell " 1863 

Samuel Lord appointed 1879 

M.J.Alexander " 1882 

Frank A. Copswell " 1885 

Jury Commissioners. 

John T. Cour.'son. . . . 
SummerReld \Varner 

G. W. Kinnear 

N. P. Morrison 

A. M. Gillani 

elected 1873 


" 1876 



John T. Courson . . . 

A. M. Parker 

Jacob C. Fuller. . . . 
George A. Walkley, 
E. H. French 

.elected 1879 
. " 1882 
. " 1884 
. " 1884 


Edward Jones, commissioned Feb. 16, 

Asa Scott, 
Eben G. Owen, 
Mathew McKinney, 
Daniel P. Stanton, 
Thomas Turner, 
Judah .Spencer, 
David M. Williams, 
Charles \V. Rathbun, 
John Ditmars, 
Jason A. Morrison, 

Nov. 5, 
" 14, 

" 12, 
" 27, 
" 16, 
" o, 
Feb. 13, 
Nov. 29, 


Charles W. Rathbun, comiss'ned Jan. 20, 1862 

John A. Jackson, 
George \V. Brown, 
W. W. Connelly, 
Theodore Chase, 
Sterling Green, 
Henry K. Siggins, 
Julius L. Burroughs, 
Julius L. Burroutrlis, 
F. W. Whitcomb, 

11, 1865 

Nov. 13, 1867 

" 26, 1870 

Jan. 5, 1874 

" 25, 1875 

Dec. 29, 1879 

" 11, 1882 

'• 29, 1885 

" — , 1886 

Township Officers. 
Justices of the Peace ^ 

Andrews, John, commissioned 
Alden, Richard, " 

Akin, Eleazer, " 

Ale.\ander. James A., " 
Andruss, Jason, " 

Alexander, James A., " 
Andrus.«, Jason, " 

Alden, Richard, " 

Acocks, William B., " 
Andruss, Jason, " 

Arnett, Lewiss, " 

Acocks, William B., " 
Andruss, Jason, " 

Allen, Orrin C, 
Aver, H. S., 
Ayer, H. S., 

Anderton, James, " 

Allison, W. T., 
Berr}', John J., " 

Bowers, Daniel D., " 
Bales, Franci.'i, " 

Benedict, Elbridge G., " 
Brown, John B., " 

Blakesl<7, William A., " 
Berry, John J., " 

Bate.s, Franci.s, " 

Bowers, Daniel D., " 
Brown, William D., " 

March 29, 
May 18, 
Nov. 18, 
Aui;-. 13, 
April 14, 
March 8, 
March 7, 
March 9, 
March 9, 
March 8, 
March 5, 

March 21, 
Feb. 21, 

March 14, 

March 27, 
April 16, 
April 23, 
Mav 24, 
April 14, 
April 14, 

March 11, 
March 8, 
March 8, 
March 7, 
March 7, 
March 6, 
March 4, 

March 10, 


Brown, James, commi 

ssioned March 9 


Berry, John J., •' 

March 8, 


Buell, George W., 

March 6. 


Bates. Francis. " 

March (i. 


Burgett, Peter, " 

March 10, 


Bates, Francis, " 

March 10, 


Brasington, Samuel C, • 

March 7, 


Buell, Geo. W., 

ilarch 5, 


Burgett, Peter, " 

iLarch 5, 


Bates, Francis, " 

March 5. 


Blodgett, W. 0., 

March 5, 


Biddle, E. M., 

March 11, 


Blakeslev, William A. " 

April 16, 


Bates, Francis, " 

March 6, 


Baxter, Henry, '" 

March 7, 

1872, George, '' 

Marcli 26, 


Buell, Dwight W.. 

March 17, 


Bate.s Francis, " 

March 28, 


Barker, Jonathan, " 

March 13, 


Buell, D. W., 

March 27, 


Bates, Francis, " 

March 27, 


Brennan, David W., " 

March 27, 


Baxter, Henry, " 

April 9, 


Beeman, Epliraim, " 

Aug. 20, 


Barker, J. T., 

April 17, 


Booth, M. S., " 

May 10, 


Bowers, A. C.. " 

Sept. 15, 


Bowers, A. C, " 

April 6, 


I Until the revision of the State constitution in 1837, justices of the peace were commissioned for 

an indefinite period, or "during good beliavior." 




Booth, M. S., commissioneii April G, 1883 

Dalrymple, D. R., commissioned April 9, 1881 

Blackmail, D. G., " 

Aprd 14, 1886 

Dutton, W. A., 

April 16, 1884 

Camp, John, " 

March 29, 1821 

Dewey, D. S., 

April 23, 1885 

Chase, Eleazer W., " 

March 8, 1845 

Dalrymple, D. R., 

April 14, 1886 

Combs, William H., " 

March 4, 1848 

Dibble, M. T., 

' April 14, 1886 

Chase, Eleazer W., " 

ilarch 9, 1850 

Edson, Obed, 

' March 8, 1845 

Campbell, Stillman, " 

March 8, 1851 

Eaton, Artemus, 

March 8, 1851 

Campbell, Robert, " 

March 8, 1851 

Elderkin, Dyer W., 

' March 10, 1854 

Campbell, Stillman, " 

March 7, 1857 

English, Rice H., 

' March 30, 1801 

Cady, Alfred, 

March 5, 1859 

English, Rice H., 

March 16, 1866 

Cobham, George A., " 

March 30, 1861 

English, Rice H., 

March 2, 1871 

Cady, George, " 

March 8, 1862 

English. Rice H., 

' March 13, 1876 

Chattle, William P., " 

March 5, 1864 

Ena-lish! Rice H., 

' April 9. 1881 

Case, F. R., 

April 6, 1865 

English, Rice H., 

April 14, 1886 

Clark, Wm. A., 

Marcn 16, 1866 

Fi.sher, Sevvell, 

' February 13, 1835 

Cady, George, " 

March 11, 1867 

Fish, ilason. 

April 26, 1836 

Cornelius, George 0., '■ 

March 6, 1869 

Farnsworth, Josiah, 

March 4, 1848 

Case, F, R., 

April 9, 1870 

Fish, Mason, 

April 14, 1840 

Coats, E. L., 

March 16, 1875 

Fisher, Sewell, 

April 14, 1840 

Case, Frank R.. 

March 16, 1875 

Fry, Ambrose, 

' March 9, 1850 

Gushing, M. G., " 

March 27, 1879 

Fisk, James B., 

March 10, 1856 

Case, F. R., 

March ,^0, 1880 

Farnsworth, Josiah, 

' June 7, 1857 

Cornelius, George 0., " 

April 9, 1881 

Folwell, Jonn W., 

' March 17, 1877 

Cummings, G. D., " 

April 9, 1881 

Gilman, Hiram, 

' December 10, 1823 

Coats, E. L., " 

April 9, 1881 

Goodrich, St. John, 

March 6, 1847 

Covin, Charles, " 

April 17, 1882 

Gilman, Hiram, 

' April 14, 1840 

Clendening, Joseph, " 

April 17, 1882 

Guignon, L. E., 

' March 10, 1855 

Cooney, John, '' 

April 17, 1882 

Gould, T. L., 

March 16, 1868 

Clark, A. A., 

April 0, 1883 

Galligan, L. D., 

March 14, 1874 

Conarrow, Jacob, " 

May 16, 1884 

Gillain, A, M., 

' March 16, 1875 

Cornelius, George 0., " 

April 14, 1886 

Gillam, A. M., 

April 17, 1882 

Coats, B. L., " 

April 14, 1886 

Gunning, 0. J., 

April 16, 1884 

Case, Frank R., 

April 14, 1886 

Hamlin, John, 

' November 18, 1836 

Button, Solomon, " 

Nov. 14, 1832 

Hackney, John, 

October 24, 1837 

Button, Solomon, " 

April 14, 1840 

Holcomb, Sterling, jr.. 

March 4, 1848 

Bunham, Richard, " 

March 11, 1843 

Hackney, John, 

April 14, 1840 

Button, Solomon, " 

Maroli 8, 1845 

Horn, Daniel, 

April 14, 1840 

Bavis, Ferdinand, " 

March 6, 1847 

Hull, Samuel, ' 

March 16, 18.52 

Bunham, Richard, " 

March 4, 1848 

Horn, Hiram, ' 

March 7, 1857 

Bitmars, John, " 

May 14, 1851 

Hiller, Isaac H., 

' March 7, 1857 

Balrymple, Joseph, " 

JIarch 6, 1852 

Hunter, John, 

March 7, 1857 

Bunham, Richard, " 

ilarch 5, 1853 

Houser, John P., ' 

May 28, 1858 

Bonaldson, Baniel H., " 

March 5, 1853 

Hinton, William, 

' March 5, 1859 

Button, Solomon, " 

March 10, 1854 

Hull, Samuel, 

March 8, 1862 

Balrymple, David R., " 

March 10, 1855 

Hill, B., 

March 11,1867 

Bitmars. John, " 

March 10, 1856 

Hill, James E., 

March 16, 1867 

Donaldson, Baniel H., " 

Mav 18, 1858 

Hamilton, James C, 

' March 11, 1867 

Bunham, Richard, " 

ilarch 5, 1859 

Houser, J. P., 

March 11, 1867 

Bodge, John R., '' 

March 21, 1860 

Hill, James E., 

March 7, 1872 

Binsmoor, Charles, " 

March 30, 1861 

Hamilton, James C, 

' Marcli 7, 1872 

Dinsmoor, David, " 

March 30, 1861 

Hankins, N. R., 

March 1. 1872 

Binsmoor, Charles, " 

March 16, 1866 

Hodges, D. Jackson, ' 

March 14, 1874 

Balrymple, David R., " 

March 16, 1866 

Houghwot, J. H., 

' March 14, 1874 

Binsmoor, Bavid, " 

March 11, 1867 

Houser, John P., 

' March 13, 1876 

Bewey, D. A., " 

April 9, 1870 

Hamilton, James C, 

' March 17, 1877 

Binsmoor, Charles, " 

March 2, 1871 

Hill, James E., 

March 17, 1877 

Balrymple, B. R., " 

March 2, 1871 

Hodges, D. J., 

March 27, 1879 

Bavis, W. J., 

March 26, 1873 

Houghwot, J. H., ' 

' March 27, 1879 

Dinsmoor, Bavid, " 

March 26, 1873 

Hawks, William, ' 

April 9, 1881 

Balrymple, D. R., " 

March 13, 1876 

Hazeltine, D. S., 

' April 9. 1881 

Dibble, M. T., 

March 13, 1876 

Houser, John P., ' 

April 9, 1881 

Button, W. A., 

March 17, 1877 

Houghwot, J. H., ' 

April 16, 1884 

Dinsmoor, David, " 

March 25, 1878 

Hodges, W. Y., 

' April 23. 1885 

Dibble, M. T., " 

April 9, ISSl 

Hammond, Orange, 

April 23, 1885 


History of Warren County. 

Houser, John P., commissioned April 14, 

Irvine, James, 
Inman, Jacob, 
Jackson, Daniel, 
Jones, Isaiah, 
Johnson, Spencer, 
Jao^ger, James, 
Johnson, William D., 
Jackson, William M., 
Jewell, William, 
James, D. W. C, 
Jackson, G. A., 
Jewell, William, 
Jackson, G. A., 
Jones, A. W., 
Kinnear, Carter V., 
Knowles, ApoUas, 
Kinnear, Carter V., 
Kinnear, Carter V., 
Kelly, Edmund, 
Kinnear, Carter V., 
Knapp, Windsor C, 
Kinnear, Carter V., 
Knapp, W. C, 
Knapp, W. C, 
Kidder, Clement W., 
Kidder, Clement W., 
King, John H., 
King, John H., 
Kresge, A., 
Lott, Hewlet, 
Lane, Asahel G., 
Lott, Hewlet, 
Long, Hugh, 
Lord, U. W., 
Lobdell, George, 
Long, Hugh, 
Lott, Daniel, 
Ladow, 0. R., 
Lobdell, George, 
Long, William W., 
Lott, James L., 
Lord, U. W., 
Lobdell. George, 
Lott, Daniel, 
Lord, U. W., 
Lilley, H., 
Langdon, J. B., 
Lott, Charles B., 
Leonard, Levi, 
Liverraore, W. S., 
Miles, Frederick, 
McGee, Samuel, 
Martin, James, 
Monroe, .Joseph, 
Merrill, Gillmau, 
Miller, Linus H., 
McGill, Jame.s, 
Magee, Henry, 
Marsh, Andrew,, Joseph,, 
Masten, Cornelius, jr. 
McGill, James, 
Magee, Alexander, 

March 21, 

April 6, 

May 31, 

July 4, 

April 14, 

March 9. 

March 2 1; 

March 7. 

Marcli Li, 

March 13, 

March 17, 

April 9, 

April 17. 

April 10, 

May 19, 

April 14, 

March 5, 

March 6, 

March 10, 

February 28, 

March 10, 

March 2, 

March 5, 

March 6, 

November 16, 

March 13, 

March 13, 

April 9, 

April 23, 

March 8, 

March 4, 

April 14. 

March 10, 


March 21, 

March 30. 

.March h; 

March b. 

