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HISTORY OF warren; 

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The White Hills 








W i- -^M^. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in tiie year 1870, hy ffiiiiam little, in the office of the 

Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

The illuBtrations in this volume were mostly made by 
Amos F. Clough, Artist, Warren, N. H. 

F» R E F ^ O E 

To preserve the Indian traclitious, tales of border wars, the 
memories of the old proprietors and first white settlers, the 
legends, anecdotes, and events of onr mountain hamlet, and to 

•< afford some slight assistance to the great iiistorian of New 

o Hampshire who shall come hereafter, was why this book was 


The author was saihng chip boats on Aiken brook one day 
when a very small boy. A companion, several years older, 
now Rev. William Merrill, was planting potatoes near b\ . 
For amusement he told the story of James Aiken, how his 
house was burned up, who did it, and why, and showed the 

__ old cellar. An interest was excited; it grew as the years went 

f^ by, and the result is this history. 

^ The writing of it has not been a labor. It has been a 

pleasant pastime, a source of amusement — "good fun." If 
any are disposed to smile at the wi-iter's efforts, let them 
remember that everv one must have a little recreation of some 


kind, and that while the writer's friends have enjoyed them- 
selves some bv huntino- and fishina", some bv music and danc- 
ing-, some by cards and gaming, some by squinting tlu'ough 
glass tumblers and worshipping the god Bacchus, some by 
paying their devotions at the shrine of Venus, some by buying 
pictures and costly libraries, some by sporting tine horses and 
carnages and building magnilicent houses, some by preaching 
and prajdng avid singing psalms and songs, and some in divers 
other ways too nimierous to mention, the author of thQse pages 
has passed many pleasant and happy hours preserving the inci- 
dents of his native town. 

But we wish all our readers to know that this j)leasant 
pastime, writing a town history, is a costly one; that we have 
not, cannot, and shall not make a cent out of it; that, to use 
an expression of the vulgar world, '' We are a good deal out 
of pocket by the operation ; " and that the whole thing is well 
illustrated by the ^ise maxim that " those who dance shall 
pay the tiddler.'" 

We claim that this history has one merit over ordinary 
town histories, and that is unity. That instead of being 
heterogeneous matter thrown together without any regard to 
connection of thought, and with no unity except perhaps 
that of time, and with no interest to any one except persons 
particularly acquainted with the town, we have grouped our 
facts together, giving unity of thought, unity of time, and 
we hope some interest to the general reader. 

We know that the first two books of this history are no 
more applicable to the town of Warren than to any other of 
the neighboring towns. But it seemed necessary to write them 

in order that it might be known how lliis wiUI nortiicrn coun- 
try ciune to be cuUiyated and settUxl. 

The citizens of Warren should be very happy that they 
have this liistory. Their acts and those of their ancestors and 
their friends will be preserved as long as the State exists. 
They have a bright and shining page, while Wentworth, Rom- 
ney, Ellsworth, Woodstock, Benton, and Piennont, and all the 
other neighboring lands round about, have lost the pleasant 
memories of their early settlers ; and all their historical data, 
so rich, so entertaining", has passed aAvay forever. To-day the 
inhabitants of those regions are no better off than the Negroes, 
Hottentots, or the dwellers on the Cannibal Islands. They 
have no place in history, and perhaps never will have. 

To those who have assisted us in producing this work, we 
tender our most grateful acknowledg'ements. We would men- 
tion Col. Stevens M. Dow, Ausou Merrill, Amos F. Clough, 
Geo. Libbey, Nathaniel Richardson, James Clement, Mrs. Susan 
C. Little, Miss Hannah B. Knight, all the town clerks, and 
particularly Russell K. Clement, as persons who have materially 
aided us. We would also return our most sincere thanks to 
those pleasant writers who gave " Knickerbocker's History of 
New York," ''Margaret," and "Rural Life." We have helped 
ourselves freely to such portions of those works as pleased us, 
and while the authors of them will not sutler, we believe the 
good folks of Warren will be much happier by reason of our 
literary larceny. We have also derived great assistance from 
Vol. vii. of the N. H. Hist. Coll., a book dry as a chip to the 
general reader, but one of the most valuable historical works 
ever published in New Hampshire. But most especially do we 


feel thankful to those persons who have encouraged us in writ- 
ing this book, by placing their names in our list of subscribers. 
We shall hold them in happy recollection to the latest day of 
our life. 

In closing, we hope that those who look over these 
pages may be in some degree amused, pleased, edified, and 
entertained; and that some one, a native of Warren, may, 
many yeai-s hence, revise, add to, and continue this history, 
making a book ten times better than ours. 


Introduction. 17 



CHAP. I. Of the name of this tribe, or how they called themselves one name 
while foreigners called them another, together witli where they resided 
in the most permanent manner, and what great tribes lived around tliem . "23 

CHAP. II. Containing the origin of the Pemigewassetts with a few profound 

theories very interesting to know. 29 

CHAP. III. About Acteon,— politely called old Acteon,— and what he as 

weU as others said of tlie manners and customs of the Pemigewassetts. 33 

CHAP. IV. The first account of the Nipniucks, or the earliest liistory of the 
Pemigewassetts, and of their union with other tribes ; also how a 
Bashaba was killed, with a description of a very polite way of treating 
captives, and a foreshadowing of something dreadful to happen. - - 41 

CHAP. V. Of a terrible war, pestilence, and famine, the heroes of which 

are all dead and their names forgotten. 47 

CHAP. VI. How the Pemigewassetts and the rest of the Nipmucks were 
compelled to eater a new league to protect themselves from the Mo- 
hogs, Marquas or Mohawks, with a slight sketch of another gi-eat man 
who came to be Bashaba. 51 

CHAP. VII. In which is set forth the manner the Pemigewassetts some- 
times enjoyed themselves, while the new Bashaba lived, and then of a 
slight war that arose which was exceedingly entertaining to them, to- 
gether with its pious close at Quocheco. .W 


CHAP. VIII. How according to tradition the Pemigewassetts were present 
at a great couit at Qiiocbeco, where the laws were very legally executed 
and justice done — according to the idea of certain exasperated red men . 64 

CHAP. IX. Containing a slight attempt at biography, or the early life of 
Waternomee, otherwise Wattanumon, sometimes vulgarly called Wal- 
ternumus, last chief of the Pemigewassetts. Hit 

CHAP. X. How the Pemigewassetts engaged in Queen Anne's war— of sun- 
diy expeditions — and how several Pemigewassetts were surprised and 
slain hy five terrible Marquas led by the brave Caleb Lyman . - - 73 

CHAP. XI. Of several things that happened during the progress of the war, 
and how, as one of the results, the Pemigewassett tribe was destroyed 
and their hunting gi-ounds, of which Warren was a part, became a 
solitude. 80 



CHAP. I. Of two wars and more than a dozen battles. 87 

CHAP. II. A beautiful solitude, and how there was an attempt to build two 

forts above the Pemigewassett country, and what came of it, - - 99 

CHAP. III. Giving an account of a hunting party on the Asquamchumauke ; 
how two young men were captivated in the most captivating manner- 
concluding with how one got his back tickled with the oil of birch, 
while the other did not, much to the delight of all concerned. - - - 103 

CHAP. IV. How the salvages, Sabatis and Christo, stole two negroes from 
the settlement at Canterbury and the excitement it caused, together 
with a grand result before 107 

CHAP. V. How the road was cut through the woods, and how the gi-eat and 
mighty nation of Arosagunticooks, composed of aU the Nipmuck ti-ibes, 
including our Pemigewassetts and some others, sent a flag of ti'uce to 
Number Four. Concluding with a general back out. 110 

CHAP. VI. How Sabatis and Plausawa fared in the hands of Peter Bowen, 
together with the miraculous opening of the jail. Concluding with a 
captivating account of a whole family who were politely invited to go 
to Canada, by " the gentle salvages.'' Ill 

CHAP. VII. How Capt. Peter Powers marched gallantly through the Pemi- 
gewassett counti-y to the land of the Coosucks ; of a brave exploit and 
a heroic retreat. - - 120 


CHAP. Vlir. Ol a gallant exploit ou the New Hampshire froutier,— of an 
excited eamp ou the shore of Wachiiiauka i>oni1, with other entertain- 
ing and curious matter, very interesting to know. ... - - 12G 

CHAP. IX. Account of the manner the brave Arosagunticooks of St. Fran- 
cis passed Captain GoflTe: the capture of the Johnson family, with 
other incidents no doubt very interesting to the participants, together 
with the lirst campaign of the old French war. 132 

CHAP. X. Treating of the assembling of the regiment, and the building of the 
log fortress at Coos, with other interesting adventures, in the country 
about Lake Champlain. 13C 

CHAP. XI. A long march through the woods; a terrible attack on an Indian 
village ; a bloody butchery— awful to the participants— but withal very 
pleasant to read about. 141 

CHAP. XII. The retreat and its horrors. The camp on the Coos interval 
under the shadow of the mighty Moosilauke; concluding with a beauti- 
ful and golden tradition that has been repeated around the farmer's 
fireside for a hundred years. 14" 

• CHAP. Xni. HoM' the surviving rangers all got safely home and how 
thenceforward the Pemigewassett land containing the pleasant little 
territoi-y of Warren, became a very safe country in which to sojourn. - 1.54 



CHAP. I. Concerning a great shaggy wood, and numerous hunters therein ; 
and then of a sweet little feud between three royal governors, and how 
one of them politely " euchered " the others, much to theii- delight. - 1,57 

CHjVP. II. Of a fine old Governor of 'ye ancient days, and of his royal Sec- 
retary; how these two M-orthies built golden castles in the air, and 
finally grew quite rich. 102 

CHAP. III. What John Page, Esq., did, or how he procured a royal charter 
of our mountain hamlet, Warren, confeiTing many glorious privileges 
and only a few conditions vei-y easy to be complied with. .... lee 

CHAP. IV. Of eager men.— how they held several meetings— also of a gay 
and festive corporation dinner; concluding with a powerlul eft'ort to 
obtain a surveyor of the King's Woods. 176 


CHAP. V. How the lines were riiu round about Warren; a camp in the for- 
est ; a roaring, raging equinoctial storm worth seeing, and a report of 
the whole affair by surveyor Leavitt. 182 

CHAP. VI. Conditions hard and terrible, — road made of an Indian trail, — 

rich lots of laud dra\vn by lot, aud how men felt rich but anxious. - 187 

CHAP. VII. How tlie proprietors' prospects got desperate— so much so 
that they were willing to give away some of their lands; how Phillips 
U'hite, Esq., came to the rescue— got them out of a terrible difficulty, 
and Anally procured a new charter, which ends this book and intro- 
duces us to an altogether new life in Warren. ...... 194 



CHAP. I. Of divers and sundry sounds, heard on the head-waters of the 
Asquamchumauke, and of two hotels in 'which not a drop of "grog" 
could be got either for love or money. 201 

CHAP. II. About Joseph Patch, the fli-st white settler of Warren, aud how 

he had a few huugi-y visitors which ate up all his provisions. - - - 207 

CHAP. III. How eighteen families and two single gentlemen came to War- 
ren to reside, and amused themselves building cabins, clearing land, 
lumting moose and deer on the hills, aud lishing in the clear, rapid trout 
streams. 214 

CHAP. IV. Of how the early settlers of our mountain hamlet took great 
thought about the manner they should be sheltered, and what they 
should eat, and of the building of mills ; concluding with the mighty 
leaps of the salmon, and a delectable swim by the boys. - - - - 236 

CHAP. V. Narrating how two men, Stevens Merrill and James Aiken loved 
each other,— how the laws were executed, and a house burned up,— 
concluding with a " pious inquiry " worthy of all good christians. - 243 

CHAP. VI. Mount Carr; its ancient inhabitants, and then of the grand old 
huntings that were had about it, with a beautiful Moosehillock descrip- 
tion tlirown in for variety. 247 

CHAI". \'ll. Of a provision lor religious meetings ; grandiloqueut descrip- 
tion of one, and how it closed with a cup of sweet comfort aud peace, 
as was the custom in ancient times. - 2.57 


CHAP. VIII. War! How it reared its horrid trout and its din resounded 
even across the boundaries of Warren, together with what part our 
earlv settlers took in it. 2G3 



CHAP. I. Of the organization ol' the hamlet, and how certain men achieved 

immortal glory by getting elected to town office. 275 

CHAP. II. How the revenue was raised to carry on the war, much to the 
delight of several patriotic gentlemen called lories ; and what soldiers 
were furnished to fill ^Varren's quota, with otlier very interesting and 
entertaining matter. 282 

CHAP. III. The first funeral of a white man in W^arreu; or how John MiUs 

died and was buried. . - - 204 

CHAP. IV. About a great anny in Warren, how it marched and counter- 
marched ; of the pretty names it was called, and how it was subsisted. 297 

CHAP. V. Thanksgiving day, or how there was feasting, dancing and merry- 
making in our hamlet among the hills. 304 

CHAP. VI. The first schools of Wan-en, or how the young idea was taught 

to shoot; and of a certain oil much used in ye ancient days. - - - 313 

CHAP. VII. How Sarah ^Vl^itcher was lost in the woods, what happened and 
how they hunted for her, together with a remarkable dream, and how a 
bushel of beans suddenly disappeared. 322 

CHAP. VIII. Of a mighty battle fought between two ambitious office seek- 
ers, and how each gained the victoi-y, much to his great delight. - - 329 

CHAP. IX. Concerning a great boundary tend and what came of it. - - 335 

CHAP. X. Of the mighty requisites necessary to make a perfect democracy, 

all graphically portrayed in the most attractive manner. - - - - 340 



CHAP. I. How several religions came to Warren; of tythingmen who fined 
men for traveling Sunday, tliereby making them exceedingly happy; 
concluding with an account of a camp-meeting, where sevferal pious 
youth sounded a horn in the night and disturbed the slumbers of the 
godly. 361 


CHAP. II. Of grand huntings, fowlings, and fishings; concluding with how 
a 'squire, a doctoi-, and a minister were perfectly delighted trying to 
catch every flsh in Wachipauka pond. 370 

CHAP. III. How the turnpike was built, and of divers things that happened 

thereby. 384 

CHAP. IV. About the 1812 war: of drafting add volunteering; closing with 
a grand muster, when Warren's hills heard louder music than ever 
before. 390 

CHAP. V. How the first covered stage, accompanied by sweet music, ran 
through Warreu, with an account of the first post-oflice, and who de- 
livered the letters. 398 

CHAP. VI. The Black Plague, otherwise called the Spotted Fever, or the 

greatest horror Warren i^eople ever had. 404 

CHAP. VII. How almost a famine, then a hurricane came, and then a his- 
tory of one of the most pleasant years Warren ever experienced. - - 408 

CHAP. VIII. What a woman can do aud how she did it; or the accomplish- 
ment of one of the greatest " requisites " of the last century, viz : the 
building of a meeting-house. 422 

CHAP. IX. A gay little chapter about witches. 431 

CHAP. X. The first store in Warren, and its successors, and of a roaring, 

raging canal that never was buUt. 441 



CHAP. I. How gold, silver, and diamonds were discovered in Warren; and 
of several individuals who got immensely rich mining, especially in 
their imaginations. 449 

CHAP. II. How the Berry brook road was built, and a path on to Moosehil- 
lock was cut, with a pleasant account of several individuals who nick- 
named each other in the happiest manner. 4.54 

CHAP. III. Of a gi-eat lawsuit about Mrs. Sarah Weeks, whom foolish people 
called a witch, concluding with pleasant recollections of a paring bee 
and a " shin- dig," if anybody knows what that is. 461 

CHAP. IV. A chapter on fires. 467 


CHAP. V. How and when the railroad was built, which will be ;i wonder to 

luture generations, but is unite a common thing now. .... ^yz 

CHAP. VI. A brief acconnt or two murders. 478 

CHAP. Vn. Concerning a great rivalry between charitable i-eligioiis soci- 
eties, which resulted in moving and remodelling the old meeting-house, 
in a town-house, a new scliool-house, a Ijcautiful common, and in im- 
proving the graveyard, all which is an honor to the town and the pride 
of the inhabitants. 483 

CHAP. VIII. Of a delectable visit to Moosehillock, and what can be seen 

there — the weather permitting. 490 

CHAP. IX. How several individuals got rich manufacturing, or ought to, 

with the glorious results of it. 499 

CHAP. X. Of several things that luippened; concluding this History with 

sincere thanks and many kind wishes. 508 


Explanatory Notes. 

Natural History of Warren. 

Selectmen, Representatives, and other Town Oflicers. 

Town Statistics. 

Lawyei-s, Doctors, and Ministers. 

Military Officers. 

Town Lots. 

First Inventory and Tax List. 




The Poets of Warren. 

Amos F. Clough's Diary, kept on Moosehillock. 




1. Moosehillock, from Warren, opposite title page. 

2. Map of Warren .... 

3. AYebster Slide and Wachipauka Pond 

4. Oak Falls 

5. KockySFalls 

6. Portrait of Amos F. Clough, Artist 

7. Map of AVarren .... 

8. Mount Carr 

9. AYaternomee Falls 

10. Old Barn built by Joseph Patch . 

11. Breaking- and Swingling Flax 

12. Old Boundary Lines 

13. Our Grandmothers' Pastime 

14. Portrait of Rev. Joseph Merrill . 

15. Portrait of Rev. Moses H. Bixby . 

16. Map of Modern Warren 

17. Portrait of Samuel B. Page, Esq. 

18. Church and Village School-House 

19. Town House . 

20. Sugaring oflF . 

21. McCarter, the Hermit . 

22. Moosilauke Falls . 

23. The Forks School-House 

24. Moosehillock from Indian Rock 

25. Prospect House, Summit of Moosehillock 

26. Portrait of Dr. AVorcester E. Boynton 

27. Portrait of Gen. Natt Head . 





America was discovered by Christopher Columbus iu 
1492. The first permanent English settlement was made at 
Jamestown, Virginia, in 1G07. New Hampshire, another British 
province, was settled in 1623. These are facts that every one is 
presumed to know. 

"Warren, the history of which we now undertake to write, is 
a town in New Hampshire. It is situated iu latitude forty-four 
degrees uorth, longitude six degrees east from Washington, and 
became a geographical fact July 14th, 1763. Admiral AVarren, a 
gallant commander of an English man-of-war, was its godfather. 
These are facts which every one is not presumed to know. 

For further information we would say that Warren is a 
mountainous hamlet, situated in one of the western valleys of the 
great AVliite Mountain range. The latter is a cluster of lofty 
peaks, located a little north of the centre of the State, which 
vary from three thousand to six thousand three hundred feet in 
height. Four great roads pass through these mountains, connect- 
ing the northern and southern portions of the State. One leads 
through the Pinkham notch, another through the White Mountain 

' Tlie AVliite Hills were ralleil by the Iiuliaus, Waumbekketmethna ; Waum- 
bekket siguifles White, and Metlnia, mouiitaius. 



notch, a third through tlie Franconia notch, and the fourth and 
most western one through the Oliverian notch. Warren is situ- 
ated on the last mentioned thoroughfare. 

Tliat there may be no mistake about the locality of the town, 
gazetteers say that it is in the very centre of Grafton County, is 
fourteen miles from Haverhill, one of the shire towns of the 
county, seventy miles from Concord, the State Capital, and ninety- 
three from Portsmouth, New Hampshire's only seaport. 

The boundaries of Warren are the gifts of nature. Its eastern 
line runs over the crests of three lofty mountains. Mt. Cushman 
on the north rises like a dark wave of the ocean 3,306 feet high. 
Mt. Kiueo, a hundred feet higher, sweeps away in wavy crested 
summits to the southeast, and Mount Carr, blue, forest-clad, and 
the last of the trio, is 3,500 feet in height. The south line bends 
down the slopes of Eed-Oak hill, crosses the pebbly-bottomed 
Asquamchumauke, and creeps up to the elevation of 2,059 feet 
over Mt. Sentinel. The western line is over a spur of the latter 
mountain, crosses Tarleton lake and Mt. Mist — so called from the 
vapoi- that sails up to its summit from the blue waves — and finds 
its northern termination on Webster Slide mountain. The latter 
is 2,170 feet above sea-level, and its precipitous face slopes down 
800 feet to the deep shadows of Wachipauka or Meader pond. The 
northern line rests upon the flanks of Owl's Head mountain, 3,206 
feet high, Mt. Black 3,550 feet, "* Moosilauke about 5,000 feet,t and 
Mt. Waternomee, a woody elevation of about 3,000 feet. The first 
is a most curiously shaped mountain. Like a whale — its head a 
sharp angular peak, piercing the blue ether, its dorsal fin white 
jagged rocks, rising from the dark forest of firs, its tail a dizzy 
precipice, sinking perpendicularly a hundred fathoms down, — it 
turns up its huge back to be fanned by the rude winds. The 
second, Mt. Black without a white spot upon it, is a dark, sombre 
monument, rising in the city of mountains ; the third, Moosilauke, 
head and shoulders above the others, is monarch of all, and the 

The heiglit of tliese mountains was ascertained bv Prof. Guvot, of Princeton 
College, in 1857. 

*Moosilanke was so called by the Indians from Moosi, bald, and Auke, a 
place— Bald-place. On the lirst niaps it was M'ritten Mooshelauke, then Mooshe- 
lock, then Moosehillock. Manj- persons suppose it was so called from the large 
number of moose once found about the mountain. 

t Some say 5,051 feet ; others say 4,802 feet high. 


foui"th, Mt. Waternomee, is a green wooded mountain with three 
round crests, and is sometimes known as the southern spvir of the 
Peuiigewassett range. 

The exact centre of Warren is the summit of Kniglit hill. 
Standing on the top, one is surrounded on all sides by lofty crests, 
and the forest hamlet appears like a huge bowl, with another 
bowl transparent, formed of blue sky inverted and placed over it, 
and resting upon the riin of mountains. 

Warren is well watered. The principal stream is the As- 
quamchumauke, now called Baker river. It rises in a little 
meadow pond on the north side of Moosilauke mountain. At 
first a wild torrent, then a bright pebbly-bottomed stream, and 
lastly a deep blue river, it empties into the Pemigewassett. Its 
Warren tributaries from the west ai-e Merrill, Berry, and Black 
brooks; on the east. East Branch, Batchelder, and Patch brooks. 
Through the north part of the toAvn, running into the Connecticut, 
is Oliveriau brook. These are the jDrincipal streams ; but small 
yet never-failing i"ivulets gush from the mountain springs situated 
in every ravine, while there is scarcely a meadow which does not 
contain a fountain whose waters, cool and crystalline, bubble up 
from the white sands. More than a hundred of these musical 
streamlets make Warren one of the best watered towns in New 

Five sparkling ponds lie sleeping high up among Warren's 
mountains. Over on the east side of Mount Carr two bright gems 
gleam in the greenwood, which from their locality are called the 
Glen ponds. Near Mt. Mist is Kelley pond, furnishing a stream 
for an old mill, and under the face of i^recipitous Webster Slide 
mountain is the before-mentioned Wachipauka or Meader pond. 
West of Mt. Mist, and kissing its sloping base, a crystal sheen in 
an emerald setting, is Tarleton lake. 

Within the town are numerous hills, some of which deserve 
mention. Eed Oak, Picked, Clement, and Patch, each rise about 
a thousand feet high on the east side of the Asquamchumauke. 
Bald, and Knight, wood-crowned heights of about the same eleva- 
tion, are situated between the Asquamchumauke and Berry brook. 

The Iniliaus 'called Black brook Mikaseota, or with full spelling it was Mik- 
kasseotque. — Acteou. 


Pine hill is a loug rolling ridge, terminating abruptly in Keyes 
ledge, or Mt. Helen, and stands between Black and Berry brooks. 
Wyatt, Marston, and Beech hills are on the western border. 

Warren is rich in minerals. On Sentinel mountain is a large 
and productive vein of ore. Gold, silver, iron, copper, lead, zinc, 
plumbago, molybdenum, calc-spar, rutil, epidote, beryl, gaiuiets, 
quartz crystals, tourmalines, and many others are found. Near 
the Summit are large quantities of limestone. Gneiss and mica 
slate abound, and the underlying granite which crops out on 
Webster Slide mountain and Mount Carr affords excellent build- 
ing material. 

The first road through Warren was the old Indian trail enter- 
ing the town where the Asquamchumauke leaves it, and following 
the Mikaseota to its source in Wachipauka pond, it descended the 
slope of Webster Slide to the valley of the Oliverian. The second 
was built by the first white proprietors, and wound over the 
Height o' land and round the east shore of Tarleton lake. The 
third was the turnpike. Then the road over Pine hill and through 
the Oliverian notch was constructed, and last of all the railroad, 
which follows the old Indian trail with little variation and leaves 
the town by the above-mentioned notch. Numerous other roads 
have been made, for the accommodation of the later inhabitants, 
among which is the bridle-path over Moosilauke mountain. 

The climate is very healthy. Residents of the town have 
seen the snows of a hundred winters. Owing to the elevation of 
the valley, and to the mountains which surround it, good sleigh- 
ing often lasts from December to April. The snow then suddenly 
disappears, frequently causing destructive freshets. Summer 
treads quickly in the footsteps of winter, the crops spring forth as 
if by magic, and autumn never fails of returning an abundant 
harvest to cheer the heart of the husbandman. 

The physical formation of a country has much to do with 
moulding the character of its people. The Indians of New 
Hampshire, to whom we shall devote the first book of this history, 
especially those who inhabited the central par;t of the State, must 
have been a race of mountaineers.' As such, a love of freedom, 
the spirit of adventure, and a granite hardihood must have char- 
acterized them. Their wars with the early English pioneers will 


form the material of book the second of this very sedate and 
truthful history. 

The acts of the sixty-five distinguished men, otherwise known 
as the provincial proprietors of Warren, will be accurately nar- 
rated in book the third. 

The present inhabitants of Warren are mostly farmers. They 
are tenacious of their rights and political privileges, and are just 
such a hardy race as one might expect to tind dwelling among 
granite boulders, leaping torrents, and high hills. In the Kevolu- 
tion about one-fourth of those capable of bearing arms served in 
the army. In the 1812 war they furnished their quota of troops 
cheerfully, all who went going as volunteers. The adventui'es of 
the eaiiy settlers of Warren and those of their descendants will 
form the subject of the remaining books of this, we trust, most 
entertaining history. 

^^- .- 

..»'.■■- ♦ 






The first sunlight of history begins to dawn upon that 
little territory now called Warren, of which we have just given 
such a full description, about the last years of the seventeenth 
century. It reveals a pleasant valley surrounded by lofty moun- 
tains, watered by a rapid river and a hundred tumbling trout 
brooks sparkling tlown from the hills, and inhabited by a por- 
tion of a small tribe of Indians known in after years as the 
Pemige wassetts . 

This people belonged to the Algonquin race, which occupied 
the whole Atlantic coast from the gulf of the St. Lawrence to 
Cape Fear. * 

*Bancroft's Hist, of U. S. Vol. iii. Chap. 22. Whiton's Hist, of N. H. !». 


They called themselves JSTipmucks.* a word derived from 
" iiipe," meauiiig fresh water, and "auke," a place, an *' m" being- 
thrown in by skillful manufacturers of Indian words for the sake 
of euphony, — the whole meaning fresh-water Indians, a name 
used to distinguish them from those who resided on the immediate 
sea coast, f 

These Nipmuck Indians were divided into numerous tribes or 
fiimilies, each having a head or chief, and we are told that as 
neighbors of the Pemigewassetts "a great and powerful tribe" 
lived on the Nashua stream and were called Nashuas. t That 
another lived on the Souhegan river, and of course were called 
SouHEGANs. A third lived at Amoskeag falls, and were called 
Amoskeags. a fourth inhabited the beautiful interval at Con- 
cord, called by the Indians Pennacook, and they were Penna- 
COOKS. A fifth dwelt on Squamscott river, now Exeter, and for 
the same reason were called Squamscotts, A sixth stopped at 
Newichannock, and they were Neaviciiaknocks. A seventh stayed 
at Piscataqua river, and thej were Pascataquaukes. An eighth 
built a wigwam city at Ossipee lake, and they were the cultivated 
Ossipees, with mounds and forts like more civilized nations. A 
ninth built flourishing villages in the fertile valley of the Pequaw- 
ket river, and were known as the pious Pequawkees, who 
worshipped the great Manitou of the cloud-capped Agiochook. A 
tenth had their home by the clear Lake Winuepisseogee, and were 
esteemed ''the beautiful Winnepissaukies." An eleventh set up 
their lodges of spruce bark by the banks of the wild and turbulent 
Androscoggin river, and were known as " the death-dealing 
Amariscoggins.*' a twelfth cultivated the Coos intervals on the 

* Drake's Biog. of Indians, 13, '281. Hist, of New England, (!3(>. 

fThe Indians'from tlie interior were known and called among the tribes upon 
the seashore l>y the general name of Nipnuicks, or Fresh-water Indians, and, true 
to their name, the Xipmucks usually had their residences upon places of Stillwater, 
the ponds, lakes, and rivers of the interior. But the Indians m the Merrimack 
valley, although properly Xipniucks and living in distinct bands or tribes, were 
usuallv called bv the English, Pennacooks, etc. 

IXasliiia means the river witli a pebbly Itottoni. Souhegan is a contraction of 
Souheganash, meaning worn-out hnuls. Aiiwsh-eag is derived from Naniaos ( aflsh) 
and Auke (a place). Pennacook is derived from Pennaqui ( crooked ) and Auke. 
Squamscott, I'roin Asquam (water) and AuUe. Neivicliannock , from Xee (my), 
Week ( a contraction for Wigwam ), and Owannock ( come ). J'ascataquauke, from 
I'os (great), Attuck (a deer), and Auke. Ossipee, from Cooash (pines) and Sipe 
(a river). Pcf/uawkees, from Vequnkin (crooked) and Auke. Winnepissaukies, from 
AVmne (beautiful), Xipe (water), Kees (high), and Auke. Amariscoe/fftns, from 
Xamaos (lish), Kees (high), and Auke. Coosucks, from Cooash, pines.— Potter's 
Hist, of Mancliester. 


Connecticut, and were called " the swift deer-hunting Coosucks." 
Besides these twelve tribes, just equal in number to the tribes 
of tiie children of Israel, the Peuiigewassetts also had as neighbors 
in New Hampshire, and along its present borders, the AVinne- 
COWETTS,* inhabiting a beautiful pine-tree-place in the southeast 
corner of the State, the Wachusetts living about the mountain of 
that name in Massachusetts, the Aga warns residing at the mouth 
of the Merrimack, the Pawtuckets, who fished at Pawtitcket falls, 
and several small tribes upon the banks of the Connecticut river 
whose names are unknown. 

All these various tribes derived their pretty names from some 
prominent object in the territory wMch they inhabited. Thus the 
Pemigewassetts are so called from the principal river that flowed 
through their hunting grounds. That the places inhabited by the 
Indians, neighboring to the Pemigewassetts, did not derive their 
names from the name of the tribe, can be seen by examining the 
derivation of the names themselves. For instance, we are told 
that Pascataqua means ^' great deer place." Now we have too 
much respect for the memory of the noble Pascataquaukes to 
believe they would like to be called great deer, or rather great 
cowards. Again, Nashua means the river with a jiebbly bottom; 
and we cannot think those red men intended to call themselves the 
2)ehbIy-b(Atoiiied Indians. The literal significance of the word 
Pemigewassett is " the crooked mountain pine plfice " — a name 
that will answer well enough for a river, but would not at all 
desci'ibe the hardy race of Indian mountaineers that hunted in the 
pleasant territory of Warren. They were not crooked children 
but straight as arrows; they were not mountains, except in firm- 
ness and strength; nor were they pines, for that is a soft, brittle 
wood, and they were tough as oaks. We conclude that the Pem- 
igewassetts, and all those numerous tribes who called themselves 
Nipmucks, received their name from foreigners in pretty much 
the same manner that Boston men are called Bostonians and the 
highly moral men of Gotham, Gothamites. 

The different families of these several tribes, neighbors of our 
Pemigewassetts, were not very careful to confine their residences 

* JVinnecowetts, from Winne (beautiful), Cooash, Jind Auke.— Potter's Hist, of 
Mancliester, 28. 


to any particular locality,* but generally changed them several times 
in a year, and changed their names as often as they changed their 
residences. Consequently when a few families went to Amoskeag 
falls to fish they were Amoskeags; if they went to the rich inter- 
vals of Pennacook to plant they were Pennacooks ; if they went 
later in the season to Winnepissiogee lake, where they could fish 
through the ice and hunt on the hills, to spend the winter, they 
were Winnepissaukies, — and, furthermore, any tribe had but to 
say presto and ti*avel, and they immediately changed into some 
other great tribe. 

AVhere in Warren, "the beautiful bowl of the mountains," did 
the Pemigewassetts live? They had numerous camping-grounds, 
but several places are particularlj^ shown, where it is said they 
built their wigwams. 

On the right bank of the Asquamchumauke, and a few rods 
below the large raih'oad bridge that spans its waters, was a fertile 
meadow. Here was a planting place. Arrow-heads have been 
found there, and the ridges where the corn grew were seen by the 
first settlers. But the Indians who sometimes lived here left a 
monument more enduring than the little mounds where they 
hilled their corn. Twenty rods back from the river, and fifty feet 
higher than the running water, a trap dyke cuts across a high 
ledge, known as 


On its top are formed four smoothly cut bowls. Lines connecting 
them would point east and west, north and south. Such regularity 
shows that they cannot be "pot-holes," and they were without doubt 
formed by the Indians. This settlement was on the Indian trail. 

* From thick warm valleys where they winter they remove a little nearer to 
their summer tielrls. When it is warm spring they remove to tlieir fields, where 
they plant corn. In mifldle summer, because of theabundance of tleas whicli the 
dust of the lionse breeils, they will fly and remove on a sudden to a fresh place. 
And sometimes having fields a mile or" two or many miles assunder, when the work 
of one field is over they remove hence to the other. If death call in amongst them, 
tliey presently remove to a fresh place. If au enemy approach they remove to a 
thicket or swamp, unless tliey have some fort to remove into. • Sometimes tliey 
remove to a hunting house in the end of the year and forsake it not until the snow 
lies thick; and then will travel home, men women and children, through the snow 
thirty, yea fifty or si.xty miles. But their great remove is from their summer 
fields to warm and thick woody bottoms, where they winter. Tliey are quick in 
half a day, yea sometimes in a iew hours warning to be gone, and the house is 
up elsewhere, especially if they have a few stakes ready pitched for their mats. I 
once in my travels lodged at a house at which in my return I lioped to have lodged 
again the next night, but the house was gone in that interim and I was glad to 
lodge under a tree.— Roger Williams' Key, 3 Mass. Hist. Coll. 213. 


Then there were indications of another settlement near Beach- 
hill bridoe over Black brook, or, as they called it, the Mikaseota. 
This was a favorite place, and old Indians came back and camped 
there even after white settlers had moved into the valley. 

A high embankment known as the Blue ridge connects the 
base of Keyes ledge with the foot of Sentinel mountain. This is 
the southern shore to what is now called Kunaway pond. Where 
the water burst through is plain to be seen, and on the rocks of 
the former beach are yet the marks scored by the tumbling waves 
and dashing ice. The broad acres, once the bed of the pond, are 
now fertile meadows. They were never fully overgrown by forest 
trees. Mounds, where the Indians stored their corn; ashes, where 
burned the wigwam tires; pieces of rude pottery, axes of stone, 
arrow-heads turned up by the ploughshare, and graves under the 
shadow of Marston hill, tell that here once was an Indian village. 
By it ran the trail * leading to the land of the Coosucks. In front 
wound their Mikaseota, silent and dark, and near by the bright 
water of Ore hill brook flashed in the rocky glen. Here the steep 
hills, that once sloped down to the curling waves, protected from 
the chill winds the Indian's maize, his pumpkins, squashes, and 
beans, Avhich grew in these most fertile meadows. 

Then by the mouth of Berry brook, — the stream that comes 
down through the dark ravine from Moosilauke, — was a planting 
place. Debris from the wigwams, rude implements of husbandry, 
of hunting and fishing, have been found here. 

High up on a plateau of Moosilauke mountain lies one of the 
most fertile farms of Warren. On its eastern side is a dark ravine 
a hundred fathoms deep. Through this rushes a foaming torrent, 
the head-waters of the Asquamchumauke. On the north the lofty 
Moosilauke shoots up five thousand feet ; Mts. AYaternomee, 
Cushmau, and Kineo are on the left, a woody mountain ridge runs 
to the valley on the right, in front are Mount Carr and Mt. 
Sentinel, and through the passes and over hills may be seen the 
distant mountains of the southwest. Near the eastern edge of the 
plateau bubbles up a clear, cold spring. A little stream flowing 
therefrom Avinds for a considerable distance nearly parallel to the 

* It is artmirjil)le to see ^yhat paths their naked liarrteued feet have made in the 
wilderness, in most stoney and rocky places,— lloger Williams' Iv.ej\ 


brink of the raviue and then, flashing among the boulders, leaps 
down through a deep gullj^ to the torrent. Between the spi'ing 
and the brink, in a grove of tall hemlocks, Indian implements * 
discovered show that here also was once an Indian village. 

But the Pemigewassetts, as we have gently intimated before, 
were not confined to the woody territory of Warren. They had 
ample hunting grounds, larger than any of the other great tribes 
we have mentioned. The Height o' land was their northern boun- 
dary and the Connecticut river was on the west. The great "White 
mountains were on the east, while on the south was the land of the 
Pennacooks and the Winnepissaukies. 

Their's was a beautiful country. No clearer and more spark- 
ling rivers could be found in the world than the Asquamchumauke 
and Pcmigewassett ; no brigkter and more smiling lakes than the 
Newfound and the Squam, and no more glorious mountains than 
Moosilauke and the Haystacks. By Sawheganet and Livermore 
falls were the best of fishing places, and at the confluence of the 
Asquamchumauke and Pcmigewassett were the broad and beau- 
tiful intervals of the tribe. No place more fertile can be found in 
New England. Luxuriant grasses and wild flowers growing 
with tropical exuberance, clusters of noble elms with waving 
branches, a dense forest, hills and wood-crowned summits on the 
border, and lofty mountains in the distance, often snow-capped at 
midsummer, made this spot a Avild paradise. Eidges where the 
corn was planted, ashes where the wigwam was built, mattocks 
made from the bone of a moose's thigh, rude pestles and knives 
of stone, gouges, and arrow and spear-heads here found, show 
that this was the chief planting place of the tribe. f Here also 
was frequently the royal residence, and without doubt the Indians 
had encamped here for centuries. 

There was really but one tribe of Indiana in New Hampshire, the Xipmucks, as 
they called themselves. The dii'isio7i of this tribe into ten or fifteen small but distin- 
guished tribes is but a pleasant fancy of great Indian Historians, and we harebeen 
pleased to humor that fancy. The Nipmiicks belonged as niucli to one section of the 
State as to another, and inliabited all sections, setting up their wigwams wherever 
they could find good hunting grounds, tishing waters, and planting places. Potter 
says the New llampshire Indians were all Nipmucks, and Drake says the same 
thing — and they have given the matter more research than all others wlio have 
written upon the subject. Every town in Xew Hampshire has had a portion of a 
tribeof Indians at some time residing within its borders, and that ivas the Kipmuck. 

*Natlianiel Merrill, 2d, found a beautiful Indian freestone bowl at this place. 

t At the mouth of JJaker river, in the town of Plymouth, X. II., the Indians had 
a settlement, where have been found Indian graves, bones, gun-bariels, .stone moi-- 
tars, pestles, and otherutensils in use among them.— I. Farmer & Moore's Col. 128. 



V^HEXCE came the Pemigewassetts ? Whence all the 
red men? These are not easily answered. 

Naturally one would turn to the Indians and seek the informa- 
tion from them. The medicine man, j^riest, or panisee, when 
asked the question would reply, as he often has, as follows : 

" The first pair of mortals crept from a hole in the earth, 
climbing up by a grape-vine," to inhabit a world that, as some 
say, had " grown out of a tortoise's back," or as others, " the 
globe reconstructed from the earth clutched in a muskrat's paw." 

Or the great legend man of another tribe would say that man 
was brought to earth on the back of the white-winged bird of 

The traditions of another would have it that the land was 
peopled by "a few wanderers from the seven caves (if any one 
can tell where they are), veiling their god-like powers of terror 
with hissing rattlesnakes fearful only to others." 

Then it was often told round the wigwam fire how a mam- 
moth bull jumped over the great lakes with the first Indians on 
his back, and how a grape-vine carried a whole tribe across the 

Now these, and very many more like them, were all satisfac- 
tory answers to the Indians themselves, but did not at all clear 
up the mystery of the origin of the Indians to the minds of the 
pious missionaries who first came among them, or the host of 
Indian historians who have sprung up in later years. Conse- 
quefttly theories without number have been started, a feAV of 


which the most important we will mentiou briefly, as they will aid 
the enquiriug reader greatly in solving the momentous question. 

Christopher Colon — otherwise the great Columbus — immedi- 
ately upon his discovering the red men in the "West Indies' began 
to theorise upon their origin, and concluded they were the people 
of the ancient Ophir, from whence Solomon procured the gold to 
embellish the temple at Jerusalem, and "imagined that he saw 
the remains of furnaces of veritable Hebraic construction em- 
ployed in refining the precious ore." 

Numerous writers, following the great discoverer, asserted 
without the least hesitation that the Jews were the early settlers 
of America, and many pious authors rejoiced that they had found 
at last the abode of the ten lost tribes of the children of Israel. 

Then learned authoi-s arose who said North America was 
peopled by a colony of Norwegians, and a generation of later 
writers were sure that the newly discovered land was peopled in 
remote ages by the Chinese. 

As time passed on, one distinguished historian ascribed the 
settlement of America to the Egyptians ; another to the Scandi- 
navians ; a third to the Gauls ; a fourth to the Celts ; a fifth to the 
Phcenicians, and a sixth to the Carthagenians, and numerous 
others to as many different peoples and nations, — each author 
bringing a clovid of witnesses and numerous tomes of written 
evidence to support his theory. 

In later times distinguished antiquarians, bringing to bear the 
light of natural science and modern geographical discoveries, 
have come to the conclusion that America was not peopled by the 
Norwegians, Celts, or Gauls, — marching from Europe by a pleas- 
ant route across frozen rivers and arms of the sea through Iceland, 
Greenland, and Labrador; neither that they sailed direct from 
Egypt, Phoenicia, or Carthage, westward across the Atlantic, or 
from China eastward across the Pacific ; but that they came in 
veritable birch canoes from the northeast corner of Asia, coasting 
with a pleasant breeze along the Aleutian isles, or sailing in the 
most daring manner directly across Behring's straits — forty-four 
miles wide — Avith three small islands intervening at equal dis- 
tances for convenient resting places. 

Others are so kind that they have constructed in remote ages 


an exceedingly strong bridge of ice across the above-named' strait, 
over wliich the red men could pass dry shod. 

It is said, with how much truth we know not, that the Esqui- 
maux of Asia and those of America are of the same origin, as is 
proved by the atfinity of their language, and the latter probably 
emigrated from the former country — coming over in canoes or on 
the convenient bridge of ice. Also that the Tungusians of Asia* 
are identical with the red men of America; only this cannot be 
proved by their language, but by similarity of features, hair, and 

Certain it is there are manj^ who do not believe the last men- 
tioned theories any more than the former, and assert that the 
Indians had an Adam and Eve of their own, who lived more than 
a hundred and fifty thousand years ago upon that strip of land 
seen to the northward from the top of our PemigeAvassett's loved 
Moosilauke, and which was once the only land in the whole 
world, an island washed on every side by a boundless and un- 
known ocean. 

From this we are to infer that Asia was peopled from Amer- 
ica, aud not vice versa, as was gravely asserted in former times. 

Others there are who, discarding all the former theories, assert 
that the human race had diverse origins, by the development pro- 
cess, as unfolded by the great Darwin, in which he makes man to 
have descended by natural selections and gradual development 
from the — oyster, or some other equally distinguished creation of 
animal life. Our noble tribe on the banks of the Pemigewassett 
must have felt honored had they but known from what noble 
ancestors they descended. 

Dissenters, who do not believe in the unity of the human race, 
affirm that the five species of men each had a different origin — 
five different pairs of first parents. f But these are only an aristo- 
cratical sort of people, who do not like to acknowledge themselves 

* Captain Ray, of tlie whalesliip Superior, testifies that while he was fishing at 
Behring's straits" he saw canoes going from one continent to tlie other. The origin 
of the native Americans is tlius evidently explained. It has also been observed 
that North Americans have habits and manners similar totheTchuktchians, Kamt- 
schatkans, Yakoutsks, and Koriaks of Asia. A similarity in the language has also 
been discovered. — History of the Abuakis, 13. 

tThey say it would have been just as easy for the Creator to have made five or 
twenty-five diflerent races of men as it was to have made one. 


to be " cousins to the Hindus, Hottentots, aud Negroes, perhaps to 
the gorillas and orang--otangs. 

We do not propose to go further in this antiquarian or anthro- 
pological expedition, but think that our readers, from what has 
been thus briefly presented, will come to the sage conclusion that 
the Pemigewassetts came from somewhere, the Lord only knows 
where, and inhabited the fair valley of the Asquamchumauke for 
long- centuries before the advent of the white man. 



In a little old legendary manuscript history, where the 
handwriting was decidedly poor and the spelling none of the best, 
said to have been written by Colonel Obadiah Clement in his 
younger and palmiest days, are related many and wonderful 
things, reported to have been told the Colonel by an Indian * who 
had seen more than a hundred and twenty winters, and who was 
wont to stop at his inn, about the red men that once resided on the 
head waters of the Asquamchumauke. We have made the most 
diligent search for this exceedingly entertaining work, and al- 
though we found his few poems and a lengthy religious experience 
written out, and numerous other iliteresting papers, yet we were 
never able to lay our hands upon it. But we have no doubt that 
a work written by Colonel Clement, containing divers and sundry 
facts, did once exist, which like many another great production is 
now lost to the world forever. In fact, we have met with one 
person who claims to have read the identical history, and from 
him we learned many a fond tale which he said his grandfather's 
manuscript recounted. These we have scrupulously written 
down, preferring to give them as heard rather than to trick them 
out in all the beautiful adorniugs and gay images of rhetoric. 

The old Indian, Avhose name was Acteon, as tradition has it, 

* Joseph Clement and James Clement both vouch for the Indian. 

In ITlii this same Acteon, at the head of ten Indians, surprised the family of 
Phillip Durrell, at Kennebunk, Me., burned the house and carried away ten per- 
sons into captivity. Acteon was a Xipmuck, although there was mucli dispute 
as to where he was born. — Drake's Ind. Biogj 330. 



narrated liow that the Pemigewassett tribe were a jovial set of 
wauderiug hunters, going from one end of their hunting grounds 
to the other in a single season, and building for themselves every 
time they stopped to plant, fish, or hunt fiiiry wigwams* to protect 
them from the weather. These mountain Indians had a taste for 
the beautiful, and their forest halls were elaborately constructed, 
splendidly ornamented, and furnished with the most artistic skill. 
A smooth i)lat of ground was chosen among the embowering 
trees, near Avhich a bright cold spring gushed up from the white 
sand, or by which a sparkling brook danced in circling eddies 
among the rocks. Sometimes they chose the bank of the river, 
and again the margin of the shining lake. 

In building their palaces they were the sole architects and 
artificers, and, being able to do so many things, they would have 
been termed in Yankee land jacks-at-all-trades. 

Yet they reared no marble or granite halls. They planted 
numerous sapling poles in the ground, at equal distances from a 
given point called the centre ; these were all bent toward each 
other till they met and formed a sharp cone, Avhen they were there 
fastened. Spruce or birch bark was neatly shingled all over this 
light framework, save a small opening on the top and another 
about two feet wide and three feet high, on the southeast side. 
The first was never closed, no doubt being left open that the 
smoke of the fire, which was always built in the centre of the 
palace, might easily escape, — perhaps also for ventilation — while 
the second, which answered for a royal enti'ance, and was really 
larger than that through which the dirty philosopher Diogenes 
entered his tub, was stopped by the shaggy skin of a bear. Mats 
were placed upon the ground, and these were covered with rich 
furs. Dishes of birch bark, shells, and gourds; bows and arrow- 
filled quivers, tomahawks and scalping-knives ; spears, paddles, 
pipes, and tobacco — in fine, all the treasures of mighty warriors, 
together with the scalps of enemies, were hung, like trophies in 
old baronial halls, upon the pillars, architraves, cornices, fluted 
shafts, friezes, and capitals of the stately pole and bark edifice. f 

* The men make the poles or stakes, hut the women make and set up, take 
down, order, and carry the household stufl'. — Roger AVilliams' Key. 

fDeer skins, or those of some other animal, were hung at these apertures to 
tnke the place oj' doors, and were pushed aside when they Avished to enter or pass 


The palace of Versailles, the Kremlin of Moscow, or the halls of 
St. James have not half the beauties these woodland lodges and 
their surroundings possessed. Fountains and baths in silvery 
sands, with flowers smiling- on the mossy rim ; long aisles amid 
the mighty colonnade of trees ; terraces on the green slopes, planted 
with flowering shrubs ; leafy canopies echoing with the fjiiry notes 
of the light-winged winds, or thrilling with the sweetest madri- 
gals of a thousand birds, with plumage dyed in the brightest rain- 
bow hues ; arches of sky of the sweetest blue, or ebon vaults 
glowing with diamond stars — all these emparadised the forest 
lodges of the Pemigewassetts. 

But, said old Acteon, although we don't use his exact lan- 
guage, let no one who has common sense suppose for a moment 
that these almost ephemeral wigwams were free from the numerous 
cares that harass and perplex humanity. The Pemigewassetts, 
like other men, must eat. Their bodies were sensible to the 
scorching rays of the summer sun and also felt the chilly blast and 
biting frost. Toil might procure them food, but from heat aud 
cold their palaces afforded only a weak protection. 

Still they had one advantage over ordinary civilized mortals : 
No frowns, scowls, or cross looks on the lovely faces of their 
squaw-queens ever troubled them on washing or cleaning days. 
In fact, it required no great outlay of elbow-grease to keep their 
castles clean, nor coats of whitewash to make them look comely. 
If a dirty mud-puddle stank before the entrance, or if all the 
chinks and cranies of the low-arched hall swarmed with fleas 
and lice, as was frequently the case, all that was necessary to be 
done was to move out the treasures, apply the torch, let the de- 
vouring element do its work — and then no forest flower could 
grow half so quick as a second royal wigwam.* 

How did the Pemigewassetts subsist? Old Acteon, in a story- 
out. They had gourds of various kinds. The common gourd they cultivated for 
dippers aiid musical instruments, use and pleastxre. The 6070 of "the Pemigewas- 
set was usually made of white ash or hemlock. The nrrow was pointed with 
stone: sometimes of fine granite, but ofteuer of quartz and slate. The spear-head 
and knife were of the same materials. When bending the bow the string was 
drawn with three fingers, while the forefinger and thumb held the arrow. In this 
manner a strong man could bend a very stift' l)ow, wliich would throw an arrow 
with very great velocity. Parfrf/es were "made of light bass wood or ash. Pipes 
were made of freestone. 

*The wigwam for the summer was a frail and temporary affair, as it was re- 
moved from the winter encampment to the fishing place, and from thence to the 


telling mood, ofteu related to Colonel Obadiah liow it was, — and 

as they were just like all the rest of the New England Indians 

their manners and customs can also be learned from the early 

English Indian historians among them, and perhaps the most 

entertaining is John Josselyn, Gent., as he was accustomed to sign 


Cultivating the laud, fishing, fowling, and hunting occupied 

for the most part their attention. 

The braves did not like to work, and the Avomen were com- 
pelled to strengthen their feeble constitutions by cultivating the 
wild fields with mattocks of wood, bone, or shell. They planted 
the maize, scared away the crows, hoed the beans, and trained the 
flowering vines. 

While their women were thus employed and kept out of mis- 
cliief the men would gamble, tell their brave exploits in war, sing 
their rude songs, engage in wild sports, or eat, smoke, and sleep. 
When they were tired of this lazy way of existence they would 
dig out their boats, construct their birchen canoes, * repair the 
wigwams, and make bows, arrows, spears, and tomahawks. 

When they wanted moderate excitement, and did not care to 
fight, they would engage in fishing, foAvling, and hunting. It is 
said that in the first they used a spear, a net, and rude hooks of 
bone.f But Old Acteon said the Pemigewassetts and their Nii)- 
muck cousins down the river had no need of such artificial con- 
trivances. So plenty were the fish in the Merrimack and its trib- 
utaries that all they had to do was to jump into the water and 
with their hands throw out a hundred dozen or so, just as their 
delicate appetites happened to crave. 

In the ponds and rivers, at certain seasons, wild-fowl congre- 
gated in immense flocks. Then fleets of birchen canoes would 

planting grounds ; then from one field to another, and then again oftentimes from 
one spot in the field to another, to get rid of the fleas, which were numerous in hot 
weather, and which insect thej' cull Poppek from its celerity of movement. — Pot- 
ter's History of Manchester, 47. 

* The canoe was made of birch hark : .V suitable tree was cut down and the 
Ijark peeled off in one piece. Then a framework of spruce was made and the bark 
fitted or sewed to it with spruce or otlier roots. The holes were stopped witli 
pitch. They M'ere really beaiititul and graceful structures, and one that weighed 
less than forty pounds would carry, five persons. A man could easily carry one on 
his shoulders" around falls or from place to place. 

t Up higher from the sea, at the falls of gi-eat rivers, they used to take salmon, 
shad, and alewives that used in gi-eat quantities, moi-e tliau cartloads, in the spring 
to pass up into the fresh water ponds and lakes to spawn. — Ms. H. C. iii. s. vol. 
V. 30. 


surround thcin, and gradually narrowing- their circle they would 
rapidly huddle them into some narrow creek or cove, and then in 
wantonness destroy them by thousands. 

In hunting they set spring traps* for deer, snares for par- 
tridges and rabbits, and kulheags for bears, coons, fisher-cats, 
minks, muskrats, and sable. In early autumn, when moose and 
deer fed at night on the grassy shores of the lakes and rivers, the 
Indian hunter, with rude lantern brightly flashing in front, placed 
in the prow of the canoe, would paddle noiselessly in the dark 
shadow behind, and when sufficiently near his spell-bound vic- 
tim would send his feathered shaft on its silent but fatal mission. 
Every dark night of autumn these spectral fires might be seen 
gliding- like will-o'-the-wisps over the rivers, ponds, and lakes in 
the Pemigewassett country. 

But the most exciting and the most attractive of all were 
their grand hunting-parties. As they had no hawks, hounds, nor 
horses, and as it was difficult for a single hunter to capture the 
lar<^-er game, these huntings were necessary. They would select 
some woody glen or pass of the hills, such as can be found any- 
where in the East-parte regions, or like the notch of the Oliveriau, 
which they would nearly hedge across by an abattis of trees placed 
in the form of the letter V — the apex being left slightly open, so 
that the game could pass through. The skillful spear and bow 
men stationed themselves near the open apex. Some of th'e more 
inexperienced hunters, together with the women and children, 
would go out on the hillsides, while others stood in a semi-circle 
across the valley. Then with shouts, and yells, and wild whoops, 
the moose and deer, bears and wolves, were roused with the 
smaller game. Narrowing their semicircle, they drove the Avild 

* In November, 1620, soon after the arrival of the Mayflower, as Stephen Hop- 
kins, Wilham Bradford and otliers were walking in tlie'woods they came to a tree 
wliere a young sprit was bowed doAvn over a bow and some acorns strewed un- 
derneath. As Bradford went about it it gave a sudden jerk up and he was imme- 
diately caught up by his legs and hung dangling in the air.— Totter's Hist, of Man- 
chester, 42. 

They hunt by traps of several sorts. To which purpose after they have ob- 
served in spring-time and summer the haunt of the deer then about harvest they 
go ten or twenty together, and sometimes more, and witlial if it be not Coo I'ar, 
wives and children also, where they buihl up little hunting houses of barks aud 
rushes, not comparable to their dwelling-houses ; and so each man takes his bounds 
of two, three, or four miles, where he sets thirty, forty, or lifty traps, and baits 
them with that food tlie deer loves, and once in two days lie walks his roiiud to^ 
view his traps where they lie at what comes at them, for the deer, whom they con- 
ceive have a divine power in them, will soon smell all aud be gone.— Roger Wil- 
liams' Key, 233. 


herd toward the restricted opening of the abattis. The moose and 
deer were shot, as bounding forward they endeavored to escape. 
Bears generally took to the trees, but the bowmen brought them 
down, while the lesser game, confused and crowded, was easily 
captured by the shouting drivers.* 

Such scenes were yearly witnessed in all the Nipmuck coun- 
try, and especially in the Asquamchumauke valley, where game 
was so plenty. In this manner they procured a large supply of 
meat which, smoked, lasted through the winter, as well as an 
abundance of furs and skins for clothing and blankets. 

AYhen the strawberry crimsoned the banks of the Asquam- 
chumauke, the wild cherry and sugar plum tempted the songster 
by Berry brook and the Mikaseota ; when the raspberry and black- 
berry grew by the wild maize fields, and the blueberry and huckle- 
berry ripened on the rocky heights of Owl's Head and Webster 
Slide and along the shores of the sedgy ponds, rosy-cheeked girls 
and bright-eyed boys of tlie Pemigewassett tribe had a joyous 
time gathering the luscious store. 

But when the green corn was ripe enough to roast, and the 
fishings, or fowlings, or huntings were over; when the squaws 
had gathered the silken ears, or had cooked the geese, the ducks, 
and the partridges, or the golden-fleshed salmon or ricli fat trout ; 
or had roasted the moose meat and the venison and bear steaks, — 
then began the feast and jubilant festivals ; then the archways of 
their forest temples echoed with wild harmonious choruses and 
deep-resounding music; then on the fire-lit lawn symmetrical 
forms circled in the mazy green corn dance, the salmon dance, 
and the hunters' dance; then vows were plighted, nuptials cele- 
brated, and the old men recounted the legends of the tribe. 

Acteon said that the Pemigewassetts never considered Warren 
— the land upon the head-waters of the Asquamchumauke — as a 
very good planting ground. Plymouth, and the rich meadows of 
Coos, were much better. But as a gooei hunting region, about the 
lofty Moosilauke, or as containing excellent fishing waters, no 
better place could be found. 

*When they pursue their game, especially deer — which is the general ami 
wondcrrul plenteous hunting in the country — they pursue in 20, 40, 50, yea 200 or 
300 in a company, as 1 have seen when they drive the -woods before them.— Roger 
Williams' Key, 23U. 


The Pemigewassetts like all the rest of the Nipmucks hunted, 
or fished, or planted, every day in the year. There was no Sun- 
day for them. Still they Avere somewhat piously disposed and 
observed religious rites whenever the spirit moved. They had no 
God, as we understand Him. Their deities were infinite; but 
some were superior to others. Every thing that showed life or 
motion had a divinity, and they saw a god in every blade of 
springing grass, in the waving of the foi'est trees ; they saw him 
smiling in the blue river and heard him in the dashing of the 
great lakes, in the music of the leaping waterfalls, in the sighing 
of the trickling drops of the grotto, and in the winds .shrieking 
on the clifls. To them there was a bright Shade dancing in the 
stars, gliding on the moonbeams, smiling in the rosy dawn of 
morning, and the last tinges of the setting sun. 

Then there was a divinity — a guardian angel — for the trout, 
the salmon, and llie shad; for every kind of fish, for the songster 
that sang by the wigwam, and the eagle that screamed above the 
mountains; for the beaver, the bear, the deer, the moose, and for 
every creeping thing. This divinity, this " shade," would never 
die. When its mission on earth was ended it flew to the ^' happy 
hunting grounds" of the far southwest, along with the noble 
shades of the dusky departed Indians, and there it would live 

But the great god, Gitchie Manito, of the Pemigewassetts 
had his home on the mountains, and they heard him in the voices 
of the storm and the mighty torrent, and in the thunder that mut- 
tered in the dark gorges and rumbled low over the crests. They 
saw him in the rosy hue that kindled on the peaks in early morn- 
ing, or in the sharp flash of the lightning that leaped from the 
murky clouds. 

His home they seldom visited, and the Indian had a bold 
spirit who dared to climb the bald crest of the mountain. 

To him they sacrificed. The first fruits of the chase, the early 
green maize, the golden salmon, the wild duck, the goose, and the 
partridge were their ofierings. But, like more modern Christians, 
they believed in evil spirits as well as good ones, and the former 
came in for their share and received their portion, — the same as 


the ancient Greeks were accustomed to sacrifice five white sheep 
to the good gods and ten black ones to the bad. 

Mau}^ other things, as Acteon said, tlie Pemigewassetts were 
wont to do, such as to marry and be given in marriage, and now 
and then obtain a divorce, as is the custom in later days; to die 
and be buried, to weep and mourn, and then to engage in the 
pleasant pastime of war, as we shall be most happy to narrate. 

* AViien they come to the grave they lay the dead by tlie grave's mouth and then 
all sit down and lament : that I have seen tears run down the cheeks of stoutest 
captains, as well as little children, in abiuidance. And alter the dead are laid hi the 
grave and sometimes in some parts some goods cast in with them, they have the 
second great lamentation. And upon the grave is spread the mat the "party died 
on, tlie dish' he eat in, and sometimes a fair coat of skin hung upon the next tree to 
the grave, which none will touch, but sufl'er it there to rot with the dead.— Roger 
Williams' Key, 238. 



Captain JOHN smith deserves lionorable mention in 
this and every other great history. He was the bravest man 
of that company of adventurers Avho founded Jamestown, Vir- 
ginia. He would have been leader whether chosen by the London 
Company or not, for as a general thing the bravest man in trying 
times takes the lead. Smith was courageous. There was a sort of 
a bull-dog crossed with a rat-terrier look in his countenance. He 
had stamina, gumption — pluck in abundance. With his cocked 
hat, blue coat and briglit buttons, sword, buff-breeches, leggins, 
shoes and buckles, he presented an imposing appearance, which 
showed that he was the man for the times and- tlie occasion. He 
arranged the affairs of the colony, explored the country, met with 
his Pocahontas adventure, went twice to England and returned, 
made a map of all the American coast claimed by his sovei-eign , 
King James, and then all for glory went to fight in the wars of 
some eastern prince. 

This same Capt. John Smith, many thanks to him, claimed to 
be something of an author. He explored the coast of New Eng- 
land, kept a journal, and afterv/^ards published an account of his 
travels. From him we learn all about this beautiful land — called 
by some a rock-bound coast — how it was full of bays and inlets, 
and how bright rivers came down from the mouutains seen rising 
from the far interior forests. 


We also learn from him how many and what Indians resided 
here. He tells us of the cruel Micmacs of Nova Scotia, who, with 
the New Brunswick Indians, were called Tarentines. They were 
jolly fighters, and delighted in blood and carnage. He also tells 
us of the Scotucks, a tribe with a beautiful name, admired by all, 
and of the Penobscots, who inhabited the Kennebec country, and 
Avere celebi^ated in the songs of the red men as a tall race of noble 
warriors. He says the Sokokis dwelt on the Saco river and fished 
at its falls ; that the Pascataquas were at the Isles of Shoals, and 
built handsome wigwams on the shores of the beautiful bay, at 
Strawberry Bank, The Massachusetts lived at Trimountain, the 
Pacouikicks at Cape Cod, and west were the warlike Pequots and 
the bloody Narragansetts. In the interior of Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire were the Nipemucks, and the Noridgewolks were 
seated on the upper Kennebec and Moosehead lake. 

All these tribes were divided into numerous clans, and the 
famous Capt. Smith tells all their musical, easily pronounced 
names, such as the Aumughcawgens, Pauhuntanucks, Pocopas- 
sums, Taughtanakagnets, Mauherosquick, Pasanack, and many 
others equally pretty, with as much particularity as he would 
mention the hundred names of all the great and powerful German 

This voyage of exploration, when Smith made such wonder- 
ful discoveries, which resulted in his giving us the earliest account 
of the Nipmucks extant, happened in 1G14. At this time the 
Mai'quas,* or Mohawks, on the Hudson, were a powerful race of 
warriors. Their wild maurauding parties frequently crossed the 
Green mountains and fell on the dwellers of the coast. Then the 
bloody Tarentines of the east were continually panting for glory 
and triumphs — not unlike the Romans — and the consequence was 
that all tlie above-mentioned tribes were compelled to join in a 
league for mutual protection. 

The Penobscot Indians were at the head of this league. They 
were a valiant race, and their chief was superior to all of his 

*To sum up all concerning tlie Marquas you may see in the foregoing discourse 
that they are a stout though cruel people, much addicted to bloodshed and cruelty, 
yery prone to vex and spoil the peaceable Indians. — Gookin, Ms. Hist. Col. Hi". 

The Mohawks were a powerful tribe and made frequent incursions among the 
New England Indians.— 3 Ms. Hist. Soc. Col. iii. 21, 22. 


time. Of powerful frame, no Indian could hurl the tomahaAvk 
with more precision, could shoot an arrow higher, paddle the 
canoe faster, or run swifter than himself. In the council he was 
eloquent, and commanded the closest attention ; in the fight his 
whoop was the loudest and his blow the most deadlj^; as a medi- 
cine man he was unequalled, and as a sorcerer all the subtle spirits 
stood ready to do his bidding. Of commanding appearance, with 
eagle plumes in his straight black hair, with an eye flashing like 
lightning, high cheek bones, broad nose and firmly set jaws ; with 
necklace of panthers' claws, and a rattlesnake skin on his tawny 
red arm ; naked to the waist, a robe of fox-skins with tails pen- 
dant extending to the knee; bear-skin breeches, with flowing- 
hair, and moccasins of moose-hide, — the chief of the Penobscots 
— the Bashaba of JSTew England — was the idol of his braves. 

Tliis great Bashaba had numerous chiefs of his own tribe 
under him, and so in all the other tribes. Even our Pemigewas- 
setts had several chiefs, according to Acteon's narrative : a war 
chief, who led the army of braves to battle; chiefs in the council, 
who sat as head men of the deliberations, — and every one of these 
great chiefs acknowledged fealty to the Bashaba. 

But this great man did not long survive the visit of Capt. 
Smith, and then the league went to pieces. How it happened is 
very interesting to know : 

The young warriors of the Tarentines* were thirsting for 
glory. They feasted in the groves where the wigwams were 
planted ; by their fire they sang the war-song and danced the war- 
dance in the shadowy night, and all who danced enlisted. As the 
full moon waned, a score of parties, each numbering from three 
to forty, were ready for the march. Their outfit was simple. A 
bow and quiver of arrows, tomahawk, scalping-knife, pipe and 
tobacco, with pouch of parched corn provided, and they Avere 
ready for a month's campaign. They make themselves hideous 
with black and red paint, they sing the farewell song to their 
women and children, and they are. gone. 

Eound the Bay of Fundy, where the foam-crested tide was 
rushing, across the rivers St. John and St. Croix, for weeks they 
thread the pathless wilderness towards the southwest. They 

* They were sometimes called the Abuaki Indians of the east. 


place no watch at night. They pray to their fetiches and, like the 
panther, lie down feeling secure. Arrived in the land of the 
Penobscots, for days together they hide in deep ravines and among 
the spruces of the mountains. When the moon is sleeping in the 
western waves, when the first blush of morning tinges the eastern 
sky, when sleep is soundest and sweetest, they rush upon the 
Penobscot villages. Like the tornado they sweep them away. 
The warriors of the Bashaba are slain. The Tarentine brave 
twists the scalp lock in his loft hand, places his foot on the neck, 
cuts a circular gash around the head with the scalpiug knife, 
gives an accompanying dexterous jerk, and the scalp is his. Even 
the Bashaba himself, fighting bravely, finds a death-couch upon the 
bodies of half-a-dozen Tarentines. The score of war parties have 
a hundred scalps. The richest wampum, the choicest skins, strong 
bows, ornamented quivers full of arrows tipped with rose quartz, 
spears and nets, are among the spoils. Yet thev return home 
with few captives. 

As they approached their own villages they announced their 
return in triumph with loud yells of exultation. To celebrate 
their victory they renew the feast and dance the scalp dance. The 
latter was a unique performance. The scalps taken in former 
battles are attached to their girdles. With heads bent forward 
they hold by the hair the fresh scalps in their teeth. Then they 
howl and stamp around the fire in the centre of their cluster of 
wigwams, cutting all the uncouth antics imaginable, performing 
gyrations innumerable, and sci-eaming and yelling in their intense 
jollification, "as though," in the language of a pious writer, 
" bedlam had broken loose and all hell was in an uproar." 

But this very interesting ceremony was only a gentle prelude 
to the good time that followed. Let no one be shocked at the 
recital. Men are the creatures of education. The effeminate and 
refined queen of Spain enjoys a bull-baiting on the Sabbath as 
much as northern Christians enjoy psalm singing and hosannas. 
Some of our near neighbors take a peculiar delight in cock-fight- 
ing, and the Roman matrons of old reached the acme of their 
bliss when they saw fierce gladiators butchering each other or 
contending with ferocious wild beasts. After the scalp dance had 
ceased the few Penobscot captives were brought forward. The 


young- Micmacs were enjoined bj' the old men to do avcU. A 
young brave from the west was to undergo the ordeal. With 
scornful eye and air of defiance he presents his hands to be 
crushed between the rough stones. His fingers are torn off one 
by one, j^et not a cry escapes him. His nose is cut oft' — his tongue 
torn out — and still he does not flinch. His joints are separated; 
he is flayed like a deer — and then the cold shivering spirits are 
driven away by pushing him up to the fire that he may enjoy the 
hot ones. Yet he survives this exquisite torture; and pitch 
faggots arc thrust into his involuntary, quivering flesh, and 
lighted — at which all the assembled braves, the tawny squaws, 
and their sunburnt daughters laugh and shout, in fiendish glee at 
the sickening misery. At dawn, if still alive, he is dragged 
beyond the wigwams and there hacked in pieces. Such Avas the 
practice, not only of the Tareutines, but of all gentle Indians.* 

Some cunning writers, to show oft' the fine points of their 
heroes, draw a parallel between them and other notable characters. 
One might be set forth in this manner: Did the most Holy Pope 
of the Christian Catholic Church apply thumbscrews in the Inqui- 
sition — the Micmacs had as pleasing a torture in putting hands 
between the mashing rocks. Did his holiness unjoint limbs on 
the rack — the more primitive savage could unjoint them as well 
with his hands. Did God's vicegerent break limbs — Indians 
could do the same with a stone beetle. Did the good John Calvin 
burn jNIichael Servctus at the stake — Micmacs could roast the 
flayed victim and laugh at the sound of the quivering flesh cooked 
by the faggots. Did the Puritans scourge the backs, crop the 
ears, cut out the tongues of unoftending Quakers, and hang 
witches — the '' brave " with as keen an avidity could cut oft" the 
nose, tear out the tongue, and hack in pieces. 

But we will not carry this refined comparison further. There 
is a dark side to everything. If we looked only to the failings of 
meu we might run mad with melancholy. The Indians have been 
strangely venerated. We are sometimes disposed to admire them. 

*For an acfoimt of their method of tortuving see V. Bancroft, Chap. 2S. 

One William Moody tinhappily resijynod himself into the hands of some French 
Mohawks, wlio most inluimanly tortured him by fastening him unto a stake and 
roasting him alive, whose llesh they afterwards devoured.— Penhallow's Indian 
Wars, N. H. Hist. Soc. Col. (Jl. 


There is a disposition from some cause to hide their faults, but, 
for the sake of truth, their character should be correctly presented. 
Yet after all we do not see as they are much worse than many 
others who have pretended to vastly better thiugs. 

For a long- time the Penobscot tribe was ruined. The Bashaba 
dead — all the New England Indians, iucludiug our Pemigewas- 
setts, who were no doubt exceedingly interested in passing events, 
were at sea without compass or rudder. The bond of union was 
broken. Each tribe now stx-uggled for the supremacy. Like the 
earlier times, when Milton's Satan and his good angels showed a 
belligerent spirit in Paradise, primeval war raged.* It extended 
from the Hudson river to the St. John. How this very amiable 
contest, in which our proud Pemigewassetts engaged with delight, 
was conducted and ended, we shall endeavor most faithfully to 

* After the death of the Bashaba the public business running to confusion for 
want of a head, the rest of liis great sagamores fell at variance amongst them- 
selves, spoiled and destroyed each other's people and provision, and lamine took 
hold of many; which wasseconded by a great and general plague, which so vio- 
lently reigned for three years together that in a manner a greater part of tne land 
was left desert, without "any to disturb or oppose a free and peaceable possession 
thereof. — Sir Ferdinaudo Gorges' Des. ol X. E., vii. Ms. Hist. Soc. Col. 3 Ser, vol. 
vi. 90. 



It is much to bo lamented tliat there were no historians 
among the Indians to record the names of their heroes and their 
victories. But the wild hordes of Asia, the highly enlightened 
darkies of Africa, who have had their bright civilization crushed 
out by powerful European armies, which so frequently have rav- 
ished their beautiful lands at the sources of the Nile, have no place 
in history and never had. The Indians may thank their lucky 
stars that their European exterminators have taken so much pains 
to preserve the remembrance of the benevolent acts that thrust 
them out of existence and on to the page of history, where they 
still live. In this they have the advantage of the Esquimaux, the 
Negroes, some of the Asiatics, and their numerous cousins in the 
Pacific isles. The author of this excellent history has had occasion 
to be thankful to the renowned and the redoubtable Capt. John 
Smith for his notes on the Indians, and he here renews his thanks. 
To take up the thread of this to us very interesting subject, 
we would say we ai-e sure there was a most fierce fight among the 
Indians on the death of the Bashaba. Capt. Smith says so. In 
what tribe it commenced we never could learn, but when begun it 
proved universal. The strong fought for supremacy, the weak for 
existence. Thei*e was no necessity for the war-song or the war- 
dance. Every brave was compelled to enlist whether he would or 
not. The signal fire gleam'sd on the hill-top. The war-whoop 
was heard in the valley. New England, before nor since, never 
saw such carnage within her borders. The French war and the 


Revolution were uotbiug compared to it. The battles of the Scot- 
tish clans, or those of the old Norsemen, might have been some- 
what similar, yet there were many points o? difference. In fact, 
the red Indians had decidedly a style of their own — original, 
and one that could not well be imitated. The children of the 
forest were early to bed and earlj^ to rise, and they generally 
foixght in the morning. The shrill war-whoop, the whistling 
arrow, the whirr of the tomahawk, the yells in the savage on- 
slaught, or of the wounded who refused to groan though hurt to 
death, were a wild matin hymn to their fierce war-god, who 
smiled upon them in the blood-red sti'eaks of dawn. All the 
tribes on the seacoast with euphonious names fought with wild 
frenzy. Numerous were the warriors slain, the captives taken, 
the scalp locks hanging on the poles of the wigwam.* 

But the fiercest fighters of all were the mountaineers of New 
Hampshire. From their secret lurking places in the dark ravines 
they would steal out and drop silent and still as the falling dew 
into the pleasant villages of the coast. Then leaping up fiery and 
fierce, and shouting and yelling like fiends incarnate, they would 
massacre every inhabitant. They would traverse the passes of 
the mountains, and fljdng down swift as the scudding mist, in a 
few hours they would secure scalps enough to astonish their vil- 
lage. Then retreating up the beds of the torrents they would 
elude all pursuit. Invincible as their own mountains, and secret 
as the panther that crouched in the pathless forest gloom, their 
enemies fell beneath their blows like frost work under the 
morning sun. 

Thus the war went on, and every tribe seemed about to be 
exterminated, when a foe more terrible than the mountain Indian 
entered the A'illages, and cut down alike men, women, and children. 

The plague f first appeared on the coast. But it soon jour- 
neyed inland and preyed on every tribe. Its ravages were terri- 
ble. One individual of a village smitten down, and despair seated 

* Divisions arose as to the succession to the Bashaba, of which the Tarentines 
t.akiug the advantage soon overpowered the other tribes of Maine, and extended a 
Avar of extermination along the coast of Massacliusetts. — Potter's Hist, of Man- 
chester, 23. 

Dralie's Indian Biogi-aphy, 81. 

t Uralie's Indian Biography, 3. 

Not long bel'ore the English came into the country, happened a great mortality 
amongst them, especially where the English afterwards planted. The east and 


itself on the countenances of all. Flight was hopeless. One by 
one they would lie down and die. The dead were unburied. A 
terrible stench tainted the air. Strong warriors, who had coped 
with death in a thousand forms, laj' rotting in the wigwams. In- 
fants lay on the breasts of their dead mothers, striving in vain to 
draw life from the bosoms that would never throb again. The 
strong and vigorous youth, the beautiful maiden, were alike a 
prey to it. In a few weeks whole villages were depopulated, and 
whole tribes ceased to exist. 

Inland the crops were neglected, and when winter came the 
famine was as terrible as the plague. As the snow grew deeper, 
and the cold more intense, and the wind howled back the shrieks 
of the spectre fjimine, attenuated forms with haggard faces and 
sunken eyes and cheeks would sit for days in the smoke of their 
wigwam fires. Then Avith tottering steps they would reel into the 
woods for food, and there, chilled, would lie down and die. 

Three summers the plague came, until on the seacoast not an 
Indian village remained; and for many leagues along the shore 
not five Indians in a hundred were alive. When the Pilgrim bark 
anchored in Plymouth Bay, " the hardy feAV found the country a 

One thing has troubled exceedingly in writing the above 
very minute and accurate account of this war, pestilence, and 
famine. A j)articalar description cannot be given. The names of 
the warriors who fell, the men, women, and children who sickened 

uortheru parts were sore smitten with the contagion, first by the plague, afterward 
when the English came by the small pox. — John .JosselTn, Gent., 2 Voyages to N. 
K. 123. 

For that war had commenced, the Bashaba and most of the great sagamores, 
with such men of action as followed tliem, were killed, and those tliat remained 
were sore afflicted by the plague. [IGlfi-lOlV.] So that the country in a manner 
was left void of inhabitants. Xotwith.<tauding Vines and the rest witli him that 
lay in the cabins with those peov>le tliat died, some more some less nighth', (bless- 
ed be God for it !) not one of them ever felt their he:uls to ache while tliey staid 
there. — Sir F. Gorges' Description of New England, Chap. 10 Ms. H. C. 3 s. v. 6, 57. 

"It seems God has provi<led this country for our nation, destroying them by 
the ])lague, it not touching our Phiglishnie'ii, though many traded and conversant 
amongst them, for they had three i.lagues in three years successively, neare two 
luuidred miles along the sea-coast, that in some places tliere scarce remained live 
in a hundred. * * * * But most certain there was an exceedingly great 
plague amongst them; for where I had seen two or three hundred, within three 
years after there remained scarcely thirty. — ]Ms. H. C. vol. iii. 3 s. 40. 

Thomas Morton, in liis " New England Canaan," p. 23, says : "But contrary- 
wise [the Indians having said tliey were so many that God could not kill tlieiii, 
wlien one of the Frenchmen rebuked them for their wickedness, telling them God 
would destroy them] in a short time after the liand of (iod fell heavily upon them 
with such a mortal stroke tluit tlicy died in heaps as they lay in their houses, and 



and died, or of those who starved, cannot be told. Thucydides 
narrates how in the plague of Athens, during- the Thirty Years 
War, such and such a distinguished man was stricken down. Our 
sympathies are particularly excited at the death of the noble and 
renowned Pericles and his doubtful wife, Aspasia, with their sweet 
children. Hume, in his narrative of the great plague in London, 
makes his history decidedly entertaining in giving the minute par- 
ticulars, and Moses of old, likewise, in telling of the plagues of 
^oypt. These great historians liave all the advantage there, and 
one can but mourn that time has buried the names of all the old 
Indian heroes in oblivion. 

the living that were able to shift for themselves would run away and let them dy, 
and let their karkases l.y above jjTound withoTit buriall. For in a place where many 
inhabited thei'e hath been but one lelt alive lo tell what became of the rest. The 
living being (as it seems) not able to bury the dead. Tliey were left for crows, 
ijites, and vermin to pre}' upon. And the bones and skulls upon the several places 
of their habitations made such a spectacle, after my coming into these parts, that 
as I travelled in that forest nere Mass. it seemed to me a new-found Golgotha." 



The war is over. The famine and the pestilence, mighty 
woes in the land of the Nipmucks, have passed. Peace comes 
again — and once more there is plenty in the wigwams. 

But the terrible Mohawks still dwell in the west and the 
bloody Tarentine war-whoop still resounds from beyond the hunt- 
ing grounds of the Sokokis and the Penobscots. 

, There is no safety hut in union ; and our Nipmucks, whom 
we are pleased to style Pemigewassetts, are compelled to enter 
into another mighty league, which is formed among all the Nip- 
muck tribes, with a new Bashaba* at its head. 

This great ruler, the second Bashaba, standing as he does on 
the confines of civilization, with the mellow twilight of history 
casting a halo of romance about him, seems to us one of the most 
prominent characters in our annals. He makes his first appearance 
in 1623. Acteon well remembered him, and as he was much 
beloved by our Pemigewassetts and all the rest of the Mpmucks, 
and was their great protector, we cannot pass him by without a 
brief notice. 

Born, as tradition has it, about 1540, by his bravery and 
genius he won at length his proud position. Indian legends tell 
of his great prowess, and of his sanguinary battles fought and 

* Potter's Histoiy of Mancliester, 54. 
Mass. Hist. Col. 3 series, vol. viii IIH. 


won in the deep forests on the streams and mountains. These 
Indian tales, collated and adorned, might prove to Indian lovers 
as interesting- as the account of the twelve labors of Hercules, or 
the voyage of the Argonautic Jason. But we cannot loiter in 
these pleasant fields. The demands of our most important history 
of a most important tribe compel us to hurry rapidly through these 
interesting chapters. 

"When the little province of Mariana, alias Laconia, other- 
wise New Hampshire, was tirst settled he was about eighty years 
old, and at this early period of life, having been schooled in all the 
cunning- wiles of the forest, had won for himself tlie title of Pas- 
SACONAWAY*— "The Child of the Bear." 

Of powerful frame, he Avas more than six feet tall. He could 
leap like a catamount across the streams, and bound like a wild 
deer through the pathless woods. No warrior could bend his 
bow, and his feathered arrows were lost in the deep blue of the 
sky. A cap of red plumes on his head, his quiver at his back, his 
bow in his hand, clothed only in a robe of the richest furs, shod 
with moccasius of the toughest moose hide, with flashing eye and 
haughty mien, the Nipmuck Bashaba was the most noble Indian 
that ever trod the Granite hills. f 

But we must assure our readers that we draw the above pic- 
ture by reasoning- c^ ^j06^^erior?'. He was Bashaba — only such au 
Indian could be a Bashaba — therefore such was Passacouaway. 

Yet his appearance is much changed from this when he makes 
his first mythical bow in 1623. Modern painters (who have seen 
him) put a royal crown on his head in the shape of a dowdy skull 

*His name is indicative of his warlike character: Papisseconewa, as vrritten 
by himself, meaning the child of the bear. Being derived from poi^ocis, a child, 
and Kunnnwaij, a bear— Potter's Hist of Man. 48, 54. 

t Laws made by the Apostle Elliot for Passaconaway and his people : 

1st. That if any man be idle a week, at most. a fortniglit, liee shall pay five sliil- 

2d. If any unmarried man shall lie with a yonng woman nnmarried liee shall 
pay twenty .shillings. 

3d. If any man shall beat his wife his liands shall be tied behind liim and he be 
carried to the place of justice to be severely pnnished. 

■Itli. Every young man, if not anotlier's servant, and if unmarried, he shall be 
compelled to set up a wigwam and plant for liimself, and not live shifting up and 
down to other wigwams. 

.)tli. If any woman shall not have her hair tied up, but hang loose or be cut as 
men's Iiair, slie sliall pay five shillings. 

(itli. If any woman goe with naked breasts she shall pay two shillings sixpence. 

7th. All tliose men that weare long locks shall pay live" shillings. 

8th. If any shall kill their lice between their teeth they shall pay five shillings. 
-Mass. H. C". vol. iv. series 3. 


cap, with a crooked horn about four inches in length rising from 
its apex. Sashes of furs are worn on his slioulders, a pipe, a 
pouch, a bear's f^ice — the Nipmuck totem — are attached to his 
girdle ; his teeth are gone, his face is shrunk up, and his sunken 
eyes, shaded by the high cheek bones and the massive forehead, 
onl\' gleam with their wonted tire when fierce excitement fills his 

His disposition is also changed. From what the English saw 
of him we should say that he had more the spirit of John Howard 
the philanthropist, coupled with that of old Potter the juggler, 
than of Julius Cisesar or Napoleon Bonaparte. He had lost the 
war spirit of former years, and loved the retirement of his wig- 
wams. About them he assembled his council and his statesmen. 
To them the children of the forest brought his tribute. This did 
not always consist of soft furs, shad or salmon, venison or bear 
steaks, maize, squashes, or iDumpkins, stone axes, arrow-heads, or 
gouges, canoes, paddles, spears or fish-nets — none of these. But 
Avheu tliey saw the water in the freestone boAvl burning with a 
blue flame ; when they saw him sailing on a cake of ice over the 
shining lake on the hottest summer day, or at night changed into 
a will-o'-wisp and dancing a wild cotillon with the mighty forest 
trees; or weaving for himself garlands from snow-born flowers, 
and wreaths of honor from oak leaves growing on fields of glar- 
ing ice, and holding in his hand a writhing snake, sprung to life 
from the dead skin, the badge of honor on his left arm — they paid 
him a mighty tribute and great honor by opening their mouths in 
right good earnest to the fullest extent, while their eyes involun- 
tarily started from their sockets. By such astounding juggling 
feats Passaconaw ay in his old age extorted his tribute and retained 
his mighty power. 

Another gift also aided Passaconaway to maintain his influ- 
ence. He was a great medicine man. He could beat all the 
renowned homeopaths, clairvoyants, and healing mediums of to- 
day clear out of sight. If one of his subjects was sick, he j)laced 
him in a tight ■wigwam or lodge. Vessels of water were set 
by his side, and in them were put fiery hot stones. A warm steam 
naturally arose like a great cloud and filled the lodge. Passacon- 
away then dressed in the most agreeable manner possible, paint- 


ing- himself all over like n striped pig. With his head covered 
with a porcupine skin, a drum in his hands, and tinkling bells 
attached to his legs, he went howling and stamping round and 
round the lodge full a hundred times, all the while keeping step 
to the soul-stirring peals of his drum and the soft voluptuous notes 
of his tinklers. This was done to drive away the evil spirits. 
Then he oped his mouth and set his teeth firmly together; then 
gentle twitches spasmodically jerked all the muscles of his fair 
countenance; then he rolled up the whites of his eyes, and then 
slowly rolled them down, wliere they remained set like those of a 
dj'ing calf; then his jaws relaxed, his tongue began to wag, and 
he pronounced incantations thirty-one, all difierent, to invoke the 
healing spirits. For a full hour and a half he thus performed, like 
a medium, the steaming and sweating being only a preliminary of 
little use, while the aforesaid howls, music, and incantations 
effected the cure, pretty much in the same manner as the homeo- 
paths' very little doses from the smallest possible bottles, with just 
nothing- at all in them, effect extraordinary cures at the present 

Passaconaway was an orator. f His eloquence was great, and 
with it he could mould the council at his will. Several splendid 
speeches which it is said he made are still extant. These have been 
handed down to us by the politeness of the historians. The first, 
as given by Hubbard, is said to have been delivered at a great 
public fish-feast, when all the Indians were assembled at Pawtucket 
falls, and is as follows : 

" I am now ready to die,"' said Passaconaway, "and not likely 
to see you ever meet together any more. I will now leave this 
word of counsel with you, that you may take heed how you quar- 
rel with the English ; for though you may do them much mischief, 
yet assuredly you Avill all be destroyed and rooted off the earth if 
you do: for I was as much an enemy to the English on their first 
coming into these parts as any one whatsoever; and I did try all 
ways and means possible to have destroyed them, at least to have 
prevented their sitting down here ; but I could in no way eflect 

* Force's Historical Tracts, vol. ii. New Euglancl Canaan, 25, 26. 
John Josselyn, Gent., 2 Voyages to Xew Engiand, 131. 

t Drake's Indian Biograpliv, 277. 
Hubbard, Indian Wars, 'of, 68. 


it. [iNIeaniiii^ by his iiicaiitations and sorceries.] Therefore I 
advise you never to contend Avith the English nor make war with 

Dr. Bouton, a celebrated modern historian, gives the follow- 
ing- much prettier version, as he had probably a reporter on the 
spot: " Hearken to the last words of your dying- father. I shall 
meet you no more. The white men are the sons of the morning-, 
and the sun shines bright above them. In vain I opposed their 
coming-; vain.were my arts to destroy them; never make war 
with them ; sure as you light the fires, the breath of heaven will 
turu the flames to consume you. Listen to my advice. It is the 
last I shall ever give you. Remember it and live !"* 

Now there is much beauty in all this, as well as in many other 
speeches that have been attributed to him, and what is better a 
great probability that the old chief delivered the speech quoted. 
Hubbard says it was done at Pawtucket in 1660, and was his dying- 
speech to his tribe. Bouton in his book says the speech he gives 
is the identical one delivered by Passaconaway in 1660, and we 
may well believe it, for he afiirms that it was delivered at the 
same place, to the same audience, and at the same time as Hub- 
bard's. We come to the probably correct conclusion that Passa- 
conaway said something very pretty and exceedingly eloquent 
sometime. t 

When he had seen the snows of a hundred winters or so pass 
away he concluded, like many another sinner, to join the church. 
To the apostle Elliot, who had left friends, home, and happy coun- 

*Bouton's History of Concord, X. II., 30. 

tBav.'itow- gives the following: "Hearken," said Passaconaway, "to the last 
Mords of your father and friend. Thevvliite men are the sons of the morning. The 
Great Spirit is their father. His sun shines bright about them. Never make war 
with them. Sure as you light the tires the breath of heaven will turn the flames 
upon you and destroy you. Listen to my advice. It is the last I shall be allowed 
to give you. liemember it and live !"— Hist, of N. H., 68. 

Hon. Chandler E. Potter gives this fanciful version : " Hearken to the words 
of your father. I am an old oak that has r ithstood the storms of more than an hun- 
dred winters. Leaves and brandies have been stripped from me bv the winds and 
frosts; myeyes are dim — mylimbs totter — I must soon fall. But w!;en voung and 
sturdy — when my bow no young man of the Peunacooks could hend — when my 
arrows would pierce a deer at a hundred yards, and I could bury my hatchet in a 
sapling to the eye,— no vi'igwain had so nuniv furs, no pole so manv scalu-locks as 
Passaconaway's. Then I was delighted in' war. Tlie whoop of the Penuacook 
was heard on the Mohawk, and no voice so loud as Passaconawav's. The scalps 
upon the pole of my M-igwam told the story of Mohawk suflermg. 

"The English came. They seized our lands. I sat me down at Pennacook. 
Ihey followed upon my footsteps. I made war upon them, but thev fought with 
tire and thunder; my young men were swept down before me wheii no one was 


try to cross the ocean on an errand of mercy, is due his conversion. 
He left off juggling- and became a very good man. He was benev- 
olent, peaceful, and forgiving. We think it fortunate for the very 
kind-hearted and well-disposed colonists who came to Massachu- 
setts and New Hampshire that, like Massasoit, he was not fight- 
ingly disposed. It is a notorious fact that the English trespassed 
on his hunting-grounds and stole his lauds.* Yet he never stole 
anything fi-om them. They killed his warriors — yet he never 
killed a white man, woman, or child. They captured and impris- 
oned his sonsf and daughters — yet he never led a captive into 
the wilderness. Once the proudest and most noble Bashaba of 
New England, he passed his extreme old age poor, forsaken, and 
i-obbed of all that was dear to him, by those to whom he had been 
a firm friend for nearly half a century. 

Passaconaway had six children — four sons and two daughters 
whom we read of — and perhaps he had more. The exceedingly 
pretty names of the boy papj)ooses were as follows : Nauamoco- 
muck, who first was sachem or sagamore of the Wachusetts in 
Massachusetts, and secondly with his whole tribe was changed 
into the great Amariscoggin nation, of which he continued chief; 
Wonalancet, a peaceable man, who trod in the footsteps of his 
father; Unanunquosset, of whom we know but little, and Nona- 
tomenut. We are much grieved that the name of the eldest 
daughter has not come down to us. It only transpires that she 
was the squaw-queen of the royal Nobhow. The youngest was 

uear tliem. I tried sorcery agaiust them, but they still increased and prevailed 
over me and mine, and I gave place and retired to" my beantilul island of Nati- 
cook. I can make the dryleal'tnrn green and live again ; I can take the rattlesnake 
in my palm as a worm without harm. 1, who have had comnumiou with the Great 
Spirit — dreaming and awake — I am powerless before the pale faces. 

" The oak will soon break before the whirlwind — it shivers and shakes even 
now. Soon its trunk will be prostrate, the ant and the worm will sport npon it. 
Then think, my children, of what I say. I commune with the Great Spirit. He 
whispers me now : ' Tell your people, peace ! Peace is the only hope of your race. 
I have given fire and thunder to the i)ale faces for weapons." 1 have made them 
plentier than the leaves of the forest, and still shall they increase. These mead- 
ows shall they turn with the plow — these forests shall "fall by their axe; the pale 
faces shall live upon your hunting grounds, and make their villages upon your fish- 
ing places.' The Gre'at Spirit says this, and it must be so. We are few and power- 
less before them. AVe must bend belbre the storm. The wind blows liard. The 
old oak trembles ! The branches are gone. Its sap is frozen. It bends 1 It falls I 
Peace, peace with the white man, is the connnand of the Great Spirit, and the wish 
— the last wish— of Passacoi^away.— Hist, of Manchester, 60. 

IV. Mass. H. C. series 3, 82. 

* Potter's Hist, of Manchester, 61. 

fWheu the gov't of Ms. sent forty men to arrest Passaconaway they did not 
succeed, but captured his sonue AVoua"laucet.— Winthrop's Journal. 

Drake's Indian Biog. 279. 


Wetamoo, the beautiful squaw of Monatawampatee, the haugiity 
sagamore of Saugus. From the poet Whittier we learn that the 
marriage of this l)eautiful Indian girl was celebrated in great 
state, and that tlie bride Avas escorted to her lord's wigwam or 
palace by a noble train of warriors ; that homesick the Saugus 
chief returned her to visit Passaconaway with like pomp, and that 
in due time he demanded her back with the same formality. But 
old Passaconaway had got sick of this foolery and vain show, and 
would not take the trouble to restore her. "Whereupon, tlie poem 
states, she left her father's wigwam at Peunacook — by the way, 
Passaconaway never had a wigwam there — to sail down the Mer- 
rimack home, but unfortunately perished on the foaming falls of 
Amoskeag; a very poetical idea, but an exceedingly improbable 
tale. Wetamoo was known as a grass widow for many years.* 

We give this somewhat extended account of Passaconaway, 
for his life illustrates some of the finest traits of Indian character. 
As Bashaba he was obeyed by all the Indians of jSTcav Hampshire, 
and by many other of the JSTew England tribes. He died about 
1663. In the deep wood, at a place now unknown, the noblest of 
the Nipmuck Indians, their last and greatest Bashaba, was laid to 
rest in the burial place of his ancestors. 

*Mortou's New England Caiiaau. 



The Pemigewassetts, a tribe of the great Nipmuck iiatiou, 
belonging to the widely extended Algonquin race, were at peace 
with the English for tifty years after the first settlements were 
made at Dover Neck and Strawberry Bank. The same is true as 
far as the thirteen other great tribes of New Hampshire were con- 
cerned. But with the Marquas or Mohawks — sometimes called 
Mohogs — their relations were not always the most friendly. How 
many fierce battles, cunning ambuscades, or gray-of-the-morning 
surprises our Pemigewassetts encountered or inflicted upon them, 
cannot now be told. We lament this ignorance, but there is no 
remedy, for their birch-bark histories, if they ever had any, are 
all burnt up; their story-telling legend-men are all dead, while the 
just and worth}" English settlers had such a holy horror and pious 
hatred of red-skins that they would have disdained to record their 
great wars, even if they had known anything about them. In 
fact, the reasons why the learned historians of those days say so 
little and frequently nothing about our beloved Pemigewassetts 
are just these: First, because they lived far in the interior, and 
did not travel down to the coast very often to report themselves, 
and when they did they had somehow changed into some other 
great tribe, being known as the Amoskeags, Nashuas, or Winne- 
cowetts, just as it happened, the name depending upon the place 


of tluMr temporary sojourn mid changiug Avith their removal. 
Secondly, the English scarcely ever visited them; for it must be 
remembered that ten other great tribes of New Hampshire always 
intervened. Thirdly, the Puritans believed the Indians to be the 
children of the devil, and their Quaker-loving, witch-hanging 
religion forbade them to associate with such low oflspring; and 
fourthly, being- religiously inclined to blot out the devil and his 
works, they would take especial paius to destroy rather than pre- 
serve the history of our happy Pemigewassetts. Still we know 
enough of that history to be assured that in battle they did some- 
times distinguish and immortalize themselves among all good 
fighting Indians. 

Old Acteon used to tell how often a large number of brave 
war-parties, each consisting of three or more fierce, glory-seeking 
soldiers, all painted and plumed, went majestically forUi to fight 
the Mohawks. They have danced the war-dance, taken leave 
of the women and children, and having gathered around their 
chosen chief, depart from the shadows of Moosilaukc and the 
Haystacks. The Indian story-teller of two hundred years ago, 
listening, might have beard them singing as they crossed the long 
river of pines — the Connecticut — 

" The eagles scream on liigli, 
They whet their forked beaks; 
Rai.■^e, raise the battle-cry, 
'Tis fame our leader seeks." 

Or be might have heard the whistling of their arrows, the whirr 
of their tomahawks, and their savage shouts in the valleys of the 
Hudson and Mohawk rivers, or in the dark glens of the Green 
mountains. We can well believe that such brave mountaineers 
were often victorious, and returned triumphant with rich trophies 
of dangling scalps. But as all great military commanders know 
that the fortunes of battle are fickle, it is nothing more than fair 
to presume that the war chief sometimes came back Avith a huse 
flea in his ear, more scalps having been left among the festive 
Mohawk fighters than he would well care to acknowledge. 

Thus the Pemigewassetts found the wildest kind of enjoyment, 
and we suppose pretty much all the rest of the New England In- 
dians lived in the same way, even to the time of the death of the 
great Basbaba, Passaconaway. 


But in 1675 a great war with the Englisli arose, in which many 
of the Nipmucks engaged, and which was exceedingly interesting 
to the Pemigewassetts wlio lived among our hills. 

Philip of Mount Hope, sachtm of the Wampanoags, known 
in Indian tongue as the renowned Pometacom, waged the first 
war with the peaceable Puritans. Tlie English had arrested and 
executed his warriors without his consent. He himself with his 
child they iiad captured and sold into slavery. The chieftain was 
stung to the quick ; madness seized upon him ; hatred tormented 
him, and soon his heart burned for revenge. Besides, the en- 
croachments of his white-faced enemy were driving him from his 
hunting-grounds. War was inaugurated. What Alexander or 
Hannibal was to the ancients, or Bonaparte to the last genera- 
tion, was Philip to the Indians. The bravest in the fight, the most 
skilled in diplomacy, and eloquent above all others in the council, 
the great sachem enlisted nearly every New England tribe in his 

Wonalancet, in part successor to PassaconaAvay, true to the 
teachings of his father and the apostle Elliot, refused to join him. 
This Nipmuck sachem could not break his faith pledged to the 
English, neither could he be a traitor to his own race and fight 
against Philip. Beset on one hand to fight for the English, on the 
other Philip endeavored to gain him as an ally ; refusing to join 
the first he was suspected of treachery, and holding himself aloof 
from the second, lie was hated by all the hostile Indians. 

There was no safety for him at home on the beautiful island of 
Wickasauke, where he had long resided, and he fled to the land of 
the Pennacooks. And here let us notice a very novel idea, once 
before slightly alluded to. Wonalancet, by almost eveiy writer on 
the subject, has been styled the sachem of the Pennacooks. Yet 
all his life, up to the period referred to, he had lived amongst the 
Pawtucket Indians, and we have no record of his ever residing in 
the Pennacook country until he was compelled to seek refuge in 
it at this time. Yet he only copies the historical style of his father, 
Passaconaway, who, likewise called the Pennacook sachem, never 
lived in that country at all. 

The withdrawal of Wonalancet with his few followers alarmed 
the courageous colonists very much. Runners were sent "to 


Natacooko, Penagooge, or other people of those northern In- 
dians,-' inviting Wonalancet or any other of the principal men to 
return. But Woualancet did not choose to accept the polite invi- 
tation, which was very much in the form of a peremptory sum- 
mons, and Captain Mosely, the noted Indian fighter, was sent to 
disperse the Indian enemy "at Penagooge said to be gathered 
there for the purpose of mischief," But the valiant captain could 
not find him, and he had to content himself with burning wig- 
wams, and destroying dried fish which had been cured for winter 

Woualancet was off" to the fastnesses of the mountains, 
"where," as Major Gookin says, "was a 2:)lace of good hunting 
for moose, deer, bear, and other such wild beasts." 

Late in the autumn all the Wamesits, alias the Wauchusetts, 
alias the Pawtuckets, joined him. They had been basely treated, 
had been driven from their homes, and only found AYonalancet in 
his safe hiding-place after much toil, privation, and suffering, 
Numphow, their sagamore, Mystic George, a teacher, "besides 
divers other men, women, and children perished by the way." An 
old legend, told first perhaps by Acteon, then repeated by our 
grandfathers, seated at evening around their great cabin fire- 
places, says that the above-mentioned two lie buried on the banks 
of the Asquamchumauke, 

Many other Indians joined Woualancet in his retreat. Among 
them was *Monocco, or one-eyed John, and fShoshamin, or Saga- 
more Sam, a valiant chief who had fought under Philip. Some 
of these refugees even went to the head-waters of the Connecticut, 
and during the long and cold winter suffered severely, 

Philip's war closed in the summer of 1676, Woualancet with 
his people then returned to the south part of the State, On the 
sixth of July he with several othei-s made a treaty with the Eng- 

*Mouocco, so called by his countiynien, but by the English, One-eyed-John, 
was termed by an early writer a notable" I'ellow. Wlieii I'hilip's war begaii he lived 
near Lancaster, Mass. He had frequently served in the wars against the Mo- 
hawks. With 600 Indians he burned Lancaster and carried all the inhabitants into 
captivity. He afterwards burned Grotou, and boasted much what he was going to 
do. He was one of those who were captured at Cocheco, was taken to Boston, 
marched through the streets with a lialter about his neck, " and hanged at the 
town's end, .Sept. '2(j, 1075.''— Drake'.s Ind. Biog. 2(57. 

Niles' History of the Indian and French Wars, Ms. H. C. .'Jd series, vol. vi. 202. 

tShoshamin," alias I'skatugun, and called by the Knglish, .Sagamore Sam. He 
was a high-minded, " magnanimous sachem." At the burning of Lancaster he 
took an active part. He was hanged with Mouocco. — Drake's Indian Biog. 268. 


lisli. By it thej' agreed to live in peace; that they Avovild deliver 
up, for a reward, all hostile Indians who should come among 
them, or give notice where they were ; and that the English on 
their part should attend to their own business, and if they meddled 
with the Indians or their estates the offenders should be tried by 
English laws — and these by the way generally found the whites 
innocent as turtle doves. It was signed on the one part by Mr. 
Eichard Waldron, to be mentioned hereafter, Mc. Shapleigh, and 
Thos. Daniel; on the other by Wonalancet, Sqnando,* Doney,t 
Serogumba,^ and others. 

This same Eichard Waldron, or the " Major, ^' as he was com- 
monly termed, had been engaged in the above-board business of 
persuading Indians to desert Philip. Three hundred of these, to- 
gether with Wonalancet and a hundred handsome Nipmucks, 
came to Quocheco on the tirst of September, at the invitation of 
"=the good Major." A few days later Captains Syell and Hathorn, 
brave trooping men, with their companies also arrived in town. 
They were marching to the eastern country. Their orders were 
to seize all Indians, and they wanted to fall upon Major Waldron's 
four hundred guests at once. But he dissented. He was afraid 
both friends and foes would be killed. By his advice a little 
friendly strategy Avas i^ut in practice. A grand sham-fight was 
arranged. Tlie English were on one side — the Indians on the 
other. The latter were furnished with a piece of cannon, on 
wheels, loaded by English gunners. As the unsuspecting Indians 
manned the drag-ropes, the gun by the merest accident ranging 
along their lines, strange to say it went off, no one knew how — 
perhaps by spontaneous combustion — and several were killed. 
The rest, including wounded, were taken prisoners. A hundred 

*Squaudo was also a sagamore of Saco or Sokokis. He was one of the chief 
beginners and cliief actors in the war, 1075-0. He was ronsed to a lintred of the 
English by the rude and indiscreet act of some English seamen, who either for 
mischief overset a canoe in which was !^quando's wife and cliild, or to see if young 
Indians could swim naturally, lilie animals of the brute creation, as some liad re- 
ported. [John Josselyn, (jeiit., said [liey could swim like dogs.] The child went 
to tlie bottom, Init was saved from drowning by tlie motlier's diving down and 
bringing it up. Yet within a wldle after the said child died. The whites did not 
believe the death of the child was owing to the immersion ; still, we must allow', 
the Indians knew as well as they. He was engaged in several battles, one of which 
was the attack upon Saco in 1(575. He was a brave Indian.— Drake's Ind.Biog.28(j. 

fDoney was a Saco sachem. He signed an Indian treaty in 1(!GS. He once had 
a captive by the name of Thomas Baker. AVliat Douey's fate was is uncertain. — 
Drake's Ind. Biog. 308. 

X Serogumba was a sagamore. 


or SO of them Avcrc haugecl. Two hundred were sold into slavery, 
while the hundred up-country Indians, including- some of our 
Pemigewassetts, were dismissed to their homes. Thither they 
went, exceedingly wcll-iileased with their kind treatment, and 
firmly convinced that their pale-faced entertainers were the most 
honest, reliable, and pious set of cut-throats Avifh whom they ever 
had the happiness to become acquainted. 



-LhE valiant deeds of Major Waldroii and the brave cap- 
tains at Quocheco were well remembered by the northern Indians, 
among whom were numbered the Pemigewassetts. They believed 
that the pions Quocheco settlers and their allies had committed a 
great sin. After thinking the subject over for ten years or more, 
and after having had their thoughts quickened from time to time 
by the Indian slaves, many of whom had returned, they came to 
the solemn conclusion that it was their duty to take the law into 
their own hands and see it properly executed. Accordingly they 
planned an expedition to teach Major Waldron and his friends a 
lesson, if nothing more. 

The leader was Kancamagus ; and as he often sat down in the 
Pemigewassett country, being a Pemigewassett chief when there, 
we must give him a passing notice. He was " grant-son '" of Pas- 
saconaway. For many years he was chief of the Amariscoggins, 
sometimes of the Pequawkees, and finally a Pennacook sachem. 
At one time he was the firm ally of the renowned Worombo,* and 
with him maintained a sti'ong fort far in the wilderness, on the 

* Worombo was a sachem of the Amariscoggins. He had a fort on the river 
bank. It was captured by Col, Clmrch in li)90, Sept. U. Two of Worombo's cliil- 
dren were taken prisoners and carried to Plymouth. Seven days after, Kancama- 
gus and Worombo fell upon Cluirch by surprise at Casco, Maine, killed seven of 
his men and wounded twenty-four more, two of whom died. Tlie Indians were 
beaten off only after a long "and desperate fight. He was a brave Indian. What 
became of him is uncertain. 


banks of the Androscoggin. He was a brave and politic chief, and 
hiul a little of the forgiving spirit of his grandfather Passacona- 
■\vay and uncle AYonalancet, but his mercy did not endure forever. 
In person he was tall and well-proportioned; he possessed great 
strength, was fleet of foot, and had an eye like au eagle. 

When the gentle sachem Wonalancet fled away as he did to 
the land of the Arosagunticobks, otherwise known as the St. 
Francis Indians, with a portion of his tribe, Kancamagus took up 
his residence in the fertile meadows of the Pennacooks. Crantield* 
the English governor at the time, did not like the idea of his 
residing in the hunting grounds of his ancestors, and being a 
scrupulous man he went to New York and entered into an engage- 
ment with the gentle fighting Mohawks f to come and drive him 
and his people away. Kancamagus heard of the design, and 
addressed several letters to the '^Honur Governor my friend," 
and sent him presents of beaver-skins, but without much effect. 
In fact, the governor was firm in his purpose; the Mohawks sent 
word that they were coming, and Kancamagus and his braves, 
giving up the idea of taking their revenge just then, fled far into 
the northern wilderness. 