A]iril 6, 

iMarch l«j, 

March IG, 

March IG, 

March 4,' 

March 26, 

March 25, 

April 17, 

April 17, 

April 6, 

April 16, 

April 23, 

July 16, 

June 26, 

April 3, 

April 3, 

Feb. 1, 

Feb. 26, 

April 13, 

April 13, 

April 1.3, 

March 5, 

May 13, 

March 7, 

March 7, 


Mallory, Eli, commissioned March 7, 



Marsh, Joseph, " 

March 6, 



Mead, Philip. 2d, 

March 4, 



Mintonye, Lewis B., " 

March 4, 



Middleton, James, " 

March 4, 



Magee, Joseph A., '' 

.March 10, 



Marsh, William S., " 

March 9, 



Magee, Henry, " 

March 8, 



Marsh, Josepli, " 

March 6, 



Mead, Philip, " 

Feb. 26, 



Magee, Joseph A., 

.March 8, 



iMitchell, David H., ■' 

March 10, 



Marsh, William S., 

March 10, 



Marsh, Williams S., "' 

March 7, 



Magee, Henry, " 

March 7, 



Matson, John, " 

March 7, 



Mead, Philip, 

Feb. 27, 



Morrison, R. H., " 

March 5, 



Mitchell, J. H., 

March 5, 



Magee, James T., " 

March 5, 



Mitchell, F. W., 

March 21, 



Mclntyre, Almiron, " 

March 13, 



Magee, Henry, ■' 

March 14, 



Marsh. William S., " 

April .5, 



Masten, C, " 

March 14. 



Magee, Henry, " 

July 30, 



Miles M., 

March 5, 



Morrison, R. H., " 

ilarch 5, 



Magee, James T., " 

ilarch 5, 



Mitchell, D. H., 

March 16, 



ilead, Philip, 

March U, 



McNair, William, " 

March 16, 



Mowris, Peter, " 

March 11, 



Morrison, R. H., " 

March 6, 



Miles, M., 

ilarch 6, 



McGill, James, " 

March 6, 



Masterson, Peter, " 

Nov. 9, 



McStraw, John, " 

Nov. 9, 



Merritt, C. C, " 

Nov. 16, 



Mead, Philip, 

March 7, 



Marsh, Wilham S., " 

March 7, 



Moore, F. A., 

March 26, 



Morrison, R. H., " 

March 14, 



Mandeville, A. R., " 

March 17, 



ilarsh, William S. 

March 17, 



Maltby, John S., 

March 17, 



ilerritt. C. C, 

March 13, 



Mead, Philip, " 

March 25, 



Morrison, R. H., " 

March 27 



McKain, D. H., 

March 30, 



Merritt, C. C. 

April 9, 



Miller, R. E.. 

April 17, 



Morrison. R. H., " 

April 16 



Martin, W. 0., " 

April 16, 



McKain, D. H., 

April 23, 



Maultby, William H., " 

April 23, 



Newman, Hiram S, " 

March 15, 



Nobles, C. B., 

April 9, 



Olney, Rufus, '' 

April 14, 



Osgood, James T., " 

March 5 



Oviatt, Cyrus S., " 

March 10 



Osborn, Milo P., •' 

June 1, 



Osgood, James T., " 

March 6, 



Osgood, James T., " 

March 7 





Ospood, Jas. T., commissioned Marcli IG 


Stone, Moses B., commi 

ssioned March 8. 1845 

Osgood, James T., " 

March U 


Shearman, Perry, ' 

March 6, 1847 

Osgood, James T., " 

March 27 


Stacy, Edwin C, 

March 4, 1848 

Olney, F. P., 

March 27 


Strang, David, ' 

ilarch 4, 1848 

Osgood, James T., " 

April Ki 


Sargent, Henry G., " 

April 14, 1840 

Parmlee, Lotlirop S., " 

Jan. 12 


Sprague, Richard B., ' 

April 14, 1840 

Pier, William, " 

May 13 


Smith, Peter, " 

April 14, 1840 

Perry, Warner, " 

March 14 


Shearman, Perry, ' 

March 6, 18.52 

Pettit, George C, " 

March 23 


Sill, Walter G., 

March 5, 1853 

Powell, Richard, " 

March 5 


Stone, Moses B., ' 

March 5, 1853 

Perry, Warner, " 

March 8 


Satterlee, Ch.iuncey, ' 

March 5, 1853 

Parker, Philander, " 

March 8 


Sunimerton, Jos'a D., " 

March 10, 18.55 

Powell, Richard, " 

March 6 


Sanford, S. W. B., 

March 10, 1855 

Perry, Warner, " 

April 14 


Smallman, John, ' 

March 10, 1856 

Perry, Warner, " 

March 9 


Skinner, Ethan, ' 

March 7, 1S57 

Parker, Philander, " 

March 9 


Smith, .iones, 

March 5, 1859 

Perkins, F. E., " 

March 9 


Scott, John D., ' 

March 5, 1859 

Perkins, F. B., 

Marcli 10 


Sunimerton, J. D., ' 

March 21, 1860 

Perry, Warnei-. " 

March 10 


Smallman, John, ' 

March 30, 18G1 

Palmer, Warren, " 

March 21 


Siggins, William, ' 

March 8, 1862 

Perry, Warner, " 

March 21 


Slone, William W., ' 

March 14, 1862 

Plumb, Asa, " 

March 21 


Shortt, William H., 

March 7, 1863 

Porter, A. V., " 

March 7 


Skinner, Ethan, ' 

March 14, 1862 

Perry, Hiram S., " 

March 5 


Smith, Jones, ' 

March 5, 186-1- 

Parker, Philander, " 

March 16 


Smith, D. 0., 

March 5, 1864 

Preston, Lorenzo, " 

March 16 


Summerton, J. D., ' 

April 6, 1865.. 

Plumb, Asa, " 

March 11 


Stright, W, E., ' 

April 6, 1866 . 

Parker, A. M., " 

March 6 


Scott, William H., 

March 16, 1866. 

Parmlee, L. T., " 

March 6 


Smallman, John, ' 

March 16, 1866 

Prior, 0., " 

March 6 


Stillson, David, ' 

March 16, 1866. 

Porter, John S., " 

Nov. 16 


Slone, W. W. 

March 11, 1867 

Pettit, George C, " 

March 2 


Shortt, William H., 

March 16, 1868; 

Parker, Philander, " 

March 7 


Smith, Jones, ' 

.March 6, 1869> 

Plumb, Asa. " 

March, 7 


Smith, D. 0., ' 

M.inh 6, 186«i 

Putnam, T. L., " 

March 13 


Stright, W. E., 

-\huvh 4, 1870 

Parker, A. M., 

March 13 


Slone, W, W., 

March 22, 1872 

Preston, Nelson, " 

March 17 


Smith, Jones, ' 

March 14, 1874 

Plumb, Asa, " 

March 17 


Sutliff, William B., 

March 16, 1875 

Phillis, J. W., 

March 2.") 


Stright, W. E., 

March 16, 1875 

Parker, Philander, " 

March 27 


Siggins, H. K. 

March 16, 1875 

Peck, George W., 

March 30 


Shannon, W. G., 

March 16, 1875 

Putnam, T. L., " 

April 9 


Sanford, J. G., 

March 16, 1875 

Richardson, Joshua, " 

Aug. 1 

1831 > 

-- Slone, W. W., 

March 13, 1876 

Reese, Martin, " 

April 15 


Sutliff, William B., 

March 30, 1880 

Ricliardson, Joshua, " 

March 7 


Straw. John M., ' 

April 9, 1881 

Rouse, Henry R., " 

March 9 


Shannon, W. G., ' 

March 30, 1880 

Roup, Christian, " 

March 6 


Schnur, Roman C, ' 

April 17, 1882 

Ross, John, " 

Marcli 7 


Slone, W. W., 

April 17, 1882 

Ricker, S. B., " 

March 5 


Siggins, William F., ' 

July 31, 1882 

Ricker, S. B., 

March 6 


Spence, David, ' 

April 6, 1883 

Race, Alexander, " 

March IG 


Siggins, William F., ' 

April fi, 1883 

Reeves, W. I., " 

March 30 


Sammons, L D., ' 

April 6, 1883 

Rowland, John, '' 

Marcii 13 


Shanafelt, J. T., 

Oct. 1, 1884 

Reeves, W. I., " 

March 30 


Shannon, W. G., 

April 23, 1885 

Richardson, C. S., " 

March 30 


Sutliff, Wm. B., 

April 14, 1886 

Ray, WiUiam, " 

April 9 


Thompson, Caleb, 

Aug. 1, 1831 

Rowland, John, " 

April 9 

1881 i 

Thompson, Joshua W., ' 

March 9, 1844 

Richardson, J. H., " 

April 14 


Taber, Georse W., 

March 6, 1852 

Ray, William, 

April 16 


Tuthill, Robert, 

March 10, 1855 

Siggins, William, " 

Feb. 1.5 


Taylor, Charles, ' 

March 10, 18.55 

Smith, Elijah, 

^ April 5 


Taylor, John J., 

March 10, 1856 

Sargent, Henry G., " 

Jan. 19 


Thompson, William L., ' 

March 5, 1859 

Stacy. Bdwm C, " 

March 11 


Thompson, J. W., ' 

March 7, 1863 

Sanford, Sam'l W. B., " 

March 9 


Temple, Charles F., ' 

March 16, 1866 


History of Warren County. 

Thompson, J.W., commissioned 

Terrell, E., " 

Whitney, Nathan, " 

Williamson, S., " 
White, Mark S., 

Whitney, .Toel, " 

Willson, Mark, " 

Williams. E. Leroy, " 

Wright, Jude, " 

Willson, Mark, " 

White, Orange, " 

Woodin, David, " 

White, Mark S., " 

Woodbeck, John E., " 

Wright, Jude, " 

Warner, John A., " 

Walton, Levi, " 

Woodbeck, J. E., " 

April IG, 


Willson, Mark, commission 

ed March 21, 


Nov. 9, 


West, Charles B., " 

March 21, 


Feb. 9, 


White, Lucius, " 

March 28. 


Nov. 28, 


Williams, George H., " 

March 26^ 


April 3, 


Walz. Frederick, " 

March 26, 


April 14, 


White, Jay, '' 

March 31, 


April 14, 


White, Lucius, " 

May 6. 


March 9, 


Wells, W. B., 

Marcli 27, 


March 8, 


Wood, John, A., " 



March 8, 


Wood, George R., " 

March 30. 


April 14, 


White, A. T., 

March 30, 


April 14, 


White, Lucius, " 

April 17, 


April 14, 


Walz, Frederick, " 

April 6, 


March 9, 


Wood, John A., " 

April 23, 


March 8, 


White, A. T., 

April 23, 


March 10, 


Wright, R. 0., " 

April 23, 


March 10, 


White, J. E.. 

April 14, 


March 21 


Yates, George V. N., " 

March 5, 




Source of the Conewango —Navigable Waters of the County — Askmg Aid for Tlieir Im- 
provement^ — Survey of the Allegheny by U. S. Engineers — Its Length and Fall from Olean to 
Pittsburgh — Early Manner of Transporting Freight and Passengers — Keel-boats — Their Great 
Usefulness — Shipping Lumber to Nev^' Orleans — Names of Steamboats Engaged in the Warren 
and Pittsburgh Trade — An Raft — Description of Rafting — Nathan Brown's Ventures 
— Wagon Roads Laid Out by the Pioneers — Present Condition of Highways — Railroads — 
Celebrating the Opening of Railway Communication with Erie — Date of Completing Other 

Ri\ER Navigation, 1-;tc. 

THE waters flowing through the Conewango branch of the Allegheny River 
tal<e their rise on the borders of Lake Erie at an average elevation of 
about thirteen hundred feet above the sea, and nearly seven hundred feet above 
the level of the lake. Hence a small boat can start within seven or eight miles 
of Lake Erie, in sight of the large sailing vessels and steam propellers which 
navigate the great lakes, and float down to the Gulf of Mexico, a distance of 
about two thousand five hundred miles. 

Before the beginning of the present century the Allegheny, Conewango, 
and Brokcnstraw were officially declared navigable waters of the Common- 
wealth, but, as all well-informed readers know, they were only navigated by 
canoes, keel-boats, and rafts, until about the year 1830. Eor years prior to 
this date efforts had been made by the people's representatives, both at Har- 

River Navigation, Etc. 303 

risburg and the national capital, to obtain appropriations for the improvement 
of the streams named. The only response to these appeals, however, in any 
degree satisfactory, was obtained in the year 18 17, when the State Legislature 
appropriated the munificent sum of one thousand dollars for the improvement 
of the Allegheny River, and French and Conewango Creeks. 

During subsequent years, after the steamboat Allegheny had made her his- 
toric trip to Olean, the questions of slack-water navigation and the building of 
a canal parallel with the Allegheny River were paramount for a time and vig- 
orously agitated. As a result of this agitation the river was surveyed from 
Pittsburgh to Olean, and the distances between points, and altitudes, accurately 
ascertained. This work was performed by Major Kearney and Major Hughes, 
topographical engineers of the United States army. The first named surveyed 
the river from Pittsburgh to Franklin, the latter from Franklin to Olean. 
According to their report, the distance in miles, and the descent of the river in 
feet between the towns mentioned, was found to be as follows : From Little 
Valley, N. Y. (which is twenty-five miles by river below Olean), to State line, 
twenty miles, and one hundred feet fall. From the State line to Warren, twen- 
ty-two miles, and one hundred and five feet fall. From Warren to Franklin, 
sixty-five miles, and two hundred and five feet fall. From Franklin to Pitts- 
burgh, one hundred and twenty-one and one-half miles, and two hundred and 
fifty-six feet fall. 

Prior to the inauguration of steam navigation between Pittsburgh and War- 
ren, keel-boats and large canoes were mainly relied upon for the transportation 
of freight and passengers. The keel-boats would carry from ten to twelve 
tons each, and among the favorite ones remembered by early residents were 
the Transport, Mayflower, and Rover. During the very early years boats of this 
class were poled up the river, a slow and very laborious method of navigation. 
Afterwards they were towed by attaching a cable and two or three horses to 
each. By this means the journey from Pittsburgh to Warren could be accom- 
plished it from ten to twelve days, which was considered quite expeditious. 
The return down the river, however, could be made in three days. Even after 
the advent of steam navigation keel-boats had to be depended upon in a great 
measure, for quite frequently steamers could not ascend above Franklin, and 
for many weeks in the year they could not navigate the river for any consid- 
erable distance above Pittsburgh, from lack of depth of water over the shoals. 
Indeed, the keel-boats continued to make their trips up and down the river 
until the building of railroads rendered their further use . unnecessary and 
unprofitable. The freight charges between Pittsburgh and Warren during the 
era of river navigation ranged from fifty cents to one dollar and a quarter per 
hundred pounds. 

In other pages of this work frequent allusions have been made regarding 
the early lumbering operations in this county, and the running of the first rafts 

304 History of Warren County. 

to Pittsburgh. This business began here with the century, and was continued 
unceasingly for more than fifty years, or until there were no more pine forests 
of any considerable extent to destroy. Long before the organization of the 
county Jacob Hook, up the Allegheny, Major Harriot and Colonel Hackney, 
up the Conewango, and the Meads and McKinneys on the Brokenstravv, were 
extensively engaged in the manufacture and rafting of lumber. 

The product of their mills was mostly marketed at Pittsburgh ; but there 
were other markets where the unexcelled white pine lumber of Warren county 
was more highly apprciated. To illustrate: "The first foreign traffic in pine 
lumber from the Brokenstraw " said Judge Johnson in an address delivered 
at the dedication of the cemetery at Youngsville, " of which I have any 
authentic account, was a fleet of three boats got together at the mouth of the 
creek, in the fall and winter of 1805-06, and started on its perilous voyage to 
New Orleans on the ist day of April, 1806. The lumber had been gathered 
from the mills of Long, Andrews, Mead and others, of the best quality, stub- 
shotted and kiln-dried during the winter, while the boats were building. It 
was owned by Colonel William McGaw and William B. Foster, and brought 
in New Orleans $40 per 1000 feet. Daniel Horn and Daniel McQuay were 
two of the hands on board, and walked back;" the first taking a sailing ves- 
sel to Baltimore and thence walking home in time to do his summer's work, 
the latter walking the entire distance from New Orleans. 

" In the spring of 1807, another fleet of seven boats freighted with seasoned 
lumber, owned by Joseph Mead, Abram Davis, and John Watt started to the 
same destination — New Orleans; the owners returning by sailing vessels to 
Philadelphia, and the pilots and hands finding their way back as best they 
could. These ventures were several times repeated by the same and other 
parties, and McOuay and others are said to have made several return trips on 
foot, a feat that required more time and risk than a journey around the globe 
at the present day. 

" This was the morning twilight of the lumber trade, that for half a century 
thereafter furnished so large a field for the enterprise and industry of the resi- 
dents of the county. Infant- like at first, boards crept cautiously down the 
creeks in floats or single platforms, with the aid of halyards and Gregg's hick- 
ory splint cables. Gradually the markets, mills, and rafts enlarged until they 
absorbed nearly all the capital, the enterprise, and the energies of the county." 

The county, as we have shown, was almost inaccessible except through its 
natural water-ways. Pork, flour, whisky, etc., had to be brought in keel-boats 
and canoes from Pittsburgh ; salt, nails, glass, etc., from Mayville, by boats 
passing through Chautauqua Lake and its outlet. Truly, nothing but industry, 
economy, and indomitable perseverance insured success, or the attainment of 
even the most common necessaries of life. The pine forests (never to be 
replaced) were the main reliance of the early settlers, and their destruction 

River Navigation, Etc. 305 

was brought about at first, more particularly for the purpose of supplying the 
imperative demands of the pioneer stomach, than by any burning desire to 
supply the demands of trade. 

For fifteen or twenty years subsequent to 1830 a blank exists in the history 
of Warren county, which can never be satisfactorily filled, by reason of the gen- 
eral neglect of people to preserve newspapers, and the loss by fire, in 1849, of 
quite complete files of The Voice of the People, Warren Bulletin, Democratic 
Advocate, and Warren Standard, stored in the Standard office and there 
burned. The Warren Mail, now the senior newspaper in the county, was es- 
tablished in 1848, and from its complete files we have gleaned what little more 
can be told regarding the river and its traffic. In the spring of 1 848 the freight 
charges by keel-boatmen, between Pittsburgh and Warren were noted as vary- 
ing from seventy-five cents to one dollar and a quarter per hundred weight. 

On the 19th of December, 1848, the Mail chronicles the arrival of the 
steamer Wave from Pittsburgh, loaded with flour, pig-iron, etc., also about fifty 
passengers. The editor closes his remarks concerning her trip, etc., as follows: 
" If she can run from Pittsburgh to the extent of steam navigation on the Alle- 
gheny, by sleighing, she will deserve, as she will doubtless receive, a liberal 
share of public patronage." 

Early in 1849 *^he following announcement was printed in the newspapers 
and placarded about the town : 

" Regular Pittsburgh and Warren Packet. 
" Wm. H. Gordon, Master. 
" Having been built expressly for the Pittsburgh and Warren trade will run regularly be- 
tween the above ports during the entire boating season. The Wave No. 2 being the only boat 
built e.xpressly for the trade referred to, will rely with confidence on the support of the citizens 
of Warren and surrounding county. 

" N. B. — Keel Boats will be furnished for the transportation of freight in low water." 

On the 20th of March the Mail man was pleased to say : " Two steamers 
in to-day; the Arena and the Wave. Oh, how we flourish. This is a great 
town, notwithstanding one end is burned off". Think of it! Two steamers in 
one day ; two acres of rafts lying in the eddy, and others passing every 
moment. Crowds of people thronging the streets and room for more. The 
telegraph flashing intelligence from all points of the Union, and last, but not 
least, the Allegheny Mail in full blast." 

These boats made several round trips during the season mentioned, charg- 
ing fifty cents per hundred pounds for freight. During the month of April of 
that year was noted the passage down the river of four boats built and owned 
by Nathan Brown, of Jamestown, N. Y. ; each being seventy feet long and 
sixteen feet wide, and three of them handsomely painted and finished in a 
manner superior to any thing before seen on the river. They were loaded 
with scythe-snaths, grain-cradles, hoes, hay-rakes, pitch-forks, shovels, sash, 
doors, etc., of the value of $15,000. 

3o6 History of Warren County. 

The steamer Clara Fisher made her first appearance at Warren in March, 
1850; her dimensions being as follows : Length of keel 145 feet; breadth of 
beam 25 feet, and depth of hull 4 feet 4 inches. She was built by that well- 
known boat builder, Pringle, of West Brownsville, and cost $1,300. Many of 
the citizens of W'arren accepted an invitation from Captain William H. Gordon, 
her master, and enjoyed a trip to the mouth of the Brokenstraw and return. 

By the erection of bridges at Pittsburgh and Franklin, and the building of 
the Freeport Aqueduct, the free navigation of the Allegheny was seriously 
obstructed as early as 1851. In denouncing these obstructions the editor of 
Mail, in February of that year, said : " We ought to have slack water naviga- 
tion Either this will at no distant day be done, or a railroad will 

be constructed along the valley of the Allegheny." In March of the same 
year was noted the arrival of the Allegheny Belle. Her actual running time 
from Pittsburgh to Warren was thirty- three hours, yet by reason of her deten- 
tion at the Freeport Aqueduct, it required five and one-half days to make the 
trip. The Clara Fisher, also, made a trip about the same time and was 
similarly delayed at the same point. 

In January, 1852, the steamboats Cornplaiiter, Clara Fisher, and Belle 
No. 2 were noted as arrivals at the port of Warren with freight and passengers 
from Pittsburgh. The Fisher and Cornplanter also visited Warren in Decem- 
ber of the same year. 

In the spring of 1853 the steamboats mentioned as arriving with freight, 
etc., from Pittsburgh were the Clarion, Clara Fisher, Cornplanter, Belle, Sam 
Snowden, and Justice. 

The Clara Fisher seems to have had a monopoly of the carrying trade in 
1855, ^s she was the only boat mentioned. The business of rafting, however, 
was in the aggregate of enormous proportions. Many millions of feet were 
floated past Warren, and one of its residents alone sent 7,000,000 feet to the 
lower markets. It was noted also that Captain Hall, of Warren, owned a raft 
which, when it passed Cincinnati, Ohio, contained 1,500,000 feet of boards. 
It covered an area of nearly two acres, and, it was asserted, was the largest 
raft ever seen upon the Ohio River. 

The Cornplanter and several other boats already mentioned visited War- 
ren in the spring of 1856. In April of that year the editor of the Mail, who 
had experienced its vicissitudes and rough pleasures, described life on a raft, as 
follows : " Let any one stand at the wharf and see the process of ' snubbing ' 
an Allegheny raft on this water, and he will get an inkling of life on the Al- 
legheny and the labors of a raftsman. 

"With what a steady, solemn, irresistible force comes the broad, rich fleet, 
turned this way and that by the quick, nervous strokes of the creaking oar. 
With what coolness and half-heroism the pilot heads to land, and marks the 
spot to a foot, while half a mile above, where he will strike, if he is a good 

River Navigation, Etc. 307 

pilot ; and what a silly, laughable, fidgetty splutter if he is a novice. How the 
boys 'crack 'er to the right' 'crack 'er to the left' and crack 'er up behind.' 
Then comes the ' snubbing,' — look out for your legs. How the cable uncoils, 
stretches, sizzles, snaps and jerks. How the cabler hangs like a puppy to a 
root and bounds for a new hitch when it runs out like lightning, tearing the 
nails from his fingers, and the slivers and bark from the post or tree. But a 
big raft, like a big rogue, tires of pulling hemp and swings at the rope's end 
surely at last. Then how the boys sweat and puff and blow. And what a 
lusty supper they get in the ' shanty,' and how richly do they relish it, and 
what a glorious sweet slumber is theirs on the soft side of a plank, or bundle 
of straw." 

In December, 1856, great losses were sustained by many lumbermen on 
the upper Allegheny, in their attempts to run rafts down the river so late in 
the season. They were caught en route by a blizzard which suddenly closed 

The steamers announced as carrying freight and passengers between War- 
ren and Pittsburgh in 1858-59, were the Venango and Echo. During the lat- 
ter year mention was made of a raft claimed to have been the largest ever 
floated down the Allegheny river. It contained 600,000 feet of boards, of 
which 400,000 feet were " clear stuff," and was rated to be worth not less than 
$12,000. Captain James Martin was in charge. The lumber was manufac- 
tured by Joseph Hall at his mills in Mead township, on the Tionesta Creek. 

In May, i860, the Mail informed its readers that " the steamboat which 
has been in process of construction for some time past has been completed, and 
will now ply regularly between this place and Tidioute. She is to be called 
the J. D. James, after our distinguished townsman." For some reason, how- 
ever, the James proved to be a failure. 

The steamer River Queen was built at the yard of C. F. Starkey, on the 
Sill farm, just below Warren, in the spring of 1865. She was one hundred and 
fifty feet long, light draught, thirty feet beam, and intended to ply between 
Warren and Pittsburgh ; but we find no other mention of her. 

The steamer A)inie Lavelle, from Pittsburgh, visited Warren in March, 1866. 
During the same year Captain Gardner built a steamboat opposite Warren, 
which was burned at Tidioute in March, 1867. It was the fate of Tidioute at 
that time to be " burned up " about three times a year. 

The last steamboat mentioned as navigating these waters was the W. A. 
Eddy. Fifty-three feet long and ten feet breadth of beam, she passed Warren 
e7t route from Randolph and Cold Spring, N. Y., to Parker's Landing April 
2, 1870. 

In 1885 Nathan Brown, of Jamestown, N. Y., the most widely-known char- 
acter along the Allegheny and Ohio Rivers, closed his career as a boatman ; 
the last boat of his fleet making a total of one hundred and fifty-six. From 

3o8 History of Warren County. 

1843 his trips had been made annually, with the regularity of the seasons. Start- 
ing at Jamestown he floated along the outlet of Chautauqua Lake, then through 
Cassadaga Creek into the Conewango and Allegheny, jumping several mill- 
dams, and thence down the Allegheny and Ohio, landing at all towns as far 
as Evansville and Paducah. His boats usually were seventy-five feet long, 
sixteen feet wide, and fitted up with separate rooms, pantries, etc. His stock 
in trade generally consisted of sash, doors, blinds, nails and trimmings, also 
hoes, rakes, scythes, snaths, axes, grain-cradles, furniture, etc. His wooden 
wares were manufactured at Jamestown, N. Y.; his cast- steel articles by S. A. 
Millard, of Clayville, N. Y. After disposing of his goods he generally sold 
his boats at Louisville, Ky., or below, at a good profit for trading-boats. 

Wagon Roads. 

It is probable that the first attempt at road-building in the county of War- 
ren was performed under the orders of agents of the Holland Land Company 
during the years 1 795—96 ; but as these avenues of travel, if so they could be 
called, were simply for the convenience of employees of the company, and as 
this region was then without the limits, so to speak, of judicial jurisdiction, the 
rude highways cut out by the above-mentioned company were never made a 
matter of record. 