But he did not remain long aw^av. When Kino- William's 
war broke out he was back again upon the banks of the Merri- 
mack. Around the council fire they recounted the treachery at 
Quocheco; how their brothers had some been butchered, others 
sold into slavery; some hung upon trees in Boston or shot down 
in the streets at noon-day; and how they had been burnt in the 
wigwams by the dozen in time of peace ; and now, as the war- 
times offered an excellent opportunity, the old plans for revenge 
were fully determined upon. Under the trees on the banks of 
the river they danced the war-dance — the war-paint Avas prepared 
— and Amai'iscoggins, Coosucks, Pequawkees, Winnepissaukies, 
Amoskeags, Pennacooks, Pemigewassetts, in fine all the Nipmucks 
remaining, were ready to put their plans of revenge in execution. 

But Major Waldron and his friends might have been saved. 
When the plan was maturing, friendly Indians communicated it 

*IIe was aiithovized as early as March 22, 1683, by the Council of Massaclm- 
setts to flo this.— Potter's Hist, of Man. 83. 

tTlie Mohawks were sometimes called Maiiqiiawogs, i. e., man-eaters. 



to Captain Thomas Hinchnian, of Chelmsford, Mass., and he im- 
mediately dispatched a messenger to the governor. But the latter 
was careless, heeded it not, thought nor cared but little about it. 

June 27th, 1689, the woods about Quocheco were full of In- 
dians. Our valiant tribes had come down. Yet the inhabitants 
mistrusted nothing; they felt secure, for as yet the governor's 
messenger had not arrived with the warning. 

Night came on, and two squaws, as the plan intended, went 
to each of the garrison houses and asked leave to lodge by the 
fire. In the night, when the people Avere asleep, they were to 
open the doors and gales and give the signal by a whistle, when 
the Indians should rush in and take their long-meditated revenge. 
These squaws, in pairs, were admitted into every garrison but 
one, and the people at their request showed them how to oj)en the 
dooi's in case thev should have occasion to go out in the ni^ht. 
Mesandowit, a chieftain under Kancamagus, was a guest of Major 
Waldron. At supper, witli his usual familiarity, he said : '' Broth- 
er Waldron, what would you do if the strange Indians should 
come?" The Major carelessly ansAvered that he could assemble a 
hundred men by lifting his finger. In this unsuspecting confi- 
dence the garrison retired to rest. 

When tlie gates were opened the signal was given. The In- 
dians rushed in, and the butchery commenced. The Major, awak- 
ened by the noise, jumped out of bed, and though advanced in 
life to tiie age of eighty years, he retained so much vigor as to be 
able to drive them through two or three doors; but as he was re- 
turning for his other arms, they came behind and stunned him 
with a hatchet, drew him into his hall, and seating him in an elbow 
chair mounted on along table, insultingly asked him, ''Who shall 
judge Indians now?" They then obliged the people in the house 
to get them some supper, and when they had done eating they 
cut the Major across the breast and belly Avith linives, each one 
with his stroke saying, "I cross out my account!" They then 
cutoff his nose and ears, forcing them into his mouth; and when, 
spent with the loss of blood, he was fast falling down from the 
table, one of them held his sword under him, Avhich quick put an 
end to his misery. Five or six liouses, and all the mills, were 
burned; twenty-three people were killed, and twenty-nine were 


carried away captive. Before the morning the Indians were off 
to their fastnesses among the mountains. 

Gov. CrantieUi's messenger arrived at Quocheco tliat very 
* afternoon, but too late to prevent the slaugliter. 

Au instance of generous forbearance on the part of a warrior 
is related; Mrs. Heard was by chance fastened outside of her 
husband's gariison house. She hid herself in the bushes near by, 
so near that she witnessed the wild massacre and the burning of 
the buildings. A young Indian came towards her with a hatchet 
as if to kill hei", but when he looked in her face he turned away 
with a yell and tied. AYhen the four hundred were seized in 1676, 
an Indian boy took refuge in her house, where she concealed him 
until he was able to effect his escape in safety. The young warrior 
was that boy. He had not forgotten her, and her kindness to him 
saved her life. 

The Nipmucks had taken their revenge — their wrongs were 
in part cancelled. 

The colonies were amazed — awe-struck. Kancamagus wa& 
outlawed, and a price set upon his head. Captain Noyes, with 
soldiers, marched to Pennacook, but the Indians had fled. Noth- 
ing Avas found but some corn, Avhich was destroyed. Other sol- 
diers went as far north as the White mountains, and so much 
were the Indians pressed, as Acteon relates, that even the Pemi- 
gewassetts were compelled to leave their hunting grounds, and 
burr}' away to the head-waters of the Coimecticut and across the 
border into Canada. 

About this time the first Indian captives wore carried into onr noi'thern wil- 
derness. In llilo, Isaac liradle}', aged 15, and William Whittaker, aged 11, wei-e 
taken prisoners and cai ried to W mnepissiogeelake. — Ms. H. C.2d sei'ies, vol. i, 128. 

In lij'JT the celebrated Haniiah Duston was captured at Haverhill, Mass., and 
went up llie Mcrnm:icli river towards our Pemigewassett country, as lar as the 
mouth or the Contoocook river. Here they lodged upon an island for some time 
and -Mrs. Dustoa lornied the plan of killing tne wuole party. Two other prisoners, 
Mrs. Neil" and an Knglish boy, readily agreed to assist her. To the art of killing 
anil scalping she was a stranger, audthat there should be no laiiure in the busi- 
ness, -Mrs. iJuston instructed tlie boy, who, from his long residence with them had 
beconis as one of the Indians, to inquire of one of the men how it was done. He 
did so, and tlie Indian showed liiin without mistrusting the origin of the inquiry. 
It was now March 31st, and in the dead of night following, this bloody tragedy was 
enacted. \Vhen the Indians were in the most sound sleep these "three captives 
arose, and soltly arming tnemsolves with the tomahaM'ks oi their masters, allotted 
the number eacli should kill; and so truly did tliey direct their blows tliat but one 
escaped whom they designed ij kill. This was a woman whom they badly 
wounded. There was also a boy, who for some reason they did not wish to harm, 
and accordingly lie was allowed" to escape unhurt. Mrs. JJiiston killed her master, 
and the boy, i^eouardson, killed the man wiio but one day before had so freely told 
him whereto deal the deadly blow and how to take ofl' a'scalp. 


Kancamagus did not long remain idle. Captain Cliurch, a 
noted Indian tighter, liad attaclved Worombo's fort, captured it, 
and witli it the wife and child of Kancamagus. This stung the 
chieftain to the quick. ATith Worombo he fought Church at 
Casco, killed seven white men, and wounded twenty-four more, 
two mortally, as we have before narrated. His wife and child 
were then restored to him. 

This famous Indian died about 1691, and tradition has it that 
he was buried in the land of the Pemigewassetts. 

All was over before the dawn of day, and all things were got ready for leaving 
this place of blood. All the boats but one were scuttled, to prevent being pursued, 
and with wiiat arms and provisions tlie Indian cainp afl'ordcd, they embarked upon 
tlie Ijoat remaining, and slowly and silently took the course of the Merrimack river 
to their homes, wliere tliey all" soon after arrived without ac;'ident. 

Several otiier white "captives were carried into the Mew Hampshire woods 
about this time, and in this manner, probablj', the flrst white persons entered the 
Asquamchumauke valley. 



In a wigwam beside tlie Asquamchumauke, long years ago, 
as old Acteon said, was born a young pappoose, whose history is 
better known than that of any other member of the Pemigewassett 
tribe. At first, lashed to its cradle, it was borne about from place 
to place by its mother, or hung upon a branch of a tree while she 
was at work. Then the boy ran by the bright stream in spring- 
time, plucked wild flowers, and cliased the butterflies. As the 
young Waternomee grew in years, he journeyed with his family 
throughout the whole length and breadth of the Nipmuck terri- 
tory. When he arrived at manhood he became the chief of his 
individual tribe, and often went back to the old hunting grounds, 
the land of his birth. 

It was there Acteon first saw him. He said he was well 
built, tall, "straight as a pickerel," a fine smooth face, and 
with '"ar. eye like a hawk." He was a good hunter, and was 
much given to farming (hence his name), and could use a spear 
better than any other man of his tribe. On the river he could 
make his canoe fairly fly, and he had marched through the forest a 
hundred miles in a day.f He was the admiration of his tribe, and 

*The word \y;ittaiiuinon means a farmer, or planter. — Potter, 25S. 

There were otlier Imlians by the same name : One lived at Concord, long after 
the death of the Pemigewasrtett"chiel'. 

fThey are generally quick on foot, brought up from the breasts to running; 
tlieir legs being also from the womb stretched and bouuil up in a strange way on 
their cradle backward, as also anuointed. Yet thev haw- some that excel: ISothat 


lie soon had great influence in every other clan among the whole 
Nipmnck people.* 

In 1G89 he is first mentioned in English history, as a brave but 
kind-hearted Indian. March 5th of that year " Waternumon, an 
Indian who lived at Newbury,"' as he is described and his name 
spelt, in a company of thirty or forty Indians made an attack npon 
Andover and killed five persons. Colonel Dudley Bradstrcct and 
family were his friends, and when there was danger of their being 
killed, he rushed forward and preserved them. 

The same year, in May, he went northward to his old haunts, 
and he is reported by those who went to treat with the northern 
Indians as one of the chief captains of Wonalaucet. 

At the attack on Quocheco, as ancient tradition has it, he was 
present nnder Kancamagus, and witnessed one of the wildest 
slaughters that ever happened on the New Hampshire frontier. 
The part he took in it, however, is noAV unknown. 

Then came ten years of peace, and the chief "Waternomee 
went back among the mountains and made his home in the pleas- 
ant hunting-grounds of his boyhood. 

There was a beautiful planting place at the confluence of the 
Pemigewassett and Asquamchumauke rivers; good fishing Avaters 
were at Sawheganet and Livermore fiills, and round about was 
the best of hunting in all the northern woods. Moose and deer 
were in the valleys and upon the hills, and he got large supplies 
of beaver skinsfrom the solitary beaver meadows and ponds, high 
up on the streams, even to their very sources among the moun- 
tains. Waternomee was a most successful hunter, and he well 

I have known many of tlium run between fourscore or an hundred miles in a daj-, 
and back within two days. Tliey do also pi'actice running- races, and commonly lu 
the summer they daliglit to go without siiocs, although tliey hnve tliem hanging at 
their backs. They are so exquisitely skilled in all the "body and bowels ot the 
country by reasons of their huntings, "that 1 have often been guided twenty, thirty, 
vea sometnnes lortv mile-! through the woods a straiglit course, out of any path. — 
Roger AVilliams' Key, 3 Mass. H. C. 2Jl. 

* Waternomee, it is said, had as friends, who lived up and do^^^^ the river, 
Tohanto, Sagurmoy, Werauumpes Sagurmoy, I'acohunte, Quangecun, Nascum, 
Monamusque, amrPehaungun. The "bitter was a well known warrior, and his 
iiame was indicative of his cliaracter, Pehaunf/un meaning, "Beware of Me!" He 
was killed in a druidieii frolic in 17W, at t!ie age of 1-21 years, and was buried very 
carefully — tlie Indians treading the dirt in" his gra"ve, crying all the time like 
maniacs, " Hs uo get up," " He no com 3 back now." They feared his ghost would 
return from the laud of shadas to haunt tlioni. 

Drake more particularly locates the Xipmucks upon the Nashua river, a 
branch of tlie Merrimack. Hi; gives the following spellings of the uame : Xopuats, 
Nipnets, or Xipmuks. — lud. Biog. S-1. 


kncAV every pond and stream, and flashing waterfall in all bis 
pleasant countiy. 

Acteon saw his wigwam lire blazing once by the mouth of the 
Mikaseota or Black brook, and heard the crack of his rifle, as he 
ehot some of the smaller game up by "Indian Rock." Then, as 
he once travelled northward to the land of the Coosucks, he en- 
camped, as the Indians were wont to do, by AVachipauka pond, 
the leaping waters of Oak falls making pleasant music in his ears. 
Tradition avers that Acteon told the story how Watornomee, with 
a few other Indians, once followed the Asquamchumauke up to its 
very source in the mountains. There they camped beside a beaver 
pond, Avhere the bcavei-, Tummunk, had built houses. These they 
did not molest, but set out, just as the sun rose, to go over Moosil- 
auke to the " Quonnecticut" valley. 

Not often did the Indians climb the mountain, and they only 
did it now to save time and distance. It was a hard ascent for 
their moccasined feet, over the stones and through the hackma- 
tacks, as they called the dwarf firs and spruces; but upon the 
bald mountain crest the way was easier, and the little birds, 
Psukses, were whistling and singing among the lichens and rocks. 
When they reached the summit, the heaven, Kesuk, was cloudless, 
and the view unobscnred. 

It was a sight, the like of which they had uever seen before. 
Great mountains, Wadchu, were piled and scattered in the wild- 
est confusion in all the land: and silver lakes, Sipes, were spark- 
ling; and bright rivers, Sepoes, were gleaming from the forest. 

As they sat upon that topmost i)cak, the Avind was still, 
and they could hear the moose bellowing in the gorges below ; 
could hear the wolf, Muquoshim, howling; and now and then the 
great war-eagle, Keiicu, screamed and hurtled through the air. 
A feeling of superstitious reverence took possession of those 
Indians as they drank in the strange sights and wild sounds, for 
they believed that tht" peak was the home of Gitche Manito, their 
Great Spirit. Does the unlettered Catholic have reverence at the 
altar? — much more was the untutored savage fliled with awe as 
he stood in the very dwelling place of Ids God, afraid that the 
deity would be angry at the almost sacrilegious invasion. 

As the sun, Nepauz, was going down the western sky, a light 


mist collected arouud the eastern peaks, and above all the I'iver 
valleys in the west, clouds, at first no larger than a man's hand, 
began to gather. Soon hanging over every valley was a shower — 
the heavens above them clear — the sun shining brightly upon the 
vapor. Qnickly the wind freshened, and the great clouds, purple 
and gold and crimson above, black as ink below, hurried from 
every quarter towards the crest of Moosilauke. Then thunder, 
Pahtuquohan, began to bellow, and the lightning, Ukkutshaumuu, 
leaped from cloud to cloud, and streamed blinding down to the hills 
beneath, while the great rain-drops and hailstones, crashing upon 
the infinite thick woods, sent up a roar loud as a hundred moun- 
tain torrents. 

"It is Gitche Manito coming to his home angry," muttered 
Waternomee, as with his companions he hurried down the moun- 
tain to the thick sprnce forest, Soshsumonk, for shelter. Such 
scenes, the wildest exhibitions of nature, made the mountain sum- 
mits to be dreaded, and he was a brave Indian w^ho dared ascend 

Through all his hunting grounds, never tarrying long in any 
place, he travelled — building his Avigwam now beside the fishing- 
place, then by the maize-field, and then where game was plentiest. 
Thus the years w^ent by, and the Pemigewassett chief with all his 
people lived happily and greatly increased in numbers. Their 
range was far away in the wilderness, and their English friends 
had as j^et never invaded their homes. But this state of things 
could not long continue, for causes were at work whereby war 
would be bronght about in the old world, and the In.dians would 
be again compelled to dig up the tomahawk in the new. 

*For a vocabulary of Nipmuck words see Schoolcraft, vol. i. 291. 




^VhILE the eastci-u continent shook to the bloody tread of 
the great Marlborough, and Eugene of Savoy, the primitive ''sal- 
vage" of the western world was placing his part on a narrower 
though equally as bloody stage. Did those loving nations, Eng- 
land and France, but set the sanguinary ball in motion, and the 
peaceable forest children, instigated by pious emissaries, immedi- 
ately dug up the tomahawk. 

The New England colonists had heard of the war commenced 
in Europe, and well knowing its reciprocal intiuence and eflect in 
the new world, they immediately began to bestir themselves, to 
avert as nnich as possible the storm that was sure to burst. They 
conceived that it would be an excellent idea to make a solemn 
treaty with their red-skinned foes, and keep peace if possible in 
the great northern forest, where with numerous other tribes the 
Pemigewassetts resided. Accordingly the good Gov. Dudley, 
who at that time was ruler over the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, 
sent messengers to all the northern and eastern tribes and invited 
their chiefs to meet him and his council on the peninsula of Fal- 
mouth, Maine, to make a treaty of friendship. This accomplished 
the red warriors at least would not tight on the side of the French. 

On June 20th, 1702, they came together in great numbers. 
Mauxis and Hopehood,* from Norridgewolk ; Wanungunt and 

* Walio\v:i, alias Hopehood, was son of Robinlioocl. His career was a series of 
warlike aiyl bloodv exploits. His attacks upon Berwick, Salmon Falls, and at Fox 
Point, are among his most celebrated acts. At the latter place U whites were 


Wanadngunbuent, from Penobscot; Adiwando and Hegan, from 
Pennacook and Pigwacket; Messambomett and AVexar, from 
Aniasconty, with two hundred and tifty men in sixt5'-five canoes, 
all came to Falmouth peninsula. The several chieftains with their 
adherents were well armed and mostly painted with a variety of 
colors. It was a rude gathei-ing there in the Avilderness — the 
Governor and his Avhite friends, painted savages, rough wig- 
wams, camp fires burning, and on the shore a fleet of birchen 
canoes. All were seemingly affable and kind, although in some 
instances causes of jealousy and distrust were not wanting. 

But they did not proceed immediately to business. Wattan- 
umon,* otherwise Waternomee, whom Ave so politely introduced 
in our last entertaining chapter, as a chieftain from the northwest, 
had not arrived, and the other chiefs were unwilling to proceed 
until he came.f 

After Avaiting several days, in a tent which had been fixed for 
their lodgment, tlie GoA'ernor made them a short brotherly speech, 
saying he desired to settle every difiiculty Avhich had happened 
between them. 

Captain Simmo, a Avarrior, replied as folloAVs: " We thank 
you, good brother, for coming so far to talk icith us. It is a 
great favor. The clouds fy and darken — but we still sing with 
love the songs of peace. Believe my loords. So far as the sun is 
above the earth are our thoughts from war or the least rupture 
between us." 

A belt of wampum was then presented to the Governor, and 
they invited him and his Avhite friends to the two pillars of stone 
which were erected at a former treaty and called by the significant 
name of the "Two Brothers," unto which also both parties went 
and added a great number of stones. 

EA'ery thing now seemed lovely. Many presents Avcre giA^en. 
There Avas singing and dancing. Loud acclamations of joy Avere 
heard, and the English began to feel that Queen Anne's War in 

killed, six captivated, (sic) and several houses burned. The pious Cotton Mather 
savs this was as easily done "as to have spoiled an ordhiary lien-i'oo«t." The 
same author says that shortly al'ter he went to the westward with a design to 
bewitch another crew at Aquadofta into liis assistance. Some time aftin- he was 
met by some Canndi Indians, who, t'lkniii' him to lie of the Iroquois nation, slew 
him, with many of his companions. — Dralce's Ind. Biog. 30-2. 

*He is mentioned in Peuhallow's Indian Wars as from Pigwacket. • 

t Hubbard's History of Maine. 


Europe would not trouble thein mucli in America. But they were 
destined to be terribly mistaken, and quickly got an inkling of 
what might happen. A parting salnte must be fired. The very 
polite — not a bit jealous — English wished to honor the Indians 
by having them fire first, and when they did so the English were 
greatly alarmed at discoA^ering that the guns of the Indians were 
loaded with balls, which rattled terribly among the leaves and 
dry branches of the trees overhead. Very greatly alarmed — and 
this notwithstanding the curious fact that their own muskets were 
likewise fullv charged for service. 

Some of the Indians furthermore had gently intimated that 
certain French Jesuits had recently come among them and en- 
deavored to seduce them from their allegiance to the crown of 
England, but without success, for, as they said, they were " as 
firm as mountains, and should coutiuue so as long as the sun aud 
moon endured." 

But all this was a pleasant kind of cheat. The gentle salvages 
did not mean a word they said. They did not expect the warrior 
AVattanumon — our AYaternomee of the mountains — atfthe treaty 
of peace at all. He %ras to come at the head of a w^ar party, and 
Governor Dudley with his English friends were to be swept from 
existence. Three days after they were gone back to Boston, two 
hundred more French and Indians were sounding their war 
whoop in the forest where the Two Brothers were erected. Six 
weeks later, and Queen Anne's war had broken out in fury, and 
the whole frontier was in a blaze. Not a house was standing nor 
a garrison uuassaulted. AYoe to him then whose musket bore no 

AV^ar raged universally in New England, and our beloved 
Pemigewassett tribe of course took a hand in it. So fierce were 
the incursions of the Northern Indians that Massachusetts was 
exceedingly alarmed. Her general assembly Avas convened, and 
a law passed otTcring a bounty of forty pounds for every Indian 
scalp that could be procured. 

So tempting an oiler could not long be Avithstood, and Capt. 
Tyng, a Indian fighter, Avas the first to embrace the tender. 
In the deep mid-Avinter of 1703, he Avith his party Avent on snoAV- 
shoes to the head-quarters of the Indians among the mountains, 


a7id got five scalps. Massachusetts was prompt, and paid him two 
hundred pounds for them.* 

But the Indians took a sweet revenge for all this, and Haver- 
hill, Deerfield, and other settlements in Massachusetts were 
attacked, and more than two hundred whites were killed and cap- 
tured. Ample reparation for five Indian scalps. 

This would not do. More than ever the colonies were alive 
to the fact that the Indians must be punished and subdued. So 
Major Hilton, t with tive companies, and Captain Stevens with one, 
ranged all the northern woods, went up the Pemigewasset and the 
Asquamchumauke and eastward along the base of the White 
mountains, but not an Indian did they discover. 

Waternomee with his people were too careful for these march- 
ing parties. The old men, women, and children were off to the 
fastnesses of the mountains and the deep, impenetrable swamps, 
where pursuit was useless. 

But one man, at the head of five Marquas, Mohog, or Mohawk 
Indians, accomplished more than the six great marching companies 
together. 'By chance some of the Pemigewassetts had crossed the 
highlands, as old Acteou reported, and had set down to plant on 
the banks of the Connecticut. The Coosucks, with a strong fort, 
were on the great meadows above them, and on the banks of the 
stream below were numerous other families of friendly Indians. 
Thus surrounded they thought themselves secure. 

Some time in Ma}', 1704, word came from Albany that the 
Mohawks had discovered the fort upon the Connecticut river and 
knew that the Coosucks were planting corn there. 

June 6th, Mr. Caleb Lyman, a brave man, placed himself at 
the head of five Mohawk warriors, and leaving Northampton, 

* Another party marched directly up the Merrimack river to tlie Pemigewassett 
land. Ihe fourth day from home they discovered an Indian settlement a short 
distance from the river; and alter carefully recouoitering and finding that the 
number of tlie Indians was less than tlieir own, they advanced to tlie attacli. The 
Indians did not discover tlie English until they were close upon them, when they 
were accidentally observed by a young warrior who cried, " Owanux, Owanux !" 
— " Englishmen, Englishmen I" This frightened the other Indians, wlio, rising up 
quielily, were tired upon l)y the Englislnnen, wlio killed eiglit upon the spot. The 
rest immediately fled, andthe company, with considerable booty and the scalps of 
the slain Indians, returned home without the loss of a man. 

fin the spring of 1704 Col. Wintliroji Hilton commanded a party to scour the 
woods to the lieads of the Winnepisseogee and Pemigewassett, and "was not only 
this summer but most of the time, wlien not engaged" in more important and dis- 
tant expetlitions, employed in raugLug the frontier from Massachusetts to Maine. 
—1 Farmer & Moore's Col. 216. 


Massachusetts, struck into the wilderness. They were soon in the 
enemy's country. They found his tracks and heard the noise of 
his guns in the woods. For nine days they pursued their course 
nortlaward. Then, discovering- fresh tracks, the.v followed them 
till they came to the river. Supposing that hostile Indians were 
in the immediate neighborhood they halted, consulted what method 
was best to pursue, and soon concluded to send out a spy — with 
green leaves for a cap and vest, to prevent his own discovery, and 
to find out the enemy. 

But before he was out of sight they saw two Indians at a con- 
siderable distance in a canoe, and immediately called him back. 
Soon after they also heard the firing of a gun up the river, upon 
which they concluded to keep close until sunset, and then, if they 
could make any further discovery of the enemy, to attack if pos- 
sible in the night. 

Sitting down concealed upon the south shore they looked out 
upon the scene. The noble river swept round a little wood- 
crowned height in the east, and then ran straight into the west, 
till, meeting the low blufl' on that side of the meadow, it turned 
short and flowed awav to the south. Before them was the longf 
reach of sparkling water, reflecting the green woods upon its 
bank ; in the light fairy canoe, near wliere the river came out of 
the forest in the east, were the two Indians spearing fish; and 
looking in over the green hills beyond them was the round, bald 
top of Moosilauke, gemmed with snow fields not yet melted in the 
summer sun. Even the wood-thrush — sweetest songster of the 
forest — was here; and with the frogs in the swamp, and the pai-- 
tridges' drumming, and the warbling of the white-throated finch, 
made melody in the solitude. 

AVhen the evening came on they moved up the river, and at 
the distance of half a mile saw a smoke and found where the v^m- 
wams were built. At two o'clock in the morning everything was 
quiet, and the deadly Marquas with Caleb Lyman were within 
twelve rods of the slumbering Pemigewassetts. 

Here they met a difficulty which, as Mr. Lyman in his narra- 
tive relates, nearly ruined their plan. For the space of five rods 
the ground was thickly covered with dry sticks and brush, over 
which they could not pass without danger of alarming their enemy 


and giving' him a chance to escape. But while they were contriv- 
ing how they might compass their design, God — as the pious 
Caleb* would have it — in his good Providence assisted them 
with a miracle. A very small cloud arose. It gave a smart clap 
of thunder and a sudden shower of rain descended. The Mo- 
hawks with their leader rush forward, they clear the thicket, come 
unperceivcd in full sight of the wigwams, and discover by the 
noise that the enemy within are awake. Creeping still nearer on 
their hands and knees, in a moment they are at the side of the rude 
dwellings. Eising, they pour into them a murderous tire; then, 
flinging down their guns, with their clubs and hatchets they knock 
on the head every Indian they meet. Two only of the whole 
number of Pemigewassetts escape, one mortally wounded, the 
other, as was afterwards learned, unhurt. 

On looking over the ground, seven Indians were found killed 
on the spot, six of whom they scalped, leaving the other un- 
touched, the Mohawks patriotically saying they would give one 
scalp to the country. Each would then have one, which would 
make him rich enough. 

Then they took their scalps and plunder, such as guns, skins, 
etc., loaded them into the canoes of the enemy, and started down 
the river. The stars shone in the sky above, and the gibbous 
moon, sinking behind the trees in the west, looked red. Owls 
hooted in the forest, the frogs sang a lullaby in the grass and lily- 
pads, and the muskrats splashed by the shore. When the sun 
came up they Avcre twelve miles down the river, and knowing 
that more "strange Indians" were between them and home, they 
broke up and abandoned their canoes, and took to the woods. 

They were now a hundred miles from the white settlements ; 
they had but one meal of victuals left, and as they soon came upon 
the trail of thirty Indians they dared not hunt for a subsistence. 
Caleb Lyman says that for five long days they marched, eating 
nothing "but the buds of trees, grass, and strawberry leaves, 
when, through the goodness of God, we safely arrived at IN'orth- 
ampton, on the 19th or 20th of the aforesaid June." 

The Great and General Court of Massachusetts, being humbly 
petitioned, granted thirty-one pounds for these services. Why 

*He was an eldei- of a church iu Boston that sometimes hung witches. 


they did not get £2JtO, as they deserved, is more than we can tell. 
At any rate they merited it more than Captain Tyng, for it was a 
braver exploit. 

The captain of the Marquas, Caleb Lyuian, sagely concludes 
"That in consequence of this action the enemy were generally 
alarmed, and immediately forsook their fort and corn at Cowas- 
suck and never roturued to this day as we could hear off to renew 
their settlement in that place." 

That they were greatly alarmed there is no doubt, but that 
the Indians did not leave this upper couutry just then is a fact 
very well known to all great historians. For several more years 
they sojourned here ; and during the war fought a number of 
great battles, as Ave shall be highly pleased to narrate. 



And uovr there was marching and hurrying through all 
the wildwood. The Indians came down like wolves on the fold. 
Hadley and Quabaug,* Nashua, and Groton were attacked. Then, 
dividing into small parties, the red foe fell upon Amesbury. Hav- 
erhill, and Exeter, and did much mischief. 

Captain Tyng and Captain How entertained a warm and 
slightly cordial dispute with them, but came oflf second-best, that 
is, got whipped; and then company after company of English- 
men went northward, and tramped the forest through and through, 
but had the poorest kind of luck in finding the head-quarters of 
the Indians. The latter were ofl" to the swamps, the morasses, 
and the strongholds of the mountains. 

Among those who ranged the woods was the brave Colonel 
Hilton. He came upon a trail and killed four Indians. At the 
same time he took a squaw alive, with a pappoose at her breast, 
both of whom he preserved. She was of great service in conduct- 
ing him to a body of eighteen Indians. These he succeeded in 
surprising, about break of day, as they lay asleep, and slew all 
but one, whom he made a prisoner. This was accounted a great 
feat of arms. 

One Captain Wright also ventured far into the enemy's coun- 
try and fought the Indians with varying success. f 

*Now Brooklield, Mass. 

fPenhaUow's Iiuliau Wars, 1 N. H. Hist. CoL GO. 


Then the Indians, in the most terrible manner, •would retaliate. 
One party killed Colonel Hilton and another slew Major Tyng. * 
They scalped the Colonel, struck their hatchets into his brain, and 
left a lance in his heart. Major Tyng was rescued and carried to 
Chelmsford, where he soon expired. 

Colonel Walton, with two companies of men, hastened away 
for revenge. He went to the ponds north of " Winnepisseocay " 
lake, where there were places of general resort for fishing, fowl- 
ing, and hunting. But he found no Indians ^only a few deserted 
wigwams; for, as Mr. Penhallow politely says, being so closely 
pursued from one place to another, they removed to other nations, 
leaving only a few cut-throats behind, which kept the country in 
a constant state of alarm. 

Thus, mutually killing and burning, the war went on with 
varying fortune, the English, afterwards called Yankees, having 
the poor luck to get the worst of it as a general thing, until near 
its close, when an expedition was planned and a blow struck by 
which our Peniigewassetts were annihilated. 

In the year 1709, February 27th, Thomas Baker was taken 
captive from Deerfield, Massachusetts. They took him straight 
up the Connecticut river, over the carrying-place to Memphrerna- 
gog lake, and from thence to the happy land of Canada. He was 
ransomed a year afterwards, and came home well knowing one of 
the routes to the haunts of the Indians. He also learned some- 
thing during his captivity about the great tribes we have men- 
tioned, their homes and hunting grounds, and in the spring of 
1712 — the border war raging fiercer than ever — he raised a com- 
pany of thirty-four men to fight some of the enemy, who lived in a 
beantiful place he had heard of while in Canada. Thirty-three of 
his company were white soldiers, and there was one friendly 
Indian to guide them across the highlands. 

Lieutenant Baker left Northampton,! Mass., in April, as soon 
as the snow was gone, and pursued his old route up Connecticut 

♦Formerly Capt. Tyng. He had been promoted, 

t lu the county of Ilanipsliire. 

Lieut. Thomas Baker was horn at Xorthamiiton, Mass., May 1-t, 1<18'2. He 
marrieil ClirisUne Otis, otherwise Marj^aret Otis, and lived once at iJrooklield, and 
afterwards at Dover, X. IF. lie died about 17.j:3, of letliargy. Margaret Otis was 
once taken prisoner l)y the Indians, curried to Canada, and was there called 
Clmstme Otis by the French. 



river. In four days he was upon the Cowassuck intervals. Snow 
banks were still scattered about, and the eastern mountains were 
white as winter. The friendly Indian had told him of the old 
Indian trail up the Oliverian, and by nightfall they had looked at 
the mighty precipice of Owl's Head mountain and were camped 
on the shore of Wachipauka pond. , 

The nest morning, passing Oak falls, they proceeded down 
the Mikaseota, as Acteon called it, now plain Black brook, and 
discovering signs of Indians, who appeared to have been in the 
neighborhood hunting, they marched all day on the right bank of 
the Asquamchumauke with great caution. 

At night Lieutenant Baker and his men camped without Are, 
and ate a cold supper, for they knew they were in the immediate 
neighborhood of the Indians. 

In the morning early he sent out scouts to reconnoitre. These 
cautiously advanced, and at about eight o'clock discovered numer- 
ous Indian wigwams grouped in a circle upon the east bank 
of the river.* Some squaws were at work near by, seeming to 
be getting ready to plant corn. A few men were fashioning a 
canoe and several children were plajdug among the trees upon 
the shore. A large portion of the warriors, as was afterwards 
learned, were away hunting. The scouts, after gazing upon 
this scene a few moments, returned and reported their discovery. 

The Lieutenant, after a short consultation with his men, now 
moved forward with all possible circumspection. No sound — not 
even the breaking of a twig or the snap of a gun-lock — warned 
the Pemigewassetts of their impending fate. He chose his posi- 
tion, and at a given signal his company opened a tremendous tire 
upon the Indians, which carried death through their village, and 
was as sudden to them as a clap of thunder. Some shouted 
that the English were u})on them, and that dreaded name echoed 
from mouth to mouth, filling all with dismay. Many of the chil- 
dren of the forest bit the dust in death, but those who survived 
ran to call in the hunters. 

The companj' immediately crossed the river in pursuit, but 
all who were able to tlee were beyond their reach. They fired the 

*1 Farmer & Moore's N. H. Hist. Col. 128. 
Whiton's Hist, of N. H., "0. 


wigwams, and as the flames streamed upward and the smoke 
rolled aloft on the air, a shout from the Indians came soundinar 
down the valley, informing Lieutenant Baker that the warriors 
were collecting to give him battle. 

While the wigwams were being kindled, part of the company 
wei'e searching for booty. They found a rich store of furs 
deposited in holes in the banks, in the manner bank-swallows dig 
to make their nests. Having obtained these. Lieutenant Baker 
ordered a retreat, knowing that the Indians would soon return, 
and he feared in too great numbers to be resisted by his single 
company. As they moved swiftly down the river, the sounds of 
the war-whoop greeted their ears. This served to accelerate their 
speed. Often it was repeated and each time grew nearer. When 
they had reached a poplar plain,* in what is now the town of 
BridgeAvater, a shrill, maddened yell, and a volley of musketry in 
their rear, told Baker that the Indians were upon him, and that he 
must immediately prepare for action. This they did by retreating 
to a more dense wood. 

The Indians, commanded by their chief, Waternomee — called 
vulgarly by some historian, Walternumus — immediately pursued, 
and, swarming on all sides, poured volleys of musketry into the 
woods which concealed their enemies. On the other hand, the 
little party, concealing themselves behind rocks and trees, plied 
their muskets vigorously and with good eifect. Balls rattled in 
showers around, scattering twigs and branches of the trees in 
every direction. 

While the battle was going on, Waternomee, who was lead- 
ing the Indians, accidentally encountered Lieutenant Baker. They 
knew each other well, having met on the frontier and in Canada. 
They saw eaph other at the same moment, and fired almost simul- 
taneously. The ball from the sachem's gun grazed Baker's left 
eye-brow, but did him no injury. Baker's bullet went through 
the breast of the chief. Immediately upon being struck, with a 
loud whoop, he leaped four or five feet high and fell dead. 

Waternomee was richly attired, and Baker snatched his blan- 

* iir. Dearborn has visited that plain and seen and examined a number of 
skulls which he supposed fell in that engagement. One or two of them were per- 
forated by a bullet.— Power's Hist, of Coos, 171. 


ket, which was covered with silver brooches, his powder-horn 
and other ornaments, and hastened to join the main body of his 

The Indians having now lost their chief, and a considerable 
number of their warriors being wonnded, and a few killed, 

Lientenant Baker also immediately collected his men and 
again ordered a retreat, for he believed that the Indians, though 
repulsed, would soon rally to the attack, and their numbers con- 
stantly swell by those who would join them. On he went, allow- 
ing his men no refreshment after the battle. For many miles they 
travelled without food, until, hunger oppressing them, they de- 
clared that the}' might as well die b}' the red men's bullets as by 
famine. At length, upon crossing a stream in New Chester, 
Lieutenant Baker, finding it useless to try to proceed further, 
ordered a halt, and the men prepared to refresh themselves. 
While building the fires to cook their food, the friendly Indian 
who had acted as guide proi^osed a stratagem by which the war- 
riors when they came up would be deceived, in regard to the 
immber of men in Lieutenant Baker's marching iDarty. He told 
each one to build as many fires as he possibly could in a given 
time, and in roasting the meat to use several forks about the same 
piece; then, when they were done, to leave an equal number 
around each fire. This advice was followed, and after enjoying a 
hasty meal they again moved swiftly on. 

The Indian warriors, coming up shortly after, found the fires 
still burning; they counted the array of forks, and being alarmed 
at the supposed number of the English they whooped a retreat, 
and Baker and his men were no more annoyed by them on their 


Without the loss of a man. Lieutenant Baker and his march- 
ing party hurried down the Merrimack river to Dunstable, and on 
th3 8th of May, 1712, made application in Boston for the bounty. 
They brought but one scalp, }'et claimed pay for many more, as 
they believed they had killed several Indians, but were unable to 

* These trophies wei-eke])t among Captain Baker's descendants for many years. 
Long al'terwai-ds lie used to sliow theni to the Indians: they would shed tears and 
make gestures as thougli tliey would sometime kill him when war once more arose. 
— Genealogical Register. 


get their scalps. The govenior and couuoil heard this statement 
and allowed them twenty pounds, or pay for two scalps, and 
wages for the Lieutenant and company from the 24th of March, 
to the 16th of May, 1712.* 

But this did not satisfy Lieutenant Thomas Baker and his 
men. Tliey drew up a petition and presented the evidence of the 
Indiajis themselves, and on A7cdnesday, June 11th, were allowed 
twenty pounds additional for two more Indians proved to have 
been killed. Captain Baker, in addition to a j)romotion in rank, 
also received another honor. The stream on which the battle 
commenced, and called by the Indians the " Asquamchumauke,"t 
has ever since been known as Baker river. 

On the retreat of the Indians they visited the battle-field and 
looked with sorrow on the once proud forms of their brothers. 
After burying their dead, they went to the place of their formerly 
beautiful village. Through fear the survivors had not collected, 
and, as the warriors approached, their hearts were filled with 
emotions far difierent from those which but a few hours before 
possessed them. All was ruin. 

" No ■wigwam smoke is ciirliug there, 
The very earth is scorched and bare: 
And they pause and listen to catch a sound 
Of breathing lil'e, but tliere comes not one — 
Save the fox's bark and the rabbit's bound — 
And liere and there on tlie bhickeuing ground 
AVhite bones are glistening in the sun." 

Here, too, the last sad offices were performed to departed 
shades. This done, they erected a few temporary wigwams, and 
gradually the fugitives who had fled from the assault of the Eng- 

f *" Resolved that the sum of Ten pounds be allowed and paid 
out of the Public Treasury to Thomas Baker, commander of a 
company of marching forces in the late expedition against the 
enemy to Coos and from thence to tlie west branch of tlie Merri- 
mack river and so to Dunstable, in belialf of himself and com- 
pany, for one enemy Indian, besides that -which they scalped, 
which seems so very probable to be slain. 

Consented to, J. Dudley." 
f " Wednesday, June 11th, 1712. 

Upon reading a petition trom Lieut. Thomas Baker, commander 
of a party in a late expeditioii to Cooa and over to Merrimack 
river, praying for a furtlier allowance for more of the Indian ene- 

my killed b}^ them than they could recover or their scalps, as re- 

pany for ) ported by the enemy themselves. 
scalps. Concurred with a resolve passed thereon, viz : That the sum of 

twenty pounds be allowed and paid out of the Public Treasiiry 
to the petitioner and Companj*. 

Consented to, J. Dudley." 
— Journal of the Mass. Legislature for 1712. 

t Asquamchumauke is from Asquam, water, TFarfc/tif, mountain, and Auke,— 
mouuta in-water-place . 

Allowed to 

Thos. Baker's 



allowance to 


ker & Com- 


lish were gathered together. A few days later the remainder of 
their tribe joined them, and after a long council it was decided to 
unite with the Arosagunticooks, or St. Francis Indians, as many 
other eastern tribes were doing. It was hard to leave their pleas- 
ant hunting grounds, but stern necessity compelled them, and in a 
few days those dear and sacred places were solitary and deserted. 
A few of the tribe remained about the shores and islands of 
Squam lake, occasionally visiting Lake AVinnepisseogee, and there 
dwelt, a passive people, until the settling of the towns around them. 
Thus the Pemigewassett country, including the beautiful valley 
of Warren, once possessed by a brave people, became a solitude, 
and for many years after was seldom visited, save by a few white 
hunters, or straggling bands of hostile St. Francis, on their way 
to or from the English frontiers. 

M \ 









In the previous book we have shown how the Indians were 
dispossessed of our beautiful Asquamchumauke valley. But the 
driving- out of the red men did not render the land a safe place 
for white people. Hunters and froutierraen equally were liable to 
have their scalps taken off, or daylight made to shine through 
them by a bullet, and in order that this' history may be complete, 
it will be necessary to relate the whole series of remarkable events 
tliat opened to the hardy settlers our woodland paradise. Conse- 
quently this second book must be one of general histoiy, applying 
alike to a large section of country of which the little territory of 
Warren is the centre. 

Now, in the tirst place, we have seen how all the Nipmucks 
of New Hampshire had gone to Canada, except a few called 
Pequawkees, and the Amariscoggius, and that these Nipmuck 
braves in Canada formed a considerable part of the great Arosa- 
guuticook tribe, sometimes knoAvn as the St. Francis Indians. 


But under auotlier name the Nipmucks had not forgotten the 
wrongs which they fancied the Engiisli had done them, and their 
priests, the French Jesuits, helped to keep their recollection fresh 
upon these subjects; for the Jesuits hated the Protestant English. 
So when, iu 1723, King Williams' war was about' to break out, our 
Indians began to annoy their English neighbors, " killing their 
cattle, burning their stacks of hay, and robbing and insulting 

In 1724 two men, Nathan Cross and Thomas Blanchard, wei'e 
taken captive at Old Dunstable, now Nashua, and started towards 
Canada. Ten brave men went out in pursuit, under the direction 
of Lieut. French, and were all killed beside the Merrimack river, 
at Thornton Ferry, except Josiah Farwell, who took to his heels 
and escaped. 

Everybody was terribly excited at this, and the famous 
Captain Lovewell raised a scout of thirty men and started north 
into the woods for revenge. He also wanted a slight bounty of a 
Imndred pounds per scalp for every Indian he could kill. With 
his company he marched beyond Lake Winnepisseogee to the 
Pemigewassett country, up towards the land to be called Warren, 
and discovered an Indian wigwam in which was a man and a boy. 

December 19th, 1724, they killed and scalped the man, and 
brought the boy alive to Boston, where they received the promised 
reward of two hundred pounds, and the Massachusetts Legislature 
kindly gave them a gratuity of two shillings and sixpence per man 
by way of encouragement. 

By reason of this success Captain John Lovewell's party was 
augmented to seventy. They marched again in midwinter, visited 
the Pemigewassett land, found the dead bod)^ of the Indian they 
liad before scalped still lying in the wigwam, and then turned off 
eastwardly towards the country of the Pequawkees. About 
the middle of February the Captain discovex'ed the trail of a party 
of Indians, fresh upon the war-j)ath. 

February 20th, the tracks becoming fresher, the scout marched 
Avith more wariness some five miles on, and came upon a wig- 
wam but lately deserted, and pursuing " two miles further discov- 
ered their smokes." This was near sunset, and the Indians were 
encamped lor the night. LovewelPs party laid in concealment till 

KING William's war. 89 

after midnight, when they advanced and discovered ten Indians 
asleep round a hirge tire by the side of a frozen pond. 

Lovewell now determined to make sure worl:, and placing 
his men conveniently, ordered a part of them to tire — five at a 
time, as quick after each other as possible — and another part to 
reserve their tire. He gave the signal by firing his own gun which 
killed two of them ; the men, firing according to order, killed five 
more upon the spot; the other three starting up from their sleep, 
two of them were immediately shot dead by the reserve. The 
other, though wounded, attempted to escape by crossing the pond, 
but was seized by a dog and held ttist till they killed him.* 

Then the brave company, with the ten scalps stretched on 
hoops and elevated on poles, entered Dover in triumph and pro- 
ceeded thence to Boston, where they received the bounty of one 
hundred pounds for each out of the public treasury. 

This success was hailed with joy and triumph throughout the 
Provinces. Other expeditions were immediately set on foot. 
Captain Samuel Willard, with forty-seven able-bodied men, went 
up the Pemigewassett river and looked up the Asquamchumauke. 
He was gone thirty-five days, but did not find an Indian. Captain 
Jabez Fairbanks also traversed the whole country south of the 
White mountains, and went up the Asquamchumauke valley even 
to Coos, but with no better luck. Colonel Tyng, of Dunstable, 
also headed an expedition, and marched into the country betwixt 
Pemigewassett and Winuepisseogee, but after a month's absence 
returned without taking a scalp. 

Lovewell was greatly elated with his success. He raised 
another company and boldly marched through the southerly jDor- 
tion of the Pemigewassett country towards Pequawket to obtain a 
few Pequawkee scalps. Paugus was chief of the tribe, and his 
name was a terror to the frontier. 

" 'Twas Paugus led the Pequ'k't tribe; 
As runs the fox, -woulrl Paugus run : 
As howls the wild wolf would he howl; 
A huge heur-skin had Paugus on." 

On Friday, May 7th, 1725, they had reached the Saco river, 

*These Indians were marching from Canada, well furnished with new guns 
and plenty of amunition, they had also a large number of spare blankets, mocka- 
scens, and snow shoes for the prisoners wliom they expected to take, ami were 
within two days' march of the frontiers. The pond by which this exploit was per- 
formed has evA- since borne the name of Lovewell's j^ond.— Belknap, -200. 209. 

Peuliallow adds : " Their arms were so good and new that most of them were 


aud on the morning of the 8th (May 19th new style) Ensign MVy- 
man discovered an Indian on a stony point of land running into 
a pond from the east. He had in one hand some black ducks he 
had just killed, and in the other two guns. The Indian, seeing 
death was his fiite, as quick as thought levelled his gun, fired, and 
Lovewell fell badly wounded. Ensign Wyman, taking deliberate 
aim, shot the poor hunter, and he was scalped by the chaplain. 
The latter had been very anxious for the conflict, aud in the morn- 
ing thus patriotically prayed : '' We came out to meet the enemy ; 
we have all along prayed God we might find them ; we had rather 
trust Providence with our lives, yea, die for our country, than try 
to return without seeing them, if we might, and be called cowards 
for our pains." 

In the meantime Paugus with eighty Indians was watching 
the English, and when the latter marched again by the way they 
came, to recover their packs, he prepared an ambush to cut them 
off or take them prisoners, as fortune should will. 

When these Indians rose from their coverts they nearly encir- 
cled the English, and at first offered to give the latter quarter. 
This only encouraged Lovewell and his men, who answered: 
''Quarter only at the muzzles of our guns !'■ and then, rushing 
towards the Indians, fired and killed several of them. But they 
soon rallied, forced the English to retreat, and killed nine of them, 
Captain Lovewell with the rest. 

The pai'ty then retreated to the shore of the pond, where they 
had a brook on the right, a pile of large boulders on the left, and 
to the north and front of them a swamp partly filled with water, 
forming a long, narroAV peninsula, only accessible from the plain 
at the westerly extremity, over the pile of rocks. Here they 
fought all day long. At one time the Indians ceased firing and 
drew ofi" among the pines at a little distance to pow-woio over 
their success. They had got earnestly engaged in the ceremony, 
dancing, jumping, howling, and beating the ground — in a word, 
pow-tooioing , — when the intrepid Wyman crept up behind the 

sold for seven poinds apiece, and each of tlieni liad two blankets, with a great 
mauv moccasons, -which were supposed to be for the supply of captives that tliey 
expe'cted to have talcen. The plunder was but a few skins : but during the march 
our men were well entertained with moose, bear, aud deer, together with salmon 
trout, some of which were three feet long, and Aveighed twelve pounds apiece."— 
X. H. Hist. Col. vol. i. 113. 

lovewell's fight. 91 

rocks and trees and fired upon the principal actor, killing him on 
the spot. This man was supposed to be the celebrated chief, 

The fight was then renewed and continued with greater 
earnestness. Towards night John Chamberlin and Paugus both 
went down to the pond at the same moment to wash out their 
guns. They knew each other, agreed to finish washing, and to 
commence to load at the same time. In loading, Paugus got the 
advantage ; his ball was so small as to roll down the barrel, while 
Chamberlin had to force his down with his rod. Paugus, seeing 
his advantage, quickly said, ''Me kill you!" and took up his gun 
to prime. Chamberlin threw down his rod, and bringing the 
breech of his gun a smart blow upon the hard sand, brought it to 
his face and fired. Paugus fell pierced through the heart. Cham- 
berlin' s gun, being worn from long use, pr ivied itself , and the 
knowledge of this saved the bold hunter's life. 

Then the battle gradually ceased, and at midnight all who 
were able began to retreat. Lovewell went into the fight with 
thirty-four men, but only fourteen ever lived to reach home. 
More Indians than English were killed, and a party of fifty, who 
went to this most terrible battle-field of Indian wars, found and 
buried Captain Lovewell and many of his brave soldiers who had 
died beside him. They also found and opened the grave of 
Paugus. After this the Indians resided no more at Pequawket. 

King William's war closed soon after the opening of these in- 
teresting adventures, and then the wilderness — hereafter to be 
called Warren — was solitary enough for a score of years, being 
visited only by hunters and trappers, Englishmen and Indians, 
hostile and friendly by turns. 

But in 1745 King George's war broke out, and then began 
another scries of interesting adventures and great Indian cam- 
paigns, the history of which every son of our town of "Warren 
ought to know, because it relates some of the great events which 
produced such happy results. 

The first of these grand campaigns in our wild solitudes took 
place in ''lung George's War" shortly after the fall of Louisburg, 
the Dunkirk of America, in 1745, and when Benning Wentworth 
was the royal governor of New Hampshire. The French wei*e 


liig-hly exasperated to tliink that their strong fortress had been 
captured by a few rough woodsmen under Colonel Pepperell, or 
as the}^ felt, " Colonel Pepper-thera-well," and they immediately 
resorted to their old method of warfare, to wit: to send a few of 
their very g'entle ''salvages," to " scrape " a slight acquaintance 
with the English borderers, and to form a lasting friendship by 
sealing it in a gentle effusion of blood. 

Governor Wentworth and his wise counsellors had a sort of a 
presentiment, founded, like most other presentiments, on very 
logical premises, that such might be the case, and so sent a garrison 
to Captain Jeremiah Clough's fort, in Canterbury. But the In- 
dians, like deer, scented the fort a long distance, slyly hied down 
the Connecticut, and at the great meadow, now "Walpole, kindly 
removed one William Phipps from all trouble in this world, taking 
only his scalp as a reward for their services, and then proceeding 
to upper Ashuelot, now Keene, there feloniously and wilfully and 
of malice aforethought committed the same outrage upon one 
James Fisher. 

As no one pursued them to wreak revenge, the courage of the 
Frenchman's humane allies, our Mpmucks, greatly increased. 
That very season they went down the Merrimack on campaign 
number two. They did not trouble themselves to visit the fort at 
Canterbury, thinking it too bad to disturb the garrison there of 
its quiet and repose. Near Suncook they thought to relieve the 
monotony of their life by a little miscellaneous practice at target 
shooting. Accordingly they found a couple of suitable marks in 
the persons of James McQuade and John Bnrns, of Bedford, who 
had been to Pennacook, now Concord, to procure coi'n, and were 
returning home. McQuade was shot dead; but Burns, running 
zigzag, and the Indians not being able to shoot round a corner, 
escaped. The Indians were off to Canada before this great battle 
was reported. 

When the news of this brilliant campaign reached Portsmouth 
it is said Governor Wentworth gnashed his teeth and stamped his 
foot. "How dared the haughty foe to pass the impregnable for- 
tress at Canterbury?" But he would meet them on their own 
ground, that is, in the Avoods. The order was given, a company 
of men was enlisted, and Captain John Goffe, of Harrytown, was 


detached by Colonel Blauchard to command the hazardous expedi- 
tion, liis company of thirty-four men was selected from the 
large number who presented themselves. None were enrolled but 
such as Avere noted for courage and sagacity. The first of January 
they started up the Merrimack on a scout. How far they went 
we were never able to learn. AYhether they proceeded as far as 
Coos is very doubtful. We cannot tell, though we wish we could, 
whether they even went as far as the forks of the Merrimack, 
where the golden salmon in the springs of olden time are said to 
have parted company with the shad ; all we know is that they 
scouted valiantly all the long winter, with excellent success at — 
scouting; but not discovering even so much as one of the 
moccasin footprints of the enemy, April 6th, 1746, they disbanded. 
But the chiefs who led the i-enowned war joarties in the campaigns 
of the previous season were heroes in the eyes of their own little 
Arosagunticook nation at home, and many a brave fellow who 
had rested on soft furs in his smoky wigwam all winter, now 
stimulated by an abundant supply of " French pap," was burning 
for deeds of glory. 

DoAvn through the wild Coos, about which the snowy moun- 
tains were gleaming, they came on the run. Over the highlands 
and down the Asquamchumauke they hurried, and on April 26th, 
1746, like the crafty crusader, Bohemond, at the siege of Antioch, 
contrived to enter an open door of the garrison house in New 
Hopkinton, now minus the "New," and plain Hopkinton. They 
found all the people fast asleep, and easily took as prisoners Sam- 
uel Burbank, his sons Caleb and Jonathan, Daniel Word well, his 
wife, and three children, Benjamin, Thomas, and Mary. 

This splendid victory Avas the crowning achievment of cam- 
paign number four. But a more blood-thirsty army, numbering 
three braves, took Timothy Brown and one Mr. Moflatt prisoners, 
at Lower Ashuelot, killed Seth Putnam at Number- Four, and 
made campaign number five full as brilliant as any other. 

New Hampshire was now in a terrible state of alarm. There 
was running and riding through all the wild border. The stout- 
est heart beat faster at the slightest noise after dark. Women 
turned pale at the shriek of the night hawk, or at the bark of the 
watch dog, and the naughtiest child in all the province, aiirighted, 


would cower still at its mother's side at the bare name of Indian. 
Captain Gofle, who was really a brave officer, of good ability, 
was ordered to the frontier with a company of tifty men. In a 
sorrowful yet firm letter, written from Pennacook to GoA'ernor 
Wentworth, he complained of the lurking ambuscade tactics of 
the Indian enemy. But although he could not see the wisdom of 
their movements, we of a later day can admire the skill and 
bravery of the Arosagunticooks as much as the oblique move- 
ments of Epaminondas, the new Greek tire, or the harrow-shaped 
columns which Napoleon hurled with such terrible eftect on his 

Captain Goffe marched up the Merrimack, scouted along the 
Pemigewa'ssett, looked up the Asquamchumauke, visited all the 
great '' camping places " in the adjacent country, and returned by 
Lake Winnepisseogee. Not an Indian could he find. But Gov- 
ernor "Wentworth was not to be thus thwarted by his very open 
enemy that skulked through the woods. A very brilliant idea 
took possession of his head. '' To train in the troop has always 
been considered about as good as to Join the church," and 
the worthy Governor thought it very proper to patronize the 
horse companies. So he ordered detachments of Captain Odlin's 
and Captain Hanson's cavalry to proceed immediately to relieve 
the forts at New Hopkinton and Canterbury. Prompt to respond, 
the brave mounted men went up the east bank of the Merrimack. 
Like a sweeping avalanche they rush on. No common obstacle 
could check their swift, wild march. Without a particle of doubt 
the blight sun of the second morn would see them debouch from 
the forest and with their glittering trappings rein up their pranc- 
ing steeds, champing upon the impatient bit, before the massive 
gate of the strong fortress of Canterbury. But how uncertain 
are the things of this world. This brilliant expedition was des- 
tined to be a sad failure. The gallant troopers slackened their 
headlong course on the banks of the broad, deep Suncook river, 
the breadth of which to-day is about fifty long feet, and the dark 
depth about eighteen inches. No bridge spanned the surging 
flood, and to ford it was impossible. For hours they attempted to 
overcome this great barrier of nature, but in vain, and they were 
forced to return on their trail. At a meeting of the Legislature 


the Honorable Governor recommended that a bridge be constructed 
across the mighty river. But though the cavalry companies made 
a glorious return, yet that the Indians might be thoroughly con- 
quered, Captain Samuel Barr, of Londonderry, was also sent 
north with nineteen men. He was out nineteen days, and met 
with the same brilliant success as the other bold captains. As 
New Hampshire would in no manner be behind her sister colonies, 
a large luimber of soldiers were raised, to join a great expedition 
to Canada. In after years it was known as the Honorable Gov. 
Shirley's Quixotic success. As the expedition was a heavy body, 
and slow to start, the soldiers were sent into quarters on the shore 
of Lake AViunepisseogee, where they were to tight the Indians. 
But, instead of long marches through the pleasant solitudes they 
enjoyed themselves immensely, hunting and tishing on the shore 
of the beautiful lake — but not an Indian w^as seen. 

Notwithstanding all this marshalling in battle array, the St. 
Francis braves, now including the entire Nipmuck nation and 
some other savages, gallantly accomplished campaign number six. 
June 27th they fought a successful battle at Eochester, with five 
Englishmen, who were at work in a field. The Indians sent out 
one of their number as a decoy, who drew the fire of the enemy. 
They then charged upon their white^foe and drove them with the 
blunt points of their muskets into a deserted house. Here the 
white men long held them in check : but with true Indian cun- 
ning they unroofed the house and then coolly shot and killed Joseph 
Hurd, Joseph Richards, John Wentworth, and Gershara Downs. 
John Richards, the only survivor, was taken prisoner. Reclining 
for a short time upon a sloping bank, beneath a shady tree, in 
which forest songsters warbled war-pteans in honor of their glori- 
ous triumph, they recover their exhausted energies. Then, as the 
sun bids good-bye to the flashing zenith, the brave war-party rush 
upon another company of laborers in a field near by. Again 
glorious victory perches on their banners, but the spoils were less. 
All the English escaped except one poor lad named Jonathan Door. 
Long before night the Indians, with scalps and prisoners, returned 
to the fastnesses of the deep wood. 

Madam Rumor, with her thousand tongues, circulated an 
account of this campaign in double-quick time. 


New Hampshire men again flew to anus, Capt. Nathaniel 
Drake, of Hampton, was ordered ont, " with fifteen of his troopers 
to scout at and about Nottingliam, fitted with their horses for 
fourteen days." Capt. Andrew Todd, of Londonderry, with 
twenty-three men, flew to Canterbury. Capt. Daniel Ladd, of 
Exeter, with a company of foot, ranged the woods by Massabesic 
lake to Pennacook, and returning scouted across the countrj- to 
Nottingham ; as usual, though scouting valiantly, not an enemy 
was discovered. 

By the fii'st of August, Capt. Drake's brave troopers were at 
home again, having sweat themselves and horses terribly doing 
nothing. Capt. Todd had returned even before this, and Capt. 
Ladd had dismissed his men until August fifth. 

August tenth the Indians came to Pennacook, but Capt. Ladd 
at the same time came also. 

The Indians were keen enough to discover the fact, but Capt. 
Ladd did not, consequently the former grew very religious, and 
resolved not to fight, as it was the Sabbath. In this they did 
differently from many other great military peoples, who have 
improved this day for battle. The Indians retired into a deep 
black wood for solemn meditation. 

The following day, Monday, they were fresh for the contest. 
They made a snug little ambush on the path leading from Penna- 
cook to Hopkiuton. It was about half a mile from the church 
which they did not attack the previous day. When a portion of 
Capt. Ladd's company came along, rather irregularly, the Indians 
gave them a wai'm welcome. Daniel Goodman had gone forward 
to fire at a hawk, which sat on a dry stub by the path. Obadiah 
Peters was resting under the rustling leaves of a poplar tree, while 
the rest of the party behind walked leisurely up. With the war- 
whoop ringing, and the echo of the musketrj' reverberating from 
the distant hills, the smoke curled slowly away through the trees, 
and showed five men, drenching the mossj^ hillside with their 
blood. Lieut. Jonathan Bradley, Samuel Bradley, John Luffkin, 
John Bean, and Obadiah Peters were dead; but the quick eye of 
the Lieutenant liad caught sight of the Indians, and he killed, 
before he received his death wound, the only Indian that fell 
during this great war. 


With their dead comrade buried, howling and yelling, with the 
scalps, and two prisoners, this brave wild war party of forty 
Arosagiinticooks returned to Canada. 

In the language of one of the first historians of the times, this 
campaign produced ''dire consternation throughout all the province. 
New Hampshire armed herself in her might." She was deter- 
mined to defend herself. In the way she did it, she won an imper- 
ishable glory. Forts and block houses sprung up all along the 
frontier, a garrison was placed in each, and at the head of Little 
Bay, in the present tOAvn of Sanbornton, Fort Atkinson was built 
of rough stone, and strongly manned. If the Indians had only 
attacked one of these, there is no doubt but that a most gallant 
defence would have been made. But that was not the Indians' 
stjie; they did not care a rush for forts, blockhouses, or garrisons. 

In the spring of 17-i7, they opened another brilliant campaign, 
the eighth. On the moi*ning of May 10th, they fell upon two men 
at Suncook ; one they killed and scalped, the other escaped. At 
uight they fired upon four others, but, much to their chagrin, 
missed them. By this time the settlers had all got suugly inside 
the garrison house, and the Indians not believing anything was to 
be made by attacking it, very quietly decamped. A few days 
afterwards scouts pursued them, as usual, and witli the usual 

Campaign the ninth was disasti'ous to the Indians. They 
appi'oached Pennacook, and this time a scout did actually discover 
them. But they were off like a smoke in a high wind, leaving all 
their vast military train, to wit: things stolen, provision bags, 
ropes for the prisoners, and blankets, in the possession of the 

Campaign the tenth was more successful. August 21st, they 
took the house of Charles McCoy, in Epsom, captured Mrs. McCoy, 
stole all the apples off a single tree that coiuposed their orchard, 
burned the house, and then cleared for Canada by Coos inteiwal 
and Lake Champlain. Away went the English scouts after them, 
witli the same glorious success as ever. 

Campaign eleventh was an attack on Hinsdale. They killed 
several, took a number of prisoners, and achieved a splendid vic- 
tory, without any scout to pursue them. 



Campaign twelfth they grew so heroic, on account of previous 
success, that they even besieged Number Four, and somehow man- 
aged to take several prisoners. 

These were the great campaigns of 1745-6-7. In 1748 there 
was a little skirmishing with the enemy's pickets. Several men 
were frightened, and possibly a few might have been hurt. But 
the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle put an end to the war, and the brave 
Arosagunticooks buried the tomahawk. 

This border war was a source of great suffering to the English, 
as well as mortification. Many of their number had fallen, and 
many were iiining in captivity. The Indians had the advantage in 
the whole contest. But one of their number had been killed, and 
they never had returned to Canada but once without a scalp or a 
captive. The Arosagunticooks knew well where to find the Eng- 
lish. The latter, brave as their painted enemy, looked in vain for 
Indians. Like the Persians advancing on the Hellespont, the In- 
dians were well acquainted with the country they had to pass. 
The English scouting parties, like the Greeks, dare not venture 
across the great wild solitudes of our beloved Pemigewassett land, 
which stretched between themselves and the home of their enemy. 
Captain Baker and Captain John Lovewell had fought the Indians 
valiantly on their own ground, and could Captain Goffe have been 
as successful in finding them he would have fought equally as 
well. But he and the other brave captains had wholly failed of 
meeting them, and consequently could not fight them, and they 
now retired to their farms with about as much glory, and feeling 
about as well, as the noble lion in his lair stung half to death, 
while all his despicable enemies, the wasps, were uninjured. 



A few years now passed, and a deeper shade filled the 
solitudes — the wilds of the Asquamchumauke — or, as modern 
civilians delight to term it, Baker river, once the laud of the Pem- 
igewassett Indians. True it is that down by the grass-grown 
intervals of Coos, where the Connecticut sweeps around the great 
oxbow, then up the Indian trail by the wild, roistering Oliverian 
brook, marauding parties of the French and Indians from St. 
Francis, Canada, occasionally travelled; but when they bad gone 
bJick the solitudes grew grimmer, and every thing would have 
been still as chaos and old night, but for the lowing of the antlered 
moose and the howling of the wolf and panther. 

This land of the Pemigewassetts, which included the little 
territory of Warren, together with the whole upper couutry once 
inhabited by the Coosucks, our solitudes, was now debateable 
ground, claimed both by the English and St. Francis Indians. 
Scouts and captives who had been there said it was a delightful 
region, and the old soldiers of Captain Baker descanted wonder- 
fully upon its being a perfect paradise ; and now that King 
George's war was over, New Hampshire men began to have 
extraordinary desires for obtaining it. Besides, it was a great 
strategic point, worth having if another war should arise ; for the 
meadows of lower Coos had been a sort of a rendezvous for the 
Arosagunticook Indians, from which, in the wars just mentioned, 
thev had sallied forth down cither the Connecticut or Merrimack 


rivers. Consequently the public mind was greatly roused, the 
attention of all was turned towards possessing this upper country, 
in the exact centre of which was our little mountain valley, AVar- 
ren, and a pleasant series of most entertaining adventures was 
carried on for the accomplishment of that jpurpose, as we shall 
endeavor most taithfully to show. 

The first thing that happened, as we have just intimated, was 
an immense amount of talking. Then a petition, numerously 
signed, was presented to the General Assembly of New Hamp- 
shire. It prayed that a road might be surveyed and cut from 
Bakerstown, a settlement that had been pushed far up on the 
frontier, to the Coos intervals, and that two forts might be built, 
one on each side of the Connecticut, for the benefit of settlers and 
the protection of the lower country. The General Assembly was 
deeply interested, and the Governor and Council most favorably 
disposed. They had fretted and fumed through King George's 
war, and now they were ready and willing to do almost anything 
to keep back the dire and savage Arosagunticooks, and increase 
the number of settlements and subjects. 

Numerous plans for settling this upper country, building and 
garrisoning forts, Avere presented. Finally in the winter of 1752, 
the following very nice one was agreed upon : 

A tract of land on Connecticut river was to be laid out into 
five hundred suitable portions. It was then to be granted to five 
hundred brave men. The conditions of the grant were that they 
should pay a small quit-rent and should occupy the lands imme- 

Furthermore, two townships should be laid out, one on each 
side of the river. A regular garrison should be built in each of 
them. The latter should encompass fifteen or more acres of land, 
in a square or parallelogram form. A line should be drawn 
around their area, just as the ancients marked out their cities, 
and on it were to be built log houses, at considerable distances 
ai^art — and a log house was certainly to be erected at each corner. 
The spaces between the houses were to be filled up with a palisade 
of square timbers, making a wall so strong and high that the 
nimble Arosagunticooks should not be nimble enough to leap over 
it, even if they should be foolish enough to make the attempt. 


In the centre of this great square, and upon a rising plat of 
ground, if such could be found, was to be built a strong and im- 
pregnable citadel, such as the Greeks and Persians were in the 
habit of building within their cities. Here should be the granary 
of the colony, and here should be the last refuge of the inhabitants, 
if they should be driven from the outer enclosure. Within hailing 
distance on each bank of the noble river, either fortification was 
to assist the other, in case of an emergency. 

As an addenda to the above brilliant plan, a form of govern- 
ment was prescribed. Courts were to be established, and justice 
and equity were to be administered in all civil causes. That 
every thing might go smoothly, and that there might not be the 
least possible chance for jar or discord, the governor-general of 
these already renowned fortresses was to have the power to pro- 
claim martial law at any time, and to i)ut everj- inhabitant under 
strict military discipline. The above plan having been matured 
and decided upon, a committee was immediately chosen to carry 
it into effect. This committee was composed of resolute and ener- 
getic men. They quickly made all necessary arrangments. Part- 
ings were hastily taken with kind friends and families, for it was 
a hazardous enterprise upon which they were entering, and each 
hurried to the rendezvous at Bakerstown, from which place they 
were to make the desperate attempt to penetrate the dark soli- 
tudes of the to them hitherto unexplored north. 

It was a bright day when they set out. Old Winter had just 
taken up his march to the double-quick-time tune of " The hot 
sun's a coming," and all nature was bursting into life. On the 
trees the young leaves were expanding, and the little wild-flowers 
springing up among the gnarled roots lent a delicious fragi"ance to 
the air. The birds carolled in the branches, making merry music 
to cheer the woodsmen, or rather the committee-men, as they 
pushed their canoes up the Merrimack, toted. them round the falls 
of the Pemigewassett, and with setting poles drove them up the 
"rips" of the Asquamchumauke. 

Suflace it to say, that they must have left them in the shoal 
head waters of the stream and then toiled slowly through the 
woods by the old Indian trail across our valley to the Connecticut. 

Here they rested themselves, as men naturally would, looked 


ovei" the land on the eastern bank of the broad streamy and then, 
crossing to the western shore, ascended the rocky bluff to obtain 
a better view of the country. Although rough woodsmen, they 
could not have been insensible to the magnificence of the scene. 
At their feet the Connecticut wound like a band of silver through 
a seeming garden. Noble elms grew upon the river banks. Be- 
neath their shade the wild deer sported and with their mottled 
fawns beside them cropped the luxuriant herbage. A mighty 
forest just clothing itself in young verdure covered the lesser hills 
of New Hampshire, while far in the distance the great peaks of 
the Haystacks shot up into the transparent ether. To the south, 
the long, swelling summit of Moosilauke, still flecked with snow- 
fields, lay mirroring itself in the blue heaven. They also noted 
where the streams came down from the highlands and entered the 
river; where lay the broadest and richest intervals, and where the 
rising plats of ground afforded the best sites for their forts. 

Descending from the eminence that commanded such an en- 
chanting scene, and was also so serviceable in showing the natural 
facilities of the country, they selected the places for the forts and 
located the townships. 'This done, and their provisions being 
uearly spent, they hurried back to their canoes and floated rapidly 
down stream through the woods to the settlements. 

They gave so flattering an account of the beaut}^, richness, and 
fertility of the intervals that four hundred men were immediately 
enlisted to settle this paradise of New England. Active prepara- 
tions for the journey to this upper country were commenced, and 
another autumn bid ftxir to have seen two forts gleaming with 
bayonets on the banks of the Connecticut. 

But how illusory are the plans of men. The Indians had 
watched the acts of the committee with a jealous eye. Like men 
of common sense, they judged the loss of their planting grounds 
would be a serious evil. To counteract it and to preserve their 
lands they commenced what Avas to themselves an entertaining 
series of hostilities — but which meant death or captivity for the 
poor whites. We shall now endeavor to show how the migrate rj' 
would-be English colonists were for a time thwarted, and that 
part of our pleasant land of the Pemigewassetts now called War- 
ren hindered from being settled. 



The Indian runner must have been fleet-footed who bore 
the news of the committee's acts at the Coos intervals to the village 
of the St. Francis. Like a shower of toads, an old-fashioned, 
time-out-of-mind war party, under the generalship of Acteon,* 
some say Francis Titagaw, others the young chief, Peer, was hop- 
ping over the logs and stealing through the thickets which lined 
the banks of the Asquamchumauke almost as soon as the commit- 
tee had gone in their canoes down the Merrimack, 

Now it so happened that some of those daring spirits who 
always delight to live upon the frontier, and are never contented 
unless, like their red-skin cousins, they were strolling through the 
woods whether it paid or not, were trapping upon the Asquam- 
chumauke, and along a little black mountain stream in the present 
town of Romuey. They Avere brave fellows every one of them, 
and their names, as is known to all who have read the oft-told 
story, were William and John Stark, David Stinsou, and Amos 

They had come up from their homes at Amoskeag falls, and 
had worked most industriously at trapping. They had sable, 

* Actcon was a Xipnuick Indian, aud niarried a»i Arosagunticook -n-oman. He 
was sometimes called Capt. Moses. He was at one time an associate with Wahowa , 
and was tlie same Indian that in his old age sometimes made his home with Colonel 
Obadiah Clement. 

Peer was a young chief. 


marten, mink, and beaver traps, set on three long ranges or 
"lines," one up Stinson brook to the head waters of the Pemige- 
wassett, another up the "South Branch'' to the water shed of 
the Mascoma, and a third far up the Asquamchumauke to Moosil- 
auke mountain. Thej' liad been very successful in their avocation, 
and had gathered furs amounting to more than five hundred aud 
sixty pounds in value.* But the long days had come; corn-fields 
and potato-patches must be improved, and so they made ready to 
return. Another circumstance that quickened their departure was 
the discovery of fresh, moccasined footprints on the Indian trail. 

All day long they had worked diligently in gathering their 
traps, and on the morrow they were to break up their camp. It 
was nearly evening. The long shadows began to steal across the 
water, and the last rays of the setting sun were streaming full 
upon the face of craggy Rattlesnake mountain, when John Stai-k, 
who was stooping to take a steel trap from the water, was startled 
by a sharp hiss. Jumping up he saw the Indians, and the muzzles 
of half a dozen muskets, staring at him within three feet of his 
head, told him that escape was hopeless. 

That nigjit he lay bound among his captors, aud in the morn- 
ing was early roused to proceed down the I'iver, where they were 
to lay in ambush for the rest of the hunters. The latter had 
guessed the cause of Stark's absence, and at the earliest dawn 
packed their furs, traps, and camp equipage into their canoe and 
started. Eastman was upon the shore, while William Stark and 
Stinson guided the frail craft as it floated down in the rapid cur- 
rent. The Indians easily captured the former, and then bid Stark 
hail those in the canoe, and invite them to come on shore. Stark 
complied so far as to tell them to pull to the opposite bank and 
then run for their lives, as the Indians had got him and would 
have them too unless they were quick in getting away. 

Curses and blows fell thick upon the head of the dutiful but 
unfrightened hunter, and then the Indians leveled their muskets 
to fire upon the retreating men. "Not yet, my friends," said the 
belaboi'ed Stark, as he struck up their guns at the moment of dis- 
charge. For this he got anotlier shower of kicks and cufl's, and 
when a second time they attempted to fire he again endeavored to 

* Potter's Hist, of Manchester, 277. 


stop them, but not so successfully as befoi'C. Stinson was killed 
in the act of leaping upon the shore, and fell backward, his blood 
staining- the clear water. The paddle in the hand of William 
Stark was shivered with bullets, but leaping from the canoe like a 
deei- he took to the woods and escaped.* 

The Indians in their usually polite and gentlemanly manner 
now wished for a slight memorial of young Stinson to take to St. 
Francis. They crossed the stream, dragged his body ashore, dex- 
terously took off his scalp, and after giving John Stark a sound 
beating for his daring interference, told the two captives to take 
u\) what was to them a not very agreeable march to the happy land 
of Canada. 

The first night they camped on the Coos intervals, close by 
the Connecticut. As he lay bound between two of his captors 
John Stark could hear the murmuring of the river and see its dark 
waters gleaming in the moonlight, as the full orb rose slowly up 
over the bow-backed sumjaiit of Moosilauke mountain. 

It was a long march up the Connecticut, across the highlands, 
and down the sluggish St. Francis river to the St. Lawrence. 
Meanwhile the Indians determined that the captives shoiild run 
the gauntlet when they reached the village, and so to beguile the 
waj" they taught Eastman and Stark a sentence in Indian, which 
they should recite during that interesting ceremony, the tenor ol 
which Avas: " III beat all your young menP'' 

On their arrival two long lines of warriors were formed, and 
between them the captives were to run. Each warrior had a club, 
with the right to beat the prisoner as much as he chose as he passed 
along. To each of the runners the Indians gave a pole about six 
feet in length upon the end of which was stretched the skin of 
some animal. Upon Stark's was a loon skin. Eastman's turn 
came first. "When the young Indians heard him cry out, "I'll 
beat all your young men ! " they cudgelled him most unmercifully, 
and he came out of the lines more dead than alive. But young 
Stark was made of different mettle. He marched up to the start- 

. a 

*When the news of the capture of Eastman anrl Stark reached Rnmford, a 
party was raised, who proceede<l to Baker river, found and buried the body of 
Stinson in the woods, and brought home one of tlie paddles of tlie canoe, wliich 
was luerced vpith several shot holes. It was possessed a long time bj- the Virgin 

.Jacob Hoyt, Esq., says that in this party were Phineas Vii-gin, Joseph Eastman 
(called deacon), and Moses Eastman.— Hist, of Coucoi-d, 193. 


ing point with firm step, astonished the braves with the cry, "i'ZZ 
kiss all your yoking toomen!-^ and then bounded into the lines. 
He knocl^ed down the first Indian he met, and continued to lay 
about him with so much vigor that the astonished natives sufiered 
him to pass through with scarcely a blow. 

The old men were pleased at the consternation of their young 
warriors, and so greatly admired the bravery of Stark that they 
wished to adopt him as their chief. But the hero of Bennington 
had no notion of passing his life in the wilds of Canada, and 
plainly told them so. Afterwards they bid him hoe corn. He 
complied so far as to cut it up by the roots and then throw his hoe 
into the river, declaring that such work was fit only for squaws. 
This only heightened their admiration for him, and they did not 
ask him to do any more work. 

Late in the autumn Captain Stevens, of Number Four, and 
Mr. Wheelwright, of Boston, went to St. Francis to redeem the 
prisoners. For Eastman they paid a ransom of sixty dollars, for 
Stark one hundred and three dollars, showing how much higher 
they prized the courage of the latter above the timidity of the 

They returned liome by Lake Champlain and Number Four — 
Eastman to lead the life of an industrious farmer, Stark to plan 
and execute new hunting or trapping excursions, to procure means 
to pay his ransom, or to serve as guide through the wilderness 
he had explored, all of which disciplined him for achieving those 
immortal deeds in the old French war and the Eevolution. We 
hear of him the next summer down in the wilds of Maine, trap- 
ping on the Androscoggin ; but previous to this he was pilot for a 
large party which made one more attempt to explore the noi'th 
country, that historical land containing our mountain hamlet — 


MENT IT caused; together with a grand RESULT BEFORE 

The capture of the hunters and the murder of Stinson in 
the Pemigewassett country caused the New Hampshire people 
considerable alarm, and communicated in fact a little palpitation 
of the heart to the Governor himself. But, like any other nine 
days' wonder, it soon died away. Yet quiet only reigned for a 
moment, and then the excitement commenced again. 

There were two big, burly savages, who sometimes resided at 
St. Francis, but more often on the head waters of the Merrimack. 
Their names Avere Sabatis and Christo. Like most of the Indians 
of that degenerate Indian time they would get drunk, and then 
would boast of their wicked deeds done in the wars. They were 
a source of terror to the women and children, and many a time it 
was whispered at night when the family was gathered around the 
huge old-fashioned fire-place, where the burning logs were glow- 
ing, how these men, stealing from the northern solitudes, had 
buried their tomahawks in the settlers' heads ; and how Sabatis, 
sleeping on the hearth as he was wont, would start and groan and 
scream, as he said his victims did. Yet the settlers treated them 
kindly, and for some time they shared the hospitality of two men, 
Miles and Lindsey. 

Now it chanced that two negroes were living in Canterbury, 
the property of said Miles and Lindsey, and our red-skins, not 
having the fear of the law before their eyes, and never having 


heard the teachings of certain abolitionists who lived at a later 
day — how wicked it was to hold black chattels in bondage — at 
once experienced a strong desire to aiDpropriate said chattels to 
their own use. Accordingly, like other nien-stealers, they imme- 
diately began to form plans to "captivate" the negroes. 

It was a bright summer morning. Men were repairing to the 
fields, and the two would-be kidnappers started for a stroll in 
the woods. They met the negroes, asked them to show a path 
that led to a certain locality, and the darkies, good honest souls, 
complied. When they were a considerable distance in the forest, 
the Indians seized the negroes, bound their hands, fettered their 
little heels, and then, instead of taking them down south, like 
kidnappers of a later day, they engineered the first underground 
railroad, and started their chattels towards Canada. 

But one night, when they were far on the road, one of the 
negroes managed to unfetter himself, and in terse Indian nomen- 
clature, "him I'un fast," and escaped to his "ole massa" again. 

But the other negro was not so fortunate. His Indian captoi's 
waded him across the "river of pines," the dark flowing Connec- 
ticut, feasted his keen ideality on the wild beauties of the rolling 
Green mountains, and delighted his vision with the sight of the 
sparkling Lake Champlain. Suffice it to say, the kidnapped dar- 
key saw the frowning battlements of Crown Point, where his 
humane captors sold him to a French officer. Whether he was 
redeemed or not is too insignificant a matter for this history to 

But one great result grew out of these Indian depredations. 
Petitions were again circulated, signatures procured, and when 
the great and dignified Assembly of New Hampshire — character- 
ized then as now more by its size and numbers than by its ability 
— met, it was memorialized. The petitioners humbly prayed that 
a road might be mai-ked, cut, and made, fi-om the settlements on 
the Merrimack, through the Pemigewassett land to the Coos 
meadows. Then the forts would surely be built. Then bristling 
bayonets, gleaming over the bright waters of the Indian garden- 
land, would keep those self-same Indians who pretended to own 
the aforesaid garden — yearly planted with pumpkins, corn, and 
beans — from committing their depredations upon innocent, brave 


hunters, sable trappers, and white squatters, who of right roamed 
upon the frontier. In other words there should be a guard at the 
Coos meadows, who, ever vigilant, should make the settlers feel 
more secure in their new homes. 

They never dreamed that the Indians could leave the Connec- 
ticut higher up, and come down through the notch by the Hay- 
stacks, "Where they could learn one lesson of stern grandeur from 
the Old Man of the Mountain ; or that they could go round by the 
green hills of the west and, crossing the Connecticut below, reach 
the Asquarachumauke by Baker ponds. There were 210 such con- 
tingencies about it in their minds ; the forts once built, they 
were safe. 

But New Hampshire then, as now, was poor. It would be 
great expense to cut the road and maintain the forts. But after 
considering the matter for a long time, it was determined that so 
weighty a petition could not be disregarded ; that the interests of 
the State demanded immediate action; and so they voted to 
assume the expense of cutting and making the road, and appointed 
a committee to survey and mark the same. That committee con- 
sisted of Zacheus Lovewell, of Dunstable, a relative of that 
Captain Lovewell who fought Paugus; John Tolford, of Chester, 
and Caleb Page, of Starkstown ; and they hired John Stark to 
assist them. The Assembly sat in the winter of 1752-3, and in the 
spring following the committee commenced the work — looking 
toward the beloved land of this history. 



The committee were uo laggards. The General Assembly 
of New Hampshire made a wise choice. They immediately ren- 
dezvoused at Amoskeag falls, the place where John Stark lived, 
aud where daring spirits like Waternomee, Kancamagns, and 
Passaconaway congregated in times long ago. Philosophers say 
that associations form human character. Tell, amid his native 
mountains, was brave and daring ; the inhabitant of India is cow- 
ardly and efleminate. Consequently, the great rocky barrier at 
Amoskeag, the white, foaming water, ever roaring, the northern 
granite mountains — all conspired to make such men as John 
Stark and his friends. 

The committee hired sixteen men, and Stark was to pilot 
them through the Pemigewassett country to the Coos intervals. 
Kobert Kogers, the most daring ranger of the old French war. 
was one of the number. 

It was March 10th, 1753, when the surveying party left Amos- 
keag. The river was yet frozen over. Each man had a pair of 
snow-shoes on his feet. His blanket, twenty-five days' provision, 
and his cooking utensils, were strapped to his back. Half the 
party had guns. Almost all had axes or hatchets, and Caleb Page 
carried a compass and other materials suitable for making a plan 
of the survey. 


Thus equipped they proceeded up the river on the ice as far 
as Bakerstowu, now Franklin, N. H. They stopped one night at 
the most northern settler's hut, and rested tlieir weary limbs ou 
the floor by the blazing hearth. On the bright ensuing morn, 
when the sun gleamed on the myriad diamond points of the frozen 
snow, and the red-crested woodpecker drummed a merry tune on 
the' hollow beech-tree, they struck into the woods. Their route 
was now up the west bank of the Merrimack. A part of the com- 
pany would perform the day's march in the forenoon, construct 
the camp, cut the wood for the night fire, prepare and cook the 
provisions, and make everything as comfortable as possible for the 
tired road choppers and surveyors. At different points on the 
route they left a portion of their supplies, to be used on their 
return. The snow was four feet deep; yet they imshed on with- 
out faltering. Not a man lagged behind. One day, in what is 
now our good town of Wentworth, they started a moose. The 
whistling balls of half a dozen rifles, in sailors' phrase, "brought 
him to," and at evening, when night's shadows were creeping 
through the forest, the gleaming knives of nineteen hardy border- 
ers flashed before the campfire, as they carved out the choicest 
morsels and over them cracked their merry jokes. In fifteen days 
they had blazed a pathway through the wilderness, and were en- 
camped ou the intervals at Coos. 

They occupied six days in returning, and when they disbanded 
at Amoskeag on the 31st day of March, the great province of New 
Hampshire, with Benning AVentworth for Governor, was indebted 
to this indomitable surveying party in the sum of 684?. ds. old 
tenor. Caleb Page got 221, extra for surveying, and John Stark 
more pay than his fellows, for additional work and services as 

But our mighty Arosagunticook, or St. Francis tribe of red- 
skins, heard of the act of the General Assembly of New Hamp- 
shire almost as soon as it was passed. Although they had no gov- 
ernor, they had a chief; if they had no legislature, they could sit 
smoking around the council-fire, and debate matters concerning 
their rude nation of eighteen hundred souls, in a manner more 
dignified and grave than even the Eoman Senate ; if they had no 
money to pay the expense of an expedition to the English settle- 


ments, still, their resolve once determined upon, they could find 
daring, painted, tufted-headed desperadoes enough, to whom 
the pleasureable prospect — the excitement of bxirning buildings, 
groaning victims, sighing captives, and dangling scalp-locks — 
would be a sufficient inducement to undertake such enterprise. 

With a little prompting from the French the war-council 
decided upon war. But, be it said to their credit, they had learned 
one principle of christian civilized warfare mentioned in the books 
that ti-eat of the laws of nations. That was, before open hostili- 
ties were commenced in the usual ambuscade fashion, they deter- 
mined to notify the enemy. Accordingly in the winter of the 
passage of the act, even before our noted committee with its hardy 
surveying party had performed its labors, six Indians, (for In- 
dians in those days were as hardy as white men ) braved the chill 
winds of 'Magog lake, rustled the snow from the evergreen firs of 
the swamps, and with a flag of truce suddenly appeared at the 
fort in Number Four, now Charleston, N. H. 

Captain Stevens, the commander received them in true military 
style, even as did Cyrus the younger the Queen of Silesia, only not 
quite so aflectionately perhaps ; or the great Hannibal, Scipio ; or 
Bonaparte, Lord Wellington. They fared sumptuously upon the 
good viands Avithin the log fort, dined upon hearty moose-beef and 
supped upon corn-cakes, washed down with sundry mugs of flip, 
made hissing-hot with the old-fashioned loggerhead, which was 
always kept at a white heat. 

On the day following their arrival they stated their message. 
Their orator, drawing himself up full height, asserted their title 
to the corn patches and pumpkin fields at the long river of pines, 
which runs through the meadows, under the shadow of the snow}'^ 
mountain, Moosilauke. " Our fathers,''^ said he, ^^ gave it to us. 
We have never sold it, never bargained it for the deadly fire- 
water. Why do you trespass upon it? Why lorongfally seek to 
drive us from oicr inheritance'/ Already have your aryned men 
visited it. Already have forts been staked out upon it. We say 
now, desist! Let not the English come to Cowass. If they flo — 
sure as the heavens above the mountain j^eaks shall blush in the 
rosy morning, you shall have war, and it shall be a strong war! 
Like a icolf on your flocks tvewill rush on your wives and child- 


ren; like a hurricane uprooting the forest, we will pluck you 
from the soil!" 

This message delivered, the Indians, jolly roisterers, managed 
to dispose of sundry other mugs of flip, heated in the before-men- 
tioned manner, cut numberless antics and capers around the rude 
fort, and then whooping a wild applause after their own peculiar 
st}ie, all of which signitied that they liked good rtim, took tReir 
departure for the St. Lawrence. 

Captain Stevens bolted and barred his fortress and posted a 
stronger guard that night, and the next day, finding that all was 
quiet, sent off a dispatch to Governor Shirley, of Massachusetts, 
informing him of the remonstrance and declaration on the part of 
the Arosagunticooks. 

The honorable governor heard the message with astonish- 
ment. Kather than the '' tufted-headed salvages," should rush 
down upon the frontier settlers, as the wild clansmen of Scotland 
did upon merrie England, or as theNipmucks who lived with their 
dear French friends had been accustomed to do for the past hun- 
dred years, the governor thought they had better be allowed to 
retain the garden-patch at ''Cowas." 

With great haste he sent a messenger to Governor Wentworth 
with the news, who, after considering it for some time with his 
council, came to the sage conclusion that whereas it was going to 
cost a large sum of money to make the road, and also as it was 
going to make the dire and dreadful "salvages" exceedingly 
wroth, and furthermore as there was a great prospect that a terri- 
ble war Avould shortly break out between France and England, 
they concluded to abandon the very plan that, in any event, was 
so necessai'y for their protection. 

Thus the two forts were not built, the four hundred men never 
went to Coos, the bayonets never gleamed over the still water, and 
the tramp of the soldier-guard was never heard. The happy land 
of "Warren also bid fair to have grown greener in her mountain 
solitudes, the white man's footstep to have awoke no echo, his 
cattle to have browsed in no valley, the bleat of his flocks to have 
enlivened no liillside for the next half-century, had not an addi- 
tional train of circumstances, which we shall mention in our next 
chapter, just now commenced. 




EvEKY mail admires courage. Marshal Ney, "the brav- 
est of the brave," was the envy of the world; but even his daring 
feats have many a time been equalled. Unfortunatel)', the heroes 
acting on a more obscure stage, unlike the ftivored French, had no 
historians, and are consequently forgotten. We do not pretend 
that every savage is a hero ; but many an early pioneer of New 
England can attest to deeds of fortitude and bravery that can 
scarcely find a i^arallel. King Philip, ci%dlized, would have stood 
beside a Hannibal or an Alexander. Even our friend Sabatis, who 
stole the negroes, furnishes us with a notable instance of physical 
daring and moral heroism, or as a latter-day Yankee would express 
it, of cheek, of brass, of impudence, truly astounding. 

That kidnapper, that " brave," who wheedled away the poor 
" darkies," the great and distinguished Sabatis, accompanied this 
time by a new friend — Plausawa by name — without even a blush 
on his red face, but with an assuming air, dared to walk into the 
highly peaceable and prosperous settlement of Canterbury, the 
very next June after stealing the negroes. Hunters and trappers, 
farmers, men from the woods, and men black from the " burnt- 
piece," with their wives and innocent children, were alike aston- 
ished. When they had somewhat recovered from their surprise, 
they upbraided Sabatis with his treachery. 


With a haughty air he said, "Me not to blame; St. Francis 
Indians no make treaty with the English. No harm to steal nig- 
gers ; white men steal niggers in Africa ! Eed men same right to 
steal niggers in 'Merica.-' . 

This was an irrefragible argument, equal to that learned from 
the great Socrates by one Strepsiades, and the white settlers would 
willingly have allowed him to be a keen logician if they could 
only have had the pleasure of seeing him cantering fast away from 

But Sabatis would not go. He put on airs. Like other men 
who think they have performed great feats, he became insolent in 
his conduct, boasted in bragadocia style of what he had done, 
threatened to butcher the inhabitants, flourished a glittering knife, 
and like another Jack Falstaff, brave where was no danger, bran- 
dished his tomahawk over the head of a defenceless woman. 

But worse than this — some keen-eyed settler discovered that 
he carried, secreted about his person, a collar and lines, nice con- 
trivances with which to fetter captives, and then the whole settle- 
ment was alive with the kidnapping aifair again. ''It might do to 
steal negroes," said an old farmer, "but "pon honor it will never 
do to steal white folks." Brag was a game that two could play at, 
and some old soldier-citizens of Canterbury, who had seen service 
at the siege of Louisburg, believed that they themselves would be 
yet good for blows and even bullets. So when Sabatis commenced 
his insolence again, he heard something that he had never heard 
before in that settlement. Gleam of steel shone on steel, and the 
cry of "Blood for blood!" greeted the ears of the tawny brave. 
The frontier hamlet grew too hot for the St. Francis men, and one 
July day they quietly decamped, this time without any prisoners, 
crossed the bright Merrimack in a beautiful birch canoe, and took 
up their residence in Contoocook, now Boscawen. 

But they had not yet learned to be civil ; they were just as 
insolent as ever. Plunder, captives, and scalps were continually 
on their tongues, and the whole settlement soon grew heartily sick- 
of them. They were the guests of two men, Messrs. Morrill and 
Bowen. The first was a farmer, but Peter BoAven Avas a wild bor- 
derer. He knew CA^ery trait of Indian character. A hunter and 
trapper, he had passed half his life in the woods. He was Avell 


acquainted with the two Indians and their misdeeds, and knew 
that they were hated by eveiy settler. For years it was reported 
how Bo wen fought them in self-defence — but this was an idle tale 
got up for effect. Bowen reasoned in this wise : "The Indians 
have murdered a great many white men. They say they will 
murder more. Only last year they stole the negroes. At any 
moment my neighbor or myself is liable to be killed. Now to 
protect them and my family, and to get a rich lot of furs — for the 
Indians in question have two hundred pounds worth — I will put 
the pestilent serpents out of the way. Every one will justify the 
deed, and I shall be the gainer." 

So when Sabatis and Plausawa were about to leave the settle- 
ment, Bowen invited them to have a treat at his house. Both 
Indians got drunk, and Bowen drew the charges from their guns. 
TJien, when they departed, they went into the woods towards the 
Merrimack. The Indians got separated some distance apart and 
then Bowen attacked Sabatis. The drunken brave snapped his 
gun at him, but Bowen sank a hatchet to the helve in his brain, 
cut him with it several times in the back, and plunged a hunting- 
knife into his heart. Plausawa coming up begged for liis life. 
Bowen answered not a word, but killed him on the spot.* 

That night he left them by the path-side. The gibbous moon 
looked through the trees upon their upturned, ghastly faces. The 
wolf howled on the mountain as he scented their blood afar, and 
the solemn owl hooted in harsh, discordant notes — nature's 
requiem over wild spirits departed, whose earthly delight had 
been human butchery. 

On the morrow BoAven returned with his son, scooped a shal- 
low hole and threw the bodies in, slightly covering them with 
earth and leaves. But Avild animals and dogs dug them up, and 
for years afterwards their white bones bleached by the road side 
in the woods. 

Indian hunters, who had come to the settlements to traffic, 
heard of the murder of the two Indians, and bore the news to the 
St. Francis. 

The New Hampshire authorities also heard the story. As in 
duty bound, the government officials clapped a legal hand upon 

* Potter's Hist, of Manchester, 281. 


Morrill and Bo wen. Like Paul and Silas they were borne away 
to prison, yet for a very unlike cause. They were incarcerated 
within the walls of the old jail at Portsmouth. That they might 
not attempt the role of Jack Shepard, their limbs were placed in 
iron manacles. They were indicted for murder, and were to have 
their trial March 21st, 1754. 

Telegraphic operators sometimes send messages without the 
aid of a battery. The air, overcharged with electricity, produces 
an almost magical effect upon the wires, and with hardly an effort 
the thoughts of the operator leap thousands of miles away. Al- 
tliough there was no telegraph at that time, still a subtle and mys- 
terious agency, almost as wonderful, seemed to be at work. It 
pervaded every settlement. An almost unexplainable attraction 
seemed to impel men, and on the cold night of March 20th, as the 
story is told, hundreds were threading their way through the dark 
and the storm. Down by Dover Neck, along by Squamscott's 
snowy banks they came, and up by the ocean shore, where the 
waves were " roaring on the rocks." 

At midnight scores of dark forms crouched under the walls 
of the jail, and then simultaneously rushed at the gate, broke it 
in, knocked the irons from the limbs of Morrill and Bowen, and 
set them free. In the morning a thrill of excitement ran through 
the community. Law-abiding citizens demanded their recapture; 
but the larger number rejoiced at their escape. The two men were 
generally justified. The best men in New Hampshire had aided 
them. Governor Wentworth offered a reward for their recapture, 
but no man troubled himself to apprehend them. In a short time 
they went wholly at large, and an arrest could not easily have 
been made. If it had been, as in the case of James the Second, 
every body would have been displeased with the captors, and 
would have given the Indian killers a chance to run away again as 
fast as they were able. 

But something must be done to appease the Indians, who were 
not so readily satisfied. New Hampshire therefore sent presents 
to the relatives of Sabatis and Plausawa, and with them the blood 
was wiped out — but not so with the St. Francis people. They 
were enraged; they muttered threats of vengeance. The retalia- 
ting blow was planned, and " like a thunderbolt it fell on the 


infant settlement, but a kind Providence pai'tly averted its eflfects." 
It -was May 11th, 1754, one of the brightest days of spring. 
A party of thirty Indians, every one of them painted lili;e a circus 
clo-u'n, and with scalp-locks dancing in the wind, had come down 
from Canada. Nathaniel Meloou and William Emery, who lived 
in Stevenstown, now a part of Franklin, discovered them the night 
before. Emery was a wide-awake man, and he immediately took 
his family to a garrison-house near by. But Meloon was dilatory, 
and like the Mr. Slow mentioned in Mother GooSB's melodies, was 
given to procrastination. His family were all at home in uncon- 
scious innocence, except one son, Xathaniel, Jr., who was at work 
in a field near by. They were taking a hearty breakfast of bean 
porridge, when they were startled by the wild whoop of the 
Indians, who had captured the elder and slow Meloon, as he was 
returning from the garrison. 

The capture of the fi^mily was also but the work of a moment, 
and then the painted demons, to speak in the respectful language 
of earlier historians, brandished their tomahawks and flourished 
their scalping-knives, as they proceeded to rip open feather-beds, 
for the sake of the ticks, and to steal all the clothing and provis- 
ion they could lay their hands upon. 

In a wonderfully short time they sei-ved Emery's house in the 
same manner and then, before the sun was very high, were all on 
their way to Canada. 

Meloon, junior, who had seen the Indians approach, fled five 
miles as fast as his legs could carry him, to Contoocook, raised 
eight men, and hurried back to the rescue. But he was too late. 
Father, mother, sisters, brother, had been gone for hours.* 

The people of Stevenstown and Contoocook were terribly 
aroused by the Indian depredations. It was necessary to do some- 
thing, and so Stephen Gerrish was dispatched to Portsmouth. On 
the 17th of May — quick time in those days of tote-roads and 
bridle-paths — he laid a petition before the Governor and Council, 
signed by all the inhabitants, praying for assistance. 

"Oh I how we wish the forts at Coos intervals had been 
built," said one; ''And the four hundred stout men with mus- 

* Meloon and his family, ■with the exception of one child, Sarah, who died in 
Canada, aU got safe home about four vears afterwards, having exijerienced numer- 
ous hardships and many strange adveutiu-es.— Potter's Hist, of 3Ianchester, 283. 


kets," added auother; ''Then our settlers would have been 
secure," said all. But it was of no use to wish that. The next 
best thiug, however, could be done. What that was it took a long 
time to determine. But finally, with great wisdom and foresight 
on the part of His Excellency the Governor, and his council, it was 
ordered that twenty mounted men — good cavalry soldiers — should 
be sent to the woods of Contoocook and Stevenstowu, riding 
through underbrush and over windfalls, across marshes, bogs, and 
fens, with what efiectiveness must be very plain to every one 
familiar with the north woods of Xew Hampshire. 



The wild moss-troopers — brave cavalry soldiers as they 
were — scouted valiantly iu the shaggy woods of Coiitoocook and 
Stevenstown. For a month they galloped up hill and for a month 
they galloped down. Not a red-skin was discovered, for with 
their prisoners and plunder they had all gone to Canada. Yet we 
would not detract a particle from the merit of the brave English 
scouts. Captain John Webster was leader, and a bold man was 
he. James Proctor was lieutenant and Christopher Gould was 
clerk. But their month's term of duty soon expired and they 
returned home, having done good service iu beating the bush 
without catching the bird. 

But the high fuuctionaries of the royal province of New 
Hampshire, so loyal to George the Third — for the reader must 
recollect that our wortliy ancestry once lived under a king — 
were not satisfied with the results of the expedition. They had 
been frightened out of the plan of building strong fortresses at 
Coos, and now they believed it necessary to hold that territory 
with companies of scouts and rangers. So another expedition 
was immediately planned, and Captain Peter Powers, of Hollis, 
N. H., was put in command. James Stevens was his lieutenant, 
and Ephraim Hale, ensign. Both these latter were from Town- 
send, Massachusetts. 

And here, by the way, we must acknowledge our obligations 
to the first historian of Coos, the Rev. Grant Powers, in most 


respects truthful, yet not without family pride. This is plainly 
exhibited when he tries to exalt Captain Peter, his grandfather or 
great-uncle — no matter which — into a distinguished traveller, like 
Marco Polo of former times, or a Humboldt of later days ; or into 
a great military hero and explorer, like John Charles Fremont, 
who rode a woolly horse over a mountain 18,000 feet high ! But 
we honor the historian for wringing from oblivion so many im- 
portant facts of history that would soon have been lost forever. 

Captain Powers was an active man. His company immedi- 
ately rendezvoused at Rumford, formerly Pennacook, now Con- 
cord, N. H. It was June 14th, 1754, when the last man of the 
party arrived there. On Saturday, the loth, thej^ proceeded to 
Contoocook, where they tarried over the Sabbath and went to 
meeting, as good Christians should. 

Let us now pause here for a moment. It is no holiday excur- 
sion upon which these stout hearts are entering. No one of all 
the gallant heroes who had formerly headed expeditions against 
the bloodthirsty Arosagunticooks, had ever penetrated much far- 
ther north than the AYhite mountains ; but now Captain Powers 
was going to eclipse all the historic deeds of pi'evious brave Indian 
fighters, to plunge further into the wilderness, and perform deeds 
of glory that should render him immortal. 

We have said they were all ready for a brave dash into the 
northern wilderness, and so on Monday morning, the 17th, at the 
fii'st dawn, they put their baggage into their^canoes. By nine 
o'clock A. M., a part on the shore, a part in their light barks, they 
were hurrying up the Merrimack. The painted salvages were in 
the upper country, and Captain Powers' men were eager for the 
fray. They passed the forks, or " crotch" of the river, where the 
*' dark Aquadocta" mingles with the bright Pemigewassett, pushed 
up the latter stream, toted their baggage and canoes round the 
falls and camped the first night at the head of ''the hundred rod 
carrying place." 

Beautiful weather greeted them in the morning, and they shot 
rapidly up the winding stream, shut in by green woods. The 
winds i^iped in the foliage, and the wood-thrush mingled his 
sweetest melody with the roar of Sawheganet falls. Here they 
saw great fat salmon shooting up the rushing waters. They 


looked into the dark opening from "wlieuee came Squam river, 
flowing- from the most beautiful New England lake : gazed with 
delight on the broad intervals of Plymouth, and saw in the dis- 
tance the sharp Haystacks, yet white with winter's snow.* 

They turned up the Asquamchumauke, otherwise called Baker 
river, which came down from the west, and paddled their light 
canoes rapidly along its crooked and sluggish course. The fourth 
day, the setting sui\ half an hour high, saw them camped at the 
foot of Rattlesnake mountain, f the most bold and precipitous peak 
in the valley, and its towering clifts echoed to the report of their 
muskets, as they shot a moose for their supper. They left their 
canoes in the shoal head water of the river, thought they would 
try the west route to the Connecticut, and that night thej^ camped 
between the two Baker ponds in the present town of Orford. 

Storms of "haile" and ''heavy showers of raine'' kept them 
here for two days. This detention very much tried the j)atience 
of the Captain and his trusty scouts. They were eager to cope 
with the brave salvages, whom they expected to find at the head 
of the long river tow^-rds which they wei'e hastening. 

But Captain Powers managed to while away the time, watch- 

*" Wednesday, June Wth, 1654.— We marched on our journey, and carried across 
the long carrying place on Pemigewassett river, two miles north-east, which land 
hath a good soil, beech and maple, Mith a good quantity of large masts. From the 
place where we put in the canoes we steered east, noitli-east, up the river about 
one mile, and tlieu we steered north-east one mile, and north six miles, up to 
Sawheganet Falls, where we carried by aboxTt four rods; and from the falls we 
steered about nortli-east to Pemigewasset interval, two miles, and from the beginning 
of the interval we made good our course north I'our miles, and there camiied on a 
narrow point of land. The last four miles of the river was extremely crooked." 

" Tliursday, June 20th. — \ye steered our course one turn with another, which 
were great turns, west north-west, about two miles and a half, to the crotcli, or 
parting of the Pemigewasset river at Baker river mouth, thence from the mouth of 
Baker river, up said river, uortli-west six miles. This river is extraordinarily 
crooked, and good interval. Thence up the river about two miles, northwest, and 
there we shot a moose, the sun about a half an hour high, and there camped." 

[This must have been in the to'ivn of Romney.] 

" Friday, June'llst. — We steered up the said Bakerriver with our canoes about 
five miles, as the river ran, which was extraordinarily crooked. In the after jiart of 
this day there was a great shower of ' haile and raine,' which prevented our pro- 
ceeding further and here we camped : and here we left our cauoes, for the water in 
the river was so shoal that we could not go with them any further." 

"Saturday, June, •22rf. — This morning was dark and cloudy weather, but after 
ten of the clock, it cleared ofl' hot, and we marched up the river, near the Indian 
can-ying place, from Baker river to Connecticut river, and there camped, and could 
not go any further by reason of a great shower of rain, Mdiich held almost all this 
afternoon." — Capt. Peter Powers' Journal, Hist, of Coos, 18. 

t Powers says the inliabitants of our valley can without doubt fix upon Capt. 
Peter's severareucampments with tolerable" accuracy, and that it must be very 
interesting to mark out the places which were thus occupied by swords and brist- 
ling bayonets in 1754, whilst the whole country around remained an unbroken 
wilderness — History of Coos, 19. 


ing the clouds whirling around the summits of the lofty eastern 
mountains, and writing in his journal of the broad and fertile 
intervals, the beautiful white pine that grew upon them, and how 
*' back from the intreval is a considerable quantity of large moun- 
tains " which he looked upon with much admiration. 

Eeader, think of the forest stretching a hundred miles away, 
unbroken by a siuglfe white man's clearing ; of the bright lakes, 
the silver rivers winding through the woods ; of the wild and 
savage beasts that roamed and howled aud bellowed therein ; of 
the great shaggy mountains, " daunting terrible;'' of the numer- 
ous cruel murders committed on the frontiers by the Indians ; of 
this company of stalwart hearts, camped in storm of " haile and 
raiue and thunder," beside these exceedingly solitary ponds in the 
basin of the great mountains, each man eager with trusty " Queen's 
arm " to hurry further away into the wilderness, to fight what 
were to them veritable " painted, red demons; " perchance to be 
slain, to be scalped, to be devoured by wolves, or to rot in some 
cold swamp — and you have the romance of Captain Powers' 
expedition. Truly one might expect heroic deeds from such brave 

On Tuesday, June 25th, they struck Connecticut river. Pro- 
ceeding up the east bank they crossed the Oliverian, swollen by 
the great rain, and pushed rapidly forward until they came to the 
mouth of the Ammonoosuc. Here they tarried a day, built a 
canoe with which to cross the latter stream, aud there dismissing 
four of the men who were lame, sent them in it down the Connec- 
ticut to ''Number Four." 

From Ammonoosuc river they went tramping through the 
woods northward, over John's river and over Israel's river, to 
the beautiful interval of upper Coos. On this interval the brave 
Captain left his soldiers to mend their shoes, and with two men 
proceeded up the Connecticut " to see what they could discover." 

Five miles on he met with an Indian encampment — a sight 
that gladdened his very eyes — and found where not more than 
two days before they had constructed several canoes. Like every 
other great military hero, he was now eager for the contest; so, 
musing on tins sight for a few moments, he returned to his men. 
They were soon mustered in battle-array. A council of war was 


held. That their shoes were worn out, that their provisions were 
nearly gone, that ther were foot-sore and lame, and that their hail- 
pelted bodies were rheumatic — was all true. But notwithstanding 
this, now was the time, and they determined to make a vigorous 
campaign after the Indians, and if possible to eclipse the renown 
of the bold cavalry troopers in the woods of Stevenstown and 
Contoocook, To do this it was necessary there should be a change 
of base. Strategy must be used, and this should be the great 
plan: They would advance towards home on the double-quick; 
the "painted salvages*' of course would pursue them; the bold 
strategists would then make a deadlv ambuscade, and there shoot 
and capture the whole Arosagunticook army. 