Under the jurisdiction of Crawford and Venango counties, and before the 
organization of Warren, the following described roads were laid out by and for 
the accommodation of Warren's pioneers. From " Marsh's Landing to the 
Public Square in town of Warren," Daniel Jackson, Robert Miles, Hugh Marsh, 
Joseph Goodwell, and James Justice, viewers, confirmed July 7, 1801. From 
" Marsh's Landing to William McClean's," Robert Miles, James Shipman, 
James Brown, John Marsh, Hugh Marsh, and Milford Marsh, viewers, con- 
firmed January 12, 1802. From " the town of Warren to Brokenstraw," Daniel 
Jackson, Jeremiah Morrison, James Morrison, Joseph Gray, John McKinney, 
and John Andrews, viewers, confirmed April 7, 1802. From "Marsh's Land- 
ing to the State Line," Ethan Jackson, Stephen Ross, Jacob Goodwin, William 
Eagan, Daniel Jackson, Michael McKinney, viewers, confirmed at March ses- 
sions in 1807. From " McDowell's to Devoe's improvements," Ninian Irvine, 
Eliel Farr, James Ricketts, Francis McClintock, and Richard Hamilton, view- 
ers, approved September 19, 1808. From " Giles White's to John Hinds'," 
Charles McNair, John Watts, Hugh Wilson, Philip Huftman, and John Arthur, 
viewers, confirmed December 8, 1808. From "the Crawford county line 
through the western part of Brokenstraw township," confirmed November 8, 
1 8 10. From "the State road at Little Brokenstraw Creek to the place where 
Conewango Path crosses the same"; confirmed February 7, 181 1. From 
" town of Warren to New York State line near the two hundred and fourth 
mile-stone " ; Samuel Dale, Alexander Clants, David Brown, Edward Jones, 
Daniel Jackson, and James Rogers, viewers, confirmed November 6, 181 1. 

Wagon Roads. — Railroads. 309 

" Alteration in State road from Warren to Brokenstraw," Samuel Dale, 
Daniel Jackson, Robert Arthur, Samuel Morrison, and John Watts, viewers, 
confirmed November 4, 18 12. From " Conewango Creek to Sackettsburgh," 
Daniel Horn, Charles McNair, Hugh Marsh, John Brown, William Davis, and 
Isaiah Jones, viewers, confirmed November 7, 181 5. From "Little Broken- 
straw to William C. White's," Abraham Strickland, Ephraim Miles, Charles 
McNair, William C. White, Lansing Wetmore, and James Irvine, viewers, ap- 
proved November 9, 1815. From "Jacob Goodwin's to the two hundred and 
fourth mile-stone on the New York State line," John Brown, Amos York, 
Charles McNair, Jacob Goodwin, Richard B. Miller, and William Arthur, view- 
ers, confirmed December 6, 1816. From " Lottsville to meet a road laid out 
from John Titus's to the State line, at an angle known by the name of Alexan- 
der Watts' Cabin," Harmonius Lott and others, viewers, confirmed February 
4, 1817. From " Fleming's Mill, in Venango county, to Shelletto's in Warren 
county," Edward Fleming, James Miller, David Kidd, Daniel Fleming, and 
Samuel Fleming, viewers, confirmed November 4, 1817. From "the State 
line to the crossings of the roads," David Dalrymple, Thomas Green, John 
Brown, Richard B. Miller, and John Tuthill, viewers, confirmed May sessions, 
1818. From " Youngsville to intersect the road from Jacob Goodwin's to the 
State line," John Mead, Henry Kinnear, Mathew Young, Hugh Wilson, and 
William Mead, viewers, confirmed November 24, 18 18. From " Culbertson's 
Mill to Erie county line," James Culbertson, Alexander Watts, Daniel Horn, 
Hugh Wilson, Jacob Goodwin, and James Bonner, viewers, confirmed Feb- 
ruary 22, 1 8 19. From " two hundred and second mile-stone on State line to 
John Barr's," William Stewart, Garret Burgett, John Marsh, and Hugh Marsh, 
viewers, whose report was confirmed May 23, 1819. 

Since the organization of the county scores of other roads have been laid 
out and somewhat improved until to-day they are found leading in all direc- 
tions. They are, however, very, very ordinary dirt roads. Once a year the 
farmers and others assessed for highway tax turn out and spoil the road here 
and there within their beat for the ensuing twelvemonth, by throwing upon it 
loose loam, sods and stones, and the next year the same operation is repeated 
at other points. As a result of this yearly patch work, " a lick and a promise," 
highways which have been in use for fifty years are in no better condition than 
when first opened, other than the disappearance of stumps, roots and some loose 


The Sunbury and Erie, now known as the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad, 
was chartered in 1837, rnainly through the persistent efforts of Hon. Thomas 
Struthers, of Warren. This was only eight years after railroads were first used 
as public thoroughfares in America. Owing to the failure of the United States 

3IO History of Warren County. 

Bank, the Sunbury and Erie Railroad enterprise, in which it was the principal 
stockholder, lay dormant for many years. Its friends, however, were undis- 
mayed, and one of them, Dr. G. A. Irvine, to save the charter, graded a por- 
tion of the line near Irvine Station in 1840. In 1856, the towns and counties 
along the route having subscribed very liberally to the capital stock, work was 
commenced at the western terminus, and late in the fall of 1859 the western 
division, from Erie to Warren, was completed. 

The cars first came into Warren December 10, but did not commence run- 
ning regularly on schedule time until December 21, 1859. On the 15th of 
that month occurred the celebration at Warren in honor of so great an event 
in its history — railroad communication with Erie, and thence by other rail- 
roads with the chief cities of the Union. Many visitors from Erie, Cleveland, 
Philadelphia, New York and other places were present. Among the Erie 
guests present were General Wilson and staff, escorted by the Wayne Guards 
of Erie and a brass six pounder. They were appropriately received by Gen- 
eral R. Brown and staff, the Packer Rifles, and a uniformed body of fireman, 
representing the citizens of Warren. After a street parade a banquet was en- 
joyed at the Carver House, where Hons. S. P. Johnson, G. W. Scofield, C. B. 
Curtis, Thos. Struthers, and Rev. C. L. Hequembourg, did the principal speak- 
ing for Warren ; G. J. Ball, M. B. Lowry, C. W. Kelso, W. A. Galbraith, and 
ex-Mayor King for Erie, and Chief Engineer F"arris for the railroad company. 
At night a military ball, held at Odd Fellows Hall, closed the festivities of the 

The first through passenger train from the eastern terminus reached War- 
ren August 12, 1864, but the formal opening of this avenue of travel and com- 
merce did not take place until October 4 of that year. From its inception, 
twenty-seven years prior to that date, Thomas Struthers had been one of its 
warmest and most active advocates, and during its building he, together with 
C. B. Curtis and L. D. Wetmore as contractors, under the firm names of 
Struthers, Curtis & Co., and Struthers & Wetmore, built thirty or forty miles 
of the road from Irvineton eastward. At times they had as many as five hun- 
dred men in their employ at the same moment. The name of the road was 
changed from the Sunbury and Erie, to the Philadelphia and Erie, in 186 1. 

Other railroads were completed during the years mentioned as follows: 
The Warren and Franklin from Irvineton to Oil City in 1866, carrying 65,000 
passengers during the first five months after its completion. The Dunkirk and 
Warren railroad, commenced in the fall of 1867, was finished in 1871, and in 
1872 the Warren and Venango road, from Warren to Titusville, was opened 
for business. In 1883 was completed another railroad, running up the Alle- 
gheny River through Kinzua and Corydon to Salamanca and Olean, now 
called the Buffalo, New York and Philadelphia Railroad, making Warren a 
center, to and from which trains run in five different directions every day in 
the week, Sundays excepted. 

The Bench and Bar. 311 



Interesting Memoirs of the President Judges now Deceased — Full Mention of Those Who 
Survive — The Bar — A Complete Roll of Attorneys Admitted Since the Organization of the 
County — Remarks Concerning Some of the Earliest Resident Attorney.s — Notes Relating to 
Present Attorneys in Active Practice. 

The Bench. 

IN his address delivered at the dedication of the new court-house, December 
3, 1877, Hon. Samuel P. Johnson referred to the president judges who 
have presided over the courts of Warren county, particularly those deceased, 
in the following words. And we will add that none living were more compe- 
tent to speak of the dead worthies than he, since he had been personally 
acquainted with all of them. 

" During the fifty-eight years of its existence, twelve president or law 
judges have presided over the destinies of the people of Warren county in the 
administration of the laws, seven of whom have closed their records upon earth 
and been committed without bail or mainprize to the prison of the tomb, while 
five still remain to claim the benefit of the extension law. 

" This county has been fortunate in the character of those intrusted with 
the great responsibilities of presiding judge during its early history. I speak 
but of the dead. Let posterity write the history of the living. 

"The Hon. Jesse Moore was the first in the order of time, from 18 19 to 
1824. He was a gentleman of the old school, dignified but courteous, learned 
but not brilliant, characterized by stern integrity and freedom from all preju- 
dice. He was a short, thick-set man, and some still remember his benignant 
countenance, partially bald head, well-powdered hair, and broad-brimmed, 
drab-colored hat. He died suddenly, when still in the prime of life and ma- 
turity of intellect, honored and lamented by all. 

" Henry Shippen succeeded him from 1825 to 1835. His characteristics 
were common sense and sound judgment. Many here will remember his 
inflexible honesty, his fidelity to truth, and his contempt for trickery and 
fraud. A single instance will suffice to illustrate : In 1834 a notorious person- 
age of a neighboring county by fraud and false interpretation had procured a 
judgment note from the venerable old Cornplanter for three thousand dollars, 
entered judginent, and issued execution on it. Application was made by 
counsel, in behalf of the old chief, to open the judgment and let him into a 
defense. As the evidence of the villainy was disclosed, the judge became very 
nervous. Anger flashed from his eye, and before the counsel got through his 

312 History of Warren County. 

evidence the judge told him to stop, and, leaning over the bench, in a voice 
hoarse with indignation, said : ' Mr. Clerk, set aside that writ and strike that 
judgment from the records of this court ! ' 

"Next came, in 1835, Judge Nathaniel B. Eldred, the accomplished gen- 
tleman, brimful of honor, honesty, and sympathy. His quick perception, 
sound judgment, and stern impartiality guided him to the justice of a case, 
without the aid of much legal learning, so that his decisions were seldom 
appealed from and were seldom reversed. With but a year of interruption he 
remained with us until 1843, when he was removed by appointment to the 
Harrisburg district. His social qualities and public spirit, as well as official 
conduct, had greatly endeared him to the hearts of the people of this and other 
counties, who parted with him with much reluctance and regret. 

"In 1839, after the death of Judge Shippen, Judge Eldred was appointed 
his successor in the sixth district, out of which this county had been taken in 
1835 to form part of the eighteenth, and without our solicitation or knowledge 
Alexander McCalmont was appointed to fill his place in the eighteenth district, 
including Warren county. His administration was so short and unsatisfactory 
that I will be excused for passing it over in silence. The next year, by legis- 
lative act, this county was restored to the sixth district, and thus again came 
under the jurisdiction of Judge Eldred. He was the only judge of the first 
seven that ever resided in Warren. 

"After Eldred came Judge Gaylord Church, in 1843, young, ardent, am- 
bitious, industrious, painstaking and prompt. With much ability and no sym- 
pathy, he exacted a rigid enforcement of the criminal law, and a technical 
application of both law and practice in civil cases. He was a terror to evil- 
doers. Withal, his head was a little dizzy by the elevation so suddenly thrust 
upon him, and he seemed jealous lest it should be supposed there was anything 
he did not know. 

" He retired in 185 i under the operation of the amended constitution, and 
was succeeded by the Hon. John Galbraith, who was elected in the fall of that 
year. He brought with him age, learning, and experience. His prominent 
characteristics were honesty, frankness, charity for all, and an abounding sym- 
pathy for the erring and unfortunate. Mercy tempered all his judgments, and 
sometimes down to great dilution. He died in June, i860, a year and a half 
before the expiration of his term. 

" Last but not least of the dead worthies whose virtues linger in our mem- 
ories is the Hon. James Thompson. The exigencies of the business in the 
sixth judicial district in 1839 required the creation of a special court of civil 
jurisdiction, and Judge Thompson was appointed its sole presiding officer for 
a term of five years. He brought to the discharge of its duties integrity, 
learning, and a large ability, flavored with a geniality of disposition, an urban- 
ity of manner, and a judicial courtesy that made him a favorite with all, and 

^ ^^ 

The Bench and Bar. 313 

especially with the members of the bar. In after years, these same qualities 
of mind and manners adorned his administration for a full term upon the bench 
of the Supreme Court of the State. He died at the age of three score and 
ten, honored and beloved, having spent the half of his adult life in the political 
and judicial service of his country. 

" I said this county had been fortunate in the character of its early judges. 
During the entire time embraced in the official history of those I have named, 
covering a period of over forty years, no charge of corruption, dishonesty, or 
malfeasance was ever made with truth against any of the incumbents. The 
purity of the judicial ermine suffered no tarnish while worn by them." 

Of Judge Galbraith's successors on the bench as president judges — Hon. 
Rasselas Brown, appointed in i860; Hon. Samuel P.Johnson, elected in i860; 
Hon. Lansing D. Wetmore, elected in 1870, and Hon. William D. Brown, 
elected in 1880 — all are yet living in the town of Warren, esteemed and hon- 
ored, and in the enjoyment of ample means justly earned. In other pages of 
this work memoirs relating to Judges R. Brown, Johnson, and Wetmore will 
be found. 

Hon. William D. Brown was born at Sugar Grove, Warren county, Pa., 
September 6, 1823. After availing himself of such educational advantages as 
the public and private schools of Sugar Grove and the Warren Academy 
afforded, he studied law in the office of Johnson & Brown, and was admitted 
to practice December 8, 1847. In 1849 he was elected justice of the peace 
for the borough of Warren, but after a short time resigned. In the fall of 1850 
he was elected district attorney for the county, and held the office for three 
years. In 1862 he served as commissioner for Warren county, to superintend 
the drafting of men for military service. He represented this county in the 
Pennsylvania House of Representatives during the years 1863-64-65, and in 
the fall of 1880 was elected president judge of the thirty-seventh judicial dis- 
trict (composed of Warren and Forest counties), for the term expiring January 
I, 1891. Judge Brown has been a life-long resident of this his native county, 
his youthful days having been passed in Sugar Grove, and the remainder, 
since his admission to the bar, in the town of Warren. From 185 i to the time 
of his election as president judge he was actively and quite successfully engaged 
in the practice of his profession, and gained an enviable reputation as a jurist. 
He is of Scotch- Irish ancestry — a son of Hon. David Brown, who was the first 
to represent Warren county in the legislative halls of the State, after the organ- 
ization of the county in 18 19. 