And here some skeptical reader may ask us where we got our 
information. We can only reply, if this was not the "plan," what 
was it? 

But the Indians, obdurate pagans, did not pursue, although 
Captain Powers advanced homeward most gallantly. We are sin- 
cerely sorry they did not, for we are thereby prevented from 
recording a most fierce fight, wherein Captain Peter and his 
men would have won immortal renown, and some hallowed spot 
on " the long river of pines" would have been as celebrated as the 
mouth of Baker river or Lovewell's ]Dond. 

The last we hear of the war-party they are hurrying on 
through the gap of the eastern mountains — the Oliverian* notch — 
to their canoes waiting in the Asquamchumauke. No doubt they 
reached home in safety, for we never heard anything to the con- 
trary, told big stories of their brave exploits to the day of their 
death, relating how they enjoyed themselves killing moose and 
deer, and eating the same,, how they saw the pleasant lauds about 
Moosilauke and the head waters of the Asquamchumauke, and 
how they got well paid in " old teuor" money for these important 

In all probability the Governor thought this expedition would 
aid materially in keeping ofl' the Indians ; indeed, much more than 

* Saturday, July 6. — Marched down the great river to Great Coos, and crossed 
the river below the great turn of clear interval, and there left the great river, and 
steered south by east about three miles and there camped. — Powers' Hist, of Coos, 3J. 

Powers says he knows no more of the homeward march. The journal ceases 
at the point where he lelt the river.— Do. 32. 


the two forts which were to have stood on the Coos intervals, or 
the four hundred arnaed men who were to have held them, or than 
even the two score of moss-troopers at Contoocook and Stevens- 
town. But how great must have been his surprise at the shock- 
ing deeds committed by ihe Arosagunticook braves in a very few 
days after Captain Powers' gallant change of base, as will be 
truthfully set forth in this brief history of Indian wars, in which 
the armies marched and countermarched thi'ough our much loved 
territory of Warren. 



Every child of New England has heard of the old French 
war. It had much to do with the settlement of our mountain 
hamlet, Warren — almost as much as the creation of the world, or 
the discovery of America by Christopher Colon. The narration of 
all its great and important events would be decidedly foreign to 
our purpose, and we prefer to place ourselves immediately in 
meclias res, and only describe those extraordinary occuri'ences 
that served to make the Indian corn-fields and pumpkin patches, 
fishing waters aud hunting grounds under the shadows of bald 
Moosilauke, so Avell-known. 

War was declared in Europe in 1753. A colonial congress 
met at Albany, Xew York, in 1754, to devise means of defence. 
Canada roused the Indians to further hostilities, aud the New 
Hampshire frontier bled again. 

Like a wolf skulking about a sheep-fold, or a thief crawling 
down cliimney at night, thirty brave Indian fellows, armed cap-a- 
pie, guns on their shoulders, scalping-knives in their belts, plumes 
in their tufted scalp-locks waving like the white feather of Murat, 
bright uniforms in the shape of dirty breech-clouts, and moose- 
hide moccasins, came down for open war. 

'Twas the morn of August loth. Jolly Phoebus had just 
cooled his hissing hot asletrecs in the cold currents of the Atlantic, 
aud was driving pell-mell up the eastern sky, when the above- 


mentioned war party boldly marched into a little clearing in 
Stevenstown. A one-story log cabin, with a cow pen and pig- 
sty near by, stood on one side of the small field. Mrs. Call, her 
danghter-iu-law, wife of Philip Call, and an infant of the latter, 
were there. Mr. Call, and yonng Call, and Timothy Cook were 
at work on the other side of the clearing.* 

The braves made directly for the house. Mrs. Call, like a 
Spartan mother or aEoman matron, bravely met them at the door. 
Without a word the foremost Indian with a blow of his toma- 
hawk felled her to the earth, and her warm blood drenched the 
threshhold. lucking her dead body aside they rushed into the 
house. The young woman crept into a hole behind the chimney, 
kept her child quiet, and escaped. 

The father and son, and Timothy Cook, attempted to get into 
the house before the Indians but did not succeed. They heard the 
blow that knocked down Mrs. Call, her scream and death groan, 
and the wild Avar whoop, and then, as the savages rushed towards 
them they tied. Cook, like Horatius Codes, leaped into the river; 
but unlike that Roman swimmer, did not reach the opposite shore. 
The Indians shot him from the bank. Dragging him from the 
water they peeled off his scalp, served Mrs. Call's head in the 
same manner, rifled the house, and then took to the woods. 

The flying Calls notified the garrison at Contoocook, and a 
party of eight immediately went in pursuit. The Indians as yet 
had taken no prisoners, and without these to sell to the French 
the expedition would be unprofitable. So one Indian got beside 
a stump, another under a windfall, a third behind a greenwood 
tree, and whole squads lay down beneath thick clumps of bushes 
or the deep green branches of the fir copse. In other words, they 
made a regular ambuscade. 

But somehow the keen-eyed settlers discovered them at a dis- 
tance, thanks to their good fortune, and ran away as fast as they 
could, with the Indians in full pursuit. But one Enos Bishop, 
who was not very nimble-footed, had the ill luck to be captured. 
The rest of the party escaped. The captured man was then com- 
pelled to go with the enemy, and was that day marched a long- 
way towards the captive's happy land, Canada. 

♦Potter's Hist of Manchester, 291. 


Now it chanced that one Samuel Scribner and one John Bar- 
ker — we won't accuse them of laziness — had left their haying 
and clearing, and were looking after beaver meadows near New- 
found lake. It was a hot afternoon and they were sitting in the 
shade of a wide-spreading maple, by the shore of the bright, spark- 
ling water, when the Indians suddenly came upon them. They 
were so completely taken by surprise that resistance or escape was 
hopeless, and much against tJieir inclination they were compelled 
to leave the crystal sheen, low set among the dark brown hills, 
and grace the captors' train. 

Tradition has it that the war party feared pursuit, and hurried 
rapidly forward by the shortest route.* The second night they 
halted by a little lake called in the Indian tongue, as we have be- 
fore said, Wachipaukajf but by modern civilians, Meader pond. 
They built their camp and kindled their lire on the rocky beach. 
On the opi)osite shore a precipitous peak shot a thousand feet into 
the clear blue sky. During the evening hours the stars glimmered 
on the cool night-air, the full moon shone brightly on the dark 
water, and its rays glinted from the granite moiTutain. At mid- 
night a black cloud spread across the sky, darkness grew grimmer, 
and a thick fog from the Connecticut, that had crept up the gorge 
of the Oliverian, settling dank and heavy on the craggy mountain 
brow, made the night still more black. At this moment John' 
Barker rose silently among the sleeping Indians, glided over them 
like a pale ghost, unbound Bishop, and gently endeavored to wake 
him. Just then a wolf howled on the mountain top, a great owl 
in a lofty hemlock answered back the wild cry, and a sudden gust 
of wind whirled a shower of sparks into the dark shadows of the 
woods. An Indian, dreaming perhaps of the land of shades, was 
startled. He caught sight of the dim form of Barker bending 
over his companions. Leaping to his feet he uttered the war 
whoop. Across the lake the echo-god returned the wald battle- 
shout, and every brave sprang for his musket and his tomaliawk. 
Barker was seized and doubly bound, the other captives were 
made more secure, and thereby a second Mrs. Duston tragedy was 

* The Indians had a route- by the lake, north, and they knew the shortest paths 
as well as tlu' white men. 

Acteon olteu told this story. 

t Wachipauka is from Wadchu, mountain, Sipes, still water, and auke. 


prevented. There was uo more sleep in the Indian camp that 
night, and at the earUest dawn they were threading their way 
down the wild, roaring Oliverian, to the Connecticut. 

In thirteen days they arrived at St. Francis village. Bishop 
and his good friends rejoiced, for they were leg-weary, foot-sore, 
and half-starved. Where Bishop was placed is not told, but Scrib- 
ner was sold to a Frenchman at Chamblay, and the valiant Barker 
to a jolly man of the same race, who lived near the Indian village. 

Enos Bishop practiced with his heels that year, and one night 
ran away, as any other white man wonld have done under similar 
circumstances.* Bnt he had a hard time of it. After toiling for 
eighteen days through the wilderness, suffering intensely from 
fatigue and hunger, he reached Number Foui-, from whence he 
returned to his family at Contoocook. Barker and Scribner were 
shortly after redeemed. 

Precisely in the same manner as when Meloon and his family 
were captured, the inhabitants on the frontier were all terribly 
frightened. Andrew McClary, of Epsom, a descendant of the 
Scotch covenanters, was deputed Mercury. Like the swift son 
of MaijB, with winged feet he flew to Portsmouth and narrated 
to the Honorable Governor and the worthy council the sad deaths 
of Mrs. Call and Timothy Cook, the probable capture of the 
missing men, and the great fight of the renowned eight, who went 
out to see the Indians, while only seven returned, and that every 
family on the frontier, to the number of eight all told, had left 
their fields, corn, hay, flocks, herds, and homes, and had come 
down to the lower towns. 

His Excellency was astounded. The council looked aghast. 
But they proved themselves equal to the great emergency. The 
trumpet was not immediately sounded, but the decree went forth. 

* Extract of a letter from an officer in Chai-leston, otherwise called Number 
Four, in the pi'ovince of New Hamp.shire, dated October 4th, IToO : 

"This day arrived liere one Enoch Byshop, an English captive from Canada, 
who was taken from Contoocook about two years since. He left Canada twenty-six 
days ago, in company witli two other English captives, viz : William Hair, entered 
into General Shirley's regiment, and taken at Osewego, (the other name unknown). 
They came away from Canada, without guns, hatchet or lire-works, and no more 
than three loaves of bread and four jiounds of pork. As they sufl'ered niucli for 
■want of provisions, his companions were not able to travel any furtlier than a little 
on this side of Cowass, wliere he was obliged to leave them last Lord's day, with- 
out any sustenance but a few berries. Six men were this evening sent out to look 
for them, but it is to be feared that they perished in the wilderness."— [Copied from 
the Xew York Mercury of October '25tli, lirtij, in the library of the N. Y. Hist. Soc, 
by John Libbey ]. 



But that they might show themselves men of deliberation and firm- 
ness, they caused said decree to be entered on the council minutes 
as follows: " Whereas, That the settlers might be encouraged 
to return to their habitations and secure their cattle and harvests, 
and to encourage other frontiers in that quarter, His Excellency 
be desired to give immediate orders for enlisting or impressing 
such a number of men as he may think proper, and dispose of the 

Governor "VYentworth acted. A detachment of Capt, Odlin's 
troop of twenty horse, with an officer in command, also a like 
detachment of Capt. Stevens' troop, were ordered to Stevenstown 
to guard the inhabitants on the frontier. 

But Governor "VYentworth was no fool. The idea did creep 
into his head that a few foot soldiers, fitted out in the Indian style, 
would be about as efiective in fighting the painted red-skins as 
good cavalry troopers. Whereupon he immediately issued a fur- 
ther order to Colonel Joseph Blanchard, that he forthwith enlist 
and impress fifty, or more men, if he thought that number insuffi- 
cient, that he put them under an able and brave officer, one in 
whom he could confide, and order them to march immediately to 
Contoocook and Stevenstown. Then he added — and may be the 
framers of the great constitution of the United States copied this 
illustrious example when they inserted the clause whereby Con- 
gress should vote supplies for the army, — "I have convened the- 
General Assembly. It will vote pay and supplies. The soldiers 
shall not want." 

Colonel Blanchard was a brave officer. He immediately per- 
formed his duty. Our brave Captain John Goffe, of Amoskeag, 
marched to the scene of action. He behaved valiantly. For 
many a hot summer day he scouted through all the wild border, 
far up the Merrimack towards our beloved land, but not an Indian 
did he encounter. 

And here a great historian, a lover of that race whose council 
fires have gone out, whose war songs are no longer heard, whose 
name only is chronicled by their destroyers, exclaims with much 
dignity and self-congratulation, that "the promptness of Governor 
Wentworth in this emergency, and the effective force detailed, 
preserved the inhabitants of the Merrimack valley from any further 


molestation," when in fact there was not an Indian within a 
hundred miles of the place, and there did not choose to be. They 
had accomplished their purpose, and laughing in their moccasins, 
with dangling scalp locks and groaning captives they had gone to 

Men frequently buy a padlock for the stable door after the 
horse is stolen. So New Hampshire afforded protection after the 
blow was struck. 

But if Governor Wentworth did protect the Merrimack valley 
he did not the Connecticut, and he would have displayed his 
promptness to better advantage if he had also sent a ''scout" to 
the latter place for a "preventive," as we shall immediately pro- 
ceed to show. 



J-HE St. Francis ludians, the great nation of the Arosa- 
gunticooks, were cunning men. Whether, like the Spartan youth, 
their understanding was cultivated in order that they might suc- 
cessfully practice craft, shrewdness, and honorable deception in 
war is not recorded, but we rather suspect it was. Like the Spar- 
tans also they had a terse brevity in their speech that might well 
be termed laconic. But, unlike the Spartans, they were fond of 
rough romance and poetry. There is no doubt of this. Many a 
wild legend could their medicine man recount ; many a plaintive 
air did the Indian lover sing, as with palpitating heart he wood his 
dusky mate ; and they always went forth to battle with the war- 
song pealing high. But the modest souls would never sing when 
they came near the enemy. 

Captain Goffe scouted up the Merrimack. He paddled his 
canoe in the bright Pemigewassett and turned its prow up the 
Asquamchumauke. He snufled the winds laden with forest sweets, 
as over bending woods and rustling leaves they came frolicking 
on their way from the Haystacks. And on the very morn of the 
day of his return, when Aurora stepped blushing like a modest 
damsel into the eastern sky, aud the sunbeams were kindling in 
purple and gold on Moosilauke's bald crest, about thirty mighty 
savages were over the highlands in the Connecticut vallev, and 


already were hurryiug down ''the long river of pines." Two 
days afterwards, August 29th, they were at Number Four. Downy 
couches on the bosom of mother earth did not woo their slumbers 
long. They were early risers. They leaped over the hedge on the 
border of the woods before a white man was stirring or a blue 
smoke curling from a cabin chimney. But a white family did stir 
quickly in James Johnson's house two minutes afterwards. John- 
son, wife, three children, and IMiriam Williard, Mrs. Johnson's 
sister, together Avith Peter Larabee and Ebenezer Farnsworth, 
who were lodging there that night, with all the household provis- 
ions and furniture to which the ''war-hawks" took a fancy, consti- 
tuted the spolia optiyna. These captives and this plunder were 
about as much as the war party could conveniently manage, and 
so they concluded to instantly decamp. As their appearance had 
been sudden, their disappearance was more so. Not a white set- 
tler knew of the dire catastrophe for a long time afterwards. 

But the spoils were cumbersome, the children were young, 
and Mrs. Johnson in a very critical condition, so they did not 
travel very far that day. On the morrow, in the deep wilderness, 
fifteen miles from her home, Mrs. Johnson gave birth to a daugh- 
ter. The sailor boy, born on the deep blue sea, has Neptune beat- 
ing time with foamy trident to his own deep basso of thanksgiving 
and praise at the christening, so that ever after the boy loves 
the crested waves and the music of the winds piping in the 
shrouds. So Ceres, the earth mother, assisted at the birth of the 
forest child, and all the sylvan nymphs danced for joy, as they 
crowned the little cherub with garlands of wild-flowers, kissed 
dimples into her rosy cheeks and covered with nectar her glowing 

The mother called the daughter " Captive." But whether in 
after life she loved the wild woods, its cool dells and shaded grot- 
tos, its deep green foliage, its singing birds, its wild wind sighing 
through the branches, or its deep and awful roar in the storm — 
like the voice of the distant ocean — we cannot say. All we do 
know of her further is that she lived to be married like other 
women, and found a kind husband in one George Kimball. He 
was a colonel of foot-soldiers, but whether serving in the militia 
or in the wars we were never informed. 


The Indians may be called cruel savages for carrying oflF this 
family and plundering their dwelling; but this time they can 
not be called human butchers. As our readers must already know, 
they did not dash out little Captive's brains against the nearest 
tree; on the contrary, they kindly cared for her. waited a whole 
day for Mrs. Johnson, carried the unfortunate mother on a litter, 
and afterwards it is said, though we somewhat doubt it, furnished 
her with a horse. Like a man who would keep his ox well, or 
like the master who would have fat sleek slaves, this was not all 
done out of pure kindness of heart. On reaching Canada the In- 
dians sold all the big captives — and little Captive also — to the 
French for a good round sum. But an early historian of this sad 
tale says that they met with great difficulties and experienced 
great suffering at the hands of these polite descendants of the 
noble Franks. After two long years, Mrs. Johnson, her sister, 
and two daughters returned home. Where went Larabee and 
Farnsworth is not recorded. Mr. Johnson did not behave in a 
manner satisfactory to the hospitable sons of Gaul, and so for 
three years he was kindly suffered to i^iue in a Canadian prison. 
At the end of that time he with his son had the good fortune to 
return to iN'umber Four by way of Boston. 

But the eldest daughter had a different fate. Like many 
another giddy damsel, she became deeply enamored of the things 
of the new country. She became either so exceedingly wise or 
foolish, we can hardly tell which, that she fell in love with a 
shaved head, a straight gown, a white veil, a string of beads, a 
Latin prayer-book, and a chapel bell, and in a nunnery concluded 
to spend a portion of her days in the enjoyment of "those religious 
festivities in which some priests, certain shaking quaker elders, 
and not a few ministers, so much delight ."* 

If a messenger went to Portsmouth to tell of this hostile 
inroad of the enemy, we are not informed of the fact. At anj^ 
rate no particular notice was taken of it. Settlers in the Connec- 
ticut valley might take care of themselves or look to Massachusetts 
for aid. New Hampshire could not now attend to them. The 
times were pregnant with great events. Even the shrieking 

*Thus wrote certain historians long ago; but it must be remembered that they 
hated all religions except their own. 


autumn blast portended horrid war. Mars, hot and fierce, leaped 
across the Atlantic on an angry visit to the New World. All the 
gods buckled on their ai'mor and put themselves in battle array. 
The mighty deep was lashed in fury, as hostile fleets swept over 
it ; the pent-up fires in the earth beneath blazed anew under the 
tramp of hostile squadrons, and the aAvful bolts of Jove thundered 
at mid- winter in the heavens. 

Three armies, such as the western world had never before 
seen, were put in rapid motion. General Braddock, accompanied 
by Washington, penetrated the southern wilderness. His destina- 
tion was Fort Dn Quesne, on the Ohio river. But he never 
reached it. He perished, with three-fourths of his gallant soldiers, 
in the dark forests of the Alleghanies. Governer Shirley led a 
second army against Fort Niagara. With his cannon he was to 
batter down its strong walls. But their roar never mingled with 
the thunder of the mighty cataract near which stood the forti'ess. 
The expedition was a failure. General Johnston led a third force 
against Fort Edward. And here fortune favored the hero. New 
Hampshire furnished a regiment for his army, commanded by 
Colonel Blauchard, of Dunstable, now Nashua. 

How they rendezvoused at Stevenstown, and marched and 
countermarched through our beloved Pemigewassett country, up 
the Asquamchumauke, and across the land now called Warren 
and so to the Coos country, we shall endeavor most faithfully to 



i-HE call to arms was sounded. Mars' messengers went 
forth and New Hampshire was quick to respond. In the style of 
the old Scotch poets it is related how from Strawberry Bank, 
Boar's Head, and Dover Neck, came a company of hardy ship 
builders, cod tishers, and fur traders, — men used to hard knocks, 
to ocean's battling storms, and cunning wiles of Indians. From 
Squamscott's winding valley, Newichannock's bright stream, 
and Pautuckaway's deep indented shores, came a company of stal- 
wart farmers, full fifty strong. From Massabesic's blue waves, 
the twin Uncanoonucks, and the falls of Amoskeag, came Fraziers, 
McKenzies, Campbells, and Grants, Scotia's descendants, amount- 
ing to Uvo full companies. The latter were potato-planting men, 
linen spinners, — besides numei'ous shad, eel, and salmon fishers — 
all good tough fellows, used to shillalah fights, and not a few had 
taken many a bout in the woods after the Indians. From the 
pebbly-bottomed Nashua, the cloud-capped Monadnock, and the 
frontier about bristling Kearsarge, came farmers, hunters, trap- 
pers, and wild borderers. Captain Goffe and Captain Moore, both 
brave Derryfielders, men who never quailed beneath the Indian's 
eagle eye (to put it grandly), and who loved the music of the 
whirring tomahawk and the singing shot, each commanded a 

Captain Robert Rogers, of Starkstown, now Dunbarton, whom 
the war-cry of a thousand braves could not move a hair, marched 

THE "rangers." 137 

at the head of seventy jolly bruisers, who were accustomed to fish 
at Amoskeag falls. Noah Johnson was one of his lieutenants and 
John Stark was the other. The latter was now along, lank young 
man, with a frame not encased in a coat of mail, but in iron muscle, 
with a physique which could endure without a moment's sleep a 
march of a hundred long miles through the suow when four feet 
deep. AVith these lieutenants, Kogers had the bravest company of 
the old French war. They were known as the "Rangers." They 
carried but little baggage and were lightly armed ; and as the 
French employed the Indians, so were these employed by the Eng- 
lish to scour the woods, to waylay the enemy, or to obtain supplies. 

As Xerxes rendezvoused at Capadocian Critella, or the Greeks 
of Cyrus the Younger at Sardis, so all these great companies, fully 
equipped, with knapsacks on their backs, canteens and haversacks 
at their sides, and old queen's arms on their shoulders, debouched 
from the deep wilderness upon the broad Merrimack intervals at 
Bakerstown, alias Stevenstown, now Franklin, N. H. Colonel 
Blanchard, of Dunstable, as we have before stated, was the great 
generalissimo or commander-in-chief. 

There was a log fortress in the centre of the black stump 
clearing at Stevenstown. The said clearing was afterwards a fine 
field, owned by the Hon. Daniel "Webster. Around the above- 
mentioned fortress Colonel Blanchard mustered liis regiment, 
while all day long was heard the din of preparation, as the 
sappers and miners and artisans were engaged in building ba- 
teaux on the river bank. AVith these they were going to transport 
their baggage along the navigable waters. 

Governor Wentworth, as we have before shown, was an ex- 
ceedingly learned man in the arts of war. He had sent good 
cavalry soldiers, jolly moss-troopers, to scout through the wind- 
falls and tangled thickets. He was also a man of taste and fond 
of artistic beauty. This was very commendable, and he exhibited 
it by building for himself a beautiful rustic residence on the shore 
of Lake "Winnepisseogee, from the silver surface of which as he 
glided along in his sailboat he could see the gaged hackmatack 
mountains in the great wild north. He now showed himself a 
gi-eater geographer than Ptolemy or Christopher Columbus him- 
self, for he verily believed that Albany, the place to which he was 


to send the regiment, lay in the path of a direct line drawn frorij 
Stevenstowu to the north pole. Besides, all his council and con- 
fidential advisers believed the same. So the order was issued to 
Colonel Blanchard, and that gallant officer in turn commanded 
Captain Rogers to proceed with his rangers due north one degree 
west to the upper Coos meadows, and there construct a fort for 
the accommodation of the little ai'my when it should follow. 

The rangers left the old garrison house in the before-mentioned 
field and followed the trail up the Merrimack. With their trusty 
queen's arms on their shoulders, their hunting knives in their 
belts, their wolf-skiu caps, their bright red shirts, buttoned close 
about their throats, their short sheep's-gray frocks tucked within 
their moose hide or sheep-skin pants, and with real Indian moc- 
casins on their feet, the rangers presented even a more picturesque 
appearance than their painted foe, with tufted scalp-locks, dirty 
breech clouts, and long-haired leggins. 

They pushed up the Asquamchumauke, camped one night on 
the shore of the cold mountain lake, Wachipauka, under the shadow 
of precipitous AYebster Slide, and in six days reached the upper 
meadows. They built the fort on the east bank of the Connecti- 
cut, just below the mouth of the upi^er Ammonoosuc river, in the 
l^resent town of Northumberland. It was constructed of huge 
logs from the dense wilderness and the summer winds now sighed 
through the thick leaved trees and anon moaned around the pick- 
etted palisades of the wooden fortress. 

After they had completed the work of course there must be a 
christening. So each ranger took a good swig of old West India 
from his canteen — thus pouring a libation to the sylvan deities. 
Then an old soldier, mounting the topmost timber, delivered him- 
self of a short speech, this being a part of the ceremony of 
"naming the building," as was the old time-out-of-mind custom, 
in which without doubt he remarked what a good geographer the 
governor was, and ended by calling the stronghold. Fort Went- ' 
worth. Then the orator descended from the rostrum, and the 
whole company joined in three lusty cheers, which awoke all the 
bats, owls, and similar drowsy gods for many a league around. 
They then sat down to a bountiful feast of corn cakes and fresh 


moose meat, of which last they had taken care to secure an ample 

On the morrow a messenger came. His Excellency had dis- 
covered a slight mistake in his reckoning. He had come to the 
sage conclusion that Albany lay nearer a line drawn due west 
from Stevenstown to China than that to the north pole. Captain 
Kogers received a difl'erent order. With his rangers he left the 
ungarrisoued fort to slowly rot away under the shadow of the 
white summits of Percy peaks, and marched directly to Number 
Four. From thence with the rest of the regiment they struggled 
through the wilderness over the Green mountains and joined Gen- 
eral Lyman, who commanded the New England troops. 

In the campaigns about Lake George, Crown Point, and Ticon- 
deroga, the whole New Hampshire regiment, by their endurance 
and daring, won an envi&ble reputation. But Kogers — who soon 
rose to the rank of Major — far exceeded all the rest with his bold 
rangers. They fought like heroes every man, when at the capitu- 
lation of Oswego the savages butchered the captive English by 
scores. They were the bravest of the brave, when at Fort William 
Henry the butchery of Oswego was re-enacted with additional 
scenes of horror. 

The heroes of Charles the Twelfth never won brighter renown 
than the New Hampshire contingent, when Kogers with only one 
hundred and eighty of his I'angers fell into an ambush of over 
seven hundred French and Indians. At midwinter, with the mer- 
cury below zero, in a dense forest, and with the snow four feet 
deep, they fought all day long. The blood of many a poor fellow 
stained the crystal snow, and at night the moon gleamed on the 
crimson crust. In the twilight Rogers at the head of his few 
comrades charged up the hill against the Rue of the enemy, broke 
it, and escaped. A mile away over the ridge they met John Stark 
coming to their relief. 

He who fought at Trenton, the hero of Bennington, left his 
blanket, his provision, and his soldiers to protect Kogers, and alone 
pushed back on his trail forty miles,through the wilderness to Fort 
Edward. He reached it a little past midnight, obtained a company 
of soldiers, also handsleds for the wounded, returned on his track, 
and burst in upon Kogers' camp at a little past noon. John Stark 


had travelled a hundred and. tioenty miles in less than two days, 
tvithout rest and without a moment's sleep. 

But the crowning achievement of tlie rangers was their de- 
struction of the St. Francis village and their retreat through the 
wilderness to the meadows of Coos, Ij'ing green beneath the 
shadows of lofty Moosilauke. As this was the effective stroke 
that opened our northern paradise, Warren, to the white settler, 
we shall endeavor to faithfully narrate all its most interesting 



Like Robin Hood's forest, like the villages of the Norman 
freebooters, or in later times like Algiers, the rendezvous of the 
Algerine pirates, numerous war parties for more than half a cen- 
tury had continually been dispatched from the little village of St. 
Francis to harass the English pioneers. Located at the confluence 
of the St. Lawrence and the St. Francis rivers, it was of easy 
access. From it they could proceed to Lake Champlain by the 
river Sorrel, or ascend the river St. Francis, cross the highlands 
to the Connecticut, and drop down the latter stream. Then, hang- 
ing like a black cloud over the border settlements, they would 
hurl their fury upon the defenceless inhabitants, and fly back with 
scalps and captives, to receive their reward from the French. In 
this manner they had made the Pemigewassett territory a danger- 
ous abiding-place, and kept new settlers far away from the histor- 
ical land of "Warren. 

A long continued warfare had enriched the St. Francis village, 
and forty dwellings, thrown together in a disorderly clump, pre- 
sented a strange contrast to the ancient Indian wigwams. A small 
Catholic church stood in the midst. In its steeple hung a bell 
brought from France, whose clear tones summoned the villagers 
to matin hymns and holy vespers. Within its walls waxen can- 
dles shed their flickering light on golden crosses. Pictures of 
patron saints hung on the dingy columns. In a niche behind the 
altar stood a large silver image of the Virgin Mary, while in the 
low gallery was a small but beautiful organ of excellent tone. 


Their worship here, as Lord Macaulay.has perhaps unjustly 
remarked, was what the Catholic religion ever is to the ignorant 
and superstitions — an appeal to the senses and the passions rather 
than to the understanding. Pictures, crosses, gorgeous altars 
and images, charmed the eye. The beautiful strains of the organ, 
now soft and delicate as the notes of an a^olian harp, now rushing 
and wild as the storm on the mountains, anon deep and heavy as 
the muttering of distant thunder, enraptured the ear, while burn- 
ing incense in the censer of the French friar who officiated, his 
mj'stic words and chant accompanying, and the tolling of the 
concealed bell, made the Sabbath worship most impressive, and 
cast a strange spell over the wild spirits of the savage braves. 
But the very pious French friar of St. Francis had other duties 
besides ministering to the religious wants of the red men. It is 
said that he was the modest, meek, and holy tool of the very hon- 
est and peaceable French government. "With his keen perception 
of human nature, and his ^' good Jesuitical qualities," he was to 
the Indians what the legislative branch is in a civil government. 
He voted war, and stirred up his devout church members to fight 
the English, while the grand sachem, a brave chief — once person- 
ated in the heretofore mentioned and renowned Acteon — was the 
executive. For he, like most good Catholics, implicitly obeyed 
the priest and led the war-parties. 

As the conquest of Canada now appeared quite probable, it 
was thought good policy to make peace with these Indians. Ac- 
cordingly the British commander sent Captain Kennedy with a flag 
of truce to arrange a treaty. But they seemed to have forgotten 
how politely Captain Stevens had received them, and how they 
had been entertained with sundrj^ mugs of flip, when their own 
flag of truce was presented at Number Four. With a sort of Punic 
faith or Eoman honor, they seized the gallant captain and made 
him their prisoner. 

This proceeding enraged General Amherst. He resolved to 
chastise them and teach them a short lesson in the law of nations 
that seemed to have escaped their memory. For this purpose he 
issued, September 13th, 1759, the following order: 

"Maj. Rogers: This night join the detachment of two hun- 
dred rangers yesterday ordered out. Proceed to Mississqui baj'. 


March from theuce through tlie woods. Attack the settlements on 
tlie south side of the St. Lawrence. Effectually disgrace and 
injure the enemy. Let honor and success attend tlie English arms. 
Remember barbarities committed by the enemy's Indian scoun- 
drels. Take deep revenge — but spare the women and children. 
Neither kill nor hurt them. AVheu you have performed this ser- 
vice, join the army again."* 

This order was worthy of a Spartan Cleomenes or Agesilaus, 
and the way in which it was executed was equal to a feat of old 
Scotch Mclan, or the sally of a horde of Tartars from their fast- 
nesses on the steppes of Asia. 

Rogers and his men struck camp that very night. Embarking 
in bateaux, for ten days they kept directly down Lake Champlain, 
The weather Avas delightful. The hardy )-angers vigorously plied 
their oars. "When the wind was favorable they rigged a sail in the 
prow. The stirring strains of a solitary bugle, echoing from the 
indented shores and dying away upon the dimpling waves, cheered 
them on. Night and day they kept on their course. No sleepy 
Palinarius fell from the high-pointed stern. Each bark followed 
that of Rogers, and every man, trusting him as a guiding star, 
faithfully discharged his duty. But as they approached the outlet 
they grew more cautious. At times they would hug close to the 
shore, and then again would strike boldly across from headland to 
headland, carefully avoiding the French cruisers that hovered 
about the foot of the lake. 

At Mississqui bay they left their boats and provisions in charge 
of two trusty Indians and struck into the wilderness. There was 
no road. They struggled through thickets, over fallen trees, and 
forded streams now swollen by the autumn rains. At night of the 
second day the boat guard overtook them. Four hundred French 
and Indians had captured their bateaux, and two hundred were 
now on their trail. This caused much uneasiness. Their mission 
was before them. To abandon it would be disgrace. They must 
escape from the French who were hanging upon their rear to fall 
upon and chastise the St. Francis Indians. Like the ten thousand 

' * It must be borae in mind that several hundred of the frontier settlers of New 
Hampsliire had at difl'ercnt times been killed bj' the savages, and the people of our 
State very naturally liated this St. Francis friar. The Puritan writers of that day 
gave him a very poor character. 


under Xeuophon they must fly before one enemy to fight and con- 
quer another. 

Lieutenant McMullen was dispatched across the country for 
supplies, and then, as related by an early historian, like Charles 
XII dashing across the marshes of the Baltic, the rangers hurried 
through the forest. For nine days they marched in a spruce bog. 
Many a mile it was covered a foot deep with water. At the first 
dawn they would breakfast, and long before the sun had chased 
the shadows from the woods were far on their way. They scarcely 
halted for dinner, but ate as they marched . When the twilight 
faded and the stars came out, they would stop and construct a kind 
of hammock to secure them from the water, and lay down to sleep 
in their pole and bough beds, rocked by the winds that sighed and 
soughed through the evergreen spruces. 

The fifth day Captain Williams was accidentally burnt with 
gunpowder, and returned with the sick and hurt. The little 
party, reduced to one hundred and forty-two men, now pushed 
on with vigor, and in five days came to a river fifteen miles from 
the St. Francis. It was several rods in breadth, and flowed with 
a strong swift current. A raft could not be pushed across it, and 
the men must struggle through by fording. The tallest were 
placed up stream, and holding by each other that rope of human 
beings, writhing and swerving in the I'ushing torrent, toiled 
across. The remaining distance was good marching ground, and 
on the evening of the twenty-second day, a scout having climbed 
a large hemlock, discovered the church spire of the village gleam- 
ing through the tree tops. 

Kogers writes in his journal that he ordered the rangers to 
encamp and refresh themselves, and at eight o'clock, taking with 
him tAvo officers, he reconnoitered the town. He found the Indians 
celebrating a wedding. There was feasting on the village green. 
The old forest-arched canopy resounded to the merry song. The 
sprightly dancers with jokes and laughter kept time with nimble 
feet to the wild music of an Indian drum, blending with the 
quicker notes of a half-civilized violin. Like the exultant Trojans, 
when they had drawn the wooden horse within their walls, they 
seemed to celebrate their own destruction. 

At two o'clock in the morning Kogers says he returned to his 


camp, that he found it buried in slumber, aud that before waking- liis 
command he sat down a moment to rest. The fires of the village 
had gone out; the shouts of the Indian revellers had died away, 
and not a footftxll disturbed the silence. To him the moment was 
impressive and awful. He could almost hear the solitude creep- 
ing down the St. Francis river, only broken by the water kissing 
the pebbly shore, or by the mournful howling of the Indian dog 
upon the bank, sending his monotonous cry after the cloud shad- 
ows, as they flitted like phantoms over the starlit water. 

But duty forbade delay. Housing his men at three A. M., he 
advanced within five hundred yards of the village. Ordering the 
rangers to halt and lighten their packs, he formed them for action. 
In the manner of true Indian warriors they wait for the most 
favorable moment. The stars glimmer less brightly through the 
trees, and the rosy dawn of morning tinges the eastern sky. It 
was the time wlien deep sleep bound the limbs of the tired Indian 
fastest, when Rogers gave the signal, and those hundred and forty- 
two men, in three divisions, rushed forward with horrid yells, 
hurled the blazing fire-brands into the dwellings, and shot down 
alike men, women, and children. 

The lurid glare of the blazing habitations showed more than 
six hundred human scalps, with hair fluttering in the fire-made 
breeze, stretched upon poles — savage trophies of the border war. 
The sight filled the men with rage, and they rushed with redoubled 
fury to the slaughter. Some of the Indians, leaving their dwel- 
lings, fled to the river and leaped into their canoes. The rangers 
pursued, sank their frail craft and shot or drowned those endeav- 
oring to escape. Others concealed themselves in the cellars aud 
lofts of their dwellings and preferred to perish in the flames. Two 
of the strongest rangers, Bradley and Farriugton, came to the 
door of the wigwam where the wedding had taken place. They 
threw themselves violently against it, burst it from its hinges, and 
Bradley fell headlong among the sleeping inmates. The Indians 
were filled with consternation, but seizing their arms fought brave- 
ly for a few moments, when the rangers pouring in overpowered 
and slew them.* Rogers writes that the first beams of the morn- 

* History of Coucord, N. II., 191. 


ing- sun pierced the iningled smoke and fog- that rolled slowly down 
the valley of the St. Francis; that the spire of the blazing church 
glistened for the last time in the bright sunlight, then, tottering 
for an instant, fell with a loud crash, the bell uttering a mournful 
peal — the last sad requiem over the doomed village of St. Francis. 

At seven o'clock in the morning the work was done. Like 
Ilium, the Indian hamlet smoked to the ground. Two hundred 
Indians lay half consumed in the embers of their dwellings, or 
stained the noble river with their blood. Of all the inhabitants 
but twenty Avomen and children were alive. Eetaiuing live of 
these as guides, Eogers suffered the remaining fifteen to depart.* 

Only one of his men had fallen and but five or six were 
wounded. Five English captives who had been sometime with 
the Indians escaped during the tight. They reported that three 
hundred French and Indians had encamped the previous night 
four miles down the river, and were already moving to the scene 
of action. 

Eogers had retreated before them to fall like a thunderbolt 
upon the St. Francis, had accomplished his purpose, and with the 
enemy more than double his number still following him like a 
blood-hound, must now plunge into an unbroken wilderness. 
Ordering his men to secure the small quantity of corn which they 
found in three remaining outbuildings, for there Avas no other 
provision, he began to retreat. As the forest closed around the 
rangers, hiding the smoking ruins from their view, the shouts of 
the enemy coming rapidly up quickened their flying footsteps. 

* We have not been able to leani with certainty the fate of the St. Francis friar. 
It is probable, however, that he made good his escape. 



M^VESHAL JUNOT defeated and dispersed the Turkish 
army at I^azareth, and Mount Tabor saw the Musselmen flying- 
before the gallant Kleber; yet famine and the plague drove 
Napoleon's brave soldiers from Palestine. So the hardy rangers, 
who never quailed before any hnman foe, now met in the deep 
forest an enemy more terrible than the half-blood Frenchman or 
the maddened savage. True it was that three hundred of the lat- 
ter still hung like ravenous wolves upon their trail, joining addi- 
tional horrors to ghostly famine. Yet the starving rangers hurried 
on through the pathless woods, over rugged mountains, with no 
landmarks to guide them, while the old forest roared and rocked 
ill the cold October storm. Xor did they always advance. Their 
guides were treacherous. For three days, as the record reads, 
they wandered about in an almost interminable swamp. The 
fourth day they returned on their retreat so much that they struck 
the trail of the enemy that was following them. 

The French and Indians were well provisioned. The rangers 
were worn down; famine preyed upon their emaciated forms, and 
at any moment they were in danger of falling into the deadly am- 
buscade. There was but one hope. The famishing party divided 
itself into nine small companies, each with a leader.* It Avas 

* Rogers led one of the parties; Lieuts. Philips, Campbell, Cargill, and Far- 
ringtou, Ensign Avery, Sergeant Evens, and Dunbar and Turner, led the others. 


agreed that the one which should encounter the enemy should, like 
a forlorn hope, fight till the last moment, while the others, warned 
by the contest, might escape. Having separated, in half an hour 
volley after volley told that one of the companies was sacrificing 
itself for its companions.* Hurrjdng forward to meet death in a 
niore terrible form, they left their brave comrades to waste away 
in the damp mosses of the swamp. 

Memphremagog lake, sparkling like a gem in its forest setting, 
saw them boiling and eating their powder-horns and shot-pouches. 
When these failed their moccasins furnished another tough morsel, 
from which they gathered strength to drag on with bleeding feet 
through the wilderness. 

At the end of the eighteenth day one party struck the Con- 
necticut river at upper Coos, mistaking it for lower Coos. Bradley, 
he who was so brave in the fight at St. Francis, was among them. 
He was a native of Concord. He said if he was in full strength 
he should be in his father's house in three days. He took a point 
of compass which at lower Coos would have brought him to the 
Merrimack, but in fact led directly over the White mountains. A 
ranger and a mulatto man accompanied him. The next year a 
Ijarty of hunters found in one of the deep mountain goi'ges a man's 
bones; by them were three half-burned brands piled together. 
Silver brooches and wampum lay scattered about — plunder from 
the St. Francis — while a leatlier ribbon, such as Bradley Avore, 
bound the long black hair to the whitening skull. No arms were 
by him and no signs of companions.! 

The remainder of the company made a hurried march down 
the river, for the current was too wild for rafts. Where the 
Ammonoosuc, coming from the south, and seeming to beat back 
the dark waters of the Connecticut as they surge through the 
^'Narrows,*' Rogers had appointed a rendezvous. Here thej^ ex- 
pected to find relief. General Amherst had indeed dispatched 

*It -was the party led by Ensign Avery which was overtaken hy the enemy. 
Besides those killed, "seven oV his men were taken ))risoners, but" two of them 
escaped. Lieut. George CampbeH's party, and Sergeant Evens' party saved their 
lives by eating Avery's dead soldiers, "who had sacrificed tlieniselves that the 
others miglit escape. This act of Ensign Avery's men, yielding up their lives that 
tlie others might live, is one of the mos't noble iecorded'in history. 

tTradition has it that Bradley started witli two or three men, but they nevei- 
reached home. It is suijposed they all i)erished AVith hunger and cold amid rlie 
snows of tiie wilderness.— Ili.storv" of Concord, 1S14. 


Licuteuant Stevens with provisions, directing- him to remain till 
the rang-ers arrived, but reckless of his duty lie returned at tlie 
end of two days, carrying everything witli him. He had been 
gone but a short time when the first party came upon the intei-val 
and found his camp-fires still burning. They discharged their 
muskets to bring him back. He heard them, and thinking it Avas 
the enemy, hurried on the faster. Despairing, they eat their last 
morsel of food, and then laid down in Stevens' deserted camp and 
awaited their fate. 

That night Lieutenant Philips brought in his party. Philips 
was a half-blood Indian, his mother being a wild Mohawk, The 
Earl of Loudon commissioned him lieutenant, and throughout 
the Avhole seven years' war he was a gallant leader of the rangers. 
Yet his party suflered terribly. Day after day, as the story is told 
by himself, they continued to retreat without a morsel of food. As 
they reeled through the woods it seemed as if the dry limbs of the 
trees shrieking in the wind was the voice of ghostly famine croak- 
ing over them like the boding owl of destruction. When their 
emaciated forms seemed just ready to sink down they determined 
to kill a St. Francis prisoner who was with them. A draft of 
human blood and a feast of human flesh, or death — this was the 
dreadful alternative. But that afternoon they killed a mviskrat, 
which they divided amongst themselves, and human life was 

Sergeant Evens, another leader, came in with his company on 
the following morning. Their sufferiiigs if possible were even 
more terrible. The sergeant used to tell how for days and weeks 
they wandered through the woods. Birch bark, gnawed with 
ravenous teeth, and roots dug with long bony fingers, only kept 
away death. In the cold swamp, through which they staggered 
delirious, they stumbled upon the mangled remains of their slain 
companions. Almost ever)^ man, as if he were a ravenous beast, 
gorged himself upon human flesh. Evens' feelings revolted and 
he refused to eat. But his soldiers laid in a supply, and a few 
nights afterwards, when the chills of death seemed creeping over 

*I'hiliiis dill not remain long on the Coos intei'vals. He took the oW Iniliaii 
trail n\> l\w. oliverian, reached the Asfjuamcliuniauke, and followed <lo\vn tlie river 
home to Concord, X. H.— Historv of Concord, 200. 


him, he took a steak of his comrades' flesh from the knapsack of a 
sleeping ranger, roasted it upon the coals, and years afterwards 
pronounced it '■'■ the sweetest morsel lie ever tasted." 

Lieutenant George Campbell, who led another company, said 
that his men suflered severely. For four days ]iot a particle of 
food passed their lips. Without a guide and ignorant of the coun- 
try, they wandered they knew not whither, like a ship upon a 
stormy ocean, Avithout compass or star to direct. The weak in 
mind were driven mad by despair and suffering ; the weak in body 
laid down and died. Eating leather sti'aps and the covers of car- 
touch boxes, tough food, did not appease the dire hunger that con- 
sumed them. At length their resources were all gone, and not a 
ray of hope gleamed through the bars of their forest prison. 
Death had laid his fearful grasp upon them, and it seemed as if 
the last man must perish. October 28th but half the party were 
alive. A few hours more and these must die. But a ghastly 
relief came to them when they least expected it. A ranger cross- 
ing a stream slipped from a log. His foot disturbed the leafy cov- 
ering that had fiillen upon the water and he caught sight of some 
human bodies scalped and horribly mutilated. The furious hunger 
of these famishing men knew no restraint ; they did not even wait 
for a fire with which to prepare their ghastly banquet, but ate like 
beasts of prey. Then, collecting carefully the remnants, they 
I)ursued their journey. 

At this time Rogers also came with his party. During the 
Avhole retreat he had shown himself a hero, and now when his 
men were perishing he constructed a rude raft, and with Captain 
Ogden and an Indian boy started to float down to Number Four 
and obtain supplies. The famishing rangers saw him disapi)ear 
around a long sweeping bend of the river, and then lay down to 
wait ten days, at the end of which he had promised to return. 
The hours went slowly by — a week passed — and those men sat in 
the smoke of their fires and listened to the wind sighing about 
their camp. As their forms grew more attenuated, their faces 
more haggard, and their eyes and cheeks more sunken, they would 
reel into the woods to gather roots and bark, coarse food to keep 
the last spark of life from going out. 

Across the open meadow was a lofty mountain, and tlie early 


snows of autumn glistened in the sunlight upon its summit. 
Old settlers tell the story how two of the rangers, one of them 
by name Robert Pomeroy, had hunted on the streams beyond 
that mountain in bj'gone days. With their companions dying 
around them and death staring them in the face they resolved to 
cross it and go home. One night, when the rest of the band were 
asleep, they took from a knapsack a human head, cut oflF pieces, 
roasted them upon the coals, satisfied their hunger, and at the 
earliest dawn departed.* 

Late in the afternoon they were standing upon the summit of 
Moosilauke mountain. They stopped to rest and to gaze upon the 
wildest scene that ever met their eyes. Mountains like mole hills 
were scattered through the great northern country. To the east, 
peak after peak shot thousands of feet into the clear ether. Look- 
ing south, the mountain upon which they stood seemed the wild 
head of the deep wilderness. Scattered through it were gleaming 
rivers, flashing ponds and silver lakes, while at its foot, a hundred 
miles distant, a bright line on the horizon showed where the blue 
sea was dashing. Westward, range after range of lofty wooded 
mountains stretched far away, like the rolling billows of a tempest 
tossed ocean. And then all the forest for a hundred miles around 
was one glorious blaze of brilliant colors. Every autumn hue and 
tint imaginable shone resplendent, as though the hand of the 
Divine Artist had woven together myriads of gorgeous rainbows 
with which to mantle this hitherto unseen solitude. 

Half an hour later they saw the sun sink slowly down and 
gild every range of mountains with golden rays of glory. The 
clouds that lay along the horizon sparkled in roseate tints, while 
the horizon itself, appearing like a golden plain in continuation 
of the earth, changed soon, first to green, and then to a 'cold 
ashen gray. As the crescent moon, at first pale but with growing 
brightness, together with a single star of large magnitude, appeared 
over the summits of the snowy eastern mountains, Pomeroy, be- 

* David Evens said that one night, while the men of his party were asleep in 
the camp, his own cravings for food were so nnsupportable that lie awoke Irom 
sleep, and seeing a large knapsack belonging to one of his comrades, opened it in 
hopes to find sometliiiig to satisfy his hunger; that he found in it three liuinan 
heads; that lie cut a piece from one of iheni, and liroiled and ate it, while the men 
continued to sleep. But he said he would sooner die of hunger than do the like 
again. He observed that when their distresses were greatest they hardly deserved 
the name of human beings. — History of Concord, 19.5. 


numbed with cold, sank down saying be must sleep.* His com- 
panion tried to rouse bim but in vain, and fearing for bis own life 
burried down tbe mountain. The wolf bowled in tbe great gorge 
that nigbt and tbe wild ecboes were roused by tbe pantber's cry. 
But tbe ranger heeded them not, and when the last twilight bad 
faded from tbe western sky be in turn sank down exhausted at the 
foot of ibe Seven Cascades. 

Tbe legend further relates in a beautiful manner — and surely 
this can be nothing but a legend — how tbe ranger seemed to be 
dying; and when the stars shone bright above bim and the moon 
looked in through tbe trees and lighted up tbe white foam of tbe 
cascades, distant music coming nearer seemed to mingle with that 
of the water, and bis quickened senses beard fairy harps joined 
with fairj^ voices, and saw fairy feet dancing in the silver spray. 
Elfin kings and fairy queens whirled in the mazy dance for a mo- 
ment and were gone. And then came a troop of nereids, with 
long dishevelled hair and eyes lustrous as the stars that shone 
above them, to bathe in tbe clear crystal fountain. For an instant 
they seemed to hold sweet dalliance with the sparkling water and 
then tloated away in .the thin mist that hung over tbe great wood 
and tnrbanned the distant mountain. Day seemed breaking, and 
tbe bright sun looked in from over the eastern hills upon a crowd 
of mountain genii, who chanted their matin hymns in their wild 
rock-hewn temples, and then mounted up on viewless steps to offer 
incense on their rainbow altar, golden in the flood of rosy light, 
and glistening in tbe diamond drops of the waterfall. 

As a dark cloud stole across the sky, veiling tbe moon, the 
scene changed. The shrieks of tbe dying Indians at St. Francis, 
the mournful peal of tbe chapel bell, the retreat, the famine, tbe 
terrible feast upon human heads, tbe dying comrade upon the 
mountain top, himself perishing by tbe torrent, — and then, seen 
for a moment, the picture of a dark form bending OA^er him — and 
tbe famishing ranger was unconscious. 

The next morning tbe sun, glorious in bis splendor, gleamed 
on the seven cascades of tbe gorge. There was no wind, and tbe 

* Robert Pomeroy, a ranger from Derrylield, * * * perished in the woods 
* * * during the Indian wars * * * "and his bones were found years after 
about the sources of the Merrimack. Thev were identitied by his hair and some 
personal eflects that had not decayed.— I'otter's Hist, of Manchester, 336. 


In-ight flasliing waters as they leaped down seemed to hymn a lofty 
l);ean of praise in the solitude. It was a fai*, wild country, one in 
which seemingiy no human foot had ever trod. Yet there was 
one being even here. An old hunter from the frontier had i)ene- 
trated this wilderness to trap otter, beaver, and sable. He had 
constructed a rude camp for himself by the side of Gorge brook. 
Ill I he great meadow over the ridge he set his steel traps for 
beaver, and built Indian culheags for sable by his spotted line on 
the mountain side. It chanced that he was visiting the latter that 
morning. He discovered the footsteps of the ranger who had 
crossed his linCj and following them found him almost insensible 
at the foot of the cascades. Bearing him to the camp he nursed 
him back to life, and for a few weeks he assisted the hunter in his 
duties. — 

One day, as the early settlers relate the golden tradition, the 
ranger stopped to quench his thirst at a little mountain rill. As 
he kneeled to sip the sparkling water he saw shining in the sand 
at the bottom what appeared to be bi-ight grains of gold. Picking 
up a handful of these he tied them in a corner of his handkerchief 
and after heaping a small monument of stones on the bank, 
departed. The particles thus collected, on being shown to a jew- 
eller, proved to be pure gold, and he received for them fifty 
dollars. But although careful search has since often been made 
neither the monument nor the golden stream has ever again been 
discovered. When the snow began to fall in the valley the hunter, 
accompanied by the ranger, returned to the settlements. 

The remaining companies of the rangers came straggling in 
upon the intervals. As one by one they died — the allotted ten 
days not yet passed — despair seated itself on the countenances 
of all the living, and they prayed once more that Kogers might 



Robert EOGERS' journal, written by himself, gives a 
succinct account of his exploits in the old French war. It relates 
how at his departure from the intervals to obtain help he laid down 
with his two companions on their rude craft, by far more primeval 
than that on which sailed Jason and his mythical companions in 
seai'ch of the golden fleece, and for hours floated swiftly down in 
the rapid current. Yet he fails to narrate the fact — for it is pre- 
sumed that every one should know as much — that the river was 
swollen by the autumn rains, and that the streams from the high- 
lands on either hand poured in their turbid floods. Neither does 
he mention the bright hues spread over all the woods ; nor the 
wild geese which, noting the strange craft on the water, cackled 
at them from the sky ; or that at night bears halloed from the liills 
and muskrats swam splashing along the shores. 

Even Ompompanoosuc, a western stream, heaving with its 
muddy tide, was unnoticed, and they were only roused from their 
lethargy by a dull but fearful roaring ahead. Starting up they 
saw a thin mist rising from the falls Avhicli their raft Avas rapidly 
approaching. Their oars were too small to manage their unwieldy 
craft in the now eddying and boiling current. A few moments 
more and they must go over. Death stared them in the face. But 
they had met it in a thousand forms and though famishing they 
would not yield. Leaping into the water, after a hard struggle 


they gained the shore. Their raft, pausing a moment on the 
brink, leaped like a thing of life into the wild vortex, and was 
dashed in pieces. 

Wet, cold, and starving, with mnch difficulty they reached 
the foot of the falls. To proceed by laud was impossible; yet 
Rogers' indomitable spirit never sank. Bidding his men hunt for 
food, he went to work in true Indian style and kindled a tire. In 
three days he had burned down and burned off trees sufficient for 
a raft, and bound them together with withes. In the meantime 
his companions had procured a red squirrel and a single partridge 
— just sufficient to keep soul and body together — and on the morn- 
ing of the fourth day they placed themselves upon the new raft 
and once more glided swiftly on. The genii of the waterfall 
seemed to scream after them through the mist, bidding them make 
no delay, for the famishing rangers were roasting human flesh far 
back in the cold shadows of Moosilauke mountain. 

White river was passed, and in another hour they heard the 
roaring of Wattoqueche fall. Rogers this time was on the watch 
for dangers ahead. Paddling their raft ashore, Ogden guided it 
over the falls with a long withe-rope of hazel bushes, while 
Rogers swam in and secured it. This raft was their only hope ; 
with it lost their fate was death. All night without food they 
floated down the sti-eam. Morning showed them a clearing. 
Shortly after men came to cut timber on the river bank, who 
discovered and assisted them. 

Rogers' first thought was for his rangers who were dying one 
by one at Coos. Several canoes were immediately fitted out, and 
manned by strong arms they shot like arrows up through the 
forest that shut in the Connecticut. In four days the suffering 
rangers saw them pull round the headland where ten days before 
their leader had disappeared. Resting for a day only, Rogers 
went up the river to meet his men and again share their fortunes. 
It was a strange sight, that silent voyage down the blue stream ; 
those rude boats, freighted with men whose matted beards, sunken 
eyes, and hollow cheeks told of the horrors they had endured. 

On the fifth dav of November the last livins: rang-er had 
arrived at Number Four. Gathered around their leader at the 
fort they seemed more like ill-dressed corpses than like human 


beings. Delaying a few days to recruit their exhausted energies, 
Kogers placed himself at their head and hurried away across the 
Green mountains to T^iconderoga and Crown Point to take part in 
the closing scenes of the war. 

Perhaps some would like to know the subsequent history of 
Major Rogers. To narrate all of the events of his after life would 
be altogether foreign to our purpose. "When Wolfe defeated Mont- 
calm on the plains of Abraham, and the flag of old England was 
unfurled above the battlements of the strongest fortress in Amer- 
ica, the major went to the far west. He scouted sometime in the 
woods about Detroit, searching for Indians, and then made an 
expedition on the ice up Lake Huron, towards Michilimackinac. 
At the close of the war he went to Europe, and thence to Africa, 
where he fought two battles under the Dey of Algiers. For a 
further account of his life we would refer to " Eogers' Journal," 
published by himself, a very old and rare work, the author of this 
veritable history never having met with but one copy. 

Rogers himself and his rangers never forgot their memorable 
visit to Coos, and years afterwards many of them found a home in 
the scene of their sufiering. 

The work was now all done. There was no more fear of the 
Indians, and our beloved Pemigewassett land, including the town 
of Warren, the history of which Ave are trying so hard to write, 
was now destined to undergo a great change. A more glorious 
era was about to dawn upon the great wild north of New Hamp- 

As this second book was designed only to treat of the border 
wars by means of which the old hunting grounds of the Pemige- 
wassetts became known and opened up for settlement, we shall 
here necessarily put an end to our narrations of bush-fights, cap- 
tivities, and explorations, and shall endeavor in our next to tell 
how our own Warren — one of the wildest of the northern ham- 
lets — was established and occupied. 





The old French war was eucled. The Indians were no 
longer feared. Eogers had crushed them. A vast extent of forest 
country now lay open to the colonists. Our little mountain ham- 
let — not yet called Warren — Avas in this mighty wood, in which 
there were no openings save those made by the hurricane, the 
flood, or the Indian's fire. Camel's Hump and Mt. Mansfield 
looked down upon the lesser heights of the Green mountains ; the 
White hills rose out of the woods like islands in a sea, and Mts. 
Aziscoos and Katardin stood high above Umbagog and Moosehead 
lakes, which had mirrored them for centuries. Otter creek. 
Onion river, and the Lamoile, flowed from the wilderness to the 
west; the Connecticut, the Merrimack, and the Saco came down 
from the mountains of New Hampshire, and the Androscoggin, 
the Kennebec and the Penobscot from the bright lakes of the east. 
The Indians, as we have before shown in this most veritable 


history had nearly all left this umbrageous wilderness ; but the 
"wild beastes," so accurately described by that early, celebrated, 
and very chaste historian, John Josselyu, Gent., such as bears, 
wolves, panthers, moose, deer, loupcerviers, and sweet-smelling 
"squnckes," remained. 

My gentle reader, without doubt you know already that the 
little tract of territory at the head of the Asquamchumauke val- 
ley and surrounded by lofty mountains was in the very heart of 
this great, wild, beast-filled wilderness. The far-sighted glance of 
the eagle, soariug aloft above the crests of its mountains, scarce 
penetrated to the distant confines of civilization. The nearest far 
apart settlements in New England were mostly along the sea- 
coast and on the banks of the largest rivers. Up the Merrimack 
the clearings had crept as far as a place called Bakerstown, after- 
wards Stevenstown, and now Franklin, N. H. On the Connecti- 
cut river the most northern settlement was ai'ound that little log- 
fort which we have known in the book preceding as Number Four, 
at present the town of Charleston. For a hundred and fifty yeai"s 
the French had lived in the St. Lawrence valley and their settle- 
ments branched off" into this wilderness on the banks of the 
Chaudiere, the St. Francis, and the Sorelle. To the east, French- 
men lived on the river St. John, and westward were scattered 
openings beyond Champlain and by the great lakes. It was hun- 
dreds of miles across this forest, east and west, north and south. 

Yankee men of that heroic age were as fond of hunting as any 
who live at the present day. Even those not quite so brave spirits 
who had hitherto been compelled to stay at home through fear of 
the Indians, could now take up their march with j)erfect impunity 
into the woods, to hunt and to trap all that wild ferocious game 
which John Josselyn, Gent., has so particularly described to us in 
his veracious history. 

The last of September — in this climate the most delightful 
month of the year — now saw hundreds of men, old and young, 

" The wild-cat, luceni, or luceret, or ounce as some call it, is not inferior to 
lamb. Their jrrease is very sovereign for lameness upon taking cold." 

" The sqHncl:e is almost as big as a raccoon, perfect black and wliite, or pye 
bald, ■with a bushtail like a I'ox, and ofl'ensive carrion. The nrine of tliis creature 
is of so strong a scent that if it light upon anything there is no abiding of it. It 
Avill make a man smell tliough he were of Alexander's complexion, and so sharp, 
if he do but whisk his busli which he pisseth upon in the face of a <logg hunting of 
him, anil if any of it light in his eyes, it will make him almost mad with the smart 
thereof."— John Josselyu's 2 Voyages to New England. 


leaving their wives and sweethearts and journeying to those 
pleasant solitudes in the wooded valleys beside the sylvan brooks, 
rivers, and lakes. They were accustomed to go in boats up the 
streams as far as possible, often following the same routes that 
Capt. Peter Towers sailed, rowed, and poled over, or that Col. 
Joseph Blanchard, Maj. Tolford, and Capt. John Goffe traveled. 
We can imagine them leaving their canoes, gun in one hand, axe 
in the other, and a great pack made up of steel traps, spare shirts, 
feetiug, and provisions, in all more than a hundred pounds weight 
strapped upon their backs, and toiling through the woods and 
over the mountains in search of beaver meadows and sable ranges. 
They would build for themselves pleasant little cabins beside some 
musical stream, and here they would hunt till the snowflakes flew. 
Then, toting their traps and rich peltries back to their canoes, they 
would paddle rapidly down the swift current of the now swollen 
streams to their homes again. 

Such were the human inhabitants of our very interesting- 
forest just after the closing of the " Seven Years War;" and such 
were the only visitors of our mountain bounded valley. By these 
hunters every stream of the wilderness was explored, every 
meadow and valley noted, mountain gorges traversed, and even 
the mountains themselves ascended. 

Hitherto the propensity of the Yankee people to emigrate and 
take up new lands, to clear farms, build log cabins to be succeeded 
by pine board palaces, had been restrained as we have already 
hinted by a terror of the Indians. But now a new instinct seemed 
to have taken possession of the multitude. Like the mutterings 
preceding the destruction of Jerusalem, an ominous voice seemed 
to say, *' Let us depart hence," but the departure was for a very 
dilTerent reason. The wild lands of the north were on every 
tongue. All the hunters we have mentioned, all the wild border- 
ers, all the explorers, and all the seven years war men who had 
marched and campaigned through that section, told almost fabulous 
stories of its richness and fertility. 

The world has seen many an exodus. But the flight of the 
Jews from Egypt was very unlike that about to be seen in south- 
ern Xew Hampshire and Massachusetts. The wild Asiatic hordes, 
hurrying from the northern table-lands to the south and west, fur- 


nished hardly a parallel case. There they moved as a vast army, 
conqueiing- the lauds they coveted and making serfs of the 
original dwellers of the soil. Here, however, they seemed desir- 
ous to go one by one into the wilderness : fathers with their fom- 
ilies, and yotmg men without families, each for himself, caring for 
nobody, thinking only of future fields and meadows full of black 
stumps and logs, rich pastures with the same attractive features 
and no end of cobble-stone pyramids added, out of all which 
should come great gains and much happiness. 

But we would not detract one iota from the merits of om- 
forefathers. Let no one think they resembled the squatters of the 
present day, or that they occupied the lands without leave or 
license. They had great respect for law, order, and the rights of 
property. Much as they desired rich homes for themselves, not a 
family would move into the wilderness until they had acquired a 
title to the lauds they wanted. But who owned the lands? T\Tio 
could give them deeds? ~\Vho could insure them a perfect immun- 
ity from being considered trespassers, and protect them from writs 
of ejectment and perplexing lawsuits in which some men so much 
delight? These were very interesting questions, and upon them a 
great discussion arose. All the provinces began to talk of the 
great discoveries of Christopher Columbus, of the seizure of the 
diflerent portions of America by the several nations of Europe, 
of the portion old England modestly took, that of the Virginia 
company, the Dutch "West India company, the Massachusetts Bay 
company, and the grant of that famous little tract of land, made 
by the last named company to John Mason, and then about the 
entertaining lawsuits instituted by said Mason's heirs against other 
claimants of the soil of the province once known as Mariaua, 
otherwise Laconia, and finally Xew Hampshire. 

At last the very wise conclusion obtained possession of men's 
minds that the land belonged to the crown, and to the crown they 
began to look for grants. Then came the question, "Through 
what channels?" — and upon this the distinguished rulers of Xew 
Hamijshire, Massachusetts, and Xew York each set up their claims 
to the land in question, and each announced to the people that he 
was the person to issue grants. 

It is said that three proclamations were put forth by the riva^ 


governors stating this fact, and by this means all the people of the 
sevei'al provinces were clearly enlightened. The dilemma waxed 
more difficult. The law-abiding citizens became more and more 
impatient, and like the ass between two bundles of hay, they 
might wait forever. 

To relieve the public mind of the great suspense that was now 
hanging over these mighty pi'ovinces, embassies were dispatched 
to England to obtain a settlement of the great question. "Who 
went on this important mission, and when they went or returned, 
it is not for this veracious history to chronicle. Suffice it to say 
that they did return and made so satisfactory a report that the 
whole matter seemed more befogged than ever, and things did not 
advance a particle. 

The several royal governors grew more belligerent than before. 
They eyed each other like dogs watching a bone, each jealous of 
the other. So furious did they become that even grim visaged 
war with its horrid front seemed portending. An old historian 
said the moon looked like blood, that a comet appeared in the 
heavens, and meteors flashed across the sky. Provinces hitherto 
peaceful among themselves, content to fight only a common foe, 
Indian or French, now seemed ready to gird on their armor for 
internecine strife. Of the two methods of settling boundaiy lines 
— one by arms, the other by compromise — it seemed at one time 
highly probable that the former might be chosen. 

But the fates decreed otherwise, and determined that neither 
method should be followed. While the royal governors of Mas- 
sachusetts and New York were contending with high words, and 
seemed almost ready to come to blows and broken heads, New 
Hampshire's greatest and best ruler continued to add fuel to the 
flames of contention now brightly burning, and also si(b roso took 
time by the forelock, boldly cut the gordian knot for himself, and 
before a rumor of what he was doing had gone abroad, made hun- 
dreds of grants to actual settlers, leaving his two dear friends the 
governors nothing to fight about, and so ehot far ahead of them in 
worldly riches and gubernatorial fame. How this was accom- 
plished we shall immediately proceed to show. 



BeNNING WENTWORTH, whom we have many times 
before mentioned, was the son of John Wentworth, one of the 
former royal lieutenant-governors of the province of New Hamp- 
shire. He was installed in office with great ceremonies and 
rejoicings on the 13th of December, 1741. It is recorded how a 
mighty cavalcade escorted him into that great seaport town, Ports- 
mouth, and how he was received amid, the joyful acclamations of 
thousands of people who assembled to welcome him. This is 
probably the partly truthful and the partly poetical language of 
the distinguished historian ; but we can well pardon his veneration 
for one of the most honorable governors of his loved State.* 

Had our royal ruler consented to have lived, till the present 
time we might have presented a faithful portrait of his character, 
appearance, and habits ; as it is, we shall be under the necessity of 
giving him but a passing notice. 

Governor Wentworth was a fine gentleman, " all of ye olden 
time," and in the matter of dress was fastidious. On state occa- 
sions he appeared in powdered wig, three-cornered hat, blue coat 
with buff" facings and bright buttons, breeches rather broad in the 

*Bemiing Wentworth was a descendant of Elder William Wentworth, of Dov- 
er. Lient. Governor John Wentworth had fourteen children : 1st, Benning, after- 
wards governor; '2d, John, Judge of Probate of Portsmouth; 3d, Hunking; 4th, 
William; 5th, Samuel, father of Mrs. Gov. John; Gth, Mark Hunking, father of 
Gov. John; 7th, Daniel; Sth, Ebenezer; 9th, George; 10th, Hannah, maiTied Sam- 
uel Plaisted and Theodore Atkinson; 11th, Sarali,"married Archibald McPhedris; 
12th, Mary; 13th, Elizabetli; 14th, Rebecca, married Thomas Packer. Benniug 
Wentworth was councillor from 1732 to 1741, when he became governor, and re- 
main-ed in office till May, 1767 — History of Chester, 54. 


seat and tight ai'ound the leg, long stockings, sharp-pointed shoes, 
silver knee and shoe-buckles, an immense frizzle around the neck, 
and a shirt bosom set forth with enormous ruflfles. 

In education he was superior to most men of his time, having 
spent several years at Harvard University and received all the 
honors of that renowned institution. Probably geography was 
not then taught, or he never would have made those lamentable 
mistakes in reckoning latitude and longitude, which as we have 
before shown in this most delectable history cost so much blood 
and treasure. 

He made but few laws, but he took great care that these 
should be well understood and executed, as we have seen in the 
case of Peter Bowen and his friend, when they went scot free on 
account of public opinion. 

As a warrior he was peculiarly great and fortunate, although 
we have no knowledge that he ever fought a battle in his life. He 
preferred rather to plan mighty campaigns and trust to his distin- 
guished generals to execute them. Cavalry soldiers were his fav- 
orites, and the desperate charges of his bold wild horsemen through 
the dark woods of the north are facts well known in history. 

Governor Wentworth I'eigned long and well, much to the sat- 
isfaction of his loyal subjects, and bid fair to have held his posi- 
tion till the day of his death but for his love of wealth and that his 
great gains excited the envy of other ambitious and avaricious 
men of the province. 

The governor had a worthy secretary, who had been a friend 
and acquaintance of his boyhood, they having attended the same 
school and hunted birds' nests and stole apples together on holi- 
days. At a later day his honorable secretary — the "Right Hon- 
orable Theodore Atkinson, Jr.," — had married Banning "Went- 
worth's sister, and the governor having an eye for the advantage 
of his relations — like many another high in office before and since 
his time — had given his brother-in-law an appointment. They 
Ijulled together kindly, and Secretary Atkinson held his place till 
the honorable governor was obliged to retire. 

We have been thus particular in mentioning these two men, 
high functionaries of the royal province of New Hampshire, be- 
cause to the bravery of the one and the faithfulness of the other is 


due the creation of our little dependant democracy — "Warren. 
They stood godfathers at the birth of our mountain hamlet, and 
must not be forgotten. 

Some men act from principle and sink self, the motive that 
actuates them being piirely philanthropic ; but like angels' visits 
they are few and far between. Selfishness is generally the ruling 
motive. Thus Governor "Wentworth and his precise secretary saw 
a golden opportunity before them and interest whispei'ed that it 
must be improved. Dreams of how they could make a howling 
wilderness blossom as the rose ; broad intervals and rich hillside 
pastures covered with flocks and herds ; nice farm houses, great 
barns filled with hay and grain, and an industrious population ex- 
ceedingly eager to paj^ a large sum in quit rents, burst upon their 
vision, and they were not slow to take advantage of the oppor- 

"While the discussion was going on, and the governors of New 
York and Massachusetts were considering the case. Governor 
"Wentworth, as we have already intimated, commenced the grand 
work of giving titles to the land. He secretly gathered together 
all the surveyors of the surrounding country and set them at work 
to survey the richest portions of our great wilderness. On each 
side of the Connecticut river three tiers of townships were laid 
out, and before the worthy rulers of the neighboring ijroviuces 
were aware of it the sections had nearly all been granted to intelli- 
gent and enterprising men, who were making every effort to settle 
and cultivate the same. 

"We cannot stop to tell of the mighty wrath that waxed hot in 
royal bosoms when the acts of Governor "Wentworth were report- 
ed; how Massachusetts finally relinquished her claim, and how 
New York by fraud established hers ; nor how the rough back- 
woodsmen on the borders and among the Green mountains con- 
tended with the avaricious ''Yorkers," who were encouraged by 
old England, for long years, until they establislied their indepen- 
dence and "Vermont became a State by itself. "We leave such 
things to graver and more prosy historians. 

Governor "Wentworth, thrice happy, thrice blessed, now made 
himself a great favorite with all his people — for a short time. All 
the wild moss-troopers, all the heavy infantry that had served in 


the old French and Indian wars, all who had money in their pock- 
ets wherewith to paj' good round fees, were now suddenly enriched 
by the good governor. All they had to do was to draw up a peti- 
tion, get the requisite number of signers, go to the governor with 
a nice bag of gold, and a charter was sure. 

Our respectable secretary had a hard time of it, writing out 
all the charters and recording them in the book kept for that pur- 
pose, but many a weary day he toiled on for fees which were great 
and for reservations which were greater. Their coffers were well 
filled, their purses were heavy, and their broad domains extended 
on every hand. Our royal governor reserved for himself five hun- 
dred acres of good land in every township, and his diligent seci'e- 
tary's name always appeared in the list of grantees. Then there 
were the quit-rents of money and numerous ears of corn, stipula- 
ted to be paid in all coming time. And the governor and his 
worthy secretary longed for the day when they should revel in 
their palaces on the shores of the silver lake Wiunepisseogee, and 
with fleet horses and baying hounds follow the deer, or with costly 
equipage roll along busy and prosperous thoroughfares. AYhat 
vistas of joy and grandeur opened on their delighted vision. 

Wild contentions with the "Yorkers," and the envious avarice 
of others, destroyed their bright air castles. But all these and 
many other things were necessary to bring our little mountain 
hamlet into existence. 



' ^OT far from Portsmouth, the reskleuce of '' Old King- 
George's" roj^al g'0\{eriior, Benning Weutworth, is the little towu 
of Kingston.* One of the most prominent persons of the latter 
town was John Page, Esq. He was a man of intelligence, of ex- 
tensive acquaintance, and always prompt to take advantage of the 
times. In personal appearance he was nearly six feet tall, broad, 
square-shouldered, and would weigh one hundred and eighty 
pounds. He had a square-set face, keen grey eyes, light hair and 
sandy whiskers. His dress was neat and he wore short breeches, 
long stockings, and on Sundays silver shoe and knee buckles. 

He had served as selectman, had represented his town in the 
general court, and had also engaged in trade and speculation. He 
was a man who would act when occasion presented itself, and 
now when speculation in land was rife he was wide awake for his 
share of the profits. It was an easy thing for him to draw up a 
petition, and it did not bother him much to get sixty odd men 
possessed of means to sign the same. No less than eight men of 
his own name — including John Page, Jr., a son of course ; Colonel 
Jonathan Greeley, mine host who kept the village inn, with his 
relatives, Jonathan Greeley, 2d, Andrew Greeley and Joseph 
Greeley, Esqrs., also Moses Greeley, of Salisbury, Mass. ; True- 
worthy Ladd, who kept the countiy store ; the Hon. Dr. Josiah 

* Since divided into Kingston and East Kingston. 


Bartlett,* afterwards a membcv of the Continental Congress; John 
Hazeu, John Parker, George Marsh, and Thomas Pierce, four val- 
iant captains who had commanded companies in the old French 
war, were among the petitioners. 

Armed with this petition, and carrying in his saddle-bags a 
little purse, containing a hundred pounds or more in gold, he 
mounted his dark bay horse one fine morning, just as many other 
men at that time who wanted grants of land were doing, and rode 
to Portsmouth. He had no difficulty in gaining access to His 
Honor the Governor, and when he had shown his petition, signed 
by the best of the king's subjects who lived in Kingston, and had 
jingled his little purse of gold in the gubernatorial ear, His Excel- 
lency_^ was delighted to grant a charter. He could not find it in 
his heart to refuse such honorable men, and withal so brave sol- 
diers. How" wonderfully does gold grease the wheels of all enter- 

"My secretary shall write you a charter immediately," said 
His Excellency, and the Hon. Theodore Atkinson, Jr., was called 
and directed to proceed with the work. Theodore, the secretary, 
smiled as he said to John Page, Esq., that he would be delighted 
to place his own name among the list of the honorable grantees. 
Esquire Page could only reply that he would be most happy to 
have him, and then the governor rang the bell and directed the 
sei*vant to bring three bowls of rich punch, in which they were all 
very much pleased to drink each others' health. 

In the meantime the charter was duly written out. signed by 
Benning AVentworth, the great seal affixed, handed to a clerk to 
be recorded, and John Page, Esq., bidding the governor and his 
secretary good day, mounted his horse and went home. 

"Warren then had a legal existence. It had been marked on 
the map and named nearly two yeaips previous, and was then polit- 
ically conceived. The lith of July, 1763, was its bit'thday. 

John Page, Esq., told his friends the grantees what he had 
done aud promised them, as the governor had him, that they 

*Josiah Bartlett was a physician, born at Amesbury, Mass., in November, 
1729. He commenced practice in Kingston, N. H., became an active politician, a 
member of the provincial legislature, also of tlie committee of safety, in 1775, and 
at the close of that year a member of the continental congi-ess. He was afterward 
a judge aud then governor of New Hampshire, aud died iu May, 1795. He was at 
one time a Colonel. 


should have the chartei* in a few days. But they were destined to 
wait. They could not hurry the governor, and his secretaiy, 
" The Et. Hon. Theodore Atkinson, Jr.," had so much business 
on hand that neither he nor his clerks could possibly find time to 
complete the work of recording the charter of Warren until the 
28th January, 1764. The original was then forwarded to John 
Page, Esq. 

That night he met his friends the associate grantees at Colonel 
Jonathan Greeley's inn.* He showed the prize, and they all 
seemed exceedingly well-pleased. It was written in a nice round 
hand, the parchment was excellent, a blue ribbon was attached, 
and the great seal of the royal province gave it regal dignity and 
legal consequence. t 

* Four roads meet in East Kingston, X. H., one pair running north and south, 
the other east and west. On the latter, oue-lourtli ol' a mile west of the fom- cor- 
ners was the Colonel's hotel. It stood on the north side of the road. In front 
undulating fields sloped up to the top of the low wooded hills in the south, while 
to the north they gradually declined a mile away to the low bottom land. For fifty 
rods in front of the house the road is level, beginning to descend to the eastern 
valley by the great rock on the lell, and to tlie western by tlie old burying-place. 
On tliis road our old proprietors tried the speed of their horses alter town meet- 
ings. West of the house was the orchard. The house itself was a large two-story 
building, eaves to the road, built in the style peculiar to those days. Two square 
rooms in front — the south-east one the bar room — a long dining-hall or kitchen in 
the rear, and behind was a dairy and cook room. There was a long unfinished haU 
up stairs, over the dining room, filled with beds for lodgers, and in front two fur- 
nished cliamijers. The bar room and dining hall were ceiled with white pine 
boards, but the parlor and chamber walls were " hung with rich paper." The 
house was built over about twenty years ago, but the same materials were used, 
and to-day the doors, the windows, the casmgs, are all the same as when Colonel 
Greeley, John Page, Dr. Bartlett, and Jeremy Webster first assembled at the propri- 
etors' meetings. In the back room is an old chest of di'awers, and a cupboard ; also 
the " Dairy " used by (Colonel Greeley's family. 


Province of New Havip shire, George the Third, by the Grace of God, of Gi-eat 
Britain, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, <Jc. 

To all persons to whom these presents shall come, gi-eeting: Know ye that we 
of our special grace, certain knowledge, and mere motion, for the due encourage- 
ment of settling a new plantation within our said province, by and with the advice 
of our trusty and well beloved Benning Wentwoith, Esq., our governor and com- 
mander-in-chief of our said province of Xew Hampshire in New England, and of our 
council of the said province, have upon the conditions and reservations hereinafter 
made, given and gi-anted, and by these presents for us our heirs and successors do 
give and gi-ant in equal shares unto our loving sxibjects, inhabitants of our said 
province of New Hampshire and our other governments, and to their heirs and 
assigns forever, whose names are entered on this grant, to be divided to and 
amongst them into seventy-two equal shares : All that tract or parcel of land situ- 
ate lying and being within our said province of New Hampshire, containing by ad- 
measurement twenty-two thousand acres, which tract is to contain almost six miles 
square and no more; out of which an allowance is to be made for highways and 
imimproved lands by rocks, ponds, mountains, and rivers, one thousand and forty 
acres free; according to a plan and survey thereof, made by our said governor's 
order and returned into the secretary's office and hereunto annexed, butted and 
bounded as follows, viz : Beginning at the northwesterly corner of Romney, 
thence running north twenty-four degi-ees east five miles and tliree-quarters of a 
mile ; tlience turning ofl' and running north fifty-eight degrees west, six miles and 
one hall' mile to the southeasterly corner of Haverhill ; thence south twenty 


111 the milliner of tlie most standard novelists we would here 
pause and invite the gentle reader to look with us over the 
shoulders of John Page, Esq., Col. Jonathan Greeley, and their 
numerous friends the grantees, at this mighty instrument: 

George the Third, by the Grace of God, of Great Brit- 
ain, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c. 

Such was its heading ; and we must remember that they lived 
in good old provincial times and that George III was their king. 
How glad they are that Governor "Wentworth has been so good to 
them. He has given them thirty-six square miles of territory, and 

degrees west five miles and three-quarters of a mile; then turning off again and 
running south lilty-nine degrees east six miles to the corner of Romney begun at; 
and that the same be and hereby is incorporated into a township by the name of 
Wauren, and the inhabitants that do or shall hereafter inhabit the said to\ynship 
are hereby declared to be enfranchised witli and entitled to all and every privilege 
and immunities that other towns within our province by law exercise and enjoy; 
and further, that the said town as soon as there shall be fifty families resident and 
settled therein, shall have the liberty of holding two fairs, one of which shall be 
liolden on the [ ], and the other on the [ ], annually; which fairs are not 

to be continued longer than the respective [ ] follo\ving"the said [ ] ; and 

that as soon as the said to^vn shall consist of fifty families a market may be opened 
and kept one or more days in each week, as maybe thought most advantageous to 
the inhabitants ; also that the first meeting for the choice of town oflicers, agreeable 
to the laws of our said province, shall be held on the second Wednesday of Febru- 
ary next, which said meeting shall be notified by John Page, Esq., who is hereby 
also appointed the moderator of the said first meeting, which lie is to notify and 
govern, agreeably to the laws and customs of our said province; and that the 
annual meeting forever hereafter for the choice of such oflicers for said town shall 
be on the first Wednesday of March annually : To have and to hold the said tract 
of land, as above expressed, together with all privileges and appurtenances, to 
them and their respective heirs and assigns forever, upon the following conditions, 

1st. That every grantee, his heirs or assigns, shall plant and cultivate five 
acres of land withm the term of five years for every fifty acres contained in his or 
their share or proportion of laud in said township, and continue to improve and 
settle the same by additional cultivation, on penalty of the forfeiture of his grant 
or share in said township and of its reverting to us our heirs and successors, to be 
by ns or them regranted to such of our subjects as shall effectually settle and culti- 
vate the same. 

2d. That all white or other pine trees within the said township fit for masting 
our royal navy be carefully preserved for that use ; and none be cut or felled with- 
out our special license for "so doing first had and obtained, upon penalty of the for- 
feiture of the right of such grantee his heirs and assigns to us our heirs and suc- 
cessors, as well as being subject to the penalty of any act or acts of parliament 
that now are or shall hereafter be enacted. • 

3d. That before any division of the land be made to and among the grantees a 
tract of land as near the centre of said township as the land will admit of shall be 
reserved and marked out for town lots, one of which shall be allotted to each gran- 
tee, of the contents of one acre. 

■Ith. Yielding and paying therefor to us our heirs and successors, for the space 
of ten years to be computed from the date hereof, the rent of one ear of Indian 
corn only, on the twenty-fifth day of December annually, if lawfully demanded; 
the first payment to be made onthe twenty-fifth day of "December, 1763. 

5th. Every proprietor, settler, or inhabitant shall yield and pay unto us our 
heirs and successors yearly, and for every year forever from and after tlie expira- 
tion of ten years after the above said twenty-fifth day of December, namely, on the 
twenty-fifth day of December which will be in the year of our Lord, 1773, one shil- 



divided it into seventy-two equal shares. Tlie number of acres 
is twenty-two thousand, all good and excellent land. By the way, 
they have never seen it yet, but then certainly most of it must be 
good, for has he not made an allowance for highways and unim- 
proved lands, by reason of rocks, ponds, mountains, and rivers, 
one thousand and forty acres free? 

How accurately it is bounded. Romney is its southeast cor- 
ner, and Haverhill its northwest corner ; so we know that both 
Romney and Haverhill have been ali'eady located and surveyed. 

ling proclamation money, for every hundred acres he so owns settles or possesses 
and so in proportion lor a greater or less tract of tlie said land, which money shall 
be paid by the respective persons abovesaid their heirs or assigns, in our council 
chamber in Portsmouth, or to such officer or officers as shall be appointed to 
receive the same, and this to be in lieu of all other rents and services whatever. 

In testimony u-liereof we have caused the seal of our said province to be here- 
unto affixed. Witness Benning Wentworth, Esq., our governor and commander- 
in-chief of our said province, the 14th day of .July, in the year of our Lord Christ 
one thousand seven hundred and sixty-three, and in the third vear of our reign. 


By His Excellency's command, with advice of Council — 

T. Atkinson, Jun., Secretary. 

Province of New Hampshire, Jan. 28th, 1764. 

Recorded in the Booli of Charters, No. 3, pages 78, 79. 

T. Atkinson, Jun., Secretary. 


Ebenezer Stevens, Esq., 
Dier Hook, 
Philip Tilton, 
Nathaniel Fifield, 
Andrew Greeley, 
Jacob Currier, 
Samuel Dudley, 
Joseph Tilton, 
Francis Batchelder, 
.Joseph Greeley, 
John Batchelder, 
Jacob Gale, 
Abraham Morrill, 
.Jeremv Webster, 
"The Rt. Hon. Theodore 
Atkinson, Jun., Esq.,"* 
Nathaniel Barrel, 
Samuel Graves, 
John Marsh, 

Moses Greeley, of Salis- 
Andi-ew Wiggm, Esq., 

to contain five hundred 
acres, as marked B. WTon the plan, which is to be accounted two of the with- 
in shares. One whole share for the incorporated society for the propagation of 
the gospel in foreign parts. One share for a glebe for the Church of England, 
as by law established. One share for the first settled minister, and one share 
for the benefit of a school in said town forever. 

Province of New Hampshire, .Tan. 2Sth, 1764. 

Recorded in the Book of Charters, No. 3, page 80. 

T. ATKINSON, JUN., Secretaiy. 
*1N.H. Hist. Col. 282. 

John Page, Esq., 
Jona. Greeley, Esq., 
James Graves, 
Joseph Blanchard, Esq 
Capt. .Jolin Hazen, 
Ephraim Brown, 
Joseph Page, 
Belcher Dole, 
Reuben True, 
Stephen Websterj 
John Darling, 
Capt. John Parker, 
Jona. Greeley, 2d, 
Enoch Chase, 
Lemuel Stevens, 
Abel Davis, 
Capt. George Marsh, 
Ebenezer Morrill, 
Trueworthy Ladd, 
William Whiteher, 
Ebenezer Collins, 
Ebenezer Page, 
James Nevins, Esq., 
His Excellency Benning 

Samuel Page, 
Moses Page, 
.John Page, Jun., 
Ephraim Page, 
Enoch Page, 
Benj. French, Jun., 
Aaron Clough, Jun., 
Silas Newel, 
David Morrill, 
Nathaniel Currier, 
Benjamin Clough, 
Henry Morrill, 
Jacob Hook, Esq., 
.Josiah Bartlett, 
Joseph Whiteher, 
Reuben French, 
Samuel Osgood, 
Thomas True, 
David Clough, 
Daniel Page, 
Peter Coffin, .Tun., 
William Parker, Jr., Esq., 
Capt. Thomas Pierce, 

AVentwoi'th a tract of land 



The next fact that meets the eye is, " That the same be and 
herebj'- is incorporated into a township by the name of 



m ^-^""^ 

John Page, Jr., must here have asked his venerable sire whY 
it was so called. Tradition has it that John Page, Sr., replied 
that he had conversed with the governor about the origin of the 
name, and that His Excellency informed him that the surveyors 
of the " King's Woods,'" who had visited the township to estab- 
lish the lines, reported that it Avas a beautiful land, full of rabbits, 
Avhere nature had seemingly appropriated a i)iece of ground to 
their breeding and preservation 

Dr. Josiah Bartlett, who was learned in Indian as well as 
medical lore, interrupted and said he supposed it must be a place 
granted bv the Gitche Manito, the Indian god who had his home 


on the summits of the lofty mountains round about, to the red 
sons of the forest in which to keep all their " beastes," fowls, and 
fish; <'For," said he, "all the jolly hunters say that the woods are 
full of moose, deer, bear, and other game, that wild ducks swim 
on the rivers and ponds, and that every stream is alive with the 
speckled trout and golden salmon." 

John Page, Esq., farther said that His Excellency told him 
that he was also influenced to bestow the name, Warren, upon this 
tract of wild, mountainous country, out of respect for his fiiend, 
Admiral Warren, of '' Louisburg notoriety." He wished to honor 
the admiral, because he had greatly aided the New Hampshire and 
Massachusetts troops in wresting that almost impregnable fortress 
from the French. 

Now we desire to caution our readers against putting too 
much faith in the above very plausible traditions. We have a 
pretty theory of our own in relation to the matter, and it is but 
natural that we should want to give it a place in this most ambi- 
tious history. It is this : Old England has a borough named 
Warren, and there was then a town of Warren in nearly every 
other royal province, and it was and is extremely fashionable to 
bestow tliis beautiful name, signifying a rabbit borough, upon a 
handsome and fertile tract of country ; therefore His Excellency, 
imitating the mother-land and the royal governors of other loyal 
provinces, named this beautiful and fertile grant, given to John 
Page, Esq., and sixty-five others — Warren. 

We cannot conclude this subject of etymology without notic- 
ing the opinion of the learned Deacon Asa McFarland, so long the 
able editor of the New Hampshire Statesman, and a member of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society. He gravely asserts that the 
town is named for and after General Joseph Warren, who fell a 
martyr for his country at Bunker Hill.* But as General Warren 
was but a stripling in 1761, and probably unknown to our good 
governor, aud as the battle of Bunker Hill was not fought until 
fourteen years after Benning Wentworth had retired from office, 
and even his loyal successor had taken French leave of his most 
I'oyal province, we can but conclude that our most wise editor 
was entirely correct in the matter, aud would enjoin upon our 
*See files of the New Hampshire Statesman. 


readers to put the utmost confidence in the learned deacon's 

Haying thus profoundly shown how the name of our little 
hamlet originated, we will proceed to examine with John Page, 
Esq., and the numerous other grantees, into the furtlier mysteries 
of their great and mighty instrument, the charter. 

The next fact learned is that the future inhabitants of said 
township — once called in the charter "a neio plantation" — are 
hereby declared to be enfranchised with and entitled to all and 
every privilege and immunity that other towns within " our prov- 
ince '' exercise and enjoy. 

This was kind. But His Excellency, the geographer, was 
determined to do more for John Page, Esq., and his friends than 
was customary. The .governor loved them exceedingly ; they had 
been so good as to bring a larger bag of gold than was usual. He 
therefore ordered "The Rt. Hon. Theodore Atkinson, Jun., Esq." 
to insert the provision, "That as soon as there shall be fifty fam- 
ilies resident and settled in town they shall have the liberty of 
holding tivo fairs." This would make the land sell better. 

It was a glorious privilege, and all the grantees imagined — 
and some of them had excellent iijiaginations — how like old 
Derr\-field or the fairs of England and Ireland, or like the Olym- 
pic, Pythian, Isthmian or Nemean games of classic Greece, their 
semi-annual gatherings should be held, when the farmers could 
sell and swap horses, run horse and foot I'aces, wrestle and box, 
climb slippery poles, and pursue greased pigs ; while at even-tide 
the youths and maidens should dance on the village green, or wit- 
ness the wild acts of improvised athletes, and listen to the sweet 
songs of wandering minstrels. 

That there might be no doubt concerning the governor's sin- 
cere friendship he also caused to be inserted the authority "That 
a market may be opened and kept one or more days in each week, 
as may be thought most advantageous to the inhabitants." 

What a happy idea was this: The village green should be 
alive with horses, beeves, sheep, and hogs, with loads of hay and 
grain and wood, and long rows of stalls where marketmen and 
marketwomen, carrying well filled baskets, could buy and sell 
poultry, fish, meats, and vegetables of every sort and kind. 


But there must be a few conditious. The privileges must not 
be all on one side. If the grantees do not hasten, the town will 
not flourish with a rich and teeming population, and the quit- 
rents, ears of corn, and proclamation money will not come in fast 
enough, and the royal governor and his secretary cannot ride in 
their coaches and build their palaces on the shore of the smiling 
lake as they would like. So it was stipulated: 

1st. That every grantee for every fifty acres he owns shall with- 
in the term of five years plant and cultivate five acres of land. 

2d. That ?i\\pine trees fit for masting our royal navy shall be 
carefully preserved. 

3d. That a totvn lot one acre in size shall be laid out near the 
centre of the town for each grantee. 

4th. That for ten years each grantee shall pay the rent of one 
ear of Indian corn annually. 

5th. That after ten years each grantee shall annually pay for 
every hundred acres owned one shilling proclamation money. 

AVe are thus particular to put all these conditions into our 
most important history because it must be remembered that the 
governor put them all in the charter. 

Then in the most gracious manner possible the governor 
reserved for himself only (5ue lot containing five hundred acres, 
and he was very particular to have it marked on the little plan of 
the town accompanying the charter. But he had the misfortune 
to locate it in a very poor place, owing no doubt to his great skill 
in geography. Wachipauka pond, the precipitous face of Web- 
ster Slide mountain, and the blueberry patch on its summit, con- 
stituted the good gentleman's reservation. 

Governor Wentworth was an excellent man. He belonged to 
the high church of England, and withal was piously inclined. So 
he told his brother-in-law the honorable secretary to reseiwe one 
whole share ''for the incorporated society for the propagation of 
the gospel in foreign parts," " one share for a glebe for the Church 
of England as by law established," and " one share for the first 
settled minister." 

But not an acre did he give to the witch-hanging, ear-crop- 
ping, cheek-branding, bundling puritans, as he called them, nor 
to the Scotch covenanters. Not he! He did not believe in them. 


But he did believe in education, and was very willing to do 
something for coming generations, especially when other people 
paid the expenses; and so he ordered in addition that ''one share 
should be appropriated for the benefit of a school in said town 

How satisfactory were all these conditions, provisions, and 
reservations, and how well John Page, Esq., Colonel Jonathan 
Greeley, and all their friends felt that night. Visions of broad 
acres and riches without limit, accruing from great sales of land 
and from rents, floated before them. The entire brood was reck- 
oned up before a single chicken had burst the shell, and with 
characteristic liberality drinks and viands were ordered up. 
Bowls of hot punch and mugs of good old fashioned flip circulated 
freely, and with song and jest and shout the time flew fast. The 
moon had gone down in the Avest and the stai's were dimming 
when these future lords of the soil separated for their homes. 



N^OW there shall be no more delay. The long summer and 
autumn had passed, and part of the winter had gone, since the 
visit of John Page, Esq., to Portsmouth, and it did seem to the 
anxious grantees that the Kt. Hon. Theodore Atkinson, Esq., had 
not the slightest regard for their feelings and desire for gain, else 
he would have recorded and forwarded the charter sooner. No 
more time should be lost; a meeting must forthwith be called. 
At the gathering at the inn of mine host. Colonel Jonathan Gree- 
ley, the grantees one and all had importuned John Page, Esq., to 
make all possible haste, post the notices, and let them, the eager 
grantees, immediately assemble. 

John Page, Esq., did so, agreeably to the provisions of the 
charter, and in just ten days after it was recorded, on February 
8th, 1764, Colonel Jonathan Greeley's lively inn was honored by 
the great initiatory meeting. 

The proprietors of our little mountain hamlet assembled in 
full numbers. Even Moses Greeley, of Salisbury, was present. 
At ten o'clock A. M. they wei-e ready for business, and John Page, 
Esq., as directed by the charter, called the meeting to order. 

It was held in the long dining hall back of the parlor and the 
tap-room. A bright fii'e was blazing on the open hearth, there 
were benches around the hall on which the men were to sit, while 
some of the more chilly gathered standing about the fire. An old 


table was placed upon a little platform at one end of the hall, and 
by it sat John Page, Esq. Eapping upon it with his knuckles he 
called the meeting to order and immediately the hum of conversa- 
tion ceased. 

From the time of his return from Portsmouth he had kept 
close possession of the charter, and now drawing it forth he pro- 
ceeded to read it at length. "When he had finished a buzz was 
heard about the room, as is usual at town meetings, but Esquire 
Page again rapped upon the table and pK)ceeded to remark that 
the tirst business in order would be the choosing of a toicn clerk; 
and the proper way to proceed would be to elect him by ballot. 
He therefore requested that written ballots might be prepared and 
forwarded. Upon counting them it was found that Jeremy "Web- 
ster had received the whole number, and it was declared that 
Jeremy AVebster was unanimously elected. In a like manner 
Jeremy Webster, Colonel Jonathan Greeley, and Lieutenant James 
Graves were chosen selectmen. It was then voted that the annual 
meeting of the proprietors of "Warren should be held on the first 
Wednesday of March, and that the next one should be held at the 
inn of mine host. Col. Jonathan Greeley, on the 7th of Mai'ch, 
1764, that date falling on the said first "Wednesday. The meeting- 
was then dissolved. 

. But the proprietors did not disperse. It was the first corpora- 
tion meeting and there must be a corporation dinner. John Page, 
Esq., himself says that two long tables were set in the very hall in 
which the meeting was held. The plates, knives, spoons, pewter- 
platters, mugs, and service, all brought from England, were 
arrayed with mathematical exactness. Roast beef, spare ribs, 
turkeys, aud chickens; chicken pies, plum puddings, mince pies, 
apple pies, cakes, sauce, and savory viands of all kinds, including 
without doubt sundry pots of baked beans contrasted with huge 
loaves of Indian meal bread, fairly caused the festive board to 

John Page, Esq., also says that he himself sat at the head of 
one table, and Col. Jonathan Greeley at the other, and that each 
man carved for himself, as was the fashion in "ye ancient time." 
As beef, pork, and fowl rapidly disappeared, what cheer was 
there — what jokes they cracked — how rich they felt — and how 



fast fle-w the time. And then the hissing hot punch was brought 
in, and first of all, every one standing, they dranlv King George's 
health. Then the song, the jest, the laugh, and the health of our 
good governor w^as not forgotten. To each other long life, hap- 
piness, and riches "were drank, and the short hours flew swiftly by 
until one by one our worthy proprietors liad drank themselves 
sober and had departed their several ways. The expense of this 
and all other meetings was paid out of the proprietors' stock.* 

It was a worthy cftnipany that took supper at Col. Greeley's 
inn. The presence of the Kt. Hon. Theodore Atkinson, Jun., the 
Hon. Josiah Bartlett, afterwards governor of New Hampshire, 
Col. Jonathan Greeley, a man of much influence, John Page, Esq., 
and a host of other good and notable men, made a most respecta- 
ble meeting. 

Of course not many plans Avere made, for according to the 
vote another meeting was soon to be held, at which a j)rogramme 
was to be fully discussed and adopted. 

Consider for a moment this first meeting of our forefathers. 
All northern New Hampshire was then a wilderness. The little 
hamlet of Warren was clialked on the map, but thei'e Avas no road 
to it or through it ; nothing but an Indian trail. A few settlers 
had just set themselves down by the Connecticut river, at the 
Coos intervals, and twenty miles aAvay the Hobarts and the Weh- 
sters were building the first camps on the Pemigewassett. King 
George ruled the British empire, and the western world but com- 
posed his royal provinces. The king's head ornamented all the 
coin of the realm, and even on Jonathan Greeley's sign was 
painted the English coat of arms. No dreams of independence 
flitted through their bi'ains then; all were loyal subjects. 

Eiches were what the proprietors wanted, and so when the 
first "Wednesday of March, ITG-t, came they were nearly all present 
and eager for action. How avarice will spur men on. 

The meeting being called to order in the same old hall, John 
Page, Esq., was chosen moderator ; Jeremy Webster, clerk; Jos- 
eph Whitcher, constable; Capt. Ephraim Brown, Col. Jonathan 
Greeley, and Jeremy AYebster, selectmen; Capt. Stephen AYebster, 
Joseph Page, and Ebenezer Stevens, surreyors of highivays\ and 

* See Proprietors' Records. 


that there mio-ht bo no delay they determined to choose a com- 
mittee to run the lines round about the township and view the 
land. For this purpose they chose John Page, Esq., Lt. James 
Graves, Col. Jonathan Greeley, Capt. John Plazen, and Captain 
Stephen Webster. They were authorized to procure a surveyor 
and other necessary assistants and to proceed immediately to the 
business. Our tirst annual town meeting, at which these fourteen 
men were immortalized by being elected to such important offices, 
was then adjourned. Every one now believed that the worlc 
would go bravely on and that soon the land would be all sold and 
settled — and then how rich they would be. 

Our valorous committee, chosen to run the lines and view the 
lands, did indeed go to work in a bold and enterprising manner. 
They made application to every trusty and skillful sui'veyor in the 
country, but to no purpose. They were all engaged running 
town lines and lotting lands for other proprietors. The committee 
even made sundrj^ and divers journeys across the border to the 
land of Massachusetts Bay to see if they could find one, but with- 
out any better success. The whole summer went by, and when 
autumn came they wei'e thoroughly convinced that among other 
requisites a considerable sum of money was necessary to secure 
the services of so important a personage as a surveyor had now 
got to be. 

Accordingly a third meeting was called and held on the 17th of 
September, 1764, when it was voted, '"'That a dollar (or its equiv- 
alent in paper currency,) be paid upon each right in order to fur- 
nish and jDay the fore-mentioned committee when they should act 
for running the lines about the township."' That there should be 
no mistake this time, Col. Jonathan Greeley was chosen treasurer, 
to collect and pay out the money for that purpose. 

But prosperity did not smile upon them. Although the hon- 
orable committee labored with all their might, still no surveyor 
was procured. The year went by and nothing was done. 

Consequently when the selectmen, as iu duty bound, on the 
19th of February, 17(35, warned another meeting to be held on the 
6th of March following, they inserted an article in the Avarrant, 
'^To vote what the proprietors will further do relative to the com- 
mittee chosen last year and the business they were to transact.' ' 



This was the mighty question. Everj^ grantee considered it 
most thoroughly. At the 6th of March meeting, held at the inn of 
Col. Jonathan Greeley, they voted unanimously "That the propri- 
etors' committee run the lines about the township as formerly 
determined ; thej^ are to begin the work about the first of June 
next, and to proceed in the business as fast as possible, and if they 
need assistance they are hereby authorized to get it." 

Now they will surely act — no, gently, not yet. They cannot 
get a surveyor any more than last year, although the most strenu- 
ous efforts are made. The summer again goes by and the lines 
are not run. Some of the proprietors who had paid liberally were 
indignant, and said this would not answer. 

The last of August the rulers of the proprietary, otherwise 
the distinguished selectmen for that year, call another meeting. 
It is to be held on the second Tuesday of September, 1765. The 
proprietors were alarmed. They had contributed to the little 
purse of gold for the governor, they had paid for corporation din- 
ners, they had been assessed for contingent expenses; these had 
all been outgoes, but not a penny had they received. Besides, the 
conditions of the charter, especially that one requiring that the 
town should be settled in five years, had not been fulfilled, and 
if much more precious time was wasted all would be lost. The 
px'oprietors met as directed, this time at Jacob Currier's inn, in 
South Hampton, and not at Col. Greeley's; but they did nothing 
but talk. After a long discussion they adjourned to meet again in 
one week at the same place. 

Being met again and the meeting called to order, John Page, 
Esq., said that he had some good news to communicate. He then 
announced that by good fortune the proprietors' committee had 
secured the services of an excellent surveyor and assistants. This 
piece of information was greeted with applause, and the whole 
proprietary felt so good that both flip and punch were ordered up 
and every one drank to his heart's content. f 

It was then voted that when the meeting adjourn it be to meet 
on the third Tuesday of October, 1765, to hear the further report 
of the committee. Some one then suggesting that they had better 

* See Proprietors' Records, 
t Proprietors' Records. 


meet at Col. Jonathan Greeley's again, a motion to that effect was 
passed with almost an unanimous vote, only a few of Jacob 
Currier's friends dissenting, as they wanted him to have the 
profits of the meetings. But the majority remembered the good 
things in Col. Greeley's larder and bar; they believed also that the 
good will of his place had much to do with success. Thus the 
hope of gain combined with a longing for the flesh-pots of Egypt 

There shall be no more delay. The committee, no longer fur- 
uished with excuses, must act at once, and we shall now have the 
pleasure of accompanying the valiant little surveying party far to 
the north for a delightful stroll in the great wilderness of the 
future town of Warren. 



And now Jolui Page, Esq., aucl his associates move in 
their work, and Benjamin Leavitt, tlie excellent snrveyor whom 
they had hired, together with his assistants, are soon ready. 

The committee accompany him, and one bright morning we 
find the little surveying- party breaking camp beside Stinson pond, 
on the east side of Mount Carr, and wending their way by the 
blazed line to the northeast corner of the town of Romney. 

They found and established that point of our little mountain 
hamlet. Its lines had before been chalked on the map, but now 
its bounds were to be set up, and the trees blazed to show the 

They first traced the east line, follovving along upon the 
eastern slope of Mount Carr. At noon they halted for dinner on 
the shores of Glen upper pond. No clearings were visible. There 
are none to be seen to-day. The same wildness, the same solitude 
witnessed by John Page, Esq., Benj. Leavitt, and their associates, 
when they stood by that little circular pond a hundred years ago, 
exists there now. The deer and the bear then came to drink of 
its water. The bear drinks there to-day, and the mettled fawn 
and the antlered buck now crop the grass upon the moist shore 
the same as then. There were moose there then, but there are 
none there now. 


At night they camped on the side of Mt. Kineo. The morrow 

saw them across Cushman monntain to the northeast corner, saw 

them traveling down the slope of Mt. AVaternomee, on the north 

line, to the Asquamchumauke river. That night they camped by 

the roaring torrent. The third day they crossed the spur of 

Moosehillock, passed the head waters of Berry and Oliverian 

brooks, climbed the precipitous Webster Slide, and sundown 

found them camped b\' a little stream that flowed down into 

Tarleton lake. Across the lake or around it, down over Piermont 

mountain, leaving Eastman ponds to the east and including them 

in AVarren, to the sonthwest corner, and there they camped the 

night of the fourth day. Eastward over Sentinel mountain, across 

Martin brook, then so called from a hunter who had trapped upon 

it, and over the spur of Beech hill to the Asquamchumauke river 

again. Here the quick eye of Surveyor Leavitt noted the old 

Indian trail. It was about two o'clock in the afternoon. Leaving 

their surveying instruments in a safe place they followed the ti-ail 

up the river for two miles, crossed the mouth of Black brook — 

the Mikaseota — and at the end of the ridge between the brook 

and the river they camped for the night. 

Tradition, that most trustworthy historian, has it that while 
they were cooking their supper John Page, Esq., followed up 
Black brook a few rods to where there was a little ivhite fall leap- 
ing over the mica slate rock, and shot a deer Avhich had come 
there to drink, the sun being about half-an hour high. The sur- 
veying party had an extra supper that night. Flashing knives 
carved out the choicest morsels, and by their campfire that gleamed 
through the woods they sat for long hours telling old legends and 
bloody tales of Indian wars. 

The next morning they crossed the valley and climbed the 
hill, came back and followed the trail to Runaway pond, then 
back and up the valley to Berry brook. At night they had re- 
turned to their camp again on the end of the ridge. The land in 
the valley was good, and the,great pine trees on the plain, where 
the common is now, some of them more than two hundred feet 
high, in whose cones they heard the autumn wind sighing, Avere 
the objects of their especial admiration. But they could only 
admire them. The surveyor of the king^s woods had marked 


them with the broad arrow, and they could only be used for 
masting the royal navy. 

They had goue to sleep, their camp-fire burning- brightly iu 
the darkness. Hours of quiet went by, when suddenly John 
Page, Esq., started up. "What was that? AYas it the howl of the 
wolf, the cry of the catamount, or the well-nigh forgotten but 
terrible whoop of the savage? He listened for a moment but 
heard nothing save the murmer of the brook and the river, which 
united just below them. Soon a flash of lightning lighted up the 
forest, followed by the low deep rumble of thunder behind the 
western mountain. A moment more, others having been aroused, 
and a sharp flash blinded their eyes, followed by another, which 
in turn was succeeded by a crash of thunder louder and more 
stunning than any they had ever before heard. Mount Carr 
echoed back the terrible peal, and theu the rain poured down in 

Our little surveying, land-locating, fortune-hunting party 
were now all wide awake. Their fire was out, their camp leaked, 
and almost in less than no time they were drenching wet. For 
the rest of the night they sat there in a delightful condition of 
shiver. They thanked their lucky stars for their good fortune, 
that they had only got a good wetting and nothing more, and 
without doubt they said their prayers and made sundry pious 
ejaculations during those luminous and happy hours. But they 
did not swear. 

"When the morning dawned they found that the wind was 
blowing from the northeast, that black clouds were hurrying 
across the sky from Moosehillock to Mount Carr, and that the 
thunder shower was but the prelude of the storm. It was no use 
to break up the camp then — everything was too wet. They made 
a fire, dried their clothes, breakfasted on the remains of tlie veni- 
son, longed for a dish of delicious punch to wash it down, and 
then tightening the camp and gathering more firewood waited as 
best they might for what could not be helped. 

By ten o'clock A. M. the wind was howling in the woods and 
the rain fell fast. All day long they sat there, managing one way 
and another to pass away the time, while Surveyor Leavitt made 
notes in his journal to assist him in writing his report. 


When the suu went down a new sound arose. As the evening 
hours wore on it seemed as if all the storm spirits had leaped from 
the waterfalls in the ravines of Mount Carr, and were joining in 
one grand pa?an, loader than the mightiest roar of the ocean. 
The Indians' god, Gitche Manito, with the whole host of lesser 
aboriginal divinities, assisted by Jupiter Tonans, Vulcan, Pluto, 
and every other heathen god, seemed mingling their voices in one 
continuous roll of thunder through the huge mountain forests. 
John Page and his companions had heard the roar of the ocean in 
a storm, but never a sound like this. People of Warren some- 
times hear the same now, when the equinoctial storm of autumn 
comes late, or when the winter breaks up suddenly and the melt- 
ing snows and warm rains turn the mountain streams to torrents. 

In the morning the storm was over. A bright tire made them 
comfortable, the last of the venison was cooked for breakfast, and 
when the white mists from the waterftills were climbing out of the 
ravines and chasing each other over the wooded crest of Mount 
Carr, and the wind had shaken the rain from the trees and bushes, 
they hurried back down the trail to the spot where they had left 
their surveying instruments. They crossed the now roaring 
Asquamchumauke and climbed over the eastern mountain. The 
line was linished that day, and night found them back in their old 
camp by Stinson pond. Four days more and they were at home 
making up their report. 

On the third Tuesday of October, 1765, the proprietors met 
again. Col. Jonathan Greeley's long hall and cosy tap-room 
seemed like home to them. The meeting having been called to 
order, John Page, Esq., chosen moderator, and Jeremy Webster, 
clerk, they passed the following vote: "That we receive and 
accept the report of the committee we sent to the township, and 
give the committee, Jeremy Webster, Esq., Col. Jonathan Greeley, 
and John Page, Esq., the sum of sixty-four dollars for their time 
and expense in going up to Warren to run the lines about the 
township and viewing the laud." * 

The report of the committee has not come down to us in form, 
but tradition says that the committee told the proprietors that our 
beautiful little hamlet was located among great mountains " daunt- 

* See Proprietors' Records. 


ing terrible ;" that to all sound appearances "loud roaring divels" 
lived among said mountains ; that silver rivers and streams ran 
through it, and upon the borders around it were sparkling lakes 
and ponds. Tliey might also have stated that on Patch brook (not 
then having a name) was an old beaver meadow where the grass 
grew wild, and that there was another meadow larger and better, 
at the outlet of Runaway i^ond. 

Perhaps they might have further made mention of the fact 
that on the slopes of Beech hill and Picked hill were immense 
maple groves where sugar might at some later day be made, but 
this we can only conjecture. Suffice it to say that the committee 
made an exceedingly interesting report, that the proprietors were 
mightily well-pleased thereat, and immediately took other and 
more determined steps to accomplish the settlement of the town. 



" 1st, That every grantee for every fifty acres of land he 
owns in Warren township shall wit?iin the term of Jive years 
plant and cultivate five acres of la)ul." 

Like the sword suspeuded by a hair over the head of ter- 
riiied Damocles, so the above condition of the charter was forever 
hanging over our worthy proprietors. The very first condition — 
it must be fulfilled. A failure, and the little hamlet of Warren 
was lost to them. The other conditions could be easily complied 
with. The pine trees fit for masting our royal navy could be pre- 
served; the town lots could be laid out; the rent of one ear of 
Indian corn only could be yielded ; and the one shilling proclama- 
tion money could be '' deposited in our council chamber at Ports- 
mouth '■ without difficulty. But in performing our first condition 
— there was the trouble. 

What shall be done? It must be planted and cultivated in the 
space of five years. This not done and the charter is forfeited. 

We have seen how the lines were run and went with the com- 
mittee to view the lands. It was necessary to set up the bounda- 
ries so that the proprietors of other towns should not trespass upon 
our woody territory. That the proprietors, owners, and would-be 
settlers might journey thither without difficulty, a road must be 
cut. But two years had passed already and one had not as yet 
been begun. Perhaps the worthy proprietors waited for those of 


othei' townships ou the river below to cut out their roads, so that 
it might be more easy to get to the boundary of Warren to begin 
theirs ; perhaps they had no money in the treasury to pay for the 
work ; perhaps they thought there would be such a spontaneous 
rush to buy their lands that there would be no need of their doing 
anything. But time dispelled the first and last of these illusions. 

The year 1765 was nearly passed ; almost half the time given 
for the settlement was gone, when at a proprietors' meeting held 
late in autumn it was voted to pay for clearing a public road 
through the township, and a committee was chosen to attend to 
the same. It consisted of Col. Ebenezer Stevens, Col. Jonathan 
Greeley, Jacob Hook, Esq., Samuel Page, Esq., Jolm Page, Jun., 
John Page, Esq., and Cajit. Ephraim Brown.* The road once 
cleared, and then emigi'ants would flock to the land of the hills. 
Our mountain hamlet would certainly be settled, and the fix'st 
requirement of the charter fulfilled. 

But that there might be no fiiilure in this matter of cultivation 
and settlement, they determined to divide a portion of the land 
into lots and distribute them among the several grantees. Then 
each one would have a separate personal interest, and would labor 
with more energy for the settlement. Accordingly at the annual 
meeting in 1765 it had been voted that a division of home lots 
should be made by the above-mentioned road committee, to con- 
tain eighty acres each, resi^ect to be paid to quality as well as 

But this vote was all for nought. The season went by, and 
late in autumn, the proprietors being again met, they voted to lay 
out a home lot to each grantee, containing one hundred acres to 
the lot, as convenient as may be. That there might be no repeti- 
tion of failure they further voted to raise money to defray the 
charges of laying out the same, and also instructed the road com- 
mittee to lay out said lots. The vote to raise the funds to pay for 
the work was the best vote passed. The work must now move. 
Something will surely be accomplished. 

We have seen how difiicult it was for our former committee to 
procure a surveyor. The one headed by Col. Ebenezer Stevens 

*See Proprietors' Records. 

1765. The proprietors voted to raise money to defray the charge of clearing 
the public road uow about to be laid out through the township of Warren. 



encountered tlie same obstacle. Procure a surveyor they could 
not. The year 1766 passed, and nothing was done. The grantees 
waited for their committee to act, and did not CA'en call a proprie- 
tors' meeting. Individually they exhorted the committee to work 
— but all to uo purpose. 

As we have before said, and as every wide-awake proprietor 
knew, the time for fulfilling the tirst condition of the charter was 
fast flying, and their claim to the little mountain territory seemed 
slipping from their grasp. The spring of 1767 came. Only one 
year of the five given was now left. The work must be done at 
once or all would soon be lost. At this critical juncture of affairs 
John Page, Esq., rallied. A meeting of part of the committee 
was held at the usual place, Col. Jonathan Greeley's inn, at which 
it was emphatically redetermined to run the lines, locate the road, 
and lay out the lots. 

To accomplish all this a surveyor must be had, and John Page, 
Esq., said he was happy to inform the committee that Benjamin 
Leavitt, who had formerly run the lines, could be procured. Sam- 
uel Greeley, Fry Bayley, Abraham Morrill, Samuel Page, Joseph 
Eastman, and Jacob Morrill were to be his associates. They were 
to ijerambulate the boundaries and layout the first division of lots. 

It was spring time when the surveying party and the commit- 
tee chosen to clear the road came to Warren. They established 
themselves in the old camp on the end of the ridge between the 
Mikaseota or Black bi'ook and the Asquamchumauke or Baker 
river, and while Surveyor Leavitt went over the lines again and 
was layiiig out the lots, the road committee attended to their 

And now our worthy readers will naturally inquire what kind 
of a road they made and where it was located. "\Ye have no doubt 
concerning the truthfulness of the reply we shall give, for we have 
the facts vouched for by many of the ancient settlers and also 
recorded by history itself. Our indefatigable committee did not 
locate any new road — they simply cleared out the old Indian trail, 
and made it into a tolerable bridle path. 

This Indian trail was a very ancient way, about as mitch so as 
the old Roman roads. For centuries back the Indians had followed 
it. Wonalancet and his friends had journeyed over it nearly a 


hundred j^ears previous to the little improvement undertaken by 
our committee. Waternomee knew every rod of it. Arosagun- 
ticook warriors had led their captives on it northward to Canada.* 
Capt. Baker's ''marching party" had hurried down it to tight the 
Indians at the mouth of the Asquamchumauke. Capt. Peter 
Powers t made use of it in his glorious retreat, and along its wind- 
ings Eobert Eogers had marched his whole company of rangers. 
It was the shortest road to the sea board, and those in a huri'y to 
reach the lov/er country have always traveled it. 

Many a hunter, trapper, and explorer journeying northward 
in those primitive times availed themselves of its facilities. The 
Kev. Grant Powers, a most truthful historian, narrates how 
the very first settlers who came up the Merrimack valley to Coos 
employed it. In April, 1762, he says that Col. Joshua Howard, 
Jesse Harriman, and Simeon Stevens engaged an old hunter at 
Concord to guide them through the wilderness. They came 
west of Newfound lake, in Hebron, followed up the northwest 
branch of the Asquamchumauke or Baker river into Coventry, 
and down the Oliverian to the Connecticut. They performed the 
journey in four days from Concord. J 

Most of these things happened wlien the Pemigewassetts, the 
Coosucks, or the Arosagunticooks had a right of way over it. But 
this very summer, after our committee had so much improved it, a 
lady, solitary and alone, took a romantic journey along its woody 
windings. The story is this — a simple tale — told in an ancient 
record : Thomas Burnside and Daniel Spaulding were journey- 
ing with their families to settle at the upper Coos. At Plymouth 
one of Mr. Spaulding's children was so badly burned as to be 
unable to proceed, and Mrs. Spaulding was left behind to attend 
to it. Her husband and friends having gone she became lonesome 
and resolved to follow them. A friend living at Plymouth had 
agreed to accompany lier through the woods with a horse thirty- 
four miles to Haverhill, but he left her at a house in Eomney, the 
last one, nine miles on, and turned back. Mrs. S. was not discour- 

*Acteou's Nan-ative. 

t Powers' Histoiy of Coos, 46. 

J " Some of the early settlers of Haverhill and Newbury took the same route 
to Plymoiitli, kept on tlie north side of Baker river into Coventry, and then down 
the O'liverian."— Powers' History of Coos, 109. 


aged: with her child in her arms she proceeded. She waded 
tlirongh Baker riA'cr, wliich was low from drouth, and all day 
long toiled up the blazed path to Warren. Across Black brook 
and up the meadow she met two men, Avhom she tried to avoid by 
stepping out of the path. They saw her and endeavored to per- 
suade her to turn back, and among other things told her that she 
must " wade through a part of Wachipauka pond wliere there was 
nothing to direct her." But she still persisted. In the course of 
the afternoon a heavy thunder shower passed over and thoroughly 
wet both mother and child. She continued travelling until in the 
darkness the track could be no longer followed. Then quietly 
seating herself by the side of a tree she leaned against it with her 
child in her arms, and there rested without sleep till morning. It 
was a lonely night. The rumble of Oak tails echoed through the 
leafy wood, the whippoorwill sang in the alders by the brook, and 
the bullfrogs in the neighboring pond croaked and "chugged" the 
whole night long. 

At early dawn she continued her journey and soon arrived at 
the pond, through part of which she waded waist deep. Fortune 
favored her and she found the path on the opposite shore without 
difficulty. She also waded the Oliverian which, to use her own 
language, ''looked wild and terrifying," being probably swollen 
on account of the shower of the preceding day. Pushing rapidly 
on at eleven A. M. she reached the settlements on the Connecticut.* 

Where through Warren did the Indian trail run — that most 
ancient way over which Indian kings and princes of mighty tribes 
had travelled, and where Mrs. Spaulding took her romantic jour- 
ney? It followed up the west bank of the Asquamchumauke to 
the mouth of the Mikaseota or Black brook, cros^sed the latter 
stream and followed up its east bank, going some of the way just 
where the road is located now, to the neighborhood of Beech hill 
bridge, where it crossed to the west bank and continued along the 
same to its source in AYachipauka or Meader pond. Crossing the 
pond at the outlet it continued round the east shore to the head, 
over the little summit, down the slope of Webster Slide mountain 
to the Oliverian, and down the latter stream to the Connecticut. 

The surveyor and his party did even better than our road 
* 1st Farmer & Moore's Historical Collections, 85. 


committee. Beiij. Leavitt "with his assistants, as we said before, 
perambulated the old lines and then proceeded to lay out the lots. 
They began on the south side of the town and laid out the first 
division. The crest of Mount Carr, where the hackmatacks groAV, 
they did not think worth spending any time upon, but Surveyor 
Leavitt spotted his lines across Hurricane brook, and washed 
down his dinner one day by a draft from ''Diana's bowl,"' which 
is carved in the rock at the top of "Wolf's Head falls. 

They made nine ranges in the first division, and as high as 
eleven lots in a range, as can be seen by looking at any old plan of 
the town. The laud was lotted as far north as the ^^ Eleven mile 
tree,'''' so called, which stood beside the Indian trail, and is often 
spoken of in the proprietors' records. This work accomplished 
the whole party, road clearers and surveyors, retui'ued to the 
southei'u country. 

Benj. Leavitt, Esq., took his time. He made up his report 
carefully, drew an accurate plan of his survey, and when the com- 
mittee to notify proprietors' meetings notified said proprietors to 
meet on Tuesday, Nov. 17, 17G7, he was ready to hand it in. The 
meeting was called for that purpose. Art. 2d of the warning was, 
'' To hear a report of a committee returned from running the lines 
of said township, and as they have laid out part into lots, to see if 
the proprietors will vote to accept it." At the meeting held on 
said day it was voted to allow the committee for their services in 
the sum of twenty-one i^ounds and four shillings.* 

Thus the lots were laid out, the report made and accepted, 
and it now remained to divide the land. After due consideration 
it was voted that it should be distributed by lot, and that one n?an 
should draw the lots for the whole proprietary, and also voted that 
the moderator was the man to draw said lots. The meeting then 
adjourned for half an hour, the slips of paper were prepared, and 
being again met the lots were drawn. 

At the drawing Thomas True got the first lot in the first 

* 1767, Nov. 17. Voted that we allow the committee above mentioned in fnll for 
their services, as Ibllowetli, viz : 

To Fry Bavley, 4 days at 5 shillings per day, 1^ 

" Benj. Leavitt, Surveyor, li days at G shillings per day, 4Z 4 

" Ain-aliani Morrill, 14 days at a'shillings per day, 'Al 10 

" Samuel Page, 11 days at 5 shillings per day, 'U 15 

" Joseph Eastman, 11 days at .') shillings per day, 'il 15 

" Jacob Morrill, 14 days at 5 shillings per day, 3i 10 

" Samuel Ureeley, 14 days at 5 shillings per day, 3? 10 


range, Ebenezer Stevens got the second lot in the first range, and 
so on until all were drawn. The names of the drawers were then 
entered respectively upon the original plan and this constituted 
their title to the land. It was real estate which did not come to 
them either by descent, purchase, escheat, forfeiture, execution, 
or dii-ectly by grant. The land was granted to the proprietors as 
a corporate body, divided by lot, and when so divided each gran- 
tee had a good title, which he could alienate either by deed or 
devise. In the old proprietors' records are recorded the drawings, 
the divisions, the ranges, the number of the lots, and the names 
of the proprietors by whom they were drawn. Thus was the laud 
in our beautiful mountain territory most equitably divided. 

At an adjourned meeting, held November 26th, 1767, it was 
voted "that we will raise nine shillings on each I'ight in addition 
to what has been already voted to be raised, to defray the charges 
that have arisen on account of laying out the lots." Our worthy 
proprietors, now severally rich in lands, were yet compelled to 
pay someAvhat for the privilege of being considered rich land 
owners. But the distinguished grantees were now perfectly cer- 
tain that the town would be settled and cultivated and the first 
condition of the charter fulfilled. So much were they of this 
opinion that they passed by without notice an article in the war- 
rant of the meeting to be held iu November, 1767, which was to 
vote "what encouragement they will give to any person who 
will undertake to build a saw mill in said town the next year." 
There was no need of spending their money for such a thing. 
They also passed by without action another article in the warrant, 
as they did a similar article at the meeting the previous spring, 
which was " to vote what encouragement they will give to forward 
the settlement of the township." There was likewise no need of 
this — the condition would be fulfilled sure. 

But there were some not so sanguine ; the time was almost 
out. If terms could not be made with His Excellency the Gov- 
ernor, then time, taxes, treats, dinners, and purses of gold would 
all be lost, and they would get no profit whatever from their spec- 
ulation. Something, thought the wiser, must be done, and upon 
this thought they acted. What they did we shall proceed to show 
iu our next chapter. 





Long and faithfully have we toiled over the Proprietors' 
Records, extracting therefrom, as a bee honey from a flower, eveiy- 
thing sweet and beautiful. Our duty as an accurate and truthful 
histoi'ian compelled us to do this — as a sample of which witness 
the disagi'eeable passages of the last chapter — and our most com- 
prehensive history would never be complete without such consci- 
entious regard for facts. 

John Page, Esq., and the most energetic of our venerable 
proprietors, were now very anxious about the township. They 
must work or the charter would be forfeited, and all the line-run- 
ning, lot-locating, and road-making would go for nothing. Ac- 
cordingly at a proprietors' meeting held the 2d Tuesday of May, 
1767, the question of what should be done came up, and among 
other things it was determined to send a committee to the new 
governor to obtain if possible a longer time in which to fulfill the 
first condition of the charter. Col. Jonathan Greeley and the 
Hon. Dr. Josiah Bartlett were chosen as the committee. 

We have said they were to treat with the new governor. His 
Excellency Benning Wentworth had been compelled to resign, 
and his nephcAV, John Wentworth, had been commissioned in his 
place, under date of August 11th, 1766, as " Governor of New 


Hampshire and Surveyor of the King's "Woods in Noi'th America." 
He had been installed in office with even more pomp and cere- 
mony than Benning Wentworth himself. On the morning of his 
entrance into Portsmouth — we have it on the authority of one of 
the best historians — all the bells rang a regular double-bob-major, 
the cannon of the forts and batteries thundered till their brazen 
throats were hoarse, and the numerous ships anchored iii the 
stream and at the wharves flung out all their bright bunting, flags, 
and streamers to the harbor breeze. 

Col. Greeley and Dr. Bartlett found no difficulty in gaining 
access to His Excellency. He was a jolly soul and loved to wel- 
come company, especially when he could see a fee in prospect. 
The committee laid their case before him in the prettiest manner 
possible; told him of the great difficulties which they had met; 
that there were no roads, that it was far in the wilderness, and 
that men could not be found to settle all the towns which had been 

Governor "Wentworth sympathized with the committee and 
sought to console them by ordering up three bowls of " creature 
comfort." After drinking enough to i-emove their melancholy, 
Governor "Wentworth told them to go on as well as they could, 
just as though their time was not out and would not be out, and 
he would do what was right in the matter. But His Excellency, 
like his uncle Benning, was exceedingly fond of the root of all 
evil, and so he told the committee that he thought that by and by 
they Avould need a new charter, gently intimating that considerable 
expense generally attended the granting of such new instruments. 

Our committee were exceedingly well pleased with their 
reception by the young governor. They went home and reported 
their success to the proprietors individually, no meeting being 
called, and as the season was nearly passed — the fall rains had 
come and the winter was coming soon — they concluded they had 
better wait until the next annual meeting, and not try to do any- 
thing that year. But when the winter was gone then they would 
act. There would be three beautiful spring months before July 
14th, 1768, and in that time they could accomplish wonders. Be- 
sides, they would send the committee to the governor again, and 
they had no doubt but that they could get excellent terms from him. 


During the early part of the winter they discussed numerous 
plans, and when the annual meeting of 1768 came they adopted 
one very much in vogue among the proprietors of various other 
townships and were thus prepared to act most efficiently. As a 
preliminary to their grand plan they passed the following votes: 

1st, To give to each family, to the number of twenty-tive, 
that shall settle in said township before the first day of October 
next, 1768, fifty acres of land. 

2d. That the first settler shall take his first choice of the fifty 
acre lots and so each in their order. 

3d. That each family that shall settle agreeably to the above 
vote by the first day of October next shall have six pounds lawful 

And they did not stop here. To show their decided deter- 
mination to clear and cultivate the land, and not forfeit their title 
as grantees, they chose another committee to finish clearing the 
road through the town. It was a strong committee chosen for 
that purpose, and consisted of Mr. Samuel Page, Col. Jonathan 
Greeley, Lieut. Joseph Page, Phillips White, Esq., Ensign Jacob 
Gale, Jacob Hook, Esq., and Mr. Enoch Page. This committee 
really worked sometime on the road, and also laid out the land as 
above voted for the settlers, and at another meeting they were 
allowed five shillings a daj^ for their time.* 

All that men could do by voting was now done. They shall 
surely succeed this time. Everybody is going to work. So each 
one thought as he waited for his neighbor; but as is usual in such 
cases, where each depends upon the other, nothing at all was done. 
Our committee did not even go again to the mountain territory of 
AYarreu before the fatal day of July 14th, 1768. f 

That day came and the charter was forfeited. All legal right 
was gone. The only hope of the proprietors now lay in executive 
clemency. Col. Jonathan Greeley and the Hon. Dr. Josiah Bart- 
lett had got encouraging promises from the governor, and on these 
they relied. 

* Feb. 6th, 1769. "Voted to give those that worked clearing the road thro' 
Warreu five sliillings a day for the time they worked on said road." 
See Proprietors' lleeoi'ds. 

t But tlic committee iliil go to Warren, where tliey worked sometime during 
the sea.son of 1708. 


Yet our proprietors had done as well as most of those of other 
townships. Benning Weutworth had granted towns and made 
himself rich in so doing. John "VYentworth's great plan was to 
regrant them and make himself equally rich. 

The committee saw His Excellency again. This time as be- 
fore he promised them fair things, and again gently hinted at the 
great expense which usually attended the regranting of charters. 

Again they went home encouraged and determined to work. 
Another proprietors' meeting was soon called. They paid those 
who had worked on the road. They voted six shillings a day to 
those who had been engaged lavino- out the lots. Thev further 
voted to those who should settle in said town lands and money. 
They agreed to give ''ten more settlers'' who should settle in said 
township fifty acres of laud and six pounds in money to each, or 
one hundred acres of land without any money, which the said set- 
tlers shall choose; and further voted that said land ^^ shall be laid 
out on the road which is cut through said toto7i." * At a subse- 
quent meeting it was voted that Col. Jonathan Greeley, Lieut. 
Joseph Page, and Mr. Enoch Page be a committee to lay out said 
lots and agree with settlers. 

These several things were done as an eai*nest of their good 
intentions, and they then voted that Col. Greeley and Phillips 
White, Esq., go to the new governor and treat with him for a new 

Phillips White was not one of the original grantees. AVe 
first find his name in the Proprietors' Records, March 14th, 1768, 
as having been chosen one of a committee to get the road cleared 
through our mountain territory. He had become possessed of a 
certain portion of the lands by heirship ; he had bought out the 
rights of a few of those grantees who had become discouraged in 
the enterprise, and afterwards, for meritorious services, the gran- 
tees themselves gave him several large tracts of land located east 
of the new reservation, and upon the side of Waternomee moun- 
tain. Next to John Page, Esq., he had become one of the most 
prominent men among the grantees. He held all the important 
oflSces of the proprietary, was entrusted with all the funds, served 
on all the principal committees, and during his long life frequently 

* See Proprietors' Records. 


came to Warreu to look after his own interests and those of the 
other proprietors. He had much wealth and good common sense, 
and therefore much influence. He was just the man to go to the 
governor with mine host, Col. Jonathan Greeley.* 

Col. Greeley had learned the way to the governor's heart. He 
told Phillips White, Esq., what must be done, and Phillips White, 
Esq., was prepared to do it, and to become the saviour of the pro- 
prietors' inheritance. How? — by his gold. If Benning Weut- 
worth liked the musical jingle of the filthy lucre, so also were the 
ears of John Wentworth delighted with it. 

It was on a cool September day that our new committee rode 
their two strong saddle horses to Portsmouth. They had no diffi- 
cvilty in gaining access to His Excellency, and the latter was glad 
to see the proprietors' committee. Well he might be — for he 
knew that when Phillips White, Esq., came something was certain 
to be accomplished. The governor rang his bell and a servant ap- 
peared. He ordered four bowls of punch just as before, and as was 
always the custom called in his secretary, the lit. Hon. Theodore 
Atkinson, Jun., Esq., — who was not dead yet nor out of oflice 
either — and they then began to discuss the subject of a new 

All the difficulties which the grantees had encountered were 
enumerated; how a mistake had been made in surveying the 
grant, whereby the proprietors of other towns had claimed a con- 
siderable portion of the lands; how much dilficulty they had 
experienced in cutting roads in such a far foreign land, and how 

* He was a member of the Continental Coujn-ess, 1782, ]783. Also a member of 
the Committee of Safety, from Jan. 20, 1776, to Jan. 20, 1777, ami from Deo, 27, 1781, 
to the autumn of 1782. 


Memory of the 

Hon. Phillips White, Esq., 

Who departed this Life 

June 24th, 1811, in the 

82d year of his age." 

The above was copied from his gravestone, a plain slate stoue slab, April 20, 
1865, in South Hampton, N. H. The following is on the gi-avestone of his wife : 

" Mrs. Ruth White, 

Comfort of 

The Hon. Phillips White, 

Died July 9th, 1797, 
In the 69th year of her age." 


mucli trouble they had found in getting settlers for tlie township. 
"Hundreds of other towns," said Phillips White, Esq., "have 
been granted and all of the other proprietors have met with the 
same difficulties as the grantees of Warren ; in fact," said he to 
the governor, "have we not succeeded as well as nine-tenths of 
the proprietors of other townships, and have you not given them 
, new charters? Will you not treat us as well as you have them?" 

The governor acknowledged the fact, ordered his secretary to 
make a minute of what was required, and then in the blandest 
manner possible suggested that the surveyor-general would be 
under the necessity of making new plans, the secretary would 
have a great deal of writing to perform, and of course a small 
amount of funds would be necessary. 

Col. Greeley and Phillips White, Esq., both had the same 
thought and assured him the money should be forthcoming. The 
governor was much pleased and said, "You shall have the new 
charter, and that sdt»n." 

His visitors thanked him and went home. They thought they 
should get the charter in a few days, but they were again destined 
to wait. The year went by, the winter and spring of 1770 passed, 
and the summer was nearly half gone before they were notified 
that it was ready for them. 

Phillips White went to Portsmouth for it. Like John Page., 
Esq., he cai'ried a bag of gold. He counted out the yellow sover- 
eigns to the governor, to Col. Atkinson, to the surveyor, and to 
the survej'or-general — in all for the procuring of a new charter 
the sum of seventy-eight pounds one shilling. It also cost the 
proprietary for the further expenses of its committee the sum of 
seventeen pounds four shillings.* The governor was happy to 

April 29, 1773. " Voted to give Col. Greeley tor services done the proprietary 
one luiiulred and tweuty-tive acres of land in the northeast corner of the township 
to begin at the said northeast corner and to run southei'ly on the line of said town 
290 rods, thence westerly <J9 rods, thence nortlierly 290 rods to the northerly line of 
the town, thence easterly on said line 09 rods to said northeast corner." 

Also, "Voted to give Pliillips White, Esq., for services done the proprietary, 
400 acres of land in the northeasterly part of the tow^nship, to begin at the northerly 
line of said town adjoining the land" voted to Col. Greeley, thence southerly by said 
Greeley land 290 rods, thence westerly 221 rods, thence nortlierly 290 to the north 
line of the town, thence easterly 221 rods to the bound first mentioned." 

See Proprietors' Records. 

* For obtaining the new charter: "Voted to pay, March 25, 1771, to Phillips 
White, Esq., 7? ISs; to Col. Jonathan Greeley, liZils; to Josiah Bartlett, Esq., 
il 128. See Proprietors' Records. 


welcome Phillips White, Esq., a second time. His were golden 


This second charter was not so long as the first. It recited 
the difficulties the proprietors had met. It included the prayer 
for more land, and then prescribed the bounds of the township, 
stating that they were made by actual survey by "Isaac Rindge, 
our surveyor-general of our lands within the province of ]^ew 
Hampshire." But the great point gained by the charter was that 
the proprietors should have four years more in which to clear and 
settle our wild mountain hamlet. All the remaining conditions 
were the same as before, and the young and gallant governor was 
very careful to stipulate that all the rents due to us in our council 
chamber in Portsmouth shall be paid. The great seal was affixed, 
the charter signed by His Excellency, and Phillips White, Esq., 
returned with it to the proprietors. 

How great was their joy 1 They were saved. Col. Greeley's 
little taproom and long dining hall saw a mei;iy time on the night 
'Squire White returned with the charter from Portsmouth. The 
health of everybody in general, but of P. White in particular, was 
drank. Influence and gold had been their salvation. Now they 
were sure there would be no failure on their part. Individuals 
went to work on their own responsibility, and some of the land 
was actually cleared and cultivated. Bid they never succeeded in 
fulfilling the Jirst condition of their charter. True they accom- 
plished much ; but when four years more had passed they incurred 
another forfeiture. They would undoubtedly have again lost the 
township— or have been compelled to pay roundly for a new title 
—had not the Revolutionary war, which was their salvation after 
the year 1774, providentially occurred. 

But we will here put an end to this third book and now pro- 
ceed to more congenial themes in the fouith. To continue 
further the history of the proprietors, separate from that of the 
settlers, would only serve to involve everything in inextricable 





There are a few great eras in the history of all civilized 
communities. The entrance of the Israelites into a land flowinsr 
with milk and honey, their deliverance from Babylon, and their 
dispersion by Titus, are some of the distinguishing epochs of that 
people. The founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus, the 
sacking of Troy, the destruction of Carthage j — are extraordinary 
events in the history of other nations. So the year 1767 is one 
of the most distinguished in the chronology of our little mountain 

Its position was chalked on the map in 1761. It was granted 
to John Page and sixty-five others in 1763, and the year 1767 is the 
date of its actual settlement. 

The old year 1766 is dying. Let us pause on the threshhold of 
1767. During all the time of Queen Anne's war, of Lovewell's 
war, of King George's war, of the Seven Years' war, when scalp- 
ing parties hastened along the Indian trail down the Asquamchum- 


auke, aud drafted men were hurrying through the woods in search 
of their red foe, aud further back than the memorj' of man run- 
neth, Warren was a wilderness. It is in this case on the last 
night of 1766. There is no clearing, no house, no human being. It 
lies a cold, crisp, terrible solitude in the heart of a vast forest. 

The low winter sun, the last of the jear, has gone down in a 
blaze of glory; the twinkling stars are glowing in an ebon sky, 
and Venus, just on the edge of the horizon, is hastening down the 
impearled pathway of the sun. The evening hours fly swiftly by. 
It is chill, freezing cold, and the very silence is oppressive. No 
sound comes up from the Asquamchumauke ; it is ice-bound. 
Waternomee falls, on Mount Carr, and the ''Seven Cascades," 
between the tAvo peaks of the mountain, are silent. They are ice- 
falls, frozen as they leaped, and the moon gleaming on them makes 
them glorious, as though their mighty columns were pillars of 
ruby, amythyst, jasper and gold. Moosehillock — king of the 
mountains — stands up in awful silence amid the lesser peaks 
ai'ound him. 

But hark I — the howling of a pack of wolves comes sounding 
down the valley, and no human ear is there to hear it. At night 
they will feast upon one of their own number. Another sound ! 
The moose and deer in their yards tremble as they listen to it, and 
the old crow who has lived for a century amid the thick hem- 
locks of this unbroken forest nearly topples from his roost. It is 
the terrible, almost human cry of the catamount. But even this 
lion of the American forest is soon stilled, — it is so cold. There 
is a moaning in the air. Is it the wind sighing in the leafless 
branches of the forest? Is it the aurora borealis snapping its elec- 
tric streamers and crackling its flaming pennons athwart the sky? 
Is it a troop of pale ghosts, shades of departed Indian warriors, 
charging through the air across the valley to the distant mountain 
side? But it is still now for a moment and you see only the 
gnarled trunks of the ti'ees standing like grim sentinels in the 
shadows of the great mountains, and the cold snow shroud of 
mother earth. 

Listen again — for it is never long silent in this mighty wood. 
Hear the cry of the wolves once more, the terrible voice of the 
catamount, the bark of the fox in the spruce swamp, and then at 


intervals again that strange, unearthly noise, coming from one 
cannot tell where. The wind perhaps? — may be the sound from 
the polar light, perchance the troop of ghosts, the spirits of tlie 

What a terrible solitude it is; never broken, an ocean of 
woods full of dark streams, wild torrents, shaggy hills, and great 
mountains. But there shall never be another new year's night 
like this in our mountain hamlet. Before 1767 passes a change 
will come. Be easj"^ for a moment, most critical reader. We have 
written the above that you might have some faint idea what a 
place Warren was just before civilization came to it. But we will 
now come down from our lofty stilts and plod along at our usual 

The Indians had taken French leave of the Asquamchumauke 
or Baker river valley nearly fifty years before, and had gone to 
Canada. The era of border wars and savage ambuscades, of 
scalping knives, war-whoops, and '^pow-wows" had passed. 
Even hunters and trappers were not so numerous as formerly, as 
game became less and less plentiful. The time of proprietors, 
surveyors, line-markers, lot-locators, and road-clearers had ar- 
rived, and treading close upon their heels would come the frontier 

Did it never occur to our readers during their progress through 
the third book of this most delectable history that our venerable 
proprietors might have been a little too avaricious for their own 
good? The first four years after the granting of the charter by 
Governor Wentworth passed rapidly away without their even so 
much as making an ofier of either lands or money to any one who 
would settle in their mountain territory. The proprietors of other 
townships were shrewder by far, and offered both lands and money 
to those who would locate on and improve their "grants." The 
consequence was that many towns further in the woods had num- 
erous settlers, while our lovely little hamlet remained a howling 
wilderness. Perhaps John Page and the associate grantees thought 
the land was so fertile, the woods so beautiful, the hills so inviting, 
the mountains so sublime, the game so plenty, and the streams and 
ponds so well stocked with the speckled trout and golden salmon, 
that there would be a mighty rush of settlers eager to occupy our 


woodland paradise, aud that they should make an immense amovint 
of money by the sale of their lands even before they were lotted. 
But they were most thoroughly disabused of this idea about the 
time they lost everything by forfeiting their charter. They learned 
to their great cost that in order to sell any portion of their land 
they must first give away some of it ; and they also got another 
"cute idea" through their heads — that they would have to pay a 
good smart bounty to any man, to induce him to receive a portion 
of the land even as a gift, and engage to settle on it. The reason 
of this was that there was much more laud to be settled than there 
were settlers in all New England. 

But experience, that high-priced schoolmaster, taught them 
the above lesson, and in 1767 they went to work in a more com- 
mon sense manner. At two consecutive meetings this year the 
subject of bestowing lands and bounties was discussed, but it was 
not fully determined whether they would give them or not. Yet 
the rumor of what might be expected to be done went abroad, and 
as a portion of the lauds had already been laid out into lots by the 
proprietors' committee, a few enteri^rising young meu began to 
turn their attention to them. 

But before proceeding further we must consider briefly what 
took place on the king's great highway which the proprietors had 
caused to be cleared through Warren. ^Ye should not record this 
slight jotting of history, but that we consider it will prove a 
great benefit to posterity, and so we piously note it down. 

The first human habitations in AYarren, of which we have any 
correct knowledge, were the wigwams of the Indians ; the next 
the rude camps of hunters and trappers, aud following them the 
camps of our former surveying parties. 

But when the spring of 1767 came, when the sun ran high and 
the warm showers descended, when the buds on the trees expand- 
ed, aud the speckled adder tongues pierced up by the snow banks 
through the moist mat of leaves on the ground ; when millions of 
flowers were developing, and the delicious yellow dandelion grew 
blooming so sweetly on the grassy river bank, — then it was that 
travelers journeying to the lovely Coos country through the land 
of the Pemigewassetts, built beside the committee's road, or rather 
the Indian trail, two exceedingly fine aud hospitable hotels, even 


before a single white man had moved into the township. One of 
them was located beside the trail, on the west bank of the As- 
quamchumauke, and the other upon the shore of our little moun- 
tain pond, "Wachipauka.* 

They were only one-story high, a low one at that, and were 
built in the most economical manner. Two crotched stakes, each 
about six feet long, were driven in the ground about seven feet 
apart; a pole was placed horizontally in the forks for a "plate;" 
tAVo others some twelve feet long each were then placed with one 
end on the horizontal pole and the other on the ground, serving 
for rafters ; on these were fastened the ribs for the roof, and then 
the top and right angled triangled sides were covered with spruce 
bark. Before the open front, which generally faced the southeast, 
the fire was built. 

Although there was neither landlord nor landlady, chamber- 
maid, cook, or waiter, hostler or errand boy about these one- 
roomed hotels, still they were most welcome inns to the weary 
traveller. If he could not find provisions in them, still they 
afforded him comfortable shelter, with a soft bed of moss and 
hemlock boughs, and the dry punk, flint and steel, could always 
be relied upon with which to kindle a cheering fii'e. "Whether or 
not the bar was well stocked with the good creature we are not 
succinctly informed ; but we have no doubt the guests would have 
raised the most congenial spirits, provided their own backs had 
been stouter. Their dispositions wei'e certainly good enough, and 
their stomachs sufiiciently strong, to have brought the requisite 
store of ''old rum" that distance into the wilderness. Pocket pis- 
tols of api^roved construction were not unknown even in those 
days, and the canteen or bottle-shaped gourd slung to the side of 
the sturdy woodsman who set his face towards the mountains con- 
tained often a more potent restorative than pure spring water. 
Who knows but that these "first hotels" of Warren saw many a 
night of jovial revelry in the year 1766? 

*" It may be proper for me to state iu this place that our forefathers liarl taken 
the precaution to build camjis on tlie route from Haverhill to Salisbury, imc camp 
in every twelve or litleen miles, and each was supplied with lireworksand fuel, so 
that a traveller could soon kindle liim a Are, and he had the boughs of hemlock for 
his bed."— Powers' History of Coos, 7'2. 

They had two camps on the Heiglit-o'-Land,one on the very summit and one by 
the brook running from Eastman pond into Tarleton lake. Tile camp by Eastman 
brook was in Piermont.— Histoi-y of Coos, 117. 


Taverns then there wei-e, two of them, by the old Indian 
trail in those early times ; but who cleared the first land, erected 
the first cabin, and brought civilization to Warren, we will tell in 
our next chapter. 



Adam was the first man, Eve the first woman ; Noah and 
his sons peopled the earth after the flood ; Columbns discovered 
America; Captain John Smith explored New England,* and 


was the first bona Jide settler in the township of Warren. 

Some men are born great, others achieve greatness, and some 
have greatness thrust upon f hem ; and thus it is the good luck of 
Joseph Patch, by happening to be the first settler of our mountain 
hamlet, to be immortalized in this delightful history. 

It was in the autumn of 1767 that he first came to Warren to 
live. He had imbibed a passion for hunting in his earliest boy- 
hood and it was to gratify this taste that he built for himself a 
hunter's camp, the last of September, beside one of our wildest 
mountain torrents. Hurricane brook. f 

He was a young man not yet twenty-one years old. He had 
brown hair, blue eyes, light complexion, a pleasing expression of 
countenance, and was very agreeable in conversation. He was of 
a middle stature, well formed, muscle hard and compact, would 
weigh about one hundred and fifty pounds,i^and was capable of 
great endurance. He had courage, and was cool and collected in 

* New England is that part of America which, together with Virginia, Mary- 
land, and Nova Scotia were bv the Indians called (by one name) Wingadacoa.— Ill 
Series Mass. Hist. Soc. Col. Vol. 3, 231). 

t Jacob Patch's statement. He was a son of Joseph Patch. 


the hour of danger. It is told how he lay sleeping upon his bed 
of spruce boughs one dark night in his half-open camp, when the 
low growling of the dog at his side awoke him. The fire, which 
he had left burning when he went to sleep, had gone out, and all 
was black darkness in the woods. Only the rustle of the leaves 
overhead and the low murmur of the brook on the smooth-worn 
stones disturbed the silence. Looking cautiously out he could see 
nothing. His dog continuing to growl, he put his hand on the 
hound's back and found that the hair was as stifi" as bristles. 
Again he looked out, and happening to raise his eyes he saw 
gleaming in the branches of a low maple what seemed two balls 
of fix'e. He knew what it was; only the eyes of a catamount 
could glow like that. He felt the cold sweat creeping over him, 
but realizing his danger he recovered himself, coolly picked up his 
gun, took deliberate aim and fired. There was a wild howl, a 
dead fall, a terrible struggle for a moment, biting the earth and 
rending the bark from the trees, and the ferocious animal was 
dead. The hunter's courage had saved his life. The catamount 
was preparing to spring upou him, and had he done so Patch 
would have been torn in pieces. He built a bright fire for the 
remainder of the night and in the morning had the pleasure of 
skinning the largest catamount he ever saw.* 

In personal appearance he was the real backwoodsman. He 
had a cap of wolfskin, the hair considerably worn ofl"; no vest or 
coat, but a short sheep's gray frock, which he tucked inside his 
moosehide breeches ; a coarse tow shirt, no neck-tie, woollen 
stockings, and the real Indian moccasins on his feet. His dress 
was stout and would not easily be torn among the trees and under- 
brush through which he hastened. 

Patch was "born of poor but respectable parents" in Hollis, 
N. H. His father's name was Thomas Patch. His early educa- 
tion was much neglected, he having attended school but a few 
months in his life. His boyhood had been passed on his father's 
farm, and he had been in the habit of gaining a few pence in 
autumn by building culheag traps on the banks of his native 
streams, to catch mink and muskrat, and he was also skillful in 
setting steel traps for foxes. 

* Mrs. Hobart Wyatt said she heard Mr. Patch frequently relate this adventure. 


When the mania for occupying northern lands first came on 
he accompanied the Hobarts and "Websters, his townsmen, into 
the Avilderness. He at first resided in the family of Mr. Hobart, 
in New Plymouth, of whom he bought some land. But avarice 
and cupidity got the better of his employer's morality, and he 
cheated Patch out of it. In after years Hobart repented and to 
ease his own conscience gave our first settler two cows in payment.* 
Patch afterwards worked for David Webster, inn keeper, a short 
time, and was often employed as a guide through the woods to the 
Coos intervals. 

Just Avest of the main carriage road now running through the 
town, just east of the railroad and on the south bank of Hurricane 
brook, Joseph Patch built his hunter's camp. Game was plenty. 
Great fat salmon were swimming in the river, and trout that 
would weigh several pounds apiece sported in the brooks. There 
were partridges in abundance, and thousands of rabbits had here 
a loarren — so that there need be no lack of something to eat. 
One might hunt, trap, or fish at pleasure. Wolf, bear, moose, or 
deer could be shot, and beaver, otter, sable, fox, mink, or muskrat 
captured for a rich store of peltries. These were the inducements 
that brought Joseph Patch to Warren. 

Could you have stood by his camp a hundred years ago you 
would have felt that you were a long way in the wilderness, that 
you had somewhat of a rural house to stop at, that there was 
plenty of wood to burn and that there was a great chance for 
clearing before there could be any very fine farms. You would 
have seen hanging upon or fastened to the gTcat pine trees around 
the skins of all the vai'ious animals above mentioned, drying with 
the flesh side out, the many-colored tails pendant presenting a gay 
and attractive appearance, 

Joseph Patch had seen, at Plymouth, the proprietors' commit- 
tee, that came to Warren the previous spring, and he had heard 
them say that in all probability land in Warren would be given by 
the proprietors, either in the fall or the next spring, to any one 
who would settle upon it, and that the first settler would have his 
first choice of lots. He had lost what he had purchased at Ply- 
mouth, and one day, as the story goes, recollecting what the com- 

*,Iacob Patch's statement. 



mittee had said, he thouglit it might be an excellent idea to select 
the lot Avhere he had built his camp. After thinking of the sub- 
ject for some time he finally concluded as he had possession — 
"which by the way is esteemed nine points in law — that committee 
or no committee, gift or no gift, he would have it if possible and 
remain where he was. 

The next step was to choose a spot for clearing, and the first 
week in October he fell an acre or more of trees. The Indian 
summer dried them, and setting them on fire he got an excellent 
burn. Before snow fell he had cleared the ground ready for 
planting the next spring. This first opening in the forest — the 
initial acre clearing — was just east of the ''Forks" school-house, 
sometimes called Clqugh school-house. It was in the corner of 
this lot that he planted the first apple tree that ever grew in "War- 
ren. Patch next cleared a small piece of laud a few^ rods south- 
west of his camp. 

It now became necessary to change his hunter's camp into a 
cabin, so he dug himself a cellar, stoned it, built over it a log 
shanty, covered it with spruce bark and tightened it with moss. 
A chimney of flat stones was built on one side, over a capacious 
fire-place; his door was made of rifted boards, hewed down with 
his axe, and an opening in the wall, closed at will with a shutter 
made in the same manner as the door, admitted the light. 

On the toj) of a great pine stump, cut smoothly for the pur- 
pose, he built of stones and earth a tolerable Dutch oven. Thus 
furnished he was ready for the winter. 

The remains of the apple tree which he planted, the old cellar 
fallen in, and the stump on which he built his oven, are yet to be 

In addition to these labors he had good success in hunting. 
He found several beaver meadows, one on Black brook, one on 
Berry brook, and one on Patch brook. There was a beautiful pond 
on the latter stream, formed by a dam built of poles and mud, as 
only beavers can build a dam, and on the shores were numerous 

* Jacol) Patch's statement, 1857. 

Jonathan Clougli's statement. Mr. C. showed likewise the apple tree, thecellar, 
and the pine stump on wliich Patch built his oven. A ri.iler from the trunk of the 
apple-tree he lirst pkiuted is in existence. It was made by Amos F. Clough, in 
1856. The trunk is neai-ly all gone, but new sprouts have grown up, marking the 
place of the old tree. 


picturesque, conical little mud domicils, full of various apart- 
ments opening only into the Avater, in which the beavers lived. 
It seemed too bad to destroj^ the habitations of these almost half- 
human and industrious villagers. But such thoughts never enter 
the head of a hunter, and Joseph Patch was verj^ successful and 
took great pleasure in trapping these diligent animals. His mink 
and sable lines were also very productive. Thus he passed his 
time till the streams froze up and the snow flew. 

Then he constructed a sled and took a journey " down 
country *' to sell the rich product of his hunting. Necessaries pur- 
chased and he returned to his cabin in the wilderness. 

It is winter now. Joseph Patch is alone in a great forest. 
His nearest neighbor is a Mr. Davis, who lives in that notable 
tract of countiy, since inhabited by a proud, good-feeling peojile, 
called after our royal governor, Wentworth. Alexander Craig* 
lived in Eoniney — now called Rumney on account of the immense 
amount of ''good rum,'' said to be " excellent for sore eyes," kept 
and drank by the jolly roisterers who have inhabited that fair 
region. There was quite a settlement at Plymouth — not the Ply- 
mouth of Cape Cod Bay, where pious ministers with vinegar 
faces preached to witch-hanging congregations — but Plymouth, 

*Ephraim Lnnd built tlie first saw and grist mill in Plymouth, near where 
Cochran's mills now are. ^Ir. Dcarhorn says that in 1765 James Heatli, from Can- 
terbury, Daniel Brainard,Esq., and Alexaniler Craig made settlements in Romney. 
Soon after a Mr. Davis moved into Wentworth, and Joseph Patch into Warren. lie 
says that he knows that these were the first settlers in these towns, but will not be 
positive as to the year they made their entrance. — Powers' Hist, of Coos, ITi. 

"Marcli 1, 1775. Tliis mav certify that Joseph Patch is entitled to one hundred 
acres of land in the township of Warren, by his settling in said town, agreeably to 
a vote of the proprietary of said township in the )"ear 1773. We agree tliat he shall 
have lot Xo. 19 in the \)th range in the seconddivision in said township for the 
same. P. WHITE, 

Committee in the year 1774 to lay lots for settlers." 

Jan. 18, 17S7. " Voted that Joseph Patch have liberty to pitch one lot in lieu of 
that he formerly pitched in said town for a settler's lot, which happens to be in 
Coventry by the running the last lines." 

June 28, 178". " Voted that Joseph Patch have lot Xo. 14 in the third range of 
lots laid out for settlers' lots, and for lots taken into other towns by a new line ; it 
being in lien of one that was taken into Coventry that was given him for settling m 
said town." 

See Proprietors' Records. 


He married Anna Merrill. She was born Dec. 28, 17515. 

Daniel, born February, 1778. Jacob, born August 13, 1786. 

Joseph, .Jr., born April, 1780, WiUiam. [He was a lame man and 

David, born 1782. taught school ou Pine hill.] 

Anna, born 1784, Stephen, born August 2, 1796. 



N. H. Daniel Cross aud Mr. John Mann had founded the mighty 
town of Orfoi'd, sometimes yulgarly called Oxford, owing proba- 
bly to the huge oxen raised there. The Roots, Crooks, and 
Daley s had set down in the territory named Piermont, which ex- 
tends westward c|uite to the Yarsche, or fresh, or Connecticut 
river, as the Dutchmen call it. There were numerous families 
squatted on the rich meadows of the Coosucks, but not a human 
being lived in old Coventry — the land where blueberry hills 
abound — or in Peeling, or in Trecothick, great wilderness regions 
beyond the eastern mountains. Patch was veritably alone. Yet 
the solitude Avas not so terrible as it was a year before. True he 
heard the howl of the wolves every night, except when the tem- 
pest was so loud as to drown it. Catamount tracks were seen in 
the snow, and he bolted his door and fastened his one shutter 
tightly when in the darkness its terribly human cry, freezing the 
blood, came sounding through the forest. There were yards of 
wild deer on the hills and in the ravines from which the spring 
torrents rushed, and Joseph Patch also saw yarded by the Asquam- 
chumauke great wild beasts, or moose, which John Josselyn, 
Gent., describes as '' Creatures, or rather if you will. Monsters of 
supertiuity."' " A full-gTOwn moose," to use his own language, 
•'is many times bigger than an English oxe, their borns, as I have 
said elsewhere, very big, (and brancht out in palms), the tips 
whei'eof are sometimes found to be two fiithoms assunder, (a 
fathom is six feet, from the tip of one tinger to the tip of the 
other, that is four eubits), and in height from the toe of the fore- 
foot to the pitch of the shoulder twelve foot, both of which has 
been taken by m)^ sceptique readers to be monstrous lyes. If you 
consider the bredth that the beast carrieth and the magnitude of 
the horns you will be easily induced to contribute your belief." 
One of these "monsters of superfluity" our first settler killed for 
the sake of the meat, and a shot now and then furnished delicious 
venison, equal to any procured from an English park. He buried 
the greater part in the snow, to remain frozen for future use, and 
dug it out when wanted. One night his dog, lying by the fire on 
the hearth, barked. He listened and heard out in the woods the 
howl of a pack of wolves coming. They were famished aud food 
they must have. They growled about the house, snapped at the 


closed door, and mounted bj' the snow bauk upon the bark roof. 
Patch thought there was danger they might come down the chim- 
ney, so he piled his morning wood on the fire, making the smok- 
ing flue a difficult place of ingress. A\l at once there was a sharp 
bark, a howl, then a hurry, then growling, snapping, snarling 
like hungry dogs, and the man in the cabin knew that his visitors 
Avere making most free with his moose meat and venison. He 
was content, for he was aware that when that was gone he would 
get a clean riddance of his ravenous friends, the wolves, and then 
with his long barreled gun he could easily replenish his stock of 
provisions. The next day however, as a matter of precaution, he 
strengthened his roof.* 

Thus the weeks w^ent by, with plenty to eat and nothing to do 
but chop his firewood, or hunt up the valley or on the mountains 
for a day, accompanied by his faithful dog, or a trip to Plymouth 
now and then, to learn the news and to obtain supplies, which he 
drew to camp upon a hand-sled; with an occasional visit from his 
distant neighbors in the wild borderin": regfions, or a call from 
some northern traveller, — thus passed the winter. The spring- 
came with its w^arm sun, melting snows, wild mountain torrents, 
roaring river, expanding buds, green grass, bright woodland 
flowers, and then — road-committee, surveying, lot-locating part}', 
and last, though best of all, cheering neighbors, as the next chap- 
ter will show. 

* Samuel Merrill's statement; said he had lieard Patch tell this story olten. 

Joseph Patch moved to the north bauk of Patch brook and had his house on 
the east side of the old Coos road. His son, .Joseph Patch, .Jr., built the house 
now [ 1870 ] occupied bv Jonathan Eaton, and lived in it until he sold it to Mr. 



And now the solitary places shall be made glad, and the 
wilderness shall blossom like a rose. How it all happened, who 
came to do it, the order of their coming, and the time when they 
came, will constitute the unity of this most welcome chapter of 
Warren's history. 

We have seen how our worthy proprietors in the spring of 
1768 began to put forth the most prodigious efforts to save their 
well-timbered lands up among the hills. We remember how at 
the annual meeting it was voted to give each individual who 
should settle in town prior to October 1st, 1708, fifty acres of land 
and six pounds in money ; how the road-clearing committee came 
up to Warren, how they were to lay out the twenty-five lots of 
land in such place as they thought proper, and how each family 
who should settle as above should have one of the lots, the first 
settler to have his first choice, and so each in his order. 

This was the tempting bait. It had the desired effect. Dan- 
ger of losing everything was why it was thrown out, and persons 
wishing to become real estate holders as well as pioneers on the 
frontier, eagerly caught at it. 

I have heard my uncle* say, and he was well versed in such 
matters, that the first family that settled in Warren was from 
Portsmouth, N. H. He said that in the spring of 1768, before the 

" *Benjamiu Little. 


suow was hardly gone, Mr. John Mills, with his wife and their 
son John, several otlier children and Mr. Mills' sister, with one 
horse on which they rode by turns and on whose back was borne 
a decidedly small stock of household furniture, and also driving a 
cow along with them, came journeying up the bridle-path to 
Warren. The proprietors had offered the land and Phillips White 
had persuaded Mr. Mills to corne on as a settler. 

His was the first choice of lots. He chose one that was 
bounded west by the Asquamchumauke, and tln-ongh the meadow 
on the east flowed Patch brook. On the ridge which once formed 
a part of the second of the three geological terraces in the Asquam- 
chumauke valley, just south of the river bridge in the lower vil- 
lage, and east of the great railroad bridge, he selected the site of 
his cabin. It was a frail habitation, erected on the very day of 
his arrival, but it served as a shelter during the summer. Upon 
one side he built a stone fire-place, and a chimney of small sticks 
and mud. Household furniture he had next to none, and he was 
under the necessity of manufacturing some. 

He made a rustic table, but a good one as my nncle testified, 
bj^ splitting a lai'ge ash tree into several thin pieces, smoothing 
them with his axe, and then pinning them side by side to two 
other pieces which ran in opposite directions in the form of cleats. 
This he fastened to one side of the cabin, supporting it bj^ small 
posts driven into the ground for legs. But he had a more novel 
method for making chairs, and it was the one generally practiced 
by the first settlers. The top of a spruce or fir tree was selected, 
upon which several limbs were growing ; this was sj)lit through 
the middle, the limbs cut oft" the proper length for legs, and after 
smoothing to suit the fancy the chair was comi^lete. Sometimes 
the body of the tree was cut nearly oft', and then quite off at a proper 
distance, the wood split down and quite a comfortable back left. 
These made durable chairs, and the instances w^ere rare in which 
it became necessary to send them to the cabinet maker for repairs 
— especially to have the legs glued in. 

Bedsteads were made by boring two holes into the log walls 
of the cabin, about six feet apart. In these were driven two sap- 
ling poles, the ends of the same being supported by posts. For 
cords elm bark was used. 


A little, liard-meated, leatheni-sided, wiry man, with gray 
eyes and grizzly hair, was John Mills. His son John also was as 
tough as tripe, and taken both together they were just the men to 
make a settlement in the wilderness. 

Almost the first thing they did after erecting their rude cabin 
was to tear out the logs in the beaver dam and drain the pond. 
Here wild grass grew, which, together with a few turnips, 
eked out with birch and hemlock browse and such other rough 
fodder, was sufficient to keep the horse and cow during the 
winter. All summer their little stock pastured on the banks of 
the river or browsed in the woods. Then the men cleared a few 
acres of laud to the south and east of their cabin, where they 
planted corn, turnips, and pumpkins, and a large quantity of beans, 
which served as the basis of that favorite dish, bean porridge, 
with Avhich they so often regaled themselves. The seed was 
almost all obtained at Plymouth and Haverhill. 

John Mills was proud of his little farm. His field was then, 
and is now, a place of beautiful springs, of swift and crystalline 
brooks. Above them dances in the fresh June breeze, frisky and 
festive, — warbling, chirping, singing — the little black-backed, 
white-breasted, gay and jolly bob-o'-lincoln, making all the time 
music sweet and loud enough to burst his slender throat. In the 
trees that hang over the waters, and upon the banks, the thrush 
and the robin build their nests, and send out over the green sward 
the merry song, or at evening their long plaintive carol, while in 
autumn the hill and mountain eastward burst into a crimson blaze 
of beauty. 

Mr. Mills also changed work with Mr. Patch, by helping 
the latter clear and plant, while our hunter-settler, with a rifle 
which he bought the last winter, paying for it in furs, procured 
moose meat and venison for his neighbor.* 

Now it so happened that there was journeying northward to 
find a home in the forest a certain Irishman recently from tlie 
Emerald isle, named James Aiken. With his wife and two child- 
i-en, one night in May, he stopped at our public hotel on the west 

*The old settlers used to tell how the wolves howled about John Mills' house 
the first winter he lived iu town, and looked into liis only window, putting tlieir 
noses against the window-iJune, and staring at llie family as they sat by the great 
tire-iilaiie in tlie evening; l)ut Mdls' folks were not "to be frightened by such 


bank of the Asquanichumauke. The next morning the sun came 
up hot and the weather was sultry. Nevertheless the family 
shouldered their packs and began their journey. For a time they 
got along well, for the tall trees through which the path ran 
atlbrded an agreeable shade, and the rippling of the river and 
Black brook — the Mikaseota — made mellow music in their ears. 
But when they arrived on the ridge between the brook and the 
river the ti-ees were more scattered, and the sun, which had got 
higher, shot his vertical rays directly upon their heads, making 
the day intolerably hot. "'Bejabers," said James Aiken, " in 
faith I can't stand this ; " and the rest of the famih' being some- 
what of the same mind, and also slightly foot-sore, they came 
to a halt near the i^reseut site of Warren depot. The river looked 
pleasant and the meadow beyond inviting, and our traveller 
thought he might journey to the world's end and not tind a better 
place or a more pleasant home. But the fact that he did not own 
a foot of the land made him hesitate. But in a moment it was all 
right, "For," said he, " an' surely we shan't be seen here iu the 
woods, if we only get a good distance from the path." 

Resuming their packs, they left the old Indian trail, crossed 
the river, climbed out of the meadow half a mile to the east, and 
on the second plateau or terrace, just beside a clear babbling- 
brook, they chose a spot for their cabin. It was built that A^ery 
day of posts and bark, and served as a shelter till the frosts came 
and the leaves fell, when they erected a strong cabin of hewed 
logs, better than any they had ever had in old Ireland. The 
cellar that they dug, though now nearly filled up, is yet to be seen. 
The next morning Aiken climbed up on to the ledgy hillside 
east of his cabin, as my old uncle * told me, where he could get a 
good prospect, and was greatly surprised to see a blue smoke curl- 
ing lazily out of the forest, and floating away above the trees half 
a mile to the south of him. " Be jabers ! I have got neighbors," 
said James Aiken, and being a genial soul he was not long iu 
making their acquaintance. 

A foot-path blazed through the wood to the proprietors' high- 
way, and another to John Mills', were the only roads ever built to 
the Irishman's cabin. 
* Benjamin Little. 


James Aiken was thus the third settler in Warren ; and Mr. 
John Mills had still another neighbor just to the north of his 
own location. 

Joshua Copp, Esq., the fourth settler, came to Warren from 
Hampstead, N. H., the last of May, 1768. He chose a lot laid out 
by the committee, and built his cabin on the southerly slope of 
Bed Oak hill, forty or fifty rods north of Martin brook, which 
runs at its base. 

Copp was broad-shouldered, square-built, with an open, intel- 
lectual countenance, and was always a man of much influence. 
He was energetic and hard-working, and that summer would often 
come home to his dinner of bean-porridge, from the woods where 
he had been burning a piece, with his short frock and long-legged 
breeches crusted with ashes, and his face smirched with coals. 
His table, around which gathered his wife and five children, 
besides himself, was made of a single board, which he hewed 
from an immense pine tree. Often there was but one dish upon 
it, a large wooden bowl, which he also made, and it would hold 
ten quarts. This was filled with bean porridge — the best meal of 
victuals in his shanty. Furnished each with a wooden spoon, the 
whole family would eat out of it at once.* 

In Mr. Copp's house Joshua Copp, Jr., was born, February 
25th, 1769, — AVarren's first white sou. But we never heard that 
Mrs. Copp, his mother, ever received alot of land or other bounty, 
as was customary in those times. f 

* The settlers made bean porridge 1j y boijmg the beans very soft, thickenhig 
the liquor, and adding a piece of salt pork to season it. A handful of corn was 
sometimes put in. It is said — I do not vouch for its trutli — tliat ^vlieu the good man 
was going away with his team tlie woman would make a pot porridge and freeze it 
with the string"iu, so that he could hang it on his .sled-.stake, and when he wanted 
to bait he might cut oft' a piece and thaw it. 


He was boi-u m Hampstead, Mav 11, 1741. She was born in Rowley, Oct. 27, 1741. 

Married, Sept. 19, 1758. 

Molly, born July l.'j, 1759. Mehitable, born May 15, 1773. 

Elizabeth, born" April 14, 17G1. George Washington, boru August 26, 

Moses, born Feb. 'ii, 17U;i. 1776. 

Eliphalet, born Feb. 27, 1765. Samuel, born Aug. 9, 1778. 

Sarah, born March 25, 1767. Benjamin Little, born Sept. 12, 1780. 

Joshua, Feb. 25, 1769. Xat laniel Peabody, born June 23, 1783. 

Susannah, born March 29, 1771. William Wallace, "born April 3, 1786. 

Benj, L. died November 23, 1798. 

Oct. 19, 1797. '■ \'oted that Phillips Wliite, Esq., have a lot marked on the 
plan, ' PluUips White, N,' adjoining on lot No. 13, laid out to the right of Belcher 


Esquire Copp drove a cow into the wilderness. During the 
summer she could live well enough, feeding by the brook and iu 
the woods, but iu the winter she must have hay. His neighbor, 
Joseph Patch, told him there was a beaver pond on the Mikaseota 
or Black brook, and around the sedgy shore wild grass grew in 
gi'eat abundance. 

It was a June day when he went to the valley of Runaway 
pond, where was the little tarn of the beavers. He left the pro- 
prietors' road, which ran some forty rods to the west, and pro- 
ceeding noiselessly through the woods came to the water's edge. 
A wood duck with her brood was swimming on its surface ; sand- 
pipers, uttering their querulous " weet, weet," ran through their 
reedy haunts ; a blue heron was watching for fish at the outlet,, 
and by the head of the pond, on the blasted peak of a great pine, 
an eagle stood out against the sky. He saw the long row of 
beaver huts opposite, and a single beaver, watching him, sank in 
the water and disappeared, leaving scarcely a ripple. Following' 
along the shore a wild-cat sprang across his track ; the blue heron 
at the outlet flew away ; the duck with her brood dove and rose 
farther ofi" toward the bead of the pond, then dove and rose again 
still further away, and the eagle screaming soared aloft in mighty 
circles till lost iu the deep blue. For a moment only he paused; 
then with lois axe he cut a lever, pried out some of the logs in the 
dam — the gurgling water rushing through assisting him — and 
before night the beaver pond was gone forever. In August he cut 
a large quantity of grass upon this made meadow, stacked it, and 
with the help of his neighbors drew away upon handsleds the 
ensuing winter what the moose and deer did not eat. 

Mr. Ephraim True came from somewhere down country, 
but from what town never could be learned, even from the oldest 

Dole, with a gore of l.infl Ij'ing near unto said lot; and a lot No. 17, in the first 
range of lots laid out, for those lots whicli were cut off by tlie late lines, and drawn 
to the right of William Parker, Esq., for a lot he the said White gave to Joshua 
Copp, Esq., for settling iu the town." 

•Joshua Cop]) died in Warren about 1S04. He was buried near the outlet of 
Runaway pond, Ijeside tlie old Indian trail. The precise spot is unknown. There 
let him rest in an unmarked grave " till tlie last trump shall call him back to life." 

William Wallace Copp, youngest son of 'Stjuire Joshua, was a very smart man. 
He became :i merchant in M'oiitreal and imported liis goods. He went on a sailing 
vessel to England and no tidings were ever received from him afterwards. He is 
said to havebeen the bestdooking man in the country, had a fine intellect, and was 
given to theological discussions. He wrote a powerful pamphlet on predestination 
and free agency. His death has always been a mystery. 


inhabitants. He settled a short distance north of Mr. Aiken, in a 
place long known to the villagers of our mountain hamlet as " over 
the river." Mr. True was a strong, stalwart man, and had a large 
family, his wife being much more prolific than the red-headed 
spouse of his neighbor Aiken. 1 have heard m\^ grandmother say 
that her mother told her — and there is no doubt of the truthful- 
ness of the story, for my great-grandmother was a most excellent 
woman — that once upon a time she went to Mr. True's a-visiting. 
On her arrival she found no one at home, Mr. True and his good 
dame being at work in the woods clearing. Seating herself upon 
a stool she soon heard a slight noise, and looking carefullv about 
she saw some half a dozen flaxen, towy heads, peeping from 
under the bed watching her, but not one could she coax to come 
out. Mrs. True coming in shortly after, excused herself and child- 
ren, saying, ''Lor! they see ]ieople so seldom they are as wild as 
partridges." One man, after listening to this anecdote, was heard 
to say that the fact afforded food for the contemplation of serious 
and. pious persons, as to whether man, like the ass, kept in soli- 
tude, would not quickly return to his naturally wild state. We 
may add that these children afterwards made smart men and 

This season the proprietors' committee was in town, clearing 
the road, and also running the lines about the lots. Travellers 
journeying to and from the northern settlements were plenty, and 
our five settlers often travelled to Plymouth or Haverhill for sup- 
plies, carrying them to their homes on their backs. Thus passed 
. the time, and this year no more settlers came. 

In the winter of 1769, at a meeting of the proprietors, it will 
be remembered that a vote w^as passed to give to each of ten set- 
tlers "who shall move into town this year fifty acres of land and 
six pounds in money, or one hundred acres of land without the 
money, as they may choose," each making his selection in the 
order of his settling. A committee, consisting of Col. Jonathan 
Greeley, Lieut. Joseph Page, and Mr. Enoch Page, was chosen to 
lay out the lots and agree with settlers. The proprietors also 
began to talk much about building a saw-mill, to supply the inhab- 
itants with boards, thus making them as comfortable as possible. 
This had the desired eft'ect, and two more brave men came to town. 


John Whitciier, the sixth settler, came from Salisbury in the 
spring of 17G9. He was unmarried, and Avas travelling about the 
■world in search of his fortune. Some say that Moses Greeley, of 
Salisbuiy, persuaded him to come on and make a settlement in 
order that the most possible might be done to fulfil the first condi- 
tion of the charter. But this don't matter; all that we cai*e for is 
the fact that he really came. He was a red-haired man, with light 
blue eyes, muscles of steel, a heart as brave as a lion, and just the 
fellow to fell trees and commence a Avilderness settlement. He 
located himself on Pine hill, built a cabin, and in the fall went 
back down country to see his sweetheart, Miss Sarah Marston.* 
The proprietors afterwards gave him the lot he chose by direct 

John Morrill was a friend of Mr. Whitcher, and he came to 
AYarreu along Avith him. Mr. Morrill had a family, and being of 
a speculative disposition, he bought out 'Squire Copp. The latter 
had procured the lot containing his beaver meadow, and he imme- 
diately erected a cabin there and moved into it, being the first 
settler in the valley of Eunaway pond. John Mori-ill was a lively 
genius, and was sure to create a wide-awake neighborhood. In 
short he was a sturdy, obstinate, bustling little man, and it was 
luck}'- he moA^ed into the Avoods, for he always managed to keep 
CA'ery one about him on the qid rife. He also had a good store of 
worldly goods, which he contrived to bring to "Warren by making 
sundry down country journeys. This property was Avell taken 
care of, for he Avas of a saving turn, as evidenced by his always 
wearing an old greasy pair of moosehide breeches for the sake of 
economy. As we have before intimated he was continually given 
to trade, and before he had been in tOAvn a year he swapped farms 
Avith another settler. 

And now came the tug of war — the great struggle of life and 
dealli for the proprietors, Avhether or not they should get a new 


He wa^* Ixirn ;U Salisbury, Mass., June 19, 1749. She was bom October 14, 1748. 

Married, Dec. 6, 1770. 

.Ios('i)li, born Nov. 10, 1772. Obadiali, born Oct. 11, 1784. 

Reul)t'ii, born Dec. 30, 1773. Batcbelder, born Aug. 3, 1787. 

.John, bcn-n Aug. 10, 177.5. Obadiah, 2d, born April 23, 1789. 

Hetty, born Oct. 3, 1778. .Jeremiah, born .Jan. 29, 1790. 

Sarah, born, Oct. 17, 1779. Rebecca, born Dec. 19, 179.5. 
Henry D., born Oct. 30, 1782. 


cliartei', a? vre have before shown. To succeed they must make 
strong, desperate efforts : settlers must be procured faster and 
other improvements for a new settlement must be pushed rapidly 
on. Accordingly the grantees of Warren made the king's high- 
way broader : laid out a new road OA'er the Height-o"-land to Hav- 
erhill Corner, and discontinued the old route by Wachipauka pond ; 
anew division of lots was located; large bounties* were offered 
for settlers, and even to those who would only ''fall trees'" in 
town; and it was proposed to give thirty pounds to any one who 
would erect a savr-mill and supply the inhabitants with boards. 
But all this was to no purpose, for the settlers did not come. 
Three years went by before another family sat down in "Warren. 

Obadiah CLEjrE>"T came from Sandown. N. H.. in the year 
1772, and settled on the northwesterly side of Kunaway pond val- 
ley. Mr. Clement, in after years a militia colonel, was a large, 
stout man, about tive feet ten inches in height, would weigh one 
hundred and eighty pounds, and was as quick-motioned as a cat. 
He was born at Kingston, X. H., the 19th day of February, 1743, 
O. S., and married Sarah Batchelder, Aug. 27th, 1765.t He was 

* March 25, 1771. " Toted to give each family that shall settle in town this pres- 
ent Tear sixtv acres of lancl, agi-eeablv to the rote of last year." 

At the same meeting, -'^'otert to give to each person as shall fall trees in the 
to-wTiship of Warren this vear half a dollar per acre.'"— See Proprietors' Records. 

"Voted that PhiUips White and 3Ir. Samuel Page be a committee to agree with 
settlers." — Do. 


He was bom at Kingston, Feb. 10. 174:3, (). S. Slie was bom June 30, 1747. Mar- 
ried Aug. 27, 17G5. 
Anna, bora at Sandown, Apr. 19, 17U7. Obadiah. boniin Warren. Feb. 28,1775. 
Job. bom Dec. 13. 176S. Obadiah, 2d, born Feb. 10, 1776. 

Mehitable. born Feb. 27, 1771. Batchelder, born Feb. 15, 17S2. 

Daniel, born March 7, 1773. Moses H., bom Feb. 12. 1784. 

Man-ied Sarah Baker, of Suncook, Sept. 9, 1788, who was bom Aug. 20. 1750, O. S. 
Sarah B., bom Sept. 9, 1789. Joseph B., born May 8, 1794. 

Batchelder. born June 30, 1791. Joseph, bom Oct. 25. 17(!8. 

Lovewell, bom April 13, 1793. 
Col. Obadiah died, aged 87, in 1829. Sarah Batchelder, his wife, died Jan. 1, 1786. 
Obadiah, first child of that name, died Lovewell, died May 22, 1793. 

March 25, 1775. Joseph B., March 26, 1795. 

Batchelder, died Jan. 24. 1786. 

April 20, 1772. "Voted to give eveiy man that moves into town this year one 
hundred acres of good land." 

" Voted to give half a dollar per acre for every acre of trees that shall be fell in 
Wan-en this vear."' 

"Phillips White, Esq., Col. Jonathan Greeley, and Ebenezer Tucker were 
chosen a committee to agree with settlers." 

" Voted to defend the proprietors or others who may settle under them in 
making improvement on the disputed lands in said town." 

Sec Proprietors' Records, 


a cooper by trade, and worked at the business more or less during 
his whole life. He lived for a short time in Sandown, N. H., and 
while there speculated somewhat in saw-mills, as a sort of recrea- 
tion. He bought his land of Col. Jonathan Greeley, and by him 
was induced to come to "Warren. He built a large cabin at the 
forks* of the bridle paths, where one ran west over the Height-o"- 
Jand and the other north by "Wachipauka or Meader pond. He 
took great pains building it, hewed the logs down smooth, made 
it twice as wide and twice as long as any other cabin in town, had 
two good large rooms, ^-ith bedrooms, cupboard and pantry along- 
side, and in the rear a shed made of poles and bark. The chim- 
ney had two capacious, cavernous fire-places, all built of stone, 
■one' in each room. There were four bed rooms in the garret, 
parted off" or separated from each other by a frame-work of poles 
covered with spruce bark. The house itself was covered with 
iong, shaved shingles. It had doors of hewn boards, a floor of 
square hewn logs, firm and solid, and each room on the ground 
floor was lighted by a small window, the five-by-seven glass for 
the panes having been brought up from dovm country on the back 
of a horse. When the cabin was finished and furnished a hotel 
was opened, and Obadiah Clement was Warren's first landlord. 

My great-gTandfather t used to tell what a mighty fine build- 
ing Col . Clement's hotel was, which grew up so suddenly in the 
wilderness. The old gentleman related how he ti-avelled up the 
bridle-path one afternoon to see the landlord and get some of the 
good things with which his bar was always well stocked. Enter- 
ing the little clearing, which seemed a sort of island iu the woods, 

*At first they only had a spotted line over the Height-o'-Land to Haverhill 
Coi-ner, and CoL Chas. .Johnson and others lost it one night, as they attempted to 
follow it through by feeling the spots on the trees, and had to lie in the woods until 
morning. Rev. Grant Powers says : " It was not the expectation of the people of 
Coos that they should ever have .i road through to Plymouth for loaded teams, hut 
their hopes rested on Charlestown for heavy articles;' and the first time an ox-team 
went through it was effected by a company who went out expressly for the pui-pose 
with .Jonathan ^IcConnell at their head. _ The expedition excit'ed much interest 
with the inhabitants at home, and the process of the adventurers was inquired for 
from day to day; and when they were making HaverhiU Corner upon their return, 
the men went' out to meet aiid congratidate with them, and as they came m the 
cattle were taken possession of in due form, and conducted to sweet-ilowing foun- 
tains and well-stufl'ed cribs for the night. Their masters were served in the style 
of lords, and their naiTation of the feats of ' Old Broad " at the sloughs, the patient 
endurance of ' Okl Berry' at the heights, and the stifl" hold-back of ' Old Duke' at 
the naiTows, were listened to bv their owners witli the liveliest demonstrations of 
joy.''— History of Coos, 118. 

t Joshua Copp, Esq. 


lie sat down on the trunk of a tree to cool and rest himself. Even 
to him, a rough backAvoodsman, there Avas much of beauty in the 
place. The green fields lying* so peacefully in the foi'est, which in 
•one place pushed forward its sc|ittered trees, in another retreated, 
here sprinkling- them out thinly, and there hanging their masses 
of dark foliage over the low-roofed buildings. The cabin, so 
quiet too; a few wild-flowers, crane's-bill, and honeysuckle grow- 
ing by the door and open window ; a flock of geese cropping the 
grass, and the cows coming home out of the forest to be milked, 
the bell on the leader, slung to her neck with a leathern strap and 
buckle, sounding so quaint and woodland-like, made all resemble 
some bright land of the poets, full of Arcadian beauty. Then 
there was a ringing of steel-shod hoofs, and as two travellers on 
horseback winding out of the woods by the bridle-path proceeded 
across the field, he looked up and saw the low stone chimney of 
the cabin smoking, and the shadows stretching out longer from 
the top of the mountain across the grain and the grass land and 
over the forest. "But the best of all," said the good old man, 
''Obadiah Clement treated me handsomely that night." 

Col. Clement had the most fertile farm in town, and on his 
open meadow, which gave evidence that the Indians had burnt it 
over and planted it long years before, he cut hay enough to keep 
his cow and yoke of steers. He got corn at Haverhill, and salt 
and such other necessaries at Plymouth. These he brought home 
on his back. Fortune favored him in procuring a supply of meat. 
Opening the door one morning before the rest of the family Avere 
stirring, he saAA^ a moose feeding among the .black stumps of his 
little clearing. He had a gun, plenty of poA\'der, but not a bullet 
in the house. Yet he did not hesitate long. An old military coat 
that some friend hadAVorn in the French Avar furnished great brass 
bell buttons, and he rammed home three of them. Priming the 
old ''queen's arm" he took deliberate aim and fired. One of the 
buttons pierced the heart a]id the moose running a fcAA^ rods fell 
dead. Col. Clement was standing in his door at the time, and the 
loud report Avoke up in great fright the Avhole family, till then 
sound asleep ; but they soon ascertained what Avas the matter. 
That morning they had the choicest morsel, the under lip, for 
breakfast, and all winter long they rejoiced over the happy shot. 


Col. Cieraent's younger brothers came on and worked for liim 
during the summer, and the next year, 1773, — 

Jonathan Clement* came to Warren as a settler. It was 
Enoch Page, one of the proprietors, that furnished him a home in 
our mountain hamlet. He gave Mr. Clement the lot of land lying 
between Col. Clement's and 'Squire Copp's, and he built his cabin 
a short distance northwest of the spot where the road from Pine 
hill did intersect with the old turnpike. In September Mr. Clem- 
ent went down country, got married, and moved his young wife 
home. Dolly, his first child, was born Nov. -i, 177-i, in Warren. 

Eeuuen Clement, the other brother, lived with Jonathan 
many years. Reuben was the tallest of the three, standing six feet 
ill his stockings, and was an active, athletic man, but sometimes a 
little crazy. When the Jit was on him he would stalk through the 
woods from cabin to cabin, carrying a cane as high as his head, 
stout enough for a lever and witli the branches partly left on, for 
all the world like the one borne by the witch Meg Merillies. On 
such occasions he would dress himself in his best, a suit brought 


lie was born Jan. 3, J753, at Sandown, N. 11. She was born Dec. 23, 17.56. Married 

Sept. -24, 1773. 

Dolly, born Nov. 4, 1774; died Nov. 18, Page, born Mav 1, 1787; died Aug. 11, 

1770. 1789. 

Jonathan, .Jr., born Aug. 23, 177(5; died John, born April .30, 1780. 

Sept. 23, 1777. Page, born Aug. 20, 1700. 

Hannah. l)oru Feb, 20, 1778 : died Oct. Dollv and Eleanor, Julv 2.'), 1702. 

30, 1770. Sally, born Jnne 20, 1794. 

Jonathan, 3d, born Oct. 12, 1780. John, born July 17, 1790. 

Hannah, born Jan. 27, 1783. Benjamin, boni Nov. 25, 1798. 

Ephraini, born Feb. 12, 178,"). Daniel, born Dec. 3, 1801. 

" Wentworth, Oct. 21, 1790. This may certify that Jonathan Clement, of War- 
ren, is entitled to Lot No. 8 on which he now live.s, for settling the same, according 
to former votes. Accepted and allowed. PHILLIPS AVHITE, 



Oct. 20, 1786. " Voted that Enoch Page, Esq., have Lot No. 2, laying soutli of 
the No. on whicli Jonathan Clement now lives, in consideration of a lot lie drawed 
for .-iaid Clement to settle on." 

See Proprietors' Records. 

April 29, 1773. " Voted that such (trivate ways as Pliilllps White, Esq., Capt. 
William Hackett, and Ensign Enoch Page shall think jiroper to be cleared this 
present year, shall be done at the charge of the proprietary." 

" Voted to give 100 acres of land to each of tea families who shall actually set- 
tle in town the present year." 

Joseph Patch claimed his land under the above vote, as it was the best offer 
that had been made. 

" Voted that the said committee to clear out private ways be a committee to lay 
out lots for settlers, and the family that lirst moves into town to take his lirst choice, 
and so as they move in." 

See Proprietors' Records. 

Joseph Patch did not settle on and never lived on the lot of land he got, as will 
be seen by examining the Proprietors' Records. 



from dovrn country. His glittering knee-buckles, which fastened 
his short tight breeches to his long stockings, his bright silver shoe 
buckles, his coat slung on his arm, his long jacket unbuttoned, 
the collar of his linen shirt loose and flowing, his long hair stream- 
ing in the wind, and his bright eye, restless and flashing under 
his cocked up hat, made him seem some weird man of the woods. 
Reuben Clement had a friend and familiar companion who came 
to AVarren along with him. 

SniEOx Smith was the man, — and all of his neighbors as long- 
as he lived believed that he was an adept at the black art. Of him 
it was alleged, "That some gloomy night, like those chosen by 
magicians to invoke spirits, he had called u]) the devil at the cross 
roads where four roads met in his native town, and to obtain 
superhuman powers had sworn to be his liege man, and had then 
kissed Satan's cloven hoof." Wonderful were the feats he could 
perform. Sometimes, from sheer malice, he vrould saddle and 
bridle one of his neighbors, and ride and gallop him all over the 
country round. Then tur::ing jack-o'-lantern, with counterfeiting 
voice he would call some loitering j)erson through woods, around 
marshy ponds into tangled thickets, and leave him lost in the cold 
damp swamp. The butter would not come, and he was in the 
churn; the cat mewed and jumped wildly about the house, and 
he was tormenting her; the children behaved strangely, and he 
had bewitched them. Smaller than a gnat, he could go through 
the key hole: larger than a giant, he was seen at twilight stalking 
through the forest. He could travel iu the thin air, and mounted 
on a moonbeam could fly swift as the red meteor over the woods 
and the mountains. 

Without doubt all this was pious scandal, worthy of the old 
Puritans, for Simeon Smith was a good man, and in spite of their 
superstition compelled the respect of his neighbors. He came to 
Warren in Februarv, 177:3. bringing his familv and world! v eft'ects 
in a one-horse vehicle, known among farmers as a "jumper." He 
settled on Red Oak hill, and lived for a time with that restive 
little backwoodsman, Mr. John Morrill. ]Mr. Smith was likewise 
a small-sized man, smart to work and quick-motioned. He had a 
large family, two or three boys old enough to help, and before 
another winter he had a comfortable cabin of his own. 


Ephraiji Luxd was the next settler. He came from Ply- 
mouth, X. H., where he had built the first saw-mill for tlie pro- 
prietors of that townsliip, and he erected a cabin and cleared a 
few acres on the south shore of Tarleton lake. The i)race whei'e 
he lived was long known as Charleston, but why it was so called 
no one has ever been able to tell. It rained a few days after he 
first came to AYarren, succeeded at night by a thick fog. A little 
past sunset he was startled by the wildest cry he ever heard. It 
seemed as if some one lost in the woods was hallooing in despair. 
He got his gun and starting towards the lake discharged it several 
times, that the report might guide the lost one to his cabin — but 
no person came. Who was it? What had happened? A few days 
after he heard tlie hallooing again, and going through the woods 
to the rocky shore he learned that the sound that startled him so 
Avas the cry of ''the great northern diver." He had never heard 
or seen the bird before, and was now perfectly satisfied that when 
told that any one could ''halloo like a loon" thai such person's 
voice must be most loud and terrible, especially if it was heard 
by a man solitary and alone, on a foggy night, and in the dark 

Joseph Lund, his brother, came shortly after, and settled near 
him. He Avas a good-natured, kind-hearted man, and it is said 
that he Avas of middle stature, broad-shouldered, rather bandy- 
legged, brown-complexioned, carroty-bearded, hairy-bodied, big- 
bellied, and fiery-red-nosed. Dame Eumor has it that he loved 
good milk toddy and was not averse to whisky punch. He Avore 
a long, home-made frock, coming down half-Avay from his knees 
to his heels, and he was accustomed to girt a lialf-inch rope, twice 
drawn tightly around him, as some said to keep liis weil-filled 
belly from bursting. Then he talked loud on some occasions, but 
at times his tongue was rather thick, and it bothered people to 
understand him. He was a good shot, and when he travelled in 
the Avoods always carried his gun with him. 

It is told hoAV returning home from Wentworth one day in the 
fall he saAv a large bull moose drinking from the river, near the 
foot of Ked Oak hill and not far from the present south line of the 
toAvn. He immediately fired at the animal, but the ball only stag- 
gered it. Instantly recoA'ering itself it dashed out of the Avater, 


leaped up the opposite bank, and disappeared in the tliick woods. 
Mr. Lniid liastily reloaded, rushed through the river, saw that it 
was stained witli blood, and following the easy trail for a few 
]-ods met the moose, which had turned to face him. Again he 
fired and again the animal fled. Tliis continued till he had lodged 
six bullets in its body, when he succeeded in dispatching it. It 
was a prize, and supplied meat for both of the Mr. Lunds all 

Mr. Lund Avas also an excellent trapper as well as hunter, as 
the following strictly historical anecdote will show. Tradition 
relates that he drove a. few sheep to Warren, the first ones ever 
kept in town, but lie found it I'ather an unprofitable investment, 
for the reason that the bears killed so many of them. They had to 
be yarded every night, and during the daytime they would fre- 
quently come running to the house pursued by these black-coated 
gentry. One afternoon he found the remains of one that had been 
killed, and wishing to take revenge he gathered and placed them 
by the end of a hollow birch log. Inside the log he sat the gun in 
such a manner that when the bear began to eat the mutton he 
would discharge the gun and receive the contents in his own head. 
]Mr. Lund heard the report of his old queen's arm in the night, 
and rising early the next morning he went to learn the result. 
He found a very large bear lying dead a short distance from a heap 
of half-roasted mutton, Avhile the log Avas a pile of burning coals. 
Among these Avas the gun, minus the entire Avooden fixtures, 
Avith the barrel, lock, and ramrod essentially ruined. This was 
a great loss to him, but he often recounted Avith much glee the 
manner in Avhich he swapped his gnu for a bear.* South from the 
Lunds, and on the eastern shore of Eastman ponds, — 

TiiO-AiAS Clark t began a settlement. He was tall of stature, 
fair-complexioned, Avith black hair and a keen black eye, his 
aspect betAveen mild and stern ; of few words, sIoav in speech, not 
easily provoked, and soon pacified. Another man, just his oppos- 
ite in appearance, for contraries love companionship, came to 
Warren Avith him. 

*Mr. Stephen Lxiiid's slatemeut. 

tA'oted, Oct. 19, 1797, that rhillips AA'hite have a gore of land ninning on Tier- 
mont line, marked on tlie plan " Phillips White," in consideration of his settling 
Tliomas Clark.— Proprietors' Records. 


Isaiah Batciikldek was broad-faced, of a ruddy complexion, 
rolling eyes, Avitli a large belly, and a lover of fat living. lie 
built a log hut for himself south of Mr. Clark's, but did not move 
into it with his family till the next season. These two men 
received their land from Warren's most energetic proprietoi-, at 
that time living, Mr. Phillips White. 

Chase Whitcher came next. He was born in Salisbury, was 
a relative of Mr. John Whitcher, who was as yet our only settler 
on Pine hill, and although a mere boy he took possession of a lot of 
land in the north part of the town, fell a few acres of trees, and 
built himself a log camp covered with bark. He was sent by the 
proprietors, they observing that he was a resolute youth, that they 
might if possible fulfill the to them terrible first condition of the 

Chase, the boy settler, was a tall, bony, raw-built fellow, with 
a spare face, red hair, and a hard head, and he could hunt as well 
as the best of them. Mink, muskrat, and otter he caught by the 
foamy, roistering Oliverian ;* beaver he trapped at Beaver-meadow 
ponds, the head waters of the wild Ammonoosuc, and his sable 
lines ran here and there upon the sides of the mountains. Then 
it is said he was fond of the occupation indicated by his given 
name — that in autumn he loved the chase. The cry of his old 
hound-dog in the woods was music to him, and following a moose 
one day he climbed over Moosehillock, being the first settler that 
ever stood on its bald summit. 

At another time he was chasing a wild buck, which ran 
down on the rocky crest of Owl's Head mountain. AYhitcher 
heard the having of his old bloodhound in the distance, at regular 
intervals, each time coming nearer, and cocking his rifle got behind 
a rock, thinking to shoot the stag as he passed. He did not have 
to wait long. The deer burst out of the thin woods fifty rods 
away, too far off for a shot, and bounded towards the edge of the 
precipice. He whistled to the old dog following closely behind, 
whose three wild yells rang out regularly upon the clear moun- 
tain air, but could not make him hear. Neither deer nor hound 

*" In rt'franl to naming Oliverian brook I have no legal knowledge. Tradition 
says that in early times a man named Oliver and another person were crossing the 
stream, that thelirst fell in and the other gave the alarm bv crying ' Oliver's in.' 
Hence the name, Olirerian." — Hosea S. Baker. 


heeded where they were going, and when they reached the brink 
of the mountain, in the excitement of the moment the hunter held 
his breath, as he saw the buck unable to stop, and the great black 
hound, intent only ou his prey, both leap far out over the edge of 
the precipice, then falling- swift as lightning disappear in the 
abyss a hundred tathoms down. 

In an hour the young man had climbed dowu through the 
Y/oods by a roundabout way to the foot of the mountain, where 
he found the deer dead, and his hound with one leg broken and 
otherwise terribly bruised. The dog had lighted on the top of a 
great pine, which broke the force of his fall. In time he got well, 
but could never again be induced to run another deer ou the top 
of Owl's Head mountain. 

Mr. AYliitcher lived in his camp but a portion of the time. 
The rest he spent at Mr. John "Wliitcher's, and down-countiy, till 
1777, when he married Miss Hannah Morrill,* built him a nice 
cabin of hewn logs, and moved his young bride home. 

AViLLiAM Hkath lived in town about this time, but had no 
particular place of residence. He was one of those curious, non- 
descript sort of persons, to be found in every back settlement, and 
there is no country village but has his prototype. He would work 
out a few days here and a few somewhere else, and then Avould 
fell trees on a lot he had selected, saying he was going to settle 
down. He delighted to hang round Obadiah Clement's bar-room, 
and he would spend a whole day at any place where he thought 
they would give him a drink. He had sharked it about the world 
picking up a living without paying for it, and by long fasting at 
times had become a tall, lank, hungry looking sort of fellow, 
swift of foot and long-winded. He had the wolf-skin cap and 


He was born Oct. 6, 1753, at Salisbury, Mass. She was born June 19, 1758, at Ames- 
bury. Married July 6, 1777. 
J.evi, born Sept. 22, 1779. Jacob, born Juue 22, 1791. 
Dollv, born Jan. 22, 1781. Miriam, born Marcli 18, 1794. 
\\'illiani, born May 23, 1783. Hannali, born March IG, 179G. 
Molly, born April'lG, 1785. Martha, born .July 18, 1798. 
Chase, .Jr., born Sept. 5, 1787. David, born Jan. 15, 1803. 
l^evi, 2d, born Aug. 31, 1789. 

William Whitcher, son of Chase Whitcher, was the lather of Ira Whitcher, 
Chase Whitcher, Daniel Whitcher, and other sons, all now living at North Ben- 
ton. His family were all tall in stature, of more than ordinary intelligence, 
and the sons active and iutluential business men. " There were more than a hun- 
dred feet of Whitchers in WiUiam AVhitcher's family." 


short frock of the settler, hut his belt, Icggius, and moccasins, 
gave him an Indian look, and his hair hanging' straight in gallows 
locks made him look more sharky, so that in appearance he was 
an ugly customer to deal with. It is told however that he chanced 
one day to meet at Col. Clement's tavern our mettlesome little 
settler, Mr. John Morrill, and being well pickled — or in plain 
English drunk — he managed to get up a fight, and Mr. Morrill 
being- sober gave him a good beating as he deserved. 

When AV'illiam Heath sobered olf his chagrin was great to 
think he had been vanquished, and he immediately left the settle- 
ment and buried himself for a month in the deep woods. When 
he came back, to take off the edge of his absence, he said he had 
been a hunting. But the two combatants were soon friends again. 
Thus AVilliam Heath passed his life, and when the Revolution 
.broke out he was one of the first off to the wars. 

Mr. Stevens Merrill * was the father-in-law of our first set- 
tler, and before coming- to Warren lived in Plaistow, N. H. Mr. 
Patch had called at Mr. MerrilFs house when he had been down 
country to sell his furs and get supplies, had fallen in love with 
young- Miss Annie Merrill, and when she was a trifle more than 
sweet sixteen they Avere married. He moved his young wife home 
and she was the prettiest flower in all the wilderness. She had 
sparkling- black eyes, rosy cheeks, cherry lips, raven tresses in 
abundance, and in form Avas light and agile as a doe. 

In 1775 Mr. Merrill, who did not like the political complexion 
of the country, concluded to go where he could find peace and quiet, 

* STEVExs AND SARAH (Chase J meebill's family kecokd. 

Jonathan, born Dec. 13, 1752, at New- Mary, born May 13, 1703. 

bury, Mass. Jot^eph, born Sept. 24, 17(M. 

Sarati, born Sept. 23, 1754. Riitb, born March 0, 17(iT. 

Anna, born Dee. 28, 175(j. Caleb, born April 4, 17G9. 

Susannah, .June 4, 1759, at Plaistovi', Betsey, May 15, 1772. 

N. H. Hannah, bo'rn Oct. 9, 1775. 

Sarah, the first yrife, died April 30, 1794. Mai-y, the second, died August 24, 1604. 
Hannah, died Noy. 21, 1806. Caleb, died .June S, 1808. 

Nathaniel Merrill and his brotlier .John came from England and settled in New- 
bury, Mass., l():-!5. Nathaniel niarrieil Susdinuih (iordon. 

Nathaniel, Jr., born liirn^, married Joan Kinney. 

Peter, born llji;7, married Siirah IJ(i~:ieltoii. 

Aljel, borii ItJ97, married llutli. 

^^TEyENS, born June lu. ]7.!I, married, 1st, Sarah Chase; 2il, ^TarlJ Xoijes. 

•Joseph, born Sei)t. 24, 17ii4, mariied Sarah Copp. 

Susan C., born July 30, 1SU8, married Jesse Little. 

Stevens Merrill was born in Atkinson, N. II., lived at Newbury, Mass., then at 
Plaistow, N. H., then settled in Warren as above. 


and so moved to our woodland paradise. He bought the lot of 
laud on which James Aikin lived, and built a log house on the 
river bank, a few rods southeast of the present depot, and just 
south of the west end of the Bixby bridge. 

Stevens Merrill was a straight, medium-sized man, had a lean 
face, a thin straight nose and blue eyes. Mr. M. was a Quaker, 
did not believe in war, and had no sympathy with the colonists. 
He was stern of aspect and slow in speech, and the children were 
afraid of him. He was inflexible, had a mind and will of liis own, 
and could not be bent from his purpose. Courage he possessed 
to a remarkable degree, and neither man, wild beast, nor devil 
could frighten him. His cattle used to run in the woods. One 
day they got lost, and after hunting a long time he found all near 
Hurricane brook, except one ox and a heifer. Driving them up 
the bridle-path he heard the ox lowing in the woods on the right. 
He knew there was trouble. Going back to his son-in-law's he 
procured a stout pitchfork, then followed through the woods till 
he found the ox in the meadow near Patch brook, guarding the 
heifer, which a large bear was trying to kill. The heifer was 
very badly scratched and bitten. Assisted by the ox, Mr. M. 
attacked the bear, the largest one he ever saw, and after a hard 
fight succeeded in driving it away, but did not kill it. The same 
bear killed cattle in Romney and the towns below, and was itself 
eventually killed by a hunter. 

Jonathan Merrill, Esq., a son of the above, came to "VYar- 
ren with him. He lived for a time with his brother-in-law, and 
his son Stevens, afterwards the richest man in town, was born in 
Mr. Patch's cabin. 'Squire Jonathan Merrill was one of the 
smartest men that ever lived in Warren. He was six feet tall, of 
a lordly mien, straight as an arrow, and had an eye like a hawk. 
He was perfect in the science of human nature, knew when to 
drive and when to coax, and had a large stock of soft soap, Avhich 
he generally dealt out with a liberal hand. Like his father, he 
was a Quaker of the straightest sect; wore a broad-brimmed hat, 
and a long drab coat ornamented with great wooden buttons, 
called by some " niatheman buttons." As soon as his father had 
finished his large log cabin he moved home with him, where he 
lived through life. 


Joshua Mekkile., Esq.,* followed liis friends and relatives 
into the wilderness. He bought the lot of land immediateh'- 
south of "Squire Copp, and built his log hut at the foot of Beech 
hill, a few rods north of the bridge over Black brook. 

He was small-sized, straight, lithe, and agile, and withal was 
an excellent horseman. "As straight as Uncle Joshua," was a 
speech common among the settlers. He was also a tough, sturdy, 
weather-beaten, mettlesome, leathern-sided, lion-hearted, gen- 
erous-spirited little man. He would never give up when he had 
entered a contest, and he battled for five-score years with Old 
Father Time, only yielding when the snows of more than a hun- 
dred winters had whitened his head. He was the best dressed 
man in town, and it would have done you good, kind reader, 
to have seen him, could you only have lived in those times. He 
would frequently dress himself in his best on some week day, 
when nothing particular was going on, and then Avould call round 
on all his neighbors to show how pretty he looked. Perhaps he 
wanted to advertise his wares, for report has it that he was once a 
tailor by trade. f On such occasions he wore a very short-waisted 
coat of dark color, with short tail-flaps, a wide-rimmed hat — 


Samuel, born Feb. 28, 1774, at Plais- Siisauiiali, boni April 2, 1786; died 

tow; died Dec. 14, 181.^. April 28, 1813. 

Stevens, born Mar. 15th, 1770, at War- Ruth, born June 4, 1788; died Feb. 9, 

ren ; died Mav 12. 1843. 1790. 

Isaac, born Aug-."4, 1778. Betsey, born Nov. 21, 1790. 

Hannah, born Mav 24, 1781. Mehitalde, born Sept. 6, 1792. 

Sarah, born -Jan. 28, 1784. Polly, born March 10, 1794. 
Susannali, wile of 'Squire Jonathan, died Dec. 20, 1813. 


He was born Mav 27th, 1739, in Newburv, Mass. She was boru Aug. 28th, 1741, in 
Hampstead, N. 11. 31arried Feb. 19, 1700. 

Ruth, born Nov. 23, 1700, in Ilanip- Ruth, born April S, 1766. 

stead. HaTinah, born April 28, 1771. 

Abigail, boru Nov. (!, 1762. Joshua, born July 17, 1770, at War- 

Meliitable, born June 1, 1704, at San- ren. 

Abigail died April 1, 1704. The first Ruth died June 18, 1704. 

At a proprietors' meeting held Julv 8, 1789, "Voted that Maj. Josepli Page have 
a hundred acre lot of land, whicli was surveyed by Mr. Josiali Burnham on the 
10th August, 1787, in consideration of ins settling Mr. Joshua Merrill in said town." 
Josluui Merrill was a brother of Stevens Merrill. 

fNoarlv all the cloth he made up in those good old days was homespun. The 
sheep keiit'bv tlie settlers were of a coarse-wooled kind. This wool was carded 
with hand-cards, which was a verv laborious work for tlie women. Sometimes, to 
make it more cheerful, thev would have a hee, or icool-hreakbig. It was nearly as 
much work to card as to spin it, and a woman's " stent " for spinning was live 
skeins a dav, for which the usual price was lilty cents and board per week. The 


rim fall ten inches wide — hip breeches fastened at the knee with 
buckles, color dark; long stockings, blue and white, and fastened 
by a loop to one of the breeches buttons, and buskins of wool or 
leather, tied Avith sheep-skin strings over his thick, double-soled 
ox-hide shoes. His jacket was of the same material as his coat 
and breeches, with large ilaps over the pockets, and for cold 
weather he had a great coat with very long cape and no waist, 
buttoned with four or five "matheman buttons.-' The sleeves had 
very wide cuffs, eight or ten inches at least, and two great buttons 
on each. When he had this suit on, and was mounted on his great 
black stallion which he used to ride, he would dash through the 
woods along the stony bridle-path like a Avild Arab. He was 
known all over the country round, and everybody would say, 
"There goes Fai'mer Joshua, the politest and best dressed man in 
the State." 

Mr. William Butler was employed by the proprietors to 
come to Warren to perform a piece of Avork which we shall be 
most happy to mention hereafter. He was born in Brentwood, 
April 24th, 1757, and married pretty Mehitable Mills,* Mr. John 
Mills' sister. William Butler was a handsome man, with round 
features. He Avas five feet eleA'^en inches tall, straight, well-pro- 

wool spun, and it was woven iu the old hand-loom. The most comiiion cloth 
was " sheep's gray," the wool of a black sheep and a white sheep spun and woven 
together. Tlien they had fulled cloth, dressed by a clothier down country. Some- 
times they made heavy waled cloth and dyed it with bark at home. The women 
in winter'wore "baize," dyed with green "or red, and when it was pressed it was 
called pressed-cloth. 

Nearly every good hoxisewile would have a blue vat in the form of a "dye-pot," 
in which, instead of dissolving the indigo at once with sulphuric acid, it was put 
into a bag and dissolved gradually in urine. AVhat a beautiful smell when our 
grandmothers wrung out from the dye-pot. Here stockings and aprons and the 
yarn for blue frockiug was dyed. 

Our first settlers began to raise flax almost as soon as they moved into town. 
After the llax was "pulled" the seed was thrashed ofl", then it was rotted, and 
about the first of March, before sugaring, " got out." First tlie llax was broken in 
the "flax-break," then it was "swingled" on the swiugliug-board; a very smart 
man would swingle forty ijounds a day. " Combing" came next ; tlie "tow" was 
got out and tiien the flax was ready to" put on the " distafl'." The buzzing linen- 
wheel made music in the nld kitclfens, and " two double-skeins " was a day's work 
for a smart woman. AVhen the cloth was woven it was bucked and then belted 
with a maple beetle on a smooth flat stone. Shirts, sheets, pillow-cases, and nice 
dresses were made of the cloth. Small girls spun the " swiugling-tow" into wrap- 
ping twine and with it bought notions down country. Older girls made " all tow," 
" tow-aiul-linen," or " all linen " stulV to barter for their " fixing out." 

Fanner .Joshua made ail the line clothes our early settlers had. 


He was born April 21, IT.")?, in Brentwood. She was born .Tan. '23, 17JJ6, in Ports- 
mouth. Alarried Feb. 15, l?7fl. 
Betsey, born Feb. b), 1780, in Warren. Stephen, born Aug. 23, 17S3. 
Marv,"born April 1, 1782. Sallv, born Alav 8, 1787. 

AVdllam, Jr., born Mav 11, 178.i. Doliv, born Aug. 30, 1788. 


portioned, and would weigh more than two hundred pounds. 
Like Chase Wliitcher, he was very young when he came to War- 
ren. He was a gentleman tanner, lived several years with Mr. 
IVIills, did not like to work very hard, preferred to oversee his 
hired help, and spent much of his time buying and selling cattle 
and trading horses. He was a good calculator, made money, and 
eventually got rich. 

There was another man came to AYarren about these times, 
but no one can precisely fix the year. 

JoHX HiNCHSON was AVarren's first hermit. He built a hun- 
ter's camp for himself southwest of Mr. Patch and on the easterly 
bank of Patch brook. The life he led Avas tliat of a wild Indian. 
A hound-dog, named Wolf, was his only companion. In the snni- 
mer he spent the time fishing, catching salmon and tront, with 
which the river and brooks abounded. One fall it is said he went 
over the mountains hunting — catching beaver by Glen ponds, in 
Fox Glove meadow, and on Monlton brook — and other seasons 
he travelled far away across the Pomigewassett valley to the head 
waters of the streams among the AYhite mountains. In the win- 
ter he hunted moose and deer, which atForded an abundance ot 
provision. Sometimes he would be gone a year or two, no one 
knew where, and then would come back to his old haunts again. 

Thus Warren Avas settled; and living in the fairy realms of 
her antiquity, these were her first settlers. Laws, churches, 
schools — they had none; and from all restraints or taxation they 
were wholly free. Happy days Avere theirs; plenty to eat and 
drink, Avork enough to do, keen appetites, seldom sick, and Avith 
neither doctors, lawyers, nor ministers to support. Hoav delight- 
ful to dAvell on their history, abiding in a Avoodland town, sur- 
rounded by great mountains, and beyond them trackless forests, 
that seemed to shut out all the cares and vanities of the wicked 
Avorld. But all this is too beautiful to last long. Dame Fortune, 
ever bloAving a shifting gale, lively, changing scenes are soon to 
come. IIoAV the lives of the settlers checkered up, and AVarren 
right merrily, like bursting flowers dancing into life to the music 
of spring birds, changed about into a fine old country town, Avhere 
ambitious men lived, is most interesting to knoAV. 



Our dignified, worth}', and aristocratical body, the distin- 
guished proprietors, had done pi-ett.v well, but had not obtained 
the tifty families as settlers. There was great danger of their 
again losing their charter, but the political troubles Avith the 
mother country for a time removed attention from themselves, and 
as we have before remarked, in the end the Revolution j)roved 
their salvation. In its turmoils they Avere forgotten and they 
saved their lands. 

Ill our mountain hamlet the twenty settlers, constituting the 
eighteen families, made a most agreeable but a very rustic neigh- 
borhood, and they had a most rustic style of living. The rude 
hunter's camp, the log cabin, — often without glass windows, the 
rough opening that admitted the light closing sometimes with a 
wooden shutter — the door of rifted boards, the floor of rough 
poles frequently covered with bark, the chimney a cob-work of 
sticks, plastered with mud, the great fire-place built of stones, and 
all the furniture as plain and simple as the house, — such Avere the 
homes found by our early settlers in the days long ago. 

Think of these frail tenements, growing up like Avild flowers 
in the wilderness, in the latter half of the eighteenth century. 
There is no road north or south, only a bridle-path, and that not 
half as good as the one now running to the summit of Moosehil- 

A SA"\V-3riLL IS BUILT. 237 

lock. But few of the cabins were located even beside the bridle- 
route, and a blazed path led through the woods to them, and for 
years the forest trees locked branches above them. Neither yard 
in front, nor fence nor wall behind, nor garden gate. The honey- 
suckle grew sweetly by the door, and wild sumach and blackberry 
bushes flowering in their season, and (he golden-rod, and white 
birch intertwining with the mountain ash, sprang up by the open 
window. Near by the cabins were the little clearings — one, two 
or tivc acres, no man more than ten acres. Cut few sheep were 
kept then ; a cow, a yoke of steers, sometimes a horse, constituted 
the settler's stock. Often bears broke down and ate the corn, or 
a moose or a deer were seen feeding- on their little improvements, 
and at night, when the gibbous moon shone in the sky and looked 
in upon the cabin among the trees, the early settlers retiring to 
rest would hear the wolf* howling on the mountain, and the sol- 
emn owl hooting in harsh discordant notes, — wild music heard in 
the solitudes which had been but just invaded. 

All this is noAV A^ery pleasant to contemplate, but the good 
men of AVarren did not then exactly like it. They longed for 
something better, — something like what they had left in old Hol- 
lis, Hampstead, Sandown, Atkinson, Plaistow, and Salisbury, the 
towns from Avhich they had emigrated. Framed houses, covered 
with sawn boards, was one of the requisites to satisfy the heart's 
desire, but they could not be had without a saw-mill. The pro- 
prietors had ofiered a bounty for building one, and Mr. Stevens 
Merrill was the man energetic enough to undertake the work. 