The Bar. 

Since the organization of the county more than three hundred attorneys at 
law, a large majority of them non-residents of the county, have been admitted 
to practice in its various courts. Their names are found scattered through a 


History of Warren County. 

dozen volumes or more of dusty records, some of them not indexed, and the 
work of compiling a list of admissions has required the expenditure of much 
time and patience — the scanning, in fact, of each volume, page by page. The 
following roll is the result of such researches. It is believed to be nearly per- 
fect, and cannot be otherwise than valuable for reference, showing, as it does, 
the names, places of residence (so far as learned), and date of admission of the 
more than three hundred men referred to. Present resident attorneys in active 
practice are designated by italics. 

Ralph Mailin, MeadviUe, Pa., Nov./iU, 1819 
Thomas H. Sill, Erie, Pa., " 

John Galbraith, Franklin, Pa., " " 

Patrick Farrelly, MeadviUe, Pa., " " 

Aimer Hazcltino, Warren, Pa., March 6, 1820 
Roljcrt Bo.-^twick, " " 

John B,, MeadviUe, Pa., Mch. 8, 1820 
Anslem Potter, May 30, 1820 

Samuel B. Foster, Mercer, Pa., Sept. i, 1820 
Frank Bergher, Dec. 4, 1820 

George Selden, MeadviUe, Pa., June 4, 1821 
Harmer Denny, Pittsburgh, Pa,, June 5, '.821 
Robert L. Potter, Sept. 4, 1821 

Richard Bear, " " 

Horatio N. Waigley, Sept. 2, 1822 

Samuel Ladd, " " 

Thomas R. Peters, Sept. 4, 1822 

John J. Pearson, Franklin, Pa., Dec. 3, 1822 
Josiah Hall, ^\■arren, Pa., Sept. 3, 1823 

David Derrickson, MeadviUe, Pa., Mch. 3, 1824 
Samuel Miles Green, " " 

Stephen Barlow, MeadviUe. Pa., '' " 

Henry Baldwin, MeadviUe, Pa.. June I, 1824 
William Ayres, Butler, Pa., '■ " 

John Banks, Mercer, Pa., " " 

George J. Elliott, Erie, Pa., '■ " 

Andrew W. Morrison. Warren, Pa., 

Sept. 2. 1824 
William McKean, May 30, 1825 

Moses McClane, jr., " " 

Don Carlos Barrett, Erie. Pa.. Sept. 4. 182G 
Elijah Babbitt, Erie, Pa., 

Gilman Merrill, Warren, Pa.. March 5, 1827 
John S. Riddle, Me.advdle. Pa., April 3, 1827 
Sylvester Dunham, Brookville, Pa., " " 

James L. t'rary. May 5, 1828 

John W. Farrelly, MeadviUe, Pa., " " 

Abram D. Diunars, Warren, Pa., May 8, 1828 
Samuel A. Purviance, Warren, Pa., 

Sept. 1, 1828 
Thomas Struther.'s, Warren, Pa., Sept. 8, 1828 
Michael Gallagher, Warren, Pa., Dec. 1, 1828 
John W. Howe, Smethport, Pa., May 4, 1829 
John Wilson, " " 

James Thompson, Franklin, Pa., Mch. 3, 1830 
Lansing Wetmore, Warren, Pa., Dec. 2, 1830 
Olio J. Hiimlin, Smethport, Pa., Sept. 3, 1832 
James Ro.<s Snowden, Franklin, Pa., " " 

A. G. Ramsay, June 3, 1833 

Carlton B. Curti<, Warren, Pa., March 3, 1834 
Alexander ,McCalniont, Franklin, Pa.. 

June 2, 1834 

Altred Huidekoper. MeadviUe. Pa.,Junc 2, 1834 
Samuel P. Johnson, VV^arren, Pa., " '■ 

Benjamin Bartholomew, Warren, Pa.. 

April 15, 1835 
William H. Dimmick, March 7, 1837 

.James MuUett, Mayville, N. Y., '' " 

Abner Lewis, Jamestown, N. Y., " " 

Gaylord Church. MeadviUe, Pa., June 5, 1837 
John W. Maynard, Wellsboro, Pa., Dec. 4, 1837 
Hiram Payne, Smethport, Pa., " " 

Rasselas Brown. Warren, Pa., June 4, 1839 
Almon Virgil, Warren, Pa., July 29. 1839 

Joseph Y. James, Warren, Pa., " '■ 

Quincy A. Johnson, Warren, Pa., Sept. 2, 1839 
Joshua Sweet, Oct. 23, 1839 

Richard P. Marvin, Jamestown, N. Y., 

Oct. 23, 1839 
Arthur CuUum, MeadviUe, Pa., June 3, 1840 
Norris W. Goodrich. Warren, Pa., 

Oct. 20,1840 
Thomas S. Espy. Franklin, Pa., Dec. 29, 1840 
Darius Titus. Warren, Pa., March 2, 1841 

Montgomery P. Young, March 3, 1841 

William H. Lamberton, Franklin, Pa., 

Dec. 8, 1841 
S. J. Goodrich, Warren, Pa,, March 7, 1842 
John P, Vincent, Erie, Pa,, March 11, 1842 
Edwin C, Stacy, Columbus, Pa., Sept. 9, 1842 
Lothrop T. Parmlee, Warren, Pa.. Dec. L 1842 
Glenni W. Scofield, Warren, Pa., Jan. 5, 1843 
Josiah Hall, Warren. Pa., re-admitted 

Jan. 5, 1843 
William H. Davis, MeadviUe, Pa., Dec. 5, 1843 
C. H. S. Williams, Mayville, N. Y., 

Dec. 5, 1843 
.lo.ieph D. Jame,';, Warren, Pa., March 5, 1844 
William A. (Jalbraith, Erie, Pa., June 3, 1844 
Lansing D. HWmorf, Warren, Pa., June 4, 1844 
Charles Kuapp, Warren, Pa., '' '' 

Theophilus T. Wilson, VVarren, Pa., '' 

John N. Miles. Warren, Pa., '■ 

Isaac Benson, Warren. Pa., June 21. 1844 

E. P. Seely. Dec. 2, 1844 

Edwin C. Wilson, Franklin, Pa., Sept. 3, 1845 
William D. Brown, Warren, Pa., Dec. 8, 1847 
George B. Delamater, MeadviUe, Pa., 

Sept. 4, 1849 
Jerome W. Wetmore, Warreu, Pa,, 

Dec. 6, 1849 
Madison Burnell, Jamestown, N. Y., 

March 6, 1850 
Cliarles B. Curtis, Warren, Pa., Dec. 4, 1851 

The Bench and Bar. 




Henry Souther, Ridgway, Pa,, Jan. 19, 
George D. Woodin, Warren, Pa., June 9, 
James Karr, Franklin, Pa., Sept. 8, 

James Sill, Brie, Pa., Deo. 6, 

Theodore D. Edwards, Warren, Pa., 

June 7, 
T. C. Spencer, Warren, Pa., " 

S. W. Dana, Warren, Pa., " 

Isaac S. Alden, Warren, Pa., June 8, 
Barnett W. Lacy, Warren, Pa., Oct. 11, 
Oliver A. Dah-ymple, Warren, Pa., Dec. 5, 
0. N. Payne, March 3, 

Byron D. Hamlin, Sraethpovt, Pa., 

Feb. 4, 

B. B. Eldred, Smethport, Pa., June 3, 
Samuel N. Dickinson, Warren, Pa, 

Aug. 17, 
J. A. Chapin, Ridgeway, Pa., Sept. 8, 
Junius R. Clark, Warren, Pa., Aug. 17, 
D. J. Hodges, Warren, Pa., " 

F. B. Guthrie, Warren, Pa., March 8, 
William R. Scott, Aug. 17, 

Charles Dinsmoor, Warren, Pa., Sept. 6, 
T. R. Kennedy, Meadville, Pa., Dec. 7, 
J. B. Johnson, Erie, Pa., Sept. 6, 

William S. Lane, Erie, Pa., Dec. 4, 

William IT'. Wilbur, Warren, Pa., 

April 23, 
H. A. Jamieson, Warren, Pa., Aug. 19, 
N. P. Fetterman, Pittsburgh, Pa., " 
George W. De Camp, Erie Co., Pa., 

Aug. 22, 
Charles Taylor, Franklin, Pa., Sept. 3, 
J. A. Neill, Warren, Pa., Oct. 23, 

James L. Lott, Warren Co., Pa., Dec. 4, 
David McKelvy, Warren, Pa., Feb. 10, 
Thomas M. Biddle, Phila., Pa. " 

Charles E. Baldwin, June 6, 

A. D. Wood, Warren, Pa., June 1, 

S. E. Woodruff, Erie, Pa., June 2, 

Jacob Baker, Titusville, Pa., " 

Samuel T. Allen, Warren, Pa., Feb. 9, 
Orrin C. Allen, Warren, Pa., "' 

Henry Crawford, New Albany, Ind., 

March 8, 
Joel F. Asper, Erie, Pa., " 

Charles E. Baldwin, name stricken from 

March 8, 
0. 0. Trantum Warren, Pa., Sept. 4, 
Clark Ewing, Titusville, Pa., 
Thomas McConnell, Pittsburgh, Pa., 

Sept. 6, 
William M. Biddle, Erie, Pa., Deo. 4, 
Joel Campbell, Corry, Pa., Dec. 6, 

C. 0. Bowman, Corry, Pa., " " 
S. M. Davis, Meadville, Pa., March 5, 1866 
Alfred B. McCalmont, Franklin, Pa., 

March 6, 1805 
Abner Hazeltine, jr., Jamestown, N. Y., 

June 7, 1866 
H. T. Beardsley, Lock Haven, Pa., 

Nov. 17, 1866 
Harrison Allen, Warren, Pa., Nov. 17, 1806 
Alvin W. Barry, Tidioute, Pa., " " 










L. W. Wilcox, Titusville, Pa., Sept. 3 
C W. Stone, Warren, Pa., " 

James Buchanan, Tidioute, Pa., Sept. 4, 
C. D. Longfellow, Titusville, Pa., 
G. W. Allen, Warren, Pa., Dec. 3, 

James D. Mahon, Irvine, Pa., March 5 
Robert C. Beach, Tidioute, Pa., March 7 
W. C. Lathey, Forest Co., Pa., June 4 
P. D. Reeves, Warren, Pa., June 5, 

Hugh C. Graham, Oil City, Pa., June 10^ 
Selden Marvui, Brie, Pa., July 1 

Pearson Church, Meadville, Pa., Dec. 9, 
C. W. GilfiUian, Franklin, Pa., 
Samuel A. Davenport, Erie, Pa., Feb. 21 
Samuel T. JVeill, Warren, Pa., June 2, 
Isaac Myer, jr., Franklin, Pa., June 4, 
J. M. Bonham, Sept. 8, 

Joshua Douglass, Meadville, Pa., Sept. 15, 
J. B. Brawley, Meadville, Pa., Sept. 16. 
Robert Dennison, Warren, Pa., Oct. 6, 
A. B. Richmond, IMeadville, Pa., Dec 
J. H. Lewi.s Meadville, Pa., Dec. 9 

M. C. Beebe, Crawford Co., Pa., March 8, 
Warren Cowles. Corry, Pa., June 7 

C. F. Eldred, Corry, Pa., 
Miles W. Tate, Forest Co., Pa., June 17 
Joshua Byles, Pleasantville, Pa., Sept. 10, 
James M. Breden, Franklin, Pa., Sept. 11 
M. Crosby, Corry, Pa., Oct. 26, 

William Schnur, Warren, Pa., Nov. 23, 
Rufus B. Smith, Warren, Pa., " 

Wallace W. Brown, McKean Co., Pa., 

Dec. 7 
R. Mackwood, Tidioute, Pa., March 7, 
S. D. Irwin, Franklin, Pa., " 

Caleb C. Thompson, Warren, Pa., May 3, 
L. S. Norton, Erie Co., Pa., June 6, 

Daniel D. Fassett, Tidioute, Pa., Sept. G. 
Charles R. Saunders, Erie Co., Pa., 

March 6, 
W. P. Mercelliot, Forest Co., Pa., 

March 7 
M. G. Gushing, Tidioute, Pa., 
H. C. Johns, Titusville, Pa., March 17 
James 0. Parmlee, Warren, Pa., Sept, 23 
Henry E. Brown, Warren, Pa., Dec. 4, 
C. H. Noyes, Warren, Pa., Dee. 12, 

ir. M. Lindsey, Warren, Pa., March 4, 
Alfred S. Moore, Warren, Pa., May 7 
Isaac Ash, Oil City, Pa., June 3, 

C. L. Baker, Tidioute, Pa., 
Fred. A. Hooker, Warren, Pa., Aug. 10 
Anthony Wiedman, Meadville, Pa., 

Sept. 10, 
James H. Donly, Venango Co., Pa., Oct. 7 
Samuel S. Smith, Titusville, Pa., Jan. 
S. E. Woodruff, Erie Co., Pa., March 6 

Mason, Tionesta, Pa., March 14, 

A. W. Coville, Tidioute, Pa., April 28 

C. L. Coville, Corry, Pa., 

D. C. McCoy, Meadville, Pa., June 9, 
Roger Sherman, Titusville, Pa., July 23, 
George T. Chester, Titusville, Pa., 

Sept. 1, 















History of Warren County. 

B. J. Reed, Clarion, Pa., Sept. 6, 1873 
Rufus Lucore, Elk Co., Pa., March 3, 1874 
R. W. Mackey, Venango Co., Pa., 

March 3, 1874 
F. S. Seely, Crawford Co., Pa., March 4, 1874 
W. B. Chapman, Bradford, Pa., " " 

F. D. Kinnear, Franklin, Pa., Sept. 15, 1874 
Charles B. Guthrie, Titusville, Pa., 

Sept. 16, 1874 
S. C. T. Dodd, Franklin, Pa., Nov. 10, 1874 
Otii F. Hoffman, Wai-ren, Pa., Dec. 7, 1874 
Melancthon ililes, Warren Co., Pa., 

Jan. 13, 1875 
David I. Ball, Warren, Pa., Feb. 10, 1875 

John L. Butler, Aug. 5, 1875 

Byron Sutherland, Warren, Pa., Nov. 12, 1875 
Thomas A. Morrison, Dec. 10, 1875 

James Cable, Warren, Pa.. Jan. 20, 187G 

F. M. Knapp, Warren, Pa., April 13, 187G 
William Swanson, Warren. Pa., July 10, 1877 
E L. Davis, Tionesta, Forest Co., Pa., 

Sept. 7, 1877 
J. V. Brown, Dec. 6, 1877 

George H. Cutter, Girard, Erie Co., Pa., 

March 4, 1878 

C. G. Olmstead, Corry, Pa., April 1, 1878 
James G. Marsh, Warren. Pa., Sept. 2. 1878 
Perry D. Clark, Warren, Pa., " " 
Samuel Minor, Titusville, Pa., Jan. 7, 1880 
W. E. Marsh, Corry, Pa., " 
S. F. Hallock, Meadville, Pa., Jan. 9, 
R. C. Schnur, Warren, Pa., April 5, 
A. C. Bowers, AVarren Co., Pa., July 6, 
George H. Higgins, Warren, Pa., " 
C. H. McCauiey, Elk Co., Pa., Sept. 7, 
J. W. Lee, Franklin, Pa., Dec. 9, 
William M. Bcggs, Clarion, Pa., Dec. 10, 
Samuel L. McGee, Jan. 6, 
H. W. Wier, Pittsburgh, Pa., Feb. 11, 
William D. Christy, Oil City, Pa., 

April 5, 
James D. Hancock, Franklin, Pa., " 
R. F. Glenn, Jan. 20, 

Frank McClintock. Feb. 6, 

F. H. Davi,s, Meadville, Pa., March 9, 
T. F. Ritchey, Tionesta, Pa., March 11, 
John IF. Dunkle, Clarendon, Pa., May 1, 
Henry W. Blakeslee, ilcKean Co., Pa., 

May 4, 
N. M. Orr, June 5, 

Eugene Mullen, 

H. J. Muse, Warren, Pa., June 6, 

John A. Wilson, Venango Co., Pa., 

June 8, 
Charles Westcott, June 9, 

N. B. Smiley, MoKean Co., Pa., 
Watson D. Hincldey,\\ avien, Pa., July 12, 
A. F. Bole, Union City, Pa., '' 








July 12, 1882 

Oct. 3, 
Oct. 4, 
Nov. 13, 
Dec. 4, 
Dec. 5, 
Jan. 19, 

March 5, 1883 

March 7, 
April 28, 

June 7. 

July 10, 

William C. Brown, 

L. R. Freeman, Warren, Pa.. 

Foster L. Snodgrass, Meadville, Pa., 

July 31, 
F. D. Kinnear, Tidioute, Pa., Aug. 11, 
W. R. Bole, Meadville, Pa., Sept. 4, 

H. L. Richmond, jr., Meadville, Pa., 

Sept. 4, 
F. R. Blackmarr, Meadville, Pa., 
Thomas Roddy, Meadville, Pa., " 

J. H. Osmar, Franklin, Pa., Sept. 5, 

Harvey N. Snyder, Sept. 6, 

William G. Trunkey, Warren, Pa., 

S. M. Brainard, Erie, Pa., 
John McKissick, 
J. M. McClure, 
Lewi.s F. Barger, 
H. D. Hancock, 
Samuel Grumbine, 
H. H. Goucler, Warren, Pa 
W. P. Weston, 
Cornelius Vanhorn, 
Samuel P. Bingham, 
George A. Allen, Erie, Pa., 
John M. Thompson, 
Lewis Rozenweig, Erie, Pa. 
George N. Frazine, Warren, Pa., Sept, 3, 
A. B. Force, Pittsburgh, Pa., Jan. 29, 
James W. Wiggins, Warren, Pa., March 3, 
John C. Sturgeon, Erie, Pa., May 5, 

F. W. Hays, Venansro Co., Pa., June 2, 
Waldron M. Dane, " Julv 28. 
H. R. McCalmont. Sept. 29, 
A. E. Sisson, Erie, Pa., Oct. 9, 
James W. Sproul, Crawford Co., Pa., 

Feb. 5, 
Eugene P. Gillespie, Crawford Co., Pa., 

Feb. 5, 
William E. Rice. Warren, Pa., April 6, 
Edward S. Wetmore, Warren, Pa., " 
George A. Jenks, Jefferson Co., Pa., 

April 8, 
John G. Hall, Elk Co., Pa., 
Henry McSweeney, " 

James W. Kinnear, Tidioute, Pa., April 16, 
Theodore A. Lamb, Erie Co., Pa., 

Sept. 8, 

G. B. McCalmont, " 
Isaac Ash, Venango Co., Pa., Oct. 7, 
A. C. Richards, Busti, N. Y., Dec. 15, 
C. Heydrick, Venango Co., Pa., June 28, 
F. Elliott, Tioga Co., Pa., " 

W. V. N. Yates, Warren, Pa., " 

John J. Henderson, Meadville, Pa., 

Sept. 6, 
A, J. Foster, Erie, Pa., Oct. 4, 

Charles L. Cooper, Warren, Pa., Oct. 5, 













Of some of the early resident practitioners mentioned in the foregoing list, 
Judge S. P. Johnson has kindly furnished for this chapter the following remin- 

The Bench and Bar. 117 

" Abner Hazeltine, the first located lawyer in the county, came here in 1818, 
remained until 1825, then moved to Jamestown; but continued his practice in 
Warren until the infirmities of age compelled him to withdraw. He was a 
man of average ability, great industry, unpretentious, but a good lawyer and a 
man of sterling integrity ; in moral character a model. 

" Oilman Merrill came to Warren in 1826, bringing with him a certificate of 
admission to the bar in Ohio, which secured his admission here in 1827. He 
never made much pretension as a lawyer. Having been a cabinet-maker in 
life, he worked some at both trades. He was prosecuting attorney for the 
county, under the administration of Governor Wolf, in 1853-5, ^"d afterwards 
one of the associate judges for some years. 

" Samuel A. Purviance, who deserves notice as one of the pioneers of the 
profession in this county, came here in the summer of 1828 ; continued in act- 
ive practice until 1832, when, wishing a larger field for the exercise of his abil- 
ities, he removed to Butler county. He continued there many years, practic- 
ing in that and adjoining counties with marked success, and finally removed 
to Pittsburgh, where he spent the remainder of his natural and professional life. 
Both as a man and a lawyer he occupied a high position in the estimation of 
the community and the profession, in whatever locality he lived and practiced. 

" Carlton B. Curtis came to Warren as a young attorney from Chautauqua 
county, N. Y., in the spring of 1834. He came without prestige or friends, 
dependent on his own resources alone for success, and he succeeded. He was 
not naturally methodical or painstaking. Whatever he did he did well, with- 
out much regard to the manner of its doing. Naturally indolent, he took the 
shortest cut to his objective point. His legal documents were usually short, 
informal, and often slovenly, but clearly to the point. His mind was incisive 
and analytical. His conclusions were generally logical and correct; but they 
were the product of his instinct or good common sense, rather than of his ratio- 
cination. His memory was good and his judgment first-rate ; but the want of 
a thorough collegiate education had left his mind undisciplined in the close 
process of logical reasoning. Yet as a practitioner he was successful and pop- 
ular. Personally he possessed many amiable qualities. In his domestic rela- 
tions he was kind and indulgent even to excess. In his social intercourse he 
was interesting, agreeable, and facetious even to waggery sometimes. He had 
no malice in his composition, and never indulged in revenge or retaliation. 
He represented this county in the Legislature during the sessions of 1837-38, 
and in Congress in the years 1851-52 and 1873-74. He was an earnest and 
honest politician, and always took an active part in all political campaigns. 
He enlisted in the service of his country during the late " unpleasantness," as 
he termed it, and became colonel of the Fifty-eighth Regiment of the Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers, and resigned in the summer of 1863. Within the next year 
or two he removed from Warren to Erie, where he continued to reside and 

3i8 History of Warren County. 

practice his profession until he died, in 1885. The life and history of Colonel 
Curtis was so identified with the history of Warren county, for more than thirty 
years, as to justify a somewhat prolonged obituary notice. 

" Benjamin Bartholomew came to Warren from Jefferson county in the 
spring of 1835, with a family, having already had some years' practice. He 
soon acquired a fair practice. His education and abilities were such as to 
secure to him permanently a very respectable position at the bar, had his habits 
been such as to inspire public confidence. Unfortunately they were not, and 
the natural result followed. He was a zealous Whig politician and a good 
stumper. He was elected to the Legislature in 1846, and in the following year 
left Warren and moved to Pottsville, Schuylkill county. 

" Josiah Hall was the first law student in the county of Warren ; prosecuted 
his studies in the office of Abner Hazeltine, the only resident lawyer here in 
those days, and was admitted in September, 1823. The sparseness of the pop- 
ulation and their poverty made the practice of the law far from remunerative 
even for two lawyers. Most of the good paying business was done by foreign 
lawyers from 1820 to '29. With all their economy, Haseltine and Hall both 
failed of financial success. In 1825 the former moved to Jamestown, and soon 
after the latter embarked in the lumber business, which he found much more 
to both his taste and profit. Still he kept his place in the profession until 
about 1834, when he devoted himself entirely to lumbering and politics. He 
was that year appointed one of the associate judges of the county, which office 
he resigned in the fall of 1835, upon his election to the Legislature. He was 
at this time the leader of the Democratic party in the county, but lost caste 
with it by voting for the charter, or recharter, of the United States Bank, in 

consideration of getting $ of the bonus or bribe it paid for its charter, 

in the shape of appropriations for roads and bridges in the county. Anti- 
bankism was the Jacksonian shibboleth in those days. Hall never resumed 
the practice, for which he had but little of either taste or talent. The balance 
of his life was spent in the ups and downs of the lumber and oil business, alter- 
nately rich and poor, interspersed with several heavy and perplexing lawsuits. 

" John N. Miles was a native of Warren county ; received a collegiate educa- 
tion, studied law with Johnson & Brown, and was admitted to practice in the 
summer of 1844. He soon formed a copartnership with C. B. Curtis, which 
continued as Curtis & Miles until his death in 1855. He died young, unmar- 
ried, and without having fully developed his capacity as a lawyer, or indicating 
the position he would have attained in the profession had his life been spared. 
His prospects were fair, his acquirements and natural ability were good, and 
his personal qualities such as to render him a general favorite in the com- 

" In the early judicial history of the county were certain gentlemen of the 
bar never residents therein, who for a number of years participated largely in 

The Bench and Bar. 319 

the practice, whose names are still familiar to many of the older citizens. 
Among these, John Galbraith will be remembered as one of those admitted to 
this bar at the first court ever held in the county, in November, 18 19. He 
resided in Franklin, but continued to attend the courts here regularly until his 
removal to Erie, about the year 1 840, and occasionally afterwards, until his 
election as the president judge of this district in 185 1. As a practitioner he 
was laborious and painstaking, not eloquent, but logical and convincing, fair 
and courteous, honest and sympathetic, persistent and apt to take his lost cases 
to the Supreme Court. His infinite good nature prevented his ever giving 
offense, and every one that knew him liked him. After being three or four 
times elected to Congress he was at last elected judge of the sixth judicial dis- 
trict, in which he presided from 185 1 to the time of his decease, in June, i860. 
Neither at the bar nor on the bench was a dishonest or dishonorable act ever 
attributed to the Hon. John Galbraith. 

"John J. Pearson was admitted to the bar of Warren county in December, 
1822. He was then a fair-complexioned, light-haired stripling, just of age; 
resided in Franklin, and had been about two years a lawyer. He was well 
read, professionally ambitious, a ready and rapid speaker, and indefatigably 
industrious. These elements of character brought him rapidly to the front 
ranks of the profession. He soon became, and for many years was, the lead- 
ing practitioner of this, as he was of Venango, county. About the year 1830 
he moved from Franklin to Mercer, but continued his long horseback rides to 
the courts of this county periodically up to 1840, and occasionally thereafter. 
He was a model practitioner. Well posted in the law, possessed of a quick 
perception, a ready and discriminating mind and great resources, he was a 
most formidable antagonist to any opponent. He was first appointed, and 
afterwards three times elected, president judge in Dauphin and Lebanon coun- 
ties, equally distinguished for his professional ability, his social virtues, and his 
untarnished integrity. 

" James Thompson, having practiced some years in Venango county, entered 
the profession in Warren county in the spring of 1 830. He soon made his 
mark, and entered largely into the practice of the county. This he kept up, 
except when absent as a member of the Legislature, until the year 1839, when 
he was appointed judge of the District Court, created that year for the sixth 
judicial district, when he removed to Erie and never resumed practice here. 
In 1857 he was promoted to a seat on the Supreme Bench of the State, the 
duties of which he discharged, with eminent ability and to the great satisfac- 
tion of the profession, for fifteen years. His retentive memory and sound 
judgment supplied the want of a collegiate education, and made him a safe 
and successful judge." 