At the " little white fall "' on Black brook, where John Page, 
Esq., once shot a deer, he chose his mill site. The dam was built 
of great pine logs, and a pretty pond of five or six acres gleamed 
in the woods at the foot of Beech hill. Three great rocks stood 
out of the water among the trees on its western shore, and a green 
wooded cape shot far down towards the centre. The mill itself 
was simply a heavy frame of hewed logs, unbearded of course, 
and the roof was covered with long shaved shingles. Then there 
was a pause in the Avork, — the mill irons must be brought up from 

* irolves .—The year ITSfi was a remarkable year for wolves. Tlicy swarmed 
down from the north throiifrh all the country. Moses H. Clement used "to tell how 
his mother took him to the door one night to hear the wcilves howl. They would 
come round the barn after sheei) but could not get in. Many were killed. 


ilown couiitrj'' and a saw must be procured. Col. Obadiah Clem- 
ent Avcnt on foot to Boscawcn for the last, and brought it all the 
way lift)' miles to AVarren on his back. He made the journey 
through the woods over the rough bridle-path in three days. 
Another settler brought up some of the smaller irons, but the 
crank could not come till winter. Mr. Merrill, Col. Clement, and 
his brother Reuben went for it and drew it to Warren on a great 
wide-runnered, frame-work handsled, made for that very purpose. 
In the sjiring the mill was finished, and the music of its wheel 
driven by fourteen feet waterfall, the click of the cogs on the log- 
frame, and the clip of the saw gnawing througli the pines, which 
the settlers sawed up regardless of the "broad arrow mark" upon 
them, sounded for the first time through the pleasant woods of 

There is a stirring little anecdote connected with the old mill 
which the kind reader may believe or not, as the highly veracious 
gentleman Avho related it said lie Avas not quite sure but that it 
occurred somewhere else down east after all. It is told by him 
how one spring 'Squire Jonathan Merrill Avas at work sawing, 
and every morning he would miss the lard with which he greased 
the machinery, and sometimes it would be gone at noon. One 
day he brought down a large quantity of it, and thinking he heard 
the thief prowling in the thick swamp woods that grew by the 
bog a few rods east of the mill, he placed the dish on the long log 
he Avas saAving, hoisted the gates and started towards home. 
Looking back he caught sight of something crossing the logging- 
path, and stealing round so that he could look into the mill him- 
self he saAV a great black bear sitting upon the log, back to the 
saAV, eating the grease. Presently the saAV came so close it 
scratched his back, but Bruin only groAvled and hunched along. 
Again it bit him, and this time smarting Avith i)ain he turned 
quickly round, reared on his hind feet and clasped the impudent 
iron intruder on his dinner Avith his fore-paws, to giA'.e it a death- 
hug. But now he caught a tartar ; he gnaAved afile. Down came 
the saAV, stroke after stroke in ra])id succession, till the black- 
coated thief Avas literally sawn in tAVO. It i^ proper to inform the 
reader that the bear died, after haAdhg given the saw blade a coat- 
ing of A'cry excellent oil from his own greasy carcass. OA^er all 


•\vliifli, like the boy i)clting- the I'rog, 'Squire Men-ill shed no tears; 
and whether true in whole or in part the incident has more than 
once served to ''point a moral and adorn a tale." 

Hiijh ui) in the northeast corner of Warren is situated a pretty 
little sheet of water. As we have somewhere hinted, the Indians 
called it Wachipanka, but the later generations of our mountain 
hamlet delight to term it Meader pond. It is yet right in the 
heart of the woods, and from its eastern shore springs a handsome 
forest-covered cape. On the north Webster Slide shoots sharp up a 
thousand feet, its top crowned by silvery birch and waving pine; 
the crannies of its rocks radiant with the blueberry, harebell, 
lichen, and other mouutaiu flowers. Ou a Avarm summer day the 
water reflecting the rich foliage of the yet undisturbed forest, is 
rutfled only by the great speckled trout jumping or the wild duck 
swimming; but Avhen the autumn winds come the blue water 
curling smiles upon the mountain-face and laughs at the bald head 
of Moosehillock, looking in from the distance over the great 

Black brook — the Mikaseota — comes down from Wachipauka 
pond. Its waters turn the Avheel of our first saw-mill, and the 
logs cut up furnish the inhabitants Avith lumber. 

And now the great naked log Avails, the massive, lumbering- 
doors, the floor of logs hewed down, the rude style of construct- 
ing bed and board shall disappear, and the second generation of 
settlers' houses come. One story high, and a Ioav one at that; a 
great stack of a chimney of stone — then afterAvards containing 
brick enough to build a modern brick house — right in the centre; 
two square rooms in front, a long kitchen behind: at one end of 
this, bedroom and entry : at the otlier, buttery, stairAvay, and cellar 
Avay; an unfinished attic Avhere the children slept, parted ofi" 
sometimes by blankets, oftencr 1)}' spruce bark, one portion for 
the boys the other for the girls. These were the palaces our fore- 
fathers Avere anxious to get. 

One of these^stands just at the fool of that steep hill known 
as the Blue Ridge, and is probably the oldest framed dwelling 
house in town. I'liis was the dAvelling builr and occupied by 
Joshna Copp, Esq., and formerly stood a quarter of a mile Avest 
of its present location, near the spot Avhere he first erected his 



The first framed dwelling', as we liave before 

liumble cabin 

stated, was erected by Mr. Joseph Patch, by the roadside on the 
northerly banlv of Patch brook.* Latterly the more aristocratic 
well to do among- onr flxthers built large, double, two-story houses 


of which the old red house built by Stevens Merrill and now 
standing near the depot is a sample. 

For this great enterprise, the building of a saw-mill, the pro- 
prietors, Jan. loth, 1784, long after, voted to allow Mr. Merrill 
twelve pounds," to be paid him as soon as collected, in money or 
in certificates, and so much did our mountain pioneers rejoice that 
for several years they excused Mr. M. from paying taxes on his 

A tight roof to cover their heads was exceedingly nice, but 
good corn cakes and whcaten loaves were also what tliey craved ; 
these were difficult to be obtained. It was hard to travel to 
Haverhill or Plymouth for a grist, and the proprietors realizing- 
that this Avas an important thing for the town, offered a bounty for 
building- a grist-mill. William Eutler accepted the proposition.' 
Across the Asquamchumauke, just below v.iiere the great railroad 
bridge now spans its Avaters, he built a huge dam. The mudsill is 
still to be seen, an object of wonder to tlie boys avIio go to swim 
in •'the old deep hole," as it is termed; and the holes drilled and 

See Proprietors' Records. 

THE 1•■IR^ST <n;lSTMTU.. 2-41 

cut in the great rock on the western shore sliow where were tlie 
lastenings of the dam. One at a time the rude millstones were 
drawn up from down country by AVilliam Butler, with four men 
to assist liini, just as the crank of the saw-mill came, and early in 
1776 the first settlers brought their grains, loroducts of a virgin 
soil, to be ground, and waited for their grists listening to tin; buzz 
of rude mill stones mingling their music with that of the wheel 
which now for the first time vexed Asquamchumauke's waters. 

The proprietors were well satisfied Avith William Butler's work 
and afterwards voted to allow him eighteen pounds for building 
the mill, to be paid him as soon as collected. * 

We have said the boys go to swim in '• the old deep hole." A 
great historical fact Avould be lost to all the coming countless gene- 
rations did we fail to record that young John Mills, Jr., and Jo- 
seph Merrill, Stevens Merrill's sou, and Moses Copp, son of 'Squire 
Joshua, and other boys also went to swim in " the old deep hole," 
now made doubly deep by William Butler's mill dam. The woods 
were very thick all around it and not a house was visible, so no 
delicate sensitive nerves could be shocked. Jumping out of their 
moosehide breeches and tow shirts the boys ran over smooth peb- 
bles of mica slate and shining quartz, green hornblende and frag- 
ments of porphyritic trap, little dreaming of the virgin gold lying- 
concealed beneath them Avhich would only be discovered a hun- 
dred years later, and plunged into the clear sparkling water. 
John Mills, Jr.. could swim the whole length of the pond to tiie 
dam. Here he would rest himself and look over into the foam- 
ing pool below, where the salmon congregated and out of which 
they would leap up through the falling water, swift as the rush of 
Indian arrows through the sky. nine perpendicular feet into the 
pond above. "William Butler said he had seen the salmon shoot 
up over the dam many a time. 

Swimming ashore young Mills and his companions would sit 
down in the shadow of the great hemlocks and wide spreading 
beech trees and watch the white fleece-like foam, formed where 
the roaring Asquamchumauke lost itself in the pond. It was a 
pleasant place to pass a summer afternoon. The v.'Ood thrush and 
the robin were singing overhead, the partridge drummed on an 

*See Proin-ietoi's Records. 


old decaying log up in the pines by Indian rock: a blue jay was 
ducking its crest and hustling the water with its wings; on the 
shore a sand piper crying weet, jumped up on a great stone,, then 
ran fastby the water under the bending grass; hoar hound, cranes- 
bill and honey suckle lent a delicious fragrance to the air and 
bright clouds mirrored in the clear water were floating away and 
losing themselves in the deep blue beyond old Mount Carr and 
Moosehillock mountain. 

But these were only the beauties of the pond tit for the boys to 
look at; the utility of the grist mill joined with that of the saw- 
mill constituted one of the mii-htv ao'ents which wrou2'ht such 
great changes in our mountain hamlet. 



\l E have said lively changing scenes are soon to come. But 
lot US not be in a hurry to enter upon them. Pause a moment I 
These are the halcyon days of our little mountain hamlet. Eight 
beautiful summers have come and gone since it was settled. Our 
pioneers are living all this time in the most rustic simplicity. 
There is nought to disturb them, nought to make them afraid. 
There were no doctors to physic them to death, no ministers to 
preach war and bloodshed instead of peace and love, and no pet- 
tifogging lawyers to send caitifFscouts, catch-polls, and bum-bailifFs 
to distrain, to attach, and to arrest. In fact there was not a 
lawyer, sheriff, judge, court, or jailor within sixty miles of our 
little hamlet among- the hills. Neighbor loved neighbor, the 
golden rule was observed, and peace, happiness, and good will pre- 
vailed, and all was harmony serene. It was a place of which 
poets loved to sing — of old woods, clear rushing streams, wild and 
lofty mountains, where even the gods would dwell. 

But wait, perhaps everything is not quite so nice after all. 
Men are human even here. Either civil law or club law must pre- 
vail in every community, and we shall soon see that in the ab- 
sence of civil law they sometimes used the club right freely in 
our good old mountain town. 

James Aiken, as previously described, was a lusty Celt from 


the Emerald Isle, and Stevens Merrill was a medliun sized man, a 
Quaker of the straightcst sect, stern in aspect and slow in speech. 
Wc ]javc before said that they both settled on the same lot of land ; 
the first a gentle squatter, the second had purchased it of the lordly 
proprietors and had a good warrantee deed of the premises. It 
was natural that one having' a good comfortable cabin and a few 
broad acres nicely cleared should want to stay; and tiiat the otlier 
having an excellent title bought vrith his ovrn hard cash should 
want the first to leave. Consequently there would be a dignified 
reserve between the two lords of the soil. 

When they first met the Quaker gently hinted to the Celt that 
he had no title to his land. He did not take the hint. At the next 
cordial intervicAV Mr. M. said, " Thee must leave." Aiken " did 
not see it." Next time, a week or so later, Stevens Merrill told 
him, " Thee have got to go, and if thee do not," said he, '•' 1 will 
serve a process on thee, a writ of ejectment." At this Mr. Aiken 

laughed politely, theu said decidedly, '• D d if I will go." 

Quaker blood, so peaceful, now boiled like a little pot on hearing 
this so profane, so unchristian reply, and he inwardly determined 
to have his rights, legally if he could, by hook or crook if neces- 
sary. They did not speak at the next meeting, only eyed each 
other askance. 

Aiken knew by the appearance of things there was trouble 
brewing and so kept close at home to protect himself and property. 

But in process of time it became absolutely necessary for him 
to go down the valley to the neighboring land of Wcntworth, 
where his brother had settled, for supplies. He went very quietly 
one morning, away round through the woods down on the east 
side of Patch brook, next to the foot of the hill, so no one would 
see him. But he was not so fortunate as could be desired. Our 
keen eyed htmter, Joseph Patch, was looking abotit his premises 
and by chance saw him. He knew vdiathis father-in-law wanted, 
how hard he had tried to get a writ of ejectment, but could not 
very well do it on account of distance, bad roads, and expense, so 
he hurried away to tell him that this Avas the time for the strategy 
devised, the opportunity to execute a splendid flaidc movement. 

Stevens Merrill made no delay. He forded the river and 
crossed the meadow. 'Twas a bright autumn day. A lagging 


wind blew over the plain, rustling the beeches and maples. On the 
edge of the clearing he stopped to reconnoitre; the cabin stood 
in the centre, a little brook was babbling beside it, three children 
were playing at the door, and tlie buzz of a linen wheel was heard 

" It is a bad job,"' he said to himself, '• but it will be worse if 
it is delayed." Entering the cabin he told Mrs. Aiken she must 
leave. '' An faith I won't," said she. '' But thee will," said Mr. 
M. " I'll see about it," said she, and sprang for an axe that stood 
in the corner. But Stevens Merrill was too quick for her. He 
wrenched it from her grasp and then aftectionately ejected her 
from the cabin. The children screamed and Mrs. A. threatened 
vengeance. But it was no use. Mr. M. began to pitch the things 
out, and seeing his determination they picketl up their extra 
clothing and trudged away down tlie bridle path to John Mills' as 
fast as their legs would carry them. 

He moved all the rest of the furniture out carefully, even the 
linen wheel and the pots and kettles that hung on the stout lug- 
pole* in the great lire place, carried them to a safe distauce and 
then set lire to the cabin. The wind freshened, the smoke curled 
up and floated away over the woods, the tlames roared and leaped 
about, and in an hour the pleasant dwelling was a mass of black- 
ened ruins. 

When James Aiken came back they told him the news at 
John Mills". He was terribly mad and swore that he '' would 
have revenge — that old Merrill had committed arson — that he 
should be locked up between the four walls of a prison — that he 
was the devil's own and the regular son of a dog mother," to 
speak politely what the Celt said plump and plain. 

Stevens Merrill kept a watch about his own cabin every night, 
himself, sons, and son-in-law, by turns, until their friend had 

* 111 tho chimney, across the flue, was the higpole, made of jjreen heecli or ma- 
ple from two to four inches in diameter, anil on which -were luuiK liooijs and tram- 
mels of wroufrlit iron, so constructed as to be raised or lowered to suit the con- 
venience of Ilie pots and kettles suspended thereon for culinary purposes. These 
lus" poles were lial)le to be burnt by the fire which blazed beneath and broken h\ 
(he weig'ht suspended on tliem, ami lu due time prave place to the crane whicli ^vas 
constructed of iron and fastened on one side to the cliimney jamb, while tlie end 
swung over the lire witli tlie books and trammels on it.— Jacob Patch's state- 

Stevens Merrill ilrove Aiken i>ff and l)uint liis cabin.— Deacon Jdiiatliau C:ieiK- 
euts' statement. 


moved his goods away and liad gone to his brother's in Weiit- 
worth. Even tlien he did not feel quite safe, for he knew he had 
not done just riglit taking the law into his own hands. 

James Aiken afterwards went back down country. When 
people came down he would ask if " Stevens Merrill had gone to 
hell, for if he had not/' said he, " hell no need to have been 
made ;" a pious remark, showing the deep love he had for his gen- 
tle friend. 

Our Quaker settler from this time forward cultivated the 
Irishman's field and took pains to obliterate his memory. But 
the old cellar, now almost tilled up, yet remains to mark the spot 
where this dire calamity happened, and the little brook running 
down on the second of the geological terraces and near which 
stood the Irishman's cabin, bears his name and is called Aikeu 
brook even to this day. 



Mount C ARR is a g rand old mountain . It rises 3,506 feet 
above the ocean, is covered with a dense forest even to the summit 
and occupies a part of tlie following four townships : The ancient 
Trecothick, now Ellsworth, Romney, now called Riimney, as 
aforesaid, Wentworth, and our own mountain hamlet. 

It derives its name from the following- circnmstance, which 
we prefer to tell as it was told years ago, and the reader without 
doubt will think it a '"delectable tale.*' •"When the country 
Avas first settled and its geography but little known, a certain Mr. 
Carr, wishing to proceed from Trecothick to Warren, attempted 
to cross the mountain. At the time he started the sky was free 
from clouds, and every appearance gave sign of pleasant weather 
But soon after he entered the woods there arose a terrific 
shower, common to mountainous regions, and Avhen it had rained 
a short time, instead of clearing away, a thick fog set in com- 
pletely enveloping the mountain. 

At the commencement of the shower Mr. Carr crept under 
the trunk of a large tree that had fallen across a knoll, and as the 
rain continued to fall more violently he concluded he would be 
compelled to remain there over night. The log above his head 
was an immense hemlock, and peeling some of the loose bark 
from the trunk he sat it with sticks of rotten Avood against the 
sides of the tree, more eftectually to shield himself from the fall- 


ing- -water. He had no means of lighting a tii-e, and as he had 
gained a considerable elevation when night came on. he felt cold. 
He had only taken provisions enough for his dinner, and as he 
sat, hungry and sliivering, the scene to him was a solitary one. 
The rain as it fell upon the green leaves or sifted through the 
boughs of the hemlock and spruce, kept up a confused pattering, 
sifting noise, and as it grew dark he laid down and tried to sleep, 
listening to its doleful music. But this was almost impossible, 
for as a drowse would steal upon him some great owl overhead 
would hoot ominously, and as its rough music died away the 
other inhabitants of the forest took up the strain, and he heard 
the hoarse howl of the wolf, and the long-drawn halloo of the bear 
echoing in the forest. 

Thus the night passed away, its long hours seeming like Aveeks, 
until at last the dark misty light of morning began to dawn, 
and the huge, gnarled trunks of the trees appeared through the 
thick fog. Numb with cold, he arose and resolved to make an 
ctibrt to find his w\ay out of the woods. He started up the moun- 
tain, and traveled, as he thouglit, until he- had reached the top. 
He then descended until he arrived at the foot and began to have 
hope that he should Had the settlement, but he was doomed to 
disappointment, for he had traveled but a short distance before he 
began to ascend again. He then tried to retrace his steps but it 
Avas of no avail, and after wandering about for a long time he 
found himself standing upon the shore of Glen pond. It still 
rained, and the descending drops made strange mu.'ic as they 
struck upon the smooth surface of the little mountain lake. 

He now made up his mind, as it was near night, to remain 
here until the following day, and building a light camp by the 
side of a rock, passed a much more dreary night than the first. 
Cold, wet, shivering, and sleepless as he lay by the side of that 
sheet of water, he heard the hoarse croaking of the frogs ming- 
ling with the voices of his serenaders of the previous night. 
When the morning broke it had ceased raining and although foggj* 
he was able to distinguish the position of the sun when it rose, 
and thereby learn his points of compass. 

Two nights had novr passed, he had not tasted food, and hun- 
ger was opjiressing him. To satisfy it he tried to catch some 


fisli, but after a few ineffectual attempts he gave it up. As he 
stood looking" at the water he saw swimming about and hopping- 
along tlie shore numerous frogs. A hungrs- man will eat almost 
anything. Carr caught a number of them, cut them up with his 
knife, and made a hearty meal upon the raw flesh or fish. 

Feeling now much refreshed he attempted again to tiud tlie 
settlement. Taking a westerly course he once more found him- 
self upon the top of the mountain. The clouds hung thick around 
making it impossible to distinguish any object a few feet distant. 
But proceeding cautiously he began to descend, as he believed 
upon the opposite side. For a number of hours he slowly went 
down, crossing- in his course several streams now swollen with 
the rain until he reached the level country. Here after wander- 
ing about some time he began to think that he should be obliged 
to spend another night in the woods, but as he was looking around 
for a convenient camping place, the sharp_ ringing- of a settler's 
axe greeted his ear, and proceeding- towards what was to him the 
joyful sound, he soon emerged iuto a recent clearing. In the cen- 
tre stood a snug cabin and he quickly found himself within its 
hospitable walls, where he was generously provided for, and after 
somewhat recovering from his fatigue, related his adventures in 
the woods. Gradually the story circulated through the neighbor- 
ing settlements and the people gave his name to the mountain upon 
whicli the adventure happened."* 

Dr. Jackson says the mountain is composed of granite, which 
having been erupted through the mica slate lying upon its sides 
forms a cap on its summit. But after the most diligent search by 
several very distinguished geologists the granite is as yet undiscov- 
ered. Nevertheless, it is a most singular formation. A hun- 
dred difterent kinds of rock arc found upon it, and some most in- 
teresting minerals, among which are tourmaline or schorl, garnets, 
quartz crystals of a lovely hue, amythyst. beautiful as the sum- 
mer rose, and last but not least are scattered all over it small par- 
ticles of pure virgin gold. 

*Carr -was a frienrt of Alexander Craig -who settled in Romney and who had 
relatives living at the time in Piermout. 

Siamnel Knight related how two boy.s IVom Ellsworth in these early times came 
over Mount Carr in the winter, har-^lbot, and eaniped one night near Batchelder 
brook, belore tliev reached llie settlements in Warren. 


A dozen beautiful, white foamy streams come rushing down 
its sides, among which may be mentioned Martin brook, branches 
of Stinson brook, Moulton l)rook, Batchelder brook. Patch brook, 
and that most beautiful of all streams, Hurricane brook. On the 
latter are those little, Avhite tumbling waterfalls which for so many 
years were almost unknown but are now so much admired. 

By these it is said in old times lived the fairies. It was here 
on the rich carpets of green moss they danced in the moonbeams 
and sang an accompaniment to the falling waters. The deep, 
mossy-rimmed basin, set with gems, and carved in the rock high 
up on the mountain side might have been their bathing font, and 
in it even liobin Goodfellow and Queen Mab might have per- 
formed their ablutions. The Indians had a beautiful tradition how 
the fairies stole the children away and gave them fairy bread to 
eat which changed them into fairies. Then said they there was joy 
forthe little folks as they revelled in the green embowering woods; 
and the elfin king and the fairy queen ruled long and well in the ' 
old centuries. But the period when they existed has melted into 
the mellow twilight of ages and all these joyous revellers are 
gone forever. 

Now it is said there are some so skeptical that they don't be- 
lieve the fairies ever lived there at all, that the whole story is but 
a pleasant myth told to please the children. Be this as it may 
their reputed haunts were trequently invaded about those times. 
Our rustic pioneers loved fresh meat and a store of rich peltries, 
and the woods of Mount Carr were scoured for the supply. 

When the autunni came and the maples, birches, poplars, and 
ash were clothed in all their crimson splendors in the glens and 
on the mountains, the gun was roused from its slumber, the dogs 
howled in ecstacy on the hills, and the time for partridge shooting, 
mink, beaver, and sable trapping, and deer and moose hunting had 
come. Joseph Patch '■' was in his element then." Chase AVhitcher 
was on the hunter's path, Obadiah Clement's gun resounded in 
the woods, and even fat AVilliam Butler joined in the profitable 

Patch is a happy hunter. He is threading his way along the 
Asquamchumanke towards the Avooded mountain. He steps from 
hiuiimock to hummock in his little pasture, brushes the blue and 


gold llowercd hardhack aside, and rustles the fallen leaves with his 
heel ill the woods. He shall hear the roar of tlie torrent, the mu- 
sic of the waterfall; shall wind around the reedy shores of the 
fir skirted Glen ponds, and at night lie down to sleep on his bed of 
soft boughs by his camp fire. His youngest son relates that at one 
time he came homo M'ith fifty-three mink, sable, fisher-cat, and bea- 
ver skins, caught in a single week in his Indian culheags and steel 
traps. Old Deacon Jonathan Clement said that Chase AVWtcher 
caught in one season a hundred and forty dollars' worth of beaver, 
on the head waters of Black and Berry brooks. The old beaver 
dams and little g-rass grown meadows where their ponds were are 
still to be seen. Obadiah Clement could shoot more partridges 
than any other man in the hamlet. He had a brisk little dog- to 
scare them up and then shot them on the wing. 

Joseph Patch also had a good supply of steel traps and there 
was not a man in the whole country who could catch more foxes 
than he. He baited them on a bed, as it is called, and late in the 
fall was sure to get one almost every morning. But once he found 
an old fox almost as cunning as himself. When he would go to 
his ''bed "he would find his bait gone, liis trap sprung, but not a 
fox to be seen. This happened many times even though his trap 
was set in the most careful manner. But there was one thing he 
always noticed, — his trap invariably had a stick in its jaws. One 
day he set it very carefully and then picked up and cai'ried away 
every stick more than two inches long he could find in the vicinity. 
His plan proved successful. The next morning he found a hand- 
some silver graj- fox caught by the nose. The stick with winch it 
attempted to spring the trap w^as too short. Reynard seemed to 
reaHze his situation. He looked up in the huntei"'s face imploringly, 
as much as to say, " please let me go this time." But Patch could 
not think of it. With one blow he dif pitched him though he often 
said afterwards he never regretted the killing an animal more in 
Ins life.* 

*This irtoi y w:is told the author by Mr. Davifl Smith. He said Patch related 
it to him witli liis own liv)s. BenjaminLittle's statement also. 

Anson Merrill said that Patch once saw a bear in his corn, near Patch brook: 
got within twenty roils and then could not see his game well, so he stoo<l on a hill 
of corn and raised himself on tip-toe and lired. The bear ran but Patch found 
that he had drawn blood and following along beside the brook lost the trail. A 
week later, it being warm weather he scented him and found his game dead ou the 
batiks of the stream. 

252 niSTORY OF "v^^vRRE^^ 

John Hiiichsou, his neighbor, had two beantiful fleet-footed 
deer honnds. One of them was named Wolf. Patch prevailed 
upon him to sell him the latter and then he conld rival his friend 
Whitchcr in the chase. My nncle who remembered the history of 
John Mills so well, said that eaiiy settler got a good snpply of 
venison one day, the would-be product of Patch's hunting. He 
heard the sonorous yelling of the old hound coming down the 
ravine by Eocky falls, on Patch brook; soon the antlered buck burst 
from the woods, flew across the little clearing and made for the 
mill pond on the river. Mills was ready with his gun, and as the 
slag swam rapidly down across the pond he lodged a charge of buck 
shot in its throat and before Patch came up the game was hid in 
the grist-mill, while the hunter was left to infer that the deer had 
crossed the river and escaped, John Mills all the time maintaining 
a pious silence, somewhat after the manner of the Quakers. 

Pause here, gentle reader ! drop a tear tor the fate of Patch's 
fleet deer hound. Wolf. As the years rolled on he grew old. His 
baying was heard no more on the hills, his feet bounded no more 
through the woods. Gray with age he could only lie on the hearth 
by the warm fire. One day Patch said half in earnest to his boys, 
" I guess you had better take old Wolf out and shoot him, he is no 
use to any one." The dog looked up sorrowfully, seeming to un- 
derstand what was said and tlien slowly left the house. That night 
they hunted for him, and called him in vain. The next day they 
found him in a deep pool of Patch brook, drowned. 

If Patch suspected his friend Mills of appropriating the veni- 
son he could easily forgive him as he sometimes practised such 
things liimself. Strangers from a distance would come to hunt and 
Avantonly destroy large quantities of game much to the annoyance 
of the good settlers of the hamlet. These marauding parties, los- 
sel scouts, shouting would often come rushing down from the hills 
with guns and deep-mouthed baying hounds, waking every echo in 
the old wood. It was then that the Merrills, William Butler, Mills, 
Patch and Hinchson, hastemng would intei'cept the deer or moose, 
and kill and conceal it before the fierce intruders could come up. 
Then there would be a sharp contention, threats, and sometimes 
blows, but the invariable result was that the game loving invaders 
would be sent fast flving back across the border wilh huii'e fleas in 


their ears.* Eoiiiiicy iiicii and tlio sojouniei's among the hills of 
Trccothifk were thus tauo-Jit to feci a deep love for the ''honest 
Warrenites," as they most respectfully termed our eai'ly ])ioneers. 

Chase Whitcher, while following- a nxoose, was the first settler 
who visited the summit of Moosehillock. It is said that Jose])h 
Pateh also, While hunting one bi'ight, clear autumn day climbed the 
mountain, lie had no companion save his dog. Stillness and soli- 
tude were there, hill and ravine, sky and valley, everywhere mag- 
nificent, the outline everywhere bold, grand, and sublime. No ani- 
mal life Avas to be seen, only two fearless, strong winged eagles were 
soaring over the great gorge down which roars Tunnel brook. 
AVhite quartz rocks and gray slates, among which bloom the hare- 
bell and lichen, and to which the mosses cling, cropped out all 
around him ; then there was the graveyard of the stunted skeleton 
trees killed by the frost and the fire and bleached white ; beyond 
was the rich green of the mazy, impenetrable hackmatacks ; in the 
zone below the deep brown of the spruce and hemlock, and in the 
dee]) valleys at the mountain foot, the bright yellow, the flashing 
crimson, the purple and gold of the forest, while above was the 
azure sky, and in the far distance the blue water of the ponds, the 
lakes, and the ocean. It was a wild scene, '' crags, knolls, and 
mounds confusedly hurled " far as the eye could reach. In the east 
the highest of the AYaumbecket Methna, the Indian name for the 
White mountains, gleamed wliite Avith the first snow, while in the 
west the sharp peaks of the Adirondacks shone bright above the 
flashing waters of Lake Champlaiu. But he hurried away for he 
felt a strange indescribable aAve at a sight such as he had never 
witnessed before, and the hackmatacks were thick and the ^xiXY over 
them long and ditficult. 

But it was only in the winter when the snow lay four feet deep 
in the Avoods of the A^alley and on the mountains that the moose 
could be hunted successfully. We liave it on the authority of Ja- 
cob Patch, son of Joseph Patch, that our hunter on snow shoes was 
following the Asquamchumauke, otherwise Baker river, liigh up on 
the side of Moosehillock mountain. It had snowed that day and 

* Esq. Jonathan Blen-ill once whipped a gallant Romney hunter with his ox 
goad, " mailing liini yell good,'' when said hunter accused him of stealing a deer. 

StCTeus Merrill l)y good luck got a moose once in the river behind his house 
which somebody's do"g8 had chased down Irom the mountains. 


the way was slow and heavy. Late in the afternoon he discovered 
a yard of moose. Trying his gun he found it so damp he could 
not use it. This was a great disappointment l)ut he was not to be 
cheated of his game so easily. Cutting a long pole he lashed liis 
hunting knife to one end of it, cautiously approached the moose and 
cut the ham strings of three of the best of them. This done he 
found no ditiiculty in dispatching them. The rest escaped. Of 
course he dressed them, hung the heavy quarters high up in the 
trees, and then hauled them home at his leisure. 

But the most historical of all the grand old huntings that have 
come down to us was one that happened that very winter of these 
primitive times. Chase Whitchcr had been across the mountains 
to Glen ponds to fish for trout through the ice. Coming home he 
found a great yard of moose. There were more of them than any 
one man wanted, and ha generously told his neighbors of the dis- 
covery. Then they began to plan the way of capture and a day to 
put it in execution was set when every man should be ready for the 

Simeon Snnth, and Morrill from Red Oak hill, Tlinchson, Patch, 
Mils, and Bullcr, all the Merrills, Joshua Copp, and Obadiah Clem- 
ent, both the "Whitchers and others started for the yard early one 
bi'ight morning. It was up the side of Mount CaiT in the glen 
through which Patch brook tiows, and over the northern mountain 
spur, like Bonaparte over the Alps, more than 3,000 feet up, in the 
mid winter snow. There Avas a hard crust and the sunlight stream- 
ing through the trees flashed on the mj'riad ic}' particles. A part- 
ridge whirred away from before them into the snow covered tirs, a 
rabbit that was eating spruce burrs leaped past, and both Avere un- 
heeded either by hunters or dogs. It Avas ten o'clock AA'hen they 
reached the yard. The first jight shoAved them that it Avas no or- 
dinary one. It was on the mountain side, on the Black hill beyond, 
and ran doAvn by Glen pond, across the A^alley to the side of Mt. 
Kineo. The Black hill had been crossed and recrossed a hundred 
times from base to summit. A hundred parallels girdled the hill 
around, intersecting the perpendiculars, and all Avere hard and 
deeply trodden paths, so hard a moose could not be tracked in them, 
so narroAV a man could not run in them. It was a mazj' labyrinth 
and to attempt to thread it Avas to give the animals an opportunity 


to escape. The moose coukl mu ten lu lifceeu inile.> an hour 
tlu-ough tlie devious windings, browsing- and eating as they ran, 
and neither dogs nor men could conic up to them. Therefore tliis 
little army of Imnters, out on this grand hunting excursion, imme- 
diately separated. They Avent round on eitlier side each leaving 
the other at a considerabledistance, then they cautiously entered the 
yard; when a gun was tired they let loose the dogs; their yel- 
ling was wild nnisic in the woods, accompanied by the noise 
of the! moose pounding away at a hard swinging trot, their broad 
antlers resounding as they sometimes liit a tree, their wide-spread 
hoofs crackling at every step as tliey fled from tlieir pursuers. 

And now all are on the tip-toe of expectation. Each man be- 
lieves he is sure of his game. Captain William Butler is deter- 
mined to bag one. But when the mightiest animal he ever saw 
went swinging by he found he had the moose fever, and instead 
of stopping his game, the old bull answered the crack of his gun 
with a bellow and bounded out of sight in a moment. It did not 
even leave tlie trace of blood on the snow, much to our excellent 
marksman's delight. Simeon Smith halloed with exceeding jo}' at 
the sight of one and forgot to fire at all. Morrill called him a fool 
and forgot to tire himself, and Stevens Merrill was so greatly pleased, 
or had the fever so bad that he iired in the air, probably philosoplii- 
cally thinking the ball might strike one when it came down. But 
Chase Wlntcher brought down a moose the first time trying, Joseph 
Patch had the same good luck, and Obadiah Clement had the good 
fortune to slioot two. The others did not succeed in getting a shot. 

Four moose were as many as they cared for, or could well take 
care of. So the dogs were called and the rest were suflTered to 
escape. The work of skinning and dressing was quickly accom- 
plished, and the product loaded on the light, broad runnered hand- 
sleds which they had brought with them. 

It was hard work coming over the mountain, and before they 

arrived at the summit William Butler's rotund body was too lieaA-y 

for his legs, and he laid down in the snow from exhaustion. His 

good friends rubbed him smartly, placed him upon one of the sleds, 

John Marstou, wlio lived at the Summit, lirsl house up High street, once went 
on one of these grand moose liunts. He was pretty liungry and dranli two quarts 
of moose marrow. Ic made liim terrible sicli, liked to have killed liim, and llie 
party had to build a lire and stay in the woods all night. The next day they drew 
him home on a hand sled.— jSathaniel Richardson's statemeni. 


covered him warmly with tlieir frocks and drew him home too, the 
heaviest moose, as they said, of the whole lot. Going dovv^u the 
mountain he playfully asked Stevens Merrill if a moose hved in the 
moon? a stu])id joke that Mr. M. could not see. 

There Avas feasting and merry making in tlie settlement after 
that, and the grand hunt known as "the one when Captain But- 
ler's legs gave out," has not yet been forgotten. 



LiKP] one of the old knights of the middle ages huri-ying 
abroad to avenge the Avrongs of a wicked world, bnt at times jiaus- 
ing under the cool embowering shades, and by babbling brooks in 
gTeen meadows to enjoy the delights of life, so we hastening to the 
bustling confusion and the turmoil of the great events of our im- 
mortal history, are fain to pause a few moments to revel in the 
halcyon sweets in this the twilight age of our mountain hamlet, 
before plunging into the wild scenes of the coming troublesome 
times that are sure to follow. 

Benuing Wentworth, peace to his aslios! had a pious respect 
for the Church of England, a Christian desire l^or propagating the 
gospel in foreign parts, and a right good will for the support of 
preaching. Consequently he inserted in tlic charter that a certain 
portion of the lots among the hills should be set apart for the sup- 
port of the clmrch, preaching, and the missionary cause. 

Our excellent proprietors wei'e prompt to second the good in- 
tentions of the ancient governor. At the ver\- tirst division of the 
lots, No. 2 of tlio 4tli range was drawn for the sup])ort of a 
minister; Xo. 2 of the 8th range for the society for propagating 
the gospel; and No. 1 of the 0th range as a glebe for the Church 
of England, as by law established.* 

*ln the subsequent divisions of land otber lots were drawn for the above 
purposes, for a list of which see appendix. 



And the first settlers on tlie hillsides and in the pleasant valley 
of the liamlet Avere just as desirous of a little religious food as the 
royal governor and the lordly proprietors were to impart it. 
Therefore they began to cast about for a minister to expound the 
scriptures and break the bread of life to them. 

It is told how the first religious meeting was held one Sabbath 
out in the broad open air, and the Rev. Mr. Powers, of Haverhill, 
N. H., preached the discourse. He and the Rev. Mr. Ward, of 
Plymouth, wei'e the only ministers who resided in the wild regions 
round about our beloved valley for many years, and a minister and 
public Sabbath worship were rare in those primitive times.* 

It was summer when the meeting was held. Spring is gone, 
when the corn was planted and the children set to scare away the 
crows that came to pull up the tender shoots. The snow drop, the 
primrose, the coAvslii), and the violets are gone ; but the wild rose 
has come, the elder is in blossom, the raspberry is red in the hedge 
by the bnish fence, and the unripe blackberry is turning to a rich, 
luscious, and jetty black. Ha\ing time has come, the mowers have 
been at work among the stumps and logs cutting the heavy burden 
of grass. The green swaths have been spread to dry by the merry 
boys and girls, the haycocks have been heaped high, and upon the 
rude sled to which the steers have been yoked it is drawn to the 
barn. Ikit the scythes, rakes, and forks had been laid aside, the 
steers unyoked and turned away in the pasture that Saturday night 
and all made ready for the Sabbath. 

My grandmother said that Sunday was a bright, beautiful day. 
When the sun rose over the great mountains and the mighty wood, 
all the world seemed hushed and still. As the hours crept on the 
people began to assemble. The spot chosen for the meeting was 
on the ridge of land that formed the barrier of Runaway pond, and 
west of Black brook, the Mikaseota. They came by the blazed 
paths through the woods from every little clearing. Nearly all 
walked then; there were but few saddle horses and no carriages. 
Some of the men and the boys and girls are barefoot. They are 

* When Mr. Powers saw yoimg men felling trees * * * he would call 
to them and say if Providence favored him, he would preach to them in that place 
on such a day and at sucli an hour. These were welcome propositions generally, 
and if there were other settlements near they were informed of the appointment, 
and Mr. Powers at the hour specilied would liud his hearers seated on stumps 
and logs all ready to receive the word. — History of Coos. 77. 


dressed in 1 1 icir everyday garments; Sunday clothes they have none. 
The men are in tlieu- shirt sleeves, their frocks slung across tlieir 
arms in case it might rain. You would particularly notice Stevens 
Merrill and his intelligent black eyed wife. lie was a man ad- 
vanced in years, dressed ditierently from most of the rest, for he had 
his Quaker suit on, and was in the habit of speaking out in meeting 
if the sermon did not suit him.* There was Mr. Simeon Smith, 
from Red Oak hill, also somewhat advanced in life. He was always 
noticed to be a little nervous at meeting. His wife had heated the 
large Dutch oven that moi'ning, and put in an iron pot of beans and 
an earthen dish of Indian pudding, to bake in their absence, and 
be ready for supper when they returned. His neighbor John Mor- 
rill comes along with him, and his wife, a fleshy woman, has on 
her arm, as do nearly all the rest, a bag tilled with nut cakes and 
cold meat for a luncheon. You Avill see coming up from Hur- 
ricane brook, Joseph Patch and his young wife, the daughter of 
Stevens Merrill. His neighl)or, Mr. Hinchson, Avho lives alone in 
the woods, the hunter and trout and salmon catcher, accompanies 
him. AVilliam Butler also comes, the young man fat and portly. 
His wife, Meliitable, and John Mills, Sr., and John Mills, Jr., are 
all on hand, as the saying is, 'Squire Jonathan, as he was known 
in latter days, is there also with his wife and children. Ephraim 
True comes from •' over the river."' He has waded across for there 
is no biidge. Along with him is his wife and half a dozen small 
children, the latter still shy and wild just like young partridges. 
Joshua Men-ill, who lived to be a hundred years old, who was a 
tailor by trade, was there with his family, from the foot of Ueech 
hill. He Avorc a three-cornered cocked hat on that day. small 
i'lothes. neatly fitting, and tight stockings, with huge knee buckles 
and silver shoe buckles. He was an exception, as we have said 
before, and was always the best dressed man in town. Joshua 
Copp, dignitied and grave, with his wife and several children was 
there. Obadiah Clement, always religiously inclined, with his 

*Some one was once preaching at Jonathan Clement's inn. Mr. Clement sat 
inside the V)ar with his hat on. Tlie minister suddenly chanjred liis discourse, 
from preacliiug to the saints, and besau to talk to tlie -wicked. Mr. Clement jumped 
up, shouted amen ! and said he thanked tlie I>ord that the minister M'as preaching 
to the sinners. .John Al)botf rose at once, ami in i>ious accents advised the minis- 
ter not to dwell long on that suljject, as there was only one sinner present, and 
that one was shut up in I lie licpior bar, where he couldn't do any hurt. — Miss 
Hannah Knight's statement. 


brothers, Jonathan and Reuben,* and their families was present. 
Isaiah Batclielder, tlie Clarks, and the Lands, with their wives and 
children were down from Tarleton lake, a long journey for them. 
And even Mr. Chase "Whitcher, from liis home in the basin of 
mountains at the north part of the town, had traveled all the way 
down and was present with his relatives Reuben and John AMiitcher, 
from Pine hill, and the families of each. 

Parson Powers in those days wore a black kerseymere coat, 
silk breeches and stockings, three-cornered hat and fleece-like 
wig, a white band and white silk gloves. With what dignity did 
he walk among that little crowd of rough backwoodsmen. How 
meekly they stood aside to let Mm pass, although Stevens Merilll 
was'nt much afraid of him. What was his pulpit? No high box 
like those of ancient days ; but it might have been a large pine 
stimip cut smoothly on the top for the purpose. It might have been 
a platform of poles placed evenly upon two logs. Above his head 
was no pyramidal sounding board, but in its stead were mighty 
columns of towering trees, surmounted by capitals of wavy splen- 
dor. There were no lofty walls supported by Doric or Corinthian 
columns around him ; no windoAvs painted with images, but in 
their stead were archivolts of leaves rustling and sighing in the 
wind; architraves of mighty brandies that rocked in the grand 
chorus of storms, arches of l)lue with heavenward opening win- 
dows painted with rainbows and the golden glories of sunset. 
There were no cushioned pews nor altars gaily decorated and set 
with precious stones, but their seats were cushioned with forest 
flowers, their chancel was of flowering banks with balustrades of 
evergreen ; their altar was gemmed with pebbles and crystals of 
mica and spangles of emerald moss. Such was the temple in 
which the flrst settlers, perhaps blind to the beautiful, worshiped. 

Did they have singing at their meeting? Of course they did; 
but who took the lead it is impossible now to telLf A\liether as 
Avas the custom of the day, some one acting as deacon read the 

* Reuben AVhitcher was a new comer about these times. 

t " One of the flrst choristers of AA^arren was Captain Stephen Ricliardson. He 
always wore to meeting short hip breeches, and long white stockings Avith silver 
shoe and linee buckles. lie had a watcli i)ocket exactly in front, in the waist-band 
of his breeches, and a long hcayy silver chain, kej' and seal at the end, attaciied 
to his great ' bull's eye watch,' hung dangling atwixt his legs almost down to his 
knees. He used his pitcli pipe freely, beat time lustily with his feet, swaj^ed back 


lirst two lines, and tinothor tooted on the i)itch pipe and tlien led 
off with hi?! voiee. oi" whether as in our prayer meetings now, they 
all joined in one of those wild, religious hymns, such as the old 
Scotch Covenanters wei'e wont to raise in their mountain fastness, 
or the persecuted Christians sang in the catacombs of Rome, it is 
also impossible to tell. They had no musical instruments then, but 
if they had listened they might have heard tlie Avinds sighing an 
accompaniment in the woods, the murmuring anthem of the neigh- 
boring brooks and distant river, or perhaps if it were a hot 
summer afternoon the grand diapason of thunder peeling in the 
gorges of the mountains. 

The noontime of that Sunday must have been an interesting- 
occasion for our settlers. Their luncheon eaten and they sat dow^n 
in knots and groups to talk over the events of the day. The state 
of the country was discussed then the same as now. The old 
French war, the tyranny of King George, the Stamp Act, the Tea 
Party, all came in for their share. Perhaps some of them went to 
Joshua Copp's cabin, for that was then the most central part of 
the settlement, and there sat down and drank of his nice cool 
water from the neighboring spring. Mrs. Copp Avas a neat AA'oman, 
her floor ever nicely sanded, her peAVter on the open dresser bright 
and glistening. They talked of the Aveather, of the births, of the 
marriages, engagements, health, sickness, and deaths, those among 
themselves, and particularh' of those among their friends doAAii 
country ; the land from Avhich they had emigrated, for Avhich they 
yearned, and to wliich they made frequent pilgrimages. 

After the senices Parson Powers Avent home Avith Obadiah 
Clement to enjoy the hospitality of liis house and si)end the night, 
and he did it right merrily. As the story goes, and such AVas the 
custom in those days, a good glass of the dear creature was brought 
forward, just as soon as he had crossed the threshold, to clear the 
reverend throat. AVlien night came he had a different kind of beA'- 
erage to make him sliunber quietly and induce pleasant dreams.* 

and forth as he suns', the wateh cliain vibi-atiuij: in unison with tlie tune, while all 
tlie little boys and girls present tittered and laughed at tlie comical siglit."— Miss 
Hannah Knight's statement. 

Colonel Stevens M. Dow said that he had sung with Captain !{., and that the 
Captain was an excellent singer. 

* Elder Currier who lived in AVentworth sometimes preacheil iuAVarren during 
tlie last years of the eighteenth century. 


In the morning- the best the house aftbrded was served up for 
breakfast, then an excellent glass of punch was quaffed and away 
rode the divine of these wilderness settlements on his strong little 
horse over the Height-o-land, round Tarleton lake, across which a 
light winged breeze was blowing, through Piermont woods, to the 
Coos intei-vals, as they were known in those times. 



It was a bright June day. Joseph Patch was at work 
clearing" a little pasture on the ridge that forms the western foot of 
Picked hill. It was hot; the sun hung- high in heaven, and Patch, 
pausing- to rest, sat down on a long- hemlock log- to eat his luncheon 
and quaft" a draught of si)ruce beer. Suddenly there was a strange 
sound in the air — was it thunder behind tlie western mountains, 
the faint ramble of a pent up earthquake, or was it only a partridge 
drumming in the tliick pine woods? He listened and again and 
again heard it. It was not the partridge's drum, not the thunder, 
nor the earthquake — what was it? 

At noon he s]ioke to his family about it, but they had not no- 
ticed it. At night lie talked with his neighbors ; John Mills had 
also heard it, and so had Stevens Merrill, but none could tell Avhat 
it was. 

A week went by and a stranger journej'ing through the valley 
northward told them that a great battle had been fought at Bunker 
Hill, and that thousands of men were hurryhig to join llic rebel 
army under General Washington. 

Before night every settler in the hamlet had heard the news. 
It is a hundred and twenty miles as the crow flies, to Bunker Hill. 
There could be heard the bocmiing of cannon all that distance. 
Now in .1 rli'ar dav the "-ranite shaft w iiicli connnemorates that 


eveut can be seen from the bald peak of Mooseliillock mountain. 

The settlers had heard of the battle of Lexington, had seen a 
few men marcliing south, through the woods, with their queen's 
arms on their shoulders, to join the army as they said, but they had 
not minded much about it. But noAV a thousand men had died on 
the battle field and the settlers Avere all on fire at the ueAVS and for 
weeks talked of nothing else. 

There were two parties in town, one favored King George, the 
other the rebels. The latter were much the stronger, numbering 
twice as many as the former. Frequent discussions arose. But 
these soon ceased, the last one taking place at Obadiali Clement's 
bar room, where mine host and Stevens Merrill had a pleasant little 
talk about the Avar Avhich resulted in their hating each other cordi- 
ally ever after. 

But there were some who did not wait for discussion ; William 
Heath, as aforesaid, Eeuben Clement, Joseph "Wliitcher, a new 
comer, and Ephraim Lund Avere ready to sei-ve their country. 
They scoured up their old hunting pieces, mended their clothes and 
shoes and were soon prepared to leave.* 

They all went aAvay together on that summer morning. There 
was no rail car in which to ride, no jolting stage coach to carry 
them, no Avagon of any kind. A long, weary march on foot was 
before them. They had said good-bye to their tamilies and friends, 
and as they journeyed doAvn the Asquamchumauke they stopped 
to take Avhat might be to them a last look. In their hearts they 
felt that it Avas •• farcAvell ye great avoocIs and mountains of Warren, 
ye moose and deer, and ye bright streams of the hills. We may 
return no more, our graves may be in other lands." Then all day 
long they hastened doAvn the river. The hills melted aAvay in the 
distance and the great forest shut the mountains from their sight. 
A week later they were soldiers in .John Stark's regiment, and a 
part of AVashington's army. 

Hold! says some incredulous reader noAV living in our moun- 
tain hamlet. How do you know all tliis? Be easy for a moment. 
When Ave began the great Avork of writing this immortal history 
we could not find a single person who knew anything about those 

*.Iohn Hinohson was in Ca]itain .John Parker's company in 1775. He went to 
Canada and got home Dec. ,31, 1775. He printed his name thus, ",Iohn Hisksox." 
\'ol. viii. \\nac -218.— Reconls in the otVu^e of the Secretary of State, Concord, X. H. 


atIio served in the -war of the RevohUion. But in tlie pvoccss of 
time the Avliole subject <»raduallj' unfolded itself. One of the first 
steps was the finding- the census of 1775.* Then Warren and 
Piermont Avere classed together for enumeration. The population 
of botli towns wasattliat time one hundred and sixty-eight persons, 
and of these, although the war had hut just commenced, fifteen 
men were serving in the army. Now there were about twenty 
families in Warren, and allowing five persons in a tamily which is 
nearly the average, one hundred of the above population belonged 
in AVarren. We can safelj^ say one half of it did and by the same 
rule can claim half the soldiers. But we are modest and don't 
claim but five as that is all that we can hear of. Perhaps there 
were more. 

And now excitement prevailed throughout the land ; the notes 
of preparation, tlie din of arms, the clangor of the strife resounded 
to our hamlet among the hills. Speculators and sutlers were abroad, 
and Daniel Gilman came to town bujdng all the moose skins he 
could find, which he manufactured into moosehide breeches and 
sold to the Continental Government at eighteen shillings a pair.f 
The quartermaster was abroad, and the great Committee of Safety 
appointed for the whole State of New Hampshire contracted with 
Joshua Copp, Esq., our settler on the banks of Runaway pond, to 
notify the various towns of Grafton count}" and collect their quota 
of beef for the use of tlie Continental army. J Something to drink 
for the soldiers was necessary, and as there was no distillery in 
AVarren, Phillips White, the good, kind hearted proprietor we have 
mentioned so many times before, generously advanced the amount 
to be furnished by the settlers of his township, which was '• ni7ie 
garlins and two quarts of West Indea rum.''** But the strangest 
tiling that happened tliis year was the appointment of John Balch 
" to ridejjost'"' through all the northern country and through our 

*The rollowins is the entry under the head of Piermont and AVarren, in the 
census report of 1775, viz : Males under sixteen, 52 ; IMales from sixteen to fifty, 28 ; 
:>ralos above flfty. 4: Males in the army, 15; Females, (iO; Xegrroes and Slaves, 0. 
Total, lUS. Firearms lit for use 1 ; do. wantinfr, -il ; pounds public powder, 16; do. 
private powder, 0.— X. H. Hist. Coll. Vol. 1, 2;55. 

fThursdav Oct. 31st, 177(>. Agreed with My. Danl Oilman for 100 coarse 
Moose Hide Breeches, at ISs.— X. H. Hist. Coll. Vol. vii. page G:5. 

t" March (i, 1783. Ordered the Treas to pay .Joshua Copp, Colt, of Beef, 
Grafton, live pounds fourteen sliillings. for time and Expences, &c., to notify Towns 
of the time to receive Beef."— X. H. Hist. Coll. Vol. vii. page 317. 

** See Vol. i. Town Clerk's Book. 


mouiitaiu hamlet of course. He was appointed by the aforesaid 
Committee of Safety, and was to set out from Portsmouth on 
Saturdaj^ moruing- and ride to Haverhill bj' way of Conwaj' and 
Plj'mouth, thence down the Connecticut river to Charleston and 
Keene. and to Portsmouth again in fourteen days, and was to 
receive seventy hard silver dollars, or their equivalent, for every 
thi'ee months' service. For the whole seven long years of the 
revolutionary war John Balch rode post. 

We are tokl how one night the storm and darkness overtook 
him in the woods this side of Plymouth. All the long, black hours 
he stopped in one of our old " hotels," and only came riding past 
Stevens MerrilFs just as the rising sun was flashing among the 
waterfalls and sending the night mists down the glens. But most 
often he came to Warren in the bright forenoon, when the woods 
were cheerful and the rough clearings inviting. As he dashed 
along the stony bridle path he would blow a blast on his i)ost 
horn, rousing the old wood and waking the echoes. Then he 
would laugh to see what a turn out there would be from the log- 
cabins ; the good man and his wife, all the flaxen headed children, 
and even the cat and dog, the geese, turkeys, and chickens, and 
sometimes the old horse, cow, and hog, each seeming eager to 
know why 

'■ Johnny Balch, bh)wiug u hhist both loud and shrill. 
Dashed through the woods and galloped down the hill." 

But most generally the family wanted to hear the news and the 
jolly post rider was nothing loth to give it.* 

But the summer went by and the autumn came, and our settlers 
learned that Schuyler and Montgomery with a small force had 
advanced by lake Champlain against Montreal, and Arnold at the 
head of a thousand men had tramped through the wilderness to 
the St. Lawrence. Then during all the winter hardly anything 
was heard from the boys in the army. 

In the spring of 1776 there was another call for troops, and 
news came, after Arnold failed, of a threatened invasion from 
Canada. All the frontier was in excitement at this, and there was 
a great demand for arms. The Committee of Safety endeavored 
to furnish a supply, and they let Chase Wlutcher, our boy settler, 
*For an account of .John Balch's riding post, see Vol. vii. N. H. Hist. Coll. 


have money enough to buy thirteen guus, for that number was 
nooilod in the hamlet. He gave security to pay for the same when 
called for. and then loading- tliem upon his horse trudged behind 
his faithful beast, and brought them all safely to Warren.* 

These guns were ftuthfully distributed among our settlers. 
Even Stevens Merrill was offered one, but he said he did not 
believe in war and would not tight on either side and so would not 
have it. Jonathan Clement and Joseph Patch also refused to take 
a gun even as a gift. 

It is told, with how much truth we cannot say, that Joshua 
Copp and Simeon Smith went away to the regions of upper Coos 
about tills tune to serve Avith Captain Eames, a renowned military 
chieftain, said to have once resided in the neighboring province of 
Wentworth. Captain Eames, with his company, had built a fort 
at Coos, and was ordered in the autumn of 1776 '• to engage ten 
men throiigh tiie A\inter as scouts."" Copp and Smith, tradition has 
it, served on this scout. They had seen the supplies, consisting of 
two barrels of gimpowder, eight hundred pounds of lead for bullets, 
six hundred flints, and blankets for forty soldiers, and all other 
necessaries sent by the Conmiittee of Safety. They were loaded on 
the backs of a train of pack horses which journeyed along the 
rough bridle path northward. " and were for the use of the troops 
on the western portion of tliis colony at Coos." f They rendez- 
voused one night at Obadiah Clement"s little tavern, at the foot of 
Height-o-land, and the next morning as they marched away Copp 
and Smith resolved that they would see before the snoAv flew Avhat 
kind of service they would have in the Avild upper country. 

The folks at home had heard from John Balch, the post rider, 
all the news of the years' cami)aigns. The disasters on Long- 
Island and the losses along the i Ludson made everything seem 
black enough ; but in the mid Avinter word came of the great Aictory 
of the battle of Trenton and the rebels took heart again .J 

* " Aug. 5th, 1776. Ordered the Receiver General To pay Mr. Chace AVitcher of 
AA'arven, Twenty-four pounds to buy Anns and Amunition, he Giving- Security to 
pay tlie Same wlien Demandeil."— N. H. Ili-st. Coll. Aol. vii. .J5. 

A gun cost 3(js. 

t See A'ol. vii. X. H. Hist. Coll. 

t In 177(), Colonel William Tarletou who once lived in AVarren, was a sergeant 
in Edward Everett's company. 

The same year, Josepli Lund was in Captain James Osgood's comiiany. — See 
Records in the ofllcp of Secretarv of State, (.'oncord, X. II. 


The next year war came to our frontier in earnest, and the 
dwellers in the land of the Coosucks got a slight taste of it. Even 
our pioneers snutted the battle from afar. Burgoyne began his 
invasion from Canada, proceeding by Lake Champlain, and the 
greatest excitement prevailed through all the wild border. Hith- 
erto there had been only a Conimitteeof Safety for the whole State, 
but now danger was so imminent that a committee of safety, 
inspection, vigilance, or correspondence, whatever it might be 
called, was formed in nearly every town. These co-operated with 
the State Committee rendering it efficient service. The towns thus 
became, in a measure, separate provinces, or rather independent 
democracies, each contributing all the aid it could to the great 

The Committee in this northern country, as elsewhere, met at 
stated intervals and acted in a legislative, executive, and judicial 
capacity. The conduct of all suspicious persons was inquired into ; 
numerous arrests were made, and imprisonments and banishments 
frequently followed. They even took the subject of confiscation 
in hand and the property of many individuals who were not 
'•truly loyal'' escheated to the State. 

We never could learn that the great committee of Warren 
ever did much in these matters, but the committees of Plymouth 
and Haverhill, neighboring democracies, were often terribly exer- 
cised. For instance we find it recorded that the State Committee 
this year received a letter from the committee at Plymouth "in- 
forming that several strangers, well dressed, had been discovered 
at a ver}' unfrequented place in the wood, whom they supposed 
were engaged in a bad design." The State Committee immedi- 
ately ordered search to be made and the strangers apprehended if 
possible. Whether the}" were arrested or not we never learned. 

It is also written down that at Haverhill, in the "Cohass" 
region, was a great tory, Mr. Fisher by name, who was compelled 
to exile himself to some foreign land. His farm on the intervals 
the said committee gently took into their possession, cuUivated 
it with the soldiers stationed at the Cohass, and eventually sold the 
land and devoted the proceeds to the " rebel cause,'" as King George 
was ijleased to term it. 

But if Warren's Committee of Safetv did not do much in the 


direction wc have indicated, tliere were some in town Avho Avorked 
for the •• patriot cause " in a priA^ate capacity, and some who worked 
for the good of their own pockets. 

In the journal of the Committee of Safety it is also written — 
'' Friday July 4th, 1777. Ordered the R. G.* to let John Mills have 
out of the Treasry £25, to i^ay bounties to men he enlists, for 
which he is to be acctble.'" f 

How many men John 3Iills enlisted we never learned, but 
repoi-t has it that Jonathan Fellows, who had just come to town 
and John Mills, Junior, went away to the war about these times, 
jierhaps stimulated to patriotic deeds by this very £25, And it 
would not be at all unlikely that John Mills enlisted men in the 
regions round about, as many another recruiting otRcer has done 
at a later day. Fellows, and IMills, Junior, it is told, were at the 
battle of Bennington, the latter being lirst lieutenant in the fifth 
company of Colonel Mchol's regiment. | 

But it is not written in the Committee of Safety's book, and 
perhaps that honorable body never found out, what Stevens Mer- 
rill and his son Jonathan did. When the cry, " the British are 
coming," was heard, Mr. M. and his son, who were always true to 
the royal government, scented gold from afar and prepared to put 
a fair proportion of it in their own pockets. They ciuietly went 
to work and bought up a considerable number of beef cattle of 
the settlers and obtained others from the wooded pastures in the 
neighboring lands, and then when they had learned from the Avell 
dressed strangers " discovered in the A^ery unfrequented place in 
the wood," at what time a British guard Avould be at the rendez- 
vous, over beyond the Connecticut riA'er among the Green moun- 
tains, they set ofi" one bright night with the whole herd. They 
droA'e the beeA^es to Haverhill by the old Indian trail, now an 
unfrequented way, a path in Avhich there Avasno danger of meeting 
any one, and when the gray of the morning came on, halted in a 
secluded glen two miles or so from the mouth of the OliA'erian. 

*R. G. means Receiver General. 

t See N. H. Hist. Coll. Vol. vii. 10+. 

j John Mills was first a '2(1 Lieutenant in Colonel Timothy Beders regiment, 
fourth company, in 1776. This regiment was marched to Canada, and at a fort 
called "The Cedars" was di-^gracefully surrendered; then in 1777 lie was 1st Lieu- 
tenant of the fifth comiKiny, in Colonel Moses NichoFs regiment, and was present 
with his company at the battle of Bennington, and last was Captain of the fourth 
company, in Colonel Daniel Reynold's regiment, in 1781.— See Records in the office 
of the Secretary of State, Concord, N. H. 


All daj^ lono- they kept the drove together and on the second night, 
with some assistance, swam tliera across the Connecticut. Morning 
found them in the yards of the rendezvous. Fat cattle were valu- 
al)le then, and on the fourth day our loyal settlers were safe at 
home again, with their pockets well lined with British gold. 
Obadiah Clement and others wondered what became of the cattle, 
but years went by before they learned of the protitable and some- 
what Avild adventures in Avhich their neighbors were engaged. 

Some folks are ready now to cry out; Cowboys! Tories! 
Traitors! Devils! they ought to have been hung! and a good 
many other like pious ejaculations. Be easy for a moment ; Stevens 
Merrill, from the manner in which he viewed the great questions 
of that day. from his own stand point, was a true patriot. He 
believed the colonists were wrong, that King George was right, 
and that the war would ruin the country. He himself loved his 
native land, and was loyal to his king. He firmly believed his 
opinions were correct, his conscience pointed out the patli of duty, 
and then as always through life he endeavored to follow it. Had 
the result of the contest been different the rebels would haA'C been 
in the wrong, deserving the halter, and himself the true patriot. 
Success makes the hero, failure the traitor. 

But if our tory friends performed a night march to the Con- 
necticut, at the head or tail of a horned cavalcade, many another 
body proceeded through the woods to the same destination, but 
for a far dift'erent o])ject. There was hurrying to and fro through- 
out all the country, and a large number went marching to the land 
of Coos. Captain Eames took up squads of men, l>ut Captain 
Bedel marched at the head of a Avhole company along the rough 
bridle path.* He had a fife and drimi, and the musicians made 
exceedingly pleasant music, sweet to liear among the woods of 
Warren. Then he had a continental flag, carried sometimes In the 
centre of the t-olumn, which fluttered most beautifully in the leafy 
forest. All the men as a general thing camped near Obadiah 
Clement's inn. marching the whole distance from Plymouth in a 
single day, and the ti'ain of pack horses used to carry sui^plies and 
ammunition, almost eat our poor landloixl out of house and home. 
Sometimes he got his pay, but ofteuer he did not, and when he did 

* See N. H. Hist. Coll. Vol. vii. 


it was the old Continental currency, that eventually proved wortli- 
less. But he kept good natured and ahvays rejoiced at the success 
of the colonies.* 

Captain Eames and Bedel did good service ouarding the rich 
meadows on the " long river of pines/' otherwise Dutchman's 
Varshe, or frcsli river. But they never had a tight; not a redcoat 
came to disturl) tliem. Still they kept the toAvn quiet, and made 
friends with the Coosuck- Indians, as they were instructed by the 
great Committee of Safety. 

All this happened right at home, but our hardy mountaineers 
were exceedingly anxious all this season, 1777, to hear the news 
from the army. When they learned of the battle of Benning- 
ton, Stark, to them, was the greatest man living, and joy was un- 
bounded. There were some who did not like the news, but they 
were shrewd, and said nothing. Again Avlien word came of the 
surrender of Burgoyne, most of the good settlers almost went into 
ecstasies ; our silent friends were inwardly as mad as March hares. 

At the close of the year the prospects of the colonists were 
not so good. Another winter passed, the winter of Valley Forge; 
the spring came, and with it the darkest year of the war. News 
from the army was scarce ; what they did hear was bad, and the 
inhabitants of AYarren seemed divided and estranged. 

And now in the colonists' darkest hour happened the greatest 
event of the war — to the Warrcnites. Hostility came to the dwel- 
lers of the hamlet. It transpired in this wise. The soldiers who 
guarded the ''Cohass" frontier were enlisted for short periods. 
Consequently discharges followed rapidly, the A^eteraus returned 
home, and raw recruits hurried to the log forts, stockades, and 
block houses, so valorously guarded by Captains Eames and Bedel. 
There was a continual passing of troops, and as these soldiers, as 
before mentioned, never found a foe in the front, being anxious to 
achieve some deed of greatness, looked sharp for one in the rear. 

Some folks never can mind their own business, and no man, 
who is a man, is without his enemies. Joseph Patch, our first set- 
tler had his, and to the Aalorous soldiers, who marched and counter- 
marched along the bridle path, they reported that Patch was a tory. 
"When he Avas at home no passer by dared meddle with him. But 

*. James Clement's statement. 


work inu^t l)e done, and in autumn lie was otlon away hunting. 
At such times Mrs. Patch with her children would go for a day or 
two to her father's, Mr. Stevens Merrill's. On one occasiou when 
her husband was looking after his sable traps and exploring for 
beaver meadows over Mount Carr, Mrs. P. saw two or three 
soldiers hurry across her father's clearing, and disappear in the 
woods towards her owu dwelling. Their appearance made a 
strong impression upon her mind, so much so, that half an hour 
afterwards she went out, and looking towards her own liome, saw 
a dense black smoke rising like a cloud above it. Screaming, she 
gave the alarm, then hurried down the bridle path. But she was 
too late. The fire had burst from the roof; the flames leaped up 
hot and fierce, aud the smoke, a great black column, towered hun- 
dreds of feet above and then floated away over the great forest and 
disappeared beyond the mountain. Twenty minutes later and the 
house, wliich was the best one in town, was almost wholly con- 
sumed. One of the soldier boys had set fire to it with his pipe, as 
was afterwards learned, and then they valorously marched on. 
Mr. Patch had a large quantity of pro\isions, including several 
barrels of moose meat, also a considerable store of rich peltries, all 
Avhich were totally destroyed. Nothing was saved from the house 
except "rt h'tfle iron 2'>ickin(j ■pan,'^ partly melted by the fire, 
which the family kept for many years as a memento of one of the 
great events of the war.* 

Lumber and materials were plenty, there were willing hands 
to aid in the work, and before winter set in another house rose like 
the phcenix from the ashes. The barn with its contents did not 
burn and Patch was nearly as comfortable as before. 

NoAV many people will cyy shame. But we would say as be- 
fore, wait a moment. Don't blame the soldiers. Such things 
must be exjjected in time of war. They always happen — and 
for our own sake and your pleasure, Christian reader, avc are 
almost glad that they do. AMtliout such a dire catastrophe we 
should not have had this brilliant episode for our most entertaining 

But we must pause here. A new era dawns upon our moun- 
tain hamlet. Hitherto the lordly proprietors had cut all the roads, 
*. Jacob Patch's statement. 


fought out all the boundary feuds, had sent men to build mills, had 
made appropriations for preaching, and had looked arfter all the 
interests of onr little State just as a parent watches his child. Not 
a farthing for taxes, not a day's labor on the highways, hardly any- 
thing paid for the broad acres iu the valley and on the hill-side, 
not a soldiei* furnished for the war we have been describing, except 
such as went from pure patriotism with poor pay, and most often 
no bounty; the early settlers were free as the wind. 

But our little town was fast expanding into strength and 
beauty ; and the former royal province, at present the Kepublic of 
New Hampshire, which as yet had paid no attention to the smiling 
hamlet, now believing that a good revenue might be derived with- 
out much trouble, like a fond lover began to pay court and com- 
mence suit to the bright and happy township among the hills. 

How our pioneer settlement thus suddenly became an ample 
democracy in which the citizens made sundry laws and appointed 
the judicial and executive otRcers, but still acknowledged a slight 
allegiance to the State, composed like the Amphictyonic council of 
the great association of democracies, will be told in the most 
entei'taining manner in our next. 







AVlIEX in the course of human events one certain body 
feels a regard for anotlier, there immediately begins to be made 
sundry strong efforts to inform the regarded party of the remarka- 
ble feelings experienced. Smiles, sighs, tender glances, and little 
gentle pressures of the hands are given if the parties are in the 
immediate neighborhood of each other. But if distance intervenes 
or extreme modesty prevails, then fond missives are indited and 
borne by the fleet post, communicating the heavenly passion, — all 
which is intensely interesting to the immediate parties but decid- 
edly ridiculous to outsiders. 

The latter method — the tender missive — was the one adopted 
by our young and vigorous republic ; but not from any feeling of 
modesty. It was distance that forced the sending of a tender 
epistle to our coy Httle hamlet that hitherto had nestled so quietly 
and almost unnoticed among the hills. A go-between in the 
person of the great Committee of Safety, and a few other patriotic 


agents* had ■whispered the information that the young hamlet was 
beautiful and fertile, and gi'owing in wealth, and thus the interest 
was excited. 

What was the tenor of the exquisite billet-doux forwarded? 
'' To the right about face, forward march — wake up, quick-step — 
take your place iu the great family of small States." Short and 
sweet 1 But such was love's language in the war times of which 
we wi'ite. Every tiling then had to bend and every nerve be 
strained, that the great Committee of Safety might have money 
and the soldiers be armed, equipped, and fed. Warren must do 
her part, must show her love for the young repubUc, although she 
might be a little shy and backward, by contributing her mite to 
the patriotic cause. 

Representations, therefore, were made to the Gi'eat and Gen- 
eral Court of New Hampshire, that it was their duty to attend to 
the matter, in order that a generous revenue might be forth- 

That honorable body acted. The macliinery of legislation was 
immediately put in operation and a statute manufactured. It is 
very interesting, and reads somewhat like a romance ; thus — 

" In the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and 

'' An Act to ascei'tain the proportion of public taxes upon several 
towns and to enable them to collect the same." 

Thus it opens in a heroic strain. Then follow the several 
whereases, to wit: 

" Bath, Canaan, Wentworth, and Warren, have not paid their 
proportion of taxes. 

" This has been represented by agents. 

" It is owing, 1st, to the unsettled state of the country; and, 
2d, that some of the towns have no town officers. 

" Therefore that it may never happen again, — 

''be it enacted. 

'' 1st. That the State Treasurer issue his warrant for the whole 
tax, State and Continental. 

* Obadiah Clement was the principal of these. 

♦ THE FmsT toav:n meeting. 277 

'' 2d. That it be assessed the same as on the first daj^ of April 

" 3d. That the town of AVarren pay twenty shillings for each 
£1,000 raised in the State. 

" Mh. That Samuel Emerson, of Plymouth, is commanded to 
call a town meetiug in Warreu, and preside until a moderator 
shall be chosen." 

This bill was passed to be engrossed, June 22d, 1779. It was 
signed by John Langdon, Speaker of the House: Meshech Weare, 
President, approved it, and it was examined by Ebenezer Thomp- 
son, Secretary of State. 

Samuel Emerson, who dwelt npon the east bank of the 
Asquamchnmanke, where it runs a slow and lordly river, felt 
highly complimented when he heard of the great honors thrust 
upon him, and he promptly began his duties. 

July 12th, 1779, he posted a notice warning the inhabitants of 
our pleasant township to assemble ;* and on the 28th of the same 
month, the true men of Warren were on hand at the inn of mine 
host, Obadiah Clement, ready for business. Our toiy friends did 
not attend; they forgot that the meeting was to be held that day. 

But steady here — with great dignity and profound gravity! 
The mighty events of history should not be hurried over. How 
important is the first assembly of the hamlet. It is an auspi- 
cious moment, a new birth for the town ; an entrance upon a 
higher life. A web of circumstances is to be woven about the 
citizens that shall change the whole course of their aspirations and 
ambitions ; that shall furnish a field on which thej^ may achieve 
distinction, as legislators, executive otficers, and judges. 

Did the wise men as they went to that meeting from their 

♦Names of the Legal Voters of Warrex for the Year 1780. 

Isaiah Batchelder. JoseiJli Kimball. Joseph Patch. 

William Butler. Epliraim Limcl. Simeon Smith. 

Dauiel Clark. .Josepli Lund. Ephraim True. 

Thomas Clark. .Tolin Marston. True. 

Jonathan Clement. .Jonathan Merrill. Chase Whitcher. 

Obadiah Clement. Joshua Merrill. John Whitcher. 

Reuben Clement, Stevens Merrill. Reuben Whitcher. (1) 

Joshua Copp. John ^lorrill. 

Gardner Dustin. Nathaniel Niles. 

(1) July 8, 17S7.— Voted, That Mr. :\roses Page have one hundred acres of land 
laying northerly on Josiah IJartlett's Esq., in the sixth range, lirst <livision to be 
laid out in the same fonn as other lots in said range, in consideration of his set- 
tling Mr. Reuben Whitcher in said town.— Proprietor's Records. 


fields where they had been hajiuy among the charred stumps and 
logs, realize its importance? Did they know as they assembled 
in Obadiah Clement's old log bar-room, where the soldiers of the 
Revolution hastening to the camp or journeying home from the 
war. were wont to stop; where good milk-toddy, whiskey-punch, 
flip, and egg-nog, could always be had, and where in winter the 
old fashioned loggerhead was always kept at a white heat, that 
this was the beginning of a long series of meetings that should 
continue even down to our time? Did they think that in that 
identical bar-room, varnished and painted by the smoke of pitch 
knots and tobacco pipes, would arise those celebrated political 
parties — the Patch party, the Merrill party, and the Clement 
party — which always existed in town, down to the era of the 
'• Know Nothings;" that it would be here that they would learn 
to love office, its honors and emoluments, to spout and talk and 
wrangle about the laying out of roads, the constructing of bridges, 
the clearing of training fields, the locating of school houses, and 
the building of meeting houses? Perhaps they realized it. and 
perhaps they did not. 

But certain it is. that when the hour of ten was shown by the 
sun-dial which Obadiah Clement had fixed by his door, 'Squire 
Emerson in the most dignified manner, called the meeting to 
order. He knew his business, and he thought he knew himself. 
A moderator, as commanded by the statute, was first to be chosen. 
" Please forAvard your ballots, gentlemen,"' said he. But not a man 
moved. They hadn't a ballot. Then the 'Squire explained and 
some one asked Col. Clement for paper and a pen. He had the 
pen, but said he did not think there was any paper in the house. 
Some one suggested there was birch bark by the fire-place, and ye 
dignified chairman said that would do. It was cut in little slips, 
the names written, and the ballots forwarded. It did not take 
long to count them, and the chairman declared Joshua Copp unani- 
mously elected. 'Squire Emerson, after administering the oath of 
office, whispered in Mr. Copp's ear that a clerk was necessary, and 
'Squire Joshua, in the style of his gi-eat predecessor, said, '' Please 
forward your ballots, gentlemen, for town clerk." This time they 
knew how to do it, and Obadiah Clement having every one, was 
also declared unanimously elected. 


Then ihere was a pause ; no oue knew exactly what was 
Avanted, ov who avouIcI be suitable for the offices; aucl after a little 
general discussion, and considerable private talk, they concluded 
to adjourn to the twelfth of August next, as the day to finish the 
business of the meeting, and obey the requirements of the great 
statute so kindly passed for their benefit. 

The morn of August 12th came. The patriots of "Warren 
assembled, and even a few of those loyal to Iviug George, who 
were not in the habit of sajang much, looked in upon the meeting. 
But every thing Avas cut and dried beforehand, as is often the case 
for town meetings of later years, and it took but very feAV minutes 
to elect Obadiah Clement, Joshua Copp, and Israel Stevens, 
another new comer, selectmen: Simeon Smith, constable; and 
"William Butler, Reuben Clement, and Thomas Clark, surveyors of 
highways. Then, as this was all the business that could legally 
come before the meeting, they adjourned Avithout day.* 

Another thing might also be established, and as it was imme- 
diately done, it is proper to mention it here. It was the opening 
of a Court. In it Judge Joshua Copp f presided for a long time 
Avith dignity, and dispensed exact justice. As he grew in years 
Judge Jonathan Merrill succeeded liim, and was noted for firm- 
ness and the energy AA^th which he enforced his decisions. This is 
Avell illustrated in the celebrated case, Isaac Cliflbrd versus John 
Morrill. Cliftbrd sued Morrill for the value of a hog which he had 
sold him, and the case was returned before his honor Judge 
Merrill. Each had a lawyer from some distant land, and after a 
full hearing, the case was decided for the defendant. The first 
time afterAvards the Judge met Mr. C. the latter Avould not speak, 
but gTunted like a hog at his honor. The same tiring happened 
the next time they met ; Avhereupon Judge M.J turned short about. 

* See V^ol. i. Town Clerk's Records. 

f First Marrifif/e in Warren. — Esquire .Joshua Copp performed nearly all the 
marriage ceremonies while he held office. He married .lolin Marstoii, the first 
marriage in town. The latter had no money and Avas to pay a Ijusliel of l>eans in 
advance. He only carried halt' a bnsliel, got married and trusted too for the other 
half; and would not pay because he said his wife liicked him out of lied, and he 
had to lie underneath. Marston moved to Konine}- and was a drunken man. 
AVeld, wlio kept store, paid liim in rum to run nakeil tln-ough the street. Weld's 
wife liorsewliipped Marston, making the fur lly good, and tlicn whipped her hus- 
band too. 

t Esquire .Jonathan was a man w!io couM sliake folks, if lie was smiling and 
smooth as oil. Wlicn lie and his father with llieir families were moving to AVar- 


seized uucle Isaac by the collar, shook him nearly out of his boots, 
got an apolog^^ out of him in double quick time, and only released 
him when he had promised to behave well in the future.* 

But more often when the parties were not satisfied with the 
decisions of our distinguished jurists, they took an appeal and 
carried the case to a court of higher powers and broader jurisdic- 
tion, established by the great Republic of New Hampshire, in 
some place far across Warren's borders. f 

But the highest of all the rights and ]Drivileges that could now 
be exercised, was that of sending a minister, ambassador, or pleni- 
potentiary extraordinary, commonly termed the representative, to 
the Great and General Court we have mentioned, which like the 
aforesaid renowned Amphictyonic council, made the general laws 
which were for the govermnent of the numerous proud little 
democracies of the republic. By so doing they secured the high 
honors thus conferred, and had a voice in equalizing the light bur- 
dens of taxation imposed. 

Thus the work was done. The assemblies, otherwise called 
toivn meetings, were short but they answered the purpose, and our 
grand little hamlet was organized a healthful State. It was to pay 
a light tribute, as we have seen, in the shape of State and Conti- 
nental taxes, for protection, to the gi'eat Republic that had such a 
kind regard for it, but in other respects was wholly fi-ee. 

Still there was no danger, even if it had not been compelled 
to pay a farthing. Its mountain boundaries were a safeguard and 
a barrier against neighboring territories, and the wild mountain- 

ren, they met a man who wouldn't turn out. High words ensued, and then the 
'Squire and the stranger tooli oil' their coats and went at it. The stranger got a 
thrashing, and Stevens Merrill whose religion forbade him to fight, turned the 
stranger's liorse out of the road, and they went on their way rejoicing. 

* Isaac Clifl'ord of Wentworth, was in Col. David Hobart's regiment from Dec. 
7, 1776, to March 1777. He was the son of Isaac Clifford of Kingston, N. H., who 
married Sarah Healy and then moved to Romney. Isaac Clifford, of Romney, was 
the ancestor of all the Cliffords in the Asquamchumauke valley. Hon. Nathan 
Clifford, one of the Judges of the United States Supreme Court, is one of the 
family. — See Hist, of Chester, p. 493. 

t Whipping Posts and Stocks. — Warren never had these useful machines for 
preserving the peace and inculcating good order. But our friends down at Plym- 
outh did. At the latter place. Col. \Villiam Webster, " the old man of all," had 
charge of them, and it is said he could laj' on twenty lashes as handsomely as any 
man that ever lived. By an act passed in 1701, a peiialty was inflicted for profane 
swearing, of sitting in the stocks not exceeding two hours, and for a second 
offence, not exceeding tliree hours: for drunkenness, to sit in the stocks three 
hours. Theft might in some cases be punished by whipping, not exceeding twenty 
stripes. Tlie stocks and whipping were legal penalties, by an act passed in 1791 
and in force in 1815. 


cevs of old Peeling, and the laud of Trecothick and the other 
surrounding regions, seldom durst venture across them. 

Yet it was a liigh honor as we intimated before — worth a 
thousand times the small pittance rendered — to have all the 
niachinery of State running within its territoiy. As in old Rome 
the consuls, so in our mountain town the selectmen were the high 
functionaries and rulers, taking precedence of each other in the 
order of their election. And then, aftenvards elected or appointed 
the judges who presided in the courts, the gi'eat ambassador or 
representative, the treasurer' who kept the money in a ponderous 
"safe" — his pocket, — the custodian of the peace, the mighty 
constable, the superintendents of the great public roads, the high- 
way siirveyors. the conservators of the royal game, called deer 
keepers, the tythingman who kept order on the Sabbath, the 
gatherer of the revenue or tribute, styled the tax collector, the 
hog constables, politely termed hogreeves,* who put yokes upon the 
necks, and rings in the noses of swine — each well filled his sub- 
ordinate place and helped continue the State. 

Of course now the citizens of our beautiful hamlet, especially 
those loyal to King George, fondly appreciated the efforts of the 
kind go-between, the great Committee of Safety, and the other 
patriotic agents, who had contributed so much to bring about this 
healthful organization, and gently reciprocating the fond affection 
of the young and vigorous Republic of New Hampshire, exerted 
every energy to become a great and powerful democracy, much to 
the benefit of themselves and their neighbors round about. 

* Hofjreeves. — Charles Bowles was the first hogreeve in Warren. By an act of 
George 1, 1719, it was enacted that no yoke shall be accounted sufficient that shall 
not be the depth of the swine's neck, and half so much below, and the sole or 
bottom three times as long as the thickness of the swine's neck. The ringing was 
to insert a piece of iron wire through the hog's nose, bring the ends together, and 
twist them so that it should project about an inch above the nose, which would 
prevent rooting. 


REN'S quota; and other very interesting and ENTER- 

The young' Eepublic wanted money ; the good citizens of 
Warren knew it ; Samuel Emerson, of Plymouth, had instructed 
them how it must be raised ; the selectmen wanted to try the new 
democratic machine, and they immediately called a town meeting 
for that purpose. August 28, 1779, it was held. Gardner Dustin 
ha\ing been chosen moderator they refused by vote to accept a 
plan of government sent them by the Continental Congress and 
then voted to raise one hundred and fifty pounds to lay out on 
highways and one hundred pounds to defray town charges.* 

And now the selectmen, as assessors, went to work imme- 
diately. They traveled from clearing to clearing, the little islands 
in the woods, for the forest was the rule and the openings the 
exceptions in these bright primitive days ; they counted the horses 
and neat cattle, and estimated the l)road ai-res of arable, mowing 
and pasture lands, and then carefully calculated each man's pro- 
portion. The lists made out, they were placed in the hands of 
Simeon Smith, constable, for collection, he filling the office of tax 
collector as well.f 

Simeon Smith was a man of perseverence, but he found liis 

* This was depreciated currency — the okl Contineutal niouey. 
t For the flrst inventories of Warren, and tax list, see Appendix. 


task a diliicuU one. Some paid willingly, and some resolutely 
declared they Avould not pay at all. He coaxed and flattered, but 
all to no avail. Tlien he determined to try what ^drtue there was 
inlaw. In right good earnest he went to work. He took the 
hardest cases tirst. Stevens Merrill, the stern, silent man, was the 
toughest customer. His whole tax was 291 15s lid, and he 
declannl iie would not pay it. So Simeou Smith took his cow by 
distraint, and advertised it for sale by posting a notice in Obadiah 
Clement's bar-room. It read as folloAvs: — 



at the liighest bidder, at the house of Mr. Obadiah Clement, au 
innholder in Warren, the 21st day of December, at six o'clock, P. 
M., One Cow. Artical of sale to be seen at time and place by me 
the subscriber. 

SIMEON SMITH, Constable. 
Warren, Dec. IS. 177!)." 

Then the conditions are set out at length, something as 
follows: — *•• A cow to be sold; no man to bid less than a pound; 
if two persons bid at tlie same time, then the cow to be set up 
again; cash or money to be all paid down: if the buyer won't pay, 
then he shall forfeit the cost of the vandue. Obadiah Clement 
apintecl vaudue master and dark of the sail.'' 

But Simeon Smith had to look sharp or be would not be able 
to keep that cow to sell. Stevens Merrill was on the watch to 
retake her. Three nights the constable had her in possession, and 
each night he had to post a guard over her. The tirst night two 
men at the price often shillings each, stood sentry; next, one man 
l)erformcd tlie duty through all the dark hours for the same 
amount, and the third night two strong men mounted guard, and 
also had a large force at convenient distance, who would come at 
call to assist them if necessary. There was great danger, and 
people were afraid of Stevens Merrill, for he was brave as a lion, 
and his sou Jonathan as cunning as a fox. In the still hours of 
nio-ht thev might come and steal the cow aM'av. And so thev 


watched, but the " tei-ror " of the mouutaiu hamlet did not come.* 

December 21, 1779, the cow was sold, being- struck off to 
"Reubeu Whitcher, the "hiest" bidder, for ninety pounds. Mr. 
M. received all the money except what was necessary to pay taxes, 
costs, and charges. 

Jonathan Clement was as obdurate as Mr. Merrill. He was 
determined not to pay, and there was also a special " vandue " for 
the sale of some of his property. 

All the rest of the few contrary citizens now saw that oitr 
constable was in earnest, and so paid up. But such things often 
happened afterwards. The very next year Jonathan Merrill and 
Joshua Merrill had some of their ewe sheep sold, and a little after, 
Joseph Patch had '• so much of his good inglish hay sold as would 
pay Ms taxes," and somebody else had the exquisite pleasure of 
seeing their two " puter platters " auctioned off for their rates. f 

The next year Col. Clement was himself constable, having 
taken the place of Joshua Men-ill, who backed out of the honor. 
Col. C. collected and paid over an immense sum of money to Maj. 
Child, for supplying the troops to the westward, and also furnished 
a large sum to the Committee of Safety.^ Thus the sinews of war 


£ s. d.f. 

The acompt of my feeas for distraining 10 

To two keepers one kuiglit 1000 

To one keeper one knight 10 

To two keepers one night 1000 

To one knight 10 

one keeper one kniglit 10 

To evidences to tendering the Overplus money that is due to the said 

Merrill 1 16 

To exi^enses of the cow & under charges and expenses for keeping . 18 10 

24 6 

^^^ i 14 17 11 2 

t For acconnt of these sales, see Town Clerk's Records, Vol. i. 311 to 314. 

X " Thursday March 8th 1781. Ordered the Treasr to Discount with Ohadiah 
Clemens, Constable for Warren, One thousand and five hundred pounds, old 
Emission, being so much paid to Major Child by order of the Committee of Safety, 
agreeable to his Receipt of the 10th of Octo 1780 for surplying the Troops at the 
Westward, £1500."— N. H. Hist. Coll. Vol. vii. 252. 

Cold Winter. 
The winter of 1780 was terrible cold. There were forty days, thirty-one in 
March, that it never thawed on the south side of the house. 

Dark Day. 
May 19, 1780, was the dark day. Tlie sun was seen at rising, but it was soon 
obscured by clouds and smoke, and it became so dark that fowls went to roost and 
candles were lighted. 


were procured and the Continental Congress and the young 
republic satisfied. 

But sometliing else beside money must be had. Men to fill up 
the army were absolutely necessary. We have seen what a num- 
ber, considering the whole population, had gone voluutarily, but 
now, though the will was good, the country was weary and drafts 
must be made. The soldiers had got to come, and the citizens in 
their democratic capacity were ready to furnish them. 

The selectmen also called a town meeting for this purpose. It 
was held July 10, 1780. They all felt very patriotic in Obadiah 
Clement's old bar-room. The good " old west endea rum " made 
them stomachful and brave, and they voted withoiit a dissenting 
voice '•' that the soldiers shall be raised by a rate for that present 
time." Also voted Obadiah Clement, Joshua Copp to be a com- 
mittee to jwovide soldiers for the town, "and to exemp those 


This was done in the selectmeuship of Joshua Copp, Thomas 
Clark, and John "VVTiitcher, and our committee assured by these 
high rulers that all their expenses should be promptly paid labored 
bravely to hire a soldier, for only one was wanted then from the 
town. They succeeded and Caleb Young* went as Warren's levy 
into the Continental army. He was but a youth who happened to 
tarry a few days at Obadiah Clement's inn , and a few pounds for 
a bounty and several mugs of flip, in which the hissing logger- 
head had been thrust, made the young man exceeding brave and 
caused him to greatly desire " to hear drums and see a battle." 

Next year the town had to furnish another man. March 7, 
1781, t " Voted, that the selectmen be a committee to provide one 
soldier for three years, or during the war.'' This time the task 
was more difficult, but Col. Clement who was now the first " in 
the triune of mighty governors " yearly chosen, called selectmen, 
bent all his enei-gies to the work and accomplished it. 

Charles Bowles, a young stalwart man, of dark complexion, 

* Caleb Young enlisted July 11, 1780. 

t The new voters in the year 17S1, were — 

Charles Bowles. Amos Heath. Henry Sunbxiry. 

.Tonathan Foster. John Ilinchson. William Tarleton. 

Joseph French. Peter Stevens. William Whiteman. 


having some of the blood of Ham flowing in his veins, and his 
hair slightly -'kinky," had jnst settled on the top of that fertile 
ridge over which wound the Height o' land road towards Tarletou 
lake. He had also made another opening in the woods in the 
north part of the town, near the line of old Coventry. He was a 
good man, religiously inclined, somewhat given to preaching, and 
when his patriotism was roused, as only Obadiah Clement knew 
how to rouse it in those days, was decidedly in favor of the war. 
In the time of the town's sorest need, he came to the rescue, i)ock- 
eted a good ftit bounty, as is the custom in all times when it is to 
be had, and as many another had done, shouldered his musket and 
Avent marching away to the wars. 

When the contest was over, he came back, got married, set- 
tled down, labored hard week days, preached with unction on the 
Sabbath and raised up a large and respectable family of children. 
It was his boast through life that he fought his country's battles 

* Charles Bowles was at the battle of Benniugton, iu Col. David Hobari's 
Regt. His Captain was Jeremiah Post. He enlisted July 24, 1777, and was dis- 
cliarged .Sept. -Zb, 1777, having served two months and three days. He received in 
all i» pounds and i) sinllings, and traveled to Xo.4, 72 miles, and from tlieuce to 
Bemiington, 142. 

Col. David Hobart was from Plymouth.— See Sec. State's Records. 


"in the year 1781 i, diaries bowles, made a pitch of one hundred aker lot of 
land l>y order of the Committee of Coventry wliich lot was Savaidby .Josiah Burn- 
ham by order ot said Committee in the aforesaid eighty one i went to work and fall 
trees and made me a house on said lot— then i was called into the army in 178;J i 
went to work with some hands with me and cleared and soed one bushel and half 
of grain and in October 1780 i moved my I'amily thare whare i have made ray home 
ever since till i sold my enterest to ©badiah Clement and said Lot hath never been 
claimed by any other person till this day as I have ever heard 


Charles Bowles was claimed by the town of Andover, N. H., as a part of theii- 
quota, May 8, 1782, but that town did not get him. — Sec. of State's Records. 


He was born Oct. 20, 17()0, at Hanover, Mass. 

She was born Mch. 3, 17G8, at Salem, N. H. 

:Married Apr. 14. 1784. 

James, born Dec. H), 1784, at Warren, X. IL 

Molly, born Dec. 12, 1787 at W.arren, N. H. 

Charles, born .Ian. 24, 1789, at Warren, N. PI. 

Elenor M., born May 18, 17i>2, at Warren, X. H. 

-lease, born Fel). 26, 179."), at AVarren, X. II. 

Euna, born Mav 17, 1797, at Warren, X. H. 

Hannah, born Mch. 3, 1799, at Warren, X. H. 

Jonathan, born Jan. 12, 1801, at Warren, X. H. Died Aug. 2.3, 1803. 

Sarah, born May 20, 1803. 
Charles Bowles afterwards became a Free-will Baptist minister, and is now 
one of the saints of that church. A volume of some 300 pages ])rinted matter has 
been published, gi\ ing a history of his wonderful powers and elo(iueuce as a min- 
ister. He was a mulatto. 


111 1782 * tho same lliiii<i' liappeiicd to the tOAvn auaiii. and 
IIenky .Sii.vA\'.t a iicAV comer who paid the great tax in town tliat 
very year, of three shillings and nine pence, also went to the war 
from our hamlet. He got a snug little bounty of sixty-nine pounds 
fifteen shillings, lawful money, for enlisting. AVhat l)ecanie of 
him we arc not informed ; but it is certain he never returned to 

Now this Avas all on account of the organization — Miiat the 
town was obliged to do according to law. But a hundred other 
things were done about these times, many of which are exceed- 
ingly interesting to us. who live in "this latter and degenerate 

Moses Copp,t son of 'Squire Joshua Copp, though a mere boy, 
had been in the army a great deal, and was noted for his daring 
and bravery. He was at West Point when Arnold sold liimself to 
the British. David Merrill, a strong muscular man, who mar- 
ried "Squire Joshua's daughter, but did not then live in town, 
assisted in rowing Arnold to the hostile man-of-war that received 
hiin. He was paid a large sum of gold for his sen-ices, — not very 
meritorious ones as most folks think at the present day. 

The great Committee of Safety admired AVilliam Heath, our 
lank rawney hunter of fighting proclivities, and paid him £18 for 

* The new settlers in 1782, w'ere, — 

.Jonathan Harbord. Gordon Hutehins. Heniy Shaw. 

Barnabas Holmes. Closes Xo^-es. Nicholas Whiteman. 

WARKEX, August if), yr. 1782. 

t " IlEXRY Shaw. Received of the selectmen of wan-en Sixty Nine pound fifteen 
shillings Lawful money as a Bounty for inlisting to serve in the Continental army 
three year for the town of Warren from the time he pass muster I say received per 


test Joshua Merrill HENRY l<^ SHAW 

JoSHf A Copp mark 

A true copv Exmd 

Attest .Tosnt'A Copp, ) Selectmen 

William Butler, > of 

Stephen Richardson, ) Warren." 

Henrv Shaw. VTarren, 1782, Aug. 28th. 

1787 Reed an order on the Treasurer for twentv pounds. 

—See Sec. of State's Records. 

X Moses Copp niaiTied a d.iughter of .John Mills, and after the war, moved 
.away to Canada. He had several sons. One settled in Iowa. (Burlington,) and at 
liis death left a property of more than one liundred thousand dollars. Moses Copp 
was entitled to a pension, but never got it because he lived in Canada. He was 
accustomed to scold about it. 

** See N. H. Hist. Coll. Vol. vii. 


Eight at home Mrs. Joseph Patch had another pleasant adven- 
ture in which she exhibited the pluck of her father, and the 
shrewdness of her sharp brother Jonathan, One day when her 
husband was away, an old soldier called at the house and walked 
in without ceremony. Mrs. P. and her cliildren were at dinner, 
and the stranger helped himself. Then he became saucy and 
impudent, and when he was proceeding to offer her some personal 
indignity, sajdng he would burn the house if she resisted, she 
drew herself up tirmly and said to her little boy, '* Go to the barn 
and tell your father to come in instantly. I'll see if I am to be 
abused in my own house." The ruse worked admirably. The son 
started on his errand, and the old straggler, who had heard of 
Patch and did not care to meet him, rushed out of the house and 
disappeared in the thick woods in the shortest time possible. 

But the saddest thing was the death of Ejphraim Lund. He 
had served three years and then re-enlisted durmg the war. It was 
in a battle in the south, shortly before Cornwallis' surrender, that 
he met his death. He died bravely ; a comrade placed the green 
turf above him, and dropped a tear on the new made grave. The 
spot where he is lying is unmarked and forgotten ; and his little 
clearing whei'e he lived, the gi'een woods upon Mt. Mist, and on 
the shore of Tarleton lake, know him no more forever. 

Many other men who came to Warren shortly after the contest 
closed, also sei-ved in the war. Of these, Joseph French and 
Samuel Ivnight, who were at the battle of Bunker Hill, are per- 
haps the best remembered.* 

"VYhile the town was thus gallantly raising men for the army, 
other great events were transpiring in the wild but pleasant regions 
beyond the western mountains. When Burgoyne had marched 
down by Lake Champlain, the inhabitants on the long river of 
pines, the Connecticut, had been terribly frightened, and leaving 
homes, crops, and cattle, had hurried away into the eastern inte- 

* other revolutionary soldiers -who lived in WaiTen, are Asa Low, Jacob Low, 
LiLke Libbey, tlie latter served seven years and six months, was taken prisoner, 
carried to England and kept there fourteen months. John Abbott, he served seven 
years and was a drum-major, and Reuben Batcheldcr. Mr. Batchelder never got 
a pension. He would tell in his old age how he sufl'ercd in the war, and then ci-y 
about it. He was a piisoner, and came so near starving that he had to eat the very 
leather breeches which he wore. Heni-j' Sunbury who lived on the Height-o'land, 
was a Hessian in the British army, ana was talien prisoner at the surrender of 


rior, where buried in the fastnesses of the mountains, and in the 
deep woods, they felt that they were safe. But in the closing days 
of the war when many of the Green-mountain boys were awa\' 
lighting' bravely under Washington and Greene, frights came 
oftener to the dwellers of the New Hampshire Grants, as they 
were known in those days. To understand these terrors fully it 
Avill be necessary for us to write a few dignified pages. 

New Hampsliire, Massachusetts, and New York as we told in 
the history of the old proprietors, each laid claim to the Vermont 
territory. The people of that hilly country wanted to be admitted 
into the confederation, and the Continental Congress did not dare 
do it for fear of offending these other important States. The 
would be State of Vermont was slightly discontented at this ; the 
British government knew it, and now when the prospect of fail- 
ing in subjugating the rebels was every day becoming more 
apparent, it was thought to coax her away along with the ''Ca- 
nuck" country and the land of the "Blue-noses," and continue her 
a pleasant British province. 

For this purpose agents with British gold in plenty in their 
pockets, travelled the whole country through. The few who were 
venal, they bought, but the most were faithful to the rebel cause. 
To capture the leaders of the latter class and to give the tories who 
were frequently rather roughly handled, revenge, marauding par- 
ties consisting of French, Indians, and loyalists, hurried to the 
Connecticut valley. Then there were the wildest kind of panics, 
and men, women, and children, ran away. Nearly all would go, 
and at times the Coos country would be nearly deserted. 

The Committee of Safety made every effort to render assistance. 
A large number of soldiers were raised to defend the land of the 
Coosucks, and Captain Absalom Peters* who chose the neighbor- 

* Cayitaiu Absalom Peters graduated at Dartmouth College iu 1780. His health 
failed him and he settled on a farm iu Wentworth, X. H. lu Oct. 1780, a gi-eat 
alarm Avas occasioned hv the destrnction of Royalton, Vt., and from a report that 
4,000 British troops had crossed Lake Champlain with the intention of proceeding 
to the Connecticut river. At tliis time Captain Peters marched at the liead of six 
companies from the nortlieru part of New Hampshire to NewVuiry, Vt., the place 
appointed for the rendezvous, and on his arrival Mas aid to Maj.den. Bailey which 
he sustained till tlie close of tlie war.— N. H. Hist. Coll. Vol. iii. 245. 

Captain Peters lived in Warren in ^7ii;i, and liad at that time living with him a 
"little nigger bov" named Prime. One very rainy day he told Prime to get the 
cows; but "young sooty" wouldn't, and unbeknown to Captain Peters, hid under 
the barn. About dark the Captain went afler them himself and liallooed for Prime 
all over the pasture. He drove them up and hallooed "little nig " in the barn-yard, 
but got no answer. While milkmg, Captain P. happened to turn his head and saw 



ing- land of Went worth for his home, went marching through our 
hamlet to the rescue, at the head of six companies. Hundreds of 
pounds of powder and balls, a thousand tiints and more, tin ket- 
tles, borax, New England rum, tiles, and a screw-plate, were 
forwarded to •' Cowass," to the care of Col. Charles Johnson and 
Maj. B. Whitcomb. Thev put all these munitions of war and men 
to good use, and did guard duty most valorously. 

But they could not do every thing; they could not prevent a 
panic, and to provide for that, our township of Warren went to 
work bravely. The citizens enlarged their houses, increased the 
number of their beds, raised more provisions, cut more hay to put 
in their barns, and then last of all called a town meeting to provide 
for emergencies in case of ''great alarums." 

Without a dissenting voice they determined March 22, 1780, in 
order to receive their neighbors properly, who generally came 
pretty much out of breath, " to lay up a stock of jn'ovisioiis to be 
delt out as it appears to he wanted.''' " Voted to raise two hun- 
dred wait of flour and tioo hundred wait of beef for this present 
year, to be dealt out in case of alarum."' •• Chose Joshua Copp 
and Obadiah Clement a Committee to provide the towns stock of 

Having thus handsomely provided for their friends, then, if 
the terrible foe should pursue across the highlands by Tarleton 
lake or up the wild roistering Oliverian, our mountaineers were 
also prepared to receive him in a manner which would not be 
quite so agreeable. They procured a good stock of lead, powder, 
and flints, scoured up their muskets, and bloodshed would have 
followed had the Britishers only ventured within the border. The 
Coos neighbors often came to Warren; but King George's troops 
and allies, never. 

And now Warren had a different kind of warlike excitement. 

Prime's white eyes and teeth looking- out from tinder the barn. Peters was mad. 
He took Pi-inie into the house, stood liini on a case ol' 'Irawors and told liim to 
answer in tlie same tone lie used. First, I'eters whispered tlie word " Prime," and 
Prime answered back in a wliisper. Tlien lie raised his pitch until he shouted so 
that he could be heard halt' a mile, and "little sooty" strained himsell' so much 
trying to answer, that he looked wliite in tlie face and was well iiuuished. The 
neighbors who heard were greatly amused, and it is said that Prime was a good 
boy and never hid under the barii again. 

Captain Peters generally went barefoot. When elected to the legislature by 
the town of Wentworlh, he'wore shoes ; but he said it made his feet so tender it 
took more than six mouths to toughen them. 

* Town Clerk's Itecords, \o\. i. 7. 


AVhcn tlie tido of battle was rolliiifi' tlirouoh the south and Gen. 
Greene was wiiuiing' glory, fighting with Cornwallis, John Balch, 
who still rode post, brought the news that our groat Gonmiittee of 
Safety were trying Col. Jonathan Greeley, one of the old proprie- 
tors " for practices inimical to the United States." Our citizens 
were greatly roused by the intelligence, for Col. Greeley had been 
one of their best patrons. But when they learned that he had been 
found guilty and sentenced to give a bond for his behaAdor to Gen. 
Folsora, and was confined to his own house and a certain portion 
of the liighway, eighty rods or so in length, limited by the flag- 
staff on the east and the old burying ground on the west, they 
were almost as much excited as when they heard of Gen. Stark's 
great victorj' at Beimington. But Col. Greeley did not long- 
remain in confinement. He had good friends on the committee 
and they well remembered what a fine fellow he was as mine host 
in old East Kingston, and they soon let him off easy.* 

But in nine days this affair was an old story, so fast did events 
liasten in these troublesome times. Something new came almost 
every day and when the fortune of war hung trembling in the 
balance and victory inclined first to one side and then the other, 
away up in this northern country, in the wild forests of the New 
Hampshire (xrants, discontent was fomentin'g, treason to the young 
republic of New Hampshire was hatching, and a power in the 
west, almost like Satan in Heaven, was trying to draw oft' one- 
third of New Hampshii-e"s beautiful towns, Wari'en among them, 
lying in the vicinity of Connecticut river. Who did it? It was 
the delightful-would-be-Green-mountain State : that could not get 
admitted to the Union, that was determined not to go with old 
England, and so was planning how a free and independent i-epub- 
lic she might set up for herself. 

All the territory and the greatest population possible was 
essential in the highest degree, and so, as has been softly insin- 
uated, in imitation of the fond mother country, agents from west 
of the Connecticut crossed that bright stream and labored in all 
the bordering eastern towns. Their logic was powerful, and their 
tongues persuasive, and a scoi'e of young democracies were almost 
influenced to cast their lot with that of the young empire to the 

*N. H. Hist. Coll. Vol. vii. 


west. So much progress was made that a convention was called 
to meet at Charleston, X. H., and the townships agreed to send 

Warren was A^dde awake. Still business must be performed 
in a manner that should comi^ort with the solemnity and dignity 
of the occasion. A town meeting Avas called. It was held Jan. 
od, 1781, and was " to see if the town will send one man to attend 
on the convention to he held at Charlestoivn on the third Tuesday 
of January, inst., at one o'clock afternune, according to anenno- 
tification sent from the county of Chester.'''* 

After a long discussion chose Obadiah Clement to attend the 
convention at " Charlestown, No, 4," and as it was very important 
whether they should belong to the great '' Amphict^^onic council," 
of the east or to that of the west, a committee consisting of the 
most dignified and influential men of the hamlet, was chosen to 
instruct the delegate elect how he should act. It consisted of 
Joshua Copp, William Butler, John Whitcher, Thomas Clark, and 
Isaiah Batchelder. 

They performed their duty faithfully, and in mid winter Col. 
Clement mounted on his strong black stallion, rode away through 
the woods, over the mountains, down the Connecticut to '' Charles- 
town, No. 4." 

Col. Clement attended the Convention thoroughly. What 
transpired has never been fully written in any history. Like the 
transactions of the old Hartford Convention, or the mighty mys- 
tery of the Ii'onMask, its acts will never be known. 

SuflBce it to say, our delegate heard all that was to be said, 
pondered upon it deeph', and then came home. He was not 
Ijleased, and plainly said so. To cross the mountainous Height- 
o'-land, to ford the Connecticut, to climb the Green mountains 
that they might reach the future capital of the would be empire, 
was not so easy as to ride down the banks of the delightful 
Asquamchumauke and Merrimack, to the bright lands from which 
they had emigrated, to the homes and pleasant associations of 
childhood, and the happy intercourse of those with whom they 
had done business for years, and with whom by far they had 
rather be united as members of a great Amphictyonic Council. 
* Town Clerk's Records, Vol. i. S. 


So our grand little hamlet among the hills gave her weslcrn 
friends the go-by and determined to remain as she was. 

But Col. C. did not feel quite right in relation to the " Charles- 
town No. 4." Convention. He felt he was not aiding the cause in 
the least which of all others was most dear to him. So, to ease 
his conscience, he went to work, like a true lover of office, to get 
elected Representative to the Great and General Court of New 
Hampshire. AVarren, Weutworth, and Coventry, Avere then classed 
together, and Dec. 11, 1782, the free and independent voters of 
these several towns being met at the house of our friend Joshua 
Merrill, familliarly called farmer Joshua, Obadiah Clement was 
chosen Representative. That night •' he felt complete." He was 
the first man in Warren to enjoy this high and immortal honor. 

The Great and General Court met at Exeter, N. H., in those 
days, and at the opening of the session, Col. C. was as usual 
promptly on hand to attend to his duty. And he did it faithfully. 
The war of the. re volution, although rapidly drawing to a close, 
was not as yet finished; much remained to be done, and our pat- 
riotic Representative was not behind hand in voting men and 
money. He was for pushing on until independence was fully 
secured. His constituents sustained him in this, and afterwards 
gave him a triumphant re-election. 

And now what a proud satisfaction our citizens possessed if 
they could only see it. They had done their duty, and were more 
than ever prepai-ed to move on in the grand march of democracies, 
well knowing that the taxes were all raised promptly, the men for 
the army all furnished and more too, supplies of provisions, 
moose-hide breeches, ammunition, and West India rum, always 
forthcoming, and herself and representatives loyal to the core, and 
as true to the New Hampshire republic, her lover, as the needle to 
the pole. 