The attorneys now in active practice in the county are about thirty in num- 
ber. All have been requested to contribute data concerning themselves as 

320 History of Warren County. 

members of the bar. A majority have responded, and of these, not otherwise 
mentioned at length in other pages, we append the following remarks: 

Samuel T. Neill was born at Neillsburg, Venango (now Forest) county, on 
the i6th of July, 1 841, and was graduated from Jefferson College in August, 
1865. He studied law one year with J. A. Neill, of Warren, and the rest of 
his term with Lewis C. Cassidy, of Philadelphia, after which, on the 2d of 
June, 1868, he was admitted to practice. In 1863 he was a high private in 
the rear rank of the Pennsylvania militia. From December, 1868, to January, 
1883, he resided in Titusville, Pa. Besides a gratifying amount of practice in 
his profession, he has successfully engaged more or less in the oil business, 
the period of his greatest activity in this business being in 1868 and 1869. 
He did not begin to confine his energies to his professional duties, indeed, 
until 1870. 

Caleb C. Thompson was born in Pine Grove on the 28th day of May, 1846. 
He was educated in the common schools of his native town, in the Normal 
School of Edinboro, Pa., at the Jamestown Union School and at the Col- 
legiate Institute at the same place. He studied law with Brown & Stone, of 
Warren, and was admitted to practice in the courts of Warren county on the 
3d of May, 1870. From that time to 1881 he resided at Tidioute, and at the 
last-named date came to Warren. He served one term as burgess of Tidioute 
borough from February, 1878, three years as district attorney of Warren 
county from November, 1878, school director for Warren borough for three 
years from February, 1885, and burgess of Warren borough for one year from 
February, 1885. He is eminently a self-made man. During the time that he at- 
tended school and followed the study of law before admission, he taught school 
winters and labored on farms summers to obtain the money necessary to defray 
his expenses. 

James O. Parmlce was born in Warren, Pa., on the lOth of July, 1845, 
and received his education at Allegheny College, in Meadville, Pa. His law 
studies as a clerk were pursued in the office of Hon. S. P. Johnson, of War- 
ren, his present partner, and he was admitted to practice on the 23d of Sep- 
tember, 1 87 1. Mr. Parmlee served nine months in the last war in Company 
G, Two Hundred and Eleventh Regiment, and as captain of Company I, 
Sixteenth Regiment, N. G. Pa. (from November 5, 1878, to July 30, 1885). 
On the latter date he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the last-named 
regiment, a position which he still holds. He is also United States commis- 
sioner, having received the appointment on the 27th of May, 1880. He is 
now a resident of Warren, though in former years he has lived in Erie, Pa. 

C. H. Noyes entered this life at Marshall, Mich., on the 28th of July, 1849. 
His educational advantages were limited, and he never attended other than 
the union school of his native town, nor that after he had reached his twelfth 
year. He began the study of law in the office of Hon. William D. Brown, 

The Bench and Bar. 321 

of Warren, and afterward continued his researches in the office of Hon. Junius 
R. Clark. His admission to the bar is dated December 12, 1871. Mr. Noyes 
was elected burgess of Warren borough in February, 1877, and served one 
year. In 1886 he was appointed a member of the State Geological Survey 
Commission, a position which he still fills. Since his admission he has closely 
confined himself to his practice, not permitting his attention to be distracted 
from his chosen profession by any Circean avocation whatever. He is now 
the second partner in the prominent firm of Wetmore, Noyes & Hinckley. 

Wilton M. Lindsey was born in the township of Pine Grove, this county, 
June 8, 1841. His literary studies were completed in the academy at Ran- 
dolph, Cattaraugus county, N. Y., and the State Normal School at Edinboro, 
Pa. He studied law in the office of Hon. S. P. Johnson, of Warren, and was 
admitted on the 4th of March, 1872. He enlisted in Company F, One Hundred 
and Forty-fifth Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers, in the last war (August 
13, 1862), served until January 27, 1863, when he was discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate of disability. On the 1st of October, 1865, he was appointed 
county superintendent of common schools for Warren county ; was elected to 
the same office on the 4th of June, 1866, and was re-elected exactly three 
years later. On the ist of December 1871, he resigned this office. In 1877 
and 1878 he represented his native county in the State Legislature. 

James Cable, son of Thomas Cable, was born in Pine Grove township on 
the nth of March, 1848, and was educated at Randolph, N. Y., and at the 
Union School and Collegiate Institute at Jamestown, N. Y. He then studied 
law in the office of Dinsmoor & Reeves, and was admitted to the bar on the 
20th of January, 1876. Although he now limits his avocations to his chosen 
profession, he occupied a portion of his time for the first three years of his 
practice in the service of the several most prominent insurance companies in 
this part of the country. He resided at Pine Grove until 1874, since which 
time he has been a resident of Warren. 

Perry D. Clark was born on the 7th of June, 185 1, in Ellery township, 
Chautauqua county, N. Y., and obtained a good education at Forestville, in 
the county of his birth, and at Cornell University. He studied law in the 
office of S. D. Halladay, at Ithaca, N. Y., and, before coming to Pennsylvania 
to live, was admitted to practice in the highest courts of that State. After 
coming to Warren from Ithaca he continued the study of law in the office of 
Brown & Stone for eight months, and was admitted to practice in the courts 
of this county on the 2d of September, 1878. 

Homer J. Muse was born on the 26th day of November, 1855, at Browns- 
ville (now Sandy Lake), Mercer county. Pa., and received his education at the 
New Lebanon Academy, New Lebanon, Pa. His preparatory law studies 
were pursued in the offices of Hon. Samuel C. T. Dodd and Hon. J. W. Lee, 
of Franklin, Pa. He was admitted to the bar of Venango county on the 2 1st 

322 History of Warren County. 

of April, 1879, and at Warren June 6, 1882. On the 3d of March, 1884, by- 
reason of the illness of the district attorney of Warren county, he was ap- 
pointed by the court assistant district attorney for one term of court. Since 
attaining years of maturity he has resided successively at New Lebanon, 
Franklin, and Coleville, Pa., besides Warren, his present place of residence. 
From June, 1879, to April, 1882, he practiced at the bar of McKean county; 
was admitted to practice in the courts of Warren county in June, 1882, and 
in September following took up his residence in his adopted county. 

George H. Higgins was born in Sparta township, Crawford county. Pa., 
and acquired his literary education in the common schools of his native place 
and in the High School in Watertown, N. Y. Preparatory to his career at the 
bar he studied law in the office of S T. Allen, and was admitted to practice in 
Warren county on the 6th of July, 1880. On the 9th of May, 1884, he was 
appointed by the court district attorney, to fill the vacancy caused by the 
death of William Swanson, and in the following November was elected for a 
term of three years. His term therefore continues until November, 1887. 

Watson D. Hinckley was born on the 17th day of March, 1854, in Fre- 
donia, Chautauqua county, N. Y., and in the academic department" of the State 
Normal School at that place prepared for college. He completed his scho- 
lastic training in the University of Michigan. He studied law with Nelson B. 
Smiley, and was admitted to practice in Warren county on the I2th day of 
July, 1882. At first he resided at Bradford, but for several years has lived in 
Warren. In February, 1880, he was elected one of the aldermen of Bradford 
city for a term of five years, but on the ist of July, 1882, he resigned this 
office. He is the youngest member of the firm of Wetmore, Noyes & Hinckley. 

John W. Dunkle was born on the 9th of November, 1856, at West Free- 
dom, Clarion county, Pa. He attended the public schools of Perry township. 
Clarion county, until 1874, and then passed two years in the State Normal 
School at Edinboro, Pa., after which he took a thorough course in the law 
school at Ann Arbor, Mich., from which he was graduated in the spring 
of 1 88 1. During the summer and fall of 1881 he read law in the office of 
Brown & Stone, and was admitted to practice in Warren county on the ist 
of May, 1882. Since then he has resided at North Clarendon, in this county. 
He was elected burgess of Clarendon borough in February, 1883, and served 
his full term. From the spring of 1882 for three years he was notary public. 

George N. Frazine was born on the 25th of August, i860, at Sugar Grove, 
in this county. He attended a full course in the State Normal School of 
Fredonia, N. Y., from which he was graduated in the class of 1879. In 1884 
he was graduated from Yale College with the degree of Bachelor of Laws, 
aim laudc, an honor reserved for those alone who make an exceptionally brill- 
iant record in that institution. He then removed to Warren, and after a 
course of study in the offices of Brown & Ball and Brown & Stone, was ad- 

The Bench and Bar. 323 

mitted to practice in the courts of Warren county on the 3d of September, 
1883. He is the senior member of the firm of Frazine & Wiggins. 

James W. Wiggins, junior member of the firm last above named, was born 
in Sugar Grove on the 17th of June, 1858, and was educated in the common 
schools of his native town and in Allegheny College. After a full course of 
study in the law offices of Johnson, Lindsey & Parmlee, he was admitted to 
the bar of this county on the 3d of March, 1884, since which time he has car- 
ried on a successful practice in Warren county, residing at Warren. 

William E. Rice was born on the 19th of December, i860, at Lottsville, 
in this county, and was educated at the Chamberlain Institute, at Randolph, 
N. Y., and at Allegheny College, at Meadville, Pa. His preliminary law stud- 
ies were pursued under the direction of Wetmore, Noyes & Hinckley, of War- 
ren, after which course, and on the 6th of April, 1885, he was admitted to 

J. W. Kinnear, of Tidioute, was born in that village on the 2d day of Au- 
gust, 1859, and was graduated from Allegheny College in 1882. He began 
the study of law in the office of Brown & Stone, at Warren, and was admitted 
to the bar of the county on the i6th of April, 1885. 

W. V. N. Yates was born at Columbus, Warren county, on the 1st day 
of August, 1859. He attended the common schools of his native town and 
of Corry, and took a course in Allegheny College and in Buchtel College, at 
Akron, Ohio, from which he was graduated in the class of 1882. The first 
three years of his course as a law student were passed in the office of Brown & 
Stone, and the last year with Johnson, Lindsey & Parmlee. On the 28th of 
June, 1886, he was admitted to practice in the courts of this county. On the 
nth of June, 1885, he was appointed by the governor of Pennsylvania to the 
office of notary public for a term of four years. He has obtained most of the 
means for his own education by his own efforts, having at one time been 
teacher in the High School at Corry and at another principal of the schools at 
Clymer, N. Y. His studies in Allegheny College extended from the fall of 
1876 until (excepting one year) the end of the fall term of 1881, when he 
went to Buchtel College. From the latter institution he received the de- 
gree Ph.D. 

Charles L. Cooper was born in Farmington township, in this county, on 
the 3d of September, i860. His preparatory law studies were pursued in the 
office of Ball & Thompson. He was admitted to the bar on the 5 th of Octo- 
ber, 1886, and has begun the practice of his profession in Warren. 

324 History of Warren County. 



UPON the old French and English colonial maps of this part of America, 
made, of course, before the beginning of the Revolutionary War, a point 
on the right bank of the Allegheny River, just below its junction with the Cone- 
wango, is marked by a word variously written " Kanoagoa," " Canawagy," 
" Canawago," etc., meaning an Indian village, which it seems was chiefly oc- 
cupied by the Munsey tribe. It is our belief, however, that this Indian settlement 
was located from one to two miles below the mouth of the Conewango. When 
Colonel Brodhead led his troops into this region in 1779 and justly retaliated 
upon Cornplanter (the leader of the Senecas at the Wyoming and Cherry Val- 
ley massacres), by destroying his towns and cornfields, he reported that Cana- 
wago "had been deserted about eighteen months past." Again, in 1785, when 
General William Irvine explored a portion of the Allegheny valley in quest of 
good lands to be donated to Revolutionary soldiers, he said : " From Broken- 
straw to Conewagoo is eight or nine miles, here [at Conewagoo] is a narrow 
bottom, interspersed with good dry land and meadow ground all the way, and 
there is a remarkable fine tract at the mouth of the Conewagoo, of a thousand 
or more acres." Thus a distinction, clear and unmistakable, was made between 
the Indian town of Conewagoo and the mouth of the Conewango. 

Since the year 1795 the same place — at the junction of the Allegheny and 
Conewango — has, upon the maps of the Commonwealth, been occupied by the 
word Warren — the town of Warren. The location is picturesquely beautiful 
at all seasons; hence for nearly a hundred years complimentary terms in its 
praise have been uttered by stranger and resident alike. Nestling at the south- 
ern foot of a high, precipitous, and wooded ridge — the former shore of the 
ancient Allegheny, when it was a mighty stream — its residents are protected 
almost wholly from the chilly northern and northwestern blasts of winter. The 
Conewango forms its eastern boundary. In front the waters of the Allegheny 
flow ceaselessly on, around a bend grand and symmetrical in its proportions. 
Away beyond the river the hills of Pleasant township, which once formed the 
southern shore of the old Allegheny, stand out in bold relief, while extended 
views, up and down the stream, of successive ranges of high hills, fading grad- 
ually away in the distance in a blue mist, completes a picture of rare loveliness. 

In truth nature has done much, man but very little, in adding to or perpet- 
uating the beauties of Warren and its surroundings. The men to whom more 
credit is due than all others in preserving for all time one natural feature, at 
least, of which the eye never wearies, were General William Irvine and Colonel 
Andrew Ellicott, the commissioners appointed by Governor Mifflin to lay out 


Borough of Warren. 325 

the town. This they accomplished by simply running Water street parallel 
with and next to the river bank, thus leaving an unobstructed view of river 
and street for a distance of more than half a mile. Judging from the past, 
however, residents have but little appreciation of the value and beauty of 
their inheritance, this magnificent sweep, side by side, of river and avenue. 
For scores of years — indeed since the first settlement of the town — this bank, 
rising gradually from fifteen to twenty-five feet above the river's surface — has 
been a common dumping-ground of all the filth and rubbish which usually 
finds its way to such places, and each year mother earth, as if ashamed of the 
desecration, of man's abominable practices, sends up a rank growth of wild 
grasses, weeds, and briars to cover the forbidding spots. 