Soldiers in the Revolution. — The I'ollowiiig men sei'vedin the war of the Revo- 
lution, jroiug from Warren at or about the date given : 

William Heath, 1775; Keuhen (lenient, 1775: Joseph Whitcher, 1775 : Ephraim 
Lund, 1775; .Josliua Coi)|i, 1775; Simeon Smith, 1775; ("hase Whitclier, 1770; John 
Marston, 177<!; (1) John llinclisun, 177<'«; Josei)li Lund, 177(;; .Jonathan Fellows, 1777; 
John Mills, Jr.. 177(;, 1777, and 1781; Copp. 1779; David Merrill, 1779; Caleb 
Young, 17S0; Charles Bowles, 17S1; Henry Shaw, 1782; William Tarleton, 17S2. (2) 

(1) John ^larstou was in Captain Joshua Hay ward's Conii)any in 177G. He 
settled in Warren before 1780. Ale.x. Craig was Lieut, of a Company. 

(2) William Tarleton was Captain of the 8th Company of Col. Timothy Jiedcl's 
regiment, raised in 1778, and doing iluty on the northern iVoutier. 



Joshua COPP. Jr. was the first white cliild born in 
AVarreu. ,Iohn Marston was the first man married; but eleven 
years went by after the settlement, before old tather'Tiine on spec- 
tral wings, with houi-glass and scythe, lighted down in our 
Asqnamchumauke valley, and claimed a victim. 

It happened thus : JohnMills, the first settler, who brought his 
family to Warren, was engaged "' falling a piece"' on the west side 
of the river by Indian Rock, near old Coos road. He was a very 
smart chopper, and his son, Captain John Mills, who was at home 
from the war on a furlough, Avas helping him. They had notched 
or partly cut more than two acres of trees, Init had not brought 
one to the ground. Theii they fell a great pine upon a clump of 
spruces; this broke them down, and they falling broke down their 
neighbors, and so, like boys setting up bricks the whole forest 
that had been notched was driven to the ground. This was called 
" driving a piece," and two smart men would fell several acres a 

But unfortunately a large pine had not been sufiiciently 
notched, and it stopped the drive. John Mills, Senior, ventured 
under to cut the inne; it fell before he could escai)e, a limb struck 
him on the head, and instantly he was dead. 

Tii(! son bore his father home on his shoulders, laid him upon 
the bed and summoned the neighbors. They came and tried to 


console the gTief-stricken family. lUit tlicv almost refused to be 
(comforted. There was sorrow and sadness, and wretchedness, 
and tears in that humble log cabin, and they felt that now the 
father was dead, the world was hardly worth li'\ang for, and that 
they too, might as well die. Captain John Mills, Jr., had seen a 
thousand men dead on battle-tields, but never had death come 
home to him so terribly before. 

The third day was the funeral. How long and lonely and 
terrible were the hours of waiting. But the time came at last, and 
all the neighbors began to assemble. There was no minister in 
town, no church, no tolling bell; but 'Squire Joshua Copp read a 
chapter in the Bible, a hymn was sung, and then he ottered a 

The cotRn was brought out and placed on a bier under the 
trees. Sunlight and shadow, tit emblems of the hour, flickered 
over the scene, not more breathless, hushed, and solemn, than 
were the voice, step, and heart of those sympathizing neighbors. 

The rough coffin lid was turned back and they approached one 
by one to take a last look of the remains ; then sunk away into 
the silently revohdng circle. The mourners presently came out 
and indulged a tearful, momentary, final vision, and the lid was 
closed. Col. Obadiah Clement took the charge. The bier, carried 
on the shoulders of four men, was followed by the relatives, and 
then the friends — every family in town were friends then — came 
two and two abreast. 

There was no graveyard in our hamlet, and they carried John 
Mills down the bridle-path, the road was on the other side of the 
Asquamchumauke then, to the cluster of hard pines on the river 
bank.* Here beneath the deep shade, the first grave of a wlilte 
man in AVarren had been dug, and here was the first burying 
ground of the settlers. There was no fence, no tomb stones, nor 
turfy mounds, no choir, no singing at the burial, but the wind 
sighing in the scattered pines, and the voice of the murmuring 
river seemed a requiem to the departed. 

* The little woods where .John Mills was buried was used for a graveyard lor 
more thau twenty years. Tlien Pine liill buryin,^: jfroTind was laid out, and the 
place where .John Mills and his kindred lie sleeping:, tell into vandal liands. To- 
day, lew persons know or dream titat the unsifjlitly spot on the river bank, where 
wild brakes and l)ushes are growin;^-, and jrravel is dug lor the roads, is tlie last 
resting place of Warren's second settler. The graveyai-d was on the east bank or 
the river, about tliirtj' rods below the old deep hole. 


As they apiDvoached, the nieu took off their hats, the four bier- 
men lowered the coffin by leathei-n straps, and tlien all looked in. 
'Squire Copp, as the last obsequiel act, in the name of the bereaved 
family, thanked the people for their kindness and attention to the 
dead and the living, and the procession returned to the house. 

Mrs. Stevens Merrill, Mrs. Joseph Patch, and other women, 
had cooked a plain dinner of pork and beans and Indian pudding 
for all. The mourners had a little spirit to take, but Stevens Mer- 
rill went to the well for pure water for the others to drink. They 
had no pumps then, and he found the long sweep piercing the 
skies; the bucket swinging to and fro in the wind. He reached 
up and caught it, and gTasping the pole drew it down hand over 
hand until the iron bound vessel almost touched the limpid water. 
He paused ; the mouth of the well was shaded and narrowed with 
green mosses and slender ferns, wliich bore on every leaf and 
point a drop of water from the waste of the bucket. Below the 
calm surface of the water appeared a reversed shaft, having its 
sides begemed with the moss-borne drops which with a singular 
effect of darkened brilliancy, shone like diamonds in a cave. 
Through a small green subterranean orifice he could look into the 
nethermost, luminous, boundless space, a mysterious, etherial 
abyss, an unknown reahn of j)urity and peace below the earth, the 
mirror ftiintly revealing the bright heaven above, the place to 
which, as he believed, the pure spirit of John IVlills had gone. 
Then he drew up a bucket full of clear water, spattering on all 
the rocks, and returned to the house where dinner was waiting. 

The meal over, each friend tried to say a comforting word 
and then went mournfully home, fully realizing that there was no 
spot on earth where men could live forever, and that death swift 
and sudden, had stricken down one of their number in Warren. 
How solitary and dreary was that house of mourning when all the 
fiiends had gone away home from the funeral. 

A week later and Captain John Mills" furlough was out, and 
he went away again to the wars. Captain William Butler had 
married a sister of the deceased man, and henceforth he was the 
head of the familv. 


TER-MARCHED; of the pretty XAMES it was CALLED, AND 

In these troublous times when all was dire consteruatiou 
along- the border, and the sounds of war came from every quarter, 
it was necessary to keep up a powerful military force througliout 
the country. Measures, therefore, were immediately taken to 
organize the whole people into companies, regiments, and divisions, 
and the citizens of Warren must become soldiers, of course. 

The scenes and experiences of the old French war and the 
Revolution gave a martial turn of mind, and when the order came 
to form a military company in our mountain hamlet, they went at 
the work with alacrity. 

February 8, 1780, Obadiah Clement was commissioned Cap- 
tain of the 9th Company of the 12tli Eegiment of militia, at this 
time commanded by Col. Israel Morey. No sooner was the docu- 
ment placed in his hands than he immediately began witli his 
usual energy to oi'ganize his company. lie quickly procured 
commissions for Lieut. William Butler and Ensign Ephraim True, 
and then when the time arrived he warned the good inhabitants 
of Warren, who had much increased in numbers, to meet for May 
training, armed and equipped as the law directs. 

The place where they were ordered to assemble was in the 
dry little field situated about half way between Farmer Joshua's 
and 'Squire Copp's; and on that third Tuesday of INIay, familiarly 


known as " Little Training Day," every man, woman, and child, 
almost, came together to execute and witness the mighty military 
evolutions that were to be performed. 

It was one of the brightest of May mornings, a sunshiny 
breezy day, balmy in hollows and dells, and on southern uplands, 
but fresh blowing on the ridges and along the northern mountain 
slopes. There was music in the air, for the robins sang in the 
maples, and the blackbird and the wood thrush warbled the sweet- 
est melody in the white flowering sugar plum and the wild cherry 
trees. Then the red squirrel chattered in the spruces, and the 
hairy woodpecker rat-tap-tapped on the hollow beech tree, or on 
Farmer Joshua's sap-buckets, not yet gathered: the partridges 
drummed on the hill-side, and the little chipmonk — the striped 
squirrel — sunning itself by its burrough, startled by the children, 
uttered the sharpest notes. Overhead the swallows, on twittering 
wings, skimmed along the blue sky, or diving down with arrowy 
rush, laved for an instant their wings in the cool water of Black 
brook — the Mikaseota — and flew aAvay to their nests in the log 
barns of the settlers. There were flowers opening by the path, 
violets springing up by the hedges, dandelions growing on grassy 
banks, moosemissa, white and odorous, skunk cabbage, adder- 
tongues putting out in the shadows of the trees, making the air so 
fresh and sweet smelling, while the children, shouting and laugh- 
ing, chased the first golden butterfly, hunted birds' nests and snail 
shells, and turning over stones and old logs, explored the haunts 
of thousands of ants, just thawed out into life. Then they found 
the blue-tailed skink, the salmon colored salamander and the crim- 
son-spotted triton, along the high, warm banks of httle runnels, 
and by the loud rill that comes down from Beech hill woods. 

r>uthark! the drum-beat is heard in the little training field, 
and the shrill notes of the fife go piercing through the forest. 
Cajitain Obadiah Clement is giving the note of command in clear 
ringing voice, and every loiterer is hurr\ ing to see the company 

ft is a beautiful training field, full of charred stumps, and here 
and there a great black log heap not yet wholly burned up. But 
Captain Clement managed to find a clear space to draw up his 
whole company in single file, and then the work commenced in 


good earnest. The lieutenant and the ensign took their places, the 
sergeants and the corporals were properly posted, care being taken 
not to select too many, as it was necessary to have some privates 
as well as officers ; for the whole company did not number more 
than forty men, though every man and boy old enough to do mili- 
tary duty Avas present, except those who were away in the army, 
and Stevens Merrill and Jonathan Clement, who declared " they 
would not train in such a string-bean, slam-bang, flood-wood, light 
infantry company as Col. Clement had; they would ]iay a tine 

Captain Clement told his grandson, Jim Clement, all about 
what beautiful uniforms they wore. Some had cocked hats, and 
some woodchuck and wolf skin caps, with the fur well worn off; 
one or two had nice straw braided hats which their wives and 
mothers had made them. And then there were all kinds of coats ; 
some of which had been in the army ; many had short frocks of 
every day wear, and some did not have anything over their rough 
tow shirts. Their breeches were almost invariably of one kind, — 
moosehide, home tanned, — a kind not easily worn out, untorn and 
no holes in the seat. Moccasins were worn on the feet, but some 
of the men, as it was a warm day, were barefoot; their tough 
soles being less liable to be hurt than the moccasins themselves. 
They h;id bolts of every sort and kind, canteens of various pat- 
terns, ])riming wires and brushes, and well worn cartridge boxes 
that had seen service in the old P'rench and Indian wars, and some 
in the devolution now going on. Their guns were of almost every 
pattern, muskets, fowling pieces, one or two old match locks, 
queen's arms, and some were the very guns also that Chase 
Whitcher had procured from the Committee of Safety. 

Captain Clement said he was better dressed than the rest. He 
had prepared himself for the occasion. His hair was not ])ow- 
dered, and he liad no wig on his head. But a white cockade 
glistened on his three-cornered cocked hat, silver epaulettes 
rounded off liis shoulders, his coat was faced with blue, a scarlet 
sash ornamented his waist, and his yellow buckskin breeches were 

* A poor excu.'ie was better than none. It was not safe for them at that time 
to say they woulrl not train witli r(>bel soldiers, and so they failed the company all 
manner oi' names, and said it was so mean they would not be seen in it. 


graced with silver lacings. He made a fine appearance, and as his 
said grandson, " Jim," well expressed it, '■' He felt complete." 

" To the right face," was one of the first commands, and the 
men looked "every which way." "Eyes right," the Captain sung 
out. and they all looked at him. " Shoulder arms," — the accoutre- 
ments rattled and jingled, and up went musket, i-ifle, fowling- 
piece, match lock, old queen's arm, and the three or four bayonets, 
gleaming " like rotten mackerel by moonlight," flashed in the bright 
spring sun. '' Shoulder arms," he shouted again in a sharp tone, 
for some had hold of the breech, some by the small part of the 
stock and some by the lock ; but every man looked blank, and did 
not shoulder arms. Then he showed each man how to do it, and 
soon they could carry arms and present arms, ground arms and 
arms aport, without the least difiiculty. 

"Music!" ordered the captain, and the drums beat again and 
the fife flourished wonderfully. "Mark time!" and their feet 
moved up and down in the most remarkable manner. " To the 
right f^xce "— " To the left face "— " Forward,"— " File in platoons," 
" Into sections," " Into divisions !*" And then they marched and 
countermarched in single file and double file, and four abreast in 
qviick time, in slow time and in no time at all. Then they wheeled 
round the log heaps, and flanked the stumps, and circled round 
the edge of the clearing next to the woods, where stood the 
trunks of the old trees that had been killed by the fire. For four 
long hours they thus maureuvered. until all were convinced they 
understood the whole thing perfectly, and could go through every 
sort of tactics ever thought of since by Scott or Hardee. 

Oh ! how brave and valorous they all were ! Captain Clement 
was lord of all he sui-veyed. The mighty rulers of the town, the 
selectmen, in their official capacity, had nothing to do with this 
training. Even Simeon Smith, the great constable from Red Oak 
Mil could not interfere, and Judge Joshua Copp was a sergeant in 
the ranks. The men from Trecothick and the neighboring regions 
of Romney, Wentworth, and " Pearmount," said to be present as 
visitors, had nothing to do about it. Only the great Committee of 
Safety, and Col. Israel Morey, the superior officer, could command 
our brave and valiant captain in any manner whatever. 

And now it was high noon and ver}' warm ; and the company 


being tired, they were dismissed for dinner. This consisted of 
corn-cakes, boiled moose meat, nut-cakes and such other fixings in 
great store, which wives, sisters, and sweethearts, had brought. 
Tlie Inige repast tinished with a rehsh, and washed down witli a 
" Uttle good west endea,'' they sat down to rest and became spec- 
tators themselves. The women gathered in knots and groups 
under the trees, chatted and gossipped as only women can, and 
the boys and girls, enjoying themselves, played '' goal " and " tag," 
and '• pizen," and "hide and seek," and "blind man's buftV and 
" 'igh spy," and " wolf." and shouted, and yelled till the woods 
rang with echoes. 

The music struck up again, the drum-call was beat, and each 
man sprang to arms. Once more all the evolutions were gone 
through with, and then they thought they would see how they 
liked the smell of powder. The guns were loaded, the command 
was heard, " Make ready, aim, fire!" and bang went the whole of 
them. Again they loaded, and again they fired, greatly to the joy 
of themselves and all the rest of the people assembled. 

Captain Clement would tell the pleasant story how young 
Moses True, a new comer, and some relation to Ensign Ephraim, 
who lived •' over the river," inspired by extra potations of good 
gi'Og, was filled with exceeding valor and wanted to show what he 
could do. So the company halted and he loaded up his great mus- 
ket with a mighty blank cartridge. Turning away his head, he 
fired most intrepidly into the air; but the blundering weapon 
recoiled and gave the valiant Moses an ignominious kick which 
laid him prostrate with uplifted heels on the laj) of mother earth. 
The company seeing that he was not much hurt, applauded him 
with the most uproarious laughter, much to his great delight, [of 
course. But the discharge made an immense noise; great echoes 
came back from all the wooded hills arovxnd, and even the green 
heads of Mooseliillock and Mount Carr, and the other neighboring 
mountains, looked in with wonderment on the scene. 

When the shadows were lengthening, and the old trees on the 
edge of the clearing began to seem distant, withered, and dark, 
with not a leaf to shake in the breeze. Captain C. halted his com- 
pany again, and in a short speech invited them up to his house for 
refreshments. They accepted his invitation with a loud cheer, and 


" single file, forward, march," was a pleasing command. Cap- 
tain Clement with drawn sword takes the lead; the music fol- 
lows ; the fifer first, the tenor drummer second, and the bass drum- 
mer next, all playing as loud as they can. Then Ensign Eplu-aim 
True marches by the colors, a red silk bandana handkerchief upon . 
a pole improvised for the occasion, near the centre, while fat Lieut, 
William Butler brings up the rear ; the children running before 
shouting as usual ; the women and visitors following behind. Up 
the bridle path by Joshua Copp's, across Ore-hill brook, and up 
Black brook, in half an liour they are at Warren's little hotel, 
Captain C.'s inn. 

The Captain's entertainment was plenty of pudding, pork and 
beans, with an abundance of the good creature to wash them 
down. Pails of toddy were i^assed about. Old and young men 
and the middle aged all drank that day, for it was the fashion, and 
even some of the boys tugging at the slops got fuddled and tight. 

As they went in, their spirits got elevated, and they made bar- 
room speeches and sang patriotic songs, which were greeted with 
shouts of applause. Then their courage increased and their 
strength came and they " ]Ditched quoits '" and tossed great logs, 
and lifted at " stiff" heels." Lieut. Butler was the strongest man, 
and he picked up every person who would lay down. A ring was 
formed and they wrestled "'to backs," at ''side holts," and at 
'• arms length." Joseph Patch, our first settler, was the spryest, 
smartest man. They could not kick his shins nor tread on his toes, 
and he succeeded in laying every one who dared step into the ring 
squarely on his back ; making both shoulders touch the ground at 
the same time. He was great at "the cross buttock play" as it 
was called. 

When they had ate all they possibly could, and drank all the 
punch they could carry. Captain Clement formed them in line 
again, thanked them for their excellent behavior as soldiers, and 
then they broke ranks in the common form, which is well under- 
stood by military men. 

At home safe, they were all much pleased, with their captain 
especially, also with the other officers, said they had had an excel- 
lent time, and wished '' little training day " might come eveiy 
mouth in the year. 


So iiiucli were they rejoiced that at the very next town meet- 
ing, held -Tilly 10, 1780, they determined to put a merited compli- 
ment on record, wliirli stands even to tlie ])resent time, and is as 
follows : — 

'•' Voted, That when the officers of the mility belonging to the 
town are called uj) on that thay bee paid eqnill from the town. 
In tliare rank as soldiers highered by the town for that year."* 

An excellent vote, exceedingly grammatical and well spelled. 

* Town Clerk's Records, Vol. i. 7. 



-A.ND now the war is over, and the piping times of peace 
have come.* How glad all the people are ! From the poorest man 
that trapped in the woods and fished in the streams, farmers, me- 
chanics, merchants, ministers, doctors, lawyers, Committee of 
Safety, and even President Meshech "VVeare himself, all rejoiced 
exceedingly. Snch an occasion nmst not be passed by without 
appropriate celebration, and President Weare appointed a thanks- 
giving day to be obsei'ved in all the little democracies of the State. 
The proclamationf went forth ; copies were sent to every town 
and the one that came to Warren was posted in Obadiah Clement's 
little bar-room, so that all could read it. Thanksgi\ing days had 
come befoi'e ; but the occasion had never been so great as now, 
even since the first one, which took place June 18, 1632, and the 
good people of our mountain hamlet, like all the rest of the coun- 
try, I'esolved to celebrate it with the utmost eclat. The Warren 
folks did not nor never have kept Christmas or Good Friday or 
Easter, and they had no '• goodings nor candles, clog, carol, box or 
hobby horse," neither did they ornament their jjlaces of worship, 

* The final definitive treaty of peace between the mother country and colonies 
was signed Sept. 3, 1783, at Paris. 

t Thanksgiving day was on the 2d Thursday of December, 1783.— See Proc. in 
Sec. of State's office. 


for they thought ;ill such things to be '' Heathenrie, T3evih-ie, 
Dronkeusie and Pride." Yet they must have some sort of festival, 
when they could celebrate in the most festive manner; they must 
pay some fealty to the universal gala sentiment. 

The morn of that day was waited with expectation, and the 
o-reatest eagerness. Wh-dt mirth and hilaritv should prevail! 
Col. Clement sent a rude ox team clear down country for supplies, 
and a stock of the good creature for the occasion. Capt. WilliauT 
Butler was determined to have a grand turkey shoot and a raffle, 
and the young men and maidens of the hamlet planned to have 
something else that should i:)lease them as well. 

Everv thino- was iust so through all the towns in the State and 
even the clerk of the weather, as the old tale runs, grew amiable 
and determined to introduce a novelty for the occasion ; accord- 
ingly long before the dawn of the happy day, he marshaled the 
snow makers who live, it is said, somewhere in the neighborhood 
of Greenland, and set them about their business. From midnight 
till morning they were actively engaged in sifting a delicious 
whiteness upon the gray autumnal bosom of our mother earth. 
They whitened the trees and the iields; they covered the long 
shingled roofs ; they sprinkled it like feathers upon the log walls 
of the cabins and against the foui--by-six panes of glass, introduced 
just about this time into the settlement. In fact they worked like 
heroes all night to make everything look bright and beautiful as 
possible for the morning. Everybody felt when they woke up in 
happy surprise that, 

" The fairies all bright 
Came out that night, 
As of a season long ago : 
And their feet on the gronnd, 
Had a tinkling sound, 
As they scattered the mUk-white snow." 

The little boys and girls clapped their hands with delight, and 
marshaled out on the hill-side for a grand snow-ball and coasting 
frolic. In the woods the tracks of the wild game were beautifulh 
distinct and the delighted sportsman hurrie^ away in the early 
morning to get his share of the partridges, joyfully listening to 
the " deep-mouthed blood hounds' heavy bay, resounding " in the 
distance, and the echoes of the fowling pieces as they brought 
down the birds on the wing, to make partridge pies for dinner, 



About nine o'clock in the forenoon, all the men and boys were 
hurrjing away to William Butler's turkey shoot. It was ont in 
the little field that John Mills and son cleared, by the Inibbling 
sand-vimnied springs northeast from his house. The captain had 
a fine lot of turkeys reared with great care, to keep them from the 
foxes, and he set them up twent3^-five rods away for shot guns, and 
forty rods for rifles. The hunters of that time were better marks- 
men than those of the present day. A sixpence a shot, payable in 
silver or its equivalent — a high price — was what each had to pay. 
If he had not asked it he would not have made much, for Chase 
Whitcher, Joseph Patch, and Obadiah Clement were there, and 
they seldom flred without bringing down a bird. They did not 
have to lie down and sight slowly over a rest, but brought their 
guns rapidly up to their eyes and fired. 

Simeon Smith was there also, making dry remarks, and Reu- 
ben Clement, the weird man. now rather taciturn, was seated on 
the top of a great stump watching the scene. Before him was the 
crowd, a jargon of voices, and an occasional shout. There was 
the report of rifles, the running to and fro of men and boys, dis- 
putes about shots, wrangling and wrestling, the smell of gun- 
powder, and the blue smoke curling away among the trees. He 
saw the brooks which rippled and murmured as they ran from the 
springs through their white and shining snow-covered banks, and 
the river that tossed and heaved as it hurried on among its snow- 
capped boulders and sent a dull sullen roar to the neighboring 
liills. On his right, blue forest-covered Mount Carr shone white 
and glistening under the morning sun as a frosted cake, while in 
the north, above the huge trees of the almost interminable forest, 
old Moosehillock in snow rears his rugged forehead. Every one 
before him seemed to feel well, and many a man who could not 
shoot a turkey, carried one away which he had won at the ratfle. 

At home the wives and comely buxom daughters wei'e making 
mighty preparations for the feast. The door-yards had been 
picked up and set in order, the house had been cleaned, the floors 
scrubbed white, the beautifully ceiled walls were of spotless 
purity, and the newly scoured pewter on the open dresser gleamed 
and rtaslied in the bright light of the great Idtchen fire-place. 
• The turkeys and other barn-yard fowls were killed and pulled 


yesterday : the partridges brought in this moiniing are made ready. 
iVnd then, Avhat a mixing of puddings of the richest composition ; 
Avliat pios are made; ])umpkin. custard, apple, aud mince, minus 
tlic raisins, but plenty of sweetening, for they made maple sugar 
then as now in great abundance ; the chicken and partridge pies, 
the best of all. AVliat cakes of transcendent brilliance, and bread 
of the most exquisite tineness, from flour ground at William But- 
ler's mill. The oven door o^iens and shuts, well stuffed turkeys, 
and pies, and cakes, and bread, go in. and odors most delicious 
and mouth-melting, inexpressible, fill the house. What glowing 
looks were there. What speculations, contrivances, and anticipa- 
tions in those milk-and-honey flowing kitchens. They have found 
the richest cheese in the whole cheese-room by tasting, and the 
pui-est and sweetest butter is moulded in small cakes, and im- 
planted with patterns of the most elegant figure. In fine, what 
efforts are made that all should experience the wondei-s and 
delights of this our delicious little mountain Canaan. 

It is told how on that day there was visiting and merry-making, 
that Joseph Patch went home to his father-in-law's, Mr. Stevens 
Merrill's and that Joshua Copp and Joshua Merrill, also went 
down there to eat thanksgiving suppev. Then all the Clements 
assembled at Col. Obadiah's, all the Whitchers at John's on Pine 
hill: Simeon Smith and his friends were social on Red Oak hill, 
and the Clarks and the Luuds had a merry-making over at Charles- 
ton,* and down by Eastman ponds. 

The good man and his wife went to these hilarious meetings of 
families, parents and children, grand-parents and grand-children, 
uncles and cousins, I'iding double on the good old horse that ha;d 
done them so much service in the woods; often carrAdng the 
youngest children in their arms, while the elder children trudged 
along the rough bridle-paths on foot. What a welcome they got ; 
what lively salutations. The horse went to the barn, — '• Come in !'' 
— olf came hats, caps, bonnets, shawls, and great-coats, — ''Sit 

* Choi-leston.—'Mr. Nathaniel Libber, on vearlinp: the advance iSheets of this 
work, saiil he knew why Charleston was so called, tliat it was named after Charles 
Bowles, who once liveil" in that delectable region. Bowles only stopped there a 
short time, and said he was frightened away by the immense bnll-frogs which 
inliabited Tarletou lake ; that every night lie could hear them singing out. '• Charles 
BoMles! Charles Bowles ! We are a coming, we are a coming! Don't rnn. don't 
run!" — and that he would not stay there for the whole district. His friends 
Laughed at liim and called the place Charles' town — Charleston. 


down!" — chattiug" and talking and asking after the health of tliis 
one and that one all the time. 

The men go out for an hour while the table is being set ; they 
go about the little clearings — the arable land, the mo-o-ing and 
pasture are shown, and the questions, how much they can raise ; 
how many trees they shall fall next year ; how the young ajjple 
and plum trees flourish; and whether or not the climate is too cold 
for them; what huntings they would have this winter; what fine 
steel traps and gnns and smart powder they had got, and a host 
of others were all freely discussed. 

In the house the hostess shows the women folks round — to 
the cheese and butter room ; to the weave room where such nice 
cloth is made, and then they talk about fattening cah'-es and rear- 
ing poultry; the growing of vegetables, of fruit, and flowers, and 
of the nice things they would get from down country, when their 
husbands went down to Portsmouth and Newburyport with the ox 
teams, carrying the butter, cheese, and wheat, the sheep's pelts, 
moose and deer skins, and all the rich pelti'ies, the product of their 
husbands" hunting in the woods. 

In an hour the settlers, (joking that they are afraid of their 
wives' tongues if they did not come back in season ; that they did 
not want ain- dinner, not a bit; they were only afi'aid of getting a 
scolding,) make their appearance . 

And now all are seated around the table. What a dinner! 
The great mealy i^otatoes are smoking hot, the fat turkey carved 
in the most admirable manner, the rich gravy steaming beside it, 
and the venison on Stevens Merrill's board, furnished by Joseph 
Patch, a most tempting dish. How excellent is the stuffing, what 
cool crystalline Avater to drink, and what good " old west endea," 
out of the stone bottles furnished by Col. Clement, so exhilerating 
to set them all aglow. 

How much they eat ; how fast the bounteous store disappears ! 
One would think no respect could be paid to the chicken and par- 
tridge ine, the plum pluddings, sweet cakes, pies of all kinds, most 
delicious sauces, maple honey, butter and cheese, the nicest and 
richest. But he would be greatly mistaken. They share the same 
fate as the first course, disapi:)earing amid the most liearty laugh- 
ter, sharp jokes, and '"mother wit of the keenest kind."' 


Supper over, tlie hours fly swift, passed with pleasantries and 
glowing conversation. By sunset they are all safe at home again. 
Every body in the township has enjoyed this thanksgiving; all 
have feasted to their heart's content; there is not a poverty 
stricken cabin in the hamlet. 

In the evening the young boys and girls of neighboring fam- 
ilies get together and pass a pleasant hour, playing ''blind man's 
butF," "■run round the chimney," and •'button, button, who has 
got tlie button?" 

But the older youths and blushing maidens, and the young 
men and their wives, as we said before, had determined to spend 
the evening in anotlaer way. It was dark when they began to 
assemble in Obadiali Clement's great kitchen and little bar-room, 
the only inn in the hamlet. The windows were all bright-lighted, 
as they came out of the woods in the little clearing. Entering 
they found a great tire burning in the cavernous lire-place. A 
huge green back-log, five feet long, a great forestick of half the 
size, and a '• high cob-work of refuse and knotty wood," blazed 
and roared, and crackled, sending up a bright and golden flame, — 
the black smoke hurrying away out doors all the time through the 
great flue of the immense stone chimnev. Thev sit down to 
warm themselves. The wood sings, the sap drops on the hot 
stones hissing and crackling and great red coals roll out on the 
hearth, glimmering, sparkling, glistening. 

Moses Copp and his handsome sister, Sarah, with several 
other brothers and sistei's, came flrst; and Joseph Merrill and 
some of his sisters, Captain Butler and wife, and pretty Anna 
Mills who lived with them, Joseph Patch and wife, two sons of 
Simeon Smith, and others from that neighborhood; some of 
Ephraim True's grown up cliildren, who used to be as wild as 
partridges. Chase Whitcher and his wife, from the Summit, 
and numerous others came, for unity and harmony once more pre- 
vailed now the war was over. 

Reuben Clement, who could not keep away from the turkey 
shoot, must also attend the ball: but all the evening stubbornly 
refused to dance, for he was an odd genius, as we have gently 
intimated before. 

The hall was the long unflnished kitchen, having its naked 


timbers overhead ornamented with bonghs of siiruce and hemlock 
and festoons and wreaths of evergreen. Tallow candles in wooden 
blocks were placed in the distant corners, that every part might 
be well illuminated. 

How pretty they were all dressed ! What a variety there was 
too. There were styles that had come into being in the backwoods, 
aud old styles, and new styles, and no stjies at all. There were 
flashy prints, bought down country, good blue woolen dresses, 
and tow and linen skirts of beautiful colors, and striped and 
checked linen waists. All had necklaces of gold, glass, or waxen 
beads. Their head-dresses were simple and plain, oftenest their 
hair neatly arranged without ornament. Their shoes were of the 
best pattern, sometimes striped with a white welt. 

. The belles of the evening were Anna Mills and Sarah Coi^p. 
The latter wore a bright blue woolen dress, a little short with a 
red border at the bottom, a white linen apron, with flowers 
elaborately wrought Avith her own needle on the lower corners, 
pure white Avoolen stockings, a pair of neatly fitting moccasins, 
tight laced about the small, well turned, delicate ankles ; her 
plump arms bare, a golden clasped bracelet on one of them ; on 
her neck, a string of gold beads ; her dark and shining hair 
close braided aud only ornamented with a sprig of evergreen 
tAviued in one of the heavj^ plaits. Her complexion was clear, 
bright blue eyes that sparkled, white regular teeth, Ups of cherry 
red, aud plump rosy cheeks. Anna Mills was also plainly but 
neatly dressed. She was light and agile in form, as the wild doe ; 
had flashing black eyes, and a wealth of raven tresses. Both were 
much sought after, and they never lacked a partner for the dance. 
The young gentlemen of the settlement were also dressed in 
the most remarkable manner for a ball. Moses Copp had on a 
portion of his old Continental uniform. Col. Clement, mine host, 
wore his military coat, and Jonathan Clement kept on his hat, an 
immense one, through the whole occasion.* Then the short frocks 

* Wearing a Hat. — Jonathan Clement almost literally atirays wore his hat. He 
kept it on at meal times, at town meetiugs, in religious "meetings, and in presence 
of every one he met, high or low. It was tlie first article of clothing he put on in 
the morning, aud the last he took ofl' at night. X. Libbey went to Mr. C.'s tavern 
at midnight for a pint of rum, rapjjed at tlie door, and when said landlord came, 
tlie only article of dress he had put on was his hat. But the sheriff knocked it off 
for hiu'i in high Court one day, to his infinite disgust, aud Mr. C. had a fearftU 
hatred of courts ever after.— -Nathaniel Libbey's statement. 


were present, tucked out of the way inside of the moosehide and 
buckskin breeclies. There were long stockings and many a pair of 
silver shoe and knee buckles, and the tough moosehide moccasins 
were the easiest things in the world to dance in. Their hair was 
not powdered, they had no wigs; our settlers did not take to such 
things ; but Col. Clement, as did some other elderly men at the 
time, wore a queue, handsomely tied with an eel skin. 

But they were a happy company if they were rather oddly 
dressed. There were smiles and jokes, and bright sayings, and 
when Moses True, the youth who made such a heroic noise on 
•• little training day," took his seat upon a high bench in the back 
entry-way, at the farther end of the kitchen, violin in hand, the 
whole party leaped up at the wagging of his fiddle-stick, and took 
their places on the floor. Then soft music arose in Obadiah Clem- 
ent's old kitchen, and happy hearts and nimble feet kept time to 
the merry strain. 

By-and-by they had a slight refreshment, and the •' milk toddy " 
and •• egg-nog,-' mild drinks, were passed round and disappeared 
in vast quantities. On this their spirits rose. The young men 
shuffled and kicked most vigorously, and now and then gave a 
hearty smack, in all honesty of soul, to their buxom partners. 
Then they used the step called -'shuffle and turn " and "'double 
trouble," and cut many a lively fantasy as the short hours wore 
rapidly away. 

Late in the night some of the dancers got tired and two young 
♦'•entlemen, Jonathan Harbord and Nicholas Whiteman, who had 
recently come to town, laid down by the bar-room fire to rest 
themselves. Eeuben Clement, who had watched them all the 
evening, said in a quiet way that he *' knew they must be fatigued, 
exceedingly weary, they could not be tight, nothing of the kind, 
for they had not drank more than a quart of good rum, each." 

The cock croAved in the barn ; the shrill cry was answered 
from the nearest farm-yard, down at Jonathan Clement's, and then 
the dancing ceased, for Moses True, the good fiddler, was more 
tired than all the rest. 

Sotae who resided farthest away, resolved to stay all night 
and go home by daylight. But those who lived down the valley 
towards Red Oak hill, were ofi' in the shortest time possible. 


Some I'ode on horseback, but the most walked ; and Joseph Mer- 
rill waited upon Sarah Copp, aud Moses Copp went home with 
Anna Mills. Now aud then they were startled by the cries of the 
wild denizens of this new country. An owl hooted from a great 
hemlock by the path, there was a wild-cat crying- over by Black 
brook, the Mikaseota, aud a wolf howled in Beech hill woods. 
Yet it was only Nature's music to the settlers. They did not fear; 
they loved the beautiful night, for the crescent moon was not yet 
set behind Sentinel mountain in the west ; the dark vault above 
them was powdered with stars, and they saw Aldebaran, Lyra, 
Orion, and the Pleiades, holding their silent course through the 

There was not much labor performed in the settlement next 
day, for nobody got up very early that morning. Yet every one 
was content, and always maintained that tliis was the happiest 
Thanksgiving ever known in Warren. 



T^ENERABLE and niucli to be respected are ye worthy 
men of ancient times, wlio had the public good, the prosperity of 
the State at heart. Benuing Weutworth and the honorable pro- 
prietors of our mountain hamlet, next to the cause of religion, as 
we have before mentioned, believed in public education. So in 
addition to the other reservations in the charter for great and good 
purposes, the excellent governor provided that one share in the 
township of "Warren should be reserved " for the benefit of a 
school in said town forever." 

The proprietors, as before, seconded the governor's good inten- 
tion, and in the drawing of the lots, No, 3 in the 9th Range, 1st 
Division, and No. 15, in the 7th Range, 2d Division, were devoted 
to the cause of education.* 

Yet it was many years before any revenue could be deriyed 
from the lauds thus appropriated, and the children of the hamlet 
would have grown up in the most lamentable ignorance if they 
had waited for an education till the lots got productive. 

Our sturdy settlers, before whose strokes the forest bowed, 
could all read and write, as is well attested by the old documents 
that have come down to us. and they could not bear the thoughts 
that their darling oftspring should be deprived of a good educa- 

* Other lands were set iiviart for school piu'poses, for account of which see 
Appendix . 



Yet they went at the work in rather of a negligent and dila- 
tory manner; now and then supporting a private school in some 
settler's cabin, and then letting whole years go by without any 
school at all. But now the town being so well organized, they 
began to agitate the subject of opening a public school. But it 
was only agitation at first, and then an attempt which was a fail- 
ure. At the annual assembly of tlie citizens, otherwise called the 
toAvn meeting, for 1781, held March 22, it was •' put to vote to see 
if the town would raise money to higher schooling, and it passed 
to the contrary.'- * The same thing happened at the town meeting 
held March 6, 1782. The inhabitants felt as though the burdens of 
taxation were heavy, and they could not afford to raise money in 
addition to what they had to pay to bui]d roads, to furnish soldiers, 
to raise town supplies, and pay the State and Continental taxes. 
Some said — and there are always a few of thatsort in every enter- 
prise — "■ O, Avhy can't we have private schools? We have always 
got along well enough so far with those.'" 

But next year, when they could see the war drawing to a 
close and peace beginning to dawn, they voted almost unanimously 
to raise six pounds sterling '• to higher schooling this year." At 
a subsequent meeting held May o, 1783, " voted to lay out this 
money that is raised this present year, in hiring a woman school;" 
also '• voted to begin said school the twentyeth of May enstant." 
And finally, " voted to keep said school at Stevens Men-ill's for this 
present j-ear." 

In those times the selectmen were charged ^vith the duty of 
hiring a schoolmarm and providing her a suitable boarding place. 
They immediately commenced their labor. First they looked over 
the liamlet, but found no one qualified whom they could engage. 
They then journeyed in the neighboring lands — to Wentworth— 
where they met with no better success, and thence on horseback to 
the region called Oxford, now Orford. There they hired Miss 
Abigail Arling, and she promised to be on hand at the appointed 
time. May 20. Keturning home, they fitted up the school room in 
the most substantial manner. It was in one end of Mr. Merrill's 
barn, — a rough school house but good enough for the hot summer. 

* Town Clerk's Records, Vol. i. 


A rude table aud chair for the schoohnairn was set on one side by 
an open place where a window should be. There were no desks 
for tlie scholars, and the seats w^ere planks placed ujion rough logs. 

First day of school in the country — who does not recollect it? 
The scholars are up bright and early iu the mormng, faces washed, 
htur combed, dinners and books packed up ready to be otF the 
moment they can get permission, so as to get the first choice of 
seats. It is so now; it was so then; and from the Height o'land, 
Pine hill. Runaway pond, and the Summit, the children that morn- 
ing trudged merrily along the bridle paths aud tote road. They 
did not think so much of traveling a short distance then, as now, 
aud they could walk by the paths easier than the settlers in the 
land of Trecothick, now Ellsworth, could come up by Glen ponds 
and over Mount Carr, as they often did, visiting. What if a moose 
was killed that very summer near the mouth of the Mikaseota, and 
Joshua Merrill shot a wolf by Cold brook, that came howling along 
down from Blue ridge, and they themselves tracked bears in the 
muddy path : they did not mind it much, for they were used to 
such things. They were born in the woods; the hills and the 
valleys, the wild flowers of summer, the mottled fawns and young 
rabbits that lived among the evergreens, and the swift water- of 
the glens were their live-long-day companions, and they went 
happily home to their bean-porridge supper and a bed as simple as 
their garments. The young Copps, the Clarks, and the Limds, 
the Whitchers, Trues, Patches, Clements, and Merrills, made a 
numerous school, and they liked the schoolmarm, for she was 
gentle and good and did not anoint their backs much with the oil 
of birch, to sharpen their wits. 

They did not have many \asitors nor any superintending or 
prudential committee ; but one day when the golden rays of the 
sun streamed through the great cracks of the barn, reflecting the 
myriad of particles ever floating like things of life in the air, and 
the swallows were twittering in their nests on the ribs of the roof, 
Stevens Mei'rill, who had been swingling flax in a shed near by, 
followed by his dog, looked in. An involuntary murmur of sur- 
prise and gladness Avent round the school-room, for the children 
could see through the netted tow and whiteish down that covered 
his hat, clothes, and face, Uke a thin veil, a happy smile of ap- 


proval, wliicli they did not always get from Mm. Their studies 
were as simple as their school-room. It did not require " much 
hook larning'" to teach school in those days. The Psalter and 
Primer were the only books used, and " readin'^, ritin', and "rith- 
metic," the latter learned by rote, were the only accomplishments 

Abigail Arling received three pounds for teaching that school 
twelve weeks. William Butler was paid two pounds fourteen 
shillings for boarding the schoolmarm, and Stevens Merrill got six 
shillings rent for his school-room.* 

Once begun our settlers did not falter in the work. The next 
year they formed themselves into a union district, voted to build 
them a school-house in which to teach the young idea how to shoot, 
chose a building committee who called upon each man for labor 
and lumber as fast as wanted, and in less than six months the 
house was finished and furnished. 

It was a framed building with rough benches and desks for the 
scholars. A huge stone fire-place occupied one end, and the walls 
were sealed with white pine boards, instead of being plastered. 
It was located by the tote road, a little above the present railroad 
crossing, north of the depot, and was right in the heart of the 
wilderness. t 

Nathaniel Knight taught the first school in it ; and to him three 
families sent twenty-five scholars. He was an excellent teacher, a 
splendid penman, and the most authentic tradition has it that he 
applied the birch in the most magnificent manner, as was common 
in old times. Yet he had a pleasant winning way mth him, and 
the scholars liked his school and its surroundinos. 

He commenced in the autumn; but befoi-e the term closed 
the snow came, and then the boys took their sleds of broad run- 
nered, frame work pattern, along with them, often giving their 

* Aug. 28, 1783. Paid to Abigail Arling, three pouuds for twelve weeks' 

schooling 300 

Paid to William Butler, two pouuds fourteen shillings tune for boarding 

school mistress 2 14 

.JOSHUA MERRILL, ) ^„,„„.,„„„ 
WILLIAM BUTLER, i selectmen. 

David Craig once got three shillings room rent for a school.— Selectmen's 
Records, Vol. i. 

t The windows were of mica or isinglass, which was obtained, as tradition has 
it, on Beech hill. Good isinglass or mica is noM" worth $12,000 per ton. 


little sisters a ride, aud at noon-time, just as the boys go to Beech 
hill now, they Avent out on the hill-sides.— the sharp pitch down to 
the moat* or to the long declivity down to the bank of Black 
brook, for a coasting frolic. 

When the crust was hard and sparkled in the winter's sun. 
then boys and girls together enjoyed the exciting sport. Up hill 
nimbly climbing; down hill flying swift as an arrow, scranching 
and goring the frozen snow. The wind whistles by their ears, 
their hair streams tar back as they come down on their light- 
winged sleds, and the fine grail craunched and scored by the run- 
ners, glances up in their faces and furzes their clothes and hair. 
They leap the hollows and mount the swelling ridges, gliding on 
swifter, faster, surer, than the snug trimmed yacht before a spank- 
ing breeze flies through the troughs and over the crests at sea. 

Nathaniel Knight also taught the following summer, and the 
children loved besides the school the pleasant woods full of sweet 
sounds, and dancing brooks, and cold crystalline springs, all 


It is very Interesting for young persons to know — elderly peo- 
ple need not read this — that in these ancient times, just the same 
as now. the scholars often went up at the nooning to the foot of 
Mt. Helen, sometimes called Keyes ledge. Here they traveled 
beside Cold brook, which made music with the mossy rocks in its 
bed; and they crossed by the tree bridge, from under which a 
pewee flew, chirping as it left its nest. They saw flies and spiders 
and long legged creepers dancing and jumping on the surface as 
thouffh their feet were cold in tlie chill water, and down near the 
In-iglit sandy bottom were half a dozen shy, speckled trout, their 
bright eyes glancing as they lay almost motionless in the current. 
Tall birches grew on the banks, aud poplars and maples, and here 
and there great pines shot out, like tall sentinels, a hundred feet 
above them. 

The scholars came up here to get the young checkerberry, its 
red plums and flowers. It was a cool nice place for a summer 
noon, full of birds*. A wood thrush sang sweetest by the edge of 

* The moat is a cold spring situated down tlip bank, and a little south and east 
from tlie town house. James Dow named it th(^ moat, aud for many years got liis 
water to drink there. Owiug to recent freshets which have changed the river's 
course the spring is now iu tlie river bed. 


the clearing; clinging to the breezy top of a white birch, a robin 
chanted its sweetest madrigal : a little yellow poll, perched on a 
rustling beech tree, whistled, and chattered, and chanked, as 
though it Avould burst its throat; a blue jay in a cluster of sapling 
pines screamed sharp and shrill, then itself flew away up the steep 
hill-side, as au old owl, disturbed in the shadows, hallooed and 
whooped in aftright. 

They got great handsfull of checkerberry, tied up with a little 
root of the gold-thread, a pocket full of red berries and bunch 
plums that grew under the pines. They also found partridge 
berries on evergreen vines, and unripe blueberries. Then they 
made a nice bouquet for the teacher, gathering the beautiful pur- 
ple cranesbill from where the fire had newly burned in the woods, 
bright purple t^vin flowers and star of Bethlehem from a cool 
grass}^ recess in the forest, and from Joseph Merrill's new field 
red clover, yellow buttercups, white daisies, and deep blue violets. 
Then they wove in blue-eyed grass, mosses that grew together 
family like, star grass and brown sorrel. 

One day. as the story goes, — and it is an important bit of his- 
tory that should not be forgotten, — the larger boys and girls 
started for the summit of Mt. Helen. They wound slowly along 
among the stately three-leaved ferns that overhung the flowers 
like elm trees, through blueberry bushes and beds of yellow 
brakes, a music box where numbei-less crickets and grasshoppers 
keep u]) a perpetual lulling murmur, following sort of a path trod 
by hedgehogs, wild deer, and bears, till they came to the open 
ledge upon the summit. Around tliem were scattered red oaks, a 
few hemlocks, great pines, and among the rocks, blueberries, this- 
tles, and bind weed were growing. 

The woods shut out the view of the mountains to the uorth- 
ward; but east and Avest the sky seems resting on the loftj' crests, 
and adown the valley where Black brook, the Mikaseota, flashes in 
the sunlight, and Baker river winds like a silver line through the 
forest, far in the south is seen the I'ound, bald top of old Mt. Car- 
digan. Tlie clouds floated away in the mellow sky above it ; and it 
is here through the rifts the sun first shines, and the first bit of blue 
sky appears after a storm. 

Farmer Joshua had a pasture then, cleared at the foot of the 


Steep precipice on the right, and from it came the music of the 
well remembered oow-bell, mingling- with the lowing- of cattle, 
and the bleating of sheep. Then there was the cawing of crows 
in a clump of hemlocks, where they had their nests, the whimper- 
ing of hawks overhead, and their sharp shrill scream at intervals; 
by them swarms of flies wheeling- in circular squadrons buzzed a 
lullaby ; the tree-toads and hylodes chimed in with trilling chirnp ; 
the locusts made melody in the branches, and the flying gi-asshop- 
pers with trapsing, quivering wings, gave out a pleasant note like 
mowers sharpening their scythes in haying time. A robin by 
tiny Cold brook, sent up to them " his long, sweet, many-toned 
carol.'* From the warm swamp near by, came the chubbiug, 
grumining, croaking, crooling, trilling melody of the frogs, and 
through the woods, just audible from the farthest distance, the 
voice of Asquamchumauke's waters. And then all the time odors 
sweet smelling, and perfumes magnificent, from the blooming- 
swamps, the flowering trees, the brakes and the ferns, the millions 
of wild flowers and grasses in the pastures and fields came floating 
up on the gentle breeze to regale and delight the senses. Amidst 
all these charms of nature, perhaps unnoticed but felt, the scholars 
made a sort of pic-nic, eating their dinner Under the shade of the 
wide-spreading beech trees, and quenching their thirst from a pail 
of pure sparkling water brought up from Cold brook. 

One of the numerous other -visits which has been made to the 
ledge since that olden time, deserves especial mention in this his- 
tory, for it then got a new name which seems most likely to clino- 
to it. The scholars begged an afternoon as a holiday, and then all 
marching two and two, wound their waj' to the summit. Here 
th(\v gathered flowers in the woods, sang songs, told stories, and 
played plays. On the large flat rock the older boys and girls 
formed for one of the simple country dances, and to the merrv 
music of their voices kept time with nimble feet. When they 
were tired of this, as some tell the story, they feasted on the abund- 
ant collation which they had brought. Then a rude stone altar 
was erected; the fragments gathered up and placed upon it, a rus- 
tic throne built, and on it was seated the most beautiful girl of the 
party, named Helen, crowned as queen, with a garland of ever- 
green and -\vikl roses. All the youths and maidens joined hands 



in a circle around her ; the master of the ceremonies lighted the 
tire, the flames leaped up devouring the otFering, a libation of pure 
Cold brook water was poured and then all dancing around in the 
circle sang: — 

'■ The hill shall be called Mt. Helen, 
The hill shall be called Mt. Helen, 
The hill shall be called Mt. Helen, 
Henceforth and forever more," 

until the offering was consumed, the tire went out and the blue 
smoke from the wliite down-like embers and ashes no longer 
curled away in the summer breeze 

Long years passed before a new school-house was built to 
take the place of this first one, and then another was erected only 
because number one was too small. James Dow moved Warren's 
oldest school-house away to Pine hill, where it did good sei-vice for 
a whole generation. 

From this first union district, the germ sometimes called the 
" Centre District,-^ sometimes the " Village school on the Gfreen,^^ 
have sprung &vst Hunaway pond district,* otherwise known as the 
Weeks district, in the school house of which for many years the 
town meetings were held ; and then in their order came the now- 
defunct Charleston district, -f Beech hill district, Pine hill district, 
the Summit, Height o' land, East-parte, The Forks, sometimes 
called Clough district in '' Patchbreuckland,'" Streamy valley or 
Sawtelle distyHct, and Moosehillock district on the south-western 
mountain spur. J 

* "Uper schoU house," fli-st mentioned in 1792, in Town Clerk's Records Vol. i. 

t Nathaniel Merrill taught .school in Charleston in 1795, at old Mr. Lund's. 
Nathaniel Merrill was the son of Rev. Nathaniel Merrill, and settled on Beech 
hill.— Selectmen's Records, Vol. i. 

X School Dist7-icts.—" Voted, March '2(), 1793, to have two districts. Voted at 
same meeting to begin the public school the tirst of Aug. next." 

June 2, 1794.—" Voted that all to tlie east and south of Mr. Batchelder's 'Squire 
Copp's and Col. Clement's shall belong to the loer school house, & the rest to the 
uper one, as far as it did extend last year." 

" Voted to begin the public school the first of September, at the upper school 
house, & tlie first of August at the Loer school-house in said town." 

School districts were as follows in I80l>:—" J'oted, Tlie first district begin at 
Wentwortli line, tlience north as far as outlet of Runawaj' pond, thence on Pine 
hill road as far as Mr. Batchelder's, and on East-parte road far enough to include 
Mr. Knight, Mr. Ramsey, and Timothy Cliflord. The second district to take all on 
Beech liill. The third to take all ui)ou the main road to Fiermont line, including 
Mr. Batchelder. The fourth district to take all Charleston. The filth district to 
take I'rom Mr. Batchelder's on Pine hill to Coventry line. The sixth district to 
take all the inhabitants on Kast-parte road east of Mr. Ramsey's. The inhabitants 
of this town are divided and defined accordingly.'' 

1812.— Paid James Williams for building a school house in the East-parte , 



III iIh'sc primitive school-houses, Nathaniel Knight, before 
uuiihm]. Xatlianiel MeiTill. David Badger, a wandering- pedag-ogue, 
Josiali Uiinihani,* (sad was his fate for he was hung at Haverhill 
Jail,) and master Abbott, not yet quite forgotten, all knights of 
qnill pons and the birch and ferule, to make the young idea shoot 
(jnick, taught with marked success. Then came Lemuel and 
Joseph, Benjamin and Moses, Nathauiel 2d and Robert E.Merrill, 
Jesse and Jonathan Little, and David Smith, keen witted, shrewd, 
and long headed, and each did honor to the profession.! 

From these scliools, — and may they continue forever — have 
gone out some who were brilliant, and some who were dull, of 
course; yet none but who could read, write, and cipher, and all 
sliai'p and keen enough to compete with the best and smartest of 
this whole shrewd, swapijing, peddling, jockeying, guessing 
vankee race. 

* .losiah Bumham took his pay for teaching in produce. 
Tlii* untbrtuuate gentleman was not bom in Warren. 

He taught in 179.5. 

Thomas Whipple. 
Robert Burns. 
Luke Aiken. 
George W. Copp. 
Master Newell . 
Anson Merrill. 
Levi B. Foot. 
.Jacob Patch. 
Win. 15. Patcli. 
.Stephen Batclielder. 
John L. Merrill. 

t Sclioohnasters. 

Ezekiel Dow. 
Stevens M. Dow. 
Job E. aierrill. 
Isaac Merrill. 
Russell F. Clifford. 
William Merrill. 
Moses Davis. 
.Toseph Fellows. 
Reuben B. Freucli. 
David C. French. 

.John French. 
Calvin Sweat. 
Michael 1'. Merrill. 
Russell K. Clement. 
James M. Williams. 
Horatio Heath. 
Ira Merrill. 
Ira M. Weeks. 
Albe C. Weeks. 
William Jlerrill. 




It was the most beautiful Sabbath of June, 1783. Quiet 
pervaded the haunts of men. The clatter of the mills had ceased, 
no rude cart rumbled along the stony path, the voice of the 
ploughman was not heard, and the woodman's axe was hushed 
and still. A mellow softness pervaded the air, the woods, and the 
waters, and a thin haze of the most delicious and tender blue, 
rested upon the mountains. All nature seemed in worship. The 
leaves murmured melody in the light breeze, the brooks sent up 
the gentlest music from the mosses of their stony beds, the clouds 
like silent nuns in white veils worshipped in the sunbeams, and 
the birds sang psalms. 

And yet there was no religious meeting in our mountain 
hamlet. The settlers with their families sat down in their homes 
or reclined in the shade of the trees about their dwellings, reading 
their bibles or engaged in silent meditation. 

On Pine hill, Mr. John Whitcher dreamed the morning hours 
away, and then suggested to his wife that they pay a visit to Chase 
Whitcher, their relative, who lived by the wild roistering Oliverian 
at the Summit. The idea was agreeable to Mrs. W., and in a few 
minutes they were ready for the pleasant walk along the bridle- 
path through the woods. 

A LITTLE r,IT?l. r.OST. o2.» 

Their little girl, Sarah, not yet four years old, lispiiifrly asked 
lit-r iiiDther if she could go, but Avas told she must stop at homo 
with the other children, and they would bring her something nice 
on thoir return. 

And then they walked rapidly away across the ridge, and 
down toward babbling Berry brook, admiring not a bit the dewy 
wild flowers in the path, and hardly noticing their delicious per- 
fumes as they crushed them beneath their feet. In an hour they 
were at Chase Whitcher's by the Oliverian. 

The day was spent most agreeably. The new fields of full 
i)l(>wn clover and honeysuckle, and on the borders of which the 
bright purple cranesbill was just blooming, were alive with the 
music of the vireo, blackbirds, and the wood-thrush, and the mild 
tairy-like hum of the myriads of wild bees sipping their uectar 
from the delicious flowers. Among the grasses they found the 
sweetest wild strawberries, and they passed the hours talking of 
the wonders of the deep forests where they would go hunting iu 
autumn, speculating how high was the mighty precipice of Owl's 
head, and what an abundance of blueberries were growing on its 

It was only when the sun was sinking behind Webster-slide 
mountain in the west, that they said good bj', asked Chase Whitcher 
and wife to come and see them and then hurried for liome. 

It had hazed up in the afternoon, and as they climbed the gen- 
tle slope of Pine hill night overtook them, and the few stars that 
shone out struggled through the rifts of the raiuy clouds and the 
moon was scarce seen at all. But the bright light that streamed 
from their cabin window^ was cheerful and made their home doubly 

'^ AVhat made you leave Sarali up at the Summit?" said one of 
the older children almost as soon as they entered. 

^' We did not leave her,"* instantly replied the father, aston-. 

" She is certainly not at home. Where cau she be? " each one 
exclaimed, and then the dread reality burst upon them in a mo- 
ment. Lost! lost! Sarah is lost in the woods ! 

Mr. Nathaniel Richardson tells that the ruddy face of Mr. 
Whitcher turned pale, but he said, '' Trust in the Lord;" that Mrs, 


Whitchers coiinteuance lighted up with afright, and the other 
children gathered closer to them, not knowing what to do. Reu- 
ben Whitcher who was present, seized the dinner-horn and started 
instantly for the woods. Mrs. Whitcher followed him, then came 
back and with the older children went to Mr. Stephen Richardson's 
to spread the alarm. The father seemed as if smitten down, then 
agitated paced to and fro in front of the house, then hurried away 
in the woods alone. The nearest neighbors came, shouting and 
hallooing in the forest ; then built great fires that gleamed through 
the trees. Thus passed the night. 

When her pai*ents were gone httle Sarah followed after them, 
then missed the path and wandered away in the woods. 

As she — "Mrs. Dick French" — told the story in after years, 
it was a new world for her; the giant forest extended itself inter- 
minably, and the huge old trees looked as if they grew up to the 
skies. Among their roots was the young wood sorrel, its beautiful 
white tlowers with lirown spots about the stamens ; then she gath- 
ered handsfnl of wild peony Tvlth deep red tlowers', with leaves 
that curled over the purple and yellow fiowei'S of the adder 
tongues, like Corinthian capitals. In the branches above Avere 
strange birds that she had never seen before. The Canada jay, 
called sometimes carion bird, because it robs the hunter's ti'aps 
almost before his back is turned, with slate colored back and white 
breast, sent its strange wild note deep in the forest. Large owls 
in hooded velvety sweep, flew by her. Squirrels chattered and 
scolded one another, and their companions the partridges clucked 
before her, or flew awa}' with heavy, rumbling flight. Once an 
eagle screamed above her; and she started back attrighted as a 
wild cat sprang past. 

All day long she wandered on; her little hands full of flowei'S, 
her mind filled with a strange indefiniteness, hoping continually to 
find her father and mother. But she did not meet them, and no 
cart tracks, no cow paths, no spots or blazes on the trees were to 
be seen. 

Despaii-ing, at last exhausted, her feet scratched and bleeding 
by the underbrush, she sank down on the thick moss by the great 
rock that stands by the old beaver meadow, at the foot of the Cas- 
cades on Berrv brook. "It is night now. Darkness has come 



down ou the woods. She is alone. The wind is heard ou the 
nionntaiu. The torrent pours down the rocks. No hut receives 
Ikh- from the rain, alone in tlu' tliick woods of the valley. Rise 
•moon from beliind thy clouds. Stars of the night arise. Give light 
to her, sitting- alone by the rock of the mossy stream." 

Something is coming. She hears a strange sound; the under- 
brush is crackling-, a black form appears in the darkness. Fright- 
ened the tears roll down her cheeks. It is a gi-eat shaggy black 
bear. He came close to her, smelt of her face and hands, and 
licked the blood from her feet. She was no more afraid of liim 
than of lier own great dog at home, and dared to stroke his long, 
brown nose, and put her arm about his neck. Then he lay down 
beside her, she placed her head upon his shoulder and alone in the 
thick woods, with the dark clouds of the sky for a covering, she 
was quickly asleep.* 

Two days afterwards the foot prints of the child and the bear 
were found in the sand and mud of the brook. 

None slept in John Whitcher's house during the long hours of 
that terrible night. The father was out in the woods, the cliildreu 
sat down with woe pictured on their faces, while the mother 
would not suffer a door or a window to be closed, but listened to 
every sound, and started at every leaf. 

In the morning, the exciting- rumor of '• John Whitcher's 
child lost and supposed to have peiished in the woods,*" seemed to 
speed itself, on the wings of the wind, sounding- along the borders 
of Beech hill, startling- the wild solitudes of the East-parte region, 
arousing- the rugged yeomanr}' of the Heiglit-o'-land, the brave 
boys of Runaway pond and Patchbreucklaud, charging them all 
to pack up their dinners and hurry away to the search in the 

In an incredible short time all the dwellers in the hamlet were 
moving towards Pine hill. Col. Obadiah Clement left his oxen 
yoked, mounted his horse and galloped swift away up the bridle 
path, passing Jonathan Clement and 'Squire Copp, with their sons, 
who, leaA-ing- their hoeing, were hastening in the same direction 
with tin dinner horns in their hands. Joshua Merrill, Joseph Mer- 
rill, Stevens Merrill, and "Squire Jonathan, seized their axes and 

* Sarah ^^^lit(;hel-'s. otherwise JErs. Dick French's, own statement. 


ran. Joseph Patch, with his long barrelled gnu, and his ueigh- 
bors, caino up at a rapid pace, and a little later in the day, Luuds, 
Clarks, and Tarletons came over the nioiintain. 

All day long they hunted. Col. Clement and Ms friends went 
down through the maples to Black brook, and Kelly pond, then 
climbed up by Oak falls, and beat the woods as far as Wachipauka 
pond under Webster slide. 'Squire Copp blew a loud blast with 
his horn on the shore. " No response came from the far glimmer- 
ing passionate sound but its own empty echo," hurled back from 
the mountain face. 

Stevens Merrill and others, with Joseph Patch crossed Berry 
brook and went through the darkest forest to the very foot of 
Moosehillock mountain. 

Chase AVhitcher, Stepiien Richardson, and a host of others 
hunted along the bridle path, and then explored the Oliverian up 
what is at present High street, as far as the dark passes on either 
side of Black mountain. The women and children hunted for long 
hours, but in vain. 

The night came, and one after another the parties retu^rned 
empty from the search. Despair seemed to have taken po^essiou 
of the grief-stricken parents, and a feeling of sadness pen^aded the 
whole settlement. 

On Tuesday morning the entire town renewed the search. As 
the day w^ore away, people began to arrive from the neighboring 
lands. They came ti-om Wentworth and Romney, from Orford, 
Piermont, Haverhill, and Newbury. At night, one of the last 
men to come in, reported that he had found the track of a child 
and of a bear on Berry brook. " She is torn in pieces !" '' She is 
eaten up!'' every one said, and Mrs. Whitcher was nearly frantic. 

The next day they searched on the Summit, going over the 
ground thoroughly ; but night brought no success. " She is hope- 
lessly lost." " She will never be found." Yet at the earnest 
request of the agonized mother they jiromised to continue the 
search one day more. 

Thursday the woods were alive with the people hunting. The 
long hours slowly wore away, when about noon a Mr. Heath who 
had walked the whole distance from Plymouth, came to the house. 
Mrs. Stephen Richardson who was cooking a bushel of beans for 


the people's supper, and Mrs. Obatliah Clement, were alone at 
John Whitcher's. Mrs. AYhitcher was still searching in the woods. 

'' Give me some dinner," said Mr. Heath, " then show me the 
bvidle-path to the north, and I will find the child." AYhile he was 
I'atiny, he stated how he heard last evening that little Sarah 
AVhitcher was lost, and that three times in the night, he dreamed 
that he found her lying under a great pine top, a few rods to the 
south-east of the spot where the path crossed Berry brook, 
guarded by a bear.* 

The women smiled, but partly believed it might be so, for 
people had diflereut notions then from what they entertain now. 
Some believed in witches, ghosts, and goblins, and all had a 
certain kind of faith in dreams ; at any rate the women wished his 
dream might prove true ; tliey felt so sad at the loss of the child; 
they wished so much it might be found. 

Just then Joseph Patch came into the clearing, heard INIr. 
Heath's story, and said he would accompany him. 

An hour Avent by ; the sun was going down ou the last after- 
noon of the search, which would be given up that night, and every 
one felt that little Sarah was lost forever. 

Suddenly a gun was heard : every soul iu the clearings and 
the woods Ustened. Another report, then anothei-. It is the 
agreed signal of success. " Thank God ! the child is found." " Is 
it dead or alive?" 

They found her just where Mr. Heath said they would: but 
no bear was to be seen. AVheu she woke up, she said, " I want to 
SfO to mother. Oan-y me to mother." When asked if she had 
seen any one, she said '' a great black dog stopped with her every 

Joseph Patch took up the half famished cliild in his arms and 
carried her home. On the bridle-path they met many people, and 
they ran before, hurrahing, waving their hats and green boughs to 
tell the good news, how all on account of a wonderful dream the 
child was found alive. Some said the bear guided her to the path. 

* Samuel ]\reiTill, who vesided at theEast-parte, and lived to be 84 years old, 
oltcn told about the lost child, lie liclioved in Mr. Heath's dream as much as in 
his own exi.stenee. Tliere were hundreds of people in Warren of the last genera- 
tion wlio believed implieitly in Mr. Heath's dream. 

t Nathaniel Richardson's statement. 


Mrs. Wliitcher was so overjoyed that she faiuted. Mr. Whitcher 
could not say a word, but smoked his pipe as hard as he could, to 
keep his feelings down, and the rest of the children were so glad 
that they cried and laughed by turns. 

Tradition has it that the Rev. Mr. Powers was present and 
offered a prayer of thanksgiving, and then all the people sang Old 
Hundred. However that may be, we know that they ate all the 
baked beans * that Mrs. Eichardson had prepared, and everytliing 
else they could find cooked on Pine hill. Then they blew their tin 
horns as though the 4th of July had come ; shouted and hurrahed 
again and again, while those who had guns fired vollej^ after volley 
till all the powder in the settlement was burned, so much did they 
rejoice that the lost child was found. 

* Nathaniel Richarclson, son of Stephen Richardson, also gave many incidents 
about the search, and told of the beans. 



At the organization of ovir little democracy, Warren, Col. 
Obacliali Clement, being in sympathy with the government, imme- 
diately took the lead in town affairs, and held it for several years. 
But when the war was over, others began to aspire for the honors 
of place and position, and naturally envied the Colonel. The most 
prominent of the aspirants was 'Squire Jonathan Merrill. For live 
years he had sought office, but in vain, for Obadiah Clement knew 
well how to kill him oft' — only having to tell what a tory he was 
in war times, to sink him out of sight in every election. 

But this would not last always, and "Squire Jonathan, who as 
we said before, was as cunning as a fox, went shrewdly to work 
to beat the Colonel and gain the honors of office. '' I'll fix him," 
said he. " I'll make him hate the town, and the town will then 
hate liim." This is the way he did it: 

Colonel Clement had a bill against the hamlet for sei"vices. It 
was for a journey to Exeter to get the tOAvn incorporated; for 
drafting and notifying ''Grand Jurors," and for recording iu the 
town books. In all it amounted to nine pounds eleven shillings 
and three pence. 

"Squire Jonathan heard of it and slyly whispered round telUng 
every body in a confidential way that it was too large ; that the 


town was too poor to pay it. In other words, he appealed to the 
avarice of the people most eftectually. 

Col. C. was first in the mighty triumvirate of town governors 
for thiit political year, 1785-'6, and it was the third year of Ms 
selectmenship.* Likewise he Avas and had been for the last six 
years, the great scribe or mighty town clerk, and having been 
ambassador or Representative to the Great and General Court, and 
also a liigh commander in the military forces, he naturally felt 
himself to be the most important man in the hamlet. 

• 'Squii-e Jonathan labored with Col. Clement's associates in 
power, and they being near relatives to the 'Squire, the first the 
father, and the second the brother-in-law. he succeeded mosi effec- 
tually in making them think the same as he did about the bill. 

So when the day of settlement of town matters came, they 
refused to allow the Colonel's account. The latter labored with 
his associates sometime, but with no effect, for he had two stub- 
born men to deal with; and then when he could not succeed, 
parted from them in a huff"; in other words he was exceedingly 
wroth. •" Pay, you must," said he. "• Pay, we won't," said they; 
and so the matter waxed worse and worse. 

This was what the cunning 'Squire wanted. He was pleased, 
and openly expressed his delight. Col. C. heard of his adversary's 
remarks, and his anger was fiercer than ever. 

One more effort was made, one moi'e meeting was held, but 
Avith no better success than before. 

The Colonel had all the town books, both the selectmen's and 
the clerk's, and he was determined to hold them until he should 
get his pay. If he could not have his rights, he would make a 
storm in the political sky. He would hold on to all the records and 
prevent an assembly of the people. If he could not rule, no one 
else should. 

'Squire Jonathan made a few more aggravating remarks, and 
the storm burst. AVlien asked to call a meeting on the Ides of 
March, Col. C. raged, stamped his foot, and then Avith a look of 
fierce determination, cried, '' Pause !" and there Avas a pause. The 
wheels of government in our mountain hamlet stopped. The 
I)roud ship of State no longer sailed on. She Avas foundered on 

* Stevens Merrill and Joseph J'litfh were the other Selectmen. 


the rocks of that discord to which 'Squire Merrill had so cumiingly 
directed her. The waves of destruction beat over her, threatening 
to rend her in pieces. 

And now occui'red an interregnum* similar to those which hap- 
pened in the early days of the mighty lioman Empire. There 
were no powerful rulers, no great scribe, no superintendent of 
the public roads, no gatherer of the revenue, and no taxes. Every 
thing seemed to have returned as it was at the time when the 
revolutionary war was raging. 

"What should be done? It was a great question, powerfully 
discussed by those interested, but months went b}- and no action 
was taken. 

At last the matter was brought to the attention of the Great 
and General Court, and the Legislature took the question in hand. 

The great mother of towns could not see any of her children 
commit suicide. So after a long time spent in solemn considera- 
tion, a resolution was framed and passed, going through both 
houses of the legislatui'e the same day, June 24:th. 1786, whereby 
Absalom Peters, the barefooted military captain who marched at 
the head of six companies, to the Coos intervals, was empowered 
to call an assembly in Warren, for the choice of town officers, and 
preside therein during the whole election, f 

But the wise legislature forgot one thing, taxes, and had to 
pass another resolve, Sept. 24, in order that the State might get 
her share of the revenue. 

A. Peters called the meeting, and presided therein in the most 
proper manner. f But the spii-it of the citizens ran high. They 
marshaled around their leaders, and fought for victory. Each side 
marched up to the ballot box in solid column. On counting the 
votes, it was found that Obadiah Clement and his friends had won 
every time; electing Joshua Copp. Stephen Pichardson, and Wil- 
liam Butler, great rulers or selectmen, Joshua Copp, scribe or 
clerk, and Jonathan Clement, conservator of the peace or consta- 
ble. 'Squire Jonathan and his friends felt cheap enough, and 

* It happened in 1786. 

t Town Clerk's Records, Vol. i. 31. 

t The meeting was held July 19, 1786. 


silently went home.* But Jonathan Men-ill did not give up even 
in the hour of his seeming defeat. He went to work twice as hard 
as eA-er. So persistently did he talk upon the subject of Col. Clem- 
ent's bill, that even the new selectmen, the Colonel's friends, did 
not dare to pay it, for fear they should be indicted for mis-spend- 
ing the people's money, and the Colonel was more enraged than 

This was just what the 'Squire wanted, and although he was 
defeated again at the annual election in 1787, still he managed to 
have a meeting called July 27th of that year, and succeeded in 
getting himself, with Joshua Merrill and Lieut. Ephraim True, 
appointed a committee to settle with ]Mi'. Clement, and procure 
from him all the town records. That every thing might seem fair, 
it was '' Voted, that a settlement might be made, if it could be 
done consistently with justice.'' The meeting was then adjourned 
to August 6, to hear the report of the committee. 

'Squire Jonathan went to work as slick as "ile." But he did 
not get a settlement; he did not want to. 

At the adjom-ned meeting he reported as follows : First, not 
to allow anything for going down to get the town incorporated ; 
and — 

Second, to pay eighteen pence for legally drafting and notify- 
ing jurors. 

But they knew Col. C. would not accept this, and so they 
chose Stevens Merrill and Lieut. Ephraim True a coimuittee to 
settle with him, or to follow suit or suits at law, if he commence 
one or more against the town, to final end and execution. " Now 
we will teach him how it is done," said 'Squire Jonathan. Col. C. 
heard of the remark, and how mad he was. 

By chance they met. One to have seen them would have said 
'' surely they do love each other." Determination seated itself on 
their countenances. Rage flashed from their eyes. " You miser- 
able tory," growled Col. C. " You old thief and extortioner," 
hissed 'Squu-e M. through his teeth. Then Col. C. shook his cane 
threateningly. 'Squire M. doubled his fists belligerently. And 
now grim visaged war smiled ai^provingly, and Saultenbattery, 

* Old men used to say that it was the toughest flght they ever saw at town 


one of the ancient goddesses, grinned witli malignant satisfaction. 

Blows Avould have fallen swift, and the battle waxed hot had 
not Stevens Merrill, the man of iron lirmness, and Joshua Copp, 
who had been watching the impending conflict, interfered and said, 
" Gentlemen, thee stop, thee can't tight in this town." 

This rencountre only made matters Avorse. But the Colonel 
did not plunge heels over head into lawsuits. He had more 
shrewdness than that ; he quietly went to work and induced some 
one else to get up some jileasant little suits against the town ; to 
wit, he got all the public highways indicted, and thus raised the 
d — 1 generally.* 

With so much avidity did the Colonel prosecute his schemes, 
so many suits did he institute, that the town was perfectly sick, 
and was glad to cry, hold, enough. At a regular town meeting, it 
was •• Voted to dismiss the committee appointed to fight Col. C, 
and that Captain AVilliam Butler and Joshua Copp, friends of the 
Colonel, take the certificate that is in the selectmen's hands, and 
lay it out discretionary if wanted in carrying on the lawsuits com- 
menced against said town for the repairing of roads, and to pay 
Col. Clement's demands on said town." Thus they were going to 
come a flank movement on road suits, by making friends with the 
prime mover of them.f 

This ended the war, and Col. Obadiah, in one sense, gained 
the victory. But it accomplished all that 'Squire Jonathan desired. 
It made Mr. Clement exceedingly unpopular, and he never could 
get elected to any office of consequence again; the onlj- one he ever 
held afterwards being that of moderator at some special meeting. 

* Nov. 27, 1790.—" Voted to pass over the 4th article in tlie warning, Mhich was 
to see what the town will do on account ol" being jiresented.'' — Town Clerks' Ke- 
cords. Vol. i. i'S. 

t Allowed constable Copp fltteeu pounds sixteen .shillings, new emission, it 
being for three pounds nineteen sliillings silver money, which .said Copp paid Oba- 
diah Clement that was due to him from the towu. 

WILLIAM butler; \ Selectmen. 
— .Selectmen's Records, A'ol. i. 
"May 10, 1791.— Voted that Capt. William Butler and Joshua Copp should take 
the certiticate that is in the selectmen's hands, and lay it out discretionary if want- 
ing in carrying on the lawsuits commenced against said town, and to pay Obadiah 
Clement's demand on said town." — Town Clerk's Records, Vol. i. 4.5. 

Names of the legal voters who had come into to^^^l from 1782 to 1788, inclusive : 
Nathaniel Clongh. Samuel Knight. .John .Stone. 

Caleb Homan. Levi I^ufkin. Elislia .Swett. 

Enoch Ilonian. Steplien Lund. Aaron Welch. 

Nathaniel Kiiight. Stephen Richardson. 


Yet tliis contest "was pvolitic of mighty results. From it 
sprang two great parties, the Clement party, and the Merrill party, 
that fought each other with powei'fu! tenacity for more than two 
generations. When the sons of Joseph Patch became voters, a 
third party sprung up that achieved some success, and was called 
the Patch party. It frequently held the balance of power. 

'Squire Jonathan was now able to succeed, and by striving, in 
the course of years, held all the imj)ortant offices in the gift of the 
people, although Col. Clement at the head of the Clement party 
often said that he frequently had the pleasure of giA'ing the 'Squire 
and his friends a sound drubbing at the polls. 



jtLND now when the wilderness blossoms like a rose and good 
settling lands begin to be of some consequence, the proprietors of 
the grants made in Provincial times under Gov. Benning Went- 
worth. having many of them survived the Revolution, commenced 
to bestir themselves and look sharp after their interests. Mighty 
boundary feuds began to arise, for neighboring j)eoples set on by 
their patrons the proprietors, did not always observe the old max- 
im of •• cursed be he who remove th his neighbors' land-marks," 
and the citizens of Warren found that tlieir friends across the fron- 
tiers began to show an inclination to trespass on their fertile pos- 

In fact they had some excuse for so doing, for in lajdng out 
the townships, in 1760 and in 1761, " the sui-veyor of the Iviug's 
woods," employed by the Governor, had not been very careful to 
make the Unes of townships correspond. Consequently settlers 
upon them did not know exactly where the lines were, nor in what 
town they lived, and so did not scruple to conduct themselves in 
rather a lawless manner. 

In a short time, great complaints began to arise, and the town 
of Warren thus finding herself encroached upon, by means of the 
selectmen, mighty rulers, and the lordly proprietors, who of course 
took a lively interest in the matter, immediately entered into 
negotiations with the neigliborlng powers round about. It is a 
tradition often related that by dint of numerous diplomatic mis- 



sioiis a meeting- of iiiiuiy of the town proprietors and numerous 
boards of selectmen was lield at Plymouth, about 1778. 

It was a jolly old meeting. They treated themselves on grog, 
and swallowed all the various kinds of liquors mixed in those days, 
and then, when pretty well fired up, proceeded to business. A 
chairman and clerk were chosen, and then charters, surveys, and 



plans of townships, were produced. Each delegation had a 
speaker of its own and wanted to be heard first, and cried out, our 
lines run so and so, our charter says so and so, our lots ai'e located 
so and^so, and so on, ad infinitum. The chairman called to order, 
but: it was no use. Confusion, a goddess, got confused. Babel 
seemed to have arrived, and when all was clatter-and-bang, the 
meeting broke up in the most dignified and wonderful manner. 


But it is a historical fact, on record, that the delegates went 
home and considered. Some of the -wiser ones drew np a petition 
to the legislature, to have a committee appointed to settle the 
boundaries, and circulated it. It was extensively signed, and when 
presented to the Great and General Court, that body immediately 
acted, and appointed a committee for that purpose.* 

Said committee were nearly four years performing their duties, 
and they had numerous meetings at which many boards of select- 
men and proprietors' committees appeared. They also employed 
several sui-veyors to run the lines and set up the bounds, and only 
made their report to the Legislature, Sept. 24, 1784, which report 
was approved and the bounds thus established. f 

Strange work the Com-t's committee as they were called, made 
with our young and vigorous townsliip. They actually pushed it 
up a considerable distance to the north and east. Think of it. A 
whole township moved. Piermont and AVent worth on the west 
and south, got large slices of territory. But Warren got more — 
clipping of large portions of old Coventry, Peeling, and Treco- 
thick. But TVarren gained no settlers. Wentworth and Piermont 
did. Warren lost on the west, Isaiah Batchelder and Thomas 
Clark, and on the south, Simeon Smith, Peter Stevens, Joseph 
Kimball, and Lemuel Keezer. Besides it lost of unsettled land 
four lots into Coventry, eight into AVentworth, and fifteen into 
Piermont. The four taken by Coventry were on the nolth-west 
corner ; but AVarren got far more land from Coventiy on the north- 
east boundary than it lost. 

And now that the lines Avere changed, the losses and gains 
must be settled. This was not easily done, and a war about pay- 
ments arose hot and earnest. Blows did not come for they feared 

* The Committee was appointed bv an act of the Legislature passed Oct. 23, 
1780, and it consisted of El)enezer Tl"iompson, Joseph Badger, Ebenezer Smith, 
Levi Dearborn, and Jolin Sniitli, Esquires, and they, or the major part of tliem, 
were autliorized to survcj' Komuey, Wentwortli, Warren, riymouth, Campion, 
Piermont, and Orford. 


" irnrrcH.— Beginning at a bass tree, being the north-west corner bound of 
Romnev, thence north, il degrees east five and three-fourths miles to a maple 
tree; tliencc north about 71 degrees west, eight miles to a beecii tree, Ijeing the 
south-east corner of Haverhill; thence 5.^ degrees west, five and one-half miles to 
a beech tree, tlie north-east corner of Orford, thence on a straight line to the bound 
began at." 

These are supposed to be the present boundaries of Warren, 



the great central power, the mother of towns; but litigation, such 
as the old Greeks loved so well, was rife. Warren did not resort 
to it, but entei-ed into negotiations with the far lands of Went- 
worth, Piermont, and Orford. 

Meeting after meeting was held bj^ the proprietors to settle np 
the difficulties. Committees without number tried their hand at 
the matter. The tirst chosen June 17, 1785, consisted of Enoch 
Page, from down country, and our citizen, Captain William But- 
ler ; but they did not accomplish anything. Then Major Joseph 
Page, another down country gentleman, was associated with Capt. 
Butler. They went into a minute investigation of the whole mat- 
ter, and made a full i-eport, much to the satisfaction of the proprie- 
tors. Oct. 20, 1786, Capt. WilHam Hackett was chosen a committee 
to settle with Gen. Moulton. agent for the Proprietors of Piermont, 
on account of land given to Messrs. Batchelder and Clark. But 
he did not succeed, and afterward Major Joseph Page, by order of 
Warren Proj^rietors, laid out two hundred acres on Green moun- 
tain, now called Sentinel mountain, to satisfy the claims of our 
western power.* 

Then other settlements had to be made. The town of Went- 
worth got more than four hundred acres in AYarren, on account of 
what AYarren's Proprietors had given of Wentworth lands to set- 
tlers. A goodly lot in Warren had to be given to Orford, on 
account of the pretty quadrilateral on the south-east corner, which 
the proprietors had also given away to a settler, but which belonged 
to Orford town. Perhaps some may maliciously think Warren 
was more to blame about boundary feuds than her neighbors, but 
we must positiA'ely assure them that it was not so. 

In the matter with Coventry, now Benton, the conclusion was 
arrived at that the changes or swojis were about equal, although 
there was some difficulty in relation to the Bowles lot, so called 
ft'om Charles Bowles, who served in the war and afterwards was 
a celebrated revivalist, that Coventry's Proprietoi'S had given away , 
but which actually belonged to Warren. 

JSTow that the boundaries are set uy> with stability, the proprie- 

(v»i •*" June -28, 17S7.— Voted, That Capt. William Hackett give Gen. Moulton, 
agent for Piermont, immediate notice to malie liis iiitch of 200 acres of land in 
Warren, in consideration of that quantity taken into Piermont, settled by Thos. 
Clark and Isaiali Batchelder, by the 10th "of October next, and that if he doth not 


tors came to the conclusion that a new survey of the -w^hole teni- 
tory was actually needed. The Leavitt survey, running as far 
north as the eleven mile tree, the Cummings survey, the Rindge 
survey, Avonld not answer at all. and they immediately contracted 
A\'ith Josiah Burnham. school-master, to make an accui'ate plan of 
the town. He entered upon the work, but it was a long time before 
he finished it. He re-run the lots, established the range lines and 
surveyed the divisions, making everything harmonize as much as 
possible with the old surveys, the proprietors' drawing of lots and 
the former sales by deed. 

But he did not lay down the I'oads and brooks, nor trace the 
course of the river; neither did he indicate the locality of the 
ponds, and the mountains. He had no taste for such things. 

But he was accurate as far as he went, and his plan has been 
the foundation of every map of the hamlet made since. May 4, 
1795, the proprietors accepted his Avork and paid him a vast sum 
for doing it. 

Thus the lines were settled and peace prevailed once more 
along the borders. It continued for more than fifty years, and was 
only disturbed by old Peeling and Trecothick, who grew jealous 
of our vigorous democracy, and raised another boundary feud, as 
will be related in a subsequent book of this history. 

make said pitch by said time, thenCapt. Haekett to lay 200 acres of equal goodness 
as ueni' the line of Piermont as conveniently may be, and make return thereof at 
the adjournment ot this meeting."— Proprietors' Records. 

* See Proprietors' Records for full notes about lands taken into other towns. 



Does any one wish to know what ai*e the requisites to 
make a perfect community, a complete town organization, then 
let him in addition to what we have already stated, read this chap- 
ter of our no less great than modest history, and a tolerable idea 
can be obtained. 

And first of all, after houses, mills, and cleared lands, good 
roads were greatly needed and our valiant citizens went braveh^ to 
work to build them. The old proprietors' highway, partly follow- 
ing the route of the Indian trail, did not suit them, and so they 
surveyed a new road oyer Eed Oak hill, through " Patchbreuck- 
land," across the Asquamchumauke or Baker river, through the 
centre district, over the Mikaseota or Black brook, along the basin 
of Runaway pond, and winding away over the Height-o'-land by 
Tarleton lake to Piermont. It was four rods wide, and afterwards 
was a great thoroughfare, the first ox teams from Coos passing 
over it soon after it was built, to the sea-board, a circumstance 
most pleasingly narrated by Rev. Grant Powers, the distinguished 
historian of the '' Cowass country." 

And then a road, now discontinued, was laid out on the west 
side of the Asquamchumauke, following the old Indian trail and 
the proprietors' first highway from Wentworth line to the mouth 


of Black brook, for the accommodation of Nathaniel Clough, who 
had just settled on that side of the river. 

From Black brook bridge over Beech hill to Wentworth Line 
another was cut for the benefit of 'Squire Abel Merrill,* a new 
settler on tlie lull among the beeches and maples. 

Leading from the last at a point where now stands Beech hill 
school-house, a fourth road ran away to the west high up on the 
side of Sriitiiu'l mountain, to accommodate Mr. Amos Little, f 
who was at this time clearing a beautiful and fertile spot in the 
woods, a delightful breezy sunshiny nest on the hill, from which 
he could overlook the valley and out upon the panorama of great 
eastern mountains. 

The selectmen also hurried to lay out a road over Pine liill 
from Chase Whitcher's by John AVliitcher's down to the " Society 
school-house, "J as it was sometimes called, in the Centre district. 
For several years Aaron "Welch,** who lived near where the ceme- 


Benjamin, born Oct. 19, 1784. Joseph, born Feb. 16, 1798. 

•John, born Mrli. 4, 178fi. William, born Apr. 10, 1800. 

Daniel, born Mch. 24, 1788. Ira, born July 17, 1803. 

Sallv, born Mch. 9, 1790. Tamar, born Mch. 9, 1805. 

PoUy, born Mch. 28, 1792. Hannah, born Apr. 3, 1807. 

Betsey, born June 9, 1794. John L. born May 8, 1810. 

Samuel L. born Apr. 10, 1796. 
Names of those voters who moved into town in 1789 : — 

John Abbott. Ebeuezer Hidden. Abel Merrill. 

John Badger. (1) John Hidden. Richard Pillsbury. 

Samuel Fellows. Amos Little. 

Jonathan Fellows. Silas Lund. 

(1) .John Badger was a curious genius. He once ran away to avoid his credi- 
tors, and they went after him and brought him back. Then he acquired considera- 
ble property, ran away again, but liis debtors did not got go after him to bring him 
back. He scolded and said he thought it was a poor rule that would not work both ' 


Sally, born May 31, 1787, at Plaistow. William, born June 19, 1802. 

Tamar, born Aug. 25, 1789, at Warren. Jonathan, born June 8, 1804. 

James, born Sept. 6, 1791. John, born Mch. 7, 1S06. 

Benjamin, born Sept. 22, 1793. Judith and Dolly, twins, boru Feb. 

Betty, born Aug. 31, 1795. 25, 1810. 

Amos, born Dec. 15, 1797. Kimball, born Jan. 8, 1815. 

Jesse, born July 4, 1800. 

\ I. " Voted to allow Stevens Men-ill £0-4-6, Capt. Wm. Butler 5 shillings, and 
Ensign Copp 3 shillings, for their services as a committee, laying out a road from 
Coventi-y line to the Society school-hoiise, on Coos road." 

"Voted to lay out the road through Mr. Aaron Welch's land, near the bank of 
the river, direct as is convenient from his house to the Society school-house." 


Moses, born Dec. 10, 1788, at Warren. Oliver, born April 15, 179i). 

Aaron, Ijoni Sept. 8, 1791. Thomas, born Aug. 18, 1801. 

Ju<lith, born Mav 19, 1793. Lois, bom Mav 19, 1804. 

Betsey, born Apr. 18, 1795. Sally, bom Feb. 20, 1807. 
Samuel, born May 15, 1797. 


tery is now, by vote in public assembly, was allowed to have two 
gates upon it. 

Then one was laid out for Christian William Wliiteman round 
the east side of Tarleton lake ; another from Height-o'-land road 
across Runaway pond valley to Pine hill road, and yet another 
from said Pine hill road across Berry brook, through Streamy 
valley, far into the East-parte regions. Samuel Knight, who had 
seiwed in the wars, built his cabin beside it.* It was a frail dwell- 
ing, and through the crevices of its roof blew the summer winds, 
and the stars shone in at night. Knight was a man of pleasant 
adventures, and a narrator of wild and startling traditions. He 
found where the Indians lived in the valley and turned up their 
stone arrow-heads with his plow. He had been a brave man in 
his country's battles, and exhibited nerve in his encounters in the 

These were the principal highways, but as the years went by, 
roads were laid out up into Moosehillock district, to accommodate 
James and Moses Williams, Caleb Homan.f and Samuel Merrill, 
who had settled in that section ; up Patch hill, towards Glen ponds, 
for the beneiit of Mr. Reuben Batchelder and Capt. Stephen Flan- 
ders, who had settled in the East-parte country ; round the foot of 
Moosehillock to the Summit; up High street, through the North 
woods; from Pine hill road, up towards Webster-slide Mt. by 
Wachipauka pond, to convene Mr. Paul Meader, a new settler in 
this part of the hamlet ; down Height-o"-land road by Eastman 


He was born in Plaisto\Y, Feb. 21, 1757. Sarah Bradley, his wife, was born in Plais- 

tow, Aug. 23, 1700. Married Aug. 20, 1778. 

Susannah, born Mav 2.'5, 1779. Abigail, born Apr. Ifi, 1790. 

Abigail, born Ajjr. 7, 17S2. Pollv, born Oct. 21, 1792. 

Married Mary Merrill, Aug. 2G, 1784. Betty, born Apr. 30, 1795. 

Nathaniel, born Apr. 29, 1785. Ruth", born -July 17, 1798. 

Stevens, born May 9, 1786. Hannah B., born .July 16, 1801. 
Sarah, born Feb. 3, 1788. 

New voters in 1790 : — 

Amos Clark. James Little. Thomas Pillsbury. 

Jolm Gardner. Daniel Pike. C. William Whitemau. 


Married, .Jan. 18 1789. Joseph, born Oct. 11, 1797. 

Sallv, born Aug. 10, 1789. Marv, born Julv 14, 1800. 

Joseph, born Apr. 23, 1792. Died .June Ruth, born Feb. 26, 1803. 

29, 1794. Mary, born June 6, 1806. 
Susanna, bora Apr. 29, 1795. 

New voters in 1791 : — 

David Badger. Enoch Page. 

Joseph Knight. Dr. Joseph Peters. 


ponds to Pievmout, and up Patch brook on to Picked hill, where a 
sou of Joseph Patcli had l)iiiU a cabin and commenced a clearing. 

These roads were gems in themselves, being so much better 
than none at all ; but however good, they were often presented to 
the grand jury by indignant men, who jolting over them thought 
they ought to be indicted and thereby made better. 

Then an attempt was made to lay out a road to old Trecothick, 
now Ellsworth, across the depression between Carr and Kineo 
mountains, and by Glen ponds ; but it was never accomplished, 
much to the detriment of fishermen who wish to visit those beau- 
tiful sheets of water.* 

On these roads have happened many a strange adventure 
worthy of record in this I'emarkable histor^^ Ox teams, as we 
have said before, drawing ponderous freights to and from the 
Cowass country; great canvass covered teams, drawn by eight 
horses, coming all the way down from the traditionary land of 
Canada; riders npon horseback, like Jolmy Balch, who carried the 
mail and blew a hoi-n in tlie woods, and long trains of pungs and 
two horse sleds with jingling *• coifee bells " and shouting drivers, 
coming from the high north country in winter, used them. 

Once Mr. Samuel Flanders slew an enormous wild cat that 
was devouring a goose on the Height-o'-land road by Tarleton 
lake. The hungiy beast was too fond of iioiiltry to have a prudent 
regard for its own safety, and Mr. F. not having a thought of 
danger, with a large goad stick attacked the cat and With a single 
blow killed it. 

Kaces have been run upon them, when they were not in so 
good a condition as they now are. When the East-parte routef 

* Paid Abel Merrill and .Joseph Patch §1,00 each for meeting selectmen of 
Ellsworth and examining a route for a road.— See Selectmen's first book. 

Xeic Voters.— In 17&2, Uriah Cross, .Josiah Magoon. Inl703, Abram Alexander, 
Thomas Boyntou, John Chase, David S. Craig, Daniel Welch. In 1~94, Stephen 
Badger. In 1795, Stephen Flanders, Barnabas Niles. 

t.Tohn Low lived on the East-parte road. He was a very neat farmer, and 
wonid follow the man wiio reai)ed for him and cut up the stray stalks of grain 
which the reaper would leave about the stumps and rock heap's, with his jack- 

He had the vei-y economical habit of laying in bed all day, winter times, and at 
dark would yoke up his team and go into the forest after a load of wood. He 
would often work all night at his t)usmess. My uncle Anson one bitter cold night 
saw liim starting out with liis cattle at 9 P. M., for a load of wood. 

John Low, one winter, found two bushels of swallows in a hollow birch tree. 
They were torpid wlieu found, but were lively enough after they had laid before 
the lire a short time. Jolin Libbey and Nathaniel Merrill saw these swallows.(?) 
'Squire George Libbey affirmed that he saw these swallow3.( ?) 


was first cleared, Mrs. Samuel Knight, IVIi's. Caleb Homan, accom- 
panied by several other women, and a young man by the name of 
Webster, who was from LandafF, went to Mr. Stephen Flanders' to 
pay the family a visit. On their return home when they arrived near 
the bridg-e over what is sometimes called Moosehillock falls near 
East-parte school-house, Mistresses Knight and Honian challenged 
young- Webster, who was mounted on a very fleet horse, to a race. 
At first he did not like to consent, but they strongly urged him 
and he acquiesced. Whipping- up, they went over the rough road 
for the distance of a mile and a half, at almost lightning- speed, 
when Webster who had the fastest horse proved the winner, much 
to the chagrin of the racing- ladies. Mr. W., when an old man, 
remarked in telling- the story that he had rode over that piece of 
road many times since, but never a quarter so fast as then. 

Soldiers have marched over them. Many a time on little train- 
ing day, flood-wood, slam-bang and string-bean companies, and 
others that were entitled to more respect, have right-wheeled and 
left-wheeled upon them. Col. Moses H. Clement,* son of Col. 
Obadiah, marched a whole regiment along the Height-o'-land, or 
old Coos road, the first one that ever mustered in Warren. 

Battles have been waged upon them. The fiercest one was 
fought one night when it was " dark as pitch," by Samuel Knight 
and a terrible foe. It had lightened, thundered, rained, and 
hailed, " like great guns," and Mr. K. who was dripping- wet in 
his camp by Silver rill, resolved to go home to his boarding place 
at Joseph Merrill's inn. At the foot of the lull, near Berry brook 
bridge, something- stopped him. There was a low deep growl and 
directly before him, seemingly, two balls of fire flashed in the 
blackness. He shouted, and the bear, for such was his enemy, 
leaped upon him grasping him with its fore paws and scratched 
him fearfully. It was a critical moment, but Knight's right arm 
was free, and quick as thought he pulled a knife from his pocket, 
opened it with his teeth, and thrust it with desperate force into the 


Russell K., boru Apr. li), ISOi). Sarah, boru Dec. 29, 1822. 

Hazen, born Dec. 14, ISU. AVilliam, boru Jau. 2IJ, 1825. 
Elizabeth, born Feb. -28, 18U. Died Daniel Q., boru May 31, 182S. 

Jan. 27, 1815. Eliza, boru Jau. 20, isas. 

James, boru Nov. 10, 1815. John, born Aug. 12, 1830. 

Joseph, bom Apr. 3, 1818. Tamar J., bom Dec. 4, 1832. 
Amos Little, born Dec. 12, 18'20. 


side of the bear. Luckily it pierced its heart, and instantly relax- 
ing its holtl, it IVU upon the ground and expired. Knight was 
severely torn by the claws of the bear, and sitting down by Ms 
dead enemy concluded to remain there during the night. But the 
clouds shortly broke away, the stars came out, the moon shone 
brightly, and changing his mind, he hurried home. 

Returning the next morning with his friends, he found a bear 
of the largest class which gave evident tokens that she was 
engaged rearing her young. This probably induced her to attack 
Mr. K., something she would not have done under any other cir- 

Men have died on them. Eichard Pillsbury, who lived in 
Wentworth, had been to Haverhill on foot one cold stormy winter 
da J'. Climbing Red-oak hill at night, on his return, he became 
chilled through, lay down in the road and died. In the morning 
his dog came to the door of his home and howled, then seemed to 
look towards the road on the hill. They followed and found him 
there. Friends and neighbors carried him home, then buried him 
in the grave yard by the mossy stream, — •• down on the east side." 
To-day he is almost forgotten, and soon would be lost to the 
memory of men forever, did we not here record his death. 

In order to make these roads really serviceable, bridges were 
wanted and must be had over the little meadow streams, across 
the mountain torrents, and spanning the river. Most of these were 
easily built ; but the great work of that time was the building of 
the large bridge over the Asquamchumauke, near the mouth of 
Black brook, the Mikaseota. The citizens of Warren had sent a 
letter to the proprietors, praying for aid, and the godfathers of the 
hamlet generously voted nineteen pounds ten shillings and seven 
pence to build the bridge. On the tlnrd of March, 1784, at a pub- 
lic meeting, Jonathan Merrill, Joshua Copp, and Joseph Patch, 
were appointed a committee to perform the Avork, and authorized 
to proceed as far as the money would go. They commenced the 
work at once. They labored themselves, they paid Stevens Mer- 
rill three pounds for plank to put on it, and Obadiah Clement two 
pounds seventeen shillings and one penny, for labor, besides vast 
sums i^aid to other individuals. 

That the work might go on braveh', they purchased at the 



price of sixteen shillings, a little old rum '' to wet their whistles 
and streugtheu their muscles." Moses True, it is said, once carried 
the great stone jug- to Stevens Merrill's, who kept the pure " west 
endea,'' to get it filled. Mr. M. was away, and he went into the 
kitchen. It was a sight that met his eyes not often seen in these 
degenerate days. Mrs. Merrill was mounted on the loom, which 
stood in one corner of the room, smoking and weaving with all 
her might, the fumes of her tobacco pipe mingHng with the whiz 
of the shuttle, the jarring of the lathe and the clattering of the 
ti-eadles, while buzz, buzz, went the rapid wheel, and creak, creak, 
the windle from which run the yarn that her grandchild, daughter 
of 'Squire Jonathan, was quilling. 

But Moses True was a dauntless youth. " Come down, " said 
he, showing the jug. At tu-st she was not inclined to accommo- 
date liim ; but he persisted, and she put up a gallou of the good 
creature that was so much needed in those days.* 

How they worked when they got the exhilerating drams of 
good grog. How the axes flew in the great pine timbers, how the 
mallets resounded as the mortices were made, how the augurs bit 
as they gnawed through the wood, turned by strong arms, and 
how the shovels went as they dug great trenches in the bottom of 
the stream in which to place the mud sills on wliich the bridge 
would stand. 

They drank better rum in those days than now. There was 
not so much strychnine in it. Besides, there were no temperance 
societies then ; the ministers drank themselves. 

But when the bridge was raised they drank lots of the good 
creature. The great rulers of the town, the selectmen, paid Joshua 

* 1784.— Paid Stevens Merrill for plank to build the bridge over Baker river, 

tliree pounds. 
Paid Stevens Merrill for rum to raise the bridge, eiglit shillings. 
" Obadiah Clements, two pounds seventeen shillings one penny, in full pay 
for vi'ork done on the bridge over Baker river. 
Ordered Constable Butler to pay Ephraim True eight shillings, it being for 
rum that he found to build the bridge, which sum is to be taken out of liis note that 
he gave to the town. 

OBADIAH CLEMEXT, ) ggiectmen 
SAMUEL KNIGHT, ( selectmen. 

Paid to Joshua Merrill sixteen shillings, it being for two gallons of rum that he 
louud lor the town to be spent in raising the river bridge, which is to be allowed to 
him on the former account. 

March 27, 178C.— Paid Obadiah Clement two pounds two shillings and eleven 
pence, it being due to hini for work done on the bridare over Baker river. 

JOSEPH PATCH, ; c^,„ , 


Merrill sixteen shillings for two gallons that he iurnishcd, and 
eight shillings to Ephraim True for one gallon found by him ; all 
for the purpose of raising. Three gallons ! Wonderful to relate, 
with this powerful assistance, they got the bridge up without diffi- 
culty, and then the work stopped ; the funds were all spent. 

July C, at a town meeting, the report of the distinguished com- 
mittee was accepted, and then, that the enterprise might go on, 
voted to finish the bridge at the town's expense. That the work 
might be done at reasonable rates, "Voted to let the finishing of 
the bridge to the lowest bidder," and Col. Clement having bid five 
pounds, it was struck off to him. There was some planking and 
considerable grading to be done, but before the summer was over 
the great work was complete. 

But the building the bridge over Patch brook was a greater 
work than the one over the Asquamchumauke. A mighty freshet 
happened about these times; somebody said "a cloud broke on 
Moosehillock," the river overflowed its banks and spread out across 
all the intei-vals. Of course a portion of the river water ran do wu 
tlie valley of Patch brook, and the shrewd citizens thought a 
bridge would certainly be needed from high bank to high bank, 
and they proceeded to erect one immediately. It reached from the 
Forks school-house twenty rods away to the spot where the little 
bridge now spans the rill at the foot of the northern bank. Twenty 
pounds sterling the town appropriated March 18, 1790, to com- 
mence the work, and chose Joseph Patch, Stephen Eichardson, 
Stevens Merrill, and Joshua Copp, a committee to lay it out. 

It only made a beginning. Next year in meeting assembled 
the citizens enacted, after the manner of other great legislative 
bodies, that they would appropriate '' as much of that money as 
was raised to lay out on the highways as will finish the bridge near 
Joseph Patch's house." 

Then the work glowed and the mighty stiaicture advanced ; 
the money was all laid out. There came a halt, and the bridge 
was not finished. The year 1792 came. Not a drop of river water 
had flowed down Patch brook valley for three years. The waiTant 
for the assembling of the democracv that vear contained the fol- 
lowing article: — "To see what method the town T\ill take to 
finish the bridge." 


At the meeting when the article came up to be acted upon, 
some shrewd citizen who was given to doubting suggested that he 
doubted very much if the bridge was needed at all ; that he guessed 
the ground where the water did not run '' was safer to travel upou 
than planks, and a mighty sight cheaper." He was heard by the 
assembled wisdom in silence, and the projectors of the long bridge 
looked grave and wise as owls. Some one suggested that the mat- 
ter better be postponed to a future day, and thus it was disposed of. 

The half completed bridge stood all summer a silent monu- 
ment of the great freshet and the sageness of men. Next year it 
is recorded that "• Long Patch bridge " is yet unsettled for, but no 
action was taken in the matter. By some mishap, while the citi- 
zens were deliberating what to do with it, in the hot summer a 
spark of fire fell upon the work ; the tiames leaped up devouiing 
sills, posts, stringers, and planks, and the noble work was gone 

Two short bridges were afterwards erected in its place wliich 
are continued to this day.* 

And now, roads and bridges complete, travel through our ham- 
let much increased as was hinted before, and the bu.siness of tav- 
erning grew to be the best in towu. Lemuel Keezer,t who lived 
on the southern border, immediately opened a hotel and kept it for 
a long time. Stevens Meriill had accommodations for man and 
beast; liis sou, Joseph Merrill, opened a hostelrie on the plain 

*The river flowed under Patch brook bridge again in 1858; also iu ISGO and in 

t Lemuel Keezer's tavern sign had a dove painted on one side and a serpent 
on the otlier. AVlien aslied why he liad sucli a sign, lie replied that it represented 
himself; that sometimes he was a serpent, but more often he was a heavenly dove. 

Keezer was a most remarkable man, and very keen withal, as our readers will 
learn in a subsequent part of this history. He ouce had two of liis relatives stop 
with him over night. They had a gay time, and wlien they harnessed up in the 
morning they thanked him'for liis hosjiitality, but he neverminded them and said 
we wilTsettle the bills at tlie bar, gentlemeu. They were surprised and said they 
thought they were cousins. Keezer's eyes twinkled, and he said just pay the 
money, gentlemen, and then we will be cousins. 

Keezer set scythes in his orchard to cut the boys who stole his fruit. One 
Amos Clark, a cunning youth, found " the man trap " on a moon-shiny night, and 
drove it to the heel into'the ground, Keezer piously forgave the trespasser, and 
spent two hours digging the scythe out. 

Keezer hired Peter Martin and Alljert Hogan to fall trees for him. He took 
Martin aside, gave him a bottle of rum, and told him Hogan was going to sweat 
him. Then he took Hogan aside, gave him a bottle of rum and told him the same 
stoiy. Martin mistrusted, but Hogan put in terribly all tlie forenoon. In the 
afternoon Martin explained Keezer's little game, and then the men drank their 
rum together, and had a sweet time, much to the landlord's delight. 


where the common i? now ; Jonathan Clement kept an inn at Run- 
away pond : Obadiah Clement continued in the same business just 
above him, and Col. Tarleton kept an excellent house high up on 
the western marche by the shore of Tarleton lake. 

These taverns flourished Avondcrfully, and the proprietors all 
arrived at considerable wealth. The landlords had comely daugh- 
ters for waiting- maids ; strong armed sons to attend the great ox 
teams that stopi^ed to bait or rest over night, or to gi'oom the sad- 
dle horses of gentlemen who patronized them. 

Then the bar-room, furnished with the best of diinks, milk- 
toddy and egg-nog, and numerous other Idnds, with its great wood 
fire and loggerhead at wliite heat, was an excellent loafing place 
for tlie nearest neighbors. They assembled here to learn the news 
from travellers, hear the gossixi of the country round and discuss 
•politics. The Merrill party and the Clement party had each hotels 
of their own, and there they held their caucuses. 

These inns of those old days were good ones, the table was 
always well set, the cream the sweetest and richest, the butter and 
eggs always fresh, vegetables and everything else nice, clean Avhite 
beds, snowy linen sheets, well swept floors, all was bright and 
neat as strong hands could make it.* 

, With good roads, bridges, and hotels, population began to 
increase, and a hundred clearings shone bright in the woods. 
Beech hill, Height-o'-land, the Summit and East-parte, were ahve 
"with settlers. 

Better mills were other most important requisites, wanted to 
accommodate the inhabitants. And Moses H. Clement, son of 
Col. Obadiah, bought out Stevens Merrill and Wilham Butler, and 
moved the gidst-mill where the sons of Joshua Copp long had 
tended, up to the mouth of Black brook where Stevens Merrill 
first built a dam. He also had a saw -mill, and afterwards put in a 
wool carding machine. That he might have a good supply of 
water, by leave of the town he cut a canal from Baker river to 
Black brook, and built a stone dam across the foi'mer stream. His 
canal went under the highway just at the railroad crossing above 
the depot. 

* Some of the teamsters, especially the Scotch from Vt., would carry their own 
victuals ami driuk, aud eat by the bar-room lire, much to the disgust of Che land- 


The new comers wanted town aflairs well conducted ; they 
considered it a great requisite. So they bought new town books, 
Ephraim True purchasing some for the selectmen, j)aying there- 
for tive pounds and two sliillings ; and Obadiah Clement bought a 
town clei'k's book in which he made the tirst records. He gave for 
it two poitnds ten shillings " lawful money." 

Then that justice might be done and no mistake, they pur- 
chased a " law book " as a legal requisite. Horrid thing, many a 
defeated client has said after having become satisfied that a little 
law, as well as a little learning, is a dangerous thing. 

Out of the law book and from ancient tradition, common law, 
they learned that for troublesome estrays and trespassing cattle, a 
Pound was an excellent institution, a very requisite thing; and 
straightway they went to work to obtain one. For the first few 
years they used the best barn yards of the settlers, voting to have 
it first in one and then in another, until at last they were tired of 
that style and were determined to build a real genuine Pound. And 
first a plan was necessary, and an admirable one was soon fur- 
nished. It is included in the following '' enactment" of the 
democracy. *^ Voted to build a Pound on the 'Parade^ near 
Joseph Merrill's inn, of good suitable pine logs locked together, 
thirty feet square within walls, eight feet high, the upper logs 
hcAved triangular, underpined with stone six inches high, with a . 
good, suitable door, hanging with iron hinges with a staple, hasp, 
and padlock, and furnished to the exception of the selectmen." 
Said Pound was bid off" to Joseph E. Marston, at $19,50. But 
strange to say, it was never built. The whole thing flashed in the 
lian, and in despite of good intentions, law-book and all, the citi- 
zens have gone on as they begun, using somebody's barn-yard for 
a Pound every year since. 

That every body might be honest, and that there might be no 
cheating in weights and measures, which by the way is the mean- 
est kind of cheating, our little State among the hills, deeming it. 
necessary to make a perfect State, voted to purchase a standard of 
weights and measures, a very necessary requisite. We are accu- 
rately informed that one dollar and twenty cents was paid for the 
measures, and thirty dollars for the weights. 

Also that the roads might be well cleaned out, paid one dollar 


and fifty cents for a set of drills. With these a little blasting was 
frequently done. 

Then for the sake of some heraldry, pomp, and ceremony, a 
stamp, seal, or device, was procured as an absolute and grand 
requisite for the good of the State. But it was as plain as 
Democratic institutions generally are, a simple 
With this, eveiT thing belonging to the town 


should be accurately marked as well as known ; besides, the sealer 
of weights and measures should stamp it upon every thing he 
inspected, that people might know they were exactly correct, and 
that he had done his duty. 

In the town were some gamesome fellows, as we have often 
hinted in these interesting pages, and in our most historic times 
they were greatly afraid that all the game would be destroyed. 
So that they might enjoy the pleasure of hunting in after years the 
same as foi-merly, they deemed it an absolute requisite to choose 
in 1791 Joseph Patch and Jonathan Clement " deer keepers."* 

Tradition has it that for long years they did their duty faith- 
fully, keeping the game all to themselves, and outside hunters far 
away from the goodly land of AVarren. 

With the abundance of inhabitants came some who were 
wretchedly poor. But the first pauper in Warren was not a very 
aged person. Every body said this was not a requisite to make a 
perfect community ; that it was very unnecessary ; but they could 
not help themselves. In fact a certain young, marriageable dam- 
sel, worshiping the goddess of love, without the aid of a shower 
of gold, or the machinations of a river god, all of a sudden saw 
fit to eniich the world with a bantling, whom no fast young man 
was willing to father. It created an immense sight of talk all over 
town. The knowing young folks tittered when they heard of it; 
the old ones looked grave and indignant. '^ "WHio is the father of 
it? Who will support it? What will become of it? " Such were 
the remarks heard every day. 

The child was born ; the mother called on the town for help. 

* Deer Keepers. — By an act of 14th of George II., it is enacted that no deer shall 
be killed from the last day of December to the first day of August, annually, under 
the penaltv of ten pounds ; and in case of, inability to" pay, to work forty days for 
the first offence, and fifty days lor subsequent ofl'ences. Ajiy venison or skin newly 
killed was evidence of guilt. 

In 1758, towns were authorized or required to choose two suitable persons 


"What in the world shall we do?" said the selectmen. " Call a 
town meeting-,-' said 'Squire Jonathan Merrill ; and one was called 
to consider this momentous subject. 

The following articles were in the warrant for the meeting, 
posted up Nov. 10, 1788, at Jonathan Clement's inn : — 

" Secondly, to see what measures shall be taken for the main- 
tainance of the child which is cast on the town's charge." 

" Thirdly, to see what measures best to be taken to prevent 
others from being chargeable to said town." 

At the meeting the subject was gravely discussed by the 
elderly gentlemen present, much to the delight of Moses True and 
a few other young bucks, and then they voted to choose a commit- 
tee to see whose right it is to support the child which is become a 
town charge. This was followed by the follo-^ving extraordinary 
vote, viz:—" Voted that William Butler, Stevens Merrill, and Mas- 
ter Nathaniel Knight, (he was a school master,) for a committee to 
take care of the child above mentioned till they peruse the law and 
make a return to the town — at the adjournment of this meeting — 
whose right it is to support the child." 

The committee did "peruse the law," and at the adjourned 
meeting reported that after enquiry found the grand-parents' right 
to support the child. 

Then there was a pause. 'Squire Joshua Copp took the floor 
and after a few grave and pertinent remarks moved that the whole 
matter be postponed fourteen days, and it was postponed. AMiether 
or not it was ever taken up again, or what became of " the stray 
child pauper," neither record nor tradition has told us. 

But certain it is that nearly two years after, the following 
action was taken that may throw some light on the matter. March 
18, 1790.—" Voted to allow Constable Whitcher's account for con- 
veying Dorathy Clifford through town, wliich is £0-13-10, five 
shillings of which sum to Mr. Jonathan Clement for expense at his 
house, and four shillings and two pence to Ensign Moses Copp for 
his trouble with said Dorathy Clifford." 

Oh ! the charming fair young Dorathy ! How gi'and you must 

annually, whose peculiar office it shall be to prevent as much as may he the breach 
of this act. They shaU have full power of searcli, and may break locks or doors of 
any place where'they may suspect game is concealed.— History ot Chester, 448. 


have felt, being conveyed •' thro' town'' by Constable Wliitchei"! 
"Who was there to see ! Did yon, peerless one, ride on a gaily 
caparisoned charger, or were you conveyed in a lordly, diguifled 
ox cart, the only vehicle in the hamlet? This latter fact has also 
passed from the memory of man. 

But the citizens of Warren were not to be served in this man- 
ner again. They acted upon the third article in the warrant. At 
the first meeting they voted to warn out — which was the fashion 
in those daj-s — such persons as appear liable to become a town 
charge, and that there might be no danger voted to warn out Eeu- 
ben AYhitcherif he appears likely to become an inhabitant. At the 
adjourned meeting, " Voted to warn out the widow INIills' two chil- 
dren, now resident at Ensign Moses Copp's." 

This had an admirable efiect for several years : but in process 
of time another pauper came, and poor Betty Whittier had to be 
maintained by the }ouug democracy. Mr. Enoch Davis, who lived 
by Davis brook, in the East-parte regions, influenced by the nice 
little sum of one hundred and thirty silver dollars, generously 
took her home, and gave his bond to the selectmen to maintain her 
as long as she lived.* 

Warren as an independent State has ever treated her poor in 
the kindest manner, getting the best of homes for them by hu- 
manely setting them up at auction, and striking them off to any 
one that would keep them cheapest, and at the least expense to the 

That they might not seem barbarous and heathen, they felt 
that one of the solemn requisites of civilized life was a proper 
observance of the forms of paying respect to the dead. That their 
funerals might be conducted with the highest degree of propi'iety, 
they determined in a public assembly of the citizens to purchase a 
pall or grave cloth. 

The rulers of the town were entrusted with the duty of ob- 
taining it. They procured a very nice one for sixteen dollars and 
fifty cents, silver money .f Obadiah Clement, ever public spirited, 

* 1805. — " Voted to choose .1 committee of two persons to settle with Mrs. Stone 
[widow Joshua Copp,] about the maiutainauce ot Betsey Whittier, or))rosecutc as 
they .shall think best lor the town. Chose Dr. Ezra Bartlett and Lieut. Abel Merrill 
for the above committee." — Town Clerk's Records, Vol. i. Kir. 

t March 17, 180:5.—" X. B. JohnxVbbott is not to be taxed for said pall."— Town 
Clerk's Records, Vol. i. l.U. 



with the aid of his brother Jonathan, had anticipated the action of 
the people by buying a small burjdng cloth or pall for their friends 
and neighbors, and the next year the town purchased theirs also, 
at an expense of tive dollars. For several j^ears these emblems of 
funereal pageantry were kept at the inn of Mr. Joseph Merrill. 

But that the pall might not often be wanted, and funerals be 
rare, the good citizens of Warren thinking it of the greatest neces- 
sity, induced Dr. Joseph Peters, a relative of Captain Absalom 
Peters, to move into town and have a care after the physical health 
of the people. Warren's tirst physician came to town in 1791, and 
took up his residence with Mr. Stevens Memll. He was a well 
educated man, of genial temperament, and was much beloved by 
almost every body, particularly the women. But being also of a 
roving disposition he did not abide long in the valley among the 
hills. Whence came Dr. Peters the Lord only knows ; where he 
went, the men said, " j)erhaps the d — 1 can tell." 

He was succeeded by Dr. Levi Root, another eminent practi- 
tioner, who remained in town about three years, from 1795 to 1798. 

Then Dr. Ezra Bartlett* came, and being a college bred young 
■ gentleman, of great promise as a physician, and withal a son of 
Dr. Josiah Bartlett, one of the old proprietors, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, and a member of the Continental 
Congress, he easily rooted out Dr. Root, and had the whole town- 
sliip, with all the country round, as a field for practice. He settled 
on the fertile uplands of Beech hill, just to the southward of Amos 


Laura, born Oct. 20, 1799, at Warren. Hannah, born .Jan. 7, 1805. 

Josiah, born Oct. 25, 1801. Died Sept. Levi, born Oct. i, 1S06. 

25, 1802. Mary, born Aug. 22, 1808. 

Josiah, born May 3, 1803. Sarah, born Apr. 23, 1810. 

New voters in 1790 :— 

Nathan Barlier. .Joseph Jones. Johu Weeks. 

.Tames Harran. William Kelley. 

Olney Hawkins. Dr. Levi Root. 

New voters in 1797 : — 

Benjamin Kelley. .Jesse Niles. .Joseph Orn. 

New voters in 1798 : — 

Dr. Ezra Bartlett. Asa Low. Abial Smith. 

.James Dow. 

New voters iu 1799 : — 

Benjamin Brown. Benjamin Gale. .James Williams. 

New voters in ISOO. 

Daniel Davis. Samuel .Jackson. .Jacob Low. 

.Job Iilaton. Luke Libbey. Abel Willard. 


Dr. Ezra Bartlctt was a disting^uii^hed man in his day, often 
representing the towns of Warren and Coventry in the Legislatnre. 
He was a side justice in the Court of Common Pleas, a Senator in 
the New Hampshire Senate, and a member of the Governor's 
council. No man for fifty miles away could compete with him as 
a physician, and he was an excellent surgeon, as Avell. 

The children loved him, but they looked upon his house with 
a sort of dread, for they had heard the strange story how he had 
the body of Josiah Burnham, who was hung at Haverhill jail, there 
preserved in alcohol in a glass case. It was said by the knowing 
ones that he bargained with Burnham for his body, giving him for 
it all the liquor he could drink before the day of execution. Be 
that as it may. Dr. Bartlett always had medical students, for he 
had excellent facilities for study, and some of them afterwards 
ranked high in professional life. Two of them. Dr. Thomas Whip- 
ple and Dr. Robert Burns, were members of Congress, the first 
holding the office for eight years. 

The doctor gave a mighty impetus to town aflfairs, showing 
what were the necessary requisites for a perfect democratic com- 
munity; the roads were better; the schools were better, the farms 
were better ; and he set a good example by building a nice house for 
himself, after which every man in town aspired to pattern. So 
much was he admired that many children born at this period were 
called Ezra Bartlett. 

Dr. Bartlett also considered that it was one of the much 
desired requisites that there should be no boundary feuds among 
the good citizens of Warren, and perplexing lawsuits arising 
therefrom. That they might not be harrassed with these evils, he 
determined that the bounds should be well kept up, and shrewdly 
went to work to accomplish it, and obtain a plan of lots for the 
town. The proprietors, as already related, had one. How much 
good a man of refined tastes and education can do in any commu- 
nity. He quietly went to work and got an article inserted in the 
warrant for town meeting, to see what the citizens would do about 
procuring a plan. At the annual assembly of the people it was 
determined to elect a committee to provide one, and chose Joseph 
Patch, Nathaniel C lough, and Samuel Knight for that purpose. 

Under his guidance they immediately went to work and ob- 


tained copies of all the old surveys and plans, (particularly that of 
Josiah Buruham,) which were so admirably made during the time 
of the old proprietors' boundar)- war. With this material for a 
basis, Dr. Bartlett lent himself to the task, and produced the beau- 
tiful and excellent plan of Warren that now stands as the frontis- 
j)iece in the Proprietors' Records. He worked a week making it, 
and then, — what do you think! — he only charged the town one 
dollar for his services. Cheap enough most people would say; 
but then some grumbled about it even at that, as is always the 
case. The committee received twenty-eight dollars and thirty- 
eight cents for their services. 

To accomplish all these necessary requisites and make Warren 
a flourishing democracy, required money, and as we have gently 
intimated, the town contrived each year to raise a fair amount, 
easily from the most, by process from a few. 

Sometimes it was paid with paper bills, the old continental cur- 
I'ency, once or twice in new emission money — a sort of promissory 
notes founded on real estate and loaned on interest ; but these run 
down and became' worthless sooner than the old continental cur- 
rency, — and fvequently in produce ; the citizens in the selectmen- 
ship of Joshua Copp, EphraimTrue, and Nathaniel Knight, voting 
that the town charges be paid in wheat at Jii'e, rye at four, and 
corn at three shillings per bushel. The selectmen were likewise 
paid in this way for their services, and it was the commonest of 
things to purchase their English and West India goods, by barter- 
ing their produce. 

For the first three years of the town organization taxes were 
reckoned in depreciated currency, raising £500 in 1781. then they 
were com^mted on a specie basis, assessing in 1782 but £-4 1-2 
silver money, to pay town chai'ges, and in 1797 taxes were made 
up in dollars and cents.* 

Simeon Smith Avas the first collector, as we have said before, 
and then they had a different one almost every year, and all con- 
ducted in the most faithful manner. But Daniel Patch did not do 
quite so well. He was fond of fine clothes and fast horses, and 

* Aug. 2o, 1794. — "Voted to let the certificate mouey lay ou interest, unless it 
will turn lor fourteen or Hfteeu shillings in specie ou the pound. "—Town Clerk's 
Records, Vol. i. oS. 


■wh cn he got the town's money he was uot very careful to keep it 
separate from his own. When j)ay-day came he found liimself in 
hot water. He tried to borrow and could not; he was afraid they 
would call on his bondsmen; that liis own property would be 
attached ; that he would be indicted by the grand jury and mulcted 
in damages or imprisoned. 

He did not want any of these things to happen ; but he could 
not see how to escape. The days went by and the clouds were 
thickening, and the storm howled in his political sky. 

There was but one way; he must fly before the sarcasm, the 
jeers, the maledictions, anathemas, and curses — the people's wliirl- 

At the winter's sunset, Patch harnessed his team. " He drives 
two thiu-maned, high-headed, strong-hoofed, fleet-boundiug horses 
of our hills. Harnessed to the sleigh, they champ the iron bits, and 
the tight checks bend on their arching necks. They fly like the 
wreaths of mist over the streamy vale. The wildness of deer 
was in their course ; the strength of eagles descending- on their 
prey." A day — and they are a hundred miles away. 

A long- time afterwards the citizens learned that Daniel Patch 
was seen late the next afternoon driving through the streets of old 
Haverhill, Mass. That was all the tidings of him. 

But his bondsmen had to pay up, much to their great dehght, 
what the faithful collector had spent, and then they levied on his 
goods and chattels, and got their own pay. After this, Mr. P.'s 
friends settled up the whole affair, and he returned, paid every 
dollar like an honest man, and became one of the best of citizens.* 

Such things never come single, and Abel Willard, another 
collector, following the above illustrious example, absconded with 
the town's money. He went to the west of the Green mountains, 
and the town did not succeed in getting it back from liim qviite so 
well as from Daniel Patch. 

That there might be tranquility with all the world without, 

* Daniel Patch Avas a man of line intellect, was agreeable in conversation, 
though somewhat given to metaphysics. 

Joseph, II. born IMav 27, 1809. Louisa M. born Nov. 1.5 1819. 

Daniel, B. born Jan." 20, 1813. Marinda F. born June 8, 1822. 

ISct^ey, W. born Jan. 29, 1816. WilliamD. Mc.Q. bornMarchSl, 1825. 

Mahaia, born Aug. 23, 1817. 


and peace witliiu our mountain hamlet, our young democracy took 
a lively interest in political atiairs. They voted for Gen. Wash- 
ingion for President, for members of Congress, and all the other 
foreign officers, helping to maintain a republic without as well as 
a democracy at home. 

But that which interested them most, creating profound dis- 
cussions and calling for the exercise of the discreetest statesman- 
sliip, was the adoption of, first, the articles of confederation, then 
of the Federal Constitution, and frequently afterwards of whether 
or not it should be amended. 

Warren's citizens, on mature deliberation of these momentous 
subjects, generally voted nearly unanimously either one way or 
the other, always believing that the destiny of the whole country 
hung upon their action. They were thus called upon to save their 
country some twenty times in the course of a few years. 

But we cannot close the tinal chapter of this book, and let 
down the curtain upon the last years of the eighteenth century, 
without recording as a faithful historian what our good citizens of 
Warren thought to be the highest and gi'andest requisite to make a 
perfect democratic community. 

They early made great efforts to accomphsh it. In the select- 
menship of Jonathan Merrill, Thomas Boynton, and Aaron AVelch, 
they chose a committee consisting of Joshua Copp, Reuben Batch- 
elder, Joseph Patch, Thomas Boynton, and John Whitcher, to 
report where it would be convenient to set a meeting house, and 
what measures were best to be taken to erect the same and procure 
the preaching of the gospel. But the committee, hviug in diSereut 
parts of the town, could not exactl}!- agi-ee where the best place 
was. It took them so long to find a spot that they spent all their 
energies upon that part of the subject, and the whole thing fell 

But such a subject could not slumber long, and as a result of 
deep thought, 'Squire Joshua Copp, in March, 1798, made a liberal 
proposition to the town. The citizens were much pleased, and 
voted to accept a piece of land from him, situated on the easterly 
side of his farm, and on the north side of the highway leading 
to Haverhill, for the purpose of erecting a meeting-house thereon, 
which was to be of the same size as the one in the neighboring 


province of Romuey, and for a burying' ground and training field.* 

Chose Joshua Copp, Esq., Joseph Patch, Stephen Richardson, 
Obadiah Clement, and Levi Lufkin, a committee to provide timber 
for the meeting-house, to be drawn the ensuing winter. Each 
individual was to pay for the house according to his proportion of 
taxes, and all should hold themselves ready to work on the build- 
ing after three days' notice from the committee. 

And now the very town sweat with the work in prospectu. 
"What a splendid house we shall have; soon it will be all complete. 

But too many cooks spoil the broth. Things did not go on 
any better this time than before. There was a hitch. The com- 
mittee did not work well together. Another town assembly was 
called. The citizens assembled. A great discussion arose. It 
waxed warm. The meeting broke up, nothing was done save to 
dismiss the subject, and the tire of religious enthusiasm seemed to 
go out. 

But it did not ; it only slumbered. How it kindled afresh and 
burned with a steady flame until all were tried and purified, or 
ought to have been, and the mighty work accomplished, we will 
show in the first chapters of our next great book. 

* This was the same spot where the first little training was held. 






-A-NOTHER century has come. One generation of white 
men, the Indians' successors in the Asquainchumauke valley, has 
passed away. A second is stepping upon the stage. Many things 
are being left behind, and new fashions and ideas are making their 
way to our settlement among the hills. A different pattern of 
dress has been adopted, the style of cooking and living has some- 
what changed, new houses have been consti'ucted, and the blazed 
path, bridle path and tote road have given place to the broad, beaten 
way, as we wrote in the last book, upon which rumble the wheels 
of Obadiah Clement's little Dutch vehicle, the first four wheeled 
wagon that had ever come to town. 


Something else is coming. We liinted at it in the last chapter. 
It is told as follows:— 

One day in July, 1799, a solitary horseman was seen riding up 
the road. He stopped at Joseph Merrill's inn. baited his horse, 
and while he was eating his own dinner casually dropped a few 
words upon religious matters. They seemed to make Init little 
impression, and saying something about stony ground and hard- 
ness of heart, he rode away over Pine hill to the Summit. That 
horseman was the Rev. Elijah R. Sabin, a missionary of Method- 
ism. Hundreds of them were riding the country through, preach- 
ing in the houses, the barns, in the forests or out in the broad open 
ah', anywhere they could get a congregation to hear them, bring- 
ing new religious ideas to the people. 

That night he stopped with Mr. Chase Whitcher by the wild 
roistering Oliverian. The morrow was the Sabbath, and after the 
morning meal a meeting was suggested. Mr. Whitcher was 
pleased with the idea. A messenger went to the settlers on Pine 
hill ; down on old Coventry meadows, and to Mr. Eastman's, the 
first settler of High street. 

B}^ ten o'clock, quite a congregation had assembled, and under 
the maples — they grow there now — by the laughing stream, the 
first religious meeting was held on the Summit. They had no 
choir ; but the reverend man sang in clear sweet voice, one of those 
wild revival hymns of John Wesley, which were then waking 
men's souls through all the land.* His discourse took powerful 
hold on his little congTegation, and before he left this valley, hol- 
lowed between five peaks of the mountains, he had laid the foun- 
dation for a society, and formed a class consisting of three mem- 
bers — Chase Whitcher, Dolly AVhitcher, afterwards the widow 
Atwell, and Sarah Barker. When he was gone his words were 
not forgotten. Many believed his doctrine was true and before 
the year j)assed more than thirty persons had joined the class. 

Out of this mountain valley, over the hills, spread the reli- 
gious enthusiasm, great numbers getting converted. It even went 

* Singing. — The singing of tlie early Methodists was glorious, heavenly. Then 
the music vras adapted to the words, and every word could be distinctly imder- 
stood, and the ideas came home to tlie listener witli spiritual power. Xow-days 
the words are stretched and strained to fit the music ; not one of them can be 
understood; the ideas are lost, and the whole, as a general thing, is a senseless 
jargon painful to hear. 


over the Height-o"-laud, and a large class was formed in Charles- 
ton, near Tarleton lake. So firmly was Methodism planted that it 
has survived in Warren three-fourths of a century. 

During tlie summer season for many years the Methodist 
meetings were lield in a barn belonging to Mr. Aaron Welch, and 
in the winter in his house or in the houses of the neighbors in the 
immediate vicinity.* 

It was at Aaron TVelch'sf barn people loved to assemble ; not 
to show their fine clothes so much as now, for they then dressed 
in homespun, but the most to worship. Sometimes the boys went 
to see the girls ; but the girls never to see boys. A few went for 
fun, and a very few for mischief. One time they had a quarterly 
meeting there. Old John Broadhead, a powerful preacher, and 
Rev. Messrs. Felch and Hedding were present. Eev. Mr. Felch 
was preaching; somebody had been '' cutting up sliines," and Mr. 
r. was mad. He began telling how mean the people were, how 
some were fornicators, and some thieves and drunkards, and how 
one was so mean as to even steal the snapper of his, the reverend's 
whip. Capt. Wm. Butler immediately interrupted and said, " he 
wanted to hear him preach, and not blackguard." Another man 
sarcastically remarked that ''he, Felch, no business to be a horse- 
jockey, and have a fine whip, if he didn't want the snapper 
stolen," — a mean remark, as all good christians can testify. At 
any rate Rev. Mr. Felch heeded Capt. Butler, immediately changed 
the subject of his discourse, and preached Christ and him crucified, 
with such excellent effect that several were converted that very 

*The Deinl's Doings.— One winter they had preaching in Deacon Welch's house. 
Quite a lot of folks were sitting on the trap-door, and they got to shouting, Glory ! 
Hallelujah! Amen! Good! Just then the Devil broke the trap-door, and half a 
dozen men and women fell into tlie cellar. Mrs. Samuel Kniglit went into a flt, 
and several of the sisters rolled on the floor in the most wonderful manner. Some 
wicked youth present smiled, the Devil was pleased, and the minister preached no 
more that day.— Miss Hannah Knight's statement. 

A Miracle. — There was a meeting at farmer .Joshua Merrill's in the early times, 
and Mr. Isaac Merrill, son of 'Squire Jonathan, crawled up the stairs and sat over 
the heads of some of the congregation. The preaching was so powerful he got to 
sleep, and while dozing lost his balance and fell down amongst the people. He 
struck plump on liis head, his feet in the air: then in about a minute be pitched 
over, jumped up (puckly and ran out of the house uninjured, all the folks follow- 
ing lii'm. Every one believed it was a miracle, and so great was the awe that they 
had no more preaching till next Sunday, when a new and more powerful minister 
arrived in the settlement. — Miss H. Knight's statement. 

t Mr. Welch lived near the present village cemeterv, where Mr. Saiftuel Mer- 
till, Capt. .Joseph Merrill, and Robert E. Merrill, have all lived. Said house was 
once occupied by the town's poor. 


day. Ministers of the present time would do well to imitate — 
preach religion i-ather than politics — and seek to plant more of a 
christian spirit in the community. 

But there were some who would not join the Methodists. 
Opposition is a good thing for any enterprise, if there is not too 
much of it. Certainly it helps a church along and always exists 
where men are left free to think for themselves. "We almost be- 
lieve opposition is a divine institution, and Stevens Merrill, the 
man who did not believe in the revolutionary war, was now the 
person to exercise it in AVarreu. He was a Quaker, and had no 
faith in those whining, canting Methodists, as he impiously 
termed them. He '■' shouldn't jine no how !^' But still he loved 
preaching when it suited him, which was not often the case. He 
was blunter than Capt. Butler. ''You lie, Nat!" ''What is the 
use of your lying that way ?'' were exclamations that once greeted 
his own brother, Nathaniel, a CongregationaUst, who was preach- 
ing to the people that had assembled in the bar-room and kitchen 
of Mr. Merrill's tavern. The Rev. Nathaniel was as determined 
as his brother, and such exclamations did not disturb him. 

In the year 1802 a minister came to town of a difierent faith, 
and by chance he stopped at Stevens Merrill's. He was a mission- 
ary of a new religious order; the Free-will Baptists, one of the 
products of the western world. Sunday following, he preached in 
the house of his host, to the great delight of Mr. M. He was 
highlj' pleased with Mr. Boody and his doctrine, and as he was an 
aged man, and thinking he might die when Mr. Boody was far 
away, he resolved to have his funeral sermon preached before Mr. 
B.'s departure. Accordingly he signified his intention to the Rev. 
gentleman, who, complying, a day was appointed, and the sermon 
preached from 2 Timothy, -ith chapter, 6th, 7th, 8th verses: " For 
I am now ready to be oflered, and the time of my departure is at 
hand. I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I 
have kept the faith ; henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of 
righteousness, which the Loi'd, the righteous judge, shall give me 
at that day; and not me only, but unto all them that love his 
appearing." From this text it is said the Rev. Mr. Boody preached 
an excellent discourse, and Mr. Merrill and his friends were well 
jjleased. It is handed down that Mr. M. smacked his lips with 


delight several times as the reverend gentleman drew a vivid pic- 
ture of his host entering the portals of heaven and taking a seat 
among the blest, and after the services were over, as they did not 
have any corpse or cofldu, he treated his minister and the whole 
congregation to the very best his house aflbrded, not even omitting 
to furnish good flip, punch, and egg-nog ; a generous custom in 
those days, which laid many a man low. Mr. Merrill died two 
years after, in 1804, aged seventy-seven years.* 

No religious society of the Free-will Baptist order was formed 
at this time ; but Rev. Joseph Boody and other ministers of like 
faith continued to visit Warren, and about 1810 a society was 
organized under the charge of Rev. James Spencer. The first 
members consisted of Samuel Merrill and wife, of the East-parte, 
James Dow and wife, Caleb Hfoman and wife, Aaron Welch and 
wife, True Stevens and wife, Mrs Betsey Ramsey, and Mrs. James 
AVilliams. Elder Spencer labored with the society for many years. 

And now religious enthusiasm tilled the town and all the 
regions round about. Stricter laws were passed for the observance 
of the Sabbath, and tythingmenf were appointed in almost every 
hamlet to compel the people to keep the Sabbath holy. Many 
were the instances when pious hands were laid upon wicked trav- 
elers. Old Deacon Jonathan Clement had been traveling down 
country ; returning, the tythingman of Boscawen arrested him 
traveling on the Sabbath, and tined him Monday morning, costs 

* .James Dow and Samuel MeiTill, both heard Stevens JleiTill's funeral dis- 

t By an act passed in 1715, it was enacted that no taverner or retailer should 
suffer any apprentice, servant or negro, to drink in his house; nor any inliabitaut 
alter ten o'clock at uiglit, nor more than two hours; nor suffer any person to drink 
to drunkenness, nor others than strangers to remain in his house on the Lord's 
day; uuder a tine of live sliillings. 

The second section provided that the selectmen should see that at least two 
tythiugmeu should be annually chosen, whose duty it was to inspect all licensed, 
houses, and inform of all disorders to a justice of the peace, and also inform of all 
who sell without license, and of all cursers and swearers. Each tvtliingman was 
to have a black staff two feet long, with about three inches of one end tii)ped with 
brass or pewter, as a badge of olUce. The penalty for not serving when chosen 
was forty shillings, and in default of payment or want of property was imprison- 

By an act passed Dec. 24, 1799, for the better observance of the Lord's day, and 
repealing all other acts for that purpose, all labor and recreation, traveling, and 
rudeness at ijhices of public worsliij) on tlie Lord's day, are forbidden. Tavern- 
ers are forbidden to entertain inhabitants of the town. Tlie tytliingnien had power 
to connnand assistance, and forcibly htoji and detain all travelers, unh^'^s they 
could give sullicient reason. The tythingmen were required to inform of ail 
breeches of the act, and their oath Mas suflicieut evidence unless invalidated. — 
History ot Chester, 450. 


and all. eleven dollars. He came home with religions enthnslasm 
tiugling on eveiy nerve of his bod}'. Some malicionsly said he 
was madder than a March hare. James Dow, then a yonug and 
vigorous man. for manj' years was chosen tythingman of AYarren. 
Old Mr. Page, of Haverhill, was desecrating the Sabbath by driv- 
ing his horse and wagon through the town, and said Dow gently 
laid his hand upon him and stopped, seized, and detained him, and 
prevented him from traveling, as aforesaid. Monday, Page was 
fined, and he went home feeling complete. 

John Varnum was chosen to this high office, and he* arrested 
some Scotchmen, teamsters from Vermont, and had them fined, 
and then all the tavern keepers were mad, for it hurt their busi- 
ness to have travelers thus waylaid. Tavern keepers with nice 
bars had influence, and henceforth only those who lived in the 
most remote parts of the town, were chosen '' grab-men," as they 
were facetiously termed. 

One year '' Old Potter," who lived by the road leading to 
"VVachipauka pond, was chosen ; but the town clerk, Mr. Anson 
MeiTill, tried to cheat him out of his high honor, b}^ neglecting to 
make a record of his election. Many men were indignant on 
account of Merrill's official malfeasance.* 

With two rival societies in the full tide of success, and the 
tythingmen well preserving the peace, meetings without number 
were held. In Merrie England, and on the low lands of Holland, 
and along the bnuks of the Rhine, it had been the practice for cen- 
turies to hold meetings in the suburbs of old cities, by neglected 
grave-yards and among shady mountains. This j)ractice must 
needs be revived in America, and the Methodist brethren estab- 
lished " Camp-meetings." One must be held in Warren, and the 
pleasant pine woods near Pine hill school-house was selected for 
the occasion. Inspiring woods! They thought they could wor- 
ship better there. There, Adam and Eve enjoyed their pastime 
and sought repose; there, the Amorites and Assyrians learned to 
pray; there, Hertha the Goddess of the Angles, had her lovely 
residence; there, the Druids thought ever\i:hing sent from heaven 
that grew on the oak ; there, Pan piped and satyrs danced ; the 

* Potter was for many years a town pauper, and Mi-. Merrill only tried to pre- 
vent liini from gaining a residence. 


fawns browsed, Sylvaniis loved, Diana hunted, and Fevonia 
watched; there, the stately castle of the feudal lord reared its 
head, the lonely anchorite sang his evening- hjmn, and the sound 
of the convent bell was heard ; there, Robin Hood and his merry 
men did their exploits, and King Kufus was slain ; there, the ward 
of di-yads, the scene of fairy revels and Puck's pranks, the haunt 
of witches, spirits, elves, hags, dwarfs, the Sporn, the man in the 
oak. the will-o'-the-wisp, the opera house of birds, and the shelter 
of beasts. The green, sweet-smelling, suggestive, musical, sombre, 
superstitious, devotional, mystic, trauquiliziug woods, was the 
place of all others for the camp-meeting. 

It was early in the cool September that it was held ; delega- 
tions came from nearly ever}^ society in the whole conference, and 
white tents in good numbers spi'ang up beneath the pine trees. 
There were booths outside the circle of tents for the sale of candy, 
gingerbread, more substantial eatables, and withal, in sundry jugs, 
kegs, and spiggots, was a good deal of '• the good creature,'' to 
keep out the cold from the hearts of the lukewarm, and to raise 
the spirits generally. On a smooth plat of ground were long 
rows of seats made of boards, plank, and slabs, placed on pins 
di'iven into the ground, for the congregation, and on a little knoll 
in front, was a raised platform, with a box around it, for a pulpit. 
Above this were the thick, dense bi'anches of several large pine 
trees, which served as a canopy to keep off the sun and rain. At 
mght, in front of the tents, great tires were kindled for cooking 
and to keep the worshipers warm. 

More sinners than saints came to these meetings, and one of 
the great objects was to convert the ungodly class. The more con- 
verted, the greater the success of the meeting. In the morning 
came early prayer-meeting, then breakfast, then two sermons in 
the forenoon, dinner, two sermons in the afternoon, supper, then 
evening prayer meeting and to bed. Joseph Boynton led the sing- 
ing. He sometimes gave out the tune, read two lines, the choir 
and congregation sung them, then two lines more were deaconed 
off, aud so on through the hymn. Sometimes the choir sung by 
itself. Boynton, who was class leader for many years, a great man 
in the church, and liA^ed on the turnpike, first house up the hill 
beyond the Cold brook, had a pitch-pipe made of wood, an inch or 


two wide, something like a boy's whistle, with which he pitched 
the tunes, much to the delight of all who heard. The presiding 
elder summoned the brethren to each exercise by a loud blast on an 
old fashioned tin horn. One night some " wicked " youth, among 
whom, it is said, though we do not vouch for it, were Robert 
Burns, Thomas Whipple, Nathan Clifford, Joshua Merrill, Anson 
Merrill, and Jacob Patch, besides numerous others, stole the horn 
and went sounding it through all the woods, first on the north, 
then on the south, then east, then west, while for long hours the 
presiding elder, several ministers and a whole host of deacons 
went chasing through the forest, trying to find the vile thieves, as 
the}' piously termed them, who were distu.rbing the slumbers of 
the godl}\ But they did not catch them. 

One day elder John Broadhead had preached. He was a pow- 
erful man of more than ordinary eloquence. Then there was a 
call to come forward for prayers. The choir sang one of their 
sweetest hymns, then i^aused. Just at that instant a flock of black- 
cap titmice with their white sides glowing in the sun, alighted in 
the green pines overhead, and appearing to take up the strain, sang 
so sweetly that they seemed bright messengers from heaven. The 
electric current was complete, excitement filled every breast. 
Glory to God! said elder Broadhead. Amen! shouted the whole 
congregation. The hymn was taken up again, and when it ceased 
a hundred rose for prayers. And then there was praying and 
shouting, and singing, such as never was heard in the woods .of 
WaiTcn before. One young female Avas so wrought upon that she 
fell down and rolled upon the ground, kicking up her heels 
towards the blue sky. Some said she was in a trance seeing 

Accident.— Jjemuel Keezer, innkeeper, went to this first camp-meeting on horse- 
back. Wlien lie had nearly got there, his horse threw him ofl" and hurt his shoulder 
badly. At the meeting, one ol' the ministers asked Keezer if lie wanted to see 
God, and he only answered that his shoulder pained him badly. The minister 
repeated the question the second and third time, and got precisely the same an- 
swer; but when he put the cpiestion the lonrth time, Keezer got mad and very 
imprudently and impiously replied that he " didn't know the gentleman, and didn't 
care a d — iii either." 

One day Captain Daniel invited Elder Wood, a minister, to share the hospitali- 
ties of his house, and introduced him to Mr. Keezer. " Elder Wood, Elder Wood," 
exclaimed Mr. K., snuffing his nose, " that is the stinkiiigest wood I ever saw;" 
much to Captain Daniel's delight, for he was very pious and had great respect for 
his minister. 

Keezer was gifted in praj-er. 'When the minister put u]! v,ith him, he woiild 
pray at night and the minister in the morning, or vice rersff, and when the reverend 
was gone he would ask the women folks if he didn't beat the minister at praying? 
K. was i)roud of his gift and liked to be praised. 


iK-axni: l>iit youno- Dr. Whipple wickedly held hartshorn to her 
nose to her i^reat delight, and quietly said she was only a little 
•• hysterica." 

Thus the meeting went on for a week, more than two hundred 
were converted, and when it broke up each went to his home 
thankino- the Lord that he had prospered him so much. Several 
other camii-meetings have been held in Warren since, the last 
being in the young maple woods on the river island just east of 
the (lei)ot. 



The learned PufFeudorf says all animals were wild ; Gro- 
tins says all were tame. Common law takes middle ground, and 
leaves it to the judgment to say what were wild and what were 
tame. Certain it is that all the animals, birds, and fishes of War- 
ren were wild enough before the advent of the white settlers, and 
many were the exciting times had capturing and destroying them, 
as we have before remarked. 

The most formidable of all these animals was the panther, 
otherwise called painter, and sometimes catamount, whose cry 
would make the Indians' blood feel cold ; the wolf and bear came 
next, then the two wild cats known as the loup-cervier and the 
bay lynx. Of deer, as John Josselyn, Gent., would say. there 
was the stately moose, the caribou, — hard to catch, — and the 
common red deer. Others, and they are all interesting, are 
the raccoon, wolverine, otter, sable, mink, muskrat, fisher-cat 
ermine or weasel, black or silver-gray fox, red fox, beaver, 
hedgehog, woodchuck, gray, black, red, striped and flying squir- 
rels, rabbit, rat, mouse, — several kinds — four varieties of mole, 
bat, and last and sweetest of all, the skunk. 

The panther was a rare animal, only one ever having been 
killed in town, and that by Joseph Patch one night as he lay in 


his oamp by Hurricane brook. Wolves were for years more plenty. 
Our flrst settler once started one in Stephen Eichardson'S tield on 
Pine hill, and folloAved it down near Patch brook, where he killed it. 
Old "Squire Burns, of Romney, caixght the mate to it in a trap. 
This pair had killed many sheep. 

But years before the town was settled, an adventure with the 
wolves took place in the East-parte regions of a far more startling- 
kind. Long before the country was settled, a hunter by the name 
of Cushman was trapping upon one of the eastern mountains. 
One day, after being- busily engaged in his labor, he entered his 
camp, and night had scarcely begun to come over him, when the 
melancholy howl of the wolves struck on his ear, the mournful 
echoes of which were repeated through every part of the forest. 
Every moment they seemed to approach nearer, and soon his camp 
was surrounded by a pack of the hungry creatures. Snatching 
Ms g'un, he scrambled up a small sapling near by, just in time to 
save himself fi'om their jaws. Being disappointed of their prey, 
they howled and leaped about in mad fury. Cushman now 
thought he would treat them with a little cold lead, and aiming at 
the leader of the pack, fired. The wolf gave a wild howl, and 
leaping several feet into the air, fell to the ground and was torn in 
pieces by his hungry companions. Loading his gun, he fired at 
another winch shared the same fate. Again he fired and killed a 
third, when the wolves seeing their numbers decreasing, and hav- 
ing satisfied their appetites upon one of their own species, fled, 
and Cuslunan was no more annoyed by them that night. The 
•mountain upon which this happened took the hunter's name, and 
is called Mt. Cushman to the present time. 

Bears were more plenty than wolves, and for thirty years after 
the settlement of Warren, they were seen almost every day. 
Stephen Richardson had a fine flock of sheep, but he had to yard 
them every night. Yet tliis did not always save them. Once in 
early evening a large bear, known as " old white face," carried 
away two sheep, leaping with them over a wall five feet high. 
" Old wlute face" was the terror of the whole country and trav- 
eled up and down the valley oftener than any hunter or fisherman 
has ever done. John Gould, who lived in the East-parte, had been 
out to " the road," as it was called. Coming- home in the early 


evening, at the mouth of Batchelder brook, in Sawtelle district, he 
thovight he met this bear. He was terribly frightened, threw his 
little white dog at the ferocious creature, and with his teeth chat- 
tering, ran back to Mr. Samuel Knight's as fast as his legs would 
carry him. Here he stopped all night, slept on the floor by the 
fire, and in the morning in comjpany with Mr. Knigiit, went to the 
spot. They found on the place where he said he saw the bear, 
only a great hemlock stump. Knight laughed at him; Gould felt 
exceedingly fine. But two daj^s after. Knight and a man named 
Eamsey killed a bear, and Gould claimed that as the one he saw. 

Daniel Patch, son of Joseph, had been down to deacon Ste- 
vens' blacksmith shop, on Eed-oak liill, to get a three-year old colt 
shod. Coming back at evening down the hill, the bear called '' old 
white face,"' jumped into the road behind him and gave chase. 
The colt scented him, pricked up liis ears, and, frightened, ran. 
Young Daniel clung to the colt's mane and there was a wild race 
on Red-oak hill road. The steel shoes of the colt rang on the 
rocks, the sparks of fire flashed in the darkness and it was onlj^ 
when the boy passed Hurricane brook bridge and came into War- 
ren's first clearing, that the bear gave up the chase. When Daniel 
Patch got home it was hard for the father to tell which was the 
most frightened, the boy or the colt.* 

About this time occurred the last moose hunts in AVarren. A 
Mr. Webster, who lived OA-er the Height-o'-land, one autumn was 
out hunting for moose. He started one in Piermont, and followed 
him by Tarleton lake into Warren. Here he took an easterly 
course, evidently designing to cross OA^er the lower ranges of 
mountains and make for Moosehillock. When he reached the 
summit of Webster slide the dogs came up with him and pressed 
him so hard that he took a southerly course upon the top of 
the mountain till he arrived upon the edge of the j)recipice. The 
dogs were close upon him, and as he turned they made the attack. 

* Bears. — Mr. George Bixby once killed a bear on Beech hill, with a good stout 
cane. It had been an e.xcelk'nt season for berries of all kinds, and the bear was 
so fat that it could hardly walk. 

A bear followed Mr. Samuel Knight and his wife as they were going home. 
There was a figui-e-four traj) near where is now Levi F. Jewel's mill. The bear 
looked into it and got caught, Mr. K. and wife being not six rods away at the time. 

Bears, more or le.'^s, are caught every year in Warren, even at the present 
time. Tlie principal bear catchers now living in Warren are Joseph Whitcher, E. 
Bartlett Libby, Amos L. Merrill and Isaac Fifield. 

TtiE LAST OF THE :\roosE. 373 

It was a hard tiyht. As they leaped at him, the autlered monarch 
of tlie New England forest tossed one upon his horns, and when 
lie fell it was over the precipice. Another dog caught the moose 
by the throat, and a third seized him on the flank. Round and 
round they went, the noble animal in vain trying to shake them oti". 
They neared the very edge of the precipice. The I'ock on the 
brink was slippery, and the hoofs would not cling to it. Back! 
Back! A hoarse panting, a dire swinging to and fro, and then the 
rock was standing naked against the sky; no living thing was 
there, and moose and hounds lay shattered far below. 

Webster followed to the edge of the precipice and saw the 
place of encounter. He was not long in determining the result, 
and half an hour later he found them all dead at the foot among- 
,the boulders and debris. From this circumstance the huffe cliff 
rising sharp from AYachipauka pond received its name — Webster 

Early in the spring of 1803 the last of these animals ever 
known in this section was killed. Joseph Patch's supply of moose 
beef had run short, and he tried his grown up sons, Joseph and 
Daniel, to go with him after more : but as they refused, he took his 
sou Jacob, then about seventeen years old, who wanted to go. At 
the East-parte Stephen Flanders joined them, and the three on 
snow shoes, for the snow was four feet deep, proceeded through 
the forest, up the Asquamchumauke on the north bank. They 
crossed the Big brook near where the bridle-path up Moosehillock 
crosses it laow, and half a mile beyond on the plain through which 
rushes Gorge brook, they found whei-e moose had browsed. Fol- 
lowing the trail they crossed the latter stream, now buried in snow, 
and Patch sent his son and Captain Flanders around the spur of 
the mountainf after more browse, and following on they all came 
together on the crest where they found •• floats." 

It Avas now late in the afternoon, and the little party stopped 
to consult. They were far in the woods, and young Jacob thought 
it was a lonesome place to spend the night. Looking about he saw 
rabbit tracks in the snow; he heard black-cap titmice sing '• chick- 

* Mr. George Libby says that the above story is not exactlv correct, that ^fr. 
Webster came very near lailiiiiT down the mountu'in face liiniself, and atterwards 
gave a gallon of rum to have tlie mountain named for him. 

t Sometimes called Black liill. 


adee " iu the leafless branches, the sweet note of the brown creeper, 
as spirally he climbed the huge trunks of the great spruces, and a 
hair)' woodpecker rattling- on an old dead hemlock. Just then a 
flock of pileated woodpeckers flew bj-, screaming as their scarlet 
red heads flashed over the snow, and then it was still for a 

From the appearance of the " floats," Joseph Patch knew that 
they wei'e in the immediate vicinity of the moose, and for fear of 
frightening them they did not dare to build a camp nor light a fire. 
So they made a large bed of evergreen boughs, thick and warm, 
and when night came on, the)^ wrapped their blankets about them 
and with their dogs lay down to sleep. Nice bed, beautiful place, 
and splendid night. What if it had happened to snow or a souths 
ern rain come on? But it did not, and the hunters lay on their 
sweet smelling couch, and listened to the wind singing through 
the leafless branches and the evergreens and saw the northern 
lights flash blue and red up to the zenith, pouring their crimson 
dyes upon the frozen snow. As the night wore away the north 
star looked down upon them, and Andromeda, Cassiopea, and the 
Great Bear, wheeling around the pole, shone bright through the 
crisp, frost}'' air. Jacob Patch said in his old age that he never 
enjoyed a night's rest better in his whole life than that one in the 
winter snow, and that he ate his breakfast from their almost frozen 
provisions with as keen a relish as he ever knew. 

At the earliest dawn they started on the trail, keeping their 
dogs quiet behind them, and travehng two miles thej^ found the 
moose in a lai-ge yard beside a little mountain stream. There were 
three of them, a bull, a cow and a calf. Patch shot the calf, Flan- 
ders fired at the bull and missed, when Patch fired again and 
killed him. The cow started off at a last trot down Baker river. 
The dogs followed, a bull dog and a hound,* yelping, yelling, and 
baj'ing, till the woods rang with echoes, and the men running after 

* They used to have good dogs iu those days. Esq. Abel Merrill once had a 
dog and a" pup, aud wanted to sell one of them. A man came to buy, and Abel 
said the old dog, Bose, was as good a dog as ever was in the worlil. Then said the 
man, I will take the puppy. "But, but," said 'Squire Abel, •' the puppy is a little 
mite better." 

" Bose is the best doy in the world, hut the puppy is a little mite better, ^^ was a by- 
word in Warreu for a long time after. — Ausou Merrill's statement. 


as fast as they could. A mile away, aud the old moose turned to 
fight the dogs and Patch coming up first, shot her. 

As they were dressing them, three other men, who b}' a sin- 
gular coincidence were hunting in the valley, came up and claimed 
the moose. Patch was a little covetous, and as hi,s neighborly 
hunters from over the mountain were exceedingly saucy, he would 
not give them a bit of the meat. r>ut our hunter and Captain F. 
had to stay and watch their captured game wliile youug Jacob 
went for sleds and help with which they brought home the pi-o- 
duct of their morning work. Thus perished the last of that race 
of animals in our mountain valley, so many of which at one time 
lived about Mooseliillock mountain. 

In old times it was a common thing for the best hunters to 
station themselves behind a tree or rock by Rocky falls on Patch 
brook or Waternomee falls on Hurricane brook. Then they would 
send men with their dogs sweeping across the sides of Mt. Carr to 
start wild animals, and often deer and moose would come flying- 
down the beds of the streams, when the hunter in ambush would 
shoot them. 

Chase Whitcher once got behind the great rock at the foot of 
AVaternomee falls, aud sent John Marston with a hound on to the 
mountain. The latter, on snow shoes, climbed iip near the very 
top of Mt. Carr, and there started his game. But it was only for 
a moment that he saw it, — a giant deer, beautiful beyond anything 
he had ever seen before. 

That deer was of the variety called the American Caribou,* 
the fiercest, fleetest, wildest, shyest, and most untameable of the 
deer tribe in the whole world, and are only shot by white hunters 
through casual good fortune. The hound bayed and followed; 
but it was a useless chase, for the Caribou's feet were like snow 
shoes, and he ran as no other animal could. One might as well 
think to pursue the hurricane as to follow him. Pie seemed like 
the ship of the winter wilderness outspeeding the winds among 
his native pines and firs. 

Whitcher heard the baying of the hound far up the mountain, 

* Tlie Caribou averages from fourteen and a half to fifteen hands high, is taller 
than ordinary liorses, and is more tliau a match for a wolf or a panther in a 
fight. (?) 


then crouched close behind his rock. As he waited the sun shone 
out clear, lighting up the frosting of ice on the great rocks, and 
making the fantastic icicles hanging pendant on the birch and 
spruce to throw forth a thousand brilliant shades and hues, and to 
sparkle like gems. 

Soon he' heard the mighty beast flying down the bed of the 
ton-ent, and he involuntarily cocked his gun, and a moment after 
held his breath as he saw the great antlers of the bull flash through 
the trees. 

The Caribou paused on the clifi", hesitating to jump; then 
catching the fresh scent, snuffed the air, dilated his flashing eyes, 
shook his branching horns, and gathered himself up to bound 
away on the right. 

It was too late, the sharp crack of "Wliitcher's rifle awoke the 
echoes, and the Caribou shot foi'ward far over the brink, and fell 
dead at the foot of the falls. 

AVliitcher had seen tracks of this fleetest, wildest deer, on other 
occasions, but never before or since has a white hunter shot a 
Caribou in AVarren. 

Deer have always been more or less plenty in Warren, and 
hardly a winter passes, but that a few are caught. In early times 
they were seen in the fields almost every day. Joseph Patchf 
used to relate how as he was coming home from the East-parte 
soon after the road was built, a deer stood drinking by Silver rill 
at twilight, a will-o'-the-wisp playing around his branching horns. 
Patch gave a low whistle, the buck snuffed the air for a moment 
then bounded away in the darkness. 

Of the other four-footed beasts that have lived in the Asquam- 
chumauke valley, many have been hunted for their furs. The fox 
has generally been esteemed the best ; and the music of baying 
hounds has been the delight of many a hunter's heart. Trappers 
in the forest have built culheags and set steel traps for sable, otter, 
mink, martin, ermine, and muskrat, and old Mr. Vowell Leathers, 
a gipsy descendant, who lived on Beech hill, used to catch skunks 

t Joseph Patch, when advanced in years, followed. a deer on snow shoes, all 
one day, as last as he could, tlien at nigrht laid down on the snow without a fire, 
and got cold. It settled in his hips, and our luinter was lame ever attei-. He could 
stand lip and swingle flax all day long. He learned the shoemaker's trade, and 
was good at it; but he never could run on snow shoes in the woods afterwards. 
Yet he was good at " stiU hunting " as long as he lived. 


to obtain their pleasant odor, lie thought it decidedly superior to 
musk, cologne, or otto of roses, and he ouce placed one of these 
sweet smelling creatures under a certain lady town pauper's bed, 
kindly remarking that it smelt far better than she did, and was 
much to be preferred by all refined people, — a remark highly com- 
plimentary to the lady. 

Of all the birds that abound in Warren, the black-cap titmouse, 
sometimes called chickadee, is desei-vedly the greatest favorite. 
Why? Because he has a beautiful song, does a great deal of good 
and no harm, is very plenty, and stops with its all the year round. 
His feathers are as warm as wool, are immensely thick as com- 
pared with his whole body, and he is so sprightly that he could not 
bo cold, no matter what might be the weather. A whole flock, 
clinging, backs down like pirouetting fairies to the breezy tops of 
the pine trees, swinging in the wind on the outermost end of the 
slenderest boughs of the birch, singing all the time, chickadee, 
chickadedee, in the sweetest notes, making a lively party, and music 
that causes us to love the bright days of winter. 

"W^len the low southern sun is hid in murky leaden clouds, and 
the snow flakes begin to spin round in the freshening gale and the 
storm spirit is roaring on the mountains, then the white flashing 
bodies of the snow-buntings, who were hatched on the snowy 
isles of the frozen ocean, in nests of reindeers' hair, lined with soft 
down of sea ducks and the warm fur of the white foxes, hurrying 
before the storm, bring a weird feeling and a sort of a supersti- 
tious awe to the chillv traveller. Along with them come the g'os- 
hawk, light winged, from Greenland; the snow owl and the 
Acadian owl, his companions, and the Bohemian chatterer, that 
incessantly sings when the sun shines on his home, the eternal 
snows and glaciei-s about the pole. On mild winter days, in our 
hamlet, the shrike, cross-bills, mealy red polls, lesser red polls, 
pine grosbeaks, Arctic woodpeckers, brown creepers, nut hatches, 
make busy parties in the spruce swamps, while on the borders of 
the fields, and about the barns, is heard the screaming of jays and 
the cawing of crows. 

Spring brings a host of eagles, hawks, owls, woodpeckers, 
cuckoos, thrushes, wrens, kingfishers, humming birds, warblers, 
swallows, orioles, blackbirds, sparrows, finches, buntings, and 



mauy others, among whom is the red-eyed vireo, one of the most 
welcome of the summer singers, for he sings all day long, no mat- 
ter how dark the weather or hot the sun. 

For the sportsman, the beautiful wood duck, the black duck and 
sheldrakes swim in tlie ponds and river, and in autumn the wild 
goose crying " hawnk-honck-e-honck," as he flies through the sky, 
often lights in Tarleton lake. But never yet has sportsman lived 
in Warren who knew how to hunt upland plover, or the woodcock 
that breed every year in the meadows of Runaway pond, and 
along the shores of some of the sedgy streams. That kind of 
shooting belongs to another gcMcratiou. 

Among the dark tirs and thick hackmatacks of the mountains is 
found the spruce grouse, sometimes called the Canadian grouse. 
They have a beautiful plumage, but are not considered good eating. 
They are very remarkable for their manner of drumming. They 
leap up from the earth and beating their wings rapidly against 
their sides, rise spirally some flfteen or twenty feet into the air, 
then slowly descending in the same manner, they all the time j)ro- 
duce by the rajDid motion of their wings a low rumbling sound 
like distant thunder which in a still day can be heard nearly a mile 

The ruffed grouse is a larger bird, much more plenty, is more 
sought after, and affords the most savory dish for the table. This 
bird is generally known as the partridge, is very numerous, and in 
fact cannot be exterminated. Their drumming, which every one 
has heard, is the call of the male bird to his harem of attendant 
wives, and is beautifully done. Standing up proudly on an old 
prosti'ate log, or flat rock in a spruce copse, he lowers his wings, 
erects his expanded tail, contracts his throat, elevates the two tufts 
of feathers on the neck, and inflates his whole body, something in 
the manner of a turkey-cock, strutting and wheeling about in great 
stateliness. After a few manoeuvres of this kind, he begins to 
strike his stiffened wings in short and quick strokes, which become 
more and more rapid until tliey run into each other, resembling 
the rumbling sound of very distant thunder, dying away gradually 
on the ear. Morning and evening in the spring of the year is their 
favorite drunnning time. Warren has had a host of good par- 
tridge hunters, from Obadiah Clement down to Benjamin Little, 



Russell MciTill, Beuj. K. Little, and Amos L. Mcrnll, Avho lives in 
the East-pavte region. 

Some years wild pigeons arc very ])lenty, and at the com- 
menconient of the present century tlocks miles in length and 
breadth, darkening the sun, would fly for days over our valley. In 
autumn when beech-nuts abounded, our hunters and their friends 
feasted on wild pigeons.* 

Warren's streams and ponds abound in tish. and fishermen 
have always been more ])leuty than hunters, trappers, or fowlers. 
Minnows, dace, eels, suckers, pout, pickerel, and trout, swarm the 
Avaters in great numbers: liut pickerel and trout are the most 
sousfht after. The latter were much larger formerlv than now. 

Mr. Samuel Merrill, familliarly known as " Uncle Sammy," a 
man beloved by every body, was one of the first fishermen in the 
head waters of the Asquamchumanke. He had settled high up on 
the side of Moosehillock mountain. The woods were thick about 
his clearing, shutting out the view back'of his cabin ; but Moose- 
hillock looked in upon him from the north, and east, the crests 
of the mountains swept round him in a circle to the south-west. 
Morning and evening he could hear the roar of the river in the 
gorge just beyond the eastern edge of the clearing. 

He used to tell how a July night of those early times had been 
showery, and in the morning, rising early, he saw a faint blue line 
of mist which hovered over the bed of the long rocky ravine, 
floating about like the steam of a seething cauldron, and rising here 
and there into tall smoke like columns, probably where some 
steeper cataract of the mountain stream sent its foam skyward. 
As the sun came up the mists rapidly dispersed from the lower 
regions, were suspended for a short time in the middle air in 
broad, fleecy masses, then melted quickly away in the increasing 
brightness of the day. 

" The fish will bite this forenoon, and I will see the river," he 
said, '' and the laud beyond." He had bought his hooks down 

* Anson Merrill said he saw pigeons, year after year, so thick flying over War- 
ren that they looked like a black cloud. 

Fowling AiiPcdote.— Joseph aud Orlando, sons of Joseph Boynton, wlio lived 
on therid^'e aljovc Cold brook, once found a partridge sitting on her nest. Orlando 
got tile gun and he and .Josepli went out to shoot the bird; but tlieii- fatlier think- 
ing It too l)ad to >hoot a sitting bird, run ahead ami scareil the partridge up. Or- 
lando saw liini alid lieard tlie heavy lliglit. He wa.-, mad and hallooed to Josepli 
what his father had done. Joseph", he was madder still, aud with the most fllial 


country, his wife liacl spun liim a linen line, and he had buckshot for 
a sinker. Digging some worms by the path that led to his house, 
he traveled away over the brook to the northeast, through the 
thick hemlock woods, a mile and more, to the river bank. At the 
base of this descent, four hundred feet perhaps below, flowed the 
dark arrowy stream — a wild perilous water. As clear as crystal, 
yet as dark as the brown lichens, it came pouring down among the 
broken rocks, with a rapidity and force which showed what must 
be its fury when swollen by a storm among the mountains ; here 
breaking into a wreath of rippUng foam, Avhere some unseen ledge 
chafed the current, there roaring and surging white as December's 
snow among the great round headed boulders, and there again 
wheeling in sullen eddies, dark and deceitful, round and round 
some deep rock-rimmed basin. 

Going down the bank two beautiful spruce grouse, their scarlet 
feathers gleaming in the morning sun, clucked, clucked, chur-r-red, 
and then disappeared in heavy flight down among the great trees 
of the ravine: 

At the water edge he cut a beautiful birchen pole, fastened his 
line upon the end and adjusted a worm upon his hook. Delicately, 
deftly the bait danced in the clear water across the foamy, crystal 
eddy to the hither bank, then again, obedient to the pliant wrist it 
circled half round the limpid basin, then stopped for a moment in 
a little mimic whirlpool, where it spun round and round just to 
the leeward of a gray granite boulder. It was only for a moment, 
and the gay tail of a trout flashed in the sunshine, then a swirl on 
the surface, a quick turn of the wrist, the barbed hook was fixed 
and the most beautiful fish of the northern waters spun round and 
round for a moment in the air, then quickly unhooked was strung 
on the forked birch twig cut for the purpose. The hook was 
rebaited, another and another were caught, then down sti'eam leap- 
ing on the great round boulders, he stopped again at a second 
edying basin, adjusted his bait, and hurrying now in the wild 
excitement, caught brace after brace, taking no note of time till 
the shadows crept out over the deep gorge and a heavy rumble up 

affeotion, and in the most pious manner, slioutert out, " Shoot, shoot the d — d old cuss." 
His tatlier lieanl liim and mildly said, " Orlando, if you do I'll take your hide off;" 
and Orlando didn't shoot. — Russell K. Clement's story. 


in the great basin of the mountains told that a thunder shower was 
coming- on. 

A hedgehog had come doAvn by the stream to drink, but he 
heeded him not. A winter wren, darting quick as a mouse in and 
out among the roots of a faUen tree, had warbled a trilling fairy 
song to him ; a white throated finch had sung soft and sweet from 
the top of a bpautiful green spruce that shot up like a cone at the 
head of a little island where the stream divided and rushed rap- 
idly down on either side, and just then a gi-eat shaggy black bear 
came from the woods and laying down in the cold water lapped 
his fill, and sozzled and tossed the clear crystal fluid to his heart's 
content. Merrill never disturbed him; but with fish, as many as 
he could conveniently carry, scrambled up the steep bank and 
hurried away home. In his old age he would tell what a wetting- 
he got going home from his first fishing excursion in the Asquam- 

Fish have been caught in Glen aud Wachi])auka ponds, and 
Tarleton lake, that would weigh over four pounds each,* and I 
have seen them myself, caught from the Joseph Merrill pond, that 
would weigh three pounds. Who does not like to fish? In my 
youth I fished in the dear old mill-pond and tiny Cold brook ; but 
in after years in the wild mountain stream and on the sylvan 

There are more than fifty miles of trout streams in our moun- 
tain hamlet, t any mile of which can be reached and well fished 
any day, in the season, from Warren common. Patch brook. Hur- 
ricane brook, Batchelder brook, Davis brook, Libby brook. East- 
branch brook, the Asquamchumauke, Gorge brook, Big brook, 
Merrill brook, Berry brook, Black brook, (the Mikaseota,) Ore hill 
brook, and Martin brook, also the Oliverian, afford more than fifty 
thousand genuine red-spotted ti'out with pink sides and silver belly 
and tri-colored fins, white, black, and red, each year. Who does 
not love to follow the clear streams running over sandy bottoms 

that weighed over four ijounrls. A tish hawk sat on a neighbonnir tree looking at 
hiin and evidently had been watching the same game. When Mr.'Fisk bagged the 

beauty the hawk Hew away with a scream, seemmg mucli disappointed. 

t Cyrus ('. Kimliall, in his day, fished a portion of the Asquamchumauke so 
much that the lisli were spring poor all the vear round. He amused himself 
chasing them over the rocks when they wouldn't bite. 


where they abound. Your trout delights in cascades, tumbling 
bays and weirs. (Te]icrally he has his hole under roots of over- 
hanging trees, and beneath hollow banks and great boulders in the 
deepest parts of the stream. The junction of little rapids, formed 
by water passing round an obstruction in the midst of the general 
current is a likely point at which to raise ati^out; also at the roots 
of trees, or beside gTeat rocks, or in other places where the froth 
of the stream collects. All such places are favorable for sport, as 
insects follow the same course ais the bubbles, and are there sought 
by the tish. Generally they lie head lip stream, not even wagging 
the tail or moving a tin. Thousands of pounds of tish are also 
taken from our ponds each year, yet they never seem to grow 
scarce, and each season brings its accustomed product. 

"Warren has known some pot fishers, real murderers of the 
tinny tribe ; and once upon a time, as the fairy stories begin, sev- 
eral lovers of fat trout resolved to capture every one in Wachi- 
pauka pond. Dr. Alphouzo G. French, Rev. A. W. Eastman, and 
Absalom Cliflord, Esq., were the principal actors. But they 
invited their friends John 3. Batchelder, Newell Barry, Newell 8. 
Martin, and several other less important personages, to go with 
them and share in the spoils. Accordingly, armed with wash- 
tubs, mackerel kits, and syrup holders, one bright summer morn- 
ing they all repaired to the pond. 

The iilan was to fill a large stone jug with powder, attach a 
fuse and sink it in the water: one of the number on a raft should 
light the fuse, and the others with a rope, should pull him ashore. 
The explosion would kill everj^ fish in the pond ; thej^ would float 
on the surface and the gi'eedy fishermen could pick them up at 
their leisure. Absalom Cliftbrd was to touch oft' the fuse, and Dr. 
French and Rev. Mr. Eastman were to land him before the explo- 
sion. The others would get behind great trees in the woods. 

The plan is perfected ; the raft is floating on the still water 
and the rope extends to the shore. 

Absalom Cliftbrd touched oft'; a light smoke curled up from 
the burning fuse. 

Pull, shouted the man on the raft, and the doctor and the min- 
ister pulled. '•' Pull ! Pull ! or I shall be blowed up," screamed the 
fuse lighter, and the man of physic and the man of the gospel 


pulled. — pulled with all their might. But alas the rope broke; a 
terrible explosion was soon to follow, they could not die there, 
and the doctor and the reverend fled far into the deep woods. 

A. Clillbrd knew his danger, there was no escape, and taking 
one last lingering look of mountains and green woods around, lay 
down on his raft, closed his eyes and resigned himself to his 

Soon the powder burned; but there was no terrible explosion, 
only a few buljbles on the surface and then all was calm and 

A long time after, the doctor, the minister, the hotel keeper, 
and the farmers, came creeping back. Absalom sat bolt upright 
on his ]'aft. He was now as bi'ave as a lion, and spoke many 
gentle words to the bold rope pullers who had left him to die 

They felt " cute enough." 

Absalom, with a piece of board paddled himself ashore, and 
the party gathering up all their tubs, kits, and holders, and cover- 
ing them with green boughs in their wagons, wended their way 
to their homes, exceedingly delighted with the many congratula- 
tions of their friends over their success, and the almost miraculous 
escape of A. Cliiford. 



^EAV things came fiist to our hamlet among- the hills, at 
the beginning of the present century. In the last chapter of the 
preceding book, we enumerated many of them, and at the com- 
mencement of the present, told of the new religions that came to 
town. In the land of the Coosucks, far to the northward, the 
people were similarly blessed, and having a great desire for a 
further supply of useful commodities, began to make effbrts for 
the building of better roads on which they might come. 

About this time a mania had arisen for turnpikes, throughout 
the whole land ; people believed they would be profitable invest- 
ments, and every body knew they would help develop the country. 
Nearly twenty of the roads had been chartered and built in New 
Hampshire, and December 19, 1805, a charter of the old Coos 
turnpike was obtained. The enterprising people of Haverliill 
Corner — they don't live there now — were mainly instrumental 
in procui'ing it, and the corporation* the ensuing spring, engaged 
the sei"vices of Gen. John McDuffee, a distinguished engineer of 
those times, and the survey was immediately commenced. 

* The turnpike corporation consisted of Moses Dow, Absalom Peters, .Joseph 
Bliss, Davirt Webster, .Jr., Asa Boynton, Charles Johnston, Alden Sprague, Moody 
Bedell, William Tarleton, John Page, and Stephen P. Webster. The flrst meeting 
was called by Col. William Tarleton and Stephen P. Webster, l)y publishing a no- 
tice in the Dartmouth Gazette. 

The ■' Coventry turnpike" was chartered December 29, 1803, but it was never 


There were two points at wliich it must terminate. Havei'hill 
Corner on the west, and Baker river, the Asquamchnmauke, ''near 
Merrill's mill " on the east, and it must bo the strai^j'htest and short- 
est line, if it did run plump over the mountain long kuown as the 
Height-o*-land. Surveyor McDufTee looked over the route first, and 
then commencino- at Haverhill Corner, ran southeasterly towards 
the Asquamchumauke in Warren. He was all sunnner perform- 
ing the work, getting the bearings, estimating the grade, driving 
the stakes, and cutting bushes. Thomas Pillsbury of AYarren was 
one of the surveying party, and helped carry the chain. Then the 
general made up his plan, and in the autumn of 1806 advertise- 
ments were posted for pi-oposals to build sections of one hundred 
rods each, on the whole line. 

Joseph Patch, Jr., and his brothers, contracted for and built 
from the commencement at the narrow point between Baker river 
and the Mikaseota or Black brook up to the Blue ridge. Joseph 
Merrill took the job cutting through the high embankment of Run- 
away pond. It required a great amount of labor and much time, 
and before it was finished the people thought it was a blue job for 
Mr. Merrill, hence the name Blue ridge. ^^Imos Little built the 
hundred rods above Blue ridge, over the Mikaseota, and one of 
the Clements the section above that. Captain William Butler also 
built a section. 

In 1808, the turnpike approaching completion, a toll-gate was 
constructed and located where the road crosses the outlet of Tarle- 
ton lake. Here was a narrow ravine and there was no way to 
proceed except through the gate. Nine pence was the toll for a 
horse and rider, one shilling for a horse and wagon, one and six 
pence for a two horse wagon or sleigh, and three shillings for large 


The people who lived beside it were permitted to ti-avel upon 
it at a small cost ; they woi-king out their highway taxes upon it in 
part payment. t Joseph Merrill was superintendent of repairs for 
the south division. Several roads not being longer needed were 
now thrown up.t 

♦For an exteuded table of tolls, see charter in office of Secretary of State. 

t Each man had to work a day and a half on the turnpike to pay for what he 
used it.— Gen. M. P. Merrill's statement. 

tVoted to discontinue from Bowles' to the old Potasli, (so called,) near Mr, 
Weeks' so long as the public can pass on the turnpike, free from '• towl." 


And now, when the I'oad was opened, how the people rejoiced ! 
It would bring- new life to the town ! Their jDroperty would be of 
higher value, and the world at their doors. 

These bright expectations were fully realized; travel greatly 
increased. Great teams, as they were called, canvass covered 
wagons, drawn by eight or ten horses, went rumbling by every 
day in long trains, almost like caravans in the East. Going north 
they invariably hired all the horses and oxen at the foot of the 
Height-o'-land that could be found, to help them up. My uncle, 
Anson Merrill, said that when a boy, he had been to the top of the 
Height a hundred times or more to take back the oxen or horses. 
Four shillings or four-and-six-pence was the price of a yoke of 
cattle or a span of hoi'ses over the mountain. The highest point 
on the road where they dismissed the boy, was about two thousand 
feet above sea level, and a barn now standing on the turnpike sum- 
mit is a real water-shed, the rain and meltiug snow runuing from 
one roof flowing into the Connecticut, that from the other roof 
into the Merrimack. In winter two-horse puugs, with jingling 
bells and shouting drivers, came from the fertile hill-sides of Ver- 
mont, and made trains miles in length on the winter road. Num- 
erous pod teams, or one-horse sleighs, also joined the great 
caravan to the seaboard. 

It was a I'omautic trip these pungs had to Dover, Portsmouth, 
and Newburj'port. Mr. Samuel Merrill,* ''Uncle Sammy," who 
lived in the East-parte regions, used to narrate his adventures 
" going down by the sea."' When the deep snow had come and the 
weather was cold, he loaded up his great steel-shod, — shoes of 
steel more than an inch thick, — market pung. Whole hogs, 
frozen stiff", apple-sauce, butter, cheese, poultry, feetiiigs, mink, 
fox, sable, fisher-cat, and bear skins, caught by his boys, sheep's, 
pelts, and all the various articles of country j)i-oduce, make a heavy 
load. Then he would take a whole trunk full of pies, cakes, cold 

Voted to discontinue the old road from the uortli side of Coventry road to the 
turnpike above Mr. Swett's as above. 

Voted to discontinue from .Joseph Merrill's to the savr-mill as above. 

Voted to discontinue IVoin Captain Craige's liouse to Jonathan Clement's inn. 
Captain Craige lived in .Joshua Merrill's lioiise on the west side of the Mikaseota. 
—Town Clerk's Records, Vol. i. 190. 

* Samuel ilerrill was the son of Rev. Nathaniel Merrdl, a very able Congi-ega- 
tional minister. Nathaniel was a brother of Joshua and Stevens Merrill, early 
settlers m ^^'alTen. 


meat, cold fowl, and cheese, for himself, and several bnshels of 
oats for his horses. He did not like to pay much money to the 
thousand and one landlords who kept hotels and furniphod drinka- 
bles all alonii' the road to the markets, which were known as places 
down country. Just think of the little man mounting the semi- 
circular step behind the sleigh for the start, amid the tender good- 
bys and kind wishes of those who were to stay behind, and who 
must now pass days and perhaps weeks, if drifting snow or a 
'•' January thaAv" should inteiwene, before the old mare and her 
four year old colt should make their appearance, coming up the 
hill home again. ''Out to the road," and he joined the throng 
coming down the turnpike, and was lost in the hurrying caravan. 
At the market towns he bought salt, spices of all kinds, steel traps, 
powder, shot, tishing tackle, and a host of coveted luxuries, and 
then he was off for his home again. The old mare and the four 
year old colt turned out of the throng and off the turnpike road 
instinctively, and was there not joy in the household that night 
when he unloaded his treasures. James "VYilliams, his neighbor, 
had a two-horse market sleigh, as did Joseph Patch, Jr., Captain 
Butler, Obadiah Clement, and several others. There were like- 
wise numerous pod teams owned in town, that made annual pil- 
grimages down country with the rest. 

Freighting and travel to the seaboard so much increased, on 
account of the turnpike, that one or two new taverns were opened 
in town. Mr. Nathaniel Clough* had one near the south line of 
"Warren, Captain Butler and Jonathan Clement each kept one in 
the valley of Runaway pond, and Col. Tarleton. Joseph Merrill, 
'Squire Jonathan Merrill, and Lemuel Keezer,t still continued their 
hostelries and bought hay and grain of all the farmers in the country 

The old turnpike road had a lively liistory for a quarter of a 


.Jonathan, born Dec. 2S, 1790, at War- Anins, born May 1'2, 1797. 

reu. Sallv, born Apr. -28, 1799. 

Natlianiel, born Aug. 17, 1792. Betsey, born Feb. 15, 1803. 

William, born Sept. 5, 1791, Jnliana, born Oct. 0, 1813. 

t Lemnel Keezer in his old ape got Captain Daniel Merrill to live with him and 
take care o! him. Captain Daniel amonfr other tilings agreed to fnrni.^h Mr. Kee- 
zer a pint of good nun a day iluring hi.s natural lite. Captain Daniel was also a 
deacon, and Keezer used to say of him, " Now then Daniel always hangs up his 
deaconshiji on a peg at home, when he goes out buying cattle, aiid don't take it 
(JovFu again till Saturday at 4 p. m. 


century, and on it has happened many a fond adventure. The 
Height-o'-landers were hi old times a jolly, jovial, hilarious set of 
roisterers. The Days, es]3ecially, who once lived there, vs^ere fond 
lovyers of good grog, and many a break-neck ride they took with 
bottle and bag. a stone in one end of the bag to balance the bottle, to 
the hotels in the valley of Runaway pond, and on the banks of 
the Asquamchumauke, to obtain the " good creature." It is told by 
superstitious people that they used to see ghosts on the road going 
home o' nights. 

But the wildest adventure, a terrible ride, happened on the 

turnpike about the year 1812, soon after the road was first opened. 

A teamster of short and stout frame from northern Vermont, used 

to drive four powerful black hoi'ses, freighting to the seaboard. 

In the hot summer he would travel nights and rest daytimes. He 

left Tarleton's hotel by Tai'leton lake one evening to go over to the 

Asquamchumauke valley. He came through the Tamarack swamp 

by the pond, climbed the highest summit and went down to the 

top of the sharp pitch where commence the cascades of Ore-hill 

brook. Here he chained his wheel, mounted his load and started 

down. He had not pi'oceeded a rod when the chain broke. The 

horses could not hold the heavy load and it forced them into a run 

down the hill. It was dark as pitch, he could not see to rein his 

team, he could not hold them, and their speed accelerated every 

moment. The sparks flew from the steel-shod hoofs, and long 

trails of hght flashed back in the darkness as the wheels rumbled 

over the rocks. As the speed increased, ghosts seemed to shriek 

out to him from the murky air, and he could almost see their eyes 

flashing like meteors, — in fact he did see stars, although the whole 

sky was covered with thick clouds, for just at the foot of the hill 

where the road turns to the right before crossing the stream, the 

wagon struck a rock, breaking nearly every timber in it. The 

leaders cleared themselves and ran, the hind horses were thrown 

down and one of them killed, while the driver was thrown from 

the load against a stone, and one of his legs was broken in three 


He shouted for help, but there was no house within a mile of 
the spot, and no one came to his assistance. To stay there was to 
die in agony, and to move did not increase his pain. On his hands 


and knee he cvawled to his team, cut the harness of the living 
horse and got him up. Mounting him lie rode to Jonathan Clem- 
ent's inn. a mile and a lialf away, roused the family, and was 
assisted into the liouse. "When a light was brought, his hair, dark 
before, was found to be white as snow. 

The horses that ran were found standing quietly under the 
tavern shed. Dr. Bartlett set the teamster's broken limb, and 
every thing possible was done for the unfortunate man, but it was 
four months before he was able to walk a step.* 

For a whole generation the turnpike corporation flourished 
and paid good dividends to the stockholders. Then the feeling- 
became prevalent that a road should be built by which the steep 
hills and mountains might be shunned. After a long contest one 
was built and travel ceased over the Height-o'-land . The tavern- 
keepers in the valley of Runaway pond and on the shore of Tarle- 
ton lakef then took down their signs, and the places once bustling 
with the activity of teamsters, stage-drivers, and travelers, became 
almost solitudes. 

Still the old turnpike did good sei-vice for the dwellers beside 
it of a second generation ; but to-day. riding over it, it seems 
like a monument of a people past and gone. Especially did it 
seem so when in the spring of 1868, in company with my esteemed 
friend, Mr. James Clement, we came down from Cross' iron 
mine, through the Tamarack woods by Tarleton lake. It was a 
cloudy, wet evening the last of May ; the lonely farm house be- 
side the road was deserted, not a human being was to be seen, 
but from the swamp and dripping wood came the warbling melody 
of the winter wren, the sweet song of the white-throated spar- 
row, and trilling sweeter, richer, and far more beautiful than 
all the rest, the mellow, flute-like notes of the wood thrush. 

Reader, riding over the old turnpike, remember that once this 
solitude was the busiest and most traveled thoroughfare in all 
northern New Hampshire. 

* Dr. .lesse Little's statement. 

t The nlrl sijru of Colonel Win. Tarleton, that creaked for more than half a 
century in Ihe winds that ))le\v over Tarleton lake, is still (18::;)) in existence. When 
taken down it was nailed njion an inside stable door, where the writer saw it iu 
ISM). It was made of a l)i-o;id oaken board and was beautifullv painted On the 
top of the visible side is tlie name of William Tarletmi, and the date 1774 at the 
bottom. Between the name and the date is au excellent likeness of Gen. Wolfe 
with drawn sword and full uniform. Wolfe was the hero at that time, and Wash- 
ington and his generals were hardlv known. 


and that it would be more houorable to the company for the requi- 
site number to volunteer. Then the tenor drum played for volun- 
teers, and eight men immediately stepped- forward. Two others 
were soon obtained by the ofleriiig of small bounties, and George 
Libbey, Richard Whiteman, Nathaniel Libbey, Nathaniel Richard- 
son, Ephraim Lund, Daniel Pillsbury, Joseph Pillsbury, Jacob 
Whitcher, Obadiah AYhitcher. and Jonathan Weeks, were the ten 
men who constituted Warren's quota.* 

Addison Patch, Anson Merrill and several other boys, sat on 
the hay-mow that day, listening to the music of the comj)any band 
mingled with that of the rain rattling on the long shingles of the 
roof, and witnessed the volunteering. 

Captain Ephraim H.'Mahurin of Stratford, N. H., commanded 
the company, John Page, Jr., was Lieutenant. Perkins Fellows 
was ensign, and George Libbey of AVarren was one of the ser- 
geants, while Richard Whiteman who lived and died at WaiTen 
summit, was first corporal. The whole company was raised from 
the old 13th regiment, which at the time of the breaking out of the 
war was commanded by Lieut. Col. John Montgomery, John 
Kimball of Haverhill, Major of the first battalion, and Daniel 
Patch of Warren, Major of the second battalion. 

The company immediately proceeded to its rendezvous by 
Indian stream, in Stewartstown. But as good fortune would have 
it, they saw no bloody fight, and achieved no high lionors on the 
battle-field. Yet they had lively times building block-houses and 
chasing after smugglers, whom they never caught. Part of the 
company under Lieut. John Page, who was afterwards governor 
of New Hampshire, went down through Dixville notch to Errol 
dam, ostensibly to protect the settlers of that locality from the 
Indians, of whom old Metalic was chief and the whole tribe, but 
in fact to prevent a few enterprising Maine men from dri\dng cat- 
tle up the Megalloway river to Canada, and there selling them to 
the British forces. 

The party had exciting times performing their dnties, and the 

* .John Abbott weut for Haverhill as a drummer, and Perkins Fellows, 
calling himself from Piermont, weut witli Warren's volunteers. Perkins Fellows 
married a daughter of .Jonathan Clemeut, inn-keeper. 

" Let Richard Whiteman have when he weut as a soldier, $5.00."— See Select- 
men's Records, Vol. i, 


brave commander, Lieut. John Page, got so terrifically lame, Sept. 
12, 1812, chasing- Maine cow-boys through the woods, that he did 
not o-et well during the remainder of his term of enlistment. But 
Sergeant George Libbey said he had the best time catching the 
great five pound trout on the falls of the Androscoggin river, and 
shooting wild fowl that congregated in great numbers on the clear 
waters of Umbagog lake. Jan. 27, 1813, the time of their enlist- 
ment was up and AVarren's men, if they did enlist on a terribly 
rainy day. all came home safe and sound, well pleased with their 
exploits on the northern frontier. 

Warren had some ambitious men. Tristram Pillsbury went 
into the western army, John Abbott went away, joined some regi- 
ment and died while in the service.* Major Daniel Patch was a 
private and fought at the battle of Bridgewater, where he was 
wounded. But David Patch gained more distinction as a soldier 
than any other native of Warren. He enlisted in some other State, 
got a commission, fought in several battles, got promoted for 
bravery, and commanded a regiment as a colonel, at the battle of 
Sackett's harbor. f Here he was taken prisoner, carried to Halifax, 
and was so badly treated that he was attacked by consumption. 
A\nien peace was declared, he came home, and shortly after died. 
To-day, he is lying in an unmarked and almost forgotten grave in 
the village burying ground. 

In 1814, numerous British men-of-war appeared off the coast 
of New Hampshire, and so great was the panic they created, that 
Governor Gilman ordered the entire body of the New Hampshire 
militia, infantry, cavalry, and artillery, ''to hold themselves in 
readiness to march at a moment's warning. "J Many companies 
were Immediately ordered to Portsmouth, and a draft Avas once 
more to be had in Warren. Four men was the quota of our little 
hamlet this time, and the mighty rulers who were elected this year 
in our little democracy, Jonathan Merrill, Abel Merrill, and Joseph 
Patch, Jr., were ordered to see that the men were forthcoming. 

Again the company which bore such euphonious names as the 
slam-bang company, the string-bean company, and the old flood- 

* John Abbott died of scarlet fever, April 13, 1613, at Concord, N. H. 
t David Patch was woiuided at the battle of Sackett's harbor. It is doubtful 
about his ever having held a commission as colonel. 
t Adjutant General's Report, 1868, part 2d, p. 130. 


wood company, was warned to appear on the pai-ade in front of 
Joseph Merrill's inn. It was a bright day this time, Sept. 27, 1814, 
when they assembled, and the men were drawn up before the 
tavern door. Once more there was a harangue for volunteers, 
once more the drum rolled out a patriotic strain, and when it 
ceased, four men, Moses Ellsworth, Stephen AYhiteman,* Cotton 
Batchelder, and another, f all '' little runts of men," a little over 
four feet tall, stood valiantly forth, each anxious to be one of his 
country's defenders. 

'Squire Jonathan and his companions in otfice were indignant. 
" To send such soldiers will be a disgrace to the town," said they; 
''They shall not go, the draft shall x^roceed." Accordingly the 
name of each man on a slip of paper was placed in a hat, and when 
well shaken up, Joseph Patch, Jr., drew forth four of them. 
Stephen "Whiteman was in luck. He, "svitli John Copp, William 
Merrill, and Obadiah Whitcher, were drafted to go. But William 
Merrill, son of Joseph Merrill, inn keeper, would not be a soldier, 
and Daniel Pillsbury went as Ms substitute. 

Perkins Fellows, who lived over the Height-o'-land, was also 
on hand again and went with the quota of Warren. They helped 
to make up a company which was commanded by Captain John 
D. Harty, of Dover. Perkins Fellows was first Lieutenant, and 
by his influence Daniel Pillsbury was first corporal, and Obadiah 
Wliitcher third corporal. These men had gay times down at 
Portsmouth, by the side of the " deep blue sea," where they went 
fishing, catching sheep's heads and cuttle-fish, and the only hazar- 
dous service they saw was when some shiuey nights they made 
raids upon pig-styes and hen roosts. John Copp and Stephen 
Whiteman were great on a raid. At the end of sixty days they 
were all discharged and came safe home. 

When peace had been declared, and the war was over, there 


Stephen, born Auff. 12, 1784. Betsev, born May 24, 1792. 

Richard, born .)nne 24, 1786, Hannah, born June 17, 1794. 

Levi, born Apr. 8, 1789. 

Mr.s. Whiteman died March 29, 1798. She was a daughter of Farmer .Joshua. 

AVilliam Whiteman wa.s a Dutchman. 

t.Iohn Copp was the fourth little man who volunteered.— Stephen Whiteman's 

Mr. Whiteman said .John Copp was not so tall as lie was. .Jesse Eastman wlio 
lived a long time in the East-parte regions, went from Coventry and carried his 
own gun. 


was great Joy iu all the laud, but the military spirit did uot die out. 
Little training day iu May, and muster day were more anxiously 
expected than ever, and great was the enthusiasm ou such occa- 

The old 13th regiment, composed of the companies of Warren, 
Benton, Haverhill, Piermont, and Orford, was now in all its glory. 
Moses H. Clement, of Warren, was Colonel, James Rogers, Lieut. 
Colonel, and James R. Page, Major. Col. Clement had been a 
captain of infiintry, a captain of cavalry or troop, as it was gener- 
ally called, and now he had got to be a colonel of a whole regiment. 
What a high honor, thought he, and Warren shall share it. So 
when the annual muster-day came, all the troops were commanded 
to meet on the " parade," in front of Joseph Merrill's inn, in our 
little democracy. 

"WTio of those who lived in the last generation, does not 
remember what a time they had going to muster. It was the great 
day of the year. Every body was up by one o'clock a. m., ou that 
morning. All the country round was alive; men, women, and 
children, hurrying away by thousands over the hills and through 
the valleys in the morning dawn, to muster. What shouting, 
what running of horses, what a caravan of peddlers, traveling 
through the country, going through a whole brigade of musters. 

Eveiy one must be on the ground at sunrise at the beating of 
the reveille, when the companies would be formed. All around 
the parade, booths, victualing tents, and showmen's tents had 
sprung up in the night like Jonah's gourd. These would reap a 
harvest ou that eventful day. The whole field north of the parade 
was thrown open for the muster, and the line was always formed 
where the railroad embankment is now. What rivalry was there 
to be the color company, to be the escort company. How gay was 
the troop, and what splendid uniforms some of the infantry com- 
panies had. 

The whole regiment with colors flying marched that day with 
its dashing colonel at its head, along the broad turnpike road. 
Two dozen drums were beating all at once, a dozen fifes were 
shrilly playing, the brass band joined its inspiriting strains and the 
two cannon of the artillery company on the field, helped make mu- 
sic for the regimental march. The forests awoke in echoes, all the 


hills gave back the sound, and the TTOoded mountain crests taking- 
up the melody of war, bore it far across the borders to the dwell- 
ers beyond Glen jionds in the ancient lands of Trecothick and of 
old Peeling, along the banks of the Pemigewassett. Those kind 
neighbors of oui-s over the mountains, who come to Warren about 
as often as the Chinese, never forgot the music of the regimental 
muster, and even now on winter evenings, tell their grandchildren 
of it. 

Col. Obadiah Clement, father of Col. Moses, looked on with 
ambitious eyes, and a tiitherly pride, and said it reminded him of 
the time when they had the first little training on Blue ridge, by 
the bank of the Mikaseota, now called Black brook. Besides many 
of the soldiers of the Revolution were also there; Col. Stone, an 
old pensioner who had married the widow of Joshua Copp, and 
was engaged making a perpetual motion, Samuel Knight, Jacob 
Low, and Asa Low, and many others, together with the soldiers 
of the 1812 war, all said it was the finest muster they ever saw.* 
Especially were they pleased when at the review and inspection 
the General of the Brigade came upon the field, and every soldier 
stood up straight and did his prettiest. 

In the afternoon they had a sham fight, and the side that had 
the artillery company won the victory, and then even Moosehil- 
lock's bald head echoed back the fray. There were also several 
smaller fights where there was not much noise, but a few broken 
heads and black eyes, all induced by good whisky ; but we won't 
say much about these as the actors did not want any record made 
of their glorious achievements. 

Thus passed the day. The children and spectators eat ginger- 
bread, nuts, candy, honey, and drank new cider and something- 
stronger, bought wares of the peddlers, watched the march. 
reviews, and drills, and looked at the shows. 

At night they went home, and all the peddlers who had sold 
at auction, and hallooed and yelled till their throats were sore, all 

* .Jacob Low woulfl twit his hrotlier Asa Low of stealing his money, and 
when he would ask for it to buy tobacco, the latter would say, "Chaw tow," Jake, 
chaw tow." Jacob would tlien piously call Asa a d— d traitor, "and said he no busi- 
ness to draw a pension, if lie did go to the war. Asa had property and could not 
get his ])ension for many years. Jacob Low was at tlie battle ol' Bunker hill, and 
helped Are a cannon thirteen times at the Britisli, ami tlien run witli the rest. He 
said he, himself alone, moved the cannon back and forth behind the breast work 
with a " handspike" as he called it. He was once a member of Gen. Lfee's body- 


the ishow-mcn and victuallers, had pulled up stakes and were off 
to the muster that would be held sonicAvhere down the river next 

The soldiers too. all hurried away as soon as they got their 
silver lialf dollar, and the drums and tlie tifes, and the bugle of the 
troop was heard no more for several yeai's in Warren.* 

One man was certainly happy on the night of the muster, — 
Joseph Merrill, inn-keeper, for he had made $200 clear profit that 
day, a large sum for those times. 

Many musters have been held since in Warren, but none better 
or more successful than the one when Moses H. Clement was 

guarcl. lu Wai-rea he lived with Araos Little several years, but died at Jo. Boyn- 
tou's, just above the Cold brook on the old turnpike. Gen. .Tosepli Low of Con- 
cord, ouv-e Adjutant General of X. I-I., was a nepliew of Jacob Low. 

Jacob said Asa deserted once, then got ashamed of himself and came skullsing 

* Paid Abel Merrill for what he expended for the soldiers on regimental mus- 
ter day, with adding twenty-live cents for eaeli soldier belonging to the cavalry 
and artillery companies, $r2. 10.— Selectmen's Records, Vol. i. 

t^a^c^^A^^ c/^!^-^^.^:^^^^: 


carry sniall bundle? and distribute them all through the country, 
where he went. For the agreeable part of these small jobs, the 
pay, he blew his clear, ringing horn as he passed every dwelling. 
Twice a week the inhabitants saw him climbing up the turnpike, 
twice a week they saw him disappearing down the valley of the 
Asquamchumauke . 

Once he got snowed in at Warren, and was obliged to stop at 
Joseph Merrill's inn over the Sabbath. Let us stop thei-ewith him. 
'Twas a neat bar-room, Joseph Merrill's. The floor was white, 
the old clock ticked in the corner, and the very attractive bar stood 
in the north end, its long row of decanters on the shelf behind, 
clean tumblers and mugs, nice toddy-sticks, and bright di-ainer. 
But the crowning glory of that bar-room is not the white floor, 
not the neat bar with its attractive contents, nor yet the clock tick- 
ing so musically in the corner: but it is the old-fashioned tii-e- 
place with its blazing embers, huge back-log, and iron fire-dogs, 
that shed glory over the whole room, gilds the plain and homely 
furniture with its light and renders the place a true type of New 
England in '' ye olden times." Joseph Merrill's boys, and he had 
many of them, roasted apples, which swung round and round 
upon strings before the bright fire of that Saturday evening. Po- 
tatoes so rich and mealy, buried deep, were drawn from the ashes 
on the hearth for the colonel's supper, and Sunday afternoon the 
wife of our host turned the spit before the golden hue of the blaz- 
ing embers, on which the turkey roasted, filling the room with 
delicious odors so suggestive of a daintj- repast. Other farmers 
all over town had a kitchen fire just as beautiful. 

There was no meeting-house in town then, no meeting that 
snowy Sunday. For a long hour Col. May sat gazing in silence 
into the fire, and conjuring up all sorts of grotesque, fanciful ima- 
ges from among the burning coals. No fabled genii, with magic 
lamp of enchantment could build such gorgeous palaces or create 
such gems as one could discover amid the blazing embers of the 
old fashioned tire-place. How pure was the air of that bar-room! 
The huge fire-place with its brisk draught, carried off all the im- 
purities of the atmosphere and left it life-giving and healthful, not 
such as we breathe now as we huddle around the air-tight stoves. 

When the colonel got tired of this, he got up, walked about, 



then went to the Httle crypt hke hole in tlie wall, just to tlie right 
of the blazing hearth, where he found some half-dozen books,— 
the Bible, Baxter's Saint's Everlasting Best, Pilgrim's Progress, 
Robinson Crusoe, and Gulliver's Travels, well read books of the 
last century; but how entertaining on a snowy day. These served 
to while away the long liours, and make his stay pleasant. 

It was hard climbing the Height-o'-land Monday, and Col. May 
got through to Haverhill, only after great ox-teams had tirst broke 
the road. 

But carrying the mail in a one-horse Dutch wagon was not 
what the people in this northern country wanted. They had heard 
of something better, and they longed for the rumbling old thor- 
oughbraced coach, such as Merrie England had possessed for a 
hundred years, such as were becoming the fashion down country. 
In all the towns from Concord to Haverhill, the matter was talked 
about, and in the spring of 1814, Robert Morse, of Romney, led off 
in the enterprise. In each town a subscription paper was circu- 
lated, and a considerable sum having been raised, a coach and 
horses for the route were bought.* 

A change of horses were stationed at Franklin lower village, 
another at Newfound lake, and another at Morse's village, in 
Romney. t When all was arranged the coach, four horses attached, 

* First Stage.— One was put on in 1811, but it only run a short time, and then 
"l)iist np." Lemnel Keezer, Benjamin Merrill, Abel Merrill, Amos Little and 
Colonel William Tarleton, took stock in (his tirst enterprise. J'hilip Smart drove 
the stage. Caleb Merrill got in debt to the line, $1.'2(>, for carrying bnndles from 
Warren to Plymontli. Tins stage was "to rnu from Haverliill'to Concord via 
■Plymouth Court House." 

t Lemuel Keezer once kept the stage horses at his tavern. To save work, he 
had some wooden harrows made and would put them under the horses at night, 
teeth up, so that they could not lie down and get dirty. This .saved a gi-eat deal ol' 
work, and withal was very kind to the horses— so Keezer told his hostler. 

Keezer once luid the toothache— very painful. It made him " holler." He went 
to old Doctor Thos. Whipjile to have it pulled. Dr. Whipple commenced to cut 
round it. With the terrible aching and the pain of cutting, Keezer could not re- 
strain himself, and he shut his teeth down on the doctor's lingers till the blood run. 
The doctor with a struggle got free, and then ajiplled his oht fashioned cant-liook 
tooth-puller. With a turn of the wrist he held Keezer's head for a minute so tight 
he could not move, looked him square in the face and exclaimed, " Xow Keezer 
bite I d— m ye, bite!" 

Keezer used to compliment Captain Daniel Men-ill with whom he lived,— said 
the captain was born in the afternoon, that he never got round with his work till 
afternoon; that lie never got to meetuig till afternoon, and that he wouldn't go to 
heaven till afternoon. He also said Cajitain D. was the best farmer in town, for in 
the fall he always left the plow in the furrow, ready to hitch right on to in the 

Captain Daniel used to plague Keezer about going to see the widow Pudney as 
he called her. Keezer didn't like it, and said he would come it on tlie captain.' So 
one day he came running into the house all out of breath, and told him that his 
son John, who was up in the woods after a load, was tight between two trees. 


left Concord for Haverhill. Robert Morse, the father of this enter- 
prise was on board, and also some of his friends, as invited guests. 

It was a romantic ride for those passengers who first '• dead- 
headed'' it free, through this upper country. The intervals in 
Salisbury, now Franklin, where Daniel Webster spent his early 
years, were delightful. The Pemigewassett roai'ed through the 
deep ravines of Bristol, Newfound lake shone bright as when 
Sanuiel Scribner and John Barker, hunting beside it, were carried 
away by the Indians, and the Asquamchumauke wound calm and 
clear, kissing- the pebbles on its sh(n-e, around the foot of Rattle- 
snake mountain, as when Captain Tolford's men or Captain Pow- 
ers' men killed moose on its banks. 

But where the mountains, their lofty peaks lost in the cloiids, 
sloped down to the very riv^er, which had now become a wild and 
foamy stream, where the green woods covered all the hills, and 
the clearings in the valley grew rare, there the beauties of the ride 
were fully appreciated. 

Col. Silas May was a gi-eat horse man. His coach rattled over 
the bridge on the southern border of Warren, and when he crossed 
Hurricane brook and hurried over Patch brook, he came by 
Joseph Patch's, reining his mettlesome team with one hand, wliile 
with the other he held the bugle on which he played strains so wild 
and exhilerating that all the echo gods in the ravines of the hills 
and mountains, woke up and answered back the music. Nearly 
the whole of the inhabitants in town turned out to see the strange 
sight of a covered coach, for it was something new : perhaps they 
would have turned out any way, for all loved the beautiful airs 
played by Silas May. All the way up over the Asquamchumauke 
again, past where the depot is now, it was a fine young apple- 
orchard then, he i)layed martial airs ; Napoleon over the Alps, and 
Washington's March, till he reined in his horses before Joseph 
Merrill's inn. The latter was greatly pleased to see the stage; he 
had worked hard for the enterprise. 

Again on the way, they passed the Blue ridge, crossed the 

Daniel witli a bottle of rum, jumped on to liis horse bare back, and run liim all the 
wav up there; found .John all riyht, and went baek mad enough, and a.'-ked Kee- 
zei" wliat he meant Ivin.s so. Keezer said he didn't lie; wuiked his eye and asked 
Daniel wliere John could be in the woods, if he wasn't between two trees. As the 
captain went out Keezer meekly said, " Hoxo do you do, Mrs. Pudriey." 




Mikaseota, or Black brook, and climbiug the Height-o'-land by 
flasluug Ore hill stream, our driver enlivened the broad and beau- 
tiful turnpike road with Lady Washington's reel, Money-musk, 
and Bine Bonnets over the Border. The Summit passed, they saw 
a light winged wind blowing across Tarleton lake, and heard the 
roar of the brook at the outlet. When wathin half a mile of Hav- 
erhill, by some accident a linch-pin was lost from the end of one 
of the wooden axles ; but as the wheel did not come off, owing to 
May's skill in driving, they succeeded in reaching HaA'erhill Corner 
without replacing it. 

Another stage route had been established from Concord to 
Haverhill, via Lebanon, this same season; but the route through 
Warren was so much shorter that Col. May could easily reach 
Haverhill Corner three hours earlier than the other stage. 

Numerous drivers have since been employed on this route, all 
genial good fellows wiiom the whole community liked. The names 
most familiar and not yet forgotten by the old men of Warren are, 
Caleb Smart, Archibald McMurphy, George S. Putnam, Peter 
Dudley, Sanborn Jones, Thomas P. Cliftbrd, Jabez Burnham, 
Eleazer Smith, William Wright, Peabody Morse, John Sanborn, 
James Langdon, Samuel Walker, AYm. Wash. Simpson, Seth 
Greenleaf, and IL B. Marden. Twice a week each way the stage 
run at first, then three times up and three times dowji, and finally 
up and down every day, and sometimes two or three stages both 
w ays a day, when there was a rush of travel. 

A7ith the stage a love of news increased, and the people 
desired a post-oflice and a post-master of their own. For a long 
time they had to send to Plymouth to mail a letter; then the peo- 
ple of Wentworth had a post-office, and our fathers went there for 
their mail matter. But this was a great inconvenience, letters 
frequently laying in the Wentworth post-office a wdiole month at a 
time before the owners got them. But now the stage ran so reg- 
ularly tliere was no reason why the desire for a post-office should 
not be gratified. So a petition numerously signed was forwarded 
to the postmaster-general at Washington. The prayer of the citi- 
zens was granted at once, and our little democracy became a post 

Amos Burton, who had a store near the southern termination 



of the turnpike, was the first post-master in Wan-en. Anson Mer- 
rill i^uccceded him, and then Dr. Jesse Little held the office of post- 
master nine years. Dr. DaAdd C. French, Levi C. Whitcher, Asa 
Thurston, George ^Y. Prescott, Charles C. Durant, and numerous 
othors liavo held the office. 

With the stage an easy means of travel, the mail with its let- 
ters and newspapers coming and going everyday, our little de- 
mocracy among the hills felt as though it had got out among folks. 
At any rate it grew rapidly and became a State of great import- 
ance, particularly in its own estimation, — a condition especially to 
be commended, for if a person don't think well of himself, he may 
be pretty sure no one else will. 



It was a cold year, 1815. Winter lingered in the lap of 
spring-. The summer was damp, cloudy, and cheerless, and the 
siin's rays seemed sickly. For two years pestilence had been 
abroad in the land, although not as yet had it come to Warren. 

But now old people said everything appeared to bode some- 
thing wrong. Strange sounds hurtled in the air, the owl hooted 
hoarse at midnight, a portentous red meteor fell down with a long 
trail of blood in the great gorge of Moosehillock, and the frogs 
croaked ominously ; the whip-poor-will sang a mournful strain in 
the dusk of evening, and comets flashed like troops of ghosts 
through the sky. 

Silently came the pestilence. Whence, no one could tell. But 
its first victim Avas found in the family of Mr. George Bixby, on 
Beech hill.* A young son of Mr. B. was suddenly taken alarm- 
ingly ill. A physician was sent for, he came, and not discovering 
the nature of the disease, gave as he thought a simple remedy, and 
took his departure. In a few hours the young man was dead. 
The corpse w^as laid out and two sons of Amos Little came to 


George, Jr. born Oct. 14, 1788. Elizabeth, born Dec. 9, 1802. 

Benjamin, l)()rn Apr. (i, ITBO. Diullev, born Dec. 0, 1804. Died Aug. 

Anna, born Feb. 8, 17i2. •24,'']808. 

.Joseph, born Mar. '2, 1794. Asa, born Feb. 7, 1807. Died Nov. 13, 

Sanuiel, born Mar. l;5, 1796. 1808. 

Sarah, born May 28, 17iJ8. Hannah B. bora Feb 7, 1809. 


watch by it the succeeding- night. The next day one of them, James 
LiUlo, was taken siclv and live hours after Avas a corpse. Amos 
Little, Jr., the other watcher, also died.* Tlicu Dolly Little, a 

sister of James and Amos, Jr., died. 


The disease came down from Beech hill, spread rapidly and 
soon all was consternation. There was no physician in town and 
the inhabitants Averc obliged to send to Piermont and other places 
for one. Dr. Weilman came, also Dr. Whipple of Wentworth, 
and Dr. David Gipsou of Romney. They visited a patient and 
while they were consulting, he died under their eyes. Cold, 
feverish, spotted, they said it was the spotted fever. A few hours 
after death the corpse turned black, hence in other countries the 
disease was known as the black plague. It has been more dreaded 
than the cholera or the yellow fever, because it comes without 
warning, lighting down on noisome pestilential wings, like a foul 
bird of prey for its victims. 

That night the three physicians were discussing the disease in 
a sort of undertone at Joseph Merrill's inn. Suddenly Dr. Well- 
man felt cold, chilly. Dr. Whipplef and Dr. Gipson gave him 
some stimulating medicine and went home down the valley. Jo- 
seph French nursed Dr. Wellman, but at night, twenty-four hours 
after, the doctor was dead. They buried him in the grave yard on 
Pine hill road, and only carried his corpse to Piermont when the 
frosts of winter came. Dr. AVhipple had the plague, and Dr. Gip- 
son would not come to AVarreu again. 

Families soon got so reduced they could not get a physician. 
Physicians in neighboring towns were so frightened that they 
would not come. The selectmen, Jonathan Merrill, Abel Merrill, 
and Moses U. Clement, came together and called an informal 
meeting of the citizens. It was agreed that the town should pi"0- 
cure physicians. Dr. Robert Burnsf had studied medicine with 
Dr. Bartlett on Beech hill. He was attending the medical school 
at Hanover, and the town in its distress sent for him. Daniel 
Pillsbury went on horseback to Hanover for Dr. B. But he could 

* Amos Little, .Jr., died in three hniirs after he ■was taken sick. 

t Dr. Wliipple wlien he lived in Warren, resided llvst opposite the Abel Merrill 
house on the west side of the Mikaseota, and afterwards in the house built by 
Joshua Merrill, Jr., now occupied by Ezra AV. Keyes. 

J Dr. Bums lived in the Ezra W. Keyes house. 


not attend to all the sick, and Jonathan Cloug-h immediately went 
to Hanover for Dr. Amasa Scott. Jonathan Merrill boarded Dr. 
Scott, and the latter had excellent success treating cases of spotted 
fever.* Som^ got well under his care, but the plague did not 

At first they had funerals, then they hurried the corpse away 
to the grave before it was hardly cold in the house. Many were 
buried in the night, no mourners, and the village cemetery saw 
in the darkness two or three men digging a grave, the sickly moon 
looking down upon them, saw the coffin made of rough boards 
hastily lowered, and heard the falling of the cold clods upon it as 
the grave was hurriedly filled up. Then they would drive away 
as though ghosts were screaming after them, and the graves were 
soon forgotten. Men found weeks afterwards that their nearest 
friends were dead and buried, no one knew where, whom they 
thought alive and well. The sexton often digs up those rough 
coffins even at this late day.f 

Some had gi-eat courage and lived even in spite of the plagaie. 
Joseph Merrill the innkeeper, went wherever he was asked, to the 
sick bed, to the coffining the black and loathsome corpse, to the 
graveyard — and never got sick. His wife had the plague, but she 
got well. On the contrary, Mr. Samuel Merrill who lived next house 
to the burying ground would shut all his doors and windows when 
they came to bury the dead. When they brought Tristram Low 
dead, from the East-parte, he was particularly careful ; but it was 
no use. The grim spectre death was after him, and in two days 
they carried him out upon the hill-side and buried him without 
a psalm or a jjrayer.J 

* Pillsbmy was paid $1.34 for going to Hanovei" after Dr. Burns. 
Clougli received $1. SO for going after Dr. Scott. 
Dr. Scott was paid for his services $182.59. 

Jonathan Merrill received for boarding Dr. S. and horse, $10.75. 
Dr. Burns received $2 00 for carrying money to Dr. Scott. 

Paid Col. Clement for his wagon to Hanover, §'2.20,— probably the little Dutch 
one.— Selectmen's Records, Vol. i. 

t 'Squire George Libbey says he dug twenty-eight graves in one month during 
the spotted fever time, and did iiot dig them all either. He also worked for a month 
taking care of the sick. 

t Samuel Merrill was taken sick in the morning, and at ten o'clock at night was 

Lemuel Keezer, .Jr., father of Ferdinand and Fayette, kept store in Warren in 
1815. He was afraid of the spotted fever, very. Oneday the fire M'ent ont and he 
went to .Joseph Merrill's for live coals. Dr. Wellman was sick there tlien, and Kee- 
zer would not go in, but sent a man in after them. Four days after, Keezer was 
dead, died of spotted fever. 


Tlie town suft'ored terribly from spotted fever. One third of 
the inhabitants on Beech liill died. Some families in the valley, 
like that of Mr. P'rederick Brown, almost all died. Half a dozen 
members of Mr. Jonathan Clement's family died of spotted fever, 
and are lying in the almost forgotten grave-yard of Runaway 
pond. On the Height-oMand, by the ponds near Piermont line, 
on Pine hill, the Summit, in the East-parte district, and the Forks 
district — all parts of the town suffered.* 

"\Yhen cold weather came on, the disease grew less malignant, 
and gradually disappeared. Those who recovered were almost 
iuA'ariably deaf, and there was a good deal of loud talk in town 
for years after. 

Since 1815 but very few cases of spotted fever have been 
known in AVarren. But the neighboring land of Piermont was 
since sorely afficted with it — nearly half the inhabitants in East- 
man pond district dying iii a few months. 