In the future, doubtless, a transformation will be 'orought about by driving 
a row of piles, extending from the outer face of the suspension bridge abut- 
ment to a point on the bank some eight or ten rods below (thus doing away 
with the dirty little eddy which, while it may have been of value in the past, 
is now but a summer's nuisance, a depository along the shore of all the sewage, 
garbage, and trash which comes within its influence), tearing out the unsightly 
" lock-up," disposing in some way of the old Tanner building, filling up the 
yawning chasm of filth there to be found, grading an easy slope from the 
street level to the water's edge, sodding or seeding the same with blue grass, 
and thence continuing the work of grading and sodding to the railroad bridge ; 
finishing by cutting down the telegraph poles, building a sidewalk, planting 
shade trees, and placing park benches along the way. Few towns in America 
are afforded such a grand opportunity as this for the construction of a magnifi- 
cent promenade. And when such an improvement is made it will add more 
to the beauty of the town, to the pride of its inhabitants, to their health and 
wealth, than the erection of five hundred buildings. 

In a number of the preceding chapters of this work frequent mention of 
Warren and its site has been made, during the period beginning with the 
French occupation of this valley and extending down to the date of its survey 
and settlement by the Americans. Hence, to avoid unnecessary repetition, 
this sketch of the history of the town of Warren begins with the year 1795. 
During that year, " in order to facilitate and promote the progress of settle- 
ments within the Commonwealth, and to afford additional security to the fron- 
tiers by the establishment of towns," an act was passed by the State Legislature, 
April 1 8, providing for laying out towns at Presque Isle, at the mouth of French 
Creek, at the mouth of Conewango Creek, and at Fort Le Boeuf 

Of the town to be laid out at the mouth of the Conewango, it was ordered 
that the commissioners to be appointed by the governor " shall sur.vey or cause 
to be surveyed three hundred acres for town lots, and seven hundred acres of 
land adjoining thereto for out lots, at the most eligible place within the tract 
heretofore reserved [in 1789] for public use at the mouth of Conewango Creek; 

326 History of Warren County. 

and the lands so surveyed shall be respectively laid out and divided into town 
lots and out lots, in such manner, and with such streets, lanes, alleys, and res- 
ervations for public uses, as the said commissioners shall direct ; but no town 
lot shall contain more than one third of an acre, no out lot shall contain more 
than five acres, nor shall the reservations for public uses exceed in the whole, 
ten acres ; and the town hereby directed to be laid out, shall be called ' War- 
ren,' and all the streets, lanes, and alleys thereof, and of the lots thereto adjoin- 
ing, shall be and remain common highways." 

As if still doubtful of the friendship of the Indians occupying this part of the 
country — owing, probably, to the hostile feeling displayed by Cornplanter and 
his band during the previous year — the act further provided that the troops 
stationed, or to be stationed, at Fort Le Boeuf should be used to protect and 
assist the commissioners, surveyors, and others while engaged in executing the 
provisions of the act. General William Irvine and Andrew Ellicott were the 
commissioners appointed to lay out town plots at the four points indicated, 
and it is believed, though we have seen no evidence of the fact, that their task 
was completed in 1795. Be that as it may, however, the lots in the new towns 
of Warren, Erie, Franklin, and Waterford were not offered for sale until August, 
1796, when they were cried at auction at Carlisle, Pa. 

The original lots of the town of Warren were fi\-e hundred and twenty-four 
in number, each being 58-f feet in width, street frontage, and 233^ feet in 
depth. Water, Market, and High streets are presumed to be lOO feet in width, 
the others 60 feet. Six streets running nearly east and west, and ten nearly 
north and south, all crossing at right angles, comprised the highways of the 
original plot. After the county began to be settled John Andrews, one of the 
first settlers of the county, was appointed State commissioner, to dispose of the 
lots at public sale, and during the ten years succeeding 1797 sold all of them. 
They were purchased by the farmer settlers of this county, Venango, Crawford, 
and other counties, and some b}- Indians. The prices ranged from $2.50 to 
$6 per lot. One-third of the purchase money was required to be paid at 
once, the balance at the convenience of the purchaser — which with some, it 
seems, was never convenient. Indeed, but few of the original purchasers ever 
procured patents for their lots, but suffered them to be sold at county treasur- 
er's sale for taxes, and the purchasers at such sales, or their assignees, procured 
patents. Hon. David Brown, the father of the present president-judge, was 
the original purchaser of more than one hundred lots. Subsequently he trans- 
ferred them to other persons, and finally these went the way of a majority of 
the others — were sold at treasurer's sale — and the titles passed to new owners. 

Until about 1794-95, the site of the town was covered with a luxuriant 
growth of white, black and red oak of large size. At that time a party of the 
Holland Land Company's surveyors, under the orders and personal supervision 
of Andrev\- FUicott, the noted surveyor, and his son-in-law, Dr. Kennedy 

Borough of Warren. 327 

(subsequently the builder and owner of Kennedy's mills), were encamped upon 
the bank of the river near where the old Tanner storehouse now stands. One 
night a terrific storm of rain, accompanied with thunder, lightning and wind of 
irresistible force, came sweeping up the valley from the west and prostrated 
every thing in its path from the western part of the town's site to Glade Run. 
The inmates of the " camp," or shanty of poles and bark, fled for safety to the 
small bar or island where Rathbun's grocery was for many years a landmark. 
It was fortunate for them that they hesitated not upon the order of their going 
for their shanty was blown down and two of their pack horses were killed by 
the falling trees. A few years later a fire swept over this windfall, burning 
the small brush and much of the fallen timber. The remainder furnished dry 
firewood for the early inhabitants. Then sprung up the growth of scrub oaks 
remembered by some persons still living. 

About the year 1796, the surveyors employed by the Holland Land Com- 
pany erected a building of hewn timbers for the storage of their supplies — 
tools, provisions, etc. This building, the first permanent structure reared on 
the site of Warren, stood down on Water street in the near vicinity of Page's 
blacksmith shop. For two years it had no floor other than the ground, no 
chimney other than a hole in the center of a leaky roof It has been related 
that Daniel McQuay, then in the employment of the land company, occupied 
this building as a dwelling house during the first or second year after its erec- 
tion, thus earning the distinction of being the first inhabitant of the town. He 
then located on the Little Brokenstraw just above its mouth. He was the wit 
of the valley. A genuine son of Erin, full of recklessness and adventure, fond 
of fun, fight and whiskey, and the only man who ever made from two to ten 
trips from the Brokenstraw to New Orleans on boats of lumber and traveled 
back afoot. This was a perilous undertaking prior to 18 10, which was subse- 
quent to the first trip or two made by him, for saying nothing of walking 
nearly two thousand five hundred miles, the few towns along the Ohio and 
Mississippi rivers were then but insignificant villages, and all else between 
them tangled thickets, swamps and dense forests infested by Indians, wild ani- 
mals, and frequently by worse foes — white desperadoes and highwaymen. 

When James Morrison, jr., accompanied by his brother-in-law, Galen 
Murdock, arrived on the site of Warren in June, 1798, the only evidences of 
civilization and improvement to be seen here were the Holland Land Com- 
pany's unoccupied storehouse, and a small abandoned improvement near 
Reig's old tannery, made by George Slone, a blacksmith, afterwards a well- 
known resident of the Beech Woods settlement. Morrison and Murdock came 
from Lycoming county, and accomplished the journey by pushing a canoe up 
the Sinnemahoning and the Drift Wood Branch until the immense piles of 
driftwood prevented their further progress by water. Leaving their canoe, 
they packed their effects on their backs, and a little more than one day's walk 

328 History of Warren County. 

brought them to the waters of the Allegheny. There they felled a large pine 
tree, made a commodious canoe, and continued their way to Warren. From 
that time the place where they embarked on the Allegheny was known as 
"Canoe Place," and many other early adventurers pursued the same route and 
plan in journeying from the West Branch of the Susquehanna westward. In 
1800 James Morrison, sr., a soldier of the Revolutionary War, his brother Jere- 
miah, and several others of the Morrison and Murdock families, eight or ten 
men in all, besides women and children, came on from Lycoming county over 
the route previously described, and settled on the outlots below Warren. At 
about that time, too, Martin Reese, sr., and family settled in the same locality. 
In 1 804 James Morrison (whether father or son is not known) built a house of 
hewn timbers on the site of the pipe line office, below R. P. King's residence. 
During the same )'ear, however, a majority of that family — perhaps all of them 
— removed to the Kinzua valley and located there permanently. 

In the mean time Isaac Buckalew had squatted on the bottoms opposite 
Warren, and for a number of years enjoyed the distinction of being the only 
resident in Warren county on the east side of the river south of Kinzua. 
Zachariah Eddy also tarried at Warren for a brief period as early as 1801, but 
did not become a permanent resident until some twelve or fifteen years later. 

John Gilson, who resided in Sheffield for many years and attained an age of 
nearly ninety, stated, years before his death, that his father, John Gilson, sr., 
was a native of New England, either Massachusetts or Connecticut, but before 
removing to Warren had resided for some years at a point on the Delaware 
river in New York. Gilson's family, accompanied by two other families, 
reached Warren in May, 1803, floating down from Olean on a raft. John 
Gilson, jr., was the youngest of a family of eleven children, all of whom lived 
to be seventy-five or more years of age. During the first year of their arrival 
here (1803) his father built a house on the site of Ephraim Cowan's former 
residence on Water street. This was the second building erected upon the 
inlots of Warren, counting the Holland Land Company's storehouse as the 
first. In 1804 James Morrison built his house, previously referred to, and 
Gideon Gilson, son of John, sr., built a house on C. P. Henry's corner. These 
three houses were built of pine timbers hewn square. Stephen Gilson, son of 
Gideon, was born soon after their arrival here, and without doubt he was the 
first white native of the town. John Gilson, sr, died in March, 181 1, and was 
buried in a small plot set apart for such purposes on the farm of Daniel Jackson. 

Daniel Jackson, the pioneer, whose name has been written more frequently', 
perhaps, in connection with the early history of Warren than that of any other 
person, was a native of Connecticut, but came here from the vicinity of Ithaca, 
N. Y., in the spring of 1797, and settled upon a tract of land (since known as 
the Wetmore farm) bordering the run which still bears his name, and distant 
about one mile north of the town of Warren. Here, about half a mile above 

Borough of Warren. 329 

the mouth of the run, he built a saw-mill (and subsequently a small grist mill) 
said to have been the first one erected in the county; at least there was but 
one other to dispute for the priority, and that was the mill built by the Meads 
on the Brokenstraw. Jackson's mill was completed about the year 1 800, and, 
it has been related, the sawing of the first board was thought to be an event of 
sufficient importance to call for some unusual demonstration on the part of 
those present. Accordingly it was placed on the ground, a bottle of whisky 
brought out, and two individuals, after partaking of its contents sufficiently to 
give elasticity to their limbs, went through the primitive performance of danc- 
ing a jig. From this mill, it has been claimed, the first raft of pine lumber 
ever known to descend the Allegheny from Warren county was safely landed 
at Pittsburgh. Some aver that this event took place in the year 1799, others 
in 1 80 1. The raft contained thirty thousand feet and was guided by sitting- 
poles instead of oars. 

In coming to this county Jackson traveled by the way of Buffalo and Erie 
to Waterford ; thence with canoes down French creek and up the Allegheny 
and Conewango to his place of settlement. His children were Daniel, jr., 
Ethan, David, Ebenezer and Sylvia, and another daughter who died when 
quite young. Being so far away from marts of trade and neighbors, he and 
his family for a few years suffered many and great privations. At one time 
he was obliged to make a winter's journey on snow shoes to Waterford, a dis- 
tance of fifty miles, in quest of salt. Steep hillsides, deep ravines and roaring 
torrents intervened, and over all were cast the shadows of a dense primeval 
forest unbroken by a single improvement. 

In 1805 he built the first frame house, and the fourth for dwelling purposes 
in the town of Warren on the northeast corner of Water and Hickory streets, 
the lot now occupied by the dilapidated brick block erected by Archibald 
Tanner in 1849-50. He was licensed to keep an inn in this house by the 
courts of Venango county in 1806, and continued to be so engaged for a num- 
ber of years. Lansing Wetmore, Esq., has said that when he first visited 
Warren in 1815, "Esq. Jackson" kept a tavern at the place described, " and, 
what was rare in those times, was a temperate landlord." He died on Sunday, 
June 20, 1830, in the seventy-ninth year of his age, under circumstances pecul- 
iarly distressing in their nature. In an obituary notice of his death, published 
soon after in the Voice of the People, certain incidents connected with his life 
and last illness are noted as follows : 

"The deceased was a native of the State of Connecticut and at an early day 
removed to this county and settled on the banks of the Conewango creek, in 
the immediate neighborhood of this place. With its earliest history and the 
settlement of the country he was thoroughly conversant, and with the narrative 
precision of vigorous old age, could tell of 'times and things gone by.' In his 
hunting excursions he had explored the forests that environ us, and learned 

330 History of Warren County. 

the windings of the several streams. Beneath his guidance the first raft of 
lumber ever sawed in this county was molded into form and conveyed on the 
bosom of the Allegheny to Pittsburgh. 

" He was commissioned a justice of the peace under the administration of 
Governor Snyder, and continued to