May the like never visit our hamlet among the hills again, for the 
mind shudders at uncoffined burials, at funerals without a prayer, 
at midnight grave-digging, at persons buried in nameless graves, 
unbeknown to their friends. Let the memory of the woes of 1815 
never be foi'gotten. They will serve to chasten us and teach us 
that in life we are in the midst of death, and that time with his 
scythe may cut us down when we least expect it. 

* Abram, Elsie, and Emily BvoTrn, Cliildren of Frederick Bi-own, died; also 
Ruth Knight, two children of Cliarles Bowles, two of Luke Libbey, and Sir. Thom- 
as Patch, died. Three of .Josepli French's children died. 



The war came first, that of 1812, then the pestilence, the 
black plague, then in 1816 famine almost looked into our valley 
among the hills. A venerable writer of that time says that the 
whole face of nature appeared shrouded in gloom. The lamps of 
heaven kept their orbits, but their light was cheerless. The bosom 
of the earth in a midsummer's day was covered with a wintry 
mantle, and man and beast and bird sickened at the prospect. For 
several days in summer the people had good sleighing, and it 
seemed as if the order of the seasons was being reversed. On the 
sixth of June, the day of the meeting of the Great and General 
Court of New Hampshire, the snow fell several inches deep, fol- 
lowed by a cold and frosty night, and on the two following days 
snow fell and frost continued ; also July the 9th, there was a deep 
and deadly frost that killed or palsied most vegetables.* 

Then one August day in "Warren, the sky was lurid in the west. 


May 16, froze hard enough on ploughed land to hear a man. 

Juiie 6, snow squalls. 

June 8, snow squalls. 

June 10, Irost last night. 

.June 11, frost last night, heavy, killed corn and five-sixths of the apples. 

•June 22, ice formed on water." 

July 10, frost on low ground. 

August 20, heavy snow on mountains. Hurricane. 

August 22, heavy frost. 


The clouds tluckened fast, hailstones rattled on the forest, and the 
wind shook the tops of the trees. Suddenly it grew dark, then in 
the twinkliny of an eye the hurricane leaped like a maniac from 
the skies, and howling, crashing, dizzying, it came. It lighted 
down on Mt. Mst at first, and then with a breadth of twenty rods, 
the whole forest seemed to give way ; to have been felled by the 
stroke of some Demiurgic fury, or to have prostrated itself as the 
Almighty passed by. 

Eastward towards Mt. Kineo. it shot like a flash of lightning. 
Across Pine hill it left the woods and entered the settlement. 
Nothing could withstand its fury. Stephen Eichardson's barn was 
blown down, and the long shingles of its roof borne across Berry 
1)rook valley, across the Asquamchumauke, three thousand feet 
above it, to Amos Little's back pasture, two miles away on the 
side of Mt. Kineo. Nathaniel Libbey's house was unroofed and 
the furniture was. scattered over the whole farm. A looking-glass 
was blown thirty rods and deposited by the wind on a stone, with- 
out breaking it.* The tornado cut a swath through Nathaniel 
Richardson's oats three rods wide, as sinooth as if mown by a 
scythe. Fences were prostrated, cows lifted from their feet and 
sheep were killed. In bush and settlement, upland and interval, 
was its havoc alike fearful. 

Thus passed the season. Autumn returns, alas ! not to fill the 
arm with the generous sheaf, but the eye with the tear of dis- 
appointment. Winter came, and with it would have come starva- 
tion had it not been for the tolerably good ci-op of rye, the only 
crop that matured, which supplied the inhabitants with bread. So 
terrible was the year 1816, that the people grew disheartened, and 
many sold out and went south and west. 

But in 1817 a change came. Everything was lovely, and when 
the year closed people said it was the happiest one they had ever 
known. Let us follow it through and see how the citizens spent 
each season, — ^how they worked, played, and enjoyed themselves. 

As the winter Avore away, a warm wind blew from the south- 
west, and the snow begun to melt earl^^ What joy was there 
when the spring breathed under sheltering rocks the sweet arbu- 

* Nathaniel Eichardson's statement. 


tus into bloom, aud sky born blue-birds came down on the air of 
wondrous morning- with throats full of fresh and fragrant melody. 

As the days grew still and lono- in the yards of the quiet 
dwellings, the sturdy chopper's axe was swung all day long above 
the winter gathered piles. Dogs basked for hours on southern 
door-steps, and cattle, turned out from dark stables, tried horns 
and heads with each other. 

In the maple groves of Warren, and on all the hill-sides around 
the quiet valley, sugar tires were smoking, for it was charming 
sugar weather ; bland and sunny overhead, frosty under foot, the 
sap racing up from the roots every morning and running back at 
night for fear of a freeze. 

There had been a scalding and soaking of sap-buckets, a 
tramping through maple woods, augur in one hand and sap spouts 
in the other, a repairing of arches or the hanging of great five-pail 
kettles ; sap pails and sap yokes to bring the sap, all in order ; a 
crackling of dry beech limbs, a roaring fire, then a simmering and 
seething of the sweet maple sap in the kettles before it leaped up 
in white dancing foam only to be kept from overflowing by being 
wallopped with a stick having a piece of pork on its end.* 

Amos Little had a glorious sugar place on Beech hill, and his 
boys and girls, — for lie had a large fluuily. — were determined to 
have a sugar party. Young folks, Merrills, Clements, Bixbys, 
Knights, and numerous others came to the beautiful farm where 
George E. Leonard lives now. They had fun and frolic; rosy 
cheeked girls laughing as they stamp the mud from their tliick 
boots, charming forms carried in stout arms across the little rill 
which now swollen leaps laughing down to the Mikaseota, some- 
times called Black brook. 

The great sugaring-off kettle is hung on a pole placed on two 
forked stakes, by itself. The syrup, enougii for all, is turned in, 
the fire lighted, and then there is a rustic jubilee over the brown- 
ing cauldron, as the fragrant steam grows richer and the color 
deepens from hue to hue of russet, till the sp-up clings in double 
drops on the edge of the skimmer, aud the hot fluid changes to 
delicious gum when poured over the melting ice cake. There 

*The fanners in WaiTen often the last runs of sap to make spruce beer — 
an excellent and very common drink in Warren. 


were prettv lips closing over beecli patldle sticks, and young John 
L. Merrill and Russell K. Clemeut blistered their tongues and got 
laughed at for they could not wait for the delicious sweet to cool. 

Their hearts were all happy, and what sweet songs were sung 
in the dusk of nightfall, as the earliest frog peeped from the swamp 
in the valley below. The sweet songs of that day, alas ! what 
were they? They are gone, they are forgotten, like the smiles and 
the roses of those who sang them, like the hopes and the affections 
of the youths who listened to them. The triumphs of the singers 
of those days and the popularity of the songs, where are they? 
It is a lesson for us; but let us chase it out of mind. Be happy 
wliile ye may. AVe love the month of March, for in Warren it is 
the liveliest and most romantic mouth of the year. No tree does 
so much for happiness as the sugar maple. It brings more good 
cheer, more joy and fi'olic, more money into the pocket and more 
sweetness upon the table than all the rest of the forest trees put 

As the sun run higher and the air grew warmer, there was a 
sound in the earth, as if myriads of fairies were at work preparing 
juices for the grass and fruits and flowers, — a sound of tiny foot- 
steps, multitudinous bells deep down iu caverns and dingles, and 
here and there a bank smiled back in dowuv green the sun's radiant 
favors. And then the leaves come out, at first no larger than a 
mouse's ear, and thousands of birds are singing in all the fields 
and woods. Up narrow roads, the one to Red-oak hill, and those 
to Rock}' falls. Beech hill, Pine hill, and the East-parte, between 
high, mossy banks where the little runnels come rushing and 
chiming along, through the wild, still, shady woods of Warren, and 
in fields deep wuth the greenest grass and bright with the sun- 
shine and glory of spring ; all these birds are at work building 
their nests, each iu its own peculiar fashion ; the song sparrow, the 
vesper spar row", the grass finch and Wilson's thrush, on the groimd 
and under warm hummocks ; the robin on nearly every tree, black 
birds and cat-birds in the hedges ; bob-o'-links in the meadows of 
Runaway pond and the swaley fields by Moosehillock road ; vireos 
and orioles in the ever waving boughs of the elms in the valleys, 
and the maples on all the hills; w^arblers among the emerald green 
leaves of the wild rose-brier, to say notliiug of the blue-bird in an 

412 History of warren. 

old knot hole of ia fence j)ost ; swallows in the bai-n, Jennie wren 
in a box in the apple tree, and martins in the house on the top of 
a i)ole. 

The men are out in the fields aud gardens, the cottage dames 
and the rosy daughters are engaged in the renewal of flower 
borders, in the sowing of seeds and the planting of shrubs; old 
men sit watching them on the steps or wooden benches, on the 
warm side of the house, while groups of children are scattered 
here and there over the happy fields, tracing the fence sides or the 
bright streams or running to secure the first dandelions, their clear 
voices all the while ringing out from the distant steeps and hill-tops. 
There they find the sugar plum, the Avild-bird cherry aud the 
moosemissa in bloom, their flowers hanging on the waving boughs 
or fluttering on the earth, a profusion of beauty in which the per- 
ceptions are almost lost. 

Men went to work with good courage in the spring of 1817. 
They seemed to feel that good times were coming back. How did 
they work? How did they live? The farmer of that period was 
up in the morning by half past four, stoutly dressed in his leather 
pants and sheeps-gray frock. At five he gets up his help. His 
wife hurries the girls out of bed, crying, " Up sleepy heads, the 
sun will burn your eyes out if you lay there." The house is swept, 
the cows are milked, the hogs are fed. Man and boys go to work, 
fodder stock, clean out barn, prepare for the day's work. 

Then comes jjreakfast. How some of the old settlers could 
eat. In olden times huge basins of bean-porridge and loaves as 
big as bee hives and pretty much of the same shape, and as brown 
as the backs of their own hands, delighted and refreshed our 
ancestors. To this fare they would betake themselves with a 
capacity that only pure air and hard labor can give. A settler 
would eat as much of these as would answer for a round family 
now at breakfast, and then he would only be ready for his dish of 
pork and beans ; pounds of pork six inches thick set on the top of 
a peck of baked beans. What a pile he takes on liis plate, how 
sharp is the vinegar he pours on them, how keen the pepper, and 
then they vanish as rapidly as if thej^ did not follow that mess of 
porridge and those huge hunches of bread. Christian AVilliam 
Whiteman, who lived on the top of the Height-o'-land, said he 


" could eat three quarts of baked beans and also Indian pudding 
and other ^ fixings ' suitable to accompany them, at his morning 
meal.*' Mr. Pixly. a tall gaunt man who once resided in Charles- 
ton by Tarlcton lake, said that " many a time he had eaten a six 
quart pan full of pork and beans and vinegar, at a single sitting 
and then could make a famine among the pies and cakes and cheese 
ou the table.'' Mr. Nathaniel Richardson, who has had his home 
on the East-parte road for more than half a century, has been 
known to eat two fnll grown chickens, seventeen large, mealy 
potatoes, and plum-pudding in abundance along with them, and 
he said he could always top out such a slender repast Avith twenty- 
five cents worth of cracker toast, when he stopped at a hotel. Yet 
Mr. Richardson never was sick in his life, only a little spleeny by 
spells, aud now at the age of nearly eighty years he is tough as 
an ox.* 

And then what mugs of cider those old settlers could drink. 
A Mr. Lund could swallow a pint at a draught, without stopping 
to breathe, and Dr. Ezra B. Libbey, in his day, could easily pei-- 
form the same feat, while Mr. Obadiah Libbey, who lived in War- 
ren long ago, has often been known to proudly drink a quart and 
a half of hard old cider without once taking his lips from the mug. 
JSfi-. Samuel Jewell, who lived on Pine hill road, often said he 
*' wished his throat was as long as a pine mast, that he might more 
fully enjoy the good taste of the fluid as it trickled down." These 
are only a few uotftble cases where hundreds could be cited, and 
we can but envy the keen appetites and great capacity of our early 
settlers. Breakfast eaten and. at ten they would take a hearty 
luncheon of bread, nut-cakes, aud cheese, to set their appetites 
right for dinner. f 

There is plowing in the field, there is manure to be carted out, 
there is harrowing, and sowing, and harrowing again, there is 
furrowing and dropping potatoes and corn, aud covering the hills ; 

* .Josiah Biniihani, surveyor, had an enviable capacily aud appetite. He could 
eat eight quarts of hasty pudding and milk, at a silting.— Anson Merrill's state- 

Rev. Charles Bowles could freciuently do something in the way ol" eating. He 
once eat a wlmle (|uaiter of 1: nib ;md neai ly evciything else on the" table, at 'Squire 
Jonathan Merrill's, thereby depriving the '.Squireand liis family of their moining 
meal. ilrs. Mei-rill had to'do another cooking that morning.— Moses P. Kimball's 

t Mr. .James Clement's stories. 


there is picking stones, lading wall, and mending fences to keep 
the cattle in the pastures. Then there is washing of sheep at the 
pool in the riA^er, and the shearing of sheep in all the barns.* 

At home the wife and girls boil potatoes for the hogs, take 
turns at the churn, gown sleeves rolled up to the shoulder, kneel- 
ing to press the sweet curd to the bottom of the " hoop," to salt 
and turn cheese, and watch progress of diflereut stages fr(^m new- 
ness and white softness, to their investment with the uuctuous 
coating of a goodly age. They also see that the calves, geese, tur- 
keys, and barn-yard fowls are properly fed, that the door-yard is 
nicel}^ picked up and swept. Some had a taste for beauty and 
were most zealous and successful florists. To select rich and suit- 
able soils, to sow and plant, to nurse, and shade, and water, to 
watch the growth and expansion of flowers of great promise was 
an occupation affording much enjoyment to our grandmothers. 
They had the polyanthus, auricular, hyacinth, carnation, tulip, and 
ranunculus. Then there were pinks, and poppies, and sweet Wil- 
liams, and peonies, and lilacs, and a host of others; but the splen- 
did dahlias and pansies of to-day were unknown to them. Mrs. 
Enoch Noyes and Mrs. G. W. Prescott, daughter of Mr. Isaac 
Merrill, could boast of having the nicest flower gardens. 

At night the farmer sits down Avith his men and boys by the 
fire, and they talk^.over the work of the morrow, how to plant, 
hoe and sow, and where. His wife has a little work-table set near, 
where she makes and mends ; the girls knit, darn stockings, and 
tix caps for Sunday. 

Now days there is a complaint that the farmer has been spoiled 
by the growth of luxurious habits and efieminacj^ in the nation. 

* Sheep Marks. — lu those primitive times, wlieii fences were rare, aud sheep 
were nimble, it was found necessary to record the marks by which one's sheep 
might be iiuown or recognized. Accordingly we are certitied tliat Obadiah Clement's 
sheep are marked by one-half crop on the upx)er side of the riglit ear, and one-half 
crop on the under side of the left ear. Stevens Merrill's a fork like a swallow's 
tail on the end of the left ear. Joseph Merrill's, a crop of the left ear. Jonathan 
Merrill's, a crop of the left ear and a slit on the nnder side of the same. Caleb 
Homan's, a fork like a swallow's tail on the end of the left ear, and a crop from off 
the right ear. Amos Little's, a slit on the end of the right ear. Joshua Copp's, a 
fork like a swallow's tail on the right ear, and a crop on the left. JoshuaMerrilFs, 
a crop from off each ear. This mark is now taken by John ^Vhitcher, May iT, 1814. 
X. B.— Joshua Merrill has removed from this town. (1) 

(1) Col. Moses H. Clement's ram once troubled ^fr. Keezer aud his sheep. 
Keezer took the ram in the night, led him to Mr. Clement's house and tied him to 
the door-latch. When Mr. C. opened the door next morning it yanked his ramship, 
and, indignant, the brute with a bound and a bunt knocked Col. C. "flatter than a 


Old furniture has been cast out of the liouses, and carpets, sofas, 
and pianos, are to be found Avhere once were wooden benches and 
the spinning-wheel : that daughtei's are sent to boarding- schools, 
instead of to market, and the sous, instead of growing up sturdy 
husbandmen like their fathers, are made clerks, shop-tenders, or 
some such skimmy dish things. There is some truth in this. But 
never mind ; the farmer should be a rural king, sowing his grain 
and reaping his harvest with a glad heart, and he can do this by 
being educated. 

How much better the farmer enjoys himself than the merchant. 
The latter coops himself up in a small shop, and there day after 
day, month after month, year after year, he is to be found like a 
bat in a hole of the wall, or a toad in the heart of a stone or of an 
oak tree. Spring, and summer, and autumn go round, sunshine 
and flowers spread over the world, the birds sing, the sweetest 
flowers blow, the sweetest waters murmur along the vales, but 
they are all lost upon him : he is the doleful prisoner of Mammon, 
and so he lives and dies. The farmer would not take the wealth of 
the world on such terms. The bright sun, the pure air, the gi-een 
meadows, the clear streams, the growing crojjs, the flocks and 
herds in the pastures, the keen appetite and good health are far 
to be preferred. 

There were no frosts, no snows, no cold and chilling winds in 
the summer of 1817. All over town there was bustling life and 
even over to Charleston district, by Tarleton lake, where times 
had been the hardest, the hearts of men took courage. Corn gTew 
again, the potatoes were luxuriant, and deep grass overhung the 
banks of all the little streams, and many a flower nodded above 
the clear water. Upon the fields was a rich mosaic of colors, and 
on the edge by the wood were seen the wild sun-flower, ox-eye 
daisies, tiger lilies, and the purple and gold of the hard-hack. 
Among the crimson headed clover were honey suckles, butter- 
cups, golden rod, and white top, scenting all the air. The oats 
were so heavy the farmer was afraid they would lodge : the rye 
was as tall as a man's head, while shadows fly over the yellow 
barley, and tumbling waA^es chase each other on the acres of wheat. 
Horses stand under the great maples by the road, brushing flies 
with their tails, the sheep are grazing on the hill-sides, cows are 


feeding where the grass is sliortest and sweetest, while Thomas 
Pillsbury's spotted bull lows in Mt. Mist's echoing pastures. 

They were a happy people over at Charleston. Amos Tarleton, 
Thomas Pillsbury, Ephraim Potter, Eichard Pillsbury, Stephen 
Lund,* Daniel Day, Hosea Lund, Benj. Bixby, and others, lived 
there. David Smith was born there. He was a good school-master, 
was selectman, tax collector, town treasurer, and county treasurer ; 
cool, shrewd, long-headed, he was one of Warren's smartest men. 
They had a Methodist societv, a class. Sabbath school and regular 
preaching, a good school-house, which also answered for a church ; 
many have taught school in it, and a grave yard was by it, where 
the early settlers were sleeping. Their buildings were good, their 
great barns were always well filled with hay, and their sugar 
' places were the best in town. 

But alas! all this is changed. The dwellers in the district by 
the lake are all dead, the houses and the barns have mouldered 
away, the spot where they stood can hardly be found, and the 
fields and the pastures are grown with forest trees. Even the old 
school-house, the church in Charleston, is gone. Nothing but the 
foundation remains. The burying ground by it is overgrown; 
the thistle shakes its lonely head by the tombstone, the gray moss 
whistles to the wind, the fox looks out of its hole by the sunken 
graves, and the Avood-brakes and the birches wave above them. 

Whence came this desolation? The great west takes away the 
young men of Warren; they are gone to cities, the gold mines of 
California invited some of them; some died on the battle-field. 
A hundred years may go by before Charleston district shall have 
such a thriA'ing, happy population again. 

The sugar and the wool crop made, the hay crop was the next 
to be harvested. The farmers of Warren have always raised their 
full supply of hay, never ha/\dng been obliged to import any, and 
grazing and stock-raising has been one of their most profitable 
employments. Who does not love haying time. True, it may be 
" hot as blazes," but what a softness clothes those gi-een mountains ; 
what a depth of shadow fills the hollows ; how sweet the voice of 

* Stephen Lund liveil to be over ninety years old. He was a cooper, and a red 
headed man, bony and rawny. He shot "a trout that weighed four pounds. He 
iised to catch large quantities of trout from Tarleton lake and carry them to Hav- 
erhill and sell them, court time. 


the waters rises on tlie hushed landscape. Maii'nHieent arcades of 
trees stretch up tlie sides of the fair sti-eains, their hixuriant masses 
of foliajje shadinji" tiie limpid coolness below. 

AVhat a luxury to follow some rapid stream, or sitting- down 
on a green bank, deep in grass and flowers, to pull out the spotted 
troitt from the bubbling eddy below the boulders or from his lurk- 
ing i)lace beneath the broad stump and tlie spreading roots of the 
alder. A summer day spent beside Patch brook as it runs through 
the meadows, up Hurricane brook to the cool cascades in the deep 
woods of Mount Carr, by the Mikaseota. or Black brook, by Ore 
hill's foamy stream, by Berry brook. l)y the roistering Oliverian. by 
Merrill brook,* or East branch, or along the roaring, foaming- 
Asquamchumauke, with the glorious hills and the deep, rich 
foliag-e clad mountains around you is most delightful — is grand. 
The power and passion and deep feHcity that c5me breathing 
from the mountains, forests, and waterfalls, from clouds that sail 
above, and storms bhtstering and growling in the wind, from all 
the mighty magnificence, solitude, and antiquity of nature, cannot 
be unfolded. 

Sit down by the pond wliere tiny Cold brook comes in. There 
the wild rose is putting out and the elder is in flower. The lilies 
are as lovely as ever, the butter-cups as yellow; harebells, violets, 
and a thousand other kinds of flowers listen to the tinkling music 
of the stream. 

The May flies in thousands come forth to their day-life, flying 
up and down. There are horse flies and red flies pestering the 
cattle on the hill-side opposite : but the king-bird, laughing from 
the brcez}' maple top, is after them. Over the water midges are 
celebrating their airy labyrinthine dances with amazing adroitness 
looking almost like columns of smoke as they shine in new life 
and new beauty. Dragon flies of all sizes and colors, — boys call 
them devil's darning needles, and say, " Look out or they will sew 
your eyes up,'' — are hovering and skimming, and settling among 
the water plants or on some twig, evidently full of enjoyment. 
The great azure bodied one with its fllmy wings darts past with 
reckless speed, and slender ones, blue, and purple, and dun, and 

* Joseph Patch userl to kill moose near the heart of ^Merrill brook. 



black, and jointed bodies, made as of shining silk and animated 
for a week or two of summer sunshine b.v some frolic spell, now 
pursue each other and now rest in sleep. 

The bob-o'-link in the meadow up the brook, flies up and down 
on balancing wings uttering its many toned joyous songs, tittering 
as if in high glee: swallows are skimming along the tields and 
over the waters catching flies : the song sparrow sings so sweet in 
the flowers and grasses, the white throated fluch warbles tender 
and plaintive in the fir copse up by Amos Little's field : the 
Maryland yellow throat in the alders over the water says " sit- 
u-see, sit-u-see,"' in such a winsome way; water-wag-tail repeats 
its '' crake, crake," from the grass in the swamp : the spotted sand- 
piper saj's, " weet, weet,"' from the old log and muddy bank; 
crows ai'e cawing in the woods across the pond, and the "sx;ater 
itself ripples on, clear and musical, and checkered from many a 
leaf and bent and moving bough. We lift up our heads and in the 
west above Stephen Lund's where farmer Joshua lived once, what 
a ruby sun, what a gorgeous assemblage of sunset clouds. 

The oats, rye. barley, and wheat, were good this j-ear, l<si7, 
and when they were gathered, autumn with its rich corn harvest, 
and all its happy human groups, and bright days -of calm, 
steady splendor came. After the first frosts, the Indian summer 
began, and a soft haze pervaded the atmosphere and settled like a 
thin gray cloud on the horizon, bringing a delicious, sweet, sleep- 
like feeling, which seemed to fill the valley. On all sides the sky 
appeared resting upon a wealth of colors, orange and yellow, pui'- 
ple and crimson, blue and green, and red. and every shade and 
hue that mantled the forests of the mountains. In the woods on 
the edge of the clearings, fields and pastures, red squirrels chased 
one another over crisp leaves on the ground and along the limpid 
branches of tlie trees, yelping and chattering like king-fishers. 
Fox-colored sparrows, nut-hatches and great golden-winged wood- 
peckers vied in their notes and seemed resolved on merriment 
while the season lasted. The white-crowned sparrow came down 
from Labrador where it had spent the summer rearing its young 
and singing all the day long, and stopped a day oi- so by the banks 
of the Asquamchumauke, before it hastened on its journey to its 
winter home in Florida and the West Indies, Wild geese with 


thoir woird linwnk-lionk-o-hoiik, were seen tcarinij tlie yielding 
air Avitli Aviiigs lioive and strong, as in harrow-like form they hur- 
ried down the valley, and now and then the farmer in his field 
would lic;ir a strange, wild rry, coming seemingly from mid 
heaven, as a Hook of swans, flying more than one hundred and 
twenty miles an hour, cloA^e the air thousands of feet above the 
mountains. As the davs Avent bv. the leaves of the trees merging 
from their bright dappled colors into a dull uniform brown, dropped 
to the earth and were swept by the Avinds into dusty, crackling 
torrents, and borne to unknown resting places on the bosom of 
every tinkling rill. The turnips Avere dug, potatoes garnered in 
the cellar, apples carried to the cider-mill and the corn was stacked 
for husking. 

The cider mill I \Vho does not have one in recollection. They 
made cider at Mr. Xathaniel Clouglrs in those days. Mr. Samuel 
Merrill built the first and only one in the East-parte ; then old Mr. 
Batchelder and Mr. Foote each had one on Pine hill, and ('apt. 
Joseph Merrill one by the A'illage burying ground. What pleasant 
memories of bins of russet, red. and golden apples, of the great 
cog-Avheels. of the horse going round and round attached to the 
creaking crane, the crushed apples in the great trough, the large 
wooden screws that compressed the cheese that was put on so 
neatly in fresh yellow straw, the gushing juice that flowed so 
freely at every turn of the levers, into the great holder beneath, 
and us boys with oaten straws sucking onr fill from the little 
brooklet running down, better pleased and happier than kings. . 
May the picture of the old cider-mill never fade away. 

Husking bees were common then in onr hamlet among the 
hills, they are common in Warren now. Generally they were on 
pleasant evenings in the early part of October. They had one at 
Joseph Merrill's this season, the grandest one of the year. The 
people collected from nearly every district in town, my fathei- and 
his numerous brothers, tlie Clough boys, the Patches, the Clements, 
consisting of scA'eral families. — old Obadiah would not go. — the 
iVferriirs. and they were numerous, the Batchelders, Kichardsons, 
Lunds, Pillsburys, Dows, and many others, were there. The corn 
was piled in the centre of the capacious kitchen, and aronnd the 
heap squatted the buskers. The room was abundantly as well as 

i:iO HisxoKV or warken. 

spectrallj' lighted from the immense fire-place briskly glowiug with 
pitch knots and clumps of bark. Boys and girls, young men and 
their wives, and some old people listened to songs and varied their 
labors with such pleasantry as was natural to the occasion. Great 
ardor was evinced in pursuit of the red ear, for which piece of for- 
tune the discoverer had the privilege of a kiss from any lady he 
should nominate. Stevens Knight was the lucky finder, and peo- 
ple who remember him can well imagine how he stammered and 
blushed, and refused to kiss any girl, and how one of 'Squire 
Abel's daughters threw her arms around his neck and gave him a 
good smack amidst the shouts and laughter of the whole party. 
Nobody accused Stevens Knight of bringing the red ear in his 

The pile was finished and the hard glossy ears were stored 
away under the eaves of the garret. Then new cider and old was 
passed around, and some had something stronger. All now 
repaired to the hall over the bar-room ; the violin sounded and 
the young folks formed for a dance. Enoch R. AYeeks danced with 
Sally Little, Col. Benj. Clement with Miss Dolly Gove, Nathaniel 
Copp with Miss Mary Pillsbury, and so on : we have forgotten 
the names of the others. Billy Brock the fiddler was a grand 
musician and his very soul seemed breathing in his music* xVll 
gloom disappeared and fun and frolic saw them into the small 

For variety came the supper. There were great dishes of 
beans and Indian pudding, pumpkin pies, pewter platters full of 
dough-nuts, sweet cakes, fruit and cheese, cider, bottles of native 
wine and spirits washing it down. And then they danced again. 
We won't go home till morning, was the way they did at this happy 

. Who can blame them I Peace, plenty, and health had come, 

* Billy Brock was of Rvegate, Vt., and was the best iuldler in all the conutry 
round, lie would lialancL' a tumbler of ^^•hisky on his heail, dance 'with it, lie 
down on the floor with it and all the lime be playing the violin for others to dance. 

Nathaniel Copp tried to tiddle for a party, could only ))lay one tune, broke the 
fiddle strings trying to play another, and the part.v broke up in a hull'. They sent 
over the Height-o'-land to "get the fiddle for him. 

Mrs. .Jonathan Clongh, then INIiss Pillsbury, danced with .Joseph I^atch, Jr. 
Mary Pillsbury with Joshua Copp, Jr. .Sally" I>ittle and Tamai- l^ittle danced. 
The "Patches Mere all dancers. .Joshua Copp," 3d, danced. Bttsey, who married 
Joseph Farnham, Sally, who man-ied 'Squire Weeks, Mary, who married Mr. Clark 


and Avhy should not the people of our great history be happy at 
the close of so fruitful and prosperous a year as 1817. 

of Landaff, 'S(iuire Abel's daughters, all ilancerl. Dolly Gove and Betsey Gove, 
Sallv White luid Hiitli While, Col. Cole, fatlier of I). (Juincy Cole, all of Wentworth , 
U!-ed to come to Wancu to dauce. Also Misf< Dully Page. -Joiiatliaii Clement's 
girls,— one ol' t,heni married unele Tom Pillsbiiry, anil the other Lt. I'erkins Fel- 
lows, — danced. Col. Hen. Clement is the son of Jonathan Clement, innkeeper.— 
Anson ^lirriU's statement. 



Rev. peter POAYERS preached the lirst sermon in 
Warren, Rev. EHjah R. Sabin brought the doctrines of Joliu 
Wesley, Metliodisni, to our hamlet among- the hills, and Rev. Jo- 
seph Boody founded a society of Freewill Baptists in the valley. 
These and their associates preached sometimes out in the open 
air, sometimes in the houses or barns of the settlers, and some- 
times in the school-houses; for as yet tliere was no meeting-house 
in Warren. The first generation of Warren's settlers had tried 
hard to build one during- the last years of the eighteenth ceuturj^, 
but had failed in the attempt and then the enterprise slumbered.* 

'Squire Jonathan Merrill's wife had died. He found another 
lady-love, the widow Cliellis, down country, and eventually mar- 
ried and brought her to live in AYarren.f She told the 'Squire that 
it was a shame for so smart a town as AVarren to be without a 

* ISOG. — " Voted to choose a committee of six persons lor tlie purpose of ap- 
pointing iinotlier committee ot tliree inditferent persons living out ol' town, for the 
purpose of estiiblisliing a suitable place in tins town for erecting a house lor pub- 
lic meetings. Chose Col. Oljadiah Clement, William Butler, Mr.Jonatlian Fellows, 
Capt. Joseph Patch, Lieut. Stephen Flanders, and Mr. Aaron Welch, for the above 
mentioned committee." 

Dec. 17, 183) — " Voted not to build a meeting-house in tlie town way, but that 
we are willing it should be done by subscription." 

Paid ^Villiam Butler for money he paid the committee for appointing a place to 
set a meeting-house, $15 00. For expenses at Clement's, TOc— Selectmen's Records, 
Vol. i. 

t The widow Chellis was from Aniesbury, Mass. 


meeting-house. She told it lo liiiii twice, and she gave him curtain 
lectures on the subject; in sliort she gave liini no peace till he 
came to think as she did about it, and until he had stirred ni) the 
whole town about the matter and made them all feel that it was 
an " abominable shame " for the town to be without a meeting- 

So in the selectmenship of Joseph Patch, Jr., Moses H. Clem- 
ent, and Stephen Flanders, 1818, the citizens of our little democ- 
racy in General Assembly voted to build a meeting-house, the 
size to be forty feet b\' iifty feet within joint. Chose Jonathan 
Merrill , Nathaniel Clough, Abel Merrill, and James Williams a 
committee to superintend its building, and for that purpose was 
appropriated all the money due the towu on the leases, including 
the present year, and also the avails of the wild land belonging to 
the town. What can't a woman do? 

To- the building bf the house the committee proceeded in right 
g"Ood earnest. The frame, that good old oaken one, which is yet as 
good as new, was hauled from many a dark recess of the old woods, 
the inhabitants ready to assist, giving many a long day's work. 
In the neighborhood of >Yachipauka pond where the Indians used 
to camp the oaks were cut, and the long timbers for the ceiling 
ovel' head ; and the masts in the steeple, uearly a hundred feet high, 
came down from Pine hill, the first selectman, Joseph Patch, Jr., 
having taken the job to puf them upon the ground. Reuben Clif- 
ford was the master workman; he could handle abroad axe better 
than any man in town, and he could hew almost as smooth as one 
could plane. Amos Little and James Dow helped hew. James 
Williams took a job of boring, and Samuel Kniglit made pins. 
People loved to come and look on, and the master workman would 
good uaturedly say, " You must bring something to treat with if 
you want to stbp about here.'' The people were so well pleased 
with his work and the enterprise, that he got man\' bottles of old 
rum to drink. 

By the first of July the frame was ready for erection, and the 
'' Fourth" Avas decided to be the time when the raising should 
take place. AVhat preparations were made for that day! They 
must have a grand collation and so the building committee had a 
table constructed, and rude benches on each side of it across the 


entire common. All day long the third of July the farmers' wives 
and their daughters had done their very best cooking for the colla- 
tion. How anxious they were when they went to bed the night 
before the raising. 

The morning of that expected day at last dawned ; but before 
the sun had kindled a rosy light on the bald top of Moosehillock, 
or on the green wooded summit of Mount Carr, the workmen were 
on their way. Few indeed were the sleepy jDersons found that 
morning, for a raising- Avas a raising in those days, and every body 
was delighted to attend ; but the raising- of a meeting-house was a 
sight seldom witnessed but once in a life-time. 

From every quarter they came; the good man and his buxom 
dame, and their rosy daughters who had spent a long hour more at 
the toilet that morning than usual. All were there, and by the 
presence of those fair faces many a young man Avas stimulated to 
perform herculean feats of lifting and mounting giddy heights, 
every way worthy of his ancestors. All about the destined spot 
lay strewn the heavy timbers. The old men with shining broad 
axes were shaping pins, or smoothing the end of many a tenon, 
while the master builder, Reuben Cliflbrd, with rule under his 
arm, and feeling the great responsibility resting upon him, was 
moving hither and thither, now giving directions to one party and 
then to another, whom drolly enough he had designated his oxen, 
his steers, and his bulls, in order that they n'light more readily come 
at the word. These were tugging, lifting, and straining themselves 
into very red faces as they carried the heavy timbers over the nu- 
merous blocks and chips. The building committee were there also 
giving instructions to each other, the master builder, and every 
one else. 

And now one huge broadside is ready. The rugged yeomanry 
of Warren range themselves side by side ; the master builder gives 
the word, ''AH ready, heave-er-up!" shouting in the most won- 
derful manner; and creaking and groaning, that old oaken broad- 
side slowly rises. A pause — the stout following- poles hold: and 
now long pike poles are applied, guided firmly by strong arms, and 
again that broadside goes up. as a hush conies over the anxious 
crowd, eagerly watching, but who soon breathe more freely as the 
huge timbers erect settle tirmiy into their resting places. j\nd 


now with no layjiard liands tlie rciiuiiiiiiii^' broadside and the 
cross-timbers arc put in liieir phices, and loni;- vw the rays of the 
setting- sun had departed. llir roof, witli it- crow ning steeple tow- 
ering above, was in its proper position. 

Hei'e succeeding generations must lament the loss of that 
speech called naming the house, every w^ay worthy of the occasion, 
which Col. Benjamin Clement delivered from the ridge-pole. The 
gentle breezes of that summer day wafted it far over the green 
foliage of the; wood to the distant liill-sides, where it was recorded 
in their beautifully shaded dells: but no man can read their 

Then True StcA^eus exhibited a mighty feat of jumping ten 
feet at a leap on the plates and cross-timbers, thirty feet above the 
ground, the whole length of the frame, and Samuel Knight stood 
on his head upon the ridge-pole and made flourishes with his feet 
up into the clear sky, much to the delight of the assembled multi- 
tude wdio held their breath at the sight. 

The oration and the gymnastic feats Avere each greeted with a 
great shout, and then all the cider possible was drank and they 
hurried to partake of the grand collation so bountifully prepared 
for them. Mrs. James Williams, from the East-parte, took charge 
of setting the tables, and Aunt Ruth Homan and her beautiful 
daughters, and Mrs. Daniel Ramsey acted on the committee with 
her. Mr. James Williams and Mr. Samuel Merrill brought out 
whole wagon loads of the ver\^ best eatables, and the Beech hill- 
ites and the dwellers of Runaway pond and those from the Height- 
o'-land, Pine hill, the Summit, and the Foi'ks, also brought a great 
abundance. There was an immense crowd, many from the neigh- 
boring towns ;t and how they ate, for it was a free collation ; and 

* It was customary to name all buildings. Jack Tennant got off ttiis, Jesse 
Little having composeVl it for him, on a building Gov. Samuel Flauders framed for 
Gov. Stevens Merrill :— 

" Here is a frame deserves a name, 
Here is a frame deserves a name. 
It is made of sjjruce and sapling pine — 
It was taken down old and jnit up new, 
And you all can see what two Governors can do." 
Tliey were called Governors because each had had a few votes for governor at 
some town meeting. 

Tlien tliere was a shout, and they had all tlie cider they could drink. 

t Uice Howard and Mr. Samuel Bennett, botli of H:iverhill, noted gamblers, 
who attended all musters and public gatherings, were present. Jt was wonderful 
what sums of money they wnuld lleece out of tlie simple country people. The 
u\imerou< anecdotes of their (■\ploit^ wonlil till a volume. 


how h;ip[)y tliey were when they went home that uight, thiukiug 
they would now have such a nice meeting-house. 

Captain John Gove, the witch killer of Wentworth, and his 
two sons, Edward and AVinthrop, all excellent carpenters, fin- 
ished off the house. Captain Gove hired a room at the store Capt. 
Benjamin Merrill built, and Ms daughters, Dolly and Betsey, 
cooked for and boarded them during the time. Messrs. Tucker & 
French, from Haverhill, ])ainted the outside and inside of the meet- 
ing-house, steeple and all, and boaixled at Joseph Merrill's inn 
while doing the work. Anson Merrill, a boy then, raised the 
money by subscription to paint the inside; but it was not all 
finished that year.* 

George W. Copp, son of 'Squire Joshua Copp, went over the 
Height-o'-land and got the underpinning near Tarleton lake. He 
hammered and set it very nicely. 

The work progressed steadily, and early in the fall, though it 
was not fully finished, the meeting-house was dedicated. The 
widow Chellis, "Squire Jonathan's second wife, was a Congrega- 
tionalist, and of course no luinister but a Congregationalist was fit 
to preach the dedicatory sermon. Rev. Edward Evens lived at 
Wentworth. He was a talented man, preached half the time in 
that pious town, was a missionary tlie other half, and during week 
days attended to the duties of Judge of Probate for Grafton 
County, which olfice he held. He was the one 'Squire Jonathan's 
wife selected to preach, and of course he did it. 

But all the people must be pleased, so Rev. James Spencer, a 
Freewill Baptist preacher, assisted, making the prayer and reading 
the hymns. 

The choir of Warren was anxious that day ; but its members 
did their best. Joseph Boyntonf was leader, and an excellent 
singer was he. Betsey Knight, daughter of Samuel, sung air, 
Mrs. Joseph Boynton, — Sally Knight once, — sang counter or alto, 
while Betsey Little, Jesse Little, Benj. Little and others assisted. 
The critics of those days said the choir did exceedingly well. 

* Nathaniel Richarrlson sliaved the shingles put on the oldnieeting-hoiise. 

t Fun crttl.— J OiHiph and Orlando, sous ol Joseph Boynton, once had a funeral 
ovei- a irras:sliop|)er. Tliey dn.i>- a urave, preaclied and sans, and then jjrayed that 
" the L(n-d nii.sht be nieri'iVnl to the leastest auil lastest remains of .\ e poor grass- 
hopper." Orlando, it is said, shed tears, and a wl>ole generation remembered that 
prayer. lantha, a sister of .Joseph and Orlando, was chiel' n)ouruer. 



od. The other parts of the house to be for the use of the town 
upon the following conditions, viz: That the town pay over to the 
committee all the money and land they agreed to give to encour- 
age a committee to undertake to build said meeting-house, which 
was three hundred dollars or thereabouts. 

4th. The committee respectfully request the town to unite 
with them and adopt the best measures or means to liuish paint- 
ing the house and erect door-steps. 



ABEL MERRILL, K.ommittee. 


N. B. — There are demands in the hands of the Committee 
arising from the sale of two pews, viz: number forty-one and 
forty-two, to the amount of fifty dollars or more, besides what we 
have laid out painting said meeting-house. t 

Reader, the first time I ever went to meeting it was in this 
old meeting-house, and I sat in number forty-one. It was on the 
right of the pulpit in the body of the house, and Avas , like all the 
rest, a very large pew, twelve feet long and eight feet wide. There 
were banisters in the pew walls, seats on two sides that turned up 
during prayer and often fell down ''slam." My mother used to 
stand me on the seat when they sang, and I often amused myself 
turning one of the loose banisters to make it, squeak during ser- 
mon. What an object of wonder was the sounding board over 
the minister's head. Once I asked what it was for, and they told 
me " that it was placed there so that if the minister told a lie it 
would M\ on his head and kill him.'' The pulpit was a little castle 
high up. With what veneration I first entered it. In it was a 

* Nathaniel Clough came from Hampstead, N. H. 

f. Tames Williams came from Haverhill, Mass., aucl was a desceudant of Han- 
nah Dustiu of Indian fame. He had one of her pe^vter plates which was marked 
"H. D." A Mrs. Crook has the plate now. 

X Loci: on ^^('efinr/-ITouse Z)oo?'.— Jacob Wliitclier moved awavup country about 
this time. It was maliciously .said of him that he. like some otlier folks, would lie 
when the truth would do a go^od deal better. He would tell his neisrhbors wluit a 
powerful lock tliey put on the meeting-house door in Warien. He said it was one of 
the most remarkable locks ever made in modern times : tliat it was so large that it 
required a "hand-speke" to turn the kev: that when tlie bolt snapped back it 
made so loud a noise that it could be heard a mile. 

He would tell the story in such an honest manner Ihat his friends thought it 
was true, and wlien they came down marketins in the winter thev would call at 
.Joseph Merrill's inn near the meeting-house, and ask to be shown the wonderful 


crickot for shoi'i ininistei'S to stand ui)i)n. and The wiiidmv boiiind 
with its circular ^Inss was a wonderful piece of arcliitectiirc. In 
the north porch \va>; tlie black table and pall used in buryiny the 
dead. IIoav T dreaded the north i)orch. how shunned il. 

At tirst they liad no tires in the meeting-house and in winter 
the minister used to ])reach with woolen mittens on his hands and 
our nioiliers would carry the old fashioned foot stoves, which they 
would replenish noon times at Joseph Merrill's inn, to keep them- 
selves warm during service. Stoves were ])ut into the meeting- 
house in 18o(). 

Mr. James Dow was the tythingman in tlic new church. lie 
sat to the left of the minister, under the edge of the long gallery 
that extended on three sides of the house. One Sabbath, while 
the minister was preaching, a large yellow dog started from the 
right and traveled round the Avhole edge of the gallery till he came 
to the point over Uncle Dow's head. Addison AY. Gerald from 
the East-parte sat there, and the Devil whisi)ered in Mr. (TerakVs 
ear, '• Push the yellow cur oft'." No sooner said than it was done. 
The poor beast falling fifteen feet, struck on Uncle Dow's bald 
head; it hurt: and the ■• purp *" he yelled and he yowled. Uncle 
Dow, who was dozing, sprang to his feet, stamped furiously and 
at the same instant sung out in a voice like thunder, ''Aliem! 
Ahem! I hope the owner will keep that dog to home and stay to 
home himself." Of course the choir never smiled nor the audience 
either. The minister also preserved his dignity ; but one thing is 
certain, he closed the services in very short metre.* 

Oue Sabbath at meeting. I distinctly remember hearing my 
father who always sat in the singing seats above, he was town clerk 
too, cry out, '• Hear ye, hear ye ! notice is hereby given that Russell 
K. Clement and Betsey Eames intend marriage." There was a 
grand sensation, for they all thought Kussell was a confirmed old 
bachelor: but perhaps no more sensation than was customary on 
publishing the '* bans." 

In the long I'ow of meeting-house sheds we school boys iised to 
play '••! spy." ■• hide and seek," '" tag," and " goal.'" and sometimes 
plagued the wrens that had their nests in the braces, or Avatched 
the swallows which alwa\s built in the old belfry. 
* Gen. Michael P.JVIerrill's statement. 


Our fathers' meetiiig-hoiipe Avas used for forty years, then it 
became too unfashionable for a more fashionable generation. In 
1859 it was moved back to the northeast corner of the common, 
altered to a more modern style, and now witliiii the same walls 
and under the same roof that Eeuben Clifford, Amos Little, and 
James Dow hewed and framed, the dwellers of Warren worship. 

In is-2f) the town rai^;e<l fifty-seven dollars inid sixty-three cents in lieu of the 
avails of tlie wild land voted to the committee appointed to build the meeting- 
house in ItilS. — See Town Book. 



"We should not perform our whole duty as a faithful histo- 
rian unless we should depict the thong-hts, beliefs, and opinions of 
this second generation of Warren's citizens. We feel oui-selves 
more especially called upon to be faithful to this period, because a 
few inventions, of no great wonder now, were to make a radical 
change in society. We refer to the steam-ship, i-ail-car, telegraph, 
friction matches, and the like. 

Tn those good old times Avhen they had none of these, divers 
superstitions were rife, and our ancestors devoutly believed that if 
a dog howled in the night some one in the neighborhood was 
going to die sure: that if the scissors, knife, or any sharp thing 
fell to the floor and stood up straight, some visitor was coming: 
that if a looking-glass was broken, the person breaking it or some 
relative would die before tlie year was out ; that if a knife or pair 
of scissors was given to a friend without making him give a penny 
or some amount of money for it, love between them would cer- 
tainly be cui : Ihat if there were tea grounds or bubbles swim- 
ming on the tea, as many strangers as grounds or bubbles were 
coming; that if one stubbed the left foot they were not wanted 
where they were going, but if it was the right they would be 
welcome: that to spill the salt ^pls a bad omen; and the ticking of 
a little bug in the Avail was a sure sign of death, and also forty or 
more other like superstitions. 

But they also believed many other things much more serious, 


and amono- them in witches and ghosts. Every town lias liad its 
witch or wizard ; but if tradition is correct. Warren has had more 
than its share. It is told that in olden times, when there were but 
few clearinos in town, a young man, Jonathan Merrill, went to 
see his lady-love. While there the happy moments tlew swift and 
time had crept far into the small hours before he thought of taking 
his leave. On his way home he had to cross a stream on the trunk 
of a fallen tree; and when he arrived at this point, as he was step- 
ping upon the log that was shaded by thick foliage, and through 
which a few straggling rays of the moon struggled, he saw stand- 
ing on the other end a white, airy tigurc which looked to him any- 
thing but earthly. He gazed uj^on it for a few moments and then 
stepped from the log. As he did so the tigure followed his exam- 
ple, and he saw it standing on the water. He now thought he 
would venture across, but the moment he was on the log again. 
that light form was there also. Filled with terror, he gave one 
more look, beheld as he thought, a ghastly visage, then tlirned 
quick about and run with all his might to the house where he had 
so agreeably spent the evening. Here he waited till day-light be- 
fore returning home. Young Merrill always believed he saw a 
witch that night. 

Some folks have told the writer that the\' did not believe this 
story at all, and one estimable lady, daughter of Caleb Homan, 
said it happened down country when 'Squire Jonathan was court- 
ing his wife. The same lady said witches* used to be plenty down 
at old Plaistow; and then she told how Nat Tucker, one of Uncle 
Jim Dow's relatives, once sold some walnuts in old Haverhill, 
much to the displeasurei of a certain elderly lady. That night 
Tucker and his wife could not sleep; all night long there was a 
rattling of walnuts on the kitchen hearth. Most wonderful to 
narrate, the next morning when they arose there was every iden- 
tical walnut piled up like cannon balls in the form of a pyramid 
on the hearth-stone. The old woman, the witch, had brought 
them all back. But stranger yet, the silk handkerchief that Mrs. 
T. had used as a night-cap. when she went to take it from her 
head, fell to the tioor cut in a thousand pieces. 

Foolish and superstitious folks scandalously said that the wife 

* Old Mrs. Ely was one of the great witches of Plaistow. 


of Stephen Richardson was a witch. Her son Stephen was a lit- 
tle ont of his head, and he said she bewitched him. ^Mien his 
friends tried to reason with liiin. lie would say, " Good Lord, if 
you had seen her coming- over the I'idgepole of the house in the 
air as many times as I have, in the shape of a hog, you would 
believe she was a Avitch." Moses Ellsworth's wife, Susan, took her 
mother's part, and Stephen Richardson, Jr., used to wish that he 
had them both harnessed so Nathan Willey could drive them with 
a good stout stage whip hauling hay out of his swamp. 

Stillman Barker's wife, who was a sister of Lemuel Keezer, 
was wrongfully and maliciously accused of being a witch and we 
are very glad to here have an opportunity of vindicating her good 
name. It is said, among other things, she bewitched a calf and it 
happened in this wise. Joseph Merrill, inn-keeper, was a super- 
intendent of the turnpike, and one spring day when the bird 
cherry-trees were in blossom, was cleaning out a ditch. When 
he came down from the Height-o"-land lie found that old Mr. Bai*- 
ker had altered the ditch so that the water overflowed and ran 
across the road. Merrill called Barker out and reproved Mm 
prett}^ sharply. Mrs. Barker was mad about it.* 

A day or two after Mr. M. turned his calves out to pasture 
where the meeting-house stands now, and the next morning went 
out to see how they were getting along. He found one of them 
lying on the ground in a terrible tremor, Avith its eyes rolling and 
flasliing towards the sky as though it could see a hundred old 
witches there riding on a hundred broom-sticks. Merrill was con- 
fident Mrs. B. had bewitched it, and with his knife he cut the calf's 
ear oft", carried it to the house and threw it on the fire. " I'll fix 
her," said he. The calf from that moment began to mend; but it 
went on its knees for a while as if doing penance, and only got up 

* A Scotch teamster, long ago, stopped at the Moosilauke house one ■winter 
night, sitting around tlie lire with others, he said he was never in Warren but 
once Ijetbre, and then it was when lie was changed into a horse and ridden there 
by a witch. He told liow tliey liitclied liim with other liorses at a post by the first 
house on tlie riglit coming up I'rom the Xoye.s Bridge. The wliole party of witches 
went into tlie house, and from where he stood he could see all they did tliere; that 
they drinked up some wine, ate all the bread, butter, preserves", tarts, and pies, 
and even devoured some sweet, good-tasting medicine that sat on the shelf. Be- 
fore they left they cracked the sugar bowl. 

These things"down at Mr. Xoyes'did actually happen, and Mrs. Noyes, who was 
away from home at the time, was" very mad at Miss .Sallie Barker who worked for 
her, for allowing sucli capers to be cut up in her absence. Miss Sallie woi.ild always 
have been presumed guilty had it not been for the confession of the Scotch team- 
ster in after years. 


smart when haying was over and the witch on the Hcig-ht-o'-land 
had undergone a fit of sickness. Experienced witch killers say 
that if lie had scalded the calf it would liavc done just as well. 

The wife of Mr. Zachariah Cliiford, who was a sister of Sim- 
eon Smith, was scandalized in a like manner as Mrs. Barker. She 
lived on Red-oak hill, and it was perfectly wonderful what awful 
things she could do. If you stuck a needle down in a witch's 
track, it was said she would stop and look round; if one was put 
in her shoe she could not go at all. A shoemaker down at "Went- 
worth made her a pair of shoes, carried them home to her and 
when she tried them on she said one of them was good for nothing, 
that she could not wear it and that he must make her another. He 
had broke otf his awl in the sole, but he did not tell her anytliing 
about it. He carried the shoe home quietly, took out the piece of 
the awl and when he returned it she said it was a grand fit and the 
best shoe she ever had in her life. 

John Cliftord courted a sister of Mrs. Zack. Clifford, then 
jilted her and Avent courting a Gove girl. Mrs. C. was awful mad 
about it, said she would fix him, and when John went courting 
after that she would go too as a witch and sit in a spare rocking- 
chair and rock all night. The young couple were terribly afl[licted 
but finally got married. Dr. Horatio Heath, who kept school 
down on the " East side," said he knew all about Mrs. C.'s pranks 
and that the stories about her were as true as the gospel, — a verj^ 
misguided and mistaken youth. 

But gossiping slanderers of that day said that the wife of Mr. 
Benjamin Weeks, Mrs. Sarah Weeks, had ten times the power that 
the above meutioned ladies possessed. Invisible on her good steed, 
a broom-stick, she rode all the country round and was a sort of 
revenging angel for her husband. 

One day, it is said, Joseph Merrill, son of 'Squire Abel, started 
about the middle of the afternoon to come home from Haverhill. 
Mr. Weeks was there and wanted to ride to Warren with him. 
Merrill said there was another man to ride ; that he had as much 
load as he could carry, and that he t-ould not take him. Weeks 
said if \ou don't take me you will be sorry for it, and you won't 
get home to-night. Merrill harnessed up and drove out as far as 
the toll-gate, when his horse, which hitherto had been perfectly 

ci:rrknt avitch stories. 435 

kind, kicked up and absolutely refused to go. Monlll coaxed, 
whipped, and then coaxed ;i,i:;»in ; tlie horse laid down and would 
not budge an inch. After an hour spent in vain clTort and night 
coming on, Merrill put his horse in a barn and walked back to the 
Corner, where he spent the night. The next morning the horse 
went home in splendid manner, and ever after Avas as kind as need 
be. Mr. M. was perfectly certain that Mrs. W. had bewitched the 

One day this lady of excellent reputation was sick and sent 
her husband to Capt. Ben. Merrill's store for a pint of rum.* 

Capt. Ben. and wife were away, Miriam Pillsbury, afterwards 
Mrs. Aaron Goodwin, was keeping house, Levi B. Foot was 
boarding there and studying, and Capt. Samuel L. Merrill •' tended" 
store. Weeks asked for his rum on trust. Captain Sam. said his 
orders were not to let him have any on tick. Weeks was mad and 
said " If you don't let me have it you will be sorry for it,"" and 
then he went directly away to his Height-o'-land home. 

The night was cloudy and dark, and when the twilight had all 
gone they heard something going over the roof Avhich sounded like 
a team hitched to a load of slabs dragging along. 

All three were terribly frightened although they afterwards 
stoutly maintained that they were not. The noise continued at 
inteiwals for more than half an hour, then subsided. Captain Ben. 
always kept a fine stallion and it was in the barn at that time. All 
at once there was a tremendous noise at the stable. It was fearful! 
Sam. L. oMernll. then quite young, belonged to the troop, and he 
went and got his sword and buckled it on and loaded his great 
horse pistols. Just then a cat jumped up on to the windoAV stool, 
and he cocked his pistol to tire but the cat jumped down too quick 
for him. Who shall go to the barn to see the hoivse? No one dared 
to go alone and no one dared to stay in the house alone, and so 
they all went to the barn together. They found the horse all right, 
not a particle of trouble, and they all returned together. Shortly 
after the same terrible noise began again and along in the night 
there was also screeching in the air. and two or three times sharp 
flashes of li.ght, like the flashing of a witch's eyes, gleamed through 

* It is .said Mrs. Weeti.s Ijowitchcd Mr.-^. Eunice Pill.<buiv, ;ilso Mrs. Arcrimnell 
of PierniDnt. Mr.'i. McConnell scalded Mrs. Weeks bv sciddiiig a call' tliat Mrs. 
W. bad bewitclied. 


the darkness. All this continued until the tirst cock crew and 
then instantly there was silence. Elderly men and women telling 
the story in an undertone, always believed that Mrs. Weeks with 
a crowd of old crones, her chums, were thnmpiug and crashing 
with their broom-sticks on the roofs that night. 

Mrs. Weeks, with her husband, once went down to Mr. Na- 
thaniel Clough's after some flax, but was unable to procure it. 
She was mad as usual, and went to the backside of the room, laid 
her head upon the table and closed her eyes. Immediately there 
was a terrible noise at the barn. The men folks rushed out and 
found that a two years old colt had reached over into the sheep 
pen and lifted two lambs out with his teeth and killed them. He 
was now working hard to catch a third sheep. Weeks Avent back 
to the house on the run, shoved his wife on to the flooi", then told 
her to behave herself. To the credit of the colt it is told that he 
quieted right down and never injured a sheep afterwards. All the 
old ladies said that Mrs. Weeks was raising the d — 1 for revenge. 

Uncle Tom. Pillsbury. as he was familliarly called, got Mrs. 
.Weeks to make three shirts for him. There was some trouble 
about the pay. He went down country to work* and when the 
first one was washed and hung out, it was mysteriously spirited 
away. The same happened to the other two, not another thing 
being lost from the line. Mr. Pillsbury said he knew Mrs. 
Weeks had them all in Warren. 

But Simeon Smith, as we have intimated in another book of 
this history, was the great wizard of this mountain valley. His 
fame preceded him, and it is said he acquired his powers down 
country. AVhen the revolutionary war was going on he was in 
meeting one Sabbath, but all at once he left the house. Out of 
doors he said he could not stop at meeting for a great battle, was 

* " Rule and Tie." — It was customary in old times for yoimg men in all this 
upper region to go down country to work during the season. They nearly always 
"tooted it," often a dozen or twenty in a parly, aw:iy to Xewhnryport, Saleni, and 
Beaton, and would come home again late in tlie fall with money in tlieir pockets. 
Sometimes two young men would buy a horse and they would" ride and tie," as 
it was calked. One would ri'ie aliead a few miles then tie the horse beside ihe 
road and on aloot, wlien the other coming up, would mount the horse, pass 
his companion, get a mile or two ahead, then tie the horse again and walk on. 
Thus they would walk and ride, acconiplishing the journey in a very short time, 
and when they had arrived at their destination ^voukl sell the horse for a good 

DEAF Caleb's performances. 437 

being fought that day. This statement was afterwards found to be 
true and Simeon Smith was looked upon as a wonderful man. 

One day lie mounted his horse to go up town, and before he 
proceeded a rod got lost in one of his second sights. He seemed 
to notice nothing around him but sat in the .-aildle in a strange 
fit of abstraction as if gazing upon the revels of fiends incarnate 
in some far oil' world. The horse seemed to behold the same 
scene also ; and great drops of sweat trickled from everj^ part of 
its body. At last Mr. S. roused himself and stroA'e by every means 
in his power to make the horse proceed, but in vain; and finally 
weary in the attempt, he turned the animal into the pasture and 
relinquished the journey, much to the surprise of several persons 
who witnessed the scene.* 

Simeon Smith was a great rebel, ardently espousing the cause 
of the colonists, and hated the British. Stevens Merrill was slightly 
inclined to favor King George, and was strongly opposed to pay- 
ing taxes to carry on the war for independence. Simeon Smith 
was constable and tax collector, and compelled Mr. Merrill to pay 
as we have before narrated. From that time there was a slight 
enmity between the two families. 

Mr. Merrill had a deaf boy Caleb, and one time after the war 
was over he began to act strangely. He was hoeing in the meadow 
one day, over the river, when suddenly thei'e was a terrible noise 
as of the wings of a mighty bird, then an awful screecliing. 
Joseph Merrill, his brother, who was with him, although he looked 
everywhere, could see nothing, and deaf Caleb of course could 
hear nothing : but he dropped his hoe and ran for home in a terri- 
ble fright. When interrogated, he replied by signs that Simeon 
Smith was after him. The enmity between the two families 
slightly increased.! 

A few days after deaf Caleb began to act in the strangest 

* Siinein Smith once said lie wished he possessed the power that his mother 
and sister Xab had ; that he had seen tliem boch on the lug pole in the fire-place 
over tlie fire, spinning linen, many a time. 

t 'Squii-e Jonathan, .Tnsepli, and deaf Caleb, all sons of Stevens Merrill, had 
been ovei- the viver digging potatoes. Tiiere was no bridge then, and coming home 
with a load they had lo ford the river, which was shoal. The three youni.-men and 
two winuMi \v,Te on the cart, and Avhen they came to the water ed'.;e deaf Caleb 
told tlu^m by signs that Simeon Smitli would tip up the cart and dump tliem all 
into the stream belbre tliey got across. To prevent this they sat on the front end so 
that it could not lip up; but, strange to relate, before theygot half way across up 
it went, and potatoes, men,, and women all fell into the water. 


The learned Baxter, who lived in the seventeenth century, consid- 
ered all persons as obdurate Sadducees who did not believe in it, 
and Sir Matthew Hale, one of the brightest ornaments of the Eng- 
lish bar, tried and convicted several persons for the crime of 
witchcraft. Even Blackstone. the profound commentator of English 
common law, swallowed and believed impUcith^ this great hum- 
bug of the church. 

But the hallucinations of other generations are passing away 
and few are the persons at the present time who indulge in the 
belief of goblins, ghosts, and witches. True it is that the me- 
diums, clairvoyants, and cabinet gentlemen bring to mind the diab- 
lerie of old Salem, when our fathers, the good puritans, made fools 
of themselves and hung thirty old women as witches ; but such 
things don't go for much except as a means of speculation in 
money matters. They are first rate for that. 

The dwellers in a new settlement, far away from the older 
towns, were just the ones to indulge in the belief of the supernat- 
ural. Around them were thousands of old solitudes; and as the 
deepening shades of night cast her sombre mantle over the forest, 
it required no active imagination to picture the forms of huge 
giants stalking away among the trees ; to see numerous jack-o'- 
lanterns gliding noislessly along to guide the lone traveler onward 
until he Avas lost in the dark intricate windings of some dismal old 
swamp ; to hear the infernal music of old crones as they charged 
in huge battalions through the tops of the loft}^ trees mounted 
upon their never tiring steeds, — broom-sticks. But they are all 
gone. No more do we see the individuals who indulge in such 
fancies, and although there were such, and tliey still live in histoiy, 
we have little right to laugh at them. If our ancestors did indulge 
in them, still they had exalted notions of piety, and did thousands 
of good deeds which latter it would be well if we would imitate. 



The first store iu AYarren was built uear Joshua Merriir 

sometime iu the last century. It was kept by Samuel Fellows,* 
and after trading a short time in English and West India goods he 
was taken crazy. He would sometimes leave home and wander to 
the neighboring towns: and whesi his friends went for him it 
would be extremely difficult to influence him to return. At one 
time he went to Haverhill and a young man was sent after him. 
He found him at the tavern, and to make good friends, asked liim 
if he would have flip or brandy before going home. Fellows 
looked up shariily and said he guessed he would have brandy 
while the flip was making. 

To him succeeded first Charles Bowles, then George W. Copp, 
who traded for seA'eral years just at the close of the eighteenth 
century. Col. Obadiah Clement at this period, 1825, a very old 
man, used to relate what he saw in this store. He said it was a 
long building on the east side of the old Coos road, not the turn- 
pike, just at the foot of the Beech-hill and fifly rods south of the 
summit of the Blue ridge. It had large windows with shutters, 
and door wide enough to roll a hogshead of molasses through : 
door and shutters always used as advertising boards for our mer- 
chant himself and the public generally. Here, in winter, the peo- 
ple would congregate, and with them he would sit by the old 
fashioned fire and talk over the news and pass away the hours. 
* Samuel Fellows came to Warren in 1789. 


He said lie was there all one da}' when it snowed so hard that look- 
ing- ont ilie back window he conld hardly see Mt. Helen, much 
less the eastern mountains. First the flakes came down slowly 
like feathers shading and mottling the sky. Then the storm in- 
creased, the wind blazed and racketed through the narrow space 
between the house and the hill and catching up the falling snow 
sent it twirling and pitching skimble-skamble, and anon slowly 
and more regularly as in a minuet, and as they came nearer the 
earth they wei'e borne by the current in a horizontal line like long 
quick spun silver threads far adown the landscape. As he watched 
he saw a flock of snow buntings, their whife sides flashing before 
the eyes, hurried on by the wind. They had come down to avoid 
the dark night of the Arctic continent, the place where they were 
hatched. Black brook, the Mikaseota, was ice-bound, covered 
with snow, and scarce a murmur was heard from beneath its white 

The post-rider was snowed up that day; he had not got 
through from Plymouth yet, and 'Squire Abel Merrill was without 
the little seven-by-nine paper which he took, and the visitors at 
the store lacked their customary news, which was always mouths 
old before they got it. 

But late in the afternoon it cleared oflf, the sun shone out, and 
in the thick woods beyond the Mikaseota he saw a pair of nut- 
hatches, several golden crested kinglets, a downy wood-pecker, 
two or three brown creepers, and half a dozen chickadees, birds 
that bide the New England winter. What pleasant music they 
make ! For a wonder, from the cluster of great hemlocks high up 
on the side of Mt. Helen, came the cawing of crows as if they 
were glad to see the sunshine, and that the winds had gone down. 
While it snowed that day Col. Clement and his friends amused 
themselves reading the notices posted on the doors and shutters ; 
one was a sale on execution, another informed them that beeswax, 
flax, skins, bristles, and old pewter, would be taken in exchange 
for goods ; and another read as follows : — 

" Warren. Mav 18th. 1799. 

.1 send you the following description of a dark brown gelding 
horse, taken up by me, damage feasant, he appears to be about six 


years old, is a natural pacer, mane hangs on the near side, well 
shod, and is about fourteen Iiands high — the oner is desired to 
prove property, pay charges and take him away. 

A true copy : Attest. 

Jonathan Mekrill, 

Toivn Clerk.''' 

Sitting- by the tire, he saw a motley array of dry and fancy 
goods, crockery, hardware, and groceries. On the right were rolls 
of kerseymeres, calimancoes, fustians, shalloons, antiloons, and 
serges, of all colors, purple and blue calicoes, a few ribbons, tick- 
lenburgs. and buckrams. On the left were cuttoes, Barlow knives, 
iron candlesticks, jewshaips, black-ball, and bladders of snuflf. 
On naked beams above were suspended weavers' skans, wheel 
heads, and on a high shelf running quite around the walls was cot- 
ton warp of all numbers. The back portionof the building showed 
to him a traffic far more fashionable and universal in New England 
than it is now; and the row of pipes, hogsheads and barrels indi- 
cated its extent. Above these hung a tap-borer, faucets, and inter- 
spersed on the wall wei'e bunches of chalk scores in perpendicular 
and transverse lines. Near by was a small counter covered with 
tumblers, toddy sticks, and sugar bowl, and a few ragged will-gill 
looking men, either from old Coventry, '' Pearmount," or the land 
of AVentworth, (of course Warren men didn't drink, they never 
have,) were standing there mixing and bolting down liquors. 

The colonel said that a favorite and conunon drink at that 
period wiis tlip, which was made in this wise: a mug was nearly 
tilled with malt beer, sweetened with sugar, then a heated iron 
called a loggerhead was thrust into it, which produced a rapid 
foam. Instantly a quantity of the " ardent," — a half pint of rum 
was allowed for a quart mug, — was dashed in, a little nutmeg was 
grated on the top, and the whole was quaffed of!" by two men or 
more, as they could bear it, which had the efiect often to set them 
at loggerheads. Price, twenty-five cents a mug. 

Another drink was toddy, which Avas made of rum and water 
well sweetened. A stick six or eight inches long was used to stir 


up the delightful beverage, called a toddy-stick. Price, six cents a 

Another favorite drink was egg-uog, which was coinposed of 
an egg beaten and stirred together with sugar. The stick used for 
this purpose was split at tlie end and a transverse piece of wood 
inserted, which was rapidly whirled around backward and forward 
between the palms of the hands. Skillful men made graceful 
flourishes with toddy and egg-nog sticks, in those days. Price, 
a sixpence a mug.* 

In the farther end was the counting-room with another large 
fire-place in one corner, a high desk, round backed arm chairs and 
a little good wine in a keg. 

But good-bye to Col. Obadiah and to the old first store, which is 
a sample, contents, drinks and all, of all the others down to the 
time of Avliich we write, viz: the close of Warren's second genera- 
tion; for Geo. W. Copp sold out to Abel Merrill, who traded in 
1804, and then the building was converted into a dwelling-house. 

Trade in Warren by no means stopped on account of this 
sale. Benjamin MeiTill, sou of "Squire Abel, built another store at 
the forks of the road where one ran away north, to Coventry, and 
the other over the Height-o"-land. Although many families have 
lived in this second store, and. under its roof your humble historian 
drew his first breath, it is still occupied for trade, and stands nearly 
in the same place. In it Benj. Merrill traded till about 1812, f 
although it was much disturbed by witches as we have already 
narrated, when he sold it out to Lemuel Keezer, Jr. Mr. Keezer, 
father of Ferdinand and Fayette, died of the spotted fever, and 
the property passed into the hands of Michael Preston, who traded 
about three years. Preston having married Mary Merrill, was 

* Sling was sugar, warm water, and whisky, mixed. Sometimes half a 
cracker was toasted and put witli it. Tliis was called a toad. Price for the whole 
6J cents. 

t Captain Ben. Merrill started to go home one night, after closing up, with a 
large ft(/;M in his hand lor family use. Before lie left the yard lie found lie liad for- 
got something, laid down the liam in a feed-box for horses, and went back. He 
was gone sometime, and wlieii he returned tlie liani was missing. He never said a 
word, Avas as silent as tlie grave, for iie tliouglit the tliief would show liimself in 
time. One day, six montlis afterwards, aneighlior said to him standing in tlie store 
door, " Captain, did you ever lind out who stole tliat liam from you r" " Yes," said 
Cai)t. r>en., " I kiiowwlio it was, you are tlie very fellow; walk in and paj' I'orit, or 
you'll catch it." It is needless tosay that the money was forthcoming at once, and 
tlie culprit acknowledged that he could not keep his mouth quite as cl.ose as the 


anxious to move away to Canada, and sold out to Amos Burton. 
The latter haviiif;- liigh ideas of livincr, changed the Benj, Merrill 
store into'a dwelling- house, and built another store directly opi)o- 
site where is now a peg-factory and wheelwright shop by the pond. 
Others who traded in the latter place are, respectively, Samuel L. 
Merrill. William ^Merrill, Anson Merrill, and William Wells, who 
was famous for building up rousing fires, raising the windows and 
plaj-ing- lively airs on his fiddle for the amusement of Mr. Asa 
Thurston and George W. Prescott, who were making music about 
this time hammering away in the cooper's shop that stood where 
the old first school-house was located on the river bank opposite. 
Wells was succeeded by John T. Sanborn, who traded at or about 
the time of the chronological order of this chapter. Others who have 
traded in town we will mention in the Appendix, a very necessary 
thing- for this histoiy, for what would it be good for without one? 
Mercantile business was good about this time, for the toAvn 
was growing, and it cost so much for freight that our traders, and 
in fact all the others in the regions round about, began seriously to 
consider how they could get their goods brought to their door at a 
cheaper rate. Considering- culminated in acting; a petition was 
circulated and signed by our merchants and many citizens and nu- 
merous signatures were also obtained down the valley. It was 
then i)resented to the legislature asking- that a roaring- and raging- 
canal might be iucoi-porated. The General Court could not refuse 
so respectable a request and two canals through the central portion 
of New Hampshire were immediately chartered. One was to 
commence at Dover, thence by way of Lake Winnepisseogee to the 
Pemigewassett at Bridgewater : the other followed up the INIerri- 
mack to Bridgewater, and uniting with the first, followed up the 
Asquamchumauke to Warren Summit, and from there down the 
Oliverian to the Connecticut. It was fashionable to construct 
canals in those days, and the great canals of New York, of the 
West, and of southern New England, were then in the course of 
being built. The United States government also assisted and sent 
distinguished engineers to all parts of the country where they were 

Gen. McDuffee, who laid out the turnpike, now surveyed the 
canal through our valley, and spent weeks in W'arren trying to 


overcome the obstructions that the Summit presented. Capt. Gra- 
ham of the United States army assisted him, and the general, the 
captain and liis hidy, Avith their assistants, boarded a long time at 
Joseph Merrill's inn. 

The chief difflculty which they found in the building of the 
canal was the inadequate supply of water upon the Summit. Two 
routes were surveyed through Warren, one up Black brook, the 
Mikaseota, and the other u]) Berry brook. If the Black brook 
route was adopted, water was to be taken from Tarleton lake and 
made to run winding round the hills to the place required. This 
Avould be a costly job. if the route up Berry brook was preferred, 
the Asquaniclmmauke river was to be tapped near the East-parte 
school-house and canalled round Knight hill to the Summit, thus 
affording an adequate supply of water for the nuraei'ous locks 
needed. Gen. McDuffee reported that with sufficient money all 
the difficulties could be overcome, and that either route was feasi- 
ble. Which he preferred we never could learn. 

And now the canal would surely be built, goods, wares, and 
merchandise Avould come cheap, population would greatly increase, 
and prosperity would bless the land. Alas ! the bright dream was 
never realized. Money was hard to be got, a sufficient amount of 
stock could not be disposed of, and we are sorry to tell what every 
body knows, the canals were never built and Warren's traders 
were doomed to disappointment. 

But before we close this entertainino^ book and sav good-bve to 
Warren's second generation, we must briefly mention one impor- 
tant event which partly grew out of a desire to trade in Warren 
and enjoy the benefits of the great canal. The people residing in 
the south portion of old Coventry, now Benton, having said desire 
and being very poorly accommodated in town affiiirs, were anxious 
to be annexed to Warren and made application to our free and 
independent democracy for that purpose. 

This happened intlie sclectraenship of Enoch U. Weeks, Mo- 
ses H. Clement, and Samuel L. Merrill. These rulers called an 
assembly of the people, otherwise a town meeting, and the ques- 
tion was discussed and voted upon. Maj. Daniel Patch modestly 
presented the claims of the dwellers of the Summit, and of High 


street.* Moses H. Clement, one of tliut year's tiiiunviri, was the 
chief opposition speaker. He maintained that -tlie legal voters of 
Warren were now nearly strong- enou<;'li to send a representative 
themselves, (they had previously been joined to riermont and 
Coventry for that purpose,) that tin- land to !)(■ annexed was very 
poor, tliat the [jeople were poverty strieken and inclined to whisky 
drinking, and that Warrt'u would not he benetited. 

His counsels prevailed, although we wish they had not, and 
AVarreu lost, perhaps forever, the right of jurisdiction over the 
fine and luscious blueberry fields of Owl's^ head, the millions 
of feet of excellent timber growing upon Mt. Black, and the noble 
and majestic sumnnt of the lofty Moosehillock, to which so many 
I)ilgrims annually journey. 

* Tliis section of Benton should be joined to Warren, tlie Benton Flats should 
partly go to Haverhill, wliile North Beriton and East Landati' would make a beauti- 
ful toun of Benton witli its centre at '■ Danville." 

East Pierniont sliould also be joined tn Warreu, where it would be so much 
better acconimodaled. 






As the third generation of Warren's white citizens are step- 
ping upon the stage, and at the commencement of the period when 
this last book of our great history opens, a discovery of mighty 
importance was made in our hamlet. Mr. True Merrill, who lived 
upon the Height-o'-land, found upon the north bank of Ore-hill 
brook, what was tirst knoAvn as the " Copper mine," then as the 
'' Warren silver-lead mine," and latterly as the ^' AVarren zinc 

It was a rich deposit of minerals. Dr. Charles T. Jackson, a 
great geologist from Boston, came on and examined it, made a 
report such as all well paid geologists know how to make, namely 
a favorable one, and a company Avas formed, stock sold, and the 
buyers of the stock it is said Avere sold too. 

Mr. H. Bradford was the head and front of said compauy. 



They worked for a time, made a great hole in the side of the moun- 
tain ; but not a cent to put in tlieir pockets, and eventually failed 
up ; the usual fate of most great mining companies. 

Then as time rolled on for a decade of years several small but 
terribly enterprising companies wrought the mine on Ore hill. At 
intervals visions of riches, silvery and golden, would Hash before 
the eyes of individual speculators and operators, only to vanish 
like a phantom, and as a result every one of the little companies 

About 1840 this vein of ore fell into the hands of a certain 
Mr. Brooks. We never had the pleasure of his acquaintance;, but 
Warren miners say that they knew him, that he was like the dog 
in the manger; that he would neither work the mine nor let any 
one else ; and that he believed that tlie property was richer than the 
silver mines of Mexico or Sonth America. 

But after a great deal of diplomacy a heavy company, headed 
by Mr. Baldwin of Boston, got possession of this wonderful deposit 
of minerals and ores. They went to work and Ore hill glowed 
and sweat. 

They built half a dozen dwelling-houses — a little village — 
a mill, put in stamps for crushing ore, set up a steam engine, pro- 
cured a large number of separators, erected a whim house, sunk 
the shaft in the copper mine a hundred feet deep, drifted north 
from the foot of the shaft into the mountain a hundred and fifty 
feet further in the black blende and galena, raised hundreds of 
tons of ore, crushed, separated, and sent it to market, and then 
failed. Too bad! Mr. H. H. Sheldon* was the superintendent, 
and Captain Samuel Truscott, a Cornwall miner, was the overseer 
in the shaft. They worked the mine for silver, copper, and lead, 
but it paid not a cent. 

Ore hill slumbered then for a time, and the well wishers of 
the mine were sad. 

Captain Edgar came next. He drove an adit from the new 
highway a hundred feet into the hill, then abandoned it and the 
mine too, after sending a hundred tons or so of ore to England to 
see whether or not it was good for anything. 

* When H. H. slieldon, Esq , hart charge of the mine, the town built the road 
from the ohl turnpike, at tlie forks of Ore hill stream up to the works. It made a 
great saving in distance and freightage. 


Then the mill and the eiioine were sold at auction, the shaft 
and the drift fillod up with Avatcr; there Avas no more clicking of 
hammers nor riiiyiiig of drills, and the fires of the forge went out. 

Al)Out live years after. Captain Edgar came back and com- 
menced work again, this time for zinc. He set up a small station- 
ary engine to pump the mine and raise the ore, and put his men to 
work in the large cliamber at the cud of the drift. The ore raised 
was made into a kiln and set on fire by burning a large pile of 
wood underneath to desulphurize it. This was done to save weight 
in freight as from every thirty tons of ore about ten tons of sul- 
phur was expelled. After cooling it Avas put up in bags and sent 
to Pennsylvania to be worked into metallic zinc. Captain Edgar 
suspended Avork, and the mine is noAV silent and deserted again.* 
More than^- a hundred thousand dollars have been expended upon 
it. AYe hope a hundred thousand more will be spent, and that 
somebody will make an immense fortune there. 

One good thing has happened by reason of mining on Oi'e 
hill. A large and beautiful cavern has been formed, the most 
extensiA^e in the State, and hundreds of persons visit it when the 
depth of Avater Avill permit. 

From Mr. True Merrill's wonderful discovery flowed another 
result; a mining and mineral fever immediately began to prevail 
and diflferent individuals discovered first a small vein of copper 
pyrites, distant forty rods south Avest from the discovery of True 
Merrill, then tAvo and one-half miles north east, copper and pyrites 
in small veins ; and one hundred yards north of the first mine an 
extensive vein of black blende, zinc ore, mixed AA'ith copper 
pyrites and galena. A few years after, copper, beryls, and epidote 
in large masses, were found upon Warren Summit. Subsequently 
James Clement discoA^ered copper, iron pyrites, nickel, antimony, 
arsenic, and beautiful garnets by Martin brook on the south east 
slope of Sentinel mountain, and Albert M. Barber found gold in 
Hurricane brook that comes down from Mount Carr. Also James 
Clement found gold in Martin brook near the spot where the gar- 
nets are located. And afterwards the same gentleman found that 
the Asquamchumauke, the stream by which the Indian chief. 

* Capt. .>a!iips Edgar resumed work in the fall of 1869 aud suspended business in 
the winter of 1870. Now at the end of 1S70 he has commenced work again. 


"Waternomee, and Captain Baker fought, and on which Stinson 
died, was far richer than either in golden sands. 

Besides these discoveries others have been made in a most 
wonderfnl manner. It is told how a party of tourists from New 
York, visited Moosehillock mountain. There they fell in with a 
spiritualist Avho went into a fit, and looking with shut eyes towards 
Sentinel mountain saw fourteen different mines upon that green 
wooded eminence, the best of which was located at a certain 
clump of spruces. Tlie oracle was believed, a company was organ- 
ized, and they actually worked a year and a half at the spot indi- 
cated.* They indeed found iron and some other minerals, but 
nothing that would pay, and the undertaking was abandoned 
after a useless expenditure of fi'om five to six thousand dollars. 
Another individual, probably a cousin to the tourists, paid one 
thousand dollars for a worthless piece of land upon which some 
" golden specimens '" had been deposited. It was a i-egularly 
" salted claim," and the buyer was out and swindled to the extent 
of his investment. 

So successful have been the gold prospectors and the men 
with divining rods that a large number of other minerals and pre- 
cious stones have been found in Warren; the most interesting of 
wliich are rutile, plumbago, molybdenum, cadmium, scapolite, 
tremolite, talc, tourmaline, beryl, apatite, garnet, idocrase, epidote, 
brown hematite, hyalite, cinnamon stone, quartz crystals in great 
variety, besides others of less importance and all the rocks common 
to New Hampshire. It is already known that forty-one different 
kinds of specimens aie bedded in the neighborhood of Sentinel 
mountain ;t l)ut not content with these, several enthusiastic min- 
eralogists, with a wise look and a sly manner, aver that platinum, 
mercury, tin, and rmigh diamonds likewise abound, although as 
yet they fail to produce the samples. 

Some also tliere are who in an undertone will tell you how 
they know of a mine up in the mimntains where they can cut out 
pure lead with a jackknife or axe just light to run into bullets — 
Obadiah Clement and Joseph Patch got lead of tliat kind there 

* They drove a shaft a hundred feet iuto the mountain. Capt. Truscott had 
charge oi this job. 

t For a list of these see Appendix. 


when they were Imnting- — how tliey can fiiul mica in sheets a foot 
sqnai'e, wortli its weig'ht in toi)azcs, sapphires, and rubies, and 
liow they know the very mountain stream and the stone monument 
beside it, wliere Roger's ranger piclced up nuggets of pure gold as 
large as robins" e^gs. Yet tliey will not show the places for fear 
they cannot buy the land, or that they will in some way be robbed 
of all their hidden treasures. But we will uot vouch for their 
statements, and it is only safe for this history to say that no other 
spot on earth contains so great a variety of minerals, in so limited 
an area, as our town of Warren. 

But if all the mines in Warren have failed as yet, still it is 
safe to say that one person has made a profit out of the minerals. 
Mr, James Clement keeps an abuiulance of them to sell, and hun- 
dreds of people have derived real pleasure in buying and examin- 
ing them. " Jim "" enjoys himself and improves his health, he 
says, when with basket, cold chisel, and miner's hammer slung on 
his shoulder, he takes a tramj) through the valley and over the hills 
seeking to find all the metals, minerals, and precious stones known 
in the books, in this, as he alleges, *' the most ■wonderful mineral 
deposit on earth J'^ 



IHE people in all this uorthevn country were disappointed 
in the failure to build the canal. They wanted an easy route to 


the seaboard. The old Coos road " was a hard road to travel 
and the turnpike Avliich superseded it, although nearly straight 
and very well made, being over hills and lofty mountains, all 
known as the Height-o'-land, was a very ditiicult highway on 
which to transport heavy freight. 

Gen. McDaffee's survey had one important result, it informed 
the Avorld that there was an easier route than the turnpike and that 
was the one through the Oliverian notch. Individuals from >Yells 
River and northern Vermont, came down and examined this pass 
through the hills and went back with a glowing report of the ease 
with which a road could be built through it. They sent messen- 
gers and letters to Warren urging the inhabitants to build it; but 
our little democracy was violently opposed to the enterprise for 
the reason that it would subject them to much expense, and as it 
passed through an uninhabited section it would cost a large sura 
each year to keep it in repair. Besides, the landlords upon the 
turnpike knew it would kill them, and thej^ worked against it with 
all their might. 

But something must be done for the clamor came down even 


from the bouudanes of Canada saying, " Build the Berry brook 
road.'' So an assembly of the people was held in theseleotmenship 
of Moses H. Clement, Samuel L. Merrill, and Samuel Merrill, July 
22d, 1834, and Xathaniel Clough, Salomon Cotton, and Samuel 
Bixb}' were chosen a committee to examine and explore all routes 
thought proper for a highway through the town. 

The committee acted. They went up the banks of the Mikas- 
eota or Black brook, and down Berry brook valley. Whether or 
not they went over the low pass between Waternomee and Cush- 
man mountains to Woodstock, or climbed the old route surveyed 
by Abel Merrill and Joseph Patch by Glen ponds to Trecothick, 
we are unable to say, for the committee made no report and never 
intended to ; the only object Avas delay. 

The people of the upper country waited, then became impa- 
tient, finally came to the conclusion that our little democracy did 
not intend to do anything, and getting mad went before the grand 
jury at Haverhill, and got Warren's public highways indicted, as 
Col. Obadiah Clement did once before, and the court ordered a 
large fine to be imposed upon our modest town, to be paid in work 
upon her bad roads. The citizens were disgusted and indignant, 
but they worked out the fine. 

The subject of a new road was also presented to the court. 
After a patient hearing of the matter that august tribunal decided 
that the road should be built through Berry brook valley, and 
appointed a committee to lay it out. They immediately proceeded 
with their work, bushing it through and setting the stakes upon 
the west bank. Then the court ordered the town of Warren to 
build it. 

When it was evident that the work must be performed, and 
that they could no longer avoid it, an assembly of the citizens was 
held on the 8th of December, 1834, and it was voted that the road 
should be built. They Avould not fight the court in the matter. So 
they chose Solomon Cotton, Samuel L. Merrill, and Joseph Bixby 
a committee to carry the Avork through, and authorized them to 
raise five hundred dollars to commence Avith. But this sum hard- 
ly made a commencement, only cntthig the trees and digging 
the stumps, nothing more. Then it aa'us let out in difiorent sec- 
tions to several individuals, Maj. Daniel Patch and liis sou Joseph 


building the oue upon the Summit. Carlos D. Woodward, 
Henry No}-es, Roper Noj'os, John Buswell, Stevens Merrill, Win- 
throp and Roswell Elliott, and Ebenezer Calef, built the sections 
south. Stephen AVhiteman said he was a sub-contractor and cut 
bushes, and that Rev. Horace Webber did the same thing. 

Before it was finished two years of time had passed, more 
than three thousand dollars expended, and the town was heavily 
in debt. December 22, 1835, the town voted that although the 
Berry brook road was not completed, the selectmen should post up 
notices at each end of said highway, that people might travel over 
it at their own expense and their own risk. 

The debt! It looked like a mountain. Warren hitherto had 
been an economical town. They were not used to paying big bills. 
How could they now? The citizens were almost discouraged. 
But kind Providence, as some of the more pious ones will have it, 
came to their relief. It happened thus : — 

For manv vears a large amount of monev had been accruins: 
in the United States bank. When Gen. Jackson, who was very 
hostile to the bank, was elected president, that institution was dis- 
solved, and government after paying the debts of the nation passed 
a resolve that the surplus should be divided among the different 
States, and then distributed to the towns of which they were com- 
posed. By a vote passed at the regular annual meeting, the select- 
men Avere empowei-ed to go to Concord and receive the " Surplus 
Revenue." They brought home with them eighteen hundred dol- 
lars. At first they hardly knew what to do with it ; but at a town 
meeting held for the purpose, voted that the selectmen put the 
money out at usury, not letting any one individual have more than 
two hundred dollars. Then in 1838, the town voted that the select- 
men call in enough of the surplus revenue to pay up for the build- 
ing of the Berry brook road, — a very sensible vote — but they 
coupled on the following rather ambiguous clause, " That Solomon 
Cotton be an agent to take charge of the money, and that the 
selectmen hire it of him, giving their notes for the same and pay 
the town debt with it." What became of the notes we are wholly 
unable to say. The town certainly never paid them. 

With the new road through Berry brook valley built, a hotel 
must be erected on the Summit. Moses Abbott, the fat mau, kept 


it at first, and then it passed in^o tlie hand?; of Benjamin Little, 
and he was mine host in that section for many years.* 

Travelers who stopped at Mr. Little's inn, frequently sno- 
gested that they would like to climb to the bald crest of Moosohil- 
lock. To gratify the wish, one summer day he raised all High 
street by giving- them what grog" they could drink and they bushed 
out a path right up the side of the mountain to the topinost peak. 

It was a beautiful day when the party of road makCTs came 
out upon the bald crest. The wiud was blowing strong from the 
north west, and the little flowers growing upon Moosehillock's 
bare peak shook their white heads in the breeze. 

Onr landlord is standing upon the north peak. His friends 
and their dogs, wild dwellers of the Summit and of High street, 
are in a group around him. Nathan Willey, playfully called " Mr. 
Nutter;" Moses Ellsworth, who had the title of " Fortyfoot," on 
account of the shortness of his stature; L^aac Fitield, a tall man, 
gifted in prayer in time of revivals, whom the Summit boys face- 
tiously called '* Aunt Isaac," — " Fortyfoot" had " Aunt Isaac's " 
prayer learned by heart, and could repeat it with unction on occa- 
sions when he had put himself outside of two or three beverages ;t 
Sir Richard Whiteman ; Stephen Whiteman, with the pious title of 
" Elder Binx ;" John French, the school-master, an early riser, who 
had the economical habit of lying in bed with his wife till the 
clock struck three in the afternoon, in winter, to save tire-wood ; 
"Welches, father and two sons, Silas and Bartlett ; Stephen Mai'tin, 
Calvin Bailey, Samuel Whitcher, James Harriman, husband of 
Mrs. Harriman, and others, and Joseph AYhitcher, the bear-catcher, 
wolf-killer, and story-teller, were there — all good men, who thus 
good naturedly nicknamed each other. J Their beards were un- 
shaven, and their long hair streamed out in the pure air that was 
blowing so steady over the mountain. 

Tlie blue sky is above them; no smoke, no haze, no clouds are 
there. Silver lakes and flashing rivers lay beneath them. A thou- 

* In early times Chase Wliitelier kept entertainment for man and beast on the 
Summit, Maj". Daniel Patch also, but neither of them kept tavern. 

t We once saw .lim Clement burst every button ofl'his vestlaugrhingat "Forty- 
foot," when lie was repeating " Aunt Isaac's " prayer, to " Aunt I." himself, and a 
crowd of listeners. 

J: Some well bred people have said that it was mean business for the above 
gentlemen to call each other names. 


sand mountain peaks bathing' tlieir heads in the bright sunshine are 
around tliem. There are peaks sharp and angular, wavy wooded 
mountain crests, great cones standing alone, dome shaped moun- 
tains dark and sombre. 

Mr. Nathan Willey wanted to know what that great sheet of 
water in the south was, and John French, the school-master, said 
it must be the Smile of the Great Spirit, the beautiful lake Winne- 
pisseogee. Mr. Stephen Whiteman asked what that ragged look- 
ing mountain over there to the north-east was, and the school- 
master told how he had heard Dick French, the hunter, tell about 
the great Haystacks that had white furi'ows down their sides, and 
that they were terrible hard mountains to climb, Capt. Benj. 
Little pointed out the long river down in the west as the Connecti- 
cut and Richard AVhiteman said he could see Black mountain, 
Owl's-head, Webster slide, and Wachipauka pond, — he knew 
them. Stephen Whiteman stuck to it that he could see Boston; 
and said it was not a great distance either, only a hundred and 
forty miles by the road; and that Maj. True Stevens had walked 
it in less than two days Avhen he came back from Brighton, 
where he had been with a drove.* Capt. Ben. Little said he could 
beat that, and then he told how Col. Moses H. Clement went down 
to Brighton wuth a tiock of sheep, and had a little brindle dog 
Bose to help drive them, that just at dark in Brighton he lost the 
dog, and that before night the next day, Bose whined and barked 
at the door in Warren, and Mrs. Clement let him in, terribly tired 
and footsore. The dog had run a hundred and forty miles in less 
than twenty-four hours. Joseph "Whitcher said he didn't care any- 
thing about such stories, and then he went on to tell that he had 
been all over the mountain a good many times before, hunting 
wolves. Said he, "' I caught one down there in the Tunnel where 
you can hear Tunnel brook roaring. Once I followed one down 
Moosehillock river that rises over there in that dark fir woods .and 
runs down into the Pemigewassett, but did not get him." 

" "Where does Tunnel brook go to?" said Stephen "Whiteman. 
AVhitcher said it ran down into the Swiflwater, and the latter 
stream emptied into the Ammonoosuc. Then the bear catcher said 

* John Libbey once did the same thing. He walked from Boston to Warren in 
two days. He got up to Concord the first day the sun an hour high. — Anson Mer- 
rill's statement. 


he got two deer once in the meadow where was the little poud 
which was the head of Baker river, and that once he fished clear 
down to the East-parte and got more trout than he could lug', and 
Mr. Fitield said he didn't believe a word of it. But Joseph 
AVhiteher did not care a copper whether he believed it or not, and 
went on to say that he had a sable line every year on the Oliverian, 
and that every one of these streams, Tunnel brook, Swiftwaler, 
Moosehillock river. Baker river, and the Oliverian, had its source 
within a rod of the mountain summit where they stood, Moses 
Ellsworth said he knew this was a lie for he hadn't had a drop of 
anything for an hour to wet his whistle with, and he was most 
choked to death and would like to see the springs from which the 
streams started. 

Justthen three eagles rose out of the gi'eat Tunnel where the 
brook was roaring, and came hovering over the grassy mountain 
crest, hunting- for small birds and mice. "See there !" said Mr. 
Willey. The dogs snuffed the air, erected the hair on their backs, 
and their ears stood straight. One of them barked. The eagles, 
one with white breast and tail, the others gray, caught sight and 
sound. Wheeling in the air, seemingly without moving feather or 
wing, around and around in great circles, each time higher up, 
they soared thousands of feet above the mountain peak, until they 
were almost lost in the deep blue. Then, a speck in the sky, they 
sailed slowly aAvay eastward over the great Pemigewassett valley. 
Stephen Whiteman said he would like to know how those birds 
could get up so high without " floppin '' their wings once. 

But it was getting cold, the men were dry, and away they went 
through the matted hackmatacks down the mountain. When they 
were gone, as great novelists would tell it, the wind still sighed on 
the rocks, the little birds sang their vesper hymns in the dark firs, 
the eagles screamed again and a wolf howled down in one of the 
great gorges; but no human ear was there to listen. The moun- 
tain peak was left alone, a niiglity solitude in the great waste of 
mountains, just as it had been for ages. As the men went liome 
Isaac Fificld said that " the rain might descend, the winds blow, 
the frosts come, and the snow fall and no human being for years 
would again gaze upon this wild magnificence." But Mr. Fifield's 


reflections did not prove true, and scattering A'isitors from that 
day fortli began to climb Mooseliillock mountain.* 

Tiiis last road cost Warren nothing; the burden of the first 
the surplus revenue removed. Both brought prosperity and hap- 
piness, one by attracting visitors with its mighty grandeur, the 
other by turning a still larger tide of travel through our pleasant 
hamlet valley. 

* Dr. Ezra Bartlett. Samxiel Knight and others went on to Moosehillock about 
the year 18UJ. They did not succeed in ligliting a fire, and it was so cold they had 
to leave tlie summit at niglit. They went down on tlie north east side over the" great 
ledges in the ravine where they had to let tlieniselves down witli a pole. There 
was snow on the mountain at the time. — Miss Hannah B. Knight's statement. 

Explanatory Note. — The substance of the story about cutting the Moosehillock 
path is ti ue. Uut our authorities said they would not vouch lor all the minute 



>T AEEEN in olden times had waged fierce lawsuits. Col. 
Obadiah Clement, fighting for victorj^, indignant teamsters and 
stage drivei's getting numerous indictments to cure bad roads, liad 
cost the town many a hard battle. But these old fights buried 
under nearly half a century were almost forgotten, liviug only in 
the memory of the most aged inhabitants. Even the recollection 
of the would be lawsuit Stevens Merrill might have had with 
James Aiken, had he not taken the law into his own hands and a 
house been burned up, had almost faded away forever. 

But now when the third generation of Warren's white inhabi- 
tants were on the stage the slumbering volcano of litigating wrath 
once more burst forth and our iieaceful hamlet among the hills was 
tossed from centre to circumference.* It happened in this wise. 

* Death by Friffht.— 'Warren never has had many lawyers, but has been blessed 
with plenty ot' law. .Joseph Patch, .7r., lor a while was deputy sheriff, and he once 
went on to Pine-Iiill to an est one Goodwin on a civil process. Goodwin stood 
looking at him till the slierifl got witliin a rod of him. and then fell dead in his 
tracks. It was said l)y some that liis imagination killed him. 

Serimis Laic r«.se.— Capt. Samuel L. Men-ill once kept store on the turnpike, 
near the Blue riflge. Some one hitched his horse and sleigh in the store shed one 
day and went in to purchase goods. While tliere a jjerson supposed to be tipsy, 
went up ijeinnd the <dd fasliioned, liigh-l)ackcd, Idue-jiainted sleigh, to answer to 
one of the calls of nature. Tlie sleigli back was live ieet liigh to keep ll.e wind off 
the driver, and there was a crack near the top of it. The copious Hood pouied lorth 
by tlie tipsy man ran tlirough the crack, down on tlie inside and wet the owner's 


Mrs. Sarah "W^ceks. of whom we have spoken before, and who had 
the very enviable reputation of being a witch, Avife of Benjamin 
Weeks, Jr., had become chargeable to the town of Wentworth for 
support as a pauper. She had once lived iu Warren on the Height- 
o"-laiid, and Wcntwortii thought our good town should support 
her. AYentworth requested Warren to do so. Warren refused. 
Wentworth was indignant — mad — and said she should. AVarren 
was stubborn and a suit was brought. 

Our neighbor across the southern border employed distin- 
guished counsel, — Hon. John P. Hale, U. S. Senator, and after- 
wards minister to Spain, and Plon. Josiah Quincy. Our beloved 
hamlet engaged the services of Hon. Franklin Pierce, afterwards 
President of the United States, and Thomas J> AVhijiple, Esq., to 
assist him. The case was in the Eastern Judicial rnstrict of Graf- 
ton county, and Avas tried at Plymouth. It turned upon this point: 
Did Benjamin Weeks, Jr., have a residence in AVarren? He had 
never paid taxes there seven years iu succession; but on the books 
Avas this record: •' 1817, Benj. Weeks elected hogreeve." There 
was no record of his taking" the oath of office, and unless he had 
done so, he would not have gained a residence. There Avas great 
excitement about the case in both towns, and it greatly increased 
when the AA'itnesses were summoned. On the part of AV^entAvorth, 
the following were cited to appear: 

Kichard AA'hiteman and Stephen AYhiteman. of AVarren. AVil- 
liam AAHiiteman, of Canada. Joshua Copp, Jr., of Northumberland, 
N. n., AA^illiam Kelley, and Anson Merrill.* 

dinner, tlsereliy spoiling it. It was a case of trespass; the owner was mad, and 
swore lie would liave satisfaction. Jloses Ellswoitli, sometimes called Fort.vfoot, 
was jtreseiit, tipsy, and lie Avas at once suspeited as tlie culprit, and taken into 
custody. Tliere was no judge present, so a " reference " was apjiointed and they 
immediately proceeded with the investigation. Fortyloot plead "not guilty,'' 
whereupona two foot rule was procured and the culprit's legs were measured. 
They were lound to be only two feet four inches long, witde the crack in the back 
of tiie sleigh was three feet six inches from the ground, consequently the reference 
after great deliberation, brought in that Foityfoot could not have possibly done 
the dirty deed, and he was ac(iuitted. It is said that tlie accused weiit tears" of joy 
over the result of the trial, and that the court, counsel, and spectators, all took a 
sinile at the bar of justice inside the store. 

Aloses Abljott and Josepli Whitcher once bet on an election. Each staked his 
hog against the other. Abl)ott Init would not give up his hog. Alter a good 
deal of iliscussion they lett it out to A\'illiani Ponieroy, Enoch K. AVeeks, and Ste- 
vens M. Uow, who broiight in that Whitcher should have Abbott's hog; a very proper 
decision according to the betting code, but decidedly illegal. This case" created 
immense excitement on the Sunnnit. 


Alarried Oct. 1831. He was boi-n Dec. 4, 1804. She was born Aug. 15, 1815. 
Their children are Elizabeth, Van, an iufaut, Ada A. and Elleu L. 


^WUct^ (^/f^.. 





On the part of Warren, Moses H. Clement, Jesse Little,* Page 
Clement, son of old JonuMian Clement, innkeeper, David Fellows, 
and Nathaniel Ciongh. were summoned. 

"William D. ^IcQiio.-ition was agent for Went worth; Enoch R. 
Weeks was agent for Warren. 

And now the battle began. Wentworth's witnesses testified 
that Benjamin AVeeks, Jr.. was chosen hogreeve; but they could not 
swear that he was sworn in. Warren's witnesses testified that he 
was chosen, but that he was not sworn in. The lawyers on the trial 
were very smart as might be expected, and fought tenaciously. 
They wanted to show their present and future clients what great 
ability they had. 

The evidence was all in ; they were about to commence the 
ai'guments ; silence reigned in the court room. There was a pause. 
Then Richard Whiteman, sometimes called Sir Richard of Tama- 
I'ack swamp, again took the stand. His countenance shone, his 
recollection was refreslied, and he testified as brave as a lion that 
Benjamin Weeks, Jr., was elected, that he was sworn in, aud that 
he, Whiteman, had helped him on several occasions both yoke aud 
ring hogs. Most satisfactory evidence ! 

The arguments were made, the Judge delivered his charge, 
the jury retired, and returning in a few minutes, gave a verdict for 
Wentworth. Warren's agent and his witnesses went home feeling 
cheap enough. 

That night AVentworth had a jollification. Their old cannon 
was brouifht out. It was double charged every time, and a^inn 
and again it sent the notes of victory up the Asquamchumauke 
valley, over every hill of our hamlet, even to AVarren Summit. Of 


He ^as born .Tuly 4, 1800. William, born Jlar. -20, 1833. 

She wa.-i born July, 30, 180S. Thomas B. born Sept. 7, 1838. 

Married Nov. 18, 18-29. George A. born May 23, 1847. 
.Joseph, born Oct; '28, 1830. 


George LiTTLE, a tailor by trarle, came from T'nicoiii street, London, Eng- 
land, to Newbury. .Mass., in IWO. He married Alice Poor. 

Moses, 4th child ot' (ieorj^e, born .Alareh 11, lii57, married Lvdia Coffin. 
Tristram, -2(1 child ol Moses, born Dec it, 1(>81, niarrit'd .Sarah Dole. 
Samuel, 3d child ol' Tristram, l)orn Feb. 18, 1713, married Dorothy Noyes. 
.James, 1st chihl of Samuel, boin Feb. 18, 1737, married Tamar U'obeits. 
Amos, 3d child ol' .James, born Feb. 28, 17()!), mairied Betsey Jvindjall. 
.lesse, 5th child of Amos, born July 4, Is'UO, married Susan C. Merrill. 


course the citizens of Warren were perfectly delighted with the 
gentle music. 

Wentworth's celebration had a wonderful eflFect. It waked up 
the musty recollection of every old man in Warren. They began 
to remember how the case was. Old Mr. Nathaniel Clough was 
the first man to recall it. The facts were something as follows: 
There were in town two men, father and son, by the name of Ben- 
jamin Weeks, Benjamin, Sen., and Benjamin, Jr. The son was 
chosen hogreeve, but as he was not in the meeting at the time, to 
take the oath, his father, Benjamin Weeks, stepped forward at 
once and said, '' Choose me and I will serve.'' He was immedi- 
ately chosen, took the oath, and the record on the town book, 
" 1817, Benj. Weeks elected hogreeve," was correct; but it had no 
relation to Benj. Weeks, Jr. Many other men now remembered 
the fact and the town could not give the case up so. 

Accordingly at a meeting called and held Nov. 22, 1843, the 
following vote was passed: " That the agent chosen to carry on 
the case between Warren and Wentworth, have it tried where they 
think proper; that the agent ascertain whether the review destroys 
the decision of the former trial, if it does destroy it, then the 
agents are to settle with Wentworth, by that town paying the legal 
cost the town of AVarren would recover bj' law, and they also 
support Sarah Weeks; if they will not settle upon these conditions, 
then the agent is to proceed with the case." 

The facts and the action of the town came to the ears of th'- 
agent of Wentworth. At first he was incredulous, then he made 
inquiries, then went to the old men of AYarren and learned how 
they wonld testify, and finally after the winter and spring passed, 
and the summer was far along, he came to AA^arren, backed down, 
and paid u]). Thus ended AA^arren's greatest lawsuit; all the citi- 
zens felt good and the victory must be celebrated. Tliis was not 
done by firing cannon after the manner of AYeiit worth; but par- 
ties, junketings, and apple bees were rife, and the people that 
' autumn had a most hilarious time of it. 

The young friends of your humble historian, who was a boy 
then, went with him to two paring bees tliat fall, according to his 
recollection. Once we came down by the Forks school-house, 
where Hurricane brook, a silver stream, falls into Patch brook. 


after leaping and laughing its way from the summit of Mount 
^■^r, 3,000 feet above us, to Mr. William Clough's. "What a pile 
of apples was worked up that night. Four brave young men were 
mounted on four old fashioned paring machines, all of different 
patterns, and with what a buzz they took the skins off the beauti- 
ful and many hued apples. A lot of us small boys did nothing 
but quarter the peeled fruit : the beautiful young ladies and the 
careful mothers cored them ever so nicely, and a bevy of girls and 
old Mr. Clough strung hundreds of " strings " and hung them in 
wreaths and wavy festoons, oi'uamcnts like, on pegs about the 
room to dry. 

Ten o'clock in the evening, and the woi'k was done. Wliat a 
supper we had, fit for a king, and enough for a small regiment. 
How good it tasted. And the games after supper was over! 
" Blind man's buff'' was glorious, " Button, button," was nice, and 
" Turn the plate " was so fine. And then the pawns paid and the 
kisses given. How rosy the lips that gave them. How I envied 
the boys that got them. A little of superstition must come in; 
apple peelings were thrown over fine heads to make initial letters 
of their lovers' names, and several went dowu cellar backwards 
holding a mirror in their hands to see their future husband's or 
wife's face. Then we played '• Chase the squirrel," and " Pass the 
handkerchief," and '' Simon says thumbs up," and sombody sang 
songs ever so beautiful, and it was after midnight when we were 
going home again by the " Forks school-house," in Patchbreuck- 

We had never been out so late before, and there was a grave- 
yard with white tombstones by the " Forks school-house." But 
we went bravely past it, and going up by the Patch place where 
Jonathan Eaton lived, the stars shone above us, and the crescent 
moon was hurrying down the western sky. Just then there was 
a strange cry. We listened — heard it again. The older boys said 
it was a Avild hound dog on the eastern mountains. Some said he 
belonged in AYoodstock. Hoav plain I heard him myself on that 
moonlight night in autumn. Baying at intervals, his three almost 
unearthly yells would come ringing out through the darkness. 
Wliat was he pursuing? Was it the bounding deer, the black fox, 
running straight away for miles, or a shadowy ghost leading will- 


o'-tlie-wisp like through dark ravines and wild gorges. Others 
said they had heard the old hound in the storm when his baying 
mingled with the voice of the wind and the roar of the mountain 

There were dozens of paring bees that fall, and the numerous 
parties and festivities provoked by the great lawsuit victory only 
ended, if we remember right, by a grand ball, where Jim Clement 
danced his flat-footed doublc-shutfle so remarkably, and a turkey- 
supper, that came off about Christmas time, at the present Moosil- 
auke house, one of the neat hotels of the hamlet. 

May Warren never be perplexed by another lawsuit like the 
one about Mrs. Sarah Weeks or any other kind; but if she should, 
may it have a like successful and happy termination. 



vVe introduce it here, because the greatest happened about 
this time, and all the others seem to centre around it. It is worthy 
of record that the.v had grand ones when the farms were cleared ; 
but the tirst dwelling- house burned in Warren, as we all well 
remember, was James Aiken's cabin that stood half a mile east of 
the depot. Then Joseph Patch's buildings were fired by a brave 
sojer boy journeying home from tlie wars, and for more than half 
a century after not a lionse was burned in "Warren. 

Thou ab